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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The appraisal of Canadian military personnel files of the First World War Mitchell, Gary A. 1984

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THE  APPRAISAL  OF OF  CANADIAN M I L I T A R Y PERSONNEL THE F I R S T WORLD WAR  FILES  By GARY B.A.,  The  A THESIS  A.  University SUBMITTED  THE  MITCHELL of B r i t i s h  IN P A R T I A L  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  OF  FOR  THE  ARCHIVAL  Columbia,  FULFILLMENT DEGREE  1976 OF  OF  STUDIES  in THE  FACULTY  OF  Administered The  School  of  and  accept to  THE  this  Librarianship  of  History  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  Gary  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  October ©.  by  the  Department We  ARTS  COLUMBIA  1984  A. M i t c h e l l ,  1984  22  »E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  history .  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T  D  a  (3/81)  1Y3  t  e  20 A p r i l  1985  written  - i i -  ABSTRACT  Faced created  with  by  the  government  n e c e s s a r i l y  had  and  d e s t r o y .  what  to  p r a c t i c a l records and  are  a p p r a i s a l  of  s t i l l  as  a p p l i e s World  revealed  I  m i l i t a r y  personnel  of  strategy  a p p r a i s a l to  r u l e  World  records  World  I.  Some  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y a  the  a  reading  p r o c e s s ,  records  I,  a n a l y s i s  has  p a r t i c u l a r  d i s c u s s i o n  of  by  a r c h i v i s t s  b a s i s on  to  of  of  the  s u b j e c t ,  a p p r a i s a l  by  a  of  to  paid  to  s t u d i e s  a p p r a i s a l  of  p r o f e s s i o n a l  which  survey  several  that  m i l i t a r y during  m i l i t a r y appear  m i l i t a r y  the  combattant  Force  the  have of  Canadian  E x p e d i t i o n a r y been  the  concepts  personnel  Canadian  of  f i l e s .  a p p r a i s a l  an  out  l i t e r a t u r e  l i t e r a t u r e  and  body  conceptual  the  and  a p p r a i s a l  worked  the  records  have  given  the  the  in  in  in  i n v o l v e s  a t t e n t i o n  and  any  determine  War  of  in  the  modern  preserve  for  to  m i l i t a r y  personnel  to  been  examines  found  during  r e l e v a n t  t h e s i s  to  basis  thoroughly  concepts  developed  War  not  of  a r c h i v i s t s  what  a p p r a i s a l  to  on  d i s p o s i t i o n  about  conceptual of  volume  b o d i e s ,  c h o i c e s  The  has  expanding  other  matters  r e s e a r c h  l i t e r a t u r e  s t a t e s  and  make  This i t  War  The  been  to  and  implementation  a r c h i v e s .  and  great  to  be  personnel  records . It  was  were  not  have  r a r e l y  found  treated been  that as  are  by  and  other  preserved  in  large  m i l i t a r y  personnel t h e i r  or  e n t i r e t y  personnel  case by  f i l e s ,  records which  a r c h i v e s .  - i i i -  Although  the  of  the  be  o b j e c t i v e l y  for  CEF  reasons  m i l i t a r y  other  based  on  on  the  As  w e l l ,  Canada, di  analysed It  standards and  r e s e a r c h  a  are  in is  the  not  e n t i r e l y  c l e a r ,  records  suggests  that  way  proposed  contemporary f u r t h e r ,  use  the  various  which  holds  s c u s s e d .  t h i s  personnel  r e c o r d s .  undertaken,  for  to  options the  CEF  that  with  l a t e r  which  a r c h i v i s t s  the open  the  an  to  m i l i t a r y  the  can  are  P u b l i c  personnel  can  a n a l y s i s can  be  put  they  study  proposed  i n i t i a l  records  a p p r a i s a l records  have  a  be  made in  the  A r c h i v e s r e c o r d s ,  based i n t e r v a l . of are  - i v -  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Chapter I.  Page I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  II.  The  Changing  I I I .  The  D i s p o s i t i o n  A IV. V.  Concepts of  M u l t i n a t i o n a l  Canadian  M i l i t a r y  C o n c l u s i o n  of  A r c h i v a l  M i l i t a r y  A p p r a i s a l  Personnel  . . . .  F i l e s :  P e r s p e c t i v e Personnel  F i l e s :  4  55 An  A n a l y s i s  .  76 89  Notes  108  Bi b l iography  119  -1CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  In Force  1983,  were  the  personnel  d e p o s i t e d  of  Canada.  With  of  National  Defense  and of  s e l e c t i o n these  was  In  the  of  permanent  into  r e t e n t i o n " many  has  d e c i s i o n , f i d e n t  as  an  one  on  form  a  a  wide  than  to  f i l e s  body  group  u n d e r e s t i m a t e d .  the  one  which  process future  reached  of  a p p r a i s a l  d i s p o s i t i o n  by  f i l e s  the  P u b l i c  permanently.  i n  t h i s  case  that  without  the  a r c h i v a l  community  g u i d e l i n e s use  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  the  Department  accepted  and  They  the  have  of has  been  d e c l a r e d  f o r  a  i n  have the  "permanent  postponement  stands  used  r e s -  c h a l l e n g e d that  of  the  an  d e c i s i v e  term  a r c h i v a l and  con-  judgement.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  importance  w i t h i n  f o r  a  A r c h i v e s  been  widespread  stands  from  d e c i s i o n ,  have  Expeditonary  P u b l i c  the  personnel  a u t h o r i t i e s .  personnel a  The  the  evaluate  standards  a p p r a i s a l  which  rather  determined,  data  the  of  A r c h i v e s ,  a p p r a i s a l would  Canadian  d e c i s i o n  the  trends  m a t e r i a l .  a p p r a i s a l  The be  recent  q u e s t i o n  to  a p p r a i s a l a l l  the  c u s t o d i a n s h i p  P u b l i c  undertaken  i n i t i a l  of  custody  of  the  r e t a i n  a r c h i v a l  become  to  r e t e n t i o n ,  of  the  Change  The  the  But  a p p r a i s a l  by  was  to  p a s t ,  e r v a t i o n . placed  the  f i l e s .  A r c h i v e s  into  f i l e s  of of  of  the  CEF  m a t e r i a l Canadians  which who,  c r o s s - s e c t i o n  nation  and  C o n s i d e r i n g  r e p r e s e n t ,  of  as  c o n t a i n s i n  the  h i s t o r y ,  the  importance  as  can  personal  p e r i o d  Canadian  i t s  f a r  1914-1919,  s o c i e t y .  t h e r e f o r e , which  the  cannot f i l e s  Their be have  -2-  and of  the  recent  permanent  a r c h i v i s t  i f  a p p r a i s a l  i s  In any  an  f u t u r e  a  on  a p p r a i s a l ; a p p r a i s a l  the  CEF  of  on  for  the  the  S c h e l l e n b e r g  and  be  to  over  time  can  be  a p p r a i s a l The  CEF  personnel  f i l e s ,  of  the  the i n i t i a l  The  the  next  f i l e s ; chapter  regarding  our  study  a r c h i v a l  i n t e r n a t i o n a l  personnel  l i t e r a t u r e w i l l  examine have  seen  use  to  A r c h i v e s '  c o n c l u s i o n s  p o l i c i e s  time  can  various  t h i r d  placed  chapter  The  w i l l  l i t e r a t u r e  community  and  an  w i l l  towards  a n a l y s i s  examine  so  w i l l  in  that  i t s  major  ideas  of  the  object  of  of  of  the and  the  a p p l i c a t i o n  the  by  InT.R. by  methods  a r c h i v a l  the  with  these  d i s c u s s i o n  methods  present  by  sampling  and  the  t h r u s t  f i l e s .  of  ideas  the  presented  t r e a t i s e  study  h i s t o r i c a l  deal  l i m i t e d ,  personnel  support  ideas  is  i m p l i c a t i o n s  a p p r a i s a l  changes  in  the  popular  these  the  p u b l i s h e d  the  and  the  be  H u l l .  the  on  m i l i t a r y  w i l l  compared,  be  of  F e l i x  p r e s e n t i n g  and  a p p r a i s a l  and  r e c e n t l y  gained  trends  on  concentrate  over  the  w i l l  the  v i a b l e  d i s c u s s i o n :  d i s c u s s i o n  a r c h i v i s t  f a s h i o n ,  blanket  a v a i l a b l e  P u b l i c  of  a p p r a i s a l  B r i t i s h  By  the  the  a p p r a i s a l .  the  munity.  of  of  options  areas  f i l e s .  a r c h i v i s t s  in  the  some  the  m i l i t a r y  d i s c u s s i o n  concepts  are  reach of  three  personnel  various  cluded  to  the  Although the  what  acceptance  undertaken?  the  of  from  r e - c o n s i d e r a t i o n  a p p r a i s a l  l i t e r a t u r e  away  r e t e n t i o n ,  attempt  concentrate on  trends  in  a  which com-  c h r o n o l o g i c a l of  a p p r a i s a l  s i t u a t i o n  in  p e r s p e c t i v e . p r a c t i c a l  a p p l i c a t i o n  -3-  of appraisal, specifically concerning military personnel files. A survey was undertaken of the treatment of military personnel files by the national archives of the World War I combattant states.  Special attention was paid to the policies of the  national archives to see if the military personnel files are treated in a unique fashion or if they are treated as ordinary ca se fi1 es . With the background supplied by the literature and the practical policies highlighted by the international archives' survey, the fourth capter will concentrate on the personnel files of the CEF.  No proper appraisal of material can occur without  an in-depth analysis of the documents concerned. Once the archivist has investigated the nature of the files, he can consider the various options which may be open to him to determine disposition of the files.  Using a small sample of files, an  analysis of the various documents present and their informational content was undertaken. The final chapter will present the various options which an archivist may consider in the appraisal of the CEF personnel files.  Drawing on the trends and methods highlighted by the  literature, the practical applications presented by the international survey, and by using the analysis of the files themselves, we can then examine at least hypothetically the options open to archives.  Although the discussion of the various appraisal  options will deal specifically with the personnel files of the CEF, the approach taken in this study should be applicable to analysis of the value of all case files.  -4-  CHAPTER THE  For  CHANGING  over  f i v e  was  to  preserve  the  p r e s e r v a t i o n  the  parchment  would  have  would  s e l e c t  that  r e t e n t i o n  the  a r c h i v i s t ,  from  of  simply  records The turn  of  to  emerge  of  the  as  i n  r o l e  the  of  as  an  i n  He  t a b l e t s ,  the  from him to  the  issue  d e f i n i t i o n  In  a p p r a i s a l  t h i s  i n  t o o l .  The  s a c r i l e g i o u s . records  f u n c t i o n of  h i s  a p p r a i s a l  the  of  to  b o i l  at  have  of been  we  s h a l l  with  an  phase  the  same  p e r i o d .  the that  subsequent and  s u r p r i s e  emphasis  modern  time  a r c h i v e s ,  trace  d i d  War  s i n c e  The  a  r o l e  of  World  simmering  of  records  implementation  post-Second  been  not  f i r s t  of  d e f i n i t i o n  management  l i t e r a t u r e ,  suggest  been  major  It  a r c h i v i s t s To  have  i n t r o d u c e d .  c h a p t e r ,  day  time.  the  had  should  of  to  s c r o l l s ,  s e l e c t o r - d e s t r o y e r .  began  and  dedicated  papyrus  a p p r a i s a l a  a r c h i v i s t  to  the  were  would  h i s  with  which  programs  p r o f e s s i o n ,  a p p r a i s a l  b e l i e f ,  one  the  was  ravages  into  i n  of  p r e s e r v e d .  the  evolve  task  that  be  seen  change  merely  the  records  has  p r a c t i c e s  c e n t u r y ,  p r a c t i t i o n e r s . phases  an  a p p r a i s a l ,  records management changes  a  popular  management  issue  charge.  p r e s e r v e r - d u s t o d i a n  Contrary not  h i s  were  d e s t r u c t i o n  f o r c i n g  sacred  to  destroy  APPRAISAL  the  records  century  or  ARCHIVAL  cuneiform  records  would  twentieth  that  i n  i n c o n c e i v a b l e  a r c h i v i s t s  for  the  paper  which  the  records  of  been  OF  millenniums  the  and  Yet  CONCEPTS  TWO  the on  encompasses  four  to  the a r c h i v a l major  sampling the  l i t e r a t u r e  - 5 -  which T.R.  appeared  p r i o r  Schel1enberg1s  1956.(1) work  of  The  were  second  a p p r a i s a l  the  years  presented  t e c h n i q u e s . a r c h i v i s t  phase  sampling  and  to  of  p u b l i c  the  American  record  c o l l e a g u e  Paul  g u i d e l i n e s .  1981,  a  the  p e r i o d  i s s u e s  recent  H u l l ' s  1981  report  and  C u l t u r a l  h i s  of  l i t e r a t u r e  most  S c i e n t i f i c  and  on  and  concerning  F e l i x  p u b l i c a t i o n  h i s  theory  1960  The  Educational  the  t r e a t i s e  S c h e l l e n b e r g  c o d i f i e d covers  to  i s  re-assessment  of  a p p r a i s a l deals  c h a r a c t e r i s e d  of  f o r  the  a r t i c l e s  theory  by  and  B r i t i s h  United  Nations  O r g a n i z a t i o n a p p r a i s a l  they  phase  few  a p p r a i s a l  the  as  t h i r d  which  in  with  Lewinson The  in  a r c h i v i s t  (UNESCO)  t h e o r i e s  on  and  g u i d e l i n e s . The  f i r s t  a r c h i v e s  were  as  as  e a r l y  to  i s s u e d  1835.  p r e f e c t u r a l t r a n s f e r  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e - r e g u l a t i o n s  1910,  a  time  of  p u b l i c  s i n c e  (PRO)  as  i t s  records  of  f i r s t  of  methods  a  the  I n t e r i o r  a p p l i c a b l e  to  the  non-current  and  F r e d e r i c k  the  r e p o r t ,  inventory of  England  in  1838,  p u b l i c  and the  records  issued  regarding  was  P o l l o c k ,  the  in  in  to  r e a l  For Record  under  was  a p p r a i s a l  e s t a t e . ( 2 ) under  i n v e s t i g a t e  Wales.  was  r e l a t i n g  a p p o i n t e d ,  P u b l i c  1912,  before  records  i n t e r e s t s  Commission  w i t h i n  of  of  d e s t r u c t i o n  Royal  s e l e c t i o n  M i n i s t r y  records  domain,  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  c u s t o d i a n  PRO's  the  of  S i r  Commission's the  c r i t e r i a ,  B r i t i s h of  French  r e q u i r e d  awards  chairmanship  state  the  p r o h i b i t e d  l i t i g a t i o n ,  the  The  r e c o r d s ,  and  In  by  f o r  the  f i r s t  O f f i c e  review.  h i g h l y  and  the  The  c r i t i c a l  d e s t r u c t i o n  - 6 -  of  " v a l u e l e s s "  records the  held  in  Commission  l a t i o n  a t i o n s  of  o f f i c i a l was  at  found  War  the that  r e c o r d s  of  committee,  and  a p p r a i s a l  had  r a c y . ( 3 )  Between  implemented  from  for 1839  records  the to  as-  an  m a t e r i a l  Commission 1877  and  uments  was  Evidence  who  "the  to  to  destroy  other  was  the  Commission  o f f i c i a l s  r e c o r d s as  and  to  to  Papers  the  Papers  had  t h e i r  o b j e c t  for  of  a c t i o n the  Royal  t h e i r  In  s p i t e  the  the to  r e c e p t i o n  the of  of  Company  repeated the  importance  correspondence A d m i r a l t y p r o c e d u r e .  the  value  and  o p i n i o n  destroy  u n s k i l l e d  in  o f f i c i a l  care  of  the  a c t i o n  taken  v a l u e l e s s f r e s h and  to  in  doc-  t r a n s f e r s . " ( 5 ) the  e f f o r t s  value  of  l i t t l e  Slave o f ' o f f i c i a l s  recommendations  and  of  bureauc-  weeding  p l a c e d  the  tons  o f f i c i a l s  and  the  h i s t o r i c a l  A f r i c a n  r e v e a l e d in  been  which  e n t i r e  s k i l l e d  by  small  method  r e c o r d  d e s c r i b e d  a  400  s y s t e m a t i c the  the  examinby  n e a r l y  A d m i r a l t y  d e s t r o y e d "  l e g i s -  Keeper,  departmental  Commission  the  Although  Record  using  of  of  undertaken  no  of  e x a m i n a t i o n ,  s y s t e m a t i c  encompass  and  awareness  t h e i r  destroyed  d e s t r o y e d . ( 4 )  space to  was  A s s i s t a n t  1877,  s t a t u t o r y  make  f i r s t  "weeding",  aware  u l t e r i o r  In  r e c o r d s , "  and of  was  for  these  the  s t a t e ' s  n e g l e c t e d .  value  i n s t i t u t e d  Treasury  r e l a t i n g  Compensation  "the  The  value  1898  1858  " r u t h l e s s l y  the  of  in  Treasury  being  o f f i c i a l  being  1861-1865  1860.  F o r t u n a t e l y ,  were  1861  of  p r o v i s i o n s  PRO  doubtful  p o l i c y  l a c k  o f f i c e s .  A d m i r a l t y  been  a  the  s p e c i f i c  under  between  O f f i c e  s t a f f ,  that  found  work  and  departmental  governing  Commission  of  r e c o r d s ,  the  of h i s t o r i c a l  -7-  community.  The  f o r m a l i z e d and  that  Commission  procedure  there  was  f o r  no  found  that  d e s t r u c t i o n  evidence  several were  p r o v i s i o n s  not  being  of  the  f o l l o w e d ,  that  a) every document scheduled f o r d e s t r u c t i o n had been e x a m i n e d ; b) l i s t s of documents destroyed had been c o m p i l e d ; c) the p r e s e r v a t i o n of specimens from the c l a s s of documents destroyed had been t a k e n ; d) an a c c r e d i t e d o f f i c i a l was p r e s e n t at the d e s t r u c t i o n s i t e ; e) examinations of a r c h i v e s had been conducted in order to r e g u l a t e the t r a n s f e r of, m a t e r i a l to the PRO.(6)  In that of  t h e i r  a  " f u l l e r ,  documents  Such  of  might  more  should  records  be  made  F o l l o w i n g  the  a r c h i v i s t  H i l a r y  manual  a r c h i v a l  on  a d m i n i s t r a t o r of  h i s  r e c o r d s .  a r c h i v i s t s a  of  threat  and  to  the  and  of  remarks,  s y s t e m a t i c  supposed  documents  c l a s s e s or  c o n c l u d i n g  and  to  be  be  c o n s i d e r e d  Commissioners  a  more  v a l u e l e s s  a l s o  in  expert  should  in  r e s p e c t  be  t h e i r of  i n s i s t e d examination  c a r r i e d  r e l a t i o n  the  use  o u t .  with  that  other  has  been  them."(7) Commission's  Jenkinson  f i n a l  wrote,  p r i n c i p l e s .  the He  the  records regarded  h i s t o r i a n s  the  of  for an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e i t no l o n g e r needs i s  1922,  Jenkinson  should  into  i m p a r t i a l i t y  i n  report  be  in  the  the  the  process  f i r s t  b e l i e v e d "modern  s u b j e c t i v e  the  1919,  the  E n g l i s h  that  r e c o r d s .  the  Destroyer"  i n t r u s i o n s of  of  s e l e c t i o n As  he  B r i t i s h  put  body to d e s t r o y what a matter e n t i r e l y w i t h i n  as i t ,  being  -8-  i t s c o m p e t e n c e a n d an a c t i o n w h i c h f u t u r e a g e s ... c a n n o t p o s s i b l y c o n s t r u e as i l l e g i m a t e o r as a f f e c t i n g t h e s t a t u s o f the remaining Archives.(8)  It  should  of  every  noted  that  the  activity  of  the  believed that  contain  the  sufficient  archives  records  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , which  was  of  might  to  his  rule.  The  Jenkinsonian  notion  stood  the  tests  of  time  which  had  begun  to  alter  not  Jenkinson  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should  document golden  be  accelerated after  i f three  archival  nineteenth  government  1914.  As  selection  and  century  developments,  i t s bureaucracy,  summarized  by  Hull,  have  had  these  trends  were:  a) t h e r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r m s o f f u n c t i o n and i n t h e c o m p l e x i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g t h e r e f r o m ; b) t h e i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y over the p e r i o d to p r o l i f e r a t e records by means o f c a r b o n c o p i e s , photographic and x e r o g r a p h i c c o p y i n g a n d , latterly, a l l the p a r a p h e r n a l i a of machine r e a d a b l e documentation; c) the growing tendency for p u b l i c access f o r research purposes t o be s p e e d e d - u p , a n d t h e i n c r e a s e i n open g o v e r n m e n t i n many, t h o u g h n o t a l l , areas of a c t i v i t y . ( 9 )  The  Jenkinsonian  would  schedule  evant  and  the  belief  that w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d bureaucrats  for destruction only non-important  the  historical  d u p l i c a t e s , the records  wou l d  irrel-  seem,  in  - 9 -  h i n d s i g h t , that  to  be  o v e r o p t i m i s t i c .  p o o r l y - t r a i n e d ,  l o w - l e v e l  non-current  departmental  r e g u l a t i o n s  as  and  destroyed  a r c h i v a l  the  by  T.R.  of  Yet  to  acknowledge records  in  the  and  eaucracy. National on  But,  and  the  the  did  royal  the  modern  e s p e c i a l l y  concentrated stones and  not  to  have the  deal  i s s u e s  sooner.  r e s p o n s i b l e  of  is  in  and  the  i n s u l a r  r e s -  problems and  e a r l y  burStates  e f f o r t s  l e g i s l a t i o n ,  q u a l i f i e d the  from  f a c t o r and  to  o l d e r  United  medieval  l a s t  B r i t a i n .  of  been  the  a r c h i v e s ,  The  f a i l e d  record  the  a r i s i n g  cod-  Great  and  a r c h i v a l  with  for  a r t i c u l a t e d  have  to  t h e i r  f a c i l i t i e s  n a t i o n a l  may  eye  these  a p p r a i s a l  European  b l i n d the  of  weeded for  a  was  a r c h i v i s t s  f a c t o r s  a  that  commision  question  F i r s t l y ,  with  of  need  the  the  they  records  1950s  of  to  under  valuable the  as  The  procedures  European  evident  p a r t i a l l y  the  and  turned  Act  i n e v i t a b l e  u n t i l  a r c h i v e s ,  Consequently, became  be  the  foundation  o l d e r  to  m a j o r i t y  of  have  Records  found  s e c u r i t y  reference  c h a r g e . ( 1 0 )  Several  have  l i t t l e  P u b l i c  another  r e p o s i t o r i e s  A r c h i v e s  records been  the  may  with  not  a s s o c i a t e d  younger  a r c h i v a l  s c r o l l s .  have  may  A r c h i v e s ,  National  of  The  u n l i k e  by  f a i l u r e .  extent  e s t a b l i s h i n g  proper  and  w r i t i n g s .  a r c h i v e s  the  g u i d e l i n e s  t h e i r  American  handled  t h e i r  was  1950's,  t h i s  c l e r k s  safeguard  s e r i o u s n e s s  for  Commission  appear  the  p o n s i b l e  bulk  the in  to i t  a p p r a i s a l  S c h e l l e n b e r g  P r i o r  of  would  order  r e s e a r c h .  i f i c a t i o n  in  records  in  P o l l o c k  records  down  a p p r a i s a l  c i r c u m s t a n c e s future  set  The  s t a f f .  U.S. c h a r t e r s  the which  volume could  i n d i v i d u a l  -10-  nature that  of  i t  unique  a r c h i v e s  was  The  f a i l u r e  L i b r a r i a n s  S o c i e t y  the  shone  of  records of  a l s o  b u i l d i n g  National  a  as  a p p r a i s a l  d e s p i t e at  the  in  for  p o l i c y  The  1940s  for  based  the  on  plea  that  i t  meeting  of  the  a c t i v e  so.  the 1937, s t a f f  United of  the  States  a  process  acceptance  The  not do  in  the  c l e a r l y  of  innovative  of  began  of  a r c h i v i s t s  J e n k i n s o n i a n  the  D.C.  the  not  is  Congress  implementation  a r c h i v i s t s .  d i s r e g a r d  a p p r a i s a l  did  A r c h i v e s  does  a r c h i v i s t s .  1910  Washington  the  foundation  or  in  f i r s t  However,  a p p r a i s a l . in  a  sought  s o l u t i o n s  of  B r u s s e l s  National  program  tool  Archives  U.S.  on  s o l i d a  l a t e r ,  separate  b e l i e v i n g  dilemmas,  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  in  A r c h i v i s t s  created l i g h t  the  held  and  importance  i g n o r e d . ( 1 1 )  management  a p p r a i s a l  an  American  new  that  i n s t i t u t i o n ,  i n s t i t u t i o n s  the  question  century  of  between  f a c t  Each  problems  seeking  A r c h i v i s t s  a  was  unique  r e a l i z e  a p p r a i s a l  newly a  The  to  the  and  of  a p p r a i s a l of  by  the  quarter  by  i n t e r - a c t i o n  i l l u s t r a t e d  d i s c u s s  a r c h i v i s t s .  confronted  r e s o l u t i o n s .  f a c i l i t a t e  A  and  s y s t e m a t i c of  dictum  and  i n t e r v e n t i o n  of  the forged the  a r c h i v i s t - h i s t o r i a n . The the  new  a c t i v e  artmental  a p p r a i s e r o f f i c e r s .  apprehension, a r c h i v i s t  approach  the  would  emphasized of The  the  records  a r c h i v i s t  d e l i v e r y  oversee  the  of  r o l e in  a p p r a i s a l  of  the  a r c h i v i s t  c o n j u n c t i o n  would  records  of  to  with  not  w a i t ,  the  a r c h i v e s ;  records  while  as  dep-  with  they  the were  s t i l l  -11 -  s e r v i n g  an  In  t h i s  emanated  the  of  a p p r a i s a l aspects  the  to  in  of  or  not  A f t e r for  body  of  with  choose  . s e l e c t i n g  a  groups  r e a p p r a i s a l has  or  f a c t o r s  a c t u a l  previous cost  t h i s  of  or  and  or  been  to  point  two  and  the  not of  r e c o r d s ,  determining  to  be  second  r e t a i n e d  to  of  the  p o t e n t i a l  r e s e a r c h  usage  usage  e i t h e r  d i s c a r d i n g  method  of  r e c o r d s '  c o n f r o n t i n g a l l  r e d u c t i o n .  him,  the  records  The  r e d u c t i o n  for  a p p l i c a t i o n  and  the  a p p l i c a t i o n  a p p r a i s a l  handling  of  dual  e x p l i c i t l y  of  o p i n i o n  two  r e d u c t i o n  that  i n i t i a l  t r a n s f e r r e d  on  condense  forms  is  s t a f f  on  c o n c e n t r a t e d  r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n  c o s t s  that  a r t i c l e s  Although  The  w i l d e r n e s s  s u r p r i s i n g  group  a r t i c l e s  d e f a u l t ,  the  m i c r o f i l m i n g ; at  the  by  into  a b i l i t y  i t s e l f .  s e r i e s  low  the  the  r e p o s i t o r i e s .  records  be  r u l e ,  the  a r c h i v i s t ' s of  a  not  general  r e t e n t i o n ,  the  must  e n t i r e  blazed  has  or  had,  a r t i c l e s  of is  which  a p p r a i s a l a  s e r i e s  the  as  permanent  combined  As  a r c h i v a l  termed a  It  presents  s e l e c t i o n .  whether  be  a i d  a p p r a i s a l ,  c o n t r i b u t e d  Their  the  l i t e r a t u r e ,  e n t i r e  can  with  on  i t  should  Archives  r e c o r d s .  to  as  t e c h n i q u e s :  a p p r a i s a l  in  i t  j o u r n a l s .  a p p l i e s  p o s t e r i t y  Archives  pioneer  National  the  the  record  l i t e r a t u r e  Therefore  number  stated  the  of  a p p r a i s a l  of  f u n c t i o n .  National  holdings  meaning  of  mantle  the  of  a r c h i v a l  in  the  a p p r a i s a l .  members  of  phase  from  assumed of  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  in  the  r e c o r d s .  a r c h i v e s s t o r i n g can  a l t e r  v a l u e . the the  With  a r c h i v i s t group  methods  or  open  -12-  to  the  archivist  appraisal the on  activity  record, value  are  with  and  microfilming  occurs  the  archivist  potential  consideration,  within  occurs  use. only  archivists  in  consultation  the  or  methods  method Among  who  was  aptly they  on  American  be  the  staff  of  modern  the  of  administrative  realm  the  the  the  on  record  officials  appraisal,  archives,  research  appraisal,  United  mood a n d  challenge  first  the  with  of  deciding re-  the  community  selecting  implemented.  writers  the  The  second  within  early  the  and  with  sampling.  the  The  the  described faced  to  or  States  exhilaration selecting  and  Oliver  W. H o l m e s ,  National of  his  Archives,  colleagues  preserving  as  the  records:  I f we w a n t e d f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s t o know j u s t how t r a i n s w e r e o p e r a t e d , we m i g h t f i l m the d i s p a t c h e s o v e r a week, the t r a i n m e n ' s r e c o r d s f o r a week a n d w h a t e v e r e l s e m i g h t be n e c e s s a r y to complete the p i c t u r e . T h e same t h i n g c o u l d be d o n e f o r an o c e a n l i n e r , o r f o r a s t e e l mill. To show d e v e l o p m e n t o r c h a n g e in a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or o p e r a t i o n a l control of a p l a n t , samples of comparable data c o u l d be t a k e n a t s i g n i f i c a n t intervals . . . . T h r o u g h p l a n n e d s a m p l i n g and the use o f modern t e c h n i c a l innovations, s u c h as m i c r o f i l m i n g , t h e r e e x i s t s n o w , f o r t h e t i m e , an o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e q u e a t h t o t h e f u t u r e an a d e q u a t e p i c t u r e o f p r e s e n t ways o f l i f e , and t h a t despite the g r o w i n g c o m p l e x i t i e s o f the modern  age.(12)  Microfilming  was  seen  as  a  great  innovation  for  it  allowed  for  the  retention  of  the  archivist  c o u l d take  of  agencies  the  of  to  s i z e of which  record  saw some of The e a r l y  of  side  preserve  the  of  the  or  to  The main a d v a n t a g e  occurred  and the  cases  thin  edge  were  destroyed  mational  of  Transfer  records they the  were  was  filming  was a p p r a i s a l  the  reduction  of  agencies;  local  methods microfilming  and s a f e s t  saviour;  the  ar-  records  and r e g i o n a l was,  which were  archivist  in t h e i r  reducing their  of  Microfilming  records  method  for  and r e g i o n a l  in l o c a l  interest.  as  three  no d e s t r u c t i o n  The r e c o r d s  considered  walked  original  the  state  v o l u m e , but t h e i r  infor-  saved.  in fact  to  to  accessible  and m i c r o f i l m i n g  take  reduce  deemed u n s u i t a b l e  that  c o u l d be f i l m e d  willing  records.  was  were  of  microfilming  and to  The c h e a p e s t  Material  great  thereby  but  a picture  if  advocated  archival  was made a v a i l a b l e  appraisal.  content  operations,  outside  samp 1 i n g . ( 1 3 )  chives.  borderline  But,  records  destroyed.  on a p p r a i s a l  deposit  Holmes s t a t e d ,  the  preserve  activities.  material  national  as  to  Alternatively,  of  information in records  transfer  where  samples  business  their  be t r a n s f e r s .  repositories  shot"  records.  h o l d i n g s , s a m p l i n g was a method o f the  and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to  "snap  literature  reduction:  was f o u n d  unretainable  government  operational  served  hitherto  records  them would of  appear for  to  which  be d e s t r o y e d ,  the  be s t r a i g h t there  was  forward no  and i n h e r e n t  repository to  worth of e x p e n d i n g money to  However, s a m p l i n g was a n o t h e r  matter.  No forum  micropreserve existed  -14-  f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of a p p r a i s a l techniques i f the community r e a l i z e d  and  may  inquire  the advantages of sampling.  Leahy, an e a r l y advocate of records  Emmett  management in the  A r c h i v e s , b e l i e v e d that o p e r a t i o n a l records to r e f l e c t  one  could be  National sampled  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of government programs.(14)  Among the e a r l y w r i t e r s , only P h i l i p  Brooks, a colleague  of Leahy, r a i s e d s e r i o u s points of debate.  C i t i n g Morris  Copeland's  address to the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r c h i v e s to the economist, he r a i s e d three new Firstly,  he be 1 ieveld that a p p r a i s e r s  body of records  in t h e i r r e l a t i o n  to ensure accurate by a r c h i v i s t s on very  assessments.  