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Study of the archival record and its context : meaning and historical understanding Meyer zu Erpen, Walter 1985

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STUDY OF THE ARCHIVAL RECORD AND ITS CONTEXT MEANING AND HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDING by WALTER J . MEYER ZU ERPEN BA, Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in THE FACULTY OF ARTS School of L ib ra ry , A rch iva l and Information Studies , and the Department of History We accept t h i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1985 © Walter J . Meyer zu Erpen, 1985 In presenting t h i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is or her representat ives . It i s understood that copying or publ icat ion of t h i s thes is for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of H i s to ry , and School of L ib ra ry , A rch iva l and Information Studies The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: 6 September 1985 i i Abstract The claim of a r c h i v i s t s to be a scholar ly profession i s dependent upon the i r a b i l i t y to methodically study and understand the meaning of the records in the i r care . Without such contextual information about the record as the name of i t s creat ing agency, the reason for i t s c rea t ion , and the author i ty by which i t was created, a r c h i v i s t s and researchers are in a poor pos i t ion to assess the value and v a l i d i t y of i t s informational content. Without knowledge of the re la t ionsh ip of the record to other record s e r i e s , they are l i k e l y to overlook add i t iona l supporting and/or contradictory documentation and thereby miss a part of the t ruth they seek. This thesis is d i r e c t l y concerned with the means by which a rch i va l sources might be assessed to determine the value of the h i s t o r i c a l evidence they conta in . It proposes a conceptual framework by which study of the o r i g i n a l , primary, and secondary meanings of the arch iva l record might be approached. Examples are drawn from close examination of the records of the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo surv iv ing from the period 1875-1904. While acknowledging that extensive study of the s ign i f i cance of documentation might be impossible for a r c h i v i s t s in the i r d a i l y work, t h i s thes is concludes that c loser at tent ion must be paid to sources documenting the contextual environment of the record. Such sources are essent ia l to the furtherance of understanding which i s the information profess ion 's ult imate goa l . Table of Contents Abstract i i L i s t of Figures . v i Acknowledgement v i i Note on Format and Abbreviations v i i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter II THE ARCHIVAL RECORD: CONTEXT AND UNDERSTANDING 12 Chapter III THE ELEMENTS OF PRIMARY MEANING 19 THE STATUTORY BASIS OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT 21 MUNICIPAL-PROVINCIAL REPORTING STRUCTURE 24 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN MUNICI PALITES 26 THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF NANAIMO'S INCORPORATION . . . 2 8 THE EXTENSION OF NANAIMO'S MUNICIPAL LIMITS 33 STATUTORY AUTHORITY AND ORIGINAL MEANING 34 ADMINISTRATIVE CONTEXT AND THE CREATION OF RECORDS . . 4 5 PROVENANCE 46 ORIGINAL ORDER 49 FORM 50 INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RECORD SERIES 58 HISTORY OF THE RECORD AND RECORD-KEEPING PRACTICES . .64 CUSTODIANSHIP 7 4 AUTHENTICITY AND INTEGRITY OF THE RECORD 77 THE HUMAN ELEMENT IN RECORDS MAINTENANCE 85 STATE AND EXTENT OF THE ARCHIVAL RECORD .95 Chapter IV MEANING AND UNDERSTANDING: AN ILLUSTRATION , 99 CITY ASSESSOR 99 RECORDS 101 COURT OF REVISION 103 RECORDS 104 Chapter V CONCLUSION 107 i v BIBLIOGRAPHY 112 1. PRIMARY SOURCES 112 1.1 Published Mater ia ls 112 1.1.1 Government Publ icat ions 112 1.1.2 Newspapers 115 1.2 Arch iva l Mater ia ls 115 1.2.1 C i ty of Nanaimo Archives 115 1.2.2 Nanaimo Centennial Museum Archives 115 1.2.3 P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia 115 2. SECONDARY SOURCES 117 APPENDICES 122 APPENDIX A - COLONIAL ACTS, ORDINANCES, AND PROCLAMATIONS 123 A.1 Colony of Vancouver Island 125 A.2 Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia 128 A.3 United Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia 131 APPENDIX B - STATUTES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 133 APPENDIX C - SESSIONAL PAPERS 143 APPENDIX D - LIST OF MUNICIPALITIES, 1860-1904 148 APPENDIX E - LETTERS PATENT 149 APPENDIX F - NANAIMO: MAYORS AND ALDERMEN 150 F. 1 Mayors 150 F.2 Municipal Councils 151 APPENDIX G - NANAIMO: COUNCIL CHAMBERS AND CITY HALL . . . 1 6 0 APPENDIX H - NANAIMO: MUNICIPAL OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES .163 H.1 Clerk of the Municipal Counc i l , C i ty Assessor, C i ty C o l l e c t o r , and Clerk of the Mayor's Court .163 H.2 C i ty Clerk and Ci ty Co l lec tor 163 H.3 C i ty C lerk , C i ty C o l l e c t o r , and Ci ty Treasurer . . . 1 6 4 H.4 C i ty Assessor 164 H.5 Assistance in the City C l e r k ' s Of f ice 164 H.6 Ass istant C i ty Clerk 164 H.7 Ass istant C i ty Clerk and Clerk of the Po l ice Court 164 V H.8 City C lerk , Treasurer, and Caretaker 165 H.9 Ci ty C lerk , Treasurer, and Cemetery Clerk 165 H.10 City Assessor, C o l l e c t o r , and Po l i ce Court Clerk 165 H. 1 1 Ci ty Auditor . 1 66 H.12 Returning Of f i ce r 166 H.13 Health Of f i ce r 167 APPENDIX I - CITY OF NANAIMO ARCHIVES: INTRODUCTION 168 Ci ty of Nanaimo Archives Inventory, 1 875-1904 168 APPENDIX J - CNA: CITY CLERK 171 APPENDIX K - CNA: CITY ASSESSOR 208 APPENDIX L - CNA: CITY COLLECTOR 210 APPENDIX M - CNA: CITY TREASURER 212 APPENDIX N - CNA: FINANCE COMMITTEE 215 APPENDIX 0 - CNA: WATERWORKS DEPARTMENT 217 APPENDIX P - CNA: CITY AUDITOR 218 APPENDIX Q - CNA: CEMETERY TRUSTEES 230 APPENDIX R - CNA: MUNICIPAL COURT OF REVISION 232 APPENDIX S - CNA: LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH 233 APPENDIX T - CNA: LICENSING COURT 235 APPENDIX U - CNA: SCHOOL TRUSTEES 236 APPENDIX V - CNA: POLICE COMMISSIONERS 238 APPENDIX W - CNA: NANAIMO LITERARY INSTITUTE 2 40 APPENDIX X - CNA: McGREGOR FAMILY 242 APPENDIX Y - CNA: MISCELLANEOUS 243 v i L i s t of Figures 1. Organizat ional Chart of Nanaimo's Municipal Government, 1904 48 2. Ci ty Seal 58 3. C i ty Books Muti lated 72 4. Map of the Ci ty of Nanaimo 245 v i i Acknowledgement I wish to thank the s ta f f of Nanaimo City H a l l , espec ia l l y C i ty Clerk Sandy Gray, Gerry Berry, Helen Sponaugle, and Donna Murray, for the i r assistance and time in answering my quest ions; the s taf f of the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia; George and Sh i r ley Spragge for assistance from the fund establ ished in honour of the late George Warburton Spragge, which enabled me to conduct extensive research in Nanaimo and V i c t o r i a ; Terry Eastwood and Hugh Taylor , my superv isors , for the i r invaluable advice, c r i t i c i s m , and e d i t o r i a l s k i l l s ; Gary A. M i t c h e l l , MAS, for h is i n s i g h t f u l comments regarding concepts and methodology; Lynne Bowen for her comments concerning the h is tory of ear ly Nanaimo; Michael Peterhansel for the use of h is IBM PC; my parents, Ear l and P h y l l i s Meyer zu Erpen, for the i r support; the la te P a t r i c i a M. (Johnson) Romanik and my grandparents, Eunice A. and the late John Grandam Fiddick and Margarete and the late Johannes Meyer zu Erpen, for the i r inspi rat ion . I dedicate th i s thesis to the memory of the late James Andrew Fraser (1946-1985) one of the founders of the Canadian Gay Archives, an a r c h i v i s t at the Toronto C i ty Archives, and l a t t e r l y a fel low candidate in the UBC Master of Arch iva l Studies Programme. Note on Format and Abbreviations One of the object ives of t h i s thesis i s to f a c i l i t a t e access to information in published primary sources on the archives , record-keeping p r a c t i c e s , and administrat ion of nineteenth-century municipal government in B r i t i s h Columbia. A somewhat unusual format of footnote c i t a t i o n has therefore been adopted. Detai led descr ip t i ve l i s t s of the published and unpublished primary source volumes and documents consulted are included as appendices to th i s t h e s i s . The published items in Appendices A-C and E and the a r c h i v a l ent r ies in Appendices J -Y have been numbered consecutively throughout in order to f a c i l i t a t e c ross -reference within and between these items/entries and to f a c i l i t a t e the i r c i t a t i o n in the text of the t h e s i s . Cross-references are indicated in abbreviated form, denoting appendix and relevant items or e n t r i e s . For example, App. J/155-157 refers to ent r ies in Appendix J . Reference to an item/entry or to a group of i tems/entr ies i s by appendix, the relevant item/entry number(s), and pages, or sections and sub-sect ions ( i . e . , App. B/47, ss . 4 -12; App. K/411-412, and 420; e t c . ) . For a l l other references, the c i t a t i o n formats recommended in The Chicago Manual of S t y l e , 13th e d . , are fol lowed. The shortened reference s t y l e i s used to c i t e statutes not l i s t e d in the attached appendices. Because of the frequency with which I c i t e the minutes of Nanaimo's Council and the Ci ty C l e r k ' s correspondence, the shortened s ty le i s a lso used for s p e c i f i c , reference to those s e r i e s . The author-date system is used in footnotes c i t i n g secondary sources. Throughout th i s thes is and espec ia l l y in i t s footnotes, the fo l lowing abbreviat ions have been incorporated: [ ] = at t r ibu ted information App. = Appendix BCG = B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette c . = chapter CBC = Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia CC = C i ty C l e r k ' s correspondence CCN = Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo CE = C i v i l Engineer CM = counc i l minutes CNA = C i ty of Nanaimo Archives CVI = Colony of Vancouver Island Doc . = lega l docket Env. = envelope GR = Government Records accession HBC = Hudson's Bay Company HBCA = Hudson's Bay Company Archives ix Abbreviations Continued: JP = Jus t i ce of the Peace MG = manuscript group MLA = Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly MP = Member of Parliament MPP = Member of P r o v i n c i a l Parliament NCMA = Nanaimo Centennial Museum Archives NFP = Nanaimo Free Press no. = number NVCC = New Vancouver Coal Company NVCMLC = = New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company p. = page pp. = pages PABC = P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia QC = Queen's Counsel RG = record group s . = sect ion s . - s . = sub-sect ion ss . = sect ions s . - s s . : = sub-sect ions SBC = Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia SCBC = Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia VCC = Vancouver Coal Company VCMLC = Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company VIP = Vancouver Island Project V o l . = volume WFC = Western Fuel Company 1 I. INTRODUCTION As i s wel l known in h i s t o r i c a l and arch iva l c i r c l e s , study of the contextual environment of the record i s essent ia l in order to properly understand i t or any h i s t o r i c a l evidence i t may conta in . This thes is attempts to i l l u s t r a t e the elements of context essent ia l to understanding of the record. It s p e c i f i c a l l y focusses on the municipal archives of nineteenth-century B r i t i s h Columbia drawing examples"from a case study of the records of the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, 1875-1904. However, the conceptual framework a r t i c u l a t e d is appl icable to study of the a rch iva l record genera l ly . This f i r s t chapter explores the steps involved in understanding the o r i g i n a l , primary, and .secondary meanings of the arch iva l record; i t a lso examines the ideo log ica l underpinnings of that framework and the approach taken in delv ing into the meaning of Nanaimo's archives . Chapter II discusses previous enquiry into the nature and form of the record and the re la t ionsh ip between context and understanding. Chapter III i l l u s t r a t e s o r i g i n a l meaning and the other elements of primary meaning based upon examples from the Nanaimo case study. Chapter IV demonstrates how a r c h i v i s t s might compile and present the f indings of the i r invest igat ions into primary meaning so as to enable the researcher to derive secondary meaning from the informational content of the record. Chapter V o f fers some general conclusions with respect to study of the record. A simple conceptual framework f a c i l i t a t e s the process by 2 which the record is understood. Arch iva l records in whatever medium have both o r i g i n a l and primary meaning. If those meanings are understood, secondary meaning may be derived from the content of the record. Secondary sources a lso have primary meaning, known as h i s to r iog raph ica l context, which i s essent ia l to the in terpretat ion of the i r informational content to derive further secondary meaning. In tu rn , researchers glean h i s t o r i c a l understanding as they compile s i g n i f i c a n t secondary meaning from primary and secondary source mater ia ls . U l t imate ly , understanding moves the researcher c loser to that nebulous concept known as " t r u t h . " The ideo log ica l underpinnings of th i s thesis are abstract and are not readi ly supported in the a rch iva l l i t e r a t u r e or by more formal views of epistemology. B r i e f l y , ind iv idua ls who seek t r u t h , be i t absolute or r e l a t i v e , begin the i r search with the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge ( inc luding self -knowledge), through personal or v icar ious experience. Personal experience usual ly resu l t s from in terna l sources of knowledge coming into d i rect contact with external condit ions and s i t u a t i o n s . Vicar ious experience or learn ing , as i t i s more commonly termed, resu l ts from those same in terna l sources coming into contact with knowledge amassed through research in to , or communication wi th , 1 I t should be noted that personal experience and v icar ious learning are not mutually exclusive for the l a t t e r often f a c i l i t a t e s the former. Moreover, the personal dimension informs one's v icar ious experiences. For the purpose of th i s d i scuss ion , the d i s t i n c t i o n i s , however, important since knowledge acquired through a r c h i v a l research i s usual ly thought of as having been obtained v i c a r i o u s l y rather than personal ly . 3 external sources, be they documentary or human.1 Understanding i s the c r u c i a l l i n k in the process by which acquired knowledge i s manipulated to ar r i ve at " t r u t h . " The quest for understanding i s the cornerstone upon which the information professions are founded. 2 Personal experience i s sometimes accompanied by a spontaneous and often i n t u i t i v e understanding. On the other hand, v icar ious learning or research requires rigorous examination of the meaning of the external sources consulted before understanding of the s i tua t ion under study may be obtained. Scholar ly research e n t a i l s understanding on several l e v e l s , although such understanding may at times occur simultaneously. To r e i t e r a t e , the sources researched must be understood in and of themselves, that i s , the i r o r i g i n a l and primary meanings must be understood. For instance, researchers must understand the administ rat ive or operat ional functions a record s e r i e s 3 was created to document and the h is tory of that ser ies and i t s creat ing agency. They must a lso understand why a record ser ies does not document a given subject previous to a ce r ta in date or ceases to do so a f te r a la te r date. Secondly, the information gleaned through research must be understood in 2 The chief mandate of the a r c h i v a l , l i b r a r y , and records management professions i s to provide access to . informat ion from which knowledge and u l t imate ly understanding may be der ived. 3 The Society of American A r c h i v i s t s ' basic glossary defines a record ser ies as: " F i l e uni ts or documents arranged in accordance with a f i l i n g system as a unit because they re late to a p a r t i c u l a r subject or funct ion , resu l t from the same a c t i v i t y , have a p a r t i c u l a r form, or because of some other re la t ionsh ip a r i s i n g out of the i r c rea t ion , rece ip t , or u s e . " ' Evans, Harr ison, and Thompson 1974, 430. 4 the context of i t s source, that i s , the secondary meaning of the record must be understood. F i n a l l y , s i g n i f i c a n t secondary meaning i s compiled and interpreted to ar r i ve at h i s t o r i c a l understanding which i s reported in secondary sources. The o r i g i n a l meaning of a record" i s quite simply the reason for which i t was created, that i s , i t s purpose or function at i t s o r i g i n . O r ig ina l meaning does not change over time unless the creator begins to generate the same record for a d i f fe rent purpose. The subsequent use of a record for reference or h i s t o r i c a l purposes does not a f fec t i t s o r i g i n a l meaning, which i s often embedded in statute or in terna l p o l i c y . A l t e r n a t e l y , o r i g i n a l meaning may be discovered in the ev ident ia l content of the record i t s e l f . 5 The function a record was created to perform was common knowledge to i t s creator and -o r i g i n a l users. Once discovered, o r i g i n a l meaning i s f a i r l y readi ly understood. The primary meaning of a record includes i t s o r i g i n a l meaning. 6 The t r a d i t i o n a l a rch i va l concepts of provenance, o r i g i n a l order, form, custodianship, and authent ic i t y a lso const i tute part of the concept of primary meaning. In add i t ion , " The Society of American A r c h i v i s t s ' basic glossary broadly defines a record as: "Recorded information regardless of media or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " Evans, Harr ison, and Thompson 1974, 428. 5 T.R. Schellenberg coined the phrase "ev ident ia l value" to refer to records which are valuable in documenting the organizat ion and functions of an agency. From Evans, Harr ison, and Thompson 1974, 422. Ev ident ia l content i s that part of a record which documents the mandate, o rganizat ion , funct ions , and operations of i t s c reat ing agency. 6 The importance of d i s t ingu ish ing o r i g i n a l and primary meaning f i r s t became c lear to me while conversing with Hugh Taylor on 2 March 1985 in V i c t o r i a , BC. 5 primary meaning comprises a l l other factors perta in ing to the contextual environment of the record from the time of i t s creat ion to the date of i t s use for research purposes. Such factors include the h istory of the creat ing admin is t rat ion , the in te r re la t ionsh ips between records and record s e r i e s , and perhaps most importantly the human element in the c reat ion , use, and preservation of the record. Primary meaning may be in part discovered through study of the record's ev ident ia l and, to a l im i ted extent, informational content . 7 However, statutory law, by- laws, po l icy statements, the ev ident ia l content of re lated records, and newspaper accounts often provide valuable ins igh t . Unlike o r i g i n a l meaning, primary meaning is not so readi ly understood: a r c h i v i s t s and researchers must f i r s t consider i t s elements and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , how they re late to the record. Then, they must ar r i ve at an understanding of the composite p icture which such consideration presents. Since primary meaning spans the period from the creat ion of a record u n t i l i t s use for research purposes, i t s elements change somewhat over time, and the primary meaning of the record i s , therefore , subject to r e v i s i o n . For example, i f a repository decided to sample a record ser ies which had previously been used as a whole, the primary meaning of that 7 T.R. Schellenberg coined the phrase " informational value" to refer to the value of a record which derives from i t s inc identa l information on persons, p laces, and subjects re lated to the creat ing agency. His concept s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded information on the agencies themselves. From Evans, Harr ison, and Thompson 1974, 424. Informational content i s that part of a record which t reats the persons, p laces, and subjects with which i t s creat ing agency d e a l t . 6 ser ies would change. The c r i t e r i a used in the appra isa l and sampling process would jo in the l i s t of elements which comprise that s e r i e s ' primary meaning. If the ser ies was subsequently found to include forged documents, i t s primary meaning would again change. Obviously, the same would be true i f i t were discovered that f i n a n c i a l records had been "doctored" by the i r creator in the embezzlement of funds. . Nevertheless, the primary meaning of the record at any given point in time should be e s s e n t i a l l y s tab le , regardless of the researcher or research use to which i t i s put. Researchers may derive secondary meaning from the evidence or information contained in a record provided that they understand i t s primary meaning. Obviously, information must be weighed in the context of i t s source. That which i s valuable to the researcher may prove to be quite inc identa l to the o r i g i n a l purpose for which a record was created. A l t e r n a t e l y , i t may prove inaccurate, extremely biased, or otherwise quest ionable. For example, f i n a n c i a l records used before and a f t e r the discovery that they were a l tered in the course of embezzlement w i l l have very d i f fe rent primary meaning and resu l t in contradictory secondary meaning. I n i t i a l l y , they may have provided s i g n i f i c a n t evidence regarding the f i n a n c i a l burden of a funct ional r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon a government agency. Afterwards, they w i l l probably be useless as evidence about such matters. C l e a r l y , information must be interpreted on the basis of the primary meaning of i t s source. S t i l l , the secondary meaning derived in such manner may be h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 7 or i n s i g n i f i c a n t . S ign i f i cant secondary meaning may be equated with h i s t o r i c a l evidence. Understanding secondary meaning serves to further an i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge of an event or s i t u a t i o n . However, i t belongs to the research realm, since secondary meaning i s informed by the t o t a l h i s t o r i c a l environment of a document's c r e a t i o n . Furthermore, the focus of the secondary meaning extrapolated from a source i s dependent upon the f i e l d of enquiry. Obviously, a given record ser ies i s of po tent ia l use in der iv ing secondary meaning on a wide var ie ty of t o p i c s . Secondary meaning i s compiled and interpreted to ar r i ve at h i s t o r i c a l understanding and u l t imate ly understanding of human ex is tence. The subjective bias inherent in a l l invest igat ion i s c e r t a i n l y evident in h i s t o r i c a l enquiry. Moreover, h i s t o r i c a l understanding i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y inf luenced by cu l tura l - tempora l mores and norms. Accordingly , h i s t o r i c a l understanding i s constant ly revised to take into account, among other fac to rs , new discover ies about the o r i g i n a l and primary meanings of the documentation consulted and the s ign i f i cance of the secondary meaning derived therefrom. Research, the eventual attainment of understanding, and the report ing of one's f indings i s a far more rigorous exercise than most would be l ieve . However, the process by which research, academic or otherwise, i s ca r r ied out must be rigorous i f research f indings are to be given credence. The a rch i va l profession must begin to recognize i t s ob l iga t ion to further the study of the record, inc luding i t s o r i g i n a l and primary 8 meanings. Although most often impracticable for want of the resources which would be required, i t should, in theory, be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a r c h i v i s t to supply s u f f i c i e n t information about the record for the researcher to use i t e f f e c t i v e l y . A r c h i v i s t s usual ly attempt to reveal "primary meaning" through guides, inventor ies , and other f inding aids which describe the provenance of the record and r e f l e c t i t s arrangement. Such means are not without problems, since they rare ly go beyond a br ief ind icat ion of provenance, which i s in i t s e l f i n s u f f i c i e n t to f u l l y reveal primary meaning and hence l i m i t s any secondary meaning which might be der ived. Moreover, the information required to ar r i ve at primary and secondary meaning i s not re t r ievab le in the same manner. Whereas t r a d i t i o n a l f ind ing aids f a c i l i t a t e access to the information on events and s i tua t ions from which secondary meaning i s der ived, the contextual information essent ia l to primary meaning i s less a c c e s s i b l e . Context may sometimes be inferred from provenance-based inventor ies or br ief i n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s , but considerable research in primary sources i s usual ly required to a t t a i n an in-depth understanding of. the record. Primary meaning i s , nevertheless, as important as the event or s i tua t ion under study. Without contextual information about a body of documentation, the researcher who attempts to a r r i ve at a more h o l i s t i c worldview through extrapolat ion of a source's informational content w i l l be severely h indered. 8 See "Facts in Evidence," in Thomson 1969, 37-47. 9 Before proceeding fu r ther , an explanation of the method by which the Nanaimo case study was conducted i s in order. To begin, i t was readi ly apparent that knowledge of the larger context of municipal administrat ion in B r i t i s h Columbia would be imperative in attempting to understand Nanaimo's archives . Accordingly, invest igat ion began with the statutory and lega l basis of municipal government in c o l o n i a l and p r o v i n c i a l t imes. That research resulted in the production of l i s t s of appl icable statutes (Appendices A-B) and l e t t e r s patent (Appendix E) , and a table documenting the incorporat ion of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s between 1860 and 1904 (Appendix D). Published primary sources relevant to municipal administrat ion were also examined (Appendix C) . Close examination of the nineteenth-century archives of Nanaimo, which are remarkably extensive, was then undertaken. 9 The majority are stored in a f i re -p roo f vault in the basement of C i ty H a l l . Some h i s t o r i c a l records, such as the cemetery reg is ters and the o r i g i n a l s of municipal by- laws, are s t i l l stored in departmental o f f i c e s , where they are in a c t i v e , i f infrequent, use. E l i zabeth Giovando, a l o c a l resident and an anthropologist by t r a i n i n g , organized the C i t y ' s archives in a prel iminary fashion several years ago, arranging them to the ser ies l eve l and preparing a shelf l i s t which permits access to 9 My choice of Nanaimo as a case study was based upon the extensiveness of i t s arch ives , the cont inu i ty of i t s admin is t rat ion , and my own f a m i l i a r i t y with both. The records created during the f i r s t 30 years of the C i t y ' s administrat ion (1875-1904), a quite a r b i t r a r y per iod , were manageable for deta i led examination. 10 the contents of the archives vault at that l e v e l . 1 0 In add i t ion , she produced a small card index which corresponds to the shelf l i s t . Despite reference herein to the "City of Nanaimo A r c h i v e s " 1 1 as a l o c a t i o n , the archives have not been o f f i c i a l l y establ ished by municipal by- law, and no a r c h i v i s t has been employed since Giovando completed her work in 1 9 8 1 . Examination of Nanaimo's archives resulted in the compilat ion of a deta i led l i s t i n g of the mater ials consulted which is included here as Appendices J -Y . That l i s t i n g i s organized by record group and is in some ways s i m i l a r to an inventory; i t i s f u l l y explained in Appendix I. L i s t s of the municipal executive and o f f i c e r s were also compiled (Appendices F and H r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A n c i l l a r y information about the physical environment in which the municipal executive and o f f i c e r s 1 0 After completing a Canada Works Program with the Nanaimo Centennial Museum, E l i zabeth Giovando pet i t ioned Nanaimo Ci ty Council for a service contract to work on the C i t y ' s archives . Council awarded her a cont ract , and she .subsequently spent about a year and a hal f (part - t ime) arranging i t s records, d i v id ing her time between City H a l l and other work at the Nanaimo Centennial Museum. During that per iod , she was able to bring considerable order to the documents which had previously been, so - to -speak, simply tossed into the v a u l t . 1 1 "City of Nanaimo Archives" or "CNA" i s intended here to indicate the various vaul ts in Nanaimo City H a l l in which the C i t y ' s archives are stored, rather than an a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n . 11 laboured (Appendix G) and a map of the City of Nanaimo (Figure 4) a lso proved useful in understanding the municipal administ rat ion and i t s a r c h i v e s . 1 2 In summary, Appendices A-Y document the primary research upon which th i s thes is i s b a s e d . 1 3 1 2 A report on the Nanaimo case study, e n t i t l e d "Towards an Understanding of the Municipal Archives of Nineteenth-Century B r i t i s h Columbia: A Case Study of the Archives of the Corporation of the City of Nanaimo, 1875-1904," was o r i g i n a l l y intended as the basis of th i s t h e s i s . It examines in d e t a i l the administ rat ive and operational functions of Nanaimo's c i v i c government and the re lated records. A copy of that draf t i s deposited at the City of Nanaimo Archives, Vancouver C i ty Archives, P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, and UBC Special Co l lec t ions D i v i s i o n . 1 3 As explained in the prefatory note on format and abbrev iat ions , they also f a c i l i t a t e footnote c i t a t i o n . 1 2 I I . THE ARCHIVAL RECORD: CONTEXT AND UNDERSTANDING Several wr i ters have expounded a form of a rch iva l scholarship along l i n e s s imi la r to those advocated here. To begin, the concept of primary meaning might, in so much as i t encompasses . a l l of the elements required to ar r i ve at an understanding of a s ingle manuscript, a record s e r i e s , or the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e r i e s , be analogous with that which S i r H i la ry Jenkinson defined and i l l u s t r a t e d as "archive h i s t o r y . " He used in h is i l l u s t r a t i o n the Exchequer of Receipt archive group, which exemplif ied wel l "the use of Administrat ive History as a key to the arrangement and comprehension of Archives . . . . " 1 • Christopher N.L. Brooke, a medieval h i s to r ian and teacher of d ip lomat ic , has a lso i n d i r e c t l y supported the notion of primary meaning in c a l l i n g for the development of "modern dip lomatic" as opposed to the t r a d i t i o n a l medieval d ip lomat ic . He defines diplomatic as a formal science, being "the study of the forms of documents, of every age, inc luding the present, and every continent and every type susceptible of formal i n v e s t i g a t i o n " 1 5 and notes that i t commonly has the reputation of a formidable and dismal science: of being an elaborate Wissenschaft of i t s own of a very formal k ind ; or on the contrary a very modest H i l f swissenschaf t , a kind of game played by a few scholars , most of them medieva l is ts , harmless so long as i t does not dominate or obscure h i s t o r i c a l enquiry; or , perhaps, most commonly of a l l , an a id to understanding of considerable use to scholars and 1 4 Jenkinson 1937, 225. 1 5 Brooke 1970, 1. 1 3 research students i f only they had time to spare from more serious p u r s u i t s . 1 6 Brooke's statement regarding diplomatic as "an aid to understanding" i s c e r t a i n l y germane, although for the most part the term d ip lomat ic , whether medieval or modern, implies something too s p e c i f i c for the intent of that defined here as primary meaning. Nevertheless, i t s aim i s coterminous with primary meaning, since "modern d ip lomatic" d ispels v i s ions of paleography, the study of ancient languages, w r i t i n g , and s ingle manuscripts, and the authent icat ion of signatures and sea ls . C l e a r l y , such enquiry would not be appl icable to the North American experience, in which most documentation dates from the eighteenth century or l a t e r . The parameters of "modern dip lomatic" are, however, as yet undefined. Apparently, Brooke's c a l l for research in that f i e l d has gone unanswered. A r c h i v i s t s Tom Nesmith and Michael Cook have each elaborated upon Brooke's ideas. Nesmith, in arguing that a rch i va l scholarship i s essent ia l in the day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s of the a r c h i v i s t , includes in h is conceptual framework the study of the record, record-keeping p r a c t i c e s , communication, and broadly speaking "anything in the h is tory of society bearing on the nature of our r e c o r d s . " 1 7 Nesmith conceives of a r c h i v i s t s as making " o r i g i n a l contr ibut ions to knowledge" through the i r scholar ly work as "h i s to r ian of the record" and of administrat ion g e n e r a l l y . 1 8 1 6 Brooke 1970 , 1 . 1 7 Nesmith 1982, 24. 1 8 Nesmith 1982, 6. 1 4 In wr i t ing of profess ional t r a i n i n g programmes for a r c h i v i s t s , Michael Cook suggested that there might be three streams, comprised of the administrat ion of archives , the academic study of records, and a f i e l d combining administ rat ive h istory with research method. 1 9 Relat ing the study of the record to the in te rp re ta t i ve sciences, Cook writes that from such study might develop research into the " techn ica l in te rpretat ion of modern records (modern diplomatic) . . . and in the area of academic, but profess ional s k i l l s , t h i s o f fers i t s e l f as the profess ion 's main contr ibut ion to the scholar ly s ide" of a rch iva l s t u d i e s . 2 0 Canadian a r c h i v i s t Hugh Taylor has offered some in te res t ing observations about the nature of scholar ly enquiry, into the h istory of administ rat ive agencies. He has defined the "history of adminis t rat ion" as the analys is of the ent i re operation of an organization in re la t ion to i t s par ts . This , he d is t inguishes from "administ rat ive h is tory" which takes into account the impact of an administrat ion on p o l i t i c s , power st ruggles , and the publ ic at l a r g e . 2 1 Whereas the l a t t e r includes study of publ ic react ion to administ rat ive po l i cy in such sources as newspapers and pr ivate papers, the h is tory of administrat ion may be l i m i t e d to study of the evolut ion of administ rat ive agencies based upon the o f f i c i a l administ rat ive record and great ly aids a r c h i v i s t s in the i r work. The wr i t ing of "administ rat ive 1 9 Cook 1978, 36. 2 0 Cook 1978, 37. 2 1 Taylor 1970, 4 - 9 . 1 5 his tory" i s dependent upon a thorough understanding of the "history of the adminis t rat ion" under study. Tay lor 's observations are c e r t a i n l y pert inent to primary meaning since the "history of adminis t rat ion" necessar i ly precedes study of the h istory of the r e c o r d . 2 2 In f a c t , a continuum ex is ts between the h is tory of admin is t ra t ion , the h is tory of the record, primary meaning, secondary meaning, and administ rat ive h istory or other h i s t o r i c a l understanding. Aust ra l ian a r c h i v i s t s Peter J . Scott , C D . Smith, and D. F in lay have conducted extensive study of the ef fect of administ rat ive change upon archives . In report ing upon the methods and approaches adopted by the Aust ra l ian Archives in deal ing with the problems occasioned by rapid administrat ive change, they began by re fe r r ing to the p r i n c i p l e of provenance and the co ro l la r y that : records and archives derive much of the i r meaning and value from the administ rat ive (or other) context in which they were o r i g i n a l l y created; . . . preservation of the assoc iat ion between archives and the i r o r i g i n a l h i s t o r i c context i s v i t a l to a f u l l and proper understanding of the evidence and information which they c o n t a i n . 2 3 In order to trace record s e r i e s , funct ional r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and agencies as the Aust ra l ian government evolves, an elaborate "context cont ro l system" has been developed. Professor Hans Booms of Koblenz, Germany, has treated the question of context as i t re la tes to the a r c h i v a l appra isa l 2 2 The reverse does not, however, hold t rue . The h is tory of administ rat ion i s often studied and wr i t ten without concern f o r , or reference to , the h is to ry of the admin is t ra t ion 's records. 2 3 Scott and F in lay 1978, 115. 16 process. Booms recommends " t h a t - - a f t e r fundamental study— records should be preserved which are judged valuable by the standards which were contemporary to the o r ig in of the m a t e r i a l . " 2 " In other words, records should be appraised in the context of the society of c reat ion . A major d i f f i c u l t y with such an approach i s that other factors which bear upon a p p r a i s a l , such as the state of preservation or deter io ra t ion of the record, are not regarded from the same perspect ive . In a sense, the same re la t ionsh ip ex is ts between o r i g i n a l and primary meaning. Or ig ina l meaning derives from the immediate environment of c rea t ion . Primary meaning takes into account the broader contextual factors which impinge upon the record from the time of i t s creat ion down to the present and which are essent ia l in attempting to understand i t . Most recent ly , t h i s wr i ter attended a conference e n t i t l e d "Archives, Automation and Access" 2 5 at which the problem of context in accessing and understanding the a rch iva l record was a recurrent theme. In commenting on a paper presented by Chad G a f f i e l d and Peter B a s k e r v i l l e , c o - p r i n c i p a l invest igators of the Vancouver Island Pro jec t , Canadian a r c h i v i s t Terry Cook spoke about "the h i s t o r i c a l i n t r i c a s i e s of the records themselves." Emphasizing the importance of provenance as the key to meaning and u l t imate ly understanding, Cook referred to Nesmith's study of administ rat ive h i s t o r y , which includes such 2 " Kromnow 1979, 48. 2 5 Univers i ty of V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a , BC, 1-2 March 1985. The conference was organized by Peter Baskerv i l l e and Chad G a f f i e l d , the Vancouver Island P r o j e c t ' s c o - p r i n c i p a l inves t iga to rs . 1 7 elements as administ rat ive s t ructure , l e g a l mandate, funct ion , change over t ime, and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , o r i g i n a l order, i n t e g r i t y , use, and media of the record. Terry Eastwood, Chairman of UBC's Master of Arch iva l Studies Programme, addressed the problem of information r e t r i e v a l and stressed the importance of context to a rch i va l access . In d iscussing i n t e l l e c t u a l contro l and the importance of function and purpose, American a r c h i v i s t David Bearman refer red to "the h i s t o r i c a l context of the universe at the time of the documentary excret ion by the c reator . " F i n a l l y , in a session on access and approaches to accessioning, a p p r a i s a l , and records management, information consultant Pat Acton mentioned the primary purpose or reason for which records e x i s t , noting that , with the exception perhaps of a few p o l i t i c i a n s , creators do not usua l l y create records with poster i ty in mind. In de l i ve r ing t h e i r presentat ions, each speaker made reference to the main underpinning of a rch i va l theory and p r a c t i c e : the context of the record s e r i e s , be i t ancient or modern, i s essent ia l to i t s arrangement, d e s c r i p t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l , meaning, and use. A number of ind iv idua ls have addressed the problem of context in understanding the a rch iva l record, using a var ie ty of terms to express the i r ideas. To date, the problem of studying the record and how i t re la tes to the a r c h i v a l profession has probably been stated most succ inct ly by Terry Cook: The quest for knowledge rather than mere information i s the crux of the study of archives and of the d a i l y work of the a r c h i v i s t . A l l the key words appl ied to arch iva l records—provenance, respect des fonds, context, evo lut ion , i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , order—imply a sense of understanding, of "knowledge," rather than 18 the merely e f f i c i e n t r e t r i e v a l of names, dates, subjects , or whatever, a l l devoid of context , that i s " information" (undeniably usefu l as th i s might be for many purposes). Quite s imply, a r c h i v i s t s must transcend mere information, and mere information management, i f they wish to search fo r , and lead others to seek, "knowledge" and meaning among the records in the i r c a r e . 2 6 The next chapter w i l l attempt to a r t i c u l a t e a conceptual framework by which the problem of context and understanding may be studied in a more integrated manner. 2 6 Cook 1984-1985, 49. 19 I I I . THE ELEMENTS OF PRIMARY MEANING Indiv iduals have over time created records to f u l f i l l s imi la r functions and to document s imi la r information, and personal arch ives , such as d i a r i e s , l e t t e r s , and w i l l s , are f a i r l y e a s i l y understood. However, the records of an organizat ion are less e a s i l y understood, since a larger array of factors are at play in the i r c r e a t i o n . For instance, an organizat ion 's a c t i v i t i e s are governed by the ever-changing p o l i c y , by- laws, or statutory law establ ished by an administ rat ive body more highly s i tuated in the h i e r a r c h i c a l structure of that soc ie ty . Ce r ta in l y , th i s i s a lso true of the i n d i v i d u a l , whose a c t i v i t i e s are governed by s o c i a l norms, the law, e t c . As i n d i v i d u a l s , we are, however, better able to understand the records created by another ind i v idua l than those created by an organizat ion. To a r r i v e at the primary meaning of an organizat ion 's records, one must f i r s t become f a m i l i a r with the i r o r i g i n a l meaning, that i s , the i r o r i g i n a l purpose and the functions they document. Primary meaning goes beyond o r i g i n a l meaning in that i t encompasses a l l of the environmental and contextual factors which must be considered by the modern researcher who attempts to in terpret a rch iva l sources. Obviously, the administ rat ive and h i s t o r i c a l context of a record's c rea t ion , inc luding i t s provenance, o r i g i n a l order, form, and re la t ionsh ips with other records, bears upon i t s primary meaning. In a d d i t i o n , the record's h is tory and custodianship which, among other fac to rs , inform invest igat ion of i t s authent ic i t y or i n t e g r i t y are 20 important in determining primary meaning. F i n a l l y and although perhaps often overlooked, the human element inf luences a l l stages of the l i f e cycle of the record, inc lud ing of course i t s phys ical state and extent. The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to i l l u s t r a t e the elements of primary meaning e s s e n t i a l to a f u l l and proper understanding of the arch iva l record. The search for primary meaning i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t when l i t t l e i s known about the agency which created a documentary source. As noted by Dutch a r c h i v i s t s Mu l le r , F e i t h , and F r u i n , an a rch i va l c o l l e c t i o n is "an organic whole, a l i v i n g organism, which grows, takes shape, and undergoes changes in accordance with f ixed r u l e s . " 2 7 To ar r ive at the primary meaning of the record, existent or non-ex istent , one must study those rules in statutory enactment and the ev ident ia l content of surv iv ing records. Consequently, enquiry must begin with the statutory author i ty from which the creat ing agency derived i t s power. Without such evidence, which in the case of governmental agencies i s most often embedded in statutory law, the purpose for which the organizat ion was establ ished may be obscure. In tu rn , the organizat ion 's object ives determine the operat ional functions for which i t was responsible and u l t imate ly the records i t created in documenting i t s conduct. 2 7 Mu l le r , F e i t h , and Fruin 1940, 19. 21 THE STATUTORY BASIS OF MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT M u n i c i p a l i t i e s are the creat ion of p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l governments and are subject to the prov is ions of the l e g i s l a t i o n enacted by those bodies. Such l e g i s l a t i o n i s frequently amended, and the powers and functions bestowed upon municipal government change. Regarding the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as creat ions of the provinces, Canadian p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t Kenneth G. Crawford has noted that . . . the i r powers can be extended or contracted at w i l l by the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s or , in the extreme, they can quite l e g a l l y be l e g i s l a t e d out of ex istence, although p o l i t i c a l l y t h i s would not probably be p r a c t i c a b l e . The protect ion of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s l i e s , not in the i r legal or c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , but rather in the needs of the people which must be met and the d i f f i c u l t y , espec ia l l y in urban communities, of meeting those needs through the medium of any other l eve l of government.2 8 The evolut ion of B r i t i s h Columbia's municipal system was based upon the experience of the older Engl ish provinces as adapted to meet l o c a l needs, which were p a r t i c u l a r l y af fected by the prov ince 's geography. 2 9 In 1907, S. Morley Wickett , a lec tu re r on p o l i t i c a l economy at the Univers i ty of Toronto, wrote that B r i t i s h Columbia's municipal l e g i s l a t i o n had been from year to year enlarged upon " u n t i l to-day the system of l o c a l government c lose ly resembles that of O n t a r i o . " 3 0 U l t i m a t e l y , the system adopted was B r i t i s h in o r i g i n . 3 1 In 1902, 8 Crawford 1954, 18. 9 Crawford 1954, 46. 0 Wickett , "Local Government in B r i t i s h Columbia," 217. 1 App. A.3/30. 22 Wickett noted that : B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s have been e s s e n t i a l l y reproduced in Canada as f a r as circumstances have permitted. They have served as model a l i k e for federa l , p r o v i n c i a l and c i v i c organizat ion . Canadian c i t y government accordingly much more resembles the simpler Engl ish type than i t does the complex const i tu t ions of United States c i t i e s ; though in some points recent municipal experiments in the American Republic have been taken f u l l advantage of in the Dominion . 3 2 B r i t i s h Columbia's municipal system began with the incorporation of New W e s t m i n s t e r and V i c t o r i a during the c o l o n i a l e ra . The Colony of Vancouver I s land , the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia, and, af ter 1866, the united Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia produced a considerable body of l e g i s l a t i o n 3 3 to govern the two existent m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and those i t was hoped would be incorporated. By the 1871 "Terms of Union," the prov is ions of •the " B r i t i s h North America Act , 1867," which gave provinces the exclusive r ight to make laws regarding municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s , 3 " were extended to B r i t i s h Co lumbia . 3 5 Respons ib i l i t y for municipal government was thereby passed from the c o l o n i a l to the new p r o v i n c i a l admin is t ra t ion . Notwithstanding the s p e c i f i c repeal of obsolete ac ts , ordinances, and proclamations by the L e g i s l a t i v e Council of the united Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia in 1871, many continued i n force wel l into the prov ince 's h is tory and were consol idated with p r o v i n c i a l l a w . 3 6 The p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly's f i r s t general Wickett , "Ci ty Government in Canada," 3. See Appendix A. " B r i t i s h North America Act , 1867," 30 & 31 V i c t . , c . 3, s . 92, s . — s . 8 . "Terms of Union," 16 May 1871, s . 10. See Appendix B. 23 municipal ac t , e n t i t l e d the "Munic ipal i ty Act , 18 7 2 , " 3 7 consisted of eight pages and replaced the one-page "Borough Ordinance, 1 8 6 5 . " 3 B Municipal acts were also passed in 1881, 1889, 1891, and 1 8 9 2 . 3 9 In 1896, the general act was s p l i t into three separate components: the "Municipal Clauses Act , 1896," the "Municipal E lect ions Act , 1896," and the " M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Incorporation Act , 1.896."" 0 Combined, they comprised 148 pages. The complexity of the statutory law by which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were regulated and the d i f f i c u l t y of determining the appl icable provis ions at a given point in time i s witnessed by the fact that between 1872-1904 the Leg i s la t i ve Assembly enacted some 62 general and amending municipal ac ts . In add i t i on , the province's statutes were revised and consolidated in 1877, 1888, and 1897. Furthermore, some municipal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were defined in hea l th , publ ic schools, and other s e r v i c e - r e l a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n . That complex body of l e g i s l a t i o n provided the statutory basis upon which municipal government was founded. It authorized the Governor and la te r the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to issue l e t t e r s patent incorporating the inhabitants of an area as a municipal corporation provided that the pet i t ioners met cer ta in c r i t e r i a with respect to number, age, and n a t i o n a l i t y , and that the area to be incorporated was not excessive. Between 1860 and 1904, B r i t i s h Columbia's c o l o n i a l 3 7 App. B/46. 3 8 App. A.2/20. 3 9 App. B/59, 69, 71, and 72. "° App. B/76, 86, and 93. 24 and p r o v i n c i a l governments created 41 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; the i r incorporation i s deta i led in Appendix D. Excluding Squamish, which was not organized, 21 c i t y and town and 19 township and d i s t r i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were es tab l i shed .* 1 The re la t ionsh ip between the records creator and the administ rat ive agency to which i t was subordinate lends insight into po ten t ia l sources of documentation. Although the flow of information between the municipal and p r o v i n c i a l governments was during the period 1875-1904 i n s u b s t a n t i a l , some valuable sources on m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are to be counted among the archives of various p r o v i n c i a l agencies. MUNICIPAL-PROVINCIAL REPORTING STRUCTURE From 1860-1904, supervision of municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s was v i r t u a l l y non-ex istent . I n i t i a l l y , New Westminster and V i c t o r i a communicated with the c o l o n i a l governments through the c o l o n i a l secretar ies and government agents. After 1871, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s reported to the p rov inc ia l administrat ion through i t s government agencies and the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary. Some of the correspondence and statutory returns received Of that number, 31 s t i l l ex isted in 1982. Columbia and South Vancouver amalgamated with other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; Sa l t Spring Island and Well ington m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were disbanded; and Dewdney, Nicomen, Phoenix, Sandon, and Sumas ceased to e x i s t . At the end of 1982, there were 142 (35 c i t y , 46 d i s t r i c t , 13 town, and 48 v i l l a g e ) m u n i c i p a l i t i e s existent in the province. From BC, M in i s t r y of Municipal A f f a i r s , Municipal S t a t i s t i c s  Including Regional D i s t r i c t s and Improvement D i s t r i c t s for the  Year Ended December 31 1982, pp. 9-13. 25 by the p r o v i n c i a l government are preserved among i t s r e c o r d s . " 2 In a d d i t i o n , the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly regular ly ordered that important documents be pr inted in i t s Sessional Papers, and these are in part l i s t e d in Appendix C. However, the statutory provis ions by which the government was to supervise m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were not of immediate consequence. Although the "Munic ipa l i ty Act , 1872" made the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary the a rb i te r in in te r -munic ipa l disputes which could not be resolved by the mayors, wardens, or reeves of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s concerned,* 3 the extent of such disputes or the documentation they generated i s not read i l y apparent in the f ind ing aids to p r o v i n c i a l records held at the P r o v i n c i a l Archives. The "Municipal Act , 1891" empowered the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to appoint, under the "Publ ic Inqui r ies A c t , " a commission to inquire into the government of any munic ipa l i t y or any aspect of i t s conduct of publ ic business or administ rat ion of j u s t i c e . " * The reports of many commissions of inquiry were pr inted in the Sessional Papers and other formats.