UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comparative study of the record keeping practices of the Anglican, Baptist and United churches in British… Sweeney, Shelley Toni 1985

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE RECORD KEEPING PRACTICES OF THE ANGLICAN, BAPTIST AND UNITED CHURCHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. By SHELLEY TON I SWEENEY B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES i n THE FACULTY OF ARTS Administ e r e d by the School of L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l , and Information S t u d i e s and the Department of H i s t o r y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1985 /^"SShelley Toni Sweeney In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. /Department <^ of jb^'£r>-x^  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date j Q ^ V /£ /fff DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The r e p o r t e n t i t l e d C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s (1980) speaks of a f u t u r e C a n a d i a n a r c h i v a l "system" i n w h i c h a r c h i v e s of government, b u s i n e s s , and i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e t o be bound t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h n e t w o r k i n g . A l t h o u g h c h u r c h e s a r e t o be a p a r t of t h i s s ystem, t h e R e p o r t does n o t s p e c i f y t h e i r r o l e . Y et t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r l d of b o t h a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s i n Canada, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and B r i t a i n , has been d i v i d e d o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n of c u s t o d y of r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s . Whether t h e c h u r c h e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o c a r e f o r t h e i r own a r c h i v e s o r whether p u b l i c a r c h i v e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o t a k e up s y s t e m a t i c and r e g u l a r a c q u i s i t i o n of r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s w i l l s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t t h e r o l e of c h u r c h e s i n t h e f u t u r e development o f t h e Canadian a r c h i v a l system. T h i s t h e s i s t h e n a d d r e s s e s t h e q u e s t i o n of how b e s t t o go about p r e s e r v i n g r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s by s t u d y i n g i n d e t a i l t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s of t h e A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , and U n i t e d Churches i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Through a s u r v e y of c h u r c h government and a r c h i v a l programmes, we d e l v e i n t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c r e a t o r and r e c o r d . As w e l l as e x a m i n i n g t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s of t h e t h r e e c h u r c h e s , t h e s u r v e y t o u c h e s upon t h e p o l i c i e s of s e c u l a r , p u b l i c a r c h i v e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a towards c h u r c h a r c h i v e s . The t h e s i s t h e n a n a l y z e s t h e backgrounds of t h e c h u r c h e s i n Europe and i n e a r l y B r i t i s h C olumbia i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e why d i s c e r n i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g of t h e t h r e e d e n o m i n a t i o n s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e t h e s i s n o t e s t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s of c h u r c h e s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e i r r e c o r d s a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e i r t h e o l o g y and o r g a n i z a t i o n . On t h e one hand, such f u n d a m e n t a l d e t e r m i n a n t s , i t i s a r g u e d , a r e n o t e a s i l y overcome by p u b l i c a r c h i v e s w h i c h s e t out t o c o l l e c t r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s . On t h e o t h e r , t h o s e c h u r c h e s w h i c h have mounted a r c h i v a l progammes de m o n s t r a t e a n e t w o r k i c a p a b i l i t y t h a t so f a r exceeds t h a t of t h e s e c u l a r a r c h i v a l w o r l d . I n any c a s e , c h u r c h a r c h i v e s appear d e s t i n e d t o p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n any f u t u r e s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of C anadian a r c h i v e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t L i s t of T a b l e s Acknowledgement C h a p t e r I : I n t r o d u c t i o n : Church A r c h i v e s and t h e Canadian A r c h i v a l System C h a p t e r I I : The C o n t e x t : A Study of Record K e e p i n g C h a p t e r I I I : The Background: European I n f l u e n c e s on R e c o r d K e e p i n g C h a p t e r IV: Church Record K e e p i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e C h a p t e r V: Church A r c h i v e s : A N a t u r a l C o n c l u s i o n B i b l i o g r a p h y Appendix A i v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e I : Church A r c h i v e s Survey f o r B r i t i s h Columbia ... 58 T a b l e I I : R e s u l t s o f Church A r c h i v e s Survey 59 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I n t h e c o u r s e of w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s , I have become i n d e b t e d t o many p e o p l e who o f f e r e d s u g g e s t i o n s , a d v i c e , and encouragement, o r who s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n and documents w h i c h h e l p e d shed some l i g h t on t h e t o p i c of c h u r c h a r c h i v e s . To a l l t h o s e p e r s o n s , I am v e r y t h a n k f u l . There a r e some s p e c i a l acknowledgements as w e l l . I would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e h e l p of my f r i e n d and c o l l e a g u e Bob S t e w a r t , U n i t e d Church A r c h i v i s t , who l e n t h i s i n t e r e s t and e n t h u s i a s m a t a l l t h e p o i n t s i t was needed. G a r t h W a l k e r , A n g l i c a n Church A r c h i v i s t , was a l s o most h e l p f u l i n s u p p l y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e A n g l i c a n Church. Reverend Gordon P o u s e t t was most generous i n l e n d i n g me h i s e x t e n s i v e works on B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as was Reverend John R i c h a r d s , who s u p p l i e d documents and i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e T r u s t , w h i c h awarded me t h e W i l l a r d I r e l a n d S c h o l a r s h i p t o s u p p o r t my s t u d y of a r c h i v e s i n g e n e r a l and c h u r c h a r c h i v e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . F i n a l l y , I w i s h t o acknowledge t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t of my employers a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of R e g i n a , and th e t e a c h i n g of my p r o f e s s o r T e r r y Eastwood. v i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: CHURCH ARCHIVES AND THE CANADIAN ARCHIVAL SYSTEM A r c h i v a l " n e t w o r k i n g , " t h a t i s the c o n c e p t o f ex-c h a n g i n g a r c h i v a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s h a r i n g a r c h i v a l t e c h n i c a l knowledge and e x p e r t i s e , and r a t i o n a l i z i n g c o l l e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , has become a by-word o f the e i g h t i e s f o r t h e a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n i n Canada. The R e p o r t o f the C o n s u l t a t i v e Group on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s ( 1980 ) g i v e s n e t w o r k i n g a p r o m i n e n t p l a c e . The R e p o r t speaks o f an a r c h i v a l "system"; one i n w h i c h p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s f i g u r e as the key u n i t s , w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l r e p o s i t o r y , t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, a c t i n g as c o - o r d i n a t o r between the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s and " o t h e r a r c h i v e s w i t h n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - such as major c h u r c h , b u s i n e s s o r u n i o n archives.""'" C h urch a r c h i v e s t h e n , a r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s p l a n , b u t beyond t o u c h i n g upon p o s s i b l e f u n d i n g problems n a t i o n a l c h u r c h a r c h i v e s may f a c e i n m a i n t a i n i n g c r o s s - c o u n t r y n e t w o r k s w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d e n o m i n a t i o n s , the R e p o r t does n o t c o n s i d e r c h u r c h . a r c h i v e s i n any d e t a i l . N e i t h e r does the R e p o r t a d d r e s s the c o n c e r n s o f t h o s e c h u r c h e s i n Canada w h i c h do n o t have n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s , nor t h o s e w h i c h have c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r i e s l o c a t e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . W h i l e t h i s l a p s e i s p e r f e c t l y under-s t a n d a b l e i n v i e w o f t h e b r o a d e r aims o f the R e p o r t , 1 the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n a l c a n n o t a f f o r d t o o v e r l o o k the p o s s i b l e r o l e c h u r c h e s w i l l p l a y i n s h a p i n g the f u t u r e o f a r c h i v a l s e r v i c e i n Canada. The c h u r c h e s a r e , i n f a c t , major p l a y e r s i n the n e t w o r k i n g game and as such w i l l have t o be g i v e n c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . J u s t as t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e Group found a sad l a c k o f c o n c r e t e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c u r r e n t s t a t u s o f Canadian a r c h i v e s i n g e n e r a l , however, so t h e r e i s today a n o t i c e a b l e l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a , c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , and w r i t i n g on c h u r c h a r c h i v e s upon w h i c h t o base any c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s b e g i n s t o compensate f o r t h i s d e f i c i e n c y t h r o u g h the s t u d y o f a microcosm o f t h e c h u r c h a r c h i v e s s i t u a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , we w i l l examine the r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s o f the A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , and U n i t e d Churches a t the l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s as t h e s e p r a c t i c e s r e l a t e t o r e c o r d s c r e a t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , and U n i t e d Churches are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o an i n - d e p t h s t u d y o f t h i s s o r t . A l l t h r e e have s i g n i f i c a n t memberships i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a r e P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s , and have sprung more o r l e s s f r om B r i t i s h s o i l , y e t a l l have d i f f e r i n g t h e o l o g i e s and government. They have enough f e a t u r e s i n common t o be compared, y e t p r e s e n t enough d i f f e r e n c e s t o make e f f e c t i v e c o n t r a s t s . Time and c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i c t a t e d 2 t h e c h o i c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as t h e l o c a t i o n i n w h i c h t o p u r s u e t h i s s t u d y . W h i l e p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n tends t o s e t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a p a r t f rom t h e r e s t o f Canada, g e o g r a p h i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m , w h i c h w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , i s o n l y one o f many i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t i n g r e c o r d s r e t e n t i o n , and s i m i l a r i n s t a n c e s o f i t s e f f e c t can be found i n the c a s e s o f t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . A microcosm i s u s e f u l i n t h a t i t s s i z e a l l o w s one t o e x p l o r e i t i n d e t a i l and t h e r e f o r e y i e l d s more s a t i s f y i n g and h o p e f u l l y more a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s t h a n can be produced t h r o u g h a b r o a d , g e n e r a l s t u d y . We b e g i n the t h e s i s w i t h a s u r v e y o f c u r r e n t r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s o f each d e n o m i n a t i o n . The R e p o r t on Ca n a d i a n A r c h i v e s s t a t e s t h a t "an a r c h i v e s m i r r o r s the 2 o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . w h i c h c r e a t e d i t . " The su r v e y a d d r e s s e s the q u e s t i o n o f "how does i t do s o ? " Does an a r c h i v e s m i r r o r i t s p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o n l y because o f the t y p e o f r e c o r d s i t keeps, o r a l s o by the manner i n wh i c h i t keeps the r e c o r d s ? What are the i n t i m a t e l i n k s between c h u r c h government, f o r example, and r e c o r d k e e p i n g ? We w i l l examine the r e s u l t s o f the s u r v e y t o d e t e r m i n e i f such l i n k s e x i s t . F o l l o w i n g t h e s u r v e y , we w i l l s t u d y the i n f l u e n c e s and i n h e r i t e d t r a d i t i o n s of each of the c h u r c h e s w h i c h e x p l a i n t h e i r p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n t b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s . C o n c l u d i n g , we w i l l e x t e n d o ur o b s e r v a t i o n s and a p p l y them t o t h e 3 r e m a i n i n g C a n a d i a n c h u r c h e s . In so d o i n g , we w i l l have a b a s i s f r o m w h i c h t o p r e d i c t the f u t u r e r o l e o f Canadian c h u r c h e s i n m e e t i n g th e demands o f an i n t e g r a t e d a r c h i v a l network. A p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c u r r e n t r e c o r d k e e p i n g c o n d i t i o n s and an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r them i s a s t u d y o f c o n t e x t , and as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h a t , o f p r o v e n a n c e . From t h i s s t u d y o f p r o v e n a n c e , we can d e t e r m i n e c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h t h e a c t i o n s of c h u r c h e s towards r e c o r d k e e p i n g t h a t a l l o w s us t o make o b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p a r t i n any f u t u r e C a n a d i a n a r c h i v a l network. I t a l s o a l l o w s us t o a d d r e s s the i s s u e o f who s h o u l d keep r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s . The R e p o r t on Canadian A r c h i v e s , s t a t e s t h a t " a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s b e l o n g f i r s t and f o r e m o s t i n the hands of t h o s e who o r i g i n a t e d them, and a r e most l i k e l y t o use them," and t h a t "any p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f r e c o r d s s h o u l d r e m a i n , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , i n the l o c a l e o r m i l i e u i n 3 w h i c h i t was g e n e r a t e d . " These two s t a t e m e n t s embody the p r i n c i p l e s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y r e s p e c t i v e l y and f a v o u r r e c o r d k e e p i n g by the o r i g i n a t o r a t a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s as opposed t o r e c o r d c o l l e c t i o n by an o u t s i d e c e n t r a l agency. The i s s u e , however, has by no means been s e t t l e d . In f a c t , a l t h o u g h the C o n s u l t a t i v e Group sought the a d v i c e and p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n s o f a r c h i v i s t s , r e s e a r c h e r s , admin-i s t r a t o r s , and o t h e r s f rom a l l a c r o s s Canada, t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s do n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f a s m a l l b u t v o c a l d i s -s e n t i n g body. 4 The a t t i t u d e o f t h i s group and t h a t of t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e l y summed up i n a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e C a n a d i a n a r c h i v a l j o u r n a l . The f i r s t a r t i c l e , w r i t t e n i n 1975, i s by James Lambert, f o r m e r employee o f the P u b l i c 4 A r c h i v e s o f Canada. In i t , Lambert c l a i m s t h a t t h e c h u r c h e s have d i s c o u r a g e d p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s f rom t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r r e c o r d s by t h e i r " s u s p i c i o u s and even h o s t i l e r e c e p t i o n , " y e t t h e i r a r c h i v e s have f a i l e d t o meet the demands p l a c e d upon them. F o r example, he s t a t e s : "A good a r c h i v e s s h o u l d m i r r o r s o c i a l changes and be s e n s i t i v e t o t r e n d s i n t h e r e s e a r c h a r e a s they a r e most r e q u i r e d 5 t o s e r v e . " Y e t , w i t h the r e c e n t developments i n t h e o l o g y and r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e o f s e c u l a r i s m , p e n t e c o s t a l i s m , non-d e n o m i n a t i o n a l i s m and i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l i s m , Lambert f e e l s the s e g r e g a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r r e c o r d s by t h e i r d e p o s i t i n d e n o m i n a t i o n a l and p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s f a i l s t o a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t s o c i a l r e a l i t y . S i m i l a r i l y , w i t h r e c e n t h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l t r e n d s towards the w r i t i n g o f s o c i a l h i s t o r y s t i m u l a t i n g i n t e r e s t and d e s i r e on the p a r t o f h i s t o r i a n s t o c h r o n i c l e r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y , a demand f o r s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s e a r c h s e r v i c e s has a r i s e n t h a t t h e c h u r c h a r c h i v e s a r e i l l e q u i p p e d t o meet. Lambert n o t e s a number of s h o r t c o m i n g s i n t h e c h u r c h e s 1 c a r e o f t h e i r r e c o r d s t h a t i n t e r f e r e w i t h s e r v i c e : t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e and l a c k o f a r c h i v a l knowledge of t h e c h u r c h p e r s o n n e l i n charge 5 o f t h e r e c o r d s , t h e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e r e c o r d s due t o t h e c h u r c h ' s a t t i t u d e towards " o u t s i d e r s , " the poor f u n d i n g a l l o c a t e d t o a r c h i v e s , t h e low p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o r e c o r d s , and t h e i n c r e a s i n g s h o r t a g e o f p e r s o n n e l t o h a n d l e the r e c o r d s . F u r t h e r , as n o t e d by Can a d i a n h i s t o r i a n H. H. Walsh, t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f r e c o r d s among l o c a l and r e g i o n a l c h u r c h r e p o s i t o r i e s a c t u a l l y impedes s u c c e s s f u l r e s e a r c h . That i s n o t t o say t h a t Lambert i s b l i n d t o e i t h e r the c l a i m s o f d e n o m i n a t i o n s t o c a r e f o r t h e i r own r e c o r d s o r t h e advantages i n h e r e n t i n a programme of l o c a l i z e d p r e s e r v a t i o n . He a d m i t s t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n a c e r t a i n d e n o m i n a t i o n ' s r e c o r d s would n a t u r a l l y e x p e c t t o f i n d them l o c a t e d w i t h t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c h u r c h . The r e s e a r c h o f l o c a l and r e g i o n a l h i s t o r y , b o t h of w h i c h have found i n c r e a s i n g f a v o u r w i t h h i s t o r i a n s i n r e c e n t y e a r s , i s g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h l o c a l c o l l e c t i o n . Thus, h i s s o l u t i o n t r i e s t o b a l a n c e the r e s e a r c h needs of the h i s t o r i a n s w i t h the c l a i m s and the advantages of ch u r c h e s k e e p i n g t h e i r own r e c o r d s . He s u g g e s t s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d n e t w o r k i n g between s e c u l a r and e x t a n t r e l i g i o u s r e p o s i t o r i e s and t h e encouragement o f p u b l i c a r c h i v e s t o c o l l e c t the r e c o r d s o f r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P u b l i c a r c h i v e s , he c o n t e n d s , a r e i n a much b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o c o l l e c t t h e r e c o r d s o f i n t e r - d e n o m i n a t i o n a l and non-6 d e n o m i n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s h o u l d t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e r e c o r d s o f t h o s e d e n o m i n a t i o n s w h i c h a r e u n w i l l i n g o r u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . " T h i s , " he s t a t e s , " w i l l b r i n g about a rapprochement o f s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s a t once c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s o c i a l r e a l i t y and u s e f u l t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r s . " P o s s i b l y , had Lambert l i m i t e d h i m s e l f t o t h i s one a r t i c l e , he would have succeeded i n e v a d i n g the w r a t h of r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v i s t s i n Canada. F o r , a l t h o u g h h i s s t r e s s on t h e needs of s e c o n d a r y r e s e a r c h e r s a t the expense of t h e needs of t h e c r e a t o r s i s no doubt a n n o y i n g and c o n s i d e r -a b l y s h o r t s i g h t e d , h i s comments do n o t s e r i o u s l y pose any t h r e a t t o c h u r c h a r c h i v e s a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . I n h i s f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e i n 1976, however, Lambert i s emboldened 7 t o l e a n h e a v i l y on t h e s i d e o f the h i s t o r i a n s . He f i r s t r e s p onds t o the c h a r g e s l e v e l e d by J . Hanrahan, former P r o f e s s o r o f H i s t o r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a t p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s f o r t h e i r n e g l e c t o f r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s . A l t h o u g h Hanrahan i m p a r t i a l l y l a y s the blame f o r t h i s n e g l e c t a t the d o o r s of b o t h p u b l i c a r c h i v e s and d e n o m i n a t i o n s , he sees the major impetus f o r improvement o f the s i t u a t i o n b e i n g assumed by t h e p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s , w i t h l o c a l r e c o r d s of r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e p o s s i b l y housed i n c i v i c o r p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s r a t h e r than s e n t t o a c e n t r a l d e n o m i n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s , w i t h t h e use of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada as the n a t i o n a l 7 d e p o s i t o r y , and w i t h community a r c h i v i s t s l e n d i n g t h e i r knowledge and e x p e r t i s e t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance g o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n among l e v e l s o f r e p o s i t o r i e s . Lambert a g r e e s w i t h Hanrahan t h a t i n the p a s t t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada l i m i t e d i t s a c q u i s i t i o n of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s p r i m a r i l y t o m i s s i o n a r y r e c o r d s , p r o d u c i n g an i m b a l a n c e d c o l l e c t i o n , a l t h o u g h he sees i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y r e c o r d s as a p r o p e r r e s p o n s e t o r e s e a r c h demands. G i v e n t h a t the mandate o f the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada i s the c o l l e c t i o n o f r e c o r d s o f " n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , " and "as i s o f t e n t h e c a s e w i t h u n i o n s , e t h n i c g r o u p s , b u s i n e s s e s , and so f o r t h , r e l i g i o n i n Canada c o n s t i t u t e s an a c t i v i t y o f n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e and g e o g r a p h i c a l e x t e n t , " Lambert b e l i e v e s t h a t t h a t the n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r 9 r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s as i n c l u d e d i n i t s mandate. W h i l e he h o l d s t h a t the p u b l i c n a t u r e and i m p o r t a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s w a r r a n t s t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n by the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, however, he i s c o g n i z a n t o f the f a c t t h a t some r e c o r d s have a n a t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n and bond w i t h t h e i r l o c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s t h a t c o l l e c t i o n by a c e n t r a l agency would r e n d . A g a i n , as i n h i s f i r s t a r t i c l e , he t r i e s t o be moderate i n h i s remedy o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g t h e m i c r o f i l m i n g o f l o c a l r e c o r d s and t h e i r d e p o s i t i n the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s t o f a c i l i t a t e r e s e a r c h . Lambert i s f a t a l l y b e t r a y e d by h i s c o n c e r n t h a t s p l i t r e s o u r c e s impede 8 r e s e a r c h i n t o c a r r y i n g t h i s remedy one s t e p f u r t h e r t o s u g g e s t t h a t a l l r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s be r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r l o c a l o r n a t i o n a l n a t u r e i n p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , b u t n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h i s l a s t s u g g e s t i o n has a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n o f t h e r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v a l community somewhat i n the manner of waving a r e d f l a g a t a b u l l , so t h a t the r e s t o f Lambert's s u g g e s t i o n s have n o t been g i v e n more w e i g h t . He c o u n s e l s , f o r example, t h e exchange o f i n v e n t o r i e s and f i n d i n g a i d s on c h u r c h r e c o r d s between the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada and r e l i g i o u s r e p o s i t o r i e s . He recommends t h a t the n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s resume i t s f o r e i g n c o p y i n g programme. And f i n a l l y , he s u g g e s t s t h a t the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s l e n d a s s i s t a n c e t o r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s i n s y s t e m a t i z i n g and r e g u l a r i z i n g the c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e i r r e c o r d s , and p r o f e r a d v i c e on any a s p e c t of a r c h i v a l work. While- the a r c h i v a l community may f i n d f a u l t w i t h Lambert's a l l o c a t i o n of power and i n i t i a t i v e t o t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, t h e r e can be no doubt t h a t b r i n g i n g c h u r c h a r c h i v e s i n t o the Canadian network t h r o u g h i n v e n t o r y and f i n d i n g a i d exchange and s t a n d a r d i z i n g a r c h i v a l s e r v i c e i n Canada t h r o u g h t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n by some c e n t r a l agency would g r e a t l y b e n e f i t b o t h c h u r c h a r c h i v e s and t h e i r e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l p a t r o n s . 9 N e e d l e s s t o s a y , the Canadian r e l i g i o u s community d i d n o t g i v e Lambert's s o l u t i o n o f d i s t r i b u t i n g r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s among p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s t h e i r b l e s s i n g . I n a r e b u t t a l t o h i s a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n i n 1977, f o r m e r A n g l i c a n G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v i s t , M a r i o n Beyea, v o i c e s "a s e r i o u s c o n c e r n t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s a r e m i s u n d e r s t o o d , t h a t t h e i r r i g h t s a r e n o t always acknowledged, and t h a t they a r e seen as s e c o n d - r a t e o p e r a t i o n s i f they a r e c o n s i d e r e d a t a l l . " " ' ' 0 The p i c t u r e i s n o t as b l e a k as Lambert p a i n t s i t , she a r g u e s , c i t i n g t h e a r c h i v a l programmes of t h e U n i t e d and A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s , as w e l l as t h o s e o f s m a l l e r groups such as the M e n n o n i t e s , L u t h e r a n s , Grey Nuns, U r s a l i n e s , and O b l a t e s as examples o f the c r e d i t a b l e r e s u l t s so f a r a c h i e v e d by r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n s . F u r t h e r , she p o i n t s o u t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y i s an a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e based on the t e a c h i n g s o f M u l l e r , F e i t h , and F r u i n , and J e n k i n s o n . And f i n a l l y , i n her v i e w , Lambert does n o t o f f e r an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n o f s c a t t e r e d and d i f f u s e sources he c l a i m s e x i s t s among c h u r c h e s a t t h e p r e s e n t . C a r r y i n g h i s recommendations t o t h e i r n a t u r a l c o n c l u s i o n would mean c e n t r a l warehouses g o b b l i n g up r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , s t a t i c " c o l l e c t i o n s " o f a r c h i v e s . Beyea m a i n t a i n s t h a t c h u r c h e s s h o u l d c a r e f o r t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . An i n s t i t u t i o n needs i t s r e c o r d s f o r a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e , f i s c a l and l e g a l r e a s o n s . I t can use h i s t o r i c a l 10 r e c o r d s f o r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and p r o m o t i o n . And i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e uses th e c r e a t i n g body has f o r i t s r e c o r d s , they a r e i t s h e r i t a g e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n s h o r t , she b e l i e v e s t h a t c h u r c h e s have a m o r a l r i g h t and a m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n t o keep t h e i r own r e c o r d s . Lambert argues f o r t h e h i s t o r i a n , Beyea f o r t h e c h u r c h . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , o p i n i o n i s s i m i l a r i l y d i v i d e d , w i t h R o b e r t Warner, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f t h e M i c h i g a n H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , c h a m p i o n i n g s t a t e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f c h u r c h a r c h i v e s , and M e l v i n G i n g e r i c h o f t h e Mennonite Church and A ugust S u e l f l o w of t h e L u t h e r a n Church s u p p o r t i n g c h u r c h r e c o r d k e e p i n g . Warner f i n d s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s t a t e c o l l e c t i o n o f c h u r c h a r c h i v e s i n t h e mandate of the M i c h i g a n H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , a s t a t e s u p p o r t e d i n s t i t u t i o n . I t s m i s s i o n i s " t o c o l l e c t m a n u s c r i p t s and p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g t o M i c h i g a n , i t s p e o p l e and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s . " " ' " " 1 ' Warner i n t e r p r e t s t h i s s t a t e m e n t q u i t e b r o a d l y t o mean t h a t t h e a r c h i v e s ' e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n would n o t be c o m p l e t e i f c h u r c h a r c h i v e s were e x c l u d e d . H i s t o r i a n s s t u d y i n g r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y would k e e n l y f e e l the ommission of c h u r c h r e c o r d s , as would t h o s e s t u d y i n g American i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y , s i n c e t h o s e s u b j e c t s a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y bound t o g e t h e r . H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d the r i g h t o f s e c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s t o g a t h e r c h u r c h r e c o r d s t o h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n , i f t o 11 no one e l s e ' s , Warner d i s c u s s e s how such a programme of c o l l e c t i o n might be implemented s u c c e s s f u l l y . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a r c h i v i s t work t h r o u g h an i n f l u e n t i a l p e r s o n i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n who can "persuade" them t o g i v e up t h e i r r e c o r d s . In t h e c a s e s where the c h u r c h c a n n o t o r w i l l n o t r e l e a s e i t s r e c o r d s , m i c r o f i l m i n g i s i n o r d e r . The l o a n o f c h u r c h r e c o r d s t o a s t a t e r e p o s i t o r y , he n o t e s , i s an a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o o u t r i g h t p o s s e s s i o n when the d e n o m i n a t i o n does n o t w i s h t o cede i t s r i g h t s t o i t s r e c o r d s , s i n c e r a r e l y , i f e v e r , a r e the r e c o r d s removed by t h e i r owners. When a c h u r c h d e p o s i t s i t s r e c o r d s on l o a n w i t h t h e M i c h i g a n H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s , however, i t must agree t o open them f o r g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h under the r e g u l a r r u l e s o f t h e H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s . I f the c h u r c h makes i t s d o n a t i o n a permanent g i f t , t h e n i t c a n n o t remove i t s r e c o r d s t o use them f o r h i s t o r i c a l d i s p l a y . Warner a d m i t s t o f u r t h e r drawbacks i n s t a t e c o l l e c t i o n of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s . A t a p u b l i c a r c h i v e s , the r e c o r d s would p r o b a b l y o n l y r e c e i v e a s h a r e of s t a f f t i m e and i n t e r e s t , and t h a t i n t e r e s t w ould p r o b a b l y depend a l o t on an i n d i v i d u a l a r c h i v i s t ' s p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s . Moreover, s t a t e a r c h i v e s m ight n o t have the space t o house e x t e n s i v e h o l d i n g s of c h u r c h r e c o r d s , w h i c h c o u l d f o r c e them t o e i t h e r be s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n programme o r sample t h o s e r e c o r d s r e c e i v e d . 12 D e s p i t e t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , Warner s t i l l b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e c h u r c h e s a r e b e t t e r o f f d e p o s i t i n g w i t h a p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r y . In s t a t e r e p o s i t o r i e s t h e r e c o r d s r e c e i v e p r o p e r c a r e and i n c r e a s e d use a t v i r t u a l l y no c o s t t o t h e c h u r c h e s . Churches w i t h i n d e n o m i n a t i o n s w h i c h l a c k l o c a l r e p o s i t o r i e s can keep t h e i r r e c o r d s c l o s e t o home by d e p o s i t i n g a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l i n a p u b l i c a r c h i v e s . To g i v e Warner h i s due, a t t h e t i m e he was w r i t i n g few d e n o m i n a t i o n s i n M i c h i g a n had t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . He i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e M i c h i g a n H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s was w i l l i n g t o c o - o p e r a t e r a t h e r t h a n compete w i t h any d e n o m i n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s t h a t e x i s t e d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, however, Warner p i n p o i n t s the a r e a s of g r e a t e s t weakness i n a s t a t e -r u n c o l l e c t i o n programme of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s . F o r i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h he s t a t e s t h a t the p o i n t o f c o l l e c t i n g c h u r c h a r c h i v e s i s t o r e n d e r good s e r v i c e t o b o t h donors and u s e r s , t h e emphasis i s p l a i n l y on s e r v i c e t o o u t s i d e u s e r s such as h i s t o r i a n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , he r e v e a l s : Many of us who c o l l e c t h i s t o r i c a l m a n u s c r i p t s and r e c o r d s p r o j e c t our own r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t s and s p e c i a l t i e s i n t o our own c o l l e c t i n g programs. T h i s i s q u i t e n a t u r a l and u s u a l l y a d vantageous, f o r s p e c i a l knowledge a l l o w s us t o know what k i n d s of ^ 2 r e c o r d s a r e most i m p o r t a n t and how t o seek them o u t . T h i s i s e x a c t l y what G i n g e r i c h , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c h u r c h e s , m a i n t a i n s : t h e a r c h i v i s t i n c h a r g e of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s must have a "thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s d e n o m i n a t i o n ' s h i s t o r y as w e l l as f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l 13 s t r u c t u r e as i t now e x i s t s and as i t was i n t h e p a s t . " In h i s v i e w , i t i s s i m p l y i m p r a c t i c a l f o r p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s t o d e v e l o p t h e e x p e r t i s e t o c a r e f o r even a f r a c t i o n o f th e many d e n o m i n a t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . G i n g e r i c h a l s o c o n t e n d s t h a t p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t makes t h e c h u r c h a r c h i v i s t an e a g e r h u n t e r o f r e c o r d s ; s t a t e a r c h i v i s t s m i g h t be no l e s s eager b u t even w i t h s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t and p e r s o n a l e n t h u s i a s m s p u r r i n g t h e i r e n d e a v o u r s , they s t i l l would be w o r k i n g f r o m the o u t s i d e . T h i s would u n d o u b t e d l y make them l e s s e f f e c t i v e than the c h u r c h a r c h i v i s t . S u e l f l o w adds t h a t t h e c h u r c h a r c h i v i s t i s i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n , w i t h h e r / h i s i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n t o the c h u r c h , t o e n s u r e 14 a f u l l y c o m p r e h ensive c o l l e c t i o n i s k e p t . As w e l l , the c h u r c h a r c h i v i s t can p r o v i d e a f a r more d e t a i l e d and e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e programme t o c h u r c h o f f i c i a l s and r e s e a r c h e r s a l i k e , g i v e n h e r / h i s background i n t h e c h u r c h . The s i t u a t i o n i n E n g l a n d i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f r om t h a t i n Canada and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The m a j o r i t y of the r e c o r d s of t h e Church of E n g l a n d a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , t h a t i s the r e c o r d s b e l o n g i n g t o d i o c e s e s , a r c h d e a c o n r i e s , c a t h e d r a l c h a p t e r s and p a r i s h e s , a r e d e p o s i t e d i n l o c a l r e c o r d o f f i c e s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t a i n . A s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n 1974-75 f o r t h e P i l g r i m and R a d c l i f f e T r u s t e e s , however, exposed t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e c o r d s o f c e n t r a l p o l i c y - m a k i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s o f t h e Church o f E n g l a n d , and t h o s e 14 of numerous Church s o c i e t i e s and r e l i g i o u s communities e s t a b l i s h e d t o promote c h u r c h c a u s e s were n o t b e i n g p r e s e r v e d by e i t h e r s t a t e o r c h u r c h . The Survey Committee recommended t h a t t h e Church s e t up a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y under t h e management of a f u l l y - t r a i n e d a r c h i v i s t f o r t h e s e r e c o r d s . I f t h i s recommendation were n o t a d o p t e d , t h e n t h e Committee s u g g e s t e d , as an a l t e r n a t i v e , t h a t t h e Church d e p o s i t i t s r e c o r d s w i t h t h e P u b l i c Record O f f i c e , r e t a i n i n g f u l l l e g a l p o s s e s s i o n of t h e r e c o r d s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a t t h e t i m e t h e Committee made t h i s l a s t recommendation t h e P u b l i c R e c o r d A c t would have had t o be amended t o a l l o w t h e P u b l i c R e c o r d O f f i c e t o c o l l e c t n o n-governmental r e c o r d s . As a c o n t r a s t t o the r e c o r d s i t u a t i o n o f t h e Church of E n g l a n d , t h e s u r v e y r e v e a l e d t h a t the B a p t i s t s , t h e Church of I r e l a n d , t h e Church of S c o t l a n d , the E p i s c o p a l C h u rch o f S c o t l a n d , the Jews, t h e M e t h o d i s t s , t h e Roman C a t h o l i c s , t h e S a l v a t i o n Army, t h e S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s and the U n i t e d Reformed Church were p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s , a l t h o u g h none had a f u l l , c e n t r a l r e c o r d s management system. Reverend John P u r v i s , commenting on t h e c h u r c h a r c h i v e s scene i n E n g l a n d , s t a t e s t h a t because of t h e i r h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d and p r i v a t e n a t u r e , c h u r c h r e c o r d s s h o u l d r e m a i n i n t h e c a r e o f the c h u r c h . U l t i m a t e l y , he bases h i s argument on t h e v i t a l l i n k between t h e c h u r c h and i t s r e c o r d s : " P e r s o n a l l y , I d e p l o r e t h e s e p a r a t i o n of d i o c e s a n r e c o r d s 15 from t h e i r p l a c e o f o r i g i n , and the b r e a k i n g o f a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h may be i m p o n d e r a b l e o r even s u b t l e , b u t a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s 15 s t r o n g and sometimes v i t a l . " Thus we have th e p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n s i n Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and E n g l a n d r e g a r d i n g who s h o u l d c o l l e c t r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s . There a r e , s e e m i n g l y , p roblems i n the s h e e r l o g i s t i c s o f c a r i n g f o r t h e r e c o r d s f o r b o t h c h u r c h e s and p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s . On t h e one hand, th e c h u r c h e s i n g e n e r a l do n o t have th e f u n d i n g o r t h e e x p e r t i s e t o g i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e t o t h e i r r e c o r d s . On t h e o t h e r hand, th e p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s do n o t have th e p e r s o n n e l , t i m e o r the room t o acommodate a l l the c h u r c h a r c h i v e s d a i l y b e i n g g e n e r a t e d . B o t h s i d e s a d m i t t o some d i f f i c u l t i e s . As i n the Lambert-Beyea d e b a t e , however, th e i s s u e b o i l s down t o s e r v i c e ; a l t h o u g h each c l a i m s t o argue f o r b e s t s e r v i c e f o r b o t h c r e a t o r s and u s e r s , t h o s e f a v o u r i n g s t a t e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f c h u r c h a r c h i v e s want t o s e r v e t h e o u t s i d e u s e r s f i r s t , and t h o s e l e a n i n g t o the c h u r c h ' s s i d e want t o s e r v e t h e c h u r c h ' s p u r p o s e s f i r s t . A r c h i v a l t h e o r i s t s H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n i n B r i t a i n , and Theodore S c h e l l e n b e r g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h o u g h t more i n terms of p r e s e r v a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n s e r v i c e , b u t t h e outcome was s i m i l a r . J e n k i n s o n f e l t t h e r e c o r d s s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d f i r s t and f o r e m o s t t o s e r v e t h e c r e a t o r ' s needs. He s t r e s s e d t h a t a r c h i v e s a r e " p r e s e r v e d i n t h e i r own c u s t o d y f o r t h e i r 16 own i n f o r m a t i o n by the p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t t r a n s a c t i o n . " He added a c o r o l l a r y : " A r c h i v e s were n o t drawn up i n t h e i n t e r e s t o r f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f 16 P o s t e r i t y . " He was n o t u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s d e s i r e t o use t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s r e c o r d s t o w r i t e h i s t o r y . He m e r e l y o b s e r v e d t h a t n e i t h e r t h e h i s t o r i a n n o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r would be b e s t s e r v e d i f t h e r e c o r d s were t o be p r e s e r v e d w i t h t h e h i s t o r i a n e x c l u s i v e l y i n mind. S c h e l l e n b e r g was o f a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n . He d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between " p r i m a r y " and " s e c o n d a r y " v a l u e . He f e l t t h a t r e c o r d s had t o be p r e s e r v e d f o r some o t h e r r e a s o n than t h e p r i m a r y one w h i c h t h e y were c r e a t e d and a c c u m u l a t e d f o r . He a g r e e d w i t h J e n k i n s o n i n t h a t r e c o r d s c r e a t e d by a body were meant i n i t i a l l y t o s e r v e t h a t body, b u t he m a i n t a i n e d t h a t "they must be p r e s e r v e d f o r a n o t h e r r e a s o n t o be a r c h i v e s , and t h i s r e a s o n i s a c u l t u r a l one." T h i s was h i s sec o n d a r y v a l u e . He c o n c l u d e d : " I t i s q u i t e o b v i o u s t h a t modern a r c h i v e s a r e k e p t f o r the use o f o t h e r s t h a n 17 t h o s e t h a t c r e a t e d them." Thus J e n k i n s o n promotes s e r v i n g t h e c r e a t o r , S c h e l l e n b e r g , the u s e r . W i t h them d i v i d e d on t h e m a t t e r , t h e r e can be no c l e a r d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n t o t a k e by f o l l o w i n g t h e i r l e a d . Through t h i s t h e s i s , however, we w i l l be a b l e t o examine the i s s u e i n some d e t a i l f r o m t h e c h u r c h ' s s i d e , and by d e t e r m i n i n g how c h u r c h a r c h i v e s w i l l f i t i n t o t h e Canadian a r c h i v a l n e t w o r k , we w i l l a l s o be a b l e t o d e c i d e who s h o u l d keep r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s . 