did not  reflect  subjective c r i t e r i a .  had  to view the e n t i r e  to other File  issues.  bodies  of  records  by f i l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n  the whole s e r i e s and  depended  Regarding sampling, Brookes found  that newer governmental a c t i v i t i e s were highly s u s c e p t i b l e to archival had  sampling.  to begin  Finally  to view n o n - h i s t o r i a n s  researchers.(15)  This a r t i c l e was  go beyond the p r a c t i c a l the  he found that the a r c h i v a l community as p o t e n t i a l a r c h i v a l the only American work to  a p p l i c a t i o n of a p p r a i s a l and  importance of broadening the a r c h i v a l process  the non-historan The  and  literature  the contemporary records published  during  stress  to include  of government.  the Second World War  immediate post-war period concentrated  on  illustrations  practical  a p p l i c a t i o n of a p p r a i s a l techniques.  discussed  the r e t e n t i o n of Fuel A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of  O l i v e r W. records  and  Holmes  in three  -15-  states t i o n  -  was  programs behind and  Minnesota,  Michigan  to  future  provide  but  the  s t a t e s  provided  an  records  these  the  the  s e l e c t i o n  records found  from  to  f u n c t i o n which  of  the  order  a g r i c u l t u r a l A r c h i v e s ,  134  From  s e l e c t e d  for  20,000  data  record c u b i c  at  the  of  a p p r a i s i n g  but  a  and  National  sample  sample the  which  remedies by  of  the  these  r e t e n t i o n . to  A r c h i v e s ,  reasoning  were  Southern  using  Carl  the  Rural  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  or  the  the  method, s e l e c t i o n  United  of  the  did  not  For e i t h e r of  S t a t e s ,  the was  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e f l e c t  600  a b i l i t y  to  r e f l e c t  o p e r a t i o n a l  h i s t o r y  while  i l l u s t r a t e d  the  of  Farm  a  the  f a c t o r s  volume  samples.  the  on  the  United  county  was  the  a r c h i v i s t problems  sampling  volume,  sampling  was  reduced  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  t o t a l In  National  Another  wrote  agency's  the  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  t y p i c a l  f e e t . ( 1 7 )  the  the  w i t h i n  Emphasising an  both  S e c u r i t y  areas  L o v e t t ,  reducing  time  a p p l i e d ,  t o t a l  c u b i c  Robert  r e f l e c t e d  areas  The  r e c o r d s .  t e c h n i q u e ' s  use  across  the  Holmes,  percentage  100  a g r i c u l t u r a l  each  business  a  every  the  provided  feet  S e c u r i t y  documentation  d i f f e r e n t w i t h i n  from  i n s t a n c e ,  sampling  of  s t a t e - w i d e  provide  of  r e t e n -  n e c e s s a r y .  o b r a i n  problems  S t a t e s .  from  program  to  Farm  c o u n t i e s  adequate  program  using  i d e n t i f i e d  f i l e  p a r t i c u l a r  the  the  to  c o l l e a g u e  of  This  o r g a n i z i n g  for  A  implementation  one  provide  made In  of  Why,  s e l e c t e d ?  of  for  undertaken  i l l u s t r a t i o n  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e c o r d s ,  was  c r i t e r i a .  not  Massachusetts.(16)  evidence  d i s c u s s i o n  s e l e c t i o n  Western  K u l s r u d ,  no  and  the  and  Lovett yarn  -16-  b i l l s to  of  1921,  reducing by  the  Lawrence  the  records  for  the  bulk  about  r e t a i n i n g  for  every  the  and  the  vices l i f e the  of  the  be  e x t r a o r d i n a r y  not  address  must  underway matters holdings  surmise in of  the  U.S.  and  at  t h i s  time  of  a p p r a i s a l  than  areas  a l l  of  of  October  r u l e s  or  The  the  saw  sampling  c a p a b i l i t i e s  economy  but  aspect  bureaucracy  and  s e r -  s o c i a l  created  by  i n s t i t u t i o n  produced the of  a p p r a i s a l  L o v e t t .  government  a r c h i v a l  primary  t h e o r e t i c a l  of  war-time  g u i d e l i n e s  were  by  " r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n "  However,  Archives  f a c i l i t i e s  o f f e r e d  r e d u c t i o n  i s  c r i t e r i a  p r a c t i c a l i t y  m a t e r i a l  of  m a t e r i a l  documentation  No  the  d i s c u s s i o n s  f u r t h e r  of  h i s t o r y .  l e g i s l a t i o n ,  was  Depression  reduced.  National  p h y s i c a l  the the  amount  handle  t h a t  the  new  The be  on  the  understood.  of  general  a r c h i v a l  h i g h l i g h t s  emphasis  to  sampling  i l l u s t r a t e  period  any  and  J u l y  the  into  to  sampled  of  c i t i z e n r y .  expected  A p r i l ,  were  j u s t i f i c a t i o n  programs  had  records  1897  r e t a i n e d ,  s p e c i f i c  r e a d i l y  expand  bureaucracy  t h i s  One  Deal  r a p i d l y  could  do  New  J a n u a r y ,  years  were  the  The  the  P a y r o l l  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  be  1920  of  l i t e r a t u r e  can  80%.  and  the  r e d u c t i o n  t e c h n i q u e .  a p p r a i s a l  1910  for  the  c l e a r l y  of  Company  Although  examples  the  1900,  months  no  of  e a r l y  of  and  four  shown,  v a l i d i t y  The  by  y e a r . ( 1 8 )  adequately or  the  Manufacturing  during a r t i c l e s  a p p r a i s a l .  techniques  that  surveys  the of  c o n s i d e r e d  more  probing  the  of  were  p r e s s i n g record important question  t e c h n i q u e s .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y ,  the  post-war  l i t e r a t u r e  contained  two  t r a n s -  -17-  l a t e d  a r t i c l e s  p u b l i s h e d  B e l g i a n  a r c h i v i s t s  Genicot  wrote  a p p r a i s i n g the  important  of  a p p r a i s a l . need  e x i s t e d  to  i s s u e s  Genicot  the  h i s t o r i c a l  i n t e r e s t .  procedures  that  By  s e l e c t i n g  Argonne, town  in  an  spectrum  to  Using  r e t e n t i o n  B e l g i a n  of  time  s o c i e t y  r e t a i n i n g  the  responsive  to  c r i s e s  major  avoid for as  having  years well  c r i m i n a l  of  as  a  major  the  court  depression  skewed  case  y e a r s ,  (1914-1918)  ought  i n v e s t i g a t e  the  well  as  long  f i r s t f i l e s  s i n c e  Genicot of  c r i s i s  and  and  each i n  and  was  1902,  and  by  an  i n  the  i n d u s t r i a l the  that  the  decade  was  the  that  found  on  standard not To  records be  a n a l y z i n g  F i r s t  the  s o c i e t y .  c o n f l i c t  impact the  d i f f e r e n c e s .  Regarding  Researchers  t h e i r  e x e m p l i f i e d  the  possess  v i l l a g e  recommended  i t  summaries  i l l u s t r a t e d  found  1870,  added.(19)  a  area  a p p r a i s a l :  represented  By  to  trends  had  sample.  1884,  be  of  N o r t h ,  d e p r e s s i o n s year  he  development.  he  the  not  i n d u s t r i a l  f l u c t u a t i o n s  base,  i n  f o r  d i d  of  g e n e r a l l y  s t a t i s t i c a l  and  year  1871,  major  term  data  spoke  which  the  i t s  f i r s t  economic  usual  i n  problems  needs  by  Leopold  a r c h i v e s  returns  s a m p l i n g ,  of  i f  a r c h i v i s t  and  acceptance  or  tax  the  examples,  r e g i o n a l  the  to  b a s i c  records  v i l l a g e  p e r i o d  the  A r c h i v i s t  a r c h i v e s .  modern  B e l g i a n  the  American  Doehard  documents  destroy  Basse-Sambre,  of  technique  r e i t e r a t e d  a g r i c u l t u r a l  the  Renee  c o n f r o n t i n g  acknowledged  f o r  the  s o l u t i o n s  while  o r i g i n a l  need  i n  contemporary  p r a c t i c a l  records  destroy  and  1950  d i s c u s s i n g  the  modern  of  the  of  i n  r e t a i n e d  the  that World  three War  could  then  the  s o c i e t y  r e g u l a r  f i r s t  as  year  -18-  in  every  decade  b e l i e v e d as  the  view,  that  the  of  order  to  a p p r a i s a l  and  demands would  carry in  in  out  1950,  terms was  h i s t o r i c a l  v a l u e ,  recognized  that  for  s t r a i n  as  Doehard  of  v a l i d i t y ,  the of  Doehard  sets  The  a r c h i v i s t for  Past  p r a c t i c e s  q u a l i t a t i v e the  past,  the  need  t h e i r  information no  avoid  aggregate  and  by  supply  p o r t r a y i n g a r c h i v e s  was  i t s e l f  lessen  a l l  as  h i s t o r y which  p o s s i b l e  for of  to  his  a n a l y s i s ,  and  a r c h i v e s .  r e s e a r c h e r s  r e s e a r c h e r  i n d i v i d u a l s  By  t h e i r  s e l e c t i o n  e x i s t e d  c r i t e r i o n  t e c h n i q u e s .  p e r c e p t i v e  the  a  the  the  c r i t i c i s m s  his  object and  destroy  tested  s o c i e t y  m a t e r i a l to  The  s e l e c t i o n  exhaust  q u a n t i t a t i v e  a r c h i v e s for  could  f u t u r e  of  d e s c r i b e d  Doehard  prided  techniques  p i c t u r e  to  a p p r a i s a l  thoughtful  for  research  allowed  but  the  a  had  to  a g a i n s t  Doehard  d e s t r u c t i o n .  supportive  attempted  could In  chooses  scan  a  o r g a n i z a t i o n  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  which  his  s p e c i a l i z e d  Janus.  a r c h i v i s t s  out,  In  p r o p e r l y . ( 2 0 )  Renee  community  j u s t i f i a b l e  a p p r a i s a l .  w i l l  of  points  a r c h i v i s t  out  of  The  of  was  own  records  god  h i s t o r i a n "  mounted.  government  Roman  records  c r i t i c i s m s  developing  the  reverse  or  of  Genicot  mere  his  c o l l e g u e  to  a  records  and  a p p r a i s a l  work,  be  develop  h i s t o r y  r e c o r d s .  c a r e f u l l y  to  p r o f e s s i o n  exhausted  academic  methods  i t s  a  the  areas  cease p u b l i c  uneasiness  of  which  to  preserve  preservers  e x i s t e d  w i l l  G e n i c o t ' s  but the  such  need  r e l a t i n g  to  r e a c t i o n  i f ,  his  performing  of  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a p p r a i s a l  natural  In  a r c h i v i s t  a r c h i v i s t  W r i t i n g  of  "an  pressure  knowledge in  sample.  and meet  p o l i c i e s . with events the  -19demands broad give on  of  the  brush the  a r c h i v a l  q u a l i t a t i v e  the  in  a r c h i v e s .  f o r w a r d . t i t a t i v e for  1952,  Their study  to  Great  of  a  "review  the  of  Government  by  the  P o l l o c k  s e r v i c e s  and  the  d u p l i c a t i n g  a b i l i t y  to  had  r e a c h e d ,  the  r e c o r d s  of  the  s h e l f  by  The  s p a c e ,  The  need  to  reduce  and  r e t e n t i o n  records  for  the  the would  the  s t r e s s  in  ideas  would was  a  and  changes to  major  sources  could  advance  have  for  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y  Commission S i r  James  of  had  such  be  step quan-  and  the  need  adapted  the  of  for  the  i n v e n t i o n s  as  i n c r e a s e d  where  noted  Since of  p o i n t  in  the  the  were  in  r e c o r d s ,  over  120  s t r e a m l i n e  the  procedures  in  which  the  t y p e w r i t e r  B r i t a i n  one  r e t e n t i o n  c r e a t i n g  e a r l i e r  b u r e a u c r a c y ' s  Great  only  of  government  the  the  c l i m a t e  a  in  p e r s e r v a t i o n  of  the  hands  G r i g g ,  s i t u a t i o n  the  appointed  expansion  g r e a t l y The  was  ."(22)  the  permanent  the  and  c r e a t e d  new  which  arrangements  1 9 5 0 ' s ,  in  as  in  Departments  remainder  were  of  methodologies  trends  of  r e c o r d s .  the  by  were  a r c h i v i s t  a r c h i v e s  Commission,  machines  marked  PRO.  the  acceptance  produce  data  l a c k e d  B e l g i a n s  spoke  the  new  Royal  chairmanship  to  and  that  of  the  they  those  p o l i t i c i a n ,  study  i t  p a i n t  h i s t o r y .  B r . W a i n ,  the  r e c o r d s  when  f u t u r e  r e t a i n  to  )  develop  foresaw  seeking  Q u a n t i t a t i v e  which  w r i t e r s ,  d i s c u s s i o n  method  under  depth  a s s e r t i o n and  were  p i c t u r e .  a  community  stance  new  In  record  The  a r c h i v i s t s t h i s  the  American  a r c h i v a l  his  of  who  i n f o r m a t i o n . (21  the  of  change  r e s e a r c h e r s  s t r o k e s  Unlike  to  new  q u a r t e r  the  of  custody  m i l e s  of  departments.(23) of  Grigg  t r a n s f e r Commission  -20-  was  to  work.  In  t h e i r  proposed  recommendations,  the  c r e a t i o n  implementation  of  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  the  c r e a t i o n ,  created  for  to  r e t e n t i o n  two  review  be  and  the  was  f o r  a  they  be  records  were  d e s t r o y e d . venture records  t r a n s f e r r e d  to  had  25  be  f o r  second years  f u r t h e r  Commissioners,  in  u s e .  at  which  d e c i s i o n  department  of  the the  t h e i r  and  second  the  f i v e  years records would  o b t a i n i n g  would  occur  c o n s i d e r e d  importance  would the  be  would  c o n s u l -  PRO's  review  . f i r s t  c r e a t i n g  a f t e r  those  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  c o n s i s t e d  purposes  r e c o r d s  time  i n t e r e s t i n g  Those  Departmental  the  a f t e r  custody  a c t i v e  the  scheduled  that  than  of  review  the  l a t e r  newly  in  most  the  review  The  r e t a i n e d  by  f o r oversee  and  decided  the  This  which  destroyed  or  the  not  to  work  reviewed  be  h i s t o r i c a l  between  to  could  o l d ,  second  o f f i c e  procedure  and  c a l l i n g  Commission's  O f f i c e r  Commissioners  system  by  o f f i c e r s  undertaken  from  the  r e c o r d s .  Commissioners  passed  remainder  The  The  an  of  were  s e l e c t i o n  Records  needed  the  f u r t h e r  The  i t s  of  records  d e s t r u c t i o n .  records  a p p r o v a l .  Those  i n s u r e  1954,  procedure  r e t e n t i o n  a s s i g n  would  r e t a i n e d ,  t a t i v e  and  i n  management  department  records  the  would  of  each  of  which  not  s e l e c t i o n  The  the  when  records  phases.  a f t e r  PRO  a  review  department  be  in  would  or  recommendation of  new  s e l e c t i o n  o f f i c e  departments  a  of  i s s u e d  would  o f f i c e r s . be  PRO.(24) d e l i b e r a t i o n s ,  recognized  t h a t  -21  " p a r t i c u l a r and  i n t e r e s t .  importance papers or the  i n s t a n c e " . o r While  by  enabled  s o c i a l  "broad  trends  handling  of  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  to  "case"  they  i t s e l f ,  a  papers  found  taken  as  that a  be  each  as  drawn."(25)  or  to  as  a  s p e c i a l  a  was  sample  h i s t o r i c a l ,  nature  of  l i t t l e  these economic,  recommendations  papers  which  of  document  Their  i n s t a n c e  committee  were  whole  c o n c l u s i o n s  p a r t i c u l a r  of  -  revolved  for  around  the  would:  a) conduct a census to i d e n t i f y a l l part i c u l a r i n s t a n c e papers in government. b) determine what papers would greatest amount of i n f o r m a t i o n s m a l l e s t storage c o s t .  render the for the  c) decide which papers, and in what q u a n t i t i e s , should be p r e s e r v e d . d) c o n s i d e r the issue of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . ( 2 6 )  The agement  Grigg  Commission's  system  emphasis  on  o f f i c e r s  and  techniques  w i t h i n  the  B r i t i s h  a p p r a i s a l  and  the  the  and  to the  the  t h i s  context  of  to  government  a b i l i t y devise  those  for  of  records  records  placed  the  and  a  great  departmental  implement of  man-  records  sound  h i s t o r i c a l  a p p r a i s a l  and  importance.  a t t e n t i o n  requirement  preserve  j u n c t u r e ,  community's  t h e i r  a r c h i v i s t s  to  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e At  recommendation  of  the  the  a r c h i v a l  p e r c e p t i o n a p p r a i s i n g was  spectre  of the  acknowledged.  i t s  of  a p p r a i s a l  community. c l i e n t e l e  records The  in  had  The was  t h e i r  question  been  need  brought  to  broaden  r e c o g n i z e d . e n t i r e t y  of  and  a p p r a i s a l  The in and  -22-  i t s  methods  had  development. needed  to  passed  But  a  work  was  r e s u l t i n g  attempts  marks  beginning  the T.R.  by  the  and  1950s  that  f u n c t i o n  of  from  Hoover  the  loss  of  his  assured  of  t h e i r  d e c i d i n g t r a n s f e r  accepted  the  whelming  issue  and  as  a r c h i v e s  n a t u r a l l y ,  to  of  was  who  was  to  was  as  a  was  a p p r a i s a l  ideas  encroaching of  grew  more  the of  a p p r a i s e r  r e t e n t i o n  of  while  d i s t i n c t  u l t i m a t e l y  or  r e c o r d s ,  r e s u l t i n g  records  to  the  a r c h i v i s t of  his  of  was  i n f l u e n c e  record  t h e i r  r e s p o n s i b l e  d e s t r u c t i o n mutely This  for  community his  the  the  the  p o s s i b i l i t y .  In  the  f e d e r a l  into  a r c h i v i s t s  a r c h i v a l  Schel 1 enberg.  the  that  s c e n a r i o  the  upon  With  The  r e a l i z e d  recommendations  r e l e v a n t  a r c h i v e s .  as  Archives  i n c o r p o r a t e d  The  the  The  a r c h i v i s t  o r g a n i z a t i o n  record  to  of  r e s u l t  c o n s i d e r e d  a  of  was  t h e o r e t i c a l , torch?  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  than  i t s  g u i d e l i n e s  a  the  National  p r o c e s s .  was  paramount  paramount  the  awareness  a r c h i v e s  s i t u a t i o n  c a r r y  advocate  the  an  state  the  to  for  in  phase.  at  on  need  stage and  c o n s o l i d a t i o n  1949,  was  r o l e  on  was  great  S e r v i c e s  the  The  Archives  records management  managers and  In  bureaucracy  t h e o r i e s  management  autonomy,  not  a  c o l l e a g u e s  General  of  of  second  the  records  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  the  the  National  a r c h i v a l  management  on  of  Commission  the  created  who  create  a r c h i v e s .  government, newly  c l e a r ; to  his  experimental  a c c e p t a n c e .  Schel1enberg,  a p p r a i s e r ,  i n i t i a l  c o d i f i c a t i o n  f a c i l i t a t e  d e f i n i t i v e  an  attempt  over-  records and to  was, set  - 2 3 -  down the  the  u n - w r i t t e n  National  a r c h i v i s t to  the  A r c h i v e s ,  in  C h a l l e n g i n g the in  masses  of  was  "to  h i s t o r y ]  p r e t a t i o n s  To  a p p r a i s a l  be  e s t a b l i s h e d .  agency  and  supported  primary  a r c h i v a l beyond  u t i l i z e d mation  on  by a  and the  by  p u b l i c  agencies  v a r i e t y  of  r o l e  was  of  the  responding  as  f u l l y  the  uses. and  concerns  a c t i v i t y  and  that But  v a l u e , These  records  values for  and  to  as  those  had  to  p r i v a t e the  needs held  v a l u e ,  seek  addressed  were in  could  they  method  o r i g i n a t i n g  secondary  records  i n d i v i d u a l s  a  serve  these  w i l l  were  the  records a  i m p a r t i a l l y  p r i n c i p l e s  two  [of i n t e r -  a c c u r a t e l y ,  created  beyond  h i s t o r i c a l  o f f i c i a l  agencies  agency.  for  evidence  values  and  " u n l e s s  summarized  a r c h i v a l  p u b l i c  that  agency  are  u s e l e s s  t h i s  r u l e s  were  that  r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  as  other  another  f i l e s  records  found  for  a s s e r t i o n  preserve  "primary  the  had  to  p u b l i c  the  to  which  general  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e other  guide  provide  that  preserve  records  of  r e p o s i t o r i e s t h e i r  to  values  importance  to  would  the  he  almost  stated  merely  r e c o r d s :  needs  that  Doehard  are  on  S c h e l l e n b e r g  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  they  and  sort  secondary  say  o p e r a t i n g  c l e a r l y  not  assess  modern  u s e r s . " ( 2 9 )  of  any  r e a s s e r t e d  W i l s o n ' s  and  evidence  based,  of  of  in  the  e v i d e n c e ;  p e r m i t . " ( 2 8 )  inherent  W.J.  n a r r a t i v e s ,  be  of  bias  Renee  that  a p p r a i s a l .  S c h e l l e n b e r g  can  without  of  by  h i s t o r i a n  preserve  t h e o r i e s  could  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i n t e l l i g i b l e  w o r k . " ( 2 7 )  One  r a i s e d  c r i t e r i a  and  S c h e l l e n b e r g  a p p r a i s a l .  c h a l l e n g e s  supportive  g u i d e l i n e s  be i n f o r during  -24-  r e c o r d s '  a c t i v e  S c h e l l e n b e r g areas  of  value  can  that  be  the  to  "on  on of  records  are  to  pointed  out  h i s t o r y ,  modern  and  be  deal ;  in  not  d e c i s i o n  i s t ' s  d e s p i t e  s e l e c t i o n  p l a c e s , from  the  the  had  p o l i c y .  records  f u n c t i o n i n g from  the  s u b j e c t s  his  s e r v i c e  and  Informational  the  l i k e  that  contained with  is  By  which  in  such  using  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  a for  value  d e f i n i t i o n s ,  a p p r a i s a l  must to  pay  i d e a s .  i n c l u d e  up  of  an  a r c h i v e s  to  a  S c h e l l e n b e r g  a r c h i v a l the  changes the  r e t e n t i o n  scope in  of  undeniable  s o c i a l  of  l o c a l could  a r c h i v e s ; wide  s t a t e s remains  the  technology  c l e a r l y  H i s t o r i a n s  c l i e n t a l e  the  to  students  only  S c h e l l e n b e r g  He  a t t e n t i o n  the  in  doc-  i l l u s t r a t e d ,  a n t i q u a r i a n s . ( 3 2 )  in  agency  adequate  ." (30)  i n f o r m a t i o n  and  an  i n f o r m a t i o n  and  change  r e s u l t e d  and  S c h e l l e n b e r g  d i s c i p l i n e s .  The  records  a u t h e n t i c  t h e o r e t i c a l  of  opened  two  e x c l u s i v e .  his  regarding the  those  t h e m s e l v e s . " ( 3 1 )  a r c h i v i s t  as  into  of  e v i d e n t i a l  mutually  records  of  the  agencies  of  purposes,  E v i d e n t i a l  derived  not  broaden  other  an  d i s c u s s i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n a l .  and  examples,  that  viewed  f i n a l  the  value  a p p l i c a t i o n  records  s t u d i e s  of  the  that  value  o r g a n i z a t i o n  For  value  and  provide  g e n e a l o g i s t s ,  longer  the  e s t a b l i s h e d  the  s c i e n t i s t s  as to  p r a c t i c a l time,  turned  e v i d e n t i a l  p u b l i c  f i r s t  l i f e .  secondary  p e r s o n s ,  the  Having  no  i t s  agencies  number  of  of  records  records  -  defined  r e f e r s  p u b l i c  the  "necessary  umentation  in  s p l i t  concern  are  value  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  the  range that the  of  :the a r c h i v -  i n s t i t u t i o n ' s and-  f a c t  in  that  the many  nature  -25-  archivists records. group tion  would  In t h e s e  of  experts  before  from  The of  against  archivist agency  decisions the  can  and  can  those  budgetary program  and  the  must  have a  made. the  select  records,  directives.  procedures  were  performed  that  these  Therefore, be  highlighted  the be  Once t h e agency's  the  legal  "pretty  selection  made on of  records of  the  Schellenberg unless  unique  a l l the  programs  for  basis.  documentation  before  are  any  appraisal  understood,  research  1  include  i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of  provided  recommended  property  were  of  and  and  internal found  that  supply  evidence  a particular these  matters  by  the  and  for  agency.(33)  records  a distinctive  experienced  policy  in a l l agencies"  essential  that  origins  In S c h e l 1 e n b e r g s  r e c o r d s , and  same way  and the  d e p i c t i n g the  agency.  f u n c t i o n i n g of  problems  records  a piecemeal  records, Schellenberg  they  view,  organizational structure  in handling  seldom  of  p r e s e r v a t i o n would  the  between 1  of  much  informa-  i n Sche11enberg s  the  However,  for  co-operation  of  and  a consultative  academia  relevant records  worthy  followed  preserved  not  to  the  valuable information.  knowledge  "housekeeping"  understanding  that  turn  The  would,  d e s t r u c t i o n of  subjects of  i t s administrative history  records  management o r  not  bureaucracy  administrative details  view,  an  be  must  archivist  values  must and  archivists  emphasised  f u n c t i o n i n g of  archivist  the  i n the  d e c i s i o n i s made.  the  evidential  an  specialists  s c h o l a r and  Schellenberg their  be  cases,  a final  bureaucrat, protect  not  should  nature  agency.  or  26-  Turning i n d i c a t e d for  to  that  a r c h i v a l  t a i n e d t h i s  on  many  e v e n t s ,  f i r s t had in  records  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  which  because and  s o c i a l  s e r v i c e  records  and  the  of  defined  f o l d e r s  "to  that  that  in  or  are  under  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  stated  two  and  s t a t i s t i c a l  adequate  to  ."(35)  import  and  to  Simply  s t a t e d , for  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e with  an  they  contain  could  recent  documentation s p e c i a l  important data  be  the  because of  s i g n i f i c a n t  that  are  or  l a t t e r  they the event  c o n s i d e r e d  a c t i o n .  The  of  records  which  s c h e d u l e s ,  of  to  other  that  "a  c o n t a i n whole,  second or  of  the  phenomena S c h e l l e n b e r g  s e l e c t i o n  was  d e s c r i b e d  i n d i v i d u a l s  of  phenomena.(36) few  records  data  that  because  a c t i o n ,  adequate  d i v -  documents  the  s e l e c t i o n  or  or  .The  s p e c i a l  r e l a t i n g  meant  of  a l t e r n a t i v e ,  a)  or  g r a n t s ,  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  i n t e n s i v e  on  in  f i l e s .  i l l u s t r a t i v e  l i g h t  s o c i a l  land  census  number  con-  Included  f o r m . " ( 3 4 )  followed:  records of  as  e x t e n s i v e ,  S p e c i a l  i l l u s t r a t i v e or  such  s e l e c t e d they  t h e i r  s e l e c t i o n  throw  s e l e c t i o n  p r e s e r v a t i o n or  For  s a m p l i n g .  more  the  l i m i t e d  to  for  S c h e l l e n b e r g  were  case  a l t e r n a t i v e s  concentrated a  of  records  two  r e c o r d s ,  r e c o r d s ,  types  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  p r i n c i p l e s  a p p l y i n g  the  census  provide  s e l e c t  are  whole  a  of  c o n d i t i o n s .  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  documents  was  of  involved  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  be  other  s e l e c t i o n  a c t i o n  s i n g l e  a l t e r n a t i v e  s e l e c t e d  modern  would  S c h e l l e n b e r g  e r s i f i e d  as  p u b l i c  the  records  course  b)  of  people  " c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  case  value  of  D i s c u s s i n g v a l u e s ,  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  p r e s e r v a t i o n  category  m i l i t a r y  the  for  or a  they  are are deal  because study  of  -27-  p a r t i c u l a r  s o c i a l  S t a t i s t i c a l f i e l d  where  and  to  be  as  of  experts  used  major were  "the  sample  have in a on  is  sample  that  not  more  to  based  knowledge  the  a r c h i v i s t  and  the  advance The  records the  of  for  whole;  mathematical  of  of the  ways  the  in  the  he  which that  s e l e c t s  r e l i a b i l i t y  from  that  the  s t a t i s t i c i a n ,  formulae,  universe  admits  uses;  records  measurable  s a m p l i n g ,  than  unknown  s e l e c t s  the  The  s t a t i s t i c i a n  p a r t i c u l a r  a r c h i v i s t  was  which  many  i t  i s  a r c h i v i s t s  states  that  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  i t  is  samples  a r c h i v e s .  the  a p p r a i s a l with the that  the  and  procedure.  sampling  in  on  a s s i s t a n c e  i t s  sampling  the  S c h e l l e n b e r g  c o n c l u s i o n ,  i n t u i t i o n  s t a t i s t i c a l  a  of  implement  information  his  r e i t e r a t e d  understanding  to  s t a t i s t i c a l  of  an  i f  the  i l l u s t r a t i v e  In  were  S c h e l l e n b e r g ,  w e l l - d e f i n e d  of  form  to  possessed  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  by  a p p l i e d  sense  used.  Although  exact  a c c o r d i n g  preserves  in  presents  capable  preserved  be  be  with  p a r t i c u l a r  used  know  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t a k e n . " ( 3 8 )  a  a r c h i v i s t  to  (37)  t o o l ,  needed  between  must  accordance  were  be  ."  Therefore  a r c h i v a l  d i f f e r e n c e s  s t a t i s t i c i a n his  methods. an  c o n d i t i o n s  was,  a r c h i v i s t s  would  that  economic  sampling  few  techniques  or  or  S c h e l l e n b e r g  of  absolute keys the  to  records  a p p r a i s a l  a r b i t r a r y  a n a l y s i s  of  cannot  c o n s i s t e n c y .  a r c h i v a l  be  of  the  that  exact  Moderation  a p p r a i s a l . records  s u p p o s i t i o n s what  s t r e s s e d  of  records  the  nor  standards  can  and  they  common  Furthermore,  should v a l u e ;  not i t  be  he subject  should  documented.  be  -28-  S c h e l l e n b e r g a p p r a i s a l informed  c o n s i d e r e d  without  f a i l s ,  formation  upon  expert  h e l p .  s e l e c t i o n his  time  or  r i d i c u l e d  ledgement his  on  The  by  l a t e r  have  F o l l o w i n g  Government  of  a  the  the  d e f i n i t i o n the  s  must  broader of  Paul  c o n s i s t e d  in  the  homogeneous  records  so  that  Government's  work  i n f o r m a t i o n  State  represented  body  may  approach, measure  of  be  which  of  homogeneity  can  he  the  c a l l e d  r e l i a b i l i t y  Furthermore,  are  or  c r e a t e d ,  Lewinson in  t h e i r  and  in  as  or  needed  emphasised general t h e i r  some  in  of  acknowa r c h i v e s  theory  and  a r c h i v a l  a p p r a i s a l .  wrote  a  Lewinson, of  or  "sampling some  aspect  of  t h e r e b y . "  (40)  the  no  samples.  that  the  records  in  the  manner  must in  any  possess  which  i d e n t i f i e d  three  types  of  records  to  they  sampling  o c c u r . Lewinson  by  This  r e q u i r e s  before  part  developed  s t a t i s t i c a l  matter  overlooked  His  s e l e c t i o n  s a m p l i n g ,  form,  subject  For  r e c e i v e d  i l l u s t r a t e d  a r c h i v a l  be  Lewinson  s a m p l i n g .  of  S c h e l l e n b e r g .  scope  of  i n -  seek  set  to  cannot  stones  an  the  must  f i r s t go  at  needed  he  a r c h i v a l  study ,  a r c h i v a l  a r c h i v e s  the  a r c h i v a l  If  r e s e a r c h e r s .  