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Music as the means to an end : an inquiry into the musical content of the works of Georg Philipp Harsdörffer Spence, Elizabeth Ann 1983

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MUSIC AS THE MEANS TO AN END: AN INQUIRY INTO THE MUSICAL CONTENT OF THE WORKS OF GEORG PHILIPP HARSDORFFER By ELIZABETH ANN SPENCE B.A. (Hons.), The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Germanic Studies) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1983 © E l i z a b e t h Ann Spence, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Germanic Studies The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) A b s t r a c t The prime purpose of t h i s i n q u i r y i s to determine the extent and s i g n i f i c a n c e i o f t h e treatment of music i n the l i t e r a r y and s c h o l a r l y works of the German w r i t e r , Georg P h i l i p p H a r s d f i r f f e r (1607-1658). At the same time, h i s r e f e r e n c e s to music are a l s o used as a means of e s t a b l i s h i n g the importance of a n o n - l i t e r a r y medium f o r a seventeenth-century w r i t e r , and to i l l u s t r a t e H a r s d t t r f f e r 1 s p l a c e i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of h i s times. At the o u t s e t , the lack of s t r i c t d i v i d i n g l i n e s between the a r t s of.music and poetry, and between the a r t s and the s c i e n c e s i n the seventeenth-century i s s t r e s s e d , as i s H a r s d f i r f f e r ' s own view of the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of a l l the a r t s and ot h e r f i e l d s of know-ledge. The seventeenth-century t r i p a r t i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of music, Musica T h e o r e t i c a , Musica P r a c t i c a and Musica P o e t i c a , i s used as an o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e to allow h i s statements on music to be assessed i n t h e i r contemporary context. The f i r s t chapter, Musica T h e o r e t i c a , d e a l i n g with music as a s u b j e c t f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n , demonstrates Hars-d f l r f f e r ' s wide knowledge i n t h i s area and h i s e c l e c t i c use of sources. The second chapter, Musica P r a c t i c a , con-cerned with music as a s c i e n c e and a p r a c t i c a l a r t , p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on instruments and t e c h n i c a l musical termino-logy of the seventeenth-century, and shows H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h these. I t i s emphasised t h a t h i s c l e a r p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l here i s aimed a t the p r a c t i c a l needs of readers w i s h i n g to partake i n m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Much of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n the f i r s t two chapters i s a p p l i e d i n the t h i r d chapter, Musica P o e t i c a , which dea l s with the r e l a t i o n s h i p of music and p o e t r y . An examination of s e l e c t e d poems and songs shows the a r t s to have formal f e a t u r e s i n common. H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the composer Sigmund Staden i s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d by the a n a l y -s i s of an e x t r a c t from t h e i r opera, Seelewig, and a new source f o r t h i s work i s i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r the f i r s t time. The v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l i n a l l three chapters i s f i n a l l y put i n t o the context of u n i v e r s a l harmony and the C h r i s t i a n world view. i v Table of Contents Page Number A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of F i g u r e s v i A b b r e v i a t i o n s Used i n the Text v i i A Note on Quotations, v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter One: Musica T h e o r e t i c a 23 Chapter Two: Musica P r a c t i c a 58 Chapter Three: :Musica P o e t i c a : A. Music and Poetry 90 B. Poetry and Music 126 C o n c l u s i o n 163 A b b r e v i a t i o n s i n the Notes and B i b l i o g r a p h y ... 174 Notes 175 S e l e c t B i b l i o g r a p h y 196 Appendix 20 9 V L i s t of Tables Page Number Table I: The Affects and Uses of the Modes .. 46 Table I I : The Hexachord System 85 v i L i s t of Figures Page Number Figure I: Staden's Musical Aid 44 v i i A b b r e v i a t i o n s used i n the Text AA Ars Apophthegmatica D Diana FG Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e (Modern Pagination) HS Hertzbewegliche Sonntagsandachten ME D e l i t i a e Mathematicae e t Physicae Die Mathematischen und P h i l o s o p h i s c h e n Erquickstunden  NJ Nathan und Jotham PT P o e t i s c h e r T r i c h t e r . Unless otherwise s t a t e d the 1647 e d i t i o n i s used. v i i i A Note on Quotations L i t e r a r y Quotations: The f o l l o w i n g changes have been made: - ampersand (&) r e p l a c e d by "und" - d i a c r i t i c a l "e" r e p l a c e d by Umlaut - s u p e r i o r dash i n d i c a t i n g gemination o r omission of a f i n a l l e t t e r (komen, un, etc.) r e p l a c e d by word i n f u l l - apostrophe denoting omission of l e t t e r s (d', od', etc.) replaced., by word i n f u l l . - o t h e r a b b r e v i a t i o n s (dz, wz, etc.) r e p l a c e d by word i n f u l l - Antiqua typeface has been u n d e r l i n e d f o r purposes of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . - p u n c t u a t i o n and s p e l l i n g have otherwise been r e t a i n e d . T r a n s l a t i o n s from L a t i n , except those from Strunk, are my own. M u s i c a l Quotations: Unless the o r i g i n a l i s r e q u i r e d f o r the d i s c u s s i o n , modern t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ' of mu s i c a l examples are g i v e n . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The most c u r s o r y r e a d i n g of H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s Frauen-zimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e r e v e a l s an abundance of musical n o t a t i o n and a wealth of statements on many d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s o f music. Not o n l y does the work c o n t a i n songs and i n s t r u m e n t a l p i e c e s , but a l s o musico-dramatic pageants and an opera. A number of songs with music appear, d e a l i n g w i t h such v a r i e d themes as the f o u r seasons (FG,II,295-308), or the use and misuse of music (FG,IV,46-49,51-55). Others are i n c l u d e d as i n c i d e n t a l music i n a p l a y (FG,II,393-96, 419-21). S t i l l o thers are u n i t e d to form the b a s i s of t h e a t -r i c a l s p e c t a c l e s , the f i r s t of which, e n t i t l e d Von der Welt  E i t e l k e i t (FG,III,191-261) c o n s i s t s of i n s t r u m e n t a l s e c t i o n s and songs which are a l l connected by the theme of v a n i t y . The second, Die Tuqendsterne (FG,V, 397-435 , 633-670 )_, i s a l s o made up of a s e r i e s of i n s t r u m e n t a l p i e c e s and songs demon-s t r a t i n g the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of music, the v i r t u e s and the p l a n e t s . The song a l s o forms the b a s i s of Seelewig, which i s o f t e n regarded as the f i r s t e xtant German o p e r a . 1 The Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e , however, i s not the o n l y work by H a r s d f i r f f e r i n which music appears, although i t i s an important source. Large s e c t i o n s of p a r t s two and 2 three of the Mathematische Erquickstunden are devoted to the s u b j e c t , and i n c l u d e some n o t a t i o n , as to v a r y i n g de-grees do the P o e t i s c h e r T r i c h t e r , Hertzbewegliche Sonntags-andachten, Nathan and Jotham and Ars Apophthegmatica. Hars-d f l r f f e r a t t r i b u t e s a l l the music up to and i n c l u d i n g p a r t f o u r of the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e to h i s contemporary and f e l l o w townsman, Sigmund Staden (FG,IV,43). Die Tugend-sterne i n p a r t f i v e of the same work i s a l s o by Staden (FG, IV,633). A s e l e c t i o n of dance music i n the Mathematische  Erquickstunden (111,372-74), i s by Johann W e l l t e r , a l s o of Nuremberg, while the remaining q u o t a t i o n s and examples used f o r demonstration purposes i n t h i s work are drawn p r i m a r i l y from other sources, although a c e r t a i n amount i s o r i g i n a l , as i s the case i n the P o e t i s c h e r T r i c h t e r , and Frauenzimmer  G e s p r a c h s p i e l e , where musical n o t a t i o n i s used i n conjunc-t i o n with aspects of p o e t i c and non-poetic language. The composer of the music to a song i n the Hertzbewegliche  Sonntagsandachten i s not given, and an attempt w i l l be made to determine whether i t can be a s c r i b e d to H a r s d o r f f e r him-s e l f . Music as a t o p i c f o r general s p e c u l a t i o n , f o r i n c l u s i o n i n s t o r i e s and anecdotes, or f o r drawing a n a l o g i e s with a l l nature of t h i n g s pervades H a r s d S r f f e r 1 s works. I f an i n v e s -t i g a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d o n l y to those s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g s p e c i -f i c a l l y w ith music, however, the r e s u l t s w i l l be incomplete, s i n c e r e f e r e n c e s to v a r i o u s aspects of the s u b j e c t are to be found under such a p p a r e n t l y unconnected headings as "Die Reutkunst"(FG,V,675-88), "Die Buchstaben"(FG,V,177-84), or "Die F a u l h e i t " ( N J , I I , n . p . ) . The s c a t t e r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of the m a t e r i a l i n the case of one major source, the Frauen-zimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e , i s p a r t l y the r e s u l t of the format chosen by H a r s d f l r f f e r . The work i s conceived as a s e r i e s o three hundred c o n v e r s a t i o n s between s i x people: A n g e l i c a von Keuschew-itz/ eine A d e l i c h e Jungfrau Reymund D i s c r e t i n / e i n g e r e i s t - und b e l e s e n e r Student J u l i a von F r e u d e n s t e i n / eine kluge Matron Vespasian von Lustgau/ e i n a l t e r Hofmann Cassandra Schflnlebin/ eine A d e l i c h e Jungfrau Degenwert von Ruhmeck/ e i n v e r s t a n d i g e r und g e l e h r t e r S o l d a t . (FG,I,22). I t has been shown, however, t h a t the s i x are not complete c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t — t h e y are not developed accor d i n g to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s — b u t are b a s i c a l l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e , and a c t as v e h i c l e s f o r p a s s i n g on i n f o r -2 mation and i d e a s . The t o p i c s used i n c o n v e r s a t i o n cover such d i v e r s e s u b j e c t s as word games, dreams, gardening, bees hunting, ghosts, h e r a l d r y or p l a y i n g c a r d s . Great emphasis i s put on c o r r e c t behaviour at c o u r t or among s o c i a l s u p e r i o r s . There i s i n a d d i t i o n much d i s c u s s i o n of the German language, as w e l l as the a r t s , and a t times the c h a r a c t e r s read poetry, s i n g , or a c t out p l a y s . By p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l on a l l kinds of t o p i c s through 4 the mouths of s i x c h a r a c t e r s , H a r s d o r f f e r i s not onl y able to draw i n a l l kinds of m a t e r i a l , but a l s o to put forward opposing p o i n t s of view, some of which are r e c o n c i l e d , some of which are not. At times, t h i s r e s u l t s i n some d i f f i c u l t y i n a s c e r t a i n i n g which of the c o n t r a r y views H a r s d f l r f f e r him-s e l f s u b s c r i b e s t o, and i t i s o n l y by t a k i n g i n t o account statements made elsewhere t h a t the attempt can be made to determine t h i s . On o c c a s i o n , no a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l can be found, and the c o n t r a d i c t o r y statements must t h e r e f o r e be d e a l t with as they stand. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the i n f o r m a t i o n s c a t t e r e d throughout the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e , and throughout H a r s d o r f f e r ' s other works p r o v i d e s a wealth of m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g h i s understanding and use of musical matter. The name of H a r s d o r f f e r has found i t s way i n t o musico-l o g i c a l s t u d i e s not so much f o r i t s own sake, but on the c o a t - t a i l s of Staden, who earns h i s p l a c e above a l l as the composer of Seelewig. H a r s d f l r f f e r , i t i s t r u e , i s r e f e r r e d to independently i n a l a t e seventeenth-century h i s t o r y of 3 music as the w r i t e r of some f i n e songs, and a note i s made of him and the Mathematische Erquickstunden under Staden's name i n a standard e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y musical r e f e r e n c e 4 work--one which does not mention Seelewig. Although Hars-d o r f f e r was a s s o c i a t e d c l o s e l y with music i n h i s own time (1607-1658), and Staden was r e f e r r e d to as the "Nurnberger 5 A p o l l o , " the ei g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y saw no r e a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s , a f a c t which i s b a s i c a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the s t a t e of a f f a i r s as d e s c r i b e d by an important musical h i s t o r i a n of the time, who noted t h a t many works of seventeenth-century German musicians were " i r r e c o v e r a b l y l o s t , and t h e i r t a l e n t s f o r g o t t e n , even by t h e i r countrymen." 7 A s i d e from r e f e r e n c e s made i n p a s s i n g , H a r s d f l r f f e r and Staden were f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes f o r g o t t e n u n t i l 1864, when an a n a l y s i s o f Seelewig, and f o u r t e e n pages of musical e x t r a c t s from the opera appeared i n a general h i s -g t o r y of music. The r e d i s c o v e r y of Seelewig, however, i s u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to Robert E i t n e r , who p u b l i s h e d a new e d i t i o n of the work i n 1881, and suggested the reason i t had escaped the a t t e n t i o n of r e s e a r c h e r s u n t i l then was because i t l a y embedded i n a l i t e r a r y work of the seventeenth-9 century. E i t n e r i n t u r n prompted an essay by Eugen Schmitz i n 1910 which dea l s with the m u s i c o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e , and i n c l u d e s a new e d i t i o n of Von der Welt E i t e l k e i t . 1 ^ The importance of t h i s essay l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t i t i s the f i r s t major attempt to draw a t t e n t i o n to H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s own remarks on the s u b j e c t of music. Although Schmitz acknowledges the m a t e r i a l to be of i n t e r e s t from a general c u l t u r a l p o i n t of view, h i s main p o i n t i s t h a t i s i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y o r i g i n a l , and he con-6 eludes by s t a t i n g t h a t there i s very l i t t l e more to be found on music i n the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e . T h i s assessment undoubtedly c o n t r i b u t e d to the sub-sequent n e g l e c t of H a r s d o r f f e r and Seelewig i n m u s i c o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , as indeed do such b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of the work i n v a r i o u s secondary sources as "naive and i n s i g n i f i -11 12 cant," c o n s i s t i n g mainly of " l e b l o s e s Gestrupp," the 13 c h a r a c t e r s being " b l u t l e e r e A l l e g o r i e n , " The c r i t i c a l n a d i r was reached with the 1947 e d i t i o n of Grout's Short H i s t o r y of Opera, i n which the music to the Tugendsterne 14 was noted as being l o s t . The music i n f a c t appears sepa-r a t e l y towards the end of the same volume of the Frauen-zimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e which c o n t a i n s the words-to the p i e c e . The r e c e n t upsurge of enthusiasm f o r e a r l y music has 15 c o r r e c t e d t h i s e r r o r — J a m e s Haar p o i n t e d i t out i n 1962, and he i s duly footnoted i n the l a t e s t e d i t i o n of Grout's Short H i s t o r y . 1 ^ Haar h i m s e l f p u b l i s h e d an E n g l i s h t r a n s -l a t i o n of the Tugendsterne, the score i n c l u d i n g the o r i g i n a l German t e x t , and an e x t e n s i v e l y documented i n t r o d u c t o r y essay g i v i n g much u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on the s c h o l a r l y back-17 ground of t h i s work by H a r s d o r f f e r . T h i s i n t u r n prompted a r e b u t t a l by Peter K e l l e r to a statement made by Haar on the nature of the c o l l a b o r a t i o n between H a r s d f l r f f e r and 18 Staden. K e l l e r l a t e r p r o v i d e d the f i r s t exhaustive study of Seelewig, which takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l the major 7 f e a t u r e s of the work, examines i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to other s i m i l a r musical dramas of the time, and puts i t i n t o i t s 19 proper h i s t o r i c a l c o ntext. Both Haar and K e l l e r pay a t t e n t i o n to H a r s d f l r f f e r , and t h i s , p l u s the f a c t t h a t he now warrants h i s own en t r y i n the l a t e s t e d i t i o n of Grove's 20 D i c t i o n a r y o f Music and Mu s i c i a n s , one of the standard music r e f e r e n c e books of today, suggests t h a t m u s i c o l o g i s t s are s t a r t i n g to tu r n t h e i r heads i n h i s d i r e c t i o n . Undocumented r e f e r e n c e s are made to a f i r s t p e r f o r -21 mance of Seelewig i n 1644, the year the work f i r s t ap-peared i n p r i n t . The o n l y contemporary i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s , however, i s a remark made i n p a s s i n g by H a r s d o r f f e r . In the i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n to p a r t f o u r of the Frauenzimmer  G e s p r a c h s p i e l e , he notes t h a t the music " i s t nach B e u r t h e i l u n g a l l e r d e r e r / d i e beygefugtes Waldgedicht jjBeelewig^j ange-ho r e t / d e r g l e i c h e n . . . i n Teutschland noch n i c h t i n Druck kommen . . ."(FG,IV,43). T h i s seems to imply t h a t the opera had been heard, although i t cannot be taken as c o n v i n c i n g evidence t h a t a f u l l - s c a l e v e r s i o n had been put on. A performance c e r t a i n l y took p l a c e i n Wol f e n b u t t e l i n 1654: "Nach ge h a l t e n e r M a h l z e i t / wurden S. F f l r s t l . Gn. . . . nach dem Commoedien Hause b e g l e i t e t / d a s e l b s t e i n schones Theatrum b e r e i t e t / und des Herrn H a r s t o r f f e r s g e i s t r e i c h e Sing-Comoedie, genommen aus seinem v i e r d t e n Buch der Ge-22 s p r a c h s p i e l e / Gesangweise g e r e p r e s e n t i r e t geworden." In 8 t h i s case, Seelewig was used f o r a p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n , a b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n , although i t had been w r i t t e n ten years e a r l i e r . Many musico-dramatic works at t h i s time were composed f o r a s p e c i f i c event, and consequently were per-formed o n l y once, with no r e a l need to have the m a t e r i a l 23 p r i n t e d . That Seelewig was r e s u r r e c t e d i n 1654 not o n l y a t t e s t s to i t s p o p u l a r i t y a t Wolfenbtittel--as indeed does ;\ the r e p r i n t of the l i b r e t t o there i n 1665—but can a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t the l i b r e t t o and score were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n p r i n t e d form. A f u r t h e r performance of Seelewig i s noted f o r the year 1698 i n Augsburg, but i t was not u n t i l over two-hundred years l a t e r t h a t the work began appearing on stage a g a i n — r e v i v a l s 24 took p l a c e i n Cologne i n 1912, and i n Gera i n 1924. The 25 l a t e s t p r o d u c t i o n was staged i n 1975 i n U t r e c h t , and a f u r t h e r performance i s planned f o r the S p r i n g of 1983 i n Saarbrucken. The performance h i s t o r y of Seelewig thus corresponds c l o s e l y to t h a t of i t s c r i t i c a l r e c e p t i o n . From a l i t e r a r y p o i n t of view, H a r s d f l r f f e r * s f o r t u n e s have been s i m i l a r l y e r r a t i c . The r e c e p t i o n of the Frauen-zimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e i n p a r t i c u l a r has been noted. When the thousand copies of the f i r s t e d i t i o n of p a r t one f i r s t 2 6 appeared i n 1641, they were q u i c k l y s o l d out, and a second e d i t i o n i n a new format was p r i n t e d i n 1644. Enthusiasm f o r the work continued u n t i l the end of the seventeenth-century, 9 but i t was subsequently r e c e i v e d with much v i t u p e r a t i v e 27 d i s a p p r o v a l w e l l i n t o the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y . H a r s d f l r f f e r was o c c a s i o n a l l y viewed with some grace i n the e i g h t e e n t h -century with r e s p e c t to h i s e f f o r t s on b e h a l f of the German 28 29 language, or as a notable son of Nuremberg. Another 30 31 approach, however, was one of d e r i s i o n or t o t a l n e g l e c t . Two major s t u d i e s on H a r s d f l r f f e r appeared i n the n i n e t e e n t h -32 century, but i t was not u n t i l the t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y t h a t i n t e r e s t i n him i n c r e a s e d . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been made 33 i n t o such d i v e r s e areas as language and p o e t i c s , h i s know-34 35 36 37 ledge of authors, s t a g i n g , a e s t h e t i c s , emblems, and 3 8 proverbs, to name but a few. The tendency i n these works i s g e n e r a l l y , although not e x c l u s i v e l y , to examine Hars-d f l r f f e r i n the context of h i s times, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t he has been found to be a f i g u r e worthy of s c r u t i n y . I t i s t h e r e f o r e remarkable t h a t the word " a b s u r d i t i e s " i s s t i l l used i n c onnection with.him i n a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t e d i t i o n of a 39 h i s t o r y of German l i t e r a t u r e . Notable by i t s absence i s an independent study of Hars-d f l r f f e r and music, i n s p i t e of the r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s gap,^° and i n s p i t e of the appearance of Seelewig (without music) 41 i n a l i t e r a r y s e r i e s . Recent l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s have, how-ever, touched on the s u b j e c t to v a r y i n g degrees, one of the l o n g e s t assessments being a four-page c o n t r i b u t i o n by Nar-42 c i s s . These few pages c o n s i s t of a number of c i t a t i o n s 10 of H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s more s t r i k i n g comments on m u s i c , i i n t e r -spersed w i t h restatements from Schmitz' essay. Other s t u d i e s which mention music i n any s p e c i f i c way e i t h e r r e -43 s o r t to d e s c r i p t i o n , or suggest H a r s d f i r f f e r 1 s understanding and use of music i n a t h e a t r i c a l context i s as accompaniment 44 45 only , as "blosse Stimmung," or, u s i n g an a n a c h r o n i s t i c 46 term, as "Gebrauchsmusik." One e a r l y t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y w r i t e r , i n s p i t e of a tendency to use vague a b s t r a c t i o n s , does i n d i c a t e t h a t allowances must be made f o r the f a c t t h a t the conception and a p p l i c a t i o n of music i n h i s day has 47 changed s i n c e H a r s d o r f f e r ' s time, although i t i s not wit h -i n the scope of h i s work to deal with the s u b j e c t i n any depth. Two major o b s e r v a t i o n s can be made on the s t u d i e s c i t e d . F i r s t l y , the emphasis i s on the music i n the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e . There i s very l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the musical content i n H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s other w r i t i n g s . Secondly, there i s a seeming r e l u c t a n c e to delve i n t o m u s i c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s d e a l i n g with the p e r i o d , or indeed i n t o musical sources of the time. I f r e f e r e n c e s do appear, they are g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d to Schmitz or E i t n e r , although the p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the w r i t i n g s of musicians 'contemporary wi t h 48 H a r s d o r f f e r has r e c e n t l y been p o i n t e d out. The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r thi-s g e n e r a l n e g l e c t i s t h a t music and l i t e r a t u r e i n the twe n t i e t h - c e n t u r y have become separate . 11 areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n a s i g n i f i c a n t g u l f between the c r i t i c a l approaches to the two a r t s today. Such a g u l f , however, was by no means e v i d e n t a t the time of H a r s d o r f f e r . "Only towards the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y d i d the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a r t s , and e s p e c i a l l y between music and l i t e r a t u r e , become a re c o g n i z e d f i e l d of study^" which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the two were p r e v i o u s l y viewed 49 a c c o r d i n g to " u n i v e r s a l a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s . " Changes have a l s o taken p l a c e i n the manner of i n t e r p r e t i n g and ap-p r a i s i n g the content, f u n c t i o n and general s i g n i f i c a n c e of the two a r t s s i n c e they became i n d e p e n d e n t — t h e importance of t h e o l o g i c a l or i n t e l l e c t u a l standards as the b a s i s of c r i t i c i s i n g a p i e c e of music or a work of l i t e r a t u r e has dwindled. Connected to t h i s are the changes i n musical and l i t e r a r y t a s t e which have o c c u r r e d sinee\:the seventeenth-c e n t u r y — w h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d good i n one age may be viewed with contempt i n another. Moreover, the d i v i s i o n between the a r t s and the s c i e n c e s f a m i l i a r today was by no means e s t a b l i s h e d i n the seventeenth-century, as H a r s d o r f f e r ' s Mathematische Erquickstunden manir f e s t l y a t t e s t s . Yet the q u e s t i o n of whether music was an 50 a r t or a s c i e n c e was being put forward i n H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s day. At l e a s t s i n c e the time of Pythagoras, music had been viewed i n many of i t s aspects as a mathematical phenomenon, and t r a -d i t i o n a l l y , the s u b j e c t had been p a r t of the quadrivium, 12 which a l s o i n c l u d e d the s u b j e c t s of geometry, a r i t h m e t i c and astronomy. Furthermore, by H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s time, a g r e a t number of experiments had been c a r r i e d out on the a c o u s t i c p r o p e r t i e s of v a r i o u s musical instruments, an area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n which d u r i n g t h i s century culminated above a l l i n the v i o l i n s of Amati and S t r a d i v a r i u s . The conception of music as a s c i e n c e , both p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y , i s t h e r e f o r e b a s i c to an understanding of the s u b j e c t i n a seventeenth-century c o n t e x t . From a c r e a t i v e as w e l l as a c r i t i c a l p o i n t of view, the d i v i s i o n between music and l i t e r a t u r e e v i d e n t today d i d not e x i s t to n e a r l y the same extent i n the seventeenth-century. There were of course p r o f e s s i o n a l musicians: Kindermann, Herbst, Franck and Staden are but a few examples of those a c t i v e i n Nuremberg i n the f i r s t h a l f of the cen-t u r y . But, as w i l l be shown, the a r t of music was so i n t i -mately bound up with the word, t h a t the musician was expected to be f a m i l i a r with a number of aspects of language. There were those, furthermore, who not o n l y composed music, but a l s o wrote the words f o r t h e i r own songs. Schein and K r i e g e r are two examples of m u s x c i a n poets. The p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r d i d not e x i s t i n seventeenth-century Germany, with the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of Sigmund von B i r k e n . A l l o t h e r w r i t e r s of t h i s time were e i t h e r employed i n f u l l - t i m e o c c u pations, o f t e n as preachers, p r o f e s s o r s , or 13 town c o u n c i l l o r s , or were members of the a r i s t o c r a c y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a l a r g e number of them were i n c l o s e c o n t a c t with musicians, w r i t i n g with musical s e t t i n g s i n mind: Fleming and Schein; R i s t and a number of composers, i n - -e l u d i n g Staden; Dach and A l b e r t ; K l a j , B i r k e n and Staden. The w r i t e r s p r o v i d e d the words f o r hymns, s e c u l a r songs and i n some cases opera, the most notable i n the l a s t category being O p i t z and Dafne, wi t h music by Schutz. Some poets, R i s t , Kaldenbach and Beer, f o r i n s t a n c e , a l s o composed music. There was thus e x t e n s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between the p r a c -t i t i o n e r s of the two a r t s . The changes which have taken p l a c e s i n c e the seventeenth-century i n the conception of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i t e -r a t u r e and music on the one hand, and a r t s and s c i e n c e s on the other, are s u f f i c i e n t to e x p l a i n f i r s t l y why l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s examining H a r s d f i r f f e r shy away from m u s i c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s ; the two areas have each become so spe-c i a l i z e d t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s i n one f i e l d are r e l u c t a n t to go f o r a g i n g i n the other, although t e n t a t i v e e f f o r t s are now being made. The changes secondly e x p l a i n why l i t e r a r y c r i -t i c s pay l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to H a r s d o r f f e r 1 s Mathematische  Erquickstunden i n p a r t i c u l a r , a work which i n f a c t i n c l u d e s much of l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t i n t e r s p e r s e d between or i n c l u d e d under s u b j e c t s which would today come under the heading of s c i e n c e . The p r e s e n t work t h e r e f o r e fundamentally r e p r e -14 sents an attempt to cr o s s over the tw e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y d i v i -d i n g l i n e s between the two a r t s , and between the a r t s and sc i e n c e s i n order to examine H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s involvement i n a s u b j e c t which i n many of i t s aspects i s v i t a l l y connected to h i s l i t e r a r y work. Music i s the means to t h i s b a s i c end. Before embarking on s p e c i f i c s , a .few general obser-v a t i o n s can be made on H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s own views of the a r t s and o t h e r areas of knowledge. Although he d i s c u s s e s a num-of them independently, the essence o f h i s understanding of t h e i r u l t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other i s expressed as the f o l l o w i n g analogy: " . . . Dann d i e Music/ Poeterey/ Mahlerey/ Wissenschaften/ und dero Zugehorung/ so genau aneinander hangen/ dass keines von dem andern s i c h n i c h t wol trennen l a s s t / sondern a l s G l i e d e r e i n e r Ketten nach und nach verbunden e r h a l t e n werden konnen"(FG,II,322). In o t h e r words, a l l the areas mentioned r e t a i n t h e i r i n d i -v i d u a l i t y i n s o f a r as each r e p r e s e n t s a l i n k i n the c h a i n , but o v e r a l l they are seen as c o n j o i n e d i n t o one gre a t syn-t h e s i s . With r e s p e c t to the a r t s of music, p o e t r y and p a i n -t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r , the s y n t h e s i s i s a l s o seen i n terms of " e i n C i r k e l mit dreyen S p i t z e n / auf einem Papyr stehend/ wie man sonsten zu dem Feldmessen gebrauchet"(FG,IV,202). They are represented by a s c i e n t i f i c instrument. The three a r t s , i n a d d i t i o n , e x i s t " i n r i c h t i g e r Ebenmaase"(FG,IV, 202)—none i s i n f e r i o r or s u p e r i o r to the others i n any way. 15 The r e s u l t of t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the a r t s f o r H a r s d o r f f e r i s t h a t the poet i s not c o n s i d e r e d merely as a maker of v e r s e s , but as someone who has experience i n as many other f i e l d s as p o s s i b l e . I f he i s w r i t i n g f o r the stage, f o r i n s t a n c e , a knowledge of a r c h i t e c t u r e , the r u l e s of p e r s p e c t i v e , p a i n t i n g , music and dance i s e s s e n t i a l (FG, VI,162-63). H a r s d f l r f f e r a l s o notes t h a t i t would take a l i f e t i m e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to e x c e l i n any one of the a r t s , l e t alone e x c e l l i n g i n a l l of them at the same time (FG,IV, 135). I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s the poet's job to f i n d out as much as p o s s i b l e about o t h e r areas of knowledge. A second f a c t o r to be taken i n t o account i s Harsdorf-f e r 's understanding of the a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . His view i s c l e a r : " E t l i c h e vermeinen dass d i e L e h r a r t i g e Ver-fassung der PoSterey n i c h t vonnflhten/ (da doch a l l e s was mit Verstand vorgenommen werden s o l / nach Anweisung der Natur K u n s t - s t a n d i g beschranket werden muss) sondern dass s i e nach dem Klang/ Laut und Mass/ welches ihnen etwan von Lesung eines Gedichts i n dem Gedachtniss g e b l i e b e n / gute Verse machen konnen/ und s o l c h e s aus n a t u r l i c h e n T r i e b / den s i e mit ihnen geboren zu seyn vermeinen. Wir l a s s e n ihnen und einem jeden seinen Wahn. . . . " There i s l i t t l e q u e s t i o n here of emotional "Herzensergiessungen" as the stimulus f o r w r i t i n g p o e t r y . H a r s d & r f f e r c o n t i n u e s : " . . . so wenig aber e i n Knab der eine gute Stimme hat/ d i e Kundigung der 16 Noten mit auf d i e Welt b r i n g e t / und sonder Ubung zu e i n i g e r Vollkommenheit gelangen kann; so wenig wird e i n e r ohne vo r -gehenden B e r i c h t und u n t e r r i c h t e i n wolklingendes Gedicht a u f s e t z e n kflnnen"(PT,III,Sig.)( v) . The emphasis i s r a t h e r on an i n t e l l e c t u a l approach to both music and p o e t r y . Natu-r a l a p t i t u d e and a c r e a t i v e spark, however, are not denied, they are i n f a c t thought to be e s s e n t i a l (FG,VI,260; FG,VIII, 440), but the accent i s on moulding these g i f t s i n a reason-able and s t u d i e d manner. H a r s d o r f f e r o f t e n r e f e r s to l i t e r a r y works of a r t as "Erfindungen," works which are not p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t of a w r i t e r ' s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , but are the re-working of e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l i n a new way, and w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g to c e r t a i n s e t p r e c e p t s . In the f i e l d of German l i t e r a t u r e before O p i t z , however, there had been few s e t a r t i s t i c p r e c e p t s , and H a r s d f l r f f e r , f o l l o w i n g the l e a d of O p i t z , took i t upon h i m s e l f to p r o v i d e them. One of the main ways i n which he undertook t h i s task c o n s i s t e d i n t r a n s l a t i n g f o r e i g n t e x t s i n t o German, p r i m a r i l y to p r o v i d e examples of how the 53 German language c o u l d be used i n a l i t e r a r y manner. To t h i s end, he drew on h i s e x t e n s i v e knowledge of f o r e i g n l a n -g u a ges—he i n f a c t a l s o wrote a number of poems and other p i e c e s i n languages ot h e r than German, h i s f i r s t known pub-54 l i c a t i o n being a poem i n Spanish. By t u r n i n g to w r i t i n g s i n other l a n g u a g e s — n o t on l y l i t e r a r y works, but a l s o those 17 d e a l i n g with a l l manner of s c i e n t i f i c , p h i l o s o p h i c a l or c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s — t r a n s l a t i n g them i n t o German, reworking or r e s t a t i n g the ideas given, he not onl y helped i n s e t t i n g c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y standards, but a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the general knowledge of h i s German reader, h e l p i n g to e x t r i c a t e him from the "Schlamm der Unwissenheit"(PT,III,57). He made i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on a l l s o r t s of s u b j e c t s , i n -c l u d i n g music, much of which had h i t h e r t o been i n a c c e s s i b l e to a l l but the learned p o l y g l o t of H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s stamp. His view of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of knowledge and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a r t i s t i c , s c h o l a r l y or c u l t u r a l purposes i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t i t i s not tenable to condemn him f o r lack of i n s p i r a t i o n or o r i g i n a -l i t y from e i t h e r a l i t e r a r y or a musical p o i n t of view, f o r h i s aims c l e a r l y d i d not c o n s i s t i n encouraging methods of composition based on these c r i t e r i a — a t l e a s t i n the modern sense of the terms. Moreover, h i s b a s i c i n t e n t i o n i n pro-ducing any p i e c e of w r i t i n g was to pro v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the reader i n an a r t i s t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e manner, the r e s u l t being prodesse  e t d e l e c t a r e with a vengeance. In the case of music i n par-t i c u l a r , any q u e s t i o n which asks what o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u -t i o n s H a r s d f i r f f e r made to the f i e l d w i l l not f i n d a s a t i s -f a c t o r y answer. The b a s i c q u e s t i o n s which can be asked here, however, are those d e a l i n g with the extent of h i s 18 musical knowledge, h i s manner of making t h i s knowledge a v a i l a b l e to h i s German readers, and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the understanding and assessment of h i s l i t e r a r y works. C e r t a i n p o t e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s have to be overcome, or a t l e a s t r e c ognized, however, i f the extent of H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s involvement i n music i s to be a p p r e c i a t e d , the f i r s t of which i s the v a s t scope of the s u b j e c t . As a l r e a d y noted, music i n the seventeenth-century was not viewed o n l y as an a r t , and, as w i l l be made apparent, i t a l s o had a long t r a d i t i o n as a t o p i c f o r s p e c u l a t i o n , and had been used s i n c e Greek times as an i n t e g r a l component i n d i s c u s s i o n s of a l l manner of t h i n g s . H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g on a g r e a t many su b j e c t s thus suggests t h a t some f a m i l i a r i t y with music, a t l e a s t from a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o i n t of view, should be taken f o r granted. Rather than imposing the t r a d i t i o n a l and/or p r e v a i l i n g views on H a r s d o r f f e r , the b a s i c procedure to be f o l l o w e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l be to take h i s own statements on the s u b j e c t , examine them on t h e i r own terms, and where necessary f o r a f u l l e r understanding, to regard them i n r e l a t i o n to what had been s a i d by o t h e r s . On o c c a s i o n , the r e s u l t s of. r e l i a b l e secondary s t u d i e s w i l 1 a l s o be used f o r explanatory purposes. In view of the f a c t t h a t more than three hundred years have passed s i n c e H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s days, i t i s understandable. 19 t h a t many f e a t u r e s of music which were accepted without q u e s t i o n i n the seventeenth-century have e i t h e r disappeared, changed a l t o g e t h e r or have i n general become murky through the m i s t s of time. