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The decline of documentary publishing in Canadian archives, 1865-1984 1984

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THE DECLINE OF DOCUMENTARY PUBLISHING I N CANADIAN ARCHIVES 1865-1984 By L a u r a M i l l a r C o l e s B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES i n THE FACULTY OF ARTS A d m i n i s t e r e d by The S c h o o l o f L i b r a r i a n s h i p a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 © L a u r a M i l l a r C o l e s , 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f H i s t o r y / S c h o o l o f L i b r a r i a n s h i p The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 20, 1984 ABSTRACT Documentary p u b l i s h i n g by Canadian archives has d e c l i n e d n o t i c e a b l y over time. Today, few archives a c t i v e l y p u b l i s h d i a r i e s , j o u r n a l s , or other primary documents. An a n a l y s i s of the h i s t o r y of E n g l i s h language documentary p u b l i s h i n g by Canadian archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s may suggest some reasons f o r t h i s d e c l i n e . In order to t r a c e the development and d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g , a r c h i v e s ' and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s ' p u b l i c a t i o n s w i l l be examined. A l i s t of these w i l l be appended to the t h e s i s and w i l l form the b a s i s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of the h i s t o r y and nature of the a c t i v i t y . The o l d er archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s saw p u b l i s h i n g as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . In Nova S c o t i a , Ontario, B r i t i s h Columbia and Manitoba, p u b l i s h i n g documents was an important method of p r e s e r v i n g and disseminating the h i s t o r i c a l record. The P u b l i c Archives of Canada, the Champlain Society, and the Hudson's Bay Record Society were e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n the p u b l i s h i n g f i e l d . But i n each i n s t i t u t i o n , w i t h the notable exceptions of the Champlain and Hudson's Bay Record S o c i e t i e s , p u b l i s h i n g e v e n t u a l l y became subordinate to other forms of p r e s e r v a t i o n and dissemination. The newer Canadian archives d i d not accept p u b l i s h i n g as a c e n t r a l a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t y . They focussed t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on m i c r o f i l m i n g , records management, and other more pr e s s i n g tasks. In Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a i i p u b l i c a t i o n s have only r e c e n t l y appeared. New . Brunswick, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Is l a n d and the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s have yet to engage i n any extensive p u b l i s h i n g programmes. A survey of the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review shows tha t documentary p u b l i c a t i o n by the h i s t o r i c a l community has a l s o decreased. The reasons f o r t h i s d e c l i n e are many and v a r i e d . Economic change and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development have both been very important. So too have the changing perceptions of a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s about the r o l e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n archives and i n s o c i e t y . Archives have turned away from p u b l i s h i n g , but t h i s i s often not p a r t of a stated p o l i c y . Archives need to decide i f they w i l l pursue a p u b l i s h i n g programme or not. I f they do, they must f i r s t decide why they are p u b l i s h i n g , and f o r whom. Archives can p u b l i s h h i s t o r i c a l l y e d i t e d documents f o r the s c h o l a r l y community, or l e s s comprehensive e d i t i o n s f o r the general p u b l i c . Each option has i t s own problems and q u a l i t i e s . But whichever route archives choose, they must decide whether or not p u b l i s h i n g i s to be a part of t h e i r mandate. They must put an end to the unstructured, haphazard p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the past. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE: The Old Guard 7 Nova S c o t i a 9 The P u b l i c Archives of Canada 19 Ontario 2 9 B r i t i s h Columbia -37' The Champlain Society and The Hudson's. Bay Record Society 4-2 Manitoba 49 CHAPTER TWO: New D i r e c t i o n s f o r Archives 55 Saskatchewan 5 7 A l b e r t a 61 New Brunswick 6 5 Newfoundland 6 9 Prince Edward Is l a n d 7 3 Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ' 74 Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review •> 7 5 CHAPTER THREE: Documentary P u b l i s h i n g and i t s Decline 78 CHAPTER FOUR: Archives and P u b l i s h i n g 116 NOTES 133 BIBLIOGRAPHY 143 APPENDIX 150 i v INTRODUCTION To many a r c h i v i s t s the p o s s i b l i t y of p u b l i s h i n g some of the documents i n t h e i r custody i s an e n t i r e l y academic question. They are not p u b l i s h i n g documents, they do not plan to p u b l i s h documents, they have n e i t h e r the time nor the funds to p u b l i s h documents. J.K. Johnson (1) Unfortunately, Mr. Johnson t e l l s the somber t r u t h about the state of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada. V i r t u a l l y none of the archives i n the country i s a c t i v e l y p u b l i s h i n g h i s t o r i c a l documents, few h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s are inv o l v e d i n such p u b l i s h i n g , and indeed very few independent scholars are engaging i n h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g . I f i t seems to have become an accepted s t a t e of a f f a i r s that Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l not i n v o l v e themselves i n p u b l i c a t i o n s p r o j e c t s , then why even bother to discuss the matter? The issue i s one worth examining. Without an understanding of the d e c l i n e of a r c h i v a l involvement i n documentary publishing,•we cannot pr o p e r l y judge the r o l e of archives i n t h i s f i e l d . In t h i s sense, one can compare the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g to the d e c l i n e of the passenger t r a i n . When the passenger t r a i n was a l l but o b l i t e r a t e d as a common form of t r a v e l w i t h the appearance of the a i r p l a n e , people continued to discuss the character and c o n d i t i o n 1 of the r a i l r o a d -- even i f only i n an h i s t o r i c a l context. Such d i s c u s s i o n l e d to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of r a i l w a y depots , to conferences on r a i l r o a d h i s t o r y , and to essays and books on the romantic h i s t o r y of the t r a i n . Like the passenger t r a i n , documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada can be seen as a r e l i c of the pa s t , an a c t i v i t y e c l i p s e d i n importance by the d i f f u s i o n of photocopying, microforms, and other reproductions. And l i k e a conference on the r a i l r o a d , an a n a l y s i s of the nature and d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g , while i t w i l l not help to r e s t o r e the past, may provide an understanding of the r o l e such p u b l i s h i n g has played i n Canadian a r c h i v a l development, and may e x p l a i n why i t i s no longer a c e n t r a l part of that experience. For the sake of t h i s a n a l y s i s , documentary p u b l i s h i n g i s taken to mean the p u b l i c a t i o n of e d i t e d or unedited h i s t o r i c a l sources, primary m a t e r i a l s such as l e t t e r s , j o u r n a l s , d i a r i e s , government r e c o r d s , and so f o r t h . Calendars, indexes, and other d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l s , and h i s t o r i e s based upon research i n primary documents do not f a l l w i t h i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . Also excluded from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n are non-textual m a t e r i a l s such as photographs, sound recordings , or cartographic a r c h i v e s , whose p u b l i c a t i o n can be of a very d i f f e r e n t nature from t e x t u a l documentary publishing.. While one cannot examine changes i n a r c h i v a l p u b l i s h i n g i n a vacuum, and while these other forms of p u b l i s h i n g are s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i s necessary here to set some l i m i t s . Consequently, while some other types of 2 p u b l i c a t i o n s may be mentioned i n passing, the focus w i l l be on published primary m a t e r i a l s of a w r i t t e n nature. The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l a l s o be l i m i t e d , by n e c e s s i t y , to E n g l i s h language documents published i n Canada outside Quebec. To i n c l u d e Quebec and the vast French language p u b l i s h i n g there and i n the r e s t of Canada would i n v o l v e analyzing and comparing two d i f f e r e n t languages, c u l t u r e s and h i s t o r i e s , a task too vast to be properly executed here. To examine only E n g l i s h language p u b l i c a t i o n s i n Quebec would mean e l i m i n a t i n g an i n t e g r a l part of that province's h i s t o r y , and would thus r e s u l t i n an incomplete a n a l y s i s . For the sake of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , Quebec's involvement i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g must be l e f t out. In order to examine the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada i t i s necessary to e s t a b l i s h a "data base", which w i l l c o n s i s t of the documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s , e i t h e r i n monograph or shorter form, produced by the major a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada. For the sake of comparison, s i m i l a r p u b l i c a t i o n s issued by Canadian h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s w i l l a l s o be examined. B i b l i o g r a p h i e s have been compiled f o r the p r o v i n c i a l archives and major h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y i n each province. As w e l l , b i b l i o g r a p h i e s have been created f o r the P u b l i c Archives of Canada, the Champlain Society and Hudson's Bay Record S o c i e t y , and, f o r the sake of comparison, f o r documents published i n the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review. Using these b i b l i o g r a p h i e s as the data base, the output of each of the p r o v i n c e s , and of the other i n s t i t u t i o n s , w i l l be examined. 3 (The t i t l e s of the documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s included i n t h i s data base can be found i n the Appendix.) The f i r s t chapter w i l l examine the " o l d guard" a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . This " o l d guard" c o n s i s t s of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada, the provinces of Ontario, B r i t i s h Columbia and Manitoba, and the Champlain Society. In each of these provinces or i n s t i t u t i o n s , documentary p u b l i s h i n g was at one time important, both to the archives and the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y . I t i s important to t r a c e the development through the years , and to determine whether the archives or the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y , or both, were in v o l v e d i n p u b l i s h i n g . The object i s to d i s c o v e r when and how these i n s t i t u t i o n s turned away from documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n favour of other a c t i v i t i e s . The second chapter of t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l deal w i t h the newer i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the provinces of Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a , New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward I s l a n d , and i n the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . These i n s t i t u t i o n s , both a r c h i v a l and h i s t o r i c a l , were founded more r e c e n t l y , and, i n the case of the a r c h i v e s , responded to the problems of managing modern records and the p e r s i s t e n t problem of p r e s e r v i n g h i s t o r i c a l documents. These groups f o r the most part had no time i n t h e i r e a r l y years to focus on documentary p u b l i s h i n g , and even when they d i d j t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s and programmes were d i f f e r e n t from those of t h e i r "old guard" counterparts. Consequently, these groups have a l e s s impressive h i s t o r y i n t h i s f i e l d , although some 4 have begun to engage i n such work i n recent years. For the sake of comparison, chapter two w i l l include an a n a l y s i s of the documentary e d i t i o n s included i n the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, i n order to gauge the i n t e r e s t of the s c h o l a r l y community over the years. This i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s w i l l t r y to o u t l i n e the growth and d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g f o r each of these i n s t i t u t i o n s . But t h i s d e c l i n e has many causes, complex and i n t e r t w i n e d . I t would be an e x e r c i s e i n f u t i l i t y to t r y and e x p l a i n i t f o r each i n s t i t u t i o n i n each p r o v i n c e , and such an examination would b r i n g us no c l o s e r to an understanding of the n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . Consequently, the f i r s t s e c t i o n must c o n s i s t only of a c h r o n o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y of s o r t s , p o i n t i n g out the changes and trends , but a v o i d i n g simple explanations f o r a complex phenomenon. I t i s i n the next, t h i r d , chapter t h a t the t r u l y thorny issues w i l l be examined. Once the d e c l i n e i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g has been proved i t i s necessary to t r y to determine, on a broad s c a l e , why there has been a d e c l i n e . I t would be easy to shrug o f f such a question w i t h the answer that economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have been the sole f a c t o r s . A f t e r a l l , on the one hand, such p u b l i s h i n g i s expensive, and archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s face a constant search f o r funds f o r a broad range of a c t i v i t i e s . On the other hand, p u b l i c and s c h o l a r l y access to archives has increased through improved means of d u p l i c a t i o n of records and greater ease of t r a v e l . Although these issues are of c e n t r a l 5 importance, they do not stand alone. We must al s o t r y to understand the changing perception of the r o l e of archives i n the f i e l d of documentary publication,. What was the purpose of such p u b l i s h i n g i n the e a r l y years, and what i s i t today? How have a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s perceived the r o l e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g over time, and why have t h e i r perceptions changed? Once t h i s d e c l i n e has been t r a c e d , and some reasons f o r i t examined, the question of the r o l e of an archives i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g must be addressed. In the c o n c l u s i o n , the question to be addressed i s should archives be inv o l v e d i n such p u b l i s h i n g ? To what extent and f o r whom? What i s the r o l e of the archives i n soci e t y ? Is i t a government agency, i n which case p u b l i s h i n g would not be a c e n t r a l a c t i v i t y ? Is i t a haven f o r s c h o l a r s h i p , where the dissemination of knowledge would be of paramount importance? Or does i t have a broader c u l t u r a l r o l e ? In l i g h t of the f a c t that today few Canadian archives are a c t i v e l y p u b l i s h i n g documents, these are important questions to ask. Once some answers to these questions have been discussed, then we should have a b e t t e r sense of the h i s t o r y and present sta t e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n Canadian a r c h i v e s . And then perhaps, l i k e the conference on the passenger t r a i n , such an a n a l y s i s w i l l help us to decide i f documentary p u b l i s h i n g has a f u t u r e , or only a n o s t a l g i c past. 6 Chapter One THE OLD GUARD The f i r s t a rchives i n Canada saw p u b l i s h i n g as e s s e n t i a l to t h e i r very e x i s t e n c e . P u b l i s h i n g was seen as a prime means of p r e s e r v i n g the h i s t o r i c p ast, f o r the documents themselves seemed destined f o r eventual d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . P u b l i s h i n g was also seen as a means of disseminating o r i g i n a l sources to a growing h i s t o r i c a l community. In a country as vast as Canada, p u b l i s h i n g was an important means of p r o v i d i n g h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l f o r research. As these i n s t i t u t i o n s developed and changed, t h e i r focus on documentary p u b l i s h i n g s h i f t e d . Nova S c o t i a l e d the way f o r many years before t u r n i n g away from the f i e l d . The P u b l i c Archives of Canada, long the f o c a l point f o r documentary p u b l i s h i n g , h a l t e d i t s programme r a t h e r a b r u p t l y , only to r e s u r r e c t i t b r i e f l y before h a l t i n g i t once again. Ontario's h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y began p u b l i s h i n g very e a r l y i n i t s h i s t o r y , but h a l t e d q u i t e suddenly, never to renew i t s a c t i v i t i e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia documents were published s p o r a d i c a l l y by the P r o v i n c i a l Archives f o r years u n t i l a very recent change i n p o l i c y . The Champlain Society and the Hudson's Bay Record Society have a c t i v e l y published documents since the former began s h o r t l y a f t e r the turn of the century; n e i t h e r shows any sign of slowing i t s work. In Manitoba, the l a s t of the " o l d guard", documents were published by h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s from time to time u n t i l 7 the mid-1960's and more r e g u l a r l y . s i n c e then. These were the groups that a c t i v e l y published i n the e a r l y years, and these were a l s o the groups who, when they decided to h a l t t h e i r programmes, d i d so suddenly, w i t h l i t t l e n o t i c e . Although some have r e s u r r e c t e d o l d programmes or have i n s t i t u t e d new ones, others have decided that the f i e l d of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i s no longer v i a b l e . 8 NOVA SCOTIA A wise n a t i o n preserves i t s r e c o r d s , gathers up i t s muniments, r e p a i r s i t s great p u b l i c s t r u c t u r e s , decorates the tombs of i t s i l l u s t r i o u s dead, and f o s t e r s n a t i o n a l p r i d e and love of country w i t h perpetual reference to the s a c r i f i c e s and g l o r i e s of the past. Hon. Joseph Howe I t i s f i t t i n g t hat any d i s c u s s i o n of documentary publ i c a t i o n s , i n Canada begin w i t h the P u b l i c Archives, of Nova S c o t i a , and Joseph Howe's enthusiasm. The c o l l e c t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n , and p u b l i c a t i o n of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l f i r s t began i n Nova S c o t i a , and the archives surpassed the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y i n the f i e l d of documentary p u b l i s h i n g . Although Nova Scotians appear to have been w e l l aware of the importance of t h e i r h i s t o r y as e a r l y as the 1700's, attempts to form a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s were not s u c c e s s f u l u n t i l 1857 , when the c o l o n i a l government appointed Thomas Beamish Akins as the f i r s t records commissioner. Akins' task was to preserve "the ancient records and documents i l l u s t r a t i v e of the h i s t o r y and progress of s o c i e t y i n t h i s province... e i t h e r f o r 1 reference or p u b l i c a t i o n . " Akins held h i s p o s i t i o n as Nova S c o t i a ' s , and Canada's, f i r s t a r c h i v i s t f o r 34 years u n t i l h i s death i n 1891. In h i s annual repo r t s , Akins c o n s i s t e n t l y recommended documentary p u b l i c a t i o n . In an a r t i c l e on Akins' a c t i v i t i e s , B.C. Cuthbertson argued that h i s "primary motivation was to make a c c e s s i b l e to the general p u b l i c 9 2 documents of the 'greatest i n t e r e s t and value.'" In the ea r l y days of Canadian a r c h i v e s , the dissemination of information through p u b l i c a t i o n s was thought to be of primary importance. And while the moti v a t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c awareness of h i s t o r y was c e r t a i n l y uppermost, i t went hand i n hand w i t h the concepts of c i v i c p r i d e and l o y a l t y . I t was important f o r 19th-century Nova Scotians to promote themselves and t h e i r h i s t o r y . In arguing f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of documents r e l a t i n g to the Acadian e x p u l s i o n , f o r example, Akins' reasoned that i t was: a subject which has of l a t e occupied the a t t e n t i o n of w r i t e r s both i n England and. America, and on which much has l a t e l y appeared i n condemnation of the course pursued by the government of the day. The papers... throw some a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t on t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t , which has now become a matter of American h i s t o r y , and f o r the c r e d i t of the p r o v i n c e , a l l papers that may i n any way dis c o v e r the motives, views and conduct of those engaged at the period i n the settlement of the country, and which may tend to c o n t r a d i c t or e x p l a i n p a r t i a l statements ,. or put i n a new l i g h t , t r a n s a c t i o n s h i t h e r t o considered harsh and c r u e l , should be given to the p u b l i c . (3) Akins r e a l i z e d h i s ambition to p u b l i s h documents r e l a t i v e to the h i s t o r y of the expulsion of the Acadians when he edited S e l e c t i o n s from the P u b l i c Documents of the Province of Nova S c o t i a , published by the Nova S c o t i a government i n 1869. . Akins' good i n t e n t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d never again bore f r u i t . The next such p u b l i c a t i o n d i d not appear i n Nova S c o t i a u n t i l 1908, when A r c h i b a l d MacMechan, a p r o f e s s o r of h i s t o r y and president of the Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , edited the O r i g i n a l Minutes of His Majesty's C o u n c i l at 10 Annapolis Royal, 1720-1739 f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by the a r c h i v e s . MacMechan had p r e v i o u s l y compiled calendars and indexes of Nova S c o t i a documents, some of which were al s o published by the government. The close t i e s between the p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y and the archives seems e v i d e n t , and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g . to note that the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y seems to have l e f t l arge documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s p r o j e c t s to the a r c h i v e s , perhaps e d i t e d by one of i t s members, but funded by the government r a t h e r than the s o c i e t y i t s e l f . The h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y , whose f i r s t Report and C o l l e c t i o n s appeared i n 1878, counted as one of i t s o b j e c t i v e s "the p u b l i c a t i o n so f a r as the, funds of the s o c i e t y w i l l a l l o w , of a l l such documents and papers as i t may be deemed 4 d e s i r a b l e to p u b l i s h . " The s o c i e t y published s e l e c t e d documents i n i t s Reports. Most of the items concerned pre- c o n f e d e r a t i o n , indeed, pre-conquest, B r i t i s h p e r s o n a l i t i e s . "The Journal of Colonel Nicholson at the Capture of Annapolis, 1710," " T r i a l s f o r Treason i n 1776-77," and " L e t t e r s and other Papers r e l a t i n g to the E a r l y H i s t o r y of the Church of England i n Nova S c o t i a [1710]," were t y p i c a l i n c l u s i o n s i n the 19th century r e p o r t s . The average length of these documents was from t h i r t y to f i f t y pages, wi t h some as long as 120 pages, others as short as f i v e . There was no consistency i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g by the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y and by 1892 the Reports were composed e n t i r e l y of papers presented at the annual meetings. No documentary 11 e d i t i o n s were i n c l u d e d . Funding appears to have been a major impediment to p u b l i s h i n g by the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y . The 1878 r e p o r t declared that " i f we c o l l e c t , preserve and p u b l i s h the memorials of other days, the p u b l i c w i l l be sure to 5 appreciate and a s s i s t us," but the next year's r e p o r t lamented that "they r e g r e t t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to annotate as they would wish, the t e x t of the documents herewith submitted." To t h i s complaint they added that "the committee i n c onclusion beg to c a l l the a t t e n t i o n of the members to the mass of papers s t i l l on hand awaiting p u b l i c a t i o n , and 6 to suggest the formation of a p u b l i c a t i o n fund." There i s no evidence to i n d i c a t e that such a fund was s t a r t e d , and the l i m i t e d p u b l i s h i n g record of the s o c i e t y seems to suggest t h a t , although the s o c i e t y remained a c t i v e , e i t h e r i t s i n t e r e s t i n or i t s capacity f o r documentary p u b l i s h i n g declined over the years. In the e a r l y years of the 20th century, t h i s might p o s s i b l y be. a t t r i b u t a b l e to the i n c r e a s i n g l y a c t i v e programme of Nova Scotia's P u b l i c Archives. As mentioned above, there was l i t t l e documentary p u b l i s h i n g by the archives a f t e r 190 8. The reason f o r t h i s seems c l e a r . A f t e r the death of Thomas Akins i n 1891, the t a s k of c a r i n g f o r the records was passed from one government employee to another f o r f o r t y years. Although these men, Francis Stephen Beamish (1891_95), Edwin C. Fairbanks (18 9 5-99), and Harry P i e r s (1899-1931) maintained the e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n to the best of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , 12 ( c o n s i d e r i n g the archives d i d not even have a b u i l d i n g of i t s own), they were not i n a p o s i t i o n to pursue a p u b l i c a t i o n s programme. In f a c t , up to the end of P i e r s ' s u p e r v i s i o n of the documents, the p o s i t i o n of A r c h i v i s t d i d not f o r m a l l y e x i s t . Akins had been the Records Commissioner, but i t i s unclear whether h i s three successors even had t i t l e s . An a r c h i v i s t proper was not appointed u n t i l the 1930 *s. In 1929, through the benevolence of W.H. Chase, a prominent Nova S c o t i a c i t i z e n , the province began c o n s t r u c t i o n of i t s own archives b u i l d i n g . Although the o f f i c i a l opening of the a r c h i v e s , on 14 January 1931, occurred more than s e v e n t y - f i v e years a f t e r the appointment of the f i r s t records commissioner, Nova S c o t i a ' was s t i l l j u s t i f i a b l y proud of i t s achievement. I t boasted Canada's f i r s t p u b l i c archives and f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l archives b u i l d i n g . On 3 August, 1931, w i t h the appointment of Professor D.C. Harvey as the f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t of Nova S c o t i a , the province's archives entered i n t o a new era. I t was under Harvey's d i r e c t i o n t h a t the archives began to expand i n a l l areas , from c o l l e c t i o n to arrangement to p u b l i c s e r v i c e and, e s p e c i a l l y , to p u b l i c a t i o n . Almost from h i s f i r s t days Harvey advocated a strong a r c h i v a l p u b l i c a t i o n s programme. In the odd breathing spaces of o f f i c e hours, I have been reading along c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c l i n e s ; and, i n the r e s t l e s s hours of broken slumber, I have been t h i n k i n g about the most f i t t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t should be issued f i r s t w i t h the imprimatur of the P u b l i c Archives of Nova S c o t i a . (7) 13 Harvey f i n a l l y recommended that "a complete c o l l e c t i o n of documents bearing upon the e a r l y settlement of Nova S c o t i a from the founding of H a l i f a x to the a r r i v a l of the 8 L o y a l i s t s , be prepared f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . " He l o s t no time i n a c t i n g upon h i s r e s o l u t i o n , . i n a s e r i e s of monographs, shorter p u b l i c a t i o n s c a l l e d b u l l e t i n s , and documents published i n the annual r e p o r t s . Most of the monographs co n s i s t e d of d i a r i e s , j o u r n a l s or papers by s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s , such as H o l l a n d 1 s D e s c r i p t i o n of Cape Breton I s l a n d and Other Documents published i n 1935 , and Thomas Pichen, the Spy of Beausejour, An Account of h i s Career i n Europe and America, with many O r i g i n a l Documents published i n 1937 .. O c c a s i o n a l l y , however, p a r t i c u l a r subjects were d e a l t w i t h through the e d i t i o n of documents, such as the landmark p u b l i c a t i o n A Documentary Study of the Establishment of the Negroes i n Nova S c o t i a between the War of 1812 and the Winning of Responsible Government completed i n 1948. Grasping at such thorny p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l issues i n documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s seems a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the forward t h i n k i n g of D.C. Harvey and the a r c h i v i s t s under h i s d i r e c t i o n i n Nova S c o t i a . Indeed, some of the b u l l e t i n s also t r e a t e d important themes, such as A Documentary Study of E a r l y E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y (1937), A Documentary Study of P r o v i n c i a l Finance and Currency, 1812-36 (1941), and A Documentary Study of the O r i g i n and D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Arms Fund (194 7) to name but three. 14 Between h i s appointment i n 19 31 and h i s retirement i n 1955, Harvey supervised or was himself r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s i x monographs, s i x b u l l e t i n s , and close to f o r t y short documentary editions, i n the annual r e p o r t s . Examples from the annual r e p o r t s c o n s i s t e d of everything from "Ea r l y D e s c r i p t i o n s of Nova S c o t i a " (193 3) to "A Proposal to Change the Name of H a l i f a x (1942) and "The Correspondence of the Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l Society" (1945). The documents and commentary averaged about ten pages i n l e n g t h , w i t h two or three, i n each r e p o r t -- j u s t enough to whet the h i s t o r i c a l a p p e t i t e of a hungry readership. I t i s c l e a r Harvey wrestled with the question of the Archives proper r o l e i n Nova S c o t i a s o c i e t y . As e a r l y as 1931, he commented on a problem of p u b l i c s e r v i c e . In h i s annual r e p o r t he noted: A number of i n q u i r i e s have been answered to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the persons concerned; but t h i s has r a i s e d the problem as to how f a r the A r c h i v i s t can c a t e r to t h i s s o r t of work, r a t h e r than confine h i s e f f o r t s to encouraging the use of m a t e r i a l s i n the b u i l d i n g . I f an enquiry bureau i s to be e s t a b l i s h e d i t w i l l i n v o l v e the e n t i r e time and labour of a member of the s t a f f , and a l s o considerable expense. Perhaps some person who i s s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n genealogy w i l l endow such a department. I f not, I am much concerned as to the proper course to pursue. (9) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that a person so concerned about the d i f f u s i o n of published information should r e s i s t the idea of p u b l i c s e r v i c e f o r genealogists and the l i k e . I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t he saw documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s as a v i t a l means to a momentous end. " I t i s unnecessary," he wrote, "to add t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to p r e s e r v i n g the records of Nova 15 Scotia's c o l o u r f u l h i s t o r y , our c h i e f duty i s to organize these records and to transmute them i n t o w r i t t e n h i s t o r y as 10 f u l l y and as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e . " Harvey, who was an h i s t o r i a n , author, and pr o f e s s o r as w e l l as an a r c h i v i s t , saw h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n areas such as documentary p u b l i s h i n g , s u p e r v i s i n g theses, presenting papers, p r e s i d i n g over conferences and meetings, and w r i t i n g a r t i c l e s and books about Maritime h i s t o r y , as e s s e n t i a l to h i s d u t i e s . In 1942, he•summed up h i s l a r g e r aim. So f a r our o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s have been catalogues, calendars, and documentary studi e s of s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s , designed to f a c i l i t a t e research or to throw l i g h t on various phases of our h i s t o r y , which could not be t r e a t e d i n such d e t a i l i n a general h i s t o r y without clogging the n a r r a t i v e or g e t t i n g out of pe r s p e c t i v e . None the l e s s , a l l these by-products of more general s t u d i e s have helped us to reach c o n c l u s i o n s , which can be incorporated w i t h confidence i n these general works. The same i s true of a r t i c l e s and papers, which we have published i n h i s t o r i c a l or l i t e r a r y p e r i o d i c a l s , or i n the t r a n s a c t i o n s of learned s o c i e t i e s . They are a l l p r e l i m i n a r y to a more comprehensive and d e f i n i t i v e work. (11) Harvey t r u l y f e l t t h a t the d i f f u s i o n of documents to the p u b l i c , and e s p e c i a l l y to i n t e r e s t e d scholars ,. was a way of preserving the informat i o n and p r o v i d i n g the m a t e r i a l of h i s t o r y f o r those in t e n d i n g to w r i t e broader, more comprehensive works. When Harvey r e t i r e d i n 19 55, h i s a s s i s t a n t , C. Bruce Fergusson, took over as A r c h i v i s t . Fergusson followed h i s predecessor's footsteps very c l o s e l y i n the area of documentary p u b l i s h i n g . He maintained the appendices to the annual r e p o r t s , w i t h two or three short documents i n each, and he continued the b u l l e t i n s e r i e s and the monographic 16 p u b l i c a t i o n s , s t i l l c o ncentrating on pre-confederation, and e s p e c i a l l y 18th century, documents. Fergusson saw the importance of the p r e s e r v a t i o n and dissemination of h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; he saw the P u b l i c Archives of Nova S c o t i a as an " h i s t o r i c a l l a b o r a t o r y f o r the use of 12 h i s t o r i c a l documents." But Fergusson was the f i r s t a r c h i v i s t i n Nova S c o t i a to f e e l the pressure of the new fast-paced s o c i e t y of the 1960's and 1970's. At one p o i n t he wrote "we i n a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s must t r y to keep up w i t h the times i n procedures and techniques.... There i s need f o r speedy r e t r i e v a l , arrangement, and a n a l y s i s of records 13 and data." S t i l l , i t was under Fergusson's d i r e c t i o n that a r c h i v a l p u b l i c a t i o n s reached t h e i r peak. The archives presented i t s e l f to the p u b l i c through the Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , s t a r t e d i n 1971, a j o u r n a l which contained s e l e c t e d documents i n various i s s u e s . indeed, Nova Scotia's current a r c h i v i s t . , P h y l l i s B l a keley, judges that "Fergusson gave the p u b l i c a t i o n s programme the highest p r i o r i t y s a c r i f i c i n g other programmes to i t on the l i m i t e d 14 budget." With C. Bruce Fergusson's retirement i n 1977, the p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s of t h e . P u b l i c Archives of Nova S c o t i a seem to have died a q u i e t death. Dr. Blakeley has w r i t t e n that "I would l i k e to have an a c t i v e p u b l i c a t i o n s programme but we have been under severe budgetary r e s t r a i n t s since the summer of 19 8 2 and the p u b l i c a t i o n s programme i s 15 one that can be postponed." Even the f u t u r e of 17 the a r c h i v e s ' s j o u r n a l i s not assured. The Archives' annual report f o r 1983 s t a t e s that "the f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of the Review remains tenuous and only a s p e c i a l grant from the Department of C u l t u r e , Recreation and F i t n e s s provided the necessary funds to p u b l i s h the autumn 1983 i s s u e . Funding i s guaranteeed f o r 1984, but a permanent form of funding w i l l have to be found f o r 19 8 5.. This may e n t a i l a separate budgetary item i n e i t h e r the Archives budget or that of the 16 Department of C u l t u r e , F i t n e s s and Recreation." Today, while Nova S c o t i a boasts a new, s p e c i a l l y designed and equipped, archives b u i l d i n g , and diverse and i n t e r e s t i n g technology, i t s once a c t i v e p u b l i c a t i o n s programme has declined sharply. Since 19 70, there have been two monograph length p u b l i c a t i o n s , one e d i t e d by C.B. Fergusson, on Clarkson's M i s s i o n to America, 1791-1792 (1971), and one a Census of Nova S c o t i a : 18 2 7; Census of D i s t r i c t of P i c t o u : 1817 (1979). There has been one b u l l e t i n length documentry p u b l i c a t i o n . I t appears that the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y has c o n t r i b u t e d nothing to documentary p u b l i s h i n g f o r many years , although i t s C o l l e c t i o n s , . a c o m p i l a t i o n of papers presented at the annual meetings, continues today. In Nova S c o t i a , i t was the P u b l i c Archives r a t h e r than the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , that a c t i v e l y engaged i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g . Over time, the H i s t o r i c a l Society l e f t p u b l i s h i n g to the Archives. Now that government funding i s scarce, documentary p u b l i s h i n g w i l l l i k e l y take a back seat to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and other d u t i e s f o r some time to come. 18 THE PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF CANADA In a country of such vast proportions as Canada, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to render the accumulations of the Archives Department a c c e s s i b l e to a l l those who are, or who might be i n t e r e s t e d i n them. I t i s d e s i r a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , to b r i n g some of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e documents bearing on the more important periods and problems of our h i s t o r y , w i t h i n the reach of the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g number of both Canadians and others who are m a n i f e s t i n g an i n t e r e s t i n our h i s t o r y and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Arthur Doughty (17) The P u b l i c Archives of Canada has always been a leader among Canadian a r c h i v e s . I t i s the archives to which a l l other archives t u r n f o r guidance and i n f o r m a t i o n . In terms of i t s documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s , the P u b l i c Archives was a leader not only i n demonstrating t h e i r importance and i n i n i t i a t i n g t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n , but was a l s o among the f i r s t to t u r n away from such p u b l i c a t i o n s i n favour of other means of disseminating i n f o r m a t i o n about i t s holdings. In June of 1872, armed w i t h $4000 and an appointment from the House of Commons, Douglas Brymner, a Montreal j o u r n a l i s t , began the arduous and complex task of c r e a t i n g a Canadian n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s . His i n s t r u c t i o n s were to "gather, c l a s s i f y and make a v a i l a b l e to r e s e a r c h e r s , the 18 Canadian r e c o r d s . " In h i s t h i r t y years as head of the new Federal A r c h i v e s , Brymner concentrated h i s e f f o r t s on gathering, copying, and c o n s o l i d a t i n g as many records d e a l i n g w i t h Canada as p o s s i b l e . As i s n a t u r a l w i t h any new i n s t i t u t i o n , the e a r l y emphasis was on c r e a t i n g a base, by gathering as much as p o s s i b l e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n and 19 dissemination of that information.was of l e s s importance than the c o l l e c t i o n of the a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s . As Ian Wilson has s a i d : Brymner had done yeoman's s e r v i c e i n l a y i n g a s o l i d foundation f o r the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , but a f t e r h i s death i n 1902, i t remained f o r h i s successor, Arthur Doughty together with h i s cl o s e colleague and adv i s o r Adam S h o r t t , to l i n k both i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and i n p r a c t i c e the requirements of the, e v o l v i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y w i t h the wide-spread v i s i o n of a n a t i o n a l , u n i f y i n g h i s t o r y . (19) Under the leade r s h i p of Doughty and Sh o r t t , the p u b l i c a t i o n of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s became of prime importance to the Archives.- Brymner had s t a r t e d a t r a d i t i o n of i n c l u d i n g s e l e c t e d documents as appendices to h i s annual r e p o r t s . Doughty continued t h i s p r a c t i c e by u l t i m a t e l y h a l t i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of calendars and concentrating s o l e l y on the i n c l u s i o n of f u l l t r a n s c r i p t s of important documents. These documents i n the annual r e p o r t s were long, o f t e n f i l l i n g over 500 pages and l e a v i n g only a few pages f o r the repo r t i t s e l f . There were at times as many as ten separate documents, a l l d e a l i n g w i t h pre-confederation s u b j e c t s , most wit h 18th century i s s u e s . "Plan of the B a t t l e of Ste. Foy,. in 17 60," "Documents R e l a t i n g to the War of 1775: Sentiments of the Indians," and "Memoranda R e l a t i n g to the Church i n Canada, from the E a r l i e s t Times to 1837" were t y p i c a l documentary e n t r i e s i n the e a r l y r e p o r t s . Doughty al s o turned h i s a t t e n t i o n to the p u b l i c a t i o n of documents i n monograph form. His most notable work was the multi-volume Documents R e l a t i n g to the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l 20 H i s t o r y of Canada, which was published over twenty years from 1907 to the mid-1930's. Concerning t h i s work, Doughty wrote t h a t : In 1907 the P u b l i c Archives issued a volume of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l documents d e a l i n g w i t h the years 1759 to 1775. This proved to be of such value to teachers and students that i n 1914- the s e r i e s was continued to 1818....It i s now intended to carry on t h i s work by p r i n t i n g a few documents i n each annual r e p o r t . . . . T h i s s e l e c t i o n i s not n e c e s s a r i l y f i n a l as the documents w i l l be published i n book form at a l a t e r date. (20) In the same re p o r t Doughty claimed that "calendars of papers serve a u s e f u l purpose, but w e l l - e d i t e d c o l l e c t i o n s of documents are more welcome to those who seldom have an 21 opportunity to examine the o r i g i n a l s . " He f e l t that calendars were "at best s u b j e c t i v e w h i l s t p u b l i c a t i o n of [calendars] tended to make the arrangement of documents 2 2 i n f l e x i b l e , " and he proposed the p u b l i c a t i o n of important documents i n f u l l . In 1907, a H i s t o r i c a l Manuscripts Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d by the f e d e r a l government "to.suggest methods 23 f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of documents i n Canada." The Commission supervised p u b l i c a t i o n of Documents R e l a t i n g to the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Canada. In 1915, the commission was disbanded, to be replaced i n 1917 by the H i s t o r i c a l Documents P u b l i c a t i o n Board under the chairmanship of Adam Shortt. This new board was given the power to s e l e c t and p u b l i s h "documents concerned w i t h the h i s t o r y and development of the c o n s t i t u t i o n , t r a d e , 24 commerce, f i n a n c e , i n d u s t r i e s , and defence of Canada." 