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Culture and change in the Northwest Territories : implications for community infrastructure planning Cameron, James J. 1985

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CULTURE AND CHANGE IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING  by JAMES JOSEPHCAMERON B . S c , Queens University, 1973 M . S c , University of Alaska, 1975  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF MASTERS OF SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A October 1985  © James Joseph Cameron ,1965  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study.  I  further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives.  It is understood that copying or publication of  this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  School of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Y3 October 8,  1985  ABSTRACT  Water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s p u b l i c h e a l t h and f a c i l i t a t i n g  p l a y an important r o l e i n p r o t e c t i n g  community  technology has s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s  growth.  However, the c h o i c e  f o r the s o c i a l , economic and  p o l i t i c a l development and autonomy of the  community.  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to a n a l y s e the o b j e c t i v e s , and content of p l a n n i n g  of  process  water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n communities i n  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s (N.W.T.).  Relationships,  issues  and the  d e c i s i o n making process are examined at the r e g i o n a l , l o c a l and infrastructure levels. investigated  Objectives  f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e  to e v a l u a t e the l i n k between knowledge  Technical,  economic and planning  evaluation  of p o l i c i e s and systems.  Examination of o b j e c t i v e s is  insufficient  select  considerations  reveals  and c r i t e r i a ,  ultimately responsible  that knowledge  i n the .  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  the N.W.T. Government  conducts the planning  planning  and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  in  establishes  the  i s narrowly focused on the t e c h n i c a l  i n the s e l e c t i o n of t e c h n o l o g y .  The v a l u e s  of the N a t i v e people which the systems are meant to  s e r v e are n e g l e c t e d  or  the  s t u d i e s , and i s  f o r s e l e c t i n g , i n s t a l l i n g and o p e r a t i n g  Infrastructure  and p e r c e p t i o n s  are examined  E x a m i n a t i o n of water and s a n i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g  N a t i v e communities i n d i c a t e s that  systems.  actions.  to o b j e c t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h a l e v e l of s e r v i c e p o l i c y or to  technology.  objectives  and  downgraded.  4-  - iii -  Exaraination  o f water and s a n i t a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s i n d i c a t e s  major f a c t o r s i n the e v a l u a t i o n housing type, p o p u l a t i o n , self-reliance. intermediate piped  that  of technology are water consumption,  l o c a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and  Trucked water d e l i v e r y and sewage pumpout systems are an  technology between rudimentary s e l f - h a u l and s o p h i s t i c a t e d  systems.  Trucked systems p r o v i d e high  l e v e l s of s e r v i c e ,  f l e x i b i l i t y and l o c a l employment and they f a c i l i t a t e administrative,  financial, political  local  and p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l over  community  infrastructure. This resources,  t h e s i s recommends that  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y  and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s the  the N.W.T. Government devolve t h e f o r planning  to the community l e v e l .  c o n t r o l l e r and the c l i e n t  i n a planning  s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and community development.  and managing water  The community should be  process which emphasizes The primary r o l e of the  N.W.T. Government should be to a s s i s t the people i n a s s e s s i n g the conditions  o f t h e i r l i v e s and community so that  these c o n d i t i o n s  f o r the b e t t e r .  they can plan  and a l t e r  - iv -  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT.  '.  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES  i i iv  ,  LIST OF TABLES  vii viii  1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  REGIONAL LEVEL—NORTHWEST TERRITORIES  12  2.1  P h y s i c a l Environment  12  2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3  13 13 15  2.2 •2.3  2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 3.  1  Climate Precipitation Permafrost  B i o l o g i c a l Environment S o c i a l Environment  18 19  2.3.1 2.3.2  19 20  Pre-contact period Contact and e x p l o i t a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s  Northern Development P o l i t i c a l Development Economic Development Contemporary I s s u e s : Future D i r e c t i o n s  23 28 31 40  LOCAL LEVEL—COMMUNITY  44  3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5  Development of S e t t l e m e n t s Development of L o c a l Government Contemporary Community Demographics Community Types Community P l a n n i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . . ;  44 50 56 59 60  3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.5.6  61 62 62 67 69  H i s t o r i c development Physical conditions Housing Uncertainty C u l t u r e l i f e s t y l e and p e r c e p t i o n s P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , d e c i s i o n making and community development  76  - v -  Page 4.  INFRASTRUCTURE LEVEL - WATER AND 4.1  4.2  4.1.1  Water  4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4  D i s t r i b u t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n Wastewater treatment and d i s p o s a l S o l i d waste management  84 84 86 86  87  H i s t o r i c a l development of s e t t l e m e n t s and u t i l i t i e s Contemporary water and s a n i t a t i o n p o l i c i e s . . . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and f i n a n c i n g Current s t a t u s and i s s u e s  87 90 94 97 102  4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6  104 129 136 138 140 143  Health Environmental p r o t e c t i o n Socio-economic development Fire protection Convenience and a e s t h e t i c s Equity  Technical Considerations Constraints Types of systems Design approaches and concepts Why do systems f a i l ?  145 .  146 147 153 157  Economic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  161  4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3  161 166  4.5.3 4.6  supply  Objectives  4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.5  84  Development of Water and S a n i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s and P o l i c i e s  4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4  4.4  83  Water and S a n i t a t i o n Systems  4.2.1  4.3  SANITATION SERVICES  Program l e v e l Project level Economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the Northwest Territories Role of economic a n a l y s i s  Planning 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4  Considerations  O b j e c t i v e s of p l a n n i n g P l a n n i n g process E v a l u a t i o n of o p t i o n s Comparison of systems  167 169 169 170 171 176 179  - vi -  Page 5.  IMPLICATIONS TO PLANNING  191  5.1  Conclusions  191  5.1.1 5.1.2  Regional level...' Local level  191 192  5.1.3  Infrastructure level  194  5.2  Issues  201  5.3  5.2.1 Control 5.2.2 Values and perceptions 5.2.3 Role of knowledge and experts 5.2.4 Role of planning Recommendations  201 202 203 204 205  5.3.1 5.3.2  205 205  REFERENCES  Procedural Content  210  - vii -  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure  Page  1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4  P o l i t i c a l Regions of Canada Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Academic L e v e l of R e s o l u t i o n of Issues L e v e l s of R e c u r s i o n o f Issues and A c t i v i t i e s  2 3 7 8  2.1 2.2 2.3  Mean T o t a l Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n Permafrost Region i n Canada Permafrost D i s t r i b u t i o n and T h i c k n e s s  14 16 16  3.1 3.2  58  3.3 3.4 3.5  Community and P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n Using B u i l d i n g s to C r e a t e a M i c r o - C l i m a t e , R e s o l u t e , N.W.T S o c i a l Grouping of Houses, C h i s a s i b i , Quebec L o c a t i o n Map o f Rae and Edzo, N.W.T Model of the Community Development Process  4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6  Water and S a n i t a t i o n System Component Schematic 83 E c o l o g i c a l Model o f H e a l t h R e l a t i o n s h i p s Ill E f f e c t of Water Consumption on D i s e a s e A t t a c k Rates.. 115 Major Causes o f Death 119 I n f a n t M o r t a l i t y Rate 120 Rates of S e l e c t e d Communicable D i s e a s e s 121  5.1  Comparison o f Trucked and P i p e d Systems w i t h Water Consumption, Housing D e n s i t y and Community P o p u l a t i o n i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  65 66 70 79  200  - viii  -  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  2.1 2.2  Demographics of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Phases o f H i s t o r i a l Development  22 24  3.1  Founding Date of Communities i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and Yukon M u n i c i p a l Status and P o p u l a t i o n of Communities  45 53  3.24.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14  L e v e l s o f S e r v i c e Under the 1974 Water and Sanitation Policy -. Water and S a n i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s E x p e n d i t u r e s by Government of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , 1980-81 S t a t u s o f Community Water and S a n i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s . . . . F i n a n c i a l Status of Water and S a n i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s . . . . Survey of Water Supply O b j e c t i v e s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n f e c t i v e D i s e a s e s i n R e l a t i o n to Water S u p p l i e s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Water-Related D i s e a s e s Household Water Use f o r V a r i o u s Community and Household Water Systems Comparison of Water and S a n i t a t i o n Systems w i t h Objectives Comparison of Water and S a n i t a t i o n Systems w i t h Characteristics Costs f o r Trucked and P i p e d Systems Cost and Employment with P i p e d and Trucked Systems f o r F o r t McPherson, N.W.T E f f e c t s of Housing D e n s i t y and Water Demand on Household S e r v i c e Costs i n F o r t McPherson E f f e c t of Housing Type and Household Plumbing on S e l e c t i o n o f System i n F o r t McPherson, N.W.T  92 96 99 100 103 109 109 151 180 181 185 186 188 189  - 1-  1.  INTRODUCTION  Sufficient  q u a n t i t y of s a f e water and the s a n i t a r y management of  wastes a r e e s s e n t i a l to p u b l i c h e a l t h and community development.  Over  the past t h r e e decades, m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s have been provided by the f e d e r a l government  and the Government o f the Northwest  (G.N.W.T.) t o i n s t a l l communities  Territories  and o p e r a t e water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n  i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  (N.W.T.) ( F i g u r e 1.1 and 1.2).  The o b j e c t i v e s and performance o f t h e G.N.W.T. Water and S a n i t a t i o n P o l i c y , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and the technology have not been  evaluated  to d a t e . The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to a n a l y s e the o b j e c t i v e s , and content o f p l a n n i n g Territories  (N.W.T.).  process  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n communities i n t h e Northwest The focus o f the t h e s i s i s on water and  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n communities p r e d o m i n a n t l y occupied by N a t i v e * people. In t h i s t h e s i s the h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l ,  and economic  development o f the N.W.T. and i t s communities a r e examined  to uncover  contemporary r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i s s u e s and t o i n d i c a t e p o t e n t i a l directions.  future  The h i s t o r i c a l development of water and s a n i t a t i o n  The term ' N a t i v e ' i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s to the i n d i g e n o u s peoples of the N.W.T. T h i s i n c l u d e s the Athapaskan-speaking people ( t h e Dene) and t h e I n u i t - s p e a k i n g people ( t h e I n u i t ) . Other names i n use, such as D o g r i b , I n d i a n and Eskimo, were g i v e n by f o r e i g n p e o p l e s . The term 'Whites' r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y to non-indigenous p e o p l e , i . e . non-Native, p r i m a r i l y C a u c a s i a n Canadians o r Europeans who a r e p a r t o f the i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t economy and s o c i e t y . A  FIGURE 1.1  POLITICAL REGIONS OF CANADA (from: G e r e i n , 1980)  FIGURE 1.2  NORTHWEST TERRITORIES (from: EPEC C o n s u l t i n g Western L t d . ,  1981)  - 4-  s e r v i c e s , technology and p o l i c i e s i n the N.W.T. are examined to provide an understanding of the context i s s u e s and a l t e r n a t i v e s .  f o r contemporary  Relationships  responsibilities,  between o b j e c t i v e s and water and  s a n i t a t i o n l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e and types of sytems are i n v e s t i g a t e d to examine the b a s i s f o r the G.N.W.T. p o l i c i e s and to p r o v i d e the e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . considerations  T e c h n i c a l , economical and p l a n n i n g  are examined i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s and systems.  Rather than adopting  a traditional scientific  approach i n which a s p e c i f i c hypothesis  hypothesis  predetermined s i n g u l a r  i s t e s t e d , an e m p i r i c o - i n d u c t i v e  p u b l i c p o l i c y a n a l y s i s (Majchrazak, t h e o r i e s o f the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l observations  a basis for  1984).  dimensional  approach was used i n t h i s General concepts and c a u s a l  t o p i c and problems were induced  and a n a l y s i s as the study p r o g r e s s e d .  community p l a n n i n g  testing  from  Case s t u d i e s of  and water and s a n i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g  are examined t o  uncover a p a t t e r n of i s s u e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s and to i n d i c a t e d i r e c t i o n for  improvements and changes. The  and  development and o p e r a t i o n  o f water supply,  sewage c o l l e c t i o n  waste management s e r v i c e s and systems i n N.W.T. communities i s  complex and c h a l l e n g i n g . important but d i f f i c u l t 1.  The c r i t i c a l  Planning  water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i s  because o f :  support  function of u t i l i t y  systems and the  severe  p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l consequences of f a i l u r e 2.  The high c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n , times h i g h e r  t y p i c a l l y 2 to 5  than i n southern communities, because o f h i g h  energy and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s  - 5 -  3.  The t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g low temperature, low p r e c i p i t a t i o n , p e r m a f r o s t , and  4.  isolation  The important r o l e of water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l communities and  5.  development of  residents  The v a r y i n g c u l t u r e s , v a l u e s , l i f e s t y l e s ,  e x p e r i e n c e , and  a s p i r a t i o n s w i t h i n the communities and the r e g i o n 6.  The s h o r t h i s t o r y and l i m i t e d communities and u t i l i t i e s  7.  The l i m i t e d knowledge  e x p e r i e n c e with d e v e l o p i n g  i n northern  regions  of the impacts of p o l l u t i o n and community  development on the n o r t h e r n environment. Water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are more s i g n i f i c a n t  i n community  p l a n n i n g i n the N.W.T. than i n s o u t h e r n Canada because of t h e i r p r i o r i t y and c o s t .  Utility  high  system requirements have dominated the  p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g of n o r t h e r n communities. The need f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n systems i n permanent appears o b v i o u s .  communities  S u b s i d i e s and a s s i s t a n c e to ensure that water and  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e are i n t u i t i v e l y j u s t i f i e d e g a l i t a r i a n i s m or g u i l t .  by b e n e f i t s ,  However, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s u b s i d y  programs  and the s e l e c t i o n of t e c h n o l o g y r a i s e i s s u e s of e f f i c i e n c y , e f f e c t i v e n e s s , l i b e r t y and f a i r n e s s .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  water  and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and o b j e c t i v e s such as h e a l t h , environment p r o t e c t i o n , socio-economic development, f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , convenience and a e s t h e t i c s , and e q u i t y are complex.  T a k i n g i n t o account the p e r c e p t i o n s  -  and  knowledge of the users and  achieving  the decision-makers i s important  o b j e c t i v e s , s e l e c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and  Subsidies authority.  and  assistance  A l l technologies  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man danger t h a t a s s i s t a n c e and  6 -  obvious m a t e r i a l  detrimental  are c h o i c e s  technology.  There i s a  physical benefits, contain The  separated  appropriateness  from q u e s t i o n s  long  of:  who  immediate  term cumulative  of s u b s i d i e s  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are p a r t of the  infrastructure.  I n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s one  aspect  and  chooses? and  how  r e g i o n a l l e v e l s of systems are economic and  are a l s o i n t e r r e l a t e d . unpredictably  community  of a community system  communities are p a r t of the r e g i o n a l government.  political,  and  made?  Water and  l o c a l and  values  t e c h n o l o g y , which seemingly p r o v i d e  social effects.  technology cannot be  systems.  impede l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  imply c e r t a i n l i f e s t y l e ,  and  and  and  can  designing  in  The i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  interrelated.  t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s w i t h i n and Changes i n one  throughout the other  level  levels.  and  Social,  between each l e v e l  reverberate  often  E f f e c t i v e changes i n  l e v e l r e q u i r e concomitant changes to occur at other  one  levels.  Moreover, s i n c e no c o n d i t i o n and no event can be seen as i s o l a t e d , every problem i s but a symptom of some deeper problem imbedded i n the next l a r g e r subsystem; and that p e r c e p t i o n compels of a depth of h u m i l i t y guaranteed to turn the most e v a n g e l i c a l reformer i n t o a cautious planner. (Webber, 1978, p.155)  P l a n n e r s may  become not  of the d i s c o v e r y  only cautious  that everything  but  a l s o f r u s t r a t e d mute  a f f e c t s everything  else.  prisoners  - 7 -  Upon p e r s i s t e n t probing  and q u e s t i o n i n g , t e c h n i c a l and  planning  i s s u e s deepen i n t o p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s of v a l u e s , b e l i e f and and  truth  p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s can not be r e s o l v e d , they can o n l y be r e s o l v e d  over and over a g a i n .  Figure i.3 i l l u s t r a t e s  p h i l o s o p h i c a l , planning Jantsch's  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  and t e c h n i c a l l e v e l s of academic r e s o l u t i o n .  (1980) m u l t i l e v e l p l a n n i n g concept s i m i l a r l y  spans the l e v e l  of t a c t i c a l or o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , the s t r a t e g i c l e v e l , l e v e l , and the l e v e l of v a l u e s  the p o l i c y  "which i s no more s u b j e c t to r a t i o n a l  e l a b o r a t i o n but always p l a y s a d e c i s i v e and g u i d i n g r o l e , whether i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y . "  ( J a n t s c h , 1980, p. 266).  ACTIVITY  A n a l y s i s must be  CONCERNED WITH  PHILOSOPHICAL GOALS - values, belief, truth, ethics  PLANNING OBJECTIVES - process  TECHNICAL CRITERIA - action, knowledge  FIGURE 1.3  ACADEMIC LEVEL OF RESOLUTION OF  ISSUES  - 8 -  of s u f f i c i e n t depth, b r e a d t h and d e t a i l relationships.  F i g u r e 1.4 i l l u s t r a t e s  to uncover i s s u e s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  l e v e l s of r e c u r s i o n of i s s u e s and a c t i v i t i e s .  DEPTH WATER AND SANITATION SYSTEMS INFRASTRUCTURE COMMUNITY REGION NATION BREADTH  FIGURE 1.4  LEVELS OF RECURSION OF ISSUES AND  ACTIVITIES  As Langdon Winner a d v i s e d , p l a n n i n g must "seek s i m u l t a n e o u s l y to a v o i d depths without d i r e c t i o n and d e t a i l without meaning" 1978,  p. 134).  T h i s t h e s i s attempts to p r o v i d e d e t a i l  and depth, and attempts to l i n k v a l u e s and b e l i e f  (Winner,  i n both b r e a d t h  w i t h knowledge and  actions.  It i sa difficut  answers.  The attempt does not imply a promise of u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a  promise of r i g h t  task which uncovers more q u e s t i o n s than  answers, or a promise of c o n t r o l .  Planning increases  - 9 -  complexity  and u n c e r t a i n t y because r e a l i t y i s complex ( J a n t s c h , 1980).  There should be no " i l l u s i o n  that the f u t u r e can be tamed or made  innocuous"  p. 166).  "retreat  (Freidmann, 1979,  However, p l a n n i n g must not  to the day to day mechanics, o f t r i v i a  r o u t i n e l y conceived, ( S t e r n l i e b , 1978, Examination  i n order to a v o i d the n e c e s s i t y o f d i r e c t i o n . "  p. x i i - x i i i ) . o f water and s a n i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n t h i s t h e s i s r e v e a l s  that i n N a t i v e communities the G.N.W.T.: controls planning studies; s p e c i f i e s procedure,  r o u t i n e l y done and  initiates,  f i n a n c e s and  the problems, o b j e c t i v e s , scope,  methodology and agenda o f the s t u d i e s ; and u l t i m a t e l y i s  responsible for selecting, i n s t a l l i n g P l a n n i n g i s done by engineers the community.  and o p e r a t i n g the systems.  f o r the G.N.W.T., not by the r e s i d e n t s f o r  T e c h n i c a l and economic e f f i c i e n c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the  p l a n n i n g o f water and s a n i t a t i o n systems are emphasized while s o c i a l and political  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are n e g l e c t e d .  Examination  o f why systems  fail  r e v e a l s t h a t the causes are based i n v a l u e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and decision-making.  F a i l u r e s are r e l a t e d  bias of engineers, and  to the t e c h n o l o g i c a l optimism  and  to the a u t h o r i t y g i v e n t e c h n o c r a t s and b u r e a u c r a t s ,  to the concomitant  n e g l e c t o r downgrading o f the values and  p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Native p e o p l e — t h e  people  the water and s a n i t a t i o n  systems are meant to s e r v e . Examination important technology  o f water and s a n i t a t i o n systems i n d i c a t e s that t h e  f a c t o r s which should be c o n s i d e r e d  i n the e v a l u a t i o n of  are community p o p u l a t i o n , water consumption, housing  density,  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and s e l f - r e l i a n c e where s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s the  - 10 -  p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y of the r e s i d e n t s and the community to have f i n a n c i a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l  c o n t r o l over  the p l a n n i n g ,  management and o p e r a t i o n of water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . the economic e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e between  the type of t o i l e t  and sewer systems are found f o r m u l t i - f a m i l y housing;  systsems may  In p r a c t i c e ,  be reduced  and the type of house.  to a  Piped  to be g e n e r a l l y economical and  whereas,  technical,  water  appropriate  trucked water and sewage s e r v i c e s are  g e n e r a l l y economical and a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y houses which u t i l i z e water c o n s e r v i n g  f i x t u r e s and a p p l i a n c e s .  Trucked  d e l i v e r y and sewage pumpout systems are an i n t e r m e d i a t e s e r v i c e between  rudimentary  which f a c i l i t a t e  water  technology  s e l f - h a u l and s o p h i s t i c a t e d piped  and  systems  l o c a l employment and community f i n a n c i a l and p h y s i c a l  control. In t h i s  t h e s i s the common i s s u e s at the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , l o c a l  r e g i o n a l systems l e v e l s are found knowledge,  to be c o n t r o l , v a l u e s , the r o l e of  and e x p e r t s , and the r o l e of p l a n n i n g .  The t h e s i s recommends that the G.N.W.T. d e v o l v e  to the community  l e v e l the r e s o u r c e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y f o r community and development and f o r p l a n n i n g and managing water and services.  development.  which emphasizes s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and  The primary  the people  planning  sanitation  The community must be the c o n t r o l l e r s and the c l i e n t s  p l a n n i n g process  assist  and  in a  community  r o l e of the r e g i o n a l government  should  be to  i n a s s e s s i n g the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r l i v e s and  their  community so they can plan and a c t to change these c o n d i t i o n s f o r the better.  - 11 -  Water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and systems that are not understood, appreciated, financed effective  and operated by the community  and they can impede s e l f - r e l i a n c e .  sanitation services self-reliance.  should enhance s o c i a l  will  Technology  l e a r n i n g and  not be  fully  f o r water and community  -  2.  12  -  REGIONAL LEVEL - NORTHWEST TERRITORIES Contemporary i s s u e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  d e c i s i o n making process  the r e g i o n a l l e v e l are c o n d i t i o n e d by the environment and t h i s c h a p t e r , the p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l and historical, political  and  Environmental,  e s t a b l i s h the h i s t o r i c a l and  2.1  s o c i a l environments and  social, political  i s s u e s at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l  r e g i o n a l , l o c a l and  the p a s t .  infrastructure  and  economic  are examined i n order  contemporary context  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  k i l o m e t e r s and Within  f o r p l a n n i n g at  to  the  levels.  comprises  c o n t a i n s approximately  approximately  major g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s .  3,400,000  The  terrain  types.  from Great  Lake i n the west to B a f f i n I s l a n d i n the e a s t .  The  the I n t e r i o r P l a i n , l i e s  the mountainous  The  landform  between the S h i e l d  of the N.W.T. has  and  drainage  p e r i o d of g l a c i a t i o n which was geological  time.  by  advancing  the r e g i o n .  bedrock, shaped the  p a t t e r n , removed the v e g e t a t i o n and The  Slave  other major r e g i o n ,  been g r e a t l y a l t e r e d  smoothed the S h i e l d  g r a v e l i n long e s k e r s .  There  i n the west.  r e t r e a t i n g g l a c i e r s which p e r i o d i c a l l y covered  G l a c i a t i o n exposed and  area.  Precambrian o r Canadian S h i e l d  c o n s i s t s of rugged barren g r a n i t e h i l l s which extend  C o r d i l l e r a r e g i o n of the Yukon border  square  o n e - t h i r d of Canada's land  t h i s immense area are v a r i o u s g e o l o g i c and  are two  and  the  Physical Environment The  and  In  economic development of the Northwest  T e r r i t o r i e s are examined. r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  at  t o p s o i l and  region i s s t i l l 10,000 years ago,  elongated  deposited  emerging from the  sand last  a very short period i n  -  The major water Mackenzie  13 -  system i n the N.W.T. i s the Mackenzie  R i v e r i s the e l e v e n t h l a r g e s t  headwaters  river  i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia  B a s i n . The  i n the w o r l d .  I t has i t s  and i s n a v i g a b l e f o r i t s  e n t i r e 2,250 k i l o m e t e r l e n g t h to the expansive d e l t a where i t empties into  the B e a u f o r t Sea.  Great Bear Lake, Great S l a v e Lake and the L i a r d  and P e e l R i v e r s are p a r t o f the Mackenzie  Basin.  Other r i v e r s  i n the  N.W.T. are much s m a l l e r and g e n e r a l l y u n n a v i g a b l e .  2.1.1  Climate The  c l i m a t e o f the North i s the net r e s u l t of i n s o l a t i o n ,  topography  and g l o b a l weather p a t t e r n s .  Winters are l o n g , c o l d and  dark; summers are short and c o o l w i t h long hours of d a y l i g h t .  The l a r g e  s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n and low annual s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n the p o l a r r e g i o n s i s a r e s u l t o f the t i l t i n g The climate.  and r o t a t i o n o f the e a r t h .  i n t e r i o r of the N.W.T. e x p e r i e n c e s a n o r t h e r n c o n t i n e n t a l The annual temperature  fluctuates  from -50°C to 30°C.  Along  the coast o f the A r c t i c Ocean and Hudson Bay the temperatures a r e moderated by the sea and the mean annual temperatures extreme low temperatures  are lower.  The  commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the North are no more  severe than i n Edmonton, Winnipeg  o r North Bay.  The s i g n i f i c a n t  c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the North i s the long d u r a t i o n o f w i n t e r and c o n v e r s e l y the s h o r t growing freezing  2.1.2  temperatures  season of summer.  I n most of the N.W.T.,  can occur i n any month of the y e a r .  Precipitation Much of the N.W.T. i s c l a s s i f i e d  as a r i d ,  i.e., precipitation is  -  less  than 25 c e n t i m e t e r s  p r e c i p i t a t i o n decreases  14 -  a n n u a l l y ( F i g u r e 2.1).  Generally,  as one moves northward.  The lowest  p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n Canada, 0.6 c e n t i m e t r e s , i s recorded most n o r t h e r l y s e t t l e m e n t  FIGURE 2.1  The  at Eureka, the  i n Canada.  MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION (cm) (from: G e r e i n , 1980).  low p r e c i p i t a t i o n l i m i t s v e g e t a t i o n and animals and  r e s t r a i n s i n d u s t r i a l and domestic  water s u p p l y .  Rice (1980) warned that  water a v a i l a b i l i t y w i l l u l t i m a t e l y be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r of n o r t h e r n development but many n o r t h e r n communities a l r e a d y have severe water supply problems. When viewed from the a i r , many areas of the N.W.T. appear to have  -  more water s u r f a c e than land area'. one  15  -  Water i s seemingly  abundant  and  h a l f of Canada's f r e s h water r e s o u r c e s are l o c a t e d n o r t h of the  parallel  (Jones, 1972).  The numerous water bodies c r e a t e s the  that there i s an abundance of water i n the N o r t h . these l a k e s are very s h a l l o w and  60th  illusion  In f a c t , most of  f o r most of the year the water i s  frozen.  2.1.3  Permafrost  Most of the ground of the N.W.T. remains Permanently  f r o z e n a l l year.  f r o z e n ground i s c o n v e n i e n t l y shortened  "permafrost."  Permafrost  f r e e z i n g (0° C) f o r a number of y e a r s . i s determined  v e g e t a t i o n , and in Figure  soil.  term  d e s c r i b e s the thermal c o n d i t i o n of e a r t h  m a t e r i a l s , such as rock or s o i l , whose temperature  permafrost  to the  remains  D i s t r i b u t i o n and  below  t h i c k n e s s of  by the thermal balance of c l i m a t e , t e r r a i n ,  The  extent of permafrost  i n Canada i s i l l u s t r a t e d  2.2.  Permafrost  i n the High A r c t i c  can be hundreds of meters t h i c k  only a few c e n t i m e t e r s of the s u r f a c e " a c t i v e l a y e r "  but  thaws d u r i n g the  s h o r t summer p e r i o d .  F u r t h e r south where mean annual  warmer and permafrost  becomes t h i n n e r and d i s c o n t i n u o u s ( F i g u r e 2.3).  Permafrost  is a significant  f r o z e n ground p r e v e n t s r a i n and  are  f a c t o r i n the n o r t h e r n ecosystem. snowmelt from p e r c o l a t i n g  ground, prevents root p e n e t r a t i o n , l o c k s up s o i l the h a b i t a t f o r ground-burrowing  temperatures  animals.  i n t e r r e l a t e d e f f e c t s on v e g e t a t i o n , animals  into  n u t r i e n t s , and  the limits  These f a c t o r s have d i r e c t and man.  The  In t u r n the  and  -  16 -  FIGURE 2.2  PERMAFROST REGION IN CANADA (from: J o h n s t o n , 1981)  FIGURE 2.3  PERMAFROST DISTRIBUTION AND THICKNESS (from: J o h n s t o n , 1981)  - 17 -  v e g e t a t i o n and the a c t i v i t i e s the permafrost Ice  of animals and man have an i n f l u e n c e on  (Brown, 1970).  w i t h i n permafrost  can be troublesome.  Ice occurs i n l e n s e s and  v e i n s from m i l l i m e t e r s to meters i n t h i c k n e s s or i n massive i c e formations. literally  I f the permafrost  t u r n s t o mush with l i t t l e  the s u r f a c e c o n d i t i o n s w i l l thawing  alter  bearing strength.  organic s o i l  D i s t u r b a n c e s to  the thermal balance and cause  of the a c t i v e l a y e r and p o s s i b l y the complete  underlying permafrost. or  thaws, the i c e melts and the s o i l  thawing  by nature or by man can have s e r i o u s consequences.  h i g h i c e content and where the permafrost  soil  temperature  a "thermokarst"  Permafrost  thawing  topography.  can a l s o be caused  by heat i n p u t from  remains  Because permafrost i s impermeable, snowmelt and Consequently  rainfall  s u r f a c e drainage i s  i n community l a y o u t and l a n d s c a p i n g and i n the d e s i g n of  facilities. regions.  Thawing o f  i n f l u e n c e s many a s p e c t s of community and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  on the ground s u r f a c e .  important  building  can l e a d t o s e t t l e m e n t and f a i l u r e of the s t r u c t u r e .  Permafrost development.  has a  and flows o f  f o u n d a t i o n s o r by b u r l e d water, sewage and h e a t i n g p i p e s . the permafrost  The  i s c l o s e to  Under these c o n d i t i o n s the e r o s i o n , slumping  produce  of the  D e s t r u c t i o n or damage to the s u r f a c e v e g e t a t i o n  most dramatic consequencs occur on slopes where the permafrost  freezing.  deeper  Groundewater i s not a p r a c t i c a l water source i n permafrost  Subsurface wastewater d i s p o s a l systems,  a septic f i e l d ,  such as an outhouse or  are not f e a s i b l e i f the ground i s permanently  E x c a v a t i o n o f permafrost  f o r foundations, buried u t i l i t y  frozen.  l i n e s , or  - 18 -  borrow m a t e r i a l  2.2  is d i f f i c u l t  and  expensive and  i s often i m p r a c t i c a l .  Biological Environment E n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the North i n c l u d e :  low  temperatures, s h o r t growing season, l a r g e v a r i a t i o n i n seasonal i n f l u x , low (Pruitt,  p r e c i p i t a t i o n , low  1970).  n u t r i e n t s , and  poor s o i l  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e s u l t i n a low  p r o d u c t i v i t y which u l t i m a t e l y l i m i t s l e v e l s (Weber, 1974).  The  northern  by a slow growth r a t e , a low large population  solar  development primary  the p r o d u c t i v i t y of higher biotic  trophic  environment i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  number of s p e c i e s , a simple food web,  and  oscillations.  People have concerns f o r impacts from community p o l l u t i o n , industrial resources  land use  activities,  because of the  low  and  commercial uses of the  d i v e r s i t y and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the n o r t h e r n  low  environment.  carrying  non-renewable  capacity  However, these  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y  by r e s e a r c h e r s  B l i s s , 1970;  root of  Dunbar 1973;  L i v i n g s t o n , 1981).  The  disagreement i s the l a c k of f u n c t i o n a l knowledge of the  (e.g.,  this  northern  ecosystem. In a s s e s s i n g  the impact of man's a c t i v i t i e s ,  "merely to c h a r a c t e r i z e fragile." and  (Berger,  1977,  animals l i e s not  the n o r t h p. 4 ) .  in their  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the North:  i t is insufficient  as s e n s i t i v e , v u l n e r a b l e The  or even  r e a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the  inability  to d e a l w i t h the age  " I t i s in their  plants  old  probable i n a b i l i t y  t o l e r a t e a d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s w i t h which they are not  built  to cope"  to  -  ( L i v i n g s t o n , 1981, alleged  p. 65).  "fragility"  and  arise  -  L i v i n g s t o n (1981) warns that much of  "simplicity"  of i n a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t e r i a from and  19  and  and  r e s u l t s from the  ecosystem models which have been  f o r other ecosystems.  from q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  of the North  "The  developed  thus i n c o m p a t i b l e  r e g i o n s of the  world  ( L i v i n g s t o n , 1981,  64).  2.3  Social Environment  2.3.1  Pre—contact period The  least The  use  e c o l o g i c a l pronouncements t h a t  simply do not apply where they d i d not o r i g i n a t e " p.  the  North has been occupied  10,000 years and  by man  s i n c e the l a s t  i c e age  f o r at  perhaps more than 27,000 years (McGhee, 1974).  o r i g i n a l Mongolian i n h a b i t a n t s , a p p a r e n t l y c r o s s e d  to A l a s k a  over  the land b r i d g e c r e a t e d d u r i n g p e r i o d s of g l a c i a t i o n .  Two  distinct  c u l t u r e s developed.  the  Indians  occupied  The  the t r e e d a r e a .  Inuit  the tundra and  V a r i o u s s u b - c u l t u r e s and  the l o c a l n a t u r a l resources The N a t i v e people's  occupied  lifestyles  based  on  developed.  lifestyle,  technology  and  c u l t u r e evolved  with  the n o r t h e r n environment, not i n s p i t e of i t . T h e i r  lifestyle,  technology  and  conditions:  "It  was  to the c y c l e s , rhythms and  o s c i l l a t i o n s which although  not  geared  c u l t u r e were a p p r o p r i a t e to the l o c a l  always p r e d i c t a b l e were a n t i c i p a t e d " ( L i v i n g s t o n , 1981, The N a t i v e people imported  little.  r e t u r n e d but  took what was  necessary  p.  for survival  In t h i s c l o s e d dynamic system e v e r y t h i n g  they had  a significant  impact  66). and was  on the ecosystem.  During  the  - 20 -  initial  " i n v a s i o n " of man  ( M a r t i n , 1974) The  the environmental impact was  u n t i l a new  stability  food, l i m i t e d number of prey s p e c i e s , and (McGee, 1974).  lifestyle  based on hunting  c l i m a t e and population  and  limited  and  fishing.  nomadic, sparse  and  scarcity  of  of f u e l and  f o r short  l o c a t i o n s or f o r t r a d i n g .  the seasonal periods  Kinship  In most bands there was  Community o r g a n i z a t i o n was  Of n e c e s s i t y ,  thinly distributed.  governed by  Groups came together  interaction.  supply  the  A c t i v i t i e s were governed by  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of prey s p e c i e s . was  fishing  personal  limited  raw  These environmental f a c t o r s d i c t a t e d a  u n i t s or i n s m a l l groups was harvest.  and  of the North i n c l u d e d c o l d c l i m a t e , seasonal  materials  significant  developed.  environmental f a c t o r s that c o n d i t i o n e d  occupation  very  democratic and  the  the  Travel i n family  progression  at f a v o u r a b l e  of  the  hunting  formed the b a s i s of most no  formal  leader.  d e c i s i o n s were made by  consensus.*  2*3.2 Contact and exploitation of resources Europeans d i s c o v e r e d searching  the Canadian North some 400  f o r a s h o r t e r route  then, the n o r t h e r n  between Europe and  environment and  to waves of a s p i r a n t s who  the N a t i v e  searched f o r and  E a r l y whalers were f o l l o w e d  years  the Far E a s t .  people have been  e x p l o i t e d the  by f u r t r a d e r s who  ago  while Since subject  resources.  established  trading  ^Feeney (1977) examines the d e c i s i o n making p a t t e r n s and the c o n f l i c t s of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s between N a t i v e and Whites i n contemporary N.W.T.  - 21 -  posts.  The Church, Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e and m i n e r a l  e x p l o r a t i o n groups l a t e r e s t a b l i s h e d themselves a t the t r a d i n g p o s t s . The  post-World  War I I years  saw s t r a t e g i c m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s and a  number o f mines brought i n t o p r o d u c t i o n .  During  the 50's  s o v e r e i g n t y , n o r t h e r n development and the w e l f a r e o f the people  for  aboriginal  brought an i n c r e a s e d l e v e l of f e d e r a l government i n t e r e s t and  involvement' i n the N o r t h .  Since the l a t e 60's  e x p l o r a t i o n and development a c t i v i t i e s Each wave o f a c t i v i t y has  the c u l t u r e o f the North Western technology  of the North (Robertson, concept  but  to p e t r o c h e m i c a l s . o f Europeans and  and i n c r e a s e d the l i n k s  between the economy  and the r e s t o f Canada and the  world.  and v a l u e s have s c a r c e l y changed the environment  they have p r o f o u n d l y  1966).  related  there has been major  i n c r e a s e d the presence  Euro-Canadians i n the North and  a concern  changed the a b o r i g i n a l  peoples  Among the changes are the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e .  o f p r i v a t e land and resource ownership, development of a cash  economy, permanent s e t t l e m e n t s , formal laws,  and government.  The advent  of Europeans i n t r o d u c e d a p l u r a l i t y o f s o c i a l and development g o a l s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s among men, and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and the environment. The  demographics of the N.W.T. have changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  N a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d to approximately 1941  and to 52% by 1979 The  (Table  The 79% by  2.1).  average p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e i n the N.W.T. t h i s century has  been 3% per annum but  the growth r a t e has been s p o r a d i c .  i n N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i s predominantly  n a t u r a l while  The i n c r e a s e  the White p o p u l a t i o n  - 22 TABLE 2.1  DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES (from: G.N.W.T., 1978; Outcrop, 1984)  Population Year  Population  1911  6,507  1921  8,143  1931  9,316  1941  12,028  1951  16,004  1961  22,998  1971  34,807  1981  45,741  Age Distribution (1979) Number P r e - s c h o o l (0-4)  Percent  of T o t a l  5,664  12  School age (5-14)  10,691  23  Working age (15-64  28,470  62  1,238  3  46,063  100  Elderly  (65+)  T o t a l - A l l Ages i n N.W.T.  Ethnicity (1979) Number Indian Inuit Metis  (approx.)  Other T o t a l - A l l Groups i n N.W.T.  I i  Percent  8,433  18  15,489  34  4,500  10  17,641  38  46,063  100  of T o t a l  - 23 -  i n c r e a s e i s mainly due to i n - m i g r a t i o n .  Although the b i r t h r a t e among  the N a t i v e people has decreased s i n c e the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , i t i s s t i l l twice the n a t i o n a l average.  I n 1979 the median age of the N a t i v e and  non-Native p o p u l a t i o n s was 16 and 22.5 years The  respectively.  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f the N.W.T. i s low i n number and the people  are unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d among s c a t t e r e d communities.  The s m a l l e r  communities  9,918 persons o r  are predominantly Dene o r I n u i t .  22% o f the 46,063 N.W.T. r e s i d e n t s l i v e d  I n 1979,  i n the community o f  Yellowknife.  2.4  Northern Development The developmental h i s t o r y o f the N.W.T. a f t e r 2  e x p l o r a t i o n can be d i v i d e d T a b l e 2.2. varied  into  three major phases  European as i l l u s t r a t e d i n  The time and d u r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n these  from r e g i o n to r e g i o n but the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are  phases  similar.  4  T h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f the North i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n a number of works i n c l u d i n g : Usher, P e t e r J . (1982); Armstrong, Rogers and Rowley (1978); Brody, Hugh (1975); Wonders W.C (ed) (1972); Zaslow, M o r r i s (1971); Rea, K.J. (1968); and Jenness, Diamond (1964). 2  ^Other breakdowns have been advanced to i n t e r p r e t the h i s t o r i c a l development of the N.W.T., the most common b e i n g the p e r i o d s preceeding and f o l l o w i n g World War I I . T h e Mackenzie V a l l e y area l e d i n development. The p a t t e r n of l i f e of the I n u i t i n the E a s t e r n A r c t i c remained v i r t u a l l y unchanged u n t i l World War I I . 4  - 24 -  TABLE 2.2  PHASES OF HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT  Phase I  - D i s c o v e r y and Commercial P e n e t r a t i o n  Phase I I  - A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o l o n i a l i s m and the Welfare S t a t e  Pre-World War I I  Post World War I I Phase I I I - T r a n s i t i o n towards an I n d u s t r i a l Mode of Production The  The  first  Contemporary  phase, i n i t i a l  North  d i s c o v e r y and commercial p e n e t r a t i o n , was  s p u r r e d by the f u r trade south of the t r e e l i n e . and along  the A r c t i c Coast  i t was p r e c i p i t a t e d  northwest passage and w h a l i n g . commercial and church of  In the A r c t i c  by the s e a r c h f o r the  By the e a r l y 1900's the e x t e n s i o n of  i n f l u e n c e s was complete.  P r e c i o u s metal  g o l d and radium were d i s c o v e r e d and developed.  were f a c i l i t a t e d  Islands  Industrial  deposits activities  by improved communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  The N a t i v e people  adopted items  food, and r e l i g i o n .  of Euro-American technology,  However the Dene and I n u i t  continued  dress,  to hunt, to  f i s h and to t r a p f o r s u b s i s t a n c e and f o r exchange a l t h o u g h many traditional  skills  and p r a c t i c e s a t r o p h i e d .  In some areas the  t r a d i t i o n a l mode of p r o d u c t i o n was supplemented w i t h u n s k i l l e d wage l a b o u r . the N.W.T.  During  t h i s phase there were few non-Natives  The North was a f r o n t i e r  seasonal  residing i n  f o r e x p l o r a t i o n r a t h e r than f o r  - 25 -  settlement.  Government a c t i v i t i e s  non-existant.  The primary  Canadian Mounted  and concerns  were low key or  government agent i n the N.W.T. was the  Royal  Police.  World War I I marked the second phase of development.  I t was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n c r e a s e i n the pace of development and  i n f e d e r a l government i n t e r e s t  and a c t i v i t i e s  i n the N o r t h .  War  a number o f p r o j e c t s brought a c t i v i t y and i n t e r e s t  The  P o r t Radium mine s u p p l i e d radium f o r the f i r s t  oilfields through  North.  bomb,  to supply  the Alaska  the Canol P i p e l i n e , and a i r f i e l d s were c o n s t r u c t e d i n the  Eastern A r c t i c .  World War I I and the ensuing  a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the s t r a t e g i c the i s s u e o f s o v e r e i g n t y .  c o l d war brought a new  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the North  and heightened  The U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n s t r u c t e d and c o n t r o l l e d  the D i s t a n t E a r t h Warning (DEW) DEW  to the  atomic  and r e f i n e r y a t Norman W e l l s were developed  During the  c o n t i n e n t a l radar defense  system. The  L i n e s i t e s p r o v i d e d l i m i t e d employment and a focus f o r government  activities  similar  to the t r a d i n g posts of e a r l i e r y e a r s .  i n t h i s phase of development demonstrated  The p r o j e c t s  that modern technology  could  conquer the n o r t h e r n environment.'-' A d e c l i n e i n f u r p r i c e s which began i n the 30's  culminated  v i r t u a l c o l l a p s e of the f u r trade i n the post-War p e r i o d . brought much hardship  to the N a t i v e people  the f u r trade economy and l i f e s t y l e . h e a l t h , and s h e l t e r conditons  i n the  The c o l l a p s e  who had become dependent on  By the e a r l y 50's  nutrition,  i n the N.W.T. had become a p p a l l i n g . The  The A l c a n Highway i s one of the seven wonders o f the modern  world.  - 26  p u b l i c i t y s u r r o u n d i n g the s u f f e r i n g and Inuit  furthered  the growing  southern Canadians.  -  s t a r v a t i o n among the  Keewatin  awareness of the c o n d i t i o n s i n the North  by  P r e s s u r e f o r government a c t i o n mounted.  The f e d e r a l government c o u l d no l o n g e r m a i n t a i n a l a i s s e z - f a i r e approach to the N o r t h and i t s inhabitants. C a p i t a l i s m had suddenly f a i l e d N a t i v e people, and i n the context of a dawning w e l f a r e s t a t e , the government was w i d e l y seen as having no a l t e r n a t i v e but to step i n . (Usher, 1982, p. 429)  Government a s s i s t a n c e i n the North began w i t h the e x t e n s i o n of f a m i l y allowance and o l d age b e n e f i t s .  During the 50's  and  s c h o o l s , n u r s i n g s t a t i o n s and h o s p i t a l s were c o n s t r u c t e d . 60's  and 70's  p u b l i c housing and  During  the  community i n f r a s t u c t u r e were p r o v i d e d .  There was  a concomittant i n f l u x of t e a c h e r s , nurses and  into  communities.  the  60's,  civil  servants  The major consequence of these changes f o r the N a t i v e people was shift  from temporary  camps to permanent s e t t l e m e n t s and  change i n l i f e s t y l e and a s s a u l t on the t r a d i t i o n a l unquestioned traditional  assumption lifestyle  was  imported  a concomittent  culture.  and prepare f o r wage employment and  The  the imminent  But most of the j o b s and b e n e f i t s went  e n t r e p r e n e u r s , government employees and  from the South.  The  that N a t i v e people must f o r s a k e the dying  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the N o r t h . to non-Native  traditional  skilled  economy d e c l i n e d  and  N a t i v e people became dependent on the government f o r s h e l t e r , and  transfer The  a  workers the services  payments.  third  phase, the t r a n s i t i o n  p r o d u c t i o n , began i n the 50's.  to an i n d u s t r i a l mode of  I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  complete  i  - 27 -  i n t e g r a t i o n of the r e g i o n corporate  activities  development  i n t o the  i n l a r g e s c a l e resource  projects.  The i n c r e a s e d  post-War growth p e r i o d heralded non-renewable  resources  by government  as there was  government  Canadian economy and the i n c r e a s e i n exploration  and  world demand f o r resources  numerous p r o j e c t s  from the N.W.T. no c o n f l i c t  i n the  to e x t r a c t  These p r o j e c t s were encouraged  of i n t e r e s t s between  the  p o l i c y makers and the commercial i n t e r e s t s i n n o r t h e r n  development (Rae, 1976). The most s i g n i f i c a n t related  contemporary i n d u s t r i a l developments have  to hydrocarbon e x p l o r a t i o n and development  D e l t a , Norman W e l l s ,  Beaufort  Sea and  i n the Mackenzie  the A r c t i c I s l a n d s .  The  proposed hydrocarbon development and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o j e c t s enormous c a p i t a l ,  highly s k i l l e d  labour  and i n n o v a t i v e  The harsh environment, the l a c k of knowledge  inexperience  i n working i n the N o r t h , and the d i s t a n c e  to northern  i n t o high  c o s t and high  resource  development.  