* 5 F i n a l l y , the Act by which the Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary was reorganized in 1899 made the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary *2 The PABC Government Records (GR) accessions most relevant to the study of municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s are l i s t e d in my bibl iography (section 1 . 2 . 3 ) . " 3 App. B/46, s . 31. From 1896, a Judge of the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia was to be a rb i te r in such cases. See App. B/76, S. 287. "" App. B/71, s . 265. " 5 See, for example, App. C/111—114. Holmes 1945 provides a general c h e c k l i s t of commissions appointed in BC. 26 the keeper of a l l reg is te rs and archives of the Province, and of a l l reg is ters and archives of any Government whatever that has had j u r i s d i c t i o n over the t e r r i t o r y or any part of the t e r r i t o r y cons t i tu t ing the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia." 6 As keeper of the .archives of former government j u r i s d i c t i o n s , the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary was apparently responsible for the records of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which ceased to e x i s t . The P rov inc ia l Archives holds , however, few records r e l a t i n g to defunct m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . * 7 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN MUNICIPALITIES M u n i c i p a l i t i e s often required lega l advice regarding the in te rpre ta t ion of l e g i s l a t i o n , inc luding both statutory law and the i r own by- laws. Due to the lack of p r o v i n c i a l superv is ion , c i t y c le rks frequently corresponded with one another regarding such matters. For instance, when questions arose over voter e l i g i b i l i t y and the in terpretat ion of statutory law, Nanaimo's C i ty C lerk , Charles Newton Young, communicated with the municipal c le rks of V i c t o r i a and New Westminster to determine the pract ice in those c i t i e s . " 8 M u n i c i p a l i t i e s a lso sought advice concerning procedural matters, forms, r e g i s t e r s , and equipment. In corresponding with " 6 " P r o v i n c i a l Secretary 's Act , 1899," SBC, 1899, 62 V i c t . , c . 59, Sa 3 ^  S • S • C • " 7 See, for example, PABC, Records of the Corporation of the Ci ty of Sandon, 1891-1935, GR 304; and PABC, Records of the Corporation of the C i ty of Phoenix, 1900-1920, MS C/D/70/P56-P56.14. " 8 See, for example, CNA, CCN, CM, 3 A p r i l 1876, 90; CNA, CCN, CC, 17 December 1878, 48; and CNA, CCN, CM, 23 December 1878, 241. 27 Wellington Je f fe rs Dowler, V i c t o r i a ' s C i ty C lerk , to obtain information about the steam road r o l l e r acquired by that C i t y , Samuel Gough, Nanaimo's C i ty C lerk , wrote: I t rust you w i l l not be offended at my many c a l l s upon you for information and advize [ s i c ] , I suppose the only way that I can repay you w i l l be to pass the good things that I learn from you, on to o t h e r s . " 9 Apparently, municipal o f f i c e r s were w i l l i n g to obl ige one another by answering requests for information. From the early 1890's, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a lso became involved in the process by which municipal law was amended and c o n s o l i d a t e d . 5 0 They appointed l e g i s l a t i v e committees to communicate with other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on proposed changes to the municipal system and eventually submitted the i r "suggestions" to the p r o v i n c i a l government. Apart from the l e t t e r s patent confirming the creat ion of a municipal i n s t i t u t i o n , i t s archives post-date incorporat ion. However, the p o l i t i c a l environment of a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s formation is important since that h i s t o r i c a l context informs the nature of c i v i c administ rat ion and consequently the primary meaning of municipal records. 4 9 CNA, CCN, CC, 9 June 1899, 429. See a lso CNA, CCN, CC, 8 June 1887, 56; 16 June 1899, 436; and 24 June 1904, 448. 5 0 CNA, CCN, CM, 6 February 1893, 297. 28 THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF NANAIMO'S INCORPORATION The inhabitants of Nanaimo attempted upon at least three occasions to obtain l o c a l self -government. The f i r s t attempt occurred in the spring of 1866. In March, the Vancouver Island House of Assembly passed a b i l l for the incorporation of Nanaimo, which was then transmitted to the L e g i s l a t i v e Council where i t passed i t s f i r s t reading. To s impl i f y a complex issue, pe t i t i ons were c i r c u l a t e d among Nanaimo's res idents , f i r s t denigrat ing and afterwards supporting the incorporation movement, and charges arose as to the v a l i d i t y of the a n t i -incorporation p e t i t i o n . The opponents of incorporation held a mock funeral service and buried the b i l l in the rav ine. A select committee of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council appointed to invest igate a l legat ions brought against the movement's opponents decided that the charges were unfounded, that no case had been made for incorporat ion , and that the cent ra l government could best deal with the town's requirements. Consequently, on 28 May, the L e g i s l a t i v e Counci l i n d e f i n i t e l y postponed the b i l l ' s second r e a d i n g . 5 1 Correspondence in the Vancouver Island newspapers reveals that the incorporation issue div ided the community in t w o . 5 2 The movement's defeat was a t t r ibu ted to the fact that Nanaimo was a company t o w n . 5 3 5 1 Hendrickson 1980, passim. 5 2 "A B i t t e r P i l l from Nanaimo," Dai ly B r i t i s h Co lon is t , 20 A p r i l 1866, 3. 5 3 " Incorporation of Nanaimo," V i c t o r i a Dai ly Chronic le , 2 May 1866, 2, and "Where there 's a W i l l there 's a Way," Nanaimo  Gazette, 19 May 1866, 1. 29 In 1870, a second incorporation attempt proved s h o r t - l i v e d . On 7 March, David Babington Ring, L e g i s l a t i v e Counci l lo r for Nanaimo, was granted leave to introduce a Nanaimo incorporation b i l l in the L e g i s l a t i v e Counc i l . However, no further action was t a k e n . 5 4 F i n a l l y , a t h i r d attempt succeeded, although under equally cont rovers ia l circumstances. On 14 and 15 December 1874, Po l i ce Constable Wi l l iam Stewart and Alexander Dunsmuir, son of c o l l i e r y propr ietor Robert Dunsmuir, c i r c u l a t e d a p e t i t i o n among the residents requesting the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to issue l e t t e r s patent incorporat ing a c i t y munic ipa l i ty comprised of the Nanaimo and Newcastle townsites. They were successful in obtaining the signatures of 221 of the approximately 260 persons e n t i t l e d to vote at municipal e l e c t i o n s . The p e t i t i o n requested that self-government be granted in order to prevent the further expenditure of the town revenue in opening roads to d istant parts of the d i s t r i c t . It claimed that municipal government would improve the town's st reets and br idges, which were in a very unsat is factory c o n d i t i o n . The Nanaimo Free Press (NFP) endorsed the movement, noting that "one thing i s c e r t a i n , we want some change to l i f t us out of the muddy condit ion in which we are at present . . . , " 5 5 in report ing the a r r i v a l of Alexander Dunsmuir in V i c t o r i a to present the p e t i t i o n to the Lieutenant-Governor, the Dai ly B r i t i s h Colonist noted: 5 4 "Journals of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council of B r i t i s h Columbia," 1867-1871, 7th Session (1870), in Hendrickson 1980, 5:301. 5 5 C i ted in "Munic ipa l i t y P e t i t i o n , " Dai ly B r i t i s h Co lon is t , 18 December 1874, 3. 30 But most assuredly i t i s due to Nanaimo that she should have a f a i r s t a r t - - a l i b e r a l grant in order that the heavier works which ought to have been done long ago by the Government may now be done without the necessity of having recourse to f resh taxat ion . The P r o v i n c i a l Exchequer i s largely indebted to Nanaimo, and no more f i t t i n g opportunity could occur for cance l l ing at least a port ion of that indebtedness. 5 6 Dunsmuir presented the p e t i t i o n to the government on 21 December, 5 7 and municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s were supposedly granted the same d a y . 5 8 Dunsmuir's "strenuous e f f o r t s " to obtain a bonus were without s u c c e s s , 5 9 and he was l a t e r c r i t i c i z e d for having acted as the community's se l f -appointed "ambassador." From 22 December 1874, a counter p e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t e d which opposed incorporation unless a bonus of $40,000 was granted as indemnif icat ion for the many years of neglect the town had suf fe red . I ts proponents inserted a copy in the advert is ing columns of the NFP. 6 0 The p e t i t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y charged that the incorporation p e t i t i o n had been signed under misapprehension by non Residents, non f reeholders , non Househoulders, non Leaseholders, And by people res id ing outside the L imi ts of the proposed Munic ipa l i t y and thus without proper regard to the .p rov is ions of the Mun ic ipa l i t y Act 1 872 6 1 and was therefore informal and i r r e g u l a r , and did not meet the requirements of the 1872 Act , "nor the wishes of those e n t i t l e d "Nanaimo to be Incorporated," Dai ly B r i t i s h Co lon is t , 18 December 1874, 3. PABC, BC, P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, GR 526, Correspondence inward, Box 11, F i l e : No. 850- , Item 865/74. "Nanaimo," Dai l y B r i t i s h Co lon is t , 25 December 1874, 3. "Nanaimo," Dai l y B r i t i s h Co lon is t , 25 December 1874, 3. "To His Excel lency . . . , " NFP, 26 December 1874, 2. PABC, BC, P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, GR 526, Correspondence inward, Box 9, F i l e : No. 1-75, Item 8/74 [marked i n c o r r e c t l y , should have probably been numbered 8/75]. 31 to P e t i t i o n . " The p e t i t i o n stressed that the government had with the moneys appropriated for Nanaimo D i s t r i c t made scarcely any improvements within the town and that good thoroughfares would have existed i f i t had done so. Considerable improvements had been made in New Westminster and V i c t o r i a at general government expense pr ior to the i r incorporat ion. Therefore, the pe t i t i oners bel ieved that a l l of the publ ic bu i ld ings , br idges, and other improvements necessary for the l o c a l i t y should be constructed out of general and not l o c a l government funds. The counter p e t i t i o n , received by the government on 2 January 1875, co l lec ted only 134 s ignatures; a number of the pe t i t i oners had also signed the incorporation p e t i t i o n . It i s of in terest to note that Mark Bate, who became Nanaimo's f i r s t and long-time mayor several weeks l a t e r , signed the counter p e t i t i o n . 6 2 Bate did not sign the incorporation p e t i t i o n , although James Harvey, the only other mayoral candidate and a son- in - law of Robert Dunsmuir, d i d . Advocating self-government and municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s , the Dai ly B r i t i s h Colonist stated that Nanaimo should be incorporated only i f i t s residents desired incorporat ion. It questioned the haste with which the incorporation p e t i t i o n had been c i r c u l a t e d and the "extraordinary haste" with which the government had acted, when, in l i g h t of i t s knowledge of the general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and counter movement at Nanaimo, i t should have acted with "unusual 6 2 Bate had also opposed incorporation during the 1866 attempt. 6 3 "Nanaimo Incorporat ion," Dai ly B r i t i s h Co lon is t , 25 December 1874, 2. 32 c a u t i o n . " 6 3 Regardless of the p o l i t i c a l overtones of the incorporation quest ion, the majority of Nanaimo's residents c l e a r l y desired some sort of change, and incorporat ion , even without a bonus, was seen as the answer. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council had on 24 December 1874, by l e t t e r s p a t e n t 6 4 issued under the "Munic ipa l i t y Act , 1872" and amending a c t s , 6 5 incorporated the townsites of Nanaimo and Newcastle, and the i r approximately 1,500 inhabi tants , as the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo. Nanaimo became the province's eighth municipal corporat ion and th i rd c i t y mun ic ipa l i t y . In 1875, the government f i n a l l y voted i t a $3,000 a p p r o p r i a t i o n 6 6 to defray the costs of construct ion of the f i r s t bridge across the ravine at Bastion and F i t z w i l l i a m St reets , the lack of which had long.been a source of gr ievance. 6 7 4 The 1874 l e t t e r s patent (App. E/136), and subsequent amendments to extend the c i t y l i m i t s (1887, 1927, 1946, and 1952), remained in ef fect u n t i l 1975. At that t ime, the City was, upon i t s amalgamation with several out ly ing d i s t r i c t s , reincorporated as the C i ty of Nanaimo. , -5 App. B/46-48. 6 CNA, CCN, CM, 12 A p r i l 1875, 19; 5 May 1875, 28; and 14 June 1875, 35. The schedule attached to the [Supply Act , 1875], SBC, 1875, 38 V i c t . , no. 3, p. 21, notes $10,000 in d i r e c t a id voted to six m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , of which Nanaimo was the largest rec i p i e n t . 7 See Sale and Smith 1983, 58. 33 THE EXTENSION OF NANAIMO'S MUNICIPAL LIMITS Another important factor in studying the records of an organization concerns the l i m i t s of i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n and how they were extended or reduced. Such knowledge i s important in determining whether record of a given geographic area w i l l be found among an organizat ion 's archives at a s p e c i f i c point in time. For instance, the "Munic ipa l i t y Act Amendment Act , 1873" empowered the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to extend the l i m i t s of a munic ipal i ty upon the passage of a resolut ion by two-thirds of i t s counci l a f f i rming the expediency of such extension. Only in the case of e x i s t i n g c i t y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s could l i m i t s be a r b i t r a r i l y extended; in a l l other cases, the consent of the majority of the inhabitants to be affected had f i r s t to be obtained at a p o l l held for that purpose . 6 8 In 1886, Nanaimo's Counci l unanimously resolved to extend the c i t y l i m i t s in a southwesterly d i rec t ion so as to bring "the v i l l a g e commonly c a l l e d Chinatown" under i t s c o n t r o l . 6 9 The Lieutenant-Governor extended the c i t y l i m i t s by l e t t e r s patent dated 13 January 1 887. 7 0 The land and inhabitants so incorporated were deemed to have been included by the 1874 l e t t e r s patent. 6 8 App. B/47, s . 46. 6 9 CNA, CCN, CM, 13 December 1886, 126-7. See the "Chinese," in Norcross 1979, 92-4. 7 0 App. E/137. 34 STATUTORY AUTHORITY AND ORIGINAL MEANING While statutory law provides the general author i ty upon which municipal government i s founded, i t also defines the parameters within which mun ic ipa l i t i es can operate, the functions for which they are responsible , and consequently the subjects which the i r records document. As a r e s u l t , statutory author i ty sheds l i g h t upon the o r i g i n a l purpose for which a record was created, that i s , i t s o r i g i n a l meaning. Municipal corporat ions, l i k e other publ ic agencies, have both administrat ive and operational funct ions . Administrat ive functions comprise a l l in ternal housekeeping procedures, inc luding property, mater ie l , f i n a n c i a l , and personnel management, and provide the general administ rat ive and c l e r i c a l support required by an organization to f u l f i l l i t s operational mandate. A m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s operational functions consist of the services for which i t i s responsible by v i r tue of i t s l e t t e r s patent and the statutes by which i t was incorporated. B r i e f l y , the operat ional functions of nineteenth-century m u n i c i p a l i t i e s included publ ic works, such as the maintenance of s t r e e t s , sidewalks, and br idges, s a n i t a t i o n , drainage, hea l th , education, cemetery regu lat ion , f i r e prevention, p o l i c i n g , l iquor c o n t r o l , poor r e l i e f , street l i g h t i n g , and water serv ice . Records may also be div ided according to the administ rat ive and operational categor ies . Administrat ive records are generated or received in the performance of in terna l support functions and operational records in the performance of service and regulatory funct ions . Although the administrat ive record often contains information 35 about operat ional funct ions, the operat ional record seldom contains information about administ rat ive matters. The majority of Nanaimo's surviv ing archives are administ rat ive rather than operat iona l . Apparently, the prov is ion of service funct ions resul ted in the creation of fewer records of permanent va lue. The importance of statutory law in understanding an organizat ion and i t s records i s i l l u s t r a t e d through d iscuss ion of the administrat ive function performed by the municipal returning o f f i c e r , the s t ructur ing of c i t y wards, the promulgation of municipal by- laws, the C i t y ' s takeover of the water service funct ion, and the p rov inc ia l -mun ic ipa l d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for publ ic education. To begin, a permanently appointed municipal administ rat ive s ta f f d id not ex is t during the period of th i s study, and the role played by the returning o f f i c e r was cent ra l to the emergence of municipal government and admin is t ra t ion . Although o r i g i n a l documentation i s v i r t u a l l y non-ex is tent , the e lect ion function may be understood through study of statutory law, which defined the municipal f ranchise and deta i led the procedures the returning o f f i c e r was to fol low in order that e lect ions be conducted in a lawful manner and that democracy be upheld. Despite the mandatory requirements contained in municipal law, i t must be remembered that m u n i c i p a l i t i e s d id not always f u l l y or immediately comply with s ta tu te . For instance, the "Munic ipa l i t y Act , 1872" provided that the counc i l of every munic ipa l i ty " s h a l l d iv ide the same into Wards, and may, from 36 time to t ime, a l t e r such d i v i s i o n s so as to allow the d i f fe rent port ions to be equally represented in the Counc i l , on the basis of tax paying popu la t ion . " 7 1 ,A l though Nanaimo's Council should have structured wards in 1875, i t d id not do so u n t i l 25 March 1878 when i t resolved that the Ci ty be div ided into three wards for e lec t ion and assessment purposes . 7 2 The by-laws of a munic ipal i ty are one of i t s most important record s e r i e s . They provide the lega l basis for the undertaking of most major operat ional functions and must, in order to have the force of law, be properly promulgated. The promulgation procedures followed by municipal government, and the resu l t ing published arch ives , are comprehensible only through extensive study of the p r o v i n c i a l statutes governing the authent icat ion of by - laws . 7 3 To begin, the "Munic ipa l i ty Act , 1872" provided that by-laws were "subject to confirmation or disallowance by the L ieutenant -Governor . " 7 " The "Munic ipa l i ty Act Amendment Act , 1873" spec i f i ed that the municipal c lerk transmit copies to him within one month af ter the i r f i n a l passage, and that they be signed by the c l e r k , countersigned by the mayor, warden, or pres id ing municipal c o u n c i l l o r , and sealed with the corporate 1 App. B/46, s . 20. 2 CNA, CCN, CM, 25 March 1878, 204. That reso lut ion was subsequently confirmed by the "Nanaimo C i ty Wards By- law, 1878." See App. J/385. 3 Nanaimo's by-law ser ies has been reconstructed and i s l i s t e d by subject in Appendix J/156-392. " App. B/46, s . 22. 37 s e a l . 7 5 The o r i g i n a l s were to be signed and sealed, and a c e r t i f i e d copy was to be received as evidence in any Court of J u s t i c e "without proof of the seal or s ignatures, unless i t i s s p e c i a l l y pleaded or a l leged that the seal or one or both of the signatures have been f o r g e d . " 7 6 The 1873 Act provided that by-laws, orders, and resolut ions of municipal counci ls could, upon app l i ca t ion to the Supreme Court by an interested party , be quashed for i l l e g a l i t y ; 7 7 by-laws could thereby be enforced and tes ted . It a lso set the guidel ines by which municipal counci ls could pass by-laws for contract ing debts by way of loan and for levy ing spec ia l rates for the i r repayment. 7 8 Those for the r a i s i n g of money for extra -ordinary expenditure required the assent of the ratepayers before f i n a l passage, and the Act provided for the.appointment of a returning o f f i c e r . 7 9 The "Munic ipa l i t y Act , 1881" subs tant ia l l y a l tered the prov is ions regarding promulgation. Every by-law passed by a municipal counci l was to be reconsidered: App. B/47, s~. 8~. However, as Cary Cas t le , the Lieutenant-Governor's o f f i c i a l residence, was destroyed by f i r e in 1 8 9 9 and again in 1957, i t i s doubtful that the Lieutenant-Governor's copies have surv ived. Cursory examination of the relevant PABC f ind ing a id (GR 443) did not reveal any reference to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . App. B/47, ss . 9-10. App. B/47, s . 11. 1 App. B/47, SS. 3 -4 . ' App. B/47, s . 6. 38 not less than three days af ter the o r i g i n a l passage, and i f adopted by the Municipal Counc i l , or confirmed by the municipal e l e c t o r s , as hereinafter provided, s h a l l come into e f fect and be binding on a l l persons af ter seven days from the publ icat ion of the same in some one or more of the newspapers ( i f any) published in the M u n i c i p a l i t y , unless otherwise postponed in such by - law . 8 0 Thus, from 1881 (un t i l 1899), pub l icat ion was e s s e n t i a l l y mandatory, and one might expect to f ind a published copy in l o c a l newspapers. In a d d i t i o n , "An Act to amend the 'Mun ic ipa l i t y Act , 1881,' [1883]" required that municipal by-laws be published in the B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette (BCG). 8 1 That Act received assent on 18 February 1884, from which date ( u n t i l 1899) the BCG provides a very r i c h source for the study of municipal enactments. 8 2 Evidence of any by-law could thenceforth be given in any court by production of the BCG containing a copy. 8 3 The "Municipal Act , 1889" provided that municipal c le rks transmit by-law copies to the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, instead of the Lieutenant -Governor . 8 " However, the "Municipal Act , 1892" omitted that provis ion and enacted that promulgation should consist in the pub l icat ion in the B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette of a true copy of the by- law, and of the 0 App. B/59, s . 70. 1 App. B/62, s . 1 . 2 The BCG was an important part of the record of the municipal c l e r k ' s o f f i c e . The UBC Law L ibrary has a number of volumes formerly belonging to the Vancouver Ci ty C le rk ' s o f f i c e . The Vancouver C i ty by-laws published in each volume are enumerated in l i s t s glued inside the i r front covers. See Set 3 for the years 1887-88, 1893-96, and 1900-04. 3 App. B/62, s . 2. " App. B/69, s . 110. 39 signature or signatures a t tes t ing i t s au thent i c i t y , with a not ice appended thereto of the time l i m i t e d by law for app l i ca t ions to the Courts to quash the same, or any part t h e r e o f . 8 5 The Act contained a copy of the notice to be appended and defined the r ight to act ion in the case of i l l e g a l enactments. 8 6 The "Municipal Clauses Act Amendment Act , 1899" repealed the sections regarding promulgation through publ icat ion and enacted that by-laws reconsidered and adopted by counci l not less than one day af ter o r i g i n a l passage simply come into e f f e c t , unless a la te r date was s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d . 8 7 That amendment v i r t u a l l y ended the i r pub l i ca t ion in loca l newspapers and the BCG, thereby saving municipal counc i ls the considerable costs of advert i sement. It i s probable that the d iscont inuat ion of formal promulgation procedures caused lega l problems, for the "Municipal Clauses Act Amendment Act , 1902" amended the 1899 A c t ' s p rov is ions . Thenceforth, confirmed by-laws were to be registered with the County Court Regist rar through deposit of a true copy c e r t i f i e d by the municipal c l e r k . They were to "take e f fec t and come into force and be binding on a l l persons as from the date Of such r e g i s t r a t i o n , " unless s p e c i f i c a l l y postponed. 8 8 The Act a lso provided that a l l municipal counci ls deposi t , wi th in 60 days from the date of royal assent, c e r t i f i e d copies of a l l by-laws passed since 27 February 1899 (the date of assent 5 App. B/72, s . 124. 6 App. B/72, ss . 125, and 128-31. 7 App. B/79, S. 5. 8 App. B/82, s . 22. 40 to the 1899 Act) and s t i l l in f o r c e . 8 9 Although Nanaimo's C i ty Clerk deposited the municipal by-laws with the County Court Registrar u n t i l the 1 9 5 0 ' s , 9 0 those copies have not surv ived. Statutory law empowered m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to undertake cer ta in operat ional funct ions , but sometimes l im i ted the extent of the i r author i ty in a given area. For instance, the "Munic ipa l i t y Act , 1872" vested in municipal counci ls the r ight to authorize and • regulate water companies, 9 1 but d id not give them the powers necessary for the purchase and operation of e x i s t i n g waterworks. The f i r s t attempt to provide Nanaimo with a regular water supply began in 1881, when Council authorized Josiah Walter S t i r t a n to lay a system of wooden mains. In 1885, the Nanaimo Water Works Company, L imi ted , which took over S t i r t a n ' s system, was i n c o r p o r a t e d . 9 2 As ear ly as 1889, Counci l made inquiry regarding the terms by which i t could purchase the Company's p lant . In order to have the water service function brought under municipal c o n t r o l , Counci l f i n a l l y had the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly pass the "Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo Water-works Act , 1895," which s p e c i f i c a l l y authorized i t to provide an adequate supply of water, through the purchase of the e x i s t i n g waterworks plant (by a r b i t r a t i o n i f necessary) or the construct ion of a new o n e . 9 3 However, problems arose in negot iat ing the purchase of 9 App. B/82, s . 22. 0 See [By-laws Register] (App. J/154). The "Municipal Act , [1957]," SBC, 1957, 6 E l i z . 2, c . 42, ss . 227-8, changed the promulgation procedure. 1 App. B/46, s . 21, s . - s . 8. 2 App. B/100-101, and 103. 3 App. B/102. 41 the waterworks, and the Nanaimo Water Works Company did not formally t ransfer i t s plant to the Ci ty u n t i l 19 June 1901. This example also i l l u s t r a t e s the potent ia l t ime- lag between the granting of statutory author i ty for the performance of a function and the actual completion of re lated t ransact ions . Study of statutory law i s essent ia l in a r r i v i n g at a c lear understanding of the meaning of records which document operat ional functions for which r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s d iv ided. For instance, p r o v i n c i a l and municipal agencies shared f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for publ ic health preservat ion, po l i ce force maintenance, and publ ic education and school accommodation. Discussion of the d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for publ ic schools w i l l s u f f i c e to demonstrate the u t te r• imprac t i cab i l i t y of attempting to extrapolate secondary meaning from the informational content of pert inent l o c a l records without f i r s t understanding the evolution of the p rov inc ia l -munic ipa l re la t ionsh ip with respect to education. After 1888, the p r o v i n c i a l government began to decentral ize i t s contro l of education as a resu l t of ever - increasing demands for new school f a c i l i t i e s . The "Publ ic School Act Amendment Act , 18 8 8 " 9 " was the f i r s t statute to a l t e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y the role municipal government was expected to p lay . It brought Vancouver under the school act and made the municipal corporations of the four c i t y school d i s t r i c t s , that i s , V i c t o r i a , New Westminster, Vancouver, and Nanaimo, responsible 9 " SBC, 1888, 51 V i c t . , c . 32, ss . 10-11. 42 for one - th i rd of the s a l a r i e s of publ ic school teachers employed within the i r l i m i t s . The "Publ ic School Act , 1891" 9 5 augmented the role of municipal government in publ ic e d u c a t i o n . 9 6 Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t increased, from one- th i rd to one-ha l f , the proportion of teachers' sa la r ies which the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, and New Westminster were required to contr ibute . They were also to pay the whole of a l l expenses for school s i t e s , bu i ld ings , f u r n i t u r e , and inc identa l s . In order to raise such sums, the i r municipal counci ls were to levy an add i t iona l rate on rea l es tate . In add i t i on , the "Revenue Tax Act , [1891]" 9 7 provided that , within those c i t i e s , the annual th ree -do l la r p r o v i n c i a l revenue tax be payable to the municipal c o l l e c t o r s ; elsewhere, i t was payable to the p rov inc ia l a u t h o r i t i e s . The "Publ ic School Act Amendment Act , 1893" 9 8 made the municipal corporations of c i t y school d i s t r i c t s wholly responsible for the s a l a r i e s of the teachers employed in the i r publ ic schools, in addit ion to a l l other school expenses. Sa lar ies were to.be f i xed and paid at the d isc re t ion of the school t rustees . However, the province was to ass i s t those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s through payment, from i t s consolidated revenue fund, of a per capita grant of $10 per student per annum, based 5 SBC, 1891, 54 V i c t . , c . 40, ss . 30 and 32. 6 On 8 A p r i l 1891, the Nanaimo C i ty School D i s t r i c t was defined as embracing a l l that area within Nanaimo's corporate l i m i t s . 7 SBC, 1891, 54 V i c t . , c . 44, s . 1. 8 SBC, 1893, 56 V i c t . , c . 41, s . 3. 43 upon the average actual d a i l y attendance. The only proviso was that the i r schools be conducted in accordance with the rules and regulat ions prescribed by the Council of Publ ic Ins t ruc t ion . The "Publ ic Schools Act Amendment Act , 1 9 0 1 " " subs tant ia l l y restructured the p rov inc ia l -mun ic ipa l system of cos t - shar ing . It d iv ided c i t y school d i s t r i c t s into three c lasses , based upon the average actual d a i l y attendance of pupi ls attending the i r publ ic schools, and included a l l incorporated c i t i e s and towns. I n i t i a l l y , V i c t o r i a and Vancouver were the only c i t i e s with the 1,000 pupi l d a i l y attendance required of a school d i s t r i c t of the f i r s t c l a s s . The c i t i e s of Nanaimo, Nelson, New Westminster, and Rossland met the second c lass attendance requirement of 250-999 p u p i l s . The c i t i e s of Columbia, Cumberland, Grand Forks, Greenwood, Kamloops, Kaslo , Phoenix, Revelstoke, Sandon, Vernon, and the town of Wellington f e l l in to the t h i r d c lass category, with attendances of less than 250 p u p i l s . From 1 January 1902, the s a l a r i e s of teachers and a l l other schoo l - re la ted expenses in a l l c lasses of c i t y school d i s t r i c t s were to be paid by the i r municipal corporat ions. Such expenses were to be p a r t i a l l y defrayed by an annual per capi ta grant of $13 per pup i l to f i r s t c lass c i t i e s , $15 to second c lass c i t i e s , and $20 to t h i r d c lass c i t i e s , based upon average d a i l y attendance. In a d d i t i o n , a grant of $300 per annum for each high school teacher was to be made to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s in which high schools operated. 9 9 SBC, 1901, 1 Edw. 7, c . 48, ss . 4-10 and 21. 44 The re la t ionsh ip between municipal counci ls and boards of school trustees was also complex. To take but one example, the "Publ ic School Act , 1891" 1 0 0 provided that the c i t y treasurer keep a separate account of moneys paid into h is hands on behalf of the school board, pay over moneys to that board, and exhibi t to i t the state of that account. In 1 893, 1 0 1 the c i t y treasurer was made responsible for the actual payment of the accounts passed by the school t rustees . In Nanaimo, t h i s d id not become the pract ice u n t i l 1897 when School Board Secretary Samuel Gough, who had recently been ousted from the o f f i c e of C i ty C o l l e c t o r , n o t i f i e d Council on behalf of the School Board that that body desired a l l s a l a r i e s and accounts to be paid by the Ci ty Treasurer on presentation of a voucher duly signed by the Chairman and Secretary of the Board of School T r u s t e e s . 1 0 2 Despite the increase in work that would resu l t in the Ci ty Treasurer 's o f f i c e , Council adopted the relevant provis ions of the school a c t 1 0 3 and expenditures on publ ic schools were thenceforth included in i t s monthly warrant book. P r io r to 1897, sums requested by the School Board Secretary had simply been credi ted to the account of the t rustees . A r c h i v i s t s w i l l frequently have recourse to statutory author i ty in order to understand the o r i g i n a l meaning of the records in the i r care . Research in l e g i s l a t i o n i s tedious and 1 0 0 SBC, 1891, 54 V i c t . , c . 40, s . 35. 1 0 1 SBC, 1893, 56 V i c t . , c . 41, s . 8. 1 0 2 CNA, CCN, CM, 8 February 1897, 69. 1 0 3 CNA, CCN, CM, 15 February 1897, 72. 45 extremely time-consuming, but i s to a greater or lesser degree essent ia l to the understanding of a l l i n s t i t u t i o n a l records. The statutory provisions by which the arch iva l record was generated were common knowledge to i t s c reator . Therefore, a r c h i v i s t s must become f a m i l i a r with those provis ions in order to understand the context in which the creator acted. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTEXT AND THE CREATION OF RECORDS The act ions of any agency which creates documentation are governed by i t s posi t ion with in a larger organizat ional h ierarchy. Consequently, administ rat ive context can be examined on every h ie ra rch ica l l e v e l . For instance, Nanaimo's Finance Committee delineated the f i s c a l framework within which the Corporation was to operate. The decis ions of. that body bore upon a l l f i n a n c i a l management funct ions, inc luding real estate assessment, the hearing of appeals against that assessment, the c o l l e c t i o n of municipal revenue, management of the receipt of moneys co l lec ted and the payment of approved accounts, and f i n a l l y the year-end audit of accounts. Consequently, the documentation created by the C i ty Assessor, Municipal Court of Rev is ion, C i ty Co l lec to r , C i ty Treasurer, and C i ty Auditor must be considered in l i gh t of the decis ions of the Finance Committee and given the in te r re la t ionsh ips between those record groups. On another l e v e l , the purpose of the record may be examined in terms of the f i s c a l framework of the municipal system. For example, from 1887, the Finance Committee made arrangements with the Corporat ion's bank to obtain temporary c red i t by way of 46 overdraft upon i t s current account. I n i t i a l l y , the bank required a c e r t i f i e d copy of the by-law or reso lu t ion by which Council authorized the Finance Committee to secure c r e d i t . 1 0 " Overdrafts became common p r a c t i c e , and the process by which they were secured was formal ized. From 1893, Counci l annually passed a temporary loan b y - l a w . 1 0 5 These records enabled Council to meet i t s f i n a n c i a l ob l igat ions before any revenue had been ra i sed . They are explained by the short timeframe in which B r i t i s h Columbia's municipal system operated, which resulted in municipal cof fers being v i r t u a l l y empty during the f i r s t months of each year. It was not uncommon for Nanaimo's publ ic works to be suspended u n t i l funds were a v a i l a b l e , nor for the wages of i t s o f f i c e r s and employees to be in a r r e a r s . •Broadly speaking, the administ rat ive environment of the creat ion of a documentary source cons is ts in i t s provenance, o r i g i n a l order, form, and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other records. PROVENANCE In general , the provenance of a record ser ies refers to i t s o f f i c e of o r i g i n , that i s , the " o f f i c e or admin is t rat ive ent i t y that created or received and accumulated the records in the conduct of i t s b u s i n e s s . " 1 0 6 The a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e based upon provenance d ic tates that the archives of a given creat ing agency must not be intermingled with those of other records c reators . 1 0 " App. J/201. 1 0 5 App. J/156-167. 1 0 6 Evans, Harr ison, and Thompson 1974, 427-8. 47 Nanaimo's archives did not present any p a r t i c u l a r problems with respect to provenance, which is the basis upon which the record group inventor ies in Appendices J -Y are organized. They r e f l e c t the provenance of surv iv ing records created to 1904. The h i e r a r c h i c a l structure of Nanaimo's c i v i c administrat ion and related boards in 1904 i s i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 1. The h is to ry of Nanaimo's administ rat ion and the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of i t s municipal o f f i c e r s are of p i vo ta l importance in understanding the context in which a record group was created, including the dates during which i t f lour ished and the functions i t documents. To i l l u s t r a t e , the o f f i c e of C i ty Treasurer ex isted from 1 8 9 2 ; 1 0 7 previous to that t ime, the Corporat ion's books were kept by, the C i ty C l e r k . 1 0 8 In 1896, the pos i t ions in the C le rk ' s o f f i c e were separated, and the jo in t o f f i c e of C i ty C lerk , Treasurer, and Caretaker was c r e a t e d . 1 0 9 The general journa l , s inking fund accounts, and debenture records have been a t t r ibuted to the C i t y Treasurer 's record g r o u p . 1 1 0 However, the cash book s e r i e s , 1 8 7 4 - 1 8 8 8 , 1 1 1 which has been a t t r i b u t e d to the C i ty C o l l e c t o r ' s record group, cannot be e n t i r e l y separated from the functions performed by the Clerk act ing in the u n o f f i c i a l capacity of Treasurer. The monthly recap i tu la t ions which those books contain c l e a r l y played a key role in the C l e r k ' s system of book-keeping. 1 0 7 See Appendix H.3. 1 0 8 See Appendices H.1-H.2. 1 0 9 See Appendices H.8-H.9. 1 1 0 See Appendix M. 1 1 1 App. L/421-422. 48 PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT ( L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r In C o u n c i l ) C o r p o r a t 1 on of the C i ty of Nana i mo ( 1874-Appendlx E M u n i c i p a l C o u r t o f R e v i s i o n (1875-Cl e r k Appendix R M u n i c i p a l E l e c t o r a t e MUNICIPAL COUNCIL One Mayor e l e c t e d at l a r g e ; n i n e Aldermen e l e c t e d by c i t y ward; one-year terms; e l i g i b l e f o r r e - e l e c t 1 on. (1875-Appendices F-G Committee of the Whole (1875-S p e c i a l Purpose ( S e l e c t ) Committees F i nance Committee (1875-Appendix N IL M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l as Board of Cemetery T r u s t e e s ( 1877-M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l as Lo c a l Board of H e a l t h (1895-C l e r k Appendix Q [Appendi x YJ G r a v e d i g g e r S e c r e t a r y Appendix S NANAIMO CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT Board of School T r u s t e e s (1870-F i v e T r u s t e e s e l e c t e d a t l a r g e . NANAIMO CITY Board of L i cens1ng Commlss i o n e r s (1889-Appendix T S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e NANAIMO CITY Board of Po1i ce Commi ss i oner ( 1894-NANAIMO CITY Pol i c e Magi s t r a t e (1891-S e c r e t a r y Appendix U r C l e r k Appendix V C h i e f of Pol i c e Cemetery Commi t t e e ( 1875-X San 1 t a r y Comm i t tee (1875-X F1 r e Warden Commi t t e e (1876-X S t r e e t L i g h t i n g Commi t t e e (1880-X S t r e e t Commi t tee (1875-X Waterworks Commi t t e e (1875-1 Mun i c i pa 1 Pol i c e F o r c e J a n i t o r / C a r e t a k e r ( 1881-C 1 ty S o l i c i t o r (1881, 1888-Ci ty Aud i t o r ( 1875-Appendix P Ci ty T r e a s u r e r ( 1892-Appendix M C i t y Col 1 e c t o r (1875-Appendlx L C i t y A s s e s s o r ( 1875-Appendlx K Ci t y C l e r k (1875-Appendix U R e t u r n i n g O f f i c e r ( 1874-Medi c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r (1885-Ci t y Scavenger (1890-F i r e C h i e f (1901-Ci t y Pound-keeper ( 1891-C i t y Works Manager ( 1904-F i r e Department (1901-[Appendix Y] Figure 1 - Organizational Chart of Nanaimo's Municipal Government, 1904 C i t y Surveyor (1875-C1ty Works Department (1904-Comprised of the former: S t r e e t s Department (1875-1904) [Appendix Y] Waterworks Department (1901-1904) Appendix 0 This o rgan iza t iona l chart shows the 1904 h i e r a r c h i c a l structure of the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo and i d e n t i f i e s the year of formation of each o f f i c e and the pert inent record group inventory (by appendix). 49 ORIGINAL ORDER The p r i n c i p l e of o r i g i n a l order l o g i c a l l y fol lows from provenance. Since meaning may be derived from the order imposed upon records by the i r c reator , the a r c h i v i s t must preserve that order whenever poss ib le . O r ig ina l order i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by Nanaimo's by-laws s e r i e s . 1 1 2 In the spring of 1901, the Ci ty Clerk establ ished a system for numbering the municipal by- laws. Ex i s t ing by-laws were organized to r e f l e c t the i r subject content and were numbered in green p e n c i l . Red pen was used to note the by-laws by which each was repealed or amended. Thereafter , by-laws were sequent ia l ly numbered. Early by-laws a lso bear numbers from a numbering system which was for some reason discont inued. The o r i g i n a l by-laws are preserved in the administ rat ive vault at Nanaimo Ci ty H a l l in the order imposed upon them in 1901. Nanaimo's audited f i n a n c i a l statements s e r i e s 1 1 3 provides another example of the meaning derived from the o r i g i n a l order of the record. The statements generated each year during the year-end audit were s i m i l a r and were annually grouped in envelopes so as to maintain the re la t ionsh ips between them. For instance, the Audi tor ' s report refers to the statement of receipts and expenditure, the balance sheet of assets and l i a b i l i t i e s , and the f i n a n c i a l statements regarding the Nanaimo Public Cemetery, the accounts of the school board t rus tees , and 1 1 2 See Appendix J/156-392. 1 1 3 See Appendix P/445-593. 50 the waterworks. The leather-bound volumes of counci l minutes a lso have o r i g i n a l order, which is of obvious importance in t rac ing issues discussed by Counc i l . However, the fact that the minutes are recorded chronolog ica l ly combined with the observation that regular Monday evening meetings were rare ly missed (except for lack of quorum) lends s ign i f i cance to meetings for which minutes have not surv ived. For instance, the meeting fo l lowing the explosion in No. 1 Mine on 3 May 1887 was missed without explanat ion, due no doubt to the overwhelming impact of that d i sas te r upon the community. FORM The form of a record may be addressed from two points: ' i n t e r n a l and external s t ructure . Internal structure i s often d ic ta ted by t r a d i t i o n or administ rat ive p o l i c y . For instance, by-laws and counc i l minutes each have an in te rna l format by which they are readi ly i d e n t i f i e d . Nanaimo's by-laws conform to the standard lega l format and often embody the wording of the i r enabling l e g i s l a t i o n . Changes in the formatting of Nanaimo's counc i l m inutes 1 1 " re f lec t to some extent the personal s ty le of the C i t y C le rk , but more often an increased formal i ty and maturity in the proceedings of Counc i l . For example, from 1881, some important correspondence, reports , addresses, and proposals were copied in the i r ent i re ty i n , or spread upon, the 1 1 " App. J/1 38-142. 51 m i n u t e s . 1 1 5 Such documents were obviously considered of s u f f i c i e n t importance to become part of the permanent record. From the ear ly 1890's, the minutes again r e f l e c t the formal izat ion of counci l proceedings a f te r the passage of a new by-law for the regulat ion and general conduct of municipal b u s i n e s s , 1 1 6 which was published for d i s t r i b u t i o n to counci l members. 1 1 7 Council passed such by-laws in 1875, 1891, and 1 9 0 3 . 1 1 8 They prescribe the standard procedure for the conduct of meetings. For instance, a f ter the Mayor took h is seat and the minutes of the previous meeting were read and eventually adopted, the order to be observed was the reading of communications, the presentation of accounts, committee reports , deferred business, and then new b u s i n e s s . 1 1 9 The counc i l minutes c l e a r l y r e f l e c t that order. In a d d i t i o n , the "Rules of Order By- law, 1875" provides insight into the recording of Counc i l ' s proceedings, s t i p u l a t i n g that "no protest or expression of dissent s h a l l be entered upon the m i n u t e s . " 1 2 0 The City C l e r k ' s draf t t i t l e page for the 1875 minutes corroborates that proviso regarding t h e i r content: This Book of course i s a journal of the proceedings of the Counc i l , made up of the resolut ions passed, the business transacted, and the names of the Members present. 1 1 5 See, for example, CNA, CCN, CM, Proposal of J.W. S t i r tan to supply C i ty with water, 10 October 1881, 402; Report of Street Committee, 27 March 1882, 430-1; and Letter from Samuel M. Robins regarding cemetery property, 8 A p r i l 1889, 312. 1 1 6 App. J/360. 1 1 7 CNA, CCN, CM, 18 June 1891, 98. 1 1 8 App. J/359-361. 1 1 9 App. J/360, s . 12. 1 2 0 App. J/359, ss . 18 and 27. 52 It i s perhaps not necessary to take down the remarks or opinions expressed by Members of the Counc i l ; but matters of the kind may be introduced for the purpose of g iv ing a better view of matters g e n e r a l l y . 1 2 1 Indeed, throughout the whole of th i s per iod, the counc i l minutes rarely record d issent ing opinions, and discussion i s , where included, usual ly c r y p t i c . 1 2 2 The external structure of a record i s influenced by the technology ava i lab le given the h i s t o r i c a l context of i t s c rea t ion . Certain technica l advances introduced in Nanaimo's Ci ty Of f ices affected the nature, form, and physical extent of the records created and the systems of record-keeping employed. The Ci ty C l e r k ' s correspondence outward sub-ser ies i s noteworthy for the evolut ion i t underwent. From 1875-1886, the C i ty Clerk .made handwritten copies of h is l e t t e r s outward in a copybook. 1 2 3 Then, from December 1886 u n t i l September 1904, he took impressions of them by moistening the o r i g i n a l s , which were pressed overnight between the t issue paper pages of a le t te rpress copybook 1 2" with the copying press the Corporation had acquired. That process resulted in the t ransfer of ink from the o r i g i n a l s to the pages of the letterbook. The volume of correspondence surv iv ing from late-1886 onward i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y 1 2 1 App. J/143. 1 2 2 By far the largest port ion of the i r informational content concerns operat ional functions such as the const ruct ion , repa i r , and maintenance of s t r e e t s , street l i g h t i n g , and the publ ic cemetery. 1 2 3 App. J/147. 1 2 4 App. J/148-152. 53 greater than that from the e a r l i e r per iod , which r e f l e c t s both an increase in the functions for which municipal government was responsible and the increased f a c i l i t y with which exact, i f sometimes poor, copies could be m a d e . 1 2 5 Use of the le t te rpress system was discontinued in September 1904. From 1905, carbon copies of typed correspondence were f i l e d in the newly-created subject f i l e s y s t e m . 1 2 6 In 1889, Council authorized the Ci ty Clerk to have a telephone placed in the City O f f i c e s . 1 2 7 However, the extent to which i t s i n s t a l l a t i o n may have af fected the keeping or , u l t imate l y , surv i va l of a written record cannot be e s t i m a t e d . 1 2 8 In 1896, the Ci ty Clerk ordered a Simplex Pr inter No. 3 , 1 2 9 which was presumably s imi la r to the type used in the mimeograph process. It was probably used by the Secretary of the Board of Cemetery Trustees to p r in t the notices dated A p r i l 1897 of which le t te rpress copies s u r v i v e . 1 3 0 F i n a l l y , in 1902, the Corporation procured i t s f i r s t typewri ter . 1 2 5 An analogy might be drawn to the manner in which the volume of records created expanded in the 1950's and 1960's as the q u a l i t y of r e l a t i v e l y inexpensive photoduplicating machines improved. 1 2 6 The correspondence f i l e s sub -ser ies , 1905-1948, i s discussed af ter App. J/152. 1 2 7 CNA, CCN, CM, 10 June 1889, 330. In 1888, a small group of businessmen set up a pr ivate telephone system. In 1890, the Nanaimo Telephone Company was incorporated (App. B/99). 1 2 8 S e e "Nanaimo Wired for Sound," in Norcross 1979, 79-80. 1 2 9 CNA, CCN, CC, Letter from Adam Thompson, Ci ty C le rk , 7 February 1896, to W.D. McArthur, 132 C a l i f o r n i a S t . , San Francisco, p. 223. 1 3 0 App. J/151. 54 The dupl icat ion of records in other ser ies i s pertinent to the discussion of form. Despite the in formal i ty of the nineteenth-century mun ic ipa l -p rov inc ia l report ing s t ructure , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were required to deposit copies of documents such as by- laws, rea l estate assessment r o l l s , and audited f i n a n c i a l statements with the p r o v i n c i a l government. For instance, the c i t y treasurer was required to forward to the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary by 1 November each year a complete return of a l l money c o l l e c t e d in the M u n i c i p a l i t y , or received from the P r o v i n c i a l Treasury, for Municipal purposes, and of a l l moneys expended for Municipal purposes, during such year, with a br ief statement of the nature of the works on which such money s h a l l have been expended. 1 3 1 Although the "Munic ipa l i t y Amendment Act , 1874" required that the return be made at the end of December, 1 3 2 the intent of that clause remained the same from 1872 u n t i l omitted from the "Municipal Act , 1892." Some of those f i n a n c i a l returns are 1 3 1 App. B/46, s . 29. 1 3 2 App. B/48, s . 12. 55 preserved with real estate assessment r o l l copies at the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s ; 1 3 3 in a d d i t i o n , the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly published some of the f i n a n c i a l returns f i l e d between 1873 and 1880 in i t s Sessional P a p e r s . 1 3 " A s i g n i f i c a n t record of nineteenth-century municipal administ rat ion ex is ts in published form. The documents which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were by statute required to publ ish in the BCG, in l o c a l newspapers, and in pamphlet form are most important where o r i g i n a l documentation has not surv ived, since they make possible the reconstruct ion of select s e r i e s . Despite the frequent changes to the statutory requirements regarding p u b l i c a t i o n , i t i s important that they be studied before attempting to reconstruct a record s e r i e s . Knowledge of the procedures by which municipal by-laws were promulgated and consequently p u b l i s h e d 1 3 5 f a c i l i t a t e d the reconstruction of Nanaimo's by-laws ser ies and great ly diminished the number of missing b y - l a w s . 1 3 6 The same appl ies with respect to the 1 3 3 PABC, BC, P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, GR 773. 1 3 " App. C/118-123, and 133. These published archives are not c r u c i a l in the case of Nanaimo for which the audited f i n a n c i a l statements ser ies i s complete. However, they are c e r t a i n l y a most valuable source on the province's ear ly municipal h i s t o r y . This i s e s p e c i a l l y so in the case of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s for which the archives are not so extensive as Nanaimo's. For example, the archives of the defunct Corporation of the Township of Salt Spring Is land (1872-1883) do not appear to have survived. 