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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Analyzing photographs in archival terms 1985

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ANALYZING PHOTOGRAPHS IN ARCHIVAL TERMS By DEBRA ELAINE BARR B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1976 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES i n THE FACULTY OF ARTS A d m i n i s t e r e d by S c h o o l o f L i b r a r i a n s h i p and Department o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g f.o the^^$f<3ujt>red s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1985 ® Debra E l a i n e B a r r , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE -6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t T h r o u g h a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e p r o d u c e d by g e n e r a l a r c h i v a l t h e o r i s t s w i t h t h a t p u b l i s h e d by p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v i s t s , i t b e c o m e s c l e a r t h a t a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e n o t r o u t i n e l y a p p l i e d t o r e c o r d s i n p h o t o g r a p h i c f o r m . S i n c e r e f l e c t i n g k n o w l e d g e a b o u t r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f c r e a t i o n i s a b a s i c a r c h i v a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l b e g i n w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f p a s t and p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s o f p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n g e n e r a l . The ways i n w h i c h b o t h p u r p o s e s and m e t h o d s c a n i n f l u e n c e p h o t o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l a l s o be s t u d i e d . The o b l i g a t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v i s t s t o e x a m i n e r e c o r d s and c r e a t o r s i n t e r m s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ( i n c l u d i n g l e g a l ) , s c h o l a r l y and o t h e r u s e r v a l u e s w i l l t h e n be e x a m i n e d . The t h e s i s w i l l c o n c l u d e w i t h a s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e p r o d u c e d by N o r t h A m e r i c a n p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v i s t s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d . i i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s I i i I n t r o d u c t i o n i v C h a p t e r 1 The I n v e n t i o n o f the Medium 1 C h a p t e r 2 The Power and L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Medium 1 1 C h a p t e r 3 O f f i c i a l and U n o f f i c i a l P r o d u c t i o n o f P h o t o g r a p h s i n Modern S o c i e t i e s 22 C h a p t e r 4 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e V a l u e i n A r c h i v a l P h o t o g r a p h s 39 C h a p t e r 5 Recent S c h o l a r l y Uses of P h o t o g r a p h s 55 C h a p t e r 6 A C r i c t i c a l S u r v e y o f L i t e r a t u r e by P h o t o g r a p h i c A r c h i v i s t s 64 B i b l i o g r a p h y 84 i v I n t r o d u c t i o n T h e r e f l e c t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f c r e a t i o n ( p r o v e n a n c e ) i s a b a s i c a r c h i v a l t a s k . T h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p u r p o s e s a n d m e t h o d s o f p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n g e n e r a l . I n t h e o p e n i n g c h a p t e r , t h e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h t h e m e d i u m was f i r s t a d o p t e d w i l l be s t u d i e d . T h e a i m o f t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r w i l l be t o r e a c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w a y s i n w h i c h t h e p u r p o s e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s o f p h o t o g r a p h e r s c a n i n f l u e n c e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s p r o d u c e d . B e c a u s e a r c h i v i s t s o f t e n c o l l e c t a r a n g e o f o f f i c i a l l y a n d u n o f f i c i a l l y c r e a t e d m a t e r i a l , t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r w i l l s u m m a r i z e some o f t h e v a r i e d p u r p o s e s t o w h i c h t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c m e d i u m i s a p p l i e d i n m o d e r n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . T h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e t h e s i s w i l l be an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v i s t s t o r e f l e c t t h e p r o v e n a n c e o f r e c o r d s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s c h o l a r l y a n d o t h e r u s e r v a l u e s . I n t h e f o u r t h c h a p t e r , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ( i n c l u d i n g l e g a l ) v a l u e o f a r c h i v a l p h o t o g r a p h s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . B e c a u s e a r c h i v i s t s o f t e n s e r v e s c h o l a r s i n a d d i t i o n t o s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e f i f t h c h a p t e r w i l l p r o v i d e an o v e r v i e w o f r e c e n t t r e n d s i n t h e u s e o f p h o t o g r a p h s V i n the humanities and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . In the f i n a l chapter, the l i t e r a t u r e published by photographic a r c h i v i s t s i n North America w i l l be evaluated to demonstrate that they are l a r g e l y unaware of the v a r i e t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s c h o l a r l y a p p l i c a t i o n s of the medium and seldom recognize t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n to analyze photographs i n a r c h i v a l terms. 1 CHAPTER ONE THE INVENTION OF THE MEDIUM The meaning of any record , as i s acknowledged in the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e of provenance, i s i n e x t r i c a b l y fastened to the aims and methods of i t s c r e a t o r . 1 Unaware of the l i m i t a t i o n s of communication media, however, the user too r e a d i l y accepts documented views of the world without consider ing the circumstances under which they have been fashioned. In f a c t , as noted c r i t i c Susan Sontag has observed, humankind reve ls in mere images of r e a l i t y . 2 We have long been entranced by v i s u a l r e f l e c t i o n s of ourselves and our environments, and during the past two hundred years we have developed inc reas ing ly sophis t icated means of preserving them. During the eighteenth century, the act i ve use of mechanical a ids to the graphic representat ion of r e f l e c t i o n s cast through ref ined glass lenses led to the discovery of a powerful image-making process. By 1826, in a v i l l a g e in France, Joseph Nicephore Niepce had invented photography.3 The s i l e n t partner of Niepce was a new s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e : The greatest invent ion of the nineteenth century was the invent ion of the method of 2 invention . . . the f u l l se l f - consc ious r e a l i z a t i o n of the power of p r o f e s s i o n a l - ism in knowledge in a l l i t s departments, and of the way to produce the p r o f e s s i o n - a l s . . . w a s f i r s t completely atta ined in the nineteenth century.^ Des i r ing c e r t a i n e f f e c t s , s c i e n t i s t s sys temat ica l l y developed the too ls needed to r e l i a b l y cause them. During the 1700s, the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Europe had created a large c lass of people with the i n c l i n a t i o n , the time and the resources a v a i l a b l e for the i m i t a t i o n of r u l i n g - c l a s s s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n . The bourgeoisie developed a passion for p o r t r a i t u r e . Perce iv ing new markets, a r t i s t s were able to respond by dev is ing e f f i c i e n t methods of product ion, and came to r e l y upon such instruments as the camera obscura. A box with a lens at one end, i t transformed a natura l scene into a traceable l ikeness on a b u i l t - i n screen.5 S i m i l a r subst i tu tes for a r t i s t i c s k i l l were frequently used: The middle c lass wanted cheap p o r t r a i t s ; mechanical devices to e l iminate the need for lengthy a r t i s t i c t r a i n i n g were put in i t s hands, so that every man could become something of an a r t i s t . The s i lhouet te required merely the a b i l i t y to trace a cast shadow; the physionotrace, invented by G i l l e s Louis Chretien in 1786, asked no more of a beginner.6 To remove the need for ta len t from the por t ra i t -making process a l together , a r t i s t s searched for ways to capture permanently the p ic tu res cast by o p t i c a l instruments. The 3 l i g h t - s e n s i t i v i t y of s e v e r a l s u b s t a n c e s ( o f s i l v e r h a l i d e compounds, f o r i n s t a n c e ) had l o n g been e s t a b l i s h e d . An o b j e c t h e l d o v e r a medium c o a t e d by s i l v e r h a l i d e p r o d u c e s an image by c u r t a i l i n g the a b i l i t y of l i g h t t o a f f e c t t h e a r e a s which i t shadows. To p r e v e n t the s u b s e q u e n t a c t i o n of l i g h t upon the shadowed a r e a s once the o b j e c t has been withdrawn (and t h e r e b y to c r e a t e a permanent r e c o r d , or " p h o t o g r a p h , " o f the o b j e c t ) , the medium must be d e - s e n s i t i z e d t h r o u g h c h e m i c a l t r e a t m e n t . The need f o r a s u i t a b l e s t a b i l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s was r e c o g n i z e d by s e v e r a l s c i e n t i s t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . ^ J o s e p h N i e p c e , a F r e n c h c i t i z e n , was an a r d e n t i n v e n t o r . D u r i n g the 1820s, he d i s c o v e r e d a way to s t a b i l i z e the r e f l e c t i o n s formed on s e n s i t i z e d m e t a l p l a t e s by the p r o j e c t i o n of l i g h t , and a l s o e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h t h e camera o b s c u r a . ^ In 1826, N i e p c e l e a r n e d t h a t L o u i s D a g u e r r e , an a r t i s t and e n t r e p r e n e u r , was w o r k i n g i n a s i m i l a r v e i n . ^ D a g u e r r e f r e q u e n t l y used the camera o b s c u r a to c r e a t e i l l u s i o n i s t i c l i g h t i n g s p e c t a c l e s as s e t t i n g s f o r t h e a t r i c a l shows.10 Overcoming i n i t i a l w a r i n e s s , t h e s c i e n t i s t and t h e a r t i s t d e c i d e d to c o l l a b o r a t e . By 1837, u s i n g a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f N i e p c e ' s p r o c e s s , D a g u e r r e was a b l e t o p e r m a n e n t l y f i x d e t a i l e d images on a m e t a l l i c base.11 P u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the d a g u e r r o t y p e was s t r o n g . F o r s e e i n g i t s a p p l i c a t i o n s , a s c i e n t i s t p e r s u a d e d the F r e n c h 4 g o v e r n m e n t t o p u r c h a s e t h e p a t e n t and t o make t h e method f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e . ^ ^ T n e g o v e r n m e n t m i n i s t e r h a n d l i n g t h e p e t i t i o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t , i n h i s o p i n i o n , p h o t o g r a p h y w o u l d r e n d e r g r e a t s e r v i c e t o t h e s t u d y o f s c i e n c e and w o u l d be o f even g r e a t e r b e n e f i t t o t h e a r t s . ^ The d a g u e r r o t y p e p r o c e s s was soon e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a d o p t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d . However, i t was n o t w i t h o u t d i s a d v a n t a g e s . A l e n g t h y t i m e p e r i o d was r e q u i r e d f o r r e f l e c t i o n s t o r e g i s t e r on a c o a t e d p l a t e , m a k i n g p o r t r a i t u r e awkward and p r e v e n t i n g t h e d e p i c t i o n o f a c t i o n . The s t r e e t s c e n e s w h i c h were commonly p r e s e n t e d by p h o t o g r a p h e r s , f o r e x a m p l e , seem s t r a n g e l y d e v o i d o f p e d e s t r i a n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e r e m a i n e d k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i n v e n t i o n and were s u c c e s s f u l l y d a g u e r r o t y p e d ; c o u n t l e s s s t i l l l i f e s and l a n d s c a p e s were a l s o p o r t r a y e d . ^ W h i l e F r e n c h i n v e n t o r s were e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , an E n g l i s h s c i e n t i s t was a l s o a t t e m p t i n g t o s t a b i l i z e m e c h a n i c a l l y - p r o d u c e d i m a g e s . The i n t e r e s t s o f W i l l i a m Henry Fox T a l b o t were n o t p u r e l y s c i e n t i f i c . S k e t c h i n g I t a l i a n l a n d s c a p e s w i t h t h e a i d o f a camera o b s c u r a , he f o u n d i t s " f a i r y p i c t u r e s " r e m a r k a b l y b e a u t i f u l , and l a m e n t e d h i s i n a b i l i t y t o t r a c e them a c c u r a t e l y : " I t was d u r i n g t h e s e t h o u g h t s t h a t t h e i d e a o c c u r r e d t o me, how c h a r m i n g i t w o u l d be i f i t were p o s s i b l e t o c a u s e t h e s e n a t u r a l i m a g e s t o i m p r i n t t h e m s e l v e s d u r a b l y , and r e m a i n 5 f i x e d upon t h e p a p e r . T o Fox T a l b o t , t h e p r o m i s e o f p h o t o g r a p h y was t h a t i t w o u l d f a i t h f u l l y r e c o r d a " n a t u r a l p i c t u r e , " one c r e a t e d "by t h e a g e n c y o f l i g h t a l o n e , w i t h o u t any a i d w h a t e v e r f r o m t h e a r t i s t ' s p e n c i l . " 1 6 By 1835, Fox T a l b o t had d e v i s e d a means o f f i x i n g r e f l e c t i o n s on p a p e r u s i n g r i n s e s o f e i t h e r p o t a s s i u m i o d i d e o r s o d i u m c h l o r i d e (common s a l t ) . H i s method was n o t e n t i r e l y r e l i a b l e . A n o t h e r E n g l i s h s c i e n t i s t , S i r Oohn H e r s c h e l , l a t e r i m p r o v e d t h e p r o c e s s by w a s h i n g e x p o s e d p h o t o g r a p h s w i t h h y p o s u l p h i t e o f s o d a ("hypo").17 p o x T a l b o t ' s " p h o t o g e n i c d r a w i n g s " f i r s t a p p e a r e d r e v e r s e d , . b u t he soon d i s c o v e r e d a way t o p r i n t an u n l i m i t e d number o f r e - r e v e r s e d " p o s i t i v e s " f r o m t h e r e v e r s e d "negative."''® T h i s t e c h n i q u e gave h i s p r o c e s s an i m p o r t a n t a d v a n t a g e o v e r D a g u e r r e ' s : w h i l e t h e t a l b o t y p e c o u l d be r e p r o d u c e d i n mass q u a n t i t i e s , e a c h d a g u e r r o t y p e was u n i q u e , and c o u l d be d u p l i c a t e d o n l y by hand t r a n s f e r t o a n o t h e r medium. The d a g u e r r o t y p e , h o w e v e r , c o u l d h o l d a more d e t a i l e d i m a g e . A l t h o u g h n o t o r i g i n a l l y m o t i v a t e d by f i n a n c i a l g a i n , Fox T a l b o t e v e n t u a l l y p a t e n t e d t h e t a l b o t y p e , p o s s i b l y f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e s e t by D a g u e r r e . He u s e d h i s i n v e n t i o n t o p h o t o g r a p h a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s : "a p a t t e r n o f l a c e s , " b o t a n i c a l s p e c i m e n s , l a n d s c a p e s and d o m e s t i c s c e n e s . 1 9 O t h e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s e m p l o y e d t h e p r o c e s s p r i m a r i l y t o r e c o r d a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s and p a s t o r a l s c e n e s . The H i s t o r i c a l 6 Monuments Commission, for instance , a French government agency responsible for the preservat ion and res to ra t ion of ca thedra ls , used the talbotype for documentary purposes.20 P o r t r a i t i s t s favored the daguerrotype, which could be more r a p i d l y produced.21 The demand for p o r t r a i t s had become so great by the 1850s that photographers could scarce ly cope. A procedure developed in 1851, the c o l l o d i o n process, soon ec l ipsed i t s predecessors. I t permitted shorter exposure t imes, and c o l l o d i o n p o s i t i v e s pr inted on glass were e a s i l y developed, a l lowing a s i t t e r to c o l l e c t a completed product almost immediately. Such modi f icat ions as the t i n t y p e , produced on meta l , a lso became popular . Sturdy and cheaply produced, they were commonly used for simple p o r t r a i t s and to memorialize s o c i a l events.22 Many inventors struggled to re f ine the por t ra i t -making process, improving lenses and increasing the l i g h t - s e n s i t i v i t y of media. Innovations occurred in accordance with purposes. American survey crews needed to develop equipment which was l e s s unwieldy than that used in the c o l l o d i o n g l a s s - p l a t e process; photographers documenting bu i ld ing features required sharper lenses . Heavy equipment and lenses which created s o f t , f l a t t e r i n g images remained usefu l to por t ra i t -makers .23 i n order to survive economical - l y a 19th Century p ro fess iona l photographer was almost 7 i n e v i t a b l y o b l i g e d to turn out p o r t r a i t s , and to adopt procedures which emphasized beauty r a t h e r than accuracy. During the 18^0s, a German inventor developed a technique f o r r e - t o u c h i n g negatives which proved l u c r a t i v e : "The news that the camera could l i e made g e t t i n g photographed much more popular. "24- The p u b l i c put great f a i t h i n the v e r a c i t y of photo- graphs. Processes had been p a i n s t a k i n g l y devised by men who had intended, in Fox T a l b o t ' s words, to allow " n a t u r a l images" to reproduce themselves. A photographic r e c o r d , however, i s formed through humanly manufactured equipment and processes. Crowded s t r e e t s can seem empty; blemished faces can be made to appear unblemished. An image channelled through c a r e f u l l y ground g l a s s i s not n a t u r a l at a l l , nor does a photograph c r e a t e i t s e l f , as Fox Talbot had hoped. A debate raged, however, for decades: could a photographer be c a l l e d a c r e a t i v e a r t i s t , or did nature do the work alone? Not u n t i l the American photographer and c u r a t o r A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z fought at the turn of the century f o r p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n of photographic a r t i s t r y were camera operators considered capable of genius, r e v e a l i n g important and p r e v i o u s l y unperceived v i s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 2 5 Photographs are manufactured r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the m a t e r i a l world, which u s u a l l y seem so r e a l that t h e i r aura of i m p a r t i a l i t y gives them unusual power. The world's f i r s t 8 photographer, Niepce, was not foo led : he l a b e l l e d them "points de vue" (points of view).26 v i s u a l l y and mental ly , they present the world from l i m i t e d stances. I t i s not yet commonly recognized, however, that photographic images are inf luenced by the techniques selected or adapted by t h e i r creators and are colored by the purposes leading to t h e i r product ion , purposes o r i g i n a t i n g in spheres ranging from ar t and science to commerce and the domestic realm. A var ie ty of s o c i a l purposes w i l l be discussed in Chapter Three. In the meantime, the powerful ways in which photographic information can be manipulated deserve c loser examination. 9 F o o t n o t e s C h a p t e r One 1 F r a n k B. E v a n s , D o n a l d F. H a r r i s o n , and Edwin A. Thompson, ed. W i l l i a m L. R o f e s , "A B a s i c G l o s s a r y f o r A r c h i v i s t s , M a n u s c r i p t C u r a t o r s and R e c o r d s Managers," A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 37 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 427. 2 Susan S o n t a g , On P h o t o g r a p h y (New Y o r k : D e l l , 1977), p. 3. ^ The term " p h o t o g r a p h i c " was c o i n e d by 3ohn H e r s c h e l , an E n g l i s h i n v e n t o r , i n 1839. See T.R. S c h e 1 l e n b e r g , The Management o f A r c h i v e s (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 323. ^ A.N. W h i t e h e a d , S c i e n c e and t h e Modern W o r l d . London: L o w e l l L e c t u r e S e r i e s , 1925. 