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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social reproduction and transcendence : an analysis of the Sekai Mahikari Bunmei Kyōdan, a heterodox.. Miyanaga, Kuniko 1983

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SOCIAL REPRODUCTION AND TRANSCENDENCE:  AN ANALYSIS  OF THE SEKAI MAHIKARI BUNMEI KYODAN, A HETERODOX RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT IN CONTEMPORARY JAPAN BY KUNIKO MIYANAGA B.A. , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo M.A. , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY ( i n anthropology) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 ©  Kuniko Miyanaga, 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y I  for  freely  fulfilment o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r of B r i t i s h  available  for  Columbia, reference  I agree  that permission for extensive c o p y i n g o f t h i s  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  for financial  gain s h a l l  not be allowed w i t h o u t my  Kuniko Miyanaga  The  thesis  University  Anthropology of B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  • Date  J u n e 9, 1983  or  i s understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n  permission.  Department o f  that  and s t u d y .  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  by h i s of  the U n i v e r s i t y  s h a l l make it  f u r t h e r agree  in p a r t i a l  Columbia  THESIS SUPERVISOR:  K.O.L. B u r r i d g e  ABSTRACT T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n examines t h e S e k a i  (World)  (True L i g h t ) Bunmei ( C i v i l i z a t i o n ) Kyodan ( R e l i g i o u s a t i o n ) , known t o English  Mahikari  Associ-  r e a d e r s by t h e acronym SMBK, b o t h i n  i t s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e which designates a s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s system and i n i t s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y , I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e theme o f s o c i a l c r e a t i o n i s e x p l o r e d p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e d i a l e c t i c between i d e o l o g y  i n the  and s o c i a l  organization. With regard  t o t h e e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  SMBK and t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y , t h e r e v e r s a l o f t h e norm i s t h e major i s s u e .  SMBK r e v e r s e s  t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y ' s norm o f f o r m a l  democracy and i n f o r m a l h i e r a r c h y and  by o f f e r i n g f o r m a l  i n f o r m a l e g a l i t a r i a n engagement.  hierarchy  I n so d o i n g , SMBK  r e a l i z e s a democratic i d e a l of e q u a l i t y i n i t s informal o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e e g a l i t a r i a n i s m has t o be d i s c a r d e d i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r upward m o b i l i t y . I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e SMBK model o f t h e r e l i g i o u s movement shows t h a t n e i t h e r nor  social organization  the c o n t r a r y ,  i s the r e f l e c t i o n of the other.  social organization  pathway t o t h e i d e o l o g y ,  ideology On  provides a contradictory  i n which b e l i e v e r s are c a l l e d t o  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i v i n e order through s p i r i t  possession.  I n t h i s way, SMBK o f f e r s t o i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s a g r a d u a l  -i'ii-  e d u c a t i o n a l procedure assimilation  l i k e a s t a i r w a y f o r s e l f - c u r e towards  i n t o t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s  process, i n d i v i d u a l  paradigm.  In this  b e l i e v e r s ' n e g a t i o n of t h e a c h i e v e d  e p i s t e m o l o g i e s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r advancement t o the next s t e p s . A b e h a v i o r a l submission t o the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l enables s e l f - c u r e i n SMBK.  This process,  a l s o b e i n g p r e s s e d by t h e r e c r u i t m e n t a c t i v i t y , c o n s t i t u t e s a d i a l e c t i c of s e l f and o t h e r s . the i n d i v i d u a l  However, t h i s d i a l e c t i c a t  l e v e l does n o t generate a d i a l e c t i c a t t h e  collective  level.  Consequently,  t h e d i a l e c t i c a t the  individual  l e v e l i s c o n t a i n e d i n , and i s ensured by, t h e  unchangeable framework o f the SMBK r e l i g i o u s  system.  -iv-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o acknowledge SMBK b e l i e v e r s f o r t h e i r k i n d n e s s , t o l e r a n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g my f i e l d work, and a l s o f o r t h e i r c u r i o s i t y about ^approaches t o r e l i g i o n .  anthropological  P a r t i c u l a r l y , I am g r a t e f u l t o  Mr. Kudo, Mr. Nakao, Mr. Tanaka and Mr. and Mrs. Sakamoto for  their  support. I would l i k e t o thank P r o f e s s o r A o y a g i o f I n t e r -  n a t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo, who gave me an i n s i g h t i n t o urban anthropology.  W i t h o u t h i s encouragement, my  engagement i n t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  study o f r e l i g i o u s movement  i n modern s o c i e t y would have n e v e r been r e a l i z e d . I would l i k e t o show my a p p r e c i a t i o n and g i v e s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r B u r r i d g e ,  who i n t r o -  duced me t o s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g y , t h e s t u d y o f r e l i g i o n i n t h e anthropological perspective, ideology  the notion of d i a l e c t i c  between  and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and, e s p e c i a l l y , t o a n t h r o -  pological thinking. I a l s o thank my committee members, P r o f e s s o r who  Beck  t a u g h t me how t o d e l i n e a t e my t h o u g h t s i n E n g l i s h , and  Professor  Chang whose c r i t i c a l  comments about my argument  always h e l p e d me t o f u r t h e r e x p l i c a t e my t h o u g h t s . I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge t h e members o f  -  the A s s o c i a t i o n  V-  f o r the Study of R e l i g i o n and  Japan, f o r p u b l i s h i n g  association  a l s o f o r f e e d i n g me  on-going d i s c u s s i o n s  was  t r u e l y the  I am  movements. and  s u p p o r t , and  my  UBC  teachers  and  religious  husband f o r h i s encouragement  f o u r - y e a r o l d son  i n v o l v e m e n t i n w r i t i n g and  This  f o r h a v i n g g i v e n me  i n t e r e s t i n d i a l e c t i c s and  F i n a l l y , I thank my  with various  inspiration.  English  g r a t e f u l t o Canada and  chance t o d e v e l o p my  my  about the a r t i c l e .  source of my  I would l i k e to thank my editors.  Sciences,  a summary a r t i c l e i n advance of  w r i t i n g the d i s s e r t a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m s and  Social  thinking.  for tolerating  my  a  PREFACE  Most d a t a i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n were c o l l e c t e d between 1979  and 1980, m a i n l y from Koganei L o c a l C e n t r e  (Tokyo),  the M a i n H e a d q u a r t e r s (Tokyo) and s e v e r a l o t h e r l o c a l A b r i e f r e s e a r c h was added i n 1982 i n o r d e r  to f i l l  centres.  some gaps  i n the information. An i n - d e p t h was i n t e n d e d ,  f i e l d w o r k s t u d y o f a r e l i g i o u s movement  s i n c e my MA paper was w r i t t e n about t h e Soka  G a k k a i movement on t h e b a s i s o f l i t e r a r y s u r v e y s . the theme o f t h e d i a l e c t i c between i d e o l o g y  Although  and s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e r e l i g i o u s movement was i m p l i c i t l y contained  i n my MA p a p e r , t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s theme i n  the form o f my Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n t e n s i v e work t o c o l l e c t t h e s u p p o r t i n g  field-  data.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , t h e pronoun "he" i s g e n e r a l l y u s e d , when t h e p e r s o n can be o f e i t h e r s e x . The r e a s o n i s s i m p l y  t o a v o i d t h e use  of he/she o r s/he, u n t i l a consensus i n E n g l i s h i s reached t o i n d i c a t e a p e r s o n o f e i t h e r sex i n a u n i f i e d way. A l t h o u g h SMBK has t w i c e as many female b e l i e v e r s as male b e l i e v e r s , I simply  followed  t h e common p r a c t i c e i n E n g l i s h .  - vii-  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgements  iv  Preface  vi  Table of Contents Diagrams Tables Illustrations  CHAPTER I : An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e f o r t h e Study o f t h e R e l i g i o u s Movement  v i i ix x xi  2  R e p r o d u c t i v e and D i a l e c t i c a l Changes S o c i a l Changes and Paradigms R e l i g i o n as a Paradigm  3 12 20  SMBK as a R e l i g i o u s System  24  An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Approach t o t h e R e l i g i o u s Field: E x p l a n a t i o n and E x p l i c a t i o n  31  CHAPTER I I : SMBK as a R e l i g i o u s Movement  50  S o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l Background  51  Emergence o f SMBK  61  Second S t a r t o f SMBK  70  P r a c t i c e o f t h e P u r i f i c a t i o n R i t u a l i n SMBK  76  SMBK Theory o f P u r i f i c a t i o n  85  R i t u a l Performance a t SMBK L o c a l C e n t r e s  91  I n d i v i d u a l B e l i e v e r ' s C o n t a c t w i t h SMBK  104  -viii-  CHAPTER I I I :  SMBK S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : and E g a l i t a r i a n i s m  Hierarchy 112  Formal H i e r a r c h y o f Power and Knowledge  122  I n f o r m a l F r i e n d s h i p Network  136  Upward M o b i l i t y  148  Some F l e x i b i l i t i e s  159  CHAPTER IV:  SMBK D o c t r i n e ; Containment o f E q u a l i t y i n Hierarchy  Cosmology:  P u r i t y and Pantheon  181  Operational Morality  204  D i v i n e h i s t o r y and G e o g r a p h i c a l D i s o r d e r i n Order  CHAPTER V:  Containment o f  I n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e SMBK R e l i g i o u s System  S a t o r i and S e l f - c h a n g e  170  i n the R i t u a l Context  224  232 238  Moral Spontaneity  250  S p i r i t P o s s e s s i o n as a C a l l i n g  254  A n c e s t r a l S p i r i t s as a Guide t o t h e Pantheon  275  Conclusion  297  -ix-  DIAGRAMS 1.  SMBK as an a n t i t h e s i s  9  2. 3.  S y n t h e s i s i n SMBK S h i f t o f emphasis on t h e r o l e s i n t h e purification ritual  9 25  4.  The SMBK h i e r a r c h y  29  5.  D i v i n e s e a l o f SMBK  64  6.  R o l e exchange  78  7.  V i t a l points  81  8.  Koganei l o c a l centre  96  9.  Statement o f d o n a t i o n  10.  101  Examples o f t h e statement o f d o n a t i o n t a k e n from t h e Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e Formal and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s based on the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e type o f membership SMBK b e l i e v e r s ' g e n e r a l image o f t h e i r organization  122  13.  SMBK f o r m a l  123  14.  Recruitment r e l a t i o n s h i p s  139  15.  Soka G a k k a i o r g a n i z a t i o n  144  16.  Membership d i f f e r e n c e s i n SMBK  150  17.  U n i l i n e a l p r o c e s s o f upward m o b i l i t y t h r o u g h the h i e r a r c h y o f power and knowledge Pantheon L a y e r s o f t h e human body Human s p i r i t and t h e l e a v e a n s p i r i t M i c h i H i r a k i view o f b o d i e s SMBK model o f cosmos D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e l i v e s o f t h e f a i t h f u l s  173 182 186 190 191 194  and  198  11. 12.  18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  organization  atheists  102 114  24.  D i v i n e arrangement  226  25.  F l a t and c u b i c t r i a n g l e s  246  26.  SMBK pantheon as a k i n s h i p map  291  - X -  TABLES 1.  R e l i g i o n s i n Japan  56  2.  Importance o f r e l i g i o u s mind  58  3.  O p i n i o n on t h e post-War  66  4.  Frequency o f v i s i t i n g t h e l o c a l c e n t r e  5.  Average l e n g t h o f time spent a t t h e l o c a l  s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n Japan  107 centre  f o r one v i s i t  107  6.  Recruiter-recruitrelationships  140  7.  I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e SMBK f a m i l y a l t a r  152  8. 9. 10. 11.  Level of the l e c t u r e s e s s i o n of the respondents I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e SMBK f a m i l y s h r i n e P r e f e r r e d • p e r s o n a l c o n s u l t a n t i n SMBK Superior-inferiorrelationships  152 152 164 166  12.  Advocated m o t i v a t i o n f o r j o i n i n g SMBK  304  -xi-  ILLUSTRATIONS  1.  Golden s h r i n e and i t s s e t t i n g  2.  Graph:  3.  Lord-teacher Sekiguchi  4.  Performing the p u r i f i c a t i o n  27  Religious believers according  t o age  57 72  ritual  outside  the l o c a l c e n t r e  99  5.  SMBK s h r i n e a t t h e Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e  99  6.  A l e a f l e t used f o r r e c r u i t m e n t  146  7.  Oharai-sai:  155  8.  The L o r d - t e a c h e r g i v i n g c l o s e a t t e n t i o n .  9. 10.  the L o r d - t e a c h e r and b e l i e v e r s  to h i s f o l l o w e r s  160  Illustrations  210  i n Baptism of F i r e  Zen d i a g r a m o f t e n oxen  240  SOCIAL REPRODUCTION AND TRANSCENDENCE: an A n a l y s i s o f t h e S e k a i M a h i k a r i  Bunmei Kyodan,  a Heterodox R e l i g i o u s Movement i n Contemporary Japan  -2-  CHAPTER I :  INTRODUCTION  AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR THE STUDY OF RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS  -3-  REPRODUCTIVE AND DIALECTICAL CHANGES The main body o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s an a n a l y s i s of t h e S e k a i  (World) M a h i k a r i  (True L i g h t ) Bunmei  (Civiliz-  a t i o n ) Kyodan ( R e l i g i o u s A s s o c i a t i o n ) , a h e t e r o d o x Japanese r e l i g i o u s movement known t o E n g l i s h r e a d e r s by t h e acronym  1 SMBK, one o f many t h a t have d e v e l o p e d i n t h e modern p e r i o d . In a broader t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t a t i o n explores t o w h i c h an  however, t h e d i s s e r -  s o c i a l c r e a t i v i t y and t r a n s c e n d e n c e , t o p i c s  a n a l y s i s o f t h e SMBK l e n d s  itself.  S o c i e t y i s here viewed as t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s of people. intuitively, fall transcendental. reproduction  These a t t e m p t s , i n t e n t i o n a l l y o r  i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s :  r e p r o d u c t i v e and  The s o c i a l change w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o  may be r e f e r r e d t o as i n n e r - p a r a d i g m a t i c ,  and  the change w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o t r a n s c e n d e n c e may be r e f e r r e d t o as e x t r a - p a r a d i g m a t i c .  Social creativity  i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e d i a l e c t i c between i d e o l o g y  itself  and s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n where, i n t h e case o f t h e SMBK, i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e r e l a t e d as h i e r a r c h y tarianism.  i s to egali-. .  B r i e f l y , t h e SMBK draws i t s membership from t h e  w i d e r Japanese s o c i e t y , and e x i s t s w i t h i n b u t a p a r t  from t h e  latter.  initiated,  Newcomers a r e r e c r u i t e d by t h e ( p a r t i a l l y )  go t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f p u r i f i c a t i o n / e x o r c i s m w h i c h i s p a r t o f  the i n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l , and teachers  i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r and  on an e g a l i t a r i a n b a s i s .  their  But they a l s o e n t e r a  h i e r a r c h i c a l system i n w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i a of a p p r e c i a t i o n , s o c i a l understanding,  of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  d o c t r i n e and cosmology d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i v e s t a t u s w i t h i n the hierarchy.  For i n d i v i d u a l s , as w i l l be seen, the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and emergent p r o c e s s Two  ideology i s a continuing  and  moving towards a t - o n e n e s s .  r e a s o n s may  be emphasized f o r c h o o s i n g  a  religious  movement f o r an i n q u i r y i n t o the d i a l e c t i c between i d e o l o g y and  social organization.  F i r s t , i n r e l i g i o n , ideology i s  a l r e a d y formed by the b e l i e v e r s i n t h e i r own  expressions.  Among them, d o c t r i n e i s the most e x p l i c i t , and a l s o t o the r e s e a r c h e r .  is available  Second, i n r e l i g i o n , r i t u a l  p r o v i d e s o v e r t means w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e the  often  individual  b e l i e v e r ' s a p p l i c a t i o n of the g i v e n d o c t r i n e t o an e m p i r i c a l occasion.  I n such a c a s e , the p o s i t i o n of r i t u a l i n r e l a t i o n  t o d o c t r i n e becomes s i m i l a r t o t h a t of a s c i e n t i f i c method i n r e l a t i o n to theory i n sciences.  However, i n the case of a  " s e c u l a r " movement, such "methods" r e m a i n g e n e r a l l y u n c l e a r ; as they are u s u a l l y u n - e s t a b l i s h e d or i m p l i c i t . p a r t y movement may i d e o l o g y and  be mentioned as an example.  A  political  I t has  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n — t h e l a t t e r i n terms of  m e m b e r s h i p — b u t i t i s q u i t e u n l i k e l y t o have an o v e r t  ritual  -5-  p r o c e d u r e as a method. involvement  i nritual  at variance w i t h  I n modern Japanese s o c i e t y o v e r t i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be  undemocratic,  modernity.  However, f o r an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e d i a l e c t i c between i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t people  that the  i n t h e f i e l d produce t h e i r " t h e o r y " and "method" i n  t h e i r own p e r s p e c t i v e .  This c o n d i t i o n provides a basis f o r  the r e s e a r c h e r t o d e f i n e these two b a s i c elements c o n c r e t e l y and,  a c c o r d i n g l y , he c a n a v o i d s p e c u l a t i o n .  of t h e c o n c r e t e d e f i n i t i o n s e n a b l e s  The a p p l i c a t i o n  t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o show  t h a t i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e s e p a r a t e  entities,  and  In p r i n c i p l e  t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a d i a l e c t i c a l one.  a d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p emerges when two s e p a r a t e  entities  a r e i n t e r l i n k e d i n such a way t h a t one i n i t i a t e s change i n the other:  b o t h e n t i t i e s grow u n t i l they r e a c h a new  synthesis.  T h i s p r o c e s s may be c o n t i n u o u s l y r e p e a t e d , and t h e  r e p e t i t i o n l e a d s t o an o n - g o i n g and s p i r a l growth o f t h e whole system.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e e n t i t i e s i s p r i m a r i l y  inconsistent.  However, when t h e e n t i t i e s a r e s i m p l y  juxta-  posed o r r e d u c i b l e t o a r e f l e c t i o n o f each o t h e r , even w i t h an a p p a r e n t d i s c r e p a n c y , t h e r e i s no "momentum" f o r d i a l e c t i c a l development.  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be c a l l e d  parallelism.  I n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r i f . t h e r e i s any "momentum," t h e e n t i t i e s s h o u l d f i r s t be i n v e s t i g a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , and then t h e  -6-  nature  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them s h o u l d be examined.  The d i v i s i o n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o two stages  i s necessary  t o a v o i d any p r e s u m p t i o n o f p a r a l l e l i s m between t h e e n t i t i e s . A p r e c a u t i o n i s a l s o necessary here t o avoid the hasty c o n c l u s i o n t h a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s always l e a d t o t h e e n t i t i e s ' forming  a d i a l e c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . As I have mentioned above,  t h e r e may be no "momentum" f o r development. s o c i e t y and SMBK f u l f i l l  Post-War  t h e above c o n d i t i o n s .  The SMBK  r e l i g i o u s movement has an e l a b o r a t e d o c t r i n e , a w e l l r i t u a l and, s i n c e i t has a d e v e l o p i n g formation  Japanese  organized  social organization, i t s  i s observable.  Japanese s o c i e t y s i n c e t h e end o f World War I I d i s p l a y s an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c r e p a n c y organization.  between i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l  This discrepancy  could provide  "momentum" f o r a d i a l e c t i c a l s o c i a l change. was f i r s t  t h e needed Such a  s u g g e s t e d by C h i e Nakane.2 A c c o r d i n g  discrepancy  t o h e r , Japan's  d e m o c r a t i c i d e o l o g y has n o t been r e a l i z e d i n s o c i a l  organiz-  a t i o n , even though post-War Japanese s o c i e t y i s b e l i e v e d t o be d e m o c r a t i c by most o f i t s members. i d e o l o g y o f democracy  Nakane argues t h a t t h e  i s e q u a l i t y under t h e same r u l e s .  However, i n post-War Japanese s o c i e t y , she i n s i s t s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h a r e formed a c c o r d i n g  formal  t o r u l e s are nominal,  and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f u n c t i o n s u b s t a n t i a l l y . She emphasizes t h a t t h e i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e o u t g r o w t h s o f  -7-  an i n d i g e n o u s system, and t h a t t h e y a r e not d e m o c r a t i c a l l y structured.  The i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are h i e r a r c h i c a l  o p e r a t e on p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n t i e s .  and  C o n s e q u e n t l y , members of  the o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e v e l o p t a n g i b l e but e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n b o t h t h e i r s u p e r i o r s and d i r e c t i n f e r i o r s . members a r e not aware of t h e s e p a t t e r n s .  However,  Thus, the i n f o r m a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e v e l o p the p e r s o n a l p r o s p e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l p a i r s of s o c i a l members, w h i c h do not e x t e n d t o o t h e r p a i r s . Hence, t h e i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s become a patchwork  of  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s i s t i n g of numerous pairs. Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , as has been suggested Max Weber, r e l i g i o n may  by  become an i d e o l o g y w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y o r 3  i m p l i c i t l y j u s t i f i e s certain basic social conditions. has shown i n the example of C h r i s t i a n i t y  As  he  a new i d e o l o g y  formed t h r o u g h a r e f o r m a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g form of r e l i g i o n . He c o n s i d e r s t h i s p r o c e s s t o have been a response t o w i d e r s o c i a l changes.  I n the post-War age i n J a p a n , as  e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t changes, responded  t o the new  society  r e l i g i o u s movements emerged and  social conditions.  SMBK was  one of t h e s e  movements, and i t p r e s e n t s a complex example o f the d i a l e c t i c between i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . o f a r e l i g i o u s movement t h a t p r e s e n t s a new  I t i s an example social ideal  a n t i t h e s i s t o the d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l i n terms of d o c t r i n e ,  as  w h i l e a s y n t h e s i s between t h e d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l and d o c t r i n e i s achieved i n informal s o c i a l organization. The  (Diagram 1 ) .  SMBK d o c t r i n e i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y  because SMBK i s o v e r t l y i n v o l v e d i n such " i r r a t i o n a l " as e x o r c i s m and m a g i c a l h e a l i n g .  SMBK a l s o promotes cosmology  which c o n s i s t s of a pantheonic order a s s e r t i n g that and  s p i r i t s o f t h e dead e x i s t and even i n t e r a c t w i t h  people.  practices  divinities living  These p r a c t i c e s and t h e a s s e r t i o n a r e n o t a c c e p t a b l e  i n t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y where " s c i e n t i s m " f u n c t i o n s as t h e 4  o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y o f democracy.  Therefore,  the pantheonic  o r d e r o f SMBK cosmology had t o be r e a l i z e d i n s i d e SMBK, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n SMBK f o r m a l constructed  organization.  I t i s deliberately  on t h e b e l i e f t h a t a l l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e  p a r t o f t h e p a n t h e o n i c and h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r . cosmology and f o r m a l The  o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e p a r a l l e l t o each  s y n t h e s i s between t h e i d e o l o g y  s o c i e t y and t h e SMBK p a n t h e o n i c o r d e r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f SMBK.  Thus, i n SMBK, other.  of the wider  i s formed i n t h e i n f o r m a l  I t i s a f r i e n d s h i p network w h i c h  c o n s i s t s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and i s e g a l i t a r i a n . I t does n o t c o n t a i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l i n Nakane's sense, e q u a l i t y under t h e same r u l e s , b u t an e g a l i t a r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n i s achieved,  whereas i n t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y e q u a l i t y remains an  unrealized ideal.  (Diagram 2 ) .  -9-  DIAGRAM 2  : Synthesis  i n SMBK  thesis democratic  system  ( ideology *) , . ( s o c i a l organization } discrepancy  Japanese s o c i e t y  - 1 0 -  However, i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n remains independent o f e i t h e r formal there  o r g a n i z a t i o n o r cosmology.  For t h i s reason,  i s no dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n f o r m a l  organiz-  a t i o n and cosmology o r f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n e x i s t .  This  means t h a t , w i t h i n t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s system, t h e r e i s no "momentum" f o r t h e s p i r a l growth o f a d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two components o f t h e system.  The framework o f  the system remains s t a t i c and i s n o t renewable.  The paradox  i s , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h a t t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s system  provides  i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s w i t h an on-going d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s o f self-change.  This  s i t u a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t SMBK c o n t a i n s an  o n - g o i n g d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , but does n o t do so a t t h e c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l .  In other  words,  i n d i v i d u a l changes do n o t l e a d t o t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e SMBK h i e r a r c h y as a whole.  Comprehension  of this  paradoxical  s i t u a t i o n i s t h e key t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f SMBK, and a c c o r d i n g l y , o f a c e r t a i n type o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l  attempt.  The r e a s o n s f o r t h e n o n - o c c u r r e n c e o f an e x p e c t e d s p i r a l growth ( a t t h e c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l ) stemming from t h e e x i s t e n c e of a d i a l e c t i c between SMBK and t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y w i l l be shown t h r o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e b a s i c c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e SMBK system.  For t h i s a n a l y s i s , the perspectives  o f Thomas  Kuhn, Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s , and C l i f f o r d G e e r t z w i l l be critically  examined  though my own c o n c l u s i o n s  are not  n e c e s s a r i l y i n agreement.  -12-  SOCIAL CHANGES AND PARADIGMS The  word "paradigm" has been i n t r o d u c e d by Thomas  Kuhn i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e d i a l e c t i c a l development o f t h e natural sciences.  According  t o him, t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s  have  d e v e l o p e d from some paradigms t o o t h e r s by renewing t h e m s e l v e s . For Kuhn, paradigm i s " t h e h i s t o r i c a l i n t e g r i t y o f t h a t (a s p e c i f i c f i e l d o f ) s c i e n c e i n i t s own time."-' A c c o r d i n g t o him,  i t i s t h i s i n t e g r i t y through which s c i e n t i s t s of the  s p e c i f i c f i e l d a b s t r a c t r u l e s and l a w s , and a l s o t h e o r i e s and models.  construct  R e f e r r i n g t o Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n , Kuhn  says : What c a n t h e phrase ' d i r e c t i n s p e c t i o n o f paradigms' mean? P a r t i a l answers t o q u e s t i o n s l i k e t h e s e were d e v e l o p e d by t h e l a t e Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n , though i n a very d i f f e r e n t context. Because t h a t c o n t e x t i s b o t h more e l e m e n t a r y and more f a m i l i a r , i t w i l l h e l p t o c o n s i d e r h i s form o f t h e argument f i r s t . What need we know, W i t t g e n s t e i n a s k e d , i n o r d e r t h a t we a p p l y terms l i k e ' c h a i r , ' o r ' l e a f , ' o r 'game' u n e q u i v o c a l l y and w i t h o u t p r o v o k i n g argument? That q u e s t i o n i s v e r y o l d and has g e n e r a l l y been answered by s a y i n g t h a t we must know, c o n s c i o u s l y or i n t u i t i v e l y , what a c h a i r , o r l e a f , o r game i s . We must, t h a t i s , g r a s p some s e t o f a t t r i b u t e s t h a t a l l games and t h a t o n l y games have i n common. Wittg e n s t e i n , however, c o n c l u d e d t h a t , g i v e n t h e way we use language and t h e s o r t o f w o r l d t o w h i c h we a p p l y i t , t h e r e need be no such s e t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Though a d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s shared by a number o f games o r c h a i r s o r l e a v e s o f t e n h e l p s us l e a r n how t o employ t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g term, t h e r e  -13-  i s no s e t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l members of the c l a s s and t o them alone. Instead, confronted with a previously unobserved a c t i v i t y , we a p p l y the term 'game' because what we a r e s e e i n g b e a r s a c l o s e " f a m i l y r e s e m b l a n c e " to a number of the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t we have p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d t o c a l l by t h a t name. A l t h o u g h Kuhn does not use the word  epistemology,  what he i n d i c a t e s i n terms o f paradigm by r e f e r r i n g t o W i t t g e n s t e i n i s a s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l b a s i s t o ensure the epistemology history.  of a s c i e n t i f i c community a t a c e r t a i n time of  R u l e s , l a w s , t h e o r i e s and models a r e the  o f the e p i s t e m o l o g y observed  phenomena.  w h i c h s p e c i f i e s the ways of c o n c e i v i n g the Kuhn c l a i m s t h a t paradigm i s a p r o p e r t y  of the n a t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s , but i s not o f s o c i a l They r e m a i n i n what he c a l l s " t h e p r e - p a r a d i g m However, h i s concept  to  scientists. stage."  o f paradigm, once i t i s under-  s t o o d as the b a s i s o f e p i s t e m o l o g y , social sciences.  product  i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the  What s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have f a i l e d t o do i s  f i n d a consensus on t h e i r e p i s t e m o l o g i e s .  Thus, they have  f a i l e d t o produce a p r o p e r paradigm; they s i m p l y have epistemologies.  Kuhn h i m s e l f argues t h a t ( n a t u r a l  separate  scientists)  ... can, t h a t i s , agree i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a paradigm w i t h o u t a g r e e i n g on, o r even a t t e m p t i n g t o produce, a f u l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of i t . Lack o f a s t a n d a r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r o f an agreed r e d u c t i o n t o r u l e s w i l l  not p r e v e n t a paradigm from g u i d i n g r e s e a r c h . Normal s c i e n c e can be d e t e r m i n e d i n p a r t by the d i r e c t i n s p e c t i o n o f paradigms, a p r o c e s s t h a t i s o f t e n a i d e d by but does not depend upon the f o r m u l a t i o n o f r u l e s and assumptions. Indeed, the e x i s t e n c e o f a paradigm need not even i m p l y t h a t any f u l l s e t o f r u l e s e x i s t s . 7  T h e r e f o r e , the l a c k of e x p l i c i t consensus does not the l a c k o f a paradigm.  indicate  Once t h i s i s a c c e p t e d , i t i s not  d i f f i c u l t t o see an a f f i n i t y among v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s i n the social sciences. their  The  s o c i a l s c i e n c e s have a l s o e v o l v e d  through  history. Furthermore,  the concept  a p p l y t o the e p i s t e m o l o g y  o f paradigm s h o u l d a l s o  of the p e o p l e who  study by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s .  T h i s i s the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e  between the s o c i a l and n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . only things.  are subject to  They have t h e i r own  P e o p l e a r e not  epistemology  which  reflects  and r e p r e s e n t s a c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l s t a g e .  The  p o i n t , a g a i n , i s t h a t people do not n e c e s s a r i l y form a consensus on t h e i r e p i s t e m o l o g y . and a l s o be e x p r e s s e d  i n different  e x p r e s s i o n s of the paradigm may The  I t s e x p r e s s i o n s may spheres  vary  i n society.  These  be d e f i n e d as i d e o l o g y .  a c c u s a t i o n by p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t s a g a i n s t  those  whom they c a l l p o s i t i v i s t s i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on the p o i n t t h a t the p o s i t i v i s t s n e g l e c t t o c a p t u r e the e p i s t e m o l o g y people  studied.  of  the  Or worse, the p o s i t i v i s t s do not even  c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a people  s h o u l d have t h e i r  own  -15-  epistemology.  As a r e s u l t , p o s i t i v i s t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y  treat  people as i f they had t h e same e p i s t e m o l o g y as t h e p o s i t i v i s t s ' own, o r c o n s i d e r them l i k e a t h i n g w h i c h does n o t have an epistemology.  The p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l i n q u i r y i n t o s o c i e t y i s  c e n t e r e d on a s e a r c h f o r t h e e p i s t e m o l o g y o f t h e p e o p l e o f a culture. With a p a r t i c u l a r regard f o r the understanding of the paradigm o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e c u l t u r e under s t u d y , G e e r t z t r i e s t o u n f o l d t h e i m p l i c i t mechanism i n w h i c h s o c i a l members a c c e p t a c e r t a i n p r o c e s s as i n e v i t a b l e  ( o r n a t u r a l ) , and  produce s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h r e l i g i o u s commitment. P h r a s i n g a s i d e , t h i s much may perhaps be granted'. The n o t i o n t h a t r e l i g i o n tunes human a c t i o n s t o an e n v i s a g e d cosmic o r d e r and p r o j e c t s images o f cosmic o r d e r onto t h e p l a n e o f human e x p e r i e n c e i s h a r d l y n o v e l . But i t i s h a r d l y i n v e s t i g a t e d e i t h e r , so t h a t we have v e r y l i t t l e i d e a o f how, i n e m p i r i c a l terms, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m i r a c l e i s a c c o m p l i s h e d . We j u s t know t h a t i t i s done, a n n u a l l y , w e e k l y , d a i l y , f o r some p e o p l e a l m o s t h o u r l y ; and we have an enormous e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e t o demonstrate i t . But t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework w h i c h would e n a b l e us t o p r o v i d e an a n a l y t i c a c c o u n t o f i t , an account o f t h e s o r t we can p r o v i d e f o r l i n e a g e s e g m e n t a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s i o n , l a b o r exchange, o r t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f the c h i l d , does n o t exist.° H i l d r e d G e e r t z , i n h e r The Javanese F a m i l y , c o n c e n t r a t e s on themes such as r e p r o d u c t i o n o f i d e o l o g y and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s :  how s o c i a l v a l u e s and p r e m i s e s a r e  m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e k i n s h i p system, and how p e o p l e grow i n t o such an  -16-  i d e o l o g i c a l system.  The a n a l y t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n h e r  approach i s b a s i c a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l .  The s o c i a l member grows  i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l paradigm from t h e s t a t e w h i c h s h o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as n o n - p a r a d i g m a t i c o r p r e - p a r a d i g m a t i c i f we a p p l y t h e word " p r e - p a r a d i g m a t i c " t o a s t a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l growth. The q u e s t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d be asked here i s how paradigms a r e r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l c r e a t i v i t y .  In a p a r a l l e l  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n D u r k h e i m i a n f u n c t i o n a l i s m , i d e o l o g y and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e a c l o s e d feed-back system.  Social  members r e p r o d u c e t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as they a c c e p t and commit themselves t o the norms, laws and o t h e r i d e o l o g i c a l forms o f the s o c i a l system,, as H i l d r e d G e e r t z has i l l u s t r a t e d . Durkheim a l s o v e r i f i e d t h i s p o i n t i n h i s s t u d y o f suicide.  S u i c i d e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an example o f s o c i a l  failure.  S u i c i d e i s a d e v i a n t a c t w h i c h o c c u r s when the  normal commitment t o s o c i e t y i s b l o c k e d o r abandoned. f o r e , the e x c e s s i v e commitment t o s o c i e t y causes  There-  altruistic  s u i c i d e , the commitment a g a i n s t s o c i e t y l e a d s t o i n t e l l e c t u a l 9  s u i c i d e and t h e l o s s o f commitment r e s u l t s i n anomic s u i c i d e . Hence, t h o s e who do n o t " f i t "  i n t o the g i v e n s o c i a l  e l i m i n a t e t h e m s e l v e s i n d i v i d u a l l y by abnormal means.  system As a  r e s u l t , such a d e v i a n t a c t i v i t y as s u i c i d e c o n s t i t u t e s a s o c i a l tendency and o c c u r s w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g  paradigm.  -17-  T h e r e f o r e , such a change as the i n c r e a s e of anomic s u i c i d e i n a modern s o c i e t y , f o r example,  s h o u l d be named " i n n e r -  p a r a d i g m a t i c change", and t h e paradigm w h i c h ensures type o f change may  this  be r e f e r r e d t o as the paradigm o f r e p r o -  duction. I n L e v i - S t r a u s s i a n s t r u c t u r a l i s m , the paradigm of r e p r o d u c t i o n i s more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .  I t i s what he  calls  s t r u c t u r e , and e v e r y s o c i a l component i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s s t r u c t u r e .  The c o n c e p t of s t r u c t u r e i s  u l t i m a t e l y r e d u c i b l e t o the u n c o n s c i o u s p a t t e r n w i t h w h i c h the human b r a i n f u n c t i o n s . ... The u n c o n s c i o u s , on the o t h e r hand, i s always e m p t y — o r , more a c c u r a t e l y , i t i s as a l i e n t o mental images as i s the stomach t o the f o o d s w h i c h pass t h r o u g h i t . As the organ of a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n , the u n c o n s c i o u s m e r e l y imposes s t r u c t u r a l laws upon i n a r t i c u l a t e d elements w h i c h o r i g i n a t e e l s e w h e r e — i m p u l s e s , e m o t i o n s , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and memories. We might say, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the p r e c o n s c i o u s i s the i n d i v i d u a l l e x i c o n where each o f us a c c u m u l a t e s t h e v o c a b u l a r y of h i s p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y , but t h a t t h i s v o c a b u l a r y becomes s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r us and f o r o t h e r s , o n l y t o the e x t e n t t h a t the u n c o n s c i o u s s t r u c t u r e s i t a c c o r d i n g t o i t s laws and thus t r a n s f o r m s i t i n t o language. S i n c e t h e s e laws are the same f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and i n a l l i n s t a n c e s where t h e u n c o n s c i o u s p u r s u e s i t s a c t i v i t y , the problem w h i c h a r o s e i n the p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h can e a s i l y be r e s o l v e d . The v o c a b u l a r y m a t t e r s l e s s t h a n t h e s t r u c t u r e . Whether the myth i s r e - c r e a t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l o r borrowed from t r a d i t i o n , i t d e r i v e s from i t s s o u r c e s — i n d i v i d u a l o r c o l l e c t i v e (between w h i c h i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n s and exchanges c o n s t a n t l y o c c u r ) — o n l y the s t o c k o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h i t o p e r a t e s . But the s t r u c t u r e remains the same, and t h r o u g h i t the s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n i s fulfilled. 1 0  -18-  I n o t h e r words, s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d , u l t i m a t e l y , because a l l t h e e x i s t i n g paradigms (which L e v i S t r a u s s may c a l l structure.  infra-structures)  This notion  society consists  converge i n t o one e s s e n t i a l  enables Levi-Strauss  of multi-layered  to assert  that  expressions of the s t r u c t u r e .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s o c i a l components a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be a l l p a r a l l e l t o each o t h e r .  Thus, s o c i e t y i s viewed f u n d a m e n t a l l y  as i d e o l o g i c a l . Although the notion are  involved  i n Levi-Straussian  o f d i a l e c t i c and t r a n s c e n d e n c y structuralism,  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l change.  they a r e n o t  F o r Durkheim, a s o c i a l  change o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e s o c i a l r e a l i t y and i d e a l s .  F o r him, i d e a l s p r i m a r i l y mean t h e " i d e a s 11  i n terms o f w h i c h s o c i e t y sees i t s e l f . " i s a l s o a new s y n t h e s i s  However, t h e i d e a l  w h i c h combines t h e components o f t h e  e x i s t i n g s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n a d i f f e r e n t way.  Therefore, "the  o r i g i n a l i t y o f t h e method o f c o m b i n a t i o n produces t h e o r i g 12 i n a l i t y o f s y n t h e s i s i t s e l f . " *~ I n o t h e r words, t h e i d e a l 13 "derives  from" t h e s o c i a l r e a l i t y " w h i l e t r a n s c e n d i n g i t " .  F u r t h e r m o r e , Durkheim s a y s : ... I d e a l s a r e n o t a b s t r a c t i o n s , c o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t s l a c k i n g e f f i c i e n t power. They a r e e s s e n t i a l l y dynamic, f o r b e h i n d them a r e t h e powerf u l f o r c e s o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e . They a r e c o l l e c t i v e f o r c e s — t h a t i s , n a t u r a l b u t a t t h e same time moral f o r c e s , comparable t o t h e o t h e r f o r c e s o f t h e u n i v e r s e . ... 14  -19-  W i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the i d e a l , change becomes i n e v i t a b l e .  individual  Durkheim argues t h i s as  follows: ... but t h e i d e a l i s n o t s i m p l y something w h i c h i s l a c k i n g and d e s i r e d . I t i s n o t s i m p l y a f u t u r e g o a l t o w h i c h man a s p i r e s ; i t has i t s own r e a l i t y and n a t u r e . I t i s t o be thought o f r a t h e r as looming i m p e r s o n a l l y above t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l s t h a t i t moves. ... 15 Thus, t h e whole s o c i e t y " t r a n s c e n d s " p r e s e n t r e a l i t y and moves towards t h e newly c r e a t e d i d e a l .  social  This kind  o f s o c i a l change may, i n o u r terms, be r e f e r r e d t o as " e x t r a paradigmatic." suggests  The n o t i o n o f e x t r a - p a r a d i g m a t i c change  t h a t t h e r e i s a p o i n t o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n when s o c i e t y  s h i f t s from one i n t e g r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r , as paradigm i n d i c a t e s integration.  The SMBK example w i l l  show us how e x t r a -  p a r a d i g m a t i c change can o c c u r . The main d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be found i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i e t y ( c o l l e c t i v e ) and i n d i v i d u a l s .  -2 0-  RELIGION AS A PARADIGM The meaning o f r e l i g i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o i n t e g r a t i o n s h o u l d be c l a r i f i e d h e r e . an i d e o l o g y popularly  R e l i g i o n as a mode o f thought o r  i s n o t a new i d e a .  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  a c c e p t e d n o t o n l y by r e s e a r c h e r s  but a l s o by t h o s e i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . r e l i g i o n represents superstructure  i t has been  i n the humanities F o r such p e o p l e ,  a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of c u l t u r e , often a  and a f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; r e l i g i o n sometimes  even means p a t h o l o g y . F o r K a r l Marx, r e l i g i o n i s a mode o f thought produced by a f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  I t contains  a d e c e p t i o n which l u r e s  p e o p l e from s o c i a l r e a l i t y , a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d be s e l f - e v i d e n t t o t h o s e f r e e from t h e f a l s e  consciousness.  The w r e t c h e d n e s s o f r e l i g i o n i s a t once an e x p r e s s i o n o f and a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t r e a l w r e t c h e d ness. R e l i g i o n i s the s i g n of the oppressed c r e a t u r e , t h e h e a r t o f a h e a r t l e s s w o r l d and t h e soul of soulless conditions. I t i s t h e opium o f the p e o p l e . The a b o l i t i o n o f r e l i g i o n as i l l u s o r y h a p p i n e s s of t h e p e o p l e i s a demand f o r t h e i r t r u e h a p p i n e s s . The c a l l t o abandon i l l u s i o n s about t h e i r c o n d i t i o n i s t h e c a l l t o abandon a c o n d i t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e s illusions. Thus, t h e c r i t i q u e o f r e l i g i o n i s t h e c r i t i q u e i n embryo o f t h e v a l u e o f t e a r s o f w h i c h r e l i g i o n i s the halo. 1  Some p s y c h o a n a l y s t s a r e a l s o q u i t e r a d i c a l i n t h e i r  denunciation of r e l i g i o n ,  Anthony W a l l a c e n e a t l y summarizes  t h e i r view o f r e l i g i o n as f o l l o w s : Much o f r e l i g i o u s b e h a v i o r i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f dream e x p e r i e n c e , o f n e u r o t i c r i t u a l , even o f p s y c h o t i c f a n t a s y , i n the sense t h a t t h e meaning of t h e b e h a v i o r and t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n i t b r i n g s to t h e p a r t i c i p a n t cannot be found i n a r a t i o n a l , r e a l i s t i c , scientifi<^^definition or manipulation of the a c t u a l w o r l d . However, W a l l a c e h i m s e l f does n o t d i s m i s s r e l i g i o n . He a l s o s a y s : T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t r e l i g i o n i s n e u r o t i c o r p s y c h o t i c i n any c l i n i c a l o r p e j o r a t i v e sense, but o n l y t h a t a n a l y s i s o f r e l i g i o u s b e h a v i o r as a symptom—as a compromise among p r i m a r y i n n e r promptings and t h e demands o f r e a l i t y as r a t i o n a l l y p e r c e i v e d by t h e s u b j e c t — w i l l y i e l d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f many r e l i g i o u s phenomena.18 I n o t h e r words, f o r W a l l a c e , i n r e l i g i o n , v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f b e l i e f o r r i t u a l can s e r v e as prime g e n e r a t o r s , a p t e x p r e s s i o n s , o r more o r l e s s e x p e d i e n t symptomatic s o l u t i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l problems. 19 W a l l a c e ' s p o s i t i o n seems t o have g a i n e d i n the recent t r a d i t i o n of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s .  orthodoxy  Religion i s  c o n s i d e r e d as " p r o j e c t i o n o f and t h e r a p y f o r e m o t i o n a l problems."  I n t h i s c o n t e x t , o f c o u r s e , p s y c h o a n a l y s i s as a  s c i e n t i f i c method i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u p e r i o r , because psycho a n a l y s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e r a p y and p r o j e c t i o n s e p a r a t e l y .  The  -22 -  t h e r a p i s t does n o t share t h e f a n t a s y w i t h t h e p a t i e n t , and when t h e p a t i e n t r e c o v e r s from h i s e m o t i o n a l problems, he can dismiss h i s fantasy, o r , i t simply disappears.  However, i n  r e l i g i o n , n e i t h e r " t h e r a p i s t " n o r " p a t i e n t " has any means o f abandoning h i s f a n t a s y .  I t i s i n s e p a r a b l e from t h e c u r e .  However, t h e more fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between p s y c h o a n a l y s i s and r e l i g i o n s h o u l d be found i n t h e meaning o f cure.  I n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , t h e p a t i e n t r e c o v e r s when h i s  e m o t i o n a l b l o c k i s removed.  I n r e l i g i o n , he r e c o v e r s when  h i s problem i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e "wholeness" o f t h e d i v i n e order.  Only i n t h i s "wholeness" does he g a i n t h e c a p a c i t y t o  integrate himself into a t o t a l being.  Therefore, i n r e l i g i o n ,  the p r o v i s i o n o f an a l l - e m b r a c i n g p e r s p e c t i v e i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e The  p e r s p e c t i v e may be g i v e n i n the. form o f imagery such as  cosmology and m e t a p h o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f d i v i n i t i e s and h e r o e s , and/or i n t h e form o f t h e w i l l o f t h e omnipotent d i v i n i t y who r u l e s t h e cosmos.  Thus, i t may be s a i d t h a t  p s y c h o a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s a cure by e x t r a c t i o n whereas does t h i s by a d d i t i o n .  religion  Therefore, i n psychoanalysis, the  d i a g n o s i s o f t h e cause o f t h e problem i s e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o remove i t f o r t h e purpose o f c u r e . the Jungian therapy.  The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s  I t provides a "world view."  But, f o r  t h i s r e a s o n , t h e J u n g i a n t h e r a p y i s t r e a t e d as u n o r t h o d o x by o t h e r more s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s t s .  However, r e l i g i o n i s a l s o  -23-  d i f f e r e n t from the J u n g i a n approach. not  the g o a l .  itself. for  In r e l i g i o n , a cure i s  The g o a l i s the achievement of "wholeness"  Thus, "wholeness" i s not a p r a g m a t i c t o o l  a c h i e v i n g a c e r t a i n s t a t e o f mind.  c e r t a i n s t a t e o f mind w h i c h w i l l  The achievement o f a  c u r e a p s y c h o l o g i c a l problem  i s a b y - p r o d u c t , c o n s i d e r e d t o d e r i v e n a t u r a l l y from the  achievement of "wholeness".  T h e r e f o r e , r e l i g i o n must  c o n t i n u a l l y r e f e r t o t h i s "wholeness."  The r e l i g i o u s  paradigm  i s a p a r t i c u l a r paradigm w h i c h ensures t h i s "wholeness." SMBK, t h i s "wholeness" i s c a p t u r e d i n i t s cosmology.  In  - 2 4 -  SMBK AS A RELIGIOUS SYSTEM I n SMBK, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e achievement o f and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e "wholeness" o f the d i v i n e o r d e r m o t i v a t e s the b e l i e v e r i n d i v i d u a l l y towards t h e attempt a t t r a n s c e n d e n t a l self-change.  T h i s i n d i v i d u a l change i s e x t r a - p a r a d i g m a t i c ,  because t h e b e l i e v e r s h i f t s from t h e non-SMBK paradigm o f t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y t o t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s  paradigm.  I n t h i s p r o c e s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r has t o a c c o m p l i s h two major t a s k s :  disengagement  from h i s o l d  paradigm, w h i c h he has a s s i m i l a t e d o u t s i d e o f SMBK, and a new engagement w i t h t h e SMBK paradigm. and new engagement i s apprehended  The p o i n t o f disengagement by t h e b e l i e v e r as t h e  s h i f t o f emphasis from the. p a s s i v e r o l e t o t h e a c t i v e r o l e i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  (Diagram 3 ) .  The s u c c e s s o f t h e new  engagement l a r g e l y depends on t h e disengagement paradigm.  from t h e o l d  T h i s c o n d i t i o n may e x p l a i n t h e r e a s o n why p a i n f u l  p r o c e d u r e s a r e o f t e n found i n i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s  (though n o t , i n  f a c t , i n SMBK); such p r o c e d u r e s may h e l p t o p r o c e s s d i s e n g a g e ment.  V a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h T u r n e r l i s t s as t h e  p r o p e r t i e s o f l i m i n a l i t y s h o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e n e c e s s a r y cond20  i t i o n s f o r t h e disengagement p r o c e s s from t h e o l d paradigm. The s h i f t o f emphasis from t h e p a s s i v e r o l e t o t h e  -25-  DIAGRAM 3:  S h i f t of Emphasis on the the P u r i f i c a t i o n R i t u a l  Roles i n  -26-  a c t i v e r o l e becomes p o s s i b l e through b e h a v i o r a l to the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  submission  Because t h e r i t u a l  i s c o n s t r u c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e SMBK paradigm ( t h e d i v i n e o r d e r ) , submission  t o t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e r i t u a l means t h e  b e h a v i o r a l a d o p t a t i o n o f t h e paradigm w h i c h has n o t y e t been a s s i m i l a t e d m e n t a l l y . initiation,  Based on t h e h i n t s g i v e n i n  t h e meaning o f t h e s h i f t o f emphasis has t o be  individually  "discovered."  Although  t h e paradigm i s exposed  i n the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the s h i f t i t s e l f i s n o t suggested ritual  i n t h e form o f t h e r i t u a l .  The p u r i f i c a t i o n  i sbasically  performed i n t h e same way t h r o u g h o u t t h e  h i e r a r c h y o f SMBK.  However, when t h e s h i f t i s a c c o m p l i s h e d ,  as i s t h e case f o r s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between t h e e l e m e n t a r y obvious. obvious  and advanced l e v e l s i s  I n o t h e r words, t h e d i f f e r e n c e does n o t become u n l e s s t h e meaning o f t h e s h i f t i s d i s c o v e r e d .  If  the s h i f t i s n o t d i s c o v e r e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e remains p u z z l i n g . The  ritual  still  appears t h e same t o t h e eyes o f those who  have n o t d i s c o v e r e d i t s meaning.  They cannot f i l l  t h e gap  between what they see and what s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s say about t h e same r i t u a l . gap  Thus, those who have n o t been a b l e t o b r i d g e  r e m a i n a t t h e elementary  this  l e v e l , and those who have  d i s c o v e r e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e g a i n upward m o b i l i t y . Recruitment  a c t i v i t y presses  the b e l i e v e r to discover  - 2 7 -  -28-  the meaning o f t h e s h i f t i n emphasis i n t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n ritual.  I n recruitment  a c t i v i t y , t h e b e l i e v e r i s an a c t i v e  p e r f o r m e r , by d e f i n i t i o n .  The s k i l l  and meaning o f t h e  performance i s s u b j e c t t o q u e s t i o n .  The p e o p l e a b e l i e v e r  t r i e s to r e c r u i t w i l l l i k e l y represent opinion against r e l i g i o n . recruitment  the outsider's  He i s on c o n s t a n t  creates confrontation.  with the outside r a t i o n a l world  trial.  Therefore,  I t i s a confrontation  through the p o t e n t i a l  b e l i e v e r s as w e l l as w i t h t h e s p i r i t u a l w o r l d possessing  critical  through the  s p i r i t involved i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  Further-  more, i t i s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h h i s own s e l f t h r o u g h t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l worlds.  The p o i n t i s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l upward m o b i l i t y  can be a c h i e v e d o n l y t h r o u g h s e l f - c h a n g e , "momentum" f o r t h i s s e l f - c h a n g e t a t i o n with others.  