1 3 5 Those procedures have been discussed on pp. 36-40 concerning the importance of statutory author i ty to study of the record. 1 3 6 See Appendix J/156-392. 56 reconstruction of Nanaimo's audited f i n a n c i a l statement s e r i e s . 1 3 7 However, in that case, the requirements regarding publ icat ion were not so complicated. From 1875-1900, the reports of Nanaimo's Ci ty Auditor were published in the NFP and other newspapers. In 1901, Nanaimo began to publ ish i t s annual f i n a n c i a l statements in pamphlet f o r m , 1 3 8 in keeping with the "Municipal Clauses Act Amendment Act , 1899" which enabled c i t y mun ic ipa l i t i es to publ ish the i r f i n a n c i a l pos i t ion in such manner. 1 3 9 In add i t i on , published advertisements, committee reports , and accounts of meetings serve to supplement the o f f i c i a l a rch iva l record by corroborating or cont rad ic t ing the evidence i t contains. Because of the l im i ted nature of the means of communication, municipal matters were probably of greater interest to the general publ ic in the la te nineteenth century than they are today, and newspapers reported municipal business in great d e t a i l . The "published counc i l minutes," an u n o f f i c i a l record of the Counc i l ' s proceedings (kept by Nanaimo Free Press publisher George Norr is from 1875-1902), provide the best example. They often cover the counc i l proceedings almost verbatim and are , therefore, an extremely valuable source to the researcher seeking to understand municipal p o l i t i c s , economics, or admin is t rat ion . Moreover, they record the expression of d issent ing and personal opinions, while the o f f i c i a l minutes, 1 3 7 See Appendix P/445-593. 1 3 8 App. M/439-442. 1 3 9 App. B/79, s . 4. 57 which are the main record of the Corporat ion's business, do not. In a d d i t i o n , the accounts of the municipal e lec t ion proceedings pr inted in the NFP each December and January are inva luable . The annual nomination and p o l l , i f any, were reported in great d e t a i l . 1 " 0 The c i t i z e n s ' r e q u i s i t i o n s to mayoral candidates and the i r rep l ies were also publ ished, and occasional ly a synopsis of the voters ' l i s t was g i v e n . 1 " 1 Related to the form of the record i s the o f f i c i a l corporate seal which i s the instrument by which documents are made lega l and binding. The corporate seal i s attached to the o r i g i n a l s of by- laws, cont racts , deeds, agreements, and other l ega l documents produced by the municipal c o u n c i l . 1 " 2 I ts use i s r e s t r i c t e d to documents ordered sealed by counc i l and to copies c e r t i f i e d by the c i t y c lerk as conforming to t h e i r o r i g i n a l s . The seal of the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo was designed by V i c t o r i a engraver James Benjamin Launders in March 187 5 . 1 " 3 Reproduced in Figure 2, i t depicts "a locomotive and a t ra in of cars , the l a t t e r overf lowing with c o a l , c ross ing a track l a i d upon t rest lework, and a steamship l y ing at the wharf 1 "° See, for example, "The F i r s t Munic ipal E l e c t i o n , " NFP, 16 January 1875, 2. 1 " 1 For instance, in 1875, a f te r examination of the assessment r o l l , the NFP reported that there were 142 resident voters , classed as fo l lows : rea l es ta te , 94; l i censes , 33; dog tax, 14; and horse tax, 1. There were a l so a number of non-resident voters . From "Municipal F ranch ise , " NFP, 29 December 1875, 3. 1 4 2 The "Munic ipa l i ty Act , 1881" (App. 1759, s . 8) provided that municipal counci ls enter into a l l contracts under t h e i r corporate s e a l . 1 4 3 E.H. Gough, "Local Resident Gleans H i s t o r i c a l Notes from Minute Books of C i t y , " NFP, Diamond Jubi lee E d i t i o n , 16 A p r i l 1934, 9. 58 in the background." 1*' 1 Figure 2 - C i ty Seal INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RECORD SERIES An important element of administ rat ive context is . the re la t ionsh ip of one record to the other. If the whole equals the sum of i t s parts> then l o g i c a l l y the whole i s only understandable through study of i t s par ts . Thus, in order to understand a given funct ion , one must examine a l l relevant record s e r i e s . However, one must f i r s t have knowledge of and understand the i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This i s complicated by the fact that provenance-based methods of descr ibing and accessing archives do not usual ly ind icate that a ser ies contains reference to a function other than that which appears to be i t s main one. In a d d i t i o n , there are many functions for which the main record ser ies has not surv ived, but to which reference i s 1** "Sea ls , " Da i l y B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , 25 March 1875, 3. 59 to be found in one or more ser ies concerned e s s e n t i a l l y with other matters. Obviously, a sa t i s fac to ry means of t rac ing functions from one ser ies to another must be developed. Cross-referencing funct ional change in a card index and/or in a record group inventory i s the t r a d i t i o n a l means. However, the problem is not so much that of recording a change once i t has been discovered as the research required to discover i t in the f i r s t p lace . A function which resu l ts in the creat ion of a new record ser ies and/or s t ruc tu ra l change within an agency may have previously been of minor s i g n i f i c a n c e , and reference to i t may be rather l i m i t e d . Tracing funct ional change often involves recourse to the statute book or by-law s e r i e s . Even then, the function sought may be only acc identa l l y stumbled upon through perusal of what appear to be relevant a rch iva l mater ia l s , unless one i s fortunate enough to f ind relevant keywords in an index. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the problem consists in i d e n t i f y i n g pert inent source mater ials concerned e s s e n t i a l l y with other matters and therefore not revealed by the t r a d i t i o n a l provenance-based search. As the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly extended the functions for which municipal government was responsible , c i v i c administrat ion grew, and municipal counci ls div ided o f f i c e s i n i t i a l l y f i l l e d by one i n d i v i d u a l . In documenting the i r admin is t ra t ion , the municipal o f f i c e r s generated an ever - increas ing quantity of records, and the in te r re la t ionsh ips of ser ies became more complex. To begin, the correspondence ser ies generated by 60 Nanaimo's C i ty Clerk included, u n t i l wel l into the twentieth century, most of the Corporation's general correspondence. I ts informational content covers a l l matters and functions for which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were responsible and should, for that reason, be used in conjunction with the counci l minutes. Moreover, the receipt of correspondence inward was acknowledged and i t s d i spos i t ion noted in the counc i l minutes. Whereas Council most often ordered that l e t t e r s of an informational nature be received and f i l e d for future reference, i t d i rected the Clerk to reply to more important ones, and the minutes often indicate the intent of the reply he was to forward. From 1878, the content of important correspondence was sometimes noted and, during the 1880's, was increasingly better descr ibed. This i s espec ia l l y important since very few l e t t e r s inward have s u r v i v e d . 1 4 5 The municipal by-laws should also be used in conjunction with the counc i l minutes since the evolut ion of a by-law can be traced in the minutes. Many other ser ies were offshoots of the counci l minutes or C i ty C l e r k ' s correspondence. For example, with the advent of the Board of Po l i ce Commissioners, the p o l i c i n g function was documented in new minute and correspondence s e r i e s . 1 4 6 The Municipal Counci l s i t t i n g as Local Board of Health also had i t s own minute b o o k , 1 4 7 although occasional ly i t s minutes were recorded with those of the Counc i l . 1 4 5 App. J/145-146. 1 4 6 App. V/602-603. 1 4 7 App. S/597. 61 Other re la t ionsh ips are more obscure. For instance, we know that the voters ' l i s t was o r i g i n a l l y a copy of the revised assessment r o l l because in 1875, a f ter the Clerk read the r o l l of persons assessed, Council resolved that "a copy of the Revised Assessment R o l l be transmitted to the Government and another copy be made as a l i s t of voters for the approaching Municipal E l e c t i o n . " 1 " 8 We also know, from the 1898 re -audi t of the 1896-1897 accounts, that the "modern" accounting system which Government Auditor Joseph Peirson establ ished for the Corporation in 1895 1 " 9 comprised a cash book, cash book vouchers, paysheets, a warrant book, a journa l , and a l e d g e r . 1 5 0 Sometimes the re la t ionsh ips between a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s main record s e r i e s , in which a l l business t ransact ions were o r i g i n a l l y recorded, and the-many d i f fe rent ser ies per ta in ing to s p e c i f i c funct ions , in which^similar t ransact ions were la te r documented, are more complex. They must be c a r e f u l l y researched and documented in scope and content notes, organizat ional h i s t o r i e s , or explanations of functions and the primary meaning of pert inent records. Documentation relevant to cemetery regulat ion and maintenance exempli f ies wel l the importance of adequately c ross - referenc ing a function between record ser ies and/or groups. The cemetery function i s documented in a number of sources, inc luding records created by d i f fe rent parts of the 1 " 8 CNA, CCN, CM, 27 December 1875, 72. 1 4 9 App. P/532, pp. 5 -6 . Council authorized the Clerk to procure a new set of books for the Corporation on 28 January 1895. See CNA, CCN, CM, 28 January 1895, 526. 1 5 0 App. P/563. 62 municipal admin is t rat ion . From 1875, d iscussion of cemetery matters i s documented in the counci l m i n u t e s . 1 5 1 From the formation of the Board of Cemetery Trustees in 1877, the minutes of the Trustees' meetings were recorded at the end of the minutes of the corresponding counci l meetings and o f fset by the t i t l e , "As Cemetery Trustees." In January 1897, Adam Thompson, the newly-appointed Secretary to the Trustees, opened a separate minute b o o k . 1 5 2 However, a f ter 1897, the minutes were only sporad ica l l y recorded there in ; most were again attached to the counci l minutes. The f i r s t by-law for the regulat ion of the Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery was passed in 1881, with amendments enacted in 1882, 1900, 1901, and 1 9 0 4 . 1 5 3 The Ci ty C l e r k ' s l e t t e r b o o k s 1 5 4 contain copies of correspondence from the Trustees' Secretary from at least 1 878 1 5 5 and include copies of pr inted notices dated A p r i l 1897 to those who had reserved p lots but had not paid for them. The City C o l l e c t o r ' s cash books for 1874- 1 888 1 5 6 include the cemetery cash account, which provides a monthly r e c a p i t u l a t i o n . The Ci ty Auditor f i r s t audited the accounts of the Nanaimo Public Cemetery in 1877; thereaf ter , he did so annual ly , with 1 5 1 App. J/138-142. 1 5 2 App. Q/594. 1 5 3 App. J/299-303. 1 5 4 App. J/147-152. 1 5 5 A statutory return made by the Board of Cemetery Trustees regarding i t s receipts and expenditures i s among the relevant 1878 correspondence; C i ty Clerk Young forwarded i t to the P rov inc ia l Secretary in accordance with sect ion 10 of the "Cemetery Ordinance, 1870." See CNA, CCN, CC, 27 February 1878, 44. 1 5 6 App. L/421-422. 63 specia l audits in 1880, 1895, and 1 8 9 8 . 1 5 7 In 1897, Ci ty Auditor Tul ly Boyce conducted an in-depth audit of the cemetery's management which was reported in the Trustees' minute b o o k . 1 5 8 The cemetery accounts were from 1901 published in the Corporation's annual f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t . 1 5 9 F i n a l l y , some cemetery records from the 1875-1904 period have yet to be t ransferred to the archives v a u l t . 1 6 0 Tracing a given function i s complicated by the fact that some bound volumes were used for mult ip le purposes. For instance, the volume opened in 1896 to record the minutes of the Local Board of Health was f i n a l l y closed in 1 9 6 9 ! 1 6 1 The volume's spine indicates the purpose for which i t was l a t t e r l y used, namely the Board of Appeal and Court of Revision minutes. However, i t was also used for the minutes of several other boards and committees, sometimes for only a few meetings. To complicate matters, from 1949-1969, a l l minutes entered in the book were recorded chronologica l ly regardless of creat ing agency. The key to t rac ing municipal functions across record ser ies l i e s in h i s t o r i c a l research. Since the creat ion of a new ser ies usual ly r e f l e c t s administrat ive change, what one has to grapple with i s the h is tory of a mun ic ipa l i t y ' s admin is t ra t ion , which i s very important to the a r c h i v i s t , both in arranging and 1 5 7 App. P/457-592, passim. 1 5 8 App. Q/594, pp. 10-11. 1 5 9 App. N/439-442. 1 6 0 App. Y/608. 1 6 1 App. S/597. 64 descr ib ing archives . The history of an administrat ion can vary great ly in scope and depth, from the bare bones out l ine or organizat ional structure as i t ex isted over time to the more thorough d iscuss ion . The former i s most often used in a r c h i v a l inventor ies . However, the more in-depth study documents most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the a c t i v i t i e s of an organizat ion . Moreover, knowledge of the functions for which a munic ipa l i ty was responsible provides insight into the informational content and value of i t s archives . Due to the i n t r i c a s i e s of the re la t ionsh ips between record s e r i e s , de ta i led enquir ies into such matters are best documented in textual format. L o g i c a l l y , they should begin with general statutory author i ty , continue with s p e c i f i c organizat ional h i s t o r y , and conclude with the in te r re la t ionsh ips between the agency's record s e r i e s . HISTORY OF THE RECORD AND RECORD-KEEPING PRACTICES Research into the h istory of the record and record-keeping p r a c t i c e s , an area not normally deemed of s u f f i c i e n t importance that documentation thereon be kept, i s a lso required in order to understand primary meaning. F i r s t , one should examine the relevant statutory provisions to determine whether they required an agency to create and maintain ce r ta in records or to f i l e reports and s t a t i s t i c s , and, i f so, the reasons for such p r a c t i c e s . Secondly, one should study the a rch i va l record to determine what i t reveals about i t s own l i f e c y c l e . To begin, the l e t t e r s patent by which Nanaimo was incorporated provided that an o f f i c i a l record of the Munic ipal 65 Counc i l ' s proceedings be k e p t . 1 6 2 The "Munic ipa l i t y Act , 1881" consol idated that p r o v i s i o n : The minutes of the proceedings of a l l such [municipal counc i l ] meetings s h a l l be drawn up and f a i r l y entered into a book to be kept for that purpose, and s h a l l be signed by the Mayor, Reeve, or Municipal Counc i l lo r pres id ing at such meeting, and the said minutes s h a l l be open to the inspect ion of any person, who may make copies thereof and extracts therefrom, at a l l reasonable t imes, on payment each time of a fee of twenty - f ive c e n t s . 1 6 3 In some instances, statute d ic tated the creat ion of new record s e r i e s . For example, the r a i s i n g of c red i t necessitated a method of accounting by which the f i n a n c i a l standing of a munic ipa l i ty could be more prec ise ly determined. Consequently, the "Municipal Act , 1891" s t ipu la ted that municipal counc i ls keep in the i r books two separate accounts, one for the s p e c i a l rate and one for the s inking fund, or for insta l lments of p r i n c i p a l of every debt, to be both d is t inguished from a l l other accounts in the books by some pre f i x designating the purpose for which the debt was contracted, and s h a l l keep the said accounts, with any others that are necessary, so as to exhib i t at a l l times the state of every debt and the amount of the moneys ra i sed , obtained, and appropriated for payment t h e r e o f . 1 6 " Accordingly , Nanaimo's s inking fund accounts s e r i e s , 1894-1 9 0 0 , 1 6 5 contains separate accounts for loan by-laws enacted between 1890-1899 and for interest accruing to the consol idated spec ia l ra tes ' s inking f u n d . 1 6 6 Statutory prov is ion also explains the s t a t i s t i c a l schedule 1 6 2 App. E/136, p. 305. 1 6 3 App.. B/59, s . 62. 1 6 " App. B/71, s . 119, s . - s . 4. 1 6 5 App. M/426. 1 6 6 App. M/427-434. 66 which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s returned to R. Edward Gosne l l , Secretary of the Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Constituted on 11 A p r i l 1894 and attached to the Department of the P rov inc ia l Secretary, the Bureau was to c o l l e c t , compile, tabulate , and publ ish information for publ ic purposes. The "Leg is la t i ve L ibrary and Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Act, 1894" required o f f i c e r s of the government, s o c i e t i e s , assoc ia t ions , and corporat ions, inc luding m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , school boards and other publ ic i n s t i t u t i o n s , to furn ish such information as was requested of them by the Bureau's S e c r e t a r y . 1 6 7 Nanaimo's Treasurer returned schedules, containing information about taxat ion , rece ip ts , disbursements, assets and l i a b i l i t i e s , for the years 1 8 9 4 - 1 8 9 6 . 1 6 8 Gosnell used such information to compile the s t a t i s t i c a l reports on m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which were published in the Sessional P a p e r s . 1 6 9 The Bureau was closed in 1898 fol lowing a change in government, but was reconst i tuted about 1900 as the Bureau of P rov inc ia l Information and Immigration. The a rch i va l record can i t s e l f reveal a su rp r i s ing amount of information about the ind i v idua l document, the record s e r i e s , and record-keeping p rac t i ces . For example, the municipal by-law can be traced from i t s introduct ion before the municipal counc i l 1 6 7 SBC, 1894, 57 V i c t . , c . 27, s . 14. 1 6 8 PABC, BC, P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , GR 153, V o l . 2, F i l e 13. GR 153 (espec ia l l y V o l . 1, Folder i) i s l i k e l y the most important pre-1905 source of documentation on m u n i c i p a l i t i e s held at the PABC. Gosnel l ' s correspondence with municipal c le rks regarding the names of mayors, reeves and c l e r k s , and dates of incorporat ion , i s ind icat i ve of the poor state of information management in B r i t i s h Columbia during the 1890's. 1 6 9 App. C/124-125. 67 through to i t s f i n a l passage or r a t i f i c a t i o n by the ratepayers. Municipal record-keeping pract ices are documented in audit reports and, in p a r t i c u l a r , reports of spec ia l aud i ts . They record problems with ex i s t ing systems of record-keeping and the solut ions adopted; general ly , they i l l u s t r a t e that records management i s not a new problem. In Nanaimo, spec ia l audits were made in 1 880 , 1 7 0 1 8 9 5 , 1 7 1 and 1 8 9 8 . 1 7 2 Knowledge of the circumstances which occasioned such audits i s an essent ia l element of the primary meaning of re lated documentation. For example, the 1895 re -audi t of the 1893-1894 accounts resulted from rumours which c i r c u l a t e d regarding the Corporat ion's books fo l lowing the 1894 Commission of Inquiry into the conduct of Po l ice Magistrate Joseph Phrys P lanta . Counc i l , on the suggestion of C i ty Treasurer Samuel Gough, resolved that section 132 of the "Municipal Act , 1 8 9 2 " 1 7 3 be suspended, that section 137, which gave the auditor powers for the proper performance of his du t ies , be in force, and that the Lieutenant-Governor in Council be requested to appoint an audi tor ; the name of Joseph Peirson being s u g g e s t e d . 1 7 4 Regarding municipal accounting p r a c t i c e , the 1895 spec ia l audit reveals i r r e g u l a r i t i e s in terms of modern procedures which the researcher must be aware of in using f i n a n c i a l records. After the aud i t , C i ty Treasurer Samuel Gough was asked to 1 7 o App. P/467-468. App. P/532-533. App. P/562-563. App. B/72. 1 7 1 1 7 2 1 7 3 1 7 « CNA, CCN, CM, 28 January 1895, 525. 68 explain charges of a l leged shortages. He admitted having on two occasions during 1894 paid c i t y money t o t a l i n g $2200 into h is pr ivate a c c o u n t , 1 7 5 but claimed to have paid out that amount " in the discharge of the c i t y ' s accounts which had been regular ly passed for payment . " 1 7 6 Other charges concerned moneys paid out by d i r e c t i o n of the P o l i c e Magistrate. That Gough had at times acted as a pr ivate c r e d i t o r , temporarily paying accounts out of his own pocket, was borne out by Government Auditor Pe i rson 's report . In audi t ing the cemetery account, Peirson had found the inord inate ly large amount of $ 8 3 6 : — of debts due from undertakers to t h i s fund at 31st December 1894 of which $578-- i s owing to Mr. Gough personal ly he having paid for opening graves from time to time on demand by the g r a v e - d i g g e r . 1 7 7 Due to statutory l i m i t a t i o n s on municipal borrowing, such " i r r e g u l a r i t i e s " may have been common in nineteenth-century accounting p r a c t i c e . Study of the a r c h i v a l record w i l l a lso contr ibute to our understanding of the s tate of preservation or deter io rat ion of cer ta in records. Documents in the Ci ty C l e r k ' s record group reveal something of the a t t i tudes of Counci l and i t s o f f i c e r s towards the preservation of records. For instance, in corresponding with John J . Landale in 1875 regarding surveys he was to undertake, C i ty Clerk Charles Newton Young wrote: " i t being understood that the f i e l d notes of a l l surveys . . . are the property of & w i l l be handed over to the M.C. or the i r 1 7 5 CNA, CCN, CM, 29 A p r i l 1895, 582. 1 7 6 CNA, CCN, CM, 22 A p r i l 1895, 585. 1 7 7 App. P/532, p. 5. 69 agents f r . time to time as r e q d . " 1 7 8 The 1875 Council ordered that the map presented by Mayor Bate on behalf of the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company "be mounted the better to preserve i t . " 1 7 9 In 1891, Council denied the request of A l f red Rowley Heyland, C i v i l Engineer, to remove the c i t y plan to h is o f f i c e for the purpose of comparing i t to a new p lan , but allowed him to use i t in the counci l chambers . 1 8 0 In 1888, the Corporation purchased a safe su i tab le "for the preservation of . . . books and r e c o r d s . " 1 8 1 Add i t iona l secur i ty measures were taken in 1895 when Council ordered "that a su i table metal box be procured and that a l l Bonds, Debentures, and other s e c u r i t i e s . . . be deposited in the Bank of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " 1 8 2 In 1897, records not stored in the safe were deter io ra t ing due to the leaky condit ion of the safe room, and Council ordered that the necessary repairs be m a d e . 1 8 3 In 1902, when the C i ty Of f ices were removed to the ground f l o o r , a vault was constructed "for the protect ion of books and papers that i t was now impossible to place in the s a f e . " 1 8 " Archives may also document the provis ions by which the creator disposed of records. For instance, apart from e lec t ion and e lectors by- laws, o r i g i n a l documentation concerning Nanaimo's municipal e lect ions i s non-ex istent . No voters ' l i s t 1 7 8 CNA, CCN, CC, 22 March 1875, 2. 1 7 9 CNA, CCN, CM, 17 May 1875, 30. 1 8 0 CNA, CCN, CM, 30 March 1891, 66. 1 8 1 CNA, CCN, CM, 13 February 1888, 208, and 12 March 1888, 215. 1 8 2 CNA, CCN, CM, 19 August 1895, 625. 1 8 3 CNA, CCN, CM, 27 December 1897, 171. 1 8 , 1 CNA, CCN, CM, 17 February 1902, 683. 70 from t h i s period has survived. The reason i s to be found in the 1875 e lec t ion by-law which deta i led the manner in which e lect ion records were to be handled. Af ter counting the b a l l o t papers, the Returning Of f i ce r was to seal up in separate packets the counted and rejected b a l l o t s , the counter fo i l s of the votes cast , and the o f f i c i a l copy of the voters ' r e g i s t e r , which he was to forward to the Ci ty C lerk . The sealed packets of counter fo i l s and b a l l o t papers were not to be opened except upon the order of a t r i b u n a l invest igat ing e lec t ion i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . A l l other documents were open to publ ic inspect ion , and copies were to be supplied for a fee. F i n a l l y , the by-law provided that : The c lerk of the Municipal Counci l s h a l l reta in for a year a l l documents r e l a t i n g to an e lect ion . . . , and then unless otherwise d i rected by the Municipal Council s h a l l cause them to be d e s t r o y e d . 1 8 5 The a rch iva l record and l o c a l newspapers w i l l most l i k e l y contain reference to the i l l e g a l or acc idental destruct ion of an organizat ion 's records where such occurred. Nanaimo's counci l minutes and the Nanaimo Free Press provide an excel lent i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s point in the i r documentation of the mut i lat ion of the C i ty C o l l e c t o r ' s and City Assessor 's r o l l s in the year 1897. Between 24 and 26 November, the o f f i c e was f o r c i b l y entered, and f i ve or s ix of the C i t y ' s most important r o l l s were, in the words of Mayor Davison, "torn to atoms and 5 App. J/265, schedule 1, s . 22. 6 CNA, CCN, CC, Let ter from J . H . D . , Mayor, 26 November 1897, to F.S. Hussey, Superintendent of P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e , V i c t o r i a , p. 181. 71 competely d e s t r o y e d . " 1 8 6 The crime was discovered by City Co l lec tor Edward Baines I rv ing on the morning of Fr iday , 26 November. The a r t i c l e report ing the depredation in the NFP i s p a r t i a l l y reproduced in Figure 3. It exemplif ies the type of deta i led information about the administrat ion and archives of nineteenth-century municipal government which can occasional ly be found in newspapers. At the spec ia l counc i l meeting held to decide upon a course of a c t i o n , Mayor Davison stated that he "had never heard of a p a r a l l e l case in the Dominion or the Province, and he was sorry to think that Nanaimo had a person so mean, low and contemptible as to commit such an o u t r a g e . " 1 8 7 According to C i ty Auditor Tu l ly Boyce, the most pecul iar part of the a f f a i r was that : none of the receipt stubs were tampered with , for they are just the same as he [Boyce] l e f t them on Wednesday evening, with his check on the las t rece ip t . This leaves the accounts just as open for re -audi t as though the r o l l books had not been d e s t r o y e d . 1 8 8 Council engaged a detect ive from Pinkerton 's National Detective Agency to work on the c a s e 1 8 9 and offered a $500 reward for information leading to the convict ion of the par t ies r e s p o n s i b l e . 1 9 0 The C o l l e c t o r ' s r o l l for 1897 was reconstructed, 1 8 7 "Specia l Council Meeting," NFP, 27 November 1897, 1. 1 8 8 I b i d . 1 8 9 CNA, CCN, CM, 27 December 1897, 170, and CNA, CCN, CC, Letter from E.B. I r v ing , Ci ty C le rk , 12 January 1898, to Pinkerton's National Detective Agency, Por t land, Oregon, p. 191. 1 9 0 Notices of the rewards offered were inserted in the loca l papers. See "$500 Reward," NFP, 27 November 1897, 2, and "$250 Reward," NFP, 17 December 1897, 3. 72 Figure 3 - C i ty Books Mut i lated "City Books M u t i l a t e d , " Nanaimo Free Press, 26 November 1897, 1. THE BOOKS MUTILATED. Further examination showed that the books which had been muti lated were: (1) The Assessment R o l l Book, con-ta in ing the Assessment R o l l s of 1896 and 1897. (2) The F i re H a l l and Hydrant Special Rate R o l l Book. (3) The Commercial Street F i l l i n g in Special Rate R o l l Book. (4) Two General Rate Co l lec t ion R o l l Books. The other spec ia l rate r o l l books were not in the least in ju red , and are i n t a c t . The Assessment R o l l Book has been muti lated by the tear ing out of a dozen or so of the leaves here and there 'through the book, and then tear ing the leaves into smaller p ieces. In the other books a l l the wr i t ten pages have been torn out, and even a few blank leaves. The leaves are torn within four inches of the back of the book, as i f the person had pressed the leaves with h is l e f t hand and torn down the pages with h is r ight hand, tear ing three or four leaves at a t ime. The torn out leaves were then torn into smaller pieces and thrown under the desk. So far as could be ascertained none of the other books or papers, e i ther in the c o l l e c t o r ' s o f f i c e , the c i t y c l e r k ' s o f f i c e , the Council Chambers or the safe room had been tampered wi th . On Wednesday evening the rate books were l e f t , some on the desk, under the desk and leaning against the w a l l . The Assessment R o l l book was on the f loor leaning against the w a l l , and the party or par t ies committing the depreda-t ion had to remove seven or eight large books which were leaning against the Assessment R o l l . . . . 73 and a complete re -audi t was c o n d u c t e d . 1 9 1 Since no information had been g i v e n , 1 9 2 Council f i n a l l y authorized C i ty Clerk Gough to withdraw i t s reward not ice from the papers two months af ter the c r i m e . 1 9 3 Council a lso authorized Gough to employ assistance in reconstruct ing the 1896-1897 real estate assessment r o l l s . 1 9 " Despite such references to the consequences of the crime, no mention was made of i t s perpet ra tor (s ) . It i s poss ib le that the incident los t some of i t s s ign i f i cance af ter the arrest less than two weeks la te r of C i t y Treasurer Adam Thompson for shortages in h is accounts. It i s equal ly possible that Nanaimoites, or at least Nanaimo's Mayor and Aldermen, were too a f f l i c t e d by gold fever to be concerned about the destruct ion of a few records. A week a f te r Thompson's a r r e s t , Mayor Davison was granted a leave of absence for the balance of the t e r m 1 9 5 and l e f t for the Klondyke, perhaps, to jo in two of Nanaimo's Aldermen who were also a t t rac ted to the g o l d f i e l d s . 1 9 6 Whether the mut i la t ion of the municipal r o l l s was connected with Thompson's defa lcat ions cannot be s a i d . In l i g h t of the del iberate destruct ion of the c o l l e c t i o n r o l l s , i t i s rather ' i ron ic that in ear ly 1897 Thompson had, in ordering a book for work in the C o l l e c t o r ' s o f f i c e (presumably a c o l l e c t ion r o l l ) , 1 9 2 "Municipal C o u n c i l , " NFP, 1 February 1898, 4. 1 9 3 CNA, CCN, CM, 31 January 1898, 185. 1 9 " CNA, CCN, CM, 9 February 1898, 189, and CNA, CCN, CC, Letter from Samuel Gough, Clerk of the Munic ipal Counc i l , 21 February 1898, to J . S t e r l i n g F loyd, Accountant, Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway O f f i c e s , p. 198. See App. K/416. 1 9 5 CNA, CCN, CM, 13 December 1897, 166. 1 9 6 "Municipal Counc i l : The Close of the Year's Work," NFP, 11 January 1898, 1. 7 4 wri t ten that ordinary binding would su f f i ce as a new book would be required each y e a r . 1 9 7 According to Thompson, c o l l e c t i o n r o l l s were not of permanent value. CUSTODIANSHIP The h is tory of the record includes i t s custodianship subsequent to c reat ion . Often the reason for the existence of an arch iva l c o l l e c t i o n among the records of another creat ing agency w i l l not be readi ly apparent. Custodianship may be defined as the t rac ing of the successive ownership of the record over time. Several examples from the Nanaimo case study serve to i l l u s t r a t e the re la t ionsh ip between the h is tory of administrat ion and the primary meaning and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , custodianship of the record. An under-standing of the h i s to r y 'o f the record requires knowledge of the h istory of the organizat ion having custody of i t as wel l as that of related agencies. To begin, records created by the Nanaimo L i te ra ry Ins t i tu te now form part of Nanaimo's municipal archives . This i s 1 9 7 CNA, CCN, CC, Letter from Thompson, 4 February 1897, to G.A. Roedde, Book Pr inter and Binder, Vancouver, p. 413. 75 explained by the C i t y ' s 1886 purchase of the I n s t i t u t e property for use as a Ci ty H a l l . 1 9 8 In order that the l i a b i l i t i e s of the defunct Nanaimo L i terary Ins t i tu te could be l i q u i d a t e d , Council agreed to take over "the fu rn i tu re , books and cash in hand" and pay the remaining d e b t s . 1 9 9 This obscure reference to the I n s t i t u t e ' s "books," which included the contents of i t s reading room, may actua l l y document the t ransfer of the records created by i t s Secre ta ry -L ib ra r ian , Treasurer, and Debating and Elocution C l a s s 2 0 0 to municipal custodianship. Their preservation might be explained by the role Mayor Mark Bate and City Clerk Samuel Gough played in that o rgan izat ion : Bate was for many years President, and Gough was Secre ta ry -L ib ra r ian in at least 1882-1883. It i s c lear that the records were t ransferred to the munic ipal i ty before 1887 as in that year Ci ty Clerk Gough began to record the engagement and payment of rental for the C i ty H a l l in the volume containing the Debating and Elocut ion Class m i n u t e s . 2 0 1 Although the majority of the records of the Nanaimo Ci ty Board of School Trustees are under the contro l of the school board o f f i c e , 2 0 2 two le t te rpress copybooks of correspondence outward for the years 1893-1904 are preserved at the Ci ty of Nanaimo A r c h i v e s . 2 0 3 Their presence among Nanaimo's archives is 1 9 8 CNA, CCN, CM, 31 May 1886, 87. For further d iscuss ion thereof, see Appendix G. 1 9 9 CNA, CCN, CM, 25 May 1886, 86. 2 0 0 See Appendix W. 2 0 1 App. W/606, pp. 26-43. 2 0 2 See Appendix U, f i r s t page, f i r s t footnote. 2 0 3 App. U/600-601 . 76 explained by the fact that C i ty Clerk Samuel Gough was School Board Secretary from January 1893 u n t i l h i s death in 1925. Use of the copying press method of dup l i ca t ing correspondence was discontinued in the C i ty Of f ices in 1904, and i t i s probable that the two letterbooks were overlooked as the municipal and school board administrat ion became less integrated af ter Gough's death. The Board of Cemetery Trustees f i r s t appl ied to the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company (VCMLC) for conveyance of the "old cemetery s i t e " to the Municipal Counci l in 1883. The Company agreed to the t ransfer upon the condi t ion "that C e r t i f i c a t e s of T i t l e be granted to those p a r t i e s who may have grave p lo ts which can be wel l defined and l a i d o u t ; " 2 0 " the conveyance was f i n a l l y executed in 1 8 8 6 . 2 0 5 However, i t i s not known whether the Hudson's Bay Company or VCMLC t ransferred any records of interment in the old cemetery to the Corporation, nor i f they have survived elsewhere. That cemetery was o f f i c i a l l y closed in 1895 upon the recommendation of the Medical Health O f f i c e r , who considered interment therein p r e j u d i c i a l to the publ ic h e a l t h . 2 0 6 Despite,references to a "Nanaimo F i r e Department," dating from as ear ly as the 1870's, a department under the d i rec t administrat ion of municipal government did not, other than for accounting purposes, ex is t u n t i l 1901. From 1 November of that 2 0 4 CNA, CCN, CM, 15 October 1883, 523. 2 0 5 CNA, CCN, CM, 1 February 1886, 48. 2 0 6 CNA, CCN, CM, 1 A p r i l 1895, 558-60. 77 year, C i ty Clerk Gough performed the c l e r i c a l dut ies associated with the Nanaimo F i re Department a f ter Council assumed, on the suggestion of the volunteer firemen, d i rec t cont ro l of the Nanaimo F i re Company in order to e f fect more economic management. 2 0 7 The volunteers' books and records, which date from 1878, eventually became the property of the mun i c i p a l i t y . 2 0 8 AUTHENTICITY AND INTEGRITY OF THE RECORD The Society of American A r c h i v i s t s ' basic glossary defines authent icat ion as the "determination that a record or a reproduction of a record is what i t purports to b e . " 2 0 9 Although that d e f i n i t i o n concerns the weeding of " fo rger ies" from the a rch i va l record, the concept of authent ic i ty extends to the l e g a l i t y and in terna l in teg r i t y of documentation, both of which bear upon i t s research value. For instance, municipal counci ls passed some by-laws which were inoperable and therefore did not come into force . However, the authent ic i t y of a by-law may be ascertained by t rac ing i t s promulgation in the counc i l minutes. Archives w i l l a lso contain references to the i n t e g r i t y of the informational content of other arch ives . To i l l u s t r a t e , in 1885, Counci l engaged C i v i l Engineer A l f red Rowley Heyland to define the main street l i n e s of the Newcastle townsite, which was a suburb within the 1875 municipal l i m i t s located across the October 1901, 644. and Thompson 1974, 418. 2 0 7 CNA, CCN, CM, 21 2 0 8 App. Y/612-615. 2 0 9 Evans, Harr ison, 78 M i l l s t r e a m R i v e r from the Nanaimo t o w n s i t e . The C i t y C l e r k ' s c orrespondence r e v e a l s t h a t Heyland d i s c o v e r e d a s e r i o u s d i s c r e p a n c y between the p l a n he p r e p a r e d and t h a t made d u r i n g the o r i g i n a l s u r v e y ; i n f a c t , the e r r o r p l a c e d "a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of the t o w n s i t e i n the w a t e r . " 2 1 0 The p r o v i n c i a l Lands and Works Department acknowledged the e r r o r i n the f i r s t s u r v e y , but would t a k e no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t . 2 1 1 O b v i o u s l y , t h a t acknowledgement w i l l i n f o r m the uses t o which the modern r e s e a r c h e r might put the p l a n of the o r i g i n a l s u r v ey i f i t has surv i v e d . A r e l a t e d example r e v e a l s d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the a r c h i v a l r e c o r d . The c o u n c i l minutes show t h a t i n 1890 C o u n c i l named the s t r e e t s of Newcastle t o w n s i t e . 2 1 2 However, those names do not match the p r e s e n t s t r e e t names i n Nanaimo's t o w n s i t e a r e a , as the Newcastle t o w n s i t e i s now known. T h i s anomaly i s e x p l a i n e d by the minutes f o r 1894 which r e c o r d C o u n c i l ' s d i s c o v e r y t h a t the Newcastle t o w n s i t e was c o n t r o l l e d by the E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo R a i l w a y Company, which had a l r e a d y r e g i s t e r e d s t r e e t names w i t h the Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e . 2 1 3 The a r c h i v a l r e c o r d w i l l p r o b a b l y a l s o r e f e r t o the i n t e g r i t y of r e c o r d - k e e p i n g g e n e r a l l y . Nanaimo's Board of P o l i c e Commissioners p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g example, a l t h o u g h the r e c o r d s i n q u e s t i o n have a p p a r e n t l y not s u r v i v e d . In 1894, 2 1 0 CNA, CCN, CC, L e t t e r from S. Gough, 22 J u l y 1885, t o the Honourable W. Smithe, C h i e f Commissioner of Lands and Works, V i c t o r i a , p. 108. 2 1 1 App. C/115. 2 1 2 CNA, CCN, CM, 4 August 1890, 444. 2 1 3 CNA, CCN, CM, 20 August 1894, 474. 79 i t was a l leged that Po l ice Magistrate Joseph Phrys Planta had agreed to l e t Counci l waive h is salary and to accept in l i e u thereof such costs as he might c o l l e c t in the cases he t r i e d . Planta denied that such an agreement, which was i l l e g a l under the municipal a c t , had ex i s ted . However, County Court Judge E l i Harr ison, the commissioner appointed in December 1894 under the "Publ ic Inqu i r ies Act" to inquire into P lanta ' s conduct, reported on 21 d i f fe ren t po in ts . They included h is role in i l l e g a l proceedings, poor or non-existent record-keeping p r a c t i c e s , and the i l l e g a l agreement. 2 1 " P lan ta ' s appointment was presumably rescinded, since James Henry Simpson, a l o c a l b a r r i s t e r , was appointed Po l ice Magistrate on 1 A p r i l 1 8 9 5 . 2 1 5 If any of P l a n t a ' s charge or f ine books had surv ived, Harr ison's conclusion regarding i l l e g a l proceedings would have to be taken into account in determining the i r primary meaning. The Nanaimo case study d id not reveal any example of records having strayed from municipal custodianship, so has.not provided an example of the i n t e g r i t y of records being placed in question as a resu l t of the i r custodianship. However, i t does provide an excel lent i l l u s t r a t i o n of the f a l s i f i c a t i o n of the record. Since that example i s beyond the memory of those l i v i n g and i s not included in l o c a l h i s t o r i e s , one must re ly upon the a rch iva l record and newspaper accounts for information. On 2 December 1897, a week af ter the mut i la t ion of the 2 1 " Holmes 1945, 16. See also PABC, BC, Commission on Charges against J . P . P lan ta , Po l i ce Magistrate of Nanaimo, 1894, GR 476. 2 1 5 CNA, CCN, CM, 1 A p r i l 1895, 558. 80 records in the C o l l e c t o r ' s o f f i c e , C i ty Auditor Tu l l y Boyce discovered shortages in the accounts of C i ty Treasurer Adam Thompson. Boyce had remarked to Robert Po l lock , Road Foreman, that work on the streets must have been considerable , as the pay ro l l s were rather heavy; Pol lock had rep l ied that work had to the contrary been very l i g h t . Comparison of the t imesheets, submitted by Po l lock , and the p a y r o l l s , submitted by Thompson to the Finance Committee for payment, revealed defa lcat ions of about $ 5 5 0 . 2 1 6 At a closed counci l meeting held on 6 December, Mayor Davison revealed that he had suspended Thompson that m o r n i n g . 2 1 7 That evening, Thompson was detained by the po l ice and arrested the fol lowing morning when the Mayor l a i d charges. B r i e f l y , Thompson was t r i e d in a c r imina l case and convicted to "15 months with hard labor in the Nanaimo J a i l , " 2 1 8 having pleaded g u i l t y to the charge of f a l s i f y i n g accounts and s tea l ing one hundred d o l l a r s . In sentencing Thompson, Judge Harrison stated that he had been lenient due to the fact that the moneys stolen had been repaid and that Thompson had a wife and c h i l d who were to be p i t i e d . 2 1 9 2 1 6 "Municipal Sensat ion," NFP, 7 December 1897, 1. 2 1 7 CNA, CCN, CM, 6 December 1897, 162-3. 2 1 8 "Nanaimo Assize Court ," NFP, 5 May 1898, 4. 2 1 9 The proceedings of Thompson's prel iminary hearing before Ci ty P o l i c e Magistrate Simpson who committed him to stand t r i a l in the next court of competent j u r i s d i c t i o n and the Nanaimo Assize Court t r i a l proceedings were reported in the NFP: "Ci ty Po l ice Court , " 7 December 1897, p. 1, and 10 December 1897, pp. 2, 4 (the proceedings on p. 4 precede those on p. 2) ; "Further Remanded," 13 December 1897, p. 1; "City Po l i ce Court , " 15 December 1897, p. 1; " B a i l Not Obtained: Counsel of Adam Thompson w i l l apply at V i c t o r i a , " 16 December 1897, p. 4; "Nanaimo Assize Court ," 3 May 1898, p. 3, and 5 May 1898, p. 4. 81 Although embezzlement was, i t i s to be hoped, not common p r a c t i c e , i t would, considering the l im i ted extent to which the province supervised municipal a f f a i r s , be naive to assume that the embezzlement of municipal funds at Nanaimo was an i so la ted inc ident . The recognit ion that f i n a n c i a l records may have been f a l s i f i e d , having of course a profound, i f often undetectable, e f fect on the v a l i d i t y of conclusions drawn from h i s t o r i c a l research there in , i s of utmost importance. Where "doctored" accounts are known to have surv ived, the researcher must make use of any counter-evidence produced in audits and court ac t ions . As a resu l t of Thompson's defa lcat ions and payments made by h is attorney, C i ty Auditor Boyce experienced d i f f i c u l t y in balancing the books in h is year-end aud i t . He eventually discovered aggregate shortages of $1225.90 2 2° and, in concluding h is annual report , wrote: . . . . I poss ib ly deserve your censure in not sooner discovering the late C i ty C le rk . While I have no apologies to make, I may be permitted to say, that I am not the f i r s t man who was deceived into be l iev ing that he was deal ing with an upright and honourable man, instead of what he f i n a l l y proved .to be—a thoroughly deceptive and dishonest o n e . 2 2 1 An anonymous ratepayer subsequently took Auditor Boyce to task regarding h is statement about the manner in which Thompson had deceived him. Demanding an explanat ion, that ind iv idua l questioned whether Boyce meant that he had taken "the word of the Ci ty Clerk as being s u f f i c i e n t evidence that the accounts 2 2 0 App. P/561. 2 2 1 App. P/555. 82 . . . were cor rec t l y and honestly k e p t . " 2 2 2 Further questions arose, and Boyce responded that he was paid $120 per year, for which i t was impossible to completely audit the c o l l e c t i o n r o l l s . He had confronted Thompson short ly af ter discover ing the shortages, and Thompson had "admitted h is g u i l t . " 2 2 3 Boyce's year-end audit was not, however, the end of the Thompson, a f f a i r . The 1898 Council decided to r e - a u d i t , in so far as poss ib le , the 1896-1897 accounts. Frederick G. Peto and Col in Campbell McKenzie, Auditors , discovered discrepancies not found by the previous Counc i l . Again, a closed meeting was held to discuss the m a t t e r , 2 2 " and a claim was made upon the guarantee company which had bonded Thompson. 2 2 5 In the i r f i n a l report , Peto and McKenzie indicated an aggregate shortage of $1719 .02 2 2 6 and gave a deta i led statement of the de fa lca t ions , e r rors , and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s in the Treasurer 's o f f i c e during the previous two years. Their report provides a good overview of the methods of record-keeping current in that o f f i c e . The researcher using the general j o u r n a l 2 2 7 or the f i n a n c i a l statements for the years 1896-18972 2 8 should consider the Auditors ' conclusion regarding discrepancies between the journa l , ledger, and published balance sheet: From these and s i m i l a r e n t r i e s , i t would be u t te r l y 2 2 2 - T h e Aud i to r ' s Breach of Trust , " NFP, 14 January 1898, 1. 2 2 3 "Auditor Boyce's Answer to Mr. P o t t ' s Question," NFP, 15 January 1898, 1. 2 2 " CNA, CCN, CM, 24 February 1898, 196. 2 2 5 CNA, CCN, CM, 7 March 1898, 201. 2 2 6 App. P/563, p. 14. 2 2 7 App." M/435. 2 2 8 App. P/543-561. 83 impossible to balance the Ledger as i t now stands items being inserted whereever [s ic ] the necessity of the case has required i t of those keeping the b o o k s . 2 2 9 Regarding defa lcat ions in the paysheets, they wrote: The shortages given below are made up from a care fu l comparison of the Road Foremans reports , and other evidence in our possession, with the Pay Sheets. This being our only course as the Road Foreman's Time Book cannot be found[;] consequently i t i s impossible to give f u l l p a r t i c u l a r s as to who worked and the number of days for each m a n . 2 3 0 Unless the "disappearance" of the Road Foreman's timebook was pure coincidence, i t must have contained evidence damaging to Thompson or some other p e r s o n . 2 3 1 While Boyce's statement about the d i f f i c u l t y of detecting deceit should have very poignant meaning to aud i to rs , who are paid to bel ieve an ind i v idua l g u i l t y u n t i l proven innocent, i t should not go unheeded by a r c h i v i s t s and researchers. Arch iva l documentation is c e r t a i n l y not to be considered sacrosanct, for not a l l records in a rch i va l repos i to r ies were c a r e f u l l y created by honest ind iv idua ls and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2 3 2 Moreover, detection of dishonesty or carelessness when, as in an h i s t o r i c a l context, only deal ing with surv iv ing documentation is far more d i f f i c u l t than when a lso dealing with the persons who created i t . If i t i s d i f f i c u l t to detect dishonesty from an h i s t o r i c a l 2 9 App. P/563, p. 8. 3 0 App. P/563, p. 11. 3 1 It i s not c lear whether Boyce had access to that book when he i n i t i a l l y discovered the shortages. The NFP account of the discovery referred to comparison of the payro l l s and "the time of the men turned in by Road Foreman P o l l o c k . " From "Municipal Sensat ion," NFP, 7 December 1897, 1. 3 2 The recent attempts at forging documents a t t r i b u t e d to H i t l e r serve as an example, i f in a somewhat d i f fe rent sense. 84 perspect ive, i t can c e r t a i n l y be damaging to ascr ibe c u l p a b i l i t y from such a view. However, in l i g h t of the fact that the part ies responsible for the mut i la t ion of Nanaimo's records were never discovered or at least not exposed, one cannot help but wonder what r o l e , i f any, Adam Thompson played in the crime. Was Thompson's exposure one week a f te r the i r mut i la t ion coincidence? It i s c lear that the incident focussed Boyce's attent ion on the C i t y ' s books. In that sense, i t led to Thompson's exposure. However, the p o s s i b i l i t y that errors and discrepancies in the rea l estate assessment and c o l l e c t i o n r o l l s were the reason for the i r destruct ion must at least be enterta ined. The p o s s i b i l i t y of Thompson's involvement in that crime ra ises provocative questions about the ro le of records in short and long-term government a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . 2 3 3 In a sense, h i s t o r i a n s , and researchers in general , are the f i n a l auditors of the endeavours of a society or c i v i l i z a t i o n . Aside from the problem of subject ive bias which i s inherent in a l l research, scholars must, i f the i r academic pursui ts are to be of any s i g n i f i c a n c e , make every e f f o r t to v e r i f y the facts of a s i tuat ion and the i r in te rpre tat ion of them. Questioning the v a l i d i t y of documentary sources and recognizing the p o s s i b i l i t y of the i r f a l s i f i c a t i o n or inaccuracy i s an in teg ra l part of that process. The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s which occurred in the Ci ty C o l l e c t o r ' s and the Ci ty Treasurer 's o f f i c e s demonstrate that 2 3 3 F o r instance, what are the impl icat ions of the retent ion or destruct ion of records on accountab i l i t y? 85 f i n a n c i a l records cannot be used in a sophisticated manner without knowledge of the context in which they were created, used, and/or abused. Such information can often be discovered in the reports of annual and special audits. Although the audit reports are of d i f f e r e n t provenance than the c o l l e c t i o n and accounting records they examine, the Auditor's, C o l l e c t o r ' s , and Treasurer's record groups are, in fact, inseparable and should be used in conjunction with each other. THE HUMAN ELEMENT IN RECORDS MAINTENANCE The role of the individual in the creation, use, and preservation of the record must also be examined. The human element is perhaps the most important factor in assessing the h i s t o r i c a l value of. a documentary source, since an understanding of the individuals concerned is essential in attempting to recognize the biases inherent in the record. Moreover, the continued existence of an organization results from the labours of a succession of corporate p e r s o n s . 2 3 4 To begin, the coal companies which were the mainstay of Nanaimo's economy played an i n f l u e n t i a l role in the community's early, as well as post-incorporation, development. The 1866 incorporation attempt exemplifies well Nanaimo's peculiar p o l i t i c a l situation as a "company town." After the attempt had been defeated, one newspaper correspondent alluded to the fact that Nanaimo was a company town, pointing out that the majority 2 3 4 Lank and Williams 1982, v i i . 86 of i t s inhabitants were l i v i n g in houses owned by the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company (VCMLC). He suggested that the incorporation attempt might have been a ploy by Nanaimo's inhabitants for corporate p o w e r . 2 3 5 A subsequent e d i t o r i a l in the Nanaimo Gazette was more f o r t h r i g h t . Commenting on the h istory and fate of the municipal quest ion , i t a l leged that the VCMLC, the major property holder, opposed incorporat ion, and that municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s "could not be granted u n t i l the value of the property owned by the p e t i t i o n e r s was greater than that owned by the Company." 2 3 6 Nanaimo remained a company town u n t i l the early twentieth century. Time and again throughout the h is tory of i t s c i v i c admin is t rat ion , the presence of the Company is witnessed, most notably in the person of Mayor Mark Bate and in service and regulatory funct ions. Since the coal companies informed the h i s t o r i c a l context in which documentation was created, the influence they exercised must be weighed in evaluating the ev ident ia l and informational content of Nanaimo's municipal arch ives . Mark Bate (1837-1927) had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact upon the c i v i c administrat ion and consequently the records i t c reated; he i s of interest both for h is connection with Nanaimo's coal companies and as one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s in Nanaimo's municipal sphere. Bate was Nanaimo's f i r s t Mayor and 2 3 5 "Incorporation of Nanaimo," V i c t o r i a Da i l y Chronic le , 2 May 1866, 2. 