UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Analyzing photographs in archival terms Barr, Debra Elaine 1985

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1985_A3 B37.pdf [ 3.78MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0095918.json
JSON-LD: 1.0095918+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0095918.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0095918+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0095918+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0095918+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0095918 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0095918.txt
Citation
1.0095918.ris

Full Text

ANALYZING  PHOTOGRAPHS  IN A R C H I V A L  TERMS  By DEBRA  B.A.,  THESIS THE  Simon  ELAINE  Fraser  SUBMITTED  University,  IN P A R T I A L  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  BARR  FOR  THE  OF A R C H I V A L  1976  FULFILLMENT DEGREE  OF  STUDIES  in THE  FACULTY  OF  Administered School  of  ARTS by  Librarianship and  Department  We  accept  this  of  thesis  f.o the^^$f<3ujt>red  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  April  ®  Debra  History  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1985  Elaine  Barr,  1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department o r by h i s o r her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T  1Y3  Date  DE-6  (3/81)  written  Abstract  Through general  a comparison  archival  archivists, routinely  it  Since  thesis  both  will  photographic of  clear  begin  with  of  also  be  administrative  values  with  a survey  photographic  will of  then the  be  responsibilities  are  archival  about  can  studied.  by  of  a variety  general.  influence  The  and  (including  legal),  scholarly  to  fully  produced  determine  by  whether  recognized.  of  past  ways  in  of  records  thesis  and  photographic  obligation  The  not  responsibility,  examine  examined.  are  creators  archival  The  photographic  form.  records  in  by  principles  photographic  photographers  to  produced  published  a discussion  literature  archivists  that  a basic  and methods  archivists  user  in  is  literature  that  knowledge  creation  purposes  the  with  records  purposes  information  terms  of  will  and p r e s e n t which  to  reflecting  circumstances this  theorists  becomes  applied  of  creators  will  North their  and  in other  conclude American  i i i  Table  of  Contents  Abstract Table  i i  of Contents  I i i  Introduction  iv  Chapter 1 The I n v e n t i o n o f t h e Medium Chapter 2 The Power  and L i m i t a t i o n s  1  o f t h e Medium  11  Chapter 3 O f f i c i a l and U n o f f i c i a l P r o d u c t i o n o f Photographs i n Modern S o c i e t i e s  22  Chapter 4 Administrative  39  Chapter 5 Recent  Value  Scholarly  Uses  in Archival  Photographs  of Photographs  55  Chapter 6 A Crictical Survey of L i t e r a t u r e by P h o t o g r a p h i c A r c h i v i s t s  64  Bibliography  84  iv  Introduction  The  reflection  circumstances task.  The  f i r s t  discussion general.  of  In  was  second  chapter  which  often  will  a  scholarly  of and  administrative  provide  and  will  be  to reach and  basic  archival be  i n  f o r which  s t u d i e d . The  aim  understanding of  and  of  Because  the  medium  some  ways  can  archivists  unofficially  summarize  the  of the  photographers  produced.  of o f f i c i a l l y  a  of photographers  the purposes  an  will  c r e a t o r s and  therefore, will  techniques  records  i s a  methods  chapter,  chapter  half  of  of  records other  the thesis  photographic with  user  Because  to sponsoring overview  of  will  of  created  the  i s applied  legal)  be  an  archivists  reference  values.  (including  discussed.  an  records  varied  i n modern  societies.  second  provenance  thesis,  the photographic  responsibility  addition  be  range  to which  The  this  adopted  the third  industrial  be  of  about  (provenance)  the purposes  f i r s t  collect  purposes  will  half  photographic  material,  the  creation  the purposes  influence  knowledge  the opening  medium  in  of  of  In  to  examination to reflect  archivists  of  chapter,  archival  often  serve  scholars in  chapter  recent  of  i n the use  the  photographs  organizations, the f i f t h trends  the  administrative,  the fourth  value  of  will  photographs  V  in the  t h e h u m a n i t i e s and  social sciences.  l i t e r a t u r e published  America  will  be  evaluated  unaware o f the v a r i e t y applications obligation  by  In the f i n a l  chapter,  photographic a r c h i v i s t s i n North  to demonstrate  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  o f the medium and  seldom  to a n a l y z e p h o t o g r a p h s  that and  they are scholarly  recognize  in archival  their  terms.  largely  1  CHAPTER ONE THE INVENTION OF THE MEDIUM The meaning of any r e c o r d , as i s acknowledged in the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e of provenance, i s i n e x t r i c a b l y fastened to the aims and methods of i t s c r e a t o r . 1 Unaware of the l i m i t a t i o n s of communication media, however, the user too r e a d i l y accepts documented views of the world without c o n s i d e r i n g the circumstances under which they have been f a s h i o n e d . In f a c t , as noted c r i t i c Susan Sontag has observed, humankind r e v e l s i n mere images of r e a l i t y . 2 We have long been entranced by v i s u a l r e f l e c t i o n s of ourselves and our environments, and during the past two hundred years we have developed i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d means of p r e s e r v i n g them. During the eighteenth century,  the a c t i v e  use of mechanical a i d s to the graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n s cast through r e f i n e d g l a s s lenses led to the d i s c o v e r y of a powerful image-making process. By 1826, in a v i l l a g e i n France, Joseph Nicephore Niepce had invented photography.3 The s i l e n t partner of Niepce was a new s c i e n t i f i c attitude: The g r e a t e s t i n v e n t i o n of the nineteenth century was the i n v e n t i o n of the method of  2  invention . . . the f u l l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s r e a l i z a t i o n of the power of p r o f e s s i o n a l ism i n knowledge i n a l l i t s departments, and of the way to produce the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . . . w a s f i r s t completely a t t a i n e d in the nineteenth century.^ Desiring certain e f f e c t s , s c i e n t i s t s systematically developed the t o o l s needed to r e l i a b l y cause them. During the 1700s, the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Europe had created a large c l a s s of people with the i n c l i n a t i o n , the time and the resources a v a i l a b l e f o r the i m i t a t i o n of r u l i n g - c l a s s s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n . The bourgeoisie developed a passion for p o r t r a i t u r e . P e r c e i v i n g new markets, a r t i s t s were able to respond by d e v i s i n g e f f i c i e n t methods of p r o d u c t i o n , and came to r e l y upon such instruments as the camera obscura. A box with a lens at one end, i t transformed a n a t u r a l scene i n t o a traceable l i k e n e s s on a b u i l t - i n screen.5 S i m i l a r s u b s t i t u t e s f o r a r t i s t i c s k i l l were frequently used: The middle c l a s s wanted cheap p o r t r a i t s ; mechanical devices to e l i m i n a t e the need f o r lengthy a r t i s t i c t r a i n i n g were put in i t s hands, so that every man could become something of an a r t i s t . The s i l h o u e t t e required merely the a b i l i t y to trace a cast shadow; the p h y s i o n o t r a c e , invented by G i l l e s Louis Chretien i n 1786, asked no more of a beginner.6 To remove the need f o r t a l e n t from the p o r t r a i t - m a k i n g process a l t o g e t h e r , a r t i s t s searched f o r ways to capture permanently the p i c t u r e s cast by o p t i c a l instruments. The  3  light-sensitivity compounds, object an  for  held  image  areas  which  light  upon  a  "photograph,"  of  de-sensitized  through  suitable  Niepce,  During  reflections  projection obscura.^ artist  of In  and  Daguerre  artist version  the  halide  the  subsequent  action  the  object  been  areas  once  create  a  the  light  permanent medium  was  affect  has  record,  must  treatment.  process  to  produces  prevent  chemical  French 1820s,  formed  1826,  on  and  the of  or  be  The  need  recognized  citizen, he  learned  working  f r e q u e n t l y used  the  camera  decided of  to  by  for  a  several  permanently  process,  fix detailed  Public  interest  in  By  the  i t s applications,  on  the  with  by  the  similar to  camera an  create for  a  able  was  the  vein.^  theatrical  scientist  a metallic  scientist  stabilize  Daguerre,  using  was  daguerrotype a  a  to  plates  settings  1837,  Daguerre  images  way  obscura  wariness,  ardent  Louis  in  s p e c t a c l e s as  collaborate.  Niepce's  a  metal  that  was  initial  an  experimented  entrepreneur,  lighting  was  discovered  sensitized also  Niepce  Overcoming  Forseeing  silver  An  To  object),  a  light,  illusionistic shows.10  established.  simultaneously.^  Joseph inventor.  by  halide  of  to  stabilization  scientists  the  the  coated  been  silver  ability  shadowed thereby  long  (of  the  i t shadows.  (and  substances  had  medium  curtailing  the  withdrawn  several  instance)  over  by  of  and  the  modified to  base.11 strong.  persuaded  the  French  4 government freely  available.^^  petition render even was  suggested  great  T  the  patent  and  government  n e  that,  in his opinion,  to  the  study  greater benefit  to  the  arts.^  soon  enthusiastically  However,  period  coated  was  plate,  i t was  of  adopted  not  required  making  t o make t h e  minister  service  world. time  to purchase  awkward  presented  by  photographers,  devoid  pedestrians. Nevertheless, a variety keenly  successfully landscapes  French  instruments, stabilize William  obscura, and  natural  Fox  he  found  i n v e n t o r s were  also  the  commonly  people  were and  with  i t s "fairy  pictures"  the  that  trace  i f i t were  imprint  the  interests  of  scientific.  a i d of  a  camera  remarkably  them  possible  optical to  beautiful,  accurately:  idea occurred  themselves  with  attempting  The  purely  landscapes  thoughts  to  was  images.  not  to  images  of  lifes  experimenting  scientist  T a l b o t were  be  a  strangely  and  countless s t i l l  his inability  i t would  were  seem  invention  on  portrayed.^  English  Italian  these  charming  i n the  mechanically-produced  lamented  during  an  Henry  Sketching  also  which  f o r example,  daguerrotyped;  were  While  interested  scenes  lengthy  preventing  action.  of  process  to r e g i s t e r and  be  Western  disadvantages. A  of  remained  would  the  depiction  of  street  would  daguerrotype  for reflections  The  the  photography  throughout  without  portraiture  handling  s c i e n c e and The  method  t o me,  to cause  d u r a b l y , and  "It how  these remain  was  5  fixed  upon  the p a p e r . T o  photography picture," any  was  sodium  entirely  on p a p e r  chloride reliable.  Herschel,  later  photographs Talbot's soon  from  technique  gave  quantities,  each  duplicated  only  daguerrotype, Although Talbot  following  botanical  however,  from  photographers  fixing  appeared  could  hold  employed  and c o u l d medium.  the talbotype,  i n mass be The  image. gain,  possibly  He u s e d  "a p a t t e r n  and d o m e s t i c  This  over  by f i n a n c i a l  the process  x  number o f  a more d e t a i l e d  s e t by D a g u e r r e .  o  reversed,.but  be r e p r o d u c e d  motivated  landscapes  p  "negative."''®  t r a n s f e r to another could  exposed  advantage  was u n i q u e ,  iodide  S i r Oohn  ("hypo").17  the reversed  patented  features  without  was n o t  an u n l i m i t e d  a v a r i e t y of subjects:  specimens,  of  by w a s h i n g  an i m p o r t a n t  not o r i g i n a l l y  t h e example  architectural  to print  daguerrotype  eventually  photograph  first  the talbotype  by h a n d  alone,  scientist,  of soda  drawings"  a way  a means  H i s method  the process  h i s process  while  Other  English  "positives"  Daguerre's:  to  Another  hyposulphite  discovered  of l i g h t  a "natural  r i n s e s of e i t h e r potassium salt).  "photogenic  record  pencil."16  had d e v i s e d  (common  improved  with  re-reversed  Fox  the a r t i s t ' s  using  the promise of  faithfully  "by t h e a g e n c y  1835, Fox T a l b o t  reflections  he  i t would  one c r e a t e d  a i d whatever By  or  that  Fox T a l b o t ,  his invention of l a c e s , "  scenes.19  p r i m a r i l y to record  and p a s t o r a l s c e n e s .  The  Historical  6  Monuments Commission, f o r i n s t a n c e , a French government agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e s t o r a t i o n of c a t h e d r a l s , used the talbotype f o r documentary purposes.20 P o r t r a i t i s t s favored the daguerrotype, which could be more r a p i d l y produced.21 The demand f o r p o r t r a i t s had become so great by the 1850s that photographers could s c a r c e l y cope. A procedure developed in 1851, the c o l l o d i o n process, soon e c l i p s e d i t s predecessors. I t permitted shorter exposure times, and c o l l o d i o n p o s i t i v e s p r i n t e d on g l a s s were e a s i l y developed, a l l o w i n g a s i t t e r to c o l l e c t a completed product almost immediately. Such m o d i f i c a t i o n s as the t i n t y p e , produced on m e t a l , a l s o became p o p u l a r . Sturdy and cheaply produced, they were commonly used f o r simple p o r t r a i t s and to memorialize s o c i a l events.22 Many inventors struggled to r e f i n e the p o r t r a i t - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , improving lenses and i n c r e a s i n g the light-sensitivity  of media. Innovations occurred  in  accordance with purposes. American survey crews needed to develop equipment which was l e s s unwieldy than that used in the c o l l o d i o n g l a s s - p l a t e process; photographers documenting b u i l d i n g features required sharper l e n s e s . Heavy equipment and lenses which created s o f t , f l a t t e r i n g images remained u s e f u l to p o r t r a i t - m a k e r s . 2 3 i  n  order to survive economical-  l y a 19th Century p r o f e s s i o n a l photographer was almost  7  inevitably  obliged  procedures  which  During  18^0s,  for  the  to turn  out  emphasized  portraits,  beauty  a German  the  camera  rather  proved  to  than  i n v e n t o r developed  r e - t o u c h i n g n e g a t i v e s which  that  and  adopt  accuracy. a  technique  lucrative:  c o u l d l i e made g e t t i n g  photographed  put  veracity  "The  news  much  more p o p u l a r . "24The graphs. had  public  Processes  great f a i t h  had  i n t e n d e d , i n Fox  i m a g e s " to r e p r o d u c e however, i s formed and  can  through  be  T a l b o t ' s words, themselves.  through  carefully  debate  raged,  called  a creative  until  ground  however,  fought  recognition considered  capable  previously  unperceived  of  turn  world,  impartiality  as Fox  and  artistry  blemished  image c h a n n e l l e d at a l l ,  nor  hoped. A  do  the work  be  alone?  curator Alfred for public  were camera o p e r a t o r s important  and  relationships.25  are manufactured usually  equipment  T a l b o t had  o f the c e n t u r y  visual  who  could a photographer  of g e n i u s , r e v e a l i n g  which  An  natural  or d i d n a t u r e  of p h o t o g r a p h i c  Photographs  i s not  photographer  a t the  men  "natural  seem empty;  f o r decades:  artist,  to a l l o w  unblemished.  glass  photo-  A photographic record,  can  create i t s e l f ,  the American  Stieglitz  material  streets  of  d e v i s e d by  humanly m a n u f a c t u r e d  made t o appear  does a p h o t o g r a p h  Not  been p a i n s t a k i n g l y  p r o c e s s e s . Crowded  faces  i n the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of  seem so r e a l  g i v e s them u n u s u a l  that  power. The  their  world's  the aura first  8  photographer, Niepce, was not f o o l e d : he l a b e l l e d them " p o i n t s de vue" (points of view).26 v i s u a l l y and m e n t a l l y , they present the world from l i m i t e d stances. I t commonly rec ogn i z ed, however,  i s not yet  that photographic images are  i n f l u e n c e d by the techniques s e l e c t e d or adapted by t h e i r c r e a t o r s and are colored by the purposes leading to t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n , purposes o r i g i n a t i n g in spheres ranging from a r t and science to commerce and the domestic realm. A v a r i e t y s o c i a l purposes w i l l be discussed in Chapter Three. In the meantime, the powerful ways i n which photographic information can be manipulated deserve c l o s e r examination.  of  9  Footnotes C h a p t e r One 1 F r a n k B. E v a n s , D o n a l d F . H a r r i s o n , a n d E d w i n A. T h o m p s o n , e d . W i l l i a m L . R o f e s , "A B a s i c G l o s s a r y f o r A r c h i v i s t s , M a n u s c r i p t C u r a t o r s and R e c o r d s M a n a g e r s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 37 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 4 2 7 . 2 p.  Susan  Sontag,  On  Photography  (New  York:  Dell,  1977),  3.  ^ T h e t e r m " p h o t o g r a p h i c " was c o i n e d by 3 o h n H e r s c h e l , an E n g l i s h i n v e n t o r , i n 1 8 3 9 . S e e T.R. S c h e 1 l e n b e r g , T h e M a n a g e m e n t o f A r c h i v e s (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 323. ^ London:  1839 Art,  A.N. W h i t e h e a d , S c i e n c e a n d t h e M o d e r n Lowell Lecture Series, 1925.  5 Beaumont N e w h a l l , The H i s t o r y t o t h e P r e s e n t D a y , 7 t h e d . (New 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 11. 6  Ibid.  7  Ibid.,  pp.  World.  of Photography: Y o r k : Museum o f  From Modern  11-12.  8  I b i d . , pp. 12-14; P e t e r P o l l a c k , The P i c t u r e H i s t o r y o f P h o t o g r a p h y : From t h e E a r l i e s t B e g i n n i n g s t o t h e P r e s e n t Day (New Y o r k : H a r r y A b r a m s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 1 6 - 1 8 . 9  Peter Wollheim, C o m m u n i q u e 4 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 7.  "Critical  Traditions,"  1°  Newhall,  History  of Photography,  11  Pollack,  Picture  History  12  Newhall,  History  of Photography,  1^  Newhall,  History  of Photography,  15  Pollack,  Picture  History  16  Sontag,  Photography,  14.  of Photography,  13 V i c k i Goldberg, ed., Photography f r o m 1816 t o t h e P r e s e n t (New Y o r k : S i m o n 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 31.  On  p.  Photo  p.  88.  19-22.  7.  in Print: Writings and S c h u s t e r ,  pp.  16-22.  of Photography, p.  pp.  pp.  32-34.  10  17  Newhall, History  of P h o t o g r a p h y , pp.  18  Ibid.,  pp. 32- 33.  19  Ibid.,  pp. 32- 34.  20  Ibid.,  P- 41 .  21  Ibid.,  P-  22  Ibid.,  pp. 35, 4 8 - 4 9 .  23  ibid.,  pp. 28,  24  S o n t a g , On P h o t o g r a p h y , p.  25  see N e w h a l l , H i s t o r y  26  Pollack, Picture History  31-32.  35.  56-59. 86.  