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Ground-truth and large-scale 70 mm aerial photographs in the study of reindeer winter rangeland, Tuktoyaktuk… Sims, R. A. 1983

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GROUND-TRUTH AND LARGE-SCALE 70 mm AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE STUDY OF REINDEER WINTER RANGELAND, TUKTOYAKTUK PENINSULA AREA. N.W.T. by RICHARD ALLAN SIMS B.Sc.Hon., Lakehead U n i v e r s i t y , 1974 M . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Dept. o f F o r e s try/Remote  Sensing  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1983  ©Richard A. Sims, 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head of representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Forestry  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  written  ABSTRACT Reindeer aktuk  (Eangifev tarandus tarandus L.) w i n t e r r a n g e l a n d i n the T u k t o y -  Peninsula  area,  N.W.T., was  (1:1,400-1:3,400) remote s e n s i n g Ground-truth at  species  assigned groups  could  general classes,  cover  (TWINSPAN)  cover  units since  soils  parameters.  by  they  i n c l u d i n g slope  i n 10 m x 10 m p l o t s ,  of organic  area.  Two-way 420  'vegetation groups'.  parameters,  f e a t u r e s measured  p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l  environment was conducted  of vegetation  as e c o s y s t e m i c  of s i t e  the o c c u r r e n c e  ground-truth/large-scale  l o c a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e study  be c o n s i d e r e d  by a range  a  and g e n e r a l  s i t e s among f o u r b r o a d l y - d e f i n e d  entiated  soil  analysis  using  program.  of vegetation, s o i l s  112 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i t e s  cator  studied  taxa  The v e g e t a t i o n are a l s o  position  mineral  and ice-wedge p o l y g o n s , Lichens  plant  indi-  soil  differclasses, texture  and c e r t a i n  are of p a r t i c u l a r • i m p o r t a n c e  as t h e w i n t e r d i e t m a i n s t a y f o r the r e i n d e e r , and d i f f e r e n c e s among v e g e t a t i o n groups a r e r e f l e c t e d by dominant l i c h e n t a x a , and l i c h e n ground c o v e r , and  standing  crop  estimates.  Lichen  cover  at s i t e s  for  s i t e s where l i c h e n cover >_20%, s t a n d i n g c r o p  ranged  biomass  up t o 89.3% and,  ranged from 194.4 t o 6,377.6  kg.ha *. -  Large-scale throughout  c o l o u r - i n f r a r e d (CIR) 70 mm s t e r e o photographs were  the study  area  a l o n g 44 f l i g h t l i n e s ,  frames were i n t e r p r e t e d and i n v e n t o r i e d .  and a t o t a l  acquired  o f 1,469 p h o t o -  Data were summarized a c c o r d i n g  r e i n d e e r management zones d e f i n e d w i t h i n t h e s t u d y  area.  to 7  A l l  Ice-wedge  polygons  t i o n s and a r e e s t i m a t e d  a r e common t o cover  ance by v e h i c l e s was observed  terrain  features  i n poorly-drained  23.4% o f t h e l a n d s u r f a c e .  loca-  Terrain disturb-  i n 19.0% o f t h e p h o t o - f r a m e s , but accounted f o r  g e n e r a l l y low cover which ranged from 0.5% t o 2.0% f o r d i f f e r e n t r e i n d e e r management zones. L i c h e n Types were r e c o g n i z e d  as t h e a i r - p h o t o i n t e r p r e t e d e q u i v a l e n t s o f  three o f the four v e g e t a t i o n groups. frames, m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c tative  study  Types;  Linear  W i t h i n L i c h e n Types i d e n t i f i e d on photo-  measurements were made o f l i c h e n p a t c h e s .  o f t h e measurements h e l p e d Discriminant  Function  confirm  separability  a n a l y s i s provided  Quanti-  of the L i c h e n  an 81.1% c o r r e c t r e -  assignment o f 296 s e t s o f measurements among L i c h e n Types. Percent  lichen  cover  and l i c h e n  t o t h e r e i n d e e r management zones. varied  among zones  measurements kg.ha~i study  from g r o u n d - t r u t h  winter  crop were  summarized  according  Measured on t h e p h o t o - f r a m e s , l i c h e n  from 1.48% t o 14.24% o f l a n d a r e a .  t o 572.0 k g . h a ~ i  area's  standing  Using  lichen  cover  biomass  s t u d i e s , l i c h e n s t a n d i n g crop ranged from 39.6  for different  zones.  These  estimates  c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y t o be t e n t a t i v e l y  allowed the  determined  a t 20,373  reindeer. The  study  concludes  graphs c a n play winter  rangeland.  that  an i m p o r t a n t  ground-truth  and l a r g e - s c a l e CIR 70 mm  and i n t e g r a t i v e  Use o f l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm  role  i n the study  photographs  photo-  o f Rangifev  i s especially  c a t e d ; t h e r e a r e numerous advantages f o r u s i n g l a r g e - s c a l e remote s e n s i n g tems t o s t u d y n o r t h e r n r a n g e l a n d s , l i n e i n f o r m a t i o n that permits  advosys-  i n c l u d i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y a p r o v i s i o n o f base-  future monitoring.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I INTRODUCTION 1. G e n e r a l 2. Study O b j e c t i v e s II  III  IV  i i vi viii x 1 1 2  LITERATURE REVIEW 1. H i s t o r i c a l Background on t h e R e i n d e e r Herd 2. W i n t e r Use o f Ground L i c h e n s by Rangifer 3. Remote S e n s i n g o f Rangifer Rangeland 3.1 A e r i a l O b s e r v a t i o n s 3.2 LANDSAT t o Study Rangifer Rangeland • 3.3 Medium-Scale (1:20,000-1:60,000) A i r Photographs . . . 3.4 L a r g e - S c a l e ( 1:20,000) A i r Photographs 4. 70 mm P h o t o g r a p h s f o r Rangeland S t u d i e s  3 4 5 12 12 13 16 18 19  STUDY AREA . 1. G e n e r a l L o c a t i o n 2. G e o l o g y , Landform and S o i l s 3. C l i m a t e 4. V e g e t a t i o n 4.1 G e n e r a l V e g e t a t i o n Z o n a t i o n s 4.2 B o t a n i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s 4.3 E c o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s o f V e g e t a t i o n 5. Remote S e n s i n g  23 24 24 30 33 33 33 34 35  METHODS 1. Photo A c q u i s i t i o n 1.1 The M u l t i s t a g e Program 1.2 F l i g h t l i n e S e l e c t i o n 1.3 P h o t o g r a p h i c M i s s i o n 2. Ground-Truth 2.1 P r e - f i e l d S i t e S e l e c t i o n 2.2 A i r Photo A n n o t a t i o n i n t h e F i e l d 2.3 Data C o l l e c t i o n a t Ground-Truth S i t e s 2.4 N u m e r i c a l A n a l y s i s o f Ground-Truth Data 3. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and A n a l y s i s o f L a r g e - S c a l e A i r Photographs 3.1 Summaries by R e i n d e e r Management Zones 3.2 M i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c S t u d i e s o f ' L i c h e n Types' . . . . . .  38 39 39 39 45 45 45 47 49 52 53 53 55  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (Cont'd.) Page  V  VI  VII  RESULTS 1. Ground-Truth . 1.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Four V e g e t a t i o n Groups 1.2 C o r r e l a t i o n o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Parameters t o t h e Four V e g e t a t i o n Groups 1.3 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f L i c h e n S t a n d i n g Crop 2. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and A n a l y s i s o f L a r g e - S c a l e A i r Photographs 2.1 G e n e r a l 2.2 P a t t e r n e d Ground and T e r r a i n D i s t u r b a n c e by V e h i c l e s . 2.3 M i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c Measurements 2.4 E s t i m a t i o n o f L i c h e n S t a n d i n g Crop  59 60 60 74 79 84 84 89 93 101  DISCUSSION 1. Ground-Truth 1.1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Four V e g e t a t i o n Groups 1.2 The Use o f I n d i c a t o r S p e c i e s 1.3 F l o r a and S p e c i e s D i v e r s i t y 1.4 G e n e r a l Environment and S o i l s Measurements 1.5 L i c h e n S t a n d i n g Crop 2. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and A n a l y s i s o f L a r g e - S c a l e A i r Photographs 2.1 G e n e r a l 2.2 Ice-Wedge P o l y g o n s 2.3 T e r r a i n D i s t u r b a n c e by V e h i c l e s 2.4 L i c h e n Types and P e r c e n t L i c h e n Cover 2.5 E s t i m a t i o n o f C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y 2.6 O v e r u t i l i z a t i o n E f f e c t s 3. F u t u r e Recommendations 3.1 F o l l o w - u p S t u d i e s on t h e Rangifer Rangeland 3.2 Other P o s s i b l e A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e L a r g e - S c a l e A i r Photographs  108 109 109 110 112 114 117 119 119 123 125 127 130 135 139 139  CONCLUSIONS  146  LITERATURE CITED  152  APPENDIX I  169  143  VI  L I S T OF TABLES  Selected N.W.T.  climatic  data  G e n e r a l l o c a t i o n and study area.  for  the  approximate  Tuktoyaktuk  Peninsula  area,  l e n g t h o f 12 t r a n s e c t s i n the  Measurements r e c o r d e d f o r each f l i g h t l i n e  photo-frame.  Summary d a t a on r e i n d e e r management zones and E c o r e g i o n and E c o d i s t r i c t map u n i t s .  correlation  with  T e n t a t i v e h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the v e g e t a t i o n , Tukt o y a k t u k P e n i n s u l a a r e a , Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . The p e r c e n t o f t o t a l p l a n t t a x a e n c o u n t e r e d i n the g r o u n d - t r u t h s t u d i e s , summarized f o r each v e g e t a t i o n group by s i x s t r u c t u r a l categories. Slope p o s i t i o n and aspect of g r o u n d - t r u t h s i t e s the f o u r v e g e t a t i o n groups (A, B, C and D).  summarized  by  P e r c e n t c o v e r by g e n e r a l environment parameters i n 10 m x 10 m p l o t s at 112 s i t e s , summarized by the f o u r v e g e t a t i o n g r o u p s . S u b s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e f o r m i n e r a l s o i l s and the o c c u r r e n c e o f o r g a n i c s o i l s at 112 s i t e s , summarized by the f o u r v e g e t a t i o n groups. Subsurface s o i l p h y s i c a l f o u r v e g e t a t i o n groups.  and  chemical  data  summarized  by  the  Mean p e r c e n t ground c o v e r and, i n p a r e n t h e s e s , f r e q u e n c y f o r the f o u r most abundant l i c h e n s p e c i e s i n v e g e t a t i o n groups A, B and C. L i c h e n biomass measurements from d i v o t s , p e r c e n t l i c h e n c o v e r , and e s t i m a t e s of top and bottom components o f l i c h e n s t a n d i n g crop at thirty-six sites where t e r r e s t r i a l lichens were abundant ( i . e . , ground c o v e r _ 2 0 % ) . Summarized t e c h n i c a l d a t a f o r l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm a c q u i r e d Aug. 5-8, 1980.  CIR  photographs  Numbers o f g r o u n d - t r u t h l o c a t i o n s and s i t e s , and l a r g e - s c a l e a i r photographs i n each o f the seven r e i n d e e r management zones.  vii  LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd.) Table XV  XVI  XVII  XVIII  XIX  XX  XXI XXII  XXIII  XXIV  P a  §  e  The o c c u r r e n c e o f ice-wedge p o l y g o n s , and t e r r a i n d i s t u r b a n c e by v e h i c l e s , summarized f o r l a r g e - s c a l e photographs i n t h e r e i n d e e r management zones.  92  Microdensitometric readings of o p t i c a l density values with w h i t e , r e d , green and b l u e l i g h t o f t h r e e L i c h e n Types on l a r g e - s c a l e (1:1,400-1:3,600) CIR p h o t o s .  94  Summary o f s t e p w i s e L i n e a r D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n (LDF) a n a l y s i s based on m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c r e a d i n g s o f t h e t h r e e L i c h e n Types.  99  Recombination s t e p w i s e LDF L i c h e n Types.  m a t r i x (percentage values) f o r step 3 of the analysis using microdensitometric readings o f  100  Number o f p h o t o - f r a m e s , t o t a l s u r f a c e a r e a , t o t a l l a n d a r e a and p e r c e n t l i c h e n c o v e r summarized f o r r e i n d e e r management zones a c c o r d i n g t o those w i t h no l i c h e n , and those a s s i g n e d t o L i c h e n Types I , I I and I I I .  102  E s t i m a t e s o f bottom and t o p components o f l i c h e n s t a n d i n g c r o p based on 1) p e r c e n t cover i n t e r p r e t e d from l a r g e - s c a l e photog r a p h s , and 2) f i e l d s i t e e s t i m a t e s o f l i c h e n biomass p e r u n i t a r e a from T a b l e X I I .  103  Estimates of t o t a l management zones.  l i c h e n standing crop  107  Selected northern standing crop.  ecosystems  used  summarized by r e i n d e e r  f o r comparison  of  lichen 120  E s t i m a t i o n o f w i n t e r range c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r t h e T u k t o y a k tuk P e n i n s u l a a r e a , N.W.T. .  136  Parameters and s c o r e s used t o c a l c u l a t e an i n d e x t e n s i t y o f r e c e n t Rangifev grazing.  138  o f the  in-  Vill  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure 1.  2.  3.  Page Modern t e c h n o l o g y i s used t o update r e i n d e e r T u k t o y a k t u k P e n i n s u l a a r e a , N.W.T. (a,b) .  ranching  in  the 6  Map o f t h e s t u d y area showing l o c a t i o n o f 12 t r a n s e c t s a l c n g which f l i g h t l i n e s were l o c a t e d , and 44 g r o u n d - t r u t h l o c a t i o n s a t which s i t e s were s t u d i e d .  25  Regional zonations o f the area D e l t a ( a , b, c, d ) .  27  east  o f the Mackenzie  River  4.  A m u l t i s t a g e sampling  program t o i n v e s t i g a t e r e i n d e e r r a n g e l a n d .  40  5.  The areas o c c u p i e d by the M a c k e n z i e D e l t a r e i n d e e r h e r d , summer 1978 t o f a l l 1982 ( h a t c h e d l i n e s ) , and t h e l o c a t i o n o f 13 transects.  41  A p o r t i o n o f t h e study a r e a southwest o f T u k t o y a k t u k showing the random . l o c a t i o n o f f l i g h t l i n e s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm photography a l o n g t r a n s e c t s 4 and 5.  44  Twin 70 mm cameras mounted on Cessna 180 w i n g t i p s photography.  46  6.  7. 8.  9. 10. 11.  12.  for stereo-  Cibachrome 2X enlargement o f 1:36,000 ( o r i g i n a l s c a l e ) 70 mm CIR p h o t o g r a p h showing path o f l a r g e - s c a l e f l i g h t l i n e 4-2.  48  C o l l e c t i o n o f a 20 cm x 20 cm l i c h e n d i v o t standing crop.  51  to estimate  Map o f the seven r e i n d e e r management zones d e f i n e d i n the area.  lichen study 57  Two-way i n d i c a t o r s p e c i e s a n a l y s i s (TWINSPAN) dendrogram o f 112 g r o u n d - t r u t h s i t e s based on v e g e t a t i o n cover o f 420 s p e c i e s , T u k t o y a k t u k P e n i n s u l a a r e a , N.W.T.  61  Normal c o l o u r 35 mm photographs examples ( a , b ) .  65  of vegetation  group A and B  13.  Example o f v e g e t a t i o n group C ( a , b ) .  68  14.  Example o f v e g e t a t i o n group D.  70  IX  L I S T OF FIGURES ( C o n t ' d . ) Figure 15.  P  a  S  Bottom v e r s u s t o p components o f l i c h e n biomass f o r v e g e t a t i o n groups A (open t r i a n g l e s ) , B ( c l o s e d c i r c l e s ) and C (open squares).  85  16.  Cibachrome 2.5X enlargement o f 1:1,600 ( o r i g i n a l -scale) 70 CIR p h o t o g r a p h , f l i g h t l i n e 4-2.  90  17.  Large-scale (1:1,800) CIR p h o t o - p a i r showing examples of v e g e t a t i o n groups A and B, and low damage l e v e l s t o t u n d r a r e s u l t i n g from m u l t i p l e passes o f t r a c k e d v e h i c l e s .  91  18.  Examples  o f L i c h e n Types on l a r g e - s c a l e CIR s t e r e o - p a i r s ( a , b ) .  95  19.  P l o t o f means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h r e e L i c h e n Types i n b l u e and w h i t e l i g h t o p t i c a l d e n s i t y (O.D.) s p a c e .  98  H i s t o g r a m showing f o r each o f t h e seven r e i n d e e r management zones, top and bottom s t a n d i n g c r o p s o f L i c h e n Type I ( l e f t ) , I I ( c e n t r e ) and I I I ( r i g h t ) .  104  A f l o w - d i a g r a m f o r a s s i g n i n g "unknown" f i e l d s i t e s among t h e f o u r v e g e t a t i o n groups based on TWINSPAN i n d i c a t o r s p e c i e s and decision rules.  I l l  20.  21.  22.  Comparison of oblique normal colour photographs o f the same a r e a ( a , b ) .  and  vertical  mm  CIR 131  e  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This  study  Department port  was  was j o i n t l y  of Indian provided  funded  Affairs by  by Canadian  and N o r t h e r n  the P o l a r  Reindeer  Development.  Continental  (1978) L t d .  and the  Additional field  Shelf  Project,  sup-  Department  of  Energy, Mines and R e s o u r c e s . For visor,  advice  and guidance,  Dr. P e t e r  Murtha,  I am p a r t i c u l a r l y  and members  o f my  indebted  committee:  by  thesis  examiners  Dr. F. B u n n e l l ,  Dean  super-  Dr. Roy S t r a n g ,  Gary B r a d f i e l d , Dr. Robert Woodham and Dr. Tim B a l l a r d . provided  to my t h e s i s  Dr.  H e l p f u l comments were  J.K. Stager  and Dr. P.  Tueller. The from  majority  the Great  thank  Lakes F o r e s t  establishment  Sullivan  o f the p r o j e c t  was  Research  director  conducted  Centre,  I am g r a t e f u l  and program  to pursue t h i s  to the f o l l o w i n g f o r t h e i r  leave  director  Dr. C a l  topic.  valuable  Abrahamson, Mr. W. Nasogaluak, Dr. D. B i l l i n g s l e y  contributions:  Mr. G.  and Dr. G. Godkin f o r t h e i r  interest  and encouragement  and  with  diagrams; Mr. P. W i l l i a m s  his  r o l e i n o b t a i n i n g e x c e l l e n t a e r i a l photographs; Ms. D. Weeks f o r word  cessing; questions  Mr. B. Wong on d a t a  processing  J. Gillett,  Dr. W.  Dr.  J . S t e i n f o r t h e i r help  Mr.  J . Ostrick  who  f o r her help  i n the  lab  Resource Photography L t d . f o r  provided  and s t a t i s t i c s ;  Dr. R.  answers Ireland,  to my  pro-  numerous  Dr. G.  Argus,  S c h o f i e l d , Dr. I . Brodo, Mr. P. Wong, Ms. L. Ley and in identification  o f the Western  i n the f i e l d ;  Ms. N. Holm  of I n t e g r a t e d  and Dr. S. Nash  Dr.  help  i n the study;  an e d u c a t i o n a l  Canadian F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e , and I  Mr. J i m C a y f o r d  f o r a l l o w i n g me the o p p o r t u n i t y  during  Arctic  and Mr. E . M o u s s a l i  and v e r i f i c a t i o n  Resource  Centre,  Inuvik  f o rlab assistance.  of plant  taxa;  for l o g i s t i c a l  xi  A significant a n t , Mr." M.  and  study.  was made by my  capable  field  and l a b a s s i s t -  Siltanen.  Finally, Joan  contribution  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n  Jesse  for their  patience,  love  and  t o my w i f e , R u t h , and c h i l d r e n encouragement  throughout  the  INTRODUCTION  -  1.  General Remote s e n s i n g has  and of  u -  management. obtaining These  sources,  the  relatively  Several factors  timely,  areas.  a prominent  focus  cost-effective  include  severe  role  unpopulated  a t t e n t i o n on and  accelerating  logistics  to play i n northern  problems  expanses, and  and  the  a s p e c t s of the environment ( M c Q u i l l a n 1975, Dramatic  advances  over  the  past  climatic  Thie  decade  tool  for  ( T h i e et and  al.  regional 1974,  repetitive  study  McQuillan  coverage  has  n o r t h e r n t e r r a i n surveys erable black  use and  i s made o f white  and  of  been o f p a r t i c u l a r  readily  1981).  available  1:60,000 a e r i a l  on  tems i n a r c t i c local  level  terrain,  processing  Canadian  arctic  LANDSAT w i t h value  over  2.3  1969,  and  import-  resources  i t s synoptic  for recent b r o a d - l e v e l  At i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s c o n s i d -  N a t i o n a l A i r Photo L i b r a r y  photographs,  although  supplemented  as  (NAPL)  required with There has how-  t h e r e are o f t e n needs f o r i n f o r m a t i o n at a  t h a t c o u l d b e n e f i t from such  advocated  Reppert  vast  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the r o l e o f l a r g e - s c a l e remote s e n s i n g s y s -  Large-scale been  energy  virtually a l l  c o l o u r photographs or o t h e r remote s e n s i n g d a t a (Rubec 1982). ever been l i t t l e  new  1979).  Rubec 1982).  (Wiken et al.  arctic  c o n d i t i o n s , the  of d a t a  way  for  remote s e n s i n g d a t a an  management  1975,  and  in acquisition,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s have made s a t e l l i t e ant  information  for minerals  scarcity  study  remote s e n s i n g as a  accurate  searches  resource  70  mm  colour  and  colour-infrared  g e n e r a l l y f o r rangeland Driscoll  million  sq km  1969,  study  T u e l l e r 1982).  of rangeland  a s s e s s the u s e f u l n e s s o f 70 mm  technology.  (Klein  and  aerial  photographs  management  (Carneggie  However, w i t h i n a r c t i c 1970),  virtually  have  no  a e r i a l photographs have been made.  &  Canada's  attempts  to  - 2 -  2.  Study O b j e c t i v e s The  to  present  assess  tundra,  study  r e i n d e e r (Rangifer  Tuktoyaktuk  posed:  deals with a ground-truth  can  an  Peninsula  integrative  l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm Results  tarandus area,  role  tarandus  and L.)  remote s e n s i n g winter  clearly  defined  the  study  were  required  at  A  for  a i r photographs i n the study o f arctic  of  rangeland  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  be  program on  the  question  was  ground-truth  Rangifer  a regional level  and  rangeland? for  effective  g e n e r a l management o f a l a r g e c o m m e r c i a l r e i n d e e r h e r d i n g o p e r a t i o n but  these  r e s u l t s had  t o e v a l u a t e l i c h e n , the p r i n c i p a l w i n t e r f o r a g e , which c o u l d o n l y  be  detected  reliably  graphic fined:  scales ( i ) to  including  and  (e.g., relate  lichen  p h o t o g r a p h s , and  quantified  1:2,000).  and  the  ground  Accordingly,  ground-truth  cover  on  two  of v e g e t a t i o n  abundance  ( i i ) t o i n v e n t o r y and  or  at  very  large  sub-objectives  and  measurements,  other to  i n t e r p r e t the 70 mm  site 70  photo-  were  de-  parameters,  mm  large-scale  l a r g e - s c a l e photo-  graphs a c c o r d i n g to a r e g i o n a l scheme so t h a t r e s u l t s c o u l d h e l p form a b a s i s for long-term The  management o f the r e i n d e e r h e r d  present  vegetational  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  ecology  tween ^ i e l d - b a s e d t r u t h work, and tributions by  study.  plant  as  purposely the  rangeland. a remote s e n s i n g  aimed  dominant  at  study  "middle-ground"  component  of  the  sciences.  the m a j o r i t y of past  T h i s " m i d d l e - g r o u n d " i s an a r e a  researchers  and  so has  between s t r o n g l y f i e l d - o r i e n t e d  mote s e n s i n g s p e c i a l i s t s who  or a be-  ground-  remote s e n s i n g ; i t c o u l d not have been conducted w i t h o u t  from both  some a n i m o s i t y  neither just  I t was  ecology,  and  con-  ill-addressed  i n p a r t been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r vegetation s c i e n t i s t s  often lack s i g n i f i c a n t  field  experience.  and  re-  - 3 -  II.  LITERATURE  REVIEW  - 4 -  1.  H i s t o r i c a l Background on In  1919  vestigate  was  and  an  et  Alaska/Yukon determined  the  Scotter  border  and  1929).  arrival  established  and  to  economic A  the  Coppermine  in  native  and  was  3,200 animals  and  was  Mackenzie Alaska,  operation  (Abrahamson 1963,  the  it  d r i v e from  into  the  between  a r e a east o f the  put  of  inhabitants  1928,  reindeer  in-  Canada.  resources  conducted  1927  to  i n northern  by  was  s i x year  Preserve  Commission  in  1935  Hill  1968,  1982). 1935  to  break o f f from the to I n u i t  about  1960  numerous  government-owned  ownership.  I t i s now  animals,  overgrazing  poaching  and  believed  near s e t t l e m e n t s ,  straying  animals  The  "experiment" n o n e t h e l e s s  survive  and  multiply  project  was  period, d i s t i n c t developed After  (Hill  and  economic and  social  attempts  Delta a  were  made  to be  passed  failed  f o r a combi-  practices, over-harvesting  Stager  &  Denike  t h a t herded  area,  and  although  considerable  to  herds  l o s s e s through d i s e a s e ,  1968,  to  attempts  smaller  demonstrated  Mackenzie  government-subsidized  that  herding  (Scotter  1979).  i n the  unsuccessful  r e i n d e e r herd  n a t i o n of reasons i n c l u d i n g i n e f f i c i e n t  adopted.  faced  e x i s t e d i n the  Reindeer G r a z i n g  Royal  wildlife  survey  River  arduous  of approximately  the  conditions  preliminary  A f t e r an  a  muskox husbandry  supplement  t h a t e x c e l l e n t rangeland  From  on  poor  1922).  (Porsild  the  of r e i n d e e r  al.  the Mackenzie D e l t a with  government  opportunity  improve  (Rutherford  Delta  Canadian  possibilities  Envisioned north  the  the R e i n d e e r Herd  extent  predation,  1972,  Treude  reindeer the  of  could  reindeer  during  this  b e n e f i t s f o r the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n  had  1967).  about Unlike  1960, the  allowed  t o run  revised  approach was  "open  herding"  previous  "closed  f r e e l y over the f a r more  techniques herding"  range with  of  approach,  an a n n u a l l y  labour-efficient  herd  (Hill  management the  organized 1967,  were  reindeer roundup.  Friesen &  were The  Nelson  - 5 -  1978).  The h e r d was  viduals u n t i l trol  c o n t r a c t u a l arrangements  1968 when the Canadian W i l d l i f e  S e r v i c e was  to s e v e r a l  indi-  given interim  con-  o f the f l o u n d e r i n g o p e r a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of o n l y 2,700 a n i m a l s ( S t a g e r &  Denike was  managed under  1972,  sold  Treude  t o the  1979).  former  I n 1974  chief  the e n t i r e  h e r d e r , who  i n turn  W i l l i a m Nasogaluak.  Both men  are n a t i v e I n u i t .  ment, the h e r d s i z e  steadily  increased  &  and  Billingsley  access  to  1981)  new  about  southern  sold  reindeer  following  holding  i t i n 1978  to  Mr.  E m p l o y i n g sound h e r d manage-  t o 13,000 i n s p r i n g ,  16,000 i n f a l l ,  markets  government  1981  the  1980  (Dickinson  recent  (Nasogaluak 1982).  construction  With of  the  Dempster Highway, and the emergence o f a l u c r a t i v e cash c r o p , namely t h e s a l e of  deer  antlers  Reindeer  (1978)  Billingsley  to o r i e n t a l Ltd.  1981).  has  Modern  markets an  as  a component  optomistic  economic  i n medicines, outlook  Canadian  (Nasogaluak  t e c h n o l o g y i s b e i n g drawn upon t o improve  &  herd  management as much as p o s s i b l e  ( F i g . 1) and at the p r e s e n t t i m e , the h e r d i s  continuing  (Nasogaluak,  annotated  t o expand  i n size  bibliography  pertaining  t o a l l a s p e c t s of  has been r e c e n t l y p r e p a r e d (Sims & Murtha  2.  the  A  comprehensive  reindeer  operation  1983).  W i n t e r Use o f Ground L i c h e n s by Rangifer' Lichens  deer and  constitute  caribou.  the c h i e f w i n t e r s o u r c e o f n u t r i t i o n  I n the USSR where o v e r 3.4  q u a r t e r s o f the w o r l d ' s r e i n d e e r e x i s t 80  p e r s . comm.^).  t o 95% o f the w i n t e r  (Kurkela  1976).  Three  million  head  f o r most or o v e r  reinthree-  ( K l e i n & K u z y a k i n 1982) a p p r o x i m a t e l y  food i n most r e i n d e e r s p e c i e s , Cladina  districts  svellaris^C.  consists  of  vangifevina  iOwner, Canadian R e i n d e e r (1978) L t d . , T u k t o y a k t u k , N.W.T. 20 June, ^ n o m e n c l a t u r e f o r a l l p l a n t s g i v e n i n the t e x t f o l l o w s Appendix I .  lichen and C.  1980.  - 6 -  Fig.  1.  Modem t e c h n o l o g y i s used D e l t a a r e a , N.W.T.  t o update r e i n d e e r r a n c h i n g i n the Mackenzie  (a) Lapp h e r d e r on f o o t , with herd dog, tends r e i n d e e r on R i c h a r d s I s l a n d fawni n g grounds. P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Ottawa, Ont., Photo no. PA-121721. 24 A p r i l , 1936.  (b) F o r t y - f o u r years l a t e r , h e l i c o p t e r s a s s i s t a s p r i n g round-up f o r c e n s u s i n g , ear-tagging and dehorning reindeer at Atkinson Point, Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula. 21 June, 1980.  - 8 -  arbuscula deer  may comprise  (Andreev  1954).  summer, a c c o u n t i n g autumn  from  1975).  In  adaptations  1957, S c o t t e r  accessible  sub-marginal The area  climate lichen  1982),  diets  1968, M i l l e r  are known  figure  nourishment  dense  are c o n t r o l l i n g  carpets  i n otherwise  landscapes lichens  features that  as i s the r o l l i n g  particularly  relatively  individual  or u n f a v o u r a b l e  topography  and subhumid  i n some  areas  patterns  1975,  Johnson 1980, 1981). susceptible  homogeneous strate,  o f land that  and depend  antecedent  reflect  Brooks  on many  and post-event  area t o  Relief  and  the l a n d s c a p e ;  factors, moisture  (Thomson lichen  a history of fires  of f i r e .  The r e s u l t s  including  1954, K l e i n &  meadow and marsh  Range  L i c h e n s , when d r y , burn e a s i l y  t o the e f f e c t s  1971).  climate of central  as i s the f l a t  of Alaska's  i n broad  ularly  f o r growth,  north  exist  easi-  make a r e g i o n g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e f o r  Slope,  tracts  terrestrial  unproductive,  thalli.  1982),  wildfire  Although  ( L l a n o 1956, P u l l i a i n e n  Kuzyakin  Recurrent  popula-  1976).  ( H u s t i c h 1951) or much o f n o r t h - c e n t r a l USSR (Andreev  o f the North  rises i n  can v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y from  to i s o l a t e d  in  1961, Skogland  Labrador  tundra  lichen  (Shank et al. 1978, O r i t s -  the use o f l i c h e n s ,  t u n d r a and s u b a r c t i c  growth,  but t h i s  rein-  i n n o r t h e r n areas because these p l a n t s r e p r e s e n t  carbohydrate  pure,  little  between 85 and 90% ( A h t i  1967, K e l s a l l  abundance o f t e r r e s t r i a l  from  consume  20% o f the d i e t ,  to non-lichen winter  i s widespread  reindeer  eaten by R u s s i a n  are r e p o r t e d f o r some North American Rangife  l a n d et al. 1980, K l e i n  ly  Scandinavia,  f o r o n l y about  figures  (Cringan  lichens,  75 t o 90 % o f a l l l i c h e n s  20 t o 50%, to i n w i n t e r  Similar  tions  from  1979).  cover  (Johnson  may  & Rowe  and so are p a r t i c of burning  the f u e l  type,  and weather c o n d i t i o n s ,  are n o t the sub-  the i n t e n -  - 9 -  sity  and  extent  sult  of  changing  conditions during  within  burn  geneity  of the b u r n i n g  a  e f f e c t s of f i r e ery  can  fire"  vary  on l i c h e n  (Johnson  stands  effects  few  sites,  only  Rangifer  a  Skuncke from in  of  W i l l i a m s et  the  arctic  Rangifer  and  can  3  C.  ground mats up  (Fuller  For  the time  high  much  1979).  heteroThus  (Johnson  moisture  in r e l i e f  that to 30  two  composition lichens  because  they  However, low  of  pro-  lichen  are  adapted  are  highly re-  and  many  and wet  areas,  areas  such  substrates for f r u t i c o s e  lichen  taxa  can  constituting Other  taxa  also  them u n p a l a t a b l e thousand  (Cladina  in a  normally rocky  or  lichens.  vary  suitable occur  as  to  significantly,  lichen  i n low  forage  for  amounts,  are  so they remain u n a v a i l a b l e , or c o n t a i n  These s p e c i e s  lichen  ( L l a n o 1956, species  Kelsall  branching  cm  Other  3  C. rangiferina  3  C.  mainstays circum-  arbuscu-  i n t e r t w i n e d p o d e t i a o f t e n as  important  forage  1968,  have been d e s c r i b e d  i n c l u d e the well-known and  stellaris  grow w i t h deep.  might  can have  (Thomson 1979), o n l y a s m a l l number are c o n s i d e r e d diets.  "crown  & Rowe 1975).  Arctic  i n part  the  required for recov-  surface  vegetatiorial  them,  1968).  a c i d s that render about  Rouse  as  example, a w i n d - d r i v e n  1978).  to the g r o u n d s u r f a c e  While  &  be  O f t e n as a r e -  s u r v i v e long p e r i o d s of i n a c t i v i t y w h i l e  species  Pegau  will  centimeters  and  al.  with  and  1954,  winter  mitis)  a few  Kershaw 1977).  p o l a r " r e i n d e e r moss" l i c h e n s la  there  relatively  ecosystems,  terrestrial  genera  closely  1969).  1982).  do not have s u i t a b l e  few  lichenic  Klein  associated  (Andreev  appressed  period involved.  are complex and  occurrence  ( L l a n o 1956,  Distribution  bitter  the  injury  lichens  gravelly  fire,  c o n d i t i o n s of  1972,  to f r o s t  frozen state have  stands  i n heat-deficient  sistent  a  burns  changes of j u s t  on  (Lambert  existing  time  or no damage t o ground l i c h e n s  Even l o c a l l y , nounced  the  between  1980,  o c c u r r i n g under  produce l i t t l e  with  as  and  lichens  dense  are members of  -  the  genera  (Andreev  Cetraria,  higher high  Stereocaulon,  1954, L l a n o 1956, K e l s a l l  selectively  sought  after  digestibilities  surface area  concentrations  active Llano  algae  A amounts  quality,  Rangifer  content  al. 1979),  winter  including: o f Cladina  palatabilities  (i)  give  a  due to lower contents  s p p . ) , and ( i v ) h i g h e r  available  spp.  nitrogen  and Stereocaulon  i n cephalodia)  spp.  (Andreev  1971, W i l l i a m s et al. 1978).  perceive  diet  small  of p r i m a r i l y  and m i n e r a l s  differences,  from  lichen,  have 1954,  The mech-  f o r example i n  supplemented  incidentally-ingested  1968), i s a "maintenance d i e t " .  (Palmer  & Rouse 1945).  because  but  podetia  s p e c i e s are  ( i i i ) vitamin  o f the f o o d s t u f f , by the a r r i v a l  g a i n weight  tissue  might  and Cladonia  are not known.  of p r o t e i n  tein-deficient  et  producing  by which Rangifer  p a r t s , etc. ( K e l s a l l  even  Peltigera  reasons  acids;  Cetraria  1956, Skuncke 1969, P u l l i a i n e n  nutritional  for different  lichenic  i n some  Alectoria  It i s believed certain  ( i i ) higher  bitter  ( e . g . some  blue-green  anisms  tein  ratio);  pungent,  contents  1968).  ( e . g . the hollow-stemmed  (e.g. v i t a m i n C i s present nitrogen  Peltigera,.  by Rangifer  t o volume  of  10 -  protein  and o f t e n weak and d i s e a s e - p r o n e  small  evergreen  plant  Because o f the low pro-  o f s p r i n g most animals  Reindeer  o f the c a r b o h y d r a t e  insufficient  with  overwintering  content  will  result  animals  (Palmer  are pro-  on l i c h e n  may  1934, Holleman  i n d e t e r i o r a t e d muscle  (Palmer  & Rouse 1945, Skuncke  1969). Upper are  parts  o f ground  g e n e r a l l y more  thalli 1971).  that  contain  lichen  nutritious a  are n o r m a l l y  and p a l a t a b l e  build-up  of  lichenic  selected  than acids  lower  for foraging; senescing  (Llano  1956,  they  parts of Pulliainen  -  Lichens some  time  during  are not o n l y i m p o r t a n t  that  lichens  the t r a n s i t i o n  11 -  i n winter.  are r e q u i r e d  as  i n t e r m e d i a r y agents  p e r i o d s o f the s p r i n g  t h e r e a r e summer d i e t  microflora  important  the w i n t e r  food o f summer (Skuncke  requirements  for digestion  i n digestion  and autumn between  d i e t o f m a i n l y c a r b o h y d r a t e , and the p r o t e i n Possibly  I t has been r e c o g n i z e d f o r  for lichen  of l i c h e n  1969) .  