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Social reproduction and transcendence : an analysis of the Sekai Mahikari Bunmei Kyōdan, a heterodox… Miyanaga, Kuniko 1983

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SOCIAL REPRODUCTION AND TRANSCENDENCE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SEKAI MAHIKARI BUNMEI KYODAN, A HETERODOX RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT IN CONTEMPORARY JAPAN BY KUNIKO MIYANAGA B.A. , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo M.A. , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY ( i n anthropology) i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 © Kuniko Miyanaga, 1983 In present ing th is thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag ree tha t the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I fur ther agree that permission for extensive c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by his representat ives . It is understood that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed w i t h o u t my writ ten permiss ion. K u n i k o Miyanaga Department of Anthropology The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 • Date June 9, 1983 THESIS SUPERVISOR: K.O.L. Burridge ABSTRACT This d i s s e r t a t i o n examines the Sekai (World) Ma h i k a r i (True L i g h t ) Bunmei ( C i v i l i z a t i o n ) Kyodan ( R e l i g i o u s A s s o c i -a t i o n ) , known to English readers by the acronym SMBK, both i n i t s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e which designates a s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s system and i n i t s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the wider s o c i e t y , In p a r t i c u l a r , the theme of s o c i a l c r e a t i o n i s explored i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of the d i a l e c t i c between ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . With regard to the e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between SMBK and the wider s o c i e t y , the r e v e r s a l of the norm i s the major i s s u e . SMBK reverses the wider s o c i e t y ' s norm of formal democracy and i n f o r m a l h i e r a r c h y by o f f e r i n g formal h i e r a r c h y and i n f o r m a l e g a l i t a r i a n engagement. In so doing, SMBK r e a l i z e s a democratic i d e a l of e q u a l i t y i n i t s i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , although the e g a l i t a r i a n i s m has to be disc a r d e d i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r upward m o b i l i t y . In r e l a t i o n to the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e , the SMBK model of the r e l i g i o u s movement shows that n e i t h e r ideology nor s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the r e f l e c t i o n of the other. On the c o n t r a r y , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n provides a c o n t r a d i c t o r y pathway to the ide o l o g y , i n which b e l i e v e r s are c a l l e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d i v i n e order through s p i r i t possession. In t h i s way, SMBK o f f e r s to i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s a gradual - i ' i i -e d ucational procedure l i k e a stairway f o r s e l f - c u r e towards a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o the SMBK r e l i g i o u s paradigm. In t h i s process, i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s ' negation of the achieved epistemologies c o n s t i t u t e s the c o n d i t i o n f o r advancement to the next steps. A behavioral submission to the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l enables s e l f - c u r e i n SMBK. This process, a l s o being pressed by the recruitment a c t i v i t y , c o n s t i t u t e s a d i a l e c t i c of s e l f and others. However, t h i s d i a l e c t i c at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l does not generate a d i a l e c t i c at the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l . Consequently, the d i a l e c t i c at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l i s contained i n , and i s ensured by, the unchangeable framework of the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system. - i v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to acknowledge SMBK b e l i e v e r s f o r t h e i r kindness, t o l e r a n c e and understanding d u r i n g my f i e l d -work, and a l s o f o r t h e i r c u r i o s i t y about a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l ^approaches to r e l i g i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y , I am g r a t e f u l to Mr. Kudo, Mr. Nakao, Mr. Tanaka and Mr. and Mrs. Sakamoto f o r t h e i r support. I would l i k e to thank P r o f e s s o r Aoyagi of I n t e r -n a t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo, who gave me an i n s i g h t i n t o urban anthropology. Without h i s encouragement, my engagement i n the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l study of r e l i g i o u s movement i n modern s o c i e t y would have never been r e a l i z e d . I would l i k e to show my a p p r e c i a t i o n and give s p e c i a l thanks to my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r B u r r i d g e , who i n t r o -duced me to s o c i a l anthropology, the study of r e l i g i o n i n the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the n o t i o n of d i a l e c t i c between ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and, e s p e c i a l l y , to anthro-p o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g . I a l s o thank my committee members, P r o f e s s o r Beck who taught me how to d e l i n e a t e my thoughts i n E n g l i s h , and Pr o f e s s o r Chang whose c r i t i c a l comments about my argument always helped me to f u r t h e r e x p l i c a t e my thoughts. I would a l s o l i k e to acknowledge the members of - V -the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Study of R e l i g i o n and S o c i a l Sciences, Japan, f o r p u b l i s h i n g a summary a r t i c l e i n advance of my w r i t i n g the d i s s e r t a t i o n and a l s o f o r feeding me w i t h v a r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s and on-going d i s c u s s i o n s about the a r t i c l e . This a s s o c i a t i o n was t r u e l y the source of my i n s p i r a t i o n . I would l i k e to thank my E n g l i s h teachers and e d i t o r s . I am g r a t e f u l to Canada and UBC f o r having given me a chance to develop my i n t e r e s t i n d i a l e c t i c s and r e l i g i o u s movements. F i n a l l y , I thank my husband f o r h i s encouragement and support, and my four-year o l d son f o r t o l e r a t i n g my involvement i n w r i t i n g and t h i n k i n g . PREFACE Most data i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n were c o l l e c t e d between 1979 and 1980, mainly from Koganei L o c a l Centre (Tokyo), the Main Headquarters (Tokyo) and s e v e r a l other l o c a l c e n t r e s . A b r i e f research was added i n 1982 i n order to f i l l some gaps i n the i n f o r m a t i o n . An in-depth f i e l d w o r k study of a r e l i g i o u s movement was intended, s i n c e my MA paper was w r i t t e n about the Soka Gakkai movement on the ba s i s of l i t e r a r y surveys. Although the theme of the d i a l e c t i c between ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the r e l i g i o u s movement was i m p l i c i t l y contained i n my MA paper, the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s theme i n the form of my Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n t e n s i v e f i e l d -work to c o l l e c t the supporting data. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s d i s s e r -t a t i o n , the pronoun "he" i s g e n e r a l l y used, when the person can be of e i t h e r sex. The reason i s simply to avoid the use of he/she or s/he, u n t i l a consensus i n E n g l i s h i s reached to i n d i c a t e a person of e i t h e r sex i n a u n i f i e d way. Although SMBK has twice as many female b e l i e v e r s as male b e l i e v e r s , I simply f o l l o w e d the common p r a c t i c e i n E n g l i s h . - v i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Abs t r a c t i i Acknowledgements i v Preface v i Table of Contents v i i Diagrams i x Tables x I l l u s t r a t i o n s x i CHAPTER I : An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e f o r the Study of the R e l i g i o u s Movement 2 Reproductive and D i a l e c t i c a l Changes 3 S o c i a l Changes and Paradigms 12 R e l i g i o n as a Paradigm 20 SMBK as a R e l i g i o u s System 24 An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Approach to the R e l i g i o u s F i e l d : E x p l a n a t i o n and E x p l i c a t i o n 31 CHAPTER I I : SMBK as a R e l i g i o u s Movement 50 S o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l Background 51 Emergence of SMBK 61 Second S t a r t of SMBK 70 P r a c t i c e of the P u r i f i c a t i o n R i t u a l i n SMBK 76 SMBK Theory of P u r i f i c a t i o n 85 R i t u a l Performance at SMBK Loc a l Centres 91 I n d i v i d u a l B e l i e v e r ' s Contact w i t h SMBK 104 - v i i i -CHAPTER I I I : SMBK S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Hierarchy and E g a l i t a r i a n i s m 112 Formal Hierarchy of Power and Knowledge 122 Informal F r i e n d s h i p Network 136 Upward M o b i l i t y 148 Some F l e x i b i l i t i e s 159 CHAPTER IV: SMBK D o c t r i n e ; Containment of E q u a l i t y i n H i erarchy 170 Cosmology: P u r i t y and Pantheon 181 Opera t i o n a l M o r a l i t y 204 Di v i n e h i s t o r y and Geographical Containment of Disorder i n Order 224 CHAPTER V: I n d i v i d u a l s i n the SMBK R e l i g i o u s System 232 S a t o r i and Self-change i n the R i t u a l Context 238 Moral Spontaneity 250 S p i r i t Possession as a C a l l i n g 254 A n c e s t r a l S p i r i t s as a Guide to the Pantheon 275 Conclusion 297 - i x -DIAGRAMS 1. SMBK as an a n t i t h e s i s 9 2. Synthesis i n SMBK 9 3. S h i f t of emphasis on the r o l e s i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l 25 4. The SMBK h i e r a r c h y 29 5. D i v i n e s e a l of SMBK 64 6. Role exchange 78 7. V i t a l p o i n t s 81 8. Koganei l o c a l centre 96 9. Statement of donation 101 10. Examples of the statement of donation taken from the Koganei l o c a l centre 102 11. Formal and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s based on the d i f f e r e n c e i n the type of membership 114 12. SMBK b e l i e v e r s ' general image of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n 122 13. SMBK formal o r g a n i z a t i o n 123 14. Recruitment r e l a t i o n s h i p s 139 15. Soka Gakkai o r g a n i z a t i o n 144 16. Membership d i f f e r e n c e s i n SMBK 150 17. U n i l i n e a l process of upward m