2 3 6 "Where there 's a W i l l there 's a Way," Nanaimo Gazette, 19 May 1866, 1. 87 held that o f f i c e for 16 of the 30 years covered by th i s study. He was elected 11 times by acclamation and was, with the exception of two terms, chief executive o f f i c e r from 1875-1889 and then 1898-1900. Born in Birmingham, England, Bate came to the Colony of Vancouver Island on the suggestion of h is uncle, George Robinson, who was the HBC mine manager at Nanaimo. 2 3 7 Ar r i v ing in Nanaimo on 1 February 1857, he entered the employ of the HBC as a c l e r k . From 1869-1884, he was business manager of the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company. About 1886, Bate was appointed P r o v i n c i a l Assessor and Co l lector for Nanaimo D i s t r i c t . Regarding h is tenure as mayor, Bate apparently attempted upon several occasions to dec l ine the nomination, but was pet i t ioned by a large port ion of the electorate- to accept i t . 2 3 8 In add i t ion , Bate was extensively involved in other publ ic and community a f f a i r s : He was appointed the f i r s t j u s t i c e of the peace in the d i s t r i c t of Nanaimo, rece iv ing h is commission in 1873 [or 1874]. He was the f i r s t chairman of the Board of Education of Nanaimo, and has been continuously connected with and interested in the school system since 1865. He was for many years president of the Nanaimo L ibrary [should read "L i te ra ry " ] I n s t i t u t e , and was the government nominee on the Hospi ta l Board. He was a member of Ashlar Lodge, No. 3, A .F . & A . M . , and Past Deputy Grand Master; Past D i s t r i c t Chief of the Order of Foresters ; Past Noble Grand of the Oddfellows; Past Noble Arch of the Druids; Past Commander of the American Legion of Honor; Master Workman of the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 2 3 9 2 3 7 "Medal Given to Mr. Gough in Apprec ia t ion , " NFP, 12 December 1925, 1. 2 3 8 "Mark Bate, Nanaimo's F i r s t Mayor, passed away during V i s i t to Relat ives and Friends in England," NFP, 27 August 1927, 1. 2 3 9 I b i d . 88 The Nanaimo Post of the Native Sons of B r i t i s h Columbia awarded Bate the i r f i r s t appreciat ion medal in recognit ion of h is many years of publ ic serv ice . Mark Bate was again honoured when, during the Corporation's golden j u b i l e e , Mayor V ic tor B. Harrison presented h is p o r t r a i t to the C i t y . 2 " 0 F i n a l l y , i t i s noteworthy that af ter h is retirement Bate recorded many s tor ies about Nanaimo's early years for the l o c a l p a p e r s . 2 " 1 To some extent, the f i r s t chief magist rate 's interest in h is tory and his continued interest in municipal a f f a i r s may have st imulated in his successors and the ind iv idua ls holding pos i t ions in the c i v i c administrat ion a consciousness of the value of the records in the i r care. The establishment of Nanaimo's cemetery provides a notable example of Mark Bate's dual role as Mayor and business manager of the coal company. In 1875, the cemetery located at the corner of Comox Road and Wallace Street and now known as the pioneer cemetery was overcrowded. The Municipal Counci l appl ied to the p r o v i n c i a l government for a land grant to e s t a b l i s h a new one, but i t s app l icat ion was refused on the grounds that a l l government lands were reserved for railway purposes. I ts 2 " ° For information about t h i s p o r t r a i t , which s t i l l hangs in Nanaimo C i ty H a l l , see "Medal Given to Mr. Gough in Apprec ia t ion , " NFP, 12 December 1925, 1. 2 " 1 See, for example, "Reminiscences of Early Nanaimo Days: The F i r s t of a Series of A r t i c l e s from the pen of Mark Bate Sr . Dealing with Interest ing Incidents of the E a r l i e r Days of t h i s C i t y , " NFP, 9 February 1907, 1. The ser ies appeared on the front page of 15 consecutive Saturday issues. See a lso "Arr ived in V i c t o r i a in Pioneer Days," Dai ly Co lon is t , 26 January 1918, 12; and "Br ief Descr ipt ive Notes of Nanaimo in 1874," NFP, Golden Jubi lee E d i t i o n , 15 A p r i l 1924, 33. 89 request for a monetary grant to enable i t to purchase land was also d e n i e d . 2 " 2 F i n a l l y , on the suggestion of Mayor Bate, Council pet i t ioned the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company to grant i t the land i t had formerly o f f e r e d . 2 4 3 The fo l lowing year, Mayor Bate informed Council that the VCMLCs d i rec to rs had considered i t s request and that f i ve acres on Comox Road, near i t s present-day in tersect ion with Howard Avenue, had been donated. 2 "" The deeds conveying the cemetery from the VCMLC to the Corporation were executed in 1 8 7 8 . 2 " 5 The s i t e ' s boundaries were a l tered and enlarged in or af ter 1889 when the New Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company (NVCMLC) t ransferred add i t iona l lands to the munic ipa l i ty in considerat ion of the opening of Mi l ton S t r e e t . 2 " ' 6 The cemetery may have been further enlarged through the purchase of land from the Western Fuel Company in 1 9 0 4 . 2 " 7 Being the largest property owners, the VCMLC and i t s successors had a vested interest in the C i t y ' s improvement. Those companies were instrumental in having Counci l undertake street and sidewalk improvements in order to open cer ta in s t ree ts , espec ia l l y from the l a t e - 1 8 8 0 ' s . In 1888, the VCMLC supplemented Counc i l ' s appropriat ion for the grading of N ico l 2 " 2 CNA, CCN, CM, 15 March 1875, 14, and 12 A p r i l 1875, 19. 2 " 3 CNA, CCN, CM, 4 October 1875, 53. 2 " " CNA, CCN, CM, 14 February 1876, 83. 2 " 5 CNA, CCN, CM, 28 October 1878, 233. 2 " 6 See, for example, CNA, CCN, CM, 18 February 1889, 296, f f . ; 8 A p r i l 1889, 312-4; 13 October 1890, 12; and 29 February 1892, 191 . 2 " 7 CNA, CCN, CM, 7 March 1904, 128. 90 Street to a t o t a l of $ 8 5 0 , 2 4 8 s t i p u l a t i n g that the work be completed by the end of November. Another example i s the grant made by NVCMLC Superintendent Samuel Matthew Robins of a p i l e of rock where the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s rock crusher had been at work, a l lowing "the company's team to haul the rock for the improvement of Farquhar street free of c h a r g e . " 2 " 9 The VCMLC and i t s successors were also an important source of revenue. Upon many occasions, they granted the munic ipa l i ty monetary assistance or a id in kind towards f i r e prevention, the preservat ion of publ ic hea l th , and other operat ional funct ions . The f i l l i n g of Commercial I n l e t , into which the coal companies could conveniently dump the i r mine refuse, f igured prominently among the i r areas of " s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t . " Council f i r s t discussed the f i l l i n g of Commercial In let in 1892, as the NVCMLC was prepared to do the f i l l i n g by dumping i t s s lag into the i n l e t . In 1895, the port ion between Commercial Street and V i c t o r i a Crescent was f i l l e d to replace the Commercial Street Bridge with a permanent roadway. F i l l i n g of the ravine f i n a l l y resumed in 1904 when Counci l f i n a l i z e d an agreement with the NVCMLC's successor, the Western Fuel Company, whereby the Company would do the work, the Council reimbursing i t for the actual cost of moving and dumping i t s refuse m a t e r i a l . 2 5 0 The municipal executive also had a considerable impact upon the c i v i c administrat ion and i t s records. Mark Bate has already 2 * 8 CNA, CCN, CM, 5 September 1888, 251. 2 " 9 CNA, CCN, CM, 27 March 1899, 320. 2 5 0 CNA, CCN, CM, 8 August 1904, 168. 91 been discussed; in add i t ion , one Municipal Counci l deserves mention. The 1897 Council achieved a l e v e l of notor iety unprecedented in Nanaimo's municipal h i s t o r y , the party p o l i t i c s of the mid-1890's being to large extent the cause. It commenced by dispensing with the services of long-t ime municipal o f f i c e r Samuel Gough and subsequently attempted to dismiss i t s po l i ce force when charges of corruption were brought against several o f f i c e r s . The Board of Po l i ce Commissioners would not support such a c t i o n , f ind ing the charges unfounded. Counci l then attempted to have the Po l ice Magistrate , whom i t saw as impeding i t s author i t y , removed from o f f i c e . At the end of November, the ledgers in the C o l l e c t o r ' s o f f i c e were mut i la ted . A week l a t e r , C i ty Clerk/Treasurer Thompson was arrested for shortages in h is accounts. After Thompson's .arrest , Mayor Davison requested a leave of absence and l e f t for the Klondyke in search of go ld . At the f i n a l counci l meeting that term, Act ing Mayor George Campbell remarked that : The Council of 1897 had had a rather pecul iar experience. The gold f i e l d s of the far north had at t racted the Mayor and two Aldermen, while another Alderman had gone to a neighbouring c i t y expecting to f ind a better f i e l d . Looking at a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s , t r i a l s and temptations of the year, he thought the Council had made a good showing. They had been p r a c t i c i n g economy and had reduced the indebtedness to some extent, and he hoped the incoming counc i l would be able to straighten things out, and get the c i t y c lear out of d e b t . 2 5 1 The 1898 Council ce r ta in l y had problems to remedy. The Mayor, Aldermen, and School Board Trustees were a l l e lected by 2 5 1 "Municipal Counc i l : The Close of the Year 's Work," NFP, 11 January 1898, 1. 92 acclamation, there being l i t t l e in terest in the municipal e l e c t i o n s . 2 5 2 After the 1897 inc idents , the e lectors again pet i t ioned Mark Bate to stand as a mayoral c a n d i d a t e . 2 5 3 Only seven ind iv idua ls l e t the i r names stand as aldermanic candidates, of whom two had been aldermen the previous term; Council f i n a l l y appointed two ind iv idua ls to f i l l the vacancies in the South Ward. Samuel Gough was unanimously re-appointed City C le rk , Treasurer, and Cemetery C l e r k . 2 5 " With the return of Bate and Gough, the c i v i c administrat ion regained the s t a b i l i t y i t had known under Bate's previous tenure. The personal nature of the municipal o f f i c e r s and s p e c i f i c a l l y the Ci ty C lerk , who created the bulk of Nanaimo's records surv iv ing from th i s per iod , a lso inf luenced the creat ion and preservation of the arch iva l record. Charles Newton Young was Ci ty Clerk from 1875-1880. During that per iod , Council reduced the salary of his pos i t ion considerably . In 1878, i t was in fe r red , during a debate in Counci l over h is remuneration, that Young was overpaid for the l i t t l e he d i d . The NFP account of that meeting reported that Young had recommended that the Corporation advert ise for a new c le rk in both Chinese and E n g l i s h ! 2 5 5 Samuel Gough (1849-1925) was appointed C i ty Clerk on 19 July 1880. In addi t ion to h is almost 45-year record of service 5 2 "Acclamation," NFP, 10 January 1898, 1. 5 3 "The Mayoralty ," NFP, 5 January 1898, 1, and "Municipal E l e c t i o n , " NFP, 7 January 1898, 1. 5 " "Municipal C o u n c i l , " NFP, 25 January 1898, 4. 5 5 "Municipal C o u n c i l , " NFP, 20 February 1878, 3. 93 as a c i v i c o f f i c i a l , 2 5 6 he was very act ive in publ ic a f f a i r s . Gough was secretary of the Board of School Trustees from 1893— 1925 and treasurer—and a charter member—of the Independent Order of Good Templars from 1892-1925. Since Gough created most of the municipal archives extant for the period 1880-1904 and, indeed, for many years thereaf ter , the fo l lowing passage regarding h is personal nature i s of i n t e r e s t : The ent i re h is tory of the Methodist Church in t h i s c i t y is a lso c lose ly associated with the l i f e of the deceased, who had held p r a c t i c a l l y every pos i t ion of t rust within the church ever since h is ear ly boyhood, as well as f ind ing time to associate himself with a l l movements looking toward the public w e l f a r e . 2 5 7 Like Mark Bate, Gough was also interested in the early h is tory of Nanaimo. In 1924, the NFP wrote that i t was indebted to him "for much of the in te res t ing data" in i t s jub i lee e d i t i o n . 2 5 8 City Clerk Gough apparently took great care in managing the municipal records during h is long term of se rv i ce . Adam Thompson deserves mention for the notor iety he a t ta ined . Thompson was Ci ty Clerk from 20 January 1896 u n t i l h is suspension on 6 December 1897 after shortages were discovered in the accounts he kept as C i ty Treasurer. B iograph ica l l y , l i t t l e i s known about Thompson, other than that at the time of h is arrest he was 24 years of age and married with one c h i l d . He was a Mason, the secretary of the Canadian 2 5 6 Gough was C i ty Clerk from 1880-1895 and 1898-1920. In 1920, he became Ci ty Comptrol ler , a pos i t ion he held u n t i l h is death in 1925. See "Ci ty Comptroller Samuel Gough passed away t h i s morning af ter two weeks i l l n e s s , " NFP, 24 December 1925, 1. 2 5 7 I b i d . 2 5 8 « M r ^ Samuel Gough: Nanaimo's City Comptrol ler , and His Grandson," NFP, Golden Jubi lee E d i t i o n , 15 A p r i l 1924, 47. 94 Order of Woodsmen of the World, and "was general ly respected and moved in the highest s o c i e t y . " 2 5 9 F i n a l l y , the re la t ionsh ip between several records creators is of i n t e r e s t , although i t s s ign i f i cance i s not known. From 1903, E. Hiram Gough, son of C i ty Clerk Gough, occas ional ly d id typewrit ing and other work in the C l e r k ' s o f f i c e ; 2 6 0 he eventually became Ci ty C o l l e c t o r . Accountant Wi l l iam K. Leighton and Nanaimo Free Press publisher George Norr is were brothers - in - law of Ci ty Clerk Gough. Both were married to daughters of Edwin and E l i zabeth Gough, the C i ty C l e r k ' s parents. Leighton held the o f f i c e of Returning Of f i ce r for many years between 1890 and h is death in 1 9 0 6 . 2 6 1 Although not a municipal o f f i c e r , George Norr is was i n f l u e n t i a l with the c i v i c admin is t ra t ion . For over twenty - f ive years, he published the u n o f f i c i a l record of the Counc i l ' s proceedings upon which a large port ion of the community no doubt r e l i e d to keep i t informed regarding municipal a f f a i r s . On one occasion, Norr is acted as C i ty Clerk during Gough's temporary a b s e n c e . 2 6 2 U n t i l at least 1889, the Nanaimo Free Press received a considerable port ion of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s adver t i s ing business, being the only l o c a l newspaper regular ly publ ished. Norr is was apparently a lso interested in the l a w , 2 6 3 and in 1887 2 5 9 "Ci ty Clerk in G a o l ! , " Da i l y Co lon is t , 8 December 1897, 1. 2 6 0 CNA, CCN, CM, 5 January 1903, 783, and 4 May 1903, 34. 2 6 1 See Appendix H.12, and "Death of Mrs. E l i zabeth Gough," NFP, 7 August 1899, 4. 2 6 2 Reference to that occasion, sometime during the 1880's, was, I be l ieve , recorded in the counc i l minutes. 2 6 3 "Mr. George N o r r i s , " NFP, 7 January 1902, 1. 95 Council requested that he appear on i t s behalf in the County Court case regarding replevined goods seized from Chinese residents who had refused to pay the i r road t a x . 2 6 " The published account of the counc i l meeting on the evening of Nor r i s ' death i s worthy of note: The members of the Council were v i s i b l y af fected when they assembled in the Chamber. The absence of him who had ever been in h is place . . . doubtless forced upon them more c l e a r l y than they were able to r e a l i z e i t before the fact that they had l o s t a f r i e n d . 2 6 5 Various aldermen referred to the i m p a r t i a l i t y , accuracy, and even perfect nature of Nor r i s ' accounts. Alderman Planta revealed that Norr is "had been looked upon as an author i ty upon Municipal matters and had always been ready to give h is advice when such was s o l i c i t e d . " 2 6 6 STATE AND EXTENT OF THE ARCHIVAL RECORD Many of the factors which inf luence the state and extent of the surv iv ing a rch i va l record have already been mentioned. They include statutory p rov i s ion , the a t t i tudes of c i v i c o f f i c i a l s , f i r e and other natural d i s a s t e r s , and del iberate attempts to destroy or preserve the record. The extent of Nanaimo's archives i s probably la rge ly due to the c i t y ' s small s ize u n t i l wel l into the twentieth-century and to the small quantity of records i t s administrat ion created. However, the volume of surv iv ing records is a lso a t t r i b u t a b l e to the s t a b i l i t y of the 2 6 a CNA, CCN, CM, 10 October 1887, 185. 2 65 n A n Evidence of Respect," NFP, 7 January 1902, 1. 2 6 6 I b i d . 96 c i v i c administrat ion over the las t century and espec ia l l y to those heritage-conscious ind iv idua ls who have held the pos i t ion of c i t y c l e r k , several for a good number of years. Two such ind iv idua ls were Samuel Gough, the C i ty Clerk and la te r Ci ty Comptroller, from 1880-1895 and 1898-1925, and Howard Nicholson, the Cit-y Clerk from 1951-1981. The state of preservation of Nanaimo's archives might a lso be a t t r ibu tab le to the interest Mayors Mark Bate and V ictor B. Harrison took in the c i t y ' s ear ly h i s to ry . For instance, in 1925, Harrison remarked at the inaugeral banquet that "Nanaimo i s o ld enough to have c i v i c h i s to ry , and i s fortunate in having with her those who made that h i s t o r y , " 2 6 7 re fe r r ing to the presence of Mark Bate, other former mayors and executive o f f i c e r s , and long-t ime administ rat ive o f f i c e r Samuel Gough. The existence or non-existence of records for a given o f f i c e should not be construed as ind icat ing that the creat ing o f f i c e was or was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The Returning O f f i c e r ' s o f f i c e , from which no o r i g i n a l documentation has survived, i s an obvious case in po int . Mayor Mark Bate, who was a man of considerable stature in nineteenth-century Nanaimo, provides another. Although Nanaimo's nineteenth-century mayoralty has bequeathed us very few records, the holder of that o f f i c e was, as chief magistrate, the key personal i ty in the municipal 2 6 7 B.A. McKelvie, "Nanaimo C i t i zens Unite to Develop Their Prosperous Community," The Sunday Province, 1 February 1925, sec. 1, p. 15. 97 sphere. In 1881, statutory law defined the role and duties of the mayor, who was to be one of the Municipal Counci l and the head and chief executive o f f i c e r of the corporat ion , and i t s h a l l be h is duty to cause the law for the improvement of the munic ipa l i ty to be duly executed and put in fo rce ; to inspect the conduct of a l l subordinate o f f i c e r s , and as far as may be in h is power, to cause a l l negligence, carelessness, and pos i t i ve v i o l a t i o n of duty to be prosecuted and punished, and to communicate from time to time to the Municipal Council a l l such information, and recommend a l l such measures as may tend to the improvement of the f inances, hea l th , s e c u r i t y , c lean l iness and comfort of the M u n i c i p a l i t y . 2 6 8 From 1892, the mayor had the r ight to veto any by-law or resolut ion p r io r to i t s reconsiderat ion by c o u n c i l . 2 6 9 Obviously, the mayor delegated the transmission of h i s writ ten authority to the municipal o f f i c e r s . The same i s true of ^ counci l members; records in the i r hand are rare . Conversely, the large volume of records created by the municipal c le rk as chief administ rat ive o f f i c e r should not be allowed to obscure the fact that he only acted upon the ins t ruc t ion of c o u n c i l . The hand methods and l a t e r r e l a t i v e l y simple mechanical processes by which records were created during Nanaimo's ear ly h istory have also contr ibuted to the i r preservat ion. To begin, the media of most records were more stable than those of many of today's records. For instance, minutes were recorded in leather-bound volumes and copies of correspondence were made in let terbooks. In the case of Nanaimo, l i t t l e loose mater ia l has survived. Secondly, the time involved in the i r c reat ion has, in 2 6 8 App. B/59, s . 10. 2 6 9 App. B/72, s . 22. 98 retrospect , given them an aura of mystique not l i k e l y to be shared by th i s century 's p r o l i f e r a t i o n of mechanically and e l e c t r o n i c a l l y dupl icated records. The thought that a s ingle o f f i c e r could f i l l volume af ter volume in longhand sparks an interest which has.no doubt resulted in the preservation of many h i s t o r i c a l arch ives . Whether Nanaimo's municipal o f f i c e r s normally obtained Counc i l ' s author izat ion before disposing of records i s not known. However, one reference to the authorized d isposal of records has been brought to l i g h t . In 1902, Mayor Manson drew attent ion to the debentures pr inted and signed under the author i ty of the "Nanaimo Waterworks Purchase By- law, 1900," 2 7 ° but not issued. It was desi rable that they should be destroyed, and, on motion, C i ty Clerk Gough "was authorized to destroy them under the d i rec t ion of the Finance Commit tee . " 2 7 1 The elements of primary meaning e s s e n t i a l . t o an understanding of the record have been i l l u s t r a t e d at length. I nd i v idua l l y , the i r s ign i f i cance should be c l e a r . The next chapter w i l l demonstrate how a r c h i v i s t s might present the i r invest igat ions into the primary meaning of the record. 2 7 0 App. J/390. 2 7 1 CNA, CCN, CM, 1 A p r i l 1902, 700. 99 IV. MEANING AND UNDERSTANDING: AN ILLUSTRATION The a r c h i v i s t ' s goal in studying the record should be understanding of i t s primary meaning, rather than extrapolat ion of secondary meaning from i t s informational content. Although primary meaning encompasses many elements, not a l l w i l l necessar i ly inform discussion of the primary meaning of any given body of records. To i l l u s t r a t e how a r c h i v i s t s might present the f indings of the i r invest igat ions into the primary meaning of the record, two examples are taken from the case study of Nanaimo's arch ives . The records a t t r ibuted to the Ci ty Assessor and Municipal Court of Revision reveal the importance of the close re la t ionsh ip between those record groups, both of which document f i n a n c i a l management funct ions . L o g i c a l l y , d iscussion of those record groups should be preceded by discussion of documentation relevant to the Finance Committee and followed by discussion of the Ci ty C o l l e c t o r ' s , Treasurer 's , and Aud i to r ' s record groups. Both of the examples which follow begin with discussion of general statutory author i ty , continue with s p e c i f i c organizat ional h i s to ry , and conclude with discussion of the records created. CITY ASSESSOR The "Munic ipa l i ty Act , 1 8 7 2" 2 7 2 required that the c i t y assessor prepare, a f ter d i l i g e n t enquiry, an assessment r o l l , in 2 7 2 App. B/46, s . 23. 1 00 which he was to record the names of a l l taxable persons resident in or outside of the munic ipal i ty and a f u l l descr ipt ion of a l l taxable property. The procedures he was to fol low became increasingly complex. The "Munic ipa l i t y Amendment Act, 1887" provided that railway and tramway companies make an annual statement of the i r real property within each munic ipa l i ty and that the assessor send or de l i ve r notices of assessment to thei r head o f f i c e s . 2 7 3 In 1889, statutory law defined the manner in which rea l property was to be a s s e s s e d . 2 7 " The fo l lowing year, the d i s t i n c t i o n between land and improvements was d e f i n e d , 2 7 5 and the assessor was, before returning the assessment r o l l to the c i t y c l e r k , required to de l i ve r or send to a l l taxable persons notice of the land, rea l property, or improvement, and statute labour assessment for which each was l i a b l e . In • a d d i t i o n , he was required to enter upon the r o l l the date of transmission of such n o t i c e . 2 7 6 In Nanaimo, the pos i t ion of C i ty Assessor was i n i t i a l l y combined with the o f f i c e s of Clerk of the Municipal Counc i l , City C o l l e c t o r , and Clerk of the Mayor's C o u r t . 2 7 7 From 1889-1895, Counci l appointed various ind iv idua ls to perform the duties of A s s e s s o r . 2 7 8 From 1896, the annual assessment was made by the ind i v idua l holding the jo in t o f f i c e s of C i ty Assessor, 2 7 3 App. B/66, s . 19. 2 7 4 App. B/69, s . 119. 2 7 5 App. B/70, ss . 37 and 39. 2 7 6 App. B/70, s . 41. Further ref ined by App. B/71, s . 124. 2 7 7 See Appendix H.1. 2 7 8 See Appendix H.4. 2 7 9 See Appendix H.10. 101 C o l l e c t o r , and Pol ice Court C l e r k . 2 7 9 Further d iscussion of the Assessor i s best approached through the records created by Council to regulate that pos i t ion and by the Assessor in the performance of h is dut ies . RECORDS From 1875-1896, Council enacted by-laws to f i x the date by which the C i ty Assessor was to return the real estate assessment r o l l . 2 6 0 From about 1890, those by-laws also f ixed the dates during which the assessment was to be made . 2 8 1 Beginning in 1897, Counci l regulated the annual assessment by a resolut ion passed in February or ear ly M a r c h ; 2 8 2 i t usual ly defined a period between February and July during which the assessment was to be conducted and a date between March and July on which the assessment r o l l was to be returned. An exception i s the by-law passed in 1887 which provided for the return of the road tax assessment r o l l in November. 2 8 3 The rea l estate assessment r o l l was the end product of the Assessor 's dut ies and was important as the basis for the annual voters' l i s t . Nanaimo's r o l l s are complete from 1875, 2 8 * although those for 1896-1897 are the copies reconstructed a f te r the o r i g i n a l s were muti lated in the C i ty C o l l e c t o r ' s o f f i c e in 1897. 0 App. J/180-200. 1 Cf. App. B/72, s . 154. 2 App. J/141-142. 3 App. J/356. * The ser ies i s discussed in d e t a i l in Appendix K. 1 02 Before 1890, when the Assessor was f i r s t required to de l i ver assessment n o t i c e s , 2 8 5 property owners were responsible for consult ing the assessment r o l l at the Ci ty Of f i ces pr ior to the meeting of the Court of Rev is ion . Council d id not not i fy ratepayers of the i r assessment u n t i l the Co l lec tor c a l l e d upon them for payment of the i r taxes. For instance, in 1875, a f te r completing i t s co r rec t ion , Council d i rected "that the Publ ic be n o t i f i e d by advertisement that the Assessment R o l l be seen at the Of f ice of the Ci ty Clerk p r io r to the 12th i n s t . " 2 8 6 Some years l a t e r , Wi l l iam Frederick Herre l a i d a complaint against the Clerk for having refused h is request to inspect the assessment r o l l on behalf of several property ho lders . In rep ly , the Clerk argued that Herre had not had the wri t ten author i ty of any person to make such e n q u i r y . 2 8 7 It i s noteworthy that the "Munic ipa l i t y Amendment Act , 1874" defined "a true c o p y " 2 8 8 of the assessment r o l l as one of the returns municipal counci ls were to make to the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary each December. Ci ty Clerk Young complied in 1876, presuming that an exact descr ip t ion of the property assessed would not be n e c e s s a r y . 2 8 9 In forwarding Nanaimo's returns for 1877, Young asked Thomas Elwyn, Deputy P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, in what form the government desired i t s copy of the assessment r o l l , to which he apparently received the reply that a copy was 2 8 5 App. B/70, s . 41. 2 8 6 CNA, CCN, CM, 5 May 1875, 28. 2 8 7 CNA, CCN, CM, 30 A p r i l 1883, 496. 2 8 8 App. B/48, s . 12. 2 8 9 CNA, CCN, CC, Letter from C.N. Young, 12 January 1876, to the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, p. 19. 1 03 not r e q u i r e d . 2 9 0 However, the assessment r o l l copy remained a statutory return u n t i l the passage of the "Municipal Act , 1892," 2 9 1 and some copies forwarded to the government by lower mainland m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are preserved at the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . 2 9 2 COURT OF REVISION The "Munic ipa l i t y Act , 1 8 7 2" 2 9 3 required that every municipal counc i l annually revise and correct i t s assessment r o l l and appoint a time and place for hearing complaints. Notice of appeal was to be given to the c i t y c lerk in w r i t i n g . After hearing the evidence of the p a r t i e s complaining and the c i t y assessor (s ) , the municipal counc i l was to decide for or against the appeal and to amend the r o l l accordingly . Such decision was to be f i n a l . Subsequent enactments referred to the municipal counc i l s i t t i n g as a court of r e v i s i o n . The "Municipal Act , 18 8 9 " 2 9 4 provided for the appeal of that j u r i s d i c t i o n ' s decis ion to a County Court Judge; l a t e r , appeals could also be made before the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia. In Nanaimo, the Municipal Court of R e v i s i o n - - i n e a r l i e r years, the Appeal Court—-met to hear complaints against rea l 0 CNA, CCN, CC, 8 January 1878, 43, with marginal notation dated 14 January 1878. 1 App. B/7 2. 2 PABC, BC, P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, GR 773. The amount of d e t a i l contained in these copies var ies g r e a t l y , although most are complete nominal assessment r o l l s . In some cases, the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ' statutory returns concerning trade and l iquor l icenses and f i n a n c i a l matters are included thereon. 3 App. B/46, s . 24. * App. B/69, s . 128. 1 04 estate assessments on a date between A p r i l and Ju l y . In 1887, the adjourned Court of Revision met in December concerning appeals against the road tax assessment r o l l . 2 9 5 Those who had given notice of appeal frequently f a i l e d to appear before the Court. The most extensive rev is ion was in .1887, the one year in which both rea l estate and improvements were assessed. Af ter convening three times, the Court f i n a l l y passed a motion to reduce a l l rea l estate assessments to the i r 1886 l e v e l s . In a d d i t i o n , i t reduced a l l improvement assessments by 33 p e r c e n t . 2 9 6 In keeping with the provis ions of the "Municipal Act , 18 9 2 , " 2 9 7 Council annually passed a resolut ion to appoint f i ve of i t s number to const i tute the Court of R e v i s i o n . 2 9 8 RECORDS Although not required by statute to do so, Counci l passed, in most years between 1875-1889, a by-law to f i x the time and place for hearing a p p e a l s . 2 9 9 Advertisement of the s i t t i n g of the court of rev is ion was formalized by the "Municipal Act Amendment Act , 1890," 3 0 ° which provided that one month's notice be given in the BCG 3 0 1 and a l o c a l newspaper. Several examples of the statutory notice of appeal have s u r v i v e d , 3 0 2 and the proceedings of the Appeal Court or Court of Revision were u n t i l 2 9 5 CNA, CCN, CM, 19 December 1887, 196-7. 2 9 6 CNA, CCN, CM, 18 July 1887, 173. 2 9 7 App. B/72, s . 161. 2 9 8 See, for example, CNA, CCN, CM, 18 July 1892, 235. 2 9 9 App. J/168-179, and 357. 3 0 0 App. B/70, s . 43(125). 3 0 1 See, for example, BCG 30 (31 July 1890): 679. 3 0 2 App. J/146. 1 05 1889 recorded in the counc i l m i n u t e s . 3 0 3 The opening of a separate minute book 3 0 " in 1891 i s explained by a proviso of the "Municipal Act Amendment Act , 1890": "the Counci l s h a l l keep a minute book wri t ten in ink of the i r proceedings as a Court of R e v i s i o n . " 3 0 5 Changes made by the Court of Rev is ion , or upon appeal to a Court of Law, were entered upon the assessment r o l l , 3 0 6 which, once confirmed, became the o f f i c i a l r o l l u n t i l Council confirmed a new one. One example of how the primary meaning of the record a f f e c t s h i s t o r i c a l understanding i s warranted. By-laws f i x i n g the outside dates of an assessment are s i g n i f i c a n t in determining the primary meaning of the assessment r o l l . Both the quant i ta t i ve h i s t o r i a n and the genealogist must date as c lose ly as possible the creat ion of an assessment r o l l in order to f a c i l i t a t e c ross - l inkage with other sources. For the h i s t o r i a n , l inkage with census returns, d i r e c t o r i e s , parochial r e g i s t e r s , e l e c t o r a l l i s t s , and newspapers of approximately s imi la r date ( i . e . , a given month) enables the study of the s o c i a l structure of a locat ion at a f ixed point in time or the persistence or transience of a population over two po ints . For the genealogist , l inkage between such o f f i c i a l sources as those noted above and personal d i a r i e s , w i l l s , and l e t t e r s enables the reconstruct ion of the l i f e h is tory of an i n d i v i d u a l or fami ly . 0 3 App. J/138-139. °" App. R/596. 0 5 App. B/70, S. 43(124). 0 6 App. K/411-420. 1 06 In such manner, s i g n i f i c a n t secondary meaning i s amassed to lend insight into the in terna l and external factors inf luencing the l i v e s , movements, and decis ions of those s tudied . Genealogical and prosopographical studies can prove most valuable for what they reveal about the ind i v idua l or group, as opposed to that which quant i ta t i ve studies reveal about s o c i a l s t ructure . However, the h i s t o r i c a l understanding which resu l ts from such enquiry i s c red ib le only i f the researcher has f i r s t acquired a s u f f i c i e n t understanding of the records consulted in order to support h is or her often complex methodology. 1 07 V. CONCLUSION Before one can c r i t i c a l l y assess the value of documentation for use in academic research, one must f i r s t understand the context of i t s c r e a t i o n . An analogy might be drawn between an h i s to r iog raph ica l study of the works of a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i a n or a d i s t i n c t f i e l d of h i s t o r i c a l enquiry and the primary meaning of any documentary source in whatever media. In order that past h i s t o r i c a l invest igat ions may be properly understood, the soc io -economic, p o l i t i c a l , and c u l t u r a l m i l i e u in which the h i s t o r i a n wrote, or the dominant themes, issues , and values of the times in which a given f i e l d was studied, must be considered. In such manner, the personal or cu l tura l - tempora l biases of past research may be more readi ly recognized. The same i s true of any primary source documentation. Without deta i led information about the environment of i t s c r e a t i o n , i t i s impossible to assess i t s h i s t o r i c a l or informational values, which are not to be confused with whether or not i t has a rch iva l value. Obviously, records are created for a purpose, which i s , or should have been, c lear to the i r c reat ing agency. That records are, as i s upon occasion argued, neutral or without bias i s a b s u r d . 3 0 7 The environment in which textual sources were created i s of utmost importance and the i r value w i l l be greatly diminished i f documentation on the po l icy and procedures by which they were generated has not surv ived. A r c h i v i s t s and records managers 3 0 7 >r r u e ob jec t i v i t y i s of course a myth. 108 must, in the i r d a i l y work, make every e f fo r t to preserve contextual documentation regarding the records in t h e i r care, although such pract i ce may require a more structured approach than that cur rent ly attained by many a rch iva l and records management programmes. Primary meaning must be studied in order to understand the record. Reports of such enquiry w i l l obviously contain the i r own biases and f a l l a c i e s . However, without a t . l e a s t a rudimentary understanding of primary meaning, i t w i l l be unclear what the a rch i va l record r e f l e c t s and impossible to assess i t s present-day research value or derive s i g n i f i c a n t secondary meaning from i t s informational content. For instance, without knowledge of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between record s e r i e s , a r c h i v i s t s and researchers are l i k e l y to overlook supporting and/or contradictory documentation and thereby miss a part of the t ruth they seek. While i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the researcher to determine the r e l a t i v e merits of a documentary source, i t i s the duty of the a r c h i v i s t , as h i s t o r i a n of the e v i d e n t i a l content of the record, to conduct such research as required to f a c i l i t a t e access to contextual i n f o r m a t i o n . 3 0 8 Such scholarship i s a pursui t of professional ism so long as i t remains confined to invest igat ion which forwards the goals of the a rch i va l p r o f e s s i o n . 3 0 9 Furthering an i n d i v i d u a l ' s or 3 0 8 That i s not, however, to suggest that the a r c h i v i s t ought to provide such d e t a i l e d information on the primary meaning of the record as has been attempted in t h i s t h e s i s , the research for which has been la rge ly experimental. 3 0 9 I am indebted to my colleague Gary A. M i t c h e l l for h is i n s i g h t f u l comments. 1 0 9 soc ie ty ' s understanding of human existence i s perhaps the arch iva l p ro fess ion 's ult imate goal . The research value of i n s t i t u t i o n a l records var ies according to the degree of evolut ion of the administrat ion which created them. To the extent that they document a wider array of funct ions, they w i l l of course r e f l e c t a broader view of soc ie ta l o rganizat ion . In order to understand the informational content of e i ther administrat ive or operat ional records, one must understand the functions for which an organizat ion was responsib le . Obviously, those functions were key elements in the environment in which documentation was created. Considerable knowledge i s required to trace a function between record groups or ser ies and to understand relevant documentation and u l t imate ly the . funct ion i t s e l f . Since organizat ions are by nature dynamic rather than s t a t i c , the i r s t ructures , funct ions, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s change in response to communal needs, market trends, and s o c i a l pressure. Such changes are re f lec ted in an organizat ion 's records and record-keeping p r a c t i c e s . Thus, before a r c h i v i s t s can with any accuracy es tab l i sh the provenance or study the primary meaning of the ind i v idua l record, the record s e r i e s , or the record group, they must understand the h is tory of the creat ing agency. The h is tory of an administrat ion requires knowledge of the organization at the time of i t s formation as wel l as how i t evolved over time. To write the in-depth h is tory of an administ rat ion i s extremely time-consuming because of the deta i led research involved in fe r re t ing out, from the often 110 inadequate or p a r t i a l record of an organizat ion , administrat ive change over t ime. There i s , nevertheless, tremendous scope for research and study in t h i s area of a rch i va l scholarship , and such study i s of c r i t i c a l importance in order to properly understand the record. In t h i s sense, the a r c h i v i s t should, as argued by Tom Nesmith, be the "h is to r ian of the r e c o r d , " 3 1 0 which is not. to be confused with the purely academic pursuits of ind iv idua ls who work as h is to r ians of the informational content of the record. Both the h istory of an administrat ion and the primary meaning of i t s records are derived from evidence contained in a rch i va l sources. Through the h istory of an admin is t rat ion , one ar r i ves at an understanding of the h is tory of i t s records and u l t imate ly the i r value to the research p u b l i c . In arranging, descr ib ing , and providing reference service to the archives in the i r care, a r c h i v i s t s should s p e c i f i c a l l y act as h i s to r ian of the e v i d e n t i a l content of those records. Understanding the record i s one of the greatest scholar ly problems confronting the a rch iva l p rofess ion . Although extensive study of primary meaning might be impossible on a d a i l y bas is , the claim of a r c h i v i s t s to be a scholar ly profession i s dependent upon the i r a b i l i t y to methodically study and understand the records in the i r care . The primary meaning of an organizat ion 's records embodies, i s dependent upon, and u l t imately transcends the i r o r i g i n a l purpose and the functions 3 1 0 Nesmith 1982, 6. 111 they document, the administ rat ive and h i s t o r i c a l context of the i r c rea t ion , including the i r provenance, o r i g i n a l order, form, and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the i r subsequent h istory and custodianship. The l a t t e r , among other fac to rs , inform invest igat ion of the i r authent ic i t y or i n t e g r i t y . F i n a l l y and although most often overlooked, the human element inf luences a l l stages of the l i f e cycle of the record, inc luding of course the extent to which i t has surv ived. In arranging and descr ib ing archives , a r c h i v i s t s a t t a i n a rudimentary understanding of the i r primary meaning. At the l e a s t , the knowledge upon which such understanding is based should be documented for the use of other a r c h i v i s t s and researchers, which i s , one would hope, a r e a l i s t i c goal for a r c h i v i s t s in the i r day-to-day work. 1 1 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. PRIMARY SOURCES 1.1 Published Mater ia ls 1.1.1 Government Publ icat ions °> B r i t i s h Columbia. Appendix to the Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1871. Containing Certain Repealed Co lon ia l Laws  Useful for Reference, Imperial Statutes Af fec t ing B r i t i s h  Columbia, Proclamations, &c. V i c t o r i a : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1871. B r i t i s h Columbia. The Consolidated Statutes of B r i t i s h  Columbia, Consist ing of the Acts , Ordinances, &  Proclamations of the Formerly Separate Colonies of  Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, of the United Colony  of B r i t i s h Columbia, and of the Province since the Union  with Canada, with Table of Acts and Alphabet ica l Index. V i c t o r i a : Richard Wolfenden, Government P r i n t e r , 1877. For deta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendices A and B. B r i t i s h Columbia. The Laws of B r i t i s h Columbia, Consist ing of  the Acts , Ordinances, & Proclamations of the Formerly  Separate Colonies of Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia,  and of the United Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia, with Table of  Acts , A lphabet ica l Index and Appendix. V i c t o r i a : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1871. For deta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix A. B r i t i s h Columbia. The Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1897, [. . . ] . 2 v o l s . V i c t o r i a : Richard Wolfenden, Pr in ter to the Queen's Most Excel lent Majesty, 1897. For deta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix B. B r i t i s h Columbia. The Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia up to and including the year 1888. V o l . 1, Consolidated Acts , 1888. V i c t o r i a : Richard Wolfenden, Government P r i n t e r , n .d. V o l . 2, Unconsolidated Acts . V i c t o r i a : Richard Wolfenden, Pr inter to the Queen's Most Excel lent Majesty, n .d . For deta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix B. 1 1 3 B r i t i s h Columbia. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, [ . . . 3 . Sessions 1872 to 1903/04. For de ta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix B. B r i t i s h Columbia. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Journals of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Sessions 1872 to 1903/04. Vo l s . 1-33. The "Sessional Papers" for the years 1872-1875 were pr inted as the appendix to the corresponding volume of the Journals (Vols. 1 -4) . For deta i led l i s t of the papers consulted, refer to Appendix C. B r i t i s h Columbia. L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Sessional Papers [. . .] of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Sessions 1876 to 1905. For de ta i led l i s t of the papers consulted, refer to Appendix C. B r i t i s h Columbia. Min is t ry of Municipal A f f a i r s . Mun ic i p a l  S t a t i s t i c s Including Regional D i s t r i c t s and Improvement  D i s t r i c t s for the Year Ended December 31 1982. V i c t o r i a : Queen's Pr in ter for B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984. Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia (separate) . L i s t of Proclamations  for 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, and 1864. N.p. , n .d . The proclamations for 1864 are in fact ordinances. For de ta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix A . 2 . Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia (separate) . L e g i s l a t i v e Counc i l . Ordinances• Session 1864. For de ta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix A . 2 . Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia (separate) . L e g i s l a t i v e Counc i l . Ordinances Passed by the L e g i s l a t i v e Council of B r i t i s h  Columbia, [. . . ] . Sessions 1864/65 to 1866. New Westminster: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , n .d . -1866. For de ta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix A . 2 . Colony of Vancouver Is land. House of Assembly. [Acts ] . Sessions 1863/64 to 1864/65. From 1864, 27 & 28 V i c t . , no. 8, pub l i ca t ion 1 1 4 information is noted on each act as fo l lows : V i c t o r i a , Vancouver I s land : Pr inted by Authority of the Government by Harr ies and Company, 1864-1865. For deta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix A . 1 . Colony of Vancouver Is land. House of Assembly. [Acts ] . Session 1865/66. These are most read i l y ava i lab le on mic ro f i lm : Preconfederation Statutes , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858- 1871. However, none of the laws enacted during the 1865/66 session re lates to municipal government. Colony of Vancouver Is land. House of Assembly. A Co l lec t ion of  the Publ ic General Statutes of the Colony of Vancouver  Is land, Passed in the Years 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862, and  1863. V i c t o r i a , Vancouver Is land: Pr inted at the "Evening Express" O f f i c e , Yates St reet , 1864. For deta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix A . 1 . Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo. Municipal Counc i l . By-Laws  of the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, B r i t i s h  Columbia: January, 1904. Nanaimo: Herald P r i n t i n g & Publ ishing Co. , 1904. Refer to Appendix J . Preconfederation Statutes, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871 [ t i t l e from microf i lm boxes]. Toronto: Micromedia L imi ted , 1978 (2 r e e l s ; 35 mm.). PABC, microf i lm D-8. "Report of the Royal Commission on Municipal Government, 1912." In B r i t i s h Columbia. Sessional Papers, 1913, pp. L1-L18. United Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia. L e g i s l a t i v e Counc i l . Acts  Passed by the .Leg i s la t i ve Counci l of B r i t i s h Columbia,  [. . .IT Session 1871. V i c t o r i a : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , n.d. For deta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix A . 3 . United Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia. L e g i s l a t i v e Counc i l . Ordinances Passed by the L e g i s l a t i v e Council of B r i t i s h  Columbia, [. . . ] . Sessions 1867 to 1870. New Westminster: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1867-1868. V i c t o r i a : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1868/69-1870. For deta i led l i s t of statutory law consulted, refer to Appendix A . 3 . 1 1 5 1.1.2 Newspapers B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette, 1872-1905. Co lon is t , 1957. Dai ly B r i t i s h Co lon is t , 1858-1874. Dai ly Co lon is t , 1900. Nanaimo Free Press, 1874-1934. Nanaimo Gazette, 1865-1866. Nanaimo Tribune, 1866-1867. The Province (Vancouver), 1925. Vancouver Dai ly Evening Post, 1866. V i c t o r i a Dai ly Chronic le , 1866. 1.2 Arch iva l Mater ia ls 1.2.1 Ci ty of Nanaimo Archives For deta i led inventory of the archives consul ted, refer to Appendices J -Y , which are introduced in Appendix I. 1.2.2 Nanaimo Centennial Museum Archives Nanaimo Free Press, 1875-1905 ( o r i g i n a l s ; some years missing, others ser iously deter io rated) . 1.2.3 P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia Although not a l l of the archives l i s t e d here are pert inent to t h i s t h e s i s , a l l contain information about municipal government in B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia. Attorney-General . Departmental cor re -spondence. GR 429. O r i g i n a l s , 1872-1937, 1950, 2.22 m. B r i t i s h Columbia. Attorney-General . Index to correspondence inward, pr imar i l y for 1911-1919. GR 1324. M i c r o f i l m , 1901-1937, 1 ree l (B-2371). 1 16 B r i t i s h Columbia. Commission on Charges against J . P . P lanta , Po l i ce Magistrate of Nanaimo, 1894. GR 476. Report of Judge E l i Harr ison. O r i g i n a l s , 1895, 24 pp. B r i t i s h Columbia. Royal Commission on Municipal Government, 1912. GR 519. E x h i b i t s , t r a n s c r i p t s of proceedings and correspondence. O r i g i n a l s , 1912, 15 cm. B r i t i s h Columbia. Lieutenant-Governor. Papers of the Lieutenants-Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia. GR 443. O r i g i n a l s , 1871-1936, 8 m. Letterbook copies of o f f i c i a l correspondence outward. Mic ro f i lm (neg.) , 1896-1919, 6 ree ls (B-2040 to B-2045). B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o v i n c i a l Secretary. Copies of assessment r o l l s for Ch i l l iwack , De l ta , Langley, Maple Ridge, New Westminster, Richmond and Surrey. GR 773. O r i g i n a l s , 1881 , 1884, 2 cm. B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o v i n c i a l Secretary. Correspondence inward: Registers and indices of l e t t e r s inward. GR 524. O r i g i n a l s , 1872-1924, 1.66 m. Correspondence inward. GR 526. O r i g i n a l s , 1871-1892, 5.88 m. Miscellaneous correspondence inward (unnumbered). GR 774. O r i g i n a l s , 1891, 1 cm. B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o v i n c i a l Secretary. Correspondence outward: Index of correspondence. GR 644. O r i g i n a l s , 1872-187 5, 6 cm. Index to l e t t e r s outward. GR 538. Mic ro f i lm (neg.), 1895-1897, 130 frames (B-2511/2). Letterbook copies of correspondence outward. GR 540. Mic ro f i lm (neg.) , 1873-1918, 63 reels (B-2449 to B-2511/1). Correspondence outward (drafts and cop ies ) . GR 614. O r i g i n a l s , 1878-1881, 0.5 cm. B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o v i n c i a l Secretary. Correspondence of the Chief Clerk with various m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . GR 566. O r i g i n a l s , 1911-1936, 1.50 m. B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o v i n c i a l Secretary. Report of the Minister of Finance regarding the municipal boundaries of Surrey and Langley. GR 641. O r i g i n a l s , 1881, 2 items only . 1 1 7 B r i t i s h Columbia. P rov inc ia l Secretary. Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . GR 153. Correspondence inward and outward of the Secretary of the Bureau, R.E. Gosne l l , 1895-1898; s t a t i s t i c a l returns from various mun ic ipa l i t i es in the province, 1894-1897 (returns are arranged a lphabet i ca l l y by the name of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ) . O r i g i n a l s , 1895-1898, 30 cm. 2. SECONDARY SOURCES A r t i b i s e , Alan F . J . , and G i lber t A. S t e l t e r . Canada's Urban Past : A Bibliography to 1980 and Guide to Canadian Urban  Studies. Vancouver and London: Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Press , 1981. A r t i b i s e , Alan F . J . , Segger, Mar t in , Brown, Marian, and Beth Gibson. C i v i c Archival Survey of Greater V i c t o r i a : Report  and Recommendations. V i c t o r i a : Univers i ty of V i c t o r i a , 1 979. Bennett, Judi th Antonik. Royal Commissions and Commissions of Inquiry under the Publ ic Inqui r ies Act in B r i t i s h Columbia,  1943-1980: A Check l i s t . V i c t o r i a : Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e L ib ra ry , 1982. Bescoby, I sabe l . "A Colonia l Admin is t rat ion : An Analys is of Administrat ion in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1869-1871." Canadian  Publ ic Administrat ion 10 (March 1967): 48-104. B i sh , Robert L. "Local Government in B r i t i s h Columbia." With, the assistance of Evelyn C. Bu t le r . Center for Publ ic Sector Studies , School of Publ ic Adminis t rat ion , Univers i ty of V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a , BC, March, 1983. Photocopy. Bowen, Lynne. Boss Whist le : The Coal Miners of Vancouver Island Remember. L a n t z v i l l e , BC: Oolichan Books, 1982. B r i t t a i n , Horace L. Local Government in Canada. Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1951. Brooke, Christopher N.L. "The Teaching of D ip lomat ic . " Journal  of the Society of A r c h i v i s t s 4, no. 1 (1970): 1-9. Burns, Wi l l i am. "The Educational System of B r i t i s h Columbia." In V o l . 