o f P h o t o g r a p h y , pp. of Photography,  31 p.  11  CHAPTER THE  Unlike a  s t i l l  POWER  records  photograph  process  rather  commentator,  AND  LIMITATIONS  i n several seems  than  Roland  of  optical  d e v i c e s ) combined  stencilled an  a  o f f the r e a l ,  emination  material created  (light  vestige by  a  of  every  record a  visual  usually  assigns i t a  Sontag  remarks  upon  first an  as  high  by  seems  within  degree  belief  as  of  i n the  a  through  Susan  "something  Because  which  One  of chemistry terms,  glance  objective  choices.  footprint...the  surface  our easy  of  formed  reflected  device  viewer  Photographs hear about, we're shown p i c t u r e may presumption e x i s t , which picture.^  those similar  like  at  photography  (images  with  waves  human  the object."^  mechanical  automatically  of  physics  photographic  MEDIUM  forms,  defines  substances).^ Using  characterizes  of  of  THE  the outcome  the result Barthes,  OF  other  t o be  product  affecting  the laws  TWO  (light Sontag directly  registering  objects)...a a  photograph to  i s  record  i t srange,  a  credibility.3 medium:  f u r n i s h evidence. Something we b u t d o u b t , seems p r o v e n when a photograph of it...The d i s t o r t , but there i s always a that something e x i s t s , or d i d i s l i k e what's i n the  12  A  viewer  i s subdued  of  photographic  of  information  which  McLuhan  brimming  with  by  that  offering  messages  of  a  Because  portrayed  i s simply  objects of  research eminent  the  difficulty have  a  be  arouse  clouded  much  as  we  accepting manner.  by are  Barthes  "fills  who been  argues  the  sight  easily  be  an  In  audience about  distorted The  suggests,  or  willing  to  b e l i e v e , and  framed are  in  often  essential  an  events  of  of  p a i n t i n g s ; " and,  partly since  moment  or avenues  photographs, precisely  them,  even  in when  7  based  of too  aesthetically  compelling  the  judgment  guilty  data  as  is also  are  preserved  a  i s rooted  Human  is  cases,  persuasive  emotions.®  or  the  moments.  power  be  force,"  excluded,  power  We  like  most  to  more  refused  challenging  wonders  open.  by  information  task. by  even  unrepresentative  "Photographs -  knowledge  feeling.  messages  composition  for  room  thoughtfully repudiating  our  critic  little  context,  always  Media  generally  photographic  have  quantity  are  cannot  psychologist of  present.  authenticity  photographs  accepted  not  captured  to  usually  observer  Photography's ability  overwhelming  formidable  might  are  one  they  be  rare  which  the  viewer.5  its original  the  by  that  which  can  To  and  photograph  delivered  one.  apparent  leaving  the  strongly  outside  the  they  notes  data,  transformed.^  by  documents  Marshall  supplemented  both  can  its  easily  seeing  only  as  readily appealing  because the  upon  of  medium  their was  13 f i r s t adopted, s e r i o u s a r t i s a n s have attempted to apply a r t i s t i c r u l e s of composition to photography in order to achieve p i c t o r i a l e f f e c t s .  9  Fox T a l b o t ,  for instance,  d e l i b e r a t e l y o u t l i n e d h i s domestic scenes using the " p a i n t e r ' s eye" defined by contemporary Dutch a r t i s t s . 1 ° Susan Sontag a s s e r t s that the e n t i r e h i s t o r y of  photography  can, i n f a c t , be seen as a s t r u g g l e between two c o n f l i c t i n g impulses: b e a u t i f i c a t i o n and t r u t h - t e l l i n g . H  D e f i n i t i o n s of  t r u t h , of course, vary w i l d l y . To peddle t h e i r own moral or p o l i t i c a l p o i n t s of view in a t t r a c t i v e terms, documentary photographers r e g u l a r l y b e a u t i f y t h e i r  subjects:  Even when photographers are most concerned with m i r r o r i n g r e a l i t y , they are s t i l l haunted by t a c i t imperatives of taste and conscience. The immensely g i f t e d members of the Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n photographic p r o j e c t of the l a t e 1930s (sponsored by the Roosevelt government) would take dozens of f r o n t a l p i c t u r e s of one of t h e i r sharecropper subjects u n t i l s a t i s f i e d that they had gotten j u s t the r i g h t look on f i l m - the p r e c i s e expression on the s u b j e c t ' s face that supported t h e i r own notions about p o v e r t y , l i g h t , d i g n i t y , t e x t u r e , e x p l o i t a t i o n and geometry.12 To create s u c c e s s f u l images c o n s i s t e n t l y ,  photographers  become c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously adept at manipulating elements and dynamics w i t h i n the confines of a v i e w - f i n d e r . Many c r i t i c s of the medium charge that photographs lack s y n t a x , s t a t i n g that elements and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l formats  are  not r o u t i n e l y applied.13  Oussim  argues,  communication culturally points  approved  long  used  addition  finite  view  optical  cast  image cannot  record.  substance.  time  adept  need  of the we  to  look  at discerning  To b e g i n  with,  itself  period  of a selected  in a  clearly  aware-  i s needed. A  chosen  choices  any g l a s s  on a  holography 7  more  through  captured  r e f l e c t e d . A three-dimensional reproduced  of the  messages,  The s u b j e c t i v e  produced.  which  must  a f f e c t the lens  world  distorts  an  simply  two-dimensional  can s p a t i a l  relationships  i n the s e l e c t i o n of lenses,  for deliberate distortion  f o r example,  will  that  It i s a reflection  elements  opportunity  we  o f t h e medium  t o be p e r m a n e n t l y  through  also  unaware  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of these  (Only  Taylor  styles.1-*  correctly portrayed).1  lenses,  t o become  for a limited  be a c c u r a t e l y  plane.16  that  each  being  incorporating  He r e c o m m e n d s  i n photographic  i s a limited  made a b o u t  media.  to achieving  equipment  document  be  i n order  patterns  light-sensitive be  symbolic  o f us r e m a i n  them, w a r n i n g  of the r e s t r i c t i o n s  photograph  means  Estelle  do d e l i b e r a t e l y d e v e l o p  the majority  and i n d i v i d u a l  syntactical  of  artists  in visual  and i n t e n t l y  In  ness  while  to recognize  typical  every  c o d e s . 1 ^ A r c h i v i s t Hugh  elements,  conventions  that  specialist  h a s some s y n t a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e ,  out that,  schematic  learn  however,  Information  a r e commonly used  exists.  Wide  ample  angle  by a d v e r t i s e r s t o  15  exaggerate  t h e s i z e of  merchandise.  In t h e e x p o s u r e of f i l m room f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n . The is  taken  can  flatter  light  create a false  example, f l a s h b u l b l i g h t the foreground  to l i g h t ,  of s e t t i n g  addition,  processes  authentically:  black-and-white  processes  seem d a r k  and  color  is either  or i n a d e q u a t e l y  lost  taken  plate,  extreme s e n s i t i v i t y  s p e c t r u m i n h e r e n t i n t h e wet  geographical time  f i l m s which are too s e n s i t i v e  a l t o g e t h e r . R i c h a r d Huyda p o i n t s t o t h e  which p r e v e n t s ,  f e a t u r e s and  clouds  to i m p r i n t such  medium, m a k i n g t h e sky indistinguishable  printing  and  collodion  might lengthy  of  any  process, both  r e l e v a n t p a r t s of  existing  white  including  the wet  the  clouds  print.20  also influence  the c l a r i t y  of  negative. During  photographic  d i f f e r e n c e s between h i g h and  exists,  to  f e a t u r e s as m o u n t a i n s o n t o a  i n the completed  papers a f f e c t  for manipulation  one  have w h i t e n e d  Development t e c h n i q u e s i n f o r m a t i o n . The  on  through  t o t h e b l u e end  f o r example, the r e g i s t r a t i o n  a b l u e sky w i l l  through  simulated  c o l o r waves, p o r t i o n s o f a s c e n e d e p i c t e d  the c o l o r  the  cannot r e c o n s t r u c t c o l o r  certain  e x p o s u r e s and  can  empty.18 I n  of dyes.1^  light  For  while eliminating  t h e use  disappear  On  of a scene.  projected a short distance  latter  relationships  a v a i l a b l e when a p h o t o g r a p h  impression  b a c k g r o u n d , making the photographic  t h e r e i s a l s o much  low-contrast  of images. A g a i n ,  scope  the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  16 c o n s t r u c t i o n of o u t r i g h t l i e s - by combining, f o r example, two negative exposures to form one p o s i t i v e  print.  Along with i t s i n a b i l i t y to d e p i c t the s p a t i a l world p r e c i s e l y , s t i l l photography cannot adequately present the passage of t i m e . For i n s t a n c e , to catch only a f l e e t i n g smile during an otherwise sad event would be to misrepresent the e v o l v i n g , complicated nature of the o c c a s i o n . 2 1 s i n g l e moments seized as i n d i c a t i v e of changing r e a l i t i e s are at best incomplete; at w o r s t , they are downright f a l s e . A grimace- could i n c o r r e c t l y appear in p r i n t as a s m i l e , or a s e r i e s of occurrences could be d e l i b e r a t e l y or  inadvertent-  l y presented i n i n c o r r e c t o r d e r . Because a photographer must make many d e c i s i o n s about the u t i l i z a t i o n of space and time, a photograph which has been c o n s c i o u s l y created can be nothing other than a s u b j e c t i v e document, "not j u s t a record but an e v a l u a t i o n of the world."22 In l i g h t of the ways in which photographs can be u n t r u t h f u l , t h e i r v a l i d i t y depends u l t i m a t e l y , as photographic a r c h i v i s t J e r r y Davison observes, upon photographe r s ' i n t e n t i o n s . 2 3 Photography, l i k e language, i s a medium from which many works can be wrought, from X-Rays to an a r t i s t ' s impressions of P a r i s . 2 4 Purposes range from the i d e a l i z a t i o n of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the d e n i g r a t i o n of power s t r u c t u r e s ; from the manipulation of c o l o r to the c e l e b r a t i o n of form. I n t e l l e c t u a l p o i n t s of view can be as  17  diverse  as those  chroniclers Robert been  of V i c t o r i a n  moralists  o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n . Documentary  Frank  admits  frequently  that  accused  bias  cannot  of d e l i b e r a t e l y  t o my p o i n t  of view...(but) l i f e  cannot  be a m a t t e r  o f i n d i f f e r e n c e . "25  Because  and  group  of a creator  of records,  it,  a good  The  also  moment  captioned  assigned  will  sometimes  document. For Sale"  John  through  honest  research.  beneath  because  no  Newhall  made.26  or a  N  0  collector presents a  i t must  be  snapshot,  a family  album,  from  a  c a n be  and t h e l a b e l s  an a u d i e n c e ' s  suggests  of a  by c h a n c e , b u t  a photograph  explanation,  influence  and  of records i s offered  context,  from  study  As Beaumont  an e d i t o r ,  meaning.27  Brumfield  placed  close  happens  a collection  to a portrait  always  has been  t o emerge,  randomly.  i t s original  without verbal  photographer  are not a c c i d e n t a l l y  i n o r d e r t o have  understood  "Cow  photograph  from  news p h o t o g r a p h  the  are certain  i s created  i n which  subject  aspect of a given  be e s t a b l i s h e d  e x a m i n a t i o n . Because  removed  every  a photographer  v i e w i n g by a p h o t o g r a p h e r , deserves  fora  c a n be r e a c h e d . U p o n  photographers  manner  twisting  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a i m s  patterns  of photographs  successful  for  can only  e x p e r i e n c e and l u c k ,  methods  puts  can p e r c e i v e  the extent t o which  comprehensive  With  set  no p e r s o n  photographer  be a v o i d e d : " I h a v e  matter  subject,  and t h e a n g r y  that  a picture  perception of  a caption  o f a meadow  reading would  18  lead  our  whereas the  eyes  to the  "Yosemite  graphs  can  also  instance, Susan  Sontag  still  be  ineffective  of  the  spite  invaluable  ly.33  public and  concern  the  of  each  by  and  by  the  and  which  i t cannot  some e x t e n t ,  learning,  be  flow  of  will  receiving  depictions  which 1940s  were did  summarizes:  of  not  "Every  intention film,  of  photo-  the  the  interpretation  of  v i e w e r . "32  i t s limitations,  the  outrage  context for  the  unique  addition,  environments  to arouse  the  for  emotional weight  Canadians  Huyda  be  photo-  story",  prejudices,  during  in  arrangement.29  o r d e r . In  a p p a r a t u s , the  and  a set of  "photo  appropriate  scene,  c o u r s e , can  their  meant  i n some m a n n e r  by  of  a c c o r d i n g to the  image  "an  the  to the mountains  photography  medium. P h o t o g r a p h i c d o c u m e n t s  examination instant  the moral  shift  printing,  photograph In  that  Americans  n a t u r e of  and  us  in incorrect  people. Richard  i s altered  processing  through  out  will  to generate  many  guide  a published  existing  Japanese  published  the  laid  without  Because  creator,  of  i t i s s e e n . 3 0 An  interned  graph  be  photograph  affront  falsified  cautions  which  would  c e n t r e of  i m p r e s s i o n caused  elements  in  i t . "31  be  could  i n the  Verbal descriptions,  u n t r u e . The  Chronological  a  Valley"  b a c k g r o u n d . 28  blatantly  animal  keeping  open  lend  i s an themselves  for scrutiny  of  time  normally replaces  denied  that  the e x t e r n a l  participate  i n the  making  of  to  an  immediate-  world does,  a photograph,  to nor  19  t h a t , during the past century, we have indeed been " p r i v i l e g e d to look the past i n the eye."34 we should not f o r g e t , however, that photographs do not reproduce r e a l i t y p r e c i s e l y . U n l i k e f o o t p r i n t s , they are not records which have been created d i r e c t l y by the objects which they r e p r e s e n t . R e s u l t i n g from l i g h t waves manipulated by manufactured equipment and human techniques, they can only be f a c s i m i l e s posing as o r i g i n a l s . As h i s t o r i a n Barry O'Connell warns us, to remain u n c r i t i c a l of photographic images, and to b e l i e v e that they "simply give us the world as i t i s , " i s to be h e l p l e s s before them.35  20 Footnotes Chapter Two 1 Roland Barthes, Camera L u c i d a : R e f l e c t i o n s on Photography, t r a n s . Richard Howard (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1981; Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1981), p. 9 1 . Sontag, On Photography, p. 154.  2  3 Stanley Milgram, "The Image Freezing Machine." Psychology Today 10 (1977) 52, c i t e d by J . Robert Davison, "Turning a B l i n d Eye: The H i s t o r i a n ' s Use of Photographs," B.C. Studies no. 52 (1982): 18. Sontag, On Photography, p. 5.  4  5 M a r s h a l l McLuhan, Understanding Media (New York, Toronto and London: McGraw-Hill Book C o . , 1964), p. 22. 6  B a r t h e s , Camera L u c i d a , p. 91  7  Milgram, c i t e d by Davison, "Turning a B l i n d Eye,"  p. 18.  8 G i s e l e Freund, Photography and S o c i e t y D.R. Godine, 1980), p. 217.  (Boston:  Sontag, On Photography, p. 107; Newhall, H i s t o r y Photography, p. 61. 9  197  of  10  Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 34  H  Sontag, On Photography, p. 86.  12  Ibid.,  13  see, f o r example, McLuhan, Understanding Media, p.  p. 6.  14 E s t e l l e Jussim, "The Research uses of V i s u a l I n f o r m a t i o n , " L i b r a r y Trends 25 (1977): 300, 306. 15 Hugh T a y l o r , "Documentary Art and the Role of the A r c h i v i s t , " American A r c h i v i s t 42 (1979): 420-427. 16 Claude M i n o t t o , The A r c h i v i s t and the Photograph: An Image That Holds (Ottawa: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1974): p. 4 6 - 4 . 1  7  Richard Huyda, "Photographs and Archives  in  21 Canada," A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978): 12. 1  8  Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 158.  1 9  Ibid.,  pp. 193-94.  2 0  Huyda, "Photographs and A r c h i v e s , " p. 12.  21  Ibid.  22  sontag, On Photography, p. 88.  23  Davison, "Turning a B l i n d Eye," p. 20.  24  sontag, On Photography, p. 148  25  Goldberg, Photography i n P r i n t , p. 401.  26  Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 178.  27  i b i d . , pp. 182-183.  28 John B r u m f i e l d , "A good milk cow i s not a h e l i c o p t e r , and that i s a f a c t , " Photo Communique 2 (1980): p. 32. 2 9  Freund, Photography and S o c i e t y , p. 149.  30  sontag, On Photography,  31  i b i d . , p. 17.  32  Huyda, "Photographs and A r c h i v e s , " p. 12.  33  s o n t a g , On Photography, p. 111.  p..105.  34 Paul Theroux, "The Past Recaptured," Foreword to Margaret Luke, e d . , The World As I t Was (New York: Summit Books, 1980), p. 10, c i t e d by Davison, "Turning a B l i n d Eye," p. 17. 35 Barry O ' C o n n e l l , "The Photograph as a Source f o r P u b l i c H i s t o r y , " Amherst, Massachusetts, 1977. Unpublished manuscript (Mimeographed).  y e a r s . Photographic information held on m e t a l l i c p l a t e s or on other bases could be d u p l i c a t e d on the p r i n t e d page only through l a b o r i o u s hand t r a n s f e r to a p u b l i s h i n g medium. As a r e s u l t , photographs were seen only r a r e l y i n newspapers and magazines. E v e n t u a l l y a process was invented which allowed t h e i r mechanical reproduction on the same press as type. By the 1880s they could a u t o m a t i c a l l y be scanned according to area d e n s i t i e s , t r a n s f e r r e d to telegraph w i r e s , communicated q u i c k l y over long d i s t a n c e s , and e a s i l y reconstructed i n great q u a n t i t y . 4 The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of photography i n t o j o u r n a l i s m had profound s o c i a l consequences. Using s t r e a m l i n e d , p o r t a b l e cameras, bands of p r o f e s s i o n a l photographers formed q u i c k l y to present a mixture of s e n s a t i o n a l i s m ( r a i l r o a d a c c i d e n t s , f o r example) and glamour ( c e l e b r i t y p o r t r a i t s )  to the  masses.5 L a t e r , images were coupled on equal terms with v e r b a l r e p o r t s i n "photo s t o r i e s " b u i l t around c a r e f u l l y chosen themes.6 To produce features f o r L i f e magazine, f o r i n s t a n c e , a j o u r n a l which was f i r s t published i n 1936, e d i t o r s and photographers worked together, determining both v i s u a l and t e x t u a l p o i n t s of view before a s i n g l e p i c t u r e was ever snapped. The world which L i f e p a i n s t a k i n g l y 7  constructed contained l i g h t , hope and a minimum of shadow. Everyday l i v e s were described alongside those of c e l e b r i t i e s . In an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , standardized s o c i e t y ,  22  CHAPTER OFFICIAL OF  In  modern  photographs  AND  produced  and  unofficially  medium  was  born  into  goods  i s mechanized  which  information Vast  order,  to  the  endeavor, the  past  graphic  one  few  labour  of  with  image. film  mass  on  scale,  on  be  scale,  on  equally  in  production.3  and  to  of  any  in  the  prints  timed  history  methods could of by  of and  broad  to  maintain  influence core  field  of  of  the  be  photoan  repeated soon  stopwatches  from  became and  of  difficult  visual for  a  with  photo-finishing factories  remained  the  during  whereby  prints  Dissemination  in  industrial  communication  devised  exposures  however,  broad  communicated  is typical  The  production  an  of  organiza-  purposes.  