and t h a t t h e  i s provided  by t h e c o n f r o n -  I n t h i s way, t h e s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  p r o c e s s works f o r upward m o b i l i t y and membership  increase.  Upward m o b i l i t y i n SMBK means t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r achieves a higher  s t a t u s i n t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l SMBK  r e l i g i o u s system; d o c t r i n e and f o r m a l  organization  together  c o n s t i t u t e a h i e r a r c h y o f power and knowledge w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e s r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i n t o three l e v e l s : intermediate  and advanced.  (Diagram  elementary,  4 ) . The s t a n d a r d o f  -29-  DIAGRAM 4:  SMBK H i e r a r c h y  I !  "hangers-on"  j  (initiation)  -3 0-  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s the s k i l l of t r a n s l a t i n g experiences i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i n t o t h e c o s m o l o g i c a l i d i o m s o f SMBK. Individual s k i l l s  i n t h i s process i n e v i t a b l y correspond t o  t h e s t a g e s o f s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; what i s t o be " d i s c o v e r e d " i n d i v i d u a l l y i s t h e cosmology which i s apprehended t h r o u g h idioms.  these  Therefore, the c o n t i n u a l process of self-change,  which i n v o l v e s t h e d i a l e c t i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , i s d e s i g n e d t o converge u l t i m a t e l y i n t o t h e d i v i n e o r d e r o f SMBK cosmology.  There i s no room f o r r e v i s i n g t h e cosmology o r ,  a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s system.  The o n l y p e r s o n  e n t i t l e d t o make r e v i s i o n s , t h e o r i g i n a t o r o f SMBK, i s a l r e a d y deceased.  I n o t h e r words, i n SMBK, t h e i n d i v i d u a l  d i a l e c t i c i s s e p a r a t e from t h e d i a l e c t i c between SMBK and t h e wider s o c i e t y a t the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l .  The l a t e r s e c t i o n s o f  t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l a n a l y z e how t h i s breakage i n t h e d i a l e c t i c i s p o s s i b l e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e SMBK religious  system.  -31-  AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE RELIGIOUS FIELD: EXPLANATION AND EXPLICATION B e f o r e d e s c r i b i n g SMBK i n more d e t a i l , I would to b r i e f l y mention epistemology  like  as used by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s .  P e o p l e o f t e n wonder why a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s d e s c r i b e e n d l e s s l y , whereas s o c i o l o g i s t s appear t o be more o v e r t l y concerned w i t h proving t h e i r t h e o r i e s , although both c l a i m to present r e a l i s t i c v i e w o f s o c i e t y and p e o p l e . s o c i o l o g y , t h e r e i s an e x c e p t i o n . s o c i o l o g i s t s , presents  a  However, even i n  Max Weber, among c l a s s i c a l  a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e way some  contemporary s o c i o l o g i s t s might o b j e c t by s a y i n g t h a t h i s argument does n o t f u l l y c o v e r  the d e s c r i p t i o n .  Concerning  t h i s p o i n t , B e n d i x makes t h e f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n : Once a g a i n , i n s t e a d o f a d o p t i n g e i t h e r a h o l i s t i c o r a p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c ( o r s u b j e c t i v e ) a p p r o a c h , Weber hoped t o occupy an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n , moving from h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s , and from c o n c e p t s back t o h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e . . . .21 The most e x h a u s t i n g  e f f o r t f o r an e m p i r i c a l  r e s e a r c h e r o f s o c i e t y and p e o p l e i s t h e "move from h i s t o r i c a l evidence to the f o r m u l a t i o n of concepts."  Burridge  elaborates  on t h i s i s s u e more p r e c i s e l y as f o l l o w s : Anthropologists d i f f e r considerably i n their conceptions of the s u b j e c t , i n t h e i r " t h e o r e t i c a l " a p p r o a c h e s , and i n what t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h e s i s supposed t o do. But t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l agreement t h a t d a t a s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , t h a t a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be l o g i c a l l y  -32-  c o n s i s t e n t , s y s t e m a t i c , and match the d a t a . Most i m p o r t a n t l y p e r h a p s , a n t h r o p o l o g y i s a "mode o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t " b o t h d a t a and a n a l y s e s . T h i s " t h i n k i n g a b o u t " i s n o t easy t o e x p l a i n i n a few words. I t becomes e x p l i c i t i n the p r o c e s s o f making f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s — i n c o n t i n u a l l y a s k i n g who, what, where, when, why, i n what c i r c u m s t a n c e s — a n d speaks l a r g e l y t o the constraints present i n t o t a l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o the ways i n w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s i n these s i t u a t i o n s are placed i n r e l a t i o n to each o t h e r . I n t e r p r e t i n g Weber i n B u r r i d g e ' s terms, the move "from h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o the f o r m u l a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s " may a l s o be s a i d t o be the move "from d a t a t o a n a l y s i s . "  This  move r e q u i r e s the e t h n o g r a p h e r t o c o n v e r t what he has  seen  i n t o what he wants t o say about i t .  The c o n v e r s i o n i s not  easy, because s e e i n g and s p e a k i n g r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t  conditions  the e t h n o g r a p h e r speaks i n o r d e r t o communicate t o h i s a u d i e n c e , whereas he may  be s i m p l y a t t r a c t e d from  p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t t o a p a r t i c u l a r happening on the o c c a s i o n he i s a t t e n d i n g .  T h i s gap between s e e i n g and  s p e a k i n g i s i n e v i t a b l e , because s e e i n g i s the a c t o f h e r e and- now beyond  and s p e a k i n g i s an attempt t o e s t a b l i s h u n i v e r s a l s  the moment.  T h e r e f o r e , the s h i f t from s e e i n g t o  s p e a k i n g a l s o means a t r a n s l a t i o n o f the o b s e r v e d f a c t from t h e here-and-now c o n t e x t t o a u n i v e r s a l  one.  The s h i f t from s e e i n g t o s p e a k i n g o f t e n appears c o n f u s i n g , because they a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by each o t h e r .  It  i s o b v i o u s t h a t the e t h n o g r a p h e r cannot r e l a t e more t h a n he  -33-  has  seen.  well. The  However, i n o r d e r t o communicate w e l l , he has t o see  Here comes t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p r e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e f i e l d work.  e t h n o g r a p h e r c o l l e c t s i n f o r m a t i o n from p u b l i c a t i o n s and  o r g a n i z e s h i s thoughts  by w r i t i n g a r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l .  I n so  d o i n g , what he r e a l l y does i s t o p u t h i m s e l f i n t h e p o s i t i o n of h i s a u d i e n c e ;  he s p e c u l a t e s on what h e , as an a u d i e n c e ,  would l i k e t o h e a r from h i m s e l f as a r e p o r t e r .  He p r e p a r e s  h i m s e l f t o see c e r t a i n t h i n g s about h i s f i e l d .  T h i s means  t h a t h i s e f f o r t o f s e e i n g i n t h e f i e l d becomes h i g h l y intentional.  For t h i s reason, the a c t of seeing i n the f i e l d  is called observation. However, he i s e x t r e m e l y field  e x a c t l y as he has e x p e c t e d .  l u c k y , when he f i n d s h i s I n s t e a d , i t i s a common  e x p e r i e n c e , a t l e a s t among a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , t h a t t h e e t h n o g r a p h e r sees more t h a n he has planned  t o observe.  When t h i s  happens, t h e c h o i c e i s l i m i t e d ; he c a n e i t h e r i g n o r e t h e aspects of the f i e l d unexpectedly into consideration.  seen o r t a k e them e q u a l l y  I n t h e second c a s e , t h e e t h n o g r a p h e r  r e f l e c t s on whether t h e u n e x p e c t e d a s p e c t s a r e a c c i d e n t a l o r essential.  The d i f f i c u l t y  comes n e x t ; once they a r e judged  e s s e n t i a l , t h e i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g f o r o b s e r v a t i o n s h o u l d be changed. aspects it  I t has t o be expanded t o c o v e r t h e newly adopted into the report.  The e x p a n s i o n  o f t h e p l a n n i n g , when  i s r e l a t e d t o t h e a c t o f s e e i n g , o f t e n demands a p r o f o u n d  change i n the e t h n o g r a p h e r h i m s e l f , i n the t e r r i t o r i e s he c o n s i d e r s belief,  t o be " p e r s o n a l . "  t o the way  range from h i s  of t h i n k i n g , to e m o t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and  even t o p e r c e p t i o n . for personal  They may  However, the e x p e r i e n c e of a  necessity  change i s not u n u s u a l among i n s i g h t f u l  conscientious  fieldworkers.  i s f o r c e d to face r e a l i t y  and  They o f t e n c o n f e s s t h a t the  e x p e r i e n c e i s somewhat p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c .  The  which  and,  The  ethnographer  therefore, confronts  change of the framework and  field  himself.  personality i s often  f e l t by the e t h n o g r a p h e r t o be a f o r c e d p r o c e s s .  The  "force"  comes from h i s u n - r e a d i n e s s f o r the u n e x p e c t e d phenomenon. I n my  c a s e , i t was  B e f o r e d o i n g my  the e f f e c t of the p u r i f i c a t i o n  ritual.  f i e l d w o r k , I i n t e r p r e t e d i t m a i n l y from a  r e g u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of v i e w .  But  i n my  fieldwork I  also experienced i t s e f f e c t s p h y s i c a l l y .  I f my  experience  i n d u c e d by a " t r i c k , " the way t r i c k should  the p e o p l e c o n s t r u c t  be comprehended.  i s based on the method by w h i c h the p e o p l e  their  thought and  organize  action.  Thus, B u r r i d g e s o c i e t y and  insists  t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r  his f i e l d .  c o n c r e t e l y , t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r scope i n o r d e r  the  I t means the  logic  b r i d g e h i s own  such a  When the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  t r i c k i s made c l e a r , i t i s no l o n g e r a t r i c k .  was  should  should  T h i s means, more be a b l e t o expand h i s  t o c o v e r b o t h h i s f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e and  his  -35-  audience.  As we have a c c e p t e d  the people  i n h i s f i e l d have t h e i r own  p o i n t may  be p a r a p h r a s e d  t h a t both the r e s e a r c h e r  as f o l l o w s :  paradigms, B u r r i d g e ' s f i e l d w o r k demands a  c o n s t a n t r e f r a m i n g of the r e s e a r c h e r ' s paradigm c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the paradigm o f the  and  through  people.  S a r t r e , as a p h i l o s o p h e r o r an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t o f h i s own  s o c i e t y , g e n e r a l i z e d the meaning o f the a c t of s e e i n g .  F o r S a r t r e , s e e i n g o t h e r s becomes p o s s i b l e i n the p r o c e s s self-change.  However, the a c t o f s e e i n g i s p r i m a r i l y  of  an  i n n e r - p a r a d i g m a t i c e f f o r t , because one's mode o f s e e i n g i s based on one's paradigm.  One  sees what one wants t o  T h i s i s the p r o j e c t i o n of s e l f to the w o r l d . is paradoxical.  This  see.  situation  However, S a r t r e s a y s :  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s e l f n e s s ( S e l b s t h e i t ) , i n f a c t , i s t h a t man i s always s e p a r a t e d from what he i s by a l l the b r e a d t h o f the b e i n g w h i c h he i s n o t . He makes h i m s e l f known t o h i m s e l f from the o t h e r s i d e of the w o r l d and he l o o k s from the h o r i z o n toward h i m s e l f t o r e c o v e r h i s i n n e r b e i n g . ^3 Thus, w i t h i n the w o r l d , o t h e r s appear as the d e n i a l of one's a t t e m p t s  a t s e l f - p r o j e c t i o n on them.  Through the  a c c e p t a n c e o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n , one r e a c h e s " o t h e r n e s s . " process  This  i n e v i t a b l y r e q u i r e s the r e n e w a l o f one's paradigm.  Therefore,  the i n i t i a l  attempt a t an i n n e r - p a r a d i g m a t i c  o f s e e i n g t u r n s i n t o an e x t r a - p a r a d i g m a t i c a c t t h r o u g h confrontation with others.  act the  -36-  Because t h e d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s between s e l f and o t h e r s i s c o n t i n u a l , t h e p e r s o n who i s engaged i n t h e a c t o f r e a c h i n g o t h e r n e s s o p e r a t e s on a d e v e l o p m e n t a l act  paradigm. H i s  o f s e e i n g i s an e x t r a - p a r a d i g m a t i c a t t e m p t .  with otherness  H i s engagement  s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o i n terms o f c o n s c i e n c e ,  however i t may be " f e l t " by him as " c u r i o s i t y " i n i t s appearance h e r e and now. obligation,  because m o r a l i t y i s a paradigm, and because a  moral attempt paradigm.  I t may n o t be f e l t as a m o r a l  i s an a c t o f k e e p i n g h i m s e l f w i t h i n t h i s  present  However, " c u r i o s i t y " p r o v i d e s t h e e x p l o r a t i o n  "momentum" f o r t h i s e x t r a - p a r a d i g m a t i c tendency, and encourages beyond t h e p r e s e n t paradigm. way:  To p u t i t i n a n o t h e r  When t h e p e r s o n i s engaged i n an e x t r a - p a r a d i g m a t i c  attempt  a t r e a c h i n g o t h e r n e s s , he f e e l s  c u r i o u s about t h e w o r l d .  Kuhn's c r i t i c i s m o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , l y of psychology,  i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e l a c k o f an  p a r a d i g m a t i c "momentum."  As f a r as p s y c h o l o g y  particularextra-  i s concerned,  he i s r i g h t , because t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h i s h e a v i l y c o n s t r a i n e d by i t s m o r a l engagement i n t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f what i s b e l i e v e d t o be "normal."  Moreover, "normal"  y e t been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as an e p i s t e m o l o g y . definition  has n o t  The p r e s e n t  ( o f n o r m a l i t y ) remains s i m p l y t h e n o n - m a n i f e s t a t i o n  o f what a r e r e g a r d e d  "abnormal" symptoms.  i s the lack of d i a l e c t i c .  The c e n t r a l  problem  The m o r a l m i s s i o n o f p s y c h o l o g y  -3 7-  makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e v e l o p a h e a l t h y and s c i e n t i f i c curiosity. consensus  I n o t h e r words, p s y c h o l o g y has n o t y e t formed t h e necessary f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e .  M o r a l i t y cannot be e m p i r i c a l , by d e f i n i t i o n .  I t has t o s t a n d  beyond e x p e r i e n c e , a l t h o u g h i t may be p r o j e c t e d on experience. By t h e same t o k e n , when t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t f a i l s i n h i s a t t e m p t a t e x t r a - p a r a d i g m a t i c engagement, he may be o n l y p r o j e c t i n g h i s own paradigm  onto t h e people i n h i s f i e l d .  t h i s c a s e , he i s n o t " r e a c h i n g " them. from h i s own paradigm  In  Or, he may s i m p l y s h i f t  t o that of the people.  he reaches them, but l o s e s h i s a u d i e n c e .  In this  case,  He i s no l o n g e r an  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , b u t an i m m i g r a n t . R e p h r a s i n g i n terms o f t h e paradigm  o f t h e importance  of p r e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e f i e l d w o r k , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n c l a r i f i e s t h e epistemology of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t . I t i s the s t a r t i n g  point,  the element o f t h e s i s i n t h e d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s w h i c h he i s about t o b e g i n *  The c l e a r n o t i o n o f h i s o r i g i n a l  e p i s t e m o l o g y e n a b l e s him t o s e p a r a t e h i s p e r c e p t i o n from t h a t of t h e p e o p l e i n h i s f i e l d .  This step i s important,  because,  as h i s d i a l e c t i c grows, he o f t e n l o s e s a c c e s s t o t h e o r i g i n a l perception.  I f h i s goal i s to reach the epistemology of the  p e o p l e i n t h e f i e l d , h i s o r i g i n a l p e r c e p t i o n may be f o r g o t t e n . However, h i s g o a l , as he i s an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , i s t o r e p o r t  -38-  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e p e o p l e c a p t u r e d perception.  t h r o u g h h i s own  The paradigm o f t h e p e o p l e has t o be c l e a r l y  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h a t o f t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t . For reaching otherness,  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have  l e a r n e d t o take advantage o f p o s i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e m s e l v e s and p e o p l e s i n t h e i r f i e l d s . f i e l d , normally  t h e paradigm o f t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t and t h a t o f  the p e o p l e a r e d i f f e r e n t .  When he i n t e n d s , e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y  or i n t u i t i v e l y , t o reach otherness, i s great.  In the anthropological  t h e degree o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n  A c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n l e a d s him t o t h e  d i s e n t a n g l e m e n t o f t h e paradigm o f t h e p e o p l e . c o n d i t i o n s should apply  The same  t o t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t who d e a l s  an " e x o t i c " group i n h i s own s o c i e t y .  with  A l t h o u g h t h e study o f  a group i n t h e same s o c i e t y i s commonly c o n s i d e r e d t e r r i t o r y o f s o c i o l o g i s t s , t h e l o c a l and e x o t i c  t o be t h e  group  should  a l s o be s u b j e c t t o a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The e x o t i c appearance may be an i n d i c a t i o n o f i t s h a v i n g The  i t s own paradigm.  example may be e t h n i c communities l o c a l t o t h e modern  s o c i e t y , and r e l i g i o u s c u l t s such as SMBK i n v o l v e d i n a m y s t i c a l p r a c t i s e w h i c h i s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o t h e main body of t h e p e o p l e o f t h e same s o c i e t y .  When t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i s  a l i e n t o t h e paradigm o f t h e group, t h e r e i s an o b v i o u s gap between h i m s e l f and t h e p e o p l e o f t h e group, a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h necessitates h i s extra-paradigmatic  engagement.  Ethnomethod-  o l o g y i n s o c i o l o g y s t a r t e d as an attempt a t c r e a t i n g p o l o g y i n t h e same s o c i e t y .  anthro-  However, i t seems t o have f a i l e d  i n the c l e a r p o s i t i o n i n g of the ethnomethodologist i n r e l a t i o n t o the people. methodologists,  F o r s o c i o l o g i s t s , i n c l u d i n g ethno-  t h e p e o p l e who a r e s u b j e c t t o a s o c i o l o g i c a l  o b s e r v a t i o n may appear t o o c o n v e n t i o n a l  t o r e f l e c t on t h e  p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e way s o c i o l o g i s t s see t h e w o r l d and t h e way they c o n s i d e r i t .  As a r e s u l t , some s o c i o -  l o g i s t s s i m p l y use t h e p e o p l e as an example t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s o c i o l o g i s t s ' own e p i s t e m o l o g i e s . trapped  When t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i s  i n t h i s problem i n a t r a d i t i o n a l  anthropological  f i e l d , he may n o t be a b l e t o r e p o r t i t , because t h e gap between t h e two paradigms ( h i s and o f h i s f i e l d ) i s o f t e n t o o wide n o t t o be n o t i c e d , a l t h o u g h nature  he cannot always c l a r i f y t h e  o f t h e problem. Therefore,  the f a c t t h a t I , being a Japanese,  s t u d i e d a Japanese r e l i g i o u s movement does n o t j e o p a r d i z e my s t a t u s as an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t .  However, because I chose Japan  as my f i e l d , I s e l e c t e d a r e l i g i o u s movement w h i c h had an elaborate doctrine.  Because t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s movement,  u n l i k e r e l i g i o n s i n a v i l l a g e , begins w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of d o c t r i n e by a s p e c i f i c p e r s o n , t h e paradigm i s e x p r e s s e d i n the d o c t r i n e .  When t h e movement has an e l a b o r a t e  doctrine  and when t h e f o u n d e r , t h e o n l y c o n s t r u c t o r o f t h e d o c t r i n e , i s  -40-  dead, t h e paradigm may be c o n s i d e r e d  t o be c o m p l e t e .  the paradigm o f t h e movement i s e x p r e s s e d  Where  i n i t s own way, t h e  p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ' s own paradigm s h o u l d be prevented.  I n t h e SMBK c a s e , t h e cosmology w h i c h  expresses  the paradigm c o n s i s t s o f a u n i q u e s e t o f v o c a b u l a r y and expressions. SMBK r h e t o r i c .  I n my f i e l d w o r k , I f i r s t t r i e d t o master t h i s Then, I a p p l i e d i t t o my q u e s t i o n i n g and  d i s c u s s i o n with the b e l i e v e r s .  Because I was t h i n k i n g i n  " s t a n d a r d " J a p a n e s e , I was f u n c t i o n i n g i n a c o n t e x t o f c o n s t a n t t r a n s l a t i o n from one t o t h e o t h e r . i s a body o f metaphor e x p r e s s e d  F u r t h e r m o r e , SMBK cosmology  i n imagery.. T h e r e f o r e ,  e s s e n t i a l . t o und e r s t a n d t h e SMBK image o f t h e cosmos.  i t was Only  w i t h t h i s image i n mind, c o u l d communication i n t h e SMBK r h e t o r i c became p o s s i b l e Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e r e s e a r c h e r and h i s f i e l d ,  the p r e s e n t a t i o n  of t h e o b s e r v e d phenomena may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t o two b a s i c types:  e x p l a n a t i o n and e x p l i c a t i o n .  In general,  i s t o c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c o n c e p t s .  explanation This  process  p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r and t h e p e o p l e i n h i s f i e l d share t h e same s e t o f c o n c e p t s .  However, e x p l i c a t i o n i s t o  e s t a b l i s h c o n c e p t s i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r . e x p l i c a t i o n c o n t a i n s two p r o c e s s e s : explanation.  As B u r r i d g e  Therefore,  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and  i n d i c a t e s i n the previous  quotation,  -41-  t h e s e two p r o c e s s e s  a r e i n s e p a r a b l e ; as t h e r e s e a r c h e r  c o n c e p t u a l i z e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e concepts clear.  become  A l s o , as t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s become c l e a r , t h e n a t u r e  o f c o n c e p t s become c l e a r .  This simultaneous  process of  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n o f the observed i s c o n f u s i n g and a n n o y i n g . i s a d i a l e c t i c a l one.  phenomena  I t i s n o t a c l e a r - c u t p r o c e s s , but  I n o t h e r words, i n t h e c o n t e x t ,  e x p l i c a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a s y n t h e s i s between the paradigm o f t h e p e o p l e  i n t h e f i e l d and t h a t o f t h e  researcher. The  problems w h i c h have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  been  c r i t i c i z e d as p o s i t i v i s t m a i n l y r e f e r t o t h e l a c k o f conceptualization.  I n t h i s c a s e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s own c o n c e p t s a r e  p r o j e c t e d t o the f i e l d .  The f a l s e a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t ( h i s )  concepts  This f a l s e assumption i s e a s i l y  are u n i v e r s a l .  f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r a s s u m p t i o n t h a t f i e l d w o r k c o u l d and s h o u l d be done e x a c t l y as i t has been p l a n n e d condition i s justifiable  i n h i s proposal.  This  o n l y when t h e r e i s no element o f  "otherness" i n h i s f i e l d . Some p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t s go t o a n o t h e r extreme.  They  b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d n o t have any p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s b e f o r e he goes i n t o t h e f i e l d .  T h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e , because  he i s n o t u s u a l l y aware whether o r n o t he has any presuppositions.  They become c l e a r t o him o n l y t h r o u g h  the epistemo-  -42-  l o g i c a l confrontation with others.  Before  the c o n f r o n t a t i o n  the " p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s " a r e n a t u r a l components o f h i s own epistemology.  I t i s h i s way o f s e e i n g t h e w o r l d .  p r e c i s e l y , i t i s t h e way t h e w o r l d  i s seen by him.  o b j e c t i f i e s h i s own way o f s e e i n g t h e w o r l d  Or more When he  through the  c o n f r o n t a t i o n , he becomes aware t h a t h i s e p i s t e m o l o g y c o n s i s t s of " p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . "  I n o t h e r words, t h e paradigm o f t h e  p e o p l e o f t h e c u l t u r e under study  i s capturable  epistemology of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , but i s only communicable t h r o u g h t h e n e g a t i o n  through the accurately  o f t h e l a t t e r by t h e f o r m e r .  I n SMBK, as I have mentioned, a s i m i l a r d i a l e c t i c a l p r o c e s s of s e l f and o t h e r s  i s o f f e r e d i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n  ritual.  However, i n SMBK, t h e d i a l e c t i c i s p o s s i b l e o n l y on a c o l l e c t i v e b a s i s , and converges i n t o cosmology, i n s t e a d o f expanding i t . Success t h r e e major f a c t o r s : pro j e c t i . b i l i t y bility.  o r f a i l u r e i n f i e l d w o r k depends on projectability,  (entwurf  or projection)  (geworf e n h e i t , o r thrownness) and i n t e l l i g i -  Projectability  i n d i c a t e s the researcher's  original  p l a n f o r f i e l d w o r k , t h a t i s , how h i s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n o f knowing p e o p l e i s s y s t e m a t i z e d readiness  t o pursue i t .  i n concrete  planning^.and h i s  P r o j e c t i b i l i t y i n d i c a t e s how h i s  p l a n i s r e c e i v e d by t h e p e o p l e i n h i s f i e l d . i n d i c a t e s how t h e f i e l d  Intelligibility  i s made i n t e l l i g i b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  I n my f i e l d w o r k , my o r i g i n a l p l a n was t o a t t e n d t h e t h r e e - d a y  -43-  l e c t u r e s e s s i o n s t o l e a r n t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e , t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e r i t u a l t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , and t o i n t e r v i e w b e l i e v e r s t o f i n d out the things I could not see. Before  e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , I v i s i t e d one o f t h e SMBK  l o c a l c e n t r e s , w h i c h I had a r b i t r a r i l y chosen, because I wanted t o know t h e g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n when b e l i e v e r s r e c e i v e a newcomer.  S u b s e q u e n t l y , I went t o t h e Main H e a d q u a r t e r s , and  asked f o r p e r m i s s i o n f o r my r e s e a r c h .  I was a d m i t t e d  to a  p a r t i c u l a r branch l o c a t e d i n Koganei.  Later, I learned  that  t h i s b r a n c h was one o f t h e o l d e s t , and i t s b e l i e v e r s were known t o be open and f r i e n d l y .  Because o f t h e Main Head-  q u a r t e r s ' p e r m i s s i o n , t h e Head o f t h e Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e was cooperative.  The way I was r e c e i v e d a t t h i s c e n t r e . b y  b e l i e v e r s f o r the f i r s t  regular  time was n o t n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t  from t h e way I was r e c e i v e d a t t h e c e n t r e w h i c h I had been t o b e f o r e my v i s i t t o the Main H e a d q u a r t e r s .  T h i s i n d i c a t e d t o me  t h a t my p r e s e n c e as a p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y disturbing to regular believers.  L a t e r I learned the reason:  i n SMBK, p u r i t y i n m o t i v a t i o n f o r j o i n i n g t h e movement i s n o t important.  Chances g i v e n by t h e d i v i n i t y v a r y .  a t t e n d i n g meetings a t t h e l o c a l c e n t r e c o u n t s . everyone a t t h e elementai'y  l e v e l i s considered  One's Moreover, t o be d e f i l e d ,  and h i s m o t i v a t i o n cannot be f r e e from t h e d e f i l e m e n t . f o r e , b e l i e v e r s were n o t d i s t u r b e d by t h e r e a s o n f o r my  There-  -44-  presence. I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  among s o c i a l ' s c i e n t i s t s  t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e c o l l e c t e d d a t a depends on how t h e f i e l d has been made i n t e l l i g i b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  Therefore,  a r e s e a r c h e r i s u s u a l l y concerned about t h e p r o j e c t a b i l i t y of h i s f i e l d w o r k p l a n s , and o f t e n e l a b o r a t e s on them.  However,  the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f h i s work depends even m o r e . h e a v i l y  on  p r o j e c t i b i l i t y , t h e way he i s i n t h e f i e l d , and t h e way he i s r e c e i v e d by t h e p e o p l e . important, experience,  Although  this condition i s absolutely  s t r a n g e l y enough i t i s o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d .  I n my  t h e i n t e r v i e w was t h e f i e l d method w h i c h was most  c o n s t r a i n e d by my appearance.  I i n t e r v i e w e d about  thirty  b e l i e v e r s a t t h e Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g fieldwork.  o f my  I asked about t h e t h i n g s I c o u l d n o t o b s e r v e i n  the l o c a l c e n t r e .  They concerned m a i n l y  the meaning o f v a r i o u s  a c t i v i t i e s , and how b e l i e v e r s behaved o u t s i d e t h e l o c a l Asking questions  centre.  about them, I r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e way b e l i e v e r s  answered was c o n s t r a i n e d by my age and sex.  The b e l i e v e r s o f  my age and sex were open and w i l l i n g t o t e l l me about t h e i r l i v e s , whereas those who were n o t remained f o r m a l , and o f t e n answered i n s t a n d a r d d o c t r i n a l s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h reminded me o f l e c t u r e s i n the three-day  elementary s e s s i o n .  Because the  b e l i e v e r s I c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y r e l a t e t o were  apparently  biased, I decided  i n order to gain  t o use a s t a t i s t i c a l  survey  -45-  more g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . designed  However, t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was n o t  t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h went beyond o r  r e f u t e d t h e answers g i v e n i n i n t e r v i e w s .  Instead, the questions  i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were based on t h e answers g i v e n i n i n t e r views i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a l i z e them. was  A l s o , the questionnaire  made a f t e r I was exposed t o t h e c o n t e n t  l e c t u r e sessions at a l l three l e v e l s . p h r a s e d i n t h e SMBK v o c a b u l a r y  of the three-day  The q u e s t i o n s  and e x p r e s s i o n s .  were  The t o t a l  number o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d was 2500, and 583 were returned. Most o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d  through  the M a i n H e a d q u a r t e r s , because t h e l o c a l c e n t r e s were d i s p e r s e d a l l over Japan.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were handed t o  the Heads o f t h e l o c a l c e n t r e a t t h e monthly c l e r i c a l from one o f t h e D i r e c t o r s w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n .  meeting  However, on  agreement w i t h t h e D i r e c t o r , I p e r s o n a l l y d e a l t w i t h f o u r  local  c e n t r e s i n Tokyo, i n o r d e r t o compare d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e . I b r o u g h t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o t h r e e l o c a l c e n t r e s , and l e f t them w i t h boxes f o r c o l l e c t i o n .  I s t a y e d a t t h e Koganei  local  c e n t r e most o f t h e t i m e , and d i s t r i b u t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i r e c t l y t o the b e l i e v e r s .  A s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e was n o t i c e d  i n r e s p o n s e between those w h i c h I p e r s o n a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d ( t h e r e f o r e , t h r o u g h no a u t h o r i t y ) and t h e r e s t w h i c h were d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h t h e Main h e a d q u a r t e r s ( t h e r e f o r e , t h r o u g h  -46-  an a u t h o r i t y ) .  Those t h r o u g h the Main H e a d q u a r t e r s  c o n c e n t r a t e on m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t y p e q u e s t i o n s , and the q u e s t i o n s w h i c h r e q u e s t e d statement  tended  to  ignored  of o p i n i o n s .  A p p l i c a t i o n o f f i e l d methods t o c o n c r e t e  situations  n e c e s s i t a t e s a constant decision-making process i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h v a l i d and i n v a l i d methods i n r e l a t i o n t o the information obtained.  Through c o n s t a n t e v a l u a t i o n , the  field  becomes t a n g i b l e t o the r e s e a r c h e r , because b o t h p r o j e c tability (the  (the f i e l d methods he has a p p l i e d ) and  projectibility  v a l i d i t y o f h i s methods judged on the b a s i s of the  response him.  from the s u b j e c t s t o them) become i n t e l l i g i b l e  This process i s d i a l e c t i c a l  to  as I have p r e v i o u s l y  mentioned. The d a t a i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s have been c o l l e c t e d and e x p l i c a t e d based on the e p i s t e m o l o g y d e s c r i b e d above.  I hope t h a t my d e s c r i p t i o n p r e s e n t s t o my r e a d e r s a  chance t o share an i n s i g h t i n t o a r e l i g i o u s movement i n the c o n c r e t e example t a k e n from SMBK.  NOTES A l i s t of examples of r e l i g i o u s movements (M. 1979. ) _  Soka G a k k a i Nichiren-shugi Honmon  Shimizu.  Minori Kai Butsuryu-ko  Butsuryu-ko  Komyo Kyodan S e i c h o no  Ie  Hoshi K a i  Omoto  Bussho Gonen K a i  Meshia  Myochi K a i  Sekai Kyusei  Reiyu Kai  S u k u i no H i k a r i Kyodan  Kodo Kyodan  Konko  Myodo K a i  Tenri  Rissho Kosei Kai  Honbushin Honmichi  Shinnyo En . Benten  Shu  Gedatsu K a i  Kyo Kyo  Kyo Kyo  Tensho K o t a i J i n g u Kyo P e r f e c t L i b e r t y Kyodan Jissen R i n r i Kosei Kai  * SMBK belongs to the group of r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h d e r i v e d from the S e k a i Meshia Kyo (the World M e s s i a n i c R e l i g i o u s A s s o c i a t i o n ) . T h i s group i s known as o - h i k a r i - s a m a ( t h e l i g h t w o r s h i p p e r s ) , and i s i n v o l v e d i n c u r i n g a v a r i e t y o f d i s e a s e s t h r o u g h c o n c r e t e r i t u a l means w h i c h a r e u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e d from t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l i n g p r a c t i c e s b e f o r e m o d e r n i z a t i o n (1868). SMBK i s a t y p i c a l example o f t h i s group, and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n and the performance of a p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l for curing.  _48_  C. Nakane, 1970. See t h e " C o n c l u s i o n . " A l t h o u g h Nakane i n s i s t s t h a t t h i s s o c i a l system c o u l d not be d e m o c r a t i c , what i s d e m o c r a t i c i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l . However, h e r s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l d i s c r e p a n c y i s v a l i d . More d i s c u s s i o n on Nakane's t h e o r y w i l l be found i n Chapter III. "'Ideology does t h i s because i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f paradigm, and because i t e n f o r c e s a p a r t i c u l a r e p i s t e m o l o g y . 4  C. W e i z s a c k e r ,  1964.  5  T . Kuhn, 1962, p. 3.  6  I b i d . , pp. 44-45.  ^ I b i d . , p. 45. 8  G.' G e e r t z , 1973, p. 90.  9  In t h e f o o t n o t e o f S u i c i d e , Durkheim adds t h e f o u r t h c a t e g o r y o f s u i c i d e , c a l l e d a f a t a l i s t i c one, w i t h o u t g i v i n g f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . A p o s s i b l e reason f o r t h i s a d d i t i o n i s t h a t f a t a l i s m i s a form o f s u b m i s s i o n and does n o t s u i t h i s o t h e r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n by t h e forms o f commitment. I t i s a c t i v e l y i n t e n t i o n a l , however, s u b m i s s i o n may be p a s s i v e and situational. I t i s t h e b a s i c a t t i t u d e o f " r i t u a l man" I w i l l discuss i n this dissertation. C l a u d e L e v i - S t r a u s s , 1963, p. 203. ± u  1]  - E m i l e Durkheim, 1953, p. 93.  ^ " I b i d . , p . 93 . 2  1 3  I b i d . , p. 93.  1 4  I b i d . , p. 93.  -49-  1 5  I b i d . , p. 93.  1 6  K a r l Marx, 1970, p. 131.  1 7  A n t h o n y W a l l a c e , 1966, p. 10.  ^ I b i d . , p. 16 . 19 I b i d . , p. 13. 70  V i c t o r T u r n e r , 1969, C h a p t e r 3, pp. 94-130. 2 1  B e n d i x , 1968, p. 498.  2 2  K.  2 3  J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , 1943(1972),  B u r r i d g e , 1981, p. 99. p. 17.  24 "Reaching o t h e r n e s s " has been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by B u r r i d g e as t h e t h e s i s o f f i e l d w o r k . See h i s E n c o u n t e r i n g A b o r i g i n e s , 1973, pp. 6-37.  CHAPTER I I  SMBK AS A RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT  -51-  SOCIO-HISTORICAL BACKGROUND I t was suggested i n C h a p t e r I that r e l i g i o u s may form an a n t i t h e s i s society. this:  t o the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n the wider  The q u e s t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d f o l l o w  this proposition i s  What i s t h e n o v e l t y o f t h e r e l i g i o u s movement i n  r e l a t i o n to the wider society? positioning  The answer r e q u i r e s t h e  o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r movement i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e  s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l conditions of the wider s o c i e t y , positioning  o f t h e movement i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r  movements i n t h e same s o c i e t y . this:  I n Japanese s o c i e t y ,  and a l s o t h e religious  The b r i e f answer f o r SMBK i s  throughout the modernization  p r o c e s s , r e l i g i o u s movements o c c u p i e d a n t i t h e t i c a l to the n a t i o n a l a national ment.  government.  project,  positions  M o d e r n i z a t i o n i n Japan has been  and has been l e d by t h e n a t i o n a l  govern-  The major theme o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n i s t o form a s y n t h e s i s  between t r a d i t i o n and W e s t e r n i z a t i o n . the  doctrine  V a r i o u s groups b e s i d e s  government have been engaged i n t h i s a t t e m p t ,  b o t h s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s movements. naturalist-nationalist  including  SMBK i s one o f t h e  r e v i v a l s w h i c h took p l a c e a f t e r World  War I I .  SMBK's b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n  practice  of the p u r i f i c a t i o n  i s t y p i c a l l y seen i n i t s  ritual.  I n t h e f i r s t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e modern age, from t h e  -52-  Meiji Restoration  (1868) t o t h e end o f World War I I ( 1 9 4 5 ) ,  State Shinto occupied the p o s i t i o n of the n a t i o n a l of J a p a n , and o t h e r r e l i g i o n s were g e n e r a l l y  religion  considered  1 undesirable.  According  t o Ken A r a i ,  t h e Japanese government,  on t h e s u r f a c e , a d v o c a t e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f " c h u r c h " and S t a t e , and freedom o f b e l i e f was a s s u r e d i n t h e M e i j i t u t i o n (1889).  However, A r a i a l s o emphasizes t h a t t h e  Constitution followed various unsuccessful Shinto  Consti-  a t t e m p t s t o make  t h e o f f i c i a l S t a t e r e l i g i o n , and even a f t e r promul-  g a t i o n of the C o n s t i t u t i o n t i o n a l manner.  S h i n t o was t r e a t e d i n an excep-  I t was g i v e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e de f a c t o  n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n t h r o u g h t h e Home M i n i s t r y ' s c o n s o l i d a t i o n and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Shinto  S h i n t o was c o n s i d e r e d above any r e l i g i o n .  shrines.  That i s t o s a y ,  t o be a n o n - r e l i g i o n and thus  elevated  C o n s e q u e n t l y , S h i n t o d o c t r i n e would s e r v e  t o j u s t i f y t h e power o f t h e Emperor t h r o u g h i t s mythology o f Kojiki  (The R e c o r d o f A n c i e n t  Ways) and N i h o n s h o k i (The  C h r o n i c l e s of Japan), t o m o r a l i s e the people through the I m p e r i a l R e s c r i p t on E d u c a t i o n (1890), and t o u n i t e t h e n a t i o n 2 under k o k u t a i . established. ideology  Thus, t h e s o - c a l l e d S t a t e S h i n t o  regime was  And s i n c e S h i n t o was adopted as t h e r u l i n g  t o i n t e g r a t e t h e Japanese i n t o a n a t i o n - s t a t e ,  o t h e r forms o f r e l i g i o n came t o be c o n s i d e r e d a n t i - n a t i o n a l , regardless  of t h e i r d o c t r i n a l  content.  -53-  Concerning t h e i r d o c t r i n a l d i s c e r n e d a common o r i e n t a t i o n  c o n t e n t , Tsushima e t a l ,  o f r e l i g i o u s movements c e n t e r e d  around what they d e f i n e as a " v i t a l i s t i c salvation"  conception of  which:  ... r e g a r d s t h e cosmos as a l i v i n g body o r t h e O r i g i n a l L i f e from w h i c h a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s emanate, and a d v o c a t e s t h e f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f the growth and e f f l o r e s c e n c e o f man's l i f e t h r o u g h harmony w i t h t h e O r i g i n a l L i f e . It i s further  c h a r a c t e r i s e d by:  ... an i d e a o f a p r i m a r y r e l i g i o u s B e i n g w h i c h b e a r s and n u r t u r e s a l l t h i n g s , c o n f i d e n c e i n the i n h e r e n t goodness o f t h e w o r l d , e x h o r t a t i o n to thank t h e d e i t y f o r i t s b e n e f i c i a l b e s t o w a l of l i f e f o r c e , and an o p t i m i s t i c v i e w o f s a l v a t i o n which i s e a s i l y a t t a i n a b l e i n t h i s world. They c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e " c o n c e p t o f w o r l d l y b e n e f i t and salvation  were c o n j o i n e d w i t h o u t c o n t r a d i c t i o n , "  because t h e  f o u n d e r s d e r i v e d most o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g s from f o l k and  religions,  were t h e r e f o r e n o t d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by e s t a b l i s h e d 6  r e l i g i o n s which uphold o t h e r - w o r l d l y  orientation:  I t was i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f f o l k r e l i g i o n l e d by s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and s h a m a n i s t i c r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i t i o n e r s that the founders acquired t h e i r r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s and deepened t h e i r f a i t h . Most o f t h e t e a c h i n g s and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v i c e s o f t h e New R e l i g i o n s c a n be r e g a r d e d as t h e d e v e l o p e d form o f t h e l o o s e l y - o r g a n i z e d symbolism and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s (ko) o f f o l k religion.^ 7  I n t h e i r d o c t r i n e , such r e l i g i o u s movements o f f e r e d l i t t l e d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o the government.  A r a i , f o r example,  has w r i t t e n : ... r e l i g i o u s r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t the S t a t e was not common a t a l l . I t r a r e l y happened t h a t S t a t e p o l i c y was c r i t i c i z e d based on some r e l i g i o u s doctrine or idea. (And even i n the c a s e where i t d i d happen) such r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s n e v e r g a i n e d a b a s i s f o r a wide s o c i a l movement.^ N o n e t h e l e s s , the decade f o l l o w i n g 1935 s e c u t i o n f o r r e l i g i o u s movements. f o r the second time i n 1935, of H i t o - n o - m i c h i  was  Omoto Kyo was  f o l l o w e d by the  Kyodan i n 1936,  of  per-  suppressed  illegalisation  Hon-michi i n 1938,  K y o i k u G a k k a i ( l a t e r Soka G a k k a i ) i n 1943. e s p e c i a l l y the l e s e - m a j e s t e  an age  and  Soka  As A r a i i n d i c a t e s ,  a f f a i r of H i t o - n o - m i c h i  Kyodan  r e v e a l e d the i n t e n t i o n of t h e government t o e l i m i n a t e r e l i g i o u s " h e r e s i e s , " because t h i s r e l i g i o u s group had w e l l t o the S t a t e p o l i c y by even u s i n g the I m p e r i a l on E d u c a t i o n  Rescript  as the c e n t r a l theme of i t s d o c t r i n e .  However, i n 1945, s i t u a t i o n was  adapted  w i t h the end of the War,  t o change d r a s t i c a l l y .  On J u l y 26,  the  1945,  the  A l l i e d Powers a g r e e d on the Postdam D e c l a r a t i o n and  on August  14th,  Declaration  the Japanese government s u b m i t t e d  to i t .  The  i t s e l f c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t e e n i t e m s , i n c l u d i n g a 6 t h i t e m e l i m i n a t i n g m i l i t a r i s m and  a 9 t h i t e m on e s t a b l i s h i n g and  s o l i d i f y i n g a democracy based on freedom of b e l i e f .  And  on  -55-  i n d e e d , i n t h e s i x y e a r s o f A l l i e d o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h were t o f o l l o w , t h e A l l i e d powers' main o b j e c t i v e s were  concentrated  on d e - m i l i t a r i s a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n . ^ What d i d t h i s mean f o r S t a t e S h i n t o ?  In the f i r s t  p l a c e , i t must be r e c a l l e d t h a t , The second World War was n o t o n l y a t o t a l m i l i t a r y war b u t a l s o an i d e o l o g i c a l war. The A l l i e d Powers, a d v o c a t i n g democracy, s e t as t a r g e t s t h e t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m o f J a p a n , Germany and I t a l y . T h e r e f o r e , S t a t e S h i n t o was r e c o g n i s e d as a l e a d i n g i d e o l o g y o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m p a r a l l e l t o t h e N a z i i s m o f Germany and t h e F a s c i s m o f I t a l y . In  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s , the p o l i c y of the a b o l i t i o n of State  S h i n t o was a l r e a d y agreed by t h e A l l i e d Powers, even b e f o r e the end o f t h e War.  The I n t e r - D i v i s i o n a l A r e a Committee on  t h e F a r E a s t d e c i d e d i n 1944, one and a h a l f y e a r s b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e War, t h a t S t a t e S h i n t o s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d and t h a t f o r t h i s purpose i t s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r forms o f S h i n t o c a t e g o r i z e d under t h e term k o 13 Shinto.  W i t h i n a y e a r o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n , t h i s p o l i c y was  e n e r g e t i c a l l y a p p l i e d through v a r i o u s orders i n c l u d i n g the "Removal o f R e s t r i c t i o n s on P o l i t i c a l , Liberties"  (October  mental Sponsorship,  C i v i l and R e l i g i o u s  4 t h , 1945) and t h e " A b o l i t i o n o f GovernSupport,  P e r p e t u a t i o n , C o n t r o l and 14  D i s s e m i n a t i o n o f S t a t e S h i n t o " (December 1 5 t h , 1945). the p o s i t i o n o f S h i n t o was r e v e r s e d from n a t i o n w i d e  Thus,  reverence  -56-  t o sudden condemnation. F o l l o w i n g t h e t e n y e a r s o f t h e post-War c o n f u s i o n , Japanese s o c i e t y e n t e r e d an age o f " h i g h economic g r o w t h . " Between 1 9 5 9 and 1 9 7 4 , t h e L o r d - s a v i o r Okada, t h e founder o f SMBK, was engaged i n h i s m i s s i o n .  Some s t a t i s t i c a l  surveys  done between 1 9 5 8 and 1 9 7 3 o v e r l a p by a y e a r w i t h t h e p e r i o d of Okada's m i s s i o n .  The s u r v e y s  show t h a t t h e Japanese  g e n e r a l l y r e t a i n e d t h e i r respect f o r r e l i g i o n , but resigned from r e l i g i o u s  activities.  According Japanese:  to the N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  No. 3 , between 1 9 5 8 and 1 9 7 3 , t h e number o f 15  b e l i e v e r s i n (some) r e l i g i o n k e p t TABLE 1 :  declining:  RELIGIONS IN JAPAN 1958  B e l i e v e i n some religion Believe i n :  Shintoism Buddhism Christianity A New R e l i g i o n Not c l e a r Do n o t b e l i e v e i n any r e l i g i o n TOTAL  1963  1968  1973  35%  31  30  25  3% 1% 2% 5%  2 23 1 1 4  3 23 1 1 2  2 18 1 1 3  65%  69  70  75  100%  100  100  100  24%  67o who d i d n o t answer t h e p o o l a r e n o t i n c l u d e d . )  (The  ( N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Japanese: The  No.  f o l l o w i n g graph shows t h e breakdown by age,  1973:  3)15  f o r 1 9 5 9 and  16 GRAPH 1: R e l i g i o u s B e l i e v e r s A c c o r d i n g to Age ( N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Japanese: No. 3)  % of b e l i e v e r s  20  f  24-  :-S  30  3F  *>  4?  »  29  34  39  44-  49  54  I  I  i  !  !  '  S5  J  S3  60  i  Age  Explanation: T h i s graph shows t h a t t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n i s more r e l i g i o u s e x c e p t f o r a s l i g h t i n c o n s i s t e n c y between 55 and 59 y e a r s o f age. But i n t h e 15 y e a r s between t h e two l i n e s on the g r a p h , the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n l o s t more b e l i e v e r s t h a n t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n when t h e same age groups a r e compared. F u r t h e r , i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e the change i n 15 y e a r s o f p e o p l e born i n t h e same y e a r , they a r e j o i n e d by d o t t e d l i n e s . If a d o t t e d l i n e goes up (towards the r i g h t ) , the p e o p l e became more r e l i g i o u s as t h e y aged; i f the l i n e remains h o r i z o n t a l , they d i d n o t change. The d o t t e d l i n e s between t h e two d i s t r i b u t i o n s show t h a t t h e r e was a s l i g h t i n c l i n a t i o n towards becoming more r e l i g i o u s w i t h age, but t h e i n c r e a s e remained s m a l l .  -58-  In o t h e r words, t h e d e c l i n e i n r e l i g i o n f o l l o w e d t h e g e n e r a t i o n a l change, and was n o t s i m p l y a temporary change brought about by a sudden i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f nonr e l i g i o u s people. A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e same s u r v e y r e p o r t e d t h a t when the  b e l i e v e r s were asked t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e l i g i o u s  activities  they were p r e s e n t l y engaged i n , 137 o f t h e samples  (half of  0  18 the  number o f b e l i e v e r s ) , r e p o r t e d no r e a l  activities.  And f i n a l l y , though i t would be easy t o c o n c l u d e from t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s t h a t t h e Japanese a r e becoming l e s s and l e s s r e l i g i o u s , up t o 847o o f t h e same samples were e i t h e r b e l i e v e r s o r t h e y r e s p e c t e d a " r e l i g i o u s mind": TABLE 2:  Importance o f R e l i g i o u s Mind  Believers  Non-believers R e l i g i o u s Mind i s <  (1958) (1963) (1968) (19 73)  35% 31% 30% 25%  — — —  Important  Not Important  Other/No Answer  Total  47% 53% 53% 52%  10% 9% 10% 12%  8% 7% 7% 11%  100% 100% 100% 100%  ( N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Japanese:  No. 3 )  i y  The gap between a r e l i g i o u s s e n t i m e n t and a r e l u c t a n c e t o be i n v o l v e d i n r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i n r e a l i t y or  even t o i d e n t i f y o n e s e l f w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r group i s one  -59-  b a s i c c o n d i t i o n f o r r e l i g i o u s movements today. adds something t o t h e l i f e o f an u n f o r t u n a t e  If religion  individual, i t  i s good, b u t i f i t demands any s a c r i f i c e i n c l u d i n g a c o n t r i b u t i o n i n terms o f time and/or money, i t s h o u l d  be a v o i d e d .  T h i s a t t i t u d e i s o f t e n e x p r e s s e d t o t h e b e l i e v e r engaged i n recruitment  v i a t h e t y p i c a l c y n i c a l remark:  " ( U n l i k e you) we  a r e t o o poor t o a f f o r d t o be i n v o l v e d i n r e l i g i o n , " i n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t the g e n e r a l are p o o r , i n b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l  public considers  that believers  and economic s e n s e s .  Thus,  r e l i g i o n has a l a r g e r e s e r v o i r o f s y m p a t h i z e r s t o a t t r a c t . However, a t t r a c t i o n does n o t e a s i l y a c t i v a t e them i n t o a passionate  involvement. To t h e Japanese who have a s e n t i m e n t  against  r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , i f not against r e l i g i o n i t s e l f , r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o t d e s i r a b l e , because t h e movements a r e g e n e r a l l y o r i e n t e d towards a c t i o n .  The s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f  the r e c r u i t e r depends on how c o n v i n c i n g l y he can p r e s e n t the argument t h a t r e s p e c t  f o r r e l i g i o n should  be e x p r e s s e d i n  a c t i o n , and t h a t t h e a c t i o n i s a segment o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l relationships.  I n t h i s r e s p e c t , r e l i g i o u s movements i n v o l v e d  i n h e a l i n g have an advantage because they can o f f e r n o t o n l y the t h e o r y  ( d o c t r i n e ) t o e x p l a i n why a c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l , but  a l s o t h e method ( h e a l i n g r i t u a l ) t o show how t h e t h e o r y and  should  be p r a c t i s e d .  can be  Through t h e h e a l i n g r i t u a l , movements  -60-  c o u l d keep p o t e n t i a l certain  b e l i e v e r s p a s s i v e as c l i e n t s f o r a  p e r i o d of time.  However, t h e i r p a s s i v e a t t r a c t i o n  to be c o n v e r t e d t o an a c t i v e  engagement.  I n SMBK, t h i s  p o i n t i s present i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . the  p a s s i v e r o l e to the a c t i v e  p e r f o r m e r t o t h e change.  The s h i f t  has  turning from  r o l e i n t h i s r i t u a l leads the  EMERGENCE OF SMBK I t was d u r i n g t h e age o f " h i g h economic g r o w t h " t h a t some t r a d i t i o n a l i s t movements emerged and q u e s t i o n e d t h e meaning and r e a l i t y o f democracy. t r a d i t i o n a l i s t movements.  SMBK was one o f these  The s o c i a l background f o r t h e i r  emergence was t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Japanese economy. Donald Hellmann e x p l a i n s t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s  age as f o l l o w s : Because Japan's remarkable economic growth has been t i e d so c l o s e l y t o expanding i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , t h e need t o m a i n t a i n p o s i t i v e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e g l o b a l economy p r o v i d e s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r a i n t on any autonomous m i l i t a r y o r economic a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h Japan's dependence on i m p o r t s (7-9 p e r c e n t o f GNP) i s w e l l below t h a t o f almost a l l West European n a t i o n s and a s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t has been made t o d i v e r s i f y t h e s o u r c e s o f i m p o r t s , the c o u n t r y s t i l l r e l i e s h e a v i l y on o u t s i d e s u p p l i e s of b a s i c raw m a t e r i a l s such as o i l and i r o n o r e . S i m i l a r l y , Japan i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y l e s s dependent on e x p o r t s (8-9 p e r c e n t o f GNP) t h a n any o t h e r c o u n t r y except t h e U n i t e d ' S t a t e s , b u t t o s u s t a i n t h e momentum o f economic growth sought by t h e Japanese government, i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o expand e x p o r t s s t e a d i l y ( a t r o u g h l y 16 p e r c e n t p e r annum) and t o take a p r o g r e s s i v e l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l w o r l d t r a d e . These g o a l s c a n be reached o n l y by c a r e f u l l y n u r t u r i n g economic and p o l i t i c a l t i e s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n p a r t i c u l a r and a l l advanced i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s g e n e r a l l y . 0  I n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , t h i s time under a d e m o c r a t i c o p e r a t i o n , again created the n e c e s s i t y of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i y  -62-  f o r t h e Japanese.