UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comparative study of the record keeping practices of the Anglican, Baptist and United churches in British… Sweeney, Shelley Toni 1985

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE RECORD KEEPING PRACTICES OF THE ANGLICAN, BAPTIST AND UNITED CHURCHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. By SHELLEY TON I SWEENEY B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL  STUDIES  in THE FACULTY OF ARTS A d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e School of L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l , and I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i e s and t h e Department o f H i s t o r y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  1985  /^"SShelley T o n i Sweeney  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f  department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  /Department <^of  jb^'£r>-x^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (3/81)  jQ^V  /£  /fff  written  ABSTRACT The  report entitled  of a f u t u r e Canadian  Canadian  archival  of government, b u s i n e s s , and together through networking. be a p a r t o f t h i s role.  system,  A r c h i v e s (1980)  "system"  i n which  institutions  speaks  archives  a r e t o be  bound  Although churches are t o  the Report does not s p e c i f y  Yet the p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r l d of both a r c h i v i s t s  historians  i n C a n a d a , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and  been d i v i d e d archives.  over the q u e s t i o n of custody of  Whether the churches t h e m s e l v e s  t o c a r e f o r t h e i r own  a r c h i v e s or whether  a r e e x p e c t e d t o t a k e up  s y s t e m a t i c and  of r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s w i l l churches  and  Britain,  has  religious  are  expected  public  regular  archives  acquisition  s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the r o l e  i n the f u t u r e development  their  of the Canadian  of  archival  system. T h i s t h e s i s t h e n a d d r e s s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how  best  t o go a b o u t p r e s e r v i n g r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s by s t u d y i n g i n detail  the record keeping a t t i t u d e s  Anglican, Baptist,  and  and p r a c t i c e s o f  U n i t e d Churches  in British  T h r o u g h a s u r v e y o f c h u r c h g o v e r n m e n t and we and  archival  Columbia. programmes,  d e l v e i n t o the n a t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between record.  As w e l l a s e x a m i n i n g t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g  of t h e t h r e e c h u r c h e s , t h e s u r v e y t o u c h e s upon t h e of s e c u l a r , p u b l i c a r c h i v e s i n B r i t i s h church a r c h i v e s .  The  Columbia  t h e s i s then analyzes the  the  creator practices  policies  towards backgrounds  of the  c h u r c h e s i n E u r o p e and  i n order i n the  t o d e t e r m i n e why  record  k e e p i n g of  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  the  in early British  Columbia  discernible differences the  three  denominations.  t h e s i s notes t h a t the  churches with  exist  attitudes  and  p r a c t i c e s of  are  a f f e c t e d by  one  hand, such fundamental d e t e r m i n a n t s , i t i s argued,  are  not  their  theology  e a s i l y o v e r c o m e by  to c o l l e c t  regards to t h e i r and  organization.  public archives  religious archives.  which set  out  w h i c h h a v e m o u n t e d a r c h i v a l progammes d e m o n s t r a t e a  networki  world.  I n any  play a v i t a l archives.  f a r exceeds t h a t of  case, church archives  r o l e i n any  future  other,  the  churches  so  the  On  those  capability that  On  records  the  secular archival  appear destined  systematization  of  to  Canadian  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Abstract List  of Tables  Acknowledgement Chapter I : I n t r o d u c t i o n : Church A r c h i v e s the Canadian A r c h i v a l System Chapter I I : Keeping  The  Context:  A Study of  C h a p t e r I I I : The B a c k g r o u n d : I n f l u e n c e s on R e c o r d K e e p i n g  Church A r c h i v e s :  A  Conclusion Bibliography Appendix  Record  European  Chapter IV: Church Record Keeping Columbia: A Retrospective C h a p t e r V:  and  A  iv  in British  Natural  L I S T OF Table I : Table I I :  Church A r c h i v e s  TABLES  Survey f o r B r i t i s h  R e s u l t s of Church A r c h i v e s  v  Survey  Columbia  ... 58 59  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In t h e course indebted and  of w r i t i n g t h i s  thesis,  I h a v e become  t o many p e o p l e who o f f e r e d s u g g e s t i o n s ,  advice,  e n c o u r a g e m e n t , o r who s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n a n d d o c u m e n t s  which helped  s h e d some l i g h t  To  persons,  a l l those  on t h e t o p i c o f c h u r c h  I am v e r y  thankful.  s p e c i a l acknowledgements as w e l l . t h e h e l p o f my f r i e n d  archives.  T h e r e a r e some  I would l i k e t o acknowledge  and c o l l e a g u e  Bob S t e w a r t ,  United  C h u r c h A r c h i v i s t , who l e n t h i s i n t e r e s t a n d e n t h u s i a s m a t a l l t h e p o i n t s i t was n e e d e d .  Garth  Walker,  Anglican  C h u r c h A r c h i v i s t , was a l s o m o s t h e l p f u l i n s u p p l y i n g on  the Anglican  Church.  Reverend Gordon P o u s e t t  g e n e r o u s i n l e n d i n g me h i s e x t e n s i v e in British  was m o s t  works on B a p t i s t s  C o l u m b i a , a s was R e v e r e n d J o h n R i c h a r d s ,  s u p p l i e d d o c u m e n t s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e R e g u l a r I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o t h e B r i t i s h  information  Columbia  who  Baptists.  Heritage  Trust,  w h i c h a w a r d e d me t h e W i l l a r d I r e l a n d S c h o l a r s h i p t o s u p p o r t my s t u d y  of archives i n general  and church  archives i n  particular. Finally, support the  I wish  t o acknowledge t h e understanding  and  o f my e m p l o y e r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f R e g i n a , a n d  teaching  o f my p r o f e s s o r  Terry  vi  Eastwood.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: CHURCH ARCHIVES AND THE CANADIAN ARCHIVAL SYSTEM Archival  "networking,"  changing a r c h i v a l  that i s the concept of ex-  information, sharing archival technical  knowledge and e x p e r t i s e , and r a t i o n a l i z i n g responsibilities,  collection  h a s become a b y - w o r d o f t h e e i g h t i e s  f o r t h e a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n i n Canada.  The R e p o r t o f  t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e G r o u p on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s ( 1980 ) g i v e s networking archival as  a p r o m i n e n t p l a c e . The R e p o r t s p e a k s o f a n " s y s t e m " ; one i n w h i c h p r o v i n c i a l  t h e key u n i t s , w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l r e p o s i t o r y , t h e P u b l i c  Archives  o f Canada, a c t i n g as c o - o r d i n a t o r between t h e  p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s and "other responsibilities union  archives with national  - such as major c h u r c h ,  archives.""'"  Church archives then,  i n t h i s p l a n , b u t beyond t o u c h i n g problems n a t i o n a l church cross-country the  archives figure  upon p o s s i b l e  networks w i t h i n t h e i r  or  a r e t o be i n c l u d e d  a r c h i v e s may f a c e  R e p o r t does n o t c o n s i d e r  Neither  business  i n maintaining  respective  church.archives  funding  denominations,  i n any d e t a i l .  does t h e R e p o r t a d d r e s s t h e c o n c e r n s o f  those  c h u r c h e s i n C a n a d a w h i c h do n o t h a v e n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s , nor  those  the  United  standable  w h i c h have c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r i e s l o c a t e d i n States.  While t h i s  lapse  i s p e r f e c t l y under-  i n v i e w o f t h e b r o a d e r aims o f t h e R e p o r t ,  1  the  a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n a l cannot a f f o r d t o overlook the  p o s s i b l e r o l e churches w i l l future of archival in  fact,  as  s e r v i c e i n Canada.  major p l a y e r s  such w i l l  play i n shaping the The c h u r c h e s a r e ,  i n the networking  game a n d a s  h a v e t o be g i v e n c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Just  t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e Group found a s a d l a c k o f c o n c r e t e  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c u r r e n t  status of Canadian  archives  in  g e n e r a l , however, so t h e r e  i s today a n o t i c e a b l e  of  statistical  examination,  on c h u r c h This  data,  and w r i t i n g  a r c h i v e s upon w h i c h t o b a s e a n y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  t h e s i s begins  through the study situation. keeping  critical  lack  t o compensate f o r t h i s d e f i c i e n c y o f a microcosm of the church  Specifically,  we w i l l  archives  examine t h e r e c o r d  p r a c t i c e s o f t h e A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , and U n i t e d  Churches a t the l o c a l ,  r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s as  these  t o records  practices relate  created  in British  Columbia. The A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , a n d U n i t e d particularly All  three  s u i t e d t o an i n - d e p t h  Churches are  study  have s i g n i f i c a n t memberships  of this  in British  sort. Columbia,  a r e P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s , a n d h a v e s p r u n g more o r l e s s from B r i t i s h and to  government.  soil,  y e t a l l have d i f f e r i n g  They h a v e e n o u g h f e a t u r e s  be c o m p a r e d , y e t p r e s e n t  effective contrasts.  i n common  e n o u g h d i f f e r e n c e s t o make  Time a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s  2  theologies  dictated  the c h o i c e  of B r i t i s h  i n which  to  pursue t h i s  to  s e t B r i t i s h Columbia a p a r t from t h e r e s t o f Canada,  geographical thesis,  study.  Columbia as t h e l o c a t i o n  determinism,  i n this  i s o n l y one o f many i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t i n g  records  and s i m i l a r  found i n the cases  which w i l l  i n s t a n c e s o f i t s e f f e c t c a n be  of the other provinces.  A microcosm  u s e f u l i n t h a t i t s s i z e a l l o w s one t o e x p l o r e  detail  a n d t h e r e f o r e y i e l d s more s a t i s f y i n g  more a c c u r a t e through  r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s  a broad,  We b e g i n keeping  tends  be e x p l o r e d  retention,  is  While p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n  general  than  and h o p e f u l l y c a n be p r o d u c e d  study.  the t h e s i s w i t h a survey  of current  p r a c t i c e s of each denomination.  Canadian Archives  i t in  states that  record  The R e p o r t on  "an a r c h i v e s m i r r o r s t h e 2  organization  . . . which created  i t . "  t h e q u e s t i o n o f "how d o e s i t do s o ? " mirror  i t s parent  of records  The s u r v e y  Does a n a r c h i v e s  o r g a n i z a t i o n only because of the type  i t k e e p s , o r a l s o by t h e manner i n w h i c h i t  k e e p s t h e r e c o r d s ? What are the i n t i m a t e l i n k s church will  examine the r e s u l t s o f t h e survey  i n f l u e n c e s and i n h e r i t e d  we w i l l  extend  our observations 3  study  t r a d i t i o n s of each of the p r a c t i c e s i n order  determine s i g n i f i c a n t behavioural patterns.  we w i l l  We  t o determine i f  Following the survey,  churches which e x p l a i n t h e i r present to  between  government, f o r example, and r e c o r d k e e p i n g ?  such l i n k s e x i s t . the  addresses  and a p p l y  Concluding,  them t o t h e  remaining  Canadian churches.  I n so d o i n g ,  a b a s i s from which t o p r e d i c t the  we  will  f u t u r e r o l e of  c h u r c h e s i n m e e t i n g t h e demands o f an  integrated  have  Canadian archival  network. A p r e s e n t a t i o n of c u r r e n t r e c o r d keeping and  an e x p l a n a t i o n  as an e x t e n s i o n  f o r them i s a s t u d y  can  that  a l s o a l l o w s us  to  t o make o b s e r v a t i o n s  t o address the The  i s s u e o f who  R e p o r t on  " a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s belong  hands of those use  who  them," and  study  record  regarding  f u t u r e Canadian a r c h i v a l network.  religious records. that  From t h i s  a c t i o n s of c h u r c h e s towards  a l l o w s us  t h e i r p a r t i n any  and  determine c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  which d i s t i n g u i s h the keeping  of context,  of t h a t , o f provenance.  o f p r o v e n a n c e , we  conditions  "any  keep  Canadian A r c h i v e s ,  first  and  o r i g i n a t e d them, and that  should  It  particular  r e m a i n , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , i n t h e  states  foremost i n  a r e most  the  likely  s e t of records  should  l o c a l e or m i l i e u i n  3  w h i c h i t was  generated."  principles  of  and  record keeping  favour  T h e s e two  institutionality  by  and  the  s t a t e m e n t s embody  territoriality  o r i g i n a t o r at  l e v e l s as o p p o s e d t o r e c o r d c o l l e c t i o n by agency.  The  In f a c t ,  although  and  the  not  senting  and  others  represent  the  by  no  respectively  appropriate  an o u t s i d e c e n t r a l  means b e e n  settled.  C o n s u l t a t i v e Group sought the  professional opinions  istrators, do  i s s u e , h o w e v e r , has  of a r c h i v i s t s ,  from a l l across sentiments  body. 4  the  advice  researchers,  Canada, t h e i r  of a s m a l l but  vocal  admin-  statements dis-  The  a t t i t u d e o f t h i s g r o u p and  is effectively  summed up  1975,  i s by  opposition  i n a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s  i n the Canadian a r c h i v a l in  t h a t of t h e i r  journal.  The  first  appearing  article,  written  James L a m b e r t , f o r m e r e m p l o y e e o f t h e P u b l i c 4  A r c h i v e s of Canada. have d i s c o u r a g e d  Lambert c l a i m s  t h a t the  their  yet t h e i r  " s u s p i c i o u s and  even  a r c h i v e s have f a i l e d  interest  hostile  t o meet  the  demands p l a c e d u p o n them. F o r  e x a m p l e , he  s t a t e s : "A  archives should mirror s o c i a l  c h a n g e s and  be  to trends  churches  p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s f r o m t a k i n g an  i n t h e i r r e c o r d s by reception,"  In i t ,  i n the r e s e a r c h areas  they  good  sensitive  a r e most r e q u i r e d  5  to serve." and  Yet, w i t h the r e c e n t developments i n  r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e of  denominationalism feels by  the  their  fails  and  segregation  secularism,  history  of r e l i g i o u s  records  reflect  social  for  a r c h i v e s are  ill  a number o f s h o r t c o m i n g s records  secular  and  public repositories  reality.  trends  Similarily,  towards the  writing  d e s i r e on  to chronicle r e l i g i o u s history,  sophisticated research  church  and  s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t and  p a r t of h i s t o r i a n s  non-  Lambert  with recent historiographical of s o c i a l  pentecostalism,  inter-denominationalism,  deposit i n denominational  to adequately  theology  s e r v i c e s has  i n the churches  t h a t i n t e r f e r e w i t h s e r v i c e : the  l a c k of a r c h i v a l knowledge of the church 5  a demand  arisen that  e q u i p p e d t o meet. 1  Lambert care  of  the  the notes  their  inexperience personnel  and  i n charge  of t h e r e c o r d s ,  the i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y  to the church's a t t i t u d e towards funding  of the records  " o u t s i d e r s , " the poor  a l l o c a t e d t o a r c h i v e s , the low p r i o r i t y  records,  and t h e i n c r e a s i n g shortage  the r e c o r d s .  Further,  given to  of personnel  t o handle  a s n o t e d by C a n a d i a n h i s t o r i a n  Walsh, the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f records r e g i o n a l church  due  repositories actually  H. H.  among l o c a l a n d impedes s u c c e s s f u l  research. That i s n o t t o say t h a t Lambert i s b l i n d the c l a i m s  of denominations t o care  or the advantages inherent preservation.  research  He a d m i t s t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s  interested i n  church.  The  o f l o c a l and r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y , b o t h o f w h i c h have  is greatly facilitated solution tries  with h i s t o r i a n s i n recent through l o c a l c o l l e c t i o n .  t o balance  h i s t o r i a n s with the claims keeping  records  would n a t u r a l l y expect  them l o c a t e d w i t h t h a t p a r t i c u l a r  found i n c r e a s i n g favour  his  f o r t h e i r own  i n a programme o f l o c a l i z e d  a c e r t a i n denomination's records to f i n d  to either  t h e i r own r e c o r d s .  increased networking  the research  years, Thus,  needs o f t h e  and t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f c h u r c h e s He s u g g e s t s a c o m b i n a t i o n  between s e c u l a r and e x t a n t  of  religious  r e p o s i t o r i e s and t h e encouragement o f p u b l i c a r c h i v e s t o collect  the records  of religious  organizations.  Public  a r c h i v e s , he c o n t e n d s , a r e i n a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o c o l l e c t the records  of inter-denominational 6  and non-  denominational organizations for  the  records  of  should  t h e i r own  archives.  b r i n g about a rapprochement of  records  a t once c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  to the  researchers."  P o s s i b l y , had article,  he  religious on  the  the  " T h i s , " he  shortsighted,  to t h i s  already  i n 1976,  a t the  not  useful  one  wrath  of  stress  expense  d o u b t a n n o y i n g and  h i s comments do  threat to church archives article  i s no  and  although his  secondary researchers  states,  religious  social reality  Lambert l i m i t e d h i m s e l f  creators  unwilling  s e c u l a r and  a r c h i v i s t s i n Canada. F o r ,  needs of  following  responsibility  would have succeeded i n e v a d i n g the  needs of the  ably  take  those denominations which are  or unable to maintain "will  and  of  consider-  s e r i o u s l y pose  in existence.  In  any  his  however, Lambert i s emboldened 7  to lean  h e a v i l y on  responds to the Professor  the  s i d e of  the  c h a r g e s l e v e l e d by  of H i s t o r y  a t the  historians. J . Hanrahan,  A l t h o u g h Hanrahan i m p a r t i a l l y l a y s the  he  sees the  being of  doors of b o t h p u b l i c a r c h i v e s  the  Columbia,  of r e l i g i o u s records.  blame f o r t h i s  and  the s i t u a t i o n  public repositories, with  local  r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e p o s s i b l y housed i n c i v i c rather  than sent to a c e n t r a l d e n o m i n a t i o n a l  with  use  the  of  Public Archives 7  of Canada as  records  or p r o v i n c i a l  archives the  neglect  denominations,  major impetus f o r improvement of  a s s u m e d by  first  former  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  at public r e p o s i t o r i e s f o r t h e i r neglect  at the  He  the  archives, national  d e p o s i t o r y , and w i t h community a r c h i v i s t s  lending  knowledge and e x p e r t i s e t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  their  and maintenance g  o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n among l e v e l s o f r e p o s i t o r i e s . Lambert agrees  w i t h Hanrahan t h a t i n t h e p a s t t h e  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada l i m i t e d records primarily collection, and  is  although  military  Given  to missionary  i t s a c q u i s i t i o n of r e l i g i o u s  records, producing  an  imbalanced  he s e e s i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n p o l i t i c a l  r e c o r d s as a proper  response  t o r e s e a r c h demands.  t h a t t h e mandate o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada  the c o l l e c t i o n  of records of "national s i g n i f i c a n c e , "  and  "as i s o f t e n t h e c a s e  and  so f o r t h ,  with unions,  e t h n i c groups,  businesses,  religion  i n C a n a d a c o n s t i t u t e s an a c t i v i t y  of n a t i o n a l importance  and g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t , " Lambert  believes  that that the n a t i o n a l archives should  consider  9  r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s as i n c l u d e d i n i t s mandate. holds  that the p u b l i c nature  records warrants  and i m p o r t a n c e  While  he  of religious  t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n by t h e P u b l i c  Archives  o f C a n a d a , h o w e v e r , he i s c o g n i z a n t o f t h e f a c t t h a t some r e c o r d s have a n a t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n local  surroundings  would rend.  Again,  and bond w i t h  t h a t c o l l e c t i o n by a c e n t r a l as i n h i s f i r s t  article,  their agency  he t r i e s t o  be m o d e r a t e i n h i s remedy o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g the m i c r o f i l m i n g of l o c a l  r e c o r d s and t h e i r d e p o s i t i n  the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s t o f a c i l i t a t e fatally  betrayed  by h i s c o n c e r n 8  research.  that s p l i t  Lambert i s resources  impede  research  i n t o c a r r y i n g t h i s remedy  suggest that a l l r e l i g i o u s to  their  archival  local  one s t e p f u r t h e r t o  a r c h i v e s be r e g r o u p e d  or n a t i o n a l nature  i n provincial  but not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  this  has a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e r e l i g i o u s somewhat i n t h e manner o f w a v i n g a r e d f l a g so t h a t t h e r e s t o f L a m b e r t ' s s u g g e s t i o n s more w e i g h t .  He c o u n s e l s ,  i n v e n t o r i e s and f i n d i n g the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s  foreign  copying  suggestion  archival at a  community  bull,  have n o t been  a i d s on c h u r c h  records  between  programme.  resume  And f i n a l l y ,  he  suggests  lend assistance to r e l i g i o u s  i n s y s t e m a t i z i n g and r e g u l a r i z i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n  of t h e i r r e c o r d s ,  and p r o f e r a d v i c e  on any a s p e c t  While- t h e a r c h i v a l c o m m u n i t y may  a l l o c a t i o n o f power and i n i t i a t i v e  find  of  archival  fault with  to the P u b l i c  i n t o t h e C a n a d i a n n e t w o r k t h r o u g h i n v e n t o r y and exchange and s t a n d a r d i z i n g a r c h i v a l  archives  finding  s e r v i c e i n Canada  t h r o u g h t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n by some c e n t r a l a g e n c y w o u l d greatly and  b e n e f i t both church  a r c h i v e s and t h e i r  p o t e n t i a l patrons.  9  Lambert's  Archives  o f C a n a d a , t h e r e c a n be no d o u b t t h a t b r i n g i n g c h u r c h  aid  given  o f Canada and r e l i g i o u s r e p o s i t o r i e s .  t h a t the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s  work.  last  f o r example, the exchange o f  He recommends t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s  archives  or f e d e r a l  institutions.  Unfortunately,  its  according  existing  Needless  t o say, the Canadian r e l i g i o u s  community  d i d n o t give Lambert's s o l u t i o n of d i s t r i b u t i n g r e c o r d s among p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s rebuttal  to hisarticles  religious  their blessing.  w r i t t e n i n 1977, former  General  Synod A r c h i v i s t , M a r i o n  Beyea, v o i c e s  concern  that i n s t i t u t i o n a l archives are  In a Anglican  "a s e r i o u s  misunderstood,  t h a t t h e i r r i g h t s a r e n o t always acknowledged, and t h a t they  a r e seen as s e c o n d - r a t e  at all.""''  0  The p i c t u r e i s n o t a s b l e a k  it,  she a r g u e s ,  and  Anglican churches,  such and  citing  Oblates  i f they  as Lambert p a i n t s  as w e l l as those  of s m a l l e r groups  Grey Nuns, U r s a l i n e s ,  as examples o f t h e c r e d i t a b l e  by r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n s .  institutionality  finally,  alternative  results  i s an a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e  i n her view,  so f a r  F u r t h e r , she p o i n t s  the t e a c h i n g s o f M u l l e r , F e i t h , and F r u i n , And  are considered  t h e a r c h i v a l programmes o f t h e U n i t e d  as t h e Mennonites, L u t h e r a n s ,  achieved out,  operations  b a s e d on  and J e n k i n s o n .  L a m b e r t d o e s n o t o f f e r an a t t r a c t i v e  to the s i t u a t i o n  o f s c a t t e r e d and d i f f u s e  he c l a i m s e x i s t s among c h u r c h e s  at the present.  sources  Carrying  h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e i r n a t u r a l c o n c l u s i o n w o u l d mean c e n t r a l warehouses  g o b b l i n g up r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , s t a t i c  "collections" of archives. Beyea m a i n t a i n s own a r c h i v e s . trative,  fiscal  t h a t churches  should care  for their  An i n s t i t u t i o n n e e d s i t s r e c o r d s f o r a d m i n i s and l e g a l r e a s o n s . 10  I t c a n use h i s t o r i c a l  records  f o r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and  to the  u s e s t h e c r e a t i n g body has  are  i t s h e r i t a g e and  promotion.  responsibility.  records.  States, opinion  a t the  Beyea f o r the  is similarily  U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan,  p r e s e r v a t i o n of church  a r c h i v e s , and  August Suelflow  Church supporting  record keeping.  church  for state collection  t h e mandate o f the M i c h i g a n supported  institution.  I t s mission  and  printed materials relating  and  i t s institutions.""'"" ' 1  quite broadly would not Historians  be  studying  s u b j e c t s are  social  archives  Society, a  inextricably  bound  Having e s t a b l i s h e d the r i g h t of church  records  t o h i s own  11  manuscripts  i t s people statement collection  excluded.  as w o u l d t h o s e cultural  in  state  i s "to c o l l e c t  h i s t o r y would keenly  and  of  Warner f i n d s  a r c h i v e s were  records,  state  Lutheran  Warner i n t e r p r e t s t h i s  religious  American i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  to gather  of the  t o mean t h a t t h e a r c h i v e s ' e x t e n s i v e  the ommission of church  those  Historical  Gingerich  to Michigan,  complete i f church  with  championing  of church  Historical  church.  divided,  Melvin  t h e M e n n o n i t e C h u r c h and  justification  believes  a moral o b l i g a t i o n  R o b e r t Warner, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f the M i c h i g a n Collection  they  I n s h o r t , she  Lambert argues f o r the h i s t o r i a n , In the U n i t e d  in addition  for i t s records,  t h a t c h u r c h e s h a v e a m o r a l r i g h t and t o k e e p t h e i r own  And  feel  studying  h i s t o r y , since  together. secular  institutions  satisfaction,  i f to  no  one  e l s e ' s , Warner d i s c u s s e s  c o l l e c t i o n m i g h t be t h a t the  how  s u c h a programme o f  implemented s u c c e s s f u l l y .  a r c h i v i s t w o r k t h r o u g h an  g i v e up  their records. not  in  order.  The  l o a n of church  he  notes,  i s an  r e m o v e d by  "persuade"  attractive  records  to a state repository,  i f ever,  When a c h u r c h  l o a n w i t h the Michigan  it  must a g r e e t o open them f o r g e n e r a l  r e g u l a r r u l e s of the  are  the  records  deposits  research  under  I f the  makes i t s d o n a t i o n  a permanent g i f t ,  its  them f o r h i s t o r i c a l d i s p l a y .  and  only  At a p u b l i c a r c h i v e s , the  r e c e i v e a share of  t h a t i n t e r e s t would probably  archivist's personal preferences. might not church in  have the  staff  collection records  an  Moreover, s t a t e  12  sample those  interest, individual  archives  holdings  r e c o r d s , w h i c h c o u l d f o r c e them t o e i t h e r be  received.  church  t i m e and  d e p e n d a l o t on  space t o house e x t e n s i v e  t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n programme o r  the  t h e n i t c a n n o t remove  Warner a d m i t s t o f u r t h e r drawbacks i n s t a t e  would probably  i t s records  H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s , however,  Historical Collections.  of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s .  possession  wish to cede i t s r i g h t s  on  t o use  church  a l t e r n a t i v e to outright  since rarely,  t h e i r owners.  records  them  release i t s records, microfilming i s  when t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n d o e s n o t i t s records,  can  In t h e c a s e s where the  cannot or w i l l  to  suggests  i n f l u e n t i a l person i n t i m a t e l y  c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n who to  He  of selective  records  Despite t h a t the  these d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  churches are  repository. proper care churches.  and  increased  few  public  receive cost  to  the  close  the  local  t o home by  depositing  t i m e he  their  own  was  writing  archives.  Historical Collections t h a n compete w i t h  He  was  any  denominational  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, however,  a r e a s of g r e a t e s t  c o l l e c t i o n programme o f  a l t h o u g h he  as  Michigan  that existed.  Warner p i n p o i n t s  the  a t the  to co-operate rather  archives  no  a  archives.  i n M i c h i g a n had  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the  run  in a public  g i v e W a r n e r h i s due,  archives  with  records  at v i r t u a l l y  keep t h e i r r e c o r d s  denominations  willing  use  believes  Churches w i t h i n denominations which l a c k  state level  To  better off depositing  In s t a t e r e p o s i t o r i e s the  r e p o s i t o r i e s can a t the  Warner s t i l l  s t a t e s t h a t the  weakness i n a  state-  r e l i g i o u s records.  For  instance,  p o i n t of c o l l e c t i n g  church  i s t o r e n d e r g o o d s e r v i c e t o b o t h d o n o r s and  emphasis i s p l a i n l y historians.  on  service to outside  F u r t h e r m o r e , he  users  users, such  reveals:  Many o f us who c o l l e c t h i s t o r i c a l m a n u s c r i p t s and records project o u r own r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s and s p e c i a l t i e s i n t o o u r own c o l l e c t i n g p r o g r a m s . This i s q u i t e n a t u r a l and u s u a l l y a d v a n t a g e o u s , f o r s p e c i a l k n o w l e d g e a l l o w s us t o know w h a t k i n d s o f ^ r e c o r d s a r e m o s t i m p o r t a n t and how t o s e e k t h e m o u t . This  i s e x a c t l y what G i n g e r i c h ,  maintains: must have a history  the  archivist  representing  i n charge of r e l i g i o u s  "thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s  as w e l l a s  f a m i l i a r i t y with 13  the  churches,  records  denomination's  i t s organizational  2  s t r u c t u r e a s i t now e x i s t s a n d a s i t was i n t h e p a s t . " In h i s view, to develop  i ti s simply  impractical  f o rpublic repositories  t h e e x p e r t i s e t o c a r e f o r even a f r a c t i o n o f  t h e many d e n o m i n a t i o n s  i n the United States.  Gingerich  a l s o c o n t e n d s t h a t p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t makes t h e c h u r c h an e a g e r h u n t e r  o f r e c o r d s ; s t a t e a r c h i v i s t s m i g h t be n o  l e s s eager b u t even w i t h s p e c i a l  i n t e r e s t and p e r s o n a l  enthusiasm  s p u r r i n g t h e i r endeavours, they  be  from the o u t s i d e .  working  archivist  them l e s s e f f e c t i v e  than  adds t h a t t h e c h u r c h  still  would  This would undoubtedly  the church  archivist  archivist.  Suelflow  i s i n the best  with her/his intimate connection  make  position,  t o the church,  t o ensure  14 a fully church  comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n  i s kept.  As w e l l , t h e  a r c h i v i s t c a n p r o v i d e a f a r more d e t a i l e d  s e r v i c e programme t o c h u r c h  officials  and e f f e c t i v e  and r e s e a r c h e r s  alike,  given h e r / h i s background i n the church. The  situation  i n England  i s slightly  t h a t i n Canada and i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . of t h e r e c o r d s of t h e Church of England that i s the records belonging cathedral chapters record offices i n 1974-75  different  from  The m a j o r i t y a t the l o c a l  to dioceses,  level,  archdeaconries,  and p a r i s h e s , a r e d e p o s i t e d i n l o c a l  throughout  Britain.  A survey  f o r t h e P i l g r i m and R a d c l i f f e  Trustees,  exposed the f a c t t h a t the r e c o r d s o f c e n t r a l administrative bodies  conducted  policy-making,  of the Church o f England, 14  however,  and those  of numerous C h u r c h s o c i e t i e s and r e l i g i o u s established by  t o promote church  e i t h e r state or church.  communities  c a u s e s were n o t b e i n g  preserved  The S u r v e y C o m m i t t e e recommended  t h a t t h e C h u r c h s e t up a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y u n d e r t h e management of a f u l l y - t r a i n e d  a r c h i v i s t f o rthese  records.  I f this  recommendation were n o t a d o p t e d , t h e n t h e Committee as an a l t e r n a t i v e ,  t h a t the Church d e p o s i t  w i t h t h e P u b l i c Record O f f i c e , of  the records.  t i m e t h e C o m m i t t e e made t h i s  i t s records  retaining full  I t i s interesting  suggested,  legal  possession  t o note that a t the  l a s t recommendation t h e P u b l i c  R e c o r d A c t w o u l d h a v e h a d t o be amended t o a l l o w t h e P u b l i c Record O f f i c e t o c o l l e c t non-governmental As  a contrast t o the record  of England, t h e survey  revealed  situation  of the Church  that the B a p t i s t s , the  Church of I r e l a n d , t h e Church of S c o t l a n d , Church o f Scotland,  records.  the Episcopal  t h e Jews, t h e M e t h o d i s t s ,  t h e Roman  Catholics,  t h e S a l v a t i o n Army, t h e S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s a n d  the U n i t e d  Reformed C h u r c h were p r e s e r v i n g  although  none h a d a f u l l ,  c e n t r a l records  their  records,  management  R e v e r e n d J o h n P u r v i s , commenting on t h e c h u r c h scene i n England, and  on  of the church.  the v i t a l  "Personally,  archives  s t a t e s t h a t because of t h e i r h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d  private nature,  care  system.  church  records  should  remain i n the  U l t i m a t e l y , he b a s e s h i s a r g u m e n t  l i n k between t h e church I deplore  the separation  15  and i t s r e c o r d s : of diocesan  records  from  t h e i r p l a c e of o r i g i n ,  which  may  be  imponderable  and  the b r e a k i n g of a s s o c i a t i o n s  or even s u b t l e , but are n e v e r t h e l e s s 15  s t r o n g and  sometimes  T h u s we  vital."  have the p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n s i n Canada,  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and religious sheer and in  records.  logistics  public  England  r e g a r d i n g who  There a r e , seemingly,  should  problems i n the  of c a r i n g f o r the r e c o r d s f o r both  repositories.  On  t h e one  hand, the  churches  churches  g e n e r a l do n o t h a v e t h e f u n d i n g o r t h e e x p e r t i s e t o  give professional care to t h e i r records. hand, the p u b l i c  On  the  r e p o s i t o r i e s do n o t h a v e t h e  daily  being generated.  Both  other  personnel,  t i m e o r t h e room t o acommodate a l l t h e c h u r c h  As  collect  archives  s i d e s a d m i t t o some  i n the Lambert-Beyea debate,  however, the  difficulties.  issue boils  down t o s e r v i c e ; a l t h o u g h e a c h c l a i m s t o a r g u e f o r b e s t service  f o r b o t h c r e a t o r s and  u s e r s , those  favouring  p r e s e r v a t i o n of church  a r c h i v e s want t o s e r v e t h e  users f i r s t ,  l e a n i n g t o the church's  to  and  those  serve the church's Archival  purposes  theorists Hilary  was  first. Jenkinson  terms of p r e s e r v a t i o n r a t h e r than similar.  first  and  Jenkinson  foremost  t h a t a r c h i v e s are  felt  in Britain,  service,  t o serve the c r e a t o r ' s needs.  16  in their  own  custody  and  more  but the  t h e r e c o r d s s h o u l d be  "preserved  outside  s i d e want  Theodore S c h e l l e n b e r g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s thought in  state  outcome  preserved He for  stressed their  own i n f o r m a t i o n b y t h e p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r that transaction." not  He a d d e d a c o r o l l a r y :  "Archives  were  d r a w n up i n t h e i n t e r e s t o r f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f 16  Posterity." desire  He was n o t u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s  t o use the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s records  He m e r e l y o b s e r v e d w o u l d be b e s t  to write history.  that neither the h i s t o r i a n nor the administrator  served  i f the records  w e r e t o be  preserved  w i t h t h e h i s t o r i a n e x c l u s i v e l y i n mind. Schellenberg  was o f a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n .  between  "primary"  records  h a d t o be p r e s e r v e d  the primary for.  and "secondary" v a l u e .  were c r e a t e d  He a g r e e d w i t h J e n k i n s o n  a body w e r e meant i n i t i a l l y maintained to  that  "they  i n that  t o serve  differentiated  He f e l t  that  reason  than  f o r some o t h e r  one w h i c h t h e y  He  and accumulated records  c r e a t e d by  t h a t b o d y , b u t he  must be p r e s e r v e d  f o r another  be a r c h i v e s , a n d t h i s r e a s o n i s a c u l t u r a l o n e . "  was h i s s e c o n d a r y v a l u e .  