R e p e a t a b i l i t y , the  development  divided  of  the a  quantities  chartered  efficiently,  positive The  which  must  inventors  efficiently  large  data  products.1  of  (by  disseminated  centuries.^ Early  facilitate a  in  organized  which  large  a multitude  world  be  SOCIETIES  societies  c h a r a c t e r i z e d the  number  negative  for  PRODUCTION  MODERN  officially  resources  industry,  science,  of  principle has  unlimited  and  amounts  consumption  a  must  exploit  mechanical  IN  industrialized  tions)  basis.  UNOFFICIAL  PHOTOGRAPHS  are  THREE  to  images  many  24 L i f e and i t s counterparts d e l i b e r a t e l y attempted to convince t h e i r readers that i n d i v i d u a l s mattered; and that hard work and t a l e n t would always be rewarded.8 J o u r n a l i s t i c photographs bombarded the p u b l i c in i n c r e a s i n g numbers. The messages created r e f l e c t e d the p e r s p e c t i v e of the i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t , which financed t h e i r c r e a t i o n . Working through an a d v e r t i s i n g system which was the most c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n the success of major p u b l i c a t i o n s , some magazine owners admitted o u t r i g h t l y  that they  hoped to s e l l p h i l o s o p h i e s along with consumer g o o d s .  9  in  c o n t r a s t to t h e i r independence during previous decades, by the 1930s newspaper and magazine p u b l i s h e r s no longer c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r own work, r e p o r t i n g now to t h e i r a d v e r t i s ing c l i e n t s . Because a d v e r t i s i n g revenue had become the major source of p r o f i t f o r newspapers and j o u r n a l s ,  their  e d i t o r s and p u b l i s h e r s were forced to regard readers as . consumers, ensuring that a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l commentary d i d not a f f r o n t a d v e r t i s e r s '  ideology.10 A consumer s o c i e t y ,  w r i t e s Susan Sontag, r e q u i r e s "a c u l t u r e based on i m a g e s . " H Through photography the owners of i n d u s t r i a l and of communication networks were e a s i l y able to fashion a world of images i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . The medium, notes G i s e l e Freund, can be an unusually valuable and even dangerous t o o l when i t i s used to create needs, s e l l goods and mold minds.12  25 Photography can a l s o be a dangerous t o o l when i t  is  wielded by governments. Many of i t s e a r l y o f f i c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s seemed innocuous enough: the French government,  for  example, employed talbotypes to record d i s t i n c t i v e features of h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s .  1 3  G l o r i f i c a t i o n of the French empire,  a d m i t t e d l y , was one of i t s aims. In North America, during the middle of the nineteenth century, photographers depicted not only b u i l d i n g s , land and l i f e on the home f r o n t ,  but  were included i n government-sponsored expeditions which surveyed f r o n t i e r a r e a s .  1 4  other aims were to record unusual  events and to document ownership of p r o p e r t y . In Canada, government agencies have r o u t i n e l y f i l e d o f f i c i a l l y - p r o d u c e d photographs from the 1850s on.15 In every modern n a t i o n , government agencies have a l s o used the medium f o r the s u r v e i l l a n c e of c i t i z e n s . Since a round-up of r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n P a r i s i n 1871, when policemen took snapshots of Communards who were l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d and shot with weapons of a d i f f e r e n t nature, photography has been a t o o l f o r monitoring i n c r e a s i n g l y mobile p o p u l a t i o n s . 1 6 Another l e s s - t h a n - i n n o c u o u s purpose has been the use of photographs to disseminate propaganda. In Canada, f o r example, both t h e . f e d e r a l Department of Immigration and Canadian P a c i f i c Railway sent glowing views of the p r a i r i e  26  undertaken  was  ers  f e d e r a l Farm  by  the  archives  still  photographs the  the  ever  be  subtly  message.1® audience, portrait  of  dignified  of  and  out  about that  of  reproduction since  of  to  support of  workable  been  for  rural  very  Roy  that  lacked  their  attempts  p r i n t i n g press  visual  scientific  medical develop-  non-verbal  Roman  botanists, to  convey  McLuhan  to  verbally  describe  object  did  allow  since  as  a  bucket.  The  quick  images.  instrument  descriptions purposes  generate  accurately.  sketched  indispensable  a  as  the  adequate  frustrated in  simply  chosen  paint  and  before  and  a  to  citizens  Greek  such  any  middle-class  knowledge.  difficult  images  convey  scientific  and  Stryker,  s o c i e t i e s now  McLuhan,  quickly  documentary  d i f f e r e n t from  to  scientists  a  whose  9  for  even  b e c o m e an  of  modern  Marshall  farmwork-  of  photographers  goals  painstakingly  providing used  effectively  photographs  plants  the  recognized  hard-working.1  i t i s very  a t t r i b u t e s of  development  has  were  group  continent.  impoverished  transmitting  information  this  image-making,  According  instance,  points  team  medium  photography,  means o f  his  and  q u a n t i t i e s of  research.  the  the  largest  to  the  Depression-era  Administration,  project,  gain  America's  surveillance  for  to  coached  Applying  great  the  on  manipulated  Hoping he  uniformly  ment  assembled of  of  Security  c o n s t i t u t e s the  co-ordinator  could  idealization  The  to  quickly.20  camera  researchers, It  has  i t s conception:  one  27 of i t s i n v e n t o r s , W i l l i a m Henry Fox T a l b o t , was the  first  s c i e n t i s t to record b o t a n i c a l specimens p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y . 2 1 Another photographer, Edward Muybridge, took advantage of the camera's a b i l i t y to r e g i s t e r m a t e r i a l phenomena which the human eye cannot see, capturing a horse at s e v e r a l stages of g a l l o p to determine whether a l l four of i t s  feet  l e f t the ground at once. Today, through the use of stroboscopic l i g h t s , the p u b l i c i s able to view such wonders as hummingbird wings moving at high speed and tennis players swinging.22 S c i e n t i s t s have become so dependent upon photography that progress i n many f i e l d s would be impossible without i t . To prove the existence of subatomic p a r t i c l e s , for.example, the only t a n g i b l e records which a nuclear p h y s i c i s t can o f f e r us are the t r a c k s of l i g h t which the p a r t i c l e s have l e f t on f i l m as they passed over i t  for  amazingly b r i e f moments.23 Medical researchers have a l s o r e l i e d upon photographic processes f o r many decades. In order to improve the design of a r t i f i c i a l l i m b s , i n 1863 one p h y s i c i a n , O l i v e r Wendell Holmes ( p h y s i c i a n and photographer),  scrutinized  s t e r e o s c o p i c p r i n t s of people in motion.24 s i n c e then, standard medical equipment has come to include photographic u n i t s which are s e n s i t i v e to X-Rays beyond the range of normal s i g h t , along with cameras attached to e l e c t r o n microscopes used to scan organs.25 Photography i s now the primary t o o l i n the i n v e s t i g a -  28  tion  of  much  behavior.  Using  differences white  hidden  between  defendants  offered social in  physiological activity  by  recording  extended  world. and  patented  allowed  telescopes  the  f o r use us  the  to  idea  of  survey  and  also  powerfully  vote be  and  aerial  think.31  forever  As  mindful  the  have 1856,  from  the  when  air has  cameras,  co-ordination  information  the  and  physical  Since  Using  u  Vicki  manner  valuable  of  subjects.26  itself  as  can  in  is useful  propaganda  i n which the  purposes  we  Goldberg  s u r v e i l l a n c e and  affect  cameras  photography  coroners.^  fashion,  the  s e n s i t i v e emulsions  muscle  Photographic  can  their  photographs  and  images  must  taking  eye  news,  of  galaxies.27  of  that  utilize  time-periods  planet.28  out  we  long  own  points  be,  for  of  to  of  and  example  discover  with  our  c h i l d r e n . 29  dress,  coated  black  students  knowledge  i n mapmaking,  spies, meteorologists  eat,  behavior  our  of  subtle  i s one  that  humankind  uncharted  development  handicapped  of  the  treatment  adds  the  helped  plates  previously  balloons  to  to  discover  r e g u l a r l y asked  limits  Photographic  revealed  watch  has  the  attached  Hadar  now  psychological  courtrooms  She  analyzing  Photography has  Oussim.  are  and  to  prosecutors'  i n American  Estelle  sciences  cameras  and  we  medium  behind  can  the  messages. Turning impact  of  from  the  photography  p u b l i c to i s no  the  p r i v a t e sphere,  less impressive.  Cameras  the pervade  29  modern  societies:  manufacture Kodak,  North To  ic  Most  support  of  the are  their  images,  those  crafted  by  definition  articulated,  create  idealized  the  remained,  the  often  amateur of  taken annually  fail  purposes.32  quick  basic  photograph-  requirement  of  subjects recognizably.33  aesthetically  individuals  images  easily-operated  making  i t render  professionals.  seldom  the have  With  made f o r p r i v a t e  t o compose  prints  one.  photographs  s u r r o u n d i n g s , the  a l t h o u g h many  developed  of  became, and  snapshots  taken  their  Eastman  has  for a healthy photographic  i s simply that  i s rarely  household  six billion  s n a p s h o o t e r s , by  medium  Time  George  of  America  records of  the  by  every  photographers  source  industry. in  i n 1888  amateur  largest  almost  are  pleasing  d i s a p p o i n t e d when  to match  Although  appeal  their  photographers themselves  the  and  aims  generally their  of  are hope  to  immediate  w o r l d s . 3^ Since of  their  amateurs  photographs  Portraits  have  as  Eastman  George  public  has  travels.35  remained  been  observed  Archivist  of  contain  likenesses  of  familiar  the  subjects  remarkably  the  same.  p o p u l a r . In  of  addition,  i n 1892,  personal lives  confirms the  in archival  family and  camera,  h i s customers  R i c h a r d Huyda stored  the  extremely  l o n g f a v o r e d memoranda  collections  both  adopted  have  always  private  places  first  e x o t i c . 3 6 Cameras  have  and  pattern:  repositories  members, a l o n g w i t h  the  usually  views also  of  long  30 been incorporated i n t o many s o c i a l r i t u a l s . In contemporary c u l t u r e s , we r o u t i n e l y photograph the newly-born and the newly-wed. U n l i k e our V i c t o r i a n a n c e s t o r s , however, we do not treasure images of the newly-dead.37 we document ownership of expensive possessions ( c a r s , boats and homes) and note unusual events ( p a r t i e s and ceremonies). Almost never do we photograph the mundane a c t i v i t i e s which form the basis of our d a i l y l i v e s (ourselves at b r e a k f a s t , f o r example). Throughout the past century,  the subjects  i n p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s have changed r e l a t i v e l y  represented little  because our l i v e s have fundamentally a l t e r e d so l i t t l e . Photography and i n d u s t r i a l i s m were born during the same e r a , and photographs have tended to r e f l e c t the p r i v a t e wounds caused by i n d u s t r i a l systems. L i v i n g w i t h i n s t a n d a r d i z e d , impersonal s o c i a l environments, we s t r u g g l e to a s s e r t our i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t r y i n g to create favorable s e l f - i m a g e s by matching the photographs in commercial a d v e r t i s i n g . Our e f f o r t s are not always r e a s s u r i n g , but p i c t u r e s which are unfavorable can be e a s i l y d i s c a r d e d , while i d e a l i z e d d e p i c t i o n s are r e a d i l y framed. In an image-mad consumer s o c i e t y , few of us can r e s i s t gathering f l a t t e r i n g snapshots of wedding tuxedos and t r o p i c a l v a c a t i o n s : "It seems p o s i t i v e l y unnatural to t r a v e l f o r pleasure without taking a camera a l o n g . Photographs w i l l o f f e r i n d i s p u t a b l e evidence  31  that  the t r i p The  only  was m a d e . . . t h a t  medium i s u s e d  f u n was  to cast  had.  n : , a  f a v o r a b l e impressions not  of o u r s e l v e s , but of our f a m i l i e s ,  both  i m m e d i a t e and  extended:  P h o t o g r a p h y becomes a r i t e o f f a m i l y l i f e j u s t when, i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g c o u n t r i e s o f E u r o p e and A m e r i c a , t h e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n of the f a m i l y s t a r t s underg o i n g r a d i c a l s u r g e r y . As t h a t c l a u s t r o p h o b i c u n i t , t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y , was b e i n g c a r v e d o u t o f a much l a r g e r f a m i l y a g g r e g a t e , p h o t o g r a p h y came a l o n g t o memorialize, to re-state symbolically, the i m p e r i l e d c o n t i n u i t y and v a n i s h i n g e x t e n d edness o f f a m i l y l i f e . Those g h o s t l y t r a c e s , photographs, supply the token presence of the dispersed r e l a t i v e s . A f a m i l y ' s photograph album i s g e n e r a l l y about the extended f a m i l y - and, o f t e n , i s a l l that remains of i t . 3 9  Whether  or not the nuclear  p h e n o m e n o n , we should our  collectively  maintain  close ties  connectedness  relations" in-laws ships  are glossed  reality, change. apart.  among  are duly  invariably  over,  of course,  We  lack  and employ  ourselves.^0 recorded.  a very  recent  b e l i e v e that extended  - o r , as David  positive:  Family  f a m i l y i s indeed  photographs  Jacobs  Annual  "close"  couples,  puts  visits  Complicated  and p o r t r a y e d  to  i t , to  suggest "arrange  by c o u s i n s a n d  personal  relation-  as s t a t i c  and  "smiling"  sisters.  we a r e n o t u n f a m i l i a r  members must commonly l i v e the c o n t i n u i t y  families  with great  conflict  In and  distances  s u p p l i e d by a n c e s t r a l  homes  32  and  the s o l i d i t y  pans  - the used  touch." cling  things,  Familiar with  them  make  Sontag,  from  industrial  adds  objects,  "featherweight  fervent  that  society  grandparents'  generations  home t o h o m e . ^ l  t h e most  who  warm w i t h  disposable  to photographs,  carrying pasts  of " o l dfurniture,  we  nevertheless museums,"  robbed  of  p i c t u r e - t a k e r s , argues  almost  everyone  i s obliged  living  to relinquish  and  o f human  portable People  pots  their Susan  i n an t o o much o f t h e  past.^2 Photographs, times  gone  memories, own  b y . ^ 3 To t h e i r even  thoughts  only  of course,  and m a i n t a i n i n g  usually  regard  of their  which  has a l r e a d y  autobiography, confirms her  subjects'  h i s theory.  mother,  vulnerability  actress  confer  believes  are  upon  their  seen false  j u d g m e n t " and that  we  subconsciously  against  a  I n a s e n s i t i v e and  L i v Ullmann  Dwelling  she p e r c e i v e s  we  subject's  was i n f a c t  "disarm  of  false a  also  Barthes  because  happened.^5  film  which  moments. They  s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . " ^ Roland  aware  offer  Photographs  tenderly  possession  overwhelming  "invite  them  mock  they  a past  operator.  on i s o l a t e d  only  subjects,  counter-memories,  by t h e c a m e r a  importance  allow  future popular  inadvertently  portraits  o f h e r s e l f and  own m o r t a l i t y :  S e e i n g p i c t u r e s o f Mamma when s h e was y o u n g m a k e s me s a d . S h e i s l o v e l y , h e r e y e s a r e happy and f u l l o f e x p e c t a t i o n . Why i s t i m e s o m e r c i l e s s ? . . . I n a f r a m e d  33  photograph we l i n e up f o r p o s t e r i t y , next to other p i c t u r e s in which we are i n f a n t s , f i v e - y e a r - o l d s , s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , b r i d e s . We stare out i n t o space, never to e x i s t a g a i n . 46 Each one of us has gazed at personal photographs i n an e q u a l l y melancholy f a s h i o n . Photographs,  unfortunately,  assign undue importance to the p a s t . L e f t a l o n e , our memories of past experiences w i l l g r a d u a l l y erode, l e a v i n g a wholesome o r i e n t a t i o n to the present and the f u t u r e .  Barthes  argues that photographs, on the other hand, have the power to i n h i b i t t i m e ' s h e a l i n g a b i l i t y , a l l o w i n g "something terrible:  the return of the d e a d . "  4 7  By c o l l e c t i n g images of  those dear to us and by s u b j e c t i n g ourselves to p o r t r a i t makers, we sometimes r i s k self-damage. M a r s h a l l McLuhan p o i n t s out that we too w i l l i n g l y pose f o r p i c t u r e s ,  altering  our postures and express ions.48 Roland Barthes also f e e l s a g u i l t y sense of "imposture" when he knowingly adjusts h i s behavior f o r a camera.49 Unlike him, most of us pose u n t h i n k i n g l y , but e q u a l l y uncomfortably,  adopting  conventional "snapshot grammar" - standing i n malleable groups, f o r i n s t a n c e , with shorter people placed i n the foreground, everyone looking d i r e c t l y at the  photographer  and ignoring the environment.5° Subconsciously, we hope to be immortalized i n u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y becoming p o s i t i o n s , under unusually f l a t t e r i n g l i g h t s . Our concern about the element of luck and the a b i l i t y of the photographer  involved  34  causes  us t o s t i f f e n 5  disapproval." ^  before  In t r u t h ,  o t h e r . As v i e w e r s ,  into  "fearing i t s  we f e a r t h e d i s a p p r o v a l o f e a c h  we c a n be c r i t i c a l .  we c a n be o v e r b e a r i n g relatives  the camera,  As  photographers,  and e v e n p r e d a t o r y ,  organizing  tidy  groups,  arranging  spouses  into  attractive  postures  so t h a t  they  reflect  w e l l upon us  and  to catch  friends  i n embarrassing  trying  Photographers  invariably  They  the world  "convert  without-walls article  aesthetic  into  treat  subject  subtly misrepresent  the camera, o f c o u r s e .  display  artistic  flowers  and empty p a r k  of  settle  upon  scientists truths,  Barthes  interest,  move beyond  capturing  b e n c h e s . To l i m i t dedicated  him, f i l e  the s o c i a l use  sunsets,  amateurs their  wild-  the i n f i n i t e  hobbyists  o r making  range  often  aims a s  as m o r a l i s t s , u n c o v e r i n g  vanishing pasts  however,  complains,  Many a m a t e u r s u s e t h e medium t o  available,  and o t h e r s  conserving  explicitly.  an i t e m f o r  t h e m e s . Some s e t t h e m s e l v e s h i g h  the w o r l d . 5 4 w h i l e of  into  i n t o an  him.53  sensibilities,  subject matter  subjects.  s t o r e o r museum-  him a s an o b j e c t , c l a s s i f y  Some p r i v a t e p h o t o g r a p h e r s of  their  i s depreciated  collectors,  s  disarray.  from  a department  o r promoted  a p p r e c i a t i o n . "52 ^  we w o u l d g l a d l y him,  want s o m e t h i n g  i n which every  of consumption  will  hidden  i n v e n t o r i e s of  frequently outline  their  reasons  defined  Upon c l o s e s c r u t i n y  are rarely  of their  areas  work, many o f t h e  35  purposes are of  not d i f f i c u l t our a t t e n t i o n .  Freund, the  Susan  Whether  Sontag,  not help  own  motives  c o l l e c t o r s and p o s i n g  to ascertain.  