21 With Doughty's retirement i n 193 5, the H i s t o r i c a l Board vanished, together w i t h the Archives p u b l i c a t i o n s programme. Indeed most of the a c t i v i t i e s of the Archives were tempora r i l y i n limbo. James Kennedy, from the H i s t o r i c a l Research and P u b l i c i t y D i v i s i o n , took over as A c t i n g Dominion A r c h i v i s t , l e a v i n g h i s own d i v i s i o n manned by only one c l e r k . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Kennedy's s o l u t i o n to the problems of u n d e r s t a f f i n g and i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c use was to question the a b i l i t y of the Archives to perform the l a t t e r s e r v i c e . As he noted i n h i s r e p o r t f o r 1935: In accordance w i t h the p o l i c y which the P u b l i c Archives has followed from the beginning, help i s given whenever p o s s i b l e to every i n q u i r e r . To maintain t h i s s e r v i c e , and a l s o continue the p u b l i c a t i o n of calendars and t e x t s of o f f i c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , i t has been necessary to c u r t a i l or suspend some of the a c t i v i t i e s of the department, and thereby to impair i t s e f f i c i e n c y f o r the f u t u r e . I f present c o n d i t i o n s continue, a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p o l i c y of g r a t u i t o u s help to a l l bona f i d e i n q u i r e r s may become unavoidable. (25) With the appointment i n 1936 of Gustave Lanctot as Keeper of the P u b l i c Records, the P u b l i c Archives p u b l i c a t i o n s p o l i c y began to s h i f t , at f i r s t almost imperceptibly. In 1938 a new P u b l i c a t i o n s D i v i s i o n was created, and, as Lanctot s t a t e d , i t "comprises the f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e s : t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o E n g l i s h or i n t o French, as the case may be, of h i s t o r i c a l documents, p u b l i c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h and French of the annual r e p o r t s and of s p e c i a l works; the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the various p u b l i c a t i o n s of the 26 department." The p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l documents was slowly being replaced by the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of 22 government p u b l i s h i n g . Monograph length p u b l i c a t i o n s continued, though slowed somewhat by the s t r a i n s of wartime. As John Archer notes i n h i s t h e s i s on Canadian A r c h i v e s , "while f u l l y cognizant of the needs of h i s department, the Reports issued under [Lanctot*s] name r e v e a l h i s unwilli n g n e s s to press claims f o r . s t a f f and space, i n the 27 face of the s t r i n g e n c i e s of depression and war." In 1940, Lanctot and the P u b l i c Archives published The Oakes C o l l e c t i o n : New Documents by Lahontan Concerning Canada and Newfoundland, which contained both the o r i g i n a l French v e r s i o n and an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . This p u b l i c a t i o n appears to be the l a s t monograph length work completed by the Archives u n t i l the 196 0's. In 1947, Lanctot's l a s t year as Dominion A r c h i v i s t , documentary e d i t i o n s i n the annual re p o r t came to an end. Lanctot was perhaps foreshadowing the end of that aspect of the documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s when he s a i d , "as us u a l , t h i s year's r e p o r t i s accompanied by h i s t o r i c a l documents but • r a t h e r few owing to the increased cost of p r i n t i n g and the smallness of the departmental 28 a p p r o p r i a t i o n . " With the appointment of W. Kaye Lamb as Dominion A r c h i v i s t i n 1949, the p u b l i c a t i o n s p o l i c i e s of the Archives s h i f t e d d r a s t i c a l l y . To Lamb, the development of systematic means to acquire p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r i g i n a l documents and to m i c r o f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s held elsewhere, and p a r t i c u l a r l y overseas, took precedence over documentary p u b l i c a t i o n . 23 Lamb proclaimed the advent of m i c r o f i l m i n g w i t h great enthusiasm. As he saw i t , "the o v e r a l l r e s u l t of the change from copying by hand to copying by photography promises to be s t a r t l i n g . I n c l u d i n g the f i l m s produced by the cameras in the archives of the Hudson's Bay Company, at l e a s t a m i l l i o n pages of m a t e r i a l should be r e c e i v e d i n Ottawa per annum, in s t e a d of approximately f i f t e e n thousand pages as i n 29 recent years." In 1950, the p r a c t i c e of appending documents to the annual r e p o r t s was o f f i c i a l l y h a l t e d , w i t h the statement that "the i n t e n t i o n i s that i t should be p r i n t e d i n t h i s way h e r e a f t e r . Calenders, catalogues, guides, e t c . , w i l l be published separately i n s t e a d of as 30 appendices to the Report as h e r e t o f o r e . " By the mid-1950's the P u b l i c a t i o n s D i v i s i o n was concentrating i t s e f f o r t s on i n v e n t o r i e s and guides, and documentary p u b l i s h i n g seemed to be a t h i n g of the past. But such was not to be the case. Kaye Lamb r e t i r e d i n 196 8, and the new Dominion A r c h i v i s t , W i l f r e d Smith, noted the r e v i v a l of documentary e d i t i o n s . In the f i r s t annual report since 1959, he wrote: The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the P u b l i c a t i o n s Service i n 19 6 3 marked the resumption of a more a c t i v e and v a r i e d p u b l i c a t i o n s program a f t e r a p e r i o d during which a t t e n t i o n had been confined to the p u b l i c a t i o n of i n v e n t o r i e s . P u b l i c a t i o n s since 196 7 have included the f i r s t volume of the Papers of the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s S e r i e s , The L e t t e r s of S i r John A. Macdonald, 1836-1837 , Nouveaux Documents sur Champlain et son epoque, and the Canadian D i r e c t o r y of Parliament, 1867-1967. (31) Smith a l s o envisioned a broadening of the Archives' a c t i v i t i e s i n the area of d i s s e m i n a t i o n . Rather than focus 24 e x c l u s i v e l y on the s c h o l a r l y researcher, Smith turned h i s a t t e n t i o n to the needs and d e s i r e s of the general p u b l i c . In h i s 196 9 annual r e p o r t , he commented t h a t : The much wider p u b l i c use of the holdings of the P u b l i c Archives should be promoted. A program designed to p r o j e c t the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , i t s fu n c t i o n s and t r e a s u r e s , i s being developed i n co- operation w i t h the Na t i o n a l Film Board. The. product w i l l be a set of s l i d e s f o r loan or showing i n " V i s t a s e l l s . " Also i t i s proposed to provide f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of documents, p a i n t i n g s , photographs and maps. Although the c h i e f f u n c t i o n of the P u b l i c Archives i s to provide a c e n t r a l . resource c o l l e c t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s , i t s much broader use, through e x h i b i t i o n s , t e l e v i s i o n , f i l m and other media, should be promoted. (32) The greatest and most ambitious p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t y under Smith's lea d e r s h i p was the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s S e r i e s . Work had commenced on the e d i t i n g and comp i l a t i o n of the l e t t e r s of S i r John A. Macdonald i n 1964, under the d i r e c t i o n of J.K. Johnson, but the f i r s t volume was not published u n t i l 1968. The French t r a n s l a t i o n of the f i r s t volume was a v a i l a b l e i n 1972. A second volume i n E n g l i s h , with i t s French t r a n s l a t i o n , appeared s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , but then the p r o j e c t died a qui e t death unmentioned ever again i n annual r e p o r t s . In the meantime, however, W i l f r e d Smith continued h i s ambitious and aggressive p u b l i c i t y campaign f o r the Archives. In 1972, he stated t h a t : c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been given i n the l a s t two or three years to the development of a program f o r the disse m i n a t i o n of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . Such a program would implement the government's c u l t u r a l p o l i c y which i s being a p p l i e d to museums; but i n the a r c h i v a l f i e l d i t i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y 25 concept. Instead of s e r v i n g only adult h i s t o r i a n s and post-graduate students who can come to Ottawa i t would aim at t a k i n g archives to the greatest p o s s i b l e number of i n t e r e s t e d Canadians by means of m i c r o f i l m c o p i e s , e x h i b i t i o n s , f a c s i m i l e s , s l i d e s , p u b l i c a t i o n s and the mass media. Such a program w i l l r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l funds but the increased b e n e f i t s w i l l amply j u s t i f y the modest budgetry increases which w i l l be i n v o l v e d . (33) With the c e n t e n n i a l of the P u b l i c Archives i n 1972 , the issue of p u b l i c . s e r v i c e became of c e n t r a l importance. Smith noted t h a t " t h i s has been a Janus year f o r the H i s t o r i c a l Branch. We have looked backward over 10 0 years of steady growth...we are l o o k i n g forward to a b r i g h t f u t u r e . . . t o the d i f f u s i o n program which w i l l b r i n g our resources to f a r more 34 people i n an a t t r a c t i v e way." One of the p u b l i c a t i o n s of the c e n t e n n i a l which served to promote t h i s idea of the d i f f u s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n was a catalogue-cum-documentary p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d Archives: M i r r o r of Canada Past. The work, a r t i s t i c a l l y designed and w e l l layed out, was prepared by the members of the archives s t a f f , w i t h twenty-five supervisors o v e r l o o k i n g the d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of the book. Such a l a r g e scale e f f o r t by the A r c h i v e s , i t s l a s t to date, f a r surpassed the e a r l i e r e d i t i o n s by Shortt and Doughty i n the manpower i n v o l v e d , but the success of the p u b l i c a t i o n seems not to have generated more documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s by the Archives. The d i f f u s i o n programme, o u t l i n e d i n the annual r e p o r t f o r that c e n t e n n i a l year, promised the " p u b l i c a t i o n of a s e r i e s of volumes (some of which are i n conjunction w i t h e x h i b i t i o n s ) prefaced by short i n t r o d u c t i o n s which w i l l present primary t e x t complemented 26 by p i c t o r i a l record i n an e x c i t i n g mix designed to appeal to the reader who i s i n t e r e s t e d i n a p p r e c i a t i n g h i s t o r y and the h i s t o r i c a l record without too much of the h i s t o r i a n ' s 35 g l o s s . " The r e s u l t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s included e x h i b i t catalogues and i n v e n t o r i e s , but the expensive and time- consuming documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s of the past were notably absent. In the mid-1970's the P u b l i c a t i o n s D i v i s i o n became Information Services D i v i s i o n , a change i n more than j u s t name. Information Services became rep o n s i b l e f o r brochures, pamphlets, the annual r e p o r t s , i n v e n t o r i e s , newsletters and so f o r t h ; no documentary e d i t i o n s as such were published or even planned. Also i n the mid-1970's, r e s t r a i n t reared i t s unwelcome head, and i n a d j u s t i n g to f i n a n c i a l s t r i n g e n c y , the Archives was forced to reduce such secondary a c t i v i t i e s as p u b l i c a t i o n s and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . By 1981, the Archives reported t h a t "the economic s i t u a t i o n i s causing grave concern i n a l l parts of the world," and the Dominion A r c h i v i s t took the opportunity to r e d e f i n e the r o l e of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , a r o l e which would now focus more on government records and custodianship than on the dissemination of inf o r m a t i o n . The mission of the P u b l i c Archives was defined as the systematic p r e s e r v a t i o n of government and p r i v a t e records of Canadian.national s i g n i f i c a n c e i n order to f a c i l i t a t e not only the e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t o peration of the Government of Canada and h i s t o r i c a l research i n a l l aspects of the Canadian experience, but al s o the p r o t e c t i o n of r i g h t s and the enhancement of a sense of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y based on archives as the c o l l e c t i v e memory of the n a t i o n . (36) 27 The P u b l i c Archives of Canada, always a leader i n a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t y , was l e a d i n g the na t i o n away from o l d concepts of dissemination of informa t i o n through p u b l i c a t i o n . Instead, the P u b l i c Archives has turned i t s a t t e n t i o n to records management, to the p r o v i s i o n of service s to the government and the p u b l i c , and to the c o l l e c t i o n of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g to a l l aspects of Canadian l i f e . Today, the P u b l i c Archives of Canada produces no documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s . A new s e r i e s of guides i s being published to r e v e a l , i n general terms., the holdings of each d i v i s i o n of the Archives. E x h i b i t s remain important, and the attendant catalogues provide some opportunity to r e v e a l i n d i v i d u a l documents, but ed i t e d documentary compilations seem to now be an a r c h i v a l dinosaur of s o r t s . 28 ONTARIO The time has a r r i v e d . . . when... the Society may l e g i t i m a t e l y engage i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of documents r e l a t i n g to the h i s t o r y of the province as a whole....For the p r e s e r v a t i o n of such documents, as e x i s t only i n manuscript form, . p r i n t i n g i s unquestionably the greatest s e r v i c e that an h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y can render to the s t a t e and the student. E.A. Cruikshank, President of the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1921 (37) In d i s c u s s i n g documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n Ontario, one must discuss the a c t i v i t i e s of the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society. Not only was t h i s s o c i e t y the f i r s t and most a c t i v e group i n Ontario to engage i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of primary source m a t e r i a l , but i t was a l s o the d r i v i n g f o r c e behind the establishment of a p r o v i n c i a l archives i n Ontario. I t may perhaps be that the l a c k of p u b l i c a t i o n s by the Ontario Archives i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the a c t i v e p o l i c y pursued by the H i s t o r i c a l Society. The Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society was founded i n 188 8, the l a s t and most s u c c e s s f u l i n a long l i n e of h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , beginning i n 1843 w i t h the Toronto L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , and i n c l u d i n g such groups as the B r i t i s h North American H i s t o r i c a l Society (1875) and the Pioneer and. H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Ontario (1888). According to the records of the H i s t o r i c a l Society of Upper Canada, formed i n 1861, the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y ' s job was to preserve "a u n i f y i n g 'sentiment of n a t i o n a l i t y ' rooted i n an understanding of the Upper Canadian past....In these years, when the i n t e g r i t y of the Dominion seemed to be at stake, the quest f o r a cohesive n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e stands out as the fundamental reason why people formed and j o i n e d h i s t o r i c a l 38 s o c i e t i e s . " In 1899, the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society began to p u b l i s h i t s Papers and Records s e r i e s . The Society's f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , James Coyne, claimed that "through t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n , the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society would preserve and c i r c u l a t e r a r e documentary sources, encourage the w r i t i n g of h i s t o r y of a higher and more exact c h a r a c t e r , and 39 g e n e r a l l y s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t in. Ontario's past." The f i r s t issue of the j o u r n a l included no l e s s than twelve separate documents, a t o t a l of 6 6 pages. Although many documents were published without s u b s t a n t i a l e d i t i n g or annotation (mostly documents such as r e g i s t e r s and other r e c o r d s ) , e d i t i n g of d i a r i e s , j o u r n a l s and l e t t e r s became popular a f t e r the tu r n of the century. Such documents as the "John Richardson L e t t e r s , " "An Old Family Account Book," and " C o l l e c t i o n s of H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l R e l a t i n g to the War of 1812," were e d i t e d by h i s t o r i a n s both amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l . E.A. Cruikshank, one time president of the a s s o c i a t i o n , and al s o keeper of m i l i t a r y records at the P u b l i c Archives of Canada f o r many yea r s , himself e d i t e d eleven e n t r i e s f o r the j o u r n a l between 1905 and h i s death i n 30 1939. In f a c t i t was Cruikshank who e s t a b l i s h e d the H i s t o r i c a l Society's t r a d i t i o n f o r documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s by e d i t i n g The Correspondence of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, which was published i n f i v e volumes between 1923 and 1931, and The Correspondence of the Honourable Peter R u s s e l l , which appeared i n three volumes between 19 3 2 and 1936. Cruikshank's e f f o r t s i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g had the d e s i r e d e f f e c t ; such p u b l i s h i n g became the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society's l i f e l i n e , i t s r a i s o n d'etre. The Department of Education, which subsidized many of the a c t i v i t i e s of the s o c i e t y , had i n d i c a t e d that i t would not support the museum and archives a c t i v i t i e s of the s o c i e t y , but i t would assume the cost of p r i n t i n g the s o c i e t y ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s . Cruikshank r e a l i z e d , q u i t e r i g h t l y , that the route to s u r v i v a l f o r the s o c i e t y t h e r e f o r e l a y i n an 40 expanded and agressive p u b l i c a t i o n s programme. As Gerald K i l l a n s tates i n h i s h i s t o r y of the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , "as Cruikshank expected, the Department of Education looked favourably upon the p r o j e c t and committed i t s e l f to p u b l i s h i n g the Simcoe Papers without cost. For i t s p a r t , the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society promised to d i s t r i b u t e the volumes as widely as p o s s i b l e by s e l l i n g them 41 at the nominal sum of one d o l l a r apiece." I t would appear, wi t h the b e n e f i t of h i n d s i g h t , that t h i s 'nominal sum' may. have caused, i n d i r e c t l y , the downfall of the monograph p u b l i c a t i o n s programme of the s o c i e t y . In the midst of the Great Depression, the Department of 31 Education was f o r c e d to reassess i t s p o s i t i o n regarding the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society. As K i l l a n a s s e r t s : The Department of Education had informed the executive that the n e c e s s i t y of s t r i c t economy ob l i g e d the government to withdraw the p r a c t i c e of p r i n t i n g . the s o c i e t y ' s l i t e r a t u r e at p u b l i c expense. Although the small annual grant would be continued, the Papers and Records, the Annual Report, and the documentary h i s t o r y s e r i e s would have to be paid f o r out of the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society's own funds....The programme had gone beyond the s o c i e t y ' s means. No choice remained but to postpone i n d e f i n i t e l y the documentary h i s t o r y s e r i e s . (42) Attempts were made to keep the p u b l i c a t i o n a l i v e . The 19 4 5 annual r e p o r t contained the p l e a , "we have a Cruikshank r e v o l v i n g p u b l i s h i n g fund which i t should be p o s s i b l e to keep re p l e n i s h e d by the sale of p u b l i c a t i o n s . I f the Strachan volume could be got out of the way, and s o l d , another could be produced.... P u b l i c a t i o n of such works i s a r e a l and e a s i l y achieved f u n c t i o n of the Society and the appearance of such a volume i n a d d i t i o n to the Papers and Records would be evidence of a r e a l l y a c t i v e body.... P r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r y and l o c a l h i s t o r y can be a l i v e . 43 We must not l e t i t stagnate." At a d o l l a r a copy, stagnate i t d i d . In f a c t , the p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n s p i t e of t h e i r r i d i c u l o u s l y low p r i c e , became a sore spot f o r the s o c i e t y r a t h e r than a source of p r i d e , and i n the middle of the Second World War the worst of a l l p o s s i b l e consequences occurred. President C.W. J e f f r e y s announced r a t h e r a b r u p t l y t h a t : 32 In the emergency, I took i t upon myself to move a r e s o l u t i o n which passed unanimously to c l e a r out 1000 sets of the Simcoe Papers and have them chopped up f o r p u l p . . . . I t w i l l s t i l l leave on our hands ail ample supply f o r a l l f u t u r e generations. I hope General Cruikshank and Mr. Hunter w i l l not turn i n t h e i r graves , but the idea of an e d i t i o n of 2000 was absurdly extravagant at the o u t s e t , even though the government paid the b i l l and we now have an elephant on our hands which w i l l eat more storage hay than we can a f f o r d . I am prepared to urge f u r t u e r e l i m i n a t i o n s of the same kind with regard to some of our other p u b l i c a t i o n s and to be r u t h l e s s w i t h regard to the l i b r a r y . (44) In s p i t e of having sent hundreds of books to the shredder, the s o c i e t y was able to p u l l together and squeeze out The John Strachan L e t t e r Book, 1812-1834 i n 1946. But f o r the most p a r t the s o c i e t y turned away from monograph length p u b l i c a t i o n s and concentrated on documentary e n t r i e s i n i t s Papers and Records. There was a marked decrease i n the number of documentary e d i t i o n s i n each i s s u e ; i n the 19 3 0's there were about two or three i n each volume, r a t h e r than ten or twelve as before. In 1947, the j o u r n a l changed i t s t i t l e to Ontario H i s t o r y and, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , there was a surge i n documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the 1950's, w i t h each volume c o n t a i n i n g from three to s i x e n t r i e s f i l l i n g between twenty and t h i r t y pages per i s s u e . This upswing l e d to 3 8 documentary e n t r i e s i n Ontario H i s t o r y between 19 5 0 and 1959, but i t was followed by a dramatic d e c l i n e ; between 1960 and 1981 there have been only 16 documents published i n the H i s t o r i c a l Society's j o u r n a l . According to one a n a l y s i s , the reason f o r the change was an "enlightenment" on the p a r t of the e d i t o r s . 33 Valuable as these documents were from a s c h o l a r l y p o i n t of view, the e d i t o r s recognized that such volumes, made up predominately of primary sources, were not l i k e l y to send readers i n t o paroxyms of p a t r i o t i c f e v e r , which, a f t e r a l l was one of t h e i r aims. Nor were ponderous tomes of documents l i k e l y to appeal to many Ontarians.... Seeking to p o p u l a r i z e t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n , the e d i t o r s turned to the example set by t h e i r American co u n t e r p a r t s , and began to- i n c l u d e more n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r y i n the Papers and Records. (45) I t i s at t h i s p o i n t , f i n a l l y , that the p r o v i n c i a l archives became a f a c t o r i n the issue of documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s . The Ontario Archives had been e s t a b l i s h e d under the wing of the.Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society i n 1903. The s o c i e t y had wanted a state-supported archives under i t s c o n t r o l , but such was not to be. The archives evolved independently as a government department, and continued q u i e t l y to acquire m a t e r i a l s and provide p u b l i c s e r v i c e . The archives was involved i n a documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s programme of i t s own. The annual r e p o r t s contained "nothing but source m a t e r i a l , p r i n c i p a l l y such m a t e r i a l as j o u r n a l s of the l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l and assembly, land books, and 46 minutes of the courts of quarter sessions." As John Archer has noted, "the p o l i c y of reproducing h i s t o r i c a l documents i n the p r i n t e d r e p o r t s issued proved to be very 4 7 popular." Even so, t h i s p r a c t i c e was stopped i n the mid 1950's, when the Archives decided to p u b l i s h i n v e n t o r i e s r a t h e r than documents, thus making a knowledge of holdings 48 a v a i l a b l e to students more q u i c k l y . " Today, the Archives of Ontario no longer includes documentary reproductions i n the 34 49 - annual r e p o r t s . The Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society had j u s t about given up i t s idea of documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s when, i n 1957, a deal was struck between the Champlain Society and the government of Ontario. For a set f e e , the Champlain Society agreed to p u b l i s h documents r e l a t i n g to the h i s t o r y of Ontario, "to be issued by the Champlain Society under the sponsorship of the Ontario Government, which has generously promised the Society a grant of $5,000 50 a year f o r the next four years f o r t h i s purpose." The Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society, whose p u b l i s h i n g f u t u r e seemed dim, q u i c k l y r a t i o n a l i z e d i t s own a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s area. "The appearance of volumes of primary sources published by both the Ontario A r c h i v e s , e s t a b l i s h e d in.1903 and the Champlain S o c i e t y , founded two years l a t e r , f a c i l i t a t e d the d e c i s i o n to l i g h t e n the documentary content of the Papers 51 and Records." Although the Society seems to have assumed that the Ontario archives was d i r e c t l y involved i n the new venture, i t would appear that t h i s was not t r u e . The documents were e d i t e d by Ontario h i s t o r i a n s , but there i s no i n d i c a t i o n i n prefaces or elsewhere that the Archives was i n any way r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e d i t i o n of the m a t e r i a l s . In any case, t h i s s e r i e s , numbering eleven volumes and s t i l l a c t i v e , i s now the focus of p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n Ontario. The H i s t o r i c a l Society has not published any documents i n i t s j o u r n a l since 1973, and there appear to be no plans f o r documentary monographs, although the s o c i e t y i s 35 a c t i v e i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of brochures, guides, booklets and b i b l i o g r a p h i e s . The Archives generates a short annual report and v i r t u a l l y nothing e l s e . 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA In B r i t i s h Columbia, the P r o v i n c i a l Archives took the lead i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g , although the p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y d i d become associated with the Archives e f f o r t s . A r c h i v a l a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia began i n the 1890's i n a modest way. In 1894, the government appointed R.E. G o s n e l l , a j o u r n a l i s t , as i t s f i r s t l e g i s l a t i v e l i b r a r i a n . Gosnell's mandate gave him the a u t h o r i t y "to c o l l e c t and compile data r e l a t i n g to the h i s t o r y of the 52 province." He and h i s successor E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d c a r r i e d on a programme to c o l l e c t a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l u n t i l 190 8, when an a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r archives was passed by' the L e g i s l a t u r e and Gosnell was appointed P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t ; Since 1908, even though there has never been l e g i s l a t i o n mandating the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , i t has developed an a c t i v e programme of a c q u i s i t i o n and dissemination of a r c h i v a l documents. In the e a r l y days of the A r c h i v e s , Gosnell and S c h o l e f i e l d concentrated on a c q u i s i t i o n s . In a l e t t e r to hi s c o l l e a g u e , Judge F.W. Howay, S c h o l e f i e l d wrote that he intended to have " a l l l i k e l y p l a c e s . . . ransacked f o r documents r e l a t i n g to the f u r trade and c o l o n i a l days," f o r , as he s a i d , " I am making the c o l l e c t i o n of books and documents r e l a t i n g to our p r o v i n c e , and the study of i t s 53 h i s t o r y , my l i f e work." S c h o l e f i e l d was also quick to seize the opportunity to p u b l i s h documents, f i r s t i n the annual r e p o r t s of the l i b r a r y and archives , where he attempted to inc l u d e documents i n the annual r e p o r t s , 37 However, only a few of the r e p o r t s were a c t u a l l y published; the others remained i n manuscript form. He had more success with the Memoir S e r i e s , begun i n 1914. Among the e a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s were the Minutes of the House of Assembly of Vancouver I s l a n d , and Menzie's J o u r n a l of Vancouver's Voyage. The f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n s were paid f o r by the Kings' P r i n t e r , but a f t e r 1918 the costs were covered by the Archives i t s e l f . In j u s t i f y i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of the documents of B r i t i s h Columbia's pioneer l e g i s l a t u r e , S c h o l e f i e l d r e f e r r e d to t h e i r f r a g i l i t y and to h i s d e s i r e f o r t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y . " I f by any unhappy mischance," he wrote, "the o r i g i n a l s were destroyed, the e a r l i e s t pages of the Parliamentary h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia would be forever l o s t . The documents i n question deserve, t h e r e f o r e , very s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In passing, i t may be observed that one of the most pr e s s i n g o b l i g a t i o n s of the Department i s the p u b l i c a t i o n of o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l i n the form of b u l l e t i n s , . f o r i t i s only by such means that the resources 54 of the archives can be made g e n e r a l l y a c c e s s i b l e . " The annual r e p o r t s a l s o included such documents as "Papers R e l a t i n g to Nootka Sound and to Captain Vancouver's E x p e d i t i o n , " and "Papers R e l a t i n g to the C o l o n i z a t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d . " I n t e r e s t i n g l y , many documentary e d i t i o n s were r e a l l y compilations of various documents around a theme rath e r than as p a r t of a coherent s e r i e s . The 1913 r e p o r t included eleven separate groups of documents -- a t o t a l of 125 pages. But t h i s e f f o r t was not repeated, and the annual 3 8 r e p o r t s q u i c k l y became accounts of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the department, r a t h e r than v e h i c l e s f o r the dissemination of documents. Indeed, by t h i s time they were r a r e l y published. S c h o l e f i e l d ' s successors, John Forsyth (1921-26) and John Hosie (1926-34) continued the Memoir S e r i e s , but w i t h the appointment of W. Kaye Lamb as P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t i n 1934, the Archives set out i n other d i r e c t i o n s . Upon h i s a r r i v a l , Lamb discovered t h a t f i n a n c i a l stringency had ended any thought of con t i n u i n g the Memoir S e r i e s , but he was r e l u c t a n t to give up the idea of p u b l i c i z i n g the Archives V holdings. With the a i d of amateur h i s t o r i a n s l i k e Robie Reid and the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , he founded the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a rterly. In h i s e d i t o r i a l i n t r o d u c i n g the f i r s t i s s u e , Lamb focussed on the importance of p u b l i s h i n g documents. Those w e l l q u a l i f i e d to judge have upon many occasions emphasized the value of the great store of books, manuscripts, p i c t u r e s and r e l i c s which are preserved i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives.... Research students and others able to v i s i t the Archives i n person, have long been aware of t h i s ; but the department has lacked any means of making I t s resources known to a wider c i r c l e . I t i s hoped that the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly w i l l go f a r to make good t h i s d e f i c i e n c y . Important manuscripts, h i t h e r t o unpublished, w i l l appear r e g u l a r l y i n i t s pages; and i t i s hoped that the prospect of p u b l i c a t i o n In permanent form, which the Quarterly i s able to o f f e r , w i l l encourage the w r i t i n g of worth-while a r t i c l e s upon many aspects of B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s t o r y . (55 ) The Quarterly did indeed carry on a s e r i e s of p u b l i c a t i o n s of documents on such subjects as "The Census of Vancouver I s l a n d , 1855," (1940), "Gold Rush Days i n 39 V i c t o r i a , 1858-1859," (1948), and "Record of a T r i p to Dawson, 1898: The Diary of John Smith," (1952). The documents averaged between twenty and t h i r t y pages; some were annotated, others l e f t unedited. Out of a t o t a l of 36 documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the Quarterly between 19 37 and i t s sudden demise i n 1958, four were e d i t e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia h i s t o r i a n W.N. Sage, four by S c h o l e f i e l d ' s f r i e n d , Judge F.W. Howay, and f i v e by W i l l a r d I r e l a n d , who succeeded Lamb as P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t i n 1940. Lamb himself c o n t r i b u t e d three e d i t e d documents. While these numbers may not seem high of themselves, i t must be remembered that these same men al s o c o n t r i b u t e d a r t i c l e s and notes based on t h e i r own resear c h , as w e l l as a c t i v e l y pursuing a r c h i v a l and h i s t o r i c a l a c t i v i t i e s away from the j o u r n a l . Indeed Ireland's importance cannot be understated. I r e l a n d worked c l o s e l y w i t h Lamb to e d i t the Quarterly a f t e r Lamb l e f t the A r c h i v e s , and took over as e d i t o r i n 1946. In a case of h i s t o r i c a l paradox, the Quarterly e f f e c t i v e l y died i n . the year of the c e n t e n n i a l of the establishment of the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia. Although i t was not issued u n t i l 1962, the issue f o r 1958 was the j o u r n a l ' s l a s t . With so much of h i s time taken by t h i s c e n t e n n i a l work as w e l l as by h i s d a i l y tasks as A r c h i v i s t , I r e l a n d was unable to continue to work at f u l l c a p a c i t y on the Q u a r t e r l y , and, with i t s main d r i v i n g f o r c e gone, the j o u r n a l d i e d . I t was replaced some ten years l a t e r by B.C. Studies , an independent j o u r n a l funded by s u b s c r i p t i o n and by government 40 a i d , but t h i s j o u r n a l has nothing to do w i t h e i t h e r the Archives or the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . The A s s o c i a t i o n i t s e l f has not entered i n t o any major documentary or other p u b l i s h i n g programme since the demise of the Quarterly. Thus, although B r i t i s h Columbia's p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s were r a t h e r a c t i v e i n comparison wi t h some other i n s t i t u t i o n s , p u b l i c a t i o n s appeared from time • to time and not as part of some plan or programme by the Archives. The current P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , John Bovey, has summed up the h i s t o r y of the s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r n e a t l y , saying: there has been no on-going p u b l i c a t i o n s p o l i c y , In the sense of a p r e c i s e l y defined v e r b a l statement, f o r t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n since i t s establishment. The Memoir Series has been published o c c a s i o n a l l y from 1914 up to the present. From the 1930's to the 1960's the P r o v i n c i a l Archives published the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly i n cooperation w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n and during the past decade we have published the Sound Heritage S e r i e s , which w i l l be suspended i n d e f i n i t e l y a f t e r the imminent d i s t r i b u t i o n of Issue No. 40. Sound Heritage i s a c a s u a l t y (perhaps a temporary one-) of the Government's current r e s t r a i n t program. (56) Sound Heritage i s a p u b l i c a t i o n comprised of a r t i c l e s drawing p r i m a r i l y on the resources of the Archives o r a l h i s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n and i s not a documentary p u b l i c a t i o n i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense. I t s existence i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the Archives movement away from p u b l i s h i n g documents to other methods of disseminating information about B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s t o r y . 41 THE CHAMPLAIN SOCIETY and THE HUDSON'S BAY RECORD SOCIETY In the Spring of 1905 i n conversation w i t h some U n i v e r s i t y men i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t o r y , the suggestion was made that the time had perhaps come i n Canada when we might hope to have a s o c i e t y f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of. h i s t o r i c a l works s i m i l a r to the Navy Records Society, the Royal H i s t o r i c a l S o c iety, the Prince Society., e t c . This of course would depend on whether there were i n Canada a s u f f i c i e n t l y strong sentiment i n favour of work s i m i l a r to th a t which had been accomplished s u c c e s s f u l l y i n countr i e s more t h i c k l y populated and w e a l t h i e r than Canada. . I had confidence enough p e r s o n a l l y to t h i n k that 250 people could be found who would be w i l l i n g to pay $10 a year i f we could promise that we could produce works equal i n every respect i n e d i t i n g , h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t and mechanical make-up to the best p u b l i c a t i o n s of h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s elsewhere.. S i r Edmund W a l k e r , f i r s t President of the Champlain Society (57) One i s s o r e l y tempted at t h i s p o i n t to say, "and they l i v e d h a ppily ever a f t e r . " Indeed, they d i d . The Champlain Society has been an u n q u a l i f i e d success since i t s appearance In the f i f t h year of the t w e n t i e t h century. Perhaps a look at i t s h i s t o r y w i l l give some clues to i t s p r o s p e r i t y i n the area of documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The Champlain Society was formed i n 1905 , and by 1907 i t had r e c e i v e d over $2,000 i n membership fees. Each member was promised two l i m i t e d e d i t i o n volumes of documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s , , bound i n red buckram, numbered and with the seal of the s o c i e t y on the spine. In 1907 the f i r s t volume appeared; The H i s t o r y of New France by Marc Lescarbot, e d i t e d by W.P. Grant and H.P. Biggar. Two volumes followed i n 1908, and one each year between 1909 and 1912. The Society s u f f e r e d to some degree during the F i r s t World War; The executive wrote i n the annual r e p o r t f o r 1916 that "unfortunately a d i f f i c u l t y i n regard to procuring paper has a r i s e n since the outbreak of war. The p r i c e has become so e x o r b i t a n t that i t may be out of the que s t i o n , f o r the time being, to go on wit h the p u b l i c a t i o n of the volumes i n the hands of the p u b l i s h e r s . . . . In a d d i t i o n to the r i s e i n p r i c e , paper i s very d i f f i c u l t to procure at a l l i n England, the Government having r e s t r i c t e d i t s supply and 58 d i s t r i b u t i o n . " By 1918 the Society lamented that i t s a c t i v i t i e s "have been p r a c t i c a l l y paralyzed by war 59 c o n d i t i o n s . " Not one to stay down f o r long, the Champlain Society began p u b l i s h i n g i n earnest again i n 19 20, although i t was forced to reduce the annual production from two volumes to one. The executive r e g r e t t e d the d e c i s i o n , but f e l t that l i t t l e could be done. "Looking back from the c o n d i t i o n s of today," the annual r e p o r t f o r 1920-22 s t a t e d , " i t seems s c a r c e l y p o s s i b l e that two of the b e a u t i f u l volumes published by the Society could have been fu r n i s h e d f o r a si n g l e s u b s c r i p t i o n p r i c e of ten d o l l a r s . Those days may come again. In the i n t e r e s t s of knowledge i t i s to be hoped that they w i l l , f o r scholars are now handicapped by the 60 heavy cost of books." A f t e r the s h i f t to one volume per year, the Society was q u i c k l y back on t r a c k f i n a n c i a l l y , and production continued smoothly. Most volumes d e a l t w i t h pre- confederation subjects. W i l l i a m Wood ed i t e d four volumes on The Canadian War of 1812 (1920), W. Stewart Wallace co n t r i b u t e d John McLean's Notes of a Twenty-Five Years' Service i n the Hudson's Bay T e r r i t o r i e s (1932) and F.W. Howay e d i t e d The J o u r n a l of Captain James Colne t t (1940). The Great Depression seemed to make no dent i n the Society's a c t i v i t i e s . In f a c t , the Champlain Society can be s a i d to have c o n t r i b u t e d i n i t s own way to a l l e v i a t i n g the Canadian f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s when i n 1929 i t t r a n s f e r r e d i t s a c t u a l p r i n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s from B r i t a i n to Canada. In 1931, perhaps i n defence against the crumbling, economic scene. ou t s i d e , the executive stated that "the finances of the . 