and  from markets are  These c o n d i t i o n s  development p r o j e c t and p i p e l i n e to  Other p r o j e c t s await the d i s c o v e r y  commercial q u a n t i t i e s of hydrocarbons, f i n a n c i n g , i n c r e a s e d increased  translate  risks.  Only the Norman Wells o i l f i e l d A l b e r t a are p r o c e e d i n g .  require  advanced  technology.  deterrents  been  of demand or  prices.  Exploration a c t i v i t i e s  continue spurred  on by f e d e r a l  tax i n c e n t i v e s and d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n under the "need energy s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y p o l i c i e s f r o n t i e r o i l and gas.  government  to know" and  i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of f u t u r e demand f o r  - 28 -  The e x p l o r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g phases of these developments have a l r e a d y brought s i g n i f i c a n t  investments and changes to the r e g i o n and  have p r e c i p i t a t e d much debate about the s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts of  these p r o j e c t s and about the i n d u s t r i a l mode o f p r o d u c t i o n i n  general.  The most n o t a b l e p u b l i c debate was the Mackenzie V a l l e y  P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y by J u s t i c e Thomas B e r g e r .  He recommended a ten year  moratorium to s e t t l e N a t i v e c l a i m s and to e s t a b l i s h new i n s t i t u t i o n s and programs  that would form the b a s i s f o r N a t i v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and  prevent the advancing i n d u s t r i a l system from p r e d e t e r m i n i n g the course of  events ( B e r g e r , 1977).  I n t e g r a l to t h i s recommendation  would be the  development of the renewable resource economy which would s t r e n g t h e n the t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e economy and enable the N.W.T. and the N a t i v e people to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n d u s t r i a l economy without becoming  completely  dependent on i t .  2.5  Political Development  6  The dominant p o l i t i c a l territory the  i n Canada.  f e a t u r e o f the N.W.T. i s i t s s t a t u s as a  The f e d e r a l government  retains direct  ownership of  lands and resources i n the N.W.T. and i s the dominant a c t o r and  ultimate authority i n p o l i t i c a l  development.  A Commissioner i s appointed by the f e d e r a l government  to head the  ^The p o l i t i c a l development o f the N o r t h has been c h r o n i c l e d and a n a l y z e d by a number of a u t h o r s . Rea (1976) p r o v i d e s a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s , Dosman (1975) covers the p e r i o d from 1968 to 1975, and Dacks (19^81) p r o v i d e s an update to 1981. The p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n framework of the G.N.W.T. i s o u t l i n e d by Hamelin (1978), Drury (1979) and G e r e i n (1980).  - 29 -  t e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l and the government bureaucracy. r e s u l t of the C a r r o t h e r s Commission Report Government o f the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  ( C a r r o t h e r s , 1966), the  (G.N.W.T.) was made d i s t i n c t  from the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern (D.I.A.N.D.) and the t e r r i t o r i a l Yellowknife. The  In 1967, as a  Development  government moved from Ottawa to  The t e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l has been f u l l y e l e c t e d s i n c e 1975.  G.N.W.T. c a r r i e s out 'housekeeping' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  p r o g r e s s i v e l y taken on added r e p o n s i b i l i t i e s  I t has  i n l o c a l govenment, s o c i a l  development, p u b l i c works, and renewable r e s o u r c e s .  However,  the  d e c i s i o n s of the G.N.W.T. are s u b j e c t to f e d e r a l d i s a l l o w a n c e and i t s f i n a n c i a l plans r e q u i r e a p p r o v a l from Ottawa v i a the T r e a s u r y The  Board.  major source of funding f o r the G.N.W.T. i s the f e d e r a l government.  For example, i n 1976-77 o n l y 7% o f the G.N.W.T. budget, o f $206 m i l l i o n came from revenue r a i s e d The  i n the N.W.T. (Zariwny,  1977).  l a c k of s t a t u t o r y and economic power of the G.N.W.T has been  f u r t h e r undermined by the q u e s t i o n o f i t s l e g i t i m a c y which i s r a i s e d by the N a t i v e people.  To the N a t i v e  people,  the t e r r i t o r i a l  government  i n s t i t u t i o n s embody u n f a m i l i a r and even h o s t i l e v a l u e s and p r a c t i c e s . The  growth o f N a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d u r i n g the 70's overshadowed  other p o l i t i c a l  developments i n the N.W.T.  Their i n i t i a l  shunning of  the t e r r i t o r i a l government i n favour o f independent a c t i o n s has waned. By the 80*s the m a j o r i t y o f the t e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l l o r s were N a t i v e s . Many of them had matured p o l i t i c a l l y organizations. political  w i t h t h e i r work i n the N a t i v e  Non-Natives no l o n g e r monopolize o r c o n t r o l the  process  w i t h i n the N.W.T.  Representative  l e g i t i m a c y allows  - 30 -  the T e r r i t o r i a l C o u n c i l to d e a l more a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y with development and w i t h the t e r r i t o r i e s ' a l s o h i g h l i g h t s the s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s The  relationship  political  to the South but i t  i n the N.W.T.  s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s i n the N.W.T. are complex.  They are  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the c o n t r a s t i n g g o a l s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of s o c i a l change, and approaches to p o l i t i c s (Dacks, 1 9 8 1 ) .  between the N a t i v e s  The a s p i r a t i o n s are as many as there are e t h n i c groups.  R e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n s are a l s o apparent. Arctic  and non-Natives  The predominantly  i s l e a d i n g the p r o p o s a l to d i v i d e the N.W.T.  Inuit  Eastern  They contend  that  d i v i s i o n w i l l p r o v i d e more r e s p o n s i b l e government because i t i s c l o s e r to the people  and because they would be working w i t h a s t r o n g e r  consensus than e x i s t s w i t h i n the N.W.T. as a whole. The  G.N.W.T. has taken on added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  and matured  s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n the past decade; however, there are o b s t a c l e s to p o l i t i c a l development. colonial political  Dacks contends t h a t an important  c u l t u r e which has  developed  o b s t a c l e i s the  i n the N.W.T.  led to:  The c r e a t i o n of unreasonable e x p e c t a t i o n s by n o r t h e r n e r s and p a r t i c u l a r l y the n a t i v e n o r t h e r n e r s . Because they had not u n t i l r e c e n t l y had the o p p o r t u n i t y to e x e r c i s e a meaningful degree o f p o l i t i c a l power, n o r t h e r n e r s have not had to l e a r n that p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s have l i m i t a t i o n s , that budgets are f i n i t e , and that p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y must be approached i n a d i s c i p l i n e d f a s h i o n . . . . Many times, communities i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s have had the experience o f having t h e i r wish f o r a new dock, g e n e r a t o r , or schoolhouse granted immediately on or v e r y soon a f t e r t h e i r request to the Commissioner. They take such e x p e r i e n c e s as a standard o f what i s p o s s i b l e , even though the  T h i s has  - 31 -  d e c i s i o n s were made i n a process that had passed from the n o r t h e r n scene. When communities seek something from Y e l l o w k n i f e now and f i n d that i t i s d e l a y e d , d e n i e d , or r e q u i r e s more j u s t i f i c a t i o n from them, they f e e l cheated out o f what they have come to expect i s r i g h t f u l l y theirs. In t h i s sense, they have been s p o i l e d l i k e c h i l d r e n , making I t more d i f f i c u l t f o r the e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s i n Y e l l o w k n i f e to command the p u b l i c support they need to press t h e i r case f o r more autonomy from Ottawa. (Dacks, 1981, p. 95)  2.6  Economic Development  H i s t o r i c a l l y the n o r t h has d i s p l a y e d a tendency towards 'growth' without 'development.' More r e c e n t l y i t has d i s p l a y e d a tendency to develop l i k e a ' p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l ' r e g i o n , having skipped the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n s t a g e . (Rea, 1976, p. 25) "Economic growth" r e f e r s the economy.  to an i n c r e a s e i n the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f  "Economic development" r e f e r s  to change i n the s t r u c t u r e  of the economy from r e l i a n c e on primary e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s secondary manufacturing  and p r o c e s s i n g .  towards  C l a s s i c a l economic development  theory has become c o m p l i c a t e d by the i n c r e a s i n g importance  o f the  t e r t i a r y o r s e r v i c e s e c t o r i n modern i n d u s t r i a l economies. s e c t o r i s s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n Canada (Burke, 1975)  The t e r t i a r y  and w i t h i n the N.W.T.  today. The primary r e s o u r c e s of the North have h i s t o r i c a l l y  been e x p l o i t e d  to serve the needs of d i s t a n t markets i n western Europe and North America.  Rea notes that "one  of the most remarkable  economic h i s t o r y o f n o r t h e r n Canada i s how l i t t l e  t h i n g s about the  i t s essential  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have changed i n three c e n t u r i e s " (Rea, 1976, Consequently external  p. 30).  economic growth i n the N.W.T. has been determined by  forces.  - 32 -  The n o r t h e r n  economy i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by i t s c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p  with s o u t h e r n Canada, t e n s i o n between the t r a d i t i o n a l ^ and the I n d u s t r i a l modes of p r o d u c t i o n ,  and a v o l a t i l i t y and u n c e r t a i n t y  which  r e s u l t s i n a boom and bust,  'get i t w h i l e you can' economy and  mentality.  I I , s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n has been a major  Since World War  f a c t o r i n northern  development (Hamelin, 1976).  Because of the  d e l i b e r a t e , d i s c r e t i o n a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n of economic f o r c e s by government, Rea (1976) contends that economic growth and development i n the North are b e t t e r approached from a p o l i t i c a l economy r a t h e r economy  than a market  perspective.  In t r a d i t i o n a l economic terms, the economy of the N.W.T. i s n e i t h e r balanced nor mature.  I t l a c k s d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n and between the primary,  secondary and s e r v i c e s e c t o r s . processing  Secondary s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s , i . e . ,  and m a n u f a c t u r i n g , are l i m i t e d by the s m a l l  population  as  w e l l as the modern t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication system which facilitates  importing  thereby making  to compete with o u t s i d e  i t d i f f i c u l t for local  sources of goods and s e r v i c e s .  There are few i n t e r n a l economic l i n k s and the northern receives  little  economy  of the economic s p i n - o f f b e n e f i t s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ,  e s p e c i a l l y from s h o r t resource  enterprises  term, l a r g e s c a l e , high  development p r o j e c t s .  The N a t i v e  technology,  non-renewable  people c o n t i n u e to be  ' T r a d i t i o n a l economy, sometimes r e f e r r e d to as the 'Native economy,' r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y to hunting, f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g f o r p e r s o n a l use and f o r t r a d e , but may i n c l u d e making c l o t h i n g , artworks and t r a d i t i o n a l implements f o r s a l e . 'Subsistence economy' r e f e r s to the p r o v i s i o n of n e c e s s i t i e s of l i v i n g and not the p r o d u c t i o n of a s u r p l u s f o r the market.  - 33 -  by-passed by the mainstream of economic a c t i v i t y (Department of R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion,  1979).  S t a b l e r and O l f e r t encountered economy.  (1980) o u t l i n e a number of unique problems  by planners because of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the n o r t h e r n  The s m a l l r e g i o n a l economy o f the N.W.T. i s h i g h l y dependent  on e x t e r n a l demand and developments which are c o n t r o l l e d made o u t s i d e the r e g i o n .  by d e c i s i o n s  The predominance of government makes the  r e g i o n h i g h l y dependent on d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s r a t h e r market r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  than  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the inadequate  data  base and i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l economic impact a n a l y s i s t o o l s and models make economic f o r e c a s t i n g and p l a n n i n g i n the North difficult. The  n o r t h e r n economy has two s i d e s :  the modern, c a p i t a l i s t  i n d u s t r i a l economy and the t r a d i t i o n a l , domestic former i s concerned renewable r e s o u r c e s . differ  Native economy. The  w i t h non-renewable r e s o u r c e s , the l a t t e r The two modes of p r o d u c t i o n i n t h i s  as w e l l i n the r e s o u r c e s and the technology  with  'dual economy'  of p r o d u c t i o n and  i n the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i d e o l o g i c a l system which combine t h e f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n ( i . e . , l a n d , l a b o u r , r e s o u r c e s , technology and c a p i t a l ) i n t o a f u n c t i o n i n g p r o d u c t i v e system that p r o v i d e s f o r m a t e r i a l , s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l needs (Usher,  1982).  There are  d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g which economy and p h i l o s o p h y  should  dominate i n the N.W.T. The  o v e r a l l economy of the N.W.T. i s very narrowly  47 percent  o f the wages and s a l a r i e s  based.  I n 1974,  i n the N.W.T. o r i g i n a t e d d i r e c t l y  - 34 -  from government and an a d d i t i o n a l enterprises.  10 percent  Most of the remaining  the N.W.T. w h i l e the t r a d i t i o n a l  m i s c e l l a n e o u s c r a f t s , accounted  f o r 88 percent of the exports  sector, i . e . , furs,  for less  f i s h and  than f i v e percent o f exports  (Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n , The  operated  income came from m i n e r a l a c t i v i t i e s  i n c l u d i n g o i l and gas. M i n e r a l s accounted from  from government  1979).  economy o f the N a t i v e communities i s dependent on government  a c t i v i t i e s and t r a n s f e r payments ( S t a b l e r and O l f e r t , (1979) contends  that without  1980).  a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree o f economic  independence the N a t i v e communities w i l l  remain i n a s e m i - f e u d a l  W i t t y (1979) p o i n t s out the u n c e r t a i n markets and f i n i t e l i m i t s of areas c o n s i d e r e d t r a d i t i o n a l  Fuller  p o p u l a t i o n s of N a t i v e people  (1979).concurs cannot  renewable resource a c t i v i t i e s a l o n e .  state.  expansion  to the N a t i v e economy.  f o r a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the economy to m a i n t a i n n o r t h e r n communities.  England  He c a l l s  the v i a b i l i t y o f  that the p r o j e c t e d  be supported  through  The p r e v a i l i n g  traditional  view among  governments has been that the i n d u s t r i a l economy i s the primary way i n which the N.W.T. w i l l developments o f f e r (Usher,  c o n t r i b u t e to the Canadian economy and i n d u s t r i a l  the o n l y s e r i o u s economic o p t i o n to the N a t i v e  1978).  Industrial  developments i n the N.W.T. have been a t o m i s t i c , seldom  d e v e l o p i n g l i n k s among themselves (Rea,  people  1980).  and separate from  the Native economy  Contemporary i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t i o n s are independent  s o c i a l and b i o - p h y s i c a l environment of the N.W.T.  of the  Because o f the h i g h  c o s t and l a r g e s c a l e of i n d u s t r i a l developments, they a r e c a p i t a l  - 35 -  intensive,  t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d and h i g h l y automated.  U n c e r t a i n t y i n supply and demand encourage s h o r t term, h i g h r e t u r n activities.  Because of the l i f e s t y l e and s k i l l  i n d u s t r i a l economy has p r o v i d e d  limited  and  people.  limited The  and  interest  for Native  opportunities, limited benefits  p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s i n the North  enthusiasm  requirements, the  have captured  the i m a g i n a t i o n  of i n d i v i d u a l s , c o r p o r a t i o n s and government.  In 1973  Jean C r e t i e n , then M i n i s t e r of the Department o f Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , declared that: limitless"  (quoted  "The p o t e n t i a l of the North  i n : Brody, 1975, p . 217).  were c o n f i d e n t the North  was on the verge  development, but o t h e r s were concerned  i s surely  I n d u s t r y and government  of massive  industrial  about the n e g a t i v e  e f f e c t s of  such development arid b e l i e v e d that the A r c t i c was s e r i o u s l y o v e r s o l d ( N o r t h , 1973). The  p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t y of non-renewable resources  economical of  r e s o u r c e s a r e complicated  i s uncertain.  by market demands, p r i c e s ,  p r o d u c t i o n , and government s u b s i d i e s .  The  the c o s t  However the i n h e r e n t  u n c e r t a i n t y i n non-renewable r e s o u r c e development i s o f t e n not explicitly  r e c o g n i z e d and c o n s i d e r e d , i n part due to the "momentum to  i d e a s of economic development that make them unresponsive to discouraging facts"  (Brody,  1975, p. 2 2 5 ) .  Advocates of a renewable r e s o u r c e based economy f o r the N.W.T. must a p p a r e n t l y argue a g a i n s t a non-renewable r e s o u r c e base. r e p o r t on renewable r e s o u r c e development concluded  that:  A working group  - 36  -  Over the long term - t h a t i s , a p e r i o d i n excess of f o r t y to f i f t y years - the v a l u e of f o o d , f i b r e , power and other uses of renewable r e s o u r c e s f a r exceeds that of m i n e r a l or non-renewable r e s o u r c e development. ( K e i t h and Wright, 1978, p. 152)  Usher (1978) and  others contend  that the r e a l economic b e n e f i t s of  c o u n t r y food h a r v e s t to N a t i v e people economic a n a l y s e s .  At the Berger  approximately  for  A r c t i c Gas  calculated  that the t r a d i t i o n a l  to d i f f e r e n t  t r a p p i n g , the i n f o r m a l economy, and  The  and  the v a l u e of country f o o d .  These  with  the  c u l t u r e and w i t h the n o r t h e r n  Renewable r e s o u r c e a c t i v i t i e s  community and  communal l i f e The  of  philosophical.  environment.  1981).  for only  difference in results  renewable r e s o u r c e economy i s seen as compatible  t r a d i t i o n a l Native l i f e s t y l e  are  s e c t o r accounted  assumptions about the nature  d i f f e r e n c e s are both m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and  (Dacks,  accounts  50 percent of Native income, whereas, s t u d i e s prepared  c o n c l u s i o n s i s due  The  that the  f u r i n the Western A r c t i c  f i v e percent of N a t i v e income ( B e r g e r , 1977). and  by c o n v e n t i o n a l  I n q u i r y , Usher contended  t r a d i t i o n a l ecoraomy, i . e . , food and for  i s underestimated  the  reinforce  the sense  which i s c e n t r a l to the N a t i v e  s o c i a l , community, economic and  of  culture  ecological  systems  interrelated.  If the land and i t s r e s o u r c e s p r o v i d e the economic b a s i s of n a t i v e s o c i e t y , the s m a l l communities and outpost camps p r o v i d e the s o c i a l b a s i s of i t , and indeed each i s the p r e - c o n d i t i o n of the o t h e r . The s m a l l communities and camps are the h e a r t of n a t i v e s o c i e t y ; and economic development, i f i t i s to b e n e f i t n a t i v e people, must t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the v i a b i l i t y and h e a l t h of s m a l l community l i f e . (Usher, 1978, p. 155)  -  37  -  The  renewable resource economy i n c o r p o r a t e s  so  that economic a c t i v i t i e s which change the  impact on the  the  economic and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  feedback  ecosystem a l s o have  lifestyle activities  of  the  an  individuals  and  communities. The  most important  World War  I I has  e d u c a t i o n and  been the  r i s e of  welfare services  produced s i g n i f i c a n t N.W.T.  s t r u c t u r a l change i n the n o r t h e r n economy the  (Rea,  tertiary 1976).  sector:  T e r t i a r y sector  changes i n the economy and  Many communities r e l y  p r i m a r i l y on  defence,  the  health,  activities  demographics of tertiary  since  service  the sector  economy.  And when the s e r v i c e s e c t o r becomes the l a r g e s t part of the economy, as measured i n terms of employment and income, and the c h i e f source of new employment and income o p p o r t u n i t i e s , as has become the case i n the Canadian n o r t h today, most economic i s s u e s become p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . (Rea, 1976, p. 137)  England (1979) contends that many l o c a l be  supplied  locally.  'everyone t a k i n g provided  not  be  the  labour  and  resources,  collection  be  the  leakage and m u l t i p l i e r  provided  locally.  e d u c a t i o n and  services  increases  independence from e x t e r n a l  the  improved. government  Trucked water d e l i v e r y and  s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e l o c a l employment.  r e s o u r c e s and  to l i v e s o l e l y by  s e t t l e m e n t economy would be g r e a t l y  Energy, s h e l t e r , f o o d , c l o t h i n g , h e a l t h , s e r v i c e s could  possible  could  i n everyone e l s e ' s l a u n d r y ' i f more s e r v i c e s were  with l o c a l  e f f e c t s within  While i t may  s e r v i c e requirements  The  r e s i d e n t s ' and  economic and  use  of  local  communities'  p o l i t i c a l influences.  garbage  - 38  Many economic a c t i v i t i e s renewable and  and  s e t t l e m e n t economies are based on  non-renewable r e s o u r c e s .  settlements often p a r t i c i p a t e y e a r , o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and  -  N a t i v e people  both  in traditional  i n both economies depending on the time  of  personal preferences.  Most n a t i v e people p a r t i c i p a t e i n both wage employment and t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and they a p p a r e n t l y want t h i s d u e l o p t i o n to c o n t i n u e . The i s s u e i s t h e r e f o r e not jobs or hunting; i t i s j o b s and h u n t i n g . The q u e s t i o n i s -what and where those j o b s are to be, who c o n t r o l s and b e n e f i t s from them, and how they f i t i n t o n a t i v e peoples a s p i r a t i o n s f o r themselves and t h e i r communities. (Usher, 1978, p. 155)  The if  d u a l economy concept  i t i s reduced  sectors.  to s t r i c t  N a t i v e people  is a simplification  e t h n i c , r e s o u r c e or technology  have i n c o r p o r a t e d t e c h n i c a l and  of the i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t  economy.  a b o r i g i n a l p r e - c o n t a c t past as the concepts  t h a t can be  based  economic  They do not c o n s i d e r  'traditional  1  lifestyle.  of t r a d i t i o n a l economic a c t i v i t y do not correspond  economy concept.  Berger  (1977) i d e n t i f i e s  i n d u s t r i a l wage employment.  the spectrum of o p t i o n s and  The  aspects  the Their  own  to a d u a l  f o u r s e c t o r s i n the  economy: s u b s i s t e n c e , t r a d i n g of renewable r e s o u r c e employment, and  misleading  northern  produce, l o c a l wage  breakdown  recognizes  the o v e r l a p p i n g mixed economy i n d i c t i v e of  contemporary N.W.T. A mixed economy p r o v i d e s pathways and and  i n d i v i d u a l development.  r e s i l i e n c e of the economy. facilitates  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r economic  D i v e r s i t y i n c r e a s e s the f l e x i b i l i t y  and  An economic development s t r a t e g y which  the use of wage income to upgrade the p o t e n t i a l  t r a d i t i o n a l economies c o u l d accomodate and  of  b e n e f i t from both economies  - 39  (Bowles, 1981). and  -  However, because of the s h o r t - t e r m ,  u n c e r t a i n t y of the non-renewable i n d u s t r i a l  potentially  impede the p h y s i c a l and  r e s o u r c e based economy.  a b s o r p t i o n Into the i n d u s t r i a l economic l i f e viability  the Native people  economy w i l l  of the renewable  (1977) warns t h a t tend  have e v o l v e d .  to undermine the mixed  Thus, "the  continued  of the N a t i v e economy should be an o b j e c t i v e of  development, not i t s p r i c e "  ( B e r g e r , 1977,  nature  economy, i t can  social viability  In c o n t r a s t , Berger  exploitive  p.  northern  122).  N e i t h e r the contemporary N a t i v e economy nor  the i n d u s t r i a l wage  economy r e s o l v e the i s s u e of dependence on e x t e r n a l agencies  and  forces.  specific  concern  Wage employment i s i n s e c u r e throughout  Canada.  The  i n the N.W.T. i s that non-renewable r e s o u r c e developments are  u n c e r t a i n and  finite  when a cheaper source  i n their duration. i s developed,  c o r p o r a t i o n s and government, l i k e  When the r e s o u r c e  or when world  the whalers and  i s depleted,  prices decline, f u r traders before  them, w i l l  p u l l out.  people may  become dependent upon the u n c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r .  Should  There i s a danger that the economy of the N a t i v e  a c o l l a p s e occur i t would be  economic way  of l i f e  (Asch,  too l a t e  to recover  the  traditional  1977).  Dr. Ian McTaggart-Cowan expressed  the same c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s t i o n s  economic development p h i l o s o p h y as the N a t i v e  people:  Is the o n l y way to improve the l o t of a country's c i t i z e n s the way of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , whether i t be the western way or the f o r c e d march of the U.S.S.R. . . . Almost i n e v i t a b l y , d i v e r s i t y i s s a c r i f i c e d to a s p u r i o u s efficiency. The l o s s of d i v e r s i t y i s not merely a matter f o r s e n t i m e n t a l r e g r e t . I t i s a d i r e c t r e d u c t i o n i n the number of o p p o r t u n i t i e s open to f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . (Quoted i n Berger, 1977, p. 199)  i  of  - 40 -  2.7  Contemporary Issues: Contemporary  Future Directions  i s s u e s i n the N.W.T. a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y  rooted.  R e c e n t l y these i s s u e s have been a c u t e l y focused by the tremendous of change i n a l l f a c e t s of l i f e economic developments.  as a r e s u l t  of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and  E x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s are t a x i n g  the people and the environment. p o l i c i e s r e s t on two i s s u e s :  rate  The b a s i c c o n f l i c t s  the r e s i l i e n c e o f i n northern  the c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  N.W.T. and Canada; and the mixed views that c o n s t i t u t e s progress and development.^ values.  In essence the b a s i c c o n f l i c t s  are about c o n t r o l and  The heart and s o u l o f the l o n g h i s t o r y of c o n f l i c t  dominant c u l t u r e and then N a t i v e c u l t u r e  between the  i s the use and c o n t r o l o f  land. These b a s i c c o n f l i c t s are m a n i f e s t e d i n a number of important s u b s t a n t i v e contemporary i s s u e s which i n c l u d e : provincial status, dividing i n d u s t r i a l economy.  Native  the N.W.T., and t r a d i t i o n a l  These i s s u e s are means to an end —  d e t e r m i n a t i o n and s e l f - r e l i a n c e .  But " s e l f - r e l i a n c e  claims, versus self-  requires  self-  °There are a m u l t i t u d e of d e f i n i t i o n s f o r 'development,' each d e r i v e d from d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , views of the world (paradigms w i t h i n which one o p e r a t e s ) and g o a l s . Development has o f t e n been viewed as synonymous with economic development. Having e s t a b l i s h e d a s i n g l e dimension of development the problem of poor r e g i o n s i s thus reduced t o the task o f 'modernization.' Broader views of development emphasize p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l development and the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l nature and o b j e c t i v e s o f development. I n t h i s c o n t e x t , m o d e r n i z a t i o n i s not n e c e s s a r i l y development. "A s o c i e t y which i s merely modernized w i t h o u t development w i l l c o n t i n u e — even i f i t takes over minimal d e l e g a t e d powers of d e c i s i o n — to depend on the o u t s i d e c o u n t r y . T h i s i s the f a t e o f any dependent s o c i e t y , as long as i t remains dependent" ( F r e i r e , 1983, p. 160).  - 41 -  f i n a n c e , and s e l f - f i n a n c e r e q u i r e s  self-government" (Friedmann and  Weaver, 1979, p. 203). The g o a l of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n thwarted a t every  level.  R e s i d e n t s of the N.W.T. are p r e s s i n g self-reliance. unrealistic  f o r the means to a c h i e v e  However, Dacks (1981) p r a g m a t i c a l l y  its ability  to r e a l i z e i t s n a t i o n a l g o a l s  "The f r u s t r a t i o n of c o l o n i a l p o l i t i c s ,  persist —  concludes that i t i s  to expect the government o f Canada to r e l i n q u i s h any powers  t h a t might impair North.  i n the N.W.T. i s  i n the  while diminished,  an apparent permanent f e a t u r e o f the n o r t h e r n  will  political  landscape" (Dacks, 1981, p . 203). I t i s apparent that p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n t r o l w i l l subject within  of c o n t i n u a l n e g o t i a t i o n s  between Y e l l o w k n i f e  the N.W.T. between r e g i o n s ,  Territorial  and l o c a l governments.  be the  and Ottawa and  e t h n i c groups, and between the Self-government and s e l f - r e l i a n c e  are  r e l a t i v e concepts i n an interdependent  The  i s s u e i s e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making and c o n t r o l over  l o c a l i s s u e s , not i l l u s i o n a r y absolute C o n f l i c t s over c o n t r o l a r e e v i d e n t development.  Native  village.  control. i n the debate over economic  people r a i s e the i s s u e o f the e f f e c t of i n d u s t r i a l  development on t h e i r c u l t u r e , l i f e s t y l e ability  s o c i e t y and g l o b a l  to s u r v i v e as a people.  and l i v e l i h o o d ,  and t h e i r  Response to t h i s concern has f o r c e d  Canadians i n t o a moral and e t h i c a l debate and s e l f - a n a l y s i s .  The c l a s h of c u l t u r e s and o f values that have o c c u r r e d i n Canada between the dominant s o c i e t y and the n a t i v e people has f o r c e d a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n by Canadians of the assumptions by which we l i v e and o f the means by which we hope to prosper i n the f u t u r e . ( B e r g e r , 1981, p . 2)  - 42 -  C o n c u r r e n t l y , the environmental  movement has spearheaded  to c o n s i d e r ' e x t e r n a l i t i e s , ' secondary e v a l u a t i n g p r o j e c t s and p o l i c i e s . and  technology  the demand  and subsequent impacts i n  The changes brought about by s c i e n c e  a r e no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d  t o t a l l y benign.  Development i s  no l o n g e r seen as i t s own j u s t i f i c a t i o n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and others are i n c r e a s i n g l y c r i t i c a l and s c e p t i c a l of the t h i n s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s f o r environmental The  problem i s not simply incomplete  management.  i n f o r m a t i o n and inadequate  Can we r e l y on western based s c i e n t i f i c methods and concepts,  models.  which are  assumed to be n e u t r a l and o b j e c t i v e , when the most s e r i o u s danger to the n o r t h e r n ecosystem i s posed by i n d u s t r i a l c u l t u r e , technology and developments (Lonner,  1984)?  The e p i s t o m a l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e based on how  we know should be deepened to the o n t o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n i n g of what we can know.  Western p o s i t i v i s t  scientific  p h i l o s o p h y has assumed that we can  d i s c o v e r the e c o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and w i t h c o n t r o l the environment.  Thus the root q u e s t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s and  p h i l o s o p h y of human conduct Why develop  t h i s knowledge man can  i s revealed.  the North a t a l l ? T h i s fundamental q u e s t i o n has been  overshadowed and overlooked c u l t u r e (Rae, 1976).  by the growth o r i e n t a t i o n of the dominant  Today, q u e s t i o n s of "who b e n e f i t s ? " "who pays and  how?" " i s growth and development d e s i r a b l e ? " and " i s continued  growth  p o s s i b l e ? " a r e being r a i s e d  i n the N.W.T., and i n many other r e g i o n s .  There are growing q u e s t i o n s  concerning  the o b j e c t i v e s and values of  i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , the e t h i c s of c u l t u r a l chauvinism,  the l i m i t s to  -  43 -  growth and s a t i s f a c t i o n , and the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of m a t e r i a l i s t i c based  i d e o l o g i e s i n our l i v e s and i n the "environment.  q u e s t i o n s we may b e n e f i t  from the N a t i v e people's  To answer  values.  There i s much i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s h a r i n g ways of the Indians and I n u i t that i s of b a s i c v a l u e and r e l e v a n c e i n a world faced with shortages and environmental hazards. Canadians a r e today being c h a l l e n g e d to f o r g e a s o c i e t y i n which m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development a r e compatible with the s e n s i t i v i t y and r e s p e c t f o r the land t h a t u n d e r l i e s Canadian n a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y . ( M i n i s t r y of S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s , 1976, p. 71)  i  growth these  - 44 -  3.  LOCAL LEVEL - COMMUNITY  In t h i s chapter examined.  p l a n n i n g a t the l o c a l  The h i s t o r i c a l development  level  i n t h e N.W.T.  is  of s e t t l e m e n t s and l o c a l  government a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d to p r o v i d e the context  f o r contemporary  demographics, community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and p l a n n i n g pocess.  Case s t u d i e s a r e u t i l i z e d  to i n d i c a t e  the problems and  i s s u e s i n community p l a n n i n g and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l o c a l p l a n n i n g to r e g i o n a l and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  3.1  level  level  planning.  Development of Settlements* The p a t t e r n of s e t t l e m e n t s  i n the N.W.T. was e s t a b l i s h e d as a  by-product o f the waves of e x p l o r e r s and entrepreneur and e x p l o i t e d the r e s o u r c e s o f the N o r t h . the i n i t i a l  communication and s e t t l e m e n t  who searched f o r  The f u r t r a d e r s e s t a b l i s h e d pattern.  The widely s c a t t e r e d  r e s o u r c e s and N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s produced the ' o a s i s p a t t e r n ' o f s e t t l e m e n t s which i s s t i l l  e v i d e n t today ( L l o y d , 1975).  The m i s s i o n a r i e s and the R.C.M.P were a t t r a c t e d trading posts. established  In other cases  first  to the e s t a b l i s h e d  the m i s s i o n o r R.C.M.P. s t a t i o n were  and they became the focus of the s e t t l e m e n t .  e x p l o i t a t i o n and m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s a l s o i n i t i a t e d Most o f the present  Mineral  some s e t t l e m e n t s .  communities were founded b e f o r e World War I I  ^Damas (1966) i d e n t i f i e s three phases i n the development o f N a t i v e settlements: a b o r i g i n a l , c o n t a c t - t r a d i t i o n a l and c e n t r a l i z e d . Wonder (1970) d i s t i n g u i s h e s two phases o f community development, the 'camp' phase and the 'planned community' phase which r e l a t e p r i m a r i l y to r e s o u r c e communities.  -  (Table 3 . 1 ) .  45 -  N a t i v e people d i d not l i v e  i n the e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t s but  the s e t t l e m e n t s were the focus of t h e i r t r a v e l and c o n t a c t . P o p u l a t i o n s , housing and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e were TABLE 3.1  unorganized.  FOUNDING YEAR OF COMMUNITIES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES AND YUKON (from Frackowiak, 1979)  than  1874  9  1875 -  1901  5  - 1939  24  1940 - 1955  15  1956  J_6  Earlier  1902  Later  than  69  In the e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s a major program by the f e d e r a l government t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n , m e d i c a l , and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s was p r e c i p i t a t e d  f o r northern  peoples  by a slump i n the f u r market, a sharp d e c l i n e  i n the  numbers of c a r i b o u , and i n c r e a s e d resource and m i l i t a r y i n t e r e s t s i n the North.  These s e r v i c e s  were p r o v i d e d a t c e n t r a l i z e d  t h i s was a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y  convenient  locations  and more economical.  because  The towns  were a t t r a c t i v e to the N a t i v e people because of the o p p o r t u n i t y to be near c h i l d r e n  i n s c h o o l , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , the  l u r e of w e l f a r e payments and the promise of j o b s (Honigmann, 1 9 7 5 ) . Informal p r e s s u r e was exerted on the N a t i v e people  to move i n t o the  - 46  settlements  (Brody,  flexibility  of movement i n response  wildlife  F a m i l i e s which had  c o n d i t i o n s were now  b u i l d i n g s , and The  previously relied  to changing  permanently f i x e d  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e provided  and  community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e .  decreased.  expectancey  upon  and  services,  by government. settlements d r a m a t i c a l l y  s e t t l e m e n t s were developed.  welfare s e r v i c e s , l i f e  environmental by the  permanent p o p u l a t i o n s of the e x i s t i n g  i n c r e a s e d and new housing  1975).  -  A need emerged f o r  As a r e s u l t  i n c r e a s e d and  Thus community p o p u l a t i o n and  of the m e d i c a l  and  infant mortality  demand f o r s e r v i c e s were even  further increased. Historic  s e t t l e m e n t s have been transformed  s e t t l e m e n t s have been developed administrative P o i n t , and new The  and  s i n c e World War  II.  c e n t r e s such as I n u v i k , r e s o u r c e towns meant to r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g  traditional  cash economy which was  a number of New  new  towns i n c l u d e d  towns such as P i n e  communities such as Edzo.  based on t r a p p i n g  was  undermined by the movement to s e t t l e m e n t s because the lands i n the v i c i n i t y of the s e t t l e m e n t s c o u l d not concentrated  harvest.  dependence of the people  land.  to w i l d l i f e .  and  U r b a n i z a t i o n was  administrators.  These f a c t o r s i n c r e a s e d  low the  radically different  a significant  from l i f e  step towards the dominant  on  the  culture,  the dependence on White government  A s s i m i l a t i o n has not been a smooth or happy p r o c e s s .  Once the process had changes ( G i b s o n ,  and  the communities on government a s s i s t a n c e .  i n the s e t t l e m e n t s was  the wage economy, and  the continuous  Some s e t t l e m e n t s were l o c a t e d i n areas w i t h  p r o d u c t i v i t y or poor access  Life  support  begun, i t s e f f e c t s accumulated and  1976).  The  r a p i d and  forced further  r a d i c a l change i n l i f e s t y l e  and  - 47 -  living environment resulted in social pathologies.  The development of  Repulse Bay, as described by Miiller-Wille, is typical of many of the Eastern Arctic settlements: The settlement plan and housing program were clearly aimed at economical feasibility and material convenience overcoming urgent immediate needs among people who had been through times of distress and famine. That aim was successfully achieved, naturally with the restrictions inherent in an overall dependence on supplies from the south. But the social dimensions and requirements were not much taken into account in such a situation of transition. The consequences are seen in the problems of adaptation and adjustment of the younger generation, pulled between old and new standards which seemingly cannot well be united. (MiillerWille, 1977, p. 131) Native people are new to the urban environment; Euro-Canadians are new to the northern environment.  Both groups have experienced high  incidents of physical disease, mental illness, alcoholism, and family breakdown.  Smith takes an environmental deterministic approach in  asserting that "A substantial part of these health problems seem to be directly or indirectly influenced by the quality of habitats" (Smith, 1972, p. 55).  He notes that northern buildings and settlements are poor  habitats because they are copies of temperate region designs and the designers are preoccupied with engineering considerations. The synergistic effects of urbanization, cultural assimilation, and change in economic structure have resulted in psychological discomfort and social disintegration of the Native people (Berry, 1976).  The change from isolated kinship-based residential groups in the  - 48 -  hunting-trapping a wage and The  economy to the heterogenous permanent communities w i t h  welfare  economy i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  move to settlements  e n t a i l e d changes i n l i f e s t y l e  structure.  These changes d i s r u p t e d  and  (Brody, 1975).  respect  living  i s the  significant  -The  the  traditional  (Sampath, 1976). and  social  b a s i s of  l a c k of f a m i l y t i e s  authority  i n modern urban  root of s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n N a t i v e  society.  In modern s o c i e t y i n d i v i d u a l s or s t a t e i n t e r e s t s i n f r i n g e upon and d i s p l a c e f a m i l y p r i o r i t i e s i n an extreme manner. When t h i s l i f e - s t y l e i s suddenly t r a n s f e r r e d and imposed on a people s t i l l accustomed to the p r o t e c t i v e p l u r a l i s m of the extended f a m i l y , the i n d i v i d u a l i s l e f t i n s e c u r e , l o n e l y , d i r e c t i o n l e s s , and meaningless. ( S c h a e f e r and Metayer, 1976, p. 470)  Community s o c i a l l i f e and  emotionally  the n o r t h e r n  depicted  and  physical conditions  i n non-scholarly  Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , Mitchan  are w e l l  literature.  illustrated  In a review of  2  concludes:  Canadian w r i t e r s on northern themes are i n d i g n a n t about the p l i g h t of n a t i v e people c o n f i n e d to ugly towns, imprisoned i n i n s t i t u t i o n s not of t h e i r making, weaned away from t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e on the land. ( M i t c h a n , 1983, p. 49)  Writers  portray  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  Whites, p a r t i c u l a r l y  the b u r e a u c r a t s ,  and  impatient,  the N a t i v e s  Contemporary Canadian w r i t e r s emphasize the c o n t r a s t  short  tempered  as doomed. and  conflict  ^Although the n o n - s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e may not pass the t e s t of s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s and v e r i f i c a t i o n , i t o f t e n conveys f e e l i n g and p r o v i d e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g worth a thousand graphs. Such works, p a r t i c u l a r l y f i c t i o n , are open to p e r s o n a l b i a s and romanticism.  between northern  townscape and the l a n d s c a p e .  the land i s h e l d i n s t a r k c o n t r a s t  to the u g l i n e s s of the a r t i f i c i a l  s t r u c t u r e s man imposed on the l a n d . c a r e f u l l y avoid  the s e t t l e m e n t s .  c o n d i t i o n s i n settlements  The beauty and harmony of  P i c t u r e books of the N o r t h  The d i s t a s t e f u l  s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l  are u s u a l l y blamed on modern Western  civilization.  I t seems p a r t i c u l a r l y sad that the Eskimo, who was noted f o r h i s a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s , should f i n d h i m s e l f surrounded by so much u g l i n e s s . In the past h i s own s e t t l e m e n t s were, by a l l a c c o u n t s , o f t e n u n t i d y , but without the s o u l and h e a l t h d e s t r o y i n g s q u a l o r which modern c i v i l i z a t i o n has brought N o r t h . (Mitchan, 1983, p. 48)  The  f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n by S c h u l t z - L o r e n t z e n  of the c o n t r a s t between environment and s e t t l e m e n t s  i n Arctic  i s typical  d e p i c t e d by  writers.  D a y l i g h t had come to s t a y . For two months not even a s l i v e r of the Great Warmer would d i p below the horizon. G o s l i n g s , c y g n e t s , cubs and l e v e r e t s would f e e d , s l e e p and grow. Heather would spread; s a x i f r a g e , g r e e n - t u f t e d w h i p l a s h , y e l l o w poppies, p u r p l i s h b l u e b e l l s come to bloom; c r a n b e r r y , blueberry, blackberry ripen into succulence. This was the tundra white men c a l l e d The B a r r e n s . In the s e t t l e m e n t , the advent of s p r i n g painted a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e . Winter's waste, bared by the sun, l i t t e r e d the ground. With the c l e a n rug of snow removed, the s m a l l community r e v e a l e d i t s e l f as one v a s t dump. There were c a n s — p l a s t i c , t i n , aluminum, any v a r i e t y ; sodden cardboard boxes; empty o i l drums, crushed, f l a t t e n e d ; bones, some s t i l l j o i n e d by half-chewed f l e s h ; r a g s , papers of a l l s o r t s ; the o c c a s i o n a l dog, s t i l l i n i t s f u r , fangs bared i n death. And amidst  - 50 -  t h i s general refuse, scattered i n highly v i s i b l e d e s e c r a t i o n , d i s c a r d e d l i k e packsacks on a f i e l d of b a t t l e , bulked pemphigous p l a s t i c bags, t h e i r loads of human faeces i l l contained behind l o o s e l y t w i s t e d ties. ( S c h u l t z - L o r e n t z e n , 1976, p. 372-373)  Shultz-Lorentzen's represents different Planning  d i s t a s t e f u l view of the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s  an o u t s i d e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n .  Native  p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r community. and Lands, G.N.W.T., recounts  community l e a d e r .  Roth (1982), then Head o f Town  a conversation  with an Inuk  Roth mentioned the o f f e n s i v e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n  the community, i m p l y i n g  the animal c a r c a s s e s , honeybags, o l d  snowmobiles, and p a r a p h e r n a l i a Inuk agreed the mess should  s c a t t e r e d throughout the community. The  be cleaned  government s t o c k p i l e o f housing scattered.  r e s i d e n t s may have a  up but he was r e f e r r i n g  t o the  m a t e r i a l which had f a l l e n over and  Each person had a d i f f e r e n t  p e r c e p t i o n r e g a r d i n g what was out  a e s t h e t i c value  and a d i f f e r e n t  of p l a c e , what was a resource, and  what was j u n k .  3.2  Development of Local Government-* In southern  Canada, the development of l o c a l government was a g r a s s  The F e d e r a l Government c a r r i e s out f u n c t i o n s i n the N.W.T. which are o u t l i n e d i n the B r i t i s h North America Act w i t h r e s p e c t to Federal/Provincial responsibilities. I t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o v e r a l l development of the North through two f e d e r a l s t a t u t e s : the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development Act s e t s out the d u t i e s , powers, f u n c t i o n s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the M i n i s t e r of the department; the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Act p r o v i d e s f o r the Government o f the N.W.T. Under the a u t h o r i t y of the l a t t e r act the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f the N.W.T. passed the M u n i c i p a l Ordinance which p r o v i d e s f o r the c r e a t i o n of i n c o r p o r a t e d l o c a l governments. The M u n i c i p a l Ordinance o r i g i n a t e d with the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s i n 1880 (G.N.W.T., 1983). 3  - 51 -  r o o t s phenomenon which evolved from B r i t i s h l o c a l government was i n i t i a t e d  by s e n i o r  traditions.  In the N.W.T.,  government:  As a means, to f a c i l i t a t e development i n the broadest sense of the meaning, c i r c u m s c r i b e d by a l i b e r a l s o c i a l theory o f l o c a l government, and u n d e r w r i t t e n by broad Canadian n a t i o n a l g o a l s . (Zariwny, 1973, p. 86-87)  The f i r s t  form of l o c a l government i n the N.W.T. was i n i t i a t e d by  the f e d e r a l government.  I t was an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangement i n  which l o c a l people played no formal r o l e (Dacks, 1981).  Minimal N a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s u l t e d from the f e d e r a l government's p a t e r n a l i s t i c and c e n t r a l i z e d approach and by the appointment of o u t s i d e White p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n t o the communities. (Brody, .. 1975)  The f e d e r a l government chose the l o c a l government model used by municipalities  i n southern Canada.  a s s i m i l a t i o n of n o r t h e r n e r s i n t o  The g o a l of e d u c a t i o n and  the p o l i t i c a l  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a s p e c t s o f r e s p o n s i b l e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democratic government and community  development was i m p l i c i t .  Thus a:  r i g i d h i e r a r c h i c a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e (which) a l t h o u g h not v e r y complex, was i n t r o d u c e d t o communities where i n i t i a l l y t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f f l e x i b i l i t y , s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and consensus had governed the s t r u c t u r e of the decision—making p r o c e s s . (Zariwny, 1973, p. 87-88)  In 1967, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r l o c a l government was t r a n s f e r r e d  from the f e d e r a l government to the newly formed t e r r i t o r i a l  government.  - 52  The  "territorial  the community and  approach" provided  -  f o r an e l e c t e d Settlement C o u n c i l i n  i n s t i t u t e d a process  of p o l i t i c a l  i n c r e a s i n g l o c a l c o n t r o l (Zariwny, 1973). its  taxable  The  f o r communities to a t t a i n  m u n i c i p a l i t y with population  for effective  the s t a t u s of a tax-based sufficient  operate i t s own  or  local  g o a l i n the p o l i t i c a l m a t u r a t i o n  an e l e c t e d c o u n c i l and  to f i n a n c e and  with  community's p o p u l a t i o n  assessment were the primary c r i t e r i a  d e c i s i o n making a u t h o r i t y . was  The  maturation  process  incorporated  tax base  and  community programs  and  s e r v i c e s (G.N.W.T., 1983). To new  some, t h i s was  evidence of a new  form of l o c a l government and  a  attitude.  While there should be no pretense that the T e r r i t o r i e s are ' s e l f - g o v e r n i n g ' i n the sense accepted i n s o u t h e r n Canada, there i s no doubt that at the l o c a l l e v e l where d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l most c l o s e l y are reached, the form of government i s moving r a p i d l y away from the o l d h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d p a t e r n a l i s t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by o f t e n remote government o f f i c i a l s . ( L l o y d , 1976, p. 42)  Others see  the l o c a l government model of the  territorial  government as a  i  continuation  of the p a s t .  