Such  purposes  Barthes  deserve  from  more Gisele  and o t h e r c r i t i c s  o f t h e medium  but b e n e f i t  subjects  or not the o b s e r v a t i o n s of  Roland  social applications  could our  of photographers,  close  i n so e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y  are always  valid,  upon we  i n d i v i d u a l study of embracing  photography.  o  36  Footnotes Chapter Three 1 Freund, Photography and S o c i e t y , pp. 103, 141; Sontag, On Photography, p. 178. 2  McLuhan, Understanding Media, p. 159.  3  Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, pp. 47, 92.  4  I b i d . , p. 175; Freund, Photography and S o c i e t y , p.  103. Newhall, H i s t o r y . o f Photography, pp. 154-156, 175; Freund, Photography and S o c i e t y , pp. 103, 111. 5  6  Freund,  Photography and S o c i e t y , pp. 115, 124.  7  Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, pp. 183-184.  8  Freund, Photography and S o c i e t y , pp. 148-149.  9  I b i d . , p. 141.  1 0  I b i d . , p. 142.  11  Sontag, On Photography, p. 178.  12  Freund, Photography and S o c i e t y , pp. 103, 217.  13 Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 4 1 . See a l s o : Richard R u d i s i l l , M i r r o r Image: The Influence of the Daguerrotype on American Society (Albuquerque: U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico P r e s s , 1971), p. 116. 1 B i r r e l l and G r e e n h i l l , Canadian Photography, p. 84; Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, pp. 72-76. 4  1  5  Huyda, "Photographs and A r c h i v e s , " p. 5.  1 Freund, Photography and S o c i e t y , p. 105; Sontag, On photography, p. 5. 6  1 B i r r e l l and G r e e n h i l l , Canadian Photography, p. 143; M i n o t t o , A r c h i v i s t and Photograph, p. 4 6 - 5 . 7  1  8  Goldberg, Photography i n P r i n t , p. 349.  1  9  Sontag, On Photography, p. 62.  37 2 0  McLuhan, Understanding Media, pp. 158, 192.  21  Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 33.  22  i b i d . , p. 159.  23 McLuhan, Understanding Media, p. 192; J u s s i m , "Research u s e s , " p. 774. 24  Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 83.  25  i b i d . , p. 167; J u s s i m , "Research u s e s , " p. 774.  26  Jussim, "Research Uses," pp. 767-768.  2  Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 167.  7  28 Beaumont Newhall and Nancy Newhall, Masters of Photography (New York: A and W P u b l i s h e r s , 1958), p. 32. 2 9  J u s s i m , "Research Uses," p. 767.  30  sontag, On Photography, p. 22.  31  Goldberg, Photography in P r i n t , p. 21.  32 Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 89; Geoffrey James, "Responding to Photographs," A r t s Canada no. 192 (1974): p. 6. David Jacobs, "Domestic Snapshots: Toward a Grammar of M o t i v e s , " J o u r n a l of American Culture 4 (1981): p. 3. 34  sontag, On photography,  p. 28; Jacobs, "Grammar,"  35  Newhall, H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 94.  36  Huyda, "Photographs and A r c h i v e s , "  37  James,  38  Sontag, On Photography, p. 9.  39  I b i d . > P. 8.  40  Jacobs, "Grammar," p. 3.  41  Sontag, On Photography, p. 68.  p. 3. p. 5.  "Responding t o P h o t o g r a p h s , " p.  6.  38  42  I b i d . , P-  10.  43  Ibid.,  P-  167.  44  Ibid.,  P-  71 .  ^  5  ^ Knopf,  6  Barthes,  Camera  Lucida,  Barthes,  Camera  ^  McLuhan,  Understanding  Barthes,  Camera  9  Lucida,  0  Cacobs,  "Grammar,"  5  1  Sontag,  On  5  2  Ibid.,  p.  53  Barthes,  5  Sontag,  p.  p.  and 66.  Canada:  9.  Media,  Ludica,  5  ^  90-96.  L i v Ullmann, Changing (U.S.A. 1976; Bantam e d i t i o n , 1 9 7 8 ) , p.  ^7  ^  pp.  p.  11.  p.  85.  p.  14.  p.  197.  3.  Photography, 110.  Camera On  Lucida,  Photography,  pp.  56-59.  Alfred  39  CHAPTER FOUR ADMINISTRATIVE VALUE IN ARCHIVAL PHOTOGRAPHS The purposes and techniques of a photographer  clearly  determine the nature of the information contained in a photographic r e c o r d . Using the preceding three chapters as a basis for understanding the importance of c r e a t o r s and circumstances of c r e a t i o n , the provenance (respect for the o r i g i n ) of a r c h i v a l photographs can now be examined. It  i s a sad comment upon the current state of a r c h i v a l  a r t that among the custodians of photographs in Canadian r e p o s i t o r i e s there are few a r c h i v i s t s to be found. In the l i t e r a t u r e underlying t h i s p r o f e s s i o n , i t has long been recognized t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n to a p p r a i s i n g s c h o l a r l y and other v a l u e s , one of the p r i n c i p a l functions of an a r c h i v i s t i s to p r o t e c t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e (and, in p a r t i c u l a r ,  the  l e g a l ) value of the permanent records produced by o f f i c i a l organizations.  ( O f f i c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be defined here  as corporate bodies or chartered o r g a n i z a t i o n s  functioning  f o r c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d purposes, i n c l u d i n g governments, churches, businesses and labour u n i o n s ) . Such respected B r i t i s h and American a r c h i v i s t s as H i l a r y Jenkinson, O l i v e r  40 Wendell Holmes and Margaret Cross'Norton have emphasized t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t h e i r c r e a t i n g agencies.1 Unlike other documents of permanent v a l u e , which may be gathered and made a v a i l a b l e by c u r a t o r s f o r p u b l i c use, o f f i c i a l records are preserved by a r c h i v i s t s p r i m a r i l y f o r  their  b e n e f i t to a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and only s e c o n d a r i l y to other u s e r s . 2 American t h e o r i s t s i n p a r t i c u l a r have tended to make a u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n between " a r c h i v i s t s " as custodians c o n s i d e r i n g both a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and other scholarly)  (including  v a l u e s , and " c u r a t o r s " whose only concern i s  s c h o l a r l y r e c o r d s . 3 By whatever terms they are l a b e l l e d , a r c h i v i s t s and c u r a t o r s have an important d i f f e r e n c e : an a r c h i v i s t must p r o t e c t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e value of o f f i c i a l records. Because many documents created i n the course of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y have l e g a l importance, i t i s v i t a l that custodians always handle them i n a manner which does not impair t h e i r a d m i s s i b i l i t y as evidence i n courts of law.  4  Canadian a r c h i v i s t s employed by governments and  c o r p o r a t i o n s , however, have yet to demonstrate a healthy regard f o r photographs of l e g a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . They f u n c t i o n , i n e f f e c t , as c u r a t o r s . A survey of t h e i r published work y i e l d s few references to the serious a d m i n i s t r a t i v e uses of photography.  In t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of the a p p r a i s a l p r o c e s s ,  d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a f o r records created u n o f f i c i a l l y and f o r  41  those  generated  officially  established.  Typically,  on  of  the  basis  non-textual sphere, and  In  uses  of  modern  generated private social  are  in  industry  surveillance  and  ownership  property  routine  of  and  serve  projects.  Many  regularly  arm  motion to  as  brutality  to  public by  for  a  arrests  in  judicial  administrative  of  official  Three,  they  camera  are  documents about  photographs,  records  of  another  cameras,  for  construction example,  using  still  make t r a f f i c  counter which  record  They  information  to  and  advertising,  The  as  are  images.  for  Engineering  to  in  the  photographs  research.  and  assessed  photographs.  aesthetic  personnel,  relations  in  the  i n Chapter  legal  are  records  variety  o f f i c e r s with  recording  to  produced  departments,  train  As  communicates  permanent  police  pictures  further  and  events.  their  given  rarely  documents  alone.  government  scientific  unusual  instance,  be  capture and  are  increasingly  indicated  and  of  societies  quantity As  gatherings by  value  must  industrial  purposes.  produced  types  officially  great  organizations  utilized  more a t t e n t i o n  legal  both  scholarly  form  by  charges  suspects  and  studies, of  offer  resistance.^ In are  of  consistently  accepted As  spite  we  as  have  their  application,  misinterpreteted,  accurate seen,  extensive  a  representations  photographer  can  and of  are the  present  too  photographs readily  material a  subject  world.  42  f a i r l y or misrepresent i t e n t i r e l y through manipulation of a photographic p r o c e s s , l i g h t , space, time or c a p t i o n i n g . The value of the content of a photographic record i s dependent upon the knowledge a v a i l a b l e about the purposes and techniques of i t s c r e a t o r . 6 This tenet d i r e c t l y p a r a l l e l s a basic a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e : i t i s important that custodians of records i n any medium gather information i l l u m i n a t i n g provenance. With photographs of l e g a l v a l u e , i t becomes c r u c i a l that the c r e a t i o n , use and storage of documents be c a r e f u l l y documented. In a courtroom, a photograph i s never accepted without examination of i t s o r i g i n s . S t i l l photographs are now commonly employed in l e g a l disputes.  7  Although they are considered a s p e c i a l form of  evidence, photographic records are subject to general r u l e s of a d m i s s i b i l i t y . T h e i r content must f i r s t be r e l e v a n t to a case being t r i e d . Secondly, they must c o n s t i t u t e the best evidence a v a i l a b l e . (Some r e s i s t a n c e to the use of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l documents has been apparent. Many judges continue to consider v e r b a l testimony p r e f e r a b l e to evidence i n photographic form.8 j  n  a m a j o r i t y of North American  j u r i s d i c t i o n s , judges a l s o r e t a i n the r i g h t to exclude photographs on the grounds that they can be inflammatory, influencing juries emotionally.)  9  T h i r d l y , evidence must be  authenticated by a w i t n e s s . Because photographs are most often introduced to i l l u s t r a t e v e r b a l testimony,  43  verification contained is  the  not  simply  consists  in a picture  photograph  usually  swears  photograph, problem,  is rarely  available  issue.  the  their  testimony content,  necessary.12 were  asked  which site any that  j to  of  other  be  testimony  n  o  n  recent  e  given or  the  parties  the  had  not  to  intended  by  had to  of  subject.10 i t to  a  the  information  question,  witness subject the  of  a  hearsay  evidence  is  p a r t y who  is  to  to  i n the  not  and j  create a  e v i d e n t i a r y value  becomes specialists  but  home.  probably  "Expert  taken the  was  by  were  one  a photograph  of  photographer the authenticated  form. of  nor  swear  photographs  impression,  negatives  The  n e i t h e r he  portrayed. the  of  activities  in their  insure that  photographic their  illegal  that  false  veracity  prosecution could  fairly  0  the  witnesses  landlord,  were  independently  f o r example, of  effect  acts."13  of  confirm  expert  f o r the  been  presented  filmed  their  the  fakes,  examination the  are  able  had  speaking  composites  As  third  lawsuit,  couple  verified  not  through  a  inspect photographs  depicted  was  information  open  because  (Hearsay  a u t h e n t i c a t i o n by  witness  events  a  admissibility,  documents  persons  a Californian could  the  testimony).11  When p h o t o g r a p h i c of  to  received through  for  that  i s normally  knowledge  barrier an  oath  Finally,  firsthand  another  information  that  itself.  to  an  accurately represents  v e r b a l statement  the  of  increases,  44  additional its  documentation  about  the  circumstances  creating i s frequently requested.  As  one  surrounding  authority  explains:  The e x t e n t o f v e r i f i c a t i o n ( d e g r e e o f proof of accuracy) r e q u i r e d v a r i e s d e p e n d i n g on why t h e p i c t u r e i s i n t r o d u c e d a n d how i m p o r t a n t i t i s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the i s s u e s i n the case. For example, i f the p h o t o g r a p h i s s i m p l y u s e d as a c o n v e n i e n t method of i l l u s t r a t i n g the w i t n e s s ' g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of a scene, minimal p r o o f o f a c c u r a c y may be s u f f i c i e n t ; but when i t i s o f f e r e d t o show a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e of h e i g h t , b r e a d t h , or l e n g t h o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e , much m o r e c o n v i n c i n g p r o o f s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d . 1 ^  Because  the  incorrect often  be  medium can  message,  have  can  sufficient  under  which  easily  explanatory  s u p p l i e d . In  photographer  so  be  addition,  vital.  knowledge  i t was  be  made t o  technical the  f i l m e d to  a  only  subject  confirm  of  the  and  the  an  information  testimony  Sometimes of  convey  must  the  creator  the  will  conditions  accuracy  of  a  record.15 In the  Canada,  photographs  along  with  generated  incorporated  bodies  are  Evidence  which  apply  ensure Section  Act  that 24  certified  the of  by  official  the an  Act  general by  governments  subject to  to  origin  of  of  admissibility,  and  other  s e c t i o n s of  business  requires that  officer  rules  records  documents a copy  of  the  i n any is  federal form.  clear,  a record  be  responsible for i t s custody.16  In  To  45  addition, ordinary  a record course  organization has  been  not  normally  knowledge reliable  stored  assigned  maritime  Western strong  dispute,  defendants  practices  without  i n range argued  that  record  evidence i s  an X - R a y  having  i t i s assumed have  personal  that 1  been  followed. ^  can normally archives  as f a r removed  which  station.  from  officially value. lawyers  had been  A camera  Any  validate a has been  record  creation  against  no w i t n e s s  of the events  decision,  the judged  swear  pictured.  rejected  the practice of automatic  f o r the created  British  automatically recorded  colliding.  of the records  to having  In a  records  prosecution  regularly  two s h i p s  the v a l i d i t y  could  produced  In a recent  which  had r e g i s t e r e d  knowledge  with  care  because  f o r example,  Guard  grounds  his/her  evidentiary  at  vessels  a  i s made f o r  to authenticate  countries,  photographs  a Coast  large  that  Hearsay  and  may t e s t i f y . 2 0  introduced  all  manner.  o f an a g e n c y  an o f f i c i a l  many  of a  to verify  i f t r a n s f e r t o an i n t e r n a l  an a r c h i v i s t  are  An e m p l o y e e  on h e a r s a y  permitted  record-keeping  authorized,  i n the "usual  A hospital administrator, for  under  employee  created  b u t an e x c e p t i o n  of i t s contents  document:  been  i n an o r d i n a r y  admissible,  responsible  In  relies  i s usually  photograph  as  often  documents.1®  instance,  have  of business."17  created  business  must  on t h e  direct  precedent-setting  t h e argument.21 acceptance  of  In keeping business  The  46  r e c o r d s , o f f i c i a l production and regular circumstances of c r e a t i o n rendered the photographs a d m i s s i b l e . One l e g a l authority  i n d i c a t e d i n 1973 that Canadian judges were  beginning to f o l l o w the B r i t i s h and American lead i n accepting s y s t e m a t i c a l l y produced photographs without  the  supporting testimony of witnesses.22 Unfortunately,  current Canadian evidence laws are  inadaquate i n s e v e r a l ways. Under present p r o v i s i o n s ,  i t can  be .too r e a d i l y assumed that a document held in o f f i c i a l custody i s genuine.23 A u t h e n t i c a t i o n should be l e s s automatic. In an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y ,  f o r example, where the  h i s t o r y of a record i s not w e l l i n d i c a t e d and custody t r a n s f e r s are poorly r e g i s t e r e d , i t s o r i g i n should be c a r e f u l l y examined. In a d d i t i o n , i t can too e a s i l y be taken, for granted both that an employee has adequate f a m i l i a r i t y with a record-producing program and that the system i t s e l f i s dependable. Using an example from another medium, Kenneth Chasse, a lawyer and an expert on the a d m i s s i b i l i t y of evidence, r e c e n t l y noted that such vague s t a t u t o r y  phrases  as "the usual and ordinary course of business" have led to i n c o n s i s t e n t j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n s on the extent to which the r e l i a b i l i t y of record-keeping systems must be questioned.24 Using computer data systems as a model, he recommends the development of uniform records management p r i n c i p l e s and techniques, along with the i n s e r t i o n of c l e a r a d m i s s i b i l i t y  hi requirements into evidence statutes.25 he  b e l i e v e s that judges should  be r e q u i r e d  assurances that e n t r i e s i n t o a data regularly, industry  that  recorded  criteria,  by l a w t o r e q u e s t  base have been made  p r o c e d u r e s have c o n f o r m e d t o s t a n d a r d  p r a c t i c e s , that  effective,  security features  and t h a t a r e s p o n s i b l e  have been  p e r s o n has o v e r s e e n and  a l l processes.26  The by  input  Among o t h e r  " M i c r o f i l m as D o c u m e n t a r y E v i d e n c e " s t a n d a r d  issued  t h e C a n a d i a n G e n e r a l S t a n d a r d s B o a r d has e s t a b l i s h e d  equivalent  guidelines against  record-keeping can  which the c r e d i b i l i t y of  p r o g r a m s f o r documents i n m i c r o g r a p h i c  be m e a s u r e d . The B o a r d a d v i s e s ,  f o r instance,  p r o g r a m s be i m p l e m e n t e d u n d e r w r i t t e n a u t h o r i t y , internal  form  that that  p r o c e d u r e s be documented t h r o u g h t h e use o f  m a n u a l s , l o g s and o t h e r  records,  regularly  i n d e p e n d e n t a u d i t s be i n s t i t u t e d ,  that  checked, that  that  filming  p r o v i s i o n s be made f o r a d e q u a t e s t o r a g e ,  officer  responsible  attempts to standardize  admissibility exists  o f p h o t o g r a p h s . The s t r o n g e s t  allowing  p o s i t i o n and d i s t a n c e  a photograph to stand  have been  legislation  where j u d g e s a r e r e q u i r e d  such t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n  of t h e d i r e c t i o n ,  there  requirements f o r the  i n the state of Wisconsin,  to c o n s i d e r  and t h a t an  f o r t h e s y s t e m be d e s i g n a t e d . 2 7  I n some N o r t h A m e r i c a n j u r i s d i c t i o n s , similar  a c c u r a c y be  as t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f a camera  as e v i d e n c e ,  before  even i f t h e s e  48  factors  are  not  information  to  conveyed.28  believe  that  be  against  laws  likely  in future which  affect  Such for  the  reliability  critics  records  systems  of  as  Kenneth  i n any  form  production  of  the  Chasse there  would  should  need  to  be  checked. While within  the  possible lead  to  the  that  as  of  explain  the  both  interest insure  expert  absence  supporting most  useful  archival  record  and  legal  production,  archivists  to  be  will  information of  and  need  about  documentation  as  storage  hearsay  life  well-defined  to  span  strong  archival  of  administrative  of  policy  to  of  possible  caring  records  origin  the  business  records.  