t o s u s t a i n t h e rumen  carbohydrates  (White  &  Trudell  1980a). W i n t e r snow cover  invariably  so s e r v e s as a s e c o n d a r y When snow  depths  with  deeper  with  i t s sharp  during  restricts  a c c e s s t o the l i c h e n  "mask" on t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f food p a t c h e s .  a r e s l i g h t , Rangifer  may  feed  snow, most d i g f e e d i n g c r a t e r s . fore-edges  feeding.  l e s s e r depths  f o d d e r and  enables  When n e c e s s a r y ,  are u s u a l l y sought  The concave  the animals craters  (Pruitt  on exposed  may  shape o f t h e h o o f ,  to easily be over  v e g e t a t i o n , but  scrape  snow  50 cm deep  away  although  1959, Henshaw 1968, Skogland  1978).  Numbers, o r i e n t a t i o n and shapes o f c r a t e r s a r e dependent on l o c a l snow d e p t h , s u r f a c e and s u b s u r f a c e hardness  and d e n s i t y , s n o w - c r y s t a l t e x t u r e , and on t h e  h a b i t o f the i n d i v i d u a l r e i n d e e r o r c a r i b o u ( K e l s a l l 1968, M i l l e r 1974, T h i n g 1977). days,  C o n s i d e r a b l e areas may be c r a t e r e d . an e n c l o s e d h e r d  available cover  surface.  o f 32 r e i n d e e r c r a t e r e d  Moreover,  i n t h e immediate  Kelsall  areas  since  cratering  o f the c r a t e r s ,  (1968) noted t h a t i n t e n  o v e r about disturbs  18% of the t o t a l and  compacts  up t o t e n t o twenty  snow  times the  a r e a o f the a c t u a l c r a t e r may be made u n a v a i l a b l e f o r f u t u r e use i n any one winter able may  (Pruitt  1959).  to u t i l i z e thus  cratering  sites  Because o f t r a m p l i n g and snow a g i n g  o n l y t w i c e i n any w i n t e r (Bergerud 1974).  severely r e s t r i c t itself  causes  Rangifer  utilization  of better  c o n s i d e r a b l e areas  quality  may be  Snow c o v e r  lichen  patches;  t o become u n a v a i l a b l e w h i l e o t h e r  - 12  areas  may  remain  -  f o r much of the w i n t e r  under snow too deep or too hard  for  cratering.  3.  Remote S e n s i n g o f Rangifer  3.1  Aerial The  mined  Observations  species composition of r e i n d e e r l i c h e n  from  ample,  the a i r at  pure  white  greyish-white rangiferina, tinge  Rangeland  altitudes  stands  stands  may  are be  w i t h Alectoria  (Andreev  guishing  low  1940,  forage  a v o i d e d by employing  mixed  &  certain  such  individuals  can  estimate  t u r e s w i t h i n 10 t o 20% Aerial-visual plied  i n the  workers aerial In aerial  cover  rangeland  mapped  4.83  Sweden, Skuncke  quality  of  as many as  w i t h i n 1 sq km height  and  sample  speed,  and  biomass  and  3  C.  a bluish-green  problems  in  distinare  have an i n t i m a t e knowl-  S t u d i e s i n the USSR i n d i c a t e  that  of  pas-  shrubs  and  f o r Rangifer  has  1961,  for years.  sq  km  certain  lichen  apart and  from  From at an  seventeen The  of  From  been 1945  routinely to 1960  r e i n d e e r rangeland  ap-  Soviet  using  mainly  1970).  (1969) adapted  at  Potential  ex-  stellaris  arbusaula  imparting  o b s e r v e r s who  area.  Europe  million  plots.  For  dry ground mosses or r o c k y o u t c r o p s  assessment  rangelands.  t r a n s e c t s 20 t o 30 km  C.  3  deter-  1961).  Northern  o b s e r v a t i o n s (Andreev  of  the  (Andreev  USSR and  appraisal  1967).  1961).  by Cladina  mitis  when p r e s e n t  experienced a e r i a l  edge o f the ground v e g e t a t i o n i n an  o f C.  be v i s u a l l y  m (Andreev  dominated  stands  Hepburn  from  t o 200  typically  ochroleuca  Ahti  lichens  o f 100  stands may  small  altitude  different aircraft  r e g u l a r time  Russian  r e s e a r c h e r s a method f o r  aircraft of  150  flying t o 200  v e g e t a t i o n types flies  intervals  along m,  may  at a c o n s t a n t two  parallel  q u a n t i t y and be  estimated  precalculated  or more o b s e r v e r s  esti-  -  mate  forage  seasonal  abundance  ranges  can  Skuncke  1969).  ventory  reindeer  (Lyftingsmo  in  be  With  plots  cited  used  to  produce  broad-scale  &  Hepburn  1967).  1:200,000 s c a l e grazing with  a  nique  and  fires  In 1972 termine tasks  the  A  LANDSAT to  multidate  ten  has  (Pegau  been used  Eriksson  of  1968, to i n -  1980),  (Thing  7,700 km  scheme,  Norway  1980).  t r a n s e c t s were  of woodland  caribou  mapping  supplemented  on  is  to maps  at  the  to  twelve  years  Specified  levels  of p r e c i s i o n  the  Russian  In  rangeland with  1:100,000 or  f o r changes are  due  to  obtained  aerial-visual  tech-  of  ground-truth  over  useful  tundra.  These  analyses  associations  km  potential  and  imagery,  of  undertaken  management  visual  data.  19,000 sq  Rangeland  satellite's  satellite  e v a l u a t i o n s but tal  every  study was  caribou  variety  images was or  aerial  maps  Greenland  along  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  a feasibility  related  1976).  for  1969,  and  transferred  1970).  Rangifer  LANDSAT to Study  vided  technique  this  ( E r i k s s o n 1980).  3.2  on  Soviet  reassessed  sampling  1980),  Using  broad-scale  (1:500,000) maps  results  (Andreev  stratified  on  observations  Most  with  and  aircraft.  (Skuncke  in Eriksson  systematic  photographs,  usually  i n Sweden  Ontario,  aerial  the  some m o d i f i c a t i o n s , the  northern  (Ahti  -  below  outlined  rangeland  1965,  13  and  application  (Lent  digital  over  &  for  LaPerriere  processing  a helicopter  several 1974,  techniques  reconnaissance  were  caribou  rangeland.  were  usually  too  general  suitable l a r g e areas  for  rapid,  more  employed pro-  produced  photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  f o r s y n o p t i c a n a l y s e s o f r e g i o n a l v e g e t a t i o n such units  de-  specific  program  v e g e t a t i o n maps were s u b s e q u e n t l y Simple  to  LaPerriere  General  the mapping o f r e c e n t w i l d f i r e  were  i n northeastern Alaska  to permit  burns was detailed  (Lent & L a P e r r i e r e 1974).  as  of  forest  w i l d l i f e habitat  an e x c e p t i o n .  mapping  of  Digi-  vegetation  -  Using  LANDSAT  imagery,  Lent  snowcover, h e a v i l y used  but  correlate  routes  caribou  on May  1976).  They  suggested  imagery might  migration this  caribou during  and  a s p e c t , Lent  the  In  pre-calving  migrations  that  (Lent  there  habitat  particular  1980 ern  Lent  i n v e n t o r y and  mapping,  the  by  1:250,000 George were  scale  Soil  use  with  colour  classified  computer level the  using  television  CIR  plotted  in  or  of  Service  of w i l d l a n d s  reindeer data  Clifford  a clustering  of  usefulness  from  variations  areas  were  chosen  study  by  early  used  shallow  in  1974) .  zones of  LANDSAT  during  snowcover concluded  to  wildlife  range were  so  that  the  produce  used  as  1981). the  For  Seward  physiographic  the  maps  the  1979  Peninsula  and  be  1980  were  u n i t s f o r sampling  1979,  maps  (George et primary  and  the  could  1976,  vegetation  Satellite  a l g o r i t h m and  in  habitat  Seward P e n i n s u l a ,  management  1979).  final  broad-scale  undertook on  to  for  h e l i c o p t e r reconnaissance  1977,  (George  into  routes  application  apparent  digital  monitor  photographs  landscape  snowfree  data  LaPerriere  that the c a l v i n g  represent  o b j e c t i v e was  field  checks (George et al. puter  &  and  Conservation  primary  LANDSAT  augmented  caribou  g e n e r a l v e g e t a t i o n mapping.  for  1981).  (Lent  1  i n v e n t o r i e s of 65,000 sq km The  p r e d i c t i o n s of annual  potential  detect  of  cover  & L a P e r r i e r e s (1974) f e a s i b i l i t y  LANDSAT's  Alaska  Alaska.  snow  drainages  they  to  to p r e - c a l v i n g m i g r a t i o n  that  patterns  certain  considerable  Encouraged  aggregations  imagery  (1980) found  because  1980).  was  or  unable  1970's have g e n e r a l l y been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  melt-off.  avenues  allow  range-use  (1974) were  systems  areas  satellite  Investigating  trail  snow-free  (LaPerriere  repetitive  -  & LaPerriere  disturbed could  14  at  al.  but  ground  data was  com-  hand-drawn  surveys,  purposes,  1977,  d i s p l a y e d on  either  to  the  database  spectral  used  west-  occassional  product  and  recent  a or  high-  first  subdivide  and  afterwards  -  to  check  White and  the a c c u r a c y  o f c o m p u t e r - c l a s s i f i e d maps  (1979) p r e d i c t e d  range  prepared  mapping  15 -  i n the f u t u r e  using  satellite  of grazing-soil  the e v e n t u a l  data  so t h a t  relationships,  growth  v e g e t a t i o n components, assessment o f q u a l i t y , migration range  routes  and c o r r i d o r s ,  1981).  refinement  of vegetation  interpretive rates  maps  of lichens  stocking levels  grounds,  reindeer  rangeland  o f LANDSAT d i g i t a l  i n the A d v e n t d a l e n  data  wintering  delineated  and p o t e n t i a l s ,  but o n l y  two were  considered  was c a r r i e d  Eight  o f importance  northern  spectral  and  the other  map  was p r e p a r e d  stocking  a d r y heath  levels,  winter  and, based  range  the suggestion  was made  r e i n d e e r p o p u l a t i o n i n the v a l l e y In  conjunction  with  from  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of reindeer  to  the  ( O r i t s l a n d et al. 1980).  porated  visual  1:60,000  black  aerial  (summer, s p r i n g / f a l l , Barrenground  caribou  southern  District  analyses  o f LANDSAT d a t a  A 1:250,000  the a i d o f o l d e r  photographs,  so t h a t  three  incor-  1:40,000 and  seasonal  range  w i n t e r ) were d e l i n e a t e d (Edmonds 1979).  (Rangifer  o f Keewatin,  a l g o r i t h m was f i r s t  was undertaken t h a t  o f LANDSAT imagery (Edmonds 1979).  was i n t e r p r e t e d with  and white  on optimum of  I s l a n d s , N.W.T. a p r e l i m i n a r y range survey  image  A 1:50,000  reduction  Belcher  satellite  summer range,  the l i t e r a t u r e  f o r an immediate  an e x p e r i m e n t a l  interpretation  c l a s s e s were  ( O r i t s l a n d et al. 1980).  on e s t i m a t e s  Norway  to the approximately  r e i n d e e r i n the a r e a , one r e p r e s e n t i n g sedge and g r a s s - r i c h  tion  and o t h e r  out f o r a s t u d y  600  types  c o u l d be and o t h e r  areas,  V a l l e y , Svalbard,  ( O r i t s l a n d et al. 1980, Odeegard et al. 1981).  scale  Klein &  characteristics. Computer c l u s t e r i n g  of  calving  (George  tarandus  groenlandiaus)  N.W.T. was s t u d i e d  ( C i h l a r et al. 1978). a p p l i e d to d i g i t a l  using  rangeland  digital  An u n s u p e r v i s e d  in  and v i s u a l classifica-  data t o d e l i n e a t e g e n e r a l  vegeta-  -  tional the  patterns  field  and  evaluating and of  i n a 95,500 sq  used  the  as  nine  mapped  vegetation at  al.  studies  and  bases  for habitat  o f areas  units  and  1:1,000,000  components c o l o u r  Horn  Dixon  &  habitat, of  1982).  three the  collected  associations.  Image  and  photographs  and  five  for  and  as  habitat. i n the  vegetation  (Horn and  c a r i b o u management  a  of  bases Field  complexes the  for  work,  identification  entire  that  were  study  area  of  burn  provide  of  Dixon  gave  older  twelve  major  descriptions  1981).  of  d i d not  the  results  analyses provide  vegetation on  six  Vegetation  conventional  Visual  (Dixon  barrenground  represented  Dixon 1981).  appropriate  digital .classifications (Dixon 1981,  of  and  (1957)  used to dev-  assessment  f o r e s t were  detailed  data was  n o r t h w e s t e r n Manitoba  preliminary  subarctic  enhancements  1981,  area  1:250,000 (Horn 1981,  interpretation  transparencies  3.3  to  As  categories  tundra  mapsheets at a s c a l e of  studies  caribou  enhancement of d i g i t a l  1981,  was  studies,  respectively  maps f o r a 76,500 sq km  data  as  maps were c a r r i e d i n t o  o f LANDSAT scenes h e l p e d  elop vegetation  associations  Preliminary  1978).  Principal  caribou  -  area.  importance  mapping  1:250,000  ( C i h l a r et  sampling  relative  additional visual  km  16  field  vegetation  based  on  field  and  white  LANDSAT  image  black of  NTS  useful r e s u l t s for  Dixon & Horn 1982).  Medium-Scale (1:20,000-1:60,000) A i r Photographs Conventional  spread  use  medium-scale  i n the  study  taining  high-quality  volved,  and  numbers  of  the  time  photos  aerial  o f Rangifer  rangeland.  photo-coverage required  have  served  photographs  for  the  as  Probably  large  i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and deterrents.  have  land  not  received  the  expense of  ob-  areas  typically  in-  c a l c u l a t i n g areas Although  wide-  1:60,000  on  large  black  and  - 17 -  white  panchromatic  areas,  they  mapping. ably of  may  air-photos  be dated  and u s u a l l y  required; smaller scales  quality  bedrock  and o t h e r  a pilot  study  o f an 11,432 sq km  NAPL  black  and white  and d r a i n a g e  (1968: T a b l e 5 ) .  To  provide  cover  figures  i n f o r m a t i o n on  portion  o f the medium-scale  coverage  may be sub-sampled.  herds  i n Finmark,  northern  f o r rangeland  photographs  to overlook  sq km  tract  f o r nine (Einevoll  are i n v a r i -  small s t r e t c h e s  lower  a  pasture's  maps  types  for caribou  northern  Alaska.  of a s i m i l a r  into  and These  their  1:10,500 maps  topography,  types  of  scales)  were  t a l l i e d by  for a large  area, a  and white  photo-  grid  1:20,000 1968).  was  overlain  a i r photos  Percent  then  on an  totalling  cover was  estirange-  I s l a n d , N.W.T. s e l e c t e d b l a c k and  field and  scale,  study,  soil cover  two c o n s i d e r e d as prime w i n t e r  to s e l e c t  sampling  (1:21,000  including  1:60,000  she r e c o g n i z e d e i g h t  a sampling  (Einevoll  were used  range  With  using  vegeta-  r e i n d e e r g r a z i n g areas f o r f a m i l y -  sample  interpreted  U s i n g photographs ground  To e s t a b l i s h  On p a r t s o f Somerset  major  i n 1955.  ( e . g . 1:20,000-1:60,000) b l a c k  1968).  map  n o r t h e r n Manitoba  rangeland  types  ally  1976).  Rangifer  terrain  1:60,000 photos  (1958) mapped  f o r the types were s u b s e q u e n t l y  and a s e l e c t e d  white  Beckel  for d i v i s i o n ,  n o r t h e r n Norway,  o n l y 5% o f the area was  two  most  quality  significantly  range,  acquired  as main c r i t e r i a  Kelsall  tation  that  i n subarctic  photographs  The p e r c e n t  mated  scale  interpreters  features  tract  types.  18,000  or l a r g e r  of caribou winter  tion  owned  and cover  (Skuncke 1969, Andreev 1970).  As  types  cause  available  are o f v a r i a b l e  More i m p o r t a n t l y , 1:20,000  water,  land  are w i d e l y  sampling  locations  muskoxen  (Russell  and i n t e g r a t i n g  Komarkova & Webber of used  habitat as  a  types  and &  generEdmonds  intensive (1980) near  framework  vege-  produced Atkasook,  for detailed  - 18 -  studies soil  of p l a n t  distribution  preferences  and  Caribou  field  cover,  island  (Komarkova  1980),  (White & T r u d e l l  investigated  mapped on  above-ground  on  (Parker  c o n c l u d e d that  by the s c a l e o f the photographs  habitat  Seven  classes  to v e g e t a t i o n were  ground  encountered  identified varied  in  i n the  field,  Precambrian  Shield  the u s e f u l n e s s  (Parker  N.W.T., a  and white a i r p h o t o s ,  Problems types  Island,  1976).  the c l a s s e s  and v e g e t a t i o n a l l y  I t was  caribou  1980),  1980b) .  1:60,000 b l a c k  to range  & Webber  and  Southamptom  biomass.  classes  on the u n d u l a t i n g ,  of the approach  1976).  L a r g e - S c a l e (<1:20,000) A i r Photographs t h e Southampton  white  photographs  1:12,000 photos  Island were  acquired  identification  (Parker  s t u d y o f c a r i b o u r a n g e l a n d , the 1:60,000 b l a c k  compared  to  limited  the summer of 1970.  of v e g e t a t i o n  The  types d e s c r i b e d  coverage latter during  by  normal  colour  proved f a r s u p e r i o r ground-truth studies  1976).  During was  and  o f the i s l a n d .  limited  In  for  (Everett  i n n o r t h w e s t e r n Hudson Bay  m o i s t u r e regime  particularly  and  crop  surveys were conducted to r e l a t e  correlating  3.4  standing  variability  were f i r s t  dispersion  portions  and  f o r a g e consumption  m o i s t u r e regime  then  was  and  r a n g e l a n d s were  43,000 sq km of  productivity  summer,  1967,  colour  aerial  photography  at a  scale  of  1:15,840  conducted f o r a r a n g e l a n d i n v e n t o r y o f the n o r t h w e s t e r n Manitoba mapsheet  (64K,  Whiskey  Barnhardt  Jack Lake)  1973, M i l l e r  cover f i g u r e s  that  1976).  B e c k e l (1958) A dot-grid  f o r e i g h t major h a b i t a t  and annual r a t e s  of w i l d f i r e  on the comparative abundance  had  previously  o v e r l a y was  &  percent  on the c o l o u r p h o t o s ,  burn were e s t i m a t e d ( M i l l e r types  (Miller  used to p r o v i d e  types i n t e r p r e t e d  of h a b i t a t  mapped  1976,  as determined  1980).  from  the  Based colour  -  photos, types  twenty-five for  ground  detailed  composition  and  sites  study.  cover,  were  Field  standing  acquire  western  format)  of  summer range  for approximately  vations  ( H o l t 1980).  with  the  ground  the  70 mm  sq km  black  of  seeded  vs  and  white  woodland)  areas  mote s e n s i n g rangeland  mm  camera  vegetation  species,  system  photographic  Effects  unsuccessful  was  prints  and  used  (20 cm  range and from  100  to  x  25  sq  km  photo-over-  of g r a z i n g were docu-  to c o r r e l a t e  except  panchromatic  these  for isolated  (Driscoll  systems  management,  locating 1970).  could  including  Holt,  Institute  dated  24  Feb.,  of  1981.  cultural  and  until  then  obser-  cases  of  site  Botany,  types  scale  such that  as  roads,  of  vs  fences  large-scale reaspects  classification,  productivity,  Univ.  (1:15,840  (e.g. grassland  f o r many c r i t i c a l and  resource  the l a t e 1960's, o n l y  realized  inventory  f o r range  of medium  features  information  range  Systematic  Up  vegetation  I t was  provide  systems  photographs  f o r mapping broad and  sensing  i n recent years.  termination of c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s  Letter  common  1976).  V e g e t a t i o n maps were prepared  were  of  forage  of caribou winter  l a r g e - s c a l e remote  1:60,000) were used  shrubland  ls.  35  most  ( H o l t , p e r s . comm.*).  study have become widespread standard  made  important  (Miller  four  A e r i a l Photographs to Study Rangeland  Applications  or  by  the  were  s u r v e y s , however attempts  a i r photos  severe overgrazing  to  plots  hand-held  300  among  measurements  and were checked a g a i n s t ground s u r v e y s .  mented d u r i n g  4.  a  alloted  l a r g e s c a l e (1:8,500) c o l o u r i n f r a r e d  cm  lays,  Greenland,  -  crops  two-year p l a n t r e c o v e r y on c l i p p e d In  19  s t u d i e s of  Copenhagen,  the  of de-  utiliza-  Denmark.  -  tion  levels,  range  multiple-use (Carneggie use of  readiness  potentials,  & Reppert  large-scale  (e.g.  -  trend  improvement  1969,  some c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s  and  20  monitoring,  potential  T u e l l e r 1977,  1982).  1:600-1:5,000) 70 mm on  the  and  and  the  wildlife  Research  habitat  and  of  values  c o n c e n t r a t e d on  photographs,  i n f o r m a t i o n which  evaluation  the  t h e r e are  can be  obtained  by  70  photographic  now  such  re-  mote s e n s o r s . There over  are  advantages  o t h e r remote s e n s o r s  shutter  speeds  maintaining are  light  their  and  portable  and  the  cutting,  on  Driscoll  1971).  mended  shrub,  advances  Equipment allow  rolls  are  forb &  ( D r i s c o l l et  with  the  and  1970,  mass ( D r i s c o l l et al.  too  expensive  schemes  can  smaller  scales into  Reppert  1969,  provided  by  and  incorporate  Driscoll  large-scale  low,  and on  the  E v e r i t t et al.  along  with  parallax  measure-  (Carneggie  &  of  are  study  without  Reppert  1969,  normally  recom-  identification  D r i s c o l l et soil  cameras systems,  viewing,  films  while  filter  al.  surface  1970,  condition  of p l a n t v i g o u r and  70 mm  such  aerial  bio-  instances  other  remote  photographs may multistage  sensing  i n f o r m a t i o n - g a t h e r i n g systems  T u e l l e r 1982).  photographic  the  fast  1980).  tracts In  flights  for. d i r e c t  1969,  determination  numerous.  1974,  lens  (CIR)  (Driscoll  1977), and  comprehensive  level  p r e f e r r e d f o r s e p a r a t i o n and  the  them  low  effects  systems  systems  the cameras have  relatively  processed  infrared  F o r the study of l a r g e r a n g e l a n d come  tilt  table  species  Tueller 1974,  reduce  colour  1974),  c o s t s are  readily  latter  grass  Coleman al.  or  that  interchangeable  of view  easily-modified light  f o r use,  Driscoll  permit  and  Colour  mm  film  angles  film  choosing  Typically  stereo-overlap. and  for  f o r range s t u d i e s .  rapid  normal narrow  ments,  of  several  The  systems  of  particular  sampling  platforms  at  (Carneggie  future monitoring is  be-  &  capability value;  the  - 21 -  photographs & Reppert ties  has  are  1969,  Driscoll  proven  comparison  of  large-scale  important permanent 1970).  plant  photographs  for future  comparison  M i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r y of  to be a u s e f u l wildland  records  film  dye  t e c h n i q u e f o r the q u a n t i t a t i v e communities  ( D r i s c o l l et  and  al.  components  1970,  1974,  (Carneggie  layer  densi-  evaluation  viewed  Everitt  on  et  and  70  mm  al.  1980,  to  range  1981). Studies resources United  regarding  have been  States  world.  these  are  few  areas  ( K l e i n 1970).  studies  ties,  1975).  The  geographical  limits  lowing  hydro-electric  upstream level  the D e l t a v e g e t a t i o n  70  mm  scaled  southwestern  oaerulescens)  or s u b a r c t i c  expanses  provided  colonies  e s t i m a t e s on  and  sex  dam  and  age  that  habitat  photographs  goose  remote  documented  changes  1974).  at Cape H e n r i e t t a - M a r i a ,  sensing  nesting  class  densi-  distributions monitored  caused a sudden  used  in conjunction  over a  et al.  1980).  four  In a m u l t i s t a g e  fol-  drop i n  70 mm  photo-  year p e r i o d study o f  s o u t h e r n Hudson Bay, with  o f major  in  lesser  large-scale  g r o u n d - t r u t h and  d a t a to e s t i m a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n  community types (Wickware  photographs  and g r o u n d - t r u t h s t u d i e s were used i n the p r e p a r a -  ( D i r s c h l et al.  were  world  i n the e a s t e r n  s u c c e s s i o n was  construction  even  i n the  i n the Peace-Athabasca D e l t a , n o r t h e a s t e r n A l b e r t a .  o f l a r g e - s c a l e maps that  snow goose  (Anser  the a r c t i c  rangeland  change and v e g e t a t i o n  c o v e r a g e at 1:6,000 s c a l e , tion  from  largest  of c o l o n i e s ,  Landscape  r a n g e l a n d s o f the  on 1:10,000 and 1:4,000 s c a l e 70 mm  photographs  (Kerbes 1975).  water  the  L e s s e r snow goose  p h o t o g r a p i c systems  but a l s o have c o v e r e d o t h e r areas o f the  documented  constitute  Canadian a r c t i c were examined (Kerbes  o f 70 mm  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the a r i d  and western A u s t r a l i a ,  There  though  the a p p l i c a t i o n  smallervegetation  - 22  Undoubtedly remotely-sensed applications.  70 data This  mm  aerial  i n the  photographs  future  ground-truth  and  terrain  ( C a r n e g g i e & Reppert  areas  and  is particularly  increasing  -  will  true  requirements 1969,  will be  in  be  heavily  light  for  Tueller  an  of  important relied  escalating  large-scale 1982).  on  source  of  f o r many costs for  information  on  - 23 -  - 24 -  STUDY AREA 1.  General Location The  study a r e a i s l o c a t e d  Northwest area,  approximately  Grazing and  Territories  Preserve  adjacent  ( F i g . 2), the  (Hill  included  70°20'N,  on  the  It i n c l u d e s  the  entire  to  southeast,  The  sley.  and  area  spans  s i x degrees scale  almost  129°W (Map  d e f i n e d based  on c o n s u l t a t i o n s  those r a n g e l a n d s  ed.  good r a n g e l a n d may  and  are  ficult  2.  Pursuit  exist  o f animals  w i t h snowmobiles and  Geology, Landform and Sedimentary  the r e g i o n and  range  of to  no.  Reindeer Peninsula  a  strip  that  latitude 135°W, 107SW  south  as  for finding  from f a i r  from  and  &  is  107SE,  w i t h the r e i n d e e r h e r d Billing-  c o n c e i v a b l y be  i m p o s s i b l e on  extend-  o f the study a r e a , the h e r d e r s  i n the deeper  snow o f wooded areas  are  scatter is d i f -  foot.  Soils  rocks, predominantly date  of  extends  to move i n t o c l o s e d woodlands where the r e i n d e e r q u i c k l y  lost.  Estimates  Bay  land  where the r e i n d e e r have grazed i n r e c e n t  those areas t o where f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n might  apprehensive  of  and h i s b u s i n e s s manager, Dr. Douglas  y e a r s , and While  and  degrees  mapsheet  km  Delta  Island,  l o n g i t u d e from  Inuvik  sq  Tuktoyaktuk  Liverpool  two  River Delta,  Series).  W i l l i a m Nasogaluak,  It includes  Richards  south o f Eskimo Lake and The  study a r e a was  owner, Mr.  the  1:500,000  N a t i o n a l Topographic  15,000  1968).  to  to  about  the Mackenzie  inland 68°50'N  comprises of  forest-tundra km.  e a s t o f the Mackenzie  one-third  mainland  35  and  northern  tundra and up  immediately  f a r back  as  hydrocarbons  to e x c e l l e n t  s h a l e s and  the Cambrian i n Paleocene  i n the R i c h a r d s  sandstones period and  Island  u n d e r l i e much of  (Young et al.  older  sedimentary  a r e a , and  1976). rocks  n i l to good i n  - 25 -  F i g u r e 2.  Map of the study area showing l o c a t i o n of 12 t r a n s e c t s along which f l i g h t l i n e s were l o c a t e d , and 44 g r o u n d - t r u t h l o c a t i o n s at which s i t e s were s t u d i e d . S o l i d and open c i r c l e s a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , 1980 and 1981 l o c a t i o n s , and the study area boundary i s i n d i c a t e d by a broken l i n e . I n s e t map shows study area i n r e l a t i o n to m a i n l a n d NW Canada.  - 26 -  t h e Eskimo L a k e s - T u k t o y a k t u k  P e n i n s u l a a r e a (Young et al.  thus been c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p l o r a t i o n m e r c i a l o i l and gas d e p o s i t s . by  Pleistocene  fluvial,  i n the past  Bedrock  deltaic  d a t i n g t o the W i s c o n s i n i c e r e t r e a t northeastern Glacial moraines,  is  pitted  evidenced  outwash  by  t e r n s , and g l a c i a l d r a i n a g e systems The kay  1963)  which 16  includes  to 32  km  south  .from n e a r l y  flat  of  kames,  glacial  particularly  Rampton  lateral  and  1972).  and  end  deformation  pat-  Lakes  (Mac-  P e n i n s u l a and  ( F i g . 3b).  Most  of  the the  below 60 m e l e v a t i o n w i t h the topography v a r y i n g  thermokarst  and  lake  and  Lacustrine, morainal  l a k e s cover o v e r 15% o f the s u r -  t h e r m a l e r o s i o n and  development,  water  l o c a l surface morphologies  tabular  ground  east of Hutchinson  Bay  has mapped major entire  f l o w and  is within  and p e r e n n i a l l y f r o z e n ground Permafrost  where  ground  the c o n t i n u o u s  i s encountered  depths  wind  range  from  including  action  have  throughout most o f the s t u d y except  ice is virtually  bn  the  absent  and  S t a g e r 1 9 5 6 ) . ' Rampton (1972)  s u r f i c i a l d e p o s i t s arid geomorphic area  thermokarst  i c e are w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d  p i n g o s o c c u r w i t h lower f r e q u e n c y (Mackay 1963,  surface.  the  1963).  Pingos  Peninsula  the T u k t o y a k t u k  a l o n g the c o a s t to u n d u l a t i n g i n l a n d .  s i g n i f i c a n t l y modifed  the  tills  1963).  the Eskimo  T a b u l a r i c e and pingo growth,  The  ground,  lineations  (Mackay  f l u v i a l g e n e t i c m a t e r i a l s dominate,  f a c e (Mackay  area  Glacial  P e n i n s u l a (Mackay 1963,  Richards Island,  P l e i s t o c e n e Coastlands l i e s  area.  i n most o f the study  s t u d y a r e a i s l a r g e l y w i t h i n the P l e i s t o c e n e C o a s t l a n d Region  mainland  and  the a r e a f o r com-  e s t u a r i n e sediments.  eskers,  deposits,  and t h e r e has  form t h i n s u r f a c e m a n t l e s , e x c e p t on  p a r t o f the T u k t o y a k t u k  action  throughout  is overlain  and  1976)  features.  permafrost  zone  (Brown  1967)  at most l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n 1 m o f under  400  ra  i n the  Reindeer  - 27 -  Fig.  3.  R e g i o n a l z o n a t i o n s o f the a r e a east o f the Mackenzie  River  Delta.  (a)  R e i n d e e r s e a s o n a l r a n g e l a n d s based on use o f the e n t i r e Mackenzie D e l t a G r a z i n g Reserve, and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f herbaceous and g r a m i n o i d v e g e t a t i o n f o r summer f o d d e r , l i c h e n s f o r w i n t e r f o d d e r , w i n t e r fuelwood, s u i t a b l e fawning grounds, e t c . ; as d e f i n e d by P o r s i l d (1947, broken l i n e s ) and Cody (1963, s o l i d l i n e s ) . (1) summer range, (2) s p r i n g / f a l l range, (3) w i n t e r range.  (b)  Physiographic regions interpreted from aerial photographs (Mackay 1963). (1) P l e i s t o c e n e C o a s t l a n d s , (2) U n f l u t e d P l a i n s , (3) F l u t e d P l a i n s , (4) C a r i b o u H i l l s , (5) Mackenzie D e l t a , (6) Campbell Lake H i l l s , (7) Anderson R i v e r Uplands.  (c)  E c o r e g i o n s d e f i n e d as broad areas mapped at l e v e l s o f about 1:1 m i l l i o n t h a t have d i s t i n c t i v e e c o l o g i c a l responses t o c l i m a t e as e x p r e s s e d by g e n e r a l v e g e t a t i o n , s o i l s , p h y s i o g r a p h i c and h y d r o l o g i c p a t t e r n s , e t c . (Houseknecht 1981). (1) Mackenzie C o a s t a l P l a i n , (2) L i v e r p o o l C o a s t a l P l a i n , (3) Anderson C o a s t a l P l a i n , (4) W o l v e r i n e Creek, (5) Mackenzie River.  (d)  C l i m a t i c zones ( s o l i d l i n e s ) based on major c l i m a t i c v a r i a b l e s (mean annual r a i n f a l l , minimum and maximum annual t e m p e r a t u r e s , e t c . ) , p h y s i o graphy and v e g e t a t i o n (Burns 1973-1974). (1) marine t u n d r a , (2) c o n t i n e n t a l t u n d r a , (3) t a i g a . F o r e s t r e g i o n s (broken l i n e ) based on f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n and g e n e r a l p h y s i o g r a p h y (Rowe 1972) w i t h tundra ( n o r t h and e a s t o f broken l i n e ) , and f o r e s t - t u n d r a (south and-west).  - 29  Station  area  to  1979).  At  reaches  a depth  over  600  Tuktoyaktuk,  into  occurs many  raisedand  as  turbances  1970,  Cryosolic 1978).  cm  i n depth  developed  on  are  the  Bouchard  1975,  Wetlands ing  over  25%  the  treeline  on  Zoltai  of  the  area,  i n areas  & Tarnocai  Working  1981).  Region,  characteristic  where  Zoltai  Most  and  massive  Mackay  i s from 8 Permafrost  i s incorporated  i c y beds, stripes  1963,  soils  of  persist  lobes,  Rampton Tundra  dis-  leads to  f o r decades  (Mac-  f r o z e n m a t e r i a l s are c l a s s i f i e d  developed  Soil  on medium  i c e content  and  polygons  as  Classification  and  are  fine-textured referred  coarse-grained deposits S t a t i c Organic  &  1975).  Subcommittee on  a high of  may  pingos,  and  1979,  & T a r n o c a i 1981).  Rampton & Bouchard  to  as  Cryosols  Cryosols occur i n poorly drained and  lacustrine  flats  (Rampton  &  1975)  area north  Classification  beds  permafrost  layer  1975).  solifluction  p e a t l a n d s (cf Z o l t a i et  study  (Wetlands  area:  1956,  Committee,  ice-wedge  including  the  these p e r e n n i a l l y  & T a r n o c a i 1975).  especially  the a c t i v e  massive  damage t h a t  S t r a n g 1973,  study  and  i s -8°C,  (Mackay  s u r f a c e v e g e t a t i o n which s u b s e q u e n t l y  c r y o t u r b a t e d , have  (Zoltai  and  (Stager  terrain  Survey  C r y o s o l s , while  are found areas,  and  Tuktoyaktuk  temperature  polygons,  1978,  or d i s r u p t  subsidence  Within  Zoltai  of  (Rampton & Bouchard  wedges  ice-wedge  &  (Canada S o i l  materials Turbic  Tarnocai  K e r f o o t 1972,  Soils  northeast  ground  f e a t u r e s common to  can a l t e r  thermokarst kay  100  low-centred  1971,  coast  m on u n d i s t u r b e d s i t e s  c r y o t u r b a t e d e a r t h hummocks  Mackay  the  annual  coatings, grains,  landform  and  on  mean  o f 365  to s l i g h t l y more than ice  m  -  of  Group, the  and  Committee  belongs  are  1974)  treeline  Canada  area  wetlands  the  al.  to  lowland  the  are common, c o v e r 5 t o 25% on  south  Ecological  Low  polygons,  Arctic both  of  Land  Wetland^ raised-  - 30 -  and  low-centred  fens,  tidal  varieties,  marshes  and  and,  other  in hydrologically  wetland  types  Committee on E c o l o g i c a l Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Ecological landscape  survey  classified the ELS aid  survey  and  according  hierarchic  and  (Houseknecht information  to  largely  Coastal Plain  3.  by  which  and  map  ecoregions,  of  unity.  floodplain  Group,  At  1980).  for  the  Mackenzie  as  Canada  the map A  approach  broadest  are  levels  of  units.are defined preliminary  ecoregion  1981).  The  Coastal  to  ecosystems,  Tuktoyaktuk  concept al.  holistic  land,  ecodistrict  (Wiken et  the  Working  integrated,  and  areas,  1981).  areas  prepared  Yukon  (Wetlands  (Wiken  i n context  the n o r t h e r n two  and  management  extends  an  ecological  scheme, e c o r e g i o n  1981)  within  is  their  ecodistrict  on  (ELS)  mapping  regional planning  ecoregion  1:500,000  Peninsula and  area  ecodistrict  study  Plain,  to  area  and  falls  Liverpool  (Fig. 3c).  Climate The  c l i m a t e of  described but  the  Winters  by  alent  to  parameters weather  the cold  warm, and  stations  the in  study the  The  cold and  southern the  half  extended  Sea  a  ( F i g . 3d;  are  area,  (Burns  1973-1974).  Burns  Summers i n June  s o l a r energy Ranges of  by  Inuvik  Tuktoyaktuk,  a  1973-1974).  particularly  represented and  experiences  d a y l i g h t .periods.  daylengths,  type  continental climate  Peninsula  i n amounts of a v a i l a b l e  latitudes area  has  Tuktoyaktuk  Beaufort  have  study  Subhumid C o l d M i c r o t h e r m a l  lack s i g n i f i c a n t  result  at temperate  across  i s the C l  including  that can b r i e f l y those  area  (1948).  from  long, very  s h o r t , c o o l to  and J u l y ,  study  portion  influence are  the  Sanderson  northern  maritime  are  land  suitable  s e l e c t e d data and  equiv-  climatic from from  two an  - 31 -  additional is  station  immediately  representative  east o f the study  of c o n d i t i o n s  near  area at N i c h o l s o n P o i n t  the t i p o f the Tuktoyaktuk  that  Peninsula  (Table I ) .  mean The  Inuvik  has a  continental climate  daily  temperatures  the t h r e e  10.1°C  (Atmos.  i n warmer w i n t e r  Atmos. E n v i r o n . Serv. mean dates frosts  for last  may occur  year  I).  