17 NOTES FOR CHAPTER I 1 C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , R e p o r t t o t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and  H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada by t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e  Group On C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , by Ian W i l s o n , Chairman (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada, 1980), p.70. 2 I b i d . , p.6. 3 I b i d . , p.14, p.16. 4 James Lambert, " P u b l i c A r c h i v e s and R e l i g i o u s R e c o r d s : M a r r i a g e P r o p o s a l s , " A r c h i v a r i a 1 (Winter 1975-76). 5 I b i d . , p.49. 6 I b i d . , p.66. 7 James Lambert, "Toward a R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s Programme f o r the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada," A r c h i v a r i a 3 ( W i n t e r 1976-77). 8 C a n a d i a n R e l i g i o u s C o n f e r e n c e , R e p o r t o f P r o c e e d i n g s o f  Seminar on R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s (Ottawa: n.p., 1972). 9 Lambert, "Toward a R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s Programm," p.47. 10 M a r i o n Beyea, " A r c h i v e s and R e l i g i o u s R e c o r d s , " A r c h i v a r i a 4 (Summer 1977): 208. 11 R o b e r t M. Warner, "The R o l e o f the S e c u l a r I n s t i t u t i o n i n C o l l e c t i n g Church R e c o r d s , " American A r c h i v i s t 28 ( A p r i l 1965): 247. 12 I b i d . 18 NOTES c o n ' t 13 M e l v i n G i n g e r i c h , "An E f f e c t i v e A c q u i s i t i o n Program f o r th e R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 29 (October 1966) : 517. 14 August S u e l f l o w , "Maximum and Minimum S t a n d a r d s f o r R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s , " A m erican A r c h i v i s t 32 ( J u l y 1969). 15 John S. P u r v i s , " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l R e c o r d s , " J o u r n a l o f t h e  S o c i e t y o f A r c h i v i s t s 1 ( A p r i l 1 9 5 5 ): 5, 6. 16 H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , A Manual o f A r c h i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 2nd ed. (London: P. Lund Humphries & Co". , 1 937), p.11. 17 T. R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1956), p. 14. 19 CHAPTER I I THE CONTEXT: A STUDY OF RECORD KEEPING I t i s a f u n d a m e n t a l t h e o r y o f a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s t o p r e s e r v e t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e r e c o r d as w e l l as t h e r e c o r d i t s e l f i n o r d e r t o p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e r e c o r d . I n p r a c t i c a l t e r m s , t h i s means t h a t a r c h i v i s t s must be f a m i l i a r w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i s t o r y o f t h e c r e a t i n g agency t h a t g e n e r a t e d t h e r e c o r d , i n c l u d i n g t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e , and t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f c r e a t i o n and p o s s i b l e uses t o w h i c h t h e r e c o r d was p u t d u r i n g the a c t i v e s t a g e o f i t s l i f e . There i s an added d i m e n s i o n i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c o n t e x t o f r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s because c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l d e n o m i n a t i o n s have chosen t o c o l l e c t t h e i r r e c o r d s , and they do so f o r good and s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n and i n a p a r t i c u l a r and d e l i b e r a t e manner. In t h i s c h a p t e r we w i l l examine t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s o f each c h u r c h and t h e i r r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s i n tandem i n o r d e r t o draw o u t any s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h e x i s t . We s h a l l probe t h e o r i g i n s of t h e a r c h i v a l programmes and r e v i e w the i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l g u i d e l i n e s w h i c h e x i s t t o a i d i n t h e development o f t h e s e programmes. We w i l l n o t e the r e l a t i v e a b i l i t i e s o f each c h u r c h i n m e e t i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s we have o f p u b l i c a r c h i v e s i n terms o f a c c e s s , a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s , and degree 20 o f s u c c e s s i n a c q u i r i n g e x i s t i n g a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . I n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l a s t , we w i l l s t u d y a s u r v e y t h a t was s e n t t o a s e l e c t i o n o f c h u r c h e s w i t h i n each d e n o m i n a t i o n . T h i s s u r v e y w i l l a l s o a f f o r d us a g l i m p s e o f l o c a l a t t i t u d e s towards c h u r c h r e c o r d s . F i n a l l y , we w i l l s u r v e y t h e c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s o f s e c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r p a r t i n t he p r e s e r v a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s g e n e r a t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . We b e g i n then w i t h t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h . I t has a s y n o d i c a l government, based upon a e p i s c o p a c y . P e o p l e o f t e n r e f e r t o t h e " h i e r a r c h i c a l " n a t u r e of t h e r e s u l t a n t s t r u c t u r e , b u t i f we probe i n t o the a c t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , we f i n d a p a t t e r n t h a t i s s u b t l y removed f r o m a s i m p l e h i e r a r c h y . The p r i m a r y u n i t o f the Church i s t h e p a r i s h , w h i c h can be made up of one o r more c h u r c h e s . These p a r i s h e s a r e grouped i n t o d e a n e r i e s , w h i c h u s u a l l y f o l l o w r e g i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . T h i s arrangement a l l o w s p a r i s h e s w i t h s i m i l a r c o n c e r n s t o meet i n f o r m a l l y t o d i s c u s s t h e i r l o c a l needs. The n e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t i s t h e d i o c e s e . There a r e t h i r t y d i o c e s e s i n Canada, f i v e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : t h e D i o c e s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the D i o c e s e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , the D i o c e s e of Kootenay, t h e D i o c e s e o f C a r i b o o , and t h e D i o c e s e o f C a l e d o n i a . 1 The d i o c e s e i s under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n and p a s t o r a l c a r e o f t h e B i s h o p , a l t h o u g h t h e g o v e r n i n g body i s the D i o c e s a n Synod. The B i s h o p and a number o f 21 c l e r g y and l a y d e l e g a t e s f r o m t h e p a r i s h e s w i t h i n t h e d i o c e s e s i t on t h e Synod. An e l e c t e d E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l c a r r i e s on the work of t h e c h u r c h and t h e mandates o f t h e Synod. A complementary body, t h e D i o c e s a n C o u n c i l , i s made up of a number o f s t a n d i n g c ommittees such as t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and F i n a n c e Committee, and t h e Programme Committee. Each o f t h e s e a p p o i n t u n i t s o r t a s k f o r c e s t o a d d r e s s s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . The d i o c e s e s a r e grouped i n t o e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e s , t h e t h i r d l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n . There a r e o n l y f o u r p r o v i n c e s i n Canada. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s a d m i n i s t e r e d under th e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The head of t h e p r o v i n c e i s t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n , o r A r c h i b i s h o p , who i s e l e c t e d f rom among the d i o c e s a n b i s h o p s . As a t t h e d i o c e s a n l e v e l , however, th e g o v e r n i n g body i s the P r o v i n c i a l Synod. The Synod i s made up of the M e t r o p o l i t a n , a l l t h e b i s h o p s , and f o u r each o f c l e r g y and l a i t y e l e c t e d by e a ch d i o c e s e . I t meets e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s , and c o n d u c t s i t s b u s i n e s s t h r o u g h an e l e c t e d c o u n c i l and t h r o u g h f o u r s t a n d i n g committees and two w h i c h meet o n l y when needed. The p a t t e r n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e t h r e e p r e v i o u s l e v e l s a r e d u p l i c a t e d a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . There i s the G e n e r a l Synod, w h i c h i n c l u d e s a l l b i s h o p s as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e numbers of e l e c t e d c l e r g y and l a y p e o p l e f r om each d i o c e s e , headed by the P r i m a t e . The M e t r o p o l i t a n i s the o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f rom the l e v e l o f P r o v i n c i a l Synod t o o f f i c i a l l y s i t on the G e n e r a l Synod. Where do t h e A n g l i c a n a r c h i v e s f i t i n t o t h i s a r r a n g e -ment? The a r c h i v e s f o l l o w t h r e e l e v e l s o f c h u r c h government: t h e d i o c e s a n l e v e l , t h e l e v e l o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e , and t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l . S t a r t i n g f rom t h e top a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , we f i n d t h e G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s and A r c h i v i s t . The c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s was e s t a b l i s h e d q u i t e r e c e n t l y i n 1955 a t t h e n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e f o r m a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t was r a t h e r l a t e i n terms o f the Church's h i s t o r y , e a r l y on a r e g i s t r a r was a p p o i n t e d t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e c o r d s o f a l e g a l o r c a n o n i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Denom-i n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s m a i n t a i n e d an i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e c o r d s u n t i l t h e i r cummulative e f f o r t s r e s u l t e d i n the a p p o i n t m e n t of an a r c h i v i s t . S i n c e t h e n , t h e a r c h i v e s has f u l f i l l e d i t s r o l e w i t h i n c r e a s e d v i g o u r . In 1975, the need f o r r e c o r d s management caused th e e x p a n s i o n of t h e o r i g i n a l a r c h i v e s i n t o a f u l l - f l e d g e d programme. A t t h i s t i me as w e l l , e f f o r t s were begun i n e a r n e s t t o d e v e l o p l i a s o n s w i t h a r c h i v i s t s a t the d i o c e s a n l e v e l . In v i e w of t h e e v e r - s t r e n g t h e n i n g t i e s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n , t h e c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s was a b l e t o b e g i n a programme of m i c r o f i l m i n g v i t a l r e c o r d s o f d i o c e s e s t o e n s u r e th e r e c o r d s ' s e c u r i t y , w h i c h i n c l u d e d books o f e p i s c o p a l a c t s , b i r t h , m a r r i a g e and b u r i a l r e g i s t e r s , 2 and f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s . In March 1978 t h e c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s 23 c o n d u c t e d an i n t r o d u c t o r y t r a i n i n g c o u r s e f o r d i o c e s a n a r c h i v i s t s , and i s p r e s e n t l y c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h them i n p u b l i s h i n g a manual on a c c e s s i o n i n g , arrangement and d e s -c r i p t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v i s t w i t h a r c h i v i s t s a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s was cemented i n 1980 when i t was s t a t e d t h a t a p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f t h e A r c h i v i s t i s " t o c o - o r d i n a t e and a s s i s t a r c h i v a l programs i n t h e d i o c e s e s , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e s , and r e l a t e d 3 a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the A n g l i c a n C h u r c h o f Canada." As w e l l , the G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v i s t i s t o encourage development and c o n t i n u a l improvement o f a r c h i v a l programmes a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s " t h r o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n , a d v i c e , v i s i t s , t r a i n i n g 4 s e m i n a r s , and j o i n t p r o j e c t s such as m i c r o f i l m i n g . " A canon and r e g u l a t i o n s t o f o r m a l l y g o v e r n t h e c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s a r e b e i n g drawn up a t t h e p r e s e n t time f o r t h e n e x t m e e t i n g o f the G e n e r a l Synod i n 1986. They w i l l augment the c u r r e n t Handbook w h i c h m e r e l y i n s t r u c t s the R e g i s t r a r o f t h e G e n e r a l Synod t o "keep an a u t h e n t i c r e c o r d o f t h e c o n s e c r a t i o n o f a l l B i s h o p s " and t o keep "the D e c l a r a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s , t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the Synod, t h e R u l e s o f Order and P r o c e d u r e , 5 and a l l Canons." J u s t a t the time f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v i s t s were b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d , r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Synod A r c h i v e s 24 were approved by t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l . A canon adopted two y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1982, f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e a r c h i v e s . Because t h e a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s of t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C olumbia a r e p h y s i c a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h t h o s e of t h e D i o c e s e of New W e s t m i n s t e r , a s i n g l e a r c h i v i s t has assumed charge of b o t h c o l l e c t i o n s . I n t h e r o l e of a r c h i v i s t f o r t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e , t h i s p e r s o n has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n of t h e f i v e d i o c e s a n a r c h i v e s , h e l p i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a r e g i o n a l network. Each of t h e d i o c e s e s has made v e r y good p r o g r e s s s i n c e t h e t i m e t h a t t h e y began t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e i r a r c h i v e s . The D i o c e s e of Kootenay began t h e t r e n d when a member of t h e D i o c e s e v o l u n t e e r e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s t a t e of a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s w i t h i n t h e D i o c e s e , and t o make e n q u i r i e s c o n c e r n i n g p o s s i b l e a r c h i v a l programmes w i t h a v i e w t o making recommen-d a t i o n s t o t h e B i s h o p and t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee, i n 1978. W i t h t h e h e l p and a d v i c e of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h C olumbia and t h e G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v i s t , a p o s i t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n f o r D i o c e s a n A r c h i v i s t and a p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t f o r t h e a r c h i v e s were drawn up and some v a l u a b l e work done towards p r o c e s s i n g t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t had been g a t h e r e d from v a r i o u s p l a c e s w i t h i n t h e D i o c e s e . Both the p o s i t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e p o l i c y were s u b s e q u e n t l y a pproved, and w i t h t h e programme o f f i c i a l l y l a u n c h e d , t h e new D i o c e s a n A r c h i v i s t c o n t a c t e d a l l t h e p a r i s h e s u r g i n g them t o s u p p o r t t h e a r c h i v a l programme and t o c o mplete a s u r v e y o f t h e i r a r c h i v a l h o l d i n g s . S i n c e t h e n , a l l b u t a few p a r i s h e s have responded t o t h e A r c h i v i s t ' s r e q u e s t f o r r e c o r d s . The m a t e r i a l has been housed s i n c e 1981 i n the D i o c e s a n O f f i c e , and t h e A r c h i v i s t has been r e s p o n d i n g t o an i n c r e a s i n g number o f e n q u i r i e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . M i c r o -f i l m i n g of v i t a l r e c o r d s has been c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e h e l p o f a g r a n t , and t h e A r c h i v i s t i s c u r r e n t l y engaged 7 i n a r r a n g i n g and d e s c r i b i n g t h e h o l d i n g s . The D i o c e s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p a s s e d a canon r e l a t i n g t o i t s a r c h i v e s based on t h e same document p r e p a r e d f o r the D i o c e s e o f Kootenay i n 1980. A l t h o u g h t h e D i o c e s e d i d n o t have a f i r m p o l i c y o f c o l l e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p a r i s h r e c o r d s b e f o r e t h i s t i m e , and had r e l i e d i n t h e p a s t on v o l u n t a r y d o n a t i o n s , s t i l l q u i t e a l o t o f m a t e r i a l had been g a t h e r e d . I t i s now housed i n a s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g w h i c h p r o v i d e s s e c u r e and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s . R e s e a r c h e r s have an a r e a t o use i n t h e a d j o i n i n g c h a p e l . Work has been c a r r i e d o u t by v o l u n t e e r s , b u t government g g r a n t s have r e c e n t l y s e c u r e d o u t s i d e h e l p . The D i o c e s e of C a r i b o o f o l l o w e d t h e p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e D i o c e s e s o f Kootenay and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In March o f 1982 t h e D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s was d e d i c a t e d and o f f i c i a l l y opened. A l t h o u g h no means o f r e g u l a r t r a n s f e r o f m a t e r i a l f r om p a r i s h e s has been d e v e l o p e d as of y e t , a l l p a r i s h / m i s s i o n r e c o r d s p r i o r t o 1970 have been c a l l e d f o r , and t h e m a t e r i a l 26 so f a r a c q u i r e d r e s i d e s i n a c o n c r e t e v a u l t o f t h e d i o c e s a n c a t h e d r a l f o r s a f e k e e p i n g . R e q u e s t s f r o m o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r s 9 f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a r e responded t o . U s i n g t h e same p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t as t h e o t h e r d i o c e s e s , t h e D i o c e s e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r d r a f t e d and p a s s e d a canon and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s i n 1983. The D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s i s one o f t h e o l d e s t r e p o s i -t o r i e s , a l t h o u g h i t s f o r m a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t came l a t e . L o c a t e d i n t h e Vancouver S c h o o l o f T h e o l o g y , t h e A r c h i v e s houses m o s t l y d i o c e s a n l e v e l r e c o r d s r a t h e r t h a n r e c o r d s o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r i s h e s . The D i o c e s a n A r c h i v i s t , as has been n o t e d b e f o r e , a l s o o v e r s e e s t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The a r c h i v e s i s open and a v a i l a b l e t o o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . The D i o c e s e o f C a l e d o n i a , w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , has a d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d . The a r c h i v e s was e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e B i s h o p , d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t a number o f p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s had gone m i s s i n g because of l o n g v a c a n c i e s i n some p a r i s h e s , c a l l e d f o r a l l c o m p l e t e d r e g i s t e r s t o be s e n t i n , i n 1953. In 1955 the S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r o f t h e D i o c e s e o r g a n i z e d t h e r e g i s t e r s and some of t h e accompanying m a t e r i a l and has s i n c e t a k e n c a r e o f the c o l l e c t i o n . 1 " ' ' Thus w i t h t h e h e l p , a d v i c e and encouragement o f t h e c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s , and t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f few i n d i v i d u a l s , 27 the d i o c e s e s o f t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have made a v e r y good s t a r t on a s i g n i f i c a n t a r c h i v a l programme. They a r e a c q u i r i n g a r c h i v e s , making them a v a i l -a b l e f o r i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e s e a r c h e r s , and e n s u r i n g t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e i r endeavours by embodying t h e i r i n -t e n t i o n s i n canons and r e g u l a t i o n s . The n e x t d e n o m i n a t i o n t o examine i s t h e B a p t i s t de-n o m i n a t i o n . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the B a p t i s t C h urch p r e s e n t s a s t r o n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , f o r w h i l e t h e l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t s one u n i f i e d body, the f o r m e r a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s f i v e s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t c h u r c h e s , as w e l l 12 as s e v e r a l s m a l l i n d e p e n d e n t b o d i e s . There i s t h e B.C. A r e a o f the B a p t i s t Union o f Western Canada, the C o n v e n t i o n of R e g u l a r B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n o f the N o r t h A merican B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , th e C o l u m b i a C o n f e r e n c e of the B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e o f America., and the C a p i l a n o and P l a t e a u A s s o c i a t i o n s of the S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , a l s o o f A m e r i c a . The f i r s t o f t h e s e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s , th e B a p t i s t U n i o n of Western Canada, has a f a i r l y complex o r g a n i z a t i o n . L i k e the A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , th e b a s i c u n i t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e c h u r c h c o n g r e g a t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y ends t h e r e , however, f o r w h i l e the c h u r c h i n t h e A n g l i c a n d e n o m i n a t i o n i s s u b j e c t t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e D i o c e s a n B i s h o p , a l l B a p t i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s s t r e s s the l o c a l autonomy o f 28 t h e c h u r c h . Each c h u r c h , t h e r e f o r e , i s f r e e t o o r d e r i t s a f f a x r s as i t sees f i t . By m u t u a l c o n s e n t , however, each i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a l a r g e r body. The B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada c o m p r i s e s c h u r c h e s i n t h e t h r e e P r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e Yukon and t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . The B a p t i s t U nion i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e U n i o n b o a r d , w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y t h a t w i l l a p p l y t o t h e whole body. The Board c o n s i s t s o f t w e n t y - e i g h t e l e c t e d members under t h e g u i d a n c e o f a p r e s i d e n t . These members a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e Commissions: one on Congre-g a t i o n a l L i f e , a second on Union Programme, and a t h i r d on M i n i s t r y and S t e w a r d s h i p . These t h r e e commissions have a v< number o f s t a n d i n g committees w h i c h f u r t h e r augment t h e i r work. I n t h e i n t e r v a l s between Board m e e t i n g s , t h e admin-i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e B o a r d a r e c a r r i e d o u t by an e x e c u t i v e . D e n o m i n a t i o n a l p o l i c y and programme p l a n n i n g d e v e l o p e d by t h e B o a r d a r e b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e l o c a l c o n -g r e g a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r r a t i f i c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e A n n u a l Assembly. The p o l i c i e s a g r e e d upon a r e t h e n g i v e n t o r e g i o n a l b o d i e s known as a r e a s t o a d m i n i s t e r and implement. • • 13 B r i t i s h C olumbia i s a d m i n i s t e r e d under t h e B.C. A r e a . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e a r e a m i r r o r s t h a t o f t h e U n i o n B o a r d . I t i s c o n t r o l l e d t h r o u g h s i x o f f i c e r s , one o f whom i s t h e A r e a M i n i s t e r , and an e x e c u t i v e . These members a r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h e t h r e e c o m m i s s i o n s , and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y t o t h e l o c a l c h u r c h e s i s p r o v i d e d a t t h e A n n u a l A r e a M e e t i n g s . These members a r e a l s o o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on t h e Board o f T r u s t e e s o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f B a p t i s t Churches o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a body w h i c h does a l i m i t e d amount o f b u s i n e s s b a s i c a l l y r e l a t i n g t o i t s f u n c t i o n o f h o l d i n g p r o p e r t y . W i t h i n t h e a r e a f u r t h e r c o n t r o l i s i n s t i t u t e d by g r o u p i n g c o n g r e g a t i o n s i n t o r e g i o n s . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h e r e a r e f i v e r e g i o n s : N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e Okanagan, Kootenay, t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , and Vancouver I s l a n d . And f i n a l l y , t h e r e i s t h e Un i o n S t a f f o f t e n members under an E x e c u t i v e M i n i s t e r , t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e U n i o n , t h e Un i o n B o a r d and t h e A r e a s , as w e l l as o v e r s e e t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e P a s t o r a l S e t t l e m e n t A d v i s o r y Committee. A l t h o u g h t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada i s n o t a n a t i o n - w i d e body, i t i s l i n k e d a c r o s s Canada w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s o f a s i m i l a r p e r s u a s i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n o f O n t a r i o and Quebec, t h e U n i t e d B a p t i s t Con-v e n t i o n o f t h e A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s , and t h e U n i o n o f F r e n c h B a p t i s t Churches i n Canada, w h i c h a l l come t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h t h e B a p t i s t F e d e r a t i o n o f Canada. T h i s a f f i l i a t i o n a l l o w s t h e B a p t i s t Union t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a n a t i o n a l v o i c e , and a l l o w s i t t o u n d e r t a k e c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s such as t h e F e d e r a t i o n ' s World R e l i e f o u t r e a c h . The B a p t i s t F e d e r a t i o n / o f Canada i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e m i l l i o n 30 member B a p t i s t W o r l d A l l i a n c e . Thus we see a c h u r c h w h i c h i s r e g i o n a l i n c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h has a c e n t r a l body c o n t r o l l i n g p o l i c y and programme development, w h i c h has complementary b o d i e s t o e x p e d i t e t h e p o l i c i e s , b u t w h i c h a l l o w s l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n s t h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y t o make f i n a l d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r f u t u r e . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s s t r e s s on l o c a l autonomy, f o r m a l a r c h i v a l p o l i c y c e n t r a l i z e s t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t b o d i e s o f t h e B a p t i s t F e d e r a t i o n of Canada a t t h e B a p t i s t A r c h i v e s o f McMaster D i v i n i t y C o l l e g e , p a r t o f McMaster 14 U n i v e r s i t y i n H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o . The McMaster A r c h i v e s i s th e e a r l i e s t C a n a d i a n d e n o m i n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s t o s e r v e c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e Ca n a d i a n B a p t i s t H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y i n 1865. A l t h o u g h t h e a r c h i v e s was i n t e n d e d t o o n l y s e r v e O n t a r i o , t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y s t a t e d t h a t t h e a r c h i v e s was t o c o l l e c t and make a v a i l a b l e books, p a m p h l e t s , p e r i o d i c a l s , m a n u s c r i p t s , and so on " p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e h i s t o r y and p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n o f t h e B a p t i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n g e n e r a l l y . " " ' " 5 Today a g e n e r a l b y - l a w o f t h e B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n o f O n t a r i o and Quebec w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d t h e A r c h i v e s and H i s t o r y s t a n d i n g committee p r o v i d e s f o r t h e work o f t h e Cana d i a n B a p t i s t H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y t o be c a r r i e d on. Because t h e McMaster A r c h i v e s has r e l i e d on v o l u n t a r y t r a n s f e r s o f m a t e r i a l from c o n g r e g a t i o n s and o t h e r c h u r c h a g e n c i e s , t h e h o l d i n g s d i d n o t become e x t e n s i v e u n t i l t h e l a s t t w e n t y o r t h i r t y y e a r s . I n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e h o l d i n g s a r e now s u b s t a n t i a l , one would n o t u n n a t u r a l l y e x p e c t t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i d e s i t s s h a r e o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . McMaster A r c h i v e s , however, dashes any such ex-p e c t a t i o n ; as f a r as B r i t i s h C olumbia i s c o n c e r n e d , "many B a p t i s t r e c o r d s from B.C. c h u r c h e s do n o t come h e r e , as t h e c h u r c h e s e l e c t t o d e p o s i t t h e i r r e c o r d s i n v a r i o u s l i b r a r i e s 16 and c o l l e g e s i n B.C." I s t h i s t r u e ? G i v e n t h a t the n e x t l e v e l o f government w i t h i n t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada, t h e Un i o n B o a r d , has a permanent o f f i c e s t a f f w o r k i n g o u t o f C a l g a r y , one m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t some a r c h i v e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e Board and t o t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n r e s i d e t h e r e . Such i s n o t the c a s e . "The f a c t o f t h e m a t t e r i s t h a t we s t o r e no a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l a t 17 C a l g a r y , " t h e E x e c u t i v e M i n i s t e r w r o t e . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l f o r t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n was k e p t a t Carey H a l l , t h e B a p t i s t t h e o l o g i c a l c o l l e g e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h a t a g r e a t amount was s t o r e d a t t h e McMaster A r c h i v e s i n H a m i l t o n . I n f a c t , C a r e y H a l l had been s e n t t h e h e a d q u a r t e r 1 s e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n o f y e a r b o o k s , d a t i n g from 1913 on, and some o t h e r " h i s t o r i c a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n . " 18 Carey H a l l , when t a x e d , a d m i t t e d t o h o l d i n g t h e y e a r b o o k s . T h i s , t h e n , would seem t o s u p p o r t what McMaster A r c h i v e s c l a i m e d . The Carey H a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a l s o s t a t e d , how-32 e v e r , t h a t t h e s c h o o l had s e n t d u p l i c a t e s o f t h e i r l i m i t e d h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l t o McMaster " y e a r s ago" and t h a t t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e i n C a l g a r y had a l i m i t e d amount o f m a t e r i a l . The l i b r a r y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( a l t h o u g h n o t t h e a r c h i v e s ) was a l s o q u o t e d as a " s i g n i f i c a n t r e s o u r c e " f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s l e a d s one t o s u s p e c t t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n f u s i o n r i f e i n t h e f i e l d as r e g a r d s t o what c o n s t i t u t e s an a r c h i v e s , o f c o u r s e , b u t t h e s i t u a t i o n does n o t l e a d one t o hope t h a t t h i s c o n f u s i o n m e r e l y masks a h i d d e n g o l d m i n e o f a r c h i v a l r e s o u r c e s . W i t h r e g a r d s t o a c c e s s t o t h e l i m i t e d a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l w h i c h does e x i s t , t h e B a p t i s t / A n a b a p t i s t L i b r a r y r e c e n t l y e s t a b -l i s h e d a t Regent C o l l e g e , an i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l body a l s o a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w i l l open 19 t h e yearbooks t o r e s e a r c h . C o n t i n u i n g on t o t h e n e x t l e v e l o f government, a r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e o f t h e B.C. A r e a o f f i c e s t a t e d t h a t m i n u t e s from each l e v e l o f t h e c h u r c h go t o McMaster, a f a c t w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o s u p p o r t i n l i g h t o f t h e r e p l y g i v e n by McMaster A r c h i v e s , a l t h o u g h perhaps g e n e r a l d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r e c o r d s may n o t have been i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r r e p l y when t h e y spoke o f 20 " c h u r c h r e c o r d s . " A f i n a l n o t e on B a p t i s t U n i o n a r c h i v e s i s p r o v i d e d by Reverend Gordon P o u s e t t , a B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r who has w r i t t e n a h i s t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h C olumbia B a p t i s t s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada. He a d m i t t e d t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e B a p t i s t r e c o r d s . The m a j o r i t y o f B a p t i s t s , i n h i s o p i n i o n , do n o t p l a c e much v a l u e on h i s -t o r i c a l r e c o r d s because t h e y a r e o r i e n t e d towards p r e s e n t and p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n s . And, a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l c h u r c h e s have t h e o p t i o n o f s e n d i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s t o McMaster A r c h i v e s , many have n o t t a k e n advantage o f t h i s s e r v i c e . . C o n s e q u e n t l y , many o f t h e o l d e r r e c o r d s have been i r r e t r i e v a b l y l o s t . T h i s i n c l u d e s some o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n ' s Board m i n u t e s , and most 21 o f t h e m i n u t e s o f i t s c o m m i t t e e s , he f o u n d . I n d i v i d u a l c h u r c h members managed t o p r o v i d e p r i v a t e s o u r c e s o f B a p t i s t r e c o r d s f o r h i s h i s t o r y . The second B a p t i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s formed o f c h u r c h e s w h i c h s e v e r e d t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada i n 19 27 t o form t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n . Today t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c a l l e d t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f R e g u l a r Churches o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n t h i s denom-i n a t i o n t h e c h u r c h i s t h e b a s i c u n i t as w e l l . The denom-i n a t i o n has a handbook w h i c h c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e s the c h u r c h ' s v i e w o f t h e l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n . W h i l e t h i s handbook d e f i n e s t h e " c h u r c h " i n terms s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n , namely t h a t t h e c h u r c h i s a " l o c a l a ssembly o f r e g e n e r a t e b e l i e v e r s i n C h r i s t , b a p t i z e d upon p r o f e s s i o n o f t h e i r f a i t h , (and) o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e New Testament p a t t e r n , " t h e C o n v e n t i o n o r R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s emphasize c e r t a i n e l ements 34 i n t h e i r handbook w h i c h s h o u l d have some r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r 22 t h e i r r e c o r d k e e p i n g . The f i r s t e l ement i s "a r e c o r d e d c h u r c h membership," t h e second "a s t a t e d d o c t r i n a l p o s i t i o n . " The l a s t i s somewhat u n u s u a l because B a p t i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n s have tended t o emphasize t h a t i n v i e w o f t h e autonomy o f t h e l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n , t h e y do n o t have any c r e e d s o r r i g i d d o c t r i n a l s t a t e m e n t s t o f o l l o w . A r e v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c h u r c h , however, p r o v i d e s one w i t h an answer t o t h i s p u z z l e , and t h i s w i l l be a d d r e s s e d l a t e r on. The f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t t h e emphasis on t h e r e c o r d as a b a s i c e lement o f t h e New Testament c h u r c h m i g h t encourage one t o c o n c l u d e t h a t a r c h i v e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e l i f e of t h e c h u r c h . B e f o r e e x p l o r i n g t h e r e a l i t i e s o f r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s , l e t us f i n i s h e x a m i n i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . A f t e r t h e l e v e l o f c o n g r e g a t i o n i s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . The a s s o c i a t i o n p r i m a r i l y a l l o w s B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s w i t h i n a g i v e n g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a o r r e g i o n t o form t i e s w h i c h a l l o w them g r e a t e r power t o t a c k l e l a r g e p r o j e c t s beyond t h e i r c h u r c h b o u n d a r i e s , such as b i b l e camps, home m i s s i o n c a u s e s , r e g i o n a l r a l l i e s , r e t r e a t s and so on. The t h i r d l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a l s o t h e l e v e l o f d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c h u r c h a f f a i r s . T h i s i s t h e C o n v e n t i o n . The E x e c u t i v e Board i s t h e c h i e f agency o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n , and c o n s i s t s o f e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s , r e f e r r e d t o as t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee, and e l e c t e d members, up t o a maximum o f t w e n t y . There a r e t h i r t e e n o t h e r a g e n c i e s t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e r n s o f t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n , from o v e r s e a s m i s s i o n a r y s e r v i c e t o b u i l d i n g and p r o p e r t y . These a g e n c i e s a r e s t r i c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e C o n v e n t i o n , and a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o c a r r y i n g o u t s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n : " t h e y a r e n o t e l e c t e d t o form any h i e r a r c h y o r 23 b u r e a u c r a c y . " Thus, a l l the c h u r c h e s i n the C o n v e n t i o n meet once a y e a r t o f o r m u l a t e mandates f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n , and t o r a t i f y work c a r r i e d o u t by t h e a g e n c i e s o f t h e •• E x e c u t i v e B o a r d . W h i l e t h e c o n v e n t i o n i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t Churches o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , l i k e t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada, t h e C o n v e n t i o n has v o l u n t a r i l y formed a c o - o p e r a t i v e n a t i o n a l u n i o n , f o r m i n g t h e F e l l o w s h i p o f E v a n g e l i c a l B a p t i s t Churches i n Canada w i t h t h e U n i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t Churches i n O n t a r i o and Quebec, t h e F e l l o w s h i p o f Independent B a p t i s t Churches, and t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t M i s s i o n a r y F e l l o w s h i p o f A l b e r t a . What p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r a r c h i v e s ? I n t h e handbook, by-l a w s c o n t a i n s t r i c t u r e s w i t h r e g a r d t o k e e p i n g e s s e n t i a l r e c o r d s . Each c h u r c h c l e r k i s t o "keep m i n u t e s o f a l l b u s i n e s s m e e t i n g s o f the c h u r c h ; t a k e c a r e o f a l l c o r r e s -pondence i n t h e name o f t h e c h u r c h ; m a i n t a i n an a c c u r a t e r e c o r d o f a l l t h e members o f t h e c h u r c h . " As w e l l , " t h e c l e r k s h a l l t a k e charge o f a l l r e c o r d s and v a l u a b l e documents 36 and s h a l l have c u s t o d y o f t h e c h u r c h s e a l . " There i s a l s o p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e c h u r c h c l e r k t o f i l e t h e c u r r e n t f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t , l i s t o f e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s , and " e v e r y e x t r a o r d i n a r y r e s o l u t i o n , and e v e r y amendment t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n when 24 adopted by t h e c h u r c h . " A t t h e C o n v e n t i o n l e v e l , r e c o r d s a r e k e p t i n two p l a c e s . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e and m i n u t e s o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n d a t i n g f rom 25 1959 onwards a r e h e l d i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f f i c e . A l l o t h e r e x t a n t r e c o r d s r e s i d e a t t h e l i b r a r y o f t h e N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t C o l l e g e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . Some o f t h e r e c o r d s were donated by Reverend P o u s e t t , a f t e r he c o m p l e t e d h i s h i s t o r y o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s i n 1956. Many e a r l y r e c o r d s were l o s t when p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s e i t h e r d e s -t r o y e d them o r s i m p l y d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h them. Other r e c o r d s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f o r example, were d e s t r o y e d i n a f i r e i n t h e 1960s. The s e c r e t a r y , who had t a k e n c h a r g e o f t h e r e c o r d s , had f o r t u n a t e l y p l a c e d t h e C o n v e n t i o n m i n u t e s i n t h e s t o r e s a f e . These e s c a p e d t h e c o n f l a g r a t i o n , and t h u s make up p a r t o f t h e r e c o r d s a t t h e C o l l e g e . The L i b r a r y o f t h e N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t C o l l e g e a l s o has a r a t h e r f i n e c o l l e c t i o n o f e a r l y ephemeral m a t e r i a l . Many e a r l y p a m p h l e t s , w h i c h a r e an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e f o r B a p t i s t h i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , were bound by a member o f t h e c h u r c h . P u b l i c a t i o n s s uch as t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t n e w s l e t t e r , The F e l l o w s h i p B a p t i s t , have a l s o s u r v i v e d . 37 There a r e no p r o v i s i o n s i n p l a c e f o r any s o r t o f r e g u l a r a c q u i s i t i o n o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l from l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n s , however, and no s p e c i a l emphasis f o r making t h o s e r e c o r d s w h i c h have been c o l l e c t e d a v a i l a b l e t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , t h e t h i r d B a p t i s t c h u r c h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e f i r s t o f t h e e t h n i c B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s , m i n i s t e r s t o German-born and German-s p e a k i n g B a p t i s t s and t h e i r d e s c e n d e n t s . I t has m a i n t a i n e d a s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y even though t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h u r c h p o p u l a t i o n no l o n g e r speaks German and s e r v i c e s have had t o :• make accommodation a c c o r d i n g l y . The e t h n i c c h a r a c t e r i s p a r t l y s u p p o r t e d t h r o u g h t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t German i m m i g r a t i o n , t h r o u g h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f c o n t a c t w i t h European B a p t i s t s , and t h r o u g h t h e c l o s e l y - k n i t f e l l o w s h i p w h i c h e x i s t s . I n c o n s i d e r i n g i t among t h e many A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n s , A l b e r t W a rdin J r . c a l l e d i t a "somewhat 2 6 i s o l a t e d body." I t has some u n u s u a l f e a t u r e s i n i t s o r g a n -i z a t i o n . The f i r s t n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e i n t h i s B a p t i s t c h u r c h i s i t s s e p a r a t i o n o f c h u r c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h o s e b o d i e s w h i c h c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e c h u r c h ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Thus, e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and c h a r i t a b l e w o r k s , f o r example, a r e i n -d e p e n d e n t l y c o n t r o l l e d . The second f e a t u r e w h i c h d i f f e r -e n t i a t e s t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e from t h e U n i o n and t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s i s t h e A m e r i c a n o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e 38 o r g a n i z a t i o n . The main o r g a n i z a t i o n a l body, t h e G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e , i s made up o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l c h u r c h e s i n t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n , b o t h i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s body meets t r i e n n i a l l y t o f o r m u l a t e p o l i c i e s and g o a l s f o r t h e Church. The main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body o f t h e Ch u r c h , t h e G e n e r a l C o u n c i l , w h i c h t r a n s a c t s a l l t h e b u s i n e s s d e c i d e d upon by t h e C o n f e r e n c e between t h e t r i e n n i a l m e e t i n g s , i s l o c a t e d i n Oakbrook T e r r a c e , I l l i n o i s . The C o u n c i l c o n d u c t s a l l l e g a l b u s i n e s s , h a n d l e s a l l f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s , and so on. There i s o n l y an a d d r e s s i n Canada, i n C a l g a r y , w h i c h r o u t e s money, f o r i n s t a n c e , t o t h e Oakbrook o f f i c e . Thus, w h i l e t h e c h u r c h i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n b o t h i t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, and w h i l e C a n a d i a n monies g a t h e r e d f o r t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n go towards C a n a d i a n p r o j e c t s , t h e main c o n t r o l r e s t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The C o u n c i l does i n c l u d e some Canadian i n p u t , however, i n t h e A r e a M i n i s t e r s . The A r e a M i n i s t e r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o v e r s e e i n g t h e s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e o f t h e i r a r e a s , and a c t i n g as l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s f o r t h e i r a r e a s w i t h the' G e n e r a l C o u n c i l . B r i t i s h C olumbia makes up one o f tw e n t y a r e a s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . F o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , t h e r e i s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . The a s s o c i a t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a n d l i n g t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e c h u r c h e s i n i t s c a r e , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e budget f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f new c h u r c h e s , and so on. 39 A t t h e n e x t l e v e l , we f i n d t h e d i s t r i c t . The B r i t i s h C o lumbia A s s o c i a t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e d i s t r i c t s : t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , t h e Okanagan, and P r i n c e George. Each o f t h e s e d i s t r i c t s has a Church E x t e n s i o n Committee made up o f two laymen from each c h u r c h and a l l t h e p a s t o r s o f t h e d i s t r i c t . T h i s committee i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n t i n g new c h u r c h e s . A t t h e l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n a l l e v e l , t h e s p o n s o r i n g o f c h u r c h e s makes up t h e t h i r d d i s t i n c t f e a t u r e o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e . The s p o n s o r s h i p f o l l o w s a r e p e a t e d p a t t e r n o f e x p a n s i o n w i t h i n a s i n g l e c h u r c h u n t i l t he p o p u l a t i o n can no l o n g e r be c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a s i n g l e u n i t . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e c h u r c h w i l l l i t e r a l l y " s p l i t " i n t o a mother and d a u g h t e r c h u r c h . The new b o r n c h u r c h w i l l f i n d a new l o c a t i o n , and b e g i n the p r o c e s s a l l o v e r a g a i n , under t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e p a r e n t c h u r c h . Thus i n t h e Lower M a i n -l a n d , we have a "grandmother" c h u r c h , Ebenezer i n V a ncouver, t h e "mother" c h u r c h , Bethany i n Vancouver, t h e " d a u g h t e r " c h u r c h , Immanuel i n Vancouver, and B e t h e l B a p t i s t M i s s i o n i n 27 S u r r e y . O u t s i d e o f t h e immediate d e n o m i n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e b e l o n g s t o t h e N o r t h American B a p t i s t F e l l o w s h i p , a c o n t i n e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n under t h e u m b r e l l a o f t h e B a p t i s t World A l l i a n c e . 40 Thus we see a c h u r c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h r e e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s : t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and a l l i e d c h u r c h works, t h e A m e r i c a n o r i e n t a t i o n o f c o n t r o l , and t h e s t r o n g emphasis on t h e growth o f t h e c h u r c h t h r o u g h t h e C o n f e r e n c e l e v e l , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n l e v e l , t h e d i s t r i c t committee l e v e l , and t h e l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n l e v e l . I n some ways, t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c h u r c h i s r e p e a t e d w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n and k e e p i n g o f a r c h i v e s . I n many ways, however, we f i n d p a t t e r n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e o t h e r two B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L i k e b o t h t h e B a p t i s t U nion o f Western Canada and t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t Churches o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r a r c h i v e s was made w i t h t h e s e m i n a r y w h i c h s e r v e s t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n . I n t h i s c a s e , i t i s t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t Seminary i n Edmonton. On c l o s e r exam-i n a t i o n , we a l s o f i n d t h e same d i s t r e s s i n g s i g n s o f c o n f u s i o n , l a c k o f d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n t t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e o t h e r B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s ' r e c o r d k e e p i n g . F o r i n s t a n c e , f o r a t i m e a l i b r a r i a n a t t h e Seminary made h i m s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n ' s r e c o r d s i n Canada. T h i s i n d i v i d u a l has s i n c e l e f t t h e Seminary's l i b r a r y . No f i n d i n g a i d s e x i s t f o r t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t he c o l l e c t e d . Today t h e r e c o r d s occupy space i n t h e s e m i n a r y , b u t r e c o r d s t h a t may have been c o l l e c t e d f r om c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e 41 v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e . C u r r e n t l y , no p o l i c y e x i s t s f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f r e c o r d s by t h e Seminary l i b r a r y . Y e t i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e c h u r c h s t i l l d i r e c t o u t s i d e r s t o t h e Seminary as t h e r e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e i r d e n o m i n a t i o n ' s . . 29 a r c h i v e s . The main a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y o f t h e c h u r c h , i n k e e p i n g w i t h i t s A m e r i c a n o r i e n t a t i o n , however, i s i n S i o u x F a l l s , S o uth Dakota. I t i s t h e p o l i c y o f t h i s r e p o s i t o r y t o a c c e p t m a t e r i a l from a l l c h u r c h e s w i t h i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. The a r c h i v e s has a v o i d e d a c t i v e s o l i c i t a t i o n o f r e c o r d s due t o t h e i n -adequacy o f p r e s e n t f a c i l i t i e s . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s h o r t a g e o f space, and d e s p i t e t h e d e s i r e t o c e n t r a l i z e h o l d i n g s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a r c h i v e s k e e p i n g 30 has d e v o l v e d upon l o c a l o f f i c i a l s . Thus th e c h u r c h e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k e e p i n g t h e i r own r e c o r d s , t h e A r e a M i n i s t e r s a r e i n c h a r g e o f t h e i r a r e a ' s r e c o r d s , and t h e c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s l o o k s a f t e r t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e and t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s n ot r u n by t h e c h u r c h e s b u t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e c h u r c h : t h e s e m i n a r i e s , t h e m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t y , t h e homes f o r 31 t h e aged, and so f o r t h . W i t h r e g a r d s t o t h o s e r e c o r d s which, e x i s t a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n l e v e l , t h e A r e a M i n i s t e r f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e were l o c a t e d a t Ebenezer Church i n V a ncouver, t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s c e n t r a l o f f i c e . The R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y f o r t h e A s s o c i a t i o n p r e s e n t l y h o l d s a book o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s m i n u t e s from 32 19 7 5 onwards. The B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e i s the second e t h n i c B a p t i s t c h u r c h . I t began t o s e r v e S w e d i s h i m m i g r a n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t a l s o has, t h e r e f o r e , an A m e r i c a n o r i e n t a t i o n , j u s t as t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e . As i n t h e o t h e r B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n i s t h e h i g h e s t s o u r c e o f a u t h o r i t y . Each c h u r c h has a c o n s t i t u t i o n and works t h r o u g h c h u r c h b o a r d s . E l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e c h u r c h e s form a l o c a l a s s e mbly w i t h i n t h e Columb i a C o n f e r e n c e . The Co l u m b i a C o n f e r e n c e i n c l u d e s f o u r s t a t e s , W a s h i n g t o n , Oregon, Idaho, 33 and Montana, as w e l l as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The d i s t r i c t c o n f e r e n c e s , d i v i d e d a l o n g g e o g r a p h i c a l l i n e s , a r e c o n t r o l l e d t h r o u g h an E x e c u t i v e Board and a number o f s e p a r a t e b o a r d s and committees w h i c h d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . Beyond t h e d i s t r i c t c o n f e r e n c e i s the n a t i o n a l body, th e G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e . The n a t i o n a l l e v e l has f o u r d e p a r t -m e n t a l b o a r d s : one on home m i s s i o n s , one on f o r e i g n m i s s i o n s , one on e d u c a t i o n and one on p u b l i c a t i o n . There a r e t h r e e s u b s i d u a r y b o a r d s t o d e a l w i t h B i b l e s c h o o l and young p e o p l e ' s work, men's work, and women's work. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o r p o r a t e and g e n e r a l a f f a i r s o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e i s v e s t e d i n a Board o f T r u s t e e s w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e d e p a r t m e n t a l and s u b s i d u a r y b o a r d s . The B o a r d o p e r a t e s from t h e head o f f i c e i n A r l i n g t o n H e i g h t s , I l l i n o i s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y two y e a r s ago, however, t h e s i x t e e n d i s t r i c t c o n f e r e n c e s i n Canada formed a C a n a d i a n head o f f i c e i n Edmonton. A l t h o u g h t h i s was t h e o f f i c i a l b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n e n t e r p r i s e , t h e o f f i c e i s s t i l l w o r k i n g t o e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f . Beyond t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e i s p a r t o f t h e B a p t i s t W o r l d A l l i a n c e . W i t h r e g a r d s t o a r c h i v e s , t h e G e n e r a l B a p t i s t Con-f e r e n c e has a c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s a t B e t h e l T h e o l o g i c a l Seminary i n S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a . T h i s a r c h i v e s had an e a r l y b e g i n n i n g . "As e a r l y as 189 2 t h e G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e a p p o i n t e d a h i s t o r i c a l committee whose p r i m a r y d u t y s h o u l d be t o c o l l e c t and a r r a n g e m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g t o Swedish 34 B a p t x s t h i s t o r y . " The f i n e s t a r t d i d n o t produce t h e e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s , however, u n t i l t h e committee was " r e v i t a l i z e d " i n 1898. Then t h e work began i n e a r n e s t , and a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f d e n o m i n a t i o n a l p a p e r s from 1871 onwards was g a t h e r e d . T h i s a r c h i v e s o n l y s e r v e s t h e c o n f e r e n c e l e v e l of t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e . " L o c a l c h u r c h e s r e t a i n t h e i r own r e c o r d s , " u n l e s s t h e c h u r c h becomes d e f u n c t , i n w h i c h case t h e r e c o r d s a r e a c c e p t e d by t h e n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s . A few m i s c e l l a n e o u s h i s t o r i c a l i t e m s have found t h e i r way 35 i n t o t h e a r c h i v e s as w e l l . The Columbia C o n f e r e n c e l o o k s a f t e r i t s own r e c o r d s . The head o f f i c e , l o c a t e d i n S e a t t l e , W a shington, has r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g t o i t s o f f i c e f r om t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e i n t h e l a t e 1800s. These r e c o r d s c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f m i n u t e s o f t h e C o l u m b i a d i s t r i c t and t h e t r u s t e e b o a r d . There a r e a s m a l l number o f f i l e s k e p t on l o c a l c h u r c h e s , c o v e r i n g s u c h i t e m s as s p e c i a l ^ . 3 6 e v e n t s and a n n i v e r s a r i e s . The f i f t h and f i n a l m a jor B a p t i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n . L i k e t h e two e t h n i c c h u r c h e s , t h e C o n v e n t i o n i s o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . F o r example, t h e main o p e r a t i n g body o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n i s t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n . I t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l major m i n i s t r i e s , such as f o r e i g n m i s s i o n s , t h e s e m i n a r i e s , C h r i s t i a n l i f e , and r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n , t o name a few. L o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n s have d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n l e v e l t h r o u g h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c a l l e d "messengers." These messengers implement c o n t r o l o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o f t r u s t e e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s c o n t r o l l e d by the C o n v e n t i o n . L o c a l c h u r c h e s a l s o i n f l u e n c e t h e C o n v e n t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r a l l o c a t i o n o f f u n d s , a m a t t e r d e c i d e d a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l , whereby t h e f i n a n c i a l g o a l s a r e worked o u t w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y , and t h e funds c o l l e c t e d from t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s a r e a l l o c a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y , some g o i n g t o the C o n v e n t i o n , some r e m a i n i n g t o s u p p o r t s t a t e programmes. C a n a d i a n c h u r c h e s , however, a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o send messengers t o t h e C o n v e n t i o n , owing t o r e s t r i c t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h do n o t 45 a l l o w f o r f o r e i g n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n . Canada i s t r e a t e d as a r e g u l a r f o r e i g n m i s s i o n f i e l d , t h e n , r a t h e r t h a n an e x t e n s i o n o f a p r i m a r i l y A m e r i c a n c h u r c h . W i t h r e g a r d s t o t h i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n , Canada i s p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g towards f o r m i n g a C a n a d i a n S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t Con-v e n t i o n , w i t h a h e a d q u a r t e r s to be e s t a b l i s h e d i n C a l g a r y . W h i l e C a n a d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n i s e x c l u d e d , t h e n e x t l e v e l , t h e s t a t e c o n v e n t i o n , does a l l o w f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from C a n a d i a n c h u r c h e s w i t h i n t h e g o v e r n i n g body. B r i t i s h Columbian c h u r c h e s b e l o n g t o t h e N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n . The c o n v e n t i o n meets a n n u a l l y , a t w h i c h time a l l t h e c h u r c h e s w i t h i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e i n Canada, send messengers. The messengers e l e c t an e x e c u t i v e b o a r d w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o v e r s e e i n g d i r e c t m i n i s t r i e s r e l a t i n g t o the s t a t e l e v e l , i n c l u d i n g c h u r c h music m i n i s t r y , s t e w a r d s h i p , and b e n e v o l e n c e s . The t h i r d l e v e l i s the a s s o c i a t i o n a l l e v e l . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has two a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e C a p i l a n o A s s o c i a t i o n c o v e r i n g the Lower M a i n l a n d and V i c t o r i a , and t h e P l a t e a u A s s o c i a t i o n , i n the I n t e r i o r . As o f y e t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o n l y has a D i r e c t o r o f M i s s i o n s . ;.The two a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e moving towards e s t a b l i s h i n g a j o i n t head o f f i c e . M e a n w h i l e , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n , d r a w i n g on a l l t h e p a s t o r s and e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l t h e c h u r c h e s , meets a n n u a l l y , and 46 e l e c t s an E x e c u t i v e B o a r d . The Board meets t h r e e t i m e s a y e a r t o c o n d u c t t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g . The f o u r t h , and b a s i c l e v e l , i s t h a t o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n . The S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n has d e v e l o p e d some d i s t i n c t i v e r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s . As can be e x p e c t e d , s i n c e t h e r e i s no o f f i c i a l h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r t h e C a p i l a n o A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e r e i s no o f f i c i a l r e p o s i t o r y t o h a n d l e t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l . M i n u t e s o f t h e C a p i l a n o A s s o c i a t i o n from i t s i n c e p t i o n t o 1965, however, r e s i d e w i t h t h e c u r r e n t Chairman o f t h e H i s t o r i c a l Committee f o r t h e 37 N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n . T h i s gentleman was t h e p a s t o r from 19 62-65 f o r t h e now d e f u n c t K i n g c r e s t Church i n V a n c o uver. B e i n g p e r s o n a l l y v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s t o r y , he made a p o i n t o f c o l l e c t i n g t h e m i n u t e s o f the C a p i l a n o A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h he t h e n took w i t h him when he r e t u r n e d t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a l t h o u g h i t i s c l a i m e d t h a t he o n l y t o o k h i s p e r s o n a l r e c o r d s from t h e c h u r c h . Thus t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s r e c o r d s a r e e x t a n t , a l t h o u g h i n p r i v a t e hands. The s t a t e c o n v e n t i o n , w h i c h has i t s head o f f i c e i n P o r t l a n d , Oregon, does not sp o n s o r an o f f i c i a l a r c h i v e s e i t h e r , b u t has had an u n o f f i c i a l p o l i c y o v e r t h e y e a r s o f c o l l e c t i n g and k e e p i n g a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s t h a t would m a i n t a i n a h i s t o r i c r e c o r d o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n . Thus, m a t e r i a l s r e -l a t i n g t o i n i t i a l c o n t a c t s made between t h e C o n v e n t i o n and B r i t i s h C o l u mbian c h u r c h e s s t i l l s u r v i v e , a l t h o u g h t h e y r e s t 47 i n t h e q u i e t o b s c u r i t y t h a t accompanies u n o r g a n i z e d r e c o r d s . A n n u a l R e p o r t s d a t i n g back t o v e r y e a r l y i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n ' s h i s t o r y have been k e p t and o r g a n i z e d , however, and so p r o v e t o be an a c c e s s i b l e r e s o u r c e . They c o n t a i n b o t h t h e c o n t r i -b u t i o n s made by B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a messengers, and i n f o r m a t i o n on B r i t i s h C olumbian c h u r c h e s i n t h e form o f s t a t i s t i c s on g i v i n g done by c o n g r e g a t i o n s , a g g r e g a t e membership, and so on. The s t a t e c o n v e n t i o n i s w o r k i n g on the o f f i c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a r c h i v e s t o h a n d l e t h i s m a t e r i a l and 3 8 a c q u i r e o t h e r r e c o r d s . A t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , t h e r e i s q u i t e an u n u s u a l s p l i t i n a r c h i v a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The Sunday S c h o o l B o a r d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k e e p i n g a l l o f i t s own r e c o r d s , and does s o , u s i n g t h e p r e m i s e s o f t h e Dargan/Carver L i b r a r y i n N a s h v i l l e , Tennessee and t h e o f f i c e s o f an a r c h i v i s t . The S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t H i s t o r i c a l Commission, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k e e p i n g m a n u s c r i p t m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o t h e 39 S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n i n g e n e r a l . I t does not c o l l e c t t h e r e c o r d s o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n g r e g a t i o n s , and so does n o t have a v e r y l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f c h u r c h a r c h i v e s . Two c h u r c h e s from B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have s e n t t h e i r r e c o r d s t o t h e H i s t o r i c a l Commission f o r m i c r o f i l m i n g , however; K i n g c r e s t Church o f Vancouver ( f o r m e r l y Emmanuel), w h i c h s e n t r e c o r d s d a t i n g from 1911 t o 19 65, and W i l l i a m s Lake F i r s t B a p t i s t , w h i c h s e n t r e c o r d s c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d from 48 1967 t o 1972. The f i r s t c h u r c h i s now d e f u n c t , and t h e r e c o r d s e i t h e r s c a t t e r e d , l o s t , o r i n p r i v a t e hands, w h i c h makes t h e m i c r o f i l m t h e o n l y c omplete copy. As f o r s t a t e r e c o r d s , t h e Commission's p o l i c y i s t h a t t h e y r e m a i n a t 40 s t a t e l e v e l . I t does m i c r o f i l m s t a t e a n n u a l s , however, and has m i c r o f i l m s o f b o t h t h e N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n ' s newspaper, t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t B a p t i s t , w h i c h l a t e r became the N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t W i t n e s s , and t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d ' s news-p a p e r , t h e C a p i l a n o C h a l l e n g e . W h i l e a t t h e p r e s e n t time t h e H i s t o r i c a l Commission and t h e Sunday S c h o o l Board a r e q u i t e s e p a r a t e i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s , m a i n t a i n i n g s e p a r a t e o f f i c e s i n the same b u l d i n g , i n t h e near f u t u r e t h e two w i l l s h a r e p r e m i s e s and t h e D a r g a n / C a r v e r w i l l become b o t h a l i b r a r y and an a r c h i v e s , c r e a t i n g a t o t a l r e s o u r c e . F i n a l l y , we come t o examine t h e U n i t e d Church. The U n i t e d Church i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s p a r t o f a n a t i o n - w i d e c h u r c h w h i c h was c r e a t e d i n Canada. I t i s t h e r e s u l t o f a number o f m e r g e r s , t h e major one t a k i n g p l a c e i n 1925, when the M e t h o d i s t Church i n Canada, t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Church o f Canada, and t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n Canada 41 combined t o form one body. The r e s u l t a n t s t r u c t u r e i s a c c o r d i n g l y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f c h u r c h p o l i t i e s from each o f the t h r e e c h u r c h e s . I t i s n o t h i g h l y complex as one m i g h t e x p e c t . From t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s t h e c h u r c h i n h e r i t e d i t s s t r e s s on c o n g r e g a t i o n a l independence. Thus t h e b a s i c u n i t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e p a s t o r a l c h a r g e , w h i c h may c o n s i s t o f one o r more l o c a l c h u r c h e s . Under t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e m i n i s t e r , t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n n e v e r t h e l e s s has a number o f d i f f e r e n t b o d i e s w h i c h o v e r s e e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f i t s a f f a i r s . A Committee o f Stewards manages t h e c h u r c h ' s t e m p o r a l and f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s . The S e s s i o n has o v e r s i g h t o f t h e s p i r i t u a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p a s t o r a l c h a r g e . These two, a l o n g w i t h t h e m i n i s t e r and one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e each from a number o f boards and co m m i t t e e s , such as t h e B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s , t h e y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e U n i t e d Church Women, f o r example, make up t h e O f f i c i a l B o a r d . Beyond t h e p a s t o r a l c h a r g e , t h e r e i s t h e p r e s b y t e r y . The membership o f t h e p r e s b y t e r y i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f members o f t h e m i n i s t r y , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from s e v e r a l c o m m i t t e e s , and l a y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The p r e s b y t e r y has a number o f s t a n d i n g committees c o v e r i n g e v e r y t h i n g from s t e w a r d s h i p t o e d u c a t i o n , p a s t o r a l r e l a t i o n s , and p e n s i o n f u n d s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e p r e s b y t e r y l e v e l make up p a r t o f t h e n e x t l e v e l , t h e c o n f e r e n c e l e v e l . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t w h i c h i s i n c l u d e d i n the A l b e r t a c o n f e r e n c e , B r i t i s h C olumbia makes up i t s own c o n f e r e n c e . The c o n f e r e n c e a p p o i n t s an e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l t o o v e r s e e i t s a f f a i r s , w i t h an e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t . There a r e d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e c o u n c i l c o v e r i n g f i n a n c e and p o l i c y , m i s s i o n s , 50 m i n i s t r y p e r s o n n e l and e d u c a t i o n , and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e , based on r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e p r e s b y t e r i e s , forms th e b a s i s o f t h e n a t i o n - w i d e G e n e r a l C o u n c i l . W h i l e t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Church gave th e U n i t e d C hurch t h e s t r o n g independency o f i t s l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n s , the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n p a r t i c u l a r gave i t i t s h i g h l y complex, b u r e a u c r a t i c r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r i n c i p l e s embodied i n t h e g u i d e f o r t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h , The Manual. The Manual d e t a i l s e v e r y a s p e c t o f c h u r c h l i f e . S t u d y i n g i t , one can g l e a n much i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s w h i c h t h e c h u r c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i d e a l l y w i s h e s t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s , p r e s b y t e r i e s , and c o n f e r e n c e s to f o l l o w , and much i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d t o c e r t a i n r e c o r d s . F o r example, a t t h e most b a s i c l e v e l , g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i s p l a c e d on t h e membership r o l l , t o d e t e r m i n e who may v o t e on c h u r c h m a t t e r s . T h i s i s q u i t e t r u e f o r most d e n o m i n a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h more emphasis i s p l a c e d on t i e r o l l f o r r e a s o n s o f d e t e r m i n i n g c h u r c h membership g r o w t h , p o s s i b l e f u t u r e f i n a n c i a l g o a l s and e x p e c t e d i n p u t from t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n , and so f o r t h , r a t h e r t h a n e l i g i b i l i t y . Next, t h e Committee o f Stewards i s i n s t r u c t e d by t h e manual t o keep a s t r i c t r e c o r d o f a l l p r o c e e d i n g s , and t o p r e s e r v e a l l documents. There i s i n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e m i n i s t e r s t o keep r e g i s t e r s o f b a p t i s m s , m a r r i a g e s , and b u r i a l s , and where t h e law p l a c e s t h i s 51 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon t h e m i n i s t e r , "he s h a l l make an a n n u a l r e p o r t of a l l e n t r i e s i n h i s r e g i s t e r t o t h e S e s s i o n , and i t s c l e r k s h a l l copy t h e same i n t o t h e s e c t i o n of t h e r e c o r d 42 of p r o c e e d i n g s p r o v i d e d f o r such p u r p o s e . " There i s p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c o r d s of p r o c e e d i n g s t o be t a k e n by t h e R e c o r d i n g Steward f o r t h e purpose of a n n u a l r e v i e w by t h e P r e s b y t e r y . When a c o n g r e g a t i o n c e a s e s t o e x i s t , i t s r e c o r d s a r e t o be t a k e n i n t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n of t h e P r e s b y t e r y , w h i c h i s t h e n t o f o r w a r d t h e r e c o r d s t o t h e C o n f e r e n c e A r c h i v e s . A t t h e c o n f e r e n c e l e v e l , a S e c r e t a r y i s a p p o i n t e d who has c u s t o d y of a l l documents and pap e r s g e n e r a t e d by t h e C o n f e r e n c e , save t h o s e d e s i g n a t e d f o r c a r e by t h e Committee on A r c h i v e s . A t t h e G e n e r a l C o u n c i l l e v e l , t h e c o u n c i l i s g i v e n f u l l power " t o d e t e r m i n e t h e number and b o u n d a r i e s of t h e C o n f e r e n c e s , have o v e r s i g h t of them, and r e v i e w 43 t h e x r r e c o r d s . " Thus we see t h e s t r i c t i n s t r u c t i o n and g u i d a n c e g i v e n t o each body of t h e c h u r c h w i t h r e g a r d s t o r e c o r d k e e p i n g . What p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r a r c h i v e s ? F i r s t of a l l , t h e r e i s a Committee on A r c h i v e s a t t h e l e v e l of G e n e r a l C o u n c i l . The S e c r e t a r y of t h e C o u n c i l i s d e s i g n a t e d t h e o f f i c i a l c u s t o d i a n of t h e r e c o r d s of t h e " G e n e r a l C o u n c i l , i t s E x e c u t i v e and S u b - E x e c u t i v e and of o t h e r c o u r t s of t h e Church 52 and o f t h e v a r i o u s Departments and D i v i s i o n s o f t h e Church." I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s an A r c h i v i s t - H i s t o r i a n who i s con-s i d e r e d t o be an a s s o c i a t e A r c h i v i s t o f t h e C h u r c h . T o g e t h e r , t h e Committee, w h i c h meets once a y e a r , m a i n t a i n s and ad-m i n i s t e r s t h e a r c h i v e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n as a w h o le, as w e l l as any c o n f e r e n c e a r c h i v e s where t h e c o n -f e r e n c e has chosen t o d e p o s i t t h e i r r e c o r d s w i t h t h e c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s . A c o - o r d i n a t i n g r o l e i s a l s o g i v e n t o t h e Committee so t h a t t h e y m i g h t e n s u r e t h a t p r o p e r r e c o r d k e e p i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e a t a l l l e v e l s o f t h e c h u r c h . A s i m i l a r a r c h i v e s committee s t r u c t u r e a l s o e x i s t s a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e l e v e l , t h e o n l y o t h e r l e v e l w h i c h a c t u a l l y m a i n t a i n s an a r c h i v e s . The a r c h i v e s committee i s a s t a n d i n g com-m i t t e e of the Conference, and c o n s i s t s of a Chairman, who may be t h e A r c h i v i s t , t h e A r c h i v e s Convenors o f t h e p r e s b y t e r i e s w i t h i n t h e c o n f e r e n c e , t h e A r c h i v e s Convenor f o r t h e con-f e r e n c e b r a n c h o f t h e U n i t e d Church Women, t h e S e c r e t a r y o f C o n f e r e n c e and t h r e e o t h e r members. W i t h t h i s b r o a d - b a s e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e a r c h i v e s committee, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Church-wide Committee on A r c h i v e s , has o v e r s i g h t o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e a r c h i v e s . The a r c h i v e s i s t o be l o c a t e d , when-e v e r p o s s i b l e , i n a t h e o l o g i c a l c o l l e g e , a c h u r c h - a f f i l i a t e d u n i v e r s i t y o r s c h o o l , o r t h e C e n t r a l A r c h i v e s . The committee i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p p o i n t i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e a r c h i v i s t , p r e s e n t i n g a budget f o r t h e work done t h r o u g h t h e a r c h i v e s , 5 3 c o - o r d i n a t i n g t h e g a t h e r i n g o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l , c o -o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e ' s Committee on A r c h i v e s i n c o m p i l i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a m a s t e r i n d e x o f t h e a r c h i v e s o f t h e C h u r c h , a p p o i n t i n g an h i s t o r i c s i t e s sub-committee, p r o m o t i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c h u r c h e s , and e n c o u r a g i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s f o r s t u d i e s i n C a n a d i a n c h u r c h h i s t o r y on an e c u m e n i c a l b a s i s . That i s t h e i d e a l s i t u a t i o n on paper. What i s t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e a r c h i v a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d Church? F i r s t o f a l l , when t h e merger o f 1925 o c c u r r e d , t h e U n i t e d Church became h e i r t o b o t h t h e a r c h i v e s and t h e a r c h i v a l 45 t r a d i t i o n s o f a l l t h r e e c h u r c h e s . The P r e s b y t e r i a n Church was t h e f i r s t d e n o m i n a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h an o f f i c i a l body t o o v e r s e e t h e c o l l e c t i o n and c a r e o f i t s r e c o r d s . I n 1917 an H i s t o r i c a l Committee was a p p o i n t e d a t t h e G e n e r a l Assembly. I t c o l l e c t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f m a t e r i a l t h a t was d e p o s i t e d i n t h e l i b r a r i e s o f t h e e i g h t P r e s b y t e r i a n t h e o l o g i c a l c o l l e g e s . Few r e c o r d s o f c o n g r e g a t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d . Next, t h e M e t h o d i s t H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y w h i c h had been o r g a n i z e d i n t h e l a t e 1800s was r e p l a c e d by an o f f i c i a l A r c h i v e s Committee and A r c h i v i s t a p p o i n t e d by t h e G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e w h i c h met i n 1918. A t t h e same t i m e , each con-f e r e n c e was i n s t r u c t e d t o a p p o i n t a C o n f e r e n c e A r c h i v i s t . The m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d c o n s i s t e d p r i n c i p a l l y o f m i n u t e s o f 54 d i s t r i c t and c o n f e r e n c e m e e t i n g s . A g a i n , few r e c o r d s o f l o c a l c h u r c h e s were c o l l e c t e d . The r e c o r d s w h i c h were g a t h e r e d were d e p o s i t e d , as i n t h e case o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n a r c h i v e s , i n t h e l i b r a r i e s o f t h e c o l l e g e s o f t h e denom-i n a t i o n . The t h i r d d e n o m i n a t i o n , t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l U n i o n o f Canada, d i d n o t have a c e n t r a l o f f i c e u n t i l 1919, and o n l y s c a t t e r e d r e c o r d s o f t h e c o u r t s were e v e r c o l l e c t e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y s u r v i v e d . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e u n i o n o f t h e t h r e e d e n o m i n a t i o n s , g r a n d i o s e p l a n s were made f o r a s p e c i a l a r c h i v e s b u i l d i n g i n T o r o n t o and f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a r e g u l a r s t a f f . These p l a n s were u n f o r t u n a t e l y n e v e r a c t e d upon i n f a c e o f t h e need f o r measures t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e s e v e r e f i n a n c i a l p r o blems b r o u g h t on by t h e D e p r e s s i o n i n t h e t h i r t i e s . I n 1932, however, t h e G e n e r a l C o u n c i l d i d e v i n c e some i n t e r e s t i n t h e m a t t e r when i t changed t h e name o f the s t a n d i n g Committee on 46 H i s t o r i c a l M a t t e r s t o "The Committee on A r c h i v e s . " I n 1946, Dr. L o m e P i e r c e , Chairman o f t h e E x e c u t i v e o f t h e Committee on A r c h i v e s , r e v i v e d t h e i d e a o f a r c h i v e s , and i n 1953 t h e Committee on A r c h i v e s s e t up a sy s t e m o f r e g i o n a l a r c h i v e s w i t h t h e Committee a c t i n g as t h e c e n t r a l a d v i s o r y and p o l i c y - m a k i n g body. The Committee s e t up h e a d q u a r t e r s a t V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e i n T o r o n t o . P i e r c e f e l t t h a t " the work o f t h e C e n t r a l A r c h i v e s w i l l be l a r g e l y one o f c o r r e l a t i o n 4 7 o f a l l t h e r e g i o n a l a r c h i v e s . " Today t h e s t r u c t u r e s e t up i n 19 53 i s i n p l a c e , and t h e s i t u a t i o n e n v i s i o n e d by P i e r c e e x i s t s , a l t h o u g h perhaps w i t h l e s s e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h a n what he had hoped f o r . As f o r t h e r e g i o n a l B.C. C o n f e r e n c e A r c h i v e s , i t e n j o y s a f a i r amount o f s u c c e s s . L o c a t e d i n t h e Vancouver S c h o o l o f T h e o l o g y , i t s e r v i c e s an i n c r e a s i n g number o f r e f e r e n c e r e q u e s t s , w h i c h n o t o n l y i n c l u d e b a p t i s m and m a r r i a g e r e c o r d s e a r c h e s , b u t r e q u e s t s f o r t h e use o f o t h e r r e c o r d s and i n f o r m a t i o n . I t s g o a l i s t o implement a r e c o r d s management programme i n t h e C o n f e r e n c e t o r e g u l a r i z e i t s a c q u i s i t i o n s . U n t i l such t i m e as t h i s o c c u r s , however, i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s from t h e A r c h i v e s ' p o i n t o f v i e w whether t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s f o l l o w t h e s t r i c t r u l e s f o r r e c o r d k e e p i n g s e t o u t i n t h e manual. We have seen what t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f each d e n o m i n a t i o n i s , and how e x i s t i n g a r c h i v e s f i t i n t o t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i n c e t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t o f each d e n o m i n a t i o n i s made up o f t h e l o c a l c h u r c h e s , we must now examine t h e i r r e c o r d c r e a t i n g and k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s t o a t t a i n an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f t h e o v e r - a l l d e n o m i n a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e t o a r c h i v e s . To o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , a s u r v e y was s e n t t o i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t e r s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s . The s u r v e y a s k ed t h e t y p e s o f r e c o r d s c r e a t e d , whether any c r e a t e d were p r e -s e r v e d and f o r how l o n g , whether t h e r e was an o f f i c i a l p e r s o n i n c h a r g e o f t h e r e c o r d s , and whether t h e c h u r c h t r a n s f e r r e d 56 i t s r e c o r d s t o any t y p e o f a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y , and i f so, w h i c h one. Two f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s were added i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e c h u r c h i n q u e s t i o n was t h e r e s u l t o f some t y p e o f merger, and i f so, whether t h e r e c o r d s from t h e f o r m e r c h u r c h e s were p r e s e r v e d (see A p p e n d i x A ) . A r e p w r e s e n t a t i v e number o f c h u r c h e s were s e l e c t e d f rom 1983 48 membership l i s t s p r o v i d e d by t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n t a b l e 1. I n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e s u r v e y a r e t a b u l a t e d i n t a b l e 2. T h i s s u r v e y can o n l y b e g i n t o s u g g e s t p a t t e r n s o f a t t i t u d e and i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e l o c a l c h u r c h e s , o f c o u r s e . Even s o , some i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s show up when one s t u d i e s t h e s u r v e y i n d e t a i l . On t h e whole, a l t h o u g h t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e t u r n s v a r i e s from d e n o m i n a t i o n t o d e n o m i n a t i o n t h e o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s e was q u i t e h i g h . Such e n t h u s i a s m on t h e p a r t s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i s n o t a b l e ; even m i n i s t e r s w i t h i n t h e same d e n o m i n a t i o n s t h a t r e s p o n d e d were amazed a t t h e number o f r e t u r n s . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e perhaps t h a t i t was n o t w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h e s u r v e y t o q u e s t i o n t h e t h o u g h t s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h r e g a r d s t o a r c h i v e s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e r e s p o n s e was t h r o u g h mere c o n s i d e r a t i o n o r whether i t stemmed from g e n u i n e i n t e r e s t . I n any c a s e , t h e r e s u l t s a r e not p a r t i c u l a r l y s u r p r i s i n g . The two d e n o m i n a t i o n s w h i c h have s t a b l e , b u r e a u c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s and c e n t r a l l e a d e r s h i p a l s o show t h e h i g h e s t TABLE 1 Church A r c h i v e s S u r v e y f o r B r i t i s h C olumbia - 1983 S e l e c t e d Sample P o p u l a t i o n c a C 0 C 0 rH •rH - H m -iH - H 0) ITS -p 0 -P -p c 4-> CO (0 cn <d •P X! T3 tn d s-i o 0) c =«= <U G O O <D 5-1 >i 0 >i C +J "H -P & c 0 <u (U u 4J O S • H U E d - H U > -P > d CU m S-i 0 ( O H O m J S X! U D e n o m i n a t i o n u c H -P U 0 d c -P d c o o g (D d 0) 3 (1) 0 £ J) 0 en w cn M 0\° 0\° • P O T ! 0\o =«= o 0\° A n g l i c a n 29 17 58.62 9 .71 175 27.01 32* B a p t i s t G e n e r a l 5 5 100 25 20 3.09 20 B a p t i s t U n i o n 7 5 71.42 10 . 20 49 7.56 31 N o r t h A m e r i c a n -German S p e a k i n g 5 3 60 60 5 .77 13 N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t 5 3 60 18 .75 16 2.47 22 R e g u l a r B a p t i s t 8 5 62.50 7 .81 64 9. 88 35 S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t 5 5 100 50 10 1.54 15 U n i t e d 34 16 47.05 5 .18 309 47.68 44 T o t a l s 98 59 648 *rounded t o n e a r e s t whole number 58 TABLE 2 R e s u l t s o f Church A r c h i v e s Survey - 1983 Anglican Baptist General Baptist Union N.American-German N. American Regular Baptist Southern Baptist United T o t a l number o f ch u r c h e s r e s p o n d i n g 17 5 5 3 3 5 5 16 # w i t h o f f i c i a l i n charge o f r e c o r d s 11 4 4 3 3 4 5 15 % w i t h o f f i c i a l i n charge o f r e c o r d s 65* 80 100 100 100 80 100 94 c h u r c h t h e r e s u l t o f a merger 3 2 1 - - - 1 7 r e c o r d s e x i s t from p r e v i o u s b o d i e s 3 2 1 - - - 1 7 % w i t h r e c o r d s from p r e v i o u s b o d i e s 100* 100 100 - - - 100 100 t r a n s f e r r e c o r d s t o o f f i c i a l a r c h i v e s 14 2 3 0 0 0 0 11 % w h i c h t r a n s f e r t o o f f i c i a l a r c h i v e s 82* 40 60 0 0 0 0 69 make a l t e r n a t e a rrangements 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 % make a l t e r n a t e a rrangements 6* 0 0 0 0 20 20 13 don't t r a n s f e r r e c o r d s 2 [3] [2] [3] [3] 4 4 3 % don ' t t r a n s f e r r e c o r d s 12* 60 40 100 100 80 80 19 # members/church Average #/church 35-600 204 23-330 183 29-350 162 312-468 412 80-280 198 30-595 222 9-500 186 41-1200 266 * rounded t o n e a r e s t whole number 5 9 r e s p o n s e t o r e c o r d k e e p i n g ; o v e r e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f b o t h t h e A n g l i c a n and U n i t e d Churches make some c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r a r c h i v e s . G i v e n t h a t t h e U n i t e d Church began i t s o f f i c i a l a r c h i v a l programme some t h i r t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e A n g l i c a n Church began i t s programme (1946 as opposed t o 1975), t h e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n s e from A n g l i c a n Churches w h i c h make some arrangement f o r t h e i r a r c h i v e s i s p u z z l i n g . A l s o t h e U n i t e d Church gave t h e p o o r e s t r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; a g a i n , one would have e x p e c t e d a h i g h e r r e s p o n s e g i v e n t h e c h u r c h ' s background. Not s u r -p r i s i n g l y , however, a l l t h e B a p t i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n s show h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h u r c h e s w h i c h do n o t make s p e c i a l a r r a n g e -ments f o r t h e i r a r c h i v e s . Both e t h n i c d e n o m i n a t i o n s , w h i c h have t h e i r o f f i c i a l a r c h i v e s l o c a t e d q u i t e f a r from B r i t i s h C o lumbia i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y do not t r a n s f e r t h e i r r e c o r d s . From g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s we t u r n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e r e i s an i n t e r e s t i n g i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between d e s i g n a t e d o f f i c i a l i n c h a r g e o f r e c o r d s and t r a n s f e r o f r e c o r d s t o an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y . The A n g l i c a n C hurch, f o r example, has the l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f c h u r c h e s t h a t c l a i m an o f f i c i a l i n c h a r g e o f r e c o r d s a t t h e p a r i s h l e v e l ; i t also has t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f c h u r c h e s t h a t send t h e i r r e c o r d s t o an o f f i c i a l r e p o s i t o r y . A l l o f the German, N o r t h A m e r i c a n , and S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s 60 c l a i m t h a t someone l o o k s a f t e r t h e i r r e c o r d s w i t h i n t h e c h u r c h , b u t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t c h u r c h w h i c h sends i t s h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l t o t h e two o f f i c i a l S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t r e p o s i t o r i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , none t r a n s f e r t h e i r r e c o r d s t o an a r c h i v e s . Whether t h o s e o f f i c i a l s i n c harge o f r e c o r d s r e t a i n a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l o r n o t , t h e s e r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e a h e a l t h y awareness o f r e c o r d s t h a t i s e n c o u r a g i n g . I t would seem t h a t where t h e r e i s no t r a n s f e r o f r e c o r d s t o an o u t s i d e agency, t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h u r c h assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . An i n t e r e s t i n g n o t e i s p r o v i d e d by t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n c h u r c h e s . F u l l y s i x t y p e r c e n t c l a i m t o send t h e i r r e c o r d s t o an o f f i c i a l a r c h i v e s . I n v i e w o f t h e r e s p o n s e s from B a p t i s t U n i o n o f f i c i a l s r e g a r d i n g a r c h i v e s , one can o n l y wonder where t h e s e l o c a l c h u r c h e s are s e n d i n g t h e i r m a t e r i a l . N e x t , r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e s u r v e y were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e t y p e s o f r e c o r d s t h e y c r e a t e d and t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e y r e t a i n e d t h o s e r e c o r d s c r e a t e d . E i g h t t y p e s o f r e c o r d s were o f f e r e d i n t h e s u r v e y : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s , m a r r i a g e , b i r t h and d e a t h r e g i s t e r s , m i n u t e s and a c c o u n t s o f c h u r c h b o a r d s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b u s i n e s s and i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e s -pondence, and m e m b e r s h i p - r e l a t e d r e c o r d s . The v a r i e t i e s o f r e s p o n s e s a r e a s t o n i s h i n g and u n f o r t u n a t e l y do n o t l e n d them-s e l v e s t o any c o m p a r i s o n s . A few i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d , however, from t h e answers g i v e n . F o r example, 61 t h i r t e e n o u t o f t h e s e v e n t e e n A n g l i c a n c h u r c h e s w h i c h responded c r e a t e a l l e i g h t t y p e s o f r e c o r d s . I n a d d i t i o n , two o f t h e t h i r t e e n n o t e d t h a t t h e y a l s o keep o t h e r t y p e s o f r e c o r d s : t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o t h e Banns, and t o C o n f i r m a t i o n . Only e i g h t keep a l l t h e t y p e s o f r e c o r d s t h e y c r e a t e . The r e c o r d most o f t e n n o t r e t a i n e d i s t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e m i n i s t e r ' s t o i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e i n t h e c a s e s o f t h e t h r e e c h u r c h e s w h i c h do n o t c r e a t e a f u l l complement o f r e c o r d s . The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s , i n most c a s e s , o n l y saved on a s e l e c t e d b a s i s , k e p t f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s o f t i m e as needed o r r e t a i n e d f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e t o f i v e y e a r s . A l m o s t e v e r y A n g l i c a n c h u r c h keeps t h e i r r e g i s t e r s i n t h e i r own c h u r c h " f o r e v e r , " o r t r a n s f e r s them t o the d i o c e s a n a r c h i v e s when f u l l . Many w r o t e t h a t t h e y keep membership r e c o r d s , b u t t h a t t h e c o m p l e t e r e c o r d changes as t h e membership changes. I n o t h e r words, t h e r e i s no e s t a b l i s h e d r e c o r d , b u t a p e r p e t u a l l y a l t e r e d one. F i n a l l y , one r e s p o n d e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y keep a l l t h e r e c o r d s o f s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s , communicants, and o f f e r i n g s . The f i r s t r e c o r d w h i c h i s n o t i c e a b l y a b s e n t from many o f t h e s u r v e y s from B a p t i s t r e s p o n d e n t s i s , s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e b a p t i s m a l r e g i s t e r . I t i s n o t so d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d , however, i f one a p p r e c i a t e s the s t r e s s p u t on a d u l t b a p t i s m , u n l i k e i n t h e A n g l i c a n and U n i t e d Churches w h i c h b o t h encourage 62 i n f a n t b a p t i s m , and t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t one must be b a p t i z e d i n o r d e r t o b e l o n g t o t h e c h u r c h . The a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s i n t h e " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y o f r e c o r d s r e p o r t e d by t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e c h u r c h e s a r e q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g : a n n u a l r e p o r t s , t o be k e p t " i n d e f i n i t e l y f o r H i s t o r y , " c h u r c h b u l l e t i n s , w h i c h would a l l o w the r e a d e r a g l i m p s e o f t h e t y p e and range o f c h u r c h a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e t i m e , p h o t o s , and r e c o r d s o f membership e v e n t s . The B a p t i s t U n i o n c h u r c h e s , f o r t h e most p a r t , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y c r e a t e most o f t h e e i g h t t y p e s o f r e c o r d s w i t h t h e n o t i c e a b l e absence o f b a p t i s m a l r e g i s t e r s . They t e n d t o keep most o f t h e i r r e c o r d s i n d e f i n i t e l y . One U n i o n m i n i s t e r i n c l u d e d r e c o r d s o f d o n a t i o n s and f o o d c o n t r i b u t i o n s made t o t h e c h u r c h . The German-speaking N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t s t e n d t o c r e a t e fewer r e c o r d s , and t o keep them o n l y f o r s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h s o f t i m e , 4 9 such as t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s . I n s h a r p c o n t r a s t , t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s responded t h a t t h e y c r e a t e most of t h e e i g h t t y p e s of r e c o r d s , and f i r m l y s t a t e d t h a t a l l r e c o r d s a r e t o be p e r m a n e n t l y p e r -s e r v e d . R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s a l s o s t r e s s e d p e r p e t u i t y i n keep-i n g t h o s e r e c o r d s w h i c h t h e y c r e a t e and p r e s e r v e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , w h i c h i s v a r y i n g l y weeded o r d e s t r o y e d w i t h i n a two t o f i v e y e a r span. F o r t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s , d e a t h r e g i s t e r s a r e n o t i c e a b l y a b s e n t from a number o f s u r v e y s . The r e c o r d s t h e y c r e a t e a r e t o be k e p t 63 i n d e f i n i t e l y . S u r v e y s from t h e U n i t e d Church showed t h a t n i n e o f t h e s i x t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s c r e a t e a l l e i g h t t y p e s o f r e c o r d s , w i t h two a l s o c o l l e c t i n g p i c t u r e s , newspaper c l i p p i n g s , m o n t h l y n e w s l e t t e r s , and an a r c h i t e c t ' s p l a n s f o r a new c h u r c h b u i l d i n g . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , most r e c o r d s a r e t o be k e p t f o r t h e l i f e o f t h e c h u r c h . Two q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e c o r d s o f c h u r c h e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r om mergers were o r i g i n a l l y i n s e r t e d f o r t h e U n i t e d c h u r c h e s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h o s e c h u r c h e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e merger o f 1925 b r o u g h t t h e i r r e c o r d s w i t h them. As i t t u r n s o u t , c h u r c h e s i n t h e A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t G e n e r a l , B a p t i s t U n i o n , and S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n s a r e a l s o the r e s u l t s o f v a r i o u s m e r g e r s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t a l l c h u r c h e s r e s u l t i n g from s u c h mergers s t i l l have t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e p r e v i o u s b o d i e s . Thus we have a f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e p i c t u r e o f t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s o f t h e A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , and U n i t e d C h u r c h e s . I t would seem t h a t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada, a l l t h e c h u r c h e s r e s p o n s e s seem t o s u p p o r t t h e c l a i m s o f t h e i r o f f i c i a l a r c h i v e s ; i f t h e a r c h i v e s s t a t e t h a t t h e y are n o t a c c e p t i n g r e c o r d s from c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e n t h e answers r e f l e c t t h i s . The c o n v e r s e i s a l s o t r u e . I n the c a s e o f t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n , th e c h u r c h e s seem t o s u p p o r t a n o n - e x i s t e n t a r c h i v e s programme, 64 a l t h o u g h w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e s from each l e v e l and f rom o f f i c i a l a g e n c i e s c o n t r a d i c t i n g each o t h e r , one i s l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e c o r d s may e x i s t somewhere, b u t no one i s q u i t e s u r e where t h a t may be. We have s e e n , t h e n , what t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n s do w i t h t h e i r r e c o r d s , and we have seen what t h e l o c a l c h u r c h e s do w i t h t h e i r r e c o r d s ; t h e r e o n l y r e m a i n s t o v i e w what t h e p o l i c i e s o f m a j o r s e c u l a r p u b l i c a r c h i v e s and r e c o r d k e e p i n g b o d i e s a r e towards r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s . The c e n t r a l , n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s , t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, has s p o r a d i c a l l y c o l l e c t e d c h u r c h r e c o r d s i n t h e p a s t . I n t h e C h e c k l i s t o f P a r i s h R e g i s t e r s 1981 p u t o u t by t h e M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , however, t h e a r c h i v e s f i r m l y s t a t e s : "The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p a r i s h e s t h e m s e l v e s , o r o f t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s , r a t h e r t h a n o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f 50 Canada." I n 1982, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l a c t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s had s t o p p e d ; t h e r e would be no more a c q u i s i t i o n s made w h i l e t h e r e e x i s t e d a b a c k l o g o f m a n u s c r i p t s t o a r r a n g e and d e s c r i b e . As i t was, a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred f e e t o f m a t e r i a l from t h e C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f C h u r c h e s , th e R e l i g i o u s Labour C o u n c i l and t h e E c u m e n i c a l Forum, t h e m a j o r i t y d e p o s i t e d i n 1975, would t i e up t h e l i t t l e t i m e t h e y had t o d e v o t e t o r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s i n t o the • 65 f u t u r e . C l o s e r t o home, t h e P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r p o l i c y was n o t t o a c c e p t r e c o r d s from c h u r c h e s whose d e n o m i n a t i o n had an o f f i c i a l a r c h i v e s . They do h o l d some o r i g i n a l p a r i s h r e g i s t e r s o f a few c h u r c h e s w h i c h were c o l l e c t e d y e a r s ago, b u t no m a j o r 52 c o l l e c t i o n s . The Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s a l s o has made a p o i n t i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s o f n o t c o l l e c t i n g r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s , b u t has d i r e c t e d d o n o r s t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e de-n o m i n a t i o n a l a r c h i v e s . O c c a s i o n a l l y c h u r c h a n n i v e r s a r y i s s u e s a r e added t o the pamphlet c o l l e c t i o n . I n 1975 t h e c h i e f a r c h i v i s t o f Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s m i c r o f i l m e d t h e r e c o r d s 53 t h e y d i d have, g i v i n g d u p l i c a t e s t o i n t e r e s t e d c h u r c h e s . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s h o l d s v e r y few r e c o r d s o f any c h u r c h e s , and does n o t i n t e n d c o l l e c t -i n g any. What t h e y do have i s m o s t l y on m i c r o f i l m , o r i n c l u d e d i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t c o l l e c t i o n s o f p e r s o n s who do n a t e d 54 t h e r e c o r d s w i t h m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s . One o f t h e c h u r c h ' s main f u n c t i o n s i n t h e p a s t was t o keep a r e c o r d o f b a p t i s m s , m a r r i a g e s , and b u r i a l s . W h i l e t h e government has succeeded t h e c h u r c h a r c h i v e s as t h e o f f i c i a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , and w h i l e t h e s e r e g i s t e r s a r e o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e t o t a l r e c o r d s o f any c h u r c h , t h e y a r e s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t " v i t a l " back-up s o u r c e t o government r e c o r d s and t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n 66 l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t d e n o m i n a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a must meet. B e g i n n i n g w i t h "an A c t r e s p e c t i n g m a r r i a g e s i n t h e C o l o n y o f Vancouver I s l a n d and i t s Dependencies 5 t h September 1859," t h e government too k o v e r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f k e e p i n g an o f f i c i a l r e c o r d o f a l l m a r r i a g e s i n t h e f l e d g -55 l i n g p r o v i n c e . The s e p a r a t e c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a came under an o r d i n a n c e r e s p e c t i n g m a r r i a g e i n 1 8 6 5 . ^ The a c t o f 11 A p r i l 1872, however, c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e s t h e r e s -p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e c l e r g y : " E v e r y Clergyman, m i n i s t e r , o r o t h e r p e r s o n a u t h o r i z e d by law t o d e l e b r a t e m a r r i a g e s , s h a l l be r e q u i r e d t o r e p o r t e a ch and e v e r y m a r r i a g e he c e l e b r a t e s t o t h e R e g i s t r a r o f t h e D i s t r i c t w i t h i n w h i c h such m a r r i a g e i s c e l e b r a t e d w i t h i n 90 days from t h e d a t e o f such m a r r i a g e . " Today,the law s t a t e s t h a t between t h e f i r s t and second p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e banns o f m a r r i a g e , the o f f i c i a t i n g c l e r g y must send t o t h e d i s t r i c t r e g i s t r a r a c e r t i f i c a t e o f p u b l i c -5 8 a t i o n o f banns. Under t h e M a r r i a g e A c t , e v e r y p e r s o n s o l e m n i z i n g a m a r r i a g e must o b s e r v e t h e c o n d i t i o n s as s e t o u t 59 by t h e V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s A c t . The a c t s e t s o u t t h e r u l e s whereby r e g i s t e r s o r r e c o r d s o f b a p t i s m s , m a r r i a g e s o r b u r i a l s p l a c e d on f i l e i n t h e o f f i c e o f t h e d i r e c t o r , " s h a l l be p r e s e r v e d and s h a l l r e m a i n i n t h e c u s t o d y o f t h e d i r e c t o r 6 0 as p a r t o f t h e r e c o r d s o f h i s o f f i c e . " W i t h r e g a r d s t o m a r r i a g e , t h e c l e r g y a r e o b l i g a t e d t o f i l e a d u p l i c a t e o f e v e r y r e c o r d o f m a r r i a g e w i t h t h e Department o f V i t a l 67 S t a t i s t i c s i n V i c t o r i a . The Department's r e c o r d s go back t o 18 March 1873, t h e d a t e t h e c h u r c h f i r s t d e p o s i t e d a r e c o r d o f m a r r i a g e w i t h t h e o f f i c e . I n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a r c h i v e s s u r v e y , s e v e r a l c h u r c h e s w r o t e t h a t t h e y send c o m p l e t e d r e g i s t e r s t o V i c t o r i a , a l t h o u g h because t h e m i n i s t e r must send a d u p l i c a t e r e c o r d i n f o r e v e r y ceremony, i t i s not o b l i g a t o r y f o r c h u r c h e s t o d e p o s i t t h e i r r e g i s t e r s . The p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a t l e a s t , have come t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t c h u r c h e s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o assume c o n t r o l o f t h e c a r e o f t h e i r r e c o r d s . There i s , as we know from c h a p t e r one, c o n t r a r y o p i n i o n o f whether t h e y s h o u l d be d o i n g so. I n t h i s c h a p t e r , o ur e x a m i n a t i o n o f c u r r e n t r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s has r e v e a l e d t h a t some p r o f o u n d d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e c h u r c h e s ' approaches t o r e c o r d k e e p i n g . What cau s e s t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s ? A r e t h e y m e r e l y a r e s u l t o f e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o r a r e t h e r e i n t e r n a l f o r c e s a t work as w e l l ? Why a r e t h e r e s m a l l b u t o b s e r v a b l e d i f f e r -ences i n p r o g r e s s between t h e A n g l i c a n and U n i t e d Churches? Why do so many a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s o f t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t Church s t i l l e x i s t d e s p i t e the c h u r c h ' s o b v i o u s l a c k o f b u r e a u c r a c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia? I n o r d e r t o b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n s and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , we must probe t h e u n d e r l y i n g t h e o l o g y and t h e h i s t o r i c development o f each c h u r c h b e f o r e t h e y r e a c h e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e n as t h e y d e v e l o p e d on t h e West C o a s t . 68 NOTES FOR CHAPTER I I 1 T h i s t h e s i s l i m i t s i t s e x a m i n a t i o n t o t h e A n g l i c a n C hurch w i t h i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , n o t i n c l u d i n g t h e Yukon. 2 T e r r y Thompson, " A r c h i v e s , " G e n e r a l Synod J o u r n a l (1980): 120, o b t a i n e d from G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s , T o r o n t o . 3 " G e n e r a l Synod o f t h e A n g l i c a n Church o f Canada: P o s i t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n , " December 1980: 1. U n p u b l i s h e d document o b t a i n e d from t h e G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s , T o r o n t o . 4 I b i d . , p. 2. 5 A n g l i c a n C hurch o f Canada, Handbook o f t h e G e n e r a l Synod o f t h e A n g l i c a n Church o f Canada, 6 t h ed. (Toronto: A n g l i c a n Book C e n t r e , 1981);- p. 15. 6 "Suggested R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e O p e r a t i o n o f t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Synod A r c h i v e s , " approved by t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Synod C o u n c i l , 4 October 19 80; Canon 10. A r c h i v e s , c a r r i e d 19 September 19 82; b o t h o b t a i n e d from t h e A r c h i v e s o f t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver; and i n t e r v i e w w i t h G a r t h W a l k e r , A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 26 May and 7 J u l y 19 83. 7 " D i o c e s e o f Kootenay, D i o c e s a n A r c h i v a l Programme," r e p o r t t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Committee, 6 October 19 78; " P o s i t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n f o r D i o c e s a n A r c h i v i s t , " O c t o b e r 1978; " P o l i c y f o r a D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , " O c t o b e r 1978; " D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , " s u b m i t t e d t o t h e High-way, 7 A p r i l 1979; " D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , " 7 December 1979; "Report o f t h e A r c h i v i s t , " r e p o r t t o B i s h o p B e r r y and Members o f Synod, O c t o b e r 19 81. U n p u b l i s h e d documents o b t a i n e d from G a i l G r e e n h a l g h , A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f Kootenay, Kelowna. 8 P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h R o b e r t Evans, A s s i s t a n t A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 18 May 1983; i n t e r -v i e w w i t h Ken Haworth, f o r m e r A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 22 March 1984. 69 NOTES c o n ' t 9 Surv e y o f A n g l i c a n D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , D i o c e s e o f C a r i b o o ; Canon XIX; U n p u b l i s h e d documents o b t a i n e d from J o a n Newman, A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f C a r i b o o , Kamloops. 10 I n t e r v i e w w i t h G a r t h W a l k e r , A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, 26 May and 7 J u l y 19 83. 11 P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h E i l e e n James, S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r , D i o c e s e o f C a l e d o n i a , 22 March 19 83. 12 Gordon P o u s e t t , " B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " C i r c l e o f  V o i c e s : A H i s t o r y o f t h e R e l i g i o u s Communities o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , ed'. Chuck Anderson ( L a n c e v i l l e , B.C. : O o l i c h a n Books, 19 8 3 ) . 13 The Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e B.C. A r e a . 14 The o f f i c i a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e M a r i t i m e c h u r c h e s i s l o c a t e d a t A c a d i a U n i v e r s i t y i n W o l f v i l l e , Nova S c o t i a . 15 C a n a d i a n B a p t i s t A r c h i v e s , "From B a p t i s t B e g i n n i n g s Through t h e P r e s e n t t o t h e F u t u r e , " 19 83; pamphlet o b t a i n e d from t h e C a n a d i a n B a p t i s t A r c h i v e s , H a m i l t o n . 16 P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h J u d i t h C o l w e l l , L i b r a r i a n , C a n a d i a n B a p t i s t A r c h i v e s , 20 A p r i l 1983. 17 P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h Doug M o f f a t , E x e c u t i v e M i n i s t e r , t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada, 9 March 19 83. 18 I n t e r v i e w w i t h P h i l i p C o l l i n s , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r i n A p p l i e d T h e o l o g y and Chairman o f Campus M i n i s t r i e s , Carey H a l l , V a ncouver, 10 F e b r u a r y , 1983. 19 I b i d . 70 NOTES c o n ' t 20 I n t e r v i e w w i t h M u r i e l Crump, A d m i n i s t r a t o r , B.C. A r e a o f f i c e , B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada, Vancouver, 19 J a n u a r y 1983. 21 Gordon P o u s e t t , "A H i s t o r y o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f B a p t i s t Churches o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " (Master o f Theology t h e s i s , Vancouver S c h o o l o f T h e o l o g y , 1982) . 22 The B.C. R e g i o n a l F e l l o w s h i p o f E v a n g e l i c a l B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s , Handbook o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t Churches o f  B r i t i s h C olumbia (n.p., 1976), p. 12. 23 I b i d . , p. 37. 24 I b i d . , p. 54; I b i d , ; I b i d . , p. 55. 25 I n t e r v i e w w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , C o n v e n t i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t Churches o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , head o f f i c e , V a n c o u v e r , 22 March, 19 84. 26 A l b e r t W. W a r d i n J r . , B a p t i s t A t l a s ( N a s h v i l l e : Broadman P r e s s , 1980), p. 26. 27 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Rev. W. K o r g u l e t z , P a s t o r , Immanual B a p t i s t C h u rch, Vancouver, March 19 83. 28 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mrs. W a l t e r s , L i b r a r i a n , N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t Seminary, Edmonton, 21 March 1984. 29 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Rev. Edmond Hohn, A r e a M i n i s t e r , N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , Kelowna, 27 March 1984. 30 Dr. G. Dunger, A r c h i v i s t , N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t Seminary, S i o u x F a l l s , S outh Dakota, 21 March 19 84. 31 I b i d . 71 NOTES c o n ' t 32 I n t e r v i e w w i t h J e n n i e G r u n e r t , R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y , B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n , N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , Vancouver, 24 A p r i l 1984. 33 The p r a i r i e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, have made up t h e i r own c o n f e r e n c e s . 34 A d o l f O l s o n , A C e n t e n a r y H i s t o r y as R e l a t e d t o t h e B a p t i s t  G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e o f A m e r i c a (New Yo r k : Arno P r e s s , 1 952), p. X I . 35 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Rev. G u s t i n , A r c h i v i s t , B e t h e l Seminary, S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a , 21 March 1984. 36 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Grace A n d e r s o n , member o f t h e H i s t o r i c a l Committee, Columbia C o n f e r e n c e , B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e , S e a t t l e , W ashington, 28 March 1984. 37 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Rev. Sam Harvey, M i n i s t e r , C a l v a r y B a p t i s t C hurch, and Chairman o f t h e H i s t o r i c a l Committee, S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , S e a t t l e , W a s hington, 26 A p r i l 1984. 38 I n t e r v i e w w i t h S t e v e L a n g s t o n , B u s i n e s s Manager, N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , P o r t l a n d , Oregon, 26 A p r i l 1984. 39 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l S a u n d e r s , A r c h i v i s t , Sunday S c h o o l B o a r d , S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , N a s h v i l l e , Tennessee, 9 A p r i l 1984. 40 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Ron Tonks, A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t H i s t o r i c a l Commission, N a s h v i l l e , Tennessee, 11 A p r i l 1984. 41 I n 1966 t h e G e n e r a l C o u n c i l adopted t h e P l a n o f U n i o n between th e Canada C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e E v a n g e l i c a l U n i t e d B r e t h r e n Church and t h e U n i t e d Church o f Canada. The U n i o n t o o k p l a c e J a n u a r y 1968. 72 NOTES c o n ' t 42 The U n i t e d Church o f Canada, The Manual (n.p.: The U n i t e d Church P u b l i s h i n g House, 1978), p. 55. 43 I b i d . , p. 22. 44 I b i d . , p. 128. 45 John A r c h e r i n h i s t h e s i s on a r c h i v e s i n Canada m e n t i o n s t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f u n i o n , t h e Dominion Commission r u l e d on t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f c h u r c h a r c h i v e s t h a t " w h i l e t h e r e c o r d s of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church o r any o f i t s b o d i e s would r e m a i n i n t h e c u s t o d y o f t h a t c h u r c h , t h e r e c o r d s would be open t o i n s p e c t i o n , " by o f f i c e r s o f t h e U n i t e d Church, who w o u l d be a l l o w e d t o make c o p i e s . Thus the r e c o r d s o f t h e non-c o n c u r r i n g c h u r c h e s remained w i t h t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n C h urch. The r e c o r d s o f t h o s e c h u r c h e s w h i c h j o i n e d t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h , however, were t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e new body. (John H. A r c h e r , "A Study o f A r c h i v a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada," Ph.D. t h e s i s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1969 , p. 517). 46 L o m e P i e r c e , "Foreword," The B u l l e t i n U n i t e d C h u r c h , 12 (1959). 47 Idem, "Foreword," The B u l l e t i n U n i t e d C h u r c h , 5 (1952), p. 1. 48 S e l e c t i o n o f c h u r c h e s was done w i t h i n p a r a m e t e r s e s t a b l i s h e d by t o t a l number o f c h u r c h e s i n d e n o m i n a t i o n and a g i v e n l i m i t o f one hundred s u r v e y s . The number o f s u r v e y s s e n t t o U n i t e d c h u r c h e s i s i n o r d i n a t e l y low due t o an i n c o r r e c t t o t a l (250 c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia as opposed t o t h e c o r r e c t t o t a l o f 309) w h i c h was o b t a i n e d a t t h e same t i m e as members' a d d r e s s e s . A minimum o f f i v e was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h o s e c h u r c h e s whose a l l o c a t i o n o f s u r v e y s would have f a l l e n , below t h a t number. 49 There was, p e r h a p s , some c o n f u s i o n g i v e n t h e w o r d i n g " f o r how l o n g " does n o t s p e c i f y whether t h e q u e s t i o n wants p a s t p r a c t i c e o r i n t e n t i o n s . The s p e c i f i c y e a r s q u o t e d by German-speaking B a p t i s t s c o u l d r e f e r t o l e n g t h o f t i m e t h a t m a t e r i a l has been h e l d so f a r , w h i c h s a y s n o t h i n g o f i n t e n t i o n s . 7 3 NOTES c o n ' t 50 P a t r i c i a B i r k e t t , ed., The C h e c k l i s t o f P a r i s h R e g i s t e r s (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1981), p. IX. 51 I n t e r v i e w w i t h P a t Kennedy, A r c h i v i s t , M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Ottawa, 26 May 19 82. 52 I n t e r v i e w w i t h F r a n Gundry, A r c h i v i s t , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , 12 J u l y 1983. 53 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Sue B a p t i e , A r c h i v i s t , Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e V a n c ouver, 12 J u l y 1983. 54 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Laurenda D a n i e l s , A r c h i v i s t , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, J u l y 1983. 55 The C o n s o l i d a t e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1877. 56 I b i d . 57 I b i d . , p. 35 . 58 The R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1979, v o l . 5. 59 I b i d . 60 I b i d . , p. 19. CHAPTER I I I THE BACKGROUND: EUROPEAN INFLUENCES ON RECORD KEEPING A t t h e j o i n t A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r c h i v i s t s / N o r t h - w e s t A r c h i v i s t s m e e t i n g i n May of 1984, U n i t e d Church A r c h i v i s t Bob S t e w a r t s a i d , Much of what S i s t e r R i t a has s a i d c o n f i r m s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e S i s t e r s o f P r o v i d e n c e a r e d e e p l y commited [ s i c ] t o p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r h e r i t a g e --a commitment t h a t seems so much s t r o n g e r t h a n i n my own c h u r c h . And I ask m y s e l f : WHY? Why do some c h u r c h e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s have more p a s s i o n i n c a r i n g f o r t h e i r h e r i t a g e t h a n o t h e r c h u r c h e s do? S t e w a r t v o i c e s what we know t h r o u g h our e x a m i n a t i o n i n c h a p t e r two t o be t r u e : t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between c h u r c h e s i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h e s , and i n t h e s u c c e s s of t h e i r a p p r o a c h e s , t o r e c o r d k e e p i n g . But we s h o u l d not be a s t o n i s h e d t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . Each denom-i n a t i o n owes i t s v e r y e x i s t e n c e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o l o g y and h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e ; s u r e l y t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s must p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s . We have a l s o d e t e c t e d a d e f i n i t e bond between c h u r c h government and r e c o r d k e e p i n g . D i f f e r e n c e s i n c h u r c h government, t h e n , must l i k e w i s e e f f e c t d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of r e c o r d k e e p i n g . I f we want t o know why t h e A n g l i c a n Church has t h e g r e a t e s t number of c h u r c h e s w h i c h a r r a n g e f o r f o r m a l c a r e of t h e i r r e c o r d s , i f we want t o know why t h e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s on t h e whole do not see t o t h e c a r e of t h e i r s , i f we want 75 t o know why t h e U n i t e d Church i s n o t f u r t h e r a l o n g i n i t s a r c h i v a l programme, we must i d e n t i f y t h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o l o g y , government and h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e w h i c h a f f e c t r e c o r d k e e p i n g by e x a m i n i n g t h e backgrounds of each d e n o m i n a t i o n . We can e x t r a c t from t h e t h e o l o g i e s and h i s t o r i e s of t h e s e d e n o m i n a t i o n s t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h , when t r a n s p l a n t e d t o t h e New W o r l d , f a s h i o n e d t h e d i s t i n c t and unique i d e n t i t i e s t h a t i n t u r n p r o d u c e d t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s we o b s e r v e t o d a y . T h i s i s , a g a i n , a s t u d y of c o n t e x t , but a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h s i g n i f i c a n t and d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each d e n o m i n a t i o n . I n s t u d y i n g t h e P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s w h i c h f o s t e r e d t h e seven c h u r c h e s under e x a m i n a t i o n , one can d i s t i n g u i s h a s i n g l e f a c t o r t h a t seems t o a c c o u n t f o r a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o l o g y , o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i t y , w o r s h i p , b e h a v i o u r , and a t t i t u d e , and t h a t i s t h e r d i f f g r i n g c o n c e p t each denom- i n a t i o n has of what i t means t o be a " c h u r c h " . Because each d e n o m i n a t i o n has a d i f f e r e n t g o a l , t h e y n a t u r a l l y have f o r m u l a t e d d i f f e r e n t means of a c h i e v i n g t h e i r end. These d i f f e r e n c e s d i d not alw a y s e x i s t . F o r e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s , f o r example, t h e " c h u r c h " meant t h e u n i t y of t h e whole p e o p l e of God. There was, e s s e n t i a l l y , one c h u r c h f o r one p e o p l e , of w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l c o n g r e g a t i o n s were but r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , l o c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h e whole. A t 76 t h i s t i m e " C h r i s t i a n s d i d n o t r e g a r d t h e Church as an 2 i n s t i t u t i o n . " R a t h e r t h e c h u r c h was v a r i o u s l y t h e Body, t h e B r i d e , t h e Handmaiden of C h r i s t on e a r t h , n o t t h e p r o d u c t of e a r t h l y endeavour. The governance of t h e c h u r c h was d e s i g n e d t o meet s c r i p t u r a l s t a n d a r d s and t o g i v e a p r a c t i c a l d i r e c t i o n t o w o r s h i p . L e a d i n g t h e c h u r c h was t h e e l d e r , o r b i s h o p . E a r l y i n t h e second c e n t u r y A.D., however, a s c h i s m i n t h e Church of C o r i n t h caused Clement, c h i e f e l d e r of C h r i s t i a n s i n Rome, t o d e c l a r e t h a t t h e e l d e r s i n C o r i n t h c o u l d not be deposed because t h e y s t o o d i n d i r e c t 3 l i n e of s u c c e s s i o n from t h e A p o s t l e s . T h i s was an e v e n t of some s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r not o n l y d i d i t i n a sense e s t a b l i s h t h e a p o s t o l i c s u c c e s s i o n but i t a l s o a l t e r e d t h e p e r c e p t i o n of t h e c h u r c h as s i m p l y a body of f a i t h f u l g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r i n w o r s h i p . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p r e c i s e l e a d e r s h i p i n e f f e c t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d t h e c h u r c h , and gave d e f i n i t i o n t o i t s c h a r a c t e r . The e x a c t d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s c h a r a c t e r , however, would become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r c h u r c h members t o agree upon. A u g u s t i n e expanded t h i s e a r l y c o n c e p t of t h e c h u r c h as i n s t i t u t i o n . He t a u g h t t h a t t h e h i s t o r i c c h u r c h w i t n e s s e d t h e d i v i n e t r u t h i n t h e g o s p e l , and t h a t i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e sacraments was an a c t of God. T h i s n o t i o n u n d e r l i e s t h e m e d i a e v a l v i s i o n of t h e c h u r c h and s u p p o r t s t h e p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y of t h e C a t h o l i c papacy. The C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , 77 as an i n s t i t u t i o n and t h e p a r e n t of t h e P r o t e s t a n t C h u r c h , was t h e f i r s t t o d i s p l a y s i g n i f i c a n t r e c o r d k e e p i n g t e n d e n c i e s . Two r a t h e r d i v e r g e n t t e n d e n c i e s d e v e l o p e d . The f i r s t de-v e l o p e d o u t of t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e c h u r c h . Throughout t h e M i d d l e Ages t h e C a t h o l i c Church worked on c o n s o l i d a t i n g b o t h i t s s p i r i t u a l and t e m p o r a l power. As p a r t of t h i s c o n s o l i d a t i o n , t h e Church f o r m u l a t e d an e l a b o r a t e and i n t r i c a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o cope w i t h i t s e v e r i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e . A b y - p r o d u c t of t h i s m a c h i n e r y was an i n c r e a s e i n b u r e a u c r a c y , and hence an i n c r e a s e i n r e c o r d s . The P o n t i f i c a t e of t h e Pope I n n o c e n t I I I ( d i e d 1216) was t h e f i r s t t o see t o th e c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e Church's r e c o r d s . I t t o o k n e a r l y f o u r hundred y e a r s b e f o r e t h e a f f l u e n c e , s t a b i l i t y and i n c r e a s e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of t h e c h u r c h l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s , but i n 1612, under Pope P a u l V, t h e a r c h i v e s and t h e l i b r a r y 4 were o f f i c i a l l y d i v i d e d . H e n c e f o r t h , i m p o r t a n t admin-i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s were c e n t r a l i z e d i n t h e a r c h i v e s . Owen Chadwick s a i d of t h i s e v e n t t h a t " the c r e a t i o n of a c e n t r a l a r c h i v e owned n o t h i n g t o t h e n o t i o n of h e l p i n g s c h o l a r s t o w r i t e h i s t o r y . I t was a b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n 5 i n t e n d e d t o make t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n more e f f i c i e n t . " I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , t h e second r e c o r d k e e p i n g t r a d i t i o n of t h e C a t h o l i c Church was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e m o n a s t e r i e s . 78 The m o n a s t e r i e s grew up i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e o p u l e n c e and c o r r u p t i o n v i s i b l e i n t h e o r g a n i z e d c h u r c h . They were t h e f i r s t s i g n s w i t h i n t h e C a t h o l i c Church of d i f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s of what t h e c h u r c h r e a l l y was supposed t o be. A l t h o u g h each group of monks had a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v i s i o n of t h e i d e a l of r e l i g i o u s l i f e , t h e monkish communities l i v e d s e p a r a t e from t h e r e s t of t h e w o r l d , and i n t i m e many became c e n t r e s of l i t e r a c y and l e a r n i n g . I t i s t o t h e s e c e n t r e s t h a t "we own t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of n e a r l y a l l a n c i e n t c l a s s i c a l and e a r l y m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e . " The monks were i n t e n t on t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s c h o l a r s h i p and h i s t o r y . T h e i r a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e s , a c c o r d i n g l y , r e f l e c t t h i s . The monks remained w i t h t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , even though t h e i r c h u r c h l y i d e a l d i f f e r e d from t h a t of t h e i r p a r e n t . L u t h e r i n Germany was n o t a l l o w e d t h e same freedom. L i k e t h e monks, L u t h e r was v i s i b l y d i s t r e s s e d by t h e open s i g n s of c o r r u p t i o n i n t h e Roman C a t h o l i c Church. C o u p l e d w i t h a p e r s o n a l sense of s i n f u l n e s s , t h i s d i s t r e s s was enough t o make him d e c i d e t o j o i n a group of A u g u s t i n i a n h e r m i t s i n 1505. Under t h e i n f l u e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l s t h e r e and h i s own s t u d i e s of t h e e a r l y s c h o l a s t i c s , he g r a d u a l l y f o r m u l a t e d a t h e o l o g y w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y meant a break w i t h t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h urch, and w h i c h a l t e r e d t h e p e o p l e s ' v i s i o n of t h e Church and t h e Church's v i s i o n 79 of i t s e l f . L u t h e r s a i d t h a t Man i s n o t saved by good works but by f a i t h a l o n e . R e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y does n o t l i e w i t h t h e v i s i b l e i n s t i t u t i o n known as t h e Roman Church, but i n t h e Word of God as c o n t a i n e d i n t h e S c r i p t u r e s . He b e l i e v e d i n t h e p r i e s t h o o d o f a l l b e l i e v e r s , where e v e r y man has t h e r i g h t and t h e a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t t h e S c r i p t u r e s f o r h i m s e l f , and t h a t t h e e s s e n c e of C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g i s t o s e r v e God i n b o t h s e c u l a r and c l e r i c a l c a l l i n g s . L u t h e r ' s d o c t r i n e of f a i t h meant t h a t t h e c h u r c h as an i n s t i t u t i o n had a l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n Man's s a l v a t i o n t h a n was c u r r e n t l y p e r c e i v e d . S a l v a t i o n c o u l d o n l y come t h r o u g h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c c e p t a n c e of t h e g r a c e o f f e r e d by God, and no amount of good works , homage o r i n t e r c e s s i o n of t h e c h u r c h c o u l d change t h a t . L u t h e r ' s second b e l i e f t h a t S c r i p t u r e has a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y o v e r t r a d i t i o n and any w o r l d l y body e s s e n t i a l l y d e n i e d t h e C a t h o l i c Church i t s s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n . H i s b e l i e f i n t h e p r i e s t h o o d of a l l b e l i e v e r s and i n t h e n e c e s s i t y of s e r v i n g God i n a l l c a p a c i t i e s d e n i e d t h e Pope and c l e r g y t h e i r p r i v i l e d g e d p o s i t i o n s . L u t h e r ' s b e l i e f s were i n e f f e c t a d e n i a l of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of t h e c h u r c h , and a r e t u r n t o t h e o l d i d e a l . L u t h e r ' s c h u r c h was not a " d i v i n e l y founded v i s i b l e s o c i e t y , o r e c c l e s i a , w i t h an o r d e r e d m i n i s t r y , s a c r a m e n t a l l i f e , r e v e a l e d f a i t h , s u p e r n a t u r a l a u t h o r i t y and o r g a n i c u n i t y , " but 80 r a t h e r was c o n g r e g a t i o n s of b e l i e v e r s g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r g t o w o r s h i p as t h e e l e c t p e o p l e of God. Thus we have t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , and t h e d i f f u s i o n of i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i t y of L u t h e r ' s c h u r c h r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r i n g c o n c e p t i o n s of t h e " c h u r c h . " The A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t and U n i t e d denom-i n a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e one o r t h e o t h e r of t h e s e v i e w s . U n l i k e t h e L u t h e r a n C h u r c h , t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h d i d n o t owe i t s c r e a t i o n t o any p e r c e i v e d d i s e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h t h e Roman C a t h o l i c Church. Henry V I I I e s t a b l i s h e d t h e A n g l i c a n Church i n E n g l a n d when t h e Pope d e n i e d him h i s d i v o r c e from C a t h e r i n e of Aragon. T h i s a c t removed a l l v e s t i g e s of power t h e Pope had i n t h a t c o u n t r y but d i d l i t t l e t o e f f e c t any r e a l changes i n t h e c h u r c h s i n c e Henry's own r e l i g i o u s i n c l i n a t i o n was t o C a t h o l i c o r t h o d o x y . The c o n f u s i o n and d i s t u r b a n c e s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e c h u r c h , however, a l l o w e d t h e r i s e of a s m a l l P r o t e s t a n t p a r t y w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e growth of t h e A n g l i c a n c h u r c h . From t h i s p o i n t on, we see a c o m p l e t e l y new c h u r c h ; n o t th e c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e C a t h o l i c Church i n E n g l a n d , y e t a c h u r c h n o t q u i t e P r o t e s t a n t as L u t h e r o r C a l v i n d e f i n e d 9 i t . A r t h u r P o l l a r d r e f e r s t o t h e " v i a media" of A n g l i c a n i s m . The new Church of En g l a n d somehow f e l l between t h e f o r m e r n o t i o n of t h e " e c c l e s i a " and L u t h e r ' s c o n c e p t of e l e c t c o n g r e g a t i o n s of b e l i e v e r s . 81 rFive d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d r e c o r d k e e p i n g i n t h e A n g l i c a n Church i n B r i t i s h C olumbia can be t r a c e d t o t h e Church of E n g l a n d . The f i r s t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t r a i t was t h e c h u r c h ' s n o t i o n of t h e c a t h o l i c , o r u n i v e r s a l c h u r c h , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s t a t e . The second t r a i t was t h e c h u r c h ' s a t t i t u d e t owards c h u r c h government. The t h i r d was t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h e c h u r c h gave t o t r a d i t i o n , and t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h were t h e l a c k of m i l i t a n c y and th e p r a c t i c a l i t y bound up i n t h e n a t u r e and t h e b e h a v i o u r of t h e c h u r c h . P a r t of t h e N i c e n e Creed of t h e 1559 Book of Common P r a y e r of t h e Church of E n g l a n d r e a d , "and I b e l i e v e one c a t h o l i c and a p o s t o l i c Church. To t h e A n g l i c a n s t h e r e was o n l y one t r u e c h u r c h , and i t was t o s e r v e a l l b e l i e v e r s . T h i s n o t i o n gave t h e A n g l i c a n s a sense of u n i t y , of c o h e s i v e n e s s ; t h e c h u r c h was a l l t h i n g s t o a l l p e o p l e . They d i d not f e e l t h a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n was i n any sense compromised by h a v i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s t a t e . Because of t h i s , and because of t h e o f t e n f i n e l i n e between t h e r e c o r d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e c h u r c h and t h e s t a t e i n E n g l a n d ( p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l ) , t h e c h u r c h f e l t o b l i g a t e d t o r e t a i n r e c o r d s f o r b o t h t h e p e o p l e and t h e government. There was an added sense of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t i n h i b i t e d r e c o r d s d e s t r u c t i o n . The second p a r t of t h e s e n t e n c e from t h e N i c e n e Creed 82 r e f e r s t o t h e a p o s t o l i c c h u r c h . The a u t h o r i t y of t h e b i s h o p s r e s t e d upon t h e c h u r c h ' s c l a i m t h a t t h e s e men c o u l d t r a c e t h e i r l i n e of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y back t o t h e A p o s t l e s . T h e i r e x i s t e n c e meant t h a t r e g i o n a l l e v e l s of c o n t r o l were e n s u r e d ; l o c a l p a r i s h e s c o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , f o l l o w t h e d i c t a t e s of t h e i r own d e s i r e s . Through meetings and exchanges t h e b i s h o p s c o u l d form s t a n d a r d s t o be c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . B e s i d e s c r e a t i n g a c e r t a i n amount of u n i f o r m i t y , t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l c o n t r o l , t r a n s l a t e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , would mean s m a l l e r u n i t s of a r c h i v a l o v e r s i g h t , and t h e r e f o r e more e f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l of r e c o r d s . The t h i r d and p o s s i b l y most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e Church of En g l a n d was i t s o b s e r v a n c e of t r a d i t i o n i n i t s h i s t o r y . A t t h e C o u n c i l of T r e n t i n 1546 t h e b i s h o p s of t h e C a t h o l i c Church s t a t e d t h a t t h e S c r i p t u r e s of t h e O l d and New Testaments would be e q u a l l y v e n e r a t e d w i t h t h e w r i t t e n and u n w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e Church. I n commenting upon t h i s , Stephen N e i l l c l a i m s t h a t t h i s v e n e r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n by t h e C a t h o l i c s i s t h e c e n t r a l p o i n t of d i v i s i o n between t h e Roman C a t h o l i c Church and th e Church of England. 1"'" W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e Church of E n g l a n d d i d not h o l d t r a d i t i o n as a u t h o r i t a t i v e , t r a d i t i o n s t i l l p l a y e d a v e r y s t r o n g r o l e i n t h e l i f e of t h e c h u r c h . I t d i d not b i n d t h e a c t i o n s of t h e c h u r c h ; t h e r e was not 83 t h e r i g i d i n f l e x i b i l i t y t o wards change t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e C a t h o l i c Church. There was more a sense of t r a d i t i o n and an emphasis on c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h p r e v e n t e d any r a s h changes from b e i n g made. Records w h i c h c a p t u r e d t h e t r a d i t i o n s of t h e c h u r c h were t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t . A f t e r Henry's break from t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , t h e r e was no t u r n i n g back t h e t i d e of r e f o r m . The changes were made r e l a t i v e l y p e a c e f u l l y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a p e r i o d of savage and b l o o d y d i s s e n t w h i l e o p p o s i n g f a c t i o n s t r i e d t o s t e e r t h e c o u n t r y i n one d i r e c t i o n o r a n o t h e r a f t e r Henry's d e a t h . There was s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s p o l i t i c k i n g , p a r t i c u -l a r l y s i n c e c h u r c h and s t a t e were so c l o s e l y a l l i e d , b u t t h e r e was a f u n d a m e n t a l l a c k of m i l i t a n c y and d i s s e n t i n th e Church of E n g l a n d and a s t r o n g and c o h e s i v e s t a b i l i t y t h a t a l l o w e d t h e c h u r c h t o weather t h e sto r m i n t a c t . George Marsden c r e d i t s t h i s l a c k of a g g r e s s i o n i n t h e c h u r c h t o a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n of t h e o l o g i c a l l a t i t u d e w h i c h must needs g u i d e a s t a t e c h u r c h , and a t h e o l o g i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s e r v a t i s m based on t h e "sense of g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g t r a d i t i o n t h a t appears c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of E n g l i s h t hought 12 g e n e r a l l y . " The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s p e a c a b l e b e h a v i o u r was t h a t l a t e r q u a r r e l s between E v a n g e l i c a l s and A n g l o -c a t h o l i c s i n t h e c h u r c h would n o t t r a n s l a t e i n t o d i s s e n s i o n and d i s r u p t i o n i n Canada. S t a b i l i t y a l l o w e d t h e c h u r c h t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e r e f i n e m e n t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n , such 84 as r e c o r d k e e p i n g , i n s t e a d of b e i n g c o n t i n u a l l y f o r c e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on o r g a n i z i n g r e p e a t e d l y anew. F i n a l l y , t h e Church of E n g l a n d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e . One might t r y t o a t t r i b u t e t h i s p r a c t -i c a l i t y t o t h e p h l e g m a t i c n a t u r e of E n g l i s h p e o p l e g e n e r a l l y , but t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y w h i c h would n o t a l l o w t r a d i t i o n t o s t a n d i n t h e way of p r o g r e s s more l i k e l y stemmed from t h e o r i g i n s of t h e c h u r c h and t h e c o n s t a n t m e d i a t i o n between r a d i c a l P r o t e s t a n t groups and s t a u n c h A n g l o - C a t h o l i c s . P r a c t i c a l i t y i s i n h e r e n t i n good r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s ; i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h r e g u l a r , s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s w i t h o u t i t . P r a c t i c a l i t y a l s o h e l p s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s t a b i l i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r r e c o r d k e e p i n g . The A n g l i c a n h e r i t a g e of b e l i e f i n t h e u n i v e r s a l c h u r c h , t h e c l o s e l i n k w i t h s t a t e , t h e s t a b l e c h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n , combined w i t h a g e n e r a l r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n , was bequeathed t o t h e A n g l i c a n Church i n B r i t i s h C olumbia t h r o u g h m i s s i o n -a r i e s from such e v a n g e l i c a l s o c i e t i e s as t h e S o c i e t y f o r P r o m o t i n g C h r i s t i a n Knowledge, t h e S o c i e t y f o r t h e P r o -p a g a t i o n of t h e G o s p e l i n F o r e i g n P a r t s , and t h e C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y . These t h r e e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e l a s t two, gave f i n a n c i a l , p h y s i c a l and m o r a l s u p p o r t t o t h e f o u n d l i n g c h u r c h . They a l s o e n s u r e d a c o n t i n u i t y of r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n , and i n d o i n g s o , s u b t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g h a b i t s of t h e new A n g l i c a n s . 85 The B a p t i s t s p r e s e n t a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e p i c t u r e of A n g l i c a n h e r i t a g e i n t h e i r t h e o l o g y , v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and u l t i m a t e l y , t h e i r r e c o r d k e e p i n g . Owen Chadwick r e f e r s t o them as ones " f r e e d from t h e r e s t r a i n t s 13 of a common and h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n . " W h i l e some h i s t o r i a n s have t r i e d t o t r a c e t h e B a p t i s t s t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s d i s s e n t -i n g groups t o p r a c t i c a l l y t h e b e g i n n i n g of C h r i s t i a n i t y , i t i s perhaps more a c c u r a t e t o i d e n t i f y t h e A n a b a p t i s t s as t h e f o r e r u n n e r s t o our modern day B a p t i s t s . T h i s group f i r s t p r o c l a i m e d t h e i r f a i t h i n t h e s o - c a l l e d A n a b a p t i s t C o n f e s s i o n of S c h l e i t h e i m i n 1527. As t h e y d e v e l o p e d , f o u r d i s t i n c t groups appeared i n Europe. There were t h e S w i s s , t h e S o u t h Germans, t h e H u t t e r i t e s i n M o r a v i a , and t h e Mennoni t e s i n t h e N e t h e r l a n d s and n o r t h e r n Germany. Of t h e s e f o u r g r o u p s , t h e modern day B a p t i s t s seem o n l y t o have i n h e r i t e d t h e p a r t i c u l a r emphases of two: t h e S w i s s , who i n s i s t e d upon a d u l t b a p t i s m by imm e r s i o n r a t h e r t h a n a f f u s i o n , and t h e M e n n o n i t e s , whose u l t i m a t e c o n v i c t i o n was t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e c h u r c h c o n g r e g a t i o n was e x c l u s i v e l y made up of a r e g e n e r a t e membership, a s e l e c t s o c i e t y a p a r t from t h e w o r l d . Thus, t h e B a p t i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c h u r c h o n l y r e p r e s e n t -ed t h e s e l e c t . I t was n o t and s h o u l d n o t t r y t o be a l l t h i n g s t o a l l p e o p l e . W i t h t h i s i n mind, t h e B a p t i s t s 86 n a t u r a l l y d e v e l o p e d a v e r y d i f f e r e n t t h e o l o g y and a v e r y d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e t o r e c o r d s and r e c o r d k e e p i n g i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e A n g l i c a n s . T h e i r l a c k of common t r a d i t i o n and t h e i r i n h e r i t a n c e of y e a r s of d i s s e n s i o n and separation, t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e s t r i c t separation of c h u r c h and s t a t e , t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n a l form of i n d e p e n d e n t Congregationalism, t h e i r eschatology and consequent stress on e v a n g e l i s m , a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l e g a c y t h a t s t r e t c h e d a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c , f i r s t t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t h e n t o Canada. The B a p t i s t s knew d i s s e n t amongst t h e i r r a n k s a l m o s t 14 from t h e f x r s t . A f t e r o r g a n i z i n g a f r i e n d l y d i v i s i o n i n E n g l a n d i n 1607, p a s t o r John Smyth and p a s t o r R i c h a r d C l y f t o n e m i g r a t e d t o Amsterdam t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . Smyth's c h u r c h e v e n t u a l l y j o i n e d t h e M e n n o n i t e s i n 1615 a f t e r a s m a l l group s e p a r a t e d and r e t u r n e d t o E n g l a n d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f i r s t G e n e r a l B a p t i s t Church i n London. C l y f t o n ' s c h u r c h a l s o s u f f e r e d some changes b e f o r e e v e n t u a l l y e m i g r a t i n g t o A m e r i c a and e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Church t h e r e . The group l e f t b e h i n d i n E n g l a n d underwent f u r t h e r changes i t s e l f as i n 1638 p a r t of t h e membership, b e i n g s t r i c t C a l v i n i s t s and t h e r e f o r e b e l i e v i n g i n a p r e d e s t i n e d c h u r c h membership, broke away from t h e G e n e r a l B a p t i s t s , who were A r m i n i a n s and who t h e r e f o r e b e l i e v e d i n f r e e 87 w i l l and a s e l e c t membership drawn from the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . Thus were the P a r t i c u l a r B a p t i s t s born. Over the next two c e n t u r i e s the two groups e v e n t u a l l y found some common ground and u n i t e d i n t o one c o n g r e g a t i o n i n 1891, but a s m a l l number b e l i e v i n g i n c l o s e communion, whereby o n l y those b a p t i z e d by immersion c o u l d p a r t a k e of the sacraments, formed a s e c t known as the S t r i c t and P a r t i c u l a r B a p t i s t s . Undoubtedly the B a p t i s t s ' l a c k of common h e r i t a g e and r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t h i s t o r y c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s l a c k of c o h e s i v e n e s s . Moreover, t h e i r p r a c t i c e of r e f e r r i n g to the New Testament f o r guidance, r a t h e r than to any t r a d i t i o n , and t h e i r b e l i e f i n the church being a s e l e c t membership allowed them to e a s i l y j u s t i f y s e p a r a t i o n when the a l t e r n a t i v e would mean a compromise of t h e i r s t r i c t p r i n c i p l e s . The New Testament was open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and b e i n g s e l e c t meant emphasizing the d i f f e r e n c e s , not the s i m i l a r i t i e s . A c e r t a i n i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i r b ehaviour, a r i g i d i t y of thought arose as w e l l from t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i v e t h e o l o g y . Whatever the reasons f o r t h e i r tendency t o s e p a r a t e , however, the r e s u l t s had a profound e f f e c t on the church. C o n t i n u a l d i s r u p t i o n and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n meant t h a t the B a p t i s t s had l i t t l e time or i n c l i n a t i o n t o c o n c e n t r a t e on s a v i n g t h e i r h i s t o r y , and t h e i r organ-i z a t i o n c o u l d h a r d l y reach the l e v e l of s t a b i l i t y or 88 s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t o w a r r a n t any r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y . Perhaps because t h e y were p e r s e c u t e d by t h e government, o r perhaps because t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t a c h u r c h must s t a n d a p a r t from t h e c i v i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n o r d e r t o t r u l y s t a n d a p a r t from t h e s e c u l a r w o r l d as a r e g e n e r a t e membership, t h e B a p t i s t s were i n s i s t e n t t h a t c h u r c h and s t a t e must be c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e . T h i s d o c t r i n e meant t h a t B a p t i s t s would never f e e l any of t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o r sense of r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y t owards anyone o u t s i d e t h e i r l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n s t h a t so i n f l u e n c e d t h e A n g l i c a n s i n t h e i r r e c o r d k e e p i n g . I n terms of o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e B a p t i s t s m a i n t a i n e d a l o o s e s o r t of c o n n e c t i o n a l C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s m . I n o t h e r words, each c o n g r e g a t i o n was f r e e t o w o r s h i p and c o n d u c t i t s w o r s h i p a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s of i t s i n d i v i d u a l members w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e from a l a r g e r body. U n l i k e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s who h e l d t h i s p r a c t i c e i n i t s s t r i c t e s t f o r m, t h e B a p t i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t c o n g r e g a t i o n s s h o u l d seek t h e s u p p o r t of o t h e r c o n g r e g a t i o n s . No m a c h i n e r y f o r a l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n was e v e r e f f e c t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d , however, w h i c h o n l y added t o t h e i n s t a b i l i t y of t h e c h u r c h . The p a r t i c i p a t o r y u n i t s tended t o be f a i r l y l a r g e as w e l l , w h i c h made t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of any c o n c e r t e d p l a n s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t . C o n g r e g a t i o n s f r e e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s i n r e l a t i o n t o any s u b j e c t , were 89 under no o b l i g a t i o n t o f o l l o w t h e d i c t a t e s of a l a r g e r , c e n t r a l i z e d body. Such a l o o s e l y c o n n e c t e d c h u r c h , i t may be presumed, would have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g programmes f o r i t s a r c h i v e s . F i n a l l y , B a p t i s t e s c h a t o l o g y , w h i c h d e v e l o p e d e a r l y i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y iin E n g l a n d , c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e a t t i t u d e B a p t i s t s h e l d and c o n t i n u e t o h o l d towards r e c o r d k e e p i n g . B a p t i s t s f e l t a c o m p e l l i n g and d e f i n i t e b e l i e f i n t h e coming of t h e end of t h e w o r l d . The i m p e r a t i v e t o keep t h e c o l l e c t i v e memory and t r a d i t i o n s of t h e c h u r c h was s u p p l a n t e d by a d i f f e r e n t i m p e r a t i v e as r e v e a l e d by a passage i n R e v e l a t i o n w h i c h s t a t e s : "And I saw a n o t h e r a n g e l f l y i n t h e m i d s t of heaven, h a v i n g t h e e v e r l a s t i n g g o s p e l t o p r e a c h unto them t h a t d w e l l on e a r t h , and t o e v e r y n a t i o n , and k i n d r e d , and tongue and p e o p l e . " 1 5 B a p t i s t s t r a n s l a t e such p a s s a g e s i n t o a v i b r a n t e v a n g e l i s m w h i c h t e n d s t o b l u n t t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r r e c o r d k e e p i n g and l o o k i n g backwards t o t h e p a s t . There were f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e c o r d k e e p i n g c o n t a i n e d i n t h e e s c h a t o l o g y o f t h e B a p t i s t s . These can be b e s t e x p l a i n e d by c l o s e l y e x a m i n i n g t h e b a s i s f o r B a p t i s t e s c h a t o l o g y , i t s s t r e n g t h and i n f l u e n c e on C a n a d i a n B a p t i s t s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e i r e s c h a t o l o g y , and t h e b a s i c t e n e n t s of t h e b e l i e f . The Doomsday t h e o r y was f o r m u l a t e d i n E n g l a n d and b r o u g h t t o A m e r i c a by t h e 90 Plymouth B r e t h r e n . Once on t h e o t h e r s i d e of t h e A t l a n t i c , i t e n j o y e d a • h e a l t h y / p o p u l a r i t y among f u n d a m e n t a l i s t groups i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , as w e l l as i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B a p t i s t s a r e b a s i c a l l y f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s ; t h e y b e l i e v e i n t h e l i t e r a l i n f a l l i b i l i t y o f t h e S c r i p t u r e s , and p l a c e a g r e a t emphasis on t h e New Testament. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p r e m i l l e n i a l d i s p e n s a t i o n a l i s m b r o u g h t t o A m e r i c a by t h e B r e t h r e n o f f e r e d a happy a l t e r n a t e v i e w of h i s t o r y a c c e p t a b l e t o B a p t i s t s . C . I . S c o f i e l d o u t l i n e d t h e b a s i c t h e s i s of d i s p e n s a t i o n a l i s m . T h i s d o c t r i n e d i v i d e d h i s t o r y i n t o seven d i s p e n s a t i o n s , Each p e r i o d o f t i m e r e p r e s e n t e d a change i n t h e way God d e a l t w i t h mankind. Each p e r i o d of t i m e would end w i t h a t e s t g i v e n by God t h a t man would i n e v i t a b l y f a i l , t h u s e n d i n g i n judgement and c a t a s t r o p h e . A c c o r d i n g t o S c o f i e l d , man was i n t h e s i x t h d i s p e n s a t i o n : man under Grace. T h i s p e r i o d would end w i t h R a p t u r e , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e a l l of God's p e o p l e would be b o r n up i n t o heaven, f o l l o w e d by T r i b u l a t i o n , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e e a r t h would be i n t e r r o r and t u r m o i l , t h e n t h e r e t u r n of t h e L o r d t o t h e e a r t h i n power and 16 g l o r y , and f i n a l l y t h e L a s t Judgement. M i l l e n i a l r e f e r r e d t o t h e t h o u sand y e a r r e i g n of C h r i s t , and p r e - m i l l e n i a l , t o h i s appearance on e a r t h b e f o r e t h e m i l l e n i u m . Not a l l B a p t i s t s a g r e e d t o t h e o r d e r of t h o s e e v e n t s , o r t h e t i m i n g , but a l l s h a r e d a c o m p e l l i n g v i s i o n of 91 t h e end. Thus not o n l y was t h e end coming, b u t i t was coming i n t h e fLoxeseeable f u t u r e . The i m p e r a t i v e t o c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e t h e i r r e c o r d s f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y d w i n d l e d i n t h e f a c e of t h i s b e l i e f . T h i s and o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s on r e c o r d k e e p i n g were c a r r i e d t o t h e New W o r l d , u n d e r g o i n g some m o d i f i c a t i o n b e f o r e t h e y r e a c h e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I f we f o l l o w t h e B a p t i s t s ' p r o g r e s s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r example, we f i n d some s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s . D i s s e n t c o n t i n u e d t o dog t h e i r s t e p s . A l t h o u g h a u n i o n of G e n e r a l B a p t i s t s ( e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1652 on P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d ) , R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s ( a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d on Rhode I s l a n d i n 1638), and S e p a r a t e B a p t i s t s (founded i n New E n g l a n d i n t h e 1740s) o c c u r r e d i n t h e l a t e 1700s t o form t h e U n i t e d B a p t i s t s , t h e norm f o r B a p t i s t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was t o s e p a r a t e . W h i l e t h e G e n e r a l S i x P r i n c i p l e B a p t i s t s j o i n e d t h e u n i o n , f o r example, a s p l i n t e r group c a l l i n g t h e m s e l v e s t h e O r i g i n a l F r e e W i l l B a p t i s t s e s t a b l i s h e d a new c h u r c h . The major s p l i t i n t h e B a p t i s t r a n k s came when s o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s , i n d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e i r n o r t h e r n b r e t h r e n o v e r t h e s l a v e r y i s s u e , d e c i d e d t o s t r i k e o u t on t h e i r own, f o r m i n g t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n i n 1845. The r e m a i n i n g B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s e v e n t u a l l y o r g a n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s i n t o t h e American B a p t i s t Churches i n t h e U.S.A. i n 1907. 92 Thus were t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s b o r n . B o t h t h e N o r t h American B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e and t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e stemmed from t h e A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t s , t h e f o r m e r e s t a b l i s h i n g 17 t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1865, t h e l a t t e r i n 1879. The B a p t i s t s o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n C o n f e r e n c e s e p a r a t e d i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r meet t h e needs of t h e German i m m i g r a n t s who were a r r i v i n g i n A m e r i c a . L i k e w i s e , t h e B a p t i s t s of t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e w i s h e d t o a d m i n i s t e r t o t h e s p e c i f i c needs of Swedish s e t t l e r s . I t was a way t o b u t t r e s s t h e i r e t h n i c i t y i n a c o u n t r y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " m e l t i n g p o t . " The N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e was t h e o l o g i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e , d r a w i n g i t s membership from a d i m i n i s h i n g number of German i m m i g r a n t s . The B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e l o s t i t s e t h n i c i d e n t i t y much q u i c k e r t h a n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t s , but m a i n t a i n e d a c e r t a i n amount of s t a b i l i t y i n s p i t e of i t . W h i l e b o t h t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t s and t h e G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e B a p t i s t s managed t o re m a i n c o n s t a n t i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n , t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s s p e n t t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n from t h e U n i t e d B a p t i s t s w e a t h e r i n g i n t e n s e c r i s e s and g r o w i n g i n t o one of t h e most v i t a l , dynamic d e n o m i n a t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; n u m e r i c a l l y t h e i r s t r e n g t h f a r exceeds any of t h e i r B a p t i s t b r e t h r e n , and t h e y c o n s t i t u t e t h e l a r g e s t 18 P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m n i n a t i o n i n A m e r i c a t o d a y . T h e i r phenomenal 93 growth r e f l e c t s t h e i r e v a n g e l i c a l o u t l o o k w h i c h has c a r r i e d them t h r o u g h such c r i s e s as C a m p b e l l i s m , Landmarkism, t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n t r o v e r s y , t h e war p e r i o d , and r e c u r r i n g f i n a n c i a l weakness. Throughout t h e i r h i s t o r y t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s d e v e l o p e d and m a i n t a i n e d a c l e a r , s t r o n g i d e n t i t y w h i c h h e l p e d them t h r o u g h p o t e n t i a l l y c r i p p l i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Perhaps i n t h e i n t e r e s t of p r e s e r v i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h i s i d e n t i t y t h e y have t a k e n a deep i n t e r e s t i n t h e h i s t o r y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r r e c o r d s . B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e n , i n h e r i t e d a l e g a c y of c o n f l i c t and s e p a r a t i o n , and t h r e e new d e n o m i n a t i o n s from B a p t i s t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . B a p t i s t h o s t i l i t y t owards any r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h u r c h and s t a t e was a l s o r e i n f o r c e d by A m e rican B a p t i s t s . H a v i n g s a i l e d away t o t h e new l a n d t o escape t h e i n t o l e r a n c e and p e r s e c u t i o n b r o u g h t about by t h e s i t u a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , t h e B a p t i s t s were dismayed t o f i n d t h a t t h e y had t r a d e d one u n c o m f o r t a b l e s i t u a t i o n f o r a n o t h e r , f o r t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t Church had become t h e s t a t e c h u r c h . Once more B a p t i s t s were l e f t o u t i n t h e c o l d , f o r t h e y s u f f e r e d " o f f i c i a l d i s a b i l i t i e s of one s o r t o r a n o t h e r " t h r o u g h o u t p a r t s of New E n g l a n d u n t i l 19 t h e t i m e of t h e A m e rican R e v o l u t i o n . The B a p t i s t s vowed t h a t t h e y would n o t have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h government, so n a t u r a l l y t h a t agency had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , and encouragement of r e c o r d k e e p i n g t h r o u g h 94 a sense of p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was n o n - e x i s t e n t . I n terms of o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i l e t h e U n i o n and R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s were n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t s , t h e t h r e e C a n a d i a n B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s h a v i n g A m e r i c a n l i n k s t e n d e d t o depend on t h e i r A m e r i c a n b r e t h r e n f o r g u i d a n c e , and so n e v e r d e v e l o p e d a s t r o n g i n d i g e n o u s t r a d i t i o n o r government. I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h b o t h t h e - A n g l i c a n and t h e B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s , t h e i n f l u e n c e s of p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g a c t i v i t i e s of t h e U n i t e d Church a r e f a r more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y d e r i v e s from t h e n a t u r e of t h e U n i t e d Church's c o m p o s i t e make-up. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e M e t h o d i s t , P r e s b y t e r i a n and C o n g r e g a t i o n l i s t Churches i n t o a s i n g l e body tended t o b l u r t h e l i n e s between th e o r i g i n a l d e n o m i n a t i o n s , and d i s g u i s e d t h e o l d under a new, e v o l v i n g c h a r a c t e r . Some i n f l u e n c e s a r e a p p a r e n t , however. From t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n Church of S c o t l a n d , t h e U n i t e d C hurch i n h e r i t e d i t s l o v e of l e a r n i n g , f o r b o t h e d u c a t i o n and s c h o l a r s h i p . From t h e M e t h o d i s t Church t h e U n i t e d Church r e c e i v e d a g r e a t s o c i a l c o n c e r n . Both t h e M e t h o d i s t s and t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s were e v a n g e l i c a l l y minded. Church p o l i t y was a m i x t u r e of a l l t h r e e c h u r c h e s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s h a p i n g t h e u n i q u e o u t l o o k o f t h e U n i t e d Church towards i t s r e c o r d s . 95 The P r e s b y t e r i a n Church began i n S c o t l a n d . E a r l y P r o t e s t a n t b e g i n n i n g s t h e r e were quashed, d r i v i n g one p r e a c h e r , John Knox, o ut of S c o t l a n d t o e v e n t u a l l y r e s i d e i n t h e mid 15 00s i n Geneva. There, under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f one of P r o t e s t a n t i s m ' s g r e a t e s t t h e o l o g i a n s , C a l v i n , he a b s o r b e d t h e t e a c h i n g s t h a t he would l a t e r a p p l y t o th e c h u r c h i n S c o t l a n d . Meanwhile i n S c o t l a n d f e e l i n g s of i n d e pendence, r e s e n t m e n t a g a i n s t t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e r e g e n t , Mary of L o r r a i n e , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e f e a r t h a t t h e c o u n t r y would soon be annexed t o F r a n c e were p r e p a r i n g t h e way f o r change. Knox b i d e d h i s t i m e . When Mary d i e d i n 1552 and t h e t r e a t y s i g n e d whereby F r e n c h i n t e r f e r e n c e was w i t h d r a w n , Knox was t h e r e t o sh a r e t h e t r i u m p h . By 1560 a C a l v i n i s t i c c o n f e s s i o n of f a i t h was adopted as t h e c r e e d of t h e S c o t t i s h P r e s b y t e r i a n s . From t h i s t i m e f o r w a r d Knox and h i s a s s o c i a t e s s p e n t t i m e f r a m i n g t h e i n t r i c a t e system o f P r e s b y t e r i a n government (government by p r e s b y t e r s o r e l d e r s , t e a c h e r s , deacons and p a s t o r s ) . They i n c l u d e d p l a n s f o r a system of n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and r e l i e f f o r t h e p o o r . When Knox d i e d , h i s work was assumed by Andrew M e l v i l l e , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m e r of t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s of Glasgow and S t . Andrews, p e r f e c t e r of t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n system i n S c o t l a n d , and d e f e n d e r of t h e P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h d u r i n g t h e t r o u b l e d r e i g n of James V I . 