foundation 1  of  a r r i v e  the  then  down  a r c h i v i s t  in  not  produce  o p i n i o n ,  or  essence  r e c o r d s . ( 3 9 )  accomplishment  Schel1enberg on  an  the could  to  w r i t i n g  times  become  a r t i c l e  of  of  t h i s  and  be  the  a r c h i v i s t s  forchanging  p r i n c i p l e s  base  for  p l a c e ,  of  a n a l y s i s ,  c r e d i t  refinement  formative  to  to  a r c h i v i s t  value  through  which  and  the  the  g u i d e l i n e s  In  and  which  o p i n i o n  a r c h i v i s t  a n a l y s i s  which  the  -29-  sampling c)  c o u l d  a p p l i e d :  m i s c e l l a n e o u s .  kept  t o g e t h e r ,  c l o s e l y  to  of  p r o j e c t  -  s e r i e s  or  of  in  schedules  National  Archives  of  could  s p e c i a l  three  be  c a t e g o r i e s  and  are  and  value  for  homogeneity,  of  case As  of for  with  f u r t h e r  a  or  p r o j e c t s  they  loan  a  such  as  the  f i l e s  l i n k e d  are  by  comparison  of  u s u a l l y  having  to  Lewinson  minutes  a  t h e i r  were  expanded  on  or  to  a  f i l e  defined  work or as  Government a p p l i c a t i o n s , At  l o c a l  the  time,  the  M i s c e l l a n e o u s the  records  boards.(43) in  c o n c e n t r a t i o n By  records  -  or  p o l i t i c i a n ,  bulk.  with  of  case  homogeneous  low  or  but  in  and  r e c o r d s ,  body  f i l e ) ,  the  a  a  case  give  of  of  d e c i s i o n  s u b m i s s i o n s .  l e t t e r s  body  c a s e ,  Submissions  sampled  form and  of  such  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . ( 4 2 )  r a r e l y the  (as  i n f o r m a t i o n , "  and  "a  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  personnel  that  s u b m i s s i o n s ;  t r a n s a c t i o n  o r i g i n a l l y ,  an  a  common  as  q u a s i - j u d i c i a l  to  in  b)  p a r t i c u l a r  f i l e . ) " ( 4 1 )  programs  in  f i l e s  work  r e q u i r e d  r e t u r n s ,  records  case  (as  case  "having  requested  defined  p e r t a i n i n g  c o n s t r u c t i o n  records  f i l e s ;  j u d i c i a l  d e c i s i o n s  or  case  t r a n s a c t i o n s ;  a  i n c r e a s i n g l y s e r i e s  He  a)  d e a l i n g  r e l a t e d  p e r t a i n i n g  a  be  c h a r a c t e r of  emphasizing  Schel1enberg  1  These  i n t e r e s t the  s  need"  treatment  f i l e s . to  records  p r e s e r v i n g through  e v i d e n t i a l  document  the  sampling  of  the  e v i d e n t i a l  s a m p l i n g ,  value  records  Lewinson  i n v o l v e s  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e for  and  t y p i c a l  operations  t h e i r  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  i n d i c a t e s r e c o r d s , of  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  an  that  values the  records  agency. v a l u e ,  which In  the  sampling  the procedure  -30-  concentrates on the non-typical records which possess information on important or significant matters. In defining the specific methods of selection, Lewinson indicates that "archival sampling is sometimes akin to statistical sampling when it aims at the preservation of typical or representative records but that it is often quite different in its objectives when it aims at the preservation of significant and atypical records only."(44)  In his discussion on  archival sampling, two methods of selection were mentioned: the random sample and the selected sample. Random sampling was described as "removing from the files every fifth, tenth, twentieth, etc., case depending upon the percentage required." (45)  The archivist's chief concern in using random sampling  is the size of the sample required to represent adequately thw whole series of records.  However, in selected sampling,  the archivist establishes a criterion of significance. By indicating priorities of importance, the archivist decides on what files are to be retained for preservation.  The size of  the sample is not a major concern of the archivist.  The concern  is that all t'.h.ei if hTKes of importance relating to significant events and the like be retained. W h e n Lewinson's thoughts turned to the method of statistical sampling, he admitted that few statistical samples had been undertaken. But he argues that archivists should acquaint themselves with the method, because future developments  may  make  i t s  use  Lewinson based  The  randomness i t  and  on  the  needed  to  for of  that  compromise  degrees  p o t e n t i a l sample  phase,  l i n e s ,  was  the  to  of  study  i l l u s t r a t e s  the  the  the  have  by  sample  an  of  the  adequately.  depends i s  which equal  the  An  or  sample  e x i s t  s i z e  decided  could chance  sample  depends  a d d i t i o n ,  Lewinson  the  s t a t i s t i c i a n  to  with  the  a v a i l a b i l i t y  of  the  the  a r c h i v i s t  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  d e c i s i o n  of  s t a t i s t i c i a n ,  In  and  on  v i t a l  force  a g a i n s t  t h e i r  r e s e a r c h e r  of  must  s t a t i s t i c i a n  in  any  m a t h e m a t i c a l l y -  r e l i a b i l i t y .  s t a t i s t i c a l  The  f a c t o r s  sampling uses  to  c r i t e r i a  record  r e l i a b i l i t y  of  Lewinson's  c o d i f i c a t i o n  of  Lewinson's of  sampling  American  on  use  with  randomness  whole  the  s t a t i s t i c a l ,  to  sample  or  must of not  to  r e c o r d s . ( 4 6 )  the  used  manual  each  p u b l i c a t i o n  formative  B r i c h f o r d 1977  -  complete.  the  fo  The  cost  of  a r c h i v a l  second  of  s u b j e c t i v e  the  the  cost  the  be  a  t o o l .  concerned  p r e s e r v a t i o n .  r e s e a r c h  With  ideas  no  T h e r e f o r e , the  not  a r c h i v a l  s e l e c t i n g  r e l i a b i l i t y ,  emphasises  balance  an  in  s i z e .  represent  f u n d i n g .  as  r e l i a b i l i t y  sample  degree  -  p r i m a r i l y  w i l l  that  s e l e c t e d  the  that  was  i t s  i n s u r e s  p r e j u d i c e being  one  sample  a r c h i v i s t .  for  found  sample  u n r e l i a b l e  f e a s i b l e  -31  a r t i c l e  Lewinson's a p p r a i s a l lack  of  a p p r a i s a l  created on  a  when  a c c e s s i o n i n g .  a t t e n t i o n  to  t h i s  of  work  a r c h i v a l  on  sampling  theory  a p p l i c a t i o n  d e f i n i t i o n s and  a r t i c l e  and  which  has  compiled  B r i c h f o r d ' s area  guide-  Sche11enbergian  s a m p l i n g . he  the  of  study  become Maynard his work during  i t s  -32-  recent  years  The on  the  of  r e c o r d s .  in  of  periods agency.  between  records  Who  more  be and on  the  records t h i s  to  records  are  then  The  a r c h i v a l  managers  r o l e s  in  of  programs  which  d i s p o s i t i o n a c t i v e  and  t h i s  of no  in  t h i r d  to  Who  s p e c i f i c  use  and  d e s t r u c t i o n .  s e r i e s on  was  A r c h i v i s t s of  during of  set  or  focussed  phase  a  knowledge  a c t i v e  record  a r c h i v i s t s .  a p p r a i s e ?  t h e i r  a r c h i v e s , a l l  In  i n i t i a l l y  values  community  c u s t o d i a n  was  W.K.  Lamb,  b e l i e v e d  m a n u s c r i p t s . ( 4 7 ) change  and  to  concentrated  d i s p o s i t i o n use  records  s t o r a g e ,  s e v e n t i e s  occurs the  work.  through-  the  to  d i f f e r e n c e s  a p p r a i s e ?  began  to  a p p r a i s a l ,  the  and  that has  According the  allowed  a  the  to  the  a r c h i v i s t The  passive  a  Lamb, of to  Dominion has  gatherer the  take  in  the  Smith,  then  A s s i s t a n t  Dominion  to  records  i n f l u e n c e  management  part  was  ceased  of  major  records  a r c h i v i s t  element  the  a r c h i v i s t  become  i n t r o d u c t i o n  r e c o r d s . ( 4 8 ) longer  formerly  now l i f e  in  planned  dynamic  and  span  a  of  r e c o r d . W i l f r e d  new  management.  Canada, a  of  a p p l i e d  to  c o n n e c t i o n ,  p r i m a r i l y  t h i s  determine  r e t e n t i o n  q u a l i f i e d  t h e i r  A r c h i v i s t  a p p r a i s a l  a r c h i v a l  for  Lewinson's  management.  and  the  In  to  records  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  out  of  of  of  e a r l y  a r c h i v i s t s  time  age  context  and  and  The  r e d e f i n e  s i x t i e s  management  d i s p o s i t i o n  was  dominance  managers  periods  t h e i r  the  s c h e d u l i n g  Records  r e c o r d s '  c o n t i n u i n g of  the  records  process  time  the  l i t e r a t u r e  a p p r a i s a l  program  of  and  A r c h i v i s t  of  -33-  Canada,  d e c l a r e d  theory  was  that  the  i n e v i t a b l e .  compromise  of  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s  the simply  p o s i t i o n  to  judge  the  value  of  a r c h i v e s .  the  o f f i c i a l  who  could  be  r e s p o n s i b l e  only  of  his  h i s t o r i c a l  to  a l l  p u b l i c  f i l m i n g  as  an  too  c o s t l y  the  records  of  in  Smith  e f f e c t i v e  tool  and  the  i t  and  create as  the  i n t e r l u d e  period  set.  records  The  demanded  a  considered  to  A r c h i v i s t s  had  d i s p o s i t i o n  were  be  of  e s s e n t i a l  L a s t l y ,  be  stored  in  records  i n s t i t u t i o n s  or  t h e i r  records  a r c h i v a l the  of  The:  use  time  as  m i c r o was  arrange  Smith's  r e f u t a t i o n  d i r e c t e d  at  i t s  r e c o r d s .  of  during  a p p r a i s a l  a r c h i v e s  of  and t h e i r  now r e c o r d s .  of  was  t h i s  was  was  a p p r a i s e r s  m i c r o f i l m i n g  u n t i l  brought  of  to  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  r o l e  he  because  the  u l t i m a t e  r e j e c t e d  records  were  t r a n s f e r  to  now a r c h i v a l  d e s t r u c t i o n . by  the  e l i g i b l e  volume and  of  p r e s e r v a t i o n  centres  held  and  f a c i l i t i e s  a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  the  r e c o r d s .  to  storage  to  t h e i r  method  r e p o s i t o r i e s ,  f u n c t i o n  was  a p p r a i s a l  a p p r a i s a l  d i r e c t i o n  confirmed  e f f i c i e n t  d e c l a r e d  the  on  a  M i c r o f i l m i n g  p a r t i c u l a r l y of  in  a r c h i v i s t  the  aids.(49)  a r t i c l e s  not  o v e r s i g h t  s t a f f  s e r i e s  were  for  a p p r a i s a l .  was  management  an  the  of  The  r e j e c t e d  f i n d i n g  few,  as  As  also  e n t i r e  number  broad  a d d i t i o n a l  the  of  the  of  panacea  a p p r a i s a l  Although  and  r e c o r d s .  m i c r o f i l m i n g  use  t r a i n i n g  Jenkinsonian  of  s t a f f  records for  modern time,  c r i t i c i s m s  of  management  t r a n s f e r records and  to  were  a r c h i v a l  began  therefore  a p p r a i s a l  centres  began  to  s t r a i n  threaten to  appear  r e s e a r c h in  -34-  the  l i t e r a t u r e  the  dilemma  In  1969,  in  the  study.  v a t i v e  in  in  c o m p i l e d .  in  be In  records  managers  the  s o l v i n g  a f t e r  newer  problems  the  the  or  wished c o n s e r -  the  s o c i a l  c r i t i c a l  enough  of  that  and  longer  advent  can  to  a r c h i v i s t s or  economic  have  been  t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r c h i v i s t s  e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g the  p a s t ,  the  the  s c i e n t i f i c  of  (50)  n a t i o n a l  a r c h i v i s t s  the  of  not  r e c o r d s .  t a b u l a t i o n s  a b i l i t i e s  s u c c e s s e s  of  found  No  that  would  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  f o r c e s  that  held  o p i n i o n ,  adopted  workplace  aggregate  found  the  c o n t r o l  the  the  Lewis,  more  being  F i s h b e i n  r e s e a r c h  a  a p p r a i s a l  r e s e a r c h  F i s h b e i n  Acknowledging in  in  had  and  procedures.(51)  o u t d i s t a n c i n g to  the  s e r v i c e s .  community  p r e s e r v a t i o n  usage  Meyer  his  which  take  not  and  David  In  records  were  orj  time  r e a l i z e d  punchcards  masse.  p r o f e s s i o n  keeping  destroyed f a c t ,  and  r e s e a r c h  and  p o t e n t i a l  deters  t h e i r  a r c h i v i s t s  and  q u a n t i t a t i v e  were  m a t e r i a l .  that  a r c h i v i s t  volume  en  the  communities  h i s t o r i a n  ledgers  that  commentary  a p p r a i s a l  on  c o l l e c t i n g  a r c h i v a l  records  changes  that  a  impact  a p p r a i s a l  of  r e s e a r c h  c r i t i c s ,  wholeheartedly  of  should  was  d e s i r e d  American  that  i t s  destroyed  changes  the  and  p a y r o l l s , be  that  t h e i r  program  to  t h e i r  computers  data  the  in  1 970,  automation  and  academic  assessments  r e c o r d s ,  c l a i m  a l l  trend  t h e i r  review  the  Lewis  In  of  faced  s o c i a l  b e l i e v e d  a r c h i v a l  community  stand  h i s t o r y  the  ought  a r c h i v a l  r e f l e c t  He  of  that  a r c h i v e s  the  to  they  one  d e c l a r e d  as  volume  records  problems  of  the  F i s h b e i n  created  by  t e c h n o l o g i c a l  change  and of management r e v e a l s are  - 3 5 -  only  slowly  being  Despite o c c u r r i n g  in  the  c l e a r  the  c r e a t i o n  many  a r c h i v i s t s  were  t h e i r  provide  a  standards  of had  the  common  are  more  and  "that  marginal a p p r a i s a l  a  for  valuable  case  changes  F i s h b e i n b e l i e f  In  f a c i n g  p r o f e s s i o n  a r c h i v i s t s Among  his  found  that  c l i e n t e l e .  the  of  for  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  that  h i s t o r i a n s  his  attempt  a r c h i v i s t s  to doing  to  set  q u a l i t y  to  set  g u i d e l i n e s  proposals  d e s i r e d  are  to  for  see  standards  a r c h i v i s t s  h i s t o r y  and  p o l i t i c a l  posed  and could  that  than  e d u c a t i o n , f i n d  "source  source  several  s o l u t i o n s . m a t e r i a l  m a t e r i a l  information  in  value"  by  asking  f i l e s ,  s u b m i s s i o n s ,  for  for  But  the he  does  personnel  questioned  s p e c i a l  r e c u r r i n g  n a t i o n a l  "where  of  s t u d i e s  s t u d i e s "  records that  i s  of  leave  r e c o r d s ,  the and  l i k e ? " ( 5 2 ) The  need  for  reassessment  questions  r a i s e d  by  answers.  It  not  a r c h i v i s t  Dr.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  was o Ake  r e s e a r c h e r s u n t i l  Kromnov  Congress  who  work.  b i o g r a p h i c a l a r c h i v a l  the  F i s h b e i n  standards  assumption  of  to  r e c o r d s .  a p p r a i s a l  profound  d i f f i c u l t i e s  s k i l l  F i s h b e i n  the  the  argues  of  better  questions  to  that  r e c o r d s ,  c l i n g i n g  competence  demonstrated  With  of  s e l e c t i o n  a p p r a i s a l  doing  evidence  non-government  F i s h b e i n  p r o f e s s i o n a l  a f f a i r s  the  c h i e f  for  the  were  s o l u t i o n  a p p r a i s a l ,  for  addressed.  of  the  on  of  a p p r a i s a l  and  a r c h i v i s t s  p r e s e n t a t i o n  contemporary  A r c h i v i s t s  was  (ICA)  by  e v i d e n t . a l i k e the  records that  The  demanded Swedish  at  these  the i s s u e s  -36-  were  openly In  d i s c u s s e d  Kromony's  in  an  view,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l  forum.  although  the a p p r a i s a l of records i s one of the most important and s e n s i t i v e problems of a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e , the amount of l i t e r a t u r e has not been in p r o p o r t i o n to i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . Throughout the world the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t e r m i n o l o g y has provided the b a r r i e r of unders t a n d i n g . Also the p r o f e s s i o n has tended to c o n c e n t r a t e on p r a c t i c a l matters r a t h e r than the t h e o r e t i c a 1 . ( 5 3 )  A p p r a i s a l  had,  e x i s t e n c e :  one  too  great  the  economic  was  too  destroy The of for  for  storage other  a  new  that  to  as  to  d e s t r u c t i o n and  of  a l l o w  reasons  f l o o d  accommodate;  maintenance The  c o s t s  records  manpower  in  p r e s s u r e s  reduce of  two  enormous  to  o v e r l o o k . so  o p i n i o n ,  the  a r c h i v e s  consequence  records  o r d e r l y  Kromnov's  being any  great  of  for  i t s  r e c o r d s  was  and  the  other  the  age  of  on  were  promised  r e c e s s i o n  government  i n c r e a s i n g . to  save  and  f a c i l i t i e s  to  be  of  government  economy  that  to (54)  the  c o s t s  u t i l i z e d  purposes.  C u t t i n g was  in  a g a i n s t  t r e n d .  As  the  g r a i n  Kromnov  saw  i t ,  m a t e r i a l s once c o n s i d e r e d expendable because of l a c k of demand and the b e l i e f that the contents were un-manageable were now a c t i v e l y sought by q u a n t i t a t i v e S o c i a l S c i e n t i s t s and S o c i a l - H i s t o r i a n s . ( 5 5 )  measures  -37-  Kromnov i d e n t i f i e d  two elements Vviitail to the s o l u t i o n of the  problems of a p p r a i s i n g t h i s based  s o r t of m a t e r i a l : f a i t h  judgement of the a r c h i v i s t  objective c r i t e r i a  for appraisal  acknowledged that the a r c h i v i s t ' s questions  him to develop  more  and s e l e c t i o n . (56)  He  experience with  historical  interesting  more o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a .  point r a i s e d  promoted by German a r c h i v i s t " a f t e r fundamental are judged  by Kromnov i s the theory  Hans Boom.  Boom proposed  difficulty  of the materia 1."(57)  with Boom's theory  at the time  which, are contemporary  Kromnov admits  i s that c e r t a i n  r e s e a r c h , such as environmental  disposition  that  study, records should be preserved which  to be v a l u a b l e by the standards  to the o r i g i n s  noticed  and the need to f i n d  i s i n v a l u a b l e , but, in the long run, h i s l i m i t a t i o n s  must cause An  in experience-  that the  areas of l a t e r  concerns, are not  immediately  records are created and even when t h e i r  i s being  determined.(58)  Kromnov's p r e s e n t a t i o n to the ICA s i g n a l s a renewal appraisal  literature.  Recent w r i t e r s have concentrated on the.  question of r e a p p r a i s a l , and have mixed p r a c t i c a l with t h e o r e t i c a l  of  ideas in t h e i r  her d i s c u s s i o n of the papers a t o r s , Eleanor MacKay found  approach  examples  to the problem.  In  of American congressmen and senthat the overwhelming volume  combined with small s t a f f resources and a small budget created an she  intolerable illustrated  condition.  Using examples from  her concerns  her a c q u i s i t i o n s ,  f o r volume: Hubert Humphrey had  - 3 8 -  t r a n s f e r r e d  154  form  r e p l i e s ;  805  l e t t e r  H o l l i n g e r  What  to  do  cartons  boxes  with  l o c a l  regions  t o t a l  volume  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ,  Senator  Alex  c o v e r i n g  these  and  of  to  his  r e c o r d s ?  a  of  24-year Their  h i s t o r i c a l  c r e a t e d  Wiley  that  of  which  W i s c o n s i n  importance are  c a l l e d  were  t r a n s f e r r e d  C o n g r e s s i o n a l  r e s e a r c h  problem  most  to  c a r e e r . ( 5 9 )  t h e i r  undisputed  out  for  but  some  the  r a t i o n a l  s o l u t i o n . In  an  several  attempt  c o l l e a g u e s  s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d s . 20 a  large  They of  the  a  l a r g e ,  percent  20  the  that  for  most  percent  a  s e r i e s  of  . . .  would  of  the  as  much  would  as  preserve  s t u d i e s . (60)  needed  body  and  and  C o n g r e s s i o n a l  s t a t i s t i c a 1  t o t a l  sample  of  r e t e n t i o n  often  MacKay  demands  sampling  "the  s c h o l a r s  from  s o l u t i o n ,  r e s e a r c h  homogeneous  that  samples  proposed  r a t i o n a l  for  u n i v e r s e  noted  a  i n v e s t i g a t e d  concluded  enough  r e s e a r c h e r s 3  f i n d  requirements  percent  or  to  as  l i t t l e  r e c o r d s , "  provide  ample  The  as  "2  t h e r e f o r e r e s e a r c h  d a t a . ( 6 1 ) When  the  Congressman  George  n o n - s e l e c t e d a n a l y s i s and  decided the  to  of  set  W.  G r i d e r , as  were  d i s c a r d  the  twenty  d e s t r o y i n g and  a p p l i e d  a  the  papers  a r c h i v i s t s  p r e c a u t i o n . m a t e r i a l ,  p o s t - s e l e c t i o n  few  items  of  m a t e r i a l  sample.  The  m a t e r i a l  by  options  the  t h e i r  n o n - s e l e c t e d  a r c h i v a l  former  In  T h e r e f o r e ,  v a l u a b l e  of  r e t a i n e d  d i s c o v e r e d .  percent  new  to  the  n o n - s e l e c t e d  nature  aside  was  m a t e r i a l the  o r i g i n a l  fear be  of  unique  method  the and  a  v a l u a b l e  a r c h i v i s t s  r e t a i n e d  only  h i s t o r i a n - a r c h i v i s t ' s random  could  be  sampling  could  d i s c u s s e d .  -39-  MacKay c e r t a i n l i t t l e 20  claimed  s e r i e s  d i f f e r e n c e  percent  p o l i c i e s Through could  to  r e q u i r e s  standards i n c r e a s i n g  by  s t r o n g l y  PRO.  the  i t s  S i r  of  that  a r c h i v a l the  not  e n t i r e t y  r e t a i n e d  to  by  that a  of  records  c o n t r a s t  recommended  on  to the  a  the  r e p o s i t o r y  a r c h i v i s t .  r e t e n t i o n  of  American  the  the  B r i t i s h  a l t e r n a t i v e s P u b l i c  other  for  method  should  Record in  Records, committee  a r c h i v a l  A r c h i v e s ,  group  and  a p p r a i s a l  c o n t r o l  u n s u i t a b l e  which  the  n a t i o n .  to  National  record  h o l d i n g s .  A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  t r a n s f e r deemed  of  Modern  The  f a s h i o n  a p p r a i s a l  of  and  a p p r a i s a l  Committee  idea  the  r e t e n t i o n  a  develop  Commitee  W i l s o n . ( 6 2 )  the  to  handle  of  Records several  the  a r c h i v a l  d e c i s i o n s  resources  the  i n t e r - i n s t i t u t i o n a l  judgement  to  in  p e r i o d i c a l  p r o f e s s i o n  using  i n s t i t u t i o n s  r e s e a r c h ,  of  f i n d  implemented.  a r c h i v a l  and  area  a r c h i v i s t s  Duncan  in  the  be  i n s t i t u t e d  books  By  reduced  would  c o - o p e r a t i v e  could  of  p r o f e s s i o n a l  P u b l i c  p u b l i c  have  rare  the  to  areas  which  for  f i l e s  p o l i c i e s ,  c e r t a i n  r e s u r r e c t e d  But,  that  homogeneous  urged  endorsed  p o s i t o r i e s  in  that  in  submission  members  proposed  documentary  A s s o c i a t i o n  only  MacKay  prepare  1979,  r e s e a r c h e r s  c o l l e c t i o n s .  highest  to  p e r c e n t ,  i n s t i t u t i o n  a r c h i v a l  c a u t i o n s  MacKay  a r c h i v a l  between  in  guide  s e l e c t i o n ,  the  80  c o - o p e r a t i v e  the  and  c h a i r e d  by  p o l i c i e s  MacKay  t h e i r  papers  l i b r a r i e s ,  c o l l e c t i o n  In  every  c o n c e r n i n g  s p e c i a l i z e  a i d  i f  sample,  t h e i r  s i m i l a r  To  of  that  deposit of  the be  s p e c i a l i z e s  r e in  t r a n s f e r r i committee  t r a n s f e r r e d in  the  area  -40-  r e l a t i n g of  records  and no  to  the  sample  m a t e r i a l  could  to  e n t i r e  body  If  the  be  not  taken  of  two  of  half-way  r e t e n t i o n plan  for  time  p e r i o d s .  but  permanent  was  This the  themselves  only  advance  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r e s h  in  the  for  the  a r c h i v e s  the i f  t e s t i n g  r e p o s i t o r y  s t r e s s e d  The  houses.  was the  was  that  while  the  s e p a r a t i o n  of  r e s e a r c h e r s  who  they  to  t r a n s f e r  wished  in  the  the would  use  a l l o w  government  of  money The  in  issue  of  arguments  which  would  context  of  Their the  ideas  for  to  use  and  centres n e c e s s a r i  for t h e i r  only  set  the  m a t e r i a l  storage  committee  sampling  not  with  a r c h i v a l  B r i t i s h  argued  d e c i s i o n  records  r e s e a r c h e r s  the  r e c o r d s .  f i n a l  r e j e c t e d  record  s t o r a g e ,  A s s o c i a t e d  r e t e n t i o n  they  committee  a r c h i v a l  l o w - c o s t  u n t i l  i d e a ,  The  These  reached.  would  to  the  r e d u c t i o n .  p r e s e r v a t i o n . ( 6 3 )  address to  of  m a t e r i a l  d i s p o s a l  save  n a t i o n a l  r e p o s i t o r i e s  c o n t r o l l e d ,  storage  would  means  a r c h i v a l  or  point  e l s e w h e r e .  endorsed  for  e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  computerized  r e c o r d s .  a  house  of  between  main  the  convenient  as  would  by  be  committee  system  The  housed  v i s i t  methods  l i n k a g e  i s  m i c r o f i l m i n g a  the  a r c h i v e s .  m a t e r i a l would  Modern  provide  should  r e q u i r e d  the  r e c o r d s .  n a t i o n a l  remaining  be  the  did  were  and not  content  a i d  the  d i s p o s i t i o n  were  not  new  r e c e s s i o n - m i n d e d  but  of  were  b u r e a u c r a c i e s  of  government. In  America,  reexamined  a r c h i v i s t s  sampling  as  an  Frank  Boles  a p p r a i s a l  and  method.  R.  Joseph  Boles  Anderson  r e i t e r a t e d  -41  Lewinson's of  case  that  r e l i a b i l i t y .  and  the  away  from  opinions  of  that and  ments  of  in  handle  the  a i d  the  only  sample.  would  lay  in  d e l i c a t e  t e c h n i q u e s :  random  a  number;  s y s t e m a t i c  unique  To  use  random  sampled the  must  and  s a m p l i n g , bear  d i f f i c u l t i e s  a  unique  and  cost  a r c h i v i s t s  have  systematic  s a m p l i n g .  elements, l o c a t i o n  in  for  the  sample  from  the  concerns  c r i t i c i s m s .  "Instead  of  random  based  p o p u l a t i o n ,  major  of  i s s u e s  not  address  q u a l i t a t i v e  s e l e c t i o n ;  one  may  his  concern  these  of  of  r e l i a b i l i t y  to  as  t h e i r  the  r e s t two  thus  for  to  would  to  -  t h e i r a  1,000th scheduled  could  r e f l e c t  q u a l i t a t i v e  t h i s  t h i s not  by  every  s a t i s f y i n g  that  Due  example,  being  to  be  choosing  p i c k e d  methods  himself  samples  s a m p l i n g .  technique  For  s e l e c t i n g  surmise  s e l e c t i o n .  are  has  sampling  t a b l e s  "(65)  the  document  number."(64)  elements  on  two  p o p u l a t i o n  random  that  c a l l e d  s e l e c t i v e  the  expert  r e q u i r e -  be  each  a l t e r n a t i v e  p o p u l a t i o n .  and  could  or  Schel1enberg1s  s t a t e s  which  of  an  be  Boles  d e f i n e s  implementing  did  area  Boles  in  a r c h i v i s t s  seek  Boles  sampling  sampling  to  g u i d e l i n e s  s t a t i s t i c s  element  Combinations or  the  on  t o t a l  t o t a l  r e c o r d s ,  r e l y  could  d e s t r u c t i o n .  r e f i o n a l  to  s y s t e m a t i c  w i t h i n  systematic element  tended  r e q u i r e d  measure  technology  S t r e s s i n g  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  the  samples.  sampling  "each  that  high  f r i g h t e n e d  d e t a i l s .  sampling  a  had  be  down  needed  found  age  modern  Experts  the  Boles  s t a t i s t i c a l  handling  should  sampling  computer  a r c h i v i s t  in  a l l  disamy, the  implementing  a r c h i v i s t  to  s t a t i s t i c a l his  terminology  statement  the  To  -  issue  was  have  not a  of w i t h i n  measure  -42-  R.  Joseph  United case  States  v a l u e ,  Of  value  only  bulk the  f i v e  s t a t e ,  would  p l i n g  Of  r e s p o n d e n t s ,  the  a c c e s s i o n e d  main  which form  of  l a s t  the  Anderson but  did  he  s a m p l i n g ,  was  kept  f i e l d s not  did  of  a r c h i v a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  view  the  t h a t  r e j e c t e d s t i l l  as  a  means  i n v o l v e d  a r c h i v a l  n a t i o n a l  The  lack the  c r i t e r i a s a m p l i n g , All a r c h i v a l  in  network  the  that  f a c t  of  and  the  to  the  United  of  no  community  in  by  Renee  support  the  is  i s s u e s post  ot  the  documents.  the  methods  lack had  of  of  of  a l s o  these how  working with sate  Doehard  noted.  well  well  o t h e r .  a r c h i v e s  s t i l l  was  the  how  each  shows  p e r s i s t . faced  with  undertaken.  and  Second  problems World  r a i s e d  War  In  was  s t a t e s  and  a r c h i v i s t  sam-  communication  m i c r o f i l m i n g  the  the  a l l  from  the  communicate by  f i l e s ,  gleaned  i n q u i r e is  case  r e c o r d s .  which  one  States  the  base  Kromnov  may  admitted  data  one  sampling  a p p r a i s a l  a  the  a f t e r  sampling  exprssed  create  records  a r c h i v e s  provide  t h e r e f o r e  which  of  m i c r o f i l m e d  d e t a i l  decade  program,  a p p l i c a t i o n  e x i s t  a  s t o r i n g  s t a t e  m i s g i v i n g s  of  of  the in  over  in  who  the  C o n f i d e n t i a l l y  o r i g i n a l  i l l u s t r a t e  between of  to  w e l f a r e  denied  s t a t e s  w e l f a r e  i n f o r m a t i o n  d i s c u s s  c l e a r l y  the  the  p u b l i c  acceptance  s t a t e  of  s t a t e s  35  s o c i a l  a l l  of  r e c o r d s .  the  one  p l a n n i n g  11  the  case to  a r c h i v e s  a p p r a i s a l  of  a c c e s s i o n e d  s t a t e  major  Yet  drawbacks  had  W i s c o n s i n ,  used  46  t h e i r  had  the  s t o r e  f i l e s .  to  seven the  s t a t e  r e f e r e n c e  r e c o r d s .  some  and  the  the  were  used  surveyed  of  s t a t e s  records One  with  r e c o r d s . ( 6 6 )  a r c h i v a l  and  Anderson  by  p e r i o d  the were  No  -43-  c o n v e n i e n t l y sampling (ICA)  p u b l i s h e d  phase  The  important  in  report  By  as  surveying  the  whatever  s e r i e s )  as  an  is  example  p r e s e r v a t i o n . " ( 6 8 )  Hull  stage  in  c l e a r l y s e l e c t i o n  in  q u a n t i t a t i v e  stage of  the  of  status  and  a r c h i v i s t  a  not  adoption  the of  but  record  h i s t o r i c a l  "the  and  and  attempts  management  tool  of  by  other  i s  a  simi1ar.  sampling  for  any  the  in  is  a  a l s o  a  the  a  the  the  most  very  the  for  which  part is  r e c o r d s , s e r i e s .  method  not  H u l l ,  must  problems  at  the  r e s e a r c h For  records  process  not  of  or  s a m p l i n g ,  answer  determines and  c l a s s  of  of  b u l k ,  d i s -  ( f i l e s ,  s p e c i f i c to  and  permanent  determinable  as  on  a r c h i v a l  units  form  sampling  record  in  s e l e c t i o n  reduce but  work  t h e o r e t i c a l  s e r i e s  i s  reference  of  A r c h i v e s  several  w i t h i n  the  c r i t e r i a . (70)  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  of  S c h e l l e n b e r g  ICA,  s t a t i s t i c i a n  to  of  c e r t a i n  or  c y c l e  words,  on  days  in  of  that  technique  based  on  ushers  major  s a m p l i n g ,  c l a s s  p r o c e s s ,  In  the  format  sampling  a n a l y s i s ,  c o n t r o l . " ( 6 9 )  normal  l i f e  that  study  Council  the  presented  that  records  as  of  s e l e c t i o n  of  employed  the  s t r a t i v e  on  a  members  defined  the  his  study  p i o n e e r i n g  were  in  a p p r a i s a l .  