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The decline of documentary publishing in Canadian archives, 1865-1984 Coles, Laura M. 1984

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THE D E C L I N E OF DOCUMENTARY P U B L I S H I N G I N C A N A D I A N  ARCHIVES  1865-1984 By Laura M i l l a r B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED THE  Coles  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR  THE  M A S T E R OF A R C H I V A L  DEGREE  OF  STUDIES  in THE F A C U L T Y  OF  ARTS  Administered The  School of and  Librarianship the  Department of We  History  accept this thesis to the r e q u i r e d  THE  by  as conforming standard  U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H April ©  Laura M i l l a r  COLUMBIA  1984 Coles,  1984  1981  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  for  department or  understood that for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive  h i s or  be  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  copying of  g r a n t e d by  the  not  be  of  further this  History/  this  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  April  20,  1984  Columbia  my  thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  School of  thesis  It i s  permission.  Department o f  make  head o f  representatives. publication  the  University  the  p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  scholarly  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  agree that  in partial  Librarianship  written  ABSTRACT Documentary  publishing  by Canadian a r c h i v e s  n o t i c e a b l y over time. diaries,  has  declined  Today, few a r c h i v e s a c t i v e l y p u b l i s h  j o u r n a l s , o r o t h e r p r i m a r y documents.  An  analysis  of the h i s t o r y of E n g l i s h language documentary p u b l i s h i n g Canadian  a r c h i v e s and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s may  by  suggest some  reasons f o r t h i s d e c l i n e . In  order  to  trace  documentary p u b l i s h i n g , publications  will  appended  the  to  the development  be examined.  archives  n a t u r e of the  and  historical  will  basis  Ontario,  documents  was  disseminating Canada,  be  for  the  activity. societies  p u b l i s h i n g as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Scotia,  of  societies'  A l i s t of t h e s e  t h e s i s and w i l l form the  older  decline  a r c h i v e s ' and h i s t o r i c a l  d i s c u s s i o n of the h i s t o r y and The  and  saw  In Nova  B r i t i s h Columbia and M a n i t o b a , p u b l i s h i n g an  important  method  the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d .  the Champlain S o c i e t y ,  and  of The  preserving  and  P u b l i c Archives  of  the Hudson's Bay  Record  S o c i e t y were e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n the p u b l i s h i n g f i e l d .  But  in  the  each  Champlain  institution, and  w i t h the n o t a b l e  Hudson's Bay  Record  e v e n t u a l l y became s u b o r d i n a t e and  a  to o t h e r forms of  publishing preservation  newer Canadian a r c h i v e s d i d not a c c e p t  central  attention more  Societies,  of  dissemination. The  as  exceptions  archival  activity.  on m i c r o f i l m i n g ,  pressing  tasks.  records In  ii  They  focussed  management,  Saskatchewan  publishing  and  and  their other Alberta  publications  have o n l y r e c e n t l y appeared.  Newfoundland, Northwest  Prince  Edward  . Brunswick,  the  Yukon  any  The  A survey of the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l  for this decline  Economic change and important. and  are  many  and  So  too have the changing p e r c e p t i o n s  h i s t o r i a n s about the  documentary  have t u r n e d away from p u b l i s h i n g ,  but t h i s i s  and  role  in society.  Archives  need t o d e c i d e  i f they w i l l pursue a p u b l i s h i n g programme o r not. they must f i r s t d e c i d e why  whom. for  Archives  for  the g e n e r a l  and  qualities.  their  decide  public.  for  documents  or l e s s comprehensive e d i t i o n s  Each o p t i o n has  i t s own  But w h i c h e v e r r o u t e a r c h i v e s  They must put an end  haphazard p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the  t o the past.  problems  choose,  whether or not p u b l i s h i n g i s t o be a  mandate.  I f they  they are p u b l i s h i n g , and  can p u b l i s h h i s t o r i c a l l y e d i t e d  the s c h o l a r l y community,  must  of  of  o f t e n not p a r t of a s t a t e d p o l i c y .  do,  varied.  t e c h n o l o g i c a l development have both been  publishing i n archives Archives  historical  also decreased.  reasons  archivists  and  extensive  shows t h a t documentary p u b l i c a t i o n by the  community has  very  and  T e r r i t o r i e s have y e t t o engage i n  p u b l i s h i n g programmes. Review  Island  New  part  they of  unstructured,  TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE:  1 The Old Guard Nova S c o t i a The P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada Ontario B r i t i s h Columbia The Champlain S o c i e t y and The Hudson's. Bay Record Society Manitoba  CHAPTER TWO:  New D i r e c t i o n s f o r A r c h i v e s  7 9 19 29 -37' 4-2 49 55  Saskatchewan 57 Alberta 61 New Brunswick 65 Newfoundland 69 P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d 73 Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ' 74 Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review • > 75 CHAPTER THREE: Documentary  P u b l i s h i n g and  i t s Decline CHAPTER FOUR:  Archives  and P u b l i s h i n g  78 116  NOTES  133  BIBLIOGRAPHY  143  APPENDIX  150  iv  INTRODUCTION  To many archivists the p o s s i b l i t y o f p u b l i s h i n g some o f t h e documents i n t h e i r c u s t o d y i s an e n t i r e l y academic question. They a r e n o t p u b l i s h i n g documents, they do n o t p l a n t o p u b l i s h documents, they have n e i t h e r t h e time n o r t h e funds t o p u b l i s h documents. (1)  J.K. Johnson  Unfortunately, state of  Mr. Johnson t e l l s t h e somber t r u t h about t h e  o f documentary  the archives  p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada.  i n the  h i s t o r i c a l documents,  country  V i r t u a l l y none  i s actively  publishing  few h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s are i n v o l v e d  i n such p u b l i s h i n g , and i n d e e d v e r y few independent  scholars  are  to  engaging  become  an  institutions projects,  i n historical editing. accepted will  then  state  decline  affairs  that  not i n v o l v e themselves  of  archival  have  Canadian  i n publications  why even b o t h e r t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r ?  i s s u e i s one w o r t h examining. the  of  I f i t seems  The  Without an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f involvement  in  documentary  p u b l i s h i n g , • w e cannot p r o p e r l y judge t h e r o l e o f a r c h i v e s i n this f i e l d . documentary train.  In t h i s sense, publishing  to  one can compare t h e d e c l i n e o f the d e c l i n e  of  the  passenger  When t h e passenger t r a i n was a l l but o b l i t e r a t e d as  a common form o f t r a v e l w i t h t h e appearance o f t h e a i r p l a n e , people  continued  to discuss  the character 1  and  condition  of t h e r a i l r o a d -- even Such to  context.  d i s c u s s i o n l e d to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of r a i l w a y  conferences  on  i f o n l y i n an h i s t o r i c a l  on r a i l r o a d h i s t o r y ,  and t o essays and books  the romantic h i s t o r y of the t r a i n .  train,  documentary  depots ,  Like the  passenger  p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada can be seen  as  r e l i c o f t h e p a s t , an a c t i v i t y e c l i p s e d i n importance diffusion  of  photocopying,  reproductions.  And  analysis  the nature  of  microforms,  l i k e a conference and  by t h e  and  other  on t h e r a i l r o a d ,  decline  of  an  understanding  o f t h e r o l e such  an  documentary  p u b l i s h i n g , w h i l e i t w i l l not h e l p t o r e s t o r e t h e p a s t , provide  a  may  p u b l i s h i n g has  p l a y e d i n Canadian a r c h i v a l development, and may e x p l a i n why i t i s no l o n g e r a c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . For t h e sake o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , is  taken  to  mean t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f  historical  sources,  journals,  diaries,  Calendars, histories fall  discussion sound  primary  based  and  other  publishing  edited  or  unedited  such  as  letters,  materials  government  indexes,  within  documentary  records,  and  descriptive  so  tools,  and  upon r e s e a r c h i n p r i m a r y documents do not  this  definition.  Also  excluded  a r e n o n - t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s such  recordings ,  or  cartographic  as  from  this  photographs,  archives,  publication  can be o f a very d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e from  documentary  publishing..  in  forth.  whose textual  While one cannot examine changes  a r c h i v a l p u b l i s h i n g i n a vacuum,  and w h i l e these  other  forms o f p u b l i s h i n g a r e s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y here t o set  some l i m i t s .  Consequently,  w h i l e some o t h e r t y p e s  2  of  p u b l i c a t i o n s may on  published The  be mentioned i n p a s s i n g ,  the f o c u s w i l l  p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l s of a w r i t t e n n a t u r e .  d i s c u s s i o n w i l l a l s o be l i m i t e d ,  English  language  Quebec.  To  documents  include  publishing  there  analyzing  and  Quebec  and  published and  by n e c e s s i t y ,  in  the v a s t  Canada  i n the r e s t of Canada  comparing two  different  examine  and  For  sake of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n ,  the  publications  order  publishing base",  to  examine  the  archival  similar  been  decline  of  in  publications  society  the  a  "data  produced by the  Canada.  in  each  b i b l i o g r a p h i e s have been c r e a t e d  published  documentary  For  the  issued  by  Champlain  and,  for  of  Canadian  Bibliographies  province.  and  major  As  well,  f o r the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s  Society  and  Hudson's  the sake of comparison,  i n the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review.  Bay  for  as the d a t a base,  provinces,  of the o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , w i l l be 3  of  Record  documents  Using  bibliographies and  major  sake  compiled f o r the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s  historical  in  out.  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s w i l l a l s o be examined.  Society,  analysis.  w i l l c o n s i s t of the documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s ,  institutions  comparison,  Canada,  province's  i n Canada i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h  which  Quebec  Quebec's i n v o l v e m e n t  e i t h e r i n monograph or s h o r t e r form,  have  in  would thus r e s u l t i n an i n c o m p l e t e  documentary p u b l i s h i n g must be l e f t In  cultures  executed h e r e .  mean e l i m i n a t i n g an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h a t  history,  involve  languages,  To  o n l y E n g l i s h language  language  would  h i s t o r i e s , a t a s k too v a s t to be p r o p e r l y  to  outside  French  and  would  be  these  the o u t p u t of each of  the  examined.  (The t i t l e s o f the documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s data base can be found i n the The  first  archival guard"  chapter  Appendix.)  will  examine  the  "old  i n s t i t u t i o n s and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s . consists  of  the P u b l i c  Archives  of  guard"  This  "old  Canada,  the  p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o , B r i t i s h Columbia and M a n i t o b a , and the Champlain  Society.  institutions, important,  In  each  documentary  of  these  publishing  to  at  one  or time  b o t h t o the a r c h i v e s and the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y .  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t r a c e the development and  was  provinces  determine  through the  whether the a r c h i v e s o r  the  years ,  historical  s o c i e t y , o r b o t h , were i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i s h i n g . The o b j e c t i s to d i s c o v e r when and how  these i n s t i t u t i o n s t u r n e d away from  documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n f a v o u r o f o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . The second c h a p t e r o f t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l d e a l w i t h newer  institutions  Alberta, Island,  New  Brunswick,  the  provinces  Newfoundland,  of and  Saskatchewan, P r i n c e Edward  and i n the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  institutions, more r e c e n t l y , to  in  the  both  a r c h i v a l and h i s t o r i c a l ,  and,  problems  the  were  These founded  i n the case o f the a r c h i v e s , responded of  managing  modern  records  and  the  p e r s i s t e n t problem o f p r e s e r v i n g h i s t o r i c a l documents. These groups f o r the most p a r t had no time i n t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s t o focus  on documentary p u b l i s h i n g ,  and even when  they  didj  t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s and programmes were d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e of their  " o l d guard" c o u n t e r p a r t s .  Consequently, t h e s e groups  have a l e s s i m p r e s s i v e h i s t o r y i n t h i s f i e l d ,  4  a l t h o u g h some  have begun t o engage i n such work i n r e c e n t sake of c o m p a r i s o n ,  c h a p t e r two  will  the documentary e d i t i o n s i n c l u d e d Review,  in  order  and  intertwined. explain  i n the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l the  each  of  I t would be an e x e r c i s e i n f u t i l i t y t o t r y  and  of the n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . consist  only  out  third,  of a c h r o n o l o g i c a l trends ,  that  the  truly  such  understanding  history  section  of  sorts,  but a v o i d i n g  simple  f o r a complex phenomenon.  chapter  and  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the f i r s t  the changes and  explanations  these and  i t f o r each i n s t i t u t i o n i n each p r o v i n c e ,  pointing  growth  But t h i s d e c l i n e has many c a u s e s , complex  an e x a m i n a t i o n would b r i n g us no c l o s e r t o an  must  scholarly  a n a l y s i s w i l l t r y to o u t l i n e the  o f documentary p u b l i s h i n g f o r  institutions.  the  years.  initial  decline  For  i n c l u d e an a n a l y s i s o f  to gauge the i n t e r e s t o f  community over the This  years.  I t i s i n the  thorny  issues  next,  will  be  examined. Once  the  proved  it  scale,  why  shrug  i s n e c e s s a r y to t r y to t h e r e has  After a l l , and  archives  for  funds  has  been  a  broad  on  I t would be easy  to  w i t h the answer t h a t economic  and  considerations  on the one  determine,  been a d e c l i n e .  o f f such a q u e s t i o n  technological  hand,  d e c l i n e i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g  hand,  have been the  sole  such p u b l i s h i n g i s  factors. expensive,  and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s face a c o n s t a n t s e a r c h f o r a broad range of a c t i v i t i e s .  p u b l i c and  On the  s c h o l a r l y access to a r c h i v e s has  other  increased  through improved means of d u p l i c a t i o n of r e c o r d s and  greater  ease  central  of  travel.  Although  these 5  issues  are  of  importance,  they do not stand a l o n e .  understand in  t h e changing p e r c e p t i o n  the f i e l d  We must a l s o t r y  o f the r o l e of  o f documentary p u b l i c a t i o n , .  What  purpose o f such p u b l i s h i n g i n the e a r l y y e a r s , i t today?  to  archives was  the  and what i s  How have a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s p e r c e i v e d t h e  r o l e o f documentary p u b l i s h i n g over t i m e , and why have t h e i r perceptions  changed?  Once t h i s d e c l i n e has been t r a c e d , and some reasons f o r it  examined,  the question  o f t h e r o l e o f an  archives  in  documentary p u b l i s h i n g must be a d d r e s s e d . I n t h e c o n c l u s i o n , the q u e s t i o n  t o be addressed i s should  i n such p u b l i s h i n g ? the  role  agency, activity?  Is  dissemination Or  To what e x t e n t and f o r whom?  of the archives i n which  a r c h i v e s be i n v o l v e d  i n society?  Is i t a  haven  that  a  f o r scholarship,  where  today  few  Canadian  In l i g h t  archives  are  p u b l i s h i n g documents, these a r e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s Once  some  discussed, history  and  central the  o f knowledge would be o f paramount importance?  does i t have a broader c u l t u r a l r o l e ?  fact  government  case p u b l i s h i n g would not be  i t a  What i s  then  answers we  present  Canadian a r c h i v e s .  to  should  these  questions  have a b e t t e r  state of  documentary  of the actively t o ask.  have  sense  been of the  publishing  in  And then p e r h a p s , l i k e t h e c o n f e r e n c e on  the passenger t r a i n , such an a n a l y s i s w i l l help us t o d e c i d e i f documentary p u b l i s h i n g has a f u t u r e , past.  6  or only a n o s t a l g i c  Chapter One THE OLD GUARD  The  f i r s t a r c h i v e s i n Canada saw p u b l i s h i n g as e s s e n t i a l t o  t h e i r very e x i s t e n c e . of  preserving  the  themselves  seemed  Publishing  was  original country  historic  destined  also  sources  P u b l i s h i n g was seen as a prime means past,  f o r the  f o r eventual  seen  as  a  means  documents  disintegration. of  disseminating  t o a growing h i s t o r i c a l community.  In  a  as v a s t as Canada, p u b l i s h i n g was an i m p o r t a n t means  of p r o v i d i n g h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l f o r r e s e a r c h . As focus  these  i n s t i t u t i o n s developed  on documentary p u b l i s h i n g s h i f t e d .  the  way f o r many y e a r s b e f o r e  The  Public Archives  documentary abruptly, once  of  publishing, only  again.  Ontario's  long  halted  led  field.  the f o c a l p o i n t f o r  i t s programme  rather  halting i t  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y began p u b l i s h i n g but h a l t e d q u i t e suddenly, never  In  B r i t i s h Columbia documents were  s p o r a d i c a l l y by the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s  u n t i l a very r e c e n t  their  Nova S c o t i a  to r e s u r r e c t i t b r i e f l y before  to renew i t s a c t i v i t i e s . published  changed,  t u r n i n g away from the  Canada,  very e a r l y i n i t s h i s t o r y ,  and  and  change i n p o l i c y .  for  The Champlain  years Society  the Hudson's Bay Record S o c i e t y have a c t i v e l y p u b l i s h e d  documents  s i n c e the former began s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e t u r n  the c e n t u r y ;  n e i t h e r shows any s i g n of s l o w i n g  Manitoba,  the  published  by  last  o f the  " o l d guard",  i t s work. I n  documents  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s from time t o t i m e  7  of  were until  the mid-1960's and more r e g u l a r l y . s i n c e then. the groups t h a t a c t i v e l y p u b l i s h e d these  were a l s o t h e groups who,  their  programmes,  Although instituted  some  i n the e a r l y  years,  and  when they d e c i d e d t o  halt  d i d so suddenly,  have  new ones,  resurrected  These were  with  little  o l d programmes  notice. or  have  o t h e r s have d e c i d e d t h a t t h e f i e l d o f  documentary p u b l i s h i n g i s no l o n g e r v i a b l e .  8  NOVA SCOTIA A wise n a t i o n p r e s e r v e s i t s r e c o r d s , gathers up its muniments, repairs its great public s t r u c t u r e s , d e c o r a t e s the tombs of i t s i l l u s t r i o u s dead, and f o s t e r s n a t i o n a l p r i d e and love of c o u n t r y w i t h p e r p e t u a l r e f e r e n c e t o the s a c r i f i c e s and g l o r i e s o f the p a s t . Hon. It  is  fitting  that  any  Joseph Howe  discussion  of  publications,  in  Canada b e g i n w i t h the P u b l i c  Nova S c o t i a ,  and  Joseph Howe's enthusiasm.  preservation, began  in  and  Nova  publication  Scotia,  and  documentary Archives,  The c o l l e c t i o n ,  of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l the  archives  of  Nova S c o t i a n s  to  form  s o c i e t i e s were not government  appointed  commissioner.  ancient  records  progress  and  of  institutions  s u c c e s s f u l u n t i l 1857 ,  records  and  appear t o have been w e l l  archival  Thomas  and  t a s k was  in  this  1700's,  historical  as  to  the  first  preserve  documents i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the  society  aware  when the c o l o n i a l  Beamish A k i n s  Akins'  the  publishing.  the importance o f t h e i r h i s t o r y as e a r l y as the  attempts  first  surpassed  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y i n the f i e l d of documentary Although  of  "the  history  province... e i t h e r  for  1 reference or p u b l i c a t i o n . " Scotia's,  and  h i s death i n  Canada's,  A k i n s h e l d h i s p o s i t i o n as Nova f i r s t a r c h i v i s t f o r 34 y e a r s u n t i l  1891.  In h i s annual r e p o r t s , A k i n s c o n s i s t e n t l y documentary activities, motivation  publication. B.C. was  In  an  Cuthbertson  article  argued  t o make a c c e s s i b l e t o 9  recommended on  that his the  general  Akins' "primary public  documents early  2  of  days  information  t h e ' g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t and v a l u e . ' "  of  Canadian  through  p r i m a r y importance. p u b l i c awareness hand It  archives,  publications  I n the  the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of was  thought  to  be  of  And w h i l e t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g  o f h i s t o r y was c e r t a i n l y uppermost,  i n hand w i t h t h e concepts o f c i v i c p r i d e and  loyalty.  was i m p o r t a n t f o r 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y Nova S c o t i a n s t o their  history.  In  arguing  i t went  promote  themselves  and  for  the  publication  o f documents r e l a t i n g t o t h e A c a d i a n e x p u l s i o n ,  f o r example, A k i n s ' reasoned t h a t i t was: a s u b j e c t which has o f l a t e o c c u p i e d the a t t e n t i o n o f w r i t e r s both i n England and. A m e r i c a , and on which much has l a t e l y appeared in condemnation o f t h e course pursued by the government o f t h e day. The p a p e r s . . . throw some a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t on t h i s interesting subject, which has now become a m a t t e r o f American h i s t o r y , and f o r t h e c r e d i t o f t h e p r o v i n c e , a l l papers t h a t may i n any way d i s c o v e r t h e m o t i v e s , views and conduct o f t h o s e engaged a t t h e p e r i o d i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y , and which may t e n d t o c o n t r a d i c t o r e x p l a i n p a r t i a l statements ,. o r p u t i n a new l i g h t , t r a n s a c t i o n s h i t h e r t o c o n s i d e r e d h a r s h and c r u e l , s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e p u b l i c . (3) A k i n s r e a l i z e d h i s a m b i t i o n t o p u b l i s h documents r e l a t i v e t o the  history  of  the  expulsion of  t h e Acadians  when  he  e d i t e d S e l e c t i o n s from t h e P u b l i c Documents o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f Nova S c o t i a ,  p u b l i s h e d by t h e Nova S c o t i a government i n  1869. . Akins' fruit.  The  good i n t e n t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d never a g a i n next  such p u b l i c a t i o n d i d not appear  S c o t i a u n t i l 1908, when  the  Original  i n Nova  A r c h i b a l d MacMechan, a p r o f e s s o r o f  h i s t o r y and p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l edited  bore  Minutes o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s 10  Society,  Council  at  Annapolis Royal, MacMechan  had  1720-1739 f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by the  p r e v i o u s l y compiled calendars  Nova S c o t i a documents,  and  archives.  indexes  some of which were a l s o p u b l i s h e d  of by  the government. The  close  society  and  ties the  i n t e r e s t i n g . to have  left  the  appeared  provincial  historical  evident,  note t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l  government  rather  society, in  1878,  publication all  seems  perhaps e d i t e d by one  historical  of  archives  the  and  it  society  o f i t s members,  than  whose  first  counted as one  the  to  to  the  but  documents  funded  society i t s e l f .  Report  and  of i t s  objectives  and papers as  it  The  Collections  so f a r as the, funds of the s o c i e t y w i l l  such  is  seems  l a r g e documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s p r o j e c t s  archives, by  between  may  "the allow,  be  deemed  4  desirable  to  publish."  The  documents i n i t s R e p o r t s .  society  published  Most of the items concerned  confederation,  indeed, pre-conquest, B r i t i s h  "The  of  Colonel  Nicholson  1710,"  "Trials  f o r Treason  Journal  Annapolis, "Letters the  and  other  selected  at  personalities.  the in  Capture  1776-77,"  Papers r e l a t i n g to the E a r l y H i s t o r y  Church of England i n Nova S c o t i a [ 1 7 1 0 ] , " were  i n c l u s i o n s i n the 19th c e n t u r y of these documents was as l o n g as 120 in  society  by 1892  papers  and  presented  The  average  of and of  typical length  from t h i r t y t o f i f t y pages, w i t h some  pages, o t h e r s  consistency  reports.  pre-  documentary  as s h o r t as f i v e . p u b l i s h i n g by  the  the R e p o r t s were composed  at the annual meetings. 11  No  There was  no  historical entirely  of  documentary  e d i t i o n s were i n c l u d e d . Funding publishing  appears by  the  declared  that  memorials  of  appreciate lamented they  impediment  society.  The  1878  " i f we c o l l e c t ,  preserve  and  publish  other  that  have been a major  historical  and  would  to  days,  assist  the 5  us,"  public  but t h e  will next  report  be  sure  year's  the  text  of  the  the to  report  "they r e g r e t t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o annotate  wish,  to  documents  as  herewith  s u b m i t t e d . " To t h i s c o m p l a i n t they added t h a t "the committee in  c o n c l u s i o n beg t o c a l l the a t t e n t i o n o f the  the  members  mass o f papers s t i l l on hand a w a i t i n g p u b l i c a t i o n ,  to and  6  to suggest the f o r m a t i o n of a p u b l i c a t i o n f u n d . " no  e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t such a fund was  the  limited  publishing  suggest t h a t , its  record  of the  There i s  started,  society  a l t h o u g h the s o c i e t y remained  seems  active,  i n t e r e s t i n o r i t s c a p a c i t y f o r documentary  declined  over  century,  the y e a r s .  this  increasingly  might  active  and to  either  publishing  I n the e a r l y y e a r s of the  possibly  be.  attributable  programme  of  Nova  20th  to  Scotia's  the Public  Archives. As  mentioned  publishing this  by  seems  above,  the  archives  after  190 8.  documentary The r e a s o n f o r  1891, the t a s k o f c a r i n g f o r the r e c o r d s was passed from  one  o f Thomas  employee t o another f o r f o r t y  men,  Francis  F a i r b a n k s (18 9 5-99), the  death  little  in  these  A f t e r the  was  Akins  government  clear.  there  existing  Stephen Beamish  years.  (1891_95),  Although Edwin  C.  and Harry P i e r s (1899-1931) m a i n t a i n e d  c o l l e c t i o n t o the b e s t 12  of  their  abilities ,  (considering its  the  own),  a r c h i v e s d i d not even have a b u i l d i n g  they  publications  were  not  programme.  formally  a  position  In f a c t ,  s u p e r v i s i o n o f the documents, not  in  exist.  to  pursue  up t o the end o f  of a  Piers'  the p o s i t i o n o f A r c h i v i s t d i d  Akins  had  been  the  Records  Commissioner, but i t i s u n c l e a r whether h i s t h r e e s u c c e s s o r s even  had  titles.  An a r c h i v i s t p r o p e r was  not  appointed  u n t i l t h e 1930 *s. In  1929,  prominent  through  Nova  construction  the benevolence o f  Scotia  citizen,  o f i t s own a r c h i v e s  province  building.  the a r c h i v e s ,  on  Chase,  began  Although  occurred  more than s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s a f t e r the appointment  public  building.  On  archives 3  P r o f e s s o r D.C.  August,  and  first  1931,  with  Harvey as the f i r s t  1931,  Nova S c o t i a ' was  j u s t i f i a b l y proud o f i t s achievement. first  January  the  opening  the f i r s t r e c o r d s c o m m i s s i o n e r ,  14  a  official  of  of  the  W.H.  I t boasted provincial the  still  Canada's archives  appointment  of  Provincial Archivist  of  Nova S c o t i a , the p r o v i n c e ' s a r c h i v e s e n t e r e d i n t o a new e r a . I t was under Harvey's d i r e c t i o n t h a t the a r c h i v e s began to  expand i n a l l areas ,  from c o l l e c t i o n t o arrangement  to  p u b l i c s e r v i c e and, e s p e c i a l l y , t o p u b l i c a t i o n . Almost archival  from h i s  publications  f i r s t days Harvey advocated a  strong  programme.  In the odd b r e a t h i n g spaces o f o f f i c e h o u r s , I have been r e a d i n g a l o n g c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c lines; and, i n the r e s t l e s s hours o f broken s l u m b e r , I have been t h i n k i n g about the most fitting p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t s h o u l d be i s s u e d f i r s t w i t h the imprimatur o f the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Nova S c o t i a . (7) 13  Harvey  f i n a l l y recommended t h a t "a complete  documents from  b e a r i n g upon the e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t o f Nova  the  founding  Loyalists, in  of  Halifax  to  the 8  He  called  bulletins,  published  i n the annual r e p o r t s .  Most o f the monographs c o n s i s t e d o f papers  by  Description published  specific  of  Cape  individuals,  Breton Island  diaries,  and  time  journals  as  Holland s  Other  Documents  1  i n 1935 , and Thomas P i c h e n , the Spy o f B e a u s e j o u r ,  Original  Documents  published  however,  particular  subjects  o f documents,  Documentary Nova  the  documents  Account o f h i s C a r e e r i n Europe and A m e r i c a ,  edition  of  monographs,  and  such  of  Scotia  l o s t no  a c t i n g upon h i s r e s o l u t i o n , . i n a s e r i e s o f publications  An  arrival  be p r e p a r e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . "  shorter  or  collection  Study  Scotia  in  1937 ..  many  Occasionally,  were d e a l t w i t h t h r o u g h  such as the landmark  the War of 1812 and  the  publication  of the E s t a b l i s h m e n t of the  between  with  the  A  Negroes  in  Winning  of  R e s p o n s i b l e Government completed i n 1948.  G r a s p i n g a t such  thorny  in  political  publications  seems  thinking  D.C.  direction also  of  and a  social clear  Harvey  i n Nova S c o t i a .  issues  indication  and  the  Indeed,  t r e a t e d i m p o r t a n t themes,  the  archivists some o f the  forward under  his  bulletins  such as A Documentary Study  of E a r l y E d u c a t i o n a l  P o l i c y (1937),  Provincial  and C u r r e n c y ,  Finance  of  documentary  A Documentary Study 1812-36  (1941),  and  of A  Documentary Study o f the O r i g i n and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the Arms Fund (194 7) to name but  three. 14  Between 1955,  h i s appointment i n 19 31 and h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n  Harvey s u p e r v i s e d o r was h i m s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s i x  monographs,  six  bulletins,  and  close  to  documentary  e d i t i o n s , i n the a n n u a l r e p o r t s .  the  reports  annual  c o n s i s t e d of  forty  short  Examples  everything  from  from "Early  D e s c r i p t i o n s o f Nova S c o t i a " (193 3) to "A P r o p o s a l t o Change the  Name o f H a l i f a x  Nova  (1942) and "The  Correspondence of  S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y " (1945).  The documents and  commentary averaged about t e n pages i n l e n g t h ,  w i t h two  t h r e e , i n each r e p o r t -- j u s t enough t o whet the a p p e t i t e o f a hungry It  is  Archives 1931,  the  or  historical  readership.  c l e a r Harvey w r e s t l e d w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f  p r o p e r r o l e i n Nova S c o t i a s o c i e t y .  As  the  early  he commented on a problem o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e .  as  In h i s  annual r e p o r t he n o t e d : A number o f i n q u i r i e s have been answered t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the persons concerned; but this has r a i s e d the problem as t o how f a r the A r c h i v i s t can c a t e r t o t h i s s o r t o f work, r a t h e r t h a n c o n f i n e h i s e f f o r t s t o e n c o u r a g i n g t h e use o f m a t e r i a l s i n the b u i l d i n g . I f an e n q u i r y bureau i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i t w i l l i n v o l v e the e n t i r e time and l a b o u r o f a member o f the s t a f f , and a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e expense. Perhaps some p e r s o n who i s specially i n t e r e s t e d i n genealogy w i l l endow such a department. I f n o t , I am much concerned as t o the p r o p e r c o u r s e t o pursue. (9) It  is  interesting  t h a t a p e r s o n so  concerned  about  the  d i f f u s i o n o f p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n should r e s i s t the i d e a o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e f o r g e n e a l o g i s t s and the l i k e . however,  that  he  saw documentary  It i s  p u b l i c a t i o n s as a  clear, vital  means t o a momentous end. " I t i s u n n e c e s s a r y , " he w r o t e , " t o add  that  in  a d d i t i o n t o p r e s e r v i n g the  15  records  of  Nova  Scotia's  colourful history,  these r e c o r d s  o u r c h i e f duty i s t o  organize  and t o transmute them i n t o w r i t t e n h i s t o r y  as  10  fully  and as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e . "  historian, saw  author,  and  his contributions  Harvey,  who was an  p r o f e s s o r as w e l l as an a r c h i v i s t , i n areas  such  as  documentary  p u b l i s h i n g , supervising theses, presenting papers, p r e s i d i n g over  conferences  books  and m e e t i n g s ,  about M a r i t i m e h i s t o r y ,  and w r i t i n g  articles  and  as e s s e n t i a l t o h i s d u t i e s .  I n 1942, he•summed up h i s l a r g e r aim. So f a r o u r o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s have been catalogues, c a l e n d a r s , and documentary s t u d i e s o f s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s , designed t o f a c i l i t a t e research or t o throw l i g h t on v a r i o u s phases o f o u r h i s t o r y , which c o u l d not be t r e a t e d i n such d e t a i l in a general h i s t o r y without clogging the n a r r a t i v e o r g e t t i n g out o f p e r s p e c t i v e . None t h e less, a l l these b y - p r o d u c t s o f more general s t u d i e s have h e l p e d us t o r e a c h c o n c l u s i o n s , which can be i n c o r p o r a t e d with confidence i n these g e n e r a l works. The same i s t r u e o f a r t i c l e s and p a p e r s , which we have p u b l i s h e d i n h i s t o r i c a l o r l i t e r a r y p e r i o d i c a l s , or i n the t r a n s a c t i o n s of learned s o c i e t i e s . They a r e a l l p r e l i m i n a r y t o a more comprehensive and d e f i n i t i v e work. (11) Harvey public,  truly  f e l t t h a t t h e d i f f u s i o n o f documents  to the  and e s p e c i a l l y t o i n t e r e s t e d s c h o l a r s ,. was a way o f  preserving history  the  i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o v i d i n g t h e  f o r those  intending  to  write  material  broader,  of more  comprehensive works. When Harvey r e t i r e d i n 19 55, Fergusson,  t o o k over as A r c h i v i s t .  predecessor's  footsteps  documentary p u b l i s h i n g . annual r e p o r t s , and  his assistant,  he c o n t i n u e d  very  Bruce  Fergusson f o l l o w e d h i s  closely  i n the  area  of  He m a i n t a i n e d t h e appendices t o t h e  w i t h two o r t h r e e the  C.  s h o r t documents i n  bulletin series 16  and  each,  t h e monographic  publications,  s t i l l concentrating  especially  18th  importance  of  historical Scotia  an  historical  documents.  preservation he saw  "historical 12  documents." in  fast-paced he  the  information;  as  archivist  century,  on p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n ,  and  laboratory But  saw  the  dissemination  of  the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s for  Fergusson  the  was  o f Nova use  of  the  Nova S c o t i a t o f e e l the p r e s s u r e  s o c i e t y o f the 1960's and  wrote "we  Fergusson  and  of  1970's.  first the  At one  i n a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s must t r y t o  new point  keep  up  w i t h the t i m e s i n p r o c e d u r e s and t e c h n i q u e s . . . . There i s need f o r speedy r e t r i e v a l , arrangement, and a n a l y s i s of r e c o r d s 13 and d a t a . " S t i l l , i t was under Fergusson's d i r e c t i o n t h a t archival  publications  presented  itself  Historical contained  to  reached t h e i r  the p u b l i c through  Quarterly, selected  started  i n 1971,  documents i n v a r i o u s  Nova S c o t i a ' s c u r r e n t a r c h i v i s t . , that  peak. the a  archives  Nova  Scotia  journal  issues.  which indeed,  Blakeley,  judges  "Fergusson gave the p u b l i c a t i o n s programme the  highest  priority budget."  14  With  s a c r i f i c i n g o t h e r programmes t o i t on the  C. Bruce  publications Scotia  Phyllis  The  Fergusson's  activities  of  retirement  the.Public  seem t o have d i e d a q u i e t d e a t h .  written  t h a t " I would l i k e t o have an  in  1977,  Archives Dr. active  limited  of  the Nova  Blakeley  has  publications  programme but we have been under severe budgetary r e s t r a i n t s since  the summer of 19 8 2 and  the p u b l i c a t i o n s programme 15  one  that  can  be  postponed."  17  Even the f u t u r e of  is  the a r c h i v e s ' s j o u r n a l i s not a s s u r e d .  The  Archives'  annual  report  f o r 1983  s t a t e s t h a t "the f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f  the  Review  remains  tenuous and o n l y a s p e c i a l g r a n t  from  the  Fitness provided  the  Department  of Culture,  Recreation  and  n e c e s s a r y funds t o p u b l i s h the autumn 1983 is  guaranteeed  f o r 1984,  This may  budgetary i t e m i n e i t h e r the A r c h i v e s  while  of C u l t u r e ,  Nova  equipped, technology,  its  active  one  (1979).  publication. contributed years ,  edited  designed  d i v e r s e and  18 2 7;  It  appears  nothing  to  by  C.B.  and  interesting  programme  has  monograph  Fergusson,  on  and one  b u l l e t i n l e n g t h documentry  t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y documentary  publishing  for  a c o m p i l a t i o n of  p r e s e n t e d at the annual m e e t i n g s , c o n t i n u e s i t was  a  Census of D i s t r i c t of P i c t o u :  i t s Collections,.  In Nova S c o t i a ,  the  Today,  1791-1792 ( 1 9 7 1 ) ,  There has been one  although  Recreation."  publications  Mission to America,  Census of Nova S c o t i a : 1817  budget o r t h a t of 16  specially  and  funding  e n t a i l a separate  Since 19 70, t h e r e have been two  publications,  Clarkson's  new,  building,  once  declined sharply. length  F i t n e s s and  S c o t i a boasts a archives  Funding  but a permanent form of  w i l l have t o be found f o r 19 8 5..  Department  issue.  has many  papers  today.  the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s  r a t h e r than  the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , t h a t a c t i v e l y engaged i n documentary publishing.  Over  time,  p u b l i s h i n g t o the A r c h i v e s . scarce,  the Now  Historical  Society  left  t h a t government f u n d i n g  documentary p u b l i s h i n g w i l l  l i k e l y t a k e a back seat  to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o t h e r d u t i e s f o r some time t o come.  18  is  THE  PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF CANADA  I n a c o u n t r y of such v a s t p r o p o r t i o n s as Canada, it i s not p o s s i b l e t o r e n d e r the a c c u m u l a t i o n s of the A r c h i v e s Department a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l those who a r e , o r who might be i n t e r e s t e d i n them. It i s d e s i r a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o b r i n g some of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e documents b e a r i n g on the more important periods and problems of our h i s t o r y , w i t h i n the r e a c h of the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g number o f both Canadians and o t h e r s who are manifesting an i n t e r e s t i n our h i s t o r y and i n s t i t u t i o n s . A r t h u r Doughty The  (17)  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada has always been a l e a d e r among  Canadian  archives.  I t i s the a r c h i v e s t o which a l l  a r c h i v e s t u r n f o r guidance and documentary  In terms of i t s  p u b l i c a t i o n s , the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s was  not o n l y i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g their production, from  information.  such  t h e i r importance and  but was  publications  other  a leader  in initiating  a l s o among the f i r s t t o t u r n away in  favour  of  other  means  of  d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about i t s h o l d i n g s . In from  June of 1872,  the  armed w i t h $4000 and an  House o f Commons,  Douglas  j o u r n a l i s t , began the arduous and Canadian  national  "gather,  classify  archives.  Brymner,  appointment a  Montreal  complex t a s k of c r e a t i n g a His  i n s t r u c t i o n s were  and make a v a i l a b l e t o  researchers,  to the  18 Canadian r e c o r d s . " Federal  Archives,  gathering,  I n h i s t h i r t y years as head o f the Brymner  copying,  and  concentrated consolidating  d e a l i n g w i t h Canada as p o s s i b l e . institution, gathering  as  as  possible. 19  as  efforts many  on c r e a t i n g a base, The  on  records  As i s n a t u r a l w i t h any  the e a r l y emphasis was much  his  new  organization  new by and  dissemination  of  that information.was of  less  than t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s .  importance  As Ian W i l s o n  has s a i d : Brymner had done yeoman's s e r v i c e i n laying a solid foundation f o r the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , but a f t e r h i s death i n 1902, i t remained f o r h i s s u c c e s s o r , A r t h u r Doughty t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s c l o s e colleague and a d v i s o r Adam S h o r t t , t o l i n k both i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and i n p r a c t i c e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the,evolving p r o f e s s i o n a l historiography with the wide-spread v i s i o n of a national, unifying h i s t o r y . (19) Under t h e l e a d e r s h i p of  archival  Archives.selected Doughty  o f Doughty and S h o r t t ,  materials Brymner  became o f prime  had  documents  as  the p u b l i c a t i o n  importance  started a t r a d i t i o n appendices t o h i s  of  including  annual  reports.  c o n t i n u e d t h i s p r a c t i c e by u l t i m a t e l y  publication  of  c a l e n d a r s and c o n c e n t r a t i n g  to the  halting  solely  on t h e  i n c l u s i o n o f f u l l t r a n s c r i p t s o f i m p o r t a n t documents. documents over  i n t h e annual r e p o r t s  were l o n g ,  often  These filling  500 pages and l e a v i n g o n l y a few pages f o r t h e  itself.  There  were  at  t i m e s as  many  as  ten  report  separate  documents, a l l d e a l i n g w i t h p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n s u b j e c t s , with 18th century issues. in of  the  most  "Plan o f t h e B a t t l e o f S t e . Foy,.  17 60," "Documents R e l a t i n g t o t h e War o f 1775: Sentiments the  Canada,  Indians," from  the  and "Memoranda R e l a t i n g t o t h e Church i n Earliest  Times t o  documentary e n t r i e s i n t h e e a r l y  1837" were  typical  reports.  