5 Beaumont N e w h a l l , The H i s t o r y o f P h o t o g r a p h y : From 1839 to t h e P r e s e n t Day, 7 t h ed. (New York: Museum o f Modern A r t , 1981), p. 11. 6 I b i d . 7 I b i d . , pp. 11-12. 8 I b i d . , pp. 12-14; P e t e r P o l l a c k , The P i c t u r e H i s t o r y o f P h o t o g r a p h y : From t h e E a r l i e s t B e g i n n i n g s to t h e P r e s e n t Day (New Y o r k : H a r r y Abrams, 1958), pp. 16-18. 9 P e t e r W o l l h e i m , " C r i t i c a l T r a d i t i o n s , " Photo Communique 4 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 7. 1° N e w h a l l , H i s t o r y o f P h o t o g r a p h y , p. 14. 11 P o l l a c k , P i c t u r e H i s t o r y o f P h o t o g r a p h y , pp. 19-22. 12 N e w h a l l , H i s t o r y o f P h o t o g r a p h y , p. 7. 13 V i c k i G o l d b e r g , ed., P h o t o g r a p h y i n P r i n t : W r i t i n g s from 1816 t o t h e P r e s e n t (New Y o r k : Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1981), p. 31. 1^ N e w h a l l , H i s t o r y o f P h o t o g r a p h y , pp. 16-22. 15 P o l l a c k , P i c t u r e H i s t o r y o f P h o t o g r a p h y , pp. 32-34. 16 S o n t a g , On P h o t o g r a p h y , p. 88. 10 17 N e w h a l l , H i s t o r y of Photography, pp. 31-32. 18 I b i d . , pp. 32- 33. 19 I b i d . , pp. 32- 34. 20 I b i d . , P- 41 . 21 I b i d . , P- 35. 22 I b i d . , pp. 35, 48-49. 23 i b i d . , pp. 28, 56-59. 24 Sontag, On Photography, p. 86. 25 see N e w h a l l , H i s t o r y of Photography, pp. 31 26 P o l l a c k , P i c t u r e H i s t o r y of Photography, p. 11 CHAPTER TWO THE POWER AND L I M I T A T I O N S OF THE MEDIUM U n l i k e r e c o r d s i n s e v e r a l o t h e r f o r m s , a t f i r s t g l a n c e a s t i l l p h o t o g r a p h s e e m s t o be t h e o u t c o m e o f an o b j e c t i v e p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e s u l t o f human c h o i c e s . One c o m m e n t a t o r , R o l a n d B a r t h e s , d e f i n e s p h o t o g r a p h y a s a p r o d u c t o f t h e l a w s o f p h y s i c s ( i m a g e s f o r m e d t h r o u g h o p t i c a l d e v i c e s ) c o m b i n e d w i t h t h o s e o f c h e m i s t r y ( l i g h t a f f e c t i n g s u b s t a n c e s ) . ^ U s i n g s i m i l a r t e r m s , S u s a n S o n t a g c h a r a c t e r i z e s a p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d a s " s o m e t h i n g d i r e c t l y s t e n c i l l e d o f f t h e r e a l , l i k e a f o o t p r i n t . . . t h e r e g i s t e r i n g o f an e m i n a t i o n ( l i g h t w a v e s r e f l e c t e d by o b j e c t s ) . . . a m a t e r i a l v e s t i g e o f t h e o b j e c t . " ^ B e c a u s e a p h o t o g r a p h i s c r e a t e d by a m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e w h i c h s e e m s t o r e c o r d a u t o m a t i c a l l y e v e r y v i s u a l s u r f a c e w i t h i n i t s r a n g e , a v i e w e r u s u a l l y a s s i g n s i t a h i g h d e g r e e o f c r e d i b i l i t y . 3 S o n t a g r e m a r k s u p o n o u r e a s y b e l i e f i n t h e m e d i u m : P h o t o g r a p h s f u r n i s h e v i d e n c e . S o m e t h i n g we h e a r a b o u t , b u t d o u b t , s e e m s p r o v e n when w e ' r e s h o w n a p h o t o g r a p h o f i t . . . T h e p i c t u r e may d i s t o r t , b u t t h e r e i s a l w a y s a p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t s o m e t h i n g e x i s t s , o r d i d e x i s t , w h i c h i s l i k e w h a t ' s i n t h e p i c t u r e . ^ 12 A v i e w e r i s subdued b o t h by t h e a p p a r e n t a u t h e n t i c i t y of p h o t o g r a p h i c documents and by the o v e r w h e l m i n g q u a n t i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n which t h e y u s u a l l y p r e s e n t . Media c r i t i c M a r s h a l l McLuhan n o t e s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s a r e g e n e r a l l y brimming w i t h d a t a , l e a v i n g l i t t l e room f o r knowledge to be s u p p l e m e n t e d by the v i e w e r . 5 B a r t h e s a r g u e s even more s t r o n g l y t h a t a p h o t o g r a p h " f i l l s t h e s i g h t by f o r c e , " o f f e r i n g messages which c a n n o t e a s i l y be r e f u s e d or t r a n s f o r m e d . ^ Because p h o t o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e r v e d o u t s i d e o f i t s o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t , c h a l l e n g i n g the d a t a d e l i v e r e d can be a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k . In most c a s e s , a moment p o r t r a y e d i s s i m p l y a c c e p t e d by an a u d i e n c e as the e s s e n t i a l one. To t h e r a r e o b s e r v e r who wonders about e v e n t s or o b j e c t s which might have been d i s t o r t e d or e x c l u d e d , avenues of r e s e a r c h a r e not a l w a y s open. The power o f p h o t o g r a p h s , one eminent p s y c h o l o g i s t s u g g e s t s , i s r o o t e d p r e c i s e l y i n the d i f f i c u l t y o f t h o u g h t f u l l y r e p u d i a t i n g them, even when the y have c a p t u r e d u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e moments. 7 P h o t o g r a p h y ' s p e r s u a s i v e power i s a l s o based upon i t s a b i l i t y t o a r o u s e our emotions.® Human judgment can e a s i l y be c l o u d e d by f e e l i n g . We a r e o f t e n g u i l t y of s e e i n g o n l y as much as we a r e w i l l i n g t o b e l i e v e , and of t o o r e a d i l y a c c e p t i n g messages framed i n an a e s t h e t i c a l l y a p p e a l i n g manner. " P h o t o g r a p h s a r e c o m p e l l i n g p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n - l i k e p a i n t i n g s ; " and, s i n c e t h e medium was 13 f i r s t adopted, ser ious a r t i sans have attempted to apply a r t i s t i c ru les of composition to photography in order to achieve p i c t o r i a l e f f e c t s . 9 Fox Ta lbot , for instance , d e l i b e r a t e l y out l ined h is domestic scenes using the " p a i n t e r ' s eye" defined by contemporary Dutch a r t i s t s . 1 ° Susan Sontag asserts that the en t i re h i s to ry of photography can, in f a c t , be seen as a struggle between two c o n f l i c t i n g impulses: b e a u t i f i c a t i o n and t r u t h - t e l l i n g . H D e f i n i t i o n s of t r u t h , of course, vary w i l d l y . To peddle t h e i r own moral or p o l i t i c a l points of view in a t t r a c t i v e terms, documentary photographers r e g u l a r l y beaut i fy t h e i r sub jects : Even when photographers are most concerned with mi r ror ing r e a l i t y , they are s t i l l haunted by t a c i t imperatives of taste and conscience. The immensely g i f t e d members of the Farm Secur i ty Adminis t rat ion photo- graphic pro ject of the l a t e 1930s (sponsored by the Roosevelt government) would take dozens of f r o n t a l p ic tures of one of t h e i r sharecropper subjects u n t i l s a t i s f i e d that they had gotten jus t the r i g h t look on f i l m - the prec ise expression on the sub jec t ' s face that supported t h e i r own notions about poverty, l i g h t , d i g n i t y , tex ture , e x p l o i t a t i o n and geometry.12 To create successfu l images c o n s i s t e n t l y , photographers become consciously or unconsciously adept at manipulating elements and dynamics w i th in the confines of a v i e w - f i n d e r . Many c r i t i c s of the medium charge that photographs lack syntax, s t a t i n g that elements and organ izat iona l formats a r e n o t r o u t i n e l y a p p l i e d . 1 3 I n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t E s t e l l e O u s sim a r g u e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t e v e r y means o f s y m b o l i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n has some s y n t a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , i n c o r p o r a t i n g c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o v e d c o d e s . 1 ̂  A r c h i v i s t Hugh T a y l o r a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t , w h i l e a r t i s t s do d e l i b e r a t e l y d e v e l o p s c h e m a t i c e l e m e n t s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f us r e m a i n unaware o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n s u s e d i n v i s u a l m e d i a . He recommends t h a t we l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e them, w a r n i n g t h a t we w i l l need t o l o o k l o n g and i n t e n t l y i n o r d e r t o become a d e p t a t d i s c e r n i n g t y p i c a l and i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s . 1 - * I n a d d i t i o n t o a c h i e v i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s y n t a c t i c a l p a t t e r n s i n p h o t o g r a p h i c m e s s a g e s , more aware- n e s s o f t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e medium i t s e l f i s n e e d e d . A p h o t o g r a p h i s a l i m i t e d r e c o r d . I t i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f a f i n i t e v i e w c a s t f o r a l i m i t e d t i m e p e r i o d t h r o u g h s e l e c t e d o p t i c a l e q u i p m e n t t o be p e r m a n e n t l y c a p t u r e d i n a c h o s e n l i g h t - s e n s i t i v e s u b s t a n c e . The s u b j e c t i v e c h o i c e s w h i c h must be made a b o u t e a c h o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s c l e a r l y a f f e c t t h e document p r o d u c e d . To b e g i n w i t h , any g l a s s l e n s d i s t o r t s an image b e i n g r e f l e c t e d . A t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l w o r l d s i m p l y c a n n o t be a c c u r a t e l y r e p r o d u c e d on a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l p l a n e . 1 6 ( O n l y t h r o u g h h o l o g r a p h y can s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be c o r r e c t l y p o r t r a y e d ) . 1 7 i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f l e n s e s , ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e l i b e r a t e d i s t o r t i o n e x i s t s . Wide a n g l e l e n s e s , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e commonly u s e d by a d v e r t i s e r s t o 15 exaggerate the s i z e of merchandise. In the exposure of f i l m to l i g h t , t h e r e i s a l s o much room f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n . The l i g h t a v a i l a b l e when a photograph i s taken can c r e a t e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n of a scene. For example, f l a s h b u l b l i g h t p r o j e c t e d a s h o r t d i s t a n c e can f l a t t e r the f o r e g r o u n d of s e t t i n g w h i l e e l i m i n a t i n g the background, making the l a t t e r seem dark and empty.18 In a d d i t i o n , p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s e s cannot r e c o n s t r u c t c o l o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a u t h e n t i c a l l y : c o l o r i s e i t h e r l o s t through b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e p r o c e s s e s or i n a d e q u a t e l y s i m u l a t e d through the use of dyes.1^ On f i l m s which are too s e n s i t i v e to c e r t a i n c o l o r waves, p o r t i o n s of a scene d e p i c t e d might d i s a p p e a r a l t o g e t h e r . R i c h a r d Huyda p o i n t s to the l e n g t h y l i g h t exposures and extreme s e n s i t i v i t y to the blue end of the c o l o r spectrum i n h e r e n t i n the wet c o l l o d i o n p r o c e s s , which p r e v e n t s , f o r example, the r e g i s t r a t i o n of both g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s and c l o u d s on one n e g a t i v e . During the time taken to i m p r i n t such f e a t u r e s as mountains onto a wet p l a t e , a b l u e sky w i l l have whitened r e l e v a n t p a r t s of the medium, making the sky and any e x i s t i n g w h i t e c l o u d s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n the completed p r i n t . 2 0 Development t e c h n i q u e s a l s o i n f l u e n c e p h o t o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e s between high and l o w - c o n t r a s t p r i n t i n g papers a f f e c t the c l a r i t y of images. A g a i n , scope f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n e x i s t s , i n c l u d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r 16 construct ion of out r ight l i e s - by combining, for example, two negative exposures to form one p o s i t i v e p r i n t . Along with i t s i n a b i l i t y to depict the s p a t i a l world p r e c i s e l y , s t i l l photography cannot adequately present the passage of t ime. For ins tance , to catch only a f l e e t i n g smile during an otherwise sad event would be to misrepresent the evo l v ing , complicated nature of the occasion.21 s ing le moments seized as i n d i c a t i v e of changing r e a l i t i e s are at best incomplete; at worst , they are downright f a l s e . A grimace- could i n c o r r e c t l y appear in p r i n t as a smi le , or a ser ies of occurrences could be d e l i b e r a t e l y or inadvertent - l y presented in incor rec t order . Because a photographer must make many dec is ions about the u t i l i z a t i o n of space and t ime, a photograph which has been consciously created can be nothing other than a subject ive document, "not just a record but an evaluat ion of the world."22 In l i g h t of the ways in which photographs can be u n t r u t h f u l , t h e i r v a l i d i t y depends u l t i m a t e l y , as photo- graphic a r c h i v i s t Jer ry Davison observes, upon photograph- e r s ' in tent ions .23 Photography, l i k e language, i s a medium from which many works can be wrought, from X-Rays to an a r t i s t ' s impressions of Par i s .24 Purposes range from the i d e a l i z a t i o n of fami ly r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the denigrat ion of power s t ruc tu res ; from the manipulation of co lor to the ce lebrat ion of form. I n t e l l e c t u a l points of view can be as 17 d i v e r s e as t h o s e o f V i c t o r i a n m o r a l i s t s and t h e a n g r y c h r o n i c l e r s o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n . D o c u m e n t a r y p h o t o g r a p h e r R o b e r t F r a n k a d m i t s t h a t b i a s c a n n o t be a v o i d e d : " I have been f r e q u e n t l y a c c u s e d o f d e l i b e r a t e l y t w i s t i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o my p o i n t o f v i e w . . . ( b u t ) l i f e f o r a p h o t o g r a p h e r c a n n o t be a m a t t e r o f i n d i f f e r e n c e . "25 B e c a u s e no p e r s o n can p e r c e i v e e v e r y a s p e c t o f a g i v e n s u b j e c t , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a p h o t o g r a p h e r has been h o n e s t and c o m p r e h e n s i v e c a n o n l y be e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h . W i t h e x p e r i e n c e and l u c k , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e aims and methods o f a c r e a t o r can be r e a c h e d . Upon c l o s e s t u d y o f a g r o u p o f r e c o r d s , p a t t e r n s a r e c e r t a i n t o emerge, b e c a u s e no s e t o f p h o t o g r a p h s i s c r e a t e d r a n d o m l y . As Beaumont N e w h a l l p u t s i t , a good p h o t o g r a p h s o m e t i m e s happens by c h a n c e , b u t s u c c e s s f u l p h o t o g r a p h e r s a r e n o t a c c i d e n t a l l y made.26 The manner i n w h i c h a c o l l e c t i o n o f r e c o r d s i s o f f e r e d f o r v i e w i n g by a p h o t o g r a p h e r , an e d i t o r , o r a c o l l e c t o r a l s o d e s e r v e s e x a m i n a t i o n . B e c a u s e a p h o t o g r a p h p r e s e n t s a moment removed f r o m i t s o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t , i t must be c a p t i o n e d i n o r d e r t o have m e a n i n g . 2 7 N 0 s n a p s h o t , f r o m a news p h o t o g r a p h t o a p o r t r a i t f r o m a f a m i l y a l b u m , can be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h o u t v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n , and t h e l a b e l s a s s i g n e d w i l l a l w a y s i n f l u e n c e an a u d i e n c e ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e document. J o h n B r u m f i e l d s u g g e s t s t h a t a c a p t i o n r e a d i n g "Cow F o r S a l e " p l a c e d b e n e a t h a p i c t u r e o f a meadow w o u l d 18 l e a d o u r e y e s t o t h e a n i m a l i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s c e n e , w h e r e a s " Y o s e m i t e V a l l e y " w o u l d g u i d e us t o t h e m o u n t a i n s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d . 28 V e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , o f c o u r s e , can be b l a t a n t l y u n t r u e . The i m p r e s s i o n c a u s e d by a s e t o f p h o t o - g r a p h s can a l s o be f a l s i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e i r a r r a n g e m e n t . 2 9 C h r o n o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s o f a p u b l i s h e d " p h o t o s t o r y " , f o r i n s t a n c e , c o u l d be l a i d o u t i n i n c o r r e c t o r d e r . I n a d d i t i o n , S u s a n S o n t a g c a u t i o n s t h a t t h e m o r a l and e m o t i o n a l w e i g h t o f a s t i l l p h o t o g r a p h w i l l s h i f t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s i n w h i c h i t i s s e e n . 3 0 An image meant t o a r o u s e o u t r a g e w i l l be i n e f f e c t i v e w i t h o u t "an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t f o r r e c e i v i n g i t . "31 B e c a u s e o f e x i s t i n g p u b l i c p r e j u d i c e s , d e p i c t i o n s o f i n t e r n e d J a p a n e s e A m e r i c a n s and C a n a d i a n s w h i c h were p u b l i s h e d t o g e n e r a t e c o n c e r n d u r i n g t h e 1940s d i d n o t a f f r o n t many p e o p l e . R i c h a r d Huyda s u m m a r i z e s : " E v e r y p h o t o - g r a p h i s a l t e r e d i n some manner by t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e c r e a t o r , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a p p a r a t u s , t h e f i l m , t h e p r o c e s s i n g and p r i n t i n g , and t h e u n i q u e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h by each v i e w e r . "32 I n s p i t e o f i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , p h o t o g r a p h y i s an i n v a l u a b l e medium. P h o t o g r a p h i c documents l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o e x a m i n a t i o n and l e a r n i n g , k e e p i n g open f o r s c r u t i n y an i n s t a n t w h i c h t h e f l o w o f t i m e n o r m a l l y r e p l a c e s i m m e d i a t e - l y . 3 3 i t c a n n o t be d e n i e d t h a t t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d d o e s , t o some e x t e n t , p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e m a k i n g o f a p h o t o g r a p h , nor 19 that , during the past century, we have indeed been " p r i v i l e g e d to look the past in the eye."34 we should not fo rget , however, that photographs do not reproduce r e a l i t y p r e c i s e l y . Unl ike f o o t p r i n t s , they are not records which have been created d i r e c t l y by the objects which they represent . Resul t ing from l i g h t waves manipulated by manufactured equipment and human techniques, they can only be f a c s i m i l e s posing as o r i g i n a l s . As h i s t o r i a n Barry O'Connell warns us, to remain u n c r i t i c a l of photographic images, and to bel ieve that they "simply give us the world as i t i s , " i s to be he lp less before them.35 20 Footnotes Chapter Two 1 Roland Barthes, Camera Luc ida : Ref lec t ions on Photography, t rans . Richard Howard (New York: H i l l and Wang, 1981; Toronto: McGraw-Hil l Ryerson, 1981), p. 91. 2 Sontag, On Photography, p. 154. 3 Stanley Milgram, "The Image Freezing Machine." Psychology Today 10 (1977) 52, c i t e d by J . Robert Davison, "Turning a B l ind Eye: The H i s t o r i a n ' s Use of Photographs," B.C. Studies no. 52 (1982): 18. 4 Sontag, On Photography, p. 5. 5 Marshal l McLuhan, Understanding Media (New York, Toronto and London: McGraw-Hil l Book Co . , 1964), p. 22. 6 Barthes, Camera Luc ida , p. 91 7 Milgram, c i t e d by Davison, "Turning a B l ind Eye," p. 18. 8 G ise le Freund, Photography and Society (Boston: D.R. Godine, 1980), p. 217. 9 Sontag, On Photography, p. 107; Newhall , History of Photography, p. 61. 