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Business archives : historical developments and future prospects 1985

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INESS ARCHIVES: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS BY CHRISTOPHER L. HIVES M.A. , UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES THE FACULTY OF ARTS Administered by School of L i b r a r y , Arch iva l and Information Studies and Department of History We accept t h i s thes is as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH 1985 (c) Christopher L. Hives In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of S c h o o l o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i e s The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date March 25, 1985. DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s attempts to i d e n t i f y the reasons why business a r c h i v e s have not been widely developed i n North America and to suggest the changes which are necessary to c o r r e c t the s i t u a t i o n . Although t h i s study addresses i t s e l f s p e c i f i c a l l y to the experience of business a r c h i v e s , many of the i s s u e s i t d i s c u s s e s can e a s i l y be r e l a t e d t o other forms of corporate a r c h i v e s such as those, f o r example, of a m u n i c i p a l i t y , u n i v e r s i t y , labour union, or h o s p i t a l . A l l c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s c o n f r o n t the common problem that the p r a c t i c a l v alue of an a r c h i v a l programme must be c l e a r l y demonstrated. T h i s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s j u s t i f i c a t i o n based p r i m a r i l y on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e rather than c u l t u r a l c r i t e r i a . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s study aims o v e r a l l to p l a c e business a r c h i v e s w i t h i n a broader d i s c u s s i o n of the purposes which a r c h i v e s ought to serve i n our community. The u n d e r l y i n g theme of t h i s t h e s i s i s the need to formulate a more comprehensive view of the r o l e of a r c h i v e s than has been e v i d e n t i n the past, one which i s s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e to respond to the changing and d i v e r s e requirements of modern s o c i e t y . T h i s r e q u i r e s that the a r c h i v i s t accept a broader r o l e than he accepted i n the past, when he o f t e n served as a p a s s i v e c u s t o d i a n p a t i e n t l y a w a i t i n g the a r r i v a l of " r e t i r e d " documents. An a n a l y s i s of the development of business a r c h i v e s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t a s t r i c t l y h i s t o r i c a l c r i t e r i o n f o r m a i n t a i n i n g records has met with only l i m i t e d success i n the c o r p o r a t e community. Rather than attempting to convince businessmen as to the c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s (important as they are) to be d e r i v e d from i i the establishment of an archival programme, i t might be more prudent to emphasize new potential services which could be rendered to the sponsoring agencies. In exploring this proposition the thesis f i r s t considers the elements influencing the h i s t o r i c a l growth of business archives and then suggests potential new areas into which corporate a r c h i v i s t s might move. The study also discusses the ramifications of these changes for issues such as appraisal and access and, f i n a l l y , i d e n t i f i e s those factors which w i l l be p a r t i c u l a r l y important in determining the future success of business archives. In assuming such a broad approach to the study of corporate archives, the thesis raises some fundamental questions about the orientation of the arc h i v a l profession and, as such, may contribute to the formulation of archival theory. i i i TABLE OF.CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER II HIS TOR I CAL DEVELOPMENT 9 CHAPTER III JUSTIFYING CORPORATE ARCHIVES 46 CHAPTER IV IMPLEMENTATION - ARCHIVES, RECORDS MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 63 CHAPTER V APPRAISAL AND ACCESS 81 CHAPTER VI FUTURE PROSPECTS 106 CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION 1 20 APPENDIX I 1 28 BIBLIOGRAPHY 133 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to express my appreciation to the following individuals who read various drafts of t h i s thesis and offered some very helpful comments - Dr. F.H. Armstrong, Bryan Corbett, Vicky Williams, Bob Taylor-Vaisey, Garron Wells, Chris Norman and Dr. Richard Pollay. I am also indebted to my classmates, Diane Beattie, David Bullock, James Fraser, Glen Isaac, Robin Keirstead and Jan Ro l l i n s who, through numerous discussions over the past two years, helped me to formulate my ideas about archives. I would l i k e to thank Angela Redish whose patience in reading and rereading the various drafts of thi s thesis contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to i t s f i n a l form. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to acknowledge my gratitude to Terry Eastwood and Hugh Taylor who challenged me to consider the subject of archives in something beyond i t s t r a d i t i o n a l confines. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In 1938, a young government a r c h i v i s t wr i t ing in the fourth issue of the American A rch i v i s t made the fo l lowing observat ion. The h i s t o r i a n of the future who seeks to interpret our contemporary l i f e without taking into account the shaping forces of modern business w i l l but touch on the f r inges of the subject . For more than a generation people have spoken of two c a p i t a l s , Washington and Wall S t r e e t . . . . W e are care fu l to preserve the records of one c a p i t a l , but we have sadly neglected the o ther . 1 Although almost f i f t y years have passed since Ol iver W. Holmes penned these remarks, the future of business archives remains uncer ta in . During t h i s period the e f f o r t s to preserve the records of our business and economic past have met with varying degrees of success and, in the process, have raised a number of in te res t ing issues , some shared by the a r c h i v a l community in general and others unique to the corporate world. The a r c h i v i s t who dares to tread in the business world, cont ro l led as i t i s by the ever present "bottom l i n e " , i s in many respects s t i l l l i k e a pioneer, confronting novel s i tuat ions and bounded only by h is imaginat ion. * * * * * Increasingly , academics have come to appreciate the important ro le played by businessmen and entrepreneurs in the h i s t o r i c a l development of North America. In surveying the American experience, Harvard h i s t o r i a n Ralph W. Hidy noted th i s 2 enhanced awareness. We have developed a business c i v i l i z a t i o n . No other single group in our society has been more i n f l u e n t i a l in r a i s i n g our standards of l i v i n g , in setting the d i r e c t i o n of our i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s o c i a l changes, in a f f e c t i n g our national practices and international r e l a t i o n s . Only by understanding what businessmen have done and their ways of doing i t can we get a r e a l i s t i c appraisal of the broad history of the American people. 2 Historian Roger Hall echoed t h i s sentiment in observing that "Canada i s a country which owes i t s existence more than most to the e f f o r t s of business f i r m s . " 3 Although scholars have slowly come to recognize the pote n t i a l value of h i s t o r i c a l business records, the same does not generally hold true for business executives. In studying the treatment accorded h i s t o r i c a l records by businesses early in t h i s century one tends to witness a periodic "housecleaning" of a l l old documents which had f u l f i l l e d any functional or legal requirements. The ever-increasing volume of records associated with the transaction of business generally forced companies to store old material in whatever f a c i l i t i e s could be secured (including a t t i c s , warehouses and basements), leaving the documents at the mercy of f i r e , mildew, vermin or equally unpleasant ravages. Viewed as l i a b i l i t i e s , these dusty and musty records would be destroyed p e r i o d i c a l l y to make room for more recent material. Such an approach made l i t t l e allowance for the systematic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or preservation of archival records. The gradual recognition of the importance of preserving permanently valuable records i s b a s i c a l l y a phenomenon of the l a t t e r half of the 20th century in North America, although i t i s s t i l l not yet a widely accepted postulate. 3 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the r o l e of a r c h i v a l programmes w i t h i n c o r p o r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s has been d e f i n e d i n v e r y r e s t r i c t e d terms which have o f t e n s t i f l e d n e c e s s a r y r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n . J u s t i f i c a t i o n of a r c h i v e s u s i n g c u l t u r a l c r i t e r i a has met w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s i n the f i e l d . T h i s i s , however, not to suggest t h a t the blame f o r t h i s development s h o u l d be s h o u l d e r e d p r i m a r i l y by businessmen. I n s t e a d the blame must be shared by h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s . One spokeman a t t r i b u t e d the i n a d e q u a t e p r e s e r v a t i o n of c o r p o r a t e documentation t o a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g : ...a p e r s i s t e n t f a i l u r e t o a p p r e c i a t e the r e s e a r c h s i g n i f i c a n c e of b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s and company p a p e r s ; the c o n c e r n of e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s e s f o r c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and d i s c r e t i o n r e g a r d i n g a c c e s s t o c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s and t h e i r d e s i r e t h a t r e s e a r c h have o n l y p o s i t i v e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s v a l u e ; the c o s t and s c a r c i t y of the space and s t a f f r e q u i r e d f o r s t o r a g e , a n a l y s i s and the management of voluminous r e c o r d s , the l a r g e p o r t i o n of which i s e i t h e r r o u t i n e or d u p l i c a t e . 4 A l s o t o t h i s l i s t can be added the f a i l u r e of the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n t o p r o v i d e a p r o d u c t s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e t o s e r v e the p r a c t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of b u s i n e s s . In c o n s i d e r i n g the growth of c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s over the p a s t f i f t y y e a r s , one o b s e r v e s t h a t many c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v a l programmes have been implemented d u r i n g f r a n t i c s e a r c h e s f o r h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l n e c e s s a r y t o complete a f i f t i e t h o r one- h undredth a n n i v e s a r y h i s t o r y . A t y p i c a l i n s t a n c e i s the Ford Motor Company which i n 1953 s e t out t o r e v i e w i t s accomplishments over the p a s t f i f t y y e a r s and " d i s c o v e r e d i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l memory was i n b i t s and p i e c e s p h y s i c a l l y d i f f u s e d t h r ough hundreds of f i l e s , i n dozens of l o c a t i o n s . " 5 C o n s e q u e n t l y , the company moved q u i c k l y t o e s t a b l i s h a c e n t r a l 4 repository for the records of the company and those of i t s founder. Unfortunately, t h i s approach has led to long-term neglect of important corporate documentation and i t s inadvertent destruction before coming under the care of the archives. In many cases, important records necessary to write the anniversary history had already been destroyed. Interest in the records of business has been growing slowly in the past few decades. In 1980, The Directory of Business Archives in the United States and Canada reported 210 archival programmes pf varying size and scope, 75% of which had been established. after i960. 6 These figures suggest that the s i t u a t i o n of business archives i s not t o t a l l y bleak, as a sizable number of companies have recognized the value of a r c h i v a l programmes. As Harold Anderson has o p t i m i s t i c a l l y observed: Business archives are coming of age as more and more companies reap the benefits of their most useful and inexpensive corporate assets. Time-worn documents, leather bound ledgers, long forgotten cartons of admininstrative f i l e s and faded photographs are being dusted off and integrated with computer printouts, magnetic tapes, microfilms and laser d i s c s , to create information data bases p o t e n t i a l l y as powerful as any a corporation has at i t s d i s p o s a l . 7 Unfortunately, there has not been widespread support for the i d e a l i z e d role of archives in the business world such as Anderson describes. -Although a f a i r l y extensive l i t e r a t u r e on the subject of business archives ex i s t s , l i t t l e of i t i s very penetrating. Two common themes are that archives have not enjoyed widespread acceptance in the corporate setting and that the establishment of more programmes would be highly desirable. Many a r t i c l e s 5 merely make a p l e a f o r g r e a t e r p r omotion of b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s . W h i l e most a r t i c l e s g e n e r a l l y a d d r e s s some of t h e b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d from c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s , they o f t e n f a i l t o a d e q u a t e l y c o n s i d e r t h e i r unique problems o r t o a n a l y s e the u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s . The l i t e r a t u r e has f a i l e d t o d i s c u s s c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y the m y r i a d p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s which a b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s might f u l f i l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r e c o r d s and i n f o r m a t i o n management. A l s o , t h e r e has been too l i t t l e emphasis p l a c e d on f a c t o r s which d i s t i n g u i s h b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s from o t h e r a r c h i v e s . Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have i m p o r t a n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r of the e n t i r e p r o f e s s i o n i n the f u t u r e . For example, i s i t r e a l i s t i c t o argue t h a t b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d p r i m a r i l y t o f u l f i l l c u l t u r a l c r i t e r i a ? I f n o t , does the a r c h i v i s t who j u s t i f i e s h i s programme on the b a s i s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u t i l i t y c o n t i n u e t o share common g o a l s w i t h h i s c o u n t e r p a r t i n p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ? A d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s c o n t r i b u t e s t o a more comprehensive d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e e v o l v i n g f l e x i b i l i t y of the p r o f e s s i o n . As w i l l be ar g u e d , the p o s i t i o n of the b u s i n e s s a r c h i v i s t c a l l s f o r something more than academic t r a i n i n g i n h i s t o r y . The t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n of the a r c h i v i s t as p a s s i v e c o l l e c t o r of documents from which t o w r i t e h i s t o r y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e b u s i n e s s a r c h i v i s t . I f one a c c e p t s t h i s expanded p e r c e p t i o n of the r o l e of a r c h i v i s t s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n e x i s t i n g a r t i c l e s which p r e s e n t s a broad o v e r v i e w of the p l a c e of b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s i n s o c i e t y and the be s t means f o r implementing t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . A c l o s e study of the l i t e r a t u r e does, however, p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r 6 some synthesis and re-examination of the underlying issues associated with corporate archives. One of the major problems in any discussion of corporate archives i s that of d e f i n i t i o n . Business archives are d i f f i c u l t to characterize because they vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y in s t a f f i n g and volume of materials maintained. Programmes might be operated by a single, part-time employee or as many as ten f u l l - t i m e s t a f f ; c o l l e c t i o n s may range from ten to many thousands of lin e a r feet. In o f f e r i n g a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n of an ideal operation, Douglas Bakken made thi s observation. A true corporate archives i s not simply an information operation, nor does i t consist of records haphazardly s o l i c i t e d and maintained by a well-meaning, devoted and longtime employee. Nor i s a corporate archives a department that saves every piece of paper the company created since i t s founding. It i s neither a l i b r a r y that organizes material on an item-by-item system nor a records management program concerned about the destruction of records. A more appropriate description for a corporate archives i s a department s p e c i f i c a l l y charged with the systematic a c q u i s i t i o n , preservation and servicing of corporate h i s t o r i c a l records and a r t i f a c t s deemed to be of permanent value in documenting the company's founding and subsequent growth. 8 This' description aptly outlines some of the p o s i t i v e and negative factors which must be considered in the implementation of corporate archival programmes. Arc h i v i s t s would be well advised to consider these r e f l e c t i o n s as they endeavour to persuade businessmen to sponsor such in-house operations. The success of these private archives w i l l determine the l e v e l of preservation of documentary history of business, which has played such a v i t a l role in the development of North America. This thesis i s intended to address a number of important issues associated with North American business archives. It 7 reviews the general h i s t o r i c a l development of business archives and i d e n t i f i e s some of the ear ly trends in the f i e l d ; considers the various functions which an act ive corporate programme could f u l f i l l and the best means of implemention; the par t i cu la r problems presented by appra isa l and access and, f i n a l l y , of fers some thoughts about future courses of development. In f u l f i l l i n g these expressed ob ject ives , the thes is a lso contr ibutes to an understanding of the re la t ionsh ip of business archives to the broader a r c h i v a l community. In i t s d iscussion of the h i s t o r i c a l development, j u s t i f i c a t i o n , appra isa l and access in business arch ives , t h i s thes is stresses the advantages of a broader perspective for the ro le of archives and the need to develop a more f l e x i b l e product to meet the requirements of an increas ingly diverse audience. 8 NOTES 1 Ol i ve r W. Holmes, "The Evaluation and Preservation of Business Arch ives , " American A rch i v i s t 1 (1938), p. 173. 2 Wilbur G. Kurtz , "Business Archives in the Corporate Funct ion , " Records Management Quarterly 4 (1970), p. 6. 3Roger H a l l , "Minding Our Business ," Arch ivar ia 3 (1976/77), p. 73. "T.H.B. Symons, To Know Ourselves: The Report of the Commission on Canadian Studies (Ottawa: Associat ion • of Un ivers i ty and Colleges of Canada, 1975), p. 78. 5Henry E. Edmunds, "The Ford Motor Company Arch ives , " American A r c h i v i s t 15 (1952), p. 99. 6 Linda Edgerly, "Business Archives Gu ide l ines , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982), p. 286. 7 Harold P. Anderson, "Business Archives: A Corporate Asset , " American Arch iv i s t 45 (1982), p. 264. 8Douglas A. Bakken, "Corporate Archives Today," American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982), p. 281. 9 CHAPTER II HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT A study of the evolut ion of business archives in North America reveals the emergence of two d i s t i n c t methods of preservation in the f i r s t hal f of t h i s century. The f i r s t involved the c o l l e c t i o n of business records in ex i s t ing repos i tor ies while the second featured an attempt to persuade businesses to maintain the i r own arch ives . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of interested academics played an important ro le in es tab l i sh ing the d i rec t ion for both of these approaches. Consequently, th i s chapter considers both the h i s t o r i c a l evolut ion of the treatment accorded to business records as wel l as the development of h i s t o r i c a l methodology. This approach i s p a r t i c u l a r l y useful in providing a better understanding of the evolving a t t i tudes and p r a c t i c a l considerat ions inherent in the preservation of business records in North America. In the l a t e nineteenth and ear ly twentieth centur ies , h i s to r ians in the United States and Canada expressed l i t t l e interest in business and economic h i s t o r y , p re fer r ing instead to concentrate on p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l subjects . In assessing the nature of t h i s focus, R.A. Sh i f f suggested that h i s to r ians of the period were "too European or iented with primary emphasis on s o l d i e r s , p o l i t i c i a n s and e c c l e s i a s t i c s . " 1 The lack of in terest in studying the l i v e s and impact of North American businessmen and the i r enterpr ises led to a neglect of the sources and, as a r e s u l t , much of the ear ly documentation 10 disappeared and can never be r e p l a c e d . 2 The e a r l i e s t commentators who turned the i r a t tent ion to the r i s e of business a f te r the C i v i l War found the business pract ices of the era highly d i s t a s t e f u l . They were the muckrakers who developed the notorious "robber baron" myth. In commenting on the i r impact, A l l a n Nevins offered th i s assessment. Business was sordid and in part a n t i - s o c i a l . I t was natural that the a t t i tude of the c r i t i c s and mudrakers, espec ia l l y as i t was backed by reformers from Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson onward, should be t ransferred to the minds of teachers and the pages of standard t e x t s . The ug l ie r passages in business h is tory were emphasized, the br ighter chapters forgotten. The fact that business morals, l i k e p o l i t i c a l morals, were in a state of evolut ion upward was ignored . 3 This negative a t t i tude toward business was perpetuated by the increasing inf luence of the Marxist and s o c i a l i s t commentators who viewed cap i ta l i sm as inherently e v i l . However, as h i s t o r i a n O.E. Burnette has cautioned, one must remember that the " e a r l i e s t h i s to r ians of American business were p o l i t i c a l reformers, not object ive s c h o l a r s . " " Among the e a r l i e s t studies were Ida M. T a r b e l l ' s , The History of the Standard O i l Company (1904), Gustavus Myers' History of the Great American Fortunes (1907) and A History of Canadian Wealth (1914), Charles and Mary Beard 's , The Rise of American C i v i l i z a t i o n (1927) and Matthew Josephson's, The Robber Barons (1934). A l lan Nevins has suggested that t h i s negative, one-sided view of business was i n e v i t a b l e , given that there were few business records ava i lab le for study during the f i r s t quarter of the twentieth century. In f a c t , a v a i l a b i l i t y of source material 11 may have been a moot point because u n t i l the r i s e of "un ivers i ty schools of business, or business admin is t ra t ion , i t was d i f f i c u l t to give would-be h i s to r ians a spec ia l i zed t r a i n i n g , and even then they had no proper f a c i l i t i e s . " 5 In such circumstances, the u n f l a t t e r i n g view of business continued to be the norm. One of the major factors hindering the development of object ive business h is tory was the lack of adequate documentation. "American corporate business grew to maturity behind a protect ive screen of c losed books and locked f i l e s , thereby breeding a mutual d i s t r u s t between i t s e l f and h i s t o r i c a l judgment." 6 Businesses rare ly bothered to c o l l e c t , sort and preserve the i r records often opting instead for dest ruc t ion . This grew out of the t r a d i t i o n in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centur ies which held that a man or a company's business was a matter of leg i t imate concern to that man or that company alone and there was l i t t l e interest in opening records to the prying eyes of researchers . 7 Even those interested in wr i t ing business h istory without the muckraking d i s p o s i t i o n were handicapped by the lack of ava i lab le records and many turned to secondary sources, inc lud ing court records and reports of various government i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . H is tor ian Ralph Hower suggested that to "wri te the h is tory of business from such sources i s much l i k e wr i t i ng the h is tory of marriage from the records of divorce cour ts . I t y i e l d s part of the story - indeed an essent ia l par t , but one that gives l i t t l e i n k l i n g of the whole t r u t h . " 8 This , in tu rn , perpetuated the negative, one- sided assessment of business. 1 2 Company o f f i c i a l s were p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned about the potent ia l damage to the reputation of the f i rm which might resu l t from h i s t o r i c a l research. The animosity which developed during the muckraking era had a l i nger ing e f f e c t , as A l l en Nevins observed. Even when the president of the corporation was ready to give the h i s t o r i a n access some d i rec tor would ra ise an angry ob ject ion : "What good would i t do to i n v i t e the h i s t o r i a n in?" he would ask. "How can we be sure that he i s not a wolf in sheep's c loth ing? - that he i s not another Gustavus Myers masquerading as a Francis Parkman?.. . .he may f ind out about those frauds on the government back in the 1890's - about that treasurer who was dismissed for embezzlement, although i t was a l l hushed up - about those shady adver t is ing pract ices ! No! Be d i sc reet ! L e t ' s keep our d i r t to ourse lves . 9 The tendency to e i ther destroy company records or deny access both grew out of and perpetuated the negative view of business which emerged in the muckraking p e r i o d . 1 0 Fear of i n j u r i n g the corporate reputation prevented the generous access to mater ia ls necessary to produce an object ive account of the contr ibut ion of ear ly business enterpr ises . For these reasons, the u n f l a t t e r i n g view of emerging corporations continued to strongly inf luence a t t i tudes in the ear ly twentieth century. Although a powerful force in the f i r s t quarter of the twentieth century, the muckraking approach to the study of business d id not go unopposed. This period a lso witnessed the advent of object ive business h is tory and the development of associated resources p a r t i c u l a r l y around a un ivers i t y whose name has become synonomous with the study of business. The idea of co lec t ing business manuscripts for scholar ly research began on a l i m i t e d basis at Harvard Univers i ty short ly a f te r the turn of the century. Interest in preserving business records was further 13 enhanced by the foundation of the Harvard Business School in 1908 under the d i rec t ion of Edwin F. Gay. In 1916, the l i b r a r y reported i t s f i r s t s i zab le a c q u i s i t i o n when i t obtained the business records of Samuel Slater who, by the time of h is death in 1835, was general ly regarded as the country 's leading t e x t i l e i n d u s t r i a l i s t . 1 1 Support and encouragement for the c o l l e c t i o n of business records was provided by the foundation of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society in 1925. The expressed mandate of the Society was to . . .encourage and a id the study of the evolut ion of business in a l l periods and in a l l count r ies . Further , to formulate the resu l t s of such invest igat ions and studies and publ ish them in such a form as may make them of service to the business community necessi tates adequate too ls for such inves t iga t ions . This means the c o l l e c t i o n of a l l possible o r i g i n a l records, data , e t c . having to do with the beginning and progress of business, and the deposit ing of t h i s mater ia l at some centre access ib le to a l l . For these reasons the get t ing together of an adequate and comprehensive l i b r a r y of such data i s essent ia l to the purpose of the S o c i e t y . 1 2 Much of the enthusiasm generated by the Society was channelled into the c o l l e c t i o n and preservation of a rch i va l records. The preservation of business records was furthered two years la te r with the construct ion of the Baker L ibrary whose main object ive was to provide corporate documentation for research at the Harvard School of Business. It a lso served as the o f f i c i a l repository for the business records co l lec ted by members of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society . For a br ie f period the Baker L ibrary acquired h i s t o r i c a l mater ia l from a l l over the country and there was some thought given to the concept of making i t a nat ional repository for 14 business records. However, upon recognizing the magnitude of a nat ional p ro ject , such grandiose plans were judged to be i m p r a c t i c a l . Sheer bulk of documentation, which had closed other doors to business records, soon swamped the f a c i l i t i e s of an i n s t i t u t i o n devoted exc lus ive ly to the i r c o l l e c t i o n . The Baker L ibrary was soon forced to retreat to the more r e s t r i c t e d f i e l d of the business records of New England, but i t s pioneering work conc lus ive ly demonstrated that the c o l l e c t i o n of business records for h i s t o r i c a l research was poss ib le and wor thwh i le . 1 3 In recognizing the need to s p e c i a l i z e geographical ly in the ear ly 1930s, the Baker L ibrary decided to return a number of c o l l e c t i o n s to the i r places of o r i g i n . Although many l i b r a r i e s accepted l i m i t e d amounts of corporate records, i t was becoming apparent that t h i s could not be done on a large scale by publ ic i n s t i t u t i o n s . Francis Blouin has pointed out that the e f f o r t s of both the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society and the Baker L ibrary coincided with the " f i r s t formal attempts to e s t a b l i s h business h is tory as a spec ia l i zed f i e l d of h i s t o r i c a l research, as wel l as ear ly attempts to define business administrat ion as an academic and profess ional f i e l d of i n q u i r y . " 1 4 Through the e f f o r t s of ind i v idua ls such as Edwin F. Gay, Norman Gras and Henr ietta Larson based at Harvard Univers i ty in the 1920s, the study of business h is to ry became increas ing ly ref ined and more object ive in i t s out look. In providing a br ie f descr ip t ion of the emerging f i e l d in 1944, Gras suggested: Business h is tory i s not romance or scandal , propagandist expose or hero-worshipping. I d e a l l y , i t i s an earnest attempt to learn and set down in an orderly fashion the facts and ideas that have underlain the organized plan of using c a p i t a l and employing men in order to serve soc ie t y ' s n e e d s . 1 5 15 The a b i l i t y to produce the object ive s ty le of business h is tory as advocated by Gras remained contingent upon the wi l l ingness of business to provide access to i t s records. The idea of c o l l e c t i n g mater ia l in e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s was motivated in part by a desi re to t ransfer the burden of cost of preservation away from business and, thus, removing one of the important bar r ie rs to academic research. By the second half of the 1930s, i t became apparent that the Baker model of c o l l e c t i n g business records was not p r a c t i c a l given the growing volume of mater ia l and t h i s concept slowly gave way to an a l te rnat i ve view. Ol iver Holmes observed that by 1938 companies were less enthus iast ic about having the i r records removed from the i r o f f i c e s because they might have need to make reference to them or , more importantly , the information therein contained could be used against them i f open to publ ic s c r u t i n y . 1 6 This e l i c i t e d a new response from the academic community as indicated by Holmes. . . . t h e s o c i a l and economic h i s to r ians d id not want to leave the ult imate preservation of valuable records to chance, nor did they want to wait forever for a c c e s s . . . . I n th i s dilemma, knowing that they could not care for these bulky records, and that he could not get them i f he cou ld , the h i s t o r i a n set about persuading the large companies to consider the value of the i r own records and make prov is ions accordingly for the i r c a r e . 