Doughty a l s o t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f documents i n monograph form. multi-volume  Documents  H i s most n o t a b l e work was t h e  Relating  20  to  the  Constitutional  History  o f Canada,  which was p u b l i s h e d  from 1907 t o t h e mid-1930's.  over  twenty  years  Concerning t h i s work, Doughty  wrote t h a t : I n 1907 t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s i s s u e d a volume o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l documents d e a l i n g w i t h the y e a r s 1759 t o 1775. T h i s proved t o be o f such v a l u e t o t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s t h a t i n 1914- the s e r i e s was c o n t i n u e d t o 1 8 1 8 . . . . I t i s now i n t e n d e d t o c a r r y on t h i s work by p r i n t i n g a few documents i n each annual r e p o r t . . . . T h i s s e l e c t i o n i s not n e c e s s a r i l y f i n a l as t h e documents w i l l be p u b l i s h e d i n book form a t a l a t e r d a t e . (20) In the same r e p o r t serve  a  useful  documents  are  opportunity calendars  to were  Doughty c l a i m e d t h a t " c a l e n d a r s o f papers purpose,  but w e l l - e d i t e d  collections  of  more  welcome t o those who seldom have an 21 examine the o r i g i n a l s . " He f e l t that "at best s u b j e c t i v e w h i l s t  publication  of  [calendars]  tended t o make t h e arrangement o f documents 22 inflexible," and he proposed t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f i m p o r t a n t documents i n f u l l . In  1907,  established  a  by  Historical  Manuscripts  Commission  the f e d e r a l government " t o . s u g g e s t  was  methods 23  for  the  publication  Commission the  supervised  Constitutional  commission  was  of  documents  in  Canada."  The  p u b l i c a t i o n o f Documents R e l a t i n g History  disbanded,  Historical  Documents  chairmanship  o f Adam S h o r t t .  of  Canada.  t o be r e p l a c e d  Publication  In  1915,  i n 1917  Board  under  by  to the the the  T h i s new board was g i v e n t h e  power t o s e l e c t and p u b l i s h "documents concerned w i t h the history and development o f t h e constitution, trade, 24 commerce, f i n a n c e , i n d u s t r i e s , and defence o f Canada."  21  With Doughty's r e t i r e m e n t  i n 193 5, the H i s t o r i c a l Board  v a n i s h e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h the A r c h i v e s Indeed  most  temporarily Research  of  the  i n limbo.  and  clerk.  of  the  James Kennedy,  Publicity  Dominion A r c h i v i s t , one  activities  p u b l i c a t i o n s programme.  Division,  l e a v i n g h i s own  Interestingly,  from the took  were  Historical  over  as  Acting  d i v i s i o n manned by  Kennedy's  problems of u n d e r s t a f f i n g and  Archives  solution  to  i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c use  question  the a b i l i t y o f the A r c h i v e s  service.  As he noted i n h i s r e p o r t f o r  was  t o p e r f o r m the  only the to  latter  1935:  I n accordance w i t h the p o l i c y which the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s has f o l l o w e d from the b e g i n n i n g , h e l p i s given whenever p o s s i b l e t o e v e r y i n q u i r e r . To maintain t h i s s e r v i c e , and also continue the p u b l i c a t i o n o f c a l e n d a r s and t e x t s of o f f i c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l records, i t has been n e c e s s a r y to c u r t a i l o r suspend some of the a c t i v i t i e s of the department, and t h e r e b y t o i m p a i r i t s e f f i c i e n c y f o r the f u t u r e . I f present conditions continue, a reconsideration o f the p o l i c y o f g r a t u i t o u s help to all bona fide inquirers may become u n a v o i d a b l e . (25) With Keeper  the of  the  publications  c r e a t e d , and,  case may and  Public  policy  imperceptibly.  services:  appointment  In  began 1938  i n 1936 Records, to  the  shift,  a new  Lanctot  Public at  almost  Division  as L a n c t o t s t a t e d , i t "comprises the  translation  as  Archives  first  Publications  was  following  i n t o E n g l i s h or i n t o French,  as  the  be, of h i s t o r i c a l documents, p u b l i c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h  French of the annual r e p o r t s and  distribution  26  department." slowly  of Gustave  being  of The  the  various  of s p e c i a l publications  works; of  p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l documents  replaced  by the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s 22  the the was of  government  publishing.  Monograph  length  publications  c o n t i n u e d , though slowed somewhat by t h e s t r a i n s o f wartime. As  John  A r c h e r notes i n h i s t h e s i s on  Canadian  Archives,  " w h i l e f u l l y c o g n i z a n t o f t h e needs o f h i s department,  the  Reports  his  issued  unwillingness  under  to  [Lanctot*s]  name  p r e s s c l a i m s f o r . s t a f f and space, i n t h e 27  face of the s t r i n g e n c i e s of depression Lanctot  and  Collection:  reveal  the  Public  Archives  and war."  I n 1940,  published  The  Oakes  New Documents by Lahontan Concerning Canada and  Newfoundland, version  and  appears  to  which an  contained  English  both  the o r i g i n a l  translation.  This  French  publication  be t h e l a s t monograph l e n g t h work completed  by  the A r c h i v e s u n t i l t h e 196 0's. In  1947, L a n c t o t ' s  documentary  editions  l a s t y e a r as  Dominion  Archivist,  i n t h e annual r e p o r t came t o an end.  L a n c t o t was perhaps f o r e s h a d o w i n g t h e end o f t h a t aspect the  documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s when he  usual,  this  documents printing  year's  report  i s accompanied  but • r a t h e r few owing t o t h e and  the  smallness  of  said,  by  "as  historical  increased the  of  cost  of  departmental  28 appropriation." With  the  appointment  of  W. Kaye Lamb  as  Dominion  A r c h i v i s t i n 1949, t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s p o l i c i e s o f t h e A r c h i v e s shifted drastically. means to  To Lamb, t h e development o f s y s t e m a t i c  t o a c q u i r e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r i g i n a l documents  m i c r o f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s held elsewhere,  overseas,  took  precedence  over 23  and  and  particularly  documentary  publication.  Lamb  proclaimed  enthusiasm. from  the  advent  As he saw  of  microfilming  with  great  i t , "the o v e r a l l r e s u l t of the change  c o p y i n g by hand t o c o p y i n g by photography promises  be  startling.  in  the  million  to  I n c l u d i n g the f i l m s produced by the cameras  a r c h i v e s o f the Hudson's Bay pages of m a t e r i a l should  Company,  at  least  be r e c e i v e d i n Ottawa  a per  annum, i n s t e a d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n thousand pages as i n 29 recent  the  practice  documents t o the annual r e p o r t s was  officially  the  years."  statement  printed  in  guides,  etc.,  In  that  this  1950,  "the i n t e n t i o n i s t h a t  way  will  hereafter. be p u b l i s h e d  appendices t o the Report as By  the  concentrating  mid-1950's its  of  appending  halted, it  Calenders,  with  should  be  catalogues,  s e p a r a t e l y i n s t e a d of 30  as  heretofore." the  Publications  Division  was  guides,  and  e f f o r t s on i n v e n t o r i e s and  documentary  publishing  But such was  not t o be the c a s e .  Kaye Lamb r e t i r e d i n 196 8,  and  Dominion A r c h i v i s t ,  W i l f r e d Smith,  the new  seemed t o be a t h i n g of  r e v i v a l of documentary e d i t i o n s .  the  noted  past.  the  In the f i r s t annual r e p o r t  s i n c e 1959, he wrote: The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the P u b l i c a t i o n s S e r v i c e i n 19 6 3 marked the r e s u m p t i o n of a more a c t i v e and v a r i e d p u b l i c a t i o n s program a f t e r a p e r i o d d u r i n g which attention had been c o n f i n e d to the p u b l i c a t i o n of i n v e n t o r i e s . Publications since 196 7 have i n c l u d e d the f i r s t volume of the Papers of the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s S e r i e s , The L e t t e r s of S i r John A. Macdonald, 1836-1837 , Nouveaux Documents sur Champlain et son epoque, and the Canadian D i r e c t o r y of P a r l i a m e n t , 1867-1967. (31) Smith  also  envisioned  a  broadening  a c t i v i t i e s i n the a r e a of d i s s e m i n a t i o n . 24  of  the  Archives'  Rather than f o c u s  exclusively attention  on t h e s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h e r , to  Smith t u r n e d  t h e needs and d e s i r e s o f t h e g e n e r a l  his  public.  I n h i s 196 9 annual r e p o r t , he commented t h a t : The much w i d e r p u b l i c use o f t h e h o l d i n g s o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s should be promoted. A program designed t o p r o j e c t the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , i t s f u n c t i o n s and t r e a s u r e s , i s b e i n g developed i n c o operation with the National F i l m Board. The. product w i l l be a s e t o f s l i d e s f o r l o a n o r showing i n " V i s t a s e l l s . " A l s o i t i s proposed t o provide f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of documents, p a i n t i n g s , photographs and maps. Although the chief function of the Public Archives i s to provide a c e n t r a l . resource collection of historical materials, i t s much b r o a d e r u s e , t h r o u g h e x h i b i t i o n s , t e l e v i s i o n , f i l m and o t h e r media, s h o u l d be promoted. (32) The under Work  g r e a t e s t and most a m b i t i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s  Smith's had  letters  l e a d e r s h i p was t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s  Series.  commenced on t h e e d i t i n g and c o m p i l a t i o n  of the  of  S i r John  direction  o f J.K.  published  u n t i l 1968.  A.  Macdonald  Johnson,  but  i n 1964,  but t h e f i r s t  the  was  not  volume  A second volume i n  i t s French t r a n s l a t i o n , appeared s h o r t l y then  under  The French t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t  volume was a v a i l a b l e i n 1972. with  activity  t h e p r o j e c t d i e d a q u i e t death  English,  thereafter,  unmentioned  ever  again i n annual r e p o r t s . In t h e meantime, ambitious Archives.  and  however,  aggressive  W i l f r e d Smith c o n t i n u e d h i s  publicity  campaign  for  I n 1972, he s t a t e d t h a t :  c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been g i v e n i n t h e l a s t two o r t h r e e y e a r s t o t h e development o f a program for the dissemination of a r c h i v a l materials. Such a program would implement the government's c u l t u r a l p o l i c y which i s b e i n g a p p l i e d t o museums; but i n the a r c h i v a l f i e l d i t i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y 25  the  concept. I n s t e a d of s e r v i n g o n l y a d u l t h i s t o r i a n s and p o s t - g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s who can come t o Ottawa i t would aim a t t a k i n g a r c h i v e s t o the greatest p o s s i b l e number o f i n t e r e s t e d Canadians by means of m i c r o f i l m copies, exhibitions, facsimiles, s l i d e s , p u b l i c a t i o n s and the mass media. Such a program w i l l r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l funds but the increased b e n e f i t s w i l l amply j u s t i f y the modest budgetry i n c r e a s e s which w i l l be i n v o l v e d . (33) W i t h the c e n t e n n i a l o f the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s  i n 1972 , the  i s s u e o f p u b l i c . s e r v i c e became of c e n t r a l importance. noted  that  Branch.  " t h i s has  been a Janus y e a r f o r the  We have looked  growth...we  Historical  backward over 10 0 y e a r s  of  the  i n an a t t r a c t i v e way."  centennial  diffusion  of  w h i c h served i n f o r m a t i o n was  publication e n t i t l e d Archives: work, a r t i s t i c a l l y by  the  steady  are l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o a b r i g h t f u t u r e . . . t o  d i f f u s i o n program which w i l l b r i n g our r e s o u r c e s 34 people  Smith  members  One  t o f a r more  of the p u b l i c a t i o n s of  t o promote t h i s a  idea  the  catalogue-cum-documentary  d e s i g n e d and w e l l l a y e d o u t , was  supervisors overlooking  of  M i r r o r of Canada Past.  o f the a r c h i v e s  the  staff,  with  The  prepared  twenty-five  the d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f the  book.  Such a l a r g e s c a l e e f f o r t by the A r c h i v e s , i t s l a s t t o d a t e , far  surpassed the e a r l i e r e d i t i o n s by S h o r t t and  the  manpower i n v o l v e d ,  seems  not t o have generated more documentary  by the A r c h i v e s . annual  but the success of the  report  "publication  The for  d i f f u s i o n programme,  that  centennial  Doughty i n publication  publications  o u t l i n e d i n the  year,  promised  o f a s e r i e s o f volumes (some of which  conjunction  with  exhibitions)  introductions  which w i l l p r e s e n t p r i m a r y t e x t 26  prefaced  by  the  are  in  short  complemented  by p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d i n an e x c i t i n g mix designed  t o appeal t o  the r e a d e r who i s i n t e r e s t e d i n a p p r e c i a t i n g h i s t o r y and the historical 35  record  gloss."  The  resulting  catalogues  and  i n v e n t o r i e s , but t h e expensive  consuming  without  t o o much  of  publications  the  historian's  included  exhibit and  time-  documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p a s t were n o t a b l y  absent. In  t h e mid-1970's t h e  Information name.  Services D i v i s i o n ,  Division  became  a change i n more than  just  I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s became r e p o n s i b l e f o r b r o c h u r e s ,  pamphlets, so f o r t h ;  t h e annual r e p o r t s , i n v e n t o r i e s , n e w s l e t t e r s and no documentary e d i t i o n s as such were p u b l i s h e d o r  even planned. unwelcome the  Publications  A l s o i n t h e mid-1970's, r e s t r a i n t r e a r e d i t s  head,  and i n a d j u s t i n g t o f i n a n c i a l  stringency,  A r c h i v e s was f o r c e d t o reduce such secondary a c t i v i t i e s  as p u b l i c a t i o n s and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . reported concern  that  Public  "the economic s i t u a t i o n  i n a l l parts  A r c h i v i s t took  o f the  world,"  i s causing and  the  grave  Dominion  t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e d e f i n e t h e r o l e o f the  Archives,  government  By 1981, t h e A r c h i v e s  a  role  records  and  which  would now focus  custodianship  than  more on  dissemination of information. The m i s s i o n o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s was d e f i n e d as the s y s t e m a t i c p r e s e r v a t i o n o f government and p r i v a t e records of Canadian.national s i g n i f i c a n c e i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e not o n l y t h e e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Government o f Canada and h i s t o r i c a l research i n a l l aspects of the Canadian e x p e r i e n c e , but a l s o the p r o t e c t i o n o f r i g h t s and the enhancement o f a sense o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y based on a r c h i v e s as t h e c o l l e c t i v e memory o f t h e n a t i o n . (36)  27  on the  The  Public  archival  activity,  concepts  of  publication. attention  to  collection  was  records the  always  a  leader  l e a d i n g the n a t i o n away  dissemination Instead,  to  services  of  in  from o l d  information  through  t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s has t u r n e d i t s management,  government and t h e  to  the  public,  provision and  of  t o the  of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g to a l l aspects of  Canadian l i f e . no  A r c h i v e s o f Canada,  documentary  Today, t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada produces publications.  A new s e r i e s o f  guides  is  being p u b l i s h e d t o r e v e a l , i n g e n e r a l terms., t h e h o l d i n g s o f each and  d i v i s i o n of the Archives. the  reveal  E x h i b i t s remain  a t t e n d a n t c a t a l o g u e s p r o v i d e some individual  documents,  but  important,  opportunity  edited  to  documentary  c o m p i l a t i o n s seem t o now be an a r c h i v a l d i n o s a u r o f s o r t s .  28  ONTARIO  The time has a r r i v e d . . . when... the Society may legitimately engage i n the publication of documents r e l a t i n g t o the h i s t o r y of the p r o v i n c e as a whole....For the p r e s e r v a t i o n of such documents, as e x i s t o n l y i n manuscript form, . p r i n t i n g i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y the greatest service t h a t an h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y can r e n d e r t o the s t a t e and the s t u d e n t . E.A.  In  d i s c u s s i n g documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n O n t a r i o ,  discuss Not  C r u i k s h a n k , P r e s i d e n t o f the Ontario H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1921 (37)  the  o n l y was  Ontario  to  material,  a c t i v i t i e s of the O n t a r i o  engage but  Archives  be  it  last  and  was  Society.  a l s o the d r i v i n g  primary  force  behind  i n Ontario. by  source  It  the  the may  Ontario  i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the a c t i v e p o l i c y pursued by Society.  Ontario most  H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y was  founded i n 188 8,  successful in a  line  beginning  Historical  Society,  British  North  Pioneer  and. H i s t o r i c a l  A c c o r d i n g to Canada,  of  t h a t the l a c k of p u b l i c a t i o n s  associations, and  i n the p u b l i c a t i o n  of a p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s  the H i s t o r i c a l The  Historical  must  t h i s s o c i e t y the f i r s t and most a c t i v e group i n  establishment perhaps  one  i n 1843 and  long  of  w i t h the Toronto  historical Literary  i n c l u d i n g such groups as  American H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Association  of  (1875) Ontario  the  and  the the  (1888).  the r e c o r d s of the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of Upper  formed i n 1861,  the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y ' s job was  to  preserve  "a u n i f y i n g 'sentiment  understanding when  o f n a t i o n a l i t y ' r o o t e d i n an  o f t h e Upper Canadian p a s t . . . . I n these y e a r s ,  t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e Dominion seemed t o be  at  stake,  the quest f o r a c o h e s i v e n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e stands o u t as t h e fundamental societies." In  38  reason why people formed and j o i n e d  1899, t h e  Ontario  Historical  publish i t s  Papers and Records s e r i e s .  president,  James  publication, and  Coyne,  the  circulate  claimed  historical  Society  began  to  The S o c i e t y ' s f i r s t that  "through  this  O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y would p r e s e r v e  rare  documentary  sources,  encourage  the  w r i t i n g o f h i s t o r y o f a h i g h e r and more e x a c t c h a r a c t e r , and 39 generally first  stimulate  issue  separate  of  were  annotation records), popular  past."  The  than  twelve  t h e j o u r n a l i n c l u d e d no l e s s  documents,  documents  i n t e r e s t in. Ontario's  a  t o t a l of 6 6  published without  (mostly  pages.  Although  substantial  documents such as r e g i s t e r s  editing  of d i a r i e s ,  many  editing and  or  other  j o u r n a l s and l e t t e r s became  a f t e r the turn of the century.  Such documents  as  the "John R i c h a r d s o n L e t t e r s , " "An Old Family Account Book," and  " C o l l e c t i o n s o f H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l R e l a t i n g t o the War  of  1812,"  were  professional. association, Public  edited E.A.  and  Archives  by  historians  Cruikshank,  also  both  amateur  and  one time p r e s i d e n t o f t h e  keeper o f m i l i t a r y r e c o r d s  o f Canada f o r many y e a r s ,  himself  a t the edited  e l e v e n e n t r i e s f o r t h e j o u r n a l between 1905 and h i s death i n  30  1939.  In  fact  i t was  Cruikshank  who  established  H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y ' s t r a d i t i o n f o r documentary by  editing  The Correspondence o f L i e u t e n a n t  Graves Simcoe, 1923  and  which was p u b l i s h e d  Peter R u s s e l l , 1936.  had  the d e s i r e d e f f e c t ;  Department  of  activities  of the s o c i e t y ,  route  publishing  Education,  i t s raison  which  d'etre.  subsidized  many  to  The  of the  had i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t would n o t  t h e museum and a r c h i v e s a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e  publications.  between  such p u b l i s h i n g became t h e O n t a r i o  Society's l i f e l i n e ,  i t would  John  t h e Honourable  C r u i k s h a n k ' s e f f o r t s i n documentary  Historical  but  Governor  which appeared i n t h r e e volumes between 19 3 2  and  support  publications  i n f i v e volumes  1931, and The Correspondence o f  the  assume t h e c o s t o f  printing  the  society, society's  Cruikshank r e a l i z e d , q u i t e r i g h t l y , that the  survival  f o r the s o c i e t y  therefore  l a y i n an 40  expanded Killan  and a g r e s s i v e p u b l i c a t i o n s programme. states  i n h i s h i s t o r y of  Society,  "as  Education  looked  itself its  Cruikshank  the Ontario  expected,  favourably  the  Ontario  Historical  t h e Department  upon t h e p r o j e c t and  t o p u b l i s h i n g t h e Simcoe Papers w i t h o u t  part,  As G e r a l d  Historical  d i s t r i b u t e t h e volumes as w i d e l y  Society  of  committed  cost. promised  For to  as p o s s i b l e by s e l l i n g them 41  at t h e n o m i n a l sum o f one d o l l a r a p i e c e . " It this  would appear,  with the b e n e f i t of h i n d s i g h t ,  that  'nominal sum' may. have c a u s e d , i n d i r e c t l y , t h e d o w n f a l l  of t h e monograph p u b l i c a t i o n s programme o f t h e s o c i e t y .  In  the  of  midst  of  t h e Great  Depression, 31  t h e Department  E d u c a t i o n was  forced to reassess i t s p o s i t i o n regarding  Ontario H i s t o r i c a l Society.  As K i l l a n  the  asserts:  The Department of E d u c a t i o n had informed the executive that the n e c e s s i t y of strict economy o b l i g e d the government t o withdraw the p r a c t i c e of p r i n t i n g . the society's l i t e r a t u r e at public expense. A l t h o u g h the s m a l l annual g r a n t would be c o n t i n u e d , the Papers and Records, the Annual R e p o r t , and the documentary h i s t o r y s e r i e s would have t o be p a i d f o r out of the O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l Society's own funds....The programme had gone beyond the s o c i e t y ' s means. No c h o i c e remained but t o postpone i n d e f i n i t e l y the documentary h i s t o r y s e r i e s . (42) Attempts were made t o keep the p u b l i c a t i o n 19 4 5 a n n u a l r e p o r t c o n t a i n e d the p l e a , "we revolving keep  publishing  replenished  Strachan  by  volume  could  sale  of  possible  publications.  be got out of the  The  have a C r u i k s h a n k  fund which i t should be the  alive.  way,  If and  the sold,  another c o u l d be produced.... P u b l i c a t i o n of such works i s real  and  e a s i l y a c h i e v e d f u n c t i o n of the  appearance  of  Records  body.... P r o v i n c i a l  be  evidence  of  a  really  the and  alive.  l e t i t stagnate."  publications,  in  spite  of t h e i r r i d i c u l o u s l y  became  a sore spot f o r the  pride,  and  all  a  active  h i s t o r y and l o c a l h i s t o r y can be 43  A t a d o l l a r a copy, s t a g n a t e i t d i d .  of  and  such a volume i n a d d i t i o n to the Papers  would  We must not  Society  to  low  price,  s o c i e t y r a t h e r than a source  i n the m i d d l e of the  possible  In f a c t , the  consequences  Second World War occurred.  J e f f r e y s announced r a t h e r a b r u p t l y  32  that:  the  President  of  worst C.W.  In the emergency, I took i t upon m y s e l f to move a r e s o l u t i o n which passed unanimously t o c l e a r out 1000 s e t s o f the Simcoe Papers and have them chopped up f o r p u l p . . . . I t w i l l s t i l l l e a v e on our hands ail ample supply f o r a l l f u t u r e generations. I hope G e n e r a l Cruikshank and Mr. Hunter w i l l not t u r n i n t h e i r graves , but the i d e a o f an e d i t i o n o f 2000 was a b s u r d l y e x t r a v a g a n t at the o u t s e t , even though the government p a i d the bill and we now have an e l e p h a n t on our hands which w i l l e a t more s t o r a g e hay than we can afford. I am prepared to urge furtuer e l i m i n a t i o n s of the same k i n d w i t h r e g a r d t o some of our o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s and t o be r u t h l e s s w i t h r e g a r d t o the l i b r a r y . (44) In  spite  shredder,  of  having  the s o c i e t y was  sent hundreds o f  the  to  a b l e t o p u l l t o g e t h e r and  out The John S t r a c h a n L e t t e r Book, for  books  from  i t s Papers and Records.  the  There was  But  monograph  l e n g t h p u b l i c a t i o n s and c o n c e n t r a t e d on documentary in  squeeze  1812-1834 i n 1946.  most p a r t the s o c i e t y t u r n e d away  entries  a marked decrease  number of documentary e d i t i o n s i n each  issue;  in  19 3 0's t h e r e were about two o r t h r e e i n each volume, than t e n o r t w e l v e as b e f o r e .  In 1947,  documentary 1959, 1960 the  but and  entries i t was  1981  the  between  This upswing l e d t o 3 8  i n Ontario H i s t o r y  f o l l o w e d by a d r a m a t i c  between  19 5 0  decline;  and  between  t h e r e have been o n l y 16 documents p u b l i s h e d i n  Historical  analysis ,  a  w i t h each  volume c o n t a i n i n g from t h r e e t o s i x e n t r i e s f i l l i n g and t h i r t y pages per i s s u e .  the  the j o u r n a l changed  i n documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the 1950's,  twenty  in  rather  i t s t i t l e t o O n t a r i o H i s t o r y and, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e r e was surge  the  Society's  journal.  r e a s o n f o r the change was  on the p a r t o f the e d i t o r s . 33  According an  to  one  "enlightenment"  V a l u a b l e as these documents were from a scholarly p o i n t o f v i e w , the e d i t o r s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t such volumes, made up p r e d o m i n a t e l y of p r i m a r y s o u r c e s , were not l i k e l y t o send r e a d e r s i n t o paroxyms of p a t r i o t i c f e v e r , w h i c h , a f t e r a l l was one o f t h e i r aims. Nor were ponderous tomes o f documents likely to a p p e a l t o many O n t a r i a n s . . . . Seeking to p o p u l a r i z e t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n , the e d i t o r s t u r n e d to the example set by t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s , and began to- i n c l u d e more n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r y i n the Papers and Records. (45) It  is  archives  at t h i s p o i n t ,  became  publications. under The  the  factor  The  the  the  issue  of  documentary  been  established  O n t a r i o A r c h i v e s had  provincial  wing o f t h e . O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y i n  but  independently quietly  to  such as  was  not t o be.  a government  The  archives  department,  a c q u i r e m a t e r i a l s and p r o v i d e  archives  was  involved i n a  programme o f i t s own.  1903.  evolved continued  public  service.  documentary  publications  p r i n c i p a l l y such m a t e r i a l as  the l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l and assembly,  its  and  The annual r e p o r t s c o n t a i n e d  but source m a t e r i a l , of  in  that  s o c i e t y had wanted a s t a t e - s u p p o r t e d a r c h i v e s under  control,  The  a  finally,  land  "nothing journals  books,  and  46 minutes Archer  of has  documents popular." 1950's,  the  47  courts of quarter  noted, in  when  "the p o l i c y of  Even so, the  As  reproducing  the p r i n t e d r e p o r t s i s s u e d proved t h i s p r a c t i c e was  stopped  A r c h i v e s d e c i d e d to p u b l i s h  r a t h e r than documents,  John  historical t o be i n the  very mid  inventories  thus making a knowledge o f 48  a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t s more q u i c k l y . " Ontario  sessions."  holdings  Today, the A r c h i v e s o f  no l o n g e r i n c l u d e s documentary r e p r o d u c t i o n s i n the  34  annual just  reports. about  when,  in  1957,  Champlain  Ontario H i s t o r i c a l  a  d e a l was  Society  documentary  the  under  which has  Ontario,  "to be i s s u e d by  the s p o n s o r s h i p of the  g e n e r o u s l y promised the  Champlain  For a s e t f e e ,  S o c i e t y agreed t o p u b l i s h documents of  had  publications  s t r u c k between  the government of O n t a r i o .  history  Society  The  g i v e n up i t s i d e a of  S o c i e t y and  the  49 -  the  relating the  Ontario  to  Champlain Government,  S o c i e t y a g r a n t of  $5,000 50  a  year  Ontario  f o r the next f o u r y e a r s f o r t h i s H i s t o r i c a l Society,  purpose."  The  whose p u b l i s h i n g f u t u r e seemed  dim,  q u i c k l y r a t i o n a l i z e d i t s own  "The  appearance of volumes of p r i m a r y sources p u b l i s h e d  both  the  Ontario  Archives,  activities in this  e s t a b l i s h e d in.1903  area. by  and  the  Champlain S o c i e t y , founded two y e a r s l a t e r , f a c i l i t a t e d the d e c i s i o n t o l i g h t e n the documentary c o n t e n t o f the Papers 51 and that  Records." the O n t a r i o  venture,  it  A l t h o u g h the  S o c i e t y seems t o have assumed  a r c h i v e s was  d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the  would  appear t h a t t h i s  was  not  new  true.  The  documents were e d i t e d by O n t a r i o h i s t o r i a n s , but t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n i n prefaces any  way  any  case,  active, Ontario.  or elsewhere t h a t the A r c h i v e s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e d i t i o n of the this series,  is The  now  the  numbering e l e v e n  focus  Historical  of  documents i n i t s j o u r n a l s i n c e 1973, no p l a n s  materials. volumes and  publishing  Society  has and  was  not  in In  still  activities published  t h e r e appear t o  in any be  f o r documentary monographs, a l t h o u g h the s o c i e t y i s  35  a c t i v e i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of b r o c h u r e s , g u i d e s , b o o k l e t s and bibliographies.  The  Archives  generates  r e p o r t and v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g e l s e .  36  a  short  annual  BRITISH COLUMBIA In B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s t o o k t h e in  documentary  historical efforts.  publishing,  provincial Archives  A r c h i v a l a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia began i n the  Gosnell,  librarian. and 52 province." carried  a  on  compile He  I n 1894,  journalist,  Gosnell's  collect  190 8,  the  s o c i e t y d i d become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  1890's i n a modest way. R.E.  although  lead  t h e government  as  mandate  i t s first  his  legislative  gave him t h e a u t h o r i t y  data r e l a t i n g to the  and  appointed  successor  history  E.O.S.  "to  of  the  Scholefield  a programme t o c o l l e c t a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l  until  when an a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r a r c h i v e s was passed by' t h e  Legislature Since  and G o s n e l l was a p p o i n t e d  1908,  mandating active  Provincial Archivist;  even though t h e r e has never  the  Provincial  programme  of  Archives,  acquisition  been  i t has and  legislation developed  dissemination  an of  a r c h i v a l documents. In  the  Scholefield his  early  concentrated  colleague,  intended  days  Judge F.W.  to  have  of  the  Archives,  on a c q u i s i t i o n s .  Gosnell In a l e t t e r  and to  Howay, S c h o l e f i e l d wrote t h a t he  " a l llikely  p l a c e s . . . ransacked  for  documents r e l a t i n g t o t h e f u r t r a d e and c o l o n i a l days," f o r , as  he  said,  documents history, seize annual  "I  am  making the c o l l e c t i o n  r e l a t i n g t o our p r o v i n c e , 53 my  life  work."  attempted  to  of  the  include  books  and the study  library  documents 37  and in  first  archives , the  annual  and  of i t s  S c h o l e f i e l d was a l s o q u i c k  t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u b l i s h documents, reports  of  to  i n the where  he  reports,  However,  o n l y a few o f the r e p o r t s were a c t u a l l y p u b l i s h e d ;  the o t h e r s remained i n m a n u s c r i p t form. with  the  Memoir S e r i e s ,  publications Vancouver  were  The  Printer,  but  Archives  itself.  documents  for  the  and  Menzie's  after  1918  Journal  In  t h e c o s t s were  j u s t i f y i n g the  British  Columbia's  the  of  " I f by any  Parliamentary  history  The  Kings' by  the  publication  of  the  legislature, his  desire  unhappy mischance," he the e a r l i e s t pages of  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  documents i n q u e s t i o n  very s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  of  covered  pioneer  "the o r i g i n a l s were d e s t r o y e d ,  forever l o s t .  early  Vancouver's  r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r f r a g i l i t y and t o  their accessibility.  wrote,  Among  f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n s were p a i d f o r by the  of  Scholefield  begun i n 1914.  the Minutes of the House of Assembly  Island,  Voyage.  He had more success  would  be  deserve, t h e r e f o r e , i t may  be observed  t h a t one  of the most p r e s s i n g o b l i g a t i o n s o f the  Department  is  publication  the  bulletins, . for of  of o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l i n  reports  Relating  to  Expedition,"  also Nootka  and  i n c l u d e d such Sound  and  to  documents Captain  pages.  resources 54  as  The "Papers  Vancouver's  Colonization  of  of v a r i o u s documents around a theme  t h a n as p a r t of a coherent s e r i e s . eleven  of  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , many documentary e d i t i o n s  were r e a l l y c o m p i l a t i o n s  included  form  accessible."  "Papers R e l a t i n g t o the  Vancouver I s l a n d . "  rather  the  i t i s o n l y by such means t h a t the  the a r c h i v e s can be made g e n e r a l l y  annual  125  In p a s s i n g ,  The  1913  report  s e p a r a t e groups of documents -- a t o t a l  But t h i s e f f o r t was  not r e p e a t e d , and 38  the  of  annual  r e p o r t s q u i c k l y became accounts o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e department,  r a t h e r than v e h i c l e s f o r t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n  documents.  Indeed, by t h i s time they were r a r e l y p u b l i s h e d .  Scholefield's Hosie  of  successors,  John F o r s y t h  (1926-34) c o n t i n u e d  (1921-26) and  t h e Memoir S e r i e s ,  but w i t h  John the  appointment o f W. Kaye Lamb as P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t i n 1934, the A r c h i v e s Upon  his arrival,  stringency Series,  s e t out i n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s . Lamb  discovered  that  had ended any thought o f c o n t i n u i n g  b u t he  was  reluctant  to give  p u b l i c i z i n g the Archives V holdings. historians  like  Robie  Historical  Association,  Historical  Quarterly.  f i r s t issue,  Reid he  and  up  the  Memoir  the idea  of  With t h e a i d o f amateur the  British  Columbia  founded t h e  British  Columbia  In h i s editorial  Lamb f o c u s s e d  financial  introducing  on t h e importance o f  the  publishing  documents. Those w e l l q u a l i f i e d t o judge have upon many occasions emphasized t h e v a l u e o f t h e g r e a t s t o r e o f books, m a n u s c r i p t s , p i c t u r e s and r e l i c s which are preserved in the Provincial A r c h i v e s . . . . Research s t u d e n t s and o t h e r s a b l e t o v i s i t t h e A r c h i v e s i n p e r s o n , have l o n g been aware o f t h i s ; but t h e department has l a c k e d any means of making I t s r e s o u r c e s known t o a w i d e r circle. It i s hoped t h a t t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Historical Quarterly will go f a r t o make good this deficiency. Important manuscripts, hitherto unpublished, w i l l appear r e g u l a r l y i n i t s pages; and i t i s hoped t h a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f p u b l i c a t i o n In permanent f o r m , which t h e Q u a r t e r l y i s a b l e t o offer, will encourage t h e w r i t i n g o f w o r t h - w h i l e articles upon many a s p e c t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s t o r y . (55 ) The  Quarterly  d i d indeed  carry  on  a  series  of  p u b l i c a t i o n s o f documents on such s u b j e c t s as "The Census o f Vancouver  Island,  1855,"  (1940), 39  "Gold  Rush  Days i n  Victoria, Dawson,  1858-1859," 1898: The  documents  Diary  averaged  were a n n o t a t e d , documentary  (1948),  and  of  "Record o f a  John  Smith,"  (1952).  between twenty and t h i r t y  others  l e f t unedited.  Trip  pages;  F.W.  succeeded  some  Out o f a t o t a l o f 36  i t s sudden demise i n 1958, f o u r were e d i t e d by t h e  Judge  The  p u b l i c a t i o n s i n t h e Q u a r t e r l y between 19 37  Columbia h i s t o r i a n W.N. Howay,  Lamb  as  and  British  Sage, f o u r by S c h o l e f i e l d ' s f r i e n d ,  and  five  by  Provincial  Willard  Archivist  Ireland,  who  i n 1940.  Lamb  himself  contributed three edited  documents.  While  numbers  may  themselves,  i t must  not  seem  to  high  of  these be  remembered t h a t t h e s e same men a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d a r t i c l e s and notes  based  on  t h e i r own r e s e a r c h ,  as w e l l  as  pursuing  a r c h i v a l and h i s t o r i c a l a c t i v i t i e s away  journal.  Indeed I r e l a n d ' s importance cannot be  actively from  the  understated.  I r e l a n d worked c l o s e l y w i t h Lamb t o e d i t t h e Q u a r t e r l y a f t e r Lamb l e f t t h e A r c h i v e s ,  and t o o k over as e d i t o r i n 1946. I n  a case o f h i s t o r i c a l p a r a d o x , t h e Q u a r t e r l y e f f e c t i v e l y i n . the year of the c e n t e n n i a l of the establishment Colony  of  B r i t i s h Columbia.  A l t h o u g h i t was  died  of the  not  issued  u n t i l 1962, t h e i s s u e f o r 1958 was t h e j o u r n a l ' s l a s t .  With  so much o f h i s time taken by t h i s c e n t e n n i a l work as w e l l as by  h i s d a i l y t a s k s as A r c h i v i s t ,  continue  to  Ireland  work a t f u l l c a p a c i t y on t h e  was  unable  Quarterly,  w i t h i t s main d r i v i n g f o r c e gone,  the j o u r n a l died.  replaced  by  some  t e n years  later  B.C.  to  and, I t was  Studies ,  an  independent j o u r n a l funded by s u b s c r i p t i o n and by government  40  aid,  but  Archives The  this or  the  has  Historical  not e n t e r e d  either  Thus,  activities  although  into  any  British  were r a t h e r a c t i v e  major demise  Columbia's  in  publications  the  Association.  o r o t h e r p u b l i s h i n g programme s i n c e the  some o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  time • t o  comparison  appeared  from  time and not as p a r t o f some p l a n o r programme  the A r c h i v e s . has  itself  Quarterly.  publications with  the B r i t i s h Columbia  Association  documentary of  j o u r n a l has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h  The  by  c u r r e n t P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , John Bovey,  summed up the h i s t o r y of the s i t u a t i o n  rather  neatly,  saying: there has been no on-going p u b l i c a t i o n s p o l i c y , In the sense o f a p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t , for t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n since i t s establishment. The Memoir S e r i e s has been p u b l i s h e d o c c a s i o n a l l y from 1914 up t o the p r e s e n t . From the 1930's t o the 1960's the P r o v i n c i a l Archives published the British Columbia Historical Quarterly in cooperation w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia Historical A s s o c i a t i o n and d u r i n g the p a s t decade we have p u b l i s h e d the Sound H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , which w i l l be suspended indefinitely after the imminent d i s t r i b u t i o n of Issue No. 40. Sound H e r i t a g e i s a casualty (perhaps a temporary one ) of the Government's c u r r e n t r e s t r a i n t program. (56) -  Sound  Heritage  is  a  drawing  primarily  history  c o l l e c t i o n and  publication  on the r e s o u r c e s  comprised of  the  of  articles  Archives  oral  i s not a documentary p u b l i c a t i o n  in  the t r a d i t i o n a l sense. I t s e x i s t e n c e i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the Archives  movement  methods  of  away from p u b l i s h i n g documents t o  disseminating  information  Columbia's h i s t o r y .  41  about  other British  THE  CHAMPLAIN SOCIETY and THE HUDSON'S BAY RECORD SOCIETY  I n t h e S p r i n g o f 1905 i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h some University men i n t e r e s t e d in h i s t o r y , the s u g g e s t i o n was made t h a t t h e time had perhaps come i n Canada when we might hope t o have a s o c i e t y f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of. h i s t o r i c a l works s i m i l a r t o t h e Navy Records S o c i e t y , t h e Royal Historical S o c i e t y , t h e P r i n c e Society., e t c . This o f course would depend on whether t h e r e were i n Canada a sufficiently strong sentiment i n f a v o u r o f work s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h had been accomplished s u c c e s s f u l l y i n c o u n t r i e s more t h i c k l y populated and w e a l t h i e r than Canada. . I had confidence enough p e r s o n a l l y t o t h i n k t h a t 250 people could be found who would be w i l l i n g t o pay $10 a y e a r i f we c o u l d promise t h a t we c o u l d produce works e q u a l in every r e s p e c t i n e d i t i n g , h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t and m e c h a n i c a l make-up t o t h e best p u b l i c a t i o n s o f h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s elsewhere.. S i r Edmund W a l k e r , f i r s t P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Champlain S o c i e t y (57)  One i s s o r e l y tempted a t t h i s p o i n t t o s a y , "and they happily  ever  after."  Indeed,  they  did.  The  lived  Champlain  S o c i e t y has been an u n q u a l i f i e d success s i n c e i t s appearance In t h e f i f t h y e a r o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . at i t s h i s t o r y w i l l  Perhaps a l o o k  g i v e some c l u e s t o i t s p r o s p e r i t y i n t h e  area o f documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The  Champlain S o c i e t y was formed i n 1905 ,  and by 1907  i t had r e c e i v e d over $2,000 i n membership f e e s .  Each member  was  documentary  promised  publications,,  two l i m i t e d e d i t i o n bound  i n r e d buckram,  s e a l o f t h e s o c i e t y on t h e s p i n e . appeared;  The  volumes  History  of  numbered and w i t h t h e  I n 1907 t h e f i r s t  o f New France  by  Marc  volume  Lescarbot,  e d i t e d by W.P.  Grant and H.P. B i g g a r .  Two volumes f o l l o w e d  i n 1908, and one each y e a r between 1909 and 1912. The World 1916  Society  War;  s u f f e r e d t o some degree d u r i n g t h e  The e x e c u t i v e wrote i n t h e annual  First  report f o r  that "unfortunately a d i f f i c u l t y i n regard t o procuring  paper  has a r i s e n s i n c e t h e o u t b r e a k o f war.  The p r i c e has  become so e x o r b i t a n t t h a t i t may be out o f t h e q u e s t i o n , f o r the time b e i n g , t o go on w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e volumes i n t h e hands o f t h e p u b l i s h e r s . . . . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e r i s e i n p r i c e , paper i s very d i f f i c u l t t o p r o c u r e a t a l l i n E n g l a n d , the  Government 58 distribution." activities conditions." Not  having By  "have 59  restricted  1918  been  forced one.  one t o s t a y down f o r l o n g ,  of t o d a y , " seems  scarcely  published single  heavy  they  although  by  report  war  Society it  from two volumes  back from f o r 1920-22  but f e l t  the  was to that  conditions  stated, " i t  p o s s i b l e t h a t two o f t h e b e a u t i f u l t h e S o c i e t y c o u l d have been f u r n i s h e d  subscription price of ten dollars.  come a g a i n . that  the annual  "Looking  by  t h e Champlain  executive regretted the d e c i s i o n ,  l i t t l e c o u l d be done.  and  that i t s  paralyzed  a g a i n i n 19 20,  t o reduce t h e annual p r o d u c t i o n The  supply  t h e S o c i e t y lamented  practically  began p u b l i s h i n g i n e a r n e s t  its  volumes for a  Those days  may  I n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f knowledge i t i s t o be hoped will,  f o r s c h o l a r s a r e now handicapped 60  c o s t o f books."  