96 Thus was t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n Church s e t . I t s f u l l e x p o s i t i o n came w i t h t h e W e s t m i n s t e r C o n f e s s i o n , t h e c r e e d and s t a n d a r d of b o t h S c o t t i s h and Am e r i c a n P r e s b y t e r i a n i s m w h i c h was adopted by t h e G e n e r a l Assembly of S c o t l a n d i n 1647. The c o n f e s s i o n s t r e s s e s t h e " e l e c t " n a t u r e of t h e c h u r c h , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e C a l v i n i s t i c 20 emphasis on t h e complete power o f God. C a l v i n ' s t e a c h i n g s about c h u r c h government and h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r an e d u c a t e d c l e r g y d e e p l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n S c o t l a n d . The P r e s b y t e r i a n r e s p e c t f o r and i n s i s t e n c e upon s c h o l a r s h i p d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d t h e U n i t e d Church's r e c o r d k e e p i n g . A r c h i v e s were d e s i g n a t e d c e n t r e s of s c h o l a r s h i p , most a p p r o p r i a t e l y l o c a t e d i n u n i v e r s i t i e s . The r e a s o n s f o r k e e p i n g r e c o r d s would be t o advance t h e c l a i m s of h i s t o r y . T h i s a t t i t u d e has s u r p r i s i n g l y s u r v i v e d r a t h e r s t r o n g l y t o t h e p r e s e n t day. Methodism had v e r y d i f f e r e n t b e g i n n i n g s from P r e s b y t e r i a n -ism. Two b r o t h e r s , John and C h a r l e s Wesley, and a s t u d e n t named George W h i t e f i e l d began t h e "Holy C l u b " a t O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . The c l u b members were l a t e r nicknamed "the M e t h o d i s t s . " Growing o ut of t h e s p i r i t of e v a n g e l i s m t h a t swept o v e r E n g l a n d i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e s t e r i l i t y of r a t i o n a l i s m t h e n g r i p p i n g o r t h o d o x A n g l i c a n s , t h e c l u b aimed a t f i n d i n g an answer t o s p i r i t u a l l e t h a r g y . The Wesleys and W h i t e f i e l d t r a v e l l e d t o A m e r i c a i n m i s s i o n a r y 97 endeavour. While the Wesleys' e f f o r t s were d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y i n e f f e c t u a l w i t h the s e t t l e r s , the e l d e s t Wesley, John, benefited from h i s e x p e r i e n c e s on the journey back t o England. A v i o l e n t storm t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the A t l a n t i c c r o s s i n g caused Wesley t o f e a r f o r h i s l i f e . He was made b i t t e r l y aware t h a t h i s f a i t h was inadequate t o s h i e l d him from t h i s f e a r , and was impressed by the f a i t h of h i s t r a v e l l i n g companions, the Moravians, who remained f e a r l e s s throughout the voyage. Although h i s f a i t h e v e n t u a l l y d i v e r g e d from t h a t of the Moravians, Wesley c o n t i n u e d to emphasize the sense of p e r s o n a l c o n v e r s i o n and m i s s i o n a r y endeavour so dominant i n the German s e c t . The p r i n c i p a l l e g a c y of John Wesley's s e a r c h f o r a p e r s o n a l l y meaningful r e l i g i o n may be found i n the e v a n g e l i c a l f e r v o u r which has c h a r a c t e r i z e d Methodism. With t h e i r i t i n e r a n t p r e a c h e r s and t h e i r c i r c u i t s , M e t h o d i s t s reached p l a c e s and people t h a t o t h e r r e l i g i o n s e i t h e r i g n o r e d or were unable t o p r o s e l y t i z e . T h i s evangelism was combined w i t h p e r f o r m i n g p r a c t i c a l good works, m i n i s t e r i n g t o the poor, the j o b l e s s , and the homeless, and g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d i n causes. U n i t e d Church members i n g e n e r a l have o f t e n been accused of i n t e r e s t i n g themselves i n " c u r r e n t f a d s , " as i f they were t r y i n g t o be c u r r e n t f o r the sake of p o p u l a r i t y . D e a l i n g w i t h p r e s e n t i s s u e s , however, i s p a r t of the Methodist i n h e r i t a n c e the U n i t e d Church r e c e i v e d upon 98 i t s f o r m a t i o n . B u t , e v a n g e l i s m , good works , and causes t a k e up a l o t of t i m e and e x t r a e n e r g y . T h i s means t h a t t h e r e i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s t i m e d e v o t e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s i n c l u d i n g r e c o r d k e e p i n g . The C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s were n o t a l a r g e group when t h e y e n t e r e d i n t o u n i o n w i t h t h e M e t h o d i s t s and t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s , hence t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e new c h u r c h , a l t h o u g h n o t i n s i g n i f i c a n t , was n o t v e r y g r e a t and even h a r d e r t o d i s c e r n t h a n t h a t of t h e o t h e r two d e n o m i n a t i o n s . I n En g l a n d t h e y were a d i s s e n t i n g group. W h i l e t h e P u r i t a n s , l i k e Wesley, w i s h e d t o change t h e Church of E n g l a n d from t h e i n s i d e and t h e r e f o r e opposed s e p a r a t i o n , t h e r e was a s m a l l group u n w i l l i n g t o w a i t f o r New Testament p r a c t i c e t o go i n t o o p e r a t i o n . These were t h e S e p a r a t i s t s , o r e a r l y C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s . R o b e r t Browne and R o b e r t H a r r i s o n , a d v o c a t e s of C o n g r e g a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s , e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t c h u r c h i n N o r w i c h i n 1581. The C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e o n l y t r u e c h u r c h was composed of a l o c a l body of b e l i e v e r s bonded t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h a v o l u n t a r y c ovenant w i t h C h r i s t as Head. They e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s t o r u l e them t h r o u g h laws s e t out i n S c r i p t u r e . T h i s system was t r a n s p l a n t e d t o A m e r i c a n s o i l , and e v e n t u a l l y t o Canada. T h i s form of o r g a n i z a t i o n combined w i t h s t r o n g e v a n g e l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e h e r i t a g e of t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Church. I n terms of government, 99 o f c o u r s e , t h e independency of t h e " l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n promoted by t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s was o f f s e t by t h e complex, d i s t r i b u t e d n a t u r e of t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n government and t h e s t r o n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d M e t h o d i s t p o l i t y . The r e s u l t a n t s t r u c t u r e t r i e d t o f i n d a b a l a n c e between systems of government t h a t u t i l i z e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n . Today, t h e U n i t e d Church a t t e m p t s t o m a i n t a i n t h i s c a r e f u l b a l a n c e , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t , f o r a r c h i v e s , c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s i s s u s t a i n e d a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e l e v e l , but t h r o u g h t h e l a c k of a s t r o n g c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y t h e r e i s a somewhat tenuous l i n k between c o n f e r e n c e s . Each c h u r c h f o r m u l a t e d a t h e o l o g y w h i c h g u i d e d i t s e v e r y a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s c o n c e p t i o n of what i t meant t o be a c h u r c h . Record k e e p i n g , b e i n g a n a t u r a l a c t i v i t y , was a l s o g u i d e d by t h a t t h e o l o g y , and t h a t i s why i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine i n d e t a i l t h e t h e o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s of each d e n o m i n a t i o n . H a v i n g done so , i t i s easy t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e n why t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t and c o n s i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n each c h u r c h ' s a p p r o a c h t o r e c o r d k e e p i n g . The i n f l u e n c e s we have i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , however, underwent some m o d i f i c a t i o n upon r e a c h i n g t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t . Thus, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t r a c e t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s t h r o u g h t h e h i s t o r i e s of each c h u r c h i n B r i t i s h C olumbia t o t h e p r e s e n t day. We can 100 s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s of s t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d and encouraged r e c o r d k e e p i n g i n t h e A n g l i c a n C h urch. We can n o t e t h e e f f e c t s of c o n f l i c t and d i s r u p t i o n on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s , and t h e consequences of t h e d i s s e n s i o n and r e s u l t i n g s e p a r a t i o n f o r any r e g u l a r r e c o r d k e e p i n g w i t h i n t h a t d e n o m i n a t i o n . S i m i l a r i l y , we can f o l l o w t h e p r o g r e s s of t h e t h r e e c h u r c h e s w h i c h e n t e r e d upon u n i o n t o c r e a t e t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h , and i s o l a t e t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a f f e c t e d r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s . Thus we can advance from g e n e r a l p r o f i l e s t o more s p e c i f i c and c o n c r e t e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s . 101 NOTES FOR CHAPTER I I I 1 Bob S t e w a r t , "Response t o t h e Three P a p e r s of t h e R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s S e s s i o n , " paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r c h i v i s t s / N o r t h - w e s t A r c h i v i s t s m e e t i n g , S e a t t l e , W a s hington, May 1984, p. 1. 2 C y r i l C h a r l e s R i c h a r d s o n , The Church Through t h e C e n t u r i e s (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1938), p. 21. 3 I b i d . 4 Owen Chadwick, C a t h o l i c i s m and H i s t o r y : The Opening  of t h e V a t i c a n A r c h i v e s (Cambridge, E n g l a n d : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978). 5 I b i d . 6 Webster's New T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y D i c t i o n a r y of t h e E n g l i s h  Language ( 1 9 5 0 ) , s.v. "monastery." 7 E. H a r r i s H a r b i s o n , The Age of R e f o r m a t i o n ( I t h a c a , N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955). 8 E. 0. James, A H i s t o r y of C h r i s t i a n i t y i n E n g l a n d (London: H u t c h i n s o n ' s U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , [1948]), p. 110. 9 A r t h u r P o l l a r d , R i c h a r d Hooker (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1966) . 10 John E. Boo t y , ed., The Book of Common P r a y e r 1559: The E l i z a b e t h a n P r a y e r Book ( C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s of V i r g i n i a , 1976), p. 251. 11 Stephen N e i l l , A n g l i c a n i s m (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n Books, 1960), p. 62. 102 NOTES c o n ' t 12 George Marsden, "Fundamentalism as an Am e r i c a n Phenomenon, A Comparison w i t h E n g l i s h E v a n g e l i c a l i s m , " Church H i s t o r y 46 (June 1977): 219. 13 Owen Chadwick, The R e f o r m a t i o n (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n Books, 1972), p. 189. 14 Other P r o t e s t a n t d e n o m i n a t i o n s have been t o r n by s e p a r a t i o n s . The P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n S c o t l a n d i s a good example, h a v i n g i n c l u d e d a t one t i m e P r e s b y t e r i a n s of t h e n a t i o n a l c h u r c h , Cameronians, B u r g h e r s , A n t i - B u r g h e r s , A u l d L i c h t s , New L i c h t s , L i f t e r s , A n t i - L i f t e r s , and so on. The P r e s -b y t e r i a n s and t h e o t h e r P r o t e s t a n t groups have t e n d e d t o u n i t e a f t e r a p e r i o d of s e p a r a t i o n , however, whereas th e B a p t i s t s seem t o form d i s t i n c t b o d i e s w h i c h r e m a i n s e p a r a t e . 15 Rev. 14:6. 16 C. I . S c o f i e l d , R i g h t l y D i v i d i n g t h e World o f T r u t h (New Y o r k : L o i z e a u x B r o t h e r s , [ 1 8 9 6 ] ) . 17 These d a t e s r e f e r t o t h e o f f i c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e n a t i o n a l b o d i e s . B o t h d e n o m i n a t i o n s a c t u a l l y formed i n t h e e a r l y 1850s. 18 The S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n has a membership of 13,191,394 as of 1978, second o n l y t o t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C hurch. The N a t i o n a l B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , U.S.A., has l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e number o f S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s , a l t h o u g h th e membership was l a s t r e p o r t e d i n 1958, w h i c h makes comp a r i s o n d i f f i c u l t . The N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e has 42,499 members, t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e has 131,000 members,and t h e Am e r i c a n B a p t i s t Churches i n th e U.S.A. has 1,316,760 as of 1978 and t h e l a t t e r 1 s f i g u r e s , 1977. C o n s t a n t H. J a c q u e t , J r . , ed., Yearbook  of A m e r ican and Canadian C h u r c h e s , 1980 ( N a s h v i l l e : A b i n g d o n, 1980). 19 Mark A. N o l l , e t a l . eds. , Eerdmans.' Handbook t o C h r i s t i a n i t y  i n A m e r i c a (Grand R a p i d s : W i l l i a m B. Eerdmans' P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983). 103 NOTES c o n ' t 20 P h i l i p S c h a f f , The Creeds of C h r i s t e n d o m w i t h a H i s t o r y  and C r i t i c a l N o t e s , 3 v o l s . (New Y o r k : Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1919), v o l . 3: The E v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t C r e e d s , w i t h T r a n s l a t i o n s . 104 CHAPTER IV CHURCH RECORD KEEPING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: A RETROSPECTIVE As John G r a n t has p o i n t e d o u t , " t h o s e who p l a n t e d t h e Church i n Canada b r o u g h t w i t h them t h e i r i n h e r i t e d d o c t r i n a l s t a n d a r d s and forms of c h u r c h government." 1 They a l s o c a r r i e d w i t h them t h o s e p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we have t h u s f a r i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s of t h e i r p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . J u s t as t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n s were m o d i f i e d t o t h e demands of t h e i r new environment upon r e a c h i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , however, so t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were sharpened and d e f i n e d by h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e . We t r a c e now t h e development of each c h u r c h and how t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h e v o l v e d t r a n s l a t e d t h o s e i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o p r a c t i c e . The A n g l i c a n Church i n B r i t i s h C olumbia owed i t s e x i s t e n c e t o t h e i n t e r e s t s and e f f o r t s of B r i t i s h m e r c a n t i l e 2 and g o v e r n m e n t a l o f f i c i a l s and t h e Church of E n g l a n d . The Governor of t h e Hudson's Bay Company, George Simpson, s e t t h e t r a i n of e v e n t s i n m o t i o n w i t h h i s l e t t e r t o o f f i c i a l s of t h e company i n London r e q u e s t i n g a m i s s i o n a r y t o be s e n t o u t t o t h e f l e d g l i n g t e r r i t o r y . The Church of E n g l a n d responded by s e n d i n g t h e Reverend H e r b e r t Beaver. Beaver t o o k o v e r d u t i e s as company c h a p l a i n and 105 assumed c o n t r o l of t h e l o c a l s c h o o l . H i s p o s i t i o n was v e r y much t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e company, however, and when he wore out t h e g o o d - w i l l of company o f f i c i a l s , he was s e n t home, and t h e A n g l i c a n e f f o r t was a l l o w e d t o l a n g u i s h f o r 3 t e n y e a r s . D e s p i t e t h i s i n a u s p i c i o u s b e g i n n i n g , B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s were c o g n i z a n t of t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e t h e Church c o u l d p l a y i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t of t h e New W o r l d and i n t h e encouragement of B r i t i s h c l a i m s . Thus, when t h e Crown C o l o n y o f Vancouver I s l a n d was s e t up i n 1849, Governor James Douglas made i t c l e a r t h a t he l o o k e d f a v o u r a b l y upon t h e m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s of t h e Church of E n g l a n d . Backed by a p r i v a t e endowment and t h e d o n a t i o n s of s e v e r a l m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t i e s , B i s h o p George H i l l s of t h e Church of En g l a n d a r r i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1859. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t , when B i s h o p H i l l s c o u l d have c a p i t a l i z e d on t h e f a v o u r of t h e government, he i n s t e a d "was c a r e f u l t o emphasize t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Church i n t h e c o l o n y was q u i t e s e p a r a t e from t h e S t a t e and was i n no sense ' e s t a b l i s h e d ' . " 4 In a v o i d i n g t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n becoming a s t a t e - s u p p o r t e d body, however, H i l l s r e a l i z e d t h a t he would have t o see about t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of some d i o c e s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o make up f o r t h e l o s s of government money t h a t would supplement funds g a r n e r e d from m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t i e s 106 i n E n g l a n d , pew r e n t s , c h u r c h c o l l e c t i o n s , s c h o o l f e e s and v a r i o u s m i s c e l l a n e o u s s o u r c e s . A t a m e e t i n g i n 1861, H i l l s a d d r e s s e d t h e t o p i c of p a r o c h i a l and d i o c e s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o meet t h e needs of t h i s new A n g l i c a n c a u s e . C h o o s i n g a system p r a c t i c a l l y s u i t e d t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , H i l l s r e j e c t e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system of t h e E n g l i s h d i o c e s e i n f a v o u r of t h e American system of a s e l e c t v e s t r y . The d i o c e s e would o p e r a t e t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f an assembly of b i s h o p s , c l e r g y , and l a y d e l e g a t e s . A Church S o c i e t y was formed a t t h i s t i m e as w e l l t o h e l p a d d r e s s any f u n d i n g s h o r t f a l l s . As soon as t h e s e b o d i e s were i n p l a c e , B i s h o p H i l l s t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e e n t i r e a r e a i n h i s c a r e . He r e a l i z e d t h e s h e e r v a s t n e s s of t h e l a n d d e f i e d t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l t o p r o v i d e p r o p e r e p i s c o p a l o v e r s i g h t . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s e p a r a t e c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e Crown C o l o n y of B r i t i s h C olumbia i n 1858, s u g g e s t e d an a p p r o p r i a t e d i v i s i o n . A d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h a r e c a l c i t r a n t e v a n g e l i c a l , W i l l i a m Duncan of F o r t Simpson, caused H i l l s t o r e v i s e h i s p l a n and b r i n g a new s u g g e s t i o n f o r a f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n of t h e d i o c e s e i n t o t h r e e p a r t s : t h e D i o c e s e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e D i o c e s e of New W e s t m i n s t e r , and t h e D i o c e s e of C a l e d o n i a . H i l l s t o o k t h e n e x t s t e p towards f u l l o r g a n i z a t i o n by s e t t i n g up a D i o c e s a n Synod when f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from 107 E n g l a n d began t o be s l o w l y w i t h d r a w n . The Synod would see t o c a n v a s s i n g f o r needed funds and managing t h e money i t g a t h e r e d . I n 1873 a p r o v i s i o n a l e x e c u t i v e committee was s e t up, t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n o f t h e Synod f o l l o w e d two y e a r s l a t e r , and t h e Synod was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1889. D i o c e s e s and d i o c e s a n synods c o n t i n u e d t o be s e t up i n t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s as n e c e s s i t y d i c t a t e d . The f o u r d i o c e s e s e x i s t i n g i n 1915 came t o g e t h e r t o form t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . On t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , a G e n e r a l Synod met i n 1893 t o p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a much needed e a s t - w e s t d i a l o g u e between A n g l i c a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a c r o s s Canada, and f o r a more comprehensive a p p r o a c h t o p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n on i s s u e s t o u c h i n g t h e e n t i r e c h u r c h . I t a l s o a l l o w e d d i s c u s s i o n t o t a k e p l a c e on how t o f i l l t h e gaps l e f t by t h e s t e a d y w i t h d r a w a l of t h e m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t i e s , s i n c e i n t h e p a s t t h e e a s t e r n c h u r c h e s had f e l t t h a t s u p p o r t of M a n i t o b a n m i s s i o n s was s u f f i c i e n t c h a r ge on t h e i r home m i s s i o n f u n d s . ^ H a v i n g r e f i n e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e A n g l i c a n Church a t b o t h t h e r e g i o n a l and t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l s , t h e b i s h o p s were a t l i b e r t y t o d e v o t e t h e i r e n e r g i e s t o t h e i r n e x t c o n c e r n , t h e i r o u t r e a c h programmes. A l l such endeavours demanded t h e f o r m a t i o n o f some s o r t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y . T h i s u s u a l l y t o o k t h e form of a committee w h i c h 108 would t a k e i t s p l a c e w i t h i n t h e i n t r i c a t e m a t r i x of d i o c e s a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F o r example, one of t h e main c o n c e r n s of t h e A n g l i c a n Church was e d u c a t i o n . P r o b a b l y due t o f i n a n c i a l s t r i n g e n c y , i t had n o t opposed t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f common s c h o o l s , but i t complemented c i v i l e f f o r t s on t h e one hand and supplemented them on t h e o t h e r . A n g e l a C o l l e g e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n V i c t o r i a i n 1866 t o p r o v i d e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n g . B i s h o p H i l l s a i d e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y when funds caused t h e c o l l e g e t o l a p s e . F i n a l l y , B i s h o p L a t i m e r C o l l e g e was opened i n 1910 as t h e Church's r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . When t h e C o l l e g e p r o v e d t o be r u n on l o w - c h u r c h , e v a n g e l i c a l l i n e s , a r i v a l h i g h - c h u r c h i n s t i t u t i o n , S t . Mark's C o l l e g e , was formed. A t t h i s t i m e t h e b i s h o p s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were h u r t i n g each o t h e r more t h a n h e l p i n g , and so s e t up a Board of G o v e r n o r s t o o v e r s e e a new c o l l e g e , t h e A n g l i c a n T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e , w h i l e t h e two s m a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n s would be governed by an i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n c i l . Thus was A n g l i c a n b u r e a u c r a c y augmented i n a p r a c t i c a l manner w h i c h s a t i s f i e d a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d , and t h e A n g l i c a n i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n was met i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. A n o t h e r example of A n g l i c a n e v a n g e l i c a l e f f o r t t h a t i n c r e a s e d t h e c h u r c h ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n was i t s m i n i s t r y t o Ch i n e s e and Japanese i m m i g r a n t s . By 1915 t h e m i s s i o n a r y work was demanding enough t o w a r r a n t t h e f o r m a t i o n of a 109 c o m p o s i t e O r i e n t a l M i s s i o n s Committee. The committee had r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e Synod and from t h e D i o c e s a n Board of t h e Women's A u x i l i a r y . T h i s committee was supplemented when t h e work became t o o w i d e - s p r e a d f o r i t t o h a n d l e e f f i c i e n t l y , and an e x t r a - d i o c e s a n agency known as t h e P r o v i n c i a l Board of M i s s i o n s t o O r i e n t a l s was c r e a t e d i n 1919. I n each of t h e s e c a s e s p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s caused t h e b i s h o p s and t h e synods t o implement a n o t h e r committee o r board t o h a n d l e t h e w o r k - l o a d . The d i s p e r s e d n a t u r e of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d e n s u r e d t h a t t h e admin-i s t r a t i o n would n o t become u n b a l a n c e d by a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of power and f i n a n c e s . Thus t h e c h u r c h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n h e r i t e d i t s b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n from i t s p a r e n t c h u r c h , but i t s p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e , a l s o i n h e r i t e d from t h e Church of E n g l a n d , e n s u r e d t h a t any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes t h a t were n e c e s s a r y were e x e c u t e d . The c o h e s i o n and s t a b i l i t y o f t h e Church of E n g l a n d gave t h e A n g l i c a n C hurch t h e a b i l i t y t o overcome d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o l o g i c a l o u t l o o k , as i n t h e case of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , w i t h o u t damaging t h e f a b r i c of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The A n g l i c a n Church i n Canada r e c o g n i z e d i t s s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e Church of E n g l a n d i n t h e Book of Common P r a y e r : "We d e c l a r e t h i s Church t o be, and d e s i r e t h a t i t s h a l l continue., i n f u l l communion w i t h t h e Church of E n g l a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . " Bound up w i t h t h i s 110 n o t i o n of t h e u n i v e r s a l c h u r c h was a r e s p e c t f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n s handed down by t h e Church of E n g l a n d : We a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e h e l p o f God t o h o l d and m a i n t a i n t h e D o c t r i n e , Sacraments, and D i s c i p l i n e o f C h r i s t as t h e L o r d h a t h commanded i n h i s H o l y Word, and as t h e Church of E n g l a n d h a t h r e c e i v e d and s e t f o r t h t h e same i n 'The Book o f Common P r a y e r ' ...; and i n t h e T h i r t y - n i n e A r t i c l e s o f R e l i g i o n ; ? and t o t r a n s m i t t h e same u n i m p a i r e d t o our p o s t e r i t y . F u r t h e r , t h e Book s t a t e d t h a t whosoever may br e a k t h e t r a d i t i o n s and ceremonies of t h e c h u r c h s h o u l d be o p e n l y r e b u k e d , f o r t h e s e t r a d i t i o n s and ceremonies c o n s t i t u t e t he "common o r d e r " of the c h u r c h . Thus, not o n l y was a sense of c o n t i n u i t y r e t a i n e d , b u t w i t h i t an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c h u r c h and f o r t h e i m p o r t a n c e of i m p a r t i n g t h a t h i s t o r y t o t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o keep t h e u n i f o r m i t y of w o r s h i p e s t a b -l i s h e d by t h e Church of E n g l a n d . W h i l e t r a d i t i o n g u i d e d t h e A n g l i c a n Church i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y of t h e A n g l i c a n Church o r g a n i z a t i o n t o new c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e D i o c e s e of New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s a d o p t i o n o f t h e N e t t e n R e p o r t . P r e p a r e d by P r i c e Waterhouse and Company i n 1967, the r e p o r t s t r e s s e d g t h e development o f a "modern b u s i n e s s l i k e c o r p o r a t e system." T h i s same a d a p t a b i l i t y a f f e c t e d w o r s h i p . The p r e f a c e t o th e Canadian r e v i s i o n o f 1918 of t h e Book of Common P r a y e r s t a t e d : But t h r o u g h t h e l a p s e of some t h r e e hundred y e a r s many changes have t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e l i f e of t h e Church and i n i t s o u t l o o k upon t h e w o r l d . I n t h e 111 judgement of t h e G e n e r a l Synod of 1911 t h e s e changes w a r r a n t e d a d a p t a t i o n and e n r i c h m e n t of t h e Book i n o r d e r t h a t i t might meet more f u l l y t h e needs of t h e Church i n t h i s l a nd.9 Any a l t e r a t i o n s w h i c h d i d t a k e p l a c e were t o keep t h e s p i r i t of t h e E n g l i s h Book of Common P r a y e r and be i n a c c o r d w i t h c e r t a i n r e s o l u t i o n s of t h e Lambeth C o n f e r e n c e . F i n a l l y w i t h r e g a r d s t o c h u r c h law, t h e p r a c t i c a l i t y of t h e c h u r c h has l e d one d i o c e s a n a r c h i v i s t t o n o t e t h a t canons c o d i f y s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e . 1 ^ Thus t h e s p i r i t of t h e c h u r c h s t a y s t h e same, but t h e e x e c u t i o n of t h a t s p i r i t a d a p t s t o t h e t i m e and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The one d e p a r t u r e from B r i t i s h custom, t h e s e p a r a t i o n of c h u r c h and s t a t e , may be a t t r i b u t e d t o B i s h o p H i l l s ' r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e A n g l i c a n Church i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a would have d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g such a p o s i t i o n i n l i g h t of t h e Church's f a i l u r e t o do so e l s e w h e r e i n B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a , h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n of a d v e r s e c r i t i c i s m s h o u l d t h e Church e s t a b l i s h l i n k s w i t h t h e s t a t e , and h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e a l t e r e d r o l e of t h e Church i n a new s o c i e t y . I n t h i s c a s e , as i n many o t h e r s , p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c o u n t e d a g r e a t d e a l w i t h Church a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . A l l of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e c h u r c h a f f e c t e d i t s r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s . The c o n c e r n f o r t r a d i t i o n meant t h a t r e c o r d s w h i c h s u p p o r t e d t h e h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s of t h e c h u r c h were i m p o r t a n t . The p r a c t i c a l i t y t h a t a l l o w e d t h e c h u r c h t o adopt e f f i c i e n t forms of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n meant 112 t h a t as s e c u l a r l i f e became more c o m p l i c a t e d and i n t r i c a t e , and as demands on t h e c h u r c h i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y , t h e c h u r c h c o u l d meet t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s w i t h t h e b u r e a u c r a c y needed. I n c r e a s e d b u r e a u c r a c y a f f e c t e d t h e o u t p u t of r e c o r d s and i n c r e a s e d t h e A n g l i c a n s ' awareness o f k e e p i n g r e c o r d s f o r some o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n s i m p l y f o r h i s t o r y ' s s ake. The e p i s c o p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n gave t h e c h u r c h t h e advantage of s m a l l e r , more manageable u n i t s under t h e g u i d a n c e o f a s t r o n g f i g u r e . Once t h e i d e a of a r c h i v a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o o k h o l d , t h e r e was someone t o promote i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e e n t i r e d i o c e s e . The p r a c t i c e of c o d i f y i n g a c t i o n s w h i c h had a l r e a d y been w e l l e x e r c i s e d meant t h a t p e r s o n s d e s i g n a t e d i n charge of a r c h i v e s were more r e s p o n s i v e t o a c c e p t i n g t h e good a d v i c e of e x p e r i e n c e d s e c u l a r a r c h i v i s t s . The l a c k of d i v i s i v e n e s s i n t h e c h u r c h meant t h a t i t c o u l d f o c u s o u t w a r d l y on changes i n s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n t u r n i n g i n w a r d and c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e o l o g i c a l i s s u e s , as d i d t h e B a p t i s t Church. I t s i n h e r e n t s t a b i l i t y u l t i m a t e l y gave t h e c h u r c h t h e freedom t o c o n c e n t r a t e on r e f i n i n g i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and moving f o r w a r d ; a r c h i v a l management was p a r t of t h i s move. I n terms of e s c h a t o l o g y , w h i l e t h e A n g l i c a n s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e end would come, and t h a t t h e r e would be a t i m e of judgement ("from whence he s h a l l come t o judge t h e q u i c k and t h e d e a d " ) , t h e r e was a sense of t i m e l e s s n e s s i n t h e A n g l i c a n t h e o l o g y b e s t r e f l e c t e d 113 i n t h e f i n a l s e n t e n c e of t h e Creed of S a i n t A t h a n a s i u s : "As i t was i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , i s now, and e v e r s h a l l be, w o r l d w i t h o u t end."''"1 T h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e f u t u r e stemmed from a p r a c t i c a l c o n f i d e n c e t h a t t o d a y ' s p r e s e n t i s tomorrow's p a s t , and t h u s any a c t i o n t a k e n t o p r o t e c t t h e r e c o r d s of b e l i e f s and customs t o d a y would e n s u r e t h a t a l e g a c y remained f o r f u t u r e A n g l i c a n s t o c a r r y on t h e t r a d i t i o n s of t h e c h u r c h . B a p t i s t h i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i d e s a s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h a t of t h e A n g l i c a n C h u rch. W h i l e t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y of A n g l i c a n work i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e t a l e s of g r e a t men o v e r c oming t h e a d v e r s i t y and t h e h a r d s h i p of l i f e i n a new l a n d , o r s t o r i e s of t h e c o n v e r s i o n s o f n a t i v e s and i m m i g r a n t s , B a p t i s t h i s t o r y seems t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h one o v erwhelming theme: i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . So w h i l e t h e A n g l i c a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a would weather t h e t e n s i o n s of t h e E v a n g e l i c a l and T r a c t e r i a n movements i n t a c t , and t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s , M e t h o d i s t s and C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s would u n i t e , t h e B a p t i s t s t i m e and t i m e a g a i n would e n j o y s e v e r a l decades of peace o n l y t o be t o r n a p a r t by c o n f l i c t . I n some ways, one m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t t h e d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e B a p t i s t s would a l s o cause them t o pay p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r r e c o r d k e e p i n g t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e " t r u t h would o u t , " b u t such has not been t h e c a s e . R a t h e r d o c t r i n a l c o n f l i c t had 114 t h e e f f e c t of p a r a l y z i n g e f f o r t s t o d e v e l o p an a c c e p t a b l e form of c h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s e p a r a t i o n i n t o new s e c t s robbed t h e c h u r c h e s of f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y . I n t h e r e s o l u t i o n of t h e problems caused by s e p a r a t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d a b l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o r e c o r d s . A b r i e f r e v i e w of t h e h i s t o r i e s of t h e f i v e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s w i l l r e v e a l t h e d i f f e r i n g developments of each d e n o m i n a t i o n , and how each was a f f e c t e d by t h e i r i n h e r i t a n c e o f t h e o l o g y , a t t i t u d e , and o r g a n i z a t i o n . The B a p t i s t s began t h e i r l i f e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as a s i n g l e band of p i o n e e r s l o o k i n g t o c a p t u r e t h e m a j o r i t y of P r o t e s t a n t s e t t l e r s f o r t h e i r c a use. T h e i r f i r s t c o n f l i c t began w i t h b l a c k / w h i t e r a c i a l t e n s i o n s a t F i r s t B a p t i s t Church i n V i c t o r i a i n 1876. A f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s of f i n a n c i a l and p a s t o r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e b l a c k membership w i t h d r e w and F i r s t B a p t i s t d i s b a n d e d . These t e n s i o n s were common i n t h i s p e r i o d i n V i c t o r i a , however, and had t h e m a t t e r r e s t e d t h e r e , t h e n t h e c o n f l i c t would n o t have been i n any way u n u s u a l . When F i r s t B a p t i s t d i s b a n d e d i n 1883, t h e r e m a i n i n g membership i m m e d i a t e l y s e t up C a l v a r y B a p t i s t Church under t h e Reverend F. T. T a p s c o t t . D i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n w i t h i n t h e C a l v a r y B a p t i s t c o n g r e g a t i o n c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e w i t h d r a w a l of s i x t y members who e s t a b l i s h e d C e n t r a l B a p t i s t Church. C a l v a r y i t s e l f w i t h d r e w from t h e l a r g e r body, t h e B r i t i s h Columbia C o n v e n t i o n , w h i c h had been o r g a n i z e d t o u n i t e i n d i v i d u a l c h u r c h e s . C a l v a r y remained 115 i s o l a t e d u n t i l 1908 when Reverend T a p s c o t t r e s i g n e d ; t h e n i t r e j o i n e d t h e C o n v e n t i o n a f t e r u n i t i n g w i t h C e n t r a l B a p t i s t Church t o c r e a t e F i r s t B a p t i s t C h urch. Those members of C a l v a r y who a g r e e d w i t h Reverend T a p s c o t t w i t h d r e w t o form t h e B a p t i s t T a b e r n a c l e Church. By 1920, B a p t i s t T a b e r n a c l e d e c i d e d t o d i s b a n d i n f a v o u r o f j o i n i n g F i r s t B a p t i s t Church a t t h e a d v i c e of t h e M i s s i o n B o a r d . There a r e , of c o u r s e , many f a c t o r s a t work h e r e , n o t t h e l e a s t b e i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h b e d e v i l l e d s m a l l c o n g r e g a t i o n s . S u c c e s s i v e r e l o c a t i o n s , a h i g h t u r n o v e r of p a s t o r s , a f l u c t u a t i n g c o n g r e g a t i o n , and no doubt d i f f e r i n g i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s would h a r d l y a l l o w t h e s t a b i l i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r r e c o r d k e e p i n g . The example of F i r s t B a p t i s t i s o n l y an example of c o n f l i c t a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . S i m i l a r c o n f l i c t s were m a n i f e s t e d a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l and beyond. The e a r l y B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d from t h e r e s t of Canada. Whereas a r a i l w a y s e r v i c e l i n k e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as e a r l y as 1869, a r a i l l i n k w i t h E a s t e r n Canada d i d n o t come u n t i l 1885. As w e l l , B a p t i s t s i n O n t a r i o and Quebec were d o i n g t h e i r b e s t j u s t t o i n c l u d e M a n i t o b a i n t h e i r m i s s i o n a r y o u t r e a c h , and so c o u l d n o t p r o f e r h e l p a t t h i s c r u c i a l t i m e . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y t h e n , a f t e r c o - o p e r -a t i n g f o r a number of y e a r s w i t h t h e i r s o u t h e r n n e i g h b o u r s , 116 t h e B a p t i s t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a j o i n e d t h e N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , and worked w i t h t h e Home M i s s i o n S o c i e t y o f th e A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C hurches. When t h e Am e r i c a n a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d no l o n g e r keep pace w i t h t h e r a p i d e x t e n s i o n o c c u r r i n g i n t h e P a c i f i c n o r t h w e s t , i t r e l u c t a n t l y w i t h d r e w i t s s u p p o r t , and t h e B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were once more l e f t t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s . S t i l l , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r b r e t h r e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s had a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r , when t h e C o n v e n t i o n of B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h C olumbia was formed i n 1897, t h e B a p t i s t s " c a r r i e d o v e r i n t o t h e i r own new body t h e i n t e r e s t s and 12 p a t t e r n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n t a k e n from t h e i r A m e r i c a n s p o n s o r s . " I n t h e i r new o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e membership was t o be b r o a d , i n c l u d i n g d e l e g a t e s from each c h u r c h , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e women's group, t h e Sunday s c h o o l group, and t h e young p e o p l e ' s s o c i e t y . The C o n v e n t i o n would be governed by an e x e c u t i v e of f o u r and a m i s s i o n b o a r d t o c a r r y o u t i t s b u s i n e s s between a n n u a l m e e t i n g s . A l t o g e t h e r , t h e C o n v e n t i o n would have a Home M i s s i o n , a F o r e i g n M i s s i o n , E d u c a t i o n , P u b l i c a t i o n s and Women's M i s s i o n B o a r d s , and s t a n d i n g committees on Programs, Sunday S c h o o l , L i t e r a t u r e , Temperance, and R e s o l u t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h i s e x t e n s i v e a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n , t h e C o n v e n t i o n c o u l d n o t keep up t o t h e demands of i t s e x p a n s i o n i n t h e p e r i o d from 1905 t o 1913, and so was f o r c e d t o a c c e p t a combined s u p e r i n t e n d e n c y w i t h t h e 117 B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n of M a n i t o b a and t h e N o r t h w e s t . T h i s would prove " t o be [ i t s ] f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d becoming a p a r t i c i p a t i n g 13 u n i t of t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n of Western Canada." The B r i t i s h C o lumbia C o n v e n t i o n would o n l y become so w i t h r e l u c t a n c e . W h i l e t h e f i r s t tenuous t i e s began t o be f o r g e d w i t h o t h e r w e s t e r n B a p t i s t s , a c e r t a i n n o t i c e a b l e t e n d e n c y of o r g a n i z a t i o n began t o emerge i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n w h i c h would e v e n t u a l l y s p e l l t r o u b l e i n t h e y e a r s ahead. A l t h o u g h th e c o n s t i t u t i o n of t h e C o n v e n t i o n was drawn up t o e n s u r e p r o p e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a l l c o n s t i t u e n t members, more and more of t h e power began t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e Vancouver and V i c t o r i a a r e a s w i t h t h e i r l a r g e , more p r o s p e r o u s c h u r c h e s . I t was t h e i r p e o p l e who manned t h e boards and committees t h a t a l l o c a t e d f u n d s and d e c i d e d p o l i c y . E c o n o m i c a l l y u n s t a b l e and dependent upon t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t g i v e n by t h e C o n v e n t i o n , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d , and u n a b l e t o s p a r e c h u r c h funds and members t o send r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o m e e t i n g s , t h e s m a l l i n t e r i o r c h u r c h e s had l i t t l e v o i c e i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . The c a r e f u l b a l a n c e of c o n n e c t i o n a l C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s m so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of B a p t i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s was u p s e t by t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e of t h e B r i t i s h C olumbia e n v i r o n m e n t . Meanwhile, c o n t i n u i n g problems w i t h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n c y of m i s s i o n s caused B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B a p t i s t s t o j o i n t h e B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n o f Western Canada i n 1907. They were i m m e d i a t e l y 118 a s k e d t o r e s t r u c t u r e t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e M a n i t o b a n one. The B r i t i s h Columbia o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s i s t e d . The s i t u a t i o n m a n i f e s t e d a t t h e l o c a l c h u r c h l e v e l i n t h e p r o v i n c e was now r e p l i c a t e d a t t h e i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . The B a p t i s t s of t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o n v e n t i o n f e l t g e o g r a p h i c a l l y c u t o f f from t h e r e s t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t r a v e l l i n g t o M a n i t o b a f o r a n n u a l m e e t i n g s was t o o e x p e n s i v e , and f e a r e d t h a t t h e y would soon l o s e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r home m i s s i o n s programme. The B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n o f Western Canada d i d a l l o w them a few c o n c e s s i o n s , however, and so the B r i t i s h C olumbia C o n v e n t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o r e o r g a n i z e t o f i t i n t o what became t h e B a p t i s t Union of Western Canada. A f t e r j o i n i n g t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o n v e n t i o n went t h r o u g h a metamorphosis, emerging from t h e c h r y s a l i s much a l t e r e d . The C o n v e n t i o n became more l i b e r a l , and began t o s p r e a d t h e t e a c h i n g s of t h e s o c i a l g o s p e l . T h i s caused t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n some a l a r m . M a t t e r s came t o a head when a p r o f e s s o r a t Brandon C o l l e g e , whence came many of t h e C o n v e n t i o n ' s p a s t o r s , began t o t e a c h l i b e r a l t h e o l o g y . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o f e s s o r was e x o n e r a t e d of t h e charge o f t e a c h i n g l i b e r a l t h e o l o g y , f u n d a m e n t a l i s t B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h e most p a r t were never s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e outcome. From 1920 t o 1927, when t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t and l i b e r a l B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia p a r t e d ways, t h e r e were c o n s t a n t t e n s i o n s . 