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t with r e -spect to musical terminology and instruments i n use d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Where these are r e f e r r e d to by H a r s d o r f f e r , e x p l a n a t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s have been i n c l u d e d , f i r s t l y to a s s i s t i n determining h i s i n t e n t i o n s , and secondly, i n a broader sense, to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which may be of use to r e s e a r c h e r s i n v e s t i g a t i n g other poets and w r i t e r s of t h i s time who concerned themselves with music. The Appendix, g i v i n g seventeenth-century i l l u s t r a t i o n s of most of the i n -struments mentioned by H a r s d o r f f e r w i l l a l s o c o n t r i b u t e i n a v i s u a l way to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of musical performance of the day. The second d i f f i c u l t y f a c i n g the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t o H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s works i s the q u a l i t y of the p r i n t e d t e x t s . Nuremberg had long been an important p r i n t i n g c e n t r e by the middle of the seventeenth-century, and the p r i n t e r s were noted f o r t h e i r a b i l i t y to produce complex and extremely 55 ornamental work. The r e p r o d u c t i o n of musical n o t a t i o n r e -presented a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of t h e i r output. Neverthe-l e s s , a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of p r i n t i n g e r r o r s i d e n t i f i a b l e as such are to be found i n H a r s d o r f f e r 1 s works, and he him-s e l f was f u l l y aware of t h i s . He l i s t s f i v e p o s s i b l e causes 20 f o r such e r r o r s : 1) the author, c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the sense, can s l i p up i n h i s s p e l l i n g ; 2) h i s s e c r e t a r y does not make an a c c u r a t e : f a i r copy; 3) the compositor uses the wrong l e t t e r s ; 4) the c o r r e c t o r misses e r r o r s , and 5) the p r i n t e r , i n a hurry, does not r e t u r n the type face to i t s proper p l a c e i f i t f a l l s out. "So l e i c h t l i c h kan auch der a l l e r Beredste i r r e n " ( F G , V I , 4 0 1 ) . H a r s d o r f f e r 1 s readers were a l s o aware of p r i n t i n g e r r o r s i n h i s works, as was the case with Ludwig von Anh a l t who p o i n t e d out the f a c t i n a l e t t e r to H a r s d f i r f f e r o f May 3 , 57 1642. In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , Ludwig r e f e r s s p e c i f i -c a l l y to the f a u l t y a p p l i c a t i o n of sign s i n d i c a t i n g m e t r i c a l s t r e s s . H a r s d o r f f e r , i n h i s r e p l y , suggests t h a t the e r r o r s t h i s time can be e x p l a i n e d p a r t l y by the haste i n which the m a t e r i a l was p r i n t e d , p a r t l y by the d i f f e r e n c e i n d i a l e c t s , 5 8 and a l s o by the "Unvolkommenheit Teutscher Poeterey." Ludwig, however, was not the onl y one to take e x c e p t i o n to the standard of p r i n t i n g i n H a r s d O r f f e r ' s works, as the pub-l i s h e r of the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e p o i n t s out: "Hat e i l f a h r i g e n Drukwerk/ Kupferstechen und H o i t z a r b e i t e n an einem oder anderen B l a t etwas versehen/ so i s t s o l c h e s n i e -mand anders a l s dem l e i d i g e n U n f a l l beyzumessen"(FG,III, 539) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , "der l e i d i g e U n f a l l " presents the modern r e -searcher w i t h the problem of determining whether what i s er bekommen/ i n dem bey dem 21 p r i n t e d r e p r e s e n t s what i s a c t u a l l y intended. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the case with r e s p e c t to such matters of f i n e d e t a i l as m e t r i c a l s t r e s s i n poetry, p u n c t u a t i o n , or the p o s i t i o n i n g of c l e f s i n music. Where problems of t h i s na-t u r e a r i s e i n the p r e s e n t work, the attempt i s made to a s c e r t a i n what H a r s d f l r f f e r i n f a c t meant to convey, r a t h e r than assuming out of hand t h a t he was u n f a m i l i a r with c e r -t a i n aspects of a s u b j e c t , or incompetent to deal with them. A t h i r d d i f f i c u l t y which a r i s e s i n a study of t h i s type d e a l i n g w i t h one major theme i n H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s works, i s the placement of the m a t e r i a l to be examined. As r e f e r e n c e s to music are s c a t t e r e d throughout, appearing not o n l y i n sec-:., t i o n s d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y with the s u b j e c t , but a l s o i n obscure c o r n e r s , the r e s u l t i s t h a t an i n h e r e n t o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , drawing the v a r i o u s threads together does not emerge i n any obvious way. In order to deal w i t h t h i s , an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l method has been s e l e c t e d based^ on the t r i -p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of music as s e t out by Johann Andreas Herbst, a Nuremberg musician contemporary with H a r s d o r f f e r . Herbst"s t e r m i n o l o g y — M u s i c a T h e o r e t i c a , Musica P r a c t i c a and Musica  P o e t i c a - - w i l 1 be used as the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s of the chap-t e r s to f o l l o w , and e x p l a n a t i o n s of h i s understanding of the terms w i l l be s u p p l i e d as an a i d to a s c e r t a i n i n g H a rsdorf-f e r ' s involvement i n a l l three general areas. The fundamental purpose of t h i s i n q u i r y i s to determine 22 and assess the s i g n i f i c a n c e of v a r i o u s aspects of music i n H a r s d o r f f e r * s works. In Chapter One, Musica T h e o r e t i c a , h i s statements on the s u b j e c t are used as a means of es-t a b l i s h i n g the manner i n which he a p p l i e s m a t e r i a l drawn from o t h e r sources. In Chapter Two, Musica P r a c t i c a , h i s knowledge of t e c h n i c a l f e a t u r e s of music i s i n v e s t i g a t e d . H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a l a r g e number of musical instruments and the way i n which he intends them to be used i n a t h e a t r i c a l performance are a l s o e x p l o r e d here. Much of the i n f o r m a t i o n given i n the f i r s t two chapters i s intended to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and prepare the way f o r Chapter Three, Musica P o e t i c a , i n which an examination i s made of how H a r s d f l r f f e r uses h i s m u s i c a l knowledge f o r p o e t i c pur-poses. T h i s chapter i s concerned i n i t i a l l y w ith determining the formal r e l a t i o n s h i p s between music and p o e t r y . The attempt-: i s . then made to e s t a b l i s h the way i n which he c o l -l a b o r a t e d w i t h Staden on Seelewig. F i n a l l y i n t h i s chapter, a new source f o r Seelewig i s presented f o r the f i r s t time, r e s u l t i n g i n the need f o r some r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n -f l u e n c e of the German l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n on the opera. Over-a l l , t h i s i n q u i r y i n t o the m u s i c a l content of H a r s d O r f f e r ' s works w i l l p r o v i d e new means by which to assess h i s c o n t r i -b u t i o n t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of the seventeenth-century. 23 Chapter One: Musica T h e o r e t i c a "Dass d i e Music i n s gemein i n drey C l a s s e s , nemlich i n Theoretical^, Practicam und Poeticam a b g e t h e i l e t w i r d , " wrote Johann Andreas Herbst i n 1643, " i s t ausser a l l e m s t r e i t und Z w e i f f e l . " 1 The t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of music, based on v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a , had indeed h e l d sway f o r cen-t u r i e s . Boethius, f o r example, one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l a u t h o r i t i e s on music up to the seventeenth-century had used the c a t e g o r i e s of w o r l d l y music, musica mundana, which was concerned with such t h i n g s as the harmony of the u n i v e r s e and the music of the spheres; human music, musica humana, d e a l i n g above a l l with the e f f e c t o f music on the human mind, body and s o u l ; and i n s t r u m e n t a l music, musica i n s t r u m e n t a l i s , 2 the p r a c t i c a l s i d e which s t r i v e s to i m i t a t e wordly music. Another e a r l y w r i t e r and important a u t h o r i t y , C assiodorus, 3 had d i v i d e d music i n t o harmonics, rhythmics and m e t r i c s . Yet t r i p a r t i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s - w e r e by no means u n i v e r s a l i n the seventeenth-century: w r i t e r s of the time were a l s o d i v i -4 ding music i n t o two c l a s s e s : n o t a t i o n and s i n g i n g , elemen-5 r t a r y and harmonic, or C h o r a l i s [_all notes have the same value~| and F i g u r a l i s ["notes have d i f f e r e n t values]] . ^  Although such d i v e r s e approaches to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 24 of music e x i s t e d i n and around the time of Herbst, he never-t h e l e s s i s adamant i n h i s pronouncement on the s u b j e c t , and with a l l due regard f o r the f a c t t h a t h i s d i v i s i o n s are i n no way f i n a l i n the broader view, they do r e f l e c t the o p i n -i o n of an expert contemporary w i t h H a r s d f l r f f e r , and were i n 7 wide use. Even though Herbst r e s i d e d i n Nuremberg f o r some time, there i s no evidence i n l i t e r a r y sources t h a t H a r s d o r f f e r was aware of h i s works, although Herbst's name does appear without comment i n a l i s t of musicians given i n Der Teutsche S e c r e t a r i u s (p.49). N e v e r t h e l e s s , f o r the pur-poses o f the pr e s e n t work, given the nature o f the m a t e r i a l at hand, the d i v i s i o n s p r o v i d e d by Herbst prove the most p r a c t i c a l and the most encompassing. For Herbst, the Musicus T h e o r e t i c u s i s one who i s concerned p u r e l y with contemplating and d i s c u s s i n g music, not i n any way wit h the c o m p o s i t i o n a l or performing a s p e c t s . By the seventeenth-century, there was indeed a l a r g e body of i n h e r i t e d m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s c u s s i o n . A v a s t a r r a y o f b e l i e f s and ideas about music as a r e f l e c t i o n of the harmony of the u n i v e r s e , i t s e f f e c t on the human body and s o u l , and i t s p l a c e i n the g r e a t e r scheme of t h i n g s , had been t r a n s m i t t e d from Greek and Roman times through a long s e r i e s of commentators.. Many of these, S t . Ambrose and S t . Augustine, f o r example, had added the C h r i s t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e . In the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s the gre a t up-25 surge of i n t e r e s t i n a n c i e n t music l e d to the r e v i v i f i c a -t i o n , reworking and r e - a p p l i c a t i o n of the o l d myths and b e l i e f s , as w e l l as to the d i s c o v e r y of the f i r s t known p i e c e of Greek musical n o t a t i o n . Many of the a n c i e n t ideas i n v a r i o u s forms were i n c o r p o r a t e d as a matter of course i n t o works concerning musical theory of the time, and even i n the seventeenth century, they p r o v i d e some of the b a s i c assumptions f o r the massive tomes of some of the t h e o r i s t s . For H a r s d o r f f e r then, a wealth o f m a t e r i a l o r i g i n a t i n g from C l a s s i c a l sources, and o f t e n imbued with aspects of C h r i s t i a n thought, was a v a i l a b l e f o r use. The areas to be d i s c u s s e d here are those concerned w i t h h i s statements on the o r i g i n s and h i s t o r y of music, i t s c o s m o l o g i c a l s i g n i -f i c a n c e and i t s e f f e c t s on the mind and body. The theme of music a l s p e c u l a t i o n w i l l be used as a means of determining how H a r s d f l r f f e r r e a c t e d to e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l , and whether he presented i t c o n s i s t e n t l y or questioned i t i n any way when p a s s i n g i t on to h i s reader. Much d e l i b e r a t i o n on the o r i g i n s of music had preceded H a r s d f l r f f e r , but as a devout C h r i s t i a n , he put much credence i n the evidence of the B i b l e . Drawing on Genesis.4.21, he s t a t e s : "In der gar kur t z e n Erzehlung von der e r s t e n Men-r schen Thun i h r Qnusic's^j E r f i n d e r n i c h t i s t verschwiegen/ und J u b a l genennet worden/ von welchem wir Teutsche das Wort 26 j u b i l i r e n behalten"(FG,IV,90-91). J u b a l i s not the o n l y contender f o r the t i t l e of o r i g i n a t o r of music, s i n c e Hars-d f l r f f e r notes t h a t "der G o t t l o s e Tubal/ der Morder und Ehe-brecher/ d i e Music erfunden habe"(FG,VI,290). In t h i s par-t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , H a r s d o r f f e r i s d i s c u s s i n g the negative aspects of music, and the f i g u r e of Tubal p r o v i d e s a con-v e n i e n t example f o r showing how the misuse of music began:' Tubal's Godlessness i m p l i e s t h a t any e v i l s produced by, or a t t r i b u t a b l e to music are wholly man made. O v e r a l l , however, " i s t d i e Music/ b a l d nach E r s c h a f f u n g der Welt/ erfunden worden"(FG,V,399). In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g the reader w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the beginnings of music, H a r s d f l r f f e r uses h i s B i b l i c a l examples f o r oth e r purposes. He takes advantage of the name " J u b a l " to pr o v i d e a b r i e f e t y m o l o g i c a l a s i d e — elsewhere he notes t h a t " J u b a l " comes from the word " J a b a l / p r o d u x i t sonum"(ME,II,130). Tubal on the oth e r hand, i s used to make the reader aware of the dangers of music. Both f i g u r e s then prove u s e f u l f o r conveying i n s i g h t s i n t o areas o t h e r than those from which they are drawn. Another e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the o r i g i n of music t a n t a l i z e s H a r s d o r f f e r . He asks "ob d i e music von dem Vogelgesang/ oder von dem Rauschen dess Wassers (welches den Ton nach den S t e i n e n / an welche es zu sto s s e n kflmt/ andert/) oder von dem u n g l e i c h e n Hammerschlag der Schmid erfunden worden 27 sey"(FG,II,309-10), the l a s t i n p a r t i c u l a r being a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to one of the t r a d i t i o n a l Pythagorean ideas about the beginnings of music. How some of these sounds became music i s e x p l a i n e d i n another p l a c e where H a r s d o r f f e r r e -p o r t s what he s t a t e s to be the view h e l d by some others t h a t " e i n mussiger H i r t grosse und k l e i n e K i e s s s t e i n l e i n ausge-sucht/ s o l c h e i n e i n B a c h l e i n g e l e g e t / und das l i s p e l n und w i s p e l n desselben so lang beobachtet/ b i s s e r das u n t e r -schiedene Geton mit der Stimmen n a c h p f e i f f e i n kflnnen: Oder man hat es von dem Wind der i n d i e Rohr gegangen/ abgemerkt/ aus solchem a l l e m nachgehends d i e Kunst mag v e r f a s s e t wor-den seyn"(ME,II,130). The beginnings of music are thus seen as an i m i t a t i o n by man of the sounds i n nature. In t h i s case, the i n f o r m a t i o n i s passed on f o r i t s own sake, and i t i s i n the form of an unanswered q u e s t i o n and r e p o r t e d o p i n i o n . H a r s d t t r f f e r i s t h e r e f o r e not prepared to accept b l i n d l y any man made e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the o r i g i n of music. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the i n c l u s i o n of t h i s view r e f l e c t s f i r s t l y h i s general enthusiasm f o r n a t u r a l sounds, e v i d e n t 9 above a l l i n h i s use of onomatopoeia i n poetry, and secondly a w i l l i n g n e s s to i n c o r p o r a t e an e m p i r i c a l l y based i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the s u b j e c t . The B i b l i c a l v e r -s i o n s , i n c o n t r a s t , are not presented i n the form of ques-t i o n s or o p i n i o n s , but as statements of r e l i g i o u s f a i t h . T h e i r v e r a c i t y i s taken f o r granted. 28 T h e r e : i s . n e v e r t h e l e s s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n In the B i b l i c a l accounts: i s J u b a l o r Tubal the o r i g i n a t o r o f music? Furthermore, how can the i m i t a t i o n theory be j u s t i f i e d i n l i g h t of the C h r i s t i a n e x p l a n a t i o n ? From H a r s d o r f f e r ' s s t a n d p o i n t these are i r r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . The B i b l i c a l v e r s i o n s on the one hand, and the i m i t a t i o n of nature on the o t h e r , a l l r e p r e s e n t v a l i d causes f o r the o r i g i n s of music on e a r t h . H a r s d f l r f f e r makes no attempt to r e c o n c i l e the v a r i o u s views, but accepts them a l l as p o s s i b i l i t i e s . No r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s necessary, however, f o r the u l t i -mate source. Music i s " h i e r auf Erden der Echo oder Wider-h a l l der himmlischen Freuden"(FG,IV,91), and a t bottom a g i f t from God f o r a m e l i o r a t i n g man's journey through t h i s v a l e of t e a r s (ME,II,130; ME,III,349). The f i n a l answer i s to be found i n the r e l i g i o u s sphere. The beginnings of music on e a r t h may be debatable, the o r i g i n a l source i s not. B i b l i c a l evidence p r o v i d e s not o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the o r i g i n s of music on e a r t h , but a l s o elements c o n s t i t u -t i n g the seventeenth-century view of music h i s t o r y . Hars-d f l r f f e r c e r t a i n l y uses musical f i g u r e s and events from the B i b l e to i l l u s t r a t e what had o c c u r r e d i n the p a s t : the de-s t r u c t i o n of the w a l l s of J e r i c h o by the sound of trumpets (FG,IV,86; Joshua, 6.5); David d r i v i n g out the e v i l s p i r i t from Saul by p l a y i n g the harp (FG,IV,87; I Sam. 16.23) o r the use of m u s i c a l instruments by v a r i o u s B i b l i c a l characters'. 29 i n g eneral to p r a i s e God (FG, IV, 514-15 ; I Chron . 23 ; 5), . . :. In a d d i t i o n , the statement t h a t music i s " e i n Vorgeschmack dess ewigen Lebens"(FG,II,311) i s a c h r o n o l o g i c a l a s s e s s -ment drawn from a view of h i s t o r y e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , as i s the l i n e : "Es hat v o r d i e s e r Welt der Engel-Chor e r s c h a l l e t " ( F G , I V , 8 6 ) . Such ideas form the b a s i s of a c o n c e r t put on i n May, 1643, to i l l u s t r a t e the p r o g r e s s i o n of music from i t s heavenly beginnings to beyond the L a s t Judgement, and H a r s d o r f f e r speaks of t h i s c o n c e r t with g r e a t admiration (ME,III,378). T h i s , and h i s unques-t i o n i n g acceptance, i n d i c a t e h i s t a c i t approval of the con-t e n t and the way i n which i s i s presented. The o u t l i n e of the c o n c e r t w i l l t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e a c o n c i s e sketch of the seventeenth-century c o n c e p t i o n of music h i s t o r y shared by H a r s d f l r f f e r . Johann Michael D i l h e r r , a Nuremberg preacher, teacher and w r i t e r , had .'joined f o r c e s with Staden to pr e s e n t t h i s c o n c e r t . D i l h e r r gave a L a t i n o r a t i o n to open the p r o -ceedings, and Staden s e l e c t e d , arranged and d i r e c t e d the music. Although the o r a t i o n and the music are l o s t , a pro-gramme g i v i n g a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c o n c e r t has s u r v i v e d , e n t i t l e d "Entwerffung dess Anfangs/ Fortgangs/ Enderungen/ Brauchs und Missbrauchs der Edlen Music.""^ I t gi v e s the v o i c e s , instruments and the t e x t s used to demon-s t r a t e the v a r i o u s stages i n musical h i s t o r y , beginning w i t h 30 three descant v o i c e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the a n g e l i c c h o i r b e f o r e the c r e a t i o n o f the world. P e r i o d i z a t i o n i s then as f o l -lows: b e f o r e the f a l l ; a f t e r the f a l l ; Old Testament; Greek; New Testament; time of the p a t r i a r c h s ( c h o r a l e ) ; p e r i o d of f i g u r a l music c u l m i n a t i n g with Lassus; Luther ( c h o r a l e ) ; contemporary, i n c l u d i n g use and misuse of music; L a s t Judge-ment; heaven and h e l l . The whole i s then rounded o f f by a grand t u t t i to the words: "MUSICA NOSTRA v a l e ; COELESTIS MUSICA s a l v e ! " 1 1 The C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e i g n s supreme i n t h i s programme: the source of music i s i n heaven, and while man can to a c e r t a i n extent partake of t h i s on e a r t h by s i n g i n g or l i s t e n i n g to sacred music, he must wait u n t i l a f t e r the L a s t Judgement f o r f u l l membership i n the heavenly c h o i r . R e l i g i o u s t r u t h s are seen as h i s t o r i c a l t r u t h s . Indeed, the i d e a o f h i s t o r i c a l accuracy anywhere approaching the modern sense of the term i s nowhere to be seen. The music r e p r e s e n t i n g the Greek element, f o r example, c o u l d not have been h i s t o r i c a l l y f a i t h f u l , as Greek n o t a t i o n had not been deciphered by 1643. A u t h e n t i c r e p r o d u c t i o n was c l e a r l y not the p o i n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some attempt i s made to d u p l i c a t e the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n mentioned i n the B i b l e — h a r p s , trumpets and cymbals f o r example (I Chron. 1 4 . 8 ) — b u t these were i n -struments i n common use i n the seventeenth-century, and a l -though academic i n t e r e s t i n a n c i e n t instruments i s e v i d e n t 31 at the time, r e c o n s t r u c t i o n does not seem to have been a major concern. The presence of h a r p s i c h o r d s , v i o l s and other seventeenth-century instruments f o r the purposes of the c o n c e r t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g . Although the d i v i s i o n of music h i s t o r y i n t o periods'is based p r i m a r i l y on B i b l i c a l sources, other c r i t e r i a are a l s o i n c l u d e d , e s p e c i a l l y f o r more re c e n t times. The musi-c a l form of the c h o r a l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s used to designate the p e r i o d from the e a r l y p a t r i a r c h s u n t i l "ungefehr vor 13 zweyhundert Jahren," i . e . the middle of the f i f t e e n t h -century, and r e f e r s to e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p l a i n s o n g . The term then re-emerges i n co n n e c t i o n with Luther, who i s c o n s i d e r e d to be an important f i g u r e i n music h i s t o r y as the i n s t i g a t o r and composer of church songs i n German, but i t c l e a r l y no longer has the same meaning. Luther's name, furthermore, i s a l s o used f o r p e r i o d d e s i g n a t i o n . Contemporary music i s e x p l a i n e d i n terms of m u s i c a l s t y l e : i t i s "von den a l t e n w e it u n t e r s c h i e d e n / und gleichsam auf O r a t o r i s c h e weiss/ d i e 14 a f f e c t e n , so v i e l muglich/ zu moviren, angegeben." There are t h e r e f o r e no d i s c e r n a b l y c o n s i s t e n t c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r -mining musical epochs, but the whole i s n e v e r t h e l e s s drawn together by the common f a c t o r s of s a c r e d t e x t s and the over-15 a l l C h r i s t i a n world view. S e c u l a r music r e c e i v e s very l i t t l e mention i n the pro-gramme. I t was presumably used to i l l u s t r a t e "der Griechen/ 32 oder Heydnische Musica," as w e l l as the ideas about the misuse of music i n the seventeenth-century, a t o p i c of some concern f o r H a r s d o r f f e r which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. H a r s d f l r f f e r , however, does d i s p l a y some knowledge of the development of German song o u t s i d e the Church, beginning w i t h a mention of "wie d i e a l t e n Teutschen i h r e Gesetze"zu singen p f l e g t e n / damit s i e dem groben Povel mochten i n dem Gedachtnis v e r b l e i b e n " ( H S , I , n . p . ) . T h i s statement may r e -p r e s e n t the e s t a b l i s h e d view, but, says H a r s d o r f f e r , "Weil w i r Teutsche aber so u n g l u c k l i c h / dass wir von den a l t e s t e n und r u h m l i c h s t e n Geschichten unserer geehrten Ahnen n i c h t s a u f g e s c h r i e b e n f i n d e n / ausser was Caesar und T a c i t u s (welche fremde und i h r e Feinde gewesen/) h i n t e r l a s s e n / i s t h i e r v o n keine umstandige Gewiessheit beyzubringen"(FG,IV,59). T h i s i s an i n s t a n c e i n which the standard sources are not a r b i -t r a r i l y accepted as r e p r e s e n t i n g the f a c t s — C a e s a r and T a c i -tus are c o n s i d e r e d b i a s e d and u n r e l i a b l e . T h i s statement shows an element of c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n i n g i n H a r s d f i r f f e r 1 s way of t h i n k i n g and f o r him the r e s u l t i s u n c e r t a i n t y . Old German song, however, i s not viewed i n h i s t o r i c a l i s o l a t i o n : "Die a l t e n Teutschen haben i h r e r Helden mannliche Thaten bey i h r e n Graberen gesungen . . . von weIchen nach und nach auch bey den C h r i s t e n eine gewiese/ wiewol h a r t e und unannemliche A r t der Singreimen g e b l i e b e n i s t / d i e noch heut zu Tage d i e M e i s t e r s i n g e r behalten"(FG,IV,56). Hars-3 d f i r f f e r here sees a d i r e c t l i n e l i n k i n g the o l d German song with h i s own time, and h i s o p i n i o n of the a r t of the M e i s t e r s i n g e r i s made p e r f e c t l y c l e a r . T h i s o p i n i o n i s not based on hearsay, however,since he was f a m i l i a r with t h e i r t e c h n i -ques r(FG,"iy,-57-8).-. The d e s i g n a t i o n " M e i s t e r s i n g e r , " f u r t h e r more, i s not l i m i t e d to those u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d under t h i s heading today, f o r H a r s d o r f f e r r e f e r s to Walther von der Vogelweide as one of the o l d p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the a r t (FG,VI 578). The development of Meistergesang i n H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s un-de r s t a n d i n g of the term i s viewed as a continuous l i n e , and the h i s t o r i c a l caesura occurs between the p r e - C h r i s t i a n and the C h r i s t i a n p e r i o d s . S e c u l a r music o t h e r than Meistergesang i s c o n s i d e r e d by H a r s d f l r f f e r : "Die a l t e n Poeten/ a l s Eschylus der F e l d -o b e r s t e / Sophocles und andere haben auf der H a r f f e n ge-schlagen/ wann man i h r e F r e u d e n s p i e l e v o r g e s t e l l e t / und jedesmals den Ton/ mit der V e r s a r t / nach Begebenheit der Geschichte v e r a n d e r t / welches d i e I t a l i a n e r auch nachzu-thun pflegen"(FG,VI,597-98). H a r s d o r f f e r was j u s t as aware as modern w r i t e r s on music t h a t the I t a l i a n s had been attempting to r e c r e a t e the c o n d i t i o n s of a n c i e n t Greek musi-c a l performance. The method of r e s e a r c h used by the I t a l i a n s d i d not r e l y e x c l u s i v e l y on u s i n g m a t e r i a l t r a n s m i t t e d through the ages, but a l s o on examining evidence found i n o r i g i n a l 34 sources. T h e i r aims were to some extent based on a view of the p a s t i n which the seeds of modern h i s t o r i o g r a p h y can be d e t e c t e d . H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s c o n t a c t with the I t a l i a n aca-demies and h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r work t h e r e f o r e suggest some f a m i l i a r i t y with t h i s type of h i s t o r i c a l assessment, as i n -deed does h i s complaint t h a t there are no r e l i a b l e sources d a t i n g from the times of Caesar and T a c i t u s . In a general d i s c u s s i o n of stage works, which f o r Hars-d f l r f f e r u s u a l l y c o n t a i n music, he i n c l u d e s the statement made by an I t a l i a n which p r o v i d e s a view of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a s t and the p r e s e n t : " . . . Es i s t der Schau-p l a t z / und unsere Trauer- und Frewdenspiele i n s o l c h e r V o l l -kommenheit/ dass uns noch d i e Griechen noch d i e Rflmer des-g l e i c h e n iemals ausgesonnen haben. A r i s t o t e l e s i s t n i c h t mehr der Poeterey Gesetzgeber/ und E u r i p i d e s / A r i s t o p h a n e s / Sophocles/ s o l t e n von uns zu l e r n e n haben/ a l s Plautus und T e r e n t i u s . Wann s i e wieder l e b e n d i g werden und uns zu-schauen konten/ so wurden s i e es bekennen mussen"(FG,VI, 164). H a r s d f l r f f e r continues to say t h a t such a degree of p e r f e c t i o n has not y e t been a t t a i n e d i n Germany, but t h a t Seelewig i s an attempt to s c a l e these h e i g h t s . The s i g n i f i -cance of these statements i s t h a t they r e j e c t the a r b i t r a r y acceptance of a u t h o r i t y , and suggest a development to b e t t e r t h i n g s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the Golden Age of the Greeks i s seen as surpassed by the achievements of more r e c e n t times. 35 H a r s d o r f f e r 1 s view of the o r i g i n s and h i s t o r y of music on the one hand then i s caught up with the concept of the h i s -t o r y of s a l v a t i o n : music began and continues i n heaven, and i s a c c e s s i b l e to man d u r i n g h i s sojourn on e a r t h o n l y as an echo of the d i v i n e . On the o t h e r hand, he demonstrates an i n t e r e s t i n n o n - r e l i g i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g those which d e r i v e t h e i r impulse from i n v e s t i g a t i n g the way t h i n g s a c t u a l l y were. Although H a r s d f l r f f e r to some extent q u e s t i o n s the supre-macy of the Greeks i n an h i s t o r i c o - a r t i s t i c c ontext, he i s elsewhere f a s c i n a t e d by aspects of t h e i r thought. "Der t i e f f -s i n n i g e Pythagoras," he w r i t e s , "hat b e s t a n d i g aussgesagt: Er sehe n i c h t a l l e i n den Himmel/ sondern e r hflre auch eine l i e b l i c h e Zusammenstimmung der herumwallenden Sterne"(ME, 111,353). The music of the spheres had indeed p r o v i d e d a source of d i s c u s s i o n and s p e c u l a t i o n f o r musical t h e o r i s t s f o r c e n t u r i e s . I n i t i a l l y , i t had been d e s c r i b e d as a r e s u l t of the f r i c t i o n of r e v o l v i n g c r y s t a l l i n e spheres i n the heavens, the s i n g i n g of s i r e n s perched on the spheres, or as the independent sounds made by each sphere i n motion. The i d e a of the i n d i v i d u a l p l a n e t s producing sound as they t r a v e l l e d harmoniously i n t h e i r o r b i t s r e presented a v a r i - \ a t i o n on the b a s i c concept, and i n the seventeenth-century was taken f o r granted by no l e s s a person than the a s t r o n o -mer, Johannes K e p l e r , who maintained t h a t the notes produced: 36 by the earth were "mi, fa, mi," standing for "miseria" 18 (misery), "fames" (famine), "miseria" (misery). Discussion on the general subject not only centred around the nature and meaning of c e l e s t i a l harmony, but also included d i s q u i s i t i o n s on whether i t existed at a l l . T i n c t o r i s , a fifteenth-century Flemish th e o r i s t , for example, suggested that Cicero, Macrobius, Boethius and Isidore be-lieved i n i t , while A r i s t o t l e , his commentator Thomas Aquinas, and more recent philosophers did not. Those of the second group, maintained T i n c t o r i s , "manifestly prove that 1< i n the heavens there i s neither actual nor potential sound." Harsdflrffer, on the other hand, was not concerned with discussing the r e l a t i v e merits of the existence or non-existence of the harmony of the spheres. I t was b a s i c a l l y s u f f i c i e n t for him that the theme had been worthy of contem-pl a t i o n i n the past, and i t therefore represented a useful piece of information to be passed on to his German readers for broadening t h e i r general knowledge (also FG,III,23; FG, V,399). Yet he does not forgo the opportunity of including C l a s s i c a l cosmological ideas i n a Ch r i s t i a n context: "Die Himmel erzehlen die Ehre GOTTES . . . Ein Tag sagets den andern und eine Nacht thut es kund der andern. Es i s t keine Sprache noch Rede da man nicht ihre (der Sterne stumme) Stimme hfire. Ihre Schnur (die himmlischen Kraise und Circkel) gehet auss i n a l l e Lande/ und ihre Rede (Zeichen 37 und Wurckungen) biss an der Welt Ende"(ME,III,349-50). A l l kinds of astronomical and a s t r o l o g i c a l elements, as well as the idea of the harmony of the planets, are used here to demonstrate the divine order of the heavens. The effects of the planets themselves was a topic of great i n t e r e s t to Harsdorffer, so much so that he used i t as the theme of the musical pageant, Die Tugendsterne ( l i b r e t t o FG,V,397-435; score FG,V,633-70). The basic assumption on which the pageant i s based i s that "wie die Planeten die grosse Welt regieren/ so regieren die VII E r t z -tugenden die kleine Welt"(FG,V,402). The macrocosm and the microcosm have corresponding parts. There i s , i n addition, a relationship between the ef f e c t s of the planets and the affects of the musical modes (FG,V,634). In the Tugend-sterne , Harsdorffer joins a l l these elements together, and presents seven songs, one for each mode and i t s characteris-t i c s , each planet and each v i r t u e . The whole i s preceded by a song by the nymph, Echo, and each song i s preceded by a short instrumental section. The arrangement given i n the preface to the score appears as the following table (FG,V,635) Die Ordnung Der Ton und seine Eigenschaft Der Planet Die Tugenden Venus!! Liebe [Saturn] Massigkeit A Aeolius lieblich $ B Hyperaeolius schwach t i _ C Ionicus frolich % [Mercury] Vorsichtigkeit D Dorius gravitetisch &[Bun] Glaub E Phrygius traurig J [Moor{] Hof fnung F Lydius klaglich JJ- pupiter} Gerechtigkeit G Mixtolydius zornig J> [Marsl Starcke 38 In the a c t u a l score and the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n , the arrange-ment of modes i s given as: Score L i b r e t t o Dorius Dorius Phrygius Phrygius A e o l i u s A e o l i u s L y d i u s M i x t o l y d i u s M i x t o l y d i u s Lydius I o n i c u s I o n i c u s Hyperaeolius "t» oder b dur," and "Spurius oder der verworfene H . "20 Although the order i s more c o n s i s t e n t here--the o n l y a l t e r a -t i o n s being the placement of the Lyd i a n and M i x o l y d i a n , and an a l t e r n a t i v e way of naming the H y p e r a e o l i a n — i t d i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y from t h a t given i n the t a b l e . In Mediaeval times, e i g h t modes had been i n use, r e -21 f e r r e d to o n l y by number. L a t e r t h e o r i s t s had a p p l i e d names to the modes, supposedly r e p r e s e n t i n g the ethos a t t r i -buted to them by the Greeks. Glareanus, a s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Swiss monk, had added four more to the system. Yet the order and number of modes a t the end of the s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y and i n the f i r s t h a l f of the seventeenth-century-was by no means agreed upon, and w r i t e r s on the s u b j e c t were not r e l u c t a n t 22 to say so. Glareanus i s r e f e r r e d to by H a r s d f l r f f e r as the a u t h o r i t y f o r the Tugendsterne. I t was he, s t a t e s H a r s d f l r f f e r , who made connections between the modes and the p l a n e t s (FG,V,398 and 634). Yet Glareanus' order of those modes used by Hars-39 d o r f f e r i s : Dorian Phrygian L y d i a n M i x o l y d i a n A e o l i a n Ionian Hyperaeolian S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s are e v i d e n t between t h i s arrangement and those given i n the Tugendsterne. In the p r e f a c e to the score, the reas o n i n g behind the order of the modes i s made p e r f e c t l y c l e a r : "Die Ordnung £istj nach den Tugenden/ und n i c h t nach den Planeten oder Simmen ge r i c h t e t " ( F G , V , 6 3 5 ) , and the problem of j u s t i f y i n g the modal arrangement appears to be s o l v e d . Yet i t does not e x p l a i n why the arrangement i s d i f f e r e n t again i n the l i b r e t t o and i n the s c o r e . The content o f the l a s t song, furthermore, c o n t r a d i c t s the statement t h a t the order of the v i r t u e s as they appear i n the t a b l e takes precedence: "Ob i c h g l e i c h d i e l e t z t e b i n an der Tugend Schwester Reyen . . ." (FG,V,429 and 668), sing s the f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g "Massig-k e i t , " who appears i n second p o s i t i o n i n the t a b l e . C l e a r l y the statement e x p l a i n i n g t h a t the order i s a c c o r d i n g to the v i r t u e s does not apply to the t a b l e appearing immediately above i t i n the p r e f a c e to the score, but r e f e r s to the order of v i r t u e s given i n the score i t s e l f . The arrangement of the v i r t u e s i s then "Glaube, Hoffnung, L i e b e , " the three 40 r e l i g i o u s v i r t u e s , and " G e r e c h t i g k e i t , Starke, V o r s i c h t i g -k e i t , M a s s i g k e i t , " the fo u r moral v i r t u e s . < The t a b l e , moreover, cannot be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the order of the p l a n e t s . H a r s d f l r f f e r c e r t a i n l y was f u l l y aware of the s t a t e of astronomy i n h i s d a y — h e d i s c u s s e s Copernicus, G a l i l e o and K e p l e r (ME,II,272)—yet the p e r s i s -tence of the o l d Ptolemaic system d i d not al l o w him to come down f i r m l y on e i t h e r s i d e of the ques t i o n s of p l a n e t p o s i -t i o n or h e l i o c e n t r i c i t y (ME,II,289). The order of the p l a -nets i n the t a b l e n e v e r t h e l e s s does not agree e i t h e r with the o l d or the new s o l a r systems. The arrangement i n the t a b l e can be e x p l a i n e d , however, i f the l e t t e r s A to G are viewed as more than a convenient o r g a n i z i n g system—more than j u s t "die Ordnung"—and taken to r e p r e s e n t the f i n a l s of the corresponding modes; t h a t i s to say, the A e o l i a n mode ending on the note A, the Hyper-a e o l i a n on B, the Ionian on C, the Dorian on D, e t c . The l e t t e r s A to G were p o s s i b l y thought of i n i t i a l l y p u r e l y f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l purposes, but the subsequent attachment of:.; modal f i n a l s to the l e t t e r s r e s u l t e d i n an i n c o r r e c t order being assigned to the names of the modes and the p l a n e t s . The t a b l e i s t h e r e f o r e made up on musical p r i n c i p l e s . A q u e s t i o n which now a r i s e s i s whether the t a b l e and the r e s t o f the p r e f a c e p r e c e d i n g the score should be a t -23 t r i b u t e d to H a r s d o r f f e r or to Staden: " . . . i n den Sym-41 phonien/An-oder Zustimmungen/ haben d i e Stimmen wegen des k l e i n e n Formats/ n i c h t v o l l i g durchgangen/ oder ausgefuhret werden kflnnen; wie dann auch d i e Reimarten/ Gemahle und andere Anweisung der G e s p r a c h s p i e l e / von e n d l i c h e r V o l l -kommenheit e n t f e r n e t / und zu a l l e r T eutschliebenden Samt-h u l f f e u b e r l a s s e t wird"(FG,V,634). The i n c l u s i o n of a Ger-man e q u i v a l e n t f o r the word "Symphonien" f i r s t l y , i s t y p i c a l of H a r s d f l r f f e r i n h i s attempts to make ideas and concepts r e a d i l y understandable to h i s German re a d e r s . Staden, throughout the score uses the word "Symphonie" e x c l u s i v e l y . Secondly, i t i s s u r e l y H a r s d O r f f e r who i s t a k i n g the r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y and a p o l o g i z i n g f o r the s c a n t i n e s s of the work as a whole, a concern which he v o i c e s throughout the work. I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t H a r s d f l r f f e r and not Staden i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t e x t of the p r e f a c e , i n c l u d i n g the t a b l e . The f i r s t s i x modes from Glareanus g i v e n i n the l i s t above (p. 39) are r e f e r r e d to as a u t h e n t i c — t h e y form the b a s i s of the modal system. H a r s d f l r f f e r , however, i s con-cerned w i t h a t t a c h i n g modes to seven v i r t u e s , and chooses the Hyperaeolian to make the number up to seven, e v i d e n t l y drawing on Glareanus' remark t h a t t h i s may i n f a c t be an 24 a u t h e n t i c mode. In g e n e r a l , Glareanus o b j e c t e d vehemently to the Hyperaeolian, and r e f u s e d to d i s c u s s i t a t any l e n g t h , 25 c a l l i n g i t " s p u r i u s " and " r e j e c t o . " H a r s d f l r f f e r , i t i s t r u e , does p i c k up on the term "spurius"(FG,V,431), and h i s r e f e r e n c e to the mode as "verworffen" i n the same p l a c e i s the German e q u i v a l e n t of Glareanus' " r e j e c t o . " Herbst e x p l a i n s t h a t the Hyperaeolian i s "verworffen" because i t 2 6 c o n t a i n s " v e r w e r f f l i c h e I n t e r v a l l e n . " The f i n a l o f the Hyperaeolian i s B, and H a r s d o r f f e r seems to have chosen the mode to correspond to the o r d e r i n g number B i n the t a b l e p r e c e d i n g the s c o r e . He i s t h e r e f o r e not concerned with musical a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and no c o n s i d e r a t i o n whatsoever of the t h e o r e t i c a l o b j e c t i o n s to the mode appears i n the Tugend  s t e r n e . I t was c l e a r l y not H a r s d f i r f f e r 1 s i n t e n t i o n to deal with them. In the score s e c t i o n of the Tugendsterne, the super-s c r i p t i o n "B. Hyperaeolius"(FG,V,669) i s r e t a i n e d . Yet an examination of the music from a modal p o i n t of view shows 27 t h a t Staden a c t u a l l y used a transposed L y d i a n . I t i s somewhat a n a c h r o n i s t i c , however, to i n s i s t on a modal i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n , as the death k n e l l f o r the modes had long been sounding by the mid-seventeenth-century, and the t o n a l q u a l i t y of the p i e c e i s most p e r v a s i v e . I t should r a t h e r be c o n s i d e r e d as being i n the key of B f l a t r a t h e r than i n any p a r t i c u l a r mode. Staden's own t h e o r e t i c a l understanding of the modes i s c o n s i d e r a b l y c l e a r e r than H a r s d o r f f e r 1 s Although he does not d i s c u s s the modes i n h i s musical handbook, Rudi-43 mentum Musicum, a l i n e drawing of a device showing the modes and designed by him does appear i n H a r s d f i r f f e r ' s Mathematische Erguickstunden ( I I I , f o l . 