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y had  been one o f t h e c o n s i s t e n t themes f o r m o d e r n i z a t i o n i n o r d e r t o keep J a p a n an independent  and i n t e g r a t e d c o u n t r y .  the end o f World War I I , S t a t e S h i n t o s e r v e d t h i s  Before  purpose,  and w e s t e r n i z a t i o n was d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d t o encompass only the adoption of technology.  However, a f t e r t h e end o f  the War, m o d e r n i z a t i o n changed i t s meaning t o d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n ; t r a d i t i o n was s a c r i f i c e d . discuss  Numerous books were p u b l i s h e d t o  who t h e Japanese a c t u a l l y a r e ( n i h o n - j i n r o n ) .  P o p u l a r s u b j e c t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n were t h e Japanese e t h o s , national c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t y p i c a l personality types, s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between Japanese and Americans.  The c e n t r e o f a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d from Europe t o  the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a ,  because i t l e d t h e post-War  d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n o f Japan. SMBK's c l a i m a g a i n s t democracy as an i m p o r t e d f o r e i g n system was most s t r o n g l y d i r e c t e d towards such  social  f a i l u r e s as i n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t i o n and t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f n a t u r e caused by h a s t y development. use o f m e d i c i n e s  SMBK a l s o o b j e c t e d t o t h e o v e r -  and r a p i d growth o f t h e m e d i c a l i n d u s t r y .  When Okada f i r s t p u b l i c i z e d h i s o b j e c t i o n s , t h e s e i s s u e s h a r d l y a t t r a c t e d people's a t t e n t i o n . h i s d e a t h , they  However, by t h e time o f  had become major s o c i a l  problems.  -63-  Okada had a d o c t r i n a l b a s i s f o r making h i s the SMBK d o c t r i n e i s based on n a t u r a l i s m , n a t u r a l l i f e and a n a t u r a l d e a t h .  w h i c h demands a  A l t h o u g h on t h e s u r f a c e i t  may appear t o promote a c u r e from d i s e a s e s t o t h a t used by t h e m e d i c a l s c i e n c e s , against  death.  objections:  i n a way s i m i l a r  SMBK does n o t f i g h t  I t f i g h t s against unnatural  events.  These  i n c l u d e an u n h e a l t h y s t a t e o f body and mind, and d e a t h from unnatural considered  causes.  Because t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s  t o keep b e i n g s ( i n c l u d i n g human b e i n g s ) i n t h e  n a t u r a l s t a t e , t h e SMBK movement i s b u i l t on t h i s  ritual.  Thus, Okada o f f e r e d n o t o n l y a t h e o r y o f e x p l a n a t i o n  but a l s o  a method f o r d e a l i n g w i t h problems on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . I n t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e , t h e n o t i o n o f t h e Japanese as superior  t o o t h e r n a t i o n s , w h i c h had been once l o s t , was  retained.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e , t h e e x i s t i n g  c i v i l i z a t i o n s i n t h e w o r l d were o r i g i n a l l y c r e a t e d Japanese.  by t h e  The e a r l i e s t human b e i n g s were b o r n i n Japan.  were p e o p l e s d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n f i v e c o l o u r s , and were a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d a t t h e time o f a n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r . order to reorganize  these peoples, s i x t e e n p r i n c e s  went on d i v i n e m i s s i o n s . s i x t e e n kingdoms.  They  dispersed In  o f Japan  The p r i n c e s d i v i d e d t h e w o r l d i n t o  Thus, t h e SMBK s e a l t o d a y , w h i c h i s shaped  i n t h e form o f a chrysanthenum, has s i x t e e n p e t a l s .  SMBK  -64-  c l a i m s t h a t the Japanese have been a p p o i n t e d  by d i v i n i t i e s t o  l e a d the w o r l d s i n c e t h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l time o f the s i x t e e n princes.  DIAGRAM 5:  D i v i n e S e a l o f SMBK  2 1  -65-  The t a t i o n has  SMBK f o u n d e r ' s n a t u r a l i s t - n a t i o n a l i s t  been f o l l o w e d  tendency i n post-War Japan: t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  T a b l e 3 shows  by the second l e a d e r .  the r e a c t i o n of SMBK b e l i e v e r s  (in 1 9 8 0 )  t o the g e n e r a l  o n l y about 1 7 o of the  believed  orien-  social  respondents  t h a t post-War Japanese s o c i e t y  i s s u c c e s s f u l i n democracy, but t h a t SMBK d o c t r i n e i s supportive  and  c o n t r a s t , about against  (Category 3 ) .  would ensure i t s s u c c e s s . 4 0 7 o  consider  t h a t the Post-War Japan has  the d i v i n e t e a c h i n g .  ( C a t e g o r y 1 and  2).  a personal  and  t h a t they are not  judgement ( C a t e g o r y  6 ) .  an answer  i n a p o s i t i o n to make  Moreover, a n o t h e r  4 0 7  e x p r e s s d i f f i c u l t y even i n d e c i d i n g whether o r not they say t h a t t h e y do not know the answer.  gone  However,  1 7 7 . b e l i e v e t h a t the SMBK d o c t r i n e does not p r o v i d e for t h i s question,  In  (Category 7 ) .  o  can  In  this  c a s e , t h e y seem t o need g u i d a n c e from s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s . As Susumu Shimazono^'suggests, t h a t the f o u n d e r of a r e l i g i o u s movement i n Japan i s r a r e l y a c t i v e l y g l o r i f i e d , the p e r s o n a l  and  l i f e h i s t o r y of Okada, the f o u n d e r of SMBK, i s  t r e a t e d w i t h i n d i f f e r e n c e among b e l i e v e r s .  The  following  d e s c r i p t i o n s are adopted from Dojo w r i t t e n by W i n s t o n D a v i s : Okada Y o s h i k a z u ( l a t e r Kotama), f o u n d e r of Sukyo M a h i k a r i , was b o r n i n t o a samurai f a m i l y . H i s g r a n d f a t h e r had been a t u t o r t o the f e u d a l l o r d s of Nakayama c a s t l e . H i s f a t h e r c o n t i n u e d the f a m i l y p r o f e s s i o n u n t i l the M e i j i r e s t o r a t i o n  - 6 6 -  TABLE 3 QUESTION:  What do you t h i n k about t h e g e n e r a l s o c i a l tendency i n t h e post-War (Japanese) s o c i e t y ?  ANSWERS: 1.  I t c o n t r a d i c t s the d i v i n e teaching, " s e l f i s h and a r r o g a n t p e o p l e . "  2.  I t c o n t r a d i c t s the d i v i n e teaching  3.  I t s u i t s the d i v i n e teaching, democracy.  4.  I t s u i t s the d i v i n e teaching  5.  My answer i s d i f f e r e n t from 1-4 l i s t e d above.  6.  I do n o t know.  7.  (No a n s w e r ) .  Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total  because i t produces f o r other reasons.  because s o c i e t y promotes f o r other persons.  Number o f b e l i e v e r s ' '  7  1  0  208 32 7 2 14 97 223  35.7 5.5 1.2 0.3 2.4 16.6 38.3  583  100.0  number o f r e s p o n d e n t s who answered t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  - 6 7 -  (1868), when he j o i n e d t h e new i m p e r i a l army and r o s e t o t h e rank o f major g e n e r a l . In his w i l l he d i r e c t e d h i s son, Y o s h i k a z u , t o f o l l o w t h e hereditary occupation of h i s forebears. The young man a c c o r d i n g l y e n t e r e d _ a m i l i t a r y academy c a l l e d .. the R i k u g u n S h i k a n Gakko and, a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n , s e r v e d i n t h e i m p e r i a l guards o f t h e T a i s h o and Showa emperors. D u r i n g t h e P a c i f i c War, Okada f e l l from h i s horse while s e r v i n g i n Indochina, s e r i o u s l y i n j u r i n g h i s back. When he r e t u r n e d t o Japan f o r m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t , p h y s i c i a n s found t h a t he had t u b e r c u l o s i s o f t h e s p i n e and p r e d i c t e d t h a t he had o n l y t h r e e more y e a r s t o l i v e . T h i s was Okada's f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f Western m e d i c i n e . A f t e r h i s r e l e a s e from t h e h o s p i t a l , he r e s o l v e d t h a t he would devote t h e s h o r t time r e m a i n i n g t o him " t o t h e s e r v i c e o f God and mankind." To c a r r y o u t h i s vow, he i n v e s t e d a l l h i s s a v i n g s i n four f a c t o r i e s manufacturing m i l i t a r y a i r c r a f t f o r t h e Japanese a i r f o r c e . When t h e s e p l a n t s were g u t t e d by t h e f i r e b o m b i n g o f Tokyo i n 1945, t h e f u t u r e S a v i o r was p l u n g e d i n t o d e s t i t u t i o n . L i k e o t h e r s i n s i m i l a r s t r a i t s , Okada t u r n e d t o r e l i g i o n , becoming a s t a u n c h member o f t h e Church o f World M e s s i a n i t y (Sekai Kyusei Kyo). Founded by Okada M o k i c h i (no r e l a t i o n t o M a h i k a r i ' s S a v i o r ) , M e s s i a n i t y t a u g h t t h a t s i c k n e s s and m i s f o r t u n e a r e caused by t h e " d u s t " t h a t a c c u m u l a t e s on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e soul. By p u r c h a s i n g an amulet a p e r s o n c o u l d d i s p e l t h i s d u s t s i m p l y by r a i s i n g h i s hand o v e r a n o t h e r ' s f o r e h e a d . The a m u l e t , a t r a n s m i t t e r o f h e a v e n l y " s p i r i t r a y s , " was c r e d i t e d w i t h m i r a c l e s beyond number. By 1959, Okada Y o s h i k a z u had f i n a l l y p a i d o f f the l a s t o f h i s c r e d i t o r s . On F e b r u a r y 22 o f t h a t y e a r he d e v e l o p e d a h i g h f e v e r and became u n c o n s c i o u s . Suddenly he found h i m s e l f t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e a s t r a l w o r l d , where he saw an o l d man w i t h w h i t e h a i r s t a n d i n g i n a w h i t e c l o u d and washing c l o t h e s i n a golden tub. L a t e r , Okada i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s v i s i o n as a r e v e l a t i o n o f Su-god (the L o r d God) and o f t h e c l e a n s i n g m i s s i o n t h a t was about t o be e n t r u s t e d  - 6 3 -  t o him. F i v e days a f t e r the v i s i o n , on h i s b i r t h day, Okada was awakened a t f i v e o ' c l o c k i n the morning by a d i v i n e v o i c e s a y i n g , "Get up. Change y o u r name t o Kotama (Jewel of L i g h t ) . R a i s e y o u r hand. T r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n are coming!" Except f o r h i s boundless i n t e r e s t i n e v i l s p i r i t s , t h e r e was l i t t l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h Okada's g o s p e l from t h a t of M e s s i a n i t y . The f i r s t t o be h e a l e d by the new S a v i o r was a dog. "At l e a s t a dog won't l a u g h a t me when I r a i s e my hand," he t h o u g h t . G r a d u a l l y he began t o make c o n v e r t s , h i s e a r l i e s t d i s c i p l e s being neighborhood b a r g i r l s . On August 28, 1960, Okada o f f i c i a l l y l a u n c h e d h i s movement, f i r s t c a l l e d the L. H. (Lucky and H e a l t h y ) Sunshine C h i l d r e n and l a t e r changed t o the Church of the World T r u e - L i g h t C i v i l i z a t i o n ( S e k a i M a h i k a r i Bunmei Kyodan). F o r the n e x t t e n y e a r s he v i g o r o u s l y preached h i s g o s p e l t o a l l s o r t s of p e o p l e , u n t i l M a h i k a r i had become a n a t i o n w i d e movement. H i s following increased dramatically after a successful d e m o n s t r a t i o n of h i s " p u r i f i c a t i o n " method on the t e l e v i s i o n program " A f t e r n o o n Show" i n November 1968. So s u c c e s s f u l d i d he become t h a t he was f o r c e d t o t u r n o v e r the i n s t r u c t i o n and i n i t i a t i o n of neophytes t o h i s d i s c i p l e s and c o n f i n e h i m s e l f t o the p r e p a r a t i o n of amulets (omitama) and h i g h - l e v e l evangelism. As the movement expanded, Okada's m e s s i a n i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s grew deeper. A l t h o u g h he n e v e r c l a i m e d t o be the e q u a l of Su-god, he r e g a r d e d h i m s e l f as the p h y s i c a l embodiment of the god Y o n i masu-o-amatsu and as God's e a r t h l y " P r o x y , Carbon Copy, and Robot." To the t i t l e s of S p i r i t u a l Leader o r M a s t e r (Oshienushisama) and S a v i o r ( S u k u i n u s h i sama) were added the names M e s s i a h Number One and S a c r e d P h o e n i x . Throughout t h i s p e r i o d , r e v e l a t i o n s c o n t i n u o u s l y came t o Okada d u r i n g the n i g h t t h a t he j o t t e d down i n " a u t o m a t i c w r i t i n g " w i t h i n c r e d i b l e speed. These were l a t e r c o l l e c t e d i n a 486-page volume c a l l e d t h e G o s e i g e n s h u , t h e s c r i p t u r e s of M a h i k a r i . Members r e g a r d a l l of the S a v i o r ' s words, even those t h a t have appeared i n the M a h i k a r i magazine, as p a r t of h i s H o l y T e a c h i n g s , or Mioshie.  -69-  On F e b r u a r y 17, 1972, Okada Kotama's c a r e e r came t o a c l i m a x when he was p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e m e d a l l i o n o f t h e K n i g h t Commander o f S t . D e n i s by the A m e r i c a n Academy o f A r t s . The y e a r a f t e r , he went t o Europe and was g r a n t e d a p r i v a t e a u d i e n c e w i t h Pope P a u l V I . I am t o l d by M a h i k a r i s t a l w a r t s t h a t as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r m e e t i n g , t h e Pope i n s t r u c t e d a l l Romaa C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s t o study the M a h i k a r i Treatment. Davis  c o l l e c t e d t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n from a  r e l i g i o u s movement c a l l e d Sukyo M a h i k a r i .  I t used t o be an  SMBK f a c t i o n , but l a t e r became independent from SMBK. I t s l e a d e r i s t h e L o r d - s a v i o r Okada's adopted d a u g h t e r named Keiju.  Because she was t h e o n l y p e r s o n who had a c l o s e  personal r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the L o r d - S a v i o r ,  s t o r i e s about him  are c i r c u l a t e d more i n h e r movement t h a n i n SMBK.  A l s o , she  i s r e l a t i v e l y more a c t i v e i n t h e attempt t o g l o r i f y h e r adopted f a t h e r .  T h i s a t t i t u d e i s t y p i c a l l y shown i n the  photographed p o r t r a i t o f t h e L o r d - s a v i o r p o s t e d the s h r i n e b e s i d e  on t h e w a l l o f  the d i v i n e s c r o l l i n the l o c a l c e n t r e .  In  c o n t r a s t , i n SMBK, h i s p o r t r a i t i s not used on r e g u l a r r i t u a l 25 occasions.  - 7 0 -  SECOND START OF SMBK The  d e a t h o f t h e f o u n d e r o f SMBK, t h e L o r d - s a v i o r  Okada, and t h e s u c c e e d i n g s c h i s m o f t h e movement were t h e major c r i s e s i n SMBK h i s t o r y .  Because h i s w i f e and two 26  c h i l d r e n were n o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e SMBK movement, succession the b l o o d  t h e common  i n r e l i g i o u s movements i n Japan by a c h i l d o f t h e f o u n d e r d i d n o t o c c u r i n SMBK.  through  Following  the i n f o r m a l f u n e r a l ceremony f o r t h e L o r d - s a v i o r , K e i j u t o l d the t o p t w e n t y - s e v e n b e l i e v e r s t h a t h e r f a t h e r had a p p o i n t e d Sakae S e k i g u c h i was  t o be t h e second l e a d e r o f SMBK.  Sekiguchi  one o f t h e e a r l i e s t f o l l o w e r s and a l s o a f i n a n c i a l  of t h e movement. savior.  backer  He had no k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e L o r d -  K e i j u emphasized t h a t t h e s p e c i a l t a l i s m a n f o r t h e  second and l a t e r l e a d e r s was l e f t Sekiguchi.  The n e x t day,  handed t o S e k i g u c h i leadership.  to her to t r a n s f e r to  i n f r o n t o f t h e main s h r i n e , K e i j u  the t a l i s m a n w h i c h c e r t i f i e s t h e SMBK  I n the formal  f u n e r a l ceremony w h i c h was  performed about one month l a t e r , S e k i g u c h i  acted  as t h e second  l e a d e r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e body o f SMBK b e l i e v e r s , w h i c h f i l l e d one o f t h e l a r g e s t gymnasiums i n Tokyo (Budo However, s e v e r a l days b e f o r e  Kan).  t h i s f u n e r a l ceremony,  K e i j u s e c r e t l y r e g i s t e r e d h e r s e l f w i t h t h e government as t h e representative  o f SMBK.  T h i s means t h a t she o f f i c i a l l y  -71-  became t h e l e a d e r o f SMBK and S e k i g u c h i l o s t h i s l e g a l s t a t u s . The  d o c t r i n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n K e i j u gave was t h a t t h e L o r d -  s a v i o r ' s own t a l i s m a n k e p t by K e i j u was t h e r e a l one w h i c h a u t h o r i z e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e SMBK l e a d e r , and t h a t b o t h Sekiguchi's  t a l i s m a n and h i s p o s i t i o n were meant t o be  temporary. Because K e i j u was t h e o n l y " r e l a t i v e " l e f t i n SMBK by t h e L o r d - s a v i o r , h e r s u c c e s s i o n a p p e a l e d as " n a t u r a l " t o most a d m i n i s t r a t i v e members i n c l u d i n g t h e Heads o f t h e l o c a l centre.  They were c o n v i n c e d  t h a t K e i j u s h o u l d be t h e second  l e a d e r , and a few months l a t e r , she began t o f u n c t i o n as t h e SMBK l e a d e r . The  d i s p u t e between S e k i g u c h i and K e i j u was t a k e n  t o t h e c o u r t i n 1974.  I n 1977,  Tokyo's H i g h C o u r t r u l e d  t h a t S e k i g u c h i s h o u l d o f f i c i a l l y r e p r e s e n t SMBK.  I n 1978,  K e i j u r e g i s t e r e d h e r f a c t i o n w i t h t h e government under t h e name o f Sukyo M a h i k a r i , and became c o m p l e t e l y SMBK.  independent from  I n o t h e r words, K e i j u became t h e f o u n d e r o f h e r own  r e l i g i o u s movement. Such a schism  as i s seen i n SMBK i s n o t uncommon  among r e l i g i o u s movements i n Japan. ational.  As Nakane s u g g e s t s ,  b a s i s of person-to-person and become l o c a l i z e d .  The r e a s o n i s o r g a n i z -  groups w h i c h a r e formed on t h e  t i e s tend t o be m u t u a l l y  Therefore,  i s t h e o n l y p e r s o n who has a c c e s s  exclusive  t h e l e a d e r o f t h e movement to a l l of the top f i g u r e s  ( M a h i k a r i M a g a z i n e , 1982,  January)  - 7 3 -  o f t h e l o c a l i z e d groups. for succession.  When he d i e s , these f i g u r e s compete  Because they a r e a l m o s t e q u a l t o each o t h e r  under t h e deceased l e a d e r , a f t e r h i s d e a t h , no one c a n mediate their dispute.  Thus, t h e common s o l u t i o n i s schism.  the SMBK c a s e , S e k i g u c h i was t h e f o r m a l s u c c e s s o r . the i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e so i m p o r t a n t  In However,  i n SMBK t h a t  K e i j u , who was i n f o r m a l l y c l o s e s t t o t h e deceased l e a d e r , appealed  t o t h e m a j o r i t y as e q u a l l y e l i g i b l e f o r s u c c e s s i o n . The  change i n membership i n SMBK on S e k i g u c h i ' s  s i d e between 1973 (the y e a r o f f o u n d e r ' s as f o l l o w s :  i n 1973,  death) and 1982 was  a t t h e time o f t h e s c h i s m , most  b e l i e v e r s f o l l o w e d K e i j u , and S e k i g u c h i was l e f t w i t h about forty believers. S e k i g u c h i i n 1977,  With the Court's  judgement i n f a v o u r o f  h i s r e c r u i t m e n t a c t i v i t i e s became v i v i d l y  a c t i v e ; he encouraged t h e f o l l o w e r s o f K e i j u , e s p e c i a l l y h e r Heads, t o " r e t u r n " (moto g a e r i ) t o him.  T h i s a p p e a l was even  more e n e r g e t i c a l l y made s i n c e K e i j u became independent from SMBK i n 1978.  The number o f S e k i g u c h i ' s l o c a l  centres  i n c r e a s e d from f o r t y i n 1978 t o one hundred i n 1982.  Since  the o v e r s e a  stayed  l o c a l c e n t r e s i n Europe and South A m e r i c a  w i t h K e i j u , S e k i g u c h i has been t r y i n g t o b u i l d new l o c a l c e n t r e s i n South E a s t A s i a . elementary  I n March 1982,  the f i r s t  s e s s i o n was h e l d i n S i n g a p o r e . The  general composition  o f SMBK i n 1982 i s as  - 7 4 -  follows:  Due t o t h e b i g t u r n o v e r i n membership, and a l s o  because t h e Main H e a d q u a r t e r s i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n k e e p i n g r e c o r d s o f r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s , t h e i r number i s n o t d e f i n i t e . However, my e s t i m a t e i s about 20,000.  The number o f l o c a l  c e n t r e s i s about 100, and t h e number o f r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s o f one c e n t r e ranges from 100 t o 300. The approximate p r o p o r t i o n between men and women i s 1:2.  A l t h o u g h t h e membership e q u a l l y  c o v e r s a l l g e n e r a t i o n s , about o n e - t h i r d c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e who a r e r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  They a r e  h o u s e w i v e s , s t u d e n t s , unemployed and r e t i r e d p e o p l e .  Except  f o r s t u d e n t s , t h e s e p e o p l e l i k e l y s u f f e r from p e r s o n a l problems because they a r e l e s s i n v o l v e d w i t h p u b l i c  responsi-  b i l i t i e s , and a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y f r u s t r a t e d . The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n by income shows t h a t SMBK i s s i m i l a r t o o t h e r r e l i g i o u s movements i n Japan: c o n t a i n s fewer middle-income p e o p l e .  t h e membership  More p e r c e n t a g e s i n t h e  l o w e r and upper ranges a r e shown i n t h e SMBK membership t h a n t h o s e i n t h e g e n e r a l s u r v e y made by t h e government. r e a s o n may be t h i s :  The  t h e lower-income group wants some  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l backup, b u t cannot a c h i e v e i t t h r o u g h employment. Japanese companies  a r e well-known f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p e r s o n a l  accommodations (such as h o u s i n g , i n s u r a n c e , r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and o t h e r p r i v i l e g e s ) f o r permanent who  c o n s t i t u t e t h e middle-income group i n Japan.  employees, The r e l i g i o u s  - 7 5 -  moveraents a l s o a t t r a c t the h i g h e r - i n c o m e group which has r e c e n t l y a c h i e v e d i t s p o s i t i o n , and who i n the more e s t a b l i s h e d un-established  a r e not y e t a c c e p t e d  high-income group.  p e o p l e were p r e v i o u s l y  These r i c h but  not r e s p e c t e d even by  the middle-income-group i n the w i d e r s o c i e t y .  Thus they o f t e n  f i n d a c o m f o r t a b l e p o s i t i o n i n r e l i g i o u s movements by financial  contributions.  making  - 7 6 -  PRACTICE OF THE PURIFICATION RITUAL IN SMBK SMBK, as a r e l i g i o u s movement, i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o the w i d e r s o c i e t y , m a i n l y because o f i t s a c t i v e and s e r i o u s involvement w i t h s p i r i t possession.  I n the wider  s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n i s d i s d a i n e d as i r r a t i o n a l , c o n s i d e r e d t o be a cheap t r i c k from democracy.  society,  and i s o f t e n  to distract public  attention  However, i n SMBK, a c c e p t a n c e o f s p i r i t  p o s s e s s i o n as a f a c t i s t h e gateway t o t h e d i v i n e o r d e r . SMBK o f f e r s c o n c r e t e r i t u a l means t o communicate w i t h possessing s p i r i t s  through the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  the r e p e t i t i v e and c o n t i n u o u s performance  Thus,  of the p u r i f i c a t i o n  r i t u a l becomes t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e i n t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  system.  i s a p a i r performance i n  w h i c h t h e two p e r f o r m e r s exchange t h e i r r o l e s w h i c h a r e determined according to the requirements of t r a n s m i t t i n g the divine light  from one t o t h e o t h e r .  p e r f o r m e r adopts two r o l e s :  I n i t s performance,  each  one i s an a c t i v e r o l e as a  p u r i f i e r or t r a n s m i t t e r of the d i v i n e l i g h t ,  and t h e o t h e r i s  a p a s s i v e r o l e as a r e c e i v e r o f t h i s l i g h t .  Because t h e  a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r c o n t r o l s t h e r i t u a l performance, superior to the r o l e of the passive performer. complete performance  his role i s  However, a  o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l means t h a t  one p e r s o n more o r l e s s s u c c e s s i v e l y t a k e s b o t h r o l e s .  - 7 7 -  T h e r e f o r e , w i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f one round performance, t h e p e r f o r m e r s become e q u a l .  The p a r t n e r may be t h e same p e r s o n  or may be d i f f e r e n t i n each p a r t o f t h e r i t u a l . The a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k e e p i n g t h e r i t u a l under c o n t r o l , and t h e p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d f o l l o w the d i r e c t i o n s g i v e n by t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r .  The r i t u a l  b e g i n s w i t h a p r a y e r t o t h e SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y .  The  passive performer s i t s behind the a c t i v e performer, both of them f a c i n g t h e s h r i n e which i s l o c a t e d on one w a l l o f t h e room.  Then, when they bow, c l a p t h e i r hands and make w i s h e s ,  the p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r has t o time h i s a c t i o n s t o s y n c h r o n i z e as p r e c i s e l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h t h o s e o f t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r t u r n s around, and w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t y and power o f t h e supreme d i v i n i t y b e h i n d him, r e c i t e s t h e P r a y e r o f Heaven (Amatsu N o r i g o t o ) w h i l e t h e passive performer l i s t e n s , remaining i n a r e s t r i c t e d  physical  p o s t u r e w i t h h i s eyes c l o s e d and h i s hands i n t h e p r a y i n g position. The a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r h o l d s up h i s palm above v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e body o f t h e p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r c a l l e d kyu-sho ("vital points").  The d i v i n e l i g h t r a d i a t e s from t h e palm o f  the a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r and p e n e t r a t e s t h e body o f the p a s s i v e performer through h i s v i t a l p o i n t s .  I n t h i s way, t h e d i v i n e  l i g h t i s b e l i e v e d t o induce the d i s c h a r g e of the p o l l u t i n g  -78  element  c a l l e d daku-doku ( " d i r t - p o i s o n " ) .  B e f o r e the t r a n s -  m i s s i o n of the d i v i n e l i g h t , except f o r the f o r e h e a d , the a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r uses h i s f i n g e r t i p s t o l o c a t e any  coagu-  l a t i o n s , u n - r e l a x e d m u s c l e s , and body s o r e s t o i d e n t i f y  the  e x a c t l o c a t i o n of the accumulated d i r t - p o i s o n , because such p l a c e s a r e b e l i e v e d t o be i t s n e s t .  D u r i n g the  performance  ( i n c l u d i n g the s e a r c h f o r n e s t s ) , the p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r relaxes himself.  O f t e n the p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r i s p e r m i t t e d , o r  even a s k e d , t o l i e down.  The p e r f o r m e r s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o  exchange t h e i r knowledge o f the SMBK d o c t r i n e ; i n f a c t , most p e r f o r m e r s t a l k , but t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n o f t e n d i v e r g e s from the d o c t r i n e and goes i n t o p r i v a t e  DIAGRAM 6:  subjects.  The R o l e Exchange  a c t i v e performer  passive performer  audience  lst half  A  B  C  2nd h a l f  B or  C  A A  C B  or lst half  B  2nd h a l f  A  B  C  A  C  B  or  A  C  -79-  The  f i r s t t e n minutes o f the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  n o r m a l l y spent on p u r i f y i n g the f o r e h e a d No.  8:  Diagram 7) and i s c o n s i d e r e d The  (the v i t a l  point  special.  forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n i s b e l i e v e d to induce  possessing s p i r i t  passive performer  the  t o appear from i t s r e g u l a r h i d i n g p l a c e ,  t h a t i s , v a r i o u s p a r t s of the body o f the p o s s e s s e d i n this context).  t h a t a p e r s o n has two  spirits  (the  I t i s b e l i e v e d i n SMBK  of h i s own:  the major  about t e n c e n t i m e t e r s i n s i d e h i s f o r e h e a d and the spirit  are  s e v e r a l c e n t i m e t e r s below h i s n a v e l .  The  spirit  subordinate subordinate  s p i r i t c o n t r o l s h i s d e s i r e and the major s p i r i t r e l a t e s t o d i v i n e order.  Good c o m b i n a t i o n  of these two s h o u l d  be  a c h i e v e d , but n e i t h e r a c o n f l i c t between them n o r the of one by the o t h e r i s d e s i r a b l e .  S i n c e the p o s s e s s i n g  i s b a s i c a l l y t r e a t e d as a d e f i l e m e n t , when the d i v i n e p e n e t r a t e s v i t a l p o i n t No. the p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t shortage.  takeover spirit light  8 one's whole body i s p u r i f i e d ,  suffers like  and  a f i s h e x p e r i e n c i n g oxygen  Under the f o r e h e a d p u r i f i c a t i o n , the p o s s e s s i n g  s p i r i t r i s e s t o the s u r f a c e o f the body of the p a s s i v e performer  and, r e s p o n d i n g  performer,  becomes, e i t h e r w i l l i n g l y  i n communication t h r o u g h active.  t o the r e q u e s t of the  Thus:  active  or u n w i l l i n g l y , i n v o l v e d  the p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r  w i t h the  - 8 0 -  ACTIVE PERFORMER  I am s p e a k i n g t o Mr. s p i r i t ( h o n o r i f i c ) who i s o c c u p y i n g t h e body o f M i s s ( f u l l name). I f you agree w i t h what I am g o i n g t o say, p l e a s e i n c l i n e y o u r head v e r t i c a l l y , and i f y o u do n o t , p l e a s e shake i t horizontally.  SPIRIT OF PASSIVE PERFORMER  ( W r i t e s some l a r g e l e t t e r s on t h e t a t a m i f l o o r mats on w h i c h they are s i t t i n g , u s i n g f l a t p i l l o w s . )  ACTIVE PERFORMER  ( C o n c e n t r a t e s on r e a d i n g t h e l e t t e r s , but i s not s u c c e s s f u l , and t h e n l o o k s a t t h e p a s s i v e performer's f a c i a l expression very c a r e f u l l y . ) G u e s s i n g from y o u r e x p r e s s i o n , I'd say you a r e angry. You a r e n o t a s k i n g f o r s a l v a t i o n . (short  silence)  Are y o u t h e s p i r i t ( h o n o r i f i c form i s used) o f an a n i m a l ? (long  silence)  Are y o u a human being? SPIRIT  (Moves h e r head s l i g h t l y , as i f nodding).  ACTIVE PERFORMER  ( B e i n g v e r y much encouraged) You r e a l l y w i s h t o be saved, don't you?  SPIRIT  (Shakes h e r head, meaning  ACTIVE PERFORMER  (Disappointedly) what do you ....  "No").  Am I wrong?  Then,  (As t h e p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r b e g i n s t o w r i t e more l e t t e r s , t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r s t o p s t a l k i n g and watches the p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r ' s hand. But the a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r cannot r e a d them. The p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r s t o p s w r i t i n g ) .  DIAGRAM 7:  Vital  Points  forehead 7. h i n d b r a i n «.cervical vertebrea  9lachrymal  shoulder 4.shoulder  2. stomach & splee  Vte, esophageal [12. stomach ^navel 7.ureter  "18.bladder  i  >\  -21  21-  16 esophageal -A25  temple  _27 under  14  blade  pylorus \  \ 12 Stomach  \ ^3parotoid x  navel  - 3 2 -  This person i s SPIRIT  ( I n t e r r u p t s the a c t i v e performer's words by b u s i l y waving h e r hand, meaning "No".)  ACTIVE PERFORMER  An a n c e s t o r o f your f a m i l y ?  SPIRIT  (Nods, meaning "yes".)  :  ACTIVE : PERFORMER  C o u n t i n g from you as t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n , how many g e n e r a t i o n s ago?  SPIRIT  ( W r i t e s "+" on t h e t a t a m i mat.)  ACTIVE : PERFORMER  ( S i n c e + means t e n i n Japanese) Ten g e n e r a t i o n s ago?  SPIRIT  (Shakes h e r head s e v e r a l t i m e s , and t h e n says,) No.  :  ACTIVE : PERFORMER  ( I n a h a r d , d i g n i f i e d tone) many g e n e r a t i o n s ago?  SPIRIT  ( A g a i n w r i t e s "+" on t h e t a t a m i mat. )  :  ACTIVE : PERFORMER  How  ( I g n o r i n g i t t h i s time) Kami-sama (The d i v i n i t y i n an h o n o r i f i c form) w i l l save y o u .  I t took about t h r e e m i n u t e s up t o t h i s p o i n t , and t h e n c o n t i n u e d f o r about t e n more m i n u t e s , similar  q u e s t i o n s and answers.  (Often the forehead  c a t i o n goes on f o r over t e n m i n u t e s , responding  mostly repeating purifi-  i f the s p i r i t i s  strongly.) The  t r a n s i t i o n from t h e f o r e h e a d p u r i f i c a t i o n t o  o t h e r v i t a l p o i n t s i s u s u a l l y smooth, and t h e r e i s c o n t i n u i t y .  - 3 3 -  I n t h i s scene, was  the person speaking t o the possessing  spirit  a Mrs. A, an a c t i v e member who used t o be a l i v e - i n  t e a c h e r b e f o r e h e r m a r r i a g e , and a t t h i s time was t h e mother o f a one-year o l d boy. Mrs. A asked  such q u e s t i o n s a s :  Can you speak? T r y t o say i t , t r y t o speak! You a r e moving your l i p s , b u t i n t h e human w o r l d you have t o say i t i n a v o i c e ( i n o r d e r t o communicate). You know i t i s wrong t o possess h e r l i k e this. How d i d y o u l e a v e your own a s t r a l w o r l d ? A f t e r y o u r d e a t h y o u must t r a i n y o u r s e l f not t o be a t t a c h e d t o t h i s w o r l d l i k e t h i s . B u t , i f y o u l e a v e h e r body and r e t u r n t o the a s t r a l w o r l d , t h e d i v i n i t y w i l l f o r g i v e you. There i s a d i v i n e amnesty. The  passive performer,  a high school g i r l , kept  nodding.  Because she nodded so d e e p l y , i t seemed t h a t she swayed t h e top h a l f o f h e r body.  M r s . A's v o i c e s t a y e d s o f t and tender-  When t h e g i r l was p e r m i t t e d t o open h e r eyes, she l o o k e d a t me and s m i l e d s h y l y , w h i c h made me r e a l i z e t h a t my b e i n g as an a u d i e n c e , confirmed  there  t h a t i s , as a w i t n e s s from h e r p o i n t o f v i e w ,  t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r i t u a l a c t was a p u b l i c o c c a s i o n . Mrs. A began t o p u r i f y t h e g i r l ' s back, and  r e l a x e d , they c o n v e r s e d  casually.  t h a t she had e x p e r i e n c e d n e u r o s i s .  The g i r l  s a i d t o Mrs. A  Mrs. A answered d e c i s i v e l y  t h a t t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e was caused by an e v i l s p i r i t ,  adding  t h a t t h e g i r l ' s backbone h e r n i a was c e r t a i n l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the same cause.  The g i r l r e s i s t e d t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by  s a y i n g t h a t h e r h e r n i a was t h e r e s u l t o f s t r e n u o u s b a s k e t b a l l practice.  Mrs. A i m m e d i a t e l y r e f u t e d t h i s , p o i n t i n g out t h a t  o n l y few p e o p l e would be h e r n i a t e d though v e r y many p e o p l e p l a y b a s k e t b a l l e q u a l l y as h a r d as she d i d .  Mrs. A.  emphasized t h a t t h e r e had t o be a p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n why a c e r t a i n person should  s u f f e r from a s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n ,  t h a t i t must be t h e s p i r i t w h i c h caused t h e t r o u b l e . mentally,  Funda-  t h i s d i s c u s s i o n was an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r e v i o u s  admonition.  T h e i r manners were a l s o s i m i l a r :  Mrs. A spoke  i n t h e same s o f t and t e n d e r v o i c e as b e f o r e , and t h e g i r l n o d d i n g i n t h e same way a l t h o u g h swaying.  and  h e r body was no l o n g e r  kept  -85-  SMBK THEORY OF PURIFICATION The  purification ritual  i s a s p e c i a l form o f r i t u a l .  I t presupposes an o b j e c t t o be p u r i f i e d o r removed i n o r d e r t o r e c o v e r p r o p e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e "wholeness o f t h e d i v i n e order."  The l a c k o f "wholeness" i s b e l i e v e d t o cause two  kinds of defilement: possession.  accumulation  o f d i r t - p o i s o n and s p i r i t  Thus, i n SMBK, t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l c o n s i s t s  o f two p a r t s : 1.  The f i r s t t e n m i n u t e s :  P u r i f y i n g one's major  spirit  ( v i t a l p o i n t No. 8) v i t a l i z e s one's whole body.  As  the body movements, w h i c h a r e assumed t o be caused by t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t , o c c u r on t h i s t h i s part of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  occasion,  may be  d e s c r i b e d as " e x o r c i s m . " 2.  The s u c c e e d i n g  f o r t y minutes:  Intensive  purifi-  c a t i o n o f t h e v i t a l p o i n t s and t h e d e f i l e d  area.  Diagram 7 shows t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e v i t a l p o i n t s . This part of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  may be  d e s c r i b e d as " h e a l i n g . " In SMBK, causes o f d i s e a s e s a r e e x p l a i n e d i n terms of accumulation  o f d i r t - p o i s o n and/or s p i r i t  M o i s t p l e u r i s y i s caused by a c c u m u l a t e d u r i n e , i t s cure i s t o induce u r i n e through  possession. consequently  the kidneys ( 1 ) ,  u r e t e r (17) and b l a d d e r  (18) as i n d i c a t e d above.  Tuberculosis  i s i d e n t i f i e d as a s i g n t h a t t h e d i r t - p o i s o n i s r o t t i n g . P o s s e s s i o n by an e x t r a - r e s e n t f u l s p i r i t m a i n l y causes h e a r t trouble.  Problems about t h e head a r e o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d as t h e  r e s u l t o f an improper  treatment  of the f a m i l y a l t a r or s h r i n e .  N e u r o s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be an a n c e s t r a l w a r n i n g .  Ear  t r o u b l e s a r e sometimes i d e n t i f i e d as a p o s s e s s i o n by a minor d i v i n i t y c a l l e d Mokuryu J i n ( P l a n t D r a g o n ) .  2 7  The l a t t e r  d i v i n i t y i s b e l i e v e d t o l i v e i n a t r e e o r w e l l and p o s s e s s e s a human b e i n g when h i s r e s i d e n c e i s d e s t r o y e d . Some d i s e a s e s and symptoms o f d i s e a s e i n t h e sense g i v e n by modern m e d i c a l process of h e a l i n g . dirt-poison.  s c i e n c e a r e t r e a t e d i n SMBK as a  They a r e assumed t o be t h e d i s c h a r g e o f  D i a r r h e a , runny nose, b l o o d y nose, s k i n problems  s k i n i n f e c t i o n s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e discharges which are a l l assumed t o be h e a l i n g p r o c e s s e s  i n SMBK.  Ringing i n the ear  i s the noise of d i r t poison running i n the b r a i n .  Taken as  a s i g n of excessive d i r t - p o i s o n , defilement i s s t i l l accumulating.  But i f t h e d i r t - p o i s o n i s thought  r u n n i n g down toward process. and  the kidneys, i t i s regarded  t o be as a h e a l i n g  I n any c a s e , t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n o f v i t a l p o i n t s 27  23, as i s i n d i c a t e d i n Diagram 13, s h o u l d i n d u c e t h e  d i r t - p o i s o n down from t h e head.  Hemorrhoids a r e i d e n t i f i e d  m a i n l y as t h e d i s c h a r g e o f d i r t - p o i s o n from t h e head and  - 3 7 -  o t h e r i n t e r n a l organs.  S k i n d i s e a s e i s an i d e a l way t o  d i s c h a r g e e s p e c i a l l y t o x i c d i r t - p o i s o n because i t saves t h e k i d n e y s from p o s s i b l e damage when t h e d i s c h a r g e i s i n t e n s i v e . Water eczema i s a m i r a c u l o u s w a y — a c c o r d i n g  to SMBK—to  d i s c h a r g e d i r t - p o i s o n from t h e head (the c e n t r e o f t h e body) t h r o u g h a f o o t (the most minor p a r t o f t h e body). SMBK c o n s i d e r s t h a t m e d i c i n e s  Because  p r o v i d e d by modern m e d i c a l  s c i e n c e b l o c k t h e d i s c h a r g e o f d i r t - p o i s o n , t h e cure by medicines  only a c c e l e r a t e s the accumulation of d i r t - p o i s o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n proceeds from t h e  forehead through  t h e d e f i l e d a r e a toward  t h e k i d n e y s , based  on t h e t h e o r y t h a t most d i r t - p o i s o n i s d i s c h a r g e d from t h e kidneys.  However, t h e d i s c h a r g e from o t h e r areas such as t h e  n o s e , e a r s and i n t h e form o f d i a r r h e a may be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n d u c e d by t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . i n t e n t i o n of the a c t i v e performer depend on t h e w i l l  How t h e e f f o r t and  i sfulfilled  i s said to  o f t h e d i v i n i t y and on t h e s t a t e o f mind  of the p a s s i v e performer.  I n o t h e r words, t h e r e s u l t v a r i e s  g r e a t l y i n each c a s e . The  SMBK d o c t r i n e e x p l a i n s t h e meaning o f p u r i f i -  c a t i o n from t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t h r e e " b o d i e s " t h a t man i s supposed t o have:  a human b e i n g i s made o f t h r e e  bodies  c o n g r u e n t i n one p e r s o n , namely, t h e s p i r i t u a l body, t h e a s t r a l body, and t h e p h y s i c a l body.  (See Diagram 1 8 ) .  These  -88-  t h r e e b o d i e s a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o one a n o t h e r order:  i n the f o l l o w i n g  t h e p h y s i c a l body i s under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e a s t r a l  body, and t h e a s t r a l body i s under t h e s p i r i t u a l body.  This  order, considered according t o e s s e n t i a l - n e s s , corresponds t o the way i n w h i c h t h e SMBK cosmos i s viewed. Furthermore,  (See Diagram 17.)  t h e a s t r a l body i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d as t h e body  of mind, t h a t i s , c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e  says t h a t , as t h e s p i r i t u a l body i s p u r i f i e d purification ritual,  through the  t h e a s t r a l body i s i n d u c e d t o r e f l e c t on  the s e l f and s p i r i t u a l phenomena. Mrs.  Endo's case w i l l  i l l u s t r a t e the l i n k a g e  between t h e p h y s i c a l and mental a s p e c t s . i s f i r s t accepted  I n h e r case, disease  as a s i g n t h a t t h e body i s s t a r t i n g  d i s c h a r g e o f d i r t - p o i s o n , and t h i s new d e f i n i t i o n o f d i s e a s e brought h e r d e l i g h t .  However, as t h e symptoms became  i n t e n s i f i e d , she became r e s e n t f u l .  Then, by l e a r n i n g t o  a c c e p t them as a t r i a l g i v e n by t h e d i v i n i t y , she a c h i e v e d a s o l i d t h a n k f u l s t a t e o f mind.  Her f i r s t s t e p  toward  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d i s e a s e as a s i g n o f p u r i f i c a t i o n i s one s t e p towards " w h o l e n e s s " and h e r a c c e p t i n g i t as a t r i a l i s another  step.  Thus, Mrs. Endo, t h e mother o f two d a u g h t e r s  i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , says: I n September o f 1978, I happened t o f i n d a book t i t l e d s e i y u ( D i v i n e H e a l i n g ) i n a b o o k s t o r e w h i l e d o i n g my d a i l y s h o p p i n g . B e i n g p u l l e d by an i r r e s i s t i b l e f o r c e , I  -89-  opened t h a t book and found t h a t kami ( d i v i n i t y ) r e a l l y e x i s t s and t h a t he has p r o v i d e d the means of p u r i f i c a t i o n . T h i s was the knowledge I have always wanted t o have, and I was s t r u c k by i t ... I n O c t o b e r , I t o o k the e l e m e n t a r y l e c t u r e s e s s i o n (and became a b e l i e v e r ) . A f t e r the s e s s i o n , I had t o have p u r i f i c a t i o n a l m o s t e v e r y day ... i n c l u d i n g f o r a runny nose, wet cough and i t c h y r a s h e s a l l o v e r my body. My body was d i s c h a r g i n g d i r t y t h i n g s i n my urine. I n t h r e e months, I l o s t e i g h t k i l o g r a m s , but I was p e r f e c t l y f i n e . Some p r e s s u r e b e h i n d my eyes d i s a p p e a r e d . I thought t h a t the ' p r i n c i p l e of c l e a n s i n g ' [ t h e SMBK t h e o r y of p u r i f i c a t i o n ] was a f a n t a s t i c t i d i n g i n the w o r l d . At the same t i m e , I r e a l i z e d my own m i s t a k e i n h a v i n g d e f i l e d my p h y s i c a l body, w h i c h was originally a divine g i f t . Then, i n the second s t a g e , when she r e a l s t a t e of t h a n k f u l n e s s ,  thought she had  a "trial"  achieved  began:  On one of t h o s e d a y s , I happened t o t h i n k t h a t I had been v e r y a r r o g a n t when I gave p r a y e r s t o the d i v i n i t y . I o f t e n prayed f o r any k i n d of t r i a l , though the d i v i n i t y p r o v i d e d i t i n the b e s t way t o match my c o n d i t i o n . I n o t i c e d t h a t I was not as sunao ( o b e d i e n t ) as I thought but i n s t e a d I was a r r o g a n t l y i n v a d i n g the t e r r i t o r y of d i v i n e judgment. I f e l t ashamed and a l m o s t c r i e d . On t h a t n i g h t , a t home, I had a c u t e d i a r r h o e a . E v e r y time I went t o the bathroom I had a tremendous amount of waste. A f t e r two days of w a t e r y d i a r r h o e a , I began t o have b l o o d mixed i n the waste. I had t o have i t f i v e o r s i x t i m e s a day, and e v e r y time I had a l m o s t one s m a l l g l a s s f u l of b l o o d . Though I had been i n f o r m e d t h a t t h i s k i n d o f 29 phenomenon f o l l o w s a f t e r a " r e v e r s a l of t h o u g h t , " a t the moment I j u s t c o u l d not t h i n k , w i t h my body c o m p l e t e l y weakened. I was l i k e a somnambulist .  -90-  W h i l e I was h a v i n g the watery d i a r r h o e a I s t i l l c o u l d h o n e s t l y thank the d i v i n i t y ( f o r c l e a n s i n g me), but a f t e r i t p r o g r e s s e d t o the b l o o d y waste I f & l t too much s u f f e r i n g not to be r e s e n t f u l . Although  I w i l l a v o i d q u o t i n g her l o n g and  c a t e d p r o c e s s o f s e l f - c h a n g e , Mrs. f a i t h was  strengthened  as a t r i a l .  While  Endo b e l i e v e s t h a t her  as she tended  t o r e g a r d her problems  she s u f f e r e d from b l o o d i n her waste f o r  two months, she a p p a r e n t l y p r o g r e s s e d  t o the stage i n w h i c h  she b e l i e v e d she c o u l d be t h a n k f u l f o r whatever was the d i v i n i t y as a t r i a l . tolerate  compli-  g i v e n by  I n o t h e r words, she l e a r n e d t o  o r even a c c e p t a d i s e a s e as a p r e c i o u s chance t o  a c h i e v e a s t e p towards "wholeness", not s i m p l y as an d i s c h a r g e o f d e f i l e m e n t t h r o u g h r i t u a l as a procedure.  Thus, r e p e t i t i v e and c o n t i n u o u s  purification ritual  automatic  mechanical performance of the  c r e a t e s a l o n g and e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s  towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the "wholeness" of the d i v i n e o r d e r . T h i s p r o c e s s i n SMBK b r i n g s one  i n t o the h i e r a r c h i c a l  order  i n s p i t e of the e g a l i t a r i a n n a t u r e o f the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i n one  complete p e r f o r m a n c e .  -91-  RITUAL PERFORMANCE AT SMBK LOCAL CENTRES In r i t u a l , the performer one-ness w i t h t h e d i v i n e o r d e r .  " e x p e r i e n c e s " temporary  I n the beginning stage, h i s  e x p e r i e n c e i s o n l y f o r m a l and b e h a v i o r a l ; he i m i t a t e s t h e r i t u a l behaviour  "as i f " he had a l r e a d y reached  the f i n a l  s t a g e o f spontaneous a c t i o n based on the SMBK paradigm.  By  d o i n g t h i s , he i s brought t o an awareness o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between h i s own "as i f b e h a v i o u r " and t h e spontaneous behavi o u r o f more advanced p e r f o r m e r s .  I n o t h e r words, what i s  s y m b o l i c a l l y and t e m p o r a r i l y r e a l i s e d i n h i s own body i n ritual  conveys a message about s p o n t a n e i t y b u t i t does n o t  supply spontaneity.  This ambivalent  s i t u a t i o n u r g e s him t o  know a " r e a l r i t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e " i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s own "as if  behaviour." Submission  performer  to the r i t u a l behavior c o n s t r a i n s the  i n a p a r t i c u l a r way; he i s made t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e  form f i r s t and then t h e c o n t e n t : behaviour  t h e form i s t h e r i t u a l  c o n d i t i o n e d f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose and the c o n t e n t  i s t h e s t a t e o f mind w h i c h d e s i g n a t e s t h e r i t u a l as a spontaneous moral a c t i o n . that the r i t u a l  behaviour  This i s e x a c t l y the reason  l e a r n e r s b e l i e v e that a proper  understanding  o f s e l f and w o r l d comes o n l y t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c i n g them n o t by r e a d i n g about them.  E x p e r i e n c e here means a t o t a l  -92-  submission  t o the o c c a s i o n , w h i c h i s more t h a n s i m p l y  present there. intellectuals  T h i s i s the r e a s o n why and  SMBK b e l i e v e r s r e j e c t  i n t e l l e c t u a l approaches t o t h e i r d o c t r i n e .  V i s i t i n g a l o c a l centre f o r performing cation r i t u a l  the  c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s o f s t a n d a r d i z e d  w h i c h i t s e l f may  being  be r e f e r r e d t o as r i t u a l .  purifi-  behaviours,  The f o l l o w i n g  l i s t o f a c t i v i t i e s a t the l o c a l c e n t r e shows the normal p r o c e d u r e i n one 1.  visit:  E n t e r i n g the room 1.1  1.2  preparatory  acts  1.1.1  s i g n i n g an a t t e n d a n c e  notebook  1.1.2  w r i t i n g a w i s h or words o f thanks f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of p r e v i o u s w i s h e s on a s m a l l (about 10 x 20 cm.) s l i p o f paper  1.1.3  p i c k i n g up an e n v e l o p e (about 15 x 25 cm.) w h i c h has the i n d i v i d u a l ' s name on i t , and p u t t i n g some d o n a t i o n (money) and the s l i p i n t o i t  p r a y e r on a r r i v a l 1.2.1  p u t t i n g the e n v e l o p e on a l o n g t a b l e i n f r o n t o f the s h r i n e  1.2.2  p r a y e r t o the supreme d i v i n i t y a)  bowing t w i c e  b)  c l a p p i n g the hands t h r e e  c)  making a w i s h from a bowing p o s i t i o n  d)  clapping four  e)  bowing once  times  times  -93-  f) 1.2.3  1.2.4 1.3  bowing once v e r y  p r a y e r t o the c r e a t o r o f Japan a)  bowing t w i c e  b)  clapping three  c)  making a w i s h from a bowing p o s i t i o n  d)  bowing once v e r y  lightly  bowing once v e r y l i g h t l y f o r Su no kami  bowing, s a y i n g the s t a n d a r d i z e d words f o r g r e e t i n g ( t o which the other a t t e n d a n t s respond)  2.  Interval activities  3.  Purification  ( f r e e time)  ritual  Opening 3.1.1  3.1.2 3.2  times  Greeting other b e l i e v e r s 1.3.1  3.1  lightly  p r a y e r t o the supreme d i v i n i t y performers together)  (both  a)  bowing t w i c e  b)  c l a p p i n g the hands t h r e e  c)  making a w i s h from t h e bowing position  times  g r e e t i n g one a n o t h e r , u s i n g the s t a n d a r d i z e d words  forehead longer)  purification  (about  t e n minutes o r  3.2.1  The p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r - p u t t i n g h i s hands i n the p r a y e r p o s i t i o n and c l o s i n g h i s eyes  3.2.2  The a c t i v e  performer  -94-  3.2.3  3.3  3.4  a)  c l a p p i n g three times  b)  c h a n t i n g t h e P r a y e r o f Heaven  c)  p u t t i n g h i s hand o v e r t h e f o r e h e a d of t h e p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r , about a f o o t away, t o t r a n s m i t t h e d i v i n e l i g h t from i t s palm t o t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e c e n t r a l s p i r i t o f t h e p a s s i v e performer. (The a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r may use e i t h e r r i g h t o r l e f t hand, but i s g e n e r a l l y encouraged t o use the r i g h t hand. )  Ending a)  The a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r - announcing the e n d i n g o f t h e f o r e h e a d p u r i f i c a t i o n by p r o n o u n c i n g "calm down" t h r e e t i m e s , and t e l l i n g t h e p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r t o open h i s eyes  b)  The p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r opening h i s eyes  c)  The a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r - a s k i n g i f t h e s i g h t of the p a s s i v e performer i s clear  d)  The p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r - u s u a l l y a n s w e r i n g " y e s " ( I f "No," t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r pronounces "calm down" a few more t i m e s . )  " H e a l i n g " (about 40 m i n u t e s ) 3.3.1  The p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r - r e l a x e s and t e l l s h i s problems ( d i s e a s e , a c h i n g s p o t s on the body, p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r f a m i l y problems)  3.3.2  The a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r - p u t t i n g h i s hand over the v i t a l p o i n t s  Closing 3.4.1  (same as " o p e n i n g " 3.1.1)  -95-  3.4.2  T h a n k i n g one a n o t h e r , u s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d words  4.  Interval activities  5.  Leaving  ( f r e e time)  t h e room  5.1  p r a y e r (same as t h e " p r a y e r o f a r r i v a l " g i v e n t o t h e supreme d i v i n i t y and t h e c r e a t o r o f t h e Japanese n a t i o n , 1.2.2, and 1.2.3)  5.2  D e p a r t u r e g r e e t i n g t o o t h e r b e l i e v e r s - bowing and s a y i n g t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d words f o r l e a v i n g  The  i n t e r i o r of the l o c a l centre i s organized to  meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f SMBK s t a n d a r d s . r i t u a l room c a l l e d d o j o and a t o i l e t .  I t has a s h r i n e , a  U s u a l l y i t a l s o has a  k i t c h e n , bathroom and a p r i v a t e room f o r a l i v e - i n t e a c h e r ( s ) . I n t h e Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e , f o r example, t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e apartment r e n t e d by SMBK i s remodeled t o f u l f i l ments:  the r e q u i r e -  t h e s c r e e n - d o o r p a r t i t i o n between two bedrooms has  been removed t o combine t h e f u n c t i o n s o f a r i t u a l room.  The  e n t i r e f l o o r o f t h e r i t u a l room i s c o v e r e d w i t h t a t a m i  mats,  i n c l u d i n g t h e c o r r i d o r (which i s n o t a common arrangement f o r a r e g u l a r Japanese r e s i d e n c e . ) the w a l l .  The s h r i n e c o v e r s  one s i d e o f  Although the shrine o f t e n looks l i k e a w a l l  d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e r i t u a l room, t h e SMBK b e l i e v e r s  strictly  d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s h r i n e from t h e r e s t o f t h e room and t r e a t i t as a n o t h e r room.  I n f a c t , when t h e apartment i s l a r g e and  i t s c e i l i n g s a r e h i g h , t h e s h r i n e i s made i n t o a s m a l l room w i t h an e l e v a t e d f l o o r .  The s i z e o f t h e s h r i n e v a r i e s a g r e a t  -96-  DI AG RAM  8 :  Ko.eanei L o c a l  Centre  scrol1  shrine  statue  o  private room  kitchen facility  table  ritual  room  link entra  toilet  bath room  superior  nferior  d e a l , from c e n t r e t o c e n t r e , b u t sometimes i t i s deeper t h a n two metres and i t s f l o o r i s e l e v a t e d about t w o - t h i r d s o f a metre above f l o o r l e v e l .  I n t h e Koganei c e n t r e t h e s h r i n e i s  about 3 metres h i g h , 4 metres w i d e , h a l f a metre deep, and i s e l e v a t e d about a h a l f metre above t h e f l o o r . w a l l of the s h r i n e i s covered brightly reflects of the s h r i n e .  area.  with a golden wall-paper  which  t h e f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t from t h e i n s i d e t o p  During  bamboo c u r t a i n s .  The back  the n i g h t the shrine i s hidden  behind  I t i s normally p r o h i b i t e d to step i n t o  this  The i n t e r i o r arrangement o f t h e s h r i n e i n t h e l o c a l  c e n t r e i s much s i m p l e r t h a n t h a t i n t h e Main H e a d q u a r t e r s . I n t h e l o c a l c e n t r e , i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s h r i n e t h e r e hangs a s c r o l l on w h i c h some words a r e w r i t t e n i n b l a c k i n k by t h e l e a d e r o f SMBK.  The d i v i n e symbol  s c r o l l has two f o r m a t s :  i s above t h e words.  The  when i t i s l o c a t e d on t h e t o p f l o o r  of t h e house w i t h a r e g u l a r r o o f , t h e f u l l name o f t h e supreme d i v i n i t y i s i n d i c a t e d .  When i t i s l o c a t e d on t h e  f l o o r w h i c h has a n o t h e r f l o o r ( s ) above i t , o r t h e b u i l d i n g has  a r o o f on w h i c h p e o p l e c a n w a l k , t h e s c r o l l  i n d i c a t e s t h e words " d i v i n e l i g h t . " one  simply  The r e a s o n i s t h a t no  s h o u l d walk o v e r t h e name o f t h e supreme d i v i n i t y .  carved  A  image o f t h e d i v i n e c r e a t o r o f t h e Japanese n a t i o n  i s p l a c e d as a s i d e f i g u r e b e s i d e  the s c r o l l .  In front of  the s h r i n e i s a low b e n c h - l i k e t a b l e t o h o l d d o n a t i o n s .  These  -98-  are u s u a l l y g i v e n i n c a s h , but sometimes food o r n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l s t o f a c i l i t a t e the centre are given. Sections  i n t h e l o c a l c e n t r e a r e ranked  to t h e i r s p i r i t u a l importance.  