papers,  procedural  and  upon  to  y  protect  0  a  through  greater  i n order  to  i s recorded.31 criteria,  should be  for  documents  be  found  relationship exists and  existing  evidence.30  of  will  qualify  under  called  admissibility  principles  histories  able  demonstrate  their  r e t e n t i o n g u i d e l i n e s may a  be  i t is  professions  officials may  archivists  defined,  Meanwhile,  value  and  and  both  keepers  other  use  complete  admissibility  collection  yet  witnesses.29  long-term  theory:  fundamental the  of  archivists  i n the  that  has  managers  standardization within  f i r s t h a n d knowledge  themselves,  the  records  realm  licensing  legislation, records  of  judicial  the  legally  role  legal First,  as  saved. in  much The  basic  between premises through  manuals,  organizational charts,  an  In  for the  49 archivist purposes  is obliged of  subsequent  a  (defined origin protect gather  acts)  additional  of  records  (about  so  f o r t h ) to  order  ordinary  manner.33  requirement  that  needs  of  determine  user  components  of  provenance  must  for of  the  archival  be  archivist  for original responsible  legitimately records  as  creating  save  statements required,  order,  and  the  production  enough  of  letters  original  been  tenet  to  of  be  the  the  respect  for  seen  brutality  were  would  as  by a  need  and  being  charges,  to  The two  sampling, violation  be  An  could  for  authorizing filming  and  the  justifiable.  or  and  routinely.  photographic  f u n c t i o n i n g of  photographs  order  matches  which  textual  care  generated  photographs of  and  systems,  provenance  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes  potential  filing  i s often  a sample  I f , however,  against  sometimes  official  and  produced  Limiting  the  need  documents,  extent  for police  only  evidence  agency  personnel. defense  might  the  legal  of  This  be  of  i s also  must  has  principle  honored.  i n s t a n c e , which respect  records  the  archivist  t e c h n i c a l processes, material  evolving  produced  i s the  an  a body about  and  about  documents  Secondly,  information  legal  the  of  requirement  of  i n d i c a t e that  i n an  identity  for assurances  records.  original  the  Information  storage  Mirroring this  business  the  treated  and  i n evidence  of  reflect  c r e a t i n g agency.  custody  collected.32  to  the  training saved  as  policy  would  also  scrupulously  be  a  50  r e s p e c t e d , and t h e r a t i o n a l e  f o r any f i l e  r e d u c t i o n s made by  t h e c r e a t o r w o u l d need t o be d e m o n s t r a t e d . Canadian photographic official nor  custodians  appraise  photographs i n c o n j u n c t i o n with t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l ,  a r e they  aware o f t h e f u n c t i o n s and  p r a c t i c e s of t h e i r in A r c h i v a r i a  parent  agencies.  according  t o media w i t h o u t  to r e l a t e d  photographic  I n an a r t i c l e  that a d m i n i s t r a t i v e records  form a r e t o o o f t e n t o r n from t h e i r  connection  record-keeping published  i n 1980, T e r r y Cook o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f  Canada i n d i c a t e d  stored  seldom  textual  custodians  i n non-textual  functional  r o o t s and  respect f o r their  documents.34 j  Q  date,  most  r e m a i n unaware o f t h e i m p o r t a n t  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u s e s o f n o n - t e x t u a l r e c o r d s . I n 1983, I s e n t a letter  to custodians  i n many C a n a d i a n c o r p o r a t e ,  provincial  and m u n i c i p a l  indication  of the c r i t e r i a  in  institutions,  a p p r a i s i n g photographs.  only  one p r o v i n c i a l  which they  asking  archivist  f o r an  considered  Of t h e e i g h t e e n  federal,  important  who r e s p o n d e d ,  d i d n o t make t h e a p p a r e n t  assumption  t h a t t h e only photographs worthy of a p p r a i s a l  were t h o s e  of s c h o l a r l y  written official  policy,  value alone.  he i n d i c a t e d  v a l u e , and a n a l y z e s  related  documents i n o t h e r  isolate  legal  with a  that h i s i n s t i t u t i o n  p h o t o g r a p h s as " a r c h i v a l  administrative  In keeping  forms.  appraises  government r e c o r d s " o f them i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Even he, h o w e v e r , d i d n o t  v a l u e as an a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i o n .  51  Because country  the  were  existing  curatorial  courts  greater official  of  media  established primarily  understandable. in  majority  of  As  law,  awareness  approach  photographic however, of  the  photographs,  systematically.  and  Present  acknowledge  art  can  be  archival  and  legally  tested  archivists  must  the  procedures.  to  built  to  the  is  need  of  are  which  more to  protect  upon  this  scholars,  value  practices  extent  in  i s used  will  legal  begin  science,  serve  evidence  custodial  i f we  to  photographs  permanent  improve  an  to  repositories  acquire many  that  value  certain  the  sound  often  to  archival principles  a  52 Footnotes Chapter Four 1 See O l i v e r Wendell Holmes, " ' P u b l i c Records' - Who Knows What They Are?" American A r c h i v i s t 23 (1960): 5; H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , A Manual of Archive A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (London: 1937), p. 9; Thornton W. M i t c h e l l , ed. , Norton on A r c h i v e s : The W r i t i n g s of Margaret Cross Norton on A r c h i v a l and Records Management (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1979), pp. 13-14. 2 Jenkinson, Manual, pp. 4 - 8 ; M i t c h e l l , Norton on A r c h i v e s , p. 13; Maynard J . B r i c h f o r d , Archives and Manuscripts: A p p r a i s a l and Accessioning (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1977), pp. 5 - 7 . 3 See Robert L. Brubaker, " A r c h i c a l P r i n c i p l e s and the Curator of M a n u s c r i p t s , " American A r c h i v i s t 29 (1966): pp. 505-514; Lester J . Cappon, " H i s t o r i c a l Manuscripts as A r c h i v e s : Some D e f i n i t i o n s and t h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n , " American A r c h i v i s t 39 (1976): 429-435. 4  M i t c h e l l , Norton on A r c h i v e s , p. 27.  George Chernoff and Hershel B. S a r b i n , Photography and the Law (New York: American Photographic Book P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1977), p. 107. 5  6  See Davison, "Turning a B l i n d Eye."  W i l l i a m D. Gehl and Frank L M u l l a r e , Photographs: Worth a Thousand Words as Evidence (Wisconsin: I n s t i t u t e of Continuing Legal Education, 1971), p. 1. 7  8 Chernoff and S a r b i n , Photography and the Law, p. 105; Gehl and M a l l a r e , Photographs as Evidence, p. 5; Bruce A. MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence: I t s Probative Value at T r i a l and the J u d i c i a l D i s c r e t i o n to Exclude It From Evidence," C r i m i n a l Law Q u a r t e r l y no. 16 (1973); Manitoba Law J o u r n a l no. 5 (1973). Gehl and M a l l a r e , Photographs as Evidence, p. 5; MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence," p. 161. 9  10 Chernoff and S a r b i n , Photography and the Law, pp. 104-106; Gehl and M u l l a r e , Photographs as Evidence, pp. 5 - 7 ; MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence, pp. 151, 162 . H Kenneth Chase, "The Legal Issues Concerning the A d m i s s i b i l i t y of Computer P r i n t o u t s and M i c r o f i l m , " paper  53  presented at the Annual Conference of the A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , Vancouver, B . C . , 1 June 1983, p. 4. 12  MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence," pp. 153, 175.  13 i b i d . , p. 153. See a l s o : Canadian Evidence A c t , R . S . C . 1970; c . E-10, s . 30 ( 6 ) . Judges may consider both the content and the form of a record to determine i t s probative v a l u e . 14  Gehl and M u l l a r e , Photographs as Evidence, p. 9.  1 I b i d . , p. 21; Chernoff and S a r b i n , Photography and the Law, p. 109. For more information about lenses and f i l m s acceptable in c o u r t s , see Fred H e r t e l , " P i c t u r e Your R i g h t s , " Photo L i f e 62 (September, 1981; October, 1981). 5  1 6  Canada Evidence A c t , s . 24.  1 7  Ibid.,  18  Chasse, "The A d m i s s i b i l i t y of Computer P r i n t o u t s , "  s . 30.  p. 4. 19 92-93.  Gehl and M u l l a r e , Photographs as Evidence, pp.  20 M i t c h e l l , Norton on A r c h i v e s , pp. 27-28; J e n k i n s o n , Manual, p. 9 . 21  MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence," pp. 158-59.  22  I b i d . , p. 161.  23 M i t c h e l l , Norton on A r c h i v e s , pp. 27-28. In 1943, Norton i n d i c a t e d that under American law i t was l i k e l y that records kept by a responsible o f f i c e r would be considered a u t h e n t i c . She noted, however, the importance of honoring provenance in order to safeguard o f f i c i a l documents. 24 chasse, "The A d m i s s i b i l i t y of Computer p r i n t o u t s , " pp. 1 - 2 . 25 i b i d . Clear p r o v i s i o n s f o r the a d m i s s i b i l i t y of documents produced by computerized record-keeping systems have already been enacted in other c o u n t r i e s . See p. 19. 26  i b i d . , p. 24.  54 ^' Canadian General Standards Board, M i c r o f i l m as Documentary Evidence (Ottawa, 1979). 2 8  Gehl and M u l l a r e , Photographs as Evidence, p. 11.  2 9  Chasse, "The A d m i s s i b i l i t y of Computer P r i n t o u t s , "  pp. 1 - 2 .  30 Canada Evidence A c t , s . 30 ( 6 ) . A r c h i v i s t Meyer H. Fishbein a l s o p o i n t s out that a r c h i v i s t s may be questioned about the provenance of records and t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n since a c c e s s i o n i n g . In a d d i t i o n , support documentation on record-keeping systems may be requested. See "The E v i d e n t i a l Value of Non-Textual Records: An E a r l y Precedent," American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982): 189-90. 31 On the extent to which a r c h i v i s t s might be considered accountable, see Mark Hopkins, "Records and Records Keepers J u d i c i a l l y Considered: C r e d i b i l i t y or Convenience?" A r c h i v a r i a no. 18 (1984): pp. 154-165. 32 M i t c h e l l , Norton on A r c h i v e s , pp. 106-108. See a l s o the d e f i n i t i o n of "provenance" in Rofes, A Basic G l o s s a r y . On the types of records which should be c o l l e c t e d to r e f l e c t provenance, see B r i c h f o r d , A p p r a i s a l and A c c e s s i o n i n g , p. 5. 33  see S c h e l l e n b e r g , Management of A r c h i v e s , p. 92.  34 Terry Cooke, "The Tyranny of the Medium: A Comment on ' T o t a l A r c h i v e s , ' " A r c h i v a r i a 9 (Winter 1980): pp. 141-150.  55  CHAPTER FIVE RECENT SCHOLARLY USES OF PHOTOGRAPHS In a d d i t i o n to serving an o f f i c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , an a r c h i v i s t i s o f t e n given a mandate to allow p u b l i c access to records f o r g e n e a l o g i c a l , j o u r n a l i s t i c , s c h o l a r l y and other purposes. In recent y e a r s , the use (and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the q u a n t i t a t i v e use) of photographs by scholars has increased d r a m a t i c a l l y . O f f i c i a l l y and p r i v a t e l y created photographs have been a r i c h resource f o r the humanities and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . To p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s , for example, they c o n s t i t u t e a wealthy mine of data f o r the study of human behavior. To h i s t o r i a n s they o f f e r valuable images of the p a s t . A r c h i v i s t Tom Nesmith noted in 1982 that the burgeoning f i e l d of s o c i a l h i s t o r y r e q u i r e s  non-textual  sources of knowledge about people who d i d not leave such w r i t t e n records as d i a r i e s and l e t t e r s . 1 C a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d , photographic records can f u r n i s h an a s t o n i s h i n g amount of s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when s c h o l a r l y e n q u i r i e s involve the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge about c r e a t o r s , c o l l e c t o r s and users of photographs. Although a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s have been r e g u l a r l y accessed  56 by  such  researchers  historians,  their  as  use  from  intellectual.^  that  the  been  made f o r s i n g l e ,  photographs A  as  the  instance,  a  curators  (Oerry  Rundell,  Pete  obvious with  Davison,  They  nontextual  the  general  public,  the  m a t e r i a l world  partly had  distrust  been of  historian,  addition,  notes  that  images  Included,  a  the  is clear.  can  be  too  easily  towards  along  simply to  with present  be  interpretation i f the  hand,  wary  medium  widespread  Daniels,  some s c h o l a r s a r e  most  are u n f a m i l i a r  w r i t e as  Pete  (Walter  (Barry The  academics,  other  and  sociologist  gravitate  r e s i s t a n c e to  On  for  historians  they  have  archivists  causes.  to  past  rare.  literature of  in  scholars  photographs  historians  invented."^ medium  and  i t i s " , leaving nothing  most  the  photographic  many  believe that  "photography's  e x p l a i n s why  never  a variety  have  are  Sprague),  s c h o l a r s tend  "as  tool  Ooan S c h w a r t z ) ,  of  observed  visual  Oussim),  i s h a b i t : because  In  has  far  utilizing  medium.  (Estelle  suggest  sources.  interpreted:  the  a professor  media,  of  specialists  Daniel, Stuart Seely  explanation  familiar  of  librarian  (Games B o r c h e r t ) , a n d O'Connell).^  pieces  projects  and  f o r purposes  Oussim  investigative  use  producers  for photographs  research  information  minimal  are  Estelle  unconnected  a primary of  television  g e n e r a l l y been  requests  Extended  number  lamented  has  Librarian  m a j o r i t y of  information.  artists,  himself  an  because  manipulated  to  support  57 any  given  theory  contexts.^ of  life  they  Susan  which  had  a n d c a n be r e a d i l y Sontag  agrees:  a r e f a r removed  placed  photographs  from  into  misleading  represent  the backgrounds  slices  i n which  meaning.  P h o t o g r a p h y r e i n f o r c e s a n o m i n a l i s t view of s o c i a l r e a l i t y as c o n s i s t i n g o f s m a l l u n i t s o f an a p p a r e n t l y infinite number... T h r o u g h p h o t o g r a p h y , t h e w o r l d becomes a s e r i e s o f u n r e l a t e d , f r e e s t a n d i n g p a r t i c l e s ; and h i s t o r y , a s e t of a n e c d o t e s . . . I t i s a view o f t h e w o r l d which denies interconnectedness, c o n t i n u i t y , b u t w h i c h c o n f e r s on e a c h moment t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a m y s t e r y . A n y p h o t o g r a p h h a s m u l t i p l e m e a n i n g s . . .6  She  adds  camera,  that  a viewer  believing  "but  this  from  not accepting  places which and  narrates  analyze,  and must c a n make  Sontag  ordered  offer  images  knowledge  of understanding,  supplied  of the  be e x p l a i n e d  which  i n time.  us u n d e r s t a n d . "  suggests  7  starts  Only  Scholars  and e s t a b l i s h i n g that  implying  reality  takes  that  narrate  c a u s e s and  photographs,  that  by a  world,  as i t l o o k s . . . F u n c t i o n i n g  the past  history,  accepts  conversely,  i s arbitrary  unclassifiable . ® Isolated  of  they  the world  ordering  consequences.  and  that  i s the opposite  i n time,  oppose  readily  course,  scholar material  units  and open  t o make  of data  i n any form  to manipulation.  an h o n e s t  in its original  effort context.  c a n seem  unrelated,  I t i s the task  to understand Using  of the  source  photographs  as a  58  starting social  point,  background  reconstruction matter,  was  created  innovative questions but In  but  an  an A  is  can  excellent  media  superficial  searches  understand  the  and  research events  for  normative of  the  provide  which  files.I^  a  be  put,  for  T  visual  of  large  researchers  could permit require  given under  been  to  large  number  to  to  which  compares  single-question  intellectuals  now  not  which  two  or  common  are  a  (research  exist,  in  the  the  visual days  random,  generalizations to  "but  humanities of  of  is  a  evaluation  records  when  such  unique  rather  quantitative  of  to  more v a r i a b l e s ) .  compilation  the  numbers  access  images.11  investigative structures,  records  maintain  An  pictures  uses  Oussim  which  pose  of  e s s e n t i a l assumption is  for  simple  individual  answers  by  is  n e  history  a  attain.10  to  by  its  The  any  has  Estelle  research  not  sophisticated  visual  e v i d e n c e . G o n e  To  academics  the  approach  phenomenon  institutions  impossible  of  and  circumstances  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  that  content  over  study  sciences.12  is  linger the  scientific  quantitative social  is  not  can  subject  context  answered  on  a  acquired.^  be  serious  within  be  some  article  undertaken  of  of  by  systematic  to  may  sometimes  non-textual  This  original  knowledge  which  enquiries  generally  viewer  response  through  understanding  can  of  however.  photograph, it  some  may  research  haphazardly-collected about  extensive,  hypotheses, routinely  gathered  59 bodies of i n f o r m a t i o n . Some s p e c i a l i z e d media r e p o s i t o r i e s organized by subject areas do e x i s t . One f i l m c o l l e c t i o n , for i n s t a n c e , allows the study of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the d e p i c t i o n of women in German and E n g l i s h movies. To be thorough, such an a n a l y s i s of media as the c a r r i e r of the c u l t u r e which produced i t i s p o s s i b l e only when a mass of data i s a v a i l a b l e . 1 5 Some s c h o l a r s agree that unsystematic a c q u i s i t i o n of the photographs held in research r e p o s i t o r i e s has i n past l i m i t e d p r o j e c t s and biased s a m p l e s . I  6  Given an adequate  supply of resource m a t e r i a l , however, serious  investigation  can b e g i n . Contrasts can be made; d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s can be observed. Walter Rundell recommends beginning with a set of photographs and l e t t i n g research hypotheses emerge. James Borchert a l s o i n d i c a t e s that r e c u r r i n g subjects and m o t i f s shape h i s s t u d i e s . During one of h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , for example, the k i n s h i p patterns in a Washington community emerged only a f t e r prolonged study of photographs of the area.17 In any case, to glance at photographs i s never enough. Truths underlying s u p e r f i c i a l images can be gleaned: body p o s i t i o n i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , can r e v e a l the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between people portrayed.18 Captions, t o o , must be c a r e f u l l y examined. Dates and other information can be v e r i f i e d by c l o s e comparison with evidence in the  60 photographs themselves and with information from e x t e r n a l sources. Corroborating documents in other media can include manuscripts, maps, newspaper c l i p p i n g s and c i t y d i r e c t o r i e s . To understand the content of both images and c a p t i o n s , immersion in secondary l i t e r a t u r e i s a l s o important.I  9  With time and thought, photographs i n e v i t a b l y  yield  much more information about subjects and c r e a t o r s than f i r s t meets the eye. A review of the c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l purposes of photographers, along with t h e i r choice and treatment of content, i s both necessary in order to understand t h e i r work and s o c i a l l y r e v e a l i n g .  