1 7 This , then, represented the beginning of the corporate archives movement and the slow s h i f t away from the idea of cent ra l i zed c o l l e c t i o n s of business records. In pursuing th i s new approach to ensure the preservation of h i s t o r i c a l business records, Holmes suggested that the Business H i s t o r i c a l Soc ie ty ' s pamphlet by h i s t o r i a n Ralph M. Hower, "The 16 Preservation of Business Records" (1937), should be widely d i s t r i b u t e d to businesses. Hower's pamphlet, aimed at educating businesses, l i b r a r i e s , h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and others interested in the preservation of business records, acknowledged that few of the records generated by corporations had long-term value. His interest centred on that mater ia l with permanent value which he believed to have important impl icat ions for three d i s t i n c t groups — business i t s e l f , h i s to r ians and the general p u b l i c . 1 8 Because Hower approached the issue p r imar i l y from the h i s t o r i a n ' s perspect ive, many of h is comments and suggestions weighed heavi ly in favour of research requirements. Consequently, much of h i s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n for preserving corporate records was couched in such terms as these. . . . i f company records are systemat ica l ly destroyed, the researchers w i l l be obliged to re ly on inadequate data, such as human reco l lec t ions and source mater ia l from outside the company, which often y i e l d an incomplete or misleading report . I f , on the other hand, a l l f i rm records are preserved, without d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the researcher w i l l have to waste precious days and weeks digging through i r re levant m a t e r i a l . 1 9 One of Hower's recurr ing themes, the need to re la te the object ive story of business, reveals more than an interest in the h is tory as an academic exercise and r e f l e c t s something of the period in which he wrote. He was deeply af fected by the p r e v a i l i n g tendency of business l i t e r a t u r e toward muckraking as wel i as the profound e f fec t of the depression which l e f t a l a s t i n g negative impression of the impact of business upon soc ie ty . Hower's f irm be l ie f in the importance of preserving a rch i va l records from which to write accurate accounts of 1 7 business a c t i v i t i e s derived from what he perceived to be a very rea l threat to the p reva i l ing order of society brought on by the recent depression. Business must f rankly face the fact that the publ ic u l t imate ly w i l l decide whether pr ivate enterpr ise i s to continue or i s to be s t i f l e d in favour of some other economic system. If pr ivate enterpr ise i s worth saving, business records w i l l help us prove i t s usefulness. I t i s c lear too that the publ ic may, i f i t acts without information, u l t imate ly destroy a valuable i n s t i t u t i o n which has been p a i n f u l l y developed over hundreds of years and can be r e b u i l t only at great cost . It i s , therefore , to the advantage of both the publ ic and business that the h i s t o r i c a l records of business be preserved and s t u d i e d . 2 0 Hower's stated object ive in se lec t ing records for h i s t o r i c a l purposes was to "choose mater ia l which w i l l y i e l d accurate and reasonably complete information about every phase of the business - production, d i s t r i b u t i o n , management, f inances, personnel, accounting and p l a n t . " 2 1 Unfortunately , Hower's c r i t e r i a for appra isa l were weak in two areas. F i r s t , he f a i l e d to define what mater ia l should be preserved and as a resu l t i t seemed that v i r t u a l l y everything should be re ta ined . Secondly, because Hower focused on the ind i v idua l f i r m , he valued operat ional records at the expense of the mater ia l which cast the company within a broader synthesis and re f lec ted the place of the business in the o v e r a l l economy and society in g e n e r a l . 2 2 Because these themes did not become prominent in business histor iography u n t i l l a t e r , i t i s not supr is ing that Hower f a i l e d to ant ic ipate them. In assessing the contr ibut ions of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society which culminated in the sponsorship of Hower's pamphlet, Francis Blouin judges i t to be a "model a rch i va l enterpr ise" 18 wherein scholars in the f i e l d met regular ly with business execut ives, l i b r a r i a n s , curators and together they worked both to define business h is tory as a s p e c i f i c f i e l d of h i s t o r i c a l inquiry and to c o l l e c t h i s t o r i c a l records and ensure the i r a b i l i t y to r e s e a r c h e r s . 2 3 Blouin lauds both the s p i r i t of cooperation evident in the ear ly development of the Society and the leadership exhibi ted by h i s to r ians in attempting to preserve the records of business. While the idea of developing cooperation i s sound and s t i l l worthy of pu rsu i t , the leadership of h i s to r ians in t h i s quest, although commendable, was an important factor in the f a i l u r e of t h i s experiment. Understandably, h i s to r ians continued to j u s t i f y the preservation of corporate records for research purposes, and hence lobbied for access to mater ia ls from which they could wr i te the i r h i s t o r i e s . L ike Hower, most h i s to r ians bel ieved that the i r work would represent a s i g n i f i c a n t cont r ibut ion to business. Although the preparation of unbiased h i s t o r i e s would ' help to d i spe l the negative image of business as developed by muckrakers, i t of fered l i t t l e else in concrete terms for the funct ioning of ind i v idua l f i rms. While appealing to those businessmen predisposed to an interest in h i s t o r y , t h i s approach held l i m i t e d appeal and, consequently, the ear ly cooperative s p i r i t began to d i ss ipa te s lowly . This i s not to suggest an inherent f a i l u r e on the part of h i s to r ians but rather to observe that the undertaking was doomed from the outset . The leadership ro le inev i tab ly f e l l to h i s t o r i a n s because that profession was slowly awakening to the po ten t ia l research value in corporate records. Businessmen were 19 unsuited to t h i s task because they did not appreciate what functions old records could f u l f i l l within the organizat ion and often viewed them simply as l i a b i l i t i e s . The a rch i va l profession was only in i t s infancy in the 1930s and among the small band of a r c h i v i s t s few, with Holmes a notable exception, were interested in the problem of preserving business records. Despite the waning of the cooperative s p i r i t of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Soc iety , h i s to r ians continued to influence the d i rec t ion and success of business a r c h i v a l programmes for many years to come. In addi t ion to supporting the formation of corporate archives and using Hower's pamphlet to convince businessmen of the importance of a rch i va l programmes. Holmes a lso recognized the need to preserve the records of defunct and smal l - sca le operat ions. He advocated the idea of es tab l i sh ing co-operative cen t ra l repos i to r ies focused by industry and geographical l o c a t i o n . The a rch i va l records accumulated in t h i s fashion would f a c i l i t a t e research into vast warehouses of knowledge i f , he c a l c u l a t e d , business was w i l l i n g to finance the undertaking to the amount of f i ve m i l l i o n d o l l a r s per y e a r . 2 " Holmes recognized the problems hindering the preservation of business records and, in advancing h is ideas about corporate arch ives , he hoped that swi f t act ion would be forthcoming. Although l i t t l e gain was i n i t i a l l y registered in the corporate community, the Society of American A rch i v i s t s appointed Holmes and Henr ietta Larson of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society to a Business Archives Committee in 1938. Holmes suggested a nine- point programme which inc luded: . . . t h e c o l l e c t i o n of information on a rch i va l work on business records and of data on trade and management 20 associations in their r e l a t i o n to record problems; the development of a means to prevent wanton destruction of business records; and the stimulation of interest on the part of business organizations and o f f i c i a l s . 2 5 The concept of corporate archives, f i r s t mooted by Holmes, received concrete-expression in the 1 940s. Fearing that records of permanent value were not being properly maintained, Harvey S. Firestone J r . decided to implement an archival programme at the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company in 1943. The primary purpose for establishing the archives was to preserve the wartime production records which would provide valuable sources for future historians writing about the war e f f o r t of American business and i n d u s t r y . 2 6 An astute businessman, Firestone also recognized other potential benefits growing out of the archival programme. In addition to a factual record of the growth and development of the company, Mr. Firestone J r . wanted for reference an accurate account of the problems that had confronted the company and the methods used to solve them. This, he f e l t , would be helpful not only in conducting the d a i l y a f f a i r s of business but also in charting i t s future c o u r s e . 2 7 Firestone thus perceived the archives as much more than a source for writing history. He considered i t a potential corporate tool which, by r e f l e c t i n g the practices of the past, would be useful in formulating future p o l i c y . In 1943, his company secured the services of h i s t o r i a n William Overman who became North America's f i r s t o f f i c i a l corporate a r c h i v i s t . In the 1940s, the problems presented by business records became p a r t i c u l a r l y acute. Those who subscribed to the " c o l l e c t i n g " t r a d i t i o n , as begun by the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society some two decades e a r l i e r , had f a i l e d to develop adequate 21 appraisal c r i t e r i a to reduce the volume of material under their care or provide adequate means of access to the information in their holdings. Arthur Cole has suggested that by t h i s time some 140 l i b r a r i e s and h i s t o r i c a l societies were c o l l e c t i n g economic and business manuscripts. 2 8 Although the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society, through i t s sponsorship of Ralph Hower's pamphlet, attempted to deal with the problems presented by modern business records, i t s e f f o r t s met with only limited success. In the 1940s, the interests of the Society's members focused increasingly on the development of business history as a f i e l d of study and moved away from the archival c o l l e c t i o n orientation which had dominated i t s early experience. In r e f l e c t i n g on t h i s s h i f t in inte r e s t , Blouin has suggested that i n i t i a l successes were d i f f i c u l t to repeat. The t h r i l l of discovering eighteen- and nineteenth- century banking, t e x t i l e and other business records quickly gave way to concern regarding the problems of dealing with the bulky late-nineteenth-century and early-twentieth-century records. The Hower piece was designed to help a r c h i v i s t s come to grips with the problem, but businesses were growing in size and complexity even as he wrote. 2 9 The records of business were accumulating at unprecedented rates. In 1943, Carl McKenzie, a businessman by tr a i n i n g and experience, observed that the ever-increasing volume of material threatened to retard the functioning of administrative and c l e r i c a l s t a f f s . 3 0 He c i t e d two reasons for the changed condition of business records. Two considerations have changed the attitude toward t h i s question in the l a s t decade: the larger size and complexity of the business unit and the p a t e r n a l i s t i c attitude of government sometimes over zealously active in the prevention of real or doubtful e v i l s under the influence of new-era p o l i t i c a l ideas. Concommitent with t h i s protective interest of government has come a 22 growing r e a l i z a t i o n on the p a r t of business i t s e l f t hat more systematic procedures are necessary to guard a g a i n s t f u t u r e d e t r i m e n t a l or burdensome developments. 3 1 McKenzie advocated the need to develop systematic r e t e n t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of c o r p o r a t e records based on the implementation of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme which would ensure the d e s t r u c t i o n of u s e l e s s m a t e r i a l . As evidence of t h i s growing concern on the p a r t of both businessmen and h i s t o r i a n s , the e d i t o r of the J o u r n a l of Economic H i s t o r y requested Arthur H. Cole, l i b r a r i a n of the Harvard Business School and long-time member of the Business H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , to w r i t e an a r t i c l e o u t l i n i n g the p r a c t i c a l problems inherent i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of business r e c o r d s . 3 2 In h i s a r t i c l e , "The Accumulated Development of Unsolved Problems", Cole i d e n t i f i e d two d i s t i n c t areas of concern presented by modern business manuscripts - "the bulk of p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t y of recent business r e c o r d s , and the l a c k of [a] mechanism f o r equating s c h o l a r s ' demands with l i b r a r i a n s ' s u p p l i e s . " 3 3 By t h i s Cole meant simply that h i s t o r i a n s , l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s had f a i l e d to adequately i d e n t i f y those records which would • be most u s e f u l i n the course of h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h . In reviewing the a l t e r n a t i v e methods of treatment, Cole i d e n t i f i e d the two s c h o o l s of thought on the s u b j e c t . The o l d e r one has been the search f o r or acceptance of g i f t s or d e p o s i t s from business i n s t i t u t i o n s by u n i v e r s i t i e s , h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , and the l i k e . The other i s of more recent development and c o n s i s t s of the endeavour to persuade business i n s t i t u t i o n s to preserve t h e i r own m a t e r i a l . 3 " Cole concluded that while i t might be p o s s i b l e to house most 23 business records produced before 1890 in existing l i b r a r y and archival r e p o s i t o r i e s , the sheer volume of modern materials rendered t h i s option unworkable for a l l but a tiny fraction of modern records. He then considered other factors which militated against preservation in s p e c i f i c r e p o s i t o r i e s . Emphasizing "internal elements of handling", Gole c i t e d the extra space and staff to handle the material, lack of standards or recognized procedures for handling and setting up business records, and the high cost of storage versus the low frequency of u s e . 3 5 Cole then turned his attention to the second solution which, f i r s t mooted by Oliver W. Holmes, suggested that business maintain their own archival records. Cole reviewed the development of the recently-implemented Clough-Cochran approach to preserving business records. Reacting to the li m i t e d success in encouraging businesses to maintain their own records, historians Shepard B. Clough and Thomas C. Cochran focused their e f f o r t s on the New York metropolitan area which contained "a greater volume of important records than any similar section of the United S t a t e s . " 3 6 In assessing the success of past attempts to preserve corporate documentation, they suggested that "together [they] barely r u f f l e d the surface of the vastness of papers reposing in vaults, private l i b r a r i e s and storage warehouses." 3 7 It was their goal to "prevail upon business companies to introduce systematic methods for condensing, abstracting, and cataloguing such records as they possess with a view to make them available to both competent scholars and o f f i c e r s of p a r t i c u l a r companies." 3 8 Consequently, the 1940s witnessed one of the f i r s t organized and concerted e f f o r t s to 24 make business aware of the significance of i t s own records and the importance of their preservation in an orderly fashion. Such an e f f o r t was indeed timely p a r t i c u l a r l y in l i g h t of the tremendous growth in the production of records. Unfortunately, many records even when retained by the company were often stored in a manner which discouraged their use. Take for example the case of the economist who, when studying the e f f e c t of r a i l r o a d rates on the production of grain in his state, requested access to the r a i l r o a d company's records. At f i r s t the company attempted to dissuade him from his task but l a t e r reluctantly granted him permission. He was then driven to an old roundhouse at the outskirts of town where the records were stored. Once inside the dark, unheated building, the economist found himself face to face with a vast c o l l e c t i o n of several thousand large wooden storage boxes containing l i t e r a l l y some sixty m i l l i o n i ndividual documents. The entire c o l l e c t i o n was poorly l a b e l l e d and universally covered with a thick layer of coal dust. Although his ardour had v i s i b l y cooled, the researcher began his perusal of the f i r s t box. After hours of continuous labour he l a i d aside the l a s t document of the f i r s t box. His white s h i r t was by now more than a " t a t t l e - t a l e " grey, his face showed a smear of coal dust from under one eye to the lobe of the ear on the opposite side of his head. He had torn one leg of his trousers and l e f t his thumb throbbing from being struck sharply by the hammer while prying off the l i d of the box. In the four hours he had made but one note on the thick pad of research cards he had thoughtfully provided himself before coming to work. It read 'next time wear o v e r a l l s ' . That note must have been penned during the early part of his labours, however, for there was no next t i m e . 3 9 Unfortunately, t h i s scenario was a l l too common an occurrence in the early e f f o r t s to preserve the records of business. In order to address such problems the New York Committee on Business Records,was established in 1943 under the di r e c t i o n of 25 Clough of Columbia University and Cochran of New York University. The committee also included the deans and l i b r a r i a n s of the business schools of Columbia and New York University, the directors of the New York Public Library and the New York H i s t o r i c a l Society, the l i b r a r i a n of the Baker Business Library at Harvard, seven prominent businessmen and four professors from Columbia and New York U n i v e r s i t y . " 0 The committee, which sought to educate companies about the importance of their old corporate records and to provide them p r a c t i c a l assistance in developing a records programme, began by drawing up a l i s t of corporate executives who might be interested in the business archives idea. These individuals were contacted, given a presentation by representatives of the committee, and then, i f they showed any in t e r e s t , they were provided with a questionnaire. The questions were kept to a minimum - just s u f f i c i e n t to provide some insight into the nature of the records involved. Some of the key questions included: How are the records of your company organized and what periods of time do these records cover? What i s the pol i c y of the company concerning the disposal of records? Has the company plans for a history? Under -what circumstances w i l l the records be made availa b l e to q u a l i f i e d scholars? Would you welcome the advice of a professional business a r c h i v i s t or h i s t o r i a n on the matter of your business records?* 1 Convinced that most companies had f a i l e d to come to terms with the problem of records accumulation and that too l i t t l e control was exercised over the preservation of h i s t o r i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t material, Clough and Cochran proclaimed the need for a new breed of professional who would "help the o f f i c e r s in establishing wise records p o l i c i e s so that those manuscripts w i l l be 26 p r e s e r v e d which c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n e s s e n t i a l t o the l e g a l department, the b u s i n e s s a n a l y s t , the h i s t o r i a n , and s u p e r v i s e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , s t o r a g e and day-to-day h a n d l i n g of the r e c o r d s . " ' 2 Cochran suggested t h a t the new p r o f e s s i o n a l , a b u s i n e s s a r c h i v i s t o r more p r o p e r l y a r e c o r d s manager, s h o u l d be t r a i n e d i n b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y and economics and s h o u l d a l s o u n d e r s t a n d l i b r a r y methods as w e l l as r e c o r d h a n d l i n g and s t o r a g e p r o b l e m s . ' 3 To promote the growth of the new p r o f e s s i o n , Columbia and New York U n i v e r s i t y e s t a b l i s h e d a s p e c i a l i n t e r n s h i p programme i n b u s i n e s s a r c h i v a l t r a i n i n g . The c o u r s e d e s c r i p t i o n read as f o l l o w s : T r a i n i n g i n the management of b u s i n e s s m a n u s c r i p t s and b u s i n e s s l i b r a r i e s i s p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h l e c t u r e s and i n t e r n s h i p s . S t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r i n g f o r t h i s c o u r s e must be p r e p a r e d t o devote a t l e a s t t h r e e months of f u l l t ime d a i l y work t o g a i n i n g p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n d e s i g n a t e d l i b r a r i e s and b u s i n e s s companies. S t u d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g t h i s c o u r s e i n a d d i t i o n t o B u s i n e s s H i s t o r y 275-276 w i l l be recommended as t r a i n e d a r c h i v i s t s . R e g i s t r a n t s must complete t h e f u l l c o u r s e t o r e c e i v e c r e d i t . " A cknowledging t h a t some of the l a r g e s t c o r p o r a t i o n s a l r e a d y employed a r c h i v i s t s or r e c o r d s managers, Cochran c o m p l a i n e d t h a t none of t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s , t o h i s knowledge, had s t u d i e d b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y . He e n v i s a g e d t h a t t h i s d e f i c i e n c y would be r e c t i f i e d as awareness of the programme spre a d w i t h "companies c r e a t i n g such p o s i t i o n s and f i l l i n g them w i t h young s c h o l a r s who may w r i t e b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y as w e l l as manage the r e c o r d s . " * 5 T h i s p r i o r i t y a s c r i b e d t o the w r i t i n g of b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y ( w h i l e at the same time a l l e v i a t i n g the problem of s t o r a g e f o r companies) r e v e a l s a r a t h e r l i m i t e d view of the v a l u e of a r c h i v e s i n a c o r p o r a t e s e t t i n g and r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e of 27 the academic background of those heading the programme. The objectives of the programme f a i l e d to stress the value of archives as a p r a c t i c a l corporate tool so important in the founding of the Firestone archives. This i n i t i a l attempt to nurture interest in corporate archives was applauded by Cole. He viewed the emergence of business a r c h i v i s t s , some iti n e r a n t and others sedentary, as an important step in establishing a comprehensive programme of business manuscript preservation in business archives." 6 Cole cautioned that while i t might be possible to f i n d individuals within companies to f i l l these proposed business a r c h i v i s t positions, i t would be more advantageous to employ a professional, both from the company's perspective and that of the researcher. In assessing the advantages a r i s i n g out of such a s i t u a t i o n . He o p t i m i s t i c a l l y proposed: Indeed, one may perhaps look upon the development of the new profession as e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t in several relationships: the appreciation by the companies - at least the larger ones - of the importance of their own pasts, their desire to put the material in shape appropriate for the use of outside students, and their willingness to extend their e f f o r t s at good public r e l a t i o n s to include writers of h i s t o r y . " 7 Blouin, in assessing the importance of Cole's a r t i c l e , has suggested that i t represented a benchmark in attitudes towards the preservation of business manuscripts in three ways. F i r s t , i t provided the i n i t i a l summary statement of the twenty-year e f f o r t of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society to c o l l e c t and preserve business records. But, by 1945, enthusiasm for the c o l l e c t i o n of business records and the l i k e became "mired in the recognition that no p r a c t i c a l solution to the appraisal problem 28 could be found and that t r u l y adequate documentation could never be housed within the confines of academically oriented r e p o s i t o r i e s . " " 8 The second notable feature about Cole's a r t i c l e was that i t had been s o l i c i t e d for the Journal of Economic History, and thus ref l e c t e d a general concern for business records within the academic community amongst economic as well as business hi s t o r i a n s . As Blouin puts i t : The fusion of interest led to a broad-based scholarly constituency supporting e f f o r t s to preserve business records. In an era when historians focused on i n s t i t u t i o n s , the business firm was recognized as a c r i t i c a l l y important power. Thus in writing the history of the economy from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l perspective, leading scholars could not help but be concerned about the condition of business records." 9 Blouin's t h i r d c r i t e r i a for judging the a r t i c l e as a benchmark was actually the reverse side of the second. The post- war period witnessed the r i s e of i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t government which became preoccupied with the c o l l e c t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s . This trend, combined with the r i s e of s o c i a l science, allowed for the emergence of aggregate investigations using t h e o r e t i c a l models, which replaced the former individual approach of focussing on s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s . 5 0 This, in turn, resulted in a s p l i t between the interests of the business and economic hi s t o r i a n s . . Thus, the strong c o a l i t i o n of interests that argued for resources (both f i n a n c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l ) to c o l l e c t and preserve the records of U.S. business history began to break apart along d i s c i p l i n a r y and methodological l i n e s . Consequently, the post-war economic boom, much of which benefited U.S. corporations, led to an expansion the l i k e of which no economy had ever seen. For the United States, t h i s resulted i n , among other things, megacorporations generating records of such bulk that, even i f saved, 29 no scholar could grasp in the course of a l i f e t i m e . 5 1 The declining organized interest on the part of academics had important consequences for the retention of business records although the f u l l e f f e c t s would not be f e l t u n t i l the 1950s. Despite the example provided by Firestone and the enthusiasm generated by individuals such as Holmes, Cole and Cochrane, only a handful of companies such as Time, Inc., Armstrong Cork, INA, and Eastman Kodak established archival programs in the 1940s. David Smith has suggested that "businesses were not yet convinced of the wisdom of preserving their h i s t o r i c a l l y important f i l e s . . . t h e r e was only one area where some businesses were saving t h e i r history, and t h i s was in the company museum."52 The l a t t e r part of the 1940s witnessed the emergence of a number of diverse, loosely-associated committees which united to form the National Records Management Council. The o r i g i n of t h i s Council i s i n t e r e s t i n g . In 1946, the Society of American A r c h i v i s t s established a Committee on I n s t i t u t i o n a l and Business Archives to "embrace a somewhat larger f i e l d than i t s predecessors." 5 3 Emmett J . Leahy became chairman and served with Thomas Cochran and Robert A. S h i f f . Cochran was also chairman of the Committee of Business Archives of the American H i s t o r i c a l Association (A.H.A.) and, along with Leahy, also sat on the New York Committee on Business.Records. Shi f f was the director of the Naval Records Management Centre at Long Island. The preliminary task of the committee was to "effect a liason with similar committees representing other professional associations independently es t a b l i s h e d . " 5 " One such organization was the 30 A.H.A. Committee on B u s i n e s s Records. A l s o formed i n 1946, the committee i n c l u d e d Cochran, W.D. Overman, O l i v e r W. Holmes, Lewis A t h e r t o n ( U n i v e r s i t y of K e n t u c k y ) , H e r b e r t 0. B r a y e r ( C o l o r a d o S t a t e Museum), R i c h a r d Overton ( N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y ) and C o l e . The i n i t i a l i d e a of fo r m i n g a s i n g l e c o u n c i l grew out of a s p e c i a l s e s s i o n of the A.H.A. i n 1946. Devoted e x c l u s i v e l y t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the management of b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s , the s e s s i o n was a t t e n d e d by members of A.H.A.'s Committee on B u s i n e s s R e c o r d s , S.A.A.'s Committee on I n s t i t u t i o n a l and B u s i n e s s A r c h i v e s , the Economic H i s t o r y A s s o c i a t i o n ' s Committee on the C o l l e c t i o n and P r e s e r v a t i o n of B u s i n e s s R e c o r d s , the S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s A s s o c i a t i o n , the American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n and many o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of l e a d i n g b u s i n e s s e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . D u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n the Economic H i s t o r y A s s o c i a t i o n forwarded a motion t o " e s t a b l i s h a s e c r e t a r i a t , p r o b a b l y i n New York C i t y , t o s e r v e as a c l e a r i n g house f o r d a t a on r e c o r d s management and the h i s t o r y of American b u s i n e s s ^ " 5 5 Emmett Leahy f u r t h e r proposed t h a t the g o a l s of the s e c r e t a r i a t s h o u l d be f o u r - f o l d : (1) Sponsor advanced programs i n r e c o r d s management; ~ (2) encourage the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e a c c e s s i b i l i t y of b u s i n e s s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s t o s c h o l a r s ; (3) encourage the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o r d i n g of the h i s t o r y of b u s i n e s s and i n s t i t u t i o n s ; (4) sponsor and, i f n e c e s s a r y , manage r e c o r d s c e n t r e s i n American c i t i e s f o r the s t o r a g e and p r o c e s s i n g of b u s i n e s s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o r d s . 5 6 Those i n a t t e n d a c e g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t the p r o j e c t would become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g w i t h i n t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s t h r o u g h the f e e s c o l l e c t e d f o r r e c o r d s management s e r v i c e s , h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s , and s t o r a g e and p r o c e s s i n g of m a t e r i a l i n r e c o r d s 31 c e n t r e s . A temporary committee was q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d t o d r a f t a p r o p o s a l which then went t o the E x e c u t i v e Committee of the A.H.A. and r e c e i v e d i t s endorsement. The American H i s t o r i c a l Review applauded t h i s e f f o r t as a " p l a n of f a r - r e a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e " d e s i g n e d t o c r e a t e an agency " t o a d v i s e b u s i n e s s c o n c e r n s on the management of t h e i r r e c o r d s so t h a t b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s w i l l s e r v e both b u s i n e s s and h i s t o r y . " 5 7 Cochran and C o l e formed an i n f o r m a l committee which s e c u r e d the i n i t i a l f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r the programme from the R o c k e f e l l e r F o u n d a t i o n i n 1948. Cochran l a t e r c r e d i t e d the involvement of C o l e as the s i n g l e - m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n a r r a n g i n g the f u n d i n g f o r the N a t i o n a l Records Management C o u n c i l . 