o b i l i t y through the h i e r a r c h y of power and knowledge 173 18. Pantheon 182 19. Layers of the human body 186 20. Human s p i r i t and the leavean s p i r i t 190 21. M i c h i H i r a k i view of bodies 191 22. SMBK model of cosmos 194 23. D i f f e r e n c e s between the l i v e s of the f a i t h f u l s and a t h e i s t s 198 24. D i v i n e arrangement 226 25. F l a t and cubic t r i a n g l e s 246 26. SMBK pantheon as a k i n s h i p map 291 - X -TABLES 1. R e l i g i o n s i n Japan 56 2. Importance of r e l i g i o u s mind 58 3. Opinion on the post-War s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n Japan 66 4. Frequency of v i s i t i n g the l o c a l centre 107 5. Average l e n g t h of time spent at the l o c a l centre f o r one v i s i t 107 6. R e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s 140 7. I n s t a l l a t i o n of the SMBK f a m i l y a l t a r 152 8. Leve l of the l e c t u r e s e s s i o n of the respondents 152 9. I n s t a l l a t i o n of the SMBK f a m i l y s h r i n e 152 10. P r e f e r r e d • p e r s o n a l c o n s u l t a n t i n SMBK 164 11. S u p e r i o r - i n f e r i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s 166 12. Advocated m o t i v a t i o n f o r j o i n i n g SMBK 304 - x i -ILLUSTRATIONS 1. Golden s h r i n e and i t s s e t t i n g 27 2. Graph: R e l i g i o u s b e l i e v e r s according to age 57 3. Lord-teacher Sekiguchi 72 4. Performing the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l o u t s i d e the l o c a l centre 99 5. SMBK shr i n e at the Koganei l o c a l centre 99 6. A l e a f l e t used f o r recruitment 146 7. O h a r a i - s a i : the Lord-teacher and b e l i e v e r s 155 8. The Lord-teacher g i v i n g c l o s e a t t e n t i o n . to h i s f o l l o w e r s 160 9. I l l u s t r a t i o n s i n Baptism of F i r e 210 10. Zen diagram of ten oxen 240 SOCIAL REPRODUCTION AND TRANSCENDENCE: an A n a l y s i s of the Sekai Mahikari Bunmei Kyodan, a Heterodox R e l i g i o u s Movement i n Contemporary Japan - 2 -CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR THE STUDY OF RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS - 3 -REPRODUCTIVE AND DIALECTICAL CHANGES The main body of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s an a n a l y s i s of the Sekai (World) M a h i k a r i (True L i g h t ) Bunmei ( C i v i l i z -a t i o n ) Kyodan ( R e l i g i o u s A s s o c i a t i o n ) , a heterodox Japanese r e l i g i o u s movement known to E n g l i s h readers by the acronym 1 SMBK, one of many that have developed i n the modern p e r i o d . In a broader t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , however, the d i s s e r -t a t i o n explores s o c i a l c r e a t i v i t y and transcendence, t o p i c s to which an a n a l y s i s of the SMBK lends i t s e l f . S o c i e t y i s here viewed as the product of the c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s of people. These attempts, i n t e n t i o n a l l y or i n t u i t i v e l y , f a l l i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : r e p r o d u c t i v e and tra n s c e n d e n t a l . The s o c i a l change which corresponds to rep r o d u c t i o n may be r e f e r r e d to as inner - p a r a d i g m a t i c , and the change which corresponds to transcendence may be r e f e r r e d to as extra-pa r a d i g m a t i c . S o c i a l c r e a t i v i t y i t s e l f i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the d i a l e c t i c between ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n where, i n the case of the SMBK, ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n are r e l a t e d as h i e r a r c h y i s to e g a l i - . . t a r i a n i s m . B r i e f l y , the SMBK draws i t s membership from the wider Japanese s o c i e t y , and e x i s t s w i t h i n but apart from the l a t t e r . Newcomers are r e c r u i t e d by the ( p a r t i a l l y ) i n i t i a t e d , go through a process of p u r i f i c a t i o n / e x o r c i s m which i s part of the i n i t i a t i o n r i t u a l , and i n t e r a c t w i t h each other and t h e i r teachers on an e g a l i t a r i a n b a s i s . But they a l s o enter a h i e r a r c h i c a l system i n which p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i a of a p p r e c i -a t i o n , s o c i a l understanding, of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , d o c t r i n e and cosmology determine r e l a t i v e s t a t u s w i t h i n the h i e r a r c h y . For i n d i v i d u a l s , as w i l l be seen, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and ideology i s a c o n t i n u i n g and emergent process moving towards at-oneness. Two reasons may be emphasized f o r choosing a r e l i g i o u s movement f o r an i n q u i r y i n t o the d i a l e c t i c between ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . F i r s t , i n r e l i g i o n , ideology i s already formed by the b e l i e v e r s i n t h e i r own expressions. Among them, d o c t r i n e i s the most e x p l i c i t , and i s a v a i l a b l e a l s o to the researcher. Second, i n r e l i g i o n , r i t u a l o f t e n provides overt means which f a c i l i t a t e the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r ' s a p p l i c a t i o n of the given d o c t r i n e to an e m p i r i c a l occasion. In such a case, the p o s i t i o n of r i t u a l i n r e l a t i o n to d o c t r i n e becomes s i m i l a r to that of a s c i e n t i f i c method i n r e l a t i o n to theory i n s c i e n c e s . However, i n the case of a " s e c u l a r " movement, such "methods" remain g e n e r a l l y u n c l e a r ; as they are u s u a l l y u n - e s t a b l i s h e d or i m p l i c i t . A p o l i t i c a l p a rty movement may be mentioned as an example. I t has ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n — t h e l a t t e r i n terms of membership—but i t i s q u i t e u n l i k e l y to have an overt r i t u a l - 5 -procedure as a method. In modern Japanese s o c i e t y overt involvement i n r i t u a l i s o f t e n considered to be undemocratic, at v a r i a n c e w i t h modernity. However, f o r an i n q u i r y i n t o the d i a l e c t i c between ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t i s important that the people i n the f i e l d produce t h e i r "theory" and "method" i n t h e i r own p e r s p e c t i v e . This c o n d i t i o n provides a b a s i s f o r the researcher to d e f i n e these two b a s i c elements c o n c r e t e l y and, a c c o r d i n g l y , he can avoid s p e c u l a t i o n . The a p p l i c a t i o n of the concrete d e f i n i t i o n s enables the researcher to show that ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n are separate e n t i t i e s , and that t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a d i a l e c t i c a l one. In p r i n c i p l e a d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p emerges when two separate e n t i t i e s are i n t e r l i n k e d i n such a way that one i n i t i a t e s change i n the other: both e n t i t i e s grow u n t i l they reach a new s y n t h e s i s . This process may be co n t i n u o u s l y repeated, and the r e p e t i t i o n leads to an on-going and s p i r a l growth of the whole system. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e n t i t i e s i s p r i m a r i l y i n c o n s i s t e n t . However, when the e n t i t i e s are simply j u x t a -posed or r e d u c i b l e to a r e f l e c t i o n of each other, even w i t h an apparent discrepancy, there i s no "momentum" f o r d i a l e c t i c a l development. This r e l a t i o n s h i p may be c a l l e d p a r a l l e l i s m . In order to d i s c o v e r i f . there i s any "momentum," the e n t i t i e s should f i r s t be i n v e s t i g a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , and then the - 6 -nature of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them should be examined. The d i v i s i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o two stages i s necessary to avoid any presumption of p a r a l l e l i s m between the e n t i t i e s . A p r e c a u t i o n i s a l s o necessary here to avoid the hasty c o n c l u s i o n t h a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s always l e a d to the e n t i t i e s ' forming a d i a l e c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . As I have mentioned above, there may be no "momentum" f o r development. Post-War Japanese s o c i e t y and SMBK f u l f i l l the above c o n d i t i o n s . The SMBK r e l i g i o u s movement has an ela b o r a t e d o c t r i n e , a w e l l organized r i t u a l and, since i t has a developing s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s formation i s observable. Japanese s o c i e t y since the end of World War I I d i s p l a y s an i n t e r e s t i n g discrepancy between ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . This discrepancy could provide the needed "momentum" f o r a d i a l e c t i c a l s o c i a l change. Such a discrepancy was f i r s t suggested by Chie Nakane.2 According to her, Japan's democratic ideology has not been r e a l i z e d i n s o c i a l o r g a n i z -a t i o n , even though post-War Japanese s o c i e t y i s b e l i e v e d to be democratic by most of i t s members. Nakane argues that the ideology of democracy i s e q u a l i t y under the same r u l e s . However, i n post-War Japanese s o c i e t y , she i n s i s t s , formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are formed according to r u l e s are nominal, and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f u n c t i o n s u b s t a n t i a l l y . She emphasizes that the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are outgrowths of -7-an indigenous system, and that they are not d e m o c r a t i c a l l y s t r u c t u r e d . The i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are h i e r a r c h i c a l and operate on person-to-person t i e s . Consequently, members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s develop t a n g i b l e but emotional involvement i n both t h e i r s u p e r i o r s and d i r e c t i n f e r i o r s . However, members are not aware of these p a t t e r n s . Thus, the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s develop the personal prospects of i n d i v i d u a l p a i r s of s o c i a l members, which do not extend to other p a i r s . Hence, the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s become a patchwork of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s i s t i n g of numerous p a i r s . Under these circumstances, as has been suggested by Max Weber, r e l i g i o n may become an ideology which e x p l i c i t l y or 3 i m p l i c i t l y j u s t i f i e s c e r t a i n b a s i c s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . As he has shown i n the example