Recognizing  s t a t e s  of  whereby  the  Hull  H u l l ' s  regarded  the  Hull  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  of  be  " d e l i b e r a t e  or  any  may  s a m p l i n g .  F e l i x  1 981.(67')  reassessments of  by  the  s i n c e  volumes  at  by  d i s c u s s i o n  sampling  Lewinson.  sense,  of  Hul.l  a p p r a i s a l  c u s s i o n  together  commissioned  and  recent  brought  an  e a r l y  f i n a l  an the  a d m i n i future  needs the  decide  stage  and a r c h i v i s t  on  the  -44-  I d e a l l y , But  i f  t h i s  a v a i l a b l e sampling  a l l  records  proves  to  the  used  should  i m p o s s i b l e ,  a r c h i v i s t ?  in  the  be  r e t a i n e d  what  Hull  a r c h i v a l  methods  of  i d e n t i f i e d  s e l e c t i o n to  of  specimens  from  an  i s ,  ephemeral  i l l u s t r a t e  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  This  method  d e s c r i b e d  with  u n c e r t a i n  i n d i c a t o r stud  was  of  a  r e s e a r c h s e r i e s  are  methods  of  r e f e r r e d  to  s e r i e s  papers  of  p r a c t i c e having  p o t e n t i a l ; never  at  H u l l ,  a  l i m i t e d i t  for  could  and  "simply  to  some  the specimens  p a r t i c u l a r  d a t e . " ( 7 2 )  h i s t o r i c a l only  s t a t i s t i c a l  be  merit  used  or  as  an  comparative  i e s . ( 7 3 ) Purposive  q u a l i t a t i v e i s  i n t e n t i o n  being  records  of  sampling  s a m p l i n g .  s e l e c t i o n  a  made  on  to  c l a s s  is  a  from  allows  for  r e t e n t i o n  general  systematized  method  of  the  most  t h i s  s i g n i f i c a n c e .  s u b j e c t i v e of  sampling set  of  important  Hull  method  of  occurs  "when  c r i t e r i a ,  s i g n i f i c a n t  s e r i e s . " ( 7 4 )  r e s u l t s the  more  p r e - c o n c e i v e d  r e t a i n or  a  This  sample  of  four  s p e c i f i c  a c c o r d i n g  as  and  sampling  a t i v e sampling b a s i s ; a pre-determined  both (c) and (d) may at times be to as q u a n t i t a t i v e s a m p l i n g . (71 )  t a k i n g  p r e s e r v a t i o n .  community:  a) the t a k i n g of specimens; b) purposive sampling or q u a l i t on a p r e - d e t e r m i n e d pattern or c) systematic sampling a l s o on b a s i s ; and d) random sampling employing a s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v e p r o c e s s ;  The  for  or  admits  a p p l i c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n  the  important  that of  a  a  biased  c r i t e r i a from  but  s e r i e s  i t  - 4 5 -  Systematic a  p a r t i c u l a r  f i l e  i s  month, that But  or  previous with  the  being  the of  for  s i z e  of  d e s i r e d  by  size  of  a  Only  in  the  judgement  the  as  the  t h i s  method  weigh  has  costs  maintenance  Hull  of  being by  "random". a r c h i v i s t s ,  equal  for the  of  that  the  p r o v i s i o n  other  easy  that  chance  i n d i c a t e s  on i t s  emphasises  hand,  a p p l i c a t i o n . is  based  on  piece  s e r i e s  an  equal  chance  a  s e r i e s  any  the  It  of  s t u d i e s .  Hull  depends should  the  on be  than  the  i n i t i a l  is  to  degree  size  i s  This  p o t e n t i a l  cost  of  be  i n d i c a t e s of  the  used that  accuracy  that  p r o p o r t i o n a l  bear.  r e s e a r c h  s u b j e c t i v e  remembered  sample's to  p a r t i c u l a r  other  sampling  brought  future  or  on  random  important  the  has  based  a  i f  in  S e l e c t i o n  sample  and  Hull  d e f i n i t i o n  an  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  s t a t i s t i c a l  the  p a r t i c u l a r  as  a  nth  mentioned,  a r c h i v i s t  must  every  terminology  s e r i e s  because  w i t h i n  more  a  " e s t a b l i s h i n g  p r e v i o u s l y  a r c h i v i s t . is  for  u n i t . " ( 7 5 )  A r c h i v i s t s ,  d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of  papers  e i t h e r  d e f i n i t i o n ,  a  s e r i e s .  avoided  d e c i s i o n of  in  base.  random  sample  new  method  every  or  the  a  a r c h i v i s t  that  s t a t i s t i c a l  sampling  the  be  the  termed  piece  patterns  must  a l l  the  p r e s e r v a t i o n . ( 7 6 )  that  q u a n t i t a t i v e  the  of  data  r e p r e s e n t i n g  c r i t e r i a  in  had  s a m p l i n g ,  p r i n c i p l e  s e l e c t i o n  c h r o n o l o g i c a l  t h i s  s y s t e m a t i c  i n t e r e s t s ,  in  every  f i n d  Random  upon  a c q u i r e d  o b j e c t i v e  favour  depends  e l s e  adoption  s e l e c t e d  an  or  w r i t e r s  that  r e s e a r c h e r s  of  other  sampling  r e q u i r e s  of  pattern  preserved year  random  sampling  absolute  s i z e . s u b j e c t i v e  a r c h i v a l with  s a m p l i n g .  the  -46-  Hull a l l  sets  f o r t h ,  i n f o r m a t i o n  with  the  on  sampled made,  the  measures  i n f o r m a t i o n , judge  the  the  whether  the  the  m a t e r i a l used  to  sample  time,  volume  create  the  community of  must  at for  the  and  By  p r o v i d i n g  l e a s t a  that  presented  record  sample.  use  be  d e s t r o y e d ,  w i l l  any  requirement  must  a r c h i v i s t  and  is  the  procedures  The  r e s e a r c h  the  f i r s t  sampling  m a t e r i a l .  d e c i s i o n s exact  for  be  able  t h i s to  p a r t i c u l a r  purpose. By the  acknowledging  "natural  tendency"  r e a l i s t i c a l l y a p p r a i s a l Hull  in  i t s  the  of  prime  r e a p p r a i s a l  a r c h i v a l  importance.  stream"  a r c h i v i s t s  storage  s a v i n g s .  out  of  has  forced  the  cannot  c l e a r e r  more  r e l e v e n t  wary  shelved  H u l l ' s  a r c h i v a l  terms  of  and  in  The  arcane  one  i s  by  the  an  where  a r c h i v a l downturn  to  the  r e p o r t , his  Boles  e x a c t i n g a s s e r t i o n  terminology and  of  and  a  the for  that  of  sad  of  r e a l i t y are  "main cost i s  the  and used revenues  a r c h i v a l  s i t u a t i o n  d e f i n i t i o n s  and  f r i g h t e n e d  methodology  g u i d e l i n e s  "computer-ese".  the  government  f o r e f r o n t made  that  f i n a n c e s  tool in  Hull  a c c e p t e d .  that  tendencies  d e f i n i t i o n s not  widely  combat  his  a r c h i v i s t s  not  and  i n d i c a t e s  t r a i n i n g  economic  has,  usage.  i s  a l s o  h i s t o r i c a l  issue  for  He  data  q u a l i t a t i v e ,  is  Hull  as  aspect  sampling  g u i d e l i n e s  t r e n d s .  be  s i t u a t i o n  community. and  to  d i s c u s s i o n ,  The  The  q u a n t i t a t i v e  Kromnov's  Sampling  n e c e s s i t y .  for  a r c h i v i s t s  recent  f o l l o w i n g  c u r r e n t  demands  for  portrays  i m p l i e s ,  of  the  are  can  expressed  be in  -47-  The  separation  practical  of the  report  i n t o the t h e o r e t i c a l and  a p p l i c a t i o n s of a p p r a i s a l  illustrates  b e l i e f that a r c h i v i s t s are more p r a c t i c a l  the Kromnov  than  insightful.  H u l l ' s examples c l o s e l y resemble those found in the of the f o r t i e s when i 1 1 u s t r a t i o n s were the to communicate sampling techniques. practical archival So,  as Schellenberg  and  grounded  Hull  b u i l t another p i l l a r  the  issues faced  sampling w i l l archival solM the  previous  the  The  the follow.  foundation generation,  c r i t i c i s m s of a p p r a i s a l  report.  research  Rather  clientele  or to r e i n f o r c e .  The  now  the have a  issues r a i s e d  by  because many of them  s i t u a t i o n s or to perceptions  and  attitudes  community.  v e r d i c t on q u a n t i t a t i v e sampling and community  h i s t o r i a n G.M.  is s t i l l  research.(77)  out.  Moss c r i t i c i z e d  r e s u l t in a body of records Questions r e l a t i n g  the exact  i t s b e n e f i t s to  In a recent the  notion  article,  that  sampling  useable f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e to the  optimal  sample were r a i s e d as the author took a very What was  i f the  s t r u c t u r e which addresses  w r i t e r s cannot be r e s o l v e d  historical  British  to the  be s i l e n c e d by their  a  examples f o r t h e i r  his generation.  community and  held by the  will  by  not  r e l a t e to ideal  the  be shown to  Lewinson provided  in p r a c t i c a l  work to a s s a i l  The  method used  community then a t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n w i l l  of ideas has  only  literature  It would seem that  a p p l i c a t i o n of a technique can  the  number of case f i l e s  l i m i t of a  conservative  needed to be  stand.  researched  -48-  before  any  f i l e s ?  Or  50,000?  preserved to  a  The  to  data  bases  t h i s  a  w i l l  another for  a l l o w i n g  a t t a c k i n g  the  and  i s  s e r v i n g  With  these  must  face'-  going  to  Rapport any  be  the  c o s t s ,  must based  which  l a r g e r  these  as  another  method  i s  "what  by p r e s e r v a t i o n ,  funding  that  l i m i t l e s s .  a r c h i v i s t s  records  we  are  Furthermore,  the  s o l e  preserve  as  to  each  and  every  to  j u s t i f y  the  p r e s e r v a t i o n  of  a r c h i v a l  t h e i r  u t i l i t y  and  r e s e a r c h  to  a  begin  than  the  h i s t o r i a n s ,  a r c h i v a l  r e a l i z a t i o n  s t o r a g e , the  an  for  needed  p r e s e r v e . " ( 7 9 ) not  wrote  the  funding  are  create Is  methods  b e l i e v e s  records  decade.  m a t e r i a l ?  Rapport  The  to  t h i s  r e s e a r c h e r  merely  around  nor  a r c h i v i s t  such  belong  on  free  of  be  i n f o r m a t i o n ?  Leonard  the  to  a r c h i v e s  i t  and  5,000  an  the  Or  Rapport  to  to  r e a p p r a i s a l  d e c i s i o n  a f f o r d  t o p i c s  a r c h i v a l  r e v o l v e s  not  of  t h e i r is  i t  samples  Shoulld  e x p e n s i v e .  is  group,  they  holdings i s  to that  i n t e r e s t  a r c h i v i s t  more  c r u c i a l  able  of  m a t e r i a l ,  records  a s s e r t s  a r c h i v i s t s ;  lack  of  sampled  h i s t o r i c a l  a r c h i v i s t  Was  s e r v i c e  major  i s s u e .  from  to  argument  mounting the  the  debated  the  s i z e  e s s e n t i a l of  use  s t a t e d ?  the  provenance?  becoming of  be  m a t e r i a l  access  His  space,  a r c h i v e s  one  the  American  h o i d i n g s . ( 7 8 ) that  of  of  the  r e s e a r c h  e a s i e r  1981,  a r t i c l e  of  could  i s s u e  be  hotly  v i o l a t i o n  In  of  The  a c c e s s i b i l i t y be  trends  accommodate  r e s e a r c h e r  w i l l  of  a c c u r a t e  t r a d i t i o n a l  g e n e a l o g i s t s c i t i z e n . ( 8 0 )  a r c h i v a l  use  u s e r s .  and The  c l i e n t e l e  -49-  In value a)  his  were  the  the  d i s c u s s i o n a c c e s s i o n e d ,  records  could  a p p r a i s i n g  s t a n d a r d s ;  standards  the  records  the when  have  of  the  the  c)  the  c r i t e r i a National  storage  space  and  funding  Rapport  found  i t  a r c h i v a l  to  e a s i e r  the  to  dispose  of  v a l u e l e s s  a)  a  of  permanence  sense  i n c l u s i o n  in  u t i o n ;  the  b)  m a t e r i a l s t a f f  is  the  d)  r e c o r d s ,  such  i f  a  as  s o c i e t y  s i t u a t i o n  where  i m p o s s i b l e .  t h e i r  sense  He  of  c)  a  sense  of  and  states  rendering a c q u i r e d  the  case  in  States  the  records r e l u c t a n c e  The  m i l i t a r y  i n a b i l i t y  Rapport,  involved  by  the  r e c o r d s '  c a t a l o g s  of  the  i n s t i t -  i f  d e s i r e d  r e p e r c u s s i o n s  of  were  time  c o n f l i c t  surrounding  with  are  d i f f i c u l t  he  does  not  and,  types  seem  This  is  f e l l o w  reversed  c e r t a i n  r e c o r d s ,  i m m o r t a l i t y .  that  was  and  to  judgements  a p p r a i s a l  been  United  them.  over  p o s s i b l e  and  changed  as  the  i n a b i l i t y  fear  implemented  have  how  a c c o r d i n g  guides  the  may  a p p r a i s a l ,  abundant.(81)  r e a p p r a i s e  mystique  o b j e c t i v e f r a n k l y  the  f a u l t y  contemporary  have  understand  a p p r a i s a l  maritime  with  to  a  have  a p p l i e d ,  e s t a b l i s h e d  of  could  of  q u e s t i o n a b l e  p o s s i b i l i t i e s :  the  standards  were  of  a f t e r  use  records  r e c o r d s ,  m i s g i v i n g s  members  to  Archives  to  p u b l i s h e d  d e s t r o y e d ;  f i n a l l y ,  our  p r o f e s s i o n  several  being  understand  of  l i s t s  records  a c c e s s i o n e d  but  or  why  a r c h i v i s t  the  than  and  n e g l e c t i n g  of  a c c e s s i o n e d  by  been  time  a p p r a i s a l  years  how  a p p r a i s i n g  v a l u e l e s s ;  any  e a r l y  the  to  Rapport  a r c h i v i s t  b)  the  without  as  to  be  sense i f "know  of endowed  creates  not how  a  -50-  anybody gets r i d of any records r e l a t i n g or not the vessel ever f i r e d Although  reappraisal  whether  a round i n anger."(83)  Rapport sets no s p e c i f i c  the implementation  to a warship,  recommendation as to  of r e a p p r a i s a l methods, he s t r e s s e d that the  methods must allow time  aware of the records through  f o r the p u b l i c to become  published  c a t a l o g u e s ; and to allow time  i n v e n t o r i e s , guides and  f o r a n a l y s i s of the uses of the  records. 1  C h a l l e n g i n g Sch'el 1 enberg s emphasis on the importance of evidential  value, Rapport claims that a r c h i v i s t s  too many records on the basis of t h e i r The  need to record the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  agencies  i s important,  have r e t a i n e d  having e v i d e n t i a l  and d u t i e s of p u b l i c  as S c h e l l e n b e r g s t a t e d , but the  r e t e n t i o n of so many records from so many agencies questioned.  value.  Some of the records  must be  have never been used, and many  were used once f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i s t o r y and have remained unused ever s i n c e .  The r e t e n t i o n of these  the issue of permanence. the d e f i n i t i o n and  Rapport advocates  a t i o n " should be adopted.  eternal.  that the l i f e  glossary  as "worthy of continued  preserv-  This term or one s i m i l a r to i t would  of some records  The change in terminology  " e n t e r t a i n the thought  raises  the dropping of  "permanent value" from the a r c h i v a l  in i t s place a term such  indicate  unused records  i s something l e s s  would permit  that a p p r a i s a l standards  than  a r c h i v i s t s to can change."(84)  D e s c r i b i n g a p p r a i s a l as "at best an inexact science  -51-  perhaps any  more  an  r e a p p r a i s a l  a r t : ,  Rapport  program  must  r e s e a r c h e r s  often  c o n s i d e r  i n f o r m a t i o n  to  synonymous  Rapport of  s t a t e s  a v a i l a b l e  and  a r c h i v i s t  are  to  r e s e a r c h  a r c h i v i s t they  be  which  he  issue  of  the  1983,  K n i g h t s b r i d g e ,  of  o f f i c i a l s ,  importance.  An  and  whether  i n f o r m a t i o n  i s  the  not  a r c h i v i s t  r e t a i n e d , occur? i s  i f  These  must  the  d e c i d e ,  is  there  a  The  f i n a l  question  the  records  three  a r c h i v i s t  S e r v i c e  sampled  is  i f  the  reasonable  were  questions  doing  the  r e a p p r a i s a l .  This  advocating  C i v i l  i n f o r m a t i o n ' s  b i t  destroyed  a r t i c l e  coming  In  v e s s e l s ,  every  i f  the  acknowledged  the  r e t a i n  so,  e x p e c t a t i o n  which  o f f e r e d r e f l e c t  r e a p p r a i s a l  r e a p p r a i s e d  an  a p p r a i s a l  today,  would  the  and  i s s u e s  the  importance  t a s k .  concept. in  p a r t i c u l a r  to  n e c e s s a r i l y  s u f f e r  ask  Rapport's the  seek  not  important  w i l l  r e t a i n e d ?  that  are  and  that  s c h o l a r s h i p  w i l l  confront  they  w i l l  the  F i n d i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n  when  which  whether  be  must  of  q u e s t i o n s  determine  Secondly,  records  of  is  unique  on  three  c o n s i d e r . ( 8 5 )  r e s e a r c h e r s  r e g a r d l e s s  must  i n f o r m a t i o n unique.  that  i n f o r m a t i o n  agencies  that  be  r a i s e d  that  the  i s s u e  w i l l  decades  Although  be  and  one  more  P r i n c i p a l  r a i s e d C o l l e g e  m a t e r i a l .  a  new  in The  s e r i o u s Hull  p r o f e s s i o n  implementation the  f i r s t  of  not  the  major  London, P u b l i c  are  s y s t e m a t i c  A s s i s t a n t issue  mentioned  had  a r t i c l e s of  a r t i c l e  in when  yet  he  Record  address  r e a p p r a i s a l ,  embraced  areas  l i k e l y  of  the  d i s c u s s i o n  to  appear  r e a p p r a i s a l .  Keeper his  to  of  the  PRO,  p r e s e n t a t i o n spoke O f f i c e  of has  to  the over  A . A . H . the  non-use 700  -52-  c l a s s e s of p a r t i c u l a r  instance papers (PIPS) or case  many of which are of p o t e n t i a l  use  to the s o c i a l  files,  scientists.  Yet g e n e a l o g i c a l researchers have been the main users and the academic r e s e a r c h e r s .  As Knightsbridge  not  summed i t up:  The experienye of other n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s which have taken samples of PIP has been very s i m i l a r . User i n t e r e s t in them f o r s t a t i s t i c a l use i s reported as n e g l i g i b l e or n o n - e x i s t e n t ; they are used, i f at a l l , in searches f o r g e n e a l o g i c a l or other s p e c i f i c items of information which may happen to have been preserved in the sample. This i s l a r g e l y because q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l funding to reduce the information contained in the PIP to machine-readable form f o r computer a n a l y s i s ; costs a r i s i n g mainly from the work of preparing the data and i n p u t t i n g i t to the computer ... are so expensive that even a small sample would be too big f o r study unless very s u b s t a n t i a l funding was a v a i l a b l e to reduce them to machine-readable form.(86)  1  Knightsbridge s comments r a i s e a very porary a r c h i v e s .  important  issue f o r contem-  Sampling assumes a user c l i e n t e l e  the r e s e a r c h e r s who  are intended  to use  the sampled m a t e r i a l  are not using the m a t e r i a l , the reasoning i s placed in q u e s t i o n .  behind  the  procedure  With the high costs of maintenance  the pressures of Government to cut expenditures, be f o r c e d to i n s t i t u t e  but i f  r e a p p r a i s a l procedures  archives  for their  and may  sampled  holdings.  A f t e r a l l , i f the m a t e r i a l i s not used by i t s intended  clientele,  i t s usefulness must be c h a l l e n g e d .  1  Knightsbridge s  -53-  comments reinforce Rapport's demand for systematic reappraisal of all archival holdings.  Furthermore, his comments place in  question the entire policy of sampling material for research use.  Is sampling fulfilling the goals set by the archivist or  has the archivist miscalculated the worth of sampled materials? Like the issue of reappraisal, the value of sampling material is likely to be another major area of discussion in the coming decades . Although the literature of appraisal is not extensive, several general issues relevant to the preservation of military personnel files have been discussed in it.  The nature of the  personnel files, as a form of case files, has not been examined in any detail and no specific guidelines have been created to aid archivists in selecting and preservingthem. Questions relating to the importance of an -individual's records over a sample of the records remain unclear.  Should archivists retain  , samples which represent or illustrate the personnel files and their subject matter or should they retain all the files? Furthermore, if sampling is found applicable, which method should be adopted:  qualitative or quantitative?  The present  literature does not strongly suggest any method which is universally acceptable for case files.  Moreover, Knightbridge ' s  assertion that sampled collections are not being used by their intended clientele raises serious questions as to the validity of the suppositons behind sampling as an appraisal method.  -54-  Leonard evokes  R a p p o r t ' s  another  m i l i t a r y  personnel  h i s t o r i c a l , custody  issue  of  a r c h i v e s ,  but, the  by  f u t u r e  r e t a i n  the  idea  that  the  decrease  over  time,  s i d e r , about  there war  records  and of  been the  the  i s  the  by  been To  accorded  other  i s s u e s  a p p r a i s a l  a r c h i v e s  for  a  the  not  enough  of  a  place  War  we  or  w i l l  the  aura  of  place  m i l i t a r y  program? to  f i r s t  f e e l i n g s m i l i t a r y Have  personnel  the  f i l e s  r e p o s i t o r i e s  t u r n  to  various  personnel  con-  a r c h i v a l  a r c h i v a l  the  may  mystique?  w i t h i n should  the  accept  f i l e s  other  in  to  the  a r c h i v i s t  m i l i t a r y  by  r e l e a s e  they  emotional l i k e  the  W i l l  not  implemented I  met?  in  r e a p p r a i s a l  for  unique  whether  mentioned,  p o l i c i e s  a  f i l e s , an  t h e i r  personnel  s o c i e t y ' s  possess  unique  the  i n s t i t u t e '  accorded  World  of  as  remained  be Or  a p p r a i s i n g  c l a s s i f i e d  With  p o t e n t i a l  procedures  a r c h i v i s t  have  r e c e n t l y .  personnel  examine  are  they  value  thus  Rapport,  the  permanently?  matter Do  f i l e s  nature,  a r c h i v a l  were  r e a p p r a i s a l  concern  These  r e s e a r c h  and  f o r  must  u n t i l  f i l e s  i s s u e s  f i l e s  r e p o s i t o r i e s ? have  the  s e r v i c e .  noted  personnel  t h e i r  m i l i t a r y  w i l l  these  which  f i l e s .  a r c h i v e s  If  argument  f i l e s .  a  survey  n a t i o n a l  -55CHAPTER THREE  DISPOSITION OF MILITARY PERSONNEL  FILES:  A MULTINATIONAL PERSPECTIVE  Within to  the m i l i t a r y establishment,  records  document the workings of the m i l i t a r y  activities  are created  system, namely the  of u n i t s and the duties and l o c a t i o n of personnel.  To accomplish  t h i s task, the m i l i t a r y  files  on a wide range of m i l i t a r y  bearing  the c o l l e c t i o n  record o f f i c e s  keep  activities,  and c u s t o d i a l care of s o l d i e r s ' documents; the  r e p o r t i n g of c a s u a l t i e s ; the maintenance of a complete of a l l honours and awards gained compilation  of s t a t i s t i c a l  data  by m i l i t a r y covering  r e t u r n s , and so on; and the custody  record  personnel; the  strength and c a s u a l -  t i e s of u n i t s , s u p p l i e s and quarter-master  proceedings  such as  s t o r e s , wastage  of u n i t d i a r i e s and the  of boards of m i l i t a r y i n q u i r y .  Although a l l the d i v e r s i f i e d  activities  of the records  o f f i c e s are of i n t e r e s t , the c r e a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of military personnel  personnel file  establishment's civilian  files  are important  to our d i s c u s s i o n .  of the serviceman can be described h i s t o r y of a serviceman's c a r e e r .  enters m i l i t a r y  s e r v i c e , h i s enlistment  documents create the beginnings  of a personnel  out the duration of s e r v i c e the m i l i t a r y preserve  the d e t a i l s  connected with  the l i f e  as tha mi 1 i tary When a and medical  file.  record o f f i c e  and i n c i d e n t s of m i l i t a r y  The  Throughwill  importance  or death of the serviceman so that at  -56-  the  end  of  e n t a t i o n  the  r e l a t i n g  t r a i n i n g , or  death.  on  each  i t s  The and  the  man.  a  that  the  Personnel  e s t a b l i s h  second not  lapse  f i l e s  are  used  b e n e f i t s  veterans.  In  c o n s i d e r e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y  As f i l e s a  one  can  extends  the  of  these  to  d i s c o v e r  ernments  records  both  a r c h i v a l of  the  and  a r c h i v e s our  on  an  of  the  other  on  the  of  of  and  and  the of  can  p o l i c i e s  i n t e r n a t i o n a l the  that  s t a t e . the  of  the  s e r v i c e -  departments c i v i l i a n  only  be has  of  conduct  only  a  As  of  p r e s e r v a t i o n  the  personnel  personnel  these  and  b a s i s .  d i e d .  aspects  implemented  to  of  know  m i l i t a r y ' s  a p p r a i s a l  the  o b l i g a t i o n s  c i v i l i a n  so  of  the  to  the  the  i s  use  completion  importance  are  Whereabouts  need  the  agencies  f i l e  serviceman  the  n o n e x i s t e n t ,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of  d i s c h a r g e  documentation  death  f i l e s  when  and  personnel  government  personnel  a p p r a i s a l  a r c h i v a l  upon  e n t i t l e m e n t s  d e s p i t e  i s  the  that  m i l i t a r y  the  serviceman  u n t i l  dead  the  know  a  docum-  c o n s c r i p t i o n ,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  lapses  by  l i t e r a t u r e  f i l e s  the  importance  Yet  actual  t h e i r  under  then,  the  l i f e .  types  n a t i o n a l  see,  into  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  f i l e s ,  of  e s s e n c e ,  and  to  the  a s p e c t ,  or  possesses  records  record  c o n t a i n  h e a l t h ,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  does  the  of  f i l e  immediate  the  conduct,  order  between  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  s e r v i c e ,  in  aspect  agreement  c o n t r a c t ,  time,  w i l l  e n l i s t m e n t  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  second  is  f i l e  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  s e r v i c e  m i l i t a r y ' s  of  m i l i t a r y  the  personnel  serviceman  A  f i l e s  the  d e t a i l s  to  every  c o n t r a c t u a l  While  the  m i l i t a r y  p e r s o n n e l .  the  to  s t a t i o n i n g ,  personnel  of  s e r v i c e ,  way  by  gov-  survey the  f i l e s  s p e c i f i c of  the  -57-  Canadian War  I  Expeditionary  combatants  treatment in  and  World  War  I  was  the  personnel  f i l e s . the  Federal  w i l l  United  contacted  of  f o r  Germany,  the  p u b l i c a t i o n  Commission  on  the  s t a t e  lishment  had  records  on  s t a t i o n  kept  permanent a  A d m i r a l t y the  Royal  corresponded O f f i c e  F l y i n g  of  about  to  the  combatant p o l i c i e s  1914-1919  New  World  as  s t a t e  from  and  to  The  that  papers  f a c t s  airmen.(3) Admiralty  each  Navy.  of  The or  War  the  p u b l i c p o l i c y  l e d g e r ,  the  m i l i t a r y United  Zealand,  France,  Canada.  a  r e c o r d s , of  i n f o r m a t i o n  f o r  in  each  and  h i s  A i r  Force  i t s  Medical  cards  Each  were  r e c o r d s .  a l l  Royal  Navy  s h i p ' s  H i s t o r y on  ship  In  or  a d d i t i o n ,  a l l  i n  servicemen  the  r e g i s t e r  l e d g e r . ( 2 )  (Army  s e r v i c e  personal  of  irecorded  e s t a b -  m i l i t a r y  the  r e g i s t r y  Grigg  m i l i t a r y  r e c o r d e d .  recorded and  the  the  which  serviceman  o f f i c e r s  RFC/RAF O f f i c e  each  of  p l a c i n g  were  c e n t r a l  found  report  w i t h i n  crewman  maintained  Corps/Royal  personal  a  of  r e t e n t i o n . ( 1 )  s h i p ' s  r e t a i n e d  a t t e s t a t i o n  of  maintained  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  War  of  r e c e i v e d  A u s t r i a  other  comparison Each  a p p r a i s a l  the  Kingdom to  in  of  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  A u s t r a l i a ,  P r i o r  the  survey  f i l e s .  were  S t a t e s ,  a  measure  the  and  Responses  United  a  of  d i s p o s i t i o n  Republic  (CEF),  provide  p r e s e r v a t i o n  r e g a r d i n g  Kingdom,  Force  The  p e r s o n n e l ) ,  Sheet. ledger  The sheets  used  record  cards  more  d e t a i l e d  than  h i s  Royal the  f o r the  i t s  -58-  The  Grigg  i n t e r e s t eral  in  years  and  War  s i x t y  the  O f f i c e  years  reviews  for or  the  a f t e r  The a  that  a  census  and  of  a l l  records  of  the  PIPs,  s t a t i s t i c a l s t r e s s e d for  In  in  no  e f f o r t  b i o g r a p h i c a l the  PIPs  i n v e s t i g a t e  the  s t a t u s  It  118  major  examined  1965,  the  work  e f f e c t i v e n e s s to  perform  records taken  by  of  the  were  the  the  for  be  a  on  extend and  of  seen  preserve  i t s  w i t h i n  PIPs  the  l o s i n g  as  the  P u b l i c  where Record  part  approach  no  to  (or  By i t s  had  of  begun  t h e i r  which  was  academic  f o r m a l i z e d  O f f i c e  to  Government.  to  d u t i e s  s i t u a t i o n  (6)  s e r i e s .  regard  s o l e l y  meetings  committee's  with  into  minor be  massive  Commission  o f f i c i a l s  hoc  the  r e d u c t i o n The  take  p r e s e r v a t i o n .  to  record  ad  papers"  a r c h i v i s t s  on  departmental  The  However,  to  the  due  began  PIPs  system  committee  i n f o r m a t i o n .  several was  a  e s t a b l i s h e d .  t h a t ,  to  of  Commission  i n s t a n c e  which  of  p e r i o d  r e c o r d s .  d e c i s i o n s  (PIPC)  e s p e c i a l l y a  made  g e n e a l o g i c a l  f u n c t i o n .  created  t h e i r  Committee and  of  a  the  be  sev-  A d m i r a l t y  through  r e t a i n e d . ( 5 )  should or  to  capable  committee  Committee  set  be  the  " p a r t i c u l a r was  ceased  for  v a l u a b l e  recommended  s e r i e s  because  management  c o n s u l t a t i o n behavior  of  many  base  kept  pass  c r e a t i o n  s e r i e s  should  as  by  r e p o r t ,  government,  could  those  samples  1957,  the  of  review  the  Commission  only  that  t h e i r  PIPs  of  was  o f f i c i a l s  Furthermore, bulk  system  i n d i v i d u a l  be  should  defined  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  proposed  i t s  r e t e n t i o n  records  proposed  In  that  an  records  records  the  of  was  c r e a t i o n . ( 4 )  s p e c i a l  s o l u t i o n  It  personnel  p u b l i c  of  informed  records  death.  i n s u r e  c l a s s  PIPs,  his  that  to  was  personnel  a f t e r  recommended of  Commission  r u l e s  for  any  of  -59-  other  government  committee's community by  the  Grigg  No  PIPs  so  on  in  Committee  as  1900  should  their  administrative life.  The  the  regarding  the  Record 1976,  scope  sidered  a)  of  the  in  prodded  matter  and  archival  recommendations  followed.