1 of B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to  the Present, edited by E.O.S. S c h o l e f i e l d , pp. 623-41. Vancouver: The S . J . Clarke Publ ish ing Company, [1914]. The Canadian A rch i v i s t 2, no. 1 (1970): 17-20. This reference is to an u n t i t l e d discussion which fol lows the papers presented by Taylor and Wilson on 1 18 the history of admin is t ra t ion . Cook, Michael . "Profess ional T ra in ing : Internat ional Perspect ives . " Arch ivar ia no. 7 (1978): 28-40. Cook, Terry. "From Information to Knowledge: An I n t e l l e c t u a l Paradigm for Arch ives . " Arch ivar ia no. 19 (Winter 1984-1985): 28-49. Crawford, Kenneth Grant. Canadian Municipal Government. Toronto: Univers i ty of Toronto Press, 1954. Evans, Frank B. , Harr ison, Donald F. , and Edwin A. Thompson, comps. "A Basic Glossary for A r c h i v i s t s , Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers." Edited by Wi l l iam L. Rofes. American A rch i v i s t 37, no. 3 (1974): 415-33. Forrester , E l i zabeth Anne Marsha l l . "The Urban Development of Central Vancouver I s l a n d . " Master 's t h e s i s , Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966. Fox, Michael J . , and Kathleen A. McDonough. Wisconsin Municipal • Records Manual. Madison: State H i s t o r i c a l Society of Wisconsin and Wisconsin Department of Development, 1980. Gosnel l , R.E. "Publ ic Admin is t ra t ion . " In Canada and i t s  Provinces: A History of the Canadian People and Their  I n s t i t u t i o n s , edited by Adam Shortt and Arthur G. Doughty. Sec. 11, v o l . 22, The P a c i f i c Province, pp. 349-84. Toronto: Glasgow, Brook & Company, 1914. Gosnel l , R.E. The Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia and Manual of  P r o v i n c i a l Information, to Which i s added a Chapter  Containing much Special Information Respecting the Canadian  Yukon and Northern Ter r i to ry General ly . V i c t o r i a : 1897. Gosnel l , R.E. The Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia and Manual of  P r o v i n c i a l Information. V i c t o r i a : 1903. Gosnel l , R.E. The Year Book of B r i t i s h Columbia and Manual of  P r o v i n c i a l Information. [4th] (Coronation) e d i t i o n . V i c t o r i a : 1911. Gosnel l , R.E. The Yearbook of B r i t i s h Columbia Compendium:  1897-1901. [Compiled from 1897 ed i t ion and rev ised . ] [ V i c t o r i a : 1901. ] Gunn, Angus M. "Gold and the Early Settlement of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1885." Master 's t h e s i s , Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. Hearnshaw, Fossey John Cobb. Municipal Records. Helps for Students of H is tory , no. 2. London: Society for Promoting Chr i s t ian Knowledge, 1918. 1 19 Hendrickson, James E. , ed. Journals of the Co lon ia l Leg is la tures of the Colonies of Vancouver Island and  B r i t i s h Columbia, 1851-1871. 5 v o l s . V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980. Holmes, Marjor ie C. Pub l icat ions of the Government of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1871-1947. Rev. and e n l . ed. of Pub l icat ions of  the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1937, by Sydney Weston. 1939. V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l L ib ra ry , 1950. Holmes, Marjor ie C. Royal Commissions and Commissions of Inquiry under the Publ ic Inqui r ies Act in B r i t i s h Columbia,  1872-1942: A C h e c k l i s t . V i c t o r i a : Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e L ib ra ry , 1945. Honeyman, J . J . , and A.R. Heyland, comps. Map of the C i ty of Nanaimo, B.C. : Compiled from the Most Recent Surveys and  O f f i c i a l Maps. Montreal : Canada Bank Note Co. L i m . , L i t h . , 1891. Or ig ina l in Nanaimo Centennial Museum Archives . Photocopy in Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia L ib ra ry , Special Co l lec t ions D i v i s i o n . Honeyman, J . J . , and A.R. Heyland, comps. Map of the C i ty of Nanaimo, B.C. : Compiled from the Most Recent Surveys and  O f f i c i a l Maps. Montreal : Canada Bank Note Co. L i m . , L i t h . , 1891. P a r t i a l r e p r i n t . N .p . , 1904. Or ig ina l in C i ty of Nanaimo Archives; reproduced in Figure 4. Jenkinson, H i l a r y . A Manual of Archive Admin is t rat ion . 1922. New and rev. ed. London: Percy Lund, Humphries & Co. L t d . , 1937. Johnson, F. Henry. A History of Publ ic Education in B r i t i s h  Columbia. Vancouver: Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Pub l i ca t ions Centre, 1964. Johnson, P a t r i c i a M. Welcome to Nanaimo, B r i t i s h Columbia,  Canada. Rev. ed. of Nanaimo: A Short H is to ry . 1958. Publ ished for the C i ty of Nanaimo by Trendex P u b l i c a t i o n s , North Vancouver, and Western Heritage Supply L t d . , Burnaby, 1974. Johnson, P a t r i c i a M., Parker, John G . , and Gino A. Sedola. Nanaimo: Scenes from the Past . [Nanaimo]: Nanaimo & D i s t r i c t Museum Society , 1966. Kromnow, Ake. "The Appraisal of Contemporary Records." Archivum 26 (1979): 45-54. 1 20 Lank, H.H. , and E.L. Wi l l iams. The Du Pont Canada His tory : With Retrospective Glances at i t s Predecessor Companies and  some of the Leading Persona l i t i es Involved. Canada: Du Pont Canada, Inc . , 1982. Mu l le r , S . , F e i t h , J . A . , and R. F r u i n . Manual for the Arrangement and Descr ipt ion of Archives. 2nd e d i t i o n . Translated by Arthur H. L e a v i t t . New York: H.W. Wilson Company, 1940. Nanaimo, B r i t i s h Columbia: I ts Development and Resources: A Sketch of F i f t y Years Enterpr ise and Advancement, 1851- 1903. Holiday number. Nanaimo: Dai ly & Weekly Herald, December, 1903. Nesmith, Tom. "Archives from the Bottom Up: S o c i a l History and Arch iva l Scholarsh ip . " Arch ivar ia no. 14 (1982): 5-26. Norcross, E. Blanche, ed. The Company on the Coast. Nanaimo: Nanaimo H i s t o r i c a l Society , 1983. Norcross, E. Blanche, ed. Nanaimo Retrospect ive: The F i r s t Century. Nanaimo: Local History Research Group, Nanaimo H i s t o r i c a l Society , 1979. OECD Informatics Studies. Local Government and Information  Technology. OECD, no. 12. P a r i s : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1978. Ormsby, Margaret A. B r i t i s h Columbia: a H is to ry . 1958. Reprint with cor rect ions . Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada L imi ted , 1971. Publ ic Administrat ion Serv ice . Report on an Administrat ive  Survey of the Municipal Government: C i ty of Vancouver,  B r i t i s h Columbia. Washington and San Franc isco : Publ ic Administrat ion Serv ice, [1955]. Sale , T .D . , and Devina S. Smith, eds. Nanaimo: The Story of a  C i t y . Nanaimo: Nanaimo and D i s t r i c t Museum Society , 1983. Scott , P . J . , Smith, C D . , and G. F i n l a y . "Archives and Administrat ive Change: Some Methods and Approaches [Parts 1 - 4 ] . " Archives and Manuscripts 7, no. 3 (1978): 115-27; 7, no. 4 (1979): 151-65; 8, no. 1 (1980): 41-54; and 8, no. 2 (1980): 51-69. Strongitharm, B. Deane. "Local Government Reorganizat ion: A Case Study in Local Government Change in Nanaimo, B.C." Master 's t h e s i s , Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975. 121 Taylor , Hugh A. "Administrat ive His tory : An A r c h i v i s t ' s Need." The Canadian Arch i v i s t 2, no. 1 (1970): 4 - 9 . Taylor , Hugh A. "The D i s c i p l i n e of History and the Education of the A r c h i v i s t . " American Arch i v i s t 40 no. 4 (1977): 395-402. Taylor , Hugh A. "Information Ecology and the Archives of the 1980s." Arch ivar ia no. 18 (1984): 25-37. Thomson, David. The Aims of H is tory : Values of the H i s t o r i c a l  A t t i t u d e . The General Studies L ibrary . London: Thames and Hudson L t d . , 1969. Vancouver, BC. Ci ty of Vancouver Archives. "A Chronology of the Basic Administrat ive Developments in the C i v i c Government of Vancouver, 1886-1950." Compiled by B. Barak, L. Baynes, C. C lark , J . Doyle, and J . Dwyer. 8 v o l s . Photocopy of t ypescr ip t . Vancouver, BC. Ci ty of Vancouver Archives. Prel iminary Inventory: Addi t ional Manuscripts. Edited by Sheelagh Draper. 6 v o l s . Vancouver: C i ty of Vancouver Archives, 1973-78. Ward, W. Peter , and Robert A . J . McDonald, eds. and comps. B r i t i s h Columbia: H i s t o r i c a l Readings. Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre L t d . , 1981. Wickett , S. Morley. "City Government in Canada." Univers i ty of  Toronto Studies: History and Economics Series 2, no. 1 ( 1 902) : V^TT! Wickett , S. Morley. "Local Government in B r i t i s h Columbia." Univers i ty of Toronto Studies: History and Economics  Series 2, no. 4 (1907): 213-20. Wickett , S. Morley. "Some Publ icat ions Referr ing to Canadian Municipal Government." Univers i ty of Toronto Studies :  History and Economics Series 2, no. i (1902): 6 1 - 3 ; no. 2 (1903): 121-8; no. 3 (1904): 193; and no. 4 (1907): 365. Wilson, V. Seymour. "Administrat ive History - An H i s t o r i a n ' s Opportunity." The Canadian A rch i v i s t 2, no. 1 (1970): 9-17. 1 2 2 APPENDICES 1 23 APPENDIX A - COLONIAL ACTS, ORDINANCES, AND PROCLAMATIONS A l l ac ts , ordinances, and proclamations even remotely re lated to municipal administrat ion or development in the c o l o n i a l period are l i s t e d in th i s appendix. This i s somewhat complicated by the c o l o n i a l h is tory of the area which now const i tutes the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. I have examined the statutory law of the Colony of Vancouver Island for 1859-1866, the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia for 1858-1866, and the united Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia for 1867-1871, and have organized the relevant laws from each j u r i s d i c t i o n under the appropriate heading. The volumes of statutory law which I consulted are l i s t e d in d e t a i l in the bibl iography (section 1 .1 .1 ) . In add i t i on , they are b r i e f l y l i s t e d and explained for each c o l o n i a l body in the sections which fo l low. In organizing the laws within each of the fo l lowing sect ions , a p a r t i a l subject arrangement has been adopted to f a c i l i t a t e use. Otherwise, arrangement i s alphabetic by short t i t l e and then chrono log ica l , such that successive laws are brought together. Preceding a r t i c l e s have, where they occur, been omitted from short t i t l e s . The t i t l e s by which these l i s t s have been alphabetized are underscored. The source of each law i s indicated by calendar or sessional year (s ) , regnal year (s ) , number, and page numbers or page count. In many cases, t h i s information i s only p a r t i a l l y complete; in a l l cases, the information given indicates that by which the law may be located. For many of the e a r l i e s t laws, the t i t l e and the date of assent by the Governor are the only descr ip t i ves by which the law may be i d e n t i f i e d . For each law, the reader must match the calendar or sess ional year (s ) , or date of assent, with the volumes for that j u r i s d i c t i o n in order to determine the exact source. Many c o l o n i a l laws were enacted for a very s p e c i f i c purpose, as opposed to the more general statutes which governed m u n i c i p a l i t i e s af ter B r i t i s h Columbia became a province and the laws were consol idated and rev ised . Since the long t i t l e of a statute often provides information regarding i t s purpose, the long t i t l e has a lso been noted and fol lows the short t i t l e and source information. Laws which do not specify a short t i t l e are arranged by long t i t l e . F i n a l l y , I have traced the d i spos i t i on of each law to 1877 when the c o l o n i a l and p r o v i n c i a l statutes were consol idated for the f i r s t t ime. This was done in order to determine the period for which each law was in force and to compile a composite l i s t of the various numbers by which each has been referred to . Each time that the laws are consol idated or rev ised , they are 1 24 assigned a new chapter number. The researcher using municipal records w i l l f ind many statutory laws referred to and many d i f fe ren t years and numbers therefor . In some cases, a law has upon consol idat ion simply been reprinted without change to t i t l e , date, or content, but has been assigned a new number, by which i t has subsequently been known. Moreover, the volumes in which c o l o n i a l laws were o r i g i n a l l y pr inted are not readi ly access ib le , although i t i s often possible to consult a c o l o n i a l law as i t was repr inted in a l a t e r volume. Many c o l o n i a l laws did remain in force af ter 1877, although t rac ing them becomes increasingly d i f f i c u l t . The d i spos i t i on of each law as of 1877 fol lows the long t i t l e . This statement i s given in very abbreviated form, using the abbreviat ions noted below, and ind ica t ing most often only the source, year, and number of the law as i t appeared in the LBC, 1871, SBC, or CSBC, 1877. Page numbers of revised and consol idated statutes are provided only in the primary reference to each, that i s , in the case of laws which were repr inted without change to t i t l e , date, or content ( indicated by "Same as . . . . " ) , or in the case of laws, with which other laws were consol idated, but which were reprinted with the same t i t l e and date and changes to content ( indicated by "Consolidated with . . . as . . . . " ) . Other phrases contained in the d i spos i t ion statement are se l f -exp lanatory . It should be noted that a l l notes regarding d i s p o s i t i o n refer back to the main item. Spec i f i c mention should be made of the "Statutes Repeal Act , 1 8 7 1 , " 3 1 1 which was enacted to e x p l i c i t l y repeal the a c t s , ordinances, and proclamations contained in the schedule attached to i t . Many of those laws had by 1871 lapsed as a resu l t of statutory time l i m i t s ; the o r i g i n a l law w i l l have to be consulted to determine such statutory l i m i t a t i o n . Throughout t h i s appendix, repeal by the "Statutes Repeal Act , 1871" i s noted as "Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161." Where the law by which a statute has been amended or repealed does not appear with in a range of f i ve items ei ther side of i t , i t s item number i s provided in parentheses. Abbreviat ions: CSBC, 1877 = Consolidated Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1877. LBC, 1871 = Laws of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1871. SBC = Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1872 to 1903/04. 3 1 1 Laws of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871, 34 V i c t . , no. 161, pp. 597-602. 1 25 A.1 Colony of Vancouver Island The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h is tory of the Colony of Vancouver Is land- -c reated by royal charter in l 8 4 9 - - i s very c o m p l e x . 3 1 2 A House of Assembly was f i r s t c a l l e d in 1856. The Counc i l , which had i n i t i a l l y performed executive funct ions , increas ingly played a l e g i s l a t i v e role as the volume of l e g i s l a t i o n passed by the Assembly augmented af ter the 1858 gold rush. In la te 1863, the Council was replaced by an Executive Council and a L e g i s l a t i v e Counc i l . The sources consulted for the laws passed in the Colony of Vancouver Island between 1859 and 1866 are A C o l l e c t i o n of the  Publ ic General Statutes of the Colony of Vancouver I s land ,  Passed in the Years 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862, and 1863 and the lActsJ for sessions 1863/64, 1864/65, and 1865/66. From 1864, 27 & 28 V i c t . , no. 8, the Colony's laws were i d e n t i f i e d by regnal year and number. Previous to that time, they were i d e n t i f i e d only by date of assent and t i t l e . I tern: 1. "An Act to Improve the Streets of the Town of V i c t o r i a , and to Authorize the Co l lec t ion of a Tax, to be Cal led 'The V i c t o r i a ' S t r e e t Fund, ' " 28 August 1860, 2 p p . 3 1 3 Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 2. "Supplementary Street Act , 1861," 29 October 1861, 1 p. "An Act to Authorize the Continuation of Certain Streets in V i c t o r i a , Vancouver I s land . " Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 3. "An Act to Proh ib i t Swine and Goats from Running at Large in the Town of V i c t o r i a ; and to Prohib i t Goats from Running at Large in the Set t led D i s t r i c t s of Vancouver I s l a n d , " 15 January 1862, 2 pp. Same as LBC, 1871, no. 5, pp. 8 - 9 . Same as CSBC, 1877, c. 81, pp. 283-5. 4. "Fireman's Protect ion Act , 1860," 28 August 1860, 1 p. 3 1 2 See Hendrickson 1980, v o l . 1, in t roduct ion , x x i i i - l i , for a good explanation of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l development of the P a c i f i c co lon ies . 3 1 3 This Act i s most readi ly ava i lab le on mic ro f i lm: Preconfederation Statutes , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871. 1 26 "An Act for the Protect ion of the Members of F i re Companies of V i c t o r i a . " Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 5. "Fireman's Protect ion Act, 1861," 10 September 1861, 1 p. "An Act to Extend and Amend the Provis ions of the 'Fireman's Protect ion Act , 1 8 6 0 . ' " Same as LBC, 1871, no. 3, pp. 5 -7 . Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 22, and "Fireman's Protect ion Amendment Act , 1873," SBC, 1872/73, no. 17, as CSBC, 1877, c . 33, pp. 93-6 . 6. "Fireman's Act , 1864," 27 & 28 V i c t . , no. 17, 2 pp. "An Act to A l te r and Amend 'The Fireman's Protect ion Act , 1861. ' " Same as LBC, 1871, no. 22, pp. 88 -9 . Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 3, and "Fireman's Protect ion Amendment Act , 1873," SBC, 1872/73, no. 17, as CSBC, 1877, c . 33. 7. "Governor's Indemnity Act , 1864," 11 March 1864, 2 pp. "An Act to Indemnify the Governor for Applying Certain Moneys to the Redemption of Munic ipal Debentures." Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 8. "Mayor and Council of V i c t o r i a Indemnity Act , 1863," 28 December 1863, 2 pp. "An Act to Provide an Indemnity for the Mayor and Counc i l lo rs of the Ci ty of V i c t o r i a . " Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 9. "Prov is iona l Act for the E l e c t i o n of Mayor and Counc i l l o r s , 1863," 30 October 1863, 4 pp. "An Act to Provide for the E l e c t i o n of a Mayor and Counc i l lo rs of the Ci ty of V i c t o r i a , at the Expi rat ion of the Period for which the Present Mayor and Counc i l lo rs are E l e c t e d . " Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 10. "Prov is iona l Act for the E l e c t i o n of Mayor and Counc i l l o rs , 1864," 28 & 29 V i c t . , no. 1, 3 pp. "An Act to Provide for the E l e c t i o n of a Mayor and Counc i l lo rs for the Ci ty of V i c t o r i a on the 8th Day df 1 27 November, A .D . , 1864." Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 11. "Prov is iona l Sanatory [s ic ] Commission Act , 1862," 19 July 1862, 3 pp. "An Act to Authorize the Appointment of a Sanatory [s ic ] Commission for the Town of V i c t o r i a , and to Define the Powers thereof ." Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 12. " V i c t o r i a City Half Per Cent Tax Act , 1864," 27 & 28 V i c t . , no. 20, 2 pp. "An Act to Impose a Tax of One Half of One Per Centum upon A l l Real Estate with in the Ci ty of V i c t o r i a and for Other Purposes Relat ing there to . " Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 13. " V i c t o r i a City Half Per Cent Tax Act , 1865," 28 & 29 V i c t . , no. 15, 2 pp. "An Act to Impose a Tax of One Half of One Per Centum upon A l l Real Estate wi th in the Ci ty of V i c t o r i a , and for Other Purposes Relat ing there to . " Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 14. " V i c t o r i a F i re L imit Act , 1862," 9 July 1862, 1 p. "An Act to Es tab l i sh F i r e L imits within the Town of V i c t o r i a . " Same as.LBC, 1871, no. 8, pp. 53-4. Consolidated with LBC, 18*71, no. 94 (Item 35), as CSBC, 1877, c . 171 TTtem 35). 15. " V i c t o r i a Gas Company's Act , 1860," 19 December 1860, 2 pp. "An Act to Incorporate the ' V i c t o r i a Gas Company.'" Same as LBC, 1871, no. 2, pp. 2 - 5 . Same as CSBC, 1877, c . 35, pp. 98-101. 16. " V i c t o r i a Gas Company's Extension Act , 1861," 9 December 1861, 1 p. "An Act to Enlarge the Time Limited by the V i c t o r i a Gas Company's Act , 1860, for the Establishment of Gas Works and Bui ldings by the V i c t o r i a Gas Company." 1 28 Same as LBC, 1871, no. 4, pp. 7 -8 . The CSBC, 1877 notes that th i s law had expi red. 17. " V i c t o r i a Gas Company's Extension Act , 1862," 3 July 1862, 2 pp. "An Act to Enlarge the Time Limited by the ' V i c t o r i a Gas Company's Act , 1860,' and the ' V i c t o r i a Gas Company's Extension Act , 1861,' for the Establishment of Gas Works and Bui ldings by the V i c t o r i a Gas Company." Same as LBC, 1871, no. 7, pp. 52 -3 . Same as CSBC, 1877, c . 36, pp. 101-2. 18. " V i c t o r i a Incorporation Act , 1862," 2 August 1862, 12 "An Act to Incorporate the C i ty of V i c t o r i a . " Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 94 (Item 35). 19. " V i c t o r i a Incorporation Debenture Act , 1863," 27 February 1863, 4 pp. "An Act to Declare the V a l i d i t y of the Debentures Issued by the Municipal Council of V i c t o r i a . " . Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. A.2 Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia From the time of the creat ion of the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia in 1858 u n t i l 1864, author i ty was vested in the Governor, who essent ia l l y , acted alone. The L e g i s l a t i v e Council was establ ished in 1863 and f i r s t met in 1864. The sources consulted for the statutory law of the separate Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia are the L i s t of Proclamations for  1858, 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862, 1863, and 1864 (the proclamations for 1864 are in fact ordinances) and the Ordinances of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council of B r i t i s h Columbia for sessions 1864, 1864/65, and 1866. The 1864/65 session i s sometimes referred to by the l a t t e r sessional year alone. From 1861, laws were numbered within each calendar year and from 1864 within each sessional year (s ) . The regnal year was f i r s t included on laws for session 1866, 29 V i c t . The long 3 1 * This Act i s most readi ly ava i lab le on mic ro f i lm: Preconfederation Statutes , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1858-1871. 1 29 t i t l e proper of laws passed during the years 1858 to 1863 contains the t i t l e s of the Governor, e t c . For the long t i t l e of those ac ts , I have therefore adopted the abbreviated form by which they were la te r referred to in the LBC, 1871, and the CSBC, 1877. From the 1864 session, ordinances were headed with a more manageable long t i t l e . I tern: 20. "Borough Ordinance, 1865," 1864/65, no. 11, 1 p. "An Ordinance for the Formation and Regulation of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s in B r i t i s h Columbia." Same as LBC, 1871, no. 57, pp. 182-3. Repealed by SBC, 1872, no. 35 (App. B/46). 21. "Fireman's Protect ion Act , 1861," 1861, no. 7, 2 pp. "Proclamation for Protect ing Members of F i re Companies in New Westminster in Their E f f o r t s to Prevent the Destruction of Property by F i r e . " Same as LBC, 1871, no. 35, pp. 118-9. Same as CSBC, 1877, c . 32, pp. 92 -3 . 22. "New Westminster Municipal Counci l Act , 1860," 16 July 1860, 6 pp. "Proclamation to Estab l i sh a Municipal Council in the Ci ty of New Westminster." Same as LBC, 1871, no. 31, pp. 104-13. Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 36 and no. 49, as CSBC, 1877, c . 130, pp. 588-95. 23. "New Westminster Municipal Counci l Extension Act , 1861," 1861, no. 11, 1 p. "Proclamation to Increase the L imi ts of the Munic ipa l i t y and the Number of Counci l lors of New Westminster, and to Extend the New Westminster Municipal Council Act , 1860." Same as LBC, 1871, no. 36, pp. 119-20. Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 31 and no. 49, as CSBC, 1877, c . 130. 24. "New Westminster Municipal Extension Act, No. 2 , " 1862, no. 8, 2 pp. "Proclamation for Giving Authority to the Municipal Council of New Westminster to Raise a Loan or Loans upon the Security of the Revenues of the Said C i t y . " 1 30 Same as LBC, 1871, no. 41, pp. 137-8. Noted as being "obsolete" in CSBC, 1877.. 25. "New Westminster Municipal Extension Act , No. 3 , " 1863, no. 11, 2 pp. "Proclamation for Enlarging the L imi ts of the C i ty of New Westminster for Municipal Purposes." Same as LBC, 1871, no. 49, pp. 159-61. Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 31 and no. 36, as CSBC, 1877, c . 130. 26. "Proclamation Changing the Name of Queensborough to New  Westminster," 20 July 1859, 1 p. Same as LBC, 1871, no. 29, p. 102. Noted as having "had i t s e f f e c t " in CSBC, 1877. 27. "Proclamation Providing that Town Lots , Suburban Lots , and Surveyed A g r i c u l t u r a l Lands Offered for Sale at Publ ic Auct ion, and Remaining Unsold, May Be Sold by Pr ivate Contract ," 20 January 1860, 1 p. Repealed by the "Land Ordinance, 1870," LBC, 1871, no. 144, pp. 492-507, in which i t i s simply referred to as "An Act dated January 20, 1860," there being no short t i t l e . 28. "Proclamation Respecting the Method to Be Pursued with  Respect to the A l ienat ion and Possession of A g r i c u l t u r a l Lands, and of Lands Proposed for S i tes for Towns in B r i t i s h Columbia;.and with Reference Also to the Places for Levying Shipping and Customs Dut ies ; and for Es tab l i sh ing a Capi ta l and Port of Entry in the Said Colony," 14 February 1859, 2 pp. Repealed in part by the "Land Ordinance, 1865," 1864/65, no. 27, 7 pp . , and wholly by LBC, 1871, no. 144, in which i t i s simply referred to as "An Act dated February 14th, 1859," there being no short t i t l e . 29. "Town Lot Leases Rel ie f Act , 1860," 8 May 1860, 3 pp. "Proclamation Giving Re l ie f to Lessees in Town Lots at Lytton, Douglas, Fort Hope, and Fort Y a l e . " Repealed by LBC, 1871, no. 161. 131 A.3 United Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia When the united Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia was created in late 1866, the laws of the Colony of Vancouver Island and the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia remained in force u n t i l a l t e r e d , amended or repealed. However, from that time, only one l e g i s l a t i v e body ex is ted . The L e g i s l a t i v e Counci l sat in 1867, 1868, 1868/69, 1870, and 1871. The sources consulted for the statutory law of the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia (1866-1871) are the Ordinances Passed by the  Leg is la t i ve Council of B r i t i s h Columbia, [. . .] for sessions 1867 to 1870 and the Acts Passed by the L e g i s l a t i v e Counci l of  B r i t i s h Columbia, [.. . .] for the 1871 sess ion. The laws are numbered within each sessional year (s ) . The 1868/69 session i s sometimes referred to as the 1869 sess ion. I tern: 30. "Engl ish Law Ordinance, 1867," 1867, 30 V i c t . , no. 7, 1 p. "An Ordinance to Ass imi late the General App l icat ion of Engl ish Law." Same as LBC, 1871, no. 70, p. 214. Same as CSBC, 1877, c . 103, p. 384. 31. "F i re Companies' Aid Ordinance, 1869," 1868/69, 32 V i c t . , no. 20, 2 pp. "An Ordinance to Enable the Municipal Council of the C i ty of V i c t o r i a to Es tab l i sh a Permanent Fund for the Support of the F i re Establishments of the Said C i t y . " Same as LBC, 1871, no. 121, pp. 389-92. Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 94, as CSBC, 1877, c . 171. 32. "F i re Companies' Aid Amendment Act , 1871," 1871, 34 V i c t . , no. 10, 2 pp. "An Act to Amend the ' F i r e Companies' Aid Ordinance, 1869. ' " Same as LBC, 1871, no. 154, pp. 534-5. Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 94, as CSBC, 1877, c . 171. 33. "Municipal Fines Ordinance, 1870," 1870, 33 V i c t . , no. 9, 1 p. "An Ordinance Respecting the Enforcement of Municipal By - laws." 1 32 Same as LBC, 1871, no. 136, p. 443. C o n s o l i d a t e d w i t h SBC, 1872, no. 35 (App. B/46), as CSBC, 1877, c. 129 TApp. B/46). Repealed by SBC, 1881, c. 16 (App. B/59). 34. " V i c t o r i a C i t y A i d Or d i n a n c e , 1867," 1867, 30 V i c t . , no. 2, 3 pp. "An Ordinance i n A i d of the M u n i c i p a l T a x a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a . " R epealed by LBC, 1871, no. 16.1. 35. " V i c t o r i a M u n i c i p a l O rdinance, 1867," 1867, 30 V i c t . , no. 38, 11 pp. "An Ordinance t o I n c o r p o r a t e the C i t y of V i c t o r i a . " Same as LBC, 1871, no. 94, pp. 309-27. C o n s o l i d a t e d w i t h LBC, 1871, no. 8 (Item 14), no. 121, no. 127, and no. 154, SBC, 1876, no. 1 (App. B/51), and 1877, no. 5 (App. B/41), as CSBC, 1877, c. 171, pp. 753-71. 36. " V i c t o r i a M u n i c i p a l Amendment O r d i n a n c e , 1869," 1868/69, 32 V i c t . , no. 26, 4 pp. "An Ordinance t o E n l a r g e and Amend the ' V i c t o r i a M u n i c i p a l O r d i n a n c e , 1867.'" Same as LBC, 1871, no. 127, pp. 414-20. C o n s o l i d a t e d w i t h LBC, 1871, no. 94, as CSBC, 1877, c. 171. 1 33 APPENDIX B - STATUTES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA When B r i t i s h Columbia became a Province of Canada in 1871, the laws of the former c o l o n i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s s t i l l in e f fec t and not e x p l i c i t l y repealed by the "Statutes Repeal Act , 1 8 7 1 " 3 1 5 remained in force u n t i l amended or repealed. The p r o v i n c i a l Leg is la t i ve Assembly held i t s f i r s t session of Parliament in 1872. The approach taken in presenting th i s appendix i s very s imi la r to that explained in the introductory paragraphs to Appendix A. Therefore, i t w i l l s u f f i c e to note the manner in which the format of Appendix B d i f f e r s from that of Appendix A. A l l laws re fer r ing to mun ic ipa l i t i es in general or to the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo, or i t s publ ic works, are l i s t e d here. The Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia,  [. . .] for sessions 1872 to 1903/04 are the source of those laws. Each statute i s i d e n t i f i e d by short t i t l e , sessional year (s ) , regnal year (s ) , number (to 1877) or chapter (from 1878), and inc lus ive page numbers. Where no short t i t l e e x i s t s , the statute i s i d e n t i f i e d and arranged by i t s long t i t l e , and the absence of a short t i t l e i s noted. As in Appendix' A, successive acts of s imi la r t i t l e have been brought together and arranged chrono log ica l l y , such that the arrangement of items i s only p a r t i a l l y a lphabet ic . Long t i t l e s have been omitted, s ince by th i s period many statutes were of more general nature and the long t i t l e reveals l i t t l e more than the short t i t l e . The sessional year(s) indicates the volume of the SBC in which the statute i s to be found. In several instances, sessions of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly have spanned two calendar years. It should be noted that the SBC for the 1872/73, 1873/74, 1883/84, 1894/95, and 1903/04 sessions are sometimes referred to as the SBC for the l a t t e r calendar year of the sess ion. I have attempted to trace the d i s p o s i t i o n of each pre-1897 statute in The Consolidated Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia,  [. . . ] , 1877, The Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia up to and  inc luding the year 1888, V o l . 1, Consolidated Acts , 1888, and V o l . 2, Unconsolidated Acts , and The Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1897, [. . . ] . The resu l ts of that search are noted for each item in very abbreviated form. It should be noted that whereas a l l statutes were consolidated in 1877, only publ ic acts were consol idated in 1888. Most others were repr inted in a second volume in unconsolidated form. By 1897, pr ivate acts 3 1 5 Laws of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871, 34 V i c t . , no. 161, pp. 597-602. 1 34 were neither consol idated nor repr in ted ; i t has therefore been d i f f i c u l t to trace the d i s p o s i t i o n of pr ivate ac ts . The d i spos i t i on of statutes enacted af ter 1897 has not been traced, Abbreviat ions: CSBC, 1877 = Consolidated Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1877. CSBC, 1888 = Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia up to and inc luding  the year 1888. LBC, 1871 = Laws of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1871. RSBC, 1897 = Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1897. SBC = Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. I tern: 1872 to 1903/04. 37. "Act for Curing Defects in Certain Municipal E lect ions in 1876, " 1877, 40 V i c t . , no. 7, p. 13. Noted as having "had i t s e f f e c t " in CSBC, 1877. Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 38. "An Act Relat ing to Fer r ies in M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , [1883]," 1883, 46 V i c t . , c . 12, p. 35. No short t i t l e . Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59), as CSBC,  1888, V o l . 1, c . 88~Tltem 59). 39. "Fer r ies in M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Amendment Act , 1885," 1885, 48 V i c t . , c . 11, pp. 7 1 - 2 . Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59), as CSBC,  1888, V o l . 1, c . 88~Tltem 59). 40. "An Act Respecting the Expenses of Coroners' Inquests Held with in M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , [1887]," 1887, 50 V i c t . , c . 6, p. 19. No short t i t l e . Consolidated with SBC, 1885, c . 4, as the "Coroners' A c t , " CSBC, 1888, V o l . 1, c . 24, pp. 165-9. 41. "An Act Respecting the Q u a l i f i c a t i o n for the Of f i ces of  Mayor and Counc i l lo rs in Certain M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , [1877]," 1877, 40 V i c t . , no. 5, pp. 9-10. 1 35 No short t i t l e . Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 94 (App. A.3/35), and SBC, 1872, no. 35 l i t e m 46), as CSBC, 1877, c . 129 (Item 467 and c. 171 (App. A.3/35). Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 42. "Act Respecting the Surrender of Munic ipa l -Let te rs Patent, 1880," 1880, 43 V i c t . , c . 14, pp. 45-6. Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 43. "An Act to Enable M u n i c i p a l i t i e s to Purchase Real Estate for Corporate Purposes, [1880]," 1880, 43 V i c t . , c . 17, p. 51. .No short t i t l e . Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 44. "An Act to Proh ib i t A l iens from Voting at Municipal E l e c t i o n s , [1902]," 1902, 2 Edw. 7, c . 53, p. 205. No short t i t l e . 45. "Ci ty of Nanaimo O f f i c i a l Map Act , 1895," 1894/95, 58 V i c t . , c . 64, pp. 281-6. Pr ivate Act . 46. "Munic ipa l i t y Act , 1872," 35 V i c t . , no. 35, pp. 107-14. Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 136 (App. A.3/33), and SBC, 1872/73, no. 5, 1873/74, no. 15, 1875, no. 10, 1876, no. 1, and 1877, no. 4 (Item 85), no. 5 (Item 41), no. 6 (Item 92), no. 8 (Item 53), and no. 9 (Item 104), as CSBC, 1877, c . 129, pp. 562-87. Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 47. "Munic ipa l i t y Act Amendment Act , 1873," 1872/73, 36 V i c t . , no. 5, pp. 21-30. Consolidated with SBC, 1872, no. 35, as CSBC, 1877, c . 129. Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 48. "Munic ipa l i t y Amendment Act , 1874," 1873/74, 37 V i c t . , no. 15, pp. 63 -4 . Consolidated with SBC, 1872, no. 35, as CSBC, 1877, c . 129. Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 49. "Licence Amendment Act , 1875," 1875, 38 V i c t . , no. 10, pp. 55-6. 1 36 Relevant sections consol idated with SBC, 1872, no. 35, as CSBC, 1877, c . 129. Sections 9-10 repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 50. "Munic ipa l i ty Act Amendment Act , 1875," 1875, 38 V i c t . , no. 17, p. 71. Repealed by SBC, 1876, no. 1. 51. "Munic ipa l i ty Amendment Act , 1876," 1876, 39 V i c t . , no. 1, pp. 1-4. Consolidated with LBC, 1871, no. 94 (App. A.3/35) , and SBC, 1872, no. 35, as CSBC, 1877, c . 129 and c. 171 (App. A.3/35). Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 52. "An Act to Amend the 'Mun ic ipa l i t y Amendment Act , 1876,' [1880]," 1880, 43 V i c t . , c . 16, p. 49. No short t i t l e . Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 53. "Munic ipa l i t y Act (1872) Amendment Act , 1877," 1877, 40 V i c t . , no. 8, p. 15. Consolidated with SBC, 1872, no. 35 (Item 46), as CSBC, 1877, c . 129 (Item 46). Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 54. "An Act to Amend Certain Acts Relat ing to M u n i c i p a l i t i e s (Chapter 129 of the Consolidated Statutes of B r i t i s h  Columbia), [1878]," 1878, 41 V i c t . , c . 14, p. 69. No short t i t l e . Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16. 55. "An Act Relat ing to the Municipal and Licence Ac ts , [1878]," 1878, 42 V i c t . , c . 26, pp. 107-8. No short t i t l e . Sections 2, 4-9 repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16. 56. "Licences Amendment Ordinance, 1879," 1879, 42 V i c t . , c . 23, p. 79. Section 3 repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16. 57. "An Act to Amend the 'Mun ic ipa l i t y Act , 1872,' [1879]," 1879, 42 V i c t . , c . 28, pp. 93-4. No short t i t l e . 1 37 Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16. 58. "Munic ipa l i ty Amendment Act , 1880," 1880, 43 V i c t . , c . 18, p. 53. Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16. 59. "Munic ipa l i ty Act , 1881," 1881, 44 V i c t . , c . 16, pp. 47-92. Consolidated with SBC, 1882, c . 9, 1883, c. 12 (Item 38) and c. 21, 1883/84, c . 21 and c. 22, 1885, c . 1 1 (Item 39) and c. 21, 1886, c . 15 (Item 65), 1887, c . 23 (Item 66), 1'888, c . 23 (Item 67) and c . 24 (Item 68), as CSBC, 1888, V o l . 1, c . 88, pp. 763-816. Repealed by SBC, 1889, c . 18 (Item 69). 60. "Munic ipa l i ty Amendment Act , 1882," 1882, 45 V i c t . , c . 9, pp. 53 -5 . Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c. 16, as CSBC, 1888, V o l . 1, c . 88. 61. "An Act to Amend the 'Mun ic ipa l i t y Act , 1881,' [1883]," 1883, 46 V i c t . , c . 21, pp. 85-8 . No short t i t l e . Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c. 16, as CSBC, 1888, V o l . 1, c . 88. 62. "An Act to Amend the 'Mun ic ipa l i t y Act , 1881,' [1883]," 1883/84, 47 V i c t . , c . 21, pp. 119-20. No short t i t l e . Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c . 16, as CSBC, 1888, V o l . 1, c . 88. 63. "An Act to Amend an Act of Last Session, No. 21, I n t i t u l e d 'An Act to Amend the 'Mun ic ipa l i t y Act , 1881,' [1883], ' [1884]," 1883/84, 47 V i c t . , c . 22, p. 121. No short t i t l e . Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c . 16, as CSBC, 1888, V o l . 1, c. 88. 64. "Munic ipa l i t y Amendment Act , 1885," 1885, 48 V i c t . , c . 21, pp. 91-4. Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c. 16, as CSBC, 1888, V o l . 1, c . 88. 1 38 65. "Munic ipa l i ty Amendment Act , 1886," 1886, 49 V i c t . , c . 15, pp. 49-53. Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59), as CSBC,  1888, V o l . 1, c . 88~Tltem 59). 66. "Munic ipa l i ty Amendment Act , 1887," 1887, 50 V i c t . , c . 23, pp. 69-72. Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59), as CSBC,  1888, V o l . 1, c . 88 (Item 59). 67. "An Act to. Amend the 'Mun ic ipa l i t y Amendment Act , 1887,' [1888]," 1888, 51 V i c t . , c. 23, p. 75. No short t i t l e . Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59), as CSBC,  1888, V o l . 1, c . 88~Tltem 59). 68. "An Act to Amend the 'Mun ic ipa l i t y Act , 1881,' and Amending Acts , [1888]," 1888, 51 V i c t . , c . 24, pp. 77-80. No short t i t l e . Consolidated with SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59), as CSBC,  1888, V o l . 1, c. 88~Tltem 59). 69. "Municipal Act , 1889," 1889, 52 V i c t . , c . 18, pp. 45-113. Repealed by SBC, 1891, c. 29. 70. "Municipal Act Amendment Act , 1890," 1890, 53 V i c t . , c . 34, pp. 117-32. Repealed by SBC, 1891, c. 29. 71. "Municipal Act , 1891," 1891, 54 V i c t . , c . 29, pp. 181-273. Repealed by SBC, 1892, c . 33. 72. "Municipal Act , 1892," 1892, 55 V i c t . , c . 33, pp. 101-214. Repealed by SBC, 1896, c. 37. 73. "Municipal Act Amendment Act , 1893," 1893, 56 V i c t . , c . 30, pp. 135-53. Repealed by SBC, 1896, c . 37. 74. "Municipal Act Amendment Act , 1894," 1894, 57 V i c t . , c . 34, pp. 161-83. Repealed by SBC, 1896, c. 37. 1 39 75. "Municipal Act Amendment Act , 1895," 1894/95, 58 V i c t . , c . 41, pp. ,1 57-65 . Repealed by SBC, 1896, c . 37. 76. "Municipal Clauses Act , 1896," 1896, 59 V i c t . , c . 37, pp. 173-284. Consolidated with SBC, 1897, c . 30, as RSBC, 1897, c. 144, pp. 1549-668. 77. "Municipal Clauses Act Amendment Act , 1897," 1897, 60 V i c t . , c. 30, pp. 301-9. Consolidated with SBC, 1896, c . 37, as RSBC, 1897, c . 144. 78. "Municipal Clauses Amendment Act , 1898," 1898, 61 V i c t . , c . 35, pp. 171-81. Repealed and amended various sections of RSBC, 1897, c . 144. 79. "Municipal Clauses Act Amendment Act , 1899," 1899, 62 V i c t . , c . 53, pp. 163-7. Repealed and amended various sections of RSBC, 1897, c . 144. 80. "Municipal Clauses Act Amendment Act , 1900," 1900, 64 V i c t . , c . 23, pp. 89-96. Repealed and amended various sections of RSBC, 1897, c . 144. 81. "Municipal Clauses Act Amendment Act , 1901," 1901, 1 Edw. 7, c . 39, pp. 1 . 8 3 - 5 . Repealed and amended various sections of RSBC, 1897, c . 144. 82. "Municipal Clauses Act Amendment Act , 1902," 1902, 2 Edw. 7, c. 52, pp. 177-207. Repealed and amended various sections of RSBC, 1897, c . 144. 83. "Municipal Clauses Act Amendment Act , 1904," 1903/04, 3 & 4 Edw. 7, c . 42, pp. 239-45. Repealed and amended various sections of RSBC, 1897, c . 144. 84. "Municipal D i s t r i c t s Act , 1899," 1899, 62 V i c t . , c . 54, 1 40 pp. 169-70. This act made provis ion for the government of portions of the province in the event of spec ia l condi t ions , such as a rush of people to a given area due to the discovery of mineral wealth, in which case author i ty was to be conferred upon the Lieutenant-Governor in Counc i l . 85. "Municipal E lect ions Act, 1877," 1877, 40 V i c t . , no. 4, p. 7. Consolidated with SBC, 1872, no. 35 (Item 46), as CSBC, 1877, c . 129 (Item 46). Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 86. "Municipal E lect ions Act, 1896," 1896, 59 V i c t . , c . 38, pp. 285-312. Consolidated with SBC, 1897, c . 31, as RSBC, 1897, c. 68, pp. 767-94. 87. "Municipal E lect ions Amendment Act , 1897," 1897, 60 V i c t . , c . 31, pp. 311-4. Consolidated with SBC, 1896, c . 38, as RSBC, 1897, c. 68. 88. "Municipal E lect ions Amendment Act , 1898," 1898, 61 V i c t . , c . 20, pp. 113-4. Repealed and amended various sect ions of RSBC, 1897, c . 68. 89. "An Act to Amend the 'Munic ipal E lect ions A c t , ' [1900]," 1900, 64 V i c t . , c . 7, pp. 27 -8 . No short t i t l e . Repealed and amended various sections of RSBC, 1897, c . 68. 90. "Municipal E lect ions Act Amendment Act, 1902," 1902, 2 Edw. 7, c . 20, pp. 63-6. Repealed and amended various sect ions of RSBC, 1897, c . 68. 91. "Municipal Tax Co l lec t ion and Statute Labour Act , 1880," 1880, 43 V i c t . , c . 15, pp. 47 -8 . Repealed by SBC, 1881, c. 16 (Item 59). 92. "Municipal Tax Sale Act , 1877," 1877, 40 V i c t . , no. 6, pp. 11-2. 141 Consolidated with SBC, 1872, no. 35 (Item 46), as CSBC, 1877, c . 129 (Item 46). Repealed by SBC, 1881-, c . 16 (Item 59). 93. " M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Incorporation Act , 1896," 1896, 59 V i c t . , c . 39, pp. 313-20. Same as RSBC, 1897, c . 143, pp. 1541-8. 94. " M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Incorporation Act Amendment Act , 1899," 1899, 62 V i c t . , c. 55, pp. 171-2. Repealed and amended various sections of RSBC, 1897, c . 143. 95. " M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Incorporation Act Amendment Act , 1900," 1900, 64 V i c t . , c . 24, p. 97. Corrected numbering of second section 3, RSBC, 1897, c . 143, to section 3A. 96. "Nanaimo E l e c t r i c L igh t , Power and Heating Company's Act , 1898," 1898, 61 V i c t . , c. 57, pp. 361-5. Pr ivate Act. 97. "Nanaimo E l e c t r i c Tramway Company Act , 1891," 1891, 54 V i c t . , c. 69, pp. 531-6. Pr ivate Act. 98. "Nanaimo Fireman's Act , 1879," 1879, 42 V i c t . , c . 7, pp. 21 -2 . Pr ivate Act. Same as CSBC, 1888, V o l . 2, rio. 31, pp. 127-9. 99. "Nanaimo Telephone Company's Act , 1890," 1890, 53 V i c t . , c . 66, pp. 383-7. Pr ivate Act. 100. "Nanaimo Water-Works Act , 1885," 1885, 48 V i c t . , c . 31, pp. 167-77. Pr ivate Act . Same as CSBC, 1888, V o l . 2, no. 32, pp. 129-39. 101. "Nanaimo Water Works Amendment Act , 1886," 1886, 49 V i c t . , c ' 34, pp. 271-2. Pr ivate Act . 1 42 Same as CSBC, 1888, V o l . 2, no. 33, pp. 139-40. 102. "Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo Water-Works Act , 1895," 1894/95, 58 V i c t . , c . 62, pp. 273-6. Pr ivate Act . 103. "Nanaimo Water-Works Amendment Act , 1895," 1894/95, 58 V i c t . , c . 63, pp. 277-9. Pr ivate Act . 104. "Po l i ce Court Fines Act , 1877," 1877, 40 V i c t . , no. 9, p. 17. Consolidated with SBC, 1872, no. 35 (Item 46), as CSBC, 1877, c . 129 (Item 46). Repealed by SBC, 1881, c . 16 (Item 59). 105. "Speedy Incorporation of Towns Act , 1897," 1897, 60 V i c t . , c . 16, pp. 173-9. Noted as "not consol idated" in RSBC, 1897. 106. "Speedy Incorporation of Towns Act Amendment Act , 1898," 1898, 61 V i c t . , c . 26, pp. 135-6. 107. "Speedy Incorporation of Towns Act Amendment Act , 1899," 1899, 62 V i c t . , c . 32, pp. 87 -8 . 1 43 APPENDIX C - SESSIONAL PAPERS This appendix l i s t s documents published in the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly's "Sessional Papers" (1872-1905) which bear upon the h is tory of municipal administrat ion in B r i t i s h Columbia. The "Sessional Papers" for the years 1872 to 1875 were bound as an appendix to the respective volumes of the Journals (vo ls . 1-4) . From the 1876 sess ion, they were bound separately as the Sessional Papers proper. The l i s t which follows is comprehensive in that i t contains reference to a l l documents which deal with m u n i c i p a l i t i e s in general . In a d d i t i o n , i t notes a l l documents which refer c h i e f l y to the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo. However, i t i s se lect i ve in that i t includes only a portion of the documents which refer to other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Documents i l l u s t r a t i v e of the types of returns, p e t i t i o n s , and reports on, from, and about mun ic ipa l i t i es which are to be found in the "Sessional Papers" have been included. In arranging the items which fo l low, a p a r t i a l subject arrangement has been adopted. S imi lar returns and reports bearing d i f fe rent t i t l e s have been grouped together and assigned a subject t i t l e by which the group of items i s headed and i n t e r f i l e d in the otherwise alphabetic arrangement. Within a group of items, arrangement i s chrono log ica l . The t i t l e s of other documents by which th i s l i s t has been alphabetized are underscored. The t i t l e c i ted i s e i ther the item's complete t i t l e or , in the case of very lengthy t i t l e s , a composite t i t l e , comprised of the page header followed by the word "return" or " p e t i t i o n . " Unless indicated to the contrary, the Sessional  Papers for the calendar year(s) noted are the source of these items. In several instances, sessions of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly have spanned two calendar years. In order to avoid confusion, i t should be noted that the "Sessional Papers" for the 1872/73, 1873/74, 1883/84, 1894/95, and 1903/04 sessions are sometimes catalogued as the Journals or Sessional Papers for the sess ion 's las t calendar year. Inc lus ive page numbers are provided in order to give an ind icat ion of the extent of the document and to f a c i l i t a t e reference, since i t i s not always easy to locate a s p e c i f i c document through the table of contents to these volumes. I tem: 108. "Amendments to Municipal Act : P e t i t i o n . " In 1887, p. 465. 109. "Appropriat ions, North Cowichan M u n i c i p a l i t y : Return." In 1893, p. 689. 1 44 110. "Assessed Taxes in P r i n c i p a l C i t i e s : Return . " In 1890, p. 313 . While land within m u n i c i p a l i t i e s was exempted from p r o v i n c i a l taxation by the "Assessment Act , 1888," 3 1 6 personal property and income were not. This return shows the amount of personal property and income tax assessed for 1890 in the c i t i e s of V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, New Westminster, and Vancouver. Commissions of Inquiry and Royal Commissions into Munic ipal  A f f a i r s : 111. "Report of the Commissioner Appointed to Enquire into Certain Charges against Isaac H. H a l l e t t , E s q . , a Stipendiary Magistrate for the County of Westminster." In 1892, pp. 691-703. There would appear to have been some connection with Vancouver City Counc i l . H a l l e t t was Po l i ce Magistrate for the Ci ty of Vancouver in at least 1890. 112. "Report of the Commissioner Appointed to Enquire into the Conduct of the Po l ice Magistrate at V i c t o r i a , and Copies of A f f i d a v i t s . " In 1892, pp. 265-72. The "Minutes and Evidence" of the commission fol low p. 272 on pp. i - x c v i . 113. "Royal Commission. In the Matter of an Inquiry into the Conduct of the A f f a i r s of the Municipal Counci l of V i c t o r i a . " In 1892, pp. 481-512. The "Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence Taken under the Commission" follow p. 512 on pp. i - c x l i . 114. "Re Pol ice Magistrate, &c . , Nanaimo: Return . " In 1897, pp. 999-1009. 115. "Copy of Record, Newcastle Townsite Reserve: Return." In 1886, pp. 551-2. The Newcastle Townsite Reserve i s within the l i m i t s of the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 116. "Correspondence—Richmond M u n i c i p a l i t y : Return . " In 1892, pp. 595-9. 3 1 6 SBC, 1888, c . 36, s . 4, s . - s . 24. 1 45 This correspondence documents the decis ion to not appoint a commission of inquiry into the business of the Richmond Municipal Counc i l , since the matters in question could be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y invest igated l o c a l l y . 117. "Increased Representat ion--Nana imp: P e t i t i o n . " In B r i t i s h Columbia. Journals , 1875, pp. 699-700. Municipal Returns: 118. "Municipal Returns." In B r i t i s h Columbia. Journals , 1873/74, pp. 41-8 (pagination not consecutive throughout "Sessional Papers") . 119. "Municipal Returns." In B r i t i s h Columbia. Journals , 1875, pp. 651-6. 120. "Municipal Returns." In 1876, pp. 629-36. This i s the f i r s t return in which Nanaimo i s included. See "Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, Receipts and Expenditure of the Corporation, up to December 29th, 1875," p. 633. 121. "Municipal Returns." In 1877, pp. 517-24. See "Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, Receipts and Expenditures under the Corporations' [ s ic ] Administrat ion for 1876, " p. 521. 122. "Municipal Returns." In 1878, pp. 617-25. See "Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, Receipts and Expenditure, for the Year Ending 31st December, 1877," p. 620. 123. "Municipal Returns." In 1881, pp. 519-26. The Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo's "Statement of Receipts and Expenditures for the Year Ending 31st December, 1880" and "Balance Sheet Showing L i a b i l i t i e s and Assets, 31st December, 1880" are on p. 524. 124. "Municipal S t a t i s t i c s : Return." In 1896, pp. 1041-51. 125. "Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s : Report Re M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . " In 1897, pp. 949-63. 1 4 6 P r o v i n c i a l Board of Health: 126. . " F i r s t Report of the P rov inc ia l Board of Health of B r i t i s h Columbia, Being for the Quarter Ending December 31st, 1895. " In 1896, pp. 465-564. See report made by the Local Board of Health for the C i ty of Nanaimo on 26 December 1895, which contained the report made by Robert E. McKechnie, MD, Medical Health O f f i c e r , to that body on 8 December 1895, pp. 524-5. 127. "Second Report of the P rov inc ia l Board of Health of B r i t i s h Columbia Being for the Year Ending December 31st, 1896. " In 1897, pp. 677-732. See report made by C l i ve Phi 11ipps-Wolley, P r o v i n c i a l Sanitary Inspector, on 1 March 1897, and postscr ip t dated 9 March 1897, to the Chairman of the BC Board of Health, pp. 728-9. 128. " P r o v i n c i a l Board of Health, B r i t i s h Columbia: Sanitary Regulat ions." In 1897, pp. i - x v i (follow p. 732). The dut ies of the Local Board of Health are enumerated on pp. i i - i i i . 129. "Supplementary Report.of the P r o v i n c i a l Board of Health, Being Annual Reports of Medical Health O f f i c e r s and Local Boards of Hea l th . " In 1897, pp. 967-92. See report made by the Local Board of Health for the C i ty of Nanaimo on 31 December 1896, which contained the report made by Robert E. McKechnie, MD, Medical Health O f f i c e r , to that body on 28 December 1896, pp. 972-3. 130. "Third Report of the P rov inc ia l Board of Health of B r i t i s h Columbia, Being for the Year Ending 31st, December, 1897. " In 1898, pp. 1105-1336. See report made by Edward Mohun, CE, to the Honourable D.M. Eberts, QC, Attorney-General , on 5 August 1898, pp. 1310-1. See a lso l e t t e r dated 2 August 1898 from S. Gough, C i ty C lerk , Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, forwarding to G.H. Duncan, MD, Secretary, P r o v i n c i a l Board of Health, the report made by Robert E. McKechnie, Medical Health Of f i ce r for Nanaimo C i t y , to the Local Board of Health on 31 December 1897, pp. 1331-2. 