according  The s h r i n e i s t h e s u p e r i o r  s e c t i o n and t h e e n t r a n c e t h e i n f e r i o r .  The s t a t u e o f t h e  c r e a t o r o f t h e Japanese n a t i o n i s p l a c e d  on t h e s i d e o f t h e  s c r o l l f a r t h e s t away from the e n t r a n c e .  That i s , i f t h e  e n t r a n c e i s on t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e s h r i n e  (and so i s t h e  s c r o l l ) , t h e s t a t u e i s l o c a t e d on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e s c r o l l - as i t i s i n t h e Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e - and v i c e  versa.  The p o s i t i o n s o f t h e r i t u a l p e r f o r m e r s a r e d e f i n e d by t h e s h r i n e .  At the beginning  and end o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n  r i t u a l b o t h p e r f o r m e r s f a c e t h e s h r i n e and o f f e r  prayers.  During p u r i f i c a t i o n , the a c t i v e performer should  show h i s  back t o t h e s h r i n e so t h a t t h e d i v i n e l i g h t , w h i c h i s f i r s t r e c e i v e d by t h e d i v i n e s c r o l l , i s t h e n a b s o r b e d t h r o u g h t h e back o f t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r ( n o t t h r o u g h t h e t a l i s m a n ) . r a d i a t e s from h i s palm and p e n e t r a t e s the p a s s i v e  performer.  Crossing  It  the v i t a l p o i n t s o f  the i n v i s i b l e l i n e of the  d i v i n e l i g h t between t h e d i v i n e s c r o l l and t h e back o f t h e a c t i v e performer i s s t r i c t l y p r o h i b i t e d .  The t e a c h e r s  and  b e l i e v e r s a r e q u i t e concerned about t h i s p r o h i b i t i o n , and give a warning everytime i t i s v i o l a t e d . I n t h e Koganei c e n t r e , t h e r e was a space w h i c h may  SMBK S h r i n e a t t h e K o g a n e i  Local  Centre  - 1 0 0 -  be c a l l e d a s i d e room.  The f a c i l i t i e s  a c t s a r e k e p t on t h e desk i n t h i s room.  f o r the preparatory The n e w l y - a r r i v e d  b e l i e v e r s r e p o r t e d t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e by p l a c i n g t h e i r names i n a notebook  p r e p a r e d f o r t h i s purpose.  From t h i s notebook I  l a t e r l e a r n e d t h a t t h e average d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e was about twenty p e r s o n s .  D u r i n g t h e two and h a l f y e a r s o f my  field-  work a t t h i s c e n t r e , t h e number i n c r e a s e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y - f i v e a day. A f t e r r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i r  attendance,  b e l i e v e r s p i c k o u t t h e i r own e n v e l o p e about 20 by 13 c e n t i metres  i n size.  These e n v e l o p e s have t h e name o f t h e  b e l i e v e r s w r i t t e n on them and t h e y a r e k e p t i n boxes a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Japanese  alphabetical order.  Believers  s l i p p e d a d o n a t i o n i n t o t h e e n v e l o p e s and a sheet o f paper on w h i c h t h e y wrote a w i s h o r words o f thanks f o r t h e f u l f i l m e n t of  t h e i r previous wishes.  The words a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d and  some examples a r e shown on t h e desk b e l i e v e r s t h e n proceeded  (Diagram 8 ) .  The  t o t h e s h r i n e and p l a c e d t h e i r  e n v e l o p e s on a s q u a r e , wooden c o n t a i n e r c a l l e d sambo ( t y p i c a l l y used i n S h i n t o ) on a l o n g low t a b l e . o p e n i n g p r a y e r t h e y walked backward, to  the other side of the r i t u a l  still  f a c i n g the s h r i n e ,  room and s a i d t h e words o f  g r e e t i n g , which a r e a l s o h i g h l y s t a n d a r d i z e d . the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l to  t h e s i d e room.  A f t e r an  Some s t a r t e d  i m m e d i a t e l y , w h i l e o t h e r s went back  They o f t e n s a t around a t a b l e near t h e  -101-  DIAGRAM 9:  6.L  c  Statement o f D o n a t i o n (before f i l l e d out)  -A  statement o f d o n a t i o n  I-  h & _  _  Koganei l o c a i c e n t r e name Y e a r , month, d a t e amount o f money  -102-  V  «4 V <  * •6\ •4  *i ?; ^  zttft  Ml J n u  <  DIAGRAM 10: Examples o f t h e Statement o f D o n a t i o n Taken from Koganei L o c a l C e n t r e  lo  STATEMENT OF A D O N A T I O N — f o r t h e protection of business Great  IN  Su no Kami a n d  Lord-teacher,  i n s p i t e o f the economic d e p r e s s i o n , t h i s month I have been a b l e t o s e r v e many p e o p l e t h r o u g h my b u s i n e s s . W i t h y o u r s u p p o r t I am c o m i n g t o a new month w i t h o u t any w o r r y . N e x t month a l s o , I w i l l do my b e s t a s b e i n g an SMBK b e l i e v e r . H e r e , I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k f u l n e s s f o r t h e p a s t month.  >  "1  £ 1 T  r  <  ? v S 1 s% i -' 1  n ^• J  IT A,  r  331  STATEMENT OF A D O N A T I O N — f o r cation Great teacher ,  Su no Kami and  purif-  Lord-  I have r e c e i v e d p u r i f i c a t i o n through d i a r r h e a w i t h acute pains f o r three days from ( d a t e ) . I unders t a n d i t was d i v i n e c l e a n - u p o f my b o d y a n d my h e a r t was f i l l e d w i t h the f e e l i n g o f b l e s s i n g . I would l i k e to s e r v e even b e t t e r t o t h e d i v i n e prophecy. Here, I would l i k e to e x p r e s s my t r u e t h a n k f u l n e s s .  -103-  desk, c h a t t i n g and d r i n k i n g t e a . t h i s space was  so s m a l l  I n the Koganei l o c a l  centre,  (and a l s o s e r v e d as a h a l l l e a d i n g t o  a n o t h e r s e c t i o n o f the apartment) t h a t i t was always w i t h p e o p l e , so c r e a t i n g an atmosphere of s u c c e s s and  crowded business.  INDIVIDUAL BELIEVER'S CONTACT WITH SMBK  I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h r e l i g i o u s communes o r v i l l a g e s i t u a t i o n s i n which b e l i e v e r s ' d a i l y l i f e i s contained  within  "the r e l i g i o u s s e t t i n g s , SMBK b e l i e v e r s ' exposure t o SMBK i s much more l i m i t e d .  F o r r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i n SMBK, l o c a l  c e n t r e s o f f e r most o c c a s i o n s  f o r t h e i r formal  T a b l e 4 shows t h e f r e q u e n c y o f v i s i t s The  activities.  to the l o c a l  centre.  t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t most r e s p o n d e n t s v i s i t t h e l o c a l  c e n t r e a t l e a s t once a week.  H a l f o f them, ( c a t e g o r i e s 2 +  3) do so more t h a n once a week, and among t h e s e , 217o (category  3) v i s i t more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n once e v e r y two days. From my o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  the l o c a l centre a t t r a c t s  b e l i e v e r s of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l categories according day  o f t h e week and t h e time o f t h e day.  t e n a.m. and f o u r p.m., t h e main c a t e g o r y  to the  On week days between o f those who a l s o  come a r e h o u s e w i v e s , r e t i r e d p e o p l e and those t e m p o r a r i l y o f f work due t o some p h y s i c a l ( o r m e n t a l ) problem.  In contrast,  s t a r t i n g from around s i x p.m. and f i n i s h i n g a t n i n e  p.m.,  when t h e l o c a l c e n t r e c l o s e s , t h e main a t t e n d a n t s  change t o  t h o s e on t h e i r way home from t h e i r r e g u l a r j o b s .  Saturday  afternoon  i s a l s o t h e time f o r r e g u l a r workers t o v i s i t t h e  l o c a l c e n t r e , because companies commonly c l o s e a t noon.  As  -105-  most Sundays a r e t a k e n up w i t h monthly p r a y e r  sessions  ( f i r s t and  second Sundays o f the month) and o t h e r o c c a s i o n a l  gatherings  ( t h i r d and/or f o u r t h Sunday(s) of the month), the  l o c a l c e n t r e i s a l m o s t d e s e r t e d when i t does not have such sessions or gatherings.  Although  the f o u r t h (and  sometimes  f i f t h ) Sundays can be used f o r the performance of the  purifi-  c a t i o n r i t u a l a t the l o c a l c e n t r e , b e l i e v e r s a p p a r e n t l y them f o r o t h e r p r i v a t e p u r p o s e s .  T h i s suggests  that b e l i e v e r s  o p e r a t e on a m o n t h l y , and p r o b a b l y w e e k l y , s c h e d u l e visits.  According  for their  t o T a b l e 5, more than h a l f of the r e s p o n d e n t s  spent from 2 t o 3 hours a t the l o c a l c e n t r e per v i s i t . i s a good r e a s o n f o r t h i s : expects  use  There  d u r i n g a v i s i t the b e l i e v e r  t o complete the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  (1 hour and  40  m i n u t e s ) and o t h e r p r e - and p o s t - r i t u a l a c t s such as r e g i s t e r i n g attendance,  w r i t i n g w i s h e s and  thanks, g i v i n g  o e p n i n g and c l o s i n g p r a y e r s t o the d i v i n i t y , and g r e e t i n g s t o others.  A l t o g e t h e r , these t a k e more than two h o u r s .  a d d i t i o n , most b e l i e v e r s l i k e t o converse  with their  and o f t e n have a p e r s o n a l c o n s u l t a t i o n on t h e i r own problems w i t h the head of the c e n t r e or the l i v e - i n B e l i e v e r s who centre  In friends, private teacher.  spend l e s s t h a n two hours a t the  ( c a t e g o r y 1) o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n o n l y a p a r t of  purification ritual.  the  However, t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y  mean t h a t they n e g l e c t the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , because t h i s  -105-  r i t u a l i s commonly p r a c t i s e d among f r i e n d s o u t s i d e t h e l o c a l centre.  When b e l i e v e r s p r e f e r t o p e r f o r m  the p u r i f i c a t i o n  r i t u a l w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s , they v i s i t t h e l o c a l c e n t r e f o r other purposes:  ( a p a r t from t h e r e g u l a r monthly  prayer  s e s s i o n s ) g i v i n g donations, a t t e n d i n g study s e s s i o n s , d a i l y p r a y e r s i n t h e morning f o r o p e n i n g t h e c e n t r e and i n t h e evening  for i t s closing, etc.  (The c l o s i n g p r a y e r i s h e l d a t  seven p.m. b u t t h e c e n t r e i s s t i l l n i n e p.m.  i n f o r m a l l y open u n t i l  Some b e l i e v e r s v i s i t t h e c e n t r e r e g u l a r l y i n o r d e r  to a t t e n d t h i s d a i l y e v e n i n g  prayer.)  Some b e l i e v e r s , p r e s e n t l y s u f f e r i n g from i n t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l o r mental p r o b l e m s , v i s i t t h e c e n t r e a l m o s t  every  day and s t a y f o r s i x t o t e n h o u r s .  radiating  The d i v i n e l i g h t  from t h e s h r i n e o f t h e c e n t r e i s s a i d t o be a good " c u r e " a l o n g w i t h t h e d a i l y performance o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n The  h i g h percentage o f respondents i n category  spend more than t h r e e hours a t t h e c e n t r e — c a n  ritual.  3 — t h o s e .who p a r t l y be  a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e way i n w h i c h t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d ; that i s , through attendants.  Although  the l o c a l centre to i t s  d i s t r i b u t i o n o c c u r r e d over a p e r i o d o f  one month, those who were always around d u r i n g t h i s  time  would have had a b e t t e r chance t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , whereas some " b u s i e r " a t t e n d a n t s it.  l i k e l y overlooked  or ignored  -107-  TABLE 4:  Frequency o f V i s i t i n g t h e L o c a l C e n t r e Number o f Respondents  %  239  48.48  1.  about once a week  2.  between c a t e g o r y 1 and category 2 more o f t e n t h a n e v e r y o t h e r day  149  30.22  105  21.30  Total  493  100.00  3.  TABLE 5:  The Average L e n g t h o f Time Spent a t t h e L o c a l C e n t r e f o r One V i s i t Number o f Respondents  1.  l e s s than 2 hours  2.  2-3  3.  %  67  14.66  hours  255  55.80  more t h a n 3 hours  135  29.54  Total  459  100.00  -108-  s e s s i o n s ) g i v i n g d o n a t i o n s , a t t e n d i n g study s e s s i o n s , d a i l y p r a y e r s i n t h e morning f o r o p e n i n g t h e c e n t r e and i n t h e evening  f o r i t s closing, etc.  (The c l o s i n g p r a y e r i s h e l d a t  seven p.m. b u t t h e c e n t r e i s s t i l l n i n e p.m. to  i n f o r m a l l y open u n t i l  Some b e l i e v e r s v i s i t t h e c e n t r e r e g u l a r l y i n o r d e r  attend t h i s d a i l y evening  prayer.)  Some b e l i e v e r s , p r e s e n t l y s u f f e r i n g from i n t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l o r mental problems, v i s i t the centre almost day and s t a y f o r s i x t o t e n h o u r s .  every  The d i v i n e l i g h t  radiating  from t h e s h r i n e o f t h e c e n t r e i s s a i d t o be a good " c u r e " a l o n g w i t h t h e d a i l y performance o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n The  high percentage of respondents i n category  spend more t h a n t h r e e hours a t t h e c e n t r e — c a n  ritual.  3 — t h o s e who p a r t l y be  a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e way i n w h i c h t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d ; t h a t i s , through attendants.  Although  the l o c a l centre t o i t s  d i s t r i b u t i o n o c c u r r e d over a p e r i o d o f  one month, those who were always around d u r i n g t h i s  time  would have had a b e t t e r chance t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , whereas some " b u s i e r " a t t e n d a n t s l i k e l y it.  overlooked o r ignored  -109-  NOTES  "*"K. A r a i , 1973, p. 231 (The q u o t a t i o n s were from Japanese t o E n g l i s h by K. Miyanaga.) 2  translated  K o k u t a i was n e v e r c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , but e s s e n t i a l l y i t means " t h e n a t i o n a l s p i r i t , " w h i c h was viewed c o l l e c t i v e l y . 3 M. Tsushima, S. N i s h i y a m a , S. Shimazono and H. S h i r a m i z u , 1978, p. 83. (The term "New R e l i g i o n " i s a p p l i e d t o r e l i g i o u s groups formed a f t e r m o d e r n i z a t i o n . ) 4 Tsushima, e t . a l . , p. 83. ^ I b i d . , p. 83. 6  I b i d . , pp. 83-84.  ^See n o t e 3 above, g Tsushima, p. 83. 9 A r a i , p.  238.  " ^ I b i d . , p . 231. 1L  1 2  M.  Abe, 1973, p.  Ibid.,  p.  286.  286.  -110-  PWC-115/CAC-117 Japan: Government. 13  1 4  Freedom o f W a r s h i p , t h e U.S.  A b e , p. 278.  "'•^Hayashi, e t . a l . , 1977, p. 67. (The q u o t a t i o n s were t r a n s l a t e d by K. Miyanaga and S. P a r r . ) " ^ I b i d . , p. 68 . " ^ T h i s a s p e c t has been d i s c u s s e d as t h e p r o c e s s o f s e c u l a r i s a t i o n under m o d e r n i z a t i o n by v a r i o u s p e o p l e i n c l u d i Bryan W i l s o n , b u t i t s t i l l remains c o n t r o v e r s i a l . 18 Hayashi,  e t a l , 1977, p. 68.  • ^ I b i d . , p. 70. D . H e l l m a n , 1972, p. 146. - 21 SMBK I n t e r m e d i a t e Textbook. 22 S. Shimazono, 1979. 23 T h i s i s an SMBK term i n d i c a t i n g an a p o s t a t e from t h e d i v i n e power. 24 W. D a v i s , 1980, pp. 3-6. 25 The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s t h e L o r d - s a v i o r ' s f u n e r a l a n n i v e r s a r i e s . H i s image i s used f o r h i s commemoration. 26 Okada's w i f e l e f t him when he s t a r t e d h i s movement, and h i s two c h i l d r e n were r a i s e d by h e r . 2 0  -111-  27  D i v i n i t i e s do n o t u s u a l l y p o s s e s s human b e i n g s , i n r a r e cases l i k e t h i s one. o o  _  Y. Endo, 1978, pp. 42-45. by K. Miyanaga.)  except  (The q u o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d  29 T h i s p r i n c i p l e emphasizes t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t i n SMBK common-sense r e a s o n i n g o f t h e w i d e r s o c i e t y s h o u l d be r e v e r s e d . ^ E n d o , p. 45. 31 The r e a s o n f o r u s i n g t h e r i g h t hand f o r t h e t r a n s mission of the d i v i n e l i g h t i s not c l e a r . Since the l e f t side of t h e body i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be more s p i r i t u a l , some b e l i e v e r s wonder why i t i s n o t t h e l e f t s i d e , f o r w h i c h no answer i s provided. T e a c h e r s say t h a t t h e r e a s o n has n o t been r e v e a l e d .  -112-  CHAPTER I I I :  SMBK SOCIAL ORGANIZATION  HIERARCHY AND EGALITARIANISM  -113-  The described  two-fold d e f i n i t i o n of the p u r i f i c a t i o n  ritual  i n C h a p t e r I I i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d i n SMBK s o c i a l  organization.  The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  i s e g a l i t a r i a n i n each  p e r f o r m a n c e , b u t t h e c o n t i n u o u s r e p e t i t i o n o f i t s performance c r e a t e s upward m o b i l i t y towards f o r m i n g a h i e r a r c h y . SMBK membership o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r m a l  In the  organization i s a  h i e r a r c h y o f s t a t u s , whereas i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a f r i e n d s h i p network and i s e g a l i t a r i a n . E g a l i t a r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n i n informal o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a t t a i n e d through r o l e r e v e r s a l i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , and e q u a l chance f o r a c h i e v i n g a higher  status i n competition.  However, t h e degree o f mastery  i n t h e same r i t u a l d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e s t a t u s i n t h e f o r m a l organization.  Upward m o b i l i t y a t t a i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e  s h i f t o f emphasis i n t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  from t h e p a s s i v e  r o l e t o t h e a c t i v e r o l e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e s h i f t i n membership from i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o f o r m a l  organization.  .Therefore,  upward m o b i l i t y means more commitment t o t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l order  i n t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s system.  T h i s p r o c e s s a l s o means  a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e SMBK paradigm, because t h e f o r m a l i z a t i o n i s an e x p r e s s i o n  organ-  o f t h e paradigm, whereas t h e i n f o r m a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n may n o t be. For a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l  organization,  DIAGRAM 11: Formal and I n f o r m a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s Based on the D i f f e r e n c e i n the Type of Membership  the wider  society  -115-  b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l d i m e n s i o n s s h o u l d be  investigated.  W i t h r e g a r d t o Japanese s o c i e t y , t h i s s u g g e s t i o n was made by C h i e Nakane.  first  I n h e r d a r i n g attempt t o p r e s e n t an  o v e r a l l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of Japanese s o c i e t y , she says as follows: I t i s i n i n f o r m a l systems r a t h e r t h a n i n o v e r t c u l t u r a l elements t h a t p e r s i s t e n t f a c t o r s a r e t o be f o u n d . The i n f o r m a l system, the d r i v i n g f o r c e o f Japanese a c t i v i t i e s , i s a n a t i v e Japanese brew, s t e e p e d i n a u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Japanese c u l t u r e . I n the c o u r s e of m o d e r n i z a t i o n Japan i m p o r t e d many w e s t e r n c u l t u r a l e l e m e n t s , but t h e s e were and a r e always p a r t i a l and segmentary and a r e n e v e r i n the form of an o p e r a t i n g system. I t i s l i k e a language w i t h i t s b a s i c i n d i g e n o u s s t r u c t u r e o r grammar w h i c h has accumulated a heavy o v e r l a y of borrowed v o c a b u l a r y ; w h i l e the o u t l o o k of Japanese s o c i e t y has s u f f e r e d d r a s t i c changes over the p a s t hundred y e a r s , the b a s i c s o c i a l grammar has h a r d l y been a f f e c t e d . Here i s an example o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the i m p o r t a t i o n of w e s t e r n c u l t u r e not e f f e c t i n g changes i n the b a s i c c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e . The above p a r a g r a p h , t a k e n from Nakane, r e p r e s e n t s an o p i n i o n s h a r e d by some Japanese i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o n c e r n i n g d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n a f t e r the end of World War i s , democracy,  I I i n 1945.  That  p r i m a r i l y viewed as a Western p r o p e r t y , had  been i m p o r t e d and m e r e l y superimposed o v e r the Japanese i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l system.  Above a l l ,  the l a t t e r  p e r s i s t e n t l y remained as the i n f o r m a l but o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the s o c i e t y , whereas the former became o n l y i t s f o r m a l and " f a s h i o n a b l e " a s p e c t .  T h e r e f o r e , whenever the  -116-  i n d i g e n o u s s t r u c t u r e appeared dominant i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n - a l t h o u g h i t was argued t o be t h e r e g u l a r case — i t and  was a s s e r t e d as e v i d e n c e o f a f a i l u r e i n d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n c r i t i c i z e d as a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c .  anti-democratic, subject to t h i s  Among t h o s e condemned as  r e l i g i o u s movements have been p a r t i c u l a r l y criticism.  In order  to strengthen  h e r argument, Nakane  d e v e l o p e d a u n i q u e s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s which became q u i t e i n f l u e n t i a l i n J a p a n soon a f t e r i t was p u b l i s h e d According  i n 1976.  to her:  An o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h has i t s b a s i s on the f u n c t i o n of the " v e r t i c a l " l i n e i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h has i t s f u n c t i o n i n the " h o r i z o n t a l " l i n e , or i n both " h o r i z o n t a l " and " v e r t i c a l " l i n e s . F i r s t , we e x p l a i n t h i s by p o s i t i n g two groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s , X ( v e r t i c a l ) and Y (horizontal). Suppose t h a t b o t h c o n s i s t o f t h e same number o f members, a, b, and c. Y makes a t r i a n g l e , and X a t r i a n g l e w i t h o u t a bottom (see Diagram I ) .  Diagram I X  Y  -117-  When they d e v e l o p t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , they become as i n Diagram I I , and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i s now more d i s t i n c t i v e . The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e two a r e t h a t t h e members o f X are r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r o n l y t h r o u g h a, but the members o f Y a r e r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o each o t h e r , and t h a t X i s open t o t h e o u t s i d e , whereas Y i s c l o s e d . Diagram I I X a  /  g \  or  c —  rule / \ d e  f  Nakane, 1967, pp. 114-5)  Her  point i s t h i s :  i n the h o r i z o n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  (Y) each member i s e q u a l under t h e same r u l e , whereas i n t h e v e r t i c a l organization  (X) a h i e r a r c h y  i s formed as t h e sum o f  each s u p e r i o r - i n f e r i o r human r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Therefore,  i n the  l a t t e r t h e r u l e can be no more t h a n an a r b i t r a r y (even tempor a r y ) agreement between t h e two p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d i n a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , so i t f a i l s t o s t a n d u n i v e r s a l l y above a l l t h e members.  I n o t h e r words, t h e members o f t h e same o r g a n i z a t i o n  -118-  do n o t share t h e same r u l e .  As a r e s u l t , human r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i n t h e v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (X) become e m o t i o n a l ,  whereas  i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Y) t h e y a r e r a t i o n a l . However, a few a s p e c t s i n h e r a n a l y s i s remains confusing.  One o f them i s i t s o b j e c t i v e .  I t has n o t been  made c o m p l e t e l y c l e a r i f h e r a n a l y s i s i s d i r e c t e d t o e x t r a c t a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n f o r Japanese s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i f she i s t r y i n g t o b u i l d a model o f v e r t i c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n u s i n g Japanese s o c i e t y as an example.  A l t h o u g h t h e model c o u l d be  b u i l t t h r o u g h t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f t h e Japanese p a t t e r n s , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n remains e s s e n t i a l .  I n t h e case o f t h e Japanese  p a t t e r n s t h e major problem i s t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e e x t r a c t e d p a t t e r n t o Japanese s o c i e t y , whereas i n t h e case o f the model o f t h e v e r t i c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e p r i o r i t y s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y as a model. Assuming t h a t h e r o b j e c t i v e i s t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f the Japanese p a t t e r n s , N o b u h i r o Nagashima  summarizes t h e  c o u n t e r - a r g u m e n t s g i v e n by o t h e r Japanese s c h o l a r s as f o l l o w s : R e l a t i o n s h i p s based on p e r s o n a l s u b m i s s i o n such as oyabun-kobun [a s u p e r i o r - i n f e r i o r human r e l a t i o n s h i p m a i n t a i n e d by a q u a s i - p a r e n t c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v i n g a sense o f i n t i m a c y and c l o s e c a r e ] a p p l y o n l y t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y newly developed v i l l a g e s i n Northeast Japan (which were t a k e n as t h e model f o r t h e v e r t i c a l s o c i a l g r o u p ) . I n t h e v i l l a g e s i n Southwest J a p a n , v o l u n t a r y groups based on i n d i v i d u a l commitment, such as ko [a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y fchrmed f o r t h e purpose o f p i l g r i m age t o s a c r e d r i t e s ] have d e v e l o p e d .  -119-  Nagashima's p o i n t a g a i n s t Nakane i s t h a t the v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s h i s t o r i c a l l y new Japan.  Therefore,  and  limited  to p a r t i c u l a r  he a r g u e s , i t cannot be a g e n e r a l  areas i n and  a  h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l Japan. I f we  assume t h a t Nakane's o b j e c t i v e i s an a t t e m p t t o  b u i l d a model of v e r t i c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the above c r i t i c i s m does not variety  invalidate  her argument.  F o r , whatever  and d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i f the  v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n b l o c k s democracy, the e s s e n t i a l should  the  problem  be found i n the f a c t t h a t the n a t u r e of v e r t i c a l  organization i s i r r a t i o n a l .  This point requires a r e -  e x a m i n a t i o n of r a t i o n a l i t y , and e x t r a c t i n g a general  inevitably  p a t t e r n f o r Japanese s o c i a l  A more t h e o r e t i c a l  or systems i s not c l e a r l y made. Japanese s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n her a l t h o u g h Nakane c l a i m s  a n a l y s i s i s not  simply  organization.  problem i n Nakane's a n a l y s i s i s  t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between f o r m a l  informal aspects.  goes beyond  and  informal  I n her own  apparently  structures  examples, some  show the syndrome of  sense i n t h e i r f o r m a l  t h a t she has  This t h e o r e t i c a l  aspects,  e x t r a c t e d t h i s from inconsistency  a c c i d e n t a l , f o r , as I s a i d b e f o r e ,  their  i n her she  i d e n t i f i e s the d e m o c r a t i c system of Japanese s o c i e t y and i t s formal  organizations  as the same phenomenon w h i c h t o g e t h e r  are  - 1 2 0 -  simply  superimposed over t h e i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e .  a s s e r t i o n i n e v i t a b l y made h e r i g n o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f o r m a l social organization.  t h e a c t i v e and f u n c t i o n a l  and i n f o r m a l a s p e c t o f t h e  This chapter w i l l  informal organizations  show how f o r m a l and  i n SMBK a r e b r a i d e d  Nakane's t h e o r y  This  overlooks  i n t o one a n o t h e r .  the p o s s i b i l i t y  that  e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be t h e p r o d u c t o f synthesis a f t e r modernization. provides  The  pre-modern l i t e r a t u r e  us w i t h some e v i d e n c e t h a t pre-modern Japanese  s o c i e t y was b u i l t on on and g i r i w h i c h i n d i c a t e a s c r i p t i v e s o c i a l r u l e s o f r e c i p r o c a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  W i t h modern-  i z a t i o n , Japanese s o c i e t y became r e g u l a t e d by more a b s t r a c t r u l e s such as laws o f S t a t e .  Ruth B e n e d i c t r e p o r t s how  r e c i p r o c i t y was i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t o t h e laws by t h e modern 4  Japanese Government b e f o r e  t h e end o f World War I I .  After  the War, t h e consensus o f t h e r u l e s o f r e c i p r o c i t y was l o s t . However, r e c i p r o c a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s remained as a p e r s o n a l custom.  The f o l l o w i n g example s h o u l d  i l l u s t r a t e t h e need f o r  o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y t o r e g u l a t e human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d a i l y life.  An SMBK b e l i e v e r , female and e i g h t e e n  answered my q u e s t i o n  years o l d ,  c o n c e r n i n g whether she had changed  she had j o i n e d SMBK: B e f o r e I j o i n e d SMBK, I was o n l y c o p y i n g my  since  -121-  mother. I gave g i f t s t o my f r i e n d s on t h e i r b i r t h d a y s and o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , because she s a i d i t (x=keeping f r i e n d s h i p by g i f t g i v i n g ) was p r o p e r . B u t , s i n c e I j o i n e d SMBK, I r e a l i z e d the meaning o f f r i e n d s h i p , and n o t i c e d t h a t my ( p r e v i o u s ) a c t s had been o n l y f o r m a l and had no h e a r t . I no l o n g e r & i v e g i f t s because o c c a s i o n s r e q u i r e them. The  answer above i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e b e l i e v e r  still  m a i n t a i n s t h e same g i f t - g i v i n g custom, b u t t h a t she b e l i e v e s t h a t SMBK g i v e s h e r moral s u p p o r t . apply  The same s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d  t o a number o f p e o p l e who j o i n r e l i g i o u s movements  based on m o r a l campaigns such as JRKK (see p. 177) and I t t o En Therefore,  what Nakane sees as e m o t i o n a l o r  i r r a t i o n a l i s the l a c k of o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y which  should  combine t h e d e m o c r a t i c i d e a l , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and human relationships i ndaily l i f e .  However, Nakane p r e s e n t s  d e p t h a n a l y s i s o f t h e post-War g e n e r a l  an i n -  s i t u a t i o n o f Japanese  s o c i e t y , a l t h o u g h t h i s a n a l y s i s may n o t have been h e r o r i g i n a l intention.  To t h i s g e n e r a l  s i t u a t i o n , t h e SMBK s o c i a l  i z a t i o n responded i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s :  formal  i z a t i o n i s o v e r t l y h i e r a r c h i c a l and i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d  organ-  organwith  power and knowledge; i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s e g a l i t a r i a n ; the f o r m a l  and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  t o each o t h e r . and  a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y combine  This chapter w i l l describe  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f o r m a l  i z a t i o n s o f SMBK,  the d i f f e r e n c e s  and i n f o r m a l  organ-  -122-  FORMAL HIERARCHY OF POWER AND KNOWLEDGE I n SMBK, f o r m a l  organization  i t has s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . of power and knowledge. according and  quently, order,  Among c l e r i c s , i t i s t h e h i e r a r c h y  The c l e r i c s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power f o r d e c i s i o n making  execution  organized  i s not merely nominal;  of the d e c i s i o n .  The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s  t o form a p a r a l l e l t o t h e SMBK cosmology. the formal  Conse-  o r g a n i z a t i o n becomes p a r t o f SMBK d i v i n e  and i s an e x p r e s s i o n  o f t h e SMBK paradigm.  However,  among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s n o t d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h power.  I n t h i s sense, the formal  f o r them i s more i d e o l o g i c a l t h a n s u b s t a n t i a l . assumed as a p a r t o f d i v i n e o r d e r ,  organization  Because i t i s  b o t h f o r t h e c l e r i c s and  f o r t h e r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s , t h e s t a t u s gaps a r e l e g i t i m i z e d by the degree o f exposure t o t h e d i v i n e knowledge. Diagram 12 was drawn by one o f t h e D i r e c t o r s , and represents  t h e SMBK b e l i e v e r s ' g e n e r a l  r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r  organization. Diagram 12 Lord-teacher Directors  local centre  local centre  ( a t Head Q u a r t e r s )  local centre  -123-  A l t h o u g h Diagram 12 g i v e s the l o c a l c e n t r e s teacher,  the i m p r e s s i o n  a r e under t h e d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f the L o r d -  and t h a t the D i r e c t o r s occupy an a d v i s o r y  the f o r m a l  that  organization, i n r e a l i t y , functions  We may be a b l e t o a b s t r a c t i t s h i e r a r c h y  position,  differently.  as f o l l o w s :  DIAGRAM 13  Lord-teacher / Directors Heads^of l o c a l centres  administration  clerics Teachers A s s i s t a n t Teachers Students-in-practice Candidate-students  V  Regular b e l i e v e r s a t the advanced intermediate elementary  levels  1.  Lord-teacher The p r e s e n t l e a d e r o f t h e SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n i s L o r d -  teacher  Sekiguchi.  A l t h o u g h he i s d o c t r i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as  a r e g u l a r human b e i n g , as i s c l e a r l y s a i d i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e c t u r e s e s s i o n , r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s t r e a t him l i k e a (non-human) divinity.  They c a l l h i m by t h e t i t l e " L o r d - t e a c h e r "  h i s narne.^ respect  n o t by  T h i s i s a common way i n J a p a n t o show extreme  f o r a s u p e r i o r , w h i c h p r i m a r i l y a p p l i e s t o t h e Emperor  who u s e d t o be t r e a t e d as a d i v i n i t y and s t i l l Also, Sekiguchi outsiders.  i s i n SMBK.  as t h e L o r d - t e a c h e r o f SMBK i s s h i e l d e d from  Even t h e r e g u l a r SMBK b e l i e v e r s have o n l y a  l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o him. n i a l gatherings personally.  They see h i m r e g u l a r l y i n t h e ceremo-  b u t have a l m o s t no chance t o speak t o him  Sometimes, when he i s i n v i t e d t o a c e l e b r a t i o n  a t a l o c a l c e n t r e , they may be a b l e t o s i t c l o s e and g r e e t him  r a t h e r c a s u a l l y but a long personal  spontaneously develop. him,  I n order  conversation  does n o t  t o be p e r s o n a l l y c l o s e t o  t h e r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s have t o g a i n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n  based on an e x c e l l e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o SMBK. 2.  Clerics Under t h e L o r d - t e a c h e r ,  t h e r e e x i s t s a wide s t a t u s  gap between t h e body o f c l e r i c s and t h e r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . The body o f c l e r i c s c o n s i s t s o f t h e D i r e c t o r s , t h e Heads o f l o c a l centres  and t h e t e a c h i n g  s t a f f . F o r example, some  - 1 2 5 -  p a r a g r a p h s o f d i v i n e words r e c i t e d d u r i n g a s p e c i a l r i t u a l t o p u r i f y a d e f i l e d d i v i n e o b j e c t , such as a t a l i s m a n , a r e known o n l y among the c l e r i c s . Heads a r e l o n g - s t a n d i n g  F u r t h e r m o r e , the D i r e c t o r s and most members o f SMBK who were t a u g h t  d i r e c t l y by t h e i r deceased f i r s t l e a d e r , L o r d - s a v i o r (now c o n s i d e r e d  t o have been e l e v a t e d  Okada  to a d i v i n i t y ) .  They  a r e g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o have been p e r s o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d him as m a s t e r s o f t h e d o c t r i n e .  by  A l s o , the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s  r e g i s t e r t h e i r membership o n l y a t t h e l o c a l c e n t r e s .  This  means t h a t t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s o b s c u r e . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e c l e r i c a l m e m b e r s - r e g i s t e r t h e i r names a t the Main H e a d q u a r t e r s and a r e g i v e n much c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n . The above c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n themselves: groups:  contain further categorization  the body o f c l e r i c s i s s e p a r a t e d i n t o two  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the t e a c h i n g  staff.  The  differ-  ence between t h e s e two i s not o n l y d o c t r i n a l , but whereas the f o r m e r m o n o p o l i z e s the power o f d e c i s i o n making, the t e a c h i n g s t a f f i s g e n e r a l l y e x c l u d e d from i t . 3.  A d m i n i s t r a t i on A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f the D i r e c t o r s as s e n i o r  executives, executives.  and the Heads o f l o c a l c e n t r e s  as j u n i o r  The major d e c i s i o n s a r e n o r m a l l y  D i r e c t o r s w i t h the L o r d - t e a c h e r ' s a p p r o v a l .  made by Heads a r e  -126-  permitted  t o make minor d e c i s i o n s  the D i r e c t o r s .  t o e x e c u t e o r d e r g i v e n by  When t h e Board o f C l e r i c s meets once a month,  the D i r e c t o r s and Heads g i v e r e p o r t s on t h e i r own c e n t r e s r e c e i v e new o r d e r s from t h e L o r d - t e a c h e r . may a t t e n d ,  and a r e p e r m i t t e d  participate i n decisions.  The t e a c h i n g  t o ask q u e s t i o n s ,  Status  and staff  but do n o t  among t h e D i r e c t o r s i s  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from s p i r i t u a l t o s e c u l a r .  The s t a t u s  differ-  e n t i a t i o n among t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e members i s t y p i c a l l y shown i n t h e s e a t i n g o r d e r a t t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e Board o f C l e r i c s and  also i n prayer sessions.  D i r e c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d of f o r m a l  I n 1980, t h e p o s i t i o n s o f A r e a  t o be i n f o r m a l , and t h e seven  d i r e c t o r s h i p were d i s t r i b u t e d t o o n l y  seats  two p e r s o n s .  T h i s was a temporary arrangement f o l l o w i n g t h e s p l i t o f t h e SMBK movement i n 1978 - " u n t i l p r o p e r p e r s o n s grow".  These  two d i r e c t o r s were a l s o a p p o i n t e d t o be t h e Heads o f t h e l o c a l centre.  Some Heads were a p p o i n t e d f o r more t h a n one  centre.  The c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e p l u r a l appointment seemed t o be based on personal  r e c o g n i t i o n r a t h e r than a c l e a r - c u t p r i n c i p l e . I n 1982, t h e p o s i t i o n s o f d i r e c t o r s h i p were  reorganized,  and t h i r t e e n p o s i t i o n s i n c l u d i n g Area D i r e c t o r s  w h i c h were now f o r m a l  were d i s t r i b u t e d t o t w e l v e p e o p l e .  Above t h e s e r e g u l a r D i r e c t o r s , two p o s i t i o n s o f D i v i s i o n D i r e c t o r s were o c c u p i e d by Mr. Tanaka, one o f few o l d e s t f o l l o w e r s o f t h e f o u n d e r o f SMBK, and Mr. K. S e k i g u c h i ,  a son  -127-  of t h e p r e s e n t l e a d e r o f SMBK. Thus, t h e p o s i t i o n s o f d i r e c t o r s h i p were  organized  as f o l l o w s i n 1982: Sukyo Kyokucho (:jp>l&Ofj-|?) - D i v i s i o n D i r e c t o r o f Religious  Affairs  S h i n j i Bucho C ? ^ * f - ^ ) - D i r e c t o r o f t h e D i v i n e  Matter  responsibility:  general planning of prayer occasions Fukyo Bucho (^f^ilf-g,) - D i r e c t o r o f M i s s i o n responsibility: Koho Bucho  mission  activity  f&lffi.) - D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c i t y  responsibility: Kunren Kyogaku Bucho responsibility:  publicity ( t ' K f ^ ^ D - Director of E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g training  of the teaching  staff  l e c t u r e sessions held at the Main H e a d q u a r t e r s J i m u Kyokucho (4Jhp^^|-|^) - D i v i s i o n D i r e c t o r o f S e c u l a r Affairs K e i r i Bucho  ( f e f f f ^ ) - D i r e c t o r o f Management  responsibility: Somu BuchS  and a c c o u n t i n g  - D i r e c t o r of General  responsibility: Shogai Bucho  finance  N ^ f f c  responsibility:  Affairs  m i s c e l l a n e o u s work - D i r e c t o r of E x t e r n a l  Affairs  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e government and o t h e r groups o u t s i d e SMBK  -128-  Area D i r e c t o r s  (six Directors)  responsibility:  The  close supervision of l o c a l w i t h i n the area  centres  s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among Heads depends on  the s i z e s o f t h e l o c a l c e n t r e s  t o which they a r e assigned  because t h e s i z e s o f t h e l o c a l c e n t r e s v a r y g r e a t l y : have a number o f branches whereas o t h e r s do n o t .  —  some  Therefore,  Heads compete w i t h one a n o t h e r t o expand t h e i r own c e n t r e s . 4.  Teaching  staff  The  teaching  s t a f f does n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e  p r o c e s s o f making new d e c i s i o n s , b u t e x e c u t e s t h e g i v e n d e c i s i o n s over r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . respected  The s t a f f i s h i g h l y  by t h e r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s f o r i t s p r o f o u n d knowledge  of SMBK d o c t r i n e and s k i l l s i n t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . it  i s a Japanese s o c i a l custom t o r e s p e c t  teaching  a p e r s o n i n any  p o s i t i o n , w h i c h i s a l s o e f f e c t i v e i n SMBK.  the l i v e - i n  Also,  Through  s t y l e of s e r v i c e a t the l o c a l centre, the s t a f f  i s always a v a i l a b l e f o r c l o s e and f r e q u e n t regular believers.  contact with the  They a r e d i r e c t e d by t h e t e a c h i n g  t o a c c e p t t h e g i v e n d e c i s i o n s as p a r t o f t h e d i v i n e The  teaching  staff order.  s t a f f i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d into four 7  status levels:  teachers  (doshi)  - 8  ho)  , a s s i s t a n t teachers  (doshi  9  , students-in-practice  ( j i s s h u s e i ) , and c a n d i d a t e -  -129-  s t u d e n t s o f t h e SMBK s c h o o l (kunren s e i ) .  Of t h e s e ,  c a n d i d a t e - s t u d e n t s do n o t have s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among themselves.  The o t h e r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e t e a c h i n g  staff  become d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e and importance o f the l o c a l c e n t r e t o w h i c h they a r e a s s i g n e d .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  o f t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f t o a l o c a l c e n t r e i s made i n such a way t h a t no more t h a n one p e r s o n o c c u p i e s t h e same s t a t u s o r p o s i t i o n a t one t i m e . 5.  Regular b e l i e v e r s The  SMBK r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s form a t h r e e - l e v e l e d  h i e r a r c h y based on t h e degree o f exposure t o t h e d o c t r i n e . (See Diagram 4 ) .  The s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s n o t d i r e c t l y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h power.  Each l e v e l b e g i n s w i t h a t h r e e - d a y  i n t e n s i v e l e c t u r e s e s s i o n on t h e d o c t r i n e g i v e n by t h e c l e r i c a l members.  The s t a t u s o f t h e l e c t u r e r d i f f e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  l e v e l o f t h e s e s s i o n , so t h e h i e r a r c h y based on knowledge becomes v i s u a l i z e d :  the elementary  l e c t u r e i s g i v e n by t h e  t e a c h i n g s t a f f who have been t r a i n e d a t t h e SMBK s c h o o l .  The  i n t e r m e d i a t e and advanced s e s s i o n s a r e g i v e n by t h e D i r e c t o r s . The  c o n t e n t o f t h e t e a c h i n g f o c u s e s on a d i f f e r e n t  a s p e c t o f t h e d o c t r i n e a t each l e v e l , a l t h o u g h i t g i v e s q u i t e a s c a t t e r e d impression t o the i n i t i a l attendants. focus of the elementary  The c e n t r a l  s e s s i o n i s on moral s t o r i e s b u i l t on  -130-  the i d e a o f s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n ,  i n which possessing  spirits  and a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s appear as t h e m o r a l e n f o r c e r s . intermediate  The  s e s s i o n p r e s e n t s t h e image o f t h e cosmos as a  p r o d u c t o f c r e a t i o n by t h e supreme d i v i n i t y c a l l e d Su no Kami, and e x p l a i n s how, w i t h i n t h i s u n i v e r s e ,  the o r i e n t a t i o n  given  by him d e t e r m i n e s t h e way a l l l i v i n g and n o n - l i v i n g b e i n g s s h o u l d go.  And t h e most advanced s e s s i o n f o c u s s e s on t h e  Japanese as t h e chosen n a t i o n t o r e a l i z e a new d i v i n e  civilis-  a t i o n , a heaven on e a r t h , a f t e r t h e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l end o f t h e present world.  I n b r i e f , the elementary session  on o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y , t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e  concentrates  s e s s i o n on cosmology,  and t h e advanced s e s s i o n on prophecy. These t h r e e  sessions are  f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d f o r t h e b e l i e v e r t o become a " r e a l " SMBK f a i t h f u l , t h e cosmology, w h i c h i s t h e c o r e o f t h e SMBK doctrine given at the intermediate  l e v e l , provides the  b e l i e v e r w i t h an i d e n t i t y by l o c a t i n g him a t a s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n i n t h e d i v i n e cosmos viewed as a pantheon.  Within  t h i s pantheon he i s one o f t h e l o w e s t - r a n k i n g  divinities.  This  However, i t i s  l e v e l of teaching  i s highly integrated.  a l s o h i g h l y a b s t r a c t because i t i s remote from t h e e m p i r i c a l phenomenon o f h i s l i f e .  For t h i s reason, the elementary  s e s s i o n p r o v i d e s an o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y , t h a t i s , a bundle of m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s c o n t a i n e d of fragmented images.  i n t h e m o r a l s t o r i e s i n t h e form  The b e l i e v e r , when he i s f i r s t  exposed  -131-  t o t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e , l e a r n s t o a p p l y such fragments t o h i s d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t i e s and human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . two ways.  I t ensures  T h i s works i n  him o f a f l e x i b i l i t y i n h i s c h o i c e o f  a c t i o n , because i t p e r m i t s a wide range o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Also, i t stimulates h i s natural curiosity. p r e s e n t an a n a l o g y : attempt puzzle.  assembling  Here, l e t me  fragmented images i n an  to f i n d a consistent p i c t u r e i s l i k e solving a jigsaw The advanced s e s s i o n , r e - a s s u r e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  a t t e n t i o n towards c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n as a r e l i g i o u s movement, though he has a l r e a d y been a p a r t o f i t ever s i n c e he f i r s t become i n v o l v e d i n t h e SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n . The m a s t e r i n g o f each s e s s i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y honourable.  The s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e i s e x p r e s s e d  by t h e s i z e  of t h e t a l i s m a n and p i n g i v e n a t t h e end o f each s e s s i o n . the end o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y  s e s s i o n each b e l i e v e r i s g i v e n  as p r o o f t h a t he has been i n i t i a t e d .  At these  Both a r e exchanged f o r  l a r g e r ones each time t h e b e l i e v e r p r o g r e s s e s  t o t h e next  level. Obtaining permission to attend a higher s e s s i o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t .  level  An e l e m e n t a r y  session  can be h e l d a t any l o c a l c e n t r e when i t has g a t h e r e d more than t e n new a t t e n d a n t s , and s e v e r a l c e n t r e s r e g u l a r l y monthly s e s s i o n s .  provide  A t t e n d i n g t h e t h r e e days o f t h i s s e s s i o n  i s i d e n t i f i e d as an i n i t i a t i o n t o SMBK, so i t i s c o m p l e t e l y  -132-  open t o anyone, whether o r n o t he has a l r e a d y been i n v o l v e d i n some r i t u a l o c c a s i o n .  I n c o n t r a s t , b o t h i n t e r m e d i a t e and  advanced s e s s i o n s a r e h e l d o n l y a t t h e Main H e a d q u a r t e r s i n f r o n t of the C e n t r a l Shrine.  The i n t e r m e d i a t e s e s s i o n i s  g i v e n o n l y once o r t w i c e a y e a r , and t h e advanced s e s s i o n o n l y e v e r y one o r two y e a r s .  An a p p l i c a t i o n t o a t t e n d t h e s e two  s e s s i o n s must be approved by t h e head o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l c e n t r e , and t h e common i n t e r v a l between a t t e n d i n g t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n and a p p l y i n g f o r t h e second i s about two y e a r s , depending on t h e p r o g r e s s o f each a p p l i c a n t .  Often, f o r a  w h i l e a f t e r a t t e n d i n g the intermediate s e s s i o n , the b e l i e v e r becomes d i s c o u r a g e d  and s k i p s a p p l y i n g t o t h e advanced l e v e l  once o r t w i c e , u n t i l f i n a l l y he pushes h i m s e l f t o do i t . E q u a l l y o f t e n , o r even more commonly, t h e b e l i e v e r i s discouraged  and g i v e s up t r y i n g t o go on t o t h e h i g h e r  levels,  so t h a t t h e achievement o f a c c e s s t o t h e advanced l e v e l , o r even o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l , i s q u i t e an accomplishment. I n SMBK, t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f d o c t r i n e i s always r e l a t e d t o r i t u a l a c t i o n s ; the aforementioned three  sessions  c o r r e s p o n d t o t h r e e s e t s o f r i t u a l s and c e r e m o n i e s :  the  p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , t h e group p r a y e r s , and t h e f a m i l y r i t u a l s . The all,  way they a r e o r g a n i z e d i s r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d . the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l c o n s t i t u t e s the core.  F i r s t of i I t i s most  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to a l l three l e v e l s of the educational  -133-  procedure:  a t the e l e m e n t a r y  level  (between the e l e m e n t a r y  i n t e r m e d i a t e s e s s i o n s ) the b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t the m a s t e r y o f a f o r m a l p e r f o r m a n c e .  may  and  be l i m i t e d t o  But above t h i s l e v e l  the  b e l i e v e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o a c t i v e l y communicate w i t h the possessing s p i r i t . the r i t u a l spirit.  Beyond t h i s l e v e l , the u l t i m a t e g o a l o f  i s f o r the b e l i e v e r to become a master of h i s  T h e r e f o r e , the mastery of t h i s r i t u a l  own  technique i s  c o n s i d e r e d t o a p e r s o n a l r e a l i z a t i o n o f the d o c t r i n e , and  the  e x t e n t o f the mastery o f the d o c t r i n e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e f l e c t e d i n the mastery of the r i t u a l .  I n o t h e r words, the  m a s t e r y of performance a r e i d e n t i f i e d as an i n d i c a t i o n o f p r e s e n t s p i r i t u a l s t a t e and h i s p r o g r e s s i n the  assimilation  of the d o c t r i n e . The sessions. and  second s e t of r i t u a l s i n c l u d e s the group p r a y e r  They c o n s i s t of v a r i o u s k i n d s of annual  two monthly p r a y e r s e s s i o n s , one  and the o t h e r a t the l o c a l c e n t r e s .  a t the Main These r i t u a l  conventions Headquarters, occasions  a r e d e d i c a t e d t o e x p r e s s i n g s u b m i s s i o n t o the d i v i n e o r d e r o f the supreme d i v i n i t y and h i s cosmos a t a p u b l i c o c c a s i o n . They a r e i n sharp c o n t r a s t w i t h the p u r i f i c a t i o n Whereas the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  ritual.  i s reciprocally-oriented,  t h e r e f o r e more e g a l i t a r i a n i n n a t u r e .  and  I n c o n t r a s t , group  p r a y e r s e s s i o n s r e f l e c t the s t a t u s and p o s i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s of the b e l i e v e r s and are t h e r e f o r e more h i e r a r c h i c a l .  This  -13  4 -  means t h a t t h e p r a y e r s e s s i o n s a r e t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d i v i n e o r d e r on e a r t h , here and now, by t h e d i v i n e agency SMBK. They o f f e r a chance f o r t h e b e l i e v e r s t o v i s u a l i z e t h e SMBK cosmology and t h e b e a u t y and d i g n i t y i t c o n t a i n s .  Therefore,  the group p r a y e r s e s s i o n s a r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y r e l a t e d t o the i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l i n w h i c h t h e cosmology i s t a u g h t .  In  s p i t e o f t h i s , however, a l l t h e b e l i e v e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d t h e s e p r a y e r s e s s i o n s from t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r j o i n i n g SMBK, o r sometimes even b e f o r e they j o i n . those  still  remaining  a t t h e elementary  But f o r  l e v e l , before the  exposure t o t h e cosmology, t h e whole p r a y e r s e s s i o n may l i k e l y appear p u z z l i n g .  This i s another  r e a s o n why b e l i e v e r s '  c u r i o s i t y f o r h i g h e r knowledge i s a r o u s e d . The  t h i r d s e t includes the family r i t u a l s .  m a i n l y o f two k i n d s :  They a r e  one i s t h e d a i l y performance o f a  memorial r i t e t o show r e s p e c t t o t h e f a m i l y a n c e s t o r s , and t h e o t h e r a d a i l y p r a y e r g i v e n t o t h e supreme d i v i n i t y and o t h e r divinities.  Although  they a l s o t a k e p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l y  s e t t i n g , I w i l l exclude  f u n e r a l s , weddings, and p r i v a t e  p e r f o r m a n c e s o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , f o r t h e f i r s t two a r e t o o u n p r e d i c t a b l e t o be woven i n t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m , while the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l first  s h o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h e  s e t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s i t e where i t i s p e r f o r m e d .  performance o f t h e a n c e s t r a l r i t e r e q u i r e s l e a r n i n g t h e  The  -135-  r o u t i n e SMBK way o f d o i n g i t and a l s o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s p e c i a l l y equipped f a m i l y a l t a r . a f t e r b u t sometimes even b e f o r e  E v e r y new b e l i e v e r , u s u a l l y the f i r s t  i n i t i a t i o n session, i s s t r o n g l y pressured altar.  S i n c e g i v i n g much r e s p e c t  the r e q u i r e d way i s c o n s i d e r e d  of a  elementary t o p r e p a r e t h e SMBK  t o the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s i n  as p r a c t i s i n g t h e e l e m e n t a r y  l e v e l o f t h e d o c t r i n e , a c o n s i s t e n t performance o f t h e r i t e i s considered  a good b a s i s on w h i c h t o judge whether t h e b e l i e v e r  i s r e a d y t o go on t o t h e n e x t l e v e l . to the intermediate  Permission  t o advance  l e v e l w i t h o u t i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e SMBK  altar i s exceptional.  -136-  INFORMAL FRIENDSHIP NETWORK I n SMBK, i n f o r m a l membership o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a f r i e n d s h i p network and f u n c t i o n s t o m a i n t a i n among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . formation  The network expands on t h e b a s i s o f  o f p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n t i e s , w h i c h i s a common  phenomenon i n Japanese s o c i e t y . frequent  group c o h e s i o n  The t i e s a r e formed t h r o u g h  and d i r e c t c o n t a c t w h i c h c r e a t e s an i n t i m a t e  atmosphere.  Through t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p , r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s  s a t i s f y n o t o n l y t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs b u t a l s o p r a c t i c a l needs (such as f i n d i n g j o b s ) . on p u b l i c o c c a s i o n s  They meet r e g u l a r l y  m a i n l y a t t h e l o c a l c e n t r e and a l s o a t  the Main H e a d q u a r t e r s . any  their  However, t h e y a l s o meet p r i v a t e l y on  excuse, mainly t o perform the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  They  meet because t h e y i n t e n d t o p e r f o r m t h i s r i t u a l , b u t a l s o t h e y p e r f o r m i t whenever they meet.  