by t h e  A f t e r t h e s h i f t t o one volume  per  y e a r , t h e S o c i e t y was q u i c k l y back on t r a c k f i n a n c i a l l y , and  production  continued  confederation The  Service Howay The  subjects.  Canadian  contributed  smoothly.  War John  Most volumes d e a l t w i t h p r e -  W i l l i a m Wood e d i t e d f o u r volumes on  of  1812  (1920),  W.  McLean's Notes o f  a  Stewart  Wallace  Twenty-Five  i n t h e Hudson's Bay T e r r i t o r i e s (1932) e d i t e d The J o u r n a l o f C a p t a i n James  and  Colnett  F.W.  (1940).  Great D e p r e s s i o n seemed t o make no dent i n t h e S o c i e t y ' s  activities. have  In f a c t ,  t h e Champlain S o c i e t y can be s a i d t o  c o n t r i b u t e d i n i t s own way t o a l l e v i a t i n g t h e Canadian  financial  crisis  when i n 1929 i t t r a n s f e r r e d  printing  activities  perhaps  i n defence  outside, Society  the  sorts  from  Britain  to  Canada.  a g a i n s t t h e crumbling,  executive  i t s actual I n 1931,  economic  s t a t e d t h a t "the f i n a n c e s of the . 6 1  1935, t h e  Champlain S o c i e t y completed a  i n the h i s t o r i c a l world;  i t secured  the  coup  of  right  to  p u b l i s h t h e documents o f the. Hudson's Bay Company, had  Company  scene.  [ a r e ] i n . . . a sound and f l o u r i s h i n g c o n d i t i o n . "  In  that  Years'  previously  officials.  been The  kept  under  president's  material  c a r e f u l guard announcement  barely  contained h i s excitement at the prospect: I t i s w i t h g r e a t p l e a s u r e t h a t I am a b l e t o r e p o r t t h a t , a f t e r n e g o t i a t i o n s extending over the past y e a r o r more, i n which His Excellency the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , on t h i s s i d e o f t h e A t l a n t i c , and S i r Campbell S t u a r t , on t h e o t h e r s i d e , have taken a d i r e c t i n t e r e s t , the Council of the Champlain S o c i e t y has been a b l e t o come t o an agreement w i t h t h e Hudson's Bay Company whereby the Champlain S o c i e t y i s t o have t h e e x c l u s i v e right of p u b l i s h i n g the wealth of original documentary m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o t h e h i s t o r y o f Canada c o n t a i n e d i n t h e a r c h i v e s o f Hudson's Bay House....The C o u n c i l o f t h e Champlain Society f e e l s that i n p l a c i n g at the d i s p o s a l of . the 44  by  Hudson's Bay Company its facilities for p u b l i c a t i o n , i t i s p e r f o r m i n g a s e r v i c e of g r e a t value and importance f o r s t u d e n t s o f Canadian H i s t o r y . (62)  The  first  by E.E. that  Rich,  after  funding the  volume,  Bay  i t gave way  Records S o c i e t y ,  members of the volumes and two  Minutes  e d i t e d by E.E. must  separate  but c o n t i n u e d  supply  them w i t h  publishing.  of the Hudson's R i c h i n 1941,  the  to inform  its  copies.  Bay  during  both making  period. . . s t i l l  Company,  1671-1674,  remarked t h a t , "though the  year  the work o f p r e p a r i n g  records  every  went  Shortly  a f t e r the war,  patiently,  however,  The  seemed somewhat d i s g r u n t l e d at the the  Hudson's Bay  of 63  on." Records  Champlain  Society.  break.  In  " p a r t i n g of the ways," the P r e s i d e n t of  the  Champlain S o c i e t y r e p o r t e d apparently  the  t o work p a t i e n t l y and  on  regretting  w i t h o u t the a i d of the  war  volume  dauntlessly  dauntlessly latter  a  the Hudson's Bay  Society decided that i t could continue  a  Indeed a r e v i e w  have d i s r u p t e d most of the Company's p l a n s d u r i n g  entire  in  body,  t o work t o g e t h e r  Second World War,  conscious d e c i s i o n to continue the  to a  s o c i e t i e s continued  the d i f f i c u l t y e a r s of the  of  appear  Champlain S o c i e t y ' s i n i t i a l involvement  volumes,  The  I t would  edited  c o o r d i n a t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n o f  first  Hudson's  became a v a i l a b l e i n 193 8.  the  and  Simpson's A t h a b a s c a J o u r n a l ,  prepared  t h a t "the Hudson's Bay  t o meet any  Record S o c i e t y ,  therefore f u l f i l l e d  and  Company i s  d e f i c i t s incurred  by  the  the Champlain S o c i e t y  has  i t s c h i e f f u n c t i o n i n h e l p i n g t o get 45  the  Hudson's Bay Record S e r i e s s t a r t e d . " The  64  Champlain S o c i e t y c o n t i n u e d  programme, In 1954,  completing  a new  i t s active  publishing  volume, about every year or  the Champlain S o c i e t y s t r u c k the a l r e a d y mentioned  agreement  with  S e r i e s was  launched i n 19 5 7 w i t h The  by , E.C.  the  Guillet.  O n t a r i o government,  The  and  the  Ontario  V a l l e y of T r e n t  Champlain S o c i e t y and the  edited Ontario  government c o n t i n u e t o enjoy a p r o f i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p . addition  to  Champlain  the  eleven  Society one  concerning  Ontario  published  on  the  production,  nine  Bank  During  w i t h i n 1984  than  volumes  i s p l a n n i n g one  Rebellion,  more  and  separate,  including  The  i n two  volumes., and  of  already  published,  on  Upper  the  Upper  1986.  The  volumes  in  now  boasts  itself  various  stages  J o u r n a l of A l e x a n d e r Henry t o be p u b l i s h e d i n 19 8 5  the  one be has of the and  The Records of the Glasgow C o l o n i a l  S o c i e t y e d i t e d by E l i z a b e t h M c D o u g a l l , due membership  and  a l l to  Society  In  Canadian  Canada,  the French Regime, 65  Younger e d i t e d by Barry Gough, 1986  two.  of t h e S o c i e t y ,  out i n 1987.  once set at a f i r m 500  a membership o f 1,175.  The  members,  There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t  the s u b s c r i p t i o n method o f p u b l i s h i n g has f l o u r i s h e d i n t h i s case. The also  Hudson's Bay Record S o c i e t y , on i t s own  seems t o be t h r i v i n g .  I t p u b l i s h e d one  s i n c e 19 50,  volume a year  from i t s c r e a t i o n t o 1961, when i t reduced i t s o u t p u t t o volume every two y e a r s . seems  one  U n l i k e the Champlain S o c i e t y , which  to a t t r a c t e d i t o r s w i t h p r o j e c t s from a l l p a r t s  46  of  Canada and perhaps  elsewhere,  be  referred  Professor  Rich,  received thirty  as  the  Record S o c i e t y  "E.E.  distinguished  Rich  academic  as e d i t o r f o r n i n e t e e n  volumes. had  to  a  credit  volumes,  the Hudson's Bay  He  he  of  Editions." in  England,  the  Society's  would perhaps have e d i t e d a l l of  not d e c i d e d t o r e t i r e  (  but  only  c o m p l e t i n g a two-volume h i s t o r y of the Hudson's Bay published deny  i n 1958  Professor  Hudson's  Bay  and  1959).  Rich  his  Series,  due  as  General  many of the n o t e s ,  from  assistant, 1948  volume  A l i c e M.  t o 1968,  of  and  Johnson,  i n 1967  contributions of other scholars was  deliberate,  and  one  Company,  Editor  and  would  of  the  annotations,  was  produced  Saskatchewan J o u r n a l s  the after  A c t u a l l y , though no one  most of the i n t r o d u c t i o n s were w r i t t e n by o t h e r Rich's  could  and  historians.  Assistant  Editor  her  edited  own  Correspondence.  i n the form of  The  introductions  could argue, h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l , f o r  they l i g h t e n e d the a c t u a l work l o a d f o r a l l c o n c e r n e d , they  called  field the  upon people p a r t i c u l a r l y knowledgeable  to introduce editor  confines  and  discuss  a work,  w r i t e something h i m s e l f .  o f s t r i c t s c h e d u l e s and  r a t h e r than But even  and in  having  within  educated, guidance on  edited  documentary works r e q u i r e the  scholarly  people ,  working c a r e f u l l y  o f a knowledgeable g e n e r a l  that  efforts  of  under  the  e d i t o r and w i t h a f o c u s  w e l l - e d i t e d volumes r a t h e r t h a n s u p e r f i c i a l  47  the  voluminous documents, these  e d i t o r s have approached t h e i r t a s k from the p e r s p e c t i v e properly  a  treatments.  The  Hudson's  Bay Record S e r i e s and the  Champlain  both c o n t i n u e t h i s s u c c e s s f u l t r a d i t i o n o f t h o r o u g h l y documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s .  48  Society edited  MANITOBA  ... to r e s c u e from o b l i v i o n t h e memory o f t h e e a r l y m i s s i o n a r i e s , f u r t r a d e r s and s e t t l e r s o f t h e a f o r e s a i d l a n d s and t e r r i t o r i e s , and t o o b t a i n and preserve narratives i n print, manuscript, or otherwise of t h e i r adventures, labors and observations; t o a s c e r t a i n , r e c o r d , and p u b l i s h , when n e c e s s a r y , information with regard t o the h i s t o r y and p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s a i d r e g i o n s . CN. and  B e l l , f i r s t President of the H i s t o r i c a l S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f Manitoba,. 1889 (66 )  To t e l l t h e s t o r y o f documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s i n Manitoba i s to t e l l t h e s t o r y o f t h e Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . Ontario,  i t was  As i n  t h e h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y i n Manitoba  served as t h a t p r o v i n c e ' s  a r c h i v e s f o r many y e a r s ,  and t h a t  eventually  prompted t h e government t o a p p o i n t  archivist.  Since i t s  Scientific  S o c i e t y o f Manitoba has l e d t h e way i n a r c h i v a l ,  library,  and  museum  formation  a  that  full-time  i n 1879, t h e H i s t o r i c a l and  collecting,  and  especially  in  documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The latest  S o c i e t y was formed j u s t as Manitoba e v o l v e d .67 "frontier  Historical the  of  J u s t as t h e Nova  S o c i e t y had developed some f i f t y y e a r s  Manitoba S o c i e t y grew w i t h t h e p e r s p e c t i v e  activities  and  civilization;  publications  showing  eastern establishment, be  Empire."  as t h e  were t o o l s o f  t h e new w e s t e r n  Scotia earlier,  that  their  education  society,  and t h e  t h a t "our North-West i s d e s t i n e d  one o f t h e most important  p a r t s o f t h e globe...and  the o l d e r e a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s . . . w i l l  and  to with  soon be t h e r i g h t arm o f  t h e B r i t i s h Empire." its  membership,  printed  68  .' The S o c i e t y h e l d r e g u l a r meetings o f  and t h e papers r e a d a t those meetings were  as ' P u b l i c a t i o n s  and  later  Transactions  of  the  society.  In the f i r s t . y e a r s , t h e name o f George Bryce kept  appearing  on t h e t i t l e pages o f the papers.  had  presented  some seventeen p a p e r s ;  By 1910  his  wife  Bryce  had  even  p r e s e n t e d two h e r s e l f .  I t i s f i t t i n g then t h a t Bryce s h o u l d  have  to present  been  the  first Bell,  the  and  "Original  publish, Letters  with  associate  CN.  Documents  R e l a t i n g t o the S e l k i r k S e t t l e m e n t , " r e a d 69  before  S o c i e t y on .17 January 1889.  two  more documents i n the T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the S o c i e t y ,  went  1890 on L o u i s R i e l , on  to  Manitoba,  and  complete has  Bryce  Other  the  in  George  and  published  and one i n 190 3 on A l e x a n d e r several  historical  his  one Ross.,  studies  been c r e d i t e d w i t h p r e s e n t i n g an 70  of early  "western i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " of Canadian h i s t o r y .  But i n s p i t e  of  the Manitoba  the e f f o r t s o f such men  Society  floundered  steadily  declining  and  as Bryce and B e l l ,  i n 1910  membership  finally and  succumbed  decreasing  to  a  government  support. In 1926, B e l l r e v i v e d the S o c i e t y , but i t was a p a l e v e r s i o n o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , and p u b l i s h e d o n l y " t h r e e s l i m 71 papers" i n 1944 the  Fortunately,  i t was t h i r d time l u c k y .  under t h e guidance o f h i s t o r i a n W.L.  Morton l e d  f o u n d i n g o f t h e Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y .  the S o c i e t y succeeded i n h a v i n g as t h e f i r s t ,  James A.  A meeting  In  to  1946,  Jackson appointed  a l b e i t p a r t - t i m e , a r c h i v i s t f o r the P r o v i n c e .  I n 1952, H a r t w e l l B o w s f i e l d t o o k over Jackson's j o b , and 50  was  named  the f i r s t f u l l - t i m e a r c h i v i s t .  u n t i l 1975 of  t h a t the  i t s own,  and  However,  i t was  P r o v i n c i a l Archives received  i t s publications  a  not  building  p o l i c y seems not t o  have  developed, yet. In 1946, Manitoba This  the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y  History,  journal  was  supplement i t s T r a n s a c t i o n s  to  be  devoted  publications.  stated  " i n the a r c h i v e s  of the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , letters  and  reader.  By  r e c o r d s not  the  journal only not  an  In the i n i t i a l of the  exclusively  to  issue,  was  it  Provincial Library,  who  may  easily accessible  to  the  general the  c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s e r e c o r d s w i l l be made s c h o o l s and  be i n t e r e s t e d to  start  to  a  then t o those 72  know  l a s t e d f o r t h r e e numbers and  auspicious  as  t h e r e l i e hundreds of documents,  f i r s t o f a l l to the  public  almost  series.  means o f t h i s monthly p u b l i c a t i o n some o f  interesting material available  a journal,  to  documentary that  established  them."  of The  l e s s than a y e a r ,  publications  programme.  Perhaps as a r e s u l t of t h i s s i n g u l a r f a i l u r e , o r perhaps f o r other  reasons,  the Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y  from documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s , and  focussed i t s a t t e n t i o n  the p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e s i n i t s Then, the  i d e a was  revived  be formed, under the  of the Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y ,  to  the  of  Transactions.  i n 1958-59 when " i t was  t h a t a Manitoba Record S o c i e t y  of p r i n t books,  t u r n e d away  suggested auspices  to p u b l i s h a n n u a l l y  out  records or unpublished manuscripts r e l a t i n g  Red  R i v e r - L a k e Winnipeg B a s i n , Hudson Bay and 73 P r o v i n c e of Manitoba." I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o see t h a t 51  the the  members  of  the S o c i e t y thought of f u l l l e n g t h  publications  as  worthwhile.  Perhaps  they  documentary thought  that  a n y t h i n g l e s s would not be a v a l u a b l e a d d i t i o n t o h i s t o r i c a l scholarship. In any e v e n t , t h i s p l a n d i d not succeed r i g h t away. was  not  settled  until  1960 t h a t the f u n d i n g f o r the  project  w i t h "a commitment o f a t l e a s t $5,000.00  It was  from  the  . 7 4  Manitoba Society's  Historical first  Society."  publication  In  reality,  d i d n o t . appear  the  Record  until  1965.  S h o r t l y b e f o r e i t s c o m p l e t i o n , the S o c i e t y gave i t s members an o v e r v i e w o f p l a n s f o r the new  editions.  T u r n i n g t o the f u t u r e , the Manitoba Record Society, an independent body which r e c e i v e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h i s society, will s h o r t l y be a p p e a l i n g f o r members. The f i r s t in this s e r i e s of p u b l i c a t i o n s of rare manuscripts from Manitoba's p a s t i s expected i n 196 5. The first volume w i l l be "The B i r t h o f Manitoba" (Documents o f 1870) e d i t e d by W.L. Morton. Other volumes t h a t are now b e i n g p r e p a r e d are "The Papers o f James Wicks T a y l o r , " e d i t e d by Hart B o w s f i e l d , " C o l i n Robertson's J o u r n a l , " e d i t e d by Mrs. A.E. Brown, "Dafoe and P r a i r i e P o l i t i c s , " by Ramsay Cook, and "A Work on the T r o u b l e s o f the Red R i v e r o f the 1840's," by W.D. Smith. F u r t h e r volumes are b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . (75) The works by Morton, Cook and B o w s f i e l d were the f i r s t t h r e e publications 196 6  and  of  the Records S o c i e t y ,  196 8.  published.  In  coming out i n  The o t h e r two mentioned have 1974,  The  Diary  o f Reverend  yet Henry  1965, to  be Budd  appeared, and i n 1979, A l a n A r t i b i s e completed Gateway C i t y : Documents  on  the  City  of  p u b l i s h e d s i n c e the A r t i b i s e  Winnipeg. volume.  52  Nothing  has  been  Interestingly, this . latest Historical  in  the  j u s t , one  y e a r a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f  documentary  S o c i e t y ended i t s T r a n s a c t i o n s  magazine c a l l e d Manitoba H i s t o r y , regular or  two  series,  "Documents" s e c t i o n .  the  and  which has  .Manitoba  started a  a separate  Manitoba  H i s t o r i c a l Society,  work  i t s documents i n Manitoba H i s t o r y ,  and  working  towards  a  and  This s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f  page documents w i t h a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n . between i t s  programme  of  new  Thus  one the  Records  Society  i s at  present  continuing  documentary  publishing. The the yet, of  P r o v i n c i a l Archives  documentary may the  i t s e l f , h a v i n g t a k e n no p a r t i n  p u b l i c a t i o n s of i t s p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r y  be i n c h i n g towards such a programme, present  liberally.  Archivist,  Peter  Bower,  i f the words  may  be  In an i n t e r v i e w Bower commented:  Archives have a major r o l e t o p l a y in c o n t r i b u t i n g to l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n of our p e o p l e , b o t h i n s t i m u l a t i n g a d e s i r e f o r knowledge and in h e l p i n g t o s a t i s f y t h i s need. For example, I w i s h t h a t •more s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n could use our resources e f f e c t i v e l y , though here a g a i n , the fragility and uniqueness o f our h o l d i n g s m i l i t a t e against y o u n g s t e r s b e i n g a l l o w e d t o handle the documents f r e e l y I f , as I argue, a r c h i v e s are a. fundamental and even the most i n t i m a t e expression o f s o c i e t y , t h e r e must s u r e l y be some mechanisms found whereby we can p l a c e a t l e a s t adequate f a c s i m i l e s of o r i g i n a l documents i n the hands of s c h o o l - a g e p e o p l e . I know t h i s has been attempted on modest s c a l e s , but n e i t h e r the q u a l i t y nor q u a n t i t y p r o v i d e d i s r e a l l y adequate o r r i g h t on t a r g e t i n substance. I am not suggesting that everyone i s , can be, o r should be an h i s t o r i a n o r a r c h i v i s t , but I do t h i n k t h a t exposure t o p r i m a r y r e s e a r c h -- even i n modest form -- can h e l p people in handling information, discovering broad p u r p o s e s , and i n generating self-knowledge or i d e n t i t y . (76 )  53  as  taken  It  may  be  t h a t p u b l i s h e d documents  a r e the  very  tools  needed f o r t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e e n v i s a g e d by Bower f o r t h e Archives.  54  Chapter Two NEW DIRECTIONS FOR ARCHIVES  The  a r c h i v e s t h a t emerged i n Canada d u r i n g the  post  World  War  Two  from  their  p e r i o d f o l l o w e d paths q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  predecessors. archival  Records management became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  activity,  new  technologies  and  a  multi-media  approach l e d t o a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , finances  forced  Publishing  archivists  to  make  some  and  hard  limited choices.  documents was d e c i d e d l y o f secondary  importance  to many o f these newer a r c h i v e s . Saskatchewan documentary journal.  made  a  publishing, Alberta's  activities ,  but  conscious at  was  slow  years  to  has  i n f o r m a t i o n about i t s h o l d i n g s  inventories,  a  trend.  The  continue  i t s regular organize i t s  concentrated  disseminating  growing  to  l e a s t as p a r t o f  archives  i n recent  decision  i n guides  Alberta  on and  Historical  S o c i e t y has been more i n v o l v e d i n documentary e d i t i o n s . New  Brunswick,  nor  t h e very young a r c h i v e s have been a c t i v e i n p u b l i s h i n g .  Newfoundland,  n e i t h e r the century-old h i s t o r i c a l  In  Prince  Edward  Island  and  Northwest  T e r r i t o r i e s have o n l y r e c e n t l y  and  n o t had time t o c o n s i d e r  have  activities.  In  an  Historical  Review,  the n a t i o n a l  radically  changed  i t s policy  extensive  historical of  Yukon  opened  i n t e r e s t i n g comparison,  55  the  society  and  archives,  publications the  Canadian  journal,  publishing  has  documents.  For never  been  archives as  a  these newer a r c h i v e s , considered  vital  activity.  Although  are b e g i n n i n g t o p u b l i s h s p o r a d i c a l l y ,  dispensible enterprise.  cancelling  such  restrictions, other  a  documentary p u b l i c a t i o n has  methods  programmes  They have no in  the  face  some  they see i t qualms  of  about  budgetary  and a r e t u r n i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n more o f t e n t o of  disseminating  holdings.  56  information  about  their  SASKATCHEWAN Archives of  and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s came l a t e t o the p r o v i n c e  Saskatchewan.  u n t i l 1945,  The  P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s was  begun  but s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n the a r c h i v e s has f e l t a  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p u b l i s h documents. by  not  contrast,  have  Historical  Societies,  not been i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i s h i n g t o  any  e x t e n t , and indeed o n l y w a r r a n t p a s s i n g mention. The Saskatchewan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y was formed i n  June  1936. I t s o b j e c t s were: 1. t o gather and c o r r e l a t e e v e r y t h i n g h a v i n g t o do w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f the p r o v i n c e and. o f t h a t p o r t i o n o f the North West T e r r i t o r i e s from which i t was c r e a t e d a t the time o f the p r o v i n c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1905; 2. t o a s i s t i n the f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and committees a t s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s ; 3. t o gather r e l i c s o f h i s t o r i c i n t e r e s t . (1) Nowhere  i n the  documentary  o b j e c t i v e s o f the S o c i e t y does the i s s u e o f  p u b l i s h i n g appear,  and the S o c i e t y appears not  to have become i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i c a t i o n s o f any k i n d , perhaps as a r e s u l t o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f the a r c h i v e s , perhaps reasons o f . i t s As  own.  e a r l y as 1938,  Professor  A.S.  records."  for  t h e p r o v i n c i a l government  Morton  to  be the "keeper  The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review,  of  appointed  the  which  public deplored  the n e g l e c t o f h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s on t h e P r a i r i e s , commended 2 Saskatchewan government Archives into newly  for i t s initiative. passed  Board  being. created  legislation and  Not  a  Seven bringing  full-fledged  content  years l a t e r the  the  Saskatchewan  provincial  archives  t o s i m p l y keep the r e c o r d s , the  Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s immediately 57  turned i t s  a t t e n t i o n t o the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . point to  "There i s no  i n merely p r e s e r v i n g r e c o r d s u n l e s s such r e c o r d s  be used," the f i r s t annual r e p o r t s t a t e d .  "Their chief  use i s n o t s i m p l y f o r t h e purposes o f o c c a s i o n a l though  this  i s by no means u n i m p o r t a n t ,  are  reference,  but r a t h e r  as  a  3  basis  f o r s y s t e m a t i c h i s t o r i c a l study."  this  policy,  the Archives  In  Board q u i c k l y  keeping  with  focussed  upon  documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s . The  first  P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , George W. Simpson, who  was a l s o head o f t h e Department o f H i s t o r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, was " a u t h o r i z e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e q u e s t i o n of  p u b l i s h i n g m a t e r i a l which would be o f a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e 4  teaching the  o f Western Canadian h i s t o r y i n t h e s c h o o l s . "  same  time,  t h e A r c h i v e s Board adopted  p u b l i s h documents i n t h e a n n u a l . r e p o r t s . for  1946-47,  contained  of  the Attorney  which covered report,  o f t h e North However,  t h e p o l i c y had changed.  and  The f i r s t  contained  section  West  "Documents issue  of  Territories,"  by t h e time o f t h e t h i r d The P r o v i n c i a l  editor  was  Archives  Saskatchewan  i s s u e o f t h e j o u r n a l appeared i n 1948,  to  "Archives  Studies,"  Western H i s t o r y . "  contained  contributors,  Department  t h r e e documentary c o l l e c t i o n s i n a  devoted  at  to  The second r e p o r t ,  began p u b l i s h i n g documents i n i t s new j o u r n a l , History.  policy  " S e l e c t e d Records o f t h e  General  44 pages.  a  At  l e a s t one  later  Thereafter, document.,  separate called  each  some  year's  edited  by  some by t h e e d i t o r o f t h e j o u r n a l . . The f i r s t Lewis H.  Thomas,  a  prominent  historian  r e p l a c e d Simpson as P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t i n 1948. 58  who  Of t h e 42  documents p u b l i s h e d i n the j o u r n a l from 1948  t o 1970,  Thomas  e d i t e d n i n e h i m s e l f , and as e d i t o r undoubtedly had.a hand i n o t h e r s . A f t e r 1970 included  t h e r e was  a n o t a b l e d e c r e a s e i n documents  i n Saskatchewan H i s t o r y ,  t h e r e b e i n g none i n  the  volumes f o r 1971 , 1973 , 1975 , and 197.7. It  is  worth n o t i n g t h a t although  i t s e l f not i s s u e d any from  time  to  the  Archives  s e p a r a t e documentary e d i t i o n s ,  time p u b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e  works,such  Historical  D i r e c t o r y of Saskatchewan Newspapers,  (1950),  Directory  a  Exploring  of  Saskatchewan  it  i t has as  (1954),  L o c a l H i s t o r y i n Saskatchewan (1980) and A  Guide  Recently,  has been p o s s i b l e t o support r e f e r e n c e works l i k e  w i t h the revenue from s p e c i a l v e n t u r e s  an  1878-1950  Ministries  t o C o l l e c t i n g and P r o c e s s i n g O r a l H i s t o r y (1980).  has  these  into publishing.  the c u r r e n t P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t Ian W i l s o n  As  explains i t :  For the p a s t few y e a r s , the Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s has a c t e d as the a u t h o r of three commercially p u b l i s h e d books. In each case we took the initiative i n b e g i n n i n g work on a book, o b t a i n e d funding where n e c e s s a r y ' . and approached a p u b l i s h e r , . Western Producer P r a i r i e Books. We signed w i t h usual a u t h o r - p u b l i s h e r agreement, r e t a i n i n g c o p y r i g h t and w i t h r o y a l t i e s o f 10% of s a l e s b e i n g p a i d t o the A r c h i v e s Board. These royalties are now f u n d i n g the Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Reference S e r i e s . (5) Three books are Pages from the P a s t : History  edited  by D.H.  Booking,  Saskatchewan H i s t o r y s i n c e 1962, History, Archer  and  Saskatchewan:  A  Essays on Saskatchewan a r c h i v i s t and e d i t o r  Saskatchewan: History,  written  f o r Saskatchewan's 7 5th a n n i v e r s a r y .  t i t l e s have,  according to Wilson,  59  A  The  of  Pictorial by last  John two  s o l d r e s p e c t i v e l y 11,480  and 10,000 c o p i e s ,  and the revenue generated  from the s a l e s  has h e l p e d the A r c h i v e s to fund o t h e r p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  60  ALBERTA As a p p l i e d t o the study o f h i s t o r y t h e use o f documentary s t u d i e s has a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n i m p a r t i n g knowledge o f t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s c r a f t , and i n s t i m u l a t i n g enthusiasm f o r h i s t o r i c a l enquiry. Lewis H. Thomas in the A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1969 (6) In  Alberta,  difficulty  the p r o v i n c i a l h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y in  had  a g r e e i n g w i t h Thomas's statement  importance o f documentary s t u d i e s ;  however,  Archives  involved  has y e t t o become h e a v i l y  little  about  the  the P r o v i n c i a l in  documentary  publications. The H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y P r o v i n c i a l Statute revived  i n 1947.  o f A l b e r t a was i n c o r p o r t a t e d  i n 1907, was r e o r g a n i z e d i n 1919, and was By 1953,  the S o c i e t y  and indeed had s t a r t e d i t s own j o u r n a l , trying. from  was w e l l on t r a c k , a f t e r many y e a r s o f  Suuport f o r the new A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review  the  by  P r o v i n c i a l Department o f  j o u r n a l was w e l l r e c e i v e d .  Economic  Affairs.  came The  As the Canadian H i s t o r i a l Review  noted: I t i s a p l e a s u r e t o c a l l the a t t e n t i o n o f our readers to the appearance o f the Alberta H i s t o r i c a l Review, volume 1, no. 1, o f w h i c h i s dated A p r i l 19 53. With i t s appearance Alberta becomes t h e l a s t o f the Western Canadian P r o v i n c e s to have embarked upon p u b l i c a t i o n i n the l o c a l h i s t o r y f i e l d . . . . T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n aims t o p r i n t f i r s t - h a n d accounts i n t e r p r e t i v e o f the l i f e of the P r o v i n c e and hopes t o encourage the c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l relating t o A l b e r t a and the Canadian West. (7) Most  of  these  reminiscences  "first-hand  accounts"  consisted  and o r a l h i s t o r y i n t e r v i e w s , f o r one o f  aims o f t h e S o c i e t y was "the p r e s e r v a t i o n  61  o f the s t o r i e s  of the of  the  oldtimers  b e f o r e i t i s too l a t e . "  However,  the e d i t o r  began t o i n c l u d e documents i n many o f the volumes, a l b e i t i n a somewhat had  i r r e g u l a r fashion.  almost s i n g l e h a n d e d l y  well  was r e s p o n s i b l e  i n the A l b e r t a , j o u r n a l . of  e d i t e d many o f the  as the j o u r n a l i t s e l f  Dempsey  the  documents,  And j u s t as Lewis H.  i n Saskatchewan,  Deer  River"  documents  as  e d i t o r Hugh A.  f o r the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f  documents  Between 1953 and 1982 , he e d i t e d 35  on  subjects  .Epidemic o f 1869-70" ( 1 9 6 3 ) , Red  Thomas  (1965),  ranging  from  t o "Thompson's  and " L e t t e r s from  "Smallpox  Journey t o Elliott  the Gait,  T r a v e l l i n g the P r a i r i e s , 1879-80 " (1978). The  H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f A l b e r t a d i d not stop a t  publication publication, The  of  a  journal  however.  The E a r l y West,  work c o n t a i n e d  In  19 5 7  a  separate  e d i t e d by Dempsey, appeared.  documents r e l a t i n g t o the e a r l y  of  A l b e r t a and t h e P r a i r i e s .  for  almost 20 y e a r s ,  and i t appeared the S o c i e t y had d e c i d e d  1977 The Rundle J o u r n a l s ,  1840-1848,  e d i t e d by Dempsey, appeared.  19 7 9 by Job Reed's L e t t e r s : and  But i n  a l s o , i t should be no This was f o l l o w e d i n  L i f e i n Lethbridge,  1886-1906,  The F o r m a t i o n o f A l b e r t a : A Documentary H i s t o r y , and  1981  by P i o n e e r i n g  i n Alberta:  Maurice Destraube's  I n f a c t , t h e l a s t two p u b l i c a t i o n s were p u b l i s h e d Historical Board. new  history  This p u b l i c a t i o n stood alone  not t o embark upon the p u b l i c a t i o n o f l a r g e r works.  suprise,  Society  but by t h e A l b e r t a Records  A l t h o u g h i n r e a l i t y an o f f s h o o t  Board  documentary  added  the  publications,  by  Story.  not by the Publication  of the Society,  a c e r t a i n permanence t o indicating  the its  in  concept  this of  continuing  involvement to  i n the work.  flourish,  and  The H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y  continues  appears to be h e a v i l y committed  to  its  documentary p u b l i s h i n g p l a n s . The  same  which, , a f t e r  cannot be s a i d f o r the P r o v i n c i a l  Archives,  y e a r s o f e x i s t i n g as a p a l e appendage of  Legislative  Library,  196 3  as  p a r t o f the P r o v i n c i a l Museums and A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a .  The  A r c h i v e s now in  was  f i n a l l y established i n  the  has the mandate t o p u b l i s h documents, as s t a t e d 9  the H i s t o r i c a l Resources A c t .  yet a c t e d on t h a t mandate. the  R a t h e r , i t has  production of l e a f l e t s ,  finding  aids,  and  The A r c h i v e s has  The  as  "concentrated  Occasional Papers,  manuals.  not  overall  on  guides  focus  or  of  our  p u b l i c a t i o n program i s d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t , improve and extend our programs and s e r v i c e s and meet identified 10 needs." To d a t e , the a r c h i v e s has p u b l i s h e d a guide to sources  o f women's h i s t o r y ,  surveys  of  histories  oral in  photographs, booklet  on  a departmental  history in  Alberta,  a  Alberta,  guide t o  history  a. guide  preserving  series,  to  local  historical  a survey of government r e c o r d s c o l l e c t i o n s , w r i t i n g l o c a l h i s t o r y , and a 11  h i s t o r i c a l photographs.  publication  In a l l t h i s a c t i v i t y ,  one  issued  McDougall, the  by  the  Archives.  1878-1887 was  Archives  first  The  e d i t e d by E l i z a b e t h M.  Occasional  Paper,  i n t r o d u c i n g the O c c a s i o n a l Papers s e r i e s , that  "these  Letters  in  has  Lovisa  McCrum 1978.  as In  the e d i t o r s noted  O c c a s i o n a l Papers are designed t o 63  of  of  almost  o v e r l o o k s the f a c t t h a t o n l y one documentary p u b l i c a t i o n been  a  permit  the  r a p i d d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from H i s t o r i c a l Resources'  programmes.  interested specialists, for general readers.  They  are i n t e n d e d  primarily  for  r a t h e r than as p o p u l a r p u b l i c a t i o n s  In the i n t e r e s t s of making i n f o r m a t i o n  available  q u i c k l y t o these s p e c i a l i s t s , normal production 12 procedures have been a b b r e v i a t e d . " The p u b l i c a t i o n i s a paper cover volume, typed r a t h e r than typeset,. has time.  The  no p l a n s f o r f u r t h e r documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s 13  64  Archives at  this  NEW  BRUNSWICK  The s u c c e s i v e . a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f New Brunswick, have h o n e s t l y earned a f i n e r e p u t a t i o n for neglecting official r e c o r d s o f the Province. Masses of d e p a r t m e n t a l correspondence and other documents and papers have been p i c k e d up i n the c o u n t r y by the Dominion A r c h i v e s . (14) Unfortunately historical accepted an  r e c o r d s , and  historical  1967.  Brunswick's h i s t o r y , the l a c k o f an  the n e g l e c t  archives  must  as a hard r e a l i t y o f the p r o v i n c e ' s p a s t .  Archives  a  f o r New  of  s o c i e t y was New  Brunswick d i d not  Consequently,  back  seat  formed i n 1874, begin  the  of be  Although Provincial  operating  until  documentary e d i t i n g e f f o r t s have taken  t o o t h e r more p r e s s i n g needs  attendant  upon  e s t a b l i s h i n g the A r c h i v e s ' programmes. The  New  Brunswick H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y h e l d  meeting i n 1874. New  Brunswick  The  first  f i r s t volume of the C o l l e c t i o n s o f the  Historical  l a t e r summed.up the  its  Society published  twenty  years  proceedings:  I t was then d e c i d e d t h a t the time had a r r i v e d f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f a H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y f o r the P r o v i n c e o f New B r u n s w i c k , by which the documents and p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the e a r l y h i s t o r y o f the p r o v i n c e s h o u l d be c o l l e c t e d and preserved , and a l s o f o r c a r r y i n g out the purposes o f such a S o c i e t y , by c o l l e c t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on m a t t e r s o f inte.rest w i t h r e g a r d t o historical events i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the d i s c o v e r y and s e t t l e m e n t of the P r o v i n c e by the French and e a r l y settlers from M a s s a c h u s e t t s , and also with r e f e r e n c e t o the coming here o f the L o y a l i s t s i n 1783, some o f whose e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s were amongst the most i n t e r e s t i n g episodes i n the h i s t o r y of New Brunswick. (15) This  first  volume  of  the  Collections  documents, a t o t a l o f t e n pages, c o n c e r n i n g Brunswick  history.  The  contained  18th c e n t u r y  Society continued to p u b l i s h 65  three New the  Collections personnel noted  on and  a  fairly  regular  basis,  f u n d i n g were problems.  t h a t the government was  no  In 1894-  been g i v i n g to the group.  this  [ g r a n t ] has  been w i t h d r a w n ,  been  seriously  its of  way  for  publication  This  the  Society.  of the  publication  "An  Papers of the their  of the  Judge  the g r a n t . "  an expanded p u b l i c a t i o n s  through  Winslow,  grant  l a t e years  Society  has their  of  the  the  Papers of  Supreme Court of New  limited,  itself  Collections series.. Winslow P a p e r s ,  to  William  was  one  documentary C.  Brunswick." never  repeated,  appear amongst the p u b l i c a t i o n s man  involved  one  point  Department Webster  edited  Museum, . the publication seems  to  and  presentations.  Honorary C u r a t o r of  of the New a  u n t i l 1972. have  J.C.  the  Brunswick Museum.  s h o r t document f o r  closest  in  whose namecontinued  i n documentary e d i t i n g was was  editions  Raymond, the e d i t o r of  of the men  However,  remained a c e n t r a l 66  Webster, who Canadian  i t was figure  W.F.. in  its the to  an  at  History in  publication to  the  Another  Indeed,  the government came  and  Hon. Edward ' 1 7  a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Winslow Papers i n 1901  Society  the  reported,  editing  the  was.  caused in  i t was  see turn  programme  Society,"  undertaking  L e t t e r s and  At the  interruption  e f f o r t a t documentary p u b l i s h i n g  and  the  they s i n c e r e l y t r u s t t h a t the government may 16  the c e n t u r y ,  "occurred  Society  hampered i n the m a t t e r of p u b l i s h i n g  i n the f u t u r e to r e s t o r e  problems  "Of  whereby the  both  the  longer providing  of $125.00 i t had  p a p e r s , and  although  by  1901, the  archival Ganong  who  documentary  publishing edited  by  t h e S o c i e t y i n these  early  Ganong  e i g h t o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r documents p u b l i s h e d i n t h e  Collections regular  between  1894  section entitled New  and 1930,  to  Society,  or at l e a s t i t s C o l l e c t i o n s ,  t o 1955 ,  and  even  started  Brunswick."  For  unknown  reasons,  the  faded, from view from  j u s t as occure.d i n Manitoba and . O n t a r i o  r o u g h l y the same t i m e .  a  " H i s t o r i a l - G e o g r a p h i c a l Documents  Relating  1930  years.  at  The C o l l e c t i o n s was b r i e f l y r e v i v e d  i n 1959, but t h e r e a f t e r the e f f o r t s o f the S o c i e t y have been nil. However, comparison  the  H i s t o r i c a l Society shines  w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s .  many y e a r s was one o f complete n e g l e c t . of  the  stepped  twentieth century,  and  any  In the f i r s t  the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s  In.1911, A r t h u r Doughty wrote:  of  years Canada  and l o c a l r e c o r d s ,  belong,  to  removal  from t h e p r o v i n c e s t o  this office.  for  " i t . h a s never  p a r t o f our i n t e n t i o n t o ask f o r t h e  provincial  rather,  The s i t u a t i o n f o r  were c r i t i c i z e d by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s  their actions.  they  in  i n t o secure r e c o r d s t h a t they f e l t were i n p h y s i c a l  danger,  been  brightly  Our p r i n c i p a l  of  which  object i s ,  t o o b t a i n a u t h o r i t y t o s e a r c h f o r such r e c o r d s , and  to ensure t h e i r removal wherever o r whenever n e c e s s a r y , 18 an unsafe t o a s a f e p l a c e o f k e e p i n g . "  Many groups  from urged  the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o a c t t o p r e s e r v e the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , but ,  in  spite  historical  community  Brunswick,  little  Disposal  was  of  and  a l l the  o t h e r s f o r an  done  until  Act o f 196 3 was passed. 67  the  clamour  among  archives Public  This p o l i c y ,  in  the New  Documents concerning  the d e s t r u c t i o n of r e c o r d s ,  approached the problem from the  newer r e c o r d s management p r e s p e c t i v e . Lamb  was  asked  archives and  i n New  a  records  other;  mandate, in  Brunswick,  such  areas  the  need  to  time the  archives  as  documentary  The  has  Since i t s opening i n 1968,  documentary  has  issued  nature.  All  Brunswick Census of 1851, A l b e r t County,  more  was  and one  available considered  c o l l e c t i o n while 19  three  publications  are s e c t i o n s o f  f o r C a r l e t o n County,  of the  of a New  one  for  last  of  There have been no s i g n s  of  The  p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t y s i n c e the mid-1970's. that  process  of g e t t i n g t h i n g s i n o r d e r , and t h a t w i t h i t s b u i l t -  records  archives  P r o v i n c i a l Archives i s  management  d i d not have,  function,  something  still  I t would  appear  in  the new  the  dust."  f o r C h a r l o t t e County.  completed i n 1975.  process  the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s  three one  the  s t a t e d , "most  carefully  r e s t of the r e c o r d s would remain g a t h e r i n g  these  As  days are l o n g p a s t when an  time can. be spent on one  Brunswick  a  activity  publications.  Hugh T a y l o r ,  i n v e n t o r i e s and c h e c k l i s t s .  New  each  became  a r c h i v i s t s are concerned t o . c o n t r o l and  of  an  archives  account f o r a l e s s e r degree o f  p u b l i c t h r o u g h e f f e c t i v e and  infinity  for  complement  r e c o r d as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e t o make them  the  Kaye  e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h . a s t r o n g r e c o r d s management  first archivist,  provincial their  by  the  when W.  he recommended t h a t an  c e n t r e be e s t a b l i s h e d  which may  province's  to  t o p r e p a r e a r e p o r t on  consequently,  r e a l i t y , i t was  In 1966,  most  in  earlier  i t i s d e v o t i n g much of i t s time  the s y s t e m a t i c c o n t r o l of government r e c o r d s . 68  the  to  NEWFOUNDLAND By f o c u s s i n g p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n , o u r S o c i e t y made us aware o f t h e p r e c i o u s l e g a c y o f t h e i r w h i c h i s n o t ours t o d i s p o s e o f as we w i s h something t h a t must be passed along i n t a c t t o generations o f the f u t u r e . Paul O ' N e i l l on t h e C e n t e n n i a l o f Newfoundland H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1980 The  Newfoundland H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y ,  always  had  Newfoundland  as  i t s central  history.  Provincial Archives,  goal  However,  has past but the the (20)  founded i n 18 81,  has  the preservation  of  the Society,  like  the  which was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1959 , -has had  a r a t h e r shaky c a r e e r . The  Historical  Society  objectives:  "the  manuscripts,  records  records,  properly  history  preservation  folklore,  i t s aims  of a l l printed  ( o r c o p i e s o f such  authenticated)  as  and  books,  manuscripts  having reference  o f t h e Colony and i t s dependencies ,  its tradition, and  has h e l d  and  to the  i n respect  of  and l o c a l n o m e n c l a t u r e ; i t s fauna 21  f l o r a and p h y s i c a l geography."  T r y though  i t might,  however, t h e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y has had a hard time making a success o f i t s e f f o r t s . by 1882.  F i r s t s t a r t e d i n 1881,  I t s t a r t e d a g a i n i n 1905, the F i r s t  quiet.  