5 8 The C o u n c i l sought t o ensure t h a t the " v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e r e c o r d e d i n the e s s e n t i a l c o r e of modern r e c o r d s i s p r e s e r v e d , the r e c o r d s p r e s e r v e d a r e i n an a c c e s s i b l e and u s a b l e form, and the e x p e r i e n c e t h e r e . i s o r g a n i z e d , e v a l u a t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d . " 5 9 In the e a r l y 1950s, the C o u n c i l p u b l i s h e d " O p e r a t i o n Time C a p s u l e : A Technique t o P r e s e r v e t h e Memory of B u s i n e s s " which demonstrated t o companies how t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the p r e s s i n g problem of volume i n t h e i r r e c o r d s w h i l e a t the same time p r e s e r v i n g the c o r p o r a t e memory. In d e s c r i b i n g the n a t u r e of the programme i n 1956, R.A. S h i f f s t r e s s e d t h e need t o e l i m i n a t e t h e " n e e d l e - i n - t h e - h a y s t a c k c h a r a c t e r of modern r e c o r d s . " 6 0 The programme t r a n s c e n d e d the b a s i c need t o e x t r a c t the h i s t o r i c a l l y v a l u a b l e r e c o r d s from the p r o f u s i o n of u s e l e s s m a t e r i a l and a c t u a l l y sought t o p r o v i d e some guidance i n the documentation p r o c e s s . S h i f f d e s c r i b e d the programme i n the 32 f o l l o w i n g t erms. I t a t t e m p t s t o f i l l i n the gaps of the r e c o r d s now p r o duced. F u r t h e r i t a t t e m p t s t o f i l l t h a t v e r y g l a r i n g gap i n modern b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s - the why and the w h e r e f o r e . Our r e c o r d s t e l l us what was done, but they r a r e l y t e l l us why or how. O b v i o u s l y , the how and t h e why a r e the r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of t h e s t o r y f o r g u i d i n g f u t u r e p o l i c y and somehow we must get t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o the r e c o r d . Time C a p s u l e r e l i e s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on the documentation a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e , but i t a l s o f a v o u r s the c r e a t i o n of new r e c o r d s where o b v i o u s gaps e x i s t . 6 1 The C o u n c i l succeeded so w e l l i n the s e l l i n g of the concept of r e c o r d s management t h a t by the 1950s i t s tax-exempt s t a t u s was revoked as i t became r e c o g n i z e d as something more than a n o n - p r o f i t , academic-based o r g a n i z a t i o n s e e k i n g t o ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s p r i m a r i l y f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . I t s p r o v i s i o n of r e c o r d s management s e r v i c e s became i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r w i t h businessmen by d e m o n s t r a t i n g how. t o save money by r e d u c i n g the volume of m a t e r i a l s r e t a i n e d . T h i s change i n o r i e n t a t i o n was of l i t t l e i n t e r e s t t o the s c h o l a r s on the Board who r e s i g n e d . E v e n t u a l l y , the s t a f f of the C o u n c i l was r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o a commercial company c a l l e d Noremco. 6 2 The i n t e r e s t i n p r e s e r v i n g h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s waned as the r e c o r d s management a s p e c t of the o l d C o u n c i l assumed a l i f e of i t s own. 6 3 H e r e a f t e r , the impetus f o r the f o u n d a t i o n of a r c h i v a l programmes l o s t the o r g a n i z e d l o b b y of h i s t o r i a n s who had spearheaded th e e f f o r t s f o r over t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . T h i s o c c u r r e d f o r a number of reasons i n c l u d i n g changes i n r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s combined w i t h y e a r s of discouragement c u l m i n a t i n g i n b u s i n e s s ' s embrace of r e c o r d s management which y i e l d e d t a n g i b l e f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s . T h i s s h i f t i n emphasis tended t o r e s u l t i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of most of the m a t e r i a l not e x p l i c i t l y r e q u i r e d 33 t o be r e t a i n e d by law, w i t h l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n . The 1950s w i t n e s s e d a s l i g h t renewal of i n t e r e s t i n c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s as Texaco, F o r d Motor Company, Sears Roebuck, New York L i f e I n s u r a n c e , E l i L i l l y , P r o c t o r and Gamble, Bank of America and Coca C o l a a l l e s t a b l i s h e d a r c h i v a l programmes. However, a 1958 survey r e v e a l e d t h a t fewer than 12 l a r g e companies had h i r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t s . 6 * In t h e f o l l o w i n g decade " b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s went i n t o the doldrums" as o n l y f o u r new r e p o s i t o r i e s were c r e a t e d . 6 5 Perhaps t h i s may be blamed on the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l atmosphere of the 1960s when u n r e s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y amongst the younger g e n e r a t i o n , produced an a n t i - e s t a b l i s h m e n t a t t i t u d e which tended t o view b i g b u s i n e s s as a s o c i a l e v i l . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t few b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s were c r e a t e d as c o r p o r a t i o n s sought t o m a i n t a i n a low p r o f i l e . The decade so d e p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t i n b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s t h a t , i n 1966, the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s d i s b a n d e d i t s B u s i n e s s A r c h i v e s Committee which had e x i s t e d s i n c e 1938. A c c o r d i n g t o a r c h i v i s t D a v i d S m i t h , the p u b l i c a t i o n of the " D i r e c t o r y of B u s i n e s s A r c h i v e s " by the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s i n 1969, " s i g n a l l e d the b i r t h of a new e r a i n c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s . " 6 6 Of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d t o some 700 b u s i n e s s e s throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 113 r e p o r t e d some form of a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n , "even i f i t c o n s i s t e d of o n l y one f i l e drawer i n the o f f i c e of the s e c r e t a r y t o the chairman of the b o a r d . " 6 7 Smith a t t r i b u t e d the resu r g e n c e of i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s t o a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s which i n c l u d e d a 3 4 growing nostalgia craze, large numbers of unemployed history graduates who were able to convince businessmen of the need for archives, the approaching U.S. bicentennial which renewed general interest in history, upcoming anniversaries for which corporations planned to publish their h i s t o r i e s , and the increasing number of lawsuits brought against companies which required easy access to h i s t o r i c a l documentation. 6 8 In her explanation of t h i s renewed interest, Linda Edgerly has suggested an expanding awareness since the 1960s of the role of business in contemporary society has prompted North American business to retain documentation beyond that s t r i c t l y required by law. Edgerly added: Records that could be used to reconstruct the process and circumstances of decision making and the mutually dependent relationship of business and society assumed new importance. Records management and v i t a l records programes, many of which were formed during the 1940s and 1950s, could not s a t i s f y t h i s new requirement. 6 9 Increasingly, archival programmes became recognized as pot e n t i a l sources of corporate information. The 1970s witnesses a flood of new archival programs which included Walt Disney, International Harvester, Anheuser-Busch, Corning Glass Works, Weyerhaeuser, Wells Fargo Bank, Deere and Co., Gerber Products, Los Angeles Times, and A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d . During t h i s single decade the number of corporate archives doubled while the ranks of business a r c h i v i s t s quadrupled. Although s t i l l a rare breed, they were "no longer in danger of extinction which had been a real p o s s i b i l i t y " in the 1960s. 7 0 In the 1970s, the SAA reinstated the Business Archives Committee, which was soon superseded by a professional a f f i n i t y group. The Society sponsored numerous workshops on establishing 35 corporate archives and also published a useful manual in Edie Hedlin's Business Archives: An Introduction (1978). This was followed by Karen Benedicts's A Select Bibliography on Business Archives and Records Management (1981). By 1980, SAA's directory of business archives l i s t e d over 200 archives and 60 corporate a r c h i v i s t s . In surveying the course of h i s t o r i c a l development to 1981 David Smith cautioned that a r c h i v i s t s must not become complacent as a result of recent successes and that they must continue to struggle even within their own i n s t i t u t i o n s to ensure the preservation of their a r c h i v a l programs. 7 1 Business archives in Canada have not shared the success of th e i r American counterparts. The 1950s witnessed no archival programmes operating in t h i s country. It was not u n t i l the late 1960s and early 1970s that corporate archives, largely located within the major f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a few u t i l i t i e s , began to appear (see Appendix I ) . A number of reasons might be advanced for the retarded development. Companies in Canada are smaller and lack the resources of the huge corporations in the United States. Many of the largest companies in t h i s country are American subsidiaries and often archival programmes have been established in the head o f f i c e rather than within the branch operations. Another explanation i s that business history did not enjoy the same popularity in Canada as in the United States and, consequently, there was not the same early impetus for the preservation of business records. As with the American experience, Canadian historians of the late nineteenth century focused their attention on p o l i t i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l matters. There was very l i t t l e scholarly interest 36 i n the r e c o r d s of b u s i n e s s u n t i l w e l l i n t o the c u r r e n t c e n t u r y . Even when Canadian h i s t o r i a n s t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s b e g i n n i n g i n the 1920s, the i n t e r e s t d i d not c e n t r e on the study of i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s or i n d u s t r i e s . Rather i t i n v o l v e d the development of a broad c o n c e p t u a l framework by H a r o l d A. I n n i s known as the " s t a p l e " t h e s i s . I n n i s a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n Canada's unique development by s t u d y i n g the impact of a s u c c e s s i o n of s t a p l e e x p o r t s , i n c l u d i n g f u r s , f i s h and m i n e r a l s upon an e v o l v i n g n a t i o n and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h i s t h e m a t i c c o n s t r u c t , which dominated Canadian h i s t o r i o g r a p h y f o r many decades, tended t o r e d i r e c t i n t e r e s t which might o t h e r w i s e have s t u d i e d the impact of b u s i n e s s e s on the deveopment of the c o u n t r y . In a d d i t i o n , no academic i n s t i t u t i o n s s p e c i a l i z i n g i n b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y , comparable t o the H a r v a r d S c h o o l of B u s i n e s s , appeared i n Canada, thus r e s t r i c t i n g the n e c e s s a r y t r a i n i n g f o r the f i e l d . The f i r s t book devoted t o a s t u d y of b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y i n Canada d i d not appear u n t i l . 1 9 7 2 . In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , D a v i d S. M a c m i l l a n lamented t h a t Canada had not shared i n the d e v e l o p i n g i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d which had grown over the l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Germany, F r a n c e , B r i t a i n and A u s t r a l i a . I t i s s u p r i s i n g t h a t Canada, a c o u n t r y which owes more than most t o p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and i n i t i a t i v e , t h e r e s h o u l d have been a c o m p a r a t i v e n e g l e c t of b u s i n e s s and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l h i s t o r y . . . . T h e s t u d y , i f not i n i t s i n f a n c y h e r e , i s s t i l l a t the stage where i t i s not y e t a c c e p t e d as p a r t of the f o r m a l range of f i e l d s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the U n i v e r s i t i e s and s c h o o l s . . . . 7 2 More than a decade l a t e r , a second book on the s u b j e c t appeared but l i t t l e has changed as b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y has not y e t become an 37 a r e c o g n i z e d f i e l d of study i n Canada and t h e r e a re not j o u r n a l s or c o n f e r e n c e s d e d i c a t e d t o i t s s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y . 7 3 As Tom Traves has o b s e r v e d , A decade ago, the f i r s t and l a s t of two Canadian c o l l e c t i o n s of e s s a y s e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the f i e l d were p u b l i s h e d , but t h e i r impact was m a r g i n a l . Y e t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , over the l a s t t e n y e a r s our knowledge of the Canadian b u s i n e s s system has i n c r e a s e d immensely. 7" A l t h o u g h b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y has been slow t o d e v e l o p i n Canada, t h e r e was an an attempt i n the 1960s t o p r e s e r v e b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s q u i t e r e m i n i s c e n t of the e f f o r t s of the B u s i n e s s H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y i n the 1920s and 1930s. In May, 1968, the B u s i n e s s A r c h i v e s C o u n c i l of Canada was e s t a b l i s h e d " t o encourage the p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s and t o promote the st u d y of b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y . " 7 5 The C o u n c i l was d i r e c t e d by a n a t i o n a l board of seventeen members drawn l a r g e l y from the academic community. Designed as a forum f o r pro m o t i n g d i s c u s s i o n between businessmen and h i s t o r i a n s , the C o u n c i l sought t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e c o l l e c t i o n of b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s i n d e s i g n a t e d r e g i o n a l r e p o s i t o r i e s and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of in-house a r c h i v a l programmes. In the e a r l y 1970s, John A r c h e r e x p l a i n e d the aims of the C o u n c i l . The B u s i n e s s A r c h i v e s C o u n c i l of Canada, as i t i s p r e s e n t l y c o n s t r u c t e d , seeks t o a p p l y the American concept of s p e c i a l i z e d r e p o s i t o r i e s f o r b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s . To t h i s American concept the C o u n c i l would a p p l y t h e B r i t i s h d e v i c e of a v o l u n t a r y , s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a head o f f i c e , t o a c t as a c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency. The head o f f i c e would c a r r y on cor r e s p o n d e n c e and n e g o t i a t i o n s a t a n a t i o n a l l e v e l ; the r e g i o n a l d e p o s i t o r i e s would c a r r y on the p r a c t i c a l work of d e p o s i t , p r o c e s s i n g and u s e . 7 6 The p r i m a r y g o a l of the C o u n c i l i n v o l v e d the c o l l e c t i o n of b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e movement " f a i l e d t o expand 38 i t s membership or to a t t rac t s i g n i f i c a n t sponsorship"" and ceased operations in 1 9 7 3 . 7 7 The e f f o r t s of the Council suffered from the same problems which plagued the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society e a r l i e r in the century. Businessmen were not convinced of the wisdom of preserving corporate records from which to write h is tory because they saw few tangible benef i ts for themselves. In a d d i t i o n , there was not widespread recognit ion of the merits of studying business h is tory even amongst academics. These factors might help to explain the rather slow development of business archives in Canada during t h i s per iod . * * * * * This century began with l i t t l e in terest in the wr i t ing of business and economic h is tory in North America. The topic was f i r s t addressed by s o c i a l reformers with an underlying bias against changes in the economy at the expense of s o c i a l reform. These muckrakers portrayed business in negative terms and made companies very apprehensive about opening records to researchers for fear that the corporate image might be i r reparably damaged. During t h i s ear ly period a wal l of d i s t r u s t grew up between businessmen and researchers. In the 1920s, a more object ive approach to the study of business h is tory based at Harvard Univers i ty emerged. Many of i t s ear ly pract ioners also par t i c ipa ted in the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society which provided the major impetus for the c o l l e c t i o n of manuscripts into the 1940s.. By that time the problems inherent in the c o l l e c t i o n of manuscripts, p r imar i l y 39 their bulk, had become a l l too evident. As a result, t h i s idea of c o l l e c t i n g material in existing r espositories slowly gave way to the corporate archives movement. This idea, f i r s t enunciated by Oliv e r W. Holmes in 1938, suggested that businesses be convinced to maintain t h e i r own archives. This movement, which l i k e i t s predecessor was spearheaded by historians, experienced some success p a r t i c u l a r l y through the Clough-Cochran experiment based in New York C i t y . Unfortunately, the input of the scholarly community began to wane in the 1940s as economic and business historians began to d r i f t apart both i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and methodologically. The formation of the National Records Management Council was the f i n a l organized attempt for scholars to p a r t i c i p a t e in a project to both demonstrate the usefulness of business records and the means for their systematic cont r o l . This represented a unique experiment in combining the resources for h i s t o r i c a l scholarship as well as the p r a c t i c a l application of records management p r i n c i p l e s . The emergence of Noremco in the 1950s witnessed the disappearance of the scholarly component which had lobbied for the retention of h i s t o r i c a l records from which to write h i s t o r i e s . This l e f t the more marketable services of records management whose apparent advantages outweighed the potential benefits growing out of h i s t o r i c a l studies. After the disappearance of the organized academic input, there was l i t t l e co-ordinated e f f o r t to encourage the establishment of business archives. This, then, has been the i n t e l l e c t u a l backdrop against which the development of business archives has emerged. 4 0 T h i s e x p e r i e n c e has d emonstrated t h a t i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o attempt t o c o n v i n c e b u s i n e s s e s t o e s t a b l i s h a r c h i v e s s t r i c t l y f o r the purpose of h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y . I t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t the encouragement f o r the f o r m a t i o n of b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s s h o u l d not be l e f t t o businessmen and h i s t o r i a n s but s h o u l d i n s t e a d f a l l t o the a r c h i v a l community. Indeed, i t w i l l become incumbent on the a r c h i v i s t t o go i n t o the b u s i n e s s community t o c o n v i n c e c o r p o r a t e e x e c u t i v e s of the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e s of a r c h i v a l programmes. The b a s i s upon which the a r c h i v i s t may argue h i s / h e r case forms the n u c l e u s of the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 41 NOTES 1R.A. Sh i f f , "The A r c h i v i s t ' s Role in Records Management," American Archivist 19 ( 1956), p. .114. 2John H. Archer, "Business Records: The Canadian Scene," in Canadian Business History, ed. D.S. Macmillan (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1972), p. 285. 3 A l l a n Nevins, "Business and the Historians," in Allan Nevins on History, ed. Ray Allen B i l l i n g t o n (New York: Charles Schribner's Sons Ltd.,. 1975), p. 73. "0. Lawrence Burnette, Beneath the Footnote (Wisconsin: State H i s t o r i c a l Society, 1969), p. 104. 5Nevins, "Business and the Historians," p. 74. 6Burnette, Beneath the Footnote, p. 104. 'Gerald T. White, "The Business Historian and His Sources," American Archivist 30 (1967), p. 20. 8Ralph M. Hower, "The Preservation of Business Records," B u l l e t i n of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society 11 (1937), p. 38. 9Nevins, p. 75. 1°The image of business as perpetuated by the muckrakers was extremely slow to di s s i p a t e . In addressing the issue in 1943, Stanley P a r g e l l i s suggested that the unfl a t t e r i n g conception of business continued to be shaped by a small group of negative h i s t o r i c a l commentators. This had important implications for the public perception of business. P a r g e l l i s characterized this perception as follows: Business today, as for the la s t 75 years, i s guided by but one motive, which i s not, save i n d i r e c t l y , the public welfare; business exercises now, as i t did then, a disproportionate and s i n i s t e r influence on courts and government o f f i c i a l s ; business i s s t i l l wasteful, immoral, corrupt and vicious and scheming, and the common man needs protection against i t s ways or i t w i l l stand, as i t has always stood in the path of the plain people. Stanley P a r g e l l i s , "The Judgment of History on American Business," Newcomen Addresses (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1943), p. 15. 1 1 A r n o l d Wells, "Samuel Slater: Father of Our Factory System," in Edward C. Bursh, Donald T. Clark and Ralph W. Hidy (eds), The World of Business (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1962), p. 1086. 1 2"Our Primary Purpose," B u l l e t i n of the Business 42 H i s t o r i c a l Society 1 (1926), p. 1. 1 3 Burnet te , p. 124. 1 "Francis X. B lou in , "An Agenda For the Appraisal of Business Records," in Arch iva l Choices: Managing the H i s t o r i c a l Record in an Age of Abundance, ed. Nancy E~i Peace (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Co. , 1984), p. 62. 1 5 N . S . B . Gras, "Are You Wri t ing a Business H i s to ry? , " B u l l e t i n of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society 28 (1944), p. 3. 1 6 0 1 i v e r W. Holmes, "Some Ref lect ions on Business Archives in - the United S ta tes , " American A r c h i v i s t 17 (1954), p. 300. 1 7 I b i d . 1 8Hower, "The Preservation of Business Records," p. 37. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 39. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 43. 2 1 I b i d . 2 2 B l o u i n , "Appraisal of Business Records," p. 63. 2 3 I b i d . 2"Holmes, "The Evaluation and Preservat ion of Business Arch ives , " p. 183. 2 5"News Notes," American A r c h i v i s t 2 (1939), p. 57. 2 6 J u l i a N. Eulenberg, "The Corporate Arch ives , " in Taking Control of Your Of f ice Records: A Manager's Guide, ed. Katherine Aschner (New York: Knowledge Industry P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1983), p. 184. 2 7 W i l l i a m Overman, "The Firestone Archives and L i b r a r y , " American A r c h i v i s t 16 (1953), p. 307. 2 8 Ar thur H. Cole, The Accumulated Development of Unsolved Problems," Journal of Economic History 5 (1945), p. 46. 2 9 B l o u i n , p. 63. 3 0 C a r l H. McKenzie, "An Experiment in the Retention and Preservation of Corporate Records," B u l l e t i n of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society 27 (1943), p. 4. 3 ' I b i d . 3 2 "Bus iness Manuscripts: A Pressing Problem," Journal of Economic History 5 (1945), p. 43. 43 3 3 C o l e , "Unsolved Problems," p. 44. 3 " I b i d . , p. 47. 3 5 I b i d . , pp. 48 -9 . 36Thomas C. Cochran, "New York C i ty Business Records: A Plan For Their Preservat ion , " B u l l e t i n of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society 18 (1944), p. 59. 3 7 I b i d . 3 8 I b i d . , p. 60. 3 9 Herbert 0 . Brayer, " I 've Been Working On the R a i l r o a d , " American A r c h i v i s t 7 (1944), pp. 117-18. a0Thomas C. Cochran, "New York Committee On Business Records," Journal of Economic History 5 (1945), p. 60. " 1 I b i d . , p. 63. a2Thomas C. Cochran, "Plans For Internship In Business Arch iva l Work," B u l l e t i n of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society 20 (1946), p. 95. < 3 l b i d . " " I b i d . , pp. 95 -6 . " 5 I b i d . , p. 96. * 6 Cole , "Unsolved Problems," p. 55. * 7 I b i d . flBBlouin, p. 66. a 9 I b i d . 5 0 I b i d . 5 1 I b i d . 5 2 Dav id R. Smith, "A H i s t o r i c a l Look At Business Arch ives , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982). p. 275. 5 3 E . J . Leahy, "Report of the Committee on I n s t i t u t i o n and Business Arch ives , " American A r c h i v i s t 11 (1948), p. 62. 5 < t I b i d . 5 5 I b i d . , p. 63. 5 6 I b i d . 44 5 7 " H i s t o r i c a l News," American H i s t o r i c a l Review 53 (1947), p. 680. 58Thomas C. Cochran, "Arthur Harrison Cole: 1889-1974," Business History Review 49 (1975), p. 2. 5 9 " N a t i o n a l Records Management C o u n c i l , " American Arch i v i s t 9 (1948), p. 382. 6 0 S h i f f , "The A r c h i v i s t ' s Role in Records Management," p. 119. 6 1 I b i d . 6 2 Cochran, "Arthur C o l e , " p. 2. 6 3Richmond D. Wi l l iams , "Business Archives in the United S t a t e s , " in Papers of the Twenty-Fifth Meeting of the Business History Conference, ed. Paul Uselding (Urbana: Univers i ty of I l l i n o i s , 1979), p. 42. 6 "David R. Smith, " H i s t o r i c a l Look At Business Arch ives , " p. 275. 6 5 I b i d . 6 6 I b i d . 6 7 Robert W. Lovett , "The Status of Business Arch ives , " American A rch i v i s t 32 (1969), p. 248. 6 8 S m i t h , p. 275. 6 9 L i n d a Edgerly, "Business Archives G u i d e l i n e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982), p. 269. 7 0 S m i t h , p. 275. 7 ' I b i d . , pp. 276-77. 7 2 Dav id S. Macmil lan, Canadian Business History (Toronto: McClel land and Stewart, 1972), pp. 1-2. 7 3 Dur ing the summer of 1984, the f i r s t Canadian Business History Conference was held at Trent Un i ve rs i t y . I t remains to be seen i f t h i s w i l l become an annual event. 7"Tom Traves, Essays in Canadian Business History (Toronto; McClel land and Stewart, 1984), p. 5. 7 5 Susan R i l e y , " A r c h i v i s t s Escalate the War on Paper," Records Management Quarterly 3 (1969), p. 29. 7 6 John H. Archer, "Business Records: The Canadian Scene," in Canadian Business H is to ry , ed. David S. Macmillan (Toronto: McClel land and Stewart, 1972), p. 297. 45 7 7 P e t e r E . Rider , "Business Archives Notes," Arch ivar ia 1 (1975/76), p . 94. 46 CHAPTER III JUSTIFYING CORPORATE ARCHIVES In h is 1982 a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d , "Dusting Off the Cobwebs", George Smith succ inct l y expresses the greatest challenge confronting the modern a r c h i v i s t when he began by s ta t ing that "business archives are a hard s e l l . " 1 In analysing the cause of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , F .L . Sward i d e n t i f i e d what he regarded as the outdated t r a d i t i o n a l concept of the a r c h i v i s t "operating so le ly in the dark and dusty environs of some remote, museum-like s t ructure , sor t ing through old pieces of paper at a l e i s u r e l y pace and l i t t l e concerned about the p resent . " 2 This tendency to stereotype the a c t i v i t i e s of the a r c h i v i s t ra ises some important questions about the value of a rch i va l programmes with in a corporate se t t ing and requires the rethinking of the pos i t i on of the a r c h i v i s t and the serv ices which he o f f e r s . This chapter b r i e f l y considers the po ten t ia l app l icat ions of a rch i va l p ract ice to current business operat ions. As has been suggested e a r l i e r , the records of business have been an invaluable source for economic and s o c i a l h i s t o r y . However, one must question whether t h i s i s an adequate basis upon which to convince business managers to spend the requ is i te time and money to preserve the c u l t u r a l heritage buried in the corporate records. Experience has indicated that the answer to t h i s question i s almost always 'no' as Smith i n d i c a t e s . It i s not enough to make claims for the value of h i s t o r y , or for the enduring value to society of w e l l - preserved business records. I t i s a m a t t e r , . r e a l l y , of 47 formulating h i s t o r i c a l problems and developing h i s t o r i c a l products and services that bear on the current concerns of business management.3 Consequently, the a r c h i v i s t with designs on moving into the corporate world must think beyond the t r a d i t i o n a l app l icat ions of h is trade and consider those p a r t i c u l a r services which might appeal to business. To do so the a r c h i v i s t must turn his at tent ion to the task of making the operation of h is archives relevant to the needs of business today. This idea may be d i f f i c u l t to implement given that the " t y p i c a l f i rm i s a h i s t o r i c a l in temperament, possessed as i t i s with a marginal focus on contemporary problems and st rategies for the f u t u r e . " 4 This i s , in fac t , the greatest obstacle for business a r c h i v i s t s as the i r success i s "contingent upon providing u t i l i t a r i a n value to an inhouse c l i e n t e l e unfamil iar with the notion of using the past to make current decis ions and plans for the f u t u r e . " 5 To succeed in business a r c h i v i s t s must overcome the outmoded notion that a r c h i v a l programmes should be l i m i t e d to h i s t o r i c a l functions and they should endeavour to develop a broader perspective in the serv ice of the sponsoring agency. In s t ress ing the need for such a change, R. W. Fer r ie r argues that the a r c h i v i s t . . .assumes a much c loser i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i th , and i n c i d e n t a l l y , a more responsible pos i t ion i n , the administ rat ive h ierarchy, and a greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the a c t i v i t i e s of h is organizat ion than has previously been accepted. A r c h i v i s t s have previously played a rather passive part in the a f f a i r s of f i rms . This i s no longer desi rable or f e a s i b l e ; they have a d e f i n i t e contr ibut ion to make and they must be given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and opportunity to make that poss ib le and e f f e c t i v e . ' 6 This requires that the a r c h i v i s t look beyond the t r a d i t i o n a l ro le which cast him as a passive c o l l e c t o r of o ld documents from 48 which t o w r i t e h i s t o r y and t h a t he b e g i n t o f o r m u l a t e ways i n which h i s s e r v i c e s might be a p p l i e d t o v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . In assuming a more a c t i v e r o l e , i t might be u s e f u l f o r the b u s i n e s s a r c h i v i s t t o t h i n k i n terms of m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g i e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the term m a r k e t i n g has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b u s i n e s s f i r m s engaged i n "hard s e l l " t a c t i c s t o c o n v i n c e p e o p l e t o buy t h e i r p r o d u c t s . More r e c e n t l y , however, t h e r e has been a growing s h i f t away from " s e l l i n g , i n f l u e n c i n g and p e r s u a d i n g , t o the concept of s e n s i t i v e l y s e r v i n g and s a t i f y i n g human needs." 7 T h i s r e o r i e n t a t i o n , consumer- r a t h e r than p r o d u c t - c e n t e r e d , has g i v e n r i s e t o a b r o ader n o t i o n of m a r k e t i n g beyond i t s t r a d i t o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the b u s i n e s s w o r l d . I n c r e a s i n g l y extended t o n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the concept has g i v e n r i s e t o a s i z a b l e l i t e r a t u r e . 8 The b u s i n e s s a r c h i v i s t might be w e l l a d v i s e d t o c o n s i d e r implementing some of t h e s e m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g i e s , as b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d below, i n h i s quest t o p r o v i d e a p r a c t i c a l s e r v i c e t o the company i n which he i s employed. I t i s not s u f f i c i e n t t h a t an a r c h i v i s t p u b l i c i z e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of h i s c o r p o r a t e programme and w a i t f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the v a r i o u s departments t o a v a i l t hemeselves of h i s s e r v i c e s . T h i s i s not l i k e l y t o o c c u r . I n s t e a d , i t i s incumbent upon the a r c h i v i s t t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e p o t e n t i a l uses t o which the r e s o u r c e s of h i s a r c h i v e s might be put and procede t o c o n v i n c e the v a r i o u s departments of h i s p l a n s . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , the a r c h i v i s t must f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of h i s c o l l e c t i o n , i d e n t i f y the numerous p o t e n t i a l markets w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , have a c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n of the 49 f u n c t i o n s of the v a r i o u s departments and, f i n a l l y , he must package and a l t e r h i s p r o d u c t t o meet the p a r t i c u l a r r e q u i r e m e n t s of the p o t e n t i a l u s e r s . The a r c h i v i s t must a l s o c o n s i d e r t h a t the p r i c i n g of h i s p r o d u c t i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g . P r i c i n g does not r e f e r t o c o s t s i n normal monetary terms but i n s t e a d may be measured i n t h e l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d t o r e t r i e v e the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . John C u r t i s and Stephan Abram, i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t , suggested t h a t " v a l u e added i n the i n f o r m a t i o n age i s c r e a t e d through a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n more than the i n f o r m a t i o n i t s e l f . " 9 T h e r e f o r e , t h e b u s i n e s s a r c h i v i s t must t h i n k i n terms of making i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n the minimum amount of t i m e . A f i n a l and key element i n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s from a m a r k e t i n g s t a n d p o i n t i s the need t o m a i n t a i n communication l i n k s w i t h the v a r i o u s departments t o respond t o t h e i r needs and t o m o n i t o r changes i n those r e q u i r e m e n t s brought about by c o r p o r a t e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In e s t a b l i s h i n g feedback systems, the a r c h i v i s t would be a b l e t o r e d i r e c t h i s f o c u s and adapt h i s p r o d u c t a c c o r d i n g l y . F a i l u r e t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y r e s p o n s i v e t o an e v e r - c h a n g i n g environment might prove f a t a l t o an i n f l e x i b l e a r c h i v a l programme. An i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the s u c c e s s of a c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v a l programme i n v o l v e s the a b i l i t y t o measure the v a l u e of a s e r v i c e which has, h i s t o r i c a l l y , been c o n s i d e r e d l a r g e l y i n t a n g i b l e . W h i l e some have suggested keeping an a c c u r a t e count of i n q u i r i e s , a more a p p r o p r i a t e response might be t o c o n s i d e r the v a l u e of the a r c h i v e s i n terms of i m p r o v i n g user p r o d u c t i v i t y . T h i s would be a measurement "of how, and t o what e x t e n t , the 50 act ions of others are made more productive or the i r decisions more s u c c e s s f u l . " 1 0 In t h i s manner, one need not argue for the i n t r i n s i c value of a corporate archives but rather demonstrate how the c o l l e c t i v e information may be u t i l i z e d for p r a c t i c a l purposes. The corporate a r c h i v i s t should not r e s t r i c t himself to the c o l l e c t i o n of the company's h i s t o r i c a l records from which future h i s t o r i e s might be prepared. Instead, as e a r l i e r suggested by George Smith, he must be w i l l i n g to assume an act ive role in the development of " h i s t o r i c a l products and serv ices that bear on the current concerns of business.management." 1 1 Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to discuss app l icat ions of t h i s marketing concept in general terms, i t i s possib le to consider some po ten t ia l uses of a rch i va l resources. Corporate a rch i va l programmes have enjoyed a wide var iety of users. In d iscuss ing the extent of t h i s u t i l i z a t i o n , Edgerly observes that corporate archives . . . s e r v e sophist icated and var ied publ ics inc luding chairmen, chief executive o f f i c e r s of companies, as wel l as attorneys, economists, systems ana lys ts , production experts, s c i e n t i s t s and others interested in i n d u s t r i a l research, marketing and adver t i s ing s p e c i a l i s t s , stockholders, scholars and j o u r n a l i s t s . 1 2 This l i s t i s in te res t ing in demonstrating that h is tor ians const i tu te only one of many publ ics to which the resources of the business archives may be d i r e c t e d . In general terms, the a r c h i v i s t may p a r t i c i p a t e in po l i cy formation, l ega l matters, adver t i s ing campaigns, publ ic r e l a t i o n s , employee o r i e n t a t i o n , h i s t o r i c a l s tud ies , and assorted sundry a c t i v i t i e s . By e x p l o i t i n g the information maintained in the corporate arch ives , business executives can determine how problems were 51 dealt with in the past thus enhancing the qua l i t y of current dec i s ions . In t h i s task the a r c h i v i s t might be c a l l e d upon to search through the appropriate committee minutes or personal correspondence of high-ranking o f f i c i a l s to determine not only the past decis ions but a lso the background input which led up to those dec is ions . As George Smith assesses the the s i t u t a t i o n , . . .what u l t imately gives managers confidence in the i r decis ions i s the i r accumulated knowledge of the way things work - the i r experience. Out of the i r own sense of the past managers necessar i ly formulate v i s ions of the f u t u r e . 1 3 In a s i m i l a r fashion, H.L. White notes that while i t was once poss ib le to pass on the-necessary knowledge and experience by word of mouth, i t i s no longer possible for the senior executive to do so because he "needs actual evidence of how things were done, what problems were faced and how they were overcome." 1" The a r c h i v i s t stands in a pos i t ion to assume an act ive role in the formation of corporate p o l i c y . In d iscussing th i s i ssue , Jane Nokes of The Bank of Nova S c o t i a , argues that " a r c h i v i s t s can review po l i cy over a long period of t ime, or study executive speeches through the years to help make a case before a government body, or interpret personnel or marketing c h a n g e s . . . . " 1 5 The corporate a r c h i v i s t may a lso be required to provide documentation of patents, a r t i c l e s of incorporat ion , records of mergers and other mater ia l for the lega l department. David Smith has indicated that the Walt Disney Archives has been c a l l e d upon numerous times to provide evidence of the company's previous usage of characters and trademarks which other ind iv idua ls e i ther knowingly or unknowingly v i o l a t e d . 1 6 Other major 52 c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s have a l s o saved t h e i r companies a g r e a t d e a l of money by p r o v i d i n g documentary e v i d e n c e i n l e g a l c a s e s i n v o l v i n g trademark l i t i g a t i o n . E d i e H e d l i n o b s e r v e s t h a t the c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s can p l a y an important r o l e i n s u b s t a n t i a l l e g a l c a s e s ( f o r example, c l a s s a c t i o n s u i t s or combines i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ) brought a g a i n s t a company. Huge sums are a t s t a k e , o f t e n i n the hundreds of m i l l i o n s and i t behooves the c o r p o r a t i o n t o p r o v i d e i t s e l f w i t h the b e s t l e g a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e . But o b t a i n i n g these s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e s a huge e x p e n d i t u r e , and e x p e n d i t u r e s c u t i n t o p r o f i t s . T h e r e f o r e , whenever the a r c h i v i s t can l o c a t e - i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e r e s e a r c h by e x p e n s i v e l e g a l c o u n s e l , i t i s p e r f o r m i n g a s e r v i c e i n two ways. In-house r e s e a r c h c u t s down on l e g a l c o s t s , and a r c h i v a l s t a f f members tend to l o c a t e more i n f o r m a t i o n more q u i c k l y than someone who i s u n f a m i l i a r w i t h company r e c o r d s . 1 7 In l e g a l m a t t e r s , the b e n e f i t s . a c c r u i n g from an a r c h i v a l programme may be t a n g i b l e and measureable i n a c o s t / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s based on the c o s t of s e a r c h i n g f o r i n f o r m a t i o n i n the absence of such a programme. The a d v e r t i s i n g department may a l s o b e n e f i t from the h o l d i n g s of a c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s . One c l a s s i c example i s the case of the F o r d Motor A r c h i v e s which p r e s e r v e d a l e t t e r from the g a n g s t e r C l y d e Barrow sent t o the company i n 1934. E x t o l l i n g the v i r t u e s of Ford's V-8, Barrow i n d i c a t e d t h a t he s t o l e one whenever p o s s i b l e . Barrow's t e s t i m o n y l a t e r formed the b a s i s f o r a F o r d a d v e r t i s i n g c a m p a i g n . 1 8 In a more g e n e r a l v e i n , R.W. P o l l a y , p r o f e s s o r of m a r k e t i n g and b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, argues t h a t a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l c o u l d be v e r y u s e f u l t o companies on a d a i l y b a s i s . Records which a l l o w f o r the easy i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p r e v i o u s m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s can s e r v e a number of f u n c t i o n s f o r the account e x e c u t i v e or c r e a t i v e teams working on a c l i e n t ' s a c c o u n t . They 53 s e r v e as an e x c e l l e n t source of m a t e r i a l t o r a p i d l y b r i e f a new member of the account team. They p e r m i t a l o n g - t e r m c o n t i n u i t y of m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y as opposed t o changes i n d i r e c t i o n w i t h e v e r y change i n p e r s o n n e l . L a s t l y , and perhaps most i m p o r t a n t l y , they a l l o w f o r the a c c u m u l a t i o n of knowledge about the p r o d u c t , i t s consumers and i t s p r o m o t i o n s , t h e r e b y p e r m i t t i n g a d v e r t i s i n g e f f o r t s t o become i n c r e a s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e . 1 3 In p r o p o s i n g t h e broad c a t e g o r i e s of m a t e r i a l t o be r e t a i n e d t o a t t a i n t h e s e g o a l s , P o l l a y c i t e s " l e g a l and o t h e r f o r m a l r e c o r d s , documents showing c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s , campaign development and e x e c u t i o n , items showing t e c h n o l o g y , p u b l i c i t y c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and ephemera." 2 0 The c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s may a l s o 'serve as a u s e f u l t o o l i n promoting b e t t e r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s " i n o r d e r t o communicate a m e a n i n g f u l image of the c o r p o r a t i o n t o i t s key p u b l i c s " . 2 1 W e l l s F a r g o , f o r i n s t a n c e , emphasizes i t s t i e s w i t h the o l d West and the pony e x p r e s s . In t h i s manner, the company has been a b l e to " p r e s e n t an image of a r e p u t a t i o n f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and s e r v i c e . " 2 2 Other c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s , a f t e r implementing s a t i s f a c t o r y a c c e s s p o l i c i e s , have p e r m i t t e d members of the p u b l i c t o u n d e r t a k e r e s e a r c h i n the companies d e s i g n a t e d a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s . T h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o a g r e a t e r sense of u n d e r s t a n d i n g between the company and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and, i n the p r o c e s s , may h e l p t o s o f t e n the impact of the n e g a t i v e image of b u s i n e s s which remain from the muckraking y e a r s . 2 3 The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the a r c h i v a l s t a f f i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of d i s p l a y s f e a t u r i n g m e m o r a b i l i a and a r t i f a c t s r e l a t i n g t o the h i s t o r y of the company would i n c r e a s e p u b l i c awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f i r m ' s h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n . In c o n s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and the 54 development of the*Coca C o l a A r c h i v e s , L i n d a Matthews o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s ...the a r c h i v e s h e l p s t o promote a good p u b l i c image by making items of m e m o r a b i l i a a v a i l a b l e t o f i l m companies, t o m e r c h a n d i z i n g f i r m s f o r s p e c i a l p r o m o t i o n s , and t o a u t h o r s w r i t i n g about c o l l e c t i b l e i t e m s , and i t s e r v e s as a d i s p l a y c e n t r e t o p o r t r a y and d r a m a t i z e the h i s t o r y of the company's b u s i n e s s . In t h i s way the a r c h i v i s t f u n c t i o n s as a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and the good p u b l i c image of the company o f t e n depends upon h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n h a n d l i n g h i s r e c o r d s and h i s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n Coca C o l a . 2 * Matthew's l a t t e r p o i n t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g and suggests t h a t the r o l e of the a r c h i v i s t ought t o go beyond merely p r o v i d i n g documentation as he s h o u l d become an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the p r o c e s s of i t s use. By t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c o r p o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n h i s a r c h i v e s , he may be a b l e t o suggest c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s f o r those r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the a d v e r t i s i n g and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s d epartments. An a r c h i v a l programme c o u l d a l s o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n employee o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s o c c u r s a t Walt D i s n e y where g r e a t emphasis i s p l a c e d on t r a d i t i o n , image, and the c h a r a c t e r of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l l new employees a r e sent t o the a r c h i v e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an o r i e n t a t i o n programme where they l e a r n about the h i s t o r y and development of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , a r e made aware of the company's p a s t , and come t o a p p r e c i a t e i t s h i s t o r i c a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . 2 5 The knowledge of the h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n of a company enhances the a b i l i t y of the employees t o understand c u r r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s and a l s o a p p r e c i a t e f u t u r e developments. In t h i s v e i n , D a v i d C l u t t e r b a c k suggests t h a t a l t h o u g h the e f f e c t s of bo t h a r c h i v e s and museums a r e l a r g e l y i n t a n g i b l e , 55 they do provide "a sense of job secur i ty that comes from knowing the organizat ion has a long and successful h i s t o r y . " 2 6 Arch iva l programmes can a lso provide a uni fy ing force , p a r t i c u l a r l y within large organizat ions . Because the a r c h i v i s t in teracts with with a l l l eve l s of the operation in f u l f i l l i n g h is mandate to acquire the permanently valuable records which chronic le the a c t i v i t i e s of the ent i re organizat ion , he provides a foca l point to integrate the diverse a c t i v i t i e s of a large corporat ion. In providing an overview of the company, the archives promotes a greater sense of understanding and un i ty . In t h i s manner, the archives might become a factor contr ibut ing to the development of corporate c u l t u r e . Simply def ined, corporate cu l ture i s "a set of values and b e l i e f s shared by people working in an organizat ion . It represents employee's c o l l e c t i v e judgments about the future based on past corporate rewards and punishments, heroes, v i l l i a n s , myths, successes and f a i l u r e s . " 2 7 A c l e a r l y defined corporate cul ture can have a p o s i t i v e ef fect upon employees as they have a better understanding of the i r pos i t ion within the corporation and the jobs which must be performed. In organizat ions with weak corporate c u l t u r e s , employees may lack secur i ty and confidence in the jobs and waste time f igur ing out exact ly what they should be doing. "Organizations character ized by weak corporate cu l tures do not provide an environment condusive to change and adaptat ion. D i f ferent parts of the company may be working at cross purposes; employees worry more about p o l i t i c s than gett ing the job d o n e . " 2 8 The a r c h i v i s t , in the course of h is deal ings with a l l departments within the 56 company can h e l p t o promote the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Indeed the a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s a c q u i r e d may po s s e s s an i n t r i n s i c v a l u e beyond t h e i r o b v i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n a l u s e f u l n e s s t o the company. As a r e c e n t s t u d y of Canadian a r c h i v e s put i t , . . . i n d i v i d u a l documents, v a l u a b l e f o r t h e i r s i g n a t u r e s or p h i l a t e l i c i n t e r e s t , documents b e a r i n g on c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s , o l d ph o t o g r a p h s , h i s t o r i c a l maps and s i m i l a r s p e c i a l items a r e f r e q u e n t l y an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d . These have c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l v a l u e . . . . A s w e l l , the t o t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n of r e c o r d s b e a r i n g on an o r g a n i z a t i o n or community can have a m a r k e t a b l e v a l u e . 2 9 In t h i s sense i t i s p o s s i b l e t o compare a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l w i t h a r t c o l l e c t i o n s and o t h e r s i m i l a r c o r p o r a t e a s s e t s . The r e s o u r c e s of t h e a r c h i v e s might be used f o r something as s i m p l e as p r o v i d i n g h i s t o r i c a l photographs and b r i e f a r t i c l e s f o r a company's a n n u a l r e p o r t . U s u a l l y c o n s i s t i n g of an income statement and b a l a n c e s h e e t , the a n n u a l r e p o r t a l s o r e v i e w s o t h e r a r e a s of p r o g r e s s over the p a s t year p r i m a r i l y f o r the b e n e f i t of the s t o c k h o l d e r s a l t h o u g h r e p o r t s o f t e n c i r c u l a t e t o employees and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . 3 0 One a r t i c l e has suggested t h a t a n n u a l r e p o r t s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y n o t e d f o r " t h e i r p i c t o r a l e x c e l l e n c e and g e n e r a l r e a d a b i l i t y , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e i r s o l i d s t a t i s t i c a l n a t u r e i n former y e a r s " which has come from an i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s v a l u e of th e s e p u b l i c a t i o n s . 3 1 In t h a t the an n u a l r e p o r t p r o v i d e s the i n f o r m a t i o n upon which many r e a d e r s form t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s about the c h a r a c t e r of the company, many f i r m s c o u l d b e n e f i t from the i n c l u s i o n of a l i m i t e d number of h i s t o r i c a l photographs and/or a r t i c l e s . T h i s would not o n l y p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g change from the n e c e s s a r y s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n but would a l s o y i e l d a 57 sense of t h e company's h i s t o r y , i t s p r i d e i n p a s t achievements, and convey a f e e l i n g of s t a b i l i t y . The use of h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l might be p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n the commemoration of s p e c i a l e v e n t s i n c l u d i n g c o r p o r a t e a n n i v e r s a r i e s , s i g n i f i c a n t a c q u i s i t i o n s , or i m p o r t a n t r e t i r e m e n t s . More b r o a d l y , an o b v i o u s advantage of implementing an a r c h i v a l programme i s t o p r o v i d e the documentation n e c e s s a r y t o produce o b j e c t i v e h i s t o r i e s i n the f u t u r e . M e r e l y r e t a i n i n g the r e c o r d s i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o w r i t e a c c u r a t e h i s t o r y . Permanently v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l must be a c q u i r e d , t h o u g h t f u l l y a r r a n g e d , and c a r e f u l l y i n d e x e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t s t o p r o v i d e the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e a c c e s s t o t h i s i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e of c o r p o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s n e c e s s a r y a t t h i s j u n c t u r e t o s t r e s s the advantages t o be g a i n e d from an o b j e c t i v e h i s t o r y r a t h e r than " p u f f e r y " which c h r o n i c l e s o n l y the p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of the company's p a s t . In p r e s e n t i n g a h i s t o r y which d e t a i l s m i s t a k e s as w e l l as s u c c e s s e s and i s e n r i c h e d w i t h a n e c d o t a l m a t e r i a l the " p u b l i c can sympathize w i t h a company composed of r e a l people making wise and f o o l i s h d e c i s i o n s , b e i n g f o r c e d t o d e a l w i t h a d v e r s i t y , and sometimes s u c c e e d i n g by c h a n c e . " 3 2 The p r o d u c t i o n of an o b j e c t i v e h i s t o r y may a l s o prove t o be a u s e f u l c o r p o r a t e t o o l . T h i s harkens back t o an e a r l i e r p o i n t t h a t e x e c u t i v e s may be a b l e t o l e a r n from the p a s t i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r a s s e s s the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . H i s t o r i a n A r t h u r M. Johnson has i n d i c a t e d t h a t companies which produce b i a s e d h i s t o r i e s f o r t h e i r p o s i t i v e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s v a l u e a r e a c t u a l l y t a k i n g a g r e a t e r r i s k "than t h o s e who see the p o t e n t i a l of an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s and a r e w i l l i n g t o p r e s e r v e 58 the r e c o r d s t o make i t p o s s i b l e . " 3 3 He suggested t h a t the former approach has some impo r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s . F i r s t , the businessmen of the former c l a s s deny thems e l v e s an i n v a l u a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n from the p a s t . Second, by i m p l i c a t i o n , they m a i n t a i n t h a t more i s t o be g a i n e d from s u c c e s s s t o r i e s than from the a n a l y s i s of f a i l u r e s or r e v e r s e s , a l t h o u g h the o p p o s i t e i s f r e q u e n t l y t r u e . 3 4 C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the a r c h i v i s t persuade the b u s i n e s s community of the importance and u t i l i t y of p r e s e r v i n g and l e a r n i n g from the r e c o r d s of both p a s t s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s . In s u r v e y i n g r e c e n t t r e n d s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of c o r p o r a t e h i s t o r i e s , Ronald A l s o p notes t h a t r e s i s t a n c e t o w i t h h o l d i n g the n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s of p a s t e x p e r i e n c e f o r f e a r of i n j u r i n g the b u s i n e s s r e p u t a t i o n may be weakening s l i g h t l y . Companies may not be eager t o a i r t h e i r d i r t y l a u n d r y , but a growing number say t h a t a t h o r o u g h , u n e m b e l l i s h e d account i s more u s e f u l t o them than a p u f f y one. They say t h a t they a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e of a s c h o l a r l y h i s t o r y as a m a r k e t i n g and p l a n n i n g t o o l , as an a i d i n t r a i n i n g new managers and as a way t o l e a r n more about why i m p o r t a n t s t r a t e g i c d e c i s i o n s were made. 3 5 A r c h i v i s t s must, however, guard a g a i n s t a t t e m p t s t o d e s t r o y the a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the c o r p o r a t e h i s t o r y . They must c o n v i n c e b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s of the u t i l i t y of r e t a i n i n g t h e s e documents t o meet the c h a l l e n g e posed by d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s and a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the f u t u r e . The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n has s t r e s s e d the need t o d e v e l o p a broader p e r s p e c t i v e r e g a r d i n g the p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s of an a r c h i v a l programme w i t h i n a c o r p o r a t e s e t t i n g . I t i s no l o n g e r a d v i s a b l e t o attempt t o c o n v i n c e b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s t o r e t a i n r e c o r d s s i m p l y t o w r i t e h i s t o r y , a r a t i o n a l e o f t e n o f f e r e d i n 59 the f i r s t h a l f of the c e n t u r y . A r c h i v i s t s must l a y a s i d e the outmoded t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n s of the p a s s i v e c u s t o d i a n a w a i t i n g the a r r i v a l of o l d documents. I n s t e a d , they must be w i l l i n g t o adopt a dynamic and a c t i v e r o l e w i t h i n t h e company. T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e " f r e q u e n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a l l l e v e l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , v i s i b l e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of what t h e a r c h i v e s can do f o r the company and showing the a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p u b l i c f o r s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . " 3 C o n s e q u e n t l y , the a r c h i v i s t must u t i l i z e h i s knowledge of a r c h i v a l t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , i m a g i n a t i o n , and b u s i n e s s sense t o i n t e g r a t e the a c t i v i t i e s of the a r c h i v a l programme i n t o the d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s of t h e b u s i n e s s . The p o s i t i o n s h o u l d not be e n t r u s t e d t o a l o n g - t i m e employee w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n the h i s t o r y of the company. To do so would g r e a t l y reduce the p o t e n t i a l r o l e of the a r c h i v e s w i t h i n the c o r p o r a t e s e t t i n g . T h i s t a s k s h o u l d be l e f t t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t w i t h a f i r m u n d e r s t a n d i n g of both b a s i c a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s and the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the u s e r s . T h i s i s , p e r h a p s , the most i m p o r t a n t of a l l a r c h i v a l f u n c t i o n s , f o r w i t h o u t e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t a c c e s s t o the a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , t h e v a l u e of an a r c h i v a l programme i s g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d . 60 NOTES 'George Smith, "Dusting Off the Cobwebs: Turning the Business Archives Into A Managerial Too l , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982), p. 289. At the time of th i s a r t i c l e Smith was president of Winthrop Group Inc . , "an associat ion of consultants and scholars committed to the analys is of the problems of contemporary organizat ions , " (p. 287). 2 F . L . Sward, "Business Records Management," American A rch i v i s t 29 (1966), p. 71. 3 Smith , "Dusting Off the Cobwebs,," p. 288. "Richard Po l lay , "Maintaining An Archives for the History of A d v e r t i s i n g , " Special L i b r a r i e s 69 (1978), p. 145. 5Deborah S. Gardner, "Commentary I I , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982), p. 295. 6R.W. F e r r i e r , "The A rch i v i s t in Business," Business Archives 37 (1972), p. 18. 7 P h i l i p Kot ler and Sidney J . Levy, "Broadening the Concept of Market ing," in Marketing in Non-Prof i t Organizat ions, ed. Patr ick J . Montana (New York: AMACOM, 1978), p. 13. ~ 8Three representative examples of th i s l i t e r a t u r e inc lude, Christopher H. Lovelock, e d . , Readings in Non-Prof i t Marketing, (1978); P h i l i p Kot le r , Marketing for Non-Prof i t Organizat ions, (1975); Pat r ick J . Montana, e d . , Marketing in Non-Prof i t Organizations, (1978). 9John Cur t i s and Stephan Abram, "Special and Corporate L i b r a r i e s Planning for Surv iva l and Success," Canadian L ibrary Journal 40 (August 1983), p. 227. 1 0 I b i d . 1 1 Smith, p. 289. 1 2 L i n d a Edgerly, "Business Archives Gu ide l ines , " American A rch i v i s t 45 (1982), p. 269. 1 3George Smith and Laurence E. Steadman, "Present Value of Corporate H i s t o r y , " Harvard Business Review 59 (1981), p. 164. In the i r a r t i c l e , Smith and Steadman emphasize the importance of employing company h is to r ians as a too l of management which would serve a var ie ty of purposes inc lud ing , recounting past experience of adaptations, as a diagnostic too l and as a means of r e c a l l i n g great moments from the past to motivate employees. Tapping a company's h is tory reveals an accumulated method of doing things which allows managers to "see the present as part of ' a process rather than as a c o l l e c t i o n of acc idental happenings," (p. 164). 61 1 4 H . L . White, "Preserving the Past i s Good Business," B u l l e t i n of the Business Archives Counci l of A u s t r a l i a V o l . 1 No. 5 (N.D. ) , p. 2. 1 5Doug Fether l ing , "Thanks For the Memories," Canadian Business (October 1981), p. 129. 1 6 David R. Smith, "A Mouse i s Born ," College and Research L i b r a r i e s 39 (1978), p. 493. 1 7 E d i e Hedl in , "Access: The Company vs The Scholar , " Georgia Archive 7 (Spring 1979), p. 4. 1 8 Douglas A. Bakken, "Corporate Archives Today," American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982), p. 283. 1 9 P o l l a y , "Maintaining An A r c h i v e s , , " p. 149. 2 0 I b i d . pp. 150-51. 2 ' R i c h a r d E e l l s , "The Corporate Image in Publ ic Re la t ions , " in Issues in Business and Society , ed. Wi l l iam T. Greenwood (Boston: Houghton Muf f l i n Co. , 1964), p. 107. 2 2 Margaret P r i c e , "Corporate H i s t o r i a n s : A Rare But Growing Breed," Industry Week (March 23, 1981), p. 87. 2 3 I n a recent book, Douglas Dickson observes that business over the years has f a i l e d to adequately meet the challenges posed by publ ic r e l a t i o n s . In the past companies, suspicious of the motivation of the p u b l i c , have e i ther resorted to secrecy to repress information about operations or have t r i e d to "whitewash" the i r act ions by manipulating publ ic opinion and using publ ic re la t ions to obscure the facts and cover up the i r mistakes. Dickson argues that companies should instead be engaged in candidly r e l a t i n g the i r experiences and gradually bu i ld ing up the respect and t rust of the publ ic which would then be able to withstand any future c r i s i s . Douglas Dickson, e d . , Business and I ts Publ ics (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1984). 2 4 L i n d a M. Matthews, "The Archives of the Coca Cola Company," Records Management Quarterly 9 (1975), p. 10. 2 5 Dav id Smith, "A Mouse i s B o r n , , " p. 494. 2 6 Dav id Clutterback, "Turning the Re l i cs of the Past Into Today's A s s e t s , " Internat ional Management 32 (November 1977), p. 65. 2 7 M i r i a m A. Drake, "Information and Corporate Cu l tu res , " Special L i b r a r i e s 75 (October 1984), p. 263. 2 B I b i d . , p. 265. 2 9 "Canadian Archives: Report to the Soc ia l Sciences and Humanities Research Counci l of Canada by the Consultat ive Group 62 on Canadian A r c h i v e s , , " (Ottawa: SSHRCC, 1980), pp. 7 -8 . Hereafter c i t e d as "The Wilson Report". 3 °Encyclopedic Dict ionary of Systems and Procedures (New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1966) , p. 3~Tt 3 1 I b i d . 3 2 E n i d Hart Douglas, "Corporate History - Why?," The Publ ic H is to r ian 3 (1981), pp. 77 -8 . 3 3 Ar thur M. Johnson, " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Business Records For Permanent Preservat ion , " American A r c h i v i s t 24 (1961), p. 331. There are many a r t i c l e s which have addressed the issue of u t i l i z i n g business h is tory as a corporate t o o l . Some of these l i s t e d in the bibl iography inc lude; B r i t c h f o r d , "Business Use of Business H i s t o r y , " (1970); Broehl , "Should Your Company Publ ish I ts H i s t o r y ? , " (1954); Douglas, "Corporate History - Why?," (1981); Eulenberg, "The Corporate Archives: Management Tool and H i s t o r i c a l Resource," (1984); Foreman, "History Inside Business," (1981); Gambi, "Going P u b l i c , " (1983); P r i c e , "Corporate H i s t o r i a n s : A Rare But Growing Breed," (1981); Smith and Steadman, "Present Value of Corporate H i s t o r y , " (1981) and Smith, "Dusting Off the Cobwebs," (1982). 