l o c a l government was inappropriate  The  political  the same southern,  for Native  and  administrative basis for  i n d u s t r i a l urban model which i s  culture, l i f e s t y l e  and  communities.  The model chosen by the t e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was e f f e c t i v e l y a southern m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . The process and content of such a s t r u c t u r e c o n t r a d i c t s the more t r a d i t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p a t t e r n s of the Dene. Instead of a consensus method, a p a r l i a m e n t a r y procedure of m a j o r i t y r u l e was chosen. Instead of community involvement, p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a c t i v e l y discouraged i n favour of a s t r i c t p r i n c i p l e of representative leadership . . .  - 53 -  The o v e r - a l l n a t u r e o f the s e t t l e m e n t c o u n c i l can be seen to be based i n southern c u l t u r e . I t i s bound to a c u l t u r e which has an e l i t i s t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p a t t e r n and does not expect or encourage broad involvement o f i t s c i t i z e n r y . I t assumes the need f o r q u i c k , b u s i n e s s - l i k e d e c i s i o n s without a l l o w i n g time f o r r e a c h i n g concensus.The a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the c o u n c i l i s based on an assumption o f an e v o l v i n g tax base s u i t e d to a c u l t u r e which has an e t h i c of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and ownership. The c o u n c i l , i n e f f e c t , becomes a forum f o r working out the i n t e r e s t s a r i s i n g out o f t h e ownership o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . (Bean, 1977, p. 134)  There are s i x l e v e l s of l o c a l government i n the N.W.T. ( G e r e i n , 1980).  The number o f communities  and t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n  each  muncipal s t a t u s are shown i n T a b l e 3.2.  TABLE 3.2  MUNICIPAL STATUS AND POPULATION OF COMMUNITIES (1979)  Population Number o f Communities  Total  City Town Village  1 5 7 1 Sub-total  9,918 12,572 1,001 23,491  9,918 2,514 1,001 3,354  Hamlet Settlement Unorganized  26 18 55 11 Sub-total  15,126 5,453 1,266 21,845  582 303 115 397  Municipal Status T B A A X S E D N T B 0 A A N X S E D  TOTAL  62  45,336  C i t i e s and towns must have a v i a b l e 5,000 and 1,000  persons r e s p e c t i v e l y .  %  Mean  22 28 52 2.  33 12 3  48  100%  tax base and must have over  They set t h e i r own budgets and  f i n a n c e c a p i t a l p r o j e c t s without G.N.W.T. a p p r o v a l .  The c i t i e s and  - 54 -  towns p r o v i d e  local  generous grant  s e r v i c s but they are a s s i s t e d by a complex and  s t r u c t u r e from the  G.N.W.T.  V i l l a g e s must have 500  persons and must r a i s e o r be about t o r a i s e p r o p e r t y community o p e r a t i o n and maintenance requirements.  taxes  to meet  The G.N.W.T. p r o v i d e s  s u b s t a n t i a l economic and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to the v i l l a g e s .  Although  they have no tax base, hamlets have an e l e c t e d C o u n c i l and Mayor and a r e incorporated.  Hamlets are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  d e l i v e r y o f muncipal s e r v i c e s ; however, almost a l l hamlet f i n a n c e comes from G.N.W.T. g r a n t s .  The G.N.W.T. i s d i r e c t l y  responsible for  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and c a p i t a l equipment i n hamlets and s e t t l e m e n t s . Settlements  have an e l e c t e d C o u n c i l that i s a d v i s o r y , although  a u t h o r i t y to award s e r v i c e c o n t r a c t s f o r muncipal s e r v i c e s . communities and outpost  camps are s e a s o n a l l y occupied  wish to pursue a t r a d i t i o n a l  lifestyle.  government and G.N.W.T. support In the s e t t l e m e n t  some have  Unorganized  by persons who  There i s no formal  local  i s minimal.  hierarchy, local  autonomy has  developed  community  by community i n accordance w i t h p o l i t i c a l m a t u r i t y , w i l l i n g n e s s to accept  responsibility for local affairs  base (Hunter, 1976). or f i s c a l  The N a t i v e  and s e r v i c e s , and the economic  communities have l i t t l e  independence because they do not  p r i v a t e property Since 1967,  or p r o p e r t y  o r no p o l i t i c a l  have a v i a b l e economic base,  taxes.  there has been a steady  transition  from c e n t r a l i z e d t o  d e c e n t r a l i z e d government but the pace and s c a l e of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n has  l e d to f r u s t r a t i o n .  hindered  The development o f l o c a l autonomy has  by b u r e a u c r a t i c I n d i f f e r e n c e and i n s e n s i t i v i t y ,  been  f e e l i n g s of  i l l e g i t i m a c y o f the imposed form o f government, and l a c k of l o c a l  - 55 -  c o n t r o l over funds and programs (G.N.W.T., 1975).  A r e s i d e n t of I n u v i k  noted that "there seems to be a f e a r of a l l o w i n g people to make mistakes.  The f e e l i n g of power i s g i v e n , but not the a c t u a l  power."  (G.N.W.T., 1975, p. 3 1 ) . R e s i d e n t s contend matters which a f f e c t  that they have v i r t u a l l y no c o n t r o l over the  them most.  R e s i d e n t s want c o n t r o l of the r e s o u r c e s  which the community depends on (Dacks, 1981-). e x p e r i e n c e , Bean i s p a r t i c u l a r l y communities"  and noted  critical  Reviewing  the Dene  of the " c o l o n i a l i s m i n the  that:  The range of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d e l e g a t e d to the c o u n c i l - r o a d s , a i r s t r i p s , s t r e e t l i g h t s , water, sewage and garbage - a r e prime t o p i c s of community d i s c u s s i o n o n l y i n a p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e d , tax-based c u l t u r e . . . On the one hand, people e a g e r l y acknowledged that they wished to run t h e i r own a f f a i r s . . . On the other hand, the emphasis on p a r l i a m e n t a r y procedure, on s t i c k i n g to the i s s u e s of garbage, sewage and water confused and f r u s t r a t e d people to the p o i n t where they wondered what a l l t h i s had to do w i t h running t h e i r own a f f a i r s . (Bean, 1977, p. 134, 135, 136)  Bean (1977) advocates a developmental  r o l e f o r l o c a l government  which i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the process of d e v e l o p i n g  political  awareness, r a t h e r than an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e which i s based on the development of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s .  Bean does not supply an  arrangement f o r the e s s e n t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f u n c t i o n s of urban  I n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s n e c e s s a r y r e g a r d l e s s of p r o p e r t y ownership  life.  or t a x -  base. L o c a l p o l i t i c a l autonomy i s p i v o t a l upon the f i n a n c i a l issue.  Hunter  argues  resource  that a v i a b l e economic base i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the  - 56 -  development o f l o c a l  government:  L o c a l d e c i s i o n s made without f i n a n c i a l backing cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y implemented and f i n a n c i a l support i n the form o f c o n d i t i o n a l g r a n t s can c r e a t e many c o n s t r a i n t s to l o c a l p o l i t i c a l autonomy. A h e a l t h y l o c a l f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n makes i t p o s s i b l e to r e s t g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y w i t h the l o c a l c o u n c i l and to thereby generate a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n the development of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t the l o c a l l e v e l . (Hunter, 1976, p. 87)  Goals and p r i o r i t i e s a r e u l t i m a t e l y determined by those who pay the bills.  Community development  f e d e r a l government. and t e r r i t o r i a l  i n t h e N.W.T. i s i n e x t r i c a b l y  tied  to the  The common problems w i t h c o l o n i a l i s m a t the l o c a l  (regional) levels  i s summarized  by a r e s i d e n t o f  Tuktoyaktuk:  Right now t h e Hamlet gets a budget e v e r y year from the government, t h i s i s l i k e g e t t i n g w e l f a r e . We cannot do a n y t h i n g w i t h the budget except spend i t on t h i n g s we a r e t o l d to spend i t on . . . The t e r r i t o r i a l government i s i n a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the f e d e r a l government: u n l e s s i t can get some economic independence i t w i l l always be a puppet government. (G.N.W.T., 1975, p. 26)  3.3  Contemporary Community Demographics Hamelin (1976) contends that we abuse the term 'urban' i n r e f e r e n c e  to t h e Canadian N o r t h .  T a b l e 3.3 i n d i c a t e s the predominance  communities i n the N.W.T. is  Y e l l o w k n i f e w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10,000 persons  the l a r g e s t o f the 66 communities.  w i t h over 1,000 p e r s o n s .  of s m a l l  There a r e o n l y nine  These nine communities  represent  communities 55% o f the  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n but o n l y 15% of the t o t a l number of communities. are 57 communities with under 1,000 p e r s o n s .  i i  The average community  There  - 57 -  p o p u l a t i o n i n the N.W.T. i s 695 but the median persons.  s i z e i s o n l y 358  Most o f the l a r g e r communities are l o c a t e d  V a l l e y area.  i n the Mackenzie  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f communities and p o p u l a t i o n s i n the  N.W.T. are i l l u s t r a t e d  i n F i g u r e 3.1.  TABLE 3.3  COMMUNITY POPULATION DATA ( 1 9 8 0 )  T o t a l i n Range Population Range  Number  1  Cumulative  Population  Number  Population  13  766  13  766  500  28  8,269  41  9,035  500 - 1,000  16  11,761  57  20,796  < 100 100 -  -  2,000  4  4,762  61  25,558  2,000 -  4,000  4  10,774  65  36,336  4,000 - 10,000  1  9,550  66  45,882  1,000  C a l c u l a t e d from:  Government of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s (1981).  The l a r g e s t N a t i v e community i s Rae-Edzo  w i t h 1384 persons i n 1980;  however, most o f the N a t i v e communities have under 500 p e r s o n s . the non-Natives l i v e  i n the r e s o u r c e towns or i n the f i v e  Most of  communities  which have over 2,000 r e s i d e n t s . Whether o r not a f u r t h e r s c a t t e r i n g  o f s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t s should be  encouraged i s a q u e s t i o n which i s p e r i o d i c a l l y r a i s e d  (Hamelin, 1976).  E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s argue that because o f the low b i o l o g i c a l  productivity  of the N o r t h the number o f s e t t l e m e n t s i n the N.W.T. i s too low.  Some  FIGURE 3.1  COMMUNITY AND POPULATION DISTRIBUTION (from: G e r e i n , 1980)  - 59 -  argue that d i s p e r s e d  settlements  exerts  a strong  the North which ensures Canadian s o v e r e i g n i t y . number of s e t t l e m e n t s settlements sites. can  are based on economics.  necessitates  political Arguments  presence i n to reduce the  A dispersed  p a t t e r n of  expensive i n f r a s t u c t u r e a t a l a r g e number of  M i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s have been spent on these communities  not s u r v i v e on t h e i r own.  government  i s dedicated  (England, 1979).  Despite  to m a i n t a i n i n g  which  economic arguments, the the e x i s t i n g  settlements  Page (1979) however contends that i t may not be  necessary to e s t a b l i s h any more new permanent  communities  i n the N.W.T.  3.4 Community Types The communities  i n the N.W.T. can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  f u n c t i o n and economic base. categories:  regional centres,  or t r a d i t i o n a l  population,  can be p l a c e d  i n t o one o f three  single enterprise industrial  communities,  communities.^  R e g i o n a l centres government  Communities  by t h e i r  have a d i v e r s e  sector, high  income  economic base with a l a r g e  l e v e l s , mixed but mostly non-Native  and w e l l developed t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication l i n k s to  s o u t h e r n Canada.  Single enterprise i n d u s t r i a l  communities have a s i n g l e  0 t h e r c a t e g o r i e s have been proposed f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes and w i t h d i f f e r e n t b i a s . G e r e i n (1980) c l a s s i f i e s the N.W.T. communities as: r e g i o n a l growth c e n t r e s , l o c a l growth c e n t r e s and s m a l l communities and, he d e s c r i b e s them as d i v e r s i f i e d , s i n g l e i n d u s t r y , and t r a d i t i o n a l r e s p e c t i v e l y . Usher (1982) combines the f i r s t two o f these c a t e g o r i e s which r e s u l t i n i n d u s t r i a l and t r a d i t i o n a l communities that emphasises the e t h n i c composition o f the communities. Frackowiak (1979) i d e n t i f i e s and analyses e l e v e n key p l a n n i n g v a r i a b l e s to c a t e g o r i z e communities which i n c l u d e : date o f f o u n d i n g , p o p u l a t i o n , community form, housing, and economic base. 4  - 60 -  economy which i s u s u a l l y based on mining.  These communities have a h i g h  wage r a t e , very few N a t i v e r e s i d e n t s , and v a r i a b l e p o p u l a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l communities have a renewable r e s o u r c e based h u n t i n g / t r a p p i n g economy, l i m i t e d wage employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and  predominantly  Native r e s i d e n t s . The l e v e l of t e r r i t o r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support community.  government  financial,  and c o n t r o l v a r i e s with  I n d u s t r i a l resource  technical,  the economic base of the  communities are s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  of f i n a n c e s ; the t r a d i t i o n a l communities are s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t subsistance. support  and  i n terms  i n terms of  The t r a d i t i o n a l communities depend on governmental f i s c a l  for infrastructure.  Without government  activities  and  transfer  payments the t r a d i t i o n a l economy can not s u s t a i n the c u r r e n t standard of living  i n c l u d i n g the c u r r e n t l e v e l and type of s e r v i c e s ( S t a b l e r and  O l f e r t , 1980).  Conversely,  i n d u s t r i a l resource  the economic base and the h i g h wages i n the  towns land i n the r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s can support  h i g h c o s t of southern  the  s t y l e a m e n i t i e s , s e r v i c e s , houses, i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  and urban form.  3.5 Community Planning Considerations F a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e community p l a n n i n g elsewhere i n the world are present  i n the North but w i t h v a r y i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The  historical,  p o l i t i c a l and economic development of the N.W.T. and of the communities p r o v i d e s the context f o r community p l a n n i n g .  The p h y s i c a l environment  and the economic base c o n s t r a i n p u b l i c works and s o c i a l differing  c u l t u r e and l i f e s t y l e  of the Native people  i  services.  and the  The  - 61  -  Euro-Canadian immigrants provide d i f f e r i n g  and  sometimes  conflicting  p e r c e p t i o n s and g o a l s t h a t must be accomodated i n the community process and  3.5.1  the urban form.  H i s t o r i c a l development P l a n n i n g and  community development i n southern Canada occur w i t h i n  a development context values, p o l i t i c a l temporal  and  that predates  p r o c e s s , and  Canada.  In southern  c o n t i n u i t y has  Permanent housing,  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and m u n i c i p a l government are new to the indigenous  R a p i d l y changing  conditions altered Consequently  the nature  unprecedented i n the  a d e a r t h of  and  experience  infrastructure political  the p e r c e p t i o n s of community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needs were  flux.  or a n t i c i p a t i o n of t h e i r  first of  In  s c a l e of many communities.  Permanent communities were l o c a t e d and for  A  northern  s o c i a l , economic, and  and  slowly.  urban form,  and  There was  d e f i n i n g and meeting the community housing  requirements.  in  residents.  social  been m a i n t a i n e d .  e l a p s e d s i n c e permanent  communities were e s t a b l i s h e d .  area and  Canada  p h y s i c a l form have evolved  s p a c i a l l i n k a g e and  c o n t r a s t , a b r i e f p e r i o d has  in  planning  present  developed  p o p u l a t i o n and  p a t t e r n of permanent community form was  b u i l d i n g s around a church or t r a d i n g p o s t .  accomodating growth and  function.  a spontaneous The  p l a n n i n g combined w i t h the recent r a p i d growth has c u r r e n t s o c i a l problems and  without  to the d i f f i c u l t y and  initial  concern The  clustering l a c k of  c o n t r i b u t e d to the h i g h cost of  p r o v i d i n g muncipal s e r v i c e s ( G e r e i n ,  1980;  - 62 -  Grainge  and Shaw, 1971).  3.5.2 Physical conditions L o c a t i o n , demographics, and environment of communities N.W.T. make p l a n n i n g  there unique.  Remoteness and i s o l a t i o n  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication c o s t s to be h i g h . people  i n the cause  The s m a l l numbers of  i n the communities i n f l u e n c e s the range of p l a n n i n g o p t i o n s and  the economies of s c a l e .  Communities w i t h s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s  s e r v i c e s , equipment and e x p e r t i s e .  have  limited  The impact of s m a l l a b s o l u t e  changes  i n p o p u l a t i o n and p h y s i c a l developments a r e s i g n i f i c a n t  i n small  communities. The  environmental  p h y s i c a l planning  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the North  include:  long dark w i n t e r s , snow d r i f t s ,  sand and g r a v e l , and p e r m a f r o s t . c o n s t r a i n t s and c h a l l e n g e s .  which i n f l u e n c e  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  l a c k of  present  While they are u s u a l l y t e c h n i c a l l y  surmountable, they do p l a c e c o n s t r a i n t s on p l a n n i n g and p h y s i c a l community development. Gerein  (1980) s t a t e s that the two fundamental p r i n c i p l e s of  community p l a n n i n g use.  i n the North should be compactness and i n t e n s i t y o f  These p r i n c i p l e s a r e based on t e c h n i c a l , environmental,  and  economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s not the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l needs and the v a l u e s of the r e s i d e n t s .  3.5.3  Housing Significant  s t y l e and d e n s i t y .  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n community p l a n n i n g are housing The p o t e n t i a l  f o r reduced  b u i l d i n g and  - 63 -  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c o s t s make m u l t i - f a m i l y attractive.  been the d e s i r e to f a c i l i t a t e  and  sewer systems.  compact l a y o u t  For example, the resource  lengths  systems a r e p r a c t i c a l o n l y i n compact  M u l t i - f a m i l y row housing and s m a l l  by 65% by using a 1970).^  Central  towns.  apartment b u i l d i n g s a r e common  the l a r g e r communities i n the N.W.T., however, there  (1980) q u e s t i o n s  water  town b u i l t a t  and m u l t i - f a m i l y housing ( R o y l e ,  experience with m u l t i - f a m i l y  housing  p r a c t i c a l and economical piped  Fermont, Quebec reduced the right-of-way  in  buildings  A major impetus f o r compact towns and m u l t i - f a m i l y  has  heating  housing and m u l t i - u s e  housing i n the N a t i v e  i s limited  communities.  Gerein  whether s i n g l e f a m i l y housing and low d e n s i t y a r e  p r e f e r r e d by the Native  people as a r e s u l t of t r a d i t i o n a l  life  practices  or as a r e s u l t of t h e i r contemporary e x p e r i e n c e i n permanent settlements. In N a t i v e  There has been l i t t l e  research  into multi-family  communities i n Canada.  In Greenland m u l t i - f a m i l y housing i s common. b u i l d i n g s , three constructed design  housing  Large apartment  to s i x s t o r i e s high and up to 200 m l o n g , were  during  the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p e r i o d  of the 60's.  The s i z e and  of these apartment b u i l d i n g s has been unanimously condemned.  Dr. Lynge blames the epidemic r i s e i n the s u i c i d e r a t e on r a p i d urbanization  with i t s associated  stresses.  The r e s i d e n t s of the l a r g e  ^Fermont which was planned f o r 5,000 persons, boasts a 2,000 f o o t l o n g , f i v e s t o r y windscreen b u i l d i n g to s h e l t e r the 297 bungalows, 194 semi-detached and 144 town houses. In t h i s ' f o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n ' a r c t i c community d e s i g n , 35% o f the r e s i d e n t s need never venture o u t d o o r s . A number of other new towns i n the North that emphasize p r o t e c t i o n from the elements and m u l t i - u s e b u i l d i n g s a r e reviewed by van G i n k e l (1976).  - 64 -  apartment blocks have l i m i t e d the people amenities  access  and c o n t a c t with n a t u r e .  At f i r s t  from the s m a l l o u t p o r t s welcomed the l u x u r y of modern such as running water and f l u s h t o i l e t s , but they soon showed  s i g n s o f mental d i s t u r b a n c e .  "The  huge apartment blocks may have  appeared to be a wonderful s o l u t i o n to s a n i t a r y e n g i n e e r s , but they c e r t a i n l y d i d not c o n t r i b u t e to mental hygiene i n Greenland" 1980,  (Schaefer,  p. 4 6 ) . Most o f the Greenlanders  p r e f e r to l i v e i n s c a t t e r e d , s i n g l e  houses. I n r e t r o s p e c t , the Head o f the Greenland which was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r housing  family  Technical Organization  and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e conceded  that:  O r i g i n a l l y i t was thought that the G r e e n l a n d i c town ought to be compact and p r o t e c t i t s i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h the m a g n i f i c i e n t country o u t s i d e . T h i s was a t y p i c a l European way of t h i n k i n g . But Greenlanders p r e f e r open c i t i e s and a good view, even i f i t be a l i t t l e wind swept. . . . O b s e r v a t i o n s i n A l a s k a , Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Greenland and S i b e r i a suggest that the indigenous p o p u l a t i o n s i n a r c t i c areas want to l i v e w i t h and not i n d e f i a n c e of n a t u r e . It i s important to r e s p e c t t h i s when p l a n n i n g towns, even i f i t i s cheaper and e a s i e r to supply h i g h d e n s i t y town areas w i t h community water and wastewater s e r v i c e s , than i t would be i n s c a t t e r e d houses which the p o p u l a t i o n p r e f e r s . " (Rosendahl, 1981, p . 20-21)  These same i s s u e s o f housing i n the new town o f R e s o l u t e  and community d e s i g n are h i g h l i g h t e d  Bay i n the N.W.T.  I n 1973 the G.N.W.T.  began to plan a new town i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d e x p l o r a t i o n i n the r e g i o n .  The e x i s t i n g  resource  I n u i t and M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t  s e t t l e m e n t s were to be moved to the new t o w n s i t e .  The plan by Sweden-  based a r c t i c a r c h i t e c t Ralph E r s k i n e s t r e s s e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e  - 65  p h y s i c a l environment.  He  proposed a r i n g s t r u c t u r e c o n t a i n i n g  c e n t r e , h o t e l , apartments and protected  micro-climate  the model a r c t i c  FIGURE 3.2  only  town was  At  abruptly that  The  plan was  Clark,  a  widely heralded  Several  design  and  h a l t e d because of  the  persons but  BAY,  reduced  houses which were  the  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e were i n p l a c e . i n 1980  the  population  houses i n c l u d i n g f i v e rowhouses were empty. that  as  1978).  time, 10 row  s t r u c t u r e and  planned f o r 1,000  et a l . (1980) r e p o r t e d standard  ( F i g u r e 3.2).  the p r o j e c t was  stage of the r i n g  130.  housing which would p r o v i d e  town p l a n (Dear and  exploration a c t i v i t i e s .  The  row  a town  USING BUILDINGS TO CREATE A MICROCLIMATE, RESOLUTE N.W.T (from: G e r e i n , 1980)  In 1978  first  -  was  Pederson  the Scandanavian s t y l e rowhouses were a  c o n s t r u c t i o n , however, they were not  high  popular with  - 66 -  the  r e s i d e n t s who p r e f e r r e d  the  n a t u r a l environment  the  planners.  the t r a d i t i o n a l bungalow.  i s a lower p r i o r i t y w i t h the r e s i d e n t s  The p r i o r i t y g i v e n to the p h y s i c a l environment in  contrast  to the new town c o n s t r u c t e d  Chisasibi reflects the  P r o t e c t i o n from  with m u l t i - p u r p o s e f a c i l i t i e s .  a t R e s o l u t e Bay i s  i n 1978 a t C h i s a s i b i , Quebec.  the s o c i a l p r i o r i t i e s ,  l o c a l Cree I n d i a n s (Goldman, 1981).  a s p i r a t i o n and f u t u r e needs of The town has a compact  closely linked  f a m i l i e s and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the p o p u l a t i o n ( F i g u r e 3.3).  new town was planned and b u i l t by the Cree community.  FIGURE 3.3  centre  The houses are arranged i n groups or  c l u s t e r s based on the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of extended the  than w i t h  SOCIAL GROUPING OF HOUSES, CHISASIBI, (From Goldman, 1981)  The  House s t y l e and  QUEBEC  - 67  community l a y o u t r e f l e c t e s s e n t i a l elements the funds and  -  the p r e f e r e n c e s of the r e s i d e n t s .  for effective  The  l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g were c o n t r o l of  of the p r o c e s s .  Both extremes of a domed town, o m n i - b u i l d i n g or of a r u r a l development are i m p r a c t i c a l reasons.  The  choice i s e i t h e r  desirable single house.  the s o c i a l l y  f a m i l y house or the cheaper  have i n d i c a t e d  family housing.  A publicly  funded  psychologically  compact m u l t i - f a m i l y  single political  need.  i n the North may  be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  f o r people i n the wage economy, i t appears  i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the N a t i v e c u l t u r e and lifestyle.  r e s o u r c e towns  housing p o l i c y f a c e s the  of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between d e s i r e and  s i n g l e people and  economic  t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r detached  Although m u l t i - f a m i l y housing  3.5.4  and  Residents i n t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e communities and  ( R o b e r t s , 1982)  problem  i n the N.W.T. f o r s o c i a l and  acreage  to be  t r a d i t i o n a l hunting/trapping  In the N a t i v e communities detached  housing  i s i n demand.  Uncertainty Economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l  p e r v a s i v e throughout  the N o r t h .  community's economic base.  There  and  environmental  There  uncertainty i s  i s economic u n c e r t a i n t y i n the  i s s o c i a l u n c e r t a i n t y i n the needs,  v a l u e s , and demographics of the r e s i d e n t s .  There  is political  u n c e r t a i n t y i n the power and d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e . u n c e r t a i n t y are not unique r a p i d r a t e of change.  These types of  to the North but they are accentuated  by  the  - 68 -  The s o c i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and f i n a n c i a l ecosystem of the n o r t h , l i k e the b i o l o g i c a l ecosystem i s a low-energy system, h i g h l y s t r e s s e d and v u l n e r a b l e to r a t h e r r a p i d changes caused by e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s — sometimes without r e c o v e r y . (Roots, 1981, p. 3)  Uncertainty i s prevalent  i n non-renewable r e s o u r c e  communities because they have an i n d e t e r m i n a t e  life.  based  To d e a l  with  u n c e r t a i n t y Cameron et a l . (1983) advocated abandoning the  prevalent  approach to p l a n n i n g which s t r e s s e s p h y s i c a l s o l u t i o n s and  i s oriented  to growth and  end  state.  This d e t e r m i n i s t i c approach renders  inadequate to d e a l w i t h d e c l i n e or u n c e r t a i n t y . approach which e x p l i c i t l y interrelationships, The important  Resolute  recognized  feedback and  Bay  infrastructure built  based on a continuous  The  an  because the r i n g b u i l d i n g was  The  not  p h y s i c a l community  concept was  an  rendered  f u l l y constructed.  The  There was  system does not  insufficient  plan  environment ineffective whole complex,  i n c l u d i n g unoccupied apartments, must be heated because the c e n t r a l heating  and  expensive  r i n g of b u i l d i n g to provide  from p r e v a i l i n g winds.  i s an  i n the face of  development  r e s u l t was  i n excess of demand.  process,  proposed.  In that case a n t i c i p a t e d r e s o u r c e The  planning  emphasized  i n d i c a t e s that f l e x i b i l i t y  p o p u l a t i o n growth d i d not o c c u r .  protected  u n c e r t a i n t y and  h e u r i s i t c s was  experience  adaptive  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l community p l a n n i n g  uncertainty.  was  An  planning  'efficient'  a l l o w h e a t i n g of i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s .  flexibility The  because the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n town of I n u v i k was  similarly  did  allow f o r incremental  growth.  w i t h l a r g e unoccupied  f u l l y s e r v i c e d s u b - d i v i s i o n s that were b u i l t  not  saddled in  - 69 -  a n t i c i p a t i o n of o i l and gas a c t i v i t i e s  over which the community has no  control. The  r e s u l t s of o v e r b u i l d i n g are i l l u s t r a t e d  I n u v i k examples.  i n the R e s o l u t e Bay and  There are a l s o many examples of expensive  rebuilding  of houses and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which were r e q u i r e d because of u n a n t i c i p a t e d growth.  R e b u i l d i n g has been p r e v a l e n t i n the N a t i v e  communities because of the dramatic  i n c r e a s e s i n c e the 50's i n the  community p o p u l a t i o n s and the standard technology,  of l i v i n g .  Changes i n  economic g o a l s and community f u n c t i o n p r e c i p i t a t e d  changes  i n urban form and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e .  3.5.5  Culture, l i f e s t y l e and perceptions Settlements  must p r o v i d e a c c e p t a b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r  c u r r e n t work, l i f e  and l e i s u r e w h i l e a t the same time  a b a s i s f o r p r o g r e s s i v e a d a p t a t i o n and c u l t u r a l change 1980).  they must  provide  (Stanovnik,  In the N.W.T., the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c u l t u r e and l i f e s t y l e s of  the N a t i v e peoples  and of the Euro-Canadians must be c o n s i d e r e d i n  community p l a n n i n g because these d i f f e r e n c e s are the root of c o n f l i c t s i n p r e f e r e n c e s and a s p i r a t i o n s . N a t i v e people's the l a n d .  traditional  lifestyle  and s o c i a l v a l u e s d e r i v e from  Ownership of land i s c o n t r a r y to t h e i r c u l t u r e so they o f t e n  do not understand  the p l a n n e r ' s d e s i r e to s u b d i v i d e land i n t o l o t s , to  zone l a n d , o r to produce formal community p l a n s . access  to land and p r o x i m i t y to water i n order  lifestyle.  N a t i v e people  value  to pursue a t r a d i t i o n a l  - 70 -  F a i l u r e of the new town of Edzo i l l u s t r a t e s lifestyle  and p e r c e p t i o n .  to a l l e v i a t e  the  Edzo was c o n s t r u c t e d  conflicts i n 1970  by the G.N.W.T.  s e r i o u s h e a l t h problems that had plagued  community o f Rae l o c a t e d on the  FIGURE 3.4  in culture,  the  shore of Marian Lake ( F i g u r e  Native 3.4).^  LOCATION MAP OF RAE AND EDZO, N.W.T.  Poor p u b l i c h e a l t h , epidemics and i n f a n t deaths i n Rae were a t t r i b u t e d to the p o l l u t e d lake water and to the poor s a n i t a t i o n , drainage and housing i n Rae ( G r a i n g e ,  1977).  The rudimentary i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of Rae  °Fort Rae was e s t a b l i s h e d by f u r t r a d i n g companies i n the e a r l y 1900's a t a p o i n t where t r a d i t i o n a l hunting areas and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes converged. The settlement i s l o c a t e d on a rocky o u t c r o p on Marion Lake, 100 k i l o m e t e r s west of Y e l l o w k n i f e . A 10 k i l o m e t e r access road connects Rae to the MacKenzie Highway.  - 71  became inadequate to a p p r o x i m a t e l y delivered own  as i t s p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g the 50's 1,000  by t r u c k .  persons.  Water from Marian  u n c h l o r i n a t e d l a k e water. p l a c e d by r e s i d e n t s along  s e r v i c e d b u i l d i n g s was  discharged  health.  t r e a t e d and their  the t a s t e of  the r o a d s i d e o f t e n broke before  ran i n t o  A sewage treatment  discharged  the l a k e .  Raw  the  plant i n s t a l l e d  a p p a r e n t l y insurmountable  The R e g i o n a l Engineer  they were  on the ground,  wastewater from the  i n t o a slough i n the middle  Rock o u t c r o p s , s h a l l o w l a k e and  the houses presented  60's  Honeybags c o n t a i n i n g human waste which were  Washwater from houses was  never worked.  and  to o b t a i n  from the l a k e , p r e f e r r i n g  c o l l e c t e d i n pools and  community.  Lake was  However many r e s i d e n t s continued  d r i n k i n g water d i r e c t l y  collected.  -  of  pipe  the  by the f e d e r a l government the haphazard l a y o u t of problems to good p u b l i c  f o r the Department of H e a l t h and  Welfare  concluded:  No p r o p o s a l short of piped water and sewage s e r v i c e can a l l e v i a t e the i n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , and i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to d e s i g n p r a c t i c a l p i p e d water and sewer systems i n t h i s s i t e [Rae]. ( G r a i n g e , 1977, p. 23)  Health o f f i c i a l s , f e d e r a l and  on high ground and The  and  community p l a n n e r s a d v i s e d  t e r r i t o r i a l governments to c o n s t u c t a new  the s e l e c t e d s i t e was  pipes.  engineers  towns!te.  named a f t e r a famous Dene C h i e f .  had good sandy s o i l  suited  I t was  Public o f f i c i a l s  to both the p u b l i c h e a l t h and  saw  Edzo, located  to b u r i e d water and  s i t e i s l o c a t e d on the MacKenzie Highway about 24  by road from Rae.  the  a simple and  kilometers  definitive  the economic development i s s u e s .  sewer  solution  - 72 -  Chief  Bruneau, the community C o u n c i l and the r e s i d e n t s of Rae were  f a r from e n t h u s i a s t i c about moving to the new s i t e a l t h o u g h they welcomed the prospect  o f c o n s t r u c t i o n j o b s and a new s c h o o l .  At  numerous meetings they p o i n t e d  out  t h e i r need to stay near the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and f i s h i n g but  the c l o s e s t r e l i a b l e water access  proposed town o f Edzo was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 k i l o m e t e r s  away.  of Rae remarked that Edzo was a mistake from the b e g i n n i n g are l i k e s e a g u l l s , we f o l l o w the s h o r e . (Quoted i n : O'Malley, 1976, pressure  p. 246).  You can't  to the  V i t a l Thomas because "we  put us i n l a n d . "  A f t e r many meetings and much  the C h i e f i n d i c a t e d that i t was the governments money and the  government c o u l d b u i l d  the new town i f i t wanted, but he doubted  the people from Rae would move.^ assumed by the government  officials. v  a fire hall, a  h o s p i t a l , and a l a r g e modern s c h o o l were q u i c k l y c o n s t r u c t e d Native  that  L o c a l endorsement o f the p r o j e c t was  Roads, a piped water and sewer system, h o u s e s  Few  lake f o r  people moved d e s p i t e the amenities  d e s p i t e a development f r e e z e placed are m o s t l y government s t a f f .  on Rae.  a t Edzo.  o f f e r e d i n Edzo and Today the  r e s i d e n t s of Edzo  Many commute to work i n Rae.  In 1976 the G.N.W.T. abandoned the hope to move Rae and l i f t e d the development f r e e z e on Rae. expenditures  Since  then there have been  significant  i n new housing and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n Rae d e s p i t e  warnings from the C h i e f M e d i c a l  continued  O f f i c e r f o r the N.W.T. o f i n h e r e n t l y  ^There are v a r i o u s v e r s i o n s o f the consent g i v e n to the proposed new townsite ( e . g . G r a i n g e , 1977; Gamble, 1982). Consent was not spontaneous nor e n t h u s i a s t i c .  - 73 -  poor s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s ( G r a i n g e , 1977). has  Rae i s growing whereas Edzo  declined i n population. The  f a i l u r e of Edzo demonstrates common f e a t u r e s i n n o r t h e r n  community p l a n n i n g : the r o l e of t e c h n o c r a t s i n p l a n n i n g , the f a i l u r e i n communication between the N a t i v e r e s i d e n t s and government o f f i c i a l s and the d i f f e r i n g g o a l s of development between the N a t i v e s Don  Gamble, the r e s i d e n t engineer  i s now c r i t i c a l  and o t h e r s .  on the Edzo c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t ,  of the r o l e of engineers  and the misuse of e n g i n e e r i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g of Edzo:  Engineers p r o v i d e d a neat, s i m p l i s t i c t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n to a complex human problem . . . because the s o l u t i o n looked so c l e a n , so d e f i n i t e - as engineers tend to c o l o u r many i s s u e s - the decision-makers embraced i t . (Gamble, 1982, p. 5)  The  problem was the simple minded, r e d u c t i o n i s t way engineers  an e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l problem.  attacked  The a p p l i e d s c i e n c e approach which  i g n o r e s the human c o n d i t i o n was a l a r g e p a r t of the problem (Gamble, 1984).  Furthermore, e n g i n e e r s  "seem r e l u c t a n t to accept  the r o l e f o r  which they have been w e l l t r a i n e d - t h a t of t e c h n o l o g i c a l s e r v a n t s to those who have a broad  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the problems faced by s o c i e t y "  (Gamble, 1982, p. 5 ) . The Edzo experience t e c h n o - c u l t u r a l chauvinism who shared  is  to d e a l w i t h  257).  of the government b u r e a u c r a t s  and r e i n f o r c e d the engineer's  recommendations.  demonstrates the and p l a n n e r s  p e r c e p t i o n s and  " I t i s e a s i e r to dream of new n o r t h e r n c i t i e s the r e a l i t y of messy n o r t h e r n  towns"  than i t  ( L o t z , 1970, p.  - 74  There was  a l a c k of e f f e c t i v e communication between the N a t i v e  r e s i d e n t s of Rae consultants.  and  the southern, White government s t a f f  Different  concepts d i f f i c u l t  languages  and  The  technocrats.  e d u c a t i o n and  v a l u e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and  are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  and  make the communication of i d e a s  but c u l t u r e , l i f e s t y l e ,  more f o r m i d a b l e b a r r i e r s . N a t i v e people  -  from  experience  are  knowledge of  the  those of the southern  bureaucrats  These d i f f e r e n c e s impede ready u n d e r s t a n d i n g  l a t t e r of community v a l u e s and  a s p i r a t i o n s and  and  by  the  the subsequent  f o r m u l a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e a d v i c e .  In n o r t h e r n s o c i e t i e s , i n p l a c e s l i k e Edzo, we are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n who do not share our world view. There i s , of c o u r s e , n o t h i n g r i g h t or wrong w i t h t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n world views as long as i t i s r e c o g n i z e d , a c c e p t e d , and r e s p e c t e d . But when i t i s i g n o r e d , d e n i e d , or downgraded, i t c r e a t e s problems. (Gamble, 1984, p. 9)  Questions  of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m , communication and  been r a i s e d i n r e l a t i o n  to  p e r c e p t i o n s have  n o r t h e r n community p l a n n e r s .  The problem i s t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n world view between southern p l a n n e r s and n o r t h e r n u n s o p h i s t i cated communities i n p l a n n i n g matters makes i t i m p o s s i b l e to b r i d g e the gap between those two e n t i t i e s i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time. I t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t to t r a i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l planner i n the n o r t h takes at l e a s t 6 months. (Roth, 1981, p. 21) o Although  time  knowledge and  and e x p e r i e n c e  are n e c e s s a r y  competence, they are not  to develop  sufficient  to  technical  develop  °A study of White r e s i d e n t s o f I n u v i k i n d i c a t e d t h a t a newcomer a r r i v e s 'uncontaminated' by s t e r e o t y p e d images but the l o n g e r they remain i n the North, the more l i k e l y they are to s u b s c r i b e to e t h n i c s t e r e o t y p e s , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s ( P a r s o n s , 1970).  - 75 -  interpersonal s k i l l s ,  to s e n s i t i z e one to the s e n s i b i l i t i e s  c u l t u r e and world view, or to understand d e s i r e to l i s t e n  i s a prerequisite  one's own b i a s and v a l u e s .  to e f f e c t i v e communication.  community p l a n n i n g can not r e l y on the h u m i l i t y , broad sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l . and  of another  But  awareness and  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l  framework  the p l a n n i n g process must s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e the knowledge  of both the t e c h n o c r a t and the persons d i a l o g u e and an exchange of views. power must be v e s t e d l o c a l l y perceptions are e f f e c t i v e l y The Rae/Edzo e x p e r i e n c e  affected  the N a t i v e people  i n order to ensure  Community l e v e l d e c i s i o n making  i n order to ensure  that l o c a l views and  considered. indicates  the d i f f e r e n c e i n a s p i r a t i o n s and  p r i o r i t i e s which are p a r t of the d i f f e r i n g  c u l t u r e and l i f e s t y l e  The l a t t e r p l a c e d a h i g h p r i o r i t y and  f a i t h i n the prospect o f good h e a l t h , southern p o t e n t i a l wage employment a t Edzo.  standard of l i v i n g , and  They were convinced  ' n e c e s s i t i e s ' were not p o s s i b l e a t Rae.  The proposed  r e q u i r e d a fundamental change i n l i f e s t y l e  t h a t these  move to Edzo  f o r the N a t i v e people  the i n l a n d l o c a t i o n would have made t r a d i t i o n a l p u r s u i t s v e r y not i m p r a t i c a l .  convinced  between  on the one hand and the government s t a f f and t h e i r  c o n s u l t a n t s on the other hand.  if  The  because  difficult  The C h i e f and many of the N a t i v e people were not  of the h e a l t h r i s k a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p o l l u t e d  They d i d not covet the conveniences  or a m e n i t i e s o f f e r e d  which were c o n s i d e r e d l u x u r i e s not n e c e s s i t i e s .  l a k e a t Rae. i n the new town  The d i f f e r e n t  concepts  of development and p r o g r e s s i s fundamental. In the Rae/Edzo case, two expensive  towns a t two u n d e s i r a b l e  l o c a t i o n s i s the r e s u l t of a " c o l o s s a l e n g i n e e r i n g e r r o r and f i n a n c i a l  -  boondoggle" (Gamble, 1982, s o c i a l l y unacceptable.  p. 5 ) .  Physical  76 -  Geographic l o c a t i o n makes Edzo environment makes Rae t e c h n i c a l l y  undesirable. T r a g i c a l l y , an e x c e l l e n t  p o t e n t i a l townsite on R u s s e l l Lake a few  k i l o m e t e r s n o r t h of Rae that was proposed by the Band C o u n c i l was  not  option  pursued by e i t h e r the government or the neither  enthusiastic only the  party  was l o o k i n g  for.  community.  i n 1965  I t was an  The community was not  about moving anyway and the government s e r i o u s l y  l o c a t i o n s on the highway.  I tis ironic  shore o f R u s s e l l Lake i s now p r o v i d i n g  that  the g r a v e l  considered esker on  the massive q u a n t i t i e s o f  gravel  required  to develop R a e — t h e mountain i s being moved to Mohammed.  3.5.6  Planning  process, decision making,  Decision planning. include:  making and the  Decision  by the number o f i n t e r e s t e d  fundamental to  community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e because o f the  the communities and the h i g h cost  objectives.  planning  making i n the  p a r t i e s who i n f l u e n c e  S e n i o r government has been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n  of p u b l i c funds r e q u i r e s  the  d e c i s i o n making process are  p r o c e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n t r o l .  community p l a n n i n g .  of  community development  Aspects of d e c i s i o n making important i n community  N.W.T. i s c o m p l i c a t e d  providing  and  There are  of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e .  c l e a r l y defined  conflicts  to f i n d  necessary, l o c a l l y d e s i r a b l e ,  The e x p e n d i t u r e  community development  i n the developmental o b j e c t i v e s  communities, the G.N.W.T. and the  communities i t i s d i f f i c u l t  l i m i t e d economic base  'outside'.  held by  In n o r t h e r n  a s o l u t i o n among what i s  locally  e c o n o m i c a l l y p r a c t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l l y  - 77  feasible.  Difficulties  p l a n n i n g and  i n d e c i s i o n making are e v i d e n t i n community  i n p l a n n i n g community  Community p l a n n i n g process reflected  1979;  infrastructure.  and  the c u r r e n t trends and  (Frackowlak,  -  urban form i n the North  p r a c t i c e i n southern  McCann, 1978).  has  Canada  In the n o r t h e r n community  planning  l i t e r a t u r e r e f e r e n c e to theory of p l a n n i n g i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent r e f e r e n c e s to theory i n p l a n n i n g are l i m i t e d . r e p o r t s are r e s t r i c t e d developmental (1980).  Government  to an e x p l a n a t i o n of responses  p r o p o s a l s and  are p r i m a r i l y concerned (1983) proposed an  planning  to growth,  to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s , e.g.,  Academic papers on community p l a n n i n g and with p h y s i c a l planning.  while  Gerein,  the p l a n n i n g  process  For example, Zrudlo  ' i n t e g r a t i v e approach' to c o n s i d e r the major  i n f l u e n c e s on p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g . Zrudlo i d e n t i f i e d  and  arranged  these  1.  g e o l o g i c a l and h y d r o l o g i c a l  2.  t e c h n i c a l and  3.  climate  4.  culture  Optimized  socio-institutional  f a c t o r s into four  levels:  services infrastructure  plans f o r each l e v e l are i n d i v i d u a l l y prepared  then  s e q u e n t i a l l y compared i n p a i r s to d i a l e c t i c a l l y form a s y n t h e s i s i n a McHargian f a s h i o n ( i . e . 1 + 2 = 1,2 cumulation  then 1,2  l e a d s to a f i n a l p l a n but u n t i l  i s i n c l u d e d , the optimum p l a n w i l l  + 3 = 1,2,3  etc.).  The  the human element i n l e v e l 4  i n v a r i a b l y be a s i n g l e  building.  Z r u d l o ' s r a t i o n a l comprehensive model e r r o n e o u s l y assumes t h a t the of the u n c o n s t r a i n e d  optimized parts w i l l  i  l e a d to an optimum  final  sum  - 78  plan.  The  numerous o p t i m i z e d  sub-plans  -  would r e q u i r e an overwhelming  amount of i n f o r m a t i o n and  the m u l t i t u d e  of combinations  the  (Simon, 1957)  of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s .  'bounded r a t i o n a l i t y  1  would o v e r l o a d While  a n a l y s i s can be o b j e c t i v e , s y n t h e s i s i s s u b j e c t i v e because the importance of the impacts (McAllister,  to the whole plan must be  and  economic power are n e g l e c t e d .  t h a t do not e x p l i c i t l y  c o n s i d e r g o a l s and  f l o u n d e r i n d e t a i l without and  assessed  1980).  Zrundlo's model i s based on m a n i p u l a t i n g political  relative  direction.  The  facts.  Issues  of  M e c h a n i s t i c p l a n n i n g models  political  control  will  c o n t r o l of community  community development are more important  than  planning  the methodology  and  p h y s i c a l development. The  s t a t e d g o a l s of Z r u d l o ' s model are to "remove the u s u a l  e n g i n e e r i n g or t e c h n i c a l b i a s t h a t n o r m a l l y dominates the process"  ( Z r u d l o , 1982,  p. 10) and  r e s i d e n t s so they understand and m u l t i - f a m i l y housing. likely  to be achieved  about p l a n n i n g i s now  to f a c i l i t a t e  planning  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  the t r a d e - o f f s , f o r example, between  However, an understanding  i f addressed  directly.  the single  of p l a n n i n g i s more  Educating  the  community  emphasized by the Department of L o c a l Government,  G.N.W.T.  Our f i r s t g o a l i s to b r i n g the n o t i o n and understanding of p l a n n i n g to community r e s i d e n t s so t h a t i n the near f u t u r e they may have enough of the elements to d e c i d e f o r themselves how t h e i r community should develop or grow. (Roth, 1981, p. 17-18)  In p r a c t i c e the e d u c a t i o n g o a l i s narrowly  focused on understanding  the  - 79 -  G.N.W.T.'s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n planning.  and the process of p h y s i c a l  Community p l a n n i n g  significant orientation.  community  i n t h e N.W.T. has not i n v o l v e d  extent a community development or s o c i a l  to any  learning  Roberts p r o v i d e s a c y c l i c model of community development  which may be a p p r o p r i a t e  i n N a t i v e communities ( F i g u r e 3.5).  Tension  (i.e., problem, goal)  Learning Knowledge of  -self - group - environment Skills in  - communication - group discussion Attitudes  -self - others - things  toward  Objectives  Learning Skills in  - organization - planning - administration  FIGURE 3.5  MODEL OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS (from R o b e r t s , 1979)  The c y c l e c o n s i s t s o f :  A c h i e v i n g an o b j e c t i v e ; r e a l i z i n g new t e n s i o n s ; f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g ; forming new o b j e c t i v e s ; d e v i s i n g new courses of a c t i o n ; e v a l u a t i n g the a c t i o n and so on. ( R o b e r t s , 1979, p. 169)  There i s no s t a r t  or end i n t h i s model.  prepare the i n d i v i d u a l s and the community not  The primary o b j e c t i v e to d e a l with f u t u r e  i s to tensions,  to produce a p l a n o r to d e c i d e on a s p e c i f i c course of a c t i o n .  - 80 -  Community development i s a p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s a r y to achieve  the g o a l s  process  i n which s o c i a l l e a r n i n g i s  o f a community.  The b a s i s o f Robert's  approach i s that people a f f e c t e d are more capable than o u t s i d e r s of p e r c e i v i n g and a s s e s s i n g appropriate  the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r l i v e s and w i t h  i n s p i r a t i o n and guidance they can  these c o n d i t i o n s f o r the  plan and a c t to change  better.  S o c i a l l e a r n i n g and s o c i e t a l guidance ( E t z i o n i , 1968; have been i n t e r p r e t e d i n community p l a n n i n g t r a n s a c t i v e s t y l e of planning. personal planner  i n order  to t r a n s f o r m  meaningful d i a l o g u e , client.  by Friedmann's (1973)  He p r e s c r i b e s d i a l o g u e  knowledge o f the c l i e n t  and the processed  the r e c i p i e n t s o f p l a n n e r ' s  to i n t e g r a t e the  knowledge o f t h e  knowledge i n t o a c t i o n .  I n the N.W.T. the c l i e n t  Dunn, 1971)  To ensure  advice  should  i s the G.N.W.T. n o t the  community.  