Individual  purposes can be d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . Access to creators i s valuable but r a r e l y p o s s i b l e , and sometimes even the name of a photographer cannot be o b t a i n e d . In p a s t , many r e p o s i t o r i e s f a i l e d to document the provenance of photographs. In any event, many d e l i b e r a t e and unconscious purposes can be determined through a n a l y s i s of the records themselves. The s c h o l a r l y use of photographs has broadened during the past decade. An issue of the J o u r n a l of American Culture published in 1981, f o r example, includes a r t i c l e s about the u t i l i z a t i o n of the medium by c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s , about the manner i n which labourers were p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y depicted between 1840 and 1920, about domestic snapshots,  61  and  about  projects  the have  professionals and  the  p h o t o - j o u r n a l i s m of  Robert  Capa.  ranged  of  pioneer  to  Photographs  cannot  They  answer  revealed cannot  can  questions  notes  that  general  terms  along  may  an  invaluable  of  while with  invite  possibilities.21 are  be  As  of  architectural images.20  employed  i n every  an  visual  language  speculation of  the  untapped  well,  of but  in  future,  cannot  express  lode  of  they  Marshall  the  past,  of  photography  statements  into  but  Canada, output  type  nature.  allows  projections  largely  world  abstract  descriptions  and  the  i n urban  d e s c r i b e the  McLuhan  photographs  studies  examinations  attitudes  enquiry.  from  In  however,  future they  knowledge.  62 Footnotes Chapter Five 1 Tom Nesmith, "Archives from the Bottom Up: S o c i a l H i s t o r y and A r c h i v a l S c h o l a r s h i p , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 14 (1982): P- 8. 2  j u s s i m , "Research Trends," pp. 763-764.  3 James B o r c h e r t , "An A n a l y s i s of H i s t o r i c a l Photographs: A Meethod and Case Study," Studies in V i s u a l Communication 7 (1981); Pete D a n i e l , "Photographs as H i s t o r i c a l Document," Arkansas L i b r a r i e s 35 (1978); Davison, "Turning a B l i n d E y e ' ; Barry O ' C o n n e l l , "Photograph as a Source"; Walter R u n d e l l , "Photographs as H i s t o r i c a l Evidence: E a r l y Texas O i l , " American A r c h i v i s t 41 (1978); Joan Schwartz, "The Past in Focus: Photography and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1914," B.C. Studies no. 52 (1982); Stuart Seely Sprague, "Is a P i c t u r e Worth a Thousand Words? How to Develop a P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y , " H i s t o r y News 38 (1983): 15-17. 4  O'Connell,  "Photograph as a Source," pp. 1 - 2 .  D a n i e l , "Photographs as H i s t o r i c a l Documents," p. 3. See a l s o Davison, "Turning a B l i n d Eye." 5  6  7  Sontag, On Photography, pp. 22-23. Ibid.  O ' C o n n e l l , "Photograph as a Source," p. 5; Sontag, On Photography, p. 80. 8  9  O ' C o n n e l l , "Photograph as a Source," pp. 5 - 7 .  10 B a r t h e s , Camera L u c i d a , p. 99. 11 See R u n d e l l , " E a r l y Texas O i l " ; Sprague, " P i c t o r i a l History." 12  J u s s i m , "Research Uses," p. 764.  13  I b i d . , P. 765.  14  Ibid.,  15  I b i d . . , P- 769.  16 Study."  P. 767 .  See R u n d e l l , " E a r l y Texas O i l " ; B o r c h e r t ,  "Case  63  1 7  See  B o r c h e r t , "Case  18  See  Davison, "Turning a B l i n d  19  O'Connell, "Photograph  Study." Eye."  as a S o u r c e , " p.  6.  2° 3 u s t i n K e s t e n b a u m , "The P h o t o g r a p h : A New F r o n t i e r i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y " ; R i c h a r d O e s t r e i c h e r , "From A r t i s a n t o Consumer: Images o f W o r k e r s , 1840-1920"; J a c o b s , "Grammar"; L a w r e n c e R u d n e r , "The I n v o l v e d E y e : R o b e r t Capa as P h o t o j o u r n a l i s t , 1936-54," J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n C u l t u r e 4 ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; P h y l l i s L a m b e r t , " P h o t o g r a p h i c D o c u m e n t a t i o n and B u i l d i n g s : R e l a t i o n s h i p s P a s t and P r e s e n t " ; S t a n l e y G. T r i g g s , "Alexander Henderson: N i n e t e e n t h Century Landscape P h o t o g r a p h e r , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; L i l l y K o l t u n , C i t y B l o c k s , C i t y Spaces: H i s t o r i c a l P h o t o g r a p h s of Canada's U r b a n G r o w t h , 1850-1900 ( O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1980). 21  McLuhan, U n d e r s t a n d i n g M e d i a ,  p.  201.  64  CHAPTER A  CRITICAL  LITERATURE  Accepted disregarded  BY  archival  theory  of photographs.  which  have  administrative  photographs is  published  i s often  the confused  i n the a r c h i v a l  published  i n 1 9 6 5 , T.R.  of North  established  unfortunately non-textual meaning  from  organic  activities  pictorial  basic  their  records  While  are  overlooked of  that  or  professional of the  concern  literature  f o r the  o f many o f f i c i a l l y - p r o d u c e d One  of the causes,  of visual field.  records  archival  long  h i s own  produce  no  doubt,  leading in a  manual  acknowledged  as a  and c u r a t o r i a l p r a c t i c e ,  professional  noting  by  For example,  that  organizational which  ARCHIVISTS  examination  reveals  d i d not apply  media.  number  Schellenberg,  American  several  An  lacking.  theorists  parent  has been  value  treatment  OF  PHOTOGRAPHIC  custodians  permanent  SURVEY  by an o v e r w h e l m i n g  they  SIX  p r i n c i p l e s , but  tenets  to records  archival  origins them,  he  in  records  and from stated  the  that  exceptional:  ...the provenance of p i c t o r i a l records i n some g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c y , c o r p o r a t e body o r person i s r e l a t i v e l y unimportant, f o r such r e c o r d s do n o t d e r i v e much o f t h e i r  derive  65  meaning from t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r i g i n s . . . Such r e c o r d s are o r d i n a r i l y not p r o d u c e d f o r p u r p o s e s o f a c t i o n and are o f t e n not t r u l y o r g a n i c i n c h a r a c t e r . They are u s u a l l y produced...to s t i m u l a t e e m o t i o n a l response. Thus, a photographer o r an a r t i s t may produce p i c t u r e s f o r artistic pleasure.^  Whether  or  records  are  purposes, between they  not  Schellenberg  generated  his the  respect  has  been  that  by  creating agencies  in  general  activities  create  understood  of  for  creators  accepted  as  the  and  pictorial for  serious  crucial  the  integral  links  records to  the  which  archival  profession. In the  a  study  Society  Brichford visual  of  also  records  general  compositional  any  and  purposes  must for  always  custodians  an  of  appraisal criteria  Archivists  yet  always  be  be  they  seen  official  that  of  be  been  as  records  and  however,  agreeing  that  for  "significant to  and  created.  photographs.  records  quality  i t i s the  Maynard  special  applied  secondary  for  between  utilized  such  sufficient  have  only  be  q u a n t i t i e s of  records,  author  form,  "quality,"  must  produced  distinction  textual  adding  unwieldy  visual  which  1977,  a p p r a i s a l should  arrangement,"  to  in  "quantity,"  by  in  unfortunate  documents of  as  posed  unique  form  should  made  records,  considerations  Challenges  archival  American  standards  non-textual  hardly  of  are  documents to  Such  serve  in the  issues  concerns. archival  To criterion  66 of  on-going  paramount.  administrative Brichford's  Schellenberg they  are  primary  ' s,  is  generated functions  value  treatment  apparently only  of  for  for  In  to  the  article  map  of  discusses  that  Ralph  disposal  value  and  has by  graphic  of  misleading.  expired.  the  issue  archives  "traditional"  with  documents  in  example,  i t i s  not  a r t i s t i c while  the  photograph of  the  most  will  any  or  a  (an  aesthetic of  of  safety  and  donors.  In  material  such form.  the as  be  both  of  Illegible  records  quality wiring  clear-thinking  of  technical  distinction  lack  illustrated  i t s  suggesting  in  clarity  must  value.  textual  manuscript, a  is  printing  informational  for  addition,  even  basically by  the  when  "quality",  records  an refreshingly  Nevertheless,  destroy  impossible value  or  Again,  problem  for  photographs  can  technical  instance),  One  that  unique  refers  A  possess  valuable  have  with  the  gift  Ehrenberg,  o f f i c i a l  considerations.''  to  a  to  archives,  agencies  parent  misled  aesthetic  addition,  belief  graphic  their  and  report,  along  peripheral  artifacts,  and  from  faced  the  "...for  between  the  is  aural  aural  distinguished  be  upon  purposes  relationship  administrative Ehrenberg  on  archivist,  direct  activities he  remain  photographs,  based  like  must  exhibition."3  an  American  of  organizations:  publication... Photographs, values  which  in In  form for  permanently  remains  irrelevant.  American  archivists,  a  Margaret Cross Norton, recognized as e a r l y as 1956 t h a t , regardless of form, i t i s p r i m a r i l y the i n f o r m a t i o n a l content of o f f i c i a l records which must be appraised and p r o t e c t e d . Technical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are secondary: The a r c h i v i s t ' s i n t e r e s t in the p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s of records i s based upon the problems which face him a f t e r the permanent records come i n t o h i s custody [Emphasis mine]. W i l l they create problems i n storage; w i l l they require r e s t o r a t i o n i n connection with t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n ; w i l l they be i n a form which w i l l make i t easy f o r him to l o c a t e data in the records? 5  In other words, before a c q u i r i n g records an a r c h i v i s t must consider a d m i n i s t r a t i v e value rather than t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s . Two Canadian a r c h i v i s t s , Hugh Taylor and Terry Cook, have a l s o made valuable c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the e x i s t i n g body of l i t e r a t u r e on n o n - t e x t u a l media. In h i s r e f l e c t i o n s on "Documentary A r t , " Hugh Taylor noted that custodians have tended to plunder u n i t s of government records to o b t a i n work s o l e l y f o r i t s a r t i s t i c v a l u e . 6 He pointed that v i s u a l records which have been produced as o f f i c i a l p u b l i c documents (war p a i n t i n g s commissioned as propaganda t o o l s ,  for  example) should be treated as such. In other words, they must be c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e i r documentary rather than t h e i r a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . I t  (informational)  i s a l s o important to  determine whether r e l a t e d documents in other media have an  68  organic  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the documentary a r t i n q u e s t i o n .  Hugh T a y l o r  a l s o recommended g r e a t e r  creator's viewpoint, of  7  awareness o f a  o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f c r e a t i o n , and  t h e s p e c i f i c ways i n w h i c h an a r t i s t  uses a given  medium  to convey a p a r t i c u l a r message. In 1979, T e r r y  Cook a p p l i e d  provenance t o the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s some s e r i o u s separating  flaws  records  of any o f f i c i a l  i n that  the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e of o f C a n a d a and  institution's practice of  by m e d i a . U n d e r s t a n d i n g  record  discovered  that  t h e meaning  i s r e l a t e d to the organic  c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f i t s c r e a t i o n , Cook r e a l i z e d t h a t government r e c o r d in  g r o u p s were b e i n g  mistreated  federal  by  custodians  such i n t e r n a l A r c h i v a l d i v i s i o n s as t h e N a t i o n a l  Photography C o l l e c t i o n :  Some p h o t o g r a p h y u n i t s make no s e c r e t t h a t a substantial part of their acquisition a c t i v i t y i s o r i e n t e d t o documenting the h i s t o r y o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c medium a n d t h a t a e s t h e t i c appeal r a t h e r than h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s of primary i m p o r t a n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , one s u c h u n i t h a s r e f u s e d on o c c a s i o n t o a c c e p t p h o t o g r a p h s f o u n d on g o v e r n m e n t f i l e s and recommended f o r t r a n s f e r [by t e x t u a l a r c h i v i s t s ] . . . 8  The  National  curatorial  P h o t o g r a p h y C o l l e c t i o n had b e e n  rather  than a r c h i v a l c r i t e r i a  to bear, with  h e a v y e m p h a s i s upon s c h o l a r l y and a r t i s t i c administrative  values.  Cook r e g r e t t e d  bringing  rather  a  than  that o f f i c i a l  records  69  were  often  being  disregarded  functional  roots  f o r narrow  documentation  of their  or being purposes  provenance,  related  m a t e r i a l . In the process,  records  was b e i n g  damaged.  Unfortunately, officially the  produced  lessons  writing  fact,  have  general  of  the Public Archives  photographs  should  research  documentary should  Ehrenberg,  Taylor  mentioned. addressed  into  o r Cook.  Canadian the issue  Minotto  In t h e i r  the variety  l e g a l ) uses  was made  of Canada.  custodians, i n of a p p r a i s a l i n  by C l a u d e  observed  illuminates their  indicated that  areas,  and g a t h e r i n g  choosing the output  and p o i n t e d o u t  institutions  subjects of  program  that  their  He a l s o  Minotto  training  critically,  origins  of  of the  be a p p r o a c h e d  collection  interest  any i n t e r e s t i n  printed f o r the archival  content.  define  general  have  One e a r l y a t t e m p t  1974, i n a work  of  9  shown  been  links to  of bodies  photographs  in  that  the value  caretakers of  s c a r c e l y even  terms.  adequate  few c o n t e m p o r a r y  of Norton,  rarely  their  including their  administrative (including  have  from  without  on t h e a p p r a i s a l o f p h o t o g r a p h s ,  important medium  torn  o f wide  noted  photographers.10 In Peter  a thoughtful  Robertson  photographic  piece  o u t l i n e d many  information  unintentionally  submitted  t o A r c h i v a r i a i n 1976,  o f t h e ways  i n which  c a n be d e l i b e r a t e l y  distorted.  and  He, t o o , d e m o n s t r a t e d  t h e need  70 for  a critical  eye.  Robertson  indicated  should  learn  as much as p o s s i b l e  should  watch  for distortion  In  a tone  which  Robertson  also  has  since  lamented  about  that  a custodian  a photographer,  and  of p h o t o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n . 1 1  been  the  echoed  by  incomplete  many a u t h o r s ,  use  o f the medium  by  historians. In  an  issue  "Photographs overview  and  of the  caretakers,  between  records  and  Canadian  and  preserved ignored  policies,  he  photographic The  statement,  he  d e p l o r e d the  skills  abilities  t y p e , or  of Canadian  In a  on  the  in light  having  discussion  basis  of  of  photographic and  was  independent In  a  revealing  representation  photographers  because  i s apparent  value  of  (light  here.  the  of  content."12  informational  to e v i d e n t i a l  have  v a l u e , however,  pre-occupation with  of photographs  original  of r e c o r d s produced  itself.  theory  to  only recently  "inadequate  of a r c h i v a l  (content) i n addition  upon  an  photographic  of a c c e s s  material  t h e medium  prevailing  o f awareness  that  administrative  and  acquisition  theme o f  as m a i n t a i n i n g a  collection  photographers  lack  upon  of  over-use.  noted  Huyda. H i s f o c u s was  [archivists']  to the  provision  gathered  f o r on-going  and  problems  damage t h r o u g h  practices.  by  such  concerns  the adequate  repositories  photographer, trends  professional  their  collection  devoted  A r c h i v e s , " R i c h a r d Huyda p r o d u c e d  mentioning  balance  of  of A r c h i v a r i a  His  The  value shed  on  the  71  purposes an  and  unworthy The  as  practices pursuit  next  the  by  to  history  of  of  photography  nation's  h i s t o r y . ^ Like  repositories of  the have  informational  interested  i n the  changing  concerns  value  their  of  sculpture, business those  which  (information  about  art  belong  failed  to  not  respond  Photography  of  or  Cook's  transfers  to  the  did  not  in their  For  practices the  (in  could  be  The  traditionally  been  informational  value  Meanwhile,  C o l l e c t i o n from  the  r e p l i e d only record  Abstract Birrell  National  photographs  public  the  metal  photography.  a l l e g a t i o n that  study  evidential  category.  He  any  researchers  environments).  value.  a  possessing  their  neglected  about  reflect  records  in question  has  that  manuscript  scholars of  that  implying evidence  r e f l e c t e d by  and  Photography  aesthetic  the  Birrell  contain  in this  administrative  as  appeared  and  identical,  artistic  also  permanent  seen  insisted  aided  however,  C o l l e c t i o n had  be  Birrell  artistic  art  people  to  National  a r c h i v a l and  artists  archivists,  hardly  appraisal  e v i d e n t i a l value.  history of  the  collection  work) the  documents  does  Huyda,  the  and  of  of  yields valuable  that  needlepoint,  of  be  customarily  s o c i e t i e s through  both  art  fact  issue  charges.  could  photographic  of  the  photographs  abstract  awareness  on  Cook's  value  should  archives.13  Andrew B i r r e l l  Terry  historical  creators)  i n any  commentary  a response  Collection  of  of that  groups  formed  72 "a  very  small  part  (divisions)."15 course,  reflects are being  of  archival  to  an e x i s t i n g  between  from  they  touch  of  custodians.  concerns  archivist  cultural  be d i s c o v e r e d  was  undertaken  geography. to  researchers,  which  goes  and  Collection  encourage  from  to public  o f t h e ways i n those  photographs  could  (similar  those  more e n e r g y  important  o f them  of curators.  written for and seldom  professional have  been  and o t h e r  concerns  written with  academics.  f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a summary  Schwartz  through  of her outstanding  of f r o n t i e r  British  photographs.