3*Johnson, " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Business Records , , " p. 331. 3 5 Ronald Alsop, "Histor ians Discover the P i t f a l l s of Doing the Story of a F i rm, " Wall Street Journal (December 27, 1983), p. 6. 3 6 C h r i s t i a n Norman, "Business Archives and Business H i s to ry , " History and Soc ia l Science Teacher (December 1983), p. 92. 6 3 CHAPTER IV IMPLEMNTATION - ARCHIVES, RECORDS MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT The p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r d e a l t b r i e f l y w i t h some of the p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of a r c h i v a l r e s o u r c e s p r i m a r i l y i n terms of j u s t i f y i n g c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s based on the u t i l i z a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s t o enhance modern b u s i n e s s f u n c t i o n s . T h i s c h a p t e r s u g gests two f u r t h e r themes i m p o r t a n t i n making a r c h i v e s more e f f i c i e n t and r e l e v a n t i n the c o r p o r a t e s e t t i n g . F i r s t , the a r c h i v e s would b e n e f i t from a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the r e c o r d s management programme. T h i s p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o ensure the s y s t e m a t i c f l o w of permanently v a l u a b l e r e c o r d s t o the a r c h i v e s a t the time of d i s p o s i t i o n . The second theme c o n s i d e r s the p o s s i b i l i t y of the a r c h i v i s t ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f l o w of c o r p o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n i n which the t r a d i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s between h i s t o r i c a l and c u r r e n t r e c o r d s c o u l d be broken down. In t h i s manner, the a r c h i v i s t might assume a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n i n managing c o r p o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n which would r e p l a c e h i s l i m i t e d t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of c a r i n g f o r o n l y h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s . The a d o p t i o n of such an approach would both enhance the p o s i t i o n of the a r c h i v i s t w i t h i n the c o r p o r a t e s e t t i n g and a l s o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d by an i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v e r s e group of u s e r s . Most o b s e r v e r s agree t h a t the o p e r a t i o n of a r c h i v e s can g r e a t l y b e n e f i t from a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r e c o r d s management programmes. Designed t o s c h e d u l e the s y s t e m a t i c d i s p o s i t i o n of 64 a l l documentation, records management o f fers the a r c h i v i s t an opportunity to ident i f y permanently valuable records ear ly in the l i f e cycle and provide for the i r eventual t ransfer to the a rch ives . In th i s manner, the haphazard growth of the archives would be e l iminated. Unfortunately , such cooperation may be d i f f i c u l t to achieve as the a r c h i v a l and records management professions have developed as separate and unique f i e l d s since the 1950s; the former concerned with h i s t o r i c a l documents and the l a t t e r with the management of current records. To understand the present s i t u a t i o n , i t might be useful to b r i e f l y review t h i s h i s t o r i c a l development and to r e f l e c t , on the prospects and p o t e n t i a l of future cooperat ion. Within a decade of i t s founding in 1934 as the United States governmental repos i tory , the National Archives had v i r t u a l l y f i l l e d i t s ava i lab le storage space so great was the accumulation of records designated for a r c h i v a l care . The growing volume of m a t e r i a l , much of which had been designated as having long-term value, prompted the formation of a records administ rat ion programme in 1946 which was designed to " a s s i s t in developing throughout the Government p r i n c i p l e s and pract ices in the f i l i n g , c o l l e c t i o n and segregation of records that would f a c i l i t a t e the d isposal or t ransfer to the Nat ional Archives as they became non-cur rent . " 1 At t h i s time the a r c h i v i s t s who turned the i r at tent ion to the administ rat ion of current records d id not consider themselves to be creat ing a new p r o f e s s i o n . 2 There was only l i m i t e d concern expressed over th i s seemingly new d i r e c t i o n for a r c h i v i s t s . I rv ing P. S h i l l e r , w r i t i n g in the American A r c h i v i s t , complained that the a rch iva l 65 profession was "moving away from the fundamental object ives because of the excessive inf luence of management s p e c i a l i s t s who have become increasingly involved in records work, p a r t i c u l a r l y since World War I I . . . . " 3 While acknowledging the benef i ts to be gained in adopting such a focus, S h i l l e r c r i t i c i z e d what he considered an unfortunate development. Among a r c h i v i s t s the cost has been the abandonment of the t r a d i t i o n of scholarship and research, destruct ion of h istor iography, and the renunciat ion of broad i n t e l l e c t u a l comprehension of the records. . . .Now i t appears s u f f i c i e n t to house records s a f e l y , to mechanize reference service on the documents, and to keep storage and maintenance costs down to a minimum by means of wholesale des t ruc t ion . " Although S h i l l e r claimed to speak for many others in the profess ion , there i s l i t t l e evidence that h is concern was widely shared. A not icable r i f t between the two approaches began to develop a f te r 1950 with the passage of the Federal Records Act which establ ished a records management s ta f f separate from the a rch i va l function under the auspices of the Nat ional Archives and Records Serv ices . In 1950, National A r c h i v i s t W.C. Grover pointed out the growing d i f ferences between the two professions by emphasizing the evolving s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . . . . e a c h has b a s i c a l l y d i f fe rent emphasis and requires d i f f e r e n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . . . a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s in h is tory and the s o c i a l sciences are e s s e n t i a l for an a r c h i v i s t , i f he i s to develop subject matter competence in the area of documentation....management outlook and experience are e s s e n t i a l to the records management s p e c i a l i s t i f he i s to develop as a member of the management team. In a word, the whole f i e l d of deal ing with records has progressed s u f f i c i e n t l y to demand a cer ta in amount of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . 5 Like government records, those of business a lso required a t t e n t i o n . Technological advances which s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased 66 the capacity to produce records had not been accompanied by a method of administ rat ive c o n t r o l . As a r e s u l t , rout inely generated documents began to accumulate at unprecedented rates . I n i t i a l l y business responded by securing storage space for non- current records, and, as ava i lab le f a c i l i t i e s f i l l e d , a per iodic purge of mater ia ls occurred. In t h i s unregularized disposal of records, some businessmen learned that although very old some of t h i s mater ia l had a permanent value which had not been considered. The records management profession which had emerged out of the government's attempts to solve i t s own problems, also provided a p r a c t i c a l approach to the problems of managing corporate records. The records management profession offered a systematic method of c o n t r o l l i n g records, reduced costs and improved e f f i c i e n c y . In commenting on some of the advantages offered to business, F .L . Sward observed: The records manager can show the businessman how to reduce the costs of c reat ing records by forms c o n t r o l , correspondence and report c o n t r o l , and s i m i l a r techniques. He can reduce the cost by improving f i l i n g systems, by moving records ' from expensive f i l e equipment to an inexpensive storage center and by se lec t ing records for ear ly destruct ion instead of l e t t i n g them p i l e up i n d e f i n i t e l y . 6 To accomplish these goals , records managers establ ished retent ion and d isposal schedules which allowed for the systematic destruct ion of a l l those records which had f u l f i l l e d lega l and administ rat ive c r i t e r i a . This increasing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was c e r t a i n l y re f lec ted in the e f f o r t s of the National Records Management Counci l which attempted to convince business of both the need to maintain archives as a source for h i s t o r i c a l research and to adopt 6 7 r e c o r d s management t e c h n i q u e s as a method f o r c o n t r o l l i n g the output of r e c o r d s . Spearheaded by academics, t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g f a i l e d t o c o n v i n c e b u s i n e s s a d e q u a t e l y of the b e n e f i t s of p r e s e r v i n g h i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l . The r e c o r d s management component of the programme, however, became v e r y p o p u l a r w i t h the b u s i n e s s community. A l t h o u g h not i m p r o v i n g a c c e s s t o the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g volume of documents, r e c o r d s managers d i d demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t - s a v i n g measures by d e s t r o y i n g many of the r o u t i n e r e c o r d s which had f u l f i l l e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s and were not r e q u i r e d t o be kept by law. T h i s gave r i s e t o a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between r e c o r d s management and a r c h i v e s and s e c u r e d the ascendency of the former i n the b u s i n e s s w o r l d based on e f f i c i e n c y over the l e s s t a n g i b l e r e t u r n s of the l a t t e r . T h e r e f o r e , w i t h i n t e r e s t i n implementing a r c h i v a l programmes i n d e c l i n e , t h e academic support f o r the C o u n c i l gave way, l e a v i n g i n i t s p l a c e Noremco, a c o m m e r c i a l company d e d i c a t e d t o p r o v i d i n g r e c o r d s management s e r v i c e s . T h i s , t h e n , i l l u s t r a t e s the manner i n which the two p r o f e s s i o n s d e v e l o p e d and began t o d i v e r g e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 1950s. As time p a s s e d , the two became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s t i n c t and the r e a l m of each more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . The c r y s t a l i z i n g of t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s gave r i s e t o the s t e r e o t y p i n g of the f u n c t i o n s of each which tended t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a l u e i n the b u s i n e s s community. In h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the r a t h e r narrow d e f i n i t i o n of the g o a l s of the two p r o f e s s i o n s , G e r a l d F. Brown s u g g e s t e d : The a r c h i v i s t s e r v e s the needs of the s c h o l a r , the h i s t o r i a n and p o s t e r i t y whereas the r e c o r d s manager 68 s e r v e s the needs of a b u s i n e s s which i s u s u a l l y p r o f i t m o t i v a t e d and which i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the i n f o r m a t i o n which c o n t r i b u t e s t o or p r o t e c t s t h a t p r o f i t or g o a l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 7 S u p e r f i c i a l l y , i t appeared t h a t the g o a l s of the a r c h i v i s t would c o n f l i c t w i t h those of the r e c o r d s manager. T h i s tendency t o d e l i n e a t e c l e a r l y the s e e m i n g l y e x c l u s i v e parameters of t h e two p r o f e s s i o n s has been u n f o r t u n a t e ; One of the most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of an a r c h i v a l programme i s t h a t when combined w i t h r e c o r d s management as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the management of the i n f o r m a t i o n l i f e c y c l e , i t p r o v i d e s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e method of i d e n t i f y i n g and p r e s e r v i n g permanently v a l u a b l e c o r p o r a t e m a t e r i a l . The two p r o c e s s e s a r e , i n r e a l i t y , p a r t of a s i n g l e o r g a n i c system of i n f o r m a t i o n management and enjoy something of a s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . The c o m b i n a t i o n of r e c o r d s management t e c h n i q u e s w i t h an a r c h i v a l programme has i m p o r t a n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r both the q u a l i t y and the q u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l which f l o w s t o the a r c h i v e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the s p l i t which d e v e l o p e d between the two p r o f e s s i o n s has been d e t r i m e n t a l t o the growth of c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s as companies op t e d f o r the t a n g i b l e r e t u r n s of r e c o r d s management programmes. The d i v i s i o n which has d e v e l o p e d between the two p r o f e s s i o n s may, however, be a t l e a s t p a r t l y blamed on the i n a b i l i t y of a r c h i v i s t s t o d e v e l o p adequate a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a t o a l l e v i a t e the mounting problems posed by the e x p o n e n t i a l growth of r e c o r d s . T h i s i n l a r g e p a r t r e s u l t e d from t h e i r narrow view of the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n and the i n s i s t e n c e on u t i l i z i n g h i s t o r i c a l c r i t e r i a t o j u s t i f y t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . T h i s t r e n d toward the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the two p r o f e s s i o n s appears t o be one t h a t might b e n e f i c i a l l y be r e v e r s e d i n the 69 future in the interest of promoting more comprehensive contro l over corporate records. The enunciation of the need for cooperation i s not new and can, in f a c t , be traced back to the 1950s at the very time when the two professions f i r s t began to d r i f t apart . Morr is Radoff stated that "we do not share common i n t e r e s t s , we have only one i n t e r e s t ; namely the guardianship of records" and suggested that unnecessary and a r t i f i c i a l s p e c i a l i t i e s were being created to deal with documents at various stages of the i r l i f e h i s t o r y . 8 R.A. S h i f f , president of the National Records Management Counci l in 1955, observed that the functions of the two were c lose l y re lated and perhaps even interchangable p a r t i c u l a r l y in deal ing with business records. There are some who contend that because the a r c h i v i s t serves the scholar and the records manager serves the adminis t rator , the two functions require d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s and therefore cannot be f u l f i l l e d by the same person. We do not bel ieve that t h i s i s uniformly t rue . Ce r ta in l y , i f i t i s t rue , then most of the business world w i l l remain outside the sphere of a r c h i v a l in f luence . Few companies, i f any, can reasonably maintain two separate p o s i t i o n s , one for the a r c h i v i s t and one for a records manager. If we are going to have a general a rch i va l and records management counsciousness in business i t must be in conjunction with the a b i l i t y of- the a r c h i v i s t or records manager to serve the combined need. 9 Shi f f thus bel ieved that there need not be a d i v i s i o n between the developing profess ions . Unfortunately , the ins ights of these ind i v idua ls f a i l e d to sway the dominant thought of the day and the two professions continued to develop independently. However, with the passage of t ime, the i r observations r ing very t rue . The a r c h i v i s t , by p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the development of retent ion and disposal schedules, helps to guarantee the early i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and preservation of a company's permanently 70 valuable records as wel l as the i r systematic t ransfer to the archives at the time of d i s p o s i t i o n . Arch iva l input into t h i s process, which has long been the sole concern of records managers, i s very necessary given that only 1-5% of a l l corporate records produced ac tua l l y have a rch i va l value. This leaves l i t t l e margin for error in the i r se lec t ion and preservat ion. Early i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s small core of mater ial a lso al lows for the destruct ion of a l l non-essent ia l records. The ro le of the a r c h i v i s t in the records management process to develop an integrated information management system i s important in c o n t r o l l i n g the whole l i f e of the records from the creat ion of the document to i t s ult imate d i s p o s i t i o n - e i ther destruct ion or a rch iva l preservat ion. This ro le requires that the a r c h i v i s t become a c t i v e l y involved in information management. As Marcel Caya has suggested, t h i s a rch i va l intervent ion ha's important rami f i ca t ions . Instead of - being confined . . . to the reception of those records which are sent to the arch ives , the a r c h i v i s t - r e c o r d s manager can intervene in the des ignat ion , the se lect ion and preservation of a l l the records of permanent value without having to wait pass ive ly for them to become obsolete or r i s k i n g outr ight d isposal by a careless adminis t rator . The increasing involvement of the a r c h i v i s t in records management means he no longer has to act as fireman wait ing for c a l l s to save old records, but rather that he can develop more systematic plans of t ransfer of valuable records to permanent s t o r a g e . 1 0 Consequently, a r c h i v i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in a corporate s e t t i n g , should s t r i v e to overcome the a r t i f i c i a l bar r ie rs which have been placed between archives and records management. There i s no reason why ind iv idua ls with a rch i va l t r a i n i n g cannot become the coordinators of combined programmes. One might even suggest that 71 the a r c h i v i s t stands in a more advantageous pos i t ion than the records manager to contro l such an integrated programme governing a l l corporate r e c o r d s . 1 1 This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary to ensure the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and preservation of records with h i s t o r i c a l importance which the records manager might not f u l l y appreciate. This need for a r c h i v i s t s to become increasingly integrated in the management of information has been addressed by Hugh Taylor who has advanced a number of thought-provoking o b s e r v a t i o n s . 1 2 In d iscussing the development of what he termed the " h i s t o r i c a l shunt", Taylor has suggested that a r c h i v i s t s became increasingly devoted to the service of h i s to r ians and scholarship a f ter the French Revolution during the r i se of s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r y . P r io r to th i s time the role of the a r c h i v i s t had been subs tant ia l l y d i f f e r e n t as the "keeping of records was always regarded s t r i c t l y as an administ rat ive funct ion : archives were kept for kings, property owners and then, increasingly for European s ta tes , to protect r ights or document dec is ions , not to allow for the wr i t ing of h i s t o r y . " 1 3 This partnership with h i s to r ians had important ramif icat ions as over the years the keepers of the record or a r c h i v i s t s became increasingly detached from the bureaucracy which produced the records. Such a re -o r ien ta t ion caused a r c h i v i s t s to lose much of the contextual information about the records ( including the condit ions which gave r i s e to the creat ion of the documents and the i r subsequent impact on the funct ioning of the organization) and also reduced the data ava i lab le for decis ion making. In Tay lo r ' s view, the decreasing 72 a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n "had im p o r t a n t e f f e c t s on p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n and the whole b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e . " 1 0 He s t r e s s e d the need f o r c u r r e n t a r c h i v i s t s t o i n c r e a s i n g l y concern themselves w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of a c c e s s t o the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n both a c t i v e and dormant r e c o r d s f o r the s e r v i c e of h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . T a y l o r i s o p t i m i s t i c t h a t the advent of au t o m a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e the a r c h i v i s t w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e - e n t e r the mainstream of r e c o r d k e e p i n g and escape the " h i s t o r i c a l shunt" which has l i m i t e d h i s o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . In assuming a g r e a t e r r o l e i n c o r p o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n management, the a r c h i v i s t s h o u l d be a l l o w e d i n p u t i n t o the c r e a t i o n of documents t o guarantee t h a t "they a r e d e s i g n e d not o n l y t o s e r v e immediate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ends, but a l s o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e / h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h f o r p o l i c y p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t . " 1 5 To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y , the a r c h i v i s t must be p e r c e i v e d as something more than a h i s t o r i a n . T a y l o r has proposed t h a t ...we s h o u l d i n c r e a s i n g l y encourage our major i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o make use of the a r c h i v i s t not j u s t as a r e s i d e n t h i s t o r i a n and c u s t o d i a n of the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , but as one v e r s e d i n the whole n a t u r e of documentation and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , c a p a b l e of s u p e r v i s i n g a r c h i v e s and r e c o r d s management, forms a n a l y s i s (which i s a modern concept of d i p l o m a t i c ) and i n f o r m a t i o n management g e n e r a l l y . . . . 1 6 In s h o r t , T a y l o r has a r t i c u l a t e d the need f o r a r c h i v i s t s t o become " o v e r a r c h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h a r c h i v a l e m p h a s i s . " 1 7 F i n a l l y , T a y l o r a l s o argued t h a t the break between the " c u r r e n t " and " a r c h i v a l " r e c o r d s has been s i m p l y a f i c t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l method and t h a t such a d i v i s i o n s h o u l d be i g n o r e d when c o n s i d e r i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o the b u r e a u c r a t i c 73 o r g a n i z a t i o n . He c i t e d a " p r e s s i n g need by government and the p u b l i c a l i k e f o r more e f f e c t i v e r e t r i e v a l and f o r a r c h i v a l t r a i n i n g which r e c o g n i z e s t h i s continuum and which c o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s of a p p r o p r i a t e c a l i b r e t o work both i n departments and i n a r c h i v e s . " 1 8 I n c r e a s i n g l y , the o b j e c t of the a r c h i v i s t s h o u l d become the m a x i m i z a t i o n of a c c e s s t o a l l c o r p o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a v a r i e t y of user groups. To do so r e q u i r e s t h a t the a r c h i v i s t work c l o s e l y w i t h those departments c r e a t i n g and u s i n g the v a r i o u s r e c o r d s . The s u c c e s s of the a r c h i v i s t i n t h i s r o l e might have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e when, many p r e d i c t , fundamental o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s may be t r a n s f o r m e d t h rough the e f f e c t i v e d i f f u s i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of c o r p o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . M i r i a m Drake sees a r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d f u t u r e i n t h i s r e g a r d . The c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e of the f u t u r e w i l l not be the pyramid of today. The s t r u c t u r e i s l i k e l y t o be f l a t t e r and c o n t a i n fewer l a y e r s . Work w i l l be performed i n s m a l l e r , more autonomous u n i t s . I n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y w i l l p r o v i d e the means f o r l i n k i n g t h e s e s m a l l e r u n i t s w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h the c o r p o r a t e s t a f f . . . E l e c t r o n i c m a i l and easy r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l make i t e a s i e r f o r peopl e t o bypass the h i e r a r c h y , b oth up and down.... 1 9 I t i s i n t o such a f u t u r e t h a t the a r c h i v i s t i s a b l e t o s t e p i f he i s p r e p a r e d t o l a y a s i d e outmoded n o t i o n s of a r c h i v e s which have l i m i t e d p a s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s . H i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i f f u s i o n of c o r p o r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e him w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and guarantee t h a t he w i l l be b e t t e r a b l e t o maximize the use of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a v a r i e t y of user groups. Much of the p r e c e e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has f o c u s e d upon the 74 importance of drawing the a r c h i v i s t c loser into the mi l i eu of records, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , information management. Perhaps the management of corporate information i s the single-most important s k i l l which the a r c h i v i s t might be able to of fer to the corporate world. The discussion of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n or " s e l l i n g po ints" for archives has suggested that the business archives i s d i f fe ren t from that of i t s publ ic counterpart . Because the corporate a r c h i v i s t i s c a l l e d upon to demonstrate the p r a c t i c a l value of the programme to the organizat ion , intangib le c u l t u r a l c r i t e r i a carry l i t t l e weight. Impl i c i t in t h i s d iscuss ion i s the suggestion that t r a d i t i o n a l t ra in ing of a r c h i v i s t s in h i s t o r i c a l methodology may not be e n t i r e l y relevant in a corporate s e t t i n g . In advocating th i s expanded role which would see the a r c h i v i s t become an increasingly important element in the management of corporate information, i t might be useful to r e c a l l the ageless advice of I l l i n o i s State A r c h i v i s t , Margaret Cross Norton. As early as 1929, she enunciated the need to emphasize the pos i t ion of a r c h i v i s t as promoting administ rat ive e f f i c i e n c y and only secondari ly serving the needs of h i s t o r i a n s . 2 0 Her views f i t comfortably between the c l a s s i c a l theories as developed by H i la ry Jenkinson and Theodore Schel lenberg. Jenkinson stressed that while the a r c h i v i s t would require some knowledge of h is tory and he may be interested in i t personal ly , " . . . t h e A r c h i v i s t i s not and ought not to be an H i s t o r i a n . " 2 1 He stressed the need to del ineate the a rch iva l and h i s t o r i c a l profess ions . In Jenkinson's view, the a r c h i v i s t served as a passive curator for the records entrusted into h i s 75 c a r e f o r t h e use of the "person or p e r s o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r a n s a c t i o n and t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e s u c c e s s o r s " who a l o n e would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a p p r a i s a l and d e s t r u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l . 2 2 Theodore S c h e l l e n b e r g , however, argued t h a t a r c h i v e s must be p r e s e r v e d f o r reasons o t h e r than those f o r which they were c r e a t e d or a c c u m u l a t e d . 2 3 For him, r e c o r d s ought t o be r e t a i n e d based on c u l t u r a l c r i t e r i o n or r e s e a r c h v a l u e r a t h e r than a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e f e r e n c e . U n l i k e J e n k i n s o n , who viewed the r o l e of the a r c h i v i s t as a p a s s i v e c u r a t o r of documents, S c h e l l e n b e r g proposed t h a t the a r c h i v i s t u n d e r s t a n d and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s e l e c t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n of r e c o r d s because of h i s broad p e r s p e c t i v e from which t o a p p r a i s e m a t e r i a l . In her i d e a s , N o r t o n e x p r e s s e d elements of each of th e s e t h e o r i e s . L i k e J e n k i n s o n , she b e l i e v e d t h a t a r c h i v e s s h o u l d be p r i m a r i l y p r e s e r v e d f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l use of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body which c r e a t e d them. However, she was not so c a t e g o r i c a l l y opposed t o h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h and, i n f a c t , argued t h a t the bes t i n t e r e s t of h i s t o r i a n s would be s e r v e d i n the f u t u r e i f the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the r e c o r d s was p r e s e r v e d as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e - t o o l . 2 " She sought not t o d i s c o u r a g e the use of governmental r e c o r d s by h i s t o r i a n s , but r a t h e r t o emphasize the p r a c t i c a l and t a n g i b l e a d m i n i n s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s of a r c h i v a l programmes over the l e s s o b v i o u s r e t u r n s from h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s . N o r t o n a g r e e d w i t h S c h e l l e n b e r g ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e a r c h i v i s t p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n the management of r e c o r d s by p r o v i d i n g a broader p e r s p e c t i v e t o the a p p r a i s a l p r o c e s s . She d i s a g r e e d w i t h h i s pre m i s e , however, t h a t r e c o r d s s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h r a t h e r than a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u s e s . A l t h o u g h 76 c i r c u l a t i n g f o r over f i f t y y e a r s , N orton's i d e a s have not y e t been w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n , which has tended t o p e r p e t u a t e a r a t h e r l i m i t e d n o t i o n of a r c h i v e s based on t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s w i t h h i s t o r y . In t h e i r study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r c h i v e s , h i s t o r y and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Andrew Raymond and James O'Toole p o i n t e d out t h a t the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n has s u f f e r e d because of a f a i l u r e t o emphasize i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e i n o r d e r t o escape the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h h i s t o r y . 2 5 In t h e i r v i e w : I t i s i r o n i c t h a t the h i s t o r y p r o f e s s i o n , which has done so much t o i n i t i a t e and advance the cause of a r c h i v e s i n America may a t the same time have u n w i t t i n g l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s of a r c h i v e s . A r c h i v i s t s t h e m s e l v e s have not y e t succeeded i n c l a r i f y i n g the m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n s have become c o n f u s e d i n s p i t e of the developments t h a t have s e p a r a t e d t h e m . 2 6 A l t h o u g h r e c o g n i z i n g the importance of h i s t o r i a n s as one of the p r i m a r y u s e r groups, as w e l l as t h e i r i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a r c h i v a l development, Raymond and O'Toole a d v o c a t e d the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the two p r o f e s s i o n s and the p o r t r a y a l of a r c h i v e s as something more than t o o l f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h . 