with  1982a). and f i r s t  Total  falling  frost  as  near 50% on the B e a u f o r t  snow  of high  summer  advected  inland  there  decrease  northward  due  ranging  remote  from  sensing  underlying scured  ground  by c l o u d s  although  there  reduces  visibility  s t r a t u s and s t r a t o c u m u l u s  to a prevailing  thermal  surface i n July  maritime (Table  I,  106 days, and the although  precipitation  i n the study  area  f l u c t u a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l y from year t o 15-20%  data  i n the south t o  normally  along  cloud  depends  area d u r i n g  c o a s t a l areas,  by winds o f t e n becomes l o w - l e v e l b l a n k e t  i s extensive  1982a).  reflect  Mean annual  c l e a r weather c o n d i t i o n s which are i n f r e q u e n t i n the study Fog i n . p a r t i c u l a r  Serv.  (Burns .1973-1974).  quality  months.  having  temperatures  averages  1973-1974).  of v a r i a t i o n  Sea coast  Point  months  are i n mid-June and l a t e August  p r e c i p i t a t i o n however  the c o e f f i c i e n t  Acquisition  cooler  The growing season  i n any month (Burns  the p r o p o r t i o n  (Table  and much  summer  Environ.  two c o a s t a l s t a t i o n s o f Tuktoyaktuk and N i c h o l s o n  influences  and  at or above  with  cover  cloud.  upon  summer  and when  In a d d i t i o n ,  i n summer  and  fall  i n v e r s i o n s t r u c t u r e and the "watery s t a t e " o f t h e (Burns  1973-1974).  The mean p r o p o r t i o n o f sky ob-  f o r most o f the study  i s tremendous  variability  (Hare & Thomas 1974, Burns 1973-1974).  from  area i s seven t o e i g h t year  t o year  i n this  tenths, figure  - 32 -  Table  I.  Selected  climatic  d a t a f o r the Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a a r e a , N.W.T. Station Inuvik  Elevation  Mean Temperature, - Annual - January - July  1951-1980C"C)  98  -10.9 -28.4 10.6  -12.0 -29.1 8.0  45  55  25  530  250  266.1 100.7 176.6  137.6 60.6 65.2  1  - 9.8 -29.6 13.6  Average no. o f f r o s t - f r e e 1941-1970  Nicholson  18  60  (m a s l ) l  Tuktoyaktuk  days,  2  Degree-days over 5°C, 1941-1970  —  2  Average P r e c i p i t a t i o n , - Annual (mm) - June-August (mm) - S n o w f a l l (cm)  1951-1980  ^•Atmos. E n v i r o n . Serv. 1982a,b B u r n s 1973-1974 2  1  109.4 57.7 40.6  Point  - 33  4.  Vegetation  4.1  General Vegetation Most  terns  of  pattern low  of the  drainage and  typically  spaced  and  moss  Carex s p p . ) ,  and  lichen  drained  inside  the  s t u n t e d white  with of  (1963) noted scrub  lower  Tundra  landscape  polygons,  the s e a c o a s t  that a general and  strongly  control  support  tussocky  sedges  ground  slopes Zone  birch  and  types  (Eriophorum  (Betula  flats.  ( F i g . 3d,  thermokarst  (Lambert  1972,  In  Rowe  from  the  spp.,  southern  1972),  widely-  birch;  scrub  t u n d r a with much scrub w i l l o w and  lake  s h o r e l i n e s , and  to south  willow  and  ground b i r c h ,  slopes  1974,  and  of  pingos, brackish  I t o 1978). is:  ground  heath  of p l a n t s are  as  north  the  of  glandulosa)  such  Corns  pat-  vegetation  various  C e r t a i n assemblages  positions,  sequence  ground  where complex  sites  and  in sheltered locations.  ice-wedge  willow  while  arctic  (Piaea glauoa) w i t h a moss, l i c h e n and  spruce  specific  along  Drier  spp.)  Forest  low  permafrost  heaths  poorly  just  treeless  1972).  dominate  depressions  4.2  (Lambert  (Salix  associated  and  near-surface  willow  ground cover e x i s t  with  i s i n the  scrub  and  surfaces  Zonations area  diversity  shrub,  portions  study  -  Mackay  tundra; birch;  tundra  woodland  open woodland.  Botanical Investigations The  Porsild records recent  history  of b o t a n i c a l c o l l e c t i n g  (1947),  Cody  also  are  given  distributional  tion  key  based  tire  Mackenzie  (1965) by and  and  these  i n the  Porsild authors,  habitat  &  Cody  and  the  i n f o r m a t i o n , and  on d i a g n o s t i c p l a n t f e a t u r e s . D e l t a Reindeer  study  Grazing  The  Preserve  area  (1980). latter  i s summarized Vascular  reference  a hierarchic vascular  is rich,  flora  by  plant  includes  identificaof  totalling  the  en-  over  420  - 34  taxa  (Cody  1965).  considered  Vascular  species  Lists  of n o n - v a s c u l a r  piled  for lichens  ( A h t i et  1971)  and  ( S t e e r e 1958,  hepatics  been  comprehensive  made,  Mackay  fined  physiographic  further  of v i s i t s  the  Mackay's (1963) r e g i o n s vegetation  common  that  i s not  p l a u s i b l e (Lambert  ties  are  these  provided  authors  open  gnomy and  of  by  contended  floristic  (1929,  raised-centred marized  from  over  On  area.  more  and  Cody  of h i s  de-  (1972)  framework and  than  are  a broad  but  of  dry have  distances  (1963),  not  a regional  Lambert the  short  has  d e s c r i p t i o n s of p l a n t  Mackenzie D e l t a ,  described and  on  shrub-heath;  herb-low defined  for vegetation  polygons near T u k t o y a k t u k .  l o c a t i o n s at Urquhart  at  the  f i v e major community types  subgroups were p r o v i s i o n a l l y data  area  i n terms  within  anything  1947),  study  extremes of wet  quantitatively  eleven  cover  Scotter  so  scale  communi-  neither  of  techniques.  were the  units  Delta  that while  field  shrub-herb;  percent  are com-  Holmen &  ecologists.  associations  Useful  medium  lated  Mackenzie  intergradations  composition, low  1958,  the  vegetation  1972).  of  in  plant  on  Porsild  east  Reindeer P r e s e r v e  (Steere  classification  communities  tundra  i n the  numerous  the  employed n u m e r i c a l  Vegetation the  by  assemblages,  a vegetation  be  f o r the c o n t i n e n t a l Northwest  classification  vegetation  but  unique  and might  S c o t t e r 1968).  discussed  regions on  ranges  Vegetation  (1963) b r i e f l y  elaborated  plants  1973), mosses  vegetation  in spite  level,  in  al.  E c o l o g i c a l Studies of A  that have r e s t r i c t e d  r a r e are g i v e n i n Cody's (1979) l i s t  Territories.  4.3  -  basis (tall  shrub-heath;  (Corns  quadrat  studies  Further  Lake, A t k i n s o n  1974). on  and Ito pingo  p l a n t cover Point  and  five  locations of  physio-  shrub-herb; herb) (1978) slopes  and tabuand  data were sum-  near  Tuktoyaktuk  - 35  (Ritchie oil  1974),  drilling  and,  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  sites,  from  n o r t h end o f Parsons lichen-rich analyses was  several  locations  Lake (Anon 1974).  tabular  working.  summaries  Lake,  Seven  community  types  open  woodland  (white  were  four  lichen;  spruce-shrub-heath-lichen-moss;  non-wooded  Vegetation at  types  types  sites  study  Island  and  (1975a,b) used  the v e g e t a t i o n types r e c o g n i z e d by  spruce-tall  Inglis  around at  the  i n which  also  been  (Hernandez  heath-spruceand  shrub-sedge-moss).  quantitatively  1973,  he in-  spruce-lichen-heath-sphagnum)  have  i n the study a r e a  ordination  (1975a),  shrub-moss;  (lichen-heath-shrub; lichen-heath;  of d i s t u r b e d  various locations  Richards  Inglis  to c l a s s i f y  cluding  three  on  impact  For a study o f r e i n d e e r w i n t e r use of  woodlands west o f S i t i d g i  and  -  Younkin  described  1973,  Strang  1973). Summer  droughts  have  occasionally  fire  extended  and  post-fire  Bliss  1973,  over  occur been  only  occasionally  sufficiently  2,000 sq km  recovery  Wein 1975,  dry  (Cody  sequences Haag 1974)  (Burns  to  1963,  have and  permit 1965,  been  1973-1974) but c o n d i t i o n s serious Wein  described  woodland  wildfires.  1976). for  Fire  tundra  (Black & B l i s s  One  effects  (Wein  1978)  and  communi-  t i e s w i t h i n the study a r e a .  5.  Remote S e n s i n g For  Photo  a l l of  Library  the Canadian  (NAPL)  photo-coverage  at  Photo-missions  date  is  black  about  Series  and  and  white  1:60,000  subarctic  Aside  from  base-maps, NAPL  there e x i s t s  panchromatic scale-  from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t  m u l t i - y e a r coverage.  Topographic  the  arctic  their  and  with  years and use  photographs  22.9  x  60%  National Air  22.9 forward  f o r most  cm  format  overlap.  locations  there  i n the p r o d u c t i o n of N a t i o n a l have  provided  the  basis  for  - 36 -  many  studies  i n the Mackenzie  ping  o f pingos  form  features,  Delta  region  including  ( S t a g e r 1956, Mackay  1963),  ground-ice  percent  cover  1963).  M u l t i d a t e NAPL photos  erosion  at Tuktoyaktuk  and  the d r a i n a g e  (Mackay 1979). the  deer  drilling  solely  1974, 1975).  rigs  mostly  and white  about  photos  were  scenes,  graphic  including Sitidgi Thie define  studies  Delta  a large  1967 f i r e  Photos  broad  Automatic classes  Richards Island  (Forest  Man-  Island  D e l t a near R e i n -  of e x p l o r a t o r y o i l  Lake using  a provisional  Using  (Anon NAPL  1974; v a r i photographs.  classification  to provide p r e l i m i n a r y  (1973)  photographic transparencies was  o f the t r e e l i n e near  Inuvik.  able  of  esti-  classification  of vegetated land,  (Tarnocai & K r i s t o f  t o r e c o g n i z e major  Burned  and unburned  slicing  of d i g i t a l unvegetated  1976).  of s a t e l physio-  and a number o f w i l d f i r e , s c a r s ,  Lake has been s e p a r a t e d u s i n g d e n s i t y  1974).  lakebeds  o f o n l y a p r e l i m i n a r y n a t u r e have been conducted  region.  the l o c a t i o n  growth  1974).  Sayn-Wittgenstein  zones,  produced  types developed on the ground  LANDSAT t e r r a i n the Mackenzie  t o extend  pingo  v e g e t a t i o n maps f o r G a r r y  and n o r t h o f Parsons  used  (Mackay  of shoreline,  thermokarst  the v i c i n i t i e s  1:54,000) were  mates o f p e r c e n t cover (Corns  lite  rates  land-  f o r the western h a l f o f  1:60,000 NAPL  Medium-scale  on R i c h a r d s I s l a n d  tundra v e g e t a t i o n  in  t o determine  of near-coast  1971; 1:16,000) and  glacial  1975) and t o m o n i t o r  using  and map-  physiographic regions  V e g e t a t i o n mapping at 1:125,000 s c a l e  (Gill  scales,  Black  changes  slumps,  1969; 1:49,000), an a c t i v e p o r t i o n o f the Mackenzie  Station  able  and  (Rampton & Bouchard  and subsequent  Institute  (Kerfoot  lakes  have been used  study a r e a was conducted  agement  by  the i n v e n t o r y  terrain  near  techniques (Tarnocai &  LANDSAT land  d a t a was  and water  used t o  b o d i e s on  - 37  Offshore, airborne  remote  around Beaufort  considerable sensing Sea  use  systems,  is  -  presently  including  o i l d r i l l i n g platforms  being radar,  (Dey  et al.  made to  of  study  1979,  Dey  satellite ice  and  dynamics  1980).  - 38 -  IV  METHODS  - 39  1.  Photo A c q u i s i t i o n  1.1  The  M u l t i s t a g e Program  The stage by  study  reported  sampling  the  program  author  and  Development  underway  and  port.  The  will  here  c o n s t i t u t e s only  ( F i g . 4)  Dr.  Northern  P.A. and  Murthal  Canadian  terminate  multistage  i n the  i n mid-1983  subsampling  images  (black  and  several  photographs  different  resources  o f an  obtained  scales.  area  can  at o n l y one  reports  on  overall  program ( F i g . 4 ) .  1.2  Ltd.  with  area  undertaken  of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  That  program  the" p r o d u c t i o n  is  of  a  and  presently final  redata  scheme u s i n g m u l t i s p e c t r a l scanner  (MSS)  white,  normal  Considerably obtained  on  a larger multi-  i n v o l v e d a n a l y s i s of remote s e n s i n g  on  more  'Stage  colour  III'  and  information  multistage  s c a l e (Wiken 1980,  f i n d i n g s based  of  images  Rubec 1982).  and  CIR  films)  about or  the  photos  The  'Ground-Truth'  earth  than  present phases  at  on  study of  the  t r a n s e c t s were chosen w i t h i n  the  Flightline Selection At  a broad  study  area  tions  ( F i g . 5,  criteria: lique  be  &  portion  Department  Reindeer  work ( F i g . 4)  a  Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a  f o r the  a c q u i r e d w i t h i n a nested  those  -  35  as  being Table  (i) aerial mm  the n o r t h e r n  iFaculty  s c a l e of  1:500,000, twelve  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of g e n e r a l II).  S e l e c t i o n of  observations,  photographs  from June,  Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a  of F o r e s t r y , Univ.  British  and  and  t r a n s e c t s was study  1980  vegetation  and  based  of medium- and  overflights  in a  terrain on  number  large-scale  light  i n the T u k t o y a k t u k - I n u v i k  Columbia.  a  condi-  aircraft  of obon  region; ( i i )  MULTISTAGE SAMPLING PROGRAM STAGE I 1:1,000,000 to 1:500,000 LANDSAT s c e n e s ; v a r i o u s summer d a t e s , 1972-1980.  60,000 -  NAPL b l a c k  50,000  normal colour  and  multispectral  scanner  -  1:34,000  -  and white  CIR  sLereo-photograplis;  1970  CIR s t e r e o - p h o t o g r a p h s , data;  August,  and  to  1:3,400  1982.  CIR  1980.  7 0 mm  August,  stereo-photograph  1980.  vege t a t l o n / soils  &  permafrost,  environmental  F i g u r e 4.  1973  airborne  7 0 mm s t e r e o - p h o t o g r a p h s ; ' A u g u s t ,  1:1,400  GROUND-TRUTH  and  features)  A m u l t i s t a g e s a m p l i n g program t o i n v e s t i g a t e r e i n d e e r r a n g e l a n d . w i t h r e s u l t s a t 'Stage I I I ' and 'Ground-Truth' l e v e l s .  The p r e s e n t s t u d y d e a l s  0 I  F i g u r e 5.  20 I km  40 1  The a r e a s o c c u p i e d by the Mackenzie D e l t a r e i n d e e r h e r d , summer 1978 t o f a l l 1982 (hatched l i n e s ) , and the l o c a t i o n of 13 t r a n s e c t s . The herd summers g e n e r a l l y e a s t o f - t r a n s e c t 7 throughout t h e t i p o f t h e P e n i n s u l a , uses the c e n t r a l P e n i n s u l a as s p r i n g / f a l l range, and w i n t e r s s o u t h and s o u t h e a s t o f Tuktoyaktuk i n t h e hatched areas around t r a n s e c t s 4 and 5. T r a n s e c t 10 f a l l s j u s t o u t s i d e t h e study a r e a boundary and i s excluded from r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d on h e r e .  - 42 -  Table I I . General l o c a t i o n and approximate length of 12 t r a n s e c t s i n the study area. Transect no 1  Location  1  A k l a v i k mapsheec - W.of lake - approx. 8 km.  2  A k l a v i k mapsheet - from Reindeer Depot NE Lakes, West Round Lake - approx. 11 km.  3  Mackenzie D e l t a mapsheet - across narrowest p o r t i o n of Richards I s l a n d , NW to SE from mouth of Burnt Creek to j u s t short of l a r g e i s l a n d i n Mackenzie R. East Channel mouth - approx. 19 km.  4  Mackenzie D e l t a mapsheet - E from East Channel, where Holmes Creek meets the channel (cabin located at t h i s point a l s o ) , to Inuvik-Tuk main winter road - approx. 44 km.  5  Mackenzie D e l t a mapsheet - from P e n i n s u l a P o i n t area, Beaufort Sea coast SSE to main peninsula on Eskimo Lakes, b i s e c t i n g winter road - approx. 41 km.  6  Mackenzie Delta/Stanton mapsheecs - SW to NE t r a n s e c t , endpoints at edges of 2 major l a k e s , centre l i n e of f l i g h t l i n e passes between 2 other major lakes ( i . e . , I t k r i l e k L., Other unnamed lake) - approx. 35 km.  7  Stanton mapsheet - SSE from A t k i n s o n Pt W of McKinley Bay, b i s e c t i n g 2 major lakes and passing to the south shore of the Tuk P e n i n s u l a j u s t W of a major peninsula approx. 40 km.  8  Cape Dalhousie/Stanton mapsheets - passing through narrowest part of Tuk P e n i n s u l a NW Co SE from R u s s e l l Inlet bisecting major lakes, to S side b o r d e r i n g L i v e r p o o l Bay - approx. 15 km.  9  Stanton mapsheet - passing from S end of Rufus Lake due W to L i v e r p o o l Bay, b i s e c t i n g l a r g e r lake and Sanders Creek - approx. 22 km.  11  Stanton mapsheet -' NW to SE l i n e between two mid-sized lakes j u s t S of major "arms" of Eskimo Lakes; j u s t W of K u g a l i k R i v e r muth - approx. 10 km.  12  Mackenzie D e l t a / A k l a v i k mapsheets - passing from S shore of Eskimo L. SE between the large Urquhart L. and Old Man Lake, terminating at edge of other l a r g e r lake, a f t e r passing through tree l i n e - approx. 20 km.  13  A k l a v i k mapsheet - SW from Old Man L. to Stanley P o i n t approx. 21 km.  2  S i t i d g i Lake Co N t i p of unnamed past S c i s s o r  ( t o t a l Line length approx. 292  las shown on F i g . 5. l:250,00O s c a l e N a t i o n a l Topographic Series mapsheets (Mackenzie D e l t a ) , D (Stanton), E (Cape D a l h o u s i e ) .  2  107B  (Aklavik),  km)  C  - 43  using  available  optical  and  equipment  digital  covering  the  selected  1:60,000  c u s s i o n s with proposed  the  over  the  area  and  winter  rangelands  Along  using  twelve  were  locate  33% south  summer  LANDSAT  observations  and  photos,  f a r as  of the and  and  suitable  scenes  mapping  and  (iv)  6 ( F i g . 5) i n t h i s  coverage  for  photography,  one-third  An  being  of  onto  winter  line-km  The pro-  round-ups  sledges..  During with  coverage  area of i n t e r e s t ,  of  forty-four  the was  so t h a t  large-scale  appropriate weighting  was  photo  a p p l i e d to  w i t h i n the more i n t e n s i v e study  features  identical  vicin-  which  i n accordance  the  (Fig. 6).  on  the  For  sets  of  ease of  area  naviga-  were o r i e n t e d at or  landscape  system or a prominent p i n g o .  two  i n the  road  of  received  the h e r d e r s .  late on  con-  investigation.  o f Tuktoyaktuk  identifiable  and  southwest  area had  winter  facilities  t r a n s e c t s , midpoints  a stream  were mapped  overland  5 and  located.  on  dis-  particular and  p r e f e r r e d by  locations  abbatoir  and  photography crew, ends of f l i g h t l i n e s  readily  margin or i n l e t ,  thus  than  southwest  south This  ( F i g . 5)  less  line-km  expressed  the Eskimo Lakes.  for large-scale no  owner  g e n e r a l l y southeast,  portable  randomly  the a e r i a l to  of  herd.  the herd  an area of more i n t e n s i v e  flightlines  southeast,  study,  many  t r a n s e c t s 4,  the  over  Columbia, p r e l i m i n a r y  panchromatic  Tuktoyaktuk-Inuvik  and  requests,  along  adjacent  as  of f l i g h t l i n e s  owner's  by  the  the  access  constituted  lines  pre-field  white  i t has .been convenient  general  located  tion  (iii)  the r e i n d e e r i n r e c e n t w i n t e r s  town,  selection  it  of  slaughters  herd  interpretations  and  phases  i s b i s e c t e d by  vides  black  of Tuktoyaktuk  heavy use by of  NAPL  area;  of B r i t i s h  the r e i n d e e r h e r d owner, W i l l i a m Nasogaluak, on r e c e n t past  early  town  ity  study  and  f u t u r e s e a s o n a l movements o f the  In cern  at the U n i v e r s i t y  analyses  entire  -  such  Transects  1:60,000 b l a c k  and  as and  a  lake  flight-  white  NAPL  44 -  Fig.  6.  A p o r t i o n o f the s t u d y a r e a southwest o f Tuktoyaktuk showing the random l o c a t i o n o f f l i g h t l i n e s f o r l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm photography a l o n g t r a n s e c t s 4 and 5.  - 45  photos set  1:250,000 N a t i o n a l T o p o g r a p h i c  could  being  1.3  and  be  used  carried  Transects  and  an  by  i n t o the  Photographic  aircraft  the  field  by  August  5-8,  arrangements  ( F i g . 7,  for  and  the  Williams  1978)  to  obtain  76.2  tandem by  an  12  normally  plications filters mission the  required  492  Both f o r CIR  (CC20M) f i l t e r  use  colour  was  (Fleming  1980).  by  fixed-wing  P.G.  Williams  S/N  (Interdepartmental  infrared  cameras  wing-  (CIR)  stereo  cameras were f i t t e d photography  r a d i a t i o n while  as  well  with as  was  almost  the  using  fired  a yellow  colour  a l t i t u d e CIR Together unimpeded  infrared  subsequently  in  Wratten  a magenta  f o r low  allowing  processing  exposed  (1/1000 sec, / 2.0)  Committee on A i r Surveys 1980).  Film  Con-  at approximate s c a l e s o f 1:34,000  of n e a r - i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n thus enhancing  film  set  of v e r t i c a l l y - m o u n t e d  recommended p a r t i c u l a r l y  (Interdepartmental  NAPL, Ottawa,  2.  flightlines  length Vinten  visible  conditions  Kodak Aerochrome Type 2443 f i l m was  intervalometer.  attenuate  from a Cessna 180  specifications  1979)  two  focal  standard  1973,  1:2,000 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  compensating  second  Resource Photography L t d . , Vancouver, B.C.  called  and  filter  the  one  team.  under c l e a r sky  photo-coverage of t r a n s e c t s and  mm  crew w h i l e  the g r o u n d - t r u t h  1980  a s s i s t a n t , Integrated  cameras  photography  f l i g h t l i n e s were photographed  Committee on A i r Surveys tip  aerial  S e r i e s c o l o u r base-maps so that  Mission  and  during  tractual  -  apthese  trans-  sensitivity  of  c a r r i e d , out  by  Ontario.  Ground-Truth  2.1  Pre-field Prior  truth  sites  to  Site Selection the  were  first chosen  field during  program  of  July  to  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  mid-August, 1:60,000  1980,  NAPL  ground-  photographs  - 46 -  Fig.  7.  Twin 70 mm cameras a r e mounted on Cessna 180 w i n g t i p s f o r stereo-photography. 3 August, 1980.  - 47 -  of  the t r a n s e c t s .  and  vegetation  lines,  sites  carried  into  August,  S i t e s were s e l e c t e d  conditions were  occurring  marked  the f i e l d .  onto Before  to the 1:60,000  i n the p h o t o s .  mylar-overlaid the second  1981, the 1980-acquired  resolution  to be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  CIR  to represent p r e v a i l i n g  but  year an e f f o r t  countered  during  Cibachrcme for  portions  frame  by  within  o f 24 o f the 44  frame  onto  into protective and were c a r r i e d  2.2  flightlines.  into  the f i e l d  that  of July  then  to e a r l y  in quality  programs  and  As b e f o r e , conditions  any c o n d i t i o n s  paths.  not e n -  attempts  were  F o r the 1981 program,  CIR photo-frames Flightline  and s i t e s  flight-  were  selection.  F o r both  o f 1:34,000  (e.g., F i g . 8 ) .  acetate sleeves  along  l a n d s c a p e and v e g e t a t i o n  flightline  the enlargements,  areas of coverage  the f i r s t  prints  landscape  which  superior  for site  program.  directly within  4X enlargement  program  was made t o i n c l u d e  the 1980 f i e l d  made to l o c a t e s i t e s  airphotos  photographs,  s i t e s were chosen i n the second  Identified  field  photos, were used  of major  were  were o b t a i n e d  paths then  The Cibachrome  were  plotted  chosen  prints  directly  were  fitted  c o u l d be w r i t t e n on w i t h b l a c k i n k pens,  w i t h o t h e r photo and map m a t e r i a l s  as used i n  summer's program.  A i r Photo A n n o t a t i o n i n the F i e l d During  altitude  the two f i e l d  programs,  every  flightline  was t r a v e r s e d  (60 t o 120 m a g l ) by h e l i c o p t e r or f l o a t p l a n e .  vegetation,  topography,  g e n e r a l physiognomy,  delible  i n k pen d i r e c t l y  mentary  35 mm  oblique  proximate p o s i t i o n s  onto  normal  the 1:60,000 colour  etc...  and CIR photos  D e s c r i p t i v e notes on  were  or 1:34,000  noted  with  a i r photos.  were  and angles annotated on the photos.  at a low  acquired,  an  in-  Supple-  w i t h ap-  - 48 -  Fig.  8.  Cibachrome 2X enlargement o f 1:36,000 ( o r i g i n a l s c a l e ) 70 mm CIR photograph showing path o f l a r g e - s c a l e f l i g h t l i n e 4-2. Mixed shrub tundra communities impart a red-brown c o l o u r , ice-wedge polygons w i t h h i g h l i c h e n - c o v e r are grey-toned, and l a r g e s e d g e - r i c h wetlands f i l l i n g most o f d r a i n e d l a k e b a s i n are p i n k to r e d . The l a k e was u n d r a i n e d i n 1956 1:60,000 NAPL a e r i a l photographs but d r a i n e d sometime p r i o r to summer 1971 (Dr. J.R. Mackay, Dep. Geography, U n i v . B r i t i s h Columbia, p e r s . comm.). (69°05,N, 133°54,W). 7 August, 1980.  - 49  2.3  Data C o l l e c t i o n at Ground-Truth Using  (Fig.  helicopter  2) were v i s i t e d  four  sites  truth  were  team  Siltanen) Criteria as  and  vicinity  of  data  soils  as  of  tion  were  The  tion)  through finest  vegetation  sites  the  flightline  that  originally five  tundra,  level  i n the  1980  environment  and  47  sites  ( i i ) that in  the  ( i v ) that  e t c . ) be  according for  in  general  and  the  herbaceous  (II  to  IV)  (Viereck  vegetation,  based  layers  (i.e.,  tree,  tall  by  avoided.  to a h i e r a r c h i c a l  Alaska  veg-  disturbed  vegeta-  and  Dyrness  on  general  shrub,  forma-  aquatic  vegeta-  physiognomy.  (V) d i s c r e t e p l a n t communites are named based on  principal  repre-  broader,  areas  1981.  located  i t be  ha  to  (Sims,  ( i ) that i t be  path;  one  ground-  of r e s o l u t i o n that range from broad  shrubland, levels  location,  i t be a minimum o f 0.1  field  locations  Siltanen)  general  conditions  proposed  levels  each M.  ground were:  landscape  (iii)  in  t e r r a i n v e h i c l e paths,  intermediate  in  and  be v i s u a l l y homogeneous, and  scheme has  (I; forest,  the  and  classified  tions  Sims  (Sims),  a  classification  1980).  At  vegetation  possible within  (e.g., c a b i n s i t e s , Sites  1982.  on  65  ground-truth  and (R.  on  flightline;  44  two-person  a site  e t a t i o n composition  support,  A  ( S i l t a n e n ) at  vegetation  of the  floatplane  examined.  for selection  accurately  man  and  Sites  d u r i n g summer, 1981  collected  sentative  At  -  dominant  low  shrub,  i n nine  to  herb,  ground). Vegetation 1 m x 6-15%,  1 m quadrats 2  =  16-25%,  Other v e g e t a t i o n plant  cover  at each s i t e was  estimated  by means o f a twelve 3  =  i n the  26-35%, 4  =  class  and  scale: p  36-45%  immediate v i c i n i t y  specimens were c o l l e c t e d  ocularly  later  was  < 1%,  9 = 86-95%, recorded  identified  and  as  + = 10  fourteen  1-5%,  1 =  =  96-100%.  present.  Voucher  deposited  in herbaria  - 50 -  at  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Science  36 s i t e s  collections  criteria  where  (Fig. 9).  from  litter  o f Pegau  thalli  lichen  at the p o i n t  constant  weight,  of  percent  General slope  (4)  totalled  cover  standing  lichen vegetation,  was  decadent  (1971).  from  darkenings  Samples  employing  was  estimated,  (2) graminoid^  ground;  to p e r m a f r o s t  ^abbreviations 2'graminoid'  grass  Lichen  biomass,  measurements  10 m x 10 m p l o t class  Ground  scale,  graminoid;  at each (1)  ground;  (7) t o t a l  photographs, u s i n g  both  at a l l s i t e s .  at t e n l o c a t i o n s at each Soil  aspect  for:  (3) bare m i n e r a l  (6) t o t a l  Survey  site  and the  Committee,  Subcommittee  plant  belonging  (1980).  and g r a s s - l i k e v a s c u l a r  Gvamineae, Cypevaceae and Juncaaeaee.  at 90°C t o  and i n c l u d e d l o c a t i o n ,  dead;  open water.  (Canada  the  portions of  oven-dried  pan b a l a n c e .  f i l m , were o b t a i n e d  classified  using  general d i s c o l o u r a t i o n  were  the twelve  shrub;  was measured  and l a t e r  species.  f o r h e r b a r i a f o l l o w Woodland  includes  biomass  actively-growing  the 1 m x 1 m quadrat  standing  (5) t o t a l  and (8) t o t a l  tentatively  using  living,  and/or  on an e l e c t r i c a l  portions  Lower moribund  In one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  normal c o l o u r and CIR 35 mm  soil  and  scissors,  for a l l lichen  data.  dead;  organic  Depth  living  using  estimated,  position  bare  into  environment was d e s c r i b e d at s i t e s  percent  woody  and  and weighed  -  (SSMF).  lichens occurred,  C o l l e c t e d l i c h e n m a t e r i a l was a i r - d r i e d ,  of decomposition.  k g . h a ! , was then cover  by t e r r e s t r i a l  where m o t t l e d  the onset  Lakes F o r e s t Research Centre  f o u r t e e n t o s e v e n t e e n 20 cm x 20 cm d i v o t s w i t h i n  were s e p a r a t e d ,  in  site  1  (1968) and P u l l i a i n e n  lichen  indicated  ±_ 20% cover  were made from  patches  separated  and  ( U B C ) , ' t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f N a t u r a l  (CAN, CANM, CANL), and the Great  At  lichen  Columbia  taxa  to  -  F i g . 9.  51  -  C o l l e c t i o n o f a 20 cm x 20 cm l i c h e n d i v o t t o e s t i m a t e l i c h e n s t a n d i n g crop a t s e l e c t e d g r o u n d - t r u t h s i t e s . 21 J u l y , 1981.  - 52 -  on  Soil  one  Classification  representative  10  cm  (minus  base o f s o i l h  pits,  mechanically fractions 1979).  sodium  until  of  and i n o r g a n i c  Centre.  9-track  carbon, t o t a l  lodged versity Great  environment  and a n a l y z e d  A l l original  Lakes  Forest  at the  'Top' samples  the Bouyoucos  pH,  cation  were  and c l a y  method  followed  (Anon  to determine  exchange  capacity,  potassium,  magnesium,  'Bottom'  samples  carbon.  and s o i l  ground-truth  data  at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  datasets  tapes,  at two l o c a t i o n s : of B r i t i s h  encountered  and manganese.  and i n o r g a n i c  from the t o p  and sand, s i l t  Kjeldahl nitrogen, iron  from  o f Ground-Truth Data  general  computer  was  1979) were  soil  profiles  samples were f r o z e n w i t h i n 20  using  (Anon  'top' samples:  f o r organic  files  soil  for analyses.  separated  methods  soil  was sampled  f r a c t i o n s were s e i v e d ,  and p y r o p h o s p h a t e - e x t r a c t a b l e analyzed  layer  Soil  Soil  and a i r - d r i e d  gravel  Numerical A n a l y s i s  puting ard  mixed  analytical  chemistry  computer  site.  and, when m i n e r a l  hydrometrically  Vegetation, on  layers)  on a c t i v e  from the bottom 10 cm.  Standard  were o n l y  2.4  only  p i t dug at each  analysed:  were  detailed organic  soil  litter  of c o l l e c t i o n  1978) based  used  and c o p i e s  along  (1) Computing  Columbia,  Vancouver,  Research  Centre,  i n the study with  Services, B.C.,  Canadian  were  Columbia's  Faculty  have  been  of Forestry,  Uni-  (2) Computing  Forestry  Com-  are s t o r e d on s t a n d -  documentation  and  placed  Service,  Services, Sault Ste.  M a r i e , Ont. A species  polythetic devisive a n a l y s i s o r TWINSPAN  partition groupings. 1973),  sites,  based  classification (Hill  which  emphasizes  data  species  named  two-way i n d i c a t o r  1979, Gauch & W h i t t a k e r 1981) was used t o  on mean v e g e t a t i o n  TWINSPAN o r d i n a t e s  technique  cover  at s i t e s ,  among a few major  by a r e c i p r o c a l a v e r a g i n g  on the o r d i n a t i o n ' s  first  algorithm axis  (Hill  to p o l a r i z e  - 53  sites,  then  interatively  classifies  site  of  members  (Hill  is  produced  and  used t o g e t h e r gram  i n the  Although values  clusters 1979, the  divides until  Gauch  sample  and  that  data matrix.  the  user  to  For  each  (termed  "indicator"  each branch then  dendrogram,  the  used  and  "preferential"  division to  species  plot  a method which  are by  hand  then  TWINSPAN i s a FORTRAN  pro-  efficiently  (Gauch  1982).  options,  default  analyses. o f the s u c c e s s i v e  species)•and  the  series  certain  iterative  (Hill  classification  classifications  reciprocal  c o n t r i b u t i n g most  tabulated  re-  are  choose  program's  species  Program  includes a l i s t i n g  dichotomization,  of the  be  from  and  a chosen minimum number  corresponding  C o r n e l l Ecology  permits  result  steps.  those  1979).  and  sites  averaging  the  division  assigned  T h i s computer  dichotomizations summarizes  to  dichoto-  as  output  branches  d i s p l a y s the  to  of  a  classifi-  results.  Summary s t a t i s t i c s were o b t a i n e d truth  A  more than  s u p p l i e d by TWINSPAN were used i n present  mizations  cation  no  r e p o l a r i z e s species  species h i e r a r c h i c a l  to produce an arranged  program  clusters,  1982).  TWINSPAN's computer output  can  site  each has  publicly-available  the  -  data  using  UBC  ISP,  an  on g e n e r a l environment  interactive  statistics  package  and  soil  (Kita  &  groundTenisci  1978).  3.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and A n a l y s i s o f L a r g e - S c a l e  3.1  A i r Photographs  Summaries by R e i n d e e r Management Zones Film  light cribed  rolls  were  mounted  t a b l e , annotated by  Goba  stereoscope.  et  al.  by  as  'right'  flightline  (1982),  and  and  and  pairs  frame number u s i n g  viewed  For each s t e r e o p h o t o - p a i r  'left'  frame  by  frame  on  a horizontal  the method with  a  2X  despocket  a number of measurements ( T a b l e  III)  - 54  Table 1.  I I I . Measurements r e c o r d e d  -  f o r each  flightline  photo-frame.  Technical Information: 1. t r a n s e c t , f l i g h t l i n e & photo-frame number 2. percent forward o v e r l a p 3. p e r c e n t crab ( d e v i a t i o n from the m i d - l i n e o f forward d i r e c t i o n ) ^ 4. photo s c a l e ( e s t i m a t e d from a i r c r a f t ' s b a r o m e t r i c a l t i m e t e r ) 1  2.  G e n e r a l Cover F e a t u r e s : 1. open water (e.g. l a k e s , streams, p o o l s ) 2. ice-wedge polygons ( p a t t e r n e d g r o u n d ) 3. number o f ice-wedge polygons 4. t e r r a i n d i s t u r b a n c e by v e h i c l e s (i) cover ( i i ) l e v e l o f damage-^ 5. lichen (i) cover (ii) type : I. patchy white l i c h e n cover and bare sandy patches on uplands and upper s l o p e s ; mixed with Dvyas Salix, Betula, low herbaceous v e g e t a t i o n which impart p i n k / r e d component to c o l o u r ; II. patchy white l i c h e n cover on lower s l o p e s and flats; mixed w i t h brown mosses, i n c l u d i n g Sphagnum spp., bare o r g a n i c s u r f a c e s , which impart dark component to c o l o u r ; a l s o , Salix, Betula, low herbaceous v e g e t a t i o n which impart p i n k / r e d component to c o l o u r ; III. patchy to c o n t i n u o u s white l i c h e n cover on finely hummocky, cryoturbated, mainly flat surfaces, especially raised-centred ice-wedge polygon systems. 2  2  2  2  4  }  measured t o n e a r e s t 1 mm w i t h a r u l e r , and c o n v e r t e d t o p e r c e n t v a l u e s . p e r c e n t cover measured w i t h i n 80% n o n - f o r w a r d - o v e r l a p p o r t i o n of photo-frame using a 100-cell gridded acetate o v e r l a y . P r e f e r t o Table XV f o r s c a l e . o n l y r e c o r d e d f o r the dominant l i c h e n type i n the photo-frame. A  2  4  - 55  were  tallied  cover  directly  features'  (Table  of photo-frames. measurements  onto  Side-overlap the  using  1976)  at  uration  the two  small  and  basis  divisions  and  within  constituted  the area  the  coverage was  and  management  represent  (Table  of  interpreted  The  dominant  Lichen  Type  in a  for  greater  ignored.  photo-edges  They  where  L i c h e n Types more In  the  often  study  had  to  to  film rolls. have  film  80%  carried  Centre.  The  or  &  Guire  config-  summary  zones  non-  rolls.  (Fox  data  but  were  on  adapted  geographical  of these  a  sub-  z o n e s ^ C and  D,  where a minimum of o n e - t h i r d o f  (Table  III)  was  from  the  small  and  radial  land  CIR  condition  a r e a . . L i c h e n Types  covered  the  areas  that  that were not only  distortion  photographs.  made  or  accounted dominant  occurred  assignment  near among  difficult.  