^  thesis  Columbia  The t h e s i s  by  values  i s meant  t o s e t an  a r e examined  the a r c h i v i s t ' s  customary  t o an role.  on  which itself  of her s t u d i e s i n h i s t o r i c a l  the a r t i c l e  social  beyond  about  by h i s t o r i a n s  as p a r t  a separation  the issue of appraisal,  overview,  Although  records  sphere) would  the other  attitudes  can  Perhaps  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  articles  Joan  government  w i t h i n t h e N.P.C.  are distinct  Too many  Huyda's  official  ignored.  to devote  promote  justification  federal those  the private  upon  percentage  w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l Map  do n o t a d d r e s s  do  many  roles  media  d o . The q u e s t i o n , o f  The s m a l l  of government  remaining  Alongside  that  wrongfully  archivists  archival  Archivaria  equal  the fact  of the non-textual  still  should.  division  and would  The  they  and c u r a t o r i a l  photographic  which  they  caretakers  collecting  records  doubt  0  i s whether  probably records  N  of the holdings  example  extent  73 In the same i s s u e , s e v e r a l other c o n t r i b u t o r s  focus  d i r e c t l y upon c u s t o d i a l matters. Included are a r t i c l e s on c o n s e r v a t i o n , cataloguing and the use of v i s u a l f i n d i n g aids in reference rooms.17 Rounding out the e d i t i o n i s an annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y compiled by L i l l y Koltun of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada o u t l i n i n g the nucleus of a reference l i b r a r y f o r photographic a r c h i v i s t s . 1 8 L i s t e d are works under such headings as storage,  conservation,  d e s c r i p t i o n , copyright and e x h i b i t i o n , along with background readings d e a l i n g with the h i s t o r y of photography, concerns and a r t i s t i c photography. the b i b l i o g r a p h y  technical  Oddly, given both that  i s addressed to a r c h i v i s t s and that  a p p r a i s a l i s equal i n importance to d e s c r i p t i o n , conservation and other a r c h i v a l processes, there i s no s e c t i o n assigned to a p p r a i s a l , and no reading in the a r c h i v a l f i e l d (and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , about o f f i c i a l  records)  i s recommended as a prelude to a c q u i s i t i o n . B r i c h f o r d ' s manual on a p p r a i s a l , f o r example, which had been published e a r l i e r i n 1977, should have been mentioned. Comments upon n o n - t e x t u a l media by such acknowledged leaders as Margaret Cross Norton should a l s o have been c i t e d . S a d l y , i t i s again c l e a r that a s e r i o u s charge can be l e g i t i m a t e l y  levied  against contemporary photographic a r c h i v i s t s : they seem to be l a r g e l y unaware of a r c h i v a l theory. Contained in subsequent e d i t i o n s of A r c h i v a r i a were an  74  historical  note  photography the  Peter  of  Dr.  of  Robertson  Lamb a n d  presentation interlude  Peter  i n Canada,  achievements  by  in  by  plus,  archivist and  Glenn  is entitled  activity,"  one  even  by  on  the e a r l y  included Dr.  Wright  use  i n a volume  Kaye  other i l l u s t r i o u s  i s defined  seriously  Robertson  of  Lamb, a  presentation  several  illustrations  persons.^  one  wonders whether archivists  as  9  The  dictionary  photographs  active  X-Ray  honoring  "Photographic Interlude."  i n at l e a s t  of  as  As  an  "a  lull  are yet  taken  sources of  information.20 The  most  Archivaria amateurs subject  was  has  article  also book  in this been which  reflects  was  outstanding  photographs  an  In the  interesting  along  with  the  first account  by  of  article of  steps taken  the  late  and  obtain  privately  included, background  the c o l l e c t i o n s .  The  Birrell  four  members,  distinct  periods  of development  Canadian  amateur  photography.  second  within  The  1940.  (The  The  the  National  some o f  during  the  the  past  Birrell  research  article,  gives  involved,  exhibiting  outlines  of  an  of  Andrew  in acquiring,  other staff  and  i n 1984).21  the c u r a t o r s  publicizing and  1839  for  the output  the authors i n  to l o c a t e created  produced  examination of  released  the e f f o r t s  Collection  photography  c o u n t r y between  treated  Photography  century.  about  a multi-authored  working  attractive feature  recent  and  written several  the h i s t o r y  authors indicate  of that  by  75  amateurs  were  snapshots, the  first  first  to  "among  the to  first  the  Undeniably,  also  and  true,  to  with  amateurs  at  least  amateurs  region  of  archives, private  f o r example)  material.  institutions however,  do  there  i s some  responsibilities risk  hurling  collection the  chartered  should  be  In a  of  important  not  of  the  as  editor  "the  of  in  fact  official  and  danger  more  from  two  the  It i s  in  Cook of  every  (some  business  to  collect  unofficial unsure  roles,  of  private  sponsor  records,  the  custodians  enthusiastically  the  which  in  archival  involved:  in their  institutions  the  Terry  obliged  both  photographs  and  medium.  repositories  of  much  form,  role  a l l archives  majority  themselves  art  p h o t o g r a p h i c work  the  inherent  an  sphere  them.  A  into than  the from  balance  sought.  spite  of  the  responsibility  archivists records.  that  Many  are  While  gather  an  true,  purview  country."23  as  camera."22  almost  gifted  on-the-spot  photography,  development  in his introduction,  the  take  photography  played  states  i s the  to  colour  miniature  aesthetic  or  first pursue  experiment  adopt  technical  the  have  to  their  remained  Although  that  the  attempted  publish  by  definition  have  agencies, photographic  relatively  National an  archivists  parent  i t willingly  photography, to  fact  uninterested  investigates  Photography  official  amateur  Collection  in-depth treatment  in  of  the  has  not  many  yet  76  administrative  uses of photography  by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f  Canada. Turning  away f r o m A r c h i v a r i a , t h e a s s e s s m e n t  p h o t o g r a p h s was an  well  i s s u e o f B.C.  treated  Studies  by a r c h i v i s t J e r r y D a v i s o n i n  d e v o t e d t o " P h o t o g r a p h y and  Columbia."24 Davison a p t l y demonstrated photographic  information  b u t m u s t be s e e n  to h i s t o r i a n s  c a n n o t be a c c e p t e d a t f a c e  I n t h e same v o l u m e , w h i c h  that  value, and  was  by J o a n S c h w a r t z , o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a r c h i v i s t s  continued archival  to pursue  their interest in historical  i s s u e s . J o a n S c h w a r t z and  Lilly  Koltun  survey photography Provincial Archives  i n B.C.,  of B r i t i s h  annotated bibliography relating  and D a v i d M a t t i s o n  and a l a r g e r l i s t  of  of the  publications  r e p e a t an e a r l i e r p o i n t , much o f t h i s work c o u l d by h i s t o r i a n s . A r c h i v a l e x p e r t i s e  required.  While the c o n t r i b u t i n g a strong  short  i n the r e g i o n .  generated  was  not to  o f the importance o f  creators  and c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f c r e a t i o n , t h e y s o m e t i m e s  exceeded  their professional  o b l i g a t i o n t o make a v a i l a b l e  photographic records along with  a minimum amount o f  background  acting  information,  To  have been  a r c h i v i s t s did bring  awareness  instead  than  described  Columbia compiled a  to the h i s t o r y of photography  subjects  rather  interpreted  p h o t o g r a p h s o f a f r o n t i e r town, Andrew B i r r e l l  their  British  i n l i g h t of the purposes, i n t e g r i t y  methods o f i t s c r e a t o r s . edited  of  as s c h o l a r s  by  77  using of  photographs  history  review  of  and  the  this  applauded  the  as  source  material  d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  group  of  articles,  archivists  f o r the past  reconstruction  social  historian  v a l u e s . In  Douglas  a  Cole  involved:  A r c h i v i s t s have been i n t h e v a n g u a r d of h i s t o r i c a l p h o t o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s i n Canada. Not c o n t e n t t o a w a i t h i s t o r i a n s and o t h e r s to d i s c o v e r the c a c h e s o f images c o l l e c t e d and p r e s e r v e d i n t h e i r r e p o s i t o r i e s , t h e y have f o r g e d ahead w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Canadian photography.25  Cole  also  cited  photographers 2  Huyda. ^  given  an  p o i n t of  which  reviews  of  (including Richard  directed  reviews  by  Each an  of  might  archivist  books  reviews,  an  the  attention  equal and  a  historical  Minotto, David  Blight,  Richard  from  f a r from  these  utilizing  Claude  these  and  approve,  i s very into  books  by  frontier  i t i s unfortunate  holdings  scholarly  about  Andrew B i r r e l l  view  Huyda, E l i z a b e t h  Roger).27 written  was  by  books  historian  to o f f i c i a l  energy  superb  produced  While  archivist's  the  Andrew  the  flurry  of  photographs  Mattison,  Birrell  printed  to  and  Andrew  in Archivaria,  responsible for o f f i c i a l  was  government  records. Finally, published  by  a glance American  disappointment.  The  at  the  literature  photographic  on  archivists  strong administrative  appraisal brings  value  of  further  78 photography has simply not been acknowledged. Since the f i r s t a r t i c l e about photographic records appeared in American A r c h i v i s t i n 1950, the a p p r a i s a l of photographs has been viewed almost e n t i r e l y from a s c h o l a r l y p o i n t of view. Hermine Baumhofer, an a r c h i v i s t f o r the A i r Force, did at l e a s t observe that the content of o f f i c i a l photographs  is  r e l a t e d to the f u n c t i o n s of the agency c r e a t i n g them.28 g  n e  b e l i e v e d , however, that research use of such records would be made b a s i c a l l y by h i s t o r i a n s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , g e n e a l o g i s t s , p u b l i c i s t s , and p r i v a t e manufacturers. P o t e n t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s beyond p u b l i c i t y were not a n t i c i p a t e d . Instead, she described reference requests o r i g i n a t i n g outside of the agency, i n v o l v i n g images of such s p e c i f i c subjects as a p r o p e l l o r s h a f t , the growth of a f r o n t i e r town or s o i l erosion i n a given area.29 In 1958, a r c h i v i s t Joe Thomas a l s o tackled the subject of a r c h i v a l photographs, suggesting that not every document created should be preserved, and w i s e l y i n d i c a t i n g that records management i s as necessary for photographs as f o r t e x t u a l records.30 He recommended a p p r a i s a l on the basis of both i n f o r m a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . Along with Baumhofer, though, Thomas d i d not delve i n t o the v a r i e t y  of  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons for preserving photographic r e c o r d s . In 1965, two a r t i c l e s by custodians of corporate photographs appeared in S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s . Betty Hale of the  79 P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s Department of Socony Mobil O i l  regarded  photography as a t o o l f o r r e l a t i n g the h i s t o r y of a company as w e l l as a u s e f u l element in a d v e r t i s i n g campaigns, annual reports and n e w s l e t t e r s . 3 1 Irene Simpson of the H i s t o r y Room of Wells Fargo Bank a l s o emphasized the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s value of v i s u a l images, o f f e r i n g photographs of miners, stagecoaches and h i s t o r i c a l landscapes to commercial a r t i s t s , p u b l i s h e r s and t e l e v i s i o n producers. A g a i n , n e i t h e r author was aware of the other serious a d m i n i s t r a t i v e uses of the medium.32 A r c h i v i s t Paul V a n d e r b i l t produced a l e a f l e t on the e v a l u a t i o n of photographs f o r the Society of American A r c h i v i s t s in 1979, assessing photographic records h i s t o r i c a l and a e s t h e t i c terms: "What c o n s t i t u t e s value? R a r i t y . . . s t r i k i n g i m a g e r y . . . a r t i s t i c  in historical  interest...  h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l s . . . " 3 3 while he did make reference to " a r c h i v a l photographs i n the c l a s s i c a l sense of records of o f f i c i a l agencies with some l e g a l s t a t u s , " he made the a s t o n i s h i n g assumption that involvement with such records would be beyond the r o l e of the a r c h i v i s t , recommending that o f f i c i a l records with on-going a d m i n i s t r a t i v e value be l e f t to " o r i g i n a t o r s " to handle.34 V a n d e r b i l t believed that c r e a t o r s would themselves  identify  and r e t a i n any photograph of permanent v a l u e , a stance which opposes a commonly held b e l i e f that an a r c h i v i s t  is  80 reponsible and  f o r h e l p i n g to determining  evidential  outside  values  f o r both  on-going  informational  t h e c r e a t i n g agency  and  researchers.  The  most r e c e n t  article  a p p e a r , p u b l i s h e d i n 1983,  on  was  archival  photographs  w r i t t e n by M i l d r e d S i m p s o n  the A t l a n t i c  Richfield  Corporation.35  pattern,  indicated  t h a t t h e company's p h o t o g r a p h  she  collection  j  n a  e m p l o y e e s and  but  d i d not  delve  into  the  which  shareholders.  S i m p s o n d e s c r i b e d an a u t o m a t e d s y s t e m d e v i s e d the c o l l e c t i o n ,  of  familiar  n o w  forms p a r t of a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s u n i t  produces i n f o r m a t i o n f o r both  to  for control  of  i s s u e of  appraisal. In  c o n c l u s i o n , i t has  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e use legal  sphere,  focus almost  become c l e a r  of photography  photographic entirely  material.  In f u t u r e , i n o r d e r  their  principle  sponsoring  interest  establish programs.  and  v a l u e and  unofficially  to apply  adequately  i n the to  the produced the  of provenance to the r e c o r d s c r e a t e d  bodies,  i n working  archivists  officially  notably  have c o n t i n u e d  upon t h e p u b l i c i t y  use  although  i s growing,  archivists  scholarly  archival  of b o t h  that  both  of t e x t u a l  they  will  need t o show a g r e a t e r  with originators  r e c o r d s and  by  other  and  with  related  t h o u g h t f u l r e c o r d s management and  media  archival  to  81 Footnotes Chapter Six 1  S c h e l l e n b e r g , Management of A r c h i v e s , p.324.  2  B r i c h f o r d , A p p r a i s a l and A c c e s s i o n i n g , pp. 3 - 4 . Ibid.  3  Ralph E . Ehrenberg, "Aural and Graphic Archives and M a n u s c r i p t s , " Drexel L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 11 (1975): pp. 5 5 - 7 1 . 4  5  M i t c h e l l , Norton on A r c h i v e s , p. 255.  6  Hugh A. T a y l o r , "Documentary A r t , " pp. 417-428.  7  I b i d . , pp. 420-426.  8  Cook, "Tyranny of the Medium," pp.  141-144.  Ibid.  9  1° Claude M i n o t t o , A r c h i v i s t and the Photograph. H Peter Robertson, "More Than Meets the Eye," A r c h i v a r i a no.2 (1976): pp. 4 2 - 4 3 . 12  Huyda, "Photographs and A r c h i v e s , " p. 6.  13 For d e f i n i t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n a l and e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e , see Rofes, "A Basic G l o s s a r y . " 14 Andrew B i r r e l l , "The Tyranny of A r c h i v a r i a no. 10 (1980). 15  Tradition,"  i b i d . , p. 25.  16 Joan M. Schwartz, "The Photographic Record of Pre-Confederation B . C . , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978). 1 Klaus B. Hendricks, "The P r e s e r v a t i o n of Photographic Records"; David Mattison and Saundra Sherman, "Cataloguing H i s t o r i c a l Photographs with ISBD (NBM)"; Linda Johnson, "Yukon Archives V i s u a l Photograph Finding A i d , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978). 7  1 Koltun et a l . , "The Photograph: An Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y for A r c h i v i s t s , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978). 8  82 19 Peter Robertson, "The A l l - P e n e t r a t i n g ' X ' , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 10 (1980); Peter Robertson and Glenn T. Wright, "Photographic I n t e r l u d e , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 15 (1983). 20 See Sidney R. B e r g q u i s t , ed. , New Webster's D i c t i o n a r y of the E n g l i s h Language: Canadian E d i t i o n (Chicago: Consolidated Book P u b l i s h e r s , 1975; W i l l o w d a l e , O n t a r i o : Nelson, Foster and S c o t t , 1975). 21 Andre B i r r e l l , "From A c q u i s i t i o n to E x h i b i t i o n " ; Andrew B i r r e l l , Peter Robertson, L i l l y K o l t u n , Andrew Rodger and Joan Schwartz, "On View: the Evolution of Amateur Photography"; Ann Thomas, " R e f l e c t i o n s on an E x h i b i t i o n , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 17 (1984); L i l l y K o l t u n , P r i v a t e Realms of L i g h t : A S e l e c t i v e H i s t o r y of Amateur Photography in Canada (Toronto: F i t z h e n r y and Whiteside, 1984). 22  B i r r e l l , et a l . , "On View," p. 115.  23 see e d i t o r ' s foreword to B i r r e l l , "From A c q u i s i t i o n to E x h i b i t i o n , " p. 106. 24  Davison, "Turning a B l i n d Eye."  25 Douglas C o l e , review of Joan Schwartz, e d . , "The Past In Focus: Photography and B r i t i s h Columbia," A r c h i v a r i a no. 14 (1982): p. 187. 26 Andrew B i r r e l l and Ralph G r e e n h i l l , Canadian Photography: 1839-1920 (Toronto: Coach House P r e s s , 1979); Richard J . Huyda, Camera in the I n t e r i o r , 1858: The A s s i n i b o i n e and Saskatchewan E x p l o r i n g Expedition (Toronto: Coach House P r e s s , 1975). 27 s e e , for example, Clause M i n o t t o , reviw of Robert F. Harney and Harold Troper, Immigrants: A P o r t r a i t of the Urban Experience, 1890-1930 (Toronto: Van Nostrand R e i n h o l d , 1975; A r c h i v a r i a no. 4 (1977); Richard Huyda, reviews of Richard Vroom, Old New Brunswick: A V i c t o r i a n P o r t r a i t (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978); Tony Cashman, A P i c t u r e H i s t o r y of A l b e r t a (Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1979); Roger H a l l and Gordon Dodds, A P i c t u r e H i s t o r y of Ontario (Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1978); David M a t t i s o n , reviews of Andrew B i r r e l l , Benjamin B u l t z l y : Photographs and J o u r n a l of an Expedition through B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871 (Toronto: Coach House P r e s s , 1978); Carole Harmon, e d . , Great Days in the Rockies: The Photographs of Byron Harmon, 1906-1934 (Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978); A r c h i v a r i a no. 9 (1980); E l i z a b e t h B l i g h t , review of Richard J . Huyda, Camera In the I n t e r i o r , A r c h i v a r i a no. 2 (1976); Andrew B i r r e l l ,  83 review of E.O. J a n i s and Wendy M a c N e i l , Photography Within the Humanities (New Hampshire: Addison, 1977); A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978); Andrew Rodger, review of Canadian Women's Studies 2 (1980) A r c h i v a r i a no. 11 (1981). 28 Hermine M. Baumhofer, "Some Reference Problems of P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n s , " American A r c h i v i s t 13 (1950): p. 122. 29  i b i d . , p. 123.  Joe D. Thomas, "Photographic A r c h i v e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 21 (1958): p. 420. 