The e g a l i t a r i a n o r i e n -  t a t i o n o f t h e SMBK i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n depends l a r g e l y on the n a t u r e o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  I t i s structured to  a c h i e v e e q u a l i t y by e x c h a n g i n g u n e q u a l r o l e s and so making the p e r f o r m e r s e q u i v a l e n t  t o each o t h e r .  Membership among t h e r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i s m a i n t a i n e d through the informal o r g a n i z a t i o n . r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r can maintain  I n point of f a c t , the  h i s membership s o l e l y on  -137-  i n f o r m a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o u t f u l f i l l i n g  formal  o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e him t o appear r e g u l a r l y a t t h e l o c a l centre.  As l o n g as he m a i n t a i n s h i s i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  he w i l l n e v e r be f o r g o t t e n i n t h e SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  f o r m a l r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r SMBK membership among  r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i s r a t h e r c a s u a l ; the l o c a l centre records  merely  t h e name, a d d r e s s , and t e l e p h o n e number o f each  b e l i e v e r , while  t h e Main H e a d q u a r t e r s keeps no r e c o r d o f  i n d i v i d u a l members.  To m a i n t a i n  h i s f o r m a l membership, t h e  b e l i e v e r i s o b l i g a t e d t o appear a t t h e l o c a l c e n t r e as o f t e n as p o s s i b l e on such o c c a s i o n s prayer  as p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l s ,  s e s s i o n s , some v o l u n t a r y  l o c a l centre newsletter,  activities  various  (e.g. p u b l i s h i n g a  e t c . ) , and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  (e.g. a t h l e t i c m e e t i n g s , p i c n i c o u t i n g s  to h i s t o r i c a l  sites  w h i c h have s p e c i a l s p i r i t u a l meaning f o r SMBK b e l i e v e r s ) . When a r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r t r i e s t o w i t h d r a w from t h e SMBK movement, he has t o w i t h d r a w from h i s i n f o r m a l human r e l a t i o n ships.  Formal membership w i l l v a n i s h a u t o m a t i c a l l y when he  stops going t o h i s l o c a l c e n t r e .  T h i s makes d r o p p i n g - o u t from  SMBK much e a s i e r t h a n o t h e r r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i m i l a r person-to-person t i e s are also formally F o r example, an SMBK b e l i e v e r who i n t e n d s i z a t i o n may f i r s t from p e r s o n a l  recognized.  t o leave the organ-  s h i f t the s i t e of the p u r i f i c a t i o n  occasions  i n which  to the l o c a l centre.  ritual  By d o i n g s o ,  -138-  he c a n reduce c o n t a c t w i t h h i s SMBK f r i e n d s .  H i s f r i e n d s may  m i s t a k e h i s change f o r a s i g n o f more a c t i v e commitment t o t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s system, because, d o c t r i n a l l y , p e r f o r m i n g t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l a t t h e l o c a l c e n t r e i s more d e s i r a b l e than performing  i t among f r i e n d s .  Once he has become obscure  h i s f r i e n d s , he c a n a l s o d i s a p p e a r from t h e l o c a l  among  centre  w i t h o u t a t t r a c t i n g much a t t e n t i o n t o h i s w i t h d r a w a l . I n 1979, d u r i n g my f i e l d w o r k , a f o r m a l d i v i s i o n o f the b e l i e v e r s o f t h e l o c a l c e n t r e i n t o s m a l l groups o f 20-30 11 persons  ( c a l l e d han) was a b o l i s h e d because i t f a i l e d t o c r e a t e  a c o h e s i v e and e f f i c i e n t communication network among t h e believers.  T h i s system was i n e f f e c t u a l because  i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n based on p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n  another t i e s between  the b e l i e v e r s was, i n r e a l i t y , f u n c t i o n i n g more e f f e c t i v e l y . The way i n w h i c h these t i e s were formed i s t y p i c a l l y shown i n Nakane's d i a g r a m o f v e r t i c a l s o c i a l g r o u p s , based on t h e r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t  e s p e c i a l l y when  relationship.  Through t h e  close contact i n the recruitment a c t i v i t i e s , the r e c r u i t e r develops  a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g  w i t h , the r e c r u i t . the  recruit's  life  o f , and c o h e s i v e  relationship  The r e c r u i t e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge o f s t y l e permitted a swift transmission of  messages from t h e l o c a l c e n t r e t h r o u g h t i e s t o t h e bottom-ranked b e l i e v e r s . f a i l u r e i n the formal grouping  the person-to-person (See Diagram 1 4 ) . The  (han) was caused by t h e  -139-  unsuccessful linkage  among b e l i e v e r s  a l r e a d y woven i n t o t h e  p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n t i e s t o o t h e r independent b e l i e v e r s who d i d not  have a r e c r u i t e r .  Diagram 14  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  — recruitment T a b l e 6 shows t h a t n e a r l y ( c a t e g o r y 1) m a i n t a i n i n t i m a t e  relationship  507 o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s o  relationships with  r e c r u i t e r a f t e r becoming b e l i e v e r s .  their  I n my o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h e s e  p e o p l e d e v e l o p p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s based on f r e q u e n t mutual visits,  occasional  including informal ritual  exchange o f g i f t s ,  and p e r s o n a l  t a l k s on p r i v a t e m a t t e r s .  consultation  The p u r i f i c a t i o n  plays a large role i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r ,  in  p r i n c i p l e , i t has t o be performed as o f t e n as once a day, and i t s performance r e q u i r e s for  a partner.  I t g i v e s a good r e a s o n  an a c t i v e b e l i e v e r t o v i s i t o t h e r b e l i e v e r s  believers.  and p o t e n t i a l  Once t h e b e l i e v e r i s woven i n t o t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  he tends t o be h i g h l y dependent on the f e e l i n g o f i n t i m a c y  - 1 4 0 -  Table 6 Question:  What r e l a t i o n s h i p do y o u p e r s o n a l l y recruiter?  have w i t h  your  Answer: 1.  ( i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p ) I have a v e r y c l o s e r e l a t i o n ship. I see him/her o f t e n , have a p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n and ask f o r p e r s o n a l c o n s u l t a t i o n .  2.  ( c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p ) I o f t e n see him/her a t t h e c e n t r e and a l s o p r i v a t e l y , b u t I do n o t t a l k about personal matters.  3.  ( f a i r l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p ) I see him/her a t t h e l o c a l c e n t r e and e n j o y p a r t n e r s h i p f o r t h e p u r i f i cation r i t u a l .  4.  ( f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o n l y ) I see him/her a t t h e monthly p r a y e r s e s s i o n s .  5.  (remote r e l a t i o n s h i p ) I r a r e l y see him/her.  6.  ( f a m i l y member) My r e c r u i t e r i s my own f a m i l y member.  7.  ( p u b l i c a t i o n ) I was a t t r a c t e d t o SMBK t h r o u g h the p u b l i c i t y a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , I have no r e c r u i t e r .  8.  other  Type o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  intimate close f a i r l y close formal remote f a m i l y member publicity others  Total  Number o f Respondants  %  249 12 21 13 71 91 38 34  47.07 2.27 3.97 2.46 13.42 17.20 7.18 6.43  529  100.00  -141-  w i t h h i s r e c r u i t e r , and t o be s e c u r e d t o t h e SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n through f r i e n d s h i p . C a t e g o r y 6 (The r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e c r u i t e r i s h i s own f a m i l y member - 17%) may be added t o c a t e g o r y 1 . (The r e c r u i t e r and r e c r u i t keep an i n t i m a t e  relationship.)  However, t h e r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e same f a m i l y does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e such an i n t i m a t e as p e r s o n a l  c o n s u l t a t i o n on p r i v a t e m a t t e r s .  activity  Sometimes t h e  whole f a m i l y j o i n s SMBK so t h a t harmony and peace i n t h e household a r e maintained.  I n such a c a s e , t h e degree o f  i n v o l v e m e n t i n SMBK v a r i e s among t h e f a m i l y members; t h e r e c r u i t e r i s l i k e l y a dedicated  b e l i e v e r b u t o t h e r members'  i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e SMBK a c t i v i t i e s may be l o w e r t h a n t h e r e c r u i t e r o r even be a compromise.  Nevertheless,  i n s p i t e of  the v a r i e t y o f i n v o l v e m e n t among t h e f a m i l y members, c a t e g o r y 6  ( 1 7 7 , )  will  c o n s t i t u t e a part of the informal  organization.  T h e i r f a m i l y t i e keeps them p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e and t h e r e c r u i t e r w i l l n o t l o s e h i s r e c r u i t s as l o n g as t h e f a m i l y i s maintained.  Thus, t h e i n f o r m a l  c o v e r s about  6 4 7 o  t i e i n t h e SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n  of the b e l i e v e r s .  However, some problems remain. respondents  (  3  +  4  +  5  )  About 2 0 7 , o f t h e  have f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h an i n t i m a t e  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e r e c r u i t e r , t h e r e b y becoming p o t e n t i a l  -142-  dropouts.  About 107, (7 + 9) may be a c t i v e b e l i e v e r s but  u n f o r t u n a t e l y do n o t have r e c r u i t e r s .  Category  a t t r a c t e d by SMBK p u b l i c i t y t h r o u g h t h e M a i n  7 has been  Headquarters,  w h i l e c a t e g o r y 8 c o n s i s t s m o s t l y o f those who l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r r e c r u i t e r s because they have e i t h e r d i e d o r moved t o a remote p l a c e .  The b e l i e v e r s who do n o t have r e c r u i t e r s  are not n e c e s s a r i l y i n a c t i v e i n d o c t r i n a l a s s i m i l a t i o n .  How-  e v e r , t h e y tend t o drop o u t , because they o f t e n f a i l t o r e c e i v e the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n t o attend important but irregular activities.  They o f t e n become t o o i s o l a t e d  from  common p r i v i l e g e s g i v e n t h r o u g h i n t i m a t e i n t e r p e r s o n a l relationships. M o r i o k a r e p o r t s on t h i s a s p e c t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 12  h i s c l o s e study of K o s e i - k a i .  T h i s r e l i g i o u s movement  first  a c h i e v e d a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n i t s membership t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f v e r t i c a l t i e s based on t h e r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t relationship.  However, i t had t o r e f o r m i t s b a s i c o r g a n -  i z a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n from v e r t i c a l t i e s t o r e s i d e n t i a l i n g s , because t h e maintenance o f r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t  group-  relation-  s h i p became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t due t o a g r e a t i n t e r n a l m o b i l i t y w h i c h was g a i n e d as t h e movement expanded. example, ... I n consequence o f t h i s r e f o r m 84 numbered Tokyo branches gave up a l l t h e i r non-Tokyo members, f o r m a l l y d i s s o l v e d t h e m s e l v e s , and  For  -143-  t h e n r e o r g a n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s i n t o 25 branches b e a r i n g Tokyo ward names ... . ^ I t appears t o be a r u l e i n t h e r e l i g i o u s movement t h a t , w i t h the e x p a n s i o n o f t h e movement, t h e p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n  network  has t o be r e o r g a n i z e d on t h e b a s i s o f r e g i o n a l g r o u p i n g .  In  SMBK, i n 1982, when t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was r e f o r m e d , s i x A r e a D i r e c t o r s were newly a s s i g n e d , Japan was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x a r e a s , and t h e l o c a l c e n t r e s under each a r e a came t o b e l o n g t o a new c a t e g o r y o f " A r e a . " I n a n o t h e r example, t h e case o f Soka G a k k a i , each b e l i e v e r belongs s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o the r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t h i e r a r c h y and r e s i d e n t i a l g r o u p i n g s . obligatory.  Membership o f b o t h i s  Diagram 15 t a k e n from my M.A. paper shows t h e  basic structure.  The r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t h i e r a r c h y i s one o f  Nakane's t y p i c a l v e r t i c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h e r e s i d e n t i a l g r o u p i n g a t t h e l e v e l o f gurupu (group) i s e g a l i t a r i a n ( c l o s e t o Nakane's model o f h o r i z o n t a l organization).  social  The b i l a t e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e Soka G a k k a i  o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n which one p e r s o n i s d o u b l y d e f i n e d , i s a l s o a p p a r e n t i n SMBK. However, as i t s human r e l a t i o n s h i p s based on r e c r u i t m e n t r e m a i n i n f o r m a l , t h e SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n has d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from t h o s e o f Soka G a k k a i .  In  c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r r e l i g i o u s movements ( i n c l u d i n g Soka G a k k a i ) where t h e r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a v e r t i c a l one  _144-  Diagram 15 SOKA GAKKAI ORGANIZATION  (obligatory  t o a l l members)  Sakubuku L i n e ;  (1)  Sogo  (recruitorrecruit relationship)  (2) 4/ (3)  Chiho Honbu ( D i s t r i c t Head Q u a r t e r _ So S h i b u (Branches)  (4)  Chiku  (5)  Han  (6)  Kumi ( C i r c l e s under r e c r u i t o r s )  Honbu ( C e n t r a l Head  Quarter)  (Sections)  (Sub-sections)  (Model o f O r g a n i z a t i o n )  / I  O r  / (2)  /(l) I (2)  (3)  (3)  (2) ^ ( 2 )  (4) (4) (4) (4) //W (5) ( 5 ) ( 5 ) ( 5 ) ( 5 )  (4) (5)  (6) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) R e s i d e n t i a l Grouping:  Sogo So  (3)  (6)  Burokku ( I n t e g r a t i n g  Burokku ( C o l l e c t i v e B l o c k s )  D a i Burokku ( B i g B l o c k s )  I-  Sho  Blocks)  Burokku ( S m a l l B l o c k s )  I-  Gurupu  (Groups)  -145-  (analogous t o t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d  relationship  irreversible superior-inferior  orientation),  superior-inferior  i s made ambiguous t h r o u g h t h e  practice  relationship  i n which there i s i n SMBK, t h e  o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i n w h i c h t h e s u p e r i o r and  i n f e r i o r r o l e s a r e exchanged.  As t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s  r e p e a t e d l y performed and t h e r e c r u i t becomes f a m i l i a r w i t h the  idea of r o l e r e v e r s a l ,  the r e c r u i t u s u a l l y  extend the e g a l i t a r i a n i m p l i c a t i o n other aspects of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p the  recruit attains  begins t o  of the r o l e reversal  into  with h i s recruiter.  t h e advanced l e v e l , he o f t e n  When  formally  achieves equal status with h i s r e c r u i t e r , or p o s s i b l y  even  h i g h e r s t a t u s i f h i s r e c r u i t e r has n o t r e a c h e d t h a t l e v e l . t h i s way, t h e i n i t i a l v e r t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n  between t h e  r e c r u i t e r and r e c r u i t changes i n t o a more e g a l i t a r i a n s h i p as time p a s s e s . the  friend-  When t h e r e c r u i t e r and r e c r u i t meet a t  l o c a l c e n t r e , f o r example, i t i s n o t u s u a l l y  distinguish  In  possibly to  s u p e r i o r s from i n f e r i o r s by t h e i r manners.  This  does n o t mean, however, t h a t t h e y have f o r g o t t e n t h e i r r e c r u i t ment r e l a t i o n s h i p with status.  o r t h a t they a r e n o t p o l i t e o r n o t concerned  I n f a c t , t h e SMBK b e l i e v e r s  f a s h i o n e d i n t h e eyes o f l i b e r a l s believers  o f t e n appear o l d -  n o t o n l y because t h e  behave d i f f e r e n t l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s t a t u s b u t  a l s o because t h e y j u s t i f y t h e i r a c t s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Thus, among t h e r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s ,  formal status  differen-  -14 6-  A L e a f l e t Used  f o r Recruitment  (WW) wa *a*^=-j r  ^«va  a<=-«*>Nj°  x v  *6#*a*P<«.oJu:,'o,iJuV  vHKa->a->a«ut»->i)-< * S •« SC L! U *• < « SS E-J V i >o •I *<-o *  3 M •<* ¥•'  a'  • * u * -<*«•<i as<wav ->  rO I I J U 4 ;  *HS'  S H I S S S i a l g  H ^ *0 G  i;—tiav'  »<*•  i ° ^-i«gs*4)^(j;*jj'  _> -o  •ii-rS'T <a«*5-i'  _> *•« ^ K * s *» a *  !  u  • s s as* is  SMSSC* -*^**.'^ 1  6«=  S  %>  a  S f*K  * _> it z. a ) 5 -a u i 3i 1 *i W  S*iJI;3g-Ji.'a c «=• LI'  N * •6 «'T-  <«•  V  nn*|»^-)Wini-HS'iAj!j»i  i1  1  *  _><;=•- ^ n i i j ^ i ;  H• tft. » !" t  0  •  '«•«**'  •*iaSLi  S H T> *»  s<i«  -3 ^ -> V 3 * 2 -i"  1  «  * P* «  S  '  '  - 1 4 7 -  t i a t i o n and i n f o r m a l  friendship coexist; this  relationship  p e r m i t s the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r t o i n t e r p r e t h i s p o s i t i o n i n v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s ( i n h i s a c t and  awareness).  -148-  UPWARD MOBILITY F o r i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i d e o l o g y  i s a continuing  and emergent  p r o c e s s moving towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n " w h o l e n e s s " o f d i v i n e order,  and a c c o r d i n g l y ,  deeper engagement i n t h e SMBK paradigm.  Upward m o b i l i t y i s a f l o w o f b e l i e v e r s w i t h i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f power and knowledge. mobility: and  SMBK o f f e r s two a c c e s s e s f o r upward  the r e g u l a r access f o r the m a j o r i t y  the access through teaching  of b e l i e v e r s  under more r e s t r i c t i v e  conditions. 1.  Regular access Upward m o b i l i t y f o r r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s means t o j o i n  the body o f c l e r i c s f u l recruitment  (Seep.124 f o r d e f i n i t i o n ) t h r o u g h s u c c e s s -  activities.  (Diagram 4 ) .  T h i s a l s o means  t h a t b e l i e v e r s a c h i e v e membership t h r o u g h t h e more d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n SMBK d i v i n e o r d e r presumably embodied i n t h e formal  o r g a n i z a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h t h e i n f o r m a l and  e g a l i t a r i a n f r i e n d s h i p network.  Thus, b e l i e v e r s  experience  t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y h i e r a r c h i c a l as t h e y c l i m b up t h e s t r a t a . The  g o a l o f upward m o b i l i t y f o r t h e r e g u l a r  b e l i e v e r i s t o become t h e Head o f a l o c a l c e n t r e .  Usually  -149-  a f t e r reaching  t h e advanced l e v e l t h e owner o f a f a m i l y  i s encouraged t o i n v i t e h i s r e c r u i t s (considered occasions  and p e r s o n a l  friends  as p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r s ) t o h i s f a m i l y  and t o t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n  ritual.  prayer  I f he i s s u c c e s s f u l ,  h i s home i s made i n t o an o-kiyome-jo ( p u r i f i c a t i o n formal branch belonging  shrine  to his l o c a l centre.  site), a  When t h e number  of b e l i e v e r s o f h i s own b r a n c h c e n t r e r e a c h s 100, i t a c h i e v e s independence from i t s s u p e r i o r l o c a l c e n t r e and i t s e l f a new l o c a l c e n t r e . i t s Head.  The owner o f t h e s h r i n e n o r m a l l y  Therefore,  principle  the executive  becomes becomes  positions are i n  equally accessible to a l l regular believers. Achievement r a t e i n upward m o b i l i t y among r e g u l a r  b e l i e v e r i s as f o l l o w s (See Diagram 1 6 ) : T a b l e 7 shows t h a t about 807. o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (They w i l l  have i n s t a l l e d t h e SMBK f a m i l y  be mentioned as " h o l d e r . " )  The t a b l e a l s o shows  t h a t about 157, have n o t i n s t a l l e d t h e a l t a r . mentioned as " n o n - h o l d e r . " ) this questionnaire question  should  altar.  (They w i l l be  About 57. who have responded t o  b u t d i d n o t answer t h i s  particular  be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f n o n - h o l d e r ,  because t h e q u e s t i o n  a l l o w s o n l y a yes/no answer.  A l s o , some  b e l i e v e r s t o l d me t h a t they d i d n o t answer because they  felt,  too ashamed t o r e v e a l t h e f a c t t h a t they had n o t i n s t a l l e d the a l t a r .  Therefore,  t h e r a t i o between t h e h o l d e r and non-  -150-  DIAGRAM 16:  Membership D i f f e r e n c e s i n SMBK  S M B K  " hangers-on  Japanese s o c i e t y  -151-  h o l d e r i s 80% and 20%.  F u r t h e r m o r e , T a b l e 8 shows t h a t t h e  number o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y - l e v e l b e l i e v e r s a p p r o x i m a t e s 4 0 % o f the  t o t a l respondents.  This i n d i c a t e s that the elementary  l e v e l b e l i e v e r s c o n s i s t o f 207, h o l d e r s and 207, n o n - h o l d e r s . That i s , t h e f i r s t  20% have no a m b i t i o n f o r upward m o b i l i t y ,  because t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e a l t a r i s a major for  requirement  advancement, whereas a n o t h e r h a l f have a l r e a d y f u l f i l l e d  it.  C o n c e r n i n g t h e membership c o m p o s i t i o n i n a r e l i g i o u s movement i n J a p a n , M o r i o k a s a y s : A New R e l i g i o u s movement c o n s i s t s o f two p r i n c i p a l p a r t s : a c o r e group composed o f f o l l o w e r s who c o n t i n u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e movement, and a p e r i p h e r a l group composed o f t h o s e who cease t o p a r t i c i p a t e a f t e r a short time. I n a d d i t i o n , one c a n d i s t i n g u i s h a t r a n s i t i o n a l i n t e r mediate group. Accepting Morioka's g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , the non-holders of  t h e f a m i l y a l t a r , t h e bottom 207, o f t h e SMBK movement  s h o u l d be d e f i n e d as a p e r i p h e r a l group.  T h i s group s h o u l d  a l s o c o n s i s t o f a number o f p o t e n t i a l d r o p - o u t s .  The a n n u a l  t u r n - o v e r o f membership a t t h e l o c a l c e n t r e i n SBMK i s q u i t e high. as 80%,.  A t t h e Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e , f o r example,  i t i s as h i g h  T h i s means t h a t about 20 p e o p l e o u t o f 100 newly  i n i t i a t e d annual stay a t t h i s centre.  ( A t t h i s c e n t r e about  ten  p e o p l e a t t e n d t h e e l e m e n t a r y l e c t u r e s e s s i o n each t i m e .  The  s e s s i o n i s h e l d once a month a t most and about 10 t o 11  -152-  TABLE 7:  Q u e s t i o n "Have you i n s t a l l e d t h e SMBK f a m i l y Number * 468  80.27%  1.  Yes  2.  No  84  14.41%  3.  No answer  31  5.32%  583  100.00%  Total  altar?"  " Number o f r e s p o n d e n t s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . TABLE 8:  The l e v e l o f t h e l e c t u r e s e s s i o n o f the respondent Number 1.  elementary  2.  intermediate  3.  advanced l e v e l  4.  below e l e m e n t a r y  Total TABLE 9:  level level  level  236  40 . 48%  209  35 .85%  123  • 21 .10%  3  0 .51%  583  100 .00%  Q u e s t i o n "Have you i n s t a l l e d t h e SMBK f a m i l y Number 1.  Yes  401  68.78%  2.  No  124  21.27%  3.  No answer  _5_8  9.9 5%  583  100.00%  Total  shrine?"  -153-  times a year. )  A l a r g e p o r t i o n of the bottom 207, of  respondents ("peripheral group s h o u l d turn-over.  group") r e p r e s e n t i n g  the  the  peripheral  a l s o o v e r l a p w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of the  807,  I n o t h e r words, the members i n the bottom 207>  change c o n s t a n t l y .  This high turn-over  r a t e i s one  the M a i n H e a d q u a r t e r s does not keep a r e c o r d of believers.  The  l o c a l centre  reason  why  regular  up-to-date record i s p o s s i b l e only at  the  level.  I n s t a l l i n g a f a m i l y s h r i n e i s a g r e a t honour f o r the f a m i l y , because i t i s p e r m i t t e d been r e c o g n i z e d all  o n l y t o the b e l i e v e r who  as a 'master of the r i t u a l and  three l e v e l s .  the d o c t r i n e  Thus, T a b l e 8 shows t h a t about 217, of  r e s p o n d e n t s t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e shrine.  has  have i n s t a l l e d the  at  the  family  T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o the f i g u r e s i n T a b l e 2 w h i c h  shows t h a t about 217, have f i n i s h e d the a d v a n c e d - l e v e l l e c t u r e session.  I f we  f o l l o w Morioka's d i s t i n c t i o n ,  the c o r e group w h i c h has regular believers.  r e a c h e d the h i g h e s t  t h e s e 217, are l e v e l among the  They have a good chance to promote them-  s e l v e s t o be Heads of t h e i r own  l o c a l centres.  Since  a n o t h e r 207, c o n s t i t u t e the p e r i p h e r a l group, the 607, may  be d e f i n e d as the " t r a n s i t i o n a l  T h i s group a s p i r e s t o a h i g h e r  status.  remaining  intermediate" However, the  o v e r r a t e of t h i s group i s not c l e a r t o me.  I was  about  group. turn-  told  that  sometimes the Head of the l o c a l c e n t r e p e r m i t s a b e l i e v e r of  the i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l t o i n s t a l l a f a m i l y s h r i n e i f t h e Head r e c o g n i z e s h i m as an e x c e p t i o n a l l y good b e l i e v e r .  Such a  case appears t o be a r e a l e x c e p t i o n , and i t does n o t show i n the 2.  statistics. Access through  teaching  I n 1982, s i x d i r e c t o r s o u t o f t w e l v e , and t h i r t e e n Heads o f l o c a l c e n t r e s o u t o f one hundred and t e n , were former teachers.  The r e a s o n why as many as h a l f t h e number o f  D i r e c t o r s were f o r m e r t e a c h e r s was t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l f o l l o w e r s of t h e f o u n d e r  o f SMBK were a l l c o n s i d e r e d t o be t e a c h e r s .  Those who w i s h t o be on t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f a r e asked t o s t a r t t h e i r c a r e e r by l i v i n g i n t h e SMBK s c h o o l f o r one y e a r f o r i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g . they s h o u l d be s e g r e g a t e d that of t h e i r  During  this period, ideally,  from any o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e i n c l u d i n g  families.  The SMBK s c h o o l s t a r t e d i n 197 5. students  i n t h e annual  c u r r i c u l u m f o r the f i r s t four years  s i n c e 1975 was about f o u r . to f o r t y - f i v e . and  The number o f t h e  However, s i n c e 1979, i t has jumped  I n 1981, f o r t y n i n e s t u d e n t s were  f o r t y - s i x graduated.  admitted,  I n 1982, t h e number o f s t u d e n t s - i n -  p r a c t i c e i s f o r t y - s i x , that of the a s s i s t a n t teacher seven, and t h a t o f t h e t e a c h e r  seventy-one.  thirty-  (From M a h i k a r i M a g a z i n e ,  1982,January)  -156-  The a d m i t t a n c e p r o c e d u r e t o t h e SMBK s c h o o l i s as follows:  The b a s i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e  applicant i s presently a believer. i s g i v e n o n l y once a y e a r .  The e n t r a n c e  examination  I t i s i n two p a r t s , and a l l  b e l i e v e r s a r e n o t i f i e d o f i t s d a t e s and c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h the l o c a l c e n t r e s .  The two p a r t s o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n a r e :  a  comprehensive e x a m i n a t i o n on t h e s e c u l a r and d i v i n e knowledge 15 (5:00-7:00 p.m. n o r m a l l y a f t e r O h a r a i - s a i i n December); and an o r a l e x a m i n a t i o n on p e r s o n a l i t y  (5:00-7:00 p.m. n o r m a l l y  16  after Risshun-sai  i n February).  The comprehensive  e x a m i n a t i o n i s g i v e n t o t e s t t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s a b i l i t y t o master the SMBK d o c t r i n e and t o t e a c h i t t o o t h e r s i n t h e f u t u r e . The d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y , r e v e a l e d by t h e o r a l i s harmonious, s p i r i t u a l ,  and p r a c t i c a l .  examination,  The harmonious  a s p e c t i s i m p o r t a n t because t e a c h i n g s t a f f a r e e x p e c t e d t o " l i v e i n " t h e l o c a l c e n t r e and t h e c a n d i d a t e has t o p r e p a r e f o r t h i s through the c o l l e c t i v e process of education a t the SMBK s c h o o l .  The p r a c t i c a l  aspect of p e r s o n a l i t y i s another  i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t , because t h e SMBK s c h o o l t r i e s t o a v o i d t h o s e who s e p a r a t e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e as two u n r e l a t e d spheres o f l i f e .  The SMBK b e l i e v e r s c o n s i d e r t h i s type o f  p e r s o n t o be one who " l e a r n s by head n o t by body."  This  means t h a t he c a n u n d e r s t a n d b u t does n o t a c t on h i s unders t a n d i n g , o r does n o t even imagine t h a t a change i n under-  -157-  s t a n d i n g r e q u i r e s a change i n a c t i o n .  The SMBK p e o p l e tend t o  d i s m i s s t h i s type o f p e r s o n as an i n t e l l e c t u a l . Those a p p l i c a n t s who have passed  the entrance  e x a m i n a t i o n r e c e i v e a n o t i c e by m a i l i n March and then b e g i n one y e a r o f f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g .  The c u r r i c u l u m i s d i v i d e d  into  two p e r i o d s , one from A p r i l t o September ( o r O c t o b e r ) and t h e o t h e r from October be c a l l e d  ( o r November) t o M a r c h . ^  "the f i r s t  f o r convenience.)  (The former may  term" and t h e l a t t e r "the second  From 1979 t o 1980,  c u r r i c u l u m r a n as f o l l o w s : students, c a l l e d  7  term"  t h e SMBK s c h o o l  i n the f i r s t  term t h e SMBK s c h o o l  k u n r e n - s e i ( c a n d i d a t e - s t u d e n t s ) , were o r d e r e d  to l i v e i n t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g i n Tokyo.  I n t h e mornings they  a t t e n d e d a l e c t u r e on d o c t r i n e , and i n t h e a f t e r n o o n s  they  were s e n t t o t h e l o c a l c e n t r e s i n and near Tokyo t o expose themselves  t o t h e d o c t r i n a l and r i t u a l i n t e r c o u r s e o f t h e  regular believers. Koganei  I n my f i e l d w o r k d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e  l o c a l c e n t r e r e c e i v e d two c a n d i d a t e - s t u d e n t s f i v e o r  s i x days a week, from about 3:00-6:00 p.m.  I n t h e second  term, t h e c a n d i d a t e - s t u d e n t s were o r d e r e d t o l i v e i n l o c a l c e n t r e s throughout l i v e - i n style staff.  Japan i n o r d e r t o t r a i n themselves  f o r the  of s e r v i c e normally r e q u i r e d f o r the teaching  They a r e o b l i g a t e d t o g a t h e r a t t h e M a i n  Headquarters  i n Tokyo f o r monthly and a n n u a l p r a y e r s e s s i o n s .  I n t h i s way  they keep i n c o n t a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r , and a r e e x p e c t e d t o  -158-  r e m a i n f r i e n d s w h i l e r e c e i v i n g some g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s from t h e D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n and T r a i n i n g . The c u r r i c u l u m was changed d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f my fieldwork.  From 1980-1981 t h e t r a i n i n g c o n t e n t o f t h e f i r s t  term and t h e second term was r e v e r s e d .  From May t o O c t o b e r  the c a n d i d a t e - s t u d e n t s were sent t o l i v e i n l o c a l c e n t r e s a f t e r a one-month t r a i n i n g p e r i o d i n d a i l y - l i f e manners, instead of f i r s t  l e a r n i n g t h e d o c t r i n e a t t h e SMBK s c h o o l .  The r a t i o n a l e g i v e n f o r t h i s change was " e x p e r i e n c e  first,  explanation next." A f t e r g r a d u a t i o n from t h i s s c h o o l , b e f o r e becoming an SMBK t e a c h e r , t h e r e a r e s t i l l more s t e p s t o t a k e : f o l l o w i n g graduation, the candidate-student i s given the status jisshu-sei  ( s t u d e n t - i n - p r a c t i c e ) and u s u a l l y spends one more  year l i v i n g i n a l o c a l centre.  Then he w i l l  go on t o a h i g h e r s t a t u s e n t i t l e d d o s h i - h o for  another year.  be p e r m i t t e d t o  (assistant  teacher)  A f t e r a l l t h e s e s t e p s he i s n o r m a l l y  a p p o i n t e d t o be d o s h i ( t e a c h e r ) , a l t h o u g h he b e g i n s w i t h t h e t i t l e o f n i - k y u d o s h i (second c l a s s t e a c h e r ) , and i t t a k e s one or more y e a r s t o r e a c h t h e s t a t u s o f i - k k y u d o s h i ( f i r s t teacher).  class  SOME F L E X I B I L I T I E S Upward m o b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o a p e r s o n a l s h i p w h i c h may the c l o s e and  relation-  be named a c r o s s - s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The  h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p f u n c t i o n s depends  the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s :  f i r s t , i n SMBK, any  on  recognition  from a s u p e r i o r  ( e i t h e r d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t ) i s considered  be h o n o u r a b l e .  The  to  most e x p l i c i t example i s the a t t e n t i o n  g i v e n by the L o r d - t e a c h e r S e k i g u c h i :  i t i s an honour f o r  r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s even t o r e c e i v e a few k i n d words from because the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r i s not a l l o w e d Besides,  way  him,  t o ask f o r them.  the L o r d - t e a c h e r r a r e l y speaks t o r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s .  Sometimes a f t e r a p r a y e r  s e s s i o n , the L o r d - t e a c h e r shakes  hands w i t h r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i n o r d e r  t o show h i s a f f e c t i o n  towards them.  Even i n t h i s o c c a s i o n  they are not  speak t o him.  O v e r t f r i e n d l i n e s s from them t o him  supposed t o  as a r e q u e s t f o r more a t t e n t i o n from him w h i c h w i l l i n t e r p r e t e d as a p u b l i c d i s p l a y of a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h him. aggressive  i s regarded likely  be  personal  T h i s a c t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  t o be  an  one. The  second c o n d i t i o n f o r the c l o s e and h i e r a r c h i c a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are a l s o accompanied by p e r s o n a l  i n v o l v e m e n t (The  opposite  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  true.)  -160-  The  Lord-teacher  giving  close  attention  followers.  ( M a h i k a r i M a g a z i n e , 1979,  May)  to h i s  -161-  the f a i l u r e  i n mutual and p e r s o n a l  f a i l u r e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  i n v o l v e m e n t means the  F o r example, t h e D i r e c t o r s and most  Heads a r e n o t o n l y l o n g - s t a n d i n g  members o f SMBK but a l s o  are g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o have had an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the deceased f i r s t l e a d e r , L o r d - s a v i o r considered  t o have been e l e v a t e d  p o s i t i o n s are authorized  Okada  to a d i v i n i t y ) .  i n t h i s way.  Under such  (now Their circumstances,  i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e members t o pay a c t i v e and personal  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e b e l i e v e r s who may  potentially  c o n t r i b u t e t o the e x p a n s i o n o f t h e SMBK movement. l o c a l centre  t h i s i s v i g o r o u s l y done, because t h e Head i s  close to regular b e l i e v e r s . and  Within a  Between the Main H e a d q u a r t e r s  the l o c a l c e n t r e , r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s who have been  recognized  as h a v i n g a h i g h commitment  to recruitment  activity  are o c c a s i o n a l l y sent t o the M a i n H e a d q u a r t e r s t o s e r v e the Central Shrine.  T h i s c r e a t e s a chance f o r D i r e c t o r s t o  d e v e l o p a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them, t o encourage them t o promote t h e m s e l v e s t o be Heads, and a l s o t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e s e p o t e n t i a l Heads.  Therefore,  by the time  a b e l i e v e r a c h i e v e s the p o s i t i o n o f Head, h i s p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e D i r e c t o r s has a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d . Thus, i n t i m a c y  or personal  closeness  m a i n l y f u n c t i o n s i n two  ways: 1.  Among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s , i t t i e s the r e c r u i t e r and  -162-  the r e c r u i t i n a h i g h l y e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p . 2.  Between an e x e c u t i v e  member and a r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r ,  i t f u n c t i o n s t o s t i m u l a t e upward m o b i l i t y o f t h e SMBK h i e r a r c h y . These two f u n c t i o n s o f i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s may c o n f u s e r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s , because b o t h f u n c t i o n s d e r i v e from t h e twof o l d d e f i n i t i o n of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  I t o f f e r s to the  r e c r u i t t o d e v e l o p an e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e r e c r u i t e r , b u t t h e r e c r u i t must r e l i n q u i s h i t as he g a i n s upward m o b i l i t y t h r o u g h t h e p e r f ormance o f t h e same p u r i f i c a t i o n ritual. A n o t h e r element o f a m b i g u i t y i s t h e f a c t t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y c o u n t s g r e a t l y i n i n f o r m a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s i s t h e a s p e c t p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c i z e d by Nakane as b e i n g indigenous,  e m o t i o n a l and, t h e r e f o r e , i r r a t i o n a l .  we d e f i n e p e r s o n a l i t y as a l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y person r e l a t e s himself  to the world  combination of repressed r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f them — irrational. personal  —  However, i f  i n which the  r a t h e r than the  d e s i r e s and t h e e f f o r t o f s u r f a c e i t s involvement i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  The p o i n t i s t h a t anyone i n an i n f o r m a l and  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e q u i r e d t o master t h e way t o d e a l  with personal  diversity.  I n t h e SMBK movement, t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n  r i t u a l o f f e r s an e s t a b l i s h e d and s t y l i z e d means t o master such human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  ( C h a p t e r V)  -163-  I n t h e l o c a l c e n t r e , t h e c l o s e and p e r s o n a l  attention  g i v e n by t h e s u p e r i o r c r e a t e s a d o u b l e exposure o f a r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r t o two a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e t e a c h i n g T h i s d o u b l e exposure t o h i g h e r  s t a f f and t h e Head.  a u t h o r i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t  s t a t u s e s becomes d i s t i n c t i v e when i t o c c u r s between r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s and c l e r i c s , because human r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e regular believers are highly e g a l i t a r i a n . T a b l e 10 shows t h e p r e f e r e n c e b e l i e v e r f o r personal  of the r e g u l a r  c o n s u l t a t i o n and a d v i c e .  (The t o t a l o f  the t a b l e exceeds t h e t o t a l number o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s because the c a l c u l a t i o n i n c l u d e s cases i n w h i c h one r e s p o n d e n t gave more t h a n one answer.) preferred consultant  According  t o t h i s t a b l e t h e most  i s t h e Head o f t h e l o c a l c e n t r e , i n  s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Head i s u s u a l l y engaged i n h i s own s e c u l a r j o b and h i s v i s i t s t o t h e l o c a l c e n t r e a r e r a t h e r l i m i t e d , and t h a t t h e l i v e - i n t e a c h e r s  a r e always a v a i l a b l e .  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e h i g h r a t e o f c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e Head a l s o i n d i c a t e s an easy a c c e s s t o him.  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y  t r u e a t t h e Koganei c e n t r e , because t h e Head o f t e n s a t w i t h r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s e i t h e r s h a r i n g t h e same f o o d o r t a l k i n g c a s u a l l y about d o c t r i n a l m a t t e r s .  This  element o f i n s e c u r i t y t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s  s i t u a t i o n adds an position.  I n some  c a s e s , h i s a u t h o r i t y over r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i s undermined i f a r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r c o m p l a i n s t o t h e Head.  The power s t r u c t u r e  -164-  TABLE 10:  P r e f e r r e d P e r s o n a l C o n s u l t a n t i n SMBK Number o f respondents  1.  Head  288  38.82  2.  Teacher  220  29.65  3.  Recruiter  143  19.27  4.  Other  74  9.97  5.  None  17  2.29  742  100.00  Total  -165-  i n t h e l o c a l c e n t r e i n t h i s r e s p e c t may be diagrammed as follows:  Head teacher  regular believers  T a b l e 11 shows t h e way i n w h i c h b e l i e v e r s r e l a t e t o their superiors. doubt,  2 7 %  When an o r d e r from t h e s u p e r i o r comes i n t o  o f b e l i e v e r s s i m p l y obey t h e o r d e r ,  3 2 7 o  ask  q u e s t i o n s b u t obey, 1 1 % go t o a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y , b u t o n l y l e s s t h a n 1%, r e j e c t t h e o r d e r .  I n o t h e r words, once t h e o r d e r  i s g i v e n , the b e l i e v e r s normally accept i t .  Therefore, the  m a j o r i t y c o n s i d e r t h a t a d i s a g r e e m e n t between a s u p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r i s (and s h o u l d be) r e s o l v e d by t h e two d i r e c t l y involved.  T h i s s u p p o r t s Nakane's argument t h a t i n such a  h i e r a r c h i c a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p , as has been e x p l a i n e d i n Diagram 14 ( p . 1 1 0 ) , a p e r s o n has a c c e s s t o power o n l y his direct superior.  through  However, a c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 11 more than  one o u t o f t e n SMBK b e l i e v e r s assume t h a t i t i s p r o p e r t o b r i n g the issue to a higher a u t h o r i t y . ambiguity  T h i s c r e a t e s an  i n t h e power s t r u c t u r e and sometimes p u t s t h e d i r e c t  s u p e r i o r i n an a m b i v a l e n t  p o s i t i o n with r e l a t i o n to h i s  -166-  TABLE 11:  What would you do when you do n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e o r d e r from y o u r s u p e r i o r i s a r i g h t  one?  Answers:  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  1.  ( o b e d i e n c e ) I would obey w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n i n g .  2.  (agreement) I would i m m e d i a t e l y ask f o r r e a s o n and c l a r i f y the point.  3.  ( w i t h d r a w a l ) I would a s k my s u p e r i o r t o e x c l u d e me from t h e a c t i v i t y .  4.  ( h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y ) I would go and a s k q u e s t i o n s t o the p e r s o n o f h i g h e r s t a t u s t h a n my s u p e r i o r .  5.  other  6.  no answer  obedience agreement withdrawal higher authority other no answer  Total  Number o f Respondents  %  157 139 5 65 37 130  26.93 32.42 0.86 11.15 6.35 22.30  583  100.00  -167-  superior.  The t e a c h e r ' s p o s i t i o n  d i s t i n c t i v e example o f t h i s s o r t .  at the l o c a l centre i s a However, t h e a m b i g u i t y  remains w i t h i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l o r l i m i n a l sphere i n SMBK, and does n o t j e o p a r d i z e t h e o v e r - a l l r e l i g i o u s system.  frameworks o f t h e SMBK  -163-  NOTES  1  C . Nakane, 1970, p. 154.  2 C. Nakane, 1967. The d i r e c t quotes from t h i s r e f e r e n c e w h i c h f o l l o w were t r a n s l a t e d by K. Miyanaga and S. P a r r . 3 N. Nagashima, 1977, pp. 185-216. (The q u o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese t o E n g l i s h by K. Miyanaga.) 4 R. B e n e d i c t , 1946. F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on g i r i , see C h a p t e r V. ^ T h i s answer was s t r i k i n g t o some o f my Japanese c o l l e g u e s s t u d y i n g s o c i o l o g y o f r e l i g i o n , because i t i s w i d e l y b e l i e v e d among s o c i o l o g i s t s t h a t h e r g e n e r a t i o n has l o s t any c o n c e r n w i t h t h e r e c i p r o c a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 6 S e k i g u c h i s a n o r sama, o r even S e k i g u c h i not used among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . 7 8  9  =4 -±  A  -*  %  %  10 ¥\  $t  s h i it*f) i s  %  11 y j t Kc5sei-kai i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n o f R i s s h o K o s e i - k a i . K. M o r i o k a , 1980, p. 249.  -169-  1 4  I b i d . , p. 239.  15  O h a r a i - s a i : The a n n u a l p r a y e r s e s s i o n t o p u r i f y t h e d i r t - p o i s o n accumulated f o r the year. 16 Risshun-sai: The a n n u a l p r a y e r s e s s i o n h e l d on t h e f i r s t day o f s p r i n g , i n o r d e r t o p u r i f y t h e " o r i g i n a l s i n . " (See C h a p t e r IV f o r t h e " o r i g i n a l s i n . " ) 17 The academic y e a r i n J a p a n n o r m a l l y runs from A p r i l t o March. 18  — — — The t i t l e s , i k k y u and n i k y u d o s h i were a b o l i s h e d a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f t h e f i r s t leader"^ t h e L o r d - s a v i o r Okada.  -170-  CHAPTER IV: SMBK DOCTRINE  CONTAINMENT OF EQUALITY IN HIERARCHY  -171-  The  SMBK r e l i g i o u s system i s a h i e r a r c h y o f power and  knowledge w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f f o r m a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n as t h e t o p  s t r u c t u r e and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as t h e bottom s t r u c t u r e . The  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s system c o r r e s p o n d s t o  the c o m p o s i t i o n o f SMBK d o c t r i n e .  Cosmology  justifies  h i e r a r c h y whereas o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y demands an e g a l i t a r i a n p r a c t i s e o f compassion.  However, t h e r e i s a s t r u c t u r a l  d i f f e r e n c e i n c o m p o s i t i o n between membership o r g a n i z a t i o n and doctrine.  I n d o c t r i n e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two  components i s c o n t a i n m e n t ; o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s c o n t a i n e d i n cosmology.  I n c o n t r a s t , formal  are o n l y j u x t a p o s e d . provides  explanation  Nevertheless,  and i n f o r m a l  organizations  because t h e d o c t r i n e  f o r t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s system, t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r m a l  and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s  c o n c e i v e d as p a r a l l e l t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between cosmology and  operational morality.  T h i s i s t h e r e a s o n why t h e f o r m a l  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n the informal o r g a n i z a t i o n i s f u n c t i o n a l l y o n l y n o m i n a l b u t does have an i d e o l o g i c a l meaning.  When t h e  membership o r g a n i z a t i o n i s viewed t h r o u g h t h e SBMK d o c t r i n e , i t appears as i f t h e i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n were w i t h i n the formal  organization.  contained  Thus, i n SMBK, t h e membership  o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e d o c t r i n e a r e c o n c e i v e d as p a r a l l e l t o each o t h e r .  Therefore,  t h e s h i f t from e q u a l i t y t o h i e r a r c h y  -172-  i n upward m o b i l i t y o c c u r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n b o t h  spheres.  (Diagram 1 7 ) . In t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e , cosmology i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the r e l i g i o u s paradigm.  Because r e l i g i o n  r e f e r s t o "wholeness  (Chapter I ) , t h e SMBK cosmology a l s o a s c r i b e s "wholeness" to t h e d i v i n e o r d e r . logical  completion.  The n o t i o n o f "wholeness" i n d i c a t e s T h i s means t h a t t h e p a r t o f r e l i g i o u s  d o c t r i n e w h i c h s u b s c r i b e s t o t h e "wholeness" o f d i v i n e o r d e r i framed i n a c o m p l e t e l y d e d u c t i v e l o g i c and i s n o t s u b j e c t t o e m p i r i c a l examination.  T h e r e f o r e , a p a r t i c u l a r myth o f  c r e a t i o n i s l o g i c a l l y necessary  f o r the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of  e x i s t e n c e as a p e r c e i v e d r e a l i t y .  I t may be t h e p r o d u c t o f  one  That i s , t h e o r d e r i s  e s s e n t i a l being, the Creator.  c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e C r e a t o r ' s w i l l .  However  o r d e r may a l s o have been b o r n from a s t a t e w h i c h i s n o t order, such as chaos, as i n Greek mythology.  I n the l a t t e r case, the  p r o c e s s i s j u s t i f i e d because i t happened. T h e r e f o r e , t h e d i v i n e o r d e r may be e x p r e s s e d  i n the  form o f t h e c o s m o l o g i c a l o r d e r as i t i s b e l i e v e d t o be and/or as t h e w i l l  o f t h e omnipotent d i v i n i t y who r u l e s t h e cosmos.  When t h e w i l l poor.  i s emphasized, t h e image o f t h e cosmos may be  On t h e o t h e r hand, s i n c e t h e s t a t e o f t h e o r d e r i s  u s u a l l y t h e main f o c u s , d o c t r i n e n o r m a l l y c o n t a i n s an e l a b o r a t e cosmology.  As may be seen i n a v a r i e t y o f  -173-  DIAGRAM 17:  U n i l i n e a l P r o c e s s o f Upward M o b i l i t y Through t h e H i e r a r c h y o f Power and Knowledge  the wider  society  m y t h o l o g i e s , the cosmos i s g e n e r a l l y viewed as a pantheon.^- I t c o n s i s t s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d i v i n i t i e s , s p i r i t s , s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s , heroes and human b e i n g s .  The  s t a t e of the cosmos and w i l l of the d i v i n i t y may w e l l be combined, as i s the case i n SMBK. An example of an e l a b o r a t e cosmology, i n w h i c h the pantheon i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f o r d e r c o n s i d e r e d t o have been b o r n from n o n - o r d e r , and i n w h i c h the cosmos i s t y p i c a l l y viewed as an o r d e r o f s t a t i c power, i s p r o v i d e d by the M i c h i H i r a k i , a s e l f - p r o c l a i m i n g S h i n t o t h e o r i s t group, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a cosmology q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t of SMBK but f a r more e l a b o r a t e and d e t a i l e d . m i c h i meaning the  "way"  I t s name means " o p e n i n g a way"  and h i r a k i meaning  case i n A s i a , the "way"  human b e i n g . "  "opening."  means the " p r o p e r way  with  As i s o f t e n t o be a  The M i c h i H i r a k i d o c t r i n e shows " t h e way,"  p o s i t i o n i n g the b e l i e v e r i n a f i n e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  by  pantheon.  The d o c t r i n e i s independent of e m p i r i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n because it  s t a n d s on the myth of c r e a t i o n .  c o n t a i n e d i n the d o c t r i n e becomes  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the l o g i c self-sufficient.  The M i c h i H i r a k i pantheon may The supreme d i v i n i t y  i s a pure s p i r i t w h i c h f i l l s  but does not have a t a n g i b l e "body." morphic f i g u r e .  be b r i e f l y s k e t c h e d . the cosmos  He i s not an a n t h r o p o -  I n c o n t r a s t , a t the bottom l e v e l of the  pantheon, i n f e r i o r d i v i n i t i e s have human-like appearances.  -175-  Between t h e s e two, t h e pantheon d e v e l o p s as v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f p u r i t y / d e f i l e m e n t i n combination.  I n t h i s pantheonic order,  the t a n g i b i l i t y o f t h e "body" o f t h e d i v i n i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r a l l e l  t o t h e degree o f d e f i l e m e n t .  o r d e r , viewed as a pantheon, of  the d i v i n i t i e s .  This  spatial  also i n d i c a t e s the b i r t h  That i s , t h e s p a t i a l  order  o r d e r and t h e b i r t h  o r d e r c o r r e s p o n d w i t h one a n o t h e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y of  the higher d i v i n i t y i n r e l a t i o n  to the lower.  Thus, t h e  supreme d i v i n i t y i s t h e p a r e n t o f t h e d i v i n i t i e s i n t h e second l e v e l o f t h e pantheon and t h e s e c o n d - l e v e l d i v i n i t i e s are contained i n the parent; the second-level d i v i n i t i e s are t h e p a r e n t s o f those i n t h e t h i r d l e v e l ; t h e t h i r d - l e v e l d i v i n i t i e s a r e t h e p a r e n t s o f t h o s e i n t h e f o u r t h l e v e l , and so on.  I n t h i s way, t h e pantheon a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s a k i n s h i p  map o f t h e d i v i n i t i e s .  Each human b e i n g i n t h i s k i n s h i p map  is s p i r i t u a l l y tied to a particular  p a r e n t d i v i n i t y from whom  the human b e i n g has been g i v e n s p i r i t .  As each d i v i n i t y i s  c o n s i d e r e d t o embody a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y ,  the q u a l i t y  parent d i v i n i t y determines  that of the c h i l d .  i s a l s o assumed t o be r e f l e c t e d example, because t h e i n s p i r a t i o n  This  of the quality  i n t h e name o f t h e c h i l d , f o r from t h e p a r e n t  divinity  c o n t r o l s t h e naming t h r o u g h t h e human p a r e n t s and/or relatives. When I s t u d i e d t h e M i c h i H i r a k i  d o c t r i n e w i t h the  -176-  female  l e a d e r o f t h i s group, she s a i d t h a t I was p r e d e s t i n e d  t o be i n a n t h r o p o l o g y country or n a t i o n . broader  because my p e r s o n a l name, K u n i k o , means  According to her, anthropology  i na  sense i s t h e study o f human n a t u r e , w h i c h i s a l s o t h e  study o f t h e n a t i o n a l o r i g i n o f human n a t u r e i n a more s p e c i f i c sense.  She i n s i s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t my name g u i d e d  me i n t o a n t h r o p o l o g y .  She a l s o t o l d me t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r  female d i v i n i t y o f wisdom i s my p a r e n t d i v i n i t y .  According to  h e r , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i v i n i t y was a l s o h e r own s p i r i t u a l parent.  T h e r e f o r e , we were s p i r i t u a l k i n .  However, she  added t h a t she was a d i r e c t descendant w h i l e I was a f i g u r e o f an i n f e r i o r s i d e - s t r e a m . d o c t r i n e t o me.  That was why she was t e a c h i n g h e r  Thus, when one f i n d s one's own p a r e n t  d i v i n i t y i n t h e pantheon, one a l s o f i n d s one's p o s i t i o n i n i t . That i s , one f i n d s one's own f a t e . . T h i s f a t e , from an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , may be i n t e r p r e t e d as s e l f - i d e n t i t y . Although  t h e M i c h i H i r a k i l e a d e r emphasizes t h a t  her f o l l o w e r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o r e g u l a t e t h e i r p e r s o n a l based on t h e i r knowledge o f t h e cosmos, they expressed  difficulties.  themselves  When I was s t u d y i n g t h e d o c t r i n e  w i t h h e r , h e r f o l l o w e r s sometimes t e l e p h o n e d d e a l w i t h t h e i r d a i l y l i f e problems. a pragmatic  t o ask h e r how t o  I n s t e a d o f g i v i n g them  s o l u t i o n , she emphasized t h a t t h e y s h o u l d  the d o c t r i n e more d e e p l y .  lives  study  I n o t h e r words, t h e M i c h i H i r a k i  d o c t r i n e does not p r o v i d e an o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y  which  d i r e c t l y r e g u l a t e s d a i l y l i f e t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f c l e a cut  principles.  I would l i k e  to c o r r o b o r a t e t h i s p o i n t w i t h  the f o l l o w i n g JRKK example. JRKK i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r J i s s e n R i n r i K o s e i K a i w h i c h may  be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h as the " A s s o c i a t i o n of  Practical Ethics." Kai  T h i s group i s more w i d e l y known as A s a o k i  ( E a r l y B i r d A s s o c i a t i o n ) because they meet e a r l y f o r  sessions.  The b e l i e v e r s have r e g u l a r p u b l i c c o n f e s s i o n  s e s s i o n s among themselves e v e r y morning b e f o r e t h e i r  daily  j o b s , most commonly from 5:00  content  of  a.m.  t o 6:00  a.m.  