Consequently the G.N.W.T., not the community, c o n t r o l s the process and  and the p l a n n e r s .  be the  planning  Community i n t e r e s t , community p a r t i c i p a t i o n  community l e a r n i n g are thus impeded. The  l a c k o f community l e a r n i n g i n the d e c i s i o n making process i s  exemplified process  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the new town o f Edzo.  was p a t e r n a l i s t i c .  The government attempted  The p l a n n i n g  to s o l v e the  community's h e a l t h and developmental problems but t h e i r s o l u t i o n was doomed without the i n t e r e s t and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the  community.  The  i s s u e i s not o f r i g h t o r wrong, i t i s how the d e c i s i o n s were made.  The  lasting  f a i l u r e o f the p l a n n i n g  process  i s the l o s s of o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r the r e s i d e n t s t o l e a r n about t h e i r urban problems and how to d e a l with  them.  - 81  The today.  initiative  -  to p l a n does not o r i g i n a t e  from  the communities  In the non-tax base communities the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  even  the  m u n i c i p a l o p e r a t i n g budgets and most of the housing u n i t s are funded provided by government a g e n c i e s .  These agencies have g r e a t e r  i n p l a n n i n g the community than do  the r e s i d e n t s ( R o y c r o f t , 1980).  communities are responding The  l a c k of i n t e r e s t  knowledge or e x p e r i e n c e .  interest The  to o u t s i d e p r e s s u r e s to p l a n . i n p l a n n i n g i s not because of l a c k of Feeney (1977) p r e s e n t s a number of reasons  the l e v e l of N a t i v e involvement i s lower  and  i n the community d e c i s i o n making  than the White a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have hope i t would  a)  F o r many N a t i v e people, E n g l i s h i s a second language, at b e s t . T h i s makes i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t to comprehend complex correspondence t h a t comes from r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s and the c a p i t a l c o n c e r n i n g municipal a f f a i r s .  b)  N a t i v e people coninue to depend on White a d v i s o r s to i n t e r p r e t complex p r o c e d u r a l r u l e s with which they are u n f a m i l i a r .  c)  Many of the matters t h a t most concern N a t i v e p e o p l e — s u c h as land use, the e d u c a t i o n system, a l c o h o l l a w s — r e m a i n o u t s i d e the j u r i s d i c t i o n of community c o u n c i l s .  d)  At b e s t , i n d i v i d u a l s are g i v e n an oportunity for "participation i n " decision making, as opposed to " p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n making" which N a t i v e people are accustomed t o , and i n which they have r e a l d e c i s i o n making authority.  e)  The White's a g g r e s s i v e , a d v e r s a r y s t y l e of debate seems to c o n t r a d i c t t h e i r s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n s of attempting to cooperate i n d e c i s i o n making. A s s e r t i v e behaviour, to N a t i v e s seems not o n l y d i s t a s t e f u l , but a l s o c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e to f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s a c c e p t a b l e to a l l . (Feeney, 1977, p. 62)  why  process  be:  i  - 82 -  The above-mentioned  barriers  to e f f e c t i v e communication and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l goverment  are not o f t e n r e c o g n i z e d .  t h a t Whites c o n t i n u e to be b a f f l e d  by signs of apathy or f r u s t r a t i o n  among N a t i v e s towards o p p o r t u n i t i e s  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n m u n i c i p a l  Lack of c o n t r o l by N a t i v e s over t h e i r l i v e s produces the l a c k of i n t e r e s t  No wonder  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and t h e i r  affairs.  community  i n planning.  Some  N a t i v e people are not w a i t i n g f o r government  to s o l v e the problems they  f e e l are i m p o r t a n t .  Bay who  A r e s i d e n t of Cambridge  meetings to address the community's on t h e i r own  problems s a i d r e s i d e n t s must stand  because the t e r r i t o r i a l government  " t o b a i l us out" (News/North,  will  not always be t h e r e  1984).  Lack of c o n t r o l over community d e c i s i o n making the l a c k of s e l f - f i n a n c e .  spearheaded  Without l o c a l  stems i n part from  f i n a n c e the community i s f o r c e d  to r e l y on c o n d i t i o n a l government  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e which erodes  l o c a l autonomy and l o c a l d e c i s i o n  making.  Community development must address the broader i s s u e s of s o c i a l economic development of the i n d i v i d u a l s and of the community.  and  Community  development should be aimed at r e d u c i n g the c o n d i t i o n s which c r e a t e the need f o r w e l f a r e support systems.  - 83  4.  -  INFRASTRUCTURE LEVEL - WATER AND SANITATION SYSTEMS  The development water  and o p e r a t i o n of r e l i a b l e ,  s u p p l y , sewage and s o l i d waste systems  challenging.  Technology  economical  i n the North i s complex and  and methodology u t i l i z e d i n the N.W.T. ranges  from rudimentary to l u x u r i o u s , systems.  simple and  from simple bucket  to s o p h i s t i c a t e d  Systems have developed and e v o l v e d i n response  economic c o n s t r a i n t s and changing s o c i a l  piped  to p h y s i c a l  and  and p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s .  The framework and r e l a t i o n s h i p of the b a s i c components i n community water  and  s a n i t a t i o n systems  are i l l u s t r a t e d  i n F i g u r e 4.1.  SOURCE  DISPOSAL  I  TREATMENT  TREATMENT  I  STORAGE  I  DISTRIBUTION/COLLECTION  COMMUNITY HOUSE  CONSUMPTION WATER  FIGURE 4.1  SEWERAGE  SOLID WASTE  WATER AND SANITATION SYSTEM COMPONENT SCHEMATIC ( a f t e r : Gamble and Jansen, 1974)  - 84 -  A b r i e f o u t l i n e of the water supply, d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n , wastewater utility  treatment and d i s p o s a l , and s o l i d waste management aspects o f  systems f o l l o w s .  i n t h i s chapter  This provides  a background f o r the d i s c u s s i o n  o f the development o f water and s a n i t a t i o n systems and  p o l i c i e s , o b j e c t i v e s , t e c h n i c a l , economic and p l a n n i n g  considerations,  and the e v a l u a t i o n of o p t i o n s .  4.1 Water and Sanitation Systems 4.1.1  Water supply C o l l e c t i n g rainwater  low p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  i n the N.W.T. i s u s u a l l y f u t i l e  Snow and i c e are t r a d i t i o n a l sources  because of the of d r i n k i n g  water s t i l l  used by some N a t i v e  and m e l t i n g  snow and i c e make them i m p r a c t i c a l f o r community water  supply.  Where permafrost  people but the h i g h c o s t of h a r v e s t i n g  i s p r e s e n t , groundwater  v e r y deep and h i g h l y m i n e r a l i z e d .  Surface  i s e i t h e r absent or i s  waters appear  abundant;  however, water i s u n a v a i l a b l e i n the many s m a l l r i v e r s and l a k e s because they  f r e e z e t o the bottom d u r i n g w i n t e r .  rivers,  "Away from l a r g e l a k e s and  s u r f a c e water may be a v a i l a b l e i n summer o n l y " ( R i c e and A l t e r ,  1974, p. 1 0 ) . Nine communites i n the N.W.T. must a n n u a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d water r e s e r v o i r s to assure year  (Smith,  Shevkenek  and M i l b u r n ,  a source  1984).  of water throughout the  R i v e r s have s e a s o n a l l y  sediment loads which n e c e s s i t a t e s water treatment b e f o r e treatment processes  are impeded  refill  high  use. A l l water  by the low temperature of the water.  4.1.2 Distribution and collection D e l i v e r y o f water to houses and the removal of waste may be e i t h e r  - 85  -  an i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or a community o p e r a t i o n u s i n g trucked piped  or  systems. Trucked  s e r v i c e s are present  i n the l a r g e s t  are the most common method of water d e l i v e r y and the s m a l l e r , N a t i v e communities.  Trucked  cities  and  towns and  sewage c o l l e c t i o n i n  water s e r v i c e i s u s u a l l y  p r o v i d e d twice per week u s i n g wheeled 4500 l i t r e v e h i c l e s .  Trucked  sewage s e r v i c e i s e i t h e r by honeybag or sewage pumpout and  depends on  the household chemical  toilet  toilet,  and  plumbing f a c i l i t i e s .  the honeybag (a p l a s t i c bag  used as a t o i l e t ) or bucket s e v e r a l times  per week.  inside a container  Washwater from the k i t c h e n , l a u n d r y  tank can be i n s t a l l e d  to accept  are u s u a l l y evacuated  weekly.  s e r v i c e as southern  liner  i s placed outside f o r c o l l e c t i o n , d a i l y  bathroom i s d i s c h a r g e d onto the ground.  Piped water and  For houses w i t h a  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a sewage h o l d i n g  a l l household  wastewater.  These  tanks  systems have been c o n s t r u c t e d i n the North but to prevent  freezing.  In the South, water  sewer pipes are b u r i e d below the maximum depth of f r o s t i n permafrost  for a shallow a c t i v e l a y e r . and  and  sewer systems which p r o v i d e the same f u n c t i o n and  d e s i g n must be m o d i f i e d  f r e e z i n g but  or  areas  to  and  prevent  the ground i s permanently f r o z e n  Methods used to prevent  the  except  f r e e z i n g of water  sewer pipes i n c l u d e i n s u l a t i n g , h e a t i n g , r e c i r c u l a t i o n , and  water  wasting. Where permafrost when thawed, i t may  i s i c e r i c h , t h e r m a l l y s e n s i t i v e , and  be n e c e s s a r y  to i n s t a l l water and  ground on p i l e s or on a berm to prevent  unstable  sewer pipes above  thawing the p e r m a f r o s t .  ground pipes are o f t e n p l a c e d i n a common e n c l o s u r e c a l l e d a  Above  utilidor.  - 86 -  4.1.3  Wastewater treatment and disposal I n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g wastewater d i s p o s a l systems such as an outhouse  or s e p t i c f i e l d  are not f e a s i b l e i n areas of continuous  permafrost  because d e g r a d a t i o n and i n f i l t r a t i o n of the wastewater do not occur i n f r o z e n ground. related  Community wastewater treatment and d i s p o s a l systems are  to the type of water d i s t r i b u t i o n and sewage c o l l e c t i o n system.  Separate p i t s are r e p l a c i n g honeybag d i s p o s a l .  Lagoons are the most  treatment i n the N o r t h .  common method of wastewater  They are simple and robust and have low  o p e r a t i n g requirements and c o s t . used i n i n d u s t r i a l  the garbage s i t e as an area f o r  M e c h a n i c a l treatment p l a n t s have been  camps because they are compact  and p o r t a b l e .  They  have not been used i n communities because they are complex and expensive to o p e r a t e . D i r e c t d i s c h a r g e of wastewater i n t o r i v e r s , l a k e s and oceans i s u s u a l l y avoided i n favour of i n d i r e c t d i s c h a r g e i n t o swamps, or on land or i n t o c r e e k s .  This p r a c t i c e provides a d d i t i o n a l  e l i m i n a t e s the need f o r piped  4.1.4  treatment and  outfalls.  Solid waste management In small communities household s o l i d waste i s placed i n used 45  g a l l o n drums.  Garbage i s c o l l e c t e d weekly using an open t r u c k or s m a l l  packer t r u c k .  In l a r g e r communities the p r a c t i c e and the equipment are  the same as with southern urban systems. An open dump i s the most fill  can not be p r a c t i c e d  common d i s p o s a l method.  i n most  Sanitary  land  l o c a t i o n s because cover m a t e r i a l i s  - 87  not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g w i n t e r .  -  Low  a l l o w b i o l o g i c a l d e g r a d a t i o n of garbage frozen i n storage.  temperature and dryness do not  to occur; r a t h e r , the garbage i s  I n c i n e r a t i o n , s h r e d d i n g , b a l i n g and other forms of  treatment have found l i m i t e d  a p p l i c a t i o n because of t h e i r high c o s t  and  complexity.  4.2  Development  o f Water and S a n i t a t i o n S e r v i c e s and  The development  of s e t t l e m e n t s , the e v o l u t i o n of water  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e p o l i c i e s and developments i n f l u e n c e d water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s  4.2.1  H i s t o r i c a l development  d r i n k i n g was  i n the N.W.T.  o f s e t t l e m e n t s and  utilities from s u r f a c e waters,  The s m a l l volume of water consumed f o r cooking and  r e l a t i v e l y easy to o b t a i n .  temporary camps was The  and  i n technology have a l l  B e f o r e c o n t a c t , N a t i v e people o b t a i n e d water snow and i c e .  Policies  D e f e c a t i o n on the t r a i l  or i n  governed by the d e s i r e f o r p r i v a c y and c o m f o r t .  temporary n a t u r e of the N a t i v e people's t r a d i t i o n a l  shelter  l a c k e d plumbing and s a n i t a t i o n , but allowed them to r e l o c a t e e a s i l y avoid  the i n e v i t a b l e wastewater  at the d o o r s t e p (Magid, 1983).  nomadic l i f e s t y l e negated most p u b l i c h e a l t h and a e s t h e t i c  In the e a r l i e s t times i n d i v i d u a l s e l f r e l i a n c e and c a p a b i l i t y , to the utmost degree, grew out of the harsh s e t t i n g . Although i n d i v i d u a l s t r e n g t h and e x c e l l e n c e were emphasized, these v a l u e s were n u r t u r e d w i t h i n a framework of group purpose. The group purpose was to meet the b a s i c needs f o r s u r v i v a l i n a h a r s h environment. The i n d i v i d u a l comfort and s a t i s f a c t i o n that a f f l u e n c e might have  The  problems.  and  - 88  -  promised was not of o v e r - r i d i n g importance to group and community needs. Without these c o n s t r a i n t s , water c o u l d be d e l i v e r e d when i t was needed and wastes c o u l d be taken away when n e c e s s a r y . People could move from the waste to a new community or home when the promises of b e t t e r s u b s i s t a n c e loomed elsewhere. Harsh environment cooperated by r e t a i n i n g otherwise hazardous wastes l o c k e d i n dormant f r o z e n s t a t e f o r months at a time. ( A l t e r , 1977, p. 20,21)  The  s i t u a t i o n changed with the advent of permanent b u i l d i n g s and  the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n community p o p u l a t i o n s . l o n g e r move to c l e a n e r surroundings  The  r e s i d e n t s can  with no  when accumulated waste becomes  evident. Most of the permanent s e t t l e m e n t s were v e r y s m a l l u n t i l World II.  Water and  simple.  s a n i t a t i o n was  There were some e x c e p t i o n s .  stave piped water and persons fully  an i n d i v i d u a l concern  living  As e a r l y as 1899  sewer system was  i n Dawson C i t y , Yukon.  replaced u n t i l  1980  and  installed  initiated  This h i s t o r i c  system was  p o p u l a t i o n s occured  during  and  not  the  50's  education  N a t i v e people moved o f f the land i n t o  Housing programs and water and  the  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s were  to improve the h e a l t h of the N a t i v e people  the c o s t of medical  a b u r i e d wood  to s e r v i c e 10,000  when the f e d e r a l government extended w e l f a r e , m e d i c a l  settlements.  systems were  ( S h i l l i n g t o n et a l . , 1981).  A rapid increase i n settlement  s e r v i c e s to the N.W.T.  War  i n order to reduce  services.  When the people abandoned nomadic l i f e f o r s e t t l e d l i f e , i l l n e s s s t a t i s t i c s began to r i s e q u i c k l y . L i v i n g i n constant c o n t a c t w i t h each o t h e r , compounded by the problems of waste d i s p o s a l and a c l e a n water s u p p l y , caused epidemics of e n t e r i c and r e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s to a t t a c k the s e t t l e m e n t s . Government medical o f f i c i a l s concluded that f a i l u r e  - 89  -  to b u i l d immunity was only p a r t l y to blame; the shacks, tents and snow houses i n which people were l i v i n g were another cause. They decided that i n the long run i t would be cheaper and b e t t e r to p r o v i d e p r o p e r l y s e r v i c e d 'low c o s t ' housing than to spend l a r g e amounts on medical and h o s p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s to treat sicknesses. (Grainge and R o y l e , 1974, p. 40)  But  utility  systems were i n s t a l l e d  buildings, schools, considered included  nursing  s t a t i o n s and  n e c e s s a r y to p r o v i d e  standard  to s e r v i c e p r i m a r i l y government s t a f f houses.  housing, f u l l  Native  servants  population  There was Various  not  benefited  had  plumbing, and  piped  from the u t i l i t y  rudimentary s e r v i c e , i f  government agencies i n s t a l l e d  haulage to s o p h i s t i c a t e d piped the economic base and community.  By  to the N a t i v e  1960  and  A small  sewer number of the  larger  any. utility  services.  operated independent  systems  Types of s e r v i c e v a r i e d from i n d i v i d u a l systems.  the extent  Service  created  standards depended  of government a c t i v i t i e s  the l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n  people had  water and  systems while  a community a u t h o r i t y to c o o r d i n a t e  o f t e n i n . t h e same community.  was  'southern' s t y l e a m e n i t i e s which  systems to a t t r a c t government s t a f f from the South. white c i v i l  It  and  in  on  the  deficiency in services  intolerable conditions.  The v a s t m a j o r i t y of the communities i n the T e r r i t o r i e s were s e r v i c e d by the most rudimentary and i n e f f e c t i v e community water and s a n i t a t i o n systems. As a r e s u l t , h e p a t i t i s , g a s t r o e n t e r i t i s , t y p h o i d , dysentry and other d i s e a s e s r e l a t e d to u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s were rampant and i m p o s s i b l e to c o n t r o l . I t was c l e a r l y obvious that government a s s s i s t a n c e was r e q u i r e d to improve the l e v e l of water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1980, p. 9,10)  - 90 -  4.2.2  Contemporary water and sanitation policies In 1962  the. f e d e r a l government  acknowledged  p o p u l a t i o n was a b a s i c element f o r s o c i a l  that a h e a l t h y  and economic  development.  They embarked on a program to improve c o n d i t i o n s i n the non-tax based Native  communities.  A formal  communities i n southern problems simply  recognized  that most  small  Canada could s o l v e t h e i r water and s a n i t a t i o n  and cheaply  by tapping groundwater and by  outhouses or s e p t i c f i e l d s . Permafrost  policy  T h i s was  utilizing  not the case i n n o r t h e r n  regions.  and c o l d c l i m a t e d i c t a t e d unique and expensive systems.  1962 P o l i c y p r o v i d e d  f o r 50% of the c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g  The  c o s t s of  community water and s a n i t a t i o n systems. The 1962 P o l i c y proved i n o p e r a t i v e because of the d i v e r s e communities and the n e g l i g i b l e cash p o l i c y was  r e v i s e d i n 1967.  water source continued.  was  provided  The  The f r e e 'water p o i n t ' system by which a  f o r the r e s i d e n t s to c o l l e c t  water  was  In a d d i t i o n , a trucked water d e l i v e r y and a l i q u i d  c o l l e c t i o n system was wanted  income of many r e s i d e n t s .  proposed to s e r v i c e those  better service.  However, few N a t i v e  N a t i v e people were able or w i l l i n g review of the 1967 P o l i c y  who  sewage  could a f f o r d  and  houses had plumbing, and  to pay the c o s t of these  concluded:  I t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t that the p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d minimum s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are no l o n g e r s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the m a j o r i t y of N.W.T. commnities. T h i s a p p l i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y to the d i s c h a r g e of waste water from d w e l l i n g s d i r e c t l y on the ground adjacent to the b u i l d i n g and to the common m i s h a n d l i n g of bagged sewage by d e p o s i t i n g the bags on the ground o u t s i d e the d w e l l i n g to await the  services.  few A  - 91 -  c o l l e c t i o n v e h i c l e . . . t h i s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n breakage and s e r i o u s c o n t a m i n a t i o n of the ground around the homes. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s undoubtedly producing p u b l i c h e a l t h problems. (G.N.W.T., 1973, p. 6)  The N.W.T. became infamous outbreaks.  P r e s s u r e to improve  f o r h e p a t i t i s epidemics and d y s e n t r y the s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s of the N a t i v e  people arose from the r a c i a l overtones of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n housing and services.  Racism has a l o t to do w i t h plumbing. I f you a r e a n a t i v e l i v i n g i n a house without r u n n i n g water and your white neighbour has a f u l l y equiped bathroom and k i t c h e n s i n k , you may have two r e a c t i o n s . You may f e e l a p a t h e t i c and i n f e r i o r - you don't expect running water - o r you may be angry. G e n e r a l l y there i s r a c i a l t e n s i o n between the white who has and the n a t i v e who h a s n ' t . (Gemini N o r t h L t d . quoted i n : Edmonton J o u r n a l , 1974)  Disease and charges of r a c i s m brought p r e s s u r e to improve  services.  e x p l o s i o n i n o i l and gas a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the 70's brought  The  national  a t t e n t i o n to t h e North and to these problems. The government's r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n services  was based on i n f e r r e d  f o r p r o v i d i n g water and s a n i t a t i o n  improvements i n h e a l t h .  knowledge' and s t u d i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n d i c a t e d  'Common positive  b e n e f i t c o s t r a t i o s f o r such s e r v i c e s ( e . g . , P y a t t and Rogers,  E x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s done i n d e v e l o p i n g r e g i o n s throughout the world c o n f i r m that improvements i n b a s i c water and s a n i t a t i o n systems r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n d i s e a s e . These same improvements form the base f o r economic and s o c i a l development. . . . I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t that most N o r t h e r n e r s cannot f i n a n c e even the most rudimentary system due to h i g h c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s  1962).  - 92 -  i n the n o r t h and the depressed economic c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g a t the present time. T h e r e f o r e , the p r o v i s i o n of improved s e r v i c e s reduces to the question: AT WHAT LEVEL OF SERVICE IS THE GOVERNMENT PREPARED TO SUPPORT EACH COMMUNITY? ( A s s o c i a t e d E n g i n e e r i n g S e r v i c e s L t d . , 1973, p . i )  In 1974 a new Water and S a n i t a t i o n P o l i c y (G.N.W.T., 1973) initiated  by the G.N.W.T. was approved by Treasury  Board.  Minimum  l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e were d e f i n e d and consumer charges i n non-tax-based communities were formulated  to r e f l e c t  what r e s i d e n t s c o u l d  L e v e l s of s e r v i c e under the new 1974 p o l i c y piped systems were suggested f a c t o r ( T a b l e 4.1). government $109  Level 1  million  2  using community p o p u l a t i o n as the b a s i c  ($ 1973)  over  the 11 years  Community Population than 50  50 - 150  3  150  - 700  4  Over 700  to implement  S e r v i c e s L t d . , 1973).  LEVELS OF SERVICE UNDER THE 1974  Less  from no s e r v i c e to f u l l y  The 1974 P o l i c y was p r e d i c t e d to c o s t the  (Associated Engineering  TABLE 4.1  afford.  WATER AND SANITATION POLICY  D e s c r i p t i o n of Service No  service provided.  T r a c t o r o r wagon d e l i v e r y of water and c o l l e c t i o n o f sewage bags. P a r t i a l piped system w i t h d e l i v e r y to and from c e n t r a l f a c i l i t y by v e h i c l e . Homes to be equipped w i t h pumpout tanks. Completely  piped water and sewer.  - 93 -  In non-tax based communities an e q u a l i z e d residences 1.  service rate for  was e s t a b l i s h e d :  V e h i c l e Water D e l i v e r y : $5.00 per month f o r 800 g a l l o n s o f water per household per month; $5.00 f o r every a d d i t i o n a l 400 g a l l o n s o f water up to a t o t a l of 1200 g a l l o n s ; and the economic r a t e ( i . e . ,  the a c t u a l t o t a l  c o s t ) f o r any excess  water demand. 2.  V e h i c l e Sewage Pumpout S e r v i c e :  3.  Piped Water  same r a t e as above  and Sewage S e r v i c e : $15.00 per month f o r 40 g a l l o n s  of water per person per day; and the economic r a t e f o r any excess water demand 4.  Garbage and Wet-Bag Sewage:  free  The G.N.W.T. would pay the t o t a l c a p i t a l c o s t as w e l l as a l l o p e r a t i n g l o s s e s net o f s e r v i c e charges c o l l e c t e d . In tax-based communities c o s t o f piped  pay the t o t a l  capital  water and sewage systems except l a t e r a l s e r v i c e l i n e s and  b u i l d i n g service connections. operating  the G.N.W.T. would  The tax-based communities had to recover  c o s t s , except f o r a p a r t i a l  subsidy  o f trucked  water s e r v i c e ,  through customer c h a r g e s . In 1976, a Water and S a n i t a t i o n S e c t i o n w i t h i n L o c a l Government was e s t a b l i s h e d program r e c e i v e d Changes  to implement  s u b s t a n t i a l funding,  the Department of  the 1974 P o l i c y . The  e.g., $20.2 m i l l i o n  i n 1980-81.  to the p o l i c y are ongoing but to date they have been e s s e n t i a l l y  " f i n e tuning" Efforts  (Christensen,  1980).  to encourage non-tax-based communities  to operate and  m a i n t a i n t h e i r own water and s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s were  discontinued  - 94  w i t h the  1974  Policy.  -  A c c o r d i n g to C h r i s t e n s e n (1980), the  c o n s i s t e n t l y poor f a c i l i t y maintenance and  recurring  the non-tax-based communities were conceded overcome without G.N.W.T. h e l p .  to be  problems of  system f a i l u r e s i n  too g r e a t  Consequently i n the  to  be  non-tax-based  communities the government undertook r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l a s p e c t s of community water and  sanitation services:  design, construction, The for  1974  various  and  cost  P o l i c y suggested s p e c i f i c systems and  s i z e s of communities ( T a b l e  4.1).  J a n s s e n , 1974).  Sanitation Section alternatives.  placed  basic and  4.2.3  and  framework and  analysis  policy analysis The  the  1974  estimate  the  the  and  economic a n a l y s i s  costs  developed  of  trucked  to a s s i s t i n  of water and  sanitation  computer model provided  f o r 'pre-design' studies  of  the  of community water  s a n i t a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s (Cameron, 1980).  Responsibility and  financing  In tax-based c i t i e s , p r o v i d e d by  the  An  indicated  f o r p u b l i c works and  i  towns and  community.  s e r v i c e s done i n 1974 was  emphasis on  systems (Cameron, 1979).  to  l a t e 1970's, the Water  A computer model was  e n g i n e e r i n g , management and  In e s t a b l i s h i n g  service  a community s p e c i f i c b a s i s  Much of t h i s e f f o r t focused on  v e r s u s piped s e r v i c e s .  services  During the  increased  l e v e l s of  p a r t i a l l y developed  of a l t e r n a t i v e l e v e l s of s e r v i c e on  (Gamble and  finance,  operation.  p o l i c y a rudimentary computer model was the  p o l i c y , planning,  v i l l a g e s the m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s  analysis that  water and  the  of m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e s largest municipal  sewer s e r v i c e s  are  and  expenditure  were a l a r g e  item  - 95 -  w i t h i n the p u b l i c works budget.  However, the t o t a l net m u n i c i p a l  e x p e n d i t u r e s and the customer charges were lower than f o r many p r o v i n c i a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s because o f the t e r r i t o r i a l generous c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e program.  government's  The 1974 study warned:  F u r t h e r h i g h l e v e l s o f a s s i s t a n c e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may suppress widely-based m u n i c i p a l i n i t i a t i v e and the development of a sense of b e l o n g i n g to the community. Such commodities tend to be i n s h o r t supply i n the N.W.T. m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . High l e v e l s o f a s s i s t a n c e can a l s o breed i n e f f i c i e n c y i n the management o f f i n a n c e s i n a d d i t i o n to promoting possibly wasteful a l l o c a t i o n of f i n a n c i a l resources. ( B o r e a l I n s t i t u t e f o r N o r t h e r n S t u d i e s , 1974, p. 5-392)  In the non-tax based communities, the G.N.W.T. has the primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . trucked water, sewage and garbage s e r v i c e s hamlets h i r e p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t o r s o t h e r s do the work themselves.  administer  f o r the G.N.W.T.  to p r o v i d e  trucked s e r v i c e s  Some while  The G.N.W.T. reimburses the hamlet f o r  t o t a l c o s t s net o f revenues that are c o l l e c t e d s e t t l e m e n t s the G.N.W.T. i s r e s p o n s i b l e sanitation services.  Hamlets  from customers. I n  f o r a l l a s p e c t s of water and  Trucked s e r v i c e s are o f t e n c o n t r a c t e d out l o c a l l y .  Four departments and agencies o f the G.N.W.T. are d i r e c t l y  Involved  i n the p r o v i s i o n o r f i n a n c i n g o f community water and s a n i t a t i o n services.  These agencies a r e i n v o l v e d as a p r o v i d e r of funds f o r water  and s a n i t a t i o n systems and/or as a consumer o f s e r v i c e s . summarizes  T a b l e 4.2  the e x p e n d i t u r e s by the G.N.W.T. d u r i n g 1980-81. The  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f these a g e n c i e s i s o u t l i n e d  below:  TABLE 4.2  WATER AND SANITATION SERVICES EXPENDITURES BY GOVERNMENT OF THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, 1980-81 (from: Water and S a n i t a t i o n S e c t i o n , 1981)  G.N.W.T. as P r o v i d e r o f Funds L o c a l Government P u b l i c Works  $ 4,604,000 5,316,000 $ 9,920,000  G.N.W.T. as Consumer o f S e r v i c e s L o c a l Government P u b l i c Works N.W.T. Housing C o r p o r a t i o n Social Services  G.N.W.T. O p e r a t i o n s and Maintenance G.N.W.T. C a p i t a l E x p e n d i t u r e s  $  83,500 1,306,000 836,000 43,500 $ 2,269,000 Expenditure  $11,974,000 $ 8,200,000  T o t a l G.N.W.T. E x p e n d i t u r e s ( C a p i t a l p l u s 0 & M)  1.  $20,174,000  Department o f L o c a l Goverment - assists cities,  towns and v i l l a g e s with g r a n t s f o r  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and t r u c k e d water - funds  delivery  trucked water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n hamlets and  settlements 2.  Department o f P u b l i c Works - maintains  a l l mechanical  water and s a n i t a t i o n  i n hamlets and s e t t l e m e n t s and maintains  infrastructure  water and s a n i t a t i o n  v e h i c l e s and a s s o c i a t e d garages i n s e t t l e m e n t s - p r o v i d e s c o n s u l t i n g and p r o j e c t management  s e r v i c e s to  Department o f L o c a l Government - pays f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s to G.N.W.T. b u i l d i n g s and  staff  houses  - 97 -  3.  N.W.T. Housing  Corporation  - p r o v i d e s L o c a l Housing A s s o c i a t i o n s with necessary  funds t o  pay f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s to a l l 'Rental i.e.,  a l l G.N.W.T. s u b s i d i z e d  - recovers  Units,'  housing  f o r ' P u b l i c Housing U n i t s ' (which make up about 55%  of a l l s u b s i d i z e d 'Rental U n i t s ' ) , h a l f o f the water and s a n i t a t i o n charges from C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing and h a l f from G.N.W.T. T r e a s u r y 4.  Department  of S o c i a l  Services  - provides  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to needy persons f o r b a s i c  water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s ( c u r r e n t l y o n l y  necessary  w i t h i n tax-based communities).  4.2.4  Current status and issues  The l e v e l of community water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the N.W.T. has improved c o n s i d e r a b l y as a r e s u l t  of the 1974 P o l i c y . ^  1982, Vern C h r i s t e n s e n , Head of the Water  However i n  and S a n i t a t i o n S e c t i o n , noted  that " i n many i n s t a n c e s water and s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  are s t i l l  1Several r e p o r t s have recorded the s t a t u s and e v o l u t i o n o f water and s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s i n the N.W.T. communities. Heinke (1973) documented the s e r v i c e s i n most communities as they were i n 1970 and 1971. A background r e p o r t f o r the Water and S a n i t a t i o n P o l i c y prepared by A s s o c i a t e d E n g i n e e r i n g S e r v i c e s L t d . (1973) p r o v i d e d a s e r v i c e s t a t u s summary f o r a l l communities. In 1981 an i n v e n t o r y r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d which provided a comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n a l l N.W.T. communities (EPEC C o n s u l t i n g Western L t d , 1981). The i n v e n t o r y r e p o r t was updated and expanded w i t h more t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r each r e g i o n o f the N.W.T. i n 1982 and 1983 (Cameron, Dusseault and E l k i n , 1982). There a r e a l s o academic, e n g i n e e r i n g and p l a n n i n g r e p o r t s on s p e c i f i c communities that c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s .  - 98 -  considerably i n f e r i o r Canada"  ( C h r i s t e n s e n 1982, p. 7 ) . Table 4.3 i n d i c a t e s  health deficiencies related  to those enjoyed by communities  typically  management.  i n 36 o f the 62 communities.  to honeybag  elsewhere i n there are p u b l i c  These d e f i c i e n c i e s a r e  sewage c o l l e c t i o n and s o l i d  There are e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e f i c i e n c i e s  waste  i n 20 o f the  communities and 11 communities have u n a c c e p t a b l e water  distribution  facilities. C h r i s t e n s e n (1982) r e p o r t e d expenditure i s required  that c o n s i d e r a b l e  to a c h i e v e an ' a c c e p t a b l e ' e q u i v a l e n t  l e v e l o f s e r v i c e i n a l l communities ( T a b l e 4.4). expenditures required  additional  i n the N.W.T. communities  to p i p e d ,  The a d d i t i o n a l i s $70.5 m i l l i o n  ($1981)  i n c a p i t a l and $10.6 m i l l i o n i n annual o p e r a t i o n s and maintenance costs.  The average annual t o t a l c o s t f o r ' a c c e p t a b l e ' water and  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e i s $700 per year i n the tax based communities and $1,500 per year i n the s m a l l e r non-taxed-based communities. e q u i v a l e n t t o $50 m i l l i o n per year f o r the whole N.W.T.  This i s  T h i s cost i s a  s t a g g e r i n g expense f o r the r e s i d e n t s and f o r the G.N.W.T. who have t r a d i t i o n a l l y heavily subsidized  the c o s t of water and s a n i t a t i o n  services. R e c e n t l y the G.N.W.T. has proposed to move towards the user for services.  The document " L o c a l Government D i r e c t i o n s  paying  f o r the 80's,"  approved by the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f the N.W.T. i n 1979, emphasized s t r e n g t h e n i n g l o c a l government fiscal  responsibility.  and i n c r e a s i n g c o n c o m i t t e n t l y  Among the recommendations  local  were the f o l l o w i n g :  i  TABLE 4.3  STATUS OF COMMUNITY WATER AND SANITATION SERVICES (from:  WATER SUPPLY FACILITIES  TREATMENT  PUBLIC SERVICE  STATUS  ACCEPTABLE  DESIGN  GOALS  AND  BACT  C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982)  WATER DISTRIBUTION  SEWAGE COLLECTION  SEWAGE TREATMENT/ DISPOSAL  PUBLIC  PUBLIC  PUBLIC  HEALTH  HEALTH  HEALTH  ENV.  HEALTH  51 44144 97.3  14  35 35877 79.1  20  26  23955 52.8  26519  29345  35757  58.5  64.7  78.9  SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES  HEALTH CHEM  ESTH  COMMUNITIES  37  59  56  POPULATION  39191  43479  42750  PERCENTAGE  86.5  95.9  94.3  PU5LIC ENV  42  *  GENERALLY  COMMUNITIES POPULATION  ACCEPTABLE  PERCENTAGE  • UNACCEPTABLE  COMMUNITIES POPULATION PERCENTAGE  32 19302 42.6 .  25 6145 13.5  3 1857 4.1  6 2586 5.7  11 1222 2.7  16 2079 4.6  27 9459 20.9  42 18817 41.5  36 15991 35.3  20 9579 21.1  - 100 -  TABLE 4.4  FINANCIAL STATUS OF WATER AND SANITATION SERVICES ($ 1981 x I O ) ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982) 6  Tax Based C i t i e s , Towns, Villages  Capital Cost of A c c e p t a b l e ^ S e r v i c e s Cost to Replace E x i s t i n g F a c i l i t i e s Incremental  ( C a p i t a l ) Cost  Annual Operations and Maintenance Cost o f A c c e p t a b l e S e r v i c e Existing 0 & M Incremental 0 & M Cost  Primarily Non-Tax Based Hamlets, and Settlements  129.7 117.7  121.5 68.5  12.8  57.7  3.3 3.7  20.8 9.8  (0.4)  11.0  1"Acceptable" s e r v i c e i s d e f i n e d as piped water and sewer s e r v i c e o r e q u i v a l e n t l e v e l of water supply and sewage pumpout s e r v i c e w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l water use of 90 l i t r e s per person per day.  - 101  -  1.  To develop among l o c a l government bodies and the people g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l ) f o r the e f f i c i e n t management of t h e i r communities and d e l i v e r y of t h e i r program and s e r v i c e s .  2.  To r e l a t e more c l o s e l y the l e v e l of programs  and  s e r v i c e s i n a community to l o c a l w i l l i n g n e s s  to  contribute  towards the cost  of those  services.  (G.N.W.T., 1979, p. 3)  Throughout the document there i s heavy emphasis financial contributions  to s e r v i c e s  s u g g e s t i o n to p r o v i d e a l o c a l  on i n c r e a s i n g  and programs.  community  Yet the o n l y  source of revenue i n the non-tax-based  communities i s by a " p r o p e r t y users tax" based on p r o p e r t y assessment. The tax would be payable by a l l occupants; even by those who the p r o p e r t y . services  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e communities  o p e r a t i o n s to the r e g i o n a l Rankin I n l e t , and F r o b i s h e r  i s not a d d r e s s e d .  i t s i n t e n t i o n of d e c e n t r a l i z i n g  Bay.  The most a g g r e s s i v e of L o c a l  Government.  In  sudden t r a n s f e r of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s was  r e g i o n s (McCallum, 1983).  Problems were evident  s a n i t a t i o n program (Wray, 1984).  I t was  1984  transferred  to  criticized  because program management s t a f f had not been h i r e d or t r a i n e d the  Bay,  decentralization  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l c a p i t a l programs management was This  government  o f f i c e s a t F o r t Smith, I n u v i k , Cambridge  program has been that of the Department  regions.  own  The problems of low cash income and h i g h cost f o r  The G.N.W.T. i n d i c a t e d  the  do not  in a l l  i n the water and  not u n t i l October 1984  that a l l  -  the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s were f u l l y  102 -  staffed with a t o t a l  p l a n n e r s and m u n i c i p a l e n g i n e e r s  of 13 community  ( S i b b e s t o n , 1984).  D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of L o c a l Government program management has occured but the u l t i m a t e p o l i c y and budget c o n t r o l remains i n Y e l l o w k n i f e .  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , not the p o l i c y a u t h o r i t y i s being d e c e n t r a l i z e d .  4.3  Objectives In the l i t e r a t u r e and i n government p o l i c i e s , c l e a r statements of  o b j e c t i v e s f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are l a c k i n g . are o f t e n i m p l i c i t , vague or g e n e r a l .  Objectives  The o b j e c t i v e s of government  water s a n i t a t i o n p o l i c i e s are sometimes confused w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . q u e s t i o n o f "why?" i s l o s t  Means are confused w i t h ends.  The  i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of "how?"  For example, A l t e r (1973) conducted  a survey of water and  s a n i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s among 25 Alaskan r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of governmental a g e n c i e s , c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s , r e s e a c h e r s and o t h e r s concerned community water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . results  f o r water supply o b j e c t i v e s .  decreased  with  T a b l e 4.5 p r e s e n t s the survey  The u s e f u l n e s s of the r e s u l t s i s  because the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s do not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the  means and ends ( e . g . , " p r o v i d e water f o r domestic  use," "prevent  of d i s e a s e " ) , and the r o l e of government a g e n c i e s  (e.g.,  service standards").  spread  "establish  Moreover, the o b j e c t i v e s of the communities and  the customers were not s o l i c i t e d  i n Alter's  survey.  Governments r e q u i r e c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s to j u s t i f y p u b l i c funds and to f a c i l i t a t e  the e x p e n d i t u r e of  the e v a l u a t i o n of programs.  Objectives  - 103 -  i  i ! i i , i : i i i i ' ' i; :  i I! 1 ! 1  1  i i  1  i1 •1 ii i 1 ; i i1  1  i 1 i  i l l ' i ! i  ! !  1 i 1 ! *  tO  Most«s^  TABLE  are will  4.5  the b a s i s  00  CNJ V>  1  | O p e r at tiec - FS ierrev-i Icned u isi Domes try Finance Service  01  CM ' C M <JJ  8  2  Requlate S e r v i c e 1 i ! co , ZD i j IPromote S e r v i t e : ! ! 1 O , lAcceDtabil i t v j i S2§ i iKonitor Service' : i ! 1 I P r o v : Water Under P r e s s u r e o Fad l i t a t e Service • Low C o s t S e r v i c e ; - | a: SimDlicitv ! : : i o Construct F a c i l i t i e s • • ' "1 Consumer S a t i s f a c t i o n : ; ll'eet Dom.X Fi r e f low Needs ' o o o I R e g u l a t e Qual. of S e r v i c e . QC UJ l E s t . Standards f o r S e r v i c e to a Environmental Excellence o 1 Efficient Service • ' ' :  1  1  1R e l i a b i 1 i t v i I P r o v i d e Water f o r D o m e s t i c Use1 \ P r e v e n t Spread o f D i s e a s e i  1 <  CM  |  iii  1  O  !  ; A•d v o c a1t eWork 1 ' i i • 1 i! Thawed & A v a i l a b l e : dual i f v f n r Prniprf":  O  CM  to  GO r—  O CM  •  i  •  •  CM CM  MAGNITUDE OF IMPORTANCE  • CM  •  CM  t  t/>  o s:  tO  CM  •Least  SURVEY OF WATER SUPPLY OBJECTIVES (from:  A l t e r , 1974)  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e that  the G.N.W.T.  s u b s i d i z e and/or p r o v i d e i n the communities.  t a r g e t o f government  water and s a n i t a t i o n programs  N a t i v e people a r e the but the o b j e c t i v e s of  the N a t i v e people have not been e x p l i c i t l y surveyed. The f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s  f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e  found i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i n G.N.W.T. p o l i c i e s :  1.  To improve the q u a l i t y o f l i f e which i n c l u d e s h e a l t h , c o m f o r t , convenience and a e s t h e t i c s  2.  To p r o t e c t  3.  To f a c i l i t a t e socio-economic development of the r e s i d e n t s and the community  4.  To p r o v i d e an e q u i t a b l e  5.  To p r o v i d e f i r e  the environment  s e r v i c e among a l l r e s i d e n t s  protection.  -  Specific objectives services health  are p r o v i d e d  104 -  or requirements f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n  in legislation.  and the environment.  These are meant to p r o t e c t  public  For example, the P u b l i c H e a l t h Ordinance of  the N.W.T. s p e c i f i e s d r i n k i n g  water q u a l i t y standards and the Northern  Inland  standards f o r m u n i c i p a l waste d i s c h a r g e s  Waters A c t e s t a b l i s h e s  to the environment.  4.3.1  Health I t i s accepted u n i v e r s a l l y that an adequate arid convenient  supply  of safe water and the s a n i t a r y management of waste are e s s e n t i a l to public health  and w e l l - b e i n g .  The improvement of p u b l i c h e a l t h  most common argument and r a t i o n a l e p r o v i d e d  to j u s t i f y  e x p e n d i t u r e s on water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s The  occurrance of s o - c a l l e d  i s the  public  i n the N.W.T. communities.  f i l t h - b o r n e diseases i s well  documented i n the North ( G r a i n g e and Shaw, 1971; A l t e r , 1972). apparent that  It i s  low temperature and permafrost do not suppress the  o c c u r r a n c e o f these d i s e a s e s .  Low temperature favours the s u r v i v a l ,  a l t h o u g h not the growth, o f b a c t e r i a .  Pathogens s u r v i v e  longer a t low  temperatures and may remain v i a b l e i n d e f i n i t e l y when f r o z e n  (Heinke and  P r a s a d , 1976; White and Spence, 1976; Davenport e t a l . 1976; D a h l i n g and Safferman, 1979).  Permafrost and extended p e r i o d  i n t e r f e r e with and r e t a r d and  of s e a s o n a l f r o s t  the a s s i m i l a t i o n c a p a c i t y  pathogens ( M i r z o e v , 1968).  of o r g a n i c  The p o t e n t i a l p u b l i c h e a l t h  material  hazard  wastewater d i s c h a r g e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the N o r t h . On the b a s i s  of a n t i c i p a t e d  health  improvements, m i l l i o n s of  from  -  d o l l a r s have been spent d u r i n g  105  the past  -  two  decades to improve water  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the N.W.T. communities. e f f e c t s of water and (Heinke, 1984;  Only r e c e n t l y have  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s on h e a l t h been  Michael,  1984).  According  s e r v i c e s has  been l a c k i n g and  the  researched  to McGarry et a l . (1978),  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h and  and  an  water s a n i t a t i o n  t h i s impedes e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i e s  and  p r o j e c t s to improve h e a l t h .  I d e n t i f y i n g the s o l u t i o n s to a problem i m p l i e s a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g of j u s t what the problem i s . Low l e v e l s of p u b l i c h e a l t h are by f a r the most f r e q u e n t reason g i v e n f o r i n v e s t i n g i n water supply and s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , yet the s a n i t a r y e n g i n e e r seldom, i f ever, has a complete grasp of what h e a l t h problem he i s t r y i n g to a l l e v i a t e . Health oriented i n t e r v e n t i o n s must respond to s p e c i f i c problem diseases, t h e i r l i k e l y transmission routes, e x i s t i n g hygiene p r a c t i c e s , and the socio-economic norms of the community. (McGarry et a l . , 1980, p. 122)  4.3.1.1 Relationship between health and water and sanitation. A r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h and  water and  s a n i t a t i o n has  been  s i n c e the  Most c u l t u r e s have views  that  time of H i p p o c r a t e s .  d i s c r i m i n a t e i n the c h o i c e  and  use  excreta.  the  first  Snow (1855) was  r e l a t i o n s h i p of a d i s e a s e  of water and  i n the d i s p o s a l of  to show a p r e c i s e  to water i n h i s c l a s s i c  the p a t h o g e n i c i t y  of b a c t e r i a was  Both c o n c l u s i o n s recognized.  disease  r e s u l t e d , not  through medicine, but  supply,  community s a n i t a t i o n , p e r s o n a l  cause/effect  study of  Soon a f t e r t h i s , W i l l i a m Budd demonstrated the spread water s u p p l i e s (Roueche, 1963).  recognized  cholera.  of tyhpoid  were reached  through before  Subsequent r e d u c t i o n s  in  from improvements i n water  hygiene, and  living  conditions.  -  106  -  Changes i n a t t i t u d e were concoramittent with these changes i n and  community l i f e s t y l e .  nineteenth reduction resulted  century  ' C l e a n l i n e s s i s next to G o d l i n e s s '  western" maxim that has  i n communicable d i s e a s e s . i n a preoccupation  excrement as  w i t h water q u a l i t y and  prevention  of p u b l i c funds.  provided  of d i s e a s e  and  countries.  of h e a l t h  An e x t e n s i v e E d u c a t i o n and  to c l a r i f y  sanitation.  of  of  belief  that  the  s t u d i e s provided  little  that can  be  and  with  However, the  better  authors help  in  expected  from  sanitation services. Department of  Welfare of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i s e a s e unable to uncover e x p l i c i t  causation  Health,  and  solid  upon which c o n f i d e n t  that:  " I t i s fortunate  concerned w i t h p u b l i c h e a l t h have acted  and  and  authors conceded that " g u i l t by a s s o c i a t i o n " d i d  However, they noted  The  studies  "more  are a s s o c i a t e d  p. 195).  improvement  the s c i e n t i f i c f o u n d a t i o n  and  expenditures  review of 28 e m p i r i c a l  study conducted f o r the U.S.  human f e c a l waste was The  attempted  water and  intuitive  that the e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l  improvment i n water and  linkages.  also  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  a s c i e n t i f i c rationale for  better sanitary f a c i l i t i e s  d e t e r m i n i n g the l e v e l specific  phobia has  f o r the e v a l u a t i o n  One  (Saunders and Warford, 1976,  concluded  for a  s t u d i e s have been d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y  evidence to r e i n f o r c e the  b e t t e r water and  planned.  to provide  Epidemiological  towards the d e v e l o p i n g  provide  studies  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among h e a l t h and  c o n t r o l and  fecal  is a  'waste.'  purpose of these s t u d i e s was  health"  been r e s p o n s i b l e  However, t h i s  Only r e c e n t l y have e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l quantify  personal  actions  not can  that  persons  to c o n t r o l d i s e a s e  without  be  -  107  -  w a i t i n g f o r the d i s c o v e r y of u l t i m a t e s c i e n t i f i c  t r u t h " (Hanks,  1967,  p. 1 ) . Reviewing h e a l t h hazards a q u a t i c environment B e l l  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h waste d i s c h a r g e s  (1975) noted  the d i f f i c u l t y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between water-borne d i s e a s e s and the l a c k of knowledge i n regard  many pathogenic and  organisms.  immunizations procedures  health.  to the s p e c i f i c  the  i n a s s e s s i n g the  to the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of  organisms i n t o the environment and  to  He h i g h l i g h t e d pathogenic  routes and  c y c l e s of  B e l l warned that water treatment p r a c t i c e s which l e d to the c o n t r o l of most  water-borne d i s e a s e s " l u l l e d Western c i v i l i z a t i o n  i n t o a somewhat  false  sense of s e c u r i t y r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e s a f e t y of our water s u p p l i e s " (Bell,  1975,  p. 2 ) .  White and and  S e v i o u r (1974) reviewed  s a n i t a t i o n i n less-developed c o u n t r i e s .  pronounced s h i f t and  the e f f e c t s of r u r a l water  supply  They documented a  i n p e r c e p t i o n of the l i n k between r u r a l water s u p p l i e s  sanitation.  There has been a pronounced s h i f t i n t h i n k i n g about r u r a l water s u p p l i e s and s a n i t a t i o n d u r i n g the past 20 y e a r s , from a r a t h e r s i m p l i s t i c view which h e l d t h a t d i s e a s e was a major c o n s t r a i n t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , and i f i t were l e s s e n e d , i n c r e a s e d economic development would i n e v i t a b l y f o l l o w . A more c o m p l i c a t e d view f o l l o w e d , which saw the s o c i a l system i n which the water system took shape as a v e r y important f a c t o r i n any p l a n n i n g . A more recent s h i f t has been toward the view t h a t the people being served are the ones who are most capable, w i t h a s s i s t a n c e , of choosing what l e v e l of improvement they can best use. Systems i n v o l v i n g c h o i c e s by the users themselves and an a n a l y s i s of the r i s k s they are w i l l i n g to take, weighed a g a i n s t the b e n e f i t s they f e e l they w i l l r e c e i v e are more l i k e l y to b r i n g them l a s t i n g b e n e f i t s . (White and S e v i o u r , 1974, p. 6)  -  108 -  The s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d to above a t t e s t  to the complex  relationship  between h e a l t h on the one hand and water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s on the other.  