of C h r i s t i a n i t y a new ideology formed through a r e f o r m a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g form of r e l i g i o n . He considers t h i s process to have been a response to wider s o c i a l changes. In the post-War age i n Japan, as s o c i e t y experienced great changes, r e l i g i o u s movements emerged and responded to the new s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . SMBK was one of these movements, and i t presents a complex example of the d i a l e c t i c between ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s an example of a r e l i g i o u s movement that presents a new s o c i a l i d e a l as a n t i t h e s i s to the democratic i d e a l i n terms of d o c t r i n e , w h i l e a sy n t h e s i s between the democratic i d e a l and d o c t r i n e i s achieved i n in f o r m a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . (Diagram 1). The SMBK d o c t r i n e i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to the wider s o c i e t y because SMBK i s o v e r t l y i n v o l v e d i n such " i r r a t i o n a l " p r a c t i c e s as exorcism and magical h e a l i n g . SMBK a l s o promotes cosmology which c o n s i s t s of a pantheonic order a s s e r t i n g that d i v i n i t i e s and s p i r i t s of the dead e x i s t and even i n t e r a c t w i t h l i v i n g people. These p r a c t i c e s and the a s s e r t i o n are not acceptable i n the wider s o c i e t y where " s c i e n t i s m " f u n c t i o n s as the 4 o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y of democracy. Therefore, the pantheonic order of SMBK cosmology had to be r e a l i z e d i n s i d e SMBK, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n SMBK formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n s t r u c t e d on the b e l i e f that a l l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s are part of the pantheonic and h i e r a r c h i c a l order. Thus, i n SMBK, cosmology and formal o r g a n i z a t i o n are p a r a l l e l to each other. The s y n t h e s i s between the ideology of the wider s o c i e t y and the SMBK pantheonic order i s formed i n the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of SMBK. I t i s a f r i e n d s h i p network which c o n s i s t s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and i s e g a l i t a r i a n . I t does not c o n t a i n the democratic i d e a l i n Nakane's sense, e q u a l i t y under the same r u l e s , but an e g a l i t a r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n i s achieved, whereas i n the wider s o c i e t y e q u a l i t y remains an u n r e a l i z e d i d e a l . (Diagram 2). - 9 -DIAGRAM 2 : Synthesis in SMBK th e s i s democratic system ( i d e o l o g y *) , . ( s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n } d i s c r e p a n c y Japanese s o c i e t y - 1 0 -However, i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n remains independent of e i t h e r formal o r g a n i z a t i o n or cosmology. For t h i s reason, there i s no dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z -a t i o n and cosmology or formal o r g a n i z a t i o n can e x i s t . This means t h a t , w i t h i n the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system, there i s no "momentum" f o r the s p i r a l growth of a d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two components of the system. The framework of the system remains s t a t i c and i s not renewable. The paradox i s , on the other hand, that the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system provides i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s w i t h an on-going d i a l e c t i c a l process of self-change. This s i t u a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t SMBK contains an on-going d i a l e c t i c a l process at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , but does not do so at the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l . In other words, i n d i v i d u a l changes do not l e a d t o the r e v i s i o n of the SMBK hi e r a r c h y as a whole. Comprehension of t h i s p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n i s the key to the understanding of SMBK, and a c c o r d i n g l y , of a c e r t a i n type of transcendental attempt. The reasons f o r the non-occurrence of an expected s p i r a l growth (at the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l ) stemming from the ex i s t e n c e of a d i a l e c t i c between SMBK and the wider s o c i e t y w i l l be shown through the a n a l y s i s of the b a s i c c o n s t r u c t i o n of the SMBK system. For t h i s a n a l y s i s , the pe r s p e c t i v e s of Thomas Kuhn, Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s , and C l i f f o r d Geertz w i l l be c r i t i c a l l y examined though my own conclusions are not n e c e s s a r i l y i n agreement. -12-SOCIAL CHANGES AND PARADIGMS The word "paradigm" has been introduced by Thomas Kuhn i n order to e x p l a i n the d i a l e c t i c a l development of the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . According to him, the n a t u r a l sciences have developed from some paradigms to others by renewing themselves. For Kuhn, paradigm i s "the h i s t o r i c a l i n t e g r i t y of that (a s p e c i f i c f i e l d of) science i n i t s own time."-' According to him, i t i s t h i s i n t e g r i t y through which s c i e n t i s t s of the s p e c i f i c f i e l d a b s t r a c t r u l e s and laws, and a l s o c o n s t r u c t t h e o r i e s and models. R e f e r r i n g to Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n , Kuhn says : What can the phrase ' d i r e c t i n s p e c t i o n of paradigms' mean? P a r t i a l answers to questions l i k e these were developed by the l a t e Ludwig W i t t g e n s t e i n , though i n a very d i f f e r e n t context. Because that context i s both more elementary and more f a m i l i a r , i t w i l l help to consider h i s form of the argument f i r s t . What need we know, W i t t g e n s t e i n asked, i n order that we apply terms l i k e ' c h a i r , ' or ' l e a f , ' or 'game' un e q u i v o c a l l y and without provoking argument? That q u e s t i o n i s very o l d and has g e n e r a l l y been answered by saying that we must know, c o n s c i o u s l y or i n t u i t i v e l y , what a c h a i r , or l e a f , or game i s . We must, th a t i s , grasp some set of a t t r i b u t e s t h a t a l l games and that only games have i n common. W i t t -g e n s t e i n , however, concluded t h a t , given the way we use language and the s o r t of world to which we apply i t , there need be no such set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Though a d i s c u s s i o n of some of the a t t r i b u t e s shared by a number of games or c h a i r s or leaves o f t e n helps us l e a r n how to employ the corresponding term, there - 1 3 -i s no set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i s simultaneously a p p l i c a b l e to a l l members of the c l a s s and to them alone. Instead, confronted w i t h a p r e v i o u s l y unobserved a c t i v i t y , we apply the term 'game' because what we are seeing bears a c l o s e " f a m i l y resemblance" to a number of the a c t i v i t i e s t hat we have p r e v i o u s l y learned to c a l l by that name. Although Kuhn does not use the word epistemology, what he i n d i c a t e s i n terms of paradigm by r e f e r r i n g to W i t t g e n s t e i n i s a s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l b a s i s to ensure the epistemology of a s c i e n t i f i c community at a c e r t a i n time of h i s t o r y . Rules, laws, t h e o r i e s and models are the product of the epistemology which s p e c i f i e s the ways of c o n c e i v i n g the observed phenomena. Kuhn claims that paradigm i s a property of the n a t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s , but i s not of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . They remain i n what he c a l l s "the pre-paradigm stage." However, h i s concept of paradigm, once i t i s under-stood as the b a s i s of epistemology, i s a p p l i c a b l e to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . What s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have f a i l e d to do i s to f i n d a consensus on t h e i r e p i stemologies. Thus, they have f a i l e d to produce a proper paradigm; they simply have separate epistemologies. Kuhn h i m s e l f argues that ( n a t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s ) ... can, that i s , agree i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a paradigm without agreeing on, or even attempting to produce, a f u l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of i t . Lack of a standard i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n or of an agreed r e d u c t i o n to r u l e s w i l l not prevent a paradigm from g u i d i n g r e s e a r c h . Normal science can be determined i n part by the d i r e c t i n s p e c t i o n of paradigms, a process that i s o f t e n aided by but does not depend upon the f o r m u l a t i o n of r u l e s and assumptions. Indeed, the e x i s t e n c e of a paradigm need not even imply that any f u l l set of r u l e s e x i s t s . 