2 7 Hugh T a y l o r a l s o made c l e a r t h a t a r c h i v i s t s s h o u l d endeavour t o escape from the " h i s t o r i c a l shunt" which has l o n g r e s t r i c t e d the p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s of a r c h i v a l programmes. The a b i l i t y t o expand the scope of the a r c h i v i s t beyond s i m p l y p r e s e r v i n g r e c o r d s from which t o w r i t e h i s t o r i e s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l i n the c o r p o r a t e s e t t i n g . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e has demonstrated t h a t such an approach has h e l d l i m i t e d a p p e a l f o r the b u s i n e s s community. A r c h i v e s must be e s t a b l i s h e d as a 77 recognized business a c t i v i t y , serving the needs of modern corporat ions. A t r a n s i t i o n from the handmaidens of h istory to the management of corporate information might provide the best means of f u l f i l l i n g such a goa l . A r c h i v i s t s of the future should a lso understand more about the context and condi t ion which gave r i s e to the creat ion of records as wel l as the subsequent impact on the operation or structure of the organ izat ion . This again returns to Norton's assert ion that one must provide a s o l i d administ rat ive basis upon which to j u s t i f y a rch i va l programmes. This proposed transformation does not suggest a s i g n i f i c a n t react ion against the h i s t o r i c a l profession or the h i s t o r i c a l roots of a rch iva l development. Rather i t i s simply a case of determining how best to ensure the preservation of business records. For the a r c h i v i s t to assume a broader role., i t w i l l be necessary to provide him with something more than an academic t r a i n i n g in h i s t o r y . While h istory remains a very valuable background study for a r c h i v i s t s , they might benefi t from further t r a i n i n g in records and information management, automation and business p r a c t i c e s . The pos i t ion would s t i l l require that the a r c h i v i s t understand the value and s ign i f i cance of h is tory e i ther through a personal background in the f i e l d or by seeking the advice of p ro fess iona ls . As Jenkinson suggested, however, a d i s t i n c t i o n must be made between the a r c h i v a l and h i s t o r i c a l p rofess ions . The requirements of researchers should not be ignored in formulating future courses for a rch iva l development. I r o n i c a l l y , while many h i s to r ians are concerned about any trend which would see a r c h i v i s t s move into information management, such a 78 t r a n s i t i o n would p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a l l u s e r s , i n c l u d i n g h i s t o r i a n s . T h i s , however, r a i s e s f u t u r e c o ncerns about the i s s u e of a c c e s s t o c o r p o r a t e r e c o r d s which has l o n g b e d e v i l l e d h i s t o r i a n s . L i k e w i s e , movement away from p u r e l y h i s t o r i c a l c r i t e r i o n w i l l have i m p o r t a n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r the a p p r a i s a l of r e c o r d s . Both of the s e i s s u e s w i l l r e q u i r e the c r i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a r c h i v i s t s i n the f u t u r e . 79 NOTES ' P h i l l i p C. Brooks, "Current Aspects of Records Admin is t ra t ion , " American A rch i v i s t 6 (1943), p. 160. 2Frank Evans, "A rch i v i s t s and Records Managers: Var ia t ions On A Theme," American A r c h i v i s t 30 (1967), p. 46. 3 I r v i n g P. S h i l l e r , "The Arch iva l Profession in E c l i p s e , " American A r c h i v i s t 11 (1948), p. 227. " I b i d . , pp. 229-30. 5Evans, "A rch i v i s t s and Records Managers," p. 51. 6 F . L . Sward, "Business Records Management," American A r c h i v i s t 29 (1966), p. 70. 'Gerald F. Brown, "The A r c h i v i s t and the Records Manager: A Records Manager's Viewpoint ," Records Management Quarterly 5 (1971), p. 8 Morr is Radoff. "What Should Bind Us Together?," American A r c h i v i s t 19 (1956), pp. 4~5. 9Robert A. S h i f f , "The A r c h i v i s t ' s Role in Records Management," American A r c h i v i s t 19 (1956), p. 111. 1 0 Marce l Caya, "Why Worry About the Present When the Past i s Our Bus iness !? , " (Paper Presented at the Business History Conference, Trent Un ivers i t y , 25 May 1984), p. 8. l 1Two Canadian examples of t h i s arrangement occur at Petro - Canada and Imperial O i l where a r c h i v i s t s , Bryan Corbett and Robert Taylor -Vaisey respect i ve ly , manage integrated records management/archival programmes. 1 2Hugh Taylor , "Information Ecology and the Archives of the 1980s," A rch ivar ia 18 (Summer 1984). 1 3 Caya , "Why Worry About the P r e s e n t ! ? , " p. 6. 1 "Tay lo r , "Information Ecology," p. 28. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 30. 1 6 I b i d . , pp. 31 -2 . " I b i d . , p. 32. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 34. 1 9 Mir iam Drake, "Information and Corporate Cu l tu res , " Specia l L i b r a r i e s 75 (October 1984), p. 265. 8 0 2 0 M a r g a r e t C r o s s N o r t o n , Norton on A r c h i v e s , ed. Thorton W. M i t c h e l l ( C h i c a g o : SAA, 1979), pp. 4-5. 2 ' H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , A Manual of A r c h i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (London: P e r c y , Lund and Co., 1965), p. 123. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 124. 2 3 T h e o d o r e S c h e l l e n b e r g , The Management of A r c h i v e s (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 28\ 2 U N o r t o n , Norton On A r c h i v e s . 2 5Andrew Raymond and James O'Toole, "Up From the Basement: A r c h i v e s , H i s t o r y and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " G e o r g i a A r c h i v e A (1978). 2 6 I b i d . , p. 20. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 21. 81 CHAPTER V APPRAISAL AND ACCESS In addi t ion to the obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s in attempting to j u s t i f y the idea of archives in the business world and the development of a broader notion of the po ten t ia l ro les of corporate programmes, the a r c h i v i s t must a lso consider the s p e c i f i c problems of what records should be preserved and for whose use? As indicated at the outset of th i s t h e s i s , a r c h i v i s t s should consider expanding the i r t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i m i t e d h i s t o r i c a l focus to serve a wider audience and become a recognized business a c t i v i t y . Such a s h i f t would have important ramif icat ions for the issues of appra isa l and access in the corporate s e t t i n g . If a r c h i v i s t s begin to serve the needs of a wider audience, i s h i s t o r i c a l c r i t e r i a a v iab le basis so le l y upon which to appraise corporate records? If not, how should the a r c h i v i s t approach the problem and to whom might he turn for input into the process? This w i l l become an increas ingly c r i t i c a l problem i f the a r c h i v i s t becomes involved in the management of current information. In operating pr ivate arch ives , companies are able to c lose the i r records to outside researchers, which they have general ly done in the past . This i ssue , however, requires some reconsiderat ion as the benef i ts to be derived from granting access to company records must be c a r e f u l l y weighed against the po ten t ia l damage to the f i r m ' s reputation which might ensue. Both of these issues , appra isa l and access, are p a r t i c u l a r l y important i f the a r c h i v i s t has designs on assuming a more 82 e f f e c t i v e position in the future. Although a d i f f i c u l t subject with which to deal in a limited discussion, the issue of appraisal i s a v i t a l concern for v i r t u a l l y a l l corporate a r c h i v i s t s . How does one decide what fra c t i o n of the t o t a l corporate records produced i s worthy of ar c h i v a l preservation? This issue of appraisal, which is rendered increasingly complex with the tremendous growth of businesses in t h i s century i s not unique to business for government archives share similar problems. In the period following the C i v i l War, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y after the turn of the century, North America experienced an explosion in.the production of records with the r i s e of modern bureaucratic organizations. This phenomenon, observable both in government and business, was made possible through the introduction of technological advances such as the typewriter, mimeograph and interleavened carbons. In commenting on the r i s e in the production of government records for various periods, T.R. Schellenberg c i t e d the following f i g u r e s : 1 Establishment of the Federal Government to the C i v i l War 100,000 cu . f t . C i v i l War to World War 1 1,500,000 cu . f t . World War I to the Depression ...3,500,000 cu . f t . Decade of the 1930s 10,000,000 cu.ft . The rapid growth in the volume of records resulted from fundamental changes in the government and the basic i n d u s t r i a l fabric of the economy. The small craftsmen of the nineteenth century were superseded by the mechanized factories, mass production and mass d i s t r i b u t i o n . 2 The emergence of the huge 83 v e r t i c a l l y - i n t e g r a t e d business firms so well documented in Alfred Chandler's The V i s i b l e Hand 3 had important ramifications for the production of records. Just as the ideas of Frederick Taylor revolutionized the factory system so too did they fundamentally change c l e r i c a l positions." In discussing the evolving s i t u a t i o n within the government, Margaret Cross Norton noted: The number of functions to be performed and the rapidly growing number of employees made i t increasingly d i f f i c u l t for executives to keep track of what was going on in their o f f i c e s . Just as the manufacturers h i t upon the idea of the assembly l i n e as a means of dividing mechanical processes to the point where more people could do more with less supervision, so administrators turned increasingly to the use of forms and multiple copies of documents as a means of d i v i d i n g and at the same time c o n t r o l l i n g the work of their subordinates. 5 This increasing tendency toward s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , generated a demand for more paper to f a c i l i t a t e the orderly flow of information within the bureaucracy. Companies quickly came to r e a l i z e that t h i s presented a problem. While investigating some of the old records from Standard O i l in the United States, an employee found a 1922 memo from the o f f i c e of the Corporate Secretary which lamented that "the problem of the Company's old records has become a pressing one due to the rapid accumulation and storage space required." 6 Unfortunately no system of control accompanied the tremendous growth of records during t h i s i n i t i a l pe r i od. With the r i s i n g interest in the use and c o l l e c t i o n of business records beginning in the 1920s, there was l i t t l e attention paid to the need to develop appraisal c r i t e r i a . This sit u a t i o n was c e r t a i n l y understandable given that the archival 84 profession was then only in i t s infancy and because most of the c o l l e c t i n g e f f o r t focussed on nineteenth century operations posssesing limited records. Before the advent of the v e r t i c a l l y - integrated corporations, decades of "recorded transfers f i l l e d not more than two or three volumes." 7 However, as interest slowly shifted to the records of twentieth century firms, i t quickly became apparent that the increasing volume of records made their c o l l e c t i o n in ex i s t i n g repositories impossible. The f i r s t author to advocate action to offset the increasing bulk inherent in business records was Hower.8 He argued that most records should be preserved in order to r e f l e c t "accurate and reasonably complete information about every phase of the business...." 9 Shortly, thereafter, those historians and a r c h i v i s t s interested in the preservation of corporate material r e a l i z e d the i m p r a c t i c a l i t y of c o l l e c t i n g records in existing repositories and turned their attention to the task of convincing businesses to maintain their own records. In his approach to appraisal, Cole conceded that selective preservation of business records would be necessary and that only a small percentage of the mountain of business records could be actually r e t a i n e d . 1 0 In the f i n a l analysis, however, Cole contributed very l i t t l e concrete c r i t e r i a for appraisal, o f f e r i n g instead only vague questions for future development. On what basis s h a l l the c o l l e c t i o n s of documents proceed and with what objectives in their several regions s h a l l future apostles of a c t i v i t y by companies lay their campaigns? Is there no way by which the guild of economic and business historians can block out a minimum scheme, and set up some central body with several objectives; f i r s t , to ascertain what portion of this scheme i s already accomplished or in the way of f u l f i l l m e n t ; thereafter to act as a clearing house of information upon current a c t i v i t i e s ; and perhaps to 85 g i v e a d v i c e - i f and when asked - upon the problems that now con f r o n t l i b r a r i e s and h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s and that may w e l l perplex l o c a l m i s s i o n a r y groups in subsequent years. Such a committee c o u l d l i k e w i s e be charged with the development of plans i n the whole area of business manuscript c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n . 1 1 I m p l i c i t i n Cole's d i s c u s s i o n was the no t i o n t h a t the a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a should somehow be based upon the requirements of business and economic h i s t o r i a n s . Even the comprehensive system d e v i s e d by Clough and Cochran to combat the i n c r e a s i n g volume of records was p r e d i c a t e d on the premise that the f i r s t p r i o r i t y of the a r c h i v i s t would be the w r i t i n g of h i s t o r y . Such an o r i e n t a t i o n i n v a r i a b l y caused problems i n the quest to develop a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a . In h i s a r t i c l e , Cole suggested that the users of business manuscripts never made t h e i r needs c l e a r nor had they faced up to the r e a l i t y t h a t not a l l of the records c o u l d be r e t a i n e d f o r t h e i r s t u d i e s . 1 2 To emphasize h i s c o n t e n t i o n , he c i t e d the example of J.G. Hamilton who, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a as i t r e l a t e d to the study of s o c i a l h i s t o r y , observed t h a t while not a l l the re c o r d s ever produced c o u l d be preserved permanently, v i r t u a l l y a l l documentation had the p o t e n t i a l to be v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t . 1 3 In p r o v i d i n g something l e s s than e x p l i c i t a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a , Hamilton concluded: Every despised and n e g l e c t e d document has p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Everyone of them may have the q u a l i t y , the content, that w i l l make i t f o r some earnest s c h o l a r a f t e r t r u t h , i f not a Rosetta stone; i f not a headstone of the co r n e r , at l e a s t part of the m a t e r i a l which under a master's hand, becomes a complete s t r u c t u r e . 1 f t T h i s e a r l y r a t i o n a l e of e s t a b l i s h i n g a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a based p r i m a r i l y on the requirements of h i s t o r i a n s was flawed. Too 86 often scholars f a i l e d to c l e a r l y outline what material they found most useful and dreaded the thought of throwing out anything which might be p o t e n t i a l l y useful in the future. For these reasons, as well as the rapid historiographic changes in the f i e l d s of both business and economic history, i t became exceedingly d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to formulate adequate appraisal c r i t e r i a to curb the increasing bulk in business records. This i n a b i l i t y to establish p r a c t i c a l appraisal c r i t e r i a had important ramifications as records managers usurped the position of the a r c h i v i s t s in the business community. Records managers showed business how to reduce the bulk problem and save storage space based on u t i l i t a r i a n and functional c r i t e r i a . Useless records were destroyed and semi-active material moved to inexpensive storage f a c i l i t i e s . Francis Blouin observes that corporate appraisal decisions were influenced by two factors, " ( 1 ) the climate of l i t i g a t i o n in modern U.S. society, and; ( 2 ) federal and state r e g u l a t i o n . " 1 5 He added that because fear of l i t i g a t i o n has perhaps been a greater inducement to destroy rather than preserve records, the only real external influence was the complex tangle of state and federal regulations which controlled both the creation and preservation of corporate documentation. 1 6 Where the records of business have been preserved, in the absence of an archival programme, there has been l i t t l e consideration of the intangible h i s t o r i c a l importance of the material as records managers increasingly focused upon the legal requirements governing the preservation of corporate records. 8 7 D u r i n g the ascendency of employing l e g a l c r i t e r i a f o r r e c o r d s a p p r a i s a l , t h e r e has been l i t t l e d i s c e r n a b l e s h i f t i n the p o s i t i o n of those s e e k i n g t o use h i s t o r i c a l c r i t e r i a t o d e v e l o p a p p r a i s a l p o l i c i e s . Most s c h o l a r s a c cept the n o t i o n t h a t s e l e c t i v e p r e s e r v a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l . For i n s t a n c e , h i s t o r i a n P e t e r M a t h i a s b e l i e v e s t h a t , even i f the space and r e s o u r c e s were a v a i l a b l e t o p r e s e r v e a l l b u s i n e s s m a t e r i a l , the bu l k i n v o l v e d would render i t unusable t o the b u s i n e s s h i s t o r i a n . He added t h a t , " a l l the a c t u a l c o n s t r a i n t s do not make t o t a l p r e s e r v a t i o n an o p t i o n f o r the a r c h i v i s t i n any c a s e : the a l t e r n a t i v e t o s e l e c t i v e p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n , not t o t a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . " 1 7 D e s p i t e t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , however, many h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s have approached the c o l l e c t i o n of b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s based p r i m a r i l y on the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h a t m a t e r i a l which would be of the g r e a t e s t use t o b u s i n e s s and economic h i s t o r i a n s i n the e x e r c i s e of t h e i r t r a d e . A r t i c l e s w r i t t e n w i t h the assumption t h a t h i s t o r i a n s a re the c h i e f c l i e n t s of b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s o f f e r l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o the development of a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a beyond what m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d from which t o w r i t e h i s t o r y . 1 8 J u s t as i n the e a r l i e r p e r i o d when a p p r a i s a l based p r i m a r i l y upon h i s t o r i c a l c r i t e r i a was not c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a l , so i t has remained. We s t i l l s u f f e r from the same weaknesses as r e s e a r c h e r s f a i l t o d e f i n e t h e i r needs, h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c t r e n d s c o n t i n u a l l y change the requirement of s c h o l a r s and the c r i t e r i a f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n remains r a t h e r vague. In a statement v e r y r e m i n i s c e n t of t h a t which C o l e c omplained about some t h i r t y y e a r s e a r l i e r , D.L. Lewis warned a r c h i v i s t s t o be v e r y c a r e f u l 88 about what they chose to throw out. Often a document, standing by i t s e l f , seems irrelevant and useless; but frequently, as most historians can att e s t , a single piece of paper, when placed beside other information can f i l l a gap as much as a stray piece of jigsaw puzzle enables one to complete a part of the puzzle i t s e l f . 1 9 Lewis also pointed out whimsically another reason for integrating the hist o r i a n in the appraisal process. Most historians, natural born st r i n g savers, can not bear to see p o t e n t i a l l y useful documents cast aside, and many of them have extra roomy a t t i c s . It could be that, by asking a hi s t o r i a n for help, the a r c h i v i s t w i l l not - to paraphrase a familiar expression - be losing an accession but gaining a private a r c h i v e s . 2 0 Reducing the discussion of the appraisal process to such parody has contributed l i t t l e to the formulation of a general policy for business records. The tendency to stress h i s t o r i c a l c r i t e r i a in appraising business records has resulted in an emphasis on the functional records which r e f l e c t s the end-product of bureaucratic a c t i v i t y . T y p i c a l l y , a l i s t i n g of those records which the hi s t o r i a n would find most interesting might include: Minute Books Executive Correspondence and Personal Papers Legal Records (Incorporations and Mergers) Operating Records Ledgers and Journals Photographs, Films and Slides Organizational Charts Annual Reports Oral History Press Clippings 89 Company Publications Unfortunately, t h i s view, based on external research requirements has tended to be too narrow and to provide only lim i t e d assistance in developing a general appraisal c r i t e r i a for corporate archives. Consequently, the formation of appraisal c r i t e r i a should depend solely on neither h i s t o r i c a l needs nor legal dictates but rather move toward the development of a more comprehensive outlook. Francis Blouin i s one of the f i r s t a r c h i v i s t s to i d e n t i f y the need to transcend the t r a d i t i o n a l approaches which focused on the types of records which should be preserved and consider instead a methodological framework within which the appraisal process should take place. In a 1979 a r t i c l e , Blouin reviewed A l f r e d Chandler's The V i s i b l e Hand and considered the impact of the r i s e of the v e r t i c a l l y - i n t e g r a t e d industry in North America upon both the production and use of business r e c o r d s . 2 1 He proposed looking closely at the function of records as a guide to t h e i r appraisal. In order to understand the character of organizational super-structures that have evolved into large corporate and government bureaucracies, the functions served by records w i l l become as important as the descriptive information in the records themselves. 2 2 Blouin moves us away from the appraisal of the records themselves and considered instead what they revealed about the structure of the corporation and the decision-making process therein. In a similar fashion, Frank Burke, in a discussion of archival theory argues that a r c h i v i s t s ought to look beyond just capturing information about what happened and endeavour to 90 acquire records for understanding why organizations function in the way they d o . 2 3 By concentrating on the mater ia l which accurately represents the decision-making process a r c h i v i s t s are best able to minimize the impact of "our in terpret i ve act ions" on the needs of future researchers . 2 " In advocating the a r c h i v i s t ' s increasing involvement in the study of the d e c i s i o n - making process in a corporate body, he poses the fo l lowing questions and observations. At what leve ls are decis ions r e a l l y made; and by what process? How does that process af fect what records w i l l be kept to document the po l icy development of the corporate body? Are we so imbued with the a r c h i v a l standard of keeping the records of the board of t rus tees , the president , the executive secretary , and the d i v i s i o n a l o f f i c e s , that we are re ta in ing the chaff while throwing out the wheat? There are some studies taking place among management organizat ions , one hears, that look into such problems; but do not a r c h i v i s t s even rea l i ze that the problems are a lso t h e i r s , i f they are to f u l f i l l an ob l igat ion to the future to reta in records representing a reasonably exact facs imi le of today's s o c i e t y . 2 5 Michael Lutzker also stresses that the e f f e c t i v e appra isa l of the tremendous quantity of records being created requires "some general framework of a n a l y s i s , that can be used to guide our judgment." 2 6 He proposed that a r c h i v i s t s u t i l i z e Max Weber's c l a s s i c a l ana lys is of bureaucratic structure in order to a s s i s t them in understanding the dynamics of the organizat ional hierarchy with in which the creat ion of the record occurs. In considering Weber's emphasis on the r a t i o n a l aspects of bureaucracy, inc luding s t ructure , ru les and precedents, Lutzker stressed the need to understand the administ rat ive processes as essent ia l in assessing the importance of records produced within p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2 7 This cognisance and understanding of the bureaucratic operations and funct ions , in tu rn , provides a 91 c l e a r e r i n s i g h t i n t o the documentary r e c o r d s produced and p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the a p p r a i s a l p r o c e s s . In what has perhaps been the most comprehensive study of the a p p r a i s a l , of b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s thus f a r , B l o u i n o u t l i n e s a s e t of f i v e elements n e c e s s a r y t o d e a l w i t h the i s s u e . These i n c l u d e , "(1) an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s t r u c t u r e of modern f i r m s ; (2) an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r u c t u r e and r e c o r d s g e n e r a t e d ; (3) an a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e b r e a d t h of h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h ; (4) a r e v i v a l of a c o a l i t i o n of i n t e r e s t s ; and, (5) an a p p r e c i a t i o n of a p p r a i s a l as an i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s . " 2 8 As B l o u i n , Burke and L u t z k e r propose, an i n d e p t h knowledge of the s t r u c t u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s fundamental t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e c o r d s g e n e r a t e d by b u s i n e s s f i r m s . In much the same way as B l o u i n uses A l f r e d C h a n d l e r ' s model of the v e r t i c a l l y - i n t e g r a t e d c o r p o r a t i o n , f u r t h e r s t u d i e s of modern f i r m s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l models. A l s o a r c h i v i s t s ought t o be aware of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e and the r e c o r d s g e n e r a t e d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d how r e c o r d k e e p i n g a f f e c t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and, c o n v e r s e l y , how t h a t s t r u c t u r e i n f l u e n c e d the r e c o r d s p r o d u c e d . 2 9 In t h i s r e g a r d , B l o u i n encouraged a r c h i v i s t s t o become more i n v o l v e d on two s e p a r a t e l e v e l s . In the m i c r o a p p r o a c h , he s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r c h i v i s t s u n d e r t a k e and p u b l i s h c a s e s t u d i e s based on a c t u a l a p p r a i s a l s of b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s . 3 0 T h i s a p p r o a c h , f o c u s e d on the r e c o r d s of an i n d i v i d u a l c o r p o r a t i o n , c o u l d then d e v e l o p an e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e which would a i d o t h e r s i n d e v e l o p i n g a p p r a i s a l 92 c r i t e r i a . The second, or macroapproach, encourages a r c h i v i s t s to become b e t t e r acquainted with the c u r r e n t environment a f f e c t i n g r ecord keeping ( f o r example, s t a t u t o r y requirements and broader study of c u r r e n t r e t e n t i o n p r a c t i c e s ) . 3 1 B l o u i n added an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the breadth of h i s t o r i c a l r e search to h i s l i s t of elements necessary to develop an a p p r a i s a l p r o c e s s . I t i s important to be aware of h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c trends i n r e s e a r c h , not so much as the s o l e g u i d i n g concept of records a p p r a i s a l , but r a t h e r as a secondary source of guidance as to what m a t e r i a l may be of long term value. Knowledge of new trends i n h i s t o r y might y i e l d new ideas about the ways in which the a r c h i v e s ' h i s t o r i c a l data may be employed to serve the needs of the company. A l s o , a broad knowledge of h i s t o r y h e lps to p l a c e the i n d i v i d u a l company wi t h i n a l a r g e r framework which might i n c l u d e the p o s i t i o n of the company in the i n d u s t r y or perhaps i t s r o l e i n r e g i o n a l or even n a t i o n a l development. To assess the p o s i t i o n of the company wi t h i n t h i s l a r g e r context and to i d e n t i f y those records which r e f l e c t t h i s r o l e , the a r c h i v i s t must have a sense of h i s t o r y which transcends the knowledge of the i n d i v i d u a l f i r m . In the past a r c h i v i s t s have not e x p l o i t e d a v a i l a b l e h i s t o r i c a l knowledge i n the a p p r a i s a l p r o c e s s . Another important element i n B l o u i n ' s formula i s the r e v i v a l of c o a l i t i o n of i n t e r e s t s which e x i s t e d at the height of the i n t e r e s t of the Business H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y . In order to ensure a p p r a i s a l d e c i s i o n s mindful of h i s t o r y i n the long run, r a t h e r than of l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e concerns i n the short run, a s t r o n g c o a l i t i o n w i l l have to again emerge....For the a p p r a i s a l of the c o r p o r a t e r e c o r d , such a c o a l i t i o n w i l l have to be i d e n t i f i e d and strengthened i n order 93 t o p r o v i d e the environment n e c e s s a r y f o r the u n d e r t a k i n g of major s t u d i e s of c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e s and r e c o r d s . 3 2 B l o u i n reasoned t h a t a s t r o n g c o a l i t i o n of e x e c u t i v e s , h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s such as t h a t which emerged i n the 1920s would be n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e the p r o p e r c l i m a t e w i t h i n which t o impose new c o n c e p t s i n v o l v i n g the a p p r a i s a l of r e c o r d s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s degree of c o o p e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e , might be d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e as w i t n e s s e d by the e x p e r i e n c e of the i l l - f a t e d B u s i n e s s A r c h i v e s C o u n c i l of Canada. F i n a l l y , B l o u i n s t r e s s e d the need t o r e c o g n i z e a p p r a i s a l as an i n t e l l e c t u a l i s s u e . A p p r a i s a l r e q u i r e s w e l l - r e s e a r c h e d frameworks of a n a l y s i s and must i n c l u d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p r o c e s s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , models of communication, and the n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n s of r e c o r d s i n a modern s o c i e t y . I t poses i n t e l l e c t u a l q u e s t i o n s because a p p r a i s a l problems r e q u i r e a n a l y s i s on a l a r g e and complex s c a l e . 3 3 J u s t as the s t r u c t u r e of b u s i n e s s e s has become more complex so t o o have the r e c o r d s they produce. Any a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d must r e f l e c t t h i s p r o c e s s . The q u e s t i o n of a p p r a i s a l i s e x t r e m l y i m p o r t a n t t o the b u s i n e s s a r c h i v i s t as he i s c a l l e d upon t o d e t e r m i n e what s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of the mountains of c o r p o r a t e documentation produced i s worth permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n . The growing c o m p l e x i t y of c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e s has a l s o rendered the p r o c e s s of a p p r a i s a l more complex. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o move away from the s t a n d a r d c h e c k l i s t of c o r p o r a t e r e c o r d s which s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d and t o implement a more comprehensive approach which i n c l u d e s knowledge of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the p r o d u c t i o n of r e c o r d s and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g 94 of h i s t o r y . In t h i s t a s k , the a r c h i v i s t might b e n e f i t by s e e k i n g i n p u t from both c o r p o r a t e employees and o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r s ; the former e x p e r i e n c e d i n the c u r r e n t use and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e c o r d s and the l a t t e r knowledgable about the l o n g - t e r m v a l u e of the documents. T h i s t r a n s i t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t g i v e n the m u l t i f a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s which, as e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e d , the a r c h i v a l programme can p r o v i d e t o the c o r p o r a t i o n . In b u i l d i n g upon the i n s i g h t s p r o v i d e d by Burke, L u t z k e r and B l o u i n , a r c h i v i s t s can a p p l y a more f l e x i b l e approach t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of e f f e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c a p t u r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n an age when the f l o w of t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n becomes more " f l u i d " and the n a t u r e of the r e c o r d l e s s r i g i d . The o t h e r p e r p l e x i n g problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the development of b u s i n e s s a r c h i v e s and w i t h which the a r c h i v i s t must be p r e p a r e d t o d e a l w i t h i s the q u e s t i o n of a c c e s s . To whom sh o u l d a c c e s s be g r a n t e d and on what b a s i s s h o u l d a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l be made a v a i l a b l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s ? The growth of p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s p r e s e n t s p a r t i c u l a r problems, f o r u n l i k e government-funded i n s t i t u t i o n s , the t a x p a y e r i s n o t a t l i b e r t y t o demand a c c e s s . 3 " G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the p r e v a i l i n g tendency w i t h i n t h e b u s i n e s s community over the y e a r s has been t o c l o s e c o r p o r a t e r e c o r d s t o p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . 3 5 R e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o b u s i n e s s r e c o r d s i s not a new phenomenon. In f a c t , one p a r t i c u l a r example can be t r a c e d back t o the- e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Concerned about the need t o b e t t e r manage and ensure the s a f e t y of t h e i r r e c o r d s , t h e d i r e c t o r s of the E a s t I n d i a Company adopted the f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y , whereby: 95 ...the s a f e custody of r e c o r d s became a p r i m a r y duty of the seniormost o f f i c i a l s of every department of the company; (b) o n l y the members of the d i f f e r e n t boards and t h e i r s e c r e t a r i e s concerned had a c c e s s t o d e p a r t m e n t a l r e c o r d s ; (c) a u t h e n t i c a t e d c o p i e s of r e c o r d s c o u l d not be had by any o f f i c i a l of l e s s rank than the p r e s i d e n t of each board, and such c o p i e s c o u l d be taken away o n l y f o r the o f f i c i a l use of the company i n I n d i a or ab r o a d ; (d) no r e c o r d s or c o p i e s of r e c o r d s c o u l d t h e r e a f t e r be ta k e n away, s o l d or o t h e r w i s e d i s p o s e d of from the d e p a r t m e n t a l a r c h i v e s . . . 3 6 T h i s e a r l y programme, which l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o c o r p o r a t e r e c o r d s even t o company p e r s o n n e l , u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n one of the f i n e s t c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s of h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s i n the w o r l d . In much the same way, modern b u s i n e s s has o f t e n sought t o r e s t r i c t a c c e s s t o i t s r e c o r d s . One of the major reasons f o r w h o l e s a l e r e s t r i c t i o n s on c o r p o r a t e m a t e r i a l i s the p e r s i s t e n t o p i n i o n of b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s t h a t " o u t s i d e r s a r e l i k e l y t o f i n d out v a l u a b l e t r a d e s e c r e t s or company ' s k e l e t o n s ' i n the o l d f i l e s . . . . " 3 7 T h i s s e n s i t i v i t y , which g e n e r a l l y " s p r i n g s from f e a r s of both c o m p e t i t i v e and p e r s o n a l e x p o s u r e , " 3 8 i s v e r y much a c a r r y o v e r from the muckraking e r a . In numerous s i t u a t i o n s , the b u s i n e s s a r c h i v i s t must ask t o whom he owes a l l e g i e n c e - the r e s e a r c h i n g p u b l i c or h i s c o r p o r a t e employer. He may c o n c l u d e t h a t because the company s i g n s h i s paycheck he s h o u l d r e s t r i c t the use of a l l c o r p o r a t e m a t e r i a l f o r f e a r t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s might p u r p o s e l y or i n a d v e r t e n t l y uncover i n f o r m a t i o n p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l t o the company and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , pose a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o the c o n t i n u e d support of the a r c h i v a l programme. However, t o adopt such a c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e i s "tantamount t o l o c k i n g the r e c o r d s i n the s a f e . " 3 9 In such c a s e s , the q u e s t i o n of d e v i s i n g an a c c e s s p o l i c y has i n e f f e c t been a v o i d e d , and t h e v a l u e of r e s e a r c h i n 96 the records of the company and society a l i k e i s consequently forsaken. Such an a t t i tude ra ises a number of important issues as indicated by Ann VanCamp. The s i tua t ion can lead to innumerable problems, and c r i t i c i s m s from outside researchers can often resul t in one-sided negative repor t ing . The a r c h i v i s t i s in the unenviable pos i t ion of t ry ing to discern "good" scholars from "bad," ones. An even greater problem can come from within the company when the a r c h i v i s t i s without guidel ines or precedents in deciding whether or not an employee from one department can use the records from another department." 0 The l a t t e r point ra ises another in te res t ing issue. The question of access i s not r e s t r i c t e d to outside researchers but i s also a matter o f . i n t e r n a l corporate p o l i c y . One must consider whether the basic premise of l imi ted or non-existent access p o l i c i e s a c t u a l l y serve the best in terests of the organizat ion . Terry Eastwood has argued that such a po l i cy ac tua l l y has the opposite e f fec t in that i t "only fuels suspicion between business and researchers [and] because of t h i s suspicion the business community's impact on society i s not recognized as i t should be ."* 1 In numerous cases, companies have opted to destroy sens i t i ve records rather than r i sk having them exposed to publ ic scrut iny and perhaps g iv ing r i s e to a var iety of l e g a l entanglements or at least in ju r ing the reputation of the company. Eastwood concluded h is remarks by arguing that "the i r respons ib le destruct ion of records i s l i k e l y to be more harmful than possession of reveal ing documents might be . "* 2 In addressing the reluctance of companies to grant access for fear of exposing past mistakes, Douglas Bakken made the fol lowing observations. As far as mistakes and the i r feared d isc losure i s conserned, h is tory frequently evidences that what come 97 t o be c a l l e d " m i s t a k e s " a re d e c i s i o n s made i n terms of the b e s t d a t a a v a i l a b l e a t the t i m e , and o n l y from the s t a n d p o i n t of h i n d s i g h t can th e y be c a l l e d " m i s t a k e s " . F u r t h e r , t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt i n my mind t h a t American b u s i n e s s has s u f f e r e d more p u b l i c m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as a r e s u l t of a p u b l i c i t y - m o t i v a t e d appearance of i n f a l l i b i l i t y than i t c o u l d ever s u f f e r as a r e s u l t of p u b l i c awareness of honest m i s t a k e s . * 3 I t seems c l e a r , t h e n , t h a t a s t r i c t p o l i c y of no a c c e s s t o o u t s i d e r s i s u l t i m a t e l y s h o r t - s i g h t e d . Far from c o n s t i t u t i n g a p o t e n t i a l l i a b i l i t y t o the company, the use of c o r p o r a t e r e c o r d s by o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r s might y i e l d u nexpected, p o s t i v e r e t u r n s f o r the f i r m . B u s i n e s s i s a v i t a l component of s o c i e t y . I t s opponents have, i n i g n o r a n c e , o f t e n m i s c o n s t r u e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s , however, p r e f e r a b l e t o demonstrate t h r o u g h an honest p r e s e r v a t i o n of documentation the t r u e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of a company's a c t i v i t i e s than t o l e a v e the matter open t o c o n j e c t u r e . As e a r l y as 1938, R a l p h Hower argued t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r p e r s o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n toward h i s t o r y , businessmen s h o u l d " a i d and encourage i m p a r t i a l r e s e a r c h i n the h i s t o r y of bu s i n e s s . ' " " 1 In r a t i o n a l i z i n g h i s p o s i t i o n , Hower o f f e r e d t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n . O t h e r w i s e an a c c u r a t e account of b u s i n e s s h i s t o r y cannot be w r i t t e n , and i n i t s p l a c e t h e r e w i l l be an i n c o m p l e t e and i n a c c u r a t e s t o r y which w i l l do more harm than good. Much of the r e c e n t h o s t i l i t y towards p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e has a r i s e n because the p u b l i c has been t o l d the m i s t a k e s and misdeeds of b u s i n e s s , and t h e r e has been no one t o s u p p l y c o r r e c t i v e d a t a on the o t h e r s i d e . The p u b l i c i t y m a t e r i a l p r e p a r e d by b u s i n e s s f a i l s t o h e l p because i t i s o b v i o u s l y b i a s e d and f r e q u e n t l y i n a c c u r a t e . The p u b l i c must have the f a c t s as they appear t o independent s c h o l a r s , and t h a t means t h a t b u s i n e s s , i n i t s own s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t , must make i t s r e c o r d s a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h . " 5 I f c o r p o r a t e e x e c u t i v e s t r u l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r companies c o n s t i t u t e a form of c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n l i v i n g up t o s o c i e t a l 9 8 expectations, they have everything to gain and l i t t l e to lose from presenting an accurate p icture of themselves to soc iety . L ikewise, society gains by being able to engage in informed dialogue with a f u l l understanding of the context which shaped modern business. To accomplish th i s goal the a r c h i v i s t , in conjunction with company executives, must develop a c l e a r l y defined programme governing access to a rch iva l m a t e r i a l . Ann VanCamp has suggested that such a po l icy should . . . c l e a r l y out l ine author i ty and procedures for governing access to records, a po l i cy that i s equitable for a l l concerned users, and one that protects the archives while at the same time making the company comfortable about arch ives . And most of a l l the po l icy should be easy to adminis ter .* 6 In adopting a c l e a r l y defined access po l i cy i t i s poss ib le to provide access while r e s t r i c t i n g use of mater ia l which the company fee ls might be p o t e n t i a l l y damaging. This can be achieved in three d i s t i n c t ways - "by c o n t r o l l i n g who can gain access to the records, by c o n t r o l l i n g what records may be accessed, and by c o n t r o l l i n g the a b i l i t y to quote or otherwise p u b l i c i z e the information obtained from the records . "* 7 By i s o l a t i n g and r e s t r i c t i n g that mater ia l which the company fee ls would be damaging, the a r c h i v i s t may thus be able to open other mater ials for the use of researchers. An important component of any access po l icy must be the inc lus ion of information about closed or r e s t r i c t e d m a t e r i a l . To be most e f f e c t i v e i t must contain "c lear descr ip t ions of r e s t r i c t i o n s , time l i m i t s on r e s t r i c t i o n s , processes for determining r e s t r i c t i o n s and a statement regarding l i n e s of administ rat ive author i t y . "* 8 For instance, i f the r e s t r i c t i o n s 99 are establ ished by the creat ing departments in consul tat ion with the a r c h i v i s t , then the po l i cy ought to r e f l e c t t h i s . It should a lso ind icate the avenues for appeal to seek spec ia l permission to use the r e s t r i c t e d m a t e r i a l . This methodical approach i s necessary so that the access po l i cy i s not viewed as an a r b i t r a r y or random app l i ca t ion of unneccesary r e s t r i c t i o n s on a rch i va l mate r ia l s . A l so , those records designated as closed because of the i r sens i t i ve nature, should be p e r i o d i c a l l y reviewed to determine i f the o r i g i n a l concerns of the company o f f i c i a l s might have been mit igated by t ime. If a f te r reviewing t h i s m a t e r i a l , the a r c h i v i s t fee ls i t no longer needs to be r e s t r i c t e d , he should approach the corporate executives with his recommendations and then seek wri t ten p e r m i s s i o n . 0 9 As a precaution to protect the reputation of the company the a r c h i v i s t might consider the imposition of some r e s t r i c t i o n s on the researchers r ight to quote or otherwise use the information co l lec ted from the archives . Richard Pol lay has pointed out that "terms and condit ions of usage of the information can be wr i t ten into a 'request for access' which, when signed by the user and the f i r m , becomes a contract whose v i o l a t i o n can be e a s i l y p r o s e c u t e d . " 5 0 Although there i s some question as to how " e a s i l y " the researcher might be prosecuted, such s t i p u l a t i o n s in access agreements are l i k e l y to deter misuse of the mater ia l gathered from the arch ives . The a rch i v i s t may a lso request that he be allowed to preview any material p r io r to pub l i cat ion to ensure that the facts are correct and that the act ions of the company have not been misrepresented. In seeking to provide access to h is a rch i va l hold ings , the 100 a r c h i v i s t should also remain cognizant of the wishes of the c reat ing departments with in the company as the formulation of a sound access pol icy w i l l have important ramif icat ions for other a r c h i v a l funct ions . P r i n c i p a l among these would be determining the success of the a rch i va l a c q u i s i t i o n programme. Edie Hedlin has ind icated that " in order to acquire those holdings that are p o t e n t i a l l y the most u s e f u l , namely those r e f l e c t i n g d e c i s i o n - making processes, the a r c h i v i s t must have the t rust of company o f f i c i a l s . " 5 1 To accomplish t h i s , the a r c h i v i s t should consider the impact of his access po l i cy upon the formulation of a cooperative and t rus t ing re la t ionsh ip between the archives and the rest of the company. Those sending the i r records to the archives may be hesitant to include the most sens i t i ve records i f they f e e l that too l i b e r a l an access po l i cy has been implemented. This question of access i s not unique to business archives as v i r t u a l l y a l l repos i to r ies contain some r e s t r i c t e d m a t e r i a l . However, the issue i s more pronounced in corporate archives because as a pr ivate archives they are free to e s t a b l i s h whatever rules governing access they deem appropr iate. Consequently, the corporate a r c h i v i s t might f ind himself facing something of a dilemma in formulating a sound access p o l i c y . I d e a l l y , a r c h i v i s t s should attempt to e s t a b l i s h as l i b e r a l a po l i cy as poss ib le . To do so, they must convince businessmen of the value of and prest ige to be derived from outside research. This a l so requires that the a r c h i v i s t s have a complete and comprehensive understanding of the mater ia l placed under the i r care . The quest to promote access to outside users must not, 101 however, be pursued at the expense of the company's reputat ion. In considering the broader imp l i ca t ions , one might suggest that i f companies suffer adverse p u b l i c i t y af ter es tab l i sh ing an a rch i va l programme, s i m i l i a r projects proposed in other companies would ce r ta in l y be jeopardized. In the f i n a l ana lys i s , the a r c h i v i s t must consider the fundamental goals of the corporate arch ives . F i r s t , and foremost, i s the preservation of the permanently valuable business records p r imar i l y for the in terna l use of the corporat ion. It therefore fol lows that i f the a r c h i v i s t f a i l s to convince the company of the benef i ts to be derived from adopting a l i b e r a l access p o l i c y , the point should not be pressed to a conf rontat ion . In her approach to the problem, Edie Hedlin takes a long-term view. There are higher p r i o r i t i e s that should concern the business a r c h i v i s t . He must proceed on the premise that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , accession and preservation of h i s t o r i c a l l y valuable mater ial now i s of greater importance than the a v a i l a b l i t y of any given set of mater ia l to any given i n d i v i d u a l . It i s better to have a closed company archives now, than to have no archives at a l l . 5 2 Business a r c h i v i s t s should endeavour to promote as much access to corporate information without knowingly i n j u r i n g the company's image or al lowing use of mater ia l which might a f fec t the f i r m ' s competitive pos i t ion in the marketplace. A r c h i v i s t s must a lso maintain l i n e s of communications with outside researchers in order to monitor changing research in te res ts and to keep that community informed as to the condit ions under which the a r c h i v a l programmes operate. Such an open and frank re la t ionsh ip might help to d iss ipate some of the mistrust which 102 has grown up between business and researchers as Marcel Caya has observed. Academic h is to r ians have always maintained a suspicious at t i tude toward i n s t i t u t i o n a l archives of any type. Because they ei ther consider them a too l of administrat ion or refuse to acknowledge the i r potent ia l for h i s t o r i c a l research, they have not, as a general r u l e , ac t i ve l y lobbied for the i r establishment as a bona f ide department of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 5 3 Consequently, a r c h i v i s t s should benefit from engaging in an expanded dialogue with those interested in u t i l i z i n g the records of business. This would include convincing researchers that es tab l i sh ing archives based pr imar i l y on administrat ive c r i t e r i a would also serve in the i r best in terests in the long run. At the same time, a r c h i v i s t s must work to educate business executives as to the benef i ts a r i s i n g from providing access to corporate records. Companies should not attempt to "gloss over" or ignore past ind isc re t ions as overlooked or misrepresented facts have a way of coming to the p u b l i c ' s at tent ion and history provides an opportunity to portray them accurately . Increasing access to business records promotes a greater sense of understanding of the v i t a l role played by business in the development of soc ie ty . It i s necessary to overcome t r a d i t i o n a l t rep idat ion about negative p u b l i c i t y fo r , as David Finn s t resses , "business leaders must accept the fact that f ree, vigorous, construct ive c r i t i s m helps improve the course of human e n t e r p r i s e . " 5 " Studies by outside researchers might provide useful administ rat ive tools to contribute to a greater understanding of the in te rna l operation of the company. Placing past experience within a broader context would c e r t a i n l y promote an enhanced appreciat ion of present condi t ions . 103 NOTES 1 T.R. Schellenberg, The Management of Archives (New York: Columbia Univers i ty Press, 1965), p. 29. 2 Franc is B lou in , "A New Perspective on the Appraisal of Business Records: A Review," American A rch i v i s t 42 (1979), p. 315. 3 A l f r e d Chandler, The V i s i b l e Hand: The Management Revolution in American Business (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1977). "For an excel lent d iscussion of the changes in the c l e r i c a l profession and the growing ro le of the o f f i c e in Canadian business see Graham S. Lowe, "The Administrat ive Revolution in the Canadian O f f i c e : An Overview". Lowe argues that as the o f f i c e became the administ rat ive centre of the economy, unsystematic, ad hoc o f f i c e procedures gave way to comprehensive administ rat ive systems designed to promote an orderly flow of information (p. 128). See also James W. Oberly, "The Information Revolution in H i s t o r i c a l Perspect ive , " Records Management Quarterly 16 (1982). 5Margaret Cross Norton, Norton On Archives, e d . , Thorton W. M i t c h e l l (Chicago: SAA, 1975), pp. 71-2 . 6Rae Leaper, "Records Centers: What's in the Box," Records Management Quarterly 18 (Apr i l 1984), p. 312. 7 B l o u i n , "A New Perspect ive , " p. 312. 8 Ralph M. Hower, "The Preservation of Business Records," B u l l e t i n of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society 11 (1937). 9 I b i d . , p. 43. 1 0 Arthur H. Cole, "The Accumulated Development of Unsolved Problems," Journal of Economic History 5 (1945), p. 44. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 57. 1 2 I b i d . 1 3 J . G . de Roulhac, "On the Importance of Unimportant Documents," The Library Quarterly 12 (1942), p. 518. " I b i d . 1 5 F r a n c i s B lou in , "An Agenda for the Appraisal of Business Records," in Arch iva l Choices: Managing the H i s t o r i c a l Record in An Age of Abundance, ed. Nancy E. Peace (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1 984), p. 69. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 70. 104 " P e t e r Mathias, "What Do We Want? What Do We Need? A Business H is tor ian Speaks to Business A r c h i v i s t s , " Business Archives 42 (November 1976), p. 8. ^Representat ive of t h i s pos i t ion from the enclosed bibl iography inc lude; Jack K ing , . "Co l lec t ing Business Records," (1964); D. L. Lewis, "Appraisal C r i t e r i a for Retention and Disposal of Business Records," (1969); W.H. Chaloner, "Business Records as a Source of Economic H i s to ry , " (1948/49); Robert Lovett , "The Appraisal of Older Business Records," (1952). 1 9 D . L . Lewis, "Appraisal C r i t e r i a for Retention and Disposal of Business Records," American A r c h i v i s t 32 (1969), p. 22. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 23. 2 1 B l o u i n , "A New Perspect ive" . 2 2 I b i d . , p. 319. 2 3 Frank Burke, "The Future Course of Arch iva l Theory in the United S t a t e s , " AA 44 (1981), p. 43. 2 f t I b i d . , p. 42. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 43. 2 6 M i c h a e l A. Lutzker , "Max Weber and the Analys is of Modern Bureaucratic Organizat ion: Notes Towards a Theory of A p p r a i s a l , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982), p. 119. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 124. 2 8 B l o u i n , "An Agenda for the Appraisal of Business Records," p. 71. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 73. 3 0 I b i d . 3 1 I b i d . 3 2 I b i d . , pp. 75-76. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 76. 3*Marion Orgain, "S ta r t ing a Company Arch ives , " Records Management Quarterly 8 (1974), p. 10. 3 5Richmond D. Wi l l iams , "Business Archives in the United S t a t e s , " in Papers of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Business History Conference," '. ed. Paul Uselding (Urbana: Univer is ty of I l l i n o i s Press, 1979), p. 41. 3 6 M . L . Ahulwal ia, "A S ign i f i can t Order on Records 105 Management," American A rch i v i s t 24 (1961), p. 87. 3 7Maynard B r i t c h f o r d , "The Relat ionship of Records Management to A c t i v i t i e s in the F i e l d of H i s to ry , " Business History Review 46 (1972), p. 228. 3 8 R i c h a r d M. P o l l a y , "Maintaining Archives for the History of A d v e r t i s i n g , " Special L i b r a r i e s 69 (1978), p. 153. 3 9 I b i d . , p. 152. "°Ann VanCamp, "Access P o l i c i e s for Corporate Arch ives , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982), 296. " 1 Betsy Matthews, "Rescuing Records to Make Corporate Arch ives , " En Route (May 1983), p. 68. " 2 I b i d . " 3Douglas A" Bakken, "Archives and American Business," Brewer' s Digest (May 1983), p. 40. ""Hower, "The Preservation of Business Records," p. 40. " 5 I b i d . "6VanCamp, "Access P o l i c i e s , " p. 298. " ' P o l l a y , "Maintaining Arch ives , " p. 152. "8VanCamp, p. 297. " 9 Karen White, "Es tab l i sh ing A Business Archives ," Records Management Quarterly 15 (1981), p. 16. 5 0 P o l l a y , p. 153. 5 1 E d i e Hedl in , "Access: The Company vs The Scholar , " Georgia Archive 7 (Spring 1979), p. 6. 5 2 I b i d . 5 3 M a r c e l Caya, "Why Worry About the Present When the Past i s Our Bus iness !? , " (Paper presented at the Business History Conference, Trent Un ivers i t y , 25 May 1984), p. 13. 5 "David F inn , "The Pr ice of Corporate Van i ty , " in Douglas N. Dickson (ed) Business and I ts Publ ics (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 198.4) , p. 104. 106 CHAPTER VI FUTURE PROSPECTS While the prospects for the establishment of business archives have improved somewhat in recent years, future development w i l l depend on two fac to rs . The f i r s t , and by far the most important, involves the success of a r c h i v i s t s in persuading corporate executives of the importance and u t i l i t y of es tab l i sh ing in-house programmes. An archives which can demonstrate innovat ive, tangible contr ibut ions to the operation of a company increases the prospects for future s u r v i v a l . The second factor i s the government's recognit ion of the v i t a l role played by business in the shaping of modern society and i t s wi l l ingness to par t i c ipa te in ensuring the preservation of corporate documentation. Governmental p a r t i c i p a t i o n could take the form of tax incentives and other inducements, or l e g i s l a t i o n which would require the retent ion of a r c h i v a l business records by law. Under the p reva i l i ng cond i t ions , businesses occas ional ly turn over the i r h i s t o r i c a l records to publ ic or un ivers i t y arch ives . This not only re l i eves the company of the costs incurred in preserving these records but can also prove to be quite l u c r a t i v e . A Canadian company donating i t s records to a government archives "can deduct 100% of the assessed value from i t s federal income tax over a l i m i t e d period of two years, and about 20% of the value i f i t donates the c o l l e c t i o n to another recognized i n s t i t u t i o n . " 1 This paper stressed e a r l i e r , however, 107 v that any attempt to systematical ly c o l l e c t corporate records in ex i s t ing publ ic or pr ivate i n s t i t u t i o n s i s not feas ib le given the space and s taf f l i m i t a t i o n s current ly confronting a rch i va l r e p o s i t o r i e s . Unfortunately, government taxat ion po l i cy has not been extended to include in-house a rch iva l programmes. In suggesting that government p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the preservation of business records in t h i s country i s inadequate, one need look no further than the treatment accorded to crown corporat ions. Current ly , the Publ ic Archives of Canada exerts no contro l over the records produced by t h i s country 's crown corporat ions. In t reat ing these organizations as pr ivate businesses, the i n i t i a t i v e to seek out advice and guidance for the preservation of the i r records has remained on a s t r i c t l y voluntary bas i s . John H. Archer, in ~ assessing t h i s s i tua t ion in 1972, questioned the wisdom of such an approach. . . .one wonders whether voluntary arrangements with federal crown or publ ic corporations are good enough. Crown corporations are every whit as ' p u b l i c ' as are the records of a department of government. Should the safekeeping of these records, then, depend upon the interest envinced by executive o f f i c e r s and the t a c t f u l diplomacy of the Dominion A r c h i v i s t ? If there i s any v a l i d i t y to the proposit ion that a pr ivate business making i t s ' l i v i n g ' in Canada owes to i t s host the safekeeping of i t s records for scholar ly research, then surely there i s the strongest case for ensuring that the publ ic records of publ ic or crown corporations come under adequate contro ls to prevent wanton d e s t r u c t i o n . 2 The government, although expressing some concern for the preservation of business records, has thus far only encouraged ex i s t ing companies to deposit the i r records in ex i s t ing r e p o s i t o r i e s . However, there has been l i t t l e p a r a l l e l support for es tab l i sh ing in-house programmes. Bel iev ing that records 108 should remain with the i r c reat ing agencies, the Consultat ive Group on Canadian Archives (1980) recommended that the government, working through the Publ ic Archives of Canada, should provide consult ing expert ise to companies . in te res ted in es tab l i sh ing archives and that a tax incentive be included as further encouragement. The Group made the fol lowing proposal . . . . t o the extent that a business archives i s serving the p u b l i c , that port ion of the annual cost of operating the archives should be seen for tax purposes, as a g i f t to the p u b l i c . Any archives has both an administrat ive role within the organizat ion and a pub l i c , c u l t u r a l or research ro le . The l a t t e r might be appraised p e r i o d i c a l l y by an outside committee of a r c h i v i s t s , and the corporation -would be able to deduct that port ion of the archives ' operating costs as i t would be a g i f t to the Crown. 3 Such a suggestion again ra ises the spectre of the problems associated with access p o l i c i e s and the role of the a r c h i v i s t in the i r formation. Despite the attendant d i f f i c u l t i e s , th i s a l te rnat i ve i s ce r ta in l y preferable to any suggestion that business records be co l lec ted by e x i s t i n g r e p o s i t o r i e s . A second a l te rnat i ve to the in-house programme would be to follow the example provided in Denmark where, beginning in the 1940s, a pr ivate business archives c a l l e d Erhvervarkivet was establ ished in Aarhus. Eventually taken over by the state and tax-supported, the repository c o l l e c t s i n d u s t r i a l and business records from a l l over Denmark and i s administered by a board of seven members inc luding the nat ional a r c h i v i s t and representatives of business and the u n i v e r s i t i e s . 4 While the i n s t i t u t i o n i s pub l ic l y - suppor ted , funds to promote h i s t o r i c a l research are s o l i c i t e d from pr ivate sources. Richard Berner addressed the • issue of government intervent ion in the preservation of corporate records in a 1974 109 a r t i c l e . In b r i e f l y o u t l i n i n g the r i s e of business and the impact of government regulat ions on business a c t i v i t y af ter World War I I , Berner observed that business "became more p o l i t i c a l , ' less purely economic in i t s behaviour ." 5 Subsequently, the most important corporate records have tended "also to be the most p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e " , and, the more subject a f irm i s to regu lat ion , "the less l i k e l y w i l l i t s most v i t a l papers s u r v i v e . " 6 Re f lec t ing on h i s t o r i c a l trends and potent ia l future developments, Berner p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y observed that even when archives had been estab l ished, access to that mater ial has been very l i m i t e d . Our best hope i s that only when the past of a f i rm no longer seems to bear on the present w i l l a f i rm be comfortable about opening i t s records for normal scholar ly research. But w i l l the records of a rch i va l value surv ive , that time span i f voluntarism continues as inducement for a rch i va l retention? It i s doubt fu l . And what, indeed, i s the impact on values we l i k e to associate with those of a democratic society? Amongst the most vocal exponents of these values are businessmen themselves. Yet, i r o n i c a l l y , as business becomes increasingly p o l i t i c a l and "publ ic" in i t s impact, the more secret ive and a rb i t ra ry i t must become - or so i t seems. 7 Consequently, Berner proposed that the larger f irms be compelled through l e g i s l a t i o n to es tab l i sh in-house programmes or to deposit the i r a rch i va l records in federa l l y regulated business records centres . Operation of these regional archives/records centres would be financed on a cost -shar ing basis by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g firms and the cost wr i t ten off as a business expense i f the businesses allowed reasonable access to outside researchers . 8 This notion of es tab l i sh ing cooperative repos i to r ies for business records i s not novel and can, in f a c t , be traced back 110 to O l iver W. Holmes' 1938 a r t i c l e . 