10 Newhall , H istory of Photography, p. 34 H Sontag, On Photography, p. 86. 12 I b i d . , p. 6. 197 13 see, for example, McLuhan, Understanding Media, p. 14 E s t e l l e Jussim, "The Research uses of V i sua l Information," L ibrary Trends 25 (1977): 300, 306. 15 Hugh Tay lor , "Documentary Art and the Role of the A r c h i v i s t , " American A r c h i v i s t 42 (1979): 420-427. 16 Claude Minotto , The A r c h i v i s t and the Photograph: An Image That Holds (Ottawa: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Assoc ia - t i o n , 1974): p. 46 -4 . 1 7 Richard Huyda, "Photographs and Archives in 21 Canada," A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978): 12. 1 8 Newhall , H istory of Photography, p. 158. 1 9 I b i d . , pp. 193-94. 2 0 Huyda, "Photographs and Arch ives , " p. 12. 21 I b i d . 22 sontag, On Photography, p. 88. 23 Davison, "Turning a B l ind Eye," p. 20. 24 sontag, On Photography, p. 148 25 Goldberg, Photography in P r i n t , p. 401. 26 Newhall , H istory of Photography, p. 178. 27 i b i d . , pp. 182-183. 28 John Brumf ie ld , "A good milk cow i s not a h e l i c o p t e r , and that i s a f a c t , " Photo Communique 2 (1980): p. 32. 2 9 Freund, Photography and Soc ie ty , p. 149. 30 sontag, On Photography, p . . 1 0 5 . 31 i b i d . , p. 17. 32 Huyda, "Photographs and Arch ives , " p. 12. 33 sontag, On Photography, p. 111. 34 Paul Theroux, "The Past Recaptured," Foreword to Margaret Luke, e d . , The World As I t Was (New York: Summit Books, 1980), p. 10, c i t e d by Davison, "Turning a B l ind Eye," p. 17. 35 Barry O 'Connel l , "The Photograph as a Source for Publ ic H i s t o r y , " Amherst, Massachusetts, 1977. Unpublished manuscript (Mimeographed). years. Photographic information held on m e t a l l i c p lates or on other bases could be dupl icated on the pr inted page only through labor ious hand t ransfer to a publ ish ing medium. As a r e s u l t , photographs were seen only ra re l y in newspapers and magazines. Eventual ly a process was invented which allowed the i r mechanical reproduction on the same press as type. By the 1880s they could automat ica l ly be scanned according to area d e n s i t i e s , t ransferred to telegraph wi res , communicated qu ick l y over long d i s tances , and e a s i l y reconstructed in great quant i t y .4 The incorporat ion of photography into journal ism had profound s o c i a l consequences. Using st reaml ined, portable cameras, bands of p ro fess iona l photographers formed qu ick l y to present a mixture of sensat ional ism ( r a i l r o a d acc idents , for example) and glamour ( c e l e b r i t y p o r t r a i t s ) to the masses.5 La te r , images were coupled on equal terms with verbal reports in "photo s t o r i e s " b u i l t around c a r e f u l l y chosen themes.6 To produce features for L i f e magazine, for ins tance , a journal which was f i r s t published in 1936, ed i to rs and photographers worked together, determining both v i s u a l and tex tua l po ints of view before a s ing le p ic tu re was ever snapped. 7 The world which L i f e pa ins tak ing ly constructed contained l i g h t , hope and a minimum of shadow. Everyday l i v e s were described alongside those of c e l e b r i t i e s . In an i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , standardized s o c i e t y , 22 CHAPTER THREE OFFICIAL AND UNOFFICIAL PRODUCTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS IN MODERN SOCIETIES In modern i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of p h o t o g r a p h s a r e p r o d u c e d o f f i c i a l l y (by c h a r t e r e d o r g a n i z a - t i o n s ) and u n o f f i c i a l l y f o r a m u l t i t u d e o f p u r p o s e s . The medium was born i n t o a w o r l d i n which the p r o d u c t i o n of goods i s m e c h a n i z e d and o r g a n i z e d on a b r o a d s c a l e , and i n which i n f o r m a t i o n must be d i s s e m i n a t e d on an e q u a l l y b r o a d b a s i s . V a s t amounts of d a t a must be communicated t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r , to e x p l o i t r e s o u r c e s e f f i c i e n t l y , and t o i n f l u e n c e the c o n s u m p t i o n o f p r o d u c t s . 1 R e p e a t a b i l i t y , the c o r e o f the m e c h a n i c a l p r i n c i p l e which i s t y p i c a l of any i n d u s t r i a l e n d e a v o r , has c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n f i e l d d u r i n g t h e p a s t few c e n t u r i e s . ^ E a r l y i n t h e h i s t o r y of the p h o t o - g r a p h i c i n d u s t r y , i n v e n t o r s d e v i s e d methods whereby an u n l i m i t e d number of p o s i t i v e p r i n t s c o u l d be r e p e a t e d from one n e g a t i v e image. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r i n t s soon became a s c i e n c e , w i t h f i l m e x p o s u r e s t i m e d by s t o p w a t c h e s and w i t h l a b o u r e f f i c i e n t l y d i v i d e d i n p h o t o - f i n i s h i n g f a c t o r i e s to f a c i l i t a t e mass p r o d u c t i o n . 3 D i s s e m i n a t i o n of v i s u a l images on a l a r g e s c a l e , however, r e m a i n e d d i f f i c u l t f o r many 24 L i f e and i t s counterparts d e l i b e r a t e l y attempted to convince the i r readers that i n d i v i d u a l s mattered; and that hard work and ta len t would always be rewarded.8 J o u r n a l i s t i c photographs bombarded the pub l i c in increas ing numbers. The messages created r e f l e c t e d the perspect ive of the i n d u s t r i a l establ ishment, which financed t h e i r c r e a t i o n . Working through an adver t i s ing system which was the most c r u c i a l factor in the success of major p u b l i c a - t i o n s , some magazine owners admitted o u t r i g h t l y that they hoped to s e l l phi losophies along with consumer goods. 9 in contrast to t h e i r independence during previous decades, by the 1930s newspaper and magazine publ ishers no longer cont ro l led t h e i r own work, report ing now to t h e i r a d v e r t i s - ing c l i e n t s . Because adver t i s ing revenue had become the major source of p r o f i t for newspapers and jou rna ls , t h e i r ed i to rs and publ ishers were forced to regard readers as . consumers, ensuring that a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l commentary did not a f f ron t a d v e r t i s e r s ' ideology.10 A consumer s o c i e t y , wr i tes Susan Sontag, requires "a cu l ture based on images . "H Through photography the owners of i n d u s t r i a l and of communication networks were e a s i l y able to fashion a world of images in t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . The medium, notes G ise le Freund, can be an unusually valuable and even dangerous too l when i t i s used to create needs, s e l l goods and mold minds.12 25 Photography can a lso be a dangerous too l when i t i s wielded by governments. Many of i t s ear ly o f f i c i a l a p p l i c a - t ions seemed innocuous enough: the French government, for example, employed talbotypes to record d i s t i n c t i v e features of her i tage b u i l d i n g s . 1 3 G l o r i f i c a t i o n of the French empire, admit tedly , was one of i t s aims. In North America, during the middle of the nineteenth century, photographers depicted not only b u i l d i n g s , land and l i f e on the home f r o n t , but were included in government-sponsored expedit ions which surveyed f r o n t i e r a r e a s . 1 4 other aims were to record unusual events and to document ownership of property . In Canada, government agencies have rou t ine l y f i l e d o f f i c i a l l y - p r o d u c e d photographs from the 1850s on.15 In every modern n a t i o n , government agencies have a lso used the medium for the su rve i l l ance of c i t i z e n s . Since a round-up of revo lu t ionar ies in Par i s in 1871, when policemen took snapshots of Communards who were l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d and shot with weapons of a d i f f e r e n t nature, photography has been a too l for monitoring inc reas ing ly mobile populat ions.16 Another less - than- innocuous purpose has been the use of photographs to disseminate propaganda. In Canada, for example, both the . federa l Department of Immigration and Canadian P a c i f i c Railway sent glowing views of the p r a i r i e 26 u n d e r t a k e n was t h e i d e a l i z a t i o n o f D e p r e s s i o n - e r a f a r m w o r k - e r s by t h e f e d e r a l Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , whose a r c h i v e s s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e s t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p of d o c u m e n t a r y p h o t o g r a p h s e v e r a s s e m b l e d on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . Roy S t r y k e r , t h e c o - o r d i n a t o r of t h e p r o j e c t , r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i m a g e s c o u l d be s u b t l y m a n i p u l a t e d t o e f f e c t i v e l y c o n v e y any c h o s e n message.1® H o p i n g t o g a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f a m i d d l e - c l a s s a u d i e n c e , he c o a c h e d h i s team o f p h o t o g r a p h e r s t o p a i n t a p o r t r a i t o f A m e r i c a ' s i m p o v e r i s h e d r u r a l c i t i z e n s as u n i f o r m l y d i g n i f i e d and h a r d - w o r k i n g . 1 9 A p p l y i n g t h e medium t o g o a l s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m s u r v e i l l a n c e and i m a g e - m a k i n g , modern s o c i e t i e s now g e n e r a t e g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f p h o t o g r a p h s f o r s c i e n t i f i c and m e d i c a l r e s e a r c h . A c c o r d i n g t o M a r s h a l l McLuhan, b e f o r e t h e d e v e l o p - ment o f p h o t o g r a p h y , s c i e n t i s t s l a c k e d a d e q u a t e n o n - v e r b a l means o f t r a n s m i t t i n g k n o w l e d g e . Greek and Roman b o t a n i s t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , were f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p l a n t s q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y . McLuhan p o i n t s o u t t h a t i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e v e r b a l l y t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f e ven s u c h a s i m p l y o b j e c t as a b u c k e t . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r i n t i n g p r e s s d i d a l l o w q u i c k r e p r o d u c t i o n o f p a i n s t a k i n g l y s k e t c h e d i m a g e s . The camera has s i n c e become an i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n s t r u m e n t t o r e s e a r c h e r s , p r o v i d i n g w o r k a b l e v i s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s q u i c k l y . 2 0 I t has been u s e d f o r s c i e n t i f i c p u r p o s e s s i n c e i t s c o n c e p t i o n : one 27 of i t s inventors , Wi l l iam Henry Fox Ta lbot , was the f i r s t s c i e n t i s t to record botan ica l specimens photographica l ly .21 Another photographer, Edward Muybridge, took advantage of the camera's a b i l i t y to r e g i s t e r mater ia l phenomena which the human eye cannot see, capturing a horse at several stages of ga l lop to determine whether a l l four of i t s feet l e f t the ground at once. Today, through the use of stroboscopic l i g h t s , the pub l i c i s able to view such wonders as hummingbird wings moving at high speed and tennis players swinging.22 S c i e n t i s t s have become so dependent upon photo- graphy that progress in many f i e l d s would be impossible without i t . To prove the existence of subatomic p a r t i c l e s , for .example, the only tangible records which a nuclear p h y s i c i s t can o f f e r us are the t racks of l i g h t which the p a r t i c l e s have l e f t on f i l m as they passed over i t for amazingly b r i e f moments.23 Medical researchers have a lso r e l i e d upon photographic processes for many decades. In order to improve the design of a r t i f i c i a l l imbs , in 1863 one p h y s i c i a n , O l i ve r Wendell Holmes (physic ian and photographer), s c r u t i n i z e d stereoscopic p r i n t s of people in motion.24 s ince then, standard medical equipment has come to include photographic uni ts which are s e n s i t i v e to X-Rays beyond the range of normal s i g h t , along with cameras attached to e lect ron microscopes used to scan organs.25 Photography i s now the primary too l in the i n v e s t i g a - 28 t i o n o f much p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e h a v i o r . U s i n g h i d d e n c a m e r a s t o d i s c o v e r t h e s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s between p r o s e c u t o r s ' t r e a t m e n t o f b l a c k and w h i t e d e f e n d a n t s i n A m e r i c a n c o u r t r o o m s i s one e x a m p l e o f f e r e d by E s t e l l e O u s s i m . She adds t h a t s t u d e n t s o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e now r e g u l a r l y a s k e d t o u t i l i z e c a m e r a s i n r e c o r d i n g and a n a l y z i n g t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s . 2 6 P h o t o g r a p h y has h e l p e d humankind d i s c o v e r i t s e l f and has e x t e n d e d t h e l i m i t s o f o u r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d . P h o t o g r a p h i c p l a t e s c o a t e d w i t h s e n s i t i v e e m u l s i o n s and a t t a c h e d t o t e l e s c o p e s f o r l o n g t i m e - p e r i o d s have r e v e a l e d p r e v i o u s l y u n c h a r t e d g a l a x i e s . 2 7 S i n c e 1856, when Hadar p a t e n t e d t h e i d e a o f t a k i n g p h o t o g r a p h s f r o m a i r b a l l o o n s f o r use i n mapmaking, a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h y has a l l o w e d us t o s u r v e y o u r own p l a n e t . 2 8 U s i n g c a m e r a s , we can w a t c h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f eye and m u s c l e c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n . 29 P h o t o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e f u l t o s p i e s , m e t e o r o l o g i s t s and c o r o n e r s . ^ u V i c k i G o l d b e r g p o i n t s o u t t h a t news, f a s h i o n , s u r v e i l l a n c e and p r o p a g a n d a i m a g e s can a l s o p o w e r f u l l y a f f e c t t h e manner i n w h i c h we e a t , d r e s s , v o t e and t h i n k . 3 1 As v a l u a b l e as t h e medium can be, we must be f o r e v e r m i n d f u l o f t h e p u r p o s e s b e h i n d t h e m e s s a g e s . T u r n i n g f r o m t h e p u b l i c t o t h e p r i v a t e s p h e r e , t h e i m p a c t o f p h o t o g r a p h y i s no l e s s i m p r e s s i v e . Cameras p e r v a d e 29 modern s o c i e t i e s : a l m o s t e v e r y h o u s e h o l d has one. W i t h t h e m a n u f a c t u r e i n 1888 by George Eastman o f t h e e a s i l y - o p e r a t e d Kodak, a m a t e u r p h o t o g r a p h e r s became, and have r e m a i n e d , t h e l a r g e s t s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t f o r a h e a l t h y p h o t o g r a p h i c i n d u s t r y . Most o f t h e s i x b i l l i o n p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n a n n u a l l y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a r e s n a p s h o t s made f o r p r i v a t e p u r p o s e s . 3 2 To s n a p s h o o t e r s , by d e f i n i t i o n m a k i n g q u i c k p h o t o g r a p h - i c r e c o r d s o f t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e medium i s s i m p l y t h a t i t r e n d e r s u b j e c t s r e c o g n i z a b l y . 3 3 Time i s r a r e l y t a k e n t o compose a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g i m a g e s , a l t h o u g h many i n d i v i d u a l s a r e d i s a p p o i n t e d when t h e i r d e v e l o p e d p r i n t s o f t e n f a i l t o match t h e a p p e a l o f t h o s e c r a f t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l s . A l t h o u g h t h e i r aims a r e s e l d o m a r t i c u l a t e d , a m a t e u r p h o t o g r a p h e r s g e n e r a l l y hope t o c r e a t e i d e a l i z e d i m a g e s o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r i m m e d i a t e w o r l d s . 3^ S i n c e a m a t e u r s f i r s t a d o p t e d t h e c a m e r a , t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e i r p h o t o g r a p h s have r e m a i n e d r e m a r k a b l y t h e same. P o r t r a i t s have a l w a y s been e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r . I n a d d i t i o n , as G eorge Eastman o b s e r v e d o f h i s c u s t o m e r s i n 1892, t h e p u b l i c has l o n g f a v o r e d memoranda o f p e r s o n a l l i v e s and t r a v e l s . 3 5 A r c h i v i s t R i c h a r d Huyda c o n f i r m s t h e p a t t e r n : p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s s t o r e d i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s u s u a l l y c o n t a i n l i k e n e s s e s o f f a m i l y members, a l o n g w i t h v i e w s o f p l a c e s b o t h f a m i l i a r and e x o t i c . 3 6 Cameras have a l s o l o n g 30 been incorporated into many s o c i a l r i t u a l s . In contemporary c u l t u r e s , we rou t ine l y photograph the newly-born and the newly-wed. Unl ike our V i c t o r i a n ancestors , however, we do not treasure images of the newly-dead.37 we document ownership of expensive possessions (cars , boats and homes) and note unusual events (par t ies and ceremonies). Almost never do we photograph the mundane a c t i v i t i e s which form the basis of our d a i l y l i v e s (ourselves at b reakfast , for example). Throughout the past century, the subjects represented in p r i va te c o l l e c t i o n s have changed r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e because our l i v e s have fundamentally a l te red so l i t t l e . Photography and i n d u s t r i a l i s m were born during the same e r a , and photographs have tended to r e f l e c t the p r i va te wounds caused by i n d u s t r i a l systems. L i v i n g w i th in s tandardized, impersonal s o c i a l environments, we struggle to assert our i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t r y ing to create favorable se l f - images by matching the photographs in commercial a d v e r t i s i n g . Our e f f o r t s are not always reassur ing , but p ic tures which are unfavorable can be e a s i l y d iscarded , whi le i d e a l i z e d depic t ions are r e a d i l y framed. In an image-mad consumer s o c i e t y , few of us can r e s i s t gathering f l a t t e r i n g snapshots of wedding tuxedos and t r o p i c a l vacat ions : "It seems p o s i t i v e l y unnatural to t r a v e l for pleasure without taking a camera a long . Photographs w i l l o f f e r ind isputable evidence 31 t h a t t h e t r i p was m a d e . . . t h a t f u n was h a d . n : , a The medium i s u s e d t o c a s t f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n s n o t o n l y o f o u r s e l v e s , b u t o f o u r f a m i l i e s , b o t h i m m e d i a t e and e x t e n d e d : P h o t o g r a p h y becomes a r i t e o f f a m i l y l i f e j u s t when, i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g c o u n t r i e s o f E u r o p e and A m e r i c a , t h e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y s t a r t s u n d e r - g o i n g r a d i c a l s u r g e r y . As t h a t c l a u s t r o - p h o b i c u n i t , t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y , was b e i n g c a r v e d o u t o f a much l a r g e r f a m i l y a g g r e g a t e , p h o t o g r a p h y came a l o n g t o m e m o r i a l i z e , t o r e - s t a t e s y m b o l i c a l l y , t h e i m p e r i l e d c o n t i n u i t y and v a n i s h i n g e x t e n d - e d n e s s o f f a m i l y l i f e . Those g h o s t l y t r a c e s , p h o t o g r a p h s , s u p p l y t h e t o k e n p r e s e n c e o f t h e d i s p e r s e d r e l a t i v e s . A f a m i l y ' s p h o t o g r a p h a lbum i s g e n e r a l l y a b o u t t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y - a n d , o f t e n , i s a l l t h a t r e m a i n s o f i t . 