7 Therefore, the l a c k of e x p l i c i t consensus does not i n d i c a t e the l a c k of a paradigm. Once t h i s i s accepted, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see an a f f i n i t y among v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . The s o c i a l sciences have a l s o evolved through t h e i r h i s t o r y . Furthermore, the concept of paradigm should a l s o apply to the epistemology of the people who are subject to study by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . This i s the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the s o c i a l and n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . People are not only t h i n g s . They have t h e i r own epistemology which r e f l e c t s and represents a c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l stage. The p o i n t , again, i s that people do not n e c e s s a r i l y form a consensus on t h e i r epistemology. I t s expressions may vary and a l s o be expressed i n d i f f e r e n t spheres i n s o c i e t y . These expressions of the paradigm may be d e f i n e d as ideology. The a c c u s a t i o n by phenomenologists aga i n s t those whom they c a l l p o s i t i v i s t s i s concentrated on the p o i n t that the p o s i t i v i s t s n e g l e c t to capture the epistemology of the people s t u d i e d . Or worse, the p o s i t i v i s t s do not even con s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a people should have t h e i r own - 1 5 -epistemology. As a r e s u l t , p o s i t i v i s t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y t r e a t people as i f they had the same epistemology as the p o s i t i v i s t s ' own, or co n s i d e r them l i k e a t h i n g which does not have an epistemology. The phenomenological i n q u i r y i n t o s o c i e t y i s centered on a search f o r the epistemology of the people of a c u l t u r e . With a p a r t i c u l a r regard f o r the understanding of the paradigm of the people of the c u l t u r e under study, Geertz t r i e s to u n f o l d the i m p l i c i t mechanism i n which s o c i a l members accept a c e r t a i n process as i n e v i t a b l e (or n a t u r a l ) , and produce s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s through r e l i g i o u s commitment. Phrasing a s i d e , t h i s much may perhaps be granted'. The n o t i o n that r e l i g i o n tunes human a c t i o n s to an envisaged cosmic order and p r o j e c t s images of cosmic order onto the plane of human experience i s h a r d l y n o v e l . But i t i s h a r d l y i n v e s t i g a t e d e i t h e r , so that we have very l i t t l e i dea of how, i n e m p i r i c a l terms, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r m i r a c l e i s accomplished. We j u s t know tha t i t i s done, a n n u a l l y , weekly, d a i l y , f o r some people almost h o u r l y ; and we have an enormous ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e to demonstrate i t . But the t h e o r e t i c a l framework which would enable us to provide an a n a l y t i c account of i t , an account of the s o r t we can provide f o r li n e a g e segmentation, p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s i o n , l a b o r exchange, or the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d , does not exist.° H i l d r e d Geertz, i n her The Javanese Family, concentrates on themes such as r e p r o d u c t i o n of ideology and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process: how s o c i a l values and premises are maintained through the k i n s h i p system, and how people grow i n t o such an -16-i d e o l o g i c a l system. The a n a l y t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n her approach i s b a s i c a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l . The s o c i a l member grows i n t o the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l paradigm from the s t a t e which should be de s c r i b e d as non-paradigmatic or pre-paradigmatic i f we apply the word "pre-paradigmatic" to a stage of i n d i v i d u a l growth. The question which should be asked here i s how paradigms are r e l a t e d to s o c i a l c r e a t i v i t y . In a p a r a l l e l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n Durkheimian f u n c t i o n a l i s m , ideology and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e a c l o s e d feed-back system. S o c i a l members reproduce t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as they accept and commit themselves to the norms, laws and other i d e o l o g i c a l forms of the s o c i a l system,, as H i l d r e d Geertz has i l l u s t r a t e d . Durkheim a l s o v e r i f i e d t h i s p o i n t i n h i s study of s u i c i d e . S u i c i d e i s considered to be an example of s o c i a l f a i l u r e . S u i c i d e i s a deviant act which occurs when the normal commitment to s o c i e t y i s blocked or abandoned. There-f o r e , the excessive commitment to s o c i e t y causes a l t r u i s t i c s u i c i d e , the commitment agai n s t s o c i e t y leads to i n t e l l e c t u a l 9 s u i c i d e and the l o s s of commitment r e s u l t s i n anomic s u i c i d e . Hence, those who do not " f i t " i n t o the given s o c i a l system e l i m i n a t e themselves i n d i v i d u a l l y by abnormal means. As a r e s u l t , such a deviant a c t i v i t y as s u i c i d e c o n s t i t u t e s a s o c i a l tendency and occurs w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g paradigm. - 1 7 -Therefore, such a change as the increase of anomic s u i c i d e i n a modern s o c i e t y , f o r example, should be named " i n n e r -paradigmatic change", and the paradigm which ensures t h i s type of change may be r e f e r r e d to as the paradigm of repro-d u c t i o n . In L e v i - S t r a u s s i a n s t r u c t u r a l i s m , the paradigm of r e p r o d u c t i o n i s more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . I t i s what he c a l l s s t r u c t u r e , and every s o c i a l component i s considered to be an e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s s t r u c t u r e . The concept of s t r u c t u r e i s u l t i m a t e l y r e d u c i b l e to the unconscious p a t t e r n w i t h which the human b r a i n f u n c t i o n s . ... The unconscious, on the other hand, i s always empty—or, more a c c u r a t e l y , i t i s as a l i e n to mental images as i s the stomach to the foods which pass through i t . As the organ of a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n , the unconscious merely imposes s t r u c t u r a l laws upon i n a r t i c u l a t e d elements which o r i g i n a t e e l s e w h e r e — i m p u l s e s , emotions, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and memories. We might say, t h e r e f o r e , that the preconscious i s the i n d i v i d u a l l e x i c o n where each of us accumulates the vocabulary of h i s personal h i s t o r y , but that t h i s vocabulary becomes s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r us and f o r o t h e r s , only to the extent that the unconscious s t r u c t u r e s i t according to i t s laws and thus transforms i t i n t o language. Since these laws are the same f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and i n a l l i nstances where the unconscious pursues i t s a c t i v i t y , the problem which arose i n the preceding paragraph can e a s i l y be r e s o l v e d . The vocabulary matters l e s s than the s t r u c t u r e . Whether the myth i s r e - c r e a t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l or borrowed from t r a d i t i o n , i t d e r i v e s from i t s s o u r c e s — i n d i v i d u a l or c o l l e c t i v e (between which i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n s and exchanges c o n s t a n t l y o c c u r ) — o n l y the stock of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h which i t operates. But the s t r u c t u r e remains the same, and through i t the symbolic f u n c t i o n i s f u l f i l l e d . 1 0 -18-In other words, s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s maintained, u l t i m a t e l y , because a l l the e x i s t i n g paradigms (which L e v i -Strauss may c a l l i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e s ) converge i n t o one e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s n o t i o n enables L e v i - S t r a u s s to a s s e r t that s o c i e t y c o n s i s t s of m u l t i - l a y e r e d expressions of the s t r u c t u r e . Consequently, the s o c i a l components are considered to be a l l p a r a l l e l to each other. Thus, s o c i e t y i s viewed fundamentally as i d e o l o g i c a l . Although the n o t i o n of d i a l e c t i c and transcendency are i n v o l v e d i n L e v i - S t r a u s s i a n s t r u c t u r a l i s m , they are not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to s o c i a l change. For Durkheim, a s o c i a l change occurs through the i n t e r a c t i o n between the s o c i a l r e a l i t y and i d e a l s . For him, i d e a l s p r i m a r i l y mean the "ideas 11 i n terms of which s o c i e t y sees i t s e l f . " However, the i d e a l i s a l s o a new sy n t h e s i s which combines the components of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n a d i f f e r e n t way. Therefore, "the o r i g i n a l i t y of the method of combination produces the o r i g -12 i n a l i t y of sy n t h e s i s i t s e l f . " *~ In other words, the i d e a l 13 " d e r i v e s from" the s o c i a l r e a l i t y "while transcending i t " . Furthermore, Durkheim says: ... Ide a l s are not a b s t r a c t i o n s , c o l d i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts l a c k i n g e f f i c i e n t power. They are e s s e n t i a l l y dynamic, f o r behind them are the power-f u l f o r c e s of the c o l l e c t i v e . They are c o l l e c t i v e f o r c e s — t h a t i s , n a t u r a l but at the same time moral f o r c e s , comparable to the other f o r c e s of the un i v e r s e . ... 14 -19-With the formation of the i d e a l , i n d i v i d u a l change becomes i n e v i t a b l e . Durkheim argues t h i s as f o l l o w s : ... but the i d e a l i s not simply something which i s l a c k i n g and d e s i r e d . I t i s not simply a f u t u r e goal to which man a s p i r e s ; i t has i t s own r e a l i t y and nature. I t i s to be thought of r a t h e r as looming i m p e r s o n a l l y above the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l s that i t moves. ... 15 Thus, the whole s o c i e t y "transcends" present s o c i a l r e a l i t y and moves towards the newly created i d e a l . This k i n d of s o c i a l change may, i n our terms, be r e f e r r e d to as " e x t r a -paradigmatic." The n o t i o n of extra-paradigmatic change suggests that there i s a poin t of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n when s o c i e t y s h i f t s from one i n t e g r a t i o n to another, as paradigm i n d i c a t e s i n t e g r a t i o n . The SMBK example w i l l show us how e x t r a -paradigmatic change can occur. The main d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be found i n the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between s o c i e t y ( c o l l e c t i v e ) and i n d i v i d u a l s . -2 0-RELIGION AS A PARADIGM The meaning of r e l i g i o n i n r e l a t i o n to i n t e g r a t i o n should be c l a r i f i e d here. R e l i g i o n as a mode of thought or an ideology i s not a new id e a . On the c o n t r a r y , i t has been p o p u l a r l y accepted not only by researchers i n the humanities but a l s o by those i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . For such people, r e l i g i o n represents a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of c u l t u r e , o f t e n a su p e r s t r u c t u r e and a f a l s e consciousness; r e l i g i o n sometimes even means pathology. For K a r l Marx, r e l i g i o n i s a mode of thought produced by a f a l s e consciousness. I t contains a deception which l u r e s people from s o c i a l r e a l i t y , although i t should be s e l f - e v i d e n t to those f r e e from the f a l s e consciousness. The wretchedness of r e l i g i o n i s at once an exp r e s s i o n of and a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t r e a l wretched-ness. R e l i g i o n i s the s i g n of the oppressed c r e a t u r e , the heart of a h e a r t l e s s world and the sou l of s o u l l