He c o n c l u d e d :  those  that created Thus J e n k i n s o n  user.  their to  lead.  promotes s e r v i n g the c r e a t o r ,  thesis,  than  how c h u r c h  keep r e l i g i o u s  records. 17  c a n be  be  from the church's  archives w i l l  C a n a d i a n a r c h i v a l n e t w o r k , we w i l l  Schellenberg,  by f o l l o w i n g  h o w e v e r , we w i l l  e x a m i n e t h e i s s u e i n some d e t a i l  who s h o u l d  there  f o r the p r o f e s s i o n t o take  Through t h i s  a n d by d e t e r m i n i n g  obvious  them."  W i t h them d i v i d e d on t h e m a t t e r ,  no c l e a r d i r e c t i o n  This  " I t i s quite  t h a t modern a r c h i v e s a r e k e p t f o r t h e use o f o t h e r s 17  the  reason  able side,  f i t into the  a l s o be a b l e  to decide  NOTES FOR  CHAPTER I  1 C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , R e p o r t t o t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a by t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e G r o u p On C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , by I a n W i l s o n , C h a i r m a n (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada, 1 9 8 0 ) , p.70. 2 Ibid.,  p.6.  3 I b i d . , p.14,  p.16.  4 James L a m b e r t , " P u b l i c A r c h i v e s a n d R e l i g i o u s R e c o r d s : M a r r i a g e P r o p o s a l s , " A r c h i v a r i a 1 (Winter 1975-76). 5 Ibid.,  p.49.  Ibid.,  p.66.  6 7 James L a m b e r t , "Toward a R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s Programme f o r the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada," A r c h i v a r i a 3 (Winter 1976-77). 8 Canadian R e l i g i o u s Conference, Report of Proceedings of S e m i n a r on R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s ( O t t a w a : n.p., 1972). 9 Lambert,  "Toward a R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s P r o g r a m m , "  p.47.  10 M a r i o n B e y e a , " A r c h i v e s and (Summer 1 9 7 7 ) : 208.  R e l i g i o u s Records," A r c h i v a r i a 4  11 R o b e r t M. W a r n e r , "The R o l e o f t h e S e c u l a r I n s t i t u t i o n i n C o l l e c t i n g C h u r c h R e c o r d s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 28 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 5 ) : 247. 12  Ibid. 18  NOTES c o n ' t 13 M e l v i n G i n g e r i c h , "An E f f e c t i v e A c q u i s i t i o n P r o g r a m f o r t h e R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 29 ( O c t o b e r 1966) : 517. 14 A u g u s t S u e l f l o w , "Maximum and M i n i m u m S t a n d a r d s f o r R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 32 ( J u l y 1 9 6 9 ) . 15 J o h n S. P u r v i s , " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l R e c o r d s , " J o u r n a l o f S o c i e t y o f A r c h i v i s t s 1 ( A p r i l 1 9 5 5 ) : 5, 6.  the  16 H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , A Manual of A r c h i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 2nd e d . ( L o n d o n : P. L u n d H u m p h r i e s & Co". , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 1 1 . 17 T. R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , M o d e r n A r c h i v e s o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 14.  19  (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y  CHAPTER I I THE CONTEXT: It it  i s a fundamental theory  i s necessary  context to the  A STUDY OF RECORD K E E P I N G of archival  science  f o r a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s t o preserve the  of the r e c o r d as w e l l as the r e c o r d  itself  properly understand the information contained record.  that  In p r a c t i c a l  i n order  within  t e r m s , t h i s means t h a t  archivists  m u s t be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i s t o r y o f t h e creating  agency t h a t g e n e r a t e d t h e r e c o r d ,  bureaucratic and  s t r u c t u r e , and t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s  stage  of i t s l i f e .  T h e r e i s an a d d e d  considering the context  certain  and they  i n a particular  we w i l l church order  of r e l i g i o u s  records  to  because  do s o f o r g o o d a n d s u f f i c i e n t  and d e l i b e r a t e manner.  examine t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c and t h e i r  record keeping  In t h i s  t h e i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l  a i d i n the development of these  note the r e l a t i v e conventional  abilities  expectations  terms o f access,  chapter  p r a c t i c e s i n tandem i n  t o draw o u t any s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h  review  reason  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s o f each  We s h a l l p r o b e t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e a r c h i v a l and  dimension  i n d i v i d u a l d e n o m i n a t i o n s have chosen t o c o l l e c t  their records, and  of creation  p o s s i b l e u s e s t o w h i c h t h e r e c o r d was p u t d u r i n g t h e  active in  including the  exist.  programmes  g u i d e l i n e s which programmes.  of each church  We  exist will  i n meeting the  we h a v e o f p u b l i c a r c h i v e s i n  accessibility 20  of resources,  and degree  of  success  i n acquiring existing  determining the l a s t , to  we w i l l  a s e l e c t i o n of churches  survey w i l l towards  study a survey  w i t h i n each  church records.  Finally,  In  t h a t was  denomination.  a l s o a f f o r d us a g l i m p s e o f l o c a l  p o l i c i e s of secular i n s t i t u t i o n s in  archival materials.  we w i l l  sent This  attitudes  survey  t o determine  the c o l l e c t i o n  their  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s records generated  part in British  Columbia. We b e g i n  then w i t h the A n g l i c a n Church.  s y n o d i c a l government, based refer but  I t has a  upon a e p i s c o p a c y .  People  t o the " h i e r a r c h i c a l " nature of the r e s u l t a n t  structure,  i f we p r o b e i n t o t h e a c t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e A n g l i c a n  Church,  we f i n d  a p a t t e r n t h a t i s s u b t l y removed from  simple hierarchy. p a r i s h , which  The p r i m a r y  u n i t o f the Church  a  i s the  c a n be made up o f one o r more c h u r c h e s .  p a r i s h e s are grouped i n t o d e a n e r i e s , which  usually  These  follow  regional boundaries.  This arrangement a l l o w s p a r i s h e s  with s i m i l a r concerns  t o meet i n f o r m a l l y  local  to discuss  their  needs. The  next organizational  are t h i r t y  unit  i s the diocese.  d i o c e s e s i n Canada, f i v e  the Diocese  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  the Diocese  of Kootenay, the Diocese  Diocese and  often  of Caledonia.  1  in British  the Diocese  There  Columbia:  o f New  Westminster,  o f C a r i b o o , and t h e  The d i o c e s e i s u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n  p a s t o r a l care of the Bishop, although the governing  body i s t h e D i o c e s a n  Synod.  The B i s h o p a n d a number o f  21  c l e r g y and sit on  on  lay delegates  the Synod.  An  from the p a r i s h e s w i t h i n the  elected Executive  the work of the c h u r c h  and  Council  Finance  of these  C o m m i t t e e , and  appoint  Synod.  C o u n c i l , i s made  o f a number o f s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s s u c h a s t h e and  carries  the mandates of the  A complementary body, the Diocesan  diocese  up  Administration  t h e Programme C o m m i t t e e .  u n i t s or task f o r c e s to address  Each  specific  issues.  the  The  dioceses  third  level  i n Canada.  are grouped i n t o e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  of o r g a n i z a t i o n .  British  Ecclesiastical of the p r o v i n c e  There are only f o u r  Columbia i s administered  Province  Synod. bishops, diocese. business  and  The previous is  however, the  S y n o d i s made up  bishops.  governing  head  I t meets e v e r y through  at  body i s the  the Provincial  three years,  laity  e l e c t e d by  and  conducts i t s  an e l e c t e d c o u n c i l a n d  two  As  through  four  each  standing  w h i c h meet o n l y when n e e d e d .  p a t t e r n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a t the l e v e l s are d u p l i c a t e d a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  the General  who  of the M e t r o p o l i t a n , a l l the  f o u r e a c h o f c l e r g y and  c o m m i t t e e s and  The  provinces  the  i s the M e t r o p o l i t a n , or A r c h i b i s h o p ,  level, The  under  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  i s e l e c t e d f r o m among t h e d i o c e s a n diocesan  provinces,  Synod, which i n c l u d e s a l l b i s h o p s  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e numbers o f e l e c t e d c l e r g y and f r o m e a c h d i o c e s e , h e a d e d by  the  Primate.  The  three There  as w e l l lay  people  Metropolitan  is  the  o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the  Synod t o o f f i c i a l l y Where do ment?  The  level,  we  find  history,  was  e a r l y on  records  Provincial  Synod.  of the  S t a r t i n g from the Synod A r c h i v e s  top and  Archivist.  established quite recently in  rather late  Although  the  i n terms of the  a r e g i s t r a r was  appointed  Church's  t o be  until  their  r e s u l t e d i n the  o f an  archivist.  cummulative e f f o r t s  role with  archives  then,  the  increased vigour.  interest  I n 1975,  i n t o a f u l l - f l e d g e d programme.  a t the d i o c e s a n  ever-strengthening to begin  of d i o c e s e s  ties  Denom-  At  appointment fulfilled  original  this  time  In view of  of c o - o p e r a t i o n ,  the  the c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s  a programme o f m i c r o f i l m i n g v i t a l  books of e p i s c o p a l a c t s , b i r t h ,  as  to develop l i a s o n s  level.  to ensure the r e c o r d s '  records  the need f o r  management c a u s e d t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e  with archivists  able  responsible  i n the  a r c h i v e s has  w e l l , e f f o r t s were begun i n e a r n e s t  was  formal  of a l e g a l or c a n o n i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Since  province,  a t the n a t i o n a l  an  records  government:  ecclesiastical  i n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s maintained  its  arrange-  l e v e l s of church  a t the n a t i o n a l headquarters.  establishment  of  archives f i t into this  level  the General  c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s was  1955  for  the  the n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  level, The  the A n g l i c a n  the General  archives f o l l o w three  the diocesan and  s i t on  level  s e c u r i t y , which  m a r r i a g e and  burial  records included registers,  2 and  financial  records.  I n M a r c h 1978 23  the  central archives  c o n d u c t e d an i n t r o d u c t o r y t r a i n i n g c o u r s e f o r d i o c e s a n archivists,  and i s p r e s e n t l y  co-operating  p u b l i s h i n g a m a n u a l on a c c e s s i o n i n g ,  with  them i n  a r r a n g e m e n t and  des-  cription. The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e G e n e r a l S y n o d A r c h i v i s t w i t h archivists in  1980 when i t was  Archivist in  a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l a n d r e g i o n a l l e v e l s was stated that a primary  i s "to co-ordinate  the dioceses,  cemented  f u n c t i o n of the  and a s s i s t a r c h i v a l programs  ecclesiastical  provinces,  and r e l a t e d 3  a s s o c i a t i o n s of the Anglican the  Church o f Canada."  As w e l l ,  G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v i s t i s t o e n c o u r a g e d e v e l o p m e n t  and c o n t i n u a l  improvement o f a r c h i v a l programmes a t t h e  lower l e v e l s "through i n f o r m a t i o n ,  advice,  visits,  training 4  s e m i n a r s , and j o i n t p r o j e c t s canon and r e g u l a t i o n s are of  being  such as m i c r o f i l m i n g . "  to formally  A  govern the c e n t r a l  d r a w n up a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e f o r t h e n e x t  t h e G e n e r a l S y n o d i n 1986.  Handbook w h i c h m e r e l y  They w i l l  archives meeting  augment t h e  current  i n s t r u c t s the R e g i s t r a r of the General  S y n o d t o " k e e p an a u t h e n t i c r e c o r d o f t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n of a l l B i s h o p s " and t o keep " t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f P r i n c i p l e s , the  C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e Synod, t h e R u l e s o f O r d e r and 5  Procedure,  and a l l Canons." J u s t a t the time formal  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  and p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t s were b e i n g for  the operation  o f t h e B.C. 24  established,  P r o v i n c i a l Synod  national regulations  Archives  w e r e a p p r o v e d by  the  two  i n 1982,  years l a t e r ,  Because the of B r i t i s h the  the  Columbia are  of  In the  Province,  of the  Ecclesiastical  Province  those  of  r o l e of a r c h i v i s t  t h i s p e r s o n has  assumed  for  contributed  five diocesan archives,  establish a regional the  archives.  W e s t m i n s t e r , a s i n g l e a r c h i v i s t has  Ecclesiastical  Each of  the  adopted  the  physically located with  both c o l l e c t i o n s .  co-ordination  A canon  formally established  a r c h i v a l records  D i o c e s e o f New  c h a r g e of  Provincial Council.  helping  network.  dioceses  has  made v e r y  good p r o g r e s s on  The  D i o c e s e of Kootenay began the  when a member o f  the  Diocese volunteered  to i n v e s t i g a t e the  D i o c e s e , and  t o the  B i s h o p and  With the  help  and  advice  Archives  of B r i t i s h  the of  s t a t e of a r c h i v a l concerning  a v i e w t o m a k i n g recommen-  Executive  Committee, i n  a representative  C o l u m b i a and  archives.  t o make e n q u i r i e s  p o s s i b l e a r c h i v a l programmes w i t h dations  trend  their  since  t i m e t h a t t h e y began t o c o n c e n t r a t e  w i t h i n the  the  of  1978.  the P r o v i n c i a l  G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v i s t ,  a p o s i t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n f o r D i o c e s a n A r c h i v i s t and  a policy  statement f o r the  valuable  archives  w e r e d r a w n up  w o r k done t o w a r d s p r o c e s s i n g  the  gathered from v a r i o u s  w i t h i n the  the  new  places  p o s i t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n and  a p p r o v e d , and  with  the  the  and  material  some  t h a t had  Diocese.  p o l i c y were  programme o f f i c i a l l y  Diocesan A r c h i v i s t contacted  them t o s u p p o r t t h e  the  to  the  records  to  a l l the  Both  subsequently launched,  parishes  a r c h i v a l programme and  been  to  the  urging  complete  a survey  of their  a few p a r i s h e s for  records.  archival holdings.  then,  have r e s p o n d e d t o t h e A r c h i v i s t ' s  a l lbut request  The m a t e r i a l h a s b e e n h o u s e d s i n c e 1 9 8 1 i n  the Diocesan O f f i c e , to  Since  and t h e A r c h i v i s t has been  responding  a n i n c r e a s i n g number o f e n q u i r i e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n .  filming help  of v i t a l  records  of a grant,  Micro-  has been c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e  and t h e A r c h i v i s t  i s c u r r e n t l y engaged 7  in  arranging  and d e s c r i b i n g t h e h o l d i n g s .  The D i o c e s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a s s e d a c a n o n to  i t s a r c h i v e s b a s e d on t h e same d o c u m e n t p r e p a r e d f o r  the D i o c e s e o f Kootenay i n 1980. did  relating  n o t have a f i r m p o l i c y  records  before  voluntary  this  time,  donations,  been g a t h e r e d . which provides  Although  of c o l l e c t i n g and had r e l i e d  still  the Diocese  individual  parish  i n the past  on  q u i t e a l o t o f m a t e r i a l had  I t i s now h o u s e d i n a s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g secure  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  R e s e a r c h e r s have an a r e a Work h a s b e e n c a r r i e d  stable conditions.  t o use i n t h e a d j o i n i n g  chapel.  o u t by v o l u n t e e r s , b u t government g  grants  have r e c e n t l y s e c u r e d  The D i o c e s e o f C a r i b o o  outside  help.  followed the pattern established  by t h e D i o c e s e s o f K o o t e n a y a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . of  1982 t h e D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s  opened.  Although  was d e d i c a t e d  and  In March  officially  no means o f r e g u l a r t r a n s f e r o f m a t e r i a l  from p a r i s h e s  has been d e v e l o p e d as o f y e t , a l l p a r i s h / m i s s i o n  records  t o 1970 h a v e b e e n c a l l e d  prior  26  f o r , and t h e m a t e r i a l  so f a r a c q u i r e d r e s i d e s i n a c o n c r e t e cathedral f o r safekeeping.  v a u l t of the diocesan  Requests from o u t s i d e  researchers  9  for  i n f o r m a t i o n a r e responded t o . Using  t h e same p o l i c y  the Diocese and in  as  the other  o f New W e s t m i n s t e r d r a f t e d a n d p a s s e d  1983.  The D i o c e s a n  although  diocesan  parishes.  i t s f o r m a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t came l a t e . of Theology, the Archives  l e v e l records r a t h e r than  The D i o c e s a n  a l s o oversees  Archives  A r c h i v e s i s one o f t h e o l d e s t  the Vancouver School  mostly  dioceses, a canon  r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the operation of the Diocesan  tories, in  statement  Archivist,  Located  houses  records of i n d i v i d u a l  as has been n o t e d  the records of the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l  of B r i t i s h Columbia.  reposi-  before,  Province  The a r c h i v e s i s o p e n a n d a v a i l a b l e  t o o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . The  Diocese  of Caledonia, which i s r e l a t i v e l y  i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , has a d i f f e r e n t The  background.  a r c h i v e s was e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e B i s h o p , d i s c o v e r i n g  t h a t a number o f p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s h a d gone m i s s i n g of long v a c a n c i e s  i n some p a r i s h e s , c a l l e d  registers  t o be s e n t  Treasurer  of the Diocese  i n , i n 1953. organized  because  f o r a l l completed  I n 1955 t h e S e c r e t a r y the r e g i s t e r s  of t h e accompanying m a t e r i a l and has s i n c e taken the  isolated  a n d some care of  collection. "'' 1  Thus w i t h t h e h e l p , a d v i c e and encouragement o f t h e central  a r c h i v e s , and t h e e n t h u s i a s m 27  o f few i n d i v i d u a l s ,  the  d i o c e s e s of  the  Ecclesiastical  Province  C o l u m b i a h a v e made a v e r y g o o d s t a r t on programme. able the  They a r e  acquiring  f o r i n t e r n a l and c o n t i n u i t y of  tentions  i n c a n o n s and  The  and  a strong  c o n t r a s t to the Anglican  represents  five  one  avail-  ensuring  regulations.  In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the  represents  archival  embodying t h e i r i n -  n e x t d e n o m i n a t i o n t o examine i s the  nomination.  latter  m a k i n g them  researchers,  t h e i r e n d e a v o u r s by  British  a significant  archives,  external  of  de-  B a p t i s t Church  Church, f o r while  u n i f i e d body, the  s e p a r a t e and  Baptist  former  presents  the  actually  d i s t i n c t c h u r c h e s , as  well  12 as  several  Area of of  small  the  independent bodies.  B a p t i s t Union of Western Canada, the  of  the  America., the  and  the  the  first  of  C a p i l a n o and  Plateau  Associations  the  the  Anglican  a fairly  Church, the  church congregation.  however, f o r w h i l e subject  to the  the  complex  basic The  jurisdiction  Baptist organizations  of  similarity  the  s t r e s s the 28  of  of  Baptist  Union  organization.  u n i t of  church i n the  the  America.  these B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s , the  o f W e s t e r n C a n a d a , has Like  B.C.  B a p t i s t General Conference  Southern B a p t i s t Convention, a l s o of The  all  Convention  North American B a p t i s t Conference,  Columbia Conference of  is  B.C.  Regular B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h Columbia, the  Association  is  There i s the  organization ends  Anglican Diocesan local  there,  denomination Bishop,  autonomy  of  the church.  Each  church, therefore,  a f f a x r s as i t sees f i t .  By m u t u a l c o n s e n t , h o w e v e r ,  i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a l a r g e r body. Western  i s free to order i t s  The  each  B a p t i s t Union of  Canada c o m p r i s e s c h u r c h e s i n t h e t h r e e P r a i r i e  provinces, B r i t i s h Territories.  The  C o l u m b i a , the Yukon and t h e  Northwest  B a p t i s t U n i o n i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e  Union  board, which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y t h a t a p p l y to the whole  body.  e l e c t e d members u n d e r members a r e d i v i d e d gational Life, M i n i s t r y and  The  will  Board c o n s i s t s of t w e n t y - e i g h t  the guidance of a president.  i n t o t h r e e Commissions:  These  one o n  Congre-  a s e c o n d on U n i o n Programme, and a t h i r d  Stewardship.  These t h r e e commissions  on  have a  number o f s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h f u r t h e r augment  their  work.  admin-  In the i n t e r v a l s  istrative executive.  between Board m e e t i n g s , t h e  f u n c t i o n s o f t h e B o a r d a r e c a r r i e d o u t by Denominational p o l i c y  an  and programme p l a n n i n g  d e v e l o p e d by t h e B o a r d a r e b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e l o c a l  con-  gregational representatives  the  Annual Assembly.  The  for r a t i f i c a t i o n during  p o l i c i e s a g r e e d upon a r e t h e n g i v e n t o  r e g i o n a l b o d i e s known a s a r e a s t o a d m i n i s t e r and • • British  Columbia  i s a d m i n i s t e r e d under  t h e B.C.  implement. Area.  13  The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e a r e a m i r r o r s t h a t o f t h e Board. is  I t i s controlled  through s i x o f f i c e r s ,  t h e A r e a M i n i s t e r , and an e x e c u t i v e .  divided  v<  i n t o the three commissions,  Union  one o f whom  T h e s e members a r e  and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  to  the  l o c a l churches i s provided  a t the Annual Area  T h e s e members a r e a l s o o f f i c i a l Board o f Trustees British  Meetings.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on t h e  o f the Convention  o f B a p t i s t Churches o f  C o l u m b i a , a body w h i c h does a l i m i t e d amount o f  business  basically relating  to i t s function of holding  property. Within the area grouping  f u r t h e r c o n t r o l i s i n s t i t u t e d by  congregations  there are five  into regions.  regions: Northern  In B r i t i s h  British  Okanagan, K o o t e n a y , t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , And  finally,  the Areas,  Pastoral  as w e l l as oversee  Settlement  Although a nation-wide  and Vancouver I s l a n d .  Advisory  the Union, the Union  Board  the function o f the  Committee.  t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f W e s t e r n Canada i s n o t body, i t i s l i n k e d  groups o f a s i m i l a r Convention  Columbia, the  t h e r e i s t h e U n i o n S t a f f o f t e n members u n d e r a n  Executive M i n i s t e r , to co-ordinate and  Columbia  persuasion,  across  Canada w i t h  other  i n c l u d i n g the B a p t i s t  o f O n t a r i o and Quebec, t h e U n i t e d B a p t i s t Con-  vention of the A t l a n t i c  P r o v i n c e s , and t h e U n i o n o f  French  B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s i n C a n a d a , w h i c h a l l come t o g e t h e r  through  t h e B a p t i s t F e d e r a t i o n o f Canada.  allows  This a f f i l i a t i o n  the B a p t i s t Union t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a n a t i o n a l v o i c e , and a l l o w s i t t o u n d e r t a k e c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s such as t h e Federation's  World R e l i e f outreach.  The B a p t i s t F e d e r a t i o n /  o f Canada i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e 30  million  member B a p t i s t W o r l d A l l i a n c e . T h u s we s e e a c h u r c h w h i c h i s r e g i o n a l  i n character,  w h i c h h a s a c e n t r a l b o d y c o n t r o l l i n g p o l i c y a n d programme development, which has complementary bodies t o e x p e d i t e t h e policies,  but which allows  authority  t o make f i n a l  In c o n t r a s t  to this  local  congregations the ultimate  decisions  concerning t h e i r  future.  s t r e s s on l o c a l autonomy,  formal  archival p o l i c y c e n t r a l i z e s the records of the constituent bodies o f the Baptist Federation Archives  o f Canada a t t h e B a p t i s t  o f McMaster D i v i n i t y C o l l e g e ,  p a r t o f McMaster  14 University the  i n Hamilton, Ontario.  The M c M a s t e r A r c h i v e s i s  e a r l i e s t Canadian denominational a r c h i v e s  churches i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, being e s t a b l i s h e d  auspices o f t h e Canadian B a p t i s t H i s t o r i c a l Although the archives the  t o serve  was i n t e n d e d t o o n l y  constitution of the Society  under t h e  Society serve  i n 1865.  Ontario,  stated that the archives  was  t o c o l l e c t a n d make a v a i l a b l e b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s , p e r i o d i c a l s , m a n u s c r i p t s , and so on " p e r t a i n i n g  t o t h e h i s t o r y and p r e s e n t  condition  of t h e B a p t i s t denomination generally.""'"  a general  by-law o f the B a p t i s t Convention o f Ontario  Quebec w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d  the Archives  and H i s t o r y  committee p r o v i d e s f o r t h e work o f t h e Canadian Historical  Society  Today  5  and  standing  Baptist  t o be c a r r i e d o n .  Because t h e McMaster A r c h i v e s transfers of material  has r e l i e d  on  from c o n g r e g a t i o n s and o t h e r  voluntary church  a g e n c i e s , t h e h o l d i n g s d i d n o t become e x t e n s i v e u n t i l t h e l a s t twenty o r t h i r t y  years.  h o l d i n g s a r e now s u b s t a n t i a l ,  In l i g h t of the fact that the one w o u l d n o t u n n a t u r a l l y  expect that B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i d e s i t s share o f a r c h i v a l material.  McMaster  A r c h i v e s , however, dashes  p e c t a t i o n ; as f a r as B r i t i s h Columbia  any such ex-  i s concerned,  "many  B a p t i s t r e c o r d s f r o m B.C. c h u r c h e s do n o t come h e r e , a s t h e churches e l e c t t o d e p o s i t t h e i r records i n various  libraries  16 and c o l l e g e s i n B.C." Is t h i s  true?  Given that the next l e v e l  w i t h i n t h e B a p t i s t Union o f Western has a permanent o f f i c e  o f government  Canada, t h e Union  Board,  s t a f f w o r k i n g o u t o f C a l g a r y , one  m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t some a r c h i v e s r e l a t i n g the denomination reside there.  Such  t o t h e Board and t o  i s not the case.  "The  f a c t o f t h e m a t t e r i s t h a t we s t o r e no a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l a t 17 Calgary," the Executive M i n i s t e r wrote. that archival material Hall,  He  indicated  f o r t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n was k e p t a t C a r e y  the Baptist theological college a t the University of  British McMaster  C o l u m b i a , a n d t h a t a g r e a t amount was s t o r e d a t t h e Archives i n Hamilton.  In fact,  C a r e y H a l l had been  sent t h e headquarter s e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n o f yearbooks,  dating 18 Cf ar ro em y 1913 H a l l ,o nwhen x e d , o ta dh me ir t t" eh di s t , a n dt asome t oor ih co al ld i ndgo c tu mh een ty ae ta ir ob no .o "k s . 1  T h i s , then, would claimed.  seem t o s u p p o r t w h a t M c M a s t e r  Archives  The C a r e y H a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a l s o s t a t e d , 32  how-  ever,  t h a t the  s c h o o l had  sent d u p l i c a t e s of t h e i r  h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l to McMaster central office The  i n Calgary  ago"  and  that  for  i n f o r m a t i o n on  one  to suspect the  course,  field but  confusion  a l s o q u o t e d as a  Baptists in British  as  regards  to access  to the  Columbia.  resource"  This  leads  rife  l e a d one  t o hope t h a t  goldmine of a r c h i v a l  limited  of this  resources.  a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l which  the B a p t i s t / A n a b a p t i s t L i b r a r y r e c e n t l y estab-  l i s h e d a t Regent C o l l e g e , an affiliated  "significant  t o w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s an a r c h i v e s ,  m e r e l y masks a h i d d e n  does e x i s t ,  (although  that there i s considerable confusion  the s i t u a t i o n does not  With regards  the  a l i m i t e d amount o f m a t e r i a l .  l i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  n o t t h e a r c h i v e s ) was  in  had  "years  limited  with  i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l body a l s o  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia, w i l l  open  19 the  yearbooks to  research.  C o n t i n u i n g on t o t h e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e B.C. each l e v e l of the difficult  Archives, although  go  of government, a  stated that minutes  reprefrom  to McMaster, a f a c t which i s  i n l i g h t o f t h e r e p l y g i v e n by  perhaps general denominational  not have been i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r 20 "church  level  Area o f f i c e  church  to support  next  r e p l y when t h e y  McMaster  records  may  spoke o f  records."  A final  n o t e on B a p t i s t U n i o n a r c h i v e s i s p r o v i d e d  Reverend Gordon P o u s e t t ,  a B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r who  has  by  written  a h i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h Columbia B a p t i s t s a f f i l i a t e d  with  the  B a p t i s t Union of Western  was d i f f i c u l t Baptists, torical  the  He a d m i t t e d t h a t i t  to locate Baptist records.  The m a j o r i t y o f  i n h i s o p i n i o n , d o n o t p l a c e much v a l u e o n h i s -  r e c o r d s because  practical  Canada.  concerns.  they are oriented  towards p r e s e n t and  And, a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l  option of sending t h e i r  churches  r e c o r d s t o McMaster  many h a v e n o t t a k e n a d v a n t a g e  of this  Archives,  service..  Consequently,  many o f t h e o l d e r r e c o r d s h a v e b e e n i r r e t r i e v a b l y includes  have  lost.  This  some o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n ' s B o a r d m i n u t e s , a n d m o s t 21  of  t h e minutes o f i t s committees,  he f o u n d .  c h u r c h members managed t o p r o v i d e p r i v a t e  Individual  sources o f B a p t i s t  records f o rh i s history. The formed  second B a p t i s t denomination i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s  o f churches which severed t h e i r  B a p t i s t Union o f Western organization. of  connection with the  C a n a d a i n 19 27 t o f o r m t h e i r  Today t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c a l l e d  Regular Churches  o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  t h e church i s the b a s i c u n i t as w e l l .  ination  has a handbook w h i c h c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e s  view o f t h e l o c a l congregation. the  "church" i n terms  similar  the Convention  In this  ination  While t h i s  own  denom-  The denomthe church's  handbook  to that of the Baptist  defines Union,  namely t h a t t h e c h u r c h i s a " l o c a l assembly o f r e g e n e r a t e believers  i n Christ,  b a p t i z e d upon p r o f e s s i o n o f t h e i r  (and) o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e New T e s t a m e n t the  C o n v e n t i o n o r R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s emphasize 34  faith,  pattern,"  certain  elements  in  their  handbook w h i c h s h o u l d  h a v e some r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r  22 t h e i r record  keeping.  The  c h u r c h membership," the The  first  second  e l e m e n t i s "a  "a s t a t e d  doctrinal position."  l a s t i s somewhat u n u s u a l b e c a u s e B a p t i s t  denominations  have t e n d e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h a t i n v i e w o f t h e l o c a l congregation, doctrinal of  not  h a v e any  statements to f o l l o w .  the c h u r c h , however, p r o v i d e s  puzzle,  and  that the New  t h e y do  this will  emphasis on  be the  play  an  one  answer t o  with  l e t us  finish  the  realities  examining the  A f t e r the  as  a basic  greater  the  of record  The  life  of  third  C o n v e n t i o n , and as  church.  structure. association.  t o form t i e s which a l l o w  r e t r e a t s and  so  the Executive  Executive  given  them church  causes,  i s a l s o the  Board i s the  This  level  is  of  the  c h i e f agency of  c o n s i s t s of elected o f f i c e r s , C o m m i t t e e , and  The  on.  l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n  The  that  B a p t i s t churches w i t h i n a  d i r e c t administration of church a f f a i r s . Convention.  the  keeping p r a c t i c e s ,  b o u n d a r i e s , s u c h as b i b l e camps, home m i s s i o n  The  the  power t o t a c k l e l a r g e p r o j e c t s beyond t h e i r  regional r a l l i e s ,  this  f a c t remains  to conclude  l e v e l of congregation i s the  area or region  history  element of  organizational  association primarily allows geographical  an  the  rigid  the  important r o l e i n  Before exploring  creeds or  A review of  T e s t a m e n t c h u r c h m i g h t e n c o u r a g e one  archives  autonomy o f  a d d r e s s e d l a t e r on. record  recorded  referred  e l e c t e d members, up  to  the to a  maximum o f t w e n t y .  There a r e t h i r t e e n o t h e r agencies t o  co-ordinate the d i f f e r e n t concerns  o f t h e denomination,  overseas missionary service to b u i l d i n g agencies are s t r i c t l y are r e s t r i c t e d Convention:  from  and p r o p e r t y .  These  r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e C o n v e n t i o n , and  t o carrying out s p e c i f i c objectives o fthe  "they a r e n o t e l e c t e d  t o form any h i e r a r c h y o r  23 bureaucracy."  Thus, a l l t h e churches  i n the Convention  meet once a y e a r t o f o r m u l a t e mandates f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n , and  t o r a t i f y work c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e a g e n c i e s o f t h e  Executive  Board.  While  the convention i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centre o f  the Convention like  ••  o f Regular B a p t i s t Churches o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  t h e B a p t i s t Union o f Western Canada, t h e C o n v e n t i o n has  voluntarily  formed a c o - o p e r a t i v e n a t i o n a l u n i o n , f o r m i n g t h e  F e l l o w s h i p o f E v a n g e l i c a l B a p t i s t Churches i n Canada w i t h t h e U n i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s i n O n t a r i o a n d Quebec, the F e l l o w s h i p o f Independent B a p t i s t Churches,  and t h e  Regular B a p t i s t Missionary F e l l o w s h i p o f A l b e r t a . What p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r a r c h i v e s ? by-laws records.  I n t h e handbook,  contain s t r i c t u r e s with regard t o keeping Each church  business meetings  clerk  i s t o "keep m i n u t e s  o f the church;  essential  of a l l  take care o f a l l corres-  p o n d e n c e i n t h e name o f t h e c h u r c h ; m a i n t a i n a n a c c u r a t e r e c o r d o f a l l t h e members o f t h e c h u r c h . " clerk  shall  take charge  As w e l l , " t h e  o f a l l r e c o r d s and v a l u a b l e documents 36  and  s h a l l have c u s t o d y o f t h e c h u r c h s e a l . "  provision  f o r the church c l e r k  statement,  to f i l e  l i s t of elected officers,  resolution,  There  i s also  the current financial  and "every  extraordinary  a n d e v e r y amendment t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n when 24  adopted  by t h e c h u r c h . "  At t h e Convention Correspondence  level,  and m i n u t e s  r e c o r d s a r e k e p t i n two p l a c e s .  o f the Convention dating 25  1959 o n w a r d s a r e h e l d i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f f i c e .  from  A l l  other extant records r e s i d e a t the l i b r a r y o f the Northwest B a p t i s t C o l l e g e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . were donated  by R e v e r e n d  Some o f t h e r e c o r d s  P o u s e t t , a f t e r he c o m p l e t e d h i s  h i s t o r y o f the Convention o f Regular B a p t i s t s e a r l y r e c o r d s w e r e l o s t when p r i v a t e  individuals  t r o y e d them o r s i m p l y d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h them. correspondence 1960s. had  of  f o r example, were d e s t r o y e d i n a f i r e  The s e c r e t a r y , who h a d t a k e n c h a r g e  These escaped  i nthe  of the records, i n the store  The L i b r a r y o f t h e N o r t h w e s t  B a p t i s t C o l l e g e a l s o has a r a t h e r material.  fine collection of early  Many e a r l y p a m p h l e t s ,  important source f o r B a p t i s t h i s t o r y w e r e b o u n d b y a member o f t h e c h u r c h .  which  i n British  a r e an Columbia,  Publications  such as  t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t n e w s l e t t e r , The F e l l o w s h i p B a p t i s t , also  survived.  des-  t h e c o n f l a g r a t i o n , a n d t h u s make u p p a r t  the records at the College.  ephemeral  either  Many  Other r e c o r d s ,  f o r t u n a t e l y placed the Convention minutes  safe.  i n 1956.  