6 1 Society [are] i n . . . a sound and f l o u r i s h i n g c o n d i t i o n . " In 1935, the Champlain Society completed a coup of sorts i n the h i s t o r i c a l world; i t secured the r i g h t to p u b l i s h the documents of the. Hudson's Bay Company, m a t e r i a l that had p r e v i o u s l y been kept under c a r e f u l guard by Company o f f i c i a l s . The president's announcement barely contained h i s excitement at the prospect: I t i s w i t h great pleasure that I am able to repo r t t h a t , a f t e r n e g o t i a t i o n s extending over the past year or more, i n which His Excellency the Governor-General, on t h i s side of the A t l a n t i c , and S i r Campbell S t u a r t , on the other s i d e , have taken a d i r e c t i n t e r e s t , the Council of the Champlain Society has been able to come to an agreement wi t h the Hudson's Bay Company whereby the Champlain Society i s to have the e x c l u s i v e r i g h t of p u b l i s h i n g the wealth of o r i g i n a l documentary m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g to the h i s t o r y of Canada contained i n the archives of Hudson's Bay House....The Council of the Champlain Society f e e l s that i n p l a c i n g at the d i s p o s a l of . the 44 Hudson's Bay Company i t s f a c i l i t i e s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , i t i s performing a s e r v i c e of great value and importance f o r students of Canadian H i s t o r y . (62) The f i r s t volume, Simpson's Athabasca J o u r n a l , edited by E.E. R i c h , became a v a i l a b l e i n 193 8. I t would appear that a f t e r the Champlain Society's i n i t i a l involvement i n funding and c o o r d i n a t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t volumes, i t gave way to a separate body, the Hudson's Bay Records S o c i e t y , but continued to inform i t s members of the volumes and supply them wi t h copies. The two s o c i e t i e s continued to work together during the d i f f i c u l t years of the Second World War, both making a conscious d e c i s i o n to continue p u b l i s h i n g . Indeed a review of the Minutes of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1671-1674, edited by E.E. R i c h i n 1941, remarked t h a t , "though the war must have d i s r u p t e d most of the Company's plans during the e n t i r e p e r i o d . . . s t i l l the work of preparing a volume of 63 records every year went p a t i e n t l y , d a u n t l e s s l y on." S h o r t l y a f t e r the war, however, the Hudson's Bay Records Society decided that i t could continue to work p a t i e n t l y and d a u n t l e s s l y on without the a i d of the Champlain Society. The l a t t e r seemed somewhat d i s g r u n t l e d at the break. In r e g r e t t i n g the " p a r t i n g of the ways," the President of the Champlain Society reported that "the Hudson's Bay Company i s apparently prepared to meet any d e f i c i t s i n c u r r e d by the Hudson's Bay Record Society, and the Champlain Society has t h e r e f o r e f u l f i l l e d i t s c h i e f f u n c t i o n i n h e l p i n g to get the 45 64 Hudson's Bay Record Series s t a r t e d . " The Champlain Society continued i t s a c t i v e p u b l i s h i n g programme, completing a new volume, about every year or two. In 1954, the Champlain Society struck the already mentioned agreement wi t h the Ontario government, and the Ontario Series was launched i n 19 5 7 w i t h The V a l l e y of Trent e d i t e d by , E.C. G u i l l e t . The Champlain Society and the Ontario government continue to enjoy a p r o f i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p . In a d d i t i o n to the eleven volumes already p u b l i s h e d , the Champlain Society i s planning one on the Upper Canadian R e b e l l i o n , one on the Bank of Upper Canada, and one concerning Ontario During the French Regime, a l l to be 65 published w i t h i n 1984 and 1986. The Society i t s e l f has more than nine separate, volumes i n various stages of production, i n c l u d i n g The J o u r n a l of Alexander Henry the Younger edited by Barry Gough, to be published i n 19 8 5 and 1986 i n two volumes., and The Records of the Glasgow C o l o n i a l Society edited by E l i z a b e t h McDougall, due out i n 1987. The membership of the S o c i e t y , once set at a f i r m 500 members, now boasts a membership of 1,175. There i s no question that the s u b s c r i p t i o n method of p u b l i s h i n g has f l o u r i s h e d i n t h i s case. The Hudson's Bay Record Society, on i t s own since 19 50, also seems to be t h r i v i n g . I t published one volume a year from i t s c r e a t i o n to 1961, when i t reduced i t s output to one volume every two years. Unlike the Champlain S o c i e t y , which seems to a t t r a c t e d i t o r s w i t h p r o j e c t s from a l l parts of 46 Canada and elsewhere, the Hudson's Bay Record Society could perhaps be r e f e r r e d to as the "E.E. Rich E d i t i o n s . " Professor R i c h , a d i s t i n g u i s h e d academic i n England, received c r e d i t as e d i t o r f o r nineteen of the Society's t h i r t y volumes. He would perhaps have e d i t e d a l l of the volumes, had he not decided to r e t i r e ( but only a f t e r completing a two-volume h i s t o r y of the Hudson's Bay Company, published i n 1958 and 1959). A c t u a l l y , though no one would deny Professor Rich h i s due as General E d i t o r of the Hudson's Bay S e r i e s , many of the notes, annotations, and most of the i n t r o d u c t i o n s were w r i t t e n by other h i s t o r i a n s . Rich's a s s i s t a n t , A l i c e M. Johnson, was A s s i s t a n t E d i t o r from 1948 to 1968, and i n 1967 produced her own e d i t e d volume of Saskatchewan Journals and Correspondence. The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of other scholars i n the form of i n t r o d u c t i o n s was d e l i b e r a t e , and one could argue, h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l , f o r they l i g h t e n e d the a c t u a l work load f o r a l l concerned, and they c a l l e d upon people p a r t i c u l a r l y knowledgeable i n a f i e l d to introduce and discuss a work, r a t h e r than having the e d i t o r w r i t e something hims e l f . But even w i t h i n the confines of s t r i c t schedules and voluminous documents, these e d i t o r s have approached t h e i r task from the p e r s p e c t i v e that properly e d i t e d documentary works r e q u i r e the e f f o r t s of educated, s c h o l a r l y people , working c a r e f u l l y under the guidance of a knowledgeable general e d i t o r and w i t h a focus on w e l l - e d i t e d volumes r a t h e r than s u p e r f i c i a l treatments. 4 7 The Hudson's Bay Record Series and the Champlain Society both continue t h i s s u c c e s s f u l t r a d i t i o n of thoroughly ed i t e d documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s . 48 MANITOBA ... to rescue from o b l i v i o n the memory of the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s , f u r t r a d e r s and s e t t l e r s of the a f o r e s a i d lands and t e r r i t o r i e s , and to obtai n and preserve n a r r a t i v e s i n p r i n t , manuscript, or otherwise of t h e i r adventures, labors and observations; to a s c e r t a i n , r e c o r d , and p u b l i s h , when necessary, i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h regard to the h i s t o r y and present c o n d i t i o n of the s a i d r e g i o n s . CN. B e l l , f i r s t President of the H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Society of Manitoba,. 1889 (66 ) To t e l l the st o r y of documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s i n Manitoba i s to t e l l the st o r y of the Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l Society. As i n Ontario, i t was the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y i n Manitoba that served as tha t province's archives f o r many yea r s , and tha t eventually prompted the government to appoint a f u l l - t i m e a r c h i v i s t . Since i t s formation i n 1879, the H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Society of Manitoba has l e d the way i n a r c h i v a l , l i b r a r y , and museum c o l l e c t i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The Society was formed j u s t as Manitoba evolved as the .67 l a t e s t " f r o n t i e r of Empire." Just as the Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l Society had developed some f i f t y years e a r l i e r , the Manitoba Society grew w i t h the per s p e c t i v e that t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s were t o o l s of education and c i v i l i z a t i o n ; showing the new western s o c i e t y , and the eastern establishment, that "our North-West i s destined to be one of the most important parts of the globe...and w i t h the o l d e r eastern Provinces... w i l l soon be the r i g h t arm of 6 8 the B r i t i s h Empire." .' The Society held r e g u l a r meetings of i t s membership, and the papers read at those meetings were p r i n t e d as ' P u b l i c a t i o n s and l a t e r Transactions of the s o c i e t y . In the f i r s t . y e a r s , the name of George Bryce kept appearing on the t i t l e pages of the papers. By 1910 Bryce had presented some seventeen papers; h i s wife had even presented two h e r s e l f . I t i s f i t t i n g then that Bryce should have been the f i r s t to present and p u b l i s h , w i t h h i s associate CN. B e l l , the " O r i g i n a l L e t t e r s and Other Documents R e l a t i n g to the S e l k i r k Settlement," read before 69 the Society on .17 January 1889. George Bryce published two more documents i n the Transactions of the S o c i e t y , one i n 1890 on Louis R i e l , and one i n 190 3 on Alexander Ross., went on to complete s e v e r a l h i s t o r i c a l studies of Manitoba, and has been c r e d i t e d w i t h p r e s e n t i n g an e a r l y 70 "western i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " of Canadian h i s t o r y . But i n s p i t e of the e f f o r t s of such men as Bryce and B e l l , the Manitoba Society floundered and i n 1910 f i n a l l y succumbed to a s t e a d i l y d e c l i n i n g membership and decreasing government support. In 1926, B e l l r e v i v e d the S o c i e t y , but i t was a pale v e r s i o n of i t s predecessor, and published only "three s l i m 71 papers" F o r t u n a t e l y , i t was t h i r d time lucky. A meeting i n 1944 under the guidance of h i s t o r i a n W.L. Morton l e d to the founding of the Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l Society. In 1946, the Society succeeded i n having James A. Jackson appointed as the f i r s t , a l b e i t p a r t - t i m e , a r c h i v i s t f o r the Province. In 1952, H a r t w e l l Bowsfield took over Jackson's j o b , and was 50 named the f i r s t f u l l - t i m e a r c h i v i s t . However, i t was not u n t i l 1975 that the P r o v i n c i a l Archives r e c e i v e d a b u i l d i n g of i t s own, and i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s p o l i c y seems not to have developed, yet. In 1946, the H i s t o r i c a l Society e s t a b l i s h e d a j o u r n a l , Manitoba H i s t o r y , to supplement i t s Transactions s e r i e s . This j o u r n a l was to be devoted almost e x c l u s i v e l y to documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s . In the i n i t i a l i s s u e , i t was stated t h a t " i n the archives of the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y , as of the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , there l i e hundreds of documents, l e t t e r s and records not e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the general reader. By means of t h i s monthly p u b l i c a t i o n some of the i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l contained i n these records w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e f i r s t of a l l to the schools and then to those of 72 the p u b l i c who may be i n t e r e s t e d to know them." The j o u r n a l only l a s t e d f o r three numbers and l e s s than a year, not an auspicious s t a r t to a p u b l i c a t i o n s programme. Perhaps as a r e s u l t of t h i s s i n g u l a r f a i l u r e , or perhaps f o r other reasons, the Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l Society turned away from documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s , and focussed i t s a t t e n t i o n of the p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e s i n i t s Transactions. Then, the idea was r e v i v e d i n 1958-59 when " i t was suggested that a Manitoba Record Society be formed, under the auspices of the Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , to p u b l i s h annually out of p r i n t books, records or unpublished manuscripts r e l a t i n g to the Red River-Lake Winnipeg Basin, Hudson Bay and the 7 3 Province of Manitoba." I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see that the 51 members of the Society thought of f u l l length documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s as worthwhile. Perhaps they thought that anything l e s s would not be a valuable a d d i t i o n to h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p . In any event, t h i s plan d i d not succeed r i g h t away. I t was not u n t i l 1960 that the funding f o r the p r o j e c t was s e t t l e d w i t h "a commitment of at l e a s t $5,000.00 from the . 7 4 Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . " In r e a l i t y , the Record Society's f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n d i d not. appear u n t i l 1965. Sh o r t l y before i t s completion, the Society gave i t s members an overview of plans f o r the new e d i t i o n s . Turning to the f u t u r e , the Manitoba Record Soc i e t y , an independent body which r e c e i v e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h i s s o c i e t y , w i l l s h o r t l y be appealing f o r members. The f i r s t i n t h i s s e r i e s of p u b l i c a t i o n s of rare manuscripts from Manitoba's past i s expected i n 196 5. The f i r s t volume w i l l be "The B i r t h of Manitoba" (Documents of 1870) edited by W.L. Morton. Other volumes that are now being prepared are "The Papers of James Wicks Taylo r , " e d i t e d by Hart Bow s f i e l d , " C o l i n Robertson's J o u r n a l , " e d i t e d by Mrs. A.E. Brown, "Dafoe and P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s , " by Ramsay Cook, and "A Work on the Troubles of the Red River of the 1840's," by W.D. Smith. Further volumes are being considered. (75) The works by Morton, Cook and Bowsfield were the f i r s t three p u b l i c a t i o n s of the Records S o c i e t y , coming out i n 1965, 196 6 and 196 8. The other two mentioned have yet to be published. In 1974, The Diary of Reverend Henry Budd appeared, and i n 1979, Alan A r t i b i s e completed Gateway C i t y : Documents on the C i t y of Winnipeg. Nothing has been published since the A r t i b i s e volume. 52 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , j u s t , one year a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s . l a t e s t i n the documentary s e r i e s , the .Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l Society ended i t s Transactions and s t a r t e d a new magazine c a l l e d Manitoba H i s t o r y , which has a separate and r e g u l a r "Documents" s e c t i o n . This s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of one or two page documents w i t h a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n . Thus the Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , between i t s Records Society work and i t s documents i n Manitoba H i s t o r y , i s at present working towards a programme of c o n t i n u i n g documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The P r o v i n c i a l Archives i t s e l f , having taken no part i n the documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s of i t s p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r y as y e t , may be i n c h i n g towards such a programme, i f the words of the present A r c h i v i s t , Peter Bower, may be taken l i b e r a l l y . In an i n t e r v i e w Bower commented: Archives have a major r o l e to play i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to l i f e l o n g education of our people, both i n s t i m u l a t i n g a d e s i r e f o r knowledge and i n h e l p i n g to s a t i s f y t h i s need. For example, I wish th a t •more school age c h i l d r e n could use our resources e f f e c t i v e l y , though here agai n , the f r a g i l i t y and uniqueness of our holdings m i l i t a t e against youngsters being allowed to handle the documents f r e e l y I f , as I argue, archives are a. fundamental and even the most int i m a t e expression of s o c i e t y , there must s u r e l y be some mechanisms found whereby we can place at l e a s t adequate f a c s i m i l e s of o r i g i n a l documents i n the hands of school-age people. I know t h i s has been attempted on modest scales , but n e i t h e r the q u a l i t y nor q u a n t i t y provided i s r e a l l y adequate or r i g h t on t a r g e t i n substance. I am not suggesting that everyone i s , can be, or should be an h i s t o r i a n or a r c h i v i s t , but I do t h i n k that exposure to primary research -- even i n modest form -- can help people i n handling i n f o r m a t i o n , d i s c o v e r i n g broad purposes, and i n generating self-knowledge or i d e n t i t y . (76 ) 53 I t may be that published documents are the very t o o l s needed f o r t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e envisaged by Bower f o r the Archives. 54 Chapter Two NEW DIRECTIONS FOR ARCHIVES The archives that emerged i n Canada during the post World War Two per i o d followed paths q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r predecessors. Records management became an i n t e g r a l part of a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t y , new technologies and a multi-media approach l e d to a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s , and l i m i t e d finances forced a r c h i v i s t s to make some hard choices. P u b l i s h i n g documents was decidedly of secondary importance to many of these newer a r c h i v e s . Saskatchewan made a conscious d e c i s i o n to continue documentary p u b l i s h i n g , at l e a s t as part of i t s r e g u l a r j o u r n a l . A l b e r t a ' s archives was slow to organize i t s a c t i v i t i e s , but i n recent years has concentrated on disseminating i n f o r m a t i o n about i t s holdings i n guides and i n v e n t o r i e s , a growing trend. The A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Society has been more involved i n documentary e d i t i o n s . In New Brunswick, n e i t h e r the century-old h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y nor the very young archives have been a c t i v e i n p u b l i s h i n g . Newfoundland, Prince Edward Is l a n d and the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s have only r e c e n t l y opened a r c h i v e s , and have not had time to consider extensive p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s . In an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison, the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, the n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l j o u r n a l , has r a d i c a l l y changed i t s p o l i c y of p u b l i s h i n g documents. 55 For these newer a r c h i v e s , documentary p u b l i c a t i o n has never been considered a v i t a l a c t i v i t y . Although some archives are beginning to p u b l i s h s p o r a d i c a l l y , they see i t as a d i s p e n s i b l e e n t e r p r i s e . They have no qualms about c a n c e l l i n g such programmes i n the face of budgetary r e s t r i c t i o n s , and are t u r n i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n more ofte n to other methods of disseminating information about t h e i r holdings. 56 SASKATCHEWAN Archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s came l a t e to the province of Saskatchewan. The P r o v i n c i a l Archives was not begun u n t i l 1945, but since i t s i n c e p t i o n the archives has f e l t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to p u b l i s h documents. H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t i e s , by c o n t r a s t , have not been i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i s h i n g to any extent, and indeed only warrant passing mention. The Saskatchewan H i s t o r i c a l Society was formed i n June 1936. I t s objects were: 1. to gather and c o r r e l a t e everything having to do wi t h the h i s t o r y of the province and. of that p o r t i o n of the North West T e r r i t o r i e s from which i t was created at the time of the p r o v i n c i a l establishment i n 1905; 2. to a s i s t i n the formation of l o c a l h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and committees at s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s ; 3. t o gather r e l i c s of h i s t o r i c i n t e r e s t . (1) Nowhere i n the o b j e c t i v e s of the Society does the issue of documentary p u b l i s h i n g appear, and the Society appears not to have become inv o l v e d i n p u b l i c a t i o n s of any k i n d , perhaps as a r e s u l t of the a c t i v i t i e s of the archives , perhaps f o r reasons o f . i t s own. As e a r l y as 1938, the p r o v i n c i a l government appointed Professor A.S. Morton to be the "keeper of the p u b l i c records." The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, which deplored the neglect of h i s t o r i c a l records on the P r a i r i e s , commended 2 Saskatchewan f o r i t s i n i t i a t i v e . Seven years l a t e r the government passed l e g i s l a t i o n b r i n g i n g the Saskatchewan Archives Board and a f u l l - f l e d g e d p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s i n t o being. Not content to simply keep the r e c o r d s , the newly created Saskatchewan Archives immediately turned i t s 57 a t t e n t i o n to the dissemination of information. "There i s no point i n merely p r e s e r v i n g records unless such records are to be used," the f i r s t annual r e p o r t stated. "Their c h i e f use i s not simply f o r the purposes of o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e , though t h i s i s by no means unimportant, but r a t h e r as a 3 basis f o r systematic h i s t o r i c a l study." In keeping w i t h t h i s p o l i c y , the Archives Board q u i c k l y focussed upon documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s . The f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , George W. Simpson, who was al s o head of the Department of H i s t o r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, was "authorized to i n v e s t i g a t e the question of p u b l i s h i n g m a t e r i a l which would be of a s s i s t a n c e i n the 4 teaching of Western Canadian h i s t o r y i n the schools." At the same time, the Archives Board adopted a p o l i c y to p u b l i s h documents i n the annual.reports. The second r e p o r t , f o r 1946-47, contained "Selected Records of the Department of the Attorney General of the North West T e r r i t o r i e s , " which covered 44 pages. However, by the time of the t h i r d r e p o r t , the p o l i c y had changed. The P r o v i n c i a l Archives began p u b l i s h i n g documents i n i t s new j o u r n a l , Saskatchewan H i s t o r y . The f i r s t issue of the j o u r n a l appeared i n 1948, and contained three documentary c o l l e c t i o n s i n a separate s e c t i o n devoted to "Archives Studies," l a t e r c a l l e d "Documents of Western H i s t o r y . " Thereafter, each year's issue contained at l e a s t one document., some e d i t e d by c o n t r i b u t o r s , some by the e d i t o r of the j o u r n a l . . The f i r s t e d i t o r was Lewis H. Thomas, a prominent h i s t o r i a n who replaced Simpson as P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t i n 1948. Of the 42 58 documents published i n the j o u r n a l from 1948 to 1970, Thomas edite d nine h i m s e l f , and as e d i t o r undoubtedly had.a hand i n others. A f t e r 1970 there was a notable decrease i n documents included i n Saskatchewan H i s t o r y , there being none i n the volumes f o r 1971 , 1973 , 1975 , and 197.7. I t i s worth noting t h a t although the Archives has i t s e l f not issued any separate documentary e d i t i o n s , i t has from time to time published reference works,such as an H i s t o r i c a l D i r e c t o r y of Saskatchewan Newspapers, 1878-1950 (1950), a D i r e c t o r y of Saskatchewan M i n i s t r i e s (1954), E x p l o r i n g L o c a l H i s t o r y i n Saskatchewan (1980) and A Guide to C o l l e c t i n g and Processing Oral H i s t o r y (1980). Recently, i t has been p o s s i b l e to support reference works l i k e these with the revenue from s p e c i a l ventures i n t o p u b l i s h i n g . As the current P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t Ian Wilson e x p l a i n s i t : For the past few years , the Saskatchewan Archives has acted as the author of three commercially published books. In each case we took the i n i t i a t i v e i n beginning work on a book, obtained funding where necessary ' . and approached a p u b l i s h e r , . Western Producer P r a i r i e Books. We signed w i t h usual author-publisher agreement, r e t a i n i n g copyright and w i t h r o y a l t i e s of 10% of sales being p a i d to the Archives Board. These r o y a l t i e s are now funding the Saskatchewan Archives Reference S e r i e s . (5) Three books are Pages from the Past: Essays on Saskatchewan H i s t o r y edited by D.H. Booking, a r c h i v i s t and e d i t o r of Saskatchewan H i s t o r y since 1962, Saskatchewan: A P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y , and Saskatchewan: A H i s t o r y , w r i t t e n by John Archer f o r Saskatchewan's 7 5th anniversary. The l a s t two t i t l e s have, according to Wilson, sold r e s p e c t i v e l y 11,480 59 and 10,000 c o p i e s , and the revenue generated from the sales has helped the Archives to fund other p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 60 ALBERTA As a p p l i e d to the study of h i s t o r y the use of documentary studies has a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n imparting knowledge of the h i s t o r i a n ' s c r a f t , and i n s t i m u l a t i n g enthusiasm f o r h i s t o r i c a l enquiry. Lewis H. Thomas i n the A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1969 (6) In A l b e r t a , the p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n agreeing w i t h Thomas's statement about the importance of documentary s t u d i e s ; however, the P r o v i n c i a l Archives has yet to become h e a v i l y involved i n documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s . The H i s t o r i c a l Society of A l b e r t a was i n c o r p o r t a t e d by P r o v i n c i a l Statute i n 1907, was reorganized i n 1919, and was rev i v e d i n 1947. By 1953, the Society was w e l l on t r a c k , and indeed had s t a r t e d i t s own j o u r n a l , a f t e r many years of t r y i n g . Suuport f o r the new A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review came from the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Economic A f f a i r s . The j o u r n a l was w e l l r e c e i v e d . As the Canadian H i s t o r i a l Review noted: I t i s a pleasure to c a l l the a t t e n t i o n of our readers to the appearance of the A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review, volume 1, no. 1, of which i s dated A p r i l 19 53. With i t s appearance A l b e r t a becomes the l a s t of the Western Canadian Provinces to have embarked upon p u b l i c a t i o n i n the l o c a l h i s t o r y f i e l d . . . . T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n aims to p r i n t f i r s t - h a n d accounts i n t e r p r e t i v e of the l i f e of the Province and hopes to encourage the c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g to A l b e r t a and the Canadian West. (7) Most of these " f i r s t - h a n d accounts" c o n s i s t e d of reminiscences and o r a l h i s t o r y i n t e r v i e w s , f o r one of the aims of the Society was "the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s t o r i e s of 61 the oldtimers before i t i s too l a t e . " However, the e d i t o r began to inc l u d e documents i n many of the volumes, a l b e i t i n a somewhat i r r e g u l a r f a s h i o n . And j u s t as Lewis H. Thomas had almost singlehandedly e d i t e d many of the documents as w e l l as the j o u r n a l i t s e l f i n Saskatchewan, e d i t o r Hugh A. Dempsey was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the vast m a j o r i t y of documents i n the Alb e r t a , j o u r n a l . Between 1953 and 1982 , he e d i t e d 35 of the documents, on subjects ranging from "Smallpox .Epidemic of 1869-70" (1963), to "Thompson's Journey to the Red Deer R i v e r " (1965), and " L e t t e r s from E l l i o t t G a i t , T r a v e l l i n g the P r a i r i e s , 1879-80 " (1978). The H i s t o r i c a l Society of A l b e r t a d i d not stop at the p u b l i c a t i o n of a j o u r n a l however. In 19 5 7 a separate p u b l i c a t i o n , The E a r l y West, edited by Dempsey, appeared. The work contained documents r e l a t i n g to the e a r l y h i s t o r y of A l b e r t a and the P r a i r i e s . This p u b l i c a t i o n stood alone f o r almost 20 years, and i t appeared the Society had decided not to embark upon the p u b l i c a t i o n of l a r g e r works. But i n 1977 The Rundle J o u r n a l s , 1840-1848, a l s o , i t should be no s u p r i s e , e d i t e d by Dempsey, appeared. This was followed i n 19 7 9 by Job Reed's L e t t e r s : L i f e i n Lethbridge, 1886-1906, and The Formation of A l b e r t a : A Documentary H i s t o r y , and i n 1981 by Pioneering i n A l b e r t a : Maurice Destraube's Story. In f a c t , the l a s t two p u b l i c a t i o n s were published not by the H i s t o r i c a l Society but by the A l b e r t a Records P u b l i c a t i o n Board. Although i n r e a l i t y an offshoot of the Soc i e t y , t h i s new Board added a c e r t a i n permanence to the concept of documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s , by i n d i c a t i n g i t s continuing involvement i n the work. The H i s t o r i c a l Society continues to f l o u r i s h , and appears to be h e a v i l y committed to i t s documentary p u b l i s h i n g plans. The same cannot be s a i d f o r the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , which, , a f t e r years of e x i s t i n g as a pale appendage of the L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y , was f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 196 3 as part of the P r o v i n c i a l Museums and Archives of A l b e r t a . The Archives now has the mandate to p u b l i s h documents, as stated 9 i n the H i s t o r i c a l Resources Act. The Archives has not as yet acted on t h a t mandate. Rather, i t has "concentrated on the production of l e a f l e t s , Occasional Papers, guides or f i n d i n g a i d s , and manuals. The o v e r a l l focus of our p u b l i c a t i o n program i s designed to r e f l e c t , improve and extend our programs and s e r v i c e s and meet i d e n t i f i e d 10 needs." To date, the archives has published a guide to sources of women's h i s t o r y , a departmental h i s t o r y s e r i e s , surveys of o r a l h i s t o r y i n A l b e r t a , a. guide to l o c a l h i s t o r i e s i n A l b e r t a , a guide to p r e s e r v i n g h i s t o r i c a l photographs, a survey of government records c o l l e c t i o n s , a booklet on w r i t i n g l o c a l h i s t o r y , and a p u b l i c a t i o n of 11 h i s t o r i c a l photographs. In a l l t h i s a c t i v i t y , one almost overlooks the f a c t that only one documentary p u b l i c a t i o n has been issued by the Archives. The L e t t e r s of Lovisa McDougall, 1878-1887 was e d i t e d by E l i z a b e t h M. McCrum as the Archives f i r s t Occasional Paper, i n 1978. In i n t r o d u c i n g the Occasional Papers s e r i e s , the e d i t o r s noted that "these Occasional Papers are designed to permit the 63 r a p i d dissemination of i n f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from H i s t o r i c a l Resources' programmes. They are intended p r i m a r i l y f o r i n t e r e s t e d s p e c i a l i s t s , r a t h e r than as popular p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r general readers. In the i n t e r e s t s of making information a v a i l a b l e q u i c k l y to these s p e c i a l i s t s , normal production 12 procedures have been abbreviated." The p u b l i c a t i o n i s a paper cover volume, typed r a t h e r than typeset,. The Archives has no plans f o r f u r t h e r documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s at t h i s 13 time. 64 NEW BRUNSWICK The succesive . a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of New Brunswick, have honestly earned a f i n e r e p u t a t i o n f o r n e g l e c t i n g o f f i c i a l records of the Province. Masses of departmental correspondence and other documents and papers have been picked up i n the country by the Dominion Archives. (14) Unfortunately f o r New Brunswick's h i s t o r y , the neglect of h i s t o r i c a l records, and the l a c k of an archives must be accepted as a hard r e a l i t y of the province's past. Although an h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y was formed i n 1874, the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of New Brunswick d i d not begin operating u n t i l 1967. Consequently, documentary e d i t i n g e f f o r t s have taken a back seat to other more p r e s s i n g needs attendant upon e s t a b l i s h i n g the Archives' programmes. The New Brunswick H i s t o r i c a l Society held i t s f i r s t meeting i n 1874. The f i r s t volume of the C o l l e c t i o n s of the New Brunswick H i s t o r i c a l S ociety published twenty years l a t e r summed.up the proceedings: I t was then decided that the time had a r r i v e d f o r the formation of a H i s t o r i c a l Society f o r the Province of New Brunswick, by which the documents and p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the province should be c o l l e c t e d and preserved , and a l s o f o r c a r r y i n g out the purposes of such a S o c i e t y , by c o l l e c t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on matters of inte.rest w i t h regard to h i s t o r i c a l events i n connection w i t h the discovery and settlement of the Province by the French and e a r l y s e t t l e r s from Massachusetts, and a l s o w i t h reference to the coming here of the L o y a l i s t s i n 1783, some of whose e a r l y experiences were amongst the most i n t e r e s t i n g episodes i n the h i s t o r y of New Brunswick. (15) This f i r s t volume of the C o l l e c t i o n s contained three documents, a t o t a l of ten pages, concerning 18th century New Brunswick h i s t o r y . The Society continued to p u b l i s h the 65 C o l l e c t i o n s on a f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s , although both personnel and funding were problems. In 1894- the Society noted that the government was no longer p r o v i d i n g the grant of $125.00 i t had been g i v i n g to the group. "Of l a t e years t h i s [grant] has been withdrawn, whereby the Society has been s e r i o u s l y hampered i n the matter of p u b l i s h i n g t h e i r papers, and they s i n c e r e l y t r u s t that the government may see 16 i t s way i n the f u t u r e to r e s t o r e the grant." At the turn of the century, an expanded p u b l i c a t i o n s programme caused problems f o r the Society. "An i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Papers of the S o c i e t y , " i t was r e p o r t e d , "occurred through t h e i r undertaking the e d i t i n g and p u b l i c a t i o n of the L e t t e r s and Papers of the Hon. Edward ' 1 7 Winslow, Judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick." This e f f o r t at documentary p u b l i s h i n g was. never repeated, and a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Winslow Papers i n 1901 the Society l i m i t e d , i t s e l f to documentary e d i t i o n s i n i t s C o l l e c t i o n s s e r i e s . . W i l l i a m C. Raymond, the e d i t o r of the Winslow Papers, was one of the men whose namecontinued to appear amongst the p u b l i c a t i o n s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Another man involved i n documentary e d i t i n g was J.C. Webster, who at one p o i n t was Honorary Curator of the Canadian H i s t o r y Department of the New Brunswick Museum. Indeed, i n 1901, Webster e d i t e d a short document f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by the Museum, . the c l o s e s t the government came to an a r c h i v a l p u b l i c a t i o n u n t i l 1972. However, i t was W.F.. Ganong who seems to have remained a c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n documentary 66 p u b l i s h i n g by the Society i n these e a r l y years. Ganong edited eight of the twenty-four documents published i n the C o l l e c t i o n s between 1894 and 1930, and even s t a r t e d a r e g u l a r s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " H i s t o r i a l - G e o g r a p h i c a l Documents R e l a t i n g to New Brunswick." For unknown reasons, the S o c i e t y , or at l e a s t i t s C o l l e c t i o n s , faded, from view from 1930 to 1955 , j u s t as occure.d i n Manitoba and . Ontario at roughly the same time. The C o l l e c t i o n s was b r i e f l y r e v i v e d i n 1959, but t h e r e a f t e r the e f f o r t s of the Society have been n i l . However, the H i s t o r i c a l Society shines b r i g h t l y i n comparison w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Archives. The s i t u a t i o n f o r many years was one of complete neglect. In the f i r s t years of the t w e n t i e t h century, the P u b l i c Archives of Canada stepped i n to secure records that they f e l t were i n p h y s i c a l danger, and were c r i t i c i z e d by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s . In.1911, Arthur Doughty wrote: " i t . h a s never been any p a r t of our i n t e n t i o n to ask f o r the removal of p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l records , from the provinces to which they belong, to t h i s o f f i c e . Our p r i n c i p a l object i s , r a t h e r , to o b t a i n a u t h o r i t y to search f o r such r e c o r d s , and to ensure t h e i r removal wherever or whenever necessary, from 18 an unsafe to a safe place of keeping." Many groups urged the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s to act to preserve the h i s t o r i c a l records , but , i n s p i t e of a l l the clamour among the h i s t o r i c a l community and others f o r an archives i n New Brunswick, l i t t l e was done u n t i l the P u b l i c Documents Disposal Act of 196 3 was passed. This p o l i c y , concerning 67 the d e s t r u c t i o n of r e c o r d s , approached the problem from the newer records management pr e s p e c t i v e . In 1966, when W. Kaye Lamb was asked to prepare a r e p o r t on the need f o r an archives i n New Brunswick, he recommended that an archives and a records centre be e s t a b l i s h e d to complement each other; consequently, by the time the archives became a r e a l i t y , i t was e s t a b l i s h e d with.a strong records management mandate, which may account f o r a l e s s e r degree of a c t i v i t y i n such areas as documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s . As the province's f i r s t a r c h i v i s t , Hugh Taylo r , has s t a t e d , "most p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t s are concerned to .control and process t h e i r record as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e to make them a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c through e f f e c t i v e and c a r e f u l l y considered i n v e n t o r i e s and c h e c k l i s t s . The days are long past when an i n f i n i t y of time can. be spent on one c o l l e c t i o n while the 19 r e s t of the records would remain gathering dust." Since i t s opening i n 1968, the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of New Brunswick has issued three p u b l i c a t i o n s of a documentary nature. A l l three are sections of the New Brunswick Census of 1851, one f o r Carleton County, one f o r A l b e r t County, and one f o r C h a r l o t t e County. The l a s t of these was completed i n 1975. There have been no signs of more p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t y since the mid-1970's. I t would appear that the new P r o v i n c i a l Archives i s s t i l l i n the process of g e t t i n g things i n order, and that w i t h i t s b u i l t - i n records management f u n c t i o n , something most e a r l i e r archives d i d not have, i t i s devoting much of i t s time to the systematic c o n t r o l of government records. 