e s s c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s the opium of the people. The a b o l i t i o n of r e l i g i o n as i l l u s o r y happiness of the people i s a demand f o r t h e i r true happiness. The c a l l to abandon i l l u s i o n s about t h e i r c o n d i t i o n i s the c a l l to abandon a c o n d i t i o n which r e q u i r e s i l l u s i o n s . Thus, the c r i t i q u e of r e l i g i o n i s the c r i t i q u e i n embryo o f 1 t h e value of tea r s of which r e l i g i o n i s the halo. Some psychoanalysts are a l s o q u i t e r a d i c a l i n t h e i r d e n u n c i a t i o n of r e l i g i o n , t h e i r view of r e l i g i o n as Anthony f o l l o w s : Wallace n e a t l y summarizes Much of r e l i g i o u s behavior i s reminiscent of dream experience, of n e u r o t i c r i t u a l , even of ps y c h o t i c f a n t a s y , i n the sense that the meaning of the behavior and the s a t i s f a c t i o n i t b r i n g s to the p a r t i c i p a n t cannot be found i n a r a t i o n a l , r e a l i s t i c , s c i e n t i f i < ^ ^ d e f i n i t i o n or manipulation of the a c t u a l world. However, Wallace h i m s e l f does not dismiss r e l i g i o n . He a l s o says: This i s not to say that r e l i g i o n i s n e u r o t i c or ps y c h o t i c i n any c l i n i c a l or p e j o r a t i v e sense, but only that a n a l y s i s of r e l i g i o u s behavior as a symptom—as a compromise among primary i n n e r promptings and the demands of r e a l i t y as r a t i o n a l l y p erceived by the s u b j e c t — w i l l y i e l d understanding of many r e l i g i o u s phenomena.18 In other words, f o r Wallace, i n r e l i g i o n , v a r i o u s aspects of b e l i e f or r i t u a l can serve as prime generators, apt ex p r e s s i o n s , or more or l e s s expedient symptomatic s o l u t i o n s of emotional problems. 19 Wallace's p o s i t i o n seems to have gained orthodoxy i n the recent t r a d i t i o n of psyc h o a n a l y s i s . R e l i g i o n i s considered as " p r o j e c t i o n of and therapy f o r emotional problems." In t h i s c ontext, of course, psychoanalysis as a s c i e n t i f i c method i s considered to be s u p e r i o r , because psycho a n a l y s i s deals w i t h therapy and p r o j e c t i o n s e p a r a t e l y . The -22 -t h e r a p i s t does not share the fantasy w i t h the p a t i e n t , and when the p a t i e n t recovers from h i s emotional problems, he can dism i s s h i s f a n t a s y , o r , i t simply disappears. However, i n r e l i g i o n , n e i t h e r " t h e r a p i s t " nor " p a t i e n t " has any means of abandoning h i s fantasy. I t i s ins e p a r a b l e from the cure. However, the more fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between psychoanalysis and r e l i g i o n should be found i n the meaning of cure. In ps y c h o a n a l y s i s , the p a t i e n t recovers when h i s emotional block i s removed. In r e l i g i o n , he recovers when h i s problem i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the "wholeness" of the d i v i n e order. Only i n t h i s "wholeness" does he g a i n the c a p a c i t y to i n t e g r a t e h i m s e l f i n t o a t o t a l being. Therefore, i n r e l i g i o n , the p r o v i s i o n of an al l - e m b r a c i n g p e r s p e c t i v e i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e The p e r s p e c t i v e may be given i n the. form of imagery such as cosmology and metaphorical d e s c r i p t i o n s of d i v i n i t i e s and heroes, and/or i n the form of the w i l l of the omnipotent d i v i n i t y who r u l e s the cosmos. Thus, i t may be s a i d that psychoanalysis provides a cure by e x t r a c t i o n whereas r e l i g i o n does t h i s by a d d i t i o n . Therefore, i n psych o a n a l y s i s , the di a g n o s i s of the cause of the problem i s e s s e n t i a l i n order to remove i t f o r the purpose of cure. The only exception i s the Jungian therapy. I t provides a "world view." But, f o r t h i s reason, the Jungian therapy i s t r e a t e d as unorthodox by other more s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s t s . However, r e l i g i o n i s a l s o -23-d i f f e r e n t from the Jungian approach. In r e l i g i o n , a cure i s not the g o a l . The goal i s the achievement of "wholeness" i t s e l f . Thus, "wholeness" i s not a pragmatic t o o l f o r a c h i e v i n g a c e r t a i n s t a t e of mind. The achievement of a c e r t a i n s t a t e of mind which w i l l cure a p s y c h o l o g i c a l problem i s a by-product, considered to d e r i v e n a t u r a l l y from the achievement of "wholeness". Therefore, r e l i g i o n must c o n t i n u a l l y r e f e r to t h i s "wholeness." The r e l i g i o u s paradigm i s a p a r t i c u l a r paradigm which ensures t h i s "wholeness." In SMBK, t h i s "wholeness" i s captured i n i t s cosmology. - 2 4 -SMBK AS A RELIGIOUS SYSTEM In SMBK, the p o s s i b i l i t y of the achievement of and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the "wholeness" of the d i v i n e order motivates the b e l i e v e r i n d i v i d u a l l y towards the attempt at transcendental self-change. This i n d i v i d u a l change i s ext r a - p a r a d i g m a t i c , because the b e l i e v e r s h i f t s from the non-SMBK paradigm of the wider s o c i e t y to the SMBK r e l i g i o u s paradigm. In t h i s process the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r has to accomplish two major t a s k s : disengagement from h i s o l d paradigm, which he has a s s i m i l a t e d o u t s i d e of SMBK, and a new engagement w i t h the SMBK paradigm. The po i n t of disengagement and new engagement i s apprehended by the b e l i e v e r as the s h i f t of emphasis from the. passive r o l e to the a c t i v e r o l e i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . (Diagram 3 ) . The success of the new engagement l a r g e l y depends on the disengagement from the o l d paradigm. This c o n d i t i o n may e x p l a i n the reason why p a i n f u l procedures are o f t e n found i n i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s (though not, i n f a c t , i n SMBK); such procedures may help to process disengage-ment. Various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which Turner l i s t s as the p r o p e r t i e s of l i m i n a l i t y should i n d i c a t e the necessary cond-2 0 i t i o n s f o r the disengagement process from the o l d paradigm. The s h i f t of emphasis from the passive r o l e to the -25-DIAGRAM 3: S h i f t of Emphasis on the Roles i n the P u r i f i c a t i o n R i t u a l - 2 6 -a c t i v e r o l e becomes p o s s i b l e through b e h a v i o r a l submission to the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Because the r i t u a l i s c o nstructed to represent the SMBK paradigm (the d i v i n e o r d e r ) , submission to the context of the r i t u a l means the be h a v i o r a l a d o p t a t i o n of the paradigm which has not yet been a s s i m i l a t e d mentally. Based on the h i n t s given i n i n i t i a t i o n , the meaning of the s h i f t of emphasis has to be i n d i v i d u a l l y " d i s c o v e r e d . " Although the paradigm i s exposed i n the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the s h i f t i t s e l f i s not suggested i n the form of the r i t u a l . The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s b a s i c a l l y performed i n the same way throughout the h i e r a r c h y of SMBK. However, when the s h i f t i s accomplished, as i s the case f o r s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s , the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the elementary and advanced l e v e l s i s obvious. In other words, the d i f f e r e n c e does not become obvious unless the meaning of the s h i f t i s disc o v e r e d . I f the s h i f t i s not discovered the d i f f e r e n c e remains p u z z l i n g . The r i t u a l s t i l l appears the same to the eyes of those who have not dis c o v e r e d i t s meaning. They cannot f i l l the gap between what they see and what s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s say about the same r i t u a l . Thus, those who have not been able to bridge t h i s gap remain at the elementary l e v e l , and those who have dis c o v e r e d the d i f f e r e n c e g a i n upward m o b i l i t y . Recruitment a c t i v i t y presses the b e l i e v e r to d i s c o v e r - 2 7 --28-the meaning of the s h i f t i n emphasis i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . In recruitment a c t i v i t y , the b e l i e v e r i s an a c t i v e performer, by d e f i n i t i o n . The s k i l l and meaning of the performance i s subject to question. The people a b e l i e v e r t r i e s to r e c r u i t w i l l l i k e l y represent the o u t s i d e r ' s c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n a g a i n s t r e l i g i o n . He i s on constant t r i a l . Therefore, recruitment creates c o n f r o n t a t i o n . I t i s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the outs i d e r a t i o n a l world through the p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r s as w e l l as w i t h the s p i r i t u a l world through the possessing s p i r i t i n v o l v e d i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . F u r t h e r -more, i t i s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h h i s own s e l f through the simultaneous c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the r a t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l worlds. The po i n t i s that the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l upward m o b i l i t y can be achieved only through self-change, and tha t the "momentum" f o r t h i s self-change i s provided by the confron-t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . In t h i s way, the s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n process works f o r upward m o b i l i t y and membership i n c r e a s e . Upward m o b i l i t y i n SMBK means that the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r achieves a higher s t a t u s i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l SMBK r e l i g i o u s system; d o c t r i n e and formal o r g a n i z a t i o n together c o n s t i t u t e a h i e r a r c h y of power and knowledge which d i f f e r -e n t i a t e s r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i n t o three l e v e l s : elementary, intermediate and advanced. (Diagram 4). The standard of -29-DIAGRAM 4: SMBK Hierarchy I ( i n i t i a t i o n ) ! "hangers-on" j -3 0-d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s the s k i l l of t r a n s l a t i n g experiences i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i n t o the cosmological idioms of SMBK. I n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s i n t h i s process i n