(7) formal  apponted an  eye  The  PIPC  permission  i t effectively was  the  ceased  but on  the  the  of  the  to Advisory  situation  Committee  that  military or  proper  Grigg  was  disbanded,  departments  individual disposition  recommendation Commission  special  quern o f  the  as  records at  created  the  end  of  was  in  accordance  seen  in  their  genealogical material.  significance;  service records  i t merely held  in  the  1965.(8)  by  historical  original  the  b i o g r a p h i c a l and  ad  the  being  PIPs  This  no  raised  by  to  bureaucracy.  their  had  as  the  personal  the  terminus Office  of  to  of  c u t o f f date  reflected  In  see  philosophy  1900  Public  bodies  Questions  maintains  recommended  since  resolution  1965  the  large  the  not  committee  possessing  with  that  government  same y e a r  being  without  P u b l i c Records  the  Advisory  that  replacement  w i t h i n the  In  were  regular meetings,  Committee of  follow.  i t appeared  Commission  Chancellor,  exist.  to  e f f e c t i v e n e s s were  because  abandoned Lord  agency)  changes inquiry,  i n the the  recommended  research  Advisory  methods  Committee  that:  a l l r e c o r d s o f s e r v i c e o f s o l d i e r s who were d i s c h a r g e d o r who d i e d b e t w e e n 1901 and 1 9 1 3 s h o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e PRO.  and  in  recon-  -60-  b)  t h e f i r e d a m a g e d s e r i e s o f W o r l d War I r e c o r d s o f s e r v i c e s h o u l d be d e s t r o y e d when t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v a l u e ceases, in accordance with a Grigg recommendation.  c)  a s e p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f undamaged d o c u m e n t s o f some s o l d i e r s d i s c h a r g e d b e t w e e n 1914 a n d 1 9 2 0 who r e c e i v e d d i s a b i l i t y p e n s i o n s s h o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e PRO, a s a s a m p l e , 75 y e a r s a f t e r t h e d a t e t h e l a s t s o l d i e r became n o n - e f f e c t i v e ( i . e . 1996).  d)  r e c o r d s o f s e r v i c e i n t h e R o y a l Navy and the Royal A i r Force f o r t h e i r p e r i o d 19011918 s h o u l d be t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r m a n n e r . But due t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l q u a n t i t y , t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e RAF s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d in t h e i r e n t i r e t y . ( 9 )  In  1980, through  Defence forces of  recommended should  creation,  that  the  after  practice records  regard  Ministry  and noted would  has  until  The  realization  which  the Ministry  a l l service records  transfer  t o t h e PRO c o u l d  to these  records.  restated their  date  o c c u r ; and  In t h e f o l l o w i n g  recommendation  t h e 85 y e a r  by t h e D e f e n c e  1999 t o c r e a t e  Panel  a common  forfifteen  may n o t be u n d e r  may r e s u l t  from  f o r r e t e n t i o n and d i s p o s a l s h o u l d  that with  that  of  o f t h e armed  o f 85 y e a r s  rule  n o t be d u e f o r a d e c i s i o n u n t i l  acknowledgement  personnel  which  standard  with  Defence  that  Panel,  be r e t a i n e d f o r a p e r i o d  a common  developed  i t s Advisrory  that  standard years  f o r a common  1999.(10)  the archival i s very  the records  recommendations  year,  the post-1914  consideration allows  in specific  be  The community  important. of military  f o r more  studies  as t o t h e f u t u r e  -61  p r e s e r v a t i o n  United  the  in  m i l i t a r y the  National  c u s t o d i a n s h i p  (11)  The  delayed a f t e r  an  to  National  making  the  be  delayed  Center,  a p p r a i s a l  the  a  s i g n i f i c a n t  a  small have  at  number  p o r t i o n  of  A i r  e l i m i n a t e d  when  S t .  Army Force  the  f i l e s  C e n t u r y ,  need  of  the  r e c o r d s . f o r  an  This  75  years  In  f a c t ,  to  i n  toto . "  Center  from  1912  to  -  impose  1959  The the  sampling  A u s t r a l i a  personnel  Central  Commonwealth which  of  Army  f i l e s  Record  A r c h i v e s  a u t h o r i z e d  the  of  the  O f f i c e  and  CARO  r e t e n t i o n  A u s t r a l i a n (CAR0).(13) reached or  a  Army  are  In  1982,  d i s p o s a l  d e s t r u c t i o n  of  held  i n  the  agreement various  and  f i r e  c r i t e r i a .  Commonwealth  (12)  destroyed  unfortunate  a r c h i v i s t  the  Records  r e t e n t i o n  dating  has  a p p r a i s a l  a c c o r d i n g  Personnel  records  but  into  on  Federal  t h e i r  Louis  u n t i l  s e r v i c e .  21st  the  (NARS)  d e c i s i o n s  personnel  permit  M i s s o u r i  S e r v i c e  a c t i v e  are  e s t a b l i s h m e n t .  d e c i s i o n  Peterson  States  L o u i s ,  a r c h i v a l  may  of  United  the  David  1973  from  post-1939  f i l e s ,  S t .  Records  d i s c h a r g e of  the  m i l i t a r y  d e f i n i t e  u n t i l  i n  the  and  A r c h i v i s t  f i r e  with  i n  A r c h i v e s  " m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n  A  of  Centre-  remains  i n t e r f i l i n g  personnel  A s s i s t a n t  may  any  records  Record  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  pre-1939 can  r e c o r d s .  personnel  legal  due  s e r v i c e  States  The held  of  -  -62-  military  record  military  personnel  have  been  cost  of of  With on  thatithese developed  ents  not  post-1947  the  the  had  i n each and/or  categories  Class  'A'  First  files of  place  was the  were  research were  the  However,  Wars permanent  due  to  files.(14)  faced  personnel  with  the  research  basic  files  realization value,  files.  Sampling  categories  identified  value.  The  World  abandoned  f o r weeding  Instead  file  Second  post-1947  Archives,  criteria  periods.  retention.  volume to  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  considered.  contained  broad  and  r e t e n t i o n , the  administrative two  personnel  comprehensive  even  the  permanent  d e c i s i o n not  records  s t i p u l a t e d time  from  for  storage  permanent  was  files  designated  retention the  series after  on  After  the  some  of  basis  documof  experimentation,  devised:  documents  E s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e r e c o r d s or s u b s t i t u t e d o c u m e n t s and d o c u m e n t s r e q u i r e d f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g r i g h t s and e n t i t l e m e n t s o f s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l after discharge. Class  'B'  documents  Documents of ephemeral v a l u e r e q u i r e d only for i n - s e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Each are  records to  be  historical  schedule  weeded and  then  (Class  B)  i n d i c a t e s which and  adminstrative  categories  which r e t a i n e d uses.  (Class  of A)  documents for  -63The because  Commonwealth of  the  procedure.  In  the  main  value  of  the  A  ten  adequate sample  further  i n the  identified  sampled. be  costs  per but  at  a  reduced.  and cent  The they  have  New  date  forces  Archives  of  determine  does  or  not  agency  permanent  remainder  the  of  over  but  specimen  any  i t can  great  on  in  uses  their  samples  are  be  an  rather  records  methods  found  reappraisal  files  sampling  government  Australian  employed  basis  are  was  whether  sample  systematic  In a d d i t i o n ,  evidence  World  are  War  held  I personnel  i n the  The  National Archives  the  military  dating  back  to  the  files.  elaborate  on  the  World  their  personnel War  exact  and  are  taken  procedures.  not  clear  p e r i o d of  Defence of  files.  as  time.  War  and  files scope  the  1960s,  which  have  I, along a l l their  archival or  military:  i n Wei 1 i n g t o n . ( 1 5 )  War and  undersent of  Zealand's  Ministry  World  Zealand  In  New  Archives  African  New  of  s c h e d u l i n g methods  I personnel nature  the  files  South The  files  National  personnel  personnel  the  to  capture  Zealand The  in  the  of  made f o r a  specialized  been  records  to  been  provide  not  attempts  p r o v i s i o n s have  The  results  The  sampling  valid  remainder  techniques.  exact  used  a  this  and  to  statistica1  of  later  sample  chronological  order  use  retained, while  topographical  in  not  method  series.  alphabetical,  reduction  does  incurred in designing  i t s p l a c e , the  elements  are  to  high  Archives  with  the South  those  post-1918  authorities  on  the  scheduled  did  not  material retained African  and  extensive microfilming,  were  not  discussed  by  the  -64-  archival  authorities.  relating  to the Maori  retained  in their  I t i s known Wars  that  the m i l i t a r y  of the nineteenth  records  century  have been  entirety.(16)  France The W o r l d are on  divided  War  among  officers  I personnel several  are held  by t h e H i s t o r i c a l  of the non-commissioned  after  1892 a r e h e l d  those  born  "department"  of the French  Section  officers  i n the M i l i t a r y  1892, records  Archives  are held  where t h e s o l d i e r r e s i d e d  on  military  records,  such  citing from  and  citations.  Correspondence  did  not include  any m e n t i o n  ranks  a t Pau.  unit  individual  French  of sampling  born For of the  birthday.  f o r the  diaries,  as t h e r e c o r d s  o f t h e Army.  h i s 20th  a t Pau has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  as w e l l  files  i n the archives  Archives  as r e g i m e n t a l  The  and o t h e r  Military  reports  military  a r c h i v a l a g e n c i e s . (17)  Those  before  files  The  other and combat  decorations  archival authorities  related to  these  records.(18)  Germany The German German of  E m p e r o r a n d War  an " I m p e r i a l  Army  Empire,  formed  Army"  with Lord,  fielded  i n the F i r s t  the largest part  many o f t h e s m a l l e r  the Prussian  northern  King  seven  World  armies  War.(19)  of the Imperial German  acting  states  Army,  such  as  as t h e parts  The  Prussian  incorporating  as Saxony  and  - 6 5 -  Hanover of  under  Wurttemberg  small  armies  under  the  the in  i t s and to  favour  of  combined The  Army  m i l i t a r y  into  comprises  a l p h a b e t i c a l had  the  extent  f i l e s  in  order  by  The  which  m i l i t a r y  of  a r c h i v e s  In  men  in  volumes  has  23,000 not  p e r i o d ; the  compiled  a c t i o n s i m i l a r  served  of  a  volume  and  servicemen or to  having our  complete access unit  l i s t e d  died  honour  of  to  end  t h e i r was  of  the  war,  overthrown  and  World  t h e i r  armies  are  and  as  of  the  P r u s s i a n  War.(20) held  The  in  the  on  o f f i c e r s  and  are  arranged  in  a d d i t i o n , combat  in  to  as  are  the and  other  H a u p t s t a a t s a r c h i v unit  d i a r i e s ,  maintained  Munich. the  unit  index  For  a l l  army  are in  now  i s  are  the  members  e x i s t of  the  the the r e g i s t e r e d  The  a r c h i v e s  for  t h i s  d i f f i c u l t  known.  a c t i o n ,  r e g i s t e r s  in of  personnel  r e g i s t e r s  m i s s i n g  wounds,  names  d i s i g n a t i o n s .  of  these  The  Bavarian  d e s i g n a t i o n  r o l l s .  which  were  records  f i l e s  Bavaria  w i t h i n  a c c o r d i n g  t h e r e f o r e ,  exact  500,000  who  the  sent  m e t r e s . ( 2 1 )  H a u p t s t a a t a r c h i v - K r i e g s a r c h i v 1,400,000  At  Army  The  such  300  Army,  kingdoms  f o r c e .  Second  surname.  Baden  government  holdings  f i l e s ,  of  Germany  m i l i t a r y  S t u t t g a r t .  exceeds  of  of  the  southern  Imperial  Wurttebberg  metres  a d m i n s t r a t i v e of  the  Duchy  n a t i o n a l  and  during  The  o f f i c e r s .  form  s i n g l e  for  50  the  the  P r u s s i a n  a  destroyed  H a u p t s t a a t s a r c h i v ranks  of  r e p u b l i c a n  records  and  a r t i s t o c r a c i e s  personnel  were  part  of  and  a  u m b r e l l a .  Bavaria  form  command  monarchies  were  m i l i t a r y  k i l l e d which  For  i f the  in are  Bavarian  o f f i c e r  -66-  c o r p s , the  a  f i n d i n g  l o c a t i o n  of  aid  e x i s t s  i n d i v i d u a l  which  d i r e c t s  personnel  the  r e s e a r c h e r  to  f i l e s . ( 2 2 )  A u s t r i a The Empire  m i l i t a r y  are  with  the  many  of  held  break the  s c a t t e r e d ,  the the  r e s p o n s i b l e  t r a n s f e r r e d A u s t r i a .  and  Innsbruck;  The the  courts the  of  the  the  m i l i t a r y ,  s u f f e r e d  s u c c e s s o r  the  the  heavy  s t a t e s  Empire the  However,  a f t e r  1918,  a r c h i v e s t r a n s f e r  were or  t h e i r  which  belonging the  to  held  in  the  or  K r e i g s a r c h i v  were the  a r c h i v e s  commands  i t s  s a f e l y  new  s t a t e  possesses  of  Vienna,  a r c h i v e s  c o l l e c t i o n  p e r i o d  m i l i t a r y and  noted losses  a f t e r  Archives  only Graz  of  the  l o s t .  w i t h i n  for  of  as  are  d e c o r a t i o n s  manuscripts  War  m i l i t a r y  been  has  V i e n n a . ( 2 3 )  t h e i r  records  c a s e ,  remainder  Imperial  and  the  have  for  to  the  m i l i t a r y  designated  War  in  s t a t e s . ( 2 4 )  the  of  p r i o r  a r c h i v e s ,  being  A u s t r i o - H u n g a r i a n  a r c h i v e s  d e s t i n e d  l o s t  general  M i n i s t r y  c o l l e c t i o n to  or  K r e i g s a r c h i v  navy,  memoirs  records  those  or  of  former  A u s t r i o - H u n g a r i a n  the  s t a t e s  the  state  the  state  were  of  of  s u c c e s s o r  This  records  successor  of  for  or  the  of  up  the  m i l i t a r y  to  Within  of  in  d e s t r o y e d ,  surrender  is  records  1918  the  1606-1918,  the  i n s t i t u t i o n s  awards,  as  records  well  and as  j u d i c i a l commands, the  m i l i t a r y  p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  with  d e l i v e r y  and  the  during  the  of  The  documents  course  of  -67-  removal  from  The 5,500 and  is  volumes  1740  to  arranged  f i n d  of  to  1918.  to  the  access  to  of  r e s i d e n c e ,  large  number  concerning  of  a f t e r  The to  in  the  1918,  as  t r a i n i n g to  the  of  these  set a  and  study  d e c o r a t i o n these  p e r s o n n e l .  m i l i t a r y  these  that  have have  composition  records the  come  to  been  of  the  the  War  A  (those,  s u c c e s s o r  can  (Belohnungs range of  the  proven  a  m i l i t a r y ' s  memoranda  s u b s t i t u t e  corps  is  on  for  the  a l s o  a v a i l -  r e c o r d s . of  regimental  K r e i g s a r c h i v  and  higher  h o l d i n g s ,  f i e l d but,  as  commands a  .  1789  i n v a l u a b l e  s i c k n e s s as  be  Akten)  from  Info'omation  o f f i c e r  his  s e r v e d .  personnel  have  l o s t .  he  a  them.  records  serve  about  World  in  which  The  concerned.  which  records  The  t h e r e a f t e r ,  b i r t h d a t e ,  F i r s t  to  r e c o r d s ,  h o l d i n g .  in  armies  m a t e r i a l  i n f o r m a t i o n  m i l i t a r y  of  able  of  surrendered on  the  p e r s o n ' s  the  t a b l e s  Imperial-Royal  remained  i n s t i t u t i o n s  and  part  of  and  rank  i n d i v i d u a l s  corps  e d u c a t i o n a l  education  be  and  a  1864)  from  1869,  c o n t a i n i n g know  (bundles)  i n s t i t u t i o n s ;  the  records  were  the  before  troop  a f t e r  separate  records  to  of  must the  aside  personnel  The  and  i n s t i t u t i o n s  from  names  of  and  i n f o r m a t i o n  awards  a r c h i v e s  troops  one  or  Supplementary  ranging  d o s s i e r s  born  1918  r e c o r d s ,  years  personnel  people  f a s c i c l e s  the  to  War.  40,000  For  the  place  World  records  proper  i n d i v i d u a l ,  found  Second  pension  a c c o r d i n g  s p e c i f i c  s t a t e s  the  personnel  r o l l s  a c c o r d i n g To  in  K r i e g s a r c h i v . h o l d s  muster  from  Vienna  r e s u l t  were of  - 6 8 -  the  events  during  of  the  1918,  many  t r a n s f e r  of  of  the  power  records  and  were  a u t h o r i t y  destroyed  to  the  or  l o s t  s u c c e s s o r  s t a t e s . ( 2 5 ) Correspondence i n d i c a t e s examine the  that  the  custody  no  with  the  A u s t r i a n  comprehensive  extent  of  of  a r c h i v e s  the  the  study  a r c h i v a l  a u t h o r i t i e s  has  undertaken  been  Austro-Hungarian of  the  m i l i t a r y  s u c c e s s o r  to  records  in  s t a t e s .  Canada The s o c i e t y scope  impact has  or  peacetime  of  f o r into  Navy  had  period  a  a  of  the  numbered  and  not  Canadian  91,521  c l a s s i f i e d  of  e n r o l l m e n t s O v e r a l l ,  1919. of  e i g h t  about a  20,000  percent  of  seven  of  74,213  from  1914  10,000  of  school  veterans a l l  but  t h e i r  on  Canadians  the  and the  619,636  The  During  m i l i t a r y  e n l i s t e d ,  A i r the  v e t e r a n s ,  pensions had  1919. of  in  as  programs of  was  Royal  s u r v i v i n g  end  a  s e r v i c e  l i s t e d  the  t h i s  Canadian  2 4 , 0 0 0 .  were  Of  i n  was  f o r c e .  t r a i n i n g by  1919  t h e i r  exact  p e r s o n n e l ,  Force.  roughly  and  the  m i l l i o n  to  naval  d i e d .  i n v a l i d e d  V o c a t i o n a l  over  r e a l i z e  and  involvement  Canadians  60,000  as  Canadians  few  over  separate  232,494  over  on  E x p e d i t i o n a r y  c o n t i n g e n t  of  end  whom  as  but  of  s e r v i c e  Canadian  War  m i l i t a r y  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  c a s u a l t i e s ,  the  n a t i o n ' s  p o p u l a t i o n  h o s t i l i t i e s ,  were  World  documented,  m i l i t a r y  e n l i s t m e n t s Royal  F i r s t  our  m i l i t a r y  Canadians  Corps  the  well  With  e n r o l l m e n t  the  been  extent  e x p e r i e n c e .  Naval  of  whom  one  at  - 6 9 -  of  every  four  s e r v i c e .  The  on  Canadian  w i t h i n must  sheer  attempt  to  in  the the  Canadian of  m i l i t a r y  records  m i l i t a r y  bases  are  in  The  personnel  as  the  the  These  the  of  Canadian  under  the  With  of  whole. the F i r s t  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e only  r e c e n t l y  the  the  was  in  t h e i r  A r c h i v e s War,  as  the  with  as  of  i s s u e  e n t i r e t y the  decided  well  from  to  those  or  D i v i s i o n  are of  the  of  (as the  National  f i l e s  d e c l a r e d  Department the  of  of  Federal  a p p r a i s a l  the  well  personnel  were  the  PAC.  t h e i r  r e t a i n i n g  place  and  the  of  the  Canada,  held  PAC.(26)  c o n t r o l that  Force  r e p o r t s  in  the  A i r  u n i t s  of  kept  i t s  The  servicemen  Department  of  from  are  (PAC).  s t a t i o n  1914-1919,  A r c h i v e s  with  c o n s u l t a t i o n  P u b l i c World  P u b l i c  faced  f i l e s  A f t e r  in  and  Canadian  m i l i t a r y  and  branch  custody  to  of  personnel)  is  community  a r c h i v a l  Canada  m i l i t a r y  separate  is  change  d e c l a r e d of  impact  It  Forces  Royal  A r c h i v e s  the  D i v i s i o n  r e t e n t i o n  It  the  an  r e c o r d s .  Armed  d i a r i e s  Force,  A r c h i v e s  the  s e r v i c e a  a r c h i v a l  a c t i v i t i e s  Canadian  C e n t r e ,  the  been  Federal  a l l  that  Navy,  m i l i t a r y  had  h i s t o r y .  E x p e d i t i o n a r y  Defense  of  of  c i v i l  remain  National  Defense,  the  in  our  personnel  regimental  died  in  A r c h i v e s  the  ten  c a s u a l t i e s  Canadian  have  P u b l i c  departments.  a r c h i v a l .  the  of  f i l e s  Records  f i l e s  c r e a t i n g of  custody  the  Canadian  which  as  and  precedent  of  c o v e r i n g  such  r e c o r d s  Personnel  the  every  deaths  m i l i t a r y  Royal Army  of  s t a t i s t i c s  records  the  custody  of  one  of  without  a p p r a i s e  m i l i t a r y  and  number  framework  p r e d e c e s s o r s , and  wounded  s o c i e t y  t h i s  The  was  and  a  sample  National  personnel  Second  of  World  f i l e s War  -70-  and  the  f i l e s due  Korean  of  to  c o n f l i c t ,  servicemen  cost  procedure  and  have  When  one  yet  surveys  been  the  feature  the  a r c h i v a l  r e p o s i t o r i e s  War  m i l i t a r y  personnel  are  inherent  m i s s i n g  i n a d v e r t e n t l y . Rapport  in  The  his  records  d e c i s i o n  to  r e t a i n  r a i s e s  e n t i r e t y  and  the  been  a  Or  for  to  m i l i t a r y  of  s e r v i c e  s c h o l a r s p i c t u r e from  the  have  ceased  have of  they  and  be  a c t u a l  p o l i c i e s  d i s c u s s e d ,  would  i t s  t h i s  l o s t  f i r s t  why  these  f i l e s  kept.  reasons?  are Are  One  Leonard apply  The World  to  u n i v e r s a l War  kept they  can  f i l e s  destroyed  by to  of  World  only  or  appear  F i r s t  Each  The  r e c o r d s .  extant  be  out.  i d e n t i f i e d  s h i p s '  to  keep  been  a l l  need  sampled, for  e n t i r e t y .  have  armed  the of  e x p l o i t s  and to  f a s c i n a t e d  events be to  In  the  only  personnel  in  t h e i r  kept  for  s p e c u l a t e  the  d e t a i l s  Often  the  o f f i c i a l  w r i t t e n  as  and  time  a d d i t i o n  a l t e r  has to  before a c t i v e . the  long  t o d a y ,  and  the  p o l i c i e s  h i s t o r i e s m i l i t a r y Academic  h i s t o r i c a l  d i s t a n c e d the  have  Even  with  are  r e v i s e  m i l i t a r y  r e s e a r c h .  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y  f o r c e s  event.  of  h i s t o r i c a l  o p e r a t i o n s .  continued  the  t h e i r  a r t i c l e ,  to  be  c r i t e r i a  stands  to  mystique,  p a t r i o t i c  s u b j e c t  surrounding  records  decided  to  w i l l  personnel  reasons.  continue  m i l i t a r y  of  does  as  a p p r a i s a l  p o l i c i e s  in  The  d e v i s e d .  which  v i r t u a l l y  a c t i v i t i e s  favoured  s c h o l a r s  i t  whether  p o s s i b l e  The  has  those  questions  s c h o l a r s h i p ? to  as  the  f i l e s  sense  peacetime  f u l l y  a l l  r e t e n t i o n .  A p p r a i s a l  various  r e a p p r a i s a l  m i l i t a r y  f i l e s  in  are  during  f a c t o r s .  one  which  permanent  s e r v i n g  storage not  on  the  s c h o l a r l y  author works,  as  -71  there that  e x i s t s of  the  a  d i f f e r e n t  regimental  his  c o m p i l a t i o n  the  h i s t o r i e s  the  work  of  s c h o l a r l y  of  of  work  the  regimental  and  personnel to  d i r e c t l y  a f f e c t e d  The  unit  a  d i r e c t e d  seldom  w r i t i n g  by of  m i l i t a r y  with  h i s t o r i e s  audience  u n i t s  the  a c t i o n s  these  types  s p e c i f i c  These  but  to  of of  s t a t e d  the  the  in  often  the  m i l i t a r y  on  the  u n i t s ,  a c t i v i t i e s  h i s t o r i e s  are  not  community  and  region  regiment  m i l i t a r y  or  -  that  are  Unlike  c o n c e n t r a t e  u n i t .  importance  Dornbusch,  h i s t o r i e s  other  deals  of  C E .  h i s t o r i a n s . (27)  p a r t i c u l a r  n a t i o n a l  work  h i s t o r i e s .  and  amateur  which  h i s t o r i c a l  regimental  regimental  of  of  unit  Canadian  and  a  type or  dedicated  -  unit  h i s t o r y  i n v o l v e d .  r e l i e s  if  h e a v i l y  on  records  f i l e d  to  the  determine  in  the  c e r t a i n  types  in  c o m p i l a t i o n  w r i t i n g  of  of  personnel  a c t i v i t i e s  of  h i s t o r i c a l  community  and  on  the  b a t t l e s  analyses  of  of  the  m i l i t a r y .  of  the  Royal  d e s c r i b e the  Royal  the  not  men  has  and the  in  For  Canadians A i r  unit  for  i t s  into  S e r v i c e ,  S.F.  and  s a f e l y r e l i e s  m i l i t a r y  Wise,  uses  The  the  Royal  on  Royal A i r  that  the the  y e a r s ,  the  h i s t o r i e s  and  History  analyses F l y i n g  study  background  O f f i c i a l  s t a t i s t i c a l  with the  in  s t a t e  q u a n t i t a t i v e  e d u c a t i o n ,  than used  regarding  from  of  more  never  recent  areas  personnel  d i f f i c u l t  used  Within  c o n d i t i o n s ,  served  can  the  is  are  i n f o r m a t i o n  away  Force,  records one  and It  are  h i s t o r i e s  u n i t s .  example,  who  records  However,  d r i f t e d  A i r  o f f i c e s .  m i l i t a r y  s t r a t e g i e s  Canadian  Naval  of  the  s o c i a l  communiques,  records  and  f i l e s  the  s p e c i f i c  data.  regimental  i n d i v i d u a l  based  m i l i t a r y or  or  the  r e p o r t s ,  whether  others the  i f  o f f i c i a l  to  Corps,  F o r c e . ( 2 8 )  -72-  P r i o r body  of  For  t h i s  number  of  not  unknown  for  Through  data  Canadian data on  dates  base  areas  of  of  the  to  of  the  B r i t i s h  13,000  on  names  was  c r e a t e d .  the  f i e l d s  e n l i s t m e n t , such  awards b i a s e d  has  Canadian  in  Canadians  and  Wise  comprehensive  some  i n t e r e s t ,  due  study,  of  methods  e n l i s t m e n t ,  t h i s  no  c o n c e n t r a t e d  and  i n c l u s i o n  base,  servicemen  known  a n a l y s i s  Other  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  F l y i n g  and or  and  age  at  d e c o r a t i o n s sketchy  r e v e a l e d  element  as  of  in  some the  h i t h e r t o Royal  Corps.  Although in  q u a n t i t a t i v e  European  h i s t o r i a n  has  s t u d i e s  h i s t o r i c a l w r i t t e n  an  o f / m i l i t a r y  records  for  in  addresses  the  of  Although is  c l e a r ,  at  the  the  issues  e x p l o r a t i o n the  d r i f t  Kohn  e x p e r i e n c e .  v e t e r a n s ,  H i s t o r i c a l  " o l d  opened  up  by  that  few  an  attempt  A c c o r d i n g  the  has  to  been  the  f o s t e r e d  Richard  m i l i t a r y  stereotyped by  community  the  Kohn  to  and  the  h i s t o r y  have the  image  government,  a l i k e  p o t e n t i a l  a r t i c l e  m i l i t a r y  d e s c r i b e  been  h i s t o r y . ( 2 9 )  h i s t o r i a n s  to  the  h i s t o r y  s o c i a l  bugle"  s o c i a l  f u r t h e r  Kohn,  h i s t o r i c a l  1981  In  have  American  h i s t o r y .  "new"  and  North  on  Review,  the  p r o t e s t s  one  personnel  s p e c i f i c a l l y  f a s h i o n e d "  "drum  in  only  s o c i a l  from  s o l d i e r and  of  m i l i t a r y  a r t i c l e  away  m i l i t a r y  American  American  of  c i r c l e s ,  ever  p u b l i s h e d  areas  the  before  c o n s i d e r e d  i n f o r m a t i o n .  on  d e t a i l s  p r o v i n c e ) ,  trades  W i s e ' s  computerized  c a s u a l t i e s .  e n l i s t m e n t ,  usages  A  b i o g r a p h i c a l  ( c i t y ,  of  e x i s t e d  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  o r i g i n s  done  c r e a t i o n  s e r v i c e s .  b r i e f  were  the  i n f o r m a t i o n  f l y i n g with  to  the  looked  American of  the  the  point  where  -73-  Americans r e f l e c t s (30)  b e l i e v e t h e i r  The  been  mythology in  m a t e r i a l s .  The  new  which  s t u d i e s  The  in  the  p e r c e p t i o n has  England  refused  cent  of  a l l  t h i s  type  been  to  never  s o c i a l  f i g h t in  in  as  who  came,  h i s t o r i a n s :  the Kohn  search  so the  personnel In  these the long  to  g o a l s ,  out  d i s c o v e r l i f e  the  who  man  have  by  e n l i s t e d  f i g h t  to  1890s.  for  t h e i r  m i l i t i a s that  of  New  eleven  per  s e r v i c e .  argues  and  Using  that  the  t y p i c a l  accounts  has  never  "academic  and  such  provided  the  source  documents c e n t u r y ,  so  as  to  with  of  i t s  reveal  s c h o l a r s  goals and  what of  have  the  the  must  for  e n l i s t m e n t the  "unknown  turned  away  done  to  f u l l y i t s  look  s o c i e t y . beyond  s o l d i e r , study,  papers  who  and and  s o l d i e r s " . from  and  for  not;  to  and  l i t e r a t e  m a t e r i a l  had  did  and  m i l i t a r y  community  he  r e s e a r c h  who  environment;  between  records  i s ,  served  d i a r i e s  m i l i t a r y  t h i s  n a t i o n . "  source  p r i o r  evaded  p a t r i o t i c  three  i n t e r a c t i o n  for  Kohn  a  questioned  the  and  War  sets  the  has  World  b a t t l e  as  new  been  the  1812,  s o l d i e r  i n v e s t i g a t e  memoirs,  of  in  by  of  to  that  American  m i l i t a r y  the  w i l l i n g  War  F i r s t  25%  in  f i g h t i n g  immigrants  evidence  portrayed  the  a t t a i n  were  as  and has  and  nature  American  f o r c e s  a n d ' s t a t i s t i e s ,  r e c o n s t r u c t  To  s t u d i e s  were  the  the  by  many  s e r v i c e  t h e i r  the  as  by  and  of  the  Army  in  e x i s t .  out  he  that  Americans  evidence  and  where  of  shattered  serviceman  from  years  States  behave  people  legends  reveal  d r a f t e e s  f i n d  a  homogeneity  American  Jo  they  as  recent  that  b e l i e f s  w i l l  and  United  of  how  c h a r a c t e r  c h a l l e n g e d  ranks  "that  the  "drum  -74-  and  bugle"  romance of m i l i t a r y  o b j e c t i v e , s t y l e of m i l i t a r y the v a r i o u s types of m i l i t a r y historians,  or the general  be viewed as one  series  i n v o l v e the a c t i v i t i e s hostilities.  One  can  history  history.  seemingly One  gained may  possesses  public.  M i l i t a r y records appear to  of the m i l i t a r y surmise  that the a r c h i v a l  role  p r o f e s s i o n , steeped  of h i s t o r y ,  would  w r i t i n g and  attachment to the m i l i t a r y  records.  were i n v o l v e d in the cauldron of war,  personnel  the f i l e s  and  of t h e i r  living  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as the Royal  and  For  the  are very s p e c i a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r  Veterans  have  b e l i e v e that s o c i e t y  of that experience file  be  when f o r so long  in h i s t o r i c a l  speculate that a r c h i v i s t s  who  which  during periods of  records c r i t i c a l l y  important  those  a sense of permanence, a mystique.  emotional  servicemen  Yet d i s t i n c t i o n s among  of r e c o r d s , p a r t i c u l a r i 1 y  r e l u c t a n t to view m i l i t a r y have played an  statistical  records are not g e n e r a l l y made by  as i t i s in the methods of p r i n c i p l e s  they  to a more  those  records own  dead comrades.  Canadian Legion, have  been very vocal against government p o l i c i e s which seem to endanger the records of the war Genealogists who  are seeking t h e i r f a m i l y roots have a s p e c i a l  attachment to the m i l i t a r y which possess  personal  The  files  personnel  f o r any  or the memory of the dead.  r e c o r d s , in p a r t i c u l a r  d e t a i l s of the l i v e s of the  those  servicemen.  