attempting  'right'  the  System  The  Two  to 100%  subsequently  preliminary  zones'.  region  Types'  photo-frame  land  vignetting  correlate  studies, microdensitometric inal  were  Ecodistricts,  'Lichen  were  were  'general  located.  Studies  of  'right'  Computing  IV, F i g . 10).  Types'  50%  from 95%  p o r t i o n of  from  allowed  of  non-forward-overlap  summaries  Columbia's  'Lichen  than  acquired  of more i n t e n s i v e study,  Microdensitometric  80%  I n t e r a c t i v e Data A n a l y s i s  'reindeer  (1981)  Measurements  non-side-overlap  flightlines  of E c o d i s t r i c t s  line-km  forms.  cameras ranged  statistical  Michigan  transects  Houseknecht  3.2  by  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  regional from  MIDAS, the  of  coding  r e g i o n were s t a n d a r d l y  Record m a n i p u l a t i o n out  FORTRAN  I I I ) were made i n the  from w i t h i n  forward-overlap  -  an  dominant  readings  The  Lichen  Types  ground-truth  were made of l i c h e n patches on  photo-frames sub-sampled  appreciable  to  lichen  cover,  at  for  least  the  orig-  microdensitometric 5%.  As  well,  the  - 56 -  Table  IV.  Summary d a t a  Reindeer management zone^  on r e i n d e e r management z o n e s and c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h E c o r e g i o n  Mackenzie Plain  Coastal  B  Liverpool Plain  Coastal  C  rf  A  Ecodistrict^  Ecoregion^  Richards Island (301) Eskimo Lakes (302)  w.  Original t r a n s e c t no.4  —  1,943  28  —  1,214  25  3  2,208  26  5,6  1,631  24  4  5,531  18  9, 11-13  7,8  Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula  ll  it  Parsons  E  ll  ii  S. E s k i m o Lake9  F  Anderson C o a s t a l Plain  Caribou  G  Wolverine  N o r r i s Creek (501)  River  units.  Percent water^  D  H i l l s (403)  map  A p p r o x . t o t *i l l a n d a r e a ( s q km)3  Ecodistrict sub-area  Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula (203)  and E c o d i s t r i c t  — —  Lake  1,366  512  9  2  10  1  P r e f e r t o map, F i g . 10. ^ E c o r e g i o n s , mapped a t a b o u t 1:1 m i l l i o n a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t i v e e c o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e t o c l i m a t e as e x p r e s s e d by v e g e t a t i o n , s o i l s , w a t e r , f a u n a , e t c . E c o d i s t r i c t s , mapped a t 1:500,000 t o 1:125,000 a r e p a r t s o f e c o r e g i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n s o f r e l i e f , g e o l o g y , g e o m o r p h o l o g y , v e g e t a t i o n , s o i l s , w a t e r and f a u n a ( d e f i n i t i o n s a f t e r Wiken 1980). F o r E c o d i s t r i c t s , numbers i n p a r e n t h e s e s ' a r e H o u s e k n e c h t ' s ( 1 9 8 1 ) map u n i t n u m b e r s . - ' e s t i m a t e d f r o m d o t g r i d ( 2 . 4 8 d o t s / s q cm) o v e r l a y s on N a t i o n a l T o p o g r a p h i c S e r i e s 1:250,000 m a p s h e e t s . ^ r e f e r t o map, F i g . 5.  F i g . 10.  Map  o f the 7 r e i n d e e r management zones d e f i n e d i n the s t u d y  area.  - 58  Lichen  Type  effects  of  had  to  lens  Using  a Macbeth  mode,  yellow,  be  represented  falloff TR524  that  #92)  magenta,  and  with  an  used  f o r spot  cyan  and  be  Columbia's readily  multiple cant  range  by  the  blue  A  over  dye  #106)  lichen  Sampson  1977)  Computing  among  was  on  best  described  order  of  importance,  photo-centre,  periphery  (Everitt  and  (1)  green A  files To  and help  a n a l y s i s of  1969)  were  1  on  the  (Wratten  mm  1980).  CIR  film  #93),  red  circular  to  three a priori  the  groups  to generate  the same s t r u c t u r e as the o r i g i n a l  Function  rank  analyzed  aperture  of 3.1  sq m  was  i f Lichen  variance to  and  Types  Duncan's  test  for  new  signifi-  spot  readings  (LDF)  analysis (Jennrich &  dye  layer  of L i c h e n  probability  input.  at the U n i v e r s i t y  determine  employed  microdensitometric  out  (2)  densities  #94),  al.  avoid  patches.  Linear Discriminant  the  layer  et  to  in transmission  1:2,000 photographs  Centre.  Rohlf  the  carried  that  the  filters.  standard  (Sokal &  stepwise  near  (Wratten  resolution  separated,  test  differences  patches.  with  at  r e s u l t s were p l a c e d on computer  British  could  or  total  (Wratten  approximate ground  The of  white  readings  occur  at  t r a n s m i s s i o n / r e f l e c t a n c e densitometer  were measured, r e s p e c t i v e l y , (Wratten  -  of  lichen  density variables  Types  groups  in  descending  of L i c h e n  Types  - 59 -  V  RESULTS  - 60  1.  Ground  1.1  Truth  Classification  of Four V e g e t a t i o n  A dendrogram was data  at 112  division isions  level  the  left  bottom r i g h t isions  on  the r i g h t .  levels  I I and  of  32,  25  41  indicated  groups  and  are  formed, one  labelled  fined  at  finer  Based on  eighteen tation  clusters  given  occurring The mediate field 12a):  that  vegetation  i n Table  can  species  vegetation  here,  dendrogram.  be  At  V).  levels  of  V).  the  groups  (A,  cut  c l o s e d mat  an open, low  a l d e r - g r a s s community  mesic  sites  of  open,  low  alder  intermediate tundra,  birch  and and  and  proceeding side  the  to d i v -  divisions  f o u r major  by  D)  dry  the  ericaceous  a few  for  clusters types  be  de-  example,  the  on  cover  vegetation  vege-  of  the  communities  & Dyrness  (1980)  as  Alaska.  correspond  plant  may  exceptions,  based  Viereck  tundra,  transitional slope  V,  closely  classification  upland  cushion  assemblages  level  i n nearby  C and  lower  at  similar vegetation  only  of  vegetation  includes  the  separated  Most  areas  B,  hierarchical  Group A  Dryas open, and  tundra  'D'  consist, respectively,  plant  t o , with  distinctly  (Table  treeless  four v e g e t a t i o n  C and  averaging  groups".  d e a l t with  correspond  as  from l e f t  cover,  V have been p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d  from m a i n l y  (Table  the  ( F i g . 11)  communities  dominant  of  sites,  cover  to f u r t h e r d i v -  labelled  aggregates of b r o a d l y  specifically  levels  other,  B and  reciprocal  proceeding  resulting  A,  are here r e f e r r e d to as " v e g e t a t i o n not  first  c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r t e e n  I I I are  sites.  the  dendrogram, the  i n F i g . 11 r e p r e s e n t  Although  At  Other major c l u s t e r s  cut  and  ( F i g . 11).  s i d e of the  o f F i g . 11  Groups  from the TWINSPAN a n a l y s i s of v e g e t a t i o n  sites  I) two  at  and  produced  ground-truth  (cut  on  -  to  applied  communities mixed  to group B. positions  shrub  in  the  (e.g.  Fig  tundra  and  Group B i n c l u d e s  (e.g.  shrub-sphagnum  inter-  Fig. tundra,  12  b)  :  conifer  Cladina stellaris Arctostaphylos rubra Carex aquatilis Ledum decumbens Eriophorum angustifolium Cetraria cucullata 0/1 Cladina stellaris Salix alaxensis C. rangiferina Lupinus arcticus Ledum decumbens Dryas integrifolia Rubus chamaemorus  CUT LEVEL  Arctophila fulva Q/1  0/1 Carex lugensj Pyrola grandiflora Tomenthypnum nitens] Aulacomnium palustre Bryoria nitidula Alnus crispa  Carex atrofusca  IV _  _  -1/0 Dryas integrifolia Salix reticulata Pohlia nutans Vaccinium Salix alaxensis uliginosum  Cladina rangiferina C. stellaris Bryoria nitidula Cladonia cornuta Vaccinium uliginosum  -1/0  -1/0 Ledum decumbens Aulacomnium Cladonia pleurota lurgidum Sphagnum fuscum Carex lugens  Hierochloe pauciflora -1/0  1/2  -1/0  -1/0  V  Cinclidium arcticum Scorpidium scorpioides  _  n= X2)  Ct)  ®  ©  (§>  (6)  ©  ®  (§)  (4)  (10)  (15)  (1)  (1)  (7)  (5)  (12)  J  F i g . 11.  J  V  <3) (4)  V  (20)  © (9)  (8)  (1)  <§)  %  (3)  (3)  ®  ®  (4)  (3)  J  ,  A  B  C  D  (n=32)  (n=25)  (n-41)  (n= 14)  Two-way i n d i c a t o r s p e c i e s a n a l y s i s (TWINSPAN) dendrogram o f 112 g r o u n d - t r u t h s i t e s based on v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r o f 420 s p e c i e s , T u k t o y a k t u k P e n i n s u l a a r e a , N.W.T. F o u r major c l u s t e r s (A,B,C,D) a r e d e l i n e a t e d , and f o r c u t l e v e l s I , I I and I I I , i n d i c a t o r s p e c i e s and t h e i r d e c i s i o n r u l e s a r e g i v e n . A t c u t - l e v e l V 18 v e g e t a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e s e p a r a t e d .  Tflble  v  - ^^: t^l  Level I 1.  Forest  2.  Tundra  ar  ^  "  Level I I  '  [  ^  ^  Level I I I  A. C o n i f e r Forest  (3)  A. S e d g e - g r a s s Tundra  ( 1 ) Wet s e d g e - g r a s s  Conifer Woodland  ^  T-•  N O R T H W E S T  L e v e l IV  Level V  White spruce  Hoea  Wet s e d g e meadow  Carex  glauca/Cladina  Carex Wet s e d g e - h e r b meadow  spp.  - Eriophorum rotundata  Carex aquatilia  A  D  A  »  -  «  TWINSPAN cut level V membership 8 .  15  16  17  \l>  -  Potentilla  '  (3)  Sedge-shrub  Sedge-willow  Carex aquatilia  (2)  Sedge shrub  Sedge t u s s o c k e r i c a c e o u s shrub  Eriophorum vaginatum - Ledum deoumbena - Vaocinium vitia-idaea  11  Sedge t u s s o c k - m i x e d shrub  Eriophorum vaginatum - Betula glanduloaa - ledum decumbena  10  B i r c h and e r i c a c e o u s s h r u b s - sphagnum  Betula glanduloaa - Ledum deoumbena - Vacoinium s p p . - Rubue  (2)  tussock-  B i r c h and ericaceous shrubs  - Salix s p p .  18  chamaemorua/'Sphagnum s p p . Undifferentiated understory  Betula glanduloaa - Ledum deoumbena - Vaooinium s p p . / Cladina s p p . - Cetraria s p p . Betula glanduloaa decumbena  2  ON  ro  rariflora  paluetria  D. S h r u b Tundra  1  aquatilia/Seorpidium  Carex aquatilia - C. C. chordorhizza  <  TWINSPAN vegetation group membership^  eaorpioidea Carex aquatilia anguatifolium  C. T u s s o c k Tundra  T E R R I T O R I E A  - Ledum  11  10  TWINSPAN vegetation group membership*  • Level I , 2. T u n d r a (cont'd)  Level II  Level I I I / (3) Mixed shrub  Level V  L e v e l IV Undifferentiated understory  J  Salix glauaa - S. alaxensis Betula glanduloaa - Bnpetrum nigrum s s p hermaphroditumj'Cetraria spp.  Salix alaxensis glanduloaa  -  Betula  Salix pulchra - Betula glanduloaa Pyrola grandiflora/Cetraria spp. Salix glauaa - Betula glanduloaa Briophorum vaginatum/Sphagnum spp. ( 4 ) Open low a l d e r  Low  alder  grass  Low  alder-sphagnum  Alnus orispa - Salix alaxensis/ Calamagrostie neglecta Alnua crispa - Salix s p p . / Sphagnum s p p . Alnua crispa - Betula glanduloaa Salix s p p . / Ledum decumbens/ Sphagnum s p p .  D.  Shrub  E. Mat and Cushion Tundra  ( A ) Qpen  low a l d e r  ( 1 ) Open mat c u s h i on  and  Undifferentiated  Alnua crispa — Salix glauaa/ Carex lugena/Tomenthypnum  Dryas -  Dryas cucullata  Dryas  (2) and  lichen  cushion  Lichen  -  niteno  integrifolia/Cetraria - other  Dryas integrifolia rubra  -  Dryas integrifolia reticulata  -  lichens  Arctoataphyloa Salix  Cladina spp. - Cetraria s p p . / Eriophorum vaginatum  Level  Level I I  I  2. T u n d r a (cont'd.)  5. A q u a t i c  'Species  A. F r e s h w a t e r  (1) P o n d s and l a k e s  3  Emergent  i n community names s e p a r a t e d by h y p h e n s a r e i n the.same  shrub l a y e r , shrub layer t o herb l a y e r , e t c . ) ^as g i v e n i n F i g . 11. n o f i e l d s i t e s were s t u d i e d ; i d e n t i f i e d f r o m l a r g e - s c a l e  Level  L e v e l IV  Level I I I  vegetation  layer; a slash  V  TWINSPAN vegetation group membership^  1  TWINSPAN cut level V membership^  Cladina s p p . / Ledum decumbenaBetula glandulosa - other lichens  12  Cetraria s p p . / Ledum decumbens Betula glandulosa  12  Cladina s p p . - Cetraria - other lichens  13  Arctophila fulva anguetifolium between s p e c i e s  C I R a i r p h o t o g r a p h s , and g e n e r a l  -  spp.  indicates  ground  18  Eriophorwn  a change  observations.  i n layer  (tree  layer t o  - 65 -  Fig.  (a)  12. Normal  c o l o u r 35 mm  photographs o f v e g e t a t i o n group A and B  examples.  An example o f v e g e t a t i o n group A: A mixed shrub t u n d r a community on an upper s l o p e p o s i t i o n ( s i t e 80-43, f l i g h t l i n e 6-1; 69°26 N, 132°23'W). V e g e t a t i o n dominants, w i t h c o v e r - c l a s s i n p a r e n t h e s e s as g i v e n i n Appendix I  I, a r e : Salix alaxensis ( 5 ) , Empetrum nigrum spp. hermaphroditum ( 5 ) , Betula glandulosa ( 4 ) , Salix arbusculoides ( 4 ) , Lupinus arcticus ( 3 ) , Pohlia July,  (b)  nutans ( 3 ) , Pyvola  grandiflora  (3).  Total  l i c h e n cover  6.5%.  31  1980.  An example o f v e g e t a t i o n group B: An open white spruce woodland community on a m i d - s l o p e p o s i t i o n ( s i t e 81-71, f l i g h t l i n e 13-2; 68°49'N, 1 3 2 ° 4 6 ' W ) . Vegetation dominants are: Picea glauca ( 4 ) , Tomenthypnum nitens ( 4 ) ,  Alnus  cvispa  ( 3 ) , Arctostaphylos  decumbens ( 3 ) , Vaccinium p o l e i s marked i n 10 cm  uliginosum intervals.  rubra  (3).  ( 3 ) , Cladina Total  18 J u l y ,  stellaris  ( 3 ) , Ledum  l i c h e n cover 15.2%.  1981.  Range  - 67 -  woodland,  and mixed  in-cludes  dry t o  terned  ground  tundra,  low  tables  near  ( e . g . F i g . 13  a and b ) , and  and  ericaceous  shrub  with  typically  along  ponds  associated  and l a k e s .  interpretation  On  unique  features  effectiveness, gram branch species  of  t o which  are those  sites  among  presence  this  plants  site  ubiquitous  to the r i g h t occurrence  Cetraria cator  a  s p e c i e s may  ations  species  they  (Hill  vegetation of  Carex  groups.  area wetlands,  stellaris  moves  are s o l v e d  by a p p l y i n g  species  p o i n t s o f the dendrogram ( F i g . 1 1 ) .  on presence or  at c u t l e v e l  I, the  angustifolium  3  side. from  rule,  found  two move I the  Ledum decumbens and Not a l l the i n d i left  s i d e and r i g h t  at an 'unknown' s i t e .  the d e c i s i o n  of  indicator  t h a t the c l a s s i f i e r  rubra.  t o the l e f t  be found  use  order  study,  just  Eriophorum  indicates  or i n d i c a t o r  at a d i v i s i o n may both  for their  In a s i m i l a r manner, at cut l e v e l  the c l a s s i f i e r  be p r e s e n t ,  gradient.  f o r a s s i g n i n g f u t u r e 'unknown'  Arctostaphylos  3  based  vegeta-  above the dendro-  i n the p r e s e n t  and  the four  i n general  F o r example,  aquatilis  water  a p r e l i m i n a r y en-  rules'  Listed  divisions  and  t u n d r a , and emergent  i n F i g . 11 j u s t  As g i v e n  or with  s o i l moisture  'decision  1979).  are g i v e n  pertain.  i n study  Cladina  cucullata  lists  o f TWINSPAN  tussock-shrub  understory,  water  alone,  a dry-to-wet  s p e c i e s ' and  s i d e o f the dendrogram. of  basis  pat-  o f open f e n and s h a l -  standing  and they p r o v i d e a t e c h n i q u e  the f o u r  at  undifferentiated  Group C  especially  sedge  wet sedge-grass  t h a t best d i f f e r e n t i a t e  absence c r i t e r i a ,  flatlands,  o f the TWINSPAN o r d e r i n g a c r o s s  'indicator  indicator  understory.  includes:  with  groups A to D can be h y p o t h e s i z e d : Calculation  of  Group D c o n s i s t s  the s u r f a c e ( e . g . F i g . 14):  vironmental  side  undifferentiated  characteristic  wetlands  vegetation  are  with  c l o s e d mat and c u s h i o n t u n d r a .  marsh  tion  raesic  tundra  sites  birch  lichen  shrub  just  For the '0/1' o f cut l e v e l  Such  below  situ-  division  I, summing +1  - 68 -  Fig.  13. Example of vegetation group C.  (a) Normal colour 35 mm ground photograph of lichen closed mat and cushion tundra on raised-centred ice-wedge polygons ( s i t e 81-110, f l i g h t l i n e 4-6; 69°07'N, 133°23'W). Vegetation dominants are: Cladina rangiferina (5), C. s t e l l a r i s (5), Betula glandulosa (4), Bryoria nitidula (4), Cetraria aucullata (4), Ledum decumbens (4), Alectoria ochroleuca (3), Cladina mitis (3), Rubus chamaemorus (3). Total lichen cover 71.3%. 2 August, 1981.  (b) CIR 35 mm ground photograph of the same s i t e . Colour infrared f i l m enhances the lichen cover because of the p a r t i c u l a r l y high near-infrared r e flectance by the t e r r e s t r i a l lichens. 2 August, 1981.  -  69  -  - 70 -  F i g . 14.  Example o f v e g e t a t i o n group D. Normal c o l o u r ground photograph o f wet sedge meadow t u n d r a ( s i t e 81-105, f l i g h t l i n e 12-3; 69°01,N, 132°12,W). V e g e t a t i o n dominants a r e : Carex aquatilis (5), Scorpidium scorpioides ( 5 ) , Bryion pseudotriquetrum ( 3 ) , E. russeolum v a r . albzdum ( 3 ) . Open s t a n d i n g water c o v e r s about 5% and ground l i c h e n s a r e a b s e n t . Note t h e orange a l g a l mat i n t h e background c o n t a i n i n g m a i n l y b l u e - g r e e n genera: Nostoa, Osaillatoria, Anabaena, Merismopedia and Coelosphaeri-um ( i d e n t i f i e d by Dr. J . S t e i n , Dep. Botany, U n i v . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) . 30 J u l y , 1981.  -  values  f o r each  right  species present,  side  71 -  indicator  a score i s obtained  species  present,  and -1  that i s e i t h e r 0 o r l e s s  for left  (the c l a s s i f i e r  moves t o the l e f t ) o r 1 or g r e a t e r  ( t h e c l a s s i f i e r moves to the r i g h t ) .  that  to '-1/0'  the d e c i s i o n r u l e has changed  level  I I I ( F i g . 11).  manner, but a s c o r e  The  o f -1 or l e s s  score  o f 0 or g r e a t e r  case,  a classifier  difficulty edge  indicator  moves  using  o f the presence  species  moves  the c l a s s i f i e r  divisions  are t a l l i e d  the c l a s s i f i e r  the d e c i s i o n r u l e s  'unknown' s i t e s  f o r the three  i n an  Note at c u t  identical  t o the l e f t ,  t o the r i g h t . i n the f i e l d  side  and a  In the present  can a s s i g n  without  among the f o u r v e g e t a t i o n groups based on a knowl-  or absence  of only  a small  number  of i n d i c a t o r  plant  species. Preferential and  indicator  tables the &  (Hill  species  trates  chapt.  values  weakly p r e f e r e n t i a l their  place  exhibiting by  1982).  Braun-Blanquet  (1974,  matrix  those  are used  1979, Gauch  hand-sorted  Ellenburg  species,  TWINSPAN  The  i n blocks  i n the s p e c i e s  ecological  to c o n s t r u c t arrangements  r e l e v e t a b l e s as d e s c r i b e d  9 ) , except  species  tabular  clear  the l a t t e r  for strongly  i n a separate, sequence.  according  lationship general  with can  o f some  trends  beginning  to the four species  can be seen.  o f the l i s t  obvious similarly  affinities be  sequences  groups.  is lost  with  F o r example, the f i r s t  other  group  B.  groups,  places  no i n d i c a t i o n o f (Appendix  d a t a has been sum-  summary  species  broken h o r i z o n t a l l i n e ,  for vegetation  c o r r e l a t e d with  species,  Appreciation  in this  resemble  i t concen-  In the t a b u l a r o r d e r i n g here  vegetation  t o the f i r s t  while  preferential list  two-way  by Mueller-Dombois  I) the TWINSPAN s p e c i e s sequence i s p r o v i d e d , however s i t e marized  ordered closely  approach,  final  preferences,  o f the r e method but  "block",  from the  c o n s i s t s of taxa  Subsequent  species  or combinations  blocks  of groups.  - 72  Species table  near  one  can be  expected  Conversely, would be Of  another  i t is  found the  less  are  24.8%  respectively.  taxa),  vascular  total,  taxa  with  centage,  two  and  Of  among main  plant  taxa  a  at the  taxa  lower  and  lichens represent  f o r group D  (1)  taxa,  and  graminoids  I  For a l l four groups, mirrors  herbs  total  70  broad-  (275  that  form  taxa  lichens a  Only  are  and  i n v e g e t a t i o n group A  categories  a g r e a t e r , and  26.7%  half each  I),  for  (148).  the  (Appendix  account  broad-leaved  (Table V I ) .  program  approximately  and D  of  sites.  i n Appendix  bryophytes  structural  TWINSPAN  similar  field  percentage  comprise  same or  the  sites.  woody s h r u b s ,  six  in  f u r t h e r apart  Number of taxa i s h i g h e s t  the  division  the  vascular  and  a  in  exceptions:  mosses  the  for  a higher  f o r group  lesser  the per-  A;  and  proportion  t a x a , or 16.7%  of the  of  total  are common to a l l four groups.  Three v a s c u l a r and  thirty-three  the Mackenzie D e l t a  Reindeer  The  taxa  three  and  Salix  as  given  fluitanSj (1968)  by  field  groups C (235), B (225)  (2) mosses  flora,  i n the  encountered  the  trees  similarly total  taxa  (Table V I ) .  of  separated  that  p l a n t s , while  while  f o l l o w e d by  percent  found  likely  plant  48.6%  one-quarter  to be  not  growing at the same or s i m i l a r  420  leaved herbs,  and  -  vascular planifolid by  Lophozia list  Holmen &  of  &  (1980).  alpestris,  (1971),  neurorij Drepanoaladus  and  they  - Carex saxatilis  Cody  hepatics.  Scotter  Preserve  v a r . planifoila  Porsild  non-vascular  are  with  four  oapillifolius  indicated  v a r . rhomalea,  - are e x t e n s i o n s Barbilophozia  and Saapania irrigua Fourteen  taxa are newly r e p o r t e d f o r  moss  taxa  species  i n Appendix  Oxytropis  various  to t h e i r present attenuata,  I.  ranges  Cladopodiella  are a d d i t i o n s to S c o t t e r ' s  named  here  were  not  - Dioranum brevifoliwn,  and Rypnum plicatulum  - new  given D.  to the  by  leioNorth-  - 73 -  Table VI.  The p e r c e n t o f t o t a l p l a n t t a x a encountered i n the g r o u n d - t r u t h s t u d i e s , summarized f o r each v e g e t a t i o n group by s i x s t r u c t u r a l categories. V e g e t a t i o n Group  Structural category-*1. t r e e s and woody shrubs 2. b r o a d - l e a v e d herbs 3. graminoids (total  vascular  taxa)  4. h e p a t i c s 5. mosses 6. l i c h e n s ( t o t a l non-vascular total  no. o f t a x a  ^•corresponds  taxa)  C  B  A  D  total  11.3 27.6 14.9  13.8 2*1.3 10.2  11.1 20.4 15.3  12.2 20.3 18.2  9.8 26.4 12.4  (53.8)  (45.3)  (46.8)  (50.7)  (48.6)  3.3 14.5 28.4  4.4 21.8 28.4  6.8 17.0 29.4  6.8 30.4 12.2  6.7 20.0 24.8  (46.2)  (54.6)  (53.2)  (49.4)  (51.5)  275  225  235  148  420  to c a t e g o r i e s i n Appendix I.  - 74 -  west T e r r i t o r i e s , lichen  1.2  according  (1980).  by A h t i et al.  Fifteen  (1973).  C o r r e l a t i o n o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l Parameters t o the Four V e g e t a t i o n p o s i t i o n measurements  dry-to-wet groups  moisture VII).  Three-quarters  proportion  level flat  ground.  groups  groups  sites,  features,  covers  crests,  four  or  group  upper  of a  vegetation A  and  sites middle  (Table  the  greater  f o r those  surfaces group  C  but  as  indicated  Graminoid cover  i n the same group.  by  comparisons  Standing  times  covered  of  more p r e v a l e n t D  sites  with the  on  a  among  the f o u r  dead m a t e r i a l ,  the s u r f a c e  proportion  ground  and  than the  i n 10 m x 10 m p l o t s were o f  f o r by woody m a t e r i a l ,  Unvegetated  low or  l o c a t i o n s (Table V I I ) .  VIII).  three  accounted  a l l a s s o c i a t e d with  some n o t a b l e  about  While  bare o r g a n i c  (Table V I I I ) .  the  no c l e a r c o r r e l a t i o n s o t h e r  for level  t r e e and woody shrub c o v e r , high,  hill  showed  can be made  graminoid.  with  the n o t i o n  of vegetation  environment measurements  A, B and C was  particularly Total  aspect  i n others.  primarily  across  (68.7%) or  support  (72.0%) o f group B s i t e s were on s l o p e s , and a sim-  General  woody and g r a m i n o i d , as  locations  physiognomic  vegetation  sites  majority  o f group C and D s i t e s  broad  operating  The open w e t l a n d s , group D, were  Although g e n e r a l only  sites  Groups  (73.1%) o f group C s i t e s were on lower o r toe s l o p e s , or on  terrain.  affinity  at the 112  gradient  The  better-drained  slopes. ilar  soil  (Table  occupied  sent  of I r e l a n d et al.  s p e c i e s were not p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d  Slope  ally  to the l i s t  area  i n group D  standing  dead  small  area  at  landscape  was h i g h  standard  positions.  deviations,  i n group D but l i c h e n cover  Standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r l i c h e n cover  most  ground,  an o v e r a l l mean o f 26.8%, was large  in  i n group D i t was  than bare m i n e r a l low  both  gener-  variable was  ab-  i n d i c a t e con-  - 75 -  Table  VII.  Slope p o s i t i o n and aspect o f g r o u n d - t r u t h f o u r v e g e t a t i o n groups (A, B, C and D ) .  B (n = 25)  25.0 28.1 15.6 12.5 3.1  8.0 12.0 28.0 20.0 12.0  4.9 7.3 17.1 7.3 12.2  -  -  15.6  20.0  53.6  9.4 18.8 12.5 31.3 28.1  24.0 16.0 12.0 20.0 28.0  4.9 12.2 7.3 22.0 53.6  A (n = SLOPE POSITION cres t upper s l o p e middle slope lower s l o p e toe s l o p e depression level ASPECT north east south west level ^Classes  summarized by the  sites C (n = 41)  Percent 32)  of  sites  D (n =  14)  1  as d e f i n e d by Walmsley et al.  — —  7.1 14.3 78.6  —  7.1 7.1 —  7.1 78.6  (1980). \  -  Table VIII.  76 -  P e r c e n t cover by g e n e r a l environment parameters i n 10 m x 10 m p l o t s at 112 s i t e s , summarized by the four v e g e t a t i o n groups. Vegetation A (n = 32)  B (n = 24)  group C (n = 41)  X  X  X  (+ SD)  (+_ SD)  (+ SD)  woody s t a n d i n g dead  4.8 ( + 2.7)  (+  4.0 2.2)  3.5 (+_ 3.3)  graminoid dead  2.9 ( + 4.2)  (+  1.8 2.4)  (+  Parameter  standing  .9 3.6)  .1 .3)  3.3 5.5) .3 .9)  D (n = 14) X  (+  (+  SD)  2.0 2.7)  16.6 (+ 11.9) .1 .3)  bare m i n e r a l ground  (+  bare o r g a n i c ground  3.8 (+3.7)  2.6 (+ 1.7)  . 4.1 (+_ 6.7)  4.3 (+_ 2.5)  t o t a l tree and woody s h r u b l  35.0 (+ 15.3)  25.6 (+_ 10.1)  32.4 (+17.7)  16.1 (+12.3)  total  graminoid^  8.2 (+ 7.1)  5.9 (+5.7)  7.4 (+8.2)  44.6 (+11.3)  total  lichens-  12.9 (+_ 18.3)  18.4 ( + 13.3)  40.9 (+ 19.6)  t o t a l open water  —  (+  (+  — (+  .1 .2)  (+  (+  .2 .2)  8.1 (+_ 9.0)  I t o t a l t r e e and woody shrub, t o t a l g r a m i n o i d and t o t a l l i c h e n i n c l u d e a l l s p e c i e s b e l o n g i n g t o s t r u c t u r a l c a t e g o r i e s 1, 3, and 6, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n Appendix I .  - 77 -  siderable higher  variability  mean  sites  cover.  (61.6%)  of  direct soils  soil the  vegetation  are sandy  clearly  are  site,  attained  however  group  appreciable  C had  cover  a  only  decidedly  at  sites.  of  soil  (Table  silty  group  D  are  and  clay  spectively, have o r g a n i c  soils  88.0, soils  of mineral  c o r r e l a t e d with  provide  group  A  an  accurate,  sites,  62.1%  (Table  IX).  cut  of  the  four  albeit i n the  mineral  f i g u r e s , however, do not  i s an  overlap  gradient  level  yields  32.8  and  V  group  A  are s i l t y - l o a m s , w h i l e  existing  of  the  at f i n e r  dendrogram  group  A  'vegetation  and  l e v e l s of ( F i g . 11),  calculation  of  f o r c l u s t e r s 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, r e -  33.5%.  While 63.4%  the a c t i v e l a y e r , with  banded  between  In a d d i t i o n , the broad  to v e g e t a t i o n  soils  group C s i t e s soil  there  texture At  54.6,  within  percent  a number o f group A s i t e s  are loams  70.0,  These  For example,  c l u s t e r s belonging  at a l l o t h e r  amounts  Of  soils.  classification.  five  can  were  two-thirds  IX) and a s i m i l a r p e r c e n t a g e (63.0%) o f group B m i n e r -  d e s i g n a t i o n masks a s o i l  1  classes  texture  moisture.  mean sand f r a c t i o n s o f these  soils  texture  soil  texture classes:  TWINSPAN  there  Soil  because  some group B s i t e s group  e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h i n the a c t i v e l a y e r at about  show the t r e n d s .  and B s o i l  the e x c e p t i o n  are h i g h l y c r y o t u r b a t e d at or near  the  of group C  bottom  o f two  sites,  and have o n l y  of  the p i t .  sites  small  Organic  are found at about h a l f (57.1%) o f group D s i t e s . Patterned  gons  to  Open water  was  groups  measure  soils  the  site  (Table V I I I ) . Mineral  al  from  terrain  i s associated  of both low-centred  mainly with 26  were  group  group  patterned  ground,  C  polygonal  ground, and group A had j u s t  C.  sites. 3.  and r a i s e d - c e n t r e d Of  the 29  Groups Of those  B  ice-wedge  poly-  sites  studied  that  and  had  sites  D  26 s i t e s  no  had on  i n group C, most  - 78 -  Table  S u b s u r f a c e s o i l t e x t u r e f o r m i n e r a l s o i l s and the o c c u r r e n c e of o r g a n i c s o i l s at 112 s i t e s , summarized by the f o u r v e g e t a t i o n groups.  IX.  Vegetation Soil  C D (numbers o f s i t e s )  type  1) m i n e r a l s o i l s (a) sandy s o i l t e x t u r e sand loamy sand sandy loam sandy c l a y loam loam (b)  s i l t and c l a y s o i l s i l t y loam s i l t y c l a y loam s i l t y clay c l a y loam clay  2) o r g a n i c  classes 3 1 8 2 5 texture 6 -  follows (1978).  Canada  4 4 13 2 11  1 3 3 classes  3 1  1  11 3 3 17 1  2 3 1 4  7  26  Soil  Survey  Totals  1  soils  totals 1  group  43 14  41  32  25  Committee,  Subcommittee  on  Soil  112 Classification  - 79  (87.5%) were sites  that  on  organic  had  particularly  s i t u a t e d on loamy sand Although chemical  they  data  groups.  soils.  -  However, two  large  raised-centred  have  large  X)  standard  show  G e n e r a l l y , the s o i l s  some  general  nutrients  (Mg,  The  izons  are  high.  yield  a mean v a l u e  probably  high  (Table carbon,  t o t a l N).  X) of  of  15.4%  indicating  general both  organic  Even the measurements  soil  organic slow  increases and  was  of  are  bottom  soil  the  of  Soil  organic  matter  the  and four  observed  from  A  nitrogen  to  C  vegetation i n percent  i n o r g a n i c carbon pH,  active layer (C:N) and  tissues.  among the  in soil  hor-  decomposition  data  occur  the  carbon:  chemical  samples,  physical  sampled upper  from the bottom o f  r a t i o s i n the p l a n t  r a t i o s , w h i l e general decreases Depth t o p e r m a f r o s t  were  c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t i e s  contents  carbon.  rates  p h y s i c a l and  top  C  low amounts of a v a i l a b l e macro-  -  r e f l e c t i n g s i m i l a r . C:N  Comparing  group  polygons,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  are a c i d , have h i g h meq.lOOg !, and  are  ice-wedge  d e v i a t i o n s , the  w i t h an o v e r a l l mean o f 89.1  ratios  anomalous  soils.  (Table  K,  seemingly  groups organic  (bottom) and  C:N  i n o r g a n i c C ( t o p ) , and  Mg.  g e n e r a l l y deeper i n groups A and  D,  probably  i n the  former r e f l e c t i n g the b e t t e r - d r a i n e d , c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d s o i l c o n d i t i o n s o f  hill  c r e s t s and upper s l o p e s , and  con-  i n the l a t t e r because o f the h i g h e r t h e r m a l  d u c t i v i t y o f s t a n d i n g water t y p i c a l l y p r e s e n t  1.3  Determination As  already  vegetation  of L i c h e n Standing  noted  groups A,  ranges w i d e l y  i n Table B  and  C.  at group D  sites.  Crop  VIII, Cover  lichen at  cover  individual  was  appreciable  sites  from t r a c e amounts (1.9%) t o n e a r l y c o n t i n u o u s  only  in  i n these  groups  ground  carpets  ( 8 9 . 3 % ) , w i t h the most e x t e n s i v e l i c h e n cover o c c u r i n g at group C s i t e s .  The  - 80 -  T a b l e X.  Subsurface s o i l  p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l d a t a s u m m a r i z e d Vegetation  Parameter  A  by t h e f o u r v e g e t a t i o n  groups.  Croup  B  C  D  depth t o p e r m a f r o s t (cm)  41.7  (+ 18.5) n = 32  31.6  (+ 7.2) n = 25  31.7  (+ 12.3) n - 40  44.5  (+ 26.3) n - 14  s o i l pH"  6.20  (+ 1.34) n = 32  4.94  (• .85) n - 23  4.17  ( + .69) n = 41  5.43  (+ 1.20) n = 11  s o i l CEC (meq.100 g " )  77.8  (+ 41.3) n = 32  100.2  (+ 34.2) n = 23  97.6  (+ 36.1) n = 41  69.7  (+ 46.7) n • 11  organic C (%)  63.2  (+ 29.3) n = 32  78.6  (+ 21.6) n - 23  85.6  ( + 21.3) n » 40  73.9  ( + 30.7) n » 12  cotal N (%)  .838  ( + .433) n = 21  .809  ( + .409) n - 7  .912  (+ .477) n - 18  .282  (+ .134) n - 3  1  C:N  58.5  ratio  (+ 23.9):1 n = 21  97.3  (+ 87.0):1 n - 7  98.6  inorganic C (Z)  2.06  (+ 2.08) n = 21  1.03  (+ .90) n - 7  K* «)  .032  (t .030) n = 21  .039  (+ .017) n - 7  .039  Mg U)  .215  (<• .109) n « 21  .175  (+ .055) n - 7  .015  (+ .009) n =» 21  Fe, p y r o p h o s p h a t e e x t r a c t a b L e (X)  .176  Mn , p y r o p h o s p h a t e extractable (X)  i[+ 59.0):1 n •"»18  (• 5 9 . 1 ) : : n = 3  (• .44) n » 18  2.43  (+ 1.61) n - 3  (+ .017) n - 18  .013  (+ .003) n = 3  .111 (+ .077) n - 18  .066  (+ .012) n » 3  .011 (+ .009) n - 7  .016  (+ .029) n » 18  .013  (+ 0.13) n = 3  (+ .124) n » 14  .236  (+ .157) n - 5  .205  (+ .222) n - 15  .380 n - 1  .025  (+ .039) n. = 14  .031 (+ .039) n - 5  .007  (+ .003) n - 15  .006 n = 1  o r g a n i c C* (X)  13.0  (+ 12.7) n - 29  15.5  (+ 18.9) n = 18  22.1 (+ 19.8) n - 15  9.73  (+ 4.08) n - 6  i n o r g a n i c C* (X)  .467  (• .450) n = 29  (• 1.995) n - 18  .786  .727  (+ .786) n » 6  +  Na (Z)  +  'measurements  from 'bottom'  .670  samples i n s o i l  pits.  .79  93.8  (+ .443) n = 15  - 81  Table XI.  -  Mean percent ground c o v e r and, i n p a r e n t h e s e s , f r e q u e n c y f o r the f o u r most abundant l i c h e n s p e c i e s i n v e g e t a t i o n groups A, B and C. Vegetation  Species Cladina C.  stellaris  Cetraria C.  vangiferina  aucullata  ericetorum  t o t a l cover  group  A (n = 32)  B (n = 25)  0..6 (43,.8)  6..9 (88..0)  20,.8 (92,.6)  0,.5 (46,.9)  3..8 (92,.0)  10,.6 (90..2)  5,.3 (90 .6)  4,.0 (80,.0)  6,.8 (90..2)  2,.9 (81 .3)  1,.0 (56,.0)  1,.6 (82..9)  9..3  15,.7  C (n =  39,.8  41)  - 82 -  three in  vegetation  different  creasing  rangiferina,  Parker can  Rangifer  1976).  summarized  cucullata, lichen  and  by  B sites  stellaris Cladina  Values XI)  closely  m plots tion  cover  correspond  at s i t e s  (Table V I I I ) .  o f the l i c h e n  ground cover  lichen  over  I):  f o r group A, Cladonia  lechia  50% i n the t h r e e  amaurocraea  ratio The  C.  1968,  spp. covered  as do the two  genera  based  ratio  on the  was  small  about  twice  Cetraria  spp.  at  important  lichen  species  estimates  made i n the 10 m x 10  (64); and, f o r group C, Bryoria amaurocraea (66), C. chlorophaea  a major  vegetation  groups were  (59), C. chlorophaea gyalecta  gyalecta nitidula  (Table  propor-  area.  i n Table XI, other  (59) and Ochrolechia  amaurocraea (72), Ochrolechia  gyalecta ( 6 8 ) .  ericetorum.  the two l i c h e n  i n the T u k t o y a k t u k P e n i n s u l a  frequencies  Cladonia  Cladina  f o l l o w e d by  Thus the f o u r taxa c o n s t i t u t e  with  formis  XI.  Cladina  cover  t o the f o u r taxa i n d i c a t e d  Cladonia  was:  the r a t i o was 3.74:1.  In a d d i t i o n  lum (63), C. sulphurina  between  i n Table  by the f o u r most  to t o t a l  Cladina  1954, 1961, Pegau  Cladina:Cetraria  s u r f a c e , on average,  i n de-  A l l f o u r are r e c o g n i z e d as  o f a simple  At group C s i t e s ,  for total  rangiferina  (Andreev  (0.13:1) f o r group A s i t e s , however the two  group B s i t e s .  the order  cover  groups  although  mean c o v e r ,  and Cetraria  C. ericetorum. species  species  C. ericetorum,  in relative  vegetation  (2.14:1) as much ground  lichen  cucullata,  Cladina  forage  Differences  by  Cetraria  mean cover  dominant  Group A had h i g h e s t  F o r group  be e l u c i d a t e d by means  data  by  cucullata,  had h i g h e s t  Cetraria  important  (Table X I ) .  stellaris.  