37  have  There  a r e no p r o v i s i o n s i n p l a c e f o r a n y s o r t o f r e g u l a r  acquisition of archival material  from  local congregations,  h o w e v e r , a n d no s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s f o r m a k i n g t h o s e r e c o r d s which  have b e e n c o l l e c t e d The N o r t h A m e r i c a n  B a p t i s t church  available to the general  public.  B a p t i s t Conference, t h e t h i r d  in British  Columbia,  and t h e f i r s t  of the  e t h n i c B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s , m i n i s t e r s t o G e r m a n - b o r n a n d Germanspeaking Baptists  and t h e i r  descendents.  a separate i d e n t i t y even though p o p u l a t i o n no l o n g e r s p e a k s  the m a j o r i t y of the church  German a n d s e r v i c e s h a v e h a d t o :•  make a c c o m m o d a t i o n a c c o r d i n g l y . partly  The e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s  supported through the r e l a t i v e l y  immigration, through the maintenance Baptists, exists.  I t has m a i n t a i n e d  r e c e n t German  o f c o n t a c t w i t h European  and t h r o u g h t h e c l o s e l y - k n i t f e l l o w s h i p I n c o n s i d e r i n g i t among t h e many A m e r i c a n  denominations,  A l b e r t Wardin J r . c a l l e d  i ta  which Baptist  "somewhat  26 i s o l a t e d body." ization.  The f i r s t  I t h a s some u n u s u a l f e a t u r e s i n i t s o r g a n noticeably different  feature i n this  B a p t i s t church i s i t s separation o f church and  those bodies which c o n t r o l  functions usually considered  part of the church's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . i n s t i t u t i o n s and c h a r i t a b l e works, dependently entiates  controlled.  The s e c o n d  the North American  Thus, e d u c a t i o n a l  f o r example, a r e i n f e a t u r e which  B a p t i s t Conference  and t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s i s t h e A m e r i c a n 38  administration  differ-  from t h e Union  orientation of the  organization. Conference,  The m a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b o d y , t h e G e n e r a l  i s made up o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  from a l l churches  i n t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n , b o t h i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s body meets t r i e n n i a l l y f o r t h e Church.  to formulate p o l i c i e s  and g o a l s  The m a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d y o f t h e C h u r c h ,  the General C o u n c i l , which  transacts a l l the business decided  upon by t h e C o n f e r e n c e between t h e t r i e n n i a l m e e t i n g s , i s located all  i n Oakbrook T e r r a c e , I l l i n o i s .  The C o u n c i l  conducts  l e g a l b u s i n e s s , h a n d l e s a l l f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s , and s o  on.  There  i s o n l y an a d d r e s s i n Canada, i n C a l g a r y , w h i c h  r o u t e s money, f o r i n s t a n c e , t o t h e O a k b r o o k o f f i c e .  Thus,  w h i l e t h e church i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n both ithe U n i t e d S t a t e s and  Canada, and w h i l e Canadian monies g a t h e r e d f o r t h e  d e n o m i n a t i o n go t o w a r d s rests  i n the United  Canadian  projects,  the main  control  States.  The C o u n c i l d o e s i n c l u d e some C a n a d i a n in the Area M i n i s t e r s .  input,  however,  The A r e a M i n i s t e r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r o v e r s e e i n g t h e s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e o f t h e i r a r e a s , and a c t i n g as l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s Council.  British  i n North America. association.  f o r t h e i r a r e a s w i t h the' G e n e r a l  C o l u m b i a makes up o n e o f t w e n t y  areas  For a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes, there i sthe  The a s s o c i a t i o n  the business of the churches  i s responsible f o r handling i n i t scare, which includes the  b u d g e t f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f new c h u r c h e s , and  so o n .  39  At the next l e v e l , Columbia  we  find  Association i s divided  the d i s t r i c t .  o f two  has  a Church  P r i n c e George.  the  Each o f  E x t e n s i o n C o m m i t t e e made  laymen f r o m each c h u r c h and  district.  British  into three d i s t r i c t s :  Lower M a i n l a n d , t h e Okanagan, and these d i s t r i c t s  The  up  a l l the pastors of  the  T h i s committee i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n t i n g  new  churches. At the l o c a l congregational l e v e l , c h u r c h e s makes up American  the t h i r d d i s t i n c t  B a p t i s t Conference.  The  the sponsoring  f e a t u r e of the  North  sponsorship follows  repeated p a t t e r n of expansion w i t h i n a s i n g l e church t h e p o p u l a t i o n c a n no unit.  At t h i s p o i n t the church w i l l  a m o t h e r and a new  l o n g e r be c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a  daughter  l o c a t i o n , and  the guidance l a n d , we  church.  The  literally new  of  a until  single  "split"  into  born church w i l l  find  b e g i n the process a l l over a g a i n , under  of the parent church.  Thus i n t h e Lower  have a "grandmother" c h u r c h , Ebenezer  i n Vancouver,  t h e "mother" c h u r c h , Bethany i n Vancouver, t h e c h u r c h , I m m a n u e l i n V a n c o u v e r , and  Main-  "daughter"  Bethel Baptist Mission i n  27 Surrey. Outside of the immediate d e n o m i n a t i o n a l the North American American  B a p t i s t Conference  belongs  organization, to the  North  Baptist Fellowship, a continental organization  under the u m b r e l l a o f the B a p t i s t World 40  Alliance.  T h u s we s e e a c h u r c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d features:  the separation  by t h r e e  distinctive  o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and a l l i e d  church  works, t h e American o r i e n t a t i o n o f c o n t r o l , and t h e s t r o n g emphasis on t h e growth o f t h e church through t h e Conference level, and  the association l e v e l ,  the l o c a l congregation  t h e d i s t r i c t committee  level,  level.  I n some w a y s , t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c h u r c h i s repeated with archives.  regards to the c o l l e c t i o n  and k e e p i n g o f  I n many w a y s , h o w e v e r , we f i n d  to those already  e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e other  churches i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  patterns  two B a p t i s t  Like both the B a p t i s t  o f W e s t e r n Canada and t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f R e g u l a r Churches o f B r i t i s h repository  similar  Baptist  Columbia, the p r o v i s i o n f o r a c e n t r a l  f o rarchives  was made w i t h  serves the denomination.  In this  t h e seminary  which  case, i ti s the North  A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t S e m i n a r y i n Edmonton.  On c l o s e r exam-  i n a t i o n , we a l s o f i n d t h e same d i s t r e s s i n g s i g n s o f l a c k o f d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n t t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d B a p t i s t churches' record  keeping.  aids  i n Canada.  t h e Seminary's l i b r a r y .  exist f o r the material  records  f o r a time  responsible f o r  c o l l e c t i o n o f the denomination's records  i n d i v i d u a l has s i n c e l e f t  t h a t he c o l l e c t e d .  have been c o l l e c t e d f r o m c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h  This  No f i n d i n g  Today t h e  occupy space i n t h e seminary, b u t records  41  confusion,  the other  For instance,  a l i b r a r i a n a t t h e S e m i n a r y made h i m s e l f the  Union  that  may  Columbia a r e  virtually  impossible to locate.  C u r r e n t l y , no p o l i c y  f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f r e c o r d s by individuals  i n the church s t i l l  S e m i n a r y as t h e r e p o s i t o r y  exists  the Seminary l i b r a r y .  Yet  d i r e c t o u t s i d e r s to the  for their  denomination's  . . 29 archives. The  main a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y o f the church, i n keeping  w i t h i t s American South Dakota. material  however, i s i n S i o u x  Falls,  I t i s the p o l i c y of t h i s r e p o s i t o r y to  from a l l churches w i t h i n the N o r t h American  Conference, has  orientation,  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and  avoided a c t i v e  Canada.  Baptist  The a r c h i v e s  s o l i c i t a t i o n o f r e c o r d s due  adequacy of p r e s e n t f a c i l i t i e s .  accept  to the i n -  At the present time, i n  the l i g h t of the shortage o f space,  and d e s p i t e t h e  to c e n t r a l i z e h o l d i n g s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  desire  f o r archives keeping  30 has d e v o l v e d upon l o c a l  officials.  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k e e p i n g t h e i r own are i n charge o f t h e i r archives looks after institutions  Thus t h e c h u r c h e s records, the Area  a r e a ' s r e c o r d s , and  the  Ministers  central  the records of the Conference  and  those  n o t r u n by t h e c h u r c h e s b u t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e  church: the seminaries, the m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t y , 31 t h e a g e d , and  are  so f o r t h .  With regards to those records  which, e x i s t a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n l e v e l , British  Columbia  Ebenezer  Church  office.  The  t h e homes f o r  the Area M i n i s t e r f o r  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e were l o c a t e d i n Vancouver, the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  Recording Secretary f o r the  at  central  Association  p r e s e n t l y h o l d s a book o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s m i n u t e s  from  32 19 7 5  onwards. The  B a p t i s t General Conference i s t h e second  B a p t i s t church. United States. orientation, As  I t began t o s e r v e Swedish I t a l s o has, t h e r e f o r e ,  ethnic  immigrants i n the  an American  j u s t as t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t  Conference.  i n the other B a p t i s t churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e  congregation i s the h i g h e s t source o f a u t h o r i t y .  Each  c h u r c h has a c o n s t i t u t i o n and works through c h u r c h b o a r d s . Elected  representatives  from t h e churches form a l o c a l  assembly w i t h i n t h e Columbia Conference  Conference.  The C o l u m b i a  includes four s t a t e s , Washington, 33  and Montana, a s w e l l a s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . conferences, divided  Oregon,  Idaho,  The d i s t r i c t  along geographical l i n e s ,  are controlled  t h r o u g h a n E x e c u t i v e B o a r d a n d a number o f s e p a r a t e b o a r d s and c o m m i t t e e s  which deal with s p e c i f i c  issues.  Beyond t h e d i s t r i c t c o n f e r e n c e i s t h e n a t i o n a l the  General Conference.  The n a t i o n a l  level  has four depart-  m e n t a l b o a r d s : o n e o n home m i s s i o n s , o n e o n f o r e i g n one  o n e d u c a t i o n and o n e o n p u b l i c a t i o n .  subsiduary boards  to deal with Bible  w o r k , men's w o r k , a n d women's w o r k .  body,  There  missions,  are three  s c h o o l and young p e o p l e ' s Responsibility  f o r the  c o r p o r a t e and g e n e r a l a f f a i r s o f t h e Conference i s v e s t e d i n a Board o f Trustees which c o n s i s t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the  d e p a r t m e n t a l and s u b s i d u a r y b o a r d s .  The B o a r d o p e r a t e s  from  t h e head o f f i c e  Approximately conferences Edmonton.  two  i n Arlington Heights,  y e a r s ago,  however, t h e s i x t e e n  i n Canada formed a C a n a d i a n Although  the Canadian  t h i s was  enterprise,  Illinois.  head o f f i c e  the o f f i c i a l  the o f f i c e  district  beginning  is still  Beyond t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l ,  General Conference  i s p a r t of the B a p t i s t World  the  to  Baptist  Alliance.  With regards to a r c h i v e s , the General B a p t i s t  Con-  a central archives at Bethel Theological  Seminary i n St. P a u l , Minnesota. early beginning.  "As  early  appointed a h i s t o r i c a l be  of  working  establish itself.  f e r e n c e has  in  t o c o l l e c t and  T h i s a r c h i v e s had  a s 189 2 t h e G e n e r a l  an  Conference  c o m m i t t e e whose p r i m a r y d u t y  arrange m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g to  should  Swedish  34 Baptxst history." expected  results,  "revitalized"  The  f i n e s t a r t d i d not produce  however, u n t i l  i n 1898.  the committee  of  gathered.  own  which  case  from  1871  " L o c a l churches  and  onwards  T h i s a r c h i v e s o n l y serves the conference  the B a p t i s t General Conference.  their  was  Then t h e work began i n e a r n e s t ,  a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n of denominational papers was  the  level  retain  r e c o r d s , " u n l e s s t h e c h u r c h becomes d e f u n c t , i n t h e r e c o r d s a r e a c c e p t e d by  A few m i s c e l l a n e o u s h i s t o r i c a l 35 i n t o t h e a r c h i v e s as w e l l . a f t e r i t s own  records.  W a s h i n g t o n , has  The  the n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s .  i t e m s have found  The  Columbia  head o f f i c e ,  records r e l a t i n g  their  Conference located  to i t s o f f i c e  way looks  i n Seattle,  from  the  beginning of the conference  i n the l a t e 1800s.  records c o n s i s t mainly of minutes and  the t r u s t e e board.  k e p t on  local  e v e n t s and^ The  and  Columbia  t h e two  ethnic  f i n a l major  number o f  such i t e m s as  churches,  of the Convention is responsible  special  B a p t i s t denomination  body  i s the Southern B a p t i s t Convention.  f o r a l l m a j o r m i n i s t r i e s , such as  Local  access t o the convention l e v e l "messengers."  and  foreign  radio  representatives  s e l e c t i o n of trustees of the Convention.  also i n f l u e n c e the Convention  through  the  Local  their  a l l o c a t i o n of funds, a matter decided at the s t a t e g o a l s are worked o u t w i t h  the  level, majority,  the funds c o l l e c t e d from the c o n g r e g a t i o n s are a l l o c a t e d  accordingly,  are  and  These messengers implement c o n t r o l o f  through t h e i r  whereby the f i n a n c i a l  It  c o n g r e g a t i o n s have d i r e c t  through  d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s c o n t r o l l e d by  to  Like towards  For example, the main o p e r a t i n g  t o name a f e w .  the Convention  in  the Convention i s o r i e n t e d  the seminaries, C h r i s t i a n l i f e ,  television,  and  files  i s the Southern B a p t i s t Convention.  the United States.  churches  district  a n n i v e r s a r i e .s .3 6  British  called  of the Columbia  are a small  churches, covering  fifth  missions,  There  These  some g o i n g t o t h e C o n v e n t i o n , some r e m a i n i n g  s u p p o r t s t a t e programmes.  Canadian  churches,  however,  n o t a l l o w e d t o send messengers t o t h e C o n v e n t i o n ,  to r e s t r i c t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n which 45  do  owing not  allow is  for foreign representation  treated  t h a n an  as  a regular  extension  i n the  foreign mission  Convention.  Canada  field,  rather  then,  of a p r i m a r i l y American church.  regards to t h i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  situation,  With  Canada i s  working towards forming a Canadian Southern B a p t i s t vention,  with  a h e a d q u a r t e r s t o be  While Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n  established  churches w i t h i n the  churches belong to the  convention,  send messengers.  The  ministry, The  to the  level,  i s the  covering  Lower M a i n l a n d and  only  has  a Director  music  associational level.  associations,  i n the  Interior.  the  Capilano  Victoria, As  of M i s s i o n s .  of yet, ;.The  two  Association,  representatives  d r a w i n g on from a l l the  46  a l l the  British  Association  and  the  British  Plateau Columbia  associations  moving towards e s t a b l i s h i n g a j o i n t head o f f i c e . the  board  benevolences.  two  Association,  The  churches  executive  i n c l u d i n g church  C o l u m b i a has the  Canadian  for overseeing direct m i n i s t r i e s  state  level  the  i n c l u d i n g t h o s e i n Canada,  s t e w a r d s h i p , and third  the  Columbian  a t which time a l l the  m e s s e n g e r s e l e c t an  which i s responsible relating  British  from  Northwest B a p t i s t Convention.  c o n v e n t i o n meets a n n u a l l y , w i t h i n the  in  next l e v e l ,  for representation  g o v e r n i n g body.  Con-  Calgary.  i n administration  Southern B a p t i s t Convention i s excluded, the s t a t e c o n v e n t i o n , does a l l o w  in  presently  pastors  and  are  Meanwhile, elected  churches, meets a n n u a l l y ,  and  e l e c t s an E x e c u t i v e B o a r d . year  The B o a r d m e e t s t h r e e t i m e s  to conduct the business  f o u r t h , and b a s i c l e v e l , The  Southern  o f t h e annual meeting.  The  i s that of the congregation.  B a p t i s t Convention  has developed  d i s t i n c t i v e record keeping  practices.  s i n c e t h e r e i s no o f f i c i a l  headquarters  Association,  a  t h e r e i s no o f f i c i a l  As can be  some expected,  f o r the Capilano  r e p o s i t o r y t o handle the  collection of archival material.  Minutes  of the Capilano  A s s o c i a t i o n from i t s i n c e p t i o n t o 1965, however, r e s i d e w i t h the c u r r e n t Chairman o f the H i s t o r i c a l  Committee f o r t h e  37 Northwest B a p t i s t Convention.  T h i s g e n t l e m a n was t h e  p a s t o r f r o m 19 62-65 f o r t h e now d e f u n c t i n Vancouver.  K i n g c r e s t Church  Being p e r s o n a l l y very i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t o r y ,  he made a p o i n t o f c o l l e c t i n g  the minutes o f the Capilano  A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h he t h e n t o o k w i t h h i m when he r e t u r n e d t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a l t h o u g h his  personal records  i ti s claimed  from t h e church.  records are extant, although The  t h a t he o n l y  Thus t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  i n p r i v a t e hands.  s t a t e c o n v e n t i o n , w h i c h has i t s head o f f i c e i n  Portland,  Oregon, does n o t sponsor  an o f f i c i a l  e i t h e r , b u t has had an u n o f f i c i a l p o l i c y over c o l l e c t i n g and keeping a historic lating  took  the years o f  a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s t h a t would  record of the convention.  to i n i t i a l  archives  maintain  Thus, m a t e r i a l s r e -  c o n t a c t s made b e t w e e n t h e C o n v e n t i o n  B r i t i s h Columbian churches 47  still  survive, although  they  and rest  i n the q u i e t o b s c u r i t y t h a t accompanies Annual R e p o r t s d a t i n g back  unorganized records.  to very e a r l y  i n the  Convention's  h i s t o r y h a v e b e e n k e p t and o r g a n i z e d , h o w e v e r , a n d t o be an a c c e s s i b l e r e s o u r c e .  They c o n t a i n b o t h t h e  b u t i o n s made by B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m e s s e n g e r s , on B r i t i s h Columbian  churches  so  and  prove contri-  information  i n the form o f s t a t i s t i c s  o n g i v i n g d o n e by c o n g r e g a t i o n s , a g g r e g a t e m e m b e r s h i p , so on.  The  s t a t e c o n v e n t i o n i s w o r k i n g on  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a r c h i v e s  the  and  official  to handle t h i s m a t e r i a l  and  38 acquire other records. A t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , t h e r e i s q u i t e an u n u s u a l in archival responsibilities. responsible  The  Sunday S c h o o l B o a r d i s  f o r k e e p i n g a l l o f i t s own  r e c o r d s , and does  using the premises of the Dargan/Carver T e n n e s s e e and t h e o f f i c e s Baptist Historical responsible  to  i n Nashville, Southern  f o r keeping manuscript m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g 39  the records of i n d i v i d u a l  churches from B r i t i s h Columbia  I t does  of church  K i n g c r e s t Church  of Vancouver  sent records d a t i n g  f r o m 1911  so  archives.  have s e n t t h e i r  the H i s t o r i c a l Commission f o r m i c r o f i l m i n g ,  to the  not  c o n g r e g a t i o n s , and  does n o t have a v e r y l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n Two  The  so,  on t h e o t h e r hand, i s  Southern B a p t i s t Convention i n general. collect  Library  o f an a r c h i v i s t .  Commission,  split  records  however;  ( f o r m e r l y Emmanuel),  which  t o 19 65, a n d W i l l i a m s L a k e  F i r s t B a p t i s t , which sent records covering a period 48  from  1967  t o 1972.  The  first  c h u r c h i s now  records either scattered,  lost,  o r i n p r i v a t e hands,  makes t h e m i c r o f i l m t h e o n l y c o m p l e t e r e c o r d s , t h e Commission's  d e f u n c t , and  policy  copy.  the which  As f o r s t a t e  i s that they remain  at  40 state level. and  I t does m i c r o f i l m  s t a t e a n n u a l s , however,  has m i c r o f i l m s o f b o t h t h e N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t  newspaper, the P a c i f i c  Coast B a p t i s t , which  Convention's  l a t e r became t h e  N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t W i t n e s s , and t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d ' s  news-  paper, the Capilano Challenge. While a t the present time the H i s t o r i c a l and t h e Sunday S c h o o l B o a r d a r e q u i t e collection policies, maintaining same b u l d i n g , and  separate i n t h e i r  separate o f f i c e s  i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e t h e two w i l l  the Dargan/Carver  will  Commission  i n the  share premises  become b o t h a l i b r a r y  and  an  archives, creating a total resource. Finally, U n i t e d Church  we  come t o e x a m i n e t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h .  in British  c h u r c h w h i c h was  created  number o f m e r g e r s , the  combined  i s part of a nation-wide  i n Canada.  t h e m a j o r one  M e t h o d i s t Church  C a n a d a , and  Columbia  I t i s the r e s u l t of a  t a k i n g p l a c e i n 1925,  body.  The  resultant  three churches.  expect.  I t i s n o t h i g h l y complex  from each o f a s one  From t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s t h e c h u r c h  of  i n Canada  structure i s  accordingly a combination of church p o l i t i e s the  when  i n Canada, t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Church  t w o - t h i r d s of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church 41  t o f o r m one  The  might  inherited  its  s t r e s s on c o n g r e g a t i o n a l  independence.  Thus t h e b a s i c  u n i t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the p a s t o r a l charge, c o n s i s t o f o n e o r more l o c a l  churches.  which  Under t h e g u i d a n c e  of t h e m i n i s t e r , the congregation  nevertheless  of d i f f e r e n t bodies  different  affairs. temporal the  which oversee  may  h a s a number  aspects  of i t s  A C o m m i t t e e o f S t e w a r d s manages t h e c h u r c h ' s and f i n a n c i a l  spiritual  affairs.  The S e s s i o n h a s o v e r s i g h t o f  i n t e r e s t s of the p a s t o r a l charge.  These two,  a l o n g w i t h t h e m i n i s t e r and one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e each from a number o f b o a r d s a n d c o m m i t t e e s , Trustees,  t h e youth  such as t h e Board o f  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e U n i t e d  Women, f o r e x a m p l e , make up t h e O f f i c i a l Beyond t h e p a s t o r a l charge, The  membership o f t h e p r e s b y t e r y  Church  Board.  there i s the presbytery. i s a combination  o f members  of t h e m i n i s t r y , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from s e v e r a l committees, and  lay representatives.  The p r e s b y t e r y  h a s a number o f  s t a n d i n g committees c o v e r i n g e v e r y t h i n g from stewardship education,  pastoral relations,  Representatives of the next  level,  from t h e p r e s b y t e r y  the conference  of t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t conference, The  British  conference  affairs,  and p e n s i o n  level.  funds.  l e v e l make u p p a r t With the exception  which i s included i n the A l b e r t a  C o l u m b i a makes up i t s own  appoints  conference.  an e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l t o oversee  w i t h an e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t .  its  There a r e d i v i s i o n s  w i t h i n t h e c o u n c i l c o v e r i n g f i n a n c e and p o l i c y , 50  to  missions,  m i n i s t r y p e r s o n n e l and Finally,  e d u c a t i o n , and  communications.  a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e , based on r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from  the p r e s b y t e r i e s , forms the b a s i s of the  nation-wide  General C o u n c i l . While  t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Church gave the U n i t e d  the strong independency of i t s l o c a l congregations, P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n p a r t i c u l a r bureaucratic record keeping for  the U n i t e d Church,  every  aspect of church  information concerning the church  The  life.  The  Manual  S t u d y i n g i t , one  the r e c o r d keeping  conferences  on  the importance  at  t h e most b a s i c l e v e l ,  membership r o l l ,  to f o l l o w ,  great importance who  may  e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on t i e r o l l church membership growth, i n p u t from  than e l i g i b i l i t y . i n s t r u c t e d by proceedings,  congregations,  For  i s p l a c e d on  f o r reasons  the  matters.  a l t h o u g h more of  determining  possible future f i n a n c i a l goals so f o r t h ,  and  rather  the Committee of Stewards i s  the manual to keep a s t r i c t r e c o r d of a l l and  to preserve  a l l documents.  There i s  i n s t r u c t i o n t o the m i n i s t e r s t o keep r e g i s t e r s of marriages,  example,  v o t e on c h u r c h  t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n , and Next,  which  and much i n f o r m a t i o n  T h i s i s q u i t e t r u e f o r most denominations,  expected  c a n g l e a n much  practices the  guide  details  attached to c e r t a i n records.  to determine  complex,  embodied i n the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i d e a l l y wishes  p r e s b y t e r i e s , and  the  gave i t i t s h i g h l y  principles Manual.  Church  and  burials,  and  51  where the law p l a c e s  baptisms, this  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon t h e m i n i s t e r , r e p o r t of a l l e n t r i e s its  clerk  shall  "he s h a l l make a n a n n u a l  i n his register  t o t h e S e s s i o n , and  c o p y t h e same i n t o t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d 42  of  p r o c e e d i n g s p r o v i d e d f o r such purpose."  provision  f o r r e c o r d s o f p r o c e e d i n g s t o be t a k e n b y t h e  R e c o r d i n g Steward Presbytery. are  There i s  f o r t h e purpose  o f a n n u a l r e v i e w by t h e  When a c o n g r e g a t i o n c e a s e s t o e x i s t ,  i t s records  t o be t a k e n i n t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e P r e s b y t e r y ,  which  i s then t o forward the records t o the Conference  Archives.  At the conference l e v e l ,  a Secretary i s appointed  who h a s c u s t o d y o f a l l d o c u m e n t s a n d p a p e r s the Conference,  g e n e r a t e d by  save t h o s e d e s i g n a t e d f o r c a r e by t h e Committee  on A r c h i v e s .  At the General Council l e v e l ,  is  given f u l l  power " t o d e t e r m i n e  of  the Conferences, 43  the council  t h e number a n d b o u n d a r i e s  have o v e r s i g h t o f them, and r e v i e w  thexr records." Thus we s e e t h e s t r i c t to  each  i n s t r u c t i o n and g u i d a n c e  body o f t h e c h u r c h w i t h r e g a r d s t o r e c o r d k e e p i n g .  What p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r a r c h i v e s ? is The  given  First  a Committee on A r c h i v e s a t t h e l e v e l  of a l l , t h e r e  of General  Council.  Secretary of the C o u n c i l i s designated the o f f i c i a l  custodian of the records of the "General C o u n c i l , i t s E x e c u t i v e and S u b - E x e c u t i v e  and o f o t h e r c o u r t s o f t h e Church 52  and  o f t h e v a r i o u s D e p a r t m e n t s and  In a d d i t i o n , there s i d e r e d t o be  D i v i s i o n s of the  i s a n A r c h i v i s t - H i s t o r i a n who  i s con-  an a s s o c i a t e A r c h i v i s t o f t h e C h u r c h .  the Committee, which meets once a y e a r , m a i n t a i n s m i n i s t e r s the archives r e l a t i n g a w h o l e , a s w e l l as any ference  has  archives.  Church."  chosen to d e p o s i t  ad-  as  a r c h i v e s where the  their  A co-ordinating role  and  to the denomination  conference  Together,  records  con-  w i t h the c e n t r a l to the  Committee  so t h a t t h e y m i g h t e n s u r e t h a t p r o p e r r e c o r d k e e p i n g  i s taking  p l a c e a t a l l l e v e l s of the  i s also given  church.  A s i m i l a r a r c h i v e s committee s t r u c t u r e a l s o e x i s t s at conference  level,  the only other  maintains  an a r c h i v e s .  m i t t e e of  the  Conference,  the A r c h i v i s t ,  archives  and  the A r c h i v e s  w i t h i n the conference, ference  The  representation,  three  ever  With this  Secretary  archives.  The  archives  i s t o be  responsible for appointing  conference  the  church-affiliated The  committee  archivist,  a b u d g e t f o r t h e work done t h r o u g h t h e  53  with  l o c a t e d , when-  Central Archives. the  of  broad-based  oversight of  possible, i n a theological college, a  presenting  con-  the a r c h i v e s committee, i n c o n j u n c t i o n has  may  presbyteries  C h u r c h Women, t h e  o t h e r members.  u n i v e r s i t y or s c h o o l , or the is  a C h a i r m a n , who  Convenor f o r the  t h e C h u r c h - w i d e Committee on A r c h i v e s , conference  of  Convenors of the  the A r c h i v e s  actually  c o m m i t t e e i s a s t a n d i n g com-  consists  branch of the United  C o n f e r e n c e and  l e v e l which  the  archives,  be  co-ordinating the gathering o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , cooperating with the General Archives  Conference's Committee on  i n c o m p i l i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a m a s t e r i n d e x o f  the a r c h i v e s o f t h e Church, a p p o i n t i n g an h i s t o r i c  sites  sub-committee, promoting i n t e r e s t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f the churches, centres  and e n c o u r a g i n g  the establishment  f o r studies i n Canadian church  ecumenical  of regional  history  on an  basis.  That i s t h e i d e a l r e a l i t y of the archival  s i t u a t i o n on paper. situation  What i s t h e  i n the United  Church?  F i r s t o f a l l , when t h e m e r g e r o f 1 9 2 5 o c c u r r e d , C h u r c h became h e i r  t o both  the United  t h e a r c h i v e s and t h e a r c h i v a l 45  t r a d i t i o n s o f a l l three churches.  The P r e s b y t e r i a n  C h u r c h was t h e f i r s t d e n o m i n a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a n o f f i c i a l body t o o v e r s e e 1917  t h e c o l l e c t i o n and c a r e o f i t s r e c o r d s .  an H i s t o r i c a l  Assembly.  C o m m i t t e e was a p p o i n t e d  i n the l i b r a r i e s  theological colleges. collected.  Few r e c o r d s  Next, t h e Methodist  been o r g a n i z e d  of the eight Presbyterian of congregations  were  H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y w h i c h had  i n t h e l a t e 1 8 0 0 s was r e p l a c e d b y a n o f f i c i a l  Committee and A r c h i v i s t a p p o i n t e d  C o n f e r e n c e w h i c h met i n 1 9 1 8 .  by the General  A t t h e same t i m e ,  f e r e n c e was i n s t r u c t e d t o a p p o i n t The  a t the General  I t c o l l e c t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f m a t e r i a l  t h a t was d e p o s i t e d  Archives  In  a Conference  each  con-  Archivist.  m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d consisted p r i n c i p a l l y o f minutes o f 54  district  and c o n f e r e n c e  meetings.  of l o c a l  churches  gathered  were d e p o s i t e d , a s i n t h e case  were c o l l e c t e d .  archives, i n the l i b r a r i e s ination.  Again,  few r e c o r d s  The r e c o r d s w h i c h  were  of the Presbyterian  o f t h e c o l l e g e s o f t h e denom-  The t h i r d d e n o m i n a t i o n ,  the Congregational  Union  o f Canada, d i d n o t have a c e n t r a l o f f i c e u n t i l  1919, and  o n l y s c a t t e r e d r e c o r d s o f t h e c o u r t s were ever  collected  and  subsequently Immediately  grandiose  survived. after  the union of the three  denominations,  p l a n s w e r e made f o r a s p e c i a l a r c h i v e s  i n Toronto  building  and f o r t h e appointment o f a r e g u l a r s t a f f .  These  p l a n s were u n f o r t u n a t e l y n e v e r a c t e d upon i n f a c e o f t h e need f o r measures t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e severe brought on by t h e D e p r e s s i o n however, t h e General matter  f i n a n c i a l problems  i n the t h i r t i e s .  I n 1932,  C o u n c i l d i d e v i n c e some i n t e r e s t i n t h e  when i t c h a n g e d t h e name o f t h e s t a n d i n g C o m m i t t e e o n 46  H i s t o r i c a l Matters 1946, Dr. L o m e  t o "The C o m m i t t e e o n A r c h i v e s . "  In  P i e r c e , Chairman o f t h e E x e c u t i v e o f t h e  Committee on A r c h i v e s , r e v i v e d t h e i d e a o f a r c h i v e s , and i n 1953 t h e Committee on A r c h i v e s  s e t up a s y s t e m o f r e g i o n a l  a r c h i v e s w i t h t h e Committee a c t i n g as t h e c e n t r a l a d v i s o r y and policy-making Victoria  body.  The C o m m i t t e e s e t up h e a d q u a r t e r s  College i n Toronto.  of t h e C e n t r a l Archives w i l l  Pierce felt  at  t h a t " t h e work  be l a r g e l y o n e o f c o r r e l a t i o n 47 of a l l the r e g i o n a l archives."  T o d a y t h e s t r u c t u r e s e t up situation envisioned  by  i n 19 53  Pierce exists,  l e s s e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h a n w h a t he r e g i o n a l B.C.  Conference Archives,  of success. it  Located  s e r v i c e s an  although  i t enjoys  f o r t h e use  of  marriage record  of other  records  and  As  for  a fair  i n c r e a s i n g number o f r e f e r e n c e  the  perhaps  hoped f o r .  i n the Vancouver School  n o t o n l y i n c l u d e b a p t i s m and requests  had  i s i n p l a c e , and  with the  amount  Theology,  requests, searches,  which but  information.  Its  g o a l i s t o i m p l e m e n t a r e c o r d s management p r o g r a m m e i n  the  Conference to r e g u l a r i z e i t s a c q u i s i t i o n s .  time  as  this occurs,  the Archives' the  strict  We is,  and  Since  however, i t w i l l  difficult  r u l e s f o r record keeping  existing  set out  and  keeping  archives  we  f i t into  follow  manual.  denomination  that organization.  m u s t now  examine t h e i r  p r a c t i c e s t o a t t a i n an a c c u r a t e  o v e r - a l l denominational  i n f o r m a t i o n , a survey  was  sent  types  served  and  of records f o r how  charge of  the  p i c t u r e of  l o n g , w h e t h e r t h e r e was  records,  and  56  To  to i n d i v i d u a l  c r e a t e d , w h e t h e r any  whether the  The  ministers  survey  official  church  the  obtain  c r e a t e d were an  of  record creating  a t t i t u d e to archives.  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s .  in  i n the  from  t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t o f e a c h d e n o m i n a t i o n i s made up  l o c a l churches,  the  to assess  have seen what the o r g a n i z a t i o n of each how  such  p o i n t of view whether the congregations  the  this  be  Until  asked preperson  transferred  its  r e c o r d s t o any  w h i c h one.  Two  t y p e o f a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y , and  i f so,  f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s were added i n o r d e r t o  determine whether  t h e c h u r c h i n q u e s t i o n was  some t y p e o f m e r g e r , and  i f so, whether  f o r m e r c h u r c h e s were p r e s e r v e d  the r e s u l t  of  the records from  (see Appendix  A).  r e s e n t a t i v e number o f c h u r c h e s w e r e s e l e c t e d  A  from  rep  the w  1983  48 membership l i s t s  p r o v i d e d by  r e s u l t s are tabulated  the denominations.  i n t a b l e 1.  The  I n d i v i d u a l responses  the questions i n the survey are tabulated  i n table  to  2.  T h i s survey can o n l y begin to suggest p a t t e r n s o f attitude  and  involvement of the l o c a l  E v e n s o , some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s studies  the survey i n d e t a i l .  percentage of returns v a r i e s t h e o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s e was  churches, of course. show up when  On t h e w h o l e ,  although the  from d e n o m i n a t i o n to  quite high.  one  denomination  Such e n t h u s i a s m on  p a r t s o f the respondents i s n o t a b l e ; even m i n i s t e r s t h e same d e n o m i n a t i o n s number  of returns.  t h a t responded  I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e perhaps  of the respondents with regards to archives  or whether  t h e r e s p o n s e was  i t stemmed f r o m g e n u i n e  within  w e r e amazed a t t h e t h a t i t was  not w i t h i n the scope o f the survey t o q u e s t i o n t h e  determine whether  the  thoughts  i n order to  t h r o u g h mere interest.  consideration  I n any  case,  the r e s u l t s are not p a r t i c u l a r l y  surprising.  