From 1962 t o 1966 i t was a g a i n d e f u n c t ,  none  was gone  o n l y t o cease a c t i v i t i e s  during  brought  World War.  it  I n i t s next r e v i v a l  i t was  o n l y t o be  t o l i f e y e t a g a i n i n 1966 under t h e p r e s i d e n c y  o t h e r t h a n p r o v i n c i a l Premier Joseph Smallwood.  of With  such a checkered h i s t o r y , t h e S o c i e t y has had l i t t l e time t o concern i t s e l f w i t h , documentary o r o t h e r 1966,  a  plan  publications.  was developed f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n 69  of  In oral  history,  and  for  the  collection  of  diaries,  business  r e c o r d s , s h i p ' s l o g s , p h o t o g r a p h s , p a i n t i n g s , correspondence and o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l documents and m a t e r i a l s . would undertake as c o m p l e t e l y reclamation material  would  be  deposited,  archives.  It  edited would  and form  Newfoundland s t u d i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y . p u b l i c a t i o n would be u t i l i z e d and 22 further research."  generous  possibly Smallwood. grant  In  the the  funding,  to  the  continued  task,  the  basis  of  worthy of  $2,500. Society  Spurred  along  government,  began  a  has r e c o g n i z e d  on  of  in  the  annually,  by  quite  President a  by 19 7 2  this  by  available  the  publications  series  had  of  These a l l seem t o have  documentary  history.  The  the importance o f the w r i t t e n r e c o r d  i n h i s t o r y ; , r e c e n t l y i t . i n s t i t u t e d a H e r i t a g e Award "to presented  to  i n the 1960's  l a t e 1960's the government p r o v i d e d  n a r r a t i v e s r a t h e r than  Society  The  in  helped  prompting  pamphlets on l o c a l h i s t o r y i n 1974. been  the  Society busied i t s e l f  o f $5,000 a year f o r the S o c i e t y ; 23 reduced  filed  What was  support of the p r o v i n c i a l  through  today.  should be a g r e a t spur  1970's w i t h t h i s a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g  the  been  The  program  as p o s s i b l e the r e c r e a t i o n and  of Newfoundland h i s t o r y a v a i l a b l e  [Society's]  and  "The  i f and when d e s e r v e d ,  judgement of the S o c i e t y ,  had made  t o a person a  be who,  significant  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n and/or d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f the w r i t t e n r e c o r d on any aspect of Newfoundland and Labrador 24 history."  I t seems t h a t the S o c i e t y ,  documentary h e r i t a g e , already  limited  w h i l e aware o f  its  has chosen to a v o i d o v e r e x t e n d i n g  the  f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r means i n the 70  area  of  documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s has been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r o n l y 25  years,  appears  75  less  than the H i s t o r i c a l  and i t  t h a t t h e A r c h i v e s has s t i l l t o come t o g r i p s  documentary p u b l i s h i n g . under  Society,  with  The p r o v i n c e ' s a r c h i v e s were p l a c e d  t h e wing, o f t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y a t t h e t u r n o f t h e  century.  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  was  turned  over  to  the  Department o f Home A f f a i r s i n 1934, and t o t h e Department o f Provincial  Affairs  Confederation. the  i n 1949 when  Little  Smallwood  Newfoundland  joined  was a c c o m p l i s h e d p r i o r t o 1959 when  government  established  A r c h i v e s under t h e H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s ,  the  Newfoundland  S i t e s and Records A c t .  The A c t proved d e f i c i e n t , and i n 1973 was changed t o embrace "all  matters... r e l a t i n g  t o t h e management 25  records  of the province."  19 70's,  the Archives  consider 1971,  materials  Notes  Sealfishery four  has had l i t t l e time o r f u n d i n g  began  and n a r r a t i v e  p u b l i c a t i o n s appeared, 1883,  Consequently, u n t i l  any e x t r a a c t i v i t i e s such the Archives  from  o f the p u b l i c  as  to publish  history.  publishing. both  In that  the to In  documentary year,  five  i n c l u d i n g "Newfoundland C o a s t a l Tour  t h e l o g o f t h e H.M.S.  Foam,"  and "The  R e p r i n t e d from E v e n i n g H e r a l d 1916."  I n 1972,  p u b l i c a t i o n s appeared,  i n c l u d i n g "The L a b r a d o r Parson  by Rev. Henry Gordon, 1915-1925," and "The S t o r y o f C o l o n i a l B u i d i n g [1850-1960]." titled appear  Only one i t e m was p u b l i s h e d i n 1974,  " C h a r l e s Lench M i s s i o n a r y -- H e c t o r Swain, t o have  been  no  publications 71  since  and t h e r e  then.  The  Provincial Archivist,  David D a v i s , has s t a t e d t h a t "we have  not had a p u b l i c a t i o n program f o r some time...-.our p o l i c y i s an  ad hoc . 26  time." the  one  and p r o b a b l y w i l l  As can be seen,  Provincial  continue  so  f o r some  both t h e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y  A r c h i v e s i n Newfoundland,  f o r many  and  varied  reasons,.seem t o not be a c t i v e i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g .  72  PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND There i s very l i t t l e p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t y by the A r c h i v e s historical Prince one  society  i n P r i n c e Edward  Island.  years  ago,  in  1882,  tracing  a c t i v i t i e s t o the p r e s e n t i s d i f f i c u l t , and have been l i t t l e Edward the well  Although  Edward I s l a n d H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n was  hundred  a c t i o n over the y e a r s .  Island Heritage  magazine The designed  original  F o u n d a t i o n was  and  appealing,  documents,  a  formed over the  group's  t h e r e appears t o  In 1970, formed,  I s l a n d f i r s t appeared.  and  the  and  Prince  in  1976  This magazine  but appears  to  is  contain  a t l e a s t not as p a r t of any  no  consistent  p r a c t i c e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g . The in the  Public Archives  1964,  current  Archives than  and  has.devoted l i t t l e  such  developed."  the odd  that 27  government such  brochure.  matter,  the other  the  priority  a l a c k of a v a i l a b l e s t a f f .  The  situation  precise  This  As  reflects  no  publication  I t appears t h a t P r i n c e  Newfoundland and archival  the  not e n t e r e d i n t o the p u b l i s h i n g f i e l d  a s s i g n e d to i t and is  formed  a t t e n t i o n to p u b l i s h i n g .  P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i e s sums up  "has  for  o f P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d was  New  B r u n s w i c k , has  activities  in  department,  has  Edward  a  l e f t the  the t i m e ,  p u b l i s h documents.  73  been  Island,  like  newly other  as p u b l i s h i n g t o h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s ,  case seem not t o have had  has  c o n c e n t r a t e d most of i t s  organizing and  policy  established activities  which i n  this  i n c l i n a t i o n o r money t o  YUKON AND NORTHWEST TERRITORIES Both  t h e Yukon and t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s a r c h i v e s  are  very new e s t a b l i s h m e n t s - - t h e former opening i n 1972, t h e latter  i n 1979.  policy.  N e i t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n has developed any s e t  The Yukon A r c h i v e s does i n v o l v e i t s e l f i n a  display  once  a  year,  speakers  and  outlying  communities and t h e speeches a r e b r o a d c a s t by t h e  Archives  1  a r c h i v a l sources.  activity  interest  does  The  history  and i t  a  This  s e r i e s on Yukon  theme,  sponsors  C.B.C.  lecture  based upon a Yukon  major  using  displays  travel  g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n  i n o r awareness  of  local  public  to  of the relations  activities.  There  Association,  but , i t has not engaged i n p u b l i s h i n g o f any  magnitude.  The  i s a l s o a Yukon H i s t o r i c a l and  Museums  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s A r c h i v e s has not  y e t matured enough t o c o n s i d e r documentary p u b l i c a t i o n , no  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y has y e t been e s t a b l i s h e d  such an endeavour.  74  to  and  support  CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW [The Review] w i l l extend the work of the earlier periodical by s e r v i n g as a medium f o r the publication of o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e s on Canadian history and allied subjects, of important .documents, and o f correspondence r e l a t i n g t o the q u e s t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t t o s t u d e n t s of Canadian h i s t o r y . . (28) After  h a v i n g l o o k e d a t the p u b l i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s  various  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and  archives  i n Canada,  w o r t h w h i l e , f o r comparison's s a k e , t o l o o k at the of  individual  documentary  historians  publishing.  and One  academics  in  general  contained  is in  to  look at  the i t is  activities  the  area  of  of the b e s t ways t o g a i n  an  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a c t i v i t i e s of the h i s t o r i c a l in  of  the  documentary  the most prominent  community  publications  historical  journal,  the  Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review. The  Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review succeeded the Review  Historical volume  Publications  appeared  subscription  i n 19 20.  activities  Association  in  1925,  publication  of  that  "important  part  of  Canadian  first  not and  never  it  has  remains  the  been today  publication  I n the e a r l y y e a r s the regular.  The  first  next y e a r saw of s c h o l a r s .  issue i n  an an of  1920  a total  of  edited  "Eye-Witness  of the B r i t i s h Repulse at Ticonderoga.," 75  a  publication  f i v e documents p u b l i s h e d , Topics included  its  Historical  s i x s e p a r a t e documentary p u b l i c a t i o n s ,  a multitude  Accounts  is  the  i t s mandate t o be  documents."  46 pages. The by  its  As mentioned above, the Review saw  of o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l was contained  Canada;  A l t h o u g h the Review l i n k e d to  it  to  association;  independent j o u r n a l . important  Relating  of  and  "The  Petition  o f t h e C i t y o f Quebec t o Queen V i c t o r i a i n  A t o t a l o f 57 pages were o c c u p i e d This  level  of  by documents.  documentary  throughout  t h a t decade;  published,  i n 1926 t h e r e were s i x ,  five, and  including  publications  and i n 1928 t h e r e  were  "Testimony taken i n Newfoundland i n 16 5 2,"  Interestingly,  since  character,  and  not l i m i t e d ,  societies'  p u b l i c a t i o n s were,  areas  continued  i n 19 24 t h e r e were seven documents  "A, P h i l a d e l p h i a Laywer and E a r l y  subject  1857."  the  Lower  journal  was  as a r c h i v e s '  Canada  Law."  "national" and  in  historical  to a p a r t i c u l a r region,  f o r documentary p u b l i s h i n g  were  the  broad  and  d i v e r s e , l i m i t e d o n l y by the i n t e r e s t s and i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e contributors. the  With t i m e ,  these  i n t e r e s t s changed.  1920's and 1930's t h e t o p i c s remained f o c u s s e d on  Confederation  days.  Of the s i x items  In pre-  i n t h e .1934 e d i t i o n ,  t h r e e c e n t r e d on e a r l y Nova S c o t i a , one on M o n t r e a l , and two on  western  exploration.  subjects f o r the time. the  1937 volume,  This  was  a. t y p i c a l  range  of  Of the e i g h t documents p u b l i s h e d i n  f o u r a r e concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h  the  1837-38 p e r i o d , and o t h e r s a l s o d e a l w i t h pre-1850 s u b j e c t s ; only  "Edward  Blake's  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Lord  Cairns  Supreme Court A c t , J u l y 5, 18 76" i n v o l v e s a l a t e r The  major change i n t h e 1940's i s i n the  documents  published.  published,  In  the 1930's,  an average o f f o u r p e r year.  41  on  the  time.  quantity  documents  of were  I n t h e 1940's, 19  documents were p u b l i s h e d , an average o f two p e r y e a r . By the 1950's  the  number o f documents a g a i n d e c l i n e d t o  76  fourteen  f o r the decade.  There were no documents p u b l i s h e d a t a l l i n  1955, 1956  and 1958.  documents  were  decade,  and  documentary  By t h e end o f t h e 1960's, v i r t u a l l y  published;  there  were o n l y  none from 19 70 t o 19 82. editing  been t r a n s l a t e d  i n t h e 19 50's,  s i x f o r the  The t r e n d  away  1960's and 19 7 0's  i n t o a p o l i c y by t h i s and o t h e r j o u r n a l s  e x c l u d e documents from t h e i r pages.  77  no  from has to  Chapter  Three  DOCUMENTARY PUBLISHING AND ITS DECLINE  The d e c l i n e o f documentary p u b l i s h i n g i s an a c c e p t e d f a c t o f Canadian  history.  Few  a r c h i v i s t s today see t h e i r r o l e  i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i c a l editing.; technology, keeper  and  changing economies,  articles  improving  d i v e r s i f i e d j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s have l e d t h e  o f t h e r e c o r d i n t o new  pastures.  as  Indeed,  and d i f f e r e n t  historical  i n t h e Canadian l i t e r a t u r e ,  only three  have been w r i t t e n on t h e r o l e o f t h e a r c h i v i s t  documentary  publishing.  The s u b j e c t has commanded  in  little  a t t e n t i o n by a r c h i v i s t s , o r i n d e e d , by h i s t o r i a n s . This the  n e g l e c t o f t h e s u b j e c t i s i n marked  American  situation,  where  historical  contrast editing  documentary p u b l i s h i n g have been i s s u e s c e n t r a l t o and h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g f o r y e a r s . issue  archival  South o f t h e b o r d e r , t h e  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e American  17 7 4 Ebenezer Papers,  United  States  Hazard  continue  committing remains;  Revolution,  f i r s t conceived of A  when i n  Collection  of  Intended as M a t e r i a l s f o r an H i s t o r y o f t h e o f America.  p u b l i s h e d i n 17 91, to  and  o f t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l documents arose even  before  State  to  When t h i s  work  was  finally  Thomas J e f f e r s o n urged Hazard and o t h e r s  such work,  saying,  "time  and  accident are  d a i l y havoc on t h e o r i g i n a l s . . . l e t us save  what  n o t by v a u l t s and l o c k s , which fence them from t h e  78  public but  eye  and  use  i n c o n s i g n i n g them t o the waste of t i m e ,  by such a m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f Copies as s h a l l p l a c e 1  beyond  the r e a c h of a c c i d e n t . "  W i t h these words  began  t r a d i t i o n of American documentary p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t to t h i s day,  with learned scholars  While  the  devoting l i f e t i m e s to  In  and  c o l l e c t i o n s of o t h e r ,  also edited "great  Benjamin F r a n k l i n ,  man"  for publication, has  achieved  reached the  are  the American t r a d i t i o n o f  the  One  There may  could be  or  expertise  argue t h a t we  i n the  story  of  i n v o l v e m e n t of a r c h i v e s  and  emerge.  degrees  Each had  element,  in  varying  a hand i n the d e c l i n e .  a r c h i v i s t s and  at  elements different  Changing economies  improved t e c h n o l o g y have both a f f e c t e d  scope of a r c h i v a l e d i t i o n s . of  Canadian  historical  four c e n t r a l  and  not  some t r u t h i n t h i s j e s t ,  s o c i e t i e s i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g ,  has  do  publishing.  In examining the  times,  and  Canadian h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g  i s much more i n v o l v e d  documentary  historians  l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v i t y  by the Americans.  there  fathers.  overshadowed most o t h e r work.  have enough g r e a t men. but  Jefferson,  other founding  s p i t e of v a l i a n t attempts by a few  never  the  l e s s e r known f i g u r e s  a r c h i v i s t s n o r t h o f the b o r d e r , has  a  continues  a n n o t a t i o n of the papers o f major f i g u r e s such as John Adams.,  them  the  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  nature the  attitude  h i s t o r i a n s towards h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g  documentary p u b l i s h i n g  has  changed w i t h t i m e ,  and  and  with  and that  change have come r e d e f i n i t i o n s of the r o l e s of the a r c h i v i s t and  of the h i s t o r i a n i n s o c i e t y .  79  THE GOLDEN YEARS: 1865.-1930  In  the  editing  years was  before  the  at i t s height,  were e q u a l l y  involved i n  Great  Depression  historical  and a r c h i v i s t s and  historians  producing  documentary  editions.  Both p r o f e s s i o n s were o n l y j u s t emerging i n s o c i e t y , and the boundaries  and d e f i n i t i o n s o f each were not y e t e n t r e n c h e d .  With  the growing i n t e r e s t i n " s c i e n t i f i c " h i s t o r y  fear  of  loss  o f these p r e c i o u s  original  and  the  documents,  the  h i s t o r i c a l community saw p u b l i s h i n g as a means o f p r e s e r v i n g the  primary  audience.  sources  The  development  and  economics  bringing  o f the m a t t e r  1869  and 1930,  publications  were  produced  s o c i e t i e s , not  including  Champlain S o c i e t y .  from  close to by  and  the  the  a  early  and  historical  eighteen published  These p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d The  active  Public  and L e g i s l a t i v e  Archives  of  o f L i e u t e n a n t Governor John  o f the Conquest of Canada,  by  Canadian Records  Canada,. Graves  the  The  Simcoe,  and The  Logs  and The Canadian War of 1812 , by  the ever a c t i v e Champlain S o c i e t y . societies'  years.  documentary  the emerging O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y ,  historical  growing  technological  twenty  archives  i t s E a r l y Development  Correspondence from  to  p l a y e d o n l y minor r o l e s i n t h e s e  Between  North-west,  them  As w e l l ,  archives'  annual r e p o r t s c o n t a i n e d  80  and  historical  documents, journals  often  comprising  hundreds o f  such as the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l  pages ,  and  new  Review  contained  an  historical  l e n g t h y and d i v e r s e e d i t e d documents. These documents community  quite  were  published  different  for  be  an  h i s t o r i a n i n the 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s i n Canada  was  to be i n t e r e s t e d i n , about  history.  In  from t h a t of today.  t o read and r e s e a r c h i n , this era,  universities l i t t l e  was  left  to  Cruikshank,  i n established  were o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o emerge.  the  men  Canadian h i s t o r y was  such as  a soldier,  and t o w r i t e  historians teaching  u n i v e r s i t i e s and a r c h i v i s t s working repositories  To  Thomas  Akins,  a  in  the  archival  Initially  at  studied.  It  lawyer,  E.A.  and A r t h u r Doughty a drama c r i t i c ,  to promote Canadian h i s t o r y and a r c h i v e s . In lead  many ways ,  in  the f i e l d of Canadian h i s t o r i c a l  Chester  Martin,  became,  for  clearing  by  a  house  historian, [was]  the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada took  A.S.  an e a r l y h i s t o r i a n , whole g e n e r a t i o n of  Canadian  Morton,  being transformed  the  material  which  young 2  history."  To  Archives  scholars, For  the  another  "the t e a c h i n g of Canada's h i s t o r y [ a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan] the A r c h i v e s 3  disposal  i n one way  note  the work o f the A r c h i v e s .  of  scholarship.  "the P u b l i c  of  the  or another."  has  placed  at  Not o n l y h i s t o r i a n s As the  Ottawa  its took  Journal  e d i t o r i a l i z e d i n 19 31 about the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada: N o t h i n g more i n t e r e s t i n g i s t o be seen i n Ottawa. I t can be sampled by anybody; no o f f i c i a l place here o r elsewhere i s more f r e e from r e d t a p e ; the h o s p i t a l i t y o f the A r c h i v e s b u i l d i n g i s open and wide. The Dominion A r c h i v i s t seems t o be obsessed 81  by the i d e a t h a t he i s a p u b l i c s e r v a n t , that his great charge i s p u b l i c p r o p e r t y , and that the p u b l i c ought t o be made welcome t o see what they have- got i n the A r c h i v e s . ( 4 ) In  1922,  Lawrence  Historical  Burpee,  Association,  h i s t o r i c a l research  p r e s i d e n t o f the new emphasized  the  Canadian  importance  of  as a means o f f o s t e r i n g n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g  i n Canadian c i t i z e n s .  He  advocated:  the encouragement o f h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h and of i n t e l l i g e n t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the h i s t o r y o f our c o u n t r y , as w e l l as the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the e f f o r t of p r o v i n c i a l and local historical societies throughout the c o u n t r y . Not the l e a s t i m p o r t a n t object o f the A s s o c i a t i o n would be to associate i t s e l f w i t h other p a t r i o t i c agencies i n b r i n g i n g i n t o more p e r f e c t harmony the two g r e a t r a c e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the Canadian p e o p l e . ( 5 ) Documentary open  and  Another  publishing  developed  growing s c h o l a r s h i p incentive  elucidated, expanding  was  to p u b l i s h that,  this  atmosphere  burgeoning  documents ,.  with  rarely  historians  the c o u n t r y ,  awkward and  not  became  difficult.  This  make the annual summer e x c u r s i o n t o Ottawa  the h a b i t o f the u n i v e r s i t y s c h o l a r .  and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s saw  The  s t u f f of h i s t o r y t o t h e s e s t u d e n t s  1905  A r t h u r Doughty wrote t h a t :  across  Canada.  Our l i t e r a r y men, f o r the most p a r t , are a b l e t o devote o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r time t o b u i l d i n g up a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , and the l e a s t t h a t we should do i s f u r n i s h them w i t h documents of a p u b l i c character... i n a country of such vast proportions as Canada, i t i s not possible to render the accumulations of the Archives Department a c c e s s i b l e to a l l those who a r e , o r who 82  who that  archives  i t as t h e i r t a s k t o p r o v i d e  raw  and  access  e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r s t u d e n t s and the p u b l i c at l a r g e  could  of  patriotism.  although  interested  u n i v e r s i t i e s emerging across  to the o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s was was  and  in  the In  might be i n t e r e s t e d i n them. I t i s desirable , t h e r e f o r e , to b r i n g some o f the. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e documents b e a r i n g on the more i m p o r t a n t periods and problems o f our h i s t o r y , w i t h i n the r e a c h of the. r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g number of both Canadians and o t h e r s who are m a n i f e s t i n g an i n t e r e s t i n our h i s t o r y and i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( 6 ) Such  publications  Constitutional Archives  as  the  H i s t o r y o f Canada,  o f Canada,  House  Relating  published  by the  of Assembly Correspondence  Book,  were aimed at b r i n g i n g the  historical  documents  t o the s t u d e n t  H i s t o r i c a l Review n o t e d , i n consequence among the  interest  7  in,  and  Public  Maj e s t y ' s  from  archives,  develop  the  by the Nova S c o t i a a r c h i v e s ,  Columbia's  Canadian  to  the O r i g i n a l M i n u t e s of h i s  Council at Annapolis Royal, the  Documents  knowledge  and  British important  public.  As  such p u b l i c a t i o n s Canadian p e o l e  of,  the  and  a  history  the  "would greater  of  their  country." Central these  the concept of documentary  e a r l y y e a r s was  documents the  to  the n o t i o n t h a t w e l l e d i t e d ,  were as v a l u a b l e  originals  from  as,  which  they  comprehensive,  Canadian  been  every i m p o r t a n t  h i s t o r y and  than,  drawn.  f o r example, was  covering  constitutional  had  The  viewed as aspect  providing  in  printed  i f not more v a l u a b l e  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Documents s e r i e s , fully  publishing  of  historians  near a n d . f a r w i t h the p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l s v i t a l t o t h e i r work. The of  s e r i e s proposed t o p r o v i d e all  municipal  important aspects of development,  agriculture,  and  Canada's  Indian  postal  e d i t o r of the s e r i e s ,  comprehensive  history,  r e l a t i o n s and  development.  explained., 83  documentation  As  including  exploration, Adam  Shortt,  "when t h i s programme  has  been  carried  out,  Canada w i l l have a documentary  such as very few c o u n t r i e s p o s s e s s ; history,  of  whatever g r a d e ,  history  and s t u d e n t s o f Canadian  w i l l no l o n g e r have t o go  secondary c o m p i l a t i o n s f o r t h e i r f a c t s ,  to  but w i l l be a b l e t o 8  go t o the primary documents This  themselves."  concept o f comprehensive e d i t e d documents l e d  unavoidable documents  problems and c o n f l i c t s .  Since  the  to  published  were i n t e n d e d t o be as a c c u r a t e and u s e f u l as the  originals,  consistency  in  editing And  more  precision  transcription  were  selection  documents f o r p u b l i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d sound  of  vital.  and  importantly,  o b j e c t i v e judgement, and an i n c l i n a t i o n t o be These s t r i n g e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s  in the and  all-inclusive.  i n e v i t a b l y led to c r i t i c i s m  of  the c h o i c e , e d i t i n g , and t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f the r e c o r d s . The very f i r s t e x t e n s i v e documentary e d i t i o n i n E n g l i s h Canada,  Thomas A k i n s ' S e l e c t i o n s from the P u b l i c  of  Province  the  criticism.  o f Nova S c o t i a ,  conduct  because clearly  victim  to  severe  I n h i s p r e f a c e , A k i n s s t a t e d t h a t he had s e l e c t e d  documents which " c o u l d i n any way and  fell  Documents  "the  of  the French  necessity  the  of  for  t h e i r removal  the  motives  Nova has  Scotia," not  s e l e c t i o n o f documents r e l a t i n g t o Acadians i n 10  Selections." Nova  and  inhabitants  been  which l e d t o its 9 enforcement have been o f t e n misunderstood." Despite his d i s c l a i m e r , A k i n s was."accused o f s u p p r e s s i o n and p a r t i a l i t y in  perceived  throw l i g h t on the h i s t o r y  his  The debate over A k i n s ' p u b l i c a t i o n stewed i n  Scotia f o r several years.  One 84  historian,  writing  in  1895, the  claimed  t h a t the documents "have been s e l e c t e d  greatest  disguised  partiality,  in  and  with  the very p r e f a c e ,  the  purpose,  of g e t t i n g  the  issue  of  historical  poorly  together  papers as might j u s t i f y the d e p o r t a t i o n o f the Clearly,  with  such 11  Acadians."  editing  was  not  as  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as i t appeared. As  h i s t o r i a n s continued  accurate  history  publications paramount Volume  their  rose,  and  importance.  standards the  and  expectations  i s s u e of a c c u r a c y  A review of the  at  The r e v i e w e r was  Champlain  E.A.  of  Society of  1812  Cruikshank,  who  the time engaged i n the p u b l i c a t i o n o f  papers f o r the O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y .  for  became  S e l e c t B r i t i s h Documents o f the Canadian War  i s over 5 pages l o n g . was  i n t h e i r quest f o r s c i e n t i f i c ,  the  Simcoe  Cruikshank  noted  the importance o f accuracy when he w r o t e , "the most sedulous care has been e x e r t e d to r e p r o d u c e the c a p i t a l s , and a  s p e l l i n g of the source-document, transcript."  He  the e d i t o r , present of  whether an o r i g i n a l o r  applauded the i n c l u s i o n  never b e f o r e i n p r i n t ,  and  concludes  of  documents  commented on the i m p a r t i a l i t y of  n o t i n g t h a t "a s i n c e r e attempt has been made t o  b o t h s i d e s o f the c o n t r o v e r s y . "  the  punctuation  review  the  that  in  paragraph names,  and  trifling  i n a c c u r a c i e s i n so c a r e f u l a c o m p i l a t i o n are o n l y  mentioned  the hope t h a t i t may  statement  errors  last  "these  in  with  l i s t s over a dozen  The  be h e l p f u l i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f  t a b l e of e r r a t a i n the f i n a l volume.  In a l l o t h e r  the p r o o f s have been.admirably c o r r e c t e d , observed  is  throught  a  respects  as the o n l y e r r o r 12 f o r through on page 305, line 6." 85  Such  a t t e n t i o n t o m i n u t i a e bespoke the sense o f  importance  these e d i t o r s f e l t about t h e i r work. Cruikshank  himself  was  at the r e c e i v i n g  end  of  the  r e v i e w e r ' s f i r e when h i s Simcoe Papers f i r s t appeared.  The  reviewer,  and  William  Renwick R i d d e l l ,  an O n t a r i o lawyer  h i s t o r i a n , wrote o f the Simcoe Papers t h a t : the s e l e c t i o n has been w e l l made, but i t must be admitted t h a t t h e r e are o m i s s i o n s much t o be r e g r e t t e d .... The n o t e s c h i e f l y b i o g r a p h i c a l , are h e l p f u l : i n g e n e r a l , t h e y are as a c c u r a t e as was t o be e x p e c t e d . . . . Some o f the nods are p r o b a b l y due to d e f e c t i v e p r o o f - r e a d i n g , but some are more s e r i o u s . . . . I venture t o suggest t h a t i t would be o f a s s i s t a n c e i f the volume and page i n the Dominion A r c h i v e s whence the documents are taken s h o u l d be g i v e n . ( 1 3 ) Such  a  concern  f o r a c c u r a c y o n l y c o n f i r m s the a t t i t u d e  the time t h a t such p r i n t e d documents were t o be f o r the f r a g i l e In  deterred  prolific,  financial  S c o t i a under Harvey,  archives.' and  was  a  early  years  of  documentary  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s do not seem  most p r o j e c t s .  publishing  replacements  originals.  these  publishing,  of  At  the  Public  to  A r c h i v e s o f Nova  and at t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f top p r i o r i t y ,  i n part  have  Canada,  because  of  the  d e s i r e t o serve the growing h i s t o r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n  i n p a r t because of the f r a g i l i t y  and uniqueness o f  the  documents. When q u e s t i o n s o f f u n d i n g were r a i s e d , p u b l i s h i n g budgets  were l e f t i n t a c t ;  obvious  t o a l l concerned.  the importance However,  o f such work  i t was  was  not a l l smooth  s a i l i n g , as when the O n t a r i o government cut i t s g r a n t t o the 14 Ontario  Historical  Society  in  1924.  a r c h i v e s • and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s at t h i s 86  But, time,  like  other  Ontario's  historical its  s o c i e t y d i d not a l l o w government c u t s t o  task  o f b r i n g i n g documents t o  the  scholar.  h i s t o r i a n noted about a 19 27 p u b l i c a t i o n , more  s a t i s f a c t o r y than the e d i t i n g ;  volume  so  editor, be  in  its  how  the i l l - f a t e d  i n the shredder  s e v e r a l years l a t e r .  Indeed,  Simcoe Papers,  can that  which ended up  Ironically,  not p l a y a major r o l e i n  a  production,  p r o o f - r e a d e r , p r i n t e r , and b i n d e r 15  p u b l i c a t i o n was  would  one  " n o t h i n g c o u l d be  s o l d f o r so low a p r i c e as one d o l l a r . "  economics  As  and one marvels  c r e d i t a b l e t o a l l concerned  illustrator,  hinder  the  although decline  of  documentary p u b l i s h i n g f o r many y e a r s , one can see a l r e a d y a self-defeating societies , public,  them  Although  have  emerging.  upon  and  However,  and  historical  t h e i r documents  to  the  o t h e r f i e l d s o f endeavor  in  the  their publications  free,  that costs  they  so  low,  undersold  remained low  often  themselves.  in  these  early  a r c h i v e s and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s never seem t o  considered  revenue  Archives  priced  publication the  bringing  sacrificing  often  providing  years,  intent  and  process,  trend  in  flourished  that  the p u b l i c a t i o n s might  t h e r e b y a i d the f u n d i n g these "golden" y e a r s , i n spite of,  of  generate  the  a  institution.  documentary  publishing  o r perhaps because o f ,  low  sales  prices. In  the  first  decades o f the  technologies  began  to  archives. eventually  By 1912,  have  an  twentieth impact  on  century the  photographic r e p r o d u c t i o n ,  work  of  w h i c h would  r e p l a c e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f documents by hand , 87  new  had  j u s t appeared.on t h e scene. in  that  year's  photostat  now  annual  The Dominion A r c h i v i s t  r e p o r t t h a t "by  boasted  t h e use  i n operation at the Archives,  of the  copies  of  documents can be made by photography a t a g r e a t r e d u c t i o n o f time  and l a b o u r ,  w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l advantage o f an e x a c t 16  r e p r o d u c t i o n o f every f e a t u r e o f t h e o r i g i n a l . " close  By . 1928 ,  t o f o u r thousand p h o t o s t a t i c and p h o t o g r a p h i c  prints  were b e i n g made each year f o r r e s e r c h e r s v i s i t i n g o r w r i t i n g the  Public  Archives  of  Canada.  I n 1926, A.G,  Doughty  d e s c r i b e d t h e method o f c r e a t i n g a m i c r o p r i n t e d i t i o n t o t h e Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . A t t h e annual meeting: The academic s i d e o f t h e program began w i t h an address by Dr. A.G. Doughty, d e s c r i b i n g a new device -- s t i l l nameless -- f o r t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f documents. This i n v e n t i o n , which i s an improvement on t h e p h o t o s t a t , makes i t p o s s i b l e t o produOe exact c o p i e s o f h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s i n any q u a n t i t y , and t h e c o p i e s may be so reduced i n s i z e t h a t a whole number o f Punch i s c o n t a i n e d on a s i n g l e p i e c e o f paper. The t e x t may then be r e a d by means o f a m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s , o r may a g a i n be enlarged t o any s i z e d e s i r e d . Dr. Doughty suggested s e v e r a l ways i n which t h i s important d e v i c e might be used t o f a c i l i t a t e r e s e a r c h . ( 1 7 ) But t h e r e a l impact o f these . t e c h n o l o g i c a l marvels was s t i l l in  the f u t u r e ,  seems  to  and t h e i r appearance i n these  have had l i t t l e  immediate e f f e c t  early  on  years  documentary  publishing. Thus,  i n this f i r s t period,  archives  and h i s t o r i c a l  s o c i e t i e s were a c t i v e i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f primary scholarly  sources  f o r both  community.  The  the public  and  emphasis  of  p u b l i s h i n g began t o change w i t h t i m e , tightened  during  depression  however,  and wartime 88  the  growing  documentary as  budgets  restraint ,  as  t e c h n i q u e s of r e p r o g r a p h y i m p r o v e d , expanding  historical  q u a n t i t i e s • of  profession  historical  a r c h i v i s t s to r e e v a l u a t e THE The that  followed  archives  and  activities. it,  it  especially,  and  records  forced  historians  and  ARCHIVIST: 1930-1960  D e p r e s s i o n o f the 19 3 0's certainly  must  have  and  the World  hampered  A l t h o u g h one  can f i n d few  War  efforts  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s t o broaden some o f  one  an  ever-increasing  statements t o  i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the economic s t r i n g e n c y  years was  as  t h e i r roles in society,  EMERGENCE OF THE  Great  and  by  their confirm  of  these  o f the i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o the marked  d e c l i n e i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g . Only s c a r c e l y more than a dozen monograph l e n g t h documentary e d i t i o n s appeared between 1930  and  1960  historical Society  under the d i r e c t i o n o f a Canadian a r c h i v e s  society.  contrast,  the  produced 23 volumes i n t h o s e y e a r s ,  and  formed Hudson's Bay  In  marked  Record S o c i e t y p u b l i s h e d  the a r c h i v a l p u b l i c a t i o n s , Archives  of • Canada,  were  Nova  Description  of  by Cape  the  Public  Constitutional  P a p e r s , and h a l f a dozen  Scotia,  Breton  newly  21 e d i t i o n s . Of  i n c l u d i n g more i n the the E l g i n - G r e y  published  Champlain  f o u r were produced by the  Documents s e r i e s and  or  among  I s l a n d and  them The  Holland's Journals  of  Beausejour. While primarily changing  the the in  audience f o r t h e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s scholarly  community,  i t s n a t u r e and  needs , and  89  that these  was  audience changes  still was had  their  e f f e c t on t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f o r i g i n a l documents.  only  were  h i s t o r i a n s becoming more p r o f e s s i o n a l  approach., period And,  also as  forced and  but  necessitated a r e f i n i n g of  the  to  t h e paper boom o f t h e wartime  demands on a r c h i v i s t s  reconsider  in  and  their  Not their  post-war  activities.  increased,  they  their role i n historical  were  scholarship  i n society. The  level  increase secured  with  time as h i s t o r i a n s became  permanent  production original  of  university  work,  n a r r a t i v e and a n a l y t i c  documents  perspective there  o f h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p had c o n t i n u e d  and  printed  and  better  educated,  increased  histories  sources.  This  the  based  on  shift  in  reached i t s c l i m a x i n the p o s t war p e r i o d ,  had been s i g n s i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s t h a t s c h o l a r s  beginning  to  sophisticated, Historical  view  their  light.  work  in a  to  were  different,  When Burpee addressed t h e  but  more  Canadian  A s s o c i a t i o n i n 19 2 2 he emphasized the importance  of h i s t o r y t o n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t ;  s c a r c e l y two y e a r s  later,  the same s o c i e t y was s t r i v i n g " t o ensure t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f historical  records  r e l a t i n g t o Canada and t o  render  them  available  to the s o c i e t y f o r . the purpose of i t s 18 publications." By 1934, t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n had a firm  grasp  on  how  McArthur e x p l a i n e d  t h e i r world  had  changed.  As  Duncan  i n h i s p r e s i d e n t i a l address:  During t h e p a s t twenty y e a r s the problems confronting the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e f i e l d o f Canadian h i s t o r y have assumed new and d i f f e r e n t aspects. The volume o f o r i g i n a l documentary s o u r c e - m a t e r i a l s has become so great as t o b a f f l e completely t h e i n d u s t r y and t h e a b i l i t y of the s i n g l e working man. The i n v e s t i g a t o r must be 90  content w i t h making h i m s e l f f a m i l i a r w i t h a l i m i t e d p e r i o d o r w i t h a s i n g l e phase o f t h e l a r g e r development. Our s c h o l a r s have accepted t h i s l i m i t a t i o n and have devoted themselves t o t h e i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n of the smaller p l o t . ( 1 9 ) Not  o n l y had a r c h i v i s t s l i k e Doughty and A k i n s succeeded i n  r e p a t r i a t i n g e a r l y Canadian h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s from  Britain  and F r a n c e , but t h e r e c o r d s o f more r e c e n t h i s t o r i c a l events had  a l s o become so v a s t as t o overwhelm t h e  necessity, began  t h e w r i t i n g o f h i s t o r y changed f o c u s .  to  than  historian.  analyze  selective  about  emphasis  by  Scholars  s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s o r time p e r i o d s  w r i t i n g broad n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s , t h e documents  historians  they  had  rather  and they were used.  This  i t s effect  on  documentary  E d i t e d m a t e r i a l s were no l o n g e r a b l e t o  replace  o r i g i n a l documents;  involved  had  treatment, editions  become  and of  t o o g r e a t f o r such  scholars  selected  the quantity a  of  fully records  comprehensive  c o u l d no l o n g e r r e l y  records.  more  changing  publishing. the  Of  on  printed  The documentary e d i t i o n s  themselves began t o change. Rather  than p u b l i s h v a s t c o l l e c t i o n s such as i n A k i n s '  Selections Scotia, and  from t h e P u b l i c Records o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f  e d i t o r s were now c o n c e n t r a t i n g on s p e c i f i c  people,  published  a  Often  single,  itself  i l l u s t r a t e a p a r t i c u l a r event. Breton British  subjects  o r on l i m i t e d bodies o f r e c o r d s . extensive  document  by  they to  H o l l a n d ' s D e s c r i p t i o n o f Cape  i s such a document, as i s t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s Columbia's  Nova  publication  The  Overlanders.  of By  s h i f t i n g t h e focus o f t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s , t h e a r c h i v e s were a c c e p t i n g the. changed,  more academic r o l e o f t h e h i s t o r i a n , 91  and  were  redefining t h e i r role accordingly.  A r c h i v i s t W. evolved  a  Kaye Lamb put i t i n 1949, publications  programme 20  u n i v e r s i t y use p r i m a r i l y i n mind." 1950's  a r c h i v i s t s • had  servants  come  As  Dominion  the P u b l i c  "with  Archives  research  and  The f a c t i s t h a t by t h e  to  see  themselves  more  as  o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o f e s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n as l e a d e r s  of a b r o a d l y  based h i s t o r i c a l community.  In a d d i t i o n ,  t o keep up w i t h t h e demands o f ever  sophisticated scholarship, calendars  and  more  a r c h i v i s t s a l s o began t o p r e p a r e  d e s c r i p t i v e guides r a t h e r  than  documentary  e d i t i o n s ; they saw t h e former as a b e t t e r and more e f f i c i e n t means  of  serving the h i s t o r i a n s .  appeared,  and  archivists  began  historical  a  research  t o t u r n away from  means o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g T.  As volumes o f  information.  grew  documents  more  publishing  active, to  faster  As the h i s t o r i a n G  #  de  G l a z e b r o o k n o t e d , "some s c h o l a r s h o l d t h a t a c a l e n d a r i s dangerous  person  to  guide make,  s i n c e i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e i n a s h o r t space,  a safe  precis  document which may t o u c h on a number o f s u b j e c t s . and  f o r one  of papers."  And t h u s ,  a  Others --  p r o b a b l y t h e m a j o r i t y -- welcome the s h o r t c u t 21  masses  of  through  t h e two major reasons f o r  the d e c l i n e o f documentary p u b l i s h i n g , t h e changing needs o f the come  researcher, together  and t h e growing amount  neatly,  of  and the a r c h i v i s t ,  documentation,  ever a n x i o u s  to  serve h i s p u b l i c , responded t o t h e new c o n d i t i o n s . In from  truth,  the  a r c h i v i s t d i d not make t h e s h i f t  documentary p u b l i s h i n g w i t h o u t r e a s o n ; 92  he  was  away faced  with  seemingly  insurmountable  problems o f h i s own.  p e r i o d d u r i n g and a f t e r the Second World spurred  on  changing records  by  sense  historians, of  management  governments,  what was as  a  War,  needed,  vital  archivists,  and  took on  part  of  In t h i s  their the  their  job  own of  archival  programmes. As  e a r l y as 1935,  h i s t o r i a n George Brown had  the s t a t e of p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s i n Canada when he  lamented wrote:  The p r o v i n c e s are m o r a l l y a t l e a s t , r e s p o n s i b l e t o themselves and t o the people o f the whole dominion to see t h a t these e s s e n t i a l r e c o r d s o f Canada's development are not n e g l e c t e d . Some o f this m a t e r i a l i s already i n a r c h i v e s . A l l of i t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , and s h o u l d be transferred a f t e r a s u i t a b l e lapse of years from the i n d i v i d u a l departments o f government t o an archives, where i t can be" classified and p r e s e r v e d . (22 ) Brown i l l u m i n a t e d h i s argument i n . 