e v i t a b l y correspond to the stages of s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; what i s to be "di s c o v e r e d " i n d i v i d u a l l y i s the cosmology which i s apprehended through these idioms. Therefore, the c o n t i n u a l process of self-change, which i n v o l v e s the d i a l e c t i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , i s designed to converge u l t i m a t e l y i n t o the d i v i n e order of SMBK cosmology. There i s no room f o r r e v i s i n g the cosmology o r , a c c o r d i n g l y , the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system. The only person e n t i t l e d to make r e v i s i o n s , the o r i g i n a t o r of SMBK, i s already deceased. In other words, i n SMBK, the i n d i v i d u a l d i a l e c t i c i s separate from the d i a l e c t i c between SMBK and the wider s o c i e t y at the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l . The l a t e r s e c t i o n s of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l analyze how t h i s breakage i n the d i a l e c t i c i s p o s s i b l e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system. -31-AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE RELIGIOUS FIELD: EXPLANATION AND EXPLICATION Before d e s c r i b i n g SMBK i n more d e t a i l , I would l i k e to b r i e f l y mention epistemology as used by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . People o f t e n wonder why a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s d e s c r i b e e n d l e s s l y , whereas s o c i o l o g i s t s appear to be more o v e r t l y concerned w i t h proving t h e i r t h e o r i e s , although both c l a i m to present a r e a l i s t i c view of s o c i e t y and people. However, even i n s o c i o l o g y , there i s an except i o n . Max Weber, among c l a s s i c a l s o c i o l o g i s t s , presents a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the way some contemporary s o c i o l o g i s t s might object by saying that h i s argument does not f u l l y cover the d e s c r i p t i o n . Concerning t h i s p o i n t , Bendix makes the f o l l o w i n g suggestion: Once again, i n s t e a d of adopting e i t h e r a h o l i s t i c or a p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c (or s u b j e c t i v e ) approach, Weber hoped to occupy an intermediate p o s i t i o n , moving from h i s t o r i c a l evidence to the f o r m u l a t i o n of concepts, and from concepts back to h i s t o r i c a l evidence . . . .21 The most exhausting e f f o r t f o r an e m p i r i c a l researcher of s o c i e t y and people i s the "move from h i s t o r i c a l evidence to the f o r m u l a t i o n of concepts." Burridge e l a b o r a t e s on t h i s i s s u e more p r e c i s e l y as f o l l o w s : A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e i r conceptions of the s u b j e c t , i n t h e i r " t h e o r e t i c a l " approaches, and i n what the f i n i s h e d product of t h e i r researches i s supposed to do. But there i s a general agreement t h a t data should be obtained s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , that a n a l y s i s should be l o g i c a l l y -32-c o n s i s t e n t , s y s t e m a t i c , and match the data. Most i m p o r t a n t l y perhaps, anthropology i s a "mode of t h i n k i n g about" both data and analyses. This " t h i n k i n g about" i s not easy to e x p l a i n i n a few words. I t becomes e x p l i c i t i n the process of making f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s — i n c o n t i n u a l l y asking who, what, where, when, why, i n what c i r c u m s t a n c e s — a n d speaks l a r g e l y to the c o n s t r a i n t s present i n t o t a l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the ways i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s i n these s i t u a t i o n s are placed i n r e l a t i o n to each other. I n t e r p r e t i n g Weber i n Burridge's terms, the move "from h i s t o r i c a l evidence to the f o r m u l a t i o n of concepts" may a l s o be s a i d to be the move "from data to a n a l y s i s . " This move r e q u i r e s the ethnographer to convert what he has seen i n t o what he wants to say about i t . The conversion i s not easy, because seeing and speaking r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s the ethnographer speaks i n order to communicate to h i s audience, whereas he may be simply a t t r a c t e d from personal i n t e r e s t to a p a r t i c u l a r happening on the occasion he i s a t t e n d i n g . This gap between seeing and speaking i s i n e v i t a b l e , because seeing i s the act of here-and- now and speaking i s an attempt to e s t a b l i s h u n i v e r s a l s beyond the moment. Therefore, the s h i f t from seeing to speaking a l s o means a t r a n s l a t i o n of the observed f a c t from the here-and-now context to a u n i v e r s a l one. The s h i f t from seeing to speaking o f t e n appears c o n f u s i n g , because they are c o n s t r a i n e d by each other. I t i s obvious that the ethnographer cannot r e l a t e more than he -33-has seen. However, i n order to communicate w e l l , he has to see w e l l . Here comes the n e c e s s i t y f o r p r e p a r a t i o n before f i e l d work. The ethnographer c o l l e c t s i n f o r m a t i o n from p u b l i c a t i o n s and organizes h i s thoughts by w r i t i n g a research p r o p o s a l . In so doing, what he r e a l l y does i s to put him s e l f i n the p o s i t i o n of h i s audience; he speculates on what he, as an audience, would l i k e to hear from h i m s e l f as a r e p o r t e r . He prepares h i m s e l f to see c e r t a i n t h i n g s about h i s f i e l d . This means that h i s e f f o r t of seeing i n the f i e l d becomes h i g h l y i n t e n t i o n a l . For t h i s reason, the act of seeing i n the f i e l d i s c a l l e d o b s e r v a t i o n . However, he i s extremely l u c k y , when he f i n d s h i s f i e l d e x a c t l y as he has expected. Instead, i t i s a common experience, at l e a s t among a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , that the ethno-grapher sees more than he has planned to observe. When t h i s happens, the choice i s l i m i t e d ; he can e i t h e r ignore the aspects of the f i e l d unexpectedly seen or take them e q u a l l y i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In the second case, the ethnographer r e f l e c t s on whether the unexpected aspects are a c c i d e n t a l or e s s e n t i a l . The d i f f i c u l t y comes next; once they are judged e s s e n t i a l , the i n i t i a l p lanning f o r o b s e r v a t i o n should be changed. I t has to be expanded to cover the newly adopted aspects i n t o the r e p o r t . The expansion of the plann i n g , when i t i s r e l a t e d to the act of seeing, o f t e n demands a profound change i n the ethnographer h i m s e l f , i n the t e r r i t o r i e s which he considers to be " p e r s o n a l . " They may range from h i s b e l i e f , to the way of t h i n k i n g , to emotional o r i e n t a t i o n and even to p e r c e p t i o n . However, the experience of a n e c e s s i t y f o r personal change i s not unusual among i n s i g h t f u l and c o n s c i e n t i o u s f i e l d w o r k e r s . They o f t e n confess that the f i e l d experience i s somewhat psychotherapeutic. The ethnographer i s f o r c e d to face r e a l i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , confronts h i m s e l f . The change of the framework and p e r s o n a l i t y i s o f t e n f e l t by the ethnographer to be a f o r c e d process. The " f o r c e " comes from h i s un-readiness f o r the unexpected phenomenon. In my case, i t was the e f f e c t of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Before doing my f i e l d w o r k , I i n t e r p r e t e d i t mainly from a r e g u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view. But i n my f i e l d w o r k I a l s o experienced i t s e f f e c t s p h y s i c a l l y . I f my experience was induced by a " t r i c k , " the way the people c o n s t r u c t such a t r i c k should be comprehended. When the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t r i c k i s made c l e a r , i t i s no longer a t r i c k . I t means the l o g i c i s based on the method by which the people organize t h e i r thought and a c t i o n . Thus, Burridge i n s i s t s that the researcher should bridge h i s own s o c i e t y and h i s f i e l d . This means, more c o n c r e t e l y , that the researcher should be able to expand h i s scope i n order to cover both h i s f i e l d experience and h i s -35-audience. As we have accepted t h a t both the researcher and the people i n h i s f i e l d have t h e i r own paradigms, Burridge's p o i n t may be paraphrased as f o l l o w s : f i e l d w o r k demands a constant reframing of the researcher's paradigm through c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the paradigm of the people. S a r t r e , as a philosopher or an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t of h i s own s o c i e t y , g e n e r a l i z e d the meaning of the act of seeing. For S a r t r e , seeing others becomes p o s s i b l e i n the process of self-change. However, the act of seeing i s p r i m a r i l y an inner-paradigmatic e f f o r t , because one's mode of seeing i s based on one's paradigm. One sees what one wants to see. This i s the p r o j e c t i o n of s e l f to the world. This s i t u a t i o n i s p a r a d o x i c a l . However, S a r t r e says: The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l f n e s s ( S e l b s t h e i t ) , i n f a c t , i s that man i s always separated from what he i s by a l l the breadth of the being which he i s not. He makes h i m s e l f known to h i m s e l f from the other side of the world and he looks from the h o r i z o n toward h i m s e l f to recover h i s i n n e r being. ^3 Thus, w i t h i n the world, others appear as the d e n i a l of one's attempts at s e l f - p r o j e c t i o n on them. Through the acceptance of c o n f r o n t a t i o n , one reaches "otherness." This process i n e v i t a b l y r e q u i r e s the renewal of one's paradigm. Therefore, the i n i t i a l attempt at an inner-paradigmatic act of seeing turns i n t o an extra-paradigmatic act through the c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . -36-Because the d i a l e c t i c a l process between s e l f and others i s c o n t i n u a l , the person who i s engaged i n the act of reaching otherness operates on a developmental paradigm. His act of seeing i s an extra-paradigmatic attempt. His engagement w i t h otherness should be r e f e r r e d to i n terms of conscience, however i t may be " f e l t " by him as " c u r i o s i t y " i n i t s appearance here and now. I t may not be f e l t as a moral o b l i