and muster r o l l s would be of great  research into  records  importance  the background of s e r v i c e personnel.  scheme which i n v o l v e s the d e s t r u c t i o n of material or the to preserve m a t e r i a l would create i l l - w i l l  Any  failure  between g e n e a l o g i s t  -75-  and  a r c h i v i s t .  One  the  records  be  and  the  t h i s be  sentiment  i s  c o r r e c t ,  as  endangering  which  could  some  and  m i l i t a r y  sentiments  community perhaps  reason  method  a v o i d i n g  to  any  personnel them  a  other Is  t h i s the in  f i l e s ,  unique m i l i t a r y  t h i s  is  order  f i l e s  than  a  d i s c u s s  are  there  complete  the do  a c t i o n  h a r d s h i p s ,  a  of  which  could  p o l i t i c a l image.  government  not  p e o p l e ,  presence  sampling  have  to  a p p r a i s a l  over  reasons  among  of  r e t e n t i o n  records  v a r i o u s  c l o s e  necessary  to  Moreover, other  s t a t u s  the  create  the  apparently  technology  the  the  the  If  of  the  government's  proposed  an  p r o t e s t  i m m o r t a l i t y  q u e s t i o n , CEF  of  war.  s i n c e  u n i v e r s a l  that  reduce  Regardless  b e l i e f  postpones  p u b l i c  s a c r i f i c e ,  would  the  m a j o r i t y  There a r c h i v e s  of  t h e i r  e x c i t e  the  peacesame  r e c o r d s .  for  hope  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  hurt  have  for  the  in  records  which  wartime  the  served any  t h i s  Canada  thereby in  who  the  r e c o r d s ,  as  Another  to  that  represent  s e r i o u s l y  t r u t h  A u s t r a l i a  easy  to  those  be  time  seen  of  f u r o r  of  s p e c u l a t e  memory  seen  must  may  may  the  for  case gained  these  an  f i l e s  j u s t  the  value  any  options  r e t e n t i o n  of  or  cheap  and  d e s t r u c t i o n  of  r e c o r d s .  u n i v e r s a l agencies These of  the  r e t e n t i o n  have f i l e s  i n f o r m a t i o n  to  l i k e  i m m o r t a l i t y To  the  a r c h i v a l  d e s t r u c t i o n ?  of  thus  the  accorded the over  t i m e .  understand  personnel  p r e s e r v i n g open  r e c o r d s ,  microform  j u s t i f i e d ?  what  a  the  of  aura  of  on  a r c h i v a l  type  f i l e s .  examination see  provide some  the  a r c h i v a l  t h a t ; t h e  d e c i s i o n  w i l l  onto  i s  f i l e s  i s  f i l e s  of',  recorded permanently.  a u t h o r i t i e s  -76CHAPTER CANADIAN  As is  S c h e l l e n b e r g  found  records why  i n  a  are  PERSONNEL  has  and  personnel several  p r e s e r v a t i o n  of  m i l i t a r y  a n a l y s i s  and  i t  the  personnel  types 1914  i s  of  of to  forms  that  forms  which and  c o n t a i n . to  be  developing A  small  Personnel  a n a l y s i s  i n  of  i n d i v i d u a l s  m a t e r i a l t a t i o n  i s i n  The  into  of  not  each  e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s  and f i l e  h i s t o r y  i n f o r m a t i o n  c r i t e r i a  f o r  the  the  Centre  with on  the the  as  i n  f e d e r a l f i l e s For  we  Ottawa  a r e  our  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  can  be  of  a  be  was  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  t h i s  c h a p t e r ,  the from  the  completed  b r i n g  out  the  c o n s i d e r e d  held  i n  a c q u i r e d  that  A c t .  the f o r  No  t h i s  personal  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n the  with  value  d e s c r i b e d  v a l u e ,  s e r i e s .  purposes,  the  best  to  term on  reveal  then  f i l e s  concerned  long  depend  which  P r i v a c y  such  have  m i l i t a r y  e n t i r e  o r i g i n a l  the  In  to  can  options  of  they  t u r n .  Canadian  we  seen  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  examined  and  important  personnel  the  i m p o s s i b l e .  f i l e  the  now  which  have  probably  t h e i r  be  how  a p p r a i s a l  i n  We  and  account  Record  i s  w i l l  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  ten  remain  by  context  However,  must  w i l l  used  t h i s  compliance tags  CEF  a r c h i v a l  c o n t e n t .  i s ,  we  of  the  created  that  which  the  a p p r a i s a l sample  of  t h e i r  a r e  ANALYSIS  essence  records  d e s c r i b e  Using  National  i n f o r m a t i o n  to  were  to  taken  case  c o n t e n t ,  of  AN  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s .  q u e s t i o n f i l e s  1919,  f a c t o r s in  t h e i r  the  and  records  by  FILES:  a n a l y s i s  used  t r e a t e d  an  noted,  thoroughgoing  c r e a t e d  m i l i t a r y  been  MILITARY  FOUR  as  of  the  documen-  those  the  m i l i t a r y  censored  documents.  m i l i t a r y  c a r e e r .  -77-  Documentation appointments payments, Taken  and  and  an  d i s c h a r g e  be  in  f i l e s  a v a i l a b l e of  time,  found  619,000  generation  t r a i n i n g ,  s e r v i c e  can  the  documentation  e n t i r e  e n l i s t m e n t ,  demotions,  c o l l e c t i v e l y ,  d e t a i l e d of  concerning  to  pay  each  l i s t s  c o n s t i t u t e  who  and  allowance  i n d i v i d u a l  students  Canadians  s t a t i o n i n g ,  of  the  most  the  served  f i l e .  experiences  during  the  years  1914-1919. Upon  e x a m i n a t i o n ,  be  d i v i d e d  of  m i l i t a r y  medical  c a r e e r  four  s e r v i c e :  h i s t o r y ;  contains between  into  the the  and  and  e n l i s t e e s e r v i c e  f i n d i n g s  of  and  c a s u a l t y  forms.  of  ranges  medical  reports fourth  from  e n l i s t m e n t ;  2)  4)  d i s c h a r g e .  The  papers  and  The  aid  aspect  i n d i v i d u a l  from  m i l i t a r y  agreement.  The  papers possess  and  these  r e l a t e s  the  documents  or  i t  may  not;  the  f i l e  f i n d i n g s  process of  the  of  A may  to  f i l e  an  c o n t r a c t u a l  i n v e n t o r y ,  "Proceedings  a  may  The  s e v e r i n g  parchment.  f i l e  h o s p i t a l s .  the  d i s c h a r g e  a  to  s e r v i c e ,  payments,  r e p o r t s ,  h i s t o r i e s " ,  d i s c h a r g e  k i t  The  punishments,  h i s t o r i e s ,  i n c l u d e  3)  c o n t r a c t  s e r v i c e .  that  the  allowance of  the  to  can  aspect  aspect  c i v i l  m i l i t a r y  can  s e r v i c e ;  conduct  " i n v a l i d e d  and  and  m i l i t a r y  i n q u i r y ,  f i l e s  important  e n l i s t m e n t  i n c l u d e  dental  an  c a r e e r  i n f o r m a t i o n  and  documentation  copies  of  medical and  personnel  represent  for  can  courts  s t a t i o n s  l a s t  c e r t i f i c a t e s ,  which  Crown  i n q u i r y ,  and  pay  the  medical  of  the  r e p r e s e n t i n g  documentation  from  f i r s t  each  of  1)  m i l i t a r y  boards  contents  a r e a s ,  a t t e s t a t i o n  the  c o n t a i n  the  l a s t  d i s c h a r g e " may  possess  other  -78-  miseel 1aneous documents r e l a t i n g and  testament,  papers  desertions, inquiries  relating  to s e r v i c e  To begin, a composite of  ten f i l e s  noted to  was  in the B r i t i s h  armed  p i c t u r e of the documents in the sample  contents of the f i l e s  It should  do not  field  time possessed  docket  forms, as i l l u s t r a t e d  that a weeding process was  a f t e r the c e s s a t i o n of h o s t i l i t i e s . the conduct  forms may  the Canadian  The  by m i l i t a r y The  absence of  their  service.  Armed Forces destroys:  indicate  personnel  housekeeping  have f a c i l i t a t e d  a f t e r the t e r m i n a t i o n of m i l i t a r y  indicate  in Table A, would  undertaken  cover.  forms of a r e g i m e n t a l ,  or company nature, as shown in Table B.  the conduct  of  conduct  nature  destruction  At the present  conduct  be  correspond  The most s t r i k i n g example i s that the docket covers at one  and  forces.  of discharge documents marked on each  that each f i l e  will  i n t o pension b e n e f i t s  created as d i s p l a y e d in Table A.  that the actual  the l i s t  to change of name, l a s t  time,  forms a f t e r set time  periods have e l a p s e d . As Table A . i n d i c a t e s , a t t e s t a t i o n and discharge papers of  the CEF was  of  the medical discharge.  hall  in each f i l e .  The  histories policy  that f o r discharge the minimum documents r e q u i r e d  were the a t t e s t a t i o n and  are to be found  papers, medical  papers, the "Proceedings  histories  such as were completed  For e n l i s t e e s who  a f t e r medical  have been completed  to Discharge"  examinations, for inclusion  at the  form,  time  were r e j e c t e d at the e n l i s t m e n t the medical  h i s t o r i e s may  into the personnel  For s e r v i c e of longer d u r a t i o n , a medical  not  files.  h i s t o r y would have  -7.9-  Table  INFORMATIONAL  1)  *  AREAS  FILE 1  2  x  x  3  4  # 5  6  7  8  9  10  ENLISTMENT  ATTESTATION  PAPERS  2) C A R E E R AND S E R V I C E CASUALTY FORMS TRAINING HISTORY F I E L D CONDUCT  x  REGIMENTAL CONDUCT COMPANY CONDUCT 3)  x  x  x  x  .  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  _ _  _ _  _ _  _ _  _ _  _ _  _ _  x _ _  x _ _  x _ _  _  _ _  _  _ _  _  _ _  _ _  _ _  _ _  _ _  MEDICAL  MEDICAL  HISTORY  x  DENTAL HISTORY INVALIDED HISTORY MEDICAL EXAMINATION MEDICAL REPORT  x  x  x  4) DISCHARGE KIT INVENTORY LAST PAY C E R T I F I C A T E DISCHARGE  x -  x -  x -  x x  1 FIELD  CONDUCT(MFW  REGIMENTAL (MF  (x)  x  x  -  x  -  x  -  x  x  x~  -  x  x  x -  x  x  -  x  x  -  -  -  -  x  x  -  x  x  -  -  x  ~ -  ^ x  = x x  x x  = x  x  2  x  x  x  B  x  x  -  = x  3  4  x x  5  6  7  8  9  X X  CONDUCT  B263a)  i n d i c a t e s  that  documentation  x  ^~ x x  *  B263)  COMPANY (MF  178)  CONDUCT  x  -  Table  *  A  i s  present  w i t h i n  the  c a t e g o r y .  10  -80-  been and  completed to  the  When  of a  of  the  on  of  the  found  f i l e s  CEF  t h a t  were  the  have  possessed  persons  to  f i l e s  p r i o r  be  i n d i c a t e  due  to  i n j u r i e s  s u s t a i n e d  was  the  s e r v i c e f a l l e n  men upon  u n f i t ,  and the  t h i s  a  war  r e l a t e d to  docket  ventory returned  was  a  to  l i s t s  were  camps  in  the  covers  the  i n d i v i d u a l  have an  completed United  from  h i s t o r i e s ,  a c t i v e  eye  been  form  s e r v i c e .  would, was  However, for  i t  r e c e n t l y  m i l i t a r y  example,  men  passed  d i s c h a r g e d  recorded  m i l i t a r y  for  had  have  dental  i n v a l i d  u n f i t  p o l i c y  to  that  h i s t o r i e s  who  the  which  an  For  a d d i t i o n ,  were  s e r v i c e .  i n v a l i d e d  i n v a l i d e d  duty  each  in  was  and  rendered  one  been  but, It  t r a n s f e r ,  e x a m i n a t i o n .  have  f i l e s ,  h i s t o r y  m e d i c a l l y  in  ten  d i s c h a r g e  on  use  d e c l a r e d  as  with  the  being  i n i t i a l  m e d i c a l l y  in  t h e i r  i n v a l i d e d  h i s t o r i e s .  does  not  n e c e s s a r i l y  i n j u r i e s . d i s c h a r g e but  c h e c k l i s t  m i l i t a r y  the  to  the  overseas  being  while  would  of  t h e i r  that  CEF  for  upon  b l i n d n e s s  would  presence  Turning the  or  to  h i s t o r i e s .  i n v a l i d e d  medical  examination  i n d i c a t e  on  were  c l o s e  arches  medical  Hence  who  the  of  medical  dental  updated  s u r f a c e ,  e n l i s t e d  a  to  contained  of  e s s e n t i a l  area  assigned  the  p o l i c y  been  medical  to  examination  h i s t o r i e s Six  was  have  Corps.  s e a r c h i n g  the  dental  would  Medical  i n d i v i d u a l half  and  not of  a  a s p e c t , on  the  k i t  d i s c h a r g e  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  s t o r e s  upon  by  servicemen  the  Kingdom  p r i o r  i n v e n t o r i e s l i s t .  m i l i t a r y  d e m o b i l i z a t i o n .  to  at  the  t r a n s p o r t  were The  k i t  i n -  equipment These  check-  c o n c e n t r a t i o n to  l i s t e d  Canadian  -81  d e m o b i l i z a t i o n inventory  would  u n l i k e l y w i t h i n  c e n t r e s . ( 1 )  and  the  have  we  can  f i l e s  made  The t h e i r  assume  w i l l  be  that  by  c e r t i f i c a t e s  and  the  important  the  i n d i v i d u a l  they the  to  serviceman  and  the  ments war be  r e t a i n e d .  i n d i c a t e s  m a i n t a i n i n g  and  the  and  t h e i r  as  A  c o n t r a c t u a l  to  of  of  a t t e s t a t i o n  - M i l i t i a  Form  the  -  W.23;  M i l i t i a  the  l a s t  pay  papers  are  the  m i l i t a r y  m i l i t a r y  c o n t r a c t  documents  are  be  l e d g e r s ,  the  for  between  of  the  not  e s s e n t i a l  agreement  in  to  that  for  they  documents  themselves  w i l l  t y p i c a l  papers  forms: b) Form  a)  used the  and  docu-  serviceman  k i t  be  i n v e n t o r y .  c o n s i d e r e d  e s t a b l i s h  the  the  Crown.  reveal  An  the  f i l e .  during CEF  " P a r t i c u l a r s W.67;  can  documents  the  can  and  which  these  the  l i k e n e d  that  and  e s t a b l i s h i n g  housekeeping  serviceman  a  of  as  in  docu-  payments,  deemed  f i l e  found  documents  between  documents  be  e s s e n t i a l  allowance  the  in  can  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  c e r t a i n  of  to  examples  personnel  the  three  are  that  possessed  of  pay  be  can  the  the  to  h i g h l y  i n v e n t o r i e s  Discharge" and  the  f i l e s  of  However,  to  of  uniform  can  committment  i n f o r m a t i o n  c o n s i s t e d  of  c o n t r a c t u a l  They  presence  supplementary  they  r e v e a l s  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  CEF"  the  r e t e n t i o n  e s s e n t i a l  The  lack that  Crown.  Table  as  Copies  The  the  m i s c e l l a n e o u s  a p p l i c a t i o n s  p r e s e n t .  the  in  of  Crown.  f i l e ,  c o n s i d e r e d  g r a t u i t y  ments or  be  r e t e n t i o n  serviceman  t e r m i n a t i o n  can  nature  "Proceedings  the  each  housekeeping  chance.  represent  Within and  -  c)  the  F i r s t  (volunteer) of  e n l i s t e d  the  d r a f t  World  War  e n l i s t m e n t personnel form  used  form in  under  -82-  the  M i l i t a r y  h o s t i l i t i e s l y s e d ,  Act -  e i g h t  forms.  1917  M i l i t i a  from  J a n u a r y ,  Form  W.133.  possessed  Within  the  the  CEF,  m i l i t a r y  s e r v i c e  Form  W.67  a s s o c i a t e d  was  M.F.W.133  form  servicemen  and  Three the  data  form  s u b t l e name,  but  ways.  The  which  c l u s t e r . of  The the  those  f i r s t  c o n s t i t u t e second  c l u s t e r  marks,  the  c l u s t e r  is  often  v a l i d a t e  the  m i l i t a r y  d i s t r i c t  were  f i l e d ,  o f f i c e r each  documents,  the  elements  i s i s  w i t h i n  to  be  t h i s  and the  found  h i g h l y  the  l i k e l y .  the  being  c l u s t e r s may  are  d i f f e r  the  trade  in  being  and  and  the  the  m a r i t a l  of  d e s c r i p chest  d i s t i n c t i v e  the  a t t e s t a t i o n the  The  presence  that  names  each  m a j o r i t y  which  the  and  mean  The  stamps  i n d i c a t e s  the  examiner.  presence  data  h e i g h t ,  m i l i t a r y  organised  not  in  denomination.  c l u s t e r  does  each  very  personal  h a i r ,  r e l i g i o u s  to  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  age,  where  r e g u l a r  present  are  hall  the  or  common  elements eyes  with  s e r v i c e .  p h y s i c a l  of  medical  not  M i l i t i a  v o l u n t e e r  as  of  The  the  examining  documents but  to  d r a f t d r a f t e d  up. and  of  ana-  to  m i l i t a r y  u n i t  were  form  termed  r e l a t e d  e n l i s t m e n t  m i l i t a r y  commanding  c l u s t e r  element  and  be  terms, by  had  elements  could  c o l o u r  found  two  into  common  data  m i l i t a r y ' s  and  a p p l i e d  c o n s i s t s  i s  Its  f i l e s  c a l l e d  n e x t - o f - k i n ,  what  c o m p l e x i o n ,  l a s t  These  b i r t h d a t e ,  ten  r e c o g n i s e d  c l u s t e r  s e r v i c e m a n .  in  be  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  measurements, and  W.67  c e s s a t i o n  the  M.F.W.23  c o n s c r i p t e d  can  the  Canadians  200,000  the  Form  documents.  t h e i r  the  with  c l u s t e r s  b i r t h p l a c e ,  s t a t u s ,  to  form  140,000  of  M i l i t i a  not  a t t e s t a t i o n  each  t i o n  as  out  to  Within  v o l u n t e e r  over  into  1918  papers of of data  of  the  of  -83-  The ranging the  Volunteer  of  the  previous  e n l i s t e e  to  whether  or  not  the  The  form  ( M i l i t i a  and  the  i t s the  ment  P a r t i c u l a r s  i n f o r m a t i o n  as  ages  W.133) are  of i s  or  Form  and  s h o r t e s t  r e l a t e d  f a m i l y  of  of  vac-  requests members  p a r e n t s .  the  i n v o l u n t a r y  of  w.67)  form  to  i n f o r m a t i o n  experience  approves  e n l i s t e e ' s  c h i l d r e n  those  v o l u n t a r y  e n l i s t e e  the  unique  m i l i t a r y  ( M i l i t i a  the  has  The the  d r a f t  presence  Draft  three  number at  and  the  e n l i s t -  depot.  only  the  the  second  Casualty  u s u a l l y  p r e s e n t .  tour  m i l i t a r y  of  personal t r a n s f e r s  to  t i o n ,  and  m i l i t a r y  may  p r i o r should  ( M i l i t i a  W.54  A . F . B . 1 0 3 )  This  form  the  that  s h o r t l y  c o n t a i n  A . F . B . 1 7 8 )  an  the  t h i s  form  a r r i v a l s  has  into  The  b a s i c  d e t a i l e d t h e a t r e s  of  a  i s  complete of  i n f o r m a t i o n of  a c t i v i t y , h o s p i t a l i z a -  t r a n p o r t s ,  c a s u a l t y  f i l e s ,  i n f o r m a t i o n  c a s u a l t i e s ,  d e m o b i l i z a t i o n  ten  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  the  punishments,  date.  or  the  deisgnated  forms  would  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  be  a c t u a l ,  s e r v i c e . the  medical  each  a  s e c t i o n  serviceman  a f t e r  e i t h e r or  records  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  and  examining  or  on  Form  C o n t a i n i n g  c l u s t e r ,  d i s c h a r g e  in  assume  to  form  remarks,  d u t i e s  When  of  s t a t i o n s ,  the  fundamental  s e c t i o n  u n i t s ,  c h a r a c t e r  depots  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  s e r v i c e .  data  r e - a s s i g n m e n t ,  or  names  areas  d r a f t e e ' s  form  concerning  and  Form  unique  Within  one  W.23)  account  such  on  Form  an  d e t a i l e d  the  ( M i l i t i a  from  c i n a t i o n .  to  form  entrace  medical  i n v a l i d e d  had  into  a the  h i s t o r y  h i s t o r y  of  the  f i l e  medical CEF.  examination The  ( M i l i t i a  ( M i l i t i a  c o n t e n t s ,  f i l e  Form  Form  B.313  B . 2 2 7 ) .  -84-  As  mentioned  used  for  p r e v i o u s l y ,  those  e n l i s t m e n t . upon  the  f o r e ,  who  the  were  However,  judged  the  recommendation  in  many  c a s e s ,  are  to  h i s t o r y .  For  i n d i v i d u a l  were  or  f i l e d  boards. more  to as  evidence  The  of  c o n t a i n s  s e r i o u s  the  h i s t o r y  p h y s i c a l  s i m i l a r  to  to  i n f o r m a t i o n ,  t h i s  r e s u l t s  that  and  the  record  and  meidcal  are  very  in  that  of  the  ment set  of  to  medical  dental  upon  teeth  c o n d i t i o n  the  sheet  treatment sheet  teeth  which  The the  assignment  and  of  manner  a d d i t i o n  of  v a c c i n a t i o n i n q u i r y ,  treatments  or  The  forms  A . F . B . 1 0 3 )  f u l l y  record  the  serviceman. records of  c o n t a i n s  every  a  i n j u r y .  (M.F.W.54 to  in  on  of  or  n o t i f i c a t i o n  examiner  medical  in  boards  l i s t i n g  each  sheet  D . M . S . 1 375 )  A . F . B . 1 7 8 )  i n f o r m a t i o n  ( M . F . B . 4 6 5 )  upon  or  accumulation  But,  attempts  of  There-  medical  serviceman  d i s e a s e  form  was  i n v a l i d e d  the  the  or  the  the  the  c a s u a l t y  h i s t o r y  d i s c h a r g e .  before  to  of  in  medical  with  the  separate  papers.  of  of  f i l e .  c o n t a i n s  f i n d i n g s  h i s t o r y  upon  of  form  (M.F.W.129  ( M . F . B . 3 1 3  form  r e l a t i n g  and  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  and  sheet  the  to  personnel  time  (A . F . B . 1 7 9 . o r  with  r e s u l t e d  a t t e s t a t i o n  the  remarks  c o n d i t i o n  The  the  the  often  i n q u i r y .  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  d e s c r i p t i o n  the  of  reports  i n j u r y  at  was  i n v a l i d e d  f i n d i n g s  r e l a t i n g  the  h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n  s i m i l a r the  medical  in  marks, of  in  the  c o n j u n c t i o n  medical  for  documents  medical  in  form  u n f i t  boards  board  cases  i n j u r i e s ,  Cases  medical  found  of  medical  medical  h i s t o r y  m e d i c a l l y  issuance  of  A . F . A . 4 5 )  ailments  be  i n v a l i d e d  marks dental  in  a  the  overseas diagram red  ink  treatment  c o n d i t i o n a s s i g n of  a  the t h e r e a f t e r .  -85-  Upon medical short  forms.  form  p h y s i c a l health The  d i s c h a r g e , For  c o n d i t i o n  the  or  marks  d i s a b i l i t i e s , The  as  an  i n v a l i d e d as  by  period  t i o n  and  of  o b j e c t i v e  manner  or  medical  of  the  i n j u r e d of  due  i n j u r y  c i v i l i a n the  to  are  of  Upon  as of  f o r  i n c l u d e d .  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s  each  r e c o r d i n g of and  these in  the  the  on  are  the  medical  documents  e s t a b l i s h i n g  i n  a  has  boards  the  form  completed. p h y s i c a l  the  person  of  For and  requests  contact  be  d e s c r i p -  i n q u i r y those  the  extent  that  l i s t e d  the  so  that  p o i n t .  medical  documents  c o n t e n t s ,  the  become  c l e a r .  The  parts  of  the  medical  h i s t o r y  c o n d i t i o n  of  the  i n d i v i d u a l  i n t e g r a l  of  each  e s t a b l i s h i n g  r i g h t  c a s e .  i n d i v i d u a l  f i l e ' s  be  and  of  with  and  treatment  a  scars  s u b j e c t i v e  of  has  of  f o r  medical  i n v a l i d e d  c l u s t e r  areas  records  treatment  the  form  the  each  i n  time  h i s  those  would  of  medical  l i e s  of  d i s c h a r g e d  among  For  a  s e r v i c e .  data  personal  s e r v i c e  two  s e r i o u s  r e c o r d i n g  ( M . F . B . 2 2 7 )  The  no  m i l i t a r y  f o r  of  record  that  p h y s i c a l  contains  one  d i s a b i l i t y , to  charge  The  of  no  h o s t i l i t i e s .  c o n d i t i o n  i n  of  the  m i l i t a r y  B e n e f i t s  documents  expanding  of  out  sign  p r o v i s i o n  f i n d i n g s  o f f i c e r  had  to  r e s u l t  assignment.  and  Pension  and  h i s t o r y  the  mental  of  a  sheet  and  examination  supporting  r e s u l t  h o s t i l i t i e s ,  address  Board  with  h i s t o r y  well  p h y s i c a l  a  as  who  f i l l  i n d i v i d u a l  resembles  i n v a l i d e d  i n f o r m a t i o n unit  present  papers  r e c e i v e d  the  d i s c h a r g e  s o l i c i t e d  a t t e s t a t i o n  would  servicemen  r e q u i r e s  upon  are  i n f o r m a t i o n  servicemen  those  (M.F.W.129)  problems  of  the  of  a  a i l m e n t . the  The  i n j u r i e s  serviceman  to  sheet,  and  importance of  pension  personnel b e n e f i t s .  -86-  Therefore, each  f i l e  form  which  one  may  surmise  have  not  been  deals  i n j u r y  r e l a t e d  to  the  r i g h t s  in  health As  with  or of  with  weeded  i n d i v i d u a l  r e l a t i n g  a t t e s t a t i o n ,  to  the  i n d i v i d u a l  completion  of  the  discharge  the  and is  man's  m i l i t a r y  c e r t i f i c a t e s ,  and  In  c a s e s ,  ment  some  are  is  the  to  wear  i n c l u d e d  w i t h i n  s e r v i c e m a n ' s d e c o r a t i o n s  parchment  or  or  the  home  be  regarded  the  c o n t r a c t u a l  Crown.  a s s i s t a n c e  are  With  as  the  and  the  f i l e . of  a  to  of  records  the  serviceman s e r v i c e -  h i s paid  of  t r a i n i n g o u t .  d i s c h a r g e  p a r c h -  parchment and  h i s  s e r v i c e .  v e r s i o n  personal  the  was  s e r v i c e  m i l i t a r y  short  the  the  d i s c h a r g e  m i l i t a r y f o r  agreement  d e c o r a t i o n s ,  of  The  the  "Proceedings  i n d i v i d u a l  o r i g i n a l s  extreme  i s  recorded  form  of  s e r v i c e  address  The  not  awards  can  the  awards  or  evidence and  documents  forms,  The  due  s e r v i c e .  M . F . B . 2 1 8 a )  h i s  copies  government  m i l i t a r y  r e f e r e n c e .  whether  c l a i m  A l l  r e t a i n e d  f o r  c l u s t e r s .  c h a r a c t e r ,  be  i n d i v i d u a l  ( M . F . B . 2 1 8  future  would  c o n t r a c t u a l  a t t e s t a t i o n  f o r  d i s a b i l i t i e s .  the  the  data  M.F.W.129  p r o c e s s ,  Like  w i t h i n  the  cases  to  the  m i l i t a r y recorded  and  and  form  no  d i s c h a r g e  Crown  t e r m i n a t e d . d i s c h a r g e "  with  to  documents  perhaps,  m i l i t a r y  the  to  medical  except,  u n f i t  importance  between  the  servicemen  m e d i c a l l y an  matters  that  the  The  r i g h t discharge  d i s c h a r g e  f orm. With pay  c e r t i f i c a t e s  man  has  back  pay  been  paid  ( M i l i t i a i n  o u t s t a n d i n g .  f u l l The  end  of  Form f o r  the  W.  m i l i t a r y  44)  m i l i t a r y  form  d e c l a r e s e r v i c e  i n d i c a t e s  the  agreement, that and rate  the  l a s t s e r v i c e -  there of  pay  i s  no  per  -87-  day  and  the  for  dependents.  i n d i c a t i n g laneous  combat  Copies  pay  of  r e c e i p t s  documents  g r a t u i t i e s  a l l o w a n c e ,  may  m i l i t a r y  and  r e l a t i n g  be  found  g r a t u i t y  ledgers  d a t e s . to  when  payments  Within  dependent a  and  can  be  t h i s  found  a r e a ,  allowances  serviceman  had  a l l o w a n c e s attached  m i s c e l -  and  a p p l i e d  war for  s p e c i a l  b e n e f i t s . From d e c l a r e d papers,  the as  p.<  being  the  d i s c h a r g e 79.  a n a l y s i s  documents  to  m i l i t a r y  s e r v i c e  such  the  as  can  to  of  the  forms  period  each to the  of  the  s e r v i c e ,  s e r v i c e m a n .  the  c i v i l i a n  Crown  for  d i e s .  remains In  to  is be  1 980 ,  be  as  s u f f e r e d value  The  three  The  other  f u t u r e  during of  maintenance  t e r m i n a t e d ,  are  c l a i m s  due  only  to  the  and  other  docu-  c o n s i d e r e d  i d e n t i f y c a r e e r  made  a g a i n s t  s e r v i c e .  legal  of  importance  are  documents  on  r e t e n t i o n  the of  A  state  not  they  and  m i l i t a r y  those  Table  the  The  for  the  c l u s t e r s  were  forms.  which  in  of  they  c o n d i t i o n ,  and  p h y s i c a l  absence that  be  a t t e s t a t i o n  data  h i s t o r y ,  items  when  The  i n d i c a t e d  understood  medical  r e p r e s e n t  legal  thereby  the  can  documentation, as  i l l u s t r a t e s  r e a d i l y  the  i n j u r i e s  the  o b l i g a t i o n s  forms  documents f i l e s .  documents,  personal  e x - s e r v i c e m a n  and  serviceman  four  ones  r e c o g n i s e d .  They  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  medical  major  m i l i t a r y can  four  personnel  the  the  be  conduct  important  the  forms,  these  f i l e s ,  the  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  as  major  the  to  are  w i t h i n  r e l a t i n g  ments  v i t a l  c a s u a l t y  From  of  lapses and  a r c h i v a l  The when  moral value  determined. s l i g h t l y .over  25 , 0 0 0  veterans  of  the  1914-1919  war  -88-  survive from the over half m i l l i o n who saw s e r v i c e . ( 2 ) value of these f i l e s remains but those of t h e i r comrades-in-arms are now a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y dead.  The  departed The passing of  t h i s generation of- Canadians leaves to the archival custodians of these f i l e s the decision of appraisal and of what techniques must be employed to confront the issues of volume, h i s t o r i c a l evidence, and p o t e n t i a l research value - a most d i f f i c u l t task for i t must combine archival p r i n c i p l e s and f i n a n c i a l  restraint  of storage with the emotional attachment of a people who, acting as a n a t i o n , were bloodied in combat.  -89CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION  During the of case f i l e s  past  has  decade, the  concentrated  volume of the f i l e s , ility  the  l i t e r a t u r e on  on  costs  the  issues  the  appraisal  r e l a t i n g to  of p r e s e r v a t i o n ,  and  the  of "permanent r e t e n t i o n " as a proper a r c h i v a l  Faced with the increasing  rising  costs  volume of records  have begun to reassess Appraisal,  the  flooding  of m a t e r i a l ,  and  has  option.  the  ever-  appraisal.  s o l e l y associated  been challenged.  have begun to view a p p r a i s a l  as an  records.  Therefore,  of Canada to r e t a i n the is not  the  end  to the  r e i n f o r c e s patterns  the  archival  appraisal  set by the  a r c h i v i s t s might argue that any disposition current  of the  files  d e c i s i o n of the  personnel  files  process.  apparently  to e n t e r t a i n made f i n a l l y .  International  reappraisal  methods of a p p r a i s a l  CEF  cycle Archives  permanently  of the  academic e x e r c i s e .  ultimate However,  i n d i c a t e that a r c h i v i s t s of d e c i s i o n s  Congress of A r c h i v i s t s , the  have forced  life  Because t h i s d e c i s i o n  Kromnov s t r e s s e d  government to reduce expenditure and records  activity  Public  further discussion  i s merely an  As  the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l community, some  trends in a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e  are w i l l i n g  of the  with  In i t s p l a c e ,  which must be conducted p e r i o d i c a l l y throughout the of the  viab-  into a r c h i v e s , a r c h i v i s t s  concepts underlying  as an a r c h i v a l f u n c t i o n  accessioning archivists  of p r e s e r v a t i o n  the  which were once  before  the  pressure of modern  the massive volumes of modern  archiva1agencies to look towards a l t e r n a t i v e and  preservation.  The  reappraisal  of  - 9 0 -  e x i s t i n g the  holdings  a r c h i v i s t  m i l i t a r y body  w i t h i n  s o c i e t y  as  the  other  a  p o s s i b l e  the To  r e t a i n  the  p o l i c y  quo  and,  of  s o l u t i o n  to  t h i s  h i s t o r i a n "permanent War  s u i t a b l e  t i m e ,  to  i t  m i l i t a r y  period  for  a  of  records  i s  to  v a l i d  a r c h i v a l i s  to  of  defend  case  time  f i l e s .  must  lapse  a r c h i v a l the  standards  can  be  made.  