1944, about  Canadian  archives,  which  " l a m e n t a b l e , and even d i s g r a c e f u l . "  23  when he spoke a g a i n  situation He  he  saw  as  wrote:  There i s , and has been, i n Canada a s e r i o u s misconception, i n t h i s m a t t e r t h a t l i e s at the r o o t o f our d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s that archives exist i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e t o serve h i s t o r i a n s o r o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s interested i n h i s t o r i c a l , inquiry: that they a r e , i n o t h e r words, l i t t l e more than an a n t i q u a r i a n ' s happy h u n t i n g ground. On the c o n t r a r y , an a r c h i v e s should f i r s t o f a l l be a p u b l i c r e c o r d s department f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the n o n - a c t i v e r e c o r d s o f . t h e government.... I f this p r a c t i c a l purpose is achieved, other h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t s w i l l be served i n t h e i r t u r n , and the a r c h i v e s w i l l cease t o be r e g a r d e d merely as a k i n d o f academic l u x u r y which s h o u l d be neglected i n preference to • almost any other interest which comes to the government's a t t e n t i o n . (24 ) Far  from  government  demoting  archives  to  the  role  r e c o r d s d e p o s i t o r i e s , Brown was  of  stagnant  really  arguing  for  a  g r e a t e r r o l e by a r c h i v e s  i n government,  therefore  making them i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o t h a t government and more u s e f u l to  historians.  come  to  pass  provincial  What Brown argued f o r has i n l a r g e i n t h e post-war  archives,  federal  and  have adopted measures t o r e g u l a t e  the  d i s p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c records ,  period,  as  measure  some more s u c c e s s f u l l y  than  others. The  effect  of  records  p u b l i s h i n g was d r a m a t i c . in  this period,  publishing  only  management  on  documentary  Of t h e seven a r c h i v e s  established  Saskatchewan engaged i n any  from i t s i n c e p t i o n .  The Saskatchewan  from an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w , has  the  status  directly  of a u n i v e r s i t y  subordinate  form  archives,  i s an o d d i t y ,  for i t  department,, and  t o a government  official.  i s not Therefore  i t s budgetary and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s a r e i t s own, its  administrators  publishing The  from  the  beginning  would be an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f t h e  other a r c h i v e s ,  agencies, And  decided  of  and that  archives.  however, were e s t a b l i s h e d as government  r a t h e r than as s e p a r a t e h i s t o r i c a l  institutions,  i n t h e s e • i n s t i t u t i o n s , documentary p u b l i s h i n g has never  gained  the  momentum  i t reached  i n the  archives  and  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s i n t h e 1920's. This  decline  attributable 1930's,  to  i n documentary p u b l i s h i n g may t e c h n o l o g i c a l development.  microfilming  had  By  become such a growth  also the area  be late that  s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s and books were devoted t o i t .  Indeed, i n  the  Documentary  United  States  i n 19 3 8 a  94  Journal  of  Reproduction  was  begun,  "a  quarterly  review  of  the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f photography and a l l i e d t e c h n i q u e s t o l i b r a r y , 25 museum and a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e . " As an a u t h o r i n the first volume o f the j o u r n a l n o t e d , for  a  s m a l l body,  has become the t a l k o f  r a t h e r suddenly so. present This  a b i g word  the  town,  I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a development  d i e d i n 1942, short l i f e  and  of  the 26  and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the p a s t t r i e n n i u m . "  highly technical journal flourished for a  but its  decade,  "microphotography,  a c a s u a l t y o f the war.  span, i t c e r t a i n l y  few  years,  But i n s p i t e of  gave an i n d i c a t i o n o f the  i n t e r e s t i n m i c r o f i l m i n g i n N o r t h America. An  American  a r c h i v i s t was the f i r s t t o  q u e s t i o n . the  f u t u r e o f documentary  p u b l i s h i n g i n l i g h t o f the new work i n  microphotography.  Christopher  Crittenden  "formerly  i t was a q u e s t i o n o f p r i n t i n g o r  however,  these  unneccesary materials way."  He  historians relax  on  methods  would  that  nothing.  Now,  seem  to  the p r i n t i n g o f c e r t a i n l a r g e b o d i e s o f  make source  which n e v e r t h e l e s s ought t o be reproduced i n some voiced  the  opinion  of  many  archivists  and  when he added t h a t " i t would seem u n f o r t u n a t e t o  our  efforts  documentary new  cheaper  noted  toward  increasing  the  p u b l i c a t i o n merely because new  amount  of  inventions  and  t e c h n i q u e s a r e f o r c i n g us t o reshape some o f our 27 the s u b j e c t . "  B y 1950,  however,  Canadian  ideas  archivists  were impressed by the impact o f r e p r o g r a p h i c t e c h n o l o g y , and especially "The  admired the c a p a c i t y o f the m i c r o f i l m  overall  machines.  r e s u l t o f the change from c o p y i n g by hand  c o p y i n g by photography promises t o be s t a r t l i n g , " noted 95  to the  28 Archivist.  Dominion  microfilming  Not  important  disseminating,  only  was  as a new means  information,  i t  this of  was  growth  in  publishing,  also  vital  or  to  r e e v a l u a t i o n o f the need:to p u b l i s h from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e preservation.  Now  that  m i c r o f i l m c o u l d c a p t u r e the  documents on a p h o t o g r a p h , cause f o r undue a n x i e t y . way  cannot  exact  P u b l i s h i n g was no l o n g e r t h e o n l y And  the development o f p h o t o c o p y i n g d e v i c e s , on-demand  one  with  copying  and p u b l i s h i n g became l e s s i m p o r t a n t . provide  of  t h e f a t e o f t h e o r i g i n a l was not  t o ensure t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h a t o r i g i n a l .  was p o s s i b l e ,  a  s t a t i s t i c a l o r documentary  While  proof  that  m i c r o f i l m i n g o r x e r o x i n g prompted t h e d e c l i n e o f documentary publishing,  i t would  be  hard  to  argue  against  their  influence. Thus, from t h e s t a r t o f economic d e c l i n e i n t h e 19 30's, to  t h e f l u r r y o f wartime a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ,  post-war  records  boom,  documentary p u b l i s h i n g by  r a p i d l y decreased i n importance. r e s e a r c h demands,  archives  T i g h t e r b u d g e t s , changing  expanding r e c o r d s  management  numbers  publishing,  a l l s t e e r e d t h e a r c h i v i s t away from p u b l i s h i n g ,  i n t o a more government- and  Kaye stated that  technological  needs , and  increasing  and  of  t o the  Lamb that  "one must never l o s e s i g h t o f t h e  archivists  o f an a r c h i v i s t i s e s s e n t i a l l y  In fact,  to  service-oriented role.  summed up t h e new r o l e o f the a r c h i v e s  the r o l e 29  trustee."  alternatives  because o f these v a r i o u s  when  basic that  he fact  of  a  pressures,  were coming t o view themselves as c u s t o d i a n s 96  W.  of  records were  who  had a prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o see t h a t  p r e s e r v e d and made a v a i l a b l e f o r use.  interpreter  o f the r e c o r d was  records  Their r o l e  as  d e c l i n i n g i n importance  over  time. Ironically,  however,  documentary.publishing enjoyed  in  by a r c h i v e s and h i s t o r i c a l  a b r i e f renaissance.  resurgence  are v a r i e d .  play a p a r t ,  the 196 0's and e a r l y 1970's,  The reasons  societies  for this  Not o n l y d i d economic and  fleeting  technology  but the r o l e o f the a r c h i v i s t c o n t i n u e d t o  be  the c e n t r e o f a t t e n t i o n . A BRIEF RENAISSANCE: 1960-1975 Between  1960  publications societies.  and  1975  appeared  close from  to  twenty  archives  documentary  and  historical  As u s u a l , the Champlain S o c i e t y and Hudson's  Record S o c i e t y c a r r i e d on unimpeded,  adding another  three  archival  titles  to  their l i s t s .  The  twenty-  publications  i n c l u d e d such t i t l e s as C l a r k s o n ' s M i s s i o n t o A m e r i c a , 17 9 2  i n • Nova  Northwest, Census:  by  1851,  A r c h i v e s o f New inaugurated published 197 4.  Scotia,  Lady F r a n k l i n  British  Columbia,  the  first  Brunswick.  its  Manitoba  publication  publishing introduction  Visits The by  the New  the  1791-  Pacific Brunswick  Provincial  The Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Records  t h r e e volumes from 1965  Much  and  Bay  Society t o 1968  Series  which  and one volume i n  of t h i s r e c e n t a c t i v i t y c o n t i n u e d the t r e n d  of  documents such as d i a r i e s o r j o u r n a l s , w i t h  an  and  . annotations.  circumstance or d e s i g n ,  Notably,  whether  by  these e d i t i o n s began t o appeal t o a 97  general By  audience as w e l l as t h e academic h i s t o r i a n . the  1960's  and  1970' s t h e  archivist  was  still  s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e i s s u e o f r e c o r d s management, h i s r o l e as record  keeper  production changing  versus s c h o l a r ,  and  other  economics  the increase  technological of  been i n t h e e a r l i e r , 1950's,  was  discussing.  i n the  activities ,  publishing.  p u b l i s h i n g , r a t h e r than b e i n g i g n o r e d  of  But  microfilm and  the  documentary  or dismissed  as i t had  dormant p e r i o d from t h e 1930's t o t h e 1960's  and 1970's  a  subject  worth  Indeed, two a r c h i v i s t s and one h i s t o r i a n wrote  the f i r s t a r t i c l e s on documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada.  98  These  authors  bemoaned  the  lack  of  resources  for  documentary e d i t i o n s . In 196 7, E d i t h F i r t h w r o t e , In r e c e n t times the c o s t of book p u b l i s h i n g has i n c r e a s e d tremendously. No l o n g e r can the average h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y s u s t a i n a s y s t e m a t i c programme f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f documents, p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t has o t h e r p r e s s i n g demands upon i t s time and funds....The main r e a s o n f o r the decline, of document publication is that it is now e c o n o m i c a l l y , i m p o s s i b l e t o produce a book w i t h a p r o b a b l e s a l e of o n l y a few hundred c o p i e s . ( 3 0 ) Robert R u i g h , main  factor  an h i s t o r i a n ,  also pointed  t o economics as  i n the d e c l i n e o f p u b l i s h i n g ,  other  points  as w e l l ,  period  between the 1930's and  but  he  raised  some o f which were apparent i n 1960's.  He  a  the  wrote:  Undoubtedly the c o s t of p r i n t i n g -- the economic f a c t o r -- i s the main d e t e r r e n t to publication, but the i n c r e a s i n g volume o f r e c o r d s , the l a c k of competent e d i t o r s and the v a r i e t y o f demands made by r e s e a r c h e r s o c c a s i o n grave doubts about the a d v i s a b i l i t y of c o n t i n u i n g the s e r i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s o r i g i n a t e d i n the 19th c e n t u r y . Now, more t h a n e v e r , t h e r e appears t o be a descrepancy between the u t i l i t y of a p u b l i c a t i o n and the c o s t of i t s preparation.(31) This  i s indeed t r u e ;  i n the e a r l y days when p u b l i s h i n g  the means o f p r e s e r v i n g the  only  way  the unique document, and  to b r i n g h i s t o r y  to  the  was  when i t was  distant  scholar,  economic f a c t o r s d i d not have such a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t . But the  196 0's,  with  improved  environmentally  controlled  production  interlibrary  involved futile.  and  archives loan,  techniques,  buildings, the expense  i n p r o d u c i n g h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i o n s seemed But  still  for  resurgence i n p u b l i c a t i o n s One  conservation  some reasons t h e r e  by  microfilm and  work  moderately  was  a  brief  activity.  of the c e n t r a l f a c t o r s i n t h i s r e n a i s s a n c e  seemed  to  be  l i n k e d to the a r c h i v i s t ' s perception of h i s r o l e  society. was  in  W. Kaye Lamb had s t a t e d i n 1953 t h a t t h e a r c h i v i s t  a " t r u s t e e " ; by 1966 he had commented t h a t " i t should be  recognized  that  work with, r e c o r d s and manuscripts  can be  done w e l l and e x p e r t l y o n l y by a t r a i n e d a r c h i v i s t . 32 large  By and  t h e amateur should keep, o u t . " I n t h e 1960's t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a t r a i n e d a r c h i v i s t was  t h a t he was t r a i n e d i n h i s t o r y and had p r a c t i c a l in archives. historical  the  One a r c h i v i s t w r o t e , "the f a c t i s t h a t both i n origins  archivist  experience  and  i n t h e f u n c t i o n s , he  performs  i s n o t a mere c a r e t a k e r o f t h e paper  residue  past but a person w i t h s c h o l a r l y p r o c l i v i t i e s  best,  a  scholar  however n a r r o w l y point,  himself.  And h i s f i e l d o f  of  and,., a t  scholarship, 33  or broadly defined, i s h i s t o r y . "  At t h i s  t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a r c h i v i s t s , h i s t o r i a n s and  r e c o r d s managers, became i n c r e a s i n g l y complex and The  the  archivist  society.  unsettled.  was e s p e c i a l l y u n c e r t a i n about h i s  Clearly,  i n s p i t e of the trend still  role  in  towards  records  was an h i s t o r i c a l s t r a i n  i n the  management,  there  profession,  and one o u t l e t f o r t h i s h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t was  documentary p u b l i s h i n g . A r c h i v i s t s may have always f e l t their and  r o o t s were  specialization  management., use,  i n history.  placed  of  multi-media  Perhaps t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n  modern  archives,  archives ,  with  records  and i n c r e a s e d government  a s t r a i n on t h e a r c h i v i s t s and f o r c e d them and  their  archivists  began t o examine t h e i r v a r i o u s t a s k s and s t a r t e d  d e v e l o p areas o f e x p e r t i s e o r 100  goals.  study.  As  Some  a  to  reevaluate  to  activities  that  result ,  archivists  turned  their  attention  began to examine J.K.  their  to role  documentary  publishing  as  and  editors  publishers.  Johnson, the G e n e r a l E d i t o r o f the Papers, of the  Minister's  Series,  and  and  Prime  the e d i t o r o f the f i r s t volumes  of  the John A. Macdonald p a p e r s , wrote at l e n g t h about the r o l e of the a r c h i v i s t i n documentary p u b l i c a t i o n . I b e l i e v e t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l l y two kinds of t r a i n i n g are e s s e n t i a l t o an a r c h i v i s t : h i s t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c a l , o r o n - t h e - j o b training. Of the two the former o f t e n seems t o me the most i m p o r t a n t . . . . an a r c h i v i s t ought t o b e g i n w i t h as much h i s t o r i c a l t r a i i n g as he can g e t , and in becoming a q u a l i f i e d a r c h i v i s t , he ought a l s o t o become an h i s t o r i a n . I f he does not he becomes neither one nor the o t h e r . . . . Only when an archivist i s t h o r o u g h l y soaked i n h i s t o r y . . . does he become a r e a l l y u s e f u l a r c h i v i s t . He knows the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s documents and he can help o t h e r s t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of them. I t seems t o me t h a t an a r c h i v i s t of t h i s k i n d i s b e t t e r s u i t e d t o the t a s k of p u b l i s h i n g documents than i s the conventional s o r t of h i s t o r i a n . His historical knowledge may w e l l equal the conventional h i s t o r i a n ' s , but he has the added advantge of greater f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h documents and a greater knowledge of the a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s . ( 3 4 ) Johnson, well  suited  produce  believing to  h i s words t h a t the  historical  editing,  the f i r s t volumes o f the The  Macdonald,  which were p u b l i s h e d of  history  archivist  worked  was  steadily  to  L e t t e r s of S i r John A.  i n 1968  and  1969.  I t i s an  that,  in  spite  of  unfortunate  quirk  sentiments,  Johnson's p r o j e c t f a i l e d ,  being c a n c e l l e d  his with  l i t t l e p u b l i c i t y i n the e a r l y 1970's. It Ministers  has  been Series  suggested t h a t the Papers of failed,  because  of  the  p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t and time i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c i n g a  101  the  Prime  tremendous, bilingual  work.  There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r  i n the d e c l i n e o f documentary p u b l i s h i n g , Public  A r c h i v e s o f Canada,  b i l i n g u a l approach. two  e s p e c i a l l y by  whose n a t i o n a l f o c u s r e q u i r e s a  The n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g t o p u b l i s h  languages i s i r o n i c i n documentary p u b l i c a t i o n .  documents  were  e d i t e d f o r the s e r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l  r e c o r d s i n o r d e r to f u l l y understand  scholar,  t h e i r meaning?  the documents were e d i t e d f o r a g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e , that  extensive e d i t i n g ,  would be a h i n d r a n c e r a t h e r than a h e l p .  As the q u e s t i o n o f this  will  an  to  surface,  and may  could  translating  b i l i n g u a l i s m grows i n importance a c r o s s Canada, continue  the  And i f one  a n n o t a t i n g and  in  I f the  s u r e l y he would have to be competent i n the language of  argue  the  result in  issue end  to  problems o f language cannot alone account f o r  the  documentary p u b l i s h i n g , a t l e a s t on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . But  cancellation  o f the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s s e r i e s .  Technological  advances emerging i n the 1960's a l s o a i d e d i n the demise that  and  other  publishing  projects.  J.K.  of  Johnson  u n w i t t i n g l y d e s c r i b e d the seeds o f h i s p r o j e c t ' s d e s t r u c t i o n when he wrote : We do not p l a n t o p r i n t i n f u l l every l e t t e r which we have f o u n d , but o n l y those deemed t o be of historical significance. There a r e , o f course, very good p r a c t i c a l grounds f o r t h i s procedure, but i n any case we a r e . g u a r d i n g o u r s e l v e s a g a i n s t ' • the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x c l u d i n g a n y t h i n g o f v a l u e i n t h r e e ways. F i r s t , we are d e f i n i n g h i s t o r i c a l significance quite broadly; second, we are p r o v i d i n g w i t h i n each volume a complete f i n d i n g aid, or c a l e n d a r , o f the l e t t e r s not p r i n t e d i n full; and t h i r d , we p l a n an e q u i v a l e n t s e r i e s o f m i c r o f i l m c o p i e s o f a l l the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r s w h i c h will be a v a i l a b l e t o anyone who wishes t o see a n y t h i n g not p r i n t e d i n f u l l . The use o f c a l e n d a r  102  e n t r i e s and complementary m i c r o f i l m I t h i n k , as much as i t i s p o s s i b l e , problem o f complete p u b l i c a t i o n . these means a l l o w us t o keep down p u b l i c a t i o n and t o a v o i d p u b l i s h i n g After and  the p u b l i c a t i o n of two two  translations  disappeared.  By  into  the  copies solves , to s o l v e , the Incidentally, the cost of t r i v i a . (3.5)  volumes of the French,  mid-19 70's  correspondence,  this  series  the P u b l i c  simply  Archives  had  begun a d i f f u s i o n programme, whereby m i c r o f i l m c o p i e s o f historical  records,  Ministers,  were  including  deposited  the  papers  of  the  i n a l l the p r o v i n c i a l  Johnson's programme o f p u b l i c a t i o n was  f u l l y and  the  Prime  archives. effectively  r e p l a c e d by m i c r o f i l m d i f f u s i o n . E d i t h F i r t h summed up the s i t u a t i o n when she choice  at  the p r e s e n t time i s between m i c r o f i l m  publication. would  said,  "our  and  book  Because, o f i t s r e l a t i v e cheapness  seem  preferable  indiscriminately  and  high  of  incidence  for  copying  completely. crucial  large  microfilm  collections  For c o l l e c t i o n s w i t h  material,  or  for  topical 36  selections,  p u b l i c a t i o n would be more s a t i s f a c t o r y . "  any  in  event,  publications publishing was  at  this  o f the b r i e f time,  surge  microfilm  as a form of d i s s e m i n a t i n g  no l o n g e r  original  spite  seen as the o n l y way  records  public  could  matter  of  now  hours  In  of  documentary  was  surpassing  records.  to provide  t o the w a i t i n g , p u b l i c  The  latter  copies of  miles  away.  could  be  served  at  home  the That  be on the d o o r s t e p of the a r c h i v e s and  a  in  a  through  i n t e r l i b r a r y l o a n of m i c r o f i l m . But underlying  beyond truth.  these r a t h e r obvious History  had 103  influences  changed  from  lay the  the first  " g o l d e n " y e a r s o f documentary p u b l i s h i n g . By the 1970's, t h e serious  researcher  had developed such a narrow  that  the  were  c u l t i v a t i n g i n the 1930's had become samples  under  a  writing  s m a l l p l o t s Duncan McArthur  speciality  microscope  by t h e  19 70's.  b i o g r a p h i e s o f g r e a t men,  believed  Few  historians of  dirt  historians  and i f they  were  were,  then  they had e v e r y i n t e n t i o n o f t r a v e l l i n g t o Ottawa t o make use of  the o r i g i n a l s .  conceive  Moreover,  i t was f a r more d i f f i c u l t  o r t o produce documentary e d i t i o n s t o s a t i s f y  needs o f s c h o l a r s s t u d y i n g e t h n i c , industrial,  and  other  social,  the  h i s t o r i c a l s p e c i a l t i e s f o r which  grand e d i t i o n s o f t h e p a s t ,  Prime M i n i s t e r ' s p a p e r s , was  an e x p e n s i v e and time consuming  activity,  needed.  Editing  perhaps  not  In s p i t e of the  t h a t t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be put t o u s e ,  a r c h i v i s t s began t o see t h a t some o f t h e i r e d i t o r i a l were  a  such as t h e  were passe by t h e 1970's.  s u i t e d t o t h e busy s c h e d u l e s o f a r c h i v i s t s . sense  the  sexual, labour,  broad range o f r e c o r d s found i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s were Consequently,  to  ineffective  preferred  for their  medium,  purpose.  letterpress  Microfilm  was  a  p u b l i s h i n g was i n c r e a s i n g l y  expensive,  and  interested.  Why spend y e a r s e d i t i n g and a n n o t a t i n g , o n l y t o  have  the  efforts  t r a d i t i o n a l audience was  longer  volumes l i k e t h o s e o f the Simcoe papers e v e n t u a l l y  discarded  through  historical  s o c i e t i e s had a l r e a d y come t o  and  no  were  returns,  publishing i n an  lack  of  works  effort  sales?  such as  Many  this  journals  to a t t r a c t the  104  archives  be and  conclusion, and  attention  census of the  general  public,  years  before.  1970 s  and  T  which had  been l o s t i n the  shuffle  This s h i f t i n emphasis w o u l d ,  e a r l y 1980's.,  end  fifty  i n the  late  i n an almost complete h a l t t o  documentary p u b l i s h i n g , f o r i n t e r e s t i n g r e a s o n s .  THE By  the end  archives  and  Between  1975  published  sketches  o f the 1970's,  documentary  historical  societies  and  the  one  1845 ,( 1976 ),  BITTER END?: 1975-1984  1984,  edited which  Public  document,  contained  had  publishing  virtually  Archives  Overland  p l a t e s of  as w e l l as j o u r n a l e n t r i e s ,  and  British Journals  of  publication  marked the end  archives  Columbia,  1851-1871. by  those b a s t i o n s  S o c i e t y and  197 9,  and  of s u b s c r i p t i o n p u b l i s h i n g , the  and  This being  Alberta's 1978.  Champlain  Record S o c i e t y , c o n t i n u e d t h e i r  publications a c t i v i t i e s without i n t e r r u p t i o n . societies  of  published  L e t t e r s of L o v i s a McDougall i n  the Hudson's Bay  the  Columbia  Manitoba's H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y  the  1980,  Colonies  o f an e r a i n p r i n t i n g  on the C i t y o f Winnipeg i n published  Nova  In  l a s t w o r k . p r i n t e d by the government of B r i t i s h  Documents  more  through the Queen's P r i n t e r  and. B r i t i s h  on hot m e t a l t y p e .  And  18 27.  in and  In 1979,  the C o l o n i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s of the  Island  Oregon  as such was  Census of Nova S c o t i a ,  Columbia p u b l i s h e d  Vancouver  the  the  Canada  watercolours  than s i m p l y an e d i t i o n o f w r i t t e n documents. Scotia published  ended.  of  to  by  i n s t i t u t i o n s have  indicated  p u b l i c a t i o n s w i l l be t h e i r l a s t f o r a l o n g  105  Many of t h e s e that  time.  these  Economics  and t e c h n o l o g y ' h a v e d o u b t l e s s most  recent  continuing, notable  decline. use  and  Little  In  19 7 9  H i s t o r i c a l Microreproductlons on m i c r o f i c h e r a r e p u b l i s h e d to  before  1900  this  and  project  rather  than  purpose  was  formed.,  dealing with  as  much  with  h a l f a century  f i l m as the medium.  effort,  the  disseminating  a  with  one  Institute  i n order to  Canadiana 37  for place  Although  printed,  of  the  as i t  does  on  prime  reason  before,  printed  elsewhere."  i t i s i m p o r t a n t here  microreproduction  been  of  already  preservation  had  the  m a t e r i a l s , i n o r d e r t o "improve  l o c a t e d i n Canada and  documents,  about  microfilm,  ensure p r e s e r v a t i o n ,  is  said  the Canadian  on  documents  been  of  focusses  Preservation  important r o l e s i n t h i s  has  improvement  exception.  access  played  and  However,  material,  because items  through  accessibility. for  i t has  publishing  emerged  again  a s i d e from t h i s s i g n a l  use o f m i c r o f i l m as a means of p r e s e r v i n g documentary.evidence,  its  w h i l e i t has  and  continued  apace, has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e n o t i c e o r d i s c u s s i o n . On  the  o t h e r hand,  the economics of the  received e s p e c i a l l y intense s c r u t i n y , themselves shrinking both  have budgets.  openly  activities;  been  close-mouthed  Nova S c o t i a and  matter  a l t h o u g h the about  archives  their  ever-  B r i t i s h Columbia  commented on the l a c k of funds f o r  the former l i v e s w i t h the t h r e a t of c a n c e l l e d f u n d i n g ,  owing  to  one  budget c u t s .  have  publishing  the Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l Review p u b l i s h e d  the l a t t e r has had  has  by and  p u b l i c a t i o n of o r a l h i s t o r y c a n c e l l e d At the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s  economic r e s t r a i n t has posed severe problems. 106  of  Canada,  In 1975  and  1976  the  a r c h i v e s r e p o r t e d t h a t "In the immediate f u t u r e , 38 a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l be m i n i m a l . " By 1981-82, the Archives  r e p o r t e d t h a t "the economic s i t u a t i o n i s c a u s i n g 39 grave concern i n a l l p a r t s of the w o r l d . " Some o f the most  s i g n i f i c a n t comments about a r c h i v a l economics have come from the government  itself.  Ever s i n c e the Massey Commission reviewed  the s t a t e  of  Canadian c u l t u r e i n the 19 5 0's, government has been aware o f the e x i s t e n c e o f c u l t u r a l and h e r i t a g e groups. of  the  19 8 2 Report o f the F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l  Committee  noted  f i e l d . . . could  The  authors  Policy  Review  t h a t " f e d e r a l involvement i n the  be  characterized 40  r a t h e r than w i l f u l n e g l e c t . "  as  negligible  T h i s group saw  heritage commitment  little  relief  from the i n e v i t a b l e r e s t r a i n t measures,  and  saw  among  as  essential'.  institutions  addition, that as  such  as  archives  they spoke of the need,  cooperation  never b e f o r e  In  recognized,  c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s should be as e l i g i b l e f o r g r a n t s are  independent  recommended  that  associations toward  the  institutions,  "recognized  should cost  Traditionally,  scholars  and  national  be e l i g i b l e f o r  of annual meetings archives,  have  institutions.  like  heritage  financial and other  They service  assistance 41  publications." government-run  never been a b l e t o r e c e i v e f u n d i n g  such a c t i v i t i e s as s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , e x h i b i t s ' , and  so  for  forth.  In terms of p u b l i c a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , a r c h i v e s were f o r c e d t o r e l y on t h e i r e v e r - d e c r e a s i n g  budget,  and as a  consequence  they c o u l d , and can, r a r e l y a f f o r d t o engage i n such work. 10 7  Another  report,  specifically  with  financial  woes.  Group  Canadian  on  crisis that of  written Canadian  in  1980  archives ,  In Canadian  i n Canadian a r c h i v e s today.  dealing  detailed  Archives,  Archives wrote,  and  the  their  Consultative  "we found a  sense  Our  indicated  survey  of  d e s p i t e the enthusiasm o f t h e i r s t a f f and the i n t e r e s t a  growing  public,  insignificant.  Half  most  of  archives  Canadian  are  financially  archives  have  annual  budgets  o f l e s s t h a t $20,000. . Only 30 exceed $75 ,000 42 annually.." T h i s r e p o r t a l s o mentioned the i s s u e o f g r a n t s for  archives,  appropriate  saying  "on o c c a s i o n ,  institutional  base  for  r e s e a r c h and p u b l i c a t i o n p r o j e c t s . considered scale  a r c h i v e s may a  major  be  the  scholarly  We urge t h a t a r c h i v e s be  as e l i g i b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the C o u n c i l ' s l a r g e  n e g o t i a t e d g r a n t s on the same b a s i s 43  as  universities  and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . " The archival  appearance  reports  and  restraint  hit  documentary  decreasing, severity  discussing awareness  but a l s o a sense o f a r c h i v e s as  p a i n f u l l y small budgets,  Economic  specifically  economic problems i n d i c a t e s not o n l y an  of the. tough t i m e s , with  of  and r e a l f i n a n c i a l problems.  archives  hard  publishing  s i n c e the  programmes,  have been the f i r s t t o go.  o f budgetary  places  difficulties ,  1970's, already  But i n s p i t e o f the a n o t h e r f a c t o r needs  to-be examined as perhaps even more i m p o r t a n t i n the d e c l i n e of documentary p u b l i s h i n g i n Canada. As societies  mentioned  above,  the  archives  subtly redefined t h e i r publishing 108  and  historical  priorities  in  the  1970's.  Seeing  t h e academic market as  difficult  to  s a t i s f y w i t h i n t h e bounds o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and growing responsibilities, their  these  groups  d i r e c t e d a t l e a s t some • o f  p u b l i s h i n g e f f o r t s towards a more  general  audience.  The e d i t o r s o f t h e L e t t e r s o f L o v i s a McDougall openly  stated  that  t h e i r work was p u b l i s h e d f o r " i n t e r e s t e d s p e c i a l i s t s , "  and  consequently  typesetting,  was  not  surrounded  binding, or i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  by  expensive  But t h i s  archives  appears t o have been an e x c e p t i o n t o an u n s t a t e d r u l e . / publications  as  genealogists, exception  awareness  r e t u r n s were  obviously  aimed  Hendrickson's  Journals  of  the  Colonial  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, . were designed of  Historians  a  less  academically  inclined  with  were a l s o examining t h e r o l e o f documentary  One h i s t o r i a n w r o t e , " l i t t l e  to  legitimate efforts  i s b e i n g done among s t u d e n t s o f  and  concern  a r e made  encourage of to  historical  the p r o f e s s i o n . breach t h e w a l l 44  s e p a r a t e s h i s t o r i a n s and e d i t o r s . " historians in  negative.  a t e i t h e r t h e undergraduate o r t h e graduate  stimulate  Only of  Indeed,  editing,  Donald  Creighton  referring  in a  levels  editing  as  prejudice some  offered a seemingly  a  occasional that  Canadian  seemed t o doubt t h e p l a c e o f h i s t o r i c a l  scholarship.  historical  an  readership.  p u b l i s h i n g . And t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s were s u p r i s i n g l y  history  at  and t h e o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s , w i t h t h e n o t a b l e  of  Legislatures  census  Such  editing  slight  to  degrading  f a s h i o n t o "the d e f i n i t i o n and a n n o t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g t e x t s 45 (as) e s s e n t i a l l y e d i t o r i a l i n c h a r a c t e r . " Even J.M.S. 109  C a r e l e s s . viewed the i n c l u s i o n o f documents i n e a r l y of  scholarly  j o u r n a l s as more a matter o f  desirability. Historical  In  Review,  19 70  he  wrote  articles  Conference,  were  lacking.  an e d i t e d v e r s i o n o f A.A.  article  those  with  t o be i n c l u d e d  "'Notes  Macdonald's  i t e m s , which  s p e c i f i c heading o f Documents; Review  Canadian  on  the  Quebec  i t was r e a l l y no more followed  it  under  the  old  space  feast-or-  space, but t o f i l l  need t h a t h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s a t t h a t time thought But  consider all  was t o c o n s i d e r  historians..  As Editor  editing  them as u n c r e a t i v e work o f second J.M.  Bumstead  wrote  has always been the  recently,  poor  stepchild  C l i o . . . . To e d i t -- even b r i l l i a n t l y -- a l e n g t h y or the  was  as  uncreative  o r i g i n a l i t y and i m a g i n a t i o n 47  hackwork,  requiring  than w r i t i n g a j o u r n a l  at rate "the of  manuscript  a c o l l e c t i o n o f papers i s r e g a r d e d by most f o l l o w e r s Muse  a  by 19 70 t h i s p e r c e p t i o n had so changed t h a t t o  documentary p u b l i s h i n g and h i s t o r i c a l  historical  new  The f a c t i s t h a t such documents were not  i n c l u d e d i n the Review i n o r d e r t o f i l l  vital.  an  a s i g n p e r h a p s , t h a t the  s u b m i s s i o n s -- the e d i t o r ' s 46  famine dilemma."  "was  notes as a d e l e g a t e t o  had a l r e a d y encountered the problem o f f i l l i n g available  when  Doughty," C a r e l e s s -noted ,  However v a l u a b l e ,  than  the  than  and i n d i c a t e d t h a t documentary e d i t i o n s  1864,' by A.G.  t h a t meeting.  necessity  about  were r e a l l y n o t h i n g more than " f i l l e r s " other  issues  far  of less  article,  much l e s s a r e a l book." It  is  hard t o d i s c e r n a r e a s o n f o r t h i s  historical editing.  distaste for  Could i t perhaps be because a r c h i v i s t s 110  have  been  rated  as  because over  d o i n g the work, second-rate  the  and a r c h i v i s t s today are  or f a i l e d h i s t o r i a n s ?  or  a t l e a s t t h a t the v a s t  s u b j e c t m a t t e r have l e s s e n e d It the  Could  q u a l i t y of documentary e d i t i o n s  time,  be  declined of  their  considerably?  i s thus i n t e r e s t i n g and  i l l u m i n a t i n g to r e f l e c t publications,  l i g h t of t h e i r o p i n i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g .  on in  In the . e a r l y  e d i t o r s were asked to remain a l o o f and i m p a r t i a l , y e t  provide  a comprehensive o u t l i n e of the p e r i o d i n v o l v e d  full  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a l l events mentioned.  fact  were  19 80's,  unpardonable.  one  historians  In  the l a t e  gets the i n t e r e s t i n g and are  now  perhaps  asking  complete a n n o t a t i o n of the t e x t , by the e d i t o r ; dull  it  has  horizons  h i s t o r i a n s ' r e a c t i o n s t o documentary  days,  often  or  omitted;  a p r o p e r balance  pedantic, and  an  but  And.errors  1970's  without  the  of  early  that  the  impossible:  too much i n t r u s i o n  of documents,  nothing  and  impression for  and  with  historically  e x p l a n a t i o n of a l l f a c e t s  of  nothing important  the  times  i n v o l v e d , w i t h o u t m i s i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e c o r d . One  h i s t o r i a n wrote of Gateway C i t y ,  edited  by  Alan  A r t i b i s e f o r the Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , " i f t h e r e i s a problem w i t h t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , purpose...it to  focus  i t i s t h a t i t serves no c l e a r  i s p u z z l i n g the e d i t o r d i d not choose on  a  single  theme  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e l a t e d documents,  111  illustrated  by  o r to p r e s e n t  instead a  broad  sequential  annual r e p o r t s from a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . decision more  would have produced a c o l l e c t i o n o f  use  to 48  documents."  those In  loan procedures, already the  Certainly either  without  ready  to  Winnipeg  i n microfilm,  and a l l ' o t h e r a r c h i v a l d i f f u s i o n  publication material  themselves.  access  s p i t e o f t h e improvements  discussed at length,  original  substantially.  activities  t h e h i s t o r i a n here s t i l l  as t h e means o f p r o v i d i n g t r u e to  I f such  those unable t o . use a  comment  copies  the  i s true,  sees of  documents  then  this  documentary e d i t i o n serves no audience w e l l , whether g e n e r a l or academic. Another discussing  reviewer the  asks  Journals  f o r more  of  the  Colonial  p u b l i s h e d by B r i t i s h Columbia's a r c h i v e s . a  annotation,  Legislature,  He w r i t e s , " i t i s  p i t y . . . t h a t more e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t e x t i s n o t  in  these  volumes... t h e r e  is little  in  provided  elucidation  o f the  documents ..... I t can be argued... t h a t t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e text the  alone w i l l serve t o s t i m u l a t e s c h o l a r s h i p  reviewer,  this  seems  an  unlikely  prospect."  p r o v i d e d w i t h a complete t e x t ,  explanation,  This  wants more  notes  and i s not happy t h a t t h e e d i t o r d i d not  i n t r u d e h i m s e l f i n t o t h e work.  Such a commentary can l e a v e  archivists  as w e l l as h i s t o r i a n s p u z z l e d as t o what  to f o l l o w :  f u l l a n n o t a t i o n o f documents,  of  given  c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t s o f many h i s t o r i a n s . w o r k i n g i n B r i t i s h 49  Columbia,  and  but,  e f f o r t and v a s t amounts o f funds ,  course  which t a k e s  q u a n t i t i e s which  years the  a r c h i v e s f i n d s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o muster, o r bare bones r e p r o d u c t i o n o f s e r i e s o f documents, which c o u l d more e a s i l y 112  be accomplished Two  reviews  brought  this  pitch,  of  issue  independently  published  documents  o f the q u a l i t y o f e d i t i n g t o  a  and p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison w i t h  publications. Peace  through m i c r o f i l m i n g .  In  fever  archival  the r e v i e w o f God's G a l l o p i n g G i r l ,  R i v e r D i a r i e s o f Monica S t o r r s ,  19 29-31 ,  The  edited  f o r the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  by  W.L.  Morton  Gail  Brandt o f York U n i v e r s i t y w r o t e , . " i t  that  the p r e s e n t e d i t o r d i d not e x e r c i s e h i s p r e r o g a t i v e by  eliminating  those  monotonous  in  l e t t e r s which are r e p e t i t i o u s 50  their  content."  Veronica  reviewed A P i o n e e r Gentlewoman i n R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Susan A l l i s o n , publishing comments  company  is  by  Margaret  unfortunate  and  even  Strong-Boag  B r i t i s h Columbia: The e d i t e d ' f o r the same Ormsby.  i l l u s t r a t e i n the extreme how  h i s t o r i c a l e d i t o r has changed over  Press,  The  reviewer's  much the r o l e of the  time:  The I n t r o d u c t i o n i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , d i s a p p o i n t i n g . P r o f e s s o r Ormsby, the r e s p e c t e d h i s t o r i a n o f her native province, p r o v i d e s the r e a d e r w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f d e t a i l on the s e t t l e m e n t o f British Columbia.... U n f o r t u n a t e l y , these events...are presented with r e l a t i v e l y little e d i t o r i a l comment.... Workers i n the new f i e l d of women's h i s t o r y would have l i k e d o t h e r questions asked....Why was she so unprepared f o r her first pregnancy, d i d i t change her response to her husband, t o sex, t o her o t h e r c h i l d r e n ? Were a l l husbands as unsympathetic as John appeared a t c h i l d b i r t h ? . . . How was her a t t i t u d e to the Indians i n f l u e n c e d by her a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the s t a t u s of t h e i r women? (51) As  an  interesting  published  and  illuminating  i n hard cover i n 1976  has, as o f January  1984,  aside,  this  and In paper cover i n  s o l d over 1600  113  book, 1977  c o p i e s i n hard back,  and  almost  Canadian between  3500  best  copies  seller  4000  and  in  paper.  i s defined  5000 c o p i e s ,  Considering  that  as a book t h a t sales of  this  has  sold  work  have  c e r t a i n l y not s u f f e r e d from a l a c k o f any e d i t o r i a l After reading would  venture  been p l a c e d a  reason  could,  such a r e v i e w as the  e d i t o r possibly please  interests  and  remain  such  t r u e t o the  alone  be  the  archives.  Why  before  publishing;  diverse  how  historical  documents,  f u n c t i o n , h a v i n g been close, t o sacred h i s t o r i c a l editing?  never  This i n i t s e l f may be  f o r the d e c l i n e o f documentary  an  acumen.  above, however, one  t o say t h a t such demands have  on the h i s t o r i c a l e d i t o r . .  a  the  latter  i n the e a r l y y e a r s  of  These demands on h i s t o r i c a l . e d i t o r s  may  cause, f o r  the  decline  t r y the i m p o s s i b l e  l i m i t e d and d e c r e a s i n g . b u d g e t ,  of  publishing  w i t h i n the bounds  by  of  a  when o t h e r work i s l e s s time  consuming, more rewarding., and more a r c h i v a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ? As  a  question quite they  result,  as  J.K.  Johnson  stated,  the  o f documentary p u b l i s h i n g by Canadian a r c h i v e s  academic. have  today,  no  They have c l a i m e d , funds f o r such  quite honestly,  publishing,  do  not  is that  forsee  engaging i n such p u b l i s h i n g f o r a l o n g time t o come, and may perhaps never resume such p u b l i s h i n g . And s o , the  p i c t u r e looks very bleak.  publishing time.  as we l o o k a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Canada i n 1984,  appears  The purpose o f  t o have become h o p e l e s s l y  O r i g i n a l l y a means o f p r e s e r v i n g  documentary muddled  the f r a g i l e  document  and  making i t a v a i l a b l e t o those o t h e r w i s e unable t o  the  raw m a t e r i a l o f h i s t o r y ,  these p u b l i c a t i o n s 114  over  study  gradually  became a v e h i c l e f o r p r e s e n t i n g  a glimpse o f h i s t o r y t o the  p u b l i c , . and were c r i t i c i z e d i n t h a t r o l e by academics, s t i l l wanted a c c u r a t e interesting  and complete e d i t i o n s ,  and i n f o r m a t i v e ,  who  scholarly yet  and d e a l i n g e q u a l l y w i t h a l l  l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y and a l l a s p e c t s o f h i s t o r y . So, w h i t h e r goest t h e documentary p u b l i c a t i o n ? indeed t h e b i t t e r end? archaic  activity?  historical of  Is this  What i s t h e f u t u r e f o r t h i s perhaps Will  i t again  accomplishment,  h i s t o r i c a l endeavor,  emerge  as  a  viable  o r w i l l i t remain i n t h e b a r r e l  e v e r c l o s e r t o t h e bottom?  I f we  look a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 1984, we may be a b l e t o t e a s e some  suggestions  about  where a r c h i v e s perhaps  headed i n t h e f i e l d o f documentary p u b l i s h i n g .  115  should  out be  Chapter  Four  ARCHIVES AND  In  1984, i n a  complex  time o f phenomenal  bureaucracies,  society,  such  PUBLISHING  and  an  time-consuming  technological increasingly  and  change, "instant"  expensive  work  documentary p u b l i s h i n g i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y d i f f i c u l t , fact  as  but t h e  i s t h a t few a r c h i v e s i n Canada have ever e s t a b l i s h e d a  p o l i c y e i t h e r i n favour or against.  Most a c t i v i t y has been  s p o r a d i c and seemingly u n d i r e c t e d .  