131. [ F i f t h Annual] "Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Board of Hea l th . " In 1902, pp. 773-80. No important mention of the Corporation of the Ci ty of 1 47 Nanaimo was noted. 132. [Sixth Annual] "Report of the P r o v i n c i a l Board of Health, 1902." In 1903, pp. J33-J43. No s p e c i f i c mention of the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo was noted. 133. "Publ ic Accounts for the F i s c a l Year Ended 30th June, 1882." In 1883, pp. 105-82. See "Comparative Statement of the Receipts and Expenditure of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia" for 1871 to 1881/82, p. 115. Revenue from m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y noted. However, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are l i s t e d under "Miscellaneous Expenditure" for the years 1875 to 1878. 134. "Return of A l l Correspondence between the P r o v i n c i a l  Government and the Board of Health of the C i ty of  V i c t o r i a , in Relat ion to the Late Quarantine Transactions in B r i t i s h Columbia." In B r i t i s h Columbia. Journals , 1872/73, 8 pp. (No consecutive paginat ion. ) 1 35. "Vancouver C i t y : Return." In 1894, p. 1123. 149 APPENDIX D - LIST OF MUNICIPALITIES. 1860-1904 T h i s t a b l e was c o m p i l e d from the B r i t i s h Columbia G a z e t t e . 1873-1904, R.E. G o s n e l l ' s Year  Book of B r i t i s h Columbia and Manual of P r o v i n c i a l I n f o r m a t i o n . 1 s t . 3 r d , and 4 t h ( C o r o n a t i o n ) e d i t i o n s ( V i c t o r i a : 1901), 143, ( V i c t o r i a ; 1903), 289, ( V i c t o r i a : 1911), 274. 403, and o t h e r s o u r c e s . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were I n c o r p o r a t e d by l e t t e r s p a t e n t Issued under the p r o v i s i o n s of the g e n e r a l m u n i c i p a l a c t In f o r c e a t the t i m e . An a s t e r i s k a f t e r t he d a t e of I s s u e of l e t t e r s p a t e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t they were s u r r e n d e r e d and c a n c e l l e d , r e v o k e d , o r super s e d e d on the i s s u e of new ones. In o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e a c c e s s t o these l e t t e r s p a t e n t , t h e i r d a t e of p u b l i c a t i o n 1n the BCG Is prov1ded. C o r p o r a t e t i t l e Burnaby, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of C h l l l l v a c k . The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of C h i l l l w h a c k [ s i c ] , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of C h i l l i w a c k , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of Col u m b i a . The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of C o q u l t l a m , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of C o q u l t l a m , C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of Cumberland. The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of D e l t a , The C o r p o r a t i o n of Dewdney, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of F e r n i e . The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Grand F o r k s , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Greenwood, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Kamloops, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of K a s l o . The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Kent, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of L a d y s m l t h , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of L a n g l e y , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of Maple R i d g e , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of Maple R i d g e , C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of Maple R i d g e . M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of M a t s q u i . The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of M i s s i o n . The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of Nanaimo. The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of N e l s o n . The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r , C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Nlcomen. The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Cowichan, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of P h o e n i x , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of R e v e l s t o k e , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Richmond, The C o r p o r a t i o n of Richmond, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of R o s s l a n d , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Township of Sandon, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of S l o c a n , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of South Vancouver. The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of Spa 11umcheen, The C o r p o r a t i o n of t h e Township of Squamlsh, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the O i s t r i c t of Sumas, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y , The C o r p o r a t i o n of S u r r e y , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of T r a i l , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver, C i t y of Vernon, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of V i c t o r i a , The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of V i c t o r i a . C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of W e l l i n g t o n . The C o r p o r a t i o n of the Town of Date of Date of Publ1 c a t i o n 1901 i n c o r p o r a t I o n l e t t e r s p a t e n t t n BCG p o p u l a t 22/09/1892 22/09/1892 22/09/1892 2G/04/1873 26/04/1873* 26/04/1873 277 27/09/1881 27/09/1881* 08/10/1881 30/06/1883 30/06/1883 05/07/1883 04/05/1899' 04/05/1899 04/05/1899 25/07/1891 25/07/1891* 30/07/1891 22/05/1894' 22/05/1894 23/05/1894 01/01/1898 29/10/1897 04/11/1897 732 10/11/1879 10/11/1879* 10/11/1879 18/08/1888 18/08/1888 23/08/1888 07/04/1892' 07/04/1892 07/04/1892 28/07/1904 28/07/1904 28/07/1904 15/04/1897' 15/04/1897* 15/04/1897 1,012 01/01/1903' 31/12/1902 02/01/1903 12/07/1897' 12/07/1897 12/08/1897 1.359 01/07/1893 19/04/1893 20/04/1893 1,594 14/08/1893 14/08/1893 14/09/1893 4 50 01/01/1895 27/09/1894 27/09/1894 03/06/1904 03/06/1904 09/06/1904' 26/04/1873 26/04/1873* 26/04/1873 01/01/1895' 01/11/1894 01/11/1894 12/09/1874 12/09/1874* 12/09/1874 07/01/1881 07/01/1881* 08/01/1881 30/01/1882 30/01/1882* 04/02/1882 07/12/1887 07/12/1887* 08/12/1887 22/05/1894' 22/05/1894- 23/05/1894 02/03/1896'• 23/04/1896 27/11/1892 26/11/1892 01/12/1892 02/06/1892 02/06/1B92* 02/06/1892 14/07/1892 14/07/1892'' 14/07/1892 08/03/1895 1' 14/03/1895 24/12/1874 24/12/1874 1' 26/12/1874 6, 130 13/07/1887'' 13/07/1887 18/03/1897'• 18/03/1897 18/03/1897 5.273 16/07/1860'' 6,499 24/12/1872*'' 04/01/1873 15/04/1874'' 15/04/1874* 18/04/1874 06/06/1881'' 06/06/1881 11/06/1881 2 2 / 1 2 / 1 8 8 8 " 03/01/1889 24/03/1892'' 24/03/1892 31/03/1892 18/06/1873 18/06/1873 21/06/1873 10/08/1891 10/08/1891 13/08/1891 11/10/1900" 11/10/1900 11/10/1900 866 01/03/1899'' 01/03/1899 02/03/1899 1 ,600 10/11/1879 10/1 1/1879* 10/11/1879 2 3 / 0 5 / 1 8 8 5 " 23/05/1885* 23/05/1885 25/03/1892'' 25/03/1892' • 31/03/1892 19/08/1896' ' 20/08/1896 18/03/1897'' 18/03/1897 18/03/1897 6, 156 2 3 / 1 2 / 1 8 7 2 " 23/12/1872 04/01/1873 0 1 / 0 1 / 1 8 9 8 " 30/12/1897 30/12/1897 551 01/06/1901' 1 01/06/1901 06/06/1901 13/04/1892'' 13/04/1892 14/04/1892 21/07/1892 21/07/1892 21/07/1892 2 7 / 1 0 / 1 8 9 2 " 27/10/1892 27/10/1892 0 5 / 0 1 / 1 8 9 2 " 05/01/1892 07/01/1892 10/11/1879 10/11/1879* 10/11/1879 0 7 / 0 7 / 1 8 8 2 " 07/07/1882 08/07/1B82 14/06/1901" 14/06/1901 20/06/1901 1 ,360 06/04/188S'' 27.010 30/12/1892 30/12/1892 12/01/1893 802 02/08/1862"' 20.919 08/1 1/1867" 25/01/1873* 0 01/02/1873 08/01/1891' ' 08/01/1891 0 1 / 0 1 / 1 8 9 6 " 10/10/1895 10/10/1895 co I Ceased to e x i s t . On 1 J a n u a r y 1903, a l l lands w i t h i n i t s c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s as of 22 A p r i l 1902 were amalgamated w i t h the C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Grand F o r k s . ' R e i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h e x t e n d e d l i m i t s to take 1n a p o r t i o n of the C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of Maple R i d g e . ' No l o n g e r e x i s t s ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 1903 p o s t a l a d d r e s s was H a t z l c . ' I n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d by the "Speedy I n c o r p o r a t i o n of Towns A c t , 1897" and amending a c t (App. B/105-106). ' A l l lands w i t h i n c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s of the c i t i e s of Columbia and Grand F o r k s as of 22 A p r i l 1902 r e i n c o r p o r a t e d by "Grand F o r k s and C o l u m b i a Amalgamation A c t , 1902," SBC. 1902, 2 Edw. 7, c. 29. • I n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d by s p e c i a l a c t (App. B/105). ' R e i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h e x t e n d e d l i m i t s . ' R e i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h r e d u c e d l i m i t s , a p o r t i o n h a v i n g w ithdrawn and J o i n e d the C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of C o q u l t l a m . • L e t t e r s p a t e n t amended. 1" Withdrew and e x c l u d e d l a n d s from the c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s . I I Changed l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the l a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d by b e t t e r d e f i n i n g M i s s i o n C i t y T o w n s i t e , which was e x c l u d e d from the m u n i c i p a l i t y . L e t t e r s p a t e n t c o r r e c t e d . 1 1 N o t i c e i s s u e d by the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s O f f i c e r e g a r d i n g amendment of 1892 l e t t e r s p a t e n t . " L e t t e r s p a t e n t amended. '* Extended c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s . 1 1 I n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d by s p e c i a l a c t s (App. B/105-106). " I n c o r p o r a t e d by p r o c l a m a t i o n (App. A.2/22). C o r p o r a t e l i m i t s and powers extended by amending p r o c l a m a t i o n s (App. A.2/23-25) . 1 1 Brought New W e s t m i n s t e r under the p r o v i s i o n s of " M u n i c i p a l i t y A c t , 1872" (App. B/46), a l t h o u g h the "New We s t m i n s t e r M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l A c t , 1860" (App. A.2/22) remained i n f o r c e (as amended and c o n s o l i d a t e d ) , e x c e p t i n so f a r as a l t e r e d by o r i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the 1872 A c t . L e t t e r s p a t e n t amended i n 1874, s u r r e n d e r e d i n 1881. '• C o r p o r a t e l i m i t s e x tended. '• R e i n c o r p o r a t e d . '" L e t t e r s p a t e n t p r o c l a i m i n g the "New Westminster A c t , 1888," SBC. 1888, 51 V i c t . , c. 42. t o be i n e f f e c t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s . That Act was s u b s e q u e n t l y amended. " Ceased t o e x i s t p r i o r to 1903; m u n i c i p a l i t y was on the n o r t h bank of the F r a s e r R i v e r , a d j a c e n t t o Nlcomen Sl o u g h . " I n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d by the "Phoenix I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1900," SBC. 1900, 64 V i c t . , c. 28. No l o n g e r e x i s t s ( 1 9 8 2 ) . " I n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d by the " R e v e l s t o k e I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1898," SBC, 1898, 61 V i c t . , c. 39. 1 4 C o r p o r a t e l i m i t s e x t e n d e d . " R e i n c o r p o r a t e d f o l l o w i n g e l e c t i o n i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . " L e t t e r s p a t e n t amended. •' N o t i c e I s s u e d by the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ' s O f f i c e r e g a r d i n g amendment of the m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s d e f i n e d i n the 1892 l e t t e r s p a t e n t so t h a t they c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h o s e d e f i n e d 1n the 1885 l e t t e r s p a t e n t . " I n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d by s p e c i a l a c t s (App. B/105-107). " L e t t e r s p a t e n t c a n c e l l e d by an "Act to annul the L e t t e r s P a t e n t e s t a b l i s h i n g a M u n i c i p a l i t y on S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d , [ 1 8 8 3 ] , " SBC. 1883. 46 V i c t . , c. 22, at w h i c h time the C o r p o r a t i o n c e a s e d t o e x i s t . '• I n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d by s p e c i a l a c t s (App. B/105-106). No l o n g e r e x i s t s ( 1 9 8 2 ) . 1 1 I n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d by t h e " S l o c a n I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1901," SBC. 1901, 1 Edw. 7, c. 50. " Ceased t o e x i s t upon amalgamation w i t h the C i t y of Vancouver In 1929. " D i d not o r g a n i z e . " No l o n g e r e x i s t s ( 1 9 8 2 ) ; 1903 p o s t a l a d d r e s s was Upper Sumas. " R e i n c o r p o r a t e d under new name. " I n c o r p o r a t i o n a c c e l e r a t e d by the " T r a i l I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1901." SBC, 1901. 1 Edw. 7. c. 57. which was amended t w i c e i n 1903/04. " I n c o r p o r a t e d bv the "Vancouver I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1886," SBC, 1886, 49 V i c t . , c. 32. which was f r e q u e n t l y amended " I n c o r p o r a t e d by s p e c i a l a c t (App. A.1/18). " R e i n c o r p o r a t e d by s p e c i a l a c t (App. A.3/35). which was s u b s e q u e n t l y amended (App. A.3/36). •• Brought V i c t o r i a under the p r o v i s i o n s of " M u n i c i p a l i t y A c t , 1872" (App. B/46), a l t h o u g h the " V i c t o r i a M u n i c i p a l O r d i n a n c e . 1867" (App. A.3/35) remained i n f o r c e (as amended and c o n s o l i d a t e d ) , except 1n so f a r as a l t e r e d by or i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the 1872 A c t . L e t t e r s p a t e n t amended. '• Extended c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s . •' Ceased to e x i s t ; the " W e l l i n g t o n R e c e i v e r s h i p A c t . 1901." SBC. 1901, 1 Edw. 7, c. 63, and the 1903 amendment, v e s t e d the powers c o n f e r r e d upon I t s m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l , b o a r d s , and o f f i c e r s i n a government-appoInted r e c e i v e r . 1 49 APPENDIX E - LETTERS PATENT The Corporation of the City of Nanaimo derived i t s author i ty to operate as a munic ipal i ty under the "Munic ipa l i t y Act , 18 7 2 , " 3 1 7 and subsequent a c t s , 3 1 8 from l e t t e r s patent issued by the Lieutenant-Governor in Counci l in 1874 and 1887. I tern: 136. Let ters Patent witnessed by the Honorable Joseph Wi l l iam Trutch, Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 24 December 1874, incorporat ing a munic ipa l i t y to be known by the name and s ty le of "The Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo." . See BCG 14 (26 December 1874): 303-6. 137. Let ters Patent witnessed by the Honorable Clement F. Cornwall , Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 13 January 1887, extending the l i m i t s df the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo. See BCG 27 (13 January 1887): 18. 3 1 7 App. B/46. 3 1 8 See Appendix B, espec ia l l y Items 47-95. 1 50 APPENDIX F - NANAIMO: MAYORS AND ALDERMEN F.1 Mayors The mayors of the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, 1875-1904, were elected annual ly . The l i s t which fol lows indicates the date of the f i r s t meeting of each counci l and mayor elected to preside thereover. the 22 January 1875 Mark Bate, JP 1 7 January 1876 Mark Bate, JP 1 5 January 1877 Mark Bate, JP 21 January 1878 Mark Bate, JP 20 January 1 879 Mark Bate, JP 1 9 January 1880 John Pawson, JP 1 7 January 1 881 Mark Bate, JP 1 6 January 1882 Mark Bate, JP 1 5 January 1883 Mark Bate, JP 21 January 1884 Mark Bate, JP 1 9 January 1885 Mark Bate, JP 18 January 1886 Mark Bate, JP 1 7 January 1887 Richard Gibson 1 6 January 1888 Mark Bate, JP 21 January 1889 Mark Bate, JP 20 January 1890 John H i lber t 1 9 January 1891 John H i lber t 18 January 1892 Andrew Haslam 1 6 January 1893 Andrew Haslam 1 5 January 1894 Edward Quennell 21 January 1895 Edward Quennell 20 January 1896 Joseph Henderson 18 January 1897 Joseph Henderson 1 7 January 1898 Mark Bate, JP 16 January 1899 Mark Bate, JP 15 January 1900 Mark Bate, JP 21 January 1 901 Wi l l iam Manson 20 January 1902 Wil l iam Manson 19 January 1903 Wil l iam Manson 18 January 1904 Wil l iam Manson ,319 3 1 9 On 13 December 1897, Mayor Davison was granted a leave of absence for the balance of the term; Alderman George Campbell was appointed Acting Mayor. Another source reveals that Davison l e f t for the Klondyke Gold Rush. 151 F.2 Municipal Councils The municipal counci ls of the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo, 1875-1904, were elected annual ly . From 1875-1890, each consisted of a mayor and seven c o u n c i l l o r s . From A p r i l 1888, counc i l l o rs were sty led a l d e r m e n , 3 2 0 and from 1891, nine aldermen were elected instead of seven. The l i s t which fol lows notes the date of the f i r s t meeting of each counci l and the counci l members elected for that term. 22 January 1875 Mayor Mark Bate John Bryden Richard Brinn Wi l l iam Raybould John Dick Richard Nightingale John Pawson John Hi rs t 17 January 1876 Mayor Mark Bate Richard Brinn John Hi rs t Wi l l iam E. Webb John Sabiston Joseph Bevilockway George Baker Samuel Gough 15 January 1877 Mayor Mark Bate John Bryden Wi l l iam Reid Richard Nightingale Richard Brinn John H i rs t Wi l l iam Pr ingle John Sabiston John Bryden George Baker John H i rs t John Sabiston 21 January 1878 Mayor Mark Bate Richard Nightingale Richard Brinn Robert Brown 3 2 0 CNA, CCN, CM, 30 A p r i l 1888, 222. 1 52 20 January 1879 Mayor Mark Bate North Ward: Wi l l iam Ear l Richard Nightingale Middle Ward: James Harvey John Meakin John Sabiston South Ward: Thomas M i l l e r Thomas Morgan 19 January 1880 Mayor John Pawson John H i rs t Richard Night ingale James Harvey3 2 1 Richard Brinn Joseph Phrys P lan ta , JP Thomas M i l l e r Wi l l iam Wilks 17 January 1881 Mayor Mark Bate North Ward: John H i r s t John McNeil Middle Ward: Richard Brinn Thomas M i l l e r John Meakin South Ward: Joseph P. P lanta , JP Joseph Curry 16 January 1882 Mayor Mark Bate. John W h i t f i e l d Henry McAdie James Akenhead George Bevilockway Charles L. Smith John H i lbe r t George Baker North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: 3 2 1 Resignation accepted 31 May 1880. Archibald Muir , elected in h is p lace , took seat 19 July 1880. 1 53 15 January 1883 Mayor Mark Bate North Ward: Henry McAdie Richard Nightingale Middle Ward: James Akenhead Michael Manson George Campbell South Ward: George Baker Joseph Curry 21 January 1884 Mayor Mark Bate North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: John D i c k 3 2 2 Richard Nightingale Joseph Webb James M. Brown Wi l l iam E. Webb George Baker Donald Smith 19 January 1885 Mayor Mark Bate North Ward: Richard Night ingale John Mahrer Middle Ward: Wi l l iam E. Webb Walter Wilson John H i lber t South Ward: James L e w i s 3 2 3 Jonathan B lunde l l 3 2 2 Resignation accepted 4 February 1884. John Mahrer, elected in h is p lace, took seat 11 February 1884. 3 2 3 Resignation accepted 23 March 1885. At the e lec t ion held to replace him, no nominations were made. Donald Smith was appointed by Counci l 13 A p r i l 1885. 1 54 18 January 1886 Mayor Mark Bate North Ward: Adam Grant Home Charles Wilson Middle Ward: Wi l l iam Edmond Webb Walter Richard Wilson John H i lber t South Ward: James Knight George Bevilockway 17 January 1887 Mayor Richard Gibson Ralph Craig John Mahrer Wi l l iam Edmond Webb John H i lber t Walter Richard Wilson Joseph Randle Robert Aitken 16 January 1888 Mayor Mark Bate North Ward: John Mahrer Richard Nightingale Middle Ward: John H i lber t Wi l l iam E. Webb Joseph Randle, J r . South Ward: Robert Aitken George Baker 21 January 1889 Mayor Mark Bate John Mahrer Richard Nightingale James A. Abrams Wi l l iam E.- Webb Thomas E. Peck George Baker Wi l l iam M. H i lber t North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: 1 55 20 January 1890 Mayor John H i l b e r t North Ward: Richard Nightingale Ralph Craig Middle Ward: James A. Abrams Edward Quennell Wi l l iam H. Morton South Ward: George Baker Wi l l iam M. H i lber t 19 January 1891 Mayor John H i l b e r t North Ward: Wi l l iam M. H i lber t Charles McCutcheon Thomas Dobeson Middle Ward: George Campbell George Bevilockway Joseph Ganner South Ward: George Baker Duncan S. McDonald G i l b e r t McKinnel l • 18. January '1892 Mayor Andrew Haslam North Ward: Thomas Dobeson Richard Nightingale Joseph M. Brown Middle Ward: Wi l l iam M. H i lbe r t Joseph Ganner Edward Quennell South Ward: George Baker George Campbell G i l b e r t McKinnel l 1 56 16 January 1893 Mayor Andrew Haslam Richard Nightingale Ralph Craig Wi l l iam Keddy 3 2 4 Edward Quennell Wi l l iam M. H i lber t Joseph Ganner G i lbe r t McKinnell John H. Cocking John Frame 15 January 1894 Mayor Edward Quennell Thomas Dobeson Ralph C r a i g 3 2 5 Murdoch Morrison John H. Pleace Richard Nightingale Arthur Wilson John H. Cocking George C h u r c h i l l Thomas Wilks 21 January 1895 Mayor Edward Quennell North Ward: Thomas Dobeson Matthew S i n c l a i r Albert E. Planta Middle Ward: John H. Pleace John E.R. Tagart Joseph H. Davison South Ward: John H. Cocking Duncan S. McDonald James Bradley 4 Declined to serve for that term, 24 January 1893. Thomas Dobeson, elected in h is p lace, took seat 6 February 1893. 5 E lec t ion to be held to f i l l vacancy caused by death of Alderman Cra ig , 22 May 1894. Jeremiah Agustine (s ic) Callaghan reported e lected , 28 May 1894. North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: 1 57 20 January 1896 Mayor Joseph Davison North Ward: Albert E. Planta Coral N. Westwood Matthew S i n c l a i r Middle Ward: John D. Foreman Arthur Wilson Wi l l iam H. Morton South Ward: James Bradley Duncan S. McDonald Joshua Mar te l l 18 January 1897 Mayor Joseph Davison North Ward: Daniel A. Ga lbra i th Henry McAdie Murdoch Morrison Middle Ward: George Campbell John Daniel Foreman Wi l l iam Henry Morton South Ward: Thomas Brown James Bradley Robert Brydon Lamb 17 January 1898 Mayor Mark Bate North Ward: Wi l l iam Manson, J r . A lbert E. Planta Henry McAdie Middle Ward: Edward Quennell James S. Knarston Frances B. LeFeuvre South Ward: Thomas Brown John H. C o c k i n g 3 2 6 Wil l iam E. Webb 3 2 7 3 2 6 Appointed by Council as only one alderman had been elected for the South Ward. 3 2 7 Also appointed by Counc i l . 1 58 16 January 1899 Mayor Mark Bate North Ward: Wi l l iam Manson Albert E. Planta Richard Kenyon Middle Ward: James S. Knarston Frances B. LeFeuvre 3 2 Edward C. Barnes South Ward: John H. Cocking Wi l l iam E. Webb Henry McAdie 15 January 1900 Mayor Mark Bate Wi l l iam Manson Albert E. Planta Charles W i l s o n 3 2 9 Edward C. Barnes John K. Hickman James S. Knarston John H. Cocking Henry McAdie G i lber t M c K i n n e l l 3 3 0 21 January 1901 Mayor Wi l l iam Manson North Ward: . Albert E. Planta Charles McCutcheon James Hodgkinson Middle Ward: James S. Knarston John K. Hickman Edward C. Barnes South Ward: John H. Cocking Charles Wilson George Johnson 3 2 8 Resignation accepted 19 June 1899, as he was d i s q u a l i f i e d by reason of having disposed of h is rea l estate within C i t y . John K. Hickman reported elected in h is p lace, 10 July 1899. 3 2 9 Appointed by Council as only two aldermen had been elected for the North Ward. 3 3 0 Appointed by Council as only two aldermen had been elected for the South Ward. North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: 1 59 20 January 1902 Mayor Wi l l iam Manson North Ward: A lbert E. Planta James Hodgkinson Henry McAdie Middle Ward: James S. Knarston Edward C. Barnes Richard Booth South Ward: Charles Wilson Morgan Harr is John W. Graham 19 January 1903 Mayor Wi l l iam Manson North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: Albert E. Planta John Nicholson Wi l l iam McGirr James S. Knarston Edward C. Barnes Richard Booth Charles Wilson Morgan Harr is John W. Graham • 18 January 1904 Mayor Wi l l iam Manson North Ward: Middle Ward: South Ward: John Nicholson Thomas Hodgson George D. Barlow Edward C. Barnes Morgan Harr is John A l lan Macdonald John W. Graham Charles Wilson John C. Stewart 1 60 APPENDIX G - NANAIMO: COUNCIL CHAMBERS AND CITY HALL I n i t i a l l y , Nanaimo's Municipal Council held i t s meetings in the f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l Court House on Front S t reet , which was s i tuated in the v i c i n i t y of what i s now the access to the waterfront side of the federal b u i l d i n g . From 5 May 1875, i t s meetings were held in the Council H a l l , 3 3 1 a stone bu i ld ing on Front Street rented from the VCMLC for f i ve d o l l a r s per month and s i tuated to the north of the Nanaimo Centre One b u i l d i n g . The condit ions in which the f i r s t counci ls worked appear to have been rather severe. The 1879 Council passed a resolut ion that a stove, presumably the f i r s t , be procured and erected in the counci l chambers , 3 3 2 and the 1886 Council appears f i n a l l y to have i n s t a l l e d hat and cloak hooks, and window b l i n d s , just months before i t vacated the p r e m i s e s . 3 3 3 The construct ion of a C i ty Ha l l proper was discussed from 1884 . 3 3 4 In 1885, the ratepayers defeated a by-law to ra ise $2000 to purchase the Nanaimo L i te ra ry I n s t i t u t e property for that p u r p o s e . 3 3 5 The fol lowing year, a b y - l a w 3 3 6 for the same purpose received the ratepayers' assent by one vote and $2200 was raised to purchase the Ins t i tu te h a l l located at the corner of Bastion and Skinner S t reets , now the s i t e of the Bastion B u i l d i n g . Repairs and improvements were made to the new C i ty H a l l , and Council decided that the upper front room would be most su i table for use as counci l chambers. The furn i ture in the Front Street bu i ld ing was moved to the new C i ty H a l l at the end of September; Council held i t s f i r s t meeting in the new chambers on 4 October 1 8 8 6 . 3 3 7 The Ci ty C l e r k ' s o f f i c e was also located on the second f l o o r . The Ins t i tu te h a l l , with a lower f loor capacity of 250 persons, was from i t s construct ion in 1864-1865 a centre of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and continued as such a f te r the Corporation purchased i t . From 1886-1902, the Corporation rented the lower f loor of the C i ty H a l l , and occasional ly some of the upper rooms, to various groups and organizat ions . Counci l establ ished the rates to be charged for d i f fe ren t e v e n t s 3 3 8 and subsequently 3 3 1 CNA, CCN, CM, 5 May 1875, 28. 3 3 2 CNA, CCN, CM, 17 November 1879, 295. 3 3 3 CNA, CCN, CM, 25 January 1886, 45. 3 3 \ CNA, CCN, CM, 21 January 1884, 537. 3 3 5 CNA, CCN, CM, 30 March 1885, 607. 3 3 6 App. J/215. 3 3 7 CNA, CCN, CM, 4 October 1886, 110. 3 3 8 CNA, CCN, CM, 15 November 1886, 121. 161 undertook considerable improvements to the lower port ion of the h a l l . 3 3 9 The Nanaimo Gas Works connected City H a l l with the i r gas l i nes in early-1887 and, thereaf ter , the gas consumed was charged for in addit ion to the renta l f e e s . 3 " 0 From 1887-1892, Ci ty Clerk Gough recorded the engagement, and payment for r e n t a l , of the City H a l l in a book containing the Nanaimo L i te rary Ins t i tu te Debating and Elocution Class M i n u t e s . 3 " 1 Council leased the premises to the Salvation Army from 1888-1894 at an annual rent of $240 to $300, provided that i f required the h a l l be reserved for Council use three nights per week. 3 " 2 The Salvat ion Army was subsequently requested to withdraw i t s Monday evening services since use of the drum disrupted counci l meet ings . 3 " 3 Portions of Ci ty H a l l were also rented to the Kensington Club, 1886-1887, and the YMCA, 1895-1899. In add i t i on , the h a l l was rented or granted free of charge for spec ia l events; i t saw a wide var iety of uses, inc luding a concert for procuring l i t e r a t u r e for prison inmates, pr ivate dancing c lasses , a Bib le Society Committee meeting, lectures sponsored by the Nanaimo Associat ion for the invest igat ion of S p i r i t u a l i s m , Nanaimo Board of Trade Council meetings, a Chr i s t ian Temperance Cooperative Commonwealth l e c t u r e , a BC Tanning Company meeting, services held by the reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints , rehearsals of Handel's Messiah, Nanaimo Farmers' Ins t i tu te meetings, and classes conducted by the School of M i n e s . 3 " " In 1902, the ground f loor of Ci ty Ha l l was renovated to accommodate the counci l chambers and City O f f i c e s , which were removed from the second f l o o r . 3 " 5 On 9 June 1902, Council held i t s f i r s t meeting in the new counci l chambers. On that occasion, Mayor Manson remarked that the improved f a c i l i t i e s "would prove a great publ ic convenience"; Alderman Planta added that he in some way regretted " leaving the old 'Horse Shoe' around which the business of the Council had been transacted for over twenty seven y e a r s . " 3 " 6 Thereafter, i t i s probable that the City H a l l was not rented for such large gatherings as the Salvat ion Army and other groups had held . However, the 9 CNA, CCN, CM, 13 December 1886, 126, and 28 February 1887, 1 46. 0 CNA, CCN, CM, 2 May 1887, 162. 1 App. W/606, pp. 26-43. 2 CNA, CCN, CM, 9 A p r i l 1888, 219, and 29 January 1894, 403. 3 CNA, CCN, CM, 28 January 1889, 287. " CNA, CCN, CM, 15 November 1886, 126; 23 January 1888, 203; 25 February 1889, 299; 13 May 1889, 321; 20 May 1889, 323; 23 September 1889, 360; 20 January 1890, 391; 4 December 1899, 406; 19 February 1900, 436; 13 January 1902, 670; and 27 January 1902, 676, respect i ve ly . 5 CNA, CCN, CM, 17 February 1902, 683. 6 CNA, CCN, CM, 9 June 1902, 722. 1 62 Corporation continued to rent the upper part of the b u i l d i n g , charging $,1.50 for each meeting. If a meeting was considered to be of a publ ic or char i table nature, Council occas ional ly ordered that a group's money be refunded. Enoch Shakespeare was appointed caretaker of the upper rooms at the remuneration of 50 cents per meeting, and Council reserved the upper rear room for the exclusive use of the Board of Trade, which was to provide i t s own c a r e t a k e r . 3 " 7 3 a 7 CNA, CCN, CM, 25 August 1902, 746, and 1 December 1902, 775. APPENDIX H - NANAIMO: MUNICIPAL OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES U n t i l 1899, Nanalmo's C o u n c i l d i d not r e c o g n i z e I t s o f f i c e r s as b e i n g permanent a p p o i n t e e s . T h e r e f o r e , from 1875-1899, m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e r s and employees were a p p o i n t e d o r r e - a p p o i n t e d a n n u a l l y , u s u a l l y at the b e g i n n i n g of the incoming C o u n c i l ' s term. The l i s t s which f o l l o w a r e o r g a n i z e d by p o s i t i o n or group of p o s i t i o n s and c o n t a i n date of appointment, name of a p p o i n t e e , and s a l a r y o r c o n d i t i o n s of employment. Except where o t h e r w i s e noted, dates r e f e r to the c o u n c i l minutes. H.1 C l e r k of the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , C i t y A s s e s s o r , C i t y C o l l e c t o r , and C l e r k of the Mayor's Court 1 F e b r u a r y 1875 18 F e b r u a r y 1878 3 F e b r u a r y 1880 14 June 1880 19 J u l y 1880 4 A p r i l 1881 26 F e b r u a r y 1 8 8 3 " C h a r l e s Newton Young'' C h a r l e s Newton Y o u n g 4 4 M i c h a e l M a n s o n 4 ! Samuel Gough 4• at $87.50/month s a l a r y reduced to $720/annum 4 at the s a l a r y mentioned i n the r e p o r t of the s e l e c t committee, $400/annum p l u s a 10% commission upon a l l taxes c o l l e c t a b l e o u t s i d e the C i t y O f f i c e s h i s b e i n g the lowest tender at the remuneration s t a t e d i n h i s tender $400/annum p l u s 10% on a l l c o l l e c t a b l e taxes $600/annum p l u s 10% on c o l l e c t a b l e taxes; i n a d d i t i o n , from 1881-1886, Samuel Gough was a l l o w e d $5/month f o r l i g h t i n g and c l e a n i n g the c o u n c i l chambers; f o r 1886, he was a l s o a l l o w e d an a d d i t i o n a l $5/month f o r o f f i c e c l e a n i n g ; i n 1888 and 1890-1891, he was a l l o w e d $5/month f o r o f f i c e c l e a n i n g and $5/month f o r h i s s e r v i c e s as C i t y Hal 1 c a r e t a k e r . H.2 C i t y C l e r k and C i t y C o l l e c t o r 21 J a n u a r y 1889 3 March 1890 5 J a n u a r y 1891 9 F e b r u a r y 1891 5 Oc t o b e r 1891 Samuel Gough 4' presumably at $600/annum p l u s 10% on c o l l e c t a b l e taxes $65/month p l u s 10% on c o l l e c t a b l e taxes a l l o w e d $15 f o r payment of a s s i s t a n c e i n the o f f i c e s a l a r y i n c r e a s e d to $75/month a u t h o r i z e d to p r o c u r e temporary o f f i c e h e l p f o l l o w i n g the r e s i g n a t i o n of H.W. Woodward ' R e - a p p o i n t e d 24 January 1876, 22 J a n u a r y 1877, 27 January 1878, and 20 January 1879. 4 D i s m i s s e d 7 June 1880. ' R e s i g n e d 19 J u l y 1880. • R e - a p p o i n t e d 17 January 1881, 30 J a n u a r y 1882, 15 January 1883, 21 January 1884, 19 January 1885. 18 January 1886, 17 January 1887, and 16 January 1888. ' See " C i t y C l e r k ' s Amendment By-law, 1883" (App. J/223). • Re-appo1nted 20 January 1890 and 19 J a n u a r y 1891. H.3 C i t y C l e r k , C i t y C o l l e c t o r , and C i t y T r e a s u r e r 18 January 1892 3 Ja n u a r y 1893 4 A p r i l 1895 15 Apr 11 1895 6 May 1895 H.4 C i t y A s s e s s o r Samuel Gough* * Adam Thompson, p r o tempore Samuel Gough at $75/month a l l o w e d $140 f o r l o s s of commission due to change i n s t a t u t o r y law r e g a r d i n g road tax p o s i t i o n d e c l a r e d vacant and a p p l i c a t i o n s I n v i t e d a l l o w e d $25 f o r e x t r a s e r v i c e s d u r i n g A p r i l 1895 5 0 at p r e v i o u s s a l a r y 5 1 18 March 1889 19 May 1890 13 Aprl1 1891 14 March 1892 6 March 1893 7 May 1894 4 A p r i l 1895 Donald Smith WI11iam K. L e i g h t o n WI111am K. L e i g h t o n C i t y C l e r k Gough C i t y C l e r k Gough C i t y C l e r k Gough W1111am K. L e i g h t o n at $89 at $75 at $100 at $105 H.5 A s s i s t a n c e In the C i t y C l e r k ' s o f f i c e 3 September 1891 28 March 1892 18 J u l y 1892 3 Ja n u a r y 1893 H.W. Woodward" George Thomson 5 5 A.M. Booth Adam Thompson at $50/month f o r 2 months to c o l l e c t revenue tax and h e l p i n the C l e r k ' s o f f i c e a t $50/month b i l l of $14 f o r temporary a s s i s t a n c e i n the C l e r k ' s o f f i c e b i l l of $183.25 f o r a s s i s t a n c e In the C l e r k ' s o f f i c e H.6 A s s i s t a n t C i t y C l e r k 27 March 1893 Adam Thompson 5' appointment to date from time employed by C i t y C l e r k H.7 A s s i s t a n t C i t y C l e r k and C l e r k of the P o l i c e C ourt 6 May 1895 Adam Thompson $75/month '' R e - a p p o i n t e d 16 January 1893, 15 Ja n u a r y 1894, 21 January 1895 pro tempore. 5 0 Thompson was at the time r e c e i v i n g a s a l a r y as A s s i s t a n t C i t y C l e r k . 5 1 See 4 A p r i l 1895. From 1895, when the C o r p o r a t i o n h e l d i t s f i r s t tax s a l e , the C o l l e c t o r r e c e i v e d a 5% commission on the moneys c o l l e c t e d ; see "Nanaimo Real E s t a t e Tax S a l e By-law, 1895" (App. J/333). '» R e s i g n e d 5 October 1891. 5 3 He had worked as temporary h e l p In the C l e r k ' s o f f i c e 1n late-1891 and January 1892; see 4 January 1892. R e s i g n a t i o n a c c e p t e d 30 May 1892. 5 * R e - a p p o i n t e d 15 January 1894 and 21 January 1895, pro tempore. H.8 C i t y C l e r k . T r e a s u r e r , and C a r e t a k e r 20 J a n u a r y 1896 1 March 1897 6 December 1897 Adam Thompson 5 5 $83 . 33/month s a l a r y I n c r e a s e d to $100/month 5 t Edward B a l n e s I r v i n g 5 ' a t $83.33/month H.9 C i t y C l e r k , T r e a s u r e r , and Cemetery C l e r k 24 J a n u a r y 1898 16 J a n u a r y 1899 6 March 1899 s • 17 F e b r u a r y 1902 Samuel Gough at $1000/annum, of which $940 was to be p a i d from general revenue and $60 from the cemetery fund Gough c o n s i d e r e d a permanent o f f i c e r ; Mayor Bate s t a t e d t h a t any o f f i c e r ' w h o had been p r o p e r l y a p p o i n t e d ( i . e . , by the p r e v i o u s C o u n c i l ) would a c c o r d i n g to law ho l d o f f i c e u n t i l he r e s i g n e d , was removed from o f f i c e , or d i e d . at $85/month from g e n e r a l revenue and $5/month from cemetery fund at $95/month from general revenue (and $5/month from cemetery fund??) H. 10 C i t y A s s e s s o r , C o l l e c t o r , and P o l i c e C o urt C l e r k 20 J a n u a r y 1896 18 J a n u a r y 1897 1 F e b r u a r y 1897 6 December 1897 24 J a n u a r y 1898 3 Ja n u a r y 1899 16 J a n u a r y 1899 23 January 1899 6 March 1899' 0 2 Ja n u a r y 1900 Samuel Gough Edward Robert Edward B a i n e s I r v i n g Pol l o c k 5 9 B a i n e s I r v i n g at at at at $83.33/month $75/month $75/month $70/month a l l o w a n c e of $60 made to b r i n g s a l a r y up to $1000/annum I r v i n g c o n s i d e r e d a permanent o f f i c e r r e l i e v e d from the performance of h i s d u t i e s as P o l i c e Court C l e r k at $75/month w i t h commission on tax s a l e a l l o w a n c e of $100 made i n l i e u of tax s a l e commission 1n order to b r i n g s a l a r y up to $1000/annum 5 5 R e - a p p o i n t e d 18 Ja n u a r y 1897, pro tempore, and 25 January 1897. 5 5 See " O f f i c i a l s ' Appointment By-law, 1897" (App. J/293). 5 ' C i t y A s s e s s o r , C o l l e c t o r , and P o l i c e C o urt C l e r k I r v i n g was a p p o i n t e d to t h i s p o s i t i o n f o l l o w i n g the s u s p e n s i o n of C i t y C l e r k Thompson. 5 1 F i n a n c e Committee r e p o r t adopted. See 13 Fe b r u a r y 1899. 5 * Road Foreman P o l l o c k was a p p o i n t e d t o t h i s p o s i t i o n , p r o v i d e d that he would accept i t , f o l l o w i n g the s u s p e n s i o n of C i t y C l e r k Thompson and the appointment of I r v i n g to the p o s i t i o n of C i t y C l e r k . • 0 F i n a n c e Committee r e p o r t adopted. See 13 Fe b r u a r y 1899. H.11 C i t y A u d i t o r The names of the i n d i v i d u a l s a p p o i n t e d to the p o s i t i o n of C i t y A u d i t o r p r i o r to 1895 may be determined from the i t e m i z e d l i s t i n g of the a u d i t e d f i n a n c i a l s tatements s e r i e s i n Appendix P. 6 May 1895 9 January 1896 28 March 1898 May/June 1898 16 J a n u a r y 1899 3 September 1901 T u l 1 y Boyce* 1 F r e d G. Peto Thomas W. Jones Peto c o n s i d e r e d at $10/month" al l o w a n c e of $20 made f o r a u d i t of January-February 1895 accounts at $180/annum, p a y a b l e $15/month performed the d u t i e s of A u d i t o r d u r i n g Peto's a b s e n c e 6 1 permanent o f f i c e r s a l a r y i n c r e a s e d to $25/month, i n consequence of e x t r a work imposed upon him by the a c q u i s i t i o n of the waterworks H. 12 R e t u r n i n g O f f i c e r 24 December 1874' 30 December 1875 2 January 1877 7 January 1878 6 J a n u a r y 1879 5 J a n u a r y 1880 7 June 1880 3 J a n u a r y 1881 19 December 1881 18 December 1882 31 December 1883 4 F e b r u a r y 1884 29 December 1884 23 March 1885 ?? December 1885 28 December 1886 27 December 1887 26 December 1888 30 December 1889 22 December 1890 21 December 1891 26 December 1892 Thomas Lea Fawcett Thomas L. Fawcett Thomas L. Fawcett Thomas L. Fawcett E.G. P r i o r E.G. Pr i or W.C. B e r k e l e y W.C. B e r k e l e y Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Marshal Bray Wi11iam K. L e i g h t o n W111iam K. L e i g h t o n W1111am K. L e i g h t o n f o r e l e c t i o n to f i l l vacancy o c c a s i o n e d by the r e s i g n a t i o n of C o u n c i l l o r Harvey f o r e l e c t i o n to f i l l vacancy o c c a s i o n e d by the r e s i g n a t i o n of C o u n c i l l o r D i c k f o r e l e c t i o n to f i l l vacancy o c c a s i o n e d by the r e s i g n a t i o n of C o u n c i l l o r Lewis • 1 Re-appo1nted 20 January 1896, and 25 January 1897. F o l l o w i n g the d i s c o v e r y of the d e f a l c a t i o n s by C i t y C l e r k Thompson, Boyce, whose h e a l t h was f a i l i n g , was not r e - a p p o i n t e d . • ! See 4 Apr11 1895. • 5 See 18 J u l y 1898. • * See l e t t e r s p a t e n t (App. E/136, p. 304). 24 January 1893 26 December 1893 7? May 1894 28 December 1894 23 December 1895 7 December 1896 ?? December 1897 19 December 1898 ?? J u l y 1899 26 December 1899 24 December 1900 16 December 1901 22 December 1902 2 1 December 1903 19 December 1904 Samuel Gough Wi 111am K. L e i g h t o n Samuel Gough WI 1 Ham K. L e l g h t o n Wi 111am K. L e l g h t o n W i l l 1am K. L e l g h t o n W i l l i a m K. L e l g h t o n W 1 111am K. L e l g h t o n Samuel Gough W11 Ham K . L e l g h t o n Wl'l Ham K . L e l g h t o n W111iam K. L e l g h t o n W111 lam K. L e l g h t o n C H . B a r k e r W1 11 1am K. L e l g h t o n f o r e l e c t i o n to f i l l vacancy o c c a s i o n e d by the r e s i g n a t i o n of Alderman Keddy f o r e l e c t i o n t o f i l l vacancy o c c a s i o n e d by the death of Alderman C r a i g f o r f o r the the e l e c t i o n e l e c t i o n of of the the Mayor, Mayor, A1dermen, A1dermen, and and School School T r u s t e e s T r u s t e e s f o r e l e c t i o n to f i l l vacancy o c c a s i o n e d by the r e s i g n a t i o n of Alderman LeFeuvre H.13 H e a l t h O f f i c e r From 18*92, t h i s p o s i t i o n was c a l l e d the Medical O f f i c e r of H e a l t h or simply Medical H e a l t h O f f i c e r . 2 March 1885 4 May 1885 28 March 1887 28 May 1894 27 January 1902 D. C l u n e s s , MD E. A. Pr a e g e r , MD8 5 Robert E. McKechnie, W.F. D r y s d a l e . MD C o r p o r a t i o n charged f o r the s e r v i c e s he rendered t o a c t without s a l a r y so long as the C i t y was f r e e from c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e s to a c t without s a l a r y u n l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y employed f o r s e r v i c e MD"6 to a c t without s a l a r y t o a c t wi t h o u t s a l a r y h-1 R e - a p p o i n t e d 16 A p r i l 1888, 4 F e b r u a r y 1889, 20 January 1890, 19 January 1891, 18 January 1892, 16 January 1893, and 15 Jan u a r y 1894. R e s i g n e d 28 May 1894 when he l e f t the p r o v i n c e to r e s i d e i n C a l i f o r n i a . Requested to a c c e p t the p o s i t i o n , which he d i d on 25 June 1894. Re-appointed 20 January 1896, 30 January 1897 (See App. J/150, p. 411), 24 January 1898, and 6 February 1899. Resigned as of end of 1901 (See 8 J u l y 1901 and 15 J u l y 1901). 1 68 APPENDIX I - CITY OF NANAIMO ARCHIVES: INTRODUCTION City of Nanaimo Archives Inventory, 1875-1904 Appendices J-Y provide a deta i led descr ip t i ve inventory by record group of the archives consulted at the Ci ty of Nanaimo A r c h i v e s — e s s e n t i a l l y , the surv iv ing documentation created by the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo between 1875-1904. They were compiled for the purposes of t h i s thesis and are, in some ways, s imi la r to a t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l inventory. However, they are best described as a combination inventory and f ind ing a id for they contain elements of both. The essent ia l d i f ference i s that mater ia ls are described in more d e t a i l in the CNA appendices than is most often p r a c t i c a l or possible in the t r a d i t i o n a l inventory. Secondly, these appendices r e f l e c t , as near as i t has been possible to e s t a b l i s h , the provenance of the archives descr ibed, based upon the h i e r a r c h i c a l structure of the Corporation's administrat ion in 1904, as though only pre-1905 mater ials had survived and been accessioned at the CNA. 3 " 8 F i n a l l y , the br ie f organizat ional h is to ry which would normally be included at the beginning of each record group has been omitted. The po l icy followed in creat ing t h i s inventory has been to f u l l y describe a l l archives dating from the period 1875-1904 which have been accessioned or are at least 'physical ly located in the archives vau l t . Although the inc lus ive dates of some record ser ies post-date 1904, not a l l of the archives ex i s t ing for the years a f ter 1904 have been descr ibed, nor have mater ials which post-date 1904 been described in the same d e t a i l as those which pre-date 1905. To r e i t e r a t e , only pre-1905 mater ia ls are described in d e t a i l . Furthermore, the leve l of descr ip t ion within t h i s inventory va r ies , but i s indicated by the upper-case headings: RG, SUB-GROUP, SERIES, SUB-SERIES, UNIT, and ITEM. With the exception of the Ci ty C l e r k ' s correspondence f i l e s sub -ser ies , 1905-1948, a l l mater ials are described to the unit or item l e v e l s . This i s of course only possible due to the r e l a t i v e l y small quantity of mater ials which survive from th is per iod . Such deta i led descr ipt ion i s large ly an academic exerc ise , but provides for the purposes of th i s thesis a s o l i d framework for d iscussion or , in a sense, a primary source document. It a lso provides more insight into the nature of nineteenth-century municipal archives , and the functions of municipal government general ly , than would the t r a d i t i o n a l ser ies l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n . 8 Most inventories would re f lec t the administ rat ive structure and creat ing o f f i c e s within each record group to the date of the most recent mater ials contained t h e r e i n . 1 69 Several further exceptions to the general po l i cy should be noted. Although the o r i g i n a l copies of the municipal by-laws have been accessioned, they are stored in the Ci ty Ha l l administrat ion vau l t . Secondly, the Ci ty C l e r k ' s by-laws ser ies and the Ci ty Audi tor ' s audited f i n a n c i a l statements ser ies have, due to the i r s i g n i f i c a n t value, been reconstructed, a task seldom undertaken in a rch iva l work. The itemized l i s t i n g s of those ser ies are composite l i s t s of a rch i va l items and references to other documents which may or may not have survived in pr inted sources. L a s t l y , mater ia ls which are known to ex ist from the 1875-1904 period but have yet to be t ransferred to the archives vault are i d e n t i f i e d in Appendix Y. The format of th i s inventory i s large ly se l f -exp lanatory . The o f f i c e of o r ig in of each RG and SUB-GROUP i s c l e a r l y s tated. Each SERIES and SUB-SERIES t i t l e contains the inc lus ive years of the mater ia ls described there in . In add i t i on , each SERIES' t i t l e includes the se r ies ' l inear or other measurement. The UNIT l e v e l of descr ipt ion notes the general form of the mater ials in subsequent e n t r i e s . The ITEM l e v e l simply indicates that the entr ies which fol low describe ind iv idua l items. An explanatory note about the form, cond i t ion , and sometimes scope and content of the records, as wel l as the system of descr ipt ion employed, i s included at the appropriate l e v e l . It must be stressed that the CNA appendices and the i r entry numbers provide a means of i n t e l l e c t u a l contro l in terna l to th i s thesis which should not be confused with that extant at the CNA. In order to f a c i l i t a t e access to these mater ia ls , the CNA accession numbers and physical locat ion references are noted fol lowing the leve l at which such contro l has been establ ished. In add i t i on , the record groups and ser ies devised and described have, wherever poss ib le , been l inked by way of footnotes with the record groups and ser ies i d e n t i f i e d by the survey of the Ci ty of Nanaimo's records conducted by the Vancouver Island Project (VIP) in 1 983 . 3 * 9 Cross-reference with the VIP i s made in order to reveal the re la t ionsh ip of the administ rat ive units of the Corporation in 1904, the i r funct ions , and the records they created, to the administ rat ive structure of the Ci ty in 1983. 3 *9 The VIP was conceived and i n i t i a t e d by Alan F . J . A r t i b i s e and i t s c o - p r i n c i p a l invest igators , Peter A. Baskerv i l l e and Chad M. G a f f i e l d , and is based at the Univers i ty of V i c t o r i a . It has received substant ia l grants from the SSHRCC for 1982-83 and 1984-85 in order to survey the l o c a l records repos i to r ies on Vancouver Is land and prepare a machine-readable data base descr ip t i ve of the i r holdings. The VIP has surveyed, among other agencies, municipal record o f f i c e s . 1 70 Except where noted to the contrary, the mater ia ls described are o r i g i n a l s . Entry t i t l e s have, wherever poss ib le , been transcr ibed d i r e c t l y from the UNIT or ITEM, omitt ing redundant names, words, and dates. Inc lus ive dates follow the entry t i t l e . As many bound volumes were used for mult ip le purposes, or were only p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d , the actual quantity of mater ia ls i s also provided, indicated by actual page numbers or as a f rac t ion (pages used/total pages). Abbreviat ions: [ ] = a t t r ibu ted information Doc. = lega l docket Env. = envelope MG = manuscript group RG = record group VIP = Vancouver Island Project V o l . = volume 171 APPENDIX J - CNA: CITY CLERK RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. CITY CLERK. 3 5 0 SERIES: COUNCIL MINUTES, 1875-1911, 38 C M . 3 5 1 UNIT: BOUND VOLUME.3 5 2 Accession No. : 1. Locat ion : Open shelv ing . The minutes of the municipal counc i l are recorded in large volumes bound in leather . The volumes consulted vary s l i g h t l y in s t y l e , b inding, and s i z e , the largest being 31x42x10 cm. The o r i g i n a l volumes represent the only o f f i c i a l copy of the minutes, although the counci l proceedings were reported in d e t a i l in the l o c a l newspapers. Entry: Vol 138. Ia Record, Friday 22 January 1875 (1st Meeting of 1st Municipal Council) to Monday 8 June 1885 (20th Meeting of 11th Municipal Counc i l ) , 621 pp. 139. Ib , Record, Monday 15 June 1885 (21st Meeting of 11th Municipal Council) to Monday 1 September 1890 (33rd Meeting of 16th Municipal Counc i l ) , 453 pp. 140. Ic Minute Book, Monday 8 September 1890 (34th Meeting of 16th Municipal Council) to Monday 3 August 1896 (26th Meeting of 22nd Municipal Counc i l ) , 754 pp. 141. Id Record, Monday 10 August 1896 (27th Meeting of 22nd Municipal Council) to Monday 12 January 1903 (50th Meeting of 28th Municipal Counc i l ) , 806 pp. 142. Ie Record, Monday 19 January 1903 (1st Meeting of 29th Municipal Council) to Monday 16 January 1911 (53rd Meeting of 36th Municipal Counc i l ) , 806 pp. 3 5 0 Cf. VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-000; Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 3 5 1 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-002; Minutes Ser ies in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 3 5 2 The VIP survey does not iden t i f y or describe mater ia ls below the ser ies l e v e l . Therefore, a separate VIP f i l e does not ex is t for what are termed here the sub -se r ies , u n i t , and item leve ls of desc r ip t ion . 1 72 UNIT: LOOSE MATERIAL. Entry: 143. Rough draft of t i t l e page and format of counci l minutes, 1875, 1 sheet, located inside front cover of the Real Estate Assessment R o l l , 1875-1880 (App. K/411). 144. Typed carbon copies of minutes of and/or resolut ions passed at meetings of the 29th Municipal Council held on 26 January and 16 March 1903, 4 pp . , located inside front pocket of volume Ie of the counci l minutes. SERIES: CORRESPONDENCE, 1875-1948, 1.44 M . 3 5 3 SUB-SERIES: CORRESPONDENCE INWARD, 1877-1879. Surviv ing correspondence inward (1875-1904) i s , with the exception of these few loose items, i n t e r f i l e d in the correspondence f i l e s sub -ser ies , 1905-1948. UNIT: ' LOOSE MATERIAL. Entry: 145. Letter from T. Elwyn, P r o v i n c i a l Secretary 's Department, V i c t o r i a , 26 March 1877, to Mark Bate, located between pp. 34-5 in volume 126.7 of C l e r k ' s correspondence. 146. Notice of appeal from M. Bate for Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, L imited, on behalf of Mrs. P h i l i p Parson, 10 A p r i l 1879, to C.N. Young, Ci ty C lerk ; notices of appeal from J . Pawson, Mrs. E. Gough (her mark witnessed by Louis Page), J.W. S t i r t a n for James Abrams, John H i r s t , Charles York, and James Gordon, a l l dated 12 A p r i l 1879, to C.N. Young, C i ty C le rk ; and miscellaneous c a l c u l a t i o n s . Foregoing a l l located inside front cover of the Real Estate Assessment R o l l , 1875-1880 (App. K/411). SUB-SERIES: CORRESPONDENCE OUTWARD, 187 5-1904. UNIT: LETTERBOOK. Accession No. : 18. Locat ion : Boxes 126-127. The dimensions of these volumes vary to 27x39x5 cm. 3 5 3 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-001; Correspondence F i l e s Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 173 Volume 126.7 i s in fact a copybook. The other volumes are le t te rpress copybooks. These spec ia l letterbooks contain t issue paper and were designed for taking impressions of correspondence outward with a copying press, through the app l icat ion of moisture to the o r i g i n a l s . They contain pages for indexing correspondence by the f i r s t l e t t e r of the addressee's name. The index pages of volume 127.2 also contain v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s ( A , E , I , 0 , U , and Y) for second l e t t e r indexing. A considerable number of pages have been cut or torn from the le t te rpress copybooks, usually from the back. These pages may have contained copies of personal correspondence or s p e c i f i c a t i o n s used in c a l l i n g for tenders. It i s a lso poss ib le that some were blank and were removed to be used for other purposes. Some pages were removed to the new correspondence f i l e s establ ished about 1905. The p o s s i b i l i t y that some pages may have been removed to destroy evidence of cer ta in business t ransact ions must a lso be entertained. Correspondence was handwritten u n t i l 4 A p r i l 1902, from which time i t was mostly typed. The impression made of copies of typed correspondence i s a blue-purple co lour , s imi la r to that produced by the mimeograph process. Compared to the black impression made of copies of handwritten correspondence, i t i s considerably more d i f f i c u l t to read, espec ia l l y where the impression has fanned out in the t issue paper. Entry : V o l . : 147. 