Scientific  Bradley's  c a u s e / e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are e l u s i v e .  classification  c a t e g o r i e s which r e l a t e i s an important lists  2  of w a t e r - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s  i n f e c t i o u s diseases d i r e c t l y  advance i n understanding  the water r e l a t e d  f a e c a l - o r a l diseases assigned categories.  Table  4.6  and l i n k s them to  T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has the  to both water-borne and water-washed  Feachem, et a l . (1978) proposed the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n  Table 4.7 i n which w a t e r - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s category.  to water s u p p l i e s  the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  t r a n s m i s s i o n mechanisms  appropriate preventative s t r a t e g i e s .  into  can be assigned  These s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s however  to o n l y one  systems i n d i c a t e the  they have not yet been s p e c i f i c a l l y adapted to the  d i s e a s e s and c o n d i t i o n s i n the N.W.T. Empirical  s t u d i e s , e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l analyses  and  classification  T h e r e are many d i f f e r e n t i n f e c t i v e d i s e a s e s that may be a f f e c t e d by changes i n water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . Diseases are u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d by the microbe c a u s i n g them: v i r a l , b a c t e r i a l , p r o t o z o a l and heminthic d i s e a s e s . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s not very h e l p f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g improvements i n water and s a n i t a t i o n and non-medical o r i e n t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are d e s i r a b l e . B r a d l e y ' s o r i g i n a l 1971 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o u r mechanisms f o r w a t e r - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e t r a n s m i s s i o n have been m o d i f i e d over time to a r r i v e at T a b l e 4.5 ( B r a d l e y , 1977). The s t r u c t u r e of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n B r a d l e y (1974) and White, Bradley and White (1972) as w e l l as i n a number of other reviews of h e a l t h a s p e c t s of water s u p p l i e s and s a n i t a t i o n . Other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have been proposed w i t h d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s or c o n d i t i o n s i n mind. Feachem, et a l . (1981) p r o v i d e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h a t i s most r e l e v e n t to the e f f e c t s of e x c r e t a d i s p o s a l and i t i s h e l p f u l i n c o n s i d e r i n g the impact of changing e x c r e t a d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s and t e c h n o l o g i e s . 2  -  TABLE 4.6  109 -  CLASSIFICATION OF INFECTIVE DISEASES IN RELATION TO WATER SUPPLIES ( B r a d l e y , 1977)  Category  Examples  I Water-borne i n f e c t i o n s (a) C l a s s i c a l (b) N o n - c l a s s i c a l  Relevant  Typhoid, Cholera Microbiological Infective hepatitis Microbiological  I I Water-washed i n f e c t i o n s Greater (a) S k i n and eyes S c a b i e s , trachoma (b) D i a r r h o e a l d i s e a s e s B a c i l l a r y d y s e n t e r y G r e a t e r I I I Water-based i n f e c t i o n s (a) P e n e t r a t i n g s k i n (b) Ingested  Schistosomiasis Guinea worm  IV I n f e c t i o n s w i t h waterr e l a t e d insect vectors (a) B i t i n g near water Sleeping sickness (b) Breeding near water Y e l l o w f e v e r V I n f e c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y of defective sanitation Hookworm  TABLE 4.7  Water  Improvements  sterility improvement  volume a v a i l a b l e volume a v a i l a b l e  P r o t e c t i o n of user P r o t e c t i o n of source  Water piped Water piped  from source to s i t e of user  Sanitary faecal disposal  CLASSIFICATION OF WATER-RELATED DISEASES (Feachem, 1977)  Category 1.  2.  3.  4.  Example  F a e c a l - o r a l (water-borne or water-washed (a) low i n f e c t i v e dose (b) h i g h i n f e c t i v e dose  Cholera Bacillary  Water-washed (a) s k i n and eye i n f e c t i o n s (b) o t h e r  Trachoma, s c a b i e s Louse-borne f e v e r  Water-based (a) p e n e t r a t i n g (b) i n g e s t e d  Schistosomiasis Guinea worm  skin  Water-related insect vectors (a) b i t i n g near water (b) b r e e d i n g i n water  Sleeping Malaria  dysentery  sickness  -  systems i n d i c a t e  110  the numerous t r a n s m i s s i o n  These d i s e a s e s can  be a f f e c t e d  by  the  1.  q u a l i t y of water provided  2.  quantity  3.  a v a i l a b i l i t y , convenience and  4.  c o l l e c t i o n , treatment and  vector  r e l i a b i l i t y of water  the  the use  s o c i a l context are of a water and  2.  water use  3.  p e r c e p t i o n s of the  practices  excreta,  equally  important.  Factors  include:  f o r p e r s o n a l hygiene causes of i l l n e s s  and  the  benefits  of water  sanitation  c o n f i d e n c e i n the  e f f e c t i v e public health 1.  nutrition  2.  housing and  3.  public health  4.  medical  The  full  s e r v i c e and  system.  improvement program  household  integrated  into  an  include:  plumbing  education  services.  potential health  w i l l not  system, the  for  s a n i t a t i o n system  Concomittant community programs that must be  services  practices  supply  s o l i d waste  acceptance of water q u a l i t y  4.  following:  disposal  1.  and  diseases.  control  I n d i v i d u a l users and which I n f l u e n c e  routes of e x c r e t e d  of water a v a i l a b l e  washwater and 5.  -  be  user and  benefits  of improved water and  r e a l i z e d u n l e s s a l l these f a c e t s of the the  community are  considered.  The  sanitation utility  provision  of  -  water and  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and  sufficient The and  Ill -  systems are necessary  but  c o n d i t i o n s f o r p u b l i c h e a l t h improvement.  complex e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h and  s a n i t a t i o n i s made even more complex when p l a c e d  environmental context.  The  e f f o r t s of medical  F i g u r e 4.2  anthropologists  and  i i  are  Townsend,  c u l t u r a l components of  environment impinge on a human p o p u l a t i o n .  FIGURE 4.2  and  o u t l i n e s an e c o l o g i c a l model of h e a l t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i n which the p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l ,  outlined  water  in a cultural  u s e f u l i n a n a l y s i n g the broader system (e.g., McElroy and 1979).  not  the  Armelagos, et a l . (1978)  an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of d i s e a s e which suggests that  ECOLOGICAL MODEL OF HEALTH RELATIONSHIPS (McElroy Townsend, 1979)  and  the  -  h o s t , the pathogen and epidemiology  An  -  the environment are e q u a l l y important  of any p o p u l a t i o n (May,  phase i n the response lowered.  112  1960).  Disease  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , or s o c i a l  be a p h y s i c a l , c h e m i c a l ,  to r a l l y The stimuli  to cope i s  infectious,  s t i m u l i which a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s  i n d i v i d u a l ' s or the p o p u l a t i o n ' s adjustment Conversely,  i s d e f i n e d as a  to an " i n s u l t " i n which the a b i l i t y  i n s u l t may  to the  the  environment.  h e a l t h r e p r e s e n t s the c o n t i n u i n g a b i l i t y of the  from  i n the  individual  insults.  e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of h e a l t h r e c o g n i z e s a wider v a r i e t y of than i s p o s s i b l e i n the Western model of d i s e a s e which has  d o c t r i n e of s p e c i f i c e t i o l o g y "(Dubos, 1959) 'germ t h e o r y ' as the f o u n d a t i o n of medical C o n t r o l and  p r e v e n t i o n are not  ecological perspective. also considered.  limited  S o c i a l and  "the  as i t s b a s i c tenet and  and  the  public health practice.  to t e c h n o l o g i c a l means i n an  i d e o l o g i c a l responses  to d i s e a s e  are  P e r c e p t i o n of d i s e a s e i n an e c o l o g i c a l model i s a  r e f l e c t i o n of s o c i a l and  historical  factors.  In a world  s o c i e t i e s , i n f e c t i o n or germ theory of i l l n e s s was s o c i e t y , the western i n d u s t r i a l  sample of  dominant i n o n l y  s o c i e t y (Murdock, 1980).  which a group d e f i n e s d i s e a s e can shape the  The way  one  in  response.  An e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of d i s e a s e i s r e f l e c t e d John Coombs, C h i e f M e d i c a l C o n s u l t a n t  139  i n the remarks of  of the N a t i o n a l I n d i a n  H e a l t h Program.  The so c a l l e d 'germ t h e o r y ' o f d i s e a s e i s b a s i c a l l y a m e d i c a l HALF TRUTH t h a t has f o r decades c o n v e n i e n t l y allowed p o l i t i c i a n s and p h y s i c i a n s to s i d e step more c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s i n h e a l t h and d i s e a s e . As long  Brotherhood  - 113 -  as the 'enemy' i s a mere germ one can wage war a g a i n s t d i s e a s e u s i n g v a c c i n e s and drugs as t o o l s , and never r e a l l y have to change the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic i n j u s t i c e s t h a t i n f a c t are the u n d e r l y i n g cause o f d i s e a s e . . . . In other words, d i s e a s e i s u l t i m a t e l y caused, not by germs, but by the way i n which we l i v e , and our environment. . . . Behind the obvious s i g n s o f human d i s e a s e l i e many more fundamental i s s u e s not t r a d i t i o n a l l y considered part of 'health care': p o l i t i c a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , food p r o d u c t i o n , q u a l i t y o f education. A l l o f these d i r e c t l y a f f e c t h e a l t h . . . . Problems as broad as h e a l t h cannot be compartmentalized i n t o neat l i t t l e packages with pat solutions. However, o n l y by keeping these broader and more fundamental i s s u e s i n mind w i l l people achieve a more e q u i t a b l e form o f h e a l t h care f o r Indian communities. (Coombs, 1979)  4.3.1.2 Public health effects of water and sanitation services i n the Northwest Territories.  A statistical  study was r e c e n t l y  conducted on the e f f e c t s o f water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s on p u b l i c h e a l t h i n the N.W.T. (Heinke, components:  a study  1984;  M i c h a e l , 1984).  of N.W.T. h e a l t h d a t a , a f i e l d  The study had three study  of households  i n t h r e e communities ( F o r t McPherson, Tuktoyaktuk and F o r t Good Hope), and  a detailed  related  p a t i e n t study  i n Rae.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t  to the type of system and to water consumption.  A comparison o f groups o f communities with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f water d i s t r i b u t i o n and sewage c o l l e c t i o n s e r v i c e s showed that the a t t a c k r a t e s o f w a t e r - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the following: - Both piped water and sewer systems and trucked water and pump-out sewer systems are b e t t e r than a t r u c k e d water and honey bag system. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n communities where s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e and s o l i d waste management i s inadequate.  r e s u l t s were  -  114  -  - L i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t a c k r a t e s could be determined between communities w i t h piped s e r v i c e s and those w i t h trucked s e r v i c e s . T h i s does not say that there are no p u b l i c h e a l t h b e n e f i t s to a piped water and sewer d i s t r i b u t i o n system but r a t h e r that at t h i s stage of development of n o r t h e r n communities, other f a c t o r s are more s i g n i f i c a n t . - The e f f e c t s of adequate s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e and s o l i d waste management show m a r g i n a l b e n e f i t s i n p u b l i c health. (Heinke, 1984, p. 5)  The a n a l y s i s of watet consumption i n t r u c k s e r v i c e d houses  appears  to i n d i c a t e that the q u a n t i t y of water consumed i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n the c o n t r o l of d i s e a s e ( F i g u r e 4.3).  factor  That i s , the i n c i d e n c e s of  c e r t a i n d i s e a s e s i s lower w i t h i n households w i t h a h i g h e r water consumption.  However, water consumption i s i n f l u e n c e d by or i s an  i n d i c a t o r of plumbing, s a n i t a t i o n system, water tank s i z e , household s i z e , p e r s o n a l water use h a b i t s and p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e . interrelated  t h e r e f o r e improving s e l e c t e d  f a c t o r s may  These f a c t o r s are not produce a  s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n e i t h e r water consumption or p u b l i c h e a l t h . f a c t o r s , such as household s i z e , are not e a s i l y  changed  therefore  household plumbing appears to be the key m a l l e a b l e f a c t o r . have a t o i l e t ,  Houses which  p r e s s u r e water system, and sewage pumpout tank were shown  to have a lower o c c u r r e n c e r a t e of d i s e a s e than houses w i t h a system.  Some  The r e s e a r c h e r s contend t h e i r r e s u l t s lend  honeybag  support to the  N.W.T. Water and S a n i t a t i o n P o l i c y f o r a minimum d e l i v e r y c a p a c i t y of 50 to 60 l i t r e s F i g u r e 4.3  per person per day.  However, the aggregate s t a t i s t i c s i n  do not p r o v i d e an adequate s c i e n t i f i c  a minimum l e v e l of water consumption p o l i c y . that improvements  basis f o r establishing  I n s t e a d , the data suggest  i n p u b l i c h e a l t h should not be expected when water  consumption i s over 60 l i t r e s  per person per day.  - 115 -  FIGURE 4.3  EFFECT OF WATER CONSUMPTION ON DISEASE ATTACK RATE (from Heinke, 1984)  Water consumption per se i s not the d i r e c t means by which p u b l i c health i s affected.  The c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i s how water i s used, not how  much water i s used.  R e p l a c i n g a honeybag  f l u s h tank-type probably  toilet  will  toilet  with a conventional  s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e water consumption and  improve p u b l i c h e a l t h ; however, there are t o i l e t s  that use v e r y l i t t l e  available  or no water that would be j u s t as e f f e c t i v e i n  -  improving p u b l i c h e a l t h Water and  conditions.  Sanitation assistance  116  -  Water use  policy.  was  the  basis  of  the  McGarry, et a l . , (1980)  q u e s t i o n the e f f i c a c y of e s t a b l i s h i n g water consumption as a b a s i s public health  1974  for  improvement programs.  Apart from e s t a b l i s h i n g a b s o l u t e minimum l e v e l s f o r b a s i c needs (2-3 g a l l o n s / p e r s o n - d a y ) , d e f i n i n g minimums f o r h e a l t h i s not only i r r e l e v a n t — i t may a l s o be m i s l e a d i n g and c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e . Health l e v e l s r e l a t e not only to the amount of water consumed but a l s o the way i n which water i s used. Water use p r a c t i c e s are c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c . An I n d i a n community i s f a r more e f f i c i e n t i n u s i n g a g a l l o n of water f o r hygiene purposes than i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n the South. The amount of water and h y g i e n i c p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e d to reduce i n f e c t i o n l e v e l s a l s o depend on the d i s e a s e . The assumption that h e a l t h w i l l be improved by simply p r o v i d i n g a set of minimum q u a n t i t y of water i s , t h e r e f o r e , m i s l e a d i n g . (McGarry, et a l . , 1980, p. 124)  The  water consumption r e s u l t s i n the  confirmed i n the d e t a i l e d p a t i e n t  study i n Rae.  c o r r e l a t i o n found between d i s e a s e a t t a c k Heinke s p e c u l a t e d  on  the  community study were  r a t e and  There was  no  not obvious  water consumption.  reasons f o r t h i s unexpected r e s u l t  concluded:  T h i s d e t a i l e d study of F o r t Rae i l l u s t r a t e s the problems encountered i n assuming that p u b l i c h e a l t h i s a simple matter of p r o v i d i n g piped water and sewer s e r v i c e s . I t i s i n t u i t i v e l y obvious t h a t s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s of reasonable q u a l i t y water must be a v a i l a b l e f o r consumption and p e r s o n a l hygiene i f a standard of p u b l i c . h e a l t h i s to be a c h i e v e d . However, as the study a t Rae has shown, there must be concomittant improvements i n o t h e r areas i n o r d e r to r e a l i z e the p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h b e n e f i t s of an improved water and s a n i t a t i o n system. (Heinke, 1984, p. 43)  but  -  This  study demonstrated  knowledge about the  scientific  and  services  since  i n s i g h t and 77).  For  The  the  the d i f f i c u l t y  futility,  process of  trying w i l l  appears to be  indicate  the  study was  public health  and  to  new  main  to the  transmission  T h e r e f o r e the  physical  r e s u l t s were not  p.  e.g.,  are appropriate  availability  of water f o r p e r s o n a l domestic hygiene.  restricted the  sanitation  diseases,  p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n even though these d i s e a s e s  quantity  the  et a l . , 1980,  to reduce d i a r r h o e l d i s e a s e s i s to improve the the  and  establishing  i n e v i t a b l y lead  t y p i c a l Western focus on water q u a l i t y would be The  to  water and  of d i a r r h o e a l  p o t e n t i a l l y spread through p o l l u t e d water.  water and  and  i n t u i t i v e understanding." (Cairncross,  example, e m p e r i c a l s t u d i e s  water  I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s worth  r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h  "the  and  functional  results indicates  i n attempting  relationship.  b a c i l l a r y dysentery ( s h i g e l l o s i s ) ,  strategy  in establishing  l a c k of c o n c l u s i v e  perhaps the  cause-effect  investigating  -  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u b l i c h e a l t h  sanitation services. difficulty,  117  The  misdirected.  factors  that might a f f e c t  conclusive.  In g e n e r a l these p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s bear out the i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g that improvements i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e s lead to improvements i n p u b l i c h e a l t h . However, i t a l s o shows that such improvements are not s u f f i c i e n t by themselves. The proper o p e r a t i o n and e s p e c i a l l y the u t i l i z a t i o n of these s e r v i c e s i n a s y s t e m a t i c manner i s more important than the mere e x i s t a n c e of water and sewer p i p e s . (Heinke, 1984, p. 5)  A broader p e r s p e c t i v e  of h e a l t h  and  health  of  relationship  appears  necessary.  Future  -  118 -  research e f f o r t s  should  explicitly  c o n s i d e r the  o b j e c t i v e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , water use h a b i t s , and p e r s o n a l hygiene of the residents. The  r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e that i n s u f f i c i e n t  conclusive results.  data impeded  However the r e s u l t s of s i m i l a r attempts to  c o r r e l a t e h e a l t h with m u n i c i p a l  s e r v i c e s i n d i c a t e that the problem may  not be i n s u f f i c i e n t data or i n a p p r o p r i a t e methodology. difficulty  i n t h i s k i n d of r e s e a r c h l i e s  The b a s i c  i n the e p i s t o m o l o g i c a l and  o n t o l o g i c a l i s s s u e s of how we know and what we can know. f i n d are r e s t r i c t e d  by the q u e s t i o n s  The  times  The answers we  we ask.  4.3.1.3 Health i n the Northwest Territories. in historical  drawing  the a b o r i g i n a l people  Most observers  agree that  of the N o r t h were h e a l t h y .  g r e a t e s t dangers to i n d i v i d u a l s and p u b l i c w e l f a r e were n a t u r a l  events  and a c c i d e n t s .  no evidence (Reinhard,  L i f e was p r e c a r i o u s but not unhealthy.  of g r e a t epidemics  before  There i s  the a r r i v a l of Euro-Americans  1976).  N a t i v e people by Euro-Amerleans.  had no immunity to communicable d i s e a s e s A f t e r c o n t a c t , epidemics  i n f l u e n z a , gonorrhoea, and s y p h i l i s decimated M o r t a l i t y from these epidemics  decreased  of smallpox, the N a t i v e  introduced  measles, population.  as the p o p u l a t i o n  acquired  immunity to these d i s e a s e s and as medicines were i n t r o d u c e d , however communicable d i s e a s e s urbanization.  such as t u b e r c u l o s i s were exacerbated  by  -  During  the 50's  people were d i s e a s e diseases been  1  of i n f a n c y .  and  60's  processes Since  o f Native  and  Poisoning-Violence.'  of l i f e ,  1967  the l e a d i n g catagory 1  of m o r t a l i t y  F i g u r e 4.4  i n d i c a t e s that  Current  to p s y c h o - s o c i a l  health issues  i n the N.W.T. are  problems and  rather  accidents  than  rather  r e l a t e d to extension  than  Poisoning  FIGURE 4.4  35%  o n l y 5% of a l l Canadians d i e from ' I n j u r i e s -  disease.  fnjurtj and  has  which i n c l u d e s a c c i d e n t s , s u i c i d e ,  r a t h e r than death, to q u a l i t y of l i f e  and  Native  such as pneumonia, g a s t r o e n t e r i t i s and  drownings ( B r e t t , 1971).  people but  disability  -  the main causes of death among the  Injuries-Poisoning-Violence  murder, f i r e  119  MAJOR CASES OF DEATH (PERCENT DISTRIBUTION (from: M a r t i n , 1982)  1979)  - 120 -  10 9 8 7 6 S  INFANT MORTALITY RATE (per 1000 -Ygar_ N.W.T. Canada  •1931 1941 :1951 •1961 J971 • 1981 :  114 209 108 111 49 22  persons)  86 61 39 27 18 10  INFANT MORTALITY RATE 3 yr. moving averages  (In the three year moving average each point on the graph represents the average of the previous three years. Its effect is to widen the population data base (three-fold) and to reduce wild swings which characterise rates derived from small numbers. It enables one to identify more clearly long term trends.) I I I I I _ J I 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 70 71 67 68 69  I  FIGURE 4.5  I  I  I  I  I  80  INFANT MORTALITY RATE (adapted from: H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada, 1981)  81  - 121 -  1974  1973  1976  1977  1978  Y e a r  In C a n a d a and  the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s  c o  *3  a 3  a o a.  o o a o" o  «  a  o a:  Q  1974  FIGURE 4.6  1975  1977  197S  RATES OF SELECTED COMMUNICABLE DISEASES (from: Heinke, 1984)  - 122 -  Although the morbidity and mortality rates in the N.W.T. have shown a downward trend, the rates are s t i l l higher than those"in southern Canada.  It is the Inuit and Dene not the White residents who have had  higher rates of infant mortality and most other diseases (Brett, et a l . , 1976) (Figure 4.5).  Figure 4.6 indicates the relatively high incidence  of water related diseases and communicable diseases in the N.W.T. as compared to Canada. The contemporary medical situation was summarized in the preface to the Proceedings of the Circumpolar Health symposium held in Yellowknife in 1976: Much remains to be discovered about the medical problems of arctic l i f e . Morbidity and mortality remain far higher than in the south. Problems of a rugged physical environment are compounded by makeshift housing and sanitation, ignorance of the principles of hygiene, sometimes poor nutrition, and often the stress of rapid cultural change. Diseases such as tuberculosis and rheumatic fever, long controlled in the south, are s t i l l a problem in many parts of the north. Otitis media is widespread. Epidemics of hepatitis, brucellosis, botulism, and encephalitis and a high incidence of intestinal parasitic infections testify to the problems of hygiene. Nor is "civilization" an unmixed blessing for the indigenous peoples. The psychologist's indices of acculturative stress have their parallel in an alarming toll of alcoholism, suicides, and venereal diseases. Dental health is steadily deteriorating as store food replaces the traditional diet. Mercury and other pollutants of our industrial .society force us to caution the native against eating his normal foods. The r i f l e and the snowmobile deplete game reserves and leave the hunter with a permanent defect of hearing. (Shephard and Itoh, 1976, p. xv) In 1981 a workshop on environmental health problems in the North  -  123 -  sponsored by the World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n concluded  that p r e v e n t a t i v e  h e a l t h measures, which i n c l u d e d p u b l i c h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , reduce the i n c i d e n t s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  related  are r e q u i r e d to  diseases.  E n v i r o n m e n t a l l y r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s i n the A r c t i c and S u b a r c t i c , such as t u b e r c u l o s i s , h e p a t i t i s , b a c i l l a r y d y s e n t r y , y e r s i n i o s i s , impetigo and a l l e r g i e s , g e n e r a l l y show a downward trend w i t h c e r t a i n e x c e p t i o n s . However, the l e v e l s of m e d i c a t i o n are u s u a l l y higher than i n more s o u t h e r l y l o c a t i o n s . A n t i b i o t i c s and immunization have helped to promote the downward trend i n d i s e a s e s , but the primary r e d u c t i o n has been due to improved s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t e s and h o u s i n g . Future r e d u c t i o n s i n the d i s e a s e s w i l l be due p r i m a r i l y to a d d i t i o n a l p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h measures, w i t h emphasis on h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n . Among indigenous peoples there i s a g e n e r a l l a c k of knowledge of the causes of communicable d i s e a s e t r a n s m i s s i o n . This often c o n t r i b u t e s to the epidemic p r o p o r t i o n s i n which d i s e a s e s spread. Community awareness of methods of p r e v e n t i n g the spread of communicable d i s e a s e s must be promoted. (Word H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1982, p . 4)  The workshop f u r t h e r noted  that:  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the h e a l t h improvement e f f e c t s of s a n i t a t i o n , h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , i n n o c u l a t i o n , improved housing, e t c . T h i s type of i n f o r m a t i o n would be v a l u a b l e when i t comes to d e c i d i n g where best to spend the l i m i t e d funds a v a i l a b l e f o r p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h measures. (World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1982, p. 4)  Such knowledge would be u s e f u l but e x t e n s i v e  s t u d i e s which examined the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of h e a l t h to water and s a n i t a t i o n i n d i c a t e d that a c a u s e / e f f e c t and q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  i s not forthcoming  i n part  because of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these  factors.  an  examination  However,  of the i n c i d e n t s of v a r i o u s d i s e a s e s does p r o v i d e some  i n s i g h t s into appropriate disease prevention  strategies.  -  124 -  A review o f i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s by Dr. Eaton of the N o r t h e r n M e d i c a l Research U n i t , N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and Welfare c o n c l u d e d :  Outbreaks of i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s i n the N.W.T. a r e seldom, i f e v e r , caused by contaminated water supplies. The p r i n c i p a l t r a n s m i s s i o n r o u t e i s by person-to-person c o n t a c t . The poor p u b l i c h e a l t h r e c o r d i n the N.W.T. i s caused by poor l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , l a c k of p e r s o n a l hygiene and l a c k of water to make p e r s o n a l hygiene p o s s i b l e . (James F. MacLaren L t d . , 1980, p . 54)  The " l a c k o f water" i n N a t i v e homes i s because of a l a c k of plumbing, not because of d e f i c i e n t  community water supply systems.  when the q u a n t i t y of water d e l i v e r e d use i s v e r y low i n houses  to the house  i s not l i m i t e d ,  that do not have plumbing, a p p l i a n c e s o r  running water. A p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s to improve  h e a l t h are i d e n t i f i e d i n  Dr. M a r t i n ' s a n a l y s i s o f the i n c i d e n c e o f b a c i l l a r y d y s e n t e r y and infectious  hepatitis:  With the marked improvement i n s a n i t a t i o n i n many of the communities a c r o s s the T e r r i t o r i e s , one would expect the i n c i d e n c e o f b a c i l l a r y d y s e n t e r y to have improved remarkably. T h i s i s , however, not the c a s e . The l a r g e number o f cases r e p o r t e d i n 1975 o c c u r r e d i n a s e r i e s o f epidemics of g r e a t e r or l e s s e r s e v e r i t y i n many of the s m a l l e r s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h inadequate water s u p p l i e s . The p a t t e r n o f each epidemic was s t u d i e d and i n no case c o u l d spread o f the d i s e a s e be a s c r i b e d to c o n t a m i n a t i o n of the water s u p p l y . The problem seemed r a t h e r to be a low a v a i l a b i l i t y o f water w i t h consequent low water usage f o r purposes o f p e r s o n a l hygiene, w i t h the r e s u l t a n t spread of f e c a l contaminants on a p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n , "hand-to-hand" b a s i s . Undoubtedly, improved housing and plumbing s e r v i c e s would c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y to an improvment i n t h i s situation . . .  Even water  -  125 -  Poor p e r s o n a l hygiene has been r e f e r r e d to as a c o n t r i b u t i n g cause to these outbreaks [of h e p a t i t i s ] . Also, i n some communities n a t i v e people continue to use water from p o l l u t e d water sources i n s p i t e of repeated warnings a g a i n s t this habit. The e x p l a n a t i o n o f t e n g i v e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y by e l d e r l y people, i s that they do not l i k e the t a s t e of c h l o r i n a t e d water which i n t e r f e r e s very much with the f l a v o r of t e a . A l s o , a l a c k of knowledge of the causes o f communicable d i s e a s e t r a n s m i s s i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to the spread of such d i s e a s e s , and h o p e f u l l y w i t h a concerted attempt to improve h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n i n the communities, community awareness w i l l improve. ( M a r t i n , 1982, pp. 206, 209)  Dr. Martin's  a n a l y s i s suggests that  which makes water c o n v e n i e n t l y system per s e .  Dr. M a r t i n  depend on the user's  life  the key f a c t o r i s in-house  a v a i l a b l e , not the community  plumbing  utility  suggests that improvements i n h e a l t h  a c t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n  will  of h e a l t h and d i s e a s e .  O'Neil's  (1981) a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  provides  i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e i r b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s r e l a t e d to  illness.  Historically  psycho-social  rather  study of t r a d i t i o n a l I n u i t  i l l n e s s among the I n u i t was p r i m a r i l y a  than a p h y s i c a l or b i o l o g i c a l occurance.  They  believed  p h y s i c a l and mental d i s o r d e r s were u l t i m a t e l y caused by  personal  behavioural  Following  deviations  Euro-American c o n t a c t ,  from the accepted the b e l i e f  social etiquette.  emerged that some  diseases  were caused by White people.  In recent years a t h i r d component to I n u i t d i s e a s e theory has developed based on the d i r t and s m e l l i n town. Garbage, waste and soot from furnaces e t c . a r e viewed as the cause of the g r e a t e r frequency of i l l n e s s i n town than i n camp. Informants s t a t e d that the reason the camp was h e a l t h i e r was i t s c l e a n l i n e s s as opposed to the d i r t , overcrowding, hot houses, and t r a v e l l i n g Whites a s s o c i a t e d with settlement l i f e . In summary, c u r r e n t I n u i t d i s e a s e theory a t t r i b u t e s the cause of i l l n e s s to s o c i a l t r a n s g r e s s i o n s , v i s i t i n g Whites and poor p u b l i c h e a l t h standards i n town. ( O ' N e i l , 1981, p. 127)  - 126 -  O ' N e i l found that  the importance of each component of d i s e a s e  v a r i e d with the i n d i v i d u a l .  theory  T r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s were l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t  to the younger I n u i t . The and  difference  i n p e r c e p t i o n s of i l l n e s s between t h e N a t i v e people  the medical a u t h o r i t i e s , p l a n n e r s , and engineers r e s u l t s i n  misunderstanding and c o n f l i c t .  In the community O'Neil  c o n f l i c t s arose because C o u n c i l  members placed  studied,  lower p r i o r i t y  than d i d  l o c a l nurses on the water d e l i v e r y and waste c o l l e c t i o n systems. C o n f l i c t arose d u r i n g The  p l a n n i n g to improve the community water  community p r e f e r r e d  distant  lake  supply.  the t a s t e of the t e a made from water from a more  although the present water source was t e s t e d  and d e c l a r e d  adequate f o r d r i n k i n g .  A c c e p t a b i l i t y of water q u a l i t y i s a common  i n N a t i v e communities.  Avenues must be e x p l o r e d  to r e s o l v e  issue  taste  issues.3 Tester  (1976) r e p o r t e d  attitudes  management o f I n u i t r e s i d e n t s  and p e r c e p t i o n s of waste  o f R e s o l u t e , N.W.T. A h i g h percentage of  S i m s (1982) r e p o r t s a case study o f Lake Harbour where the ' p e r c e i v e d ' d i f f e r e n c e i n the q u a l i t y of water i n two lakes was r e s o l v e d by a 'coke-pepsi c h a l l e n g e ' . The r e s u l t s of the b l i n d t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t the l o c a l I n u i t r e s i d e n t s p r e f e r r e d one lake water f o r d r i n k i n g water but the other lake water f o r making t e a . Tea t a s t e i s v e r y important to the I n u i t people and they f e l t the r e s u l t s of the t e s t supported t h e i r p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d p r e f e r e n c e . The t e s t d i d not r e s o l v e the problem of j u s t i f y i n g the e x t r a cost to o b t a i n water from the f u r t h e r p r e f e r r e d lake but a t l e a s t the t a s t e p r e f e r e n c e was acknowledged. The s p l i t i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r d r i n k i n g water and f o r t e a a l s o suggests a l t e r n a t i v e s to s a t i s f y t a s t e and economic o b j e c t i v e s . For example, l i m i t e d q u a n t i t i e s of water from the f u r t h e r lake c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e a t a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the town whereas d e l i v e r e d water would be o b t a i n e d from the c l o s e r l a k e . J  -  the I n u i t  indicated  127 -  that a c l e a n community (78%) and a c l e a n home (88%)  were important to p e r s o n a l h e a l t h .  However, there was c o n s i d e r a b l e  c o n f u s i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y among the I n u i t males, community and home were i m p o r t a n t .  as to why a c l e a n  The nurse had t o l d  them c l e a n l i n e s s  was important but many r e s i d e n t s d i d not understand why. understanding why, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  Without  to see how t e c h n i c a l improvements i n  water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s can be e f f e c t i v e .  W e l l - o r g a n i z e d h e a l t h care d e l i v e r y systems, advanced t e c h n o l o g y , and t h o u g h t f u l p l a n n i n g of n o r t h e r n communities w i l l not i n themselves s o l v e the waste management and p u b l i c h e a l t h problems of i s o l a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s i n the Canadian Arctic. W e l l - d e s i g n e d systems o n l y f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y when they are understood by, and r e c e i v e e n t h u s i a s t i c support from t h e i r u s e r s . W i l l i n g n e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l to s o l v e a p a r t i c u l a r problem depends upon h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the problem. There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n t e n s i t y of a t t i t u d e s towards an environmental problem and w i l l i n g n e s s to a c t . A more complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n that n o r t h e r n people have of waste management problems i s thus e s s e n t i a l . ( T e s t e r , 1976, p. 635)  In  order to i d e n t i f y e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t methods to f a c i l i t a t e  good h e a l t h , h e a l t h must be viewed Reinhard  (1976) observed  i n a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l context.  t h a t c u r r e n t h e a l t h problems among N a t i v e  people i n A l a s k a are now s i m i l a r  to those p r e v a l e n t among disadvantaged  people i n d e n s e l y populated temperate  zones.  H e a l t h problems among  N a t i v e people remain more severe than among the non-Natives r e g i o n s and communities. parasite  issue:  i n the same  H e a l t h problems are not merely a host v e r s u s  -  128  -  Socio-economic disadvantagement seems a prime cause of the c o n t i n u i n g problems; t h e r e f o r e , the attainment of good g e n e r a l h e a l t h depends on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s o c i a l p a r i t y and a sound economic base of support. ( R e i n h a r d , 1976, p. 627)  Dr. Young, the M e d i c a l D i r e c t o r and  i n the  Sioux Lookout Zone of  W e l f a r e Canada, expressed a s i m i l a r view i n h i s a n a l y s i s of  analogy between the Canadian North and unlike  the  l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s  Canadian North are violence  and  not  the T h i r d World.  they are  the  Dr. Young concluded  the  noted  the major h u r d l e s to h e a l t h  i n f e c t i o n s ; rather,  social disruption.  He  Health  that  in  the  consequences  of  that:  More h o s p i t a l beds, more p h y s i c i a n v i s i t s , 100% immunization, piped water and f l u s h t o i l e t s i n every home w i l l c o n t r i b u t e o n l y m i n i m a l l y towards r e d u c t i o n of p r e s e n t m o r t a l i t y and m o r b i d i t y . While i t i s e s s e n t i a l to m a i n t a i n the l e v e l of p e r s o n a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and p u b l i c h e a l t h a c t i v i t i e s to prevent a r e v e r s i o n to a T h i r d World-type epidemiology, the c o n t i n u i n g p u r s u i t of p a r i t y i n h e a l t h s e r v i c e s with southern Canada needs to be re-examined. F u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n i n m o r t a l i t y and m o r b i d i t y among N a t i v e groups i n the North w i l l come only from c o n c u r r e n t socioeconomic and p o l i t i c a l development, a task which i n v o l v e s not o n l y h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s but a l s o N a t i v e communities and other s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . (Young, 1982, p. 9)  The  i d e a that p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l  services  problems m i s c o n s t r u e s the r e a l nature and  per se can  cause of  the  solve  social  The high r a t e s of s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l breakdown i n the North are, i n good measure, the response of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s who have s u f f e r e d the l o s s of meaning i n t h e i r l i v e s and c o n t r o l over t h e i r d e s t i n y . . . . These problems are beyond the competence of s o c i a l workers, p r i e s t s and psychiatrists. They can not be c o u n s e l l e d away. ( B e r g e r , 1977, p. 194)  social  problems.  - 129 -  Similarly, for  the p r o v i s i o n o f water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s without  regard  the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l causes of poor h e a l t h does not address t h e  i n d i v i d u a l ' s and the community's  ability  to r a l l y  from i n s u l t and w i l l  be i n a d e q u a t e . James Wah-Shee, p a s t - p r e s i d e n t o f the N.W.T. I n d i a n Brotherhood p o i n t e d out the l i m i t e d and d e b i l i t a t i n g  consequences of development  based s o l e l y on improved m a t e r i a l s t a n d a r d s . of  d e c i s i o n making  He s t a t e d  the N a t i v e people are engaged  that  the degree  i n , not the p h y s i c a l  b e n e f i t s , i s the true c r i t e r i o n o f development.  Any a c t i o n which does not i n c r e a s e the people's say i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r own a f f a i r s o r running t h e i r own l i v e s i s not development and r e t a r d s them, even i f the a c t i o n b r i n g s them a l i t t l e b e t t e r h e a l t h and a l i t t l e more bread. Indians i n the N.W.T. and p o s s i b l y many other Canadians on the economic f r i n g e , have been s u b j e c t to a development p h i l o s o p h y which may have r a i s e d t h e i r m a t e r i a l standards i n some r e s p e c t s , but which, above a l l , has taken t h e i r independence i n r e t u r n . (Quoted i n : Schuurman, 1977, p. 7 6 ) .  4.3.2  Environmental protection  The P r o d u c t i o n o f waste and p o l l u t i o n o f the environment are the i n e v i t a b l e consequences o f consumption and u r b a n i z a t i o n . community  r e s i d u a l discharges into  the environment can be reduced but  n e i t h e r the r e s i d u a l s nor the impact can be e l i m i n a t e d . of  managing  community  The impacts o f  wastewater d i s c h a r g e s are r e l a t e d  The o b j e c t i v e s to the h e a l t h ,  economic and a e s t h e t i c b e n e f i t s t o man and to a l e s s e r extent p r o t e c t i o n o f the environment.  i i  The major problems i n managing  to the community  -  wastewater d i s c h a r g e s and  i n the N.W.T. are  r e l a t e d to knowledge of impacts  to d e c i s i o n making. The  and  130 -  northern  ecosystems i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  low s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y .  Environmental c o n d i t i o n s  temperature, low n u t r i e n t l e v e l s , season v a r i a t i o n i n energy i n p u t . nutrient  quantity.  Indigenous f i s h and other  man-induced s t r e s s are not  i n c l u d e low  Water bodies i n the N.W.T. have low d i s s o l v e d oxygen l e v e l s d u r i n g the  p e r i o d , and l a r g e seasonal  these c o n d i t i o n s ; however, the  v a r i a t i o n i n water q u a l i t y and  aquatic  tolerance  organisms are adapted to  l e v e l s to e i t h e r n a t u r a l o r  w e l l understood o r d e f i n e d .  of the a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y o f northern  The few s t u d i e s  waters i n d i c a t e that  r e c e i v i n g water and each wastewater d i s c h a r g e  a l . , 1970;  B o u t h i l l i e r and Simpson, 1972).  scientifically difficult,  impossible  Schallock,  Establishing  supported water q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s  i f not  each  has unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  which prevents the e x t r a p o l a t i o n of f i n d i n g s (Gordon, 1970; et  activity  short growing season, and a l a r g e  l e v e l s , low temperature, low  ice-covered  by low b i o l o g i c a l  f o r the N.W.T. i s  (Working Group on Water Q u a l i t y  Objectives,  1977). The  a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y o f the waters and land  lower, perhaps much lower, than i n temperate r e g i o n s .  i n the N.W.T. a r e However, the  common water p o l l u t i o n problems o f developed urban areas i n the are not and  evident  i n the N.W.T. because of the low l e v e l s of a g r i c u l t u r a l  industrial activities  and the wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n s .  background study on m u n i c i p a l concluded:  South  wastewater d i s c h a r g e s  i n the N.W.T.  A  - 131 -  Examination of the nature and s i z e of communities and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e c e i v i n g waters i n the N.W.T. p r o v i d e d l i t t l e evidence to support that the N.W.T. i s e x p e r i e n c i n g the same s o r t of problems as s o u t h e r n Canada where m u n i c i p a l wastes have been one o f the major c o n t r i b u t o r s to p o l l u t i o n of r e c e i v i n g waters. (James F. MacLaren L t d . , 1980, p. 15)  S i g n i f i c a n t environmental impacts are l i m i t e d  to wastewater  d i s c h a r g e s to s m a l l r i v e r s and l a k e s and to l o c a l e f f e c t s w i t h i n the mixing zone.  The t i m i n g , method and p o i n t of wastewater d i s c h a r g e are  more e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y important i n most l o c a t i o n s wastewater treatment.  Northern waters  than the l e v e l of  are most s e n s i t i v e  to wastewater  d i s c h a r g e s d u r i n g the i c e - c o v e r e d p e r i o d when r e o x y g e n a t i o n i s impeded and flows are low.  Therefore, r e s t r i c t i n g  sewage d i s c h a r g e s d u r i n g the  w i n t e r i s o f t e n the most e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y sound method of p o l l u t i o n control.  Where p r a c t i c a l , wastewater should be d i s c h a r g e d i n t o  swamplands i n s t e a d o f d i r e c t l y i n t o r i v e r s o r l a k e s .  There has been no  'use' made of domestic wastewater i n the N.W.T. The  p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h hazard i s the primary concern r e g a r d i n g  domestic wastewater d i s c h a r g e s . a r e l a t i v e l y long s u r v i v a l  I n d i c a t o r and pathogenic organisms  time i n c o l d waters  D a h l i n g and Safferman, 1979).  have  (Davenport, e t a l . , 1976;  Fear o f d i s e a s e has prompted c a l l s f o r  h i g h l e v e l s of wastewater treatment. However, the p r o t e c t i o n of c a s u a l users o f s u r f a c e waters can not be assured through wastewater  treatment  alone.  the  Treatment  can reduce  the r i s k ,  i t can not e l i m i n a t e  Runoff and animals can p o l l u t e waters w i t h pathogens Public health risks  from community water  risk.  harmful to man.  s u p p l i e s are u s u a l l y due  - 132 -  to s e l f - p o l l u t i o n .  I n t e r a c t i o n o f wastewaters  between communities i n  the N.W.T. i s p o s s i b l e o n l y along the Mackenzie R i v e r ; however, even there raw sewage d i s c h a r g e s from the e x i s t i n g  communities  would p r o b a b l y  not render the b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l q u a l i t y o f the r i v e r u n a c c e p t a b l e f o r p u b l i c water supply o f any downstream community ( A s s o c i a t e d  Engineering  S e r v i c e s L t d . , 1978). A e s t h e t i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l concerns to m a i n t a i n 'the p r i s t i n e n o r t h e r n environment are u n d e r l y i n g o b j e c t i v e s o f demands f o r h i g h l e v e l s o f sewage treatment i n the N.W.T. The N.W.T  Water Board r e g u l a t e s the use o f water and the  d i s c h a r g e o f wastewater.  The Water Board a c t s under the a u t h o r i t y of  the N o r t h e r n I n l a n d Waters Act and R e g u l a t i o n and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Department A f f a i r s , 1977).  o f I n d i a n and Northern A f f a i r s I n 1981,  m u n i c i p a l wastewater  ( I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n  the Water Board promulgated g u i d e l i n e s f o r  d i s c h a r g e s which a r e modelled on the e f f l u e n t  q u a l i t y standards approach used i n s o u t h e r n Canada (Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Water Board, 1981).  The n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s , the  n a t u r a l b i o t i c and a b i o t i c c y c l e s , and the c o n s t r a i n t s of the n o r t h e r n r e c e i v i n g environments are not d i r e c t l y c o n s i d e r e d . e c o l o g i c a l l y based wastewater favour o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y  Comprehensive and  management g u i d e l i n e s are n e g l e c t e d i n  simply wastewater  effluent  s t a n d a r d s . The  concern about p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h h a z a r d s , the u n c e r t a i n t y o f e c o l o g i c a l impacts, and the d e s i r e to m a i n t a i n the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y of n o r t h e r n waters were used t o promulgate e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . However the l a c k o f knowledge of environmental impacts from m u n i c i p a l  - 133 -  wastewater d i s c h a r g e s  and the u n c e r t a i n t y of f u t u r e developments  a c c e n t u a t e s the need f o r a r e s p o n s i v e , rigid  conservative  strategy.  funds t o l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e  r e v e r s i b l e strategy rather  than a  Furthermore, the narrow focus may d i v e r t  methods o f p r o t e c t i n g the environment and -  protecting public health. The and  approaches to community wastewater management by the G.N.W.T.  by the Water Board are  in conflict.  mandate which i n c l u d e s p o l i t i c a l  The G.N.W.T. has a broad  and f i s c a l  responsibilities  p u b l i c h e a l t h and community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . reflects a utilitarian  f o r both  The p o l i c y of the G.N.W.T.  approach to wastewater  discharges.  The government o f the N.W.T. undertakes to p r o v i d e the minimum l e v e l o f sewage treatment n e c e s s a r y t o safeguard h e a l t h and prevent any s i g n i f i c a n t damaging e f f e c t s on the environment. F u l l r e c o g n i t i o n i s made of the a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y of the r e c e i v i n g environment. ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1982, p. 6)  As  a r e g u l a t o r y body, the Water Board's mandate i s r e s t r i c t e d to  environmental p r o t e c t i o n .  The Water Board's wastewater  requirements are based on a g e n e r a l  discharge  p o l i c y of non-degradation o f  r e c e i v i n g waters and the e l i m i n a t i o n o f raw domestic wastewater discharges. The  conflicting  philosophies  p u b l i c water l i c e n s e hearings Wells.  In d i r e c t  i n November, 1982 f o r the hamlet of Norman  contravention  G.N.W.T., on b e h a l f  and p o l i c i e s were h i g h l i g h t e d a t the  to the Water Board r e g u l a t i o n s , the  o f the hamlet, argued f o r raw d i s c h a r g e  community wastewater i n t o the Mackenzie  river.  o f the  -  Prior overview  to the p u b l i c h e a r i n g s ,  134 -  the G.N.W.T. had conducted an  study of the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f m u n i c i p a l wastewater  d i s c h a r g e from communities i n the Mackenzie R i v e r drainage  area  ( A s s o c i a t e d E n g i n e e r i n g S e r v i c e s L t d . , 1978)  r e s e a r c h by  and supported  the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a to model wastewater mixing  and microorganism  s u r v i v a l i n n o r t h e r n r i v e r s (Smith and Gerard,  Putz, e t a l . ,  1982).  The G.N.W.T. had r e c o g n i z e d  1981;  the p u b l i c h e a l t h hazard  e x i s t i n g s h o r e l i n e d i s c h a r g e of raw sewage a t Norman W e l l s . they c o n s t r u c t e d a $1.2 m i l l i o n o u t f a l l i n t o  of the I n 1979  the midstream of the  Mackenzie R i v e r a f t e r a n a l y s i n g v a r i o u s wastewater treatment and disposal options.  The G.N.W.T. c o n s i d e r e d  posed an unacceptable w i t h continued  that the s h o r e l i n e d i s c h a r g e  r i s k , r e g a r d l e s s o f any treatment,  raw d i s c h a r g e was the best use of l i m i t e d  and an o u t f a l l resources.  At the water l i c e n s e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n 1982 the G.N.W.T. argued t h a t an o u t f a l l was the best o p t i o n ( M i l b u r n , 1982). r e s u l t s o f f i e l d work, m o d e l l i n g analyses was  to support  the case  the most s i g n i f i c a n t  environment.  They presented the  s t u d i e s , and economic and t e c h n i c a l  t h a t the l o c a t i o n o f wastewater d i s c h a r g e  f a c t o r i n p r o t e c t i n g p u b l i c h e a l t h and the  P r e d i c t a b l y , the Water Board r e j e c t e d the G.N.W.T.  p r o p o s a l and i n s i s t e d  t h a t raw sewage must not be d i s c h a r g e d .  