I t i s time t h a t a r c h i v e s  addressed t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e i n t h i s they p u b l i s h o r not?  area.  Should  I f s o , f o r what purpose, and f o r what  audience ? Archivists  who  c o n s i d e r p u b l i s h i n g documents t o be  a  v i a b l e o r a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t y a r e f a c e d w i t h some i m p o r t a n t problems.  I f a r c h i v e s a r e g o i n g t o p u b l i s h , they a r e g o i n g  to have t o commit t i m e , Throughout  history  commitment them are  Both  Canadian  and money t o t h e  archives  on a p i e c e m e a l b a s i s .  have  cause.  made  The time has  this  come f o r  to e s t a b l i s h a f i r m p o l i c y regarding the issue. two  either or  manpower,  o b v i o u s o p t i o n s open t o  the a r c h i v e s .  They  p u b l i s h w e l l - e d i t e d works f o r a s c h o l a r l y  of p u b l i s h i n g are v a l i d ,  analysis.  116  public.  and a r e n o t m u t u a l l y  e x c l u s i v e , but each type has i t s own unique q u a l i t i e s deserve  can  audience,  they can p u b l i s h p o p u l a r e d i t i o n s f o r a g e n e r a l types  There  that  The  a r c h i v e s t h a t chooses t o p u b l i s h f o r  audience must make some important decide  why  historical aiding  decisions.  historical  not o t h e r w i s e  knowledge  by  Is i t providing  available?  providing  e d i t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t sources?  scholarly  F i r s t , i t must  i t i s publishing for scholars. documents  a  Or  is  it  comprehensive  I f the a r c h i v e s  sees i t s  job o n l y as d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , then i t might as w e l l provide While  microfilm  c o p i e s as p u b l i s h l e t t e r p r e s s e d i t i o n s .  many y e a r s ago p u b l i s h i n g i n book form was  the  way  to preserve  new  t e c h n o l o g i e s have e c l i p s e d p u b l i s h i n g i n these However,  and d i s t r i b u t e the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d ,  if  the a r c h i v e s  historical  r e s e a r c h , on a par  historians ,  and  sees  sees i t s j o b as with  documentary  the  published  editing  areas. conducting  as  book as the medium.  a r c h i v e s makes t h a t d e c i s i o n ,  today  university-based  p r o v i d i n g h i s t o r i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o the r e c o r d s , choose  only  a  way  of  then i t w i l l And  when  i t enters i n t o a  the  complicated  and demanding w o r l d . When institution  the  archivist  includes  decides  t h a t the mandate  high l e v e l  historical  f i r s t problem encountered i s money. fund  such an e x t e n s i v e p r o j e c t ?  How  of  his  editing,  the  w i l l the  The r e s e a r c h ,  archives  annotation,  and e d i t i n g o f the documents can be the most expensive of and  the e n t i r e p r o j e c t . space,  but  The  a r c h i v e s needs not o n l y  a l s o a knowledgable and capable  s u p e r v i s e o r conduct the r e s e a r c h . a  comprehensive  body  of  And  documents  117  part staff  editor  to  s c h o l a r l y e d i t i n g of can  take  years  to  complete.  The.  first  volume  of the  Canada's Papers of S i r John A. a  full  time  complete. project also  And  e d i t o r and  an a s s i s t a n t some t h r e e  but the e d i t o r o r  editors  he w i l l need  basic would  compensation,  replacement would have t o be h i r e d t o  be p a i d .  the  to  I f a s t a f f member i s g i v e n  leave t o undertake the p r o j e c t ,  archival duties.  of  years  not o n l y do the c o s t s of s u p p o r t i n g  have t o be p a i d ,  a  Archives  Macdonald, f o r example, took  have t o r e c e i v e a s a l a r y .  and  Public  continue  his  I f a f r e e l a n c e h i s t o r i a n i s h i r e d , he must  If a university-based  s c h o l a r becomes e d i t o r ,  it  w i l l g e n e r a l l y be at the expense of h i s u n i v e r s i t y , a h i d d e n cost.  The  archives  might d e c i d e t o a l l o w an a r c h i v i s t  conduct  the r e s e a r c h  as p a r t of h i s d a i l y d u t i e s ,  reality  of h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g i s t h a t ,  even  but  working  t i m e , such comprehensive e d i t i n g can t a k e many y e a r s . And the  a r c h i v e s has  definitive  decided that i t s goal i s a  edition,  then  expense t o the p r o j e c t . conducting and  i t has  thorough r e s e a r c h ,  preparing  a typescript ,  f o r t h , a l l t a k e time and Increasingly,  a l l relevent  and such  archives government  are  not  grants,  and  and  so  c o s t money. e d i t i n g p r o j e c t s are  f i n a n c i a l support t o p r e p a r e documents f o r  undertakings  if  documents,  writing introductions,  historical  subsidize p r i n t i n g .  full  e d i t i n g the a c t u a l documents  to the government, e i t h e r f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , o r for  the  comprehensive,  added even more time  Obtaining  to  I t has  rarely  pay  eligible  turning  municipal, publication  become an a c c e p t e d f a c t t h a t for for  themselves. the  e i t h e r f o r research 118  vast  However,  majority  of  or f o r p u b l i c a t i o n ,  o f t e n because they are i n e f f e c t government  agencies.  a r c h i v a l employees h e s i t a t e t o apply i n d i v i d u a l l y , rarely  f o r they  have the time o u t s i d e of t h e i r w o r k i n g day,  they conduct any r e s e a r c h on the j o b , required  duties,  interest. edited  they  can  Consequently,  many  be  And  and  if  even as p a r t of t h e i r  accused  of  conflict  of  archives wishing to p u b l i s h  documents are h a l t e d b e f o r e they even b e g i n  by  the  c o m p l e x i t i e s of f i n a n c i n g such p r o j e c t s . However, perhaps the a r c h i v e s does d e c i d e t o pursue i t s project,  and  editing.  find  the  resources  An  publisher,  raise  funds  to underwrite  it  will  the  then,  in  printing,  and d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  t u r n t o a p r i v a t e company t o  burden o f p u b l i s h i n g . I f the a r c h i v e s d e c i d e s own,  complete  a r c h i v e s has t o d e c i d e whether i t w i l l be  the r e p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a r k e t i n g  whether  to  the  Then i t i s f a c e d w i t h the q u e s t i o n of p u b l i c a t i o n  itself.  accept  does  effect,  f o r t h a t one work  assume  the and or the  p u b l i s h on i t s at  least,  the  a r c h i v e s must become a p u b l i s h i n g company. I t must d e a l w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n of the work from m a n u s c r i p t t o book and sales,  marketing,  work.  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n and  s t o r a g e of the  The the  i t s own  historical  h i r e f r e e l a n c e h e l p , or  s t a f f to the j o b from t h e i r  a r c h i v e s t h a t begins belief  published  a r c h i v e s w i l l have t o h i r e s t a f f t r a i n e d i n the  v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of book p r o d u c t i o n , divert  with  that  it  community  normal  duties.  an h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g p r o j e c t  i s working f o r  scholarship  may  to  not  wish  p u b l i s h i n g end a t a l l .  119  enter  and into  with the the  I f t h e a r c h i v e s t u r n s p r o d u c t i o n over t o an independent publishing  company,  supervising direct  involvement  book,  and  t o the production of a  of  limits i t s  manuscript f o r  As such, t h e a r c h i v e s becomes t h e 'author' o f entering  publication and  o f t h e burden  t h e manufacture o f t h e product  publication. the  i t relieves itself  i n t o an a u t h o r - p u b l i s h e r c o n t r a c t f o r  and l e a v i n g t h e problems o f  production,  sales  d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e company. However, i n today's u n p r e d i c t a b l e economic c l i m a t e , few  p u b l i s h i n g companies can undertake l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s such as  extensive  subsidy,  documentary  either  from  e d i t i o n s without  private  or  some  public  form  funds.  of Most  s c h o l a r l y books p u b l i s h e d today do n o t s e l l enough c o p i e s t o cover t h e c o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n ; will  often  enter  i n t o a c o n t r a c t on  funding i s a v a i l a b l e . the money i t s e l f , for  a  grant  consequently,  The a r c h i v e s ,  must a p p l y ,  or loan.  the  the p u b l i s h e r condition  i f i t cannot  that  provide  o r have t h e p u b l i s h e r a p p l y ,  And a g a i n ,  the archives  may  be  i n e l i g i b l e f o r government f u n d i n g because o f i t s s t a t u s as a p u b l i c l y supported  institution.  Assuming t h a t t h e a r c h i v e s f i n d s money f o r t h e r e s e a r c h and  f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n and t h e work i s p u b l i s h e d ,  archives  is  distribution, undertake  faced and  with  revenue.  production  itself,  the  issues  I f the then  of  marketing,  archives i t also  decides accepts  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o market and d i s t r i b u t e t h e work. factor  i n t h e d e c l i n e o f documentary  archives ,  eager  to  then t h e  publishing  the  Perhaps a is  produce works o f s c h o l a r s h i p a t a 120  to  that low  price,  have been e d i t o r ,  archives  today  p u b l i s h e r and salesman.  a r e not equipped t o conduct  But most  the kind  of  m a r k e t i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g n e c e s s a r y t o s e l l enough c o p i e s o f an  e x p e n s i v e e d i t i o n t o recoup i n v e s t m e n t .  The  stake i s , a g a i n , t h e r e a s o n f o r p u b l i s h i n g . has  decided  knowledge,  to  p u b l i s h . i n order  then  to  i t s concern f o r s a l e s  will  have  to  to  historical  figures,  marketing  a d o l l a r a copy. are  with  such e x p e n s i v e works,  an a r c h i v e s  jacket,  fashion,  with  illustrations,  forth.  publishers,  s c h o l a r s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , and even a r c h i v e s , have  i s that  while  a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e f u l l y produced book i s t h e p r o p e r end  result of scholarly research, cannot  which  often  scholarly  book  expensive  volumes  aside,  these same groups w i l l not o r  buy t h e books because they a r e so  libraries,  sales,  account cannot  expensive.  f o r more afford  to  t h a t a r e b e i n g produced  than  Even  half  purchase today.  of the  As  an  t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a ' s one documentary  edition,  The L e t t e r s o f L o v i s a M c D o u g a l l , was p u b l i s h e d f o r  s c h o l a r l y audience,  and, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e d i t o r s ,  therefore published i n typescript, the  irony  extensive  and  a  The  hard  footnotes ,  all  so  book  i n e v i t a b l y be e x p e n s i v e i f they  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  glossy  the  No l o n g e r can such books be s o l d f o r  They w i l l  t o be produced  cover,  But i n o r d e r t o be  pay some a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a t e o f  after i t i s published.  at  I f the archives  add  s t r a t e g i e s and so f o r t h w i l l be m i n i m a l . able t o a f f o r d t o produce  issue  only  archives  and s o f t c o v e r .  t o suggest t h a t documents need  121  was  It is not  be  t r a d i t i o n a l l y produced e d i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o be v a l u a b l e t o a scholarly  audience.  community, editions in  however,  Most o t h e r members o f  hold f a s t t o the n o t i o n that s c h o l a r l y  must be t h o r o u g h l y  order  t o be o f v a l u e .  scholarly  historical  the s c h o l a r l y  e d i t e d and e x p e n s i v e l y produced Therein l i e s  editing,  the  especially  A r c h i v e s a r e not i n t h e b u s i n e s s  downfall  of  f o r archives.  o f p u b l i s h i n g , but i n o r d e r  to meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l community, they would have t o make p u b l i s h i n g a t o p p r i o r i t y . and money  Today's busy  d i v e r s e a r c h i v e s s i m p l y cannot devote so much time to  extensive p r o j e c t s ,  and d i s m i s s them as  and  outside  t h e i r purview. The  a r c h i v e s can r e l i e v e i t s e l f o f t h i s burden o f  production  work  publisher. arranged free  to  by  Supposing  the funding,  entering  into  an  agreement  t h e a r c h i v e s has s i g n e d a  It is  cent o f t h e p r i c e o f t h e book.  and  However,  t h e a r c h i v e s foregoes  p r o f i t on s a l e s beyond t h e r o y a l t i e s ,  a  contract,  move on t o o t h e r e d i t i n g o r a r c h i v a l p r o j e c t s  by a c c e p t i n g t h e r o l e o f a u t h o r ,  per  with  and completed t h e m a n u s c r i p t .  l e a v e t h e s a l e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p u b l i s h e r .  post*-  any  which a r e u s u a l l y t e n The a r c h i v e s t h a t  has  chosen t o p u b l i s h s c h o l a r l y works f o r an h i s t o r i c a l audience may  not  producing  be  as  concerned  with  financial  gain  a valuable addition to scholarship.  as  with  But i t should  be aware t h a t i t w i l l f o r f e i t p o t e n t i a l revenue. Not a l l a r c h i v e s have,  o r perhaps s h o u l d ,  accept  royalties  i f they e n t e r i n t o a c o n t r a c t w i t h a  company.  The  Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s 122  Board,  only  publishing  f o r example,  entered  into  Prairie  Books,  works.  a p u b l i s h i n g agreement w i t h Western  Thus,  but the a r c h i v e s r e t a i n e d c o p y r i g h t the p u b l i s h i n g company has  and  d i s t r i b u t e the books,  and  leaves  otherwise received and  them  the  authority  change  the  finished  to  reprint,  book.  money  on  agreed t o  but pays the a r c h i v e s  i s b e i n g used t o fund  its other  the  publish royalties  revise,  Saskatchewan  over $50,000 i n r o y a l t i e s from  that  Producer  or has  publications, publications  projects. But t h i s case i s an e x c e p t i o n ,  f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n s  are  not documentary i n n a t u r e , but are n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r i e s aimed at a p o p u l a r a u d i e n c e , among  archives.  publish, be  Other  again,  Saskatchewan i s unique  archives,  r e t a i n copyright,  and  even i f  were  to  r e c e i v e r o y a l t i e s , would  not  a b l e t o r e c e i v e the revenues themselves.  government Receiver makes  institutions General.  such  Thus  any  as  archives  income the  never r e t u r n s d i r e c t l y t o i t .  able  to  generate revenue,  consider to  and,  publishing.  publish  then  it  either  need  I f an  to  archives  archives  were  readily  i f the a r c h i v e s has  decided  not concern i t s e l f w i t h  receiving  audience, revenue,  publisher,  or  p u b l i s h i n g e f f o r t s , because chances are good see any  income from i t s p u b l i c a t i o n .  sad f a c t i s t h a t many s c h o l a r l y p u b l i c a t i o n s do  sell well.  the  more  t h r o u g h c o n t r a c t u a l agreement w i t h a  t h a t i t w i l l not  income t o  goes  h e a v i l y e d i t e d works f o r a s c h o l a r l y  through i t s own  The  Any  average  perhaps i t would  However,  they  not  P a r t of the r e a s o n i s t h a t , even w i t h government  123  subsidies, or more,  many  works must s e l l f o r $30  j u s t t o break even.  the e x t e n s i v e , in  scholarly  and  copyediting  If  the  the m a n u s c r i p t ,  and p r o d u c t i o n  archives'  intention  s c h o l a r s h i p and not make money, to  a p u b l i s h i n g company and  s a l e s and  distribution.  And  and  and  e d i t i n g involved  of the h i g h  by the p u b l i s h i n g in  $40  h i g h p r i c e i s a r e s u l t of  expensive, research  simply p r e p a r i n g  for  The  or  publishing  company.  is  i t can t u r n over  costs  to  aid  production  l e t them worry about m a r k e t i n g , any  revenue from the work would  be a bonus. But  surely  successfully  engage  publishing? scholarly  there in  for  an  historical editing  archives and  works and  examines  the  publish  at l e a s t recoup i t s i n v e s t m e n t , Indeed,  i f not  t h e r e seems t o be a way,  a c t i v i t i e s of  some  of  the  to  scholarly  I t must be p o s s i b l e f o r an a r c h i v e s t o  make a s m a l l p r o f i t . one  must be a way  if  historical  s o c i e t i e s i n Canada. The 1903,  b e s t example i s the Champlain S o c i e t y . A c t i v e  the  Champlain S o c i e t y has r a r e l y missed a  publication  date,  slowed  activities  its  i t s f i n a n c e s are sound, i n the f a c e of  What i s the key t o i t s success? in  historical  limited  scholarly  traditionally s e l l out.  editing  and  recent  After a l l ,  documentary  audience.  And  How  have  projected i t has  it  i t i s engaging  is  been  forced  to 124  cancel  for  a  publishing  which r e g u l a r l y  can the Champlain S o c i e t y a f f o r d t o a r c h i v e s , and  not  recessions.  publishing  produced h a r d c o v e r e d i t i o n s ,  when independent p u b l i s h e r s , societies  and  since  other their  publish  historical programmes  entirely? The  answer  is  deceptively  simple.  S o c i e t y o p e r a t e s on a s u b s c r i p t i o n b a s i s . sold  a l l its  establishing set f e e ,  books b e f o r e  a membership l i s t and  equivalent  society  and  activities  a is  guarantees its  publish  are  in effect  published. each  of  society  bookstore  before  the  historical  support,  Its  sole  and  it  documents,  or  and  I t need depend  s a l e s to r e t u r n i t s i n v e s t m e n t .  Of  sending not  on  rely  limited  course,  the  efforts,  t h e r e are most l i k e l y c e r t a i n h i d d e n c o s t s t h a t are  covered by the S o c i e t y i t s e l f .  But  i n general,  has managed t o keep e d i t o r i a l c o s t s low and has sales.  The  Hudson's Bay  s u b s c r i p t i o n b a s i s , and  societies  the  not  Society  ensured  high  Record S o c i e t y o p e r a t e s on the same the Manitoba Record S o c i e t y has  e n c o u r a g i n g membership s a l e s . historical  a  general  i n d i v i d u a l e d i t o r s are not p a i d d i r e c t l y f o r t h e i r and  the  really  undertakes.  o n l y to i t s members.  government  a  none of the s o c i a l or academic  i t s success by s e l l i n g memberships  on  book,  i s not  meetings  By  member  available  Society  h o l d s no  traditional  publications  heavily.  it  the  i t provides  to  I t has  been  charging  i t s funds  Also,  such;  membership,  purpose  that  begins.  as  Champlain  t o the c o s t of the p u b l i s h e d  S o c i e t y , guarantees production  they have  The  in  And  been,  these are among the  Canada t h a t  are  still  few  actively  publishing. Could  an  a r c h i v e s produce s c h o l a r l y e d i t i o n s under  s u b s c r i p t i o n system?  There i s no r e a s o n why  125  i t couldn't,  a as  long  as  i t could provide  publication, programme.  that  sell  be t h e b a s i s  the  of  documentary  i t s membership  However, t h e a r c h i v e s , b e i n g a government-funded  institution, to  would  the product,  would  enter i n t o a d i f f i c u l t area i f i t t r i e d  p u b l i c a t i o n s whose e d i t i n g had been  completed  government p a i d a r c h i v i s t s on government t i m e . would need a g e n e r a l e d i t o r ,  The a r c h i v e s  some s t a f f , and p e o p l e w i l l i n g  and a b l e t o e d i t t h e documents. enter the f i e l d of p u b l i s h i n g .  As such,  i t would need t o  I f a l l t h i s a c t i v i t y were to.  take p l a c e as a government sponsored a c t i v i t y , politically difficult membership they for  i t would  f o r t h e s c h o l a r s would f e e l  had p a i d t w i c e f o r t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n . an a r c h i v e s t o engage i n a v i a b l e programme,  In t h i s  i t s best approach would be t o  p r o v i d e t h e manpower f o r e d i t i n g ,  manage t h e membership l i s t s . records, name.  the  that case,  membership-sponsored  i n t o a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y . could  be  f o r the archives to j u s t i f y charging a  f e e as w e l l ,  publishing  by  enter  The s o c i e t y  and the  staff  to  The a r c h i v e s c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e  e x p e r t i s e and a d v i c e ,  and t h e  While t h i s would, be f e a s i b l e ,  institutional  some a r c h i v i s t s  could  argue q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y t h a t i n t h i s c a s e , t h e a r c h i v e s need not  be i n v o l v e d a t a l l i n t h e e n t e r p r i s e ,  the  historical  society  to carry  but should  leave  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for  publishing. The q u e s t i o n o f p u b l i s h i n g f o r a s c h o l a r l y audience complicated, chooses projects,  to  and t h e r e i s no ready answer. engage  then  i n scholarly  editing  i t must come t o g r i p s w i t h 126  is  I f an a r c h i v e s and the  publishing practical  problems  o f money,  work.  time,  and t h e purpose and v a l u e o f the  I n today's economic c l i m a t e ,  most  archives  have  dismissed t h i s  i t i s no wonder level  that  of  documentary  a r c h i v e s can approach documentary  publishing  e d i t i n g as beyond t h e i r scope. However,  from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , rarely  considered  general  one t h a t appears t o have been  i n Canada.  audience,  A r c h i v e s can p u b l i s h f o r  f o r the p u b l i c  intention  not o f p r o v i d i n g  scholarly  research,  but o f p r o d u c i n g  raising  interesting generating help  are  the  editions  for  popular e d i t i o n s o f  and enjoyment o f . t h e  i t s public profile within  i t s citizens i n their  general could  t h e community,  history,  and, p e r h a p s ,  some l e v e l o f p r o f i t f o r t h e a r c h i v e s , fund  problems those  with  I n t h i s ..case, t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e a r c h i v e s  involve  to  large,  comprehensive  documents f o r t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t public.  at  projects or offset d e f i c i t s .  in  Some  order  of the  r e l a t e d t o t h i s type o f p u b l i s h i n g a r e s i m i l a r  f o r scholarly publishing,  a  to  but some o f t h e s o l u t i o n s  different. When  audience,  and  public  scholarly documents, edition.  archives  decides t o p u b l i s h  for a  general  i t has t h e o p t i o n t o d e c i d e t h e l e v e l o f e d i t i n g ,  production, general  an  so f o r t h t o be i n v o l v e d . need  audience, rather The  not be as thus  comprehensive  as  t h e a r c h i v e s can choose  than h a v i n g  t o compile  e d i t i n g i t s e l f can be l e s s  t a k i n g l e s s time.  Editions f o r a  a  special  comprehensive  extensive,  Rather than p r o v i d i n g f u l l  127  for a  thus  identification  of a l l p e o p l e , only  p l a c e s and  provide  a  introduction  events mentioned, the e d i t o r need  background  and  to  not  make  archives  on any a  subject,  claim to  states  entertainment  document  i d e n t i f y the key i s s u e s or  documents chosen can be s h o r t , They can be  the  that  and  through  events.  perhaps o n l y a r t i c l e any  being  theme or p e r s o n ,  edification  is  to  of a lay  The length.  and  all-encompassing.  i t s purpose  an  need  Once  the  p u b l i s h f o r the audience,  it  is  e f f e c t i v e l y l e t o f the hook as f a r as s c h o l a r l y e x p e c t a t i o n s are concerned.  That i s not t o say,  however, t h a t  w i l l not be c r i t i c a l ; as we have seen, they can Funding i s s t i l l a problem f o r a r c h i v e s . their  focus  will  still  However,  J u s t because  need t o f i n d money,  does  improved,  perhaps  from  and has more s a l e s p o t e n t i a l ,  available,  archives  Archives government.  r a t h e r than the u s u a l  government loans grants,  and  w i l l o n l y need f u n d i n g t o get s t a r t e d and w i l l  again,  introduces  the problem of  revenues from t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s . decide  may  perhaps  a b l e use revenues t o support f u t u r e p u b l i c a t i o n s . Of this  not  i f the p u b l i c a t i o n i s l e s s c o s t l y , can be produced  faster, be  be.  and p o t e n t i a l audience have changed  mean t h a t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n has  scholars  to  whatever itself,  enter the  or  course,  receiving  But i f the a r c h i v e s  into publishing for a  revenue s i t u a t i o n ,  archives  popular  venture.,  does  audience,  i t can produce  i t can e n t e r i n t o a j o i n t  be  the  work  perhaps  a  p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y . An documents  h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t y can h e l p the a r c h i v e s t o p r e p a r e for  publication.  I t has a 128  ready  and  willing  membership,  often  work.  when  And  training  happy t o v o l u n t e e r f o r any such p u b l i s h i n g f o r a l a y audience,  or u n i v e r s i t y experience are less,  enthusiasm and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o work. be  extensive  volunteers. may  and  can  be  interest  profile  historical  the  competently  by  these history"  themselves  involvement  the r e s e a r c h  and  with  some o f t h e burden  provide  and e x p e r t i s e , The  As w e l l ,  will lift  f o r i t can  society.  sales,  The e d i t i n g need not  and enthusiasm w i l l r a i s e i t s s t a n d i n g  society  materials,  than  and an a r c h i v e s t h a t generates  i n t h e community.  archives,  important  be an i n c e n t i v e f o r p e o p l e t o i n v o l v e  in their h i s t o r i c a l society, such  done  academic  The chance t o work w i t h t h e " s t u f f o f  itself  editing  from  an the  facilities,,  and l e a v e t h e p r o d u c t i o n work t o  p a r t n e r s h i p may a l s o a i d i n g e n e r a t i n g  f o r t h e r e would be a ready market f o r s u b s c r i p t i o n  s a l e s among t h e s o c i e t y ' s members. Whatever t h e method and whoever t h e  editors,  once t h e  documents have been chosen and p r e p a r e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n they s t i l l must, undergo a p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s . can  As mentioned,  be v e r y e x p e n s i v e and time-consuming.  publication complicated  i s short, format,  with  perhaps  fewer  notes  less  s o f t cover r a t h e r than  hard,  an h i s t o r i c a l magazine o r j o u r n a l ,  costs  can  produced  be c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r .  more q u i c k l y ,  anniversary,  o r as an  edition  exhibit,  could  be  event,  or  thus g e n e r a t i n g some s a l e s . There would  129  article  the f i n a l production  The  as p a r t o f an  and  i f a  a  w i t h a g l o s s y c o v e r r a t h e r than a j a c k e t , in  However,  this  appear  to  be  potential  buying  history  editions,  f o r sales i n this books,  area.  and c e r t a i n  Canadians  sorts  of  are  documentary  such as d i a r i e s and j o u r n a l s , have s o l d w e l l . The  aforementioned Gentlewoman:  sales  of  Saskatchewan's  documentary,  are  sales  aimed  of  over  complicated the p r o j e c t , money can be made. revenues,  of  Pioneer  The R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Susan A l l i s o n i s but  example.  combined  c l o s e t o 5000 c o p i e s  three  one  p u b l i c a t i o n s , while  at a general 20,000  audience,  copies.  And  not  and  have  the  less  t h e more can be done, and the more  And i f t h e p u b l i s h i n g a c t i v i t y  generates  more money w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o d i r e c t i n t o o t h e r  publications  to  disseminate  records or  i n f o r m a t i o n about  h o l d i n g s . However, i f a r c h i v e s a r e f a c e d w i t h the problem o f b e i n g unable t o r e c e i v e r e v e n u e s , popular p u b l i s h i n g i s diminished But here.  of course, An  general  archives  t h e monetary impetus f o r substantially.  money i s n o t t h e o n l y o b j e c t a t which engages i n a c t i v i t i e s  stake  f o r the  p u b l i c cannot but h e i g h t e n p u b l i c awareness o f i t s  existence,  thus  generating  and perhaps more d o n a t i o n s is l i m i t l e s s . bringing  a  more  And a t t h e very l e a s t ,  there  activity,  The p o t e n t i a l  t h e a r c h i v e s w i l l be  l i t t l e piece of h i s t o r y t o the  However,  more  o f p r i v a t e papers.  them more aware o f t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s  archives  users,  public,  making  past.  i s an i m p o r t a n t  consideration that  an  t h i n k i n g o f p u b l i s h i n g f o r the p u b l i c must ponder.  I f t h e aim i s t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , is  documentary  Would  not  p u b l i s h i n g t h e b e s t means  more people be a t t r a c t e d t o an 130  of  doing  that?  exhibit?  Would  they  not p r e f e r t o see an h i s t o r i c a l t e l e v i s i o n show  documentary f i l m f o o t a g e ? history  Or h e a r a r a d i o b r o a d c a s t o f o r a l  o r sound a r c h i v e s ?  facsimiles argument  or  using  Or buy a book  h i s t o r i c a l photographs?  of  documentary  There i s  a  valid  t h a t w h i l e documentary e d i t i n g f o r the' s c h o l a r  too  expensive  the  general  and time-consuming,  p u b l i s h i n g documents f o r  p u b l i c has been surpassed by o t h e r  o t h e r approaches to h i s t o r y .  media  overwhelmed  is  no  by  the  genealogists; preservation  by  question demands  that of  in  archives  government,  the r a p i d changes i n  techniques,  1984  and a r c h i v a l t h e o r y ,  media,  and by needs.  s p i t e o f a l l the urgent problems a r c h i v e s f a c e each  it  is  that  carefully.  serving?  they c o n s i d e r They  Government?  their  role  must ask themselves Scholars?  in  who  The p u b l i c ?  best  serve t h a t p u b l i c ?  time  out from t h e i r busy day . and ask themselves goals  Archives  for  their  they  can  they  A r c h i v a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s must take  archives?  What  should  must d e c i d e where they want t o be  In  twenty y e a r s , i n terms of a l l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . thought  day,  society are  How  the But  in  vital  are  historians,  technology,  c o n s t r a i n t s o f s h r i n k i n g budgets and expanding  the  for  audience.  There  very  and  An a r c h i v e s must come t o g r i p s  w i t h t h i s i s s u e when d e c i d i n g whether o r not t o p u b l i s h a general  is  t o the q u e s t i o n o f documentary  what  are  they  be?  five,  ten,  G i v i n g some  publishing,  rather  than j u s t d i s m i s s i n g i t as an a c t i v i t y o f another t i m e , h e l p a r c h i v i s t s to examine t h e i r r o l e i n s o c i e t y .  131  will  Whatever  they  decide  something.  about They  unstructured  publishing,  must  put  activities  an end  that  valuable  place  especially public.  as  part  of  seen.  characterized  computer t e c h n o l o g y ,  the  archives, the  general  and t h e  changing  have a l l b u t e l i m i n a t e d  h i s t o r i c a l e d i t i n g from t h e a r c h i v a l f o r a general  audience can draw  scene.  them  into  i n v o l v e them i n h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , show them a t h e i r s o c i e t y t h a t they might not  otherwise  have  This c a n , however, be done through o t h e r media.  i s up t o each a r c h i v e s t o c o n s i d e r decision. that  decide  disorganized,  a means o f b r i n g i n g h i s t o r y t o  publishing  archives ,  the  i n today's  needs o f h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s ,  But  must  One can argue t h a t t h e r e i s  f o r publishing  Microfilm,  comprehensive  to  have  p r o f e s s i o n f o r over 100 y e a r s . a  archives  But  decision  continue  i t s options  It  and t o make a  i t i s incumbent upon t h e a r c h i v e s t o make and t o n o t a l l o w documentary  t o wallow about i n an h i s t o r i c a l  publishing  to  limbo.  Documentary p u b l i s h i n g has d e c l i n e d over t i m e , t h e r e i s no  question  of that.  But a l l t h i n g s change,  and t h e r e i s  no r e a s o n why documentary p u b l i s h i n g cannot emerge a g a i n Canada,  in a  different make  a  new  and r e v i t a l i z e d form,  group o f Canadians. decision  function inevitable  of  about t h e i r  publishing  that  for a  new  in and  I t i s up t o t h e a r c h i v e s t o role  f o r their  the o l d order  i n society, Institutions.  changes;  determine t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h a t change.  132  and t h e  archives  It is must  NOTES Introduction 1. J.K. Johnson, "The A r c h i v i s t ' s Role i n the P u b l i c a t i o n of Documents," Canadian A r c h i v i s t (1967): 7.  133  NOTES Chapter One 1. Quoted i n C.B. F e r g u s s o n , "The P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Nova S c o t i a , " A c a d i e n s i s 2 (1972): 272. 2. Quoted i n B.C. C u t h b e r t s o n , "Thomas Beamish A k i n s : B r i t i s h North America's P i o n e e r A r c h i v i s t , " Acadiensis 7 (1977): 93-94. 3.  I b i d . , 93-94.  4. Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y (1878): 2.  Report and C o l l e c t i o n s 1  5.  I b i d . , 15.  6.  Ibid.  7. 1.0.  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Nova S c o t i a Annual Report  8.  I b i d . , 11.  9.  I b i d . , 10.  10.  Ibid.  11.  I b i d (1942), 6.  2 (1879-80), 3-4. (1930-31):  ( 1935 ) , 7.  12. C.B. F e r g u s s o n , "The Past i s P r o l o g u e : A r c h i v e s and History i n Nova S c o t i a , " Nova S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 1 (1971): 284. 13.  I b i d . , 285.  14. L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r from P h y l l i s B l a k e l e y , 1984. 15. 16. 10 .  24 January  Ibid. P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Nova S c o t i a Annual Report  (1983):  17. P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada Annual Report (1905): ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as PACR.)  xv.  18. Ian W i l s o n , " S h o r t t and Doughty: The C u l t u r a l Role o f the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, 1904-1935," Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2 (1973): 5. 19.  I b i d . , 7.  134  20.  PACR (1933):  21.  I b i d . , v.  xxiii.  22. Quoted i n John A r c h e r , A Institutions i n Canada Ph.D. d i s s . , 1969, m i c r o f i l m , p. 106. 23.  I b i d . , p. 92.  24.  I b i d . , p. 107.  25.  PACR (1935): v i i .  26.  Ibid.  27.  Archer, A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s  28.  PACR (1947 ) : x.  29.  Ibid.  30.  I b i d . , 3.  31.  Ibid.  32.  I b i d . , 7.  33.  Ibid.  (1971-72),  34.  Ibid.  (1972-73), 13.  35.  I b i d . , 13.  36.  Ibid.  (1938), x v i .  (1959-69 ) , 4.  (1981-82),  3.  1.  38 .  I b i d . , pp. 6, 25-26.  39 .  I b i d . , P- 94.  40 .  I b i d . , P- 182.  41.  I b i d . , P- 183 .  42.  I b i d . , pp. 211-12.  44.  i n Canada, p. 130.  (1950), 14.  37. Gerald K i l l a n , Preserving H i s t o r y of t h e O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l P r i n t i n g S e r v i c e , 1976 ) , p. 182.  43. 99 .  Study o f Archival Queen's U n i v e r s i t y ,  Ontario  Ontario's Heritage: A S o c i e t y (Ottawa: Love  H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Annual Report  37  (1945);  K i l l a n , P r e s e r v i n g O n t a r i o ' s H e r i t a g e , pp. 217-18.  135  45. Gerald K i l l a n , "The Good, t h e Bad, and an O c c a s i o n a l Touch o f t h e U g l y , " O n t a r i o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y Papers and Records 67 (1975 ) : 58 . 46. George Brown, " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n Canada," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review 16 (1935): 15. (Hereafter r e f e r r e d t o as CHR.) 47.  A r c h e r , A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada, p. 20 3.  48. Willard Ireland, "The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v a l Scene," Canadian Historical Association Report (1953): 72. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as CHAR.) 49. 1984.  L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r from W i l l i a m Ormsby,  50. Champlain S o c i e t y , Annual ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as CSAR.)  Report  47  2 February (1954):  4.  51. K i l l a n , "The Good, t h e Bad, and an O c c a s i o n a l Touch o f the U g l y " : 58. 52. T e r r y Eastwood, "R.E. G o s n e l l , E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d and the Founding o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia., 1894-1919," B.C. S t u d i e s 54 (1982): 40. 53.  I b i d . , 52.  54. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia Annual Report (1913): 6. 55. "Notes," (1937): 1.  British  Columbia  Historical  Quarterly  1  56.  L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r from John Bovey, 2 February 1984.  57 .  CSAR 1 (1906): 3-4.  58.  I b i d 11 (1916), 4.  59.  I b i d 13 (1918), 4.  60 .  I b i d 16/17  61.  I b i d 25 (1931), 1.  62 .  I b i d 29 (1935), 4-5.  (1920-22), 3.  63. Glyndwr W i l l i a m s , Hudson's Bay M i s c e l l a n y , 1670-1870 , Winnipeg: Hudson's Bay Record S o c i e t y , 1975, pp. i x - x . 64.  CSAR 42 (1949): 6.  136  65.  See I b i d 76 (1983 ).  66. Historical and S c e i n t i f i c Society of Manitoba Transactions 34 (1889): 3. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Transactions. ) 67. G. F r i e s e n , "The Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y : C e n t e n n i a l H i s t o r y , " Manitoba H i s t o r y 4 (1982): 3. 68.  I b i d . , 2.  69.  Transactions  70.  F r i e s e n , "The Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y " : 4.  71.  I b i d . , 5.  72.  Transactions  73.  Ibid.  74.  Ibid.  (1960/61/62), 4.  75.  Ibid.  (1963-64), 5.  A  33 (1889): 2.  (1952-53): 3.  ( 1958-59 ) , 4.  76. Sharon B a b a i a n , Provincial Archivist, (1982): 19.  "An Mr.  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Manitoba's New P e t e r Bower," Manitoba H i s t o r y 4  137  NOTES Chapter Two 1.  "Notes and Comments," CHR 18 (1937): 45 7.  2.  "Notes and Comments," CHR 19 (1938): 11.  3. 4.  Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s  Board, Report 1 (1945-46): 13.  I b i d . , 19.  5. L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r from I a n W i l s o n , 31 January 19 84, p. 2 . 6. Lewis H. Thomas, "Documentary Sources f o r Teaching Western Canadian H i s t o r y , " A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review 17 (1969): 25. 7.  "Notes and Comments," CHR 16-17 (1952-53): 255.  -  A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review, 1 (1953): 1.  8  9. H i s t o r i c a l Resources A c t , Chapter H-8, R e v i s e d of A l b e r t a , 1980 , S e c t i o n 9,. pp. 5-6. 10. 1984,  L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r from W. p. 1.  Statutes  B r i a n S p i e r s , 31 January  11. P r o v i n c i a l Archives o f A l b e r t a p u b l i c a t i o n s : Some Sources f o r Women's H i s t o r y a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a , O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 2, by Jean Dryden, 1980; The H i s t o r i c a l Evolution o f t h e Department o f Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s , 1983; V o i c e s o f A l b e r t a , A Survey o f O r a l H i s t o r y Completed i n A l b e r t a up t o 19 8 0 e d i t e d by Jean Dryden, 1981 ( a supplement i s a v a i l a b l e i n F r e n c h ) ; Alberta's Local H i s t o r i e s i n the H i s t o r i c a l Resources L i b r a r y , 19 83; Images i n Time, a B a s i c Guide t o t h e Processing and P r e s e r v a t i o n o f H i s t o r i a l P h o t o g r a p h s , by Jean Dryden, 1982; Government Records C o l l e c t i o n s H e l d i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A l b e r t a , 1983; W r i t i n g Local H i s t o r y e d i t e d and r e v i s e d by A l a n D. R i d g e , 1982; A l b e r t a a t t h e Turn o f t h e Century e d i t e d by E r i c J . Holmgren, 197 5. 12. L e t t e r s o f L o v i s a M c D o u g a l l , 1878-1887 , e d i t e d by E l i z a b e t h M. McCrum, P r o v i n c i a l Archives of Alberta, O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 1, 1978, p r e f a c e . 13.  L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r from W. B r i a n S p i e r s , p. 1.  14. Hugh T a y l o r , "The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s A c a d i e n s i s 1 (1971): 73.  138  o f New Brunswick,"  15. C o l l e c t i o n s of the New Brunswick H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1 (1894); 7. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as C o l l e c t i o n s . ) 16.  I b i d . , 6.  17.  C o l l e c t i o n s 5 (1904): 139.  18. 75.  Taylor,  19.  I b i d . , 79.  "The  P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f New  20. P a u l O ' N e i l l , "The Newfoundland Newfoundland Q u a r t e r l y 76 (1980): 6. 21.  I b i d . , 4.  22.  Ibid.  23.  I b i d . , 5.  24.  I b i d . , 6.  H i s t o r i c a l Society,"  25. John P. Greene, " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f A c a d i e n s i s 3 (1974): 75. 26. 27. 1984.  Brunswick":  Newfoundland,"  L e t t e r to. the a u t h o r from David D a v i s , 30 January  1984.  L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r from N i c h o l a s de Jong, 2 5 January  28. "Notes and Comments" CHR  1 (19 20):  139  1.  NOTES Chapter Three 1. Quoted i n H a s k e l l Monroe, "Some Thoughts A s p i r i n g H i s t o r i c a l E d i t o r , " American A r c h i v i s t 32 147.. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as AA. ) 2.  Quoted i n W i l s o n , " S h o r t t and Doughty": 22.  3.  Quoted i n i b i d . , 25.  4.  Quoted i n i b i d . , 25.  f o r . an (1969):  5. P r e s i d e n t i a l A d d r e s s , Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n A n n u a l R e p o r t (1922): 8. ( H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as CHAAR.) 6.  PACR (1905): x v - x v i .  7.  "Notes and Comments,"  8. "Notes mine. 9. 10. 11.  CHR 7 (19 26): 3.  and Comments,"CHR 1  (1920):  239.  Emphasis  Quoted i n B.C. C u t h b e r t s o n , "Thomas Beamish A k i n s " : 94. I b i d . , 94. Quoted i n i b i d . , 100.  12. E.A. C r u i k s h a n k , Review o f S e l e c t B r i t i s h Documents o f the Canadian War o f 1812, e d i t e d by W i l l i a m Wood. CHR ~~5 (1924): 61-65. 13. W i l l i a m Renwick R i d d e l l , Review o f The Correspondence of L i e u t e n a n t Governor J o h n Graves Simcoe, w i t h allied Documents R e l a t i n g t o h i s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e Government of Upper Canada, e d i t e d by E.A. C r u i k s h a n k . CHR 4 (1923): 342-44. 14.  "Notes and Comments," CHR 5  15.  I b i d . , 8 (1927): 157.  16.  PACR (1912 ) : 3.  17.  CHAAR( 1926): 18.  18.  CHR 5 (1924): 1.  (1924): 294.  19. Duncan M c A r t h u r , "The Canadian A r c h i v e s W r i t i n g o f Canadian H i s t o r y , " CHAAR (19 34): 14. 20.  PACR (1949):  xxxiii.  140  and t h e  21. G. deT. G l a z e b r o o k , Review o f Report o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s f o r t h e Year 1935.... CHR 18 (1937): 68. 22. George W. Brown, " P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s i n Canada," CHR 16 (1935): 3. 23. George W. Brown, "The Problem o f P u b l i c and H i s t o r i c a l Records i n Canada," CHR 25 (1944): 1. 24. 25. 26.  I b i d . , 1-2. J o u r n a l o f Documentary R e p r o d u c t i o n 1 (1938): c o v e r . Ibid.,  233.  27. Christopher Crittenden, "Publication Policies for A r c h i v a l and H i s t o r i c a l A g e n c i e s , " AA 3 (1940): 249-50. 28.  PACR (1950 ) : 14.  29. W. Kaye (1953): 63,67.  Lamb,  "The F e d e r a l A r c h i v a l Scene,"  CHAAR  30. E d i t h G. F i r t h , "The P u b l i c a t i o n o f Canada," Canadian A r c h i v i s t , (1967): 13.  Documents  in  31. Robert E. R u i g h , "Aspects o f Record . Canad_ian A r c h i v i s t .(196 7 ) : 3.  Publication,"  32. W. 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C r e i g h t o n , "The D i c t i o n a r y of Canadian B i o g r a p h y , " i n The P a s s i o n a t e Observer: S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 19 80, p. 79. 46. J.M.S. C a r e l e s s , "The Review Reviewed o r 50 Years w i t h the Beaver P a t r o l , " CHR 51 (1970): 49. 47. J.M. Acadiensis  Bumstead, " C l i o 9 (1980): 92.  and  the  Historical  Editor,"  48. B. P o t y o n d i , Review of Gateway C i t y : Documents on the C i t y of W i n n i p e g , e d i t e d by A l a n A r t i b i s e , Manitoba H i s t o r y 3 (1982): 47. 49. Robin F i s h e r , . Review of The J o u r n a l s of the C o l o n i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s of the C o l o n i e s of Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1851-1871" e d i t e d ' b y James E. Hendrickson,CHR 6 3 (1982): 276. 50.. G a i l Cuthbert .Brandt, Review o f God' s G a l l o p i n g G i r l : The Peace R i v e r D i a r i e s o f Monica S t o r r s , 192 9-31 , e d i t e d by W.L. Morton, CHR~6l ( T 9 8 0 ): 398. 