119 The f i n a l s e p a r a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B a p t i s t s was t h e r e s o l u t i o n of p o l a r i z e d i d e a l s and p a r a l l e l e d s i m i l a r C a n a d i a n 14 and American d e v e l o p m e n t s . The n e x t y e a r s were s p e n t r e b u i l d i n g t h e C o n v e n t i o n . R e g i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were formed i n an e f f o r t t o s a t i s f y t h e s m a l l c h u r c h e s o f t h e i n t e r i o r and n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n t h e f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s , as o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h u r c h e x t e n s i o n l e s s e n e d , a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e development o f B a p t i s t i n s t i t u t i o n s : camps, Carey H a l l , t h e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t c e n t r e , and s e n i o r c i t i z e n s h o u s i n g . The uneasy r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o n v e n t i o n had w i t h t h e B a p t i s t Union of Western Canada was f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d i n 1968 when t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n ' s s t r u c t u r e was r e o r g a n i z e d t o s u i t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . The C o n v e n t i o n became a h o l d i n g company f o r p r o p e r t y and i n v e s t m e n t s , and B r i t i s h C o lumbia became a p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a of t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n . Today t h e B.C. a r e a has r e b u i l t i t s membership, but i t remains an u r b a n - o r i e n t e d d e n o m i n a t i o n c o n c e r n e d w i t h e v a n g e l i s m . Perhaps t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e d e v e l o p -ment of t h e Union B a p t i s t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was t h e i r l a c k of u n i f y i n g t r a d i t i o n . T h i s meant t h a t t h e y were v u l n e r a b l e t o v a r i o u s f o r c e s of d i s r u p t i o n . F o r example, t h e y i n h e r i t e d a l o o s e c o n n e c t i o n a l C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s m , but no p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n 120 t h a t s t r u c t u r e . They t r i e d , b e f o r e t h e 1927 s p l i t , t o c r e a t e b r o a d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e C o n v e n t i o n , b u t geo-g r a p h i c a l and f i s c a l d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t e r f e r e d , l e a v i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n h o p e l e s s l y o v e r b a l a n c e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e urban and l o w e r m a i n l a n d c h u r c h e s . The C o n v e n t i o n had no s t r e n g t h t o combat t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of s e p a r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e f u n d -a m e n t a l i s t / m o d e r n i s t c o n t r o v e r s y , but was caught up i n t h e t i d e t h a t swept Canada and A m e r i c a a l i k e . The B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia i n h e r i t e d an e s c h a t o l o g y , b u t t h e d e t a i l s o f t h a t b e l i e f had ne v e r been d e t e r m i n e d and a g r e e d upon. L i b e r a l - m i n d e d B a p t i s t s b e l i e v e d i n a p o s t - m i l l e n i a l e s c h a t o l o g y w h i c h " r e a d i l y embraced t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f s o c i a l r e f o r m , m i s s i o n a r y endeavour, and t h e p r o s p e c t of s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n 15 toward a more e n l i g h t e n e d , m o r a l and j u s t s o c i e t y . " T h i s f o l l o w e d t h i n k i n g t h a t came from such l i b e r a l s c h o o l s of t h o u g h t as t h e U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s . Thus t h e Union B a p t i s t s were c o n c e r n e d w i t h f e m a l e s u f f r a g e , temperance, and c l e a n government. F u n d a m e n t a l i s t B a p t i s t s , b e i n g f o r t h e most p a r t p r e - m i l l e n i a l i s t s , d i d n o t s h a r e t h e s e c o n c e r n s . W i t h such p r o f o u n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n b e l i e f , and no u n i f y i n g t r a d i t i o n s , t h e f a c t i o n a l i s m was i n e v i t a b l e . The f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s who s e p a r a t e d from t h e B r i t i s h C o lumbia C o n v e n t i o n had a d i f f e r e n t v i s i o n o f t h e c h u r c h t h a n t h a t of t h e Union B a p t i s t s . They b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c h u r c h s h o u l d be a p l a c e f o r r e g e n e r a t e members who had 121 been b a p t i z e d as a d u l t s by i m m e r s i o n , and b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c h u r c h and s t a t e s h o u l d r e m a i n s e p a r a t e . They u p h e l d t h e d o c t r i n e of t h e p r i e s t h o o d of a l l b e l i e v e r s , and so m a i n t a i n e d t h e independence o f t h e l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n , but when i t came t o t h e b e l i e f of l i b e r t y of c o n s c i e n c e , t h a t a l l may b e l i e v e as t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s d i r e c t , and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c B a p t i s t a b h o r r e n c e of c r e e d s , t h e y f e l t t h a t i t was t h e d u t y of t h e c h u r c h t o u p h o l d c e r t a i n d o c t r i n e s a g a i n s t t h e encroachment o f " l i b e r a l i s m . " Thus member c h u r c h e s of t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n formed a f t e r t h e s p l i t were r e q u i r e d t o c o n f e s s t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e t r u t h of t h e S c r i p t u r e s . T h i s b e l i e f i n S c r i p t u r a l i n e r r a n c y and p r e -m i l l e n i a l d i s p e n s a t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h d e n i e d t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s of c h u r c h l y endeavour, were t h e b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two B a p t i s t g r o u p s . The f i r s t s i g n s of d i s s e n s i o n among t h e B a p t i s t s began o v e r f i n a n c e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e c o n t r o l of monies f o r c a u s e s . T h i s was q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d by an a t t a c k by t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s on t h e l i b e r a l r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s t h o u g h t t h e C o n v e n t i o n was s u p p o r t i n g . The C o n v e n t i o n t r i e d t o appease f u n d a m e n t a l i s t members, and so t h e R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n Committee became t h e C h r i s t i a n E d u c a t i o n Committee, w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g changes i n mandate. F u r t h e r , t h e C o n v e n t i o n s e v e r e d i t s t i e s w i t h t h e i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . These changes c o u l d 122 h a r d l y stem t h e t i d e . I n 1925, t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a B a p t i s t . M i s s i o n a r y C o u n c i l was formed. I t m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e C o n f e s s i o n of F a i t h of t h e B a p t i s t B i b l e U n i o n of Ame r i c a n s h o u l d be s u b s c r i b e d t o by a l l B a p t i s t s . Soon t h e M i s s i o n a r y C o u n c i l had two a u x i l i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h women and young p e o p l e , and began t o p u b l i s h i t s own newspaper. A l l t h e groundwork had been done; t h e b a s i s f o r a. new o r g a n -z a t i o n now e x i s t e d . A t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g of t h e C o n v e n t i o n i n J u l y 1927, t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s p r o p o s e d t h e a d d i t i o n of a s t a t e m e n t of f a i t h t o t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n . When t h e i r p r o p o s a l was d e f e a t e d , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g one t h i r d o f t h e membership, w a l k e d o u t of t h e m e e t i n g . The M i s s i o n a r y C o u n c i l was i n c o r p o r a t e d as t h e " C o n v e n t i o n of R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " and a new B a p t i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n was b o r n . A f t e r t h e s p l i t , t h e new R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s worked t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r membership. I n 1945, w i t h t h e s u p p o r t of th e A l b e r t a F e l l o w s h i p , t h e y opened t h e N o r t h w e s t B i b l e C o l l e g e . T h i s became t h e N o r t h w e s t B a p t i s t T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e i n 1959 a f t e r i t was g r a n t e d t h e power t o award t h e o l o g i c a l d e g r e e s . T i e s between R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and A l b e r t a t e n d e d t o be s l i g h t , m a i n l y because t h e A l b e r t a n membership f a v o u r e d a d e n o m i n a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e whereas t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e g u l a r s f a v o u r e d t h e independence of t h e l o c a l c h u r c h . By 1964, however, 123 t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s j o i n e d t h e n a t i o n a l Trans-Canada F e l l o w s h i p of E v a n g e l i c a l B a p t i s t s Churches o n l y t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r i t s f o r m a t i o n . L i k e t h e Union B a p t i s t s , i n t i m e s of slow growth t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s by e s t a b l i s h i n g t h r e e b i b l e camps and two s e n i o r c i t i z e n s h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s . The R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s s p l i t from t h e m a i n s t r e a m B a p t i s t s i n r e p u d i a t i o n of t h e l i b e r a l i s m t h e y had come t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e s of t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n o f Western Canada. The f i r s t S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t Churches s p l i t from t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s because t h e y were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e o r g a n i z -a t i o n o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n of R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s and saw t h a t t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d o f f e r them some t h i n g c l o s e r t o t h e i r i d e a l of t h e c h u r c h . The h i s t o r y of t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s u n r e m a r k a b l e e x c e p t f o r two t h i n g s : t h e p r o m i n e n t r o l e i n d i v i d u a l s p l a y e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c h u r c h , and t h e u n u s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia s h a r e d w i t h S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Two R e g u l a r B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r s , Ross MacPherson and J i m Yoder, f i r s t d i s c o v e r e d t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t f a i t h t h r o u g h l i t e r a t u r e . R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n v i t e d a spokesman f o r t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s t o t h e i r I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e l l o w s h i p of B i b l e B e l i e v i n g B a p t i s t s Con-f e r e n c e h e l d i n 1951 a t t h e N o r t h w e s t B i b l e C o l l e g e . Soon a f t e r , t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l a p p o i n t e d 124 a committee t o a t t e n d t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t Assembly i n P o r t l a n d , Oregon " t o s u r v e y t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t program t o see i f i t would be p o s s i b l e and p r a c t i c a b l e f o r [ l o c a l b a p t i s t s ] t o a f f i l i a t e w i t h them""-6 Ross MacPherson and J i m Yoder made up t h i s d e l e g a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g two y e a r s saw many exchanges between t h e R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s and t h e i r S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t b r e t h r e n , w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t of s e v e r a l C a n a d i a n c h u r c h e s . When Ross MacPherson l e d h i s c h u r c h i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s , however, and p u r c h a s e d p r o p e r t y f o r h i s new c h u r c h i n 1954, t h e B a p t i s t F e d e r a t i o n of Canada l o d g e d a p r o t e s t w i t h t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee of t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n r u l e d t h a t s a l a r i e s of m i s s i o n a r i e s of t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n v e n t i o n of Oregon-Washington, w h i c h MacPherson's c h u r c h had j o i n e d , c o u l d n o t go towards work i n Canada. W h i l e t h e n a t i o n a l body r e f u s e d i t s s u p p o r t , t h e s t a t e body c o n t i n u e d t o r e n d e r a s s i s t a n c e , and so t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t cause was begun i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S e v e r a l a t t e m p t s o v e r t h e y e a r s made by t h e Ca n a d i a n S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n a l w a y s met w i t h f a i l u r e . W h i l e c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n t i n u e d t o o r g a n i z e , f o r m i n g t h e C a p i l a n o A s s o c i a t i o n on t h e c o a s t and t h e n t h e P l a t e a u A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r i o r , s t a r t e d v e r y s t r o n g 125 c h u r c h e s i n t h e C h i n e s e and Korean c o m m u n i t i e s , e s t a b l i s h e d c h a p l a i n c i e s i n two of t h e p r o v i n c e ' s u n i v e r s i t i e s and p r o v i d e d f o r a p r i s o n m i n i s t r y i n t h e V a n c o u v e r - F r a s e r V a l l e y a r e a , t h e y had t o f a c e t h e f a c t t h a t , d e s p i t e showing s u b s t a n t i a l g r o w t h , t h e y would n o t be a l l o w e d t o become p a r t of t h e So u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n . When one c o n s i d e r s t h a t a g r e a t p a r t of t h e a t t r a c t i o n f o r t h e Ca n a d i a n c h u r c h e s t o t h e So u t h e r n B a p t i s t s was t h e C o n v e n t i o n ' s e x t e n s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r e i g n m i s s i o n s , t h e n t h e d e l i b e r a t e and c o n t i n u e d e x c l u s i o n of t h e Canadian c h u r c h e s by t h e C o n v e n t i o n s t r i k e s an i r o n i c n o t e . The c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o d a y e n j o y a v e r y h e a l t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e No r t h w e s t B a p t i s t Con-v e n t i o n , however, and have a c h i e v e d a s t a b i l i t y and s t r e n g t h w h i c h c u r r e n t l y a l l o w s them t o d i r e c t e f f o r t s a t e s t a b l i s h i n g a Canadian S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n . The B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e i n B r i t i s h C olumbia has no o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y . The c e n t e n a r y h i s t o r y of t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e of A m e r i c a v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e s work done i n Canada and c o n c e n t r a t e s e x c l u s i v e l y on Washington and Oregon. Bare o u t l i n e s of Swedish B a p t i s t b e g i n n i n g s i n B r i t i s h Columbia do e x i s t . As w i t h t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s , th e f i r s t c o n t a c t of t h e c h u r c h w i t h B r i t i s h C olumbia was made by t h e American B a p t i s t s , a l t h o u g h t h i s was a t t h e r e q u e s t of t h e B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n of M a n i t o b a and t h e N o r t h -west and Swedish B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d on th e P r a i r i e s . I n 1905, t h e n , t h e Reverend F r e d e r i c k Palmborg 126 made a s e r i e s of m i s s i o n a r y v i s i t s . The f i r s t Swedish B a p t i s t c h u r c h was o r g a n i z e d a t Golden a y e a r l a t e r . S e v e r a l more c o n t a c t s were made and c h u r c h e s e s t a b l i s h e d but t h e e f f o r t l a c k e d t h e dynamism t o c a r r y t h e d n o m i n a t i o n t h r o u g h l e a n y e a r s , and i t was not u n t i l a f t e r t h e second W o r l d War t h a t t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n made any r e a l p r o g r e s s . By t h i s p o i n t , t h e Swedish language was no l o n g e r an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e c h u r c h , nor d i d t h e c h u r c h m i n i s t e r e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e Swedish. I n 1947 t h e Columb i a C o n f e r e n c e , t h e s t a t e l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , s e n t a m i s s i o n a r y t o t h e c o a s t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W i t h t h i s s u p p o r t , t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e s l o w l y began t o b u i l d i t s numbers. I n 1957 t h e Co n f e r e n c e p u r c h a s e d t h e Vancouver B i b l e C o l l e g e as a t r a i n i n g base f o r young members of t h e c h u r c h a l l o v e r N o r t h A m e r i c a . The f i n a n c e s r e q u i r e d t o keep t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e g o i n g p r o v e d t o o onerous a burden, however, and i n 1978 t h e s c h o o l had t o be c l o s e d . The numbers of t h e c h u r c h i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia c o n t i n u e t o remain r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l w h i c h r e t a r d s any r e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l growth by a b s o r b i n g e n e r g i e s t o encourage c o n g r e g a t i o n a l growth. The German B a p t i s t s s i m i l a r i l y do not f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n any h i s t o r y of t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e . The German B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s e n t a m i s s i o n a r y t o w e s t e r n Canada on t h e i n v i t a t i o n of t h e B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n of M a n i t o b a and t h e N o r t h w e s t t o m i n i s t e r 127 t o t h e German-speaking i m m i g r a n t s . A N o r t h e r n C o n f e r e n c e was o r g a n i z e d as e a r l y as 1902, y e t even w i t h t h e s u p p o r t of German B a p t i s t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , p r o g r e s s and growth was v e r y s l o w . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e c h u r c h ' s i n i t i a l s m a l l t a r g e t group, t h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g . Today, however, t h e m a j o r i t y of c h u r c h e s i n what i s now t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A s s o c i a t i o n of t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e a r e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g . Those c h u r c h e s w h i c h s t i l l a d m i n i s t e r t o German-speaking p e o p l e s draw t h e i r memberships from l a r g e a r e a s . The c h u r c h i s b a s i c a l l y u r b a n - o r i e n t e d , w i t h a camp and s e n i o r c i t i z e n s complex as s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s . R e v i e w i n g t h e h i s t o r i e s o f t h e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t becomes i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t t h a t d e s p i t e t h e i r e a r l y s t a r t s and d i f f e r i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a l l have had d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s a t work i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e development of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n h e r i t i n g a l o n g h i s t o r y of s e p a r a t i o n and a l a c k of common t r a d i t i o n , t h e B a p t i s t s were v u l n e r a b l e t o d i s r u p t i o n . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o l o g y and l a c k of d e v e l o p e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e u l t i m a t e l y l e d t o t h e f i r s t b reak-up i n t h e B a p t i s t s r a n k s , p r o d u c i n g t h e U n i o n and R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s . C o n g r e g a t i o n a l independence and t h e power and i n f l u e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t e r s p r o d u c e d a f u r t h e r r i f t amongst R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s , c r e a t i n g t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t m i n i s t r y . I n each c a s e , t h e s e p a r a t i o n s meant r e d u c e d numbers f o r a l l c o n c e r n e d , making o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development a l l t h e 128 more d i f f i c u l t t o a c c o m p l i s h . The two e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i s o l a t e d from t h e mainstream of B a p t i s t development, had t o s t r u g g l e w i t h s m a l l numbers from t h e v e r y s t a r t . F u r t h e r -more, f o r t h e t h r e e c h u r c h e s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h A m e r i c a n a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e A m e r i c a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s o b v i a t e d t h e need t o i m m e d i a t e l y produce i n d e p e n d e n t , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . As we saw w i t h t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , however, such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a c y i s needed i n o r d e r f o r t h e c h u r c h t o see t o t h e r e g u l a r and o r d e r l y k e e p i n g of r e c o r d s , whether c o m p e l l e d by a r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n , a c o n c e r n f o r h i s t o r y , o r a need t o e s t a b l i s h an i d e n t i t y . O nly t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r p a r e n t c h u r c h ' s l o v e of h i s t o r y t o c o l l e c t r e c o r d s of t h e i r p a s t , y e t t h e y l a c k e d t h e v e h i c l e t h r o u g h w h i c h t o promote r e g u l a r c o l l e c t i o n amongst t h e v a r i o u s c h u r h c e s i n t h e de-n o m i n a t i o n . U n l i k e t h e A n g l i c a n and B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s , t h e U n i t e d Church i s e s s e n t i a l l y a C a n a d i a n c r e a t i o n , b e i n g t h e u n i o n of t h r e e c h u r c h e s w h i c h had r o o t s i n B r i t a i n . C e r t a i n l y t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n , M e t h o d i s t and C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t Churches b r o u g h t c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o u n i o n , but t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of t h r e e d i f f e r e n t b o d i e s succeeded i n c r e a t i n g a new c h u r c h t h a t was q u i t e u n l i k e i t s s e p a r a t e components. A r e v i e w of t h e h i s t o r y of t h e c h u r c h , however, does r e v e a l t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e p a r e n t c h u r c h e s w h i c h 129 a f f e c t e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o r e c o r d k e e p i n g . The C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s were t h e f i r s t t o a r r i v e i n what e v e n t u a l l y became B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The Reverend J o n a t h a n S m i t h Green came from H a w a i i i n 1829 t o m i n i s t e r t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s . H i s i m p a c t was n e g l i g i b l e as a h o s t i l e e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e I n d i a n s he met s e n t him s c u r r y i n g back t o H a w a i i , and h i s recommendation t h a t no m i s s i o n work be done on t h e west c o a s t s u c c e s s f u l l y d e t e r r e d C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t m i n i s t e r s from r e t u r n i n g f o r t h i r t y y e a r s . D e s p i t e e v a n g e l i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s , t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s n e v e r had t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o s u p p o r t e x t e n s i v e m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s i n t h e west. E x c e p t f o r a few l a r g e c h u r c h e s i n t h e l o w e r M a i n l a n d , t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n h a r d l y had any e f f e c t on a p r o v i n c e w h i c h p r o v e d such a c h a l l e n g e t o a l l c h u r c h e s . The independence of t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n t h e f o r m a t i o n of new c h u r c h e s whenever d i s a g r e e m e n t s o c c u r r e d , somewhat i n t h e same manner as t h e B a p t i s t s . T h i s independence of t h e l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n was handed down t o t h e U n i t e d Church. The M e t h o d i s t s were t h e n e x t group t o r e s p o n d t o t h e needs of t h e s e t t l e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n r e s p o n s e t o a l e t t e r from M e t h o d i s t John T. P i d w e l l , f o u r Wesleyan M e t h o d i s t m i n i s t e r s from Canada a r r i v e d i n 1859 t o b e g i n what would p r o v e t o be a v i g o r o u s and s p i r i t e d a t t a c k on t h e rampant s e c u l a r i s m t h a t accompanied t h e g o l d r u s h . 130 W i t h i n t e n y e a r s of t h e f i r s t M e t h o d i s t Church b e i n g b u i l t i n V i c t o r i a i n I8 6 0 , t h e r e were c h u r c h e s and m i s s i o n s from V i c t o r i a t o B a r k e r v i l l e . By 1872, t h e r e were I n d i a n m i s s i o n s i n C h i l l i w a c k , Nanaimo, and V i c t o r i a . W i t h e v a n g e l i s m and m i s s i o n a r y endeavour p r o c e e d i n g s m o o t h l y , t h e M e t h o d i s t s t u r n e d t h e i r h e r i t a g e of s t r o n g c e n t r a l government t o t h e t a s k of o r g a n i z i n g . I n 1881, t h e P o r t Simpson D i s t r i c t was formed w i t h t e n s t a t i o n s . F i v e y e a r s l a t e r , two new d i s t r i c t s were formed w i t h t h e s p l i t of V i c t o r i a and New Westminster, and w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e Kamloops D i s t r i c t t h e f o u r c r e a t e d t h e new B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o n f e r e n c e i n 1887. O r g a n i z a t i o n c o n t i n u e d l a t e r as t h e need a r o s e , b u t w i t h t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e i n p l a c e t h e M e t h o d i s t s c o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e s o c i a l p r o j e c t s t h a t t o o k up so much of t h e i r t i m e and energy. The women o r g a n i z e d i n t o a m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t y , s t u d e n t p r o b a t i o n e r s ( c a n d i d a t e s f o r m i n i s t r y ) began work under m i n i s t e r s o r t h e D i s t r i c t Chairman, Columbia M e t h o d i s t C o l l e g e was e s t a b l i s h e d , Epworth Leagues f o r you t h s were formed, e v a n g e l i s m was exte n d e d t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s , and t o Japanese and C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s , and t h e i s o l a t e d s e t t l e r s on t h e c o a s t were s e r v e d by Thomas C r o s b y and h i s m i s s i o n boat t h e "Glad T i d i n g s . " S o c i a l work i n c l u d e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s i n i s o l a t e d o u t p o s t s . A l l t h i s o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y ! The M e t h o d i s t s emphasized s t r o n g c e n t r a l government, s o c i a l 131 a c t i v i s m and r e f o r m , a l l of w h i c h t h e y p a s s e d o n t o t h e U n i t e d Church. The f i r s t P r e s b y t e r i a n b e g i n n i n g s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia were p r o v i d e d by m i s s i o n a r i e s from t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n I r e l a n d , and l a t e r S c o t l a n d , n o t Canada as w i t h t h e M e t h o d i s t s and t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s . E a r l y P r e s b y t e r i a n e f f o r t s were n o t n e a r l y as v i g o r o u s as t h o s e o f t h e M e t h o d i s t s , and t h e y n e v e r a t t e m p t e d m i n i s t e r i n g t o o t h e r s b e s i d e s P r e s b y t e r i a n s . Thus t h e y grew more s l o w l y t h a n t h e M e t h o d i s t s , but i n 1886 t h e P r e s b y t e r y of Columb i a was o r g a n i z e d . T h i s p r e s b y t e r y was augmented as t h e need a r o s e u n t i l 1892 when t h e f o u r p r e s b y t e r i e s were j o i n e d under t h e m a n t l e of a synod. D e s p i t e a slow s t a r t , a f t e r t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s e q u a l l e d t h e M e t h o d i s t s i n s o c i a l endeavour, a l t h o u g h t h e y emphasized e d u c a t i o n more. I n 1907, f o r example, t h e y opened W e s t m i n s t e r H a l l , a t h e o l o g i c a l s e m i n a r y i n t h e West End of Vancouver. A number o f r a t h e r famous p e r s o n a l i t i e s p r o v i d e d i n s t r u c t i o n , a t t r a c t i n g s t u d e n t s and p r o d u c i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s who a f f e c t e d t h e B r i t i s h C olumbia f i e l d c o n s i d e r a b l y . A summer s c h o o l i n E l k o , E a s t Kootenay, a s c h o o l home i n P r i n c e George, and v a r i o u s r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s around t h e p r o v i n c e c o m p l e t e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l r o s t e r . The P r e s b y t e r i a n s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d Camp F i r c o m , t h e Burnaby Home f o r G i r l s , t h e Burns Lake H o s p i t a l , t h e " F i r s t Church W e l f a r e I n d u s t r i e s , " and v a r i o u s m arine m i s s i o n s . Thus, t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s bequeathed t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r e d u c a t i o n , 132 t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i o n , and t h e i r d i s p e r s e d p o l i t y t o t h e U n i t e d Church upon e n t e r i n g u n i o n i n 1925. A f t e r u n i o n i n 1925, t h e new U n i t e d Church t r i e d c a r e f u l l y t o b a l a n c e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h e t h r e e p a r t i c i p a t i n g c h u r c h e s . Many y e a r s a f t e r t h e u n i o n they were consumed i n l e g a l w r a n g l e s o v e r p r o p e r t y w i t h t h e n o n - c o n c u r r i n g P r e s b y t e r i a n s and o v e r t h e amalgamations of t h e t h r e e c h u r c h e s i n t o one body. The c h u r c h r a l l i e d t o t h e demands of t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n ; t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e membership a c t i v e l y engaged i n s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; and s m a l l e r groups became i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o m o t i o n of t h e s o c i a l g o s p e l and i n t h e O x f o r d Group Movement. I n t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d , t h e U n i t e d Church expanded i t s numbers s u b s t a n t i a l l y , e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Naramata C h r i s t i a n L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g S c h o o l , and reopened i t s m a r i n e m i s s i o n s on t h e c o a s t . From 1965 t o 1975 t h e c h u r c h e x p e r i e n c e d v a r y i n g r e s p o n s e s t o s o c i e t y ' s needs: " V a r i e t i e s of p o p u l a r t h e o l o g y came and went w i t h t h e season."-'-"' The New C u r r i c u l u m , d e v e l o p e d f o r sunday s c h o o l s and a d u l t s t u d y programs, and t h e Vancouver I n n e r C i t y S e r v i c e P r o j e c t , e s t a b l i s h e d t o t r a i n s t u d e n t s i n a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l work s k i l l s , a r e two examples of t h e r a d i c a l a p p r o a c h t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e U n i t e d Church i n t h i s p e r i o d . Thus t h e U n i t e d Church was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g s o c i a l m o t i v a t i o n , e v a n g e l i c a l z e a l , c o n c e r n f o r e d u c a t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s , and a p o l i t y w h i c h t r i e d t o b a l a n c e 133 t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n a l independence of t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s , t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of t h e M e t h o d i s t s , and t h e d i s p e r s e d c o n t r o l of t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n s . F o r t h e U n i t e d Church t o d a y , t h e emphasis on s c h o l a r s h i p and e d u c a t i o n has engendered a l o v e of h i s t o r y t h a t has encouraged r e c o r d k e e p i n g . T h i s impetus t o c o l l e c t r e c o r d s i s o f f s e t by an o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h encourages c o n g r e g a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c y , a l t h o u g h a s t r o n g i d e n t i t y k n i t s t h e whole t o g e t h e r . A l t h o u g h t h e U n i t e d Church Manual d e t a i l s e v e r y a s p e c t of c h u r c h work w i t h i n an i n t r i c a t e b u r e a u c r a c y , t h i s b u r e a u c r a c y i n r e a l i t y does n o t e x i s t . I n s t e a d , e v a n g e l i s m and s o c i a l a c t i v i s m keeps t h e m i n i s t r y away from a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s . Record k e e p i n g r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n l e v e l of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y t o s u p p o r t i t . Thus t h e r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e U n i t e d Church c o l l e c t s a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of r e c o r d s , but i s n o t as s u c c e s s f u l i n r e g u l a r i z i n g t h a t c o l l e c t i o n as one might e x p e c t from such a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . C e r t a i n p a t t e r n s emerge from our s t u d y of t h e h i s t o r y of t h e t h r e e d e n o m i n a t i o n s . We see t h e A n g l i c a n Church c r e a t i n g a sound and t h o r o u g h o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h i s based upon t r a d i t i o n s i n h e r i t e d from E n g l a n d , and we see a p r a c t i c a l i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r . The o r g a n i z a t i o n b a l a n c e s a c e n t r a l c o n t r o l w h i c h p r o v i d e s a d v i c e , g u i d a n c e , and l e a d e r s h i p w i t h a r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l w h i c h e n s u r e s a measure of c o - o p e r a t i o n between p a r t i c i p a t i n g p a r i s h e s 134 t o c r e a t e a h e a l t h y degree of u n i f o r m i t y . The s t r e n g t h of t h i s t y p e of o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d s t o r e c o r d k e e p i n g i s t h a t i t s r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n e n s u r e s an i n t e r e s t i n r e c o r d s w h i c h keep t h o s e t r a d i t i o n s a l i v e f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , i t s p r a c t i c a l i t y a l l o w s i t t o seek t h e a d v i c e and h e l p of e x p e r i e n c e d s e c u l a r a r c h i v e s and a r c h i v i s t s , t h e c e n t r a l c o n t r o l g i v e s l e a d e r s h i p i n a r c h i v a l m a t t e r s , and t h e r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l means b e t t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a r c h i v a l i n i t i a t i v e s . The B a p t i s t s ' l a c k of common t r a d i t i o n and d e v e l o p e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , f a c t i o u s b e h a v i o u r , and emphasis on e v a n g e l i s m i n h i b i t e d t h e development of e i t h e r a s e n s i t i v i t y t o r e c o r d s and. r e c o r d k e e p i n g o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o encourage r e c o r d k e e p i n g . S t i l l , h a v i n g a c h i e v e d s t a b i l i t y and advanced o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e Union and R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s a r e s l o w l y coming t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e v i t a l r o l e t h e i r r e c o r d s can p l a y i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l t h o u g h b o t h c o n c e i v e t h i s r o l e t o be s o l e l y h i s t o r i c a l a t p r e s e n t . They have t h e advantage of h a v i n g e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e s w i t h w h i c h t o l o d g e t h e i r r e c o r d s . The S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t s , h a v i n g i n h e r i t e d a l o v e of h i s t o r y from t h e i r p a r e n t body, have t h e i m p e t u s t o c o l l e c t b u t a r e s t i l l b u i l d i n g t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Thus t h e i r r e c o r d s a r e e x t a n t but u n e x p l o i t e d . The G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e B a p t i s t s and t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t s a r e s t i l l s t r i v i n g t o r e a c h t h e l e v e l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e i r B a p t i s t b r e t h r e n , and have o n l y c r e a t e d i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l 135 b o d i e s v e r y r e c e n t l y . T h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of r e c o r d s i s s t i l l v e r y much i n t h e u n d e v e l o p e d s t a g e . U nion y i e l d e d t h e s i z e and scope f o r a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o d e v e l o p , b u t t h e U n i t e d C hurch has had t o b a l a n c e p o l i t i e s w h i c h a l l emphasize c o n t r o l a t a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y t h e r e s u l t a n t s t r u c t u r e i s i n t r i c a t e but t h e a c t u a l government i s weak and n o t q u i t e as s u i t e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of i n t e g r a t e d a r c h i v a l programmes as t h a t of t h e A n g l i c a n Church. The l a c k o f d e v e l o p e d b u r e a u c r a c y does not i m p e l r e g u l a r and o r d e r l y r e c o r d k e e p i n g . Moreover t h e Church's deep s o c i a l c o n c e r n keeps i t s m i n i s t r y away from d e v e l o p i n g a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d b u r e a u c r a c y . The Church's m a r v e l o u s and e n t h u s i a s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h i s t o r y , however, g i v e s i t an eager and f r e s h a p p r o a c h t o t h e r e c o r d s w h i c h keep t h e memory of t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n . Thus t h e key t o r e g u l a r r e c o r d k e e p i n g w i t h i n a denom-i n a t i o n i s an impetus t o c o l l e c t and an o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h i s s u i t e d f o r r e c o r d s c o l l e c t i o n t o t a k e p l a c e . L e t us t u r n , f i n a l l y , t o c o n s i d e r what t h i s means f o r f u t u r e c o l l e c t i o n and k e e p i n g of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s i n Canada. 136 NOTES FOR CHAPTER IV John Webster G r a n t , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n The C r o s s i n Canada,, ed. John S. M o i r ( T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1966), p. i x . 2 The Church of E n g l a n d i n Canada changed i t s name t o t h e A n g l i c a n Church of Canada i n 1955. 3 Frank A. Peake, The A n g l i c a n Church i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (Vancouver: M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1959), p. 6. 4 I b i d . , pp. 46-47. 5 H. H. Walsh, The C h r i s t i a n Church i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1956). 6 The A n g l i c a n Church of Canada, The Book o f Common P r a y e r  1959 Canada ( T o r o n t o : A n g l i c a n Book C e n t r e , [ 1 9 5 9 ] ) , p. v i i i . 7 I b i d . 8 Lyndon Grove, P a c i f i c P i l g r i m s (Vancouver: F f o r b e z P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1979), p. 150. 9 A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , Book of Common P r a y e r , p. v i i . 10 I n t e r v i e w w i t h G a r t h W a l k e r A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e of New We s t m i n s t e r and t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 7 J u l y 1983. 11 A n g l i c a n C hurch, Book of Common P r a y e r , pp. 697, 698. 12 Gordon P o u s e t t , " H i s t o r y of t h e C o n v e n t i o n of B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h C o i l u m b i a " ( M a s t e r of The o l o g y t h e s i s , Vancouver S c h o o l of T h e o l o g y , 1982), p. 47. 13 I b i d . , p. 56. 137 NOTES c o n ' t 14 I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , B a p t i s t s formed t h e G e n e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t s ( 1 9 3 2 ) , t h e Wo r l d B a p t i s t F e l l o w s h i p ( 1 9 3 2 ) , t h e Orthodox B a p t i s t s ( 1 9 3 5 ) , and t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f F r e e W i l l B a p t i s t s ( 1 9 35). 15 W a l t e r E. E l l i s , " B a p t i s t s and R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s i n Western Canada, 1920 - 1950," i n B a p t i s t s i n Canada: S e a r c h f o r  I d e n t i t y A m i d s t D i v e r s i t y , ed. J a r o l d K. Zeman ( B u r l i n g t o n : G. R. Welch Co., 1980), p. 163. 16 R o l a n d P. Hood, S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t Work i n Canada u n p u b l i s h e d pamphlet, 1977, p. 2. 17 Bob S t e w a r t , "The U n i t e d Church of Canada i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " i n C i r c l e of V o i c e s : A H i s t o r y o f t h e R e l i g i o u s Communities  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ed. Churck Anderson ( L a n c e v i l l e , B.C.: O o l i c h a n Books, 1983), p. 211. 