The  t h e i r m o r a l i t y i s dependent on such common sense norms as  r e s p e c t f o r p a r e n t s , p r a c t i c e o f s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , harmony, independence,  happiness, v i t a l i t y ,  p r a c t i c a l i t y , etc.  These  moral a s p e c t s do not have any f u r t h e r i n t e g r a t i n g t h e o r y and are  reduced t o f i v e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h s h o u l d be r e c i t e d  morning. 1.  A l l day t o d a y , I w i l l work g l a d l y f o r t h r e e o n * ( s o c i a l on, t e a c h e r ' s on, p a r e n t o n ) :  2.  A l l day t o d a y , I w i l l not c r i t i c i z e w i l l not advocate my good deeds.  3.  A l l day t o d a y , I w i l l do i m m e d i a t e l y w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n whatever I n o t i c e I s h o u l d do.  4.  A l l day t o d a y , I w i l l not be a n g r y , and be s a t i s f i e d .  5.  A l l day t o d a y , I w i l l  live  newly and  others,  will  strongly  every  -178-  on e a r t h w i t h o u t t h r e e abuses (abuse o f 3 m a t e r i a l s , abuse o f t i m e , abuse o f mind). A l t h o u g h JRKK has been r e g i s t e r e d w i t h t h e Government as a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n , and has a l s o been c a t e g o r i z e d as one o f t h e New R e l i g i o n s  by a c a d e m i c s ,  b e l i e v e r s o f JRKK o f t e n emphasize  t h a t JRKK i s n o t a r e l i g i o n  but a m o r a l campaign.  senior  The r e a s o n may be as f o l l o w s :  As  r e l i g i o n has been condemned as a f a l s e i d e o l o g y s i n c e t h e end of World War I I , i t i s n o t u n u s u a l t h a t r e l i g i o u s p e o p l e a d v o c a t e t h e m s e l v e s as " s c i e n t i f i c e n l i g h t e n i s t . "  Even SMBK  c l a i m s t o be one, a l t h o u g h t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y because, t o o u t s i d e r s , i t s heavy i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n appears t o o i r r a t i o n a l  t o be s c i e n t i f i c .  The  JRKK's case has an advantage compared t o SMBK because JRKK's d o c t r i n e c o n s i s t s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o f moral p r i n c i p l e s .  The  o n l y e x c e p t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n i n JRKK i s n a t u r e ( o r N a t u r e ) ; but t h i s i s n o t f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t e d i n t o a cosmology,  even  though i t f u n c t i o n s t o j u s t i f y t h e moral p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e same way as t h e SMBK cosmology does.  I n JRKK n a t u r e ( o r  N a t u r e ) i s n o t viewed i n imagery b u t i s used i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: get  " I t i s n a t u r a l t o r e s p e c t your p a r e n t s . "  o r "You c a n  up e a r l y i n t h e morning w i t h no d i f f i c u l t y once i t becomes  a n a t u r a l way (because i t s h o u l d b e ) . " When t h e JRKK b e l i e v e r s say t h a t they a r e n o t  -179-  r e l i g i o u s , they a r e t r y i n g t o d e f i n e themselves as e n l i g h t enists.  However, they a c t i v e l y a d v o c a t e themselves as  s y m p a t h i z e r s o f r e l i g i o n by s a y i n g the gate t o r e l i g i o n . "  that t h e i r doctrine  "opens  I n t h i s way they t a c t f u l l y t r y t o  a c h i e v e a n o n - r e l i g i o u s p o s i t i o n , a l t h o u g h they a r e i n f a v o u r of r e l i g i o n .  T h i s p o s i t i o n i n g o f JRKK may a l s o have  h i s t o r i c a l roots i n Confucian t r a d i t i o n .  F o r a l o n g time u n t i l  r e c e n t l y , as a r u l i n g c l a s s i d e o l o g y , C o n f u c i a n i s m o c c u p i e d an i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n i n Japanese s o c i e t y .  Its basic doctrinal  o r i e n t a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o JRKK because o f i t s l a c k o f cosmology and p r o m o t i o n o f e t h i c s as a n a t u r a l way. A problem a r i s e s when a d o c t r i n e c o n t a i n s elaborate  cosmology and a d e v e l o p e d o p e r a t i o n a l  b o t h an  morality.  There can be a l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n between t h e cosmology and  the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y .  The o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s a  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f d a i l y l i f e r e a l i t y , and a c c o r d i n g l y , i s inductive.  I n c o n t r a s t , cosmology i s a system o f d e d u c t i v e  l o g i c w h i c h c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r s t o " w h o l e n e s s " and The  process of reasoning  the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y .  i s n o t t h e same i n t h e cosmology and I n t h e SMBK example, t h e o p e r -  a t i o n a l morality i s highly f l e x i b l e i n nature, b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t s of confessions Because c o n f e s s i o n s  completion.  because i t  t o l d by p o s s e s s i n g  spirits.  may c o n t a i n any fragments o f t h e d a i l y  l i f e r e a l i t y , t h e o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y may expand e n d l e s s l y as  -ISO-  confessions is  still  a r e accumulated.  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e cosmology  complete and does n o t expand.  However, t h e problem  i s t h a t t h e m o r a l i t y has t o be a p a r t o f t h e cosmology because d a i l y l i f e i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e question  p a r t o f t h e cosmos.  t h e n i s how t h e m o r a l i t y f i t s  The  i n t o t h e cosmology.  In  SMBK, t h e m o r a l i t y i s e x p r e s s e d i n s t o r i e s , and f u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i r scenes a r e " g e o g r a p h i c a l l y " the cosmos.  located i n c e r t a i n parts of  T h i s containment i s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e meta-  phorical expression  of the operational morality.  i n a s t r o l o g y , a compartment o f an e l a b o r a t e  In contrast,  image o f cosmos  f u n c t i o n s as t h e o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y f o r a p e r s o n , to h i s z o d i a c ; m o r a l i t y simply his  p o s i t i o n i n t h e cosmos.  process of reasoning  i n d i c a t e s f a t e with regard to  There i s no d i s c r e p a n c y  between cosmology and m o r a l i t y .  d i f f e r e n c e between SMBK and a s t r o l o g y s h o u l d  s o c i a l movement, whereas a s t r o l o g y n o r m a l l y  i n the The  be a t t r i b u t e d t o  the f a c t t h a t t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e i s a m o t i v a t i n g  individual.  according  force i n a  serves a d i s c r e t e  -181-  COSMOLOGY:  PURITY AND PANTHEON I n t h e SMBK cosmology, h i e r a r c h y and e q u a l i t y  correspond and  t o o r d e r and d i s o r d e r , and a l s o t o c o n t a i n m e n t  conflict.  I n o t h e r words, e q u a l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e  n o t i o n o f c o n f l i c t and c o n s t i t u t e s d i s o r d e r . hand, o r d e r  On t h e o t h e r  i s h i e r a r c h i c a l b u t encompasses e q u a l i t y ,  and  disorder.  1.  Pantheon What SMBK d o c t r i n e i n s i s t s on i s a d i v i n e  " g i v e n " by t h e c r e a t o r .  named Mioya-moto Su M a h i k a r i  of t h e i r  supreme d i v i n i t y  Qmikami, u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as  As i s t h e case i n t h e S h i n t o i s t way o f naming  d i v i n i t i e s , h i s name i s a compact summary o f h i s mioya means p a r e n t , (or d i v i n e l i g h t )  moto o r i g i n ,  and  character:  su l o r d , mahikari  omikami g r e a t d i v i n i t y .  f o r e , t h e g r e a t ( e s t ) d i v i n i t y and t h e c r e a t o r origin  order  SMBK p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t o u r cosmos  i s an e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e w i l l  Su no Kami.  conflict  true  light  He i s , t h e r e ( p a r e n t and  o f a l l b e i n g s ) , who f i l l s h i s own cosmos w i t h t h e t r u e  l i g h t which i s the source of l i f e .  A l l the beings i n h i s  cosmos c a n l i v e o n l y by r e c e i v i n g energy ( l i g h t ) from him. This f i r s t  premise o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e cosmos forms an  o n t o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r m o r a l i t y such t h a t a l l t h e b e i n g s i n  -182-  "Omoto no Kami (Su no Kami) Mioya-moto Su M a h i k a r i Omikami (He has many o t h e r names.) i\\\ divinity J  o f time  i v i n i t y o f space ivinity  of f i r e  Heavenly d i v i n i t i e s i v i n i t y o f the p i r i V o f words iviniYies dj-viniiies  male f emale  (5th  generation)  first  of l i g h t of c r e a t i o n - Heavenly d i v i n i t i e s male female  (6th g e n e r a t i o n )  Heavenly d i v i n i t i e s ! 7 t h  generation)  male female  Royal Ame  family  no H i no Moto A s h i k a - b i k i N u s h i no M i k o t o (male) A d a u g h t e r o f the Moon D i v i n i t y ( f emale)  DIAGRAM 18:  Pantheon ( l a y e r e d cosmos)  -183-  h i s cosmos s h o u l d l i v e o n l y f o r the purpose of r e a l i z i n g  the  w i l l and o r d e r of the supreme d i v i n i t y . The  cosmic o r d e r i s embodied i n a pantheon, t h a t i s ,  a h i e r a r c h y of d i v i n i t i e s d i s t r i b u t e d on t h e i r  i n cosmic space based  s t a t u s and power d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s .  D i v i n i t i e s of h i g h e r l e v e l s  a r e more p o w e r f u l and l e s s  e n t i a t e d , w h i l e those o f l o w e r l e v e l s each s p e c i a l i z i n g  (Diagram 1 8 ) .  i n a more l i m i t e d  differ-  are g r e a t e r i n number,  role.  Specifically,  the  SMBK pantheon under i t s supreme d i v i n i t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o levels.  At the top (seventh)  l e v e l the e s s e n t i a l  of the supreme d i v i n i t y a r e s e p a r a t e d i n t o  properties  the image o f t h r e e  d i v i n i t i e s , namely, the d i v i n i t i e s of t i m e , space, and These a r e s a i d  seven  life.  t o have been " b o r n " from the supreme d i v i n i t y .  " C r e a t i o n " i s c o n s i d e r e d as g i v i n g b i r t h , a l t h o u g h b e l i e v e r s c l a i m t h a t the a c t o f c r e a t i o n a t t h i s l e v e l i s t o t a l l y beyond our c o n c e p t i o n .  These t h r e e d i v i n i t i e s are  considered  t o have d i r e c t l y a s s i s t e d the supreme d i v i n i t y when he c r e a t e d h i s cosmos.  The  sun, s t a r s ,  from the d i v i n i t i e s o f time and  and g a l a x i e s were  space, and  the d i v i n i t i e s of  the s i x t h l e v e l were born from the d i v i n i t y of l i f e . s i x t h l e v e l has  f i v e d i v i n i t i e s who  The  represent other properties  o f the supreme d i v i n i t y w h i c h are s i m i l a r same:  "born"  but not e x a c t l y the  the d i v i n i t y of the s p i r i t of words, two d i v i n i t i e s of  l i g h t , and a g a i n two d i v i n i t i e s of l i f e .  At t h i s l e v e l  the  r o l e of c r e a t i o n i s d i v i d e d between two  d i v i n i t i e s , male  and  f e m a l e , so t h a t the meaning of c r e a t i o n becomes analogous t o giving birth in a biological  sense.  Thus, the d i v i n i t i e s  of the f i f t h l e v e l were b o r n from the i n t e r a c t i o n of a male and  a female d i v i n i t i e s a t the s i x t h l e v e l .  f i f t h l e v e l has  one  The  God  of p l a n t s , and  various  divinities  of the C h r i s t i a n B i b l e i s c l a s s i f i e d  of them because He  l e v e l has  the  numerous d i v i n i t i e s of seed s p e c i a l i z i n g i n  growing d i f f e r e n t species of l i g h t .  Moreover,  i s considered  as l i g h t .  The  as  fourth  a tremendous number of minor d i v i n i t i e s b o r n from  the d i v i n i t y of the sun of the f i f t h l e v e l .  The  fourth  level  a l s o h o l d s the s p i r i t s of the dead, so t h a t the cosmos a t t h i : l e v e l contains as y u - k a i  b o t h heavens and  (the a s t r a l w o r l d ) .  the p r e s e n t w o r l d of men  hells, usually referred The  t h i r d l e v e l i s gen-kai,  considered  as bottom  d i v i n i t i e s , a l t h o u g h the word " d i v i n i t y " i s not a p p l i e d t o them.  At t h i s l e v e l  (and  l e v e l , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s not c l e a r l y d e s c e n t l i n e c a l l e d su no g o - r e i t o of the supreme d i v i n i t y ) higher  l e v e l , and  ranking usually  p r o b a b l y a t the indicated) only  fourth one  (the d i v i n e s p i r i t u a l l i n e  i s b o r n from the d i v i n i t i e s of  o t h e r s are b o r n from the c o u p l e of  same l e v e l b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s l i n e . i s among men,  c l a i m e d t o be  the  the  At the t h i r d l e v e l ,  such d e s c e n d a n t s are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the  f a m i l y of Japan and  to  the a n c e s t o r s of a l l  that royal  Japanese. levels,  F u r t h e r m o r e , d i v i n i t i e s of the  following a special  l e v e l ; the and  the  prophecy, may  second l e v e l i s chi-dama (the  first  (bottom) l e v e l i s hi  no  f o u r t h and  fifth  go  this  down to  c o r e of the  dei-kai  earth)  (a mud  ocean of  4  fire).  I n t h i s way,  realization  of  the  every being i s considered a  collective  o r d e r of the  partial  cosmos a c c o r d i n g  to  his given status. These seven l e v e l s  of  the  cosmos form o v e r l a p p i n g  l a y e r s such t h a t a l o w e r - l e v e l l a y e r i s added t o i t s h i g h e r level layer(s). the  A h i g h e r - l e v e l l a y e r does not  p o i n t where i t c o n t a c t s the  c o n t i n u e s down to the (top)  n e x t l o w e r l e v e l , but  v e r y bottom of  l e v e l c o n t i n u e s down to the  the  first  cosmos.  f i r s t l e v e l , the  a g a i n goes down t o the  l e v e l , and  so on.  As  l o w e r - l e v e l l a y e r s of  the  cosmos share a l l the  higher-level layers.  Or,  each l e v e l , toward the  cosmos, a c c u m u l a t e s more l a y e r s of new t o k e n , the "body" as  d i v i n i t i e s i n the  top  t h r e e d i v i n i t i e s are  The  d i v i n i t i e s of  s i x t h and  ( s p i r i t u a l b o d i e s ) , and layer,  yu-tai  quality.  the  the  level the  result,  qualities  of  bottom  of  By  same  the  supreme d i v i n i t y  pure power and f i f t h levels  t h o s e of  ( a s t r a l body).  seventh  SMBK cosmos g a i n more l a y e r s  t h e i r r a n k i n g i s reduced:  the  The  fifth  the  In the  do  at  it  (bottom) l e v e l ,  s i x t h l e v e l a l s o r e a c h e s the first  discontinue  not  of and  have b o d i e s .  have r e i - t a i  f o u r t h l e v e l g a i n another t h i r d l e v e l , men  are  - 1 3 6 -  DIAGRAM 19: L a y e r s o f t h e Human Body (a copy o f a diagram drawn by an SMBK teacher a t the elementary l e c t u r e session)  -187-  burdened w i t h t h r e e l a y e r s o f body: body, and p h y s i c a l body.  s p i r i t u a l body, a s t r a l  These b o d i e s a r e i n one p e r s o n ,  each b e l o n g i n g t o a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l o f t h e cosmic o r d e r (Diagram 1 8 ) . 2.  P u r i t y and power The  concept  second premise o f SMBK cosmology concerns t h e  o f p u r i t y and d e f i l e m e n t .  ordered according to p u r i t y .  The SMBK pantheon i s a l s o  The supreme d i v i n i t y i s  c o n s i d e r e d a b s o l u t e l y pure and o t h e r d i v i n i t i e s  accrue  r e l a t i v e impurity according t o t h e i r statuses.  I n other  words, t h e SMBK cosmos i s viewed i n two ways, as a pantheon and a l s o a c c o r d i n g t o p u r i t y . has a double  T h i s means t h a t t h e SMBK cosmos  d e f i n i t i o n ; t h a t i s , on t h e one hand, t h e  pantheon viewed i n imagery as a q u a l i t a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and on t h e o t h e r , a c c o r d i n g t o p u r i t y as a q u a n t i t a t i v e representation. changeably  The SMBK d o c t r i n e r e f e r s t o these  inter-  according to the context. The  SMBK c o n c e p t i o n , r e i s o ^ ( s p i r i t u a l  b r i d g e s p u r i t y and pantheon:  Reiso-kai  level),  i n d i c a t e s the  pantheon, whose l i t e r a l meaning i s t h e " l a y e r e d w o r l d o f 7  spirit."  By t h e same t o k e n , r e i s o shoge  means t h e " e l e v a t i o n  of the s p i r i t u a l l e v e l " o r "ascension through world of s p i r i t . "  the layered  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e l e v a t i o n o f one's  -188-  spiritual pantheon.  l e v e l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the upward m o b i l i t y i n the Thus, L o r d - s a v i o u r Okada s a y s :  The d i v i n i t y has r e v e a l e d ( t o meJ t h a t the tane kon° ( l e a v e n s p i r i t ) of j i n kon (human s p i r i t ) o f a human b e i n g l i v i n g i n t h i s w o r l d i s h e l d i n the r e i s o k a i ( t h e l a y e r e d w o r l d of s p i r i t ) . S p i r i t s towards the top o f the l a y e r e d w o r l d of the s p i r i t a r e h i g h e r r a n k i n g , more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the w i l l o f the supreme d i v i n i t y and b e t t e r q u a l i f y t o be happy. L o w e r - r a n k i n g s p i r i t s a r e l e s s happy and those a t the bottom are m i s e r a b l e . The h i g h e r - r a n k i n g s p i r i t s (of the human b e i n g ) a r e p e r m i t t e d t o r e s i d e i n the P a r a d i s e o f Eden, w h i c h means a Heaven. There i s no d i s e a s e , no d i s p u t e , and an abundance of m a t e r i a l goods. The p u r e r the l e a v e n s p i r i t (of a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n ) becomes, the more upwards he moves i n the l a y e r e d w o r l d of the s p i r i t and, a c c o r d i n g l y , the h a p p i e r he becomes i n t h i s w o r l d . This paragraph  requires further c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  In  the SMBK metaphor, one p e r s o n i s u s u a l l y viewed as h a v i n g a p l u r a l i t y of s p i r i t s .  C o n f u s i o n o c c u r s as they a r e commonly  c a t e g o r i z e d together or broken f u r t h e r i n t o a c c o r d i n g t o the c o n t e x t .  sub-categories  I n the above q u o t a t i o n , L o r d -  s a v i o u r Okada r e f e r s t o two f a i r l y l a r g e c a t e g o r i e s of the s p i r i t o f a p e r s o n , namely human s p i r i t and l e a v e n The  human s p i r i t  which belongs and  spirit.  i s i d e n t i f i e d as the s p i r i t of the  to t h i s world  the l e a v e n s p i r i t  l a y e r e d world of Although  person  (where h i s p h y s i c a l body b e l o n g s ) ,  i s the s p i r i t w h i c h b e l o n g s  t o the  spirit. the l a y e r e d w o r l d o f s p i r i t  i n general  usage s h o u l d i n d i c a t e the whole pantheon, i n t h i s  specific  -189-  c o n t e x t i t means t h e a s t r a l w o r l d .  The r e a s o n i s t h a t t h e  Heavens and H e l l s Okada mentions above a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e a s t r a l w o r l d , and t h a t t h e " a f t e r l i f e " f o r an o r d i n a r y human being takes place i n the a s t r a l world.  I n some e x c e p t i o n a l  c a s e s , human b e i n g s a f t e r d e a t h a c h i e v e a p l a c e o u t s i d e and p u r e r t h a n t h e a s t r a l w o r l d , a l t h o u g h b o t h a r e t h e same f o u r t h l e v e l , o r even a t t h e f i f t h l e v e l . b e l i e v e r s c l a i m t h a t t h o s e who ascend  However, s e n i o r  t h r o u g h two l e v e l s have  t o be t h o s e d i v i n i t i e s which have descended o r i g i n a l l y  from  t h a t l e v e l t o t h e i r p r e s e n t l e v e l f o r a s p e c i a l prophecy g i v e n by t h e supreme d i v i n i t y .  The deceased L o r d - s a v i o u r  Okada i s i d e n t i f i e d as one o f them a c c o r d i n g t o some s e n i o r members and t e a c h e r s .  I n any c a s e , as d e a t h i s viewed i n  SMBK as l o s i n g t h e p h y s i c a l body, and, a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e human s p i r i t , t h e s p i r i t s o f t h e dead (meaning t h e s p i r i t o f t h e p e r s o n w h i c h remains w i t h him a f t e r h i s death) s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e l e a v e n s p i r i t Okada r e f e r s t o . Thus, a l i v i n g human b e i n g i n t h e c o n t e x t o f Okada's argument above has two d i f f e r e n t s p i r i t s o f h i s own l o c a t e d i n two p l a c e s i n the cosmos a t t h e same t i m e , as I i n d i c a t e d i n Diagram 19. The  l e v e l of the leaven s p i r i t i s extremely f l e x i b l e :  i t  changes c o n s t a n t l y , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o s l i g h t changes i n t h e person's  b e h a v i o u r and t h o u g h t .  The l e v e l o f t h e human s p i r i t  a l s o has a c e r t a i n f l e x i b i l i t y b u t i t i s more r e s t r i c t e d  -190-  DIAGRAM 20: Human S p i r i t and Leaven S p i r i t  SMBK  ;mos  leaven belongs one perse  4*  spiAit  -1  sub-layer: ( e x a c t number i s unclear  human s p i r i t  a s t r a l world (at the f o u r t h level) third level ( t h i s world)  -191-  because i n t h i s w o r l d and  t h e change i s e x p r e s s e d i n h i s s o c i a l  physical conditions. A l t h o u g h t h i s p a r t o f cosmology i s n o t s h a r e d by  SMBK, t h e M i c h i H i r a k i e x p l a n a t i o n may g i v e a b e t t e r image o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two s p i r i t s  o f one p e r s o n .  In  M i c h i H i r a k i , t h e human s p i r i t i s l o c a t e d i n s i d e t h e head o f the human body and t h e l e a v e n  spirit  1 1  i s i n s i d e t h e head o f  12  the a s t r a l  body.  Since  t h e a s t r a l body i s f a r b i g g e r  the human body, t h e a s t r a l body o v e r l a p s  than  w i t h t h e human body  such t h a t t h e human s p i r i t r e s i d e s r i g h t under t h e n a v e l o f the a s t r a l body.  The M i c h i H i r a k i l e a d e r drew a diagram f o r  me as f o l l o w s (Diagram 2 1 ) : DIAGRAM 21:  M i c h i H i r a k i View o f t h e B o d i e s  -192-  In SMBK, p u r i t y i s viewed as a s t a t e o f power.  For  example, when two people w i t h a s p i r i t u a l gap i n t h e i r spiritual  s t a t e come i n t o c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r , t h e  p u r i t y of the s p i r i t u a l l y  s u p e r i o r person a u t o m a t i c a l l y  induces the discharge of the defilement of the i n f e r i o r  person.  T h i s d i s c h a r g e c o u l d be s k i n p r o b l e m s , r a s h e s , d i a r r h o e a , v o m i t i n g , b l e e d i n g , and o t h e r symptoms.  I n SMBK they a r e a  normal p r o c e s s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e human body ("physical body"),  a l t h o u g h i n modern m e d i c a l s c i e n c e s  a r e d e s c r i b e d as symptoms o f d i s e a s e .  they  When t h e gap between  the two s u b j e c t s i s g r e a t , t h e d e f i l e d p e r s o n i s b e l i e v e d t o die  because h i s human body cannot endure i n t e n s i v e d i s c h a r g e  of d e f i l e m e n t caused by t h e gap. When o r d e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s t a t e , t h e power a t t a c h e d t o o r d e r remains p o t e n t i a l u n t i l t h e boundary i s violated.  Once t h e removal o c c u r s , t h e p e r s o n who i s  d i s q u a l i f i e d from a c e r t a i n s t a t e o f p u r i t y more d e f i l e d ) becomes exposed t o danger.  (because he i s  These c o n d i t i o n s  i n d i c a t e that p u r i t y a l s o represents the n o t i o n of " r i g h t , " t h a t i s , t h e s t a t e f o r w h i c h t h e p e r s o n q u a l i f i e s and w h i c h he c a n c l a i m w i t h o u t endangering  himself.  This  interpretation  may e x p l a i n some a s p e c t s o f magic and w i t c h c r a f t when they are a p p l i e d t o the p r o t e c t i o n of a r i g h t o r a p r o p e r t y .  For  example, i n a case o f t r e s p a s s i n g o r t h e f t , t h e punishment  -193-  f o r boundary b r e a k i n g i s a u t o m a t i c .  I t happens because t h e  boundary has been s e t t o p r o t e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l from i n v a s i o n . However, t h e r e i s a n o t h e r k i n d o f power: w h i c h d e r i v e s from t h e w i l l It i s intentional.  t h e power  o f t h e supreme s p i r i t u a l b e i n g .  I n c o n t r a s t , s t a t i c power c o n t a i n e d i n  the s t a t e o f s p i r i t u a l potency  i s mechanical.  T h i s power  f u n c t i o n s as i t was o r i g i n a l l y  s e t or ordered.  I n such a  c a s e , t h e o r d e r a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h t h e s t a t i c power works i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and u n r e v i s i b l e .  Where t h e supreme d i v i n i t y  i s e x t e r n a l t o t h e o r d e r o f cosmos w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f t h e s t a t i c power, he m a i n t a i n s and changes t h e o r d e r by h i s w i l l power. verified  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two powers may be w e l l i n t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e :  The supreme d i v i n i t y i s t h e  o n l y b e i n g who s e t s t h e o r d e r , and he c a n a l s o change i t . The power w i t h w h i c h he charges  t h e SMBK cosmos f u n c t i o n s  m e c h a n i c a l l y as he has o r i g i n a l l y o r d e r e d i t .  Therefore, a l l  the b e i n g s i n h i s cosmos s h o u l d submit themselves because i t means t h e i r f a t e .  to h i s order,  Other d i v i n i t i e s may be a b l e t o  change t h e o r d e r o n l y when they g a i n a p o r t i o n o f h i s power. When t h e supreme d i v i n i t y wants t o r e v i s e t h e e x i s t i n g  order,  he g i v e s a "power o f a t t o r n e y " f o r a s p e c i f i c m i s s i o n . Sometimes, human b e i n g s a r e g i v e n m i s s i o n s and a r e d e l e g a t e d w i t h t h e power o f t h e supreme d i v i n i t y .  Leaders  of r e l i g i o u s  movements i n c l u d i n g t h e SMBK l e a d e r s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be  -194-  DIAGRAM 22:  The SMBK Model o f Cosmos, Power and Order  supreme  divinity  pbwer o f a t t o r n e y  controls  order  -195-  such p e o p l e .  They a r e supposed t o be a b l e t o change t h e  e x i s t i n g o r d e r i n a l i m i t e d a r e a o f cosmos. The supreme b e i n g s  i n some c o s m o l o g i e s l a c k t h i s  k i n d o f i n t e n t i o n a l power w h i c h i s e x t e r n a l and s u p e r i o r t o the s t a t i c cosmic o r d e r .  I n M i c h i H i r a k i , t h e supreme  d i v i n i t y i s a n o t h e r name f o r cosmos.  He and i t a r e c o n g r u e n t .  T h i s a l s o a p p l i e d t o D a i n i c h Buddha.  The supreme d i v i n i t y i n  these cases i s o n t o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than i n t e n t i o n a l . The above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s p i r i t u a l power and boundary w i l l c l a r i f y some a m b i g u i t y  i n v o l v e d i n t h e meaning  of t h e SMBK t a l i s m a n g i v e n a t t h e i n i t i a t i o n . aspect  The f i r s t major  o f t h e t a l i s m a n a d v o c a t e d i n SMBK i s t h a t t h e b e l i e v e r  who wears i t r e c e i v e s a g r e a t e r amount o f d i v i n e l i g h t w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e s from t h e supreme d i v i n i t y and p u r i f i e s any  e x i s t i n g o b j e c t s i n h i s cosmos.  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the f i r s t ; assured  The second a s p e c t i s  the holder of the talisman i s  t h a t he w i l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e c a p a c i t y t o p e r f o r m  the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l as an a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r , anyone c a n be a p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r w i t h o r w i t h o u t  although the talisman.  T h i s i s l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t because t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n  ritual  i s t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e d i v i n e l i g h t , and a l s o because t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r needs t o r e c e i v e a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e l i g h t i n order t o p u r i f y the passive performer. aspect  However, t h e f i r s t  o f t h e t a l i s m a n i s f o l l o w e d by a c o n d i t i o n w h i c h may  -196-  appear c o n f u s i n g .  Although  the talisman increases the holder's  a b i l i t y to r e c e i v e the l i g h t , the talisman i s not a r e c e i v e r of the l i g h t .  What, t h e n , i s t h e t a l i s m a n e x a c t l y ?  My answer  i s t h a t the t a l i s m a n i s a device which provides the h o l d e r w i t h t h e power o f a h i g h s p i r i t u a l s t a t e .  As t h e t a l i s m a n  e l e v a t e s the general s t a t e o f h i s s p i r i t u a l potency, i t c r e a t e s a boundary w h i c h f u n c t i o n s t o p r o t e c t t h e h o l d e r from anyone o u t s i d e o f i t . t a l i s m a n advocated  Therefore, the t h i r d aspect of the  i n SMBK i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s p r o t e c t i o n from  s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n and p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e from e v i l s p i r i t s i n c l u d i n g t h e e v i l i n t e n t i o n s o f a l i v i n g human b e i n g . Furthermore,  the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l provides the a c t i v e  performer w i t h a s p e c i a l a b i l i t y . s p i r i t u a l potency performer.  He c a n d i r e c t h i s h i g h  towards a s p e c i f i c p e r s o n , t h e p a s s i v e  The d i v i n e l i g h t w h i c h t h e h o l d e r c a n t r a n s m i t  a c t i v e l y r a d i a t e s , p e n e t r a t i n g t h e boundary and r e a c h i n g t h e d e f i l e d being.  When t h i s happens, t h e d e f i l e d b e i n g has o n l y  two c h o i c e s t o make:  he c a n e i t h e r be d e s t r o y e d because he  i s d e f i l e d o r change h i s s p i r i t u a l p o s i t i o n by s u b m i t t i n g h i m s e l f t o t h e SMBK o r d e r .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e power o f p u r i f i -  c a t i o n i s t h e power t o r e c o v e r t h e p r o p e r o r d e r o f t h e cosmos. A c c o r d i n g t o SMBK l o g i c , he does n o t have t h e c h o i c e o f committing  h i m s e l f t o more d e f i l e m e n t and somehow c r e a t i n g a  c o u n t e r power a g a i n s t t h e power o f t h e supreme d i v i n i t y .  In  -197-  o t h e r words, t h e r e i s no b l a c k magic i n SMBK.  Evils derive  from m i s t a k e s and a r e changeable. However, t h e h o l d e r s h o u l d a l s o be p r o t e c t e d from the d i v i n e l i g h t .  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t r e c e i v i n g t h e  l i g h t p l a c e s t h e p e r s o n i n a dilemma.  That i s , more l i g h t i s  d e s i r a b l e , b u t i t i s a l s o dangerous when i t i n d u c e s an i n t e n s i v e discharge of defilement.  W i t h t h e t a l i s m a n , he c a n  e n j o y p u r i f i c a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f reduced of d e f i l e m e n t . destructive.  and s l o w e r  I t may be c o n t i n u a l , but i t w i l l n o t be He may be a b l e t o c o n t i n u e h i s d a i l y l i f e work  and even e x p e r i e n c e d i s c h a r g e a t t h e same t i m e .  Thus, SMBK  b e l i e v e r s who wear a t a l i s m a n c a n a c h i e v e a h i g h e r potency.  I n c o n t r a s t , the non-holder  from t h e d i v i n e l i g h t . his  discharge  spiritual  i s under c o n s t a n t t h r e a t  The r e a s o n why he c a n s u r v i v e i s t h a t  h i g h d e f i l e m e n t b l o c k s him from r e c e i v i n g t o o much  light.  But a t t h e same t i m e , because he i s b l o c k e d from i t , he remains h i g h l y d e f i l e d .  This i s a v i c i o u s c i r c l e .  way he c a n b r e a k i t i s t o become a t a l i s m a n h o l d e r .  The o n l y Thus, t h e  SMBK d o c t r i n e c l a i m s t h a t t h e same amount o f e f f o r t makes a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e h o l d e r ( b e l i e v e r ) and t h e nonholder (non-believer).  (See Diagram 23.)  W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t a l i s m a n , t h e SMBK l e a d e r i s d e l e g a t e d w i t h t h e power o f t h e supreme d i v i n i t y .  F i r s t , he  can " a c t i v a t e " t h e t a l i s m a n t h r o u g h a s p e c i a l r i t u a l known  198  DIAGRAM 23: small d e f i l e m e n t  small  A  . D i f f e r e n c e s Between t h e L i v e s o f t h e F a i t h f u l and ^  redemption  purif ication  longer ascension  easy  ascension more and more thankful  purif ication  t  and A t h e i s t s  a s c e n s i o n towards un-disturbable happiness  t  r e c e i v i n g the d i v i n e l i g h t p l u s redemption through r i t u a l  reflection own s e l f  on  I-  r e a l e a s e i n o l d age n a t u r a l death a f t e r h e a l t h y l i f e , going to a p a r a d i s e g r e a t goodness a c c o m p l i s h e d i n the next l i f e  on from divinities  I  live  on f rom teachers  i n eternal happiness  on f rom parents FAITHFULS ^ def ilement becoming s t r o n g e r  ATHEISMS / b u s i n e s s "\  destructive bad f a t e  life  self destruction gain f o r himself and use f o r h i m s e l f  no  no c o n s i d e r a t i o n for others no a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the p a r e n t s ' k i n d n e s s v  r  s e l f i shness and arogance  y  cheating  reflection  s e l f ishness arogance hate  divinities  giving great misfortune to  others  give s u f f e r i n g s to others more s p i r i t u a l  problems  more d e f i l e m e n t I great e f f o r t only hardships  to r e c e i v e  I 03  -199-  o n l y t o him.  C o n s e q u e n t l y he i s a boundary s e t t e r .  Second,  he can m a i n t a i n the s p i r i t u a l boundary of i t s h o l d e r another  r i t u a l technique.  the f o r m a l way The  through  These r i t u a l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be  t o d e l e g a t e the power from the supreme d i v i n i t y . s p i r i t u a l boundary w h i c h c r e a t e s and  maintains  the s p i r i t u a l p o t e n c y of the h o l d e r of the t a l i s m a n does not last automatically.  The  power of the t a l i s m a n i s v a l i d  only  as l o n g as the t i e between the h o l d e r and the supreme d i v i n i t y i s p r o v i d e d by the SMBK l e a d e r .  The  b e l i e v e r i s o b l i g a t e d to  g i v e a monthly d o n a t i o n f o r i t s p r o v i s i o n . Sometimes we become s e p a r a t e d from the d i v i n i t y , ^become s u s p i c i o u s of him and even f o r g e t about him. But even d u r i n g such p e r i o d s , our L o r d - t e a c h e r a p o l o g i z e s t o him i n p l a c e o f u s , keeps our t i e w i t h him and ask him t o p r o t e c t us. So we g i v e a d o n a t i o n f o r the L o r d - t e a c h e r ' s effort. I t i s the f e e f o r the maintenance of the s p i r i t u a l t i e . A l t h o u g h the amount o f our d o n a t i o n i s s m a l l , i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a n k f u l n e s s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and m i r a c l e s t h a t we have r e c e i v e d through the t a l i s m a n d u r i n g the p a s t month, and a l s o i t i s a w i s h t o r e c e i v e t h i s d e l i g h t f u l d i v i n e l i g h t c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r the next month. This donation i s s p i r i t u a l l y extremely m e a n i n g f u l as i s s t a t e d above, so we must not f o r g e t i t . Even a p e r s o n i n economic d i f f i c u l t y must manage t o g i v e t h i s d o n a t i o n , f o r t h i s i s the e a s i e s t way f o r him t o e x p r e s s t h a n k f u l ness and s i n c e r i t y t o the d i v i n i t y . This w i l l redeem h i s a c c u m u l a t e d economic d e f i l e m e n t i n his family. From the p o i n t of e x p r e s s i n g t h a n k f u l n e s s , t h i s d o n a t i o n must be g i v e n i n advance f o r the  -200-  coming month a t t h e end o f each month, (so i t does n o t appear t o b ^ p a y i n g f o r t h e already given result.) Because t h e t a l i s m a n t i e s t h e b e l i e v e r t o t h e supreme d i v i n i t y , i t s t r e a t m e n t  r e q u i r e s a great deal of care  w h i c h i t s e l f becomes a complex r i t u a l .  I n SMBK, any p r i n c i p l e s  i n c l u d i n g r e s p e c t f o r t h e t a l i s m a n s h o u l d be r e a l i z e d i n action.  F o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e summary o f  t h i s r i t u a l based on t h e SMBK e l e m e n t a r y  l e c t u r e s e s s i o n and  i t s t e x t book: 1.  Anyone, b e f o r e t o u c h i n g t h e t a l i s m a n , must wash h i s hands.  The b e l i e v e r s do t h i s even  when t h e i r hands a r e n o t p h y s i c a l l y  dirty.  A f t e r w a s h i n g , t h e hands must n o t t o u c h any other objects. washed a g a i n . most s t r i c t l y  I f they do they must be This p r i n c i p l e i s applied to the n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d .  The  a p p l i c a t i o n becomes r e l a x e d t o t h e s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s who a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have a c h i e v e d a more s o l i d s t a t e o f f a i t h . 2.  The t a l i s m a n must n o t be  opened.  Itis a  l o c k e t which contains the d i v i n e s i g n w r i t t e n on a paper.  Since the i n s i d e of the l o c k e t  has been p u r i f i e d by t h e L o r d - t e a c h e r , i t must n o t be d e f i l e d by c o n t a c t w i t h t h e  -201-  unpurified outside a i r . The h o l d e r o f t h e t a l i s m a n must pay t h e monthly maintenance f e e , f o r w h i c h t h e L o r d t e a c h e r t i e s him w i t h t h e d i v i n i t y . The t a l i s m a n must be worn a l l t h e t i m e , even i n bed, i n t h e washroom and d u r i n g p h y s i c a l exercises. The h i n g e o f t h e t a l i s m a n must be p l a c e d on the l e f t s i d e o f t h e h o l d e r .  When t h e  t a l i s m a n i s k e p t i n a l a c e c o v e r and/or a c o t t o n c o v e r , t h e c o r r e c t s i d e s h o u l d be i n d i c a t e d on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e t o p c o v e r 15  (by an embroided c r o s s  p a t t e r n , f o r example).  The t a l i s m a n must n o t be l o a n e d  to others.  I t belongs s t r i c t l y t o the h o l d e r . Other t a l i s m a n s must n o t be p i l e d on t o p o f the SMBK t a l i s m a n because t h e i r a l i t i e s may become  individu-  confused.  I t must be k e p t d r y .  For t h i s purpose, i t  must be wrapped i n f i v e o r s i x l a y e r s o f p l a s t i c f i l m f o r food and s e a l e d w i t h  cello-  phane tape under t h e l a c e and/or c o t t o n cover(s).  The w r a p - f i l m must be exchanged  o f t e n , f o r example, a f t e r heavy p e r s p i r a t i o n .  -202-  9.  The t a l i s m a n must n o t t o u c h any p l a c e w h i c h has p o s s i b l y been stepped on, such as t h e f l o o r , t h e ground and even t h e bedsheet and 16 the b l a n k e t s .  SMBK s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e  h o l d e r s h o u l d make a p o c k e t i n s i d e t h e underwear and p u t t h e t a l i s m a n i n i t .  The p o c k e t  may be c l o s e d by a hook o r s a f e t y p i n so t h e t a l i s m a n does n o t s l i p o u t , even d u r i n g 10.  The s t a n d a r d  sleep.  c h a i n suspender f o r t h e t a l i s m a n  may be r e p l a c e d w i t h a s t r i n g when t h e c h a i n causes s k i n t r o u b l e ( T h i s s k i n t r o u b l e i s r a t h e r common and c o n s i d e r e d high defilement).  t o be a s i g n o f  A new suspender must be  p u r i f i e d before use. 11.  The t a l i s m a n s h o u l d n o t hang below t h e n a v e l .  12.  When t h e h o l d e r t a k e s o f f h i s t a l i s m a n , f o r example, f o r b a t h i n g : (a)  a t home, i t s h o u l d be hooked on an Lshaped n a i l f i x e d on t h e w a l l o n l y f o r t h i s purpose.  (b)  on a t r i p , i t s h o u l d be k e p t i n a s p e c i a l ( p u r i f i e d ) box w h i c h s h o u l d be p l a c e d on a sheet o f paper ( a l s o p u r i f i e d ) on a shelf.  -203-  Any  f a i l u r e t o meet t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s  t o be d e f i l e m e n t and  is  considered  subject to a s p e c i a l p u r i f i c a t i o n  a c c o r d i n g t o the degree of d e f i l e m e n t .  ritual  - 2 0 4 -  0PERATI0NAL MORALITY The constant  o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y o f SMBK i s s u b j e c t t o  revision.  The SMBK cosmology has been and c a n be  r e v e a l e d o n l y by t h e SMBK l e a d e r s , m o s t l y f i r s t l e a d e r , L o r d - s a v i o r Okada.  by t h e deceased  I n c o n t r a s t , the o p e r a t i o n a l  m o r a l i t y i s c o n s t a n t l y r e v e a l e d i n t h e form o f s t o r i e s r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i n encounter w i t h the possessing the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  spiritsi n  The f o l l o w i n g example w i l l show a  t y p i c a l SMBK way i n w h i c h a moral p r i n c i p l e begins  through  i s advocated.  as f o l l o w s : One day, a p r e t t y young g e i s h a , about s e v e n t e e n y e a r s o l d , came t o a s k f o r a p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . When h e r p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t began t o r e s p o n d under t h e r i t u a l , t h e g e i s h a blew h e r own hands and o t h e r p a r t s o f h e r body. Then, she p a t t e d her b r e a s t and arms, s c r e a m i n g , " B u r n i n g , b u r n i n g ...." I t l o o k e d as i f h e r body had caught on f i r e . She even s t r u c k h e r head u n t i l her b e a u t i f u l l y done c h i g n o n came u n t i e d . F i n a l l y , she t o r e t h e s l e e v e s o f h e r p r e t t y kimono d r e s s . When t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t became r e l a t i v e l y calm, i t r e v e a l e d t h a t i t was t h e g e i s h a ' s sister. S e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e , t h e s i s t e r was burned t o d e a t h i n h e r s l e e p i n t h e b a r n o f her own c o u n t r y s i d e home. Her agony i n b u r n i n g t o d e a t h was s t i l l l a s t i n g a t t h i s t i m e , and drove h e r t o p o s s e s s h e r own s i s t e r . When t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h "calm down", t h e g e i s h a s a i d , "My body was b u r n i n g as i f i t had caught on f i r e "  It  -205-  The s e c t i o n above d e s c r i b e s a scene from the purification ritual. based on the s t o r y .  Then the t e x t s h i f t s t o a moral  teaching  I t extends f u r t h e r t h a n the c o n t e n t  r e v e a l e d d i r e c t l y by the p o s s e s s i n g  spirit.  She was p o s s e s s e d by a s p i r i t w h i c h escaped from the H e l l of F i r e . U s u a l l y the s p i r i t s of the dead i n the H e l l of F i r e and a l s o the H e l l of I c e cannot escape from t h e i r S i t e . However, one out of one thousand does and p o s s e s s e s a l i v i n g human b e i n g . I n the H e l l o f F i r e , t h e r e a r e p e o p l e f o r c e d t o s t a y f o r d i s c i p l i n e i n c l u d i n g t h o s e whose d e a t h was caused by f i r e such as i n the above c a s e , and t h o s e who k i l l e d themselves by jumping i n t o a v o l c a n o o r u s i n g g a s o l i n e t o burn t h e i r own body'. I am s o r r y t o say t h i s , but t h e Vietnamese B u d d h i s t p r i e s t who committed s u i c i d e i n p r o t e s t u s i n g g a s o l i n e must have gone t o t h i s H e l l . A l s o , t h o s e who d i s t u r b o t h e r s o r g i v e g r e a t damages t o o t h e r s f o r m i s t a k e n l y u s i n g f i r e go t o the H e l l o f F i r e . We must t r u l y be c a u t i o u s i n d e a l i n g w i t h f i r e . ^ T h i s i s the end o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i t converges i n t o a m o r a l p r i n c i p l e must be c a u t i o u s w i t h f i r e .  story.  There,  w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t we  The emphasis  i n the s t o r y i s t h a t  the agony a t the time of d e a t h caused by the f i r e w i l l even a f t e r d e a t h . particularly  last  The way Japanese houses a r e c o n s t r u c t e d ,  i n the c i t y a r e a , may  be r e l a t e d  to t h i s  r e g u l a t i o n on f i r e as i s shown i n the SMBK c a s e . modern J a p a n , when houses were n o r m a l l y  strict  In pre-  constructed  with  wooden m a t e r i a l s w i t h paper s c r e e n s used f o r p a r t i t i o n ,  fire  19 was a s e r i o u s menace.  Especially  w i n t e r i n Edo  (Tokyo  ) is  -206-  e x t r e m e l y d r y f o r more t h a n a few months, and t h e h u m i d i t y i s r e d u c e d t o l e s s t h a n 257 . 0  of the time. city.  Moreover,  s t r o n g winds blow most  Any f i r e c o u l d d e v a s t a t e a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e  The Tokugawa Shogunate Government has r e c o r d s o f such  big f i r e s .  S i n c e Edo had a s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e as t h e  r e s i d e n c e f o r t h e Shogunate, those who caused a l a r g e were s e r i o u s l y p u n i s h e d .  fire  A l t h o u g h today t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f  holocaust i s reduced, f i r e c o u l d s t i l l  be a major  problem  where t h e houses a r e b u i l t c l o s e t o g e t h e r and where t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n o f t e n slows down t h e r e s c u e a c t i v i t y .  Besides, the  t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e remains t h a t t h e p e r s o n who caused  fire  damage t o o t h e r s sometimes has t o compensate them f o r i t w i t h money, i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n h i s s o c i a l r e p u t a t i o n as a moral p e r s o n , a l t h o u g h he may n o t have any l e g a l  obligation.  C o n c e r n i n g f i r e , SMBK t a k e s a most t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e : i t appears  t h a t even a m i s t a k e i s s u b j e c t t o punishment. However, t h e i s s u e s o f m i s t a k e and punishment need  t o be f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d .  I n SMBK, t h e supreme d i v i n i t y  does n o t p u n i s h t h e b e i n g s i n h i s cosmos, b u t demands c o r r e c t i o n o f wrong s e l f - o r i e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h d i s c i p l i n e s . Ignorance i s i d e n t i f i e d as t h e cause f o r t h e f a i l u r e i n submission to the d i v i n e order.  I n t h e example, above, o f a  g e i s h a ' s s i s t e r , what s h o u l d be c o r r e c t e d i s h e r i g n o r a n c e o f such i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f d a i l y l i f e as t h e p r o p e r t r e a t m e n t of f i r e .  Her unexpected  d e a t h , from t h e SMBK p o i n t o f v i e w ,  -207-  c o u l d have been a v o i d e d o n l y i f she had had t h e p r o p e r knowled When i g n o r a n c e i s t o blame, no m i s t a k e i s e x c u s a b l e ; t h e m i s t a k e i s i n t e n d e d i n so f a r as t h e i g n o r a n c e i s a d m i t t e d , o r the p r a c t i c a l e f f o r t t o e r a d i c a t e t h e misdeed i s i g n o r e d o r overlooked.  Therefore, re-adjustment of ignorance i s given i n  the form o f s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e which b r i n g s t h e " s i n n e r " t o an awareness o f h i s a c t s .  He s h o u l d r e a l i z e  the nature of h i s  misdeed t h r o u g h h i s own p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e s i n H e l l . t h i s v i e w , t h e SMBK t e x t b o o k s commonly use t h e word pline"  Endorsing "disci-  (gyo o r shugyo) when d e s c r i b i n g scenes i n v a r i o u s H e l l s  But they do n o t r e f e r t o punishment ( b a t s u o r b a c h i ) .  By  the same t o k e n , an SMBK t e a c h e r l i v i n g i n t h e Koganei  local  c e n t r e o c c a s i o n a l l y t o l d o t h e r b e l i e v e r s t h a t t h e SMBK d i v i n i t y does n o t g i v e punishment.  I t seems t o me t h a t p u n i s h  ment i n t h e r e g u l a r sense i s o n l y d e s t r u c t i v e t o t h e SMBK believers.  An i g n o r a n t p e r s o n w i l l r e p e a t t h e same m i s t a k e  no m a t t e r how o f t e n t h e punishment i s g i v e n , u n l e s s he realizes  t h e cause o f h i s m i s t a k e .  F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e SMBK  d i v i n i t y does n o t g i v e punishment b u t s t a r t s a process of re-adjustment. depending  the " s i n n e r " i n  This process could l a s t f o r e v e r  on h i s p r o g r e s s .  I n t h i s w o r l d we know t h e purpose o f o u r e f f o r t . But i n t h e a s t r a l w o r l d t h e purpose i s unknown and t h e e f f o r t i s e n d l e s s . I t i s t h e d i s c i p l i n e t o p r e s s t h e p e r s o n t o r e a l i z e h i s own fault. A t t h e v e r y moment o f r e a l i z a t i o n (sa-tori)20  -208-  u n t i l t h i s happens, he w i l l be f o r c e d t o c o n t i n u e h i s d i s c i p l i n e even f o r hundreds o f y e a r s . A n o t h e r moral p r i n c i p l e n o t i o n of re-adjustment Buddhism.  closely  r e l a t e d t o t h e SMBK  i s t h e Law o f R e t r i b u t i o n adopted  An SMBK t e x t b o o k  from  says:  B u d d h i s t s b e l i e v e i n t h e Law o f R e t r i b u t i o n . T h i s i s t h e t e a c h i n g t h a t a good deed w i l l be rewarded w i t h h a p p i n e s s and a bad deed w ^ l l be f o l l o w e d by a m i s e r y . A n c i e n t people p r a c t i s e d t h i s law i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . Shaka t a u g h t t h i s law s i n c e _ h e w i t n e s s e d t h e r e a l i t y i n the a s t r a l world. He r e a l i z e d t h a t the cosmic o r d e r depends on t h e Law o f R e t r i b u t i o n when he saw a number o f s p i r i t s o f the dead d i s c i p l i n e d . An e v i l p e r s o n may appear p r o s p e r o u s f o r a w h i l e b u t he s h o u l d be d e s t r o y e d even i n t h i s p r e s e n t w o r l d . Otherw i s e , he must redeem h i s s i n i n t h e a s t r a l world. 2  4  Here, t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e - a d j u s t m e n t a l s o i n terms o f r e d e m p t i o n ; compensated.  i s explained  t h a t i s , a misdeed has t o be  By t h e same t o k e n , b e i n g i n a m i s e r a b l e c o n d i t i o n  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p e r s o n has performed  a misdeed and i s now  i n the process o f redemption. Here a g a i n , t h i s s p i r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f p u r i t y and d e f i l e m e n t .  i s identified  Thus, t h e above t e x t  c o n t i n u e s as f o l l o w s : When a p e r s o n i s r e - b o r n b e f o r e he has p u r i f i e d h i s s p i r i t w e l l enough, he has t o c o n t i n u e h i s r e d e m p t i o n i n t h i s w o r l d . Those who a r e b o r n i n a poor f a m i l y o r l i v e a m i s e r a b l e l i f e have n o t had s u f f i c i e n t d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e a s t r a l w o r l d .  -209-  Q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t s under the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l r e v e a l t h a t f a c t t h a t both t h e i r present l o c a t i o n i n the a s t r a l w o r l d and t h e i r m i s e r i e s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i r ( e v i l ) deeds i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s l i v e s . Most p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t s l o s e t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s o f b u r n i n g h a t r e d and resentment and t u r n t h e i r heads down when they a r e asked i f they a r e s u f f e r i n g from t h e same misdeed as they have done t o o t h e r s i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s lives.25 A part of the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s revealed i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e image o f H e l l . The H e l l o f F i g h t i s an example i n w h i c h t h e dead f i g h t w i t h each o t h e r u n t i l they become c o m p l e t e l y t i r e d (The s p i r i t o f t h e dead have a s t r a l b o d i e s so they c a n " p h y s i c a l l y " fight). 1.  Those who a r e p l a c e d here a r e : Persons who have l i k e d f i g h t i n g previous  i n their  lives  2.  Easily  provoked  3.  V i o l e n t husband  4.  Persons  persons  who c o m p l a i n a l l t h e time and a r e unable  to thank o t h e r s 5.  Vengeful  persons  A n o t h e r example i s t h e H e l l o f B l o o d Pond, i n w h i c h the dead s u f f e r  from worms c r a w l i n g on t h e i r f a c e s w h i l e  t h e i r b o d i e s a r e p l a c e d i n a b l o o d - l i k e l i q u i d up t o t h e neck. 1.  L u s t f u l women  -210-  The  Hell  o f Snake  p o l i t i c i a n s and scholars The  A s u p e r i o r person b e more humane.  ILLUSTRATIONS i n Baptism of F i r e • ( T r a n s l a t e d from J a p a n e s e b y K. Miyanaga)  Hell  of Fire  should  burn i n g ! burning!  -211-  2.  Women who have d e c e i v e d men i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s  3.  Female a t h e i s t s  (This h e l l i s designed e s p e c i a l l y  lives  f o r women.)  The t h i r d example i s t h e H e l l o f L u s t , i n w h i c h t h e 26 dead a r e t o r t u r e d by v e n g e f u l p e o p l e  of the opposite sex.  Those who a r e p l a c e d here a r e : 1.  Men who have t r e a t e d women as s e x u a l i n s t r u m e n t s  2.  Men who have seduced women o u t o f t h e i r  3.  Women who have seduced men and d e s t r o y e d t h e i r  4.  Women who have c o n s i d e r e d s e x o n l y as a m a t t e r o f  lust lives  pleasure 5.  Women who have committed a d u l t e r y  5.  Women who make money by p r o s t i t u t i o n . The f o u r t h example i s t h e H e l l o f Snakes, i n w h i c h 7  v e n g e f u l snakes  7 t o r t u r e t h e dead u n t i l they l e a r n t h a t a  person h o l d i n g a superior p o s i t i o n excellence).  must a c h i e v e t o k u  (moral  Those who a r e p l a c e d h e r e a r e :  1.  Politicians  2.  H i g h government o f f i c i a l s  3.  Scholars  4.  Professors  5.  P e r s o n s i n s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n s who have damaged t h e i r i n f e r i o r s because o f t h e i r bad deeds  6.  Company men who have b e t r a y e d t h e i r own company.  -212-  The f i f t h example i s t h e H e l l o f S t a r v a t i o n , i n w h i c h the dead, s u f f e r i n g from s t a r v a t i o n and t h i r s t , cannot e a t o r drink.  Those who a r e p l a c e d here a r e : 1.  The l u x u r i o u s p e r s o n w i t h no sense o f c h a r i t y  2.  The husband who has e a t e n w e l l and drunk much outside h i s household, without  feeding h i s family  well. Another part of the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s r e l a t e d to  t h e image o f r e - b i r t h .  examples  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t  contains  o f human b e i n g s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r m o r a l d e f e c t s who a r e  b o r n as a n i m a l s . fox:  liars  cat:  p e r s o n s who have l e d a p l a y f u l l i f e w i t h o u t  work,  such as t h e m i s t r e s s o f a r i c h man dog:  p e r s o n s who have been t o o c u r i o u s o f o t h e r s ' private  horse:  lives  e g o t i s t s who have worked o n l y f o r themselves  w i l d boar o r w o l f : sheep: cock:  gangsters,  drug-pushers  a p a t h e t i c persons men who have s l e p t w i t h many women and abandoned them  The s p i r i t s o f t h e dead, w h i c h have t h e p e r s o n a l i t y d e f e c t s l i s t e d above, cannot r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n l i v i n g a n i m a l s w i t h t h e same d e f e c t s  t o possess  ( t h e Law o f B a l a n c e ) .  -213-  T h e r e f o r e they n e g l e c t t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e a s t r a l arid escape back i n t o t h e p r e s e n t w o r l d .  world  As they possess t h e  body o f a n i m a l s w i t h w h i c h they share t h e same d e f e c t s , t h e possessing s p i r i t s  ( o r i g i n a l l y human b e i n g s ) become c o m p l e t e l y  harmonized w i t h t h e a n i m a l n a t u r e . for a certain  period, the q u a l i t y  to the l e v e l o f animals.  By b e i n g i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r n a t u r e i s reduced  T h e r e f o r e , even when they a r e  p e r m i t t e d t o be r e b o r n i n t h i s w o r l d , they a r e reduced t o animals.  This reduction i s considered a disgrace.  d o c t r i n e a l s o says t h a t once they a r e reduced  The  to animals i t  i s r a r e f o r them t o r e t u r n as a human b e i n g . A more g e n e r a l and c o n s i s t e n t p r i n c i p l e moral p r i n c i p l e s  become obscure  That i s t o s a y , compassion  T h i s was a common t r a d i t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t w h i c h has s i n c e Japanese s o c i e t y a f t e r World War I I  i n s i s t e d on i n d i v i d u a l  rights.  attempting to r e t a i n o l d values. principle  these  and images i s t h e demand f o r a p r o f o u n d  engagement w i t h o t h e r s . (omoiyari).  behind  SMBK i s one o f t h e movements The r e a s o n why t h i s b a s i c  remains r a t h e r i m p l i c i t i n SMBK i s t h a t i t s r e l i g i o u s  d i s c i p l i n e i s b u i l t on r i t u a l .  In r i t u a l , the b e l i e v e r acts  out t h e messages b u i l t i n t o i t s r i t u a l b e h a v i o u r a l r a t h e r than c o n c e p t u a l .  structure.  Learning i s  T h i s means t h a t p r o v i d i n g  he i s engaged w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e SBMK way t h r o u g h r e a l relationships,  i t i s unnecessary  f o r the b e l i e v e r t o  human  c o n s t a n t l y c o n f i r m h i s own b e h a v i o u r i n words.  