68 NEWFOUNDLAND By f o c u s s i n g p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n , our Society has made us aware of the precious legacy of t h e i r past which i s not ours to dispose of as we wish but something t h a t must be passed along i n t a c t to the generations of the f u t u r e . Paul O ' N e i l l on the Centennial of the Newfoundland H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1980 (20) The Newfoundland H i s t o r i c a l S o ciety, founded i n 18 81, has always had as i t s c e n t r a l goal the p r e s e r v a t i o n of Newfoundland h i s t o r y . However, the Soc i e t y , l i k e the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , which was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1959 , -has had a r a t h e r shaky career. The H i s t o r i c a l Society has held as i t s aims and o b j e c t i v e s : "the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a l l p r i n t e d books, manuscripts, records (or copies of such manuscripts and recor d s , p r o p e r l y authenticated) having reference to the h i s t o r y of the Colony and i t s dependencies , i n respect of i t s t r a d i t i o n , f o l k l o r e , and l o c a l nomenclature; i t s fauna 21 and f l o r a and p h y s i c a l geography." Try though i t might, however, the H i s t o r i c a l Society has had a hard time making a success of i t s e f f o r t s . F i r s t s t a r t e d i n 1881, i t was gone by 1882. I t s t a r t e d again i n 1905, only to cease a c t i v i t i e s during the F i r s t World War. In i t s next r e v i v a l i t was quie t . From 1962 to 1966 i t was again defunct, only to be brought to l i f e yet again i n 1966 under the presidency of none other than p r o v i n c i a l Premier Joseph Smallwood. With such a checkered h i s t o r y , the Society has had l i t t l e time to concern i t s e l f with, documentary or other p u b l i c a t i o n s . In 1966, a plan was developed f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of o r a l 69 h i s t o r y , and f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of d i a r i e s , business r e c o r d s , ship's l o g s , photographs, p a i n t i n g s , correspondence and other h i s t o r i c a l documents and m a t e r i a l s . "The program would undertake as completely as p o s s i b l e the r e c r e a t i o n and reclamation of Newfoundland h i s t o r y a v a i l a b l e today. The m a t e r i a l would be deposited, e d i t e d and f i l e d i n the [ S o c i e t y ' s ] a r c h i v e s . I t would form the basis of Newfoundland studies at the U n i v e r s i t y . What was worthy of p u b l i c a t i o n would be u t i l i z e d and should be a great spur to 22 f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . " The Society busied i t s e l f i n the 1960's and 1970's w i t h t h i s all-encompassing task, helped along by the generous support of the p r o v i n c i a l government, q u i t e p o s s i b l y through the continued prompting of President Smallwood. In the l a t e 1960's the government provided a grant of $5,000 a year f o r the Society; by 19 7 2 t h i s had 23 been reduced to $2,500. Spurred on by the a v a i l a b l e funding, the Society began a p u b l i c a t i o n s s e r i e s of pamphlets on l o c a l h i s t o r y i n 1974. These a l l seem to have been n a r r a t i v e s r a t h e r than documentary h i s t o r y . The Society has recognized the importance of the w r i t t e n record i n history;, r e c e n t l y i t . i n s t i t u t e d a Heritage Award "to be presented annually, i f and when deserved, to a person who, i n the judgement of the S o c i e t y , had made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p r e s e r v a t i o n and/or dissemination of the w r i t t e n r e cord on any aspect of Newfoundland and Labrador 24 h i s t o r y . " I t seems that the Society, while aware of i t s documentary h e r i t a g e , has chosen to avoid overextending the already l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l and other means i n the area of 70 documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The P r o v i n c i a l Archives has been i n existence f o r only 25 years, 7 5 l e s s than the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , and i t appears that the Archives has s t i l l to come to g r i p s w i t h documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The province's archives were placed under the wing, of the C o l o n i a l Secretary at the tu r n of the century. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was turned over to the Department of Home A f f a i r s i n 1934, and to the Department of P r o v i n c i a l A f f a i r s i n 1949 when Newfoundland j o i n e d Confederation. L i t t l e was accomplished p r i o r to 1959 when the Smallwood government e s t a b l i s h e d the Newfoundland Archives under the H i s t o r i c Objects, S i t e s and Records Act. The Act proved d e f i c i e n t , and i n 1973 was changed to embrace " a l l matters... r e l a t i n g to the management of the p u b l i c 25 records of the province." Consequently, u n t i l the 19 70's, the Archives has had l i t t l e time or funding to consider any e x t r a a c t i v i t i e s such as p u b l i s h i n g . In 1971, the Archives began to p u b l i s h both documentary ma t e r i a l s and n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r y . In that year, f i v e p u b l i c a t i o n s appeared, i n c l u d i n g "Newfoundland Coastal Tour 1883, Notes from the l o g of the H.M.S. Foam," and "The S e a l f i s h e r y Reprinted from Evening Herald 1916." In 1972, four p u b l i c a t i o n s appeared, i n c l u d i n g "The Labrador Parson by Rev. Henry Gordon, 1915-1925," and "The Story of C o l o n i a l Buiding [1850-1960]." Only one item was published i n 1974, t i t l e d "Charles Lench Missionary -- Hector Swain, and there appear to have been no p u b l i c a t i o n s since then. The 71 P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , David Davis, has stated that "we have not had a p u b l i c a t i o n program f o r some time...-.our p o l i c y i s an ad hoc one and probably w i l l continue so f o r some . 26 time." As can be seen, both the H i s t o r i c a l Society and the P r o v i n c i a l Archives i n Newfoundland, f o r many v a r i e d reasons,.seem to not be a c t i v e i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g . 72 PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND There i s very l i t t l e p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t y by the Archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y i n Prince Edward I s l a n d . Although a Prince Edward Island H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n was formed over one hundred years ago, i n 1882, t r a c i n g the group's a c t i v i t i e s to the present i s d i f f i c u l t , and there appears to have been l i t t l e a c t i o n over the years. In 1970, the Prince Edward Island Heritage Foundation was formed, and i n 1976 the magazine The I s l a n d f i r s t appeared. This magazine i s w e l l designed and appealing, but appears to contain no o r i g i n a l documents, at l e a s t not as part of any c o n s i s t e n t p r a c t i c e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The P u b l i c Archives of Prince Edward I s l a n d was formed i n 1964, and has.devoted l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to p u b l i s h i n g . As the current P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i e s sums up the matter, the Archives "has not entered i n t o the p u b l i s h i n g f i e l d other than f o r the odd brochure. This r e f l e c t s the p r i o r i t y assigned to i t and a l a c k of a v a i l a b l e s t a f f . The s i t u a t i o n i s such that no p r e c i s e p u b l i c a t i o n p o l i c y has been 2 7 developed." I t appears that Prince Edward I s l a n d , l i k e Newfoundland and New Brunswick, has concentrated most of i t s a r c h i v a l a c t i v i t i e s i n o r g a n i z i n g a newly e s t a b l i s h e d government department, and has l e f t the other a c t i v i t i e s such as p u b l i s h i n g to h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , which i n t h i s case seem not to have had the time, i n c l i n a t i o n or money to p u b l i s h documents. 73 YUKON AND NORTHWEST TERRITORIES Both the Yukon and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s archives are very new establishments - - t h e former opening i n 1972, the l a t t e r i n 1979. Neither i n s t i t u t i o n has developed any set p o l i c y . The Yukon Archives does i n v o l v e i t s e l f i n a major d i s p l a y once a year, based upon a Yukon theme, and i t sponsors a l e c t u r e s e r i e s on Yukon h i s t o r y using l o c a l speakers and a r c h i v a l sources. The d i s p l a y s t r a v e l to o u t l y i n g communities and the speeches are broadcast by the C.B.C. This a c t i v i t y does give some i n d i c a t i o n of the A r c h i v e s 1 i n t e r e s t i n or awareness of p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s . There i s al s o a Yukon H i s t o r i c a l and Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , but , i t has not engaged i n p u b l i s h i n g of any magnitude. The Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Archives has not yet matured enough to consider documentary p u b l i c a t i o n , and no h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y has yet been e s t a b l i s h e d to support such an endeavour. 74 CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW [The Review] w i l l extend the work of the e a r l i e r p e r i o d i c a l by s e r v i n g as a medium f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e s on Canadian h i s t o r y and a l l i e d s u b j e c t s , of important .documents, and of correspondence r e l a t i n g to the questions of i n t e r e s t to students of Canadian history.. (28) A f t e r having looked at the p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s of the various h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and archives i n Canada, i t i s worthwhile, f o r comparison's sake, to look at the a c t i v i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l h i s t o r i a n s and academics i n the area of documentary p u b l i s h i n g . One of the best ways to gain an understanding of the a c t i v i t i e s of the h i s t o r i c a l community i n general i s to look at the documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s contained i n the most prominent h i s t o r i c a l j o u r n a l , the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review. The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review succeeded the Review of H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s R e l a t i n g to Canada; i t s f i r s t volume appeared i n 19 20. Although the Review l i n k e d i t s s u b s c r i p t i o n a c t i v i t i e s to the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1925, i t i s not and never has been a p u b l i c a t i o n of that a s s o c i a t i o n ; i t remains today an independent j o u r n a l . As mentioned above, the Review saw an important part of i t s mandate to be the p u b l i c a t i o n of "important documents." In the e a r l y years the p u b l i c a t i o n of o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l was r e g u l a r . The f i r s t i ssue i n 1920 contained s i x separate documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s , a t o t a l of 46 pages. The next year saw f i v e documents p u b l i s h e d , e d i t e d by a multitude of s c h o l a r s . Topics included "Eye-Witness Accounts of the B r i t i s h Repulse at Ticonderoga.," and "The 75 P e t i t i o n of the C i t y of Quebec to Queen V i c t o r i a i n 1857." A t o t a l of 57 pages were occupied by documents. This l e v e l of documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s continued throughout that decade; i n 19 24 there were seven documents publ i s h e d , i n 1926 there were s i x , and i n 1928 there were f i v e , i n c l u d i n g "Testimony taken i n Newfoundland i n 16 5 2," and "A, P h i l a d e l p h i a Laywer and Ea r l y Lower Canada Law." I n t e r e s t i n g l y , since the j o u r n a l was " n a t i o n a l " i n cha r a c t e r , and not l i m i t e d , as a r c h i v e s ' and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s ' p u b l i c a t i o n s were, to a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n , the subject areas f o r documentary p u b l i s h i n g were broad and d i v e r s e , l i m i t e d only by the i n t e r e s t s and i n i t i a t i v e of the c o n t r i b u t o r s . With time, these i n t e r e s t s changed. In the 1920's and 1930's the t o p i c s remained focussed on pre- Confederation days. Of the s i x items i n the .1934 e d i t i o n , three centred on e a r l y Nova S c o t i a , one on Montreal, and two on western e x p l o r a t i o n . This was a. t y p i c a l range of subjects f o r the time. Of the eight documents published i n the 1937 volume, four are concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the 1837-38 p e r i o d , and others a l s o deal w i t h pre-1850 s u b j e c t s ; only "Edward Blake's Interview w i t h Lord Cairns on the Supreme Court A ct, J u l y 5, 18 76" involves a l a t e r time. The major change i n the 1940's i s i n the q u a n t i t y of documents published. In the 1930's, 41 documents were published, an average of four per year. In the 1940's, 19 documents were p u b l i s h e d , an average of two per year. By the 1950's the number of documents again d e c l i n e d to fourteen 76 f o r the decade. There were no documents published at a l l i n 1955, 1956 and 1958. By the end of the 1960's, v i r t u a l l y no documents were published; there were only s i x f o r the decade, and none from 19 70 to 19 82. The trend away from documentary e d i t i n g i n the 19 50's, 1960's and 19 7 0's has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a p o l i c y by t h i s and other j o u r n a l s to exclude documents from t h e i r pages. 7 7 Chapter Three DOCUMENTARY PUBLISHING AND ITS DECLINE The d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i s an accepted f a c t of Canadian h i s t o r y . Few a r c h i v i s t s today see t h e i r r o l e as i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i c a l editing.; changing economies, improving technology, and d i v e r s i f i e d job d e s c r i p t i o n s have l e d the keeper of the record i n t o new and d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l pastures. Indeed, i n the Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , only three a r t i c l e s have been w r i t t e n on the r o l e of the a r c h i v i s t i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The subject has commanded l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n by a r c h i v i s t s , or indeed, by h i s t o r i a n s . This neglect of the subject i s i n marked contrast to the American s i t u a t i o n , where h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g and documentary p u b l i s h i n g have been issues c e n t r a l to a r c h i v a l and h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g f o r years. South of the border, the issue of the p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l documents arose even before the beginning of the American R e v o l u t i o n , when i n 17 7 4 Ebenezer Hazard f i r s t conceived of A C o l l e c t i o n of State Papers, Intended as M a t e r i a l s f o r an H i s t o r y of the United States of America. When t h i s work was f i n a l l y published i n 17 91, Thomas J e f f e r s o n urged Hazard and others to continue such work, saying, "time and accident are committing d a i l y havoc on the o r i g i n a l s . . . l e t us save what remains; not by v a u l t s and l o c k s , which fence them from the 78 p u b l i c eye and use i n consigning them to the waste of time, but by such a m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of Copies as s h a l l place them 1 beyond the reach of a c c i d e n t . " With these words began a t r a d i t i o n of American documentary p u b l i c a t i o n that continues to t h i s day, w i t h learned scholars devoting l i f e t i m e s to the annotation of the papers of major f i g u r e s such as J e f f e r s o n , John Adams., Benjamin F r a n k l i n , and other founding f a t h e r s . While the c o l l e c t i o n s of o t h e r, l e s s e r known f i g u r e s are also edited f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , the American t r a d i t i o n of the "great man" has overshadowed most other work. In s p i t e of v a l i a n t attempts by a few h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s north of the border, Canadian h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g has never reached the l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v i t y or e x p e r t i s e achieved by the Americans. One could argue that we do not have enough great men. There may be some t r u t h i n t h i s j e s t , but there i s much more inv o l v e d i n the story of Canadian documentary p u b l i s h i n g . In examining the involvement of archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g , four c e n t r a l elements emerge. Each element, i n varying degrees at d i f f e r e n t times, has had a hand i n the d e c l i n e . Changing economies and improved technology have both a f f e c t e d the nature and scope of a r c h i v a l e d i t i o n s . More imp o r t a n t l y , the a t t i t u d e of a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s towards h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g and documentary p u b l i s h i n g has changed w i t h time, and w i t h that change have come r e d e f i n i t i o n s of the r o l e s of the a r c h i v i s t and of the h i s t o r i a n i n s o c i e t y . 79 THE GOLDEN YEARS: 1865.-1930 In the years before the Great Depression h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g was at i t s h e i g h t , and a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s were equa l l y i n v o l v e d i n producing documentary e d i t i o n s . Both p r o f e s s i o n s were only j u s t emerging i n s o c i e t y , and the boundaries and d e f i n i t i o n s of each were not yet entrenched. With the growing i n t e r e s t i n " s c i e n t i f i c " h i s t o r y and the f e a r of l o s s of these precious o r i g i n a l documents, the h i s t o r i c a l community saw p u b l i s h i n g as a means of p r e s e r v i n g the primary sources and b r i n g i n g them to a growing audience. The economics of the matter and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development played only minor r o l e s i n these e a r l y years. Between 1869 and 1930, cl o s e to twenty documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s were produced by archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , not i n c l u d i n g the eighteen published by the Champlain Society. These p u b l i c a t i o n s included The Canadian North-west, i t s E a r l y Development and L e g i s l a t i v e Records from the a c t i v e P u b l i c Archives of Canada,. The Correspondence of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, from the emerging Ontario H i s t o r i c a l S o ciety, and The Logs of the Conquest of Canada, and The Canadian War of 1812 , by the ever a c t i v e Champlain Society. As w e l l , a r c h i v e s ' and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s ' annual r e p o r t s contained h i s t o r i c a l 80 documents, oft e n comprising hundreds of pages , and new j o u r n a l s such as the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review contained lengthy and d i v e r s e e d i t e d documents. These documents were published f o r an h i s t o r i c a l community q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from that of today. To be an h i s t o r i a n i n the 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s i n Canada was to be i n t e r e s t e d i n , to read and research i n , and to w r i t e about h i s t o r y . In t h i s e r a , h i s t o r i a n s teaching i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s and a r c h i v i s t s working i n e s t a b l i s h e d a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s were only beginning to emerge. I n i t i a l l y at the u n i v e r s i t i e s l i t t l e Canadian h i s t o r y was studied. I t was l e f t to men such as Thomas A k i n s , a lawyer, E.A. Cruikshank, a s o l d i e r , and Arthur Doughty a drama c r i t i c , to promote Canadian h i s t o r y and a r c h i v e s . In many ways , the P u b l i c Archives of Canada took the lead i n the f i e l d of Canadian h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p . To Chester M a r t i n , an e a r l y h i s t o r i a n , "the P u b l i c Archives became, f o r a whole generation of young s c h o l a r s , the 2 c l e a r i n g house of Canadian h i s t o r y . " For another h i s t o r i a n , A.S. Morton, "the teaching of Canada's h i s t o r y [was] being transformed [at the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan] by the m a t e r i a l which the Archives has placed at i t s 3 d i s p o s a l i n one way or another." Not only h i s t o r i a n s took note of the work of the Archives. As the Ottawa J o u r n a l e d i t o r i a l i z e d i n 19 31 about the P u b l i c Archives of Canada: Nothing more i n t e r e s t i n g i s to be seen i n Ottawa. I t can be sampled by anybody; no o f f i c i a l place here or elsewhere i s more fre e from red tape; the h o s p i t a l i t y of the Archives b u i l d i n g i s open and wide. The Dominion A r c h i v i s t seems to be obsessed 81 by the idea that he i s a p u b l i c servant, that h i s great charge i s p u b l i c property, and that the p u b l i c ought to be made welcome to see what they have- got i n the Archives.(4) In 1922, Lawrence Burpee, president of the new Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , emphasized the importance of h i s t o r i c a l research as a means of f o s t e r i n g n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n Canadian c i t i z e n s . He advocated: the encouragement of h i s t o r i c a l research and of i n t e l l i g e n t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the h i s t o r y of our country, as w e l l as the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the e f f o r t of p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s throughout the country. Not the l e a s t important object of the A s s o c i a t i o n would be to a s s o c i a t e i t s e l f w i t h other p a t r i o t i c agencies i n b r i n g i n g i n t o more p e r f e c t harmony the two great races that c o n s t i t u t e the Canadian people.(5) Documentary p u b l i s h i n g developed i n t h i s atmosphere of open and growing s c h o l a r s h i p and burgeoning p a t r i o t i s m . Another i n c e n t i v e to p u b l i s h documents ,. although r a r e l y e l u c i d a t e d , was t h a t , w i t h i n t e r e s t e d h i s t o r i a n s and expanding u n i v e r s i t i e s emerging across the country, access to the o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s was awkward and d i f f i c u l t . This was e s p e c i a l l y true f o r students and the p u b l i c at large who could not make the annual summer excursion to Ottawa that became the habit of the u n i v e r s i t y scholar. The archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s saw i t as t h e i r task to provide the raw s t u f f of h i s t o r y to these students across Canada. In 1905 Arthur Doughty wrote t h a t : Our l i t e r a r y men, f o r the most p a r t , are able to devote only a p o r t i o n of t h e i r time to b u i l d i n g up a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , and the l e a s t that we should do i s f u r n i s h them w i t h documents of a p u b l i c character... i n a country of such vast proportions as Canada, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to render the accumulations of the Archives Department a c c e s s i b l e to a l l those who a r e , or who 82 might be i n t e r e s t e d i n them. I t i s d e s i r a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , to b r i n g some of the. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e documents bearing on the more important periods and problems of our h i s t o r y , w i t h i n the reach of the. r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g number of both Canadians and others who are m a n i f e s t i n g an i n t e r e s t i n our h i s t o r y and i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( 6 ) Such p u b l i c a t i o n s as the Documents R e l a t i n g to the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Canada, published by the P u b l i c Archives of Canada, the O r i g i n a l Minutes of h i s Maj esty's Council at Annapolis Royal, by the Nova S c o t i a a r c h i v e s , and the House of Assembly Correspondence Book, from B r i t i s h Columbia's a r c h i v e s , were aimed at b r i n g i n g the important h i s t o r i c a l documents to the student and p u b l i c . As the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review noted, such p u b l i c a t i o n s "would develop i n consequence among the Canadian peole a greater i n t e r e s t i n , and knowledge o f , the h i s t o r y of t h e i r 7 country." Central to the concept of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n these e a r l y years was the n o t i o n that w e l l e d i t e d , p r i n t e d documents were as valuable as, i f not more valuable than, the o r i g i n a l s from which they had been drawn. The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Documents s e r i e s , f o r example, was viewed as f u l l y comprehensive, covering every important aspect of Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y and p r o v i d i n g h i s t o r i a n s near and.far w i t h the primary m a t e r i a l s v i t a l to t h e i r work. The s e r i e s proposed to provide comprehensive documentation of a l l important aspects of Canada's h i s t o r y , i n c l u d i n g municipal development, Indian r e l a t i o n s and e x p l o r a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e , and p o s t a l development. As Adam S h o r t t , e d i t o r of the s e r i e s , explained., "when t h i s programme has 83 been c a r r i e d out, Canada w i l l have a documentary h i s t o r y such as very few countries possess; and students of Canadian h i s t o r y , of whatever grade, w i l l no longer have to go to secondary compilations f o r t h e i r f a c t s , but w i l l be able to 8 go to the primary documents themselves." This concept of comprehensive edi t e d documents l e d to unavoidable problems and c o n f l i c t s . Since the published documents were intended to be as accurate and u s e f u l as the o r i g i n a l s , consistency i n e d i t i n g and p r e c i s i o n i n t r a n s c r i p t i o n were v i t a l . And more im p o r t a n t l y , the s e l e c t i o n of documents f o r p u b l i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d sound and o b j e c t i v e judgement, and an i n c l i n a t i o n to be a l l - i n c l u s i v e . These s t r i n g e n t requirements i n e v i t a b l y l e d to c r i t i c i s m of the choice, e d i t i n g , and t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the records. The very f i r s t extensive documentary e d i t i o n i n E n g l i s h Canada, Thomas Akins' S e l e c t i o n s from the P u b l i c Documents of the Province of Nova S c o t i a , f e l l v i c t i m to severe c r i t i c i s m . In h i s p r e f a c e , Akins stated that he had s e l e c t e d documents which "could i n any way throw l i g h t on the h i s t o r y and conduct of the French i n h a b i t a n t s of Nova S c o t i a , " because "the n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e i r removal has not been c l e a r l y perceived and the motives which l e d to i t s 9 enforcement have been o f t e n misunderstood." Despite h i s d i s c l a i m e r , Akins was."accused of suppression and p a r t i a l i t y i n the s e l e c t i o n of documents r e l a t i n g to Acadians i n h i s 10 S e l e c t i o n s . " The debate over Akins' p u b l i c a t i o n stewed i n Nova S c o t i a f o r s e v e r a l years. One h i s t o r i a n , w r i t i n g i n 84 1895, claimed that the documents "have been se l e c t e d w i t h the greatest p a r t i a l i t y , and w i t h the purpose, poorly disguised i n the very p r e f a c e , of g e t t i n g together such 11 papers as might j u s t i f y the d e p o r t a t i o n of the Acadians." C l e a r l y , the issue of h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g was not as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as i t appeared. As h i s t o r i a n s continued i n t h e i r quest f o r s c i e n t i f i c , accurate h i s t o r y t h e i r standards and expectations f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s r o s e , and the issue of accuracy became of paramount importance. A review of the Champlain Society Volume Selec t B r i t i s h Documents of the Canadian War of 1812 i s over 5 pages long. The reviewer was E.A. Cruikshank, who was at the time engaged i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Simcoe papers f o r the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society. Cruikshank noted the importance of accuracy when he wrote, "the most sedulous care has been exerted to reproduce the c a p i t a l s , punctuation and s p e l l i n g of the source-document, whether an o r i g i n a l or a t r a n s c r i p t . " He applauded the i n c l u s i o n of documents never before i n p r i n t , and commented on the i m p a r t i a l i t y of the e d i t o r , noting that "a sincere attempt has been made to present both sides of the controversy." The l a s t paragraph of the review l i s t s over a dozen e r r o r s i n names, and concludes w i t h the statement that "these t r i f l i n g i n a c c u r a c i e s i n so c a r e f u l a c o m p i l a t i o n are only mentioned i n the hope that i t may be h e l p f u l i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a t a b l e of e r r a t a i n the f i n a l volume. In a l l other respects the proofs have been.admirably c o r r e c t e d , as the only e r r o r 12 observed i s throught f o r through on page 305, l i n e 6." 85 Such a t t e n t i o n to minutiae bespoke the sense of importance these e d i t o r s f e l t about t h e i r work. Cruikshank himself was at the r e c e i v i n g end of the reviewer's f i r e when h i s Simcoe Papers f i r s t appeared. The reviewer, W i l l i a m Renwick R i d d e l l , an Ontario lawyer and h i s t o r i a n , wrote of the Simcoe Papers t h a t : the s e l e c t i o n has been w e l l made, but i t must be admitted that there are omissions much to be r e g r e t t e d .... The notes c h i e f l y b i o g r a p h i c a l , are h e l p f u l : i n general,they are as accurate as was to be expected.... Some of the nods are probably due to d e f e c t i v e proof-reading, but some are more se r i o u s . . . . I venture to suggest that i t would be of a s s i s t a n c e i f the volume and page i n the Dominion Archives whence the documents are taken should be given.(13) Such a concern f o r accuracy only confirms the a t t i t u d e of the time t h a t such p r i n t e d documents were to be replacements f o r the f r a g i l e o r i g i n a l s . In these p r o l i f i c , e a r l y years of documentary p u b l i s h i n g , f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s do not seem to have deterred most p r o j e c t s . At the P u b l i c Archives of Nova Sc o t i a under Harvey, and at the P u b l i c Archives of Canada, p u b l i s h i n g was a top p r i o r i t y , i n part because of the archives.' d e s i r e to serve the growing h i s t o r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n and i n part because of the f r a g i l i t y and uniqueness of the documents. When questions of funding were r a i s e d , p u b l i s h i n g budgets were l e f t i n t a c t ; the importance of such work was obvious to a l l concerned. However, i t was not a l l smooth s a i l i n g , as when the Ontario government cut i t s grant to the 14 Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society i n 1924. But, l i k e other archives • and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s at t h i s time, Ontario's 86 h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y d i d not allow government cuts to hinder i t s task of b r i n g i n g documents to the s c h o l a r . As one h i s t o r i a n noted about a 19 27 p u b l i c a t i o n , "nothing could be more s a t i s f a c t o r y than the e d i t i n g ; and one marvels how a volume so c r e d i t a b l e to a l l concerned i n i t s p r o d u c t i o n , e d i t o r , i l l u s t r a t o r , proof-reader, p r i n t e r , and binder can 15 be s o l d f o r so low a p r i c e as one d o l l a r . " Indeed, that p u b l i c a t i o n was the i l l - f a t e d Simcoe Papers, which ended up i n the shredder s e v e r a l years l a t e r . I r o n i c a l l y , although economics would not play a major r o l e i n the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g f o r many years, one can see already a s e l f - d e f e a t i n g trend emerging. Archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , i n t e n t upon b r i n g i n g t h e i r documents to the p u b l i c , and s a c r i f i c i n g other f i e l d s of endeavor i n the process, o f t e n p r i c e d t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s so low, o f t e n p r o v i d i n g them f r e e , t h a t they undersold themselves. Although p u b l i c a t i o n costs remained low i n these e a r l y years, the archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s never seem to have considered that the p u b l i c a t i o n s might generate a revenue and thereby a i d the funding of the i n s t i t u t i o n . However, i n these "golden" years, documentary p u b l i s h i n g f l o u r i s h e d i n s p i t e o f , or perhaps because of, low sales p r i c e s . In the f i r s t decades of the t w e n t i e t h century new technologies began to have an impact on the work of archives. By 1912, photographic r e p r o d u c t i o n , which would e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e t r a n s c r i p t i o n of documents by hand , had 87 j u s t appeared.on the scene. The Dominion A r c h i v i s t boasted i n that year's annual r e p o r t that "by the use of the photostat now i n operation at the A r c h i v e s , copies of documents can be made by photography at a great r e d u c t i o n of time and labour, w i t h the a d d i t i o n a l advantage of an exact 16 reproduction of every feature of the o r i g i n a l . " By . 1928 , close to four thousand p h o t o s t a t i c and photographic p r i n t s were being made each year f o r reserchers v i s i t i n g or w r i t i n g the P u b l i c Archives of Canada. In 1926, A.G, Doughty described the method of c r e a t i n g a m i c r o p r i n t e d i t i o n to the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . At the annual meeting: The academic side of the program began w i t h an address by Dr. A.G. Doughty, d e s c r i b i n g a new device -- s t i l l nameless -- f o r the reproduction of documents. This i n v e n t i o n , which i s an improvement on the pho t o s t a t , makes i t p o s s i b l e to produOe exact copies of h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s i n any q u a n t i t y , and the copies may be so reduced i n s i z e that a whole number of Punch i s contained on a s i n g l e piece of paper. The t e x t may then be read by means of a magnifying g l a s s , or may again be enlarged to any s i z e d e s i r e d . Dr. Doughty suggested s e v e r a l ways i n which t h i s important device might be used to f a c i l i t a t e research.(17) But the r e a l impact of these .technological marvels was s t i l l i n the f u t u r e , and t h e i r appearance i n these e a r l y years seems to have had l i t t l e immediate e f f e c t on documentary p u b l i s h i n g . Thus, i n t h i s f i r s t p e r i o d , archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s were a c t i v e i n the p u b l i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of primary sources f o r both the p u b l i c and the growing s c h o l a r l y community. The emphasis of documentary p u b l i s h i n g began to change w i t h time, however, as budgets tightened during depression and wartime r e s t r a i n t , as 88 techniques of reprography improved, and e s p e c i a l l y , as an expanding h i s t o r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n and e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s • of h i s t o r i c a l records forced h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s to reevaluate t h e i r r o l e s i n s o c i e t y , THE EMERGENCE OF THE ARCHIVIST: 1930-1960 The Great Depression of the 19 3 0's and the World War that followed c e r t a i n l y must have hampered e f f o r t s by archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s to broaden some of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Although one can f i n d few statements to confirm i t , i t i s probable that the economic stringency of these years was one of the important f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to the marked de c l i n e i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g . Only s c a r c e l y more than a dozen monograph length documentary e d i t i o n s appeared between 1930 and 1960 under the d i r e c t i o n of a Canadian archives or h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y . In marked c o n t r a s t , the Champlain Society produced 23 volumes i n those years, and the newly formed Hudson's Bay Record Society published 21 e d i t i o n s . Of the a r c h i v a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , four were produced by the P u b l i c Archives of • Canada, i n c l u d i n g more i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Documents s e r i e s and the Elgin-Grey Papers, and h a l f a dozen were published by Nova S c o t i a , among them Holland's D e s c r i p t i o n of Cape Breton I s l a n d and The Journals of Beausejour. While the audience f o r these p u b l i c a t i o n s was s t i l l p r i m a r i l y the s c h o l a r l y community, that audience was changing i n i t s nature and needs , and these changes had 89 t h e i r e f f e c t on the p u b l i c a t i o n of o r i g i n a l documents. Not only were h i s t o r i a n s becoming more p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t h e i r approach., but the paper boom of the wartime and post-war period a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e d a r e f i n i n g of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . And, as the demands on a r c h i v i s t s i n c r e a s e d , they were forced to recon s i d e r t h e i r r o l e i n h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p and i n s o c i e t y . The l e v e l of h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p had continued to increase w i t h time as h i s t o r i a n s became b e t t e r educated, secured permanent u n i v e r s i t y work, and increased the production of n a r r a t i v e and a n a l y t i c h i s t o r i e s based on o r i g i n a l documents and p r i n t e d sources. This s h i f t i n perspective reached i t s climax i n the post war p e r i o d , but there had been signs i n the e a r l y years that scholars were beginning to view t h e i r work i n a d i f f e r e n t , more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , l i g h t . When Burpee addressed the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n 19 2 2 he emphasized the importance of h i s t o r y to n a t i o n a l sentiment; s c a r c e l y two years l a t e r , the same s o c i e t y was s t r i v i n g "to ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l records r e l a t i n g to Canada and to render them a v a i l a b l e to the s o c i e t y f o r . the purpose of i t s 18 p u b l i c a t i o n s . " By 1934, the h i s t o r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n had a f i r m grasp on how t h e i r world had changed. As Duncan McArthur explained i n h i s p r e s i d e n t i a l address: During the past twenty years the problems co n f r o n t i n g the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n the f i e l d of Canadian h i s t o r y have assumed new and d i f f e r e n t aspects. The volume of o r i g i n a l documentary source-materials has become so great as to b a f f l e completely the i n d u s t r y and the a b i l i t y of the s i n g l e working man. The i n v e s t i g a t o r must be 90 content w i t h making himself f a m i l i a r w i t h a l i m i t e d period or w i t h a s i n g l e phase of the l a r g e r development. Our scholars have accepted t h i s l i m i t a t i o n and have devoted themselves to the i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n of the smaller p l o t . ( 1 9 ) Not only had a r c h i v i s t s l i k e Doughty and Akins succeeded i n r e p a t r i a t i n g e a r l y Canadian h i s t o r i c a l records from B r i t a i n and France, but the records of more recent h i s t o r i c a l events had a l s o become so vast as to overwhelm the h i s t o r i a n . Of n e c e s s i t y , the w r i t i n g of h i s t o r y changed focus. Scholars began to analyze s p e c i f i c subjects or time periods r a t h e r than w r i t i n g broad n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s , and they were more s e l e c t i v e about the documents they used. This changing emphasis by h i s t o r i a n s had i t s e f f e c t on documentary p u b l i s h i n g . Edited m a t e r i a l s were no longer able to f u l l y r eplace the o r i g i n a l documents; the q u a n t i t y of records involved had become too great f o r such a comprehensive treatment, and scholars could no longer r e l y on p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s of s e l e c t e d records. The documentary e d i t i o n s themselves began to change. Rather than p u b l i s h vast c o l l e c t i o n s such as i n Akins' S e l e c t i o n s from the P u b l i c Records of the Province of Nova S c o t i a , e d i t o r s were now concentrating on s p e c i f i c subjects and people, or on l i m i t e d bodies of records. Often they published a s i n g l e , extensive document by i t s e l f to i l l u s t r a t e a p a r t i c u l a r event. Holland's D e s c r i p t i o n of Cape Breton i s such a document, as i s the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia's p u b l i c a t i o n The Overlanders. By s h i f t i n g the focus of t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s , the archives were accepting the. changed, more academic r o l e of the h i s t o r i a n , 91 and were r e d e f i n i n g t h e i r r o l e a c c o r d i n g l y . As Dominion A r c h i v i s t W. Kaye Lamb put i t i n 1949, the P u b l i c Archives evolved a p u b l i c a t i o n s programme "with research and 20 u n i v e r s i t y use p r i m a r i l y i n mind." The f a c t i s that by the 1950's a r c h i v i s t s • had come to see themselves more as servants of the h i s t o r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n r a t h e r than as leaders of a broadly based h i s t o r i c a l community. In a d d i t i o n , to keep up w i t h the demands of ever more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s c h o l a r s h i p , a r c h i v i s t s also began to prepare calendars and d e s c r i p t i v e guides r a t h e r than documentary e d i t i o n s ; they saw the former as a b e t t e r and more e f f i c i e n t means of s e r v i n g the h i s t o r i a n s . As volumes of documents appeared, and h i s t o r i c a l research grew more a c t i v e , a r c h i v i s t s began to t u r n away from p u b l i s h i n g to f a s t e r means of disseminating i n f o r m a t i o n . As the h i s t o r i a n G# de T. Glazebrook noted, "some scholars hold that a calendar i s a dangerous guide since i t i s almost impossible f o r one person to make, i n a short space, a safe p r e c i s of a document which may touch on a number of subjec t s . Others -- and probably the m a j o r i t y -- welcome the short cut through 21 masses of papers." And thus, the two major reasons f o r the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g , the changing needs of the r e s e a r c h e r , and the growing amount of documentation, come together n e a t l y , and the a r c h i v i s t , ever anxious to serve h i s p u b l i c , responded to the new c o n d i t i o n s . In t r u t h , the a r c h i v i s t d i d not make the s h i f t away from documentary p u b l i s h i n g without reason; he was faced 92 with seemingly insurmountable problems of h i s own. In t h i s p eriod during and a f t e r the Second World War, a r c h i v i s t s , spurred on by h i s t o r i a n s , governments, and t h e i r own changing sense of what was needed, took on the job of records management as a v i t a l part of t h e i r a r c h i v a l programmes. As e a r l y as 1935, h i s t o r i a n George Brown had lamented the s t a t e of p r o v i n c i a l archives i n Canada when he wrote: The provinces are morally at l e a s t , r e s p o n s i b l e to themselves and to the people of the whole dominion to see that these e s s e n t i a l records of Canada's development are not neglected. Some of t h i s m a t e r i a l i s already i n a r c h i v e s . A l l of i t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , and should be t r a n s f e r r e d a f t e r a s u i t a b l e lapse of years from the i n d i v i d u a l departments of government to an a r c h i v e s , where i t can be" c l a s s i f i e d and preserved. (22 ) Brown i l l u m i n a t e d h i s argument in. 1944, when he spoke again about Canadian a r c h i v e s , which s i t u a t i o n he saw as 2 3 "lamentable, and even d i s g r a c e f u l . " He wrote: There i s , and has been, i n Canada a serious misconception, i n t h i s matter that l i e s at the root of our d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s that archives e x i s t i n the f i r s t instance to serve h i s t o r i a n s or other i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t o r i c a l , i n q u i r y : that they are, i n other words, l i t t l e more than an a n t i q u a r i a n ' s happy hunting ground. On the c o n t r a r y , an archives should f i r s t of a l l be a p u b l i c records department f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the non-active records of.the government.... I f t h i s p r a c t i c a l purpose i s achieved, other h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t s w i l l be served i n t h e i r t u r n , and the archives w i l l cease to be regarded merely as a kind of academic luxury which should be neglected i n preference to • almost any other i n t e r e s t which comes to the government's a t t e n t i o n . (24 ) Far from demoting archives to the r o l e of stagnant government records d e p o s i t o r i e s , Brown was r e a l l y arguing f o r a greater r o l e by archives i n government, t h e r e f o r e making them i n d i s p e n s i b l e to t h a t government and more u s e f u l to h i s t o r i a n s . What Brown argued f o r has i n large measure come to pass i n the post-war p e r i o d , as f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l archives, have adopted measures to re g u l a t e the d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c records , some more s u c c e s s f u l l y than others. The e f f e c t of records management on documentary p u b l i s h i n g was dramatic. Of the seven archives e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s p e r i o d , only Saskatchewan engaged i n any form of p u b l i s h i n g from i t s i n c e p t i o n . The Saskatchewan a r c h i v e s , from an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e point of view, i s an o d d i t y , f o r i t has the status of a u n i v e r s i t y department,, and i s not d i r e c t l y subordinate to a government o f f i c i a l . Therefore i t s budgetary and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s are i t s own, and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s decided from the beginning that p u b l i s h i n g would be an important f u n c t i o n of the a r c h i v e s . The other a r c h i v e s , however, were e s t a b l i s h e d as government agencies, r a t h e r than as separate h i s t o r i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , And i n t h e s e • i n s t i t u t i o n s , documentary p u b l i s h i n g has never gained the momentum i t reached i n the archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s i n the 1920's. This d e c l i n e i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g may al s o be a t t r i b u t a b l e to t e c h n o l o g i c a l development. By the l a t e 1930's, m i c r o f i l m i n g had become such a growth area that s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s and books were devoted to i t . Indeed, i n the United States i n 19 3 8 a Jou r n a l of Documentary 94 Reproduction was begun, "a q u a r t e r l y review of the a p p l i c a t i o n of photography and a l l i e d techniques to l i b r a r y , 25 museum and a r c h i v a l science." As an author i n the f i r s t volume of the j o u r n a l noted, "microphotography, a b i g word fo r a small body, has become the t a l k of the town, and r a t h e r suddenly so. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a development of the 26 present decade, and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the past triennium." This h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l j o u r n a l f l o u r i s h e d f o r a few years, but died i n 1942, a c a s u a l t y of the war. But i n s p i t e of i t s short l i f e span, i t c e r t a i n l y gave an i n d i c a t i o n of the i n t e r e s t i n m i c r o f i l m i n g i n North America. An American a r c h i v i s t was the f i r s t to question . the future of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n l i g h t of the new work i n microphotography. Christopher Crittenden noted that "formerly i t was a question of p r i n t i n g or nothing. Now, however, these cheaper methods would seem to make unneccesary the p r i n t i n g of c e r t a i n large bodies of source mater i a l s which nevertheless ought to be reproduced i n some way." He voiced the o p i n i o n of many a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s when he added that " i t would seem unfortunate to r e l a x our e f f o r t s toward i n c r e a s i n g the amount of documentary p u b l i c a t i o n merely because new inventions and new techniques are f o r c i n g us to reshape some of our ideas 27 on the s u b j e c t . " B y 1950, however, Canadian a r c h i v i s t s were impressed by the impact of reprographic technology, and e s p e c i a l l y admired the c a p a c i t y of the m i c r o f i l m machines. "The o v e r a l l r e s u l t of the change from copying by hand to copying by photography promises to be s t a r t l i n g , " noted the 95 28 Dominion A r c h i v i s t . Not only was t h i s growth i n m i c r o f i l m i n g important as a new means of p u b l i s h i n g , or disseminating, i n f o r m a t i o n , i t was al s o v i t a l to a r e e v a l u a t i o n of the need:to p u b l i s h from the per s p e c t i v e of p r e s e r v a t i o n . Now that m i c r o f i l m could capture the exact documents on a photograph, the f a t e of the o r i g i n a l was not cause f o r undue anxiety. P u b l i s h i n g was no longer the only way to ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of that o r i g i n a l . And with the development of photocopying devices , on-demand copying was p o s s i b l e , and p u b l i s h i n g became l e s s important. While one cannot provide s t a t i s t i c a l or documentary proof that m i c r o f i l m i n g or xeroxing prompted the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g , i t would be hard to argue against t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . Thus, from the s t a r t of economic d e c l i n e i n the 19 30's, to the f l u r r y of wartime a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , to the post-war records boom, documentary p u b l i s h i n g by archives r a p i d l y decreased i n importance. Tighter budgets, changing research demands, expanding records management needs , and i n c r e a s i n g numbers of t e c h n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s to p u b l i s h i n g , a l l steered the a r c h i v i s t away from p u b l i s h i n g , and i n t o a more government- and s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d r o l e . W. Kaye Lamb summed up the new r o l e of the archives when he stated that "one must never lose s i g h t of the b a s i c f a c t that the r o l e of an a r c h i v i s t i s e s s e n t i a l l y that of a 29 t r u s t e e . " In f a c t , because of these various pressures, a r c h i v i s t s were coming to view themselves as custodians of 96 records who had a prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to see that records were preserved and made a v a i l a b l e f o r use. Their r o l e as i n t e r p r e t e r of the record was d e c l i n i n g i n importance over time. I r o n i c a l l y , however, i n the 196 0's and e a r l y 1970's, documentary.publishing by archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s enjoyed a b r i e f renaissance. The reasons f o r t h i s f l e e t i n g resurgence are v a r i e d . Not only d i d economic and technology play a p a r t , but the r o l e of the a r c h i v i s t continued to be the centre of a t t e n t i o n . A BRIEF RENAISSANCE: 1960-1975 Between 1960 and 1975 c l o s e to twenty documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s appeared from archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . As u s u a l , the Champlain Society and Hudson's Bay Record Society c a r r i e d on unimpeded, adding another twenty- three t i t l e s to t h e i r l i s t s . The a r c h i v a l p u b l i c a t i o n s included such t i t l e s as Clarkson's M i s s i o n to America, 1791- 17 9 2 i n • Nova S c o t i a , Lady F r a n k l i n V i s i t s the P a c i f i c Northwest, by B r i t i s h Columbia, and The New Brunswick Census: 1851, the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n by the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of New Brunswick. The Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l Society inaugurated i t s Manitoba Records Society Series which published three volumes from 1965 to 1968 and one volume i n 197 4. Much of t h i s recent a c t i v i t y continued the trend of p u b l i s h i n g documents such as d i a r i e s or j o u r n a l s , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and . annotations. Notably, whether by circumstance or design, these e d i t i o n s began to appeal to a 97 general audience as w e l l as the academic h i s t o r i a n . By the 1960's and 1970' s the a r c h i v i s t was s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the issue of records management, h i s r o l e as record keeper versus s c h o l a r , the increase of m i c r o f i l m production and other t e c h n o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , and the changing economics of p u b l i s h i n g . But documentary p u b l i s h i n g , r a t h e r than being ignored or dismissed as i t had been i n the e a r l i e r , dormant per i o d from the 1930's to the 1950's, was i n the 1960's and 1970's a subject worth d i s c u s s i n g . Indeed, two a r c h i v i s t s and one h i s t o r i a n wrote the f i r s t a r t i c l e s on documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada. 98 These authors bemoaned the l a c k of resources f o r documentary e d i t i o n s . In 196 7, E d i t h F i r t h wrote, In recent times the cost of book p u b l i s h i n g has increased tremendously. No longer can the average h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y s u s t a i n a systematic programme f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of documents, p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t has other p r e s s i n g demands upon i t s time and funds....The main reason f o r the d e c l i n e , of document p u b l i c a t i o n i s that i t i s now economically, impossible to produce a book w i t h a probable sale of only a few hundred copies.(30) Robert Ruigh, an h i s t o r i a n , a l s o pointed to economics as a main f a c t o r i n the d e c l i n e of p u b l i s h i n g , but he r a i s e d other points as w e l l , some of which were apparent i n the period between the 1930's and 1960's. He wrote: Undoubtedly the cost of p r i n t i n g -- the economic f a c t o r -- i s the main deterrent to p u b l i c a t i o n , but the i n c r e a s i n g volume of records , the l a c k of competent e d i t o r s and the v a r i e t y of demands made by researchers occasion grave doubts about the a d v i s a b i l i t y of c o n t i n u i n g the s e r i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s o r i g i n a t e d i n the 19th century. Now, more than ever, there appears to be a descrepancy between the u t i l i t y of a p u b l i c a t i o n and the cost of i t s preparation.(31) This i s indeed t r u e ; i n the e a r l y days when p u b l i s h i n g was the means of p r e s e r v i n g the unique document, and when i t was the only way to b r i n g h i s t o r y to the d i s t a n t s c h o l a r , economic f a c t o r s d i d not have such a negative e f f e c t . But by the 196 0's, w i t h improved conservation techniques, environmentally c o n t r o l l e d archives b u i l d i n g s , m i c r o f i l m production and i n t e r l i b r a r y l o a n , the expense and work involved i n producing h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i o n s seemed moderately f u t i l e . But s t i l l f o r some reasons there was a b r i e f resurgence i n p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t y . One of the c e n t r a l f a c t o r s i n t h i s renaissance seemed to be l i n k e d to the a r c h i v i s t ' s perception of h i s r o l e i n s o c i e t y . W. Kaye Lamb had stated i n 1953 that the a r c h i v i s t was a " t r u s t e e " ; by 1966 he had commented that " i t should be recognized that work with, records and manuscripts can be done w e l l and e x p e r t l y only by a t r a i n e d a r c h i v i s t . By and 32 la r g e the amateur should keep, out." In the 1960's the d e f i n i t i o n of a t r a i n e d a r c h i v i s t was that he was t r a i n e d i n h i s t o r y and had p r a c t i c a l experience i n a r c h i v e s . One a r c h i v i s t wrote, "the f a c t i s that both i n h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s and i n the functions, he performs the a r c h i v i s t i s not a mere caretaker of the paper residue of the past but a person w i t h s c h o l a r l y p r o c l i v i t i e s and,., at best, a sc h o l a r himself. And h i s f i e l d of s c h o l a r s h i p , 33 however narrowly or broadly d e f i n e d , i s h i s t o r y . " At t h i s p o i n t , the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a r c h i v i s t s , h i s t o r i a n s and records managers, became i n c r e a s i n g l y complex and u n s e t t l e d . The a r c h i v i s t was e s p e c i a l l y u n c e r t a i n about h i s r o l e i n so c i e t y . C l e a r l y , i n s p i t e of the trend towards records management, there s t i l l was an h i s t o r i c a l s t r a i n i n the p r o f e s s i o n , and one o u t l e t f o r t h i s h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t was documentary p u b l i s h i n g . A r c h i v i s t s may have always f e l t that t h e i r roots were i n h i s t o r y . Perhaps the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of modern a r c h i v e s , w i t h records management., multi-media archives , and increased government use, placed a s t r a i n on the a r c h i v i s t s and forced them to reevaluate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and goals. As a r e s u l t , a r c h i v i s t s began to examine t h e i r various tasks and s t a r t e d to develop areas of e x p e r t i s e or study. Some a r c h i v i s t s 100 turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to documentary p u b l i s h i n g and began to examine t h e i r r o l e as e d i t o r s and p u b l i s h e r s . J.K. Johnson, the General E d i t o r of the Papers, of the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s S e r i e s , and the e d i t o r of the f i r s t volumes of the John A. Macdonald papers, wrote at length about the r o l e of the a r c h i v i s t i n documentary p u b l i c a t i o n . I b e l i e v e t h a t fundamentally two kinds of t r a i n i n g are e s s e n t i a l to an a r c h i v i s t : h i s t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c a l , or on-the-job t r a i n i n g . Of the two the former of t e n seems to me the most important.... an a r c h i v i s t ought to begin w i t h as much h i s t o r i c a l t r a i i n g as he can get, and i n becoming a q u a l i f i e d a r c h i v i s t , he ought a l s o to become an h i s t o r i a n . I f he does not he becomes n e i t h e r one nor the other.... Only when an a r c h i v i s t i s thoroughly soaked i n h i s t o r y . . . does he become a r e a l l y u s e f u l a r c h i v i s t . He knows the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s documents and he can help others to an understanding of them. I t seems to me t h a t an a r c h i v i s t of t h i s kind i s b e t t e r s u i t e d to the task of p u b l i s h i n g documents than i s the conventional s o r t of h i s t o r i a n . His h i s t o r i c a l knowledge may w e l l equal the conventional h i s t o r i a n ' s , but he has the added advantge of greater f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h documents and a greater knowledge of the a v a i l a b l e sources.(34) Johnson, b e l i e v i n g h i s words that the a r c h i v i s t was w e l l s u i t e d to h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g , worked s t e a d i l y to produce the f i r s t volumes of the The L e t t e r s of S i r John A. Macdonald, which were published i n 1968 and 1969. I t i s an unfortunate q u i r k of h i s t o r y t h a t , i n s p i t e of h i s sentiments, Johnson's p r o j e c t f a i l e d , being c a n c e l l e d w i t h l i t t l e p u b l i c i t y i n the e a r l y 1970's. I t has been suggested that the Papers of the Prime M i n i s t e r s Series f a i l e d , because of the tremendous, p r o h i b i t i v e cost and time involved i n producing a b i l i n g u a l 101 work. There i s no question that t h i s i s an important f a c t o r i n the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y by the P u b l i c Archives of Canada, whose n a t i o n a l focus r e q u i r e s a b i l i n g u a l approach. The n e c e s s i t y of having to p u b l i s h i n two languages i s i r o n i c i n documentary p u b l i c a t i o n . I f the documents were e d i t e d f o r the serious h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r , s u r e l y he would have to be competent i n the language of the records i n order to f u l l y understand t h e i r meaning? And i f the documents were e d i t e d f o r a general audience, one could argue that extensive e d i t i n g , annotating and t r a n s l a t i n g would be a hindrance r a t h e r than a help. As the question of b i l i n g u a l i s m grows i n importance across Canada, t h i s issue w i l l continue to s u r f a c e , and may r e s u l t i n an end to documentary p u b l i s h i n g , at l e a s t on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . But problems of language cannot alone account f o r the c a n c e l l a t i o n of the P u b l i c Archives s e r i e s . Technological advances emerging i n the 1960's a l s o aided i n the demise of that and other p u b l i s h i n g p r o j e c t s . J.K. Johnson u n w i t t i n g l y described the seeds of h i s p r o j e c t ' s d e s t r u c t i o n when he wrote : We do not plan to p r i n t i n f u l l every l e t t e r which we have found, but only those deemed to be of h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . There are, of course, very good p r a c t i c a l grounds f o r t h i s procedure, but i n any case we are.guarding ourselves a g a i n s t ' • the p o s s i b i l i t y of excluding anything of value i n three ways. F i r s t , we are d e f i n i n g h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e q u i t e broadly; second, we are p r o v i d i n g w i t h i n each volume a complete f i n d i n g a i d , or calendar, of the l e t t e r s not p r i n t e d i n f u l l ; and t h i r d , we plan an equivalent s e r i e s of m i c r o f i l m copies of a l l the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r s which w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to anyone who wishes to see anything not p r i n t e d i n f u l l . The use of calendar 102 e n t r i e s and complementary m i c r o f i l m copies solves , I t h i n k , as much as i t i s possible, to s o l v e , the problem of complete p u b l i c a t i o n . I n c i d e n t a l l y , these means allow us to keep down the cost of p u b l i c a t i o n and to avoid p u b l i s h i n g t r i v i a . (3.5) A f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of two volumes of the correspondence, and two t r a n s l a t i o n s i n t o French, t h i s s e r i e s simply disappeared. By the mid-19 70's the P u b l i c Archives had begun a d i f f u s i o n programme, whereby m i c r o f i l m copies of the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , i n c l u d i n g the papers of the Prime M i n i s t e r s , were deposited i n a l l the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s . Johnson's programme of p u b l i c a t i o n was f u l l y and e f f e c t i v e l y replaced by m i c r o f i l m d i f f u s i o n . E d i t h F i r t h summed up the s i t u a t i o n when she s a i d , "our choice a t the present time i s between m i c r o f i l m and book p u b l i c a t i o n . Because, of i t s r e l a t i v e cheapness m i c r o f i l m would seem p r e f e r a b l e f o r copying la r g e c o l l e c t i o n s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y and completely. For c o l l e c t i o n s w i t h a high incidence of c r u c i a l m a t e r i a l , or f o r t o p i c a l 36 s e l e c t i o n s , p u b l i c a t i o n would be more s a t i s f a c t o r y . " In any event, i n s p i t e of the b r i e f surge of documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s at t h i s time, m i c r o f i l m was surpassing p u b l i s h i n g as a form of disseminating records. The l a t t e r was no longer seen as the only way to provide copies of the o r i g i n a l records to the waiting, p u b l i c miles away. That p u b l i c could now be on the doorstep of the archives i n a matter of hours and could be served at home through i n t e r l i b r a r y loan of m i c r o f i l m . But beyond these r a t h e r obvious i n f l u e n c e s l a y the underlying t r u t h . H i s t o r y had changed from the f i r s t 103 "golden" years of documentary p u b l i s h i n g . By the 1970's, the serious researcher had developed such a narrow s p e c i a l i t y t hat the small p l o t s Duncan McArthur b e l i e v e d h i s t o r i a n s were c u l t i v a t i n g i n the 1930's had become samples of d i r t under a microscope by the 19 70's. Few h i s t o r i a n s were w r i t i n g biographies of great men, and i f they were, then they had every i n t e n t i o n of t r a v e l l i n g to Ottawa to make use of the o r i g i n a l s . Moreover, i t was f a r more d i f f i c u l t to conceive or to produce documentary e d i t i o n s to s a t i s f y the needs of scholars studying e t h n i c , s o c i a l , s e x u a l , labour, i n d u s t r i a l , and other h i s t o r i c a l s p e c i a l t i e s f o r which a broad range of records found i n various places were needed. Consequently, the grand e d i t i o n s of the p a s t , such as the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s papers, were passe by the 1970's. E d i t i n g was an expensive and time consuming a c t i v i t y , perhaps not sui t e d to the busy schedules of a r c h i v i s t s . In s p i t e of the sense that t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g should be put to use, a r c h i v i s t s began to see tha t some of t h e i r e d i t o r i a l e f f o r t s were i n e f f e c t i v e f o r t h e i r purpose. M i c r o f i l m was a pr e f e r r e d medium, l e t t e r p r e s s p u b l i s h i n g was i n c r e a s i n g l y expensive, and the t r a d i t i o n a l audience was no longer i n t e r e s t e d . Why spend years e d i t i n g and annotating, only to have volumes l i k e those of the Simcoe papers e v e n t u a l l y be discarded through l a c k of sales? Many archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s had already come to t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , and were p u b l i s h i n g works such as j o u r n a l s and census r e t u r n s , i n an e f f o r t to a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of the 104 general p u b l i c , which had been l o s t i n the s h u f f l e f i f t y years before. This s h i f t i n emphasis would, i n the l a t e 1970 Ts and e a r l y 1980's., end i n an almost complete h a l t to documentary p u b l i s h i n g , f o r i n t e r e s t i n g reasons. THE BITTER END?: 1975-1984 By the end of the 1970's, documentary p u b l i s h i n g by archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s had v i r t u a l l y ended. Between 1975 and 1984, the P u b l i c Archives of Canada published one e d i t e d document, Overland to Oregon i n 1845 ,( 1976 ), which contained p l a t e s of watercolours and sketches as w e l l as j o u r n a l e n t r i e s , and as such was more than simply an e d i t i o n of w r i t t e n documents. In 1979, Nova Sco t i a published the Census of Nova S c o t i a , 18 27. In 1980, B r i t i s h Columbia published through the Queen's P r i n t e r the Journals of the C o l o n i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s of the Colonies of Vancouver I s l a n d and. B r i t i s h Columbia, 1851-1871. This p u b l i c a t i o n marked the end of an era i n p r i n t i n g by being the l a s t work.printed by the government of B r i t i s h Columbia on hot metal type. Manitoba's H i s t o r i c a l Society published Documents on the C i t y of Winnipeg i n 197 9, and A l b e r t a ' s archives published the L e t t e r s of Lovisa McDougall i n 1978. And those bastions of s u b s c r i p t i o n p u b l i s h i n g , the Champlain Society and the Hudson's Bay Record Society, continued t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s without i n t e r r u p t i o n . Many of these s o c i e t i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s have i n d i c a t e d that these p u b l i c a t i o n s w i l l be t h e i r l a s t f o r a long time. Economics 105 and technology'have doubtless played important r o l e s i n t h i s most recent d e c l i n e . L i t t l e has been s a i d about the continuing, use and improvement of m i c r o f i l m , w i t h one notable exception. In 19 7 9 the Canadian I n s t i t u t e f o r H i s t o r i c a l Microreproductlons was formed., i n order to place on m i c r o f i c h e r a r e published m a t e r i a l s , i n order to "improve access to and ensure pre s e r v a t i o n , of Canadiana p r i n t e d 37 before 1900 l o c a t e d i n Canada and elsewhere." Although t h i s p r o j e c t i s d e a l i n g w i t h already printed, m a t e r i a l , r a t h e r than documents, i t i s important here because i t s purpose focusses on p r e s e r v a t i o n of the items through microreproduction as much as i t does on a c c e s s i b i l i t y . P r e s e r v a t i o n had been a prime reason f o r p u b l i s h i n g documents h a l f a century before, and i t has emerged again w i t h f i l m as the medium. However, aside from t h i s s i g n a l e f f o r t , the use of m i c r o f i l m as a means of p r e s e r v i n g and disseminating documentary.evidence, while i t has continued apace, has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e n o t i c e or d i s c u s s i o n . On the other hand, the economics of the matter has received e s p e c i a l l y intense s c r u t i n y , although the archives themselves have been close-mouthed about t h e i r ever- s h r i n k i n g budgets. Nova S c o t i a and B r i t i s h Columbia have both openly commented on the l a c k of funds f o r p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; the Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l Review published by the former l i v e s w i t h the t h r e a t of c a n c e l l e d funding, and the l a t t e r has had one p u b l i c a t i o n of o r a l h i s t o r y c a n c e l l e d owing to budget cu t s . At the P u b l i c Archives of Canada, economic r e s t r a i n t has posed severe problems. In 1975 and 106 1976 the archives reported that "In the immediate f u t u r e , 38 a d d i t i o n a l resources w i l l be minimal." By 1981-82, the Archives reported t h a t "the economic s i t u a t i o n i s causing 39 grave concern i n a l l parts of the world." Some of the most s i g n i f i c a n t comments about a r c h i v a l economics have come from the government i t s e l f . Ever since the Massey Commission reviewed the s t a t e of Canadian c u l t u r e i n the 19 5 0's, government has been aware of the existence of c u l t u r a l and h e r i t a g e groups. The authors of the 19 8 2 Report of the Federal C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee noted t h a t " f e d e r a l involvement i n the h e r i t a g e f i e l d . . . could be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as n e g l i g i b l e commitment 40 r a t h e r than w i l f u l n e g l e c t . " This group saw l i t t l e r e l i e f from the i n e v i t a b l e r e s t r a i n t measures, and saw cooperation among i n s t i t u t i o n s such as archives as essential'. In a d d i t i o n , they spoke of the need, never before recognized, that c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s should be as e l i g i b l e f o r grants as are independent scholars and i n s t i t u t i o n s . They recommended th a t "recognized n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e s e r v i c e a s s o c i a t i o n s should be e l i g i b l e f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e 41 toward the cost of annual meetings and p u b l i c a t i o n s . " T r a d i t i o n a l l y , a r c h i v e s , l i k e other government-run i n s t i t u t i o n s , have never been able to r e c e i v e funding f o r such a c t i v i t i e s as s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , exhibits', and so f o r t h . In terms of p u b l i c a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , archives were forced to r e l y on t h e i r ever-decreasing budget, and as a consequence they c o u l d , and can, r a r e l y a f f o r d to engage i n such work. 10 7 Another r e p o r t , w r i t t e n i n 1980 and d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h Canadian archives , d e t a i l e d t h e i r f i n a n c i a l woes. In Canadian A r c h i v e s , the C o n s u l t a t i v e Group on Canadian Archives wrote, "we found a sense of c r i s i s i n Canadian archives today. Our survey i n d i c a t e d that despite the enthusiasm of t h e i r s t a f f and the i n t e r e s t of a growing p u b l i c , most archives are f i n a n c i a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Half of Canadian archives have annual budgets of l e s s that $20,000. . Only 30 exceed $75 ,000 42 annually.." This r e p o r t a l s o mentioned the issue of grants f o r a r c h i v e s , saying "on o c c a s i o n , archives may be the appropriate i n s t i t u t i o n a l base f o r a major s c h o l a r l y research and p u b l i c a t i o n p r o j e c t s . We urge that archives be considered as e l i g i b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the Council's large scale negotiated grants on the same basis as u n i v e r s i t i e s 43 and other i n s t i t u t i o n s . " The appearance of r e p o r t s s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c u s s i n g a r c h i v a l economic problems i n d i c a t e s not only an awareness of the. tough times, but a l s o a sense of archives as places w i t h p a i n f u l l y small budgets, and r e a l f i n a n c i a l problems. Economic r e s t r a i n t h i t archives hard since the 1970's, and documentary p u b l i s h i n g programmes, already decreasing, have been the f i r s t to go. But i n s p i t e of the s e v e r i t y of budgetary d i f f i c u l t i e s , another f a c t o r needs to-be examined as perhaps even more important i n the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada. As mentioned above, the archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s s u b t l y r e d e f i n e d t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t i e s i n 108 the 1970's. Seeing the academic market as d i f f i c u l t to s a t i s f y w i t h i n the bounds of a v a i l a b l e resources and growing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , these groups d i r e c t e d at l e a s t some • of t h e i r p u b l i s h i n g e f f o r t s towards a more general audience. The e d i t o r s of the L e t t e r s of L o v i s a McDougall openly stated that t h e i r work was published f o r " i n t e r e s t e d s p e c i a l i s t s , " and consequently was not surrounded by expensive t y p e s e t t i n g , binding, or i l l u s t r a t i o n s . But t h i s archives appears to have been an exception to an unstated r u l e . / Such p u b l i c a t i o n s as census r e t u r n s were obviously aimed at ge n e a l o g i s t s , and the other p u b l i c a t i o n s , w i t h the notable exception of Hendrickson's Journals of the C o l o n i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, . were designed w i t h an awareness of a l e s s academically i n c l i n e d readership. H i s t o r i a n s were also examining the r o l e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g . And t h e i r conclusions were s u p r i s i n g l y negative. One h i s t o r i a n wrote, " l i t t l e i s being done among students of h i s t o r y at e i t h e r the undergraduate or the graduate l e v e l s to s t i m u l a t e and encourage h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g as a l e g i t i m a t e concern of the p r o f e s s i o n . Only o c c a s i o n a l e f f o r t s are made to breach the w a l l of p r e j u d i c e t h a t 44 separates h i s t o r i a n s and e d i t o r s . " Indeed, some Canadian h i s t o r i a n s seemed to doubt the place of h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g i n s c h o l a r s h i p . Donald Creighton o f f e r e d a s l i g h t to h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g , r e f e r r i n g i n a seemingly degrading f a s h i o n to "the d e f i n i t i o n and annotation of e x i s t i n g t e x t s 45 (as) e s s e n t i a l l y e d i t o r i a l i n character." Even J.M.S. 109 Careless . viewed the i n c l u s i o n of documents i n e a r l y issues of s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s as more a matter of n e c e s s i t y than d e s i r a b i l i t y . In 19 70 he wrote about the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, and i n d i c a t e d that documentary e d i t i o n s were r e a l l y nothing more than " f i l l e r s " to be included when other a r t i c l e s were l a c k i n g . "'Notes on the Quebec Conference, 1864,' by A.G. Doughty," Careless -noted , "was an e d i t e d v e r s i o n of A.A. Macdonald's notes as a delegate to that meeting. However v a l u a b l e , i t was r e a l l y no more an a r t i c l e than those items, which followed i t under the s p e c i f i c heading of Documents; a sign perhaps, that the new Review had already encountered the problem of f i l l i n g space with a v a i l a b l e submissions -- the e d i t o r ' s o l d f e a s t - o r - 46 famine dilemma." The f a c t i s that such documents were not included i n the Review i n order to f i l l space, but to f i l l a need that h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s at that time thought was v i t a l . But by 19 70 t h i s p erception had so changed that to consider documentary p u b l i s h i n g and h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g at a l l was to consider them as uncreative work of second r a t e h i s t o r i a n s . . As J.M. Bumstead wrote r e c e n t l y , "the h i s t o r i c a l E d i t o r has always been the poor s t e p c h i l d of C l i o . . . . To e d i t -- even b r i l l i a n t l y -- a lengthy manuscript or a c o l l e c t i o n of papers i s regarded by most f o l l o w e r s of the Muse as uncreative hackwork, r e q u i r i n g f a r l e s s o r i g i n a l i t y and imagination than w r i t i n g a j o u r n a l a r t i c l e , 47 much l e s s a r e a l book." I t i s hard to d i s c e r n a reason f o r t h i s d i s t a s t e f o r h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g . Could i t perhaps be because a r c h i v i s t s 110 have been doing the work, and a r c h i v i s t s today are o f t e n rated as second-rate or f a i l e d h i s t o r i a n s ? Could i t be because the q u a l i t y of documentary e d i t i o n s has d e c l i n e d over time, or at l e a s t that the vast horizons of t h e i r subject matter have lessened considerably? I t i s thus i n t e r e s t i n g and i l l u m i n a t i n g to r e f l e c t on the h i s t o r i a n s ' r e a c t i o n s to documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s , i n l i g h t of t h e i r o p i n i o n of h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g . In the . e a r l y days, e d i t o r s were asked to remain aloof and i m p a r t i a l , yet provide a comprehensive o u t l i n e of the p e r i o d i n v o l v e d and f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n s of a l l events mentioned. And.errors of f a c t were unpardonable. In the l a t e 1970's and e a r l y 19 80's, one gets the i n t e r e s t i n g and impression that the h i s t o r i a n s are now perhaps asking f o r the impossible: complete annotation of the t e x t , without too much i n t r u s i o n by the e d i t o r ; a proper balance of documents, w i t h nothing d u l l or pedantic, but nothing h i s t o r i c a l l y important omitted; and an e x p l a n a t i o n of a l l f a c e t s of the times i n v o l v e d , without m i s i n t e r p r e t i n g the record. One h i s t o r i a n wrote of Gateway C i t y , edited by Alan A r t i b i s e f o r the Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l Society, " i f there i s a problem w i t h t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , i t i s that i t serves no c l e a r purpose...it i s p u z z l i n g the e d i t o r d i d not choose instead to focus on a s i n g l e theme i l l u s t r a t e d by a broad pr e s e n t a t i o n of r e l a t e d documents, or to present s e q u e n t i a l 111 annual rep o r t s from a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y e i t h e r d e c i s i o n would have produced a c o l l e c t i o n of s u b s t a n t i a l l y . more use to those without ready access to Winnipeg 48 documents." In s p i t e of the improvements i n m i c r o f i l m , loan procedures, and a l l ' other a r c h i v a l d i f f u s i o n a c t i v i t i e s already discussed at l e n g t h , the h i s t o r i a n here s t i l l sees the p u b l i c a t i o n as the means of p r o v i d i n g true copies of o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l to those unable to . use the documents themselves. I f such a comment i s t r u e , then t h i s documentary e d i t i o n serves no audience w e l l , whether general or academic. Another reviewer asks f o r more annotation, i n d i s c u s s i n g the Journals of the C o l o n i a l L e g i s l a t u r e , published by B r i t i s h Columbia's a r c h i v e s . He w r i t e s , " i t i s a p i t y . . . t h a t more explanation of the t e x t i s not provided i n these volumes... there i s l i t t l e e l u c i d a t i o n of the documents ..... I t can be argued... t h a t the p u b l i c a t i o n of the text alone w i l l serve to st i m u l a t e s c h o l a r s h i p but, given the current i n t e r e s t s of many h i s t o r i a n s . w o r k i n g i n B r i t i s h 49 Columbia, t h i s seems an u n l i k e l y prospect." This reviewer, provided w i t h a complete t e x t , wants more notes and e x p l a n a t i o n , and i s not happy that the e d i t o r d i d not intrude himself i n t o the work. Such a commentary can leave a r c h i v i s t s as w e l l as h i s t o r i a n s puzzled as to what course to f o l l o w : f u l l annotation of documents, which takes years of e f f o r t and vast amounts of funds , q u a n t i t i e s which the archives f i n d s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t to muster, or bare bones reproduction of s e r i e s of documents, which could more e a s i l y 112 be accomplished through m i c r o f i l m i n g . Two reviews of independently published documents brought t h i s i ssue of the q u a l i t y of e d i t i n g to a fever p i t c h , and provide an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison w i t h a r c h i v a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . In the review of God's G a l l o p i n g G i r l , The Peace R i v e r D i a r i e s of Monica S t o r r s , 19 29-31 , e dited by W.L. Morton f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, G a i l Brandt of York U n i v e r s i t y wrote, . " i t i s unfortunate that the present e d i t o r d i d not e x e r c i s e h i s p r e r o g a t i v e by e l i m i n a t i n g those l e t t e r s which are r e p e t i t i o u s and even 50 monotonous i n t h e i r content." Veronica Strong-Boag reviewed A Pioneer Gentlewoman i n B r i t i s h Columbia: The R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Susan A l l i s o n , e d i t e d ' f o r the same p u b l i s h i n g company by Margaret Ormsby. The reviewer's comments i l l u s t r a t e i n the extreme how much the r o l e of the h i s t o r i c a l e d i t o r has changed over time: The I n t r o d u c t i o n i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , d i s a p p o i n t i n g . Professor Ormsby, the respected h i s t o r i a n of her n a t i v e p r o v i n c e , provides the reader w i t h a considerable amount of d e t a i l on the settlement of B r i t i s h Columbia.... Unfortunately, these events...are presented w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e d i t o r i a l comment.... Workers i n the new f i e l d of women's h i s t o r y would have l i k e d other questions asked....Why was she so unprepared f o r her f i r s t pregnancy, d i d i t change her response to her husband, to sex, to her other c h i l d r e n ? Were a l l husbands as unsympathetic as John appeared at c h i l d b i r t h ? . . . How was her a t t i t u d e to the Indians i n f l u e n c e d by her a p p r e c i a t i o n of the status of t h e i r women? (51) As an i n t e r e s t i n g and i l l u m i n a t i n g a s i d e , t h i s book, published i n hard cover i n 1976 and In paper cover i n 1977 has, as of January 1984, sold over 1600 copies i n hard back, 113 and almost 3500 copies i n paper. Considering that a Canadian best s e l l e r i s defined as a book that has sold between 4000 and 5000 co p i e s , sales of t h i s work have c e r t a i n l y not s u f f e r e d from a l a c k of any e d i t o r i a l acumen. A f t e r reading such a review as the above, however, one would venture to say th a t such demands have never before been placed on the h i s t o r i c a l editor.. This i n i t s e l f may be a reason f o r the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g ; how could, an e d i t o r p o s s i b l y please such diverse h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t s and remain true to the documents, the l a t t e r f u n c t i o n , having been close, to sacred i n the e a r l y years of h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g ? These demands on h i s t o r i c a l . e d i t o r s may alone be the cause, f o r the d e c l i n e of p u b l i s h i n g by archives. Why t r y the impossible w i t h i n the bounds of a l i m i t e d and decreasing.budget, when other work i s l e s s time consuming, more rewarding., and more a r c h i v a l l y acceptable? As a r e s u l t , today, as J.K. Johnson s t a t e d , the question of documentary p u b l i s h i n g by Canadian archives i s qui t e academic. They have claimed, q u i t e honestly, that they have no funds f o r such p u b l i s h i n g , do not forsee engaging i n such p u b l i s h i n g f o r a long time to come, and may perhaps never resume such p u b l i s h i n g . And so, as we look at the s i t u a t i o n i n Canada i n 1984, the p i c t u r e looks very bleak. The purpose of documentary p u b l i s h i n g appears to have become hopelessly muddled over time. O r i g i n a l l y a means of pr e s e r v i n g the f r a g i l e document and making i t a v a i l a b l e to those otherwise unable to study the raw m a t e r i a l of h i s t o r y , these p u b l i c a t i o n s g r a d u a l l y 114 became a v e h i c l e f o r presenting a glimpse of h i s t o r y to the p u b l i c , . and were c r i t i c i z e d i n that r o l e by academics, who s t i l l wanted accurate and complete e d i t i o n s , s c h o l a r l y yet i n t e r e s t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e , and d e a l i n g e q u a l l y w i t h a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y and a l l aspects of h i s t o r y . So, whither goest the documentary p u b l i c a t i o n ? Is t h i s indeed the b i t t e r end? What i s the fu t u r e f o r t h i s perhaps archaic a c t i v i t y ? W i l l i t again emerge as a v i a b l e h i s t o r i c a l accomplishment, or w i l l i t remain i n the b a r r e l of h i s t o r i c a l endeavor, ever c l o s e r to the bottom? I f we look at the s i t u a t i o n i n 1984, we may be able to tease out some suggestions about where archives perhaps should be headed i n the f i e l d of documentary p u b l i s h i n g . 