126.7 Letter Book, from pr ior to 10 February 1875 to 30 October 1886, 137/217 pp. used. 148. 126.8 [Letter Book], 18 December 1886 to at least 21 July 1891, 488 pp. , some pages miss ing. 149. 126.9 Letter Book, 22 July 1891 to 24 December 1894, 482 pp . , some pages miss ing. 150. 126.10 Letter Book, 29 December 1894 to 5 February 1897, 417 pp . , some pages miss ing. 151. 127.1 Letter Book, 8 February 1897 to 7 January 1902, 962 pp . , some pages miss ing . Some correspondence from March 1898 to 2 November 1901 i s to be found in reverse order on pp. 925-62. 152. 127.2 L e t t e r s , 7 January 1902 to 17 September 1904, 491/1000 pp. used, some pages missing. Diverse correspondence for 1902 to 1903 i s to be found on pp. 993-1000. 1 74 SUB-SERIES: CORRESPONDENCE FILES, 1905-1948. Accession No. : 28. Locat ion: Boxes 1-3. This subject f i l e system would appear to have been created about 1905 and to have been f i n a l l y closed about 1948. The bulk of the mater ia l contained in th i s sub-ser ies dates from the period 1919-1948, although there i s considerable mater ia l from 1910, and ind i v idua l items date back to at least 1882. It i s possible that some of the " less important" 1905-1919 mater ia l has been purged. Arrangement i s more or less chronological within subject f i l e fo lders which are numbered 1-301. It i s apparent that some early mater ials considered to be of continuing value, at or a f ter the creat ion of t h i s system, were incorporated with i t . See, for example, f i l e no. 6 which contains oaths of a l leg iance and declarat ions dating from 1882, and f i l e no. 53 which includes pages, removed from volume 127.2 of the le t te rpress copybooks, concerning by-laws deposited in the o f f i c e o f ' the County Court Reg is t ra r . SERIES: ADDRESS, 1886, 1 ITEM. 3 5 Not accessioned. Locat ion: Open shelv ing . ITEM: Entry: 153. Address to the Right Honorable S i r John Alexander Macdonald, Member of Her Majesty 's Pr ivy C o u n c i l , Premier of Canada, from h is obediant servants M. Bate, Mayor, A.G. Home, Charles Wilson, Walter Wilson, W.E. Webb, John H i l b e r t , James Knight, and Geo. Bevilockway, on behalf of the c i t i z e n s of Nanaimo, n . d . , 1 sheet. This address was del ivered to S i r J . A . and Lady Macdonald in August 1886, extending to them a c o r d i a l welcome to Nanaimo upon the i r v i s i t to Nanaimo v ia the Canadian P a c i f i c and Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railways. It i s located inside the back cover of volume Ia of the counc i l minutes. 3 5 a A corresponding VIP ser ies does not e x i s t . This item i s subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-002. 175 SERIES: BY-LAWS, 1875-1904, 21.5 CM. 3 5 5 Accession No. : 28. Locat ion: Diverse. By-law Nos. 1-120, those i n t e r f i l e d therewith, and a l l other by-laws which became law during th i s per iod . UNIT: SOFTCOVERED VOLUME. Entry: 154. [By-laws Reg is te r ] , c a . 1919-1970, no paginat ion. This volume i s in an extremely deter iorated and b r i t t l e cond i t ion . It i s probable that C i ty Clerk Howard Hackwood began to keep the reg is ter about 1919, as the handwriting to that period i s uniform and neat, which seems to indicate that by-laws passed between 1875-1919 were ret rospect ive ly entered. The reg is ter records the date of each by - law's deposit in the County Court Reg i s t ra r ' s o f f i c e which was the date on which i t came into force . UNIT: BOOK. 155. By-Laws of the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo, B r i t i s h  Columbia: • January, 1904. Nanaimo: Herald P r i n t i n g & Publ ishing Co. , 1904, 104 pp. This softcovered volume reproduces municipal by-laws of a regulatory nature which were in e f fec t in January 1904. They have been renumbered as by-laws 1-33. For the purpose of cross- reference in the l i s t of by-laws which fo l lows , t h i s volume i s referred to by i t s short t i t l e , that i s , Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. UNIT: LEGAL DOCKET. The o r i g i n a l copies of the municipal by-laws are in most cases folded in four in the form of a lega l docket, such that the back of the las t page becomes the outside cover. In la te r years, the by-law was occasional ly pinned to a separate protect ive cover. The by-law t i t l e and number, and the numbers of re lated by- laws, were noted on the cover. Most o r i g i n a l by-laws are on l e g a l -s ize paper which var ies in s ize to about 22x35 cm. Those consulted vary in length from one to ten pages (most are from 1-4 p p . ) . 3 5 5 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-003; By-laws Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 1 76 Many of the o r i g i n a l by-laws from the period 1875-1894 are miss ing. Thereafter, the ser ies i s far more complete. From 1875-1901, most o r i g i n a l s were handwritten, signed, and sealed. From 1896-1901, at least some were typed; from 1902-1904, a l l were typed. There are , of course, anomalies, inc luding some pr inted and carbon copies which have or have not been signed and sealed. In the spring of 1901, the Ci ty C l e r k ' s o f f i c e establ ished a system of numbering the b y - l a w s . 3 5 6 Ex i s t ing by-laws were organized to re f lec t the i r subject content and were numbered (1-94) in green p e n c i l . Some numbers were s p l i t (1A, 1B, 36], e tc . ) as more by-laws were i n t e r f i l e d . Red pen was used at that time to note the by-laws by which each was repealed or amended. Thereafter , by-laws were sequent ia l ly numbered. By the end of the 1904 Counc i l ' s term, the numbers 1-120 had been assigned. Considering by-laws with s p l i t numbers and numbers assigned for which the o r i g i n a l s no longer e x i s t , 128 o r i g i n a l by-laws have survived and are stored in the administrat ion v a u l t . However, reference has been found in the counci l minutes to 237 d i f fe ren t municipal by-laws which appear to have become law between 1875-1904. At times, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to es tab l i sh whether or not a given enactment became law. Although each by-law was required to pass three readings before i t passed the Municipal Counc i l , the form and wording of passage var ied over time and according to circumstances. For example, the Counc i l ' s rules of order were often suspended upon plea of urgency so that a "housekeeping" or even a more s i g n i f i c a n t by-law could be read three times during one meeting. I n i t i a l l y , a f ter receiv ing the i r t h i r d reading, by-laws were simply declared law and, most o f ten , ordered published or p r in ted . From 1881-1896, they were af f i rmed, sealed and ordered published at a meeting subsequent to that at which they received the i r t h i r d reading. From 1896-1904, by-laws were received, f i n a l l y adopted, and ordered signed, sealed and publ ished, or some v a r i a t i o n of that wording. In a d d i t i o n , from 1896-1900, the wording in the counc i l minutes included the names of the newspapers in which they were to be publ ished. By-laws for the ra i s ing of spec ia l loans (1886-1900) required the assent of the municipal e lectors before being f i n a l l y af f i rmed. Special rates reduction (1891-1893) and increase (1896) by-laws required the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Counci l . Moreover, not a l l by-laws necessar i ly came into force or were enforced. It i s c lear that some were inoperable and, therefore, could not be enforced. Many were amended and/or subsequently repealed. 3 5 6 Some of the older by-laws bear numbers from an e a r l i e r system which was for some reason discont inued. 1 77 Reference w i l l a l so be found in the counc i l minutes to by-laws which received t h e i r f i r s t , second or even t h i r d readings, but were suddenly and "mysteriously" discontinued or abandoned. Such by-laws have not been included in the l i s t which fo l lows, although they are as much a part of Nanaimo's municipal h is tory as those included, for they r e f l e c t a t t i tudes or desire for s o c i a l contro l and change. Copies of proposed l e g i s l a t i o n are rare , except in the case of defeated loan by-laws which were published pr io r to being submitted to the ratepayers. Four by-laws of which the o r i g i n a l s no longer ex is t are among those published in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. Some of the 105 by-laws which are not ava i lab le at the C i ty of Nanaimo Archives are ava i lab le in other sources. For example, from 1881, statutory law provided that municipal by-laws be published in l o c a l newspapers and, from 1884-1899, that they a lso be published in the B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette (BCG). Nanaimo's municipal by-laws were frequently published in the Nanaimo Free  Press (NFP) from 1875 to at least 1900. Many were published in the BCG between 1884-1898. In 1885, the NFP lost i t s monopoly of Nanaimo's p r i n t i n g and publ ishing business. Thereafter , a number of small d a i l y and semi-weekly newspapers were published in Nanaimo in quick succession. There fol lows a l i s t of newspapers in which by-laws were ordered published as recorded in the counci l minutes: the Nanaimo (Morning) Courier (1888-9) which was awarded the advert is ing contract for 1 889 , 3 5 7 but ceased pub l icat ion l a t e r that year; Nanaimo (Semi-Weekly)' Mai l (1895-7); The Review (1897-8); The Nanaimo Herald (1899-1901); and the The Dai ly Herald (1901-38). By-laws may have also been pr inted in the other newspapers published in Nanaimo between 1885-1904: Westward Ho (1885-6); Nanaimo (Morning) Dai ly  Telegram (1893-4); and Nanaimo C lar ion (1900-3). Copies of these smaller newspapers are not, however, readi ly access ib le . The L e g i s l a t i v e L ib rary i s the main repository in which these papers are a v a i l a b l e , although i t s holdings are often very incomplete. As the BCG and NFP are the most access ib le of these published sources, I have attempted to locate each by-law which i s not ava i lab le at the CNA f i r s t in the BCG and, i f unsuccessful , then in the NFP. The r e s u l t s of th i s search are noted in the fo l lowing composite l i s t of municipal by-laws ava i lab le at the CNA, of references to those located in the BCG or NFP, and of those which have not been located. It i s , of course, possible that some by-laws were published considerably la te r than the period in which I searched for them. They may have been published in another newspaper or not at a l l . This l i s t i s by no means d e f i n i t i v e . 3 5 7 CNA, CCN, CM, 4 March 1889, 301. 1 78 For each by-law described, the fol lowing information i s noted: the by-law number assigned by the Ci ty C lerk , or other ind icat ion of locat ion as explained in the abbreviat ions sect ion below; the by - law's short t i t l e , omitt ing preceding a r t i c l e s and standardiz ing the s p e l l i n g of "By- law," and the year of the Council by which i t was enacted; and the date on which the by-law was l a s t mentioned in the counc i l minutes regarding i t s passage ( i . e . , became law, a f f i rmed, or in a few cases mention of receipt of a communication regarding the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Counc i l ) . Information regarding source of pub l i ca t ion and/or d i spos i t ion i s noted on the next l i n e . D ispos i t ion i s noted only where i t i s not apparent from the context. For instance, i t i s obvious that an amendment by-law fol lowing a by-law of the same t i t l e amends that by- law. However, upon occasion, an amendment by-law refers to a previous amendment by- law, in which case I have made a notation to that e f f e c t . The repeal or supersedure of one by-law by another i s , where i t has been found, ind icated . In noting d i s p o s i t i o n , I use the numbers assigned by the C i ty Clerk or , where non-ex is tent , the by-law year where the by-law referred to fol lows v i r t u a l l y immediately. Where the by-law number indicated i s not located with in f i ve entr ies e i ther side of the by-law i t e f f e c t s , the corresponding inventory entry number i s noted in parentheses. The short t i t l e s of by-laws which have not been located may be inaccurate. They are t i t l e s from the counci l minutes, or the short t i t l e s of s imi la r by-laws preceding or fo l lowing them. The by-laws noted as not having a short t i t l e have often been a t t r ibu ted a t i t l e from the by - law's preamble. The arrangement of t h i s l i s t i s by subject content. The keywords which describe the content of a group of by-laws passed on a given subject have been underscored in the t i t l e of the f i r s t by-law of the group. By-laws are arranged a lphabet i ca l l y by these underscored keywords; subsequent by-laws are arranged ch rono log ica l l y . These keywords, and other important access points as determined from the by- laws' t i t l e s and content, have been l i b e r a l l y cross - referenced. Abbreviat ions : NN = By-law not numbered, but ava i lab le at CNA in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. BCG = Source: B r i t i s h Columbia Gazette. NFP = Source: Nanaimo Free Press . (Blank) = By-law not located. 1 79 ITEM: Entry: By-law No. : Aldermen's Remuneration - see Mayor 156. 20 Annual Loan By-law, 1893. 10 July 1893. The annual loan by-laws had the i r ef fect and were not repealed. 157. 21 Annual Loan By- law, 1895. 22 A p r i l 1895. 158. 22 Annual Loan By-law, 1896. 2 March 1896. Repealed by no. 23. 159. 23 Temporary Loan By- law, 1896. 30 March 1896. 160. 24 Annual Loan By- law, 1897. 15 February 1897. 161. 25 Annual Loan By- law, 1898. 28 March 1898. 162. 26 Annual Loan By- law, 1899. 5 June 1899. 163. 27 Annual.Loan By- law, 1900. 26 February 1900. 164. 28 Annual Loan By- law, 1901. 25 February 1901. 165. 102 Annual Loan By- law, 1902. 24 March 1902. 166. 106 Nanaimo Temporary Loan By- law, 1903. 9 February 1903. 167. 114 Nanaimo Temporary Loan By- law, 1904. 8 February 1904. Annual Loan - see also Bank Credit 168. NFP By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against Real Estate Assessments, 1875. 13 May 1875. See NFP, 15 May 1875, 2. The appeals by-laws were enacted annual ly . They had the i r e f fect and were not repealed. 169. NFP By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against Real Estate Assessments, 1876. 24 A p r i l 1876. See NFP, 26 A p r i l 1876, 2. 170. NFP By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against the Assessment R o l l , 1878. 6 May 1878. 1 80 See NFP, 8 May 1878, 2. 171. NFP By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against Real Estate Assessments for the year 1879. 14 A p r i l 1879. See NFP, 16 A p r i l 1879, 2. 172. By-law to f i x time for hearing appeals against Real Estate Assessments, 1882. 1 May 1882. Not located. 173. NFP By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against the Assessment R o l l , 1883. 7 May 1883. See NFP, 9 May 1883, 2. 174. NFP By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against the Assessment R o l l , 1884. 12 May 1884. See NFP, 17 May 1884, 2. 175. NFP By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against the Assessment R o l l , 1885. 29 May 1885. See NFP, 30 May 1885, 3. 176. NFP By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against the Assessment R o l l , 1886. 14 June 1886. See NFP, 19 June 1886, 2. 177. BCG By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against the Assessment R o l l , 1887. 4 July 1887. See BCG 27 (6 October 1887): 522. 4 178. NFP Appeal By- law, 1888. 25 June 1888. See NFP, 27 June 1888, 2. 179. Appeal By- law, 1889. 10 June 1889. Not located. Appeals - see a lso Assessment R o l l , Road Tax 180. Return of Assessment R o l l By-law, 1875. 22 February 1875. Not located. Assessment r o l l by-laws were enacted annually and 181 had the i r e f f e c t . They were not repealed. 181. Return of Assessment R o l l By-law, 1876. 28 February 1876. Not located. 182. NFP By-law to f i x the Return of the Assessment R o l l for 1877, and the time for hearing complaints respecting assessments. 23 A p r i l 1877. See NFP, 2 May 1877, 2. 183. NFP Return of Assessment R o l l By- law, 1878. 1 A p r i l 1 878. See NFP, 3 A p r i l 1878, 2. 184. NFP Return of Assessment R o l l By- law, 1879. 17 February 1879. See NFP, 22 February 1879, 2. 185. Return of Assessment R o l l By- law, 1880. 3 May 1880. Not located. - ' 186. Return of Assessment R o l l By- law, 1881. 14 March 1 881 . Not located. 187. NFP Return of Assessment By-law, 1882. 20 March 1882. See NFP, 22 March 1882, 2. 188. NFP Return of Assessment By- law, 1883. 5 March 1883. See NFP, 14 March 1883, 2. 189. NFP Return of Assessment By- law, 1884. 17 March 1884. See NFP, 22 March 1884, 2. 190. NFP Return of Assessment By- law, 1885. 30 March 1885. See NFP, 8 A p r i l 1885, 2. 191. NFP Return of Assessment By- law, 1886. 22 March 1886. See NFP, 31 March 1886, 2. 192. BCG Return of Assessment By- law, 1887. 16 May 1887. 182 See BCG 27 (6 October 1887): 523. 193. NFP Return of Assessment By- law, 1888. 30 A p r i l 1888. See NFP, 2 May 1888, 2. 194. Return of Assessment By- law, 1889. 6 May 1889. Not located . 195. Return of Assessment By- law, 1890. 14 July 1890. Not located. 196. BCG Assessment R o l l By-law, 1891. 7 September 1891. See BCG 31 (24 December 1891): 1165. 197. NFP Assessment R o l l By-law, 1892. 20 June 1892. See NFP, 25 June 1892, 1. 198. Assessment By- law, 1893. 13 March 1893. Not located. 199. Assessment By- law, 1895. 22 A p r i l 1895. Not located. 200. BCG Assessment By- law, 1896. 10 February 1896. See BCG 36 (20 February 1896): 216. Assessment R o l l - see a lso Appeals, Road Tax Awning - see Footpath Ba l lo t - see Municipal E l e c t i o n ' s Regulation 201. 19 Bank Credit By- law, 1887. 25 A p r i l 1887. Bank Credit - see also Annual Loan 202. 50 Barber's Shop Sunday Clos ing By- law, 1899. 12 June 1899. No. 1, p. 3, in Nanaimo C i ty By-Laws, 1904. 203. 61 Bastion Street Bridge Loan By-law, 1889. 14 October 1889. Amended by 1891 by- law, no. 87 (Entry 314), no. 91 (Entry 315), and no. 89 (Entry 260). 1 83 Reduction of the spec ia l rate imposed by the "Bastion Street Bridge Loan By-law, 1889," 1891. 1 October 1891. See BCG 31 (24 December 1891): 1165. Superseded by no. 87 (Entry 314). Bate, Mark, Sr . - see Street Conveyance Bicycle Regulation By- law, 1896. 24 August 1896. Copy also in archives v a u l t . No. 2, pp. 4 -5 , in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. Bicycle Regulation Amendment By-law, 1898. 25 A p r i l 1898. No. 3, p. 6, in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. Board of L icensing Commissioners - see Liquor License Regulation Regulation of Sale of Bread By-law, 1898. 19 September 1898. Copy also in archives vault.. B r i t i s h Columbia Construction Company, Limited -see Gas Works Nanaimo Butchering and Nuisance By- law, 1876. 5 June 1876. See NFP, 8 July 1876, 3. Repealed by 1881 by- law. Nanaimo Butchering and Nuisance Amendment By-law, 1877. 9 A p r i l 1877. See NFP, 2 May 1877, 2. Repealed by 1881 by-law. Amendment to the Nanaimo Butchering and Nuisance By-law, 1879. 3 November 1879. See NFP, 12 November 1879, 2. Repealed by 1881 by law. Nanaimo Slaughterhouse and Nuisance By-law, 1881. 9 May 1881 . See NFP, 18 May 1881, 3. By-law to amend the "Slaughterhouse and Nuisance By-law, 1881," 1881. 28 November 1881. 184 See NFP, 7 December 1881, 2. Repealed by 1885 by-law. 213. NFP By-law repealing the "Slaughterhouse and Nuisance Amendment By- law, 1881," 1885. 30 March 1885. See NFP, 8 A p r i l 1885, 2. No short t i t l e . 214. 71 Nuisance Prevention By- law, 1888. 8 October 1888. No. 17, pp. 52 -3 , in Nanaimo C i ty By-Laws, 1904. By-law Enforcement - see By-laws 215. 59 By-law to authorize the r a i s i n g of Two Thousand two hundred d o l l a r s , 1886. 17 May 1886. This loan by-law provided for the purchase of the Nanaimo L i te ra ry Ins t i tu te property . 216. 60 By-law to authorize the r a i s i n g of $2500.00, 1887. 21 February 1887. This loan by-law provided for the purchase of f i r e hydrants and equipment. C l e r i c a l error corrected by no. 90. 217. 90 Loan Amendment By-law, 1887. 28 March 1887. 218. NFP By-law to provide for enforcing the By-laws of the Mun ic ipa l i t y , 1880. 17 May 1880. See NFP, 19 May 1880, 2. Celebration - see Publ ic Celebrat ion Cemetery - see Publ ic Cemetery 219. NFP Chimney and Stovepipe By-law for the Prevention of F i r e s , 1876. 29 May 1876. See NFP, 7 June 1876, 2. 220. C i ty C l e r k ' s Duties By- law, 1875. 15 February 1875. Not located. 221. NFP C le rk ' s Amendment By- law, 1878. 18 February 1878. See NFP, 2 March 1878, 2. Repealed by 1883 by- law. 222. C i ty C l e r k ' s Amendment By-law, 1880. 22 March 1880. 185 Not located. Repealed by 1883 by- law. 223. NFP City C l e r k ' s Amendment By- law, 1883. 26 February 1883. See NFP, 28 February 1883, 2. 224. BCG Nanaimo Ci ty Pound By- law, 1891. 6 A p r i l 1891. See BCG 31 (11 June 1891): 396. Repealed by no. 1152-225. BCG Nanaimo Ci ty Pound Amendment By- law, 1892. 4 July 1892. See BCG 32 (29 July 1892): 792. Repealed by no. 115 2. 226. Ci ty Pound Amendment By- law, 1893. 8 May 1893. Not located. Repealed by no. 115 2-227. 115] Ci ty Pound By-law, 1897. 22 November 1897. No. 6, pp. 30-4, in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. 228. 116 City Pound Amendment By- law, 1904. 18 July 1904. Ci ty Pound - see also Dog Tax, Swine and Goat 229. Ci ty Surveyor By-law, 1875. 29 March 1875. Not located. Clerk - see Ci ty C l e r k ' s Duties 230. 66 Commercial Street F i l l i n g By-law, 1894. 12 November 1894. Amended by no. 89 (Entry 260). Commercial Street F i l l i n g - see also Surplus Sinking Funds 231. NFP Contagious Diseases By- law, 1885. 3 March 1885. See NFP, 7 March 1885, 3. Repealed by 1888 by- law. 232. NFP Contagious Diseases By- law, 1888. 17 September 1888. See NFP, 26 September 1888, '2. Repealed by 1889 by- law. 186 233. BCG Contagious Diseases By-law, 1889. 29 July 1889. See BCG 29 (29 August 1889): 548-9. Contagious Diseases - see also Publ ic Health Conveyance - see Street Conveyance Counci1 - see Rules of Order Court of Revision - see Appeals 234. 63 Crusher and Rock D r i l l By-law, 1891. 1 June 1891. Amended by no. 87 (Entry 314) and no. 91 (Entry 315). 235. 84^ Nanaimo Curfew By- law, 1898. 12 December 1898. No. 7, pp. 34-5, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. 236. 72 Dog Tax By-law, 1898. 14 March 1898. No. 8, pp. 35-7, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. Dog Tax - see a lso Revenue E lect ion - see Municipal E l e c t i o n ' s Regulation, Municipal Of f i cers E lect ion Regulation E lectors - see Municipal E lectors 237. Nanaimo E l e c t r i c L ight ing By- law, 1891. 4 May 1891. Not located af ter af f i rmed. This loan by-law was, however, published a number of times pr ior to being voted upon. See, for example, NFP, 2 May 1891, 2. Although i t received the assent of the municipal e l e c t o r s , the loan was not ra i sed . 238. E l e c t r i c By-law, 1891. 22 June 1891. Not located af ter af f i rmed. This by-law was, however, published a number of times pr ior to being voted upon by the municipal e l e c t o r s . See, for example, NFP, 17 June 1891, 4. 239. BCG E l e c t r i c Light By- law, 1891. 19 October 1891. See BCG 31 (24 December 1891): 1165-6. Agreement expired in 1896. 240. 105 Nanaimo Streets L ight ing By-law, 1902. 8 December 187 1902. Agreement expired in 1908. 241. 58 By-law for a l t e r i n g the Esplanade, 1884. 28 July 1884. No. 9, pp. 37-8, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Company - see Railway 242. NFP Expenditure of Revenue By-law, 1881. 11 A p r i l 1881 . See NFP, 20 A p r i l 1881, 3. Expenditure - see a lso Publ ic Ce lebrat ion , Publ ic Reception, Water Survey Explosives - see Gun-powder and other explosives F i re Engine - see Steam F i re Engine 243. 65 F i re H a l l and Hydrant By-law, 1892. 13 June 1892. Amended by no. 85, no. 91 (Entry 315) and no. 89 (Entry 260). 244. 85 F i re H a l l and Hydrant Rate Reduction By- law, 1892. 5 September 1892. Superseded by no. 91 (Entry 315). Repealed by no. 89 (Entry 260). F i re Hydrants and Equipment - see By-law 245. 13 F i re Insurance Companies' Tax By-law, 1897. 26 July 1897. No. 11, p. 42, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. 246. 14 F i re Insurance Companies' Tax Amendment By- law, 1898. 7 March 1898. No. 12, p. 43, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. 247. 16 Nanaimo F i re Limit By- law, 1894. 22 October 1894. Repealed by no. 99. 248. 17 F i re Limit Amendment By- law, 1895. 30 December 1895. Repealed by no. 99. 188 249. 99 Nanaimo F i re L imit Amendment By- law, 1901. 30 December 1901. No. 10, pp. 38-41 in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. Repealed by no. 118. 250. 118 Nanaimo F i re L imit By-law, 1904. 10 October 1904. F i re Prevention - see Chimney 251. F i re Protect ion By-law, 1891. 14 July 1891. Not located. This by-law may have been inoperable. 252. 7 Nanaimo Footpath and Awning By- law, 1875. 19 March 1875. Repealed by no. 12 (Entry 369). 253. 10 Nanaimo Footpath and Awning Amendment By-law, 1883. 12 March 1883. Repealed by no. 12 (Entry 369). Gambling - see Sunday Observance 254. 1A Gas Works By- law, 1886. 1 March 1886. Agreement dated 25 February 1886 between the Muncipal Counci l and the B r i t i s h Columbia Construction Company Limited i s attached to the front of the by- law. Repealed by no. 1A (affirmed 18 October 1886). 255. 1A Gas Works By- law, 1886. 18 October 1886. Agreement dated 18 September 1886 between the Municipal Counci l and the B r i t i s h Columbia Construction Company Limited i s included with the by- law. This by-law re-enacted the previous by-law, which had expired. 256. NFP Gas Works Amendment By- law, 1887. 7 January 1887. See NFP, 8 January 1887, 2. Goat - see Swine and Goat Governor General and Princess Louise - see Publ ic Reception 257. 15 Regulation of the Storage, Carriage and Disposal of Gun-powder and other explosives By- law, 1896. 189 22 June 1896. No. 26, pp. 78-9, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. Health - see Public Health Intox icat ing Liquors - see Sunday Observance Laundry Regulation - see Wash-house Licenses - see Revenue, Trades License 258. 113 Nanaimo Liquor License Regulation By- law, 1903. 28 December 1903. No. 13, pp. 44-5, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. 259. 120 Nanaimo Liquor License Regulation Amendment By- law, 1904. 21 December 1904. L iquors , Sale of - see Sunday Observance 260. 89 Loan Rates By-law, 1896. 27 July 1896. Loan Rates - see also Rate Reduction . Loans - see Annual Loan, Bastion Street Bridge, By-law, Commercial Street F i l l i n g , Crusher and Rock D r i l l , E l e c t r i c L igh t ing , F i re H a l l and Hydrant, Loan Rates, Publ ic Schools, Rate Reduction, Steam F i re Engine, Streets Improvement, Surplus Sinking Funds, Water Works 261. 95 Market Regulation By-law, 1901. 2 Ju ly 1901. 262. Mayor and Alderman's Remuneration By- law, 1891. 6 A p r i l 1891. Not located. Council aff i rmed t h i s by- law, although i t s a f f i rmat ion was probably not in order. A s imi la r by-law subsequently passed Counc i l ; however, the municipal e lectors defeated i t by a large major i ty . 263. 49 Mayor and Aldermen's Remuneration By- law, 1899. 26 December 1899. No. 14, pp. 45-6, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. 264. 18 Milk Inspection By-law, 1895. 2 December 1895. No. 15, pp. 46-50, in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. Monetary Grant - see Publ ic Ce lebrat ion , Publ ic 190 Reception, Water Survey Morals - see Publ ic Morals Municipal Council - see Rules of Order 265. 31 Municipal E l e c t i o n ' s Regulation and Ba l lo t Act , 1875. 20 December 1875. The municipal e lec t ion by-laws were enacted annual ly . They had the i r ef fect and were not repealed. 266. 32 Municipal E lect ion Regulation By-law, 1876. 18 December 1876. 267. Municipal E lect ion Regulation By-law for the year 1878. 31 December 1877. Not located. 268. 33 Municipal E lec t ion Regulation By-law for the year 1879. 30 December 1878. 269. 34 Municipal E lect ion Regulations By-law for the year 1880. 29 December 1879. 270. 35 Municipal E lect ion Regulation By-law for the year 1881. 20 December 1880. 271. 34] By-law to Regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1882, in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 2 January 1882 No short t i t l e . 272. 36 By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1883 in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 26 December 1882. No short t i t l e . 273. 36] By-law to Regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1884 in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 31 December 1883. 274. 37 By-law to Regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1885 in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 29 December 1884. 275. NFP By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1886 in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 21 December 1885. See NFP, 1 January 1886, 1. 191 276. 38 By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1887 in the C i ty of Nanaimo. 28 December 1886. 277. 39 By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1888 in the C i ty of Nanaimo. 19 December 1887. 278. 40 By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1889 in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 26 December 1888. 279. 41 By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1890 in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 30 December 1 889. 280. 42 By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1891 in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 29 December 1890. 281. 43 By-law to Regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1892 in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 14 December 1891. 282. BCG By-law to Regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1893 in the C i ty of Nanaimo. 19 December 1892. See BCG 33 (5 January 1893): 18. 283. 44 By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1894 in the Ci ty of Nanaimo. 26 December 1893. 284. 45 By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1895 in the C i ty of Nanaimo. 7 January 1895. 285. 46 By-law to regulate the Municipal E lec t ion for the year 1896. 30 December 1895. 286. 48 E lec t ion By-law, 1898. 27 December 1897. 287. 47 Municipal E lectors By- law, 1896. 10 November 1896, The municipal e lectors by-laws were enacted annual ly . They had the i r effect and were not repealed. 288. BCG Municipal E lectors By- law, 1898. 12 December 1898, See BCG 38 (22 December 1898): 2524. 289. Municipal E lectors By- law, 1899. 26 December 1899, 1 92 Not located. 290. 93 Municipal E lectors By- law, 1900. 17 December 1900. 291. 101 Municipal E lectors By- law, 1901. 23 December 1901. 292. Municipal O f f i ce rs E lec t ion Regulation By- law, 1887. 6 January 1888. Not located. 293. BCG O f f i c i a l s ' Appointment By-law, 1897. 1 March 1897. See BCG 37 (4 March 1897): 927-8. Nanaimo E l e c t r i c L igh t , Power and Heating Company,  Limited - see E l e c t r i c L ight ing Nanaimo E l e c t r i c Light-works Company - see E l e c t r i c Light ing Nanaimo E l e c t r i c Tramway Company - see Streets Railway Nanaimo F i re Company - see By-law, F i r e H a l l and Hydrant Nanaimo L i te ra ry Ins t i tu te - see By-law Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery - see Publ ic Cemetery Nanaimo Trades Associat ion - see Water Survey Nanaimo Water Works Company, Limited - see Water Works Noxious Weeds - see Th i s t l e Nuisance - see Butchering and Nuisance O f f i c i a l s , Appointment of - see Municipal O f f i ce rs E lect ion Regulation Pound - see Ci ty Pound 294. 92 Prevention of the Cruelty to Animals By-law, 1900. 19 November 1900. Copy also in archives vau l t . No. 19, pp. 56-7 , in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. 295. NFP By-law to grant a port ion of the Municipal Revenue in a id of the Publ ic Celebration of the Anniversary of the B i r t h of Her Majesty the Queen, 1881. 1 93 20 May 1881. See NFP, 21 May 1881, 3. No short t i t l e . 296. NFP By-law to grant a port ion of the Municipal Revenue in a id of the Publ ic Celebrat ion of the B i r t h of Her Majesty the Queen, 1882. 22 May 1882. See NFP, 24 May 1882, 2. No short t i t l e . 297. NFP By-law to grant a port ion of the Municipal Revenue in a id of the Publ ic Celebration of the Anniversary of the B i r t h of Her Majesty the Queen, 1883. 14 May 1883. See NFP, 19 May 1883, 2. No short t i t l e . 298. By-law to authorize the expenditure of a sum of money not exceeding one hundred do l la rs in a id of the Celebration of the next anniversary of the b i r t h of Her Majesty the Queen, 1884. 19 May 1884. Not located. 299. 1B Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery By- law, 1881. 29 August 1881 . No. 23, pp. 69-73, in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. Amended by 1882 by-law and no. 100. 300. NFP By-law to amend the "Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery By-law, 1881," 1882. 18 December 1882. See NFP, 20 December 1882, 2. Amended by no. 94. Repealed by no. 115. 301. 94 Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery Amendment By-law, 1900. 13 August 1900. No. 24, pp. 73-4, in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. Repealed by no. 115. 302. 100 Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery Amendment By-law, 1901. 9 December 1901. No. 25, pp. 75-8 , in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. Amended by no. 115. 303. 115 Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery Amendment By-law, 1904. 2 May 1904. 304. NN Publ ic Health By-law of the C i ty of Nanaimo, 1890. 7 A p r i l 1890. 194 Missing according to [By-laws Reg is te r ] . No. 20, pp. 57-67, in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. 305. NN Publ ic Health Amendment By-law, 1890. 17 November 1890. Missing according to [By-laws Reg is te r ] , No. 21, pp. 67-8 , in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. 306. NN Publ ic Health Amendment By-law, 1891. 27 A p r i l 1891. Missing according to [By-laws Reg is te r ] . No. 22, pp. 68-9 , in Nanaimo C i ty By-Laws, 1904. Amended by 1896 by- law. 307. BCG Publ ic Health Amendment By-law, 1896. 17 February 1896. See BCG 36 (27 February 1896): 245. Publ ic Health - see also Contagious Diseases, Swine and Goat 308. 70 Publ ic Morals By-law, 1890. 8 December 1890. Superseded by no.. 56. 309. 56 Publ ic Morals Amendment By- law, 1895. 9 January 1896. Copy also in archives v a u l t . No. 18, pp. 53-6, in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. 310. NFP By-law to grant a port ion of the Municipal Revenue, in a id of the publ ic reception of His Excellency the Governor General and Princess Louise, 1882. 18 September 1882. See NFP, 23 September 1882, 2. No short t i t l e . 311. 64 Erect ion of Publ ic Schools By-law, 1892. 13 June 1892. Amended by no. 86, no. 91 (Entry 315) and no. 89 (Entry 260). 312. 86 Schools' Rate reduction By- law, 1892. 5 September 1892. Superseded by no. 91 (Entry 315). Repealed by no. 89 (Entry 260). Queen's Birthday Celebration - see Publ ic 195 Celebration 313. 57 Nanaimo Railway By- law, 1884. 27 October 1884. Railway - see also Streets Railway 314. 87 Rate reduction By- law, 1892. 5 September 1892. Superseded by no. 91. Repealed by no. 89 (Entry 260) . 315. 91 Rate Reduction By- law, 1893. 28 August 1893. Superseded by no. 89 (Entry 260). Rate Reduction - see a lso Bastion Street Bridge, F i re H a l l and Hydrant, Publ ic Schools, Street Improvements Rates - see Taxation Real Estate Assessments - see Appeals, Assessment R o l l 316. 75 Real Estate Tax By- law, 1890. 29 September 1890. The real estate tax by-laws were enacted annual ly . They had the i r e f fec t and were not repealed. 317. 76 Real Estate Tax By- law, 1891. 14 September 1891. 318. BCG Real Estate Tax By- law, 1892. 3 October 1892. See BCG 32 (13 October 1892): 1031. 319. 77 Real Estate Tax By- law, 1893. 21 August 1893. 320. BCG Real Estate Tax By- law, 1894. 30 July 1894. See BCG 34 (2 August 1894): 713. 321. 78 Real Estate Tax By- law, 1895. 26 August 1895. 322. 79 Real Estate Tax By- law, 1896. 22 June 1896. 323. 80 Real Estate Tax Amendment By-law, 1896. 10 November 1896. 324. 81 Real Estate Tax By- law, 1897. 28 June 1897. 325. BCG Real Estate Tax Amendment By-law, 1897. 26 October 1897. See BCG 37 (28 October 1897): 3304-5. 1 96. 326. 82 Real Estate Tax By - law, 1898. 1 August 1898. 327 . 83 Real Estate Tax By - law, 1899. 17 July 1899. 328. 84 Real Estate Tax By - law, 1 900. 23 July 1900. 329. Real Estate Tax By - law, 1 901 . 5 August 1 901 . Not located • 330. 1 03 Real Estate Tax By - law, 1 902. 21 July 1902. 331 . 1 08 Real Estate Tax By - law, 1 903. 29 June 1903. 332. 1 1 7 Real Estate Tax By - law, 1904. 18 July 1 904. Real Estate Tax - see a lso Revenue 333. BCG Nanaimo Real Estate Tax Sale By-law, 1895. 3 September 1895. See BCG 35 (12 September 1895): 842-3. The real estate tax sale by-laws were enacted annually . They had the i r e f fect and were not repealed. 334. BCG Nanaimo Real Estate Tax Sale By-law, 1896. 31 August 1896. See BCG 36 (10 September 1896): 1286-7. 335. BCG Nanaimo Real Estate Tax Sale By-law, 1897. 28 June 1897. See BCG 37 (2 July 1897): 2664. 336. BCG Nanaimo Real Estate Tax Sale By-law, 1898. 1 5 August '1 898 . See BCG 38 (13 October 1898): 2096. 337. Nanaimo Real Estate Tax Sale By-law, 1899. 6 November 1899. Not located. 338. 97 Nanaimo Real Estate Tax Sale By-law, 1901. 21 October 1901. 339. 110 Nanaimo Real Estate Tax Sale By-law, 1903. 2 November 1903. 1 97 340. 119 Nanaimo Real Estate Tax Sale By- law, 1904. 31 October 1904. Reception - see Publ ic Reception Referendum - see Scavengering, Wards Remuneration, Mayor and Aldermen's - see Mayor 341. NFP Nanaimo Revenue By-law, 1875. 10 June 1875. See NFP, 12 June 1875, 2. This by-law would appear to have been repealed by the 1876 by- law. 342. NFP Nanaimo Revenue By-law, 1876. 28 June 1876. See NFP, 26 July 1876, 2. Amended by 1877 by-laws and 1879 by- law. This by-law would appear to have been f i r s t repealed by the 1878 by- law. 343. NFP Nanaimo Revenue Amendment By-law, 1877. 21 May 1877. See NFP, 30 May 1877, 2. Repealed by 1877 by- law. 344. NFP Nanaimo Revenue Amendment By- law, 1877. 2 July 1877. See NFP, 7 July 1877, 2. 345. Revenue By- law, 1878. 8 A p r i l 1878. Not located. This by-law would appear to have been f i r s t repealed by the 1881 by- law. 346. NFP Nanaimo Revenue Amendment By- law, 1879. 30 June 1879. See NFP, 5 July 1879, 2. 347. NFP Nanaimo Revenue By-law, 1881. 27 June 1881. See NFP, 25 June 1881, 4. Repealed by 1882 by- law. 348. NFP Nanaimo Revenue By-law, 1882. 3 July 1882. See NFP, 1 July 1882, 1. Repealed by 1885 by- law. 349. BCG Nanaimo Revenue By- law, 1885. 6 July 1885. See BCG 25 (20 August 1885): 308. Repealed by 1887 by- law. 350. Revenue By- law, 1887. 25 A p r i l 1887. 198 Not located. Although af f i rmed, t h i s by-law would not appear to have become law, as i t was not repealed by the 1887 by-law affirmed on 29 August. 351. BCG Nanaimo Revenue By-law, 1887. 29 August 1887. See BCG 27 (6 October 1887): 521-2. Repealed by 1888 by- law. 352. NFP Nanaimo Revenue By-law, 1888. 20 August 1888. See NFP, 25 August 1888, 2. Repealed by 1889 by-law . 353. BCG Nanaimo Revenue By-law, 1889. 13 August 1889. See BCG 29 (29 August 1889): 547-8. Repealed by 1890 by- law. 354. BCG Nanaimo Revenue By-law, 1890. 9 June 1890. See BCG 30 (12 June 1890): 546-7. Repealed by 1893 by- law. 355. BCG Nanaimo Revenue By-law, 1893. 31 July 1893. See BCG 33 (10 August 1893): 622-3. Repealed by no. 73 (Entry 382). Revenue - see also Expenditure, Trades License 356. NFP Return of the Road Tax Assessment R o l l By- law, 1887. 11 November 1887. See NFP, 12 November 1887, 2. 357. NFP By-law f i x i n g the date of hearing appeals against the Road Tax Assessment R o l l for the year 1887. 28 November 1887. See NFP, 3 December 1887, 2. 358. 107 Nanaimo Road Tax By-law, 1903. 15 June 1903. No. 27, pp. 79-80, in. Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. Road Tax - see also Revenue, Statute Labour Rock D r i l l - see Crusher 359. 1 Rules of Order By-law, 1875. 8 February 1875. Repealed by no. 2. 1 99 By-law for the regulat ion and general conduct of business of the Municipal Counc i l , 1891. 22 June 1891 . A copy of th i s by-law as i t was published in pamphlet form is f i l e d with the o r i g i n a l by- law: Rules of Order for Regulating the Meetings and  General Business of the Municipal Counc i l . Nanaimo: Free Press Steam P r i n t , 1891, 6 pp. Repealed by no. 109. Counci l By-law, 1903. 21 September 1903. Although the o r i g i n a l of t h i s by-law is miss ing, the [By-laws Register] indicates that i t was by-law no. 109. No. 4, pp. 6-28, in Nanaimo City By-Laws,  1 904. Scavengering By- law, 1903. 21 September 1903. Not located. This by-law was aff i rmed before the municipal e lectors voted upon the question of the undertaking of such work by the Counc i l . The by-law did not receive the i r assent, so did not become law. Referendum By-law, 1903. 4 January 1904. Not located. This by-law provided for a referendum on the question of the c i t y scavengering being undertaken by the Municipal Counc i l . School Bui ldings - see Publ ic Schools School S i tes - see Publ ic Schools Sinking Funds - see Surplus Sinking Funds Slaughterhouse - .see Butchering and Nuisance Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals -see Prevention of the Cruelty to Animals Specia l Rates - see Loan Rates, Rate Reduction Statute Labour By- law, 1880. 29 March 1880. Not located. Statute Labour - see also Road Tax Steam F i re Engine Loan By-law, 1899. 12 June 1899. Stovepipe - see Chimney 200 Nanaimo Street By-law, 1875.' 5 March 1875. Repealed by no. 12. Nanaimo Streets Amendment By- law, 1879. 12 May 1879. Repealed by no. 12. Nanaimo Street By-law, 1888. 26 December 1888. Repealed by no. 12. Streets By-law, 1894. 9 A p r i l 1894. No. 28, pp. 81 -5 , in Nanaimo Ci ty By-Laws, 1904. Street Conveyance and Exchange By-law No. 1 of 1893. 5 June 1893. Streets Improvement Loan By- law, 1890. 5 May 1890. Copy also in archives v a u l t . Amended by no. 88, no. 87 (Entry 314), no. 91 (Entry 315), and no. 89 (Entry 260). Reduction of the Special Rate imposed by the "Streets Improvement Loan By- law, 1890," 1891. 1 October 1891. Superseded by no. 87 (Entry 314). Streets L ight ing - see E l e c t r i c L ight ing Nanaimo Streets Railway By- law, 1890. 9 January 1891. Not located. Sunday Closing - see Barber's Shop Sunday Closing Nanaimo Sunday Observance, Regulation of Sale of L iquors , Suppression of Gambling By- law, 1876. 4 September 1876. Repealed by no. 4. C i ty of Nanaimo By-law for Regulation of the sale of in tox ica t ing Liquors by r e t a i l of 1880. 22 March 1880. Repealed by no. 4. 201 Sunday Observance and Regulation of the Sale of Intox icat ing Liquors By-law, 1888. 9 July 1888. Repealed by no. 5. Sunday Observance By-law, 1895. 30 .December 1895. By-law to Authorize the using of Surplus Sinking  Funds, 1901. 26 August 1901. A copy of a pr inted advertisement regarding the voting to be held on th i s by-law i s f i l e d with the by- law. Surveyor - see Ci ty Surveyor Nanaimo Swine and Goat By-law, 1876. 13 November 1876. Superseded by the Publ ic Health By-law of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, 1890 (Entry 304). Tax Sale - see Real Estate Tax Sale Taxation - see Dog Tax, F i re Insurance Companies' Tax, Loan Rates, Loans, Rate Reduction, Real Estate Tax, Real Estate Tax Sale , Revenue, Road Tax Temporary Loans - see Annual Loan Th is t le By-law, 1883. 24 September 1883. Copy also in archives vau l t . Superseded by no. 53. Noxious Weeds By-law, 1898. 6 June 1898. Copy also in archives vau l t . No. 16, pp. 51-2, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. Trades License By-law, 1897. 5 July 1897. No. 29, pp. 85-90, in Nanaimo C i ty By-Laws, 1904. Trades License Amendment By- law, 1898. 7 March 1898. No. 30, pp. 9 0 - 1 , in Nanaimo C i ty By-Laws, 1904. License Amendment By-law, 1898. 4 July 1898. No. 31, pp. 91 -2, in Nanaimo C i ty By-Laws, 1904. Trades License - see also Revenue 202 Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, Limited -see Esplanade 385. 54 Nanaimo City Wards By-law, 1878. 16 December 1878, No. 5, pp. 28-9 , in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. • 386. 104 Nanaimo Referendum By-law, 1902. 5 January 1903. This by-law provided for a referendum on the question of the a b o l i t i o n of the ward system. 387. 98 Wash-house and Laundry Regulation By- law, 1901. 18 November 1901. Copy also in archives v a u l t . No. 32, pp. 92-5, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. 388. NFP Water Survey By-law, 1884. 29 September 1884. See NFP, 1 October 1884, 2. Water Works Improvements - see Surplus Sinking Funds 389. 68 Water Works Purchase Loan By-law, 1899. 18 September 1899. Amended by no. 69. Superseded by no. 69] . 390. 69 Nanaimo Waterworks Purchase By-law, 1900. 10 September . 1900. Superseded by no. 69]. 391. 69] Water Works Purchase By- law, 1900. 17 December 1900. 392. 112 Water-Works Regulation By- law, 1903. 28 December 1903. No. 33, pp. 96-103, in Nanaimo City By-Laws, 1904. Weeds - see Th is t le 203 SERIES: CONTRACTS, 1899, 2 ITEMS. 3 5 8  UNIT: LEGAL DOCKET. Accession No. : 28. Locat ion: Boxes 77, 79. The items described below are proposals and contracts for the procurement of equipment. ITEM: Entry : Doc. : 393. 77.32 Tender by.the Waterous Engine Works L t d . , 13 June 1899, to supply to the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo one Buffalo P i t t s Double Cyl inder Engine Steam Road R o l l e r , 4 pp. 394. 79.41 Carbon copy of a proposal made by the Waterous Engine Works Co. , L t d . , Brantford, Canada, 1899, to supply to the Board of F i r e Wardens, V i c t o r i a , BC, one Waterous Patent V e r t i c a l Piston Steam F i re Engine, 3 pp. SERIES: LEGAL AGREEMENTS, 1891-1899, 4 ENVELOPES. 3 5 9  UNIT: LEGAL DOCKET. Accession No. : 28?. Locat ion: Boxes 75, 79. This ser ies cons is ts of agreements and contracts for se rv i ces ; and memorandums of agreement and a court order regarding the a c q u i s i t i o n of the property of the Nanaimo Water Works Company, L imi ted . Entry : Env. : 395. 79.38 Contract between the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo and the E l e c t r i c Works (Alexander Shaw, Nanaimo, p r o p r i e t o r ) , 22 September 1891, to provide e l e c t r i c street l i g h t i n g as s t ipu la ted for a period of f i ve years, 2 pp. 396. 75.135 Agreement between the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo and the Nanaimo E l e c t r i c Light Works (Joseph Hunter, V i c t o r i a , p ropr ie to r ) , 1 February 3 5 8 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-006; Contracts Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 3 5 9 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-007; Legal Agreements Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 204 1893, regarding arc and incandescent l i g h t p lants , to-, have ef fect for a period of f i ve years, 3 pp. 397. 75.141 Agreement between the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo and A.R. Heyland, C i v i l Engineer, Nanaimo, 11 September 1893, regarding the re-survey of the C i t y . Envelope also contains bonds. 398. 79.32 Memorandum of agreement between the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo and the Nanaimo Water Works Company, L imi ted , 12 December 1899, regarding settlement of waterworks purchase pr ice by a r b i t r a t i o n , 6 pp. Envelope also contains s imi la r memorandums of agreement dated 11 A p r i l 1900 and 24 A p r i l 1900 extending the period in which the a r b i t r a t o r s had to publ ish award, and a SCBC court order in Pimbury vs . Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo, 19 A p r i l 1901, served upon the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo and R. Wilson Smith by Edwin Pimbury and Thomas D. Jones on behalf of themselves and a l l other ratepayers of the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, except the Mayor and Aldermen named. SERIES: DEEDS, 1890-1893, 2 ENVELOPES. 3 6 0 UNIT: LEGAL DOCKET. Accession No. : 28. Locat ion: Boxes 75, 84. This ser ies contains documents regarding land conveyances, the surrender of a lease, and bonds. Entry: Env. : 399. 75.55 Deed from Lord Bishop of Columbia and the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, Limited to the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo, 9 August 1890, conveying a part of the Episcopal Church property for the Church Street widening, 6 pp. Envelope also contains a surrender of lease from Thomas W. Glaholm and Angus R. Johnston to the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo, 6 September 1890, regarding the Church Street widening, 6 pp . , 3 6 0 Cf. VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-009; Deeds Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 205 and a re lated deed made in 1916. 400. 84.18 Copy of a bond made between the Corporation of the Ci ty of Nanaimo and Richard Gibson in consideration of $200, 30 September 1893, regarding a port ion of lo t 3, block 59, required for the widening of Commercial S t reet . A drawing by A.R. Heyland dated May 1893 i s attached. SERIES: UNDERMINING DOCUMENTS, 1895-1901, 9 ENVELOPES. 3 6 1 UNIT: LEGAL DOCKET. Accession No. : 28?. Locat ion: Box 84. This ser ies consists of statutory dec la ra t ions , correspondence, maps, p r o f i l e plans, and sketches made by old- t ime residents and miners, regarding the undermining of parts of Nanaimo by coal workings and the danger of construct ing br ick or stone bui ld ings over those areas. The "Nanaimo F i re L imit By- law, 1894," and subsequent b y - l a w s , 3 6 2 prohib i ted the further construct ion of wooden bui ld ings within defined l i m i t s , unless i t could be proved- that the erect ion of a stone bu i ld ing would be dangerous due to the undermining of the property. Entry: Env. : 401. 84.26 Statutory declarat ion of Adam Grant Home, 16 August 1895, regarding the undermining of lo ts 1, 2, and 3, block 58, 2 pp. 402. 84.23 A f f i d a v i t of Mark Bate, JP , 17 August 1895, regarding the undermining of l o t s 1, 2, and 3, block 58, 2 pp. 403. 84.25 Letter from Barker and Pot ts , B a r r i s t e r s , Nanaimo, 19 August 1895, to the Mayor and Council to inquire on behalf of A.R. Johnston and Company regarding the improvement and erect ion of bui ld ings on lo t s 1, 2, and 3, block 58, which are undermined, 1 p. 404. 84.32 A f f i d a v i t of A l f red Rowley Heyland, 19 August 1895, regarding the undermining of l o t s 1, 2, and 3, block 58, 2 pp. Envelope also contains a sketch plan by 3 6 1 A corresponding VIP ser ies does not e x i s t . 3 6 2 App. J/247-250. 206 A.R. Heyland. 405. 84.28 Letter from C.N. Westwood, Receiver, H i r s t ' s Estate , Nanaimo, 19 August 1895, to Mayor and Aldermen, requesting permission to construct a wooden b u i l d i n g on l o t s 5 and 6, block 61, to accommodate the l icense of the la te Nanaimo Hote l , 1 p. Envelope a l so contains re lated documents: Letter from A.R. Heyland, 18 August 1895, to C.N. Westwood, regarding undermining of property; p r o f i l e plan by A.R. Heyland, 13 September 1895, showing undermining; and a f f i d a v i t of John Thompson, 23 September 1895, regarding undermining. 406. 84.24 Letter from George Cavalsky, Secretary, Nanaimo F i re Department, 9 March 1896, to the Ci ty Counc i l , asking permission to erect on the s i t e of the old f i r e h a l l (part of lo t 7, corner of Commercial and Wharf S t ree ts , adjoining the H i rs t Estate) a wooden bu i ld ing for the purpose of holding f i r e apparatus, 1 p. 407. 84.27 A f f i d a v i t of John Thompson, 16 March 1896, regarding the undermining of lo t 7, block 61, 1 p. 408. 84.30 A f f i d a v i t of John Thompson, 2 July 1900, regarding the undermining of lo t 8, block 57, 1 p. 409. 84.29 A f f i d a v i t of Jesse Sage, 11 March 1901, regarding the undermining of property on which i s erected the bu i ld ing known as the "old Methodist Church" in block 55 fac ing Chapel and Front S t reets , 1 p. 207 SERIES: TAX SALE DEEDS, 1900-1906, 2 CM. 3 6 3 UNIT: SOFTCOVERED VOLUME. Accession No. : ? . Locat ion: Open shelv ing . These conveyances were executed by the Mayor and C i ty Clerk to the purchasers of property at tax sale auct ions, a f ter a l l of the condit ions required by statutory law had been f u l f i l l e d . Entry: 410. Form of Tax Deed Book, 6 July 1900 to 28 March 1906, indentures 1-24 completed. 3 6 3 This ser ies i s subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 006-005; Tax Sales Series in Sub-group: Nanaimo, Finance Department, Taxation and U t i l i t i e s D i v i s i o n . 208 APPENDIX K - CNA: CITY ASSESSOR RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. CITY ASSESSOR. 