The  members of the Water Board were not swayed by G.N.W.T.'s arguments o r s c i e n t i f i c information.  They d i d not d i s p u t e the G.N.W.T.'s f i n d i n g s ;  r a t h e r , they were opposed p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y to the i d e a of raw sewage discharge. The  q u e s t i o n o f l e v e l of treatment  i s not the important  point i n  -135 -  this  case.  The b a s i s f o r d e c i s i o n making i s more important than the  decision.  The G.N.W.T.'s approach was based on r a t i o n a l  analysis.  The members o f the Water Board  v a l u e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and p u b l i c The  based  scientific  t h e i r d e c i s i o n on  concern.  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the e x t e n s i v e environmental  e n g i n e e e r i n g r e s e a r c h sponsored by the G.N.W.T. was seen by the Water Board as n e c e s s a r y but not s u f f i c i e n t  f o r d e c i s i o n making. The  s c i e n t i f i c approach and i n f o r m a t i o n d i d not address the concerns of the d e c i s i o n makers. neglected  The o b j e c t i v e p o s i t i v i s t  approach o f the G.N.W.T.  the p o l i t i c a l nature o f environmental p r o t e c t i o n and the v a l u e  b a s i s of d e c i s i o n making. The Norman Wells case i n d i c a t e s  the i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the  approach o f both the G.N.W.T. and the Water Board pollution control.  The environmental and demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  the N.W.T. a r e not c o n s i d e r e d by the Water Board knowledge about  to environmental  and the l a c k o f  p u b l i c h e a l t h and e c o l o g i c a l impacts of r e s i d u a l  d i s c h a r g e s a r e not e x p l i c i t l y  c o n s i d e r e d by the G.N.W.T.  The G.N.W.T.'s  p o l i c y t o make f u l l use of the a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y of the r e c e i v i n g environment  assumes that through s c i e n t i f i c  i n v e s t i g a t i o n the  a s s i m i l i t a t i v e c a p a c i t y can be known and that i t i s s t a t i c , without cumulative o r s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t s .  I n c o n t r a s t , the Water  approach to the l a c k o f knowledge about e c o l o g i c a l consequences  Board's  c a t a s t r o p h i c and i r r e v e r s i b l e  i s a ' c o n s e r v a t i v e ' p o l i c y based on a b s o l u t e s .  However, such an approach i s not a p p r o p r i a t e i n the face of u n c e r t a i n t y and i g n o r a n c e .  - 136 -  An a p p r o p r i a t e p o l l u t i o n management s t r a t e g y f o r the N.W.T. should be based on the r e c o g n i t i o n o f : of  f u t u r e development,  development; ecosystem.  ignorance o f the ecosystem,  and u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the impacts o f  and u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f the impacts o f development I n p r a c t i c e , such a s t r a t e g y should emphasize:  s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s r a t h e r than u n i v e r s a l systems or  technology  than  static  1982).  The process and c o n f l i c t s reflect  standards; management of t o t a l  standards; and m o n i t o r i n g and feedback r a t h e r  r e g u l a t i o n s (Cameron,  on the  site  r a t h e r than s t r u c t u r i n g c o n t r o l s s o l e l y on treatment  effluent  uncertainty  the p a t e r n a l i s t i c  i n environmental p o l l u t i o n management  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f e d e r a l and  t e r r i t o r i a l and l o c a l governments.  Don Gamble, a member of the Water  Board appointed by the G.N.W.T. asked:  Is i t not absurd, f o r example, that a f e d e r a l agency, mandated by a Department to a M i n i s t e r who i s three thousand m i l e s from here, i s running around and t a l k i n g about a m u n i c i p a l sewage d i s p o s a l system i n p l a c e s l i k e Inuvik? (News/North, 1982, p. A5)  4.3.3  Socio-economic development Water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are c o n s i d e r e d as an investment i n  ' s o c i a l overhead  c a p i t a l ' which i s n e c e s s a r y f o r community and  - 137  i n d i v i d u a l socio-economic development  -  (Hirschman, 1958).  There  would be poor h e a l t h i n a community without b a s i c water and s e r v i c e s and there i s l i t t l e without good h e a l t h .  sanitation  p r o s p e c t of socio-economic development  S i c k or i n c a p a c i t a t e d  people can not  fully  c o n t r i b u t e to or p a r t i c i p a t e i n f a m i l y , community, e d u c a t i o n or employment  activities.  A direct  l i n k between h e a l t h and economic output may  obvious but i t i s d i f f i c u l t community l e v e l  to demonstrate e m p i r i c a l l y a t the p r o j e c t or  (Saunders and Warford, 1976).  sanitation f a c i l i t i e s  be a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n  they are not  The presence of water and  alone are u n l i k e l y to a t t r a c t  i n developing countries i n d i c a t e "may  sufficient —  seem  industry.  that water and s a n i t a t i o n  for significant  Studies  services  economic development but  even as a c a t a l y s t —  to achieve  this  o b j e c t i v e " (Saunders and Warford, 1976, p. 194). I t i s commonly p e r c e i v e d  that s o u t h e r n - s t y l e a m e n i t i e s , such as  piped water and sewer s e r v i c e s are n e c e s s a r y to a t t r a c t to  the N o r t h (Lawrence, 1970).  southern workers  R e s i d e n t s , employers and i n d u s t r y i n  urban growth c e n t r e s and r e s o u r c e communities are able to s u s t a i n the h i g h c o s t of such s e r v i c e s . a  In c o n t r a s t , s m a l l N a t i v e communities  t r a d i t i o n a l or mixed economy can not a f f o r d  with  s o u t h e r n - t y p e s e r v i c e s or  a h i g h l e v e l of s e r v i c e , nor are they n e c e s s a r i l y a p p r o p r i a t e . and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s should not be i n s t a l l e d  Water  on the assumption that  - 138 -  industrial development will follow and that such developments are desired by the community.  Water and sanitation services should match  the socio-economic development potential and obj ectives of the community. Water and sanitation services were among the f i r s t urban issues that N.W.T. communities had to deal with.  The planning for u t i l i t y  services, the planning of u t i l i t y systems, and the operation of community f a c i l i t i e s can be a vehicle for developing individual and community experience in decision making.  It also develops skills which  would assist the community in dealing with community planning and development issues. In the past this potential has been impeded because of the low level of local participation in decision making. The direct economic benefits from water and sanitation services through employment and training are important considerations in the selection and design of systems.  Although both trucked and piped  systems provide opportunities for employment, there are significantly more local, permanent jobs associated with trucked services.  Skilled  technicians must be imported into the communities to operate piped systems.  4.3.4  Fire protection  The annual fire death rates in the N.W.T. are approximately five times higher than in southern Canada (Heinke and Bowering, 1982).  Fire  protection i s an important consideration in the selection and design of water systems.  How much relative fire protection is provided by trucked  -  139  -  systems compared to piped water systems and whether piped systems should be designed and  fire  flow are important  i s s u e s i n the e v a l u a t i o n  d e s i g n of systems. Piped  in  for f u l l  systems i n N.W.T. communities have been p a r t i a l l y  justified  the past because of t h e i r presumed h i g h e r f i r e p r o t e c t i o n p o t e n t i a l  and  benefits.  But  the concept  for  piped s e r v i c e s are q u e s t i o n a b l e (Gamble, 1977). A study of f i r e  i n c i d e n c e of f i r e s  of d e s i g n i n g f o r f i r e  p r o t e c t i o n and  flows and  p r e v e n t i o n i n the North  i n v a r i o u s communities and  how  the need  analysed  to reduce f i r e  the  deaths:  In the s m a l l , t r a d i t i o n a l , n a t i v e v i l l a g e s , the number of f i r e s r e p o r t e d each year per person i s q u i t e s m a l l . In the l a r g e r n o r t h e r n towns w i t h l a r g e t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s and a l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e - s t y l e , there are a l a r g e number of f i r e s per person. In the c i t i e s , however, numbers of f i r e s per person are o n l y s l i g h t l y above average f o r s i m i l a r southern communities. (Heinke and Bowering, 1982, p. 230) F i r e death r a t e s i n the n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s do not seem to be r e l a t e d to the l e v e l of f i r e p r o t e c t i o n i n p u t s as to environmental and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n factors. The l a r g e s t decrease r e s u l t s more through s o c i a l programs such as p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n f o r f i r e p r e v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s than a n y t h i n g e l s e . (Heinke and Bowering, 1982, p. 240)  The  study r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e  that f i r e  protection objectives,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s m a l l t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e communities, should not p l a y a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n the s e l e c t i o n and l i v e s and  d e s i g n of water systems.  p r o p e r t y from damages caused  o b j e c t i v e s of f i r e accomplished suppression.  by f i r e s  p r o t e c t i o n systems and  best through  are the  Saving  primary  these o b j e c t i v e s can  p r e v e n t i o n , e a r l y d e t e c t i o n , and  be  early  fire  - 140  4.3.5  -  Convenience and aesthetics To e v a l u a t e government a i d i n community water and  s e r v i c e s i t i s necessary and h e a l t h and  sanitation  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the need f o r s u r v i v a l  the d e s i r e f o r convenience  f o r s u r v i v a l are j u s t i f i e d  and  aesthetics.  on humanitarian grounds and  B a s i c needs  l e v e l s of  service  which f a c i l i t a t e good h e a l t h are q u a l i t a t i v e l y accepted as r e d u c i n g medical c o s t s .  However, users are u s u a l l y expected  l e v e l s of s e r v i c e which p r o v i d e p e r s o n a l convenience  to pay f o r h i g h e r and  aesthetic  values. D i s t i n c t i v e n o r t h e r n housing and u t i l i t i e s developed  have not been  because they have not been a c t i v e l y pursued.  Engineers  and  p l a n n e r s have c o n c e n t r a t e d i n s t e a d on m o d i f y i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l southern p r a c t i c e s and  technology to m a i n t a i n the l e v e l of convenience  accustomed t o .  In c o n t r a s t , A l t e r has  the o b j e c t i v e and  criteria  they are  emphasized u s i n g b a s i c needs as  f o r northern u t i l i t y  systems:  The h a r s h e s t , perhaps the u l t i m a t e , measure of success f o r any communication system [water, sewer, e l e c t r i c i t y , e t c . ] i s the degree to which i t meets b a s i c needs, i n c o n t r a s t w i t h f r i v o l o u s or p a s s i n g need, on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . ( A l t e r , 1977, p. 65)  Difficulties  arise i n differentiating  o r f r i v o l o u s need." and  they are not The  and  "passing  a e s t h e t i c s are c u l t u r a l l y  specific  static.  i s s u e of b a s i c needs versus convenience  i n questions of: system?  Convenience  between " b a s i c need" and  how  and  aesthetics  arises  much water? what k i n d of t o i l e t ? and what kind of  P i p e d water and  sewer systems are designed  primarily for  -  141 -  convenience and a e s t h e t i c s .  In the i n d u s t r i a l Western c o u n t r i e s ; the standard s o l u t i o n f o r the s a n i t a r y d i s p o s a l of human e x c r e t a i s waterborne sewage. The f l u s h t o i l e t i s regarded as the u l t i m a t e i n g r e d i e n t to an adequate s o l u t i o n to our waste d i s p o s a l problems. L i t t l e thought i s g i v e n to the f a c t that t h i s method i s designed not to maximize h e a l t h b e n e f i t s but to p r o v i d e u s e r convenience and environmental p r o t e c t i o n ; two very important o b j e c t i v e s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s but w i t h l i m i t e d c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n LDC's [ l e s s developed countries]. (Kalbermatten and J u l i u s , 1979, p . 124)  The evident  extension  of i n d u s t r i a l western based p e r c e p t i o n s  of need i s  i n both the 1974 N.W.T. Water and S a n i t a t i o n P o l i c y and the  recommendations of the e n g i n e e r s and p l a n n e r s who were i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n making.  The f o l l o w i n g quote from a prominent  consulting  engineer i s t y p i c a l :  To i n s t i l l a q u a l i t y of d r i v e and energy i n t o a community, the problems of s u r v i v a l must be e l i m i n a t e d and the b a s i c symbols of modern l i v i n g should be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Piped water i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s , and the f l u s h t o i l e t sewer are the s t a t u s symbols o f the A r c t i c . These should be a v a i l a b l e to a l l l e v e l s of r e s i d e n t s . (Lawrence, 1970, p. 7)  Who p e r c e i v e s  the f l u s h t o i l e t  as a n e c e s s a r y s t a t u s  s e r v i c e s and f l u s h t o i l e t s  symbol?  for  piped  the  communities and from southern e n g i n e e r s , p l a n n e r s ,  from t h e N a t i v e people.  Pressure  has come from White r e s i d e n t s i n  I t i s asserted  that  and t o u r i s t s , not  the N a t i v e people  will  d e s i r e the same l e v e l of convenience, however i t i s not c e r t a i n this i s true.  Nor i s i t c e r t a i n t h a t a southern  convenience and a e s t h e t i c s  that  perspective of  i s d e s i r a b l e or a p p r o p r i a t e  i n northern  - 142 -  communites, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the t r a d i t i o n a l N a t i v e However, once i n t r o d u c e d , n i c e t i e s prophecy becomes  tend  communities.  to become n e c e s s i t i e s and  self-fulfilling.  W i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l Western c o u n t r i e s there i s growing and to  concern  that there may  be i n s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l and  support c u r r e n t l e v e l s of consumption, much l e s s  evidence  energy  1977).  s o c i e t i e s have confused  standard of l i v i n g  a f f l u e n c e , waste and  In the s e a r c h f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s  ' a p p r o p r i a t e technology.' i n s t i t u t i o n a l responses  Others  culture.  and  r e c e n t l y l i v e d w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s  and  leisurely  life.  lifestyle  has  technology, but to what end  (Campbell,  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and  oriented  and  a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t i v e s of  systems should be e x p l i c i t  Convenience and  c o n s i d e r the v a l u e s , p e r c e p t i o n s and being d i c t a t e d by southern urban  convenience  t h i n g w i t h human  1980).  b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g convenience  they can be e v a l u a t e d .  These commodities a l s o b r i n g  A c u l t u r e accustomed to doing  i s bombarded w i t h l a b o u r - s a v i n g and  water and  their  the N a t i v e c u l t u r e w i t h commodities which promise a more  dependance and v a l u e s .  The  and  behaviour.  Today the i n d u s t r i a l Western c u l t u r e and  s a t i s f y i n g , convenient  energy  some propose  Over consumption and waste were not a part of  infiltrated  with  w h i l e o t h e r s see the b a s i c problems and  The N a t i v e people have u n t i l nature.  of  Industrial  c o n c e n t r a t e on p o l i t i c a l  solutions within values, l i f e s t y l e  of  resources  the h i g h e r l e v e l s  consumption to which many a s p i r e to (Ophuls,  q u a l i t y of l i f e .  the  so t h a t  a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t i v e s should  l i f e s t y l e of the users r a t h e r than  practice:  -  4.3.6  143 -  Equity The  social objectives  of p r o v i d i n g  an e q u i t a b l e  q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r  n o r t h e r n Canadians, p a r t i c u l a r l y the N a t i v e people, i s i m p l i c i t i n national objectives  o f n o r t h e r n development, r e g i o n a l  G.N.W.T., and the community development o b j e c t i v e s Sanitation Policy. for  Equity  objectives  h e a l t h and economic o b j e c t i v e s .  s e r v i c e s are not u s u a l l y an e x p l i c i t u n i v e r s a l r i g h t s such as h e a l t h , means to a c h i e v i n g  programs  to d i s t i n g u i s h from  Water and s a n i t a t i o n  s o c i a l policy objectives  e d u c a t i o n and law.  social objectives  o f the  o f the Water and  i n government a s s i s t a n c e  water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are d i f f i c u l t  political,  objectives  with  Rather, they a r e a  under the broad term ' q u a l i t y o f  life.' Equity different  as an o b j e c t i v e  i n water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s  i s s u e s when c o n s i d e r e d  within  elicits  a s i n g l e community, between  communities i n the N.W.T., o r between the N.W.T. and the r e s t o f Canada.  Common i s s u e s  conflict  between e q u i t y  The  are the d e f i n i t i o n o f e q u i t a b l e and dependence.  f e d e r a l government programs i n i t i a t e d  during  p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n , m e d i c a l and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s neglected  n o r t h e r n people were e s t a b l i s h e d  s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the r e s t o f Canada. extended to the N o r t h . not e x p l i c i t l y  s e r v i c e s and the  the 1950's to  to the p r e v i o u s l y  to p r o v i d e them w i t h the same Basic  Canadian r i g h t s were  Water and s a n i t a t i o n were concommittent  recognized  i n national public policy.  services  An obvious  d i s p a r i t y i n s e r v i c e s between N a t i v e s and Whites and between communities developed.  Concern about r a c i s m  and i n e q u i t y were powerful  behind the 1974 Water and S a n i t a t i o n P o l i c y .  forces  The 1974 P o l i c y  -  144 -  e s t a b l i s h e d a minimum l e v e l of s e r v i c e f o r each community and e q u a l i z e d utility  r a t e s throughout  the N.W.T.  P r o v i s i o n of both piped and t r u c k e d  s e r v i c e s i n the same community was d i s c o u r a g e d . to the N a t i v e people applauded  this effort  has improved c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e then. and achievement.  t h a t because the double provided  The s e r v i c e s provided  However, G l o v e r  standard was caused  than by attempting standards  (1976)  by the " l a v i s h "  to government employees, the problem i s best  down-grading the s t a f f housing  Most have  to s e n s i b l e n o r t h e r n  suggested  houses  s o l v e d by  standards  rather  to upgrade a l l accomodation and s e r v i c e s to southern  o f comfort.  Water, food, s h e l t e r and d i g n i t y o f work are c o n s i d e r e d normative o r u n i v e r s a l b a s i c needs. are d e f i n e d r e l a t i v e  In the Canadian North  to be  b a s i c needs  to the Canadian c o n d i t i o n s and q u a l i t y o f l i f e .  A  proposed r e v i s i o n o f the N.W.T. Water and S a n i t a t i o n P o l i c y would explicitly  "assure a l e v e l of water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s c o n s i s t e n t  w i t h t h a t enjoyed  by Canadians i n other r e g i o n s o f the c o u n t r y and a t  reasonable  (Department o f L o c a l Government, 1981,  cost"  p. 14).  E q u i v a l e n t l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e s seem t o be e q u i t a b l e and d e s i r a b l e ;  ^ T h l s p r o p o s a l i s s i m i l a r to the Indian and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s p o l i c y on i n f r a s t r u c t u r e on I n d i a n Reserves which has a g e n e r a l aim of e n a b l i n g " I n d i a n communities to a c q u i r e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e e q u i v a l e n t to that enjoyed by s i m i l a r non-Indian communities i n the same geographic a r e a " ( I n d i a n and Northern A f f a i r s , 1980, p . 1). L e v e l s of s e r v i c e are not l i m i t e d by geography but t h i s e q u i t y o b j e c t i v e i s l i m i t e d i n p r a c t i c e by a maximum grant per house. ^ L e v e l s o f water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and s e n i o r government a i d f o r community systems In the N.W.T. are s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than i n some other r e g i o n s i n Canada, e s p e c i a l l y Labrador ( H i s c o c k , 1983) and n o r t h e r n Quebec (Government of Quebec, 1979). The p u b l i c i t y a f f o r d e d the N.W.T. and the i n f l u x of White southerners have c o n t r i b u t e d to the c a l l f o r e q u i t a b l e s e r v i c e s and the a b i l i t y to procure funds to p r o v i d e equitable services.  - 145 -  however, there  i s a danger that equal s e r v i c e s and  are e s t a b l i s h e d as c r i t e r i a h e a l t h and  equity.  appropriate and  values  and  rather  not  be  objectives  be  of other  often p a t e r n a l i s t i c .  The  residents  t h e i r needs and  not  be  lifestyle  to  be dependence on-government. Equity  l o c a l l y based, not  in  based on  the  regions.  i n p r o v i d i n g water and  motivated by e g a l i t a r i a n i s m or g u i l t .  Technical  of  by s e n i o r government  the p r i c e of e q u i t y .  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s should  s t a n d a r d s , l i f e s t y l e or v a l u e s  4.4  Needs vary w i t h  type of s e r v i c e i s provided  Loss of l o c a l c o n t r o l should  to d e f i n e  objectives  Furthermore, i f e q u i t y means t h a t  communities, the r e s u l t w i l l  Equity  technology  Types of s e r v i c e s used i n southern Canada may  as w e l l as w i t h geography.  the N a t i v e  water and  than the u n d e r l y i n g  c o s t e f f e c t i v e i n the N o r t h .  a southern l e v e l and  specific  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s may  In e i t h e r case the a c t i o n s  themselves are  i n the best  d e c i d e what form of e q u i t y  as  be  are  position  they want.  Considerations  In t h i s s e c t i o n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and  t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n the  operation  N.W.T. are examined.  of water and  Constraints  planning,  design,  s a n i t a t i o n systems i n  the  i n c l u d e l o c a l environmental  and  community p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as r a p i d l y changing technology and  social objectives.  a v a r i e t y of t o o l s and  In response to t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s  methodology have been developed and  i n d i v i d u a l household systems and  f o r community trucked  and  used f o r piped  systems. In t h i s s e c t i o n the e n g i n e e r i n g  approach, the engineer's  conception  - 146 -  of  problems, and the r e l a t i v e importance of t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and  c r i t e r i a are i n v e s t i g a t e d .  An examination of why systems f a i l suggests  causes and remedies.  4.4.1  Constraints Many t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g water and s a n i t a t i o n  systems i n the N.W.T. are unique to c o l d r e g i o n s but a r e c o n s i d e r e d 'normal' i n n o r t h e r n e n g i n e e r i n g p r a c t i c e .  Constraints include  climate,  p e r m a f r o s t , remoteness, demographics, community l a y o u t , m a t e r i a l s , and experience. significant  These f a c t o r s a r e a l l i n t e r r e l a t e d throughout the N.W.T.  but not a l l are  For example, communities are not  e q u a l l y i s o l a t e d and not a l l communities a r e u n d e r l a i n with p e r m a f r o s t . A long p e r i o d of low temperature i s a common c o n s t r a i n t . A l l a s p e c t s o f water and s a n i t a t i o n systems must be a c t i v e l y designed to prevent f r e e z i n g .  Piped systems must be heated, i n s u l a t e d and  c o n t i n u o u s l y f l o w i n g ; water tanks on t r u c k s are i n s u l a t e d and heated; and even a water bucket can not be l e f t freezing.  Snow d r i f t i n g  o u t s i d e v e r y l o n g without  and severe storms can prevent trucked water  d e l i v e r y and waste c o l l e c t i o n f o r many days.  I n communities where  r e s e r v o i r s c o n t a i n the annual community water supply, the u n i t c o s t o f water i s h i g h and the l i m i t e d volume may impose c o n s t r a i n t s on water use,  plumbing and the u t i l i t y  system.  C l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t the  comfort and e f f i c i e n c y o f people c o n s t r u c t i n g and o p e r a t i n g  utility  systems. Permafrost i s a unique t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t  i  to d e v e l o p i n g  utilities  - 147  in  the N o r t h .  In permafrost  -  areas ground water and  d i s p o s a l are e i t h e r not p r a c t i c a l or not f e a s i b l e . pipes many have to be p l a c e d above ground to prevent  s u b s u r f a c e sewage Water and thawing  sewer and  subsidence of h i g h i c e c o n t e n t , t h e r m a l l y s e n s i t i v e p e r m a f r o s t . ground u t i l i t i e s and  Above  are u n d e s i r a b l e because they i n t e r f e r e w i t h drainage  p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r  traffic.  weather and h i g h heat l o s s and  They are s u b j e c t to v a n d a l i s m ,  they can be an eyesore and  c o n s t r a i n t s on b u i l d i n g d e s i g n .  Recent  impose  advances i n m a t e r i a l s and  e n g i n e e r i n g f a c i l i t a t e underground pipes i n c o n d i t i o n s not p r e v i o u s l y thought  p o s s i b l e (James, 1979;  installed  Cameron, 1977).  Buried  at Barrow, A l a s k a i n h i g h i c e content  utilities  permafrost  showed that  such systems are t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e ( Z i r j a c k s and Hwang, 1983). However, at an estimated c o s t of $25,000 per metre, such systems are not economically  practical.  Remoteness causes h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and and c o n t r i b u t e s to the h i g h c o s t of energy.  logistics  M a t e r i a l s such as g r a v e l  and wood are not always r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y and must be I s o l a t i o n a c c e n t u a t e s the need f o r simple and systems t h a t can be operated and manpower.  problems  reliable  repaired with l o c a l  imported.  technology  and  r e s o u r c e s and  Small N a t i v e communities do not p r e s e n t l y c o n t a i n the  manpower or equipment n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t or operate  skilled  complex  facilities. Most s e t t l e m e n t s were e s t a b l i s h e d without p o p u l a t i o n s and water and and  subsequent  haphazard  foresight  s a n i t a t i o n requirements.  The  development p r e s e n t s problems  for current initial  today.  location  - 148 -  Redevelopment  o r r e l o c a t i o n may be p r e r e q u i s i t e s  to p r a c t i c a l  water and sewer s e r v i c e s (Grainge and Shaw, 1971). d e n s i t y have a s i g n i f i c a n t services. of  piped  Housing type and  i n f l u e n c e on the e f f i c i e n c y and cost o f piped  Household plumbing, e s p e c i a l l y  water and sewage s e r v i c e s  the t o i l e t , d i c t a t e s  the types  that are r e q u i r e d o r are a p p r o p r i a t e .  Although new p u b l i c housing u n i t s b u i l t  by the G.N.W.T. are equipped  w i t h plumbing and sewage pumpout tanks, many o l d e r houses i n N a t i v e communities do not have plumbing and r e q u i r e honeybag  collection  service. Communities rapidly.  and u t i l i t i e s  i n the N.W.T. are d e v e l o p i n g and changing  New m a t e r i a l s , i n n o v a t i v e d e s i g n s , and a p p l i e d  r e s e a r c h , as  w e l l as changing s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s and c o n d i t i o n s , a l l r e s u l t i n e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i m e n t i n g . The o b j e c t i v e s and problems are not  static;  the  Most  t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s are not standard o r ' o f f the s h e l f .  water  and s a n i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n the N.W.T. have i n c o r p o r a t e d new t e c h n o l o g y or  new concepts which have r e q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e  4.4.2  engineering.  Types of systems A v a r i e t y of water and s a n i t a t i o n systems have been used i n c o l d  regions.  These systems can be separated  into i n d i v i d u a l ,  facility,  and community trucked o r piped systems.  I n most  central communities  more than one system i s u t i l i z e d . I n d i v i d u a l household r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r water supply and wastewater  d i s p o s a l i s not p r a c t i c a l i n p e r m a f r o s t areas where w e l l s , outhouses and septic  fields  can not be used.  Community management of e x c r e t a i s  -  149  -  r e q u i r e d i n a l l permanent s e t t l e m e n t s . plumbing f o r i s o l a t e d reviewed  O n - s i t e systems and  b u i l d i n g s or complexes i n c o l d  by Reed, et a l . (1984).  They found  w i t h reuse of wastewater i s a t t r a c t i v e but complex and  internal  regions  are  that s e l f - c o n t a i n e d housing  these  systems tend  to be  c o s t l y , e s p e c i a l l y i f wastewater r e n o v a t i o n to d r i n k i n g  water q u a l i t y and  'zero' d i s c h a r g e are p r o v i d e d .  washwater i s more expensive  and  Reuse of  household  complex' than water c o n s e r v a t i o n  a l t e r n a t i v e s (Cameron and Armstrong, 1980). Central f a c i l i t i e s  p r o v i d e a l o c a t i o n w i t h i n a community f o r safe  water, waste d i s p o s a l , sauna, l a u n d r y , b a t h i n g , or a combination these s e r v i c e s .  Many c e n t r a l f a c i l i t i e s  Alaskan communities. complex treatment,  The  initial  reuse and  have been i n s t a l l e d  demonstration  i n small  projects incorporated  i n c i n e r a t i o n d i s p o s a l systems ( R e i d ,  but subsequent f a c i l i t i e s  were e i t h e r a simple water p o i n t or a  laundry/shower f a c i l i t y .  In the N.W.T., a few  facilities  i n the 60's  were i n s t a l l e d  but  community  little  demand.  they were not u t i l i z e d .  bathing f a c i l i t i e s  c o l l e c t i o n systems.  and  Central f a c i l i t i e s  community water d e l i v e r y and  In c o n t r a s t , the U.S.  have been  the community must operate  w i t h low  them without  sewage  sanitation  subsidies.  facilities  The  f i n a n c i a l resources pragmatically s e l e c t c e n t r a l  Trucked  laundry  Indian Health Service i n  A l a s k a p r o v i d e s c a p i t a l f o r community water and but  It i s  were o f t e n  bypassed i n favour of government a s s i s t e d houses w i t h i n d i v i d u a l and  1977)  laundry  not c e r t a i n i f they were not used because the f a c i l i t i e s broken or i f there was  of  communities  facilities.  s e r v i c e s have u s u a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e r i m and  -  second-class  system.  150  They have been n e g l e c t e d  t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n favour of piped t h r e e conferences 1979,  and  devoted  1982  on u t i l i t i e s  systems.  d e l i v e r y i n cold  of water r e s u l t i n g  litre  from the use  excreta c o l l e c t i o n s e r v i c e . the e f f i c i e n c y and  sewage pumpout t a n k s .  V e h i c l e and  the equipment and  i n houses  Janssen,  1974;  potential  trucked  systems have  s a n i t a r y o p e r a t i o n w i t h 4,500 hose r e e l s , and  'time and  vacuum  and  the c o s t of  motion' equations  household plumbing, type of t o i l e t , s i z e (Cameron, 1984).  Table 4.8  houses w i t h f u l l  the  trucked  Water use v a r i e s with  number of occupants,  and water  i n d i c a t e s t y p i c a l wate use v a l u e s  housholds w i t h v a r i o u s household and  and  Cameron, 1979).  o p e r a t i o n s i s the q u a n t i t y of water use.  community water systems.  tank in  Water  c o n v e n t i o n a l plumbing, i n c l u d i n g a c o n v e n t i o n a l  g a l l o n f l u s h tank type  toilet,  and  f i v e occupants Is t y p i c a l l y  per day", which i s approximately  s i m i l a r pipe s e r v i c e d houses (Cameron, 1984). conserving  trucked  without  most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n the economics of  per person  papers  community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a computer model of  o p e r a t i o n (Gamble and  litres  1977,  of slow t r a c k e d v e c h i c l e s ,  manpower requirements  trucked s e r v i c e s can be c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g  in  regions, held i n  Present  or l a r g e r wheeled v e h i c l e s , automatic  The  For example, i n the  l e v e l of s e r v i c e and  f r e q u e n t h a n d l i n g of water, minimum water use  s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved  and  T h i s n e g l e c t i s p a r t i a l l y because  systems have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a low  plumbing, and  i n the p l a n n i n g  i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a , there have not been any  to trucked s e r v i c e s .  contamination  -  f i x t u r e s and  half  use four  90  the water use  in  However, with water  a p p l i a n c e s , i n c l u d i n g a low  flow shower, f r o n t  -  TABLE 4.8  151 -  HOUSEHOLD WATER USE FOR VARIOUS COMMUNITY AND HOUSEHOLD WATER SYSTEMS  Water Use* Water System and Household Plumbing 1.  Self-haul  2.  Trucked System to Houses with: (a) No Plumbing-water b a r r e l , honeybag t o i l e t (b) L i m i t e d Plumbing-Central F a c i l i t y f o r l a u n d r y and bathing (c) L i m i t e d Plumbing-pressure water tank, t o i l e t , sewage tank (d) F u l l Water C o n s e r v a t i o n Plumbing (e) F u l l C o n v e n t i o n a l Plumbing  3.  4.  Piped Systems (a) C o n v e n t i o n a l G r a v i t y Sewer (b) B l e e d i n g (water wasting) (e) Vacuum o r P r e s s u r e Sewer w i t h water c o n s e r v a t i o n devices I n d i v i d u a l W e l l and S e p t i c Field  Estimated  a t 5 persons  per household.  ( l i t r e s per person  per day)  Range  Average 10  5-15  10  5-15  15  10-30 •  35  10-50  50  40-80  90  80-150  200 500 100  100-400 200-5000 50-150  150  80-250  -  l o a d laundry machine, and  -  a n o n - f l u s h tank type t o i l e t  r e c i r c u l a t i n g or mechanical 50 l i t r e s  152  seal t o i l e t ) ,  water use c o u l d be reduced  Armstrong,  1979).  Household  where a community l a u n d r y and  Household  litres  water and  1,150  litres  Trucked  per  At Galena, A l a s k a ,  are a v a i l a b l e and  type plumbing  and  toilet,  houses  water  sewage tanks are p r o t e c t d from f r e e z i n g  them w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g and/or by i n s u l a t i n g  respectively. 450  per person  per person per day (Reed, et a l . , 1984).  sewage tanks i n houses with f u l l  to  i s affected.  shower f a c i l i t i e s  are equiped w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e use i s o n l y 10-15  (Cameron and  water use below 50 l i t r e s  day i s p o s s i b l e ; however, convenience  typically  to  per person per day while m a i n t a i n i n g the same f i x t u r e usage  r a t e which i s t y p i c a l o f North American households  enclosing  (e.g., a  to 2,700 l i t r e s  plumbing and  1,350  them.  by  Water  and  and p r e s s u r e water systems are to 5,500 l i t r e s  Water tanks i n houses without  plumbing  in capacity  are t y p i c a l l y  200  i n capacity. s e r v i c e s can p r o v i d e f l e x i b l e  community requirements.  s e r v i c e to match customer  However, trucked o p e r a t i o n s can be impaired  severe weather, poor access to b u i l d i n g s , poor roads, and  and by  mechanical  breakdowns. Piped systems p r o v i d e the same f u n c t i o n and southern systems however the d e s i g n and prevent f r e e z i n g .  s e r v i c e as c o n v e n t i o n a l  o p e r a t i o n must be m o d i f i e d to  T h i s i s done by r e p l a c i n g and  r e d u c i n g heat  Heat can be added a t p o i n t sources or by continuous e l e c t r i c heat t r a c i n g .  Heat l o s s can be reduced  l o c a t i n g p i p e s below ground and  by i n s u l a t i n g  or pipe  pipes and  i n favourable l o c a t i o n s .  loss.  by  In a d d i t i o n ,  b u r i e d p i p e d systems i n i c e r i c h permafrost must be designed  to prevent  - 153 -  thawing and subsidence of the f o u n d a t i o n .  Geotherraal models have  been  used to a n a l y s e b u r i e d piped systems i n p e r m a f r o s t (Cameron, 1977; Kent and Hwang, 1980). A number o f p i p i n g  systems have been used i n c o l d r e g i o n s to keep  water i n pipes f l o w i n g i n o r d e r to d i s t r i b u t e heat and prevent freezing. are  B l e e d i n g water from taps has been used but water and energy  wasted.  recirculating so  The most common piped system.  system i n use today i s a s i n g l e - p i p e  A l l the water l i n e s are looped w i t h o u t dead  water can be c o n t i n u o u s l y r e c i r c u l a t e d  heat can be added i f n e c e s s a r y . utilized  from a c e n t r a l pumphouse where  Small diameter water mains have  i n A l a s k a and Greenland but systems i n the N.W.T. have  used 150 m i l l i m e t e r diameter pipes to p r o v i d e f u l l C o n v e n t i o n a l g r a v i t y sewer systems with i n s u l a t e d u s u a l l y used.  ends  fire  been usually  protection.  pipes and manholes a r e  Vacuum and p r e s s u r e sewer systems have been used I n  A l a s k a where s o i l and t o p o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s favour them.  In piped  systems, the b u i l d i n g s e r v i c e c o n n e c t i o n s are the most v u l n e r a b l e t o f e e z i n g and r e q u i r e s p e c i a l  4.4.3  consideration.  Design approaches and concepts T e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have dominated  the p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n and  o p e r a t i o n o f water and s a n i t a t i o n systems i n the N.W.T.  However,  technology and systems do not f o l l o w d e t e r m i n i s t i c a l l y from t e c h n i c a l considerations.  Designs and systems are produced w i t h i n an approach and  concept which i n c o r p o r a t e s the d e f i n i t i o n o f the problem and the r e l a t i v e importance g i v e n to c r i t e r i a  such as s i m p l i c i t y ,  reliability  -  and  self-reliance.  The  the i n d i v i d u a l engineer Substandard  154  -  approach to d e s i g n depends on the p r e s o n a l i t y of and  water and  the e n g i n e e r i n g  approach.  s a n i t a t i o n systems and  a high f a i l u r e  prompted Gamble (1977) to wonder i f Monty Python was s a i n t of n o r t h e r n m u n i c i p a l e n g i n e e r s . sympathetic  towards the engineers  not  the  rate  patron  However, C h r i s t e n s e n i s  caught i n a pioneer  era.  In the e a r l y y e a r s , . . . engineers had v e r y l i t t l e experience w i t h s e r v i c i n g communities i n the North. Given the harsh c l i m a t e and u n f a m i l i a r s o i l c o n d i t i o n s i n the n o r t h , the d e s i g n of water/sewer systems was o f t e n reduced to a t r i a l and e r r o r procedure r e s u l t i n g i n d e f i c i e n t systems and a v e r y s h o r t u s e f u l l i f e . . . T h i s was a p i o n e e r i n g era i n water and s a n i t a t i o n systems. ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1980, p. 16-17)  Gamble (1977) i d e n t i f i e d e n g i n e e r i n g " and  called  the problem as a " l a c k of  f o r a more r i g i d  (1972) contends that f a i l u r e s and inadequate in and  northern u t i l i t i e s 'Sympathetic'.  exploitive and  approach and  concepts.  analysis.  diligent  However, A l t e r  problems can be t r a c e d d i r e c t l y He groups the t o o l s and  i n t o t h r e e approaches:  systems used  ' B u l l d o z e r ' , 'Space-Age'  The B u l l d o z e r approach Is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  stance i s which the ends j u s t i f y  c o n d i t i o n s are i g n o r e d .  The  to  the means and  Space-Age approach has  an  local  needs  succeeded i n  m a i n t a i n i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s i n the most severe a r c t i c c o n d i t i o n s u s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d technology maintained and manpower r e s o u r c e s . make the North  by e x t e n s i v e energy, f i n a n c e  Expendiency, n e c e s s i t y and a s i n c e r e d e s i r e to  t r u l y h o s p i t a b l e have motivated  use of Space-Age c o n c e p t s . systems compatible  The  with n o r t h e r n  sympathetic s i t e s and  frequent and  extensive  approach with t o o l s needs has not been  and  developed.  - 155  Most a u t h o r s , i f not a l l , d e s i g n i n g water and  highlight  -  the problems caused  s a n i t a t i o n systems based  on concepts and  of c o n v e n t i o n a l southern technology, systems and  by standards  practice.  People have g e n e r a l l y 'evaded' r a t h e r than ' s o l v e d ' a r c t i c water problems. In some cases we have simply e n c l o s e d our treatment systems and kept pipes warm so that we face o n l y the f a m i l i a r problems of warmer c l i m a t e s . ( R i c e and A l t e r , 1974, p.  17)  By evading the problems, self-imposed.  t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s can become exacerbated  Cold becomes a problem when f r o s t - s u s c e p t i b l e warm  c l i m a t e technology i s proposed.  Water supply becomes a problem when  l a v i s h southern water use p r a c t i c e i s encouraged. problem when m a t e r i a l s are imported.  when systems are e x p e n s i v e .  The  Remoteness becomes a  Obtaining s k i l l e d  becomes a problem when systems are complex.  local  or  personnel  Finance becomes a  needs, o b j e c t i v e s and  problem  realities  of the  c o n d i t i o n s should be the b a s i s of d e s i g n r a t h e r than  m e c h a n i s t i c a l l y a d o p t i n g or a d a p t i n g any system.  The  problem  i s i n the  d e f i n i t i o n of the problem. S i m p l i c i t y i s a common theme i n n o r t h e r n water and system  design c r i t e r i a .  KISS (Keep I t Simple  sanitation  S t u p i d ) i s the creed of  o p e r a t o r s , but, d e s i g n p r a c t i c e i n d i c a t e s a s i m p l i c i t y bounded e n g i n e e r i n g and e n g i n e e r s .  Attempts  which r e l y on more e n g i n e e r i n g and  by  to make systems simple and  reliable  technology o f t e n r e s u l t s i n  s o p h i s t i c a t e d , automated systems w i t h concomitant  higher v u l n e r a b i l i t y  when f a i l u r e o c c u r s .  i s inherently  by the concept  itself.  S i m p l i c i t y w i t h i n a concept The  o v e r a l l approach  and  concept must  be  limited  -  scrutinized simplified.  f o r s i m p l i c i t y before For example, A l t e r  156 -  the d e s i g n can be e f f e c t i v e l y  asks:  Each time a p o t e n t i a l user has need f o r water, i s i t e s s e n t i a l that when a f a u c e t i s opened, a complex e x t e n s i v e network be a c t i v a t e d to produce s e r v i c e from a c e n t r a l source? Is i t n e c e s s a r y t h a t many m i l e s of complex sewerage be put i n t o s e r v i c e f o r a moment j u s t because a person a t the f a r end of the system f l u s h e s a t o i l e t ? ( A l t e r , 1977, p. 64)  S i m p l i c i t y i s i n part an attempt to achieve r e l i a b i l i t y . approaches to improving criteria, operator  reliability  Other  include using conservative, design  i n s t a l l i n g backup systems, p r o v i d i n g redundancy, and e n s u r i n g training.  But these approaches are i n s u f f i c i e n t .  The more complex the s e r v i c e f a c i l i t y the more l i k e l i h o o d f o r malfunction. Only i n a l i m i t e d way have we reached a p o i n t where f a i l - s a f e o p e r a t i o n and d e p e n d a b i l i t y may be b e t t e r assured by use of more complex and s o p h i s t i c a t e d methodology. ( A l t e r , 1977, p. 62)  F a i l u r e s do not occur under 'normal\ o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . t h i n g that gets you i s the e x c e p t i o n " ( S a r g e n t , 1977, p. 241). n o r t h e r n engineers is  have l e a r n e d , o f t e n from b i t t e r e x p e r i e n c e ,  i m p o s s i b l e to d e s i g n f a i l - s a f e  systems.  The prudent  "The Seasoned  that i t  engineer  will  c o n s i d e r the consequence of f a i l u r e and adopt a s a f e - f a i l u r e approach t o design. The  approach to d e s i g n and the f i n a l  d e s i g n a r e not a m e c h a n i s t i c  a p p l i c a t i o n of the accumulated knowledge and experience engineers.  They a r e a product  knowledge and wisdom. are u n i q u e l y capable  of the engineer's  Engineers  are t r a i n e d  of a c c o m p l i s h i n g  of m u n i c i p a l  personality, training,  to s o l v e problems and they  specialized  tasks.  They become  -  i n f l u e n t i a l i n determining  how to s o l v e problems, which problems to  s o l v e , and what the problems a r e . encourages a s e l f b l i n d engineers  157 -  T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y  importance t a i n t e d w i t h e l i t i s t arrogance  to t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and b l i n d  the l i m i t s of t h e i r p e r s o n a l knowledge, understanding address  which can them to  and wisdom.  to n o r t h e r n m u n i c i p a l e n g i n e e r s , Rice warns of the myopic  d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s of h i g h water use technology modernity i n h e r e n t i n the approach of most  In an self  and the t o t a l dependence on  engineers.  We d e s i g n e r s of f a c i l i t i e s , we e n g i n e e r s , have a g r e a t d e a l of p r i d e i n our work, and we have an arrogance of our own. I f someone says "You know, i t s a w f u l l y d i f f i c u l t to p r o v i d e running water and sewers f o r a p l a c e where the ground i s f r o z e n a l l the time, and i f melted, i t turns to mud," we s a y — "Yes I know i t s tough, but the tough takes a l i t t l e l o n g e r — w e can do i t . " We are p r i d e f u l about t h a t , and so we do t h i n g s t h a t perhaps we might not have done, had we been w i s e r . ( R i c e , 1979, p. 2-3)  4.4.4 An  Why do systems f a i l ? i n o r d i n a t e and alarming number of n o r t h e r n water and s a n i t a t i o n  systems have f a i l e d o r have been prematurely causes of f a i l u r e s may be a t t r i b u t e d  abandoned.  The immediate  to f a u l t y d e s i g n , m a t e r i a l s o r  equipment o r to incompetent o p e r a t o r s or d e s i g n e r s . types of e x p l a n a t i o n s answer o n l y how f a i l u r e s  However,  these  p h y s i c a l l y occur.  Why  f a i l u r e s occur i s rooted I n v a l u e s and p e r c e p t i o n s and i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s .  Once the q u e s t i o n why? i s asked:  no l o n g e r be sought i n the e x t e r n a l world,  "The f u l l answer can  because motives,  attitudes,  p r e f e r e n c e s and p r e j u d i c e s must be examined as w e l l as works and deeds"  -  ( P r i n c e , 1971, Rae  and  p. 24).  The  the water supply  illustrate Health  how  and  why  158  -  f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of water d i s t r i b u t i o n i n  p i p e l i n e s i n Broughton I s l a n d and  f a i l u r e s occur and  the p o l l u t e d l a k e . i n t e r v a l s along to provide  the use i n Rae was  failures  can  be  prevented.  o f f i c i a l s have o f t e n l i n k e d g a s t r o - i n t e s t i n a l d i s e a s e  w i t h the p e r s i s t a n t p r a c t i c e of o b t a i n i n g  was  how  Pond I n l e t  In 1980,  i t was  d r i n k i n g water d i r e c t l y  around  the community.  The  t r e a t e d water c l o s e to the houses i n order  prefered  constructed  the  Rae  from  a water p i p e l i n e with water taps at  constructed  of the nearby l a k e .  in  Dr.  C o l v i l l had  t a s t e of the  pointed  out  concept  to d i s c o u r a g e that  people  lake water; however, the water p i p e l i n e  anyway.  •Although f r e s h water i s trucked r e g u l a r l y i n t o the community, a number of f a m i l i e s c l a i m to d i s l i k e the t a s t e of c h l o r i n a t e d water and p r e f e r to o b t a i n t h e i r d r i n k i n g water supply d i r e c t l y from t h e - l a k e . So even the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a f r e s h water p i p e l i n e i n t o the community would not n e c e s s a r i l y e l i m i n a t e the problem. (News of the N o r t h , 1976)  The  i s s u e was  use  the l a k e water.  The  p i p e l i n e has  preference The  not  convenience.  expensive water tap  i n c e n t i v e to ensure the system works.  i s not  i n the d e s i g n  The and  operated by  based on  system i s s t i l l  not  or o p e r a t i o n  of the  The  used. is  f a i l u r e of the  system as i t i s w i t h  to  system  the  approach.  water p o i n t  engineering  people continued  f r o z e n a number of times i n p a r t because there  little  concept and  The  system at Rae  was  the G.N.W.T. r a t h e r  s o l u t i o n was  provided  the p e r c e p t i o n s  than by  and  biased  constructed  the community.  to a s o c i a l  the engineer's narrow and  which n e g l e c t e d  proposed, planned,  issue.  perception  o b j e c t i v e s of the  The  An solution  of the  was  problem  people the  system  -  was  built  to s e r v e .  a v i a b l e trucked  159  -  Furthermore, the water p i p e l i n e was  system was  already  redundent  since  operating.  In the communities of Broughton I s l a n d and  Pond I n l e t , water  supply  p i p e l i n e s were c o n s t r u c t e d between the water source  and  the  community.  The  and  one  half  Broughton I s l a n d system f r o z e i n 1981  of o p e r a t i o n and  the Pond I n l e t  months of o p e r a t i o n .  6  a f t e r one  system f r o z e i n 1980  a f t e r only a  pipe r e c i r c u l a t i n g  'pipe-in-a-pipe'  d e s i g n c o n s i s t e d of a s m a l l diameter r e t u r n pipe placed m i l l i m e t r e water supply p i p e l i n e .  To prevent  inside  f r e e z i n g , heated  pumped i n t o the r e t u r n l i n e at a pumphouse l o c a t e d i n the systems were i n s t a l l e d without  pipe.  Trucks  few  N e i t h e r system i s p r e s e n t l y i n use.  In both communities the two  The  years  the  150  water  was  community.  a method of h e a t i n g or thawing  the  d e l i v e r e d water from the pumphouse to b u i l d i n g s i n the  community. Independent e n g i n e e r i n g  r e p o r t s on how  r e v e a l e d i n h e r e n t inadequacy i n the d e s i g n . provided  only a "marginal  L t d . , 1982).  The  Broughton I s l a n d system  In the l o n g e r Pond I n l e t  i n e v i t a b l e ( L a l o n d e , G i r o u a r d , Letendre In both  occurred  safety factor against f r e e z i n g " (Arsenault,  Garneau, V i l l e n e u v e I n c . , 1982). f r e e z i n g was  the f a i l u r e s  and  system  Associates  f a i l u r e s , a l e a k i n the p i p e l i n e and  operator  i n a c t i o n were c i t e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . On concept system.  the s u r f a c e , the f a i l u r e s may  be a t t r i b u t e d  to a f a u l t y  which r e s u l t e d from a l a c k of r i g o r o u s thermal More fundamentally,  the f a i l u r e s were due  design  a n a l y s i s of  to the  the  design  ^Both water supply systems were designed by a c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r i n g f i r m f o r the Department of P u b l i c Works, Government of the N.W.T. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d e s i g n and the f a i l u r e s were the s u b j e c t of l i t i g a t i o n .  -  approach and  to the  based on a c h i e v i n g  s e l e c t i o n of the  r i g h t d e c i s i o n s by  not  understood by was  apparently  and  The  which depended on  the o p e r a t o r .  the o p e r a t o r  -  system i t s e l f .  a f a i l - s a f e design  the  operator  160  However the  water supply trucked  p i p e l i n e s reduced the  water d e l i v e r y systems and  were not . . .  