115 Chapter Four ARCHIVES AND PUBLISHING In 1984, i n a time of phenomenal t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, complex bureaucracies, and an i n c r e a s i n g l y " i n s t a n t " s o c i e t y , such time-consuming and expensive work as documentary p u b l i s h i n g i s understandably d i f f i c u l t , but the f a c t i s tha t few archives i n Canada have ever e s t a b l i s h e d a p o l i c y e i t h e r i n favour or ag a i n s t . Most a c t i v i t y has been sporadic and seemingly undirected. I t i s time that archives addressed the question of t h e i r r o l e i n t h i s area. Should they p u b l i s h or not? I f so, f o r what purpose, and f o r what audience ? A r c h i v i s t s who consider p u b l i s h i n g documents to be a v i a b l e or appropriate a c t i v i t y are faced with some important problems. I f archives are going to p u b l i s h , they are going to have to commit time, manpower, and money to the cause. Throughout h i s t o r y Canadian archives have made t h i s commitment on a piecemeal b a s i s . The time has come f o r them to e s t a b l i s h a f i r m p o l i c y regarding the is s u e . There are two obvious options open to the ar c h i v e s . They can e i t h e r p u b l i s h w e l l - e d i t e d works f o r a s c h o l a r l y audience, or they can p u b l i s h popular e d i t i o n s f o r a general p u b l i c . Both types of p u b l i s h i n g are v a l i d , and are not mutually e x c l u s i v e , but each type has i t s own unique q u a l i t i e s t h a t deserve a n a l y s i s . 116 The archives that chooses to p u b l i s h f o r a s c h o l a r l y audience must make some important d e c i s i o n s . F i r s t , i t must decide why i t i s p u b l i s h i n g f o r s c h o l a r s . Is i t p r o v i d i n g h i s t o r i c a l documents not otherwise a v a i l a b l e ? Or i s i t a i d i n g h i s t o r i c a l knowledge by p r o v i d i n g comprehensive e d i t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t sources? I f the archives sees i t s job only as disseminating i n f o r m a t i o n , then i t might as w e l l provide m i c r o f i l m copies as p u b l i s h l e t t e r p r e s s e d i t i o n s . While many years ago p u b l i s h i n g i n book form was the only way to preserve and d i s t r i b u t e the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d , today new technologies have e c l i p s e d p u b l i s h i n g i n these areas. However, i f the archives sees i t s job as conducting h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , on a par w i t h u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d h i s t o r i a n s , and sees documentary e d i t i n g as a way of p r o v i d i n g h i s t o r i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o the r e c o r d s , then i t w i l l choose the published book as the medium. And when the archives makes that d e c i s i o n , i t enters i n t o a complicated and demanding world. When the a r c h i v i s t decides that the mandate of h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i n cludes high l e v e l h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g , the f i r s t problem encountered i s money. How w i l l the archives fund such an extensive p r o j e c t ? The r e s e a r c h , annotation, and e d i t i n g of the documents can be the most expensive part of the e n t i r e p r o j e c t . The archives needs not only s t a f f and space, but a l s o a knowledgable and capable e d i t o r to supervise or conduct the research. And s c h o l a r l y e d i t i n g of a comprehensive body of documents can take years to 117 complete. The. f i r s t volume of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada's Papers of S i r John A. Macdonald, f o r example, took a f u l l time e d i t o r and an a s s i s t a n t some three years to complete. And not only do the costs of supporting the b a s i c p r o j e c t have to be p a i d , but the e d i t o r or e d i t o r s would al s o have to r e c e i v e a s a l a r y . I f a s t a f f member i s given leave to undertake the p r o j e c t , he w i l l need compensation, and a replacement would have to be h i r e d to continue h i s a r c h i v a l d u t i e s . I f a f r e e l a n c e h i s t o r i a n i s h i r e d , he must be paid. I f a u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d scholar becomes e d i t o r , i t w i l l g e n e r a l l y be at the expense of h i s u n i v e r s i t y , a hidden cost. The archives might decide to allow an a r c h i v i s t to conduct the research as p a r t of h i s d a i l y d u t i e s , but the r e a l i t y of h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g i s t h a t , even working f u l l time, such comprehensive e d i t i n g can take many years. And i f the archives has decided that i t s goal i s a comprehensive, d e f i n i t i v e e d i t i o n , then i t has added even more time and expense to the p r o j e c t . Obtaining a l l r e l e v e n t documents, conducting thorough r e s e a r c h , e d i t i n g the a c t u a l documents and preparing a t y p e s c r i p t , w r i t i n g i n t r o d u c t i o n s , and so f o r t h , a l l take time and cost money. I n c r e a s i n g l y , h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g p r o j e c t s are t u r n i n g to the government, e i t h e r f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , or m u n i c i p a l , f o r f i n a n c i a l support to prepare documents f o r p u b l i c a t i o n and s u b s i d i z e p r i n t i n g . I t has become an accepted f a c t that such undertakings r a r e l y pay f o r themselves. However, archives are not e l i g i b l e f o r the vast m a j o r i t y of government grants, e i t h e r f o r research or f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , 118 often because they are i n e f f e c t government agencies. And a r c h i v a l employees h e s i t a t e to apply i n d i v i d u a l l y , f o r they r a r e l y have the time outside of t h e i r working day, and i f they conduct any research on the job, even as part of t h e i r r e q u ired d u t i e s , they can be accused of c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t . Consequently, many archives wishing to p u b l i s h edited documents are h a l t e d before they even begin by the complexities of f i n a n c i n g such p r o j e c t s . However, perhaps the archives does decide to pursue i t s p r o j e c t , and does f i n d the resources to complete the e d i t i n g . Then i t i s faced w i t h the question of p u b l i c a t i o n i t s e l f . An archives has to decide whether i t w i l l be the p u b l i s h e r , r a i s e funds to underwrite the p r i n t i n g , and accept the r e p o n s i b i l i t y f o r marketing and d i s t r i b u t i o n , or whether i t w i l l turn to a p r i v a t e company to assume the burden of p u b l i s h i n g . I f the archives decides p u b l i s h on i t s own, then, i n e f f e c t , f o r that one work at l e a s t , the archives must become a p u b l i s h i n g company. I t must deal w i t h the production of the work from manuscript to book and w i t h s a l e s , marketing, d i s t r i b u t i o n and storage of the published work. The archives w i l l have to h i r e s t a f f t r a i n e d i n the various aspects of book pro d u c t i o n , h i r e f r e e l a n c e help, or d i v e r t i t s own s t a f f to the job from t h e i r normal d u t i e s . The archives t h a t begins an h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g p r o j e c t w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t i t i s working f o r s c h o l a r s h i p and the h i s t o r i c a l community may not wish to enter i n t o the p u b l i s h i n g end at a l l . 119 I f the archives turns production over to an independent p u b l i s h i n g company, i t r e l i e v e s i t s e l f of the burden of sup e r v i s i n g the manufacture of the product and l i m i t s i t s d i r e c t involvement to the production of a manuscript f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . As such, the archives becomes the 'author' of the book, en t e r i n g i n t o an author-publisher contract f o r p u b l i c a t i o n and l e a v i n g the problems of production, sales and d i s t r i b u t i o n to the company. However, i n today's unpredictable economic c l i m a t e , few p u b l i s h i n g companies can undertake la r g e scale p r o j e c t s such as extensive documentary e d i t i o n s without some form of subsidy, e i t h e r from p r i v a t e or p u b l i c funds. Most s c h o l a r l y books published today do not s e l l enough copies to cover the costs of production; consequently, the p u b l i s h e r w i l l o f t e n enter i n t o a contract on the c o n d i t i o n that funding i s a v a i l a b l e . The a r c h i v e s , i f i t cannot provide the money i t s e l f , must apply, or have the p u b l i s h e r apply, f o r a grant or loan. And again, the archives may be i n e l i g i b l e f o r government funding because of i t s status as a p u b l i c l y supported i n s t i t u t i o n . Assuming that the archives f i n d s money f o r the research and f o r the production and the work i s p u b l i s h e d , then the archives i s faced w i t h the issues of marketing, d i s t r i b u t i o n , and revenue. I f the archives decides to undertake production i t s e l f , then i t al s o accepts the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to market and d i s t r i b u t e the work. Perhaps a f a c t o r i n the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i s that archives , eager to produce works of s c h o l a r s h i p at a low 120 p r i c e , have been e d i t o r , p u b l i s h e r and salesman. But most archives today are not equipped to conduct the kind of marketing and a d v e r t i s i n g necessary to s e l l enough copies of an expensive e d i t i o n to recoup investment. The issue at stake i s , again, the reason f o r p u b l i s h i n g . I f the archives has decided to p u b l i s h . i n order to add to h i s t o r i c a l knowledge, then i t s concern f o r sales f i g u r e s , marketing s t r a t e g i e s and so f o r t h w i l l be minimal. But i n order to be able to a f f o r d to produce such expensive works, an archives w i l l have to pay some a t t e n t i o n to the f a t e of the book a f t e r i t i s published. No longer can such books be sold f o r a d o l l a r a copy. They w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be expensive i f they are to be produced i n the t r a d i t i o n a l f a s h i o n , w i t h hard cover, w i t h glossy j a c k e t , i l l u s t r a t i o n s , extensive footnotes , and so f o r t h . The irony i s that while p u b l i s h e r s , s c h o l a r s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , and even a r c h i v e s , have a l l accepted that the f u l l y produced book i s the proper end r e s u l t of s c h o l a r l y r esearch, these same groups w i l l not or cannot buy the books because they are so expensive. Even l i b r a r i e s , which often account f o r more than h a l f of s c h o l a r l y book s a l e s , cannot a f f o r d to purchase the expensive volumes that are being produced today. As an asid e , the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of A l b e r t a ' s one documentary e d i t i o n , The L e t t e r s of Lov i s a McDougall, was published f o r a s c h o l a r l y audience, and, according to the e d i t o r s , was there f o r e published i n t y p e s c r i p t , and s o f t cover. I t i s the only archives to suggest that documents need not be 121 t r a d i t i o n a l l y produced e d i t i o n s i n order to be valuable to a s c h o l a r l y audience. Most other members of the s c h o l a r l y community, however, hold f a s t to the not i o n that s c h o l a r l y e d i t i o n s must be thoroughly e d i t e d and expensively produced i n order to be of value. Therein l i e s the downfall of s c h o l a r l y h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f o r a r c h i v e s . Archives are not i n the business of p u b l i s h i n g , but i n order to meet the requirements of t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l community, they would have to make p u b l i s h i n g a top p r i o r i t y . Today's busy and d i v e r s e archives simply cannot devote so much time and money to extensive p r o j e c t s , and dismiss them as outside t h e i r purview. The archives can r e l i e v e i t s e l f of t h i s burden of post*- production work by e n t e r i n g i n t o an agreement wi t h a p u b l i s h e r . Supposing the archives has signed a c o n t r a c t , arranged the funding, and completed the manuscript. I t i s free to move on to other e d i t i n g or a r c h i v a l p r o j e c t s and leave the sales and d i s t r i b u t i o n to the p u b l i s h e r . However, by accepting the r o l e of author, the archives foregoes any p r o f i t on sales beyond the r o y a l t i e s , which are u s u a l l y ten per cent of the p r i c e of the book. The archives that has chosen to p u b l i s h s c h o l a r l y works f o r an h i s t o r i c a l audience may not be as concerned with f i n a n c i a l gain as with producing a valuable a d d i t i o n to s c h o l a r s h i p . But i t should be aware th a t i t w i l l f o r f e i t p o t e n t i a l revenue. Not a l l archives have, or perhaps should, accept only r o y a l t i e s i f they enter i n t o a contract w i t h a p u b l i s h i n g company. The Saskatchewan Archives Board, f o r example, 122 entered i n t o a p u b l i s h i n g agreement wi t h Western Producer P r a i r i e Books, but the archives r e t a i n e d copyright on the works. Thus, the p u b l i s h i n g company has agreed to p u b l i s h and d i s t r i b u t e the books, but pays the archives r o y a l t i e s and leaves them the a u t h o r i t y to r e p r i n t , r e v i s e , or otherwise change the f i n i s h e d book. Saskatchewan has received over $50,000 i n r o y a l t i e s from i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s , and that money i s being used to fund other p u b l i c a t i o n s p r o j e c t s . But t h i s case i s an exception, f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n s are not documentary i n nature, but are n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r i e s aimed at a popular audience, and, again, Saskatchewan i s unique among ar c h i v e s . Other a r c h i v e s , even i f they were to p u b l i s h , r e t a i n c o p y r i g h t , and r e c e i v e r o y a l t i e s , would not be able to r e c e i v e the revenues themselves. Any income to government i n s t i t u t i o n s such as archives goes to the Receiver General. Thus any income the average archives makes never returns d i r e c t l y to i t . I f an archives were able to generate revenue, perhaps i t would more r e a d i l y consider p u b l i s h i n g . However, i f the archives has decided to p u b l i s h h e a v i l y e d i t e d works f o r a s c h o l a r l y audience, then i t need not concern i t s e l f w i t h r e c e i v i n g revenue, e i t h e r through c o n t r a c t u a l agreement wi t h a p u b l i s h e r , or through i t s own p u b l i s h i n g e f f o r t s , because chances are good that i t w i l l not see any income from i t s p u b l i c a t i o n . The sad f a c t i s that many s c h o l a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s do not s e l l w e l l . Part of the reason i s t h a t , even wi t h government 123 s u b s i d i e s , many s c h o l a r l y works must s e l l f o r $30 or $40 or more, j u s t to break even. The high p r i c e i s a r e s u l t of the e x t e n s i v e , and expensive, research and e d i t i n g involved i n simply preparing the manuscript, and of the high costs f o r c o p y e d i t i n g and production by the p u b l i s h i n g company. I f the a r c h i v e s ' i n t e n t i o n i n p u b l i s h i n g i s to a i d s c h o l a r s h i p and not make money, i t can turn over production to a p u b l i s h i n g company and l e t them worry about marketing, sales and d i s t r i b u t i o n . And any revenue from the work would be a bonus. But s u r e l y there must be a way f o r an archives to s u c c e s s f u l l y engage i n h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g and s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g ? I t must be p o s s i b l e f o r an archives to p u b l i s h s c h o l a r l y works and at l e a s t recoup i t s investment, i f not make a small p r o f i t . Indeed, there seems to be a way, i f one examines the a c t i v i t i e s of some of the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s i n Canada. The best example i s the Champlain Society. A c t i v e since 1903, the Champlain Society has r a r e l y missed a p r o j e c t e d p u b l i c a t i o n date, i t s finances are sound, and i t has not slowed i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n the face of recent r e c e s s i o n s . What i s the key to i t s success? A f t e r a l l , i t i s engaging i n h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g and documentary p u b l i s h i n g f o r a l i m i t e d s c h o l a r l y audience. And i t i s p u b l i s h i n g t r a d i t i o n a l l y produced hard cover e d i t i o n s , which r e g u l a r l y s e l l out. How can the Champlain Society a f f o r d to p u b l i s h when independent p u b l i s h e r s , a r c h i v e s , and other h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s have been forced to cancel t h e i r programmes 124 e n t i r e l y ? The answer i s d e c e p t i v e l y simple. The Champlain Society operates on a s u b s c r i p t i o n b a s i s . I t has i n e f f e c t sold a l l i t s books before they have been published. By e s t a b l i s h i n g a membership l i s t and charging each member a set f e e , equivalent to the cost of the published book, the Society, guarantees that i t s funds are a v a i l a b l e before production begins. A l s o , the Society i s not r e a l l y a s o c i e t y as such; i t holds no meetings of the general membership, and i t provides none of the s o c i a l or academic a c t i v i t i e s a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y undertakes. I t s sole purpose i s to p u b l i s h h i s t o r i c a l documents, and i t guarantees i t s success by s e l l i n g memberships and sending i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s only to i t s members. I t need not r e l y heavily. on government support, or depend on l i m i t e d bookstore sales to r e t u r n i t s investment. Of course, the i n d i v i d u a l e d i t o r s are not paid d i r e c t l y f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s , and there are most l i k e l y c e r t a i n hidden costs that are not covered by the Society i t s e l f . But i n general, the Society has managed to keep e d i t o r i a l costs low and has ensured high s a l e s . The Hudson's Bay Record Society operates on the same s u b s c r i p t i o n b a s i s , and the Manitoba Record Society has been, encouraging membership s a l e s . And these are among the few h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s i n Canada that are s t i l l a c t i v e l y p u b l i s h i n g . Could an archives produce s c h o l a r l y e d i t i o n s under a s u b s c r i p t i o n system? There i s no reason why i t couldn't, as 125 long as i t could provide the product, the documentary p u b l i c a t i o n , that would be the basis of i t s membership programme. However, the a r c h i v e s , being a government-funded i n s t i t u t i o n , would enter i n t o a d i f f i c u l t area i f i t t r i e d to s e l l p u b l i c a t i o n s whose e d i t i n g had been completed by government paid a r c h i v i s t s on government time. The archives would need a general e d i t o r , some s t a f f , and people w i l l i n g and able to e d i t the documents. As such, i t would need to enter the f i e l d of p u b l i s h i n g . I f a l l t h i s a c t i v i t y were to. take place as a government sponsored a c t i v i t y , i t would be p o l i t i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r the archives to j u s t i f y charging a membership fee as w e l l , f o r the scholars would f e e l that they had paid twice f o r t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n . In t h i s case, f o r an archives to engage i n a v i a b l e membership-sponsored p u b l i s h i n g programme, i t s best approach would be to enter i n t o a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y . The s o c i e t y could provide the manpower f o r e d i t i n g , and the s t a f f to manage the membership l i s t s . The archives could provide the records, the e x p e r t i s e and advice, and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l name. While t h i s would, be f e a s i b l e , some a r c h i v i s t s could argue q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y that i n t h i s case, the archives need not be i n v o l v e d at a l l i n the e n t e r p r i s e , but should leave the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y to carry the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i s h i n g . The question of p u b l i s h i n g f o r a s c h o l a r l y audience i s complicated, and there i s no ready answer. I f an archives chooses to engage i n s c h o l a r l y e d i t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g p r o j e c t s , then i t must come to gr i p s w i t h the p r a c t i c a l 126 problems of money, time, and the purpose and value of the work. In today's economic c l i m a t e , i t i s no wonder that most archives have dismissed t h i s l e v e l of documentary e d i t i n g as beyond t h e i r scope. However, archives can approach documentary p u b l i s h i n g from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , one that appears to have been r a r e l y considered i n Canada. Archives can p u b l i s h f o r a general audience, f o r the p u b l i c at l a r g e , w i t h the i n t e n t i o n not of p r o v i d i n g comprehensive e d i t i o n s f o r s c h o l a r l y research, but of producing popular e d i t i o n s of documents f o r the entertainment and enjoyment of.the general p u b l i c . In t h i s ..case, the motiv a t i o n of the archives could involve r a i s i n g i t s p u b l i c p r o f i l e w i t h i n the community, i n t e r e s t i n g i t s c i t i z e n s i n t h e i r h i s t o r y , and, perhaps, generating some l e v e l of p r o f i t f o r the a r c h i v e s , i n order to help fund p r o j e c t s or o f f s e t d e f i c i t s . Some of the problems r e l a t e d to t h i s type of p u b l i s h i n g are s i m i l a r to those f o r s c h o l a r l y p u b l i s h i n g , but some of the s o l u t i o n s are d i f f e r e n t . When an archives decides to p u b l i s h f o r a general audience, i t has the option to decide the l e v e l of e d i t i n g , p roduction, and so f o r t h to be in v o l v e d . E d i t i o n s f o r a general p u b l i c need not be as comprehensive as f o r a s c h o l a r l y audience, thus the archives can choose s p e c i a l documents, r a t h e r than having to compile a comprehensive e d i t i o n . The e d i t i n g i t s e l f can be l e s s e x t e n s i v e , thus t a k i n g l e s s time. Rather than p r o v i d i n g f u l l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 127 of a l l people, places and events mentioned, the e d i t o r need only provide a background to the document through an i n t r o d u c t i o n and i d e n t i f y the key issues or events. The documents chosen can be s h o r t , perhaps only a r t i c l e length. They can be on any s u b j e c t , any theme or person, and need not make a c l a i m to being all-encompassing. Once the archives states t h a t i t s purpose i s to p u b l i s h f o r the entertainment and e d i f i c a t i o n of a l a y audience, i t i s e f f e c t i v e l y l e t of the hook as f a r as s c h o l a r l y expectations are concerned. That i s not to say, however, that scholars w i l l not be c r i t i c a l ; as we have seen, they can be. Funding i s s t i l l a problem f o r a r c h i v e s . J u s t because t h e i r focus and p o t e n t i a l audience have changed does not mean tha t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n has improved, Archives w i l l s t i l l need to f i n d money, perhaps from government. However, i f the p u b l i c a t i o n i s l e s s c o s t l y , can be produced f a s t e r , and has more sales p o t e n t i a l , government loans may be a v a i l a b l e , r a t h e r than the usual grants, and perhaps archives w i l l only need funding to get s t a r t e d and w i l l be able use revenues to support f u t u r e p u b l i c a t i o n s . Of course, t h i s again, introduces the problem of archives r e c e i v i n g revenues from t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s . But i f the archives does decide to enter i n t o p u b l i s h i n g f o r a popular audience, whatever the revenue s i t u a t i o n , i t can produce the work i t s e l f , or i t can enter i n t o a j o i n t venture., perhaps a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y . An h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y can help the archives to prepare documents f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . I t has a ready and w i l l i n g 128 membership, o f t e n happy to volunteer f o r any such e d i t i n g work. And when p u b l i s h i n g f o r a l a y audience, academic t r a i n i n g or u n i v e r s i t y experience are l e s s , important than enthusiasm and a w i l l i n g n e s s to work. The e d i t i n g need not be extensive and can be done competently by these volunteers. The chance to work with the " s t u f f of h i s t o r y " may i t s e l f be an i n c e n t i v e f o r people to i n v o l v e themselves i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y , and an archives that generates such i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm w i l l r a i s e i t s standing and p r o f i l e i n the community. As w e l l , involvement with an h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y w i l l l i f t some of the burden from the a r c h i v e s , f o r i t can provide the research f a c i l i t i e s , , m a t e r i a l s , and e x p e r t i s e , and leave the production work to the s o c i e t y . The p a r t n e r s h i p may al s o a i d i n generating s a l e s , f o r there would be a ready market f o r s u b s c r i p t i o n sales among the s o c i e t y ' s members. Whatever the method and whoever the e d i t o r s , once the documents have been chosen and prepared f o r p u b l i c a t i o n they s t i l l must, undergo a production process. As mentioned, t h i s can be very expensive and time-consuming. However, i f a p u b l i c a t i o n i s sho r t , w i t h fewer notes and a l e s s complicated format, perhaps s o f t cover r a t h e r than hard, w i t h a glossy cover r a t h e r than a j a c k e t , or as an a r t i c l e i n an h i s t o r i c a l magazine or j o u r n a l , the f i n a l production costs can be considerably lower. The e d i t i o n could be produced more q u i c k l y , as part of an e x h i b i t , event, or anniversary, thus generating some s a l e s . There would appear 129 to be p o t e n t i a l f o r sales i n t h i s area. Canadians are buying h i s t o r y books, and c e r t a i n s orts of documentary e d i t i o n s , such as d i a r i e s and j o u r n a l s , have sold w e l l . The aforementioned sales of cl o s e to 5000 copies of Pioneer Gentlewoman: The R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Susan A l l i s o n i s but one example. Saskatchewan's three p u b l i c a t i o n s , while not documentary, are aimed at a general audience, and have combined sales of over 20,000 copies. And the l e s s complicated the p r o j e c t , the more can be done, and the more money can be made. And i f the p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t y generates revenues, more money w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to d i r e c t i n t o other p u b l i c a t i o n s to disseminate records or inf o r m a t i o n about holdings. However, i f archives are faced w i t h the problem of being unable to r e c e i v e revenues, the monetary impetus f o r popular p u b l i s h i n g i s diminished s u b s t a n t i a l l y . But of course, money i s not the only object at stake here. An archives which engages i n a c t i v i t i e s f o r the general p u b l i c cannot but heighten p u b l i c awareness of i t s ex i s t e n c e , thus generating more users, more a c t i v i t y , and perhaps more donations of p r i v a t e papers. The p o t e n t i a l i s l i m i t l e s s . And at the very l e a s t , the archives w i l l be b r i n g i n g a l i t t l e piece of h i s t o r y to the p u b l i c , making them more aware of t h e i r country's past. However, there i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n that an archives t h i n k i n g of p u b l i s h i n g f o r the p u b l i c must ponder. I f the aim i s to provide i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the general p u b l i c , i s documentary p u b l i s h i n g the best means of doing that? Would not more people be a t t r a c t e d to an e x h i b i t ? Would 130 they not p r e f e r to see an h i s t o r i c a l t e l e v i s i o n show using documentary f i l m footage? Or hear a r a d i o broadcast of o r a l h i s t o r y or sound archives? Or buy a book of documentary f a c s i m i l e s or h i s t o r i c a l photographs? There i s a v a l i d argument that while documentary e d i t i n g f o r the' scholar i s too expensive and time-consuming, p u b l i s h i n g documents f o r the general p u b l i c has been surpassed by other media and other approaches to h i s t o r y . An archives must come to g r i p s with t h i s issue when d e c i d i n g whether or not to p u b l i s h f o r a general audience. There i s no question that i n 1984 archives are overwhelmed by the demands of government, h i s t o r i a n s , g e n e a l o g i s t s ; by the r a p i d changes i n technology, media, p r e s e r v a t i o n techniques, and a r c h i v a l theory, and by the c o n s t r a i n t s of s h r i n k i n g budgets and expanding needs. But i n s p i t e of a l l the urgent problems archives face each day, i t i s v i t a l that they consider t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y very c a r e f u l l y . They must ask themselves who are they serving? Government? Scholars? The p u b l i c ? How can they best serve t h a t p u b l i c ? A r c h i v a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s must take time out from t h e i r busy day . and ask themselves what are the goals f o r t h e i r archives? What should they be? Archives must decide where they want to be In f i v e , t e n , twenty years, i n terms of a l l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . G i v i n g some thought to the question of documentary p u b l i s h i n g , r a t h e r than j u s t d i s m i s s i n g i t as an a c t i v i t y of another time, w i l l help a r c h i v i s t s to examine t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y . Whatever 131 they decide about p u b l i s h i n g , archives must decide something. They must put an end to the d i s o r g a n i z e d , unstructured a c t i v i t i e s that have c h a r a c t e r i z e d the pr o f e s s i o n f o r over 100 years. One can argue that there i s a valuable place f o r p u b l i s h i n g i n today's a r c h i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y as a means of b r i n g i n g h i s t o r y to the general p u b l i c . M i c r o f i l m , computer technology, and the changing needs of h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s , have a l l but el i m i n a t e d comprehensive h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g from the a r c h i v a l scene. But p u b l i s h i n g f o r a general audience can draw them i n t o archives , i n v o l v e them i n h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , show them a part of t h e i r s o c i e t y that they might not otherwise have seen. This can, however, be done through other media. I t i s up to each archives to consider i t s options and to make a d e c i s i o n . But i t i s incumbent upon the archives to make that d e c i s i o n and to not allow documentary p u b l i s h i n g to continue to wallow about i n an h i s t o r i c a l limbo. Documentary p u b l i s h i n g has de c l i n e d over time, there i s no question of t h a t . But a l l things change, and there i s no reason why documentary p u b l i s h i n g cannot emerge again i n Canada, i n a new and r e v i t a l i z e d form, f o r a new and d i f f e r e n t group of Canadians. I t i s up to the archives to make a d e c i s i o n about t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y , and the f u n c t i o n of p u b l i s h i n g f o r t h e i r I n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s i n e v i t a b l e that the o l d order changes; archives must determine the d i r e c t i o n of tha t change. 132 NOTES In t r o d u c t i o n 1. J.K. Johnson, "The A r c h i v i s t ' s Role i n the P u b l i c a t i o n of Documents," Canadian A r c h i v i s t (1967): 7. 133 NOTES Chapter One 1. Quoted i n C.B. Fergusson, "The P u b l i c Archives of Nova S c o t i a , " A c a d i e n s i s 2 (1972): 272. 2. Quoted i n B.C. Cuthbertson, "Thomas Beamish Akins: B r i t i s h North America's Pioneer A r c h i v i s t , " A cadiensis 7 (1977): 93-94. 3. I b i d . , 93-94. 4. Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l Society Report and C o l l e c t i o n s 1 (1878): 2. 5. I b i d . , 15. 6. I b i d . 2 (1879-80), 3-4. 7. P u b l i c Archives of Nova S c o t i a Annual Report (1930-31): 1.0. 8. I b i d . , 11. 9. I b i d . , 10. 10. I b i d . ( 1935 ) , 7. 11. I b i d (1942), 6. 12. C.B. Fergusson, "The Past i s Prologue: Archives and Hi s t o r y i n Nova S c o t i a , " Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 1 (1971): 284. 13. I b i d . , 285. 14. L e t t e r to the author from P h y l l i s B l akeley, 24 January 1984. 15. I b i d . 16. P u b l i c Archives of Nova S c o t i a Annual Report (1983): 10 . 17. P u b l i c Archives of Canada Annual Report (1905): xv. (Hereafter r e f e r r e d to as PACR.) 18. Ian Wilson, "Shortt and Doughty: The C u l t u r a l Role of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada, 1904-1935," Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2 (1973): 5. 19. I b i d . , 7. 134 20. PACR (1933): x x i i i . 21. I b i d . , v. 22. Quoted i n John Archer, A Study of A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada Ph.D. d i s s . , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1969, m i c r o f i l m , p. 106. 23. I b i d . , p. 92. 24. I b i d . , p. 107. 25. PACR (1935): v i i . 26. I b i d . (1938), x v i . 27. Archer, A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada, p. 130. 28. PACR (1947 ) : x. 29. I b i d . (1950), 14. 30. I b i d . , 3. 31. I b i d . (1959-69 ) , 4. 32. I b i d . , 7. 33. I b i d . (1971-72), 3. 34. I b i d . (1972-73), 13. 35. I b i d . , 13. 36. I b i d . (1981-82), 1. 37. Gerald K i l l a n , Preserving Ontario's Heritage: A H i s t o r y of the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l S ociety (Ottawa: Love P r i n t i n g S e r v i c e , 1976 ) , p. 182. 3 8 . I b i d . , pp. 6, 25-26. 39 . I b i d . , P- 94. 40 . I b i d . , P- 182. 41. I b i d . , P- 183 . 42. I b i d . , pp. 211-12. 43. Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society Annual Report 37 (1945); 99 . 44. K i l l a n , P r eserving Ontario's Heritage, pp. 217-18. 135 45. Gerald K i l l a n , "The Good, the Bad, and an Occasional Touch of the Ugly," Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society Papers and Records 67 (1975 ) : 58 . 46. George Brown, " P r o v i n c i a l Archives i n Canada," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review 16 (1935): 15. (Hereafter r e f e r r e d to as CHR.) 47. Archer, A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada, p. 20 3. 48. W i l l a r d I r e l a n d , "The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v a l Scene," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Report (1953): 72. (Hereafter r e f e r r e d to as CHAR.) 49. L e t t e r to the author from W i l l i a m Ormsby, 2 February 1984. 50. Champlain S o c i e t y , Annual Report 47 (1954): 4. (Hereafter r e f e r r e d to as CSAR.) 51. K i l l a n , "The Good, the Bad, and an Occasional Touch of the Ugly": 58. 52. Terry Eastwood, "R.E. G o s n e l l , E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d and the Founding of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia., 1894-1919," B.C. Studies 54 (1982): 40. 53. I b i d . , 52. 54. P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia Annual Report (1913): 6. 55. "Notes," B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q uarterly 1 (1937): 1. 56. L e t t e r to the author from John Bovey, 2 February 1984. 57 . CSAR 1 (1906): 3-4. 58. I b i d 11 (1916), 4. 59. I b i d 13 (1918), 4. 60 . I b i d 16/17 (1920-22), 3. 61. I b i d 25 (1931), 1. 62 . I b i d 29 (1935), 4-5. 63. Glyndwr W i l l i a m s , Hudson's Bay M i s c e l l a n y , 1670-1870 , Winnipeg: Hudson's Bay Record Society, 1975, pp. i x - x . 64. CSAR 42 (1949): 6. 136 65. See I b i d 76 (1983 ). 66. H i s t o r i c a l and S c e i n t i f i c Society of Manitoba Transactions 34 (1889): 3. (Hereafter r e f e r r e d to as Transactions. ) 67. G. F r i e s e n , "The Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l Society: A Centennial H i s t o r y , " Manitoba H i s t o r y 4 (1982): 3. 68. I b i d . , 2. 69. Transactions 33 (1889): 2. 70. F r i e s e n , "The Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S ociety": 4. 71. I b i d . , 5. 72. Transactions (1952-53): 3. 73. I b i d . ( 1958-59 ) , 4. 74. I b i d . (1960/61/62), 4. 75. I b i d . (1963-64), 5. 76. Sharon Babaian, "An Interview w i t h Manitoba's New P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , Mr. Peter Bower," Manitoba H i s t o r y 4 (1982): 19. 137 NOTES Chapter Two 1. "Notes and Comments," CHR 18 (1937): 45 7. 2. "Notes and Comments," CHR 19 (1938): 11. 3. Saskatchewan Archives Board, Report 1 (1945-46): 13. 4. I b i d . , 19. 5. L e t t e r to the author from Ian Wilson, 31 January 19 84, p. 2 . 6. Lewis H. Thomas, "Documentary Sources f o r Teaching Western Canadian H i s t o r y , " A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review 17 (1969): 25. 7. "Notes and Comments," CHR 16-17 (1952-53): 255. 8- A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1 (1953): 1. 9. H i s t o r i c a l Resources Act, Chapter H-8, Revised Statutes of A l b e r t a , 1980 , Section 9,. pp. 5-6. 10. L e t t e r to the author from W. Brian S p i e r s , 31 January 1984, p. 1. 11. P r o v i n c i a l Archives of A l b e r t a p u b l i c a t i o n s : Some Sources f o r Women's H i s t o r y at the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of A l b e r t a , Occasional Paper No. 2, by Jean Dryden, 1980; The H i s t o r i c a l E v o l u t i o n of the Department of Consumer and Corporate A f f a i r s , 1983; Voices of A l b e r t a , A Survey of Oral H i s t o r y Completed i n A l b e r t a up to 19 8 0 edited by Jean Dryden, 1981 ( a supplement i s a v a i l a b l e i n French); A l b e r t a ' s L o c a l H i s t o r i e s i n the H i s t o r i c a l Resources L i b r a r y , 19 83; Images i n Time, a Basic Guide to the Processing and P r e s e r v a t i o n of H i s t o r i a l Photographs, by Jean Dryden, 1982; Government Records C o l l e c t i o n s Held i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of A l b e r t a , 1983; W r i t i n g Local H i s t o r y edited and r e v i s e d by Alan D. Ridge, 1982; A l b e r t a at the Turn of the Century e d i t e d by E r i c J . 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MONTAGNES, Ian. "Microfiche and the S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h e r . " S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g 7 (1975): 63-84. MURRAY, J . "The Ontario H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . " Ontario L i b r a r y Review 16 (1931): 54-55. NEWSOME, A l b e r t R. "The A r c h i v i s t i n American Scholarship." American A r c h i v i s t 2 (1939 ): 21.7-24. NORTON, Margaret Cross. Norton On Arc h i v e s : The Writings of Margaret Cros s Norton on A r c h i v a l and Records Management. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press, 197 5. OLSON, James C. "The Scholar and Documentary P u b l i c a t i o n . " American A r c h i v i s t 28 (1965): 187-93. O'NEILL, Paul. "The Newfoundland H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . " Newfoundland Quarterly 76 (1980): 3-8. ONTARIO. Royal Commission on Book P u b l i s h i n g , Background Papers. Toronto, 197 2. Royal Commission on Book P u b l i s h i n g , Canadian P u b l i s h e r s and Canadian P u b l i s h i n g . 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PRATT, Dana J. " P u b l i s h i n g the 'Children of P r i d e ' . " S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g 5 (1973): 29-34. RABEN, Joseph. "The E l e c t r o n i c Revolution and the World Just Around the Corner." S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g 10 (1979) : 195-209. REINGOLD, Nathan. " R e f l e c t i o n s of an Unrepentant E d i t o r . " American A r c h i v i s t 46 (1983): 14-21. Report of the Federal C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee. Ottawa, 1982. RIDDELL, W i l l i a m Renwick. Review of The Correspondence of Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe, with a l l i e d Documents r e l a t i n g to h i s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Government of Upper Canada. Edited by E.A. Cruikshank. Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review 4 (1923): 342-44; 5 (1924): 369-71; and 7 (19277: 153-57. RUIGH., Robert E. "Aspects of Records P u b l i c a t i o n . " Canadian A r c h i v i s t 1 (1967): 3-6. RUNDELL, Walter J r . " C l i o ' s Ways and Means: A P r e l i m i n a r y Report on the Survey." H i s t o r i a n 30 (1967): 20-40. RUSSELL, Mattie U. "The Influence of H i s t o r i a n s on the A r c h i v a l P r o f e s s i o n i n the United States." American A r c h i v i s t 46 (1983): 277-85. SAVAGE, W i l l i a m W. J r . "Demand P u b l i s h i n g and the U n i v e r s i t y Press." S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g 5 (19 74): 179-81. S c h o l a r l y Communication: The Report of the N a t i o n a l Enquiry, Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979. SCHELLENBERG, Theodore R. Modern Archives: P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1965. SHELLEY, Fred. "The P u b l i c a t i o n Program of the Maryland H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . " American A r c h i v i s t 15 (1952): 309-20. "The P r e s i d e n t i a l Papers Program of the L i b r a r y of Congress." American A r c h i v i s t 25 (1962): 429-33. "The Choice of a Medium f o r Documentary P u b l i c a t i o n . " American A r c h i v i s t 32 (1969): 363-68. SHILLINGSBURG, Peter L. " C r i t i c a l E d i t i n g and the Centre f o r S c h o l a r l y E d i t i o n s . " S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g 9 (1977): 31-40. 149 SHIPTON, C l i f f o r d K. "The A r c h i v i s t and Ser v i c e . " American A r c h i v i s t 32 (1969): 5-9. SHORTT, Adam. "The S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r Canadian H i s t o r y of the Work of the Board of H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s . " Royal Society of Canada, Transactions, Series I I I (1919): 103-5. SMITH, Datus.C. J r . "A Case f o r On-Demand P u b l i s h i n g . " S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g 7 (1976): 169-78. SMITH, David E. "Celebrations and H i s t o r y on the P r a i r i e s . " J o u r n a l of Canadian Studies 17 (1982): 45-57. SMITH, W i l f r e d I. "Broad Horizons: Opportunities f o r A r c h i v i s t s . " American A r c h i v i s t 37 (1974): 3-14. STACEY, C P . "The P u b l i c Archives of Canada at the End of i t s F i r s t Century." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l Papers 1972: 11-22. STAPLETON, R. "The Champlain Society." M.A.S. Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983. STRONG-BOAG, Veronica. Review of A Pioneer Gentlewoman i n B r i t i s h Columbia: The R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Susan A l l i s o n . E d i t e d by Margaret A. Ormsby. Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review 59 (1978): 244-45. TAUBES, Ernest P. "The Future of M i c r o f i l m i n g . " American A r c h i v i s t 21 (1958): 153-58. TAYLOR, Hugh. "The P r o v i n c i a l Archives of New Brunswick." Acadiensis 1 (1971): 71-83. THATCHER, Sanford G. " On F a i r Use and L i b r a r y Photocopying." S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g 9 (1977 ): 313.-34. THOMAS, Lewis H. "Documentary Sources f o r Teaching Western Canadian H i s t o r y . " A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review 17 (1969): 23-25 . TIMINGS, E. Kenneth. "The A r c h i v i s t and the P u b l i c . " J o u r n a l of the Society of A r c h i v i s t s 2 (1962): 179-83. To Know Ourselves: The Report of the Commission On Canadian Studies. Ottawa: A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada, 1975. VEANER, A l l e n B. Studies i n M i c r o - P u b l i s h i n g 1853-1976: Documentary Sources. Westport, Connecticut: Microform Review, 1976. VOGT, George L. and John Bush Jones, eds., L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l E d i t i n g . Kansas: U n i v e r s i t y of Kansas L i b r a r i e s , 19 81. WILSON, Ian E. "Shortt and Doughty: The C u l t u r a l Role of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada, 1940-1935." Canadian A r c h i v i s t , 2 (1973): 4-25. WINDSOR, Kenneth N. " H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g i n Canada to 19 20." i n C a r l F. K l i n c k , ed. , L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of Canada, Toronto, 1966, pp. 220-24. YOUNG, James Harvey. "The Professor Buys a Book." S c h o l a r l y P u b l i s h i n g 6 (1974): 309-17. 150 APPENDIX Select L i s t of T i t l e s of Canadian Documentary P u b l i c a t i o n s (published by archives and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s ) The f o l l o w i n g , i s a s e l e c t l i s t , of documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s by Canadian f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l archives or h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . I t i s provided to i l l u s t r a t e the changes i n and de c l i n e of such p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada. The t i t l e s are l i s t e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , beginning w i t h major monographs and i n c l u d i n g documents published i n the major j o u r n a l of each i n s t i t u t i o n . While the l i s t i s as complete and accurate as p o s s i b l e , i t i s intended only as a guide and not as a comprehensive b i b l i o g r a p h y . • 151 NOVA SCOTIA P u b l i c Archives of Nova S c o t i a 1869 . S e l e c t i o n s from the P u b l i c Documents of the Province of Nova S c o t i a . E d i t e d by Thomas B. Akins. 1908 . O r i g i n a l Minutes of His Maj esty's Council at Annapolis Royal, 1720-1739. Edited by A r c h i b a l d M. MacMechan. 19 35 ; Holland's D e s c r i p t i o n of Cape Breton I s l a n d and Other Documents. Compiled w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by D.C. Harvey. 1937 . Diary of John Thomas. Jo u r n a l of Louis de C o u r v i l l e . Edited by John Clarence Webster. 1937. L o y a l i s t s and Land Settlement i n Nova S c o t i a . Compiled by Marion G i l r o y . 1937 . Thomas Pichen, the Spy of Beausej our, An Account of h i s Career i n Europe and America, with many O r i g i n a l Documents. Translated by A l i c e Webster, e d i t e d by John Clarence Webster. 1947. The E v o l u t i o n of the H a l i f a x F o r t r e s s , 1749-1928. Edited by G.M. S e l f w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of P. B l a k e l e y , under the d i r e c t i o n of D.C. Harvey. 1948. A Documentary Study of the Establishment of the Negroes i n Nova S c o t i a between the War of 1812 and the Winning of Responsible Government. * 1958." Sketches of Cape Breton, and Other Papers R e l a t i v e to Cape Breton I s l a n d . Edited by C. B. Fergusson. 196 5 . The D i a r y of Adolphus Gaetz. Edited by Charles Bruce Fergusson. 152 1967. Minutes of His Majesty's Council at Annapolis Royal, 173 6- 1749. Edited by Charles Bruce Fergusson. 1971. Clarkson's M i s s i o n to America, 1791-179 2. Edited by Charles Bruce Fergusson. 197 9 . Census of Nova S c o t i a ^ 18 2 7 ; Census of D i s t r i c t of P i c t o u 1817. Compiled by A l l a n C. Dunlop. P u b l i c Archives of Nova S c o t i a B u l l e t i n 1937. A Documentary Study of E a r l y Educational P o l i c y . E d i t e d by D.C. Harvey. 1939 . L e t t e r s of Rev. Norman MacLeod, 183 5-51. Edited by D.C. Harvey. 1941. A Documentary Study of P r o v i n c i a l Finance and Currency 1812- 36. Prepared by J.S. M a r t e l l . 1947 . A Documentary Study of the O r i g i n and D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Arms Fund. E d i t e d by D.C. Harvey. 1953 . J o u r n a l and L e t t e r s of Colonel Charles Lawrence. Edited by D.C. Harvey. 1956 . Journal or Diary of James Boutineau F r a n k l i n . Edited by D.C. Harvey. 1957. Glimpses of Nova S c o t i a 1807-24. Edited by Charles Bruce Fergusson. 1959 . L e t t e r s and Papers of Hon. Enos C o l l i n s . E d i t e d by C.B. Fergusson. 1960. The L i f e of Johnathon Scott. Edited by C.B. Fergusson. 153 1972. "The Old King i s Back": Amos "King" Seaman and h i s Diary. Edited by. C.B. Fergusson. NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY Report and C o l l e c t i o n s 187 8. Volume 1. "Journal of Colonel Nicholson at the Capture of Annapolis, 1710." pp, 59-104. "An Account of Nova S c o t i a i n 1743." pp. 105-10. " T r i a l s f o r Treason i n 1776-77." pp. 111-1.8. "Diary of John Thomas." pp. 119-40. 1879-80. Volume 2. "Journal of John Wither spoon. " pp.. 31-62. "The Acadian French." pp. 129-60. 1882-83. Volume 3. "Journal of Colonel John Winslow (17 5 5)." (Second Part) pp. 71-196. 1884. Volume 4. "Papers connected w i t h the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Governor Vetch." Edited by George Patterson." pp. 64-112. "Journal of Colonel John Winslow (1755)." ( F i r s t p a r t ) pp. 113-246 . 1885-86. Volume 5. "Copy of a Journal kept by Gordon (1758)." pp. 97-153. 1887-88. Volume 6. "King's College and Episcopate i n Nova S c o t i a (1783)." pp. 123-35. 1889-91. Volume 7. "Le t t e r s and other papers r e l a t i n g to the Ea r l y H i s t o r y of the Church of England i n Nova S c o t i a (1710)." pp. 89-127. 1892-1977. " Volumes 8-39. 0 154 Nova' S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly 1971. Volume 1. "Two L e t t e r s on the ' P a c i f i c a t i o n of Nova S c o t i a . ' " Edited by D.A. Muise. pp. 11-25. 1972. Volume 2. 0 197 3. Volume 3. "A Journal of the Pro c e e d i n g s . . . ( S i r W i l l i a m Expedition to Port Royal, A p r i l 2 3 - May 30, Edited by Ruth E. Kaulback. pp. 131-43. " L e t t e r from Another World, 17 5 7." Edited by Macleod. pp. 197-213. 1974. Volume 4. "L e t t e r s of Norman Wade." Edited by Leone B. Cousins. pp.117-46. "The Journal of Helen Sophia Perry -- Winter of 1909-10." Edited by Lawrence Kent Sweeney. pp. 345-53. 1975. Volume 5. " W i l l i e Goes to War." Edited by A.C. Dunlop. pp. 1-20. 1976. Volume 6. "A S h i p b u i l d i n g Document from Sherbrooke V i l l a g e . " E d i t ed w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by John N. Grant. pp. 159-65. 19 77. Volume 7. 0 1978. Volume 8. "Charles Rogers Ward, E d i t o r of the Cape Bretonian." Edited by C.B. Fergusson. pp..273-88. 197 9. Volume 9. 0 1980. Volume 10. 0 Phipp s 1690 ) . " Malcolm 155 PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF CANADA 1907. Documents R e l a t i n g to the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Canada, 1759-1791. Edited by Arthur G. Doughty and Adam Shortt. 1910. Red R i v e r Settlement. Papers i n the Canadian Archives R e l a t i n g to the Pioneers. Selected by Chester M a r t i n . 1912. Documents R e l a t i n g to the Invasion of Canada and the Surrender of D e t r o i t , 1812. Edited by E.A. Cruikshank. 1914-15. The Canadi an N o r t h — w e s t i t s E a r l y Development and L e g i s l a t i v e Records. Edited by Edmund Henry O l i v e r . 1915. Documents R e l a t i n g to the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Canada, 1791-1818. Edited by Arthur G. Doughty and D.A. McArthur. 1924. The Voyages of Jacques C a r t i e r , Published from the O r i g i n a l s w i t h T r a n s l a t i o n s , Notes and Appendices. By H,P, Biggar. 1926. The N o r t h c l i f f e C o l l e c t i o n ; Presented to the Government of Canada by S i r L e i c e s t e r Harmsworth, Bt. , as a Memorial to h i s Brother the Right Honourable A l f r e d Charles W i l l i a m Harmsworth, Viscount N o r t h c l i f f e . 1929 . The Kelsey Papers. With an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Arthur G. Doughty and Chester Martin. [Co-published w i t h the P u b l i c Records O f f i c e of Northern I r e l a n d . ] 1930. A C o l l e c t i o n of Documents R e l a t i n g to Jacques C a r t i e r and the S i e u r de Roberval. Edited by H.P. Biggar. 156 1933 . Documents' R e l a t i n g to Currency, Exchange and Finance i n Nova S c o t i a with p r e f a t o r y Documents, 1675-175 8. E d i t ed by Adam Shortt. 1935 . Documents R e l a t i n g to the C o n s i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Canada, 1819-1828. E d i t e d by Arthur G. Doughty and Norah Story. 1937 . The Elgin-Grey Papers, 1846-1852. . Edited by Arthur G. Doughty. 1940 . The Oakes C o l l e c t i o n : New Documents by Lahontan Concerning Canada and Newfoundland. E d i t e d by Gustave Lanctot 1968. The L e t t e r s of S i r John A. Macdonald, 1836-1857. E d i t e d by J.K. Johnson. 1969 . The L e t t e r s of S i r John A. Macdonald, 1858-1861. E d i t e d by J.K. Johnson and Carole B. S.telmack. 1976. Overland to Oregon i n 1845: Impressions of a Journey across North America. Edited by Madeleine Major-Fregeau. P u b l i c Archives of Canada Annual Reports 1882 . . "Correspondence and Papers R e l a t i n g to D e t r o i t , 1772- 1784." pp. 61-63. 1886 . "Proposal by Samuel Waldo f o r the Reduction of Louisbourg i n 1758. " pp. 61-63. "Proposal by Samuel Waldo f o r S e t t l i n g Nova S c o t i a . " pp. 64-67. "Journal of Jacques Repentigny Legardeur St. P i e r r e of h i s Expedition f o r the discovery of the Western Sea, 1750 to 1752." pp. 68-79. " S i r Guy Carleton to Lord Shelburne, Remarks on Western Trade, 1768." pp. 80-82. " L i s t s of Ships, Regiments Embarked, Nominal Returns of O f f i c e r s , e t c . , and other t a b l e s R e l a t i n g to the French Regime i n Canada at the time of the Taking of Quebec i n 1759, and of Montreal i n 1760." pp. 83-87. " S e l k i r k Settlement L e t t e r Book of Captain Miles Macdonell, 1811 and 1812." pp. 88-125. "Journal of Captain Enys' V i s i t to Niagara i n 17 87." pp. 126-32. 157 1887 r " L e t t e r from M. Tremblay to the D i r e c t o r s of the Seminary of Quebec, 1695." pp. 32-54. "Capture of Fort McKay, P r a i r i e du Chien, i n 1814." pp. .5 4- 59. "Journal of Mr. C F . Hanington, from Quesnelle through the Rocky Mountains, during the winter of 1874-75." pp. 60- 82. 1888 . "The Walker Outrage, 1764." pp. 1-14. "General Murray's R e c a l l . " pp. 14-20. "The French Noblesse i n Canada a f t e r 1760." pp. 21-51. " P i e r r e Du Calvet." pp. 5 2-5 8. "The North West Trade." pp. 59-73. "French R o y a l i s t s i n Upper Canada." pp. 73-87. 1889 . "North-Western E x p l o r a t i o n s . " pp..1-39. " R e l i g i o u s , Educational and Other S t a t i s t i c s . " pp. 39-52. "Vermont N e g o t i a t i o n s . " pp. 5 3-5 9. "Before and A f t e r the B a t t l e of Edge H i l l . " pp. 59-71, "The Reservation of Indian Lands." pp. 72-80. "Canal from Lake Champlain to the St. Lawrence." pp. 80-89. 1890. "A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of J u s t i c e . " pp. 1-10. " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Act of 1791." pp. 10-47. "North Western E x p l o r a t i o n s . " pp. 48-67. " I n t e r n a l Commuications i n Canada." pp. 67-96. "Relations w i t h the United States a f t e r the Peace of 17 8 3." pp. 97-174. 1891. "Settlements and Surveys." pp. 1-36. " D i v i s i o n of Upper Canada." pp. 36-38. "War w i t h France, 1793." pp. 38-57. "French Republican Designs on Canada." pp. 57-84. "The Marriage Law i n Upper Canada." p. 85. 18.9 2- "Settlements and Surveys." pp. 1-9. "Lower Canada i n 1800." pp. 9-16. " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l A f f a i r s i n Lower Canada." pp. 16-32. " P o l i t i c a l State of Upper Canada i n 1806-7." pp. 32-135. "Courts of J u s t i c e f o r the Indian Coutry." pp. 136-47. "Proposed General Fishery and Fur Compnay." pp. 147-53. 1893. 0 189 4. 0 1895. "Relations des Voyages de P i e r r e E s p r i t Radisson, dans l e s Annees 1682-3 et 4." (with t r a n s l a t i o n ) pp. 1- 158 84. "Papers R e l a t i n g to Sable I s l a n d . " p. 84. 1896 . "Indian Lands on the Grand R i v e r . " pp. 1-2 4. " A n t i c i p a t i o n of the War of 1812." pp. 24-75. "Roman C a t h o l i c Church i n Upper Canada." pp. 76-86. 1897. "Proposed Union.between Upper and Lower Canada." pp. 1-47. "Claims f o r Losses, 1812-15." pp. 47-57. " I n t e r n a l Communications i n Canada." pp. 57-89. "North West Disputes." pp. 90-101. 1898. "Seige of Quebec." pp. 1-9. "Land Companies of Canada." pp. 9-34. " N a t u r a l i z a t i o n Question." pp. 35-57. 1899 . "Clergy Reserves." pp. 1-4 8. "Education i n the Canadas." pp. 49-67. "Report of the C i v i l and Other Establishments of Upper Canada." pp. 68-72. 1900 . "Education." pp. 1-49. "Emigration." pp. 49-70. 1901. 0 1902. 0 1903. 0 1904 . "Canadian Archives i n 1787, w i t h Index." " I n s t r u c t i o n s to Governors, Part I . " "D e s c r i p t i o n and State of the New Settlements i n Nova S c o t i a i n 1761, w i t h maps." "Papers r e : B i g o t , Verger and V i l l e r a y . " " L e t t e r of Father Ignace r e : Acadia." "Documents r e l a t i n g to the War of 17 75. Sentiments of the Indians." 190 5. (3 volumes) volume 1. " I n s t r u c t i o n s to Governors. Part I I . " "Imperial Orders i n Coun c i l , r e : Prince Edward I s l a n d , 17 6 7." "Plan of York i n 1823." "Plan of the F o r t i f i c a t i o n s of Quebec, by dr Lery." " L e t t e r s of V a u d r e u i l , Levis and Dumas i n 1760." "Plan of the B a t t l e of Ste. Foy, i n 17 60." "Memoire sur l a Navigation du Canada." "Plan of Quebec i n 1660." 159 "Journal of ' Le Formidable' i n 1757." "Journal of ' L ' i n f l e x i b l e ' i n 1757." volume 2. "Journal and Census of the Sieur de l a Roque, wi t h p l a n . " "Acadian Geneologies and Documents concerning the Ex p u l s i o n , w i t h index." volume 3. "Documents Concerning the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Canada, w i t h index." 1908-1910. 0 1911. 0 1912. "Journal Of the Expe d i t i o n under S i r W i l l i a m Phipps against Port Royal, 16 90." "Account of the t a k i n g of Port Royal by the Inhabitants of Boston and Salem." " L e t t e r from Captain Nicholson, dated James City,. V i r g i n i a , 4 November 16 90, to the Lords of Trade and P l a n t a t i o n s . " "Report by Captain Morris to Governor S h i r l e y upon h i s Survey of lands i n Nova S c o t i a a v a i l a b l e f o r Protestant S e t t l e r s . " "Correspondence of General James Murray, 17 5 9-17 91." "Correspondence Exchanged i n the years 1761 and 1762 between the Comte de V i r y and M. B a i l l de Soleu." "Memoranda r e l a t i n g to the Church i n Canada, from the E a r l i e s t times to 1837." "Correspondence and Journals of Bishop I n g l i s of H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , 1775-1814." "De Salaberry L e t t e r s , 1795-1829." "Patent of N o b i l i t y to Robert G i f f o r d , Seigneur of Beauport." 1913. "Ordinances made f o r the Province of Quebec since the Establishment of C i v i l Government u n t i l 1767." "Memorandum by the Hon. Toussaint P o t h i e r on p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n Canada, 1829." "Completion of the Correspondence and Journals of the Right Reverend Charles I n g l i s , and John I n g l i s , f i r s t and t h i r d bishops of Nova S c o t i a . " 1914-15. "Papers r e l a t i n g to the Surrender of Fort St. Johns and Fort Chambly." "Ordinances made f o r the Province of Quebec, by the Governor and Council of the s a i d Provinces, from 1768 u n t i l 1791." 1916. 0 160 1917-18 . "Ordinances and Proclamations of the Regime M i l i t a i r e . " "Proclamations.Issued by Government from 1764 u n t i l 1791." 1919-21. "Proclamations of Government of Lower Canada, 1792-1815." " L e t t e r s from Governor Parr to Lord Shelburne,. d e s c r i b i n g A r r i v a l and Settlements of United Empire L o y a l i s t s i n Nova S c o t i a , 1783-84." 1922-23. 0 1926. 0 19 2 8.. "Journal of A s s e l i n e de Ronual i n Canada, 1662." pp. 27-32. "The Beaver Trade Agreement, June 9, 1700." pp. 32-45. "Memorial of Major Paul Mascarene, November 13, 1713." pp. 45-55. "Some Account of the trade c a r r i e d on by the North West Company, 1809." pp. 56-74. " L e t t e r from Charles B u l l e r to John Stuart M i l l , October 13, 1838." pp. 74-77. 1929. "Montcalm's Correspondence." pp. 31-108. " F i r s t Journal of Simon Fras e r , 1806." pp. 10 9-46. " L e t t e r s from the Rocky Mountains from August 10, 1806 to February 10, 1807 by Simon Fras e r . " pp. 147-60. "Minute of the 30th A p r i l 1836." pp..161-71. 1930-1932. 0 1933. " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Documents 1818-1822." pp. 1-82. 1934-1938. 0 1939. "Deed of Reception and Approval f o r the Establishment of the Hotel Dieu of Quebec, September 15, 1639." pp. 41-42. "Deed of Reception and Approval f o r the Establishment of the Convent of the U r s u l i n e s , Quebec, September 28, 16 3 9." pp. 42-44. "Deed of Sale by C a v e l i e r de l a S a l l e to the Seminary of S a i n t - S u l p i c e of h i s Seigneury of S a i n t - S u l p i c e l a t e r known as Lachine, January 9, 1669.": pp. 44-47. " L e t t e r from Governor Cornwallis r e l a t i n g the f i r s t steps i n the founding of H a l i f a x , J u l y 23, 1749." pp. 47-49. " L e t t e r from Governor Patterson d e s c r i b i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n Prince Edward I s l a n d , October 24, 1770." pp. 49-52. " L e t t e r from Governor Carleton announcing the choice and naming of a s i t e as the c a p i t a l of New Brunswick, A p r i l 25, 1783." pp. 52-53. 161 "General L i s t of P a r t n e r s , Clerks and I n t e r p r e t e r s who winter i n the North West Company's Service w i t h the dates and nature of t h e i r r e s p s e c t i v e engagements, 1797. " pp. 53-57. " L e t t e r from Jules Quesnel to J.M. Lamothe d e s c r i b i n g the discovery of the Fraser R i v e r , New Caledonia, May 1, 1809." pp. 57-58. "Appointment by the Hudson's Bay Company of the Governor General of Canada, S i r John Young, as Governor-in-Chief of Rupert's Land, A p r i l 9, 18 70." pp. 5 8-5 9. "Instrument of Acceptance of the Surrender by the Hudson's Bay Company of c e r t a i n lands , p r i v i l e g e s and . r i g h t s w i t h i n the T e r r i t o r y of Rupert's Land, June 2, 1870." pp . 5 9 - 6 3 . 1940. "Canadian M i l i t i a Regulations under the French Regime and Ea r l y B r i t i s h Rule." pp. 5-22. "Canadian Sub s c r i p t i o n s to Great B r i t a i n ' s War E f f o r t , 17 98- 18 0 2." pp. 2 3-98. "Loan of Guns and Shot by Great B r i t a i n to the United. States i n 1798." pp. 99-108. 1941. 0 1942. "Early Rationing i n Canada." pp. x x i x - x x x v i . " E a r l y Control of P r i c e s . " pp. x x x v i i - l v i . "Treatment of Prisoners during the War of 1812." pp. l v i i - l i x . 1943. " F i r s t Representative body i n Canada, the Quebec C o u n c i l , 16 5 7." pp. x x v - x x v i i . "Reminiscences of Pioneer days by a Lady L o y a l i s t . " pp. x x v i i i - x x x i . "New Documents concerning the meeting of the Fathers of Confederation i n London, 1867." pp. x x x i i - x x x v . "Lord D u f f e r i n saves Quebec c i t y w a l l s from d e s t r u c t i o n , 18 7 5." pp. x x x v i . 1944. " F i r s t Meetings of the F i r s t Canadian House of Assembly," pp. x x x v i i - x x x i . " F i r s t Masonic I n i t i a t i o n i n Quebec." pp, x x x i i . " L i s t of Members and the F i r s t Meeting of the Montreal Grand Lodge." pp. x x x i i . "Appeals to the E l e c t o r s of Quebec from the Candidates i n the f i r s t Parliamentary E l e c t i o n . " pp, x x x i v - x x x v i . "Conditions i n Sydney i n 17 89." pp. x x x v i i - x x x v i i i . "Contraband Trade during the. War of 1812." pp. x x x i x - x l i . 1945. . "Notes and Reminiscences of an Inhabitant of Montreal during the Occupation of that C i t y by the Bostonians from 17 7 5 162 to 17 7 6 ." pp.. x x i i i - x x v i . "Conditions of Settlement at Tatamagouche, Nova S c o t i a , 1795." pp. x x v i i - x l i v . " C o l l e c t i v e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Cabinet M i n i s t e r s , 1876." pp. x l i v - x l v . " S i r John A. Macdonald's E l e c t i o n as Member f o r V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1878." pp.. x l v i - x l i x . 1946. "A True P i c t u r e of the Government of Canada f o r a few years." pp. x x i - x x i v . " H a l i f a x i n 17 93." pp. x x i v - x x i x . "Reminiscences of Captain James D i t t r i c k of St. Catherines, D i s t r i c t of Niagara, Upper Canada." x x i x - x x x i i . The Canadian North-West." pp. x x x i i i - x x x v . "House Heating and Smoke Prevention i n 1881." pp. x x x v i - x x x i x . 1947. "The Quebec Council of 16 4 7." pp. x x v - x x v i i . "Sentence against a Naval Captain, 17 2 9." p. x x v i i i " F i r s t Meat Coupons i n Canada, 17 5 7." p x x x v i i i . " S i d e l i g h t s on Smith F a l l s , P e r t h , B r o c k v i l l e , Kingston, Port Hope, Toronto, St. Catharines, Niagara,, and Bytown, 1838-40." pp. xxix-xxxv. " F i n a n c i a l and Economic Condition of Canada One Hundred years ago (1847)." pp. x x x v i - x l v i i . 1948. 0 1949. 0 1950-1983. 0 (As of 1950, a l l documentary and other m a t e r i a l i s to be published separately from the annual report. ) 163 ONTARIO Archives of Ontario •Annual Report 1904.. Vol. 2. "United Empire L o y a l i s t s : Enquiry i n t o the Losses and Services i n Consequence of t h e i r L o y a l t y . " pp. 11-1376. 1905. V o l . 3. "Documents R e l a t i n g to the Proceedings of the D i s t r i c t Land Boards." pp. cxxxi-520. 1906. Vol. 4. "Proclamations by Governors and Lieutenant Governors of Quebec and Upper Canada." pp. 1-474. 190 8. Vol. 5. 0 1910. V o l . 6. "Journals of Upper Canada: House of Assembly." pp. 1-482. 1910. Vol. 7. "Journals of Upper Canada: L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . " pp. 1-505. 1911. Vol. 8. "Journals of Upper Canada: L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly." pp. 1-487. 1912. Vol. 9. "Journals of Upper Canada: L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly." pp. 1- 566. 1913. V o l . 10. "Journals of Upper Canada: L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly." pp. 1- 513. 1914. Vol. 11. "Journals of Upper Canada: L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly." pp. 1-6 90. "Journals of the House of Assembly: Accounts f o r 18 23." pp. 691-728 . "Accounts, Upper Canada, 18 01." pp. 7 2 9-58. "Accounts, Upper Canada, 1802." pp. 759-82. 1915. Vol 12. "Journals of Upper Canada." pp. 1-286. 1916. Vol. 13. "Tour trhough Canada." pp. 15-120. "Correspondence of Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe." pp. 134-44. 1917. V o l . 14. "Records of the Court of Common Pleas: Upper Canada." pp. 25-451. 164 1918-19. Vol. 15. "Huron Manuscript from Reverend P i e r r e P o t i e r ' s C o l l e c t i o n . " pp. 1-821. .1920. Vol. 1.6. 0 1928. V o l . 17. "Grants of Crown Lands i n Upper Canada, 1789-91." pp. 7- 228. 1929. Vol. 18. "Grants of Crown Lands i n Upper Canada, 17 92-96." pp. 1-194. 1930. Vol. 19. "Grants of Crown Lands i n Upper Canada, 17 96-97." pp. 1- 175. Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society 1923-31. The Correspondence of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, with A l l i e d Documents R e l a t i n g to h i s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Government of Upper Canada. Ed i t e d by E. A. Cruikshank. 5 volumes. 1932-1936. The Correspondence of the Honourable Peter R u s s e l l , w i t h A l l i e d Documents R e l a t i n g to h i s A d m i n i s t r e a t i o n of the Government of Upper Canada. Edited by E.A. Cruickshank. 3 volumes. 1946 . The John Strachan L e t t e r Book: 1812-1834. Edited by George W. Spragge. Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society. Papers and Records and Ontario H i s t o r y 1899. Volume 1. "Marriage Record of Rev. John Langhorn." pp. 14-17. "Rev. G. 0 k i l l Stuart's R e g i s t e r at St. John's." p. 18. "Marriage Regist e r of St. John's Church, Ernesttown, No. 2 and No. 3." pp. 19-28. "In the P a r i s h R e g i s t e r of St. George, Kingston." p. 29. "A R e g i s t e r of Baptisms f o r the Township of Fredricksburgh." pp. 30-59. 165 "Rev. John Langhorn's Records, 1787-1813 -- B u r i a l s . " pp. 59-63. "Rev. John Langhorn's Registe r of St. Paul's Church, Fredricksburgh." pp. 6 4-7 0. "Memorial Tablet [to Rev. Robert McDowall]." p. 71. "A R e g i s t e r of Baptisms by the Rev. Robert McDowall. pp. 95-10 8. "Marriage Register of Stephen Conger, J.P., H a l l o w e l l . " pp. 109-12. "The Cameron R o l l s , 1812." Edited by David Boyle. pp. 132- 38. "The Talbot Settlement and B u f f a l o i n 1816." pp. 139-40. 190 0. Volume 2. 0 19 0.1. Volume 3. "Earl y Records of St. Mark's and St. Andrew's Churches, Niagara." Edited by Janet Carnochan. pp. 7-8. "Baptisms i n Niagara, by Rev. Robert Addison." pp. 9-52. "Weddings at Niagara, 1792-1832." pp. 53-65. " B u r i a l s , Niagara, 1792-1829." pp. 66-73. "Register of Baptisms, commencing 29th June, 1817, Township of Grimsby." pp. 74-77. "Register of Marriages, Township of Grimsby, U.C., commencing August 1817." pp. 77-80. "Register of B u r i a l s i n the Township of Grimsby." p. 80. "Register of Ch r i s t e n i n g s i n the P r e s b y t e r i a n Congregation, Township of Newark, Upper Canada." pp. 81-8 2. "Register of B i r t h s and Baptisms, St. Andrew's Church, Niagara." p. 8 3. "Marriages Celebrated by Rev. Robert M c G i l l . " pp. 84-85. 190 3. Volume 4. " D o l l i e r de Casson and de Brehaut de Galinee: E x p l o r a t i o n of the Great Lakes, 1669-16 70. Galinee's N a r r a t i v e and Map. Translated and e d i t e d by James H. Coyne. Part I. pp. x x x v i i , 8 9 . 190 4. Volume 5. "A R e g i s t e r of Baptisms and Marriages i n the Gore and London D i s t r i c t s , by the Rev. Ralph Leeming, from 1816 to 1827." Edited by H.H. Robertson. pp. 91-101. "Ancaster P a r i s h Records, 1830-1838." pp. 102-77. "A Record of Marriages Solemnized by W i l l i a m Smart, M i n i s t e r of the Pr e s b y t e r i a n Congregation, B r o c k v i l l e , Elizabethtown, Upper Canada." pp. 187-236. 190 5. Volume 6. "Journal of a Journey from Sandwich to York i n the Summer of 180 6, by Charles Aikens." pp. 15-20. "The John Richardson L e t t e r s . " E d i ted by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 20-36. "Lutheran Church Record, 1793-1832." Edited by Thomas W. Casey, pp. 136-37. "Baptism Regist e r of Ebenezer Lutheran Church." pp. 137-59. 166 "Assessment of the Township of H a l l o w e l l f o r the Year 18 0 8." pp. 168-70. 190 6 . Volume 7. "Baptisms (1761 to 1786), Marriages (1782 to 1786), and Deaths (1768 to 1786), Recorded i n the P a r i s h Registers of Assumption, .Sandwich." Edited by Francis Cleary. pp. 31- 97. "Black L i s t : A L i s t of those Tories who Took Part w i t h Great B r i t a i n i n . the Revolutionary War and Were A t t a i n t e d of High Treason... P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1802." pp. 109-20. "An Old Family Account Book." Edited by Michael Gonder Sherk.. . pp. 120-39. 190 8. Volume 8. "Early Churches i n the Niagara Peni n s u l a , Stamford and Chippawa, w i t h Marriage Records of Thomas Cummings, and E x t r a c t s from the Cummings Papers." Edited by Janet Carnochan. pp. 149- 225. 1910. Volume 9. "Register of Baptisms, Marriages and Deaths, at St. Thomas, U.C., Commencing wi t h the Establishment of the M i s s i o n i n J u l y , 1824." pp. 127-96. 1913. Volume 10. " C o l l e c t i o n s of H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l R e l a t i n g to the War of ..1812." edited by Frank H. Severance. pp. 43 = 5 6. 1913. Volume 11. 0 1914. Volume 12. 0 1915. Volume 13. "Some Unpublished L e t t e r s from General Brock." Edited by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 8-23. 1916. Volume 14. " A r r i v a l s and Departures of Ships, Moose Factory, Hudson Bay, Province of Ontario (1751-1880)." Edited by J.B. T y r r e l l , pp. 16 3-68. 1917. Volume 15. " M i l i t a r y R e g i s t e r of Baptisms f o r the S t a t i o n George, Upper Canada, 1821-1827." pp. 35-39. "A L e t t e r Written i n 1836." Edited by J . Squair. • 49. 1918. Volume 16. 0 1919. Volume 17. "A Contemporary Account of the R e b e l l i o n i n Upper Canada, 1837, by George Coventry." Edited by A.F. Hunter and of Fort pp. 46- 167 W.R. R i d d e l l . pp. 113-74. 1920. Volume 18. 0 192 2. Volume 19. "The Diary of Benjamin Lundy Written During h i s Journey through Upper Canada, January 18 3 2." Edited by Fred Landon. pp. 110-33. 1923. Volume 20. "Some L e t t e r s of Robert N i c h o l . " E d i t ed by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 41-74. 1924. Volume 21. "A Journey from Montreal to Kingston i n 17 91." Edited by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 99-159. "The F i r s t Session of the Executive Council of Upper Canada, held i n Kingston, J u l y 8 to J u l y 21, 1792." pp. 160- 70 . 1925. Volume 22. "The Rev. John O g i l v i e , D.D., an Army Chaplain at Fort Niagara and Montreal, 175 9-1760." Edited by A.H. Young, pp. 296-337. 19 26. Volume 23. "The News of Niagara a Century Ago." Edited by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 45-64. "A Story of Ear l y Upper Canada." Edited by W i l l i a m Renwick R i d d e l l . pp. 384-88. "Diary of a Voyage from London to Upper Canada i n 18 3 3." Edited by M i l l i c e n t P o l l o c k Steele and E l l e n Frances Steele. pp. 483-510. "The Diary of CM. Wright, 58th B a t t . , 14th Brigade, France, No. 1260428." Edited by CM. Wright.. pp. 511-22. 19 27. Volume 24. " P e t i t i o n s f o r Grants of Land, 1792-96." Edited by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 17-144. "Conditions i n York County a Century Ago." Edited by David Gibson. pp. 356-65. "The Probated W i l l s of Persons Prominent i n the P u b l i c A f f a i r s of Ear l y Upper Cnaada." Second C o l l e c t i o n e d i t e d by A.F. Hunter. pp. 381-409. 19 29. Volume 25. "Simcoe's M i s s i o n to Saint Cruikshank. pp. 78-144.t "An Ea r l y Baptismal R e g i s t e r , Smart." pp. 367-84. Domingo." Edited by E.A. B r o c k v i l l e , by Rev. W i l l i a m 19 30. Volume 26. " A d d i t i o n a l Correspondence of Robert N i c h o l . " Edited by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 16-36. " P e t i t i o n s f o r Grants of Land In Upper Canada, Second 168 S e r i e s , 1796-99." E d i t e d by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 97- 379. "S e l e c t i o n s from the Papers of James Evans, Missionary to the Indians." Edited by Fred Landon. pp. 474-97. "The Proudfoot Papers, 1833." Edited by Rev. M.A. Garland, pp. 498-572. 19 31. Volume 27. "Rev. W i l l i a m Jenkins of Richmond H i l l . " E d i t e d by A.J. Clark . pp. 15-76. "The Registe r of Saint Paul's Church at Fort E r i e , 1836- 1844." E d i t e d by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 77-192D. "The Proudfoot Papers." Edited by Rev. M.A. Garland. pp. 435-96. "Surveyor Charles Rankin's E x p l o r a t i o n f o r the Pioneer Road, Garafraxa to Owen Sound, 18 3 7." Edited by E.W. Banting and A.F. Hunter. pp. 497-510. 1932. Volume 28. " E a r l i e s t Missionary L e t t e r s of Rev. John Douse, w r i t t e n from the S a l t Springs M i s s i o n on the Grand Ri v e r i n 1834 and 1836." Edited by A.J. Clark. pp. 41-46. "L e t t e r s of Rev. James Evans, Methodist M i s s i o n a r y , w r i t t e n during h i s voyage to and residence i n the Lake Superior Region, 1838-39." Edited by Fred Landon.. pp. 47-70. "The Proudfoot Papers, 1834-35." Edited by Rev. M.A. Garland. pp. 71-113. "Last O f f i c i a l Report on the French Posts i n the Northern Part of North America." E d i t e d by W i l l i a m Renwick R i d d e l l . pp. 132-39. 193 3. Volume 29. "More Langhorn L e t t e r s . " E d i t e d by A.H. Young. pp. 47-71. "The E a r l y L i f e and L e t t e r s of the Honourable Peter R u s s e l l . " E d i ted by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 121-40. "The Proudfoot Papers." E d i t e d by Rev. M.A. Garland. pp. 141- 59. 1934. Volume 30. "The Proudfoot Papers." Edited by Rev. M.A. Garland. pp. 124- 42. "Journal of the Honourable W i l l i a m Morris's M i s s i o n to England i n the Year 1837." E d i t e d by E.C. Kyte. pp. 212-62. 19 3 6.. Volume 31. 0 193 7. Volume 32. "The Proudfoot Papers." E d i t e d by Rev. M.A. Garland. pp. 9 2-103. 1939. Volume 33. "Schenectady to M i c h i l i m a c k i n a c , 1765-1766, Jo u r n a l of John Porteus." Edited by Fred Coyne Hamil. pp. 75-98. 169 1942. . Volume 34.' 0 194 3 . Volume 3 5 ." . " A Recovered L e t t e r , W.W. Baldwin to C.B. Wyatt, 6th A p r i l , 1813." Edited by J. McE. Murray. pp. 49-55. 1944. Volume 36. 0 1945. Volume 37. 0 1946. Volume 38. "Diary of E l i s h a H a r r i s Brown, of N i s s o u r i , January 29, 1860 - March 26, 1860." Edited by Helen H.B. Duncan. pp. 57-72. " P a r i s h R e g i s t e r of B r o c k v i l l e and V i c i n i t y , 1814-1830." Edited by H.R. Morgan. pp. 77-108. 1947. Volume 39. 0 (NOTE: T i t l e Changes to Ontario H i s t o r y . ) 1948. Volume 40. "The Johnson L e t t e r s . " E d i t e d by Louise Wyatt. pp. 27-52. 194 9. Volume 41. "A L e t t e r from John G a i t . " pp. 15 3-55. "A L e t t e r from Ogdensburg i n 1814." Edited by Fr e d e r i c k C. Curry, pp.- 207-11 . "An Old Apprenticeship Indenture." pp. 217-18. 1950. Volume 42. "Phoebe Roberts' Diary of a Quaker Missionary Journey to Upper Canada." Edited by L e s l i e Gray. pp. 7-46. "The Diary of Peter Brown." Edited by J.M.S. Careless. pp. 57-66. " P o r t r a i t s of Canadian Parliament of 1850." Edited by N e i l F. Morrison. pp. 153-58. "A L e t t e r of 1837." pp. 159-62. "John Strachan's Journey from Montreal to Kingston i n December 1799." Edited by T.A. Reed. pp. 213-17. 19 51. Volume 43. "The Diary of W i l l i a m Graves. The Record of a V i s i t to Canada i n 1820." Edited by Donald F. McOuat. pp. 1- 28 . "A L e t t e r from John Talbot, 183 8." Edited by Fred Landon. pp. 43-46. "Another L e t t e r from John Talbot, 183 8." Edited by Fred Coyne Hamil. p. 81-82. "An American Consul's Advice, 18 7 0." Edited by Frank U n d e r h i l l . pp. 151-54. 1952. Volume 44. "Thames — I t s Banks." Edited by R.M. Lewis. pp. 15-22. "George Ryerson to S i r Peregrine M a i t l a n d , 9 June 1826." Edited by C.B. Sissons. pp. 23-29. 170 " L e t t e r s from John Talbot." Edited by L e s l i e R. Gray. pp. 139-64. 1953. Volume 45. "The Diary of Augusta S i l v e r t h o r n . " E d i t e d by A l i c e Wetherell. pp. 75-81. "A T r i p to Upper Canada, August 183 5, from the d i a r y of John Armour J r . " E d i t d by T.R. Woodhouse. p. 12 9-43. "Thomas Talbot and Lord W h a r n c l i f f e : some new l e t t e r s h i t h e r t o unpublished." Edited by W.H.G. Armytage. pp. 177-97. 19 54. Volume 46. "From Bethlehem to F a i r f i e l d , 17 98, d i a r y of the Brethren John Heckewelder ..and Benjamin Mortimer." Part I. Ed i t e d by L e s l i e R. Gray. pp. 37-61. " L e t t e r s from Chief J u s t i c e W i l l i a m Osgoode, a s e l e c t i o n from h i s Canadian Correspondence, 1791-1801." Part I . Edited by W i l l i a m Colgate. pp. 77-95. "From Bethlehem to F a i r f i e l d , 1798, d i r y of the Brethren John Heckewelder and Benjamin Mortimer." Part I I . Edited by L e s l i e R. Gray. pp. 107-31. " L e t t e r s from Chief J u s t i c e W i l l i a m Osgoode. A S e l e c t i o n from h i s Canadian Correspondence, 17 91-1801." Part I I . Edited by W i l l i a m Colgate. pp. 14 9-6 8. 19 55. Volume 47. "A Diary of 1837, by John Sa n d f i e l d Macdonald." Edited by George W. Spragge. pp. 1-11. "The Diary of John White, F i r s t Attorney General of Upper Canada, 1791-1800." Edited by W i l l i a m Colgate. pp. 147-70. "Comments on Upper Canada i n 1836, by Thomas Carr." Edited by G. M. C r a i g . pp. 171-79. 1956. Volume 48. "Upper Canada at War, 1814, Captain Armstrong Reports." Edited by Col. C P . Stacey. pp. 37-42 . "The M a n i t o u l i n L e t t e r s of the Rev. Charles Crosbie Brough." Edited by Rundall M. Lewis pp. 63-80. "A V i s i t to Upper Canada i n 1830, by John Richards." Edited by George W. Spragge. pp. 117-24. 195 7. Volume 49. "L e t t e r s from Thomas Talbot to John Beverley Robinson." Edited by J.M.S. Careless. pp. 25-41. "Two Simcoe L e t t e r s to S i r James Bland Burgess." Edited by Sydney Jackman. pp. 42-45. "From F a i r f i e l d to Schonbrun -- 17 98. Diary of Br. and Sr. Zeisberger and Br. Benj. Mortimer." E d i t e d by L e s l i e R. Gray. pp. 63-96. "A Wedding T r i p of 1854." Edited by N e i l F. Morrison. pp. 195-97. "An E a r l y Town Meeting." Edited by John S. Moir. p. 198. "The Diary of Mahlon Bur w e l l , January 24 to August 4, 1827." 171 Edited by Rundall M. Lewis. pp. 199-219. 195 8. Volume 50. "A S e t t l e r ' s A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l Sketch." Edited by Charles W. Humphries. pp. 91-95. "An Account of the F i r s t M i s s i o n of the Associate Synod to Canada West by Thomas Beveridge." Edited by Andrew W. Taylor. pp. 101-11. "An A r t i s t Inspects Upper Canada, the Diary of Daniel Fowler, 1843." Edited by Thomas R. Lee. pp. 211-2'8.' 195 9. Volume 51. "The Diary of Aaron Wismer (1844-1931), Jordon Ontario." Edited by Ruth M. Home. pp. 39-42. "An Ea r l y Record of Laura Secord's walk." Edited by John S. Moir. pp. 105-108. "A L e t t e r from Government House, Toronto., December 18 3 7." Edi t e d by George W. Spragge. pp. 231-36. "The Diary of Henry Ransford." Edited by D.H. Mclnnes. pp. 251-58 . 1960. Volume 52.. "The A r t i s t Turns Farmer, Chapters from the Autobiography of Daniel Fowler." Edited by Thomas R. Lee. pp. 99-110. "T r a f a l g a r Township i n 1817." Edited by Hazel C. Mathews, pp. 111-16. "The Steamship T r a v e l l e r and the R e b e l l i o n of 1837." Edited by George W. Spragge. pp. 251-56. 1961. Volume 53. "Rendezvous at Moose Factory, 1882." Edited by Morris Zaslow. pp. 81-94. 196 2. Volume 54. "The Cronkhite Papers." Edited by Lucy B. Martyn. pp. 189- 90. 196 3. Volume 55. 0 196 4. Volume 56. 0 196 5. Volume 57. "A L e t t e r on the Reform Party, 1860: Sa n d f i e l d MacDonald and the London Free Press." Edited by Bruce W. Hodgins and Elwood H. Jones. pp. 39-45. "Three L e t t e r s of W i l l i a m Osgoode, F i r s t Chief J u s t i c e of Uppr Canada." Edited by A.R.M. Lower. pp. 181-87. 1966. Volume 58. "The Rev. Newton Bosworth: Pioneer S e t t l e r on Yonge S t r e e t . " Edited by F.H. Armstrong. p. 163-71. 196 7. Volume 59. "Reminiscences of the f i r s t Sarnia Survey." Edited by George Smith and L e s l i e K. Smith. pp. 79-88. 172 "The Cock-Pit: 186 9. Tournament at Brockton. Grand- Gathering of Rowdies. An Alderman Among them. B r u t a l Scenes." Edited by Peter B. Waite. pp. 89-92. "Edward Blake: A P o r t r a i t of h i s Childhood by Catherine Hume Blake." E d i t e d by Margaret A. Banks. pp. 92-96. 196 8. Volume 60. " S i r James Gowan, S i r John A. Macdonald, and the R e b e l l i o n of 1837." E d i t e d by J.K, Johnson. pp. 61-64. 1969. Volume 61. "The Abortive Fenian U p r i s i n g i n Canada West, a Documentary Study." Edited by W.S. Neidhardt. pp. 74-76. 1970. Volume. 62. 0 19 71.. Volume 63. "The Macdonald-Gowan L e t t e r s , 1847." E d i t e d by F.H. Armstrong. pp. 1-14. "William O'Brien's, Canadian Correspondence." Edited by Daniel C. Lyne. pp. 131-38. 197 2. Volume 64. "Glimpses at a Hamilton Family." Edited by J e f f r e y Wollock. pp. 105-15. 1973-1981. Volumes 65 - 73. 0 173 BRITISH COLUMBIA P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia 1918 . House of Assembly Correspondence Book, August 12th, 1856 t o J u l y 6th, 185 9 [Vancouver I s l a n d House of Assembly]. 1918. Minutes of the Council of Vancouver I s l a n d : Commencing August 30th, 1851. and Terminating with the Prorogation of the House of Assembly, February 6th, 18 61. 1918.. Minutes of the House of Assembly of Vancouver I s l a n d , August 12th, 1856 to September 25th, 1858. 1923 . Menzie's J o u r n a l of Vancouver's Voyage, A p r i l to October, 17 9 2 E dited by C F . Newcombe, M.D. 1931. The Overlanders of '62. Edited by M.S. Wade. 1945. The J o u r n a l of John Work, January to October, 1835 Edited by H.D. Dee. 1974. Lady F r a n k l i n V i s i t s the P a c i f i c Northwest, Being E x t r a c t s from the L e t t e r s of Miss Sophia C r a c r o f t , S i r John F r a n k l i n ' s Niece February to A p r i l 1861 and A p r i l to J u l y , 18 7 0. E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Dorothy Blakey Smith. 1980 . Journals of the C o l o n i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s of the Colonies of Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1851-1871 ed i t e d by James E. Hendrickson. 174 B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly (Published by the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia i n cooperation w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . ) 1937. Vol. 1. "Peter Skene Ogden's Notes on Western Caledonia," edited by W.N. Sage, pp. 45-56. "Three Simpson L e t t e r s : 1815-1820," edit e d by M u r i e l R. Cree, pp. 115-21. "Fort Langley Correspondence: 1831-1858," pp. 187-94. "Simpson to Tolmie, January 28 , 185 6: A L e t t e r from C C . Gardiner," edited by Robie L. Reid, pp. 243-5 3. 1938. V o l . 2. 0 1939. V o l . 3. "An Early C o l o n i z a t i o n Scheme i n B r i t i s h Columbia," edited by F.W. Howay, pp. 51-6 3. "The Discovery of H i l l ' s . Bar i n 1858: An O r i g i n a l N a r r a t i v e by James Moore," pp. 215-20. 1940. Vol. 4. "The Census of Vancouver I s l a n d , 1855," pp. 51-58. "Helmcken's Diary of Confederation N e g o t i a t i o n s , 1870," edited by W i l l a r d E. I r e l a n d , pp. 111-28. "John Robson vs. J.K. Suter: An Exchange of A r t i c l e s Regarding Robson's E a r l y Career, O r i g i n a l l y P r i n t e d i n 1882," pp. 203-15. "The Annexation P e t i t i o n of 186 9," edit e d by W i l l a r d E. I r e l a n d , pp. 267-87. 1941. V o l . 5. "Memoirs and Documents R e l a t i n g to Judge Begbie," edited by W. . Kaye Lamb, pp. 12 5-47. "Two Narr a t i v e s of the Fraser River Gold Rush," pp. 221-31. " S a i l i n g D i r e c t i o n s Governing the Voyage of the Vessels 'Captain Cook' and 'Experiment' to the Northwest Coast i n the Fur Trade, A.D. 17 8 6," edited by F.W. Howay, pp. 285-96. 1942. Vol. 6. "Documents R e l a t i n g to the Mystery of Mrs. Barkley's Diary," pp. 49-59. "Four L e t t e r s from Richard Cadman Etches to S i r Joseph Banks, 1788-92," edited by F.W. Howay, pp. 125-39. "Four L e t t e r s R e l a t i n g to the Cruise of 'the 'Thetis' 1852- 53," edited by W. Kaye Lamb, pp. 189-206. "Correspondence R e l a t i n g to the Establishment of a Naval Base at Esquimalt, 1851-57," pp. 277-96. 1943. V o l . 7. "The Diary of Robert Melrose," pp. 119-34, 199-218, 182-95. 175 "Five L e t t e r s of Charles Ross, 1842-44," pp. 103-18. 1944. Vol. 8. "W i l l i a m S t u r g i s : The Northwest Fur Trade," edit e d by F.W. Howay,.pp. 11-2 5. "The Journal of John Work, 1835," edited by Henry Drummond Dee, pp. 127-46, 227-44, 307-18. 1945. Vol. 9... "Walter Moberley's Report on the Roads of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1863," edited by W.N. Sage, pp. 37-48. "The Journal of John Work," edited by Henry Drummond Dee, pp. 49-69, 129-46. 