Although I  w i l l d e v e l o p t h i s p o i n t i n C h a p t e r V I would l i k e t o c l a r i f y i t s b a s i c d o c t r i n a l aspect here. I n t h e SMBK d o c t r i n a l v o c a b u l a r y , 28 t o compassion i s r i t a - a i . love.  the nearest  word  I t s l i t e r a l meaning i s a l t r u i s t i c  However, I would p r e f e r t o a p p l y t h e word "compassion"  t o i t , because " a l t r u i s t i c l o v e " emphasizes t o o much s e l f s a c r i f i c e t o s u i t t h e SMBK concept o f r i t a - a i .  By s e l f -  s a c r i f i c e I mean t h a t one has t o s a c r i f i c e one's own i n t e r e s t s i n order t o serve the i n t e r e s t s of o t h e r s . others are i n e t e r n a l c o n f l i c t .  Here, s e l f and  Hans Kung, a C h r i s t i a n  t h e o l o g i a n , r e f l e c t s on. t h i s i s s u e as f o l l o w s : To many a n o n - C h r i s t i a n i t seems t h a t t h e C h r i s t i a n i s so i n t e n t on s e l f - d e n i a l and s e l f r e n u n c i a t i o n t h a t he n e g l e c t s h i s s e l f development . The C h r i s t i a n may i n d e e d want t o l i v e f o r men, b u t he i s o f t e n n o t enough o f a man h i m s e l f . He i s v e r y r e a d y t o save o t h e r s , but he has n e v e r l e a r n e d p r o p e r l y t o swim h i m s e l f . He p r o c l a i m s t h e s a l v a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d , b u t does n o t p e r c e i v e t h e r e l a t i v i t y of h i s own environment. He d e v i s e s f i n e programs t o g i v e e f f e c t t o l o v e , b u t does n o t see t h r o u g h h i s own pre-programming. He i s t r o u b l e d about t h e s o u l s o f o t h e r s , b u t does not r e c o g n i z e t h e complexes o f h i s own psyche. By a t t a c h i n g t o o much i m p o r t a n c e t o and making too many demands on l o v e o f n e i g h b o r , s e r v i c e , s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , he i s v e r y l i k e l y -£p break down, become d i s c o u r a g e d and f r u s t r a t e d . To SMBK b e l i e v e r s , t h e d e n i a l o f one's own s e l f f o r others  i s remote.  I n SMBK i t i s f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t good  deeds f o r o t h e r s w i l l be rewarded e i t h e r i n t h i s l i f e o r i n  -215-  the  next l i f e .  F o r example, a poor man may be b o r n i n t o a  r i c h f a m i l y , a woman may be r e i n c a r n a t e d as a man.  Hence, a  g i v i n g a c t i s more l i k e an i n v e s t m e n t f o r t h e f u t u r e w e l f a r e i n b o t h a s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l  sense.  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h e common j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s p o i n t i n SMBK i s t a k e n from t h e B i b l e , a l t h o u g h t h e SMBK i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e common C h r i s t i a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t . i s u n d e r s t o o d t o encourage one w i l l  I n SMBK, t h e s e c t i o n  an i n v e s t m e n t f o r f u t u r e w e l f a r e ;  r e c e i v e g r e a t e r p r o f i t i f one i n v e s t s i n s p i r i t u a l  matters. Lay n o t up f o r y o u r s e l v e s t r e a s u r e s upon e a r t h , where moth and r u s t d o t h c o r r u p t , and where t h i e v e s b r e a k t h r o u g h and s t e a l : But l a y up f o r y o u r s e l v e s t r e a s u r e s i n heaven, where n e i t h e r moth n o r r u s t d o t h c o r r u p t , and where t h i e v e s do n o t break t h r o u g h n o r s t e a l : For where your t r e a s u r e i s , t h e r e w i l l your h e a r t be a l s o . 0  The essence o f SMBK compassion, e x t r a c t e d i n t h e form o f a p r i n c i p l e , i s n o t t o h u r t o t h e r s .  This i s d i f f e r e n t  from s h a p i n g one's a c t t o s u i t laws o r r u l e s w h i c h a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n t e n d e d t o be i m p e r s o n a l .  In order not to  h u r t o t h e r s , one has t o l e a r n when and how a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n of  a s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y may be h u r t .  A l t h o u g h t h i s may  sound e l e m e n t a r y , t h e p o i n t i s t h a t o t h e r s may be h u r t i n t h e same way as o n e s e l f i s h u r t ; i n a d d i t i o n , they may be h u r t d i f f e r e n t l y from o n e s e l f .  The former case r e q u i r e s sympathy,  -216-  and t h e l a t t e r case knowledge o f o t h e r s .  W i t h o u t sympathy o r  knowledge, o t h e r s w i l l be e a s i l y d i s r e g a r d e d .  This i s  e x a c t l y t h e r e a s o n why s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n g a i n s a moral meaning.  I t has t o o c c u r i n o r d e r f o r t h e v i c t i m t o r e v e a l  the o t h e r s i d e ( v i c t i m ' s s i d e ) o f t h e s t o r y o f t h e same event w h i c h has been t o t a l l y d i s r e g a r d e d by t h e a s s a i l a n t ; t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t demands, t h r e a t s , and begs t h a t t h e p e r s o n i t i s p o s s e s s i n g must know i t s own s i d e o f t h e s t o r y and accept i t . is this:  The l o g i c b e h i n d t h e a c t o f t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t  F i r s t , i g n o r a n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o cause a p e r s o n t o  v i c t i m i z e others, regardless of his intention. p o s s e s s i o n i s b e l i e v e d o r "regarded p e r s o n t o a b e t t e r awareness.  Second, s p i r i t  as b r i n g i n g " t h e i g n o r a n t  Therefore, the l o g i c a l  c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t , s i n c e i g n o r a n c e i s t h e cause, s h o u l d be t h e s o l u t i o n .  awareness  This i s the b a s i c moral standpoint of  SMBK b e l i e v e r s . Out o f numerous moral s t o r i e s , I would l i k e t o c i t e some examples from an SMBK p u b l i c a t i o n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e points just discussed.  The f i r s t s t o r y i s about a problem  caused by t h e s p i r i t o f a dog w h i c h r e s e n t e d h e r m i s t r e s s . m i d d l e - a g e d woman, t h e mother o f two c h i l d r e n , v i s i t e d local  A  an SMBK  c e n t r e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n because h e r husband began t o  have an a f f a i r w i t h a n o t h e r woman t h r e e months e a r l i e r . wanted t o b r i n g him back t o h e r t h r o u g h SMBK.  She  -217-  Immediately she was g i v e n a p u r i f i c a t i o n ritual. Her p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t was i d e n t i f i e d as a female dog she had k e p t i n h e r f a m i l y f o r seven y e a r s . (The s p i r i t o f t h e dog s a i d , ) "When I was k e p t i n h e r house, she threw w a t e r o v e r my men (male dogs) and b l o c k e d me from f u l f i l l i n g my n a t u r a l d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e my b l o o d l i n e . She even l o c k e d me up i n s i d e t h e house, so I b a r k e d and b i t around i n v a i n t o l e t h e r know I wanted an i n t e r c o u r s e w h i c h I unders t o o d was my r i g h t g i v e n by t h e d i v i n i t y . B u t , she was t o t a l l y o b l i v i o u s t o my communication. A f t e r a l l I had t o l e a v e t h i s present world f o r the a s t r a l world (died), because o f t o o much f r u s t r a t i o n . As my resentment remained as s t r o n g as b e f o r e , I p o s s e s s e d h e r body f o r revenge. I a l s o d r o v e h e r good husband t o go t o a n o t h e r woman t o l e t h e r know t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f compassion and harmony. However, she d i d n o t r e f l e c t on h e r own misdeed b u t w i s h e d t o g e t h e r husband back. She i s t o o s e l f i s h . P l e a s e , make h e r know t h a t even a dog has t h i s much t h o u g h t . " T h i s was an o p i n i o n t h a t M i s s Doggie s t a t e d w i t h a sad and annoyed e x p r e s s i o n . Now t h e woman has u n d e r s t o o d what she d i d t o h e r dog.  Then i t i s t h e t u r n o f t h e s p i r i t o f t h e dog t o l e a r n  that e i t h e r remaining r e s e n t f u l or possessing a l i v i n g i s n o t good.  person  T h i s i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a fundamental m i s t a k e  caused by i g n o r a n c e .  Thus, an SMBK t e a c h e r g i v e s t h e  f o l l o w i n g a d m o n i t i o n t o t h e s p i r i t o f t h e dog: "Your agony i s t h e r e s u l t o f y o u r own d e f i l e m e n t . Do u n d e r s t a n d i t and t r y t o be engaged i n t h e s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e and a s k f o r a d i v i n e pardon. F u r t h e r m o r e , do n o t f o r g e t about t h e k i n d n e s s - ^ g i v e n by y o u r m i s t r e s s f o r seven y e a r s . Go back t o t h e a s t r a l world." '  -218-  As a r e s u l t : Through t h i s a d m o n i t i o n t h e s p i r i t ' s r e s e n t ment was wiped o u t . So i t r e t u r n e d t o t h e a s t r a l w o r l d . 3 5 The n e x t day t h e woman v i s i t e d the l o c a l c e n t r e w i t h a b i g s m i l e on h e r f a c e and t e a r s o f deep a f f e c t i o n i n h e r e y e s , and said: "Only w i t h y o u r h e l p , my husband came back. I feel f i n e . " 3 6  T h i s s t o r y ends w i t h a moral t e a c h i n g such t h a t : T h i s s t o r y t e l l s us t h a t we must have compassion and s i n c e r i t y f o r a l l t h e l i v i n g b e i n g s and s p i r i t s . 3 7  The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e moral runs as f o l l o w s :  (1)  Ignorance o r t h e l a c k o f compassion causes t h e m i s e r y o f o t h e r s and t h e v i c t i m r e s e n t s t h e a s s a i l a n t ;  (2) t h e v i c t i m ,  after  h i s d e a t h , p o s s e s s e s t h e a s s a i l a n t , so t h e p o s i t i o n s o f v i c t i m and a s s a i l a n t a r e r e v e r s e d ; (3) t h r o u g h t h e SBMK p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l and t e a c h i n g , b o t h p a r t i e s d e v e l o p u n d e r s t a n d i n g and compassion, and t h e one r e c o n c i l e s t o t h e o t h e r ; (4) a t t h e time of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t from t h e body o f t h e l i v i n g p e r s o n and t h e p e r s o n ' s r e c o v e r y from h i s own problems o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I would l i k e t o emphasize a g a i n t h a t t h e c o n s i s t e n t u n d e r l y i n g l o g i c here i s t h a t i g n o r a n c e i s t h e cause o f d i s p u t e and t h a t p r o v i d i n g p r o p e r knowledge i s t h e k e y t o t h e s o l u t i o n . S o c i a l s u c c e s s i s o f t e n assumed t o i n d i c a t e a l a c k of compassion because i t may f o s t e r a r r o g a n c e .  SMBK b e l i e v e r s  share such a s e n t i m e n t t h a t s u c c e s s f u l p e o p l e t e n d t o j u s t i f y  -219-  t h e i r own i g n o r a n c e and l o s e compassion.  W e a l t h , an  i n d i c a t o r o f s o c i a l s u c c e s s , i s c o n s i d e r e d l i k e l y t o have been g a i n e d by d e p r i v i n g o t h e r s . The second  example concerns  a 26 y e a r - o l d man  (Mr. Kawara i n pseudonym i n t h e SMBK t e x t b o o k ) who was t h e owner o f f o u r companies i n 1956 b u t l o s t a l l h i s f o r t u n e over a period of several years.  I n June 1956 a bank b u i l d i n g h i s  company had c o n s t r u c t e d was b u r n t down t h e n i g h t b e f o r e t h e t r a n s f e r day.  I n 1956, t h e r o o f o f a t u n n e l h i s company was  constructing f e l l  i n , and some workers  were k i l l e d .  Moreover,  Mr. Kawara was a l s o almost k i l l e d by t h e same a c c i d e n t . 1959 he began a new b u s i n e s s t o r e c o v e r from t h e l o s s by t h e l a s t two a c c i d e n t s . w h i c h he t h o u g h t promised  In  caused  T h i s was t h e b r e e d i n g o f s w e e t f i s h , success.  However, when i t came near  t o s u c c e s s a sudden f o g c o v e r e d t h e whole f i s h pond and s u f f o c a t e d the f i s h t o death. with a b i gd e f i c i t .  He f a i l e d a g a i n and was l e f t  Through t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , t h e  cause o f h i s f a i l u r e was i d e n t i f i e d as t h e c r u e l t y o f h i s ancestor. Mr. Kawara's a n c e s t o r s i x g e n e r a t i o n s b e f o r e was a t a x a t i o n o f f i c e r o f K i s h u Han.^8 He was a c r u e l man and e x p l o i t e d f a r m e r s e x t r e m e l y hard. ( T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t he embezzled a p a r t of t h e t a x and became r i c h , w h i c h was n o t unusual e s p e c i a l l y before modernization.) When a farmer c o u l d n o t pay h i s annual t a x , and sent h i s d a u g h t e r t o him so t h a t h e r l a b o u r would compensate a p a r t o f t h e u n p a i d t a x , t h e  -220-  o f f i c e r n o t o n l y v i o l a t e d h e r b u t , w i t h i n two months, a l s o asked a g a i n f o r t h e t a x . (This means t h a t he was making i t i m p o s s i b l e , because t h e f a r m e r , assumed t o be a r i c e c u l t i v a t o r , had a h a r v e s t o n l y once a y e a r and, a c c o r d i n g l y , o n l y one chance o f p a y i n g any d e b t s . ) The f a r m e r and h i s w i f e committed s u i c i d e . T h e i r daughter a l s o k i l l e d h e r s e l f i n front of a shrine dedicated to a d i v i n e d r a g o n , s u p p l i c a t i n g f o r revenge f o r h e r family. A c c e p t i n g h e r s u p p l i c a t i o n , t h e dragon k i l l e d the o f f i c e r . Then he p r e v e n t e d t h e Kawara f a m i l y from h a v i n g sons, so they had t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r f a m i l y l i n e by a d o p t i o n f o r f o u r g e n e r a t i o n s down t o Mr. Kawara. The dragon became i r r i t a b l e a f t e r he f a i l e d t o d e s t r o y the Kawara f a m i l y by e l i m i n a t i n g t h e i r b l o o d l i n e and d e c i d e d t o b r i n g an economic d i s a s t e r ... 39 • The one:  s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s s t o r y i s t h e same as the f i r s t  (1) i g n o r a n c e o r t h e l a c k o f compassion by t h e Kawara  f a m i l y caused m i s e r y t o t h e f a r m e r ' s f a m i l y w h i c h d i e d resenting  t h e Kawaras; (2) t h e d r a g o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g  the v i c t i m ,  p o s s e s s e d Mr. Kawara, so t h e i r v i c t i m - a s s a i l a n t r o l e s were reversed;  ( 3 ) t h r o u g h t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l and  teaching  they are expected t o reach understanding. However, i n t h i s example, t h e i d e a o f d e f i l e m e n t r e d e m p t i o n i s c l e a r e r t h a n i n t h e f i r s t one: He (Mr. Kawara) was made t o r e a l i z e t h a t h i s f a m i l y d e f i l e m e n t was so deep t h a t he had no chance t o c o n s t r u c t a good l i f e . He f i n a l l y became an (SMBK) t e a c h e r t o save himself through saving others. Since then he has been engaged i n t h e a c t i v i t y t o save those l e a d i n g a mere day-to-day l i f e m o t i v a t e d by t h e i r own s e l f i s h d e s i r e s , l i k e himself before. He t e a c h e s them now t h a t one  and  -221-  cannot r e a l l y a c h i e v e egotism.40  success  o u t o f one's  C o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a moral s t o r y , t h e r o l e o f t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r i n t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l has t o be c l a r i f i e d  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r two p a r t i e s .  F i r s t , the  dragon r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e v i c t i m s ' s i d e now as an a s s a i l a n t , r e v e a l s t h e unknown s i d e o f t h e s t o r y .  Second, Mr. Kawara,  the descendant o f t h e a s s a i l a n t f a m i l y now as a v i c t i m , has to a c c e p t  t h e dragon's s i d e o f t h e s t o r y no m a t t e r how  u n r e a s o n a b l e i t seems t o him because, f o r him, i t i s t h e o n l y way t o save h i m s e l f .  Standing  between these 2  p e r f o r m e r (=an SMBK t e a c h e r , i n t h i s case) mediator,  two, t h e a c t i v e f u n c t i o n s as a  r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d i v i n e o r d e r by o f f e r i n g a common  ground f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . not make a judgment.  The p o i n t i s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r  does  I n o t h e r words, t h e d i s p u t e has t o be  d e a l t w i t h by t h e p a i r d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d .  The e x t e n t o f  Mr. Kawara's a t t e m p t e d r e d e m p t i o n i s dependent on t h e dragon's generosity,•and  Mr. Kawara has t o keep a p p e a l i n g  to the  dragon's sympathy. I n summary, any d i s p u t e has t o be s o l v e d on t h e b a s i s of n e g o t i a t i o n s between t h e d i r e c t v i c t i m and a s s a i l a n t under the d i v i n e g u i d a n c e o f t h e SMBK t e a c h e r . One f u r t h e r p o i n t has t o be made. p u b l i c a t i o n s give the impression possessing  t o readers  Although  SMBK  that the  s p i r i t r e v e a l s i t s s t o r y as c l e a r l y as a c r i m i n a l  -222-  i n a d e t e c t i v e s t o r y confesses  t o a d e t e c t i v e - h e r o , the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a meaningful s t o r y through the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l u s u a l l y takes a long time. "The  s p i r i t gave a l l these  When t h e p u b l i c a t i o n says  s t o r i e s i n three days," t h i s o f t e n  means t h a t t h e s t o r i e s g i v e n by t h e p o s s e s s i n g  s p i r i t began t o  make sense i n t h r e e d a y s , w h i c h i s q u i t e an e x c e p t i o n a l speed. A l s o , t h e time g i v e n by b e l i e v e r s i s n o t always r e l i a b l e , because i t i s o f t e n f o r g o t t e n i n t h e i r memory t h a t they had to  spend a l o n g time b e f o r e they began t o d e r i v e r e s u l t s from  the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l doctrine.  According  i n t h e form w h i c h f i t s  i n t o t h e SMBK  t o my o b s e r v a t i o n , each b e l i e v e r spends  a l o n g p e r i o d o f time r e g u l a r l y v i s i t i n g a l o c a l performing  centre,  the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , having personal  consul-  t a t i o n s w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f and t h e Head and l e a r n i n g t h e doctrine.  By d o i n g so they a r e e x p e c t e d t o go t h r o u g h a  p e r s o n a l i t y change.  This I w i l l d i s c u s s i n the next  chapter.  Compassion, a core n o t i o n i n t h e SMBK m o r a l i t y , f u n c t i o n s as an e q u a l i z i n g element.  The p o i n t here i s t h a t  r o l e - r e v e r s a l i s t h e SMBK way o f c o n s t r u c t i n g e q u a l i t y . r e v e r s a l i s experienced  i n two ways i n t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n  ritual:  one i s i n t h e form o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  (Chapter  I I ) , and t h e o t h e r i n t h e c o n t e n t  r e v e a l e d by p o s s e s s i n g r o l e - r e v e r s a l occurs  This  spirits.  o f moral  itself  stories  I n the moral s t o r i e s , the  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way.  The a s s a i l a n t  -223-  has t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e m i s e r y o f the v i c t i m by h i m s e l f b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d by h i s o r i g i n a l v i c t i m .  When the o r i g i n a l  a s s a i l a n t becomes a v i c t i m , t h e o r i g i n a l v i c t i m i s i n the p o s i t i o n of a s s a i l a n t . conditions assailant  Both s i d e s  must know the r e a l  o f t h e o t h e r by e x p e r i e n c i n g them; n o t o n l y has the t o e x p e r i e n c e the agony o f the v i c t i m , but a l s o the  v i c t i m has t o e x p e r i e n c e t h a t  i t i s so easy t o be c r u e l and  a g g r e s s i v e , as p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t s n o r m a l l y a r e . I n b o t h form and c o n t e n t , the r o l e r e v e r s a l a p a r t i c u l a r sense o f e q u a l i t y .  T h i s a l so means t h a t  p a i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , there i s not e q u a l i t y .  i n each  Between t h e two  p e r f o r m e r s o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the a c t i v e controls  provides  performer  t h e p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r , and between v i c t i m and  a s s a i l a n t , the a s s a i l a n t o b v i o u s l y has a power o v e r the v i c t i m . Here the e q u a l i t y depends on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t h i s advantaged or d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n i s o n l y temporary.  -224-  DIVINE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHICAL CONTAINMENT OF DISORDER IN ORDER  I n t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e , e q u a l i t y and d i s o r d e r o f t h e operational morality are also contained order  o f t h e cosmology.  i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l  T h i s c o n t a i n m e n t i s made p o s s i b l e by  the image o f a l a y e r e d cosmos. of t h e cosmos a r e t e m p o r a r i l y  I n SMBK, o n l y c e r t a i n l a y e r s i n d i s o r d e r , and t h e b e i n g s  s u f f e r i n g from c o n f l i c t s a r e a l l c o n t a i n e d layers.  Therefore,  w i t h i n these  the l a y e r s which c o n t a i n e g a l i t a r i a n  elements a r e a l s o p a r t o f t h e h i e r a r c h y . In i t s m y t h o l o g i c a l  h i s t o r y , t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e  e x p l a i n s i n terms o f o r i g i n s t h e r e a s o n why t h e p r e s e n t cosmic order  i s improper.  i n p e r f e c t harmony.  At the very beginning  o f t i m e , men l i v e d  There were n e v e r any c o n f l i c t s because  men were n o t g i v e n " d e s i r e s " .  However, t h i s made them slow i n  the p r o c e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a d i v i n e c i v i l i z a t i o n on e a r t h , f o r w h i c h purpose they had been c r e a t e d . d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e sun, who s u p e r v i s e d  Therefore, the  t h e c r e a t i o n o f men,  f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e speed and e f f i c i e n c y i n men's work by g i v i n g them d e s i r e s and i n d u c i n g c o m p e t i t i o n . order and  t o do so t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e sun d e l e g a t e d  In  the task  a u t h o r i t y t o t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e moon who s p e c i a l i z e i n  the c r e a t i o n o f d e s i r e s .  A l t h o u g h t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e sun  -225-  i n t e n d e d t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s t o be o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d o f transition,  t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e moon took advantage o f t h e  t r u s t g i v e n them by t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e sun and d e c i d e d t o keep t h e m s e l v e s f o r e v e r i n power over t h e e a r t h .  As a r e s u l t ,  when t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e sun asked t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e moon when they would r e - s u b o r d i n a t e t h e m s e l v e s ,  the d i v i n i t i e s  o f t h e moon, i n s t e a d o f g i v i n g a humble answer, c a s t a s p e l l and  s a i d , "Come back when r o a s t e d beans bloom"  o f c o u r s e , do n o t bloom.  R o a s t e d beans,  They t h e n threw r o a s t e d beans a t  the d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e sun. The c h i l d r e n o f t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f the moon were even worse: bodies  they stung t h e eyes o f t h e a s t r a l  t h a t t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e sun l e f t b e h i n d when t h e  l a t t e r w i t h d r e w t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e s i x t h l e v e l o f t h e cosmos where they p r o p e r l y b e l o n g e d . violation  T h i s was e q u i v a l e n t t o a  o f t h e b o d i e s o f t h e dead.  F o o l i s h l y enough, men,  now a c t i v a t e d by d e s i r e s , f o l l o w e d t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e moon. They a l s o threw r o a s t e d beans, c a s t t h e same s p e l l , and v i o l a t e d t h e a s t r a l b o d i e s o f t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e sun. This i s the " o r i g i n a l all  s i n " o f a l l mankind, and t h e source o f  defilement. SMBK b e l i e v e r s c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l event  i s the o r i g i n of the ceremonial contemporary J a p a n e s e . children  act s t i l l  common among  On t h e eve o f t h e f i r s t day o f s p r i n g ,  throw r o a s t e d beans a t a f i g u r e w e a r i n g  a monster  -226-  DIAGRAM^4  :  Divine  arrangement  - 2 2 7 -  mask, s a y i n g , "Go away, monster.  Come i n , w e a l t h . "  Some  t r a d i t i o n a l p e o p l e d e c o r a t e t h e i r door-ways w i t h a b r a n c h o f h o l l y wood w i t h a f i s h head ( s a r d i n e )  stuck t o i t .  This  r e p e a t e d c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l s i n , w h i c h adds more t o already-accumulated defilement, the SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y . r e g u l a r prayer  i s considered  a challenge to  Thus, t h e SMBK b e l i e v e r s have a  s e s s i o n on t h e f i r s t day o f s p r i n g  (Risshun  s a i ) w i t h t h e a i m o f redeeming such s i n . F u l l r e d e m p t i o n i n t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e i m p l i e s  that  the p r o p e r o r d e r w i l l be r e s u r r e c t e d under t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e supreme d i v i n i t y .  The end o f t h e r e i g n o f t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f  the moon i s a l m o s t a t hand. b u i l t on d e s i r e s w i l l  The m a t e r i a l i s t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n  be t r a n s c e n d e d , and a more s p i r i t u a l e r a  under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e d i v i n i t i e s o f t h e sun w i l l t o power.  And u l t i m a t e l y t h e supreme d i v i n i t y w i l l  cosmos w i t h a " b a p t i s m o f f i r e . "  According  return  purify his  t o t h e SMBK  d o c t r i n e , o n l y a l i m i t e d number o f p e o p l e w i l l be chosen t o survive t h i s period of f i r e . men," and w i l l  They w i l l be known as " l e a v e n  be t h e b u i l d e r s o f a new d i v i n e c i v i l i z a t i o n on  e a r t h a f t e r t h e end o f t h e p r e s e n t w o r l d .  Hence, because o f  t h e i r d i v i n e knowledge and mastery o f the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l s , the SMBK b e l i e v e r s w i l l  occupy a s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e  cosmos a t t h i s c r u c i a l moment o f t h e r e c o v e r y order.  of the d i v i n e  F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e SBMK d o c t r i n e compels i t s  -228-  f o l l o w e r s t o master t h e d o c t r i n e and r i t u a l s p e r t a i n i n g t o purification. I n t h e SBMK cosmology, t h e p r o p e r o r d e r i s viewed as harmonious and s t a t i c .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e cosmos c o n t a i n s  p e r p e t u a l movements w i t h i n i t s e l f w h i c h a r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n terms o f time and space.  The movement i n terms o f space i s  the r o t a t i o n o f t h e cosmos w h i c h i s shown as t h e movement o f the s u n , s t a r s , p l a n e t s , e t c .  The movement i n terms o f time  i s t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e cosmos seen as doom f o r t h e many and r e s u r r e c t i o n f o r t h e few.  T h i s i s an e n d l e s s r e p e t i t i o n whose  c o n t i n u a t i o n i s caused by c o r r u p t i o n . a l r e a d y been r e p e a t e d  seven t i m e s .  T h i s i s s a i d t o have  The p r o c e s s o f t h i s  r e p e t i t i o n i s viewed as a s p i r a l movement (Diagram 24) i n w h i c h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f each m i l l e n n i u m i s assumed as t h e achievement o f a new c i v i l i z a t i o n b e t t e r , t h a t i s , p u r e r , the p r e v i o u s one.  than  This h i s t o r i c a l process takes place only  below t h e s i x t h l e v e l so t h a t t h e h i g h e s t two l e v e l s r e m a i n undisturbed.  I n t h i s way, a l l t h e changes i n v o l v e d i n d i v i n e  h i s t o r y are a part of a r e g u l a r process arranged supreme d i v i n i t y . actively i n this  by t h e  The r o l e g i v e n t o t h e SMBK i s t o p a r t i c i p a t e process.  -229-  NOTES 1-The i m p o r t a n c e o f pantheon has been mentioned by Y. Kubota (1978, pp. 217-8). 2  on:  (  )  kindness.  3 _ K o s e i Magazine, J u l y 1977. 4 The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e bottom two l e v e l s a r e n o t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d among SMBK c l e r i c s , a l t h o u g h t h e p r e v i o u s l y mentioned S h i n t o g r o u p , M i c h i H i r a k i , has an e l a b o r a t e d o c t r i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r them. Q IF  8  # ^  10  Okada, 1970 (b) (The q u o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese by K. Miyanaga.) ''"''"Leaven s p i r i t i s an SMBK word. confusion.  I use i t t o a v o i d  12  I am n o t sure i f M i c h i H i r a k i d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the a s t r a l body and t h e s p i r i t u a l body. I used t h e w o r l d " a s t r a l " to avoid confusion. 13  The Japanese word kami i n d i c a t i n g d i v i n i t y c o u l d a l s o i n d i c a t e e i t h e r t h e s i n g u l a r o r t h e p l u r a l form. Here I t r e a t e d i t i n t h e s i n g u l a r t o i n d i c a t e any d i v i n i t y who i s i n the p o s i t i o n t o g i v e p r o t e c t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n o r people.  -230-  1/  The SMBK Elementary S e s s i o n Textbook (not d i s t r i b u t e d o u t s i d e SMBK), pp. 63-4. (The q u o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese by K. Miyanaga.) 15 The  c r o s s i n SMBK s y m b o l i z e s harmony and energy.  16  Because i t i s t h e Japanese custom t o p l a c e d i r e c t l y on t h e t a t a m i f l o o r t h e m a t t r e s s and t h e mat ( c o v e r e d w i t h a bedsheet") and b l a n k e t ( o f t e n p l a c e d i n a c a s e ) , t h e sheet and ( t h e case o f ) t h e b l a n k e t may be u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y stepped on, a l t h o u g h i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be bad manners. "^S. S e k i g u c h i , 1978, pp. 137-8. Japanese by K. Miyanaga.) 1 8  ( T r a n s l a t i o n from  I b i d . , p. 138.  19  Edo i s t h e name f o r Tokyo i n t h e Tokugawa P e r i o d . I t s p o p u l a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d t o have been about one m i l l i o n . 20 F o r t h e meaning o f s a - t o r i , see Chapter I V . 2 1  I b i d . , p. 130.  22  Mukashi no h i t o a l s o means t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e o p l e i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e modern and r a t i o n a l p e o p l e . 23 The a s t r a l w o r l d c o n t a i n s v a r i o u s H e l l s . 2 4  2  I b i d . , pp. 152-3.  ^ I b i d . , pp. 153-4.  26 These p e o p l e a r e n o t s p e c i f i e d i n t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e . 27 The SMBK d o c t r i n e e x p l a i n s t h a t these snakes a r e n o t r e a l snakes b u t t h e v e n g e f u l s p i r i t s o f t h e dead human b e i n g s who have g a i n e d a s t r a l b o d i e s i n a snake f i g u r e .  -231-  2 8  H.  Kiing, 1978,  T h e Holy B i b l e , K i n g James v e r s i o n . 2 9  p.  530.  Matthew:  6-19,  30  20, 21.  (Authorized  K. Okada, 1 9 7 0 ( a ) , p. 214. (The q u o t a t i o n t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese by K. Miyanaga.) 1  was  on (>vi- ) v  32 3 AIn the o r i g i n a l , the w o r l d r e i - k a i w h i c h n o r m a l l y used t o mean the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d i s used. However, I have i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s here as the a s t r a l w o r l d , because sometimes the a s t r a l w o r l d i s c o n s i d e r e d as a p a r t of the s p i r i t u a l w o r l d i n a b r o a d e r sense. I n my t h e s i s I l i m i t e d t h e i r usage t o the n a r r o w e r meanings t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n . 33 214. I b i d . , PJ J  I b i d . , P3 6  Ibid.,  38  215.  P-  215.  I b i d . , P-  215.  a territory Han i s awa e r a . 39 . 197-8. ^ I b i d . , PP u  J  family.  I b i d . , p. 198. I n SMBK a p e r s o n i s i d e n t i f i e d by h i s T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV.  -232-  CHAPTER V:  INDIVIDUALS IN THE SMBK RELIGIOUS SYSTEM  -233-  The  hierarchy  o f power and knowledge i n SMBK s e r v e s  the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r by o f f e r i n g an e s t a b l i s h e d  procedure  f o r s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , which occurs w i t h i n the given work o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . changes.  frame-  C o l l e c t i v e l y , nothing  The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l r e p e a t s t h e same p a t t e r n  i n every performance.  However, t h e r e p e t i t i o n c r e a t e s a  long process of s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  I t i sa  from t h e non-SMBK s e l f t o t h e SMBK s e l f .  transformation  The SMBK s e l f  i n d i c a t e s t h e s t a t e o f one-ness w i t h t h e d i v i n e o r d e r . t h i s s t a t e , t h e b e l i e v e r t h i n k s and a c t s a c c o r d i n g cosmology. he  In  t o SMBK  Or, p r o b a b l y more c o r r e c t l y from h i s p o i n t o f v i e w ,  l i v e s i n t h e SMBK cosmos w i t h f u l l awareness o f t h e f a c t  t h a t he does.  The non-SMBK s e l f i n d i c a t e s t h e s t a t e o f  i s o l a t i o n from t h e d i v i n e one-ness.  The two s t a t e s o f s e l f  are e x c l u s i v e t o each o t h e r and, a c c o r d i n g l y ,  the s e l f i n  one-ness does n o t emerge from t h e s e l f i n i s o l a t i o n .  There-  f o r e , i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h i s p r o c e s s o f s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n means a t o t a l change.  I t s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o as an e x t r a -  p a r a d i g m a t i c change.  T h i s change, i n o t h e r words, i s a s h i f t  from one paradigm t o a n o t h e r . The transformation  p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l o f f e r s t h e o n l y method f o r from t h e non-SMBK s e l f t o t h e SMBK-self, o r  from t h e o l d paradigm t o t h e new paradigm.  The key i s  -234-  b e h a v i o r a l submission.  I t enables  the performer  to act  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e new paradigm w h i c h he has n o t y e t m e n t a l l y assimilated.  He s t i l l  t h i n k s a c c o r d i n g t o h i s o l d paradigm.  Consequently,  h i s s e l f experiences  a s e p a r a t i o n o f body and  mind, w h i c h i s a r t i f i c i a l l y c r e a t e d i n t h e r i t u a l  context.  T h i s s e p a r a t i o n o f t e n causes absent-mindedness i n t h e d a i l y l i f e of the b e l i e v e r .  He becomes d i s o r g a n i z e d ,  forgetful,  s e l f - i n v o l v e d and c a r e l e s s o f e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s .  SMBK  t e a c h e r s and s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s a d v i s e t h e b e l i e v e r i n t h i s s t a t e to p e r f o r m  the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  r e g u l a r l y and f r e q u e n t l y  but n o t t o p h i l o s o p h i z e about h i s e x p e r i e n c e .  I n o t h e r words,  t h i s stage s h o u l d be o v e r r i d d e n q u i c k l y by i n t e n s i v e l e a r n i n g . The  SMBK s t a n d a r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t such d i s t u r b a n c e s  a r e caused by s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n , and t h e performance o f t h e purification ritual The  i s t h e s o l u t i o n f o r these  disturbances.  a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e new paradigm i s o n l y  p o s s i b l e b e h a v i o r a l l y , because t h e new paradigm does n o t emerge from t h e o l d paradigm. cation r i t u a l .  T h i s change n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e p u r i f i -  By r e a d i n g t h e SMBK p u b l i c a t i o n s o u t s i d e o f  the c o n t e x t o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , be u n d e r s t o o d process  o n l y through  t h e o l d paradigm.  of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ;  the o l d paradigm.  This i s a  t h e new paradigm i s screened by  Consequently,  p e r s o n remains t h e same.  t h e new paradigm c a n  the b a s i c epistemology  of the  I n c o n t r a s t , i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n  -235-  r i t u a l , t h e way t o r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s d e l i b e r a t e l y b l o c k e d . The p e r f o r m e r f i r s t has t o see t h e fragmented p a r t s o f t h e new paradigm t h r o u g h t h e l e n s o f t h e o l d paradigm.  Subsequently,  he has t o f i n d a new p e r s p e c t i v e i n w h i c h a l l t h e fragmented p a r t s become i n t e l l i g i b l e .  T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s t h e new  paradigm, and i s o f f e r e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n ritual.  Thus, from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f an o u t s i d e r ,  l e a r n i n g appears as an i r r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . of  ritual  I t i s a process  s u b m i s s i o n , b u t n o t commitment i n so f a r as t h e l a t t e r i s  a r a t i o n a l a c t p o s s i b l e on t h e b a s i s o f r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g i n the  o l d paradigm. In SMBK, t h e r i t u a l p r o c e s s w h i c h b e g i n s w i t h t h e  disengagement from t h e o l d paradigm and w h i c h ends w i t h t h e engagement i n t h e new paradigm i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l .  In other  words, a s s i m i l a t i o n o f s e l f i n t o t h e SMBK paradigm i s incremental.  The b e l i e v e r f i r s t l e a r n s t o a c c e p t s p i r i t  p o s s e s s i o n as a f a c t .  Second, t h e b e l i e v e r i s t a c t f u l l y  guided t o recognize the importance of o t h e r s .  T h i r d , the  i m p o r t a n c e o f o t h e r s converges i n t o t h a t o f h i s own a n c e s t o r s . F o u r t h , he r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s a n c e s t o r s a r e p a r t o f t h e pantheon. F i f t h , he a s s i m i l a t e s t h e concept t h a t t h e p a n t h e o n i c o r d e r c o n s t i t u t e s t h e SMBK cosmos.  F i n a l l y , he a c c e p t s t h a t i t was  c r e a t e d by t h e SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y .  The  purification ritual  i s a s p e c i a l form o f r i t u a l . p u r i f i e d o r removed. of d e f i l e m e n t .  w h i c h c e r t i f i e s these  steps  I t presupposes an o b j e c t t o be  The removal presupposes t h e e x i s t e n c e  The d e f i l e m e n t has t o be removed because i t  i s b l o c k i n g t h e p e r s o n from t h e achievement o f one-ness w i t h d i v i n e order.  The s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n from t h e d i v i n e  o r d e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be d i s o r d e r . ritual order.  performer,  gains the a b i l i t y  The p e r s o n , by becoming a to convert d i s o r d e r into  T h i s i s t h e meaning o f t h e a c t o f p u r i f i c a t i o n .  The  r e c o v e r y o f o r d e r from d i s o r d e r i s l o g i c a l l y made p o s s i b l e by the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s t a t e o f one-ness i s p r o p e r and t h a t s e p a r a t i o n i s a temporary and improper IV.)  condition.  I n t h e SMBK p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , t h e r i t u a l  ( p u r i f i e r ) and t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t  (See Chapter performer  ( t o be p u r i f i e d )  both  recover order. In t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , o f t e n t r e a t e d as a d e f i l e m e n t . spirit  s p i r i t possession i s  I n SMBK, t h e p o s s e s s i n g  i s a s p i r i t o f t h e dead w h i c h i s i s o l a t e d  from o r d e r  by b e i n g d i s p l a c e d i n t h e pantheon.. T h e r e a f t e r , i t r e p r e s e n t s disorder.  I t possesses  t h e human b e i n g who a l s o r e p r e s e n t s  d i s o r d e r by b e i n g i n a s t a t e o f i s o l a t i o n from one-ness.  In  o t h e r words, b o t h t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t and t h e p o s s e s s e d belong t o d i s o r d e r .  S i n c e d i s o r d e r i s d e f i l e m e n t i n SMBK,  -237-  p u r i f i c a t i o n i s n e c e s s i t a t e d i n o r d e r t o r e c o v e r the p r o p e r order.  I n t h i s c o n t e x t s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n i s a " c a l l i n g " , as  I.M. Lewis''" p h r a s e s i t , because the p o s s e s s i n g  spirit  e x p l i c a t e s the dynamic between o r d e r and d i s o r d e r . possessing s p i r i t motivates purification ritual.  A l s o , the  the b e l i e v e r t o be engaged i n the  I n SMBK, o n l y s p i r i t s o f the dead have  the m o b i l i t y f o r p o s s e s s i o n .  The d i v i n i t i e s a r e viewed as  b a s i c a l l y s t a t i c and not i n v o l v e d i n p o s s e s s i o n .  -238-  SATORI AND SELF-CHANGE IN THE RITUAL CONTEXT S a t o r i i s t h e s t a t e o f s e l f w h i c h has a c h i e v e d oneness w i t h t h e d i v i n e o r d e r .  I n SMBK, t h i s word has s l i g h t l y  d i f f e r e n t meanings w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y i n d i c a t e t h e awareness achieved at various towards one-ness.  l e v e l s i n the process of  transformation  However, b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o i n q u i r i n g i n t o  the SMBK meaning o f s a t o r i , I would l i k e t o b r i e f l y m e n t i o n s a t o r i i n Zen Buddhism, f o r two r e a s o n s :  first,  long  before  SMBK a s s i m i l a t e d t h e n o t i o n o f s a t o r i , i t was h i s t o r i c a l l y t h e o b j e c t i v e f o r Zen and was e l a b o r a t e d  i nvarious  ways by Zen  m a s t e r s ; second, t h e SMBK meaning o f s a t o r i i s b a s i c a l l y an a d o p t i o n from Zen w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n by t h e L o r d - s a v i o r Okada, t h e o r i g i n a t o r o f SMBK.  I begin the d i s c u s s i o n with a  b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Zen meaning o f s a t o r i , f o c u s i n g on the a s p e c t p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d t o SMBK. d i s c u s s how Okada m o d i f i e d  Then, I go on t o  t h e meaning.  A w o r l d famous Zen m a s t e r , D. S u z u k i ,  explains  s a t o r i as f o l l o w s : The o b j e c t o f Zen d i s c i p l i n e c o n s i s t s i n a c q u i r i n g a new v i e w p o i n t f o r l o o k i n g i n t o t h e essence o f t h i n g s . I f y o u have been i n t h e habit of t h i n k i n g l o g i c a l l y according to the r u l e s o f d u a l i s m , r i d y o u r s e l f o f i t and you may come around somewhat t o t h e v i e w p o i n t o f Zen. You and I a r e s u p p o s e d l y l i v i n g i n t h e same w o r l d , b u t who c a n t e l l t h a t t h e t h i n g we p o p u l a r l y c a l l a stone t h a t i s l y i n g b e f o r e  -239-  my window i s t h e same t o b o t h o f us? You and I s i p a cup o f t e a . That a c t i s a p p a r e n t l y a l i k e t o us b o t h , b u t who c a n t e l l what a wide gap t h e r e i s s u b j e c t i v e l y between your d r i n k i n g and my d r i n k i n g ? I n your d r i n k i n g t h e r e may be no Zen, w h i l e mine i s b r i m f u l o f i t . The r e a s o n f o r i t i s : you move i n a l o g i c a l c i r c l e and I am out o f i t . Though t h e r e i s i n f a c t n o t h i n g new i n t h e s o - c a l l e d new v i e w p o i n t o f Zen, t h e term "new" i s c o n v e n i e n t t o e x p r e s s the Zen way o f v i e w i n g t h e w o r l d , b u t i t s use here i s a c o n d e s c e n s i o n on t h e p a r t o f Zen. T h i s a c q u i r i n g o f a new v i e w p o i n t i n Zen i s c a l l e d s a t o r i (wu i n C h i n e s e ) and i t s v e r b form i n s a t o r u . W i t h o u t i t t h e r e i s no Zen, f o r t h e l i f e o f Zen b e g i n s w i t h t h e "opening o f s a t o r i . " S a t o r i may be d e f i n e d as i n t u i t i v e l o o k i n g - i n t o , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o i n t e l l e c t u a l and l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Whatever t h e d e f i n i t i o n , s a t o r i means t h e u n f o l d i n g o f a new w o r l d h i t h e r t o unperceived i n the confusion of a d u a l i s t i c mind.2 A l t h o u g h i t s use i s s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d o n l y by expedience  f o r r e a l b e g i n n e r s , Zen B u d d h i s t s o c c a s i o n a l l y use 3  a diagram p o p u l a r l y c a l l e d t h e " p i c t u r e o f t e n oxen".  This  diagram e x p l a i n s t h e p r o c e s s o f " a c q u i r i n g a new v i e w p o i n t " in  t e n s t a g e s as f o l l o w s . 1. S e e k i n g t h e ox; a p e r s o n d e c i d e s t o f i n d t h e " t r u e self" . 2.  F i n d i n g t h e ox's f o o t p r i n t s ; he i s l e a r n i n g the " t r u e s e l f , " b u t o n l y t h e o r e t i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y not i n p r a c t i c e .  about  3.  F i n d i n g t h e ox; h i s t h e o r e t i c a l l e a r n i n g b e g i n s t o make sense i n p r a c t i c e .  4.  C a t c h i n g t h e ox; he s t r u g g l e s n o t t o l o s e h i s oncemade sense.  5.  H e r d i n g t h e ox; h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p r a c t i c e a r e becoming h i s own.  - 2 4 1 -  3. F i n d i n g  4.  Catching  t h e ox  t h e ox  - 2 4 2 -  5. H e r d i n g  the  ox  -243-  8.  No ox, no  self  -245-  6.  Going back home on t h e ox's back; h i s t r a n s c e n d e n c e i s completed. Now he i s t h e master o f h i m s e l f .  7.  No ox, b u t h i s own s e l f ; s a t o r i as an e x t e r n a l o b j e c t i v e has d i s a p p e a r e d , so e v e r y t h i n g i s c o n t a i n e d i n h i s own s e l f .  8.  No ox, no s e l f ; ( d u a l i s t i c ) d i s t i n c t i o n o r s p l i t s d i s a p p e a r , i n c l u d i n g t h a t between t h e s e l f and e x t e r n a l o b j e c t i v e ( s a t o r i ) and a l s o t h a t between the s u b j e c t i v e s e l f and t h e r e f l e c t i v e s e l f .  9.  R e t u r n i n g t o the essence; the r e l i g i o u s s e l f a c h i e v e s one-ness w i t h n a t u r e ( o r N a t u r e ) .  10.  R e t u r n i n g t o society.; he goes b a c k t o l i v e r e g u l a r p e o p l e t o show them t h e r e a l l i f e . 4  In  with  SMBK, t h e L o r d - s a v i o r Okada i n t e r p r e t s t h e ox  sequence d i a g r a m as f o l l o w s : A man has a b e a s t i n h i s mind ( l i k e t h i s ox) p u l l i n g him away from h i s p r o p e r way. R e a c h i n g a s t a t e o f m a t u r i t y r e q u i r e s him t o be t h e master o f such e l e m e n t s . ... O f t e n we go around t h e same c i r c l e e n d l e s s l y b e i n g p u l l e d by o u r own mind l i k e t h i s ox w i t h no c o n t r o l o v e r i t , a l t h o u g h i t i s no doubt o u r own mind. We f a l l i n t o such c o n d i t i o n s when o u r mind i s " f l a t . " Then Okada adds h i s own m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n : For example, man has i n t e l l e c t , s e n t i m e n t ( e m o t i o n s ) , and w i l l . These form a f l a t t r i a n g l e the c e n t r o i d o f w h i c h i s mind. (Diagram 2 5 ) . . . . However, p r o p e r s t a t e o f mind i s c u b i c so t h a t i n t e l l e c t , s e n t i m e n t , and w i l l have t o form a cubic t r i a n g l e . T h i s i s an a s c e n d i n g movement. (Diagram 2 5 ) . The t o p o f t h i s movement s h o u l d r e a c h Su no Kami ( t h e SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y ) , t h a t i s , ^ ( c h y o n ) . B u t , we have a ^ i n t h e d e p t h o f o u r mind, and a l s o have a n o t h e r ^ even i n t h e deeper p l a c e i n s i d e o f t h e f i r s t ^ . Moreover, i n s i d e o f t h e second ^ , t h e r e i s one more N> w h i c h i s o u r g i v e n p o r t i o n o f t h e s p i r i t  -246-  DI AG RAM .25:  F l a t and C u b i c T r i a n g l e s  - 2 4 7 -  of t h e supreme d i v i n i t y . [Nesting i s a t y p i c a l SMBK metaphor.] I n o t h e r words, as o u r mind ascends, o u r d i v i n e s p i r i t i n t h e r e a l d e p t h of o u r mind w i l l be d i r e c t l y c o n j o i n e d t o t h e divinity. P o w e r f u l a s c e n s i o n w i l l combine us to d i v i n i t y a f t e r a l l . This i s s a t o r i of the cubic t r i a n g l e . In t h e statement  above, t h e L o r d - S a v i o u r Okada h o l d s  t h a t s a t o r i i s t h e r e c o v e r y o f one-ness w i t h t h e o r d e r o f t h e cosmos and i t s p r o d u c e r , t h e SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y .  The  s t a t e o f one-ness i s a s s e r t e d as p r o p e r and, a c c o r d i n g l y , t h e improper  s e p a r a t i o n from t h e o r d e r (and from i t s p r o d u c e r )  has t o be a d j u s t e d .  I n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t , I would  l i k e t o b r i e f l y summarize t h e meaning o f t h e word s a t o r i , because t h e SMBK usage o f t h i s word i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t the r e g u l a r one.  from  L i n g u i s t i c a l l y , s a t o r i i s a noun form o f one  s i m p l e v e r b s a t o r u , and has two meanings, s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s . The  s e c u l a r meaning i s s i m p l y t o comprehend o r t o u n d e r s t a n d .  I t s c o n n o t a t i o n has a s t r o n g emphasis t h a t such comprehension or u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s an achievement.  The r e l i g i o u s  meaning o f  s a t o r i i s s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , one-ness w i t h t h e o r d e r of t h e cosmos o r n a t u r e .  This i n d i c a t e s the goal o f  achievement as i s t h e case i n Zen, f o r example. SMBK has i t s own unique  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s a t o r i .  However, According  t o SMBK, i t i s n o t a s i m p l e noun s a t o r i b u t a compound noun s a - t o r i ; sa i s a gap and t o r i r e m o v a l .  Together,  t h e SMBK  meaning o f s a - t o r i i s removing a gap between man and t h e  -248-  divine order.  This interpretation  but s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t  p r o v i d e s two usages  from t h e r e g u l a r ones.  s a - t o r i i s viewed as a p r o c e s s o f achievement u l t i m a t e one-ness i t s e l f .  similar  F i r s t , i n SMBK, r a t h e r than the  I t i s a process of self-change o r  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from one s e l f t o a n o t h e r .  However, t h i s  p r o c e s s i s a l s o viewed as numerous s t a g e s o f s p i r i t u a l a s c e n s i o n - l i k e g o i n g up a l o n g s t a i r w a y . meaning o f s a - t o r i i s t h e achievement similar  Thus, t h e second  o f each s t a g e .  This i s  t o t h e s e c u l a r usage o f t h e o r i g i n a l word s a t o r i ,  because b o t h f o c u s on t h e accomplishment  of understanding,  a l t h o u g h i n SMBK t h e o b j e c t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s l i m i t e d t o its  doctrine. A l t h o u g h t h e use o f t h e diagram o f oxen i s a d m i t t e d  to be an e x p e d i e n t , i n p r i n c i p l e , Zen r e j e c t s g r a d u a l change.  s a t o r i as a  P r o f e s s o r K e i j i Iwata o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museum  of E t h n o l o g y o f J a p a n , a l s o w e l l known as a Zen B u d d h i s t a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , s u g g e s t e d t o me t h a t a u t h e n t i c s a t o r i must be tongo  (an immediate o r sudden r e a l i z a t i o n o f t r u e s e l f ) n o t 7  zengo  (a g r a d u a l change o f s e l f ) .  From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f  such Zen B u d d h i s t s who s u p p o r t t h e i d e a o f tongo, zengo i s a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l detour which c o u l d s p o i l the q u a l i t y of satori itself.  More p r e c i s e l y ,  tongo i s t h e way t o c u t  t h r o u g h a l l t h e s u r f a c e phenomena t o t h e t r u e s e l f , b u t zengo as a method w i l l l i k e l y i n s t e a d m i s l e a d a p e r s o n i n t o a  — 249 —  feeling of better-ness i n d a i l y l i f e routines.  Therefore,  from t h e Zen p o i n t o f v i e w , i f such a n o t i o n o f s a t o r i as g r a d u a l change i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , as i t i s i n SMBK, t h e people  i n t h e p u r s u i t o f s a t o r i w i l l l i k e l y be m i s g u i d e d . Concerning  t h i s p o i n t , an SMBK member (a young man  of about twenty a t t h e Kanazawa l o c a l c e n t r e ) gave me an interesting opinion, referring  t o an i n c i d e n t o f someone  f i n d i n g 100 m i l l i o n y e n on t h e s t r e e t  (money w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y  became h i s ) . When you want t o be r i c h , i f y o u a r e an o r d i n a r y p e r s o n , you had b e t t e r accumulate money l i t t l e by l i t t l e , though i t i s n o t completely meaningless t o s t a r t l o o k i n g f o r 100 m i l l i o n y e n on t h e s t r e e t , f o r t h i s has happened t o someone i n r e a l i t y . You cannot say t h i s way o f becoming r i c h i s u n r e a l i s t i c . I t c o u l d even make you a m i l l i o n a i r e ! (He laughed). And he added: S i n c e I am an o r d i n a r y p e r s o n , I t h i n k I s h o u l d a c h i e v e my s a t o r i l i t t l e by l i t t l e . I f anyone b e l i e v e s t h a t he c a n a c h i e v e g r e a t s a t o r i a l l a t once, p l e a s e t r y . I t i s t o t a l l y his choice.  -250-  MORAL SPONTANEITY The  c e n t r a l issue f o r transcendence o r self-change  i s s o l i d i t y o f t h e "newly a c q u i r e d " i s an i n t e g r a t e d  The r e l i g i o u s s e l  s e l f i n so f a r as i t p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e  "wholeness" o f d i v i n e o r d e r . alized  self.  The fragmented o r compartment-  s e l f i s a s i g n o f f a i l u r e i n s e l f - c h a n g e , because  c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h e l a c k o f "wholeness", w h i c h may be e i t h e r t h e r e s u l t o f t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l  attempt  or the c o n t i n u i t y o f the compartmentalized s e l f before the attempt.  Even o u t s i d e  o f r e l i g i o n , some e x i s t e n t i a l p s y g  c h i a t r i s t s such as Frank A. Johnson d e f i n e  the lack of s e l f -  i n t e g r a t i o n as t h e s c h i z o i d s t a t e and, a l s o , t h e s t a t e o f a l i e n a t i o n (Johnson's word used i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l s e n s e ) . I n Zen, as I have s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e s o l i d l y i n t e g r a t e d s e l i s assumed t o produce spontaneous a c t i o n s .  Therefore, i t s  h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i n t e l l e c t u a l way o f a s s i m i l a t i n g Buddhism i s a p p r e c i a t e d  o n l y when i t i s p r a c t i s e d .  t o Zen, SMBK p l a c e s emphasis on m o r a l i t y ships.  As I have e x p l a i n e d  i n human  Compared relation-  i n the previous chapter,  compassion as an SMBK o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y  has two s i d e s :  f i r s t , a c o m p a s s i o n a t e s t a t e o f mind, and, second, t h e a c t o a s s i m i l a t i n g t h e knowledge o f o t h e r s .  Moral spontaneity i n  - 2 5 1 -  SMBK i s a demand t o amalgamate t h e s e i n t o a action.  spontaneous  As a m o r a l a t t i t u d e , t h a t i s , a more g e n e r a l i z e d  s t a t e of mind w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h i s moral compassion  may  spontaneity,  be d e s c r i b e d as w i l l i n g n e s s o r r e a d i n e s s t o  a s s i m i l a t e o t h e r s ' s i d e s o f t h e s t o r y about the same e v e n t . W i t h o u t t h i s , one's moral a c t i o n w i l l be h y p o c r i t i c a l ; a c t i o n t a k e n on the b a s i s o f good knowledge compassion i s m a n i p u l a t i v e .  but w i t h o u t  A c t i o n based on a f e l t  w i t h no u n d e r s t a n d i n g of o t h e r s may  the  compassion  o f t e n r e s u l t i n mere s e l f -  s a t i s f a c t i o n , o r worse, an e x p l o i t a t i o n o f o t h e r s '  sufferings.  I n f a c t , t h i s i s , a p a r t from t h e SMBK m o r a l t h e s i s , a q u e s t i o n fundamental t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f and o t h e r s , o r i n t e n t i o n and  expression.  T h e r e f o r e , m o r a l s p o n t a n e i t y i s n o t a u n i q u e problem for  SMBK.  I n J a p a n , t h i s theme has been one of the major  i s s u e s i n r e l i g i o u s and m o r a l p r a c t i c e s , and a l s o i n drama and artistic literature.  I n t h e s e , the whole problem has been made  i n t e l l i g i b l e i n a p o p u l a r l y a c c e p t e d moral d i c h o t o m y , g i r i ninjo.  S e m a n t i c a l l y , n i n j o i s a compound noun w i t h n i n  meaning human and jo_ meaning f e e l i n g s . the  and  T o g e t h e r , n i n j o means  n a t u r a l human f e e l i n g s t h a t a l l human b e i n g s a r e  to be b o r n w i t h .  supposed  I t i s s i m i l a r t o compassion but i t s  c o n n o t a t i o n i s much w i d e r .  G i r i i s a n o t h e r compound noun w i t h  g i meaning j u s t i c e and r i meaning r e a s o n .  G i r i i n d i c a t e s the  -252-  r u l e s t h r o u g h w h i c h n i n j o s h o u l d be r e a l i z e d .  From o u r a n t h r o -  p o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between g i r i and n i n j o may be found t o be s i m i l a r t o t h a t between t h e s o c i a l norm o r law and t h e common s e n t i m e n t i n t h e D u r k h e i m i a n sense.  