367). The d e v i c e , which i s shown here on page 44, c o n s i s t s of two d i s c s which are to be c u t out and superimposed. The user then turns the top s m a l l e r d i s c to any note w i t h the name of a mode assigne d to i t appearing on the edge of the l a r g e r o u t e r d i s c , and by f o l l o w i n g the l i n e s given on the s m a l l e r d i s c , he can work out the i n t e r v a l s . In e f f e c t , i t i s a two-fold musical v e r s i o n of H a r s d O r f f e r ' s " f u n f f a c h e r Denckring." The arrangement of the modes here e x a c t l y f o l l o w s Glareanus. Yet i n the Tugendsterne, Staden has accommodated Harsdflrf-f e r to the extent t h a t he a l t e r s the order of the modes, and i n c l u d e s the d e s i g n a t i o n "Hyperaeolius" i n the heading to the l a s t song. The a f f e c t s of the modes given i n the Tugendsterne adhere f a i r l y c l o s e l y to those a t t r i b u t e d to them by G l a -reanus, which can be seen from Table 1 (p. 46). As Haar suggests, H a r s d o r f f e r ' s c h o i c e s are probably s i m p l i f i c a -29 t i o n s of Glareanus' more complex d e s c r i p t i o n s . In the case of the Lydian mode, H a r s d f i r f f e r has s e l e c t e d one from a number of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . For the M i x o l y d i a n , where G l a -reanus does not g i v e a c l e a r d e s c r i p t i o n , H a r s d o r f f e r ' s c h o i c e af " z o r n i g " f i n d s an e q u i v a l e n t i n the "indignans" of Gumpelzhaimer and Herbst. H a r s d o r f f e r . p r o v i d e s - a ' l i t t l e more F i g u r e 1 S i m p l i f i e d v e r s i o n o f S t a d e n ' s m u s i c a l a i d (ME, I I , f o l " . 3 67) , i n c l u d i n g names and numbers o f t h e modes. S m a l l c o r r e c -t i o n s h a v e b e e n made. Mo d e r n e q u i v a l e n t s o f t h e i n t e r v a l s a r e : s e m i d i t o n u s , t e r t i a m i n o r — m i n o r t h i r d ; d i t o n u s , t e r t i a m a j o r — m a j o r t h i r d ; d i a t e s s a r o n - - f o u r t h ; d i a p e n t e , q u i n t a — f i f t h ; s e x t a m i n o r — m i n o r s i x t h ; s e x t a m a j o r — m a j o r s i x t h 45 i n f o r m a t i o n i n the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n of the Tugendsterne which agrees w i t h t h a t given i n the T a b l e . O v e r a l l , the a f f e c t s a p p l i e d by H a r s d f l r f f e r appear i n a t l e a s t one or more of the d e s c r i p t i o n s by t h e o r i s t s g i v e n here. An o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e which emerges from Table 1 i s the number of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g modal a f f e c t s — n o t only:between t h e o r i s t s , but a l s o i n i n d i v i d u a l cases, es-p e c i a l l y Herbst. For him the Dorian mode may be " f r o l i c h o r " m a j e s t a t i s c h ; " the Phrygian " z o r n i g " or leydmutig;" the M i x o l y d i a n can produce " T r a w r i g k e i t " or "Zorn" i n the l i s -t e n e r . There i s n e v e r t h e l e s s general agreement on the a f f e c t s of the Ionian and A e o l i a n modes, which i s a s i g n i -f i c a n t f a c t o r , s i n c e these two became the modern major and minor keys. In g e n e r a l , however, the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n d i -cate t h a t the a f f e c t s of the modes, over and above t h e i r order and number, were not t o t a l l y agreed upon by w r i t e r s on the s u b j e c t . Haar a l s o p o i n t s to d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e o r i s t s 3 0 r e g a r d i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n of the modes and the p l a n e t s . I t should be noted, however, t h a t Glareanus h i m s e l f i s not c l e a r on the matter: on the one hand, drawing from one source he notes t h a t the Dorian i s a s s o c i a t e d with Saturn, and on the other, drawing from a second source, t h a t the 31 M i x o l y d i a n and Saturn belong t o g e t h e r . In the Tugend-s t e r n e , the Hyperaeolian i s shown as the c o u n t e r p a r t to Mode Harsdflrffer Glareanus Kircher Gumpelz- Herbst (L=Libretto) haimer Dorian g r a v i t e t i s c h maiestas ad temperantiam et h i l a r i s h i l a r i s ( l i v e l y ) (L) prachtig und (majesty) moderationem ( l i v e l y ) prachtig, f r o i i c h , l u s t i g majestatisch gravitas (temperance and frewdig, majestatisch (gravity) moderation) Phrygian t r a u r i g lachrymabile not given austerus austerus (grave) (L) t r a u r i g und (mournful) (grave) zornig, saurzappfig betrubet leydmutig Lydian k l a g l i c h querulus (plaintive) ad f l e t u s et asper asper (harsh) (L) f a s t klSg- remissus (languid) lamentationes (harsh) hart, s c h a r f f , h e f t i g , l i c h anzuhflren resolutus (effemi- (weeping and saurschlechtig, trohend nate) lamentation) Mixo- zornig not defined ad commiserationem indignans indignans (impatient) 1ydian (L) e r n s t l i c h pietatisque (impatient) e r n s t h a f f t , saur, f r o i i c h und gleichsam zum (compassion and l i e b l i c h . . . kan doch auch S t r e i t reitzend pity) Trawrigkeit/ Zorn und an-dere affecten erwecken Aeolian l i e b l i c h jucunda (delightful) suavis (pleasant) suavis suavis (pleasant) (L) l i e b l i c h und d u l c i s (sweet) mo l l i s (soft) (pleasant) l i e b l i c h , f r o i i c h , s a n f f t -sehr anmuhtig suavis (pleasant) mtltig Ionian f r o i i c h suavis (pleasant) suavis (pleasant) jucundus jucundus (delightful) (L) f r o i i c h und (d e l i g h t f u l ) f r O l i c h , l e i c h t f e r t i g l i e b l i c h f ilrwitzig Hyper- schwach - - - -aeolian Table I. The A f f e c t s and Uses of the Modes. 47 Saturn, a p l a n e t which H a r s d o r f f e r elsewhere r e f u s e s to d i s c u s s because of i t s m a l e f i c i n f l u e n c e (FG,II,83). The two are n e v e r t h e l e s s drawn together i n the Tugendsterne because of t h e i r a r b i t r a r y a s s o c i a t i o n with the seventh v i r t u e . I t i s pure c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t the Hyperaeolian hap-pens to be a t l e a s t a contender f o r the p o s i t i o n of the seventh a u t h e n t i c mode i n Glareanus' system, and t h a t Saturn happens to be the seventh p l a n e t ( i n c l u d i n g the sun as the f i r s t ) . H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s treatment of the modes shows t h a t a l -though he was f a m i l i a r w i t h the general concepts, and was aware of t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s on the s u b j e c t , he i n t e r -p r e t e d t h i s r e c e i v e d knowledge i n h i s own way. The C h r i s t t i a n v i r t u e s u l t i m a t e l y take precedence i n the Tugendsterne and modal theory i s adapted a c c o r d i n g l y . And although H a r s d f l r f f e r does not f o l l o w Glareanus, h i s quoted source, as f a r as the o r d e r i n g of the modes i s concerned, t h i s may be excused i n view of the f a c t t h a t many a u t h o r i t i e s d i s -agreed on the matter i n any ease. H a r s d f i r f f e r ' s c h o i c e o f the Hyperaeolian mode does not make sense from a musical p o i n t of view, but i t can be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to use i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned from sources without concerning h i m s e l f with the whole range of i m p l i c a t i o n s . That H a r s d f l r f f e r who was not a p r o f e s s i o n a l musician, c o u l d t w i s t the modes around f o r h i s own use i s noteworthy 48 i n i t s e l f . That Staden f o l l o w e d H a r s d f l r f f e r i n t h i s p r o -v i d e s evidence t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l musician was prepared to tamper to some extent with Glareanus, a named a u t h o r i t y i n h i s f i e l d . The d e f i n i t e t o n a l i t y of Staden's music i n the Tugendsterne, moreover, i s a f a i r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the q u e s t i o n of the modes i n general was being r e l e g a t e d more and more to the realm of t h e o r e t i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n , and to whatever extent these t h e o r i e s were p e r s i s t i n g , the modern key system was a l r e a d y t a k i n g precedence i n p r a c t i c e . I t i s p u r e l y from a t h e o r e t i c a l - s p e c u l a t i v e p o i n t of view t h a t H a r s d f l r f f e r approaches the modes—he i s not concerned w i t h the m u s i c a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s — a n d although h i s treatment of the s u b j e c t i n the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e i s a t times a r b i t r a r y or u n c l e a r , the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s n e v e r t h e l e s s passed on, broadening the reader's general musical know-ledge, and p r o v i d i n g him with a t o p i c f o r i n c l u s i o n i n c u l t u r e d c o n v e r s a t i o n . A f u r t h e r s u b j e c t s u i t a b l e f o r d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of m u s i c — t h a t i s to say, the power of music on the mind or s o u l . There are not o n l y m y t h o l o g i c a l examples to be drawn on—Orpheus, A r i o n and the d o l p h i n , the S i r e n s — b u t a l s o B i b l i c a l c h a r a c t e r s , above a l l King David, a l l of whom are seconded time and again to p r o v i d e proof i n a p l e a s i n g and i n s t r u c t i v e man-ner of the u n i v e r s a l i t y of the a f f e c t s and power of music. 49 The essence of H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s understanding of the power of music on the mind or so u l i s to be found i n the statement t h a t , "Ob zwar d i e Seele e i n G e i s t i s t / welcher durch l e i b l i c h e Dinge n i c h t mag e r r e g t werden/ so l a s s e n doch a l l e d e r selben K r a f f t e / der Verstand/ der W i l l e / d i e Gedachtnuss/ d i e B i l d u n g s i c h durch das Gehflr ubermeistern 33 und bewegen"(FG,IV,91). In order to understand the i m p l i -c a t i o n s of these ideas f u l l y , they should be viewed i n con-j u n c t i o n w i t h the contemporary conception of the s o u l . The s t r u c t u r e of the sou l was c o n s i d e r e d as t r i p a r t i t e , c o n s i s t i n g i n ascending order of the ve g e t a b l e , the s e n s i b l e and the reasonable l e v e l s , a l l three p a r t s housing the sundry 34 f a c u l t i e s . The vegetable l e v e l i s concerned w i t h such p h y s i c a l elements as growth and d i g e s t i o n , and i s to be found i n man, i n animals and i n p l a n t s . The second o r sen-s i b l e level-, common to man and animals, c o n t a i n s the f i v e e x t e r n a l senses, each of which r e p o r t s to the f i r s t : \ i n t e r i o r power, the "common sense," which i n t u r n c o n s u l t s with the i n t e r i o r powers or f a c u l t i e s of i m a g i n a t i o n and memory to determine whether what i s p e r c e i v e d i s harmful or p l e a s a n t . The emotions, d e s i r e s and f e a r s are a l s o lodged here. The f i r s t o r reasonable l e v e l , b e l o n g i n g to man alone, c o n t a i n s the main p r i n c i p a l power of the understanding,- which func-t i o n s i n an a b s t r a c t way, drawing on the im a g i n a t i o n and memory, a n a l y z i n g and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g good from e v i l , r i g h t 50 from wrong. The w i l l , the second p r i n c i p a l power, causes a c t i o n or r e a c t i o n . I f the understanding has been s u f f i -c i e n t l y developed by t r a i n i n g or educat i o n , and i s s t r o n g enough, the w i l l then causes a c t i o n which i s r i g h t i n the eyes of man and God. I f the understanding i s not s t r o n g enough, the w i l l i s governed by the senses and emotions, causing a l o s s of harmony or temper. A s i m p l i f i e d diagram u s i n g music and the sense of h e a r i n g as examples w i l l ex-p l a i n the main p r o c e s s e s : sound of music : sense of common . imagination » understanding hearing ~' sense J, • T reason memory. t . i • emotions - - - -will- •> - - - -> disharmonious action or reaction low level harmonious action or action or reaction reaction Although H a r s d f l r f f e r h i m s e l f does not r e f e r e i t h e r to a t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of the s o u l , o r to a common sense, h i s statements r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t of music on the mind or s o u l can be e x p l a i n e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s scheme. The sound of music, e n t e r i n g the so u l through the sense of hea r i n g , produces v a r i o u s a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to the l e v e l of the sou l i t reaches, and a c c o r d i n g to the a b i l i t y of the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r i o r powers to deal w i t h i t . 51 In the case of animals, H a r s d o r f f e r notes t h a t elephants, d o l p h i n s and bees l i k e the sound of s i n g i n g (FG,IV,429), and t h a t sheep and cows graze b e t t e r and more c o n t e n t e d l y when they are accompanied by the sound of a shepherd's p i p e or by a song. S i m i l a r l y , young babies enjoy and are soothed by the s i n g i n g of t h e i r nurses (ME,II,130; PT,II,2; FG,II, 310). In these i n s t a n c e s , the powers a t the s e n s i b l e l e v e l i n t e r p r e t the p e r c e i v e d sound as p l e a s u r a b l e , and low l e v e l r e a c t i o n occurs a c c o r d i n g l y . When the sound of music reaches the reasonable s o u l i n a d u l t human beings, i t s e f f e c t depends on the a b i l i t y o f the understanding housed there to i n t e r p r e t i t . "Des Menschen Verstand l i e b e t das Ebenmaas/ w e i l auch s e i n Wesen i n g l e i c h r i c h t i g e r V erfassung bestehet," notes H a r s d f l r f f e r i n a d i s c u s s i o n of music (FG,VI,288). I d e a l l y , the under-s t a n d i n g analyses the p e r c e i v e d sound of music i n such a way t h a t an even temper between i t and the senses and emo-t i o n s i s produced, r e t a i n i n g or r e s t o r i n g harmony: "Sie [_music[] machet a l l e Sorgen aus dem Hertzen entweichen . . . b e s a n f f t i g e t den Zorn und b e l u s t i g e t mit u n s t r a f f l i c h e r W o l l u s t i h r e ZuhOrer"(FG,IV,91). I f the understanding i s i n any way d e f i c i e n t , t h e - e f f e c t s of music can be c h a o t i c : "Wie uns der Wein/ so kan uns auch d i e Music/ mit S u s s i g -k e i t bethflren/ s o n d e r l i c h aber zur W o l l u s t / und u n z i m l i c h e r 52 Brunst r e i t z e n / und d i e Augen unseres Verstandes e i n -schlafen"(FG,VI,289-90). There i s c l e a r l y a v a s t d i f -f erence between p l a i n "Wollust" and " u n s t r a f f l i c h e W o l l u s t ; " the former i s produced by the responses of the senses and emotions, r e s u l t i n g i n disharmony and a l o s s o f temper, and i s to be avoided a t a l l c o s t s , w h ile the l a t t e r i s " g l e i c h -sam der W i d e r h a l l h i m l i s c h e r Freuden"(ME,II,131), which can be a t t a i n e d through the understanding, and i s to be c u l t i -v a ted as much as p o s s i b l e . I t i s i n t h i s c ontext t h a t the onus i s on the composer to p r o v i d e music which w i l l appeal to the understanding before the emotions. The understanding r e l i e s h e a v i l y on the power of memory, which H a r s d f l r f f e r a s s o c i a t e s very s t r o n g l y with music, main-t a i n i n g t h a t i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to remember something per-c e i v e d through the sense of h e a r i n g (FG,I,102). He f u r t h e r -more r e f e r s to "die k u n s t l i c h e Gedachtniss"(FG,I,70), a r t i -f i c i a l memory, a term found i n c l a s s i c a l works and l a t e r a d a p t a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the a r t of memory. An example of .one Of the techniques of a r t i f i c i a l memory i s used by Hars-d o r f f e r i n a s e c t i o n o f the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e en-t i t l e d "Die Gedachtnisskunst"(FG,I,70), where two l i n e s o f poe t r y are presented i n c o n j u n c t i o n with musical notes, the 35 names of which (ut, r e , mi, f a , s o l , la) a s s i s t i n memo-r i z a t i o n and l a t e r r e c a l l : 53 Example 1: R e d l i c h s o l t du fahren mit mir/ Recht guts s o l wiederfahren d i r . dllch t du hren t r/ cht g s wieder h n d i r . S y l l a b l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the names of the notes are e x t r a c t e d from the words and w i t t e n out i n m u s i c a l form. The process of r e c a l l c o n s i s t s i n v i s u a l i z i n g f i r s t l y the musical stave, and secondly the p o s i t i o n of the notes on the stave as w e l l as t h e i r names. Side by s i d e w i t h the v i s u a l memory images, the melody r e s u l t i n g from the notes a c t s as an a u r a l mnemonic 37 d e v i c e . Music thus becomes a means of making a c c e s s i b l e what i s s t o r e d i n the memory. The memory, as w e l l as the other i n t e r i o r powers of the soul p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n H a r s d O r f f e r * s view of the methods to be used and the e f f e c t s to be aimed a t by the w r i t e r . The purposes of a l i t e r a r y work, are t h a t i t " I . wolvernemlich b e g r e i f f t / I I d e u t l i c h b e y b r i n g e t / I I I merksam v o r s t e l l e t / und IV von v e r d r u s s l i c h e r Bemuhung e n t f e r n e t / n u t z l i c h b e l u s t i g e t : D e r g e s t a l t dass I der Verstand/ I I Die B i l d u n g s k r a f f t e ( f a c u l t a s imaginativa) I I I d i e Gedachtnis und IV unsere bald-ecklende Sinne zu v o r t r S g l i c h e r Belernung angehalten werden"(NJ,I,n.p.). Both l i t e r a t u r e and music 54 are to be aimed at the powers of the reasonable s o u l . The f a c t t h a t the understanding and oth e r powers e x i s t i n harmony with each o t h e r e x p l a i n s why musical dissonances are o f f e n s i v e (MJS, I I I , 3 5 7 ) — t h e y d i s t u r b the balance of the so u l or mind. The a c t u a l a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y a dissonance or consonance, however, goes beyond the power of under-standing, and r a i s e s q u e s t i o n f o r H a r s d f l r f f e r : "Warumb kan doch e i n j e d e r G e l e h r t e r und Un g e l e h r t e r von G l e i c h -stimmung und Missstimmung der Music u r t h e i l e n / da von ande-ren Kunsten nur d i e K u n s t l e r d e r s e l b e n zu reden wissen?" (FG,II,310-11). The answer f o r him l i e s i n the a s s o c i a t i o n between music and the f o u r elements, aspects of which the body was thought to c o n s i s t . One main connection i s between the f o u r s i n g i n g v o i c e s , the elements and the body (FG,11,311): Descant A l t o Tenor Bass F i r e A i r Water E a r t h V i t a l S p i r i t s Blood F l e s h Bones When the fou r v o i c e s produce a musi c a l concord, they e f f e c t a harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n of the elements, a d e s i r a b l e s t a t e , which e x p l a i n s man's n a t u r a l a f f i n i t y f o r music (FG,II,311). I f a dissonance i s p e r c e i v e d through the sense of h e a r i n g , a sympathetic imbalance of the elements o c c u r s , r e s u l t i n g i n a n a t u r a l a v e r s i o n to the sound, i n d i s c o m f o r t , and even i n p a i n (FG,II,289). The r e c o g n i t i o n of musical harmony i s then u l t i m a t e l y based on man's n a t u r a l makeup seen i n 55 terms of the elements, while the o v e r a l l r e a c t i o n to music can be r e g u l a t e d by the understanding and i t s c a p a c i t y i n each i n d i v i d u a l to make judgements. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the harmonious balance of elements i n 3 8 the body was seen to r e s u l t i n good h e a l t h , and Hars-d f l r f f e r was c e r t a i n l y aware of the view t h a t the harmony of music f a v o u r a b l y i n f l u e n c e d the h e a l t h of the human orga-3 9 nism. He r e p o r t s t h a t the e f f e c t s of a t a r a n t u l a b i t e can be cured by h e a r i n g a harp p l a y e d (HS_,I,206; ME, I I I , 357-58), by h e a r i n g s i n g i n g and the sound of s t r i n g e d i n - . struments (ME,II,131), or by music i n g e n e r a l , which i s a l s o s a i d to be a c e r t a i n cure f o r a s t i t c h i n the s i d e (FG,VI, 290). In these i n s t a n c e s , the i d e a of music as a h e a l e r , r e s t o r i n g b o d i l y harmony, i s passed on without comment, y e t H a r s d f i r f f e r a l s o notes: "Die Musik h e i l e t f u r s i c h keine K r a n k h e i t / aber durch sondere Aufmerkung/ so d i e v e r u r -sachet/ h i n d e r t s i e / d i e sonst von dem Haubt a b t r i e f f e n d e F e u c h t i g k e i t e n / und mindert a l s o e t l i c h e r massen das Schmert-zen." • (FG, VI, 290) . In t h i s case, music i t s e l f i s not con-s i d e r e d t h e r a p e u t i c , which i s i m p l i e d i n the e a r l i e r s t a t e -ments. I t i s seen r a t h e r as d i s t r a c t i n g the s i c k person from h i s p a i n . On the one hand the t r a d i t i o n a l view i s accepted without q u e s t i o n ; on the other, i t i s r e j e c t e d and a more p r a c t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n i s put forward. The o v e r a l l e f f e c t of music, however, i s not denied. 56 The i n f l u e n c e of music on the body and s o u l , i t s cos-m o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and i t s r o l e i n i l l u s t r a t i n g the seventeenth-century view of h i s t o r y are a l l used by Hars-d o r f f e r as a means of p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the reader. Although the m a t e r i a l i s s c a t t e r e d i n v a r i o u s works, some of i t i s repeated two or three times, arid o c c a s i o n a l l y i t - . i s a p p l i e d to e x p l a i n aspects of another subject--etymology, f o r example. In the case of the modes, i t i s used to ex-p l a i n the a s s o c i a t i o n between the C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s and heaven. The s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r H a r s d o r f f e r of the e f f e c t s of music on the mind and s o u l w i l l become apparent l a t e r i n c onnection with h i s treatment of music i n a p o e t i c c o n t e x t . H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s remarks i n the area of s p e c u l a t i v e music i n general demonstrate above a l l h i s e c l e c t i c approach to source m a t e r i a l s . He e i t h e r s e l e c t s what i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r each p a r t i c u l a r case, or presents opposing viewpoints without n e c e s s a r i l y coming down on one s i d e or the o t h e r . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a number of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , and however t r o u b l i n g these may be to the modern mind, they e v i d e n t l y were not so f o r H a r s d f l r f f e r . Some of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s r e s u l t from h i s own i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s or from the u n c l e a r p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l , others stem from c l a s h e s between the C h r i s t i a n and C l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n music as a t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n , and i t s importance f o r him as a means of broadening the general knowledge of his reader, brings t i t l e of Musicus Theoreticus. him close to earning the 58 Chapter Two: Musica P r a c t i c a The Musicus P r a c t i c u s , e x p l a i n s Johann Herbst, i s one "welcher d i e Music e x e r c i r t , und u b e t . " 1 H a r s d f l r f f e r h i m s e l f came from a musical f a m i l y , as h i s f a t h e r c e r t a i n l y 2 i s a s s o c i a t e d with music. The name, P h i l i p p H a r s d f l r f f e r , furthermore, appears i n the records of the Nuremberg Music : 3 S o c i e t y ("Kranzchen"), but there i s disagreement on whether t h i s r e f e r s to the poet or to h i s f a t h e r . Nagel assumes i t i t the poet, while K e l l e r suggests i t i s the f a t h e r , n o t i n g t h a t f o r the year given of 1626, H a r s d f l r f f e r j u n i o r was a t -4 tending the u n i v e r s i t y of Strasbourg. Yet the records of the Music S o c i e t y date one attendance of a H a r s d o r f f e r as May 29, 1626, while the r o l l s of the U n i v e r s i t y of S t r a s -bourg show the student H a r s d f l r f f e r to have r e g i s t e r e d on 5 J u l y 10, 1626, a l l o w i n g s u f f i c i e n t time f o r H a r s d o r f f e r to have attended the music meeting, made h i s way to S t r a s -bourg and r e g i s t e r e d a t the u n i v e r s i t y . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e t h a t he was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the musical l i f e of the c i t y a t an e a r l y age. H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s f r i e n d and co-member of the Pegnesischer Blumenorden, Sigmund von B i r k e n , i s known to have owned a musical instrument. He w r i t e s i n h i s d i a r y : "Meine Mandor 59 wieder bezogen," u and he presumably a l s o p l a y e d i t . S i g -mund Staden r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n on a number of instruments, 7 p a r t i c u l a r l y the c o r n e t t o , the v i o l a bastarda and the organ. Although H a r s d o r f f e r thus a s s o c i a t e d with a t l e a s t one pro-f e s s i o n a l and one n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t , i t i s i not c l e a r i f he h i m s e l f was a p l a y e r . His name c e r t a i n l y i s o f t e n c l o s e l y connected with musical instruments. C a r l Gustav von H i l l e , f o r example, c o n t r i b u t e d a poem, i t s g music and an e t c h i n g to the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e , a s s o c i a t i n g H a r s d f l r f f e r with the nine muses, a l l of whom are d e p i c t e d p l a y i n g musical instruments. In the l a s t verse of the song, they are exhorted to seek out H a r s d o r f f e r , who, i f not t h e i r b e t t e r , i s a t l e a s t t h e i r e q u al: Neun Gflttinen e i l t mit Z i e r ! nemt neun Instrumenten h i e r . Sucht den hochbegabten Mann/ der so t r e f f l i c h s p i e l e n kan. (FG,IV,15) The word " s p i e l e n " i s a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to H a r s d o r f f e r ' s pseudonym "der Spie l e n d e " which he used subsequent to being accepted i n t o the Fruchtbringende G e s e l l s c h a f t . In the pr e f a c e to H i l l e ' s song, furthermore, the l e t t e r s of the name "der S p i e l e n d e " are l a v i s h l y decorated with a harp, v i o l i n , organ, drum and l u t e , v i s u a l l y demonstrating the i n t e r -t w i n i n g of H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s name and musical instruments, while i n H i l l e ' s e t c h i n g , the i n i t i a l "S" standing f o r "der S p i e -60 lende," i s wound around a l y r e . Johann R i s t a l s o a s s o c i a t e s H a r s d f l r f f e r with a musi-c a l instrument. In h i s " S i n n e - B i l d uber das f u n f t e T h e i l der n i e genug-gepriesenen G e s p r a c h - s p i e l e , " he pr o v i d e s t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of H a r s d f l r f f e r : "Der Herr S p i e l e n d e r s i t z e t 9 a u f f einem schonen Hugel/ s p i e l e n d a u f f der Lauten." C h r i s t o p h A r n o l d a l s o says of H a r s d o r f f e r : " . . . hat er sein e Leyr gestimmet/ d i e uns h i e r g e s p i e l e t hat"(FG,V,86). S i m i l a r l y , Ludwig von Anhalt, i n a l e t t e r to H a r s d f l r f f e r of August, 1, 1643, i n c l u d e s a poem f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e b e g i n n i n g : "Der S p i e l e n d a l Z e i t wol mit s e i n e r l e i r e s p i e l t / In ungebundner red, darZu mit schflnen Reimen. . . ."' L 0 Although i n these i n s t a n c e s Hars-d f l r f f e r i s d e s c r i b e d as p l a y i n g v a r i o u s instruments, none of these r e f e r e n c e s can be taken l i t e r a l l y , as they are drawn from h i s penchant f o r , and a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h "das S p i e l , " ex-e m p l i f i e d above a l l by the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e . In the l a s t q u o t a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , p l a y i n g the l y r e i s a metaphor f o r H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s expert use of rhymed and unrhymed language. In a poem w r i t t e n by R i s t f o r Johann K l a j ' s wedding i n 1648, mention i s made of H a r s d f l r f f e r as a performer. Re-f e r r i n g to H a r s d o r f f e r as "Strephon," h i s pseudonym i n the Pegnesischer Blumenorden, R i s t w r i t e s : 61 Strephon sang, Montano p f i f f e , A l cidor that Lauten-Griffe, Floridan s p i e l t auf der Leyr, Gross war diese Hirten-Feyr. . . . Harsdflrffer i s thus depicted as a singer, while the con-nection between Sigmund von Birken (Floridan) and the lyre may be a poetic reference to his playing the mandora. Although the same reservations apply here as far as taking l i t e r a l l y any information found i n a poem i s con-cerned, R i s t nevertheless was writing a piece of occasional poetry, in which facts are dressed up in poetic language. The implications therefore are that the information in thi s poem i s based on actual events at Klaj's wedding. Although i t cannot ultimately be proven from such sources as these that Harsflrffer did sing or play a musical instrument, the very frequent association of his name with aspects of musi-cal performance suggests that metaphor may not be so far from the truth. The designation Musicus Practicus in Herbst's under-standing of the term nevertheless cannot be applied to Hars-dorffer with certainty. But i t can be applied to him in the sense of someone who i s interested i n a l l kinds of prac-t i c a l aspects of music and musical instruments. Although some of the material to follow, e s p e c i a l l y that concerned with i n t e r v a l l i e experiments, would often have been found in a Musica Theoretica t r e a t i s e , i t has been included here 62 as i t borders on the realms of modern p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e . H a r s d o r f f e r i n a number of p l a c e s r e v e a l s an i n t e r e s t i n the nature of s t r i n g e d instruments and i n experiments made with s t r i n g s . He r e f e r s above a l l to the monochord, a o n e - s t r i n g e d experimental instrument i n which the s t r i n g i s drawn over a soundbox and s e c t i o n e d by movable b r i d g e s . The p o s i t i o n of the b r i d g e or b r i d g e s determines the r a t i o s of the v i b r a t i n g s t r i n g , and the musical i n t e r v a l s can thus be e x p l a i n e d mathematically. For i n s t a n c e , i f the s t r i n g i s p lucked with no b r i d g e present, and then plucked again with the b r i d g e d i v i d i n g i t e x a c t l y i n two, the second sound produced w i l l be one octave h i g h e r than the f i r s t , and the r a t i o of the octave w i l l be 2:1. The procedure can 12 then be continued f o r a l l the v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s . Hars-d o r f f e r p r e f e r s to e x p l a i n the process i n terms of v u l g a r f r a c t i o n s : "Die h e l f t \ i s t d i e Octav: d i e t e r t z 2/3 d i e q u i n t 3/4 und d i e s e s s i n d d i e v o l l s t a n d i g e Zusammenstim-mungen"(ME,II,135). In the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s passage, he leaves out the f r a c t i o n s , and e x p l a i n s : "Es s i n d auch un-vollkommene Gleichstimmungen/ a l s d i e quart und s e x t : d i e secund und septima aber s i n d missstimmig . . . w e i l d i e s e numeri n i c h t harmonici sind"(ME,II,135). H a r s d f l r f f e r i s not so much concerned here with the mathematical i n t r i c a c i e s o f monochordal experimentation, f o r he r e s t r i c t s h i s d i s -c u s s i o n to the s i m p l e s t terms, and does not reproduce the 63 c o m p l e x i t i e s found i n some of the musical t r e a t i s e s of the time. He i s r a t h e r i n t e r e s t e d f i r s t l y i n the elements of harmony and disharmony e x e m p l i f i e d by p e r f e c t , imper-f e c t and d i s s o n a n t i n t e r v a l s , and secondly, i n the a s s o c i -a t i o n o f music and numbers. Music and mathematics had belonged together a t l e a s t s i n c e the time of Pythagoras, and i n p a i n t i n g s and woodcuts up to the seventeenth century he i s u s u a l l y d e p i c t e d c a r r y i n g out h i s musical experiments with s t r i n g s , hammers and b e l l s . D a n i e l Schwendter, one of H a r s d o r f f e r ' s p r o f e s s o r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of A l t d o r f , wrote the f i r s t p a r t of the Mathema-t i s c h e Erquickstunden, and H a r s d o r f f e r may have c o l l a b o r a t e d 13 with him on the work. I t i s e x p l a i n e d here t h a t music belongs to the area of mixed mathematics, "weil sie. aus der A r i t h m e t i c a , a l s der e r s t e n und vornemsten Wissenschaft i h r e p r i n c i p i a nimmet"(ME,I,229). Numbers i n any context, s t a t e s H a r s d o r f f e r i n the second p a r t of the Mathematische  Erquickstunden, are " n i c h t s anders/ a l s a l l e r dinge Ordnung" (ME,II,129), and the type of experimentation w i t h the mono-chord i s then a means of determining the order i n h e r e n t i n music. Such an a s s o c i a t i o n between numbers and music i s thus drawn from the t r a d i t i o n a l Pythagorean way of approach^-i n g music, and the b a s i c ideas are presented by H a r s d o r f f e r i n s i m p l i f i e d form, making them r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the general reader. The a s s o c i a t i o n s , furthermore, p r o v i d e 64 j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n c l u d i n g a s e c t i o n on music i n such a work as the Mathematische Erquickstunden (ME,11,129). H a r s d o r f f e r i s i n t e r e s t e d not o n l y i n a r i t h m e t i c a l aspects of v i b r a t i n g s t r i n g s : "Unter anderen Wunderwerken i n der Music," he e x p l a i n s , " i s t v i e l l e i c h t n i c h t das ringste/wann unter zwo gleichgestimmeten Lauten/ d i e eine b e r u h r e t w i r d / dass d i e andere dardurch g l e i c h s f a l s s i c h hflren lasset"(FG,IV,254) . Sympathetic v i b r a t i o n between the s t r i n g s i s not e x p l a i n e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , and i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t h a t the phenomenon i s something ama-z i n g which happens i n music. In the Mathematische E r q u i c k -stunden, however, s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n s are attempted: "Geschihet es aus e i n e r sonderbaren Sympathia? Oder ge-s c h i h e t es vielmehr darum/ w e i l d i e S a i t e n i n einem tono ge-stimmet/ d i e impression des L u f f t e s l e i c h t l i c h fangen/ wel-cher erwecket i s t durch d i e Anrtihrung der e r s t e n S a i t e n / daraus f o l g t e / dass d i e auch bewegt wflrde nach der Mensur und Mass/ wie d i e andere/ so durch den F i d e l b o g e n bewegt. Ich vor meine Person l a s s e beede vorhergehende r a t i o n e s und Ursachen p a s s i r e n / b i s eine bessere h e r f u r g e b r a c h t wird"(ME, 1,233). I f H a r s d o r f f e r i s the author of these statements, they demonstrate t h a t he was prepared to weigh up e x i s t i n g evidence, but was f i n a l l y u n w i l l i n g to accept the standard e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r sympathetic v i b r a t i o n . No reason i s given 6 5 as to why the explanations are considered untenable—gen-era l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s merely implied. The l a s t sentence, furthermore / i l l u s t r a t e s quite c l e a r l y the modus operandi of.the author: he i s not concerned with finding an accep-table answer to the question of sympathetic v i b r a t i o n him-s e l f , and c e r t a i n l y not through p r a c t i c a l experimentation. He prefers rather to rel y on the findings of others, and independent s c i e n t i f i c research i s out of the question. Even i f Harsdflrffer i s not the author of these remarks, his association with Schwendter suggests most strongly that he was aware not only of the content but also of Schwendter's uncertainty i n the matter. Strings for use on musical instruments, Harsdorffer t e l l s us, can be made of hemp, s i l k , metal or animal gut (ME,II,154-5). Hemp i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y good, he explains, as i t i s not always strong enough. If s i l k i s used, the best choice i s Milanese s i l k which has been treated with re s i n . In the case of metals, the most suitable are gold and s i l v e r , as others cannot be drawn well. The best gut strings are those from a sheep which has grazed on the mountains, and which i s slaughtered i n the summer. Gut from the goat and the wolf may also be used, but sheep and wolf strings can never be used together on the same instrument, as i t would be impossible to get them i n tune. This i s ex-plained by the fact that i n l i f e there i s a natural antipathy 66 between the sheep and the w o l f — t h e two are n a t u r a l ene-m i e s — a n d t h a t t h i s enmity remains a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the gut a f t e r the death of the animals (FG,VI,140-41; ME,II, 137). T h i s a n t i p a t h y , furthermore, e x p l a i n s why b e a t i n g a drum covered with wolf s k i n w i l l cause a nearby drum covered with sheep s k i n to s p l i t (FG,VI,133). A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the sound of the wolf s k i n drum w i l l be so loud as to overpower the sound of the o t h e r (ME,II,137). As f a r as the s t r i n g s i n p a r t i c u l a r are concerned, "der niemals genugsam b e l o b t e J e s u i t K i r c h e r u s hat eine Prob ge-than/ und befunden/ dass d i e S c h a f s - und W o l f s s a i t e n / s i c h gar wolzusammen stimmen l a s s e n / und noch zersprungen/ noch 14 einen m i s s l a u t gegeben"(ME,II,137). H a r s d f l r f f e r was c l e a r l y up to date with what was going on i n the f i e l d of musical experimentation, and he i s furthermore prepared to i n c l u d e a l e a s t a mention of K i r c h e r ' s f i n d i n g s which d i s -prove the b e l i e f s commonly h e l d f o r c e n t u r i e s . Yet Hars-d o r f f e r does not view e i t h e r the standard b e l i e f s or K i r - : cher's r e s u l t s c r i t i c a l l y . On the one hand, the law of a n t i -pathy founded i n general terms on a p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y based i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of n a t u r a l phenomena i s accepted as r e p r e -s e n t i n g the t r u t h . On the o t h e r hand, evidence from s c i e n -t i f i c e xperimentation i s a l s o i n c l u d e d , but no attempt i s made to r e c o n c i l e the two. J u s t as i n the case of h e l i o -c e n t r i c i t y noted above (p. 40), H a r s d o r f f e r p r e s e n t s the 67 t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l and the modern s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a -n a t i o n s , but does not h i m s e l f come down on e i t h e r s i d e . A r i t h m e t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r Hars-d f l r f f e r ' s statements on the s u b j e c t of t u n i n g instruments. Drawing once more from e x i s t i n g sources, he e x p l a i n s the p r o p o r t i o n a t e weights, diameters and amounts of v a r i o u s metals r e q u i r e d to produce b e l l s of d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s (ME, 111,370-71) . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of organ pipes (ME,III,366-3 67), and the xylophone, known as "das H o l t z e r n e G e l a c h t e r " (ME,III,368-69) i s a l s o e x p l a i n e d i n mathematical terms, as i s the t u n i n g of drums, although H a r s d f l r f f e r a l s o i n -cludes here the a c t u a l notes f o u r drums should be tuned t o : i i i ii 15 c e g c (ME,II,156). : Of i n t e r e s t with regard to the performance p r a c t i c e s of the time are H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s remarks on the s c o r d a t u r a 16 t u n i n g of l u t e s and v i o l i n s : "Die Lauten kflnnen a u f f v i e l weise vejrjstimmet werden/ dass s i e eine r i c h t i g e und Musi-c a l i s c h e L i e b l i c h k e i t haben/ so gar/ dass eine m e i s t e r l i c h e Hand/ eine gantz ungestimmte Laute f a s t mit den G r i f f e n be-stimmen kan. Auss solchem Grunde kan man auch d i e Geigen verstimmen/ wie h i e r v o n H. Erasmus Kindermann e i n B u c h l e i n / des verstimmten V i o l e n - L u s t genannt/ i n o f f e n t l i c h e n Druck 17 gegeben"(ME,III,371-72). There f o l l o w four s h o r t p i e c e s of dance music, i n c l u d i n g the notes f o r t u n i n g the s t r i n g s of the v i o l i n i n v a r i o u s ways, a l l composed by Johann W e l l t e r , 68 a noted Nuremberg l u t e n i s t . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , H a r s d f l r f f e r goes beyond a mere des-c r i p t i o n of the general p r i n c i p l e s of t u n i n g , as was the case with b e l l s , organs and xylophones, and i n c l u d e s e v i -dence t h a t he was aware of c e r t a i n aspects of s t r i n g t e c h -nique, although t h i s cannot be taken as a b s o l u t e proof t h a t he h i m s e l f p l a y e d the instruments. T h i s knowledge may r e -p r e s e n t merely another aspect of h i s wide read i n g on a l l aspects of music, and h i s r e f e r e n c e to Kindermann's book shows t h a t h i s search f o r i n f o r m a t i o n l e d him to i n s t r u -mental works. In the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the passage given, moreover, H a r s d O r f f e r remarks t h a t the t u n i n g p r o v i d e d by W e l l t e r " l a u t e t am frembdsten"(ME,111,372), and such a judgemental comment c l e a r l y r e s u l t s from a comparison of the s c o r d a t u r a with normal t u n i n g . These words unmistakably i l l u s t r a t e H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s f a m i l i a r i t y with one of the b a s i c aspects of p l a y i n g a s t r i n g e d instrument. His i n t e r e s t i n s c o r d a t u r a , f i n a l l y , can be a s s o c i a t e d with h i s love f o r "das S p i e l , " s i n c e on paper, a p i e c e of music with scorda-t u r a t u n i n g p r o v i d e d i s nothing but a trompe d ' o e i l - - i t does not sound as i t i s w r i t t e n , and as a r e s u l t , the a r t of composing i n t h i s manner may be viewed as a means of p l a y i n g o f f i l l u s i o n a g a i n s t r e a l i t y . Throughout h i s works, H a r s d f i r f f e r r e f e r s to a g r e a t v a r i e t y of musical instruments, and although some of them 69 are r e c o g n i z a b l e to t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y eyes and ears, a number are not. There are, i n a d d i t i o n , some t e r m i n o l o -g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s which must be r e s o l v e d or a t l e a s t d i s -cussed i n order to understand the i n t e n t i o n s of H a r s d f l r f f e r and Staden with regard to p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . The f i r s t p o t e n t i a l cause of c o n f u s i o n occurs with the word "Instrument" i t s e l f . I t had been customary to use the word as a synonym f o r the h a r p s i c h o r d or other s i m i l a r key-board instrument, and H a r s d f l r f f e r does indeed use i t with t h i s meaning when he r e f e r s to a person i n F e r r a r a owning " e i n Instrument oder Spinneta"(ME,III,371). S i m i l a r l y , i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y music to the second scene of the Tugend-ste r n e the instruments c a l l e d f o r by Staden are "D i s c a n t -V i o l e n " and an "Instrument"(FG,V,647). P r a e t o r i u s had ob-j e c t e d most s t r o n g l y to such a l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n of the term, i n s i s t i n g t h a t i t should c o r r e c t l y be a p p l i e d to a l l 19 instruments, and H a r s d o r f f e r does use i t i n t h i s sense, r e f e r r i n g f o r example to a theorbo, a long-necked l u t e , as "besagtes Instrument"(FG,III,200), and to "die k u n s t l i c h e n und u n k u n s t l i c h e n Music-Instrumenten"(FG,IV,496). Staden a l s o employs the word with t h i s general meaning at the be-g i n n i n g o f the score to Seelewig (FG,IV,534). Although H a r s d o r f f e r u s u a l l y uses the term i n t h i s sense, n e i t h e r he nor Staden does so e x c l u s i v e l y , and care must t h e r e f o r e be taken to s c r u t i n i z e the context whenever the word appears. 70 Only once i s the h a r p s i c h o r d put to use as a continuo instrument, and t h a t i s i n the i n s t a n c e of the Tugendsterne noted above. The f i r s t c h o i c e f o r continuo instrument i s the t h e o r b o — i t i s to be used e x c l u s i v e l y as such i n S e e l -ewig (FG,IV,534), i t i s the f i r s t o p t i o n i n Von der Welt  E i t e l k e i t (FG,III,200), and i t i s a l s o to be used f o r the t h i r d song i n the Tugendsterne (FG,V,651). A l t e r n a t i v e instruments to f u l f i l t h i s f u n c t i o n are harp, l u t e , p o s i -t i v e and r e g a l (both types of small organ), and the "Geigen-werk." T h i s l a s t instrument seems to have been w e l l known i n the seventeenth century: P r a e t o r i u s p r o v i d e s a woodcut 20 of i t ; i t i s mentioned as "das new erfundene Nurnbergische Geigenwerck" i n the programme f o r the h i s t o r i c a l c o n c e r t of 21 1643; i t was used i n the m u s i c a l f e s t i v i t i e s c e l e b r a t i n g 22 the end of the T h i r t y Years' War, and H a r s d o r f f e r makes no s p e c i a l remarks about i t when he recommends i t f o r use i n Von der Welt E i t e l k e i t (FG,III,200). The "Geigenwerk" has the appearance of a bulky keyboard instrument of the time, but i n t e r n a l l y i t contained f i v e or s i x parchment covered wheels which were s e t i n motion by means of a pedal or handle. Depressing the keys brought the s t r i n g s i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the r o t a t i n g wheels, thus producing the sound. The instrument represented an attempt to improve on e x i s -t i n g keyboards, s i n c e i t was capable of producing g r e a t e r 23 dynamic v a r i a t i o n , and the sound c o u l d be s u s t a i n e d . 71 Above the i n t r o d u c t o r y music f o r the f o u r t h song i n the Tugendsterne, the instruments r e q u i r e d by Staden are "2 F l o t e n " and a "Geigen-Instrument"(FGV,655). K e l l e r under-24 stands t h i s as "Geigen." However, i f the second compo-nent, "Instrument," i s taken to mean h a r p s i c h o r d or s i m i l a r keyboard instrument, the the "Geigenwerk" i s most c e r t a i n l y i n t e n d e d . 2 ^ In the S c h a u s p i e l zu Ross, H a r s d f l r f f e r demonstrates h i s knowledge of the v a r i o u s trumpet ranges i n use a t the time. The S c h a u s p i e l c o n s i s t s of a d e s c r i p t i o n of formations which can be taken by r i d e r s and t h e i r horses, a l l i n time 2 6 to trumpet music. H a r s d f l r f f e r i n c l u d e s the n o t a t i o n , and e x p l a i n s : . "Es s o l geblasen werden durch sechs Trompeten/ a l s I. den C l a r i n . I I . G e g e n c l a r i n / oder C o n t r a c l a r i n . I I I . P r i n c i p a l / oder hohe Stimme. IV. f u l g a n t , oder Mittelstimme, V. d i e Grober oder Grundstimme/ und dann VI. mit dem F l a t t e r " (FG,VII,506): Example 2: 1~ ( " 1 IV ~T~ f f1 i L» *— A j-P .J ' i t - r - J ^ VI'* 1 ' ' ' W ' | ^ — L - M -iT [ f f lr ff TCf 1 r tr f f r] r u e i ip=4 72 The music i s marked " C l a r i n , " and P r a e t o r i u s e x p l a i n s t h a t t n e c l a r i n o i s the descant trumpet which c a r r i e s the melody 27 and ornaments. The stepwise p r o g r e s s i o n s i n the p i e c e indeed r e q u i r e a c l a r i n o technique, which i s the a r t of p l a y i n g s c a l e s i n the high r e g i s t e r of a v a l v e l e s s i n s t r u -ment. P r a e t o r i u s i n the same p l a c e , f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s t h a t the "Volgan" (Harsd O r f f e r ' s " f u l g a n t " ) i s a f i f t h above the bass, and remains on the note G; the "Grob"is the bass, and the "Fladdergrob" ( H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s " F l a t t e r " ) i s an octave below the bass. Although P r a e t o r i u s i n c l u d e s a d d i t i o n a l names f o r trumpet ranges which do not appear i n H a r s d o r f f e r ' s l i s t , both adhere to the same general p r i n c i p l e s . I t i s important to note i n t h i s connection the use of the word "grob," meaning low i n p i t c h . H a r s d o r f f e r o f t e n uses i t i n t h i s sense, as i s the case, f o r example, when he e x p l a i n s t h a t the l o n g e s t s t r i n g s on a harp "die grfibsten Stimmen fuhren"(ME,II,134), or t h a t the Germans "eine grobe s t a r c k e Stimme haben"(ME,II,170). In Seelewig, furthermore, the instrument chosen by Staden to accompany the c h a r a c t e r of Trugewalt, the s a t y r , i s a "grobes Horn"(FG,IV,534 and 2 8 561). In general usage the word meant "uncouth, coarse, rough," e t c . , as i s e v i d e n t from H a r s d o r f f e r ' s r e f e r e n c e 29 to h i s p r i n t e r s as "grob and g e i z i g . " When used as a musical term, however, t h i s sense of the word does not a l -ways apply, although a double meaning i s sometimes apparent: 73 "Es wolte e i n Cantor von einem u n s t u d i e r t e n Studenten reden/ und sagte: Seine S t u d i a s i n d wie d i e Noten im C o r a l / wenig und grob"(AA,288). A p o t e n t i a l c o m p l i c a t i o n a r i s e s with the word "Leyer," I t may r e f e r to the l y r e , the hurdy-gurdy or a c e r t a i n type of v i o l . H a r s d f l r f f e r once uses the word with the l a s t meaning when he d e s c r i b e s an instrument as "eine Leyr/ oder Geigen"(FG,VII,129), and h i s i n t e n t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the f i r s t two o p t i o n s can o f t e n be deduced from the context. I t i s immediately c l e a r , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t when the word i s used i n connection with Orpheus, the l y r e i s meant (FG,VI, 573; FG,VIII,69). In a d e s c r i p t i o n of the border of a tapes-try,' H a r s d o r f f e r mentions a number of instruments, i n c l u d i n g the "Leyer:" "Die E i n f a s s u n g d i e s e s T eppichts kan seyn von Lauten/ Geigen/ H a r p f f e n / F l o t e n / Zincken [ c o r n e t t o s ] / Posaunen: und uber d i e s e M u s i k a l i s c h e Gezeug (Instrumenta) i s t a u f f e i n e r S e i t e n eine S a c k p f e i f f e n / a u f f der andern eine Schallmeyen ^shawmjoder Leyern erhaben; zu verstehen gebend/ wie o f f t Baurische K u r t z w e i l / mehr k u s t l i c h e Music vorgezogen werde"(FG,II,157) . M u s i c a l instruments are thus d i v i d e d i n t o two camps, one of which i s s o c i a l l y and a r t i s -t i c a l l y s u p e r i o r to the o t h e r . The "Leyer" belongs to the i n f e r i o r group, and i s t h e r e f o r e a peasant hurdy-gurdy i n t h i s c o n t e x t . The l y r a v i o l i s c e r t a i n l y not meant, f i r s t l y because i t comes under the general heading of "Geigen," and 74 secondly, because i t was e s p e c i a l l y intended f o r v i r t u o s o performance. Such a d i v i s i o n of instruments i s confirmed i n one of H a r s d o r f f e r * s poems which d e s c r i b e s them as " k u n s t l i c h " and " u n k u n s t l i c h : " E i n j e d e r s t e c k t ihm s e l b e s t erwehltes Z i e l : Der l i e b e t etwan k u n s t l i c h e M u s i c s p i e l ' / e r l u s t i g t s i c h mit Orglen und Trompeten/ s c h l u r f f e n d e n Zinken und grossen F l f i t e n . Posaunen/ Geigen/ Lauten und anders mehr/ b e l i e b e t v i e l e n neben der Music-Lehr. E i n minderer G e i s t l i e b t auszuschweiffen/ Bauren und Burgeren a u f z u p f e i f f e n . Die C i t t e r / Leyer/ das s c h a l l e n d e Jager H i f f t im F e l d und i n den D f l r f f e r e n Freude s t i f f t / Schalmayen/ T r i a n g e l / Maultrommel l i e b e t der Pfivel im Zechgemommel. E i n j e d e r l o b t das Seine so v i e l e r w i l ; Unkunst' und Kunste/ S a i t e n und S i n n e - S p i e l ; i c h denk' i h r keinen zu befeden/ h o r e t mich/ h o r e t von S p i e l e n reden! (FG,IV,496-97) The poem p r o v i d e s f i r s t l y a convenient catalogue of v a r i o u s instruments i n use at the time, and secondly, H a r s d o r f f e r ' s view of the s o c i a l s t a t u s of each. H a r s d o r f f e r has no doubts about the way i n which i n s t r u -ments are to be playe d : "Wer wolte nun n i c h t l i e b e r einen Kunstrichtig-gestimmten S e i t e n k l a n g / a l s eine missgestimmte B a u r e n f i d e l hflren"(PT,III,30). The emphasis i s not on which instruments are used, but on whether they are pla y e d i n a manner which i s m u s i c a l l y c o r r e c t and p l e a s i n g to the ear. Peasant instruments c e r t a i n l y take on a s o c i a l l y d i f f e r e n t 75 meaning when seen i n l i g h t of the p a s s i o n f o r t h i n g s bu-c o l i c : " . . . v i e l f r e y e r e r k l i n g e t das s c h l u r f f e n d e Dudeln der S a c k p f e i f f e n und der Schalmayen/ a l s d i e mord-tonenden Trommel und Trompeten"(D,preface). The same sen-timent i s behind H a r s d f i r f f e r 1 s poem, "Des Fri e d e n s S i e g -s e u l e , " i n which shawms are opposed to "Pauken, Trommel 3 0 und Trompeten." An i d e a l i z e d r u s t i c l i f e i s thus p r e -f e r a b l e to the r e a l i t i e s of the T h i r t y Years' War. The p o p u l a r i t y of instruments r e s u l t i n g from the p a s t o r a l t r e n d i s a l s o apparent i n l i v e entertainments of the day. Hunting 31 horns and shawms were known a t the c o u r t a t W o l f e n b u t t e l , and bagpipes and shawms were pla y e d d u r i n g the fi r e w o r k d i s p l a y which was a p a r t of the f e s t i v i t i e s i n Nuremberg 32 c e l e b r a t i n g the end of the T h i r t y Years' War. H a r s d o r f f e r a l s o has no qualms about recommending i n s t r u -ments a s s o c i a t e d with the peasants or town waits f o r use i n h i s musical p i e c e s . In one of the s e c t i o n s of Von der Welt  E i t e l k e i t , three smiths are to appear, s i n g i n g a song and b e a t i n g red hot i r o n on an a n v i l i n time to the song. Hars-d o r f f e r suggests t h a t a hurdy-gurdy c o u l d a l s o be used (FG, 111,208), and the i m p l i c a t i o n s are th a t the s o c i a l s t a t u s of the instrument i s i n accord w i t h t h a t of the smiths. In a d d i t i o n , the assumption has to be made t h a t the hurdy-gurdy i s to be play e d i n a t u n e f u l and m u s i c a l l y p l e a s i n g manner to avoid g i v i n g o f f e n c e to the c u l t i v a t e d ear. Other i n s t r u -76 merits mentioned by H a r s d o r f f e r i n connection w i t h Von der Welt E i t e l k e i t are theorbo, "Geigenwerk," l u t e , p o s i t i v e organ and v i o l i n (FG,III,200 and 235), a l l of which belong to the a r t i s t i c group. The choice of instruments i n the Tugendsterne appears to have devolved upon Staden, although H a r s d & r f f e r does gi v e a sug g e s t i o n . The onl y instruments he mentions i n the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n of the Tugendsterne are the l u t e and theorbo, e i t h e r of which can be used e x c l u s i v e l y i f neces-33 sary to reduce the c o s t of a performance (FG,V,403). In t h e . a c t u a l s core, however, the instruments chosen by Staden are: c o r n e t t o , p o s i t i v e organ, descant v i o l s , h a r p s i c h o r d , descant v i o l i n , theorbo, r e c o r d e r s , "Geigen-Instrument," c l a r i n o , trombone, shawm, r e g a l , f l u t e and harp. A l l these instruments belong to, or are r e l a t e d t o , those of the a r t i s -t i c c ategory as s e t out i n H a r s d o r f f e r * s poem except the shawm. The f i r s t l i n e s of the song i n the Tugendsterne a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the shawm suggest why the instrument might have been s e l e c t e d : "Weil d i e schwachen Menschen schweben i n dem t i e f f e n Threnen T h a i / s o l l e n s i e n i c h t a l l z u m a l / e i n -sam a l s d i e Wilden leben . . ."(FG,V,664-65). The other instrument to be used i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s the r e g a l , and the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of t h i s and the shawm underscores the sense of these l i n e s : the r e g a l i s a s s o c i a t e d with "die Menschen," and the shawm with "die Wilden." The song, furthermore, i s 77 e n t i t l e d "Die V o r s i c h t i g k e i t , " and the e v i l s of the world to be guarded a g a i n s t are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the use of the shawm. In the case of Seelewig, H a r s d o r f f e r i n the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n does not deal e x t e n s i v e l y with the q u e s t i o n of the instruments, but he does g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g the names of c h a r a c t e r s s u p p l i e d a t the beginning, he notes t h a t the choruses are to be accompanied by " e i n S a i t e n s p i e l " (FG,IV,82). At the end of the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n , an o u t l i n e of instruments to be a s s o c i a t e d with the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s i s p r o v i d e d : "Bey der Music i s t zu merken/ dass bey jedem Aufzug eine An- oder Gleichstimmung zu hflren/ a l s den Nymfen mogen Geigen/ Lauten und F l o t e n / den Schaferen Schalmeyen/ Z w e r c h p f e i f f e n / F l a g e o l e t / dem Trugewalt e i n grosses Horn zugeeignet werden"(FG,IV,206). Trugewalt c o u l d a l s o c a r r y a l a r g e hunting horn (FG,IV,208). T h i s i s the extent o f H a r s d o r f f e r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s as to i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i n S e e l -ewig. The remaining remarks i n t e r s p e r s e d i n the l i b r e t t o deal above a l l with e x p l a i n i n g the meaning of the songs, sugges t i n g a l l kinds of emblematic p a r a l l e l s with the con-;, t e n t , and p r o v i d i n g examples of how metre and rhyme can be used c o r r e c t l y i n the German language. The instruments c a l l e d f o r a t the beginning of the score s e c t i o n of Seelewig are three v i o l i n s , three r e c o r d e r s , three shawms, a "grobes Horn" and f i n a l l y a theorbo to pro-: 78 v i d e the continuo. In the a c t u a l s core, a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u -ments are r e q u i r e d : pommers ("Pomparten" = low p i t c h e d shawms), bassoons, trumpet and v i o l s . The d i s p o s i t i o n of the instruments a c c o r d i n g to the c h a r a c t e r s they are to re p r e s e n t i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y music to the a c t s and1 scenes i s as f o l l o w s : A l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e "Music" (Prologue) Ehrelob and Reichimuth ( I , i i i ) Seelewig and Sinnigunda ( I , i v ) Trugewalt ( I , i v ) Seelewig and Sinnigunda ( I I , i ) E h r e l o b , K u n s t e l i n g and Reichimuth ( I I , i i ) Trugewalt, K u n s t e l i n g , Reichimuth and Ehrelob ( I I I , i ) Angels ( I I I , v i ) v i o l i n s shawms v i o l i n s trumpet or low p i t c h e d horn r e c o r d e r s shawms pommers and bassoons v i o l s Staden has thus s e l e c t e d some of the instruments from Hars-d o r f f e r ' s l i s t p r o v i d e d i n the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n . Not o n l y has he a p p l i e d them to the c h a r a c t e r s as H a r s d o r f f e r sug-g e s t s , but he has a l s o i n c r e a s e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of v a r i -a t i o n by i n c l u d i n g a d d i t i o n a l r e l a t e d instruments: pommers and bassoons, f o r example, l i k e the shawm, use a double reed, and produce a s i m i l a r type of sound. The c h o i c e and a p p l i c a t i o n of instruments i n Seelewig adhere c l o s e l y to the scheme given i n H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s poem above, but the instruments now take on an obvious symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a d d i t i o n to any a r t i s t i c and s o c i a l connota-7 9 t i o n s . The nymphs, i n c l u d i n g Seelewig h e r s e l f ( v i o l i n s and recorders) r e p r e s e n t the powers of good, while the shepherds (reed instruments, horn and trumpet) r e p r e s e n t the powers of e v i l . A c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s apparent here, i n t h a t the trumpet, otherwise an a r t i s t i c instrument, i s used i n c o n n e c t i o n with Trugewalt. K e l l e r p r o v i d e s two explana-t i o n s as to why t h i s c o u l d have o c c u r r e d : f i r s t l y ^ trumpets may have been [and were^J more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e than hunting horns, and secondly, the sound q u a l i t y of the trumpet i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of the trombones and c o r n e t t o s r e q u i r e d by Monteverdi to d e p i c t the underworld i n Orfeo, and the i n s t r u -ment may consequently have been chosen f o r t h i s type of a c o u s t i c reason r a t h e r than f o r any p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t i c o r 35 symbolic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Whatever the cause, the i n c l u s i o n of a trumpet to r e p r e s e n t Trugewalt suggests t h a t however v a l i d H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s d i v i s i o n of instruments i n t o two s o c i a l l y and a r t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r i n g groups may have been on paper, i t d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y apply i n p r a c t i c e . The i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n suggested f o r performance purposes, furthermore, i s never a H a r s d f l r f f e r i a n f i a t , f o r , as noted, f a c t o r s of c o s t and a v a i l a b i l i t y are taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a l l o w i n g i n s t r u -mental accompaniment a c c o r d i n g to means. H a r s d o r f f e r more-over r e g u l a r l y bemoans the f a c t t h a t he does not have enough space f o r f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n s , and i n such cases, he leaves the reader to make the most of what i s g i v e n . 80 The p l a c i n g of i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s f o r stage works i s not always given i n H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s . Most of h i s remarks on t h i s s u b j e c t e x p l a i n t h a t the music i n par-t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s i s to be heard from behind the c u r t a i n . T h i s i s the case with the choruses and one of the echo scenes i n Seelewig (FG,82,125,161), and with one of the songs i n Von der Welt E i t e l k e i t (FG,III,200). In n e i t h e r of these p i e c e s i s any f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n given on the p o s i t i o n i n g of m u s i c i a n s . For the Tugendsterne, however, H a r s d o r f f e r suggests t h a t i f the aim i s to keep the c o s t of a p e r f o r -mance to a minimum, a p a i n t e d c u r t a i n should be drawn across the stage, and a l l the music, v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l , should 37 be heard from behind t h i s c u r t a i n (FG,III,403). In t h i s type of p r o d u c t i o n , the musician or musicians would not be seen a t a l l . H a r s d f l r f f e r r e f e r s to a c e l e b r a t i o n a t the c o u r t of the M e d i c i s , i n which s i n g e r s appeared "mit verborgener Instrumental Music"(FG,VI,192). In a c o u r t s i t u a t i o n , the i n v i s i b i l i t y of the o r c h e s t r a can be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t 3 8 t h a t musicians were servants and were kept out of s i g h t to a v o i d o f f e n d i n g the s e n s i b i l i t i e s of noble o n l o o k e r s . Ih the " f r e i e R e i c h s s t a d t " of Nuremberg, where musicians were h e l d i n hig h esteem, such s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were not 39 as a p p l i c a b l e . H a r s d o r f f e r n e v e r t h e l e s s r e t a i n s the p r i n -c i p l e of an i n v i s i b l e o r c h e s t r a . 81 The function of instrumental music in a stage setting i t not only to accompany the singers or to provide i n t r o -ductory "An- oder Gleichstimmungen," which foreshadow up-coming acts or scenes. The attention of the spectators must be sustained at a l l times, and this can be done between acts and scenes by presenting them with a painted curtain and allowing them to hear music, sometimes a song (FG,VI, 183), to keep t h e i r eyes and ears f u l l y occupied. Instru-mental music between acts or scenes i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appro-priate e s p e c i a l l y when played by trumpets or other loud instruments, as i t covers up the noise produced by changing the scenery (FG,VI,170). When instrumental music i s used i n conjunction with the voice, however, considerations of volume are rather d i f -ferent. The importance of understanding the text of a song was stressed by a number of writers. Valentin Haussmann at the beginning of the century, for example, had noted: "Es kommen auss I t a l i e n v i i schone gesang zu uns i n Teutsch-land/ so von dem mehrern t h e i l on verstand der texte musi-40 c i r t und gesungen werden." Later i n the century, the question of foreign texts was no longer as applicable, but, " . . . vernimmt man kein Wort im Gesang/ so i s t und b l e i b t es ein todtes Klang/ Hall und S c h a l l / der i n der Luft ver-gehet/ und i n den Ohren ersitzen b l e i b t / und kriegt der inwendige Mensch/ Seel und Geist zu seiner Erbauung nichts 82 davon." The i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of the words of a song i s thus a f a c t o r of prime importance. In terms very s i m i l a r to those used by Gruber, H a r s d f l r f f e r h i m s e l f s t a t e s t h a t "der n i c h t i g e Klang/ und das i n der L u f t verrauschende Getflne/ kan niemals wirk- und w e s e n t l i c h e Begntigung bey-bringen"(FG,IV,92-3). He a l s o notes i n connection w i t h Von  der Welt E i t e l k e i t t h a t the instruments must not overwhelm the v o i c e (FG,III,200). H a r s d o r f f e r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s regar-d i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l music then deal not o n l y w i t h the symbolic i m p l i c a t i o n s of the v a r i o u s instruments, but a l s o w i t h con-s i d e r a t i o n s of a p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l nature. In a d d i t i o n to a knowledge of v a r i o u s types of i n s t r u -ments and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , H a r s d f l r f f e r demonstrates some f a m i l i a r i t y with the nomenclature of the gamut, which was the c o l l e c t i v e name given to the range of musical sounds used i n p r a c t i c e . I t may be seen as the seventeenth-century v e r s i o n of the t o n i c s o l f a . The gamut i s though to have been d e v i s e d by Guido d'Arezzo, a e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y monk, as a means of p r o v i d i n g h i s p u p i l s w i t h a p r a c t i c a l method of l e a r n i n g to s i n g a t s i g h t . Guido had r e a l i z e d t h a t a c e r -t a i n s i x s y l l a b l e s of words to a L a t i n hymn were sung a t stepwise ascending p i t c h l e v e l s , and he consequently chose these s y l l a b l e s to r e p r e s e n t the names of the notes which were then always to be used i n the same r e l a t i o n s h i p to each 42 o t h e r . H a r s d f l r f f e r quotes the l i n e s of the hymn, n o t i n g 83 that they are "Die Verse/ aus welchen die 6 Stimmen oder Voces.genommenV(ME,II,138): Ut queant Laxis Resonare f i b r i s Mira gestorum Famuli suorum Solve pollute L a b i i reatum, ^ Sancte Ioannes. (ME,II,139) The set of six notes i s referred to as the hexachord, of which there were three types known as "hard," "natural" and "soft," overlapping to make up the gamut (Table II) ... " A l -though Harsdorffer i s not concerned with the i n t r i c a c i e s of the hexachord system—he assumes the reader i s f a m i l i a r with i t — h e i s nevertheless aware that such a method based on units of six notes was no longer working p a r t i c u l a r l y well i n prac-t i c e : "Weil aber sieben Stimmen und hier nur sechs . . ."(ME, 11,139), he writes. The move towards a system based on the octave (actually only seven d i f f e r e n t notes) was so strong, that a number of suggestions were being made for the name of the seventh note. Harsdfirffer was fa m i l i a r with the sugges-ti o n "bi"(ME,II,139), although there were o t h e r s . 4 4 Harsdfirffer uses hexachordal terminology i n a number of ways. In the case of the tuning of drums noted above, he sets out the information as: Example 3: ut mi sol fa 84 The f i r s t three notes, u t , mi and s o l , s t a r t i n g on the note c' belong to the n a t u r a l hexachord. The l a s t note, c", however, i s f a of the hard hexachord which would s t a r t i n t h i s case on g'. In another place H a r s d o r f f e r discusses the tuning of s t r i n g s on a l u t e or g u i t a r , n o t i n g that the bottom - s t r i n g should be tuned to "G s o l , r e , ut"(ME,III,366). A glance at the t a b l e on page 85 w i l l show th a t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the element " s o l " belongs to the n a t u r a l hexachord, "re" to the soft'f and "ut" to the hard. From t h i s i nformation the p i t c h of the note can be determined. Knowledge of the hexachord i s a l s o evident i n Hars-d f l r f f e r 's comments on the American s l o t h , which he c a l l s a "Haut"(NJ,II,n.p.). This animal, says H a r s d f l r f f e r i s as b i g as a c a t , w i t h malodorous breath, i t has very long claws, i s very slow and l i v e s i n t r e e s . "Wundersam aber i s t dieses Thieres Stimme/ i n dem es bey Nacht das u t , r e , mi, f a , s o l , l a o r d e n t l i c h s i n g e t / und darzwischen jedesmals einen halben Schlag p a u s s i e r e t / a l s o " ( N J , I I , n . p . ) : Example 4: V— - A - p - P - P - J -— £ 4 —^—e " c e> rh— ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha P i t c h Hard Natural. S o f t Hard N a t u r a l S o f t Hard The Gamut e" E l a E l a d" D re D s o l D re s o l c" e s o l C f a C s o l f a b' b f a B B mi B b f a B or: mi B a' A l a A mi A re A l a mi re q* G s o l G re G ut G s o l re ut f F f a F ut F f a ut e' E l a E mi E l a mi d' D l a D s o l D re D l a s o l re c l (middle c) C s o l C f a C ut C s o l f a ut bb btt b f a B B mi B b f a B . o r : nii B a A l a A mi A re A l a mi re g G s o l G re G ut G s o l re ut f F f a F ut F f a ut e E l a E mi E l a mi d D s o l D re D s o l re C C f a C ut C f a ut B B me B mi A A re A re G r ut j- u t (Gamma Ut) Table I I . The Hexachord System. Based on t h a t given i n Donington, The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of E a r l y  Music, p. 64. C O 86 S t r i c t l y speaking, the soft hexachord of F used here should have a B f l a t , so that the semitone f a l l s i n the same place as i t does i n the other hexachords. The f l a t sign i s also missing the the same example given i n the Mathematische 4 c Erquickstunden (11,150), as i t i s i n HarsdOrffer's source. " 46 In Caspar Schott's version, however, i t i s included. In view of the great number of p r i n t i n g errors evident i n seventeenth-century books, i t i s possible that t h i s omis-sion i n Harsdflrffer 1s versions can be put down to lack of care on the part of the pr i n t e r , or inadequate proofreading, a chore Harsdorffer himself did not have much time for (FG,V,109-10). Insouciance on the part of Harsdflrffer when borrowing material from another source i s another factor which cannot be ruled out. Elsewhere he reports having seen a game concerning music, bey welchem man das ut, re, mi, f a , s o l , l a ausge-t h e i l t / und weil a l l e a l l d a r Anwesende der Singkunst kundig waren/ hat der/ so das Spiel gefuhrt/ mit dem Stablein den Tact gegeben/ und anfangen zu singen ut, mi, re, etc. und ein jedes so lang/ als ein halber oder gantzer/ oder v i e r t e l Schlag/ gewaret/ auffstehen mils-sen/ und so lang selbe Noten gelautet/ stehen bleiben; welche dann zu bald oder zu langsamb auffgestanden/ oder gesessen sind/ haben die Pfand/ mit Beantwortung e t l i c h e r Fragen von der Music wider lflsen mussen . . . Ich bilde mir l e i c h t l i c h ein/ wie sie untereinander werden ge-hupffen haben/ wenn der schwartzen Noten v i e l sind ge-sungen worden. (FG,II,309). Apart from the reference to the hexachord, th i s passage i s 87 notable f o r the i n c l u s i o n of other musical terminology. 47 Although i t i s probably based on an I t a l i a n source, Hars-d f l r f f e r has n e v e r t h e l e s s had to t r a n s l a t e the musical words i n t o German: "Tact," "halber oder gantzer/ oder v i e r t e l S c h l a g , " and "schwartze Moten," a l l demonstrating h i s f a m i -l i a r i t y w i t h the rudiments of musical terminology. H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s concern f o r u s i n g German e q u i v a l e n t s f o r f o r e i g n words i s as e v i d e n t i n h i s statements on music as i t i s i n a p u r e l y l i t e r a r y c o ntext (PT,III,8-15). To ensure t h a t the reader w i l l know what the German word means, Hars-d f l r f f e r u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s the o r i g i n a l f o r e i g n term. Some examples wi t h r e s p e c t to music are: O r i g i n a l German C l a u s u l a i n t e r m e d i a M i t t e l s c h l u s s (PT,III,95) C l a v i s [key on an organ] H o l t z (HS,II,198) Contrapuncto Ebenmessige Gegenftigung ( M E , I I I , 3 5 0 ) In genere r e c i t a t i v o Erzehlungsweiss (FG,IV,89; ME,II,144) Instrumenta M u s i k a l i s c h e Gezeug (FG,II, 157) Semitonia Die halben Tflnungen (ME,III, 369) Symphonia An- oder Gleichstimmung (FG,IV,535) H a r s d f l r f f e r was by no means alone i n these concerns. Herbst h i m s e l f noted t h a t h i s work Musica P o e t i c a was the f i r s t of 48 i t s k i n d to have been w r i t t e n i n German. There were a l s o e a r l i e r t r e a t i s e s i n German—parts two and three of P r a e t o r i u s ' 88 Syntagma Musicum, f o r example. At the beginning of the century, the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Gumpelzhaimer's Compendium  Musicae L a t i n o Germanicum had appeared, a b i l i n g u a l g eneral t r e a t i s e on music w i t h the L a t i n o r i g i n a l and German t r a n s -l a t i o n g iven s i d e by s i d e . As i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t i f not i m p o s s i b l e always to determine the exact moment a word appeared i n the l a n -4 9 guage, the German musical vocabulary a p p l i e d by H a r s d f l r f f e r cannot u l t i m a t e l y be used as evidence t h a t he was respon-s i b l e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g i t . A number of the words and phrases given above i n any case appear i n the e a r l i e r t r e a t i s e s , and H a r s d f l r f f e r was f a m i l i a r a t l e a s t with the work of Prae-t o r i u s (IIS, I I , 198) . His use of German terminology, however, does show him to be aware of the musical needs of the time, and by i n s i s t i n g on the use of German, he s u p p l i e s h i s reader i n a p r a c t i c a l way with a means of understanding the m a t e r i a l . There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t H a r s d f l r f f e r had an e x t e n s i v e working knowledge of a l l kinds of aspects of p r a c t i c a l music. Although a g r e a t many of h i s statements i n t h i s area are t r a n s l a t i o n s or borrowings from o t h e r sour-ces, he has n e v e r t h e l e s s presented the i n f o r m a t i o n i n Ger-man i n a way which c l e a r l y shows t h a t he understood the m a t e r i a l he was d e a l i n g w i t h . H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s pedagogic ten-dencies a l s o come to the f o r e , i n t h a t readers w i l l r e a d i l y 89 grasp the matter at hand without the need for mathematical acrobatics, or, in the case of instruments, a b r i l l i a n t technique. I t i s not HarsdOrffer's intention to teach his readers music, as he does presuppose a certain f a m i l i a r i t y with the subject. He i s interested above a l l i n broadening the general knowledge of the educated person, and, i n a t h e a t r i c a l context, i n providing him with the raw material for putting t h i s general knowledge into p r a c t i c e . 9 0 Chapter Three: Musica P o e t i c a A. Music and Poetry "Was i s t Musica P o e t i c a ? Es i s t eine f r e y e Kunst/ welche A n l e i t u n g und Anweisung g i b t / wie man einen Gesang schfln und z i e r l i c h / nach den vorgeschriebenen P r a e c e p t i s und R e g u l i s componiren und setzen s o i l / damit d i e Hfertzen und Gemuther der Zuhorer d e l e c t i r e t / e r f r e w e t und l i e b l i c h eingenommen werden." 1 The Musicus P o e t i c u s i s t h e r e f o r e the composer as opposed to the t h e o r e t i c i a n who merely s p e c u l a t e s on the s u b j e c t , or the p r a c t i t i o n e r who i s con-cerned o n l y with the problems of performing. Herbst's understanding of the c o m p o s i t i o n a l s i d e of music i l l u s t r a t e s the i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and the word, a r e l a t i o n s h i p which had been so s t r o n g t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of music s t i l l found i n seven-teenth-century t e x t books was "eine Kunst welche l e h r t / wie 2 man r e c h t singen s o i l , " o r, " e i n Kunst r e c h t und wol zu 3 singen." H a r s d f l r f f e r h i m s e l f e x p l a i n s t h a t "dieses Wort Musica kan zwar S i n g - oder K l i n g k u n s t oder Thonkundigung g e t e u t s c h e t werden"(ME,III,351). The l a s t two o p t i o n s i n d i -cate t h a t a more general meaning was a l s o a t t r i b u t e d to the 91 word at the time. For Herbst, composing meant s e t t i n g words to music, and he makes i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r which of the two has supre-macy: " . . . dann d i e Gesang wegen dess Textes/ und n i c h t d i e Wflrter oder Text wegen der Harmoney Componiret, und gemacht werden."^ H a r s d f l r f f e r does not agree completely, f o r , he a d v i s e s , there are i n s t a n c e s when the poet must s e t the words to an e x i s t i n g melody (PT,III,93). In e i t h e r case, the poet and the musician must be f a m i l i a r w i t h the techniques of both a r t s i n o r d e r to produce s u c c e s s f u l songs (PT,III,93) . From H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s p o i n t of view, "der f u g l i c h s t e Thon i s t / welcher d i e aufgegebene Reimen n a c h d r u c k l i c h und a l l e r -b eweglichsten f a s s e t / und gleichsam durch eine z i e r l i e h e Kunstsprache/ unsere n a t u r l i c h e Hertzenserregungen e i g e n t -l i c h gemass hflren l a s s t " ( F G , I I I , 2 7 5 ) . The s i m i l a r i t i e s be-tween t h i s statement and Herbst's d e f i n i t i o n of Musica ":. P o e t i c a cannot be overlooked. Both r e f e r f i r s t l y to the need f o r an ornamental ( " z i e r l i c h " ) s t y l e , which i n Hars-d f l r f f e r 's case i s based on the use of r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s and imagery i n language (PT,III,63-72).^ For Herbst, orna-mentation c o n s i s t s i n e x p r e s s i n g the nature of the m a t e r i a l and the sense of the words i n an a p p r o p r i a t e way m u s i c a l l y . I f , f o r i n s t a n c e , a word or phrase suggests any k i n d of m o t i o n — r u n n i n g , ascending, e t c . — t h i s must be r e f l e c t e d by 92 the speed or d i r e c t i o n of the notes. Herbst does not go as f a r as some w r i t e r s of musical t r e a t i s e s of the seven-te e n t h - c e n t u r y who were attempting to e s t a b l i s h s e t systems of m u s i c o - r h e t o r i c a l p a r a l l e l s : Joachim Burmeister, f o r i n s t a n c e , compiled a l i s t of twenty-six terms taken from the a r t of r h e t o r i c which were to be used i n musical com-8 p o s i t i o n . Terms i n common use i n c l u d e d "hyperbole," ex-tending beyond the normal range of the v o i c e ; " p a t h o p o i i a , " ascending or descending chromatic p r o g r e s s i o n to denote g r i e f ; "apocope," the f i n a l note of a musical phrase being snapped o f f ; " p o l y p t o t o n , " the r e p e t i t i o n of the beginning 9 of a phrase a t a new p i t c h l e v e l . I t i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of such r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s which i s behind H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s statement t h a t music i s a p a r t o f "Redkunst"(FG,V,178). The second p o i n t of s i m i l a r i t y between Herbst's d e f i -n i t i o n o f Musica P o e t i c a and H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s view of the most s u i t a b l e melody f o r a song i s the emphasis on r u l e s . Herbst i n s i s t s on f o l l o w i n g the s e t p r e c e p t s — a v o i d i n g f o r b i d d e n i n t e r v a l s , . f o r i n s t a n c e — w h i l e f o r H a r s d O r f f e r , "Kunst-sprache" i s by d e f i n i t i o n grounded i n r u l e s . The two w r i -t e r s from t h e i r d i f f e r e n t s t a n d p o i n t s t h i r d l y agree on the same general e f f e c t s the combination of ornamentation and r u l e s i s to have on the l i s t e n e r . As Herbst and H a r s d f l r f f e r do not appear to have been i n c l o s e c o n t a c t , the agreement between t h e i r statements i n d i c a t e s not onl y t h a t the two 93 a r t s were i n general based on the same fundamental compo-s i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a , but a l s o t h a t the ideas expressed were a l l p a r t of the l i t e r a r y and musi c a l c o i n of the day. Although H a r s d o r f f e r 1 s understanding of the a r t of the composer i s very apparent, he h i m s e l f cannot be con-s i d e r e d a Musicus P o e t i c u s i n the s t r i c t sense of the term, as no music i s a t t r i b u t e d to him. By s u p p l y i n g the words f o r the composer, however, he foreshadows to a g r e a t extent the shape and nature of the music. The meaning and sound of the words w i l l i n f l u e n c e the composer i n h i s ch o i c e of rhythm, m u s i c o - r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , and key or o s t e n s i b l e mode. H a r s d f l r f f e r , as w i l l be shown, a l s o draws on many aspects of h i s musical knowledge i n p r e p a r i n g p o e t r y , and he a p p l i e s t h i s knowledge i n d i f f e r e n t ways. I f the e t y -mology of the words " p o e t i c a , " " p o e t i c u s , " "poet," e t c . i s t r a c e d back to the o r i g i n a l Greek " p o i e i n , " meaning "to f a s h i o n , " o r "to make," then H a r s d f l r f f e r can be examined as one who f a s h i o n s a l 1 kinds of musical m a t e r i a l without composing a note. The queen of r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s i n language,' says H a r s d f l r f f e r , i s "die G l e i c h n i s s " ( P T , I I I , 5 6 - 7 ) . I t s impor-tance l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t i t i s "der Stab unsers b l i n d e n Verstands: Was w i r n i c h t nennen kflnnen/ b e s c h r e i b e n / und f i n d e n w i r gleichsam/ durch d i e Vereinparung mit dem/ so es a h n l i c h i s t / und wird unser Sinn b e l u s t i g e t / wann e r 94 durch solches M i t t e l fasset/ was er sonsten nicht verstehen kan"(FG,VIII,234). In addition to having ornamental and explanatory functions, the figure i s also suitable for drawing analogies between a l l kinds of apparently disparate items or subjects, and i n this way, i t displays the inherent harmony which was seen to ex i s t between a l l things. The use of musical material for such purposes i s a common feature of Harsdflrffer's poetic works, e s p e c i a l l y his "Lehrgedichte" which he describes as types of extended "Gleichnisse"(PT,II, 51; FG,VIII,238), and i n his emblems ("Sinnbilder") which include i n s t r u c t i v e interpretations of the motto and p i c -ture i n verse. The musical subject matter i n Harsdflrffer's poems and emblems i s applied for comparative purposes i n various ways. The f i r s t type deals with the art of poetry, and can be exemplified by an emblem with the motto "Nicht ohne Stimmung" appearing above an I l l u s t r a t i o n of a seated figure playing the harp. Harsdorffer provides the inter p r e t a t i o n : Wer w i l l auf der Harffen spielen/ muss durch strengen Saitenzwang/ den Kunstrechten gleichen Klang stimmen/ proben und e r z i e l e n . sonsten bringt das Harffenschlagen/ mehr Verdruss als Sinnbehagen; Also muss sich weisen lassen/ Wer w i l l schreiben ein Gedicht Nach der Sprache Lehr Bericht/ und die Red nicht Plumsweis fassen; Wann er nicht mit Missbehagen/ wil die zarten Ohren plagen. (PT,III,n.p.) 95 The " G l e i c h n i s s " i n t h i s poem c o n s i s t s o f the s t r a i g h t -forward comparison of two seemingly u n r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s — p l a y i n g the harp and w r i t i n g a poem. J u s t as the h a r p i s t must tune and t e s t h i s instrument to be able to p l a y a r -t i s t i c a l l y , and thereby p l e a s e h i s l i s t e n e r , so the poet must t e s t h i s w r i t t e n i n v e n t i o n a g a i n s t the r u l e s of grammar and c o r r e c t use of language. The h a r p i s t does not p l a y j u s t any note, and the poet does not p i c k j u s t any word. The f i r s t p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e between the two p a r t s of the comparison i s t h e r e f o r e the n e c e s s i t y f o r a s t u d i e d ap-proach to both a r t s . The second p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e i s con-cerned w i t h the sound of harp music and poetry, both of which can o f f e n d the ear i f the a r t i s t i c r u l e s are not f o l -lowed. H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s emphasis on the o r a l nature of poetry i s thus very much i n evidence, and the ch o i c e o f musical m a t e r i a l as the element of comparison i s most a p p r o p r i a t e . A second type of musical s u b j e c t matter i s t h a t d e a l i n g with the misuse of music. H a r s d f l r f f e r i n gen e r a l has much to say on t h i s s u b j e c t , and o v e r a l 1 , he d i r e c t s h i s d i s a p -p r o v a l a t those who submit to excess. The s u r g i c a l opera-t i o n c a r r i e d out on young boys to produce c a s t r a t o s i n g e r s i s one example of misuse (ME,III,359; FG,VI,289). A second example i s the w i l l i n g n e s s to be seduced by the i n t o x i c a t i n g e f f e c t s o f music, which can le a d to moral t u r p i t u d e and a d e v i a t i o n from the path of rig h t e o u s n e s s (ME,III,359-60; FG, IV, 87, 92-93). Harsdorffer, moreover, i n s i s t s "dass man die Music zu Geistlichen Sachen gebrauchen solle"(FG,IV,89). Yet he him s e l f i s not adverse to providing secular content for songs. On one occasion i n the Frauenzimmer Gesprachspiele, the words and music of a complaint by a shepherdess are given: Mtitterlein was wolt i h r sagen? Mich t r i f f t es am meinsten an: Weiss i c h nicht/ was heis t ein Mann/ dessen Herrschaft man mus tragen? Umsonst i s t eu'r Huht und Wacht/ nem ich micht nicht selbst i n Acht Sagt mir nicht vom Eheverbinden/ wie die Liebe Starenblind: Es i s t auch ein kluges Kind/ und kan manche Rank' erfinden/ Umsonst i s t eu'r Huht und Wacht/ nem ich mich nicht selbst i n Acht. Das/ so man dem Kind verbietet/ darnach l u s t e t es vielmehr. Es i s t eine schlechte Lehr die/ ders giebet nicht verhutet. -Umsonst i s t eu'r Huht und Wacht/ nem ich mich nicht selbst i n Acht. . . .