Cetraria  Group C s i t e s  the same f o u r  o f importance,  and C.  stellaris,  have  proportions  order  rangiferina  groups  lichen (from  species Appendix  (63), C.  pocil-  (66); f o r group B,  (64) and Thamnolia (76), Cetraria  (54), C. sulphurina  nivalis  subuli(59),  (54) and Ochro-  -  TabLe X I I .  83 -  L i c h e n biomass measurements from d i v o t s , . p e r c e n c l i c h e n cover, and estimates of top and bottom components of Lichen s t a n d i n g crop at t h i r t y - s i x s i t e s where t e r r e s t r i a l . Lichens were abundant ( i . e . , ground cover ^ 207.), lichen  escimaces of  biomass from d i v o c s ' (kg.ha" ) 1  LlcLQ sice no.  x  (• SD)  (3) mean percenc lichen  (2) cop  (1) boccom  *  (  (4) boccom (1)  + SD)  X  (3)  l i c h e n scanding (kg.ha-i)  crop  (6) cocal  (5) Cop (2) x (3)  (4)  + (5)  VEGETATION GROUP A 1017. 542. 809. 1045. 775. 1699. 906. 998.  80-13 80-14 30-47 80-54 80-55 80-62 80-63 81-77  6 2 8 2 0 6 6 .4  (• (+ (+ (* (+ (+ (+ (+_  229.6) 195.2) 308.2) 288.8) 202.4) 356.4) 220.0) 184.0)  (+, 336.2)  (.* SD)  2 3 4 0 8 2 6 6  360.3 194.4 726.2 595.8 1086.3 783.8 743.0 313 .3  344. 9  313.4  658.3  613. ,6 1164. 5 436. 6 1141. 0 528. ,2 710. 0 700. ,0 330. ,0 1201. ,2 601. ,2 634. ,8 710. ,2 417, .6  522. 2 1410.0 454. 4 997. 0 491. 8 725. 2 649. ,6 463. 6 1105. ,2 534.6 447. 0 491. 0 246. .4  1135.8 2574.6 891.0 2138.0 1120.0 1435.2 1349.5 793.5 2306.4 1135.8 1081.8 1201.0 664.0  792, ,2  933. .4  1525.6  (• 283.5) (+ 196. 8) (+ 446. 0) (+ 133. 0) 0) (• 415. (+ 616. 4) (+ 353. 0) (+_ 120. 4)  20. 9 20. 4 35. 3 28.2 58. 2 29. 1 39. 7 51. 4  212. 110. 285. 294. 451. 494. 360. 513.  '(+ 286. 2)  35. 4 (+ 13 .7)  (+ 695. 0) (+ 477.,4) (+ 409.,6) (+ 390. 0) (+ 493.,8) ,6) (* 467. (+ 348.,0) (+ 194.6) (+ 500.4) ( + 371. ,2) (• 178,.8) (+ 549,.6) (+ 255..4)  25, .6 52. ,7 22. ,5 60. .8 22. ,0 42. ,9 31. .6 36. ,5 45, .3 41. ,5 29. .0 30. .9 25. .3  (+, 537..4)  40. .0 (+ 12 .0)  885.4  974. 4  X  709.4 411.0 1247.4 1067.2 1092.4 994.0 976.4 585.0  6 6 8 8 0 6 4 2  148. 83. 440. 301. 635. 289. 387. 300.  VEGETATION GROUP B 80-1 80-19 30-20 80-23 80-31 80-32 80-33 31-66 81-74 81-90 81-95 81-99 81-101  2307.,2 2209.,8 1940. .0 1876. ,6 2401, .0 1655. ,2 2215, .0 904. ,2 2651, .8 1449, .0 2189 .0 2298,.2 1650 .6  (+ (• (~ (+ (+ (+ (+ (• (+ (+ (+ (+  625.6) 268.2) 360.0) 587.2) 305.2) 136.8) 171.6) 87.8) 320.2) 349.4) 334.3) 351.2) 432.3)  (+  470.2)  1980 .6  X  (+ SD)  1963.0 2675.4 2019.6 1639.8 2689.3 1690.6 2056.0 1270.2 2439.8 1288.4 1541.2 1588.8 974.2 1833.6  VEGETATION GROUP C 80-3 80-4 80-5 30-16 80-17 80-18 80-21 80-22 80-25 80-28 80-50 80-53 80-65 81-81 31-110  2299 .5 2552 .4 2230,.6 2950 .8 2009 .0 2303 .6 2765 .2 2293 .2 2816 .2 238 7.4 2152 .4 1704 .0 2347 .6 2573 .4 2011 .6  (• (* (+ (* (+ (+ (+ (+ (+ (+ (+ (+ (+ (• (+  286.0) 82.0) 258.4) 386.8) 315.6) 291.6) 102.1) 751.6) 575.6) 326.0) 275.8) 202.8) 634.0) 166.4) 457.4fo  (+  332.3)  2359 .8  X  (+ SD)  (+ 154,.4) 3315.2 2733.2 (+ 223 .4) 3213.4 (+ 504 .3) 5299.6 '(+ 623 .8) 2929.4 ( + 445, .0) 2080.4 (+ 403 .4) 4376.6 (+ 323 .8) 1493.0 (* 647 .6) (+ 187 .4) 3600.2 (+ 779 .8) 2687.2 1787.0 (+ 507 .2) 2282.6 (+ 379 .0) 3052.2 (• 1106 .2) 2097.6 366.0) 1598.0 (+ 134 .8)  33 .1 29 .6 25, .1 65 .7 69 .2 77 . 7 89 .3 45 .0 87 .9 66 .3 55 .2 77 .3 36 .9 42 .0 71 .3  761. .2 755 .6 559, .8 1938 .6 1390 .2 1789 .8 2469 .4 1032 .0 2475 .4 1582 .8 118, .0 1317 .2 2040 .0 1080 .8 1434, .4  1097, .2 809, .0 806, .6 3481, .8 2027,.0 1616 .6 3908 .2 671 .8 3164, .6 1781 .6 986, .6 1764 .4 2652,.4 881 .0 1139, .4  1358.4 1570.2 1366.4 5420.4 3417.2 3406.4 6377.6 1703.8 5640.0 3364.4 2174.6 3081.6 4692.4 1961.8 2573.8  2836.4  61 .4 (.* 21.8)  1448 .9  1741, .5  3190.4  T+  1047 .0)  ' s i x t e e n 20 x 20 cm d i v o c s per s i c e excepc f o r s i c e s were 14, 17, 15 and 14 r e s p e c t i v e l y . •mean vaLues from quadrat measurements of percent  80-33, 80- 53,  veget at ion cove r.  80-55 and  81-110 i n which numbers  - 84 -  Estimates  of l i c h e n  standing  f o r 36 s i t e s where l i c h e n though  a small  cover  ranged  number o f s i t e s  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  result  crop  times  t h a t o f group A ( T a b l e X I I ) .  XII).  d e v i a t i o n s , the mean t o t a l  l i c h e n cover  the l a r g e r e s t i m a t e s  different  unpaired  T - t e s t s (Sokal & Rohlf  (p =  of l i c h e n  .05) f o r the t h r e e 1969).  P l o t t i n g mean l i c h e n biomass i n .columns (Fig.  (1) and  15).  versed  Vegetation  f o r the group  bottom components. abundances  crops, given  group  vegetation  (Table  A  XII —  C  sites,  sites,  which  reveals with  a curvilinear  the g e n e r a l l y  i n columns  according  total  to  have  also  the v a l u e s relationship  larger  biomass  These p r o p o r t i o n s the lower  i n d i c a t e approximately  These top t o bottom  o f the mean  groups,  -  equal  t o p and mean t o t a l  are r e -  biomass  values.  amounts o f top and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are r e f l e c t e d bottom  lichen  in relastanding  (4) and (5) o f T a b l e X I I .  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and A n a l y s i s o f L a r g e - S c a l e  A i r Photographs  General A total  o f 1,469 c o l o u r  mean s c a l e o f 1:1,960 and w i t h thus  standing  from d i v o t s  f o r top and bottom components —  (2) o f T a b l e  Measurements at group B s i t e s  2.1  groups  at s i t e s may be g e n e r a l -  biomass  v a l u e s , have a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f top to bottom.  2.  - 1  Both t o p and bottom l i c h e n biomass measurements from d i v o t s are s i g n i -  ficantly  tive  kg.ha  a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , about two and f i v e  there are exceptions, higher  l y c o r r e l a t e d with  194.4 t o 6,377.6  each o f the three v e g e t a t i o n  i n large standard  o f the group B and group C s i t e s  from  from 20.4% t o 89.3% ( T a b l e X I I ) . A l -  represent  crops  While  ranged  conforming  closely  to  infrared  (CIR) p h o t o - p a i r s  a mean forward the  original  overlap  were  acquired  at a  o f 19.7% ( T a b l e X I I I ) ,  specifications  f o r the  photo-  - 85  -  5.5  -o  I  "— I" •  I  •  SITE MEASUREMENTS OF LICHEN BIOMASS  4.5 -  • /  /  i CO JZ  2  /  /  3.5 -  C/5 (fi <  r  •  •  = .73  2  /  •  CQ  *  / _  •  Q.  o r-  *  s  •  1.5 A  •  •s  ^ « A  A  •  •  A  ^ ^  0.5  i  0.5  1.0  1.5  2.0  i  2.5  3.0  BOTTOM BIOMASS (kg-ha " x 1 0 ) 1  Fig.  15.  3  Top v e r s u s bottom components o f l i c h e n biomass f o r v e g e t a t i o n groups A (open t r i a n g l e s ) , B ( c l o s e d c i r c l e s ) and C (open s q u a r e s ) . Vegetation group D had no a p p r e c i a b l e l i c h e n biomass. Curvil i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n i s o f the form log y 2.54 + (.00036) x.  - 86 -  Table  XIII.  Summarized t e c h n i c a l data a c q u i r e d Aug. 5-8, 1980. No. o f photo-frames (n)  flying  percent  forward  percent  crab  original  overlap  photo-scale  l',423 564 1,469  1  CIR  photographs  Range x (+_ SD) 150  1,469  height (m a g l )  f o r l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm  (+_ 37)  min.  max.  106  274  19.7  (+_ 9.1)  0  65.0  8.5  (+_ 6.3)  0  36.2  1:1,400  1:3,600  .44  4.21  0  4.21  1:1,963 (+  490)  non-overlap surface • area of each p h o t o frame (ha)  1,469  1.09  .(+_ .73)  n o n - o v e r l a p ground area o f each photo-frame (ha)  1,469  0.97  (+  ^measurements from a random sample of 564  .72)  photo-frames.  - 87  mission. flying  The  average  height  Subtracting  and  tive  to  the  sampled low,  by  and  coverage by  water cover  0.97  ha.  entire the  of  s u b t r a c t i n g the  percent  photo-frame was  area  The  study  only  each  photo-frame, c a l c u l a t e d  mean p e r c e n t  forward  f o r each photo-frame,  total  area  overlap,  (Table  IV),  only  photographs.  tentative observations  on  1,497.3 ha.  of  the  This  percentage  However, i n defense  servations  coverage  points  are made:  selection located (ii)  on  of  such  flightlines  throughout  systematic  the  scape  area,  the  the  are  reindeer  herd  largest  these  of two  land  area  ground-truth  represented  by  area,  and  of  by  zones were  C  lack  and  D  more  locations,  zones  XIV).  l o c a t i o n s and  study  figure  is  features  the  obtwo  random  flightlines  representative,  and  1:60,000 b l a c k  and  recurrence, similarities  patterned  ground,  of  was  area,  broad  ( F i g . 10),  sampled  I V ) , had  the  Rela-  of making  along  be  per  conformity  throughof  land-  hydrologic  among r e g i o n a l  ( F i g . 3a-d).  ground-truth (Table  the  of  the  researchers  comparatively  acquired  should  ha.  area  of  a t t a i n e d with  indicate  Indeed  distribution  reflected  (Table  the  on s m a l l - s c a l e (1:34,000 CIR,  features.  owner,  were  hence  LANDSAT scenes  vegetation,  management  within  and  similar  drawn by past  38.6%  photographs  study  Reindeer  frames,  both  of  etc....)  boundaries  —  observations  (relief,  features,  ground  ( i ) Good g e o g r a p h i c a l coverage was  white NAPL) photographs out  limited  land  distribution  among the seven r e i n d e e r management zones. based  i s 1.09  0.1%  the  from  the mean land a r e a  l a n d area examined was  large-scale aerial  allows  -  sites.  intensively;  and  53.6%  Management  19.6%  of  of p a r t i c u l a r  the  Other  s m a l l sample s i z e s  of  zone  54.1%  sites E,  (Table  (A,  of  were  B,  XIV).  F,  and and  to  photolocated  representing  photo-frames,  zones  interest  25.0% G)  the of were  - 88 -  T a b l e XIV.  Numbers o f g r o u n d - t r u t h l o c a t i o n s and s i t e s , and l a r g e - s c a l e a i r photos i n each o f the seven r e i n d e e r management zones.  Reindeer management zone  No. o f groundtruth locations  A  7  10  88  B  2  5  87  C  14  40  414  D  6  20  380  E  11  28  389  F  2  4  125  G  2  5  86  112  1469  totals indicated studied.  44 on F i g . 2.  1  No. of groundtruth sites  No. o f l a r g e s c a l e photoframes  At each g r o u n d - t r u t h l o c a t i o n , one t o four  s i t e s were  - 89  2.2  -  P a t t e r n e d Ground and T e r r a i n D i s t u r b a n c e Patterned  the  ground i s common t h r o u g h o u t the T u k t o y a k t u k P e n i n s u l a a r e a  form o f l o w - c e n t r e d  and  r a i s e d - c e n t r e d ice-wedge p o l y g o n s t h a t are  b l e from the a i r ( F i g . 16, 1 7 ) . of  low  occurrence  of  the  photo-frames  43.4%  of  polygons  the  by V e h i c l e s  and  cover, and,  with  visible  wedges p r o b a b l y  ice-wedge polygons were observed  ( T a b l e XV).  surface  zones,  cover  expression  were  measured  I c e wedges w i t h no  become v i s i b l e  following  paths  and  patterns 119.9  seismic (Mackay  per ha  lines  as  1970).  (Table  Although  tundra  differential  Ice-wedge  severe  14  melting  polygons  pingos  photo-frames  features  and  ice-wedge  however i c e -  t e r r a i n as  at  well  commonly  damage a l o n g  thermokarst  occurred  to  vehicle  subsidence  a mean d e n s i t y  of  XV). are  of  l a r g e s i z e , up t o 49.5 frost  here,  half  16.3%  surface expression terrain  widely  scattered  through  1956), o n l y f o u r were t r a v e r s e d by f l i g h t l i n e s in  from  I t must be emphasized t h a t  (J.R. Mackay, p e r s . comm. ). i n the  i n about  ranged  u n d e r l i e most i f not a l l o f the n o n - p a t t e r n e d 1  visi-  With the e x c e p t i o n o f zone G where they were  for different  land surface  in  are  0.9%.  Because  m h i g h and more  600  readily  of  the  study  area  r e p r e s e n t i n g a low  their  m diameter  inventoried  conspicuous  occurrence,  appearance  (Mackay 1979), these on  (Stager  small-scaled  and  perma-  photographs  ( e . g . 1:60,000 b l a c k and w h i t e NAPL p h o t o s ) . Measurements o f t e r r a i n d i s t u r b a n c e est frequency former due  to the  leading south, the  and  vicinity  and of  i j . R . Mackay, Dep.  cover values  by v e h i c l e s ( F i g . 17)  i n management zones C and  p r o x i m i t y to the T u k t o y a k t u k i n the Reindeer  latter, Station  Geography, U n i v .  t o w n s i t e and  to c o n s i d e r a b l e (Table  XV).  F,  past Severe  B r i t i s h Columbia.  showed  probably  greatin  the  i t s winter  road  human a c t i v i t i e s damage  6 May,  levels  1982.  in  were  -  Fig. 16.  90  -  Cibachrome 2 . 5 X enlargement of 1 : 1 , 6 0 0 ( o r i g i n a l s c a l e ) 7 0 mm CIR photograph, f l i g h t l i n e 4 - 2 . Note the h i g h c o v e r by, 'Type I I I ' b r i g h t w h i t e ground l i c h e n on c r y o t u r b a t e d s u r f a c e s of r a i s e d - c e n t r e d p o l y g o n s , and i n the ice-wedge t r o u g h s , the o c c u r r e n c e o f s t a n d i n g water ( b l a c k ) , a q u a t i c mosses (dark brown) and wet sphagnum, sedge and low shrub c o v e r (orange t o r e d ) . L o c a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y s o u t h o f a r e a covered i n F i g . 8 at 6 9 ° 0 5 ' N , 133°42'W.  5 August,  1980.  - 91 -  F i g . 17.  L a r g e - s c a l e (1:1,800) CIR p h o t o - p a i r showing examples o f veget a t i o n groups A ( r a i s e d - c e n t r e d and l o w - c e n t r e d p o l y g o n s , bottom r i g h t and c e n t r e ) and B (lower h i l l s l o p e , top and l e f t ) , and low damage l e v e l s t o tundra r e s u l t i n g from m u l t i p l e passes of t r a c k e d v e h i c l e s . (frame 27, f l i g h t l i n e 5-4; 69°15'N, 133° 05'W). 5 August, 1980.  T a b l e XV.  Frequency and percent cover o f ice-wedge polygons, and t e r r a i n d i s t u r b a n c e summarized f o r l a r g e - s c a l e photographs i n the r e i n d e e r management zones.  by v e h i c l e s ,  T e r r a i n d i s t u r b a n c e by v e h i c l e s Ice-wedge polygons Reindeer management zone  frequency  cover ha area  frequency^  % of land area  density of polygons (no. polygons.ha"~ )  cover  1  l  low  mod.  severe  ha  area  % of land area  A  68..2  29 .9  43,.4  178. .4  4..5  -  -  0..1  0..1  B  40..2  16 .8  29 .0  132. .4  17..2  -  -  0..3  0..4  C  40..6  57 .4  19 .1  108. .4  24.,6  9.4  5.6  6..1  2,.0  D  41..8  58 .9  22,.4  78..2  10..5  0.3  -  0..9  0..3  E.  32..9  43 .4  16,.3  163. .0  3..1  -  -  0..3  0,.1  F  52..1  110 .6  33,.8  150. .8  34..4  -  -  1..8  0,.6  G  2..4  0 .7  4,.6  76,.9  3..5  -  -  0..1  0,.1  ^expressed i n terms of area i n which polygons were p r e s e n t . 2 l ow - v i s i b l e t r a c k e d d e p r e s s i o n s but no permafrost d e g r a d a t i o n or v e g e t a t i o n change; mod. - minor changes to permafrost and/or v e g e t a t i o n cover, water pools i n low a r e a s ; s e v e r e - p e r m a f r o s t d e g r a d a t i o n , d i s t i n c t v e g e t a t i o n changes, bare s o i l patches, water p o o l s , and slumping o f s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l .  - 93 -  observed  only  i n photo-frames  from zone C, and o c c u r r e d  l i n e 5-3, l o c a t e d o n l y a few km from Tuktoyaktuk frequency low  mainly  (Fig. 6).  along  For o t h e r  o f low damage l e v e l s v a r i e d from 3.1 t o 17.2 p e r c e n t ,  (0.1 t o 0.9%).  Vehicle  terrain  disturbance  flight-  was observed  zones,  and cover i n 279  was  (19.0%)  o f the 1,469 photo-frames.  2.3  Microdensitometric Lichen  studied of  'Lichen  Types'  t o Type  developed  Lichen with  Types  an index  green and  presented  shrub  measures  spectrum  green,  as measured  with  the l i c h e n  cover  bare  (Table  CIR  the  III.  photographs  were  assigned  organic  II, optical  as w e l l  using  to Lichen  Type  elevated i n  i n close association Blue  white,  (0.5 t o 0.6 the l i c h e n  and brown mosses  Jim) cover  as w e l l as green  Lowest mean measurements f o r r e d , green  I I I (Table  spectral  because  light  and pro-  d e n s i t y measurements w i t h  (Table XVI).  obtained  was  XVI, F i g . , 18a).  patches  were  O p t i c a l d e n s i t y of  light  occurs  Probably  were  f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of  blue  photographs  dye l a y e r d e n s i t y on CIR f i l m  1967).  Type  r e d , and n e a r - i n f r a r e d  II; optical  I I I , 103  I I and 83 t o Type  (Fritz  photographs r e s u l t e d i n l e s s  All  i n Table  the y e l l o w  i n Lichen  were h i g h e r  density  photographs  large-scale  o f s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e i n the green p o r t i o n  vegetation  red light  296  vegetation  i n a s s o c i a t i o n with  optical  cal  of  Based on the c r i t e r i a  dye-layers  and  the v i s i b l e  occurs  total  I and I I because  microdensitometry  of  a  I, 110 t o Type  film  herbaceous  vides  on  using microdensitometry.  assigned the  patches  Measurements  and b l u e  XVI).  regions  High  (0.5 t o 0.9  dye l a y e r development  than  lights  on  reflectance i n ym)  i n Lichen  on  these  Types I o r  d e n s i t y counts were t h e r e f o r e low ( F i g . 18b).  three  Lichen  Types had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d e n s i t i e s u s i n g w h i t e and b l u e  light,  different  while  (p = .05) mean  r e d and green l i g h t  opti-  provided  -  Table  Lichen  XVI.  Typel  94 -  Microdensitometric readings of o p t i c a l densit y v a l u e s with w h i t e , r e d , green and b l u e light o f three L i c h e n Types on l a r g e - s c a l e (1:1,400 t o 1:3,600) CIR photos. Means followed by a common letter are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 5% p r o b a b i l i t y level, according to Duncan's new m u l t i p l e range t e s t .  n  White Light  Red Light  Green Light  Blue Light  Type I  103  0.61  b  0.58  b  0.69 &  0.78  a  Type I I  110  0.70  a  0.76  b  0.73  b  0.73  b  83  0.49  a  0.54 a  Type I I I las  d e f i n e d i n Table  III.  0.51 a  0.53 a  Fig.  18. Examples o f L i c h e n Types  on l a r g e - s c a l e CIR s t e r e o - p a i r s .  (a) L a r g e - s c a l e (1:1,800) CIR p h o t o - p a i r showing L i c h e n Type I on arm o f c r e s c e n t i c sand dune ( r i g h t ) and on the rims o f some ice-wedge p o l y g o n s . Elsewhere i n the photographs, the l i g h t c o l o u r a t i o n i s due t o g r a m i n o i d s t a n d i n g dead i n t h i s s e d g e - r i c h t u n d r a h e a t h near the t i p o f the Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a , used m a i n l y as summer r a n g e l a n d by the r e i n d e e r h e r d (frame .17, f l i g h t l i n e 8-2; 70°02'N, 1 2 9 ° 5 2 ' W ) . 6 August, 1980.  (b) B r i g h t w h i t e l i c h e n (Type I I I ) cover and s c a t t e r e d Salix spp. and Alnus crispa shrubs on p a t t e r n e d ground south o f Eskimo Lake near the t r e e l i n e . P h o t o - s c a l e i s 1:2,000 (frame 11, l i n e 13-1; 68°55'N, 132°27'W). 6 August, 1980.  - 96 -  - 97  only and  partial  differentiation  standard  between  order  Type  to one  An  LDF  of  I and  or the other  analysis  of  the t h r e e L i c h e n Types Lichen  Types,  groups  with  tion had  of  II  the the  the  LDF  296  l i c h e n patches  white,  As  as  resulted  white  blue  microdensitometric  the  LDF  misclassifications  between Type I and  ally  of  data  have  improved  assigned  that  d e n s i t y means  showed a r e g i o n of o v e r l a p clearly  could  not  be  i n the  LDF  relationship;  data  red  found,  light  in  decreasing  d i s c r i m i n a t e d among  the  density  data  pri.OV% g r o u p s .  (Table  81.1%  among  A  the  three  jacknifed  correct  LDF  reclassifica-  Photo-frames  that  as L i c h e n Type II were the most  suc-  analysis  just  data  XVIII).  of  (Table XVIII).  would  likely  have  I I ( e . g . F i g . 19) but  analysis' potentially  recombination  Using shown  mainly  the use a d d i t i o n matrix  misclassified  appears  individuals  to  were  about e q u a l l y among the t h r e e L i c h e n Types ( T a b l e X V I I I ) .  Quantitative suggest  optical  sample  overall  d e n s i t y measures  (83.6%) by  light  of  a measure o f the s e p a r a b i l i t y  i n an  reassigned  red  and  the a  originally classified  light  unknown  blue  cessfully and  light  reclassified  structure  s e t s of  plot  microdensitometric  program  same  blue  an  (Table XVII).  & Sampson 1977)  the  where  A  ( F i g . 19).  e f f e c t i v e n e s s , that  (Jennrich  XVI).  d e v i a t i o n s u s i n g white and  Lichen  assigned  (Table  -  analyses  of  the m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c  t h a t the L i c h e n Types can be  readily  data  separated  on  on the  lichen  patches  l a r g e - s c a l e CIR  photographs. The  three  vegetation criteria  groups for  vegetation mined  Lichen  from  A,  Types B  assigning  groups  and  I, C  Lichen  earlier  II  I I I were  recognized Types  i n the  s t e r e o - p a i r s of  and  used  results.  l a r g e - s c a l e CIR  from  generally equivalent ground-truth  relationships For  example  studies.  broadly  used  the The  ascribed  slope p o s i t i o n  photographs was  to  to  deter-  to h e l p  de-  - 98 -  1.0 .9 .8  TYPE  -TO-  I  TYPE 3  o  n  .7  .6 TYPE  H  .5  .4  .3  4  .5  .6  .7  .8  O.D. (white light) Fig.  19. P l o t o f means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h r e e L i c h e n Types i n b l u e and w h i t e l i g h t o p t i c a l d e n s i t y (O.D.) space; based on 296 m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c spot r e a d i n g s from l a r g e - s c a l e CIR photographs.  - 99 -  Table  XVII.  Summary o f stepwise L i n e a r D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n (LDF) a n a l y s i s based on m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c r e a d i n g s o f the t h r e e L i c h e n Types. Variable  Step  Entered  Removed  No. o f V a r i a b l e s included  U-Statistic  Approx. F statistic  1  White Light  1  .556  116.71  2  Blue Light  2  .294  123.43  3  Red Light  3  .283  85.36  -  Table XVIII.  100 -  Recombination m a t r i x ( p e r c e n t a g e v a l u e s ) f o r s t e p 3 o f the stepwise (LDF a n a l y s i s u s i n g microdensitometric readings of Lichen Types. About 81% were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g the BMD:P7M computer program s ^ j a c k nifed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 1  Predicted  Observed  Type I  Type I I  Type I I I  Type I  76.7  5.8  17.5  Type I I  12.7  83.6  3.6  7.2  9.6  83.1  Type I I I  - 101  termine  L i c h e n Types, the c r i t e r i a  tation  groups.  Similarly,  ground, p r e v i o u s l y r e l a t e d the g e n e r a l  during  2.4  photos i n the  studies  group, then  observations. l a b , and  photo-frames assigned  had  no  to L i c h e n  summaries  lichen Types  was  I,  and  photographs  percent  of  land  the  which no  I  area,  overall  Lichen  for  while  tallied  (Table Lichen by  expressed  Type  ground-truth  annotated  252,  I I I (Table  (Table  was  f o r the  by  593  sites  were  tentatively  first  as a  Lichen  the l a r g e - s c a l e  6.8%.  Lichen  332  r e s p e c t i v e l y were four  land area were c a l c u l a t e d with  cor-  The  For  each of  greatest  according  by  cover,  ranged  area  Type  (637.5 III,  determined  up  i n photo-frames,  Mean percent  land  followed  Lichen  photo-frames  Types  292  indicated  these  XIX).  lichen  and  XIX).  I I photographs,  individual  mean cover  lichen occurred,  frames was  patterned  A d d i t i o n a l checks of  l a r g e - s c a l e photo d a t a  s u r f a c e and  lichen,  covered  of the  I I and  by  zones  where later  with  v e g e t a t i o n groups were conducted  made f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n p h o t o - s c a l e s .  Type  correlated  Crop  cover,  represented  though  was  f o r vege-  correlated closely.  groups o f photo-frames, t o t a l rections  III  described  These were f u r t h e r checked on  E s t i m a t i o n of L i c h e n S t a n d i n g Computer-assisted  ha)  Type  attributes  to v e g e t a t i o n group C s i t e s .  field  to a v e g e t a t i o n  Type from a e r i a l air  Lichen  those  r e l a t i o n s h i p of L i c h e n Types and  systematically assigned  being  -  to  no  as  a  97.0%, a l -  i n c l u d i n g those i n the  in  lichen  cover  photo-  to the  r e i n d e e r management  XIX). percent  those  cover  values,  given  as  the  percentages  photo-frames i n which each L i c h e n Type was  i n Table  XX  deer management zone.  i n terms  of  These l a t t e r  the  total  land  area  of  land  area  dominant, are  sampled  i n each  f i g u r e s were used, a l o n g with mean  re-  reinlichen  T a b l e XIX.  Number of photo-frames, t o t a l s u r f a c e area, t o t a l land area and percent wi th no 1 ichen and those ass igned to Lichen Types I, I I and I I I .  l i c h e n cover summarized  No Lichen  f o r r e i n d e e r management  zones a c c o r d i n g to those  Lichen Types II  Reindeer management zone  sur face area (ha)  n'  land area (ha)  n'  surface area (ha)  land area (ha)  1 ichen cover (X of land area)  n'  surface area (ha)  1 and area (ha)  III I ichen cover (% o f land a r e a )  surface area (ha)  n<  land 1 ichen area cover (ha) ( I of Land a r e a )  A  27  23.7  17.0  23  18.9  16.5  4.4  37  37.3  34.5  3.4  1  1.0  .9  3.6  B  37  34.8  15. 7  23  17.5  16.7  3.0  27  28.8  25.5  1.4  -  -  -  -  C  124  101.1  87.5  153  120. 7  110.5  4.2  96  73. 7  68.9  6.6  41  35.1  33.5  3.6  D  66  49.8  39.8  IB  12.9  12.7  20.0  200  148.4  136.2  19.0  96  75.8  73. 7  12.2  E  34  39.3  19.5  24  29.9  29.2  6.0  138  145.7  140.3  7.6  93  83.4  77.8  14.6  F  38  78.9  63.8  11  39.0  37.5  3.4  63  189.1  175.7  3.8  13  51.5  50.0  4.8  G  6  12.3  7. 7  -  -  32  57.7  56.4  8.2  48  91.5  88.4  15.0  332  339.9  251.0  252  593  680. 7  637.5  292  338.3  324.3  Totals  no. of photo-frames  238.9  223.1  in which Lichen Type was dominant.  -  Table XX.  Reindeer management zone  103 -  Estimates of bottom and top components of l i c h e n s t a n d i n g crop based on 1) percent cover i n t e r preted from l a r g e - s c a l e photographs, and 2) f i e l d s i t e estimates of l i c h e n biomass per u n i t area from Table X I I . Summarized f o r the three L i c h e n Types ( l , I I , I I I ) a c c o r d i n g to seven r e i n d e e r management zones. Iichen cover (percent of t o t a l land area) •- - • • • I II III  s t a n d i n g crop (kg.ha~*)  • I  bottom •- — II  top ••. III  • I  II  11.,6  28.8  57,.6  21,.2  180. ,8  97.,2  18.0  376, ,0  178. .0  6,,0  73.,2  120. .8  12.4  152, .4  221, .2  3,.6  37.,6  20,.8  7.6  78,.0  38,.0  55,.6  246. ,8  115 .6  452 .0  9.,2  31. 2  -  8.4  12.,4  -  7..6  11. 2  1..52  .40  15.2  20.,0  9..6  13.,6  27.,6  .96  9,,86  3..42  9.6  95., 2  80.,8  8..4  E  .66  4..00  4..26  6.4  79,.2  100..4  F  .40  2 .04  .74  4.0  40,.4  17,.2  G  —  3..04  8,.70  —  60,.0  205, .2  .86  ,62  C  1.54  D  l i t  23.,6  1. 2  B  — II  16.0  33.,6  1.,70  I  64..8  10.4  1.06  III  19.6  ,04  A  total •  -  1. 2  —  2..4  - 104 -  Fig.  20.  H i s t o g r a m showing f o r each of the seven r e i n d e e r management zones, top and bottom s t a n d i n g c r o p s of L i c h e n Type I ( l e f t ) , I I ( c e n t r e ) and I I ( r i g h t ) . Based on d a t a g i v e n i n T a b l e XX.  -  biomass and  C  estimates  (Type  standing  I I I ) from  crop  as  were c a l c u l a t e d Lichen low,  Types  and  while  Type  lower  total  to  summarizes  lichen  where for  lower  lichen  cover  management  tained,  the  obtained The reindeer estimates small  than  Lichen for  376.0  estimate  lichen  crops  lichen  total  and  As  from  one would e x p e c t , standing  t o or  where crop  was  crop  greater  the  largest  below  of  according  standing  Type  III  II)  to  the  crops  are  management (0  zones,  to  of T a b l e XX. zones  39.6  (A,  to 107.2  estimates  estimates  than 20%  452.0  for  of  B  and  C)  had  kg.ha !.  The  -  s t a n d i n g crops are  ground-truth  crop  kg.ha !  con-  Even ob-  -  w  a  s  of 658.3 k g . h a ! -  (Table X I I ) .  'top' component of l i c h e n s t a n d i n g c r o p , of p a r t i c u l a r  importance  f o d d e r , accounted  standing  w i t h i n a l l zones. variation:  f o r almost Even  lichen  and  s o u t h e r l y zone, G,  i n the most  (53.3%).  e x a c t l y h a l f o f the t o t a l  the extremes  are  represented  i n r e i n d e e r management  n o r t h e r l y zones,  zone B,  'top' s t a n d i n g c r o p accounted the  of  sites  (Table X I I ) .  572.0  the mean s t a n d i n g  Geograph-  i n T a b l e XXI  occurred  estimate  f o r e i g h t v e g e t a t i o n group A s i t e s  (Type  F i g . 20).  r e i n d e e r management ranging  to  reindeer  kg.ha"!)  ( T a b l e XX,  XII,  totals,  I  the  I), B  Standing  and  Type  to Type  (D, E, F and G) by comparison had  equal  standing  percentage  elevated  components,  crops,  lichen  zone D  (2) o f T a b l e  -  to  (applied  the s t a n d i n g c r o p e s t i m a t e s  standing  -  A  kg.ha !  three more n o r t h e r l y  t o 572.0 k g . h a ! .  siderably  28.8  (23.6  f o u r more s o u t h e r l y zones 123.2  bottom  -  area measure.  considerably higher  -  T a b l e XXI  unit  F i g . 20).  0  II  groups  (1) and  per  and  XX,  from  k g . h a ! ) ranged  the  a weight  (Table  Lichen  columns  f o r top  ranged  ically  for vegetation  105  comparable  one  f o r 47.5%  figure  by  was  as crop  relatively  of  the more  of the only  total,  slightly  - 106 -  The  total  lichen  standing  crop  f o r the study  u s i n g the d a t a i n T a b l e XXI, by (1) m u l t i p l y i n g by  each  r e i n d e e r management  l a n d a r e a i n the study kg.ha  - 1  mean  lichen  total.  i s obtained  area  zone (14,410  for total  top s t a n d i n g  crop  (Table  standing  similarly  can be  by the l a n d  area  I V ) , and (2) d i v i d i n g  sq km, Table  lichen  area  expressed, represented  by the t o t a l  I V ) . A mean v a l u e crop  i n the study  i s 141.1 k g . h a  - 1  o f 276.2  area.  The  o r 51.1% o f t h e  - 107 -  T a b l e XXI.  E s t i m a t e s o f t o t a l l i c h e n s t a n d i n g; c r o p summarized by r e i n d e e r management zones standing crop (kg.ha" )  Reindeer management zone  bottom  A  45.2  41.6  86.8  B  20.8  18.8  39.6  C  54.4  52.8  107.2  D  285.6  286.4  572.0  E  186.0  200.0  286.0  F  61.6  61.6  123.2  G  265.2  302.4  567.6  1  top  total  - 108 -  VI  DISCUSSION  -  1.  Ground-Truth  1.1  Classification Based  the  on  of  community-types be  separated  the  cover  data  obtained  study  area  could  ( F i g . 11,  into  the d a t a here  finer  Table  latter  to  a  such  as  dealt  with  the d e l i n e a t i o n  present  data-base.  provide  a  simple  of  of  are  as  lucid  and  ground-truth should by  Tuktoyaktuk  be  as  owner  only  Pleistocene  examining  plant  roughly  reindeer  group  even  of  the  just level  though  capabilities study  generation  the  was  to  results of  to be a c c e p t e d  only  rangeland  and  management  the  of  ground-truth  ground-truth  of  and that four that  adopted in  the  "heath  r e g i o n a l v e g e t a t i o n i n the Mackenzie D e l t a  physiographic  tundra" occupying gentle  lower  hill  and  that  the  relation  plant  community  types  d e f i n e d on  (1974),  3b),  can  Lambert  upper s l o p e s ,  "ice-wedge  to  Ritchie  crests  (Fig.  and  (1974) i l l u s t r a t e d  composition.  region  slopes  Corns  major  relationships  f o u r v e g e t a t i o n groups d e f i n e d h e r e .  depressions.  floristic  the  of  a p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n system  community-landform  to the  Coastlands  t u n d r a " on  five  at  interrelating  The  plant  undoubtedly  description  w i t h i n the  possible.  for  and  objectives  for  facilitates  could  community-types  and  eighteen  Interpretation  concentrated  t h e r e f o r e i s more l i k e l y  herd  described  related  tussock  and  researchers  have  described  of  original scheme  these  program,  Peninsula area.  Other area  vegetation units  reindeer  were  T h i s o b j e c t i v e presupposes  simplified-  be e a s y - t o - u s e  the  the  of  among  dominance-types.  interest  workable  l a r g e - s c a l e a i r photos.  a number  treatment  academic  One but  Efforts  ground-truth  classified  levels  detailed  is certainly  be  the  and  however has  deference  during  V),  f o u r major v e g e t a t i o n groups. in  -  o f the Four V e g e t a t i o n Groups  quadrat  vegetation  109  polygons"  of  only In  (1972)  "Eriophovum on  topographic  flats  and  position  the b a s i s of physiognomy  i n d i s c u s s i n g tundra  the  and  vegetation east  - no  of  the Mackenzie R i v e r D e l t a noted  tion:  herb  sites  (sands  Alnus on  communities on s t e e p and g r a v e l s ) ;  moderate  slopes  (2°-5°),  centred  polygons  of  slopes  occupying  among  Of tion  relations  to group C.  were  field.  chosen  While  this  sites,  I t should  proportions  relative  1.2  of  a l l state  The  on  considered  sites  on  gentle raised-  While d e s c r i p t i o n s  that  distinct  area.  greatest  number  however t h a t p o t e n t i a l  a i r photographs an  the  before  a p p r o p r i a t e method  four  vegetation  to v e g e t a -  of s i t e s  (41) were  ground-truth  going  into  for ensuring  c o n d i t i o n s along a l l f l i g h t l i n e s  among  vegetation-  98 were non-wetlands b e l o n g i n g  abundances o f these groups i n the study  groups  the that  were sampled,  do  not  reflect  area.  The Use o f I n d i c a t o r S p e c i e s Using  the d e c i s i o n  rules  generated  s p e c i e s can be used  to organize  ing  i n the f i e l d  "unknown"  Assuming assign will  they  be noted  subjectively  major v e g e t a t i o n and landscape the  on  v e g e t a t i o n t a x a , and s l o p e c l a s s d e s c r i p t i o n s  ( F i g . 11).  was  tundra  - Rubus communities  are e v i d e n t w i t h i n the study  groups A, B and C  sites  Vaacinium  authors,  the 112 g r o u n d - t r u t h  assigned  - e r i c o i d heaths w i t h or w i t h o u t  s u r f a c e s and d e p r e s s i o n s .  dominant  the p r e c e d i n g  topographic  0  rela-  (30°-50°) and x e r i c  Eriophorum t u s s o c k  (lO'^O );  flat  s l o p e s and s c a r p s  glandulosa  Eriophorum,  and  p l a n t communities,  vary  the f o l l o w i n g v e g e t a t i o n - t o p o g r a p h i c  tundra  Betula  -  sites  the i n d i c a t o r  the m a j o r i t y  ascertain  workers.  this,  species  of s i t e s  a simple  three-step  flow diagram  indicator  for assign-  among the four v e g e t a t i o n groups ( F i g . 2 1 ) .  and d e c i s i o n correctly,  the flow-diagram  The group to which  by TWINSPAN, the seventeen  a site  rules  and  could  only  work  additional  be a most  i s assigned  sufficiently  useful  immediately  field tool  w e l l to testing  for field  indicates  infor-  -  Ill  -  +  —  Cladina stellaris C a r e x aquatilis Arctostaphylos rubra Eriophorum Ledum decumbens  angustifolium  Cetraria cucullata 0/!  0  > 1  GROUP  D  GROUP  C  2k S a l i x alaxensis Cladina stellaris Lupinus arcticus C. rangiferina Dryas  integrifolia Ledum decumbens Rubus chamaemorus 0/1  GROUP  A  0 >  > 1  Carex Pyrola  lugens B r y o r i a  nitidula  grandiflora  Tomenthypnum nitens Aulacomnium palustre; A l n u s crispal -1/0  GROUP F i g . 21,  B  -1 >  > 0  A f l o w - d i a g r a m f o r a s s i g n i n g "unknown" f i e l d s i t e s among t h e f o u r v e g e t a t i o n groups based on TWINSPAN-determined i n d i c a t o r species and d e c i s i o n r u l e s .  -  mation  regarding  other  slope  class,  the  soil,  approximate  estimated  using  ranges  equal  to  acquired to  lichen  While  most  or  a  quickly  I,  11  I I and  technique  F l o r a and The  number (1965).  