3 9 Whether o r n o t t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y i s i n d e e d a v e r y r e c e n t phenomenon, we c o l l e c t i v e l y b e l i e v e t h a t e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s s h o u l d m a i n t a i n c l o s e t i e s and employ p h o t o g r a p h s t o s u g g e s t o u r c o n n e c t e d n e s s - o r , as D a v i d J a c o b s p u t s i t , t o " a r r a n g e r e l a t i o n s " among o u r s e l v e s . ^ 0 A n n u a l v i s i t s by c o u s i n s and i n - l a w s a r e d u l y r e c o r d e d . C o m p l i c a t e d p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n - s h i p s a r e g l o s s e d o v e r , and p o r t r a y e d as s t a t i c and i n v a r i a b l y p o s i t i v e : " c l o s e " c o u p l e s , " s m i l i n g " s i s t e r s . I n r e a l i t y , o f c o u r s e , we a r e n o t u n f a m i l i a r w i t h c o n f l i c t and c h a n g e . F a m i l y members must commonly l i v e g r e a t d i s t a n c e s a p a r t . We l a c k t h e c o n t i n u i t y s u p p l i e d by a n c e s t r a l homes 32 and t h e s o l i d i t y o f " o l d f u r n i t u r e , g r a n d p a r e n t s ' p o t s and pans - t h e u s e d t h i n g s , warm w i t h g e n e r a t i o n s o f human t o u c h . " F a m i l i a r w i t h d i s p o s a b l e o b j e c t s , we n e v e r t h e l e s s c l i n g t o p h o t o g r a p h s , " f e a t h e r w e i g h t p o r t a b l e museums," c a r r y i n g them f r o m home t o home.^l P e o p l e r o b b e d o f t h e i r p a s t s make t h e most f e r v e n t p i c t u r e - t a k e r s , a r g u e s S u s a n S o n t a g , who adds t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y o n e l i v i n g i n an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s o b l i g e d t o r e l i n q u i s h t o o much o f t h e p a s t . ^ 2 P h o t o g r a p h s , o f c o u r s e , a l l o w o n l y mock p o s s e s s i o n o f t i m e s gone by.^3 To t h e i r s u b j e c t s , t h e y o f f e r f a l s e m e m o r i e s , even c o u n t e r - m e m o r i e s , o v e r w h e l m i n g a s u b j e c t ' s own t h o u g h t s and m a i n t a i n i n g a p a s t w h i c h was i n f a c t s e e n o n l y by t h e camera o p e r a t o r . P h o t o g r a p h s a l s o c o n f e r f a l s e i m p o r t a n c e on i s o l a t e d moments. They " d i s a r m j u d g m e n t " and " i n v i t e s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . " ^ R o l a n d B a r t h e s b e l i e v e s t h a t we u s u a l l y r e g a r d them t e n d e r l y b e c a u s e we a r e s u b c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s ' v u l n e r a b i l i t y a g a i n s t a f u t u r e w h i c h has a l r e a d y happened.^5 I n a s e n s i t i v e and p o p u l a r a u t o b i o g r a p h y , f i l m a c t r e s s L i v U l l m a n n i n a d v e r t e n t l y c o n f i r m s h i s t h e o r y . D w e l l i n g upon p o r t r a i t s o f h e r s e l f and her m o t h e r , she p e r c e i v e s t h e i r own m o r t a l i t y : S e e i n g p i c t u r e s o f Mamma when she was young makes me s a d . She i s l o v e l y , h er e y e s a r e happy and f u l l o f e x p e c t a t i o n . Why i s t i m e so m e r c i l e s s ? . . . I n a f r a m e d 33 photograph we l i n e up for p o s t e r i t y , next to other p ic tures in which we are i n f a n t s , f i v e - y e a r - o l d s , schoo lch i ld ren , b r ides . We stare out into space, never to e x i s t aga in . 46 Each one of us has gazed at personal photographs in an equal ly melancholy fash ion . Photographs, unfor tunate ly , assign undue importance to the past . Lef t a lone, our memories of past experiences w i l l gradual ly erode, leaving a wholesome o r i e n t a t i o n to the present and the fu ture . Barthes argues that photographs, on the other hand, have the power to i n h i b i t t ime's heal ing a b i l i t y , a l lowing "something t e r r i b l e : the return of the d e a d . " 4 7 By c o l l e c t i n g images of those dear to us and by subject ing ourselves to p o r t r a i t - makers, we sometimes r i s k self -damage. Marshal l McLuhan points out that we too w i l l i n g l y pose for p i c t u r e s , a l t e r i n g our postures and express ions.48 Roland Barthes also fee ls a g u i l t y sense of "imposture" when he knowingly adjusts h is behavior for a camera.49 Unl ike him, most of us pose unth ink ing ly , but equal ly uncomfortably, adopting conventional "snapshot grammar" - standing in malleable groups, for ins tance , with shorter people placed in the foreground, everyone looking d i r e c t l y at the photographer and ignoring the environment.5° Subconsciously, we hope to be immortalized in u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y becoming p o s i t i o n s , under unusually f l a t t e r i n g l i g h t s . Our concern about the element of luck and the a b i l i t y of the photographer involved 34 c a u s e s us to s t i f f e n before the camera, " f e a r i n g i t s d i s a p p r o v a l . " 5 ^ In t r u t h , we f e a r the d i s a p p r o v a l of each o t h e r . As viewers, we can be c r i t i c a l . As photographers, we can be o v e r b e a r i n g and even p r e d a t o r y , o r g a n i z i n g r e l a t i v e s i n t o t i d y groups, a r r a n g i n g spouses i n t o a t t r a c t i v e p o s t u r e s so that they w i l l r e f l e c t w e l l upon us and t r y i n g to c a t c h f r i e n d s i n embarrassing d i s a r r a y . Photographers i n v a r i a b l y want something from t h e i r s u b j e c t s . They "c o n v e r t the world i n t o a department s t o r e or museum- w i t h o u t - w a l l s i n which every s u b j e c t i s d e p r e c i a t e d i n t o an a r t i c l e of consumption or promoted i n t o an item f o r a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n . "52 ^ s c o l l e c t o r s , Barthes complains, we would g l a d l y t r e a t him as an o b j e c t , c l a s s i f y him, f i l e him, s u b t l y m i s r e p r e s e n t him.53 Some p r i v a t e photographers move beyond the s o c i a l use of the camera, of c o u r s e . Many amateurs use the medium to d i s p l a y a r t i s t i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s , c a p t u r i n g s u n s e t s , w i l d - f l o w e r s and empty park benches. To l i m i t the i n f i n i t e range of s u b j e c t matter a v a i l a b l e , d e d i c a t e d h o b b y i s t s o f t e n s e t t l e upon themes. Some s e t themselves high aims as s c i e n t i s t s and o t h e r s as m o r a l i s t s , uncovering hidden t r u t h s , c o n s e r v i n g v a n i s h i n g p a s t s or making i n v e n t o r i e s of the world.54 while amateurs f r e q u e n t l y o u t l i n e t h e i r areas of i n t e r e s t , however, t h e i r reasons are r a r e l y d e f i n e d e x p l i c i t l y . Upon c l o s e s c r u t i n y of t h e i r work, many of the 35 p u r p o s e s o f p h o t o g r a p h e r s , c o l l e c t o r s and p o s i n g s u b j e c t s a r e n o t d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n . Such p u r p o s e s d e s e r v e more o f o u r a t t e n t i o n . Whether o r n o t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f G i s e l e F r e u n d , S u s a n S o n t a g , R o l a n d B a r t h e s and o t h e r c r i t i c s upon t h e s o c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e medium a r e a l w a y s v a l i d , we c o u l d n o t h e l p b u t b e n e f i t f r o m c l o s e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d y o f ou r own m o t i v e s i n so e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y e m b r a c i n g p h o t o g r a p h y . o 36 Footnotes Chapter Three 1 Freund, Photography and Soc ie ty , pp. 103, 141; Sontag, On Photography, p. 178. 2 McLuhan, Understanding Media, p. 159. 3 Newhall , H is tory of Photography, pp. 47, 92. 4 I b i d . , p. 175; Freund, Photography and Soc ie ty , p. 103. 5 Newhal l , H i s to ry .o f Photography, pp. 154-156, 175; Freund, Photography and Soc ie ty , pp. 103, 111. 6 Freund, Photography and Soc ie ty , pp. 115, 124. 7 Newhall , H is tory of Photography, pp. 183-184. 8 Freund, Photography and Soc ie ty , pp. 148-149. 9 I b i d . , p. 141. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 142. 11 Sontag, On Photography, p. 178. 12 Freund, Photography and Soc ie ty , pp. 103, 217. 13 Newhall , H istory of Photography, p. 41. See a l s o : Richard R u d i s i l l , Mi r ror Image: The Influence of the Daguerrotype on American Society (Albuquerque: Un ivers i ty of New Mexico Press , 1971), p. 116. 1 4 B i r r e l l and G r e e n h i l l , Canadian Photography, p. 84; Newhal l , H istory of Photography, pp. 72-76. 1 5 Huyda, "Photographs and Arch ives , " p. 5. 1 6 Freund, Photography and Soc ie ty , p. 105; Sontag, On photography, p. 5. 1 7 B i r r e l l and G r e e n h i l l , Canadian Photography, p. 143; Minotto , A r c h i v i s t and Photograph, p. 46 -5 . 1 8 Goldberg, Photography in P r i n t , p. 349. 1 9 Sontag, On Photography, p. 62. 37 2 0 McLuhan, Understanding Media, pp. 158, 192. 21 Newhall , H istory of Photography, p. 33. 22 i b i d . , p. 159. 23 McLuhan, Understanding Media, p. 192; Jussim, "Research uses , " p. 774. 24 Newhall , H is tory of Photography, p. 83. 25 i b i d . , p. 167; Jussim, "Research uses ," p. 774. 26 Jussim, "Research Uses," pp. 767-768. 2 7 Newhal l , H istory of Photography, p. 167. 28 Beaumont Newhall and Nancy Newhall , Masters of Photography (New York: A and W Pub l i shers , 1958), p. 32. 2 9 Jussim, "Research Uses," p. 767. 30 sontag, On Photography, p. 22. 31 Goldberg, Photography in P r i n t , p. 21. 32 Newhal l , H istory of Photography, p. 89; Geoffrey James, "Responding to Photographs," Ar ts Canada no. 192 (1974): p. 6. David Jacobs, "Domestic Snapshots: Toward a Grammar of Mot ives ," Journal of American Culture 4 (1981): p. 3. 34 sontag, On photography, p. 28; Jacobs, "Grammar," p. 3. 35 Newhall , H is tory of Photography, p. 94. 36 Huyda, "Photographs and Arch i ves , " p. 5. 37 James, "Responding to Photographs," p. 6. 38 Sontag, On Photography, p. 9. 39 I b i d . > P. 8. 40 Jacobs, "Grammar," p. 3. 41 Sontag, On Photography, p. 68. 38 42 I b i d . , P- 1 0 . 43 I b i d . , P- 1 6 7 . 44 I b i d . , P- 71 . ^ 5 B a r t h e s , C a m e r a L u c i d a , p p . 9 0 - 9 6 . ^ 6 L i v U l l m a n n , C h a n g i n g ( U . S . A . a n d C a n a d a : A l f r e d K n o p f , 1 9 7 6 ; B a n t a m e d i t i o n , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 6 6 . ^7 B a r t h e s , C a m e r a L u c i d a , p. 9. ^ M c L u h a n , U n d e r s t a n d i n g M e d i a , p. 1 9 7 . ^ 9 B a r t h e s , C a m e r a L u d i c a , p. 1 1 . 5 0 C a c o b s , " G r a m m a r , " p . 3. 5 1 S o n t a g , On P h o t o g r a p h y , p. 8 5 . 5 2 I b i d . , p. 1 1 0 . 53 B a r t h e s , C a m e r a L u c i d a , p. 1 4 . 5 ^ S o n t a g , On P h o t o g r a p h y , p p . 5 6 - 5 9 . 39 CHAPTER FOUR ADMINISTRATIVE VALUE IN ARCHIVAL PHOTOGRAPHS The purposes and techniques of a photographer c l e a r l y determine the nature of the information contained in a photographic record . Using the preceding three chapters as a basis for understanding the importance of creators and circumstances of c r e a t i o n , the provenance (respect for the o r i g i n ) of a r c h i v a l photographs can now be examined. I t i s a sad comment upon the current state of a r c h i v a l ar t that among the custodians of photographs in Canadian r e p o s i t o r i e s there are few a r c h i v i s t s to be found. In the l i t e r a t u r e underlying t h i s p ro fess ion , i t has long been recognized that , in add i t ion to apprais ing scho la r l y and other va lues , one of the p r i n c i p a l funct ions of an a r c h i v i s t i s to protect the admin is t rat ive (and, in p a r t i c u l a r , the lega l ) value of the permanent records produced by o f f i c i a l o rgan i za t ions . ( O f f i c i a l organizat ions w i l l be defined here as corporate bodies or chartered organizat ions funct ioning for c l e a r l y del ineated purposes, inc lud ing governments, churches, businesses and labour unions) . Such respected B r i t i s h and American a r c h i v i s t s as H i l a r y Jenkinson, O l i ve r 40 Wendell Holmes and Margaret Cross'Norton have emphasized t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t h e i r c reat ing agencies.1 Unl ike other documents of permanent va lue , which may be gathered and made a v a i l a b l e by curators for pub l ic use, o f f i c i a l records are preserved by a r c h i v i s t s p r i m a r i l y for t h e i r benef i t to admin is t ra to rs , and only secondar i ly to other users .2 American t h e o r i s t s in p a r t i c u l a r have tended to make a useful d i s t i n c t i o n between " a r c h i v i s t s " as custodians consider ing both admin is t rat ive and other ( inc lud ing scho lar l y ) va lues , and "curators" whose only concern i s scho la r l y records.3 By whatever terms they are l a b e l l e d , a r c h i v i s t s and curators have an important d i f f e r e n c e : an a r c h i v i s t must protect the admin is t rat ive value of o f f i c i a l records. Because many documents created in the course of admin is t ra t i ve a c t i v i t y have l e g a l importance, i t i s v i t a l that custodians always handle them in a manner which does not impair t h e i r a d m i s s i b i l i t y as evidence in courts of l a w . 4 Canadian a r c h i v i s t s employed by governments and corporat ions , however, have yet to demonstrate a healthy regard for photographs of l e g a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . They fu nc t io n , in e f f e c t , as cu ra to rs . A survey of t h e i r published work y i e l d s few references to the serious admin is t rat ive uses of photography. In t h e i r d iscuss ion of the appra isa l process, d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a for records created u n o f f i c i a l l y and for 41 t h o s e g e n e r a t e d o f f i c i a l l y by o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e r a r e l y e s t a b l i s h e d . T y p i c a l l y , b o t h t y p e s o f d ocuments a r e a s s e s s e d on t h e b a s i s o f s c h o l a r l y v a l u e a l o n e . As r e c o r d s i n n o n - t e x t u a l f o r m a r e u t i l i z e d i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t h e j u d i c i a l s p h e r e , more a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l u s e s o f o f f i c i a l l y p r o d u c e d p h o t o g r a p h s . I n modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s p h o t o g r a p h s a r e g e n e r a t e d i n g r e a t q u a n t i t y f o r a v a r i e t y o f o f f i c i a l and p r i v a t e p u r p o s e s . As i n d i c a t e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , t h e y r e c o r d s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s and c a p t u r e a e s t h e t i c i m a g e s . They a r e p r o d u c e d by i n d u s t r y and g o v e r n m e n t f o r a d v e r t i s i n g , s u r v e i l l a n c e and s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . The camera documents o w n e r s h i p o f p r o p e r t y and c o m m u n i c a t e s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t r o u t i n e and u n u s u a l e v e n t s . E n g i n e e r i n g p h o t o g r a p h s , f o r i n s t a n c e , s e r v e as p e r m a n e n t l e g a l r e c o r d s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s . Many p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t s , as a n o t h e r e x a m p l e , r e g u l a r l y arm t h e i r o f f i c e r s w i t h c a m e r a s , u s i n g s t i l l and m o t i o n p i c t u r e s t o t r a i n p e r s o n n e l , t o make t r a f f i c s t u d i e s , t o f u r t h e r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and t o c o u n t e r c h a r g e s o f b r u t a l i t y by r e c o r d i n g a r r e s t s i n w h i c h s u s p e c t s o f f e r r e s i s t a n c e . ^ I n s p i t e o f t h e i r e x t e n s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n , p h o t o g r a p h s a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e t e d , and a r e t o o r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d as a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d . As we have s e e n , a p h o t o g r a p h e r can p r e s e n t a s u b j e c t 42 f a i r l y or misrepresent i t e n t i r e l y through manipulation of a photographic process, l i g h t , space, time or capt ion ing . The value of the content of a photographic record i s dependent upon the knowledge a v a i l a b l e about the purposes and techniques of i t s c reator .6 This tenet d i r e c t l y p a r a l l e l s a basic a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e : i t i s important that custodians of records in any medium gather information i l l u m i n a t i n g provenance. With photographs of l e g a l va lue , i t becomes c r u c i a l that the c r e a t i o n , use and storage of documents be c a r e f u l l y documented. In a courtroom, a photograph i s never accepted without examination of i t s o r i g i n s . S t i l l photographs are now commonly employed in l e g a l d i s p u t e s . 7 Although they are considered a spec ia l form of evidence, photographic records are subject to general ru les of a d m i s s i b i l i t y . Their content must f i r s t be relevant to a case being t r i e d . Secondly, they must const i tu te the best evidence a v a i l a b l e . (Some res is tance to the use of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l documents has been apparent. Many judges continue to consider verbal testimony preferable to evidence in photographic form.8 j n a major i ty of North American j u r i s d i c t i o n s , judges also r e t a i n the r i gh t to exclude photographs on the grounds that they can be inflammatory, in f luenc ing j u r i e s e m o t i o n a l l y . ) 9 T h i r d l y , evidence must be authenticated by a wi tness . Because photographs are most often introduced to i l l u s t r a t e verbal testimony, 43 v e r i f i c a t i o n s i m p l y c o n s i s t s o f an o a t h t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n a p i c t u r e a c c u r a t e l y r e p r e s e n t s a s u b j e c t . 1 0 i t i s t h e v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t t h a t i s n o r m a l l y open t o q u e s t i o n , n o t t h e p h o t o g r a p h i t s e l f . F i n a l l y , b e c a u s e a w i t n e s s u s u a l l y s w e a r s t o f i r s t h a n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t o f a p h o t o g r a p h , a n o t h e r b a r r i e r t o a d m i s s i b i l i t y , t h e h e a r s a y p r o b l e m , i s r a r e l y an i s s u e . ( H e a r s a y e v i d e n c e i s i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h a t h i r d p a r t y who i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i m o n y ) . 1 1 When p h o t o g r a p h i c d o c uments a r e p r e s e n t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e t e s t i m o n y o f p e r s o n s a b l e t o c o n f i r m t h e v e r a c i t y o f t h e i r c o n t e n t , a u t h e n t i c a t i o n by e x p e r t w i t n e s s e s becomes n e c e s s a r y . 1 2 j n o n e r e c e n t l a w s u i t , f o r e x a m p l e , s p e c i a l i s t s were a s k e d t o i n s p e c t p h o t o g r a p h s o f i l l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a C a l i f o r n i a n c o u p l e had f i l m e d i n t h e i r home. The s i t e c o u l d be v e r i f i e d by t h e i r l a n d l o r d , b u t n e i t h e r he n o r any o t h e r w i t n e s s s p e a k i n g f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n c o u l d swear t h a t e v e n t s d e p i c t e d had been f a i r l y p o r t r a y e d . " E x p e r t t e s t i m o n y was g i v e n t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s were no t c o m p o s i t e s o r f a k e s , and were p r o b a b l y t a k e n by one o f t h e p a r t i e s t o t h e a c t s . " 1 3 j 0 i n s u r e t h a t t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r had n o t i n t e n d e d t o c r e a t e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c n e g a t i v e s was a u t h e n t i c a t e d t h r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r f o r m . As t h e e v i d e n t i a r y v a l u e o f a p h o t o g r a p h i n c r e a s e s , 44 a d d i t i o n a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n a b o u t t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g i t s c r e a t i n g i s f r e q u e n t l y r e q u e s t e d . As one a u t h o r i t y e x p l a i n s : The e x t e n t o f v e r i f i c a t i o n ( d e g r e e o f p r o o f o f a c c u r a c y ) r e q u i r e d v a r i e s d e p e n d i n g on why t h e p i c t u r e i s i n t r o d u c e d and how i m p o r t a n t i t i s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i s s u e s i n t h e c a s e . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e p h o t o g r a p h i s s i m p l y u s e d as a c o n v e n i e n t method o f i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e w i t n e s s ' g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s c e n e , m i n i m a l p r o o f o f a c c u r a c y may be s u f f i c i e n t ; b u t when i t i s o f f e r e d t o show a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e o f h e i g h t , b r e a d t h , o r l e n g t h o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e , much more c o n v i n c i n g p r o o f s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d . 1 ^ B e c a u s e t h e medium can so e a s i l y be made t o c o n v e y an i n c o r r e c t message, e x p l a n a t o r y t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n must o f t e n be s u p p l i e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r can be v i t a l . S o metimes o n l y t h e c r e a t o r w i l l have s u f f i c i e n t k n o w l e d g e o f a s u b j e c t and t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h i t was f i l m e d t o c o n f i r m t h e a c c u r a c y o f a r e c o r d . 1 5 I n C a n a d a , a l o n g w i t h g e n e r a l r u l e s o f a d m i s s i b i l i t y , t h e p h o t o g r a p h s g e n e r a t e d by g o v e r n m e n t s and o t h e r i n c o r p o r a t e d b o d i e s a r e s u b j e c t t o s e c t i o n s o f t h e f e d e r a l E v i d e n c e A c t w h i c h a p p l y t o b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s i n any f o r m . To e n s u r e t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l o r i g i n o f d ocuments i s c l e a r , S e c t i o n 24 o f t h e A c t r e q u i r e s t h a t a copy o f a r e c o r d be c e r t i f i e d by an o f f i c e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s c u s t o d y . 1 6 I n 45 a d d i t i o n , a r e c o r d must have been c r e a t e d i n t h e " u s u a l and o r d i n a r y c o u r s e o f b u s i n e s s . " 1 7 An e m p l o y e e o f a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t e n r e l i e s on h e a r s a y t o v e r i f y t h a t a r e c o r d has been c r e a t e d i n an o r d i n a r y manner. H e a r s a y e v i d e n c e i s n o t n o r m a l l y a d m i s s i b l e , b u t an e x c e p t i o n i s made f o r b u s i n e s s documents.1® A h o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s u s u a l l y p e r m i t t e d t o a u t h e n t i c a t e an X-Ray p h o t o g r a p h s t o r e d u n d e r h i s / h e r c a r e w i t h o u t h a v i n g p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e o f i t s c o n t e n t s b e c a u s e i t i s assumed t h a t r e l i a b l e r e c o r d - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s have been f o l l o w e d . 1 ^ Any r e s p o n s i b l e e m p l o y e e o f an a g e n c y can n o r m a l l y v a l i d a t e a document: i f t r a n s f e r t o an i n t e r n a l a r c h i v e s has been a u t h o r i z e d , an o f f i c i a l as f a r removed f r o m r e c o r d c r e a t i o n as an a r c h i v i s t may t e s t i f y . 2 0 I n many W e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s , o f f i c i a l l y p r o d u c e d r e c o r d s a r e a s s i g n e d s t r o n g e v i d e n t i a r y v a l u e . I n a r e c e n t B r i t i s h m a r i t i m e d i s p u t e , f o r e x a m p l e , l a w y e r s f o r t h e p r o s e c u t i o n i n t r o d u c e d p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h had been c r e a t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t a C o a s t G u a r d s t a t i o n . A camera w h i c h r e g u l a r l y r e c o r d e d a l l v e s s e l s i n r a n g e had r e g i s t e r e d two s h i p s c o l l i d i n g . The d e f e n d a n t s a r g u e d a g a i n s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e c o r d s on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t no w i t n e s s c o u l d swear t o h a v i n g d i r e c t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e e v e n t s p i c t u r e d . I n a p r e c e d e n t - s e t t i n g d e c i s i o n , t h e j u d g e d r e j e c t e d t h e argument.21 I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e o f a u t o m a t i c a c c e p t a n c e o f b u s i n e s s 46 records , o f f i c i a l production and regular circumstances of c reat ion rendered the photographs admiss ib le . One l e g a l author i ty indicated in 1973 that Canadian judges were beginning to fo l low the B r i t i s h and American lead in accepting sys temat ica l l y produced photographs without the supporting testimony of witnesses.22 Unfortunately , current Canadian evidence laws are inadaquate in several ways. Under present p r o v i s i o n s , i t can be .too r e a d i l y assumed that a document held in o f f i c i a l custody i s genuine.23 Authent icat ion should be less automatic. In an a r c h i v a l repos i to ry , for example, where the h is to ry of a record i s not w e l l indicated and custody t ransfers are poorly r e g i s t e r e d , i t s o r i g i n should be c a r e f u l l y examined. In a d d i t i o n , i t can too e a s i l y be taken, for granted both that an employee has adequate f a m i l i a r i t y with a record-producing program and that the system i t s e l f i s dependable. Using an example from another medium, Kenneth Chasse, a lawyer and an expert on the a d m i s s i b i l i t y of evidence, recent ly noted that such vague statutory phrases as "the usual and ordinary course of business" have led to incons is tent j u d i c i a l dec is ions on the extent to which the r e l i a b i l i t y of record-keeping systems must be questioned.24 Using computer data systems as a model, he recommends the development of uniform records management p r i n c i p l e s and techniques, along with the i n s e r t i o n of c lea r a d m i s s i b i l i t y hi r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t o e v i d e n c e s t a t u t e s . 2 5 Among ot h e r c r i t e r i a , he b e l i e v e s t h a t judges s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d by law to requ e s t a s s u r a n c e s t h a t e n t r i e s i n t o a data base have been made r e g u l a r l y , t h a t i n p u t p r o cedures have conformed to st a n d a r d i n d u s t r y p r a c t i c e s , t h a t s e c u r i t y f e a t u r e s have been e f f e c t i v e , and t h a t a r e s p o n s i b l e person has overseen and re c o r d e d a l l p r ocesses.26 The " M i c r o f i l m as Documentary E v i d e n c e " s t a n d a r d i s s u e d by the Canadian G e n e r a l S t a n d a r d s Board has e s t a b l i s h e d e q u i v a l e n t g u i d e l i n e s a g a i n s t which the c r e d i b i l i t y of r e c o r d - k e e p i n g programs f o r documents i n m i c r o g r a p h i c form can be measured. The Board a d v i s e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t programs be implemented under w r i t t e n a u t h o r i t y , t h a t i n t e r n a l p r o c edures be documented through the use of manuals, l o g s and ot h e r r e c o r d s , t h a t f i l m i n g a c c u r a c y be r e g u l a r l y checked, t h a t independent a u d i t s be i n s t i t u t e d , t h a t p r o v i s i o n s be made f o r adequate s t o r a g e , and t h a t an o f f i c e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the system be designated.27 In some North American j u r i s d i c t i o n s , t h e r e have been s i m i l a r a ttempts to s t a n d a r d i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the a d m i s s i b i l i t y of photographs. The s t r o n g e s t l e g i s l a t i o n e x i s t s i n the s t a t e of W i s c o n s i n , where judges are r e q u i r e d to c o n s i d e r such t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n as the documentation of the d i r e c t i o n , p o s i t i o n and d i s t a n c e of a camera b e f o r e a l l o w i n g a photograph to stand as e v i d e n c e , even i f these 48 f a c t o r s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o a f f e c t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n v e y e d . 2 8 Such c r i t i c s as K e n n e t h C h a s s e b e l i e v e t h a t i n f u t u r e f o r r e c o r d s i n any f o r m t h e r e s h o u l d be l a w s a g a i n s t w h i c h s y s t e m s o f p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d need t o be c h e c k e d . W h i l e t h e r o l e o f r e c o r d s managers and a r c h i v i s t s w i t h i n t h e j u d i c i a l r e a l m has y e t t o be d e f i n e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n w i t h i n b o t h p r o f e s s i o n s w i l l l e a d t o t h e l i c e n s i n g o f r e c o r d k e e p e r s a b l e t o q u a l i f y l e g a l l y as e x p e r t w i t n e s s e s . 2 9 M e a n w h i l e , u n d e r e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , a r c h i v i s t s and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s c a r i n g f o r r e c o r d s o f l o n g - t e r m l e g a l v a l u e may be c a l l e d upon t o e x p l a i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n , use and s t o r a g e o f d ocuments t h r o u g h b o t h f i r s t h a n d k n o w l e d g e and h e a r s a y e v i d e n c e . 3 0 y 0 p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s , a r c h i v i s t s w i l l need t o d e m o n s t r a t e a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e c o m p l e t e l i f e s p a n o f r e c o r d s i n o r d e r t o i n s u r e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i r o r i g i n i s r e c o r d e d . 3 1 I n t h e a b s e n c e o f w e l l - d e f i n e d a d m i s s i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a , as much s u p p o r t i n g d o c u m e n t a t i o n as p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be s a v e d . The most u s e f u l r e t e n t i o n g u i d e l i n e s may be f o u n d i n b a s i c a r c h i v a l t h e o r y : a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between f u n d a m e n t a l a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s and t h e l e g a l p r e m i s e s f o r t h e a d m i s s i b i l i t y o f b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s . F i r s t , t h r o u g h t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f p o l i c y p a p e r s , p r o c e d u r a l m a n u a l s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i s t o r i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t s , an 49 a r c h i v i s t i s o b l i g e d t o r e f l e c t t h e i d e n t i t y and e v o l v i n g p u r p o s e s o f a c r e a t i n g a g e n c y . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s u b s e q u e n t c u s t o d y and s t o r a g e o f documents p r o d u c e d i s a l s o c o l l e c t e d . 3 2 M i r r o r i n g t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t i s t h e l e g a l need ( d e f i n e d i n e v i d e n c e a c t s ) f o r a s s u r a n c e s o f t h e o f f i c i a l o r i g i n o f b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s . S e c o n d l y , an a r c h i v i s t must p r o t e c t t h e o r i g i n a l o r d e r o f a body o f d o c u m e n t s , and g a t h e r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o d u c t i o n and c a r e o f r e c o r d s ( a b o u t t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s e s , f i l i n g s y s t e m s , and so f o r t h ) t o i n d i c a t e t h a t m a t e r i a l has been g e n e r a t e d and t r e a t e d i n an o r d i n a r y manner.33 T h i s t e n e t m a t c h e s t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t r e c o r d s be p r o d u c e d r o u t i n e l y . The needs o f t h e u s e r d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e two c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e o f r e s p e c t f o r p r o v e n a n c e must be h o n o r e d . L i m i t i n g p r o v e n a n c e by s a m p l i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , w h i c h m i g h t s o m e t i m e s be s e e n as a v i o l a t i o n o f r e s p e c t f o r o r i g i n a l o r d e r , i s o f t e n j u s t i f i a b l e . An a r c h i v i s t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c e p h o t o g r a p h s c o u l d l e g i t i m a t e l y s a v e o n l y a s a m p l e o f t e x t u a l and p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s as e v i d e n c e enough o f t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e c r e a t i n g a g e n c y f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s o r f o r t r a i n i n g p e r s o n n e l . I f , h o w e v e r , p h o t o g r a p h s were b e i n g s a v e d as a d e f e n s e a g a i n s t p o t e n t i a l b r u t a l i t y c h a r g e s , p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s and l e t t e r s a u t h o r i z i n g f i l m i n g w o u l d a l s o be r e q u i r e d , o r i g i n a l o r d e r w o u l d need t o be s c r u p u l o u s l y 50 r e s p e c t e d , and the r a t i o n a l e f o r any f i l e r e d u c t i o n s made by the c r e a t o r would need to be demonstrated. Canadian p h o t o g r a p h i c c u s t o d i a n s seldom a p p r a i s e o f f i c i a l photographs i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l , nor are they aware of the f u n c t i o n s and r e c o r d - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s of t h e i r parent a g e n c i e s . In an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n A r c h i v a r i a i n 1980, T e r r y Cook of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s i n n o n - t e x t u a l form are too o f t e n t o r n from t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l r o o t s and s t o r e d a c c o r d i n g to media w i t h o u t r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n to r e l a t e d t e x t u a l documents.34 jQ d a t e , most p h o t o g r a p h i c c u s t o d i a n s remain unaware of the i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e uses of n o n - t e x t u a l r e c o r d s . In 1983, I sent a l e t t e r to c u s t o d i a n s i n many Canadian c o r p o r a t e , f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a s k i n g f o r an i n d i c a t i o n of the c r i t e r i a which they c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n a p p r a i s i n g photographs. Of the e i g h t e e n who responded, o n l y one p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t d i d not make the apparent assumption t h a t the o n l y photographs worthy of a p p r a i s a l were those of s c h o l a r l y v a l u e a l o n e . In keeping w i t h a w r i t t e n p o l i c y , he i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a p p r a i s e s o f f i c i a l photographs as " a r c h i v a l government r e c o r d s " of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e , and a n a l y z e s them i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e l a t e d documents i n o t h e r forms. Even he, however, d i d not i s o l a t e l e g a l v a l u e as an a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i o n . 51 Because th e m a j o r i t y o f media r e p o s i t o r i e s i n t h i s c o u n t r y were e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y to s e r v e s c h o l a r s , t h e e x i s t i n g c u r a t o r i a l a p p r o a c h to p h o t o g r a p h s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . As p h o t o g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e i s used more o f t e n i n c o u r t s o f law, however, a r c h i v i s t s w i l l need to a c q u i r e a g r e a t e r awareness of t h e permanent l e g a l v a l u e of many o f f i c i a l p h o t o g r a p h s , and must b e g i n t o p r o t e c t t h a t v a l u e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . P r e s e n t c u s t o d i a l p r a c t i c e s a r e c e r t a i n t o improve i f we acknowledge the e x t e n t to which the a r c h i v a l a r t can be an a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e , b u i l t upon sound p r i n c i p l e s and l e g a l l y t e s t e d p r o c e d u r e s . 52 Footnotes Chapter Four 1 See O l i ve r Wendell Holmes, " ' P u b l i c Records' - Who Knows What They Are?" American A r c h i v i s t 23 (1960): 5; H i la ry Jenkinson, A Manual of Archive Adminis t rat ion (London: 1937), p. 9; Thornton W. M i t c h e l l , ed. , Norton on Arch ives : The Wri t ings of Margaret Cross Norton on A r c h i v a l and Records Management (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1979), pp. 13-14. 2 Jenkinson, Manual, pp. 4 - 8 ; M i t c h e l l , Norton on Arch ives , p. 13; Maynard J . B r i c h f o r d , Archives and Manuscripts: Appra isa l and Accessioning (Chicago: Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1977), pp. 5 - 7 . 3 See Robert L. Brubaker, " A r c h i c a l P r i n c i p l e s and the Curator of Manuscr ipts ," American A r c h i v i s t 29 (1966): pp. 505-514; Lester J . Cappon, " H i s t o r i c a l Manuscripts as Arch ives : Some D e f i n i t i o n s and the i r A p p l i c a t i o n , " American A r c h i v i s t 39 (1976): 429-435. 4 M i t c h e l l , Norton on Arch ives , p. 27. 5 George Chernoff and Hershel B. Sarb in , Photography and the Law (New York: American Photographic Book Publ ish ing Co . , 1977), p. 107. 6 See Davison, "Turning a B l ind Eye." 7 Wi l l iam D. Gehl and Frank L Mu l la re , Photographs: Worth a Thousand Words as Evidence (Wisconsin: I n s t i t u t e of Continuing Legal Education, 1971), p. 1. 8 Chernoff and Sarb in , Photography and the Law, p. 105; Gehl and M a l l a r e , Photographs as Evidence, p. 5; Bruce A. MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence: I ts Probative Value at T r i a l and the J u d i c i a l D isc re t ion to Exclude It From Evidence," Cr imina l Law Quarter ly no. 16 (1973); Manitoba Law Journal no. 5 (1973). 9 Gehl and M a l l a r e , Photographs as Evidence, p. 5; MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence," p. 161. 10 Chernoff and Sarb in , Photography and the Law, pp. 104-106; Gehl and M u l l a r e , Photographs as Evidence, pp. 5 - 7 ; MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence, pp. 151, 162 . H Kenneth Chase, "The Legal Issues Concerning the A d m i s s i b i l i t y of Computer Pr in touts and M i c r o f i l m , " paper 53 presented at the Annual Conference of the Assoc iat ion of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , Vancouver, B .C . , 1 June 1983, p. 4. 12 MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence," pp. 153, 175. 13 i b i d . , p. 153. See a l s o : Canadian Evidence Act , R.S.C. 1970; c . E-10, s . 30 (6) . Judges may consider both the content and the form of a record to determine i t s probative va lue . 14 Gehl and Mu l la re , Photographs as Evidence, p. 9. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 21; Chernoff and Sarb in , Photography and the Law, p. 109. For more information about lenses and f i lms acceptable in cour ts , see Fred Hertel , "P ic tu re Your R i g h t s , " Photo L i f e 62 (September, 1981; October, 1981). 1 6 Canada Evidence A c t , s . 24. 1 7 I b i d . , s . 30. Chasse, "The A d m i s s i b i l i t y of Computer P r i n t o u t s , " 18 p. 4. 19 92-93. 20 Gehl and Mu l la re , Photographs as Evidence, pp. M i t c h e l l , Norton on Arch ives , pp. 27-28; Jenkinson, Manual, p. 9 . 21 MacFarlane, "Photographic Evidence," pp. 158-59. I b i d . , p. 161. 22 23 M i t c h e l l , Norton on Arch ives , pp. 27-28. In 1943, Norton indicated that under American law i t was l i k e l y that records kept by a responsible o f f i c e r would be considered authent ic . She noted, however, the importance of honoring provenance in order to safeguard o f f i c i a l documents. 24 chasse, "The A d m i s s i b i l i t y of Computer p r i n t o u t s , " pp. 1 -2 . 25 i b i d . Clear prov is ions for the a d m i s s i b i l i t y of documents produced by computerized record-keeping systems have already been enacted in other count r ies . See p. 19. 26 i b i d . , p. 24. 54 ^' Canadian General Standards Board, M ic ro f i lm as Documentary Evidence (Ottawa, 1979). 2 8 Gehl and Mul la re , Photographs as Evidence, p. 11. 2 9 Chasse, "The A d m i s s i b i l i t y of Computer P r i n t o u t s , " pp. 1 -2 . 30 Canada Evidence Act , s . 