(FG,IV, 4 6 - 4 8 ) This song i s referred to by one of the conversationalists a "ein uppiges B u h l l i e d l e i n " (FG', IV, 50) . A second character maintains that there i s nothing wrong with i t , and that the shepherdess i s singing the truth. In order to o f f s e t t h i s remark, Harsdflrffer follows i t with a r e l i g i o u s song, in which God's omnipotence i s praised. The purpose of i n c l u -ding a song with worldly subject matter i n th i s p a r t i c u l a r instance i s to provide a demonstration by negative example. 97 H a r s d o r f f e r * s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the words to the song i s i n any case d i m i n i s h e d to some ext e n t by the f a c t t h a t i t i s a t r a n s l a t i o n from a Spanish source. E r o t i c verses appearing i n Von der Welt E i t e l k e i t , however, are not t r a n s l a t i o n s . In one scene, a young man and a young woman are to appear s i t t i n g on a bed, and they proceed to s i n g a song r e p l e t e with sexual innuendo. Hars-d f l r f f e r , f u l l y aware t h a t t h i s might o f f e n d the audience, notes:' "So man vermeinen wolte/ dass das L i e d zu f r e y und f r e c h seyn s o l t e . . . kflnte man wol bey dem andern oder d r i t t e n Gesetz abbrechen"(FG,111,252). The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n c l u d i n g such a song i n the context of the whole work i s to i l l u s t r a t e the f o o l i s h n e s s of s u b m i t t i n g t o t a l l y to the d e s i r e s of the f l e s h . As t h i s song i s f o l l o w e d by a scene i n which the f i g u r e of Death sin g s of the v a n i t y , muta-b i l i t y and t r a n s i t o r i n e s s of human l i f e , i t i s put i n t o i t s proper p e r s p e c t i v e , and p r o v i d e s another negative example. The general theme of the misuse of music e x p l a i n e d i n terms of a musical instrument appears i n the poem e n t i t l e d "Die Laute r e d e t : " i c h konte vor der Zelt das Sorgenwaehen s t i i l e n / die Furcht/ die blasse Furcht mit meinem Ton verhullen. Die Winde hflrten mich/ der Bache Lispelgang verzflgert' auenwarts/ ob meinem stissen klang. Nun i s t mein Freudenlied i n neues Leid gewendet/ Ich bin ein leeres Holtz/ beraubet und geschandet geschandet und beraubt durch eine Frevelhand/ die mir bey dustrer Nacht mein holdes Saitenband zerschnitten und zerstuckt. Komm doch/ mich zu verbrennen/ 98 komm/ komm/ bring deine Flamm/ weil ich bin tod zu nennen/ nachdem mein Sternendach/ mein Dach von Helffenbein/ (Zu helffen mancher Pein erbaut) gerissen ein. Mein Zweck i s t ohne Zweck/ mein Steg i s t gantz zerstucket; Ich bin ein eitles Nichts verstummt/ und eingedrticket. Zuvor hat meinen Ton der Himmel selbst begehrt/ nun bin ich nimmer nicht so hoher Milde wehrt. (PT,III,12-13) The comparison i n this poem consists not i n drawing p a r a l -l e l s between two d i f f e r e n t things, but in presenting the lute as i t used to be and as i t i s now. The reader must decide for himself that the condition of the lute represents the past and present state of music. In previous times, music soothed a savage breast, was in harmony with the d i -vine. Now i t i s used for vain and shameful purposes. The choice of the lute to represent the descent of music i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apposite, as these instruments were frequently adapted and transformed into hurdy-gurdies, or cannibalized to provide parts. 1<") The words "zerschnitten," "gerissen ein," and "zerstucket" describe such treatment of the lute. The outstanding technical feature of this poem i s the use of the pun. The words "Sternendach," "Dach," "Zweck" and "Steg" have meanings i n addition to the obvious. When applied to the lute, the "Sternendach" i s the b e l l y or upper surface with i t s rose ("Stern"); the "Dach" of ivory i s the back, the "Zweck" i s the peg, and the "Steg" i s the bridge. By including such words with double meanings, Harsdflrffer presupposes that the reader w i l l be fa m i l i a r with the names 99 f o r p a r t s of a l u t e . Otherwise t h i s demonstration of the a r t i s t i c and ornamental use of language w i l l remain un-a p p r e c i a t e d . Although the l u t e i n t h i s poem can be seen to r e p r e -sent music i n g e n e r a l , t h i s i s the case o n l y when i t i s read i n i s o l a t i o n , f o r H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s remarks concerning the poem show t h a t he had another " G l e i c h n i s s " i n mind, namely: " . . . wann wir unsren Glauben mit e i n e r Laute/ d i e Wercke aber mit deroselben S a i t e n v ereinbahren . . ."(PT,1,13, 1650 e d i t i o n ) . Furthermore, an a d d i t i o n a l s e c t i o n i s added i n the v e r s i o n found i n the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e which p o i n t s out the comparison:- ' ':. . Der Glaub b e f r e y t von Sorgen/ d i e i n dem Menschenhertzen v e r h u l l e t und verborgen/ und doch mit S e u f f t z e n schmertzen/ mit Threnen/ Angst und Flehen/ s i c h k l a g l i c h l a s s e n sehen. Der Satan kan dem Glauben/ dass wir i n Jammer st e r b e n / und Hoilenbrand verderben/ aus blflden Sinnenrauben/ Der Glaub i s t G e i s t und Leben/ i n dem w i r s i n d und schweben. Wann wir n i c h t Glauben haben/ w i r d unser Thun und Lassen/ g l e i c h f a u l e Opfergaben/ der Himmelsschopfer hassen. (FG,VIII,198-99) The b a s i c assumption i n these cases i s t h a t j u s t as the body and s t r i n g s of a l u t e are e q u a l l y necessary to produce a harmonious sound, so f a i t h and good works are necessary 100 f o r man to reach a s t a t e o f grace. H a r s d f l r f f e r a l s o notes t h a t the poem may be used as the expl a n a t o r y verse of an emblem c o n t a i n i n g the p i c t u r e of a l u t e without s t r i n g s to i l l u s t r a t e the same meaning '(ME, I I , 172) . ' The poem then expresses a sense of d i s t r e s s a t the l a c k of f a i t h and good works i n the l i v e s of men. As i t f i r s t appeared i n the 1647 e d i t i o n s o f the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e (Part Seven) and the P o e t i s c h e r T r i c h t e r , i t may a l s o be a r e f l e c -t i o n of the lack of r e l i g i o u s observance e v i d e n t d u r i n g the course of the T h i r t y Years' War i n p a r t i c u l a r . A f u r t h e r area o f concern I n " H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s p o e t r y i n which he draws on musical m a t e r i a l i s t h a t of human beha-v i o u r i n a C h r i s t i a n c o n t e x t : Hflrt meiner Lauten Laut/ wie l i e b l i c h doch erklinget das rundgehfllte Holtz! Hflrt wie der Finger zwinget ungleich vergleiehten Ton! Bevor man dieses Spiel behaglich untemimmet; mus dieser Saiten Chor kunstrichtig seyn gestimmet/ sonst hat man Schand darvon. Wolffssaiten taugen nicht/ so rein l i c h sie auch scheinen, kan doch ih r falscher Ton niemalen sich vereinen mit Schafgedarmer Klang/ die kan man nach und nach anstrengen und bezwingen/ dass i h r getfln gesammt behaglich muss erklingen; mit unterschiednem Zwang. Wann man aus Ungedult die Saiten w i l l zerreissen/ sie Ziehen gar zu hoch und diese Laute schmeissen an nechsten Mauerstein: Was Music wtirde man von solchem Spiele hflren? Ach nein/ ein sanffter Mut lasst sich nicht so bethflren/ und l i e b t der Tugendschrein. Der Klugste giebet nach/ dem/ der zu Zeiten i r r e t / (gleich wie der Lautenklang ohn kunstlich spielen kirret) und weiset inn zu recht; 101 Es kan ein gutes Wort den of f t zu rucke Ziehen/ den dess Vermahners Grimm und Schelten machet fliehen/ gleich einem Ruderknecht. Wie sanfft verfahrt mit uns der susse Geist der Gnaden der uns verlohrene Schar pflegt taglich einzuladen zu GGTTES Himmelreich. Wen der Geleitesmann/ mit seinem Wink regieret/ und auf dess HErren Weg gefallig einher fuhret/ verhalt sich ime gleich; in dem er mit Gedult in seinem Thun verfahret/ den nachsten Freundesmann mit linden Worten lehret/ baut auf den rechten Stein: Wer aber mit Gewalt will die Gemuter dringen/ und was man glauben soil erpressen und erzwingen/ der reisset viel mehr ein. (HS,II,305-6) In t h i s poem comparisons are made between three things: the correct tuning of a lute, virtuous behaviour towards one's fellow man, and a tempering of proseletyzing zeal. In a l l three cases allowances must be made i f a harmonious sound and harmonious relationships with man and God are to be achieved. Patience i s more productive than anger. In the f i r s t section of the poem, Harsdflrffer i s not content merely to state that an untuned lute has an unpleasant sound, but includes s p e c i a l i z e d musical knowledge to des-cribe some of the problems of tuning. For instance, the statement that sheep gut strings "kan man nach und nach an-strengen und bezwingen," i l l u s t r a t e s one of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n using gut strings of any k i n d — t h e y can be extremely intr a c t a b l e , and tuning them c e r t a i n l y requires a great deal of patience. This factor i s evident elsewhere i n Harsdorf-f e r ' s works when he remarks i n connection with the lute: 102 "V i e l Stimmens/ wenig Schlagens"(FG,V,399). The great num-ber of strings on the lute makes tuning the instrument a l l the more time consuming. The vi s u a l impact of the poem given above i n fact brings to mind the strings of a lute: the pairs of long lines represent the double courses of the instrument. In order to understand t h i s poem i t i s not essential for the reader to be aware of the p r a c t i c a l problems of tuning, nor i s i t necessary for him to be fa m i l i a r with the antipathic relationship between wolf gut and sheep gut string s , since Harsdfirffer provides s u f f i c i e n t information for him to grasp the general meaning. The uninformed reader may learn about such things by studying the poem. For the reader who does have a knowledge of these aspects of music, the "Gleichniss" w i l l prove to be a l l the more apt. A further "Lehrgedicht" which incorporates a musical instrument as part of the comparison appears i n the Frauen-zimmer Gesprachspiele (VIII,334-37), and with minor a l t e r a -tions i n the Hertzbewegliche Sonntagsandachten (1,23), and Nathan und Jotham (I,n.p.). A variant form i s also to be found i n the Mathematische Erquickstunden (111,356-57). The emphasis i s once again on Ch r i s t i a n f a i t h : In den grunlichfalben Matten unter einer Eichen Schatten/ hat ein freyer Wandersmann seine Laute hingeleget/ weil er von dem Schlaf erreget/ Mund und Augen zugethan. 103 Auf nechst beygelegnen Auen welder." i n dem kuhlen Tauen/ ein darob erstaunter Knab: Als er nun nichts mehr vernommen/ l i e s s er dort den Hirtenstab/ und i s t naher hingekommen. Er kniet bey der Laute nider/ die zuvor so holde Lieder und den wunderreinen Klang/ diesen Knaben zu bethoren/ durch den strengen Seidenstrang/ in den Lufften lassen hflren. Er wolt dem Gehflr nicht' trauen/ und mit seinen Augen schauen/ wie des stummen Holtzes Stern kflnte sonder Sinn und Leben/ (wolt er selbsten sehen gern) So beliebte Stimme geben? Als er nun nicht mflgen sehen/ und nicht wust/ wie es geschehen/ ruhret er die Seiden an: bald die Laute murmelend Klagte und das/ was der Knab gethan/ ihrem rechten Herrn sagte. Sind nicht i n des Holtzes Krummen a l l e r Vflgel zarte Stimmen/ die i c h hi e r noch nicht geschaut/ aber mit dem Ohr vernommen/ dass der wundersusse Laut i s t aus diesem Holtz gekommen? Wie kan aus des Bauches Klufften etwas tflnen i n den Lufften? Sag mir l i e b e r Wandersmann/ Sag mir, wie doch mag geschehen das ich hab gehflret an: was ich doch nicht mflgen sehen? Knab/ du must den Ohren trauen/ was du hflrst/ komt nicht zu schauen: dich vergnuge das Gehflr. Man muss seinen Sinn betauben und der Gnadenreichen Lehr/ in des Hflchsten Worte glauben. (FG,VIII,334-37) In t h i s poem, which i s a verse-parable, the lute i s once more drawn into service. The stress i s again on the con-t r a s t between a s k i l l f u l l y and u n s k i l l f u l l y played i n s t r u -104 ment. Only once i s a word of a musically technical nature used, and that i s "Stern." Otherwise the vocabulary and meaning can be understood by the musically uninformed reader. The version of the poem i n the Hertzbewegliche Sonntagsan-dachten i s used as the explanatory verse of an emblem which includes the picture of a boy playing a lute and the motto: "Selig sind/ die nicht sehen/ und doch glauben"(HS,I,23). The poem then explands on the sentiment expressed i n the motto. The use of the lute to explain that one should be-lie v e i n the word of God without seeking causes represents a fine example of the extended "Gleichniss" based on words of the Bible: "Faith cometh by hearing"(Romans.10.17). The fac t that the poem appears i n four d i f f e r e n t works suggests that Harsdflrffer himself valued i t highly as an example of the "Lehrgedicht." Musical instruments and t h e i r sounds can be used i n various other ways for purposes of comparison, suggests Hars-dflrffer. The picture of an organ, ::for instance, would be suitable for an emblem with the motto: "Es gehflrt nicht zum Tantz"(ME,II,17 2; H S , I , S i g . B i i i j ) , or "Durch Kunst und Mtihe" (FG,VIII,126). Panpipes can be used to demonstrate unity and harmony i n worldly matters (ME,11,173), while the harp can do so i n a heavenly context—the stri n g s , although un-even i n length nevertheless sound harmoniously together (HS, 11,231-33). Furthermore, the sound of the harp curing a 105 tarantula bite may also be used to show that r e l i g i o u s doubt can be cured by the word of God (ME,II,175-76; HS,I, 213). A cracked b e l l , on the other hand, i s suitable for representing a bad r u l e r — j u s t as the b e l l advertises i t s condition to the whole town, so the errors of a bad r u l e r are apparent to everyone (ME,II,l74). Harsdflrffer*s f a -vourite instrument for inc l u s i o n i n "Gleichnisse" i s the lute, and i n three of the poetic examples given above, th i s instrument i s used. He also employs i t i n various stages of being strung to represent the ages of man (FG,VIII,121-124), and i t i s regularly seconded i n connection with worldly or heavenly harmony. Musical instruments, t h e i r sound when they are played properly, and t h e i r constituent parts thus provide a wealth of material for inc l u s i o n i n poetic works. The association of instruments with the Ch r i s t i a n f a i t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y strong, and can very often be demonstrated even i f the poem does not contain any l i t e r a l reference to i t . This asso-c i a t i o n applies regardless of the work i n which such a poem i s found--it i s as evident i n the Frauenzimmer Gesprach-spiele and Mathematische Erquickstunden as i n the Hertz-bewegliche Sonntagsandachten. Although Harsdflrffer occa-s i o n a l l y assumes a certain amount of specialized knowledge on the part of his reader, t h i s i s rare. Musical poems of the type discussed are therefore accessible to the general 106 reader, who w i l l go away not o n l y with examples of how musical s u b j e c t matter can be transformed i n t o p o e t i c works of a r t , but a l s o with suggestions f o r f u r t h e r " G l e i c h n i s s e , " which he can then i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o h i s own p o e t r y . In the case of L a t i n p oetry, the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a p p l y i n g musical m a t e r i a l of a t e c h n i c a l nature are g r e a t e r than i n German (ME,II,144). As the word order i n L a t i n can be a l t e r e d a t w i l l , nouns and t h e i r a t t r i b u t i v e a d j e c t i v e s can be arranged a c c o r d i n g to musical p r i n c i p l e s . I f two words i n agreement are p l a c e d next to each other, they can be seen i n terms of the musical i n t e r v a l of a second (tonus). I f another word i n t e r v e n e s , the i n t e r v a l then becomes a t h i r d ( d i t o n u s ) . I f two words i n t e r v e n e , the i n t e r v a l i s a f o u r t h (diatessaron) , * a n d so on. H a r s d o r f f e r e x p l a i n s t h i s method by u s i n g a L a t i n poem from another source (ME,II, 144; PT,10-11). He i s h i m s e l f , however, the author of nu-merous L a t i n poems, and t h i s technique can be a p p l i e d to the f i r s t few l i n e s taken from the explanatory verse of one of h i s emblems: Harmoniam sacram d i v e r s a haud Musica c o g i t : p e r f i c i t una f i d e s , q u i q u i d i n a r t e l a t e t . S o l a f i d e s a r t i s resonat m i r a c u l a r a r a : ^. molle melos a c u i t murmure tensa f i d e s . . . .(FG,VIII, 694) .' ( L i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n ) D i f f e r e n t types of music do not produce sacred harmony One f a i t h completes whatever l i e s hidden i n a r t 107 F a i t h alone echoes the r a r e m i r a c l e s of a r t Firm f a i t h i n t e n s i f i e s s o f t song with a murmur. . . . In the f i r s t l i n e "Harmonium" and "sacram" belong together, forming the i n t e r v a l of a second, w h i l e " d i v e r s a " and "Musi-ca" produce a t h i r d . In the f o l l o w i n g three l i n e s , nouns and t h e i r q u a l i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e s are p l a c e d next to each oth e r , again r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r v a l of a second. The f i r s t l i n e can be shown v i s u a l l y as: Harmoniam sacram d i v e r s a haud Musica c o g i t : When other p a r t s of speech are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s system, the number of i n t e r v a l s p o s s i b l e i n c r e a s e s . In the second l i n e , f o r i n s t a n c e , the i n t e r v a l of a f o u r t h can be found: p e r f i c i t una f i d e s , q u i q u i d i n a r t e l a t e t The i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t h i s emblem i s t h a t of a monochord, i t s s i n g l e s t r i n g s t r e t c h e d t i g h t l y over the b r i d g e s , w i t h some of the i n t e r v a l s marked. The " G l e i c h n i s s " i s then between the monochord and the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . In t h i s L a t i n v e r s e , the combination i s extremely f i t t i n g , as the word " f i d e s " means not o n l y " f a i t h , " but a l s o " s t r i n g of a musical i n -strument." The comparison i s thus based on a word with a tonus dit o n u s d i a t e s s a r o n 108 double meaning, and the poem takes the form of an extended pun. Although H a r s d f l r f f e r nowhere s t a t e s t h a t he had musi-c a l i n t e r v a l s i n mind when w r i t i n g t h i s poem, a p p l y i n g them i s n e v e r t h e l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e i n view of the content. In the f i r s t l i n e , the two d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v a l s r e f l e c t the meaning of " d i v e r s a . . . Musica," while i n the remaining l i n e s , the i n t e r v a l s of a.second produced by the three occurrences of " f i d e s " and i t s a d j e c t i v e s exemplify the c o n s i s t e n c y of genuine f a i t h . The s i n g l e word " s o l a " i n the t h i r d l i n e , moreover, can be read as the hexachordal notes " s o l " and " l a , " which a l s o r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r v a l of a second. The phrase " s o l a f i d e s " i s t h e r e f o r e packed with musical meaning, and i t was undoubtedly f o r t h i s reason t h a t the wprdsvwere chosen f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the motto of the emblem: "Sola f i d e s , , • n ... ,, ( F a i t h alone, . , . h e i c s o l a s o n a t i " ;_. ' . t h i s alone resounds). (The s i n g l e s t r i n g , The use of the p r i n c i p l e s of musical i n t e r v a l s to com-pose or a p p r e c i a t e a poem cannot be used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n German, says H a r s d f l r f f e r . "Wir Teutschen p f l e g e n unsere Wflrter n i c h t zu v e r s e t z e n / wie d i e L a t e i n e r / sondern suchen d i e z i e r l i c h e L i e b l i c h k e i t i n l e i c h t f l i e s s e n d e r Ordnung/ und w o l s c h l i e s s e n d e r Reimung"(ME,II,144). Yet .this s t a t e -ment does not exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g aspects of the hexachord i n connection with German poetry . T h i s can 109 be done by r e v e r s i n g the method a p p l i e d by Guido i n d e v i s i n g the system. Where Guido e x t r a c t e d s y l l a b l e s from a L a t i n hymn to be used as the names of notes, H a r s d o r f f e r takes these s y l l a b l e s , and then f i n d s words which i n c l u d e them. He then presents them i n a musico-poetic manner (MR, 11,139) : Example 5: - re f a f a re n ci 32: Cf Wann uns ntasey das belwerck bethfl ° t f a re re mi re -° o—; © ©-6 so s s t der ° b e n s a f f t v i e l ~ i c h l i c h lde "den re l a ut l a ut ut ut re 0 -g— a Wann uns e den g en M vermeh t Qso 1 l a re l a 4) €>- a o~ chen Lust und F ud den Sorgen s t befeden. H a r s d f l r f f e r p r o v i d e s the names of the notes which are to be read i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the words and p a r t s of words appearing underneath to complete the sense. Where he pr e -v i o u s l y used e x a c t l y the same technique as a memory device 13 (above, p. 53), i t i s used here p u r e l y f o r p o e t i c purposes. When w r i t t e n out i n f u l l , without recourse to n o t a t i o n , the 110 poem runs: Wann unsre fantasey das fabelwerck b e t h o r e t so f a s s t der r e b e n s a f f t v i e l r e i c h l i c h milde reden Wann unsre l a u t e l a u t den guten Mut vermehret s o l lachen L u s t und Freud den S o r g e n l a s t befeden. In most cases the names of the notes can be read as they s t a n d — v e r y l i t t l e a l t e r a t i o n i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r example i n the words "unsre," "fantasey," "milde" o r "guten." In oth e r cases, the s y l l a b l e c o n t a i n s one p a r t of a diphthong, and i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n must be adapted: " r e - i c h l i c h " becomes " r e i c h l i c h , " " I j ^ u t v becomes " l a u t , " and F-re-ud" becomes "Freud." The method . i n these i n -stances i s based on o r t h o g r a p h i c r a t h e r than phonetic con-s i d e r a t i o n s , and the reader must be aware of such a use of the names of notes i f he i s to r e c i t e the poem f l u e n t l y . H a r s d f i r f f e r g i v e s other examples of hexachordal t e r -minology a p p l i e d i n t h i s manner (AA,9; ME,II,140), but t h i s i s the o n l y one which he claims as h i s own i n v e n t i o n (ME, 11,139). From a musical p o i n t of view, the i n v e n t i o n can-not be c o n s i d e r e d s u c c e s s f u l — t h e notes are d i s c r e t e , the leaps as a r e s u l t are unwieldy, and the melodic l i n e , i f i t can be c a l l e d such, i s r e p e t i t i v e and e r r a t i c . H a r s d o r f f e r ' s i n t e n t i o n here was not to pr o v i d e a charming melody to under-score the meaning, or to pro v i d e a theme f o r use i n a musi-c a l work, but to draw the a r t s of music and poetry together I l l i n a s t u d i e d manner, and to p r e s e n t a means by which the two c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d . One method of a p p r e c i a t i n g seven-teenth-century p o e t r y emerges here, i n t h a t the reader, seeking out hexachordal terminology or musical i n t e r v a l s i n a p o e t i c work w i l l d i s c o v e r connections between the two a r t s . I t i s a method which i s based on the p r i n c i p l e t h a t a l l t h i n g s are i n t e r r e l a t e d , and the k i n d of e v a l u -a t i o n which r e s u l t s i s one which d e s c r i b e s r a t h e r than ana-l y z e s one a r t form i n terms of another. M u s i c a l n o t a t i o n has a value f o r H a r s d o r f f e r other than s u p p l y i n g s y l l a b l e s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n p o e t r y . I t can a l s o be used as a guide to the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of German. He d i v i d e s vowel sounds i n t o three main groups (FG,I,37 6)• The f i r s t d e a l s with the long vowels "aa," "ee," diphthongs, as w e l l as "a, 6, ii," a l l of which are represented by a whole note. I f the vowel i s preceded by "h," as i n "Jahr" or "mehr," i t i s s l i g h t l y s h o r t e r , and represented by a h a l f note, but i t i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d long. The second category c o n s i s t s of vowels which can be long or s h o r t : i n mono-s y l l a b i c r o o t words, the vowel i s • long i n the case of " l i e b " ( h a l f n o t e ) , and s h o r t as i n the case of "ehr" (quarter n o t e ) , but when p r e f i x e s or s u f f i x e s are attached, they are always long: " l i e b e n " and " v e r e h r t . " Short vowels (quarter notes) are to be found i n p r e f i x e s and s u f f i x e s , " e r - , " "ver-" o r "-en," and i n words such as " S p i e l " or " Z i e r " i n which the 112 "e" f o l l o w i n g the " i " i s always s h o r t . The choice of o n l y three types of musical notes f o r t h i s e x e r c i s e was probably made i n i t i a l l y to agree w i t h the d i v i s i o n of vowels i n t o t hree groups. H a r s d o r f f e r i n f a c t o n l y uses "two names f o r the v o w e l s — l o n g and s h o r t , and the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of long vowels by both whole notes and h a l f notes suggests a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n between such words as "Meer" (whole note) and "mehr" ( h a l f n o t e ) . In view of H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s emphasis on the o r a l nature of poetry, the q u e s t i o n of p r o n u n c i a t i o n becomes p a r t i c u -l a r l y important. He i s c e r t a i n l y aware of the problems caused by the v a r i o u s German d i a l e c t s , and notes t h a t the w r i t t e n language can r e f l e c t the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the author: "Der S c h l e s i e r s c h r e i b t / wie er redet/ und reimet a £uj and o wie H. O p i t z S e l . w e i l er Kunst und sonst g l e i c h a u s s p r i c h t " (PT,I,116). In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , the words given do not a c t u a l l y show t h a t O p i t z wrote as he spoke, as "sonst" would otherwise have been w r i t t e n "sunst." P r e c i s e examples can be found i n Zesen's Hoch-Deutscher K e l i k o n , where Opi t z i s taken to task f o r rhyming such words as "brunnen" and "sonnen." 1 4 H a r s d o r f f e r ' s p o i n t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s c l e a r , and can be f u r t h e r demonstrated i n a general way by an ex-t r a c t from a poem by O p i t z : Die Welt i s t n i c h t s a l s Traume d i e uns t r i e g e n / Diss seh' i c h nun nach dem mich Gott erweckt: 113 Ihr gantzes thun i s t L i s t / Betrug und L i e g e n . Das Auge s c h a f f t / d i e arrae Seele s t e c k t . . . . Where O p i t z w r i t e s " t r i e g e n " and "Liegen," H a r s d f l r f f e r p r e -f e r s "trtigen" and Ltigen." That H a r s d f l r f f e r perceives, t h a t " i e " and " t i " are pronounced d i f f e r e n t l y i n h i s d i a l e c t i s e v i d e n t from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the "e" i n " i e " as a s h o r t vowel, and " t i " as a long vowel. In p r a c t i c e , however, he does rhyme the two: "betrtiben" and " l i e b e n " appear as rhyme words i n the chorus of nymphs i n Seelewig (FG,IV,159). In view of the i n f l u e n c e of O p i t z " work on H a r s d f l r f f e r , and h i s subsequent exposure to such rhymes, these may have be-come ac c e p t a b l e currency i n a p o e t i c context, d e s p i t e the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t he would not pronounce " t i " and " i e " i n o r d i n a r y d i s c o u r s e . In a d d i t i o n , H a r s d f l r f f e r notes t h a t as the German language has not y e t become a p e r f e c t l i t e r a r y medium, i n c o r r e c t rhymes of t h i s type must be accepted f o r the time being (FG,IV,120). H a r s d f l r f f e r i s r a r e l y dogmatic about which d i a l e c t i s the c o r r e c t one: "Wir . . . l a s s e n es d i e Meisner und S c h l e s i e r a u s f e c h t e n " ( P T , I I I , 7 ) , he e x p l a i n s . His main con-cern i s t h a t the content be c l e a r and a r t i c u l a t e l y expressed, r e g a r d l e s s of the d i a l e c t (FG,I,373). N e v e r t h e l e s s , he does r e f e r to "unsere Sprache wie s i e heut zu Tage i n Ober-Teutschland g e b r a u c h l i c h i s t " ( P T , I I I , 8 ) as being the one to aim f o r . The g e o g r a p h i c a l range of language d e f i n e d i n t h i s 114 V7ay, however, i s so v a s t , and i n c l u d e s so many d i a l e c t s t h a t H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s statement merely shows t h a t he p e r s o n a l l y p r e f e r s the general tendencies and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of South-ern and Middle German. The length of vowels e x p l a i n e d i n terms of musical n o t a t i o n thus gi v e s some i n d i c a t i o n of the p r o n u n c i a t i o n p r e f e r r e d by H a r s d o r f f e r . When i t comes to p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n f o r w r i t i n g poetry, H a r s d f l r f f e r once again draws on musical n o t a t i o n , t h i s time as an a i d to d e s c r i b i n g v a r i o u s types of metre. The b a s i c aim i n h i s choice of any metre i s to r e p r e s e n t the n a t u r a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the words (PT,I,18). I t i s p r i m a r i l y i n t h i s area t h a t he takes the M e i s t e r s i n g e r to task: "Sie beobachten a l l e i n d i e Anzahl der Sylben und den Reimen; dass aber eine Sylben l a n g - d i e andere k u r t z l a u t e n d sey/ das g i l t ihnen g l e i c h v i e l " ( F G , I V , 5 7 ) . Wrenched accents or s y l l a b l e s l e f t out or added are not p a r t of H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s method. The n a t u r a l rhythm of the words comes f i r s t , and t h i s determines the choice of metre. Although H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s avowed i n t e n t i o n i n i n c l u d i n g musical n o t a t i o n i n a d i s c u s s i o n of p o e t i c metre i s a l s o to show "die Hflhe und T i e f f e / oder steigende und f a l l e n d e Endung"(PT,I,51), a d d i t i o n a l explanatory f a c t o r s i m p l i c i t i n the n o t a t i o n can be i d e n t i f i e d which have v a r y i n g degrees of success when a p p l i e d to the spoken language. D i f f e r e n t notes are chosen to i n d i c a t e the v a r i o u s types 115 of m e t r i c a l f o o t . The trochee i s represented by the breve and whole note (PT,I,52-53): Example 6: The same notes appear i n the case of the iamb (FT,I,56-57] Example 7: ° m l° Nt D a c t y l s r e c e i v e one whole note and two h a l f notes (PT,I,60-61) Example 8: fl — 1 ° c c y o c <J while anapaests are represented by two h a l f notes and one whole note (PT,I,62-63): Example 9: — h i 1 • II i A s- /••> c o ,\Y v v v d K The a l t o c l e f i s used f o r the iamb, trochee and d a c t y l , and the r e l a t i v e p i t c h of the notes can t h e r e f o r e be deter-mined: i n d i s y l l a b i c f e e t the notes are c l and b, i n the 116 t r i s y l l a b i c d a c t y l they are c' b b, a l l r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r v a l of a semitone. For the anapaest, the mezzo-soprano c l e f i s chosen, and where the p i t c h does vary, the notes d'd'e' appear, producing the i n t e r v a l of a tone. Elsewhere H a r s d f l r f f e r broadens the scope of i n t o n a t i o n of the ana-paest (PT,I,64) : Example 10: - F = F 3 2 The notes here range from d to f , producing a range of one and a h a l f tones. In the same example gi v e n elsewhere, the mezzo-soprano c l e f i s r e p l a c e d by the soprano c l e f (PT,I,71; 1650 e d i t i o n ) : Example 11: E e — J J c) r e s u l t i n g i n a range of two tones (f' to a1) . The p o s s i b i l i -t i e s of v a r y i n g i n t o n a t i o n thus extend from a semitone to two tones. The f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t c l e f s are chosen f o r the same example of the anapaest i n two d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n s of the P o e t i s c h e r T r i c h t e r , and the f a c t t h a t no c l e f s a t a l l are used f o r the iamb and trochee i n the 1650 e d i t i o n , suggest 117 e i t h e r t h a t the p r i n t i n g and p r o o f - r e a d i n g processes were inadequate, and a c l e f was i n t e n d e d — p r o b a b l y the a l t o c l e f as i t predominates; or, which i s more l i k e l y , t h a t the c l e f s are u l t i m a t e l y s u p e r f l u o u s , but were i n c l u d e d f o r reasons of musical appearance. I t would t h e r e f o r e seem t h a t the v a r i a t i o n s i n range brought about by the i n c o n -s i s t e n t use of c l e f s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of the anapaest, are p u r e l y a c c i d e n t a l . The q u e s t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p i t c h of a note, i n t o n a t i o n and the s t r e s s of a s y l l a b l e poses a c e r t a i n problem. No f i x e d r u l e emerges from the examples given, f o r i n the i n s t a n c e of the trochee, d a c t y l and ana-paest, the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e i s represented by the h i g h e r or h i g h e s t note, while i n the iambic f o o t the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e i s i n d i c a t e d by the lower note. The same occurs i n an e a r l i e r example of the iamb (PT,I,18). H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s i n t e n t i o n seems to be to r e p r e s e n t the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e by a h i g h e r p i t c h i n a l l metres but the iambic. Yet r e c i t i n g a poem wit h such a r e g u l a r l y a l t e r n a t i n g i n t o n a t i o n a l pat-t e r n becomes t e d i o u s : the t r o c h a i c "In den g r u n l i c h f a l b e n Matten"(FG,VIII,334), f o r example, would be up-down-up-down-up-down-up-down, and the iambic meter would produce the same p a t t e r n w i t h the emphasis on the "down" element. The r e s u l t i n g see-saw e f f e c t does not n e a r l y approach the i n t o n a t i o n used i n n a t u r a l speech which H a r s d f l r f f e r was 118 aiming f o r . C l e a r l y there canbe no r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween the p i t c h of the notes given and the s y l l a b l e s t r e s s from an i n t o n a t i o n a l p o i n t of view. The a s s o c i a t i o n i s r a t h e r i n terms of p i t c h and f o r c e f u l n e s s depending on the type of m e t r e — t h e hi g h e r the note i n a t r o c h a i c , d a c t y l i c or a n a p a e s t i c f o o t , the more f o r c e f u l l y the s y l l a b l e i s to be u t t e r e d . In iambic metre, f o r c e f u l n e s s i s i n d i c a t e d by the lower p i t c h . I f a s t r e s s e d or u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e i s determined by i t s degree of f o r c e f u l n e s s , then the p i t c h of the notes as given by H a r s d f l r f f e r cannot d e s c r i b e t h i s aspect i n a l i t e r a l way. M u s i c a l p i t c h i n t h i s connection becomes a metaphor f o r s y l l a b i c s t r e s s . That v a r y i n g note va l u e s are used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with p o e t i c metre suggests i n i t i a l l y t h a t these a l s o r e f l e c t the l e n g t h of the vowel of a s t r e s s e d or u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e . T h i s i s one area of c o n s i s t e n c y i n H a r s d o r f f e r ' s use of nota-t i o n , as the s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i n a l l examples given above are r e p r e s e n t e d by notes of longer d u r a t i o n than those f o r u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . I t q u i c k l y becomes apparent, however, t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the length of a note and the l e n g t h of a vowel i s not as i t f i r s t appears. To demon-; . s t r a t e the t r o c h a i c metre H a r s d f l r f f e r i n c l u d e s the l i n e s : "Weh und Ach/ d i e n e t l e i d e r n i c h t zur Sach"(PT,I,54), i n which the word " n i c h t " with i t s s h o r t vowel i s s t r e s s e d (long n o t e ) . Elsewhere he w r i t e s : " S o l t mich das n i c h t r e c h t betruben . . ."(FG,IV,121), where the same word i s i n an u n s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n (short n o t e ) . An example of the iambic metre shows the same di s c r e p a n c y between s t r e s s » *•» — *-* and l e n g t h of vowel: "Er kommt n i c h t wiederum zu seinen jungen Tagen"(PT,I,57-58). The s h o r t vowel i n "kommt" i s s t r e s s e d (long n o t e ) , while the long vowel i n "zu" i s un-s t r e s s e d (short n o t e ) . The len g t h of a note i s then de-c i d e d l y no r e f l e c t i o n of the len g t h of the vowel. When d e a l i n g w i t h normal d i s c o u r s e , H a r s d f l r f f e r does use musical n o t a t i o n to i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e vowel lengths, but h i s r e -marks i n t h a t area no longer apply i n a p o e t i c context. A d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s i f the musical rhythms are seen to rep r e s e n t the n a t u r a l rhythm of the words. As the iambic and t r o c h a i c f o o t each have two s y l l a b l e s , the expected rhythm i s duple. Yet H a r s d f l r f f e r uses a breve and whole note f o r each of these f e e t , the r e s u l t b e i n g an under-l y i n g t r i p l e r h y t h m — a breve p l u s a whole note equals three whole notes. S i m i l a r l y , i n those f e e t c o n t a i n i n g three s y l l a b l e s , a rhythm of f o u r musical beats i s gi v e n . I f the musical beat i s to p r e v a i l , then the s t r e s s e d s y l -l a b l e s must be twice the len g t h of the un s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s , which means t h a t s h o r t vowels i n a s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n become long, and long vowels i n an u n s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n become s h o r t . Yet i t has a l r e a d y been shown t h a t vowel le n g t h and s t r e s s are unconnected. The rhythm suggested by the notes t h e r e f o r e 120 i l 3 i x cannot be taken l i t e r a l l y . I t i s not "I-n den grun-l i c h f a - l b e n Ma-tten," but "In den g r u n l i c h f a l b e n Matten;" H \ 1 3 * i x 3 4- i a . 