Although  nearly  70  y e a r s ,  they  for  an  been  Rapport  have  the  to  and  con-  to  the  the  status  a r c h i v e s . a r c h i v i s t  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  before  d e c i s i o n ?  d e c i s i o n  best  As  Was  f i l e s ?  at  has  Yet,  remain.  advocate  that  in  f i l e s .  c l i n g  the  d e s i g n a t i o n  case  for  or  t r e a t e d  to  i m p o s s i b l e  our  Personnel  community  would or  in  mystique  are  a l l  that  p o s i t i o n  be  of  a p p r a i s a l  deny  d i s t i n c t  that  and  that  a r c h i v a l l y  questions  r e t e n t i o n  o r i g i n a l  and  and  stagnant  c h a l l e n g e  judgements  e x i s t e d  the  the  r e t e n t i o n " I  j u s t i f y  a  t h e m . ( l )  seen  a  d e c i s i o n  being  aura  to  major  the  deny  the  r e t e n t i o n "  r e a p p r a i s a l  t h e r e f o r e ,  w i l l  are  other  f i l e s  For no  any  a t t r i b u t e s  are  on  personnel  change.  old  At  simply  i f  a r c h i v i s t ,  use  f i l e s  h i s t o r i c a l l y  records  "permanent  research r e l y  d i t i o n s  World  than  c h a l l e n g e  possess  Rapport  c o n s c i e n t i o u s of  do  m i l i t a r y  l i g h t  choice  Will  that  are  few  records  can  personnel  r e c o r d s ,  m i l i t a r y  and  the  the  Furthermore,  d i f f e r e n t  new  c o n s i d e r e d  h i s t o r i a n  with  those  " i m m o r t a l i t y " f i l e s  or  r e c o r d s ,  important.  to  be  problem. No  a  can  of  the  assigned  to  i n d i c a t e s ,  a  any  r e a p p r a i s a l  CEF  f i l e s  remained  in  or  and  have the  custody  -91 -  of  the Department  has  been  Archives public new  restricted.  status  determine  justification  reassess  i t s  To t h o s e procedure,  files will age.  and  i t imply preserved  query regard  information suitable  who  deny  research  files'  t o measure the archivist  is justified  or not.  the a r c h i v a l agency  the usefulness  the exact  meaning  to our s p e c i f i c  be p r e s e r v e d  that  the  of the  can the  retention"  of  should  of a reappraisal  "permanent  files,  stored  retention" applied only  the information  regardless  the  be c o n v e r t e d What  in its original  to these  questions  of the f i l e s '  onto  microforms?  are the options,  a p p r a i s a l , to preserve  that the s t a t e , or  be o f c o n t i n u i n g state  of the  will  value  original  constitute a  status.  Will  Is sampling which  forms  themselves  i n the sense  will  personnel  i n the o r i g i n a l  of the physical  or reappraisal  solution?  initial  aware  t o d e t e r i o r a t i o n as t h e d o c u m e n t s  Any s o l u t i o n s  reassessment  remain  the information  the a more after  f o r future  needs?  Several when  will  files  decision.  archivists  Is "permanent  records?  the  then  o f t h e CEF, t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  information does  original  be s u b j e c t  be s e t t o a l l o w  t o become  Only  to the  t r a n s f e r to the Public  must  i s not forthcoming,  With  and a c c e s s  f o r the a r c h i v a l o f f i c i a l s  "permanent  o n e may  retention".  period  of the f i l e s .  whether  upon  communities  and a l s o  uses  Defense  Therefore  of Canada, a time  and r e s e a r c h  research  If  of National  options  the necessary  c a n be p r o p o s e d  reappraisal  will  which occur.  could  be  considered  They a r e :  -92-  Complete r e t e n t i o n w i t h i n a) without c o n s e r v a t i o n ; b) with c o n s e r v a t i o n ; c)  on  w i t h i n  q u a l i t a t i v e q u a n t i t a t i v e  c)  combinations  D e s t r u c t i  that  The  e x i s t s .  Total  examination  f i l e s  m a t e r i a l This  quo  is  of  as  the  a  in  a l l  be  of  o r i g i n a l  database  a c t i o n  f i l e s  s i x t y  or  e x i s t ?  for  i m p o s s i b l e .  r a i s e i f  by the  the If  o l d ,  the  to w i l l  the  of  provide  the  i s  of  of  f i l e s '  the  whether  permament  i n f o r m a t i o n  i s  r e t a i n e d .  c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  of  access p h y s i c a l  that  d e t e r i o r a t i o n  turn  i s s u e  be  s o l u t i o n ,  would of  the  preserve  C o n s i d e r i n g  the  value  and  f i r s t  form  This  degeneration  years  how  the  any  e f f e c t .  a  on  of  h i s t o r y  i n f o r m a t i o n  opts  s u b s t a n t i a l would  the  u n d i s -  i n d i c a t e s  u n d e s i r a b l e ,  without  in  is  p a r t i c u l a r s  medical  c o n c e n t r a t e  volume  f i l e s  c l e a r l y  the  and  t h e r e f o r e  u n t i l  value  forms  contents  a r c h i v i s t  the  personnel  background  what  only  quite  the  r e s e a r c h i n g  continue  over  c o n t i n u i n g  b.  readable  f i l e s '  c o n s u l a t i o n  already w i l l  of  to  options  w i l l  makes  course  the  r e a p p r a i s a l  i n f o r m a t i o n  are  of  personal  and  r e t a i n i n g  p r o p e r t i e s  value  w i l l  of  and  machine  the  the  status  a  i s  If  the  a  of  d e s t r u c t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n  the to  of  s a m p l i n g ; s a m p l i n g ;  r e l e v a n t  s e r v i c e ,  -  on.  a n a l y s i s  i n f o r m a t i o n  that  to  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  m i l i t a r y  the  a r c h i v e s  a) b)  Conversion  puted.  -  m i c r o f o r m s .  Sampling  The  a r c h i v e s  the of  the  c e n t u r y . the only  m a t e r i a l as  long  enduring  -93-  value,  then  measure  this  until  information But before  to  into  this  the  taken  first to  properties occur  will  archives  the  to  to  be  i s adopted  the  permanently surveyed  as  a  temporary  convert  the  for  interval  So  refrained  from  necessary  c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s of  One  New  costs  permanent  and  to  have  drawback  convert  must  has  form  that  under-  involved  to  forces  begun  m i c r o f i l m i n g or  the  note  archives not  the  information  Zealand  f a r , most  material  that  greatest  i s taken  great  i n a more  where  The  lost.  the  exists  point  only  The  process.  destroying  to  danger  action  project.  the  the to  i f no  information  adopted  only  microfilming.  archives  delay  be  form.  decay  is that  a microfilming  preserving  stable  only  i s found  microform,  i t will  national  can  funding  option  prior  solution  information, of  a more  conversion  will  option  sufficient  i f the  physical loss  first  have  only  the  other  methods  ofpreservation. As the of  to  cost over  of  certain  course  be  specific  of  to  a l l the of  emotional  option,  conservation  would  conserved  tion  second  600,000 f i l e s  shelving)  be  the  (or  roughly  were of  illustrate actual  of  treatments  staggering.  forms  the  Although  value  the  the  veteran  retention with  for 10  value, form  the  entire  kilometres  I f the  documents  action. to  that  archives then  types.  i s not original  the  collection linear  believed  specimens  that  could  However, the proper  forms  considered,  of  conservation,  they  may do  conserva-  archival have not  an have  a  -94-  n a t i o n a l North  v a l u e ,  American  contained by  in  other As  with  i n t e n s i v e  i n d e x e s ,  to  numbers  the  key  or  the  the  and  for  on  the  was  B r i t i s h  i n f o r m a t i o n  that  the  u t i l i t y  is  best  fourth  each  system.  f i l e , The  post  documents  of  document  of  preserved  would  would  i m p a i r e d .  the  the  lack  reduce  of  an  the  of  r e t e n t i o n adoption  A r c h i v e s f i l e s and not  by  of of  the  h i s t o r i c a l be  r e t a i n e d  survey  bulk  of  into  m a t e r i a l  a  having  weeding.  s e l e c t e d  two  s c h e d u l i n g  d i s c a r d e d .  s t a g g e r i n g  scheduled into  was  p r e s e r v i n g  of  m a t e r i a l  i n t e n s i v e  m a t e r i a l  unaccompanied  an  of  and  Another  m i c r o f i l m i n g  proper  the  a d m i s t r a t i v e  aids  lack  the  danger  personnel  f i n d i n g  due  to  funding the  Much  i f  be  of  of  Without  v a l u e .  would  great  be  m i c r o f i l m i n g  c o n t i n u i n g  d u p l i c a t i v e  o p t i o n ,  which  would  a l l  the  members.  s e v e r e l y  to  A u s t r a l i a n  1947  be  of  amounts  c r e a t i o n  and  s i z e , is  the  would  f i l e s  insure  and  cost  massive  s t a f f  a r c h i v i s t  not  the  r e q u i r e  a r c h i v a l  access  m i c r o f i l m i n g  The  would  f i l e  manageable  t h e i r  i s  treatment,  by  a c c e s s i o n i n g  f i l e s  from  a r c h i v i s t ,  documents  r e s e a r c h  remained  l i t t l e  the  work  which  Although  for  of  concern  m a t e r i a l  more  For  c o l l e c t i o n  assignment  the  C o n s t i t u t i o n  c o n s e r v a t i o n  and  before  the  means.  e n t i r e  has  would  Act.  the  the  major  as  m a t e r i a l  A u s t r a l i a n the  documents  c l a s s e s ,  C l a s s  importance, byond  a p p r a i s a l  t h e i r  and  w i t h i n A  for Class  B  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  1 i f e . Within having  the  CEF  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  personnel value  can  f i l e s , be  four  areas  d e t e c t e d .  The  of  records  a r e a s ,  p r e v i o u s l y  - 9 5 -  mentioned the  in  medical  c a s u a l t y be  the  forms.  r e t a i n e d  or the  same  be:  i f  c)  but  i n f o r m a t i o n  documents  A . F . B . 1 0 3 .  which  r e t e n t i o n  are  when The  for  forms  above  r e l a t i n g method which  to  are  that  r e l a t e d  w i l l to  Regimental because  As  and  i n f o r m a t i o n  from  sample  those  of  each  w i l l the  f i l e  documents  M.F.W.23  d i s c h a r g e "  d)  the  average  that  f i l e any  documentation  m a r t i a l be  destroyed  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  The  advantages  to  t h i s  i s  r e t a i n e d  with  as  the  major  medical  general  option  of  r e t e n t i o n , were  not  the  are  areas  r e t a i n e d . not  Only  s u f f e r d u p l i c a t e d  f i l e s .  s e l e c t i n g one  H i s t o r i c a l  w i l l  r e t a i n e d .  from  documentation  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  d e t a i l s  h i s t o r i e s  been  removed  which  marked  c a t e g o r i e s  s e v e r e l y  for  be  major  i n f o r m a t i o n .  above  may  can  of  be  form,  c e r t a i n  court  f i e l d s  has  M . F . B . 2 1 8  d u p l i c a t e s  c a s u a l t y  the  f i l e  f i l e  form,  which  example,  c a r e e r .  more  to  ( P a r t i c u l a r s  for  and  the documents  form  mentioned  the  and  documentation  to  and  p a p e r s ,  major  parchment  be  the  personnel  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  documents of  major  h i s t o r i e s  e x t e n s i o n  of  every  s u f f e r  s e r v i c e ,  each  minor  and  the  not  in  r e p r e s e n t  each  medical  should  remainder  the  M.F.W.67  d e t a i l ;  found  s e r v i c e m a n ' s  r e p r e s e n t s  research  and  a  and  d i s c h a r g e  It  not  documents  "Proceedings  less  e n l i s t m e n t  e n l i s t m e n t  any  d i s c o v e r e d ,  p r o c e e d i n g s . the  b)  the  in  the  a r e a s ,  ( d r a f t )  the  not  four  e i t h e r  p r e s e n t ;  d e n t a l ;  or  a)  are  d i s c h a r g e  these  M.F.W.133  M . F . B . 2 1 8 a ,  M.F.W.54  f o r  or  the  From  should  e n l i s t m e n t )  ( i n c l u d i n g  c h a p t e r ,  documents,  ( v o l u n t e e r ) of  t h i r d  might  c e r t a i n r e t a i n  a u t o m a t i c a l l y  a  s p e c i f i e d f u r t h e r  r e t a i n e d .  -96-  This  f o l l o w s  documents  have  randomly  to  t y p i c a l  If  to  Without  in  a  p o t e n t i a l  sampling  of  the  mentioned,  a l l  destroyed.  It  to  and  the  cost  form  of  as  part  a  of  a  t h e i r before  the  the  to  of  even  i f  use,  the  then  the  major  sampled nature  the  the  of  the  e s s e n t i a l  devise  s e l e c t i o n  more the  e f f o r t  of should  s t a b l e  form.  o r i g i n a l  documents  i n f o r m a t i o n . f i n d s  c o m p l e t e l y ,  f o l l o w i n g to in  s e l e c t e d  assumed  a  a r c h i v i s t not  the  strong  of  option)  not  a  into  s e l e c t e d  r e s u l t a n t  that  is  the  sampling i n f o r m a t i o n  with  the  in  a  be  or  otherwise  i n s t i t u t i o n  should  whole  w i l l  procedures,  of for  Unless  r e t e n t i o n  cost  great  deal  r e t a i n e d  part.  i f  the  too  options be  for  that  be has  gone  permanent  considered  d e c i s i o n . a r c h i v i s t  method  h i s t o r i c a l  p o t e n t i a l  the  implement  f i l e  those  been  time  to  loss  S c h e l l e n b e r g  s u b j e c t i v e  assesses  than  d i s c u s s e d  has  the  As  more  d e t e r i o r a t i o n  m a t e r i a l s  the  F i r s t l y ,  is  f i l e s ,  s t o r i n g  sampling.  f i l e ,  e a r l i e r  r e t a i n i n g  a p p r a i s a l  research the  once  are  of  i n f o r m a t i o n  f u r t h e r  each  remainder idea  each  the  the  w h i c h ,  an  decides  the  however,  in  i d e n t i f i e d .  from  convert  m a i n t a i n i n g  in  so  c o n v e r s i o n ,  If,  (as  f i l e  be  the  r e s e a r c h e r  a r c h i v i s t  r e s u l t  i t s  Any  documents  p r a c t i c e  r e t a i n e d ,  the  should  s p e c i f i c  w i l l  give  the  made  A u s t r a l i a n  been  f i l e s .  documents  be  the  use  d e s i g n a t i n g  in  of  can and  e n t e r t a i n Hull  in of  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y  s p e c i f i c  areas  idea  i n d i c a t e ,  a p p r a i s a l  importance  the  of  which areas and  q u a l i t a t i v e  q u a l i t a t i v e the  of  the  of  a r c h i v i s t  i n f o r m a t i o n s o c i a l  information  sampling  for  and  s c i e n c e s r e t e n t i o n . ( 2 )  -97-  The  following  which could  are examples of c r i t e r i a  be a p p l i e d  f o r q u a l i t a t i v e sampling  to the CEF personnel  files:  a. the r e t e n t i o n of a l l personnel f i l e s of o f f i c e r s who were above the. rank of major w i t h i n the CEF.(3) b. the r e t e n t i o n of personnel f i l e s f o r those k i l l e d or l i s t e d as missing in a c t i o n . This subarea may be rendered i m p r a c t i c a l i f the a r c h i v e s , the m i l i t a r y and the veterans organization's i n d i c a t e that the Honour R o l l s w i l l s u f f i c e i n r e f l e c t i n g the memory of the f a l l e n . c. the r e t e n t i o n of personnel f i l e s f o r men who rose to p o s i t i o n s of n a t i o n a l prominence within the governments of Canada. This category would include men such as John Diefenbaker, a former Prime M i n i s t e r ; George Pearkes, a former Canadian General and M i n i s t e r of Defence, George Drew, a former Leader of the O p p o s i t i o n ; George Black, a former Speaker of the Commons; Senators such as A r i s t i d e B l a i s , William MacDonald, Stanley McKean, to name a few.(4) d. the r e t e n t i o n of the personnel f i l e s of the CEF b a t t l i o n s which served i n s p e c i f i c b a t t l e s , such as Vimy, Ypres, or Amiens. These b a t t l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Vimy, are revered and honoured as the places where the Canadian nation was t e s t e d and our i d e n t i t y as a people secured in much the same way that A u s t r a l i a n s honour the memory of Gal 1 i p o l i . ( 5 ) e. the r e t e n t i o n of a l l personnel f i l e s of those who were gassed on the f r o n t . The medical d i f f i c u l t i e s that these men faced during and a f t e r the c o n f l i c t set them apart from the other servicemen. The r e t e n t i o n of t h e i r f i l e s could be combined with the s e l e c t i o n of t h e i r f i l e s from the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s where t h e i r p o s t - s e r v i c e medical h i s t o r i e s are l o c a t e d , to provide a complete medical h i s t o r y of the venteran.(6) f. the r e t e n t i o n of a l l personnel f i l e s of the men from s e l e c t e d b a t t a l i o n s , e i t h e r on a r e g i o n a l basis or f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the war e f f o r t . For i n s t a n c e , the a r c h i v i s t could choose one of the 20 b a t t a l i o n s r a i s e d in B r i t i s h Columbia or perhaps a b a t t a l i o n from the Canadian Railway Troop or the F o r e s t r y Corps.(7)  -98-  g. the r e t e n t i o n of a l l personnel f i l e s of servicemen awarded d e c o r a t i o n s domestic or f o r e i g n . At p r e s e n t , the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s maintains an A w a r d s O f f i c e where the r e g i s t e r s for medals awarded a s c e r t a i n whether the Department of in the personnel f could be made to c the most complete  ar or Vet i l e u l l r e  e kept. The a r c h i v i s t not the m a t e r i a l kept erans A f f a i r s is d u p l i s . If so, then arrang one or ther other to c o r d . ( 8 )  could by c a t e d ements preserve  h. the r e t e n t i o n of a l l personnel f i l e s of whose who w e r e drafted under the p r o v i s i o n s M i l i t a r y Act 1917.(9)  of  the  i . the r e t e n t i o n of a l l personnel f i l e s of e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s s u c h as J a p a n e s e Canadians, Americans or I r i s h . ( 1 0 )  Secondly, in  response  to  the  a r c h i v i s t  the  s i g n i f i c a n t  p r o j e c t s  undertaken  based  the  ness a  on and  number,  f i l e s .  The  t h e r e f o r e  each  Hull  sound  s t a t i s t i c a l  g u i d e l i n e s sample level  w i l l  on  set  estimated any  in  s i n g l e  an  of  by on  at  devise  economic  r e s u l t a  two  to  p r o j e c t . ( 1 2 )  of  the the  in  It  per  would  must  being  The  for  of  randomhave  the  CEF  and  s e r i e s .  As  must  size and  of  120,000  the the  the a  Boles  employ  f o l l o w i n g  sample  h i g h l y  i s  s e l e c t e d ,  advocated  cent be  f i l e  c a t e g o r i e s  sample  p r e s e r v a t i o n  three  on  case  c o n s t r a i n t s MacKay  method  a r c h i v i s t  the  r e s e a r c h  r e l i e s  whole  a r c h i v i s t . ( 1 1 )  r e l i a b i l i t y .  would  the  chance of  This  Each  s p e c i a l  sampling  s t a t i s t i c a l  and  present  w r i t i n g s ,  the the  f i l e s  s e l e c t  to  in  f a c t o r s .  equal  t h e i r  methods  for  that  not  q u a n t i t a t i v e  s c i e n c e s .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  depend  which  key  not  has  down  a l l o w a b l e  sample, She  the  i n d i c a t e  i s  does  f i l e  s o c i a l  i t s  apply  i n c r e a s e  sampling  as  which  method  r e t a i n i n g  and  the  s c i e n t i f i c  r e l i a b i l i t y  unique  thus  in  could  minimum  20  per  CEF  would  u n l i k e l y  cent f i l e s .  be that  used the  -99-  sample  would  An  l a r g e r  a l t e r n a t i v e  c o n s i d e r i n g t i v e  be  and  which  sampling  is  q u a n t i t a t i v e and  a  sample  could  be  combined  r e t e n t i o n the  of  f r o n t ;  the  or  servicemen The  of  the  m a t e r i a l  in  space  a  and  of  loss the  his  of  CEF  be  of  to  B a t t a l i o n . " ( 1 3 )  an  the  22nd  for  his  i n t e n s i v e  h i s t o r y  of  the  the  q u a l i t a -  the i n s t a n c e ,  CEF  f i l e s )  as  were  personnel  22nd  In  sampling  6e,  the  gassed  f i l e s  at  of  of  must  not  cases  place of  For  of  a l l o w  from the  of  t h i s  him  l o c a l  to  s a m p l i n g ,  personnel  eastern  2  saving  Gagnon,  and  regions  of  the  blood  Gagnon  the  in  random  i n c l u d e  f i l e s  form  is  h i s t o r i e s  found  f l e s h  w i l l  e n t i r e t y  roughly  CEF,  gave  which  gains  to  or  the  random the  t h e i r  J e a n - P i e r r e  of  that  a l l  in  drawback  regimental  B a t t a l i o n  the  i n f o r m a t i o n .  f i l e s  h i s t o r i a n  w i l l  d e s t r u c t i o n  weigh  k i l o m e t r e s  the  the  did  the  h i s t o r i c a l  10  But  "It  procedure  u n a v o i d a b l y ,  from  evidence u n i t .  of  personnel  Canadian  i n d i v i d u a l  the  when  For  such  who  a r c h i v i s t  w r i t e  examination  B a t t a l i o n ,  and,  the  inadequate. of  the  of  s a t i s f y  (48,000  those  type  s h e l v i n g .  the  to  o p t i o n s ,  of  loss  area  dimension  took  the  to  combination  cent  of  The  storage  unique the  bulk  the  b a t t a l i o n s .  to  any  of  a b i l i t y  a r c h i v i s t  d e c o r a t i o n s .  of  of  the  h i s t o r i a n .  per  r e t e n t i o n  to  attempt  f i l e s  100,000  any  a  q u a l i t a t i v e  chosen.  l i n e a r  of  to  eight  versus  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  sampling  use  of  of  cent.  a v a i l a b l e  awarded  not  c o s t  reduce  k i l o m e t r e s the  the  per  q u a n t i t a t i v e of  r e d u c t i o n  r e t e n t i o n  would  the  implementation  in  i s  personnel  were  r e s u l t  The  the  with  6g,  who  20  options  t r a d i t i o n a l i s t q u a n t i t a t i v e  than  under-  of b a s i s Canada,  -100-  where loss  settlement of  the  r e s e a r c h .  f i r m l y  i n f o r m a t i o n But  immigration would  was  for  was  destroy  may  Western  j u s t  entrenched  by  not  h i s t o r i a n s  hinder  Canada,  b e g i n n i n g ,  i n f o r m a t i o n  where  the  r e l a t i n g  1900s,  massive  loss to  the  of  the  the  and  t h e i r  s e t t l e m e n t  the  and  personnel  p i o n e e r i n g  f i l e s  f a m i l i e s  a n d t h e i r s o c i e t y . With i n d i c a t e  regard that  b a t t a l i o n s l i n e a g e s ,  to  few  s i n c e C E .  b a t t a l i o n s  in  the  World  b a t t l e s  t h e i r the  events  u n i t s . those  The CEF  regiments  in  the  the  that  Another of for  data  the  a c t i v e  h i s t o r i e s  f u t u r e ;  bases  as  the  the  Recent but  of  adequate concern  are  too  which  is  which  would  house  p r e s e r v a t i o n .  The  open  l i e seem  d i s t a n t to  the  in  the  the  Second  acknowledged  war,  perhaps  World  War  a t t e n t i o n but  with  i t  w i l l our  on  must  those  h i g h l y  u n l i k e l y be  w r i t t e n  past.  a r c h i v e s  three  on  which  F i r s t  i n f o r m a t i o n in  204  regimental  i t s  b a t t a l i o n s  the  i n f o r m a t i o n  of  focus  w i l l  the  of  h i s t o r i e s  would  CEF  option  of  c o n c e n t r a t e  1939-1945  may  CEF  regimental  have  to  trends  h i s t o r i e s  in  h i s t o r i e s  It  37  t h e i r  tended  the  for  s p e c i f i c  events  had  i n t e r e s t  have  s e r v i c e .  only  the  on  a n n i v e r s a r i e s  H i s t o r y  primary  of  that  h i s t o r i c a l on  book  p u b l i c a t i o n s  of  without  past  w r i t t e n  1965  have  renewed  audience  D i r e c t o r a t e  his  Army  p e r s o n a l i t i e s  waning  on  a  l i n e a g e s  b a t t a l i o n s  assumed  that  and  the  near,  been  i n d i c a t e d  y e a r s ,  emerged.  regimental  r e f l e c t s  be  has  In  Canadian  recent  h i s t o r i e s ,  have  1930s.  Dornbusch  In  h i s t o r i e s  h i s t o r i e s the  w r i t t e n . War  regimental  i s  the  f i e l d s data  c r e a t i o n s e l e c t e d  c l u s t e r s  -  -101  found the  i n the  could  i n f o r m a t i o n on  information as  files  high  as  devised. data  forty The  bases?  archival able  would  to  obtain  to  the  facilities  microfilming  The  trends  be the  i t s methods  of  and  data  amount o f  the  staff  are  national archives.  of  data  bases  also  research is  f o r any  If, after  period  that  community  or  the  and  on  sound  of  As  the  recommends, then evidence  destruction  that  such  of  base  be  reach  were  should  create  may  force  researchers  will  However,  be  before  p r o j e c t s , an  usefulness needed.  of  the  the  The  prohibitive,  beyond  infor-  costs and,  financial  regarding  archivist  doing  and  the  of  like resources  the  usefulness  then  as  records  the  the  been  the r e a p p r a i s a l used  the  archives  d e c i s i o n to  of  has  destroy  When t h e  d e c i s i o n to  by  the the  archivist  for a reasonable  documentation.  i s made, t h e n  not  appraisal is  informational value  long  the  monitoring,  have  documents,  destruction.  Rapport  areas  Questions  of  records  that  recommend  uses  a  the  duplicated in other  users  as  arise.  alternative  finds  well  computerization  often  probably  large  archivist  will  data  material.  costs  and  major  archives  so  to  as  selected could  not  committed  even  destruction.  or  base  the  fields  bases  access  p r o j e c t s , are  last  that  towards  of  The  so  i s whether  greatest can  i n a data  i f a comprehensive  create  a n a l y s i s of  and  computer  fifty  current  resources  extensive  covered.  issue  agencies  archival  mation  to  The  stored  c a s u a l t y forms be  key  be  records  may monitored  time,  will  be  as based  decision for  destroy  will  be  based  -102-  on  sound  evidence  d e s t r u c t i o n of  the  f u t u r e  i s  and  made,  records  documentation. information  should  r e s e a r c h e r s  be  w i l l  r e l a t i n g  placed be  When  in  aware  the  of  the to  d e c i s i o n  the  f i n d i n g  the  for  d e s t r u c t i o n  aids  so  that  d i s p o s i t i o n  of  the  f i l e s . So  f a r ,  a v a i l a b l e Each at  of  to  the  l e a s t  what  the an  a r c h i v i s t  o p t i o n s ,  some  t e s t s  d i s c u s s i o n  of  that  records  a p p l i e d  According  to  S c h e l l e n b e r g , into  uniqueness  of  m a t e r i a l  information  the  and  of  to  the  r e c o r d s ;  The  f i r s t  are  and  a s s e s s e d .  tested  importance,  the  a r c h i v i s t  for  say  d e f i n i t e l y  who  can  important,  and  f o r  i m p o n d e r a b i l i t y The  a r c h i v i s t  p o t e n t i a l form  is use  on  the  weigh  therefore  i f  a  the  of  a r c h i v i s t s s o c i a l  c)  the  given and  The  the to  of  to  of  and the  the  of  the the  form, t e s t  of  imponderable, i s The  a p p r a i s a l  h i s t o r i c a l and  s u b j e c t i v e .  trends  and  storage  of  a p p r a i s a l  In  such  a  a n a l y s i s  of  the  value  the  of  a)  of  records  p r e s e r v a t i o n  a r c h i v i s t .  c u l t u r a l  the  makes  d e c i s i o n  But  i n i t i a l  form  whom?"(15)  methods,  perform  the  importance  body  importance  of  b)  applying  realm  his  concern:  uniqueness " i n  value.  makes  of  the  that  value?  r e c o r d s ,  But  costs  and  areas  a r e a s ,  research  assumes  c o n t i n u i n g such  options  examination.  a r c h i v i s t  and  purpose,  d e c i s i o n .  judgement on  in  a s s e s s i n g  against  a p p r a i s a l  incumbent and  must  users  his  r e l i e s  of  what  two  is  the  the  i n f o r m a t i o n . ( 1 4 ) e a s i l y  some  three  and  the  r e a p p r a i s a l  determine  account  around  d e s t r u c t i o n ,  have  be  taking  a  of  may  assessment  revolved  during  save  the  has  to  i n e v i t a b l y  c i r c u m s t a n c e , actual  records  in  order  i t  -103-  to  give  some  At  the  Washington,  substance  D.C.  German  in  were  be  a p p r a i s e d  using  theory  To  he  of  might  intervene  that  that  only  of  course  l e a s t  some  a r c h i v i s t s records sive  r e s i d i u m  Although  h i s  favour  more  a  personnel of  the  must  of  o r i g i n s ,  to  to  has  and  to  Boom's  a p p r a i s a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  completeness.  The  can  be  an  by  two  In  theory  Second,  to  amount  l e s s  the  which  i n f o r m a t i o n In  Boom's  s t r u c t u r e s  t r a n s m i t  to  of  by  the  so  that  view, and  the  and  comprehen-  p o s t e r i t y . ( 1 6 ) a r c h i v i s t s  a p p l i c a t i o n  case  he  c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  f i l e s  may  to  who the  solve  some  a r c h i v i s t s . a p p r a i s a l ,  on  an  about  study  of  the  a n a l y s i s  c o m p o s i t i o n ,  guesswork i n - d e p t h  h i g h .  useful  on  d e c i s i o n u s e s ,  too  s o c i a l l y  s i m i l a r  F i r s t ,  a r c h i v e s  such  i t s  Boom's  assumptions.  c h a l l e n g e d  f a c i n g  r e c o r d s .  a l l  used.  approach,  other  dilemmas  and  been  the  l i m i t a t i o n  to  should  must  simply  a  records  a r c h i v i s t  b u l k ,  s o c i a l  i d e n t i f y  that  ideas  of  preserve  c u r r e n t  Boom's  of  on  p r o d u c t i v e l y  s p e c u l a t i v e  r e p l a c e d  i s  in  s i t u a t i o n  p r e s e r v i n g  documentation  implement his  depends  held  contemporary  a p p r a i s e  d i g e s t e d .  i s  proposal  f i l e s  base  be  be  create  the  to  Hans  contended  problem  of  A r c h i v i s t s ,  a r c h i v i s t  s o c i e t a l  analyse  a p p r a i s a l  To  a  a c t i o n  must  they  can  may  of  v a l u a b l e  i s  of  Boom  a c t i v e l y  costs  be  there that  the  a p p r a i s a l the  i n f o r m a t i o n  at  a n a l y s i s with  p o t e n t i a l l y  assumes  1976,  d i s c u s s e d .  deal  a c t i v e  assumes  judgements.  Congress  a p p r a i s a l  n e c e s s a r i l y  the  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  on  r e c o r d s .  to  the  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  future the  of  a r c h i v i s t  research records  and  f i l e s ' c o n t e n t , needs t h e i r  -104-  use  by a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  archivist about  will  have  military  proper  files  as  to  the  and t h e i r  content  By  the  of  the  surrounding After files  the  preserving  of  utility,  the  a reappraisal the  files  form or files  analysis  remains. of  assessment preserve  of  the  the  social  files.  the files'  the  in-  information  with  or  the  aspect  of  issue. the  judgement.  efforts  the  under-  the  attachment  in order  the  the  to  on  give  issue  The  the evidence  of  files  utility  question  after  the  ofr  mystique  of  to  retain  the  answer  usefulness this  question  s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d up by  a set the  providing of  to  Rapport's  appraisals, thus  decision  In o r d e r  Following  s h o u l d be m o n i t o r e d ,  the  in his  appraisal  another,  p e r i o d between  of  files,  deal  his  an  others.  and the  procedure.  