their  similar  1979).  could  f u r t h e r a s s i g n the  1.3  species  shows the  (Hill  total  reported  latter  for  general  or  organic  p h y s i c a l or  can  where  biomass  chemical  i s measured, be  groups A,  of l i c h e n s t a n d i n g  the  ground  measure  sites  lichen  as  l i c h e n cover  for vegetation  the  such  patterned  i f percent  This  as  and  decision  sight  the  presence  or  taxonomic taxa  a r r i v e d at  B and  C  lichen  (Table  cover  measurements  crop  can  be  technique  seventeen absence features  is  were  extrapolated  used  species at  a  that  here  ( F i g . 21)  site.  Within  requires so he  can  Fortunately  all  would h e l p  minimize  con-  field.  While  f o r cut  levels  them f o r a l l f i n e r d i v i s i o n - p o i n t s of  class-  d e c i s i o n r u l e s and  assign  site  rule  t h a t might be e n c o u n t e r e d i n the  I I I , TWINSPAN p r o v i d e s  ifications the  20%,  of  here,  of c e r t a i n s o i l  obtained  estimates  distinctive  other  only  crop.  on  caution.  determine  f u s i o n with Figure  than  worker know by  seventeen have  expected  appropriately  indicator  field  occurrence  biomass v a l u e s  at such s i t e s ,  The that  to be  standing  greater  a l l s i t e s with  of  -  reported  t e x t u r a l c l a s s e s , and  the mean l i c h e n  XII).  features  probability  parameters or s o i l the  site  112  i n d i c a t o r species  a minute or two,  a site  to  an e x p e r i e n c e d  a vegetation  to L e v e l V community-types  group as  and  field  user  continue  of  on  i n d i c a t e d i n Table  to  V.  Species D i v e r s i t y number for  the  of  vascular  Reindeer  In h i s broader study  taxa  named  Preserve  r e g i o n , Cody  and  here  is  Mackenzie  only River  about  half  Delta  (1965) examined many unique  by  the Cody  river-  -  ine  and  other  habitats  that  were  113  -  not  encountered  in  the  present  Numerous a d d i t i o n a l v a s c u l a r p l a n t r e c o r d s w i t h i n the p r e s e n t ever  are  given  expected  land  by  to be  species.  exception  of  the  near  Sitidgi  failed  present  cover  to  was  Inglis'  include  in  excess  of  plants  were  example, 6 of the  17  80%  good  indicator  t i o n groups were n o n - v a s c u l a r  that, the  number  in spite  flora  cular  of  is s t i l l  about  tions.  half  of  A h t i et al.  Reindeer  past  Species  known.  taxa  degree.  The  lichen  of  group  certain  C  sites  (Table  vegetation  the  VI).  r i c h n e s s , or  XII) .  types;  for  vegeta-  simple  measure of h a b i t a t d i v e r s i t y due  area i n d i c a t e s  i n the g e n e r a l r e g i o n , true  f o r non-vas-  o f the f i n d s , but during  indicated  only repre-  ground-truth  t h a t the  lichen  investigaf l o r a of  the  o n l y i n c o m p l e t e l y known. the  number  number  study  is especially  recorded  greater  er s p e c i e s r i c h n e s s i s p r o b a b l y  for  of 36)  generally  (Table  from d r y g r a v e l l y  adequate  area  i n terms of ground c o v e r ,  This  (33  earlier  sites, a  range-  plants  reported  i n p a r t i c u l a r was  supported  an  botanical collecting  f o r most  (1973) had  group A  soils,  records  total  Grazing Preserve  Vegetation textured  the  reindeer  be  non-vascular  vegetation  indicators  can  Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a  i s unacceptable; and  flora  s p e c i e s used to d i s c r i m i n a t e among the  incompletely accounted  to  of  area how-  ( F i g . 21).  plant  of extensive  taxa which  sented  new  some  vascular  investigation  plants  that t h i s  at  total  s t u d i e s i n the  non-vascular  evidence  the  (1975b)  h a l f o f the taxa encountered  Non-vascular  The  (1980) so  Lake, e c o l o g i c a l  work p r o v i d e s  represented  & Cody  about 350  With  have  Porsild  study  study.  drier of  of  upland  taxa  than  taxa,  may  ( w h i t t a k e r 1972)  and  be  sites the  coarse-  other  considered  groups as  a  i n group A the h i g h -  to the d i v e r s i t y of h a b i t a t s  r i d g e s to p r o t e c t e d mid-slope  on  represented,  p o s i t i o n s where c r y o t u r b a t i o n  -  and  solifluction  peaty  processes  have  m i c r o s i t e s (cf T a r n o c a i  considerably  tegrifolia Salix  i n general  - Salix  alaxensis  V).  narrower  physiognomy  range  group  of  D's  and  conditions  for  The  perhaps  taxa  or 12.2%  gible  1.4  seasonal of  the  floodings.  open  species  total  low  richness  General  lating  Environment and  the  while  ranged  Dryas in-  Alnus crispa  to  shrub  growth  to h i g h  cover  l a r g e - s c a l e photographs covered  aerial  photos  scale  areas and,  of  land  for  photographs.  tundra VI)  (Table  suggests  of  -  a  plant  taxa.  s t a n d i n g water  levels  lichens  account  a t t a i n e d by  for  them was  18  negli-  ground be  The  aerial  This  on  oblique  of  water  observation  is  not  "streamlining"  of  5  photos  to  determine  mm  results.  cells on  on  the  However, from f i e l d  that  the  over  since  fraction  data  they  broader field  of the  similar  The  on  the  1:2,000  ground notes  so and  approximate l o c a t i o n s  the  during  for re-  resolved  flagged  sites,  Future  ground-truth  5  at  conditions  significant  readily x  physically  mm  studies.  mm  photos.  valuable  ground-truth  were  represented  from p l o t s c o n s t i t u t e d a s m a l l quadrat  to  that  35  ground  were c o n s i d e r e d  directly  the a e r i a l  sufficiently  for detailed the  and  p l o t s were  representative  gathering quired  and  recalled  clearly site.  Measurements  more  example,  they were not marked out  could  Soils  10 m x 10 m p l o t s examined at s i t e s  plots  from  (Table V I ) ,  D,  from  (Table  and  humid  communities  tundra  alder  create  (Table V I I I ) .  The  site  group  to  composition  establishment  In  plant  cushion  Wetland p l a n t s p e c i e s must be g e n e r a l l y adapted and  material  species and  neglecta  reduced  organic  1978).  c l o s e d mat  / Calamagrostis  -  exposed  & Zoltai  reticulata  Conversely,  114  was  area  the  that  of  studies,  time and  studies  data-gathering  provided  effort  might use  datare-  benefit of  these  -  plots 6  seems  m  to a l l o w .  D r i s c o l l et  line-transects,  rangelands,  c o u l d be  acceptable error One  of the  tion  group A,  soil  cover,  limits  as  the  to  used  Certain and of  other  standard a  total  the  nized  readily  by  (Table  (+_ .02)% very  measurements  quadrat In  little  low n u t r i e n t  to  cover  plots,  soils  plant  California  density within  air-photos.  (Table I I I ) . was  plots  t h a t would  the  Lichen  be  yield  bare  i n group  mean cover  useful  i n the  A  colouration.  the CIR Both  f o r such i n the  a  thus,  m  the  B.  photos  features  x 10 m  plots  f o u r most total  The  prove,  and  former  (see F i g .  could  be  18a)  recog-  with  test-  (Table V I I I ) c o r r e -  important  lichen  mentioned  cover  lichen was  elsewhere,  the  species  small, only group  con-  area.  P e n i n s u l a a r e a appear to have a g e n e r a l -  chemical  characteristics  i n l i c h e n woodland s o i l s  i n Western  for  key.  10  as  groups  s t a n d i n g dead  group  p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t e r so might  values  production  Types/vegetation  in vegetation  c o l o u r a t i o n on  those  vegeta-  That  greatest  For example, graminoid  lowest  of the Tuktoyaktuk  s t a t u s , and  tundra  70 mm  t o the l i c h e n s t a n d i n g crop of the  X) are comparable to those and  and  m  i n the  measurements f o r the  (Table VIII)  and  and  and  criterion.  v e g e t a t i o n group D,  Tundra s o i l s  1980)  red  an e x p e r i e n c e d  cover  XI).  tributed  ly  yellow  a bright  Colorado  cover  sand  10  measured  both  to be v a l u a b l e parameters  sponded w i t h  x  (Table V I I I )  were  a white  latter,  Lichen  0.2  cover  imparted  while  m  remote s e n s i n g d a t a .  graminoid  feature  ing,  10  p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n key  smaller-scaled  several  foliar  of bare  to t h i s  parameters  deviations  that 6 m x 6 m p l o t s  to d e f i n e L i c h e n Type I, e q u i v a l e n t to  i n the  ( T a b l e V I I I ) lends support  within  t o 1:4,200 CIR  occurrence  measured  -  (1970) found  estimate  on 1:600  criteria was  al.  ground-marked used  115  Alaska  t a b l e d here  (Table  o f N o r t h e r n Quebec  (Moore  ( E v e r e t t 1980).  The  measurements  -  demonstrate  large  most s o i l s . to  116  random v a r i a b i l i t i e s  They are however no  doubt  -  which  may  enhanced  be  lower  crest  and  upper  slope p o s i t i o n  amounts of s u b s u r f a c e o r g a n i c m a t t e r  (1973) r e p o r t e d pression  i n a comparison  of s o i l  areas near Tuktoyaktuk,  soil  soils  er.  C o n v e r s e l y , i n lower  a r e a s , r e p r e s e n t e d by  are reduced, and  poorly-drained mainly organic s o i l s  organisms.  low  Because  a c c u m u l a t i o n may  C)  than  also  ported  more  A  pH  for total  with  C  (6.20,  microbial  as Janz  top and are  layer  C soils  part  gener-  i s deep-  temper-  by  micro-  o f the season as i n  pH  p e r p e t u a t e d under other acids  than  sites  better-drained  (4.17)  Table X).  i s more Low  soil  (Table X).  two  Other s t u d i e s  limiting  to  plant  pH  In  units  and  i n the  to be  incom-  ( e . g . those  temperatures  ammonium- or n i t r a t e - n i t r o g e n  phosphorus,  from  locations.  than  group  a n a e r o b i c con-  resulting  lowland  de-  (Table X),  decomposition  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of organic n i t r o g e n  N are low  shown a v a i l a b l e  along  be  materials,  acidic  the mean group  limit  here  area have and,  typically  the mean group  soils  retarding  o f b u i l d u p s o f humic and  group  study,  group A have  from h i l l  the a c t i v e  o c c u r s f o r at l e a s t  d e c o m p o s i t i o n of o r g a n i c - r i c h  present  1980).  are w e l l - i n s u l a t e d , and hence  season,  plete  are  subject  Consequently,  the group  among  polygon t r o u g h s , l o w - c e n t r e d polygon c e n t r e s , or most  o r g a n i c matter  ditions.  the  Where s t a n d i n g water  group C ice-wedge D sites,  throughout  soils  moisture-holding capacities  effects  remain  inherent  of v e g e t a t i o n  characteristics  lower, the i n s u l a t i n g  atures  (Everett  (Table X ) .  ally  the  as  in cold-region  freeze-thaw processes, e s p e c i a l l y c r y o t u r b a t i o n The h i l l  found  the  lower  of t u n d r a values r e Tuktoyaktuk  extremely  p r o d u c t i o n (Janz  of  low  1973,  Haag  in vegetation  group  1974). In C  sites  part, can  the development be  related  to  of l i c h e n mats p a r t i c u l a r l y the  apparently  low  nutrient  status.  Northern  -  117 -  l i c h e n s have a low net p r o d u c t i v i t y and growth, n o r m a l l y ly  acidic  tain  soil  s u r f a c e s , probably  low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  Williams  1.5  significant  proportion  accounted  XI).  taxa  These  at s i t e s  exhibited  most  alis  1976).  composed  ground  area's  most  1971, Kershaw 1977,  measurements  cover,  lichen  abundant  the e x c e p t i o n  where biomass  have  lichens  C.  Cetraria,  Inglis  with  biomass  l i c h e n covers  rangeland  Sitidgi  (1975b) over  75%  certain  rare  of  Lake,  the  1954,  o f two v e g e t a t i o n were  recorded. groups  reindeer  lichen  The  taxa  and C ranged  Among  Cladina  are  Holleman  et al.  N.W.T.,  indi-  lichen  genus  the dominant  cover  by  XII).  as w e l l .  Island,  p o r t i o n o f the study  C. mitis  ground  group A  A, B,  ranges  1968,  i n the southwestern  rangiferina,  (Table  proportions  ubiquitous  Pegau'  was  was  were made, as evidenced  on Southampton  aucullata,  Cladina  found  species  crop  species  (column 3, T a b l e  and A l a s k a n  (Andreev  Cetraria  including Near  these  on R u s s i a n  of caribou  sites  standing  lichen  i n vegetation  collections  at these  found  rangiferina  Studies  (Parker area,  lichen mean  researchers  and  1979).  (Pulliainen  o f 9.3, 15.7 and 29.8% ( T a b l e X I ) , but t h e i r  common  stellaris  cated  where  percent  Other  the four  a l l occurred,  at the 36 s i t e s  the t o t a l  the  nutrients  o f the study  f o r by  a combined  respectively, higher  o f major  and con-  Crop  undoubtedly  sites,  o b t a i n few n u t r i e n t s from the s o i l  et al. 1978).  Lichen Standing A  grow w e l l on s l i g h t -  and  Cetraria  i n reindeer  nivfeeding  craters. While against,  the most  relation  to t h e i r  lichen  common relative  on  species  Rangifer  abundances  appear  winter  strongly  ranges  selected  are o f t e n  ( C o u r t r i g h t 1959, Pegau  f o r or  selected i n 1968, Skuncke  -  1969).  In  dominated select  Alaskan  by Cetraria  these  Trudell  taxa  1980b).  Peninsula diet  an  tundra  range  aucullata  in  relation  Future  reindeer w i l l  -  of  raised-centred  and  Cladina  to  their  studies likely  118  of  spp.,  confirm  reindeer  relative  feeding  ice-wedge  standing  preferences  t h a t these  were  polygons  observed  crops  on  the  four s p e c i e s  to  (White  &  Tuktoyaktuk  are  the  winter  mainstays. Differences  i n top  to bottom l i c h e n biomass components ( F i g . 15)  a composite of two  major r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the  vegetation  groups  A,  amounts  the  of  have d i f f e r e n t  two  B  anc  lichen  C.  First,  genera  growth forms.  that  The  group A the dominant  taxa are Cetraria  and  whereas  leathery  thalli  r i g h t , branched and ditions  are  groups.  In  tured  soils  generally  appreciably group  A,  hill  i n d i c a t e dry  open-growth  for  crest  site  B  and  and  upper  subject  organic  G contents  Cryoturbation  reflect  occurrence  in mineral  creates  ferent microsites The  greater  an  snow  within  slope  soils  irregular  C,  (Table  X)  hummocky  soils  provide  surface  Both  spp.  strap-shaped  with  their  up-  S e c o n d l y , growth conthe  three  vegetation coarser-tex-  at m i c r o s i t e s , and  cold  lower p o s i t i o n s are  organic  relative  biomass.  l o c a t i o n s and  accumulations  of  the  three  show i n v e g e t a t i o n  to w i n d - d e s s i c a t i o n  winter  the  in  the  ratios  C, Cladina  lichens  from  and  of  are dominant.  In groups B and  injury,  most  c o n d i t i o n s , reduced h u m i d i t y  conditions  deeper  shift  that have f l a t t e n e d ,  ground-surface c o n d i t i o n s . wind-scouring,  a  Cetraria  spp.  podetia,  different  is  represent  i n groups  intertwined  l i c h e n s growing among the  there  Cladina:  reflect  protect and  and  winter  protected  against  generally  frost higher  more humid m i c r o s i t e s .  that  provides  many  dif-  may  also  for lichens.  curvilinear  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  top  a s m a l l e r r o r f a c t o r from f i e l d  to  bottom  collections  lichen and  biomass  measurements.  Gener-  -  ally  lichen  cumbent  at  group A  vegetation  grandiflora greater  sites  such  the same c r i t e r i a  may  arctic  locations  to  the  types  t h a t have  standing  lichen  had,  separated  as  out.  t o s e p a r a t e top and n a t u r a l senescence  comparable  polygon  Picea  Although  relative  to the r a t e  to  estimates  obtained  American  subarctic  i n the  present  - 1  trough  t h a t had  a 2%  lichen  with  crop  a 97%  values of  lichen  cover  i n Table  lichen  XXII  ground  cover  a  lichen  (Rencz & A u c l a i r are  cover  increasing  from  a  latitude  crops  t h a t range h i g h e r  than  those  of  i s no  as might  of o t h e r  (Williams standing Be-  ecosystem correlaotherwise  ecosystems  have indi-  XXII.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and A n a l y s i s o f L a r g e - S c a l e A i r Photographs  2.1  General present  photographic  medium-scale  for  - 1  1978).  range  values, there  and  study  L i c h e n woodland ecosystems o c c u r r i n g south of the t r e e l i n e  i n Table  undertaken  i n the  components,  2.  mm  result,  bottom  mariana l i c h e n woodland t h a t had  a range  standing  The  a  among the more abundant s p e c i e s .  o f d e c r e a s i n g s t a n d i n g c r o p with  be e x p e c t e d .  cated  a  9,392 k g . h a  cause  tion  are  ice-wedge  et al. 1978) of  collections  de-  Pyrola  R e s u l t s by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s range b r o a d l y from 24 k g . h a  low-centred  crop  and  low,  Dryas integrifolia,  s t a n d i n g c r o p measurements at o t h e r North  (Table XXII). a  and  were used  vary, p a r t i c u l a r l y  Lichen  rubra,  m a t e r i a l to be  the r a t e o f t h a l l u s d e c o m p o s i t i o n ofgrowth  to grow more i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h  vitis-idaea  amounts of extraneous  laboratory  -  Arctostaphylos  as  Vaccinium  and  tended  119  investigation systems  attempted  in arctic  to d e f i n e a r o l e  rangeland  studies.  for large-scale  Numerous  LANDSAT  70 and  ( e . g . , 1:20,000-1:60,000) p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t u d i e s have been  of  Rangifer  winter  rangeland  (Chapt.  II,  Sections  3.2  and  3.3)  Table XXII.  S e l e c t e d n o r t h e r n ecosystems used f o r comparison o f l i c h e n s t a n d i n g c r o p . (1) and (3) Parker (1976), (2) Sims & Stewart (1981), (4) Moser et al. (1979), (5) W i l l i a m s et al. (1*978), (6) present study, (7) M i l l e r (1976), (8) R c z & A u c l a l r (1978). e n  Percent l i c h e n cover  Location  Ecosystem (1) R a i s e d l i c h e n - Dryas sedge heaths  Southampton I s l a n d ,  (2) S u b a r c t i c Picea mariana bog on r a i s e d peat p l a t e a u  G i l l a m , N. Manitoba  (3) L i c h e n - c o v e r e d a l l u v i a l a l o n g drainageways  Southampton I s l a n d ,  shingles  NWT.  NWT.  50  Lichen standing c r o p (kg.ha-1)  6-57  63-529  10  780  (approx.)  767-1,624  1,491-2,238  (4) A l p i n e l i c h e n heaths grazed by caribou  Anaktuvuk Pass, A l a s k a  (5) Ice-wedge polygons ( c e n t r e s , margins, t r o u g h s ) and sedge tussock meadows  Barrow, A l a s k a  (6) V a r i o u s ecosystems (low shrub h e a t h , e r i c a c e o u s heath, l i c h e n heath, etc.  Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a a r e a , NWT.  20-89  194-6,378  (7) Upland Picea mariana and P. glauca  Whiskey J a c k Lake a r e a , N. Manitoba  18-92  560-6,777  lichen  woodlands  (8) Picea mariana l i c h e n woodland  S c h e f f e r v i l l e , N. Quebec  2-32  97  24-5,841  9,392  -  but  the r e s u l t s  o f these  studies  121 -  gave  little  abundance at l o c a l  levels.  described  s t u d i e s are not d e f i n i t i v e  ful  by these  f o r rigorous  searchers from  as  However,  rangeland  aircraft  management.  (Chapt.  the a n i m a l s '  only  q u a l i t y while  main  large-scale  extent  truth  sites  scale  remote  rangeland.  photographs  sensing  data  Vegetation  lichen  photos  white  of i n s u f f i c i e n t from o t h e r film.  consisting CIR 70 mm  upland  sites  variable  with  to f l a t  based of  and  s i m i l a r high area  was mapped  aggregates:  terrain,  poor  on g r o u n d - t r u t h  the 1:60,000 NAPL  a r e a , Corns  of vegetation. photographs  of  range  black  and  white  to f a i r  were mapped  lichen  on t h e using  resulting  cover, mainly  inability  be-  to d i s c r i m i n a t e  ( F o r e s t Management (1) h i g h  Insti-  and low shrubs  on  moss, l i c h e n and grass on  drainage.  at t h r e e  At  a few s e l e c t e d  out p r e l i m i n a r y mapping  H i s e x e r c i s e was and  ground-  information  area  (1974) c a r r i e d  used,  i n locating  r e f l e c t a n c e s on the b l a c k and  and (2) low shrub,  l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the study  NAPL  1974, 1975) but  o f percent  good d r a i n a g e , with  quantified.  estimates  limited  Institute  of r e s o l u t i o n ,  t u t e 1975) w i t h i n two v e g e t a t i o n - t y p e  permits  area which used medium-  o f the study  interpretations  Over 90% o f the study  technique  properly  primarily  provided  ( F o r e s t Management  f e a t u r e s having  European r e -  monitoring.  work i n the study  exclusively,  levels  This  of a v a i l a b l e  investigation,  Past  use-  assessments of r a n g e l a n d  reliable term  are n o r m a l l y  1:34,000 photos were employed o n l y to  types, f o r p a r t  u n i t s d i d not a l l o w  cause  and n o r t h e r n  f o o d s t u f f , t o be allow  that  cover and  to be p a r t i c u l a r l y  I I , s e c t i o n 3.1).  winter  i n the p r e s e n t  and f l i g h t l i n e s .  1:60,000 NAPL map  Soviet  photographs  1:60,000 photos and a c q u i r e d a limited  enough  a l s o p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r long  Medium-scale  of l i c h e n  v e g e t a t i o n a l typings  i n p a r t i c u l a r have p r e f e r r e d a e r i a l - v i s u a l  low f l y i n g  lichen,  The broad  indication  limited  areas,  by the s c a l e  'Eskimo  Lake',  -  'Caribou  Hills'  respectively heath,  and  was  i n t e r p r e t e d as  and  complex  units  ward  overlap  sources  were  of  the  l a p ) so that a f u l l ticularly  1974,  provide  no  winter  rangeland.  accounted  wingtip  basis  (Table  for  75.5%  of  the  land  area  shrub-heath, b i r c h - a l d e r Hernandez  1974).  for determining  Clearly  lichen  I I I ) were conducted  in a  forage  standard  V a r i a t i o n s i n percent  although  were not  vious  "edge-effect"  these  CIR  films  on  on most  the  were  for-  generally  calculations.  i t likely Radial  on photo-edges p a r t i c u l a r l y Adopting by  should  the  l a c k of  l i e ( F i g . 3a-d).  minor  divisions  ecodistrict,  scale  95-100%  created  length  lenses  side-over-  scheme  among past  clarify  (Houseknecht as  they  al.  become an  ob-  see  8).  with  and  as  area  the l a r g e - s c a l e percentage  of minor  was  made  to where  optical,  studies  U l t i m a t e l y , the some  Fig.  slopes  terrain.  study  researchers  digital  are  flat  f o r the  matters.  1981)  illusion  par-  (Goba et  (e.g.,  problem w i t h  the  right  Vignetting effects  photographs  when v i e w i n g  Preliminary  were adopted  focal  and  c o n t r i b u t e d a small e r r o r f a c t o r to  evident  a l s o d i d not  (i.e.,  left  l a r g e - s c a l e photographs but  distortion  consensus  areas  an a p p r e c i a b l e  a regional zonation  LANDSAT scenes district  not  photography,  possible.  shorter  1:34,000  as w e l l was  photographs although  and  for  ground  s t e r e o g r a p h i c view was  significant  Radial d i s t o r t i o n  configuration  nearly-identical  common with  1982)  one  (Corns  low  area of each photo-frame.  not  cameras photographed  cult  of  and  of e r r o r ( T a b l e X I I I ) .  Because  cover  92.0%  complexes  photo measurements  non-forward-overlap  -  88.6%,  polygons  or abundance on Rangifer Large-scale  80%  'Tuktoyaktuk',  raised-centred  such broad type  and  122  diffi-  boundaries of  recent  ecoregion/eco-  additional subdivisions  i n t e g r a t i v e u n i t s based  on  to  several  -  ecological cover.  factors  Being  including  essentially  123  climate,  ecological  -  terrain,  units  they  f o r a study  t h a t b a s i c a l l y used an e c o l o g i c a l  ecodistrict  units  graphic study,  divisions the  three  ment  zones. areas  for  the areas  forward-overlap ever  do not  area  since  passed  water cover  i n the  by  lings  of  around  on  Mackay  Reindeer  were  NAPL  terned  turned larger  to  than  a  the  and  and  the Mackenzie  Delta  were  calculated from the  occupied  when  favourably from  water  by  sub-  total  non-  study  flightlines for  percent  IV from to  estimates  systematic ranged  dot-  samp-  from  0-5%  of the Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a , to  t i p o f the P e n i n s u l a  ice-wedge Mackay  polygons  were in  along  i n the  the  i n Table  found,  present  by water how-  Estimates  given  percent  before.  widespread  were  film  the  r e i n d e e r manage-  water cover  compare  that  at the NE  density of  are  of  physio-  u n i t s employed  to as  hectares.  zones  (1981)  1  purposes  areas  conserve  r e g i o n he  photographs,  been e s t i m a t e d  and  the  of p e r c e n t  few  mapsheets  Across  near Cape D a l h o u s i e  ground  off  appropriate  the more prominent  XIII)  the  vegetational  Houseknecht s  photo-frame  on  S t a t i o n , to 30-50% f o r most  Ice-wedge Polygons  of  i n each  r e i n d e e r management  2.2  east  water  estimate  50%  area have not  by  a meaningful  (1963).  abundance  to  For  (Table  Figures  over  The  more  felt  land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  photo-frames  1:250,000  1:60,000  (1963).  areas.  water bodies  overlays  given  the  surface  permit  Mackay  were  s u b d i v i s i o n s have been r e f e r r e d  occupied  cameras  over  by  and  approach.  generally correlated  four e c o l o g i c a l  additional  Land tracting  be  given  resulting  with  grid  can  hydrology  polygons  i n the Mackenzie  (1963) noted  the most  poorly  (Mackay 1963).  that  conspicuous  drained  areas,  i n the type  Delta region  of  pat-  particularly  - 124  former  lake  bottoms  area,  particularly  often  less  age  and low  easily  air-photos.  on a e r i a l  photos,  a scale  ice-wedge  polygons,  extending  through  studies from  Using  IV) a t o t a l lated  noted of  lichen  growth.  constitute area.  sq km  that  and  However,  the  since  sites  C  best  lichen  zone land  as  of c o v e r -  1:60,000  required.  black  polygons  forms,  Only  extremely  cover C,  estimates  to 43.4%  area  for  polygons  i n zone  estimates  of  The  A  (Table  zones  (Table  s t u d y a r e a , or 23.4%  is calcu-  polygons.  overall then,  supported  ice-wedge  C was  t h e r e i s an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  s t a n d i n g crop  abundant,  1963).  r e s u l t s , most ice-wedge polygons  v e g e t a t i o n group  and  gons  land  r e i n d e e r rangeland  XV)  It  total  which  a i r p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t e d percent  deer management  of  by ice-wedge  the  total  such  areas  f o r many k i l o m e t r e s (Mackay  o f the 14,410 sq km  group  was  low-centred  percent  a generalization  some of  wedge polygon  the  unbroken  as covered  As  numbers and  fields  are  flats  vegetation  polygon  P e n i n s u l a , i n the P o i n t A t k i n s o n area and eastward  i n the g r o u n d - t r u t h  cative  small  study  the  estimates  o f 3,371  formed  i n the  t o r e s o l v e ice-wedge  larger  i n r e i n d e e r management  tentatively As  1:50,000 or  that  locations  near  indicate  these  they  Consequently,  (1951) s t a t e d  of  In many  s m a l l - s c a l e d imagery  particularly  the  4.6%  on  Sager  t i p o f the Tuktoyaktuk  VIII).  among h i l l s ,  tallied  and w h i t e  ranged  areas  depressions.  than a h e c t a r e i n s i z e .  were not  present  sedgy  -  polygon  i n the not  the  most rims  comprised  indi-  luxuriant and  Tuktoyaktuk  crests  Peninsula  solely  of i c e -  l a c k o f correspondence  between  o f l a n d area e s t i m a t e s estimates  were  ( T a b l e XXI)  f o r polygons f o r the  same  (Table rein-  zones.  should be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t n e i t h e r s i z e nor d e n s i t y o f ice-wedge p o l y -  are r e l i a b l e  or the t o t a l  indicators  o f the depth  and  amount o f i c e i n the ground and  width  thus  of subsurface  ice-wedges  for t r a f f i c a b i l i t y  or  simi-  - 125  lar  applications  without  the  surface  results  expression  must are  be  -  used  known  cautiously.  to  exist  As  well,  throughout  the  ice-wedges Tuktoyaktuk  P e n i n s u l a a r e a (J.R. Mackay p e r s . comm.-'-). Mackay (1970) notes that spaced  as  over 65  linear  ice-wedge wedges for of  closely km  as  ice-wedges  15 m a p a r t ,  and  o f ice-wedges.  i n the Mackenzie D e l t a r e g i o n may  that  Based  one  on  square km  e s t i m a t e d to be more c l o s e l y  different ice-wedge  management  zones.  Such  polygon-covered t e r r a i n ,  have  the p r e s e n t counts o f numbers  polygons per ha on the l a r g e - s c a l e CIR  are  o f t e r r a i n may  spaced,  closer  photographs  from about  88  of  ( T a b l e XV), i c e -  r a n g i n g from  spacing  be  yields  11.4  7.5  m  i n one square  km  to over 133  to  linear  km  of  ice-wedges. Mackay  (1963) and  Kerfoot  (1969,  p r e s s i o n o f the two main extremes, gons.  Gradations exist  primarily  age,  water,  wind  tent.  The  intermediate ties,  2.3  and  J.R.  mass  forms  and  result  o f thaw and growth  photos  defined and  the  from many f a c t o r s  of ice-wedges,  were  for discriminating  their  of  material  relative  ex-  including  surface  type  useful  surface  low-centred poly-  vegetation,  for calculating  however those r e s u l t s  clearly  i . e . , raised-centred  between them that  wasting,  large-scale  and  erosion water  among  abundances  and  by  con-  several densi-  are not r e p o r t e d h e r e .  T e r r a i n D i s t u r b a n c e by V e h i c l e s Escalating  ties,  rapidity  1972)  northern a c t i v i t i e s ,  including  resource exploration  w i t h i n and near the Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a a r e a have prompted  Mackay, Dep.  Geography,  Univ. B r i t i s h  Columbia.  6 May,  1982.  activi-  considera-  - 126 -  ble  public  age  t o the n a t u r a l environment.  dra  is fragile,  the  thermal  leading  concern  over  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  t o thermokarst  ground  subsidence photos,  of seismic  o f the photos, the Tuktoyaktuk reindeer  line  most  terrain  townsite.  management  The area o f coverage  i n the study  damage l e v e l s ,  i n a l l zones  p o s s i b l y the i n 1.6%  ( T a b l e XV).  Using percent  o f zones  i s covered  photographs.  (Table  by  cover  the h i g h  t r a c k s were  Terrain  damage was ob-  estimates  ( T a b l e XV) and  IV), a total  primarily  from 0.1% i n  However,  by d i s t u r b e d t e r r a i n was n o t a b l e ; v e h i c l e  land a r e a e s t i m a t e s area  was low, r a n g i n g  zones A, E and G t o 2.0% i n zone C.  i n 19.0% o f the l a r g e - s c a l e  the study  From examina-  and o c c u r r e d i n r e i n d e e r management zone C, i n the v i c i n i t y o f  observed  of  1972).  destroy  permafrost,  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n summer, were o n l y encountered  of occurrence  total  s u r f a c e may  damage by v e h i c l e s  Severe  dam-  because the t u n -  and the u n d e r l y i n g  (Mackay 1970, K e r f o o t  frequency  served  are apprehensive  cover  c o u l d be c l a s s e d as low ( T a b l e XV).  result  and i r r e p a r a b l e  s t r e s s e s at the ground  between  t i o n o f the l a r g e - s c a l e area  The p u b l i c  and man-induced  equilibrium  o f widespread  low-level  o f 70.1 sq km terrain  or.0.5%  damage  from  vehicles. Bliss and  & Wein  technology  (1972) have  i n the Mackenzie  seismic operations during of  the extent  reviewed  o f damage  the summer months o f 1965 t o , with  the r e a l i z a t i o n  that  landscape  f e a t u r e s , they  landscape  i n 1971 ( B l i s s & Wein 1972).  the study lations  (1973)  area with  showed  seismic  lines  winter  occupied  and  less  l o c a t e d , aged  from  of o i l e x p l o r a t i o n bulldozing for  caused,  region,  history  initial  this  Delta  estimated  Hernandez  while  the e a r l y  shear-blading operations.  winter  roads  may  form  They  conspicuous  than 0.5% o f the Mackenzie D e l t a area  and sampled  various  disturbed sites i n  the a i d o f maps p r o v i d e d by I m p e r i a l O i l L i m i t e d .  t h a t 0.56% o f the l a n d a r e a  Calcu-  o f an i n t e n s i v e l y - s u r v e y e d 2,100  -  sq km  area  tions  from J u l y , 1965  ( T a b l e XV) seismic area.  on  the Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a  i n d i c a t e that  lines  and  includes  (1973),  2.0%  figure  vehicle  sensing data.  percent  of  been d i s t u r b e d by  land  by  1973).  area  damaged  a r e a , i t i s somewhat  the  p o r t i o n of  land  area  i s l a r g e r than  tracks  had  (Hernandez  the mean cover  a major  of  the  1970  -  The  seismic present  a f f e c t e d by  that  were  the  has  terrain  area  been  Hernandez's  intensively  disturbed (1973) and  p r e v i o u s l y not  resolveable  on  land  for  the  In zone by  vehicles  includes  roads,  total  zones.  surveyed  by  figures  i s o n l y 0.5%  larger in certain  opera-  winter  v e h i c l e t r a c k s remains a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the  whole of the study  This  to A p r i l ,  However, w h i l e  which  127  C,  Hernandez  (Table  XV).  low-damage-level  small-scaled  However some i n c r e a s e i n t e r r a i n damage d u r i n g  recent  remote  years i s  also indicated. The the  l a r g e - s c a l e photographs  Tuktoyaktuk  areas ence  Peninsula  area  where v e h i c l e t e r r a i n of  snow  and  recently-renewed The  other  searches  present  areas  damage has  for lost  L i c h e n Types and  Percent  L i c h e n Types are the groups  A,  B  and  C  Lichen  Type  was  used  to  the  same  ground, tion  however,  groups.  serve  occurred, in  vehicles  by  northern  energy  as p r o d u c t i v e are s m a l l and  Lichen  as  an  important  Ci)  especially  tracked  of v e h i c l e t e r r a i n disturbance  2.4  will  for monitoring:  additional disturbances,  machines  area.  now  and  recovery  ( i i ) the  light  of  northern resources  Rangifev not  the  winter  baseline  from  i n c r e a s i n g use  of  inhabitants,  and  within  area  the  rangeland  study because  significant.  Cover  ground-truth  characterize land  those  future occurr-  a i r - p h o t o i n t e r p r e t e d e q u i v a l e n t s of the  determined  of  in  each  might  studies.  Only  vegetation  the  l a r g e - s c a l e photo-frame; be  assigned  among s e v e r a l  dominant on  the  vegeta-  -  Quantitative cate  that  Lichen  measures on the in  the  ture, that  analysis Types  not  only  the  is typically  vation,  i t is  photo-scale  lichen  felt  and  atically though  resolution  that  the  shrub  and  D r i s c o l l et  identified  on  have  met  with  carpets  of  a  l i c h e n s , mosses or ered  with  other CIR  by  of  other  the  ( T a b l e XVI)  reported  layer  density  that  reflect,  bare  here  aperture  ground  studies  are  can  low  little  have  shrubs.  success,  lichen  ground  h i g h l y dependent  be  accurately  i n the  been  however,  identi-  (Driscoll  present  effective  as  without  ( i ) they  in  &  system-  work, a l separating  rarely  "contamination"  grow i n by  other  ( i i ) a l l l i c h e n s p e c i e s encount-  for microdensitometric  r e f l e c t a n c e s and  on  S e p a r a t i o n of l i c h e n s p e c i e s would  taxa,  cover  obser-  p l a n t taxa were not  photographs  could  cover  size.  Individual  large-scale  aper-  i t . Because of t h i s  vegetation species  1974).  