51. V e r o n i c a Strong-Boag, Review of A P i o n e e r Gentlewoman i n B r i t i s h Columbia: The R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Susan A l l i s o n , e d i t e d by Margaret Ormsby, CHR 5 9 (19 78): 244-45.  142  SOURCES I.  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To Know O u r s e l v e s : The Report o f t h e Commission On Canadian Studies. Ottawa: Association o f U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s o f Canada, 1975. VEANER, A l l e n B. Studies i n Micro-Publishing 1853-1976: Documentary Sources. Westport, Connecticut: Microform Review, 1976. VOGT, George L. and John Bush J o n e s , e d s . , L i t e r a r y and Historical Editing. Kansas: U n i v e r s i t y o f Kansas L i b r a r i e s , 19 81. WILSON, I a n E. " S h o r t t and Doughty: The C u l t u r a l Role o f the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, 1940-1935." Canadian A r c h i v i s t , 2 (1973): 4-25. WINDSOR, Kenneth N. " H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g i n Canada t o 19 20." i n C a r l F. K l i n c k , ed. , L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f Canada, T o r o n t o , 1966, pp. 220-24. YOUNG, James Harvey. Scholarly Publishing  "The P r o f e s s o r Buys 6 (1974): 309-17.  150  a  Book."  APPENDIX S e l e c t L i s t o f T i t l e s o f Canadian Documentary (published The by  by a r c h i v e s  and h i s t o r i c a l  Publications  societies)  f o l l o w i n g , i s a s e l e c t l i s t , o f documentary Canadian  societies.  f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l archives  or  historical  I t i s p r o v i d e d t o i l l u s t r a t e the changes i n and  d e c l i n e o f such p u b l i s h i n g chronologically, including  publications  i n Canada.  beginning  with  documents p u b l i s h e d  institution.  While the l i s t  possible,  is  it  comprehensive  intended  The t i t l e s a r e l i s t e d major  monographs  and  i n the major j o u r n a l of  each  i s as complete and a c c u r a t e as o n l y as a guide and  bibliography.•  151  not  as  a  NOVA SCOTIA Public Archives  of Nova S c o t i a  1869 . S e l e c t i o n s from the P u b l i c Documents of the P r o v i n c e S c o t i a . E d i t e d by Thomas B. A k i n s . 1908 . O r i g i n a l Minutes R o y a l , 1720-1739.  of Nova  of H i s Maj e s t y ' s Council at A n n a p o l i s E d i t e d by A r c h i b a l d M. MacMechan.  19 35 ; H o l l a n d ' s D e s c r i p t i o n of Cape B r e t o n I s l a n d and Other Documents. Compiled w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by D.C. Harvey. 1937 . Diary of John Thomas. J o u r n a l of E d i t e d by John C l a r e n c e Webster.  Louis  1937. L o y a l i s t s and Land S e t t l e m e n t i n Nova S c o t i a . Marion G i l r o y .  de  Courville.  Compiled  by  1937 . Thomas P i c h e n , the Spy of Beausej o u r , An Account of h i s C a r e e r i n Europe and A m e r i c a , w i t h many O r i g i n a l Documents. Translated by A l i c e Webster, e d i t e d by John Clarence Webster. 1947. The E v o l u t i o n of the H a l i f a x F o r t r e s s , 1749-1928. E d i t e d by G.M. S e l f w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of P. Blakeley, under the d i r e c t i o n o f D.C. Harvey. 1948. A Documentary Study o f the E s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Negroes Nova S c o t i a between the War o f 1812 and the Winning R e s p o n s i b l e Government. * 1958." Sketches of Cape B r e t o n , and Other Papers R e l a t i v e t o B r e t o n I s l a n d . E d i t e d by C. B. Fergusson. 196 5 . The Diary Fergusson.  of  Adolphus Gaetz.  Edited  152  by  Charles  in of  Cape  Bruce  1967. M i n u t e s of H i s M a j e s t y ' s C o u n c i l a t A n n a p o l i s 1749. E d i t e d by Charles Bruce Fergusson. 1971. C l a r k s o n ' s M i s s i o n t o A m e r i c a , 1791-179 2. Bruce Fergusson.  Royal,  E d i t e d by  173 6-  Charles  197 9 . Census o f Nova S c o t i a ^ 18 2 7 ; Census of D i s t r i c t of P i c t o u 1817. Compiled by A l l a n C. Dunlop.  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Nova S c o t i a B u l l e t i n 1937. A Documentary Study of E a r l y E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c y . D.C. Harvey. 1939 . L e t t e r s of Rev. Harvey.  Norman MacLeod,  183 5-51.  E d i t e d by  E d i t e d by  D.C.  1941. A Documentary Study o f P r o v i n c i a l F i n a n c e and Currency 181236. P r e p a r e d by J.S. M a r t e l l . 1947 . A Documentary Study of t h e O r i g i n and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Arms Fund. E d i t e d by D.C. Harvey. 1953 . J o u r n a l and L e t t e r s of C o l o n e l C h a r l e s Lawrence. D.C. Harvey. 1956 . J o u r n a l o r D i a r y o f James B o u t i n e a u D.C. Harvey. 1957. Glimpses o f Nova S c o t i a 1807-24. Fergusson. 1959 . L e t t e r s and Fergusson.  Papers o f Hon.  Franklin.  E d i t e d by  Edited  E d i t e d by C h a r l e s  Enos C o l l i n s .  E d i t e d by  1960. The L i f e of Johnathon S c o t t . E d i t e d by C.B.  Fergusson.  153  the  by  Bruce  C.B.  1972. "The O l d K i n g i s Back": Amos " K i n g " Seaman and h i s E d i t e d by. C.B. Fergusson.  NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL  Diary.  SOCIETY  Report and C o l l e c t i o n s  187 8. Volume 1. " J o u r n a l o f C o l o n e l N i c h o l s o n a t t h e Capture o f A n n a p o l i s , 1710." pp, 59-104. "An Account o f Nova S c o t i a i n 1743." pp. 105-10. " T r i a l s f o r Treason i n 1776-77." pp. 111-1.8. " D i a r y o f John Thomas." pp. 119-40. 1879-80. Volume 2. " J o u r n a l o f John Wither spoon. " pp.. 31-62. "The A c a d i a n F r e n c h . " pp. 129-60. 1882-83. Volume 3. " J o u r n a l o f C o l o n e l John Winslow (17 5 5 ) . " (Second P a r t ) 71-196.  pp.  1884. Volume 4. "Papers connected w i t h t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Governor V e t c h . " E d i t e d by George P a t t e r s o n . " pp. 64-112. " J o u r n a l o f C o l o n e l John Winslow (1755)." ( F i r s t p a r t ) pp. 113-246 . 1885-86. Volume 5. "Copy o f a J o u r n a l kept by  Gordon (1758)."  pp. 97-153.  1887-88. Volume 6. "King's C o l l e g e and E p i s c o p a t e i n Nova S c o t i a (1783)." 123-35.  pp.  1889-91. Volume 7. " L e t t e r s and o t h e r papers r e l a t i n g t o t h e E a r l y H i s t o r y o f the Church o f England i n Nova S c o t i a (1710)." pp. 89-127. 1892-1977. " Volumes 8-39. 0  154  Nova' S c o t i a H i s t o r i c a l  Quarterly  1971. Volume 1. "Two L e t t e r s on t h e ' P a c i f i c a t i o n of Nova S c o t i a . ' " by D.A. Muise. pp. 11-25. 1972.  Volume 2.  Edited  0  197 3. Volume 3. "A Journal of the P r o c e e d i n g s . . . ( S i r William Expedition to Port Royal, A p r i l 2 3 - May 30, E d i t e d by Ruth E. Kaulback. pp. 131-43. " L e t t e r from Another World, 17 5 7." E d i t e d by Macleod. pp. 197-213.  Phipp s 1690 ) . " Malcolm  1974. Volume 4. " L e t t e r s o f Norman Wade." E d i t e d by Leone B. C o u s i n s . pp.117-46. "The J o u r n a l of Helen Sophia P e r r y -- W i n t e r o f 1909-10." E d i t e d by Lawrence Kent Sweeney. pp. 345-53. 1975. Volume 5. " W i l l i e Goes t o War."  E d i t e d by A.C. Dunlop. pp. 1-20.  1976. Volume 6. "A S h i p b u i l d i n g Document from Sherbrooke V i l l a g e . " Edited w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by John N. Grant. pp. 159-65. 19 77.  Volume 7.  0  1978. Volume 8. " C h a r l e s Rogers Ward, E d i t o r o f t h e Cape B r e t o n i a n . " by C.B. Fergusson. pp..273-88. 197 9.  Volume 9.  1980.  Volume 10.  0 0  155  Edited  PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF CANADA  1907. Documents R e l a t i n g t o the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Canada, 1759-1791. E d i t e d by A r t h u r G. Doughty and Adam S h o r t t . 1910. Red River Settlement. R e l a t i n g t o the P i o n e e r s .  Papers i n the Canadian Archives S e l e c t e d by Chester M a r t i n .  1912. Documents R e l a t i n g t o the Invasion of S u r r e n d e r of D e t r o i t , 1812. E d i t e d by E.A.  Canada and Cruikshank.  1914-15. The Canadi an North—westits E a r l y Development L e g i s l a t i v e Records. E d i t e d by Edmund Henry O l i v e r .  the  and  1915. Documents R e l a t i n g t o the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y of Canada, 1791-1818. E d i t e d by A r t h u r G. Doughty and D.A. McArthur. 1924. The Voyages of Jacques C a r t i e r , P u b l i s h e d w i t h T r a n s l a t i o n s , Notes and A p p e n d i c e s .  from the O r i g i n a l s By H,P, Biggar.  1926. The N o r t h c l i f f e C o l l e c t i o n ; P r e s e n t e d t o the Government of Canada by S i r L e i c e s t e r Harmsworth, Bt. , as a Memorial t o h i s B r o t h e r the R i g h t Honourable A l f r e d C h a r l e s William Harmsworth, V i s c o u n t N o r t h c l i f f e . 1929 . The K e l s e y Papers . W i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Arthur G. Doughty and Chester M a r t i n . [ C o - p u b l i s h e d w i t h the Public Records O f f i c e of N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d . ] 1930. A C o l l e c t i o n o f Documents R e l a t i n g to Jacques C a r t i e r the S i e u r de R o b e r v a l . E d i t e d by H.P. Biggar.  156  and  1933 . Documents' R e l a t i n g t o C u r r e n c y , Exchange and F i n a n c e i n Nova S c o t i a w i t h p r e f a t o r y Documents, 1675-175 8. E d i t e d by Adam Shortt. 1935 . Documents R e l a t i n g t o the C o n s i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y o f Canada, 1819-1828. E d i t e d by A r t h u r G. Doughty and Norah S t o r y . 1937 . The E l g i n - G r e y Doughty.  Papers,  1846-1852.  . E d i t e d by  Arthur  G.  1940 . The Oakes C o l l e c t i o n : New Documents by Lahontan Concerning Canada and Newfoundland. E d i t e d by Gustave L a n c t o t 1968. The L e t t e r s o f S i r John A. J.K. Johnson.  Macdonald, 1836-1857.  E d i t e d by  1969 . The L e t t e r s o f S i r John A. Macdonald, 1858-1861. J.K. Johnson and C a r o l e B. S.telmack.  E d i t e d by  1976. O v e r l a n d t o Oregon i n 1845: I m p r e s s i o n s o f a Journey a c r o s s N o r t h America. E d i t e d by Madeleine Major-Fregeau. P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada Annual R e p o r t s 1882 . . "Correspondence and Papers 1784." pp. 61-63.  Relating  to  Detroit,  1772-  1886 . " P r o p o s a l by Samuel Waldo f o r t h e R e d u c t i o n o f L o u i s b o u r g i n 1758. " pp. 61-63. " P r o p o s a l by Samuel Waldo f o r S e t t l i n g Nova S c o t i a . " pp. 64-67. " J o u r n a l o f Jacques Repentigny Legardeur S t . P i e r r e o f h i s E x p e d i t i o n f o r the d i s c o v e r y o f the Western Sea, 1750 to 1752." pp. 68-79. " S i r Guy C a r l e t o n t o Lord S h e l b u r n e , Remarks on Western Trade, 1768." pp. 80-82. " L i s t s o f S h i p s , Regiments Embarked, Nominal Returns o f O f f i c e r s , e t c . , and o t h e r t a b l e s R e l a t i n g t o the French Regime i n Canada a t the time o f the Taking o f Quebec i n 1759, and o f M o n t r e a l i n 1760." pp. 83-87. " S e l k i r k S e t t l e m e n t L e t t e r Book o f C a p t a i n M i l e s Macdonell, 1811 and 1812." pp. 88-125. " J o u r n a l o f C a p t a i n Enys' V i s i t t o N i a g a r a i n 17 87." pp. 126-32.  157  1887 " L e t t e r from M. Tremblay t o the D i r e c t o r s o f t h e Seminary o f Quebec, 1695." pp. 32-54. "Capture o f F o r t McKay, P r a i r i e du C h i e n , i n 1814." pp. .5 459. " J o u r n a l o f Mr. C F . H a n i n g t o n , from Q u e s n e l l e t h r o u g h the Rocky M o u n t a i n s , d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1874-75." pp. 6082. r  1888 . "The Walker Outrage, 1764." pp. 1-14. "General Murray's R e c a l l . " pp. 14-20. "The French Noblesse i n Canada a f t e r 1760." pp. 21-51. " P i e r r e Du C a l v e t . " pp. 5 2-5 8. "The North West Trade." pp. 59-73. "French R o y a l i s t s i n Upper Canada." pp. 73-87. 1889 . "North-Western E x p l o r a t i o n s . " pp..1-39. " R e l i g i o u s , E d u c a t i o n a l and Other S t a t i s t i c s . " pp. 39-52. "Vermont N e g o t i a t i o n s . " pp. 5 3-5 9. "Before and A f t e r the B a t t l e o f Edge H i l l . " pp. 59-71, "The R e s e r v a t i o n o f I n d i a n Lands." pp. 72-80. "Canal from Lake Champlain t o t h e S t . Lawrence." pp. 80-89. 1890. " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e . " pp. 1-10. " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Act o f 1791." pp. 10-47. "North Western E x p l o r a t i o n s . " pp. 48-67. " I n t e r n a l Commuications i n Canada." pp. 67-96. " R e l a t i o n s w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s a f t e r the Peace o f pp. 97-174.  17 8 3."  1891. " S e t t l e m e n t s and Surveys." pp. 1-36. " D i v i s i o n o f Upper Canada." pp. 36-38. "War w i t h F r a n c e , 1793." pp. 38-57. "French R e p u b l i c a n Designs on Canada." pp. 57-84. "The M a r r i a g e Law i n Upper Canada." p. 85. 18.9 2" S e t t l e m e n t s and Surveys." pp. 1-9. "Lower Canada i n 1800." pp. 9-16. " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l A f f a i r s i n Lower Canada." pp. 16-32. " P o l i t i c a l S t a t e o f Upper Canada i n 1806-7." pp. 32-135. "Courts o f J u s t i c e f o r the I n d i a n C o u t r y . " pp. 136-47. "Proposed G e n e r a l F i s h e r y and Fur Compnay." pp. 147-53. 1893.  0  189 4.  0  1895.  " R e l a t i o n s des Voyages de P i e r r e E s p r i t Radisson, dans l e s Annees 1682-3 e t 4." ( w i t h t r a n s l a t i o n ) pp. 1158  84. "Papers R e l a t i n g t o Sable I s l a n d . "  p. 84.  1896 . " I n d i a n Lands on t h e Grand R i v e r . " pp. 1-2 4. " A n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e War o f 1812." pp. 24-75. "Roman C a t h o l i c Church i n Upper Canada." pp. 76-86. 1897. "Proposed Union.between Upper and Lower Canada." "Claims f o r L o s s e s , 1812-15." pp. 47-57. " I n t e r n a l Communications i n Canada." pp. 57-89. "North West D i s p u t e s . " pp. 90-101.  pp. 1-47.  1898. "Seige o f Quebec." pp. 1-9. "Land Companies o f Canada." pp. 9-34. " N a t u r a l i z a t i o n Question." pp. 35-57. 1899 . " C l e r g y R e s e r v e s . " pp. 1-4 8. " E d u c a t i o n i n t h e Canadas." pp. 49-67. "Report o f t h e C i v i l and Other E s t a b l i s h m e n t s Canada." pp. 68-72.  of  Upper  1900 . "Education." pp. 1-49. "Emigration." pp. 49-70. 1901.  0  1902.  0  1903.  0  1904 . "Canadian A r c h i v e s i n 1787, w i t h Index." " I n s t r u c t i o n s t o Governors, Part I . " " D e s c r i p t i o n and S t a t e o f t h e New Settlements i n Nova S c o t i a i n 1761, w i t h maps." "Papers r e : B i g o t , Verger and V i l l e r a y . " " L e t t e r o f Father Ignace r e : A c a d i a . " "Documents r e l a t i n g t o t h e War o f 17 75. Sentiments o f t h e Indians." 190 5. (3 volumes) volume 1. " I n s t r u c t i o n s t o Governors. P a r t I I . " " I m p e r i a l Orders i n C o u n c i l , r e : P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , 17 6 7." "Plan o f York i n 1823." "Plan o f t h e F o r t i f i c a t i o n s o f Quebec, by d r L e r y . " " L e t t e r s o f V a u d r e u i l , L e v i s and Dumas i n 1760." "Plan o f t h e B a t t l e o f Ste. Foy, i n 17 60." "Memoire s u r l a N a v i g a t i o n du Canada." " P l a n o f Quebec i n 1660." 159  " J o u r n a l o f ' Le Formidable' i n 1757." " J o u r n a l o f ' L ' i n f l e x i b l e ' i n 1757." volume 2. " J o u r n a l and Census o f t h e S i e u r de l a Roque, w i t h p l a n . " "Acadian Geneologies and Documents c o n c e r n i n g t h e E x p u l s i o n , with index." volume 3. "Documents Concerning t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y o f Canada, with index." 1908-1910. 1911.  0  0  1912. " J o u r n a l Of t h e E x p e d i t i o n under S i r W i l l i a m Phipps against P o r t R o y a l , 16 90." "Account o f t h e t a k i n g o f P o r t Royal by t h e I n h a b i t a n t s o f Boston and Salem." " L e t t e r from C a p t a i n N i c h o l s o n , dated James C i t y , . V i r g i n i a , 4 November 16 90, t o t h e Lords o f Trade and Plantations." "Report by C a p t a i n M o r r i s t o Governor S h i r l e y upon h i s Survey o f lands i n Nova S c o t i a a v a i l a b l e f o r P r o t e s t a n t Settlers." "Correspondence o f General James Murray, 17 5 9-17 91." "Correspondence Exchanged i n t h e years 1761 and 1762 between the Comte de V i r y and M. B a i l l de S o l e u . " "Memoranda r e l a t i n g t o t h e Church i n Canada, from t h e E a r l i e s t times t o 1837." "Correspondence and J o u r n a l s o f Bishop I n g l i s o f H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , 1775-1814." "De S a l a b e r r y L e t t e r s , 1795-1829." "Patent o f N o b i l i t y t o Robert G i f f o r d , Seigneur of Beauport." 1913. "Ordinances made f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec since the E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f C i v i l Government u n t i l 1767." "Memorandum by t h e Hon. T o u s s a i n t P o t h i e r on p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n Canada, 1829." "Completion o f t h e Correspondence and J o u r n a l s o f t h e R i g h t Reverend C h a r l e s I n g l i s , and John I n g l i s , f i r s t and t h i r d bishops o f Nova S c o t i a . " 1914-15. "Papers r e l a t i n g t o t h e Surrender o f F o r t S t . Johns and F o r t Chambly." "Ordinances made f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec, by t h e Governor and C o u n c i l o f t h e s a i d P r o v i n c e s , from 1768 u n t i l 1791." 1916.  0 160  1917-18 . "Ordinances and P r o c l a m a t i o n s o f the Regime M i l i t a i r e . " " P r o c l a m a t i o n s . I s s u e d by Government from 1764 u n t i l 1791." 1919-21. " P r o c l a m a t i o n s o f Government o f Lower Canada, 1792-1815." " L e t t e r s from Governor P a r r t o Lord Shelburne,. d e s c r i b i n g A r r i v a l and S e t t l e m e n t s o f U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s i n Nova S c o t i a , 1783-84." 1922-23. 1926.  0  0  19 2 8.. " J o u r n a l o f A s s e l i n e de Ronual i n Canada, 1662." pp. 27-32. "The Beaver Trade Agreement, June 9, 1700." pp. 32-45. "Memorial o f Major P a u l Mascarene, November 13, 1713." pp. 45-55. "Some Account o f the t r a d e c a r r i e d on by the N o r t h West Company, 1809." pp. 56-74. " L e t t e r from C h a r l e s B u l l e r t o John S t u a r t M i l l , October 13, 1838." pp. 74-77. 1929. "Montcalm's Correspondence." pp. 31-108. " F i r s t J o u r n a l o f Simon F r a s e r , 1806." pp. 10 9-46. " L e t t e r s from t h e Rocky Mountains from August 10, 1806 t o February 10, 1807 by Simon F r a s e r . " pp. 147-60. "Minute o f t h e 30th A p r i l 1836." pp..161-71. 1930-1932.  0  1933. " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Documents 1818-1822." 1934-1938.  pp. 1-82.  0  1939. "Deed o f R e c e p t i o n and A p p r o v a l f o r t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e H o t e l Dieu o f Quebec, September 15, 1639." pp. 41-42. "Deed o f R e c e p t i o n and A p p r o v a l f o r t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Convent o f t h e U r s u l i n e s , Quebec, September 28, 16 3 9." pp. 42-44. "Deed o f Sale by C a v e l i e r de l a S a l l e t o t h e Seminary o f S a i n t - S u l p i c e o f h i s Seigneury o f S a i n t - S u l p i c e later known as L a c h i n e , January 9, 1669.": pp. 44-47. " L e t t e r from Governor C o r n w a l l i s r e l a t i n g the f i r s t s t e p s i n the f o u n d i n g o f H a l i f a x , J u l y 23, 1749." pp. 47-49. " L e t t e r from Governor P a t t e r s o n d e s c r i b i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , October 24, 1770." pp. 49-52. " L e t t e r from Governor C a r l e t o n announcing the c h o i c e and naming o f a s i t e as t h e c a p i t a l o f New Brunswick, A p r i l 25, 1783." pp. 52-53. 161  "General L i s t o f P a r t n e r s , C l e r k s and Interpreters who w i n t e r i n the N o r t h West Company's S e r v i c e w i t h the dates and n a t u r e o f t h e i r r e s p s e c t i v e engagements, 1797. " pp. 53-57. " L e t t e r from J u l e s Quesnel t o J.M. Lamothe d e s c r i b i n g the d i s c o v e r y o f the F r a s e r R i v e r , New C a l e d o n i a , May 1, 1809." pp. 57-58. "Appointment by the Hudson's Bay Company o f the Governor G e n e r a l o f Canada, S i r John Young, as G o v e r n o r - i n - C h i e f of Rupert's Land, A p r i l 9, 18 70." pp. 5 8-5 9. "Instrument o f Acceptance o f the Surrender by the Hudson's Bay Company o f c e r t a i n l a n d s , p r i v i l e g e s and . r i g h t s w i t h i n t h e T e r r i t o r y o f Rupert's Land, June 2, 1870." pp . 5 9 - 6 3 . 1940. "Canadian M i l i t i a R e g u l a t i o n s under the French Regime and E a r l y B r i t i s h R u l e . " pp. 5-22. "Canadian S u b s c r i p t i o n s t o Great B r i t a i n ' s War E f f o r t , 17 9818 0 2." pp. 2 3-98. "Loan o f Guns and Shot by Great B r i t a i n t o the United. S t a t e s i n 1798." pp. 99-108. 1941.  0  1942. " E a r l y R a t i o n i n g i n Canada." pp. x x i x - x x x v i . " E a r l y C o n t r o l o f P r i c e s . " pp. x x x v i i - l v i . "Treatment o f P r i s o n e r s d u r i n g the War o f 1812." lix.  pp.  lvii-  1943. "First R e p r e s e n t a t i v e body i n Canada, the Quebec C o u n c i l , 16 5 7." pp. x x v - x x v i i . "Reminiscences o f P i o n e e r days by a Lady Loyalist." pp. xxviii-xxxi. "New Documents c o n c e r n i n g the meeting of the F a t h e r s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n London, 1867." pp. x x x i i - x x x v . "Lord D u f f e r i n saves Quebec c i t y w a l l s from destruction, 18 7 5." pp. x x x v i . 1944. "First Meetings o f the F i r s t Canadian House o f Assembly," pp. x x x v i i - x x x i . " F i r s t Masonic I n i t i a t i o n i n Quebec." pp, x x x i i . " L i s t o f Members and the F i r s t Meeting of the M o n t r e a l Grand Lodge." pp. x x x i i . "Appeals t o the E l e c t o r s o f Quebec from the Candidates i n the f i r s t P a r l i a m e n t a r y E l e c t i o n . " pp, x x x i v - x x x v i . " C o n d i t i o n s i n Sydney i n 17 89." pp. x x x v i i - x x x v i i i . "Contraband Trade d u r i n g the. War of 1812." pp. x x x i x - x l i . 1945. . "Notes and Reminiscences o f an I n h a b i t a n t o f M o n t r e a l d u r i n g the Occupation o f t h a t C i t y by the B o s t o n i a n s from 17 7 5 162  to 17 7 6 ." pp.. x x i i i - x x v i . " C o n d i t i o n s o f Settlement a t Tatamagouche, 1795." pp. x x v i i - x l i v . "Collective Responsibility xliv-xlv. "Sir  Nova  o f Cabinet M i n i s t e r s ,  Scotia,  1876." pp.  John A. Macdonald's E l e c t i o n as Member f o r V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1878." pp.. x l v i - x l i x .  1946. "A True P i c t u r e o f t h e Government o f Canada f o r a few y e a r s . " pp. x x i - x x i v . " H a l i f a x i n 17 93." pp. x x i v - x x i x . "Reminiscences o f C a p t a i n James D i t t r i c k o f S t . C a t h e r i n e s , D i s t r i c t o f N i a g a r a , Upper Canada." x x i x - x x x i i . The Canadian North-West." pp. x x x i i i - x x x v . "House H e a t i n g and Smoke P r e v e n t i o n i n 1881." pp. x x x v i xxxix. 1947. "The Quebec C o u n c i l o f 16 4 7." pp. x x v - x x v i i . "Sentence a g a i n s t a Naval C a p t a i n , 17 2 9." p. x x v i i i " F i r s t Meat Coupons i n Canada, 17 5 7." p x x x v i i i . "Sidelights on Smith F a l l s , P e r t h , B r o c k v i l l e , Kingston, P o r t Hope, Toronto, S t . C a t h a r i n e s , Niagara,, and Bytown, 1838-40." pp. x x i x - x x x v . "Financial and Economic C o n d i t i o n o f Canada One Hundred y e a r s ago (1847)." pp. x x x v i - x l v i i . 1948.  0  1949.  0  1950-1983. 0 material i s to report. )  (As o f 1950, a l l documentary and o t h e r be p u b l i s h e d s e p a r a t e l y from t h e annual  163  ONTARIO Archives of Ontario •Annual Report 1904.. V o l . 2. "United Empire L o y a l i s t s : E n q u i r y i n t o the Losses and S e r v i c e s i n Consequence of t h e i r L o y a l t y . " pp. 11-1376. 1905. V o l . 3. "Documents R e l a t i n g t o the P r o c e e d i n g s o f the D i s t r i c t Land Boards." pp. c x x x i - 5 2 0 . 1906. V o l . 4. " P r o c l a m a t i o n s by Governors and L i e u t e n a n t Quebec and Upper Canada." pp. 1-474. 190 8.  V o l . 5.  Governors  of  0  1910. V o l . 6. " J o u r n a l s o f Upper Canada: House o f Assembly." 1910. V o l . 7. " J o u r n a l s o f Upper Canada: L e g i s l a t i v e  Council."  pp. 1-482. pp. 1-505.  1911. V o l . 8. " J o u r n a l s o f Upper Canada: L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly." pp. 1-487. 1912. V o l . 9. " J o u r n a l s o f Upper Canada: 566. 1913. V o l . 10. " J o u r n a l s o f Upper Canada: 513.  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly."  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly."  pp.  1-  pp.  1-  1914. V o l . 11. " J o u r n a l s o f Upper Canada: L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly." pp. 1-6 90. " J o u r n a l s o f the House o f Assembly: Accounts f o r 18 23." pp. 691-728 . "Accounts, Upper Canada, 18 01." pp. 7 2 9-58. "Accounts, Upper Canada, 1802." pp. 759-82. 1915. V o l 12. " J o u r n a l s o f Upper Canada."  pp. 1-286.  1916. V o l . 13. "Tour trhough Canada." pp. 15-120. "Correspondence o f L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r Simcoe." 1917. V o l . 14. "Records o f t h e Court of Common P l e a s : 25-451. 164  pp. 134-44.  Upper Canada."  pp.  1918-19. V o l . 15. "Huron M a n u s c r i p t from Reverend P i e r r e P o t i e r ' s C o l l e c t i o n . " pp. 1-821. .1920.  V o l . 1.6.  0  1928. V o l . 17. "Grants o f Crown Lands i n Upper Canada, 228.  1789-91."  pp.  7-  1929. V o l . 18. "Grants o f Crown Lands i n Upper Canada, 17 92-96." pp. 1-194. 1930. V o l . 19. "Grants o f Crown Lands i n Upper Canada, 175.  Ontario H i s t o r i c a l  17 96-97."  pp.  1-  Society  1923-31. The Correspondence o f L i e u t e n a n t Governor John Graves Simcoe, with Allied Documents Relating to his A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Government o f Upper Canada. E d i t e d by E. A. C r u i k s h a n k . 5 volumes. 1932-1936. The Correspondence o f the Honourable P e t e r R u s s e l l , w i t h A l l i e d Documents R e l a t i n g t o h i s A d m i n i s t r e a t i o n o f t h e Government of Upper Canada. Edited by E.A. C r u i c k s h a n k . 3 volumes. 1946 . The John S t r a c h a n L e t t e r Book: W. Spragge.  1812-1834.  Ontario H i s t o r i c a l  E d i t e d by George  Society.  Papers and Records and O n t a r i o  History  1899. Volume 1. "Marriage Record o f Rev. John Langhorn." pp. 14-17. "Rev. G. 0 k i l l S t u a r t ' s R e g i s t e r a t S t . John's." p. 18. "Marriage R e g i s t e r o f S t . John's Church, E r n e s t t o w n , No. 2 and No. 3." pp. 19-28. " I n t h e P a r i s h R e g i s t e r o f S t . George, K i n g s t o n . " p. 29. "A R e g i s t e r o f Baptisms f o r t h e Township o f F r e d r i c k s b u r g h . " pp. 30-59. 165  "Rev.  John Langhorn's Records, 1787-1813 -- B u r i a l s . " pp. 59-63. "Rev. John Langhorn's R e g i s t e r o f S t . P a u l ' s Church, F r e d r i c k s b u r g h . " pp. 6 4-7 0. "Memorial T a b l e t [ t o Rev. Robert McDowall]." p. 71. "A R e g i s t e r o f Baptisms by the Rev. Robert McDowall. pp. 95-10 8. " M a r r i a g e R e g i s t e r o f Stephen Conger, J.P., H a l l o w e l l . " pp. 109-12. "The Cameron R o l l s , 1812." E d i t e d by David B o y l e . pp. 13238. "The T a l b o t S e t t l e m e n t and B u f f a l o i n 1816." pp. 139-40. 190 0. Volume 2.  0  19 0.1. Volume 3. " E a r l y Records of S t . Mark's and S t . Andrew's Churches, N i a g a r a . " E d i t e d by J a n e t Carnochan. pp. 7-8. "Baptisms i n N i a g a r a , by Rev. Robert A d d i s o n . " pp. 9-52. "Weddings a t N i a g a r a , 1792-1832." pp. 53-65. " B u r i a l s , N i a g a r a , 1792-1829." pp. 66-73. " R e g i s t e r o f B a p t i s m s , commencing 29th June, 1817, Township o f Grimsby." pp. 74-77. "Register of Marriages, Township o f Grimsby, U.C., commencing August 1817." pp. 77-80. " R e g i s t e r o f B u r i a l s i n t h e Township o f Grimsby." p. 80. " R e g i s t e r o f C h r i s t e n i n g s i n the P r e s b y t e r i a n C o n g r e g a t i o n , Township o f Newark, Upper Canada." pp. 81-8 2. " R e g i s t e r o f B i r t h s and B a p t i s m s , S t . Andrew's Church, N i a g a r a . " p. 8 3. " M a r r i a g e s C e l e b r a t e d by Rev. Robert M c G i l l . " pp. 84-85. 190 3. Volume 4. " D o l l i e r de Casson and de Brehaut de G a l i n e e : E x p l o r a t i o n o f the Great Lakes, 1669-16 70. G a l i n e e ' s N a r r a t i v e and Map. T r a n s l a t e d and e d i t e d by James H. Coyne. P a r t I . pp. x x x v i i , 8 9 . 190 4. Volume 5. "A R e g i s t e r o f Baptisms and M a r r i a g e s i n the Gore and London D i s t r i c t s , by the Rev. Ralph Leeming, from 1816 t o 1827." E d i t e d by H.H. R o b e r t s o n . pp. 91-101. " A n c a s t e r P a r i s h Records, 1830-1838." pp. 102-77. "A Record o f M a r r i a g e s Solemnized by W i l l i a m Smart, M i n i s t e r of the Presbyterian Congregation, Brockville, E l i z a b e t h t o w n , Upper Canada." pp. 187-236. 190 5. Volume 6. " J o u r n a l o f a Journey from Sandwich t o York i n the Summer o f 180 6, by C h a r l e s A i k e n s . " pp. 15-20. "The John R i c h a r d s o n L e t t e r s . " E d i t e d by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 20-36. " L u t h e r a n Church Record, 1793-1832." E d i t e d by Thomas W. Casey, pp. 136-37. "Baptism R e g i s t e r o f Ebenezer L u t h e r a n Church." pp. 137-59. 166  "Assessment o f the Township pp. 168-70.  o f H a l l o w e l l f o r the Year 18 0 8."  190 6 . Volume 7. "Baptisms (1761 t o 1786), M a r r i a g e s (1782 t o 1786), and Deaths (1768 t o 1786), Recorded i n the P a r i s h R e g i s t e r s o f Assumption, .Sandwich." E d i t e d by F r a n c i s Cleary. pp. 31- 97. "Black List: A L i s t o f those T o r i e s who Took P a r t with Great Britain i n . the R e v o l u t i o n a r y War and Were A t t a i n t e d o f High Treason... P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1802." pp. 109-20. "An Old Family Account Book." E d i t e d by M i c h a e l Gonder Sherk.. . pp. 120-39. 190 8. Volume 8. "Early Churches i n the N i a g a r a P e n i n s u l a , Stamford and Chippawa, w i t h M a r r i a g e Records o f Thomas Cummings, and E x t r a c t s from the Cummings P a p e r s . " Edited by Janet Carnochan. pp. 149- 225. 1910. Volume 9. " R e g i s t e r o f B a p t i s m s , M a r r i a g e s and Deaths, a t S t . Thomas, U.C., Commencing w i t h the E s t a b l i s h m e n t of the M i s s i o n i n J u l y , 1824." pp. 127-96. 1913. Volume 10. " C o l l e c t i o n s o f H i s t o r i c a l M a t e r i a l R e l a t i n g t o the War ..1812." e d i t e d by Frank H. Severance. pp. 43 = 5 6. 1913.  Volume 11.  0  1914.  Volume 12.  0  1915. "Some  Volume 13. U n p u b l i s h e d L e t t e r s from G e n e r a l Brock." E.A. C r u i k s h a n k . pp. 8-23.  Edited  of  by  1916. Volume 14. " A r r i v a l s and D e p a r t u r e s of S h i p s , Moose F a c t o r y , Hudson Bay, P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o (1751-1880)." E d i t e d by J.B. T y r r e l l , pp. 16 3-68. 1917. Volume 15. "Military R e g i s t e r o f Baptisms f o r the S t a t i o n George, Upper Canada, 1821-1827." pp. 35-39. "A L e t t e r W r i t t e n i n 1836." E d i t e d by J . Squair. • 49. 1918.  Volume 16.  of pp.  Fort 46-  0  1919. Volume 17. "A Contemporary Account of the R e b e l l i o n i n Upper Canada, 1837, by George Coventry." E d i t e d by A.F. Hunter and 167  W.R. R i d d e l l . 1920.  pp. 113-74.  Volume 18. 0  192 2. Volume 19. "The D i a r y o f Benjamin Lundy W r i t t e n D u r i n g h i s Journey t h r o u g h Upper Canada, January 18 3 2." E d i t e d by Fred Landon. pp. 110-33. 1923. Volume 20. "Some L e t t e r s o f Robert N i c h o l . " pp. 41-74.  E d i t e d by E.A. C r u i k s h a n k .  1924. Volume 21. "A Journey from M o n t r e a l t o K i n g s t o n i n 17 91." E d i t e d by E.A. C r u i k s h a n k . pp. 99-159. "The F i r s t S e s s i o n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l o f Upper Canada, h e l d i n K i n g s t o n , J u l y 8 t o J u l y 21, 1792." pp. 16070 . 1925. Volume 22. "The Rev. John O g i l v i e , D.D., an Army C h a p l a i n a t F o r t N i a g a r a and M o n t r e a l , 175 9-1760." E d i t e d by A.H. Young, pp. 296-337. 19 26. Volume 23. "The News o f N i a g a r a a Century Ago." E d i t e d by E.A. Cruikshank. pp. 45-64. "A S t o r y o f E a r l y Upper Canada." E d i t e d by W i l l i a m Renwick R i d d e l l . pp. 384-88. " D i a r y o f a Voyage from London t o Upper Canada i n 18 3 3." Edited by M i l l i c e n t P o l l o c k S t e e l e and E l l e n Frances S t e e l e . pp. 483-510. "The D i a r y o f C M . W r i g h t , 58th B a t t . , 1 4 t h B r i g a d e , F r a n c e , No. 1260428." E d i t e d by C M . Wright.. pp. 511-22. 19 27. Volume 24. " P e t i t i o n s f o r Grants o f Land, 1792-96." E d i t e d by E.A. C r u i k s h a n k . pp. 17-144. " C o n d i t i o n s i n York County a Century Ago." E d i t e d by David Gibson. pp. 356-65. "The Probated W i l l s o f Persons Prominent i n the P u b l i c A f f a i r s o f E a r l y Upper Cnaada." Second Collection e d i t e d by A.F. Hunter. pp. 381-409. 19 29. Volume 25. "Simcoe's M i s s i o n t o S a i n t C r u i k s h a n k . pp. 78-144. "An E a r l y B a p t i s m a l R e g i s t e r , Smart." pp. 367-84. t  Domingo." Brockville,  Edited  by  by Rev.  E.A. William  19 30. Volume 26. "Additional Correspondence o f Robert N i c h o l . " E d i t e d by E.A. C r u i k s h a n k . pp. 16-36. " P e t i t i o n s f o r Grants o f Land I n Upper Canada, Second 168  S e r i e s , 1796-99." E d i t e d by E.A. C r u i k s h a n k . pp. 97379. " S e l e c t i o n s from t h e Papers o f James Evans, M i s s i o n a r y to the I n d i a n s . " E d i t e d by Fred Landon. pp. 474-97. "The P r o u d f o o t P a p e r s , 1833." E d i t e d by Rev. M.A. G a r l a n d , pp. 498-572. 19 31. "Rev.  Volume 27. W i l l i a m Jenkins o f Richmond H i l l . " E d i t e d by A . J . C l a r k . pp. 15-76. "The R e g i s t e r o f S a i n t P a u l ' s Church a t F o r t E r i e , 18361844." E d i t e d by E.A. C r u i k s h a n k . pp. 77-192D. "The Proudfoot Papers." E d i t e d by Rev. M.A. Garland. pp. 435-96. "Surveyor Charles Rankin's E x p l o r a t i o n f o r the P i o n e e r Road, G a r a f r a x a t o Owen Sound, 18 3 7." E d i t e d by E.W. Banting and A.F. Hunter. pp. 497-510. 1932. Volume 28. " E a r l i e s t M i s s i o n a r y L e t t e r s of Rev. John Douse, w r i t t e n from the S a l t Springs M i s s i o n on the Grand R i v e r i n 1834 and 1836." E d i t e d by A . J . C l a r k . pp. 41-46. " L e t t e r s o f Rev. James Evans, M e t h o d i s t M i s s i o n a r y , w r i t t e n d u r i n g h i s voyage t o and r e s i d e n c e i n the Lake S u p e r i o r R e g i o n , 1838-39." E d i t e d by Fred Landon.. pp. 47-70. "The P r o u d f o o t P a p e r s , 1834-35." E d i t e d by Rev. M.A. Garland. pp. 71-113. "Last O f f i c i a l Report on the French Posts i n the N o r t h e r n Part of North America." E d i t e d by W i l l i a m Renwick R i d d e l l . pp. 132-39. 193 3. Volume 29. "More Langhorn L e t t e r s . " E d i t e d by A.H. Young. pp. 47-71. "The E a r l y L i f e and L e t t e r s of the Honourable P e t e r Russell." E d i t e d by E.A. C r u i k s h a n k . pp. 121-40. "The P r o u d f o o t P a p e r s . " E d i t e d by Rev. M.A. Garland. pp. 141- 59. 1934. Volume 30. "The P r o u d f o o t Papers." E d i t e d by Rev. M.A. Garland. pp. 124- 42. " J o u r n a l o f t h e Honourable W i l l i a m M o r r i s ' s M i s s i o n t o England i n t h e Year 1837." E d i t e d by E.C. Kyte. pp. 212-62. 19 3 6..  Volume 31.  0  193 7. Volume 32. "The P r o u d f o o t Papers." 9 2-103.  E d i t e d by Rev.  M.A.  Garland.  pp.  1939. Volume 33. "Schenectady t o M i c h i l i m a c k i n a c , 1765-1766, J o u r n a l o f John Porteus." E d i t e d by Fred Coyne H a m i l . pp. 75-98.  169  1942. . Volume 34.'  0  194 3 . Volume 3 5 ." . " A Recovered L e t t e r , W.W. B a l d w i n t o C.B. Wyatt, 6 t h A p r i l , 1813." E d i t e d by J . McE. Murray. pp. 49-55. 1944.  Volume 36.  0  1945.  Volume 37.  0  1946. Volume 38. " D i a r y o f E l i s h a H a r r i s Brown, o f N i s s o u r i , January 29, 1860 - March 26, 1860." E d i t e d by Helen H.B. Duncan. pp. 57-72. " P a r i s h R e g i s t e r o f B r o c k v i l l e and V i c i n i t y , 1814-1830." E d i t e d by H.R. Morgan. pp. 77-108. 1947. 1948.  Volume History.)  39.  0  (NOTE:  Title  Changes  to  Ontario  Volume 40.  "The Johnson L e t t e r s . "  E d i t e d by L o u i s e Wyatt.  pp. 27-52.  194 9. Volume 41. "A L e t t e r from John G a i t . " pp. 15 3-55. "A L e t t e r from Ogdensburg i n 1814." E d i t e d by F r e d e r i c k C. C u r r y , pp.- 207-11 . "An Old A p p r e n t i c e s h i p I n d e n t u r e . " pp. 217-18. 1950. Volume 42. "Phoebe R o b e r t s ' D i a r y o f a Quaker M i s s i o n a r y Journey t o Upper Canada." E d i t e d by L e s l i e Gray. pp. 7-46. "The D i a r y o f P e t e r Brown." E d i t e d by J.M.S. C a r e l e s s . pp. 57-66. " P o r t r a i t s o f Canadian P a r l i a m e n t o f 1850." E d i t e d by N e i l F. Morrison. pp. 153-58. "A L e t t e r o f 1837." pp. 159-62. "John Strachan's Journey from M o n t r e a l t o K i n g s t o n i n December 1799." E d i t e d by T.A. Reed. pp. 213-17. 19 51. "The  Volume 43. D i a r y o f W i l l i a m Graves. The Record o f a V i s i t t o Canada i n 1820." E d i t e d by Donald F. McOuat. pp. 128 . "A L e t t e r from John T a l b o t , 183 8." E d i t e d by Fred Landon. pp. 43-46. "Another L e t t e r from John T a l b o t , 183 8." E d i t e d by Fred Coyne H a m i l . p. 81-82. "An American Consul's A d v i c e , 18 7 0." E d i t e d by Frank U n d e r h i l l . pp. 151-54. 1952. Volume 44. "Thames — I t s Banks." E d i t e d by R.M. Lewis. pp. 15-22. "George Ryerson t o S i r P e r e g r i n e M a i t l a n d , 9 June 1826." E d i t e d by C.B. S i s s o n s . pp. 23-29. 170  " L e t t e r s from John T a l b o t . " 139-64.  E d i t e d by L e s l i e R.  Gray.  pp.  1953. Volume 45. "The Diary o f Augusta S i l v e r t h o r n . " E d i t e d by Alice Wetherell. pp. 75-81. "A T r i p t o Upper Canada, August 183 5, from t h e d i a r y o f John Armour J r . " E d i t d by T.R. Woodhouse. p. 12 9-43. "Thomas Talbot and Lord W h a r n c l i f f e : some new letters h i t h e r t o u n p u b l i s h e d . " E d i t e d by W.H.G. Armytage. pp. 177-97. 19 54. Volume 46. "From Bethlehem t o F a i r f i e l d , 17 98, d i a r y of the John Heckewelder ..and Benjamin M o r t i m e r . " P a r t by L e s l i e R. Gray. pp. 37-61. " L e t t e r s from C h i e f J u s t i c e W i l l i a m Osgoode, a from h i s Canadian Correspondence, 1791-1801." E d i t e d by W i l l i a m C o l g a t e . pp. 77-95. "From Bethlehem t o F a i r f i e l d , 1798, d i r y o f t h e John Heckewelder and Benjamin M o r t i m e r . " E d i t e d by L e s l i e R. Gray. pp. 107-31. " L e t t e r s from C h i e f J u s t i c e W i l l i a m Osgoode. A from h i s Canadian Correspondence, 17 91-1801." E d i t e d by W i l l i a m C o l g a t e . pp. 14 9-6 8.  Brethren I. Edited selection Part I . Brethren Part I I . Selection Part I I .  19 55. Volume 47. "A D i a r y o f 1837, by John S a n d f i e l d Macdonald." E d i t e d by George W. Spragge. pp. 1-11. "The D i a r y o f John White, F i r s t A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l o f Upper Canada, 1791-1800." E d i t e d by W i l l i a m C o l g a t e . pp. 147-70. "Comments on Upper Canada i n 1836, by Thomas C a r r . " Edited by G. M. C r a i g . pp. 171-79. 1956. Volume 48. "Upper Canada a t War, 1814, C a p t a i n Armstrong R e p o r t s . " Edited by C o l . C P . S t a c e y . pp. 37-42 . "The M a n i t o u l i n L e t t e r s o f t h e Rev. C h a r l e s C r o s b i e Brough." E d i t e d by R u n d a l l M. Lewis pp. 63-80. "A V i s i t t o Upper Canada i n 1830, by John R i c h a r d s . " Edited by George W. Spragge. pp. 117-24. 195 7. Volume 49. " L e t t e r s from Thomas T a l b o t t o John B e v e r l e y Robinson." E d i t e d by J.M.S. C a r e l e s s . pp. 25-41. "Two Simcoe L e t t e r s t o S i r James Bland B u r g e s s . " E d i t e d by Sydney Jackman. pp. 42-45. "From F a i r f i e l d t o Schonbrun -- 17 98. D i a r y o f B r . and S r . Z e i s b e r g e r and Br. Benj. M o r t i m e r . " E d i t e d by L e s l i e R. Gray. pp. 63-96. "A Wedding T r i p o f 1854." E d i t e d by N e i l F. M o r r i s o n . pp. 195-97. "An E a r l y Town M e e t i n g . " E d i t e d by John S. M o i r . p. 198. "The D i a r y o f Mahlon B u r w e l l , January 24 t o August 4, 1827." 171  E d i t e d by R u n d a l l M. Lewis.  pp. 199-219.  195 8. Volume 50. "A S e t t l e r ' s A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l S k e t c h . " E d i t e d by Charles W. Humphries. pp. 91-95. "An Account o f t h e F i r s t M i s s i o n o f t h e A s s o c i a t e Synod t o Canada West by Thomas B e v e r i d g e . " E d i t e d by Andrew W. Taylor. pp. 101-11. "An A r t i s t Inspects Upper Canada, t h e D i a r y of Daniel F o w l e r , 1843." E d i t e d by Thomas R. Lee. pp. 211-2'8.' 195 9. Volume 51. "The D i a r y o f Aaron Wismer (1844-1931), Jordon Ontario." E d i t e d by Ruth M. Home. pp. 39-42. "An E a r l y Record o f Laura Secord's walk." E d i t e d by John S. Moir. pp. 105-108. "A L e t t e r from Government House, Toronto., December 18 3 7." E d i t e d by George W. Spragge. pp. 231-36. "The D i a r y o f Henry R a n s f o r d . " E d i t e d by D.H. Mclnnes. pp. 251-58 . 1960. Volume 52.. "The A r t i s t Turns Farmer, Chapters from t h e A u t o b i o g r a p h y o f D a n i e l F o w l e r . " E d i t e d by Thomas R. Lee. pp. 99-110. "Trafalgar Township i n 1817." E d i t e d by H a z e l C. Mathews, pp. 111-16. "The Steamship T r a v e l l e r and t h e R e b e l l i o n o f 1837." Edited by George W. Spragge. pp. 251-56. 1961. Volume 53. "Rendezvous a t Moose F a c t o r y , Zaslow. pp. 81-94. 196 2. Volume 54. "The C r o n k h i t e P a p e r s . " 90. 196 3.  Volume 55. 0  196 4.  Volume 56. 0  1882."  Edited  by  E d i t e d by Lucy B. Martyn.  Morris  pp. 189-  196 5. Volume 57. "A L e t t e r on t h e Reform P a r t y , 1860: S a n d f i e l d MacDonald and the London Free P r e s s . " E d i t e d by Bruce W. Hodgins and Elwood H. Jones. pp. 39-45. "Three L e t t e r s o f W i l l i a m Osgoode, F i r s t C h i e f J u s t i c e o f Uppr Canada." E d i t e d by A.R.M. Lower. pp. 181-87. 1966. Volume 58. "The Rev. Newton Bosworth: P i o n e e r S e t t l e r on Yonge E d i t e d by F.H. Armstrong. p. 163-71.  Street."  196 7. Volume 59. "Reminiscences o f t h e f i r s t S a r n i a Survey." Edited George Smith and L e s l i e K. Smith. pp. 79-88. 172  by  "The  Cock-Pit: 186 9. Tournament a t B r o c k t o n . GrandG a t h e r i n g o f Rowdies. An Alderman Among them. Brutal Scenes." E d i t e d by P e t e r B. Waite. pp. 89-92. "Edward B l a k e : A P o r t r a i t o f h i s C h i l d h o o d by C a t h e r i n e Hume B l a k e . " E d i t e d by Margaret A. Banks. pp. 92-96. 196 8. Volume 60. " S i r James Gowan, S i r John A. Macdonald, and t h e R e b e l l i o n o f 1837." E d i t e d by J.K, Johnson. pp. 61-64. 1969. Volume 61. "The A b o r t i v e Fenian U p r i s i n g i n Canada West, a Documentary Study." E d i t e d by W.S. N e i d h a r d t . pp. 74-76. 1970.  Volume. 62.  0  19 71.. Volume 63. "The Macdonald-Gowan Letters, 1847." E d i t e d by F.H. Armstrong. pp. 1-14. " W i l l i a m O'Brien's, Canadian Correspondence." E d i t e d by D a n i e l C. Lyne. pp. 131-38. 197 2. Volume 64. "Glimpses a t a H a m i l t o n F a m i l y . " pp. 105-15. 1973-1981.  Volumes 65 - 73.  0  173  E d i t e d by J e f f r e y W o l l o c k .  BRITISH COLUMBIA P r o v i n c i a l Archives  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  1918 . House of Assembly Correspondence Book, August 12th, 1856 t o J u l y 6 t h , 185 9 [Vancouver I s l a n d House o f A s s e m b l y ] . 1918. Minutes o f t h e C o u n c i l of Vancouver Island: August 3 0 t h , 1851. and T e r m i n a t i n g w i t h the of the House of Assembly, February 6 t h , 18 61.  Commencing Prorogation  1918.. Minutes of t h e House o f Assembly o f Vancouver August 1 2 t h , 1856 t o September 2 5 t h , 1858. 1923 . Menzie's J o u r n a l o f Vancouver's Voyage, 17 9 2 E d i t e d by C F . Newcombe, M.D.  A p r i l to  Island,  October,  1931. The O v e r l a n d e r s of '62. E d i t e d by M.S.  Wade.  1945. The J o u r n a l of John Work, January t o O c t o b e r , 1835 E d i t e d by H.D. Dee. 1974. Lady F r a n k l i n V i s i t s t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , Being Extracts from the L e t t e r s o f M i s s Sophia C r a c r o f t , S i r John F r a n k l i n ' s N i e c e February t o A p r i l 1861 and A p r i l t o J u l y , 18 7 0. E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Dorothy Blakey Smith. 1980 . Journals o f the C o l o n i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s o f the Colonies o f Vancouver I s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1851-1871 e d i t e d by James E. H e n d r i c k s o n .  174  B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l (Published cooperation  Quarterly  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n w i t h t h e B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . )  1937. V o l . 1. "Peter Skene Ogden's Notes on Western C a l e d o n i a , " e d i t e d by W.N. Sage, pp. 45-56. "Three Simpson L e t t e r s : 1815-1820," e d i t e d by M u r i e l R. Cree, pp. 115-21. " F o r t Langley Correspondence: 1831-1858," pp. 187-94. "Simpson t o T o l m i e , January 28 , 185 6: A L e t t e r from C C . G a r d i n e r , " e d i t e d by Robie L. R e i d , pp. 243-5 3. 