F o r , g i r i r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o l l e c t i v e and n o r m a t i v e  system o f s o c i e t y and n i n j o i s a p a r a l l e l n o t i o n t o t h e common s e n t i m e n t which r e p r e s e n t s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i d e o f t h i s system.  As i n t h e D u r k h e i m i a n  sense, law has a d e f i n i t e  p r i o r i t y o v e r s e n t i m e n t when they come i n t o c o n f l i c t ;  giri  has t o be chosen and t h e n i n j o s i d e has t o be r e p r e s s e d .  The  p o i n t i s t h a t b o t h a r e d i f f e r e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e same m o r a l i t y , i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t they c o u l d come i n t o conflict.  However, t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between Durkheim  and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese moral dichotomy:  f o r Durkheim,  the s p l i t between law and s e n t i m e n t i s i n e v i t a b l e i n a modern society.  T h e r e f o r e , s o c i e t y has t o be r e g u l a t e d by l a w , and  s e n t i m e n t has t o be i g n o r e d when i t does n o t s u p p o r t law. Hence, law and s e n t i m e n t may be r e g a r d e d as p a r a l l e l t o r e a s o n and emotion.  I n modern s o c i e t y , a p o l i t i c a l  state  whose f u n c t i o n i s based on law r e p r e s e n t s , o r s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t , reason. of  I n c o n t r a s t , r e l i g i o n i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d by opponents  r e l i g i o n as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f  society. In t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese  dichotomy  o f g i r i and  -253-  n i r i j o , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g tendency t o negate the s p l i t ; they d i f f e r e n t - o r more c o r r e c t l y , t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i s - but  such d i f f e r e n c e s h o u l d  not e x i s t .  an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t i n c t i o n between two  are  recognized  Thus, Minamoto makes k i n d s of g i r i  as  follows: Then what i s g i r i ? As f a r as the p r e s e n t usage of t h i s word we have d i s c u s s e d b e f o r e i s c o n c e r n e d , g i r i s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d i n t o "warm g i r i " and " c o l d g i r i " . Cold g i r i i s the k i n d of g i r i w h i c h makes us f e e l " f o r c e d t o do" as i s i n d i c a t e d i n the^usage of t h i s word such as " t o do f o r g i r i " . T h i s g i r i i n d i c a t e s s o c i a l norms o r customs under enforcement and s u b j e c t t o s a n c t i o n s w h i c h we may be r e l u c t a n t t o a c c e p t . Coldness of g i r i and c o l d n e s s f e l t i n our mind d e r i v e from such u n w i l l i n g n e s s . (In contrast) warm g i r i i s an i n t e r n a l moral norm of a p e r s o n , t h a t i s a m o r a l i t y of h i s own mind r e a l i z a b l e i n a p e r s o n a l and a f f e c t i o n a t e human r e l a t i o n s h i p . 10 SMBK p e o p l e are engaged i n an attempt t o the s p l i t between t h e s e two  spheres of m o r a l i t y .  eliminate In t h e i r  c a s e , compassion as an o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s a l s o i n danger o f f o r m i n g a s p l i t s i m i l a r t o Minamoto's n o t i o n of " c o l d " g i r i and  n i n j o , or Durkheim's n o t i o n of law and  Achieving  spontaneity  i n the r i t u a l way  m o r a l i t y depends on how stage.  In order  sentiment.  of a s s i m i l a t i n g  the p e r f o r m e r goes beyond the  to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s aspect,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r i t u a l r e q u i r e d i s c u s s i o n .  formal  some b a s i c  -254-  SPIRIT POSSESSION AS A CALLING' The  p r o c e s s o f s a - t o r i i n SMBK b e g i n s when t h e  b e l i e v e r a c c e p t s s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n as a f a c t . ments o f , and response  The body move-  g i v e n by t h e p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r under t h e  f o r e h e a d p u r i f i c a t i o n (Chapter I I ) i s , a c c o r d i n g t o SMBK, t h e evidence  t h a t t h e s p i r i t e x i s t s and t h a t i t p o s s e s s e s  human b e i n g f o r a c e r t a i n r e a s o n . p o i n t i s a fundamental c h o i c e .  a living  Accepting or r e j e c t i n g  I f the person r e j e c t s  this  spirit  p o s s e s s i o n as a f a c t , he has no need t o seek i t s r e a s o n .  But  once he a c c e p t s i t as a f a c t , he has t o know t h e r e a s o n f o r such a m y s t i f y i n g phenomenon, and SMBK d o c t r i n e p r o v i d e s an answer. mastering  The f e a r o f s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n i s d i s s o l v a b l e by t h e d o c t r i n e and t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  "drop-outs"  However,  from SMBK may n o t be a b l e t o escape from t h e f e a r  to w h i c h he has been exposed. A c c e p t a n c e o f s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n has t o be c o n s t a n t l y c o n f i r m e d and s o l i d i f i e d t h r o u g h  the p u r i f i c a t i o n  ritual.  T h i s i s t h e r e a s o n why SMBK b e l i e v e r s a r e so a n x i o u s t o w i t n e s s t h e scene i n w h i c h a p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t  actively  responds t o t h e g i v e n q u e s t i o n s d u r i n g t h e f o r e h e a d cation.  Furthermore,  purifi-  t h e communication w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i n g  s p i r i t r e q u i r e s the a c t i v e performer  to believe f i r m l y that  he i s s p e a k i n g t o t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t n o t t o t h e p a s s i v e  -255-  performer.  F o r the same r e a s o n , such an advanced stage o f  communication  as " i n v e s t i g a t i o n " ( i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the  possessing s p i r i t )  and " a d m o n i t i o n " ( t e a c h i n g o f the d o c t r i n e )  i s impossible without t h i s firm  belief.  When the p e r s o n g i v e n the f o r e h e a d  purification  r i t u a l b e g i n s t o be " c o n t r o l l e d " by the p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t a c t s i n some " s t r a n g e " way,  b e l i e v e r s w a t c h i n g him  show o b v i o u s s i g n s of i n v o l v e m e n t i n the e v e n t .  and  usually  Typically,  c h a t t i n g s t o p s and the whole room becomes calm except f o r the l o u d v o i c e s of r e c i t a t i o n o f s a c r e d v e r s e s , o r w h i s p e r i n g o f private talks.  Other p a i r s p e r f o r m i n g the' p u r i f i c a t i o n  o f t e n p r e t e n d t h a t they are c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e i r performances,  ritual  own  but they become u n n e c e s s a r i l y s t r a i n e d o r c a s t  f r e q u e n t g l a n c e s towards  the scene.  Sometimes b e l i e v e r s  (and  some n o n - b e l i e v e r s ) a t t e n d i n g the scene, but not p e r f o r m i n g the r i t u a l , show t h e i r i n t e n s e c u r i o s i t y by s t a r i n g a t the p e r s o n who  i s s p e a k i n g and a c t i n g i n a " s t r a n g e " way.  times they a r e so i n v o l v e d they even make f a c i a l as the p e r s o n c o n t r o l l e d by the p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t v a r i o u s emotions. his  face.  initiated,  An example i s sadness  Some-  expressions shows  and resentment  on  T h i s happens not o n l y w i t h the u n i n i t i a t e d o r newly but a l s o w i t h b e l i e v e r s a t much h i g h e r l e v e l s ,  a l t h o u g h u n i n i t i a t e d o r newly i n i t i a t e d  people a r e e a s i l y  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e because of t h e i r degree of s t r a i n and  their  -256-  mixed e x p r e s s i o n s o f f e a r and c u r i o s i t y .  An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t  i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t a l l such r e s t r a i n e d s i g n s o f excitement  a r e heard by t h e p e r s o n under t h e c o n t r o l o f h i s  possessing s p i r i t .  S i n c e h i s eyes a r e c l o s e d , o f t e n h i s  h e a r i n g becomes keener. However, b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o more d e t a i l s on SMBK s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n , I would l i k e The  to c l a r i f y  f i r s t p o i n t i s t h a t my attempt  some b a s i c p o i n t s .  i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o judge  i f s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n e x i s t s as a f a c t  (as t h e b e l i e v e r s i n s i s t )  o r e s p e c i a l l y as a s c i e n t i f i c f a c t , b u t t o e x p l o r e and unders t a n d how SMBK b e l i e v e r s d e f i n e i t and w h a t . l o g i c  they  c o n s t r u c t based on such a premise. F o r t h i s p u r p o s e , I have found t h e d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n by Raymond F i r t h t o be a good s t a r t .  He d e f i n e s  spirit  p o s s e s s i o n as "a form o f t r a n c e i n w h i c h t h e b e h a v i o r a c t i o n s of a p e r s o n a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as e v i d e n c e o f a c o n t r o l o f h i s b e h a v i o r by a s p i r i t n o r m a l l y e x t e r n a l t o him." ^ h o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e meaning o f t r a n c e begs t h e q u e s t i o n , I would p r e f e r to  change "a form o f t r a n c e " s i m p l y i n t o "a s t a t e " .  Then, my  d e f i n i t i o n i s t h a t s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n i s "a s t a t e i n w h i c h b e h a v i o r a c t i o n s o f a p e r s o n a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as e v i d e n c e o f a c o n t r o l o f h i s b e h a v i o r by a s p i r i t n o r m a l l y e x t e r n a l t o him." According t o Paulson, a person i n ecstacy can  -257-  r e c a l l h i s own e x p e r i e n c e l a t e r when he r e c o v e r s , but he cannot i n s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n .  Concerning  t h i s p o i n t , however,  12 O e s t e r r e i c h r e p o r t s two k i n d s o f s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n , somnamb u l i s t i c and l u c i d , and says t h a t i n t h e l u c i d form o f p o s s e s s i o n the possessed  person preserves h i s consciousness.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s t y p o l o g y , t h e SMBK case seems t o be a l u c i d form o f s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n .  Furthermore,  t h e SMBK case i s n o t  a s p i r i t mediumship, f o r a s p i r i t medium a c t i v e l y and purposef u l l y o f f e r s h i m s e l f as a v e s s e l f o r a s p i r i t and i s p r o t e c t e d from t h e p o s s i b l e e v i l possessed  i n f l u e n c e of the s p i r i t .  I n SMBK, t h e  i s d e f i n e d as a v i c t i m o f h i s p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t . The response t o t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l by t h e  passive performer  c o n s i d e r e d as c o n t r o l l e d by t h e p o s s e s s i n g  s p i r i t may be r o u g h l y c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o two s t a g e s o f i n t e n s i t y : one  i s a s e r i e s o f minor body a c t i o n s o r r e a c t i o n s such as  dimsightedness,  t r e m b l i n g o f t h e hands i n t h e p r a y i n g p o s i t i o n ,  t w i c h i n g o f c l o s e d e y e l i d s , and t h e g r a d u a l l e a n i n g o f t h e body i n v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s .  Although  they b e g i n u n i n t e n -  t i o n a l l y and t h e b e l i e v e r i s t o l d n o t t o s t o p them, they can be stopped.  These body motions a r e o v e r t c o n f i r m a t i o n o f  s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n whenever any doubt i s e x p r e s s e d . Although  t h e b o d i l y r e a c t i v e response i s i m p o r t a n t ,  the second c a t e g o r y o f response meaningful  f o r SMBK.  t o p u r i f i c a t i o n i s more  That i s , t h e communication based on  -258-  q u e s t i o n s and answers between t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r possessing s p i r i t of the passive performer.  and t h e  The p o s s e s s i n g  s p i r i t answers i n b o t h words and p h y s i c a l m o t i o n s . communication i s under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e a c t i v e  The performer,  and t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t o n l y responds t o t h e g i v e n q u e s t i o n s . O b v i o u s l y , t h e whole p r o c e s s o f communication i s g u i d e d . guidance  by t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r  i s done i n two ways:  The  the  q u e s t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e ; t h e answers a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a l s o a c c o r d i n g t o t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e . However, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s n o t s i m p l y g i v e n t o t h e p o s s e s s e d p e r s o n as a d i a g n o s i s o f h i s problem a f t e r t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , b u t has t o be c o n f i r m e d by t h e s p i r i t d u r i n g t h e ritual.  Thus, t h r o u g h q u e s t i o n s and answers, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  and c o n f i r m a t i o n , and d e n i a l o f t h e g i v e n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e r e a s o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r case o f p o s s e s s i o n i s g r a d u a l l y made c l e a r .  I t i s u s u a l l y sought i n  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t possessed The  person  ( i . e . the passive performer  and t h e  i n this context).  search f o r a reason f o r possession normally f o l l o w s a long  p r o c e s s o f u n f o l d i n g a s t o r y o f resentment w h i c h f i r s t comes i n fragments and t h e n i s g r a d u a l l y assembled i n t o t h e SMBK p a t t e r n o f a moral s t o r y . discussed  The s t o r y and p r o c e s s w i l l be  later. At t h i s p o i n t , t h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n i s who a r e  -259-  c o n s i d e r e d o r t r e a t e d as the p o s s e s s e d . the  L o r d - s a v i o r Okada,  o r i g i n a t o r of SMBK says t h a t 807o of the whole w o r l d ' s  p o p u l a t i o n i s p o s s e s s e d by e x t e r n a l s p i r i t s . t h e r e s h o u l d be a way the  non-possessed  By t h i s  assertion,  t o d i s t i n g u i s h the p o s s e s s e d p e r s o n from  p e r s o n , and the o p e r a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n s h o u l d  be the o c c u r r e n c e o r n o n - o c c u r r e n c e of body movements and the r e s p o n s e t o the g i v e n q u e s t i o n s under the p u r i f i c a t i o n  ritual.  However, t h i s t h e o r y does n o t a p p l y t o any r e a l r i t u a l  scenes.  I n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r s a r e a l l t r e a t e d as p o s s e s s e d , w h i c h means t h a t a l l the b e l i e v e r s a r e t r e a t e d as p o s s e s s e d .  The p r i n c i p l e  o p e r a t i n g here i s t h i s :  everyone  i s p o s s e s s e d whether he responds t o the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l not.  or  I n o t h e r words, the o c c u r r e n c e o r n o n - o c c u r r e n c e o f the  r e s p o n s e t o the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l does n o t d i s t i n g u i s h the p o s s e s s e d p e r s o n from the non-possessed no r e s p o n s e from the p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t resistance: the  person.  Furthermore,  i n d i c a t e s the power of  a weak s p i r i t i s c o n s i d e r e d e a s i l y i n v o k a b l e by  f o r e h e a d p u r i f i c a t i o n , shows the s i g n s of i t s p o s s e s s i o n  and answers  the g i v e n q u e s t i o n s .  I n c o n t r a s t , the s t r o n g  p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t does not r e v e a l i t s e l f , t h e r e f o r e response i s apparent.  no  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , non-  o c c u r r e n c e of the s i g n of s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n i s e v i d e n c e of s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n by an even s t r o n g e r s p i r i t . basic operational d e f i n i t i o n .  T h i s i s the  The o n l y but m i l d e x c e p t i o n t o  - 2 6 0 -  t h i s i s t h e case i n w h i c h t h e p e r s o n was born w i t h a s p e c i a l d i v i n e prophecy.  I n t h i s c a s e , h i s p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t i s under  the c o n t r o l o f a d i v i n i t y so t h a t i t s t a y s calm under any c o n d i t i o n s u n t i l h i s d i v i n e prophecy i s f u l f i l l e d .  The p o i n t  i s t h a t even i n t h i s case t h e p e r s o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be possessed.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e , b e i n g a r e g u l a r  human b e i n g and becoming a non-possessed p e r s o n i s an achievement based on an i n d i v i d u a l standard i s almost  effort.  However, t h e  t o o h i g h t o a c h i e v e ; i t i s c o n s i s t e n t one-  ness w i t h t h e supreme d i v i n i t y .  W i t h t h i s one-ness, t h e  b e l i e v e r becomes an embodiment o f t h e d i v i n e o r d e r and a l s o the master o f h i s s p i r i t . fulfilled goal.  I n t h i s s t a t e a l l h i s wishes a r e  and no e x t e r n a l s p i r i t s c a n b o t h e r him.  This i s the  No m a t t e r how d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r them t o a c h i e v e , SMBK  believers are obligated to s t r i v e for t h i s . One  o f t h e major p r e s s u r e s f o r making t h e i n i t i a l  c h o i c e between acceptance possession i s fear.  and r e j e c t i o n o f t h e s p i r i t  I t i s t e r r i f y i n g t o "see" t h e p o s s e s s i n g  s p i r i t on t h e body o f o t h e r s waving t h e i r b o d i e s and s p e a k i n g i n a " s t r a n g e " way d u r i n g t h e f o r e h e a d p u r i f i c a t i o n .  It is  even more t e r r i f y i n g when t h i s happens t o one's own body. SMBK b e l i e v e r s a r e aware o f t h i s p o i n t i n t h e i r activity.  recruitment  I n r e c r u i t m e n t they t r e a t t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n  ritual  as a h e a l i n g i n s t r u m e n t and d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d t h e f o r e h e a d  -261-  p u r i f i c a t i o n , although  they a r e a l s o aware t h a t t h i s way o f  t r e a t i n g the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l expedient experience  f o r recruitment.  i s p e r m i t t e d o n l y as an  I n f a c t , SMBK b e l i e v e r s commonly  t h a t t h e i r c a r e l e s s leakage  s p i r i t possession  o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on  e a s i l y d r i v e s away p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r s who  have been a t t r a c t e d t o SMBK f o r such p r a g m a t i c r e a s o n s as a q u i c k and p a i n l e s s r e c o v e r y Therefore, until  from t h e i r p r e s e n t s u f f e r i n g s .  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s p i r i t possession  the i n i t i a t i o n  of t h e t h r e e - d a y  i s saved  o c c a s i o n , that i s , the elementary  level  l e c t u r e s e s s i o n on t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e .  t h i s occasion, the notion of s p i r i t possession  On  i s g i v e n as a  q u e s t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d negate t h e b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f one's l i f e , and i t s answer i s a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e newlyinitiated  b e l i e v e r to take.  Of c o u r s e ,  t h e answer i s SMBK  doctrine. For t h e f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e  of the forehead  purifi-  c a t i o n , a n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r (and sometimes a p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r during the short w a i t i n g p e r i o d before  initiation)  o c c a s i o n a l l y shows a f i r m d e n i a l o f s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n b e l i e v i n g t h a t body movements c o u l d o c c u r  to others but not h i m s e l f .  One r e a s o n may be t h a t he a t t r i b u t e s t h e cause o f such body movements t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s e c u r i t y o r v u l n e r a b i l i t y and d e c l a r e s t h a t he h i m s e l f does n o t have such weaknesses.  Or,  he s i m p l y b e l i e v e s t h a t he i s s t r o n g e r t h a n o t h e r s who have  -262-  shown such body movements o r s t r o n g e r than the b e l i e v e r who seems t o g a i n a power i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . his  body happens t o move a g a i n s t h i s w i l l h i s f e a r i s tremen-  dous. for  Thus, once  T h i s type of p e r s o n - and he i s r a t h e r t y p i c a l - asks  an e x p l a n a t i o n w i t h the same degree of e n t h u s i a s m w h i c h  c h a r a c t e r i z e d h i s i n i t i a l d e n i a l of s p i r i t However, u n t i l  one  possession.  i s f u l l y informed  about the  d e s t r u c t i v e power i n v o l v e d i n s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n , one r e c e i v e the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l w i t h o u t much f e a r .  can The  ritual  i s g e n t l e and r e l a x i n g , the l o c a l c e n t r e i s b r i g h t and and b e l i e v e r s a r e f r i e n d l y and open.  clean,  Staying comfortable  an ignoramus i s the g e n e r a l p o s i t i o n f o r the people who not d e d i c a t e d but who  are  r e m a i n l o o s e l y i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  They r e f u s e t o be i n i t i a t e d  and c l i n g t o a c l i e n t e l e  position.  T h i s m a r g i n a l group appears t o be the f o u r t h c a t e g o r y t r e a t e d by M o r i o k a .  as  (Diagram 15).  f o l l o w e r s o f the movement may  These most m a r g i n a l  be c a l l e d "hangers-on."  common i n t e r e s t o f these p e r s o n s i n SMBK i s h e a l i n g . SMBK p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  not  The The  f o r t h i s purpose does not r e q u i r e  them t o be more t h a n p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r s .  But they can  still  r e c e i v e a l m o s t the same p r i v i l e g e s as the b e l i e v e r s as f a r as the " e f f e c t " o f the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l way,  i s concerned.  they can a v o i d a r e l i g i o u s i n v o l v e m e n t  an a d d i t i o n a l  In t h i s  w h i c h o f t e n causes  (and sometimes more s e r i o u s ) problem w i t h  their  -263-  f a m i l i e s t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l problem t h a t has m o t i v a t e d  them t o  c o n t a c t SMBK. In the three-day  elementary  l e c t u r e s e s s i o n , those  becoming b e l i e v e r s a r e exposed t o t h e SMBK n o t i o n o f s p i r i t possession.  On t h e f i r s t day b e f o r e t h e l e c t u r e , they appear  t o be q u i t e r e l a x e d .  They g e n e r a l l y hope t o hear about t h e  d i v i n e l i g h t and d i v i n i t i e s . concentrates  However, t h e elementary  session  on s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n , a l t h o u g h i t i s mixed w i t h  some i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e d i v i n i t i e s . u s u a l l y become s t r a i n e d .  On t h e t h i r d day they  On t h i s day i n t h e e a r l y a f t e r n o o n ,  t h e y a r e g i v e n t h e t a l i s m a n and become i n i t i a t e d .  Following  t h i s they spend about t h r e e hours p r a c t i s i n g t h e a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l - f o r t h e f i r s t time i n t h e i r experience.  They commonly d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e a c t i v e r o l e i n  the same p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l passive r o l e .  i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h e  T h i s i s t h e moment when t h e body movements o f  the p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r ,  w h i c h have been o n l y a " s t r a n g e " s i g h t  w i t h some s p i r i t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n , suddenly c l e a r SMBK meaning. of t h e p a s s i v e  They " s e e " t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t i n s t e a d  performer.  When I a t t e n d e d pant o b s e r v e r ,  stand out w i t h a  t h e elementary  I experienced  s e s s i o n as a p a r t i c i -  a fear of s p i r i t possession.  asked how o t h e r n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r s f e l t .  The most  common e x p r e s s i o n they gave me was " k i m o c h i  warui."  (ga)  I  -264-  T h i s l i t e r a l l y means t h a t my  f e e l i n g i s bad.  means t h a t i t i s d r e a d f u l o r uncanny.  Or, i t s i m p l y  This expression i s also  a p p l i e d t o a p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n meaning t h a t I f e e l bad even t h a t I am  or  nauseous.  Much l a t e r I had a chance t o speak t o a female b e l i e v e r who  was  about 45 y e a r s o l d , a h o u s e w i f e and a w e l l -  e d u c a t e d suburban r e s i d e n t .  She  o v e r t l y expressed  her  f e e l i n g a g a i n s t the SMBK d o c t r i n e e s p e c i a l l y about p o s s e s s i o n , and k e p t u s i n g the above e x p r e s s i o n . t o me  the r e a s o n why  she j o i n e d SMBK.  She had  i n the l e n g t h of her backbone and i n her jaw. had  spirit She  i n t e n s i v e pains Although  seen more t h a n seven m e d i c a l d o c t o r s , she s t i l l  escape from the p a i n s . method and  j o i n e d SMBK.  talisman.  She  c u r e , and  F i n a l l y she d e c i d e d She was  explained  she  could  to t r y a r e l i g i o u s  i n i t i a t e d and g i v e n a  e x p l a i n e d t h a t she d i d i t f o r the hope f o r a  s a i d , "Otherwise,  who  would l i k e t o b o t h e r w i t h such  a d r e a d f u l ( k i m o c h i w a r u i ) r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i s e ? " When she it,  she made a f a c e as i f she had a l s o had  feeling. warui."  I asked i f the SMBK p r a c t i s e was She  not  s a i d , "yes.  s p i r i t possession!"  I saw  Of c o u r s e .  said  some p h y s i c a l l y t h a t much  bad  "kimochi  W i t h such a t h i n g as  t h i s p e r s o n o n l y a few times a t the  Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e , and a f t e r t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n I d i d not see her  again. For a few weeks t o a few months a f t e r the  initiation,  -265-  depending on h i s e n t h u s i a s m  and m a s t e r y , each b e l i e v e r i s  encouraged t o v i s i t t h e l o c a l c e n t r e as o f t e n as p o s s i b l e f o r the p r a c t i c e o f t h e r o l e o f t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r .  During  this  p e r i o d , t h e SMBK l i v e - i n t e a c h e r o f t h e l o c a l c e n t r e emphasizes to  t h e n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d n o t t o i n q u i r e about s p i r i t  more t h a n he i s t a u g h t a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o n c e n t r a t e on m a s t e r i n g  the r i t u a l  possession  s e s s i o n and s i m p l y t o  performance.  The t e a c h e r  e x p l a i n e d t o me t h a t t o o much t h i n k i n g about i t o f t e n makes the n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d nervous o r even n e u r o t i c because o f t h e fear of s p i r i t possession.  The p o i n t i s s i m p l y t o a c c e p t  whatever happens and t r u s t t h e d i v i n i t i e s . The  b e l i e v e r s go t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t e m o t i o n a l  i n dealing with s p i r i t possession.  stages  I n o r d e r t o reduce t h e  f e a r and n e r v o u s n e s s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a g e , t h e newlyi n i t i a t e d a r e u s u a l l y matched w i t h p a r t n e r s who a l r e a d y know not t o show a v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n t o t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , o r w i t h c h i l d r e n whose response of t h e a d u l t .  i s n o r m a l l y much m i l d e r than t h a t  The n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e d u r i n g  t h i s p e r i o d on l e a r n i n g t h e p r o p e r a c t s o f r i t u a l  performance  and m e m o r i z i n g t h e P r a y e r o f Heaven. Experiencing "the possessing s p i r i t " beginning to show i t s e l f under one's palm i s always f r i g h t e n i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , even i n t h e case where one has a l r e a d y had some minor e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e body movement.  This f e e l i n g i s  -266-  maximized when t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t r e s i s t s t h e g i v e n r e q u e s t , because n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r s a r e o f t e n t o t a l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t cannot r e s i s t t h e power o f t h e d i v i n e l i g h t w h i c h comes i n t h r o u g h  the t a l i s m a n .  But,  i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as has been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I V , they a r e m i s t a k e n .  The t a l i s m a n i s n e i t h e r a r e c e i v e r o f t h e  l i g h t n o r a t r a n s m i t t e r o f power from t h e supreme d i v i n i t y , but i t o n l y p r o t e c t s t h e h o l d e r from an e x c e s s i v e l y i n t e n s i v e d i s c h a r g e o f d e f i l e m e n t and a l s o from e v i l s p i r i t s , w h i l e he i s making e f f o r t s towards d i v i n e one-ness.  Protection  p r o v i d e d by t h e t a l i s m a n i s r e l a t i v e , depending on t h e degree of engagement i n t h e s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e .  The newly-  i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r s u s u a l l y miss t h e r e l a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e t a l i s m a n , and m i s t a k e u n u s u a l  response  of possessing  spirits  f o r the l a c k of p r o t e c t i o n i t s e l f . T h i s problem i s t y p i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d when t h e s p i r i t r e f u s e s t o proceed  w i t h t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l from t h e f o r e -  head t o o t h e r v i t a l p o i n t s . passive performer  At l e a s t i n p r i n c i p l e , the  should immediately  r e c o v e r from t h e s t a t e  of " h a v i n g been t a k e n - o v e r " when he hears (calm down).  T h i s ( h o r r i b l e o c c a s i o n s ) happened t o me, when  I was an a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r  as a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r : t h e  possessing s p i r i t of the p a s s i v e performer I asked  "O-shizumari!"  t h e Head o f t h e c e n t r e f o r h e l p .  refused to disappear. He t o l d me t o pray  - 2 6 7 -  t o t h e supreme d i v i n i t y and r e p e a t " O - s h i z u m a r i " a few more times.  I d i d , but the s p i r i t s t i l l  refused  t o calm down.  F i n a l l y I had t o a s k t h e Head t o calm down t h e s p i r i t f o r me. A f t e r t h e performance he s a i d t h a t t h e r e a s o n I c o u l d n o t h a n d l e t h e s p i r i t was t h a t my ego was t o o dominant t o a c c e p t the d i v i n e w i l l .  This i s the standard  f a i l u r e i n the handling  of the s p i r i t s .  performance o f f e r s an o c c a s i o n  explanation f o r The f a i l u r e i n  i n which a n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d  b e l i e v e r r e a l i z e s that the t a l i s m a n i s not a mechanical  device  w h i c h w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y b r i n g him power o v e r t h e p o s s e s s i n g spirit. A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l wave o f f e a r , p u r i f i c a t i o n becomes an amusement.  Once t h e f e a r i s r e d u c e d i t i s q u i t e a  f e e l i n g t o be a b l e t o c o n t r o l o t h e r s one's palm.  pleasant  s i m p l y by h o l d i n g up  I t i s around t h i s time t h a t t h e b e l i e v e r ' s  c u r i o s i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y aroused.  He b e g i n s t o r e f l e c t on  the l e c t u r e c o n t e n t o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s e s s i o n and a n a l y z e t h e meaning o f t h e words spoken by t h e s p i r i t s .  A l s o , he o f t e n  d e v e l o p s an i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e s p i r i t s when other b e l i e v e r s are e x o r c i s i n g .  T h i s means from the SMBK  p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t he becomes l e s s i n v o l v e d i n h i s own ego and more l i b e r a t e d from t h e i n i t i a l d e s i r e f o r h i s own salvation.  quick  He b e g i n s t o r e a l i z e t h a t such a d e s i r e i s an ego-  c e n t r i c one, framed i n a complete i n d i f f e r e n c e t o o t h e r s .  At  -268-  t h i s s t a g e t h e s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s encourage him t o a s k q u e s t i o n s , but g i v e answers i n fragments t o see i f he i s w i l l i n g t o make an e f f o r t t o assemble and f i n d a meaning i n them. guidance i s i n d i v i d u a l l y  and c a r e f u l l y  This  g i v e n , and when t h e  Head o f t h e c e n t r e a p p r o v e s , commonly w i t h t h e recommendation of t h e l i v e - i n intermediate  teachers,  session.  the person i s permitted  t o attend the  A f t e r t h i s s e s s i o n - o r even b e f o r e i f  p o s s i b l e - the b e l i e v e r i s expected t o achieve f u r t h e r understanding:  that the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  necessity of l i f e , and,  l i k e breathing.  most l i k e l y , c u r i o s i t y  still  s h o u l d become a  A l t h o u g h f e a r and amusement r e m a i n , they s h o u l d be  h a r m o n i o u s l y encompassed i n t h e spontaneous a c t i o n s i n t h e r i t u a l performance. natural.  The a c h i e v e d s t a t e i s c o n s i d e r e d  A l t h o u g h I imagine t h i s s t a t e s h o u l d  t o be  be a e s t h e t -  i c a l l y p l e a s i n g , i t does n o t seem t o be a c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r SBMK. Within  t h e e s t a b l i s h e d form o f t h e r i t u a l  b e l i e v e r s above t h e advanced l e v e l  ( s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s ) a r e more  r e l a x e d and a c h i e v e more f l e x i b i l i t y t h a n o t h e r s . b e l i e v e r s a r e more spontaneous.  frame,  The a b i l i t y  Senior  t o be spontaneous  i s e s p e c i a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r such advanced r i t u a l a c t s as " a d m o n i t i o n " ( o - s a t o s h i ) and " i n v e s t i g a t i o n " ( r e i s a ) . two  These  a r e t h e f o c u s o f communication because i n SMBK t h e  possessing  s p i r i t i s n o t made t o l e a v e a g a i n s t  i t s own w i l l  -269-  but i s based on i t s own s a - t o r i t h r o u g h p e r s u a s i o n .  I f the  p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t i s f o r c e d t o l e a v e , i t i s b e l i e v e d t o go s t r a i g h t down t o H e l l ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e SMBK people do n o t . p e r m i t themselves  t o be engaged i n such an e x c e s s i v e use o f  power - even o v e r an e v i l s p i r i t .  The purpose o f p u r i f i c a t i o n  i s aimed a t s a v i n g b o t h t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t and t h e possessed.  F o r t h i s purpose " a d m o n i t i o n " i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  i m p o r t a n t because t h e s p i r i t has t o be c o n v i n c e d t o l e a v e . Preceding admonition, i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s necessary.  For, i n  SMBK, t h e s i n i s n o t a g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e b u t a p a r t i c u l a r mistake.  I t has t o be " p i n - p o i n t e d " and a l l t h e names o f t h e  p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e case must be i d e n t i f i e d .  Thus,  admonition  i s not simply a preaching of general  moral  principles  b u t n o r m a l l y l e a d s t o an u n f o l d i n g o f a l o n g s t o r y  of how t h e m i s t a k e has been made and how i t has i n f l u e n c e d others. largely  The e f f i c i e n c y  and a c c u r a c y o f t h e u n f o l d e d  depends on t h e s k i l l o f t h e a c t i v e  story  performer.  At t h i s stage o f s p o n t a n e i t y i n t h e r i t u a l p e r f o r mance, t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between form and c o n t e n t from t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r . breathing.  disappears  The r i t u a l becomes as n a t u r a l as  A c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 1 (Chapter I ) , about  217o o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  r e a c h t h i s stage by t h e SMBK s t a n d a r d ,  assuming t h a t s p o n t a n e i t y i n performance i s one o f t h e major qualifications  o f t h e advanced l e v e l .  T h i s f i g u r e a l s o shows  - 2 7 0 -  t h a t other b e l i e v e r s remain a t v a r i o u s emotional w i t h more f e a r and some w i t h more amusement.  stages:  some  However, I d i d  not see any c l e a r c o r r e l a t i o n between these e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s and t h e c h o i c e f o r l e a v i n g o r s t a y i n g i n SMBK. The  f o l l o w i n g example i s a scene from a d m o n i t i o n .  dialogue develops  much more s p o n t a n e o u s l y  to t h e example i n Chapter gation.  and may be compared  I I from an e a r l y stage o f i n v e s t i -  I t i s t r a n s c r i b e d from a v e r b a l scene  a t t h e Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e . performer  tape-recorded  I n t h i s c a s e , the a c t i v e  was a female SMBK t e a c h e r , and t h e p a s s i v e  a female h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t .  The a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r  performer was t r y i n g  to persuade t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t o f t h e p a s s i v e  performer  to a c c e p t t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e and l e a v e h e r body.  The a c t i v e  performer  The  pressured the possessing s p i r i t  i n v a r i o u s ways  i n c l u d i n g c o e r c i o n , d i s p l a y o f sympathy and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and suggestions f o r asking f o r forgiveness. witnessing this spirit  scene suggested  spoke l i k e  Some b e l i e v e r s  t o me t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i n g  a c h i l d and t h a t i t was i d e n t i f i e d and  t r e a t e d as a c h i l d . ACTIVE PERFORMER:  I f you a p o l o g i z e t o t h e d i v i n i t y from your h e a r t , he w i l l f o r g i v e you. P l e a s e move t o t h e t i p o f t h e f i n g e r s o r t o e s , o r be l e s s b o t h e r i n g ( t o t h e possessed).  SPIRIT ( o f PASSIVE PERFORMER): ACTIVE PERFORMER:  No,  No.  I won't.  He w i l l n o t l i k e you s a y i n g t h a t you  -271-  won't. ( I n a tone o f v o i c e as i f t a l k i n g t o a c h i l d , since the p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t speaks l i k e o n e ) . SPIRIT:  I promise n o t t o be d i s t u r b i n g . F o r g i v e me.  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  The head and neck ( o f t h e possessed) are a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e body. Your s t a y i n g t h e r e i t s e l f i s i n s u l t i n g the d i v i n i t y . But I don't want t o move.  SPIRIT:  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  ( P a t i e n t l y ) You must move. O t h e r w i s e , your a p o l o g y i s m e a n i n g l e s s . ( C a r e f u l l y observing the r e a c t i o n of the r e c e i v e r , he adds:) Demonstrate y o u r a p o l o g y by moving t o an undisturbing part. (Impatiently) So I am s a y i n g I ' l l not be b o t h e r i n g any more. I won't be b o t h e r i n g y o u anymore.  SPIRIT:  The head and neck a r e i m p o r t a n t . Move t o t h e t i p o f t h e f i n g e r s o r t o e s . O t h e r w i s e you  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  ( C u t t i n g i n t o t h e t r a n s m i t t e r ' s words, unresponsively) Not t o such a p l a c e , but I want t o go back t o t h e a s t r a l world.  SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT:  So I am s a y i n g , go back t o such a place. ( I n a r e l a x e d tone o f v o i c e ) from t h e r e ? !  Go back  O t h e r w i s e , you cannot communicate your f e e l i n g o f a p o l o g y . (In the middle of the t r a n s m i t t e r ' s words, s u d d e n l y s a y s ) , I am s o r r y ( i n a v e r y r e g r e t f u l tone o f v o i c e ) .  - 2 7 2 -  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  W e l l , f o r t o d a y , I am g o i n g t o say " o - s h i z u m a r i " (calm down), so p l e a s e move t o t h e t i p o f t h e f i n g e r s o r t o e s , and calm down q u i e t l y . Now ... (Is about t o pronounce " o - s h i z u m a r i " ) .  SPIRIT:  ( H a s t i l y ) No, nooooo. Longer ... ( i n a c h i l d i s h manner).  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  ( P a t i e n t l y ) You cannot be p u r i f i e d a l l a t once.  SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER:  Yes  You cannot be saved u n l e s s you obey the l a w . Yes! (Resentfully) nasty.  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  Yes.  You w i l l n o t be a b l e t o go back t o the a s t r a l w o r l d . And t h e d i v i n i t y w i l l g i v e you h a r d s h i p . No, I don't l i k e i t . Don't s c a r e me ( i n a weeping tone o f v o i c e ) .  SPIRIT:  (With d i g n i t y )  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  (In a weeping v o i c e ) l i k e that either.  SPIRIT:  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  I am g o i n g t o be  Then you cannot go back t o t h e a s t r a l world. Yes.  SPIRIT:  ! !  Calm down g e n t l y . No.  I don't  ( P a t i e n t l y repeats the teachings.) You a p o l o g i z e d t o t h e d i v i n i t y a few minutes ago. You s a i d you would n o t be d i s t u r b i n g any more, d i d n ' t you? No. ! The d i v i n i t y i s w a t c h i n g y o u .  SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER:  No. !  -273-  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  He i s w a t c h i n g  SPIRIT:  No,  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  You a p o l o g i z e .  SPIRIT:  No.  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  (In a t i r e d v o i c e ) (Slows down, b e i n g  you c a r e f u l l y .  I am s c a r e d .  Noooo.  I won't.  No.  I f you say no ... tired).  Yes ... (Changes t o a sweet tone o f v o i c e , i n response t o t h e change i n t h e tone o f v o i c e o f t h e a c t i v e performer.)  SPIRIT:  ACTIVE PERFORMER:  (Her d i g n i t y r e s t o r e d ) You don't mind i f you cannot go back t o t h e a s t r a l world?  SPIRIT:  Yes. Ye. . . s . I don't l i k e either!  that  T h i s f o r e h e a d p u r i f i c a t i o n c o n t i n u e d about t h i r t y minutes r e p e a t i n g almost finally  t h e same q u e s t i o n s and answers.  the possessing s p i r i t accepted  the suggestion to  "calm down" f o r t h e day, and t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l this  Then,  ended f o r  time. Numerous a c c u m u l a t i o n s  o f such answers g i v e n by a  p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t i n fragments a r e assembled i n t o a moral o f t h e SBMK p a t t e r n .  story  As t h e above pace i s more o r l e s s  t y p i c a l o f t h e f o r e h e a d p u r i f i c a t i o n , i t t a k e s a l o n g time even to  assemble one s t o r y .  I n the r i t u a l o c c a s i o n , the content of  q u e s t i o n and answer, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (by t h e a c t i v e confirmation or denial  performer),  (by t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t ) , r e -  -2 74-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (by t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r ) , p u r i f i c a t i o n i s u s u a l l y continued  i n the forehead  i n a c a s u a l manner d u r i n g  the " h e a l i n g " p a r t o f t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l .  On such an  o c c a s i o n , o t h e r b e l i e v e r s who happen t o be t h e r e o f t e n g i v e t h e i r comments and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e possessing  s p i r i t of the passive performer.  suggestions  Of course t h e  g i v e n by t h e SMBK t e a c h e r s o r t h e Head o f t h e l o c a l  c e n t r e have t h e s t r o n g e s t a u t h o r i t y and a r e most l i k e l y accepted.  t o be  When t h e m o r a l s t o r y i s formed, t h e b e l i e v e r i s  g i v e n a chance t o p u b l i s h i t i n a c a s u a l p u b l i c a t i o n such as a l o c a l centre newsletter, l e a f l e t s f o r recruitment, or monthly SMBK magazine.  I f t h e m o r a l s t o r y forms an e x c e l l e n t  case o f moral t e a c h i n g , i t i s p u b l i s h e d i n a The  u n f o l d i n g o f t h e moral s t o r y may take from a few  weeks t o s e v e r a l y e a r s . the p a s s i v e p e r f o r m e r , process  textbook.  of forming  I n the long-term  unfolding usually  the possessed, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  t h e s t o r y and i n f o r m i n g o t h e r b e l i e v e r s ,  because t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r s v a r y t h r o u g h t h e p e r i o d .  In a  s h o r t - t e r m u n f o l d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e case i s s t r i k i n g , sometimes t h e a c t i v e p e r f o r m e r ,  l i k e l y an SMBK t e a c h e r o r t h e  Head o f t h e l o c a l c e n t r e , assembles t h e fragmented i n f o r m a t i o n spoken by t h e p o s s e s s i n g  s p i r i t i n t o one moral s t o r y .  moral s t o r i e s i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n are the f i n a l t a k e n from t h e SMBK  textbooks.  The product  -275-  ANCESTRAL SPIRITS AS A GUIDE TO THE PANTHEON Once s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n i s a c c e p t e d as a f a c t , t h e message t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t b r i n g s t o t h e p o s s e s s e d s h o u l d a l s o be a c c e p t e d as a f a c t .  The f o c u s o f t h e message  i s one-ness w i t h t h e o r d e r o f t h e cosmos and s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e w i l l o f t h e supreme d i v i n i t y who c r e a t e d t h e cosmos.  The  c o m p l i c a t i o n o c c u r s b e c a u s e , i n t h e SMBK cosmology, t h e o r d e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o c o n t a i n some i n d i s p e n s a b l e elements o f disorder. order.  T h i s means t h a t d i s o r d e r i s encompassed w i t h i n However, a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l  l e v e l t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n of  the cosmos appears as a c o n f l i c t , t h a t i s , as a s p l i t between o r d e r and d i s o r d e r .  Hence, a l l t h e cosmic b e i n g s ,  including  the s p i r i t s o f t h e dead, men (as one k i n d o f d i v i n i t y ) and other d i v i n i t i e s are given a choice of j o i n i n g  e i t h e r the  order or the d i s o r d e r .  individual  T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d an  o p t i o n , a l t h o u g h c h o o s i n g d i s o r d e r i s d e f i n e d as a m i s t a k e . W i t h t h i s c o n d i t i o n , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s may be r e s t a t e d as t h e c h o i c e between j o i n i n g  t h e o r d e r o r making a m i s t a k e .  i n t h e SBMK cosmos, a l l t h e b e i n g s below t h e t h i r d  Thus,  level  i n c l u d i n g t h e d i v i n i t i e s make m i s t a k e s , because d i s o r d e r , the source o f m i s t a k e s , i s a s s e r t e d t o e x i s t  below t h i s  level.  The a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n here i s t h a t those who have  -276-  made a m i s t a k e  s h o u l d admit i t and change t h e i r a t t i t u d e , so  t h a t they do n o t r e p e a t t h e same m i s t a k e s .  Making a m i s t a k e  i s a c c e p t a b l e as l o n g as i t i s c o r r e c t e d ; t h e m i s t a k e  isa  r e s u l t o f i m m a t u r i t y and m a t u r i t y can be a c h i e v e d o n l y the n e g a t i o n o f i m m a t u r i t y .  through  T h e r e f o r e , i n p r i n c i p l e , imma-  t u r i t y i s encompassed i n m a t u r i t y because t h e d i s o r d e r i s encompassed i n o r d e r .  Those who happen t o j o i n t h e o r d e r a r e  c o n s i d e r e d t o have a l r e a d y a c h i e v e d a h i g h e r l e v e l o f p u r i t y and a g r e a t d e a l o f s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e a c h i e v e d e i t h e r by themselves t h e i r ancestors.  (redemption)  has been  i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s l i v e s o r by  However, i n t h e s e cases t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e  warns t h e b e l i e v e r s who a r e s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d n o t t o become over s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , because t h e i r c h o i c e o f o r d e r c o u l d be a f r a g i l e one.  They have o n l y " i n h e r i t e d " t h e a c c u m u l a t e d  p u r i t y b u t a r e n o t y e t aware o f t h e meaning and i n e v i t a b i l i t y of t h e i r c h o i c e .  These p e o p l e a r e q u i t e f r e e t o make  and d e f i l e themselves  again.  mistakes  I n t h i s way, even i n t h e case o f  a s u c c e s s f u l c h o i c e , t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e emphasizes t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f making a m i s t a k e .  I n p r a c t i c e , t h e SMBK r e l i g i o u s  d i s c i p l i n e s i m p l y b e g i n s whenever someone f e e l s m i s e r a b l e , because t h e d o c t r i n e c l a i m s t h a t human s u f f e r i n g s a r e a r e s u l t o f , o r an e x p r e s s i o n o f , t h e m i s t a k e . The a s s e r t i o n t h a t s e p a r a t i o n from one-ness i s a mistake  i s f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r  a s s e r t i o n t h a t the p r o v i s i o n  of knowledge about t h e cause o f t h e m i s t a k e w i l l b r i n g him t o an immediate s o l u t i o n . i s adjustable The  concrete  ritual.  I n SMBK, e v i l i s s i m p l y  t h r o u g h t h e communication o f p r o p e r knowledge. method e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h i s i s t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n  I n t h i s sense, t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e i s m o n i s t i c , and  does n o t c o n t a i n a d u a l i s t i c and a b s o l u t e and  a m i s t a k e and  evil.  s p l i t between good  A l t h o u g h t h i s l o g i c seems t o work w e l l among t h e  J a p a n e s e , i t o f t e n r e c e i v e s a s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n from those b r o u g h t up i n a C h r i s t i a n  background.  F o r example, a B r a z i l i a n  C a u c a s i a n businessman about 30 y e a r s o l d and m a r r i e d t o a Japanese woman who was an a c t i v e b e l i e v e r o f SMBK, i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e SMBK approach was p o w e r l e s s . t h a t t h e SMBK p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l had (he f e l t good a f t e r SMBK o r d e r ,  A l t h o u g h he a d m i t t e d had some e f f e c t  i t was g i v e n ) , he r e f u s e d  on him  to j o i n the  s a y i n g t h a t t h e SMBK d i v i n i t i e s would n o t be a b l e  t o compete w i t h some demons i n B r a z i l w h i c h had t e r r i b l e power. He c l a i m e d  t h a t SMBK b e l i e v e r s would be e a s i l y d e f e a t e d  B r a z i l i a n demons b e f o r e demons.  by t h e  they c o u l d p o s s i b l y persuade t h e  He f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t such demons were more power-  f u l t h a n any SMBK d i v i n i t i e s , and h i s w i f e c o u l d n o t d i s s u a d e him  from b e l i e v i n g h i s p o i n t . The  n o t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n SMBK i s an i n t e r p e r s o n a l  d i s p u t e n o t a c o n f l i c t w i t h i n one's s e l f . why s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n  This i s the reason  i s l o g i c a l l y necessary; only the  -278-  possessing  s p i r i t c a n e x p l i c a t e t h e c o n f l i c t as a d i s p u t e i n  terms o f an a s s a i l a n t - v i c t i m r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Subsequently, the  n o t i o n o f a s s a i l a n t and v i c t i m i s r e s o l v e d i n t o t h e i d e a s i m i l a r t o karma v i a r e - d i s c o v e r y o f t h e c o n s t a n t the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s . ancestral spirits  influence of  I n t h e SMBK way o f t h i n k i n g t h e  g u i d e t h e p e r s o n t o an awareness o f t h e  cosmos as a pantheon t o w h i c h b o t h he and h i s a n c e s t o r s T h i s p r o c e d u r e may be s c h e m a t i z e d as f o l l o w s : a pantheon c o n t a i n i n g o r d e r . c o n s t e l l a t i o n of d i v i n i t i e s , and  conflicts(disorder).  spirits  Although  The cosmos i s  i t i sbasically a stati  i t encompasses s p i r i t  possession  Between these two t h e a n c e s t r a l  b r i d g e t h e gap." T h e r e f o r e ,  t h e SMBK b e l i e v e r s e e k i n g  s a - t o r i f i r s t encounters the possessing a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t , and f i n a l l y  s p i r i t , then the  f i n d s h i m s e l f as a " r e a l " human  b e i n g , t h a t i s , a d i v i n i t y i n t h e pantheon. c a l l e d , a t t h i s stage, " d i v i n e c h i l d " The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l  I n SMBK he i s  (kami no k o ) .  functions to provide  believers with d e f i n i t i o n s of c o n f l i c t s . scene from t h e Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e . years o l d dressed  belong  The f o l l o w i n g i s a  A woman about f o r t y  e l e g a n t l y i n a kimono responded t o t h e  p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l by waving h e r body i n v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s and a l s o r u b b i n g and  i t a l l o v e r e s p e c i a l l y around h e r b r e a s t s  l a p . She made some n o i s e s , t r y i n g t o say something, b u t  could not formulate  them i n t o words.  The Head o f t h e c e n t r e ,  -279-  a f t e r the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l ,  i n t e r p r e t e d such a c t i o n s as  caused by a p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t r e s e n t i n g u n f u l f i l l e d l o v e , because h e r p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t , u s i n g h e r hands, f e e l i n g h e r body.  enjoyed  The Head was c e r t a i n t h a t t h e a c t o f t h e  p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t had a s e x u a l c o n n o t a t i o n and added t h a t she must have a t t r a c t e d many men i n h e r y o u t h .  Objecting to h i s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , she s a i d t h a t a l l h e r a c t i o n s seemed t o have been m o t i v a t e d  i n t h e d e p t h o f h e r mind.  (Her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  i s modern and shows t h a t she i s r a t h e r w e l l educated.)  The  Head d e n i e d h e r p o i n t o f v i e w f i r m l y , by s a y i n g , "No, i t i s not i n t h e d e p t h o f your mind.  I t i s the possessing  I t i s n o t i n t h e d e p t h o f your mind. spirit.  spirit.  I t i s the possessing  I t i s n o t p a r t o f y o u . " Thus, i n SMBK, c o n f l i c t s do  not e x i s t i n mind, b u t i n d i s p u t e s w i t h o t h e r b e i n g s e x t e r n a l to  the person.  To be a f a i t h f u l SMBK b e l i e v e r , she was  encouraged t o a c c e p t t h e v i e w p o i n t g i v e n by t h e Head. The  Law o f B a l a n c e d i s s o l v e s c o n f l i c t s i n t o harmony.  A c c o r d i n g t o SMBK, i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l f - c h a n g e t h e s t a g e o f awareness o f t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t be e q u a l t o t h a t o f t h e p o s s e s s e d . Balance.  i s considered to  T h i s i s c a l l e d t h e Law o f  According t o t h i s law, f o r the possessing  and t h e p o s s e s s e d  spirit  t o s t a y t o g e t h e r i n t h e form o f s p i r i t  p o s s e s s i o n , they have t o be a t t h e same stage o f awareness w h i c h a l s o means a t t h e same degree o f p u r i t y / d e f i l e m e n t .  —  -280-  T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o encourage t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t t o l e a v e , the possessed  s h o u l d a c h i e v e more and more s a - t o r i .  This e f f o r t puts the possessing s p i r i t  i n a double-bind  c o n d i t i o n ; t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t a l s o has t o a c h i e v e i n o r d e r t o keep i n b a l a n c e w i t h t h e p o s s e s s e d , so t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t  sa-tori  b u t by d o i n g  i s f o r c e d t o l e a r n t h e SMBK d o c t r i n e  w h i c h p r o h i b i t s s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n as a m i s t a k e  t o be a d j u s t e d  T h i s i s t h e fundamental t e c h n i q u e o f " e x o r c i s m " i n t h e SMBK ritual;  i t i s p e r s u a s i o n based on i n v e s t i g a t i o n  c a t i o n of the possessing s p i r i t and a d m o n i t i o n  (identifi-  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e possessed)  ( t e a c h i n g o f t h e SBMK d o c t r i n e ) , but n o t  condemnation by a s t r o n g e r f o r c e .  A l s o , according to the  Law o f B a l a n c e , t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e p o s s e s s i n g corresponds  spirit  to the s p i r i t u a l s t a t e of the possessed.  An  a c t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n by t h e p o s s e s s i n g s p i r i t  i s appreciated  as t h e s i g n o f s e l f - c h a n g e o f t h e p o s s e s s e d .  By t h e same  t o k e n , no m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e