g a t i o n , because m o r a l i t y i s a paradigm, and because a moral attempt i s an act of keeping h i m s e l f w i t h i n t h i s present paradigm. However, " c u r i o s i t y " provides the e x p l o r a t i o n "momentum" f o r t h i s extra-paradigmatic tendency, and encourages beyond the present paradigm. To put i t i n another way: When the person i s engaged i n an extra-paradigmatic attempt at reaching otherness, he f e e l s curious about the world. Kuhn's c r i t i c i s m of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , p a r t i c u l a r -l y of psychology, i s concentrated on the l a c k of an e x t r a -paradigmatic "momentum." As f a r as psychology i s concerned, he i s r i g h t , because the p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach i s h e a v i l y c o n s t r a i n e d by i t s moral engagement i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n of what i s b e l i e v e d to be "normal." Moreover, "normal" has not yet been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as an epistemology. The present d e f i n i t i o n (of no r m a l i t y ) remains simply the non-manifestation of what are regarded "abnormal" symptoms. The c e n t r a l problem i s the l a c k of d i a l e c t i c . The moral m i s s i o n of psychology -3 7-makes i t d i f f i c u l t to develop a healt h y and s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t y . In other words, psychology has not yet formed the consensus necessary f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e . M o r a l i t y cannot be e m p i r i c a l , by d e f i n i t i o n . I t has to stand beyond experience, although i t may be p r o j e c t e d on experience. By the same token, when the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t f a i l s i n h i s attempt at extra-paradigmatic engagement, he may be only p r o j e c t i n g h i s own paradigm onto the people i n h i s f i e l d . In t h i s case, he i s not "r e a c h i n g " them. Or, he may simply s h i f t from h i s own paradigm to that of the people. In t h i s case, he reaches them, but lo s e s h i s audience. He i s no longer an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , but an immigrant. Rephrasing i n terms of the paradigm of the importance of p r e p a r a t i o n before f i e l d w o r k , the p r e p a r a t i o n c l a r i f i e s the epistemology of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t . I t i s the s t a r t i n g p o i n t , the element of t h e s i s i n the d i a l e c t i c a l process which he i s about to begin* The c l e a r n o t i o n of h i s o r i g i n a l epistemology enables him to separate h i s p e r c e p t i o n from t h a t of the people i n h i s f i e l d . This step i s important, because, as h i s d i a l e c t i c grows, he o f t e n loses access to the o r i g i n a l p e r c e p t i o n . I f h i s goal i s to reach the epistemology of the people i n the f i e l d , h i s o r i g i n a l p e r c e p t i o n may be f o r g o t t e n . However, h i s g o a l , as he i s an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , i s to r e p o r t -38-i n f o r m a t i o n about the people captured through h i s own pe r c e p t i o n . The paradigm of the people has to be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from that of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t . For reaching otherness, a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have learned to take advantage of p o s i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between themselves and peoples i n t h e i r f i e l d s . In the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f i e l d , normally the paradigm of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t and that of the people are d i f f e r e n t . When he i n t e n d s , e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y or i n t u i t i v e l y , to reach otherness, the degree of c o n f r o n t a t i o n i s g reat. Acceptance of the c o n f r o n t a t i o n leads him to the disentanglement of the paradigm of the people. The same c o n d i t i o n s should apply to the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t who deals w i t h an " e x o t i c " group i n h i s own s o c i e t y . Although the study of a group i n the same s o c i e t y i s commonly considered to be the t e r r i t o r y of s o c i o l o g i s t s , the l o c a l and e x o t i c group should a l s o be subject to a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The e x o t i c appearance may be an i n d i c a t i o n of i t s having i t s own paradigm. The example may be e t h n i c communities l o c a l to the modern s o c i e t y , and r e l i g i o u s c u l t s such as SMBK i n v o l v e d i n a m y s t i c a l p r a c t i s e which i s incomprehensible to the main body of the people of the same s o c i e t y . When the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i s a l i e n to the paradigm of the group, there i s an obvious gap between h i m s e l f and the people of the group, a s i t u a t i o n which n e c e s s i t a t e s h i s extra-paradigmatic engagement. Ethnomethod-ology i n s o c i o l o g y s t a r t e d as an attempt at c r e a t i n g anthro-pology i n the same s o c i e t y . However, i t seems to have f a i l e d i n the c l e a r p o s i t i o n i n g of the ethnomethodologist i n r e l a t i o n to the people. For s o c i o l o g i s t s , i n c l u d i n g ethno-methodologists, the people who are subject to a s o c i o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n may appear too conv e n t i o n a l to r e f l e c t on the p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between the way s o c i o l o g i s t s see the world and the way they consider i t . As a r e s u l t , some s o c i o -l o g i s t s simply use the people as an example to i l l u s t r a t e the s o c i o l o g i s t s ' own epistemologies. When the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i s trapped i n t h i s problem i n a t r a d i t i o n a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f i e l d , he may not be able to r e p o r t i t , because the gap between the two paradigms ( h i s and of h i s f i e l d ) i s o f t e n too wide not to be n o t i c e d , although he cannot always c l a r i f y the nature of the problem. Therefore, the f a c t that I , being a Japanese, s t u d i e d a Japanese r e l i g i o u s movement does not jeopardize my sta t u s as an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t . However, because I chose Japan as my f i e l d , I s e l e c t e d a r e l i g i o u s movement which had an ela b o r a t e d o c t r i n e . Because t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s movement, u n l i k e r e l i g i o n s i n a v i l l a g e , begins w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of d o c t r i n e by a s p e c i f i c person, the paradigm i s expressed i n the d o c t r i n e . When the movement has an el a b o r a t e d o c t r i n e and when the founder, the only c o n s t r u c t o r of the d o c t r i n e , i s - 4 0 -dead, the paradigm may be considered to be complete. Where the paradigm of the movement i s expressed i n i t s own way, the p r o j e c t i o n of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ' s own paradigm should be prevented. In the SMBK case, the cosmology which expresses the paradigm c o n s i s t s of a unique set of vocabulary and expressions. In my f i e l d w o r k , I f i r s t t r i e d to master t h i s SMBK r h e t o r i c . Then, I a p p l i e d i t to my qu e s t i o n i n g and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the b e l i e v e r s . Because I was t h i n k i n g i n "standard"Japanese, I was f u n c t i o n i n g i n a context of constant t r a n s l a t i o n from one to the other. Furthermore, SMBK cosmology i s a body of metaphor expressed i n imagery.. Therefore, i t was e s s e n t i a l . t o und erstand the SMBK image of the cosmos. Only w i t h t h i s image i n mind, could communication i n the SMBK r h e t o r i c became p o s s i b l e Thus, according to the d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the researcher and h i s f i e l d , the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the observed phenomena may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t o two b a s i c types: e x p l a n a t i o n and e x p l i c a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , e x p l a n a t i o n i s to c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among concepts. This process presupposes that the researcher and the people i n h i s f i e l d share the same set of concepts. However, e x p l i c a t i o n i s to e s t a b l i s h concepts i n r e l a t i o n to each other. Therefore, e x p l i c a t i o n c ontains two processes: c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and ex p l a n a t i o n . As Burridge i n d i c a t e s i n the previous q u o t a t i o n , - 4 1 -these two processes are i n s e p a r a b l e ; as the researcher c o n c e p t u a l i z e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the concepts become c l e a r . A l s o , as the r e l a t i o n s h i p s become c l e a r , the nature of concepts become c l e a r . This simultaneous process of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n of the observed phenomena i s confusing and annoying. I t i s not a c l e a r - c u t process, but i s a d i a l e c t i c a l one. In other words, i n the context, e x p l i c a t i o n i s a process of c o n s t r u c t i n g a s y n t h e s i s between the paradigm of the people i n the f i e l d and t h a t of the researcher. The problems which have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c r i t i c i z e d as p o s i t i v i s t mainly r e f e r to the l a c k of concep-t u a l i z a t i o n . In t h i s case, the researcher's own concepts are p r o j e c t e d to the f i e l d . The f a l s e assumption i s that ( h i s ) concepts are u n i v e r s a l . This f a l s e assumption i s e a s i l y f o l l o w e d by another assumption that f i e l d w o r k could and should be done e x a c t l y as i t has been planned i n h i s pr o p o s a l . This c o n d i t i o n i s j u s t i f i a b l e only when there i s no element of "otherness" i n h i s f i e l d . Some phenomenologists go to another extreme. They b e l i e v e t h a t the researcher should not have any p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s before he goes i n t o the f i e l d . This i s not p o s s i b l e , because he i s not u s u a l l y aware whether or not he has any presuppo-s i t i o n s . They become c l e a r to him only through the epistemo-- 4 2 -l o g i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . Before the c o n f r o n t a t i o n the " p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s " are n a t u r a l components of h i s own epistemology. I t i s h i s way of seeing the