1946. Vol. 10. "McLoughlin 1s Statement of the Expenses Incurred i n the 'Dryad' Incident of 1834," edited by W. Kaye Lamb, pp. 291-97. 1947. Vol. 11. 0 1948. Vol. 12. • "Gold Rush Days i n V i c t o r i a , 1858-1859," edited .by W i l l a r d E. I r e l a n d , pp. 231-46. 1949. V o l . 13. . "An O f f i c i a l Speaks Out: L e t t e r of the Hon. P h i l i p J . Hankin to the Duke, of Buckingham, March 11, 1870," edited by W i l l a r d E. I r e l a n d , pp. 33-38. "The Diary of Martha Cheney E l l a , 1853-1856," edit e d by James K. N e s b i t , pp. 91-112, 257-70. 1950. V o l . 14. "Coal Seekers on Peace R i v e r , 1903. Diary of My Journey and Stay i n the Peace River D i s t r i c t i n the Year 1903, by John S t r i c k l a n d L e i t c h , " edited by W.N Sage, pp. 83-108. " L e t t e r s of Captain George Dixon i n the Banks C o l l e c t i o n , " edited by Richard H. D i l l o n , pp. 167-71. 1951. V o l . 15. " F i r s t Impressions: L e t t e r of Colonel Richard Clement Moody, R.E. to Arthur Blackwood, February 1, 18 5 9," edit e d by W i l l a r d E. I r e l a n d , pp. 85-107. 1952. V o l . 16. "Record of a T r i p to Dawson, 1898: The Diary of John Smith," edited by W.N. Sage, pp. 67-97. "An Alexander MacKenzie L e t t e r , . 17 93," edited by Richard H. D i l l o n , pp. 20 9-10. 1953. Vol. 17. 0 1954. Vol. 18. 0 176 1955. V o l . 19. "Harry G u i l l o d ' s Journal of a T r i p to Cariboo, 186 2," edited by Dorothy Blakey Smith, pp. 187-232. 19 56. Vol. 20. 0 1957-58. Vol. 21. "The Journal of Arthur Thomas Bushby, 1858-1859," edited by Dorothy Blakey Smith, pp. 83-19 8. 177 THE CHAMPLAIN SOCIETY 1907 . Marc Lescarbot. The H i s t o r y of New France. Volume I. Edited by W.P. Grant and H.P. Biggar. (1) 1908 . Ni c o l a s Denys. The D e s c r i p t i o n and Natu r a l H i s t o r y of the Coasts of North America (Acadia). Edited by W.F. Ganong. (2) 1908. Documents R e l a t i n g to the S e i g n i o r i a l Tenure i n Canada, 1598-1854. Edited by W.B. Munro. (3) 1909 . The Logs of the Conquest of Canada. Edited by W i l l i a m Wood. (4) 1910 . C h r i s t i e n LeClerq. New R e l a t i o n of Gaspesia. Translated and e d i t e d by W.F. GanongT (5) 1911 . Journey from P r i n c e of Wales F o r t , i n Hudson Bay, to the Northern Ocean, 1769-1772. Edited by J.B. T y r r e l l . (6T~ 1912. Marc Lescarbot.The H i s t o r y of New France. Volume 11.(7) 1914. Captain John Knox. H i s t o r i c a l J o u r n a l of the Campaigns i n North America, 1757-1760. Volumes I to I I I . Edited by S i r A.G. Doughty. (8,9,10 ) 1914. Marc Lescarbot. The H i s t o r y of New France. Volume I I I . (11) 1916. David Thompson. The N a r r a t i v e of David Thompson. Edited by J.B. T y r r e l l . (12 ) 1920-28 . The Canadian War of 1812. Edited by W i l l i a m Wood. (13-17) 3 volumes i n 4. 1927 . Journals and L e t t e r s of La Verendrye and h i s Sons. Edited by Lawrence J. Burpee-! (16) 1931. Documents R e l a t i n g to the E a r l y H i s t o r y of Hudson Bay. Edited by J.B. T y r r e l l 7 ~ T l 8 l 178 1932 . John McLean. Notes of a Twenty-Five Years' Service i n the Hudson's Bay T e r r i t o r i e s . Edited by W. Stewart Wallace. (19) . 1933. D i e r e v i l l e : Port Royal. Edited by J.C. Webster, with an E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n by Mrs. Webster. (20) 1934. Journals of Samuel Hearne and P h i l i p Turnor Between the Years 1774 and 1792. Edited by J.B. T y r r e l l . (21) 1934 . Documents R e l a t i n g to the Northwest Company. Ed i t e d by W. Stewart Wallace. (22T~ 1937. P a t r i c k Campbell. Travels i n the I n t e r i o r Inhabited Parts of North America. Edited by H.H. Langton and W.F. Ganong.-T2 3) 1938 . The Hargrave Correspondence, 18 21-43. E d i t e d by George de T. Glazebrook. (24) 1939. Sagard's Long Journey to the Country of the Hurons. Edited by George . M. Wrong, with a t r a n s l a t i o n by H.H. Langton. ( 25 ) 1940 . The J o u r n a l of Captain James Co l n e t t . Edited by F.W. Howay-! ( 26 ) 1946. L o y a l i s t N a r r a t i v e s from Upper Canada. Edited by J . J . Talman. (27) 1947. The L e t t e r s of L e t i t i a Hargrave. Edited by Margaret Arnett MacLeod. (28) 1948 . The Diary of Simeon Per k i n s . E d i t e d by H.A. I n n i s . (29) 1951-52. Du Creux: H i s t o r y of Canada. Ed i t e d by J.B. Conacher. (30,3T) 1953. The Walker E x p e d i t i o n to Quebec , 1711. Edited by G.S. 179 Graham. (32) 1955. Dufferin-Carnarvon Correspondence, 187 4-1878. Edited by C.W. de Kiewiet and F.H. U n d e r h i l l . (33) 1956 . Alexander Begg 1s Red Riv e r J o u r n a l , and other Documents R e l a t i n g to the Red Riv e r Resistance of 1869-70. Edited with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W.L. Morton. (3 47 1958 . Lord S e l k i r k ' s D i a r y , 1803-04. Edited, with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by P.C.T. White. (35) 1958 . The Diary of Simeon P e r k i n s , 1780-1789. E d i t e d with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by D.C. Harvey and notes by C.B. Fergusson. (36) 1959 . Records of the N i l e Voyageurs, 18 84-85. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by C P . Stacey. T37*l 1960 . The Canadian J o u r n a l of Lady Aberdeen, 1893-1898 . E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by J.T. Saywell. (38 1961. The Diary of Simeon P e r k i n s , 1790-1796. Edited with an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Charles Bruce Fergusson. 1962. David Thompson's N a r r a t i v e , 1784-1812. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Richard Glover. 1963-65. Diary of W i l l i a m Smith, 1784-1793. Volumes I and I I . Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by L e s l i e F.S. Upton. 1967. The Diary of Simeon P e r k i n s , 1797-1803. Edited with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Charles Bruce Fergusson. 1968. The Papers of the P a l l i s e r E x p e d i t i o n , 1857-1860. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Irene M. Spry. 1969. The J o u r n a l of G a b r i e l Franchere, 1811-1814.. An E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by Wessie T. Lamb, wit h the o r i g i n a l French t e x t . Edited w i t h an i n r o d u c t i o n and notes by W. Kaye Lamb. 180 1970 . The J o u r n a l of Major John Norton, 1816. Edited with an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by C a r l F. K l i n c k and James J . Talman. 1972. Telegrams of the North-West Campaign, 18 8 5. E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Desmon Mortona and Reginald H. Roy. 1974-75. Customs of the American Indians Compared with the Customs of P r i m i t i v e Times by Father Jospeh Francois L a f i t a u . Volume I I . E d i t e d and t r a n s l a t e d by W i l l i a m N. Fenton and E l i z a b e t h L. Moore. 1978 . The Diary of Simeon P e r k i n s , 1804-1812. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Charles Bruce Fergusson. 1981. Lord Minto's Canadian Papers. Edited w i t h an i n r o d u c t i o n by Paul Stevens and John T. Saywell. Unnumbered Series 1922-36. The Works of Samuel D. Champlain. Edited by H.P. Biggar. 181 Ontario Series 1957. The V a l l e y of the Trent. E d i t e d by E.C. G u i l l e t . (1) 1958 . Royal Fort Frontenac. T r a n s l a t i o n s by Leopold Lamontagne, edite d w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by R.A. Preston. (2) 1959 . Kingston before the War of 1812. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by R.A. Preston. (3) 1960. The Windsor Border Region. Canada's Southernmost F r o n t i e r . Edited by E.J. Lajeunesse. (4~5 1962 . The Town of York, 1793-1815. Ed i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by E d i t h G. F i r t h . ( 5 l 196 3 . Muskoka and H a l i b u r t o n , 1615-1875. Ed i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Florence .B. Murray. (6) 1964 . The V a l l e y of the S i x Nations. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Charles M. Johnston"! (7) 1966. The Town of York, 1815-1834. Ed i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by E d i t h G. F i r t h . (8) 1973. Thunder Bay D i s t r i c t , 1821-1892. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by E l i z a b e t h Arthur. (9) 1977 . Ontario and the F i r s t World War, 1914-1918. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Barbara M. Wilson. (10) 1980 . John P r i n c e : A C o l l e c t i o n of Documents. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by R. Alan Douglas. (11) 182 HUDSON'S BAY RECORD SOCIETY Hudson's Bay Company Series P u b l i c a t i o n s (The f i r s t 12 volumes of the Hudson's Bay Company Series were p u b l i c a t i o n s sponsored by the Champlain Society; i n 1950 the Hudson's Bay Record Society took over the or g a n i z a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n of the Hudson's Bay Company Series records.) 1938 . Simpson's Athabasca J o u r n a l . Edited by E.E. Rich, with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Chester Martin. (1) 1939 . Robertson's L e t t e r s , 1817-1822. and notes by E.E. RicTu ( 2 ) Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n 1940. Minutes of C o u n c i l , Northern Pepartment of Rupert's Land, 1821-31. E d i t d by R. Harvey Fleming, with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by H.A. I n n i s . (3) 1941. McLoughlin's Fort Vancouver L e t t e r s , 1825-28. Edited by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W. Kaye Lamb. (4) 1942. Minutes of Hudson's Bay Company, 1671-1674. Edited by E.E. Ric h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by S i r John Clapham. (5) 1943. McLoughlin's Fort Vancouver L e t t e r s , Second S e r i e s , 1839-44. Edited by E.E. Ri c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W. Kaye Lamb. (6) 1944. McLoughlin's Fort Vancouver L e t t e r s , T h i r d S e r i e s , 1844-46. Edited by E.E. Ri c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u t i o n by W. Kaye Lamb. (7) 1945 . Minutes of Hudson's Bay Company, 1679-1684 , F i r s t P a r t , 1679-82. Ed i t e d by E.E. Rich w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by G.N. Clark. (8) 1946 . Minutes of Hudson's Bay Company, 1679-1684 , Second P a r t , 1682-84. Ed i t e d by E.E. Ric h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by G.N. Clark. (9) 183 1947. Part of Despatch from George Simpson Esqr Governor of Ruperts Land. Edited by E.E. Ric h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W. Stewart Wallace. (10) 1948. Copybook of L e t t e r s Outward, &c., 1680-87. Edited by E.E. Ri c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by E.G.R. Taylor. (11) 1949 . James I sham's Observations on Hudsons Bay, 1743. With an i n t r o d u c t i o n by E.E. Rich. (12) (Vo l . 12 i s the f i n a l Champlain Society sponsored volume.) 1950. Ogden'. s Snake Country J o u r n a l s , 1824-26 . Edited by E.E. Rich w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Burt Brown Barker. (13) 1951. Cumberland House Journals and Inland J o u r n a l , 17.7 5—8 2 , F i r s t S e r i e s , 175-79. Edited by E. E. Ric h , with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Richard Glover. (14) 1952. Cumberland House Journals and Inland Journals , 1.7 7 5- 8 2 , Second S e r i e s , 1779-82. Ed i t e d by E.E. Ric h , with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Richard Glover. (15) 1953. John Roe's Correspondence with the Hudson's Bay Company on A r c t i c E x p l o r a t i o n , 1844-1855. Edited by E.E. Ric h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by J . M~ Wordie and R. J. Cyriax. (16) 1954. Moose Fort J o u r n a l s , 1783-85. Edited by E.E. R i c h , with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by G. P. de T. Glazebrook. (17) 1955. Black's Rocky Mountain J o u r n a l . Edited by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by R.M. Patterson. (18) 1956. London Correspondence Inward from Eden C o l v i l e , 1849-1852. Edited by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u t i o n by W.L. Morton. (19) 1957 . Hudson's Bay Copy Booke of L e t t e r s Commissions I n s t r u c t i o n s Outward, 1688-1696. Edited by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by K.G. Davie. (20) 1958-59. The H i s t o r y of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1670-1870. volume 1, 1670-1763, volume 2, 1763-1870. by E.E. Rich. (21,22)) 184 1961. Peter Skene Ogden's Snake Country J o u r n a l , 1826-27. Edited by K.G. Davies, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Dorothy 0. Johansen. (23) 1963. Northern Quebec and Labrador Journals and Correspondence, 1819-35. Ed i t e d by K.G. Davies, w i t h an i n t r o d u t i o n by Glyndwr W i l l i a m s . (24) 1965. L e t t e r s from Hudson Bay, 1703-40. Edited by K.G. Davies, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Richard Glover. (25) 1967. Saskatchewan Journals and Correspondence, Edmonton House 1795-1800 , C h e s t e r f i e l d House, 1800-1802. Ed i t e d with an i n t r o d u c i o n by A l i c e M. Johnson. (26 ) 1971. Peter Skene Ogden's Snake Country J o u r n a l s , 1827- 28 and 1828-29. Ed i t e d by Glyndwr W i l l i a m s , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by David E. M i l l e r . (28) 1973. London Correspondence Inward from S i r George Simpson, 18 41- 42. Edited by Glyndwr Williams w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by John S. G a l b r a i t h . (29) 1975 . Hudson's Bay M i s c e l l a n y , 1670-1870. Ed i t e d with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Glyndwr Wi l l i a m s . (30) 185 MANITOBA Manitoba Record Society 196 5. Volume 1. Manitoba: The B i r t h of a Province. Edited by W.L. Morton. 196 6. Volume 2. The Dafoe-Sifton Correspondence, 1919-1927 . ' Edited by Ramsay Cook. 196 8. Volume 3. The James Wickes Taylor Correspondence, 18 5 9-187 0. E d i t e d by H a r t w e l l Bowsfield. 1971. Volume 4. The D i a r y of the Reverend Henry Budd, 1870-1875.. Edited by Katherine P e t t i p a s . 197 9. Volume 5. Gateway C i t y : Documents on the C i t y of Winnipeg, 1873-1913. Edited by Alan F.J. A r t i b i s e . Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l Society (formerly H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Society of Manitoba) Transactions and Papers 1882-1888. Numbers 1 to 32. 0 188 9. Number 33. " O r i g i n a l L e t t e r s and Other Documents R e l a t i n g to the S e l k i r k Settlement" read by George Bryce and C.N. B e l l . lOp. 1889- 1890. Numbers 34 to 37. 0 1890. Number 38. "Two P r o v i s i o n a l Governments i n Manitoba, c o n t a i n i n g an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the R i e l R e b e l l i o n , w i t h an appendix embodying the four b i l l s of r i g h t s verbatim." by George Bryce. . l i p . 1890- 1901. Numbers 39 to 62. 0 190 3. Number 63. " L e t t e r s of a Pioneer, Alexander Ross." Edited by George Bryce. 15p. 1904-1906. Numbers 64 to 72. 0 186 1926-1930. New s e r i e s , Numbers 1 to 5. 0 1944-1946. New s e r i e s , Numbers 1 to 2. 0 1947. Number 3. "An E a r l y Manitoba Diary by. Percy Eaton -- E x t r a c t s from J.W. H a r r i s ' s p r i v a t e account of events and p e r s o n a l i t i e s , mainly i n Winnipeg from 1869 to 1922." pp.25-37. 194 8.. Number 4. 0 194 9. Number 5. " P r i v a t e L e t t e r s from the Fur Trade: A S e l e c t i o n from the correspondence of. W i l l i a m McMurray, C F , , between 1845 and 1871." Edited by C l i f f o r d P. Wilson. pp. 19-46. 1950-1979. Numbers 6 to 35. 0 Manitoba H i s t o r y (published by the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y and the H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c Society of Manitoba, 1946.) 194 6. Volume 1, number 1. "Extracts from the Na r r a t i v e of John P r i t c h a r d concerning the Massacre at Seven Oaks, June 19, 1816." pp. 2-3. "Red River Famine." pp. 4-5. "Peter F i d l e r ' s Notebook, 1794-1813." pp. 5-6. "The 'Declaration of Rights' of the Manitoba and North West Farmers Union." pp. 6-8. 1946. Volume 1, number 2. "The La Verendrye T r a i l . " p. 1 "The Law i n T r a n s i t i o n . " pp. 1-3.. "The Formation of Manitoba." pp. 3-6. " E l l e n Lowe's Diary." pp. 6-7. "Manifesto of the Knights of Labour." pp. 7-9. 1946. Volume 1, number 3. 0 Manitoba H i s t o r y 19 80. Number 1. "A L e t t e r from Elkhorn, 1884." pp. 33-34. 19 81. Number 2. "Odyssey of Mary C h r i s t i e . " E d i t e d by W. Fraser. p. 29. 1982. Number 3. "Ar m i s t i c e Day i n Winnipeg, 1918." pp. 29-30. 198 2. Number 4. 0 187 SASKATCHEWAN 1946-47. Annual Report No. 2. "Selected Records of the Department of the Attorney General of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , " pp. 31-7 8. Saskatchewan H i s t o r y 1948. Volume 1. "The Search f o r Water on the Canadian P l a i n s . " E d i t ed by Lewis H. Thomas. #1, pp. 5-8. "The Annual Reports of the Lieutenant-Governor of the North- west T e r r i t o r i e s . " E d i t ed by Lewis H. Thomas. #2, pp. 10-15. "The Lieutenant-Governor's Proclamations and Minutes." Edited by Lewis H. Thomas. #3, pp. 9-13. 1949. Volume 2.. "The T e r r i t o r i a l P u b l i c S e r v i c e . " Edited by Lewis H. Thomas. #1, pp. 14-18. "Early T e r r i t o r i a l H o s p i t a l s . " Edited by Lewis H. Thomas. #2, pp. 16-20. "The Reports of the Board of Education." Edited by Lewis H. Thomas. #3, pp. 15-19. 19 50. Volume 3. "Lloyd George's V i s i t to the North-West, 1899." Edited by Lewis H. Thomas, pp. 17-22. 1951. Volume 4. "The Journal of Edward K. Matheson." Edited by Ruth M. Buck. pp. 107-14. 195 2. Volume 5. "Governor La i r d ' s Thanksgiving Day Address, 1879." E d i t e d by Lewis H. Thomas. pp. 107-12. 1953. Volume 6. "The Diary of Robert M a r t i n , Part I . " pp. 5 3-65. "The Diary of Robert M a r t i n , Part I I . " pp. 10 2-14. 1954. Volume 7. "The Agrarian Movement i n the 1890's, Report of Address by J.M. Douglas at Sa l t c o a t s i n The Patron's Advocate, February 13, 1895." pp. 51-55. " P r i c e s and Wages i n 1890; from Report of J . T. Stemshorn, Dominion Government Immigration Agent, Regina, i n Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e i n 1890." pp. 102-3. 188 1955. Volume 8. "The Diary of Lieutenant J.A.V. Preston, 1885." pp. 95-107. 195 6. Volume 9. "Bruno D o e r f l e r , the Boundary "Bruno D o e r f l e r , 0. t S.B. , Part 0.S.B. Father I.." pp. Father Bruno's N a r r a t i v e , 2 6-31. Bruno's N a r a t i v e , the Boundary,' Part I I pp, 70-74 1957. Volume 10. "Bruno D o e r f l e r , O.S,B. the Boundary,' Part "Bruno D o e r f l e r , 0.S.B. Father Bruno's N a r r a t i v e , I I I . " pp. 11-26. Father Bruno's N a r r a t i v e , the Boundary, Part IV "The Diary of Arthur Rowe M i l l e r "The Edwin Brooks L e t t e r s , Part I, PP Tt 55-63. pp.. 63-70 . pp 104-14, 19 58. Volume 11. "The Edwin Brooks L e t t e r s , Part I I . " pp, 30-37. "The Edwin Brooks L e t t e r s , Part I I I . " pp. 67-75. 'Across 'Across 'Across 'Across 1959.. Volume 12. 0 I960 .. ...Volume 13. "Minutes of the North-West C o u n c i l , 1873-74." pp. 25-30. "The Saskatchewan Grain Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n : H i l l v i e w Branch Minutes, 1910-12." pp. 63-72. 1961. Volume 14. "Homestead Venture, 1883-1892, An Ayr s h i r e Man's L e t t e r s Home ( W i l l i a m Gibson)." pp. 98-109. "The Saskatchewan Grain Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n : White Bear Branch Minutes, 1915." pp. 71-75. 196 2. Volume 15. "North-West Rebellion,. 1885. R e c o l l e c t i o n s , R e f l e c t i o n s and Items from the Diary of Captain A. Hamlyn Todd who Commanded the Guards Company of Sharpshooters i n that E x p e d i t i o n . " E d i t e d by John Archer. pp. 1-18. "Homestead Venture, 1883-1892; An Ay r s h i r e Man's L e t t e r s Home (W i l l i a m Gibson), Part I I . " pp. 30-36. 1963. Volume 16. "The Journal of Reverend J.A. Mackay, Stanley M i s s i o n , 1870- 72." pp. 95-113. 1964. Volume 17. "The G r e n f e l l Mechanics and L i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t e , Minute Book, 1892-95." pp. 105-10. 1965. Volume 18. " L i t t l e Pine, An Indian Day School." Edited by Ruth M. Buck. pp. 55-62. 189 196 6. Volume 19. "Wascana Creek and the ' P i l e 0' Bones.'" pp. 111-18. 196 7. Volume 20. "Railway Branch L i n e s . " pp, 64-70. 1968. . Volume 21. "The Journal of George M. Dawson." Edited by A.R. Turner, pp. 1-23. "Louis R i e l ' s L e t t e r to President Grant." Edited by H. Bowsfield. pp. 67-75. "A Glimpse of 1885." E d i t e d by C.B, Fergusson. pp. 24-29. "The Rowbottom D i a r i e s . " Edited by S.W. Jackman. pp. 56- 66. "The Diary of Rifleman F o r i n . " Edited by R.H. Roy. pp. 100-11. 196 9. Volume 22. "The Journal of Eleanor Shepphird Matheson, P a r t . I . " Edited by Ruth M. Buck. pp. 6 6-72. "The Journal of Eleanor Shepphird Matheson, Part I I . " Edited by Ruth M. Buck. pp. 10 9-17. "Experiences of. a Depression Hobo." pp. 60-65. 1970. Volume 23. "Louis R i e l ' s P e t i t i o n of R i g h t s , 1884." Edited by Lewis H. Thomas. pp. 16-26. 1971. Volume 2 4. 0 197 2. Volume 25. "Reminiscences of the Hon. J.A. Calder." E d i t e d by A.R. Turner. pp. 55-75. 197 3. Volume 26. 0 1974. Volume 27. "Louis R i e l ' s R e l i g i o u s B e l i e f s : A L e t t e r to Bishop Tache." Edited by Thomas E. Flanagan. pp. 15-28. 1975. Volume 28. 0 197 6. Volume 29. "A B i r d Watcher's Outing i n 18 5 8." Edited by Stuart Houston. pp. 14-25. "D. Essar: A L e t t e r from an Ea r l y Saskatchewan S e t t l e r . " pp.65-72. 1977. Volume 30. 0 190 ALBERTA P r o v i n c i a l Archives of A l b e r t a 1978 . L e t t e r s of L o v i s a McDougall, 1878-1887. Edited by E l i z a b e t h M. McCrum. H i s t o r i c a l Society of A l b e r t a 1957 . The E a r l y West. Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. 1977. The Rundle J o u r n a l s , 1840-1848. E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey, with an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Gerald M. Hutchinson. 1978 . A l b e r t a ' s Coal Industry, 1919. Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by David Jay Bercuson. 1979 . Job Reed's L e t t e r s : L i f e i n Lethbridge, 1886-1906. 1979 . The Formation of A l b e r t a : A Documentary H i s t o r y . Edited by Douglas R. Owram w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by L.G. Thomas and L.H. Thomas. 1981. Pioneering i n A l b e r t a : Maurice Destrube's Story. Edited by James E. Hendrickson w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by L.G. Thomas. A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l . R e v i e w 195 3. Volume 1. 0 1954. Volume 2. "My Trip to the Canadian West i n 18 8 2 by Charles Edward H a r r i s . " #1, pp. 23-28. "Eben McAdam's Diary, Part I . " #2, pp. 3-10. "Eben McAdam's Di a r y , Part I I . " #3, pp. 3 4-41. "Eben McAdam's Diary, Part I I I . " #4, pp. 40-48. 1955. Volume 3. 0 19 56. Volume 4. "Donald Graham's N a r r a t i v e of 1872-73." Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 10-19. " L e t t e r s from 'Old Glad.'" #1, pp. 30-31. "The Athabasca Brigade by Donald Ross, Chief Trader." #2, pp. 10-16. 191 "A L e t t e r from Fort . Whoop-up." Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #4, pp. 27-28. 1957. Volume 5. 0 195 8. Volume 6. "Prince George to Fort Edmonton i n 1875, by Edwad W i l l i a m J a r v i s . " Edited by James G. MacGregor. #1, pp. 1-9. 1959. Volume 7. "A Poem by Louis R i e l . " #1, pp. 8-9. "An U n w i l l i n g Diary." Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #3, pp. 7-10. 1960. Volume 8. 0 1961. Volume 9. "Expedition to the North-West by Henri J u l i e n . " #1, pp. 8- 26. "Robertson-Ross' D i a r y , Fort Edmonton to Wildhorse, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1872." Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #3, pp. 5-22. 1962. Volume 10. ' ' " F i n a l Treaty of Peace." E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 8-16. 1963. Volume 11. "A L e t t e r from Fort Edmonton by John Rowand." Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 1-6. "L e t t e r s from a Barr C o l o n i s t by A l i c e R e n d e l l . " #1, pp. 12-27. "Smallpox Epidemic of 1869-70." #2, pp. 13-19. 196 4. Volume 12. "Lord Lorne i n A l b e r t a , by Rev. James MacGregor." E d i t e d by Hugh A/ Dempsey. #1, pp. 1-14. "A R i e l R e b e l l i o n Diary." Edited by I r i s A l l a n . #3, pp. 15-25 . 196 5. Volume 13. "Thompson's . Journey to the Red Deer R i v e r . " Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 1-8. "Thompson's Journey to the Red Deer R i v e r , Part I I . " E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #2, pp. 7-15. "Mission to Lac l a Nonne by Oswin Creighton." #3, pp. 1-6. "Le t t e r s from a Skinner by 'A B r i t i s h E x - O f f i c e r . ' " #4, pp. 9-20. 1966. Volume 14. "David Thompson on the Peace Dempsey. #1, pp. 1-10. "David Thompson on the Peace Hugh A. Dempsey. #2, pp. "The Overlanders i n . A l b e r t a , R i v e r . " E dited by Hugh A. R i v e r , Part I I . " Edited by 14-21. 1862 by Thomas McMicking." 192 Edited by, Hugh A. Dempsey. #3, pp. 1-11. "A V i s i t to the Blackfoot Camp by James Doty." Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #3, pp. 17-26. "David Thompson on the Peace R i v e r , Part I I I . " Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #4, pp. 14-19. 1967. Volume 15. "The Last L e t t e r s of Rev. George McDougall." Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #2, pp. 20-30. " L e t t e r s from the West." #3, pp. 8-16. 19 6-8. Volume 16. 0 19 6 9.. Volume 17. 0 197 0. Volume 18. "Winter Trip on the CPR by Michael P h i l l i p p s . " Edited with an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Lewis H. Thomas. #.2, pp. 1-11. 1971. Volume 19. "Alexander Culbertson's Journey to Bow R i v e r . " Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #4, pp. 8-20. 1972. Volume 20. 0 197 3. Volume 21. "A L e t t e r from Bishop Grandin." Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 8-11. "The Tea T r a i n . " Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #2, pp. 26- 27. 1974. Volume 22. " F i e l d Notes of a Surveyor by W i l l i a m O g i l v i e . " #2, pp. 18- 27. "A T e r r i b l e T r i p to Edmonton by W.H. W i l l i a m s . " Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #4, pp. 1-13. 19 75. Volume 23. " L e t t e r from a S o l d i e r T o u r i s t . " Edited by A l l a n C. Dunlop. #3, pp. 24-30. 197 6. Volume 24. "Where the Weather Comes From." Edited by Hugh A. Dempsey. #3, pp. 28-29. 1977. Volume 25. .0 19 7 8.' Volume 26. " L e t t e r s from E l l i o t t G a i t , T r a v e l l i n g the P r a i r i e s , 1879- 80." E d i t e d by A.A. Den Otter. #3, pp. 21-33. "My Friend Bruce, by J.F. Dion." #3, pp. 35-38., 19 80. Volume 2 8. 0 19 81. Volume 29. 193 "Down the B a t t l e River by Henry G. T y r r e l l . " #4, pp. 27-30. 198 2. Volume 30. "A R e b e l l i o n L e t t e r by J. D r o l e t . " #3, pp. 27-28. 194 NEW BRUNSWICK P r o v i n c i a l Archives of New Brunswick 1972. The New Brunswick Census of . 18 51: Carleton County, New Brunswick, Canada, E d i t e d by Robert F, Fellows. 1972 . The New Brunswick Census of 1851. A l b e r t County. 1974-75. The New Brunswick Census of 1851 , C h a r l o t t e County, New Brunswick, Canada. Edited by Robert F. Fellows. 2 volumes. New Brunswick H i s t o r i c a l Society 1901. Winslow Papers, A.D. 1776-1826. Edited by W i l l i a m 0. Raymond. C o l l e c t i o n s of the New Brunswick H i s t o r i c a l Society 18 94. Volume 1. Number 1. "L e t t e r of I n s t r u c t i o n to Governor Thomas Carl e t o n . " pp. 57-58. "Documents R e l a t i n g to Sunbury County-- David Burpee's Diary." pp. 89-95. " J u s t i c e Perley's Court Documents." pp. 96-99. Number 2. "Documents of the Congregational Church at M a u g e r v i l l e . " pp. 119-159. "Le t t e r s Written at St. John by James Simonds." With an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W.O. Raymond. pp. 160-86. "The Journal of Captain W i l l i a m Owen, R.N., 1770-71." Edited by W.F. Ganong. pp. 153-220. "Ext r a c t s from the Journal of Captain W i l l i a m Pote J r . , 1745-47." pp. 262-72. Number 3. "Se l e c t i o n s from the Papers and Correspondence of James White, Esq." Edited by W.O.. Raymond. pp. 306-40. " L e t t e r s and Documents R e l a t i n g to the H i s t o r y and Settlement of the Island of Grand Manan." With an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Jonas Howe. pp. 341-65. Number 4. "The Journal of Captain W i l l i a m Owen, R.N., 1770-71." 195 (Second Part) Edited by W.F. Ganong.. pp. 27-30. "The James White Papers, continued." E d i t e d by W.O. Raymond. pp. 30-7 2. "The Pen n f i e l d Records." Edited by J. Vroom. pp. 7 3-80. Number 5. " H i s t o r i c a l - G e o g r a p h i c a l Documents R e l a t i n g to New Brunswick." Edited by W.F. Ganong. pp. 163-272. Number 6. "Papers r e l a t i n g to the Townships of the River of St. John i n the Province of Nova S c o t i a . " Edited by W.O. Raymond. pp. 287-357. " H i s t o r i c a l - G e o g r a p h i c a l Documents R e l a t i n g to New Brunswick." Edited by W.F. Ganong. pp. 358-90. "Royal Commission and I n s t r u c t i o n s to Governor Thomas Carl e t o n , 1784." pp. 391-438. Number 7 . (1907 ) " H i s t o r i c a l - G e o g r a p h i c a l Documents R e l a t i n g to New Brunswick." Edited by W.F. Ganong. pp. 7-5 4. Number 8. (190 9) " H i s t o r i c a l - G e o g r a p h i c a l Documents R e l a t i n g to New Brunswick." Edited by W.F. Ganong. pp. 167-203. "Founding of Shelburne and E a r l y M i r a m i c h i , Marston's Diary." Edited by W.O. Raymond. pp. 204-7 9. Number 9. (1914) " H i s t o r i c a l - G e o g r a p h i c a l Documents R e l a t i n g to New Brunswick." Edited by W.F. Ganong. pp. 301-43. "State of the Madawaska and Aroostook Settlements i n 1831." Edited by W.O. Raymond. pp. 344-85.. "Report of Dean and Kavanagh on Madawaska i n 1831." p. 386. Number 10. (1919) 0 Number 11. (1927) 0 Number 12. (192 8) 0 Number 13. (1930 ) "Journal of A b i j a h W i l l a r d of Lancaster, Massachusetts, an O f f i c e r i n the Expedition which captured Fort Beausejour i n 1755." Edited by J. Clarence Webster, pp. 3-7 5. " H i s t o r i c a l - G e o g r a p h i c a l Documents R e l a t i n g to New Brunswick." Edited by W.F. Ganong. pp. 76-131. Number 14. (19 55) 0 Number 15. (195 9) "The Pickard Papers." Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Gerald K e i t h . pp. 55-78. 196 NEWFOUNDLAND P r o v i n c i a l Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador 1971. The S e a l f i s h e r y Reprinted from Evening Herald •> 1916. 1971. Newfoundland Coastal Tour 1883. Notes from the Log of H.M.S.. Foam. 197 CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW ( A Continuation of The Review of H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s R e l a t i n g to Canada, begun i n 18 9 8.) 1920. Volume 1. "A B r i t i s h Secret Service Report on Canada, 1711." E d i t e d by James F. Kenney. pp. 4-8-5 4-. "An Unpublished State Paper, 1868." E d i t e d by A.H.U. Colquhoun. pp. 54-60. "The Death of P o u t r i n c o u r t . " Edited by H.P. Biggar. pp. 195-201. "A Spanish Account of New France, 1608." pp. 283-89. "The Memorial of J.M. Cawdell, 1818." Edited by Adam Shortt. pp. 289-301. "The Journal of Walter B u t l e r . " Edited by James. F. Kenney. pp. 381-91. 19 21. Volume 2. "Baron de Gaugreben's Memoir on the Defence of Upper Canada." Edited by H.R. Holmden. pp. 58-68. "The Brandy Parliament of 16 7 8." Edited by W i l l i a m Bennett Munro. pp. 172-89. "Edward Blake's Aurora Speech." Edited by W.S. Wallace, pp. 249-71. "Eye-Witness Accounts of the B r i t i s h Repulse at Ticonderoga." Edited by Captain C E . L a r t . pp. 360- 63 . "The P e t i t i o n of the C i t y of Quebec to Queen V i c t o r i a i n 1857." Edited by Colonel W i l l i a m Wood . pp. 363-68. 1922. Volume 3. 0 19 23. Volume 4. "A New Account of the Death of Wolfe." E d i t e d by A.G. Doughty, pp. 45-5 5. "'Red Gorge' -- One of the Macdonells." Edited by L i e u t . C o l . W.S. B u e l l . pp. 150-59. "The F i r s t Assembly i n Lower Canada." Edited by F.H. Soward. pp. 25 6-6 3. " S i r Guy Carleton and h i s F i r s t C o u n c i l . " Edited by A.L.Burt. pp. 321-32. 19 24. Volume 5. "The Union B e l l of 1822." Edited by K.R.P. Martin. pp. 42- 54. "The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto i n 18 5 6." Edited by Jon Langton. pp. 132-45. "Louis R i e l ' s Account of the Captur of Fort Garry." Edited by A.H. de Tremaudan. pp. 146-59. "E.G. Wakefield on the C o l o n i a l G a r r i s o n s , 1851." Edited by Paul Knaplund. pp. 2 2 8-35. "The Annexation Movement, 1849-50." Edited by Arthur G. Penny. pp. 2 36-6 2. "Captain John Montresor i n Canada." Edited by F.M. 198 Montresor. pp. 336-39. "The L e t t e r s of John Langton about Canada P o l i t i c s , 1855- 1856." pp. 340-52. 1925. Volume.6. 'Subsidized Intermarriage w i t h the Indians." Edited by J.B. Brebner. pp. 33-35. 'The L e t t e r s of John Langton about Canadian P o l i t i c s , 185 5- 1856." pp. 36-63. 'The Execution of Thomas Scott . " Edited by A.H. de Tremaudan. pp. 2 2 2-35. 'Employment and Unemployment i n Canada: I t s Measurement with S p e c i a l Reference to 1919." Ed i t e d by K.B. Conn. pp. 2.36-44. 'Henry Cabot Lodge and the Alaska Boundary Award." Edited by James White. pp. 33 2-47. 19 26. Volume 7. 'Kirke's Memorial on Newfoundland." Edited by Louis Dow Scisco. pp. 46-51. 'Letter of Louis R i e l and Ambrose Lepine to Lieutenant- Governor M o r r i s , January 3, 18 7 3." Edited•by A.H. de Tremaudan. pp. 137-60. 'The Last L e t t e r of Captain Cook." Edited by John Forsyth, pp. 222-25. 'Who was the 'Com[man]d[and] de l a Troupe dans chaque coste'? Edited by A.L. Burt. pp.. 226-29. 'Did Louis XIV Suggest the Seizure of New Holland?" Edited by Percy J. Robinson. pp. 230-32. 'Ruperts- Land i n 1825." Ed i t e d by H.A. I n n i s . pp. 302-20. 1927. Volume 8. 'Calvert's Proceedings against K i r k e . " Edited by L.D. Scis c o . pp. 132-36. 'The R e c i p r o c i t y Negotiations w i t h the United States i n 1869." E d i t e d by A.H.U. Colquhoun. pp. 233-42. 'Prices and P r i c e Indexes i n Canada, 1913-1925." Edited by V. W. Bladen and A.F.W. Plumptre. pp. 242-45. 'Some Canadian V i l l a g e s i n 1760." Edited by F.M. Montresor. pp. 302-307. 'The North West Company." Edited by H.A. I n n i s . pp. 3 0 8- 21. 19 28. Volume 9. ' A P h i l a d e l p h i a Lawyer and E a r l y Lower Canada Law." Edited by W i l l i a m Renwick R i d d e l l . pp. 38-45. 'The O r i g i n of ' S i r Alexander Mackenzie and Company.'" Ed i t e d by R. Harvey Fleming. pp. 137-55. 'Testimony Taken i n Newfoundland i n 16 5 2." Edited by Louis D. Sc i s c o . pp. 239-51. 'David Thompson." Edited by F.D. McLennan. pp. 330-33. 'Peter Pond i n 1780." Edited by H.A. I n n i s . pp. 333-34. 1929. Volume 10. 0 199 1930 .- Volume 11. "The Diary of an Ear l y E n g l i s h S e t t l e r i n Quebec". Edited by George V.V. N i c h o l l s . pp. 38-48. "Two North West Company Documents." E d i t d by W.N. Sage. pp. 129-31. "The C r i s i s of 1837 i n a Back Township of Upper Canada." Edi t e d by C P . Stacey. pp. 187-91. "Some Opinions of a Tory i n the 1830's." Edited by T.W.L. MacDermot. pp.. 23 2-3 7. "The F i r s t Published L i f e of James Wolfe." Edited by J.C. Webster. pp. 328-32. 19 31. Volume 12. "The B a t t l e of Bloody Run." Edited by Nelson Vance R u s s e l l , pp. 184-88. "Canadian P o l i c y Towards the Acadians i n 1751." Edited by J.B. Brebner. pp. 284-86. 193 2. Volume 13. "Edward Gibbon Wakefield and the Beauharnois Canal." Edited by A.R.M. Lower. pp. 37-44. "Governor Lawrence's Case against an Assembly i n Nova S c o t i a . " Edited by D.C. Harvey. pp. 184-94. "The Journal of S.G. Hathaway -- A Miner of '62 i n Cariboo." Edited by Iso b e l M.L. Bescoby. pp. 291-98. "The Diary of Lieutenant-Colonel Robert D. Rogers." Edited by F.M. de l a Fosse." pp. 429-30. 1933. Volume 14. "Lord Northington and the Laws of Canada." Edited by R.A. Humphreys and S. Morely Scott. pp. 42-61. "A Document Concerning the Union of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company." Edited by G. de T. Glazebrook. pp. 126-30. "The B r i t i s h Government and the Proposal of Federation i n 1858." Ed i t e d by Reginald G. T r o t t e r . pp. 285-93. "From D e t r o i t to Montreal i n 1810." Edited by M.M. Quaife. pp. 293-96. 1934. Volume 15. "David Thompson and the Rocky Mountains." Edited by J.B. T y r r e l l . pp. 39-45. "The Indian Menace and the Retention of the Western Posts." Edited by G.S. Graham. pp. 46-47. "Incidents of Repeal A g i t a t i o n i n Nova S c o t i a . " Edited by D.C. Harvey.' pp. 48-56. "Nova Scotia's Remedy f o r the American Revolu t i o n . " Edited by J.B. Brebner. pp. 171-80. "The Riots of 1849 i n Montreal.", pp. 283-87 . "Landed Endowments f o r Religous Purposes i n Nova S c o t i a and the Canadas, 1749 and 1837." pp. 406-14. 1935. Volume.16. "Journal of W i l l i a m Richardson who V i s i t e d Labrador i n 1771." Edited by Sidney C. Richardson. pp. 54-60. 200 "Governor Murray's Views on the Plan of 17 6 4 f o r the Management of Indian A f f a i r s . " E d i t ed by R.A. Humphreys. pp. 16 2-6 9. . " S i t t i n g B u l l ' s Own N a r r a t i v e of the Custer F i g h t . " Edited by.W.N, Sage. pp. 170-75. "Some L e t t e r s of Joshua R. Giddings on R e c i p r o c i t y . " Edited by W i l l i a m D. Overman. pp. 289-96. " S i r Edmund Head's Memorandum on the Choice of Ottawa as the seat of the Government of Canada." Edited by James A. Gibson. . pp. 411-17. 1936. Volume 17. "Uniacke's Memorandum on Nova S c o t i a , 18 0 6." Edited by D.C. Harvey. pp. 41-5 8. "The Appeal of the North West Company to the B r i t i s h Government to F o r e s t a l l John Jacob Astor's Columbian E n t e r p r i s e . " pp. 304-11. "A L e t t e r by Lord S e l k i r k on Trade between Red River and the United States." Edited by John Perry P r i t c h e t t . pp. 418-22. " B r i t i s h Columbia's Appeal to S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r f o r Better Terms." E d i t e d by Harold P. Johns. pp. 423-30. 1937. Volume 18. "Stewart D e r b i s h i r e ' s Report to Lord Durham on Lower Canada, 1838." pp. 48-62. "An Interview on Canada wi t h La S a l l e i n 16 7 8." Edited by M.L. Puech-Milhau, t r a n s l a t e d by F.C.A. Jeanneret. pp. 163-77. 1938. Volume 19. "Some E d i t o r i a l Opinions from the Newspapers of the Maritime Provinces i n the 1830's." Edited by J.S. M a r t e l l . pp. 5 0-5 5. •• "Dr. John Rolph's Own Account of the Flag of Truce Incident i n the R e b e l l i o n of 1837." Edited by C.B. Sissons. pp. 5 6-59. "A S i d e l i g h t on the Hunter's Lodges of 1838." Edited by W i l l i a m D. Overman. pp. 168-72. "Edward Blake's Interview w i t h Lord Cairns on the Supreme Court A ct, J u l y 5, 18 7 6." Edited by Frank H. U n d e r h i l l . pp. 292-94. " S i r Francis Bond Head: A Foot-Note." E d i t e d by Goldwin Smith. pp. 297-300. "A L e t t e r from A l e x i s de T o c q u e v i l l e on the Canadian R e b e l l i o n of 1837." Edited by Edgar Mclnnis. pp. 394- 97 . "Dr. Strachan's Motives f o r Becoming a L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l l o r . " E d i ted by George W. Spragge. pp. 397- 402 . "Egerton Ryerson's Views on the Government of Upper Canada i n 1836." E d i t e d by R.G. R i d d e l l . pp. 402-10. JU,.;9. Volume 20. " E x t r a c t s from Gladstone's P r i v a t e P o l i t i c a l Diary Touching 201 Canadian Questions i n 1840." Edited by Paul Knaplund. pp. 19 5-9 8. " R i e l ' s P e t i t i o n to the President of the United . States, 1870." Ed i t e d by George F. G. Stanley. pp. 421-28. 1940. Volume 21. "A L e t t e r on the West by S i r Edmund Head." Edited by G. de T. Glazebrook. pp. 56-59. "An Ea r l y S e t t l e r on the Ottawa." Edited by J . Richardson. pp. 177-79. "Lord Monck and the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n . " Edited by W. Menzies Whitelaw. pp. 298-306. "A P r i v a t e Report of General W i n f i e l d Scott on the Border S i t u a t i o n i n 1839." Edited by C P , Stacey. pp. 407- 14. 1941. Volume 22, "Documents R e l a t i n g to the Swiss Immigration to Red River i n 1821." Edited by George F.G. Stanley. pp. 42-50. "Five ' S e l k i r k ' L e t t e r s . " Edited by John P. P r i t c h e t t and Murray Horowitz. pp": 15 9-6 7.- 1942. Volume 23. "Four E a r l y L e t t e r s of Egerton Ryerson." E d i t e d by C.B. Sissons. pp. 58-64. "Nova. Scotia's C o n t r i b u t i o n to the Canadian R e l i e f Fund i n the War of 1812." Edited by J.S. Mar-tell. pp. 297- .303. "That Rumour of Russian I n t r i g u e i n 1837." Ed i t e d by Thomas H. Le Due. pp. 398-401. 1943. Volume 24. " S e l k i r k ' s Views on B r i t i s h P o l i c y Toward the Spanish- American Colon i e s , 1806." Edited by John P. P r i t c h e t t . pp. 381-96. "A B l u e p r i n t f o r Nova S c o t i a i n 1818." Edited by D.C. Harvey. pp. 397-409. 1944. Volume 25. "The Commission of 1885 to the North West T e r r i t o r i e s . " E d i t e d by H.H. Langton. pp. 3 8-53. "Captain Miles Macdonell's 'Journal of a Jaunt to Amherstburg' i n 1801." Edited by W.S. Wallace. pp. 166-76. 194 5. Volume 26. " S i r ' Edmund Head's Memorandum of 1857 on Maritime Union: A Lost Confederation Document." E d i t e d by A l i c e R. Stewart. pp. 40 6-19. 1946. Volume 27. "Alexander Mackenzie's Memoranda on the Appointment of Extra Senators, 1873-74." Edited by Eugene Forsey. pp. 189- 94. "A B i l l of Appraisement of 1813." Edited by C.W. J e f f r e y s . 202 pp. 283-90. "An Early French Canadian Pension Agreement." Edited by W. Stanford Reid. pp. 291-94. 1947. Volume 28. 0 194 8. Volume 29. "Memorandum Regarding the A f f a i r s of York Factory, Winter Season, 1839-40." Edited by Margaret A. Macleod. pp. 44-53. 1949. Volume 30. " G a b r i e l Dumont's Account of the North West R e b e l l i o n , 1885." Edited by George F, G. Stanley. pp. 249-69. 195 0. Volume 31. "An Upper Canada L e t t e r of 18 2 9 on Responsible Government." Edited by K.D. MacRae. pp. 2 8 8-96. "Mr. J o l y ' s Mission to London i n the Case of Lieutenant- Governor L e t e l l i e r de S a i n t - J u s t . " E d i t e d by A. J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e . pp. 401-405. 19 51. Volume 32. "The Montreal Riot of 1849." Edited by Josephine Foster, pp. 61-6 5. "The Knighting of Francis Hincks." Edited by C o l i n R. L o v e l l . pp. 13 9-4 2. 195 2. Volume 33. "The F a l l of Quebec." pp. 165-67. 195 3. Volume 34. "Views of General Murray on the Defence of Upper Canada, 1815." Ed i t e d by Gerald S. Graham. pp. 158-65. " L e t t e r s to Gait Concerning the Maritime Provinces and Confederation." Edited by W.G. Ormsby. pp. 166-69. 19 54. Volume 35. "Some Spanish Documents R e l a t i n g to E a r l y French Expeditions to Canada." Edited by L.A. Vigneras. pp. 217-23. 19 55. Volume 36. 0 1956. Volume 37. 0 19 57. Volume 38. "The Independent Member f o r Kent Reports, 18 5 3." Edited by J.M.S. Careless. pp. 41-51. "John A. Macdonald on R a i s i n g Troops i n Canada f o r Imperial S e r v i c e , 1885." Edited by C P . Stacey. pp. 37-40. "A Note on the Red River Hnt by John Norquay." Edited by Margaret A. Macleod. pp. 129-30. "The Cape Breton L a n d f a l l : 1494 or 1497, Note on a L e t t e r from John Day." Edited by L.A. Vigneras. pp. 219-28. "The P o l i t i c a l Testament of Papineau i n E x i l e , 1837." 203 Edited by Ronald F. Howell. pp. 295-300... 195 8. Volume 3 9. 0 1959. Volume 40. "Charles Maier: A Document on the Red River R e b e l l i o n . " E d i t e d by F.N. Shrive, pp. 218-26. 196 0. , Volume 41. 0 1961. Volume 42. 0 196 2. Volume 43. "A L e t t e r on the Fur Seal i n Canadian American Diplomacy." Edited by Bingham Duncan. pp. 42-47. 1963. Volume 44. 0 1964. Volume 45. "A L e t t e r from Leonard T i l l e y on the I n t e r c o l o n i a l Railway, 186 3." Edited by Peter B. Waite. pp. 12 5-28. 1965. Volume 46. 0 1966. Volume 47. "Quebec, 175 9: Some New Documents." Edited by C P . Stacey. pp. 344-55. "The London Diary.of W i l l i a m Smith, 18 03-1804." Edited by L.F.S. Upton. pp. 146-55. 196 7. Volume 48. "Foster on the Thompson-Bowell Succession." Edited by S. Morley Scott. pp. 27 3-76. 196 8. Volume 49. 0 196 9. Volume 50. "Quebec Under Seige, 1775-1776: The 'Memorandums' of Jacob Danford." Edited by John F. Roche. pp. 68-85. 1970-1982. Volumes 51 to 62. 0 204

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