indi-  the m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t e r ' s  v e g e t a t i o n and  low v a s c u l a r s p e c i e s ; and  high  Dye  photographs u s i n g m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r y  al.  single  significant  characterized  area  results  certain species, particularly  pure  but  l i c h e n patches  separated.  photos gave mean v a l u e s  patch  microdensitometric  probably  "readily  i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n with  l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm  Coleman 1974,  be  the m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t e r ' s  Rangeland f i e d on  could  sq m  found  -  of m i c r o d e n s i t o m e t r i c d a t a on  large-scale  approximate 3.1  128  appeared  white  spot to  readings  yellow-white  were in  colour. Percent of  lichen  cover  was  estimated  each photo-frame u s i n g a c e l l - g r i d  i n the  overlay.  80%  non-forward-overlap  L i c h e n cover,  h i g h r e f l e c t a n c e i n the n e a r - i n f r a r e d p o r t i o n of the spectrum 1979)  is readily  cover  may  have  photo-frames  observed been  due  to  on  the  large-scale  underestimated several  during  reasons.  CIR  photos  measurements First,  low  area  because of i t s (Fuller  & Rouse  ( F i g . 13b).  Lichen  on  the  shrub,  large-scale particularly  - 129  Betula, an  Salix  unknown  spp. and Alnus, p o r t i o n of  source,  but  lichen  cover  error  may  the  systematic with  be  cryoturbated  or Eriophorum  lichen  comparisons  cover. of  or more.  Normally  indicate  Second, Eriophorum  hummmocks c r e a t e numerous  s c a l e photos.  vaginatum  ground-truth  air-photo estimates  10%  -  t u s s o c k c o v e r may this  was  mask  a small  measurements  of  error  percent  i n some community-types and Carex t u s s o c k s  s m a l l shadowed  areas  on  and  the  small  some  large-  At these n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e s , even at midday sun a n g l e s a r e  i n e a r l y August.  T h i r d , around  duce lower r e f l e c t a n c e l e v e l s  photo-edges, l e n s f a l l - o f f  e f f e c t s may  low pro-  by s m a l l l i c h e n p a t c h e s , c a u s i n g the l i c h e n  to  be o v e r l o o k e d i n p e r c e n t c o v e r e s t i m a t e s . Conversely, l i c h e n cover similar  that  few  ground  Bare  sand  appears b r i g h t w h i t e misinterpreted.  The  I.  lichen  were  in  sandy s o i l be  patches  occasionally  commonly on h i l l  Second, g r a m i n o i d  top  overestimation because of  standing  m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s however  dead  carried  out  by  the  same  were  their  misinterpreted  or upper s l o p e which was  minimized  personnel  who  of  as  locations sometimes similarly as  photo-  conducted  the  l i c h e n cover e s t i m a t e i n c l u d e s a number o f l i c h e n t a x a t h a t  p r o p o r t i o n of  nitidula  subsequent  forage.  total  taxa w i t h h i g h  the p e r c e n t  bare  caused  programs.  percent  and Bryoria  possibly  i n the l a r g e - s c a l e photos (e.g. F i g . 18a)  have no v a l u e as Rangifer small  error  First,  occurred  Such  interpretations  of  r e f l e c t a n c e s can  were L i c h e n Type  ground-truth  sources  i n the photos.  high  lichen.  a  lichen  percent  These t a x a however appear t o account cover  occurrences  study  at s i t e s  area.  of  lichen  l i c h e n c o v e r by n o n - f o r a g e  s t a n d i n g crops  Two  non-forage  are Ochrolechia  and both have v e r y low c o v e r (Appendix  calculations  a l s o u r c e of e r r o r .  i n the  and  I).  for a  gyalecta  Nonetheless,  carrying capacity,  s p e c i e s can be c o n s i d e r e d ' an  addition-  - 130 -  It  is felt  photos  that  the v e r t i c a l  provided an improved  (Fig.  format  afforded by the large-scale 70 mm  view of the l i c h e n cover over an oblique format  22). Both formats were p a r t i c u l a r l y affected by shrub and herb s t r a t a  that obstruct views of the ground surfaces, and result i n underestimations of terrestrial photos  lichen, cover.  Based  on comparisons  and oblique 35 mm photographs,  Kiichler  (1967) noted  bution  the v e r t i c a l format  regarding vegetation cover  only v e r t i c a l photographs of the d i f f e r e n t  of the large-scale  70 mm  i s preferred.  measurements  As  and mapping,  permit a correct grasp of the geographical d i s t r i vegetation types  i n the landscape,  and this would  appear true as well when speaking of p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t a of vegetation. It was stated i n the introduction that l i c h e n , as the main winter foodstuff  f o r reindeer, could only be properly quantified  was required f o r regional management. or  An i n d i c a t i o n  at a large-scale but that l i c h e n  occurrence  abundance i s not well manifested on a small-scale remote sensing data i s  r e f l e c t e d i n the considerable differences of l i c h e n percent cover and standing  crop among reindeer management zones C, D and E (Tables XX, XXI) which  according to Houseknecht (1981) belong to the same e c o d i s t r i c t . ences are apparently not being r e f l e c t e d at the e c o d i s t r i c t  2.5  Such d i f f e r -  level.  Estimation of Carrying Capacity The winter rangeland carrying capacity, the number of animals  area could support on a long-term basis without can be t e n t a t i v e l y estimated. the  study  physical 1982).  area  although  the study  appreciable o v e r u t i l i z a t i o n  Summer rangeland i s not considered l i m i t i n g i n  summer  stature of the animals P o r s i l d (1929) suggested  rangeland (Palmer  quality  largely  1934, Skuncke  determines  the  1969, K l e i n 1970,  the summer rangeland of the Tuktoyaktuk Pen-  -  Fig.  22. Comparison of o b l i q u e the same a r e a :  normal  131  colour  -  and  vertical  CIR  photographs  of  (a) O b l i q u e 35 mm normal c o l o u r photograph of l i c h e n c l o s e d mat and c u s h i o n tundra on p a t t e r n e d ground (lower l e f t of photo; s i t e 81-104, w i t h l i c h e n cover of 47.5 p e r c e n t ) , and wet sedge meadow (upper r i g h t ; s i t e 81-105) as shown i n F i g . 14 ( f l i g h t l i n e 12-3; 69°01*N, 132°12'W). 30 J u l y , 1981.  (b) V e r t i c a l 70 mm CIR (1:1,800 s c a l e ) p h o t o - p a i r of the same area showing s i t e s 81-104 ( t o p c e n t r e ) and 81-105 (bottom c e n t r e by open w a t e r ) . Note l i m e - g r e e n c o l o u r a t i o n of a l g a l mats, the same shown i n F i g . 14. View angles of b o t h F i g . 14 and 22a are from the 10 o ' c l o c k p o s i t i o n of F i g . 22b. S y s t e m a t i c comparisons of ground and a e r i a l o b l i q u e photographs, both normal c o l o u r and CIR, w i t h the v e r t i c a l CIR p h o t o - p a i r s i n d i c a t e the o b l i q u e a n g l e of view c o n s i s t e n t l y l e a d s to lower i m p r e s s i o n s of ground l i c h e n c o v e r than does the v e r t i c a l view (frame 8, f l i g h t l i n e 12-3). 6 August, 1980.  -  insula  could  management for  the  reindeer While  studies,  carrying  which  with  stocking  In his i n i t i a l  Porsild  (1929,  limits  (1968) agreed  support  i s unlikely  carrying  in  more r e c e n t  author  herded  reindeer  stressing of  that  for-  estimates  Europe  of the Mackenzie  Preserve  literature,  the e s t i m a t e  the e n t i r e  and F l o r o v s k a y a  a d u l t r e i n d e e r eats  kg of l i c h e n  fodder supply. not a f f e c t  of  could  Hill  and  Delta,  support  about  (1967) and S c o t t e r  46,360  assumed  sq km  area  rotational of  use by the  the G r a z i n g  Preserve  (1939,  cited  i n Parker  5 to 6 kg of l i c h e n  1976) i n d i c a t e  per day.  per day when  Using f a l l o u t the normal  confined  radiocesium  activity  DesMeules  and Hey-  Quebec consumed 2.7 to  and p r o v i d e d  with  an  unrestricted  t r a c e r s , a method unique  of the a n i m a l s ,  that a  i n that i t  Holleman et ai.  (1975,  measured l i c h e n i n t a k e s of 4.9 to 5.0 kg per day f o r f r e e - r a n g i n g a d u l t  reindeer lichen  Past  Northern  (1969) found woodland c a r i b o u i n L a u r e n t i d e Park,  1979)  of l i c h e n  1970).  Igoshina  does  quantitative  on c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and  east  Grazing  48,000  to be l i m i t i n g .  the U.S.S.R.,  of the a r e a  rangeland  over  on any  capacity.  only  reindeer  as summer  i t i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y  the e n t i r e  Reviewing  alone  basis,  on a much lower, e s t i m a t e of 25,000 to 30,00.0 r e i n d e e r , w i t h the  latter  (Scotter  levels  surveys  1947) f e l t  85,000 r e i n d e e r .  2.9  P e n i n s u l a area  this  i s n o t based  c a p a c i t y have been made, but based  Alaska.  land  (1929) f i g u r e  On  exclusively  F i g . 5), could  t h a t summer r a n g e l a n d  the w i n t e r  comparisons  single  see  Porsild's  the Tuktoyaktuk  during  p e r sq km.  i s p r e s e n t l y used  (e.g.,  i t suggests  In  25 to 28 animals  zone A, w h i c h  animals.  age  support  133 -  and c a r i b o u .  In present  calculations  consumption of 5.0 kg was assumed.  of c a r r y i n g  capacity a  daily  - 134  Stocking  for Rangifer  rates  winter  -  rangeland  technique of Pegau (1968) as modified by Parker a  "top  cropping"  parameter  in  (1976).  estimations  to  actively-growing portions of l i c h e n t h a l l i only. this  constitutes 45%  height.  of  At approximately  the  l i c h e n weight  and  using  Both authors employ  restrict  grazing  to  the  According to Andreev (1954) about  (Andreev 1954,  the  top  Skuncke 1969).  a far greater number of reindeer per unit  intensive grazing of l i c h e n stands where f u l l years or more (Andreev 1954,  one-third of  Scotter 1970).  This p r a c t i c e  of productive range  recovery may  I t was  felt  than  require 30  to 50  that i n present  culations the 'top' estimates of standing crop derived from actual f i e l d laboratory measures (Table XXI) would be more acceptable. a four-year rotation (af. Reindeer rangeland the  (e.g. see F i g . 3a). Island  ( P o r s i l d 1947,  area,  zone  B,  e s p e c i a l l y Cladina  Moser et  (Pegau 1970, land but  having  was  highly  utilized  zones  E,  F,  and  365 G)  The  lichen  days  a  favoured  diets  (Pegau 1968,  to support  i n present  were considered  months, approximately October 1 to May  early  herders  Skuncke 1969)  to trampling  and  effects  three zones a v a i l a b l e as summer range-  cover  year  by  On summer rangeland, lichens are  podetia are subject  1979).  sufficient  considered (D,  al.  The p r o v i s i o n f o r  C have p o t e n t i a l f o r use as summer  Cody 1963, Abrahamson 1963).  thalli,  and  Although zone A i s presently used e x c l u s i v e l y ,  consumed as a small portion of Rangifer growing  cal-  Parker 1976) was retained.  management zones A, B and  Richards  the  this l e v e l of grazing a l i c h e n rangeland can f u l l y  recover i n three to f i v e years allows  were estimated  as  limited winter use were  calculations,  lichen  range only  while  other  for  winter  31.  Of the study area's t o t a l estimated carrying capacity of 20,373 animals, 80.5%  or 16,398 reindeer could be supported i n management zones D and E which  - 135 -  represent  49.7% of the land area  mean animal  estimates  of 0.5 to 0.7 reindeer  and 1.8 reindeer per sq km ( P o r s i l d  authors  This  estimate  suggests  stocking density of 1.4 reindeer per sq km, a figure that  between e a r l i e r 1970)  (Table XXIII).  (Hill  a  falls,  1967, Scotter 1968,  1929, 1947).  Estimates  by other  are f o r the entire Grazing Preserve, and include consideration of the  extensive l i c h e n woodlands i n areas south of the study area where presumably l i c h e n standing crop i s high.  The greatest animal density estimated here i s  3.2 i n zone G, while the lowest  (0.1) i s i n zone B (Table XXIII).  The three  northerly zones, A, B and C would support a combined t o t a l population of only about 1,491 overwintering Given  animals.  the reindeer herd's present s i z e of about 16,000 animals ( D i c k i n -  son 1982) and the carrying capacity estimate arrived at here that i s not much larger, an updated r o t a t i o n a l grazing plan i n v o l v i n g winter use p a r t i c u l a r l y of  management zones D and E i s recommended.  A less  desirable, alternative  arrangement i s to maintain the herd within the rangelands  of management zones  A, C and D (as i n F i g . 5). This arrangement would have the herd  reduced to  about 6,200 animals using the figures of Table XXIII, and the imposition of a four-year r o t a t i o n a l grazing plan f o r the 5,787 sq km area.  For this  latter  scheme, l i t t l e use would be made of zones A and C f o r winter rangeland, as i s presently the case ( F i g . 5).  2.6  Overutilization Effects It  is difficult  to assess  the extent  of Rangifer  overutilization, i n -  cluding both overgrazing and trampling e f f e c t s , i n the study area. ous  past  baselines such as permanent ground quadrats  No r i g o r -  or l a r g e - s c a l e photo-  graphic records exist within the study area, except f o r a few exclosures constructed  near  Sitidgi  Lake  (Inglis  1975a,b).  While  no quantitative data  Table XXIII.  E s t i m a t i o n o f w i n t e r range c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y f o r t h e T u k t o y a k t u k P e n i n s u l a a r e a , N.W.T. (method adapted from P a r k e r 1976). provision for a 4-year rotation' (x .25)  reindeer grazing days-* (days.ha )  total land area (sq km)  reindeer per sq knA  20.8  5.2  1.0  1,948  0.27  range a v a i l a b l e under snow c o v e r (x .5)  Reindeer management zone  •top' l i c h e n standing crop (kg.ha" )  A  41.6  B  18.8  9.4  2.4  .5  1,214  .14  170  C  52.8  26.4  6.6  1.3  2,208  .36  795  D  286.4  143.2  35.8  7.2  1,631  3.00  4,893  E  200.0  100.0  25.0  5.0  5,531  2.08  11,505  F  61.6  7.7  1.5  1,366  .63  861  G  302.4  37.8  7.6  512  3.17  1  1  30.8 151.2  6  - 1  total reindeer 526  1,623 20,373  i e s t i m a t e d 50% o f l i c h e n forage i s u n a v a i l a b l e due t o snow cover each y e a r . ^4 y r g r a z i n g r o t a t i o n a l l o w s f o r c o n t i n u o u s use at o n e - q u a r t e r animal d e n s i t y . ^based on d a i l y l i c h e n forage r e q u i r e m e n t s o f 5 kg f o r a d u l t r e i n d e e r ( I g o s h i n a & F l o r o v s k a y a 1939 [ c i t e d i n P a r k e r 1976], DesMeules & Heyland 1969, Holleman et al. 1975, 1979) ^ f o r management zones A, B and C based on year-round (365 day) use; f o r o t h e r s based o n l y on O c t . 1 t o May 31 (240 day) w i n t e r use.  -  exists,  o v e r / u t i l i z a t i o n has  Scotter  (1968) f o r  on  a small  island  the  of  to i t , and  effects  o c c a s i o n a l l y encountered at  vegetation  appearance  of  clumps  lichen  of  being  recently-exposed were t y p i c a l l y During dex  employed Alaska and  for  adapt  1981.  ground-truth grazing  studies  not  With  the  on  index  Some zone C.  of  reported  the  f o r use with  small  be  substrate At  overutilization  the  thalli  and  lichen  zone had  scattered  numerous  such s i t e s ,  and  During  management  zone,  lichen  fall  the  of past  The  C. the  about,  patches  reindeer  use  index  any  some  has  of  droppings  parameters  in  i s an  herd  may  already  as  over-  XXIV can  be  If further studies s u c c e s s f u l l y  occurred  l i c h e n standing  i s estimated that  at  only  traversed  ( F i g . 5).  destroy  sites  appropriate  suspected  i n Table  northern  a few  data,  f u r t h e r ground-  795  in  crop  management  ( T a b l e XXI,  animals  parts  Trampling  reindeer  of  15%  or more of  the  e f f e c t s may  the  Fig.  20)  ( T a b l e X X I I I ) or zone be  lichens  in  both  particular-  s t u d i e s have shown that a s i n g l e pass over l i c h e n - r i c h  reindeer  an i n -  eliminated.  have  number  studies  rangelands  photos.  made of  been s u c c e s s f u l l y  index  l a r g e - s c a l e remote s e n s i n g  low  was  a v a i l a b l e for only  i n d i c a t e the on  use  preference  Results here,  equipment  may  years  preliminary  caribou habitat  a comparatively  one-twentieth  critical;  this  ( T a b l e XXIV).  l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm  overutilization  and  to  in reindeer  in  program  be. g r e a t l y reduced or  I t has  spring  the  in detail,  magnification  i t s carrying capacity  about  sites  present.  characterizing reindeer  t r u t h i n g may  a  surfaces  mostly  Island  additional locations.  believed  shattered  from  (White & T r u d e l l 1980b).  interpreted  ly  organic  C  with  dislodged  i n ground  grazed.  and  trampled,  Rangifer  therefore  tool  group  what were  Richards  and  found i n abundance.  the  of r e c e n t  study  (1947), Cody (1963)  S t a t i o n , on  at a few  f o r the  Particularly  present  by P o r s i l d  Reindeer  ground-truth were  -  been d e s c r i b e d  vicinity  adjacent  137  tundra  (Skuncke  by  1969,  -  Table  XXIV.  138 -  Parameters and s c o r e s used to c a l c u l a t e an index o f the i n t e n s i t y of r e c e n t Rangifer g r a z i n g (from White & T r u d e l l 1980b). The i n dex i s c a l c u l a t e d as the sum of the s c o r e s f o r each parameter.  A.  Trampling e f f e c t s 0 No s i g n of Rangifer h o o f p r i n t s 1 Occasional hoofprint v i s i b l e within 3 m 2 Broken p l a n t p a r t s w h i c h c o u l d be a t t r i b u t a b l e to t r a m p l i n g 3 S u r f a c e moss or t u s s o c k s broken by d i g g i n g a c t i o n ( p i e c e s of moss and t u s s o c k s may be l y i n g on the s u r f a c e ) and/or the o c c u r r e n c e of "game" t r a i l s showing r e c e n t use  B.  F e c a l abundance 0 No "new" f e c e s w i t h i n 3 m of s i t e 1 1 to 2 groups of p e l l e t s w i t h i n 3-m r a d i u s 2 3 to 5 groups of p e l l e t s w i t h i n 3-m r a d i u s 3 more than 5 groups of p e l l e t s w i t h i n 3-m r a d i u s  C.  Damage to l i c h e n s 0 L i c h e n beds i n t a c t ; Cladina, Cetraria, and Stereocaulon u n d i s t u r b e d i n the moss l a y e r 1 Some l i c h e n s removed from the moss b e d d i n g 2 Many l i c h e n s l y i n g l o o s e on the s u r f a c e 3 Most l i c h e n s l o o s e on the s u r f a c e ; o b v i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e to the moss l a y er  D.  Vascular plant c l i p p i n g 0 No l e a v e s c l i p p e d 1 Signs of a s m a l l amount of l e a f c l i p p i n g i n the sward and t u s s o c k 2 C l i p p i n g of sward and t u s s o c k o b v i o u s ; s i g n s of l i t t e r accumulation ( r e j e c t a ) w h i c h c o u l d be a t t r i b u t a b l e to c l i p p i n g 3 Most of sward o r t u s s o c k c l i p p e d o f f ; l i t t e r r e j e c t a v e r y o b v i o u s  E.  Browsing s i g n s 0 No s i g n s of c l i p p e d twigs 1 A few t e r m i n a l twigs broken ( 0 - 3 mm d i a m e t e r ) 2 Many t e r m i n a l twigs broken, some twigs of 5 mm d i a m e t e r broken o f f 3 Twigs w i t h g r e a t e r than 5 mm diameter taken  - 139  Pegau  1970).  taken  steps  Eskimo  (D.  study  the  to reduce  Lake  crossing May  For  in  back  February  to  the  Billingsley,  area,  the  two  potential  late  on  last  years,  and  grazing  In  Reindeer  by moving  them  Peninsula  comm. ) . !  l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm  a g a i n s t which any  Canadian  overutilization  Tuktoyaktuk  pers.  -  future o v e r u t i l i z a t i o n  the  animals  i n management near  Campbell  zone C and  photos w i l l  (1978) L t d .  now  zone  serve  as  across E  Island  elsewhere  until  in  late  throughout  permanent  can be compared and  have  the  records  properly quanti-  fied.  3.  Future  3.1  Follow-up (1)  and  Recommendations S t u d i e s on  Acquisition,  a n a l y s i s and  s m a l l - s c a l e remote s e n s i n g d a t a  large-scale  s t u d i e s with  definitions  of  mediate  level  mapping  Lichen  Types  units  here  (Table  originally ical  developed  remote  sensing  1983.  so  that  (1980) to  vegetation  remote  sensing  of  purpose.  scheme may P o s s i b l y the  Intermediate be  readily  system  Advisor,  Canadian  may  be  amounts  of  cover  and  scheme  although  i t was  to d i f f e r e n t  used  adapted not  of the h i e r a r c h scales  for future m u l t i -  P e n i n s u l a study  Reindeer  inter-  lost.  levels  related  of  vegetation  lichen  classification studies  of  varying  from l a r g e - s c a l e s t u d i e s are not  f o r that  Business  estimates  the  ( i ) improved  development  reflect  proportions  to p l a c e  allowing  ( i i ) the  remote s e n s i n g s t u d i e s i n the Tyktoyaktuk  Billingsley,  by  units could  itself  data.  and  intermediate-  area w i l l help  Such mapping  Dyrness  lends  that  zones,  suitable  "aggregates"  physiognomically-based  stage  ID.  V)  &  f o r the study  of  essentially  w i t h i n known  Viereck  interpretation  are  other parameters o b t a i n e d The  Rangeland  a b e t t e r r e g i o n a l context  r e i n d e e r management  groups or L i c h e n Types.  of  Rangifer  the  area.  (1978) L t d . ,  28  March,  -  The  140  -  l a r g e - s c a l e photographs r e p r e s e n t an a c t u a l sampling  the study a r e a .  While t h i s p r o p o r t i o n p r o b a b l y would be  area  landscape  with  high  w i t h many o t h e r over  broad  arctic  expanses.  diversity,  areas,  the  exhibits  Although  Tuktoyaktuk  relatively  photos  appear  appropriate,  verify  i f the  l a r g e - s c a l e studies adequately  ment  zones.  To  approximately acquired Centre the  on  end,  August  26,  1982  the  of  the  Airborne  Dr.  P.A.  Murtha .  initiated  and  attempts  are  ground-truth  being  studies.  made  of  LANDSAT-4 transects  these  will  be  to  imagery  and  ( F i g . 5)  Division,  were  Canada  provided  by  data  have r e c e n t l y  them  to  to c o r r e l a t e  Results  help  r e i n d e e r manage-  Operations  Evaluations  1  along  diversity  should  Ottawa, O n t a r i o , under s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  and  s c a l e photo and  simulated  any  the l a r g e - s c a l e  ( F i g . 4) the  of  for  area,  landscape  represent  photographs  by  Peninsula  based, on  information  experimental  1:50,000 s c a l e CIR  f o r Remote S e n s i n g ,  author  been  this  multistage  insufficient  little  p r e l i m i n a r y analyses  of o n l y 0.1%  reported  the l a r g e at a  future  date. (2) would  be  Supplementary helpful  coverage and  to  aerial build  Rephotography  initially  desirable.  and  up  white  films  of  the  Normal  missions  original  for  rangeland  data-base  at  CIR  rephotographys  large-scales  the 44  flightlines  c o l o u r or  more i n f o r m a t i o n on many tundra t a t i o n , and  the  at  p r o v i d e m u l t i - y e a r coverage of  graphed.  black  photography  with  additional  flightlines  about '5 y r  films as  (1:1,400-1:3,600)  should  they  already photo-  intervals  be  used  ( i ) provide  i n northern  ^ F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U n i v .  areas  British  is  Columbia.  and  Barnhardt  of  considerably  f e a t u r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y minor  (Miller  felt  instead  ( i i ) r e p r e s e n t n e g l i g i b l e i n c r e a s e s i n the o v e r a l l c o s t of  conducted  area  1973).  vegephoto-  While  the  -  w i n g t i p 70 mm driven  such  camera system u s i n g CIR f i l m  camera which  acceptable  from  cations  scale  costly  useful  the Canadian Reindeer  o f the two camera  1980).  Future  Other  A  rangeland  would  a h i g h l y a c c u r a t e measure  stage  captured  by  the s h o r t summer months.  Later flying  example, nent taken  o f the s t a n d i n g dead phenological  the u b i q u i t o u s  as l i c h e n .  usually  Future  probably  check  photos. sites  tundra  During  a  vegetation  found  from  lichen  could  be  On  open  by e a r l y  that  programs  however  an i n i t i a l  of  timing areas might  by  significant  to a  rapidly  point  where  Photography  problems. has a  For promi-  the a i r be mis-  the f r u i t i n g  heads  have  cover has d e c r e a s e d .  of the r a n g e l a n d  i f a monitoring  the  as p o s s i b l e  p r o v i d e photos i n  from  lichen  large-  ( K i r b y and  proceed  other  could  relative  o f the p r e s e n t  vaginatum  mode  o f m u l t i - y e a r , l a r g e - s c a l e photographs proportion  height  is difficult.  August  o f c o n f u s i o n with  the  a l t i m e t e r which f o r  proceeded  affected  con-  any m o d i f i -  as c l o s e l y  c o t t o n g r a s s Eriophorum  tundra  ground-truth  dates  cover  c o u l d be  to f u t u r e  of f l y i n g  in arctic  has  inflorescence i n fruit  unnecessary,  the a c q u i s i t i o n field  stages  t h i n n e d and l i k e l i h o o d  (3) are  of graminoid  white-bristled  s t u d i e s have  addition  the Aug. 5-8  through  earlier  be an  discussed  s h o u l d be conducted  of plants  of  might  without  be a radar  P h e n o l o g i c a l developments  separation  have  useful  study.  senescence  rangeland  al. (1982)  systems.  photo-missions  the p h e n o l o g i c a l  which  a 35 mm motor-  stereophotographs  L t d . o b s e r v a t i o n plane  Goba et  photo s t u d i e s i n a r c t i c  Hall  here,  ( H e i n t z et al. 1979) and the photography  each photo-frame g i v e s  to  alternative.  to the a i r c r a f t .  advantages  i s advocated  can o b t a i n f o r w a r d - o v e r l a p  and l e s s  a system  ducted  141 -  merely  for baseline  i s e s t a b l i s h e d with  i t may be d e s i r a b l e t o  changes  perceived  on  such  p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d , the flow diagram f o r a s s i g n i n g  to v e g e t a t i o n groups  ( F i g . 21) c o u l d be a s s e s s e d .  I f found  to perform  -  adequately (i)  then a  assignment  rules  features  as  lichen  vegetation  21);  given  observations,  and  groups  i n Table  VIII;  position  approach at s i t e s  using  ( i i ) measurements  slope  taxa,  -  'streamlined' ground-truth  to  ( F i g . 11,  142  indicator  i n 10  m x  10  species m  ( i v ) e s t i m a t i o n on  and  and  p l o t s of  ( i i i ) a d d i t o n a l notes  measurements,  could i n v o l v e :  that  major  include  ground  cover  recent  Rangifer  the ground of  decision cover  general  by  dominant  use  (Table  XXIV). At  least  portions  remotely-sensed ularly  on  of  the  criteria  of  the  index  of  intensity  p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n work. beds,  trampling  white  lichen  reliable obviate  mats) are  Present  It  is  and  fecal  abundance  scheme  the  for  from  areas  be  may  present  study  available. divisions  several  otained. easily  Results of  that  and  an  The  be  on  developed the  computer-based,  zones  incorporate  grazing  (particularly  remote  into  black  the  lichen  feces  Development sensing  be  partic-  i n d i c a t e that damaged  rotational  plan  Large-scale  additional  of m u l t i s t a g e  management  initial  redevelop  accept  could  on  of  data  a  could  ground-truth.  herd  sources.  should  magnification.  index  XXIV  photo-pairs,  Rangifer  recent  under  reindeer  be made to modify  of  discernible  desirable  Peninsula  available  Table  Future monitoring  observations  the need f o r f u r t h e r c o s t l y  Tuktoyaktuk should  effects,  interpretation  (4)  in  the l a r g e - s c a l e (1:1,400-1:3,400) CIR  i f s t e r e o - m a g n i f i c a t i o n i s used.  aspects  listed  studies  into  now. as  grazing  more i n f o r m a t i o n  photo  coverage  photo-frame  data  ( F i g . 4) may  lead  for  for  the  P r o v i s i o n s , however,  photo-frame data  subareas  plan  reindeer  becomes  of a d d i t i o n a l  obtained  in  as  become  they  to more  informed  rotational  B e t t e r approaches f o r e s t i m a t i n g c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , or improved  the  estimates  use. for  -  some parameters  s u c h as  because of snow cover gard  would  be  Tuktoyaktuk  may  Peninsula may  range that  is lost  over  3.2  photographs here  on  Rangifer cations (1)  other  reindeer  used  to  unavailable  Of  and  particular  population.  r e v i s e the  are  two  rangeland  grazing  the  wind  dynamics  wind  and  on  wave  found  (2) The  benches lake  action  or  of  shapes. in  in particular  at  of As  by  In  wildfires,  re-  on  the  long this  term regard  terrain  p l a n , and  dam-  c a r r y i n g cap-  ice-wedge  on  studies.  For slope  A i r Photographs  for  this  the  l a r g e - s c a l e 70  study.  polygons  applications  not  Results  and  solely  a d d i t i o n a l examples,  three  reported  vehicle of  mm  terrain  interest  further  to  appli-  photographs.  shallow  of  the  siltation  lakes  Mackay  developing  area are  various  i n this  from  plan.  grazing  of  the  and  ripples  on  elucidate  the  effects  of  by  discussed  characteristic  northeast  covered  could  patterns  (1963) e a r l i e r  the  lemniscate  Tuktoyaktuk P e n i n s u l a .  the l a r g e - s c a l e 70 mm  photographs c o u l d be a v a l u a b l e  vegetation  s u c h as  examples  management.  l a k e margins i n t h i s  habitats  cover  course  p h o t o - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n study  sublacustrine  lakes  and  i n the  are suggested f o r the A  reindeer  accordingly.  acquired  frequency  the  value  Results  to o v e r u t i l i z a t i o n ,  removed from  to  ingestion-rate studies  potential applications exist  already  the  disturbance  cal  preference  time due  adjusted  annually  Other P o s s i b l e A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the L a r g e - S c a l e Numerous  the  be  causes must be  a c i t y estimates  -  become a v a i l a b l e .  area's  studies  or o t h e r  proportion  d e t a i l e d forage  monitoring  age  the  143  role to  of  oval  Numerous  photographs.  component i n c e r t a i n a u t e c o l o g i -  example,  sedge  positions  could  tussock be  densities  measured.  For  in a  various few  taxa  Eriophorum vaginatum a h i g h l y a c c u r a t e t a l l y of f l o w e r i n g on f r u i t i n g  -  heads  per  coupled  unit  area  w i t h seed  (1973) f o r E.  could  be  viability  readily  -  obtained  s t u d i e s such  as  from  those  (3) A r c t i c  ground  the study  squirrels  (Spermophilus  a r e a a l o n g r i v e r b a n k s , rims  ble,  are  runways  usually six or  Batzli  occupied  by  &  o r more e n t r a n c e s similar  values  the photos  among  Sobaski  one  burrows, (1980)  others  with  i s worthwhile  A  more  large-scale  to note  b e n e f i t from  the f l i g h t l i n e s  general  estimates  of  of  Richards.)  are  common sandy  c o l o n i e s are p l a i n l y  visi-  of  the  and  l a r g e - s c a l e 70  mm  r e s i d e n t burrows  are  that most burrows E x t r a p o l a t i o n of  burrow  entrance  the ground  have these  densities  squirrel  on  population  area.  temporal  can  a i r photographs.  earth  at  resources  searchers  Wein  production potentials  that  squirrels  t h a t a l l of  the  point  SPOT w i l l  northern  &  the p r e c e d i n g  aspect  s t u d i e s and  afforded  by  numerous  rephotography  of  at f u t u r e dates.  as LANDSAT-D and  Medium-scale  many noted  interpretation  c o u l d l e a d to i n i t i a l  would  on  have  or more ground  s i z e i n the T u k t o y a k t u k P e n i n s u l a It  Bliss  When  on  i n the Atkasook a r e a of A l a s k a .  along  by  of l a k e b a s i n s , and  to r e s i d e n t burrows i n s q u i r r e l  photographs.  conducted  parvyii  Entrances most  photographs.  developed.  slopes. as  the  vaginatum i n the I n u v i k a r e a , v i a b l e seed  on a per a r e a b a s i s c o u l d be  throughout  144  be  made  Within  greatly  (Rubec  improved  1982),  i n s t e a d make use scales.  of  years  new  For  resolutions  future  usefulness  satellite  systems  smaller  reasons,  l a r g e - s c a l e photographic  (Audet  &  p r e s e n t l y so w i d e l y - u s e d  may  soon  up-to-date  slightly  a b l e f u t u r e , at l e a s t  a few  the  of such  be p r o v i d i n g comprehensive, r e p e t i t i v e coverage of  1:60,000 photographs,  studies  regarding  become  satellite  international  imagery  security  systems w i l l  f o r widespread  virtually  and  Thomson  1982).  particularly  for  obsolete  re-  at  as  comparable  or  many t e c h n o l o g i c a l  not be r e p l a c e d i n the f o r s e e -  p u b l i c use,  by  earth-orbiting satellite  - 145  remote  sensors.  satellite  The  impending  -  availability  however, of  improved-resolution  coverage w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y o n l y enhance f u t u r e requirements  borne  l a r g e - s c a l e remote s e n s i n g  scale  a i r photographs  resolution satellite  will scenes.  be  data  and  valuable  data  aids  a n a l y s i s techniques. for  interpretation  of  for a i r Largehigher-  - 146 -  VII  CONCLUSIONS  -  (1) study  Based  area  two-way  on cover  by 420 p l a n t  can be c l a s s i f i e d  indicator  147 -  species  among  taxa  a t 112 s i t e s ,  at l e a s t  analysis  eighteen  (TWINSPAN). levels  decision  rules,  indicates  assigned  during ground-truth  the TWINSPAN  absence of o n l y plant one  taxa  seventeen  and v e g e t a t i o n  o r another  Species cate  plant species. groups  r i c h n e s s v a r i e s among  plant  represent  'vegetation  that  sites  The two-way  show d i s t i n c t  only  70  taxa  the groups.  a soil  moisture  communities, B a r e mesic  a r e common  communities  on p r e s e n c e  by most  groups.  at s i t e s  of i n t e r m e d i a t e  and  and i n c l u d e ice-wedge polygons  by  and D a r e open f e n and s h a l l o w  and shrub  heaths,  indi-  Group A c o n s i s t s of d r y  slopes, C are poorly-drained f l a t l a n d s low moss, l i c h e n  or  taxa f o r  to a l l f o u r  observations  gradient.  rapidly  t a b u l a r arrangement of  preferences  Field  Using  can be  based  by a  groups'  of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  to one of the f o u r groups  of the groups;  the groups  upland  analysis  of the  community-types  Four  (A,B,C, and D) can be d e f i n e d a t broad  vegetation  lower  covered marsh  wetlands. (2)  Examination  and summary  four  v e g e t a t i o n groups  and  separated  classes, soil  general  a  range  cover  of  the groups site  features  soil  p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l  the p r e s e n t  study,  and  standing  al,  they a r e e c o s y s t e m i c (3)  reindeer  crop  dominant  Lichens winter  estimates.  data  according  to t h e  including  i n 10 m x  of o r g a n i c s o i l s parameters  slope  position  10 m p l o t s ,  and ice-wedge  and, of p a r t i c u l a r  taxa, and l i c h e n  ground  polygons, importance  cover,  the f o u r groups a r e not j u s t  mineral  biomass  vegetation-  units.  a r e of p a r t i c u l a r diets.  parameters,  lichen Thus,  field  g e n e r a l l y c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  as measured  t e x t u r e c l a s s e s , the o c c u r r e n c e  certain in  by  indicated  of a d d i t i o n a l  Lichens  interest  because  they  c o n s t i t u t e d one-quarter  a r e a mainstay i n of the t o t a l  plant  - 148  taxa, crop  and  lichen  estimates  made at  36  to  sites  lichen  be  dominant lichen crop  are  Ice  at  wedge  of  t e r r a i n may  mation, last  the  greater  forage.  across  one  or  on  Standing  measurements  equal  to 20%.  