3 0  31 Betty Hale, " P i c t u r e s in Your Company's A r c h i v e s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 56 (1965). Irene Simpson, " P i c t u r e s f o r P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 56 (1965). 3 2  Paul V a n d e r b i l t , " e v a l u a t i n g H i s t o r i c a l Photographs: A Personal P e r s p e c t i v e , " H i s t o r y News 34 (1979): pp. 279-80. 3 3  3 4  I b i d . , p. 284.  5 Mildred Simpson, "Photographs In a Business S e t t i n g : A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Company," American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982 ) . 3  84  Bibliography General Adams, A n s e l and N e w h a l l , Nancy. T h i s I s t h e A m e r i c a n E a r t h . San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a C l u b , 1960. B e r g e r , John and Mohr, J e a n . A n o t h e r Way Y o r k : P a n t h e o n B o o k s , 1982.  of T e l l i n g .  New  B o u r k e - W h i t e , M a r g a r e t . H a l f w a y t o Freedom: A R e p o r t on t h e New I n d i a i n t h e Words and P h o t o g r a p h s o f M a r g a r e t B o u r k e - W h i t e . New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1949. G e r n s h e i m , H e l m u t . J u l i a M a r g a r e t Cameron; Her L i f e and P h o t o g r a p h i c Work. M i l l e r t o n , New Y o r k : A p e r t u r e , 1975. G o r d o n , C o l i n . A R i c h e r D u s t : E c h o e s From an E d w a r d i a n Album. New Y o r k and P h i l a d e l p h i a : J.B. L i p p i n c o t t , 1978. H a r p e r , J . R u s s e l l and T r i g g s , S t a n l e y . P o r t r a i t o f a P e r i o d : A C o l l e c t i o n o f Notman P h o t o g r a p h s , 1856-1915. M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Karsh, Yousuf. Karsh Canadians. T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1978.  Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y  Norman, D o r o t h y . A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z : Y o r k : Random House, 1973. S c h a r f , A a r o n . A r t and P h o t o g r a p h y . S t e i c h e n , Edward. A L i f e and Co., 1981 .  An A m e r i c a n  of  Seer.  London: P e n g u i n ,  i n Photography.  New  York:  New  1968.  Doubleday  S t e i c h e n , E d w a r d , e d . The B i t t e r Y e a r s , 1935-1941: R u r a l A m e r i c a as Seen by t h e P h o t o g r a p h e r s o f t h e Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . New Y o r k : Museum o f Modern A r t , 1962. U l l m a n n , L i v . C h a n g i n g . U.S.A. and C a n a d a : A l f r e d 1976; Bantam, 1978. W h i t e h e a d , A.N. S c i e n c e and L e c t u r e S e r i e s , 1925.  Knopf,  t h e Modern W o r l d . L o n d o n :  Lowell  85 H i s t o r y of  Photography  Gernsheim, Helmut and Gernsheim, A l i s o n . The H i s t o r y of Photography from the Camera Obscura to the Beginning of the Modern E r a . London and New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955. G r e e n h i l l , Ralph A. E a r l y Photography in Canada. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955.  Toronto:  Langford, M i c h a e l . The Story of Photography: From I t s Beginnings to the Present Day. London and New York: Focal P r e s s , 1980. Newhall, Beaumont. The H i s t o r y of Photography: From 1839 to the Present Day. 7th ed. New York: Museum of Modern A r t , 1981. Newhall, Beaumont and Newhall, Nancy. Masters of Photography. New York: A and W P u b l i s h e r s , 1958. P o l l a c k , P e t e r . The P i c t u r e H i s t o r y of Photography: From the E a r l i e s t Beginnings to the Present Day. New York: Harry Abrams, 19 58. R u d i s i l l , R i c h a r d . M i r r o r Image: The Influence of the Daguerrotype on American S o c i e t y . Albuquerque: U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico P r e s s , 1971. T a l b o t , W i l l i a m Henry Fox. The P e n c i l of Nature. New York: Da Capo P r e s s , 1969. W e l l i n g , W i l l i a m B. Photography in America: The Formative Years, 1839-1900. New York: C r o w e l l , 1978. Nature and Uses of  Photography  Arnheim, Rudolf. V i s u a l T h i n k i n g . Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1969.  of  Barthes, Roland. Translated by Richard Howard. Camera L u c i d a : R e f l e c t i o n s on Photography. New York: H i l l and Wang, 1981; Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1981. B r u m f i e l d , John. "A good milk cow i s not a h e l i c o p t e r , and that i s a f a c t . " Photo Communique 2 (1980): 30-38. Freund, G i s e l e . Photography and S o c i e t y . Boston: D.R. Godine, 1980.  86 G o l d b e r g , V i c k i , ed. P h o t o g r a p h y i n P r i n t ; W r i t i n g s from 1816 t o t h e P r e s e n t . New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1981 . J a c o b s , D a v i d . " D o m e s t i c S n a p s h o t s : Toward a Grammar o f M o t i v e s . " J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n C u l t u r e 4 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 99-109. James, G e o f f r e y . " R e s p o n d i n g no. 192 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 1-36.  to Photographs." Arts  McLuhan, M a r s h a l l . U n d e r s t a n d i n g M e d i a . London, T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1964. S o n t a g , S u s a n . On P h o t o g r a p h y . New Y o r k : D e l l 1977.  Canada  New Y o r k and  Publishing,  W o l l h e i m , P e t e r . " C r i t i c a l I s s u e s : A Look a t V a l u e s i n P h o t o g r a p h i c C r i t i c i s m . " P h o t o Communique 4 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 26-30.  A r c h i v e s and P h o t o g r a p h s B a u m h o f e r , H e r m i n e . "Some R e f e r e n c e P r o b l e m s o f P i c t u r e C o l l e c t i o n s . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 13 ( 1 9 5 0 ) : 121-128. B i r r e l l , Andrew. "From A c q u i s i t i o n t o E x h i b i t i o n . " A r c h i v a r i a no. 17 ( 1 9 8 4 ) : 106-114. . "The T y r a n n y ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 249-252.  of T r a d i t i o n . " A r c h i v a r i a  no. 10  B i r r e l l , Andrew; K o l t u n , L i l l y ; R o b e r t s o n , P e t e r ; R o d g e r , Andrew; and S c h w a r t z , J o a n . "On V i e w : The E v o l u t i o n o f Amateur P h o t o g r a p h y . " A r c h i v a r i a no. 17 ( 1 9 8 4 ) : 115-135. Boles, Frank. " D i s r e s p e c t i n g O r i g i n a l A r c h i v i s t 45 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 26-32.  Order."  American  B o o t h , L. and W e i n s t e i n , R.A. C o l l e c t i o n , C a r e and Use o f H i s t o r i c Photographs. N a s h v i l l e : American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S t a t e and L o c a l H i s t o r y , 1977. B r i c h f o r d , M a y n a r d , J . A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s : A p p r a i s a l and A c c e s s i o n i n g . C h i c a g o : S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , 1977. B r u b a k e r , R o b e r t L. " A r c h i v a l P r i n c i p l e s and t h e C u r a t o r o f M a n u s c r i p t s . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 29 ( 1 9 6 6 ) : 505-514.  87  C a p p o n , L e s t e r 3. A r c h i v i s t 39  "The A r c h i v i s t as C o l l e c t o r . " (1976): 429-435.  American  Cook, T e r r y . "The T y r a n n y o f t h e Medium: A Comment on A r c h i v e s ' . " A r c h i v a r i a no. 9 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 141-150.  'Total  E h r e n b e r g , R a l p h E. " A u r a l and G r a p h i c A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s . " D r e x e l L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y (1975): 55-71. H a l e , B e t t y . " P i c t u r e s i n Your Company's A r c h i v e s . " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 56 ( 1 9 6 5 ) : 4 1 . Ham,  F. G e r a l d . "The ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 5-13.  Archival  Edge." A m e r i c a n  Archivist  38  H e n d r i c k s , K l a u s B. "The P r e s e r v a t i o n of P h o t o g r a p h i c R e c o r d s . " A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 ( 1 9 7 8 ) : 92-100. H o l m e s , O l i v e r W e n d e l l . " ' P u b l i c R e c o r d s ' - Who Knows What They A r e ? " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 23 ( 1 9 6 0 ) : 3-26. Huyda, R i c h a r d 3. " P h o t o g r a p h s A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 ( 1 9 7 8 ) :  and A r c h i v e s i n C a n a d a . " 3-16.  K o l t u n , L i l l y , e d . "The P h o t o g r a p h : An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y f o r A r c h i v i s t s . " A r c h i v a r i a no. 124-140. J o h n s o n , L i n d a . "Yukon A r c h i v e s V i s u a l P h o t o g r a p h A i d . " A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 ( 1 9 7 8 ) : 112-123.  5  (1978):  Finding  M a t t i s o n , D a v i d and Sherman, S a u n d r a . " C a t a l o g u i n g H i s t o r i c a l P h o t o g r a p h s w i t h ISBD (NBM)." A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 ( 1 9 7 8 ) : 101-111. M i n o t t o , C l a u d e . The A r c h i v i s t and t h e P h o t o g r a p h : An Image That H o l d s . Ottawa: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1974. M i t c h e l l , T h o r n t o n W., ed. N o r t o n on A r c h i v e s : The W r i t i n g s o f M a r g a r e t C r o s s N o r t o n on A r c h i v a l and R e c o r d s Management. C h i c a g o : S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , 1979. N e s m i t h , Tom. " A r c h i v e s From t h e B o t t o m Up: S o c i a l H i s t o r y and A r c h i v a l S c h o l a r s h i p . " A r c h i v a r i a no. 14 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 5-26. R o f e s , W i l l i a m L., ed. "A B a s i c G l o s s a r y f o r A r c h i v i s t s , M a n u s c r i p t C u r a t o r s , and R e c o r d s M a n a g e r s . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 37 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 4 1 5 - 4 3 3 .  88  S c h e l l e n b e r g , T.R. The Management o f A r c h i v e s . New C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. Simpson, I r e n e . " P i c t u r e s f o r P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s . " L i b r a r i e s 56 ( 1 9 6 5 ) : 39-40.  York:  Special  Simpson, M i l d r e d . "Photographs i n a B u s i n e s s S e t t i n g : A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Company." A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 45 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 315-321. T a y l o r , Hugh A. "Documentary A r t and t h e R o l e o f t h e A r c h i v i s t . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 42 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 4 1 7 - 4 2 8 . Thomas, Ann. " R e f l e c t i o n s on an E x h i b i t i o n . " 17 ( 1 9 8 4 ) : 136-144.  Archivaria  Thomas, Joe D. " P h o t o g r a p h i c A r c h i v e s . " A m e r i c a n 21 ( 1 9 5 8 ) : 419-424.  no.  Archivist  V a n d e r b i l t , Paul. "Evaluating H i s t o r i c a l Photographs: A P e r s o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e . " H i s t o r y News 34 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 279-290. R e c o r d s As L e g a l  Evidence  Canada E v i d e n c e A c t , R.S.C. 1970, C.  E-10.  Canadian General Standards Board. M i c r o f i l m E v i d e n c e . O t t a w a , 1979.  as  Documentary  C h a s s e , K e n n e t h . "The L e g a l I s s u e s C o n c e r n i n g t h e A d m i s s i b i l i t y o f Computer P r i n t o u t s and M i c r o f i l m . " Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Annual C o n f e r e n c e of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t s , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., June 1983.  1  C h e r n o f f , George and S a r b i n , H e r s h e l B. P h o t o g r a p h y and t h e Law. New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n P h o t o g r a p h i c Book P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1977. F i s h b e i n , Meyer H. "The E v i d e n t i a l V a l u e o f N o n - T e x t u a l R e c o r d s : An E a r l y P r e c e d e n t . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 45 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 189-190. M a c F a r l a n e , B r u c e A. " P h o t o g r a p h i c E v i d e n c e : I t s P r o b a t i v e V a l u e a t T r i a l and t h e J u d i c i a l D i s c r e t i o n t o E x c l u d e I t From E v i d e n c e . " C r i m i n a l Law Q u a r t e r l y no. 16 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 149-176; M a n i t o b a Law J o u r n a l no. 5 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 313-332.  89  G e h l , W i l l i a m and M a l l a r e , F r a n k L. P h o t o g r a p h s : Worth a Thousand Words as E v i d e n c e . W i s c o n s i n : I n s t i t u t e o f C o n t i n u i n g L e g a l E d u c a t i o n , 1971. H e r t e l , F r e d . " P i c t u r e Your R i g h t s . " P h o t o L i f e ( S e p t e m b e r , 1981; O c t o b e r , 1 9 8 1 ) .  62  H o p k i n s , Mark. " R e c o r d s and R e c o r d s K e e p e r s J u d i c i a l l y C o n s i d e r e d : C r e d i b i l i t y or C o n v e n i e n c e ? " A r c h i v a r i a no. 18 ( 1 9 8 4 ) : 154-165. L e d e r m a n , S i d n e y N. and S o p i n k a , J o h n . The Law o f E v i d e n c e i n C i v i l C a s e s . T o r o n t o : B u t t e r w o r t h s , 1974. Scholarly  Use  of Photographs  B i r r e l l , Andrew. B e n j a m i n B u l t z l y : P h o t o g r a p h s and J o u r n a l of an E x p e d i t i o n T h r o u g h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1871. T o r o n t o : Coach House P r e s s , 1978. B i r r e l l , Andrew. I n t o t h e S i l e n t L a n d : S u r v e y P h o t o g r a p h y i n the C a n a d i a n West, 1 8 5 8 - 1 9 0 0. O t t a w a : P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of C a n a d a , 1975. B i r r e l l , Andrew and G r e e n h i l l , 1839-1920. T o r o n t o : Coach B l i g h t , E l i z a b e t h . Review Interior. Archivaria  Ralph. Canadian Photography: House P r e s s , 1979.  o f R i c h a r d J . Huyda, Camera i n t h e no. 2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 116-1 17.  B o r c h e r t , James. "An A n a l y s i s o f H i s t o r i c a l P h o t o g r a p h s : A Method and Case S t u d y . " S t u d i e s i n V i s u a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n s 7 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 30-63. C o l e , D o u g l a s . R e v i e w o f J o a n S c h w a r t z , e d . "The P a s t i n F o c u s : P h o t o g r a p h y and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " A r c h i v a r i a no. 14 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 187-189. D a n i e l , P e t e . " P h o t o g r a p h s as H i s t o r i c a l A r k a n s a s L i b r a r i e s 35 ( 1 9 7 8 ) : 2-4.  Documents."  D a v i s o n , J . R o b e r t . " T u r n i n g A B l i n d Eye: The Use o f P h o t o g r a p h s . " B.C. S t u d i e s no. 52  Historian's ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 16-38. .  Huyda, R i c h a r d . R e v i e w s o f Tony Cashman, A P i c t u r e H i s t o r y of A l b e r t a ; Gordon Dodds and Roger H a l l , A P i c t u r e H i s t o r y o f O n t a r i o ; R i c h a r d Vroom, O l d New B r u n s w i c k : A V i c t o r i a n P o r t r a i t . A r c h i v a r i a no. 9 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 211-217.  90  J u s s i m , E s t e l l e . "Trie R e s e a r c h u s e s o f V i s u a l L i b r a r y T r e n d s 25 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 7 6 3 - 7 7 8 .  Information."  K e s t e n b a u m , J u s t i n . "The P h o t o g r a p h : A New F r o n t i e r i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y . " J o u r n a l of American C u l t u r e 4 (1981): 21-33. K o l t u n , L i l l y . C i t y B l o c k s , C i t y Spaces: H i s t o r i c a l Photographs o f Canada's Urban Growth, 1850-1900. O t t a w a : S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1 9 8 0 . K o l t u n , L i l l y . P r i v a t e Realms o f L i g h t : A S e l e c t i v e H i s t o r y of Amateur P h o t o g r a p h y i n Canada. T o r o n t o : F i t z h e n r y and W h i t e s i d e , 1984. L a m b e r t , P h y l l i s . " P h o t o g r a p h i c D o c u m e n t a t i o n and B u i l d i n g s : R e l a t i o n s h i p s P a s t and P r e s e n t . " A r c h i v a r i a n o . 5 ( 1 9 7 8 ) : 60-77. M a t t i s o n , D a v i d . Reviews o f Andrew B i r r e l l , Benjamin B a l t z l y : P h o t o g r a p h s and J o u r n a l o f an E x p e d i t i o n T h r o u g h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 8 7 1 ; C a r o l e Harman, e d . , G r e a t Days i n t h e R o c k i e s : The P h o t o g r a p h s o f B y r o n Harman, 1 9 0 6 - 1 9 3 4 . A r c h i v a r i a n o . 9 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 2 4 5 - 2 4 8 . M i n o t t o , C l a u d e . R e v i e w o f R o b e r t F. H a r n e y and H a r o l d T r o p e r , Immigrants: A P o r t r a i t of the Urban E x p e r i e n c e , 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 3 0 . A r c h i v a r i a no. 4 (1977):. pp. 9 7 - 9 8 . O ' C o n n e l l , B a r r y . "The P h o t o g r a p h As A S o u r c e f o r S o c i a l H i s t o r y . " A m h e r s t , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1977. U n p u b l i s h e d manuscript (Mimeographed). O e s t r e i c h e r , R i c h a r d . "From A r t i s a n t o C o n s u m e r : Images o f W o r k e r s , 1840-1920." J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n C u l t u r e 4 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 34-46. R o b e r t s o n , P e t e r . "The A l l - P e n e t r a t i n g 10 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 2 5 8 - 2 6 0 . R o b e r t s o n , P e t e r . "More Than M e e t s 2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 33-43.  'X'."  Archivaria  no.  the Eye." A r c h i v a r i a  no.  R o b e r t s o n , P e t e r and W r i g h t , G l e n n T. " P h o t o g r a p h i c I n t e r l u d e . " A r c h i v a r i a no. 15 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 7 0 - 7 7 . R o d g e r , A n d r e w . R e v i e w o f C a n a d i a n Women's S t u d i e s no. A r c h i v a r i a no. 11 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 2 4 5 - 2 4 7 .  2.  91 Rudner, Lawrence. "The Involved Eyes. Robert Capa as P h o t o - j o u r n a l i s t , 1936-54." Journal of American Culture 4 (1981): 120-143. R u n d e l l , Walter. "Photographs as H i s t o r i c a l Evidence: e a r l y Texas O i l . " American A r c h i v i s t 41 (1978): 373-398. Schwartz, Joan. "The Past in Focus: Photography and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1914." B.C. Studies no. 52 (1982): 5 - 1 5 . Schwartz, Joan. "The Photographic Record of Pre-Confederation B.C." A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1977): 17-44. Seely Sprague, S t u a r t . "Is a P i c t u r e Worth a Thousand Words? How to Develop a P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y . " H i s t o r y News 38 (1983 ) : 15-17. T r i g g s , Stanley G. "Alexander Henderson: Nineteenth-Century Landscape Photographer." A r c h i v a r i a no 5 (1978): 45-59.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 13 1
Japan 8 0
Canada 7 2
France 6 0
Serbia 4 0
China 2 0
Germany 1 58
United Kingdom 1 0
Ireland 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 13 58
Tokyo 8 0
Ashburn 6 0
Belgrade 4 0
Mountain View 2 1
Cumberland 2 0
New York 1 0
Seattle 1 0
Vancouver 1 0
Mount Pearl 1 0
Shenzhen 1 0
Ottawa 1 2
Gatineau 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095918/manifest

Comment

Related Items