The  denominations  bureaucratic  administrative  which have s t a b l e ,  s t r u c t u r e s and c e n t r a l  leadership also  two  show t h e h i g h e s t  TABLE 1 Church A r c h i v e s Survey f o r B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a - 1983  Population  S e l e c t e d Sample  C  tn  -p d  >i  0  <u  > -P  Denomination  Anglican  c  u  d 0) en w  0)  c >i  s-i  C  c 0  rH •rH - H -p ITS 4-> CO (0  o  +J  0)  c  "H  (U u > d H -P  4J  CU  U  O S m S-i 0 0 d c  cn  0\°  0\°  3  (1) M  a  C  0  m -iH - H  -P cn <d =«= <U G 0  •HUE (OHO -P d c 0 £ J) •POT!  •P X! T3 O O <D -P & c d -H m J S X! o o g  \o =«=  0  0  o  5-1  0  U U (D 0\°  29  17  58.62  9 .71  175  27.01  100  25  20  3.09  20  49  7.56  31  32*  Baptist  General  5  5  Baptist  Union  7  5  North American German S p e a k i n g  5  3  60  60  5  .77  13  North American Baptist  5  3  60 18 .75  16  2.47  22  Regular  8  5  62.50  7 .81  64  9. 88  35  5  5  100  50  10  1.54  15  United  34  16  47.05  5 .18  309  47.68  44  Totals  98  59  Southern  Baptist Baptist  71.42 10 . 20  648  * r o u n d e d t o n e a r e s t w h o l e number  58  TABLE 2  N.AmericanGerman  N. American  Regular Baptist  Southern Baptist  United  5  5  3  3  5  5  16  # with o f f i c i a l i n charge o f records  11  4  4  3  3  4  5  15  % with o f f i c i a l i n charge o f records  65*  80  100  100  100  80  100  94  Baptist General  T o t a l number o f churches r e s p o n d i n g 17  Anglican  Baptist Union  R e s u l t s o f C h u r c h A r c h i v e s S u r v e y - 1983  church the r e s u l t of a merger  3  2  1  -  -  -  1  7  r e c o r d s e x i s t from previous bodies  3  2  1  -  -  -  1  7  100  100  -  -  -  100  100  2  3  0  0  0  0  11  40  60  0  0  0  0  69 2  % w i t h r e c o r d s from 100* previous bodies transfer records to o f f i c i a l archives  14  % which t r a n s f e r t o o f f i c i a l archives  82*  make a l t e r n a t e arrangements  1  0  0  0  0  1  1  % make a l t e r n a t e arrangements  6*  0  0  0  0  20  20  don't t r a n s f e r records  2  [3]  [2]  [3]  [3]  4  4  3  12*  60  40  100  80  80  19  35600  23330  29350  312468  80- 30280 595  9500  411200  204  183  162  412  198 222  186  266  % don't records  transfer  # members/church Average  #/church  * r o u n d e d t o n e a r e s t w h o l e number 5 9  100  13  response t o record keeping; over eighty percent o f both the A n g l i c a n and U n i t e d Churches preserve their  archives.  make some c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o  Given t h a t t h e U n i t e d Church  its  official  the  A n g l i c a n C h u r c h b e g a n i t s programme  1975),  a r c h i v a l programme some t h i r t y  the slightly  A n g l i c a n Churches  years before  (1946 a s o p p o s e d  higher percentage o f response  w h i c h make some a r r a n g e m e n t  archives i s puzzling.  A l s o t h e U n i t e d Church  response to the questionnaire;  began  to  from  for their gave t h e p o o r e s t  a g a i n , one would  have e x p e c t e d  a h i g h e r response g i v e n the church's background.  Not sur-  prisingly,  show h i g h  however, a l l t h e B a p t i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n s  p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h u r c h e s w h i c h do n o t make s p e c i a l ments f o r t h e i r  archives.  have t h e i r o f f i c i a l Columbia  arrange-  Both e t h n i c denominations,  archives located quite  f a r from  which  British  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y do n o t t r a n s f e r  their records. F r o m g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s we t u r n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l responses.  F i r s t o f a l l , there i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  inverse  r e l a t i o n s h i p between d e s i g n a t e d o f f i c i a l i n charge o f r e c o r d s and  t r a n s f e r o f r e c o r d s t o an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y .  A n g l i c a n Church, churches  f o r example,  t h a t send the  has t h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f  t h a t c l a i m an o f f i c i a l  p a r i s h l e v e l ; i t also  The  i n charge o f r e c o r d s a t t h e  has t h e h i g h e s t percentage o f churches  t h e i r r e c o r d s t o an o f f i c i a l  German, N o r t h A m e r i c a n ,  60  repository.  and Southern B a p t i s t  A l l of  churches  c l a i m t h a t someone l o o k s a f t e r  their records within  c h u r c h , b u t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one church which official  Southern  sends i t s h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l  Southern B a p t i s t r e p o s i t o r i e s  not,  that i s encouraging.  i n the United States, Whether  I t would  An  p r o v i d e d by t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n c h u r c h e s . t o send t h e i r  or  seem t h a t w h e r e t h e r e i s no  c h u r c h assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  individual  i n t e r e s t i n g note i s Fully  sixty  r e c o r d s t o an o f f i c i a l a r c h i v e s .  percent In  view  the responses from B a p t i s t Union o f f i c i a l s r e g a r d i n g  a r c h i v e s , one are  those  i n d i c a t e a h e a l t h y awareness of r e c o r d s  t r a n s f e r o f r e c o r d s t o an o u t s i d e a g e n c y , t h e  of  two  i n charge of records r e t a i n a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l  these responses  claim  Baptist  to the  none t r a n s f e r t h e i r r e c o r d s t o a n a r c h i v e s . officials  the  can o n l y wonder where t h e s e l o c a l  sending t h e i r  churches  material.  N e x t , r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e s u r v e y were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t y p e s o f r e c o r d s t h e y c r e a t e d and retained  those records created.  were o f f e r e d  the length of time  they  Eight types of records  i n the survey: a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s , marriage,  b i r t h and d e a t h r e g i s t e r s , m i n u t e s boards  the  and a c c o u n t s o f  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b u s i n e s s and  p o n d e n c e , and m e m b e r s h i p - r e l a t e d  individual  records.  The  church corres-  varieties  of  r e s p o n s e s a r e a s t o n i s h i n g and u n f o r t u n a t e l y do n o t l e n d  them-  s e l v e s t o any  be  comparisons.  A few  interesting  f a c t s can  d i s t i n g u i s h e d , however, from the answers g i v e n .  61  For  example,  t h i r t e e n out of the seventeen Anglican churches responded c r e a t e a l l e i g h t types two  of records.  o f t h e t h i r t e e n noted t h a t they  of records:  those  relating  which  In addition,  a l s o keep o t h e r  types  t o t h e Banns, and t o C o n f i r m a t i o n .  Only e i g h t keep a l l t h e types  of records  they  create.  The  r e c o r d most o f t e n n o t r e t a i n e d i s t h e correspondence, particularly true  the minister's to i n d i v i d u a l s .  i n the cases o f the three  a full  complement o f r e c o r d s .  cases,  only  of  c h u r c h e s w h i c h do n o t c r e a t e The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s , i n m o s t  saved on a s e l e c t e d b a s i s , k e p t f o r s h o r t  Almost every  i n t h e i r own c h u r c h diocesan  Anglican  Many w r o t e t h a t t h e y  I n other words, there  keep  changes i s no  r e c o r d , b u t a p e r p e t u a l l y a l t e r e d one.  respondent i n d i c a t e d t h a t they  services,  to f i v e  keeps t h e i r r e g i s t e r s  but t h a t the complete record  t h e membership changes.  established  church  periods  " f o r e v e r , " o r t r a n s f e r s them t o t h e  a r c h i v e s when f u l l .  membership r e c o r d s ,  one  i s also  t i m e a s needed o r r e t a i n e d f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e  years.  as  This  Finally,  keep a l l t h e r e c o r d s o f  i n c l u d i n g a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s , communicants, and  offerings. The  first  of the surveys baptismal  r e c o r d w h i c h i s n o t i c e a b l y a b s e n t f r o m many from B a p t i s t respondents i s , s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e  register.  I t i s n o t so d i f f i c u l t  however, i f one a p p r e c i a t e s unlike i n the Anglican  the s t r e s s put on a d u l t  and U n i t e d 62  to understand,  Churches which both  baptism, encourage  i n f a n t baptism,  a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t o n e m u s t be b a p t i z e d  i n order to belong  to the church.  The a d d i t i o n a l  responses  i n t h e " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y o f r e c o r d s r e p o r t e d by t h e B a p t i s t General Conference reports,  churches  t o be k e p t  are quite  "indefinitely  interesting:  for History,"  annual  church  b u l l e t i n s , which would a l l o w the reader a glimpse o f t h e t y p e and range  of church a c t i v i t i e s  r e c o r d s o f membership events. f o r t h e most p a r t ,  indicated  a t the time, photos,  The B a p t i s t U n i o n  and  churches,  t h a t t h e y c r e a t e most o f t h e  e i g h t types o f r e c o r d s w i t h t h e n o t i c e a b l e absence o f baptismal registers. indefinitely.  They t e n d t o keep most o f t h e i r  records  One U n i o n m i n i s t e r i n c l u d e d r e c o r d s o f  d o n a t i o n s a n d f o o d c o n t r i b u t i o n s made t o t h e c h u r c h . German-speaking North American  Baptists  The  tend to c r e a t e  r e c o r d s , a n d t o k e e p them o n l y f o r s p e c i f i e d  fewer  lengths of time,  4 9  such as t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s .  I n sharp contrast, the  E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g North American  B a p t i s t churches  responded  t h a t t h e y c r e a t e most o f t h e e i g h t t y p e s o f r e c o r d s , and firmly served.  stated  t h a t a l l r e c o r d s a r e t o be p e r m a n e n t l y  per-  Regular B a p t i s t s a l s o s t r e s s e d p e r p e t u i t y i n keep-  ing those records which  t h e y c r e a t e and p r e s e r v e , w i t h t h e  exception of correspondence,  which  d e s t r o y e d w i t h i n a two t o f i v e y e a r B a p t i s t churches,  i s v a r y i n g l y weeded o r span.  For the Southern  death r e g i s t e r s are n o t i c e a b l y absent  a number o f s u r v e y s .  The r e c o r d s t h e y c r e a t e a r e t o b e 63  from kept  indefinitely. Surveys from the U n i t e d Church  showed t h a t n i n e o f  the  sixteen respondents create a l leight types of records, two a l s o c o l l e c t i n g  pictures,  newspaper c l i p p i n g s ,  n e w s l e t t e r s , a n d a n a r c h i t e c t ' s p l a n s f o r a new building. are  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f correspondence, most r e c o r d s  t o be k e p t f o r t h e l i f e  m e r g e r s were o r i g i n a l l y  of the church.  Two  inserted  questions from  f o r the United churches i n  order to determine i f those churches involved 1925  monthly  church  regarding the records of churches which r e s u l t e d  of  b r o u g h t t h e i r r e c o r d s w i t h them.  i n the merger  As i t t u r n s  churches i n the A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t General, B a p t i s t and  Southern B a p t i s t denominations are also  v a r i o u s mergers. resulting  with  I t i s significant  from such mergers s t i l l  out,  Union,  the r e s u l t s  of  to note t h a t a l l churches  have the r e c o r d s o f  the  previous bodies. T h u s we  have a f a i r l y  extensive p i c t u r e of the  record  k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , and U n i t e d Churches.  I t w o u l d seem t h a t w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n of  B a p t i s t Union o f Western Canada, a l l t h e c h u r c h e s seem t o s u p p o r t t h e c l a i m s o f t h e i r o f f i c i a l archives state  the  responses  archives;  i f the  t h a t they are n o t a c c e p t i n g r e c o r d s from  churches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, then the answers r e f l e c t  this.  The  converse i s also true.  Union,  the  c h u r c h e s seem t o s u p p o r t a n o n - e x i s t e n t a r c h i v e s  In the case of the B a p t i s t  64  programme,  although  w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e s f r o m e a c h l e v e l and  from  official  agencies  i s led to  c o n t r a d i c t i n g each o t h e r ,  b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e c o r d s may q u i t e s u r e w h e r e t h a t may We  have seen, then,  their records, with  and  we  their records;  exist  one  somewhere, b u t  are  w h a t t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n s do  have seen what the  collected  Public Archives  church  records  P a r i s h R e g i s t e r s 1981 the "The  put  l o c a l churches  i n the out  The  the  record  central,  do  keeping national  o f Canada, has s p o r a d i c a l l y past.  by  In the  C h e c k l i s t of  the Manuscript  P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , however, the  archives  themselves, or of the  D i v i s i o n of  firmly  p r e s e r v a t i o n of p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s i s the  of the parishes  is  with  t h e r e o n l y remains t o v i e w what  towards r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s .  archives, the  one  be.  p o l i c i e s o f m a j o r s e c u l a r p u b l i c a r c h i v e s and bodies  no  states:  responsibility  denominational  or  p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s , r a t h e r than of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s  of  50 Canada."  I n 1982,  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the  Manuscript  D i v i s i o n indicated that a l l a c t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n of records  had  made w h i l e and  s t o p p e d ; t h e r e w o u l d be there e x i s t e d a backlog  describe.  material  As  from the  i t was,  no more a c q u i s i t i o n s of manuscripts  approximately  two  to  Canadian C o u n c i l of Churches, the the E c u m e n i c a l Forum, t h e  deposited  w o u l d t i e up  devote to r e l i g i o u s archives 65  the  little  arrange  hundred f e e t of  L a b o u r C o u n c i l and i n 1975,  religious  Religious  majority  time they  f o r s e v e r a l years  into  had the  to •  future. C l o s e r t o home, t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r p o l i c y was n o t t o a c c e p t from churches  whose d e n o m i n a t i o n  had an o f f i c i a l  records  archives.  T h e y do h o l d some o r i g i n a l p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s o f a f e w churches  w h i c h were c o l l e c t e d  years  a g o , b u t no m a j o r  52 collections.  The V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s a l s o h a s made a  p o i n t i n t h e l a s t few years o f n o t c o l l e c t i n g  religious  a r c h i v e s , b u t has d i r e c t e d donors t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e denominational  archives.  O c c a s i o n a l l y church  a r e added t o t h e pamphlet c o l l e c t i o n .  anniversary  issues  I n 1975 t h e c h i e f  a r c h i v i s t o f Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s m i c r o f i l m e d t h e records 53 they d i d have, g i v i n g d u p l i c a t e s t o i n t e r e s t e d The very ing  University of British  Columbia S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s  few r e c o r d s o f any c h u r c h e s , any.  included  and does n o t i n t e n d  What t h e y do h a v e i s m o s t l y i n the manuscript  marriages,  repository forthis  and b u r i a l s .  they a r e s t i l l  back-up source  donated 54 lives.  i n f o r m a t i o n , and w h i l e  these  records of  considered an important  t o g o v e r n m66 ent r e c o r d s  While  a r c h i v e s as the  registers are only a small part of the t o t a l church,  who  to their personal  t h e government has succeeded t h e c h u r c h  any  collect-  m a i n f u n c t i o n s i n t h e p a s t was t o  keep a r e c o r d o f baptisms,  official  holds  on m i c r o f i l m , o r  c o l l e c t i o n s o f persons  the records w i t h m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g One o f t h e c h u r c h ' s  churches.  "vital"  and t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n  legal  obligations  must meet. in  that denominations  Beginning with  the Colony o f Vancouver  in British  "an A c t r e s p e c t i n g I s l a n d and  marriages  i t s Dependencies  September 1859," t h e government took o v e r t h e of  k e e p i n g an o f f i c i a l  Columbia  5th  responsibility  record of a l l marriages i n the  fledg-  55 ling  province.  came u n d e r act  The  separate colony of B r i t i s h  Columbia  an o r d i n a n c e r e s p e c t i n g m a r r i a g e i n 1 8 6 5 . ^  o f 11 A p r i l  ponsibilities  1872,  however, c l e a r l y  of the clergy:  delineates the  "Every Clergyman,  res-  minister,  o t h e r p e r s o n a u t h o r i z e d by law t o d e l e b r a t e m a r r i a g e s , be r e q u i r e d  t o r e p o r t e a c h and e v e r y m a r r i a g e he  to  the R e g i s t r a r of the D i s t r i c t w i t h i n which  is  celebrated within  Today,the law  states  90 d a y s  The  or shall  celebrates  such  marriage  from the date o f such m a r r i a g e . "  t h a t between t h e f i r s t  and  second  p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e banns o f m a r r i a g e , the o f f i c i a t i n g  clergy  must send t o the d i s t r i c t r e g i s t r a r a c e r t i f i c a t e o f p u b l i c 58 a t i o n o f banns. Under t h e M a r r i a g e A c t , e v e r y p e r s o n s o l e m n i z i n g a m a r r i a g e must o b s e r v e t h e c o n d i t i o n s as s e t o u t 59 by t h e V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s  Act.  The  a c t sets out the  whereby r e g i s t e r s o r r e c o r d s o f b a p t i s m s , m a r r i a g e s burials  p l a c e d on f i l e  be p r e s e r v e d a n d  i n the o f f i c e  s h a l l remain  or  of the d i r e c t o r ,  i n the custody of the 60  as p a r t o f t h e r e c o r d s o f h i s o f f i c e . " marriage, the clergy are obligated  rules  to f i l e  "shall  director  With regards to a duplicate  every r e c o r d o f marriage w i t h the Department o f 67  Vital  of  Statistics  i nVictoria.  The D e p a r t m e n t ' s r e c o r d s go b a c k  t o 18 M a r c h 1 8 7 3 , t h e d a t e t h e c h u r c h f i r s t d e p o s i t e d a record of marriage with the o f f i c e .  I n responding to the  a r c h i v e s survey, s e v e r a l churches wrote completed  registers  to Victoria,  that they  send  a l t h o u g h because t h e  m i n i s t e r must send a d u p l i c a t e r e c o r d i n f o r e v e r y  ceremony,  it  registers.  i s not o b l i g a t o r y The  public  f o r churches  repositories  to deposit their  i nBritish  h a v e come t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t c h u r c h e s  Columbia,  at least,  a r e b e g i n n i n g t o assume  control of the care of t h e i r records.  There  i s , a s we know  from chapter one, c o n t r a r y o p i n i o n o f whether they be d o i n g s o .  should  I n t h i s chapter, our examination o f current  r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s h a s r e v e a l e d t h a t some p r o f o u n d d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e churches' approaches keeping.  What c a u s e s  these differences?  to record  Are they merely  result of external circumstances, or are there internal a t work as w e l l ? ences  Why a r e t h e r e s m a l l b u t o b s e r v a b l e  i n p r o g r e s s between t h e A n g l i c a n and U n i t e d  Why do s o many a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s o f t h e S o u t h e r n Church  still  bureaucracy understand probe  forces  differ-  Churches?  Baptist  e x i s t d e s p i t e the church's obvious lack of i nBritish  Columbia?  the denominations  In order to begin to  and t h e i r  a t t i t u d e s , we m u s t  t h e u n d e r l y i n g t h e o l o g y and t h e h i s t o r i c  of each church b e f o r e they reached B r i t i s h t h e n as t h e y d e v e l o p e d  on t h e West  68  Coast.  a  development  Columbia, and  NOTES FOR 1  CHAPTER I I  This t h e s i s l i m i t s i t s examination t o the A n g l i c a n Church w i t h i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l boundaries of B r i t i s h Columbia, n o t i n c l u d i n g t h e Yukon.  2 T e r r y Thompson, " A r c h i v e s , " G e n e r a l S y n o d J o u r n a l ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 120, o b t a i n e d f r o m G e n e r a l S y n o d A r c h i v e s , T o r o n t o . 3  " G e n e r a l Synod o f t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h o f Canada: P o s i t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n , " December 1 9 8 0 : 1. U n p u b l i s h e d d o c u m e n t o b t a i n e d from t h e G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s , T o r o n t o .  4 Ibid.,  p.  2.  5 A n g l i c a n C h u r c h o f C a n a d a , Handbook o f t h e G e n e r a l S y n o d o f t h e A n g l i c a n Church o f Canada, 6 t h ed. (Toronto: A n g l i c a n Book C e n t r e , 1 9 8 1 ) ; - p. 1 5 . 6 " S u g g e s t e d R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e O p e r a t i o n o f t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l S y n o d A r c h i v e s , " a p p r o v e d b y t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l S y n o d C o u n c i l , 4 O c t o b e r 19 80; C a n o n 1 0 . Archives, carried 19 S e p t e m b e r 19 82; b o t h o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e A r c h i v e s o f t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r ; and i n t e r v i e w w i t h G a r t h W a l k e r , A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 26 May a n d 7 J u l y 19 83. 7 " D i o c e s e o f K o o t e n a y , D i o c e s a n A r c h i v a l Programme," r e p o r t t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C o m m i t t e e , 6 O c t o b e r 19 78; " P o s i t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n f o r D i o c e s a n A r c h i v i s t , " O c t o b e r 1978; " P o l i c y f o r a D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , " O c t o b e r 1978; " D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , " s u b m i t t e d t o t h e H i g h - w a y , 7 A p r i l 1979; " D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , " 7 December 1979; " R e p o r t o f t h e A r c h i v i s t , " r e p o r t t o B i s h o p B e r r y a n d Members o f S y n o d , O c t o b e r 19 8 1 . Unpublished documents o b t a i n e d from G a i l Greenhalgh, A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e of Kootenay, Kelowna. 8 P e r s o n a l correspondence w i t h Robert Evans, A s s i s t a n t A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 18 May 1 9 8 3 ; i n t e r v i e w w i t h Ken H a w o r t h , f o r m e r A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 22 M a r c h 1984. 69  NOTES c o n ' t 9  Survey o f A n g l i c a n Diocesan A r c h i v e s , Diocese o f Cariboo ; C a n o n X I X ; U n p u b l i s h e d d o c u m e n t s o b t a i n e d f r o m J o a n Newman, A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f C a r i b o o , Kamloops.  10  I n t e r v i e w w i t h G a r t h W a l k e r , A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f New Westminster and t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 26 May a n d 7 J u l y 19 83.  11 P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h E i l e e n James, S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r , D i o c e s e o f C a l e d o n i a , 22 M a r c h 19 83. 12 Gordon P o u s e t t , " B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia," C i r c l e o f V o i c e s : A H i s t o r y o f t h e R e l i g i o u s Communities o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ed'. C h u c k A n d e r s o n ( L a n c e v i l l e , B.C. : O o l i c h a n B o o k s , 19 8 3 ) . 13 The  Peace  River D i s t r i c t  i s not included  i n t h e B.C. A r e a .  14 The o f f i c i a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e M a r i t i m e c h u r c h e s a t A c a d i a U n i v e r s i t y i n W o l f v i l l e , Nova S c o t i a .  i s located  15 C a n a d i a n B a p t i s t A r c h i v e s , "From B a p t i s t B e g i n n i n g s T h r o u g h t h e P r e s e n t t o t h e F u t u r e , " 19 83; p a m p h l e t o b t a i n e d f r o m the Canadian B a p t i s t A r c h i v e s , Hamilton. 16 Personal correspondence with J u d i t h C o l w e l l , C a n a d i a n B a p t i s t A r c h i v e s , 20 A p r i l 1 9 8 3 .  Librarian,  17 P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h Doug M o f f a t , E x e c u t i v e M i n i s t e r , t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f W e s t e r n C a n a d a , 9 M a r c h 19 8 3 . 18 Interview with P h i l i p Collins, Associate Professor i n Applied T h e o l o g y a n d C h a i r m a n o f Campus M i n i s t r i e s , C a r e y H a l l , V a n c o u v e r , 10 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 8 3 . 19 Ibid.  70  NOTES c o n ' t 20  I n t e r v i e w w i t h M u r i e l Crump, A d m i n i s t r a t o r , B.C. A r e a o f f i c e , B a p t i s t U n i o n o f W e s t e r n C a n a d a , V a n c o u v e r , 19 J a n u a r y 1983.  21 G o r d o n P o u s e t t , "A H i s t o r y o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f B a p t i s t Churches o f B r i t i s h Columbia" (Master of Theology t h e s i s , V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l o f T h e o l o g y , 1982) . 22 The B.C. R e g i o n a l F e l l o w s h i p o f E v a n g e l i c a l B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s , Handbook o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( n . p . , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 12. 23 Ibid.,  p.  37.  Ibid.,  p. 54;  24 Ibid,;  Ibid.,  p.  55.  25 Interview with representative, Convention of Regular B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , h e a d o f f i c e , V a n c o u v e r , 22 M a r c h , 19 84. 26 A l b e r t W. W a r d i n J r . , B a p t i s t A t l a s P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 26.  ( N a s h v i l l e : Broadman  27 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Rev. W. K o r g u l e t z , P a s t o r , Church, Vancouver, March 19 83.  Immanual B a p t i s t  28 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mrs. W a l t e r s , L i b r a r i a n , North American B a p t i s t S e m i n a r y , E d m o n t o n , 21 M a r c h 1984. 29 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Rev. Edmond Hohn, A r e a M i n i s t e r , N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , K e l o w n a , 27 M a r c h 1 9 8 4 . 30 D r . G. D u n g e r , A r c h i v i s t , N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t S i o u x F a l l s , S o u t h D a k o t a , 21 M a r c h 19 84. 31  Ibid.  71  Seminary,  NOTES c o n ' t 32  33  34  I n t e r v i e w w i t h J e n n i e G r u n e r t , R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y , B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n , North American B a p t i s t Conference, Vancouver, 24 A p r i l 1 9 8 4 . The p r a i r i e s , conferences.  o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a v e made up t h e i r  own  A d o l f O l s o n , A C e n t e n a r y H i s t o r y as R e l a t e d t o t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e o f A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : A r n o P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. X I .  35 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Rev. G u s t i n , A r c h i v i s t , S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a , 21 M a r c h 1 9 8 4 . 36  Bethel  Seminary,  I n t e r v i e w w i t h G r a c e A n d e r s o n , member o f t h e H i s t o r i c a l Committee, Columbia C o n f e r e n c e , B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 28 M a r c h 1 9 8 4 .  37 I n t e r v i e w w i t h R e v . Sam H a r v e y , M i n i s t e r , C a l v a r y B a p t i s t Church, and Chairman o f t h e H i s t o r i c a l Committee, Southern B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 26 A p r i l 1 9 8 4 . 38  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Steve L a n g s t o n , B u s i n e s s Manager, B a p t i s t Convention, Southern B a p t i s t Convention, O r e g o n , 26 A p r i l 1 9 8 4 .  Northwest Portland,  39 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l S a u n d e r s , A r c h i v i s t , Sunday S c h o o l B o a r d , Southern B a p t i s t Convention, N a s h v i l l e , Tennessee, 9 A p r i l 1984. 40 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Ron T o n k s , A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t H i s t o r i c a l Commission, N a s h v i l l e , Tennessee, 11 A p r i l 1 9 8 4 . 41 I n 1966 t h e G e n e r a l C o u n c i l a d o p t e d t h e P l a n o f U n i o n b e t w e e n the Canada C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e E v a n g e l i c a l U n i t e d B r e t h r e n Church and t h e U n i t e d Church o f Canada. The U n i o n t o o k p l a c e January 1968. 72  NOTES c o n ' t 42  The U n i t e d C h u r c h o f C a n a d a , The M a n u a l C h u r c h P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 55.  ( n . p . : The U n i t e d  43 Ibid.,  p.  22.  Ibid.,  p.  128.  44 45  46  J o h n A r c h e r i n h i s t h e s i s on a r c h i v e s i n Canada m e n t i o n s t h a t a t t h e time o f u n i o n , the Dominion Commission r u l e d on t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f c h u r c h a r c h i v e s t h a t " w h i l e t h e r e c o r d s o f the P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h o r any o f i t s b o d i e s w o u l d r e m a i n i n t h e c u s t o d y o f t h a t c h u r c h , t h e r e c o r d s would be open t o i n s p e c t i o n , " by o f f i c e r s o f t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h , who w o u l d be a l l o w e d t o make c o p i e s . Thus t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e nonc o n c u r r i n g churches remained w i t h the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church. The r e c o r d s o f t h o s e c h u r c h e s w h i c h j o i n e d t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h , h o w e v e r , w e r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e new b o d y . ( J o h n H. A r c h e r , "A S t u d y o f A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n C a n a d a , " Ph.D. thesis, Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1969 , p. 5 1 7 ) . Lome Pierce, (1959).  "Foreword,"  The B u l l e t i n U n i t e d C h u r c h ,  12  47 Idem, " F o r e w o r d , "  The  Bulletin  United Church,  5  ( 1 9 5 2 ) , p.  1.  48 S e l e c t i o n o f c h u r c h e s was done w i t h i n p a r a m e t e r s e s t a b l i s h e d b y t o t a l number o f c h u r c h e s i n d e n o m i n a t i o n and a g i v e n l i m i t o f one h u n d r e d s u r v e y s . The number o f s u r v e y s s e n t t o U n i t e d c h u r c h e s i s i n o r d i n a t e l y l o w due t o a n i n c o r r e c t t o t a l (250 c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s o p p o s e d t o t h e c o r r e c t t o t a l o f 309) w h i c h was o b t a i n e d a t t h e same t i m e a s members' a d d r e s s e s . A minimum o f f i v e was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h o s e c h u r c h e s whose a l l o c a t i o n o f s u r v e y s w o u l d h a v e f a l l e n , b e l o w t h a t number. 49 T h e r e was, p e r h a p s , some c o n f u s i o n g i v e n t h e w o r d i n g " f o r how l o n g " d o e s n o t s p e c i f y w h e t h e r t h e q u e s t i o n w a n t s p a s t practice or intentions. The s p e c i f i c y e a r s q u o t e d by German-speaking B a p t i s t s c o u l d r e f e r t o l e n g t h o f time t h a t m a t e r i a l h a s b e e n h e l d so f a r , w h i c h s a y s n o t h i n g o f intentions. 73  NOTES c o n ' t 50 P a t r i c i a B i r k e t t , e d . , The C h e c k l i s t o f P a r i s h R e g i s t e r s (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1 9 8 1 ) , p. I X . 51  I n t e r v i e w w i t h P a t Kennedy, A r c h i v i s t , M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a , O t t a w a , 26 May 19 82.  52 I n t e r v i e w w i t h F r a n Gundry, A r c h i v i s t , P r o v i n c i a l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , 12 J u l y 1 9 8 3 .  Archives  53 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Sue B a p t i e , A r c h i v i s t , V a n c o u v e r , 12 J u l y 1 9 8 3 .  Vancouver  City  Archive  54 Interview w i t h Laurenda D a n i e l s , A r c h i v i s t , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, J u l y 1983. 55 The C o n s o l i d a t e d  S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia  1877.  56 Ibid. 57 Ibid.,  p. 35 .  58 The  Revised Statutes  59 Ibid. 60 Ibid.,  p.  19.  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a 1 9 7 9 , v o l . 5.  CHAPTER I I I THE BACKGROUND: EUROPEAN INFLUENCES ON RECORD KEEPING At the j o i n t A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h North-west Church  Archivists  Archivist  meeting  Bob S t e w a r t  Columbia  Archivists/  i n May o f 1 9 8 4 , U n i t e d said,  Much o f w h a t S i s t e r R i t a h a s s a i d c o n f i r m s t h e fact that the S i s t e r s of Providence are deeply c o m m i t e d [ s i c ] t o p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r h e r i t a g e -a c o m m i t m e n t t h a t seems s o much s t r o n g e r t h a n i n my own c h u r c h . And I a s k m y s e l f : WHY? Why do some c h u r c h e s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s h a v e more p a s s i o n i n c a r i n g f o r t h e i r h e r i t a g e than other churches do? S t e w a r t v o i c e s w h a t we know t h r o u g h o u r e x a m i n a t i o n i n c h a p t e r two t o be t r u e : t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t between churches of  i n their  t h e i r approaches,  approaches,  differences  and i n t h e s u c c e s s  to record keeping.  B u t we  should  n o t be a s t o n i s h e d t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . ination and  owes i t s v e r y e x i s t e n c e t o d i f f e r e n c e s  historical  i n theology  circumstance; surely these d i f f e r e n c e s  profoundly affect  their  detected a d e f i n i t e record keeping.  E a c h denom-  a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s .  We  must  have a l s o  bond between c h u r c h government and  D i f f e r e n c e s i n church government, then,  must l i k e w i s e e f f e c t  different  p a t t e r n s of record keeping.  I f we w a n t t o know why t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h number o f c h u r c h e s w h i c h  arrange  has t h e g r e a t e s t  f o r f o r m a l care of  r e c o r d s , i f we w a n t t o know why t h e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s t h e w h o l e do n o t s e e t o t h e c a r e o f t h e i r s ,  75  i f we  their on  want  t o know why t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h  i s not further along i n i t s  a r c h i v a l p r o g r a m m e , we m u s t i d e n t i f y t h e s e  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o l o g y , government and h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e which a f f e c t  r e c o r d k e e p i n g by e x a m i n i n g t h e b a c k g r o u n d s  of each denomination. and h i s t o r i e s  We c a n e x t r a c t f r o m t h e t h e o l o g i e s  of these denominations those  characteristics  w h i c h , when t r a n s p l a n t e d t o t h e New W o r l d , f a s h i o n e d t h e distinct  and u n i q u e i d e n t i t i e s  t h a t i n t u r n produced the  r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s we o b s e r v e t o d a y . a study of context, but a h i s t o r i c a l to d i s t i n g u i s h of each  This i s , again,  perspective i s necessary  s i g n i f i c a n t and d i s t i n c t i v e  characteristics  denomination.  In s t u d y i n g the P r o t e s t a n t denominations which the seven churches under  fostered  e x a m i n a t i o n , one c a n d i s t i n g u i s h  a s i n g l e f a c t o r t h a t seems t o a c c o u n t f o r a l l d i f f e r e n c e s in theology, organization, p o l i t y , worship, behaviour, and a t t i t u d e ,  and t h a t i s t h e r d i f f g r i n g  concept each  i n a t i o n h a s o f w h a t i t means t o be a " c h u r c h " . each d e n o m i n a t i o n has a d i f f e r e n t  goal, they  denom-  Because  naturally  h a v e f o r m u l a t e d d i f f e r e n t means o f a c h i e v i n g t h e i r e n d . These d i f f e r e n c e s d i d n o t a l w a y s e x i s t . f o r example,  Christians,  t h e " c h u r c h " meant t h e u n i t y o f t h e w h o l e  p e o p l e o f God. one  For e a r l y  There was, e s s e n t i a l l y ,  people, of which i n d i v i d u a l  representative,  one c h u r c h f o r  c o n g r e g a t i o n s were b u t  l o c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h e whole.  76  At  this  time  " C h r i s t i a n s d i d not regard the Church  as  an  2 institution."  R a t h e r t h e c h u r c h was  v a r i o u s l y the  Body,  t h e B r i d e , t h e H a n d m a i d e n o f C h r i s t on e a r t h , n o t t h e of e a r t h l y endeavour.  The  governance  d e s i g n e d t o meet s c r i p t u r a l direction  to worship.  or bishop.  s t a n d a r d s and  e l d e r of C h r i s t i a n s  c e n t u r y A.D.,  of C o r i n t h caused  was  to give a  L e a d i n g t h e c h u r c h was  E a r l y i n the second  a schism i n the Church  of the church  the  product  practical  elder,  however,  Clement,  i n Rome, t o d e c l a r e t h a t t h e  chief elders  i n C o r i n t h c o u l d n o t be d e p o s e d b e c a u s e t h e y s t o o d i n d i r e c t 3  l i n e of s u c c e s s i o n from the A p o s t l e s . o f some s i g n i f i c a n c e , the a p o s t o l i c  T h i s was  f o r not o n l y d i d i t i n a sense  s u c c e s s i o n but i t a l s o a l t e r e d  of t h e c h u r c h as s i m p l y a body of f a i t h f u l in worship. in effect  The  institutionalized  however, would  The  t h e c h u r c h , and  exact d e f i n i t i o n  the p e r c e p t i o n  leadership gave  definition  f o r church  upon.  A u g u s t i n e expanded t h i s  e a r l y concept  as i n s t i t u t i o n .  He  the d i v i n e t r u t h  i n t h e g o s p e l , and  of the sacraments  establish  of t h i s c h a r a c t e r ,  become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t  members t o a g r e e  event  gathered together  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p r e c i s e  to i t s character.  an  of the  taught that the h i s t o r i c  was  t h e m e d i a e v a l v i s i o n o f t h e c h u r c h and  77  church witnessed  that i t s administration  an a c t o f God.  of a u t h o r i t y of the C a t h o l i c papacy.  