9 He proposed that business firms " e s t a b l i s h and support cooperat ively cent ra l repos i tor ies i n recognized i n d u s t r i a l regions for business records from that r e g i o n . " 1 0 In suggesting that business v o l u n t a r i l y tax themselves to finance these operat ions, Holmes a lso envisaged these repos i to r ies as a place in which to maintain the records of defunct f i rms . In o u t l i n i n g h is p lan , Holmes observed that : The benef i ts from research in these storehouses of experience might not be d i rec t but they would be rea l in t ime . . . . There are ind iv idua ls in the business world who, i f they wished to do so, have the power to guarantee an endowment s u f f i c i e n t to preserve generations of business experience, and with i t much p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l h is tory for the future . 1 1 Holmes added that i f such programmes f a i l e d to operate on a voluntary b a s i s , " soc ie ty , act ing through i t s governmental representatives w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y step i n . . . . " 1 2 Undoubtedly, the potent ia l impact of governmental p a r t i c i p a t i o n in preserving corporate records, e i ther through l e g i s l a t i o n or tax incent ives , would be s i g n i f i c a n t . F i r s t , as part of a basic agreement with companies, the government would gain some measure of contro l over a rch i va l records. This might lessen the tendency of business to terminate a r c h i v a l programmes and destroy records fo l lowing a change in corporate management. A second condi t ion of government support would include provis ion of greater access to corporate records. In return for tax breaks, companies would be required to negotiate terms of access to t h e i r holdings with due considerat ion for the need to protect sens i t i ve corporate information. The whole concept of increasing government involvement in the preservation of business records i s based on the premise that the importance of t h i s mater ial to 111 the o v e r a l l development of society may be adequately demonstrated. Any attempt to convince the government of the significance of such an undertaking w i l l require the coordinated lobbying e f f o r t s of a r c h i v i s t s , businessmen, and his t o r i a n s . Consequently, i t w i l l be necessary to esta b l i s h channels of open and frank dialogue between these groups. Even while a r c h i v i s t s move increasingly into information management, i t w i l l be important to maintain l i n e s of communication with h i s t o r i a n s . No matter how far a r c h i v i s t s move away from their t r a d i t i o n a l roots, they and historians w i l l continue to enjoy a symbiotic relationship; the former providing the resources from which to write history, and the l a t t e r contributing expertise to the appraisal process and helping to draw attention to the importance of corporate documentation. Unfortunately, such cooperation may be d i f f i c u l t to obtain. A 1982 questionnaire produced by the Archives Committee of the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association revealed that only 11% of the respondents reported using business a r c h i v e s . 1 3 This figure ranked s i x t h out of ' s i x , f i n i s h i n g ahead of only a "miscellaneous" d i v i s i o n . It i s unclear whether th i s low percentage r e f l e c t s general lack of interest in using business records or i s rather a function of the current i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the material. The same survey indicated that business history ranked as the most neglected f i e l d based on the number of respondents drawing attention to the need for a c t i o n . 1 " These figures imply that there i s much work to be c a r r i e d out in this area in Canada. Francis Blouin has usefully suggested that i t would be 1 12 desi rable to s t r i v e to recapture the cooperative s p i r i t evident in the ear ly development of the Business H i s t o r i c a l Society which sought to l i n k the in terests of businessmen, h i s to r ians and a r c h i v i s t s . 1 5 For t h i s to happen a r c h i v i s t s , rather than h i s to r ians w i l l l i k e l y have to assume the leading ro le in the promotion of business arch ives . They are better able to design and maintain a rch i va l programmes that go beyond the preparation of corporate h i s t o r i e s . While emphasizing the u t i l i t y of an a rch i va l programme in administ rat ive terms, a r c h i v i s t s should also attempt to provide access to corporate records for h i s to r ians whenever p o s s i b l e . In th i s way, a r c h i v i s t s might be able to strengthen the i r bonds with h i s to r ians and come to depend on the i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in record appra isa l and future attempts to secure government incentives for corporate a rch iva l programmes. While the idea of government involvement in the preservation of business archives i s important and would const i tu te a s i g n i f i c a n t factor in determining the q u a l i t y and quantity of records preserved, a r c h i v i s t s cannot a f fo rd to s i t i d l y by awaiting t h i s development. In the in te r im, a r c h i v i s t s must take the i n i t i a t i v e . It i s for t h i s reason that a r c h i v i s t s must demonstrate how a rch i va l programmes can f u l f i l l administ rat ive functions with in the modern business f i r m . By broadening the basis upon which an archives might be j u s t i f i e d , the a r c h i v i s t increases h is chances of securing funding to operate an in-house programme. While t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e might be proposed for larger companies, smaller f irms may suggest that they lack the resources for s imi la r operations. These companies 113 might consider p lacing the i r records in spec ia l regional repos i to r ies modelled on the Danish example. Cooperatively- sponsored regional repos i to r ies as described by Holmes might be es tab l i shed . As an example of t h i s opt ion , a forest ry archives might be b u i l t in B r i t i s h Columbia which would preserve the records of a number of companies and perhaps labour unions involved in the industry . As in the manner of pr i vate records centres, the p a r t i c i p a t i n g organizat ions would contr ibute funds based on the amount of mater ials stored and the services required. Another a l te rnat i ve for companies unable or unwi l l ing to es tab l i sh an in-house programme i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of entering into a cost - shar ing arrangement with an ex i s t ing reposi tory . In commenting on some of the advantages to be offered by univers i ty archives in t h i s respect, N. C. Burkel made the fol lowing observations. They are widely dispersed geographical ly , making poss ib le regional c o l l e c t i o n s . They have facu l ty and s taf f expert ise necessary for developing an a c q u i s i t i o n strategy and for appraising technica l records. They have the monographic l i t e r a t u r e , scho lar l y journals , and government documents to complement a rch iva l sources. -They have the business, economics and graduate programs that provide research t o p i c s . 1 6 Such an option would be p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e to small businesses as a number of firms could pool the i r resources and share the cost of the extra space and s taf f required at an ex i s t ing a rch ives . In a d d i t i o n , the proximity of the business records to the un ivers i ty community would provide the company with an inexpensive source of research af ter es tab l i sh ing agreeable terms governing access. One of the main disadvantages 1 1 4 of t h i s option i s that a rch iva l records are phys ica l l y removed from the creat ing organization and may cause some delays in reference and r e t r i e v a l of information. In a d d i t i o n , the amount of time that an a r c h i v i s t can devote to other matters, such as p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the development of records and information management systems, w i l l be reduced. Regardless of the organization of the programme, whether an in-house archives , a cooperative regional operation or a cos t - sharing arrangement with an ex is t ing reposi tory , i t i s essent ia l that the task of car ing for the mater ia l be l e f t to a profess ional a r c h i v i s t . In many cases, the pos i t ion of a r c h i v i s t has been entrusted to a long-time employee with an interest in h istory who, although well-meaning and conscient ious, lacks the s k i l l s to f u l l y explo i t the potent ia l a rch i va l resources, which reduces the general ef fect iveness of the programme. In order to provide access to the corporate information contained in the records, the a r c h i v i s t must devise a comprehensive system for arranging, descr ibing and indexing the m a t e r i a l . These tasks are better l e f t to the profess ional a r c h i v i s t with a f i rm understanding of both basic a rch i va l p r i n c i p l e s as wel l as the requirements of users. This i s perhaps the most important of a l l functions for without e f f e c t i v e and e f i c i e n t access to corporate information, the value of the a rch i va l programme would be greatly diminished. * * * * * * There i s a subtle change of a t t i tude within the business community of which the a r c h i v i s t should be aware. Business leaders are beginning to acknowledge that mistakes were made in 1 15 the past , proving only that companies were guided by ind i v idua ls with human f a i l i n g s . The s h i f t away from repressing a l l mater ia l that f a i l s to portray the company in anything but the best poss ib le l i g h t i s increasingly evident in recent corporate h i s t o r i e s which chronic le the bad times as wel l as the good. In these pub l i ca t ions , the author i s often so le ly responsible for the in terpretat ions and the company only ensures the accuracy of the f a c t s . 1 7 The a t t i tude of h i s to r ians has also changed markedly from the biased accounts offered by the muckrakers as John Archer has observed. A developing sense of maturity permits company presidents to admit that excesses took place and that mistakes were made. Dark areas have occured in business h i s to ry , but the h i s t o r i a n i s not seeking evidence of a shocker for the sake of shocking. He i s interested in the whole story in the whole c o n t e x t . 1 8 A r c h i v i s t s must be w i l l i n g to continue to bu i ld upon and exp lo i t these moderating a t t i t u d e s . Corporate a r c h i v i s t s stand in an idea l pos i t ion to help integrate the worlds of the businessman and the scholar . In encouraging outside access to business records, a r c h i v i s t s can help to nurture a sense of " h i s t o r i c a l accountab i l i t y " which contr ibutes to companies' ro le as good corporate c i t i z e n s . I t must be remembered that the h i s t o r i c a l component of corporate arch ives , while very important, represents only one aspect of the potent ia l role of the a r c h i v i s t . His f i r s t p r i o r i t y must remain a demonstration of the ways in which an a r c h i v a l programme might contr ibute to the administ rat ive requirements of a company. While perhaps c a p i t a l i z i n g on the approach of an important company anniversary and the enhanced 1 1 6 sense of h i s t o r i c i t y which surrounds i t to e s t a b l i s h an a rch i va l programme, the a r c h i v i s t must move quick ly to broaden h is base of support within the company. One of the primary factors in encouraging a broader idea of the ro le of corporate archives involves the development of an adequate pool of a r t i c l e s on the subject . U n t i l very recent ly , the l i t e r a t u r e about business archives has tended to r e f l e c t a rather l i m i t e d o r i e n t a t i o n . A r c h i v i s t s have suggested the d e s i r a b i l i t y of es tab l i sh ing more a r c h i v a l programmes and h i s to r ians have ex to l led the v i r tues of researching in corporate documentation and indicated what records they consider to be of the most importance. Neither of these a t t i tudes have deta i led the tangible benef i ts s u f f i c i e n t l y to induce businessmen to e s t a b l i s h archives on a broad s c a l e . Fortunately , the focus of wr i ters has begun to expand of la te to include a more comprehensive examination of the ways in which a rch i va l programmes could be successfu l l y integrated into the corporate world. The pub l icat ion of a recent issue of American A r c h i v i s t , devoted exc lus ive ly to the subject of corporate archives i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y encouraging sign of t h i s s h i f t . 1 9 L ikewise , recent a r t i c l e s by Francis B lou in , which r e f l e c t upon the need to develop new appra isa l c r i t e r i a for business records, have a lso heralded a changing p e r s p e c t i v e . 2 0 Unfortunately , one element s t i l l conspicuous by i t s absence i s the case study. A review of the l i t e r a t u r e reveals l i t t l e information concerning rea l experiences with in ind i v idua l companies. Too of ten , a r t i c l e s have addressed the issue only in broad terms. It might be suggested that a r c h i v i s t s concentrate 1 17 on chron ic l ing both successes and f a i l u r e s in attempting to es tab l i sh and maintain corporate arch iva l programmes. Such an exchange of information would be invaluable to those in a var iety of corporate set t ings who confront problems of a s imi la r nature. In a re lated ve in , a r c h i v i s t s might a lso seek to publ ish more a r t i c l e s in business publ icat ions where corporate executives would be able to read about the various functions which archives have served in other f i rms . In t h i s way i t might be possib le to develop a higher p r o f i l e for archives in the business community and help to d ispe l outmoded notions about the i r l i m i t e d uses. In the future , the encouragement of a case study approach and a growing emphasis on publ ishing in journals which reach businessmen could have important ramif icat ions for the future of business arch ives . The multitude of intangib les involved make i t d i f f i c u l t to accurately assess the future prospects for business archives . One fac to r , however, remains abundantly c lear - a r c h i v i s t s must take the lead in promoting corporate arch iva l programmes. The a r c h i v i s t must be w i l l i n g to adopt an act ive ro le in developing archives into a recognized business a c t i v i t y within the corporate community to encourage the f u l l e s t possible u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s records. Although business archives may indeed be considered a "hard s e l l " , the imaginative inf luence and the perserverance of the a r c h i v i s t in developing broader appl icat ions of h i s services w i l l c e r t a i n l y y i e l d benef i ts in the long-run and, as a by- product, w i l l ensure the preservation of that part of our c u l t u r a l heritage embedded in the records of business. 118 NOTES 'Doug Fether l ing , "Thanks for the Memories," Canadian Business (October 1980), p. 129. 2John Archer, "Business Records: The Canadian Scene" in Canadian Business History , ed. D.S. Macmillan (Toronto: McClel land and Stewart, 1972), p. 291. 3 Consul tat ive Group on Canadian Archives, "Business Arch ives , " in Canadian Archives: A Report to the SSHRCC (Ottawa: SSHRCC, 1980), pp. 92-93. "Joseph W. Ernst , "The Business A r c h i v i s t : Problems and Perspect ives , " Business History Review 44 (1970), p. 538. 5 Richard C. Berner, "Business Archives in Perspect ive , " Journal of Forest History 18 (1974), p. 33. 6 I b i d . 7 T bid . B I b i d . , p. 34. 9 01iver W. Holmes, "The Evaluation and Preservation of Business Arch ives , " American A rch i v i s t 1 (1938). 1 ° I b i d . , p. 181. 1 1 I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . , p. 182. 1 3Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Assoc ia t ion , Newsletter 9 (Autumn 1983), p. 6. 1 " I b i d . , p. 7. 1 5 F r a n c i s B lou in , "An Agenda for the Appraisal of Business Records," in Arch iva l Choices: Managing the H i s t o r i c a l Record in an Age of Abundance, ed. Nancy E. Peace (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1984), p. 75. 1 6 N . C . Burke l , Business Archives in a Univers i ty Se t t ing : Status and Prospects ," College and Research L i b r a r i e s 41 (1980), pp. 227-28. 1 'Examples of th i s more open re la t ionsh ip between company and author occur in two recent corporate h i s t o r i e s - Donald McKay, Empire of Wood: The Macmillan Bloedel Story (1982) and Earle Gray, Wi ldcat ters : The Story of P a c i f i c Petroleums and Westcoast Transmittion (1982"T^ 1 8 Archer , "Business Records," p. 290. 119 1 9 American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982). 2 0 B l o u i n , "A New Perspective on the Appraisal of Business Records: A Review" and "An Agenda for the Appraisal of Business Records". 1 2 0 CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION This study of corporate archives in North America has argued that while business has played a s i g n i f i c a n t ro le in the development of soc ie ty , attempts to preserve i t s records have met with only l im i ted success. The emergence of the current s i t u t a t i o n may be blamed on a number of factors inc luding the l i n g e r i n g e f fec ts of the negative h i s t o r i c a l accounts published ear ly in t h i s century by muckrakers, the growing tendency of business to view the increasing accumulation of records as a l i a b i l i t y , and the f a i l u r e of a r c h i v i s t s to j u s t i f y the i r programmes as more than a source to f a c i l i t a t e the wr i t ing of h i s t o r y . Evidence has demonstrated that t h i s h i s t o r i c a l approach has held only l i m i t e d appeal . Consequently, i t has been argued that in the future the corporate a r c h i v i s t must become something more than a passive curator await ing the a r r i v a l of " r e t i r e d " documentation which no longer f u l f i l l s lega l or administ rat ive requirements. He must a lso be w i l l i n g and able to p a r t i c i p a t e in records and information management. In other words, the corporate a r c h i v i s t should endeavour to escape from the " h i s t o r i c a l shunt" which, as both Norton and Taylor have warned, has d r a s t i c a l l y l i m i t e d the ef fect iveness and resources of a r c h i v a l programmes. Increasingly , a r c h i v i s t s must adopt a broader notion of the po tent ia l functions of archives wi th in a corporate s e t t i n g . If a r c h i v i s t s accept as one of the i r primary 121 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the ob l igat ion to preserve the records of past business enterpr ises in North America, then they must formulate ideas as to how th i s might be most e f f e c t i v e l y accomplished. Given the tremendous volume of corporate mater ia l produced annual ly , publ ic ly -sponsored i n s t i t u t i o n s are i l l - e q u i p p e d to carry out the massive c o l l e c t i o n programmes necessary to achieve t h i s ob jec t i ve . The obvious a l t e r n a t i v e involves the establishment of in-house a rch iva l programmes, p a r t i c u l a r l y within the larger corporat ions. The proposal to encourage in-house operations i s c e r t a i n l y not new. I t f i r s t surfaced in the la te 1930s and more prevelant ly in the 1940s as the f o l l y of attempting to c o l l e c t the rap id ly increasing records of business was recognized. Ear ly e f f o r t s to preserve business archives were based on a desire to accumulate records from which object ive business h i s to ry could be wr i t ten which, i t was reasoned by academic h i s t o r i a n s , would const i tu te s u f f i c i e n t grounds upon which to j u s t i f y the cost of maintaining the records. Unfortunately, th i s approach lacked broad appeal . Businesses experiencing the increasingly s t i f l i n g e f fec t of an inundation of records often opted for the tangible returns of fered by records management which held out the promise of systematic contro l based on legal and funct ional c r i t e r i a . As a r e s u l t , the development of corporate archives has lacked an i d e n t i f i a b l e focus since the 1950s. Although achieving l imi ted success, business archives are often s t i l l viewed as l i t t l e more than "window dressing" rather than as a recognized business a c t i v i t y and as such are susceptible to c losure as an unnecessary f r i l l . 122 This thes is has suggested a need to return to the "Nortonian" idea of archives which emphasizes the administrat ive q u a l i t i e s of a rch i va l programmes over the requirements of outside researchers. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary in the corporate set t ing where great s ign i f i cance i s placed on tangible returns and there i s often l i t t l e recognit ion of the importance of c u l t u r a l concerns. In order to make archives more a t t r a c t i v e to business, a r c h i v i s t s must adopt a broader perspective of the serv ices that they might o f fer and think in terms of how the i r resources could be u t i l i z e d in the da i l y operations of the company. This t r a n s i t i o n from a passive, h istory -based operation to an integrated, recognized business a c t i v i t y does not require that the a r c h i v i s t becomes a records manager whose sole goal is cost e f f i c i e n c y . Instead, the a r c h i v i s t ' s goal i s to i n s t i l a rounded concern for e f f i c i e n t management of current and semi- current records and the preservation of adequate a rch iva l documentation with which to understand the company's growth and development - for the f i r m ' s own sake and for the benefit of society at la rge . To advocate such an or ientat ion i s not to suggest a severing of t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s with the h i s t o r i c a l community. The good a r c h i v i s t w i l l always be concerned with h i s t o r y . It i s e s s e n t i a l to maintain an open dialogue with h i s t o r i a n s to add the i r input into the appra isa l process, for they keep up with the l a t e s t h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l trends and can a lso r e f l e c t upon the long-term research value of corporate records. In turn, a r c h i v i s t s should endeavour to provide access to corporate mater ia l for q u a l i f i e d outside researchers whenever poss ib le . 123 Although i t has been a sens i t i ve issue in the past , al lowing access to company records would have important benef i t s . It would nurture a sense of corporate " h i s t o r i c a l accountab i l i t y " and, in tu rn , contr ibute to a greater understanding between business and the p u b l i c . In a d d i t i o n , scholar ly research might prove to be a very e f f e c t i v e method of organizing information locked with in the company's o ld records which can then be used as an administ rat ive t o o l . While research i s useful in a number of ways, the a r c h i v i s t should not attempt to provide access at any cos t . I t i s important for the a r c h i v i s t to e s t a b l i s h as his f i r s t p r i o r i t y the preservation of the corporate records and to avoid anything which might jeopardize t h i s ob jec t i ve . The a r c h i v i s t should opt to emphasize the administrat ive functions over h i s t o r i c a l research because the former i s more l i k e l y to appeal to businessmen. Past experience has indicated that exc lus ive re l iance on h is tory as j u s t i f i c a t i o n for archives has met with only l i m i t e d success in the business world. One of the hew areas into which a r c h i v i s t s should increas ingly move i s the development of " information p o l i c y " which, as Mari lyn G e l l has suggested, involves a complex set of i n t e r - r e l a t e d issues "concerned with the c rea t ion , production, c o l l e c t i o n , management, d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e t r i e v a l of in fo rmat ion . " 1 The proposed movement of corporate a r c h i v i s t s toward increased concern with administ rat ive functions and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in corporate information appears to be the only p r a c t i c a l method of ensuring the preservation of the permanently- valuable records of business. Success in appealing to these c r i t e r i a in the future would have important rami f icat ions for f a c i l i t a t i n g the spread 124 of s p e c i a l i z e d , decentra l i zed i n s t i t u t i o n a l archives in h o s p i t a l s , unions, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and businesses. Indeed, the necessity of demonstrating the tangible returns from arch i va l programmes may become increasingly important for the whole a rch i va l community and may, in the process, produce a better a r c h i v i s t . The suggested s h i f t in focus away from the s t r i c t l y h i s t o r i c a l approach towards a broader perspective might a lso be worthy of study for the general a r c h i v a l community. Consideration of t h i s reor ientat ion with in a broader context i s t imely because the profession as a whole i s cur rent ly caught up in an on-going debate as to whether a r c h i v i s t s should move increasingly into the information f i e l d or rather restore the i r t r a d i t i o n a l humanistic t i e s with h i s t o r i a n s . As i l l u s t r a t e d by the experience of business arch ives , i t i s now time to stand back and reassess the p o s i t i o n of the a r c h i v a l profession and to develop a strategy for future development. A r c h i v i s t s should not soften in the i r resolve to adopt, as the i r fundamental ob ject i ve , the preservat ion of permanently valuable records which r e f l e c t an accurate account of our soc ie ty . The question then becomes how t h i s might be done most e f f e c t i v e l y . Such a question r e f l e c t s the necessity of expanding the purview of the a r c h i v i s t of the future and not l i m i t i n g him to the t r a d i t i o n a l ro le of the passive c o l l e c t o r . In the debate about the future course of a rch i va l development which has c r y s t a l i z e d into two, seemingly mutual ly - exclusive camps, the a r c h i v a l community would be wel l advised to incoporate elements of each into a broader theory of archives . 1 2 5 In t h i s endeavour i t might be p a r t i c u l a r l y useful to bu i ld upon the foundations l a i d by Hugh Tay lo r , 2 Michael Lu t zker , 3 Frank Burke," and Francis B l o u i n , 5 a l l of whom bel ieve that the development of a r c h i v a l theory should be based upon a c loser examination of the structure and dynamics of bureaucratic organizations as wel l as the subsequent impact on the records produced. In r e f l e c t i n g on the p o s s i b i l i t y of adding another dimension to the expert ise of future a r c h i v i s t s , Michael Lutzker posed the fo l lowing quest ions: Can he or she be the appropriate person to.suggest how bureaucratic c o n f l i c t might be mediated, how i n s t i t u t i o n a l goals might be c l a r i f i e d , indeed in what ways a dysfunctioning structure might be improved? Is i t fantasy to suggest that the a r c h i v i s t might eventual ly occupy such an enhanced r o l e , one not now incorporated in t r a i n i n g manuals?6 New v i s t a s are opening up into which a r c h i v i s t s can step i f they are w i l l i n g . Some w i l l continue to complain that any suggestion of a s h i f t in focus away from the h i s t o r i c a l community w i l l s p e l l an end to the a rch i va l p ro fess ion . However, i f the a r c h i v i s t i s w i l l i n g to take act ion to explore new d i rec t ions and become responsive to changing requirements, they w i l l be able to move into the future under the i r own terms. Fa i lu re to adopt a s u f f i c i e n t l y broad perspective could wel l resu l t in the decl ine of the a rch i va l profession fo r , in any evolutionary process, i n a b i l i t y to adapt to changing condit ions resu l t s in eventual e x t i n c t i o n . Consequently, a r c h i v i s t s in general should endeavour to escape from the " h i s t o r i c a l shunt ' , which has long l i m i t e d the i r r o l e , and become more responsive to the needs of the future to bu i ld upon the experiences of the 126 p a s t . 127 NOTES 'Mar i lyn K. G e l l , " S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l Impact of Information Technology," Special L i b r a r i e s 72 (Apr i l 1981), p. 100. 2Hugh Taylor , "Information Ecology and the Archives of the 1980s," Arch ivar ia 18 (Summer 1984). 3 Michael Lutzker, "Max Weber and the Analys is of Modern Bureaucratic Organizat ion: Notes Towards a Theory of A p p r a i s a l , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982). "Frank G. Burke, "The Future Course of Arch iva l Training in the United S ta tes , " American A r c h i v i s t (1981). 5 Franc is B lou in , "An Agenda for the Appraisal of Business Records," in Arch iva l Choices: Managing the H i s t o r i c a l Record in an Age of Abundance, ed. Nancy E. Peace (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Co. , 1984). 6 Lutzker , p. 130. 128 APPENDIX I CANADIAN BUSINESS ARCHIVES QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire was not intended to capture comprehensive information d e t a i l i n g a l l forms of corporate a r c h i v a l programmes in Canada as that would have required a massive mai l ing to hundreds of f i rms . Instead, the questionnaire was designed to reveal something of the character of those corporate archives known to be operating in t h i s country. Consequently, questionnaires were mailed to companies l i s t e d in the Directory of Canadian Archives (1981) and the Directory of Business Archives in the United States and Canada (1980). (* Not a l l respondents f i l l e d out a l l the sections of the questionnaire and, as a r e s u l t , f igures do not always balance.) Names of Respondents : A i r Canada Alcan Aluminum Bank of Canada Bank of Montreal B.C. Telephone Company Canadian National Canadian Opera Company Hydro Quebec Labat t ' s Brewing Company L t d . London L i f e Insurance Company Ontario Hydro The Royal Bank of Canada Sun L i f e Assurance Company of Canada Toronto Dominion Bank QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS Total number of respondents 15 Total number completing survey 11 Or ig ins of Programmes Decades in which a rch i va l programmes es tab l i shed . 1950s 0 1960s 1 1970s 6 1980s 0 Records Total volume of holdings in l i near fee t . >1 00 1 1 00-500. 3 500-1 ,000 0 1 ,000-2,000 1 2,000-3,000. 2 3,000-4,000 1 Reposi tor ies report ing holdings other than paper. Film/Tape/Video 6 Photographs/Slides 6 Art i facts 3 Memorabilia .2 Discs 1 Advert is ing P o s t e r s . . . . . . 1 Plans 1 C l ippings 1 Microf i lm 1 Archives report ing use of automation. Yes 2 No .5 Limited Use/Under S t u d y . . . . . 3 Companies c o l l e c t i n g pr ivate papers r e l a t i n g to company, Yes 9 1 30 S ta f f ing Companies reporting from 1 to 6 f u l l - t i m e employees. 1 5 2 0 3 2 4 0 5 0 6 1 (Seven i n s t i t u t i o n s reported one part - t ime employee.) T i t l e s of those working in the archives . A r c h i v i s t 7 Clerk 6 Ass istant A r c h i v i s t 3 Project Ass i s tant . 1 Photograph A r c h i v i s t 1 Archives Technician 1 F i lm Library Coordinator 1 L ibrary Clerk 3 BUDGET Total budget for the l a s t f i s c a l year. >$1 0 , 000. 1 $10,000-100,000 0 $100,000-200,000 1 $200,000-300,000 2 Budget incorporated into department 2 CORPORATE ORGANIZATION To whom does the head of the a rch iva l programme report? Corporate Secretary 3 V . P . Administrat ion 1 G.M. Publ ic A f f a i r s and Advert is ing 1 D i r . of P u b l i c i t y and Publ ic Relat ions 1 V . P . Publ ic A f f a i r s 1 Manager - Purchasing Services 1 Chief Economist 1 Manager - Corporate Services . . . 1 Does your company have a records management programme? Yes No. 10 2 131 If so, i t i s i t s operation integrated with the archives? Yes 3 No 7 Companies report a rch i va l input into the preparation of retent ion schedules. Yes 7 No 3 Does your company maintain a l i b r a r y ? Yes 9 No 1 ACCESS TO RECORDS Most companies reported al lowing employees access to records to s a t i s f y work requirements. Departments which represented the greatest in te rna l users of the arch ives . Publ ic A f f a i r s 5 Senior Management 4 Publ ic Relat ions 3 Market ing 3 Legal 2 Operations . .2 Po l i cy Department 1 A c t u a r i a l 1 Human Resources 1 Engineering 1 Companies al lowing access to archives for outside researchers. (Most companies reported that they would allow access to non - res t r i c ted mater ia l at the d i s c r e t i o n of the a r c h i v i s t . ) 1 32 PHYSICAL FACILITIES Number of square feet allocated to the archives. > 1 00 1 100-1,000 ...1 1 ,000-2,000 4 2,000-3,000 2 3,000-4,000 1 4,000+ 1 (7,000) Number of days per week the archives i s open 5 ..7 3 2 Not open on a regular basis 1 RELATED ACTIVITIES Mandate broader that purely a r c h i v a l function ( i e . l i b r a r y or museum component.) Yes 7 No 3 (Tended to have museum components) Have archival records been used in the preparation of a company history? Yes ... 1 0 No 0 Professional memberships held by s t a f f . 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