138 CHAPTER V CHURCH ARCHIVES: A NATURAL CONCLUSION One of t h e main c o n c l u s i o n s we can draw from o ur s t u d y of t h e A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , and U n i t e d d e n o m i n a t i o n s i s t h a t r e c o r d k e e p i n g , i f i t t a k e s p l a c e , i s a n a t u r a l phenomenon based on t h e v e r y f u n d a m e n t a l s of t h e r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n : t h e members' d e f i n i t i o n of t h e " c h u r c h , " and t h e i r means of r e a l i z i n g t h a t d e f i n i t i o n , . I n o t h e r words, t h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e s and t h e i r t y p e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n produce t h e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o l l e c t i o n . The f i r s t c o n d i t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r c o l l e c t i o n i s a d e s i r e o r an impetus of some k i n d t o c o l l e c t . The s t i m u l u s may be a l o v e of s c h o l a r s h i p , as i n t h e U n i t e d C h u rch. I t may be a r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n o r a d i c t a t i o n of an i n c r e a s i n s o p h i s t i c a t e d b u r e a u c r a c y , as i s found i n t h e case of th e A n g l i c a n Church. I t may be t h e d e s i r e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e u n i q u e q u a l i t i e s of one's i d e n t i t y , o r a l o v e of h i s t o r y , as i n t h e e a r l y e t h n i c c h u r c h e s and t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n . Whatever t h e impetus t o c o l l e c t , however, i t must be combined w i t h an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h n a t u r a l l y f a c i l i t a t e c o l l e c t i o n . The optimum s t r u c t u r e a p p e a r s i n t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h , w h i c h d i v i d e s each e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e i n t o d i o c e s e s under t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o v e r s i g h t of t h e b i s h o p and t h e d i o c e s a n synod. The u n i t s a r e s m a l l enough t o f a c i l i t a t e 139 d i o c e s a n - w i d e c o l l e c t i o n of r e c o r d s , y e t s t r o n g and i n d e p e n -dent enough t o s u p p o r t t h a t c o l l e c t i o n . W i t h good c e n t r a l d i r e c t i o n , t h e s e u n i t s a r e k n i t t o g e t h e r i n t o a c o h e s i v e w o r k i n g group. F o r t h e C h u r c h , t h e s e s m a l l e r u n i t s s p r e a d t h e f i n a n c i a l burden and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v e r a l a r g e r a r e a , making i t e a s i e r f o r t h e Church t o s u p p o r t r e c o r d k e e p i n g a c t i v i t i e s . W i t h t h e i r emphasis on c o n g r e g a t i o n a l i n d e pendence, t h e B a p t i s t s l a b o u r under t h e most d i f f i c u l t y . A l t h o u g h t h e n e x t l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n beyond t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n d i f f e r s among t h e f i v e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s (some have r e g i o n a l b o d i e s , o t h e r s have p r o v i n c i a l o r s t a t e - l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ) , none have i n t e r m e d i a r y b o d i e s between t h e l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n s and t h e n a t i o n a l b o d i e s w h i c h a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g enough o r c l o s e enough t o make c o l l e c t i o n e a s y . I n t h i s c a s e , s i z e p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e , f o r s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i m p l y c annot s u p p o r t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y needed t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e c o l l e c t i o n of r e c o r d s from l o c a l c h u r c h e s , o r t o produce t h e n u c l e u s of g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e c o r d s . Once a d e n o m i n a t i o n b e g i n s r e g u l a r c o l l e c t i o n , as we see i n t h e A n g l i c a n and U n i t e d C h u r c h e s , t h e r e a r e n a t u r a l l e v e l s a t w h i c h c o l l e c t i o n o c c u r s . There a r e , i n f a c t , v i t a l bonds between c h u r c h government and a r c h i v e s even though t h e a r c h i v e s may c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s beyond t h e l e v e l of government i t i s t i e d t o . The A n g l i c a n d i o c e s a n a r c h i v e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , c o l l e c t s t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e d i o c e s e 140 and t h e p a r i s h e s w i t h i n t h e d i o c e s e , and t h e U n i t e d Church C o n f e r e n c e a r c h i v e s c o l l e c t s t h e r e c o r d s of b o t h c o n f e r e n c e -l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p a s t o r a l c h a r g e s . But r e c o r d k e e p i n g , as a n a t u r a l o u t g r o w t h of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y , must t a k e p l a c e a t a l e v e l of government; i t cannot be s u s t a i n e d o t h e r w i s e . In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s , t h e l e v e l s of d e p o s i t cannot be t o o f a r away from t h e o r i g i n a t i n g s o u r c e , o r l i k e w i s e , t h e r e c o r d s c o l l e c t i o n s i m p l y cannot be s u s t a i n e d . The McMaster A r c h i v e s i n H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o , f o r i n s t a n c e , c o l l e c t s t h e r e c o r d s of c h u r c h e s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n of Western Canada, but c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have t o o l i t t l e c o n t a c t o r knowledge of t h e a r c h i v e s t o f e e l c o m f o r t -a b l e i n d e p o s i t i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s i n such a remote l o c a l e . L i k e w i s e f o r t h e c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e l o n g i n g t o t h e S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , t h e B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e , and t h e N o r t h American B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , t h e c e n t r a l a r c h i v e s , i f t h e c h u r c h e s a r e even aware of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , a r e so remote t h a t i t would have t o be a v e r y c o n s c i e n t i o u s , d e t e r m i n e d m i n i s t e r who would send h e r / h i s c h u r c h ' s r e c o r d s t o such a d i s t a n t d e s t i n a t i o n . O v e r a l l , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o n o t e t h a t d i s c e r n i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n t h e r e c o r d k e e p i n g p a t t e r n s i n t h e A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t and U n i t e d C h u r c h e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o r e a l i z e , however, t h a t w i t h i n t h e B a p t i s t d e n o m i n a t i o n one can i d e n t i f y v e r y d i s t i n c t r e c o r d k e e p i n g a t t i t u d e s 141 and p r a c t i c e s f o r each of t h e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y e x h i b i t s i m i l a r t e n d e n c i e s on t h e s u r f a c e . One cannot h e l p but be aware t h e n , t h a t i f such n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t w i t h i n a s i n g l e d e n o m i n a t i o n , how much more u n l i k e l y i t i s t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e same r e s p o n s e s from a l l c h u r c h e s , as t h e a r c h i v a l and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e h i s t o r i c a l w o r l d c u r r e n t l y t e n d t o e x p e c t . R a t h e r , c h u r c h e s may e x h i b i t s i m i l a r t e n d e n c i e s , but one must s t u d y each c h u r c h i n d i v i d u a l l y t o p r e d i c t i t s r e s p o n s e s t o r e c o r d k e e p i n g . These o b s e r v a t i o n s have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r o p e r c u s t o d y of r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s and t h e r o l e of r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a C a n a d i a n a r c h i v a l network. L e t us r e t u r n t o t h e debate o v e r a r c h i v a l c u s t o d y . I f we g r a n t t h a t a l l a r c h i v e s a r e w o r k i n g towards optimum r e c o r d s c o l l e c t i o n f o r maximum use, t h e n we can examine t h e c l a i m s made f o r r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s programmes i n l i g h t of t h i s g o a l . As we have seen, t h e debate i s e s s e n t i a l l y between t h o s e who d e s i r e p u b l i c a r c h i v e s t o c o l l e c t r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s and t h o s e who f e e l t h a t t h e o r i g i n a t i n g c h u r c h e s a r e t h e b e s t k e e p e r s of t h e i r r e c o r d s . A l t h o u g h a d v o c a t e s of p u b l i c c o l l e c t i o n of c h u r c h a r c h i v e s such as James Lambert and T.J. Hanrahan propose t h e use of v a r y i n g l e v e l s of p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s , t h e i r main emphasis i s on c o l l e c t i o n development by t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada. x T h i s i s s u e of c e n t r a l c o l l e c t i o n by a s i n g l e a r c h i v e s has l o n g been 142 a t h o r n y one i n t h e a r c h i v a l w o r l d . Even as r e c e n t l y as 1982, a group of h i s t o r i a n s a t York U n i v e r s i t y s u b m i t t e d a b r i e f t o t h e F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee s t a t i n g : we a l l see advantages i n h a v i n g one c e n t r a l d e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e b u l k of government and p o l i t i c a l r e c o r d s , as w e l l as t h e p a p e r s l e f t by a s s o c i a t i o n s , b u s i n e s s e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . ^ A l t h o u g h i t i s not e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , one might a c c u r a t e l y guess t h a t c h u r c h a r c h i v e s a r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s mammoth c o l l e c t i o n . A s t o n i s h i n g l y enough, t h e s e words a r e a l m o s t an echo of Dominion A r c h i v i s t A r t h u r Doughty's words i n 1924: "The s t u d e n t of a p e r i o d o r e p i s o d e i n C a nadian h i s t o r y has many a d v a n t a g e s . The m a t e r i a l s he r e q u i r e s f o r h i s work a r e a l l c o n t a i n e d i n one b u i l d i n g . " 3 A r c h i v i s t s c e r t a i n l y hope t h a t t h e y have d e v e l o p e d f a r beyond t h i s s t a g e . I n t h e " r e s c u e e r a , " however, when t h e r e were few r e p o s i t o r i e s t o c o l l e c t e x t a n t r e c o r d s , t h e t o t a l a r c h i v e s a p p r o a c h of t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada was a c c e p t a b l e and even commendable. But t h e p r a c t i c e o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n has l o n g s i n c e c e ased t o be n e c e s s a r y o r a c c e p t a b l e , as t h e r e s p o n s e s by p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t s i n Canada t o t h e R e p o r t of t h e Commission on C a n a d i a n S t u d i e s (1975 ), t h e R e p o r t by t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e Group on C anadian A r c h i v e s (1980) , and t h e R e p o r t of t h e F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee (1982 ) show. 4 The o f f i c i a l 143 r e s p o n s e of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n of C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t s t o th e Symons R e p o r t on Can a d i a n S t u d i e s s t r e s s e d t h a t "sound development of a r c h i v e s s h o u l d be based whenever p o s s i b l e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g where v a l u a b l e r e c o r d s a r e c r e a t e d . " 5 The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e R e p o r t on Canadian A r c h v i e s was even more p o i n t e d : " the t o t a l a r c h i v e s mandate does n o t have t o be f u l f i l l e d by e x e r c i s i n g p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s t o r e c o r d s , " but r a t h e r "governments, p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , and o t h e r c o r p o r a t e b o d i e s s h o u l d be encouraged t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . " 6 And f i n a l l y , i n t h e i r b r i e f s t o th e F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee, a r c h i v i s t s f rom a c r o s s Canada r e p e a t e d l y spoke o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e of d e c e n t a l i z a t i o n . F o r example, "the members of t h e TAAG [ T o r o n t o A r e a A r c h i v i s t s Group] f e e l t h a t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n would encourage more l o c a l awareness and i n t e r e s t i n t h e h e r i t a g e of t h e community." 7 They a l s o n o t e d t h a t more r e c o r d s c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d i f more i n s t i t u t i o n s s h a r e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o l l e c t i o n . W h i l e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l community i n Can a d i a n a r c h i v e s a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m i s t h e p a t h t o t h e f u t u r e , h i s t o r i a n s remain l a r g e l y u n c o n v i n c e d . The York U n i v e r s i t y h i s t o r i a n s c o m p l a i n e d , " I f r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n t o o k p l a c e , t h e n e t e f f e c t i s t h a t we and our c o l l e a g u e s a l l a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y would be f o r c e d t o spend more t i m e — and more money — t r a v e l l i n g from r e g i o n a l a r c h i v e s 144 t o archives."° Others have f e a r e d t h a t in-house management of a r c h i v e s by churches might r e s u l t i n r e s t r i c t e d a ccess to r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s f o r o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r s ; Thus, h i s t o r i a n s f e a r l a c k of a c c e s s , and l a c k of a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The f e a r t h a t c o l l e c t i o n of a r c h i v e s by churches w i l l r e s u l t i n r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s f o r o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r s b a s i c a l l y i g n o r e s the p r i v a t e nature of c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s . That nature w i l l not change simply because h i s t o r i a n s wish t o use the r e c o r d s immediately. At the Round Table a t the Seminar on R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s , p a r t i c i p a n t s d i s c u s s e d t h e i r concern t h a t p u b l i c a r c h i v e s , not u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c o n f i d e n t i a l nature of t h e i r r e c o r d s , would i n a d v e r t a n t l y open them too e a r l y . Whether t h i s concern i s c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t , the r e s u l t i s more l i k e l y to be t h a t churches would h o l d back t h e i r p r i v a t e r e c o r d s , or p l a c e a much h e a v i e r r e s t r i c t i o n upon them to compensate f o r t h e i r removal i n t o a f o r e i g n environment. I t i s not simply a matter of the churches' l a c k of c o n f i d e n c e i n p u b l i c a r c h i v e s , but a l s o a matter of the church's s u p e r i o r understanding of t h e i r own r e c o r d s . As the c r e a t o r s , they know t h e i r r e c o r d s i n t i m a t e l y . They can b e s t judge which i n d i v i d u a l r e c o r d s are p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e , t h a t need c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to a c c e s s , and can t h e r e f o r e e s t a b l i s h more r e a l i s t i c a ccess r e s t r i c t i o n s . With the one-on-one c o n t a c t w i t h the r e s e a r c h i n g p u b l i c , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v i s t can g i v e a b e t t e r response 145 t o r e q u e s t s t h a n t h e p u b l i c a r c h i v i s t who must c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r back t o t h e d o n a t i n g p a r t y i n t h e i n s t a n c e s t h a t r e s t r i c t e d m a t e r i a l i s so u g h t . I n a n s w e r i n g t h e second f e a r o f t h e p o s s i b l e l a c k o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s , one might c o n s i d e r t h a t c e n t r a l i z a t i o n u n f a i r l y l i m i t s t h e m a t e r i a l s t o t h o s e i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g community, o r t h o s e w i t h t h e funds a v a i l a b l e t o t r a v e l t h e r e . A l s o , as t h e R e p o r t on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s n o t e d , "new s t u d i e s ... p l a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on r e g i o n a l o r l o c a l a r c h i v a l r e s o u r c e s . " 9 H i s t o r i a n s have i n c r e a s i n g l y been t u r n i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n away from s u b j e c t s r e q u i r i n g n a t i o n a l c o v e r a g e t o t h e t y p e s of h i s t o r i e s r e q u i r i n g more c o n c e n t r a t e d s t u d y w h i c h o n l y r e g i o n a l r e c o r d s can s a t i s f y . A s t u d y o f h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l t r e n d s , of c o u r s e , warns one t h a t r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s may not h o l d t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i a n ' s a t t e n t i o n f o r long-. But h i s t o r y and a r c h i v e s have come t o h o l d an i n t e r e s t f o r more p e r s o n s t h a n j u s t h i s t o r i a n s , and most o f t e n t h e i r needs a r e b e s t met by l o c a l and r e g i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n o f a r c h i v e s . x _ l And, s i n c e a r c h i v i s t s can ne v e r f u l l y a n t i c i p a t e what r e c o r d s new h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s w i l l r e q u i r e , and because t o d a y a r c h i v i s t s a r e c o l l e c t i n g f o r t h e f u t u r e , we r e t u r n t o t h e g o a l o f optimum r e c o r d s c o l l e c t i o n f o r maximum use by e v e r y o n e . The R e p o r t on Canadian A r c h i v e s c o u n s e l l e d : " A r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s b e l o n g f i r s t and f o r e m o s t i n t h e hands of t h o s e who o r i g i n a t e d 146 them, b e s t u n d e r s t a n d them, and a r e most l i k e l y t o use t h e m . " ± x I f h i s t o r i a n s want t o o b t a i n a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e r e c o r d s t h e y u s e , t h e n t h e y w i l l b e n e f i t more from u s i n g t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t was c r e a t e d , and where t h e c r e a t o r s , who b e s t u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e c o r d s , a r e a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n - Thus, o u t s i d e u s e r s b e n e f i t from i n - h o u s e c a r e of r e c o r d s . I f we a c c e p t t h a t r e c o r d s a r e saved f o r t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , f i s c a l , l e g a l , o r h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e , t h e n t h e c r e a t o r s b e n e f i t from k e e p i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s t h e m s e l v e s because t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y w i l l be g r e a t e r i n l o c a l and r e g i o n a l c h u r c h r e p o s i t o r i e s . The u s e r s a r e f u r t h e r b e n e f i t t e d because more f u l s o m e r e c o r d k e e p i n g n a t u r a l l y o c c u r s when t h e c h u r c h keeps r e c o r d s t o meet i t s own needs r a t h e r t h a n f o r an unknown u s e r p u b l i c . T h i s i s t r u e even i n t h e c a s e s where t h e c h u r c h o r r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n d e p o s i t t h e s e r e c o r d s w i t h a p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r y , s i n c e a c e r t a i n amount of r e c o r d s r e t e n t i o n must o c c u r t o b u i l d up a c o l l e c t i o n s u i t a b l e f o r t r a n f e r r a l . The onus i s on t h e c h u r c h t o do t h e i n i t i a l r e t e n t i o n , and t h i s i s e f f e c t e d i f t h e y can c o l l e c t f o r t h e i r own needs. U l t i m a t e l y , of c o u r s e , t h e b e s t argument a g a i n s t t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c h u r c h r e c o r d s i n a s e c u l a r r e p o s i t o r y i s p r o v i d e d by t h e c h u r c h e s i n our s t u d y . Those c h u r c h e s w h i c h have o n l y c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r i e s t o c o l l e c t t h e r e c o r d s of t h e i r d e n o m i n a t i o n t h a t a r e r e m o t e l y l o c a t e d , o r l o c a t e d 147 o u t s i d e t h e c o u n t r y , do not r e s p o n d by s e n d i n g t h e i r m a t e r i a l . C e r t a i n l y , f o r t h e t h r e e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s w h i c h have t h e s e r e p o s i t o r i e s l o c a t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y t h e added b a r r i e r of n o t w a n t i n g t o send m a t e r i a l o u t of t h e c o u n t r y . The more t e l l i n g f a c t o r , however, i s p r o b a b l y t h e d i s t a n c e and remoteness of t h e a r c h i v e s . There i s s i m p l y no i n c e n t i v e f o r B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o send t h e i r r e c o r d s t o t h e McMaster A r c h i v e s i n O n t a r i o ; such remote r e f e r e n c e s e r v i c e would p r o b a b l y mean t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s would n e v e r see o r use t h e r e c o r d s a g a i n . More t h a n l i k e l y , p a s t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a do n o t know anyone a t t h e A r c h i v e s , and have not had f i r s t h a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s i n g t h e A r c h i v e s . Thus t h e r e i s no p e r s o n a l o b l i g a t i o n c o m p e l l i n g them t o d e p o s i t r e c o r d s a t McMaster. One may j u s t i f i a b l y argue t h a t what t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n s a r e u n a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h i s h a r d l y l i k e l y t o be a c h i e v e d by any s e c u l a r c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y ; t h e same b a r r i e r s would e x i s t . I n h i s arguments f o r p u b l i c c u s t o d y of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s , Lambert s u g g e s t s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e of c h u r c h e s l o d g i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s , so t h a t m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a r c h i v e s would house a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s of r e c o r d s . Our s t u d y of t h e A n g l i c a n C h u rch, however, has shown t h a t v e r y r e a l and v i t a l bonds e x i s t between i t s l e v e l s .of government and i t s a r c h i v e s ; bonds t h a t p u b l i c a r c h i v e s would have a g r e a t d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y 148 i n p r e s e r v i n g . S t r o n g t i e s e x i s t between t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s t h a t do not i n f a c t e x i s t a t p r e s e n t between l e v e l s of p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s . Lambert's s o l u t i o n i s n o t v e r y a t t r a c t i v e i n t h e f a c e of t h i s . O u t s i d e of t h e l a c k of n e t w o r k i n g e s t a b l i s h e d between l e v e l s o f p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s , and t h e b r e a k i n g of bonds between c r e a t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a r c h i v e s , t h e r e i s th e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e t r u e o w n e r s h i p of t h e r e c o r d s . Throughout t h i s s t u d y , a r c h i v i s t s , m i n i s t e r s , c h u r c h c l e r k s and members a l l e x h i b i t e d a p r i d e i n and sense o f o w n e r s h i p of t h e i r r e c o r d s . Even i f t h e y were l a r g e l y unaware of th e i n t e r e s t t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d had i n t h e i r r e c o r d s , t h e y s t i l l v a l u e d t h e r e c o r d s as a p r o d u c t of t h e i r e n d e a v o u r s . I n many c a s e s t h e n , w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n c h u r c h e s might be r e c e p t i v e t o d o n a t i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s , t h e m a j o r i t y i n each c h u r c h , g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n o r t o a f f e c t t h e outcome, would p r o b a b l y be u n r e c e p t i v e o r perhaps even h o s t i l e t o g i v i n g up t h e i r h e r i t a g e , p a r t i c u l -a r l y t o a s e c u l a r r e p o s i t o r y . Whether t h e r e i s c e n t r a l o r d i s p e r s e d c o l l e c t i o n of r e l i g i o u s a r c h i v e s by p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , t h e r e s u l t i s s t i l l t h e same. Because each d e n o m i n a t i o n i s made up of i n d i v i d u a l c h u r c h e s k n i t t o g e t h e r by a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of b e l i e f , t h i s b e l i e f w i l l d i c t a t e a s i m l i a r p a t t e r n of r e s p o n s e . I t w i l l a f f e c t t h e c h u r c h e s ' a t t i t u d e s , t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s , 149 and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , w h i c h a l l c l e a r l y a f f e c t t h e i r r e c o r d k e e p i n g . One m i g h t a r g u e , t h e n , t h a t such f u n d a m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h e x i s t , f o r m u l a t e d as t h e y were o v e r t i m e and under t h e i n f l u e n c e of h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e , c a nnot be changed e a s i l y . F o r t h e most p a r t , i t would be a f r u i t l e s s and f r u s t r a t i n g endeavour f o r any o u t s i d e agency t o t r y t o e f f e c t any r e g u l a r and s y s t e m a t i c a c q u i s i t i o n of a r c h i v e s of t h o s e r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h had not a l r e a d y made t h e d e c i s i o n t o seek an o u t s i d e r e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e i r a r c h i v e s on t h e i r own a c c o u n t . Thus, w h i l e o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s can encourage i n s t i t u t i o n s t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r r e c o r d s , t h e o r i g i n a l s t i m u l u s , w hatever i t may be, must come from w i t h i n t h e c h u r c h i t s e l f , as must t h e c h o i c e of means. Any r e s u l t s o t h e r w i s e would be h o p e l e s s l y p i e c e -meal. W h i l e some may c l a i m t h a t p i e c e m e a l c o l l e c t i o n i s b e t t e r t h a n no c o l l e c t i o n a t a l l , one would have t o q u e s t i o n whether any p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r y c o u l d j u s t i f y p l a c i n g t h e r e c o r d s of a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n above t h o s e of t h e government and p e r s o n s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o v e r e d i n i t s mandate. A l l of t h i s does n o t p r e c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of any one c h u r c h o r o r g a n i z a t i o n l o d g i n g i t s r e c o r d s r e g u l a r l y w i t h a p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r y . V a r i o u s c h u r c h e s , f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , have a l r e a d y begun d e p o s i t i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s w i t h p r o v i n c i a l , f e d e r a l , o r u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s a c r o s s Canada. I t i s w e l l f o r t h o s e who would promote p u b l i c 150 c u s t o d y of r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s t o remember t h a t t h e r e s u l t s of such d e p o s i t arrangements have r a r e l y been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . As w e l l , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e B a p t i s t c h u r c h e s , f o r example, have n o t begun r e g u l a r and s y s t e m a t i c c a r e of t h e i r a r c h i v e s a t a l l l e v e l s does n o t p r e c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t , as c i r c u m s t a n c e s change, t h e y w i l l g r a d u a l l y move i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of r e g u l a r r e c o r d k e e p i n g . They a r e c u r r e n t l y e n j o y i n g a p e r i o d of peace w h i c h has a l l o w e d them t o p u r s u e a more e s t a b l i s h e d form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . As we have seen, t h e more e s t a b l i s h e d and s t a b l e t h e form of c h u r c h government, t h e more e f f e c t i v e r e c o r d k e e p i n g i s l i k e l y t o be. So how w i l l C a n a d i a n c h u r c h e s f i t i n t o a f u t u r e a r c h i v a l n etwork? The R e p o r t on C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s s t a t e d : We have found t h a t g i v e n t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of a r c h i v a l methodology, t h e d i v e r s i t y of a r c h i v e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h e e x p o n e n t i a l t r e n d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of new a r c h i v e s , a r c h i v a l s e r v i c e a c r o s s Canada i s and w i l l be b r o a d l y based, i n v o l v i n g a complex system of r e p o s i t o r i e s . ± 2 The A n g l i c a n Church n o t o n l y w i l l f i t i n v e r y w e l l i n any network w h i c h d e v e l o p s , b u t i n f a c t a l r e a d y has much t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e development of such a network. The s h a r i n g and c o - o p e r a t i o n v i s i b l e between t h e a r c h i v e s of t h e d i o c e s e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e , and t h e G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s i n T o r o n t o has e n s u r e d a r e m a r k a b l e degree o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n , w h i c h any s e c u l a r a r c h i v e s would do w e l l t o e m u l a t e . S i m i l a r i l y , a l t h o u g h t h e U n i t e d Church does n o t d e m o n s t r a t e t h e same degree of c o - o p e r a t i o n between 151 u n i t s , t h e s t r u c t u r e and c a p a b i l i t y i s t h e r e a l l t h e same. Fo r t h o s e c h u r c h e s w h i c h have n o t begun c o l l e c t i n g t h e i r r e c o r d s , we w i l l e i t h e r have t o w a i t u n t i l s t a b i l i t y and a mature c h u r c h b u r e a u c r a c y a r r i v e s , o r a c c e p t a mixed a r c h i v a l economy, i n w h i c h b o t h t h e c h u r c h e s t h e m s e l v e s and p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s p r e s e r v e r e l i g i o u s r e c o r d s , and i n t h e meantime c o n c e n t r a t e on t r y i n g t o k n i t up t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s . T h i s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a number of ways. T. R. M i l l m a n of t h e A n g l i c a n Church s u g g e s t e d t h a t a h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s s u r v e y of c h u r c h e s be made. 1^ Exchanges of m i c r o f i l m s of m a t e r i a l a r e a n o t h e r s o l u t i o n . There can be no doubt, however, t h a t c h u r c h e s a r e a f o r c e t o be r e c k o n e d w i t h i n t h e a r c h i v a l w o r l d ; a l r e a d y t h e y r i v a l u n i v e r s i t i e s as t h e l a r g e s t group of a r c h i v e s o u t s i d e our f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l government a r c h i v e s . 1 4 As T e r r y Cook w i s e l y n o t e d i n h i s e d i t o r i a l on n e t w o r k i n g : Q u i t e p r o b a b l y , t h e r e a r e many v e h i c l e s s u f f i c i e n t l y r o a d w o r t h y t o t r a v e l a l o n g t h e v i s t a t o a r c h i v a l Utopia, and perhaps t h e i d e a of l o a d i n g e v e r y b o d y i n t o one huge bus t o make t h e t r i p t o g e t h e r i n p e r f e c t harmony i s n o t d e s i r a b l e anyway. There i s room on t h e r o a d f o r our C a d i l l a c s as w e l l as our Volkswagens, our m o t o r c y c l e s as w e l l as our f a m i l y campers, even f o r our j o g g e r s , w a l k e r s , and t h e odd h i t c h h i k e r . ±_> Churches w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y f a s h i o n t h e i r own a r c h i v a l d e s t i n y . 152 NOTES FOR CHAPTER V James Lambert, "Toward a R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s Programme f o r t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada," A r c h i v a r i a 3 ( W i n t e r 1975-76); T. J . Hanrahan, "The r o l e o f R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s i n Canada," i n Can a d i a n R e l i g i o u s C o n f e r e n c e , R e p o r t of  P r o c e e d i n g s o f Seminar on R e l i g i o u s A r c h i v e s (Ottawa: n.p., 1972). 2 F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee, Summary of B r i e f s  and H e a r i n g s (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s , Department of Communications, Government o f Canada, 1982), p. 58. 3 A r t h u r Doughty, The Can a d i a n A r c h i v e s and I t s A c t i v i t i e s (Ottawa: F. A. A c l a n d , 1 9 24), p. 7. 4 A s s o c i a t i o n o f Can a d i a n A r c h i v i s t s , "Canadian A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t s and Responses," A r c h i v a r i a 11 ( W i n t e r 1980-81); R e p o r t of t h e F e d e r a l P o l i c y Review Committee, by L o u i s Applebaum and Jaques H u b e r t , Chairmen (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s , Government of Canada, 1982). A s s o c i a t i o n of Can a d i a n A r c h i v i s t s , "Canadian A r c h i v e s , " p.11. ^ I b i d . , p. 15. 7 R e p o r t of t h e Review Committee, p. 57. g I b i d . , p. 58. q C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s . R e p o r t t o t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and  H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada by t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e  Group on Can a d i a n A r c h i v e s , by I a n W i l s o n , Chairman (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n of t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of Canada, 1980), p. 5. l (^"Myths of t h e A r c h i v a l P r o f e s s i o n , " s e s s i o n h e l d a t t h e S o c i e t y of Am e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s C o n f e r e n c e , M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n e s o t a , 8 O c t o b e r 1983. Canadian A r c h i v e s , p. 14. 12 I b i d . , p. 66. 153 NOTES c o n ' t 13 T.R. M i l l m a n , "The Study o f Church H i s t o r y , " C a n a d i a n  J o u r n a l of Theology 1 ( A p r i l 1955). 14 C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , p. 66. 15 T e r r y Cook, " A r c h i v a l Networks and C o n g r e s s e s , " A r c h i v a r i a 17 ( W i n t e r 1983-84): 13. 154 BIBLIOGRAPHY A h l s t r o m , Sydney E. "The P r o b l e m of t h e H i s t o r y of R e l i g i o n i n A m e r i c a . " Church H i s t o r y 39 (June 1976): 224 -35. A l l e n , R i c h a r d . The S o c i a l P a s s i o n : R e l i g i o n and S o c i a l Reform i n Canada. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1971. Amerding, C a r l E., and Gasque, W. Ward. Dreams, V i s i o n s ,  and O r a c l e s . M i c h i g a n : Baker Book House, 1977. The A n g l i c a n Church of Canada. The Book, of Common P r a y e r  1959 Canada. T o r o n t o : A n g l i c a n Book C e n t r e , [ 1 9 5 9 ] . . Handbook of. t h e G e n e r a l Synod of the. 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B a p t i s t Roots and I d e n t i t y , n.p.: B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n of O n t a r i o and Quebec, 1978. 168 BIBLIOGRAPHY c o n ' t MISCELLANEOUS UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS "Di o c e s e of Kootenay, D i o c e s a n A r c h i v a l Programme," r e p o r t t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Committee, 6 O c t o b e r 1978: " P o s i t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n f o r D i o c e s a n A r c h i v i s t , " O c t o b e r 1978: " P o l i c y f o r a D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , " O c t o b e r 1978: " D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , " s u b m i t t e d t o t h e High-Way, 7 A p r i l 1979; " D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , " 7 December 1979; "Report o f t h e A r c h i v i s t , " r e p o r t t o B i s h o p B e r r y and Members of Synod, O c t o b e r 1981. U n p u b l i s h e d documents o b t a i n e d from G a i l G r e e n h a l g h , A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e of Kootenay, Kelowna. G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s of t h e A n g l i c a n Church of Canada. Survey of A n g l i c a n D i o c e s a n R e c o r d s . D r a f t copy of r e p o r t o b t a i n e d from G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s , T o r o n t o , 1983. " G e n e r a l Synod of t h e A n g l i c a n Church of Canada: P o s i t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n , " December 1980. U n p u b l i s h e d document o b t a i n e d from t h e G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s , T o r o n t o . M i n u t e s of t h e M e e t i n g of A n g l i c a n Church A r c h i v i s t s , Vancouver S c h o o l of T h e o l o g y , Vancouver, 1 June 1983. "Suggested R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e O p e r a t i o n of t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Synod A r c h i v e s , " approved by t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Synod C o u n c i l , 4 O c t o b e r 1980; Canon 10. A r c h i v e s , c a r r i e d 19 September 1982; b o t h o b t a i n e d from t h e A r c h i v e s of t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e , Vancouver. Survey of A n g l i c a n D i o c e s a n A r c h i v e s , [ D i o c e s e of C a r i b o o ] ; Canon XIX; U n p u b l i s h e d documents o b t a i n e d from Joan Newman, A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e of C a r i b o o , Kamloops. CORRESPONDENCE C o l w e l l , J u d i t h , L i b r a r i a n , C a n a d i a n B a p t i s t A r c h i v e s t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 20 A p r i l 1983. Evans, R o b e r t , A s s i s t a n t A r c h i v i s t , t h e D i o c e s e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 18 May 1983. Gr e e n h a l g h , G a i l , A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e of Kootenay t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, [ 1 9 8 3 ] . James, E i l e e n . S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r , t h e D i o c e s e of C a l e d o n i a t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 22 March 1983. L u c a s , G l e n n , A r c h i v i s t - H i s t o r i a n , U n i t e d Church o f Canada t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 8 March 1983. 169 BIBLIOGRAPHY c o n ' t M o f f a t , D o u g l a s , E x e c u t i v e M i n i s t e r of t h e B a p t i s t U n i o n of Western Canada t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 9, 21 March 1983. M o i r , I a n , A r c h i v e s T e c h n i c i a n , A r c h i v e s , t h e Committee on H i s t o r y , G e n e r a l Assembly, t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n Canada t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 20 June 1983. Newman, J o a n , A r c h i v i s t , t h e D i o c e s e of C a r i b o o t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 24 March, 14 June 1983. Thompson, T e r r y , G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v i s t , A n g l i c a n C h urch of Canada t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 8 March, 21 June, 1983. Yoder, James G., M i n i s t e r a t G l a d s t o n e B a p t i s t C h a p e l t o S h e l l e y Sweeney, 20 A p r i l 1983. INTERVIEWS Anders o n , Grace. Member of H i s t o r i c a l Committee, C o l u m b i a C o n f e r e n c e , B a p t i s t G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 28 March 1984. B a p t i e , Sue. A r c h i v i s t , Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 12 J u l y 1983. Bu r k i n s h a w , Bob. Ph.D. s t u d e n t , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 29 November 1982. C h u r c h i l l , K e i t h . P a s t o r , West P o i n t Grey B a p t i s t C h u r c h , Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 16, November 1982. C l i f f o r d , N.K. P r o f e s s o r of T h e o l o g y , R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 23 March 1983. C o l l i n s , P h i l i p . A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r i n A p p l i e d T h e o l o g y , and Chairman of Campus M i n i s t r i e s , C a r e y H a l l , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 10 F e b r u a r y 1983. C o n v e n t i o n of R e g u l a r B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , head o f f i c e , V a n c ouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 22 March 1984. Crump, M u r i e l . A d m i n i s t r a t o r , B.C. A r e a O f f i c e , B a p t i s t U nion of Western Canada, V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 19 J a n u a r y 1983. D a n i e l s , Laurenda. A r c h i v i s t , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J u l y 1983. 170 BIBLIOGRAPHY c o n ' t Dunger, George. A r c h i v i s t , N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t Seminary, S i o u x F a l l s , South D a k o t a , 21 March 1984. G r u n e r t , J e n n i e . R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y , B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n , N o r t h A merican B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , 24 A p r i l 1984. Gundry, F r a n . A r c h i v i s t , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 12 J u l y 1983. G u s t i n , Rev. A r c h i v i s t , B e t h e l Seminary, S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a , 21 March 1984. H a r r i s o n , M a r i l y n , Former A r c h i v i s t , B.C. C o n f e r e n c e , U n i t e d Church, Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 25 November 1982. Harvey, Sam. M i n i s t e r , C a l v a r y B a p t i s t Church and Chairman of H i s t o r i c a l Committee, S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , S e a t t l e , W ashington, 26 A p r i l 1984. Haworth, K e n t . Former A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J u l y , A u g u s t , 4 November 1982, 2 2 March 198 4. Hersom, Harvey. D i r e c t o r , Department of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 24 June 1983. Hohn, Edmond. A r e a m i n i s t e r , N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t C o n f e r e n c e , Kamloops, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 27 March 1984. Kennedy, P a t . A r c h i v i s t , M a n u s c r i p t D i v i s i o n , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, Ottawa, O n t a r i o , 26 May 1982. K r o g u l e t z , Rev. W. P a s t o r , Immanuel B a p t i s t C h u r c h , Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , [ M a r c h ] , 1983. L a n g s t o n , S t e v e . B u s i n e s s Manager, N o r t h West B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , P o r t l a n d , Oregon, 26 A p r i l 1984. P o u s e t t , Gordon. Manager of B e u l a h Gardens, B a p t i s t U nion of Western Canada, S u r r e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 22 F e b r u a r y , 24 March 1983. R i c h a r d s , John B. F a c u l t y member, No r t h w e s t B a p t i s t C o l l e g e , C o n v e n t i o n o f R e g u l a r B a p t i s t Churches of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 27 May 1983. Saunders, B i l l . A r c h i v i s t , Sunday S c h o o l B o a r d , S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t C o n v e n t i o n , N a s h v i l l e , Tennessee, 9, 11, A p r i l 1984. S t e w a r t , Bob. U n i t e d Church, B.C. C o n f e r e n c e A r c h i v i s t , V a n c ouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , O c t o b e r 1982, 24 May 1983. 171 BIBLIOGRAPHY c o n ' t S t i r l i n g , Bob. P r o f e s s o r of S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of R e g i n a , R e g i n a , Saskatchewan, 6 March 1984. T a y l o r , Hugh. V i s i t i n g l e c t u r e r , M a s t e r of A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s Programme, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 8 F e b r u a r y 1983. Thompson, T e r r y . G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v i s t , G e n e r a l Synod A r c h i v e s , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o , 2 June 1982. Tonks, Ron. A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r of S o u t h e r n B a p t i s t H i s t o r i c a l Commission, N a s h v i l l e , Tennessee, 11 A p r i l 1984. W a l k e r , G a r t h . A r c h i v i s t , D i o c e s e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 26 May, 7 J u l y 1983. W a l t e r s , Mrs. L i b r a r i a n , N o r t h A m e r i c a n B a p t i s t Seminary, Edmonton, A l b e r t a , 21 March 1984. Yoder, James G. M i n i s t e r , G l a d s t o n e C h a p e l , C a p i l a n o A s s o c i a t i o n , Richmond, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 26 March 1984. 172 CHURCH ARCHIVES SURVEY FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA Den o m i n a t i o n : P l e a s e check t h e f o l l o w i n g : Do you or any of your c h u r c h o f f i c i a l s 1. c r e a t e any of the f o l l o w i n g : 2. i f s o , do you p r e s e r v e 3. For how l o n g ? any you've c r e a t e d : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s ( f o r eg. l a n d t i t l e s , t a x - r e l a t e d documents) m a r r i a g e r e g i s t e r s -dea t h r e g i s t e r s - |~TJ —^j b a p t i s m a l r e g i s t e r s - Q |—-j • • minutes and a c c o u n t s of c h u r c h b o a r d s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e l a t i n g t o the - J^ J f~1 o f f i c i a l b u s i n e s s of your c h u r c h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e from m i n i s t e r - £]] J^jj to i n d i v i d u a l s , i n h i s o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y . m e m b e r s h i p - r e l a t e d r e c o r d s - Q Q o t h e r s ( s p e c i f y ) - J~-J ^ • • 4. I s t h e r e anyone i n your c h u r c h g i v e n o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to m a i n t a i n your r e c o r d s 5a. I s your c h u r c h the r e s u l t of an amalgamation/merger? b. I f s o , do you have any r e c o r d s from the e a r l i e r c h u r c h body? 6. What i s the s i z e of your membership? P l e a s e s p e c i f y . 7, Do you t r a n s f e r any of your r e c o r d s to an a r c h i v e s o r r e p o s i t o r y ? I f s o , p l e a s e s p e c i f y . 

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