church  This notion underlies supports the The  Catholic  position Church,  as  an i n s t i t u t i o n  was  the f i r s t  and t h e p a r e n t o f t h e P r o t e s t a n t  to display significant  Two r a t h e r d i v e r g e n t  keeping  tendencies developed.  veloped out of the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e c h u r c h .  record  of  Church, tendencies.  The f i r s t d e -  the central  administration  Throughout t h e M i d d l e Ages t h e C a t h o l i c  Church worked on c o n s o l i d a t i n g b o t h i t s s p i r i t u a l and t e m p o r a l power. formulated t o cope  As p a r t  an e l a b o r a t e  with  of t h i s  c o n s o l i d a t i o n , t h e Church  and i n t r i c a t e  administration  i t s ever i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e .  o f t h i s m a c h i n e r y was a n i n c r e a s e hence an i n c r e a s e  i n records.  i n b u r e a u c r a c y , and  The P o n t i f i c a t e o f t h e  Pope I n n o c e n t I I I ( d i e d 1 2 1 6 ) was t h e f i r s t the It  c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n took n e a r l y  stability led 1612,  four  institutionality  t o the establishment  t o see t o  of t h e Church's  hundred years before  and i n c r e a s e d  A by-product  the affluence, of the church  of a c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s ,  u n d e r Pope P a u l V, t h e a r c h i v e s  records.  buti n  and t h e l i b r a r y  4  were o f f i c i a l l y istrative  divided.  records  Henceforth, important  were c e n t r a l i z e d i n t h e a r c h i v e s .  Owen C h a d w i c k s a i d o f t h i s e v e n t t h a t a central archive  owned n o t h i n g  "the c r e a t i o n of  to the notion  scholars  to write history.  intended  t o make t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n more  In c o n t r a s t  admin-  to this,  I t was a b u s i n e s s  t h e second record  of helping transaction 5  efficient." keeping  tradition  o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h was e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e m o n a s t e r i e s . 78  The  m o n a s t e r i e s g r e w up  corruption visible the  first  opinions  i n r e a c t i o n to the  i n the  organized  signs w i t h i n the of what t h e  lived  of the  c h u r c h r e a l l y was  i d e a l of  to these centres  of  classical  and  early medieval  monks w e r e i n t e n t on  and  history.  The  Their  the  communities  i n time It is  preservation  of  nearly  literature."  preservation  archival practices,  monks r e m a i n e d w i t h  parent.  churchly  of  scholarship  accordingly,  L u t h e r i n Germany was  open s i g n s  of  Coupled w i t h  corruption a personal  e n o u g h t o make h i m  sense of decide to  there  studies  gradually  formulated  a break w i t h  the  not  i n the  Under the  h i s own  C a t h o l i c Church,  allowed  the  Roman C a t h o l i c  the  a theology  the  Church.  sinfulness, this distress join  a group of  Augustinian  e a r l y s c h o l a s t i c s , he which e v e n t u a l l y  Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , and C h u r c h and  79  their  i n f l u e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s  of  p e o p l e s ' v i s i o n of the  even  same f r e e d o m .  v i s i b l y d i s t r e s s e d by  h e r m i t s i n 1505. and  the  i d e a l d i f f e r e d from t h a t of  L i k e t h e monks, L u t h e r was  the  be.  this.  though t h e i r  was  and  learning.  own  The  the  world,  "we  ancient  reflect  and  the monkish  that  all  differing  a slightly different  r e s t of the literacy  and  They were  supposed t o  religious life,  separate from the  many became c e n t r e s  church.  C a t h o l i c Church of  A l t h o u g h e a c h g r o u p o f monks had vision  opulence  the  meant  which a l t e r e d  Church's v i s i o n  of  itself.  works but  by  lie  with  but  i n the  He  Luther said that  the  the  visible  Word o f  believed  every  f a i t h alone.  man  i n the has  Scriptures  living  i s to  the  an  Religious  God  as  contained  priesthood  of  r i g h t and  for himself,  s e r v e God  institution  i s not  s a v e d by  authority  i n s t i t u t i o n known a s  Luther's doctrine as  Man  ability that  Roman C h u r c h ,  where  interpret  e s s e n c e of  and  f a i t h meant t h a t  Christian  clerical callings. the  church  a less s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e to  play  i n Man's s a l v a t i o n t h a n was  currently perceived.  could  i n d i v i d u a l ' s acceptance  the  only  come t h r o u g h t h e  grace o f f e r e d  homage o r  by  God,  intercession  of  and  no  the  church could  L u t h e r ' s second b e l i e f t h a t o v e r t r a d i t i o n and the  Catholic  i n the of  clergy  God  of  c h u r c h , and  with  not an  faith,  a  and  a return  positions. of  the  to the  supernatural  His  i n the  belief necessity  Pope  and  and  of  Luther's  s o c i e t y , or  sacramental l i f e ,  80  authority  Luther's b e l i e f s  old ideal.  authority  that.  absolute  institutionality  " d i v i n e l y founded v i s i b l e  ordered m i n i s t r y ,  works,  change  i n a l l c a p a c i t i e s denied the  their priviledged  of  body e s s e n t i a l l y d e n i e d  a l l believers  were i n e f f e c t a d e n i a l  was  worldly  has  Salvation  good  Church i t s s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n .  priesthood  serving  any  amount o f  Scripture  not  Scriptures.  to  the  i n both secular of  had  i n the  does  a l l believers,  the and  the  good  the  church ecclesia,  revealed  organic unity,"  but  r a t h e r was c o n g r e g a t i o n s  of b e l i e v e r s gathered  together  g  to  worship  as t h e e l e c t people  Thus we h a v e t h e e v e r  o f God.  increasing institutionality  o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , a n d t h e d i f f u s i o n o f i n s t i t u tionality  of Luther's  of t h e "church."  church  representing differing  The A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t a n d U n i t e d  conceptions denom-  i n a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e one o r t h e o t h e r of these views. church  Unlike the Lutheran  Church, the A n g l i c a n  d i d n o t owe i t s c r e a t i o n t o a n y p e r c e i v e d  w i t h t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . the A n g l i c a n Church i n England  disenchantment  Henry V I I I e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e Pope d e n i e d h i m  his  d i v o r c e from C a t h e r i n e  all  v e s t i g e s o f p o w e r t h e Pope h a d i n t h a t c o u n t r y b u t  did  little  t o e f f e c t any r e a l  H e n r y ' s own r e l i g i o u s The  of Aragon.  T h i s a c t removed  changes i n t h e church  i n c l i n a t i o n was t o C a t h o l i c  since orthodoxy.  c o n f u s i o n and d i s t u r b a n c e s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of t h e church,  however, a l l o w e d  the r i s e of a small Protestant  p a r t y which i n f l u e n c e d t h e growth of t h e A n g l i c a n From t h i s p o i n t o n , we s e e a c o m p l e t e l y  church.  new c h u r c h ; n o t  the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e C a t h o l i c Church i n England, y e t a church  n o t q u i t e P r o t e s t a n t as L u t h e r  or Calvin defined 9  it. The  Arthur Pollard  r e f e r s t o t h e " v i a media" of A n g l i c a n i s m .  new C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d  notion of the " e c c l e s i a " congregations  somehow f e l l and L u t h e r ' s  of b e l i e v e r s .  81  between t h e former concept  of  elect  rFive d i s t i n c t  characteristics that influenced  keeping i n the A n g l i c a n Church  in British  be t r a c e d t o t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d . trait  was  The  was  the church's a t t i t u d e towards  practicality the church.  can  distinguishing or  universal  The  church  second  government.  t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h e c h u r c h gave t o  and t h e f o u r t h and  of  first  i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the state.  t h i r d was  the  Columbia  the church's n o t i o n of the c a t h o l i c ,  c h u r c h , and trait  The  record  tradition,  f i f t h were t h e l a c k of m i l i t a n c y  b o u n d up i n t h e n a t u r e a n d  and  the behaviour  P a r t of t h e Nicene Creed of the  1559  Book o f Common P r a y e r o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d r e a d , "and  I b e l i e v e one  c a t h o l i c and a p o s t o l i c  To t h e A n g l i c a n s t h e r e was it  was  o n l y one  to serve a l lb e l i e v e r s .  Church.  true church,  and  T h i s n o t i o n gave t h e  A n g l i c a n s a sense of u n i t y , of c o h e s i v e n e s s ; t h e c h u r c h was  a l lthings to a l lpeople.  their  p o s i t i o n was  i n any  They d i d n o t f e e l  s e n s e c o m p r o m i s e d by h a v i n g  a close r e l a t i o n s h i p with the s t a t e . and b e c a u s e  of the o f t e n f i n e  responsibilities  to  retain  T h e r e was  level),  of  this,  record  the s t a t e i n England the church f e l t  r e c o r d s f o r b o t h t h e p e o p l e and t h e an a d d e d s e n s e o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and  that inhibited The  Because  l i n e between the  o f t h e c h u r c h and  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y at the l o c a l  that  obligated  government. responsibility  records destruction.  second p a r t of the sentence from the Nicene  82  Creed  refers t o the a p o s t o l i c church. bishops rested could  upon t h e c h u r c h ' s c l a i m t h a t t h e s e men  trace their  Apostles.  The a u t h o r i t y o f t h e  Their  l i n e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y existence  meant t h a t r e g i o n a l  of c o n t r o l were e n s u r e d ; l o c a l p a r i s h e s follow the d i c t a t e s of t h e i r  t o be c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e l o c a l  level.  a c e r t a i n amount o f u n i f o r m i t y , to British  levels not,  form  standards  Besides  the regional  and t h e r e f o r e  therefore,  Through  creating  level  C o l u m b i a , w o u l d mean s m a l l e r  of a r c h i v a l o v e r s i g h t , of  could  own d e s i r e s .  meetings and exchanges t h e b i s h o p s c o u l d  translated  back t o t h e  control, units  more e f f i c i e n t  control  records. The  third  and p o s s i b l y  most  important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of  t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d was i t s o b s e r v a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n  in  i t s history.  At the Council  o f T r e n t i n 1546 t h e  bishops of t h e C a t h o l i c Church s t a t e d of  t h e O l d a n d New T e s t a m e n t s w o u l d be e q u a l l y  with  t h e w r i t t e n and u n w r i t t e n  I n commenting upon t h i s , veneration  of t r a d i t i o n  point of d i v i s i o n the of  that the Scriptures  that  this  b e t w e e n t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a n d  England d i d not hold a very  I t d i d not bind  claims  by t h e C a t h o l i c s i s t h e c e n t r a l  While i t i s true  1  played  t r a d i t i o n s of t h e Church.  Stephen N e i l l  C h u r c h o f England. "'"  still  venerated  tradition  strong  the actions  t h a t t h e Church  as a u t h o r i t a t i v e , t r a d i t i o n  role i n the l i f e  of the church.  of the church; there  83  was  not  the  rigid  inflexibility  C a t h o l i c Church. an  t o w a r d s change t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e  T h e r e was more a s e n s e o f t r a d i t i o n a n d  emphasis on c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h p r e v e n t e d any r a s h  from being  made.  Records which captured t h e t r a d i t i o n s  of t h e c h u r c h were t h e r e f o r e  considered  important.  A f t e r H e n r y ' s b r e a k f r o m t h e Roman C a t h o l i c t h e r e was no t u r n i n g b a c k t h e t i d e o f r e f o r m .  Church,  The c h a n g e s  w e r e made r e l a t i v e l y p e a c e f u l l y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e of  savage and b l o o d y d i s s e n t w h i l e  to  steer the country  death.  changes  was a p e r i o d  opposing f a c t i o n s  tried  i n one d i r e c t i o n o r a n o t h e r a f t e r H e n r y ' s  T h e r e was s e c u l a r a n d r e l i g i o u s p o l i t i c k i n g ,  particu-  larly  since  there  was a f u n d a m e n t a l l a c k o f m i l i t a n c y a n d d i s s e n t i n  the  c h u r c h and s t a t e were so c l o s e l y a l l i e d , b u t  C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d and a s t r o n g  that allowed  stability  t h e church t o weather t h e storm i n t a c t .  Marsden c r e d i t s t h i s a strong  and c o h e s i v e  tradition  lack of aggression  George  i n the church t o  o f t h e o l o g i c a l l a t i t u d e w h i c h must needs  g u i d e a s t a t e c h u r c h , and a t h e o l o g i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l conservatism tradition  b a s e d on t h e " s e n s e o f g r a d u a l l y  developing  t h a t appears c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of E n g l i s h  thought  12  generally." was  that  catholics and  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p e a c a b l e  later quarrels  between E v a n g e l i c a l s  and A n g l o -  i n t h e church would n o t t r a n s l a t e i n t o  d i s r u p t i o n i n Canada.  to concentrate  Stability  allowed  behaviour  dissension  the church  on t h e r e f i n e m e n t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  84  such  as  record  keeping, instead  concentrate  on o r g a n i z i n g  Finally,  but  repeatedly  t o the phlegmatic nature of E n g l i s h people  t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y which would not a l l o w  t h e c h u r c h and t h e c o n s t a n t  Protestant is  inherent  i n good r e c o r d  Practicality for record The  generally, to  stand  stemmed f r o m t h e o r i g i n s  Practicality  keeping p r a c t i c e s ; i t i s d i f f i c u l t procedures without i t .  to e s t a b l i s h the s t a b i l i t y  necessary  keeping.  Anglican  close  pract-  m e d i a t i o n between r a d i c a l  standard  also helps  by i t s  tradition  g r o u p s and s t a u n c h A n g l o - C a t h o l i c s .  to e s t a b l i s h regular,  the  anew.  One m i g h t t r y t o a t t r i b u t e t h i s  i n t h e way o f p r o g r e s s more l i k e l y of  continually forced to  t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d  p r a c t i c a l nature. icality  of being  heritage  link with  combined w i t h  i n the universal  s t a t e , the stable church  a general  to the Anglican  of b e l i e f  respect  organization,  for tradition,  Church i n B r i t i s h  church,  was  Columbia through  bequeathed mission-  a r i e s from such e v a n g e l i c a l s o c i e t i e s as t h e S o c i e t y f o r Promoting C h r i s t i a n Knowledge, t h e S o c i e t y pagation  of the Gospel i n Foreign  Missionary the  Society.  l a s t two, gave f i n a n c i a l ,  to the foundling of  These t h r e e  church.  r e l i g i o u s expression,  record  keeping habits  f o r the Pro-  P a r t s , and t h e C h r i s t i a n organizations,  p h y s i c a l and m o r a l  particularly support  They a l s o e n s u r e d a c o n t i n u i t y and i n d o i n g s o , s u b t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e  o f t h e new  85  Anglicans.  The  B a p t i s t s present  a striking  contrast to the picture  of A n g l i c a n h e r i t a g e i n t h e i r  t h e o l o g y , v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s ,  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and u l t i m a t e l y ,  their  record keeping.  Owen  Chadwick r e f e r s t o them a s ones " f r e e d f r o m t h e r e s t r a i n t s 13 o f a common a n d h i s t o r i c a l have t r i e d  While  t o t r a c e the B a p t i s t s through  i n g groups t o p r a c t i c a l l y it  tradition."  the beginning  i s p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e  the various dissentof C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  t o identify the Anabaptists  as t h e f o r e r u n n e r s t o o u r modern d a y B a p t i s t s . first  proclaimed  Confession distinct  their  faith  i n the so-called  groups appeared i n Europe.  Mennonites i n t h e Netherlands f o u r groups,  have i n h e r i t e d who i n s i s t e d affusion, was  This  group  Anabaptist  o f S c h l e i t h e i m i n 1527. As t h e y d e v e l o p e d ,  four  There were t h e S w i s s ,  t h e S o u t h Germans, t h e H u t t e r i t e s i n M o r a v i a ,  these  some h i s t o r i a n s  and t h e  a n d n o r t h e r n Germany.  Of  t h e m o d e r n d a y B a p t i s t s seem o n l y t o  the particular  emphases o f t w o : t h e S w i s s ,  upon a d u l t b a p t i s m  by immersion r a t h e r  than  a n d t h e M e n n o n i t e s , whose u l t i m a t e c o n v i c t i o n  the belief  t h a t the church  made up o f a r e g e n e r a t e  congregation  membership, a s e l e c t  was e x c l u s i v e l y society apart  from t h e w o r l d . Thus, t h e B a p t i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c h u r c h ed t h e s e l e c t .  only  represent-  I t was n o t a n d s h o u l d n o t t r y t o be a l l  things t o a l l people.  With  this  86  i n mind, t h e B a p t i s t s  n a t u r a l l y developed a very very in  d i f f e r e n t response to records  comparison with  t r a d i t i o n and and of  d i f f e r e n t theology  the  their  Anglicans.  record  Their  state, their  i n the  strict  connectional  evangelism, a l l contributed  across  the  then to  Atlantic,  first  common  dissension separation  United  independent  consequent  to a legacy  to the  keeping  form of  C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s m , t h e i r e s c h a t o l o g y and on  a  l a c k of  i n h e r i t a n c e of y e a r s of  separation, t h e i r b e l i e f c h u r c h and  and  and  that  stress  stretched  States,  and  Canada.  The  B a p t i s t s knew d i s s e n t  amongst t h e i r  ranks  almost  14 from the in  fxrst.  After organizing  E n g l a n d i n 1607,  pastor  J o h n S m y t h and  C l y f t o n e m i g r a t e d t o Amsterdam the church eventually a  small  the  j o i n e d the  g r o u p s e p a r a t e d and  first  t o A m e r i c a and The  changes i t s e l f strict  M e n n o n i t e s i n 1615 returned  e s t a b l i s h i n g the  as  to  w e r e A r m i n i a n s and  after  England to e s t a b l i s h Clyfton's  eventually  Congregational  part  of  therefore  the  believing in a  who  therefore  87  emigrating  Church  membership,  c h u r c h m e m b e r s h i p , b r o k e away f r o m t h e who  Smyth's  behind i n England underwent  i n 1638  C a l v i n i s t s and  Richard  f o l l o w i n g year.  some c h a n g e s b e f o r e  group l e f t  division  pastor  G e n e r a l B a p t i s t Church i n London.  church a l s o suffered  there.  a friendly  further being  predestined  General B a p t i s t s ,  believed  in  free  will  and  a s e l e c t m e m b e r s h i p drawn f r o m t h e  Thus were t h e  Particular Baptists  two  the  centuries  ground a  and  small  only  two  united  born.  sacraments,  by  formed a  immersion  sect  found  congregation  number b e l i e v i n g i n c l o s e  those baptized  Over the  groups e v e n t u a l l y  i n t o one  entire  could  known as  but  whereby  partake  the  next  some common  i n 1891,  communion,  population.  Strict  of  the  and  Particular  Baptists. Undoubtedly the and of  relatively  short  cohesiveness.  to the  New  tradition,  Baptists'  and  belief  church  being  their  them t o  i n the easily  justify  New  similarities.  Testament  s e l e c t meant e m p h a s i z i n g A  of  theology.  Whatever the  meant t h a t  thought  arose  however, t h e  church. the  concentrate could  the  well  saving  little  their  reach  the  strict  not behaviour,  conservative  tendency  a profound  to  effect  reorganization  time or  of  their  in their  h i s t o r y , and  88  of  from t h e i r  level  select  differences,  d i s r u p t i o n and  had  a  any  to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  for their  r e s u l t s had  Baptists  hardly  as  reasons  Continual  on  open  certain inflexibility  a rigidity  separate,  was  to  separation  a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d mean a c o m p r o m i s e The  lack  p r a c t i c e of r e f e r r i n g than  the  ization  to t h i s  rather  being  to  their  heritage  f o r guidance,  and  the  common  Testament  principles.  on  of  history contributed  Moreover,  membership a l l o w e d when t h e  lack  inclination their  stability  organor  sophistication for  t o w a r r a n t any  administrative  record  keeping  efficiency.  P e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e p e r s e c u t e d by or perhaps because they b e l i e v e d apart  from the  stand  apart  civil  establishment  i n order  from the  secular world  as  be  completely  w o u l d n e v e r f e e l any  of  This the  towards anyone o u t s i d e  that  influenced  the  a  loose  s o r t of  their  Anglicans  In terms of o r g a n i z a t i o n , connectional  the  truly  s t a t e must  in their  record  Baptists  free to  i t s worship  w i s h e s of  Baptists  keeping.  maintained  worship  In and  form, the seek the for  held  Baptists believed s u p p o r t of o t h e r  i t s individual  that congregations  congregations.  added t o the  instability  of  any  should  machinery  ever e f f e c t i v e l y  w e l l , w h i c h made t h e f o r m u l a t i o n  own  No  p a r t i c i p a t o r y u n i t s t e n d e d t o be f a i r l y  rather d i f f i c u l t .  Unlike  this practice in i t s strictest  a l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n was  however, which o n l y The  who  other  conduct  members w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e f r o m a l a r g e r b o d y . Congregationalists  respons-  congregations  Congregationalism.  to the  stand  sense of  local  w o r d s , e a c h c o n g r e g a t i o n was according  to  d o c t r i n e meant t h a t  o b l i g a t i o n s or  ibility  government,  a r e g e n e r a t e membership,  B a p t i s t s w e r e i n s i s t e n t t h a t c h u r c h and separate.  the  t h a t a c h u r c h must  the  so  procedures  established,  of  the  large  concerted  Congregations free to determine  a t t i t u d e s i n r e l a t i o n t o any  89  subject,  were  church. as  plans their  u n d e r no  o b l i g a t i o n t o f o l l o w the d i c t a t e s of a  centralized  body.  may  be  and  implementing  church, i t  presumed, would have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y  Finally, in  Such a l o o s e l y c o n n e c t e d  planning  programmes f o r i t s a r c h i v e s .  B a p t i s t eschatology, which developed  the nineteenth century  iin E n g l a n d , continue  record keeping.  a c o m p e l l i n g and  to was  Baptists felt  i n t h e c o m i n g o f t h e end  supplanted  by a d i f f e r e n t  to hold  traditions  i m p e r a t i v e as "And  angel  the  gospel every  to preach  u n t o t h e m t h a t d w e l l on  n a t i o n , and  Baptists translate which tends and  of heaven, h a v i n g  k i n d r e d , and such  The of the  l o o k i n g backwards t o the  everlasting  people."  for record  i n the eschatology  can  be  b e s t e x p l a i n e d by  for  Baptist eschatology,  of the B a p t i s t s .  c l o s e l y examining i t s s t r e n g t h and  the  the b a s i c tenents  was  formulated  of the b e l i e f .  i n England  and  1 5  evangelism  keeping  The  keeping These basis  i n f l u e n c e on  Canadian B a p t i s t s i n the f o r m a t i o n of t h e i r and  to  past.  There were f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e c o r d contained  another  e a r t h , and  t o n g u e and  concern  church  I saw  passages i n t o a v i b r a n t  to blunt their  imperative  revealed  by a p a s s a g e i n R e v e l a t i o n w h i c h s t a t e s : f l y i n the midst  towards definite  of the w o r l d .  k e e p t h e c o l l e c t i v e memory and  early  contributed to  t h e a t t i t u d e B a p t i s t s h e l d and  belief  larger,  eschatology,  Doomsday  b r o u g h t t o A m e r i c a by  90  theory the  Plymouth Brethren. it  enjoyed  Once on  the other  s i d e of the  a • h e a l t h y / p o p u l a r i t y among  groups i n the United  fundamentalist  S t a t e s , as w e l l as  in British  B a p t i s t s are b a s i c a l l y fundamentalists; in  the  literal  infallibility  a g r e a t e m p h a s i s on  t h e New  of the  they  acceptable  S c r i p t u r e s , and  Testament.  C.I.  t h e s i s of d i s p e n s a t i o n a l i s m . history  into  represented  and  seven d i s p e n s a t i o n s , a c h a n g e i n t h e way  would i n e v i t a b l y  catastrophe.  w i t h Rapture,  w o u l d be  b o r n up  o u t l i n e d the  God  dealt with  thus  ending  under Grace.  during which time  Lord  time  mankind.  in was  in  a l l o f God's  in terror  God  judgement  This period  i n t o h e a v e n , f o l l o w e d by  the r e t u r n of the  basic  Each p e r i o d of  t o S c o f i e l d , man  d u r i n g w h i c h t h e e a r t h w o u l d be then  history  w i t h a t e s t g i v e n by  fail,  According  s i x t h d i s p e n s a t i o n : man end  America  This doctrine d i v i d e d  E a c h p e r i o d o f t i m e w o u l d end t h a t man  Scofield  place  Consequently,  o f f e r e d a happy a l t e r n a t e v i e w of  to B a p t i s t s .  Columbia.  believe  the p r e m i l l e n i a l d i s p e n s a t i o n a l i s m brought to by t h e B r e t h r e n  Atlantic,  the  would people  Tribulation, and t u r m o i l ,  t o t h e e a r t h i n power  and  16 g l o r y , and  finally  the  L a s t Judgement.  to  the thousand year  r e i g n of C h r i s t ,  to  h i s a p p e a r a n c e on  earth before  all  B a p t i s t s agreed to the order  the t i m i n g , but  a l l shared  Millenial referred and  pre-millenial,  the m i l l e n i u m . of t h o s e  events,  a compelling v i s i o n 91  of  Not or  the end.  Thus n o t o n l y was t h e e n d c o m i n g , b u t i t was  coming i n t h e fLoxeseeable f u t u r e . prepare  their records f o r future  dwindled  i n the face of t h i s  t o t h e New W o r l d ,  before they reached  generations  on r e c o r d k e e p i n g  undergoing  some  B r i t i s h Columbia.  some s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s .  modification  f o r example, Dissent continued  t o dog t h e i r  steps.  (established  i n 1652 on P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d ) ,  Baptists and  Although  were  I f we f o l l o w t h e  Baptists' progress i n the United States, we f i n d  understandably  belief.  T h i s and o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s carried  The i m p e r a t i v e t o c a r e f u l l y  (also established  Separate  Baptists  a union of General  o n Rhode I s l a n d  (founded  1740s) o c c u r r e d i n t h e l a t e  B a p t i s t s , t h e norm f o r B a p t i s t s was t o s e p a r a t e . joined  While  the United  i n the United States  the General  SixPrinciple  the O r i g i n a l Free W i l l B a p t i s t s  a new c h u r c h .  The m a j o r s p l i t  when s o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s ,  themselves  The r e m a i n i n g B a p t i s t into  calling  ranks  with their  came northern  issue, decided t o s t r i k e out  on t h e i r own, f o r m i n g t h e S o u t h e r n 1845.  Baptists  established  i n the Baptist  i n disagreement  brethren over the s l a v e r y  in  i n the  t h e union, f o r example, a s p l i n t e r group  themselves  Regular  i n 1638),  i n New E n g l a n d  1700s t o form  Baptists  t h e American  Baptist  churches  Baptist  U.S.A. i n 1 9 0 7 .  92  Convention  eventually  organized  Churches i n t h e  Thus were t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s b o r n . American  Both the North  B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e and t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l  stemmed f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n  Baptists,  the former  Conference  establishing 17  their  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1865,  the l a t t e r  B a p t i s t s of the North American  i n 1879.  The  Conference separated i n  o r d e r t o b e t t e r m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e German  immigrants  who  Baptists  were a r r i v i n g  i n America.  Likewise, the  of the B a p t i s t G e n e r a l Conference wished t o  administer  t o t h e s p e c i f i c needs of Swedish  I t was  way  to buttress their ethnicity  t o as  the  "melting pot."  C o n f e r e n c e was  The  theologically  settlers.  a  i n a country referred North American  Baptist  conservative, drawing i t s  m e m b e r s h i p f r o m a d i m i n i s h i n g number o f German i m m i g r a n t s . The  B a p t i s t General Conference  lost i t s ethnic  much q u i c k e r t h a n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n a c e r t a i n amount o f s t a b i l i t y  Baptists,  identity but m a i n t a i n e d  i n s p i t e ofi t .  While both the North American  B a p t i s t s and  the General  C o n f e r e n c e B a p t i s t s managed t o r e m a i n c o n s t a n t i n k e e p i n g with the reasons f o r t h e i r  separation, the Southern  spent the years f o l l o w i n g t h e i r  s e p a r a t i o n from the U n i t e d  B a p t i s t s w e a t h e r i n g i n t e n s e c r i s e s and of t h e most v i t a l ,  growing i n t o  one  dynamic denominations i n the U n i t e d  States; numerically their their Baptist  Baptists  s t r e n g t h f a r e x c e e d s any  b r e t h r e n , and  Protestant denomnination  of  they c o n s t i t u t e the l a r g e s t 18 i n America today. T h e i r phenomenal  93  growth r e f l e c t s t h e i r e v a n g e l i c a l them t h r o u g h s u c h c r i s e s a s the  publications  w h i c h has  Campbellism,  controversy,  f i n a n c i a l weakness.  outlook  the  war  Landmarkism,  period,  and  recurring  Throughout t h e i r h i s t o r y the  B a p t i s t s d e v e l o p e d and  carried  Southern  maintained a c l e a r , strong  identity  w h i c h h e l p e d them t h r o u g h p o t e n t i a l l y c r i p p l i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Perhaps i n the this  reflected in their  Baptists  in British  c o n f l i c t and  from B a p t i s t s t o w a r d s any  away t o t h e  i n the  new  the  were dismayed t o f i n d situation  o f one  United  three  States.  t o escape the  new  that  Baptist  i n the  hostility state  state church.  was  Having s a i l e d  intolerance  t h e y had  legacy  denominations  and  s i t u a t i o n i n England, the  f o r another, f o r the  become t h e out  and  American B a p t i s t s .  land  the  Columbia, then, i n h e r i t e d a  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c h u r c h and  b r o u g h t a b o u t by  left  strengthening  records.  separation,  a l s o r e i n f o r c e d by  had  and  i d e n t i t y t h e y have t a k e n a deep i n t e r e s t i n  history  of  i n t e r e s t of p r e s e r v i n g  traded  Baptists  one  uncomfortable  Congregationalist  Church  Once more B a p t i s t s  cold, f o r they suffered  persecution  were  "official  s o r t o r a n o t h e r " t h r o u g h o u t p a r t s of  New  disabilities  England  until  19 the  time of  vowed t h a t  the  American Revolution.  they would not  so n a t u r a l l y t h a t a g e n c y activities,  and  The  Baptists  h a v e a n y t h i n g t o do had  little  encouragement of  94  with  influence  record  keeping  on  government, their  through  a s e n s e o f p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was  non-existent.  I n t e r m s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i l e t h e U n i o n and B a p t i s t s were not p a r t i c u l a r l y Baptists,  i n f l u e n c e d by  Regular  American  the three Canadian B a p t i s t churches  having  A m e r i c a n l i n k s t e n d e d t o d e p e n d on t h e i r A m e r i c a n f o r guidance, tradition  or  and  so n e v e r d e v e l o p e d  a strong  indigenous  government.  In comparison w i t h both the-Anglican Churches, the  i n f l u e n c e s of p a r e n t  record keeping  activities  more d i f f i c u l t  to discern.  the nature  the United  The  brethren  of  and  the B a p t i s t  o r g a n i z a t i o n s on  of the U n i t e d  Church are  This d i f f i c u l t y  far  derives  Presbyterian  and  C o n g r e g a t i o n l i s t Churches i n t o a s i n g l e body t e n d e d l i n e s between the o r i g i n a l  d i s g u i s e d t h e o l d u n d e r a new, i n f l u e n c e s are apparent,  denominations,  however.  From t h e  the Methodist social  education  Both the Methodists  were e v a n g e l i c a l l y minded. of a l l t h r e e c h u r c h e s . shaping  its  records.  i t s love  scholarship.  and  Some  Presbyterian  From  Church the United Church r e c e i v e d a  concern.  for  and  to and  evolving character.  Church of S c o t l a n d , the U n i t e d Church i n h e r i t e d of l e a r n i n g , f o r both  from  C h u r c h ' s c o m p o s i t e make-up.  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the M e t h o d i s t ,  b l u r the  the  great  the C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s  C h u r c h p o l i t y was  a  mixture  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were r e s p o n s i b l e  the unique outlook  of the U n i t e d  95  Church  towards  The  P r e s b y t e r i a n Church began i n S c o t l a n d .  Protestant  beginnings  t h e r e were q u a s h e d , d r i v i n g one  p r e a c h e r , John Knox, o u t o f S c o t l a n d i n t h e m i d 15 00s  i n Geneva.  to eventually  greatest  he  absorbed t h e teachings  t h a t he w o u l d l a t e r  church i n Scotland.  Meanwhile i n Scotland  of  theologians,  independence, resentment against  of t h e regent,  preparing  apply t o feelings  with  the fear  w o u l d s o o n be a n n e x e d t o F r a n c e w e r e  t h e way f o r c h a n g e .  When M a r y d i e d  Calvin,  the manipulations  Mary o f L o r r a i n e , c o u p l e d  that the country  reside  There, under t h e i n f l u e n c e  of one o f P r o t e s t a n t i s m ' s  the  Early  Knox b i d e d  his  i n 1552 a n d t h e t r e a t y s i g n e d  time. whereby  F r e n c h i n t e r f e r e n c e was w i t h d r a w n , Knox was t h e r e t o share t h e triumph.  By 1560 a C a l v i n i s t i c  o f f a i t h was a d o p t e d a s t h e c r e e d From t h i s framing  the intricate  pastors).  education  of the S c o t t i s h  t i m e f o r w a r d Knox a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e s system of P r e s b y t e r i a n  (government by p r e s b y t e r s and  confession  and r e l i e f  spent  time  government  or elders, teachers,  They i n c l u d e d p l a n s  Presbyterians.  deacons  f o r a system of n a t i o n a l  f o r t h e poor.  w o r k was a s s u m e d b y A n d r e w M e l v i l l e ,  When Knox d i e d , h i s the educational  r e f o r m e r o f t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s o f Glasgow and S t . Andrews, perfecter of the Presbyterian defender of the Protestant  system i n S c o t l a n d , and  f a i t h during  r e i g n o f James V I .  96  the troubled  Thus was t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h set.  I t sf u l l  e x p o s i t i o n came w i t h t h e W e s t m i n s t e r  t h e c r e e d and s t a n d a r d  of both  Confession,  S c o t t i s h and American  P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m w h i c h was a d o p t e d b y t h e G e n e r a l  Assembly  of S c o t l a n d i n 1647.  The c o n f e s s i o n s t r e s s e s t h e " e l e c t "  nature  i n keeping  of the church,  with the C a l v i n i s t i c 20  e m p h a s i s on t h e c o m p l e t e p o w e r o f God. about church  Calvin's teachings  government and h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n  clergy deeply  f o r an  educated  influenced the character of the Presbyterian  Church i n Scotland.  The P r e s b y t e r i a n r e s p e c t f o r a n d  i n s i s t e n c e upon s c h o l a r s h i p d i r e c t l y Church's r e c o r d keeping.  affected the United  A r c h i v e s were d e s i g n a t e d  centres  of s c h o l a r s h i p , most a p p r o p r i a t e l y l o c a t e d i n u n i v e r s i t i e s . The  reasons  f o rkeeping  claims of h i s t o r y .  r e c o r d s w o u l d be t o a d v a n c e t h e  T h i s a t t i t u d e has s u r p r i s i n g l y  survived  r a t h e r s t r o n g l y t o t h e present day. Methodism had v e r y d i f f e r e n t b e g i n n i n g s ism.  Two b r o t h e r s , J o h n a n d C h a r l e s W e s l e y , a n d a  named G e o r g e W h i t e f i e l d b e g a n t h e " H o l y University. Methodists."  Club"  student  a t Oxford  The c l u b members w e r e l a t e r n i c k n a m e d " t h e Growing out of t h e s p i r i t  t h a t swept o v e r  England  of r a t i o n a l i s m t h e n  of  evangelism  i n reaction to the s t e r i l i t y  g r i p p i n g orthodox  Anglicans, the  c l u b aimed a t f i n d i n g an answer t o s p i r i t u a l The  from P r e s b y t e r i a n -  Wesleys and W h i t e f i e l d  travelled  97  lethargy.  t o America i n missionary  endeavour.  While  ineffectual  with the  benefited from England. crossing  A violent caused  of  him  this  throughout  diverged  from  that the  religion  may  found  has  characterized  and  their  that  practical jobless, United of  This  interesting  were t r y i n g  was  by  the Moravians, Although  Atlantic  was to  the  who  faith  remained  his faith  eventually  Wesley c o n t i n u e d  The  principal  search f o r a personally  i n the e v a n g e l i c a l With  either  themselves current  meaningful  fervour  their  which  itinerant  p l a c e s and  and  combined w i t h to the poor,  getting  i n "current f o r the  Dealing with present issues,  sake  however,  of  98  the  been as  i n causes. accused i f they  popularity.  i s part  the U n i t e d Church  to  performing  involved  fads,"  preachers people  i g n o r e d o r were u n a b l e  e v a n g e l i s m was  inheritance  He  impressed  members i n g e n e r a l have o f t e n  t o be  to  inadequate  i n t h e German s e c t .  the homeless,  Church  Methodist  was  good w o r k s , m i n i s t e r i n g and  j o u r n e y back  Methodists reached  other r e l i g i o n s  proselytize.  and  Methodism.  circuits,  John,  o f p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s i o n and m i s s i o n a r y  Wesley's  be  Wesley,  for his l i f e .  of the Moravians,  sense  disappointingly  occurred d u r i n g the  the voyage.  