3 not "Die Wa-ffen v e r r o - s t e n wir ko-sten,"(PT,I,62), but 3 ' 2- 3 • a. 3 i j , "Die Waffen v e r r o s t e n w i r kosten." The element o f l e n g t h i n a musical note thus p r o v i d e s another metaphor f o r s y l -l a b i c s t r e s s . A f i n a l f e a t u r e of n o t a t i o n which e x p l a i n s an aspect of p o e t i c metre i s the l i t e r a l l e n g t h of notes a p p l i e d to the d i f f e r e n t metres to i n d i c a t e the speeds a t which va-, r i o u s types of f e e t are to be spoken i n r e l a t i o n to each o t h e r . I f the note values given by H a r s d f l r f f e r are reduced by a h a l f f o r ease i n r e a d i n g , the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the f o u r metres emerge: Beat i n o j i 2 3 4 5 6 Beat i n J 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 Iamb d o d o Trochee ° J O d J J J J J J J I J D a c t y l Anapaest The time r e q u i r e d to u t t e r two f e e t of a d i s y l l a b i c metre i s the same as t h a t f o r three f e e t of a t r i s y l l a b i c metre. The r a t i o between the two types of metre i-s then 2:3. In the second two examples of the notated anapaest, however, (Examples 10 and 11), notes are used which are h a l f the 121 value of those i n the f i r s t example (Example 9). I f these are compared to a d i s y l l a b i c f o o t , the p r o p o r t i o n becomes 1:3: 1 2 3 Iamb d ° Anapaest J /"J J J"J J (Notation reduced by h a l f ) . With such v a r i a t i o n i n p r o p o r t i o n s i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t they should be taken l i t e r a l l y . Moreover, as note values have been shown to be unconnected to the length of a s y l l a b l e , the musical p r o p o r t i o n s can have no d i r e c t b e a r i n g on spoken v e r s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n p r a c t i c a l p o e t i c terms they do i n d i c a t e i n a general way t h a t a verse of iambic o r t r o -c h a i c metre i s spoken more slo w l y than t h a t of d a c t y l i c or a n apaestic metre. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e , as d i s y l l a b i c metre, e s p e c i a l l y the t r o c h e e , i s s u i t a b l e f o r melancholy s u b j e c t matter (PT,I,52), while t r i s y l l a b i c metre i s to be used f o r j o y f u l themes (PT,1,63). The musical n o t a t i o n chosen by H a r s d o r f f e r i s thus not 16 very s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r e x p l a i n i n g p o e t i c metre. Neither-the p i t c h nor the note val u e s d e s c r i b e i n any p r e c i s e way the s t r e s s , rhythm or i n t o n a t i o n of spoken v e r s e . Furthermore, H a r s d o r f f e r ' s c l a i m t h a t he h i m s e l f was u s i n g notes to i n d i c a t e the "Hohe und T i e f f e / oder steigende und f a l l e n d e Endung," i s not demonstrated c o n s i s t e n t l y i n the examples 122 he g i v e s , as the s t r o n g ending of the iambic f o o t f a l l s on the lower p i t c h e d note of the s e r i e s (Example 7), while the same ending of the a n a p a e s t i c f o o t f a l l s on the h i g h e r note (Example 9). T h i s apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s u l t s from the assumption t h a t H a r s d f l r f f e r intended s t r o n g and weak endings to be shown by the p i t c h of the notes. I f they are i n d i c a t e d by the note v a l u e s , then he i s c o n s i s t e n t , f o r s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s are always re p r e s e n t e d by the longer or l o n g e s t note of the s e r i e s . The v a r i o u s problems brought about by a s s o c i a t i n g note val u e s with m e t r i c a l s t r e s s can be e x p l a i n e d by the p e r s i s t e n c e of imprecise p r o s o d i c terminology. In L a t i n p o e t r y the system of v e r s i f i c a t i o n depends on the l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d to u t t e r a s y l l a b l e — i t i s q u a n t a t i v e , and the terms "long" and " s h o r t " a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h i s f e a -t u r e . German ve r s e , on the:other hand, i s a c c e n t u a l - s y l l a b i c . The determining f a c t o r i s the s t r e s s of s y l l a b l e s , not t h e i r 17 l e n g t h . T.he use of the words "long" and " s h o r t " to ex-p l a i n a c c e n t u a l - s y l l a b i c v e r s e i s t h e r e f o r e not p r e c i s e . O p i t z had been f u l l y aware of t h i s : "Nachmals i s t auch e i n j e d e r v e r s s entweder e i n iambicus oder t r o c h a i c u s ; n i c h t das w i r a u f f a r t der g r i e c h e n vnnd l a t e i n e r eine ge-wisse grflsse der sylben kflnnen i n n acht nemen; sondern das wir an den accenten unnd dem thone erkennen/ welche s y l b e 18 hoch und welche n i e d r i g g e s e t z t s o l i werden" In the 123 remainder of h i s d i s c u s s i o n , he employs the words "hoch" and " n i e d r i g " to d e s c r i b e s t r e s s e d and un s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . Buchner a l s o made a statement on the s u b j e c t : "Die S y l l b e n s i n d entweder lang oder k u r t z : welche i h r e B e s c h a f f e n h e i t i n unser Poeterey b l o s s und a l l e i n aus der Ausrede und dem 19 Thone zu ermessen." H a r s d f l r f f e r a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the prob-lem, f o r he notes t h a t s y l l a b l e s i n verse are "lang oder ku r t z (accentu)"(ME,11,145), where the terms denoting l e n g t h a c t u a l l y imply s y l l a b i c s t r e s s . In a d d i t i o n , he s t a t e s t h a t although vowels are c a l l e d "breves" and "longae" they should i n f a c t be c a l l e d " c l a r a e " and "obscurae"(SP,136). His-view of the a s s o c i a t i o n between L a t i n and German v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n gene r a l i s i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e : "Die j e n i g e n / so vermeinen/ man musse d i e t e u t s c h Poeterey nach dem L a t e i n i s c h e n r i c h t e n / 20 s i n d auf e i n e r gantz i r r i g e n Meinung"(PT,I,17). In a d d i -t i o n , he f o l l o w s O p i t z and Buchner i n drawing a t t e n t i o n t o the a c c e n t u a l nature of the German language by c l a s s i f y i n g words a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s t r e s s (PT,I,18-26). He neverthe-l e s s r e t a i n s terminology based on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of le n g t h , and uses words from t h i s terminology to d e s c r i b e metres used i n German.poetry: " l a n g k u r t z " ( t r o c h a i c ) ; " k u r t z l a n g " (iam-bi c ) ; " l a n g g e k u r t z t " ( d a c t y l i c ) ; " g e k u r t z t l a n g " ( a n a p a e s t i c ) ; "doppellang" (spondaic), and "doppelkurtz" ( p y r r h i c ) (PT,I, 50) . When a p p l y i n g musical n o t a t i o n to p o e t i c metre, Hars-? 124 d o r f f e r takes the concept of l e n g t h l i t e r a l l y , and he ' chooses d i f f e r e n t note values to i n d i c a t e s t r e s s e d and un-s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s . The words "Hohe" and " T i e f f e ; " almost c e r t a i n l y based on O p i t z ' "hoch" and " n i e d r i g , " are a l s o taken l i t e r a l l y , and are represented as notes a t d i f f e r e n t p i t c h e s . Although the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o e t i c metre and musical n o t a t i o n i s somewhat tenuous when s u b j e c t e d to d e t a i l e d s c r u t i n y , f o r H a r s d f l r f f e r , the a s s o c i a t i o n i s based on the meaning of t e c h n i c a l terms o r i g i n a t i n g from a quanta-t i v e system of v e r s i f i c a t i o n ("long" and " s h o r t " ) , and on the meaning of words which attempt to d e s c r i b e s y l l a b i c s t r e s s '( "Hflhe" .and " T i e f f e " ) . He uses note values and p i t c h to express the sense of these words, although he i s aware t h a t the ones which s i g n i f y l ength are not to be taken a t face value when used i n a p u r e l y p r o s o d i c c o n t e x t . His a p p l i c a t i o n of n o t a t i o n to metre n e v e r t h e l e s s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t connections can be found between the a r t s of music and p o e t r y . O v e r a l l , musical m a t e r i a l p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s p o e t r y . M u s i c a l s u b j e c t matter i s used i n an ornamental manner to form " G l e i c h n i s s e , " thereby t e a c h i n g v a r i o u s l e s s o n s i n a p l e a s i n g manner. The t e c h n i c a l aspects of music p r o v i d e a means of drawing p a r a l l e l s between the two a r t s : i n t e r v a l s , hexachordal terminology and n o t a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t ways are a l l intended to demonstrate the r e l a -125 tionship between music and poetry. Music i s thus a source which HarsdOrffer draws on to embellish and describe fea-tures of his art. 126 B. P o e t r y and M u s i c H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s v i e w o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between words and m u s i c i n s o n g i s c l e a r : "Es s o l t e n es . . . d i e u n v e r -n u n f f t i g e n V f l g e l e i n den v e r n u n f f t i g e n Menschen w e i t b e v o r t h u n / wann n i c h t w o l v e r n e h m l i c h e V e r s e und W f l r t e r / m i t d e r l i e b l i c h e n Stimme v e r b u n d e n wurden/ d e r Ton ohne r e d e i s t n i c h t zu v e r s t e h e n / und g l e i c h e t e i n e r frembden S p r a c h e / d i e w i r n i c h t e r l e r n e t haben"(ME,11,131). Words a r e t h e r e -f o r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s a r c a n e f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e i n t o a c o m p r e h e n s i b l e s y s t e m o f s o u n d s , and H a r s d f l r f f e r becomes t h e t r a n s l a t o r by p r o v i d i n g t h e w o r d s . I n w r i t i n g t h e words e i t h e r t o an e x i s t i n g m elody o r t o be s e t t o m u s i c , t h e p o e t must f o l l o w c e r t a i n r u l e s w h i c h d i f f e r i n some r e s p e c t s f r o m t h o s e u s e d i n w r i t i n g v e r s e w h i c h i s n o t i n t e n d e d f o r a m u s i c a l s e t t i n g . The f i r s t f a c t o r w h i c h i s t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h e l e n g t h o f v e r s e s . H a r s d f l r f f e r p r e f e r s t o u s e s h o r t v e r s e s , i n c l u -d i n g s o n n e t s , " w e i l s i c h d i e k u r t z e n V e r s e v i e l b e s s e r zu s i n g e n s c h i c k e n a l s d i e l a n g e n " ( F G , I V , 1 5 8 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f f o r e i g n songs i n t o German, he j u s t i f i e s o b v i o u s o m i s s i o n s by t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s done "nach d e r k u r t z e n A r t T e u t s c h e r G e s a n g e r " ( F G , I I , 21 337) . 1 127 The second f a c t o r to be c o n s i d e r e d i s which of the p o e t i c metres are to be used i n g e n e r a l , and which ones can be mixed i n the same song. The most s u i t a b l e i s the t r o -c h a i c tetrameter (PT,I,54 and 70), the i m p l i c a t i o n s being t h a t s h o r t e r t r o c h a i c l i n e s are not ac c e p t a b l e f o r p o e t r y . The use of other metres i n song i s not excluded. I f metres are to be mixed i n poetry, the general r u l e i s to use iambs and anapaests t o g e t h e r on the one hand, trochees and dac-t y l s on the oth e r (PT,I,71). In songs, more leeway i s pos-s i b l e : m e t r i c a l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n a poem "kflnnen u n z e h l i c h ausgedacht werden/ haben aber/ ausser dem Gesang wenig L i e b -l i c h k e i t " ( P T , I , 7 6 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , H a r s d f i r f f e r i n s i s t s t h a t u s i n g iambs and trochees i n the same verse of a song i s an 22 " A b s c h r i t t von den Lehr-Satz." (PT, I I I , 96) . To demonstrate the " A b s c h r i t t , " he quotes p a r t of a song by R i s t which i n c l u d e s l i n e s of iambic and t r o c h a i c metre. ,He f o l l o w s t h i s by the statement: "Dieses, wenn es den Noten zu Liebe g e s c h i h e t / kan f u r keinen F e h l e r gehalten werden"(PT,III,97). The a c t u a l y a r d s t i c k i s not so much whether the p o e t i c r u l e s have been f o l l o w e d , but whether the musical rhythm has been taken i n t o account. The i n d i c a t i o n s here are t h a t the poet who w r i t e s songs r a t h e r than verse to be read o r r e c i t e d has to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n other musical f a c t o r s which may o c c a s i o n a l l y r e s u l t i n a n e g l e c t of the p o e t i c r u l e s . When w r i t i n g words to an e x i s t i n g melody, the poet 12 must be aware of the general tone of the m u s i c — t h e words must r e f l e c t the mood, whether gay or melancholy (PT,III, 93-94), as w e l l as e x p r e s s i n g the meaning of the melodic l i n e . When the notes ascend or descend, phrases such as "Ihr hohen Berge" or "Ihr t i e f e n T h a l e r " w i l l combine the meaning of the t e x t and the music (PT,III,94). H a r s d f l r f f e r i s j u s t as aware of the need f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n as Herbst. The two agree i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t the p u n c t u a t i o n of a t e x t 23 must correspond with the cadences i n music (PT,III,94). The f u n c t i o n of p u n c t u a t i o n f o r H a r s d f l r f f e r i s to d i v i d e grammatical elements i n a r e g u l a r and ordered manner to make the p r o g r e s s i o n of meaning c l e a r . I t i s i n c o r r e c t , he sug-g e s t s , to p l a c e the d i r e c t o b j e c t a t the beginning of the f i r s t l i n e of a song, and the s u b j e c t i n the t h i r d l i n e when a cadence i n t e r v e n e s (PT,III,95), otherwise the meaning w i l l be l o s t (PT,I,105). T h i s i s p a r t of h i s g e n e r a l view t h a t the word order of verse should not d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y from t h a t of prose (PT,1,106). I f a composition c o n s i s t s of a number of ver s e s sung to the same melody, then a l l these f a c t o r s must be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n every v e r s e . I f the work i s through-composed, the meaning of the words i s s t i l l to r e f l e c t the movement of the melodic l i n e (PT,III,94). H a r s d f l r f f e r then has a d e f i n i t e system to be f o l l o w e d when w r i t i n g songs to be s e t to an e x i s t i n g tune, and although much of i t i s 129 drawn from the I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n , as he h i m s e l f admits,''"1 i t does p r o v i d e a convenient c o d i f i c a t i o n of those f e a t u r e s c o n s i d e r e d important by a German poet. Whether H a r s d o r f f e r f o l l o w s h i s system i n p r a c t i c e can be a s c e r t a i n e d by a n a l y z i n g a song from the He r t z -bewegliche Sonntagsandachten, a work which i n c l u d e s many t e x t s which are to be sung t o well-known melodies. The verses chosen are from the "LiebsGesang Der GOTT ergebenen Seele bey der Vogel Gesang:" Erhebe d i c h f l u c h t i g e Stimm/ s t e i g Wolken an/ schwinge d i c h / klimm und h i l f f e den V o g e l e i n singen/ di e l i e b l i c h e n L i e d e r gemein/ und hore d i e P s a l t e r l e i n k l i n g e n / h a l t f l e i s s i g m i t ihnen auch e i n ! Mi t k u n s t l i c h gemischetem Chor/ schwingt e i n e r l e y Music empor! Der N a c h t i g a l l k r a u s s l i c h t e r Klang t i r i l i r e t das r e i n s t e Gesang/ s i e f a l l e t auf l i e b l i c h e T e r t z e n / und s c h l u r f f e l t dem B a c h l e i n nach: s i e l i s p e l t und w i s p e l t zu s c h e r t z e n / dess reimenden Gegenhalls Sprach/ und s i n g e t im hflherem Chor/ den anderen V f l g e l e i n v o r . . . .(HS,II,234-35) From a p u r e l y l i t e r a r y p o i n t of view, a number of f e a t u r e s stand out. M e t r i c a l l y , the d a c t y l predominates, and there i s an a n a c r u s i s a t the beginning of each l i n e , w i t h the s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n o f " t i r i l i r e t " i n verse two, l i n e two. A s t r e s s e d monosyllable o r t r o c h a i c f o o t appears a t the end 130 of each l i n e . A t r o c h a i c f o o t a l s o occurs i n the f o u r t h l i n e of verse two ( " B a c h l e i n " ) . The mixing of d a c t y l s and trochees i s recommended i n H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t e -ments, as i s the use of the d a c t y l to express j o y f u l s u b j e c t matter. Moreover, the word " f l u c h t i g e " (verse-one, l i n e r one), r e f l e c t s i n i t s metre and meaning the speed of the 2 6 d a c t y l . In v e r s e one, l i n e seven, however, the word "gemischetem" goes a g a i n s t one of H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s main r u l e s , which s t a t e s t h a t the l e t t e r "e" must not be added merely to f i l l out the metre (PT,I,105). Both v e r s e s c o n s i s t of f o u r c o u p l e t s , with the rhyme scheme AA BC BC DD, and the rhymes i n the l a s t two l i n e s of each verse are based on the word "Chor," i m p l y i n g a r e c u r r e n t r e f r a i n . The preponderance of a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, i n t e r n a l rhyme, onomatopoeia 27 and f r o n t vowels i s a hallmark of H a r s d o r f f e r ' s s t y l e . The combination of these f e a t u r e s produces a t y p i c a l example of some of the techniques used by H a r s d & r f f e r i n p o e t r y . The motives behind h i s c h o i c e of metre, s t r u c t u r e , a c o u s t i c elements and meaning can to some extent be ex-p l a i n e d by the music f o r which the words were w r i t t e n . The rhythm of the v e r s e s read without r e f e r i n g to the notes, however, does not immediately suggest t h a t the melody to : 2 8 which they are to be sung i s t h a t of "In D u l c i J u b i l o : " 131 Example 12: The dominant rhythm i n t h i s melody i s one long note f o l -lowed by a note of h a l f the le n g t h , , the same pro-p o r t i o n H a r s d f l r f f e r uses i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l statements to d e s c r i b e the t r o c h a i c metre. For the purposes -of t h i s song he has taken the u n d e r l y i n g t r i p l e rhythm of the music 29 and t r a n s l a t e d i t i n t o a predominantly d a c t y l i c metre. The b a s i c melody t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s some a l t e r a t i o n i f H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s words are to be sung f l u e n t l y without any d i s t u r b a n c e of the m e t r i c a l rhythm of the poem: Example 13: 13 2 A W1 Loch - t i Er - he - be dich fInch - ge S t i - -Der Nach-ti-gall krauss-lich-ter Kla - -mm/ steig - -ng t i - r i -i i f - w — h 1 r r f 1 1 Wo1-ken an/ schwing-e dich k l i -l i - ret das rein - ste Ge - sa -- - — mm ng/ und h i l f f - e den sie f a l - l e t auf I S -p- t C f Vo - ge-lein s i - -lieb-lich-e Ter -- - gen/ die lieb - l i c h - en Lie-der ge--tzen/ und schlur-felt dem Ba - - -chlein 4 —»—f—-— r* t 0 -el J — mei - -na - -Q n/ und ho-re die Psalt - er - lein k l i - ngen/ halt — -ch: sie l i s p - e l t und wis-pelt zu sche—rtzen/ dess f f f l e i s s - i g mit rei-men-den i h - nen auch e i - - - - n! Mit ktinst-lich ge-Ge-gen-halls Spra ch/ und sing-et lim /TV i — i — 1 k 1 1 *— mf mT mt —i r \ jj J -€ f r f * $ 4 1 -«U misch-e -tern Cho - - r/ schwingt ei-ner-ley Mu-sic em - por! hfl - he - rem Cho r/ den an-der - en Vo-ge-lein vor. •In the words to -this-song- H a r s d f l r f f e r has n o t - f o l l o w e d the notes of the o r i g i n a l - l i t e r a l l y , although the t r o c h a i c " B a c h l e i n " i n ve r s e two, l i n e f our - does r e f 1-e.ct the o r i g i n a l n o t a t i o n , and may have been chosen because H a r s d f l r f f e r had t h i s b a s i c rhythmic u n i t to contend with. In c o n t r a s t , 133 the m e t r i c a l d a c t y l r a t h e r than the musical n o t a t i o n i s behind the word "gemischetem" i n the penultimate l i n e of the f i r s t v e r s e . In these cases, the o r i g i n a l n o t a t i o n p r e -v a i l s on the one hand, the metre on the ot h e r . Harsdflrf-f e r otherwise a p p l i e s h i s chosen metre a c c o r d i n g to h i s own standards. The p u n c t u a t i o n and grammatical s t r u c t u r e correspond c l o s e l y to the musical s t r u c t u r e , AA BC BC DE. The v i r g u l a , exclamation mark or semi-colon are used at a l l cadence p o i n t s except at the end of the f i r s t l i n e of the second v e r s e . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e the meaning i s c a r r i e d on i n t o the second l i n e — t h e two l i n e s form one main c l a u s e , and from a grammatical p o i n t of view no pun c t u a t i o n i s neces-s a r y . From a mus i c - p o e t i c p o i n t of view, however, the v i r -g u l a should appear here, as i t does i n oth e r i n s t a n c e s i n which a main c l a u s e takes up two l i n e s (verse one, l i n e s three and f o u r ; verse two, l i n e s f i v e and s i x , seven and e i g h t ) . As the pun c t u a t i o n i n the remaining verses i s somewhat e r r a t i c , owing to i n c o n c s i s t e n c y e i t h e r on the p a r t of; H a r s d f l r f f e r o r h i s p r i n t e r , a c t u a l usage i n the song cannot u l t i m a t e l y be used to demonstrate whether the p r i n -ted v e r s i o n i n f a c t r e f l e c t s H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s r e a l i n t e n t i o n or not. The grammatical s t r u c t u r e n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of a co n c a t e n a t i o n of o n e - l i n e or tw o - l i n e main c l a u s e s , the l a t t e r never c r o s s i n g from one c o u p l e t i n t o 134 the next. The a d v e r b i a l phrase making up the penultimate l i n e of verse one i s the o n l y example of a l i n e which i s not made up of p a r t o f , or a complete, main c l a u s e , but i t too forms a c o u p l e t w i t h the main c l a u s e to which i t be-longs. The d i v i s i o n of the verses i n t o f o u r c o u p l e t s , each of which c o n t a i n s , one or two u n i t s of meaning r e f l e c t s the m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e . H a r s d f i r f f e r has t h e r e f o r e adhered to h i s own r u l e r e q u i r i n g t h a t the meaning of the words s e t to a given melody should u n f o l d i n s h o r t s e c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to the musical cadences. The r e p e t i t i o n s i n the melody are a t times matched by the language, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the musical B s e c t i o n s which correspond to l i n e s three and f i v e of the v e r s e s . In verse one these l i n e s begin with "und h i l f f e den . . . " and "und hflre d i e . . . " producing an i d e n t i c a l f i r s t word, and p a r a l l e l a l l i t e r a t i o n of "h" and "d." In the second v e r s e , the same word, " s i e " appears a t the beginning of l i n e s three and f i v e , but more important here i s the meaning of the words " l i s p e l t " and " w i s p e l t , " and the r e f e r e n c e to the echo i n l i n e s i x . As l i n e s f i v e and s i x are a musical repeat of l i n e s three and f o u r , the i n d i c a t i o n from the meaning of these words i s t h a t they should be sung more s o f t l y , as i f they were an echo. M u s i c a l dynamics are t h e r e -f o r e i m p l i c i t i n the meaning. In f i v e of the l i n e s g i v e n , words i n d i c a t i n g ascent or 135 descent are used, and i n a l l cases but one, they c o r r e s -pond to the same f e a t u r e s i n the melodic l i n e . The words "Erhebe" and " s t e i g " a t the beginning of the f i r s t two l i n e s of the f i r s t verse prepare the way f o r the r i s i n g melodic l i n e , and the word "hflherem" i n the penultimate l i n e of verse two m i r r o r s the same. In the t h i r d l i n e of verse two the word " f a l l e t " r e f l e c t s the descending l i n e of the melody, while the word "Tertzen" i s a c t u a l l y s e t to the i n t e r v a l of a f a l l i n g t h i r d . In the l a s t l i n e of the f i r s t v e r s e , the meaning of "schwingt . . . empor" i n d i c a t e s ascent, but the melody f a l l s . H a r s d f l r f f e r does not s t a t e i f a s p e c i a l case can be made f o r the l a s t l i n e of a v e r s e , and i t would t h e r e f o r e appear t h a t he has not f o l l o w e d h i s own d i r e c -t i o n s . Furthermore, h i s i d e a t h a t the meaning should r e -f l e c t the movement of the notes i n the same way i n every verse i s not put i n t o p r a c t i c e here. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s of the m e l o d y - - i t i s s h o r t and r e p e t i t i v e — p l a c e too many s t r i c t u r e s on the poet, and H a r s d O r f f e r 1 s t h e o r e t i c a l requirements t h e r e f o r e cannot be a p p l i e d e f f e c -t i v e l y . In g e n e r a l , however, H a r s d o r f f e r was c e r t a i n l y i n -f l u e n c e d by the melody i n h i s choice of p o e t i c elements f o r t h i s song. Very l i t t l e a c t u a l n o t a t i o n appears i n the Hertzbe-wegliche Sonntagsandachten, but the melodies of those verses which are to be sung are always i n d i c a t e d . H a r s d f l r f f e r p r o v i d e s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n by u s i n g the phrases "Im Ton . . . " o r "Nach der Stimme. . . . " On o c c a s i o n , he mentions the s p e c i f i c source, as when he r e f e r s to s e t t i n g s of hymns by Ambrosius Lobwasser (HS,1, 181,253) . At other times, the tune i s i n d i c a t e d as "In seinem eignen Ton"(HS,I,213) or "In seinem bekannten Ton"(HS,II,227), where the t i t l e or f i r s t l i n e i s the same as the o r i g i n a l . Although, as has been shown, the e x i s t i n g melody d i c t a t e s aspects of form, s t y l e and meaning, the content of the o r i g i n a l song i s not n e c e s s a r i l y as b i n d i n g , f o r i n some cases the r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t matter of H a r s d f i r f f e r ' s v e r s e s i s to be sung to s e c u l a r melodies: a "Klag und T r o s t l i e d " i s to be sung to the tune of "Wo i s t mein schflne S c h a f e r i n hinkommen"(HS,I, 68); the "Absaglied der Welt der grossen Sunderin Maria Magdalena" i s to be sung to "Habt i h r n i c h t hflren klagen/ e i n Schafer an dem Rhein"(HS,I,284); and a " T r a u r l i e d " i s a l s o s e t to t h i s melody (HS,II,327). By f a r the most f r e -quent s e c u l a r music used i s t h a t to "Daphnis gieng vor wenig Tagen" from a work by R i s t . " ^ The importance of melo d i e s s e l e c t e d t h e r e f o r e does not depend on the meaning of the o r i g i n a l t e x t s , but the o v e r a l l p o p u l a r i t y of the melo-d i e s . T h i s was c e r t a i n l y a d e l i b e r a t e a c t on the p a r t of H a r s d o r f f e r , as he s t a t e s t h a t h i s ch o i c e of tunes i s a r b i -t r a r y (HS,I,preface). The o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s s e l e t i o n i s t h a t i t pr o v i d e s a b r i e f compendium of some of the melodies which were famous and wi d e l y disseminated' i n the seve n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y . ^ 1 In one i n s t a n c e H a r s d f l r f f e r i n c l u d e s music without s t a t i n g a source. His " L i e d von den v i e r l e t z t e n Dingen" i s to be sung e i t h e r to one of two w e l l known tunes, o r "nach f o l g e n d e r Melodey"(HS,II,379-81): Example 14: A B 3 D E — * 5 13. v=— I I I . , 1 f^-jr-Sb J J ) J [__£_ > * y —e F i r s t Verse: Mein Hertz du bi s t sehr verdustert/ mit der sehnoden. Ei t e l k e i t / du hast so vielmals gelustert/ nach dem was man spat bereut/ werde nun jetzt endlich weiss/ und betracht mit allem Fleiss was bald bald hernacher kommet/ was d i r schadet oder frommet. Although i t i s tempting to a t t r i b u t e t h i s melody to Hars-d o r f f e r h i m s e l f , i t i s probably rash to do so, f o r i n pre-c o p y r i g h t days there was no r e a l need to acknowledge one's 138 32 source. In a l i t e r a r y c o ntext H a r s d f l r f f e r g e n e r a l l y mentions h i s sources, i n c l u d i n g a b i b l i o g r a p h y i n the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e ( I I , 4 6 7 - 9 4 ) ; IV,703-16), but at times he does not. The music i n the Frauenzimmer Ge-s p r a c h s p i e l e i s a t t r i b u t e d to Staden e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , as H a r s d f l r f f e r notes t h a t a l l music up to and i n c l u d i n g p a r t four i s by Staden (FG,IV,43). Yet at l e a s t 33 one song i n p a r t f o u r i s not by Staden, but H i l l e , and the a u t h o r s h i p of b r i e f musical q u o t a t i o n s i n subsequent volumes of the work i s not always c l e a r . O v e r a l l , Hars-d f l r f f e r does not name h i s sources i n a c o n s i s t e n t way, and the lac k of a r e f e r e n c e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e i s t h e r e f o r e no r e a l i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he d i d not take the melody from somewhere e l s e . T h i s melody, i n a d d i t i o n , bears a remarkable resem-blance to one composed by Staden f o r a song by R i s t one 34 year e a r l i e r : Example 15 A B E E t E E E f : IEE2 3 -& D -4 -E 6i ; is: J3Z i IP r i c r l J J l d--&• 1 — ^ — ' 139 F i r s t Verse: GOTT/ der du den Klooss der Erden/ samt dem grossen Himmels-Sahl Durch dein Wohrt hast lassen werden/ wir erkennen allzumahl/ dass du b i s t ein HErr/ Allmachtig/ Schreklich/ Herrlich/ stark und prachtig/ wie wir denn in dieser Nacht/ sptiren deine grosse Macht. Although the f i r s t example has a duple rhythm and the second a t r i p l e i n the o r i g i n a l s , both are s e t t i n g s of the same p o e t i c metre. The o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e s of the two are very s i m i l a r : each song i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s , w i t h the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s being repeated. The o n l y s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e between them i s the shortened D s e c t i o n i n the f i r s t example. The melodies f o l l o w very s i m i l a r l i n e s with many i d e n t i c a l leaps and stepwise p r o g r e s s i o n s . The song i n the Hertzbewegliche Sonntagsandachten t h e r e f o r e appears to be a reworking of t h a t i n R i s t ' s c o l l e c t i o n , and i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i t should be a t t r i b u t e d to Staden r a t h e r than H a r s d f l r f f e r . H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s main method of combining r e l i g i o u s sub-j e c t matter and music i n t h i s work i s then to w r i t e new words to well-known tunes, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the readers can s i n g the songs whether they understand the p r i n c i p l e s of music or not. Those who do have a knowledge of music w i l l be able to t r y out the new melody p r o v i d e d , but as i t i s based on an e x i s t i n g tune, the melodic o u t l i n e may very w e l l be f a m i l i a r . H a r s d o r f f e r has t h e r e f o r e made h i s songs 140 as a c c e s s i b l e as p o s s i b l e to h i s p u b l i c . In c o n t r a s t to the Hertzbewegliche Sonntagsandachten which r e l y on well-known melodies, the major dramatic works which i n c l u d e music i n the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e were w r i t t e n i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Staden. The a c t u a l method of c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s not recorded, but suggestions have been made i n c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on how the poet and composer worked together. On the one hand, Staden i s regarded as H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s " h i r e d help r a t h e r than . . . f r i e n d and 35 e q u a l , " or as one who f o l l o w e d H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s i n s t r u c t i o n s 3 6 p r e c i s e l y . On the other hand, Staden i s shown to have taken c o n s i d e r a b l e l i b e r t i e s with the t e x t s , and not to have 37 f o l l o w e d H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s i n s t r u c t i o n s to the l e t t e r . K e l l e r has uncovered 250 major d i f f e r e n c e s between the t e x t of Seelewig given i n the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n and t h a t given i n the s c o r e . G i v i n g examples, he shows t h a t changes i n the t e x t were made to produce more f l o w i n g and n a t u r a l declama-t i o n , to pro v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a p p l y i n g musico-r h e t o r i c a l f i g u r e s and to emphasise important p o i n t s i n the p l o t . S i m i l a r tendencies are e v i d e n t i n the Tugend-3 8 s t e r n e . Although K e l l e r admits the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Hars-3 9 d f l r f f e r h i m s e l f might have made the changes, he concludes t h a t they are the r e s u l t of Staden's working c r i t i c a l l y w ith the t e x t s . Throughout the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n of Seelewig, H a r s d f l r f f e r 141 i n t e r s p e r s e s a number of statements made by the c h a r a c t e r s of the " G e s p r a c h s p i e l " on the music to be used f o r the v a r i o u s songs: "Die Music bedunkt mich wolgesetzt"(FG,IV, 120); "Die Music i s t k u n s t l i c h e r g e s e t z t / a l s i c h sagen kan"(FG,IV,145), or, "Die Music i s t zu d i e s e r Reimart anmuhtig gebracht"(FG,IV,149). Remarks of t h i s type do not n e c e s s a r i l y imply t h a t H a r s d f l r f f e r had the music a t hand while w r i t i n g the l i b r e t t o , as they are of such a gene-r a l n ature. In oth e r cases, the p i c t u r e i s r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t : "Diese und d e r g l e i c h e n Sonnet oder K l i n g r e i m e n mflgen auf mancherley A r t g e s e t z e t werden/ h i e r i s t eine g l e i c h e / doch s c h i c k l i c h e Mensur"(FG,IV,96); "Nach den Versen i s t d i e Music g e r i c h t e t / i n dem das Gesang der Sinnigunda s p r i n g t und f r f l -l i c h / der Seelewig L i e d mehr gemassigt i s t " ( F G , I V , 1 3 0 ) ; or "Dieses a l l e s erhebet d i e Music noch v i e l k u n s t l i c h e r / i n dem das T o t e n l i e d den Ton f t l h r e t : Wann mein S t u n d l e i n 40 verhanden i s t . . ."(FG,IV,76). The l a s t statement i n par-t i c u l a r , which g i v e s the name of a melody chosen from e l s e -where, leaves no doubt t h a t the music was a v a i l a b l e a t the time H a r s d f l r f f e r wrote the l i b r e t t o . A q u e s t i o n which s t i l l remains, however, i s whether H a r s d o r f f e r from the p o i n t of view of language, had more of a hand i n making the changes of wording i n the score v e r s i o n of Seelewig than has h i t h e r t o been admitted. T h i s q u e s t i o n can be approached by examining verses from both 142 s e c t i o n s which c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s : Libretto (FG,IV,98-100) Score (FG,540-45). Trugewalt: Kunsteling ich muss d i r klagen Wie ich lange Zeit i n mir habe die Begierd getragen Seelwig zu berucken hier. Wirst du mir behulfflich seyn So s t e l l 1 ich mich dankbar ein Kunsteling ich muss d i r klagen/ dass ich lange Zeit in mir habe die Begierd getragen/ Seelewig zu trugen hier. Wirst du mir behulfflich seyn So s t e l l ' ich mich dankbar ein Kunsteling: Wie? s o l i jemand dein begehren der inwohnet dieses Land/ schimfen/ und dich nicht gewaren? Bist du dann i h r nicht bekant? Was ich. darbey leisten kan/ biet ich frey und w i l l i g an Solte wol auch dein Begehren jemand i n dem gantzen Land/ wegeren und nicht gewehren deme deine Macht bekand? Meine Dienst und was ich kan Biet ich hiermit w i l l i g an Trugewalt: Ach sie pflegt nicht zu verweilen/ wann ich an bequemen Ort/ Sie gedenke zu ereilen/ ihr zu sagen Liebes-Wort Wirst du mir behulfflich seyn so s t e l l ' ich mich dankbar ein Ach sie pflegt nicht zu verweilen wann ich o f f t an einem Ort sie gedenke zu ereilen ihr zu sagen nur ein Wort Wirst du mir behulfflich seyn so s t e l l 1 ich mich dankbar ein In verse one, the f i r s t change occurs i n the second l i n e where "wie" becomes "dass," but the meaning i s not a l t e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y by t h i s s u b s t i t u t i o n . P h o n e t i c a l l y , however, the word "wie" ending i n a vowel sound, and " i c h , " b eginning w i t h a vowel, tend to be run together, o b s c u r i n g the meaning. I f the two words are i n d i v i d u a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d , a g l o t t a l stop 143 must be used, which produces a s l i g h t i n t e r r u p t i o n i n de-l i v e r y , and r e s u l t s i n the m e t r i c a l l y u n s t r e s s e d word " i c h " r e c e i v i n g more emphasis than r e q u i r e d . With the use of the word "dass," these concerns are e l i m i n a t e d . The o t h e r changes made i n the f i r s t v e rse occur i n l i n e f o u r : "Seelwig zu berucken h i e r , " becomes "Seelewig zu trugen h i e r . " The p o s i t i o n of "Seelewig" i n the second ^ - ^  l i n e shows t h a t the heroine's name i s not "Seelewig," but "Seelewig." T h i s way of a c c e n t i n g the name i s used c o n s i s -t e n t l y throughout the s c o r e . Yet i n the t e x t , H a r s d o r f f e r has "Seelwig," the c e n t r a l "e" being dropped f o r m e t r i c a l reasons to i n c l u d e the word "berucken." H a r s d o r f f e r ex-p l a i n s : "Er ^Trugewalt^j sagt h i e r n i c h t dass er Seelewig h o l d sey/ sondern er l o b e t s i e / wie e i n Ehebrecher e i n e r e h e l i c h e n Frauen aufwartet/ s i e zu F a l l e zu brin g e n / wel-ches durch das W o r t l e i n berucken verstanden worden"(FG,IV, 99). H a r s d f l r f f e r c l e a r l y f e l t the i n c l u s i o n of the word "berucken" to be more important than the c o r r e c t form of "Seelewig" when w r i t i n g the words. The change to "Seelewig" i n the score seems to have been made to i n c o r p o r a t e the com-p l e t e form of the n a m e — i t appears t h a t the dropping of a s y l l a b l e i s not a p p r o p r i a t e i n the name of the heroine, and indeed i n two oth e r i n s t a n c e s where H a r s d f l r f f e r w r i t e s " S e e l -wig" i n the t e x t , the name e i t h e r r e v e r t s to "Seelewig" i n the score (FG,IV, 141,583), or the wording i s a l t e r e d to avoid. 