30 (6) . A r c h i v i s t Meyer H. Fishbein also points out that a r c h i v i s t s may be questioned about the provenance of records and the i r d i s p o s i t i o n since access ion ing . In a d d i t i o n , support documentation on record-keeping systems may be requested. See "The E v i d e n t i a l Value of Non-Textual Records: An Ear ly Precedent," American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982): 189-90. 31 On the extent to which a r c h i v i s t s might be considered accountable, see Mark Hopkins, "Records and Records Keepers J u d i c i a l l y Considered: C r e d i b i l i t y or Convenience?" A r c h i v a r i a no. 18 (1984): pp. 154-165. 32 M i t c h e l l , Norton on Arch ives , pp. 106-108. See a lso the d e f i n i t i o n of "provenance" in Rofes, A Basic Glossary . On the types of records which should be c o l l e c t e d to r e f l e c t provenance, see B r i c h f o r d , Appra isa l and Access ion ing , p. 5. 33 see Schel lenberg , Management of A rch ives , p. 92. 34 Terry Cooke, "The Tyranny of the Medium: A Comment on 'Tota l A r c h i v e s , ' " A r c h i v a r i a 9 (Winter 1980): pp. 141-150. 55 CHAPTER FIVE RECENT SCHOLARLY USES OF PHOTOGRAPHS In add i t ion to serving an o f f i c i a l o rgan i za t ion , an a r c h i v i s t i s often given a mandate to al low pub l ic access to records for genea log ica l , j o u r n a l i s t i c , scho la r l y and other purposes. In recent years , the use (and, in p a r t i c u l a r , the q u a n t i t a t i v e use) of photographs by scholars has increased d r a m a t i c a l l y . O f f i c i a l l y and p r i v a t e l y created photographs have been a r i c h resource for the humanities and s o c i a l sc iences . To psychologists and s o c i o l o g i s t s , for example, they cons t i tu te a wealthy mine of data for the study of human behavior . To h i s t o r i a n s they o f f e r valuable images of the past . A r c h i v i s t Tom Nesmith noted in 1982 that the burgeoning f i e l d of s o c i a l h i s to ry requires non-textual sources of knowledge about people who did not leave such wr i t ten records as d i a r i e s and l e t t e r s . 1 C a r e f u l l y s tud ied , photographic records can furn ish an astonishing amount of s o c i a l in format ion , e s p e c i a l l y when scho la r l y enqui r ies involve the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge about c rea to rs , c o l l e c t o r s and users of photographs. Although a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s have been regu la r l y accessed 56 by s u c h r e s e a r c h e r s as a r t i s t s , t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c e r s and h i s t o r i a n s , t h e i r use has g e n e r a l l y been f o r p u r p o s e s f a r f r o m i n t e l l e c t u a l . ^ L i b r a r i a n E s t e l l e O u ssim has o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e q u e s t s f o r p h o t o g r a p h s have i n p a s t been made f o r s i n g l e , u n c o n n e c t e d p i e c e s o f v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . E x t e n d e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s u t i l i z i n g p h o t o g r a p h s as a p r i m a r y i n v e s t i g a t i v e t o o l a r e r a r e . A number o f i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s and s c h o l a r s have l a m e n t e d t h e m i n i m a l use o f t h e medium. I n c l u d e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e a l i b r a r i a n ( E s t e l l e O u s s i m ) , a r c h i v i s t s and c u r a t o r s ( O e r r y D a v i s o n , Ooan S c h w a r t z ) , h i s t o r i a n s ( W a l t e r R u n d e l l , P e t e D a n i e l , S t u a r t S e e l y S p r a g u e ) , a s o c i o l o g i s t (Games B o r c h e r t ) , and a p r o f e s s o r o f l i t e r a t u r e ( B a r r y O ' C o n n e l l ) . ^ They s u g g e s t a v a r i e t y o f c a u s e s . The most o b v i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n i s h a b i t : b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u n f a m i l i a r w i t h n o n t e x t u a l m e d i a , s c h o l a r s t e n d t o g r a v i t a t e t o w a r d s f a m i l i a r s o u r c e s . I n a d d i t i o n , many a c a d e m i c s , a l o n g w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , b e l i e v e t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s s i m p l y p r e s e n t t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d "as i t i s " , l e a v i n g n o t h i n g t o be i n t e r p r e t e d : " p h o t o g r a p h y ' s r e s i s t a n c e t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p a r t l y e x p l a i n s why most h i s t o r i a n s w r i t e as i f t h e medium had n e v e r been i n v e n t e d . " ^ On t h e o t h e r hand, w i d e s p r e a d d i s t r u s t o f t h e medium i s c l e a r . P e t e D a n i e l s , h i m s e l f an h i s t o r i a n , n o t e s t h a t some s c h o l a r s a r e wary b e c a u s e p h o t o g r a p h i c i m a g es can be t o o e a s i l y m a n i p u l a t e d t o s u p p o r t 57 any g i v e n t h e o r y and can be r e a d i l y p l a c e d i n t o m i s l e a d i n g c o n t e x t s . ^ Susan S o n t a g a g r e e s : p h o t o g r a p h s r e p r e s e n t s l i c e s of l i f e which a r e f a r removed from the b a c k g r o u n d s i n which th e y had meaning. P h o t o g r a p h y r e i n f o r c e s a n o m i n a l i s t view o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y as c o n s i s t i n g o f s m a l l u n i t s o f an a p p a r e n t l y i n f i n i t e number... Through p h o t o g r a p h y , the w o r l d becomes a s e r i e s o f u n r e l a t e d , f r e e s t a n d i n g p a r t i c l e s ; and h i s t o r y , a s e t of a n e c d o t e s . . . I t i s a view o f the w o r l d which d e n i e s i n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s , c o n t i n u i t y , but which c o n f e r s on each moment the c h a r a c t e r o f a m y s t e r y . Any p h o t o g r a p h has m u l t i p l e meanings.. .6 She adds t h a t a v i e w e r r e a d i l y a c c e p t s images s u p p l i e d by a camera, b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e y o f f e r knowledge o f the w o r l d , "but t h i s i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , which s t a r t s from not a c c e p t i n g t h e w o r l d as i t l o o k s . . . F u n c t i o n i n g t a k e s p l a c e s i n t i m e , and must be e x p l a i n e d i n t i m e . Only t h a t which n a r r a t e s can make us u n d e r s t a n d . " 7 S c h o l a r s n a r r a t e and a n a l y z e , o r d e r i n g the p a s t and e s t a b l i s h i n g c a u s e s and c o n s e q u e n c e s . S o n t a g s u g g e s t s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s , c o n v e r s e l y , oppose o r d e r e d h i s t o r y , i m p l y i n g t h a t r e a l i t y i s a r b i t r a r y and u n c l a s s i f i a b l e . ® I s o l a t e d u n i t s of d a t a i n any form can seem u n r e l a t e d , of c o u r s e , and open t o m a n i p u l a t i o n . I t i s t h e t a s k of the s c h o l a r to make an h o n e s t e f f o r t to u n d e r s t a n d s o u r c e m a t e r i a l i n i t s o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t . U s i n g p h o t o g r a p h s as a 58 s t a r t i n g p o i n t , some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a s u b j e c t and i t s s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d can g e n e r a l l y be a c q u i r e d . ^ The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t i s not a s i m p l e m a t t e r , however. A v i e w e r may l i n g e r o v e r any g i v e n p h o t o g r a p h , but knowledge o f the c i r c u m s t a n c e s under which i t was c r e a t e d i s sometimes i m p o s s i b l e t o a t t a i n . 1 0 An i n n o v a t i v e r e s p o n s e by some a c a d e m i c s has been to pose q u e s t i o n s which can be answered not by i n d i v i d u a l p i c t u r e s but t h r o u g h s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f a l a r g e number of images. 1 1 In an e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e on the s o p h i s t i c a t e d u s e s to which n o n - t e x t u a l media can be p u t , E s t e l l e Oussim compares s u p e r f i c i a l s e a r c h e s f o r v i s u a l answers t o s i n g l e - q u e s t i o n e n q u i r i e s to s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h by i n t e l l e c t u a l s ( r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n w i t h i n s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , to u n d e r s t a n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two or more v a r i a b l e s ) . T h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s now common i n t h e h u m a n i t i e s and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . 1 2 T n e e s s e n t i a l a s s u m p t i o n of such r e s e a r c h i s t h a t h i s t o r y i s not a c o m p i l a t i o n o f u n i q u e e v e n t s f o r which v i s u a l r e c o r d s e x i s t , "but r a t h e r i s a n o r m a t i v e phenomenon f o r which the q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t o f l a r g e numbers o f v i s u a l r e c o r d s may p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e . G o n e a r e the days when r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s c o u l d m a i n t a i n random, h a p h a z a r d l y - c o l l e c t e d f i l e s . I ^ To p e r m i t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about h y p o t h e s e s , r e s e a r c h e r s r e q u i r e a c c e s s t o e x t e n s i v e , r o u t i n e l y g a t h e r e d 59 bodies of in format ion . Some spec ia l i zed media repos i to r ies organized by subject areas do e x i s t . One f i l m c o l l e c t i o n , for instance , al lows the study of c u l t u r a l d i f fe rences between the dep ic t ion of women in German and Engl ish movies. To be thorough, such an ana lys is of media as the c a r r i e r of the cu l ture which produced i t i s poss ib le only when a mass of data i s a v a i l a b l e . 1 5 Some scholars agree that unsystematic a c q u i s i t i o n of the photographs held in research r e p o s i t o r i e s has in past l i m i t e d pro jects and biased samples . I 6 Given an adequate supply of resource m a t e r i a l , however, ser ious inves t iga t ion can begin. Contrasts can be made; d i f fe rences and s i m i l a r i t i e s can be observed. Walter Rundell recommends beginning with a set of photographs and l e t t i n g research hypotheses emerge. James Borchert a lso ind icates that recur r ing subjects and moti fs shape h is s tud ies . During one of h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , for example, the k insh ip patterns in a Washington community emerged only a f t e r prolonged study of photographs of the area.17 In any case, to glance at photographs i s never enough. Truths underlying s u p e r f i c i a l images can be gleaned: body p o s i t i o n i n g , for instance, can reveal the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between people portrayed.18 Captions, too, must be c a r e f u l l y examined. Dates and other information can be v e r i f i e d by c lose comparison with evidence in the 60 photographs themselves and with information from external sources. Corroborating documents in other media can include manuscripts, maps, newspaper c l i p p i n g s and c i t y d i r e c t o r i e s . To understand the content of both images and capt ions , immersion in secondary l i t e r a t u r e i s a lso impor tant . I 9 With time and thought, photographs i n e v i t a b l y y i e l d much more information about subjects and creators than f i r s t meets the eye. A review of the c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l purposes of photographers, along with t h e i r choice and treatment of content, i s both necessary in order to understand t h e i r work and s o c i a l l y r e v e a l i n g . Ind iv idua l purposes can be d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . Access to creators i s valuable but ra re l y p o s s i b l e , and sometimes even the name of a photographer cannot be obtained. In past , many r e p o s i t o r i e s f a i l e d to document the provenance of photographs. In any event, many de l iberate and unconscious purposes can be determined through ana lys is of the records themselves. The scho la r l y use of photographs has broadened during the past decade. An issue of the Journal of American Culture published in 1981, for example, includes a r t i c l e s about the u t i l i z a t i o n of the medium by c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n s , about the manner in which labourers were photographical ly depicted between 1840 and 1920, about domestic snapshots, 61 and about t h e p h o t o - j o u r n a l i s m o f R o b e r t Capa. In Canada, p r o j e c t s have r a n g e d from s t u d i e s o f the p i o n e e r o u t p u t of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o e x a m i n a t i o n s o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l p h o t o g r a p h y and t h e a t t i t u d e s r e v e a l e d i n u r b a n images.20 P h o t o g r a p h s c a n n o t be employed i n e v e r y t y p e o f e n q u i r y . They can d e s c r i b e t h e v i s u a l w o r l d w e l l , but t h e y c a n n o t answer q u e s t i o n s of an a b s t r a c t n a t u r e . M a r s h a l l McLuhan n o t e s t h a t w h i l e l a n g u a g e a l l o w s s t a t e m e n t s i n g e n e r a l terms a l o n g w i t h p r o j e c t i o n s i n t o the f u t u r e , p h o t o g r a p h s may i n v i t e s p e c u l a t i o n but c a n n o t e x p r e s s f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 2 1 As d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the p a s t , however, they a r e an i n v a l u a b l e and l a r g e l y u n t a p p e d l o d e o f knowledge. 62 Footnotes Chapter Five 1 Tom Nesmith, "Archives from the Bottom Up: Soc ia l History and A rch i va l Scho larsh ip , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 14 (1982): P- 8. 2 juss im, "Research Trends," pp. 763-764. 3 James Borchert , "An Analys is of H i s t o r i c a l Photographs: A Meethod and Case Study," Studies in V i s u a l Communication 7 (1981); Pete D a n i e l , "Photographs as H i s t o r i c a l Document," Arkansas L i b r a r i e s 35 (1978); Davison, "Turning a B l ind Eye ' ; Barry O 'Connel l , "Photograph as a Source"; Walter Rundel l , "Photographs as H i s t o r i c a l Evidence: Ear ly Texas O i l , " American A r c h i v i s t 41 (1978); Joan Schwartz, "The Past in Focus: Photography and B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1914," B.C. Studies no. 52 (1982); Stuart Seely Sprague, "Is a P ic ture Worth a Thousand Words? How to Develop a P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y , " History News 38 (1983): 15-17. 4 O 'Connel l , "Photograph as a Source," pp. 1 -2 . 5 D a n i e l , "Photographs as H i s t o r i c a l Documents," p. 3. See also Davison, "Turning a B l ind Eye." 6 Sontag, On Photography, pp. 22-23. 7 I b i d . 8 O 'Connel l , "Photograph as a Source," p. 5; Sontag, On Photography, p. 80. 9 O 'Connel l , "Photograph as a Source," pp. 5 - 7 . 10 Barthes, Camera Luc ida , p. 99. 11 See Runde l l , "Ear ly Texas O i l " ; Sprague, " P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y . " 12 Juss im, "Research Uses," p. 764. 13 I b i d . , P. 765. 14 I b i d . , P. 767 . 15 Ib id . . , P- 769. 16 Study." See Runde l l , "Ear ly Texas O i l " ; Borchert , "Case 63 1 7 See B o r c h e r t , "Case Study." 18 See D a v i s o n , "Turning a B l i n d Eye." 19 O ' C o n n e l l , "Photograph as a Source," p. 6. 2° 3 u s t i n Kestenbaum, "The Photograph: A New F r o n t i e r i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y " ; R i c h a r d O e s t r e i c h e r , "From A r t i s a n to Consumer: Images of Workers, 1840-1920"; Jacobs, "Grammar"; Lawrence Rudner, "The I n v o l v e d Eye: Robert Capa as P h o t o j o u r n a l i s t , 1936-54," J o u r n a l of American C u l t u r e 4 (1981); P h y l l i s Lambert, " P h o t o g r a p h i c Documentation and B u i l d i n g s : R e l a t i o n s h i p s Past and P r e s e n t " ; S t a n l e y G. T r i g g s , "Alexander Henderson: N i n e t e e n t h Century Landscape Photographer," A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978); L i l l y K o l t u n , C i t y B l o c k s , C i t y Spaces: H i s t o r i c a l Photographs of Canada's Urban Growth, 1850-1900 (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1980). 21 McLuhan, U n d e r s t a n d i n g Media, p. 201. 64 CHAPTER SIX A CRITICAL SURVEY OF LITERATURE BY PHOTOGRAPHIC ARCHIVISTS A c c e p t e d a r c h i v a l t h e o r y has been o v e r l o o k e d or d i s r e g a r d e d by an o v e r w h e l m i n g number of p r o f e s s i o n a l c u s t o d i a n s o f p h o t o g r a p h s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e l i t e r a t u r e which t h e y have p u b l i s h e d r e v e a l s t h a t c o n c e r n f o r t h e permanent a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e of many o f f i c i a l l y - p r o d u c e d p h o t o g r a p h s i s o f t e n l a c k i n g . One o f the c a u s e s , no doubt, i s t h e c o n f u s e d t r e a t m e n t o f v i s u a l r e c o r d s by l e a d i n g t h e o r i s t s i n t h e a r c h i v a l f i e l d . F o r example, i n a manual p u b l i s h e d i n 1965, T.R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , l o n g a c k nowledged as a p a r e n t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n a r c h i v a l and c u r a t o r i a l p r a c t i c e , e s t a b l i s h e d s e v e r a l b a s i c p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y d i d not a p p l y h i s own t e n e t s t o r e c o r d s i n n o n - t e x t u a l media. W h i l e n o t i n g t h a t a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s d e r i v e meaning from t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r i g i n s and from the o r g a n i c a c t i v i t i e s which p r o d u c e them, he s t a t e d t h a t p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d s a r e e x c e p t i o n a l : . . . t h e p r o v e n a n c e o f p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d s i n some government agency, c o r p o r a t e body or p e r s o n i s r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t , f o r such r e c o r d s do not d e r i v e much of t h e i r 65 meaning from t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r i g i n s . . . Such r e c o r d s a r e o r d i n a r i l y not p r o d u c e d f o r p u r p o s e s of a c t i o n and a r e o f t e n not t r u l y o r g a n i c i n c h a r a c t e r . They a r e u s u a l l y p r o d u c e d . . . t o s t i m u l a t e e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e . Thus, a p h o t o g r a p h e r or an a r t i s t may p r o d u c e p i c t u r e s f o r a r t i s t i c p l e a s u r e . ^ Whether or not S c h e l l e n b e r g u n d e r s t o o d t h a t p i c t o r i a l r e c o r d s a r e g e n e r a t e d by c r e a t i n g a g e n c i e s f o r s e r i o u s p u r p o s e s , h i s r e s p e c t i n g e n e r a l f o r the c r u c i a l l i n k s between the a c t i v i t i e s of c r e a t o r s and t h e r e c o r d s which th e y c r e a t e has been a c c e p t e d as i n t e g r a l t o the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n . In a s t u d y of a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a p r o d u c e d f o r the S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s i n 1977, a u t h o r Maynard B r i c h f o r d a l s o made an u n f o r t u n a t e d i s t i n c t i o n between v i s u a l r e c o r d s and documents i n t e x t u a l form, a g r e e i n g t h a t g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d s o f a p p r a i s a l s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r n o n - t e x t u a l r e c o r d s , y e t a d d i n g t h a t such s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as " q u a n t i t y , " " q u a l i t y , " and " s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p o s i t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t , " must be a p p l i e d to p h o t o g r a p h s . C h a l l e n g e s posed by u n w i e l d y q u a n t i t i e s o f r e c o r d s a r e h a r d l y u n i q u e t o v i s u a l r e c o r d s , however, and documents i n any form must al w a y s be of s u f f i c i e n t q u