so d o m i n a n t  of John  the  his faith  fear,  were  the e l d e s t  that  companions,  fearless  legacy  storm  aware t h a t  his travelling  endeavour  settlers,  Wesley t o f e a r  from  to emphasize  efforts  h i s e x p e r i e n c e s on  made b i t t e r l y shield  the Wesleys'  of  received  the upon  its  formation.  B u t , e v a n g e l i s m , good w o r k s , and c a u s e s  t a k e up a l o t o f t i m e a n d e x t r a e n e r g y . there  i s generally  details  into  hence t h e i r  that  keeping.  Congregationalists  entered  means  l e s s time devoted t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i n c l u d i n g record  The  This  union with  w e r e n o t a l a r g e g r o u p when t h e y  t h e M e t h o d i s t s and t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s ,  i n f l u e n c e on t h e new c h u r c h , a l t h o u g h n o t  i n s i g n i f i c a n t , was n o t v e r y  great  d i s c e r n than that of the other  and even h a r d e r t o  two d e n o m i n a t i o n s .  E n g l a n d t h e y were a d i s s e n t i n g g r o u p .  In  While the Puritans,  l i k e Wesley, w i s h e d t o change t h e Church o f E n g l a n d the  i n s i d e and t h e r e f o r e  a small  opposed s e p a r a t i o n ,  group u n w i l l i n g t o w a i t  t o go i n t o o p e r a t i o n .  advocates of Congregational  f o r New T e s t a m e n t p r a c t i c e  that the only  true  principles, The  Congregationalists  c h u r c h was c o m p o s e d o f a  C h r i s t a s Head.  through a  They e l e c t e d  to Canada. strong  This  t o American s o i l ,  form of o r g a n i z a t i o n  of t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l  Church.  This  and e v e n t u a l l y  combined  e v a n g e l i s t i c tendencies represents  voluntary  officers  t o r u l e them t h r o u g h l a w s s e t o u t i n S c r i p t u r e . s y s t e m was t r a n s p l a n t e d  Harrison,  established the  l o c a l body o f b e l i e v e r s bonded t o g e t h e r covenant w i t h  or  R o b e r t Browne a n d R o b e r t  church i n Norwich i n 1581.  believed  was  These were t h e S e p a r a t i s t s ,  early Congregationalists.  first  there  from  with  the heritage  I n terms of government,  99  of course, the independency  of the " l o c a l  p r o m o t e d by t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s was  congregation  o f f s e t by  the  complex, d i s t r i b u t e d n a t u r e of the P r e s b y t e r i a n government and  the s t r o n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d Methodist p o l i t y .  structure tried  to find  three different  Today, t h e U n i t e d Church  attempts  balance, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t ,  l e v e l s of  link  between  it  i s why and  a l s o guided  historical  approach  guided i t s  and  of each  consistent differences The  natural  that  the  theological  denomination.  t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e n why  to record keeping.  what  keeping, being a  by t h a t t h e o l o g y , and  underpinnings  done s o , i t i s e a s y  in this  Record  i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine i n d e t a i l  significant  authority  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s c o n c e p t i o n of  meant t o be a c h u r c h .  a c t i v i t y , was  conference  conferences.  Each church f o r m u l a t e d a t h e o l o g y which every a c t i v i t y  careful  for archives, co-operation  the l a c k of a s t r o n g c e n t r a l  t h e r e i s a somewhat t e n u o u s  organization.  to maintain t h i s  with the congregations i s sustained at the but through  resultant  a b a l a n c e between systems of  government t h a t u t i l i z e d  level,  The  there  i n each  i n f l u e n c e s we  Having are  church's have  identified  c h a p t e r , h o w e v e r , u n d e r w e n t some m o d i f i c a t i o n  upon r e a c h i n g t h e P a c i f i c  c o a s t . Thus, i t i s n e c e s s a r y  to t r a c e these influences through church i n B r i t i s h Columbia  the h i s t o r i e s of  t o t h e p r e s e n t day.  100  We  each can  s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s o f s t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n which f a c i l i t a t e d  and encouraged  keeping i n the A n g l i c a n Church.  We  record  can note the e f f e c t s  o f c o n f l i c t a n d d i s r u p t i o n on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s , and t h e consequences o f t h e d i s s e n s i o n and  resulting  s e p a r a t i o n f o r any  w i t h i n that denomination.  regular record  Similarily,  keeping  we c a n f o l l o w  t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e t h r e e c h u r c h e s w h i c h e n t e r e d upon u n i o n t o c r e a t e t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h , and i s o l a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a f f e c t e d  record keeping  Thus we c a n a d v a n c e f r o m g e n e r a l p r o f i l e s and  concrete characterizations.  101  those practices.  t o more  specific  NOTES FOR CHAPTER I I I 1  Bob S t e w a r t , " R e s p o n s e t o t h e T h r e e P a p e r s o f t h e R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s Session," paper presented a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v i s t s / N o r t h - w e s t A r c h i v i s t s m e e t i n g , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , May 1 9 8 4 , p . 1.  2 C y r i l C h a r l e s R i c h a r d s o n , The C h u r c h T h r o u g h t h e C e n t u r i e s (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 2 1 . 3 Ibid. 4 Owen C h a d w i c k , C a t h o l i c i s m a n d H i s t o r y : The O p e n i n g of t h e V a t i c a n A r c h i v e s (Cambridge, England: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978). 5 Ibid. 6 W e b s t e r ' s New T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e E n g l i s h Language ( 1 9 5 0 ) , s.v. "monastery." 7  E. H a r r i s H a r b i s o n , The Age o f R e f o r m a t i o n N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) .  (Ithaca,  8 E. 0. J a m e s , A H i s t o r y o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n E n g l a n d H u t c h i n s o n ' s U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , [1948]), p. 110.  (London:  9 Arthur Pollard, & Co., 1966) .  Green  Richard  Hooker  (London: Longmans,  10 J o h n E. B o o t y , e d . , The Book o f Common P r a y e r 1 5 5 9 : The E l i z a b e t h a n P r a y e r Book ( C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f V i r g i n i a , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 251. 11 Stephen N e i l l , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 62.  Anglicanism  (Harmondsworth:  102  Penguin  Books,  NOTES c o n ' t  12 G e o r g e M a r s d e n , " F u n d a m e n t a l i s m a s a n A m e r i c a n Phenomenon, A Comparison w i t h E n g l i s h E v a n g e l i c a l i s m , " Church H i s t o r y 46 ( J u n e 1 9 7 7 ) : 2 1 9 . 13 Owen C h a d w i c k , The R e f o r m a t i o n ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : Books, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 189.  Penguin  14 Other P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s have been t o r n by s e p a r a t i o n s . The P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h i n S c o t l a n d i s a g o o d e x a m p l e , h a v i n g i n c l u d e d a t one t i m e P r e s b y t e r i a n s o f t h e n a t i o n a l church, Cameronians, Burghers, A n t i - B u r g h e r s , A u l d L i c h t s , New L i c h t s , L i f t e r s , A n t i - L i f t e r s , a n d s o o n . The P r e s b y t e r i a n s and t h e o t h e r P r o t e s t a n t groups have tended to u n i t e a f t e r a p e r i o d of s e p a r a t i o n , however, whereas t h e B a p t i s t s seem t o f o r m d i s t i n c t b o d i e s w h i c h r e m a i n separate. 15 Rev. 1 4 : 6 . 16 C. I . S c o f i e l d , R i g h t l y D i v i d i n g t h e W o r l d o f T r u t h (New Y o r k : L o i z e a u x B r o t h e r s , [ 1 8 9 6 ] ) . 17 These d a t e s r e f e r t o t h e o f f i c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l b o d i e s . Both denominations a c t u a l l y formed i n t h e e a r l y 1850s. 18 The S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n h a s a m e m b e r s h i p o f 1 3 , 1 9 1 , 3 9 4 a s o f 1 9 7 8 , s e c o n d o n l y t o t h e Roman C a t h o l i c Church. The N a t i o n a l B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , U.S.A., h a s l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e number o f S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s , a l t h o u g h t h e m e m b e r s h i p was l a s t r e p o r t e d i n 1 9 5 8 , w h i c h makes comparison d i f f i c u l t . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e h a s 42,499 members, t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e h a s 131,000 members,and t h e A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s i n t h e U.S.A. h a s 1,316,760 a s o f 1978 a n d t h e l a t t e r s f i g u r e s , 1 9 7 7 . C o n s t a n t H. J a c q u e t , J r . , e d . , Y e a r b o o k of A m e r i c a n a n d C a n a d i a n C h u r c h e s , 1980 ( N a s h v i l l e : Abingdon, 1980). 1  19 M a r k A. N o l l , e t a l . e d s . , Eerdmans.' Handbook t o C h r i s t i a n i t y i n A m e r i c a ( G r a n d R a p i d s : W i l l i a m B. E e r d m a n s ' P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 8 3 ) .  103  NOTES c o n ' t  20 P h i l i p S c h a f f , The C r e e d s o f C h r i s t e n d o m w i t h a H i s t o r y and C r i t i c a l N o t e s , 3 v o l s . (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1 9 1 9 ) , v o l . 3: The E v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t C r e e d s , w i t h Translations.  104  CHAPTER I V CHURCH RECORD KEEPING I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA: A RETROSPECTIVE As J o h n G r a n t h a s p o i n t e d o u t , " t h o s e who p l a n t e d the  Church  doctrinal  i n Canada b r o u g h t w i t h them t h e i r  inherited  s t a n d a r d s and forms o f c h u r c h government."  a l s o c a r r i e d w i t h them t h o s e p a r t i c u l a r  They  1  characteristics  we h a v e t h u s f a r i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d  the record  k e e p i n g a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s o f t h e i r p a r e n t a l  organizations.  J u s t a s t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n s w e r e m o d i f i e d t o t h e demands of  t h e i r new e n v i r o n m e n t  upon r e a c h i n g B r i t i s h  however, so t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were d e f i n e d by h i s t o r i c a l development  circumstance.  sharpened and  We t r a c e now t h e  o f e a c h c h u r c h a n d how t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n s  which evolved t r a n s l a t e d into  Columbia,  those inherent  characteristics  practice. The  A n g l i c a n Church  i n British  Columbia  e x i s t e n c e t o t h e i n t e r e s t s and e f f o r t s  owed i t s  of B r i t i s h  mercantile 2  and g o v e r n m e n t a l The  Governor  set  the train  officials  officials  and t h e Church o f E n g l a n d .  o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company, G e o r g e  of events i n motion with h i s l e t t e r t o  o f t h e company i n L o n d o n r e q u e s t i n g a m i s s i o n a r y  to  be s e n t o u t t o t h e f l e d g l i n g  of  England responded  Beaver.  Simpson,  territory.  by s e n d i n g t h e R e v e r e n d  B e a v e r t o o k o v e r d u t i e s a s company 105  The C h u r c h Herbert c h a p l a i n and  assumed c o n t r o l o f t h e l o c a l  school.  H i s p o s i t i o n was  very  much t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e company, h o w e v e r , a n d when he w o r e o u t t h e g o o d - w i l l o f company o f f i c i a l s , home, a n d t h e A n g l i c a n e f f o r t was a l l o w e d  he was  sent  to languish f o r  3 ten  years. Despite t h i s  officials  inauspicious beginning,  were c o g n i z a n t  British  of the important  Colonial  r o l e the Church  c o u l d p l a y i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e New W o r l d a n d i n t h e encouragement of B r i t i s h Colony  claims.  T h u s , when t h e Crown  o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was s e t up i n 1 8 4 9 , G o v e r n o r  James D o u g l a s made i t c l e a r t h a t he l o o k e d the m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s  of the Church of England.  by a p r i v a t e endowment a n d t h e d o n a t i o n s societies,  Bishop  George H i l l s  arrived  in British  to  that at this  note  capitalized  f a v o u r a b l y upon  of s e v e r a l missionary  of the Church of  Columbia i n 1859.  Backed  England  I t i s interesting  p o i n t , when B i s h o p  Hills  could  have  o n t h e f a v o u r o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , he i n s t e a d  "was c a r e f u l t o e m p h a s i z e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e C h u r c h i n t h e c o l o n y was q u i t e s e p a r a t e sense ' e s t a b l i s h e d ' . " In  f r o m t h e S t a t e a n d was i n no  4  a v o i d i n g t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n becoming  a s t a t e - s u p p o r t e d body, however, H i l l s  realized  would have t o see about t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  t h a t he  o f some  diocesan  o r g a n i z a t i o n t o make up f o r t h e l o s s o f g o v e r n m e n t money t h a t would supplement funds  garnered  106  from m i s s i o n a r y  societies  in  E n g l a n d , pew  rents,  church c o l l e c t i o n s ,  and v a r i o u s m i s c e l l a n e o u s s o u r c e s . Hills to  meet t h e n e e d s o f t h i s new  rejected  was  suited  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f a v o u r of the American  d i o c e s e would of  a  meeting  in  1861,  a d d r e s s e d t h e t o p i c o f p a r o c h i a l and d i o c e s a n  a system p r a c t i c a l l y  in  A t  school fees  at this  Choosing  to the circumstances, H i l l s system  system  of the E n g l i s h d i o c e s e  of a s e l e c t v e s t r y .  operate through the e f f o r t s  b i s h o p s , c l e r g y , and formed  A n g l i c a n cause.  organization  lay delegates.  o f an  The  assembly  A Church  Society  t i m e as w e l l t o h e l p a d d r e s s any  funding  shortfalls. As  soon as t h e s e b o d i e s were i n p l a c e , B i s h o p  turned h i s a t t e n t i o n t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the area i n h i s care. land defied  He  realized  the c a p a b i l i t i e s  a separate c i v i l  B r i t i s h Columbia A disagreement  of a s i n g l e  b r i n g a new  i n 1858,  Hills  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  evangelical,  of  Hills  William  to revise his plan  suggestion for a further d i v i s i o n  D i o c e s e o f New  to  s u g g e s t e d an a p p r o p r i a t e d i v i s i o n .  with a recalcitrant  diocese into three parts: the  individual  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e Crown C o l o n y  Duncan o f F o r t S i m p s o n , c a u s e d and  entire  t h e s h e e r v a s t n e s s of  provide proper episcopal oversight. of  Hills  the Diocese of B r i t i s h  Westminster,  and  took the next step towards  the  Columbia,  the Diocese of C a l e d o n i a . full  organization  by s e t t i n g up a D i o c e s a n S y n o d when f i n a n c i a l  107  of  support  from  England  b e g a n t o be s l o w l y w i t h d r a w n .  see t o c a n v a s s i n g f o r needed funds it  gathered.  and  a n d m a n a g i n g t h e money  I n 1873 a p r o v i s i o n a l e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e  was s e t u p , t h e f i r s t years l a t e r ,  The S y n o d w o u l d  s e s s i o n o f t h e Synod f o l l o w e d two  a n d t h e S y n o d was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1 8 8 9 .  d i o c e s a n s y n o d s c o n t i n u e d t o be s e t up i n t h e i n t e r v e n i n g  y e a r s as n e c e s s i t y d i c t a t e d .  The f o u r d i o c e s e s  existing  in  1915 came t o g e t h e r t o f o r m t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l  of  British  Province  Columbia.  On t h e n a t i o n a l to  Dioceses  level,  a General  S y n o d met i n 1893  p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a much n e e d e d  east-west  d i a l o g u e between A n g l i c a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a c r o s s Canada, and  f o r a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  approach  on  issues touching the entire  to policy formulation  church.  I t also  d i s c u s s i o n t o t a k e p l a c e on how t o f i l l  allowed  t h e gaps l e f t  the steady withdrawal of the m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t i e s , in  t h e past t h e eastern churches  of  Manitoban  mission  m i s s i o n s was s u f f i c i e n t  that  charge  since  support  on t h e i r  home  funds.^  Having  refined  A n g l i c a n Church  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  a t both t h e r e g i o n a l and t h e n a t i o n a l  t h e b i s h o p s were a t l i b e r t y their  had f e l t  by  next concern, t h e i r  t o devote  their  levels,  energies t o  o u t r e a c h programmes.  A l l such  e n d e a v o u r s demanded t h e f o r m a t i o n o f some s o r t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery.  T h i s u s u a l l y took t h e form  108  of a committee  which  would take  i t s place within the i n t r i c a t e matrix  administration.  F o r e x a m p l e , one o f t h e main  of t h e A n g l i c a n financial  C h u r c h was e d u c a t i o n .  of diocesan  concerns  Probably  due t o  s t r i n g e n c y , i t had n o t opposed t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f common s c h o o l s , b u t i t c o m p l e m e n t e d c i v i l  e f f o r t s on  t h e one hand a n d s u p p l e m e n t e d them on t h e o t h e r . C o l l e g e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n V i c t o r i a secondary s c h o o l i n g . of a p r o v i n c i a l to  lapse.  1910  aided  the establishment  Finally,  Bishop Latimer  C o l l e g e was o p e n e d i n  as t h e Church's r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l  lines,  a rival  formed.  rival and  i n 1866 t o p r o v i d e  u n i v e r s i t y when f u n d s c a u s e d t h e c o l l e g e  When t h e C o l l e g e  was  Bishop H i l l s  Angela  institution.  p r o v e d t o be r u n o n l o w - c h u r c h , e v a n g e l i c a l  high-church  At this  institution,  time t h e bishops  S t . Mark's  realized  i n s t i t u t i o n s were h u r t i n g each o t h e r  College,  that the  more t h a n  helping,  s o s e t up a B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s t o o v e r s e e a new c o l l e g e ,  the A n g l i c a n  Theological College, while  t h e two s m a l l e r  i n s t i t u t i o n s w o u l d be g o v e r n e d b y a n i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n c i l . Thus was A n g l i c a n b u r e a u c r a c y a u g m e n t e d i n a p r a c t i c a l manner w h i c h s a t i s f i e d interest  i n education  a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d , and t h e A n g l i c a n was met i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y  Another example o f A n g l i c a n increased  manner.  evangelical effort  that  t h e c h u r c h ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n was i t s m i n i s t r y t o  Chinese and Japanese i m m i g r a n t s .  By 1915 t h e m i s s i o n a r y  w o r k was d e m a n d i n g e n o u g h t o w a r r a n t t h e f o r m a t i o n  109  of a  composite O r i e n t a l M i s s i o n s Committee.  The c o m m i t t e e h a d  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h e Synod and f r o m t h e D i o c e s a n o f t h e Women's A u x i l i a r y .  T h i s committee  was  Board  supplemented  when t h e w o r k became t o o w i d e - s p r e a d f o r i t t o h a n d l e and a n e x t r a - d i o c e s a n a g e n c y  known a s t h e P r o v i n c i a l  o f M i s s i o n s t o O r i e n t a l s was c r e a t e d In each o f these cases p r a c t i c a l the b i s h o p s and t h e synods  Board  i n 1919. considerations  t o implement  or board t o handle t h e work-load.  efficiently,  another  The d i s p e r s e d  caused  committee nature  of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n which r e s u l t e d ensured t h a t t h e admini s t r a t i o n w o u l d n o t become u n b a l a n c e d b y a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of power a n d f i n a n c e s . inherited  Thus t h e c h u r c h i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  i t s b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n from i t s p a r e n t church,  but i t s p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e , a l s o i n h e r i t e d  from t h e Church  of England, ensured t h a t any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e were n e c e s s a r y were e x e c u t e d .  changes  that  The c o h e s i o n a n d s t a b i l i t y  of t h e Church o f E n g l a n d gave t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h t h e a b i l i t y t o overcome d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o l o g i c a l o u t l o o k , as i n t h e case o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , w i t h o u t damaging the f a b r i c of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  A n g l i c a n Church  i n Canada r e c o g n i z e d i t s s p e c i a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d i n t h e Book o f Common P r a y e r : "We d e c l a r e t h i s  Church t o be, and d e s i r e  that i t shall  communion w i t h t h e C h u r c h  continue., i n f u l l  of E n g l a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . "  110  Bound up w i t h  this  n o t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s a l c h u r c h was a r e s p e c t f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n s h a n d e d down b y t h e C h u r c h  of England:  We a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e h e l p o f God t o h o l d a n d m a i n t a i n t h e D o c t r i n e , Sacraments, and D i s c i p l i n e o f C h r i s t a s t h e L o r d h a t h commanded i n h i s H o l y Word, a n d a s t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d h a t h r e c e i v e d and s e t f o r t h t h e same i n 'The Book o f Common P r a y e r ' ...; a n d i n t h e T h i r t y - n i n e A r t i c l e s o f R e l i g i o n ; and  t o t r a n s m i t t h e same u n i m p a i r e d t o o u r p o s t e r i t y .  F u r t h e r , t h e Book s t a t e d t h a t w h o s o e v e r may b r e a k and  ?  ceremonies  o f t h e c h u r c h s h o u l d be o p e n l y r e b u k e d , f o r t h e s e  t r a d i t i o n s and c e r e m o n i e s church.  the traditions  constitute  T h u s , n o t o n l y was a s e n s e  t h e "common o r d e r " o f t h e of continuity  retained, but  w i t h i t an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e church and f o r the importance  of i m p a r t i n g that h i s t o r y t o t h e next  g e n e r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o keep t h e u n i f o r m i t y o f w o r s h i p l i s h e d by t h e Church While t r a d i t i o n Columbia,  of England. guided t h e A n g l i c a n Church  i n British  t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y of t h e A n g l i c a n Church  t o new c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s  estab-  organization  by t h e D i o c e s e o f  adoption of t h e Netten Report.  Prepared  by P r i c e W a t e r h o u s e a n d Company i n 1 9 6 7 , t h e r e p o r t s t r e s s e d g  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a "modern b u s i n e s s l i k e  corporate  T h i s same a d a p t a b i l i t y a f f e c t e d w o r s h i p .  The p r e f a c e t o  the Canadian  system."  r e v i s i o n o f 1918 o f t h e Book o f Common P r a y e r  stated: B u t t h r o u g h t h e l a p s e o f some t h r e e h u n d r e d y e a r s many c h a n g e s h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e l i f e o f t h e C h u r c h and i n i t s o u t l o o k upon t h e w o r l d . In the  111  j u d g e m e n t o f t h e G e n e r a l S y n o d o f 1911 t h e s e c h a n g e s w a r r a n t e d a d a p t a t i o n and e n r i c h m e n t o f t h e Book i n o r d e r t h a t i t m i g h t meet more f u l l y t h e n e e d s o f t h e Church i n t h i s land.9 Any  a l t e r a t i o n s w h i c h d i d t a k e p l a c e were t o keep t h e  o f t h e E n g l i s h Book o f Common P r a y e r a n d  be  i n accord with  c e r t a i n r e s o l u t i o n s of t h e Lambeth C o n f e r e n c e . w i t h regards t o church law, the p r a c t i c a l i t y has  l e d one  diocesan a r c h i v i s t  successful practice. ^  The  of the  church codify  of the church  t h e same, b u t t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h a t s p i r i t t i m e and  Finally  t o note t h a t canons  Thus t h e s p i r i t  1  spirit  adapts  to  stays the  circumstances. one  d e p a r t u r e from B r i t i s h  o f c h u r c h and  s t a t e , may  custom, the s e p a r a t i o n  be a t t r i b u t e d  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the A n g l i c a n Church  to Bishop  in British  Hills' Columbia  would  have d i f f i c u l t y  i n m a i n t a i n i n g such a p o s i t i o n i n  light  of the Church's  failure  North America, the Church  this  l i n k s w i t h the s t a t e ,  r o l e of the Church  i n a new  c a s e , a s i n many o t h e r s , p r a c t i c a l  a g r e a t d e a l w i t h Church All its  so e l s e w h e r e  h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n of adverse  establish  of the a l t e r e d  t o do  criticism and  In  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s counted  administrators.  record keeping p r a c t i c e s .  The  concern  affected  for tradition  s u p p o r t e d t h e h i s t o r y and  of t h e c h u r c h were i m p o r t a n t . the church t o adopt  should  his appreciation  society.  of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the church  meant t h a t r e c o r d s w h i c h  in British  efficient  112  The forms  practicality  traditions  that allowed  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  meant  t h a t as s e c u l a r l i f e and  became more c o m p l i c a t e d  a s demands on t h e c h u r c h  church needed.  c o u l d meet t h e s e Increased  and  increased complexity, the  challenges with the  bureaucracy  bureaucracy  a f f e c t e d the output  and  i n c r e a s e d t h e A n g l i c a n s ' awareness of keeping  for  some o t h e r r e a s o n  The  e p i s c o p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n gave t h e c h u r c h  than  intricate,  simply f o r history's  of records records  sake.  the advantage  o f s m a l l e r , more m a n a g e a b l e u n i t s u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e a strong figure. took  Once t h e i d e a o f a r c h i v a l  responsibility  h o l d , t h e r e was someone t o p r o m o t e i n v o l v e m e n t  the e n t i r e diocese.  The p r a c t i c e o f c o d i f y i n g  i n c h a r g e o f a r c h i v e s w e r e more  t o a c c e p t i n g t h e good a d v i c e o f e x p e r i e n c e d The  lack of d i v i s i v e n e s s i n the church  focus outwardly inward  the B a p t i s t Church. gave t h e c h u r c h its  archivists.  turning  i s s u e s , as d i d  t h e freedom t o c o n c e n t r a t e  was p a r t o f t h i s move. the Anglicans  secular  meant t h a t i t c o u l d  I t s inherent s t a b i l i t y  o r g a n i z a t i o n and moving f o r w a r d ;  persons  responsive  on c h a n g e s i n s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n  a n d c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e o l o g i c a l  of  actions  w h i c h h a d a l r e a d y b e e n w e l l e x e r c i s e d meant t h a t designated  of  ultimately on  archival  refining management  I n terms of e s c h a t o l o g y ,  while  b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e e n d w o u l d come, a n d t h a t  t h e r e w o u l d be a t i m e  o f judgement  ("from w h e n c e he  come t o j u d g e t h e q u i c k a n d t h e d e a d " ) ,  t h e r e was a s e n s e  of t i m e l e s s n e s s i n t h e A n g l i c a n t h e o l o g y b e s t  113  shall  reflected  i n the "As  final  i t was  world  sentence of the  i n the  beginning,  w i t h o u t end."''"  tomorrow's p a s t ,  the a  records  legacy  of  i s now,  Their  1  stemmed f r o m a p r a c t i c a l is  Creed of  and  beliefs  t h u s any  men  t o t h a t of the  action taken to  protect  the  the  Church.  Columbia are  a d v e r s i t y and  s t o r i e s of  and  of the  the  the  the  t h a t the  in British  majority  of the  t a l e s of  hardship  by  conflict.  In  d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n  sharp historiography great  life  of n a t i v e s concerned  Tracterian  and  with  weather  movements Methodists  B a p t i s t s time  some w a y s , one  been the  case.  might  that characterizes  and to  expect  the  particular attention to " t r u t h would out,"  Rather d o c t r i n a l c o n f l i c t  114  in  conflict.  Presbyterians,  keeping to ensure that the  s u c h has n o t  of  Columbia would  would u n i t e , the  w o u l d a l s o c a u s e them t o pay record  a  would e n j o y s e v e r a l decades of peace o n l y  torn apart  that  the  While the  conversions  E v a n g e l i c a l and  Congregationalists  time again be  Anglicans  tensions  intact, and  t o c a r r y on  o v e r w h e l m i n g theme: i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l  So w h i l e  future present  i m m i g r a n t s , B a p t i s t h i s t o r y seems t o be one  the  Columbia provides  Anglican  work i n B r i t i s h  land, or  on  be,  church.  overcoming the  a new  ever s h a l l  customs today would ensure  Baptist history in British  of A n g l i c a n  Athanasius:  that today's  remained f o r f u t u r e A n g l i c a n s  t r a d i t i o n s of the  contrast  and  perspective  confidence  and  Saint  Baptists their but had  the an  effect  of p a r a l y z i n g  efforts  t o develop  a c c e p t a b l e form of church o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  into  new s e c t s  and  robbed t h e churches of f i n a n c i a l  In t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by understandably l i t t l e A brief will and  a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n  review of the h i s t o r i e s  how e a c h was a f f e c t e d  The  separation,  t o records.  of the f i v e  by t h e i r  Baptist  B a p t i s t s began t h e i r  Protestant  began w i t h  settlers  black/white  Church i n V i c t o r i a  for their  denomination, of theology,  t o capture the majority cause.  i n 1876. A f t e r  and  F i r s t Baptist disbanded.  there,  i n B r i t i s h Columbia as  r a c i a l tensions  pastoral d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  in t h i s period  life  looking  and  rested  inheritance  i nVictoria,  Their at First  several  the black  first  conflict  Baptist  years of f i n a n c i a l  membership withdrew  These t e n s i o n s  w e r e common  however, and had t h e m a t t e r  t h e n t h e c o n f l i c t would n o t have been i n  any  way u n u s u a l .  the  r e m a i n i n g m e m b e r s h i p i m m e d i a t e l y s e t up C a l v a r y  When F i r s t B a p t i s t d i s b a n d e d i n 1 8 8 3 ,  C h u r c h u n d e r t h e R e v e r e n d F. T. T a p s c o t t . of o p i n i o n  churches  and o r g a n i z a t i o n .  s i n g l e band o f p i o n e e r s  of  stability.  r e v e a l t h e d i f f e r i n g developments of each  attitude,  a  separation  within the Calvary  Differences  Baptist congregation  i n t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f s i x t y members who e s t a b l i s h e d B a p t i s t Church.  Calvary  itself  Baptist  culminated Central  withdrew from t h e l a r g e r  body, t h e B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a C o n v e n t i o n , w h i c h had been  organized  individual  to unite  churches.  115  Calvary  remained  isolated it  until  1908  when R e v e r e n d T a p s c o t t  r e j o i n e d the Convention  Church t o c r e a t e F i r s t C a l v a r y who  agreed  then  after uniting with Central Baptist  B a p t i s t Church.  T h o s e members o f  w i t h Reverend Tapscott withdrew t o  the B a p t i s t Tabernacle decided  resigned;  to disband  Church.  By  i n favour of  a t the a d v i c e of the M i s s i o n  1920,  Baptist  joining First  form  Tabernacle  B a p t i s t Church  Board.  T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , many f a c t o r s a t w o r k h e r e , the  l e a s t being the f i n a n c i a l  small congregations.  difficulties  Successive  which b e d e v i l l e d  relocations,  congregation,  i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s would  stability  example of F i r s t at the  local  level.  Similar  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l and  isolated  British  S t a t e s as e a r l y as  1869,  d i d not  1885.  come u n t i l  at this  beyond.  c r u c i a l time.  Not  Whereas a  and  United Canada  Baptists i n Ontario  just to i n c l u d e Manitoba so c o u l d n o t p r o f e r  surprisingly  a t i n g f o r a number o f y e a r s w i t h t h e i r  116  almost  link with Eastern  best  in t h e i r missionary outreach,  The  conflict  C o l u m b i a were  As w e l l ,  Quebec w e r e d o i n g t h e i r  hardly  Columbia w i t h the  a rail  differing  manifested  from the r e s t of Canada.  railway service linked  and  c o n f l i c t s were  turnover  doubt  f o r record keeping.  early Baptists in British  completely  no  B a p t i s t i s o n l y an e x a m p l e o f  at the p r o v i n c i a l The  necessary  and  a high  of p a s t o r s , a f l u c t u a t i n g  a l l o w the  not  then, a f t e r southern  help  co-oper-  neighbours,  the B a p t i s t s of B r i t i s h Convention,  Columbia j o i n e d t h e Northwest B a p t i s t  a n d w o r k e d w i t h t h e Home M i s s i o n  the American B a p t i s t Churches. c o u l d no l o n g e r  When t h e A m e r i c a n a s s o c i a t i o n  keep pace w i t h t h e r a p i d e x t e n s i o n  i n t h e P a c i f i c northwest, and  Society of  occurring  i t r e l u c t a n t l y withdrew i t s  the Baptists i nBritish  C o l u m b i a w e r e o n c e more  left  t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s .  Still,  brethren  S t a t e s had a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on  their  i n the United  their  support,  relationship with  their  o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r , when t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f B a p t i s t  Churches of B r i t i s h "carried  C o l u m b i a was f o r m e d i n 1 8 9 7 , t h e B a p t i s t s  over i n t o t h e i r  own new b o d y t h e i n t e r e s t s a n d 12  patterns  of o r g a n i z a t i o n taken  from t h e i r American  sponsors."  I n t h e i r new o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e m e m b e r s h i p was t o be broad, i n c l u d i n g delegates  from each church,  f r o m t h e women's g r o u p , t h e S u n d a y s c h o o l young p e o p l e ' s s o c i e t y . by its  an e x e c u t i v e business  and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  group, and t h e  The C o n v e n t i o n w o u l d be  o f f o u r and a m i s s i o n  between a n n u a l m e e t i n g s .  board t o c a r r y out Altogether, the  C o n v e n t i o n w o u l d h a v e a Home M i s s i o n , a F o r e i g n Education, standing  Mission,  P u b l i c a t i o n s a n d Women's M i s s i o n B o a r d s , a n d  c o m m i t t e e s on P r o g r a m s , S u n d a y S c h o o l ,  Temperance, and R e s o l u t i o n s . tration,  governed  Despite  this  Literature,  extensive  adminis-  t h e C o n v e n t i o n c o u l d n o t k e e p up t o t h e demands  o f i t s e x p a n s i o n i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1905 t o 1 9 1 3 , a n d s o was f o r c e d t o a c c e p t  a combined s u p e r i n t e n d e n c y 117  with the  B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n o f M a n i t o b a and t h e N o r t h w e s t . prove  " t o be  [its]  first  s t e p toward becoming a  T h i s would  participating  13 u n i t of the B a p t i s t Union of Western Columbia  Convention would  While the f i r s t  o n l y become s o w i t h  tenuous  other western B a p t i s t s ,  Canada."  The  British  reluctance.  t i e s b e g a n t o be f o r g e d w i t h  a c e r t a i n n o t i c e a b l e tendency  o r g a n i z a t i o n b e g a n t o emerge i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n w h i c h eventually spell the  trouble  i n t h e y e a r s ahead.  c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n was  of would  Although  d r a w n up t o  ensure  p r o p e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l c o n s t i t u e n t members, more and more o f t h e p o w e r b e g a n t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e and V i c t o r i a It  was  areas with t h e i r  t h e i r p e o p l e who  that allocated  l a r g e , more p r o s p e r o u s c h u r c h e s .  manned t h e b o a r d s a n d  f u n d s and d e c i d e d p o l i c y .  u n s t a b l e and d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e f i n a n c i a l by t h e C o n v e n t i o n , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  s p a r e c h u r c h f u n d s and members t o s e n d  to  meetings, the small i n t e r i o r  in  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e i r  support given  of  the B r i t i s h Meanwhile,  Columbia  c h u r c h e s had organization.  Convention of Western  unable  little The  voice careful  characteristic  u p s e t by t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e  environment.  c o n t i n u i n g problems  m i s s i o n s caused B r i t i s h  and  representatives  b a l a n c e o f c o n n e c t i o n a l C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s m so B a p t i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s was  committees  Economically  isolated,  to  of  Vancouver  Columbia  w i t h the s u p e r i n t e n d e n c y of  Baptists to j o i n the  C a n a d a i n 1907. 118  Baptist  They were i m m e d i a t e l y  asked  to restructure their association similar  one.  The B r i t i s h  Columbia o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s i s t e d .  s i t u a t i o n manifested  at the l o c a l  church  level  was now r e p l i c a t e d a t t h e i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l B a p t i s t s of the B r i t i s h  Columbia Convention  t r a v e l l i n g t o Manitoba f o r annual  considered  The B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n  Columbia Convention  their of Western  however, and so  continued  to reorganize  t o f i t i n t o w h a t became t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f W e s t e r n After  j o i n i n g the B a p t i s t Union,  Convention  went t h r o u g h  that  m e e t i n g s was t o o e x p e n s i v e ,  Canada d i d a l l o w them a few c o n c e s s i o n s , the B r i t i s h  The  f e l t geographically  f e a r e d t h a t they would soon l o s e c o n t r o l over  home m i s s i o n s programme.  