1938.  V o l . 2. 0  1939. V o l . 3. "An E a r l y C o l o n i z a t i o n Scheme i n B r i t i s h Columbia," e d i t e d by F.W. Howay, pp. 51-6 3. "The D i s c o v e r y o f H i l l ' s . Bar i n 1858: An O r i g i n a l N a r r a t i v e by James Moore," pp. 215-20. 1940. V o l . 4. "The Census o f Vancouver I s l a n d , 1855," pp. 51-58. "Helmcken's D i a r y of Confederation Negotiations, 1870," e d i t e d by W i l l a r d E. I r e l a n d , pp. 111-28. "John Robson v s . J.K. S u t e r : An Exchange o f A r t i c l e s Regarding Robson's E a r l y C a r e e r , O r i g i n a l l y P r i n t e d i n 1882," pp. 203-15. "The A n n e x a t i o n P e t i t i o n o f 186 9," e d i t e d by W i l l a r d E. I r e l a n d , pp. 267-87. 1941. V o l . 5. "Memoirs and Documents R e l a t i n g t o Judge Begbie," e d i t e d by . Kaye Lamb, pp. 12 5-47. "Two N a r r a t i v e s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r Gold Rush," pp. 221-31. "Sailing Directions Governing t h e Voyage o f t h e V e s s e l s ' C a p t a i n Cook' and 'Experiment' t o t h e Northwest Coast i n t h e Fur Trade, A.D. 17 8 6," e d i t e d by F.W. Howay, pp. 285-96. 1942. V o l . 6. "Documents R e l a t i n g t o t h e Mystery o f Mrs. B a r k l e y ' s D i a r y , " pp. 49-59. "Four L e t t e r s from R i c h a r d Cadman Etches t o S i r Joseph Banks, 1788-92," e d i t e d by F.W. Howay, pp. 125-39. "Four L e t t e r s R e l a t i n g t o t h e C r u i s e o f 'the ' T h e t i s ' 185253," e d i t e d by W. Kaye Lamb, pp. 189-206. "Correspondence R e l a t i n g t o t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a N a v a l Base a t E s q u i m a l t , 1851-57," pp. 277-96. 1943. V o l . 7. "The D i a r y o f Robert M e l r o s e , " pp. 119-34, 199-218, 182-95. 175  W.  " F i v e L e t t e r s o f C h a r l e s Ross, 1842-44,"  pp. 103-18.  1944. V o l . 8. " W i l l i a m S t u r g i s : The Northwest Fur Trade," e d i t e d by F.W. Howay,.pp. 11-2 5. "The J o u r n a l o f John Work, 1835," e d i t e d by Henry Drummond Dee, pp. 127-46, 227-44, 307-18. 1945. V o l . 9... "Walter Moberley's Report on t h e Roads of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1863," e d i t e d by W.N. Sage, pp. 37-48. "The J o u r n a l o f John Work," e d i t e d by Henry Drummond Dee, pp. 49-69, 129-46. 1946. V o l . 10. " M c L o u g h l i n s Statement o f the Expenses I n c u r r e d i n the 'Dryad' I n c i d e n t o f 1834," e d i t e d by W. Kaye Lamb, pp. 291-97. 1  1947.  V o l . 11.  0  1948. V o l . 12. • "Gold Rush Days i n V i c t o r i a , E. I r e l a n d , pp. 231-46.  1858-1859,"  e d i t e d .by W i l l a r d  1949. V o l . 13. . "An O f f i c i a l Speaks Out: L e t t e r o f the Hon. P h i l i p J . Hankin t o t h e Duke, o f Buckingham, March 11, 1870," e d i t e d by W i l l a r d E. I r e l a n d , pp. 33-38. "The D i a r y o f Martha Cheney E l l a , 1853-1856," edited by James K. N e s b i t , pp. 91-112, 257-70. 1950. V o l . 14. "Coal Seekers on Peace R i v e r , 1903. D i a r y o f My Journey and Stay i n the Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t i n the Year 1903, by John S t r i c k l a n d L e i t c h , " e d i t e d by W.N Sage, pp. 83-108. " L e t t e r s o f C a p t a i n George Dixon i n the Banks C o l l e c t i o n , " e d i t e d by R i c h a r d H. D i l l o n , pp. 167-71. 1951. V o l . 15. " F i r s t I m p r e s s i o n s : L e t t e r o f C o l o n e l R i c h a r d Clement Moody, R.E. to A r t h u r Blackwood, February 1, 18 5 9," e d i t e d by W i l l a r d E. I r e l a n d , pp. 85-107. 1952. V o l . 16. "Record o f a T r i p t o Dawson, 1898: The D i a r y o f John Smith," e d i t e d by W.N. Sage, pp. 67-97. "An A l e x a n d e r MacKenzie L e t t e r , . 17 93," e d i t e d by R i c h a r d H. D i l l o n , pp. 20 9-10. 1953.  V o l . 17.  0  1954.  V o l . 18.  0  176  1955. V o l . 19. "Harry Guillod's Journal of a Trip to Cariboo, e d i t e d by Dorothy Blakey Smith, pp. 187-232. 19 56.  V o l . 20.  186 2,"  0  1957-58. 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The Papers o f t h e P a l l i s e r E x p e d i t i o n , 1857-1860. w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Irene M. Spry.  with  an  Edited  1969. The J o u r n a l o f G a b r i e l F r a n c h e r e , 1811-1814.. An E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by Wessie T. Lamb, w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l French t e x t . E d i t e d w i t h an i n r o d u c t i o n and notes by W. Kaye Lamb.  180  1970 . The J o u r n a l of Major John N o r t o n , 1816. Edited with i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by C a r l F. K l i n c k and James Talman.  an J.  1972. Telegrams of the North-West Campaign, 18 8 5. E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Desmon Mortona and R e g i n a l d H. Roy. 1974-75. Customs of the American I n d i a n s Compared w i t h t h e Customs of P r i m i t i v e Times by F a t h e r Jospeh F r a n c o i s L a f i t a u . Volume II. E d i t e d and t r a n s l a t e d by W i l l i a m N. Fenton and E l i z a b e t h L. Moore. 1978 . The D i a r y o f Simeon P e r k i n s , 1804-1812. Edited i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by C h a r l e s Bruce Fergusson.  with  an  1981. L o r d M i n t o ' s Canadian Papers. E d i t e d w i t h an i n r o d u c t i o n by P a u l Stevens and John T. S a y w e l l .  Unnumbered S e r i e s 1922-36. The Works o f Samuel D. Champlain. E d i t e d by H.P.  181  Biggar.  Ontario 1957. The V a l l e y o f t h e T r e n t .  Series  E d i t e d by E.C. G u i l l e t . (1)  1958 . Royal Fort Frontenac. T r a n s l a t i o n s by Leopold Lamontagne, e d i t e d w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by R.A. P r e s t o n . (2) 1959 . Kingston before t h e War o f 1812. i n t r o d u c t i o n by R.A. P r e s t o n . (3)  Edited  with  an  1960. The Windsor Border Region. Canada's Southernmost F r o n t i e r . E d i t e d by E . J . L a j e u n e s s e . (4~5 1962 . The Town o f Y o r k , 1793-1815. E d i t h G. F i r t h . ( 5 l  E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by  196 3 . Muskoka and H a l i b u r t o n , 1615-1875. i n t r o d u c t i o n by F l o r e n c e .B. Murray. (6) 1964 . The V a l l e y o f t h e S i x N a t i o n s . by Charles M. Johnston"! (7) 1966. The Town o f Y o r k , 1815-1834. E d i t h G. F i r t h . (8)  Edited  with  an  E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n  E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by  1973. Thunder Bay District, 1821-1892. i n t r o d u c t i o n by E l i z a b e t h A r t h u r . (9)  Edited  1977 . O n t a r i o and t h e F i r s t World War, 1914-1918. i n t r o d u c t i o n by Barbara M. W i l s o n . (10) 1980 . John P r i n c e : A C o l l e c t i o n o f Documents. i n t r o d u c t i o n by R. A l a n Douglas. (11)  182  with  an  E d i t e d w i t h an  Edited with  an  HUDSON'S BAY RECORD SOCIETY Hudson's Bay Company S e r i e s P u b l i c a t i o n s (The f i r s t 12 volumes o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company Series were p u b l i c a t i o n s sponsored by t h e Champlain S o c i e t y ; i n 1950 t h e Hudson's Bay Record S o c i e t y took over the organization and p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company Series records.) 1938 . Simpson's A t h a b a s c a J o u r n a l . E d i t e d by E.E. i n t r o d u c t i o n by C h e s t e r M a r t i n . (1) 1939 . Robertson's L e t t e r s , 1817-1822. and notes by E.E. RicTu (2)  R i c h , w i t h an  E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n  1940. Minutes o f C o u n c i l , N o r t h e r n Pepartment o f R u p e r t ' s Land, 1821-31. E d i t d by R. Harvey F l e m i n g , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by H.A. I n n i s . (3) 1941. McLoughlin's F o r t Vancouver L e t t e r s , 1825-28. E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W. Kaye Lamb.  Edited (4)  by  1942. Minutes o f Hudson's Bay Company, 1671-1674. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by S i r John Clapham. (5) 1943. M c L o u g h l i n ' s F o r t Vancouver L e t t e r s , Second S e r i e s , 1839-44. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W. Kaye Lamb. (6) 1944. M c L o u g h l i n ' s F o r t Vancouver L e t t e r s , T h i r d S e r i e s , 1844-46. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u t i o n by W. Kaye Lamb. (7) 1945 . Minutes o f Hudson's Bay Company, 1679-1684 , F i r s t Part, 1679-82. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by G.N. C l a r k . (8) 1946 . Minutes o f Hudson's Bay Company, 1679-1684 , Second P a r t , 1682-84. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by G.N. C l a r k . (9)  183  1947. P a r t o f Despatch from George Simpson E s q r Governor o f R u p e r t s Land. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W. Stewart W a l l a c e . (10) 1948. Copybook o f L e t t e r s Outward, &c., 1680-87. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by E.G.R. T a y l o r . (11) 1949 . James I sham's O b s e r v a t i o n s on Hudsons Bay, i n t r o d u c t i o n by E.E. R i c h . (12) (Vol.  1743.  W i t h an  12 i s t h e f i n a l Champlain S o c i e t y sponsored volume.)  1950. Ogden'. s Snake Country J o u r n a l s , 1824-26 . E d i t e d by R i c h w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Burt Brown B a r k e r . (13)  E.E.  1951. Cumberland House J o u r n a l s and I n l a n d J o u r n a l , 17.7 5—8 2 , F i r s t S e r i e s , 175-79. E d i t e d by E. E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by R i c h a r d G l o v e r . (14) 1952. Cumberland House J o u r n a l s and I n l a n d J o u r n a l s , 1.7 7 5- 8 2 , Second S e r i e s , 1779-82. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by R i c h a r d G l o v e r . (15) 1953. John Roe's Correspondence w i t h t h e Hudson's Bay Company on A r c t i c E x p l o r a t i o n , 1844-1855. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by J . M~ Wordie and R. J . C y r i a x . (16) 1954. Moose F o r t J o u r n a l s , 1783-85. E d i t e d by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by G. P. de T. G l a z e b r o o k . (17) 1955. B l a c k ' s Rocky Mountain J o u r n a l . E d i t e d by E.E. an i n t r o d u c t i o n by R.M. P a t t e r s o n . (18)  Rich,  with  1956. London Correspondence Inward from Eden C o l v i l e , 1849-1852. Edited by E.E. R i c h , w i t h an i n t r o d u t i o n by W.L. Morton. (19) 1957 . Hudson's Bay Copy Booke o f L e t t e r s Commissions I n s t r u c t i o n s Outward, 1688-1696. Edited by E.E. Rich, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by K.G. Davie. (20) 1958-59.  The H i s t o r y o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company, 1670-1870. volume 1, 1670-1763, volume 2, 1763-1870. by E.E. R i c h . (21,22)) 184  1961. P e t e r Skene Ogden's Snake Country J o u r n a l , 1826-27. Edited by K.G. D a v i e s , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Dorothy 0. Johansen. (23) 1963. N o r t h e r n Quebec and Labrador J o u r n a l s and Correspondence, 1819-35. Edited by K.G. D a v i e s , w i t h an i n t r o d u t i o n by Glyndwr W i l l i a m s . (24) 1965. L e t t e r s from Hudson Bay, 1703-40. E d i t e d by K.G. w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by R i c h a r d G l o v e r . (25)  Davies,  1967. Saskatchewan J o u r n a l s and Correspondence, Edmonton House 1795-1800 , C h e s t e r f i e l d House, 1800-1802. E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c i o n by A l i c e M. Johnson. (26 ) 1971. Peter Skene Ogden's Snake Country J o u r n a l s , 1827- 28 and 1828-29. E d i t e d by Glyndwr W i l l i a m s , w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by David E. M i l l e r . (28) 1973. London Correspondence Inward from S i r George Simpson, 18 4142. E d i t e d by Glyndwr W i l l i a m s w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by John S. G a l b r a i t h . (29) 1975 . Hudson's Bay M i s c e l l a n y , 1670-1870. i n t r o d u c t i o n by Glyndwr W i l l i a m s . (30)  185  Edited  with  an  MANITOBA Manitoba Record 196 5. Volume 1. Manitoba: The B i r t h o f a P r o v i n c e . 196 6. Volume 2. The Dafoe-Sifton Ramsay Cook.  Society  E d i t e d by W.L.  Correspondence,  1919-1927 . '  196 8. Volume 3. The James Wickes T a y l o r Correspondence, by H a r t w e l l B o w s f i e l d . 1971. Volume 4. The D i a r y o f the Reverend Henry Budd, Katherine P e t t i p a s .  Morton. Edited  18 5 9-187 0.  1870-1875..  by  Edited  Edited  by  197 9. Volume 5. Gateway C i t y : Documents on the C i t y o f W i n n i p e g , 1873-1913. E d i t e d by A l a n F.J. A r t i b i s e . Manitoba H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y ( f o r m e r l y H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y of Manitoba) Transactions 1882-1888.  Numbers 1 t o 32.  188 9. Number 33. " O r i g i n a l L e t t e r s and S e l k i r k Settlement" lOp. 1889- 1890. 1890. "Two  and  Papers  0  Other Documents R e l a t i n g t o the read by George Bryce and C.N. B e l l .  Numbers 34 t o 37.  0  Number 38. P r o v i s i o n a l Governments i n M a n i t o b a , c o n t a i n i n g an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the R i e l R e b e l l i o n , w i t h an appendix embodying the f o u r b i l l s of r i g h t s verbatim." by George Bryce. . l i p .  1890- 1901.  Numbers 39 t o 62.  190 3. Number 63. " L e t t e r s of a P i o n e e r , Bryce. 15p. 1904-1906.  0  A l e x a n d e r Ross."  Numbers 64 t o 72.  0  186  E d i t e d by  George  1926-1930.  New s e r i e s , Numbers 1 t o 5.  0  1944-1946.  New s e r i e s , Numbers 1 t o 2.  0  1947. Number 3. "An E a r l y Manitoba D i a r y by. Percy Eaton -- E x t r a c t s from J.W. Harris's private account of events and p e r s o n a l i t i e s , m a i n l y i n Winnipeg from 1869 t o 1922." pp.25-37. 194 8..  Number 4.  0  194 9. Number 5. " P r i v a t e L e t t e r s from t h e Fur Trade: A S e l e c t i o n from the correspondence of. W i l l i a m McMurray, C F , , between 1845 and 1871." E d i t e d by C l i f f o r d P. W i l s o n . pp. 19-46. 1950-1979.  Numbers 6 t o 35.  0  Manitoba H i s t o r y ( p u b l i s h e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y and the H i s t o r i c a l S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1946.)  and  194 6. Volume 1, number 1. " E x t r a c t s from t h e N a r r a t i v e o f John P r i t c h a r d c o n c e r n i n g the Massacre a t Seven Oaks, June 19, 1816." pp. 2-3. "Red R i v e r Famine." pp. 4-5. "Peter F i d l e r ' s Notebook, 1794-1813." pp. 5-6. "The ' D e c l a r a t i o n o f R i g h t s ' o f the Manitoba and North West Farmers Union." pp. 6-8. 1946. Volume 1, number 2. "The La Verendrye T r a i l . " p. 1 "The Law i n T r a n s i t i o n . " pp. 1-3.. "The Formation o f Manitoba." pp. 3-6. " E l l e n Lowe's D i a r y . " pp. 6-7. "Manifesto 1946.  o f t h e Knights  o f Labour."  Volume 1, number 3.  pp. 7-9.  0  Manitoba H i s t o r y 19 80.  Number 1.  "A L e t t e r from E l k h o r n , 1884." 19 81.  Number 2.  "Odyssey o f Mary C h r i s t i e . " 1982.  pp. 33-34.  E d i t e d by W. F r a s e r .  Number 3.  " A r m i s t i c e Day i n Winnipeg, 1918." 198 2.  Number 4.  0  187  pp. 29-30.  p. 29.  SASKATCHEWAN 1946-47. Annual Report No. 2. "Selected Records o f t h e Department o f t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l of t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , " pp. 31-7 8. Saskatchewan  History  1948. Volume 1. "The Search f o r Water on t h e Canadian P l a i n s . " E d i t e d by Lewis H. Thomas. #1, pp. 5-8. "The Annual Reports o f t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f t h e N o r t h west T e r r i t o r i e s . " E d i t e d by Lewis H. Thomas. #2, pp. 10-15. "The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s P r o c l a m a t i o n s and Minutes." E d i t e d by Lewis H. Thomas. #3, pp. 9-13. 1949. Volume 2.. "The Territorial Public Service." E d i t e d by Lewis H. Thomas. #1, pp. 14-18. " E a r l y T e r r i t o r i a l H o s p i t a l s . " E d i t e d by Lewis H. Thomas. #2, pp. 16-20. "The Reports o f t h e Board o f E d u c a t i o n . " E d i t e d by Lewis H. Thomas. #3, pp. 15-19. 19 50. Volume 3. " L l o y d George's V i s i t t o t h e North-West, Lewis H. Thomas, pp. 17-22. 1951. Volume 4. "The J o u r n a l o f Edward K. Buck. pp. 107-14.  Matheson."  1899."  Edited  E d i t e d by  195 2. Volume 5. "Governor L a i r d ' s T h a n k s g i v i n g Day A d d r e s s , by Lewis H. Thomas. pp. 107-12.  1879."  Ruth  by  M.  Edited  1953. Volume 6. "The D i a r y o f Robert M a r t i n , P a r t I . " pp. 5 3-65. "The D i a r y o f Robert M a r t i n , P a r t I I . " pp. 10 2-14. 1954. Volume 7. "The A g r a r i a n Movement i n t h e 1890's, Report o f Address by J.M. Douglas a t S a l t c o a t s i n The P a t r o n ' s A d v o c a t e , F e b r u a r y 13, 1895." pp. 51-55. " P r i c e s and Wages i n 1890; from Report o f J . T. Stemshorn, Dominion Government I m m i g r a t i o n Agent, Regina, i n Annual Report o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n 1890." pp. 102-3.  188  1955. Volume 8. "The D i a r y o f L i e u t e n a n t  J.A.V. P r e s t o n , 1885."  pp. 95-107.  195 6. Volume 9. "Bruno D o e r f l e r , 0. S.B. F a t h e r Bruno's N a r r a t i v e , the Boundary , t P a r t I.." pp. 2 6-31. "Bruno D o e r f l e r , 0.S.B. F a t h e r Bruno's N a r a t i v e , the Boundary,' P a r t I I pp, 70-74  'Across 'Across  1957. Volume 10. "Bruno D o e r f l e r , O.S,B. F a t h e r Bruno's N a r r a t i v e , 'Across the Boundary,' P a r t I I I . " pp. 11-26. F a t h e r Bruno's N a r r a t i v e , 'Across "Bruno D o e r f l e r , 0.S.B. the Boundary, P a r t IV PP 55-63. "The D i a r y o f A r t h u r Rowe M i l l e r Tt pp.. 63-70 . "The Edwin Brooks L e t t e r s , P a r t I, pp 104-14, 19 58. Volume 11. "The Edwin Brooks L e t t e r s , P a r t I I . " pp, 30-37. "The Edwin Brooks L e t t e r s , P a r t I I I . " pp. 67-75. 1959..  Volume 12. 0  I960 .. ...Volume 13. "Minutes o f t h e North-West C o u n c i l , 1873-74." pp. 25-30. "The Saskatchewan G r a i n Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n : Hillview Branch M i n u t e s , 1910-12." pp. 63-72. 1961. Volume 14. "Homestead V e n t u r e , 1883-1892, An A y r s h i r e Man's L e t t e r s Home ( W i l l i a m G i b s o n ) . " pp. 98-109. "The Saskatchewan G r a i n Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n : White Bear Branch M i n u t e s , 1915." pp. 71-75. 196 2. Volume 15. "North-West R e b e l l i o n , . 1885. R e c o l l e c t i o n s , R e f l e c t i o n s and Items from t h e D i a r y o f C a p t a i n A. Hamlyn Todd who Commanded t h e Guards Company o f S h a r p s h o o t e r s i n t h a t E x p e d i t i o n . " E d i t e d by John A r c h e r . pp. 1-18. "Homestead V e n t u r e , 1883-1892; An A y r s h i r e Man's L e t t e r s Home ( W i l l i a m G i b s o n ) , P a r t I I . " pp. 30-36. 1963. Volume 16. "The J o u r n a l o f Reverend J.A. Mackay, S t a n l e y M i s s i o n , 187072." pp. 95-113. 1964. Volume 17. "The G r e n f e l l Mechanics and L i t e r a r y I n s t i t u t e , Minute Book, 1892-95." pp. 105-10. 1965. Volume 18. "Little P i n e , An I n d i a n Day S c h o o l . " Buck. pp. 55-62.  189  E d i t e d by  Ruth  M.  196 6.  Volume 19.  "Wascana Creek and the ' P i l e 0' Bones.'" pp. 111-18. 196 7.  Volume 20.  "Railway Branch L i n e s . "  pp, 64-70.  1968. . Volume 21. "The J o u r n a l o f George M. Dawson." E d i t e d by A.R. Turner, pp. 1-23. "Louis R i e l ' s L e t t e r t o P r e s i d e n t G r a n t . " E d i t e d by H. Bowsfield. pp. 67-75. "A Glimpse o f 1885." E d i t e d by C.B, Fergusson. pp. 24-29. "The Rowbottom D i a r i e s . " E d i t e d by S.W. Jackman. pp. 5666. "The D i a r y o f R i f l e m a n F o r i n . " E d i t e d by R.H. Roy. pp. 100-11. 196 9. Volume 22. "The J o u r n a l o f E l e a n o r Shepphird Matheson, P a r t . I . " E d i t e d by Ruth M. Buck. pp. 6 6-72. "The J o u r n a l o f E l e a n o r Shepphird Matheson, P a r t I I . " E d i t e d by Ruth M. Buck. pp. 10 9-17. " E x p e r i e n c e s of. a D e p r e s s i o n Hobo." pp. 60-65. 1970. Volume 23. "Louis R i e l ' s P e t i t i o n o f R i g h t s , 1884." E d i t e d by Lewis H. Thomas. pp. 16-26. 1971.  Volume 2 4.  0  197 2. Volume 25. "Reminiscences o f the Hon. Turner. pp. 55-75. 197 3.  Volume 26.  J.A.  Calder."  E d i t e d by  A.R.  0  1974. Volume 27. "Louis R i e l ' s R e l i g i o u s B e l i e f s : A L e t t e r t o Bishop Tache." E d i t e d by Thomas E. Flanagan. pp. 15-28. 1975.  Volume 28.  0  197 6. Volume 29. "A B i r d Watcher's Outing i n 18 5 8." E d i t e d by Stuart Houston. pp. 14-25. "D. E s s a r : A L e t t e r from an E a r l y Saskatchewan S e t t l e r . " pp.65-72. 1977.  Volume 30.  0  190  ALBERTA P r o v i n c i a l Archives of A l b e r t a 1978 . L e t t e r s o f L o v i s a M c D o u g a l l , 1878-1887. M. McCrum.  E d i t e d by E l i z a b e t h  H i s t o r i c a l Society of A l b e r t a 1957 . The E a r l y West.  E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey.  1977. The Rundle J o u r n a l s , 1840-1848. E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey, w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by G e r a l d M. H u t c h i n s o n . 1978 . A l b e r t a ' s Coal Industry, 1919. E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by David Jay Bercuson. 1979 . Job Reed's L e t t e r s :  L i f e i n Lethbridge,  1886-1906.  1979 . The F o r m a t i o n o f A l b e r t a : A Documentary H i s t o r y . E d i t e d by Douglas R. Owram w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by L.G. Thomas and L.H. Thomas. 1981. P i o n e e r i n g i n A l b e r t a : M a u r i c e Destrube's S t o r y . E d i t e d by James E. H e n d r i c k s o n w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by L.G. Thomas. Alberta Historical.Review 195 3.  Volume 1.  0  1954. Volume 2. "My T r i p t o the Canadian West i n 18 8 2 by C h a r l e s Harris." #1, pp. 23-28. "Eben McAdam's D i a r y , P a r t I . " #2, pp. 3-10. "Eben McAdam's D i a r y , P a r t I I . " #3, pp. 3 4-41. "Eben McAdam's D i a r y , P a r t I I I . " #4, pp. 40-48. 1955.  Edward  Volume 3. 0  19 56. Volume 4. "Donald Graham's N a r r a t i v e o f 1872-73." E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 10-19. " L e t t e r s from 'Old G l a d . ' " #1, pp. 30-31. "The Athabasca Brigade by Donald Ross, C h i e f T r a d e r . " #2, pp. 10-16. 191  "A L e t t e r from F o r t . Whoop-up." #4, pp. 27-28. 1957.  Volume 5.  E d i t e d by Hugh A.  Dempsey.  0  195 8. Volume 6. " P r i n c e George t o F o r t Edmonton i n 1875, by Edwad W i l l i a m J a r v i s . " E d i t e d by James G. MacGregor. #1, pp. 1-9. 1959. Volume 7. "A Poem by L o u i s R i e l . " #1, pp. 8-9. "An U n w i l l i n g D i a r y . " E d i t e d by Hugh A. 7-10. 1960.  Dempsey.  #3, pp.  Volume 8. 0  1961. Volume 9. " E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e North-West by H e n r i J u l i e n . " #1, pp. 826. "Robertson-Ross' D i a r y , F o r t Edmonton t o W i l d h o r s e , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1872." E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #3, pp. 5-22. 1962. Volume 10. "Final T r e a t y o f Peace." pp. 8-16.  E d i t e d by Hugh A.  ' ' Dempsey.  #1,  1963. Volume 11. "A L e t t e r from F o r t Edmonton by John Rowand." E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 1-6. " L e t t e r s from a Barr C o l o n i s t by A l i c e R e n d e l l . " #1, pp. 12-27. "Smallpox Epidemic o f 1869-70."  #2, pp. 13-19.  196 4. Volume 12. "Lord Lorne i n A l b e r t a , by Rev. James MacGregor." E d i t e d by Hugh A/ Dempsey. #1, pp. 1-14. "A R i e l R e b e l l i o n D i a r y . " E d i t e d by I r i s A l l a n . #3, pp. 15-25 . 196 5. Volume 13. "Thompson's . Journey t o t h e Red Deer R i v e r . " E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 1-8. "Thompson's Journey t o t h e Red Deer R i v e r , P a r t I I . " E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #2, pp. 7-15. " M i s s i o n t o Lac l a Nonne by Oswin C r e i g h t o n . " #3, pp. 1-6. " L e t t e r s from a S k i n n e r by 'A B r i t i s h E x - O f f i c e r . ' " #4, pp. 9-20. 1966. Volume 14. "David Thompson on t h e Peace R i v e r . " E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 1-10. "David Thompson on t h e Peace R i v e r , P a r t I I . " E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #2, pp. 14-21. "The O v e r l a n d e r s i n . A l b e r t a , 1862 by Thomas M c M i c k i n g . " 192  E d i t e d by, Hugh A. Dempsey. #3, pp. 1-11. V i s i t t o t h e B l a c k f o o t Camp by James Doty." Edited Hugh A. Dempsey. #3, pp. 17-26. "David Thompson on t h e Peace R i v e r , P a r t I I I . " E d i t e d Hugh A. Dempsey. #4, pp. 14-19. "A  1967. Volume 15. "The L a s t L e t t e r s o f Rev. George McDougall." A. Dempsey. #2, pp. 20-30. " L e t t e r s from the West." #3, pp. 8-16. 19 6-8.  Volume 16.  0  19 6 9..  Volume 17.  0  by by  E d i t e d by Hugh  197 0. Volume 18. "Winter T r i p on t h e CPR by M i c h a e l P h i l l i p p s . " E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by Lewis H. Thomas. #.2, pp. 1-11. 1971. Volume 19. "Alexander C u l b e r t s o n ' s Journey t o Bow R i v e r . " Hugh A. Dempsey. #4, pp. 8-20. 1972.  Volume 20.  Edited  by  0  197 3. Volume 21. "A L e t t e r from Bishop G r a n d i n . " E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #1, pp. 8-11. "The Tea T r a i n . " E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. # 2 , pp. 2627. 1974. Volume 22. " F i e l d Notes o f a Surveyor by W i l l i a m O g i l v i e . " #2, pp. 1827. "A T e r r i b l e T r i p t o Edmonton by W.H. Williams." E d i t e d by Hugh A. Dempsey. #4, pp. 1-13. 19 75. Volume 23. " L e t t e r from a S o l d i e r T o u r i s t . " #3, pp. 24-30. 197 6. Volume 24. "Where t h e Weather Comes From." #3, pp. 28-29. 1977.  E d i t e d by A l l a n C. Dunlop.  E d i t e d by Hugh A.  Dempsey.  Volume 25. .0  19 7 8.' Volume 26. " L e t t e r s from E l l i o t t G a i t , T r a v e l l i n g the P r a i r i e s , 80." E d i t e d by A.A. Den O t t e r . #3, pp. 21-33. "My F r i e n d Bruce, by J.F. D i o n . " #3, pp. 35-38., 19 80.  Volume 2 8.  19 81.  Volume 29.  0  193  1879-  "Down t h e B a t t l e R i v e r by Henry G. T y r r e l l . " 198 2. Volume 30. "A R e b e l l i o n L e t t e r by J . D r o l e t . "  194  #4, pp. 27-30.  #3, pp. 27-28.  NEW BRUNSWICK P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f New Brunswick  1972. The New B r u n s w i c k Census o f . 18 51: Carleton County, B r u n s w i c k , Canada, E d i t e d by Robert F, F e l l o w s .  New  1972 . The New B r u n s w i c k Census o f 1851.  A l b e r t County.  1974-75. The New Brunswick Census o f 1851 , C h a r l o t t e County, New B r u n s w i c k , Canada. E d i t e d by Robert F. F e l l o w s . 2 volumes. New Brunswick H i s t o r i c a l 1901. Winslow P a p e r s , Raymond.  A.D.  1776-1826.  Society  Edited  by  C o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e New Brunswick H i s t o r i c a l  William  0.  Society  18 94. Volume 1. Number 1. " L e t t e r o f I n s t r u c t i o n t o Governor Thomas C a r l e t o n . " pp. 57-58. "Documents R e l a t i n g t o Sunbury County-- David Burpee's D i a r y . " pp. 89-95. " J u s t i c e P e r l e y ' s Court Documents." pp. 96-99. Number 2. "Documents o f t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Church a t M a u g e r v i l l e . " pp. 119-159. " L e t t e r s W r i t t e n a t S t . John by James Simonds." W i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by W.O. Raymond. pp. 160-86. "The J o u r n a l o f C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Owen, R.N., 1770-71." E d i t e d by W.F. Ganong. pp. 153-220. " E x t r a c t s from t h e J o u r n a l o f C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Pote J r . , 1745-47." pp. 262-72. Number 3. " S e l e c t i o n s from t h e Papers and Correspondence o f James White, E s q . " E d i t e d by W.O.. Raymond. pp. 306-40. "Letters and Documents R e l a t i n g t o the History and S e t t l e m e n t o f t h e I s l a n d o f Grand Manan." W i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and notes by Jonas Howe. pp. 341-65. Number 4. "The J o u r n a l  of  Captain  William 195  Owen,  R.N.,  1770-71."  (Second P a r t ) E d i t e d by W.F. Ganong.. pp. 27-30. James White Papers, continued." Edited by W.O. Raymond. pp. 30-7 2. "The P e n n f i e l d Records." E d i t e d by J . Vroom. pp. 7 3-80. "The  Number 5. "Historical-Geographical Documents Relating to Brunswick." E d i t e d by W.F. Ganong. pp. 163-272.  New  Number 6. "Papers r e l a t i n g t o t h e Townships o f t h e R i v e r o f S t . John i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f Nova S c o t i a . " Edited by W.O. Raymond. pp. 287-357. "Historical-Geographical Documents Relating to New Brunswick." E d i t e d by W.F. Ganong. pp. 358-90. "Royal Commission and I n s t r u c t i o n s t o Governor Thomas C a r l e t o n , 1784." pp. 391-438. Number 7 . (1907 ) "Historical-Geographical Documents Relating to Brunswick." E d i t e d by W.F. Ganong. pp. 7-5 4.  New  Number 8. (190 9) "Historical-Geographical Documents Relating to New Brunswick." E d i t e d by W.F. Ganong. pp. 167-203. "Founding o f Shelburne and E a r l y M i r a m i c h i , Marston's Diary." E d i t e d by W.O. Raymond. pp. 204-7 9. Number 9. (1914) "Historical-Geographical Documents Relating to New Brunswick." E d i t e d by W.F. Ganong. pp. 301-43. " S t a t e o f t h e Madawaska and A r o o s t o o k S e t t l e m e n t s i n 1831." E d i t e d by W.O. Raymond. pp. 344-85.. "Report o f Dean and Kavanagh on Madawaska i n 1831." Number 10.  (1919)  0  Number 11.  (1927)  0  Number 12.  (192 8)  0  p. 386.  Number 13. (1930 ) " J o u r n a l o f A b i j a h W i l l a r d o f L a n c a s t e r , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , an Officer in the Expedition which captured Fort Beausejour i n 1755." E d i t e d by J . C l a r e n c e Webster, pp. 3-7 5. "Historical-Geographical Documents Relating to New Brunswick." E d i t e d by W.F. Ganong. pp. 76-131. Number 14. (19 55) 0 Number 15. (195 9) "The P i c k a r d Papers." E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by G e r a l d K e i t h . pp. 55-78.  196  NEWFOUNDLAND P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f Newfoundland and Labrador 1971. The S e a l f i s h e r y R e p r i n t e d from E v e n i n g H e r a l d • > 1916. 1971. Newfoundland H.M.S.. Foam.  Coastal  Tour  1883.  197  Notes from t h e Log o f  CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW ( A C o n t i n u a t i o n o f The Review o f H i s t o r i c a l R e l a t i n g t o Canada, begun i n 18 9 8.)  Publications  1920. Volume 1. "A B r i t i s h S e c r e t S e r v i c e Report on Canada, 1711." E d i t e d by James F. Kenney. pp. 4-8-5 4-. "An U n p u b l i s h e d S t a t e Paper, 1868." E d i t e d by A.H.U. Colquhoun. pp. 54-60. "The Death o f P o u t r i n c o u r t . " E d i t e d by H.P. Biggar. pp. 195-201. "A S p a n i s h Account o f New F r a n c e , 1608." pp. 283-89. "The Memorial o f J.M. C a w d e l l , 1818." E d i t e d by Adam S h o r t t . pp. 289-301. "The J o u r n a l o f W a l t e r B u t l e r . " E d i t e d by James. F. Kenney. pp. 381-91. 19 21. Volume 2. "Baron de Gaugreben's Memoir on the Defence o f Upper Canada." E d i t e d by H.R. Holmden. pp. 58-68. "The Brandy P a r l i a m e n t o f 16 7 8." E d i t e d by W i l l i a m Bennett Munro. pp. 172-89. "Edward B l a k e ' s A u r o r a Speech." E d i t e d by W.S. Wallace, pp. 249-71. "Eye-Witness Accounts of the British Repulse at Ticonderoga." E d i t e d by C a p t a i n C E . L a r t . pp. 36063 . "The P e t i t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f Quebec t o Queen V i c t o r i a i n 1857." E d i t e d by C o l o n e l W i l l i a m Wood . pp. 363-68. 1922.  Volume 3.  0  19 23. Volume 4. "A New Account o f the Death o f W o l f e . " E d i t e d by A.G. Doughty, pp. 45-5 5. "'Red Gorge' -- One of the M a c d o n e l l s . " Edited by L i e u t . C o l . W.S. B u e l l . pp. 150-59. "The F i r s t Assembly i n Lower Canada." E d i t e d by F.H. Soward. pp. 25 6-6 3. " S i r Guy C a r l e t o n and h i s F i r s t Council." E d i t e d by A . L . B u r t . pp. 321-32. 19 24. Volume 5. "The Union B e l l o f 1822." E d i t e d by K.R.P. M a r t i n . pp. 4254. "The U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto i n 18 5 6." E d i t e d by Jon Langton. pp. 132-45. "Louis R i e l ' s Account o f the Captur o f F o r t G a r r y . " Edited by A.H. de Tremaudan. pp. 146-59. "E.G. W a k e f i e l d on the C o l o n i a l G a r r i s o n s , 1851." E d i t e d by Paul Knaplund. pp. 2 2 8-35. "The A n n e x a t i o n Movement, 1849-50." E d i t e d by A r t h u r G. Penny. pp. 2 36-6 2. "Captain John Montresor i n Canada." E d i t e d by F.M. 198  "The  Montresor. pp. 336-39. L e t t e r s o f John Langton about Canada 1856." pp. 340-52.  Politics,  1855-  1925. Volume.6. 'Subsidized I n t e r m a r r i a g e w i t h t h e I n d i a n s . " E d i t e d by J.B. Brebner. pp. 33-35. 'The L e t t e r s o f John Langton about Canadian P o l i t i c s , 185 51856." pp. 36-63. 'The E x e c u t i o n o f Thomas S c o t t . " E d i t e d by A.H. de Tremaudan. pp. 2 2 2-35. 'Employment and Unemployment i n Canada: I t s Measurement w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o 1919." E d i t e d by K.B. Conn. pp. 2.36-44. 'Henry Cabot Lodge and the A l a s k a Boundary Award." Edited by James White. pp. 33 2-47. 19 26. Volume 7. ' K i r k e ' s Memorial on Newfoundland." E d i t e d by L o u i s Dow S c i s c o . pp. 46-51. ' L e t t e r o f Louis R i e l and Ambrose Lepine t o L i e u t e n a n t Governor M o r r i s , January 3, 18 7 3." E d i t e d • b y A.H. de Tremaudan. pp. 137-60. 'The Last L e t t e r o f C a p t a i n Cook." E d i t e d by John F o r s y t h , pp. 222-25. 'Who was t h e 'Com[man]d[and] de l a Troupe dans chaque coste'? E d i t e d by A.L. B u r t . pp.. 226-29. 'Did L o u i s XIV Suggest t h e S e i z u r e o f New H o l l a n d ? " Edited by Percy J . Robinson. pp. 230-32. 'Ruperts- Land i n 1825." E d i t e d by H.A. I n n i s . pp. 302-20. 1927. Volume 8. 'Calvert's Proceedings a g a i n s t Kirke." Edited by L.D. S c i s c o . pp. 132-36. 'The R e c i p r o c i t y N e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i t e d States i n 1869." E d i t e d by A.H.U. Colquhoun. pp. 233-42. ' P r i c e s and P r i c e Indexes i n Canada, 1913-1925." E d i t e d by V. W. Bladen and A.F.W. Plumptre. pp. 242-45. 'Some Canadian V i l l a g e s i n 1760." E d i t e d by F.M. M o n t r e s o r . pp. 302-307. 'The North West Company." E d i t e d by H.A. I n n i s . pp. 3 0 821. 19 28. Volume 9. ' A P h i l a d e l p h i a Lawyer and E a r l y Lower Canada Law." E d i t e d by W i l l i a m Renwick R i d d e l l . pp. 38-45. 'The O r i g i n o f ' S i r A l e x a n d e r Mackenzie and Company.'" E d i t e d by R. Harvey F l e m i n g . pp. 137-55. 'Testimony Taken i n Newfoundland i n 16 5 2." E d i t e d by L o u i s D. S c i s c o . pp. 239-51. 'David Thompson." E d i t e d by F.D. McLennan. pp. 330-33. 'Peter Pond i n 1780." E d i t e d by H.A. I n n i s . pp. 333-34. 1929.  Volume 10. 0  199  1930 .- Volume 11. "The D i a r y o f an E a r l y E n g l i s h S e t t l e r i n Quebec". Edited by George V.V. N i c h o l l s . pp. 38-48. "Two North West Company Documents." E d i t d by W.N. Sage. pp. 129-31. "The C r i s i s o f 1837 i n a Back Township o f Upper Canada." E d i t e d by C P . Stacey. pp. 187-91. "Some Opinions o f a Tory i n t h e 1830's." E d i t e d by T.W.L. MacDermot. pp.. 23 2-3 7. "The F i r s t P u b l i s h e d L i f e o f James Wolfe." E d i t e d by J.C. Webster. pp. 328-32. 19 31. Volume 12. "The B a t t l e o f Bloody Run." E d i t e d by Nelson Vance R u s s e l l , pp. 184-88. "Canadian P o l i c y Towards t h e A c a d i a n s i n 1751." E d i t e d by J.B. Brebner. pp. 284-86. 193 2. Volume 13. "Edward Gibbon W a k e f i e l d and t h e Beauharnois C a n a l . " Edited by A.R.M. Lower. pp. 37-44. "Governor Lawrence's Case a g a i n s t an Assembly i n Nova S c o t i a . " E d i t e d by D.C. Harvey. pp. 184-94. "The J o u r n a l o f S.G. Hathaway -- A Miner o f '62 i n C a r i b o o . " E d i t e d by I s o b e l M.L. Bescoby. pp. 291-98. "The D i a r y o f L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l Robert D. Rogers." Edited by F.M. de l a Fosse." pp. 429-30. 1933. "Lord  Volume 14. N o r t h i n g t o n and t h e Laws o f Canada." E d i t e d by R.A. Humphreys and S. Morely S c o t t . pp. 42-61. "A Document Concerning t h e Union o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company and t h e North West Company." E d i t e d by G. de T. G l a z e b r o o k . pp. 126-30. "The B r i t i s h Government and t h e P r o p o s a l o f F e d e r a t i o n i n 1858." E d i t e d by R e g i n a l d G. T r o t t e r . pp. 285-93. "From D e t r o i t t o M o n t r e a l i n 1810." E d i t e d by M.M. Quaife. pp. 293-96. 1934. Volume 15. "David Thompson and t h e Rocky Mountains." E d i t e d by J.B. Tyrrell. pp. 39-45. "The I n d i a n Menace and t h e R e t e n t i o n o f t h e Western P o s t s . " E d i t e d by G.S. Graham. pp. 46-47. "Incidents o f Repeal A g i t a t i o n i n Nova S c o t i a . " E d i t e d by D.C. Harvey.' pp. 48-56. "Nova S c o t i a ' s Remedy f o r t h e American R e v o l u t i o n . " Edited by J.B. Brebner. pp. 171-80. "The R i o t s o f 1849 i n Montreal.", pp. 283-87 . "Landed Endowments f o r R e l i g o u s Purposes i n Nova S c o t i a and the Canadas, 1749 and 1837." pp. 406-14. 1935. Volume.16. "Journal o f W i l l i a m R i c h a r d s o n who V i s i t e d Labrador i n 1771." E d i t e d by Sidney C. R i c h a r d s o n . pp. 54-60. 200  "Governor Murray's Views on t h e P l a n o f 17 6 4 f o r the Management of Indian A f f a i r s . " Edited by R.A. Humphreys. pp. 16 2-6 9. . "Sitting B u l l ' s Own N a r r a t i v e o f the C u s t e r F i g h t . " E d i t e d by.W.N, Sage. pp. 170-75. "Some L e t t e r s o f Joshua R. G i d d i n g s on R e c i p r o c i t y . " E d i t e d by W i l l i a m D. Overman. pp. 289-96. " S i r Edmund Head's Memorandum on the Choice o f Ottawa as the seat o f the Government o f Canada." E d i t e d by James A. G i b s o n . . pp. 411-17. 1936. Volume 17. "Uniacke's Memorandum on Nova S c o t i a , 18 0 6." E d i t e d by D.C. Harvey. pp. 41-5 8. "The Appeal o f the N o r t h West Company t o the B r i t i s h Government t o F o r e s t a l l John Jacob A s t o r ' s Columbian E n t e r p r i s e . " pp. 304-11. "A L e t t e r by Lord S e l k i r k on Trade between Red R i v e r and the United S t a t e s . " E d i t e d by John P e r r y Pritchett. pp. 418-22. " B r i t i s h Columbia's Appeal t o S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r f o r B e t t e r Terms." E d i t e d by H a r o l d P. Johns. pp. 423-30. 1937. Volume 18. "Stewart D e r b i s h i r e ' s Report t o Lord Durham on Lower Canada, 1838." pp. 48-62. "An I n t e r v i e w on Canada w i t h La S a l l e i n 16 7 8." E d i t e d by M.L. P u e c h - M i l h a u , t r a n s l a t e d by F.C.A. J e a n n e r e t . pp. 163-77. 1938. Volume 19. "Some E d i t o r i a l O p i n i o n s from the Newspapers o f the M a r i t i m e P r o v i n c e s i n the 1830's." E d i t e d by J.S. M a r t e l l . pp. 5 0-5 5. •• "Dr. John Rolph's Own Account o f the F l a g o f Truce I n c i d e n t i n t h e R e b e l l i o n o f 1837." E d i t e d by C.B. Sissons. pp. 5 6-59. "A S i d e l i g h t on the Hunter's Lodges o f 1838." E d i t e d by W i l l i a m D. Overman. pp. 168-72. "Edward B l a k e ' s I n t e r v i e w w i t h Lord C a i r n s on the Supreme Court A c t , J u l y 5, 18 7 6." E d i t e d by Frank H. U n d e r h i l l . pp. 292-94. " S i r Francis Bond Head: A Foot-Note." E d i t e d by Goldwin Smith. pp. 297-300. "A L e t t e r from A l e x i s de T o c q u e v i l l e on the Canadian R e b e l l i o n o f 1837." E d i t e d by Edgar M c l n n i s . pp. 39497 . "Dr. Strachan's M o t i v e s f o r Becoming a Legislative C o u n c i l l o r . " E d i t e d by George W. Spragge. pp. 397402 . "Egerton Ryerson's Views on the Government o f Upper Canada i n 1836." E d i t e d by R.G. R i d d e l l . pp. 402-10. JU,.;9.  Volume 20.  "Extracts  from G l a d s t o n e ' s P r i v a t e P o l i t i c a l D i a r y Touching 201  Canadian Questions i n 1840." E d i t e d by P a u l Knaplund. pp. 19 5-9 8. "Riel's P e t i t i o n t o the P r e s i d e n t o f the U n i t e d . S t a t e s , 1870." E d i t e d by George F. G. S t a n l e y . pp. 421-28. 1940. Volume 21. "A L e t t e r on t h e West by S i r Edmund Head." E d i t e d by G. de T. G l a z e b r o o k . pp. 56-59. "An E a r l y S e t t l e r on the Ottawa." E d i t e d by J . R i c h a r d s o n . pp. 177-79. "Lord Monck and the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n . " E d i t e d by W. Menzies Whitelaw. pp. 298-306. "A P r i v a t e Report o f G e n e r a l W i n f i e l d S c o t t on the Border S i t u a t i o n i n 1839." E d i t e d by C P , Stacey. pp. 40714. 1941. Volume 22, "Documents R e l a t i n g t o the Swiss I m m i g r a t i o n t o Red R i v e r i n 1821." E d i t e d by George F.G. S t a n l e y . pp. 42-50. " F i v e ' S e l k i r k ' L e t t e r s . " E d i t e d by John P. P r i t c h e t t and Murray H o r o w i t z . pp": 15 9-6 7.1942. "Four  Volume 23. E a r l y L e t t e r s o f Egerton Ryerson." E d i t e d by C.B. Sissons. pp. 58-64. "Nova. S c o t i a ' s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Canadian R e l i e f Fund i n the War o f 1812." E d i t e d by J.S. M a r - t e l l . pp. 297.303. "That Rumour o f R u s s i a n I n t r i g u e i n 1837." E d i t e d by Thomas H. Le Due. pp. 398-401. 1943. Volume 24. "Selkirk's Views on B r i t i s h P o l i c y Toward the S p a n i s h American C o l o n i e s , 1806." E d i t e d by John P. P r i t c h e t t . pp. 381-96. "A B l u e p r i n t f o r Nova S c o t i a i n 1818." E d i t e d by D.C. Harvey. pp. 397-409. 1944. Volume 25. "The Commission o f 1885 t o t h e N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s . " E d i t e d by H.H. Langton. pp. 3 8-53. "Captain Miles Macdonell's 'Journal of a Jaunt to Amherstburg' i n 1801." E d i t e d by W.S. Wallace. pp. 166-76. 194 5. Volume 26. " S i r ' Edmund Head's Memorandum o f 1857 on M a r i t i m e Union: A L o s t C o n f e d e r a t i o n Document." E d i t e d by A l i c e R. S t e w a r t . pp. 40 6-19. 1946. Volume 27. "Alexander Mackenzie's Memoranda on t h e Appointment o f E x t r a S e n a t o r s , 1873-74." E d i t e d by Eugene F o r s e y . pp. 18994. "A B i l l o f Appraisement o f 1813." E d i t e d by C.W. Jeffreys. 202  "An 1947.  pp. 283-90. E a r l y French Canadian P e n s i o n Agreement." Stanford Reid. pp. 291-94. Volume 28.  E d i t e d by W.  0  194 8. Volume 29. "Memorandum Regarding the A f f a i r s o f York F a c t o r y , Winter Season, 1839-40." E d i t e d by M a r g a r e t A. Macleod. pp. 44-53. 1949. Volume 30. " G a b r i e l Dumont's Account o f the N o r t h West R e b e l l i o n , 1885." E d i t e d by George F, G. S t a n l e y . pp. 249-69. 195 0. Volume 31. "An Upper Canada L e t t e r of 18 2 9 on R e s p o n s i b l e Government." E d i t e d by K.D. MacRae. pp. 2 8 8-96. "Mr. J o l y ' s M i s s i o n t o London i n the Case o f LieutenantGovernor L e t e l l i e r de S a i n t - J u s t . " E d i t e d by A. J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e . pp. 401-405. 19 51. Volume 32. "The M o n t r e a l R i o t o f 1849." E d i t e d by J o s e p h i n e Foster, pp. 61-6 5. "The K n i g h t i n g o f F r a n c i s H i n c k s . " E d i t e d by C o l i n R. L o v e l l . pp. 13 9-4 2. 195 2.  Volume 33.  "The F a l l o f Quebec."  pp. 165-67.  195 3. Volume 34. "Views o f G e n e r a l Murray on the Defence o f Upper Canada, 1815." E d i t e d by G e r a l d S. Graham. pp. 158-65. "Letters to Gait Concerning t h e M a r i t i m e P r o v i n c e s and Confederation." E d i t e d by W.G. Ormsby. pp. 166-69. 19 54. Volume 35. "Some Spanish Documents R e l a t i n g t o E a r l y French E x p e d i t i o n s t o Canada." E d i t e d by L.A. V i g n e r a s . pp. 217-23. 19 55.  Volume 36.  0  1956.  Volume 37.  0  19 57. Volume 38. "The Independent Member f o r Kent R e p o r t s , 18 5 3." E d i t e d by J.M.S. C a r e l e s s . pp. 41-51. "John A. Macdonald on R a i s i n g Troops i n Canada f o r I m p e r i a l S e r v i c e , 1885." E d i t e d by C P . Stacey. pp. 37-40. "A Note on the Red R i v e r Hnt by John Norquay." E d i t e d by Margaret A. Macleod. pp. 129-30. "The Cape Breton L a n d f a l l : 1494 o r 1497, Note on a L e t t e r from John Day." E d i t e d by L.A. V i g n e r a s . pp. 219-28. "The P o l i t i c a l Testament o f Papineau i n E x i l e , 1837." 203  E d i t e d by Ronald F. H o w e l l . 195 8.  Volume 3 9.  pp. 295-300...  0  1959. Volume 40. " C h a r l e s M a i e r : A Document on the Red E d i t e d by F.N. S h r i v e , pp. 218-26.  River  Rebellion."  196 2. Volume 43. "A L e t t e r on the Fur S e a l i n Canadian American E d i t e d by Bingham Duncan. pp. 42-47.  Diplomacy."  196 0. , Volume 41.  0  1961.  0  1963.  Volume 42.  Volume 44.  0  1964. Volume 45. "A L e t t e r from Leonard T i l l e y on the I n t e r c o l o n i a l R a i l w a y , 186 3." E d i t e d by P e t e r B. Waite. pp. 12 5-28. 1965.  Volume 46.  0  1966. Volume 47. "Quebec, 175 9: Some New Documents." E d i t e d by C P . S t a c e y . pp. 344-55. "The London D i a r y . o f W i l l i a m Smith, 18 03-1804." E d i t e d by L.F.S. Upton. pp. 146-55. 196 7. Volume 48. "Foster on the Thompson-Bowell S u c c e s s i o n . " Morley S c o t t . pp. 27 3-76. 196 8.  Volume 49.  E d i t e d by  S.  0  196 9. Volume 50. "Quebec Under S e i g e , 1775-1776: The 'Memorandums' o f Jacob Danford." E d i t e d by John F. Roche. pp. 68-85. 1970-1982.  Volumes 51 t o 62.  0  204  

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