no  supported by the  $150,000  l o c a l labour  The  requirements f o r  "The  water from the r e s e v o i r " ( B r i t t o n , 1982).  people of Broughton I s l a n d they had  to  question  remains: why  system w i t h a f a u l t y d e s i g n operation  and was  to be i n the  not  concept which r e q u i r e d  t e c h n o l o g i c a l optimism and  above cases i l l u s t r a t e  that  combination of t e c h n i c a l , p e r s o n a l resulting  The  uneconomical attentive  answers appears  b i a s of the engineer? and  in  given.  failures  and  an  skilled  the community?  the d e c i s i o n making a u t h o r i t y they were The  the  cheaper than a p i p e l i n e .  d i d the G.N.W.T. i n s t a l l  supported by  truck  Subsequent d e t a i l e d economic  a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that i n both communities t r u c k i n g water from  The  the  consequently the p i p e l i n e systems  p i p e l i n e f r o z e up and  water source to the community was  and  regular  p r o v i s i o n made to thaw them.  communities.  were q u i t e happy when the  the  complex  and  time the p i p e l i n e f r o z e .  Furthermore, thawing the p i p e l i n e s c o s t $110,000 and r e s p e c t i v e l y because there was  was  the presence  system was  at Broughton I s l a n d  away at the  approach  can  be a t t r i b u t e d to a  i n s t i t u t i o n a l reasons.  from f a u l t y m a t e r i a l , equipment or d e s i g n  can  be  Failures  corrected  ^ T e c h n o l o g i c a l optimism and b i a s are not unique to the c o n s u l t a n t s and government engineers i n v o l v e d w i t h the o r i g i n a l d e s i g n . Subsequent d e t a i l e d e n g i n e e r i n g r e p o r t s on the water supply p i p e l i n e f a i l u r e s i n Broughton I s l a n d and Pond I n l e t recommended c o n s t r u c t i n g new redesigned water supply p i p e l i n e s d e s p i t e the f a c t that i n the s t u d i e s trucked s e r v i c e was i d e n t i f i e d as being more r e l i a b l e , simpler and cheaper.  - 161  through competent e n g i n e e r i n g may  engineering.  Failures  -  owing to incompetent  be prevented by p r o f e s s i o n a l p o l i c i n g ,  technology t r a n s f e r .  training  However, when f a i l u r e s are rooted  and  i n the values  and p e r c e p t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s , i n the t r a i n i n g and approach of e n g i n e e r s , and i n the s e l e c t i o n of systems, r e s o l u t i o n l i e s  i n the  format, the forum and the c o n t r o l of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  4.5  Economic Considerations T h i s s e c t i o n examines  the economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n p u b l i c  e v a l u a t i o n of water and s a n i t a t i o n programs and p r o j e c t s . ^  policy  Economic  p l a n n i n g d e a l s w i t h the planned as opposed to the market d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods and s e r v i c e s ( B u r c h e l l and Hughes, 1981).  The primary concerns  are the economic e v a l u a t i o n of s u b s i d y and p r i c i n g p o l i c i e s and how to rank o p t i o n s .  Issues and methodologies are examined and used to  c r i t i q u e contemporary economic a n a l y s i s i n the N.W.T. i n order to suggest improvements  4.5.1  and to i d e n t i f y  the r o l e of econmic  analysis.  Program l e v e l The major p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e i n economic p h i l o s o p h y and  w e l f a r e i s the c o n f l i c t  between  e f f i c i e n c y and e q u i t y .  social  Economic  ^Economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n e v a l u a t i n g water and s a n i t a t i o n p o l i c y and p r o j e c t s are presented by Saunders and Warford (1976) and Kalbermaten, e t a l . (1980). Both r e p o r t s are concerned w i t h d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s however the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are s i m i l a r to those i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  -  theories  of j u s t i c e and  fairness f a l l  d i r e c t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f a i r n e s s and  162  -  short  of p r o v i d i n g  p u b l i c p o l i c y makers.  e f f i c i e n c y i n public u t i l i t y  a comprehensive  Zirjac  p r i c i n g and  reviewed  concluded:  "the p o l i c y maker may w e l l be advised to f o l l o w h i s i n s t i n c t s , and not expect help from e x p e r t s on how the p u b l i c w i l l r e a c t to economic j u s t i c e q u e s t i o n s . " ( Z i r j a c , 1978, p. 6 9 ) .  Economists have avoided when e v a l u a t i n g  programs and  the  complex t o t a l  instead  s o c i a l welfare  they r e l y on  l e s s conceptual  more manageable approaches to economic a n a l y s i s . i s s u e s at the program l e v e l of water and to the e v a l u a t i o n Willingness  of subsidy and to pay  approach but  Economic concerns  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are  and  related  pricing policies.  f o r water and  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s should not  be  r e l i e d upon to guide government investment arid s u b s i d y p o l i c y because willingness  to pay  does not  consumer knowledge, or to pay  does not  individuals, Residents may benefits  the a b i l i t y  consider  the  take into, c o n s i d e r a t i o n  external  community, the  not  to pay.  expressed w i l l i n g n e s s  to pay  region,  or  the n a t i o n the  In households too  willingness  to pay  subsidies.  Government subsidy i s t h e r e f o r e  must be r u l e d out  other  as a whole.  r e a l or p o t e n t i a l  w i l l undervalue the  et a l . , 1980).  the  individual's willingness  sanitation services; therefore,  (Cairncross  s o c i a l b e n e f i t s of water and  benefits,  h e a l t h b e n e f i t s which accrue to  understand or a p p r e c i a t e  from improved water and  An  external  total  health their  benefits  poor to pay  for services,  as a guide f o r government justified  to achieve  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s which are g r e a t e r  i n d i v i d u a l ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o pay.  However, Saunders and  the than  Warford warn  -  163  -  that:  In those circumstances i n which the w i l l i n g n e s s - t o - p a y c r i t e r i o n has to be r e j e c t e d , there i s c u r r e n t l y no s c i e n t i f i c procedure f o r making investment d e c i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g those about p r o j e c t r a n k i n g . (Saunders and Warford, 1976, p. 202)  P o l i c y a n a l y s i s of s u b s i d i e s between program c o s t s  and  i s concerned with the  program b e n e f i t s .  a l l o c a t e r e s o u r c e s to water and  To  trade-off  rationally  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , the  government  should i d e a l l y have a means of q u a n t i t a t i v e l y comparing the  expected  program b e n e f i t s with program c o s t s .  However, i n p r a c t i c e the  economic  j u s t i f i c a t i o n of government s u b s i d i e s  f o r water and  services  i s o f t e n assumed.  The  f o l l o w i n g quote i s an  sanitation  example:  My c o n s i d e r e d o p i n i o n i s that r e g a r d l e s s of the r a t i o n a l e s — s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , and administrative—which may w e l l be used to i n c l u d e w i t h i n t h e i r scope, p r o v i s i o n of adequate sewerage and water s u p p l y s e r v i c e s to Indian r e s e r v e communities, the economic j u s t i f i c a t i o n should be used as the main v e h i c l e . ( G a v i n , 1982, p. 223)  The  problems w i t h attempting economic a n a l y s i s of water  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s are northern Albertan Services arising  Ltd.,  illustrated  The  study e s t i m a t e d a 62%  from improved h e a l t h ,  questionable  analysis  community of Wabasca-Desmarais ( A s s o c i a t e d  1974).  h e a l t h care c o s t s .  in a cost-benefit  and  increased  life  r e t u r n on  assumptions i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  assumed a c a u s e - e f f e c t  methodology.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p e c i f i c water  the  Engineering  investment  expectancy, and  However the a n a l y s i s made a number of  for  reduced  significant The and  study  -  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and h e a l t h . loss of l i f e  and the i n c r e a s e  164 -  The a n a l y s i s estimated values f o r the  in life  d i s c o u n t e d average annual e a r n i n g s . ordinary and  expectancy based on the r e s i d e n t s Mishan (1972) p o i n t s  out that i n  circumstances no sura of money can compensate f o r l o s s of l i f e  the l o s s of p o t e n t i a l e a r n i n g s can not be r a t i o n a l i z e d .  Furthermore, the l o s s of p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e e a r n i n g s i s not " c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the b a s i c r a t i o n a l e of the economic c a l c u l u s used i n c o s t - b e n e f i t analysis" the  (Mishan, 1972, p . 159). The Wabasca-Desmarais study  s i m i l a r problems that have been e x p e r i e n c e d  i n the e x t e n s i v e and  i n t e n s i v e economic a n a l y s i s of water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n developing countries  (e.g.,  i n the economic e v a l u a t i o n of  water and s a n i t a t i o n programs w i t h r e s p e c t  or c e r t a i n .  subsidies  Saunders and Warford, 1976).  There are f o u r l e v e l s of d i f f i c u l t y  epidemiological  reflects  to improved h e a l t h .  evidence of the c a u s e - e f f e c t  First,  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not p r e c i s e  Second, f u n c t i o n a l knowledge of h e a l t h  improvement r e l a t i v e  to s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of s e r v i c e and/or types of systems i s not established. is  fraught  T h i r d , t r a n s l a t i o n of h e a l t h b e n e f i t s  i n t o monetary v a l u e  with t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s .  And f i n a l l y ,  the economic a n a l y s i s methodology i s l a d e n w i t h c o n c e p t u a l and p r a c t i c a l problems.  Each of these d i f f i c u l t i e s must be c o n s i d e r e d  cost-benefit it  analysis.  ina  Together, these four l e v e l s of d i f f i c u l t y make  i m p r a c t i c a l , i f not i m p o s s i b l e ,  to conduct a meaningful  cost-benefit  analysis. Economists are u s u a l l y anxious that consumers r e a l i z e the r e a l c o s t of s e r v i c e s  from which they b e n e f i t .  The t r a d i t i o n a l  social  welfare  -  f u n c t i o n leads  to m a r g i n a l cost  165 -  p r i c i n g which i s one of the c o r n e r s t o n e s  of economic e f f i c i e n c y (Crew and K l e i n d o r f e r , 1979). external  To r e a l i z e  b e n e f i t s and achieve s o c i a l w e l f a r e o b j e c t i v e s , government  provides s u b s i d i e s .  However a l l s u b s i d i e s  distort  the market.  An  extreme example of t h i s d i s t o r t i o n i s i n non-tax based communities i n the N.W.T. where the r e g i o n a l government i s r e s p o n s i b l e water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and r a t e s .  f o r community  The c o s t of f a c i l i t i e s and  s e r v i c e s are not m e a n i n g f u l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the charges to the customer or  the community.  There i s no i n c e n t i v e  f o r the customers o r the  community to make economic t r a d e - o f f s between water and s a n i t a t i o n and o t h e r s e r v i c e s or among water system a l t e r n a t i v e s .  Consequently the  government must make the economic t r a d e - o f f s and d e c i s i o n s . to p a t e r n a l i s m  and c o n f r o n t a t i o n s  This  leads  between the r e g i o n a l and l o c a l  governments. Removing economic b a r r i e r s to a ' b a s i c ' l e v e l equitable  and e f f i c i e n t .  provide personal benefit  of s e r v i c e may be  However, s e r v i c e s above an 'adequate' l e v e l  convenience and p r e f e r e n c e without t a n g i b l e  to s o c i e t y as a whole.  Economists argue that  economic  for efficiency  reasons consumers should be charged the f u l l m a r g i n a l c o s t f o r such services. Economic analyses of s u b s i d y and p r i c i n g p o l i c y which a r e restricted  to e f f i c i e n c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  public policy analysis.  The a n a l y t i c a l process may be the most u s e f u l  p a r t of economic a n a l y s i s . to compare c o s t s  may be of l i m i t e d v a l u e i n  To r a t i o n a l i z e e f f i c i e n c y v e r s u s e q u i t y and  and b e n e f i t s , the a n a l y s t  must c l a r i f y  the program  -  objectives, and  identify parties affected,  i d e n t i f y tangible  4.5.2  and  intangible  -  assemble r e l e v e n t  economic d a t a ,  effects.  Project level At  the  options.  project  l e v e l the  primary economic concern i s the  Economic methods of ranking o p t i o n s i n c l u d e  cost-effectiveness cost-benefit be  166  and  analysis  cost-minimization i s employed only  e v a l u a t e d i n terms of market-value.  techniques.  Strictly  when both i n p u t s Cost b e n e f i t  and  analysis  the  of water and  a n a l y s i s i s commonly employed because b e n e f i t s monetary v a l u e (Good, 1971). problem of u n c e r t a i n  specified.  S t r i c t l y defined,  the  l e a s t cost way  These are resolve  two  the  of a c h i e v i n g  Cost-effectiveness  analysis  option  the  avoids  to  the  benefits; be  indicates  the  indicates  performance. They do  use  not  of funds i s  assumes the  i s worth u n d e r t a k i n g ( L i c h f i e l d , K e t t l e  Issues comon to a l l p r o j e c t  in  analysis.  alternate  analysis  or  analysis.  i n cost-benefit  p r a c t i c a b l e while cost-minimization  to use  converted  analysis  specified benefits  assumes no  and  analysis  cost-minimization  s p e c i a l cases of c o s t - b e n e f i t  problems i n h e r e n t  has  or maximum investment must  cost-effectiveness  a l l o c a t i o n of a f i x e d budget and  be  analysis  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r o j e c t s  however, e i t h e r q u a n t i f i a b l e o b j e c t i v e s  can  Cost-effectivness  need not  Cost-effectiveness  defined,  outputs  p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s that make i t i m p o s s i b l e sanitation projects.  least  cost  and  Whitbread,  1975).  economic a n a l y s i s  techniques  include  time v a l u e of money, i n f l a t i o n ,  and  of  cost-benefit,  c o n c e p t u a l and evaluation  ranking  shadow p r i c i n g of unemployed  - 167  labour.  -  The federal Treasury Board (1976) provided guidelines for  handling these issues. There is no agreement on the basis or the value of the discount rate that should be used in the economic analysis of public projects. Therefore the sensitivity of the economic analysis to the discount rate should be assessed.  The discount rate should be net  of anticipated inflation or deflation because "price level movements represent strictlypecuniary effects; they do not indicate what impact a project will have on total real output or consumption in the economy." (Treasury Board, 1976, p. 17) Ordinarily, unemployment is not considered in comparing project costs.  However, a shadow price may be assigned to project labour costs  i f the area suffers from chronic unemployment and otherwise unemployed labour would be utilized  (Treasury Board, 1976).  The determination of  appropriate shadow price is conceptually d i f f i c u l t (Mishan, 1971) therefore i t is more practical to identify the labour component of projects, rather than automatically excluding labour costs from total project costs.  4.5.3  Economic considerations l n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  The expenditure of public funds on the water and sanitation subsidy program in the N.W.T. has been justified on the assumption of health and other benefits. A positive cost-benefit ratio was explicity assumed in establishing the 1974 Water and Sanitation Policy (Associated Engineering Services Ltd., 1973).  Prior to 1974 i t was generally  assumed that piped services should be and would be installed in a l l communities.  -  Implementation of the of s e r v i c e could piped  services  not  be  P o l i c y recognized  be  provided  R e i d , 1977).  the  primary f u n c t i o n of water and  until  b e n e f i t s from water and community s t u d i e s .  To  s p e c i f i e d so  that  the  of water was  to that of piped a n a l y s i s could  a l t e r n a t i v e s and The  trucked  systems. be  piped  (Christensen options  be excluded  became Costand  from  the G.N.W.T.  s e r v i c e s were to per  be  person per  day.  service  Under these assumptions, a  conducted to o p t i m i z e piped  and  cost-  trucked  to rank the a l t e r n a t i v e s .  c o s t - e f f e c t i v e approach f a c i l i t a t e s a r i g o r o u s , economic a n a l y s i s but  uncertainty.  For example, only water and  be made e q u i v a l e n t - t o - p i p e d - s e r v i c e central f a c i l i t e s  and  trucked  l e v e l of s e r v i c e are n e g l e c t e d  masks u n d e r l y i n g  are  assumptions  The  and  s a n i t a t i o n systems which  considered.  Individual  i n the a n a l y s i s . and  The  analysis  can  systems, piped  cost-effective  available.  to budget l i m i t a t i o n s or to the customer's and  willingness-to-pay.  rational  s e r v i c e s which p r o v i d e a lower than  approach assumes f i n a n c i n g i s j u s t i f i e d  information  a  social desirability  litres  level  that  studies.  assumed to imply a l e v e l of  t e c h n i c a l and  i s given  piped  comparison of o p t i o n s ,  conducted at a water consumption v a l u e of 90  minimization  and  s a n i t a t i o n systems c o u l d allow  optimum  a n a l y s i s and  s a n i t a t i o n planning  that economic a n a l y s i s of  equivalent  the  i t seemed c l e a r that  Economic a n a l y s i s of trucked  e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n a l y s i s was  This quantity  that  the most economical s e r v i c i n g a l t e r n a t i v e  and  specified  -  determined by c o s t - b e n e f i t  should not  system would be  1974  168  No  consideration  community's  p r o v i d e s government w i t h  i t needs to r a t i o n a l i z e p u b l i c investment but  the the  analysis  - 169 -  does not p r o v i d e the economic i n f o r m a t i o n necessary  f o r the government  or the customers to make the t r a d e - o f f between b a s i c need and convenience or between d e s i r e s and r e s o u r c e s .  4.5.4  Role of economic analysis Economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s present  problems and c h a l l e n g e s i n p u b l i c p o l i c y at the program and p r o j e c t levels.  The f i r s t  only gathering constitute  task i s to understand  the i s s u e s .  T h i s means not  the f a c t s and a n a l y s i n g the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s t h a t  the economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the i s s u e s , but a l s o becoming  aware of the v a l u e s and the c l a s h of i n t e r e s t s core of i s s u e s .  t h a t i s a t the p o l i t i c a l  Economic q u e s t i o n s are fundamentally  q u e s t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l  political  q u e s t i o n s are u l t i m a t e l y moral q u e s t i o n s  ( H e i l b r o n e r and Thurow, 1981).  The broader  a n a l y s i s should be not o n l y to r a t i o n a l i z e  task t h e r e f o r e of economic the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s  but a l s o to uncover the moral b a s i s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y - who c o n t r o l s ,  the scope of c o n t r o l , and the l e g i t i m a c y of  control.  4.6  Planning Considerations Planning involves bringing r a t i o n a l i t y  l i n k i n g knowledge process  to a c t i o n s .  Planning  to bear on f u t u r e a c t i o n s ;  theory Is concerned w i t h the  of e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  i m p l i e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between planners and p e o p l e . o b j e c t i v e s and the process  Planning  In t h i s  s e c t i o n the  of p l a n n i n g , the e v a l u a t i o n of o p t i o n s , and  -  170 -  the comparison of water and s a n i t a t i o n systems i n the N.W.T. a r e examined and c r i t i q u e d  i n order to suggest  improvements and changes i n  the process and content of p l a n n i n g .  4.6.1  Objectives of planning The C o l d C l i m a t e U t i l i t i e s D e l i v e r y Design Manual r e f e r s  objective of planning u t i l i t i e s  i n terms of e f f i c i e n c y ,  to the  i . e . , reducing  costs:  The o b j e c t i v e s o f p l a n n i n g are to reduce the c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n and maintenance ( 0 & M) o f u t i l i t y systems, w h i l e a t the same time, p r o v i d i n g a healthy f u n c t i o n a l , covenient, usable, a t t r a c t i v e community or s i t e . (Smith, e t a l . , 1979, p . 21)  T h i s economic p r i o r i t y  f o r planning r e s u l t s  p e r s p e c t i v e s of the a u t h o r s . G.N.W.T., suggested placing social The  conflict  from  the  technical  In c o n t r a s t , a community planner with the  r e v e r s i n g the p r i o r i t y i n p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s by  o b j e c t i v e s b e f o r e economic o b j e c t i v e s ( B o u t i l i e r ,  in establishing  the o b j e c t i v e s o f p l a n n i n g a r i s e s  1983).  from two  d i s t i n c t a s p e c t s o f water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s p l a n n i n g : 1.  Planning f o r U t i l i t y utility  S e r v i c e s - T h i s i n v o l v e s the i n t e g r a t i o n of  s e r v i c e s w i t h the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l  development o b j e c t i v e s of the community and r e s i d e n t s and the c o o r d i n a t i o n of u t i l i t y  s e r v i c e s with other community, r e g i o n a l , and  n a t i o n a l programs such as h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and w e l f a r e . for u t i l i t y  s e r v i c e s i s p r i m a r i l y concerned  i s , d e f i n i n g and meeting g o a l s . the G.N.W.T. i s conducted  Planning  with e f f e c t i v e n e s s , that  Planning for u t i l i t y  services i n  by the Department o f L o c a l Government.  -  2.  P l a n n i n g _of U t i l i t y  Systems - T h i s i n v o l v e s  s e l e c t i o n of options,  the d e s i g n ,  maintenance o f u t i l i t y system w i t h other utility  171 -  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n and  systems, and the c o o r d i n a t i o n of u t i l i t y  community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e components.  systems i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h  minimizing utility  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  resources  required  P l a n n i n g of  efficiency,  to meet s p e c i f i e d  that i s ,  goals.  Planning of  systems i n the G.N.W.T. i s conducted by the Department o f  P u b l i c Works. Both aspects and  must be c o n s i d e r e d  to ensure that  s a n i t a t i o n s s e r v i c e s are e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t .  planning  field.  water  However, the  of water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s has dominated l i t e r a t u r e and  practice.  Technical considerations  Planning  insufficient  and engineers  have dominated the  f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s has r e c e i v e d  a t t e n t i o n a l t h o u g h e f f i c i e n c y i s meaningless w i t h o u t  effectiveness. and  of p l a n n i n g  Planning  should  be concerned w i t h  needs and matching them with  identifying  objectives  p r a c t i c a l and r e l i a b l e s o l u t i o n s that  are both e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t .  4.6.2  Planning process The  G.N.W.T. i s r e s p o n s i b l e  for planning,  c o n s t r u c t i n g and  o p e r a t i n g water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the non-tax based communities.  I n 1977,  implement the 1974  the 'pre-design'  process  was i n i t i a t e d to  Water and S a n i t a t i o n P o l i c y and to r a t i o n a l i z e the  long term water and s a n i t a t i o n system f o r each community. pre-design  Under the  program many s t u d i e s have been conducted by c o n s u l t i n g  - 172 -  e n g i n e e r i n g f i r m s f o r the Department of P u b l i c Works o r , more r e c e n t l y , d i r e c t l y f o r the Department o f L o c a l Government.^ r e f e r e n c e were provided  Standard  to ensure c o n s i s t e n t procedure,  assumptions (Department o f L o c a l Government, 1982). pre-design first  study was scheduled  to take three years  terms o f  methodology and  A community to complete.  In the  s t a g a the c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a l l f e a s i b l e o p t i o n s i s  determined.  After  the community and the G.N.W.T. s e l e c t  system, a d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g , implementation  and budgeting  a preferred report i s  prepared. The  c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g process  systems i s i n i t i a t e d , and  process  G.N.W.T.  reflects  funded  f o r community water and s a n i t a t i o n  and c o n t r o l l e d  the o b j e c t i v e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  The methodology, c r i t e r i a  implicitly,  by the G.N.W.T.  o f the  and assumptions r e f l e c t , o f t e n  the v a l u e s and p e r c e p t i o n s of government  t e c h n o c r a t s and c o n s u l t a n t s .  The purpose  Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n  bureaucrats, is limited.  C o n f l i c t s a r i s e because of the narrow f o c u s , problems i n communication, d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s , and unmatched r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and authority.  The i s s u e s i n the p l a n n i n g process  s o l u t i o n s are The  are a n a l y s e d  below and  presented.  p l a n n i n g process  f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n the  N.W.T. i s means o r i e n t e d , the purpose being to s e l e c t  a system. The ends  ^ R e c e n t l y the t i t l e f o r water and s a n i t a t i o n s t u d i e s was changed from 'pre-design' t o ' p l a n n i n g ' s t u d i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s t u d i e s was t r a n s f e r r e d to the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s o f the Department o f L o c a l Government.  -  are  173 -  assumed i n statements of government o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and  programs. problem s o l v i n g should s t a r t with d e f i n i n g the studies define  the  to p r o v i d e a piped  equivalent  level  to meet p u b l i c h e a l t h and environmental r e g u l a t i o n s .  defined  Pre-design  problem i n terms of i d e n t i f y i n g t e c h n i c a l and  economical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and  problem.  of s e r v i c e  The problem i s  by the Water and S a n i t a t i o n P o l i c y as improving h e a l t h .  poor h e a l t h  in itself  i s not  But  j u s t a problem, i t i s a c o n d i t i o n .  P r o v i d i n g water and s a n i t a t i o n systems does not n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t the conditions can  which r e s u l t i n poor h e a l t h .  only be r e v e a l e d  as the  people can  Problems, and thus s o l u t i o n s , be brought, o r can b r i n g  themselves, to t h i n k about the  causes o f t h e i r poor h e a l t h  understand how the  be addressed  failure  problem can  to a s s i s t the  y  1979). The  community i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r problems, the  f a i l u r e to i n v e s t i g a t e causes not consider  (Roberts  and t o  just conditions,  an e c o l o g i c a l view of h e a l t h  the f a i l u r e to  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the  means i n s t e a d o f ends, u l t i m a t e l y aggravates the root  focus on  problems and  impedes the process o f i d e n t i f y i n g and implementing e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n s . R e s i d e n t s o f the non-tax based communities i n the N.W.T. a r e provided  opportunities  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  planning  e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s impeded because the process of p l a n n i n g perceptions  often  purpose, problems, and  are predetermined by the G.N.W.T.  and v a l u e s o f the  their reactions.  process but  community are o n l y  R e s i d e n t s are  The o b j e c t i v e s ,  implicitly  s o l i c i t e d by  u s u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n improving  but  they are  perplexed and f r u s t r a t e d by the  and  the d e t a i l e d t e c h n i c a l and economic e v a l u a t i o n s  long  planning  conducted t o  services process  -  rationalize and  the simple  174 -  improvements that they d e s i r e .  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning  i s understandably  Their  interest  c o o l and guarded  because  the G.N.W.T, not the community, i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the of  system and the c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of the system. The  G.N.W.T. i n i t i a t e s  the p l a n n i n g process  o b j e c t i v e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s communities' concerns are  process planning  i n the i n t e r e s t  p l a n n i n g process  I n Repulse Bay,  at t h e ' f i n a l '  the community C o u n c i l o b j e c t e d  the p l a n n i n g  study  sewage and s o l i d waste.  source community  t h e i r own l o c a t i o n  A l s o i n Baker Lake, the community's h a l t e d implementation  c o n f l i c t s were not  i s l e s s important  r e s o l v e d i n the planning  concerns were e i t h e r unknown o r d i s r e g a r d e d problems behind  had not  I n these examples, the v a l i d i t y  r a t i o n a l i t y of the c o n f l i c t s  therse c o n f l i c t s  and N a t i v e people  the same language.  to the water  year  long  o f the  I n Tuktoyaktuk a water r e s e v o i r remained empty f o r  before c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Engineers  and a f t e r  I n Baker Lake, the  three years because the i s s u e o f water source  The  planning  meeting o f a four  r e p o r t and developed  s t a n d i n g o b j e c t i o n to the water source 'approved' p l a n .  i n the  of c o n f l i c t s d u r i n g  proposed by the c o n s u l t a n t s and G.N.W.T. disregarded  o f the community but the  community p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i s e v i d e n t by the frequency studies.  to r a t i o n a l i z e and r e a l i z e i t s  subservient.  L i m i t e d and i n e f f e c t i v e  for  choice  than  been r e s o l v e d and t h e  the  process. as i n v a l i d  fact  t h a t the  The communities' or i r r a t i o n a l .  are communication and c o n t r o l .  literally  and f i g u r a t i v e l y do not speak  D i f f e r e n c e s i n language, knowledge, c u l t u r e and  b e l i e f s impede e f f e c t i v e communication.  There must be a mutual need,  -  d e s i r e and  benefit  175  -  f o r d i a l o g u e to be open and  and v a l u e s of both the engineers  and  useful.  the r e s i d e n t s must be  r e s p e c t e d b e f o r e communication can be e f f e c t i v e . a n a l y t i c a l and  reductionist  The  The  knowledge mutually  engineer's  approach when combined w i t h a r r o g a n t  elitism  which i g n o r e s , d e n i e s or downgrades the views of the N a t i v e r e s i d e n t s p r e c l u d e s e f f e c t i v e communication. c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and improve communication but  Training  p e r s o n a l h u m i l i t y and  To ensure  the community, the community must be present p l a n n i n g process  the  how  is paternalistic.  well intentioned, r a t i o n a l , or  engineers and government may i n e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n s , and  be.  The r e g i o n a l u l t i m a t e l y makes  failures result  from  'right'  are the  the l a c k of  local  the community water and  T h i s l a c k of community c o n t r o l and  l a c k of s e l f - f i n a n c e .  control  C o n f l i c t s i n d e c i s i o n making,  c o n t r o l over the p l a n n i n g process and systems.  Without adequate l o c a l  self-reliance financial  to p r o v i d e .  income i s too low to a l l o w l o c a l p l a n n i n g process c o n t r o l of both The  Either  standads  financial control.  r e i n f o r c e s c e n t r a l c o n t r o l and the process and  p l a n n i n g process  sanitation  stems from  on  are too h i g h or The  impedes  current community  content of p l a n n i n g  should be based  a  r e s o u r c e s to  meet the government s t a n d a r d s , the community i s f o r c e d to r e l y government to p l a n and  and  client.  Community i n t e r e s t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  impeded no matter  on  d i a l o g u e between e x p e r t s  government s e t s the agenda, c o n t r o l s the process and the d e c i s i o n s .  and  tolerance could  the p l a n n i n g process should not r e l y  p e r s o n a l i t y or p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  The  i n communication s k i l l s  on community c o n t r o l  and  cash  -  community l e a r n i n g .  Problems and s o l u t i o n s should  p e r c e p t i o n s and o b j e c t i v e s . process  should  be s o c i a l  s e l e c t a technology,  176 -  reflect  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s o f the  learning.  The primary  and prepare the  community to i d e n t i f y problems and to d e a l w i t h them. by the  planning  purpose should not be to  r a t h e r i t should be to a s s i s t  p l a n n i n g must be c o n t r o l l e d  local  Heuristic  users.  The G.N.W.T. has r e g i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  i s responsible for  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n non-tax based communities, and d e s i r e s to r e a l i z e the e x t e r n a l or u n a p p r e c i a t e d services.  b e n e f i t s of community water and s a n t i t a t i o n  These l e g i t i m a t e r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e the G.N.W.T. assuming primary financial,  control.  planning  The G.N.W.T. should  4.6.3  The community should c o n t r o l and s p e c i f y the  should  responsibility  f o r water and s a n t a t i o n p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s should r e s i d e w i t h community.  provide  t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e and perhaps  s p e c i f y minimum terms of r e f e r e n c e ; however, the primary  without  the  process.  Evaluation of options E v a l u a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g process  s c r e e n i n g and a n a l y s i n g o p t i o n s .  c o n s i s t s of generating,  The purpose o f e v a l u a t i o n i s to  improve the q u a l i t y o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  by improving  the  appropriateness  of o p t i o n s and by g e n e r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the consequences o f o p t i o n s i n order  to f a c i l i t a t e  informed  ( L i c h f i e l d , K e t t l e and Whitbread, 1975)  debate and r a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n should  choice i d e a l l y be  r a t i o n a l and comprehensive and the r e s u l t s must be comprehensible  to be  - 177 -  useful.  E v a l u a t i o n i s undertaken w i t h i n a framework o f o b j e c t i v e s and  preferences;  t h e r e f o r e , e v a l u a t i o n can o n l y proceed  a f t e r a process o f  d e f i n i n g problems and needs and e s t a b l i s h i n g g o a l s , p r e f e r e n c e s and priorities.  The f i r s t  task i s to f i n d out what the people  to know o r what i n f o r m a t i o n would be important (Majchrzak, The generate  a f f e c t e d want  to decision-makers  1984).  purpose of e v a l u a t i o n i n the G.N.W.T. p r e - d e s i g n o p t i o n s and to assess  process  t h e i r compliance w i t h I m p l i c i t G.N.W.T.  o b j e c t i v e s u s i n g a s p e c i f i e d methodology and assumptions. are p r i m a r i l y concerned with  o p t i o n s to o b j e c t i v e s are not c o n s i d e r e d  Planning  The s t u d i e s  t e c h n i c a l and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  S o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and the of  i s to  s t u d i e s are r e s t r i c t e d  relationship  i n community l e v e l s t u d i e s .  to water and s a n i t a t i o n systems.  Other  community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , such as roads and power, and community p h y s i c a l development, such as land development and housing, included.  The narrow focus r e f l e c t s  responsibilites, engineers The  not  fragmentation of  the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of knowledge, and the t r a i n i n g of  who conduct the p l a n n i n g c h o i c e of c r i t e r i a  because c r i t e r i a  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  are  provide  quantifiable c r i t e r i a  studies.  i s an important  step i n the p l a n n i n g  the b a s i s f o r comparing o p t i o n s .  process  Simple,  f o r e v a l u a t i n g water and s a n i t a t i o n o p t i o n s a r e  d e s i r a b l e but i l l u s i v e .  Criteria  can be developed  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y of o p t i o n s .  to e v a l u a t e  Effectiveness c r i t e r i a  o p t i o n s w i t h o b j e c t i v e s such as h e a l t h , environmental  link  protection,  convenience and e q u i t y . These l i n k s are d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e to  - 178 -  quantify therefore surrogate criteria such as water use are often used or criteria are qualitatively analysed.  Efficiency criteria link  options with resources and include technical and economic considerations such as feasibility, r e l i a b i l i t y , employment requirements, and cost. Health and environmental regulations and engineering design guidelines provide functional c r i t e r i a .  Criteria such as smallness (Schumacher,  1974), conviviality ( I l l i c h , 1973), decentralization, self-reliance, and appropriateness  tend to be vague philosophical prescriptions based on  concerns with modern technology and modern technological society.  They  often conceal root issues of anti-modernism, humanism, development theory and political ideology (Cameron, 1983). It is not desirable or possible to lay down precise objective criteria to evaluate water and sanitation options.  This is because of  the complexity and interrelationship between criteria and because of the value basis of criteria.  Criteria are indicators of a value system.  The selection of criteria should be developed by the participants. As planning and evaluation attempts to be comprehensive and as more and more seemingly relevant factors and their relationships are included in planning, the methodology for evaluation  concomitantly  becomes more and more complex, abstract, and open to debate, often detracting from the process of decision-making.  Formal analytical  evaluation methodologies are limited by inadequate understanding of cause-effect relationships between water and sanitation services and objectives.  Methodologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis can be  useful in highlighting economic considerations and focusing attention on  - 179 -  issues.  When there is uncertainty, a sensitivity analysis should be  provided so that decision makers can judge the effects of various assumptions.  Assumptions should be explicit; however, the value basis  for many assumptions is often not conscious or is assumed to be common knowledge or uncontentious.  Public review of evaluation methodology as  well as the evaluation results is required.  Evaluation methodology  should not attempt to establish a moral guide for deciding correct public actions (McAllister, 1980). The ranking of options using technical or economic criteria provides a necessary but incomplete evaluation.  While analysis can be  objective, synthesis i s subjective because the relative importance of the criteria and impacts to the whole must be assessed (McAllister 1980).  There is no short cut to the time consuming task of reviewing  the many consequences of options until a holistic impression of their significance forms (McAllister, 1980).  No one method is satisfactory.  A matrix of options versus effects provides a simple descriptive summary which highlights advantages, disadvantages and limitations so that the participants can engage in informed debate.  A checklist or matrix only  comes to l i f e when people are given the opportunity to develop i t and to discuss i t .  4.6.4  Comparison of systems  In this section, Individual, central f a c i l i t y , trucked and piped water and sanitation systems are compared with respect to objectives and various characteristics.  Tables 4.9 and 4.10 summarizes the results.  TABLE 4.9  COMPARISON OF WATER AND SANITATION SYSTEMS WITH OBJECTIVES  Public  Type o f System  Potential Water Contamination  Health  Water Availability and C o n s u m p t i o n  Sewage Contamination  Envi ronmental Protection  Socio-Econoraic Development  1. I n d i v i d u a l VARIES.  VARIES.  VARIES.  VARIKS.  2. C e n t r a l Facility  HIGH. P o t e n t i a l for contamination i n selfh a u l and i n house s t o r a g e .  VERY LOW. S e l f h a u l and l i m i t e d in-house plumbing.  VERY HIGH. Potential for excreta contamination during transport. Contamina t i o n of ground around b u i l d i n g s by w a s h u a t e r .  HIGH. P o t e n t i a l LOU. P o t e n t i a l problems t o Impede d i s p o s i n g of development. concentrated e x c r e t a and p l a s t i c bags.  LOW. P o t e n t i a l in transport; moderate i n in-house storage.  LOW. Limited plumbing.  HIGH. P o t e n t i a l HIGH. for excreta contaminat ion during c o l l e c t ion. Contamina t i n g o f ground around b u i l d i n g s by u a s h w a t e r .  3. T r u c k e d a . Water Delivery; Excreta Collection  V A R I E S . Kay impede development.  As a b o v e . LOW.  As a b o v e .  Fire Protection  Convenience and Aesthetics VARIES  VARIES. Individual responsibility.  VERY LOW.  VERY LOU. Provides basic service only.  VERY LOW. Level of service b e l o w N.W.T. and Canadian standards.  MODERATE. Can use w a t e r t r u c k and/or f i r e vehicle. Need storage tank.  LOW. basic only.  LOW. Level of s e r v i c e below Canadian standards.  HIGH. Varies wi t h in-house p l u m b i n g and tank s i z e . L i m i t e d water available.  Provides needs  b. Water Delivery; Sewage Pumpout  LOU. P o t e n t i a l HIGH. Varies i n t r a n s p o r t and w i t h p l u m b i n g . in-house storge.  LOW. P o t e n t i a l contamination f rom l e a k a g e d u r i n g pumpout and t r a n s p o r t .  MODERATE. Relatively d i l u t e wastewater s u i t a b l e for lagoon.  MODERATE. Can impede h i g h water use Industry.  MODERATE. Above.  4. P i p e d Water and Sewer  VERY LOW. handling required.  VERY LOW. Potential contamination during f a i l u r e s .  MODERATE. Wastewater very d i l u t e and l a r g e volume.  HIGH. Facilitates industrial development.  VARIES. U s u a l l y VERY HIGH. No high. D e p e n d i n g l i m i t a t i o n s on on p i p e s i z e and c u s t o m e r . design. Need storage, fire vehicle.  No  VERY HIGH.  Equity  VERY LOW.  As  HIGH. L e v e l o f s e r v i c e potenti a l l y equitable to southern Canadian.  VERY HIGH. Service equal t o southern Canadian.  TABLE 4.10  System Type o f System  and B u i l d i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Sewage System  Water System  1.  Individual  Self-haul, well.  2.  Central Facility  Self-haul facility.  COMPARISON OF WATER AND SANITATION SYSTEMS WITH CHARACTERISTICS  from  Plumbing In-House  Feasibility  Simplicity, Reliability  Outhouse, Septic f i e l d  VARIES. Very low t o f u l l .  Not f e a s i b l e where permafrost . Viable for i s o l a t e d bulIding.  Self-haul of excreta to facility. Washwater t o ground.  VERY LOW. No pressure, laundry or bathing.  V i a b l e i n s m a l l VAR I F.S . Usua I l y v e r y communities. simple facility. Inhouse s i m p l e .  3. T r u c k e d a. Water Delivery; Excreta Collection  Vehicle delivery to in-house water barrel.  V e h i c l e c o l l e c - LOW. No tion of excreta pressure. i n honeybag o r bucket. Wash w a t e r t o ground.  b. Water Delivery; Sewage Pumpout  Vehicle delivery to in-house water tank.  Vehicle c o l l e c t i o n of a l l wastewater from i n - h o u s e pumpout t a n k .  4. P i p e d Water and Sewer  Piped d e l i v e r y . Piped collection.  R e q u i r e roads and a c c e s s t o buildings.  V A R I E S . Low t oAs ful1 plumbing, pressure water.  HIGH. Full plumbing, pressure water, flush toilet.  above.  Requi r e s freeze protection. Aboveg r o u n d where high-ice c o n t e n t , thermally sensitive permafrost.  VARIES,  V u l n e r a b i 1 i ty  Flexibility Service  -  Flexibility Physical  -  Economic Characteristics  Employment Requirements  Self-Rellance  VERY LOW. Independent o f other b u i l d ings.  HIGH. Low t o high service.  MODERATE. VARIES. S e r v i c e to low density housing.  N/A  VERY HIGH. Houses a r e Independent.  VERY LOW. Centralized facility vulnerable. Alternate s e r v i ce possible.  VERY LOW. Low level of service only.  MODERATE. Service to detached houses.  LOW. Capital and 0 & M.  LOW. Semiskilled operator.  VERY HIGH. Potential for l o c a l technical , financ i a l and administ r a t i v e control.  MODERATE. Simple technology. Easily replaced or repaired.  LOW. Building systems independent. Al ternate service possible.  LOW. Limited response t o improved s e r v i c e (water demand).  MODERATE. Very responsive to changes i n layout. Service to detached houses.  LOW f i x e d capital costs, HIGH v a r i a b l e 0 & M costs.  HIGH. HIGH. As above. Cont i n u o u s requirement f o r semi-skilled drivers, unskilled h e l p e r s , and skilled vehicle mechanics.  MODERATE, above•  MODERATE. Vulnerable to prolonged service disruption.  HIGH. Match household p l u m b i n g and demand. Limited response to w a t e r demand.  MODERATE. above.  LOW. As a b o v e . HIGH. As Key v a r i a b l e i s a b o v e . w a t e r demand.  MODERATE. As above. High l e v e l s of s e r v i c e s nay require subs i d y .  HIGH. Buildings highly vulnerable to service I n t e r r u p t ions and c o n s e q u e n ces o f f a i l u r e potentially highly disruptive.  MODERATE, Provides high level of service. Hi g h response to w a t e r demand.  MODERATE. Unresponsive t o change i n layout. Service to d e t a c h e d housing o r high density.  HIGH f i x e d capi t a l costs• LOW v a r i a b l e 0 & M costs. Key v a r i a b l e i s housing densi t y .  LOW. Require t e c h n i c a l and financial assistance.  As  LOW. Complex, sophisticated technology. Usually r e l i a b l e but d i f f i c u l t to repair or replace.  As  LOW. Continuous requirement for highly skilled personnel to const r u c t , o p e r a t e and maintain system.  - 182  These m a t r i c e s  -  p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i v e summary and  o p t i o n s by i l l u m i n a t i n g  guide  to e v a l u a t i n g  the d i f f e r e n c e s among the b a s i c systems.  Combinations of the b a s i c systems i n the same community p o s s i b l e and practice.  these combinations  For example, a c e n t r a l  c o u l d be combined with community but may  f u r t h e r complicate  e v a l u a t i o n In  f a c i l i t y with l a u n d r y and  trucked s e r v i c e , or water may  bathing  be piped  d e l i v e r e d by t r u c k , or high d e n s i t y areas  be piped s e r v i c e d w h i l e low water use  are  to  the  of a community  low d e n s i t y b u i l d i n g s are  s e r v i c e d by t r u c k . I n d i v i d u a l systems imply a h i g h l e v e l of independence. i n d i v i d u a l systems are not permafrost  and  f e a s i b l e i n most of the N.W.T. because of  i n d i v i d u a l systems are f u r t h e r l i m i t e d  b u i l d i n g s or to very low d e n s i t y development. low cost systems but  and  e x c r e t a c o l l e c t i o n s e r v i c e to houses without but  community contamination  p e r s o n a l hygiene are s t i l l  with plumbing, r u n n i n g water, and convenient The  as piped  compared below.  Central f a c i l i t i e s  Trucked  Self-haul  plumbing i n c r e a s e s  Trucked  are  excreta  water d e l i v e r y  i s impeded and  possible.  the  in-house  and  can be as  healthy  service.  flexibility,  s e r v i c e w i t h r e s p e c t to  s e l f - r e l i a n c e , and  R e s u l t s of a water and  F o r t McPherson (Cameron, 1982;  piped  and  s e r v i c e to houses  sewage pumpout tanks  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of trucked and  l e v e l of technology,  isolated  r e s u l t i n washwater and  contaminate the ground around the b u i l d i n g s .  and  to  they p r o v i d e a low l e v e l of s e r v i c e .  systems can impede p e r s o n a l hygiene  l e v e l of convenience  However,  economics are  s a n i t a t i o n planning  study f o r  Associated Engineering Services L t d . ,  -  1983)  a r e used to I l l u s t r a t e  183  -  the e f f e c t s o f the key v a r i a b l e s :  p o p u l a t i o n , type of h o u s i n g , water u s e , and employment r e q u i r e m e n t s . Trucked s e r v i c e i s a r e l a t i v e l y simple  l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y t h a t can  be managed and o p e r a t e d u s i n g l o c a l l a b o u r ; whereas piped  systems a r e  complex and s o p h i s t i c a t e d and r e q u i r e h i g h l y s k i l l e d and s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l to o p e r a t e them. are l e s s v u l n e r a b l e outages.  Trucked systems a r e r e l i a b l e because they  t o mishaps such as f i r e , f r e e z e ups o r power  B u i l d i n g s r e q u i r e o n l y p e r i o d i c s e r v i c e and a l t e r n a t e means o f  p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e can be implemented i f n e c e s s a r y . u s u a l l y r e l i a b l e ; however, p i p e - s e r v i c e d vulnerable  Piped  systems a r e  b u i l d i n g s are h i g h l y  i n t h a t they r e q u i r e u n i n t e r r u p t e d  service.  The consequences  of mishap o r f a i l u r e o f pipe system a r e v e r y d i s r u p t i v e t o s e r v i c e and f a i l u r e s a r e d i f f i c u l t and e x p e n s i v e to r e p a i r .  I n some cases r e p a i r s  must await warm summer weather. Trucked sytems can p r o v i d e equivalent-to-pipe-service  a continuum from b a s i c s e r v i c e to  t h a t can match the h o u s e h o l d p l u m b i n g , water  demand, and customers' p r e f e r e n c e s  and a b i l i t i e s  t o pay.  Trucked  s e r v i c e and systems can be e a s i l y incremented and adapted t o match changes i n l e v e l o f s e r v i c e , p o p u l a t i o n , o r community p h y s i c a l development.  Because o f the low f i x e d c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t ,  systems can be abandoned w i t h l i t t l e l o s t c o s t . systems p r o v i d e i n s t a l l e d , piped  trucked  Conversely,  piped  o n l y one l e v e l of s e r v i c e and, once planned and systems tend to d i c t a t e the f u t u r e p h y s i c a l development  or redevelopment o f the community. S e l f - r e l i a n c e , t h a t i s the h o u s e h o l d e r s and communities p h y s i c a l  -  independence and of  water and  their technical,  184  -  financial  and  administrative control  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , i s enhanced w i t h t r u c k e d  because of t h e i r i n h e r e n t low l e v e l of technology type and  l e v e l of s e r v i c e .  c o n s t r u c t e d , operated  Conversely,  piped  and  systems  flexibility  systems can not  technical assistance.  s u b s t a n t i a l government f i n a n c i a l  by the Department of P u b l i c Works whereas  systems are operated  by the community.  Economic comparison between piped and economic c h o i c e between a high c a p i t a l and and  h i g h annual  breakdown f o r trucked and systems annual  The  f o r approximately  piped systems i s presented  d r i v e r s , h e l p e r s , mechanics and  for  44% of the t o t a l  piped systems f o r f a c i l i t y  amounts to approximately The  c o s t and  the f i x e d  70% of the t o t a l  l a b o u r p o r t i o n of the t o t a l  approximately  low annual  cost a l t e r n a t i v e .  Conversely,  cost.  cost The  considerably.  typical  i n Table  Trucked  4.11. 60%  of  system c o s t . systems f o r  l a b o u r p o r t i o n of t o t a l  cost  o p e r a t o r s , maintenance and c o n s t r u c t i o n  14% of the t o t a l  cost.  employment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r piped and  million;  cost  c o s t s f o r piped s e r v i c e  i n Table 4.12.  