The  i n the province  level.  cut o f f from t h e r e s t of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  and  t o the Manitoban  the B r i t i s h  a metamorphosis, emerging  Canada.  Columbia from  t h e c h r y s a l i s much a l t e r e d .  The C o n v e n t i o n  became more  liberal,  and began t o s p r e a d  the teachings  of the s o c i a l  gospel.  This caused the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s i n the  some a l a r m .  Matters  Convention  came t o a h e a d when a p r o f e s s o r a t  B r a n d o n C o l l e g e , w h e n c e came many o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n ' s began t o t e a c h  liberal  theology.  Although  was e x o n e r a t e d  of the charge of t e a c h i n g l i b e r a l  fundamentalist  Baptists i n British  pastors,  the professor theology,  C o l u m b i a f o r t h e most  p a r t were n e v e r s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e outcome.  From 1920  t o 1 9 2 7 , when t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t a n d l i b e r a l  Baptists i n  British  Columbia p a r t e d ways, t h e r e were c o n s t a n t  119  tensions.  The f i n a l  separation of B r i t i s h  r e s o l u t i o n of p o l a r i z e d  Columbia  B a p t i s t s was t h e  i d e a l s and p a r a l l e l e d  similar  Canadian  14 and  American  developments.  The n e x t y e a r s w e r e s p e n t r e b u i l d i n g t h e C o n v e n t i o n . R e g i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were formed i n an e f f o r t t o s a t i s f y the s m a l l churches Columbia.  of the i n t e r i o r  In the f i f t i e s  and n o r t h e r n  and s i x t i e s ,  British  as o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r c h u r c h e x t e n s i o n l e s s e n e d , a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e development of B a p t i s t i n s t i t u t i o n s : the u n i v e r s i t y  had w i t h t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n  to s u i t  constitutional  requirements.  but i t remains  finally  s t r u c t u r e was r e o r g a n i z e d  The C o n v e n t i o n  f o r p r o p e r t y and i n v e s t m e n t s , and  T o d a y t h e B.C.  housing.  Convention  o f W e s t e r n C a n a d a was  became a p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  B a p t i s t Union.  with  Columbia  i n 1968 when t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n ' s  a h o l d i n g company Columbia  Hall,  s t u d e n t c e n t r e , and s e n i o r c i t i z e n s  The u n e a s y r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e B r i t i s h  resolved  camps, C a r e y  became British  area of the  a r e a has r e b u i l t  an u r b a n - o r i e n t e d d e n o m i n a t i o n  i t s membership, concerned  evangelism. Perhaps  t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r  ment o f t h e U n i o n  B a p t i s t s of B r i t i s h  lack of u n i f y i n g t r a d i t i o n .  Columbia  was  their  T h i s meant t h a t t h e y w e r e  v u l n e r a b l e t o v a r i o u s f o r c e s of d i s r u p t i o n . they i n h e r i t e d  i n the develop-  For example,  a loose connectional Congregationalism,  b u t no p a t t e r n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n 120  that structure. create broad  They t r i e d ,  b e f o r e t h e 1927 s p l i t , t o  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n , b u t geo-  g r a p h i c a l and f i s c a l  determinants i n t e r f e r e d ,  leaving the  o r g a n i z a t i o n h o p e l e s s l y overbalanced i n f a v o u r of t h e urban and  lower mainland  churches.  t o combat t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  The C o n v e n t i o n  h a d no s t r e n g t h  of separation during the fund-  a m e n t a l i s t / m o d e r n i s t c o n t r o v e r s y , b u t was c a u g h t the t i d e  t h a t swept Canada and A m e r i c a  in British  Columbia  of t h a t b e l i e f  inherited  The B a p t i s t s  an e s c h a t o l o g y , b u t t h e d e t a i l s  had never been d e t e r m i n e d  Liberal-minded Baptists believed which  alike.  up i n  and agreed  upon.  i n a post-millenial  eschatology  " r e a d i l y embraced t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f s o c i a l  m i s s i o n a r y endeavour, and t h e p r o s p e c t o f s o c i a l  reform,  evolution 15  toward  a more e n l i g h t e n e d , m o r a l  and j u s t  T h i s f o l l o w e d t h i n k i n g t h a t came f r o m of t h o u g h t the Union  such l i b e r a l  as t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, B a p t i s t s were c o n c e r n e d  temperance, and c l e a n government.  society."  Illinois.  w i t h female  these concerns. and  With  The Columbia  Baptists,  d i d not share  such profound d i f f e r e n c e s  no u n i f y i n g t r a d i t i o n s ,  Thus  suffrage,  Fundamentalist  b e i n g f o r t h e most p a r t p r e - m i l l e n i a l i s t s ,  schools  t h e f a c t i o n a l i s m was  i n belief, inevitable.  f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s who s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e B r i t i s h Convention  had a d i f f e r e n t v i s i o n o f t h e c h u r c h  than t h a t of t h e Union  Baptists.  They b e l i e v e d  that the  c h u r c h s h o u l d be a p l a c e f o r r e g e n e r a t e members who h a d 121  been b a p t i z e d  a s a d u l t s by i m m e r s i o n , and b e l i e v e d  the  c h u r c h and s t a t e should  remain separate.  the  doctrine of the priesthood  when i t came t o t h e b e l i e f  t h a t a l l may b e l i e v e a s t h e i r  of l i b e r t y  of  consciences d i r e c t ,  t h e encroachment o f " l i b e r a l i s m . "  c h u r c h e s o f t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n were r e q u i r e d Scriptures.  t o confess t h e i r This  belief  churchly  felt  belief  first  over f i n a n c e s ,  i n t h e t r u t h of t h e inerrancy  and p r e -  which denied the s o c i a l  specifically  religious  by an a t t a c k education  t o appease f u n d a m e n t a l i s t  that  by t h e  fundamentalists  fundamentalists The C o n v e n t i o n  members, a n d s o t h e R e l i g i o u s  c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n mandate.  Further,  severed i t s t i e s with the interdenominational Education Council  began  t h e c o n t r o l of monies f o r causes.  E d u c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e became t h e C h r i s t i a n E d u c a t i o n with  aspects  between  s i g n s o f d i s s e n s i o n among t h e B a p t i s t s  t h o u g h t t h e C o n v e n t i o n was s u p p o r t i n g . tried  the s p l i t  groups.  T h i s was q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d the l i b e r a l  doctrines  T h u s member  endeavour, were t h e b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s  two B a p t i s t The  on  and t h e  they  formed a f t e r  i n Scriptural  millenial dispensationalism,  the  conscience,  i t was t h e d u t y o f t h e c h u r c h t o u p h o l d c e r t a i n  against  of  upheld  congregation,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c B a p t i s t abhorrence of creeds, that  They  o f a l l b e l i e v e r s , and so  maintained t h e independence of t h e l o c a l but  that  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  122  Committee,  the Convention  Religious  These changes  could  h a r d l y stem t h e t i d e .  I n 1925,  M i s s i o n a r y C o u n c i l was f o r m e d .  the British  Columbia  I t maintained  that the  Confession of F a i t h of t h e B a p t i s t B i b l e Union s h o u l d be s u b s c r i b e d t o b y a l l B a p t i s t s .  Baptist.  of  American  Soon t h e M i s s i o n a r y  C o u n c i l h a d two a u x i l i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d  with  women a n d y o u n g p e o p l e , a n d b e g a n t o p u b l i s h i t s own n e w s p a p e r . All  t h e g r o u n d w o r k h a d b e e n d o n e ; t h e b a s i s f o r a. new o r g a n -  z a t i o n now e x i s t e d . in July  1927,  of a statement  At t h e annual meeting  t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s proposed  of the Convention the addition  o f f a i t h t o t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n .  When  t h e i r p r o p o s a l was d e f e a t e d , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g one  third  The  M i s s i o n a r y C o u n c i l was i n c o r p o r a t e d a s t h e " C o n v e n t i o n  of Regular  o f t h e membership, walked  Baptists of B r i t i s h  out of t h e meeting.  Columbia,"  a n d a new B a p t i s t  o r g a n i z a t i o n was b o r n . After the s p l i t ,  t h e new R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s w o r k e d t o  i n c r e a s e t h e i r membership.  I n 1945,  w i t h the support of  the A l b e r t a F e l l o w s h i p , t h e y opened t h e Northwest College.  T h i s became t h e N o r t h w e s t  Bible  Baptist Theological  C o l l e g e i n 1959 a f t e r  i t was g r a n t e d t h e p o w e r t o a w a r d  t h e o l o g i c a l degrees.  T i e s between R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s i n  British  Columbia  and A l b e r t a tended  t o be s l i g h t ,  mainly  because t h e A l b e r t a n membership f a v o u r e d a d e n o m i n a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e whereas t h e B r i t i s h  Columbia  Regulars  favoured  the independence of t h e l o c a l  church.  By 1964,  however,  123  the B r i t i s h  Columbia  Regular B a p t i s t s  Trans-Canada F e l l o w s h i p only in  their  senior  The  Baptists  national Churches  L i k e the Union  the Regular B a p t i s t s  c i t i z e n s housing  Regular  repudiation  with  the  Baptists  split  from the mainstream  o f t h e l i b e r a l i s m t h e y had  Southern  B a p t i s t s because t h e y were d i s s a t i s f i e d  the Southern  Baptist  of Regular  organization  Baptists  come t o  associate  of Western  B a p t i s t Churches s p l i t  a t i o n of the Convention  from  with  the  the  B a p t i s t s and could  Canada. Regular  organizsaw  that  o f f e r them  something  c l o s e r t o t h e i r i d e a l of the church.  The  Southern  i s unremarkable  for  two  Baptists things:  and  developments.  the p r a c t i c e s of the B a p t i s t Union first  Baptists,  strengthened  i n s t i t u t i o n s by e s t a b l i s h i n g t h r e e b i b l e camps  The in  of E v a n g e l i c a l  three years a f t e r i t s formation.  times of slow growth  two  joined  in British  Columbia  the prominent  h i s t o r y of  the except  role i n d i v i d u a l s played i n  e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c h u r c h , and  the unusual  r e l a t i o n s h i p the  churches  shared w i t h  Southern  in  the United Two  Jim  in British  Columbia  States.  Regular Baptist m i n i s t e r s ,  Yoder,  first  discovered Regular  Ross MacPherson  the Southern  through  literature.  invited  a spokesman f o r t h e S o u t h e r n  International Fellowship ference held after,  Baptists  i n 1951  Baptists  Baptist  in British  and  faith Columbia  Baptists to t h e i r  of B i b l e B e l i e v i n g B a p t i s t s  at the Northwest  Bible College.  the Regular B a p t i s t s Executive C o u n c i l  124  ConSoon  appointed  a committee t o a t t e n d Portland,  t h e Southern B a p t i s t Assembly i n  Oregon " t o s u r v e y t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t  t o s e e i f i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e baptists] to a f f i l i a t e with Jim  program  and p r a c t i c a b l e f o r [ l o c a l  them""-6  Y o d e r made up t h i s d e l e g a t i o n .  Ross MacPherson and The f o l l o w i n g t w o  y e a r s saw many e x c h a n g e s b e t w e e n t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s their on  Southern B a p t i s t brethren,  the part  of several  with  Canadian churches.  led h i s church i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n with however, and p u r c h a s e d p r o p e r t y the  Baptist Federation  Executive As  an i n c r e a s i n g  the Southern  Baptists,  f o r h i s new c h u r c h i n 1 9 5 4 ,  o f Canada l o d g e d a p r o t e s t  with the  Convention.  the n a t i o n a l Convention ruled that  of m i s s i o n a r i e s  salaries  o f t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n v e n t i o n o f Oregon-  Washington, which MacPherson's c h u r c h had j o i n e d , not  go t o w a r d s w o r k i n C a n a d a .  refused  in British  While the n a t i o n a l  body  a n d s o t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t c a u s e was b e g u n Columbia.  Several  a t t e m p t s o v e r t h e y e a r s made b y t h e C a n a d i a n  Southern B a p t i s t churches f o rrepresentation  within the  S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n a l w a y s met w i t h  While churches i n B r i t i s h  Columbia continued t o  forming the Capilano A s s o c i a t i o n Plateau  could  i t s s u p p o r t , t h e s t a t e body c o n t i n u e d t o r e n d e r  assistance,  national  interest  When R o s s M a c P h e r s o n  Committee o f t h e Southern B a p t i s t  a result,  and  Association  organize,  on t h e c o a s t and t h e n t h e  i n the interior,  125  failure.  started very  strong  c h u r c h e s i n t h e C h i n e s e and Korean  communities,  established  c h a p l a i n c i e s i n two o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s u n i v e r s i t i e s and p r o v i d e d for  a prison  ministry  i n the Vancouver-Fraser Valley  they had t o f a c e t h e f a c t t h a t , d e s p i t e showing growth,  they would  part of the a t t r a c t i o n  When o n e c o n s i d e r s t h a t a g r e a t  f o rt h e Canadian  S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s was t h e C o n v e n t i o n ' s foreign  substantial  n o t be a l l o w e d t o become p a r t o f t h e  Southern B a p t i s t Convention.  and  churches t o t h e extensive organization  m i s s i o n s , then t h e d e l i b e r a t e and c o n t i n u e d  e x c l u s i o n of t h e Canadian i r o n i c note.  c h u r c h e s by t h e C o n v e n t i o n s t r i k e s an  The c h u r c h e s  i n British  Columbia  today  a very h e a l t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e Northwest  c u r r e n t l y a l l o w s them t o d i r e c t e f f o r t s  a Canadian The  Southern B a p t i s t  history.  General Conference in  British  i n British  The c e n t e n a r y h i s t o r y  of America v i r t u a l l y  Bare o u t l i n e s of Swedish Columbia  first  do e x i s t .  at establishing  Columbia has  of t h e B a p t i s t  i g n o r e s work done  Baptist beginnings i n  As w i t h t h e S o u t h e r n  contact of the church w i t h B r i t i s h  made b y t h e A m e r i c a n  Baptists,  west and Swedish Prairies.  Baptists,  Columbia  was  a l t h o u g h t h i s was a t t h e  request of the B a p t i s t Convention of Manitoba  the  and s t r e n g t h  Canada and c o n c e n t r a t e s e x c l u s i v e l y on W a s h i n g t o n and  Oregon.  the  Con-  Convention.  B a p t i s t General Conference  no o f f i c i a l  enjoy  Baptist  v e n t i o n , however, and have a c h i e v e d a s t a b i l i t y which  area,  and t h e N o r t h -  B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d on  I n 1905, t h e n , t h e Reverend  126  Frederick  Palmborg  made a s e r i e s o f m i s s i o n a r y v i s i t s .  The f i r s t  c h u r c h was o r g a n i z e d a t G o l d e n a y e a r l a t e r . c o n t a c t s w e r e made a n d c h u r c h e s e s t a b l i s h e d  Swedish  S e v e r a l more but the e f f o r t  l a c k e d t h e dynamism t o c a r r y t h e d n o m i n a t i o n t h r o u g h y e a r s , a n d i t was n o t u n t i l a f t e r  lean  t h e s e c o n d W o r l d War t h a t  t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n made a n y r e a l p r o g r e s s . the Swedish  Baptist  By t h i s  point,  l a n g u a g e was no l o n g e r a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e  church, nor d i d t h e church m i n i s t e r e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e Swedish. I n 1947 t h e C o l u m b i a C o n f e r e n c e , t h e s t a t e in the United States, British  Columbia.  level  organization  sent a missionary t o the coast of  With t h i s  support, the Baptist  C o n f e r e n c e s l o w l y began t o b u i l d  i t s numbers.  Conference purchased t h e Vancouver  General  I n 1957 t h e  B i b l e C o l l e g e as a t r a i n i n g  b a s e f o r y o u n g members o f t h e c h u r c h a l l o v e r N o r t h A m e r i c a . The  finances required  t o keep t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e g o i n g  proved t o o onerous  a b u r d e n , h o w e v e r , a n d i n 1978 t h e s c h o o l  had t o be c l o s e d .  The n u m b e r s o f t h e c h u r c h i n B r i t i s h  Columbia any  c o n t i n u e t o remain r e l a t i v e l y  retards  r e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g r o w t h by a b s o r b i n g e n e r g i e s t o  encourage The  congregational German B a p t i s t s  growth. similarily  i n any h i s t o r y of t h e N o r t h American The  small which  do n o t f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y Baptist  Conference.  German B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  a m i s s i o n a r y t o w e s t e r n Canada on t h e i n v i t a t i o n  sent of the  B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n o f Manitoba and t h e Northwest t o m i n i s t e r  127  to the was of was  German-speaking immigrants.  o r g a n i z e d as  e a r l y as  German B a p t i s t s very slow.  1902,  i n the  yet  United  C o n s i d e r i n g the  group, t h i s i s not  surprising.  of  c h u r c h e s i n w h a t i s now  of  the  Those c h u r c h e s w h i c h s t i l l  even w i t h  States,  special  Reviewing the British  British  Columbia  Conference are  administer  to  of and  h i s t o r i e s of  Association  areas.  a camp and  The  senior  church  citizens  the  Baptist  churches  in  a lack  of  common t r a d i t i o n , t h e  Baptists  Differences structure  ultimately  B a p t i s t s were  the  separations  U n i o n and p o w e r and rift  Southern B a p t i s t  development separation  vulnerable of  first  developed break-up  Regular  Baptists.  influence amongst ministry.  meant r e d u c e d numbers  concerned, making o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  128  lack  l e d to the  produced a f u r t h e r  Regular B a p t i s t s , creating In each case, the  the  the  h i s t o r y of  i n t h e o l o g y and  ranks, producing the  individual ministers  despite  d i f f e r i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a l l have  C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e and  all  majority  German-speaking  t h e i r organizations . I n h e r i t i n g a long  organizational  of  target  English-speaking.  d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s a t work i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h  the  small  projects.  s t a r t s and  to d i s r u p t i o n .  in  growth  C o l u m b i a , i t becomes i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t t h a t  their early had  support  church's i n i t i a l  b a s i c a l l y urban-oriented, with  c o m p l e x as  the  p r o g r e s s and  p e o p l e s draw t h e i r memberships f r o m l a r g e is  Conference  Today, however, the  the  North American B a p t i s t  A Northern  for  development a l l the  more d i f f i c u l t isolated to  to accomplish.  from the mainstream  The  two  ethnic  organizations,  of B a p t i s t development,  had  s t r u g g l e w i t h s m a l l numbers f r o m t h e v e r y s t a r t .  Further-  more, f o r t h e t h r e e c h u r c h e s  affiliated  w i t h American  associations,  the s t r e n g t h of the American  o r g a n i z a t i o n s obviated the  need t o i m m e d i a t e l y produce  independent,  administrations.  w i t h the A n g l i c a n Church,  As we  saw  such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and in  self-sufficient  bureaucracy  i s needed  o r d e r f o r t h e c h u r c h t o s e e t o t h e r e g u l a r and  keeping of r e c o r d s , whether compelled a concern  for history,  Only the Southern parent church's  however,  orderly  by a r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n ,  o r a need t o e s t a b l i s h an  identity.  B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s w e r e i n f l u e n c e d by  l o v e of h i s t o r y  to collect  their  r e c o r d s of  their  past, yet they lacked the v e h i c l e through which  t o promote  regular collection  i n the  amongst t h e v a r i o u s c h u r h c e s  de-  nomination . U n l i k e t h e A n g l i c a n and Church of  B a p t i s t churches, the United  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a Canadian  three churches which  had  c r e a t i o n , being the  roots i n Britain.  Certainly  t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n , M e t h o d i s t and  Congregationalist  brought  i n t o u n i o n , but the  of  three different  t h a t was of  certain characteristics  bodies succeeded  A  the h i s t o r y of the c h u r c h , however, does r e v e a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we  identified  Churches combination  i n c r e a t i n g a new  q u i t e u n l i k e i t s s e p a r a t e components.  church  review those  i n the parent churches  129  union  which  affected their The  attitudes to record keeping.  C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s were t h e f i r s t  e v e n t u a l l y became B r i t i s h Smith Green Indians.  The  came f r o m H a w a i i i n 1829  H i s i m p a c t was  w i t h t h e I n d i a n s he met and h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n the west  Columbia.  Reverend  n e g l i g i b l e as a h o s t i l e s e n t him  s c u r r y i n g back  for thirty  native  encounter to Hawaii,  t h a t no m i s s i o n w o r k be d o n e  m i n i s t e r s from r e t u r n i n g  i n what  Jonathan  to minister to  coast successfully deterred  inclinations,  to arrive  on  Congregationalist years.  Despite evangelical  t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s n e v e r had  the  financial  resources or the o r g a n i z a t i o n to support extensive m i s s i o n a r y efforts  i n the west.  E x c e p t f o r a few l a r g e c h u r c h e s i n  t h e l o w e r M a i n l a n d , t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n h a r d l y had a n y  effect  on a p r o v i n c e w h i c h p r o v e d s u c h a c h a l l e n g e t o a l l c h u r c h e s . The  independence  of the c o n g r e g a t i o n m a n i f e s t e d  i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f new  churches whenever  disagreements  o c c u r r e d , somewhat i n t h e same manner a s t h e This independence  of the l o c a l  itself  Baptists.  c o n g r e g a t i o n was  handed  down t o t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h . The  M e t h o d i s t s were t h e n e x t group  needs of t h e s e t t l e r s to a l e t t e r  in British  Columbia.  f r o m M e t h o d i s t J o h n T.  Pidwell,  M e t h o d i s t m i n i s t e r s from Canada a r r i v e d w h a t w o u l d p r o v e t o be a v i g o r o u s a n d  In  response  four  i n 1859  spirited  the rampant s e c u l a r i s m t h a t accompanied  130  to respond to the  Wesleyan to begin  attack  the gold  rush.  on  Within t e n years in Victoria Victoria  of the f i r s t  i n I860,  Methodist  t h e r e were churches  to Barkerville.  and m i s s i o n a r y e n d e a v o u r p r o c e e d i n g their  With  smoothly,  Five years  d i s t r i c t s were formed w i t h t h e s p l i t Westminster,  the Methodists  District  later,  t w o new  of V i c t o r i a  a n d New  and w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e Kamloops  t h e f o u r c r e a t e d t h e new B r i t i s h Organization continued  District  Columbia Conference i n  l a t e r as t h e need  arose,  but w i t h t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e i n p l a c e t h e Methodists on t h e s o c i a l  of t h e i r  time  society,  student  p r o j e c t s t h a t took  a n d e n e r g y . The women o r g a n i z e d probationers  youths and  up s o much into a missionary  Chairman,  t o Japanese and Chinese  was e x t e n d e d t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s ,  immigrants,  on t h e c o a s t were s e r v e d  h i s m i s s i o n boat t h e "Glad  and t h e i s o l a t e d  b y Thomas C r o s b y a n d  Tidings."  S o c i a l work i n c l u d e d  the establishment  of medical  All  before the turn of the century!  this  Columbia  C o l l e g e was e s t a b l i s h e d , E p w o r t h L e a g u e s f o r  were formed, e v a n g e l i s m  settlers  could  (candidates f o rministry)  began work under m i n i s t e r s o r t h e D i s t r i c t Methodist  missions  evangelism  I n 1881, t h e P o r t Simpson  was f o r m e d w i t h t e n s t a t i o n s .  concentrate  from  h e r i t a g e of s t r o n g c e n t r a l government t o t h e  task of o r g a n i z i n g .  1887.  built  and m i s s i o n s  By 1 8 7 2 , t h e r e w e r e I n d i a n  i n C h i l l i w a c k , Nanaimo, and V i c t o r i a .  turned  Church being  occurred  Methodists  services i n isolated  emphasized s t r o n g c e n t r a l government,  131  outposts. The social  a c t i v i s m and reform, United  Church.  The  first  were p r o v i d e d in  a l l of which they passed onto t h e  Presbyterian  by m i s s i o n a r i e s  I r e l a n d , and l a t e r  Methodists  beginnings  Scotland,  Early  Presbyterian  as those o f t h e M e t h o d i s t s ,  they never attempted m i n i s t e r i n g t o others  but  Church  n o t Canada a s w i t h t h e  and t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s .  Presbyterians.  Columbia  from t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n  e f f o r t s were n o t n e a r l y as v i g o r o u s and  i nBritish  besides  Thus t h e y g r e w more s l o w l y t h a n t h e M e t h o d i s t s ,  i n 1886 t h e P r e s b y t e r y  This presbytery  o f C o l u m b i a was  organized.  was a u g m e n t e d a s t h e n e e d a r o s e u n t i l 1892  when t h e f o u r p r e s b y t e r i e s w e r e j o i n e d u n d e r t h e m a n t l e of a synod. century  Despite  the Presbyterians  endeavour, although 1907,  a slow s t a r t , equalled  after  the Methodists  they emphasized education  famous p e r s o n a l i t i e s p r o v i d e d producing  field  a theological  A number o f r a t h e r  instruction,  A summer s c h o o l  attracting  i n Elko, East  home i n P r i n c e G e o r g e , a n d v a r i o u s  schools  around t h e p r o v i n c e  roster.  The P r e s b y t e r i a n s  the  In  m i s s i o n a r i e s who a f f e c t e d t h e B r i t i s h  considerably.  a school  i n social  more.  f o r example, t h e y opened W e s t m i n s t e r H a l l ,  s e m i n a r y i n t h e West E n d o f V a n c o u v e r .  and  the turn of the  B u r n a b y Home f o r G i r l s ,  completed t h e i r  Columbia Kootenay,  residential educational  a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d Camp  Fircom,  t h e Burns Lake H o s p i t a l , t h e  " F i r s t Church W e l f a r e I n d u s t r i e s , " and v a r i o u s Thus, t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s  students  bequeathed t h e i r  132  marine  concern f o r  missions. education,  their  social  United  a c t i o n , and  their  C h u r c h upon e n t e r i n g  A f t e r u n i o n i n 1925, to balance the churches. legal and  The  majority  of the and  of the  social  gospel  In the  post-war p e r i o d ,  numbers s u b s t a n t i a l l y ,  the  coast.  varying  three  with  the  the  i n the the  came and  United  the  the  the  and  Service  students i n a variety  two  examples of  the  United  radical  Church i n t h i s  Thus t h e strong  the  United  church  education  at a l l l e v e l s ,  social promotion  Christian  adult  of  missions  experienced  "Varieties The  study  of  popular  New  Curriculum,  programs,  Project,  established  s o c i a l work s k i l l s ,  approach that  are  characterized  period.  C h u r c h was  social motivation,  Depression;  i n the  Naramata  season."-'-"'  and  to t r a i n  engaged i n  reopened i t s marine  t o 1975  Vancouver Inner C i t y  Great  Church expanded i t s  d e v e l o p e d f o r sunday s c h o o l s the  the  one  O x f o r d G r o u p Movement.  and  went w i t h  Presbyterians  churches i n t o  demands o f  responses to s o c i e t y ' s needs:  theology  participating  non-concurring  three  established  From 1965  carefully  u n i o n t h e y w e r e consumed i n  to the  Leadership Training School, on  Church t r i e d  g r o u p s became i n v o l v e d  and  the  1925.  membership a c t i v e l y  smaller  p o l i t y to  United  the  the  amalgamations of  church r a l l i e d  assistance;  new  c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  wrangles over property  body. the  union i n  the  Many y e a r s a f t e r  over the  dispersed  characterized  evangelical and  zeal,  by  a  particularly  concern  a p o l i t y which t r i e d to  133  for balance  the  congregational  the  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the M e t h o d i s t s ,  c o n t r o l of the t h e e m p h a s i s on  independence of the  Presbyterians. s c h o l a r s h i p and  a l o v e o f h i s t o r y t h a t has This  For  impetus to c o l l e c t  Congregationalists, and  the  the  dispersed  United  education  Church  has  engendered  encouraged record  records  which encourages c o n g r e g a t i o n a l  today,  keeping.  i s o f f s e t by  an  independency,  organization although  a s t r o n g i d e n t i t y k n i t s the whole t o g e t h e r .  Although  United  church  Church Manual d e t a i l s  w i t h i n an does not  every  aspect  i n t r i c a t e bureaucracy, t h i s exist.  Instead,  evangelism  of  work  bureaucracy i n and  social  requires a certain level  to support collects  it.  Thus t h e  result  a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f  successful  reality  activism  k e e p s t h e m i n i s t r y away f r o m a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s . keeping  the  Record  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y i s t h a t the records,  United  but  i n r e g u l a r i z i n g that collection  Church  i s not  as one  as  might  expect from such a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Certain patterns of  the  emerge f r o m o u r  three denominations.  c r e a t i n g a s o u n d and traditions  We  see  study  the A n g l i c a n  Church  t h o r o u g h o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h i s b a s e d upon  i n h e r i t e d from E n g l a n d , and  we  inherent  i n the  balances  a c e n t r a l c o n t r o l which provides  and  of the h i s t o r y  denomination's character.  see The  a  practicality organization  advice,  guidance,  l e a d e r s h i p with a r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l which ensures  measure of  co-operation  between p a r t i c i p a t i n g  134  a  parishes  t o c r e a t e a h e a l t h y degree of u n i f o r m i t y .  The  of t h i s  to record  is  of o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h  that i t s respect  records its  type  for tradition  which keep those  practicality  of e x p e r i e n c e d control gives  allows  regards  e n s u r e s an  traditions  alive  i t t o seek the  s e c u l a r a r c h i v e s and  strength  interest  for future  advice  and  archivists,  leadership i n a r c h i v a l matters,  B a p t i s t s ' l a c k of  common t r a d i t i o n  and  the  and  developed  inhibited  development of e i t h e r a s e n s i t i v i t y  keeping.  Still,  organization,  or the  having  the  U n i o n and  coming t o a p p r e c i a t e in their t o be  the  of having  educational  records.  The  vital  centres  their  records  still  are  but  the North  still  the  Baptist  to reach  brethren,  and  can  this  advantage their  organization.  love to Thus  General  American B a p t i s t s  are  l e v e l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n of  have o n l y  135  created  play  role  impetus  The  record  slowly  inherited a  unexploited.  records  advanced  They have t h e  body, have the  C o n f e r e n c e B a p t i s t s and striving  to  w i t h which to lodge  building their  extant  evangelism  records  both conceive  Southern B a p t i s t s , having  are  and  B a p t i s t s are  role their  at present.  of h i s t o r y from t h e i r p a r e n t c o l l e c t but  stability  Regular  organization, although  solely historical  e m p h a s i s on  o r g a n i z a t i o n to encourage  achieved  regional  initiatives.  f a c t i o u s behaviour,  and. r e c o r d k e e p i n g  generations,  help  organization, the  and  in  the c e n t r a l  c o n t r o l means b e t t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a r c h i v a l The  keeping  their  inter-provincial  bodies very recently.  Their  still  undeveloped  v e r y much i n t h e Union y i e l d e d  to d e v e l o p , but  the  the  appreciation  s i z e and  of  records  stage.  scope f o r a l a r g e  U n i t e d C h u r c h has  had  organization  to balance  which a l l emphasize c o n t r o l at a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . s u r p r i s i n g l y the  resultant  structure  a c t u a l g o v e r n m e n t i s weak and f o r m a t i o n of the  Anglican  does not the  integrated Church.  impel regular  not  l a c k of developed  and  orderly  record  but  suited to  The  enthusiastic  however, g i v e s  i t an  which keep the  memory o f  Thus t h e i n a t i o n i s an suited  turn, and  as  a r c h i v a l programmes as  f r o m d e v e l o p i n g a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  is  is intricate  quite  key  e a g e r and the  to regular  k e e p i n g of  the  that  of  keeping.  Moreover away  bureaucracy. appreciation  The for  f r e s h approach to the  history, records  denomination. record  i m p e t u s t o c o l l e c t and  to consider  the  bureaucracy  keeping w i t h i n an  a denom-  organization  f o r records c o l l e c t i o n to take place.  finally,  polities Not  Church's deep s o c i a l c o n c e r n keeps i t s m i n i s t r y  C h u r c h ' s m a r v e l o u s and  is  Let  w h a t t h i s means f o r f u t u r e  r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s i n Canada.  136  which us collection  NOTES FOR CHAPTER I V  J o h n W e b s t e r G r a n t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n The C r o s s i n C a n a d a , , e d . J o h n S. M o i r ( T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . i x . 2 The C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d i n C a n a d a c h a n g e d A n g l i c a n Church o f Canada i n 1955.  i t s name t o t h e  3 F r a n k A. P e a k e , The A n g l i c a n C h u r c h i n B r i t i s h ( V a n c o u v e r : M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 6.  Columbia  4 Ibid.,  pp. 46-47.  5  H. H. W a l s h , The C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h Ryerson P r e s s , 1956).  i n Canada ( T o r o n t o :  6 The A n g l i c a n C h u r c h o f C a n a d a , The Book o f Common P r a y e r 1959 C a n a d a ( T o r o n t o : A n g l i c a n Book C e n t r e , [ 1 9 5 9 ] ) , p . viii. 7 Ibid. 8 Lyndon Grove, P a c i f i c 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 1 5 0 .  Pilgrims  (Vancouver: F f o r b e z P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  9 A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , Book o f Common P r a y e r , p. v i i . 10 I n t e r v i e w w i t h G a r t h W a l k e r A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f New Westminster and t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 7 J u l y 1983. 11 A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , Book o f Common P r a y e r , p p . 6 9 7 ,  698.  12 Gordon P o u s e t t , " H i s t o r y o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f B a p t i s t Churches o f B r i t i s h C o i l u m b i a " (Master o f Theology t h e s i s , Vancouver S c h o o l o f T h e o l o g y , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 47. 13 I b i d . , p . 56.  137  NOTES c o n ' t 14 In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , B a p t i s t s formed t h e G e n e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Regular B a p t i s t s (1932), t h e World B a p t i s t F e l l o w s h i p ( 1 9 3 2 ) , t h e Orthodox B a p t i s t s ( 1 9 3 5 ) , and t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Free W i l l B a p t i s t s (1935). 15 W a l t e r E. E l l i s , " B a p t i s t s a n d R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a , 1920 - 1 9 5 0 , " i n B a p t i s t s i n C a n a d a : S e a r c h f o r I d e n t i t y A m i d s t D i v e r s i t y , e d . J a r o l d K. Zeman ( B u r l i n g t o n : G. R. W e l c h C o . , 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 1 6 3 . 16 R o l a n d P. Hood, S o u t h e r n p a m p h l e t , 1 9 7 7 , p. 2.  B a p t i s t Work i n C a n a d a  unpublished  17 Bob S t e w a r t , "The U n i t e d C h u r c h o f C a n a d a i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " i n C i r c l e of V o i c e s : A H i s t o r y of t h e R e l i g i o u s Communities of B r i t i s h Columbia, ed. Churck Anderson (Lanceville, B.C.: O o l i c h a n B o o k s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 2 1 1 .  138  CHAPTER V CHURCH A R C H I V E S : A NATURAL One o f t h e m a i n c o n c l u s i o n s study of the Anglican, is  that  record  CONCLUSION  we c a n d r a w f r o m o u r  B a p t i s t , and U n i t e d  keeping, i f i ttakes place,  denominations i s a natural  phenomenon b a s e d on t h e v e r y f u n d a m e n t a l s o f t h e r e l i g i o u s institution: and  t h e members' d e f i n i t i o n  t h e i r means o f r e a l i z i n g  words, t h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l organization The  first  that  definition,.  a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r  produce t h e c o n d i t i o n s  condition  a n i m p e t u s o f some k i n d  be  a love  of scholarship,  to collect.  types of  i s a  desire  The s t i m u l u s  as i n t h e U n i t e d  fortradition  In other  necessary f o r c o l l e c t i o n .  necessary f o r c o l l e c t i o n  or  may be a r e s p e c t  of the "church,"  Church.  