3 6 4 SERIES: REAL ESTATE ASSESSMENT ROLLS, 1875-1905, 41 CM. 3 6 5 UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. The dimensions of these r o l l s vary to 38x51x5 cm. From at least 1881, the assessment r o l l was arranged by c i t y ward. The assessment r o l l s for 1875-1891 contain columns for these items: block, l o t , admeasurement, s t ree t , names, land assessment, improvements assessment, a l t e r a t i o n by court of r e v i s i o n , t o t a l , ar rears , tax , rece ip ts , amount pa id , amount due, and remarks. Improvements were only assessed in 1887. The court of rev is ion column i s blank throughout the r o l l s for several years. The remarks column was most extensively used in 1875, when the type of improvements on each c i t y lo t was noted there. The 1892-1895 r o l l s contain add i t iona l columns for ra te , amount i f paid by 1st December . . . , date of not i ce , and address. They omit the improvements assessment column. The 1894-1895 r o l l s further ref ine date of notice to date of notices sent by assessor and c o l l e c t o r . The 1895 r o l l s p l i t s amount due into that due for 1894 and that due for 1895, and ref ines rate to general , schools, and sanitary rates . The 1896-1899 r o l l s contain the same items as found in the 1895 r o l l , with the exception that the sanitary rate i s c a l l e d the board of health ra te . The columns of the 1896-1897 r o l l s are very incomplete; those r o l l s were reconstructed a f te r the o r i g i n a l s were, together with a number of c o l l e c t i o n r o l l s , muti lated in the Ci ty C o l l e c t o r ' s o f f i c e in November 1897. The 1898-1899 r o l l s are very complete, with page t o t a l s and a recap i tu la t ion of outstanding taxes and page addit ions at the end of each r o l l . 3 6 4 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 000-000; Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. 3 6 5 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 006-008; Assessment Ro l l s Series in Sub-group: Nanaimo, Finance Department, Taxation and U t i l i t i e s . D i v i s i o n . Access ion No. : 29. Locat ion: Open shelv ing . 209 The 1900-1905 r o l l s contain e s s e n t i a l l y the same columns as those for 1896-1899, with the exception of an add i t iona l amount due column. The address column of the 1901 r o l l appears to have been used as an improvements assessment column, but the amounts entered therein were subsequently erased; addresses were sometimes noted in the remarks column. In the 1904-1905 r o l l s , the land assessment column i s c l e a r l y d iv ided into land assessment and improvements assessment, although improvements were not assessed during those years. . The 1900-1905 r o l l s are very complete, with page t o t a l s , and a balance synopsis and recap i tu la t ion of page addit ions at the end of each r o l l . Postal addresses were usual ly only noted where notices were to be sent to an ind iv idual other than the land owner and in the case of absentee owners. Entry 411. Real Estate Assessment R o l l , 1 875-1880, 1 93 pp. 412. Real Estate Assessment R o l l , 1881- 1886, 214 pp. 413. Assessment R o l l , 1 887-1 891 , 249 pp • 414. Assessment R o l l , 1892- 1893, 101 pp • 415. Assessment R o l l , 1894- 1895, 127 pp • 416. Assessment R o l l , 1896- 1897, 1 1 3 pp • 417. Assessment R o l l , 1 898-1899, 109 pp • 418. Real Estate Assessment R o l l , 1.900- 1901 , 1 23 pp. 419. Assessment R o l l , 1 902-1903, 131 pp • 420. Real Estate Assessment R o l l , 1904-1905, 131 pp. 210 APPENDIX L - CNA: CITY COLLECTOR RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. CITY COLLECTOR.3 6 6 SERIES: CASH BOOKS, 1874-1888, 9 C M . 3 6 7 UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Accession No. : 3. Locat ion : Open shelv ing . The f i r s t entry in the 1874-1881 volume notes moneys c o l l e c t e d and handed over to the Corporation by Mr. T .L . Fawcett, Government Agent, in January 1875. These general cash books record the receipts and expenditures of the Corporation. The l icense fees, and real es tate , dog, horse, and road taxes co l lec ted are recorded in d e t a i l . A monthly recap i tu la t ion was made on the receipts page. A cemetery cash recap i tu la t ion was often also made. In the 1881-1888 volume, cemetery cash would appear to continue to 1888 year end. Entry: 421. Cash Book, 14 December 1874 to November 1881, 458 pp. 422. [Cash Book], December 1881 to August 1888, 641 pp. SERIES: TAX SALE RECORDS, 1895-1912, 2 C M . 3 6 8 Accession No. : ? . Locat ion : Open shelv ing . SUB-SERIES: TAX SALES SUMMARY, 1895-1912. UNIT: LOOSE MATERIAL. This handwritten summary i s arranged by tax sale and includes 3 6 6 This record group i s subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 000-000; Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. 3 6 7 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 001-007; Cash Books Series in Sub-group: Nanaimo, Finance Department, Accounts Payable D i v i s i o n . 3 6 8 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 006-005; Tax Sales Ser ies in Sub-group: Nanaimo, Finance Department, Taxation and U t i l i t i e s D i v i s i o n . 21 1 columns for the fol lowing items: date of tax s a l e ; l o t ; b lock; port ion s o l d ; amount of taxes; cos ts ; date to which taxes were due; name of person to whom so ld ; date of confirmation of s a l e ; i f redeemed, by whom; date of such redemption; i f deed issued, to whom; and date of deed issue . Entry: 423. Tax Sales , 28 December 1895 to 14 September 1912, 4 sheets, located inside the front cover of the softcovered volume described in Entry 424. SUB-SERIES: TAX SALE CERTIFICATES, 1895-1905. UNIT: SOFTCOVERED VOLUME. These c e r t i f i c a t e s conform to the requirements of sect ion 181 of the "Municipal Act , 18 9 2 . " 3 6 9 They record the date of the tax sale held by the City C o l l e c t o r , the legal descr ip t ion of the land so ld , the t o t a l arrears of taxes for which i t was so ld , and the expenses of the s a l e . They note that i f the property was not redeemed a deed would be executed on demand one year from the date of confirmation of the sale by a Judge of the SCBC. Entry: 424. C e r t i f i c a t e of Sale of Land for Taxes Due the Corporation of the City of Nanaimo, 28 December 1895 to 8 March 1901, 83/100 c e r t i f i c a t e s issued, some c e r t i f i c a t e s missing. UNIT: LOOSE MATERIAL. These c e r t i f i c a t e s record land sold at the 1903-1905 tax sa les . They conform to the requirements of the "Municipal Clauses A c t , " RSBC, 1 8 9 7 , 3 7 0 and amending ac ts . In addit ion to the information which the 1895-1901 tax sale c e r t i f i c a t e s record, these c e r t i f i c a t e s record the amount of interest on arrears of taxes. They also note cer ta in costs which had to be paid before a deed would be issued. Entry: 425. C e r t i f i c a t e of Sale of Land for Taxes. Due and in Arrear to the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo, 31 March 1904 to 1 February 1905, 6 sheets, located ins ide the front cover of the softcovered volume described in Entry 424. 3 6 9 App. B/72. 3 7 0 App. B/76. 212 APPENDIX M - CNA: CITY TREASURER RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. CITY TREASURER.3 7 1 SERIES: SINKING FUND ACCOUNTS, 1894-1900, 4 C M . 3 7 2 UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. In order to provide better access to the contents of th i s volume, the separate accounts are itemized below. The accounts have columns for date, explanation, amount, and t o t a l . An evaluation of business improvements was subsequently recorded in t h i s volume, as noted below. Entry: V o l . : 426. 7 Separate Accounts of the Consolidated Special Rates' Sinking Fund Account, Fo l io 23 of Ledger, Showing the Deposits to each Account and Withdrawals, 28 July 1894 to 31 December 1900, some of f i r s t 75/700 pp. used. This volume also conta ins : [Business improvements evaluation sheets] , c a . 1930-1933, pp. 80-101. L i z Giovando referred to th is as a " L i s t of Businesses, c a . 1930." 427. St reets ' Improvement Loan Account.1890, payable June 2nd 1940, 31 December 1894 to 31 December 1900, f o l i o 2, pp. 2 - 3 . 428. Bastion Street Bridge Loan Account 1890, payable 15th November 1901, 28 July 1894 to 31 December 1900, f o l i o 30, pp. 30- 1 . 3 7 1 This record group i s subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 000-000; Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. 3 7 2 It i s not c lear where th i s volume i s included in the VIP survey. Accession No. : Locat ion : Open shelv ing . ITEM: Entry: 213 429. Erection of F i re H a l l and Hydrant Loan By-law Account 1892, payable 1st July 1902, 29 July 1894 to 31 December 1900, f o l i o 40, pp. 40 -1 . 430. Erection of Publ ic Schools' Loan By-law Account 1892, payable 1st July 1902, 28 July 1894 to 31 December 1900, f o l i o 50, pp. 50 -1 . 431. Rock D r i l l and Crusher Loan By-law Account 1892, payable 1st January 1895, 31 December 1894 to 30 June 1895, f o l i o 60, pp. 60- 1 . 432. Commercial Street F i l l i n g By-law Loan Account 1894, payable November 15th 1914, 31 December 1895 to 31 December 1900, f o l i o 64, pp. 64-5 . 433. Steam F i re Engine Loan By-law Account 1899, payable 1st July 1904, 31 December 1899 to 31 December 1900, f o l i o 70, pp. 70 -1 . 434. Special Rates' Sinking Fund Account of Interest Accruing to i t , 31 March 1895 to 30 September 1897, f o l i o 74, pp. 74 -5 . SERIES: GENERAL JOURNAL, 1896-1926, 5 C M . 3 7 3 UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Accession No. : ? . Locat ion : Open she lv ing . This volume provides a month-end f i n a n c i a l summary for the years 1896-1897 during which time i t was audited monthly by Tu l ly Boyce, C i ty Auditor . Thereafter, f i n a n c i a l summaries are sporadic ( i . e . , not a l l months). L i s t s of receipts and expenditures are often d e t a i l e d . They give, for example, the aggregate amounts of po l i ce court fees, and road and dog taxes c o l l e c t e d ; they explain payments on loans; and they provide a summary of departmental expenses. Assets and l i a b i l i t i e s accounts ind icate depreciat ion on municipal property. Transfers between various accounts i l l u s t r a t e the municipal accounting system. Entry: 435. Journal , 1 January 1896 to 31 December 1926, 600 pp. 3 7 3 Cf. VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 001-004; Journal Voucher Proofs Series in Sub-group: Nanaimo, Finance Department, Accounts Payable D i v i s i o n . 214 SERIES: DEBENTURE RECORDS, 1905-1929, 11 C M . 3 7 " UNIT: BINDER. Accession No. : ? . Locat ion: Open shelv ing . Cancelled interest coupons from three loan debenture issues are glued to the pages of t h i s binder. The f i r s t hal f of the binder contains coupons 72 to 25 (bearing interest semi-annually from 1 January 1905 to 1 July 1928) from debentures 1-90 issued under the "Streets Improvement Loan By-law, 1890 . " 3 7 5 Although the by-law t i t l e i s not indicated on the interest coupons, nor elsewhere in the binder, i t has been determined from the signatures of the Mayor and C i ty Clerk on the coupons, the amount of i n t e r e s t , e tc . This binder a lso contains redeemed debenture coupons issued under the "High School Debenture By-law, 1921," bearing interest from 15 December 1921 to 15 December 1928, and the "Publ ic Schools Erect ion By-law, 1911,," bearing in terest from 1 August 1912 to 1 August 1928. For each debenture issue, coupons are arranged by debenture number and then chrono log ica l l y . This binder i s very dusty-due to deter io rat ion of the glue used to fasten the coupons. Entry : 436. Cancelled Coupons: General , 1 January 1905 to c a . 1929, no paginat ion. 3 7 " Cf. VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 001-009; Debenture Records Series in Sub-group: Nanaimo, Finance Department, Accounts Payable D i v i s i o n . 3 7 5 App. J/371. 215 APPENDIX N - CNA: FINANCE COMMITTEE RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. FINANCE COMMITTEE.3 7 6 SERIES: ESTIMATES, 1895, 2 ITEMS. 3 7 7  UNIT: FILE FOLDER. Not accessioned. Locat ion : Open shelv ing . F i l e : Estimates, 1895. ITEM: Entry: 437. Estimated Receipts and Expenditure, n . d . , 1 sheet. 438. Estimated Of f ice Expenses, D e t a i l e d , n . d . , 1 sheet. SERIES: ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORTS, 1901-1904, 1 C M . 3 7 8 UNIT: PAMPHLET. Accession No. : ? . Locat ion : Box 121. The annual f i n a n c i a l statements for. 1901 were the f i r s t to be pr inted in pamphlet form for d i s t r i b u t i o n to the ratepayers. Although the C i ty Clerk was involved in the actual p r i n t i n g of the pamphlet, the Finance Committee would appear to have been responsible for i t s preparation and presentation to C o u n c i l . 3 7 9 The pr inted report for 1901 contained l i s t s of the mayor, aldermen and c i t y o f f i c i a l s , and statements of receipts and expenditure, v i z . : Streets and Bridges, Po l i ce Department, F i r e Department, C i ty O f f i c e s , Board of Health , Court House and J a i l , Waterworks Department, Schools, Nanaimo Ci ty School Trustees, Nanaimo Cemetery, and Miscel laneous. From 1902, the wri t ten reports of the Street Committee, F i r e Wardens, Chief of the F i re Department, Chief of P o l i c e , Waterworks Committee, Medical Health O f f i c e r , and other ind iv idua ls and committees were 3 7 6 Cf. VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 000-000; Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. 3 7 7 These items are not i d e n t i f i e d by the VIP survey. 3 7 8 Cf . VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 000-002; Annual F inanc ia l Statements Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. 3 7 9 CNA, CCN, CM, 29 February 1904, 123. 216 incorporated into the annual pr inted reports . Entry : 439. Annual F inanc ia l Report of the Corporation of the C i ty of  Nanaimo, B r i t i s h Columbia, for the Year Ending December  31st, 1901. Nanaimo: Fress Press, 1902, no paginat ion. 440.. Annual F inanc ia l Report of the Corporation of the Ci ty of  Nanaimo, B r i t i s h Columbia. For the Year Ending December  31st, 1902. Nanaimo: Free Press P r i n t , [1903], 24 pp. 441. Annual F i n a n c i a l Report of the Corporation of the C i ty of  Nanaimo, B r i t i s h Columbia, for the Year Ending December  31st, 1903. Nanaimo: Free Press P r i n t , [1904], 20 pp. 442. Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo. Annual F inanc ia l  Report for Year Ending Dec. 31st, 1904. N.p . , n . d . , 24 pp. 217 APPENDIX 0 - CNA: WATERWORKS DEPARTMENT RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. WATERWORKS DEPARTMENT.3 SERIES: SERVICE BOOK, 1899-1906, 1 C M . 3 8 1 UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Accession No. : 7?. Locat ion: Open shelv ing . This book was opened by the Nanaimo Water Works Company, L imi ted , and was subsequently used by the City a f te r i t took over the waterworks in June 1901. It l i s t s day by day the services performed and supplies used for each customer, and includes a d e t a i l e d l i s t of charges and a job t o t a l . Entry: 443. Service Book, 1 August 1899 to A p r i l 1906, 200 pp. SERIES: LEDGER, 1901-1916, 4 C M . 3 8 2 UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Accession No . : 7?. Locat ion : Open shelv ing . This ledger was probably opened by the Ci ty Water Co l lector to record i n i t i a l l y , i t would seem, new water serv ices and water rates on those accounts. For l a t e r accounts (post-1904), customer address i s often noted. Pages previous to p. 51 are unnumbered and consist of a f i r s t l e t t e r index to household and business customer accounts. This volume would appear to have been used to about 1916; unpaid balances were t ransferred to a new ledger or to the journal from that year. The las t page notes the balance not t ransferred as of January 1919. There are ent r ies to 31 December 1920, when f i n a l balances owing were t ransferred to the j o u r n a l . Entry : 444. Ledger, 4 July 1901 to c a . 1916, 497 pp. 3 8 0 This record group i s subsumed in VIP F i l e : 0 1 - 0 3 - 0 2 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 ; Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. 3 8 1 Cf . VIP F i l e : 0 1 - 0 3 - 0 2 0 0 0 - 0 0 5 ; Service Record Books Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. 3 8 2 I b i d . 218 APPENDIX P - CNA: CITY AUDITOR RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL. CITY AUDITOR. 3 8 3 SERIES: AUDITED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, 1875-1904, 14 CM. UNIT: FILE FOLDER. Accession No. : Locat ion : Open she lv ing . The provenance of th i s ser ies is of i n t e r e s t . From 1875-1879, the annual f i n a n c i a l statements were prepared by the C i ty Auditor . However, from the 1880 year-end audi t , they were prepared by the City C lerk , the Secretary of the Board of Cemetery Trustees and, from 1893, the Secretary of the Board of School Trustees for examination and c e r t i f i c a t i o n by the C i ty Auditor . The Ci ty Treasurer, instead of the Ci ty C le rk , f i r s t compiled them in 1895, although the same ind iv idua l held both p o s i t i o n s . Each o f f i c e r signed h is respective statement(s) . This s e r i e s , which provides a year-end summary of the f i n a n c i a l s i tua t ion of the Corporation and the various Boards re lated to i t , i s for many f i s c a l years the only comprehensive source of f i n a n c i a l information, since the more deta i led d a i l y and monthly records have not survived. I have, therefore, compiled a composite l i s t of the items contained in each f i l e , together with reference to documents which have seemingly only survived in the Aud i to r ' s reports published in the l o c a l newspapers (here, s p e c i f i c a l l y , the Nanaimo Free Press ) . As the statements were from 1901 printed as an annual report in pamphlet f o r m , 3 8 5 the l i s t enumerates, from that year, o r i g i n a l documentation only. Entry t i t l e s have, wherever poss ib le , been t ranscr ibed d i r e c t l y from the ind i v idua l item, omitt ing redundant words, dates, e t c . Unless indicated to the contrary, items consist of one sheet each, refer to the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo, and are for the f i s c a l year ending 31 December indicated by the f i l e t i t l e under which they are l i s t e d . The date noted i s that on which the statements were c e r t i f i e d and signed by the C i ty Auditor appointed for that year; that i n d i v i d u a l ' s name i s included in the f i r s t entry under each f i l e t i t l e (usual ly the 3 This record group i s subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 000-000; Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. 4 Cf. VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 000-002; Annual F inanc ia l Statements Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. 5 App. N/439-442. 219 Aud i to r ' s report ) . Where the Audi tor ' s report proper has not been located or may not have, in the case of spec ia l aud i ts , ex isted as a separate document, the Audi tor 's name is indicated at the end of the f i r s t entry. Documents ava i lab le only in pr inted form are, with the exception of the Audi tor 's report which i s usual ly without t i t l e , c i t e d in quotation marks and the i r source noted. Although most of these f i n a n c i a l statements consist of only one sheet, they are f a i r l y la rge . Many consist of a number of pages glued together. To exemplify by reference to an extreme case, the 1902 Statement of Receipts and Expenditure (Entry 582), which appears to combine the general and water statements, measures 41x150 cm., that i s , nearly f ive feet in length. Ind icat ive of what was then Nanaimo's p r i n c i p a l industry, the edges of the statements from about 1900, and the l e g a l - s i z e envelopes in which they were for many years stored, are covered in coal dust . Abbrev iat i ons: NFP = Nanaimo Free Press. 1880 to 1901. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1875. ITEM: Entry: 445. W.F. Herre Report on Books, 29 December 1875, 2 pp. 446. L i s t of Tools and Utens i ls on hand th i s day, according to a s p e c i f i c a t i o n from T. Cornish, 29 December 1875. 447. Recapitu lat ion of the Cash Account, 29 December 1875. There are also two draft copies containing erasures. 448. S i tuat ion of the Nanaimo Corporation, 29 December 1875. There i s also another s imi la r copy. F i l e : F inancial 'Statements , 1876. 449. Report of W.F. Herre, Auditor , 4 January 1877, 3 pp. 450. Report No. 1: Extracts from Ledger, Receipts and Expenditures, 30 December 1876. 451. Report No. 2: Statement on the s i tuat ion of the Nanaimo Corporation, 30 December 1876. 220 There are also two s imi la r copies, one of which contains , co r rec t ions . 452. Report No. 3: Statement comparing the corporat ion 's receipts of 1876 with those of 1875, n .d . 453. Report No. 4: J u s t i f i c a t i o n or prove (s ic) in behalf of report No. 1 compared with Cash Account in Ledger fo . 69 and 70, n .d . F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1877. 454. No. 1 Report: Extracts of Cash Account taken from Ledger, Receipts and Expenditures, 31 December 1877, W.F. Herre, Auditor . 455. No. 2 Report: Statement on Assets and L i a b i l i t i e s , 31 December 1877. 456. No. 3 Report: Statement comparing the Corporat ion's Receipts of 1875 and 1876 with those of 1877, NB, P r o v i n c i a l c laim for Liquor Licences deducted, n .d . 457. No. 4 Report: Statement on Cemetery's Accounts, 31 December 1877. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1878. 458. Report of W.J. Goepel, Audi tor , 6 January 1879, 4 pp. 459. L i s t s of Persons who have not paid the i r various Taxes up to 31 December 1878, n . d . , 2 pp. This document covers horse, road, dog, and rea l estate taxes, and teamster's and conveyancer's l i c e n s e s . 460. Report No. 1: Statement Showing Expenditures and Receipts , n .d . 461. Report No. 2: Balance Sheet showing L i a b i l i t i e s and Assets, n .d . 462. Report No. 3: Statement showing Expenditures and Receipts of the Nanaimo Cemetery Trustee Board; Balance Sheet showing L i a b i l i t i e s and Assets , n .d. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1879. 463. Report of W.C. Berkeley, Auditor , January 1880. See "Audi tor 's Report ," NFP, 14 January 1880, 3. 464. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, 31 December 1879. 221 465. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, 31 December 1879. 466. Statement No. 3: Cemetery Receipts and Expenditures; Balance Sheet, 31 December 1879. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1880. 467. Statement of Account, 1 January to 12 June 1880, n . d . , W.C. Berkeley, Audi tor . 468. Revenue and Expenditure, Nanaimo Cemetery Trustee Board, 1 January to 12 June 1880; Assets and L i a b i l i t i e s , 21 June 1880, W.C. Berkeley, Audi tor . 469. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, 7 January 1881, W.C. Berkeley, Auditor . 470. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, 7 January 1881. 471. Memorandum: Arrears of Revenue of 1879 co l lec ted in 1880; Arrears of Expenditure paid in 1880, n .d . 472. Statement showing Receipts and Expenditure, Nanaimo Cemetery, n .d. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1881. 473. Report of W.C. Berkeley, Audi tor , 6 January 1882. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 7 January 1882, 3. 474. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, n .d . 475. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, n .d . 476. Statement showing Receipts and Expenditure, Nanaimo Cemetery, n.d. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1882. 477. Report of Marshal Bray, Audi tor , 5 January 1883, 1 p. 478. Statement No. 1: Of Account, n .d. 479. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, n .d . 480. Statement No. 2 [ s i c , should read 3 ] : Showing Receipts and Expenditure, Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, n.d. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1883. 481. Report of Marshal Bray, Audi tor , 8 January 1884, 1 p. 482. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, n .d . 222 483. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, n .d . 484. Statement No. 3: Showing Receipts and Expenditure, Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, n .d . F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1884. 485. Report of C C . McKenzie, Audi tor , 9 January 1885. 1.p. 486. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, 9 January 1885. 487. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, 9 January 1885. 488. Statement No. 3: Showing Receipts and Expenditure, Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, 9 January 1885. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1885. 489. Report of C C McKenzie, Auditor , 8 January 1886, 1 p. 490. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, 8 January 1886. 491. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, 8 January 1886. 492. Statement No. 3: Showing Receipts and Expenditure, Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, 8 January 1886. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1886. 493. Report of Donald Smith, Auditor , 7 January 1887. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 8 January 1887, 3. 494. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, 7 January 1887. 495. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, 7 January 1887. 496. Statement No. 3: Showing Receipts and Expenditure, Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, 7 January 1887. F i l e : F i n a n c i a l Statements, 1887. 497. Report of Donald Smith, Auditor , 6 January 1888. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 7 January 1888, 3. 498. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, 6 January 1888. 499. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, 6 January 1888. 500. Statement No. 3: Showing Receipts and Expenditure, Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, 6 January 1888. 223 F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1888. 501. Report of C C . McKenzie, Auditor , n .d . See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 12 January 1889, 3. 502. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, n .d . 503. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, n .d. 504. Statement No. 3: Showing Receipts and Expenditure, Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, n .d. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1889. 505. Report of Donald Smith, Auditor , 10 January 1890. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 1.1 January 1890, 3. 506. Statement No. 1: Statement of Account, 10 January 1890. 507. Statement No. 2: Balance Sheet, 10 January 1890. 508. Statement No. 3: Statement of Account of the Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, 10 January 1890. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1890. 509. Report of C C McKenzie, Auditor , 9 January 1891. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 10 January 1891, 2. 510. No. 1: Statement of Account, n.d. 511. No. 2: Balance Sheet, n.d. 512. No. 3: Statement of Account of the Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, n.d. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1891. 513. Report of Donald Smith, Auditor , 8 January 1892. See NFP, 9 January 1892, 1. 514. No. 1: Statement of Account, 8 January 1892. 515. No. 2: Balance Sheet, 8 January 1892. There i s also a draft copy with cor rec t ions . 516. No. 3: Statement of Account, Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, 8 January 1892. 224 F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1892. 517. Report of C C . McKenzie, Audi tor , 6 January 1893. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 7 January 1893, 3. 518. Statement of Account, 6 January 1893. 519. Balance Sheet, 6 January 1893. 520. Statement of Account of the Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, 6 January 1893. 521. [Nanaimo Publ ic Schools and Bu i ld ing Accounts for the North and South Ward Schools: Receipts and Expenditure] , W.K. Leighton, Auditor , 27 February 1893. See "Audi tor 's Report ," NFP, 1 March 1893, 3. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1893 . 522. Report of A.A. Richardson, Aud i tor , 6 January 1894. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 8 January 1894, 2. 523. Statement of Account, n .d. 524. Balance Sheet, n .d . 525. "Nanaimo City Publ ic School Trustee Board, statement of account for the year 1893: Receipts and Expenditure." See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 8 January 1894, 2. 526. Statement of Account of the Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, n .d . F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1894. 527. Report of A.A. Richardson, Aud i to r , 14 January 1895. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 15 January 1895, 4. 528. Statement of Account, n .d . 529. Balance Sheet, n .d . 530. "Nanaimo City Publ ic School Trustee Board, statement of account for the year 1894." See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 15 January 1895, 4. 531. Statement of Account of the Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, n .d . 225 F i l e : Re-audit of 1893 and 1894 Accounts. 532. Report of Joseph Pei rson, Government Audi tor , [March 1895], 6 pp. Includes mention of rea l es tate , moveable property, insurance, taxes, l i c e n s e s , passing of accounts, outstanding l i a b i l i t i e s , po l i ce department, and cemetery. 533. Balance Sheet, 31 December 1894; Appendix A, Outstanding Accounts payable; Appendix B, Overdue Licenses, n . d . , 6 pp. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1895. . 534. Statement of Receipts and Expenditures for Quarter Ending 31 March 1895, 26 A p r i l 1895, Tu l l y Boyce, Auditor . 535. Statement of Receipts and Expenditures for Quarter ending 30 June 1895, 10 July 1895, Tu l l y Boyce, Audi tor . 536. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for Quarter ending 30 September 1895, n . d . , Tu l ly Boyce, Audi tor . 537. Report of Tul ly Boyce, Audi tor , 9 January 1896. See "Municipal" Accounts," NFP, 10 January 1896, 4. 538. "Statement of Accounts for the Corporation of the City of Nanaimo for the Year 1895," 9 January 1896. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 10 January 1896, 4. 539. "Balance Sheet, 31st December, 1895," 9 January 1896. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 10 January 1896, 4. 540. Statement of Account of the Nanaimo Pub l ic Cemetery, 9 January 1896. There i s a lso an unsigned dupl icate copy, with s l i gh t v a r i a t i o n s . 541. "Specia l Rates Accounts," 9 January 1896. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 10 January 1896, 4. 542. "Nanaimo Ci ty Publ ic School Trustee Board, Statement of Account for the Year 1895," 9 January 1896. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 10 January 1896, 4. 226 F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1896. 543. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure from 1 January to 31 March 1896, 7 A p r i l 1896, Tu l ly Boyce, Audi tor . 544. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure from 1 January to 30 June 1896, 3 July 1896, Tu l ly Boyce, Audi tor . 545. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure from 1 January to 30 September 1896, 5 October 1896, Tul ly Boyce, Auditor . 546. Report of Tul ly Boyce, Auditor , 7 January 1897. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 8 January 1897, 4. 547. Statement of Account, 4 January 1897. 548. Balance Sheet, 7 January 1897. 549. Specia l Rates' Sinking Fund Account, 7 January 1897. 550. Memo: Special Rates Outstanding to End of 1896; Moveable Property, 7 January 1897. 551. Statement of Account of the Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, 6 January 1897. There i s also a dupl icate signed copy containing erasures. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1897. 552. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure from 1 January to 31 March 1897, 9 A p r i l 1897, Tu l ly Boyce, Audi tor . There i s also a pr inted copy cut from the NFP, 9 A p r i l 1897, 4. 553. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure from 1 January to 30 June 1897, 3 July 1897, Tu l ly Boyce, Audi tor . There are also two pr inted copies cut from The Review, 3 Ju ly 1897. 554. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure from 1 January to 30 September 1897, in accordance with Section 62 of the Municipal Clauses Act , 7 October 1897, Tu l ly Boyce, Audi tor . 555. Report of Tul ly Boyce, Audi tor , 10 January 1898. Pr in ted copy from "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 11 January 1898, 4, which included the 1897 statements (Entr ies 556-559)". 227 556. Statement of Account, 8 January 1898. 557. Balance Sheet, 10 January 1898. 558. Special Rates Sinking Fund Account, 10 January 1898. 559. Statement of Account of the Nanaimo Publ ic Cemetery, 10 January 1898. 560. Statement of account between A. Thompson and the Corporation Ci ty of Nanaimo, [1897-1898]. 561. Statement of account between A. Thompson and the C i ty of Nanaimo, Re Late Defa lcat ions , [1898]. F i l e : Re-audit of 1896 and 1897 Accounts. 562. Prel iminary statement of Adam Thompson's shortages in h is Accounts as Ci ty Clerk made by Fred G. Peto and C C . McKenzie, Audi tors , 2 March 1898, 2 pp. 563. Report of Fred G. Peto and C C McKenzie, Audi tors , March 1898, regarding re -audi t of 1896 and 1897 accounts and defa lcat ions of Adam Thompson, la te Ci ty C lerk , 17 pp. Includes l i s t of books examined, statement of discrepancies in road paysheets' and cemetery paysheets, general r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , and correspondence with the Land Registry O f f i c e . F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1898. 564. "Statement of Receipts and Expenditure from 1st January to 30th September, 1898," Fred G. Peto, Audi tor . See NFP, 11 November 1898, 4. The C i ty Treasurer 's statements for the f i r s t and second quarters in 1898 were also audited, but have not been located. 565. Report of Fred G. Peto, Auditor , 13 January 1899. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 17 January 1899, 4. 566. Statement of Receipts and Expenditures, 9 January 1899. 567. "Corporation of the City of Nanaimo: Balance Sheet, 31st December, 1898," n .d . See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 17 January 1899, 4. 568. "Nanaimo Cemetery: Statement of Receipts and Expenditures for the Year 1898," n.d. 228 See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 17 January 1899, 4. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1899. 569. The City Treasurer 's audited statement of receipts and expenditure for the f i r s t quarter of 1899 was by order of Counci l (24 A p r i l 1899) published in the NFP and The  Review, but has not been located . 570. Report of Fred G. Peto, Auditor , 11 January 1900. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 15 January 1900, 2. 571. Statement of Receipts and Expenditures, 11 January 1900. There is also an unsigned copy. 572. Balance Sheet, 11 January 1900. 573. Nanaimo Cemetery, Statement of Receipts and Expenditures, 11 January 1900. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1900. 574. Report of Fred G. Peto, Auditor , 15 January 1901. See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 19 January 1901, 2. 575. Statement of Receipts and Expenditures, 16 January 1901. 576. Balance Sheet, 16 January 1901. 577. "Nanaimo Cemetery: Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for the Year 1900," n .d . See "Municipal Accounts," NFP, 19 January 1901, 2. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1901. 578. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, 13 January 1902, Fred G. Peto, Audi tor . 579. Balance Sheet, 15 January 1902, 2 sheets. 580. Nanaimo City Water Works Balance Sheet, 15 January 1902. 581. Nanaimo Cemetery, Statement of Receipts and Expenditures, 9 January 1902. 229 F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1902. 582. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, 12 January 1903, Fred G. Peto, Auditor . 583. Balance Sheet, 12 January 1903. 584. Nanaimo Cemetery, Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, 13 January 1903. 585. Nanaimo C i ty Public School Trustees, Statement of Expenditures, 3 January 1903. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1903. 586. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, 15 January 1904, Fred G. Peto, Auditor . 587. Balance Sheet, 15 January 1904. 588. Nanaimo Cemetery, Statement of Receipts and Expenditures, 15 January 1904. F i l e : F inanc ia l Statements, 1904. 589. Report of Fred G. Peto, Auditor , 14 January 1905, 1 p. 590. Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, 14 January 1905. 591. Balance Sheet, 14 January 1905. 592. Nanaimo Cemetery, Statement of Receipts and Expenditure, 14 January 1905. 593. Nanaimo Ci ty Public Schools, Statement of Expenditures, 10 January 1905. 230 APPENDIX Q - CNA: CEMETERY TRUSTEES RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL AS BOARD OF CEMETERY TRUSTEES. SECRETARY.3 8 6 SERIES: MINUTES, 1897-1924, 2 CM. UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Accession No. : ? . Locat ion: Open shelv ing . This volume contains minutes of meetings held in 1897-1898, 1912-1914, 1919, and 1924. Entry : V o l . : 594. 11 Minute Book, 25 January 1897 to 26 March 1924, 22/200 pp. used. SERIES: CEMETERY PLOTS, 1879-1897, 4 CM. . UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Accession No. : ? . Locat ion: Open shelv ing. This volume records cemetery plot purchases from 1879-1897 and bur ia ls in those p lots from 1877-1897. Arrangement i s by range and plot numbers. Information i s recorded by p lot concerning the date and method of payment and, in many instances, the name of the person paying for the p l o t , the names of persons buried therein and b u r i a l dates, and receipt number. There are columns for plot and grave opening fees, and for payment thereof. Miscellaneous comments are made throughout. This volume, along with other cemetery records, was audited by Tul ly Boyce, C i ty Auditor , in 1897. It i s probable that the handwriting in green ink noting the names of ind iv idua ls buried in each plot to 1897 i s that of Boyce. Some of the wr i t ing in 6 There does not ex ist a corresponding VIP record group. Cf. VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 000-006; Cemetery Records Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. Some cemetery records for the 1875-1904 period are s t i l l ac t i ve l y used for reference purposes and have not yet been t ransferred to the archives v a u l t . Thus, the archives l i s t e d here give a far from complete p icture of the record group. 231 red ink i s a lso h is and i s i n i t i a l e d "T .B ." Purple ink was used to note p lots that were short , smal l , non-ex is tent , or in the "Broadway." Boyce's audit appears to have resulted in the transfer of some bodies to other graves. Reference i s also" made to the cemetery extension shown on the new map. Confusion would seem to have ar isen because of discrepancies between the new plans and the inaccurate o r i g i n a l drawing. This i s a source in which women's and g i r l s ' names are to be found, e i ther as persons buried or purchasers of grave p l o t s . One native Indian, i t may be noted, was buried in a p lot purchased by one John Wilson; no Or ientals were noted. Entry: V o l . : 595. 12 Journal [of Cemetery Plot Purchases], Ranges VI-XXIV, ca . 1879-1897, 363/495 pp. used. 232 APPENDIX R - CNA: MUNICIPAL COURT OF REVISION RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COURT OF REVISION. CLERK. 3 8 7 SERIES: MINUTES, 1891-1949, 4 CM. UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Accession No. : 15. Locat ion: Box 102. During the period 1891-1904, the Municipal Court of Revision only sat upon the rev is ion and cor rect ion ( i . e . , t ransfer of property) of the rea l estate assessment r o l l and upon real estate assessment appeals. Eventual ly , i t a lso del iberated upon the rev is ion of the voters ' l i s t and upon the assessment of l o c a l improvements. Entry : V o l . : 596. 102.1 Minutes, 21 August 1891 to 22 February 1949, pp. 2-399. See also volume 102.2 (App. S/597.) . This volume also contains minutes of the: Board of Appeal const i tuted under the Town Planning Act , 9 A p r i l 1937 to 29 December 1948, pp. 268-395. See also volume 102.2 (App. S/597). 7 A corresponding VIP record group does not e x i s t . This volume i s presumably subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-002; Minutes Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 233 APPENDIX S - CNA: LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH RG: CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF NANAIMO. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL AS LOCAL BOARD OF HEALTH. SECRETARY.3 SERIES: MINUTES, 1896-1932, 3 CM. UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Not accessioned. Locat ion : Box 102. This volume i s in a very deter iorated and b r i t t l e cond i t ion . It contains minutes of meetings held in 1 8 9 6 - 1 8 9 7 , 1900, 1909, 1917-1921, 1923-1924, 1926-1927 and 1932, and was subsequently used for other purposes, as the t i t l e on i t s spine ind ica tes : Minutes Board of Appeal, Court of Rev is ion . Entry: V o l . : 597. 102.2 Minutes, 14 September 1896 to 8 August 1932, pp. 1-59. This volume also contains minutes of other meetings, a s . f o l l o w s : Market Committee, 17 A p r i l 1945, pp. 65-6 . Board of Appeal const i tuted under the Town Planning Act , 15 March 1949 to 12 A p r i l 1957, pp. 67-201. Municipal Court of Rev is ion , 15 November 1949 to 10 November 1969, pp. 74-376. Waterworks Committee, 24 May 1955 to 15 June 1955, pp. 162-8. Publ ic Hearings pursuant to the Town Planning Act and various Zoning By- laws, 24 May 1955 to 20 August 1956, pp. 182-3. Zoning Board of Appeal const i tuted under the Municipal Act , 27 July 1957 to 15 November 1967, pp. 202-387. 8 A corresponding VIP record group does not e x i s t . This volume i s presumably subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-002; Minutes Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 234. Board of Variance, 23 February 1968 to 6 February 1969, pp. 388-96. o 235 APPENDIX T - CNA: LICENSING COURT RG: NANAIMO CITY. LICENSING COURT. 3 8 9 UNIT: LEGAL DOCKET. Accession No. : 28. Locat ion: Box 84. Entry: Doc. : 598. 84.17 Writ of Mandamus issued by Mr. Jus t i ce Crease in Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia (Domenico Mozelle vs . The Licensing Court of the C i ty of Nanaimo), 26 A p r i l 1889, to Joseph Phrys P lanta , James Abrams, Samuel Robins, and Harry Cooper, witnessed S i r Matthew B a i l l i e Begbie, Knight, Chief J u s t i c e , 30 A p r i l 1889, 2 pp. F i l e d therewith i s an a f f i d a v i t to the ef fect that , in compliance with said w r i t , the appel lants granted to Domenico Mozelle a l i cense to vend sp i r i tuous and fermented l iquors by r e t a i l upon premises l a t e l y b u i l t by him on Skinner St reet , Nanaimo, known as the "Palace H o t e l , " signed and sealed by them, 1 May 1889, 2 pp. 9 A corresponding VIP record group does not e x i s t . 236 APPENDIX U - CNA: SCHOOL TRUSTEES RG: NANAIMO CITY SCHOOL DISTRICT. BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES. SECRETARY. 3 9 0 SERIES: CORRESPONDENCE, 1893-1904, 5 CM. SUB-SERIES: CORRESPONDENCE INWARD, 1897. ITEM: E n t r y : 599. L e t t e r from Thomas W. Jones, S e c r e t a r y , Nanaimo Water Works Company, L i m i t e d , 4 December 1897, t o S. Gough, S e c r e t a r y , Nanaimo C i t y S c h o o l T r u s t e e Board, 1 p. T h i s item i s l o c a t e d i n s i d e the back cover of volume 126.4. SUB-SERIES: CORRESPONDENCE OUTWARD, 1893-1904. UNIT: LETTERBOOK. A c c e s s i o n No.: 19. L o c a t i o n : Box 126. The d i m e n s i o n s of the s e volumes v a r y t o 24x29x3 cm. Each l e t t e r p r e s s c o p y b o o k 3 9 1 c o n t a i n s an index a t the f r o n t . The pages removed from the back of volume 126.5 were presumably b l a n k . 3 9 0 A c o r r e s p o n d i n g VIP r e c o r d group does not e x i s t . These volumes are subsumed i n VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-001; Correspondence F i l e s S e r i e s i n Record Group: Nanaimo, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S e r v i c e s Department. Most r e c o r d s c r e a t e d by the Board of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a re under the c o n t r o l of the Nanaimo S c h o o l Board O f f i c e , 395 Wakesiah Avenue, Nanaimo. See VIP F i l e : 05-07-02 000-000 (Record Group: Nanaimo S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r ' s Department), e s p e c i a l l y Minute Books S e r i e s , d a t i n g from 1891 (VIP F i l e : 05-07-02 000-001), Record Books S e r i e s , d a t i n g from 1901 (VIP F i l e : 05-07-02 000-005), V i s i t o r s ' Books S e r i e s , d a t i n g from 1893 (VIP F i l e : 05-07-02 000-007) , and R e g i s t e r Books S e r i e s , d a t i n g from 1890 (VIP F i l e : 05-07-02 000-009). 3 9 1 See d e s c r i p t i v e p a r a g r a p h s p r e c e d i n g App. J/147-152. 237 Entry: V o l . : 600. 126.4 Letter Book, 4 March 1893 to 4 February 1898, 250 pp. 601. 126.5 Letter Book, 14 February 1898 to 23 December 1904, 240/499 pp. used, pp. 241-497 removed from book. 238 APPENDIX V - CNA: POLICE COMMISSIONERS RG: NANAIMO CITY. BOARD OF POLICE COMMISSIONERS. SECRETARY/CLERK.3 9 2 SERIES: MINUTES, 1894-1935, 3 C M . 3 9 3 UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Concerning the pre-1905 per iod, t h i s volume does not contain record of any meetings having been held between 12 August 1897 and 7 July 1899. The book was subsequently used for other purposes, as noted below. Entry : V o l . : 602. 127.3 Minute Book, 1 January 1894 to 13 May 1935, 310/397 pp. used. This volume also contains the minutes of meetings of the Food Conservation and Increased Food Production Committees held in March 1918, pp. 383-5, at which the Municipal Council and representatives of various groups, such as the Imperial Order of Daughters of the Empire, Next of Kin Assoc iat ion , and Red Cross Society , were present. 3 9 2 A corresponding VIP record group does not e x i s t . These volumes are subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-000; Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 3 9 3 This ser ies i s subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-002; . Minutes Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. Accession No. : 16. Locat ion : Box 127. 239 SERIES: CORRESPONDENCE, 1894-1904, 3 C M . 3 9 " SUB-SERIES: CORRESPONDENCE OUTWARD, 1894-1904. UNIT: LETTERBOOK. Accession No. : 21. Locat ion : Box 126. This le t te rp ress copybook 3 9 5 contains an index at the f ront . There i s no correspondence for the years 1898, 1900 and 1903; most is for the years 1896-1897. The pages removed from the back of the volume were presumably blank. Entry: V o l . : 603. 126.6 Letter Book, 21 November 1894 to 2 March 1904, 52 pp. , rest of pages cut from book. 3 9 * This ser ies i s subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-001; Correspondence F i l e s Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 3 9 5 See descr ip t i ve paragraphs preceding App. J/147-152. 240 APPENDIX W - CNA: NANAIMO LITERARY INSTITUTE RG: NANAIMO LITERARY INSTITUTE. 3 9 6 Accession No. : 21. Locat ion : Box 126. SUB-GROUP: SECRETARY-LIBRARIAN. SERIES: MINUTES, 1880-1885, 2 CM. UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. Entry: V o l . : 604. 126.2 Minute Book, 2 March 1880 to 7 May 1885, 57/193 pp. used, plus some loose pages. SUB-GROUP: TREASURER. SERIES: CASH BOOK, 1878-1886, 2 CM. UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. The 1877 balance i s brought forward to t h i s book. Various b i l l s and receipts from bookse l le rs , f i r e insurance companies, and the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company, L imi ted , are glued to or l i e loose between the pages of th i s volume. Included in cash received i s payment for renta l of the Ins t i tu te h a l l by various groups for entertainments, l ec tu res , b a l l s , dances, and concerts . Entry: V o l . : 605. 126.1 Treasurer 's Book, 31 January 1878 to 2 June 1886, 17/129 pp. used. 3 9 6 A corresponding VIP record group does not e x i s t . These bound volumes would appear to be subsumed in VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-001; Correspondence F i l e s Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administrat ive Services Department. 241 SUB-GROUP: DEBATING AND ELOCUTION CLASS. SERIES: CONSTITUTION AND MINUTES, 1880, 1 CM. UNIT: BOUND VOLUME. This volume contains the c l a s s ' c o n s t i t u t i o n ; r o l l of members, l i s t i n g name and turn for reading or r e c i t a t i o n ; and minutes. After the Ins t i tu te property was purchased by the Corporation of the C i ty of Nanaimo in 1886, th is volume was used by the Ci ty Clerk to record the engagement and payment for renta l of the Ci ty H a l l , and other purposes, as noted below. Entry : V o l . : 606. 126.3 Debating and Elecution [ s i c ] Class Minutes, 1 November 1880 to ca . December 1880, 22/185 pp. used, some pages missing. This volume also contains the fol lowing records: Account sheet showing engagement of Ci ty Ha l l and payment of rental fee, 1 October 1887 to 9 August 1888, pp. 26-9 . Engagements and Rents of H a l l , 15 January 1889 to 3 August 1892, pp. 30-43. Two newspaper c l ipp ings regarding Appropriations and Expenditures of the $50,000.00 Loan, 1890, were glued to the back cover for reference purposes. 242 APPENDIX X - CNA: M C G R E G O R F A M I L Y MG: M C G R E G O R F A M I L Y . 3 9 7 UNIT: BOOK. Not Accessioned. Locat ion: Open she lv ing . This scrapbook would appear to have been compiled by John Charles (Jack) McGregor, who was a Parks Commissioner and secretary of the Nanaimo Pioneer Society . A note ins ide i t s front cover indicates that i t belongs to W.C. [Wil l iam?] McGregor, [son of J .C . McGregor]. It contains McGregor and Meakin family souvenirs; various newspaper c l i pp ings inc lud ing the 1895-1896 audited accounts of the Corporation of the C i t y of Nanaimo; and placer mining l icenses issued to John C. McGregor. 607. Newspaper Cutt ings, Ready Reference Receptacle for Scraps  of P r i n t , from Our Chief Sources of Knowledge, the  Newspapers; with Patent Alphabet ical Index, and Spaces for  Marginal Notes. London: Marcus Ward and Co. , L i m i t e d , n . d . , 3 January 1896 to ca . 1955, 200 pp . , book only p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d . 3 9 7 The VIP survey does not ident i f y a separate record group for pr ivate records. Cf. VIP F i l e : 01-03-01 000-016; Scrapbooks and Press F i l e s Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Administ rat ive Services Department. Entry: 243 APPENDIX Y - CNA: MISCELLANEOUS In t h i s appendix, I l i s t mater ials from the 1875-1904 period which are not yet under physical c o n t r o l . By t h i s , I mean records which have not yet been t ransferred to the archives vau l t . To repeat, the po l icy followed in the CNA appendices has been to descr ibe, with the exception of the o r i g i n a l by-law copies in the administrat ion vau l t , records already t ransferred to the archives v a u l t , for i t would be point less to describe those s t i l l " f l o a t i n g about" the c i t y admin is t ra t ion . Miscellaneous mater ials are referred to here by the VIP survey f i l e number and the name of the ser ies in which they have been i d e n t i f i e d . I indicate but b r i e f l y the i r content. Entry: 608. See VIP F i l e : 01-03-02 000-006; Cemetery Records Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, Finance Department. This ser ies contains cemetery reg is ters dating from 1876, and other records dealing with cemetery matters, most of which post-date 1904. 609. See VIP F i l e : 01-03-04 001-015; Legal Plans Series in Sub-group: Nanaimo, Publ ic Works Department, Engineering Services D i v i s i o n . This ser ies contains legal p lans , the e a r l i e s t of which dates from 1875. 610. See VIP F i l e : 01-03-04 001-018; Old C i ty Map Series in Sub-group: Nanaimo, Publ ic Works Department, Engineering Services D i v i s i o n . This ser ies contains old c i t y maps dating from the nineteenth-century. 611. See VIP F i l e : 01-03-04 002-003; Parks Plans F i l e s Series in Sub-group: Nanaimo, Publ ic Works Department, Engineering Services D i v i s i o n , Rights-of-Way Sect ion . This ser ies contains park p lans , surveys, maps, lega l documents, drawings and correspondence, some of which date from 1895. 612. See VIP F i l e : 01-03-05 000-006; Minute Book Ser ies in Record Group: Nanaimo, F i re Department. This ser ies i s comprised of a s ing le bound volume which contains the minutes of the Nanaimo volunteer f i r e companies from 1878-1937. 244 613. See VIP F i l e : 01-03-05 000-007; F i re Reports Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, F i re Department. This ser ies contains reports on f i r e s from 1894, arranged chronolog ica l ly by f i r e , g iv ing the date and time of f i r e , owner and value of b u i l d i n g , damage, and name of f i r e insurance company. 614. See VIP F i l e : 01-03-05 000-012; General Book Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, F i re Department. This ser ies cons ists of a s ingle bound volume which contains, among other items, r o l l c a l l s (1893-1899), f i r e reports (1900-1914), and a record of equipment and of platoon members (1899-1946). 615. See VIP F i l e : 01-03-05 000-013; R o l l C a l l Book Series in Record Group: Nanaimo, F i r e Department. This ser ies contains r o l l c a l l books of the Nanaimo volunteer f i r e companies dating from 1880. 245 Figure 4 - Map of the C i ty of Nanaimo This 1904 map reproduced approximately half of Honeyman and Heyland's 1891 map on a much reduced s c a l e . No changes appear to have been made to the map's content. 

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