c o n s i s t e d of l i c h e n and  another,  vegetation  sites.  based  than  Top  bottom  yield  groups  components curvilinear  C  sites.  Group  D  C,  re-  of  cover,  and  of  g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r growth or d e c o m p o s i t i o n  group  B  species  in  f o r l i c h e n percent  A,  a  The  shifts  the  study  on  area,  biomass and  wetlands  r a i s e d - c e n t r e d and  according  ranges from 4.6% the  standing  have  negligible  low-centred  varieties,  of the  133  l i n e a r km  whole  of  the  Frequency 1,469  results The  by  to  was  here  photos  may  of future disturbances  area,  ( F i g . 10), percent  one  square  now  can be  km  of  to  large-scale  of l a n d  Based on d e n s i t i e s  accounted but  Compared  indicate  serve  estimated  e s t i m a t e s "made on  ranged  considerably higher,  photo-frames.  are  cover  of p o l y -  polygon-covered  of i c e wedges.  vehicles  study  l o c a t i o n s and  to 43.4%.  l a r g e - s c a l e photos,  disturbance  zone.  the  both  Among v a r i o u s management zones  Terrain  decade.  rences  kg.ha"!  features i n poorly-drained  have over  (0.5%) over  19.0%  was  against  polygons,  ice-wedge polygons  management  ground-truth  lichen.  23.4%  (5)  at  6,377.6  cover  Largest values  gons as measured  in  plotted  reflects,  measured  photographs. by  when  common t e r r a i n  cover  to  as Rangifer  s p e c i e s and  thalli.  (4)  194.4  lichen  important  lichen  amounts of  to 89.3%  l i c h e n s t a n d i n g crop at a l l s i t e s  that  were  from  where  biomass,  lationship  v a r i e d up  ranged  m a j o r i t y of the known  cover  -  as  for  low  upwards with  ground to 2.0%  disturbance  to p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d  increased  terrain  disturbance  permanent  records  a g a i n s t which  compared.  cover in  one  noted inforin  the  ocur-  -  (6) L i c h e n Types of v e g e t a t i o n groups according  (7)  (A, B,  of p a t t e r n e d To  determine  large-scale patches.  C).  81.1%  CIR  if  Lichen  Q u a n t i t a t i v e analyses  Lichen  ( i ) the  area,  and  particular  296  be  readily  and  (p =  (LDF)  sets  l a r g e - s c a l e photos  general slope p o s i t i o n ,  measurements  showed w h i t e  Types  are  not  blue  .05)  separated  light  on  the  lichen  measurements  separations  density  the  (Table I I I ) .  were made of  a n a l y s i s of  of  mappable  required can  of  units  non-wetland  percent  cover  crop  lichen ranges.  regional level  only  be  can  necessary  range  differences  at a  example  complete  ( i i ) distinct  standing  reliably  only  be  The to  the  among  data  measures  at  other  be  l i c h e n cover  of  Lichen  provided  among  the  an  three  top  to  14.24% i n zone D  and  ground-truth  bottom  studies.  of  l i c h e n standing Percent  using  T o t a l standing  crop  in  Percent  the  biomass  estimates  in  ratios are  management  lichen  cover f o r  photos  but  is  carrying capacity.  cover crop  study  results  crop are summarized  Standing  repre-  biomass  the  large-scale  lichen  lichen  they  rangeland  r e g i o n a l rangeland  ( T a b l e XX).  components,  on  of  scales  parameters,  lichen  some  at l a r g e s c a l e s .  and  site  f o r general  effectively  large  categories  to bottom that  than  occurring  number  is  useful  to the r e i n d e e r management zones. zone B  types  a  top  dilemma  obtained  measured  in  ranges,  as a v a r i a b l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g  (9) P e r c e n t  both  could  significant  of  the  a d d i t i o n a l parameters  Types  Function  on  1:1,400-1:3,400) even though w i t h i n t h r e e broad  sent:  ing  a few  cover,  interpreted equivalents  Types.  (e.g.,  but  Discriminant  c o r r e c t reassignment  (8)  and  assigned  photos, microdensitometric  Linear  Lichen  the a i r - p h o t o  They are  ground, and  layer d e n s i t i e s provided  Types.  in  ( I , I I , I I I ) are  -  to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of v e g e t a t i o n  occurrence  dye  149  accord-  ranged from  was  1.48%  calculated for  measurements  ranged from 39.6  from  kg.ha ! -  in  zone B to 572.0 k g . h a  southerly  zones  have  Using  top  - 1  -  150  i n zone D.  On  lichen  standing  -  a more g e n e r a l l e v e l ,  crops  larger  than  the  the f o u r more  three n o r t h e r l y  zones. (10) acity  is calculated  quarters  of  represent these  these  half  plan  capacity winter  (11)  that  the  for  the  In  the  can  be  i n any  the  standing  area  to be  total be  used  only  zones  carrying  about  and  three-  E)  an  improved  which  as  other  Carrying  provisional;  factors  that  rotational  16,000 a n i m a l s .  considered  numerous  (D  Over  cap-  I t i s recommended  to develop  be  and  i n two  land area.  p o p u l a t i o n of  should  crop, winter  20,373 r e i n d e e r .  accommodated  area's  present  here  can  severe  alter  the  g i v e n time p e r i o d .  introduction  the l i n k  means are  large-scale  study  study  "middle-ground"  no  lichen  conditions, wildfires  to c l a r i f y by  of  c a p a c i t y estimates  available lichen  aim  the  estimates  snow  for  animals  of  carrying  grazing  with  estimates  i t was  pointed  out  between p l a n t e c o l o g y between the  the  two  two.  The  and  and  the  study  would  remote s e n s i n g , and  outcome of the s t u d y  sciences mutually  remote s e n s i n g work d i r e c t l y  that  e x c l u s i v e and,  logically  builds  deal would  indicates  in fact, on  the  the  ground-  t r u t h work. (12) possible  The  large-scale  applications,  photographs  including  remote s e n s i n g d a t a becomes (13)  The  photographs arctic primary  present can  Rangifer  play  investigation an  with  available  multistage  for  numerous  schemes  as  other  additional  available.  important  rangelands  advantages  use  remain  when  demonstrates and  coupled  f o r using large-scale  range s t u d i e s can be l i s t e d :  that  integrative with  large-scale role  ground-truth  remote s e n s i n g  ( i ) the p o t e n t i a l  exists  in  70  the  mm  study  studies.  systems  CIR of Some  i n northern  f o r measurement of  im-  - 151  portant using  parameters  (e.g.,  s m a l l - s c a l e remote  logistics  cost-effective,  sensing  range  data;  cannot be r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t e d  ( i i ) with i n c r e a s i n g costs  i n the n o r t h ,  l a r g e - s c a l e remote  an a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t w i l l  and ( i i i ) a permanent  d a t a can be o b t a i n e d important  l i c h e n cover) that  f o r ground-truth  a c q u i s i t i o n provides  -  record  effects, multiple-use effects,  (e.g.,  etc.).  range  sensing  field data-  i n the f u t u r e o n l y become more i s provided  while providing future monitoring  characteristics  of  trend,  so t h a t  baseline  capabilities  f o r many  condition,  utilization  - 152 -  LITERATURE CITED  -  Abrahamson, G. 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Perennially frozen peatlands in the western arctic and subarctic of Canada. Can. J . Earth Sci. 12(1): 2843. . 1981. Some nonsorted patterned ground types in northern Canada. Arct. & Alp. Res. 13(2): 139-151.  - 169 -  APPENDIX I  Appendix I.  Structural category 2 *5 5  6 1 2 2 2 1 2 *5 6  6 5 I 6 6 *6  6 6  6 5 5 5 2 2 1 2 2 5 5 *4 5 *5 5 5 4 *5 *5 1 1 1 6 *6 3 3 2  TWINSI'AN-produced t a b u l a r o r d e r i n g of v e g e t a t i o n . Mean percent cover c l a s s and, in parentheses, frequency are summarized f o r the four v e g e t a t i o n groups. Main dichotomies f o r the 420 plant taxa ( i . e . , cut l e v e l s I, 11 and 111 for the species o r d i n a t i o n s ) are i n d i c a t e d i n the t a b l e by broken h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s . Percent cover c l a s s : i » 0-1Z; 2 = 2-42; 3 - 5-92; 4 - 10-19%; 5 = 20-1003!. Frequency i s occurrence of the taxa at s i t e s expressed as a percentage of the t o t a l number of s i t e s i n each v e g e t a t i o n group.  1  Spec i es^  RubuB ohamaemoruB L. Sphagnum rubellum W i l s . S. fuBOum (Schimp.) K l i n g g r . Cetraria ialandiaa (L.) Ach. ssp. ialandica Picea mariana ( M i l l . ) B.S.P. Melandrium taimyrense To lin. Arabia divaricarpa A. Nies. Hedysarwn alpinum L. var. americanum Michx. Arat08taphyloa alpina (L.) Spreng. Pedicularia lapponica L. Plagiothecium denticulatum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. R. grande ( F l b r k e ex F l o t . ) Arn. Surhynchium pulchellum (Hedw.) Jenn. Aratostaphyloa urva-urai ( L . ) Spreng. Peltigera canina (L.) W i l l d . Ochrolechia androgyna (Hoffm.) Arn. A s p i c i l i a nikrapenaie Darb. Candelariella v i t e l l i n a (Ehrh.) M u l l . Arg. Caloplaca sp. Pfiy8cia caesia (Hoffm.) Hampe Myurella julacea (Schwaegr.) B.S.G. Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwaegr.) Hampe Drepanocladus lycopodioides v a r . brevifoliua (Lindb.) Monk. Potentilla norvegica L. S t e l l a r i a laeta Richards. Ledum groenlandicwn Oeder S t e l l a r i a calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong. Pi'aba cinerea Adams Pohlia cruda (Hedw.) Lindb. Isopterygium pulchellum (Hedw.) Jaeg 4 Sauerb. Lophozia alpeatria ( S c h l e i c h ex Web.) Evans Encalypta rhaptocarpa Schwaegr. Bryum lisae var. cuspidatum (B.S.G.) Marg. Plagiomnium medium (B.S.G.) Kop. Plagiothecium laetum B.S.G. Mylia anomala (Hook.) S.F. Gray Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw.) Warnst. Drepanocladua c a p i l l i f o l i u s (Warnst.) Warnst. Picea glauca (Moench) Voss Rosa acicularie Lindl. OxycoccuB microcarpuB Turcz. Cladonia gracilis (L.) W i l l d . ssp. turbinata C. rei Schaer. ElymuB arenarius L. ssp. mollis ( T r i n . ) lin 1 ten Luzula parviflora (Ehrh.) Desv. Polygonum bietorta L. ssp. plumoaum (Small) llutt.  A (n - 32) 1 (16)  -  1 (9) 1 (19)  -  -  -  -  -  -  --  -  -  1  -  -1 (3)  --  -  B (n - 25) 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (72) (24) (44) (28) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (12) (8) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (8) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (40) (28) (20) (12) (12)  _  _  -  -  C (n - 41) 3 1 2 2  (83) (17) (39) (29)  --  -  1 (2)  -  -  ---  --  -  -  --  1 (7) 1 (2) 1 (2)  0 (n = 14) 1 1 1 1  (39) (7) (7) (7)  -_  --  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  --  -  -  1 (2) 1 (2) 1 (2)  -  Structural category 2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 *3 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 *6 6 6 6 *4 5 5 5 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 *4 4 3 2 2 2 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 2  A (n =  1  Species^  Chrysanthemum arcticum L. Alectoria nigricans (Ach.) Nyl. Cladonia fimbriata (L.) F r . C. gracilis (L.) W i l l d . ssp. nigripes Pachyospora verrucosa (Ach.) Mass. Peltigera malacea (Ach.) Funck. Psoroma hypnorum (Vahl.) S. Gray Stereocaulon glareosum (Sav.) Magn. Wilhelmsia physodes ( F i s c h . ) M c N e i l l Carex saxatilis L. var. rhomalea Fern. Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbas Draba longipes Raup Ranunculus nivalis L. Mertensia maritime (L.) S.F. Gray Salix polaris Wahlenb. ssp. peeudopolaris Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh Puccinellia  phryganodes  (Trin.)  elegana  (Flod.) Hult.  -  S c r i b n . 4 Merr.  ( L i n k . ) Th.Fr.  Cladina stellaris Cetraria nivalis Cladina  (C.  .lens, ex  Russ.) C.  Jens.  (Opiz) Brodo (L.) Ach.  arbuecula  ( W a l l r . ) Hale & W.  Culb.  C. rangiferina (L.) Harm. Pertusaria panyrga (Ach.) Mass. Sphaerophorua globosus (Huds.) Vain Stereocaulon paschale (L.) Hoffm. Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. Boschniakia  rossiaa  (Cham & S c h l e c h t . ) Fedtsch.  (3)  -  Cladonia thomaonii A h t i Cladopodiella fluitana (Nees) Joerg. Sphagnum fimbriatum Wils. ex J. Hook. Dicranum groenlandicum Brid. Calliergon giganteum (Schimp.) Kinds. Potentilla norvegica L. Barbilophozia kunzeana (Hub.) Gams. Calypogeia sp. Cephalozia lunulifolia (Dum.) Dum. Gymnocolea inflata Huds.) Dum. Lophozia incisa (Schrad.) Dum. Odontoschism macounii (Aust.) Underw. Ptilidium ciliare (L.) Hampe Scapania irrigua Schust. Tritomaria quinquedentata var. turgida (Lindb.) Weim. Carex livida W i l l d . var. grayana (Dew.) Fern. Corallorhiza trifida Chat. Melandrium offine J . Vahl Petasites arcticua P o r s i l d Sphagnum anguatifolium  B (n =  1  Hippurie tetraphylla L. Myriophyllum exalbescens Fern. Potamogeton vaginatua Turcz. Agyrophora rigida (DuReitz) Llano Xanthoria candelaria (L.) Th.Fr. X.  32)  1 I 1 1  (47) (28) (6) (44)  -  25)  1 1  (4) (4)  -  --  -  -  -  1  (4)  1 I 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1  (4) (4) (4) (8) (8) (92) (24) (40) (88) (4) (8) (4) (12) (4)  C (n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 4 2 2 4 1 1 1 i I  41)  (2) (27) (7) (2) (2) (2) (2) (5) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (5) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (5) (2) (5) (7) (5) (10) (5) (2) (2) (2) (2) (10) (2) (90) (59) (32) (93) (7) (2) (7) (2) (2)  U (n -  1  1  (7)  -  (7)  -  -  -  14)  category  A (n -  Spec iea  2 3 3 2 1 *5 5  Lycopodium annotinum L. Calamagroatia inexpanaa A. Gray Eriophorum vaginatum L. sep. vaginatum Tofieldia puailla Michx.) Pers. Ledum deoumbena ( A i t . ) Lodd. Dioranum brevifolium (Lindb.) Lindb. 0. epadiaeum Zett.  *5  llynum plicatulum  Alectoria Bryoria  oahroleuca nitidula  6  Cladina  6 6 6 4 4  Cladonia squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm. Coeloncaulon divergens (Ach.) R.H. Howe Peltigera scabrosa Th. Fr. Anastrophylum minutum (Schreb.) Schust. Scapania paludicola Loeske i K. H i i l l .  mitie  (Sandst.) Hale & W.  Calamagrostia  Carex rupeatria All. Luzula confusa L i n d e b l . Spiraea beauverdiana Schneid. Hylocomium aplendena (Hedw.) B.S.G. Cladonia deformia (L.) Hoffm. C. gracilis (L.) W i l l d . ssp. gracilis  6 6  C. macrophylla C. sp.  6 6  Dactylina aratiaa (Hook.) Nyl. Ochrolechia frigida (Sw.) Lynge  6 6 4 2 5 *5 5 *5 2 5  neglecta  Culb.  3  Peltigera  -  (Hoffra.) Mass.  3 3 1 5 6 6  *6  (3) (3) (31) (13) (75) (6) (22)  (Lindb. ) Jaeg. & Sauerb.  6 6  (Ehrh.) Gaertn., Mey  & Schreb.  (Schaer.) Stenham.  praetextata  (Flbrke  ex Somm.) Vain  P. epuria (Ach.) DC. Stereocaulon alpinum Laur. Barbilophozia binsteadii (Kaal.) Loeske Rumex arcticus Trautr. Meesia uliginosa Hedw. Oicranum leioneuron Kindh. Sphagnum n&noreum Scop. S. ruasowii Wamst. Pedicularis labradorica Wirsing Sphagnum girgensohnii Russ.  5  S.  6 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 1 5 6  Ichmadophilia ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr. Blepharostoma trichophylla (L.) Dum. Cephalozia plenicepa (Aust.) Lindb. lophozia wenzellii (Nees) Steph. Carex vaginata Tausch Arctagrostie latifolia (R. Br.) Griseb. ssp. Carex conaimilis Holm Luzula nivalis (Laest.) Beurl. Betula glandulosa Michx. Ceratodon purpureua (Hedw.) B r i d . Cladonia acuminata (Ach.) N o r r l .  lenenae  H.  Lindb. ex  32)  (16) (44) (9) (9) (9) (3) (16) (3) (13) (6) (13) (3) (3) (3) (13) (13) (9) (28) (6) (3) (3) (3) (6) (3) (3)  (3) (28) (3)  Pohle  (9)  latifolia  (3) (6) (75) (19) (22) (88) (13) (13)  B (n =  25)  1 (8) 1 (12) 3 (56) 1 (28) 4 (96) 1 (28) 1 (28) 1 (4) 1 (12) 1 (24) 1 (32) 1 (16) 1 (12) 1 (4) 1 (60) 1 (4) 1 (12)  1 1  (4) (4)  -  1 1  (8) (16)  1 1  (4) (8)  1  (4)  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (12) (4) (12) (8) (20) (36) (4) (8)  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1  -  (20) (4) (4) (20) (64) (32) (4) (92) (4) (12)  C (n = 41)  I) (n =  14)  1 3 1 5 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (5) (73) (21) (100) (15) (29) (2) (44) (76) (37) (15) (24) (7) (37) (7) (12) (7) (12) (5) (5) (5) (12) (10) (12) (44) (12) (2) (5) (5) (12) (2)  -  1 (7) 1 (5) 1 (20) 1 (39) 1 (2) 1 (12) 1 (7) 1 (20) 1 (2) 1 (7) 1 (10) 1 (54) 1 (29) 1 (24) 3 (93) 2 (7) 1 (15)  I 1  (7)  -  (29)  _  _  --  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1  (7) (7) (7) (14) (21) (21) (7) (21) (7) (21) (7) (7) (7) (29) (14) (14) (64) (7) (7)  St r u c t u r a l * category 6 6 1 1 1 2 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 *6 6 6 1 5 6 6 3 6 6 6 3 6 2 2 1 1 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 *6 6 6 6 6 3 2 *6 3 3 3 3  A (n =  Spec Les^  C. cornuta (L.) Hoffm. C pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. /Mnu8 criapa  (Ait.)  Pursh  Bmpetrum nigrum L. ssp. hermaphroditum (Lge.) Vacctnium vitis—idaea L. var. minus Lodd. Petasites aagittatua (Banks) A. Gray Aulacomnium tuvgidum (Wahlenb.) Schwaegr. Dicranum elongatum S c h l e i c h ex Schwaegr. Polytrichum atrictum B r i d . Tomenthypnum nitena (Hedw.) Loeske Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer. C. coccifera (L.) W i l l d . C. C.  pleuvota ( F l b r k e ) Schaer. Bulphurina (Michx.) F r i e s  Peltigera aphthoaa (L.) W i l l d . Thamnolia subuliformia (Ehrh.) W. Culb. Arotoataphyloe  rubra  (Rehd. & Wils.) Fern.  Pohlia nutans (Hedw.) Lindb. Cladonia amaurocraea ( F l b r k e ) Schaer. Ochrolechia gyalectina (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Hierochloe alpina (Sw.) R. & S. Cetraria cucullata ( B e l l ) Ach. C. ericetorum Opiz Cladonia  chlorophaea  ( F l b r k e ex  Somm.) Spreng.  Carex lugens Holm Cladonia pocillum (Ach.) 0. Rich. Cardamine digitata Richards Epilobium anguatifolium L. Rhododendron lapponicum (I..) Wahlenb. Vaccinium uliginosum L. Androsace aeptentrionalis L. Sauaaurea anguatifolia ( W i l l d . ) DC. Cetraria laevigata Rass. C. pinastri  (Scop.) S.  Gray  C. aepinicola (Ehrh.) Ach. Cladonia cyanipea (Somm.) Nyl. C. phyllophora Hoffm. C. acabriuacula ( D e l . ex Duby) Nyl. Hypogymnia aueterodee (Nyl.) Ras. Parmelia eeptentrionali8 (Lynge) A h t i Parmeliopaia ambigua (Wulf.) Nyl. Solorina biepora Nyl. Festuca brochyphylla Schultes Stellaria longipes C o l d i e Ochrolechia inaequatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Poa prateneia L. P. arctica R.Br. ssp. arctica Kobreaia  myoauroidea  Carex maritima  Gunn.  ( V i l l . ) F i o r i & Paol.  Bocher  32)  1 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 1 4 3 2  (28) (16) (9) (78) (78) (41) (44) (78) (66) (44) (19) (44) (31) (59) (53) (38) (81) (66) (59) (66) (31) (91) (81) (63)  3 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 I  (50) (63) (16) (3) (9) (44) (3) (28) (25) (19) (13) (13) (3) (13) (6) (19) (16) (3) (16) (44) (6) (28) (9) (3) (3)  B (n = I  -  25) (44)  3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 1  (68) (84) (92) (56) (56) (80) (84) (60) (36) (48) (28) (40) (68) (64) (80) (68) (72) (64) (12) (80) (56) (44)  3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (72) (44) (16) (4) (20) (68) (8) (48) (40) (32) (28) (12) (8) (32) (8) (32) (28) (4) (8) (24) (8) (28) (4)  -  C (n =  41)  1 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 3 2 1  (34) (17) (44) (88) (100) (12) (54) (88) (78) (7) (41) (46) (37) (54) (44) (41) (83) (68) (66) (68) (27) (90) (83) (54)  2 1 1 1 1 2  (44) (37) (10) (2) (2) (41)  -  1 1 1 1 1  (12) (12) (5) (2) (5) _  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (2) (2) (5)  -  (20) (27) (2) (17) (10) (2) (2)  D (n =  14)  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (14) (7) (21) (36) (29) (7) (14) (21) (21) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7)  1 1 1  (7) (7) (7)  I 1  (14) (7)  1  (7)  _ _ _ _  -  Structural category 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 6 6 *6 6 6 6 6 6 6 *6 6 6 6 1 4 1 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 1  1  Species  2  C. gynocratea Wormskj C. scirpoidea Midi*. C. atrofusca Schk. Habenaria obtusata (Pursh) Richards. Salix niphoelada Rydb. S. alaxensis (Anderss.) Cov. Cevaatium beeringianum Cham. & Schlecht. Minuartia rubella (Wahlenb.) l l i e r n . Chrysosplenium tentandrum (Lund) F r i e s Potentilla frutioosa L. Lupinus arcticus Wats. Astragalus alpinus L. ConioBelenum cnidiifolium (Turcz. ) P o r s i l d Pyrola secunda L. var. secunda P. grandiflora Radius Cassiope tetragona (L.) D. Don ssp. tetragona Androsace chamaejasme Host. var. arctica Knuth Polemonium acutiflorum Willd. Pedicularis capitata Adams Petaaites frigidus (L.) F r i e s Arnica alpina (I..) O l i n Senecio lugens Richards S. atropurpureus  (Ledeb.)  Fedtsch.  Taraxacum dumetorum Greene Thuidium abietinum (Hedw.) B.S.G. Rhytidium rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb. Diatichium capillaceium (Hedw.) B.S.G. Hypnum hamulosum B.S.G. Bacidia sphaeroides (Dicks.) Zahlbr. Cladonia bacillaria (Ach.) N y l . C. carneola ( F r . ) Fr. C. lepidota N y l . Hypogymnia physodea (L.) W. Wats. Lecanora epibryon (Ach.) Ach. '•opadium pezizoideum (Ach). Kb'rb. Parmelia eulcata T a y l . Peltigera leucophlebia (Nyl.) Gyeln . P. neckeri Muell. Arg. Phyaconia  muBcigena  (Ach.)  Poelt.  Rinodina turfacea (Wahlenb.) Korb Solorina spongiosa (Sm.) Anzi. Ribes triste Pall. Scapania sp. Salix glauca L. Stellaria eduardsii R. Br. Bromua pumpellianus Scribn. var. pumpellianus Trisetum spicatum (L.) Richt. Alopecurus alpinus J.E. Smith Carex miaandra R. Br. Salix reticulata L. S. phlebophylla Anderss. S. chami830nis  Anderss.  A (n = 32) I 1 I 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 I 1 1 1 1 2 1 1  (22) (19) (6) (3) (3) (59) (6) (3) (3) (3) (69) (19) (6) (59) (78) (25) (3) (3) (53) (3) (13) (53) (6) (3) (53) (63) (34) (6) (6) (3) (13) (3) (34) (16) (3) (22) (34) (6) (25) (22) (3) (6) (3) (66) (25) (3) (3) (9) (3) (34) (6) (6)  B (n - 25) 1 (8) 1 (4)  -  C (n = 41)  (44) (4) (4) (4) (4) (28) (8) (4) (48) (68) (16) (4)  -  1  (24)  1 1 1 1 2 2 1  (8) (40) (4) (4) (28) (48) (16)  -  1  -  1 (10) 1 (7) 2 (5)  -  1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 I 1 1 1 2 1  (12) (12)  -  (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) (36) (4)  -  --  (2) (5) (2) (5) (20)  -  1 (22) 1 (32) 1 (17) 1 (2)  -  -  -  (17)  -  1 (10) 1 (5)  1 (8) 1 (4) 1 (4) 1 (40)  -  -  -  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  -(5) -(7) (7) (5) (5) (7) (5) (10) (10)  -  -  1 (20) 1 (5)  -  1 (2)  -  14)  _  1 (12) 1 (10) 1 (2)  1 (4) 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  D (n =  1  (14)  -  -  1 (7)  -  - ' -  -  -  -  2 (29) 1 (7)  -  -  -  -  Structural* category  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 5 *2 2 2 1 2 2 *6 6 6 *6 6 6 *6 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 *6 6  6 *6 6 6 6 5 1 4 2 5  Species  Anemone parviflora Michx. RanunouluB pedatifiduB Sm. var. leiocarpua (Trautv.) Fern. Draba alpina L. D. nivalie Liljebl. D. glabella Pursh Veaaurainia aophioidea ( F i s c h . ) O.E. Schulz Soxifraga folioloaa R. Br. 5. hiroulua L. var propinqua (R.Br.) Siram. S. triouapidata Rottb. Parnaasia kotzebuei Cham. & S c h l e c t . Potentilla nivea L. Vryaa integrifolia M . Vahl 0xytropi8 deflexa ( P a l l . ) DC. var. folioloaa (Hook.) Barneby 0. maydelliana Trautv. Ditrichum flexioaule (Schwaegr.) Hampe Oxytropia varians (Rydb.) K. Schum. Armeria maritima ( M i l l . ) W i l l d . Caatilleja elegans (Ostenf.) Malte Linnaea borealis I., var. amerioana (Forbes) Rehd. Achillea lanuloaa Nutt. Artemeaia tileaii Ledeb. Bacidia epixanthoides (Nyl.) L e t t . Caloplaca atillicidiorum (Vahl.) Lynge Cladonia cryptochlorophaea As ah. Gyalecta foveolaris (Ach.) Schaer. Ochrolechia upaaliensia (L.) Mass. Peltigera rufescens (Weis.) Humb. Rinodina roscida (Somm.) A r n . Solorina saccata (L.) Ach. Toninia lobulata (Sonn.) Lynge Astragalus eucosmus Robins. Potentilla pulchella R. Br. Arenana capillaris P o i r var. nardifolia (Ledeb.) Regel Rhodiola integrifolia Raf. Gentiana propinqua Richards. Matricaria ambigua (Ledeb.) K r y l . Buellia papillata (Somm.) Tuck. Collema bachmanianum (Fink) Degel. var baokmanianum C. sp. Leptogium tenuissimum (Dicks.) F r . Rinodina septentrionalis Walme Buellia zahlbruckneri J . Stein. Lecanora coilocarpa (Ach.) N y l . Phyacia aipolia (Ehrh.) Hampe Brachythecium turgidum ( C . J . Hartm.) Kindb. Salix farriae Ball Lophozia heterocolpoe (Thed.) M.A. Howe Taraxacum lacerum Greene Deamatodon heimii var. arctica (Lindb.) Crum  5  D. cernuus  5 3  Tortella fragilia (Drumm.) Limpr. Carex holoetoma Drej.  (Hub.) B.S.G.  A (n = 32) (9) (9) (3) (3) (6) (6) (3) (6) (9) (13) (6) (72) (6) (22) (3) (3) (6) (22) (3) (3) (3) (3) (6) (3) (3) (16) (16) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3) (3)  B (n = 25)  C (n = 41)  1 (32) 1 (4) -  1 (2) -  -  -  D (n = 14)  -  1 (20) 1 (2) 1 (7) 1 (2)  -  -  "  I  -  -  S  -  -  Ui '  1 (4) -  1 (4)  1 (2)  St r u c t u r a I category 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 6 5 5 *6 2 5 5 3 5 5 *5 *5 4 1  1  Species  2  Chrysanthemum integrifolium Richards Erigeron humilis Crah. Antennaria angustata Greene Stellaria subvestita Greene Dryas arenulata J«z. Potentilla rubricaulis Lehra. Achillea nigresaens (E. Mey.) Rydb. Kobresia hyperborea P o r s i l d Agropyron sericeum l l i t c h c . Artemesia frigida Willd. Solidago multiradiata Ait. Honckenya peploides (L.) Ehrh. var. diffusa (Hornera.) Mattf. Draba corymbosa R. Br. Lecanora eymmicta (Acli.) Ach. Leptobryum pyriforme (Hedw.) Wils. Brachythecium salebrosum (Web. & Mohr) B.S.G. Cladonia coniocraea ( F l b r k e ) Spreng. Polygonum alaskanum (Small) Wight Oncophorus uahlenbergii Brid. Tortula  ruralis  (Hedw.) Gaertn., Meyer & Scherb.  Carex glareosa Wahlenb. var. amphigena Fern. Timmia austriaca Hedw. Brachythecium sp. fl. velutinum  A (n = 32)  (n = 25)  C (n - 41)  (n = 14)  I (3) 1 (3) 1 (6) 1 (6) 1 (6) 1 (3) 1 (3) 1 (3) 1(3) 1 (3) 1 (3). I (3) 1 (3) 1 (3) I (3) 1 (3) 1 (3) 1 (3) 1 (3) 1 (6)  1 (3) 1 (3) 1 (3)  (Hedw.) B.S.G.  1 (3)  Amblystegium serpens (Hedw.) B.S.G. Preissia quadrata (Scop.) Nees Salix arbusculoides Anderss.  1 (3) 1 (6) 3 (44)  2 2 2 5 1 1 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 5  Equisetum scirpoides Michx. Pedicularis lanata Cham & Schlecht. P. arctica R. Br. Drepanocladus vernicosus (Lindb. ex C. Hartm.) Warnst. Salix arctica Pall. S. arctophila Cockerel 1 Aulacomnium palustre (Hedw.) Schwaegr. Poa alpigena ( F r . ) Lindm. Pulsatilla ludoviciana (Nutt.) H e l l e r Anemone richardsonii Hook. Ranunculus lapponicus L. Oxytropis glutinosa Porsild Festuca rubra L. Poa glauaa M. Vahl. Drepanocladus sp.  2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1  (25) (31) (31) (22) (19) (22) (66) (9) (3) (6) (6) (6) (6) (6) (3)  2 3 1 2 5 3 1  Equisetum arvense L. Carex biaolor A l l . Salix pulchra Cham. Rubus acaulis Michx. Drepanocladus uncinatuts (Hedw.) Warnst. Carex capillaris L. Salix lanata L. ssp. richardsonii (Hook.) Skvortsov  1 1 3 1 1 I 1  (13) (3) (38) (3) (16) (9) (6)  -  -  -  I (12)  1 (12)  1 (14)  ! (28)  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (14) (14) (14) (7) (36) (14) (50) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7)  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  (36) (7) (36) (7) (14) (21) (14)  1 1 1 1 1  (44) (28) (12) (32) (28) (80) 1 (4) 1 (4)  -  (20) (17) (17) (2) (27) (17) (44) (5)  -  1 (4)  1 (5)  1 (16)  -(32)  1 (7) 1 (2) 1 (20)  (4) (8) (12) (8)  1 (2) 1 (2)  -  2 1 1 1 1  -  -  Structural' category 3 2 5 5 3 2 2 3 5 4 3 3  5 *5 3 2 *5 6 2 5 3 2 5 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 *5 2 3 2 *1 5 5  Species^  (n =  Deachampaia oaespitosa (L.) Beauv. Pinguicula villoaa L. Drepanooladua badiua ( C . J . Hartm.) Roth Paludella aquarrosa (Hedw.) B r i d . luzula uahlenbergii Rupr. Polygonum viviparum L. Pediaularia audetioa W i l l d . Calamagroatia oanadenaia (Michx.) Beauv. flryum paeudotriquetrum  Carex rariflora  (Rupr.) Ilulten  Sm.  Galium trifidum L. Sphagnum obtusum Warnst. Carex rotundata Wahlenb. Ranunculus gmelenii DC. Polytrichum commune Hedw. Equisetum variegatum S c h l e i c h . Arctophila fulva ( T r i n . ) Rupr. Hierochloe pauciflora R. Br. Eriophorum ruaseolum F r . var. albidum N y l . E. brachyantherum Trautv. E. angustifolium Honck. Carex chordorrhiza L. C aquatilia Wahlenb. Salix fusaeacena Anderss. Ranunculus hyperboreus Rottb. Potentilla paluatria (L.) Scop. Epilobium palustre L. Rippuria vulgaris L. richardsonii  1 1 1 1  (6)  -  Senecio oongeatus (R. Br.) DC. Drepanooladua aduncua (Hedw.) Warnst. Nephroma arcticum (L.) T o r s s .  Calliergon  (6)  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2  ( M i t t . ) Kindb. ex Warnst.  Plagiomnium ellipticum ( B r i d . ) Kop. Catosoopium nigritum (Hedw.) B r i d . Cinclidium subrotundum Lindb. Calliergon sarmentoaum (Wahlenb.) Kindb. Cochlearia officionalie L. asp. arctica (Schlecht.) Hult. Carex physocarpa P r e s l . Montia lamproaperma Cham. Salix planifolia Pursh ssp. planifolia Hypnum pratenae Koch ex B r i d . Rhizomnium gracile Kop.  1  1  1 1  (20)  1  (8)  -  1  ---  -  -(3) 1 1  (8)  -  1  (4)  -  -  --  (4)  1  (4)  - -  (5)  -  1 I  (2) (5)  1 (20) 1 (2) 1 (5) 1 (47) 1 (2) 1 (5) 1 (2)  -  1 1 1  (7) (2) (5)  1 1 1  -  (3)  -  (8)  (2) (5)  1  -  -  2 1  '  -  --  (3)  (2)  -  1 1  (4)  -  -(13)  1  (8)  -  41)  -  -  (3)  1  (n =  (8) (4) (4) (4)  -  1  25)  -  (3) (13) (13) (3) (13) (6) (6) (16)  -  Mik.  (Wahlenb.)  (n =  -  (Hedw.) Gaerto., Meyer & Scherb.  Marchantia jiolymorpha L. Dupontia fisheri R. Br. ssp. p8iloaantha Carex membranacea Hook. Andromeda polifolia L. Bryum sp. Calliergon megalophyllum  1  32)  (7) (2) (17)  1  -  1 1  (20)  (2) (2)  -  -  -  -  (n = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3  14)  (14) (7) (7) (7) (7) (14) (14) (14) (29) (14) (21) (21)  1 (79) 1 (7) 1 (7) 4 (64) 1 (7) 1 (7) 1 (7) 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 3 3 4 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1  (7) (14) (36) (21) (21) (7) (21) (7) (64) (29) (93) (50) (93) (7) (7) (43) (43) (14) (7) (14) (7) (7) (7) (7) (14) (7) (7) (7) (7)  -~1  St r u c t u r a l ' category 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 2 4 4 4 *4 4 4 5 5 5 1 5  Species^ Cinalidium stygium Sw. Calliergon atramineum ( B r i d . ) Kindb. Campylium atellatwn (Hedu.) C. Jens. Cinalidium arotioum (B.S.G.) Schimp. Drepanooladua exannulatus (B.S.G.) Warnst. D. fluitana (Hedw.) Warnst. Sphagnum aongstroemii C. Hartin. Scorpidium scorpioidea (Hedw.) Limpr. Cardomine pratanaia L. Caltha paluatria L. var. paluatria Anuura pinguia (L.) Dun. Calypogeia muelleriana ( S c h i f f n . ) K. M i i l l . Cephalozia ap. Barbilophozia attenuata (Mart.) Loeske Lophozia rutheana (Limpr.) M.A. Howe I. ventriooaa ( R i c k s . ) Dum. Sphagnum oompaotum OC. ex Lam. & DC S. aquarroaum Crome S. teres (Scliiinp.) Angstr. ex C. Hartm. Chamaedaphne oalyaulata (L.) Moench S. majua (Russ.) C. Jens.  A (n =  32)  1 (6) 1 (6) -  -  1 (6) 1 (3) -  -1 (3) -  B (n -  25)  C (n = _ -  _ 1 1  (4) (4) -  --  1 (13) 1 (5)  -  -  -  _  1 (4) 1 (8) 1 (4) 1 (12) 1 (8)  41)  _ 1 1 1 1  (5) (17) (5) (2) -  D (n = 1 2 2 2 3 2 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 I I  1 2 3 I 1  14)  (7) (29) (29) (57) (36) (29) (21) (50) (29) (21) (14) (7) (7) (7) (7) (7) (21) (50) (14) (29) (7)  ' s t r u c t u r a l category: 1. t r e e s and woody shrubs; 2. broad-leaved herbs; 3. graminoids ( i . e . grass and g r a s s - l i k e p l a n t s o f the f a m i l i e s Gramineae, Cyperaoeae and Junoaoeae) ; 4. h e p a t i c s ; 5. mosses; 6. l i c h e n s . nomenclature f o l l o w s P o r s i l d 4 Cody (1980) for v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , S t o t l e r & C r a n d a l 1-Stot l e r (1977) for h e p a t i c s , I r e l a n d et al. (1980) f o r mosses, and Hale 4 Culberson (1970) for l i c h e n s , e x c e p t i n g Cladina atellaris (Opiz) Brodo (Brodo 1976) and Cladonia thomaonii A h t i ( A h t i 1978). *new r e c o r d or range e x t e n s i o n for taxa v e r i f i e d by G.W. Argus (Salix), J.M. G i l l e t t ( o t h e r v a s c u l a r t a x a ) , L.M. Ley ( h e p a t i c s ) , R.R. I r e l a n d (mosses), I.M. Brodo and P.Y. Wong ( l i c h e n s ) . 2  Publications  Sims, R.A. and P.A. Murtha. ( I n p r e s s . ) Reindeer at Mackenzie: a s e l e c t e d annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y . Dep. I n d i a n A f f a i r s & N o r t h . Develop., Ottawa, Ont. E n v i r o n . Stud. Rep. 115 pp. C o w e l l , D.W., A.N. Boissonneau, J.K. Jeglum, G.M. Wickware and R.A. Sims. ( I n p r e s s . ) Hudson Bay Lowland p e a t l a n d i n v e n t o r y . _In P r o c . P e a t l a n d I n v e n t o r y Worksh., 9-10 Mar., 1982, Ottawa, Ont. Spons. by NRC's Peat Forum and the Can. Wetland Working Group, CCELC. Sims, R.A., D.W. Cowell and G.M. Wickware. 1982. Classification fens near southern James Bay, O n t a r i o u s i n g v e g e t a t i o n a l  physiognomy.  of  Can. J . Bot. 60:2608-2623.  Sims, R.A., D.W. Cowell and G.M. Wickware. 1982. The use of v e g e t a t i o n a l physiognomy i n c l a s s i f y i n g t r e e d p e a t l a n d s near southern James Bay, O n t a r i o . Nat, can. (Rev. E c o l . S y s t . ) 109:611-619. C o w e l l D.W., R.A. Sims and G.M. Wickware. 1982. s o i l s i n the Hudson Bay Lowland, O n t a r i o . 62:421-425.  F r o z e n beach r i d g e Can. J . S o i l S c i .  Sims, R.A. and J.M. Stewart. 1981. A e r i a l biomass d i s t r i b u t i o n i n an u n d i s t u r b e d and d i s t u r b e d s u b a r c t i c bog. Can. J . B o t . 59:782-786. Sims, R.A. and P.A. Murtha. 1981. A m u l t i s t a g e remote s e n s i n g program to a s s e s s r e i n d e e r r a n g e l a n d . P r o c . E c o l o g . Data P r o c e s s . & I n t e r p . Worksh., T e r r . Stud. B r . , Min. of E n v i r o n . , V i c t o r i a , B.C.:345-352. Wickware, G.M., D.W. Cowell and R.A. Sims. 1981. Peat r e s o u r c e s of the Hudson Bay Lowland C o a s t a l Zone. P r o c . VI I n t e r n a t . Peat Congr., D u l u t h , Minn., Aug. 18-21, 1980:138-153. Glooschenko, W.A., R. Sims, M. Gregory and T. Mayer. 1981. Chapt. 18: Use of bog v e g e t a t i o n as a monitor of atmospheric i n p u t of metals. In Atmospheric Input of P o l l u t a n t s to N a t u r a l Waters. Ann Arbor Science P u b l . , Amer. Chem. Soc.:389-399. Wickware, G.M., R.A. Sims, K. Ross, and D.W. Cowell. 1981. The a p p l i c a t i o n of remote s e n s i n g and techniques f o r an e c o l o g i c a l l a n d survey of the Snow Goose colony at Cape H e n r i e t t a M a r i a , Hudson Bay. P r o c . 6th Can. Symp. Rem. Sens.:387-395. 2  Publications  Page 2  Wickware, G.M., D. Cowell, K. Ross and R.A. Sims. 1980. U t i l i z a t i o n of e c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d a t a f o r the study and management of w a t e r f o w l r e s o u r c e i n the Hudson Bay Lowland. I n L a n d / W i l d l i f e I n t e g r a t i o n , Lands D i r e c t . , Ottawa. E c o l . Land C l a s s i f . Rep. No. 11:45-50. B a r c l a y - E s t r u p , P. and R.A. Sims. 1979. E p i p h y t e s on Ulmus americana L. near Thunder Bay, O n t a r i o . Can. F i e l d - N a t . 93(2):139-143. C o w e l l , D.W., G.M. Wickware and R.A. Sims. 1979. E c o l o g i c a l l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Hudson Bay Lowland c o a s t a l zone, O n t a r i o . P r o c . Second Can. Comm. E c o l . Land C l a s s . , V i c t o r i a , A p r i l 4-7, 1978. E c o l . Land C l a s s i f . Rep. No. 7:165-175. Sims, R.A., J . L . R i l e y and J.K. Jeglum. 1979. V e g e t a t i o n , f l o r a and v e g e t a t i o n a l ecology of the Hudson Bay Lowland - a l i t e r a t u r e review and annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y . Can. F o r . Serv., S a u l t S t e . M a r i e , Ont., I n f . Rep. O-X-297. 177 p. Sims, R.A. 1978. The use of 'muskeg caps' t o d e t e r f r o s t p e n e t r a t i o n under t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e tower bases. P r o c . 17th Muskeg Res. Conf., Nat. Res. C o u n c i l Tech. Memo. No. 122:116-131. Haworth, S.E., D.W. Cowell and R.A. Sims. 1978. B i b l i o g r a p h y of p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e on the Hudson Bay Lowland. Can. F o r . Serv., S a u l t Ste. M a r i e , Ont., I n f . Rep. O-X-273. 270 p.  

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