or a dictation  may It  o f an i n c r e a s i n  s o p h i s t i c a t e d b u r e a u c r a c y , as i s found i n t h e case of the  Anglican  the  unique q u a l i t i e s  as  o f one's i d e n t i t y ,  to establish  or a love  c h u r c h e s and t h e S o u t h e r n  Whatever t h e impetus t o c o l l e c t ,  m u s t be c o m b i n e d w i t h  administration The  I t may be t h e d e s i r e  i n the early ethnic  Convention. it  Church.  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  which n a t u r a l l y f a c i l i t a t e  each e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e  under t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i o c e s a n synod.  oversight  however,  collection. Church,  into  dioceses  o f t h e b i s h o p and t h e  The u n i t s a r e s m a l l  139  Baptist  s t r u c t u r e and  optimum s t r u c t u r e a p p e a r s i n t h e A n g l i c a n  which d i v i d e s  of h i s t o r y ,  enough t o f a c i l i t a t e  diocesan-wide dent  enough t o s u p p o r t  direction, working the  collection  these  group.  financial  o f r e c o r d s , y e t s t r o n g and  that collection.  units are knit  W i t h good  together  For the Church, these  into  a  smaller units  burden and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  activities.  With t h e i r  over  e m p h a s i s on  t h e next  record  congregational  others  have p r o v i n c i a l  none h a v e i n t e r m e d i a r y b o d i e s and  the n a t i o n a l bodies  (some h a v e r e g i o n a l  or state-level administrations), between t h e l o c a l  which are s u f f i c i e n t l y  e n o u g h o r c l o s e e n o u g h t o make c o l l e c t i o n case,  size  p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t  simply cannot support to  co-ordinate  role,  the collection  fact,  vital  In this  needed  from l o c a l  churches,  of general o r g a n i z a t i o n a l records. regular collection,  we s e e i n t h e A n g l i c a n a n d U n i t e d  in  strong  f o r small organizations  of records  Once a d e n o m i n a t i o n b e g i n s  levels  easy.  congregations  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery  or t o produce the nucleus  natural  difficulty.  l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n beyond t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n  d i f f e r s among t h e f i v e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s bodies,  spread  a larger  i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e B a p t i s t s l a b o u r under t h e most Although  central  cohesive  a r e a , making i t e a s i e r f o r t h e Church t o support keeping  indepen-  as  Churches, there a r e  a t which c o l l e c t i o n bonds between c h u r c h  occurs.  There a r e ,  government and a r c h i v e s  e v e n t h o u g h t h e a r c h i v e s may c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s b e y o n d the  l e v e l o f government i t i s t i e d t o .  archives,  f o r instance, collects  140  The A n g l i c a n  the records  diocesan  of the diocese  and  t h e p a r i s h e s w i t h i n t h e d i o c e s e , and  Conference level  archives collects  the United  Church  the r e c o r d s of both c o n f e r e n c e -  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p a s t o r a l c h a r g e s .  But r e c o r d  keeping,  as a n a t u r a l o u t g r o w t h of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y , take place at a l e v e l otherwise.  o f g o v e r n m e n t ; i t c a n n o t be  In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s ,  the l e v e l s  c a n n o t be t o o f a r away f r o m t h e o r i g i n a t i n g the records c o l l e c t i o n  s i m p l y c a n n o t be  must  sustained  of d e p o s i t  source, or  sustained.  likewise,  The  McMaster A r c h i v e s i n H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o , f o r i n s t a n c e ,  collects  the r e c o r d s of churches b e l o n g i n g t o the B a p t i s t Union Western little  Canada, but churches  in British  Columbia  c o n t a c t or knowledge of the a r c h i v e s t o f e e l  able i n depositing t h e i r Likewise  r e c o r d s i n such a remote  f o r the churches  in British  Columbia  C o n f e r e n c e , and  the North American  the c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s ,  Baptist  e x i s t e n c e , a r e so remote t h a t i t w o u l d  v e r y c o n s c i e n t i o u s , d e t e r m i n e d m i n i s t e r who  Overall,  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  differences exist  one  locale.  General  aware of  h a v e t o be would  send  a her/  destination.  to note that  discernible  i n the record keeping p a t t e r n s i n the  A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t and U n i t e d C h u r c h e s . to r e a l i z e ,  comfort-  Conference,  i f t h e c h u r c h e s a r e even  h i s church's r e c o r d s t o such a d i s t a n t  too  belonging  to the Southern B a p t i s t Convention, the B a p t i s t  their  have  of  It i s interesting  however, t h a t w i t h i n the B a p t i s t  can i d e n t i f y v e r y d i s t i n c t  141  record keeping  denomination attitudes  and  practices  they e x h i b i t  f o r each  of the B a p t i s t churches,  although  s i m i l a r t e n d e n c i e s on t h e s u r f a c e .  One  h e l p b u t be a w a r e t h e n , t h a t i f s u c h n o t i c e a b l e e x i s t w i t h i n a single denomination, it  how  i s t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e same r e s p o n s e s  as t h e a r c h i v a l and  particularly  c u r r e n t l y tend to expect.  differences  much more  unlikely  from a l l churches,  the h i s t o r i c a l  world  R a t h e r , c h u r c h e s may  s i m i l a r t e n d e n c i e s , b u t one m u s t s t u d y e a c h to p r e d i c t i t s responses  cannot  exhibit  church  individually  to record keeping.  These o b s e r v a t i o n s have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o p e r c u s t o d y o f r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s and of r e l i g i o u s  institutions  i n a Canadian  L e t us r e t u r n t o t h e d e b a t e we  the  archival  over a r c h i v a l  f o r maximum u s e , t h e n we  t h e c l a i m s made f o r r e l i g i o u s of t h i s  goal.  As we  b e t w e e n t h o s e who r e c o r d s and  optimum  can  examine  a r c h i v e s programmes i n  have seen, t h e debate  t h o s e who  feel  that the o r i g i n a t i n g  of t h e i r  records.  T.J. Hanrahan propose  of p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s ,  religious  churches  Although  advocates James  t h e use of v a r y i n g l e v e l s  t h e i r m a i n e m p h a s i s i s on  d e v e l o p m e n t by t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a .  x  c o l l e c t i o n by a s i n g l e a r c h i v e s h a s  142  light  is essentially  of p u b l i c c o l l e c t i o n of c h u r c h a r c h i v e s such as  of c e n t r a l  If  desire public archives to collect  are the best keepers  Lambert and  network.  custody.  grant t h a t a l l a r c h i v e s are working towards  records c o l l e c t i o n  role  collection  This  issue  l o n g been  a thorny  one  as  a group of h i s t o r i a n s a t York U n i v e r s i t y  1982,  a brief  i n the  to the  a r c h i v a l world.  Federal  E v e n as  recently submitted  C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee  stating: we a l l s e e a d v a n t a g e s i n h a v i n g one c e n t r a l d e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e b u l k o f g o v e r n m e n t and p o l i t i c a l r e c o r d s , as w e l l as t h e p a p e r s l e f t a s s o c i a t i o n s , b u s i n e s s e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . ^ Although  i t i s not  guess t h a t church  explicitly archives are  mammoth c o l l e c t i o n . are  a l m o s t an  "The  student  stage.  In the  a l l contained  "rescue  and  Doughty's  The  in  materials  he  i n one b u i l d i n g . "  have d e v e l o p e d  r e p o s i t o r i e s to c o l l e c t  acceptable  words  3  far  e r a , " h o w e v e r , when  a r c h i v e s approach of the  C a n a d a was  this  of a p e r i o d or episode  c e r t a i n l y hope t h a t t h e y  t h e r e w e r e few  included i n  many a d v a n t a g e s .  r e q u i r e s f o r h i s work a r e  beyond t h i s  accurately  A s t o n i s h i n g l y enough, t h e s e  C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y has  the t o t a l  t o be  might  echo of Dominion A r c h i v i s t A r t h u r  w o r d s i n 1924:  Archivists  s t a t e d , one  by  extant  records,  Public Archives  even commendable.  But  of  the p r a c t i c e  o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n has  l o n g s i n c e c e a s e d t o be  or acceptable,  r e s p o n s e s by p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t s  in  as  Canada t o t h e  the  R e p o r t of the  necessary  C o m m i s s i o n on  Canadian  S t u d i e s (1975 ), t h e R e p o r t by  the  C o n s u l t a t i v e Group  C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and  the  Report of the  Cultural  P o l i c y R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e (1982 ) s h o w .  143  4  on  Federal The  official  response of the A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s t o the  Symons R e p o r t on C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s  development of a r c h i v e s in  an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  created."5  should  be b a s e d w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e  s e t t i n g where v a l u a b l e  was e v e n more p o i n t e d :  m a n d a t e d o e s n o t h a v e t o be f u l f i l l e d rights to records,"  but rather  and  bodies should  their the  corporate  own a r c h i v e s . " 6  Federal  from across  "the t o t a l  "governments, p r i v a t e  i n their  briefs to  " t h e members o f t h e that decentralization  awareness and i n t e r e s t i n t h e  h e r i t a g e of the community." could  archivists  spoke o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e  For example,  w o u l d e n c o u r a g e more l o c a l  7  T h e y a l s o n o t e d t h a t more  be c o l l e c t e d i f more i n s t i t u t i o n s  responsibility  shared  for collection.  W h i l e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l community i n C a n a d i a n are  convinced  institutions,  be e n c o u r a g e d t o d e v e l o p  And f i n a l l y ,  Canada r e p e a t e d l y  archives  by e x e r c i s i n g p r o p r i e t a r y  TAAG [ T o r o n t o A r e a A r c h i v i s t s G r o u p ] f e e l  the  records are  C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee,  of d e c e n t a l i z a t i o n .  records  "sound  The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e R e p o r t on  Canadian Archvies  other  stressed that  that institutionalism  i s the path t o the  f u t u r e , h i s t o r i a n s remain l a r g e l y unconvinced. U n i v e r s i t y h i s t o r i a n s complained,"If  archives  The Y o r k  r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n took  p l a c e , t h e n e t e f f e c t i s t h a t we a n d o u r c o l l e a g u e s a l l across —  the country  a n d more money —  w o u l d be f o r c e d t o s p e n d more travelling  144  from r e g i o n a l  time  archives  to  archives."°  of  archives  to  religious  historians The result  by  O t h e r s have f e a r e d churches might  records  fear that  religious  access,  collection  in restricted  researchers  access  basically  records.  the  Round T a b l e  participants not  would  be  the  that  their  the  their  removal  public  archives,  the  but  their  intimately.  access,  restrictions. public,  the  own  particularly and  nature  result  can  records. They  sensitive,  therefore  With the  can  Archives,  their  best  records, this  i s more  likely  records, compensate  It i s  confidence  the As  archives,  private  church's  the  not in  superior  c r e a t o r s , they  judge which  t h a t need  careful  archivist  145  can  with  give  the  know  individual  e s t a b l i s h more r e a l i s t i c  one-on-one c o n t a c t  institutional  simply  upon them t o  of  outside  of c e r t a i n  Whether  l a c k of  will  immediately.  of  early.  a l s o a matter  their  for  that public  back t h e i r  churches'  of  are  change  Religious  concern  restriction  understanding  records  churches  i n t o a f o r e i g n environment.  a matter of  records  by  records  i n c o r r e c t , the  a much h e a v i e r  accessibility.  records  not  S e m i n a r on  c h u r c h e s would h o l d  simply  to  use  will  access  Thus,  p r i v a t e nature  confidential  i s c o r r e c t or  or p l a c e for  at the  l a c k of  religious the  management  in restricted  archives  i n a d v e r t a n t l y open them t o o  concern to  and  That nature  discussed  understanding  to  in-house  researchers;  of  ignores  because h i s t o r i a n s wish t o At  result  for outside  f e a r l a c k of  that  attention access  researching  a better  response  to requests  t h a n t h e p u b l i c a r c h i v i s t who m u s t  r e f e r back t o t h e d o n a t i n g p a r t y  i n the instances  that  In answering t h e second f e a r of t h e p o s s i b l e  lack  restricted material  of a c c e s s i b i l i t y  i s sought.  of r e l i g i o u s records,  that c e n t r a l i z a t i o n u n f a i r l y limits in  constantly  the surrounding  to t r a v e l there. noted,  one m i g h t  the materials  community, o r t h o s e w i t h Also,  "new s t u d i e s  consider t o those  the funds a v a i l a b l e  a s t h e R e p o r t on C a n a d i a n  ... p l a c e  considerable  regional or l o c a l a r c h i v a l resources."9 i n c r e a s i n g l y been t u r n i n g t h e i r  Archives  e m p h a s i s on  Historians  have  a t t e n t i o n away f r o m  subjects  r e q u i r i n g n a t i o n a l coverage t o the types of h i s t o r i e s r e q u i r i n g more c o n c e n t r a t e d satisfy.  study which only  regional records  A study of h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l trends,  w a r n s one t h a t  r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s may n o t h o l d  h i s t o r i a n ' s a t t e n t i o n f o r long-. h a v e come t o h o l d historians,  archivists  can never f u l l y  historical  studies w i l l  optimum r e c o r d s The  their  just  n e e d s a r e b e s t met b y x _ l  And, s i n c e  a n t i c i p a t e what r e c o r d s  new  r e q u i r e , and because t o d a y a r c h i v i s t s  f o r t h e f u t u r e , we r e t u r n t o t h e g o a l o f collection  f o r maximum u s e b y e v e r y o n e .  R e p o r t on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s  belong f i r s t  the professional  a n i n t e r e s t f o r more p e r s o n s t h a n  and most o f t e n  collecting  of course,  But h i s t o r y and a r c h i v e s  l o c a l and r e g i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n o f a r c h i v e s .  are  can  counselled:  "Archival  materials  a n d f o r e m o s t i n t h e h a n d s o f t h o s e who o r i g i n a t e d  146  them, b e s t u n d e r s t a n d them." of  t h e m , and  a r e most l i k e l y  I f h i s t o r i a n s want t o o b t a i n a c c u r a t e  ± x  the records they use,  then they w i l l  and w h e r e t h e c r e a t o r s , who  u s e r s b e n e f i t from  in-house  t h a t r e c o r d s are saved or h i s t o r i c a l  keeping will The  records themselves  created, records,  information-  Thus, o u t s i d e I f we  administrative,  fiscal,  accessibility  r e g i o n a l church  repositories.  b e c a u s e more f u l s o m e  n a t u r a l l y o c c u r s when t h e c h u r c h  keeps  o r g a n i z a t i o n deposit these  where t h e c h u r c h  or  records with a public  s i n c e a c e r t a i n amount o f r e c o r d s r e t e n t i o n m u s t build  up  o n u s i s on this  a collection the church  i s effected  suitable  t o do  i f they can  U l t i m a t e l y , of c o u r s e , centralization is  denomination  The and  own  needs.  the b e s t argument a g a i n s t  i n our  study.  have o n l y c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r i e s  their  occur  retention,  for their  religious  the  records i n a secular repository  p r o v i d e d by t h e c h u r c h e s  which of  of church  collect  public.  repository,  for tranferral.  the i n i t i a l  record  records  n e e d s r a t h e r t h a n f o r an unknown u s e r  T h i s i s t r u e even i n the cases  to  accept  because the  users are f u r t h e r b e n e f i t t e d  meet i t s own  from  v a l u e , then the c r e a t o r s b e n e f i t from  be g r e a t e r i n l o c a l and  keeping to  their  the  care of r e c o r d s .  for their  interpretations  i t was  best understand  are a v a i l a b l e to provide d e t a i l e d  use  b e n e f i t more  using the m a t e r i a l i n the context i n which  legal,  to  churches  to c o l l e c t the  t h a t are remotely  147  Those  records  l o c a t e d , or l o c a t e d  o u t s i d e the Certainly,  country, f o r the  repositories  do  not  three  r e s p o n d by  sending  their material.  B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s w h i c h have  l o c a t e d i n the  United  States, there  these  is  probably  t h e added b a r r i e r of not w a n t i n g t o send m a t e r i a l out the  country.  The  t h e d i s t a n c e and simply to  no  more t e l l i n g  remoteness of the  records  to the  such remote r e f e r e n c e  McMaster A r c h i v e s  t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d n e v e r see  using the A r c h i v e s . compelling justifiably  argue t h a t what t h e  accomplish  i s hardly  r e p o s i t o r y ; the  had  i s no  records  the  records  again.  not  firsthand  know experience  One  denominations are achieved  same b a r r i e r s w o u l d of  by  may  unable any  secular  exist. religious  records, their  l e v e l s o f p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s , so  t h a t m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l e v e l s of r e c o r d s .  C h u r c h , h o w e v e r , has  records  a l t e r n a t i v e of churches l o d g i n g  with different  appropriate  Ontario;  mean t h a t  a t McMaster.  l i k e l y t o be  Columbia  personal o b l i g a t i o n  In h i s arguments f o r p u b l i c custody Lambert suggests the  in  C o l u m b i a do  have not  Thus t h e r e  them t o d e p o s i t  o r use  in British  a n y o n e a t t h e A r c h i v e s , and  central  There i s  s e r v i c e would probably  More t h a n l i k e l y , p a s t o r s  to  archives.  probably  i n c e n t i v e f o r B a p t i s t churches i n B r i t i s h  send t h e i r  they  f a c t o r , however, i s  of  f e d e r a l a r c h i v e s would Our  shown t h a t v e r y  study  of the  r e a l and  e x i s t b e t w e e n i t s l e v e l s .of g o v e r n m e n t and  Anglican  vital  bonds  i t s archives;  bonds t h a t p u b l i c a r c h i v e s would have a g r e a t  148  house  d e a l of  difficulty  in  preserving.  Strong t i e s e x i s t  between t h e d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l s o f r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s t h a t do n o t i n f a c t a t p r e s e n t between l e v e l s solution  of public  i s not very a t t r a c t i v e  Outside of the lack  repositories,  between c r e a t i n g  administration  and a r c h i v e s ,  there i s  consideration of the true ownership of the records.  and  members a l l e x h i b i t e d their records.  the  interest  still  church  clerks  a p r i d e i n and sense o f o w n e r s h i p  Even i f t h e y were l a r g e l y  unaware o f  t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d had i n t h e i r r e c o r d s ,  v a l u e d t h e r e c o r d s as a p r o d u c t of t h e i r  I n many c a s e s t h e n , w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l s be  between  and t h e b r e a k i n g o f bonds  Throughout t h i s study, a r c h i v i s t s , m i n i s t e r s ,  of  Lambert's  i n the face of t h i s .  of networking established  levels of public  the  repositories.  exist  within  they  endeavours.  churches  might  receptive to donating t h e i r records, the majority i n  each church, g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o v o i c e t h e i r or  to affect  or  perhaps even h o s t i l e  t h e o u t c o m e , w o u l d p r o b a b l y be u n r e c e p t i v e  arly to a secular  to giving  the  same.  a r c h i v e s by p u b l i c  c o l l e c t i o n of  agencies, the result  i s still  t o g e t h e r by a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f b e l i e f ,  belief will  It w i l l  or dispersed  B e c a u s e e a c h d e n o m i n a t i o n i s made up o f i n d i v i d u a l  churches k n i t this  up t h e i r h e r i t a g e , p a r t i c u l -  repository.  Whether t h e r e i s c e n t r a l religious  opinion  affect  dictate  a s i m l i a r pattern of response.  the churches' a t t i t u d e s ,  149  their  priorities,  and  their  their  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l patterns, which a l l c l e a r l y a f f e c t  record  keeping.  One  f u n d a m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and as  i t w o u l d be outside  c a n n o t be a fruitless  w h i c h had  not  and  while  outside  their  records,  of  o f means.  Any  b e t t e r t h a n no w h e t h e r any records  one  systematic  organizations  their  own  outside  account.  Thus, preserve  w o u l d be  be,  as m u s t t h e  choice  hopelessly  piece-  claim that piecemeal c o l l e c t i o n at a l l ,  one  public repository could  of a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n  of t h i s does not  with a public repository. or a n o t h e r , have a l r e a d y  would have t o  is question  justify placing  the  above t h o s e of the  government  c o v e r e d i n i t s mandate.  preclude  church or o r g a n i z a t i o n  Canada.  on  church i t s e l f ,  collection  with provincial,  r e g u l a r and  any  s t i m u l u s , w h a t e v e r i t may  persons or o r g a n i z a t i o n s All  the most p a r t ,  d e c i s i o n t o s e e k an  r e s u l t s otherwise  W h i l e some may  historical  encourage i n s t i t u t i o n s t o  original  m u s t come f r o m w i t h i n t h e  formulated  endeavour f o r  those r e l i g i o u s  a g e n c i e s can the  For  frustrating  archives  such  i n f l u e n c e of  changed e a s i l y .  a l r e a d y made t h e  repository for their  meal.  under the  a g e n c y t o t r y t o e f f e c t any  a c q u i s i t i o n of a r c h i v e s  that  p r a c t i c e s which e x i s t ,  t h e y w e r e o v e r t i m e and  circumstance,  and  might argue, then,  the  possibility  of  lodging  i t s records  Various  c h u r c h e s , f o r one  regularly  begun d e p o s i t i n g t h e i r  f e d e r a l , or u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s  I t i s w e l l f o r t h o s e who  150  any  reason  records across  would promote p u b l i c  custody  of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s  t o remember t h a t t h e  of such d e p o s i t arrangements As w e l l ,  at  have r a r e l y been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l .  the f a c t that the B a p t i s t churches,  have n o t begun r e g u l a r and  change,  they w i l l  of r e g u l a r r e c o r d k e e p i n g .  for  example,  s y s t e m a t i c care of t h e i r  a l l l e v e l s does not p r e c l u d e  circumstances  results  the p o s s i b i l i t y  archives  t h a t , as  g r a d u a l l y move i n t h e  They a r e c u r r e n t l y  direction  enjoying  a p e r i o d o f p e a c e w h i c h h a s a l l o w e d t h e m t o p u r s u e a more established  form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  more e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e more e f f e c t i v e So how network?  will  The  As we  have seen,  s t a b l e t h e form of church  record keeping  Canadian  is likely  to  the  government, be.  churches f i t i n t o a f u t u r e  archival  R e p o r t on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s s t a t e d :  We h a v e f o u n d t h a t g i v e n t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f a r c h i v a l methodology, the d i v e r s i t y of a r c h i v e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h e e x p o n e n t i a l t r e n d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new a r c h i v e s , a r c h i v a l s e r v i c e a c r o s s C a n a d a i s a n d w i l l be b r o a d l y b a s e d , i n v o l v i n g a complex system of r e p o s i t o r i e s . ± 2  The  A n g l i c a n Church not o n l y w i l l  network which develops,  in  British  General  of such a network.  The  between the a r c h i v e s of the  d e g r e e o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n , w h i c h any emulate.  does n o t d e m o n s t r a t e  Similarily,  t h e same d e g r e e  151  the  remarkable  secular archives although  sharing dioceses  C o l u m b i a , t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e , and  Synod A r c h i v e s i n T o r o n t o has e n s u r e d a  do w e l l t o  i n any  b u t i n f a c t a l r e a d y h a s much t o  c o n t r i b u t e t o the development and c o - o p e r a t i o n v i s i b l e  f i t i n very w e l l  would  the United  of c o - o p e r a t i o n  Church between  units,  t h e s t r u c t u r e and c a p a b i l i t y  i s t h e r e a l l t h e same.  F o r t h o s e c h u r c h e s w h i c h have n o t begun c o l l e c t i n g r e c o r d s , we w i l l  e i t h e r have t o w a i t u n t i l  a mature church bureaucracy a r r i v e s ,  s t a b i l i t y and  o r a c c e p t a mixed  a r c h i v a l economy, i n w h i c h b o t h t h e c h u r c h e s and p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s p r e s e r v e r e l i g i o u s i n t h e meantime c o n c e n t r a t e on t r y i n g parts.  their  themselves  r e c o r d s , and  t o k n i t up t h e d i f f e r e n t  T h i s c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a number o f w a y s .  T. R. M i l l m a n o f t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h  suggested that a h i s t o r i c a l  r e c o r d s s u r v e y o f c h u r c h e s be m a d e . ^ 1  of m a t e r i a l a r e another s o l u t i o n .  Exchanges o f m i c r o f i l m s  There  c a n be no d o u b t ,  h o w e v e r , t h a t c h u r c h e s a r e a f o r c e t o be r e c k o n e d w i t h i n the a r c h i v a l world; a l r e a d y they r i v a l l a r g e s t group  as t h e  o f a r c h i v e s o u t s i d e o u r f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  government a r c h i v e s . editorial  universities  1  4  A s T e r r y Cook w i s e l y n o t e d i n h i s  on n e t w o r k i n g :  Q u i t e p r o b a b l y , t h e r e a r e many v e h i c l e s s u f f i c i e n t l y r o a d w o r t h y t o t r a v e l a l o n g t h e v i s t a t o a r c h i v a l Utopia, and p e r h a p s t h e i d e a o f l o a d i n g e v e r y b o d y i n t o one huge b u s t o make t h e t r i p t o g e t h e r i n p e r f e c t h a r m o n y i s n o t d e s i r a b l e anyway. T h e r e i s room o n t h e r o a d f o r our C a d i l l a c s as w e l l as our Volkswagens, our m o t o r c y c l e s as w e l l as o u r f a m i l y campers, even f o r our j o g g e r s , w a l k e r s , and t h e odd h i t c h h i k e r . > ±_  Churches  will  undoubtedly  f a s h i o n t h e i r own a r c h i v a l  152  destiny.  NOTES FOR CHAPTER V James L a m b e r t , "Toward a R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s Programme f o r t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada," A r c h i v a r i a 3 (Winter 1 9 7 5 - 7 6 ) ; T. J . H a n r a h a n , "The r o l e o f R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s i n Canada," i n Canadian R e l i g i o u s C o n f e r e n c e , R e p o r t of P r o c e e d i n g s o f S e m i n a r on R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s ( O t t a w a : n.p., 1 9 7 2 ) . 2 F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y R e v i e w C o m m i t t e e , Summary o f B r i e f s and H e a r i n g s (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s , Department of Communications, Government o f Canada, 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 58. 3 A r t h u r D o u g h t y , The C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s ( O t t a w a : F. A. A c l a n d , 1 9 2 4 ) , p. 7.  and I t s A c t i v i t i e s  4 A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , "Canadian A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t s a n d R e s p o n s e s , " A r c h i v a r i a 11 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 0 - 8 1 ) ; Report of t h e F e d e r a l P o l i c y Review Committee, by L o u i s Applebaum and Jaques H u b e r t , Chairmen (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s , Government o f Canada, 1982). Association p.11. ^Ibid.,  of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s ,  "Canadian  Archives,"  p. 1 5 .  7 Report of t h e Review  Committee,  p. 5 7 .  g  I b i d . , p. 5 8 . q  Canadian A r c h i v e s . R e p o r t t o t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada by t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e Group on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , by I a n W i l s o n , C h a i r m a n (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 5. l(  ^"Myths o f t h e A r c h i v a l P r o f e s s i o n , " s e s s i o n h e l d a t t h e S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s Conference, M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n e s o t a , 8 October 1983. C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , p. 1 4 .  12  I b i d . , p . 66.  153  NOTES c o n ' t 13 T.R. M i l l m a n , "The S t u d y o f C h u r c h H i s t o r y , " J o u r n a l of Theology 1 ( A p r i l 1955).  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" F i n a n c i a l Sources f o r Church A r c h i v a l P r o g r a m s . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 32 ( J u l y 1 9 6 9 ) : 2 3 1 - 3 3 . .  "Minimum S t a n d a r d s f o r C h u r c h A r c h i v e s . " A r c h i v e 4 (Summer 1 9 7 6 ) : 1 3 2 - 4 0 .  Georgia  Beyea, M a r i o n . " A r c h i v e s and R e l i g i o u s R e c o r d s . " 4 (Summer 1 9 7 7 ) : 2 0 8 - 1 3 .  Archivaria  . "Focus: A n g l i c a n Church of Canada, G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s . " A r c h i v a r i a 6 (Summer 1 9 7 8 ) : 1 7 3 - 7 6 . B i n s f i e l d , Edmund L. "Church A r c h i v e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a ; A B i b l i o g r a p h y . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 21 ( J u l y 1 9 5 8 ) : 311-32. B i r k e t t , P a t r i c i a , ed. The C h e c k l i s t o f P a r i s h 3d r e v . e d . O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y a n d Canada, 1981.  Registers. Services  B o o n , T. C. B. The A n g l i c a n C h u r c h f r o m t h e Bay R o c k i e s . T o r o n t o : t h e R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1962.  to the  B o o t y , J o h n E. The Book o f Common P r a y e r 155.9: t h e E l i z a b e t h a n P r a y e r Book. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e : t h e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f V i r g i n i a , 1976. Bowden, H e n r y . " S c i e n c e and t h e I d e a o f C h u r c h H i s t o r y , an A m e r i c a n D e b a t e . " C h u r c h H i s t o r y 36 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 6 7 ) : 308-26. Bower, P e t e r . " A f t e r the Dust S e t t l e s . " ( W i n t e r 1979-80): 218-29.  Archivaria  B o y l e , George. " A r c h i v e s of the U n i t e d Church of A r c h i v u m 4 ( 1 9 5 4 ) : 61-65. . "Report of the A r c h i v i s t - H i s t o r i a n . " U n i t e d C h u r c h , 8 ( 1 9 5 5 ) : 3-6.  The  9  Canada." Bulletin  " B r i t i s h R e c o r d s A s s o c i a t i o n : A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e 1972; Free Church Records." 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Y o d e r , James G., M i n i s t e r a t G l a d s t o n e B a p t i s t C h a p e l t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 20 A p r i l 1 9 8 3 . INTERVIEWS Anderson, Grace. Member o f H i s t o r i c a l C o m m i t t e e , C o l u m b i a Conference, B a p t i s t General Conference, S e a t t l e , Washington, 28 M a r c h 1 9 8 4 . Baptie, British  Sue. A r c h i v i s t , V a n c o u v e r C o l u m b i a , 12 J u l y 1 9 8 3 .  City Archives,  Vancouver,  B u r k i n s h a w , B o b . Ph.D. s t u d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 29 November 1 9 8 2 . Churchill, Vancouver,  Keith. British  P a s t o r , West P o i n t G r e y B a p t i s t C o l u m b i a , 1 6 , November 1 9 8 2 .  Church,  C l i f f o r d , N.K. Professor of Theology, R e l i g i o u s Studies, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 23 M a r c h 1 9 8 3 . Collins, Philip. Associate Professor i n Applied Theology, and C h a i r m a n o f Campus M i n i s t r i e s , C a r e y H a l l , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 10 F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 3 . Convention of Regular B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h Columbia, h e a d o f f i c e , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 22 M a r c h 1 9 8 4 . Crump, M u r i e l . A d m i n i s t r a t o r , B.C. A r e a O f f i c e , B a p t i s t U n i o n o f W e s t e r n C a n a d a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 19 J a n u a r y 1983. D a n i e l s , Laurenda. Archivist, Special Collections, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, J u l y 1983.  170  BIBLIOGRAPHY c o n ' t Dunger, George. A r c h i v i s t , North American S i o u x F a l l s , S o u t h D a k o t a , 21 M a r c h 1984.  Baptist  Grunert, Jennie. R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y , B.C. N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , 24 A p r i l  Seminary,  Association, 1984.  Gundry, F r a n . A r c h i v i s t , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 12 J u l y 1 9 8 3 . G u s t i n , Rev. A r c h i v i s t , B e t h e l Seminary, 21 M a r c h 1984. Harrison, Marilyn, Church, Vancouver,  St. Paul,  Minnesota,  F o r m e r A r c h i v i s t , B.C. C o n f e r e n c e , U n i t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 25 November 1 9 8 2 .  H a r v e y , Sam. M i n i s t e r , C a l v a r y B a p t i s t C h u r c h and Chairman of H i s t o r i c a l Committee, Southern B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 26 A p r i l 1984. Haworth, Kent. Former A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e of B r i t i s h V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J u l y , A u g u s t , 4 November 2 2 M a r c h 198 4. Hersom, Harvey. D i r e c t o r , Department of V i t a l V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 24 J u n e 1 9 8 3 . Hohn, Edmond. A r e a m i n i s t e r , N o r t h A m e r i c a n K a m l o o p s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 27 M a r c h 1984.  Columbia, 1982,  Statistics,  Baptist  Conference,  Kennedy, P a t . A r c h i v i s t , M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of C a n a d a , O t t a w a , O n t a r i o , 26 May 1982. K r o g u l e t z , Rev. W. P a s t o r , Immanuel B a p t i s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , [ M a r c h ] , 1983.  Church,  Vancouver,  Langston, Steve. B u s i n e s s M a n a g e r , N o r t h West B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n , 26 A p r i l 1984. P o u s e t t , Gordon. Manager of B e u l a h Gardens, B a p t i s t Union of W e s t e r n C a n a d a , S u r r e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 22 F e b r u a r y , 24 M a r c h 1983. R i c h a r d s , J o h n B. F a c u l t y member, N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t C o l l e g e , Convention of Regular B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h Columbia, New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 27 May 1 9 8 3 . Saunders, B i l l . A r c h i v i s t , Sunday S c h o o l B o a r d , S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , N a s h v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e , 9, 1 1 , A p r i l 1984. S t e w a r t , Bob. U n i t e d C h u r c h , B.C. C o n f e r e n c e A r c h i v i s t , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , O c t o b e r 1 9 8 2 , 24 May 1 9 8 3 .  171  BIBLIOGRAPHY  con't  S t i r l i n g , Bob. P r o f e s s o r o f S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f R e g i n a , R e g i n a , S a s k a t c h e w a n , 6 March 1984. T a y l o r , Hugh. V i s i t i n g l e c t u r e r , M a s t e r o f A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s Programme, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 8 F e b r u a r y 1983. Thompson, T e r r y . G e n e r a l S y n o d A r c h i v i s t , A r c h i v e s , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , 2 June 1982.  G e n e r a l Synod  T o n k s , Ron. A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r o f S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o m m i s s i o n , N a s h v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e , 11 A p r i l 1 9 8 4 .  Historical  W a l k e r , G a r t h . A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r a n d the E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 26 May, 7 J u l y 1 9 8 3 . W a l t e r s , Mrs. L i b r a r i a n , North American E d m o n t o n , A l b e r t a , 21 M a r c h 1 9 8 4 .  Baptist  Seminary,  Y o d e r , James G. M i n i s t e r , Gladstone Chapel, Capilano Association, R i c h m o n d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 26 M a r c h 1 9 8 4 .  172  CHURCH ARCHIVES SURVEY FOR B R I T I S H COLUMBIA Denomination: P l e a s e check  the following:  Do y o u o r any o f y o u r  church  officials  1. c r e a t e any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :  2. i f s o , do y o u p r e s e r v e any y o u ' v e c r e a t e d :  3. F o r how  long?  administrative records (for eg. land titles, t a x - r e l a t e d documents) marriage  registers -  death  registers -  |~TJ  ^—j  baptismal  registers -  Q  |—-j  m i n u t e s and a c c o u n t s of c h u r c h b o a r d s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s  •  correspondence r e l a t i n g to the o f f i c i a l b u s i n e s s of your church  J^J  correspondence from m i n i s t e r to i n d i v i d u a l s , in h i s o f f i c i a l capacity. membership-related others  5a.  I s your  f~1 J^jj  £]]  records -  Q  Q  -  J~-J  ^  (specify)  4. I s t h e r e a n y o n e i n y o u r  •  church  •  given o f f i c i a l  •  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to m a i n t a i n your  c h u r c h t h e r e s u l t o f an a m a l g a m a t i o n / m e r g e r ?  b. I f s o , do y o u h a v e any r e c o r d s f r o m 6. What i s t h e s i z e o f y o u r m e m b e r s h i p ? 7, Do y o u t r a n s f e r  any o f y o u r  the e a r l i e r  church  body?  Please specify  r e c o r d s t o an a r c h i v e s o r If so, please specify  . repository? .  records  

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