a l i t y to s e r v e the p u r p o s e s f o r which t h e y have been c r e a t e d . Such i s s u e s s h o u l d a l w a y s be seen o n l y as s e c o n d a r y c o n c e r n s . To c u s t o d i a n s o f o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s i t i s t h e a r c h i v a l c r i t e r i o n 66 o f o n - g o i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e w h i c h m u s t r e m a i n p a r a m o u n t . B r i c h f o r d ' s t r e a t m e n t o f p h o t o g r a p h s , a l o n g w i t h S c h e l l e n b e r g ' s , i s a p p a r e n t l y b a s e d u p o n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e y a r e g e n e r a t e d o n l y f o r p u r p o s e s p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s : " . . . f o r a g i f t o r a p u b l i c a t i o n . . . P h o t o g r a p h s , l i k e a r t i f a c t s , h a v e u n i q u e v a l u e s f o r e x h i b i t i o n . " 3 I n an a r t i c l e on a u r a l a n d g r a p h i c a r c h i v e s , an A m e r i c a n map a r c h i v i s t , R a l p h E h r e n b e r g , r e f e r s r e f r e s h i n g l y t o t h e d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p h o t o g r a p h s a n d t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i r p a r e n t a g e n c i e s o r d o n o r s . I n a d d i t i o n , he d i s c u s s e s t h e d i s p o s a l o f o f f i c i a l m a t e r i a l when i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e h a s e x p i r e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e n E h r e n b e r g i s m i s l e d by t h e i s s u e o f " q u a l i t y " , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a u r a l a n d g r a p h i c a r c h i v e s c a n b a s i c a l l y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m " t r a d i t i o n a l " r e c o r d s by b o t h t e c h n i c a l a n d a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . ' ' A g a i n , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i s m i s l e a d i n g . A t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s u c h a s l a c k o f c l a r i t y m u s t be f a c e d w i t h d o c u m e n t s i n a n y f o r m . I l l e g i b l e p r i n t i n g i n a r e p o r t , f o r e x a m p l e , w i l l d e s t r o y i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e f o r r e c o r d s i n t e x t u a l f o r m t o p o s s e s s a r t i s t i c v a l u e ( a n i l l u s t r a t e d m a n u s c r i p t , f o r i n s t a n c e ) , w h i l e t h e a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y o f a p e r m a n e n t l y v a l u a b l e p h o t o g r a p h o f s a f e t y w i r i n g r e m a i n s i r r e l e v a n t . One o f t h e m o s t c l e a r - t h i n k i n g A m e r i c a n a r c h i v i s t s , Margaret Cross Norton, recognized as ear ly as 1956 that , regardless of form, i t i s p r i m a r i l y the informat ional content of o f f i c i a l records which must be appraised and protected . Technical considerat ions are secondary: The a r c h i v i s t ' s i n te res t in the phys ica l q u a l i t i e s of records i s based upon the problems which face him a f t e r the permanent records come into h is custody [Emphasis mine]. W i l l they create problems in storage; w i l l they require r e s t o r a t i o n in connection with t h e i r p reservat ion ; w i l l they be in a form which w i l l make i t easy for him to locate data in the records? 5 In other words, before acqui r ing records an a r c h i v i s t must consider admin is t rat i ve value rather than techn ica l d e t a i l s . Two Canadian a r c h i v i s t s , Hugh Taylor and Terry Cook, have a lso made valuable cont r ibut ions to the e x i s t i n g body of l i t e r a t u r e on non- textual media. In h is r e f l e c t i o n s on "Documentary A r t , " Hugh Taylor noted that custodians have tended to plunder un i ts of government records to obtain work s o l e l y for i t s a r t i s t i c value.6 He pointed that v i s u a l records which have been produced as o f f i c i a l pub l ic docu- ments (war pa int ings commissioned as propaganda t o o l s , for example) should be treated as such. In other words, they must be c o l l e c t e d for t h e i r documentary ( informat ional ) rather than t h e i r aesthet ic va lue . I t i s a lso important to determine whether re lated documents in other media have an 6 8 o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the documentary a r t i n q u e s t i o n . 7 Hugh T a y l o r a l s o recommended g r e a t e r awareness o f a c r e a t o r ' s v i e w p o i n t , o f the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f c r e a t i o n , and of the s p e c i f i c ways i n which an a r t i s t uses a g i v e n medium to convey a p a r t i c u l a r message. In 1979, T e r r y Cook a p p l i e d the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e o f provenance t o the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada and d i s c o v e r e d some s e r i o u s f l a w s i n t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n ' s p r a c t i c e o f s e p a r a t i n g r e c o r d s by media. U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t the meaning o f any o f f i c i a l r e c o r d i s r e l a t e d t o the o r g a n i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f i t s c r e a t i o n , Cook r e a l i z e d t h a t f e d e r a l government r e c o r d groups were b e i n g m i s t r e a t e d by c u s t o d i a n s i n such i n t e r n a l A r c h i v a l d i v i s i o n s as the N a t i o n a l P h o tography C o l l e c t i o n : Some photography u n i t s make no s e c r e t t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n a c t i v i t y i s o r i e n t e d t o documenting the h i s t o r y o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c medium and t h a t a e s t h e t i c a p p e a l r a t h e r than h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e . F o r example, one such u n i t has r e f u s e d on o c c a s i o n t o a c c e p t p h o t o g r a p h s found on government f i l e s and recommended f o r t r a n s f e r [by t e x t u a l a r c h i v i s t s ] . . . 8 The N a t i o n a l P h otography C o l l e c t i o n had been b r i n g i n g c u r a t o r i a l r a t h e r than a r c h i v a l c r i t e r i a t o b e a r , w i t h a heavy emphasis upon s c h o l a r l y and a r t i s t i c r a t h e r than a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e s . Cook r e g r e t t e d t h a t o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s 69 were o f t e n b e i n g d i s r e g a r d e d o r b e i n g t o r n f r o m t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l r o o t s f o r n a r r o w p u r p o s e s w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r p r o v e n a n c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r l i n k s t o r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l . I n t h e p r o c e s s , t h e v a l u e o f b o d i e s o f r e c o r d s was b e i n g d amaged. 9 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , few c o n t e m p o r a r y c a r e t a k e r s o f o f f i c i a l l y p r o d u c e d p h o t o g r a p h s have shown any i n t e r e s t i n t h e l e s s o n s o f N o r t o n , E h r e n b e r g , T a y l o r o r Cook. I n t h e i r w r i t i n g on t h e a p p r a i s a l o f p h o t o g r a p h s , t h e v a r i e t y o f i m p o r t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ( i n c l u d i n g l e g a l ) u s e s o f t h e medium have r a r e l y been m e n t i o n e d . C a n a d i a n c u s t o d i a n s , i n f a c t , have s c a r c e l y even a d d r e s s e d t h e i s s u e o f a p p r a i s a l i n g e n e r a l t e r m s . One e a r l y a t t e m p t was made by C l a u d e M i n o t t o i n 1974, i n a work p r i n t e d f o r t h e a r c h i v a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a . M i n o t t o o b s e r v e d t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s s h o u l d be a p p r o a c h e d c r i t i c a l l y , and p o i n t e d o u t t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e i r o r i g i n s i l l u m i n a t e s t h e i r d o c u m e n t a r y c o n t e n t . He a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s s h o u l d d e f i n e c o l l e c t i o n a r e a s , c h o o s i n g s u b j e c t s o f w i d e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t and g a t h e r i n g t h e o u t p u t o f n o t e d p h o t o g r a p h e r s . 1 0 I n a t h o u g h t f u l p i e c e s u b m i t t e d t o A r c h i v a r i a i n 1976, P e t e r R o b e r t s o n o u t l i n e d many o f t h e ways i n w h i c h p h o t o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n can be d e l i b e r a t e l y and u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i s t o r t e d . He, t o o , d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e need 70 f o r a c r i t i c a l eye. Robertson i n d i c a t e d that a custodian should l e a r n as much as p o s s i b l e about a photographer, and should watch fo r d i s t o r t i o n of photographic information.11 In a tone which has since been echoed by many authors, Robertson a l s o lamented the incomplete use of the medium by h i s t o r i a n s . In an i s s u e of A r c h i v a r i a devoted to the theme of "Photographs and A r c h i v e s , " Richard Huyda produced an overview of the p r o f e s s i o n a l concerns of photographic c a r e t a k e r s , mentioning such problems as maintaining a balance between the adequate p r o v i s i o n of access to o r i g i n a l records and t h e i r damage through over-use. In a d i s c u s s i o n of c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s , he noted that only r e c e n t l y have Canadian r e p o s i t o r i e s gathered m a t e r i a l on the b a s i s of photographer, photographic type, or i n l i g h t of photographic trends and p r a c t i c e s . The c o l l e c t i o n of records produced and preserved f o r on-going a d m i n i s t r a t i v e value, however, was ignored by Huyda. His focus was upon independent photographers and upon the medium i t s e l f . In a r e v e a l i n g statement, he deplored the "inadequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s of Canadian photographers because of [ a r c h i v i s t s ' ] p r e v a i l i n g pre-occupation with content."12 His lack of awareness of a r c h i v a l theory i s apparent here. The a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs having i n f o r m a t i o n a l value (content) i n a d d i t i o n to e v i d e n t i a l value ( l i g h t shed on the 71 p u r p o s e s and p r a c t i c e s o f c r e a t o r s ) s h o u l d h a r d l y be s e e n as an u n w o r t h y p u r s u i t i n any a r c h i v e s . 1 3 The n e x t commentary on t h e i s s u e o f a p p r a i s a l a p p e a r e d as a r e s p o n s e by Andrew B i r r e l l o f t h e N a t i o n a l P h o t o g r a p h y C o l l e c t i o n t o T e r r y C o o k ' s c h a r g e s . B i r r e l l i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e o f p h o t o g r a p h s and t h e a e s t h e t i c h i s t o r y o f p h o t o g r a p h y c o u l d be i d e n t i c a l , i m p l y i n g t h a t a b s t r a c t p h o t o g r a p h i c a r t y i e l d s v a l u a b l e e v i d e n c e a b o u t a n a t i o n ' s h i s t o r y . ^ L i k e Huyda, B i r r e l l d i d n o t r e f l e c t any a w a r e n e s s o f t h e f a c t t h a t a r c h i v a l and m a n u s c r i p t r e p o s i t o r i e s have c u s t o m a r i l y a i d e d s c h o l a r s i n t h e i r s t u d y o f s o c i e t i e s t h r o u g h t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f r e c o r d s p o s s e s s i n g b o t h i n f o r m a t i o n a l and e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e . F o r r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e s ( i n t h e c h a n g i n g c o n c e r n s o f a r t i s t s r e f l e c t e d by t h e e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e o f t h e i r work) t h e a r t i n q u e s t i o n c o u l d be m e t a l s c u l p t u r e , n e e d l e p o i n t , o r a r t i s t i c p h o t o g r a p h y . The b u s i n e s s o f a r c h i v i s t s , h o w e v e r , has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been t h o s e documents w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e ( i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p e o p l e and t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s ) . A b s t r a c t a r t does n o t b e l o n g i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . M e a n w h i l e , B i r r e l l f a i l e d t o r e s p o n d t o Cook's a l l e g a t i o n t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l P h o t o g r a p h y C o l l e c t i o n had n e g l e c t e d p h o t o g r a p h s o f p e r m a n e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e . He r e p l i e d o n l y t h a t t r a n s f e r s t o t h e C o l l e c t i o n f r o m p u b l i c r e c o r d g r o u p s f o r m e d 72 "a v e r y s m a l l p a r t o f t h e h o l d i n g s o f t h e n o n - t e x t u a l media ( d i v i s i o n s ) . " 1 5 N 0 d o u b t t h e y s t i l l do. The q u e s t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s w h e t h e r t h e y s h o u l d . The s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t many o f f i c i a l g o v e r n m e n t r e c o r d s a r e b e i n g w r o n g f u l l y i g n o r e d . P e r h a p s a s e p a r a t i o n o f a r c h i v a l and c u r a t o r i a l r o l e s w i t h i n t h e N.P.C. ( s i m i l a r t o an e x i s t i n g d i v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e N a t i o n a l Map C o l l e c t i o n b etween c a r e t a k e r s o f g o v e r n m e n t r e c o r d s and t h o s e c o l l e c t i n g f r o m t h e p r i v a t e s p h e r e ) w o u l d e n c o u r a g e p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v i s t s t o d e v o t e more e n e r g y t o p u b l i c r e c o r d s and w o u l d p r o m o t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e ways i n w h i c h a r c h i v a l c o n c e r n s a r e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h o s e o f c u r a t o r s . The r e m a i n i n g a r t i c l e s a b o u t p h o t o g r a p h s w r i t t e n f o r A r c h i v a r i a do n o t a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f a p p r a i s a l , and s e l d o m do t h e y t o u c h upon t h e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n s o f c u s t o d i a n s . Too many o f them c o u l d have been w r i t t e n w i t h e q u a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n by h i s t o r i a n s and o t h e r a c a d e m i c s . A l o n g s i d e Huyda's o v e r v i e w , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a summary by f e d e r a l a r c h i v i s t J o a n S c h w a r t z o f h e r o u t s t a n d i n g t h e s i s on t h o s e c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s o f f r o n t i e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h i c h can be d i s c o v e r e d t h r o u g h p h o t o g r a p h s . ^ The t h e s i s i t s e l f was u n d e r t a k e n as p a r t o f h e r s t u d i e s i n h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h y . A l t h o u g h t h e a r t i c l e i s meant t o s e t an ex a m p l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s , s o c i a l v a l u e s a r e e x a m i n e d t o an e x t e n t w h i c h goes beyond t h e a r c h i v i s t ' s c u s t o m a r y r o l e . 73 In the same i s s u e , several other contr ibutors focus d i r e c t l y upon cus tod ia l matters . Included are a r t i c l e s on conservat ion , cataloguing and the use of v i s u a l f ind ing aids in reference rooms.17 Rounding out the e d i t i o n i s an annotated b ib l iography compiled by L i l l y Koltun of the Pub l i c Archives of Canada o u t l i n i n g the nucleus of a reference l i b r a r y for photographic a r c h i v i s t s . 1 8 L is ted are works under such headings as storage, conservat ion, d e s c r i p t i o n , copyright and e x h i b i t i o n , along with background readings deal ing with the h i s to ry of photography, techn ica l concerns and a r t i s t i c photography. Oddly, given both that the b ib l iography i s addressed to a r c h i v i s t s and that appra isa l i s equal in importance to d e s c r i p t i o n , conservation and other a r c h i v a l processes, there i s no sect ion assigned to a p p r a i s a l , and no reading in the a r c h i v a l f i e l d (and, in p a r t i c u l a r , about o f f i c i a l records) i s recommended as a prelude to a c q u i s i t i o n . B r i c h f o r d ' s manual on a p p r a i s a l , for example, which had been published e a r l i e r in 1977, should have been mentioned. Comments upon non- textual media by such acknowledged leaders as Margaret Cross Norton should a lso have been c i t e d . Sadly , i t i s again c lear that a ser ious charge can be l e g i t i m a t e l y lev ied against contemporary photographic a r c h i v i s t s : they seem to be l a r g e l y unaware of a r c h i v a l theory. Contained in subsequent ed i t i ons of A r c h i v a r i a were an 74 h i s t o r i c a l n o t e by P e t e r R o b e r t s o n on t h e e a r l y use o f X-Ray p h o t o g r a p h y i n C a n a d a , p l u s , i n c l u d e d i n a volume h o n o r i n g t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f a r c h i v i s t D r . Kaye Lamb, a p r e s e n t a t i o n by P e t e r R o b e r t s o n and G l e n n W r i g h t o f s e v e r a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f D r . Lamb and o t h e r i l l u s t r i o u s p e r s o n s . ^ 9 The p r e s e n t a t i o n i s e n t i t l e d " P h o t o g r a p h i c I n t e r l u d e . " As an i n t e r l u d e i s d e f i n e d i n a t l e a s t one d i c t i o n a r y as "a l u l l i n a c t i v i t y , " one wonders w h e t h e r p h o t o g r a p h s a r e y e t t a k e n s e r i o u s l y e ven by a r c h i v i s t s as a c t i v e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . 2 0 The most r e c e n t a r t i c l e a b o u t p h o t o g r a p h y p r o d u c e d f o r A r c h i v a r i a was a m u l t i - a u t h o r e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e o u t p u t o f a m a t e u r s w o r k i n g i n t h i s c o u n t r y between 1839 and 1940. (The s u b j e c t has a l s o been t r e a t e d by t h e a u t h o r s i n an a t t r a c t i v e book w h i c h was r e l e a s e d l a t e i n 1984).21 The f e a t u r e r e f l e c t s t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e c u r a t o r s o f t h e N a t i o n a l P h o t o g r a p h y C o l l e c t i o n t o l o c a t e and o b t a i n some o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g p h o t o g r a p h s c r e a t e d p r i v a t e l y d u r i n g t h e p a s t c e n t u r y . I n t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e i n c l u d e d , Andrew B i r r e l l g i v e s an i n t e r e s t i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e s t e p s t a k e n i n a c q u i r i n g , e x h i b i t i n g and p u b l i c i z i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n s . The s e c o n d a r t i c l e , w r i t t e n by B i r r e l l and f o u r o t h e r s t a f f members, o u t l i n e s s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n a m a t e u r p h o t o g r a p h y . The a u t h o r s i n d i c a t e t h a t 75 amateurs were "among the f i r s t to t a k e o n - t h e - s p o t s n a p s h o t s , t h e f i r s t to p u r s u e p h o t o g r a p h y as an a r t form, the f i r s t t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h c o l o u r p h o t o g r a p h y , and the f i r s t t o a d o p t the m i n i a t u r e camera."22 U n d e n i a b l y , amateurs p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the t e c h n i c a l and a e s t h e t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e medium. I t i s a l s o t r u e , or at l e a s t a l m o s t t r u e , as e d i t o r T e r r y Cook s t a t e s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , t h a t " t h e p h o t o g r a p h i c work of g i f t e d a m a t e u r s i s t h e p u r v i e w of a l l a r c h i v e s i n e v e r y r e g i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y . " 2 3 Many r e p o s i t o r i e s (some b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s , f o r example) a r e not i n f a c t o b l i g e d to c o l l e c t p r i v a t e m a t e r i a l . W h i l e the m a j o r i t y o f a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s do g a t h e r b o t h o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s , however, t h e r e i s some danger i n v o l v e d : u n s u r e o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r two r o l e s , c u s t o d i a n s r i s k h u r l i n g t h e m s e l v e s much more e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n t o the c o l l e c t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h s from the p r i v a t e s p h e r e than from the c h a r t e r e d i n s t i t u t i o n s which s p o n s o r them. A b a l a n c e s h o u l d be s o u g h t . In s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t a r c h i v i s t s by d e f i n i t i o n have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e i r p a r e n t a g e n c i e s , p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v i s t s have r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s . A l t h o u g h i t w i l l i n g l y i n v e s t i g a t e s amateur p h o t o g r a p h y , t h e N a t i o n a l P h o t o g r a p h y C o l l e c t i o n has not y e t a t t e m p t e d t o p u b l i s h an i n - d e p t h t r e a t m e n t o f the many 7 6 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e uses o f photography by the Government of Canada. T u r n i n g away from A r c h i v a r i a , the assessment o f p h o t o g r a p h s was w e l l t r e a t e d by a r c h i v i s t J e r r y D a v i s o n i n an i s s u e o f B.C. S t u d i e s d e v o t e d t o "Photography and B r i t i s h Columbia."24 D a v i s o n a p t l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t o h i s t o r i a n s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n cannot be a c c e p t e d a t f a c e v a l u e , but must be seen i n l i g h t o f the p u r p o s e s , i n t e g r i t y and methods o f i t s c r e a t o r s . In the same volume, which was e d i t e d by J o a n S c h w a r t z , o t h e r government a r c h i v i s t s c o n t i n u e d t o pursue t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r i c a l r a t h e r than a r c h i v a l i s s u e s . J o a n Schwartz and L i l l y K o l t u n i n t e r p r e t e d p h o t o g r a p h s o f a f r o n t i e r town, Andrew B i r r e l l d e s c r i b e d s u r v e y photography i n B.C., and D a v i d M a t t i s o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C olumbia c o m p i l e d a s h o r t a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y and a l a r g e r l i s t o f p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the h i s t o r y o f photography i n the r e g i o n . To r e p e a t an e a r l i e r p o i n t , much o f t h i s work c o u l d have been g e n e r a t e d by h i s t o r i a n s . A r c h i v a l e x p e r t i s e was not r e q u i r e d . W h i l e the c o n t r i b u t i n g a r c h i v i s t s d i d b r i n g t o t h e i r s u b j e c t s a s t r o n g awareness o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f c r e a t o r s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f c r e a t i o n , t hey sometimes exceeded t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n t o make a v a i l a b l e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s a l o n g w i t h a minimum amount o f background i n f o r m a t i o n , i n s t e a d a c t i n g as s c h o l a r s by 77 u s i n g p h o t o g r a p h s as s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s t o r y and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p a s t s o c i a l v a l u e s . I n a r e v i e w o f t h i s g r o u p o f a r t i c l e s , h i s t o r i a n D o u g l a s C o l e a p p l a u d e d t h e a r c h i v i s t s i n v o l v e d : A r c h i v i s t s have been i n t h e v a n g u a r d o f h i s t o r i c a l p h o t o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s i n C anada. Not c o n t e n t t o a w a i t h i s t o r i a n s and o t h e r s t o d i s c o v e r t h e c a c h e s o f i m a g es c o l l e c t e d and p r e s e r v e d i n t h e i r r e p o s i t o r i e s , t h e y have f o r g e d ahead w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n p h o t o g r a p h y . 2 5 C o l e a l s o c i t e d t h e s u p e r b b o o k s a b o u t f r o n t i e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s p r o d u c e d by Andrew B i r r e l l and R i c h a r d H u y d a . 2 ^ W h i l e an h i s t o r i a n m i g h t a p p r o v e , f r o m an a r c h i v i s t ' s p o i n t o f v i e w i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o o f f i c i a l h o l d i n g s i s v e r y f a r f r o m e q u a l t o t h e e n e r g y w h i c h was d i r e c t e d i n t o t h e s e b o o k s and a f l u r r y o f r e v i e w s o f s c h o l a r l y books u t i l i z i n g h i s t o r i c a l p h o t o g r a p h s ( i n c l u d i n g r e v i e w s by C l a u d e M i n o t t o , D a v i d M a t t i s o n , R i c h a r d Huyda, E l i z a b e t h B l i g h t , Andrew B i r r e l l and Andrew R o g e r ) . 2 7 Each o f t h e s e r e v i e w s , p r i n t e d i n A r c h i v a r i a , was w r i t t e n by an a r c h i v i s t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o f f i c i a l g o v e r n m e n t r e c o r d s . F i n a l l y , a g l a n c e a t t h e l i t e r a t u r e on a p p r a i s a l p u b l i s h e d by A m e r i c a n p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v i s t s b r i n g s f u r t h e r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . The s t r o n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e o f 78 photography has simply not been acknowledged. Since the f i r s t a r t i c l e about photographic records appeared in American A r c h i v i s t in 1950, the appra isa l of photographs has been viewed almost e n t i r e l y from a scho la r l y point of view. Hermine Baumhofer, an a r c h i v i s t for the A i r Force, did at l e a s t observe that the content of o f f i c i a l photographs i s re lated to the funct ions of the agency creat ing them.28 g n e be l ieved , however, that research use of such records would be made b a s i c a l l y by h i s t o r i a n s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , genealog is ts , p u b l i c i s t s , and pr i vate manufacturers. P o t e n t i a l admin is t rat i ve app l i ca t ions beyond p u b l i c i t y were not a n t i c i p a t e d . Instead, she described reference requests o r i g i n a t i n g outside of the agency, invo lv ing images of such s p e c i f i c subjects as a p rope l lo r s h a f t , the growth of a f r o n t i e r town or s o i l erosion in a given area.29 In 1958, a r c h i v i s t Joe Thomas a lso tackled the subject of a r c h i v a l photographs, suggesting that not every document created should be preserved, and wisely i n d i c a t i n g that records management i s as necessary for photographs as for tex tua l records.30 He recommended appra isa l on the basis of both informat ional and aesthet ic va lues. Along with Baumhofer, though, Thomas did not delve into the var ie ty of admin is t ra t i ve reasons for preserving photographic records. In 1965, two a r t i c l e s by custodians of corporate photographs appeared in Spec ia l L i b r a r i e s . Betty Hale of the 79 Pub l i c Relat ions Department of Socony Mobil O i l regarded photography as a too l for r e l a t i n g the h is to ry of a company as we l l as a usefu l element in adver t i s ing campaigns, annual reports and newslet ters .31 Irene Simpson of the History Room of Wells Fargo Bank a lso emphasized the pub l i c r e l a t i o n s value of v i s u a l images, o f f e r i n g photographs of miners, stagecoaches and h i s t o r i c a l landscapes to commercial a r t i s t s , publ ishers and t e l e v i s i o n producers. Again, neither author was aware of the other serious admin is t rat ive uses of the medium.32 A r c h i v i s t Paul Vanderb i l t produced a l e a f l e t on the evaluat ion of photographs for the Society of American A r c h i v i s t s in 1979, assessing photographic records in h i s t o r i c a l and aesthet ic terms: "What const i tu tes h i s t o r i c a l value? R a r i t y . . . s t r i k i n g imagery . . . a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t . . . h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l s . . . " 3 3 whi le he did make reference to " a r c h i v a l photographs in the c l a s s i c a l sense of records of o f f i c i a l agencies with some l e g a l s t a t u s , " he made the astonishing assumption that involvement with such records would be beyond the ro le of the a r c h i v i s t , recommending that o f f i c i a l records with on-going admin is t ra t i ve value be l e f t to " o r i g i n a t o r s " to handle.34 Vanderb i l t bel ieved that creators would themselves i d e n t i f y and r e t a i n any photograph of permanent va lue , a stance which opposes a commonly held b e l i e f that an a r c h i v i s t i s 80 r e p o n s i b l e f o r h e l p i n g to d e t e r m i n i n g on-going i n f o r m a t i o n a l and e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e s f o r both the c r e a t i n g agency and o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r s . The most r e c e n t a r t i c l e on a r c h i v a l photographs to appear, p u b l i s h e d i n 1983, was w r i t t e n by M i l d r e d Simpson of the A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d C o r p o r a t i o n . 3 5 j n a n o w f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n , she i n d i c a t e d t h a t the company's photograph c o l l e c t i o n forms p a r t of a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s u n i t which produces i n f o r m a t i o n f o r both employees and s h a r e h o l d e r s . Simpson d e s c r i b e d an automated system d e v i s e d f o r c o n t r o l of the c o l l e c t i o n , but d i d not d e l v e i n t o the i s s u e of a p p r a i s a l . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t has become c l e a r t h a t a l t h o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e use of photography i s growing, n o t a b l y i n the l e g a l sphere, p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v i s t s have c o n t i n u e d to f o c u s almost e n t i r e l y upon the p u b l i c i t y v a l u e and the s c h o l a r l y use of both o f f i c i a l l y and u n o f f i c i a l l y produced m a t e r i a l . In f u t u r e , i n o r d e r to apply a d e q u a t e l y the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e of provenance to the r e c o r d s c r e a t e d by t h e i r s p o n s o r i n g b o d i e s , they w i l l need to show a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n working both w i t h o r i g i n a t o r s and w i t h a r c h i v i s t s of t e x t u a l r e c o r d s and o t h e r r e l a t e d media to e s t a b l i s h t h o u g h t f u l r e c o r d s management and a r c h i v a l programs. 81 Footnotes Chapter Six 1 Schel lenberg , Management of Arch ives , p.324. 2 B r i c h f o r d , Appra isa l and Access ioning , pp. 3 - 4 . 3 I b i d . 4 Ralph E . Ehrenberg, "Aural and Graphic Archives and Manuscr ipts ," Drexel L ib rary Quarter ly 11 (1975): pp. 55 -71. 5 M i t c h e l l , Norton on Arch ives , p. 255. 6 Hugh A. Tay lor , "Documentary A r t , " pp. 417-428. 7 I b i d . , pp. 420-426. 8 Cook, "Tyranny of the Medium," pp. 141-144. 9 I b i d . 1° Claude Minotto , A r c h i v i s t and the Photograph. H Peter Robertson, "More Than Meets the Eye," A rch i va r ia no.2 (1976): pp. 42-43. 12 Huyda, "Photographs and Arch ives , " p. 6. 13 For d e f i n i t i o n s of informat ional and e v i d e n t i a l va lue , see Rofes, "A Basic G lossary . " 14 Andrew B i r r e l l , "The Tyranny of T r a d i t i o n , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 10 (1980). 15 i b i d . , p. 25. 16 Joan M. Schwartz, "The Photographic Record of Pre-Confederat ion B . C . , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978). 17 Klaus B. Hendricks, "The Preservat ion of Photographic Records"; David Mattison and Saundra Sherman, "Cataloguing H i s t o r i c a l Photographs with ISBD (NBM)"; Linda Johnson, "Yukon Archives V i sua l Photograph Finding A i d , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978). 1 8 Koltun et a l . , "The Photograph: An Annotated Bibl iography for A r c h i v i s t s , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978). 82 19 Peter Robertson, "The A l l - P e n e t r a t i n g ' X ' , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 10 (1980); Peter Robertson and Glenn T. Wright, "Photographic In te r lude , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 15 (1983). 20 See Sidney R. Bergquist , ed. , New Webster's D ict ionary of the Engl ish Language: Canadian Ed i t ion (Chicago: Consolidated Book Pub l i shers , 1975; Wi l lowdale, Ontar io : Nelson, Foster and Sco t t , 1975). 21 Andre B i r r e l l , "From A c q u i s i t i o n to E x h i b i t i o n " ; Andrew B i r r e l l , Peter Robertson, L i l l y Ko l tun , Andrew Rodger and Joan Schwartz, "On View: the Evolut ion of Amateur Photography"; Ann Thomas, "Ref lec t ions on an E x h i b i t i o n , " A r c h i v a r i a no. 17 (1984); L i l l y Ko l tun , P r i va te Realms of L i g h t : A Se lec t i ve History of Amateur Photography in Canada (Toronto: F i tzhenry and Whiteside, 1984). 22 B i r r e l l , et a l . , "On View," p. 115. 23 see e d i t o r ' s foreword to B i r r e l l , "From A c q u i s i t i o n to E x h i b i t i o n , " p. 106. 24 Davison, "Turning a B l ind Eye." 25 Douglas Co le , review of Joan Schwartz, e d . , "The Past In Focus: Photography and B r i t i s h Columbia," A r c h i v a r i a no. 14 (1982): p. 187. 26 Andrew B i r r e l l and Ralph G r e e n h i l l , Canadian Photography: 1839-1920 (Toronto: Coach House Press , 1979); Richard J . Huyda, Camera in the I n t e r i o r , 1858: The Ass in ibo ine and Saskatchewan Explor ing Expedit ion (Toronto: Coach House Press , 1975). 27 see, for example, Clause Minotto , reviw of Robert F. Harney and Harold Troper, Immigrants: A P o r t r a i t of the Urban Experience, 1890-1930 (Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold , 1975; A r c h i v a r i a no. 4 (1977); Richard Huyda, reviews of Richard Vroom, Old New Brunswick: A V i c t o r i a n P o r t r a i t (Toronto: Oxford Un ivers i ty Press , 1978); Tony Cashman, A P i c t u r e History of A lber ta (Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1979); Roger Ha l l and Gordon Dodds, A P ic tu re History of Ontario (Edmonton: H u r t i g , 1978); David Matt ison , reviews of Andrew B i r r e l l , Benjamin B u l t z l y : Photographs and Journal of an Expedit ion through B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871 (Toronto: Coach House Press , 1978); Carole Harmon, e d . , Great Days in the Rockies: The Photographs of Byron Harmon, 1906-1934 (Toronto: Oxford Un ivers i ty Press , 1978); A r c h i v a r i a no. 9 (1980); E l i zabeth B l i g h t , review of Richard J . Huyda, Camera In the I n t e r i o r , A r c h i v a r i a no. 2 (1976); Andrew B i r r e l l , 83 review of E.O. Janis and Wendy MacNei l , Photography Within the Humanities (New Hampshire: Addison, 1977); A r c h i v a r i a no. 5 (1978); Andrew Rodger, review of Canadian Women's Studies 2 (1980) A r c h i v a r i a no. 11 (1981). 28 Hermine M. Baumhofer, "Some Reference Problems of P ic tu re C o l l e c t i o n s , " American A r c h i v i s t 13 (1950): p. 122. 29 i b i d . , p. 123. 3 0 Joe D. Thomas, "Photographic Arch ives , " American A r c h i v i s t 21 (1958): p. 420. 31 Betty Hale, "P ic tures in Your Company's Arch ives , " Spec ia l L i b r a r i e s 56 (1965). 3 2 Irene Simpson, "P ic tu res for Publ ic R e l a t i o n s , " Spec ia l L i b r a r i e s 56 (1965). 3 3 Paul Vanderb i l t , "evaluat ing H i s t o r i c a l Photographs: A Personal Perspect i ve , " History News 34 (1979): pp. 279-80. 3 4 I b i d . , p. 284. 3 5 Mildred Simpson, "Photographs In a Business S e t t i n g : A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Company," American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982 ) . 84 B i b l i o g r a p h y G e n e r a l Adams, A n s e l and N e w h a l l , Nancy. T h i s I s the American E a r t h . San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a C l u b , 1960. B e r g e r , John and Mohr, Jean. Another Way of T e l l i n g . New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. Bourke-White, Margaret. Halfway to Freedom: A Report on the New I n d i a i n the Words and Photographs of Margaret Bourke-White. New York: Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1949. Gernsheim, Helmut. J u l i a Margaret Cameron; Her L i f e and P h o t o g r a p h i c Work. M i l l e r t o n , New York: A p e r t u r e , 1975. Gordon, C o l i n . A R i c h e r Dust: Echoes From an Edwardian Album. New York and P h i l a d e l p h i a : J.B. L i p p i n c o t t , 1978. Harper, J . R u s s e l l and T r i g g s , S t a n l e y . P o r t r a i t of a P e r i o d : A C o l l e c t i o n of Notman Photographs, 1856-1915. M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. K a r s h , Yousuf. Karsh Canadians. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1978. Norman, Dorothy. A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z : An American Seer. New York: Random House, 1973. S c h a r f , Aaron. A r t and Photography. London: Penguin, 1968. S t e i c h e n , Edward. A L i f e i n Photography. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1981 . S t e i c h e n , Edward, ed. The B i t t e r Y e a r s , 1935-1941: R u r a l America as Seen by the P h o t o g r a p h e r s of the Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . New York: Museum of Modern A r t , 1962. Ullmann, L i v . Changing. U.S.A. and Canada: A l f r e d Knopf, 1976; Bantam, 1978. Whitehead, A.N. S c i e n c e and the Modern World. London: L o w e l l L e c t u r e S e r i e s , 1925. 85 History of Photography Gernsheim, Helmut and Gernsheim, A l i s o n . The History of Photography from the Camera Obscura to the Beginning of the Modern Era . London and New York: Oxford Univers i ty Press , 1955. G r e e n h i l l , Ralph A. Ear ly Photography in Canada. Toronto: Oxford Un ivers i ty Press , 1955. Langford, Michael . The Story of Photography: From I ts Beginnings to the Present Day. London and New York: Focal Press , 1980. Newhal l , Beaumont. The History of Photography: From 1839 to the Present Day. 7th ed. New York: Museum of Modern A r t , 1981. Newhall , Beaumont and Newhall , Nancy. Masters of Photography. New York: A and W Pub l i shers , 1958. P o l l a c k , Peter . The P ic tu re History of Photography: From the E a r l i e s t Beginnings to the Present Day. New York: Harry Abrams, 19 58. R u d i s i l l , R ichard . Mi r ror Image: The Influence of the Daguerrotype on American Soc ie ty . Albuquerque: Un ivers i t y of New Mexico Press , 1971. Talbot , Wi l l iam Henry Fox. The Penc i l of Nature. New York: Da Capo Press , 1969. We l l i ng , Wi l l iam B. Photography in America: The Formative Years, 1839-1900. New York: C rowe l l , 1978. Nature and Uses of Photography Arnheim, Rudolf . V i s u a l Th ink ing . Berkeley: Un ivers i ty of C a l i f o r n i a Press , 1969. Barthes, Roland. Translated by Richard Howard. Camera Luc ida : Ref lec t ions on Photography. New York: H i l l and Wang, 1981; Toronto: McGraw-Hil l Ryerson, 1981. Brumf ie ld , John. "A good milk cow i s not a h e l i c o p t e r , and that is a f a c t . " Photo Communique 2 (1980): 30-38. Freund, G i s e l e . Photography and Soc iety . Boston: D.R. Godine, 1980. 86 G o l d b e r g , V i c k i , ed. Photography i n P r i n t ; W r i t i n g s from 1816 to the P r e s e n t . New York: Simon and S c h u s t e r , 1981 . Jacobs, D a v i d . "Domestic Snapshots: Toward a Grammar of M o t i v e s . " J o u r n a l of American C u l t u r e 4 (1981): 99-109. James, G e o f f r e y . "Responding to Photographs." A r t s Canada no. 192 (1974): 1-36. McLuhan, M a r s h a l l . U n d e r s t a n d i n g Media. London, New York and Toronto: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1964. Sontag, Susan. On Photography. New York: D e l l P u b l i s h i n g , 1977. Wollheim, P e t e r . " C r i t i c a l I s s u e s : A Look at Values i n P h o t o g r a p h i c C r i t i c i s m . " Photo Communique 4 (1982): 26-30. A r c h i v e s and Photographs Baumhofer, Hermine. 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