144 u s i n g i t (FG,IV,105,541). Furthermore, the word "Seelwig," with the "1" and "w" juxtaposed, i s more d i f f i c u l t to pro-nounce f l u e n t l y than "Seelewig" with the i n t e r v e n i n g vowel. The c o r r e c t form of the name i n the score r e q u i r e s a sub-s t i t u t i o n f o r "berucken" to r e t a i n m e t r i c a l r e g u l a r i t y . The word "trugen" a l t e r s the meaning to some extent, but as i t i s a c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t of the name "Trugewalt," i t expresses the nature and i n t e n t of t h i s c h a r a c t e r more e f f e c -t i v e l y than the word "berucken." Both changes i n t h i s l i n e can thus be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of metre, phonetics and meaning. The a l t e r a t i o n s i n verse two are much more e x t e n s i v e , and the i n i t i a l cause f o r them can be found i n the f i r s t l i n e . Where i n spoken d e l i v e r y the i n t e r r o g a t i v e nature of "Wie?" can be conveyed by i n t o n a t i o n , t h i s cannot be done i n song. "Wie? s o i l jemand d e i n begehren?" becomes "Wie s o i l jemand d e i n begehren?" which i s not the q u e s t i o n . The major s y n t a c t i c changes and d i f f e r e n t v o c abulary i n the score v e r s i o n are t h e r e f o r e necessary to r e t a i n the general meaning of the o r i g i n a l . The a l t e r a t i o n of the word "schimfen" to "wegeren" i n l i n e three not o n l y p r o v i d e s the c o r r e c t metre i n the score v e r s i o n , but a l s o produces an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r assonance w i t h the word "gewehren" a t the end of the l i n e . In the f o u r t h l i n e of the score, the word "deme" i n c l u d e d to complete the metre i s another d e v i a t i o n from H a r s d o r f f e r 1 s 145 r u l e t h a t the l e t t e r "e" must never be i n c l u d e d j u s t f o r sc a n s i o n . As t h i s a l s o o c c u r r e d with the word "gemische-tem" i n the song to "In D u l c i J u b i l o " i n the Hertzbeweg-l i c h e Sonntagsandachten, the r u l e appears to be f l e x i b l e . There i s no obvious m e t r i c a l or phonet i c reason f o r the changes i n the l a s t two l i n e s i n t h i s v e r s e , although from a semantic p o i n t of view, K t i n s t e l i n g ' s subservience to Truge-walt i s more apparent i n the score v e r s i o n . The emphasis on s e r v i c e i s then made c l e a r immediately by the words "Meine D i e n s t " a t the beginning of the c o u p l e t . In t h i s v erse there are twice as many nouns i n the score than i n the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n : "Macht" and "Dienst" are added. A p o s s i b l e reason i s t h a t nouns convey a s t r o n g e r meaning than many o t h e r p a r t s of speech. T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y the case when the two v e r s i o n s of l i n e f i v e are compared. The major changes i n t h i s v erse can then be a t t r i b u t e d to c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of syntax, metre and meaning. The a l t e r a t i o n s i n verse three are minor compared to those of verse two, and appear o n l y i n l i n e s two and f o u r . The changes from "an bequemen" to " o f f t an einem," and "Liebes-Wort" to "nur e i n Wort" were c l e a r l y not made f o r m e t r i c a l reasons, as a l l v e r s i o n s can be scanned r e g u l a r l y . Grammatically, both l i n e s i n the l i b r e t t o s e c t i o n p r o p e r l y r e q u i r e an i n d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e : "an einem bequemen O r t , " "sagen e i n Liebes-Wort," and i n both cases t h i s i s s u p p l i e d 146 i n the s c o r e . As a r e s u l t , " o f f t " and "nur" are necessary to complete the metre. The s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n these cases a f f e c t the meaning of the o r i g i n a l words--"bequemen" and " L i e b e s " convey more i n f o r m a t i o n than " o f f t " and "nur." The meaning i n the score i s t h e r e f o r e d i m i n i s h e d by these a l t e r a t i o n s . D espite the changes i n a l l three v e r s e s , the o v e r a l l meaning i s m a i n t a i n e d — T r u g e w a l t i s s o l i c i t i n g K u n s t e l i n g ' s help i n h i s p l o t a g a i n s t Seelewig. Minor semantic a l t e r a -t i o n s are t h e r e f o r e not of g r e a t importance i n the t o t a l scheme, but at times they do r e p r e s e n t an attempt to c l a r i f y the meaning; and the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of a t e x t i s a major 41 concern f o r H a r s d f l r f f e r . Other r e v i s i o n s are based on f a c -t o r s of p h o n e t i c s , metre, syntax and grammar. H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s involvement with the l a s t three has a l r e a d y been demonstrated. His own method of t e s t i n g a song shows the emphasis he put on p h o n e t i c s : "Wann dann das L i e d v e r f e r t i g e t / s o l man es u n t e r s c h i e d l i c h m a l s l e s e n oder auf s e l b s t erfundene Stimme singen. Und hflren ob a l l e s wol aufeinander k l i n g e . . ." (PT,III,96). He was thus very much aware of the sound of words i n song, and the k i n d of p h o n e t i c changes made i n these v e r s e s r e f l e c t t h i s concern. None of the a l t e r a t i o n s a f f e c t s the general metre, f o r the r e g u l a r t r o c h a i c t e t r a -meter, which H a r s d f l r f f e r names as the most s u i t a b l e f o r song, i s r e t a i n e d throughout the score v e r s i o n . Phonetics and 147 metre are thus very s i g n i f i c a n t factors i n Harsdflrffer's view of the song. His o v e r a l l concern for matters of phonetics, metre and grammar suggests most strongly that he was involved i n such changes made i n the score. Although Staden, as K e l l e r ob-serves, i s almost c e r t a i n l y responsible for the major a l t e r a -tions made for musical reasons, those which are based on considerations of language stem i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d from Hars-dorffer 's pen. Ke l l e r suggests that Harsdorffer "hatte wohl kaum seine 4 2 eigenen Verse zer s t f l r t . " Yet Harsdttrffer himself states at the end of the l i b r e t t o section that Seelewig i s an "An-fangsprob"(FG,IV,209), which admits the p o s s i b i l i t y of re-v i s i o n . The examples given of changes between the two ver-sions then provide some i n d i c a t i o n of the way i n which Hars-dflrffer worked with his m a t e r i a l — t h e r e i s always room for improvement. The fact that the music was available at the time the l i b r e t t o section was written suggests that much preparatory work had taken place beforehand. Staden could not have writ-ten the music without the words, and therefore must have had an early d r a f t of the l i b r e t t o from Harsdc-rf f e r . Some of the differences in the score section, e s p e c i a l l y those with no obvious explanation, may i n fact represent remnants of such a dr a f t . A procedure which could have been followed 148 i s t h a t Staden composed the music a c c o r d i n g to the m a t e r i a l s u p p l i e d a t an e a r l y stage by H a r s d f l r f f e r , and passed i t to him i n rough form without t e x t underlay. H a r s d f l r f f e r was thereupon i n a p o s i t i o n to p r o v i d e comments on the music i n h i s v e r s i o n of the l i b r e t t o . The two then came together to improve on the work. As the score to Seelewig i s not p a r t of the main body of the volume of the Frauenzimmer Gesprach-s p i e l e i n which i t appears, but i s appended to i t , the p r i n -t i n g of H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s v e r s i o n may w e l l have a l r e a d y been underway by the time the r e v i s e d form was complete and ready to go to the p r e s s . T h i s c e r t a i n l y accounts f o r the appear-ance i n the same work of two v a r i a n t l i b r e t t i ; one of them i s t o t a l l y H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s own, the o t h e r shows d e f i n i t e s i g n s of h i s involvement. A f i n a l f e a t u r e to.be c o n s i d e r e d here i n connection with the c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the poet and musician i s t h a t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o e t i c metre and musical rhythm. The r e g u l a r metre p r o v i d e d by H a r s d f l r f f e r i n the song sung by" Trugewalt and K u n s t e l i n g i s taken up by Staden, who t r a n s -l a t e s i t i n t o a r e g u l a r musical beat, and i n c l u d e s b a r l i n e s a t s e t p o i n t s . Yet the use of the b a r l i n e to i n d i c a t e a r e -c u r r i n g beat had by no means been a standard f e a t u r e of music before the seventeenth-century: A r t music of the Renaissance was r e g u l a t e d throughout i t s course by the t a c t u s , a b a s i c note-value to which 149 a l l other note-values were related i n s t r i c t propor-t i o n . This tactus was simply a time-beating unit that controlled the sounding together of the voices but did not represent a regular succession of heavy and l i g h t beats or any sort of accentual system. Since over and above th i s the note-values of the voices i n a polyphonic composition cut across each other and came together only a planned caesuras to a common cadence, £this type o f ] composition offers today's ear no rhythmic orientation; indeed, i t even sets insurmountable obstacles i n the way of drawing bar-lines in a modern score. This means that the Re-naissance knew no beat i n the sense of a mechanically recurring pulse of rhythmic units, or rather, i t pur-posely avoided such a beat. . . . The practice con-tinued £to the end of the seventeenth century] of considering the "bar-line" movable' and to frame, with i t groups of tones that belonged together rather than r i g i d rhythmic patterns.43 When Harsdorffer supplies verse with a regular metre, and Staden expresses t h i s by using a regular musical rhythm and barlines, they are thus helping to pave the way for the modern application of the beat i n music. This i s not to say, however, that Staden follows Harsdorffer exclusively in t h i s manner, for i n other instances, e s p e c i a l l y i n the use of the through composed solo song, a s t r i c t beat i s not always maintained. Neither i s thi s to suggest that the tendency towards establishing a fixed beat was not i n e v i -dence before Harsdflrffer and Staden--strict musical settings of m e t r i c a l l y regular verse had appeared i n the sixteenth-44 century, and the increasing s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y of dance music had already predisposed the ear to a consistent beat. Nevertheless, Harsdorffer may be considered as an example 150 of a poet, who, by h i s i n s i s t e n c e on the c o r r e c t use of r e g u l a r metre i n song, had some i n f l u e n c e on the develop-ment of the r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g rhythm i n music. As the major musical aspects of the dramatic works i n the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e have been d i s c u s s e d i n de-t a i l by K e l l e r and Haar, i t would be s u p e r f l u o u s to r e i t e r a t e t h e i r f i n d i n g s here. One area which can be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r , however, i s t h a t of the source m a t e r i a l which Hars-d f l r f f e r drew on f o r Seelewig. Many s i m i l a r i t i e s i n content have been uncovered between Seelewig and I t a l i a n opera of the time, n o t a b l y E m i l i o de 45 C a v a l i e r i ' s Rappresentazione s a c r a d i Anima e d i Corpo. General connections have a l s o been made between Seelewig and the German l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of i — 46 J e s u i t and School drama, and m o r a l i t y p l a y s . The impor-tance of the p a s t o r a l t r a d i t i o n cannot be overlooked. The o u t s t a n d i n g f i g u r e i n t h i s regard was O p i t z , who not o n l y p o p u l a r i z e d the t r e n d i n German l i t e r a t u r e with the Schaf-f e r e y Von der Nimfen Heroine, but a l s o i n t r o d u c e d the German p a s t o r a l opera by t r a n s l a t i n g Dafne from an I t a l i a n model. H a r s d f l r f f e r h i m s e l f had a g r e a t enthusiasm f o r the bu-c o l i c i n the a r t s . He r e f e r s to a number of p a s t o r a l novels 47 and poems w r i t t e n i n o t h e r languages, and he t r a n s l a t e d some of them i n t o German. He c o l l a b o r a t e d with B i r k e n and K l a j on a major p a s t o r a l work, the Pegnesisches Schafer^-. 151 g e d i c h t . There i s , in< a d d i t i o n , the whole b u c o l i c frame-work of the " H i r t e n - und Blumeriorden an der P e g n i t z , " the s o c i e t y founded by H a r s d f l r f f e r and K l a j i n 1644, the same year Seelewig appeared i n p r i n t . K e l l e r p o i n t s to l i k e -nesses between Seelewig and the I t a l i a n p a s t o r a l opera Eumelio by Agostino A g a z z a r i , and notes t h a t t h i s composer and C a v a l i e r i were s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the J e s u i t C o l -49 50 lege i n Rome. H a r s d f l r f f e r h i m s e l f had v i s i t e d Rome, and he furthermore suggested t h a t the works of the I t a l i a n s 51 should be i m i t a t e d by the Germans. -•. I t i s thus/very pro-bable t h a t he was f a m i l i a r w i t h such works as the Rappre-sentazione and Eumelio. Seelewig c l e a r l y f o l l o w s i n the f o o t s t e p s of the l i t e -r a r y and o p e r a t i c t r a d i t i o n s of the day with r e s p e c t to i t s r e l i g i o u s and p a s t o r a l content. Yet no documented evidence of a s p e c i f i c l i n k with a named source has been d i s c o v e r e d to date. H a r s d f l r f f e r i n f a c t does r e f e r to a source, and i t w i l l be examined here to determine i t s i n f l u e n c e on S e e l -ewig. In the f i r s t volume of the Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e H a r s d f l r f f e r r e f e r s to "das g e i s t l i c h e Waldgedicht der gluk-s e l i g e n Seele"(FG,I,188); i t appears again i n one of Hars-d f l r f f e r ' s b i b l i o g r a p h i e s as "Waldgedicht d i e G l t i c k s e e l i g e Seele genannt," w i t h the date 1637, but no author (FG,II, 491), and i t i s r e f e r r e d to once again: "Unter den neuen 152 Schauspielen hat mir das Ge i s t l i c h e Waldgedicht/ von der Gluckseligen Seele sonderlich gefallen . . ."(FG,II,322). The f u l l t i t l e of the work i s : Ein gar schon g e i s t l i c h e s Waldgetichte genant Die Gluckseelige Seele. Auss zihrlichem Welnsch £sic3 i n gemeines Deutsch gebracht. Gedruckt Im Jahr 52 1637, with no publisher, place or author. The extent to which Harsdflrffer might have drawn on thi s play when writing Seelewig can be ascertained by comparing major features of the two works: Die Gluckseelige Seele Seelewig Language: Prose—to be spoken Structure: Prologue—dialogue between the allegorical figures "Liebe Gottes "; arid "Irrdische Liebe" Five acts divided into four or five scenes each Chorus of Shepherds in verse at the end of the fi r s t four acts Quasi-epilogue (V,v)—alle-gorical figure "Gutt begehren" Characters: Pastor—Liebe Gottes Cupido—Irrdische Liebe Nympha—Seele Pastor—Sinn Matrona—Gewissen Regina—Vomumft [sic] Pastor—Lust Verse—to be sung Prologue—allegorical figure "Die Music" Three acts divided into six scenes each Chorus of Shepherds, Nymphs or Angels at the end of each act. Epilogue—allegorical figure "Die Mahlkunst" Seelewig—Nymfe—die ewige Seele Sinnigunda—Nymfe—die Sinn-lichkeit oder die Sinne Gwissulda—Zuchtmeisterin— die Huld oder Gunst des Gewissens Hertzigild—Nymfe—Vers tand 153 Pastor—Lache Pastor sumptuosus—Welt (Reichimuht—HirtoderSchafer— Reichtum) (Ehrelob—Hirt oder Schafer— Ehrgeitz) (Kunsteling—Hirt oder Schafer— der Kunstkutzel furwitziger Wissenschaften) Dea—Himlische Schonheit Pastor—Forehfee Gottes Nympha—-Irrdische Schonheit Satyrus—Sathan Trugewalt—Satyro oder Waldgeist Echo—Wiederhall Pastor—Gutt begehren Fides—Glaube Spes—Hoffnung Dea—Genade Gottes Die Music Die Mahlkunst The plo t of Die Gluckseelige Seele; Prologue: Divine Love and Worldly Love are incompatible. Act One: The Soul, i n a despondent mood i s tempted by the Senses. Conscience scolds her and leaves to r e c r u i t the aid of Reason. The Soul i s shown the beauties of nature by the Senses, succumbs; they sing a duet, "In die Welt," and set o f f together to seek out Joy and Laughter. Reason and Conscience agree to keep a close eye on the Soul i n danger. The Chorus of Shepherds gives advice to d i r e c t one's gaze towards heaven. Act Two: The Soul and the Senses eventually f i n d Joy and Laugh-ter, but the Soul i s in a quandary. Reason warns her that the World i s deceptive, and begs her to return, as does Conscience. Heavenly Beauty ar r i v e s , blinds 154 the Senses, and persuades him and the Soul to follow her. The Chorus of Shepherds prays for God's grace. Act Three: The World encourages the Senses to draw the Soul back into his camp. They eavesdrop on the Fear of God, who i s t e l l i n g the Soul to look at the World as i t r e a l l y i s . He makes her choice c l e a r — e i t h e r the horrors of H e l l , or her heavenly bridegroom. The Soul r e a l i z e s she does not want to lose Heaven. She and the Senses make t h e i r way along a thorny path, - but are tempted by Worldly Beauty, and once more throw i n t h e i r l o t with the World, Joy and Laughter. The Soul i s taken f i s h i n g by the Senses, but she becomes morose as the f i s h die when drawn from the water. The Chorus of Shepherds warns the Soul to leave the World. Act Four: The Soul r e a l i z e s that Worldly Beauty i s transitory, and bemoans her s i t u a t i o n . Satan, jealous of her bride-groom, wants her to go hunting. He t r i e s to take her by force, but she rejects him. The Soul converses with Echo (Voice of God), r e a l i z e s her errors, and s i t s down to rest. The Chorus of Shepherds advises that there i s no resting in Heaven. Act Five: Good Behaviour t e l l s the Soul to climb the h i l l to Heaven. Satan's power weakens. Faith and Hope arrive to a s s i s t i n the Soul's upward journey. She i s i n v i t e d to lean on God's Grace. The path becomes smooth and easy. At the top, she hears heavenly music and the singing of saints and angels. The Soul is. f i n a l l y delivered to her bridegroom. Good Behaviour announces that he w i l l stay with those l e f t on earth and lead them to Heaven. Harsdflrffer's own comments on plays i n general throw some 155 l i g h t on the differences i n type of language and structure between Die Gluckseelige Seele and Seelewig. The usual d i -v i s i o n , he notes, i s : "Vorredner/ die Aufzuge/ funf Hand-lungen/ (deren die Hirten-Spiele nur drey zu haben pflegen)/ und der Schluss. Zu diesen a l i e n i s t zu rechnen der Chor/ oder die Music/ dienend dergestalt/ dass zwischen jeder Handlung ein Lied gesungen werden sol . . . und i n e t l i c h e n Reimsatzen mit einer oder mehr Stimmen deut l i c h s t hflren lassen"(PT,II,73-74). This description applies to the struc-ture of Die Gluckseelige Seele, and i t i s notable that music i s to appear only between acts. Harsdflrffer states else-where that songs may be used i n prose works as long as they f i t the context (PT,II,97), and t h i s does i n fact occur i n Act One of Die Gluckseelige Seele. In a discussion of "Hir-tenspiele" and "Hirtengedichte" the example of Seelewig i s given (PT,II,99), and the d i v i s i o n of t h i s work into three acts i s therefore appropriate. In addition, Harsdflrffer states:"Nach I t a l i a n e r Art s o l l e n a l l e solche Gedichte gantz in Reimen verfasset seyn/ und benebens einer Theorbaklang vernemlichst gesungen werden"(PT,II,99), hence the choice of verse rather than prose i n Seelewig. Harsdflrffer 1s theo-r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s thus explain the structural and language differences between the two works. Although the number of characters i n Die Gluckseelige  Seele i s considerably larger than i n Seelewig, the emphasis 156 on a l l e g o r i c a l representations i s the prime feature of both works. There are d i r e c t correlations between the figures representing the soul, the senses, conscience, reason or understanding, and the d e v i l , but not between those representing facets of the world. In Die Gluck-seelige Seele, the figures cover a wide range of worldly temptations but i n Seelewig they s p e c i f i c a l l y stand for riches, ambition and knowledge, a l l r e f l e c t e d i n the proper names Harsdflrffer gives to these characters: Reichimuht, Ehrelob and Kunsteling. The d i s p o s i t i o n of nymphs and shep-herds also varies i n the two works, for i n Die Gluckseelige  Seele they may represent either good or e v i l , while i n Seel-ewig , they are divided into two d i s t i n c t camps—the shepherds are of the world, but the nymphs (including Sinnigunda when under control) are on the side of the soul. There i s there-fore a tendency i n Harsdflrffer's work to present the charac-ters i n a simpler and more clear-cut manner than i s the case in Die Gluckseelige Seele. The basic plots of the two works are the same: the soul i s assaulted by the senses, the world and the d e v i l , deviates from the true path, but f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s the errors of her ways. Two s p e c i f i c instances i n the works are, moreover, s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r . The f i r s t i s the f i s h i n g scene, where i n Die Gluckseelige Seele the Soul i s shown by the Senses how to f i s h ( I I I , i v ) , and i n Seelewig, the heroine i s offered 157 a f i s h i n g rod by Ehrelob ( I I , i i ) . Although the scene i n Seelewig i s not as e x p l i c i t as t h a t i n Die G l u c k s e e l i g e  Seele, the o v e r a l l f u t i l i t y of spending time on a worth-l e s s cause i s the d i d a c t i c p o i n t of each. The second o u t s t a n d i n g s i m i l a r i t y i s the c o n f r o n t a -t i o n of the heroine i n d e s p a i r w i t h an echo, which i n Die G l u c k s e e l i g e Seele i s an independent c h a r a c t e r s t a n d i n g f o r the v o i c e of God. T h i s scene i n the p l a y r e p r e s e n t s a mo-ment of d i v i n e communion, p r o v i d i n g the Soul with s t r e n g t h to t u r n away f i n a l l y from the world ( I V , i i i ) . In Seelewig, H a r s d o r f f e r uses the echo i n a d i f f e r e n t way. I t i s not the v o i c e of God, but Trugewalt, a bass, d i s g u i s i n g h i s v o i c e by s i n g i n g f a l s e t t o ( I I I , i v ) . H a r s d d r f f e r e x p l a i n s : "Der bflse F e i n d f i n d e t s i c h um d i e T r a u r i g e n / und obwohl se i n e Stimme uns angenehm s c h e i n e t / und unseren Sinnen gemass; so f u h r e t und l e i t e t s i e doch auf den v o r i g e n Sundenwege"(FG,IV,182). Although H a r s d o r f f e r i m p l i e s elsewhere t h a t the echo i n general has a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l c onnection w i t h the d i v i n e (FG,V,403)—music i t s e l f i s "der Echo oder W i e d e r h a l l der himmlischen Freuden"(FG,IV,91)—he shows i t i n Seelewig to be s u b j e c t to misuse, and employs i t as a v e h i c l e f o r i l l u -s i o n , the r e s u l t b e i n g a scene of high dramatic t e n s i o n , which i s not the case i n Die G l u c k s e e l i g e S e e l e . H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s o v e r a l l i n t e r e s t i n the echo as a s c i e n -t i f i c phenomenon and as a source f o r the poet i s e v i d e n t 158 i n the Mathematische Erquickstunden, i n which he d i s c u s s e s not o n l y the v a r i o u s s u r f a c e s and angles r e q u i r e d to pro-duce d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t i e s of echo, but a l s o words which lend themselves to e c h o i c treatment i n l i t e r a t u r e . A word such as "unvermehrt," f o r i n s t a n c e , may be echoed by any of the words "vermehrt," "mehrt" o r " e h r t " ( M E , I I , 1 6 2 ) , 5 3 where, although the rhyme i s kept, the meanings are changed, as a d d i t i o n a l s y l l a b l e s are d i s c a r d e d f o r each word. T h i s may be c a l l e d the d i m i n u t i o n p r i n c i p l e . Another way of pro-ducing an echo i s to use i n t e r n a l rhyme: "Horet mich Tochter der G r t l f f t e n ( i n Lt i f f t e n ) e r s c h a l l e n " (ME,II,162;FG,V,636) . These techniques can be used i n a d d i t i o n to the p o s s i b i l i -t i e s i n h e r e n t i n end-rhyme. In Seelewig"s scene with the echo, the d i m i n u t i o n p r i n c i p l e and end-rhyme are a p p l i e d : "mich - i c h , " " k l a g - sag," "Welt - Geld," "mehr - ehr," e t c . (FG,IV,180-81). The d i m i n u t i o n p r i n c i p l e i s used e x c l u s i v e l y i n Die G l u c k s e e l i g e S e e l e : "mich - I c h , " "gebothe - Bothe," "hieher - Ehr," "Vorachten - achten," e t c . The f i r s t l i n e s of these echo scenes i n each work are, moreover, c l o s e l y r e l a t e d as f a r as content i s concerned: Die G l u c k s e e l i g e Seele: "Ach wer e r r e t t e t doch auss meinem Elende mich? Echo: Ich" Seelewig: "Wer kan dann t r o s t e n mich? Echo: I c h . " 159 The s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the use of the echo i n the two works are remarkably c l e a r , but H a r s d o r f f e r does expand on the dramatic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the technique. Although music i s to be used i n Die G l u c k s e e l i g e Seele, no n o t a t i o n i s g i v e n . M u s i c a l ' i n t e r l u d e s are r e s t r i c t e d to the duet between the Soul and the Senses ( I , i i i ) , the cho-ruses o f shepherds between the a c t s , and the sound of music and the s a i n t l y and a n g e l i c ' c h o i r heard when the Soul a r r i v e s i n Heaven ( V , i v ) . The duet i n the f i r s t a c t re p r e s e n t s mu-s i c as a w o r l d l y t e m p t a t i o n — i t i s used by the Senses as a means of seducing the S o u l . In H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s terms, t h i s i s a demonstration of the "Missbrauch der Musik." The musi-c a l harmony heard a t the end of the p l a y a c t s as a c o n t r a s t , showing t h a t music has i t s proper p l a c e i n heaven. The sub-j e c t of music then appears b r i e f l y i n Die G l u c k s e e l i g e Seele, but i t does not p l a y a major r o l e . The emphasis i s r a t h e r on p r e s e n t i n g and s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t between the body and the s o u l through the i n t e r a c t i o n o f g e n e r a l i z e d a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s . In Seelewig, t h i s c o n f l i c t i s a l s o the b a s i s of the p l o t , but u n d e r l y i n g i t , and of equal importance, i s the problem of the use and misuse of music, e x p l a i n e d i n the prologue by the a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g Music: Mein Hoher Adelstand last mich nicht gar verligen/ Ich muss/ ich muss hervor und weisen/ was ich kan! 160 Mag ich die Frevelwitz des Pflvels nicht vergnugen: So wird mein" Ehre doch gelangen Himmel an. Es hat vor dieser Welt der Engel-Chor erschallet/ Darnach i n Gottes Volk ward ich mit seinem Wort/ Dass der Posaunen Ruf nur durch die Lufte wallet/ und ohne Schwertesstreich obsieget manchem Ort. Der Harfen Wunderklang dem bflsen Geiste wehret/ und ware Trostes v o l l i n Fahrlichkeit und Noht; Dem Abendopfer gleich/ dardurch man hat geehret mit stissem Lobgeruch den ewig grossen Gott. Noch hat sich nach der Zeit die Missvernunft gefunden/ und von des Tempels Thur mich zogen mit Gewalt. Ich wurd der Knechtin gleich mit Uppigkeit gebunden/ dass nach und nach mit mir die Gottes-Lieb' erkalt. Obwol mein Kunstgeschmuck wurd eine Zeit bereichet/ so gar dass ich mit Ziel und Grentzen wurd umschrenkt. Doch hflrt man l e i c h t l i c h jetzt/ wie feme darvon weichet der/ so nach seinem Kopf mit Grillwerk mich" behengt. Das schwere Fesselband' i s t mir jetzt abgefalien. Dein Freiheit l e i t e t mich zu Gottes Lob und Lehr'/ Und zu des Nechsten Lieb'. Ich lasse hier erschallen Ein Geistliches Gedicht ohn eitlen Ruhm und Ehr. Hflrt nun/ so euch beliebt/ wie schfln mit mir vermahlet Die edle Reimenkunst/ die so verliebt i n mich/ Dass sie mein Selbstwort heist/ von meinem Geist beseelet Mein Spiel/ mein Hertz, mein Lieb', ja mein selbst ander Ich. (FG, IV,85-88). Apart from p r o v i d i n g a summary of some of H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s main views on music, these verse s s e t out the prime aim of S e e l -ewig : to j o i n the a r t s of music and p o e t r y i n a manner use-f u l to man and p l e a s i n g to God. The a r t of p a i n t i n g i s a l s o drawn i n by the use of the f i g u r e "Die Mahlkunst" i n the e p i l o g u e . The combination of a l l three a r t s on stage i n the form of music, words and p a i n t e d scenery, confirms t h a t the 161 medium i s the message. Harsdflrffer i s thus dealing with concerns over and above those found i n Die Gluckseelige  Seele; he uses the theme of the fundamental struggle between the body and the soul as a vehicle for his a r t i s t i c ideas. Such a use of the theme represents the main difference between Seelewig and Die Gluckseelige Seele, and i t i s the basic cause for other differences: song as opposed to speech; verse as opposed to prose; three acts as opposed to f i v e ; the inc l u s i o n of a l l e g o r i c a l figures representing the arts as opposed to a l l e g o r i c a l figures standing only for good and e v i l . Nevertheless, Harsdflrffer c l e a r l y had a high opi-nion of Die Gluckseelige Seele, and the s i m i l a r i t i e s which have been pointed out between the two works i n terms of plot, s p e c i f i c scenes and the use of the echo i n German confirm that he did have th i s play i n mind when writing Seelewig. Harsdflrffer 1s concern for, and understanding of, the p r i n c i p l e s and problems of musical composition—not only i n Seelewig and other musico-dramatic works, but also i n hymns and songs in general—do not make him a Musicus Poeticus i n the s t r i c t sense of the term. In spite of t h i s , his b e l i e f i n the interdependence of the arts of music and poetry, evident i n his general statements and i n practice, bring him very close to earning that epithet i n a theore t i c a l sense. He does not compose music himself, but draws on e x i s t i n g compositions, or works hand i n hand with the composer, 162 helping to translate the mysterious system of musical sounds into a form which can be understood by a l l . 163 C o n c l u s i o n The d i v e r s i t y o f m a t e r i a l used by H a r s d f l r f f e r i n connection with music i l l u s t r a t e s not onl y t h a t he h i m s e l f was very w i d e l y read on the s u b j e c t , 1 but a l s o t h a t a s i n g l e theme i n the works of a seventeenth-century w r i t e r can f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n a l l manner of seemingly u n r e l a t e d areas. The modern mind i s u n l i k e l y to f i n d a connec t i o n between the p l a n e t s , the American s l o t h and a l u t e , f o r example, while i n H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s works the common denominator i s music. Much of the m u l t i f a r i o u s m a t e r i a l r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s i n q u i r y can, i n a d d i t i o n , be subordinated to two b a s i c p r i n -c i p l e s . The f i r s t i s the view of music as a r e f l e c t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l harmony. I t i s as e v i d e n t i n H a r s d o r f f e r 1 s s t a t e -ments concerning the e f f e c t s o f music on the s o u l and the body, or the workings of a monochord, as i t i s i n h i s use of instruments as s u b j e c t matter i n a poem, or the p l a c e and f u n c t i o n of music i n a dramatic s e t t i n g : a l l are intended to demonstrate the balance and order i n h e r e n t i n , and conveyed by, the proper use of music. I n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the concept o f harmony i s the C h r i s t i a n world view, the second b a s i c p r i n c i p l e which draws much of the m a t e r i a l t o -gether; the conception of h i s t o r y , the a s s o c i a t i o n o f the 164 p l a n e t s with C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s , the messages of many poems and songs, and the p l o t of Seelewig, f o r example, are a l l subsumed under t h i s . The i d e a of music as a mysterious r e v e l a t i o n of the d i v i n e , as u l t i m a t e l y incomprehensible to man, i s put f o r -ward by H a r s d o r f f e r , but the emphasis i s not on s u b m i t t i n g to the senses as a way of understanding i t , but by recog-n i z i n g connections and d i s c o v e r i n g a syst e m a t i c order, i n -herent or a p p l i e d , which appeal to the powers of the reason-able mind. Experimentation with the monochord, by means of which the p h y s i c a l laws on which music i s based r e v e a l them-s e l v e s as a comprehensible system of numbers, i s one example of how the i n h e r e n t order i n music can be d i s c o v e r e d . T h i s order i s then a p p l i e d to the way i n which drums, b e l l s o r other instruments are tuned and p l a y e d . The f a c t t h a t the American s l o t h was seen to u t t e r sounds a c c o r d i n g to musical 0 p r i n c i p l e s a l s o shows t h a t a system used f o r a r t i s t i c pur-poses can be demonstrated i n nature. From a p u r e l y a r t i s t i c p o i n t of view, a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the word i s the means by which the attempt i s made to reduce the mysterious nature o f music to a comprehensible form. That t h i s i s u l t i m a t e l y i m p o s s i b l e i s e v i d e n t i n Hars-d f l r f f e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f a m a j o r aspect of p o e t i c language, the " G l e i c h n i s s " — i t can make a c c e s s i b l e what i s beyond human understanding o n l y by means of sugg e s t i o n and analogy. 165 Nevertheless, the importance of the word for attempting to explain or translate music cannot be overestimated. It i s i n thi s context that the use of musico-rhetori-cal figures i n general becomes very s i g n i f i c a n t , f or by applying the formal aspects of language to music, e s p e c i a l l y to instrumental works, the composer i s not only supplying c r i t e r i a by which his music can be judged i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , but i s also connecting the two arts i n such a way that the music, i t s beauty of form and expression, can only be appre-ciated f u l l y when seen i n terms of features properly be-' longing to language. This i s not to suggest, however, that the emotional response to music i s ignored. Both Herbst and Harsdorffer i n s i s t that the purpose of music i s to move the emotions. But i n view of the dangers which Harsdflrffer sees lying i n wait here under the general heading of "misuse," they are primarily to be directed by the understanding, rather than being given free r e i n . There i s no indicati o n that they cannot be f e l t intensely, however. The combination of music and words or aspects of language i s the most e f f e c t i v e way of moving the emotions and reaching the understanding at the same time, and that i s why i n a vocal context the need for i n t e l l i g i b l e a r t i c u l a t i o n by the singer i s of v i t a l im-portance. In this respect, music i s not intended as accom-2 paniment only, or as "blosse Stimmung," for i t i n turn 166 heightens the l i s t e n e r ' s response to the message by inten-s i f y i n g the meaning of the language. The view that "Spra-3 che wird zur Musik" i n Harsdflrffer 1s case thus becomes extremely s u s p e c t — i t should i n f a c t be the other way round: "Musik wird zur Sprache." The combination of the arts of music and poetry i n a t h e a t r i c a l setting i s also to appeal to the senses, to move the emotions, and to stimulate the i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c u l t i e s . In addition to responding to the meaning of the words, the l i s t e n e r must also be aware of the "meaning" of the sounds made by the various instruments, that i s to say, the symbolism attached to each of them. Furthermore, as the material to be treated i s not new—in the case of Seelewig, for instance, i t i s drawn not only from the general t r a d i -t i o n , but also from a s p e c i f i c German source—the emphasis i s not only on the did a c t i c point, but also on how e f f e c -t i v e l y the theme and i t s message i s put across. In order to make judgements i n t h i s regard, the spectator or l i s t e n e r requires some knowledge of the techniques of the poet and composer, and i t i s t h i s type of knowledge which Harsdflrffer passes on i n much of his writing, providing the reader and l i s t e n e r with the basic tools for appreciating a work of a r t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . The way i n which Harsdflrffer himself uses such tools in providing new words to e x i s t i n g melodies gives some i n -dication of the creative process at work. He i s not i n -spired by the music i n the sense that he i s transported in rapture by the sound, and moved to pour out his soul on paper. On the contrary, the melodies f i r s t l y are chosen because of t h e i r popularity, not t h e i r e f f e c t , and secondly they are interpreted above a l l according to t h e i r technical and formal aspects which are then r e f l e c t e d i n the language The order i n one system i s transposed .into the other. This also applies to the application of musical inte r v a l s and the names of notes to poetry. The greater the number of s i m i l a r i t i e s which can be found i n d i f f e r e n t areas, the nearer an appreciation of a basic truth. The necessity for a framework of rules for judging and creating works of art, whether poetic or musical, i s therefore of great importance. Almost of equal s i g n i f i -cance for Harsdflrffer are the acoustic elements. His i n -terest i n the sounds of instruments, as well as the views that music originated as an imitation of natural sounds, or that the sense of hearing has a great e f f e c t on the mind i s general evidence of t h i s . From a poetic point of view, his concern for sound i s to be found i n his application of the natural rhythms of spoken words i n poetry, his use of onomatopoeia, assonance, internal rhyme, etc., and his man-ner of tes t i n g a poem to determine i t s mellifluence. The fact that there are no man-made rules for ultimately deter-16 mining what sounds r i g h t puts the onus once more on the a b i l i t y of the poet or l i s t e n e r to judge--judgement which i s based not so much on i n t u i t i o n as on knowledge a c q u i r e d through l e a r n i n g and experience. C o r r e c t sounding verse and music are connected i n s o -f a r as both reach the understanding through the sense of h e a r i n g , and both use techniques intended to movei.the emo-t i o n s and p l e a s e the i n t e l l e c t . Both are a l s o based on the use of rhythm, but i n H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s p o e t r y i t appears as a r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n , while i n music of t h i s time, t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case. As a r e s u l t , the i d e a t h a t p o e t r y takes on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of music i f i t has a r e g u l a r beat cannot be assumed i n a seventeenth-century c o n t e x t . The two a r t s are i n any case e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t m e d i a — d i f f e r e n t l i n k s i n the chain--but they r e l y on the same b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s td achieve the same ends. The p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g H a r s d o r f f e r ' s s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l to be passed on to h i s reader, and the way i n which he passes i t on, throw c o n s i d e r a b l e l i g h t on h i s con-c e p t i o n of the f u n c t i o n and use of knowledge. I t has been demonstrated a number of times t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the same t o p i c i s chosen from v a r i o u s sources, y e t a l l v e r -s i o n s have the weight of a u t h o r i t y behind them, and t h i s i s s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n . "For the mind and the memory are more s h a r p l y e x e r c i s e d i n comprehending another man's things 169 than our own, and such as accustom themselves and are f a -m i l i a r with the best authors s h a l l ever and anon f i n d some-what of them i n themselves, and i n the e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r minds, even when they f e e l i t not, be able to u t t e r some-t h i n g l i k e t h e i r s which hath an a u t h o r i t y above t h e i r own. Nay, sometimes i t i s the reward of a man's study, the p r a i s e 4 of q u o t i n g another man f i t l y . " R e i t e r a t i n g r e l i a b l e sour-ces may then to some extent be seen as an end i n i t s e l f . For the modern reader, the r e s u l t i s the d i s c o v e r y of a number of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . As a consequence, i t i s not always p o s s i b l e to determine what H a r s d f l r f f e r h i m s e l f thought about a p a r t i c u l a r view or e x p l a n a t i o n . The impor-tance f o r him l i e s p r i m a r i l y i n p a s s i n g on e x i s t i n g know-ledge, and the problem of c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n such cases i s c l e a r l y i r r e l e v a n t from h i s p o i n t of view. N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s e c l e c t i c use of e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l does demonstrate h i s i m p l i c i t b e l i e f i n the v e r a c i t y of r e l i a b l e sources, as w e l l as i n the f a c t t h a t w r i t i n g s from a l l ages and a l l c o u n t r i e s have something to c o n t r i b u t e to man's understanding of God, of h i m s e l f , and of the world around him. The realm of hu-man knowledge i s not bound by r e s t r i c t i o n s of time or p l a c e . Knowledge and experience are t h e r e f o r e gained p r i m a r i l y from w r i t t e n sources. Yet the r e s u l t s of p r a c t i c a l expe-.v r i e n c e given i n a few sources i n some cases oppose the t r a d i -t i o n a l v i e w s — t h e o s t e n s i b l e a n t i p a t h y between wolf gut and 170 sheep gut s t r i n g s i s a v i v i d example, where the r e s u l t s of experimentation show t h a t what had been h e l d as true by a u t h o r i t i e s i s not s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n f a c t . The important p o i n t i n H.arsdflrf f e r ' s case i s t h a t he does not r e j e c t the r e s u l t s of contemporary s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n out of hand. On the c o n t r a r y , both e x p l a n a t i o n s concerning the gut s t r i n g s appear s i d e by s i d e , as do the c o n t r a d i c t o r y statements concerning the Ptolemaic and Copernican s o l a r systems. Yet no attempt i s made to r e c o n c i l e the opposing e v i -dence, demonstrating t h a t H a r s d f l r f f e r was not concerned with f i n d i n g out the f a c t s f o r h i m s e l f . I t i s t h e r e f o r e u n l i k e l y t h a t he had a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out experiments with the d i f -f e r e n t types of s t r i n g s , f o r example, or indeed t h a t he had a c t u a l l y seen and heard an American s l o t h . Once again, i t i s the p a s s i n g on of i n f o r m a t i o n which i s important, not the r e s u l t s of p e r s o n a l experience. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the m a t e r i a l which H a r s d f l r f f e r chooses to p r e s e n t shows t h a t he was a b r e a s t of developments i n the area of p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e , but i t a l s o marks him as one who was not f u l l y prepared to g i v e up t r a d i t i o n a l views or the t r a d i t i o n a l ways of ex-p l a i n i n g and d e s c i b i n g n a t u r a l phenomena. In a p u r e l y a r t i s t i c context, on the other hand, the p r a c t i c a l s i d e of H a r s d f l r f f e r emerges. Although he i s f o l -lowing i n the f o o t s t e p s of notable predecessors i n s u p p l y i n g 171 a framework of p o e t i c r u l e s , he p r o v i d e s p r a c t i c a l examples of h i s own i n v e n t i o n r a t h e r than r e l y i n g e x c l u s i v e l y on those drawn from other sources. He,is furthermore very much concerned with the p r a c t i c a l aspects of s t a g i n g musico-dramatic works, ranging from the use of music to cover up the n o i s e of scenery changes, to the most economical way of p u t t i n g on a performance. There are t h e r e f o r e two main s i d e s to the manner i n which he presents h i s m a t e r i a l - -one i s caught up i n the realm of p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n , and d e a l s p u r e l y with ideas.., the o t h e r i s c l o s e l y i n touch with the p r a c t i c a l a r t i s t i c needs of the time. The d e s i r a b l e e p i t h e t f o r a seventeenth-century German w r i t e r was not so much " b r i l l i a n t i n h i s f i e l d , " as i t might be f o r a w r i t e r today--although some p r o f e s s i o n a l musicians were seen i n terms approaching t h i s — b u t "world famous and l e a r n e d , " words with a very wide base, and r e g u l a r l y a p p l i e d to H a r s d f l r f f e r i n h i s time. From a s p e c i f i c a l l y musical p o i n t of view, he amply demonstrates h i s l e a r n i n g i n a l l three areas of music c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n h i s day. In terms of the Musicus T h e o r e t i c u s he approaches the s u b j e c t from a p h i l o s o p h i c a l , s p e c u l a t i v e standpoint, and demon-s t r a t e s h i s f a m i l i a r i t y with major themes i n t h i s area. At times, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of the musical modes,"he adapts p r e v a i l i n g t h e o r i e s f o r h i s own purposes. From the p o i n t of view of the Musicus P r a c t i c u s , he delves i n t o the 172 t o p i c a l q uestions of the t u n i n g of musical instruments, t h e i r f u n c t i o n on stage and t h e i r symbolism. In a d d i t i o n , h i s use of musical terminology shows him to have a c o n s i -derable grasp of the t e c h n i c a l s i d e of the s u b j e c t . His treatment of m a t e r i a l under the t i t l e Musicus P o e t i c u s i l l u s t r a t e s above a l l how a poet can apply h i s musical know-ledge to h i s own a r t . H a r s d o r f f e r draws on themes found i n -the p h i l o s o p h i c a l area, and i n c o r p o r a t e s them i n t o h i s own : works of a r t . The prologue to Seelewig i n p a r t i c u l a r out-l i n e s some of the themes, and pr o v i d e s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l background to the opera. H a r s d o r f f e r a l s o uses the t e c h -n i c a l aspects of music, not onl y i n d e s c r i b i n g and w r i t i n g poetry, but a l s o i n p r o v i d i n g new words to e x i s t i n g songs. His knowledge of music as w e l l as h i s p o e t i c e x p e r t i s e • i s i furthermore put to good use i n h i s c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Staden on Seelewig. T h i s work can now be seen as having a d e f i n i t e p l a c e i n the l i t e r a r y p a s t o r a l t r a d i t i o n of Ger-many i n a d d i t i o n to i t s general a s s o c i a t i o n s with the opera-t i c p a s t o r a l t r a d i t i o n - ; o f I t a l y . In the s t r i c t sense of the terms, H a r s d f l r f f e r i s not a Musicus T h e o r e t i c u s , Musicus  P r a c t i c u s or a Musicus P o e t i c u s , s i n c e he d i d not w r i t e s p e c i f i c works i n any of the three areas. He n e v e r t h e l e s s shows t h a t he i s competent to deal with the s u b j e c t of music i n an e x t e n s i v e way i n a l l kinds of other works. For H a r s d f l r f f e r , a l l areas of knowledge and endeavour 173 are p o t e n t i a l hunting grounds f o r the human mind. F u r t h e r -more, f a c t o r s of p e r i o d i z a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these areas do not presen t themselves as b a r r i e r s f o r him as they tend to do f o r us today. As a r e s u l t , t h i s i n q u i r y i n t o a n o n - l i t e r a r y aspect of the works of a seventeenth-century w r i t e r i s s u f f i c i e n t l y j u s t i f i e d . For i t i s by t a k i n g i n t o account the extent of H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s and the i n t e r a c t i o n of h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l involvements t h a t an understanding of h i s m o t i v a t i o n s and i n t e n t i o n s can be reached. C e r t a i n areas covered by H a r s d f l r f f e r s t i l l p r esent prob-lems f o r the tw e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y . The use of musical n o t a t i o n to d e s c r i b e p o e t i c metre i s one case i n p o i n t , and the attempt has been made here to show t h a t the two r e a l l y have l i t t l e i n common. In a d d i t i o n , the answers to some of the quest i o n s H a r s d f l r f f e r addresses can s t i l l o n l y be guessed at, e s p e c i a l l y those concerning music and i t s e f f e c t s on man. Yet H a r s d f l r f f e r , r e l y i n g on the framework of u n i v e r -s a l harmony and the o v e r a l l C h r i s t i a n world view, i s able to c o n f r o n t and e x p l a i n such t h i n g s , and to accept t h a t the u l t i m a t e answers cannot be found i n t h i s world. L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s i n the Notes and B i b l i o g r a p h y Af MW A r c h i v f u r Musikwissenschaft AM Acta M u s i c o l o g i c a GLL German Language and L i t e r a t u r e Groves The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and Musicians JEGP J o u r n a l of E n g l i s h and German P h i l o l o g y MD Musica D i s c i p l i n a Mf M Monatshefte f u r Musikgeschichte MGG Musik i n Geschichte und Gegenwart SIMG Sammelbande der i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n M u s i k g e s e l l s c h a f t Those e n t r i e s i n the b i b i o g r a p h y from the Faber du Faur or Jantz C o l l e c t i o n s are marked "FdF" or " J " w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e number. 175 I n t r o d u c t i o n : Notes A. Harman and A. M i l l e r , Man and His Music: Late  Renaissance and Baroque Music, I I (New York: Schocken, 1962), p. 156. Renate Brockpahler, Handbuch zur Geschichte  der Barockoper i n Deutschland (Emsdetten: Lechte, 1964), p. 300. A r t h u r S c h e r l e , Das deutsche O p e r n l i b r e t t o von  Op i t z b i s Hofmannsthal, D i s s . Munich, 1954, p. 12. P.H. Lang, Music i n Western C i v i l i s a t i o n (New York: Norton, 1941), p. 404. The opera Dafne by O p i t z and Schutz was w r i t t e n i n 1627, but as the music i s l o s t , Seelewig earns the t i t l e of f i r s t e xtant German opera. The e x i s t e n c e of Dafne i s behind the r e f e r e n c e to Seelewig as the second German opera, as i n K. Storck, Geschichte der Musik ( S t u t t -g a r t : Muth, 1910), p. 285. 2 Georg A d o l f N a r c i s s , Studien zu den Frauenzimmer-g e s p r a c h s p i e l e n Georg P h i l i p p H a r s d f i r f f e r s : E i n B e i t r a g zur  deutsishen L i t e r a t u r g e s c h i c h t e des 17. Jahrhunderts ( L e i p z i g : E i c h b l a t t , 1928), p. 117, and K.G. Knight, "G.P. Harsdfirf-f e r ' s Frauenzimmergesprachspiele," GLL, 13 (1959-60), 119. 3 Wolfgang Kaspar P r i n t z , H i s t o r i s c h e Beschreibung  der Edelen S i n g - und K l i n g - K u n s t (Dresden: Mieth, 1690), pp. 165-66. 4 Johann G o t t f r i e d Walther, M u s i k a l i s c h e s L e x i c o n oder  M u s i k a l i s c h e B i b l i o t h e k . Documenta M u s i c o l o g i c a , I I I (1732; f a c s i m i l e r p t . K a s s e l , B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r , 1953), p. 576. 5 Johann R i s t , Neuer H i m l i s c h e r L i e d e r Sonderbahres  Buch (Luneburg: S t e r n , 1651), p r e f a c e , n.p. C h a r l e s Burney, A General H i s t o r y of Music from the  E a r l i e s t Ages to the Present P e r i o d , II (1789; r p t . New York: Harcourt, Brace, n.d.), p. 456. A s i m i l a r statement appears almost f i f t y years l a t e r i n George Hogarth, M u s i c a l H i s t o r y , Biography and C r i t i c i s m (London: Parker, 1838), p. 94. 176 7 As i n C a r l von W i n t e r f e l d , "Musiktreiben und Musik-empfinden im sechzehnten und siebzehnten Jahrhunderte," appended to V o l . I I of Zur Geschichte h e i l i g e r Tonkunst, 2 v o l s , i n 1 (1850; f a c s i m i l e r p t . Hildesheim: Olms, 1966), pp. 291-92. 8 August Reissmann, Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik, I I (Mtinchen: Bruckmann, 1864), pp. 159-65, 59-73 ( n o t a t i o n has separate p a g i n a t i o n ) . 9 Robert E i t n e r , "Seelewig," MfM,13 (1881), p. 56. Eugen Schmitz, "Zur m u s i k g e s c h i c h t l i c h e n Bedeutung der H a r s d f l r f f e r s c h e n 'Frauenzimmergesprachspielen*," F e s t s c h r i f t zum 90. Geburtstag von Rochus, F r e i h e r r von  L i l i e n c r o n ( L e i p z i g : B r e i t k o p f and H a r t e l , 1910), pp. 254-277. 1 1 Lang, p. 404. 12 Ludwig Schiedemair, Die deutsche Oper: Grundzuge  i h r e s Werdens und Wesens ( L e i p z i g : Q u e l l e and Meyer, 1930), p. 21. 13 S c h e r l e , p. 15. 14 Donald J . Grout, A Short H i s t o r y of Opera, 1st ed. (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1947), p. 152n. 15 James Haar, " A s t r a l Music i n Seventeenth-Century Nuremberg: The Tugendsterne o f H a r s d f l r f f e r and Staden," MD, 16 (1962), 176. ^ Grout; A Short H i s t o r y of Opera, 2nd ed., 19 65, p. 115n. 17 James Haar, The Tugendsterne of H a r s d f l r f f e r and  Staden: An E x e r c i s e i n M u s i c a l Humanism. M u s i c o l o g i c a l Studies and Documents, 14 (n.p. American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1965). 18 Peter K e l l e r , "New L i g h t on the Tugendsterne of H a r s d f l r f f e r and Staden," MD,24-25 (1971), 223-27. 177 19 Peter K e l l e r , Die Oper Seelewig von Sigmund Theophil  Staden und Georg P h i l i p p H a r s d f l r f f e r . P u b l i k a t i o n e n der Schweizerischen Musikforschenden G e s e l l s c h a f t , I I , 29 (Bern, S t u t t g a r t : Haupt, 1977). 2 0 Groves, pp. 258-59. 21 A l f o n s O t t , "Von der fruhdeutschen Oper zum deutschen S i n g s p i e l , " Musik i n Bayern, I, ed. Robert Mun-s t e r and Hans Schmid ( T u t z i n g : Schneider, 1972), p. 165, and A l f r e d Loewenberg, Annals of Opera, 1597-1940 (London: C a l d e r , 1978), c o l . 23. 22 Sophia E l i s a b e t h , Herzogin zu Braunschweig-Luneburg, Beschreibung des F r e u d e n - F e s t i n s , welches . . .  Sophia E l i s a b e t h . . . a u f f den Geburts-Tag i h r e s Herrn  A u g u s t i . . . a n g e s t e l l e t , welcher gewesen der 10. A p r i l i s , Im Jahr 1654 (no impr.). 23 F r e d e r i c k Robert Lehmeyer, The " S i n g s p i e l e " of  Anton U l r i c h von Braunschweig, D i s s . Berkeley, 1971, p.4. 24 Loewenberg, c o l s . 23-24. 25 See, Ferdinand van Ingen, " B e r i c h t fiber d i e , Seelewig 1 Auffuhrung i n U t r e c h t , " Inszenierung und Regie barocker  Dramen, ed. M a r t i n B i r c h e r (Hamburg: Hauswedell, 1976), pp. 69-73, and Ferdinand van Ingen and Kees V e l l e k o o p , Programme Book f o r the Performance ,of Seelewig in' U t r e c h t , 1975. 26 27 28 N a r c i s s , p. 58. N a r c i s s , pp. 158-63. E l i a s Caspar Reichard, Versuch e i n e r H i s t o r i e der  deutschen Sprachkunst (Hamburg: M a r t i n i , 1747), pp. 131-43. 29 Johann G a b r i e l Doppelmayr, H i s t o r i s c h e N a c h r i c h t von  den NurnbergischenMathematicis und K u n s t l e r n (1730; f a c s i m i l e r p t . Hildesheim: Olms, 1972), pp. 98-100, and Georg Andreas W i l l , Nurnbergischer G e l e h r t e n l e x i c o n (Ntirnberg: S c h u p f e l , 1755), pp. 34-39. 178 3 0 See, f o r example, the d i s p a r a g i n g remarks made on "Poetische T r i c h t e r " i n G o t t l i e b S t o l l e , A n l e i t u n g zur  H i s t o r i e der G e l a h r t h e i t (Jena: h e i r s of Johann Meyer, 1736), p. 174. 31 H a r s d f l r f f e r does not appear f o r i n s t a n c e i n C h r i s t i a n Schmid, Anweisung der vornehmsten Bucher i n a l i e n  T h e i l e n der Di c h t k u n s t ( L e i p z i g : Weygand, 1781). 32 J u l i u s Tittmann, Die Nurnberger D i c h t e r s c h u l e : H a r s d f l r f f e r , K l a j , B i r k e n (1847; r p t . Wiesbaden: Sandig, 1965), and Theodor B i s c h o f f , "Georg P h i l i p p H a r s d o r f f e r . E i n Z e i t b i l d aus dem 17. Jahrhundert," F e s t s c h r i f t zur 250- j a h r i g e n J u b e l f e i e r des Pegnesischen Blumenordens gegrundet  i n Nurnberg am 16. Oktober, 1644 (Nurnberg: Schrag, 1894) • 33 Wolfgang Kayser, Die Klangmalerei b e i H a r s d f l r f f e r . P a l a e s t r a , 179 (Gflttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1962) . John Edward O y l e r , The Compound Noun i n H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s  'Frauenzimmer G e s p r a c h s p i e l e ' , D i s s . Northwestern, 1957. S i e g f r i e d Ferschmann, Die P o e t i k G.P. H a r s d f l r f f e r s . E i n  B e i t r a g zur D i c h t u n g s t h e o r i e des Barock, D i s s . Vienna, 1964. 34 Leonard F o r s t e r , " H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s Canon of German Baroque Authors," Erfahrung und U b e r l i e f e r u n g . . F e s t s c h r i f t  f o r C P . M a g i l l , ed. H. S i e f k e n and A. Robinson ( C a r d i f f : U n i v e r s i t y of_ Wales Press, 1974). 35 G i l b e r t J . Jordan, "Theater Plans i n H a r s d o e r f f e r ' s Frauenzimmer G e s p r a e c h s p i e l e , " JEGP, 42 (1943), 475-91. 3 6 A l b e r t Krapp, Die a s t h e t i s c h e n Tendenzen Hars-dflr'ffers. B e r l i n e r B e i t r a g e zur Germanischen und Romani-schen P h i l o l o g i e , XXV ( B e r l i n : E b e r i n g , 1903). Karl-August Kroth, Die mystischen und mythischen Wurzeln der a s t h e t i -schen Tendenzen G.P. H a r s d o r f f e r s , D i s s . Munich, 1921. 37 E r i c h Kuhne, Emblematik und A l l e g o r i e i n G. Ph. H a r s d f l r f f e r s 'Gesprachspielen' 1644-1649, D i s s . Vienna, 1932. Wolfgang Mieder, "Das S c h a u s p i e l Teutscher S p r i c h -wflrter oder G.P. H a r s d f l r f f e r s E i n s t e l l u n g zum Sprichwort," Daphnis, 3 (1974), 178-95. 179 39 John G. Robertson, A H i s t o r y of German L i t e r a t u r e , 4th ed., rev. Edna Purdie (New York: B r i t i s h Book Centre, 1962), p. 181. 40 Kroth, p. 101; and, with r e s p e c t to the Nuremberg poets i n g e n e r a l , Conrad Wiedemann, ed. Johann K l a j : F r i e d e n s d i c h t u n g e n und k l e i n e r e p o e t i s c h e S c h r i f t e n . Deutsche Neudrucke (Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1968), p. 13*. R e i t e r a t e d by Blake Lee Spahr, "Nurnbergs S t e l l u n g im l i t e r a r i s c h e n Leben des 17. Jahrhunderts," Stadt, Sehule, U n i v e r s i t a t , Buchwesen und d i e deutsche L i t e r a t u r im 17. Jahrhundert, ed. A l b r e c h t Schflne (Munchen: Beck, 1976), p. 75. 41 In W i l l i Flemming,.Die Oper. Deutsche L i t e r a t u r i n E n t w i c k l u n g s r e i h e n , 13b:5 ( L e i p z i g : Reclam, 1933). 42 N a r c i s s , pp. 93-96. 43 Rosmarie Z e l l e r , S p i e l und K o n v e r s a t i o n im Barock: Untersuchungen zu H a r s d f l r f f e r s 'Gesprachspielen'" ( B e r l i n , New York: de Gruyter, 1974)^, pp. 117-23. 44 45 46 47 48 49 Kuhne, p. 70, and Krapp, pp. 69 and 7 0 Krapp, p. 70. Ferschmann, p. 158. Kroth, p. 101. Wiedemann, p. 13*. C a l v i n S. Brown, "The R e l a t i o n s between Music and L i t e r a t u r e as a F i e l d of Study," Comparative L i t e r a t u r e , XXII, 2 (Spring, 1970), 98-99. 50 See f o r example, Sethus C a l v i s i u s , E x e r c i t a t i o Musica  t e r t i a (.1611) , p. 11. Appended to E x e r c i t a t i o n e s Musicae  duae (1600; f a c s i m i l e r p t ; Hildesheim, New York: Olms, 1973) . 51 See R. Hinton Thomas, Poetry and Song i n the German  Baroque: A Study of the Continuo L i e d (Oxford: Oxford U n i -180 v e r s i t y P ress, 1963), which deals w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n of musicians and poets a t t h i s time, and i s drawn on f o r much of t h i s paragraph. * 52 H a r s d f l r f f e r h i m s e l f near the end of h i s l i f e i s noted as b e i n g "zur Z e i t Burgermeister" i n Nuremberg. Appended to a d e d i c a t o r y poem i n Georg Neumark, F o r t g e -p f l a n t z t e r M u s i k a l i s c h - P o e t i s c h e r Lustwald (Jena: Sengen-w a l d , 1 6 5 7 ) , n . p . 53 For an assessment of H a r s d f l r f f e r as a t r a n s l a t o r , see Gerhard H o f f m e i s t e r , Die spanische Diana i n Deutsch-land. P h i l o l o g i s c h e Studien und Qu e l l e n , 68 ( B e r l i n : E r i c h Schmidt, 1972), esp. pp. 50-54. 54 In Leonhard Wurfbain, V i e r U n t e r s c h i e d l i c h e R e l a -t i o n e s H i s t o r i c a e (Nurnberg: Endter, 1636), l a s t unnumbered page. The poem i s not I t a l i a n as s t a t e d by Harold J a n t z , German Baroque L i t e r a t u r e . A d e s c r i p t i v e C a t a l o g of the  C o l l e c t i o n of Harold J a n t z , I I (New Haven: Research P u b l i -c a t i o n s Inc., 1974), p. 388; and Gerhard Dunnhaupt, B i b l i o -g raphisches Handbuch der B a r o c k l i t e r a t u r , I I , 2, H i e r s e -manns B i b l i o g r a p h i s c h e Handbucher ( S t u t t g a r t : Hiersemann, 1981), p. 778. 5 5 Spahr, pp. 75-77. 5 6 Theodor Wohnhaas, "Die Endter i n Nurnberg a l s Musik-drucker und M u s i k v e r l e g e r : Eine U b e r s i c h t , " Q u e l l e n s t u d i e n  zur Musik: Wolfgang Schneider zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. K. Dor f m u l l e r ( F r a n k f u r t , London, New York: P e t e r s , 1972), ., p. 197, and, by the same author, "Zum Nurnberger Musikdruck und M u s i k v e r l a g im 16.. und 17. Jahrhundert," Gutenberg  J o u r n a l (1973), 337-43. 57 In G o t t l i e b Krause, ed. Der Fruchtbringende G e s e l l -s c h a f t a l t e s t e r E r t z s c h r e i n : B r i e f e , Devisen und ander-w e i t i g e S c h r i f t s t u c k e . U r k u n d l i c h e r B e i t r a g zur Geschichte  der deutschen S p r a c h g e s e l l s c h a f t e n im 17. Jahrhundert (1855; f a c s i m i l e r p t . Hildesheim, New York: 01ms, 1973), pp. 311-L e t t e r from H a r s d f l r f f e r to Ludwig von Anhalt, June 8, 1642. In Krause, pp. 312-14. 181 Chapter One: Notes Johann Andreas Herbst, Musica P o e t i c a , Sive Com-pendium Melopoeticum (Nurnberg: Dumler, 1643), p. 1. Herbst a l s o r e f e r s to Musica T h e o r e t i c a as Musica T h e o r i c a , i n Musica P r a c t i c a , S i v e I n s t r u c t i o pro Symphoniacis (Nurnberg: Dumler, 1642), p. 1. 2 Boethius, De I n s t i t u t i o n e Musica, I, 2, i n W. O l i v e r Strunk, ed. Source Readings i n Mu s i c a l H i s t o r y (New York: Norton, 1940), pp. 84-85. 3 C a s s i o d o r u s , I n s t i t u t i o n e s , i n Strunk, p. 89. ^ C a l v i s i u s , E x e r c i t i o Musica t e r t i a , p. 150. Erasmus S a r t o r i u s , I n s t i t u t i o n u m Musicarum (Ham-burg: R e b e n l i n i u s , 1635), S i g . D4. c Erasmus Gruber, Synopsis Musica (Regensburg: Ge-dr u c k t bey C h r i s t o f f F i s c h e r , 1673), S i g . Ev. 7 Manfred Bukofzer, Music i n the Baroque E r a : From  Monteverdi to Bach (New York: Norton, 1947), p. 370. Q Herbst, Musica P o e t i c a , p. 1. 9 See Kayser, esp. pp. 42-87. R e p r i n t s are to be found i n : Franz Eduard H y s e l , Das Theater i n Nurnberg von 1612 b i s  1868 (Nurnberg: Im S e l b s t v e r l a g e des V e r f a s s e r s , 1863) , pp. 29-31, based on an en t r y i n the "Neue Munchner Zeitung, Nro. 104. Vom Jahre 1858.'„' E l i s a b e t h A. Kruckeberg, " E i n h i s t o r i s c h e s Konzert zu Nurn-berg im Jahre 1643," AfMW, I (1918-19), 590-93, based on Marcus S t e f f e n s , G e i s t l i c h e Gedancken (Oldenburg: Gedruckt b e i Johann-Erich Zimmern, 1697). Otto C. Clemen, "Das Programm zu einem M u s i k f e s t i n Nurn-berg im Mai, 1643," i n F e s t s c h r i f t f u r Otto Glauning zum 60.  Geburtstag ( L e i p z i g : Hadl, 1936), pp. 18-24, f o l l o w s Krucke-berg. W i l l i K a h l , "Das Ntirnberger h i s t o r i s c h e Konzert von 1643 und s e i n G e s c h i c h t s b i l d , " AfMW XIV (1957), 281-303, based on o r i g i n a l document. Wiedemann, pp. 9*-12*, based on o r i g i n a l document. T h i s source i n p a r t i c u l a r i s used i n the t e x t . 1 1 Wiedemann, p. 12*. 12 See Michael P r a e t o r i u s , Syntagma Musicum, I I , De  Organographia, Documenta M u s i c o l o g i c a , XIV (1619; f a c s i m i l e r p t . K a s s e l , B a s e l , London, New York: B a r e n r e i t e r , 1958). 13 Wiedemann, p. 10*. 14 Wiedemann, p. 11*. 15 For a general assessment of the seventeenth-century c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y , see Wilhelm Vosskamp, Untersuchungen  zur Z e i t - und G e s c h i c h t s a u f f a s s u n g im 17. Jahrhundert b e i  Gryphius und L o h e n s t e i n . L i t e r a t u r und W i r k l i c h k e i t (Bonn: Bouvier, 1969), pp. 10-61. 16 Wiedemann, p. 10*. 17 . See, f o r example, K a r l Gustav F e l l e r e r , Per S t i l - . wandel i n der abendlandischen Musik um 1600 (Opladen: Westdeutscher V e r l a g , 1972), p. 57. j Q In George Abel1, E x p l o r a t i o n of the Universe (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t Winston, 1973), pp. 40-41. 19 Joannes T i n c t o r i s , L i b e r de a r t i c o n t r a p u n c t i , i n Strunk, p. 198. a 20 At t h i s time, the modern E n g l i s h B f l a t was given s b , B rotundum, or B molle, and B n a t u r a l as kj , 183 B quadratum or B dur. See Robert Donington, The Interpre-tation of Early Music (London: Faber and Faber, 1963) , p. 62. 21 Albert Seay, Music i n the Medieval World (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice H a l l , 1965), pp. 32-34. 22 See Athanasius Kircher, Musurgia Uni v e r s a l i s , IV (Rome: C o r b e l l e t t i , 1650), p. 228, and Henricus Glareanus, Dodecacordon (1547; facsimile rpt. New York: Broude Bros., 1979) , p. 76. 23 A question raised but not answered by Haar, Tugend-sterne , p. 25n. The choice of modes and t h e i r affects i s ascribed to Staden by Harold Samuel, The Cantata i n Nurem-berg during the Seventeenth Century, Diss. Cornell, 1963, p. 549. 24 Glareanus, p. 101. 25 Glareanus, pp. 82 and 112. 2 6 Herbst, Musica Poetica, p. 55. 27 See Haar, Tugendsterne, p. 46n. 2 8 Sigmund Theophil Staden, Rudimentum Musicum (Nurn-berg: Kulssner, 1649). 2 9 Haar, Tugendsterne, p. 25. 30 Haar, Tugendsterne, p. 24. 31 Glareanus, pp. 76 and 120 respectively. 32 The works from which these l i s t s are drawn up are: Athanasius Kircher, Magnes sive De Arte Magnetica, III (Rome: Grignani, 1641), p. 848. Adam Gumpelzhaimer, Compendium Musicae Latino-Germanicum, 4th ed. (n.p.: Schoenig, 1632), p. 17. Herbst, Musica Poetica, pp. 101-109. Glareanus, Dodecachordon, pp. 102-137. 184 A marginal note to the word "Bildung" e x p l a i n s t h a t i t i s H a r s d f l r f f e r * s German v e r s i o n of "Imaginatio." 3 4 T h i s paragraph i s based on H. James Jensen, The  Muses Concord: L i t e r a t u r e , Music and the V i s u a l A r t s i n the  Baroque Age,(Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1977) , pp. 1-23. 3 5 The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these names of the notes i n a seventeenth-century context w i l l be e x p l a i n e d below. 3 ft H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s example i s taken from the f i r s t p a r t of the Mathematische Erquickstunden, w r i t t e n by D a n i e l Schwendter. For H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Schwendter see p. 63 -above.. 3 7 For the use of t h i s and o t h e r types of m u s i c a l mnemonic a i d s , see Gregory G. B u t l e r , "Music and Memory i n Johannes Romberch's Congestorium (1520)," MD, 32 (1978) 73-85. 38 Leo S p i t z e r , " C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n Ideas of World Harmony: Prolegomena to an I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Word 'Stimmung'," T r a d i t i o , I I I (1945), 308. 3 9 See a l s o Werner F r i e d r i c h Kummel, Musik und M e d i z i n : Ihre Wechselbeziehungen i n Theorie und P r a x i s von 800-1800 ( F r e i b u r g : A l b e r , 1977) . References to H a r s d f l r f f e r , pp. 237 and 350. 185 Chapter Two: Notes Herbst, Musica Poetica, p. 1. 2 See Andreas Georg Widmann, Vitae Curriculum Georg  Philipp Harsdorferi sub praesidio Molleriano, i n Universi-tate A l t d o r f i n a A.C. 1707 d. 7. Maj ( L i t e r i s Magni Danielis Mayeri), p. 4. 3 See Wilibald Nagel, "Die Nurnberger Musikgesellschaft (1588-1629)," MfM, XXVII, 1 (1895), 1-11. 4 K e l l e r , Seelewig, p. 28. 5 Narciss, p. 4. ^ Sigmund von Birken, Tagebucher, ed. Joachim K r o l l Quellen und Darstellungen zur frankischen Kunstgeschichte, 5 (Wurzburg: Schoningh, 1971), p. 51. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the mandora and other instruments mentioned i n the text see Appendix to the present work. 7 See Samuel, The Cantata, p. 16. Also Samuel's entries under "Staden" i n Groves, and MGG. For further information see H. Druener, Sigmund Theophil Staden, 1607-1655: Ein  Beitrag zur Erforschung und Leben und Werk, Diss. Bonn, 1946; and Wilibald Nagel, "Zur Biographie Johann Stadens und seiner Sflhne," MfM, XXIX, 4 (1897) , 53-61.-Q The music i s not by Staden, as stated by Samuel, The  Cantata, p. 350, but by H i l l e himself. 9 Johann Rist-, Poetischer Schauplatz (Hamburg: Werner, 1646), p. 234. In Krause, p. 171. 186 J"L In Johann Herdegen, Historische Nachricht von dess  l f l b l . Hirten- und Blumen-Ordens an der Pegnitz-(Nurnberg: Riegel, 1744), p. 262. 12 On how to construct a monochord, see Ray Nurse, "The Monochord as a Tuning Device," Musick, IV,; (October, 1982), 19-24. 13 Harsdorffer 1s collaboration with Schwendter i s not proven (see Dunnhaupt, p. 778). Quotations i n the present text from this volume therefore may or may not be a t t r i b u -table d i r e c t l y to him, but i n general terms, they represent restatements of standard contemporary ideas and b e l i e f s . Harsdflrffer c l e a r l y thought highly of the work, for he com-p i l e d the two continuations independently. ; 14 Reference to t h i s experiment appears i n Kircher, Magnes, pp. 861-62. 15 Harsdflrffer a c t u a l l y uses the hexachordal termino-logy, "ut, mi, s o l , f a , " which w i l l be explained below. ^ Scordatura (Verstimmung) i s the deliberate "mis-tuning" of a stringed instrument usually to extend the range or to make certain i n t e r v a l s possible on open st r i n g s . The instrument i s then played as i f i t had the normal tunings. See Groves, "Scordatura," and F. Traficante, "Lyra V i o l Tunings: ' A l l ways have been Tryed to do I t ' , " AM, 42 (1970), 183-205. Traficante i s aware of forty-one d i f f e r e n t tunings. Kindermann's work, New-verstimmte Violen Lust mit  dreyen Violen sampt dem Generalbass (1652), i s l o s t (MGG, "Kindermann"). • L O Wellter's works are thus not t o t a l l y l o s t as stated by Robert-Eitner, Biographisch-Biblioaraphisches Quellen Lexicon der Musiker und Musikgelehrten,'X (Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1959), p. 223. 1 9 Praetorius, Syntagma, I I , p. 11. 2 0 Praetorius, Syntagma, I I , plate I I I . See Appendix, p. 212. 187 21 Wiedemann, p. 11*. 22 See Tobias Norlind, "Ein Musikfest zu Nurnberg im Jahre 1649," SIMG, VII (1905-6), 111-13. The instrument i s also mentioned i n the eighteenth-century i n Johann Adlung, Anleitung zu der musikalischen Gelahrtheit (Erfurt: Jung-n i c o l , 1758), pp. 565-66. 23 Rene Clemencic, Old Musical Instruments (New York: Putnam, 1968), pp. 59-60. 24 25 K e l l e r , "New Light," 226. "Geigeninstrument" i s i n fact used as a synonym for "Geigenwerk" i n Adlung, p. 565. 2 6 For a description of a "Rossballet" at the court i n Vienna i n 1667, see Johann Constantin Feigius, Wunder-barer Adlers-Schwung*(Vienna: Voight, 1694), pp. 82-99. The popularity of " R i t t e r b a l l e t t e " i n seventeenth-century Germany i s noted by Hans Joachim Moser, Geschichte der  deutschen Musik, II (1930 5; rpt. Hildesheim: Olms, 1968), p. 155. 27 Praetorius, Syntagma, I I I , p. 171. 2 8 Harsdorffer 1s example "grobes Horn" i s used to i l l u s t r a t e the meaning " t i e f " i n Grimm, Deutsches Worter-buch, IV, I, 6 p. 388. 29 From a l e t t e r by Harsdorffer, noted i n Spahr, p. 75. 30 In Carl Gustav von H i l l e , Der teutsche Palmenbaum (Nurnberg: Endter, 1647), pp. 229-30. 3 1 See Sophie-Elisabeth, Beschreibung, n.p. 32 See Go t t f r i e d Schultze, Neu agirte und continuierte  Chronica (Ltibeck: Beckers, 1656), p. 761. For a further description of the f e s t i v i t i e s , see Sigmund von Birken, Kurtze Beschreibung des Schwedischen Friedensmahls gehalten  in Nurnberg den 25. Herbstmonats Anno 164 9 (Nurnberg: Dumler, 1649), and, by the same author, Teutschlands Krieges-1 Beschluss und F r i e d e n s Kuss (Nurnberg: Dumler, 1659) . For the s o c i a l ascent of bagpipes and hurdy-gurdies, see Emanuel W i n t e r n i t z , M u s i c a l Instruments and t h e i r Symbolism i n  Western A r t : S t u d i e s i n M u s i c a l Iconology (New Haven, London Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979), pp. 66-85, which i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the development o f the bagpipe from the l a r g e "Bock" sometimes with animal h a i r s t i l l a t tached to the s k i n of the bag, to the d e l i c a t e t a p e s t r y covered musette used i n c o u r t c i r c l e s . 33 The c o s t of p u t t i n g on masques or operas seems to have been hi g h not o n l y f o r the average c i t i z e n , but a l s o f o r the n o b i l i t y : "The Duke of Brunswick, f o r one, r e l i e d not o n l y on the most ingenious forms of d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t t a x a t i o n but r e s o r t e d even to s l a v e t r a d e . He f i n a n c e d h i s o p e r a t i c amusements by s e l l i n g h i s s u b j e c t s as s o l d i e r s so t h a t h i s f l o u r i s h i n g opera depended l i t e r a l l y on the b l o o d of the lower c l a s s e s " (Bukofzer, p. 398). 3 4 For a d i s c u s s i o n of the use of instruments i n the Tugendsterne see a l s o K e l l e r , "New L i g h t , " p. 226. A s i m i -l a r musico-planetary pageant was staged i n W o l f e n b u t t e l — see Sophie E l i s a b e t h , Beschreibung. The music used was p o s s i b l y t h a t of Staden"s Tugendsterne a c c o r d i n g to Joseph L e i g h t o n , "Die W o l f e n b u t t e l e r Auffuhrung von H a r s d f l r f f e r s und Stadens Seelewig im Jahre 1654 r" W o l f e n b u t t e l e r B e i -t r a g e , 3 (1978), 123. 3 5 K e l l e r , Seelewig, p. 39. The q u e s t i o n of a v a i l a b i l i t y of instruments takes on a new f e a t u r e when i t comes to modern performances, as the d e c i s i o n must be made whether to use modern instruments or r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s of o l d instruments. For the 1975 U t r e c h t performance of Seelewig, instruments were pla y e d which might have been used i n a seventeenth-century p r o d u c t i o n , and the symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e of each was r e t a i n e d : f o r the nymphs— l u t e s , organ and h a r p s i c h o r d ; f o r the s h e p h e r d s — d u l c i a n (reed i n s t r u m e n t ) , shawms, pommers, bassoons, oboes; f o r Trugewalt - r-regal and trumpet,. Other instruments used were the c e l l o , v i o l s and v i o l a s da gamba. Although the i n s t r u -mentation d i f f e r s i n some r e s p e c t s from t h a t suggested by H a r s d o r f f e r and Staden, the allowances made by H a r s d f l r f f e r i n d i c a t e t h a t such v a r i a t i o n s would have been thoroughly a c c e p t a b l e to him. A tape of t h i s performance was very k i n d l y made a v a i l a b l e by Dr. Ferdinand van Ingen. 189 For H a r s d o r f f e r ' s a d v i c e on s t a g e c r a f t and stage technique, see Jordan, pp. 475-491. 3 8 Bukofzer, p. 404. 3 9 At the c o n c e r t i n 1643 the audience c o n s i s t e d of town c o u n s e l l o r s and n o b i l i t y , and the s o c i a l concerns were r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t : guards were posted a t a l l the doors "Zu Abwendung des unbandige.n Pflbels" (Kahl, pp. 288-89). 4 ^ V a l e n t i n Haussmann, L i e b l i c h e F r o i i c h e B a l l e t t e (Nurnberg: Kauffmann, 1609), n.p. 41 Gruber, S i g . B i i i . 4 2 See Groves, "Hexachord." 4 3 In the second l i n e H a r s d f l r f f e r w r i t e s "suorum" i n s t e a d of "tuorum." 44 C a l v i s i u s put forward d i f f e r e n t names a l t o g e t h e r : "bo ce d i ga l o ma ni." In E x e r c i t a t i o Musica t e r t i a , p. 151. S a r t o r i u s , p o s s i b l y somewhat d i s p a r a g i n g l y r e f e r s to the use of t h i s nomenclature as " b o b i s i e r e n " ( I n s t i t u t i o n u m , S i g . D5). 45 K i r c h e r , Musurgia, I, p. 27. Caspar Schott, P h y s i c a C u r i o s a (Wurzburg: Endter, 1667), pp. 785-86. In t h i s work, the names given to the s l o t h are: "Archopithecus," " P i g r i t i a , " "Ignavia" " A i , " and "Ha." 4 ^ For the i n f l u e n c e of I t a l i a n s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r games on H a r s d f l r f f e r , see T.F. Crane, I t a l i a n S o c i a l Cus-toms of the S i x t e e n t h Century and t h e i r I n f l u e n c e on the  L i t e r a t u r e s of Europe (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1920), pp. 555-64; and R o l f H a s s e l b r i n k , G e s t a l t und  Entwicklung des G e s p r a c h s p i e l s i n der deutschen L i t e r a t u r  des 17. Jahrhunderts, D i s s . K i e l , 1956. 48 Herbst, Musica P o e t i c a , t i t l e page. 49 For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s problem, see O y l e r , pp. 17-24-1 Chapter Three: Notes Herbst, Musica P o e t i c a , p. 4. The term Musica  P o e t i c a was f i r s t used i n 1533 (Samuel, The Cantata, p. 533) See a l s o C a r l Dahlhaus, "Musica P o e t i c a und m u s i k a l i s c h e P o e s i e , " AfMW, 23 (1966), 110-124. 2 Staden, Rudimentum, n.p. 3 "Gumpelzhaimer, n.p. These are t r a n s l a t i o n s of the standard L a t i n phrases "bene canendi s c i e n t i a " (Gumpelz-haimer), or " r e c t e ac bene canendi s c i e n t i a " ( C h r i s t o p h Thomas W a l l i s e r , Musica F i g u r a l i s , n.p.: n.p., 1611), p. 1. 4 Another dimension i s added i n the d e f i n i t i o n of music as "Sing: K l i n g : und Lust-Kunst" (Martin Z e i l l e r , Handbuch  von a l l e r l e y n u t z l i c h e n Erinnerungen, Ulm: W i l d e i s e i n , 1655, p. 281). 5 Herbst, Musica P o e t i c a , p. 84. "Ich habe es gathan umb der Worte w i l l e n , " w r i t e s H e i n r i e h A l b e r t , E r s t e r T h e i l  der A r i e n (Kflnigsberg: Reusner, 1654), n.p. For H a r s d f l r f f e r and r h e t o r i c , see Ludwig F i s c h e r , Gebundene Rede: Dichtung und R h e t o r i k i n der l i t e r a r i s c h e n  T h e o r i e des Barock i n Deutschland. Studien zur deutschen L i t e r a t u r , 10 (Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1968), passim. Hars-d f l r f f e r ' s use of imagery i s examined i n Manfred Windfuhr, Die barocke B i l d l i c h k e i t und i h r e K r i t i k e r : S t i l h a l t u n g e n  i n der deutschen L i t e r a t u r des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts. Germanistische Abhandlungen, 15 ( S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1966), passim. The use of " Z i e r l i c h k e i t " iin German p o e t r y was i n i -t i a l l y c a l l e d f o r by M a r t i n O p i t z , Buch von der Deutschen  Poeterey ( B r e s l a u : M u l l e r , 1624), chapter VI, n.p. 7 Herbst, Musica P o e t i c a , pp. 84 and 111. Joachim Burmeister, Musica P o e t i c a . Documenta Musi-c o l o g i c a , I (1606; f a c s i m i l e r p t . K a s s e l , B a s e l : B a r e n r e i t e r 1955) . 191 q Samuel, The Cantata, pp. 556-74. See also MGG, "Figuren, musicalisch-rhetorische," and Martin Friede r i c h , Text und Ton; Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Dichtung und  Musik (Hohengehren: Schneider, 1973), pp. 71-80; and Heinz Heinrich Eggebrecht, "Barock als musikgeschichtliche Epoche," in Aus der Welt des Barock, ed. Richard Alewyn et a_l (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1957), pp. 168-91. 1 0 Winternitz, p. 82. 1 1 For modern: equivalents of examples- of- -seven;teeth- -century i n t e r v a l l i e . terminology, see p. 44 above. 12 Also i n Martin Gosky, ed. Arbustum vel arboretum  Augustaeum (Wolfenbuttel: Stern, 1650), p. 180. 13 See Butler, p. 80 for the use of the extraction of s y l l a b l e s from names and t i t l e s to provide a musical theme. Also Groves, "Soggetto cavato." Harsdflrffer does not use the technique for this purpose, although his example i s based on the general t r a d i t i o n . 1 4 P h i l i p p von Zesen, Hoch-Deutscher Helikon, I, i n Samtliche Werke, X / l , ed. Ferdinand van Ingen. Ausgaben Deutscher L i t e r a t u r des XV. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts (Berlin, New York: de Gruyter, 1977), p. 87. 15 Martin Opitz, Weltliche Poemata, Erster T e i l . Deutsche Neudrucke, 2 (1644; facsimile rpt. Tubingen: Nie-meyer, 1967), p. 543. 16 For the same conclusions i n a general context, see Calvin S. Brown, Music and L i t e r a t u r e : A Comparison of the  Arts (Athens, Ga.: University of Athens, 1948), esp. pp. 15-30. 17 For b r i e f comparisons of the two types of verse, see Fr i e d e r i c h , pp. 64-69; and Thrasybulos Georgiades, Sprache und Musik; Das Werden der abendlandischen Musik  d a r g e s t e l l t an der Vertonung der Messe (Berlin, Gflttingen, Heidelberg: Springer, 1954), pp. 53-69. 18 Opitz, Buch von der Deutschen Poeterey, Sig. G2. 192 1 9 August Buchner, A n l e i t u n g zur deutschen Poeterey. Deutsche Neudrucke, 5 (1665; f a c s i m i l e r p t . Tubingen: N i e -meyer, 1966), p. 113. 20 See a l s o Zesen, p. 38. 2 1 See a l s o Johann P e t e r T i t z , Zwey Bucher von der  Kunst Hochdeutsche Verse und L i e d e r zu machen (Danzig: Hunefeld, 1642), S i g . NI, who s t a t e s t h a t long v e r s e s of songs should be d i v i s i b l e i n t o a number of s h o r t ones. 22 Buchner i n c o n t r a s t , had no qualms about mixing the iamb and trochee i n songs ( A n l e i t u n g , p..171). 23 Herbst, Musica P o e t i c a , p. 111. 2 4 See H a r s d f l r f f e r ' s "Nachwort" to Johann K l a j ' s Der Leidende C h r i s t u s , i n Johann K l a j : R e d e o r a t o r i e n und  "Lobrede der Teutschen Poeterey" (1645; f a c s i m i l e r p t ; Tubingen, Niemeyer, 1965), pp. 238 and 241. 2 5 The l a s t l i n e o f verse one shows t h a t the word "Music" was s t r e s s e d on the f i r s t s y l l a b l e i n the seventeenth-ce n t u r y . See a l s o Thomas, p. 24n. 2 fi The a s s o c i a t i o n of the d a c t y l w i t h "das F r f l l i c h e " i s s t r e s s e d i n H a r s d f l r f f e r 1 s "Nachwort" to K l a j ' s Herodes  der Kindermflrder, i n Johann K l a j : R e d e o r a t o r i e n, p. 195. 2 7 The f u l l e s t assessment of these f e a t u r e s i s to be found i n Kayser's study. 2 8 From The Oxford Book of C a r o l s , ed. Percy Dearmer (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1929), p. 180, based on a v e r s i o n of 1601. 29 R i s t , i n c o n t r a s t , had a very low o p i n i o n of the use of the d a c t y l i n a s p i r i t u a l c o n t e x t (Himlische L i e d e r  . . . Das d r i t t e Zehn. Luneburg: S t e r n , 1648, p r e f a c e , n.p.) . 3 0 Johann R i s t , Des Daphnis aus Cimbrien Galathee (Ham-burg: Rebenlein, n.d), n.p. 193 31 For an analysis of the dissemination of melodies applied to popular song, see Dieter Lohmeier, "Die Ver-breitungsformen des Liedes im Barockzeitalter," Daphnis, 8 (1979), 41-65. 3 2 For complaints regarding p i r a t i n g of melodies, see Ris t , preface to Daphnis aus Cimbrien; Heinrich Albert, prefaces to Arien, I I I , VII and VIII; and Gabriel Voigt-lander, Erster Theil Allerhand Oden unnd Lieder, quoted i n Lohmeier, p. 49. 33 See pp. 59 and 185, footnote 8. 3 4 R i s t , Neuer Himlischer Lieder Sonderbahres Buch, pp. 54-55. This melody has been transposed and note values have been reduced for easier comparison. 3 5 Haar, "Astral Music," p. 178. Ferdinand van Ingen and Kees Vellekoop, Programme Book for the Performance of Seelewig i n Utrecht, 1975, pp. 68-69. 3 7 K e l l e r , Seelewig, pp.. 29-33, and "New Light," pp. 223-37. 3 8 K e l l e r , "New Light," p. 227. 39 K e l l e r , Seelewig, p. 33. ^ This melody appeared i n a book of songs compiled by Hans Leo Hassler of Nuremberg, and the whole work was republished by Staden i n 1637. See K e l l e r , Seelewig, p. 71, footnote 246. 41 I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y was also a concern for the rhe-t o r i c i a n : "Die Redekunst i s t eine Kunst von einem vorge-setzten Dinge z i e r l i c h zu reden/ und kunstlich zu uber-legen. Es heisset aber z i e r l i c h reden/ nicht mit lustigem Getone die Ohre f u l l e n , " writes Johann Matthaus Meyfahrt, Teutsche Rhetorica. Deutsche Neudrucke, 25 (1634; facsimile rpt. Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1977), p. 57. 194 42 K e l l e r , Seelewig, p. 33. 4 3 F r i e d r i c h Blume, Renaissance and Baroque Music: A Comprehensive Survey (New York: Norton, 1967), pp. 130-31. 4 4 Blume, p. 130. 45 See K e l l e r , Seelewig, pp. 69-71. K e l l e r , Seelewig, pp. 50-51; Hermann Kretzschmar, Geschichte der Oper (1919; rpt. Wiesbaden: Sandig, 1970), p. 155; Paul Hankamer, Deutsche Gegenreformation und  deutsches Barock: Deutsche L i t e r a t u r im Zeitraum des 17.  Jahrhunderts.(193 5; rpt. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1964) p. 331. 4 7 Including a 1642 French e d i t i o n of Sidney's Arcadia (FG,II,469). 4 8 Pegnesisches Schafergedicht. Deutsche Neudrucke, 8 (1644; facsimile rpt. Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1966). 49 K e l l e r , Seelewig, p. 77. 50 „ . o Narciss, p. 8. 51 In his "Nachwort" to Klaj's Der Leidende Christus, p. 238. 52 I wish to thank Dr. Ferdinand van Ingen for a s s i s -tance i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s work. 53 For the use of t h i s technique i n I t a l i a n opera, see K e l l e r , Seelewig, p. 43. Conclusion: Notes The view that Staden i s behind Harsdflrffer 1s state-ments on music (Schmitz, p. 256), i s thus not tenable. 2 Krapp, p. 70. 3 Ferschmann, p. 189. Ben Jonson, Timber, or Discoveries (1640) , i n Selected Works, ed. David McPherson (New York: Holt Rine-hart, Winston, 1972), p. 392. 196 S e l e c t B i b l i o g r a p h y A. Reference Works 1. L i t e r a t u r e Dunnhaupt, Gerhard. B i b l i o g r a p h i s c h e s Handbuch der B a r o c k l i t e r a t u r . Hiersemanns B i b l i o g r a p h i s c h e Hand-bucher. S t u t t g a r t : Hiersemann, 1981. Faber du Faur, C u r t von. 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M u s l c a i Instruments and t h e i r Sym-bo l i s m i n Western A r t . New York: Norton, 1967. Wohnhaas, Theodor. "Die Endter i n Nurnberg a l s Musik-drucker und M u s i k v e r l e g e r : Eine U b e r s i c h t . " Q u e l l e n -s t u d i e n zur Musik: Wolfgang Schmieder zum 70. Geburts-tag, ed. K. D o r f m u l l e r . F r a n k f u r t , London, New York: P e t e r s , 1972. "Zum Nurnberger Musikdruck und M u s i k v e r l a g im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert." Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (1973), 337-43. Appendix The i l l u s t r a t i o n of the monochord i s from FG,VIII,p.694. A l l other i l l u s t r a t i o n s of instruments are from Michael Praetorius, Syntagma, I I . CfytonecJjordwn iiiiiiiiiiwniiiiiiiiiM V i o l a Bastarda 211 Theorbo 212 213 2 1 4 A Set of Flutes Cornetto's (Zinck) 216 217 

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