present v a l u e c o s t f o r the o p t i o n s are r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e , to $12.6  alternative  o p e r a t o r s amounts to  The  systems f o r F o r t McPherson are provided  $10.3  classic  f o r approximately  cost f o r trucked  facility  trucked  trucked systems i s a  v a r i a b l e c o s t s accounts  the t o t a l system c o s t . account  and  C u r r e n t l y i n non-tax-based communities, a l l piped  systems are operated  Trucked  be  or f i n a n c e d by the N a t i v e non-tax based  communities i n the N.W.T. without  and a low c a p i t a l  in  The  trucked total  ranging  from  however, the labour p o r t i o n v a r i e s s e r v i c e s would p r o v i d e  10 to 16 f u l l  time  jobs  - 185 -  TABLE 4.11  COSTS FOR TRUCKED AND PIPED SYSTEMS (from: Cameron, 1982)  System and Cost Items Trucked Stysterns Garages Trucks Building Containers Fixed Facilities Labour (Drivers) Total Piped Systems Building Service Connections Fixed Facilities Water and Sewer Mains Total  Capital (%)  1  0 & M (%)  2  Total (%)  3.5 8.9 14.5 13.2  2.1 17.0 2.5 5.4 32.9  5.6 25.9 17.0 18.6 32.9  40.1%  59.9%  100.0%  15.5 19.8 34.3  10.1 11.4 8.9  25.6 31.2 43.2  69.9%  30.4%  100.0%  -  ^Capital costs are the equivalent uniform annual cost of capital expenditures amortized at 8% over a twenty year period. 2  0 & M is the annual operations and maintenance cost. Total cost is the equivalent annual capital cost plus annual 0 & M cost.  3  - 186 -  TABLE 4.12  COST AND EMPLOYMENT WITH PIPED AND FOR FORT MCPHERSON, N.W.T.  TRUCKED SYSTEMS  1  System D e s c r i p t i o n  1(a)  1(b)  1(c)  2(a)  2(b)  3.  Total Cost ($ 1000)  2  Labour C o s t ($ 1000)  2  Number of Jobs  Trucked: f u l l y , water d e l i v e r y and sewage pumpout s e r v i c e  10,936  4,812  16  Trucked: w i t h water supply p i p e l i n e and sewer o u t f a l l  11,133  3,674  11  Trucked: 1(b) w i t h pipe s e r v i c e to s c h o o l and l a u n d r y  10,268  3,388  10  Piped: w i t h nominal  12,657  1,772  4  Piped: w i t h no f i r e p r o t e c t i o n  10,554  1,478  4  Partial: core m u l t i - f a m i l y area piped, s i n g l e f a m i l y houses turcked  10,691  -  -  3  4  fire protection  Based on p o p u l a t i o n o f 890 persons 2%. Present v a l u e at 8% amortized  i n 1984 and annual  growth r a t e o f  over a 20 year p e r i o d .  Based on water consumption of 90 l i t r e s Based on s i n g l e f a m i l y housing.  per person  per day.  - 187 -  with a value of $3.4 to $4.8 million whereas piped services would require an average of 3 to 4 staff at a cost of $1.5 to $1.8 million. The results in Table 4.12 are for Fort McPherson with a population of 890 in 1984 and increasing to 1333 persons in 2004. As community population increases, the economy of scale tends to favour piped systems.  The 1974 Water and Sanitation Policy indicated that  communities of over 700 persons would generally be economically pipeserviced.  Subsequent analysis indicated that piped services were not  cost-effective until population was over 1000 persons (Cameron, Christensen and Gamble, 1977).  These simplistic 'rules of thumb' mask  important technical, economic and planning assumptions with respect to the key variables of water use and housing density which significantly influence trucked and piped system costs respectively. Trucked system costs are relatively unaffected by community layout and housing type but they are very sensitive to water demand. Conversely pipe system costs are relatively insensitive to water demand but they very sensitive to the length of water and sewer main required per person.  Table 4.13 presents household unit costs calculated for  various housing types and water demand in Fort McPherson.  In Table  4.14  these unit costs are used to establish the cost-effective alternative between trucked and piped systems for various housing types and household plumbing in Fort McPherson.  The calculations indicate that  single family houses are more economically truck-serviced and multi-family units are more economically pipe-serviced, unless water consumption can be significantly reduced.  - 188 -  TABLE 4.13  EFFECT OF HOUSING DENSITY AND WATER DEMAND ON HOUSEHOLD SERVICE COSTS IN FORT MCPHERSON, N.W.T.  Service  Total Annual Unit Cost Per Household *  Piped Service 1. Detached Housing - Existing Layout - Redeveloped Layout  4,343 - LD0% 3,970 - 91%  2. Row Housing - Duplex - Quadplex  3,200 - 74% 2,610 - 60%  3. Apartment building - Varies  Minimum =  1,300 - 30%  Trucked Service Household Water Use (litres per person per day) 90 67.5 60 50 45 30  - 100% - 75% - 67% - 56% - 50% - 33%  Assumes five persons per household.  3,830 3,140 2,890 2,560 2,400 1,920  -  100% 82% 75% 67% 63% 50%  - 189 -  TABLE 4.14  EFFECT OF HOUSING TYPE AND HOUSEHOLD PLUMBING ON SELECTION OF SYSTEM IN FORT MCPHERSON, N.W.T.  Plumbing Type and Water Use  Housing Type Single  Duplex  Quadplex  Apartment  Conventional (90 Ipcd)  Trucked  Piped  Piped  Piped  Low Water Use (60 lpcd)  Trucked  Trucked  Piped  Piped  Housing type, density and layout significantly influence the household unit cost of piped service.  The largest savings are realized  i f multi-family attached row housing or apartment buildings are used with the potential reduction in pipe service costs compared to single family housing being approximately 30% to 70%. Trucked system costs are significantly reduced i f water use is lowered.  Water use of 90 litres per person per day is typical of houses  with f u l l conventional plumbing and appliances including a flush tank type toilet.  If water conserving plumbing and appliances, including a  low water use non-flush tank type toilet are used, water requirements may be reduced to 50 litres per person per day.  In typical N.W.T.  conditions, i t is cheaper to truck-service single family housing when community populations are less than 1225 and 1850 persons when residential water use is 90 and 50 litres per person per day respectively.  If water use is less than approximately 40 litres per  person per day trucked service is more economical regardless of  -  190  -  community p o p u l a t i o n . These r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e that i f m u l t i - f a m i l y housing  s e r v i c e i s a p p r o p r i a t e and  economical; however, i f s i n g l e  is built,  f i x t u r e s and  water c o n s e r v i n g  are a p p r o p r i a t e and  economical.  The  a p p l i a n c e s and  is built, family  trucked  housing and  and  type of house.  s a n i t a t i o n systems are e s s e n t i a l l y  community and  and  toilet  E v a l u a t i o n and  i n d i v i d u a l needs, p r e f e r e n c e s , and experience  the comparison of o p t i o n s can  v a r i o u s o p t i o n s but  the f i n a l  services  and  and  choice the  piped  water  determined.  the c h o i c e of housing  rooted i n v a l u e s , c u l t u r e , l i f e s t y l e ,  of  Once the  to a  s t y l e are s e l e c t e d , the r e l a t i v e c o s t of trucked and  Both the c h o i c e of t o i l e t  housing  economic c h o i c e between trucked  piped systems f o r a g i v e n community p o p u l a t i o n i s reduced between type of t o i l e t  piped  relate  to  p e r c e p t i o n s which are and  knowledge.  i l l u m i n a t e the i m p l i c a t i o n s  choice i s a v a l u e  judgement.  - 191 -  5.  IMPLICATIONS TO PLANNING  Water and s a n i t a t i o n appear to be a t e c h n i c a l  services function  i n the N.W.T., which on the and a t e c h n i c a l  issue,  are  i n t h i s t h e s i s as a microcosm o f p l a n n i n g and p h i l o s o p h i c a l which are  inextricably related  to community and r e g i o n a l  surface  discussed issues  development  issues. In t h i s c h a p t e r , the thesis related p l a n n i n g are  to the  fundamental i s s u e s  regional,  summarized.  5.1  services  regional  content  presented.  l e v e l r e s t on two i s s u e s :  c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the N.W.T. and Canada and the  mixed views of what c o n s t i t u t e i n control  progress and development.  These  conflicts  are  The b a s i s  f o r s c i e n t i f i c management of the n o r t h e r n economy and the  environment are 3.  are  p r o c e s s and the  Regional level  C o n f l i c t s a t the the  2.  f o r the  levels of  Conclusions  5.1.1 1.  arguments o f the  community and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  Implications  of p l a n n i n g water and s a n i t a t i o n  and the  C o n f l i c t s a t the of:  the  cultural  and v a l u e s .  weak and are regional  based on southern models.  l e v e l r a i s e the  broader and deeper  g o a l s and v a l u e s o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , chauvinism, the  the  issues  ethics of  l i m i t s to growth and s a t i s f a c t i o n , and the  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f m a t e r i a l i s t i c , growth based i d e o l o g i e s and development theory f o r the N.W.T.  - 192 -  1.2  Local l e v e l  Settlements i n the N.W.T. are r e l a t i v e l y new.  Federal  government  programs d u r i n g the e a r l y 50's that provided e d u c a t i o n , m e d i c a l and welfare services from the land  precipitated  to permanent  a major s h i f t  settlements.  i n native  Urbanization,  population cultural  a s s i m i l a t i o n and changes i n s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e have l e d to dependence on government, s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n , mental  and p h y s i c a l and  illness.  L o c a l government  was i n i t i a t e d  and developed by the f e d e r a l and  t e r r i t o r i a l governments and was based on a southern m u n i c i p a l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  Local control varies  the community's  economic base.  income, l i m i t e d  commercial and i n d u s t r i a l  model with  N a t i v e communities have low cash base, and no t a x - b a s e .  T h e r e f o r e , they must r e l y on the G.N.W.T. f o r f i n a n c i a l and technical assistance.  The N a t i v e communities have v i r t u a l l y no  c o n t r o l over the m a t t e r s which a f f e c t resources, l o c a l p o l i t i c a l are  them most.  Without  financial  a u t h o r i t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and autonomy  impeded.  Community p l a n n i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d by the h i s t o r i c a l ,  p o l i t i c a l and  economic development o f the N.W.T. and the communities. The p h y s i c a l environment c o n s t r a i n s p l a n n i n g and p h y s i c a l development.  community  Housing s t y l e and d e n s i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s emphasize the  c h o i c e between family housing.  compact  m u l t i - f a m i l y housing and the p r e f e r r e d  Much of the p r e s s u r e to b u i l d  compact  single  communities  w i t h m u l t i - f a m i l y housing i s based on the assumption of the need,  - 193 -  d e s i r e and lower  c o s t f o r piped water and sewer systems.  Pervasive  u n c e r t a i n t y i n community p l a n n i n g emphasizes the need f o r an a d a p t i v e p l a n n i n g approach and f l e x i b i l i t y i n p h y s i c a l l a y o u t and infrastructure. Community p l a n n i n g f o r Rae-Edzo demonstrates the c o n f l i c t s i n culture, l i f e s t y l e  and p e r c e p t i o n s between the n a t i v e s and w h i t e s ,  between r e s i d e n t s and e x p e r t s , and between l o c a l governments.  The case  and r e g i o n a l  study r e v e a l s i s s u e s o f c o n t r o l , v a l u e s and  the r o l e o f e x p e r t s ( p r o c e s s e d  knowledge).  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the new town by the r e g i o n a l government was based on the p e r c e p t i o n s and v a l u e s o f the white e n g i n e e r s and planners who saw piped water and sewer s e r v i c e s and the highway commercial development as more important  than  potential  the n a t i v e  r e s i d e n t ' s d e s i r e to pursue a t r a d i t i o n a l economy from the lakeside location.  Engineers  provided a simple, c l e a n  existing  technical  s o l u t i o n t h a t was embraced by the r e g i o n a l government d e c i s i o n makers to what was fundamentally  a s o c i a l problem.  The human  c o n d i t i o n and the p e r c e p t i o n s and v a l u e s of the n a t i v e r e s i d e n t s were i g n o r e d o r downgraded. The conflicts  fundamental problem that t h i s case r e v e a l s i s not t h e i n v a l u e s and problems i n communication, r a t h e r i t i s the  c o n t r o l o f community p l a n n i n g and development by the t e c h n o c r a t s and the r e g i o n a l government i n s t e a d of by the r e s i d e n t s and the  local  government. The G.N.W.T., not the community, c o n t r o l s community development and p l a n n i n g i n the n a t i v e , non-tax based s e t t l e m e n t s .  The G.N.W.T.,  - 194 -  not  the community, has the r e s o u r c e s , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  cases  the i n t e r e s t The  to develop  communities.  c o n t r o l o f community development by r e g i o n a l government and  the p a t e r n a l i s t i c e l i t i s m denies  and to p l a n the  and i n many  of southern white e n g i n e e r s  and p l a n n e r s  the community r e s i d e n t s the o p p o r t u n i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o  l e a r n and d e a l w i t h t h e i r urban problems.  1.3  Infrastructure level  Water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and systems i n non-tax based communities have been provided c o s t o f technology  by the G.N.W.T. because o f :  and concomitant  low cash  unperceived  and economic b e n e f i t s of community water and  services.  The water and s a n i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s of the N a t i v e people explicitly  the  and a d m i n i s t e r  s e r v i c e s and systems; and the e x t e r n a l and l o c a l l y  sanitation  high  income o f r e s i d e n t s ;  i n a b i l i t y o f communities to c o n s t r u c t , operate  health, social  the  solicited  or considered  are not  i n the G.N.W.T. water and  s a n i t a t i o n p o l i c y or planning. Examination  o f the o b j e c t i v e s from G.N.W.T. p o l i c y and the  l i t e r a t u r e on water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t f u n c t i o n a l knowledge i s inadequate  to a l l o w a s c i e n t i f i c , o b j e c t i v e  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the best l e v e l of s e r v i c e and type of system f o r a g i v e n community. fundamentally and  The o b j e c t i v e s are r e v e a l e d to be based  on v a l u e s and p e r c e p t i o n s .  p e r c e p t i o n s o f the N a t i v e people  Furthermore, the  values  are e i t h e r not c o n s i d e r e d or  -  are  not  considered  The  i s very complex and  understand and of p r o v i d i n g  valid.  and  s e r v i c e s and The  perceptions  be  h i n d e r the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s and  'insult'.  D e s p i t e the  G.N.W.T.'s i n t e r v e n t i o n s  sufficient  3.  Technical  conditions operating  and  and  condition  personal  and  the  socio-political  and  ultimately  to r a l l y  from lack  of o b j e c t i v e s ,  have assumed  installed  sanitation  to m a i n t a i n a  Furthermore, water  assistance  of  of  the  benefits,  systems  implicity  lifestyle.  engineers have dominated  the  selection  s a n i t a t i o n systems because of the unique e n v i r o n m e n t a l  i n the North and systems.  the high  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and  and  s a n i t a t i o n systems  dominated p l a n n i n g  f o r water  and  and  concern f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c o n s t r a i n t s  t h a t the d e s i g n and  c o s t of c o n s t r u c t i n g  P l a n n i n g o£_ water and  concern f o r e f f i c i e n c y has  The  the  Water and  community's a b i l i t y  southern, i n d u s t r i a l  considerations  of water and  and  inadequate at best  emphasized t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s , and the  of h e a l t h  the v a l u e b a s i s  fully  s i m p l y a matter  complexity of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the  f u n c t i o n a l knowledge, and  to  e c o l o g i c a l perspective  technology that n e g l e c t s  causes of poor h e a l t h w i l l  based on  An  i s not  people are c r i t i c a l . not  sanitation  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s impossible  good h e a l t h .  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and  water and  Improving h e a l t h  a n e c e s s a r y but  environment and  and  technology.  hygiene of the  s e r v i c e s are  the  to q u a n t i f y .  health i s required.  healthy  -  r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h  services  habits  important or  195  and  types of systems  s e l e c t i o n of systems depends on  the  reveals  engineering  - 196 -  approach, the engineer's  c o n c e p t i o n of the problem, and  importance g i v e n to c r i t e r i a self-reliance.  The  such as s i m p l i c i t y ,  a n a l y s i s , d e s i g n and  the  relative  reliability  s e l e c t i o n of  and  technology  does not f o l l o w d e t e r r a i n i s t i c a l l y from t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and objectives.  Rather,  the approach and  concept  depends on  the  p e r s o n a l i t y , t r a i n i n g , knowledge, and wisdom of the e n g i n e e r . c h a l l e n g e Of the problem and to e n g i n e e r s  has  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  recommendations, and implicit  i n their  An examination  v a l u e b a s i s of t h e i r  the r e l i a n c e on  technology  to: and  of why  systems f a i l ,  the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  the t e c h n o l o g i c a l optimism and  4.  planning modernity  not j u s t how  process.  systems  fail,  i n values, F a i l u r e s are  b i a s of e n g i n e e r s ;  r e s p e c t g i v e n to t h e i r a d v i c e ; and  downgrading of the v a l u e s and and  and  their  designs.  r e v e a l s t h a t the causes of f a i l u r e s are r o o t e d p e r c e p t i o n s and  authority given  o f t e n b l i n d e d them to the narrowness of  knowledge, the s u b j e c t i v i t y and  The  the concomitant  p e r c e p t i o n s of the people  related  the a u t h o r i t y n e g l e c t or the water  s a n i t a t i o n systems are supposed to s e r v e .  There i s no o b j e c t i v e economic a n a l y s i s methodology to e v a l u a t e G.N.W.T. water and alternatives.  s a n i t a t i o n s u b s i d y p o l i c y or to rank  There are four l e v e l s of impediment  economic e v a l u a t i o n of water and  sanitation  C a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are not  b.  F u n c t i o n a l knowledge of improvements r e l a t e d s e r v i c e and  to a m e c h a n i s t i c  programs:  a.  of  the  p r e c i s e or  certain. to s p e c i f i c  types of systems i s not e s t a b l i s h e d .  levels  - 197 -  c.  Translation of benefits  i n t o monetary v a l u e i s f r a u g h t  with  t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . d.  Economic a n a l y s i s methodology i s laden w i t h c o n c e p t u a l and p r a c t i c a l problems. R e c o g n i z i n g that  the optimum l e v e l of s e r v i c e can not be  determined by c o s t - b e n e f i t cost-effectiveness facilitates  a n a l y s i s , the G.N.W.T. u t i l i z e s a  analysis  a rigorous,  i t masks u n d e r l y i n g  to rank a l t e r n a t i v e s .  This  technique  r a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l and economic a n a l y s i s but  assumptions and u n c e r t a i n t y .  Only water and  s a n i t a t i o n systems that are e q u i v a l e n t - t o - p i p e d - s e r v i c e a r e considered.  Financing  available.  of s e r v i c e s  Willingness-to-pay  i s assumed to be j u s t i f i e d and  i s not c o n s i d e r e d  so there  i s no  i n c e n t i v e f o r the customers i n non-tax based communities to make economic t r a d e - o f f s . trade-offs  f o r the r e s i d e n t s  paternalism 5.  Consequently the G.N.W.T. makes the economic  The p l a n n i n g  and the communities and t h i s l e a d s to  and c o n f r o n t a t i o n s . of water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and systems i n non-tax  based N a t i v e communities i s c o n t r o l l e d by the G.N.W.T., not the communities.  The r e g i o n a l government  c o n t r o l s planning  studies;  initiates,  f i n a n c e s and  s p e c i f i e s the problems, o b j e c t i v e s , scope  proceedure, methodology, and agenda of the s t u d i e s ; makes the s e l e c t i o n , i n s t a l l s planning  and operates the systems.  process i s means o r i e n t e d ,  paternalistic. system d e s i g n ,  The p r e s e n t  narrowly f o c u s e d , and  The process i s o r i e n t e d to planning  and u l t i m a t e l y  to system maintenance not  of systems not to p l a n n i n g  for services.  -  The  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , content  the values and and  198  and  results  t e c h n o c r a t s and  problems i n communication and unmatched r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  and  s o c i a l l e a r n i n g i s impeded.  people  affected  Community i n t e r e s t  and  and  the decision-makers informed  d i f f e r e n c e s i n values  participation i s limited  task i n e v a l u a t i o n should be  i n f o r m a t i o n would f a c i l i t a t e  to e l i c i t  what the  want to know and what  debate and  rational  present G.N.W.T. e v a l u a t i o n of o p t i o n s i s narrowly  water and  s a n i t a t i o n systems.  such as poor h e a l t h and s e r v i c e s w i t h housing, and  C o n f l i c t s a r i s e because of  a u t h o r i t y , and  perceptions.  The  f o r the r e g i o n a l government, not  l a c k of d e s i r e to communicate,  and  first  bureaucrats  their consultants.  the r e s i d e n t s f o r the community.  The  r e f l e c t , often "implicitly,  p e r c e p t i o n s of the r e g i o n a l government  Planning i s done by engineers by  -  socio-economic  other i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  development.  b i a s of engineers who  The  community p h y s i c a l  narrow focus r e f l e c t s  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  conduct  o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of o p t i o n s .  the  training  the s t u d i e s . t h a t a l l o w an  Synthesis i s u l t i m a t e l y s u b j e c t i v e  because the r e l a t i v e importance of c r i t e r i a and  6.  the  i n bureaucracies,  There are no e v a l u a t i o n methodologies o r c r i t e r i a  must be  on  sanitation  the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of knowledge i n modern s o c i e t y , and and  focused  I t n e g l e c t s the causes of c o n d i t i o n s  the i n t e g r a t i o n of water and  i n s t i t u t i o n a l fragmentation  choice.  e f f e c t s to the whole  assessed.  Comparison of water and  s a n i t a t i o n systems w i t h o b j e c t i v e s and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i c a t e s that s e l f - h a u l , c e n t r a l  facilities,  and  - 199  -  t r u c k e d water d e l i v e r y and  excreta c o l l e c t i o n service  l e s s c o s t l y and  self-reliance.  facilitate  provide a r e l a t i v e l y  low l e v e l  of convenience  excreta.  potential  plumbing  in-house  s t o r a g e ; and  the c o n t a m i n a t i o n of the  s e r v i c e s to houses with f u l l  plumbing,  sewage pumpout tanks can be as s a n i t a r y and  piped s e r v i c e s .  public  which impedes  the b u i l d i n g s from d i s c h a r g e d washwater and  Trucked  water, and  and  the p o t e n t i a l c o n t a m i n a t i o n of water s u p p l i e s  d u r i n g t r a n s p o r t and ground around  to be  However, these systems  h e a l t h r i s k because o f : the l a c k of household p e r s o n a l hygiene;  tend  The economic comparison  spilled running  convenient  of trucked and  as  piped  systems are the primary content of p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s and e v a l u a t i o n s conducted  f o r the G.N.W.T.  Trucked  systems are r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e , r e l i a b l e ,  technology that can be managed by the community and local  labour.  Trucked  to match household and  s e r v i c e can e a s i l y be adapted  l e v e l of s e r v i c e requirements  trucked s e r v i c e can e a s i l y respond  p o p u l a t i o n and  p h y s i c a l development.  complex, s o p h i s t i c a t e d p e r s o n n e l who  a r e v u l n e r a b l e to mishap and f i x e d and The  or  incremented  and water demand  C o n v e r s e l y , piped systems are s k i l l e d operating  to the community.  once planned  and  Piped  installed  systems  they are  tend to d i c t a t e the f u t u r e development of the community.  l a b o u r p o r t i o n of the t o t a l c o s t f o r trucked and  are 44% and The  operated u s i n g  to changes i n community  technology r e q u i r i n g  are u s u a l l y imported  flexible  14%  piped systems  respectively.  important v a r i a b l e s i n the economic comparison  of trucked  - 200 -  and piped systems a r e community p o p u l a t i o n , water consumption, and housing type.  Trucked system c o s t s are v e r y s e n s i t i v e to water  consumption; whereas, piped systems c o s t s a r e very s e n s i t i v e to the l e n g t h of water and sewer pipes r e q u i r e d , i . e . , the housing type and density.  F i g u r e 5.1 r e p r e s e n t s the economic comparison of trucked  and piped s e r v i c e s i n r e l a t i o n  to community p o p u l a t i o n , water  consumption and housing d e n s i t y .  ui o.  Q  z <  Piped systems become more  Low  Single Family  CO  z  Multi-family  UJ Q  Line above which trucked systems are more economical for a given population  CJ  z  Apartment  CO 13  o  High  X  Low  3  Low Water Use Plumbing (  -  Conventional Plumbing  High 1  WATER CONSUMPTION AND HOUSEHOLD PLUMBING Notes: With full conventional plumbing, typical household water use for truck serviced houses with five occupants is 90 litres per person per day. With full plumbing but low water use fixtures and appliances and the same fixture usage rate typical of North American households, water use need not exceed 60 litres per person per day. Water use below this may impede convenience and hygiene. Approximately 30 to 40 litres per person per day.  FIGURE 5.1  COMPARISON OF TRUCKED AND PIPED SERVICES WITH WATER CONSUMPTION, HOUSING DENSITY AND COMMUNITY POPULATION IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES.  - 201  economical r e l a t i v e and  population.  relative  to trucked  Conversely,  -  systems at higher d e n s i t y , water  trucked  systems become more economical  to piped systems at lower d e n s i t y , water use  population.  However, i f water use  (approximately  30 to 40 l i t r e s  i s below a c e r t a i n  per person  per day)  and quantity  trucked service  i s g e n e r a l l y more economical r e g a r d l e s s of the community and  housing  p o p u l a t i o n , the economic  e v a l u a t i o n of the a l t e r a n t i v e s can be reduced type of house.  Piped  to a c h o i c e between  type of t o i l e t  and  economical and  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m u l t i - f a m i l y housing;  systems are g e n e r a l l y  systems are g e n e r a l l y economical and  f a m i l y houses which u t i l i z e  water c o n s e r v i n g  a p p l i a n c e s , such as a n o n - f l u s h The  c h o i c e of housing,  tank type  f i x t u r e s and -  toilet.  the c h o i c e of t o i l e t ,  s o c i a l needs, p r e f e r e n c e s , l i f e s t y l e fundamentally  5.2  and  based on v a l u e s and  and  whereas,  appropriate for single  importance of p r o v i d i n g l o c a l j o b s each r e l a t e  progress  population  density.  For a g i v e n community l o c a t i o n and  trucked  use  and  the  relative  to i n d i v i d u a l  and  knowledge which are  p e r c e p t i o n s of what c o n s t i t u t e s  development.  Issues  5.2.1  Control The  s e n i o r l e v e l s of government have a c o l o n i a l ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the r e g i o n a l and N.W.T.  Neither  resources  the l o c a l nor  or p o l i t i c a l  i  local  paternalistic  l e v e l s of government i n the  the r e g i o n a l governments have the economic  a u t h o r i t y to c o n t r o l development or p l a n n i n g  at  - 202 -  the l e v e l o f government which they r e p r e s e n t . arise include:  what should  N.W.T.? and what should  of c o n t r o l  the f e d e r a l government be doing  the G.N.W.T. be doing  A cause o f c e n t r a l i z e d  Questions  control  i s that  not have adequate f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s .  i n the  that  i n the  communities?  the N a t i v e communities do  However, the G.N.W.T. procures  f i n a n c e s on b e h a l f o f the c i t i z e n s and communities. the funds, o r to make funding c o n d i t i o n a l ,  Not to d i s t r i b u t e  i s an i n f r i n g e m e n t  of t h e i r  autonomy. Concerns with c o n t r o l Direct  concerns  include  are e v i d e n t a t the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  establishing  water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , systems. physical  Indirect  convenient,  a l e v e l of s e r v i c e p o l i c y ,  control  planning  and managing water and s a n i t a t i o n  o r i m p l i c i t concerns  and s p i r i t u a l  level.  include  of t e c h n o l o g y .  are the f i n a n c i a l , Must the p r i c e of  s a f e water supply and a h e a l t h y community environment be the  l o s s s e l f - r e l i a n c e , i . e . , the p o t e n t i a l administratively,  economically  f o r the community to p h y s i c a l ,  and p o l i t i c a l l y  control  the community  infrastructure?  5.2.2  Values  a n d Perceptions  Much o f the debate over c o n t r o l and  r e s u l t s from c o n f l i c t s i n v a l u e s  p e r c e p t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f d i f f e r e n c e s  in culture,  l i f e s t y l e and  knowledge between n a t i v e s and w h i t e s , n o r t h e r n e r s and s o u t h e r n e r s , e x p e r t s and laymen.  The c o n f l i c t s are manifested  progress and development, i . e . , the d e s i r a b l e  future.  v a l u e s and p e r c e p t i o n s are e v i d e n t , a l t h o u g h o f t e n debates over d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ,  i n d i f f e r e n t views o f  t r a d i t i o n versus  Conflicts i n  i m p l i c i t , i n the  i n d u s t r i a l economy, and  - 203  t r u c k e d versus  piped water and  sanitation  D i f f e r e n t v a l u e s and world pluralist  -  systems.  views are expected  dynamic s o c i e t y ; however, c o n f l i c t s and  the v a l u e s and  p e r c e p t i o n s of the n a t i v e people  downgraded by p a t e r n a l i s t i c e l i t i s m , or c u l t u r a l  and  desirable i n a  problems a r i s e when  are i g n o r e d , denied chauvinism  or  or  techno-chauvinism. The  i s s u e i s how  to e x p l i c i t l y d e a l w i t h v a l u e and  c o n f l i c t s , r e g a r d l e s s of who  5.2.3  Role  of  knowledge  Development and  and  u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l s and  perception  decides.  experts  p l a n n i n g at the r e g i o n a l , l o c a l  and  infrastructure  l e v e l s i n the N.W.T. have emphasized r a t i o n a l , o b j e c t i v e knowledge decision-making i n t e r e s t ' and  by e x p e r t s —  by b u r e a u c r a t s  by t e c h n o c r a t s who  S o l u t i o n s have tended  to be  who  r e p r e s e n t the ' p u b l i c  s o l v e t e c h n i c a l and  Much of the development and  development model.  p l a n n i n g have s u f f e r e d from the  i l l u s i o n of a b s o l u t e knowledge and  objectivity.  However, o b j e c t i v i t y  i n a p p l i e d s c i e n c e does not e x i s t and methodology and  technology  The danger i s i n not r e c o g n i z i n g our ignorance  systems, i n denying a d v i c e and  economic problems.  t e c h n i c a l l y and means o r i e n t e d , i m p l i c i t l y  assuming s o u r t h e r n , western v a l u e s and  value f r e e .  that our views of the world  a c t i o n s , and  and  in believing  are  not  of complex  i n f l u e n c e our work,  that e x p e r t s ' v a l u e s  and  pronouncements about what v a l u e ends should be sought are any more v a l i d than anyone e l s e s . C o n f l i c t s a r i s e from the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s activities,  the e d u c a t i o n of e x p e r t s , and  of knowledge and  the unquestioned  a u t h o r i t y and  - 204  -  r e s p e c t g i v e n to the advice of e x p e r t s i n modern t e c h n o c r a t i c and bureaucratic society.  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  lead t o : b a r r i e r s i n  communication between e x p e r t s and w i t h c l i e n t s ; narrowness of p e r c e p t i o n of problems and world  solutions;  problems and  u n d e r l y i n g causes;  l o s s of i n s i g h t  a c t i o n s ; improving  i n t o the complexity  c o n d i t i o n s without  of  real  solving  and n e g l e c t i n g the v a l u e b a s i s of a n a l y s i s  and  advice. However, the knowledge and assist  e x p e r i e n c e of e x p e r t s are n e c e s s a r y  i n the r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of problems and  solutions.  The  i s s u e i s how  processed knowledge, man f u n c t i o n a l and  to p r o v i d e  efficient  to combine complementary p e r s o n a l  of reason and man  substantiative rationality  to  and  of p i e t y / r e v e r e n c e , and i n order to improve  decision-making.  5.2.4  Role of Planning Community and  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g i n the n a t i v e communities  r e s t s on the u n d e r l y i n g assumption  t h a t the r e s i d e n t s do not have the  r e s o u r c e s , i n t e r e s t , and/or competence to conduct solutions.  The  p l a n n i n g and  p l a n n i n g process c o n c o m i t a n t l y presupposes  v a l u e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , knowledge, development model, and  implement  that the  technology  of the  dominant c u l t u r e are a p p r o p r i a t e . The  ..<•-  present p l a n n i n g form i s a l l o c a t i v e and  positivist  philosophy.  efficiency.  Issues are fragmented and  socio-economic objectivity.  I t i s concerned  context and  surrounded  i s based  on a  with system maintenance  and  p l a n n i n g i s removed from  the  w i t h an aura of  By f o c u s i n g on t e c h n i c a l and  scientific  economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  - 205 -  a t t e n t i o n i s d i v e r t e d from s t r u c t u r a l and humanistic from system d e s i g n ,  and from root i s s u e s .  p r e c i s i o n and f u n c t i o n a l r a t i o n a l i t y ,  considerations,  By f o c u s i n g  the present  on  methodological  planning  process  r e i n f o r c e s the t e c h n o c r a t i c , o b j e c t i v e , r a t i o n a l image o f decision-making while value  the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t s and the  b a s i s of fundamental assumptions.  planning  territorial  to be r e s p o n s i b l e  procedural  government i s denying the  issues i n planning who should  c o n f l i c t s ? and how to combine p e r s o n a l  learning.  The r e s u l t i s  are r e l a t e d to the a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l ? how to d e a l w i t h and processed  knowledge?  these i s s u e s reduce t o : who i s the c l i e n t ?  5.3 Recommendations 5.3.1  The  or f a i r .  s t y l e and form of p l a n n i n g :  planner,  conducting  f o s t e r s dependence and  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and s o c i a l  effective, efficienct  and  f o r t h e i r own a c t i o n s .  governments type of a s s i s t a n c e  mitigates against  The  By c o n t r o l l i n g  f o r the communities, the t e r r i t o r i a l  communities the r i g h t  not  obscuring  Procedural We must not confuse the p a t t e r n o f the r e g u l a t o r y model w i t h i t s s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t . I t i s enough to a t t a i n r e q u i s i t e v a r i e t y by s p e c i f y i n g the p a t t e r n . To s p e c i f y the content i s too much. Yet t h i s i s what e n d l e s s l y happens, and I have noted that i t u s u a l l y h a p p e n s — i n those w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n good c o n s c i o u s — f o r one fundamental reason. T h i s i s c a l l e d " f a i r n e s s . " But I b e l i e v e t h i s kind o f f a i r n e s s to be an excuse f o r a v o i d i n g responsibility. (Beer, 1984, p. 74) Freedom i s the f i r s t c o n d i t i o n of growth. The i d e a t h a t we can make or help o t h e r s grow, that we can d i r e c t or guide them w h i l e always r e t a i n i n g f o r  value For the  - 206 -  o u r s e l v e s the r i g h t to d e c i d e i s nonsense, a dangerous l i e that has r e t a r d e d the growth o f m i l l i o n s o f human beings thoughout h i s t o r y . But i t seems that we have not yet l e a r n e d that l e s s o n from h i s t o r y so we repeat i t c o n t i n u a l l y , but with the g r e a t e s t of g o o d w i l l under the nearest i m i t a t i o n o f "participation." (Gamble, 1982, p. 18)  The  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l environment i n the N.W.T. i s not y e t entrenched  in institutional  t r a d i t i o n and s t r u c t u r e (Rees, 1982).  mechanisms and s t r u c t u r e s delineate  should be i n v e s t i g a t e d  Innovative  and implemented t o  and mediate r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , a u t h o r i t y and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  among the l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and f e d e r a l governments which are s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r the environmental and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l N.W.T.  The moral and e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s i n h e r e n t  realities  of the  i n the c u r r e n t  p a t e r n a l i s t i c c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e d e r a l and r e g i o n a l government, between r e g i o n a l and l o c a l government, and between Euro-Canadian s o c i e t y and N a t i v e people must be c e n t r a l to such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and experiments. L o c a l development, s e r v i c e s and p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the community. decentralize level.  should be the  The G.N.W.T. should  politically  c o n t r o l over water and s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s  The c u r r e n t  program to p h y s i c a l l y d e c e n t r a l i z e  to the community the t e r r i t o r i a l  government bureaucracy may h i n d e r p o l i t i c a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and impede the  s t r u c t u r a l innovation  local  and system d e s i g n n e c e s s a r y to achieve v i a b l e  governments. Assistance  responsibility,  from the t e r r i t o r i a l government should not impede self-determination  mechanisms such as block  funding,  and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . unconditional  grants,  local  Assisting and community  - 207  c o n t r o l over  -  t e r r i t o r i a l government e x p e n d i t u r e s  and  the r e s p e c t i v e community should be i n v e s t i g a t e d . towards l o c a l  c o n t r o l and  Water and  As a f i r s t  step  a s s i s t a n c e to conduct  community  s a n i t a t i o n .planning and  community p l a n n i n g should  community development.  should r e i n f o r c e s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n process and  and  p l a n n i n g process  to a c t to change adverse  and  assist  the  affected  c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r l i v e s and  c o n d i t i o n s f o r the b e t t e r .  to  Planning  i n f o r m a t i o n to f a c i l i t a t e  informed  debate and  rational  Community development theory which l i n k s l e a r n i n g and a c t i o n  should r e c o g n i z e  that the people  o u t s i d e r s to p e r c e i v e and  affected  assess both  are more capable  a c t i o n should emphasize d i a l o g u e and and  client  the c l i e n t and  (Freidmann, 1973).  c o n t r o l l e r s of water and  community p l a n n i n g .  than  the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r l i v e s  the a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s ( R o b e r t s , 1979).  planner  Planning  should improve the q u a l i t y of problem s o l v i n g by p r o v i d i n g  both a forum and  and  be  content.  i n s p i r e , guide  to become aware of problems and  planners  choice.  should  be  heuristics  w i t h s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n as the c e n t r a l focus ( J a n t s c h , 1980).  p l a n and  and  P l a n n i n g should  viewed as a process which emphasizes e v o l v i n g systems and  people  given  planning.  based on s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and  The  within  l e a r n i n g , N a t i v e communities should be  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e s o u r c e s and infrastructure  activities  and  P l a n n i n g which l i n k s knowledge s h a r i n g of e x p e r t i s e between  The  community r e s i d e n t s should  s a n i t a t i o n planning  be  and  t  P l a n n i n g should not r e l y on i n d i v i d u a l s ; however, the importance of p e r s o n a l i t y , experience bureaucrats  and v a l u e s must be r e c o g n i z e d .  Technocrats  i n v o l v e d i n community development i n the N.W.T. should  and be  - 208  educated  i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l communication and N a t i v e c u l t u r e  decision-making  process.  emphasize humanity and  5.3.2  -  and  U l t i m a t e l y the e d u c a t i o n of s o c i e t y  broader  should  awareness.  Content A p p r o p r i a t e technology reminds us that b e f o r e we choose our t o o l s and techniques we must choose our dreams and v a l u e s , f o r some t e c h n o l o g i e s serve them w h i l e o t h e r s make them u n o b t a i n a b l e . (Tom Bender, quoted i n Cameron, 1983)  Water and understood effective.  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and  or a p p r e c i a t e d by the community r e s i d e n t s w i l l not be Water and  the means and  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and  T h i s does not imply  condemned to substandard  operate can  poor h e a l t h .  of p e r s o n a l knowledge and  self-reliance  community i n a l l e v i a t i n g  those c o n d i t i o n s which impede  a p p r e c i a t i o n , means, and  ability.  T h i s can be achieved  of the North and  and  the s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s of the  through  public and  systems  socio-political  realities  people.  Knowledge of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o b j e c t i v e s and water s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and  systems i s inadequate  the  understanding,  s a n i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , and d e v e l o p i n g  to the environmental  and  i s to a s s i s t  h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a u t h o r i t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  which are sympathetic  and  Rather, i t  t h a t the r e g i o n a l government's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  r e s o u r c e s f o r water and  impede  t h a t N a t i v e people be abandoned  s e r v i c e s and  r e c o g n i z e s the importance  fully  systems that are beyond  a b i l i t y of the community to f i n a n c e and  self-reliance.  implies  systems t h a t are not d e s i r e d ,  and  the major f a c t o r s i n the s e l e c t i o n of water and  imprecise.  and  However,  s a n i t a t i o n systems are  - 209  -  shown to be community p o p u l a t i o n , housing employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and type  to the cost of piped  self-reliance.  systems and  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s o c i a l and housing.  The  significant  type, water consumption, The  importance of  to community development  and  r e d u c t i o n i n c o s t and  the consequent economic  from a modest r e d u c t i o n i n water use j u s t i f i e s  demonstration  of water c o n s e r v i n g  High standard we  of s e r v i c e and  f i x t u r e s and  urban i n d u s t r i a l  water d e l i v e r y and  lifestyle  and  s e l f - h a u l and  investigation  appliances.  and  criteria i f  technology  conditions.  Trucked  r e l i a b l e and  economical  based  However, t r u c k e d technology  s o p h i s t i c a t e d piped sytems which are  a p p r o p r i a t e to the n o r t h e r n e n v i r o n m e n t a l ,  As  needs.  which would  sewage pumpout systems are an i n t e r m e d i a t e  between rudimentary  self-reliance.  the  low c o s t are i n c o m p a t i b l e  r e l y on c o n v e n t i o n a l temperate c l i m a t e concepts  on southern  justifies  economic i m p l i c a t i o n s of m u l t i - f a m i l y  a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of trucked s e r v i c e s f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y housing result  housing  s o c i a l and  community  systems can p r o v i d e a s a f e , c o n v e n i e n t , s e r v i c e which f a c i l i t a t e  flexible,  l o c a l employment  and  the l a t e Eb R i c e s a i d , " I don't recommend a g a i n s t  modernity, o n l y a g a i n s t t o t a l dependence on i t " ( R i c e , 1979,  p. 6 ) .  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Fairness or E f f i c i e n c y : An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Public U t i l i t y Pricing. Cambridge: B a l l i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Company. Zariwny, A.R. 1973. " P o l i t i c s , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Problems of Community Development In the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , " i n P o l i c i e s o f Northern Development. O r v i k , N i l s ( e d ) . K i n g s t o n r Queens U n i v e r s i t y , Department of P o l i t i c a l S t u d i e s , pp. 86-107. Zariwny, A.R. 1977. Development o f L o c a l Government i n the Territories. K i n g s t o n : Queens U n i v e r s i t y , Centre f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , Northern S t u d i e s S e r i e s 1/77.  Northwest  Zaslow, M o r r i s . 1971. The Opening o f the Canadian N o r t h , 1870-1914. T o r o n t o : M a c C l e l l a n d & Stewart. Z i r j a c k s , Winston and Hwang, C T . 1983. "Underground U t i l i d o r s a t Barrow, A l a s k a : A Two-Year H i s t o r y , " i n P e r m a f r o s t : Fourth I n t e r n a t i o n a l Coference P r o c e e d i n g s . Washington: N a t i o n a l Academy P r e s s , pp. 1513-1517. Z r u d l o , Leo R. 1972. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Problems and Environmental i n the N o r t h . Quebec: U n i v e r s i t y L a v a l , Centre d'Etudes Nordiques, C o l l e c t i o n Nordique No. 34.  Design  Z r u d l o , Leo R. 1983. "Settlement P l a n n i n g i n the A r c t i c — A n I n t e g r a t i v e Approach," i n C o l d Regions E n v i r o n m e n t a l E n g i n e e r i n g Conference, F a i r b a n k s , A l a s k a , 18-20 May, 1983. p. 1-11.  REPORTS  AND PUBLICATIONS  1.  Cameron, J . J . , "Cold Regions Water and Sewerage Systems", Undergraduate T h e s i s , Dept. of C i v i l Engineering, Queens U n i v e r s i t y , Kingston, Ontario, 1972.  2.  Associated E n g i n e e r i n g Services L t d . , "Site Survey - Senior Citizens Home, A k l a v i k , N.W.T.", Report to: Dept. of Local Government, Government of the N.W.T., Yellowknife, N.W.T., 1973.  3.  Smith, D.W. and Cameron, J . J . , "Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Alternatives in N o r t h e r n Regions", In: Environmental Standards for N o r t h e r n Regions, June 13-14, 1974, D.W. Smith and T. T i l s w o r t h , eds., Inst, of Water Resources, Univ. of A l a s k a , F a i r b a n k s , A l a s k a , IWR Report 62, pp. 357-389, 1975.  4.  Associated Engineering Services L t d . , "Tuktoyaktuk Water S u p p l y and Waste Disposal", Report to: Dept. of Local Government, Government of the N.W.T., Yellowknife, N.W.T., 1974.  5.  Cameron, J . J . , "Preliminary A n a l y s i s of the Benefits of Water and Sanitation Installations", B r i e f presented to: House of Commons Standing Committee on Indian A f f a i r s for National Indian Brotherhood, 1974.  6.  Cameron, J . J . , " B u r i e d Utilities i n Permafrost Regions", Special report to: Program of Environmental Quality Engineering, U n i v e r s i t y o f A l a s k a , F a i r b a n k s , Alaska, 1975.  7.  Cameron, J . J . , "Shallow B u r i e d Utilities i n Cold Regions Preliminary Report on the Faro, Y.T. Utility Extension Study Site", Technology B r a n c h , Northwest Region, Environmental Protection S e r v i c e , Environment Canada, Edmonton, A l b e r t a , 1975.  8.  Grainge, J.W. and Cameron, J . J . , "Sewage Lagoons i n N o r t h e r n Regions", Presented at: Technology T r a n s f e r Seminar, Environmental Protection A g e n c y , Anchorage, A l a s k a , A p r i l 7-10, 1975.  9.  Cameron, J . J . , "Waste Impounding Embankments i n Permafrost Regions: The Sewage Lagoon Embankment, Inuvik, N.W.T.", I n : Some Problems i n L i q u i d Waste Disposal i n the Northern Environment, J.W. S l u p s k y , ed., Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Service, Northwest Region, Edmonton, Albeta, Technology Development Report, EPS 4-NW-76-2, pp. 141-230, 1976.  10.  Cameron, J . J . and Smith, D.W., "Annotated Bibliography on Northern Environmental Engineering 1974-75", Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Service, Ottawa, Economic and Technical Review Report EPS 3-WP-77-6, 1977.  11.  Cameron, J . J . , Christensen, V., and Gamble, D.J., "Northern Technology Today and Tomorrow", Presented at: Western Canada Water and Sewage Conference, Edmonton, A l b e r t a , 1977.  12.  Cameron, J . J . , Christensen, V. and Gamble, D.J., "Water and Sanitation i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s : A n Overview of the Setting, Policies and Technology", T h e Northern Engineer, 9(4): 4-14, 1977.  13.  A r m s t r o n g , B.C. and Cameron, J . J . , "Water and Sanitation Project Costs: A Consolidation of Historic Cost Information", Prepared for: Department of Local Government, Government of the N.W.T., Yellowknife, N.W.T., 1977.  14.  Cameron, J . J . and A r m s t r o n g , B.C., "Annotated Bibliography on Northern Environmental Engineering 1976-77", Environmental Protection Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Economic and Technical Review Report EPS 3-WP-79-1, 1979.  15.  Cameron, J . J . and A r m s t r o n g , B.C., "Water and E n e r g y Conservation A l t e r n a t i v e s for the North", Northern Technology Unit, Environmental Protection Service, Environment Canada, Edmonton, A l b e r t a and Department of Local Government, Government of the N.W.T., Yellowknife, N.W.T., 1979.  16.  Cameron, J . J . , "Water and Sanitation Systems Analysis Computer Program - The Cost-Effective Approach", Northern Technology Unit, Environmental Protection Service, Environment Canada, Edmonton, A l b e r t a and Department of Local Government, Government of the N.W.T., Yellowknife, N.W.T., 1979.  17.  Smith, D.W., Reed, S., Cameron, J . J . , Heinke, G.W., James, F., Reid, B., Ryan, W.L. and S c r i b n e r , J . , "Cold Climates Utilities D e l i v e r y Design Manual", Environment Canada, Environmental Protection Service, Ottawa, Economic and Technical Review Report EPS-3-WP-79-2, 1979.  18.  Cameron, J . J . and A r m s t r o n g , B.C., "Water Conservation Alternatives for the N o r t h " , Environment Canada, Environmental Protection S e r v i c e , Ottawa, Economic and Technical Review Report EPS 3-WP-80-2, 1980.  19.  C h r i s t e n s e n , V. and Cameron, J . J . , "The Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Water and Sanitation Systems Analysis Computer Program - A n Overview", Presented at: International Association of Water Pollution Researchers 10th International Conference, Post Conference Seminar on "Design of Water and Wastewater Services for Cold Climate Communities", University of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, A l b e r t a , June 28-29, 1980.  20.  Grainge, J.W., Schaefer, Dr. O., Cameron, J . J . et a l . , "Environmental Engineering i n West Greenland", Shaw, J.W. (ed.), Associated Engineering Services L t d . , Edmonton, A l b e r t a , 1980.  21.  Cameron, J . J . , "Guidelines for the Preparation and Administration of Municipal Water and Sanitation T r u c k e d Service Contracts", Dept. of Local Government, Government of the N.W.T., Yellowknife, N.W.T., 1981.  22.  Cameron, J . J . "Estimating Water and Sewage Service Economic Rates f o r Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Communities", Dept. of Local Government, Government of the N.W.T., Yellowknife, N.W.T., 1981.  23.  Cameron, J . J . , "Economic A n a l y s i s of Water and Sanitation Alternatives for Communities i n Northern Canada", Presented at "Utilities Delivery i n Cold Regions Symposium", 25-26 May 1982, Edmonton, A l b e r t a , 1982.  24.  Cameron, J . J . , Dussault, J . and E l k i n , B. "Community Water and Sanitation Services 1982 - Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s " , Dept. of Local Government, Government of the N.W.T., Yellowknife, N.W.T., 1982.  25.  Reed, S . C , Ryan, W.L., Cameron, J . J . and Bouzoun J.R. " U t i l i t y Services f o r Remote Military Facilities", Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, N.H., Special Report 84-14, 1984.  26.  Cameron, J . J . , "Analysis of Water Use i n T r u c k e d Serviced Residences i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s " , Dept. of Local Government, Government of the N.W.T., 1984.  

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