the  emotional  and l e a v e  s h o u l d be r e a p p r a i s e d  intervening files  analysis  the  on the  their  in c r e a t i n g  not  objectively  concentrate  to  or  in  gain  An a n a l y s i s of  the  documentation  will  purpose  subjective  taken,  of  files  emotional  in question  records  i n one  of  must  the  archivist  uses.  cannot  CEF f i l e s ,  range  place  problem of  records  the  to  the  a value  decision  entire  and whether  becomes  therefore,  any a p p r a i s a l  the  place  archivist  archivist, analysis  to  the  completeness  present the  of  agency's  the  archivist  attempting  files,  reveal  As to  the  the  administrative  formational  mystique,  case  in order  creating  will  reliable.  study  In d o i n g s o ,  composition  is  to  affairs  context.  standing  In the  recommendations,  time  period.  research the  uses  evidence  c o n t i n u i n g to  of  expend  In of  the the  an money  to  -105-  Al though Archives was  of  not  uses,  i t  Canada  based  and  on  seem  of  World  a  not  what  a s s o c i a t e d r e c u r r i n g  to  War  the  a r c h i v a l  drawbacks  of  r e l a t i n g  a p p r a i s a l ,  that  In  of  r e a p p r a i s a l the  i n i t i a l  contemporary and  has  which and time  content  It  thus  the  f u n c t i o n  the  use  of  i s  p e r i o d i c are  to  have  have  the  records  of  l e a s t  in  overdue.  It  more  has  the  two  to  the  c l e a r l y  concept the  with  an  become the  not  of  a  b e n e f i t s and  f a c e t s  of  a r c h i v e s d e f i n e d . using is  sound  approach  o r i g i n s ,  context of  of  records  r e c o r d s '  use  t h e i r  r e a p p r a i s a l  systems  e v a l u a t i o n s for  have  concepts  Rapport's  r e s p o n s i b l e  value  a c t i v i t y  entry  the  the  made.  the  m o n i t o r i n g  r e a p p r a i s a l  at  As  of  c o u n t r i e s  or  reexamine  implementation  long  be  the  the of  a r c h i v i s t  of  of  study  an  Boom's  a p p r a i s a l  a n a l y s i s the  o b j e c t i v e  changed,  become  e n t i r e t y  use  to  upon  r e c o r d s ,  the  Moreover,  a r c h i v e s  h o l d i n g .  provide  on  serves  t h e i r  to  have  s o l e l y  a p p r a i s a l  e n t r y ,  f i l e s ,  P u b l i c  o r i g i n s ,  A l l  o b j e c t i v e  the  f i l e s '  a c c e s s i o n i n g .  which  e s t a b l i s h m e n t  and  of  the  they  of  in  f a i l u r e  longer  a p p r a i s a l  in  of  unique.  any  a r c h i v a l  w i l l  a r c h i v e s  the  seem  no  i n i t i a l  f i l e s  personnel  f u n c t i o n  to  d e c i s i o n  CEF  q u e s t i o n  is  p l a c i n g  s o c i e t y .  concerning  i f  of  emphasis  by  mented  made  a p p r a i s a l  procedures  research  have  standards  places  and  not  a f t e r  m e r i t .  the  c o n t e n t ,  m i l i t a r y  the  a n a l y s i s  does  each  p r i n c i p l e s  and  preserve  a p p r a i s a l  with  that  s e a r c h i n g  study  A r c h i v a l  and  to  techniques  surveyed  revealed  apparent  i n f o r m a t i o n a l  a p p r a i s a l  F i r s t  i s  recommendations to must  i n s u r i n g  evaluate be  i m p l e -  that  only  -106-  records  of  emphasis records more  s i g n i f i c a n c e  of  r e a p p r a i s a l  have  for  accountable  responsive Nancy  to  Peace  s o c i e t y .  i t ,  Boom's  a p p r a i s a l . w i l l and  The  continue preserve  of  as our  t h e i r  i s  p u b l i c  a  "a  in  in  a r c h i v i s t s  g o a l ,  documentary  i t s ideas  a p p r a i s a l  t h e r e f o r e , as  American  that to  on  a r c h i v i s t  t o t a l  a p p r a i s a l  o b j e c t i v e  be  more  s o c i a l  v a r i e t i e s . . ' " (1 7 )  approaches  h e r i t a g e .  The  a r c h i v e s  concepts  more  use.  b e n e f i t s  s t r u c t u r e d  a r c h i v a l  seek  and  and,  a l l  Rapport's  change  changes  in  future  f o r c e s  r a t i o n a l l y  l i f e  and  The  for  uses  h o l d i n g s  acceptance  beginning  the  for  of  of  on  Reappraisal  t h e i r  puts  i s  preserved  s o c i e t y .  documentation  the  are  are  The only  regarding and ways  p o l i c i e s to  evaluate  -107-  l_EAF 107  MISSED IN NUMBERING i  -108-  NOTES  FOR  CHAPTER  II  1. Theodore R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , The A p p r a i s a l of Modern P u b l i c Records. National A r c h i v e s B u l l e t i n No. 8. (Washi ngton : National A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e , 1956). 2. Maynard A c c e s s i o n i ng  J . B r i c h f o r d , A r c h i v e s & M a n u s c r i p t s : A p p r a i s a l & (Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1 9 7 7 ), p .  1  3. Great B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers, v o l . 44 ( R e p o r t s from Commissioners, Inspectors and Others, vo~l . 3 5 ) , " F i r s t Report of the Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into and Report on t h e S t a t e of P u b l i c Records Nature of England and W a l e s . " 1913, p. 15. 4.  I b i d .  5.  I b i d .  6.  I b i d .  7.  I b i d .  ,  p.  and Local Volume I,  Records Part I,  of a Cmd.  P u b l i c 6 3 6 1 , 1912-  20.  8. H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , A Manual of A r c h i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (London: Percy Lund, Humphries & C o . , 1922), p. 147. 9. F e l i x H u l l , The Use o f S a m p l i n g T e c h n i q u e s i n of Records: A RAMP s t u d y with g u i d e l i n e s (Pari s : 1981) , p. 2. 10. on  Great P u b l i c  11.  Emmett  Archi vi s t be  B r i t a i n , Records  c i t e d  3 as  P a r l i a m e n t a r y  i n  Leahy, ( 19 4 0 ) :  England  and  "Reduction 1 3 .  of  [ h e r e a f t e r  Papers, W a l e s , " P u b l i c the  "Royal  Leahy ,  14.  I b i d .  15. AA 3  Commission  1912-1913, Records  American  I,"  p.  15.  Ameri can  A r c h i v i s t  w i l l  AA]  12. O l i v e r W. H o m e s , "The E v a l u a t i o n and Business A r c h i v e s , " AA 1 ( 1 9 3 8 ) : 183-184 13.  the Retention UNESCO,  p.  of  21.  P h i l i p C. Brooks, ( 1940) : 224.  16. O l i v e r W. Records i n the  P r e s e r v a t i o n  "The  S e l e c t i o n  of  Records  Homes, " P l a n n i n g a Permanent S t a t e s , " AA 6 ( 1 9 4 3 ) : 8 3 .  f o r  Program  P r e s e r v a t i o n , "  f o r  Federal  -109-  17. Carl K u l s r u d , "Sampling Rural R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Transfer to the National A r c h i v e s , " AA 10 (1947): 18. AA  1 5  Robert L o v e t t , ( 1 952) : 235 .  19. Leopold (1950): 334. 20.  I b i d . ,  "The  G e n i c o t ,  p.  A p p r a i s a l  "The  Problem  of  Older  of  Modern  Records 328.  Business  for  R e c o r d s , "  A r c h i v e s , "  AA  329-330.  21. Renee Doehard, (1950): 326-327.  "Remarks  on  Contemporary  A r c h i v e s , "  AA  22. Great B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers, v o l . 11 (Reports Commissioners, I n s p e c t o r s , and O t h e r s , v o l . 4 ) , "The Report the Committee on D e p a r t m e n t a l R e c o r d s , " Cmd. 9163, 1954, p. 23.  I b i d . ,  p.  24.  I b i d . ,  pp.  25.  I b i d . ,  p.  30.  26.  I b i d . ,  p.  43.  29.  13  from of 2.  5. 35-38.  27. Theodore R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , The A p p r a i s a l Records . National A r c h i v e s B u l l e t i n N o . 8~. A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e , 1956), p. 15. 28.  13  of Modern P u b l i c (Washi ngton : National  I b i d . I b i d .  30. T.R. (Chicago:  ,  p.  1  7.  S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s : P r i n c i p l e s and U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1 956 ) , p. 148.  31.  I b i d . ,  32.  S c h e l l e n b e r g ,  33.  I b i d . ,  34.  I b i d .  35.  I b i d .  36.  I b i d . ,  p.  ,  Techniques  140.  p.  20.  p.  30.  p.  31.  A p p r a i s a l  of  Modern  P u b l i c  Records,  p.  16.  -110-  37.  I b i d .  38.  I b i d .  39.  I b i d .  40.  Paul  41  .  »  I b i d .  43.  I b i d .  44.  I b i d .  45.  I b i d .  46.  I b i d .  41  P.  45. nson,  P.  293 .  »  P-  294.  J  P-  304.  5  P-  312.  47. w . K . Lamb , ( 1 966 ) : 4. 48.  .  Lewi  I b i d .  42.  P-  I b i d .  "The  "Archi  Changi  50.  David  51.  Meyer  Records," 52.  L.  of  Lewis, Business  H. AA  ng  S a m p l i n g , "  Role  of  AA  the  20  ( 1 957)  :  292.  A r c h i v i s t , "  AA  29  5.  P-  49. W i l f r e d I. Smith, Journal of the S o c i e t y  Disposal  val  " A r c h i v a l S e l e c t i o n : A Canadian of A r c h i v i s t s 3 (1964): 83. " A p p r a i s a l  R e c o r d s , "  F i s h b e i n , 33  (1970):  "A  C r i t e r i o n AA  32  Viewpoint  for  (1969): on  View,"  Retention  and  21.  A p p r a i s a l  of  National  175-87.  I b i d .  53. Ake Archivum  Kromnov, "The A p p r a i s a l 26 (1976): 45.  54.  I b i d . ,  p.  45.  55.  I b i d . ,  p.  47.  56.  I b i d . ,  p.  48.  57.  I b i d .  58.  I b i d .  of  Contemporary  R e c o r d s , "  59. Eleanor MacKay, "Random Sampling Techniques: A Method Reducing Large Homogeneous S e r i e s in Congressional P a p e r s , " (1978): 282. 60.  I b i d . ,  p.  285.  of AA  61.  I b i d .  62. On 18 A u g u s t 1978 under the chairmanship aspect of the work of i n t e r p r e t e d the terms partmental records onl in March 1981 as Cmd. and  the of the of r y. 8204  B r i t i s h government appointed an i n q u i r y S i r Duncan W i l s o n , to review every P u b l i c Records O f f i c e . The committee eference as a p p l y i n g to modern deThe Committee's f i n d i n g s were p u b l i s h e d , Modern P u b l i c Records: S e l e c t i o n  A c c e s s .  63. " P u b l i c Records Committee of the B r i t i s h Record A s s o c i a t i o n : Submissions to the Wilson R e p o r t , " A r c h i v e s 14 (1979): 92. 64.  Frank  65.  I b i d .  B o l e s ,  "Sampling  in  A r c h i v e s , "  AA  66. R. Joseph Anderson, " P u b l i c Welfare Case of A r c h i v a l P r a c t i c e , " AA 43 (1980): 171. 67 . of  F e l i x Records  68.  I b i d .  69.  I b i d .  70.  I b i d .  :  H u l l , The Use A RAMP s t u d y  . P-  9  I b i d .  . P-  10.  72.  I b i d .  > P-  11.  73.  I b i d .  74.  I b i d .  75.  I b i d .  . P-  12.  76.  I b i d .  . P-  13.  77.  M.S.  Moss,  71  .  Journal  of  the  " P u b l i c S o c i e t y  78. Leonard Rapport, Accessioned R e c o r d s . " 79. 80.  I b i d . I b i d .  ,  p.  144.  44  (1981):  Records:  127.  A  Study  of Sampling Techniques in the Retention with g u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s :: U N E S C O , 1981 ) .  Record of  "No AA  O f f i c e :  A r c h i v i s t s Grandfather 44 (1981):  Good 7  or  Bad?"  (1980) C l a u s e : 143.  Reappraising  -1  81.  I b i d .  82.  I b i d .  83.  I b i d .  84.  I b i d . ,  85.  I b i d .  ,  p.  145.  p.  148..  12-  86. A . A . H . K n i g h t s b r i d g e , " P a r t i c u l a r Instance d e l i v e r e d at the C i v i l S e r v i c e C o l l e g e , London, 1983), p. 8.  P a p e r s . " England,  (Paper Sept. 28,  -113-  NOTES  FOR  CHAPTER  III  1. Within t h i s c e n t u r y , over twenty m i l l i o n servicemen duty i n the B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y . In t h e F i r s t World War, were i n t h e s e r v i c e s , o f whom 2 , 6 2 6 , 7 4 3 were l i s t e d as Over one m i l l i o n were k i l l e d i n a c t i o n , d i e d of wounds as m i s s i n g . These f i g u r e s do n o t i n c l u d e the armed f o r the Dominions o r t h e c o l o n i e s who were part of the B r i t Army.  have seen 5,704,416 c a s u a l t i e s or l i s t e d c e s of i s h Imperi  2. Great B r i t a i n . P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers, v o l . 11 (Reports from Commissioners, I n s p e c t o r s , and Others, v o l . 4 ) , "The Report of the Committee on D e p a r t m e n t a l R e c o r d s , " Cmd. 9 1 6 3 , 1954, p. 37. 3.  I b i d . ,  p.  3 8 .  4.  I b i d .  5 .  I b i d . ,  p.  4 0 .  6 .  I b i d . ,  p.  3 8 .  7. L e t t e r from A . A . H . K n i g h t s b r i d g e , Keeper, P u b l i c Record O f f i c e , London, 1 983. 8.  I b i d .  9.  I b i d .  10.  I b i d .  P r i n c i p a l A s s i s t a n t to the a u t h o r , 4 November  11. The United States m o b i l i z e d 4 , 3 5 5 , 0 0 0 over 250,000 were k i l l e d or wounded.  p e r s o n n e l ,  of  12. L e t t e r from David F. P e t e r s o n , A s s i s t a n t A r c h i v i s t , Records Centre, National A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e , D . C , to the a u t h o r , 28 N o v e m b e r 1 9 8 3 . 13. The A u s t r a l i a n Imperial Forc and women, o f whom 3 3 0 , 0 0 0 w e r e war. C a s u a l t i e s w i t h i n the AIF 59,258 were k i l l e d i n a c t i o n or The records other  from  the  A r c h i v e s  as  have  any  e x t e n s i v e  branches  do of  not the  A u s t r a l i a n  Federal Washington  e c o n s i s t e d o f 4 1 6 , 8 0 7 men t r a n s f e r e d to t h e a t r e s of numbered 226,073, of whom died of wounds.  correspondence they  whom  M i l i t a r y  d e a l t  only  d e a l i n g s  with with  army the  Forces.  14. L e t t e r from K. Penny, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l , Records, A u s t r a l i a n National A r c h i v e s , to the a u t h o r , 1984.  Federal 03 J a n u a r y  -114-  15. New Zealand m o b i l i z e d 105,629 personnel for the F i r s t War, of whom 9 9 , 8 2 2 w e r e shipped o v e r s e a s . C a s u a l t i e s for c o n f l i c t were 5 7 , 8 8 7 , of whom 1 6 , 4 8 3 w e r e k i l l e d in a c t i o n died of wounds. 16. L e t t e r from B. Symondson, New Z e a l a n d National A r c h i v e s , 19 M a r c h , 1984. 17. were  A r c h i v i s t , Records W e l l i n g t o n , to the  France m o b i l i z e d 8,410,000 k i l l e d , and 4 , 2 6 6 , 0 0 0 were  18. L e t t e r from Branch, M i n i s t r y  p e r s o n n e l , wounded.  D i r e c t o r Delmas, Chief of Defense, France, to  of  World the or  D i v i s i o n , a u t h o r ,  whom  1 , 3 5 7 , 8 0 0  of H i s t o r i c a l the a u t h o r , 21  S e r v i c e February,  1 984. 19. The German Imperial Army c o n s i s t e d of roughly 11,000,000 of whom 1 , 8 0 8 , 5 4 6 were k i l l e d , 4 , 2 4 7 , 1 4 3 were wounded.  p e r s o n n e l ,  20. L e t t e r from Dr. K e h r i g , D i r e c t o r of M i l i t a r y A r c h i v e s in the German National A r c h i v e s , Koblenz, to the a u t h o r , 10 February, 1984. 21. L e t t e r Wurttemberg 1 984.  from Dr. Cordes, D i r e c t o r State A r c h i v e s , S t u t t g a r t ,  22. L e t t e r from Dr. Hely, State A r c h i v e s , M u n i c h , to 23.  The  the  F i r s t  A u s t r o - H u n g a r i a n  and  922,000  World  War,  were  of  k i l l e d  D i r e c t o r of the a u t h o r , empire  whom in  of the War A r c h i v e s , to the a u t h o r , 12 March,  the War A r c h i v e s , 20 M a r c h , 1984.  m o b i l i z e d  3 , 6 2 0 , 0 0 0  7,800,000  were  l i s t e d  as  25.  L e t t e r  from  National  Dr.  Wagner,  A r c h i v e s ,  for  c a s u a l t i e s  a c t i o n .  24. The term s u c c e s s o r s t a t e s a p p l i e s to the n a t i o n s were c r e a t e d , a f t e r the peace t r e a t i e s of 1918, from remains of the Dual Monarchy of A u s t r i a - H u n g a r y .  A u s t r i a n  men  Bavarian  D i r e c t o r V i e n n a ,  to  of  the  the  26. The f i l e s of C a n a d i a n s who served i Royal F l y i n g Corps are i n London and in f i l e s may n o t be a s d e t a i l e d a s t h o s e of w i t h i n Canadian u n i t s . The f i l e s of the Newfoundland Regiment" were t r a n s f e r r e d in 1949 when the colony j o i n e d Canada. c o n s i d e r e d part of the CEF f i l e s as the Imperial Army and was c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t c o n t r i b u t i o n .  War  a u t h o r ,  which the  A r c h i v e s , 13  March,  1984.  n the Royal Navy or the Ottawa, although the Canadians s e r v i n g personnel of the "Royal to the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s The f i l e s are not 'RNR' was part of the of the c o l o n i a l  -115-  L e t t e r from O.A. Cooke, S e n i o r A r c h i v i s t , D i r e c t o r a t e of H i s t o r y , Department.of N a t i o n a l Defence, Canada, to the a u t h o r , March 22, 1 984. 27. N.Y.:  C E . Dornbusch, The Canadian Hope Farm P r e s s , 1966).  Army  1 855-1 965 .  28. S.F. Wise, The O f f i c i a l H i s t o r y of the Royal Force, Volume 1. (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto pp. 633-635 . 29. Richard Kohn, "The S o c i a l H i s t o r y A Review and P r o s p e c t u s for R e s e a r c h , " Review 86 (1981): 533-567. 30.  I b i d . ,  p.  555.  (Cornwal1vi11e  Canadian A i r P r e s s , 1 980) ,  of the American S o l d i e r : American H i s t o r i c a l  ,  -116-  NOTES  FOR  CHAPTER  IV  1. G.W.L. N i c o l s o n , Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 531 . 2.  World  Almanac  1984,  p.  578.  F o r c e ,  1914-1919.  -11  NOTES  FOR  CHAPTER  1. Leonard Accessioned  7-  V  Rapport, "No R e c o r d s , " AA  Grandfather 44 (1981):  C l a u s e : 143.  R e a p p r a i s i n g  2. Theodore R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , The A p p r a i s a l of Modern P u b l i c Records . National A r c h i v e s B u l l e t i n N o . 8~. (Washi ngton : National A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e , 1956), p. 30-31; F e l i x H u l l , The Records: A RAMP p. 9.  Use of Sampling Techniques in the R e t e n t i o n o f study with g u i d e l i n e s . ( P a r i s : UNESCO, 1981),  3. Over 1,000 appointments w i t h i n the Canadian Forces  w e r e made Overseas.  to  p o s i t i o n s  of  command  4. The Right Honourable John Diefenbaker sat in the House of Commons from 1940 to his death in 1979, s e r v i n g as P r i m e M i n i s t e r from 1957 to 1963. Major-General George R. P e a r k e s , B.C. sat in the Commons from 1945 to 1960, s e r v i n g as M i n i s t e r of National Defense from 1957 to 1960. In l a t e 1960, he was appointed L t . - G o v e r n o r of B r i t i s h Columbia where he w a s the Queen's R e p r e s e n t a t i v e u n t i l 1968. His F i r s t W o r l d War s e r v i c e was with the 2nd C a n a d i a n Mounted R i f l e s ( V i c t o r i a ) and the 116th B a t t a l i o n which he c o m m a n d e d . George B l a c k s e r v e d as the Speaker of the House of Commons from 1930 to 1935, his P a r l i a m e n t a r y s e r v i c e extending from 1921-35, 1940-49 as the Member from Yukon. George Drew saw a c t i o n w i t h the 16th B a t t e r y , CEF and commanded the 64th Battery a f t e r being i n v a l i d e d home i n 1917. His p u b l i c s e r v i c e began in Ontario where he was a MPP from 1939 to 1948 and P r e m i e r and M i n i s t e r of Education from 1943 to 1948. E l e c t e d leader of the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y , he r a n f o r f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t in 1949 and remained u n t i l h i s r e s i g n a t i o n in 1957. A r i s t i d e B l a i s was a M e d i c a l O f f i c e r (Major) with a No. 6 C a s u a l t y C l e a r i n g Hospital in the 'Great War' and was summoned to the Senate in 1940, where he r e m a i n e d u n t i l h i s death in 1964. W i l l i a m Ross MacDonald was a Member fo P a r l i a m e n t from 1935 to 1953, when he was a p p o i n t e d to the Senate. A f t e r s e r v i n g as a M i n i s t e r and Government Leader in the Senate, MacDonald r e s i g n e d in 1967. In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , he was a p p o i n t e d L t . - G o v e r n o r of Ontario and s e r v e d in that post u n t i l 1974. During the 1914-1918 war, MacDonald saw s e r v i c e w i t h the 2nd C y c l e Corp, 4th B a t t a l i o n . Stanley Steward McKeen was w i t h the Royal F l y i n g Corps in the F i r s t War. In 1947, he w a s summoned to the Senate from Vancouver, and remained in the Upper House u n t i l h i s death in 1966. 5.  Over  on  A p r i l  6. Over Belgium.  97,000 9 t h , 12,000  Canadians  were  i n v o l v e d  in  the  Vimy  Ridge  area  1917. Canadian  servicemen  were  gassed  in  France  and  t -118-  7. The names of the CEF b a t t a l i o n s , t h e i r o r i g i n a t i n g and t h e i r present d e s i g n a t i o n are taken from Charles H. "OVERSEAS". 8. The t o t a l number r e c e i v e d d e c o r a t i o n s  of Canadians s e r v i n g w i t h i n and awards was 2 8 , 5 4 9 .  9. Over 140,000 were drafted for m i l i t a r y approximately 28,000 who refused to report 10. Although Japanese Can B a t a l l i o n , the Americans the 97th "Toronto A m e r i c a the 212th "Winnipeg A m e r i and the 237th "New Brunsw formed three d i s t i n c t b a t the 121st "Western I r i s h " I r i s h " from T o r o n t o , and  the  CEF  s e r v i c e , which for s e r v i c e .  c i t i e s Stewart's,  who  i n c l u d i n g  adians did not form a separate CEF r e s i d e n t in Canada formed f i v e u n i t s , n s " , the 211th " A l b e r t a Americans" c a n s " , the 213th "Toronto A m e r i c a n s " , ick A m e r i c a n s " . The I r i s h in Canada t a l i o n s for overseas a c t i o n , these being from New Westminster, the 208th "Canadian the 218th "Edmonton I r i s h " from Edmonton.  11. Frank B o l e s , "Sampling in A r c h i v e s , " AA 44 F e l i x H u l l , The Use of Sampling Techniques, p. 12. Eleanor MacKay, "Randon Sampling Reducing Large Homogeneous S e r i e s in (1978): 282.  (1981): 9-11.  127;  Techniques: A Method C o n g r e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , "  of AA  41  13. L e t t e r from W.A.B. Douglas, D i r e c t o r , D i r e c t o r a t e of H i s t o r y , Department of National Defence to J . A t h e r t o n , D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l , Records Management Branch, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, August 30, 14. Theodore R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , The A p p r a i s a l of Modern P u b l i c Records. National A r c h i v e s B u l l e t i n No. W. (Washington: National Archives and Records S e r v i c e , 1956), p. 22-26. 15.  A b i d . ,  p.  25.  16. Nancy E. Peace ( e d . ) , "Deciding What Theory and P r a c t i c e , " in A r c h i v a l Choices Books, 1984), p. 10. 17.  I b i d .  ,  p.  11.  to Save: F i f t y Years (Toronto: Lexington  of  1982.  -119-  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 .  -Unpublished  K n i g h t s b r i d g e ,  .'Sources.  A . A . H .  presented 19 8 3 .  to  " P a r t i c u l a r  the  C i v i l  Instance  S e r v i c e  P a p e r s . "  C o l l e g e ,  (Paper  London),  28  September  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada. Record Group 24. (The P u b l i c provided photocopies of ten personnel f i l e s from the Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force f o r a n a l y s i s . )  11.  Correspondence  O.A.  Dr.  A r c h i v e s  Cooke, Senior A r c h i v i s t , D i r e c t o r a t e of H i s t o r y , Department of National Defense, Canada, to the a u t h o r , 22 M a r c h 1984. Cordes, D i r e c t o r o f t h e War A r c h i v e s , Wurttemberg State A r c h i v e s , S t u t t g a r t , to the a u t h o r , 12 M a r c h 1984.  D i r e c t o r of  Delmas, Defense,  Chief  of  France,  H i s t o r i c a l to  the  S e r v i c e  a u t h o r ,  21  B r a n c h ,  M i n i s t r y  February  1984.  W.A.B. Douglas, D i r e c t o r , D i r e c t o r a t e of H i s t o r y , Department of National Defense to J . A t h e r t o n , D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l , Records Management B r a n c h , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, 30 A u g u s t 1982. Dr.  Heyl-, D i r e c t o r o f t h e War A r c h i v e s , Bavarian Munich, to the a u t h o r , 20 M a r c h 1984.  Dr.  K e h r i g ,  D i r e c t o r  National  of  A r c h i v e s ,  the  M i l i t a r y  Koblenz,  to  A r c h i v e s the  a u t h o r ,  i n  State  the 10  A r c h i v e s ,  German  February  A. A . H . K n i g h t s b r i d g e , P r i n c i p a l A s s i s t a n t Keeper, P u b l i c O f f i c e , London, to the a u t h o r , 4 November 1983. K.  Dr.  Record  Penny, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l , Federal Records, A u s t r a l i a n National A r c h i v e s , to the a u t h o r , 03 January 1984.  David  B.  1984.  F. P e t e r s o n , A s s i s t a n t A r c h i v i s t , Federal Records National A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e , Washington, the a u t h o r , 28 November 1 9 8 3 .  C e n t r e , D . C . , to  Symondson, A r c h i v i s t , Records D i v i s i o n , New Z e a l a n d National A r c h i v e s , W e l l i n g t o n , to the a u t h o r , 19 M a r c h 1984. Wagner,  D i r e c t o r  A r c h i v e s ,  of  V i e n n a ,  the to  War  the  A r c h i v e s ,  a u t h o r ,  13  A u s t r i a n March  1984.  National  -1 2 0 -  I I I .  Publi shed  Works  Anderson, R. Joseph. " P u b l i c Welfare Case Records: A STudy of A r c h i v a l P r a c t i c e . " American A r c h i v i s t 43 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 169-179, B e r g e r , C a r l . The W r i t i n g of Canadian H i s t o r y : Aspects of E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g , 1900-1970. Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976. B o l e s ,  Frank. (1981;) : :  B r i c h f o r d ,  "Sampling 1 25-1 3 0 .  Maynard  J .  Ac c e s s i o n i n g .  i n  A r c h i v e s . "  A r c h i v e s  Chicago:  &  American  M a n u s c r i p t s :  S o c i e t y  of  Dornbusch, N.Y.:  C E . Hope  The Farm  Great  &  A r c h i v i s t s ,  1977  P r e s e r v a t i o n . "  on Contemporary 323-328.  Canadian Army P r e s s , 1966.  e , 1867-1 967: A D i r e c t o r a t e of . H u l l , Quebec: 1979.  A r c h i v e s . "  1855-1965.  F i s h b e i n , Meyer H. "A V i e w p o i n t on A p p r a i s a l American A r c h i v i s t 33 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 175-187 G e n i c o t , Leopold. A r c h i v i s t 1 3  f o r  44  W a r : An A u t h e n t i c Account of the anada from the E a r l i e s t Days~to the the N a t i o n s , by V a r i o u s A u t h o r i t i e s . s h e r s , 1917-21. 6 v o l s .  Cooke, O.A. The Canadian Mi 1 i t a r y E x p e r i e n c Bi b l i;ography. O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 2 , H i s t o r y , Department of National Defense Canadian Government P u b l i s h i n g C e n t r e , Doehard, Rene'e. "Remarks A r c h i v i s t 13 ( 1 9 5 0 ) :  A p p r a i s a l  American  Brooks, P h i l l i p C. "The S e l e c t i o n of Records American A r c h i v i s t 3 (1940): 221-234. Canada i n the Great World M i l i t a r y H i s t o r y of C Close o f t h e War o f Toronto: United P u b l i  A r c h i v i s t  "The Problem of ( 1950): 329-340  Modern  Amer ic a n "  CornwalTvi11e,  of  National  A r c h i v e s . "  R e c o r d s . '  Ameri can  B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers, v o l . 44 ( R e p o r t s from Commissioners, Inspectors and Others, v o l . 3 5 ) , " F i r s t Report of the Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into and Report on t h e S t a t e of P u b l i c Records and Local Records of a P u b l i c Nature of England and W a l e s . " Volume I, Part I, Cmd. 6 3 6 1 , 1912-1913. , P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers, v o l . 11 (Reports from Comm i s s i o n e r s , Inspectors and Others, v o l . 4 ) , "The Report of the Committee on Departmental R e c o r d s , " Cmd. 9 1 6 3 , 1954.  -121-  Holmes, O l i v e r W. "The Evaluation and P r e s e r v a t i o n of A r c h i v e s . " American A r c h i v i s t 1 (1938): 171-185. "Planning S t a t e s . " H u l l ,  F e l i x . Records:  J e n k i n s o n , Percy Kohn,  a  Permanent  American The Use A RAMP  Program  A r c h i v i s t  6  for  Federal  (1943):  of Archive C o . , 1922.  of  in  the  in the Retention P a r i s : UNESCO,  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 2nd. ed. 1965  R i c h a r d . "The Social H i s t o r y of the Review and Prospectus for R e s e a r c h . " Review 86 (1981): 533-567.  Kromnov, Ake. "The A p p r a i s a l 26 (1976): 45-57.  Records  81-103.  of Sampling Techniques study with g u i d e l i n e s .  H i l a r y . A Manual Lund, Humphries &  Business  American American  Contemporary  of 1981.  London:  S o l d i e r : A H i s t o r i c a l  R e c o r d s . "  A r c h i v um  K u l s r u d , C a r l . "Sampling Rural R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Records for Transfer to the National A r c h i v e s . " American A r c h i v i s t (1947): 328-334. Lamb,  W. Kaye. A r c h i v i st  3  "The Changing Role ( 1 940 ): 3-1 6 .  Leahy, Emmett. A r c h i v i s t  3  "Reduction of P u b l i c (1940): 13-38.  Lewinson, P a u l . " A r c h i v a l (1957): 291-312. Lewis,  David of  L.  Business  of  the  Records  S a m p l i n g . "  " A p p r a i s a l  C r i t e r i o n  R e c o r d s . "  American  A r c h i v i s t . "  I."  American  for  A r c h i v i s t  32  L o v e t t , Robert. "The A p p r a i s a l of American A r c h i v i s t 15 (1952):  Older Business 231-240.  MacKay,  Techniques:  Eleanor.  Reducing American Moss,  "Random  Sampling  A  and  Record O f f i c e : Good American A r c h i v i s t s  or Bad?" 7 (1980):  20  Disposal  (1969): R e c o r d s . "  Method  Large Homogeneous S e r i e s in Congressional A r c h i v i s t 41 (1978): 281-290.  M.S. " P u b l i c the S o c i e t y of  can  American  Retention  A r c h i v i s t  Ameri ~  10  of P a p e r s . "  Journal of 156-166.  N i c o l s o n , G.W.L. Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force, 1914-1919 ( O f f i c i a l H i s t o r y of the Canadian Army in the F i r s t World Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962.  War)  -1 2 2 -  Peace, Nancy E. ( e d . ) Books, 1984. P u b l i c " P Su 92 Rapport,  A r c h i v a l  C h o i c e s .  Toronto:  Lexington  Records Committee of the B r i t i s h Record A s s o c i a t i o n . u b l i c Records Committee of the B r i t i s h Record A s s o c i a t i o n : bmissions to the Wilson Report." A r c h i v e s 14 (1979): -100. Leonard.  Accessioned S c h e l l e n b e r g , : National A r c h i v e s  "No  Grandfather  R e c o r d s . "  C l a u s e :  American  R e a p p r a i s i n g  A r c h i v i s t  44  (1981):  Theodore R. The A p p r a i s a l of Modern P u b l i c Records. A r c h i v e s B u l l e t i n No. 8. Washi ngton: National and Records S e r v i c e , 1956.  , Modern A r c h i v e s : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago  P r i n c i p l e s and P r e s s , 1956.  Smith, W i l f r e d I. " A r c h i v a l S e l e c t i o n : A Journal of the S o c i e t y of A r c h i v i s t s S t a n l e y , George H i s t o r y of  Techniques.  Chicago:  Canadian View." 3 ( 1 965-1 969):'  275-280.  F.G. Canada's S o l d i e r s , 1604-1954: The M i l i t a r y an U n m i l i t a r y P e o p l e . Toronto : MacMi11 an , 1 9 5 4 .  Stewart, Charles H. (comp.) ' " O v e r s e a s " : The L i n e a g e s of the Canadian E x p e d i t i o n a r y Force, 1914-1919. L i t t l e and Stewart, 1970. Wise,  143-150.  and I n s i g n i a Toronto:  S.F. The O f f i c i a l H i s t o r y of the Royal Canadian A i r Force, Volume T i Toronto: The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press Tn c o - o p e r a t i o n with the Department of National Defense and the Canadian Government P u b l i s h i n g C e n t r e , Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1980.  

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