world. Or more p r e c i s e l y , i t i s the way the world i s seen by him. When he o b j e c t i f i e s h i s own way of seeing the world through the c o n f r o n t a t i o n , he becomes aware that h i s epistemology c o n s i s t s of " p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . " In other words, the paradigm of the people of the c u l t u r e under study i s capturable through the epistemology of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , but i s only a c c u r a t e l y communicable through the negation of the l a t t e r by the former. In SMBK, as I have mentioned, a s i m i l a r d i a l e c t i c a l process of s e l f and others i s o f f e r e d i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . However, i n SMBK, the d i a l e c t i c i s p o s s i b l e only on a c o l l e c t i v e b a s i s , and converges i n t o cosmology, i n s t e a d of expanding i t . Success or f a i l u r e i n f i e l d w o r k depends on three major f a c t o r s : p r o j e c t a b i l i t y , (entwurf or p r o j e c t i o n ) pro j e c t i . b i l i t y (geworf e n h e i t , or thrownness) and i n t e l l i g i -b i l i t y . P r o j e c t a b i l i t y i n d i c a t e s the researcher's o r i g i n a l p l a n f o r f i e l d w o r k , that i s , how h i s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n of knowing people i s systematized i n concrete planning^.and h i s readiness to pursue i t . P r o j e c t i b i l i t y i n d i c a t e s how h i s plan i s r e c e i v e d by the people i n h i s f i e l d . I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y i n d i c a t e s how the f i e l d i s made i n t e l l i g i b l e to the researcher. In my f i e l d w o r k , my o r i g i n a l plan was to attend the three-day - 4 3 -l e c t u r e sessions to l e a r n the SMBK d o c t r i n e , to experience the r i t u a l through p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n , and to i n t e r v i e w b e l i e v e r s to f i n d out the things I could not see. Before e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , I v i s i t e d one of the SMBK l o c a l c e n t r e s , which I had a r b i t r a r i l y chosen, because I wanted t o know the general r e a c t i o n when b e l i e v e r s r e c e i v e a newcomer. Subsequently, I went to the Main Headquarters, and asked f o r permission f o r my resea r c h . I was admitted to a p a r t i c u l a r branch l o c a t e d i n Koganei. L a t e r , I learned that t h i s branch was one of the o l d e s t , and i t s b e l i e v e r s were known to be open and f r i e n d l y . Because of the Main Head-qua r t e r s ' permission, the Head of the Koganei l o c a l centre was coo p e r a t i v e . The way I was r e c e i v e d at t h i s centre.by r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s f o r the f i r s t time was not n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t from the way I was r e c e i v e d at the centre which I had been to before my v i s i t to the Main Headquarters. This i n d i c a t e d to me that my presence as a p a r t i c i p a n t observer was not p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b i n g to r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . L a t e r I learned the reason: i n SMBK, p u r i t y i n m o t i v a t i o n f o r j o i n i n g the movement i s not important. Chances given by the d i v i n i t y vary. One's a t t e n d i n g meetings at the l o c a l centre counts. Moreover, everyone at the elementai'y l e v e l i s considered to be d e f i l e d , and h i s m o t i v a t i o n cannot be f r e e from the def i l e m e n t . There-f o r e , b e l i e v e r s were not d i s t u r b e d by the reason f o r my -44-presence. I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted among s o c i a l ' s c i e n t i s t s t hat the r e l i a b i l i t y of the c o l l e c t e d data depends on how the f i e l d has been made i n t e l l i g i b l e to the researcher. Therefore, a researcher i s u s u a l l y concerned about the p r o j e c t a b i l i t y of h i s f i e l d w o r k p l a n s , and o f t e n e l a b o r a t e s on them. However, the i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y of h i s work depends even more.heavily on p r o j e c t i b i l i t y , the way he i s i n the f i e l d , and the way he i s r e c e i v e d by the people. Although t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s a b s o l u t e l y important, s t r a n g e l y enough i t i s o f t e n overlooked. In my experience, the i n t e r v i e w was the f i e l d method which was most c o n s t r a i n e d by my appearance. I i n t e r v i e w e d about t h i r t y b e l i e v e r s at the Koganei l o c a l centre at the beginning of my f i e l d w o r k . I asked about the things I could not observe i n the l o c a l c e n t r e . They concerned mainly the meaning of v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , and how b e l i e v e r s behaved o u t s i d e the l o c a l c e n tre. Asking questions about them, I r e a l i z e d that the way b e l i e v e r s answered was c o n s t r a i n e d by my age and sex. The b e l i e v e r s of my age and sex were open and w i l l i n g to t e l l me about t h e i r l i v e s , whereas those who were not remained f o r m a l , and o f t e n answered i n standard d o c t r i n a l statements which reminded me of l e c t u r e s i n the three-day elementary s e s s i o n . Because the b e l i e v e r s I c o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y r e l a t e to were apparently b i a s e d , I decided to use a s t a t i s t i c a l survey i n order to g a i n - 4 5 -more general i n f o r m a t i o n . However, the qu e s t i o n n a i r e was not designed to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n which went beyond or r e f u t e d the answers given i n i n t e r v i e w s . Instead, the questions i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were based on the answers given i n i n t e r -views i n order to g e n e r a l i z e them. A l s o , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was made a f t e r I was exposed to the content of the three-day l e c t u r e sessions at a l l three l e v e l s . The questions were phrased i n the SMBK vocabulary and expressions. The t o t a l number of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d was 2500, and 583 were returned. Most of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d through the Main Headquarters, because the l o c a l centres were di s p e r s e d a l l over Japan. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were handed to the Heads of the l o c a l centre at the monthly c l e r i c a l meeting from one of the D i r e c t o r s w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n . However, on agreement w i t h the D i r e c t o r , I p e r s o n a l l y d e a l t w i t h f o u r l o c a l centres i n Tokyo, i n order to compare d i f f e r e n c e s i n response. I brought the qu e s t i o n n a i r e s to three l o c a l c e n t r e s , and l e f t them w i t h boxes f o r c o l l e c t i o n . I stayed at the Koganei l o c a l centre most of the time, and d i s t r i b u t e d the qu e s t i o n n a i r e s d i r e c t l y t o the b e l i e v e r s . A s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e was n o t i c e d i n response between those which I p e r s o n a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d ( t h e r e f o r e , through no a u t h o r i t y ) and the r e s t which were d i s t r i b u t e d through the Main headquarters ( t h e r e f o r e , through -46-an a u t h o r i t y ) . Those through the Main Headquarters tended to concentrate on m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e type questions, and ignored the questions which requested statement of o p i n i o n s . A p p l i c a t i o n of f i e l d methods to concrete s i t u a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e s a constant decision-making process i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h v a l i d and i n v a l i d methods i n r e l a t i o n to the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained. Through constant e v a l u a t i o n , the f i e l d becomes t a n g i b l e to the r e s e a r c h e r , because both p r o j e c -t a b i l i t y (the f i e l d methods he has a p p l i e d ) and p r o j e c t i b i l i t y (the v a l i d i t y of h i s methods judged on the b a s i s of the response from the subjects to them) become i n t e l l i g i b l e to him. This process i s d i a l e c t i c a l as I have p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. The data i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s have been c o l l e c t e d and e x p l i c a t e d based on the epistemology d e s c r i b e d above. I hope that my d e s c r i p t i o n presents to my readers a chance to share an i n s i g h t i n t o a r e l i g i o u s movement i n the concrete example taken from SMBK. NOTES 1979. ) _A l i s t of examples of r e l i g i o u s movements (M. Shimizu. Soka Gakkai N i c h i r e n - s h u g i Butsuryu-ko Honmon Butsuryu-ko Hoshi K a i Bussho Gonen K a i Myochi K a i Reiyu K a i Kodo Kyodan Myodo K a i Rissho Kosei K a i Shinnyo En . Benten Shu Gedatsu K a i M i n o r i K a i Komyo Kyodan Seicho no Ie Omoto Meshia Kyo Sekai Kyusei Kyo Sukui no H i k a r i Kyodan Konko Kyo T e n r i Kyo Honbushin Honmichi Tensho K o t a i J i n g u Kyo P e r f e c t L i b e r t y Kyodan J i s s e n R i n r i Kosei K a i * SMBK belongs to the group of r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s which d e r i v e d from the Sekai Meshia Kyo (the World Messianic R e l i g i o u s A s s o c i a t i o n ) . This group i s known as o-hikari-sama (the l i g h t w o rshippers), and i s i n v o l v e d i n c u r i n g a v a r i e t y of diseases through concrete r i t u a l means which are u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e d from t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l i n g p r a c t i c e s before modernization (1868). SMBK i s a t y p i c a l example of t h i s group, and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by involvement i n s p i r i t possession and the performance of a p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l f o r c u r i n g . _48_ C. Nakane, 1970. See the "Conclusion." Although Nakane i n s i s t s that t h i s s o c i a l system could not be democratic, what i s democratic i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l . However, her suggestion of the s o c i a l discrepancy i s v a l i d . More d i s c u s s i o n on Nakane's theory w i l l be found i n Chapter I I I . "'Ideology does t h i s because i t i s an ex p r e s s i o n of paradigm, and because i t enforces a p a r t i c u l a r epistemology. 4 C. Weizsacker, 1964. 5T. Kuhn, 1962, p. 3. 6 I b i d . , pp. 44-45. ^ I b i d . , p. 45. 8G.' Geertz, 1973, p. 90. 9 In the footnote of S u i c i d e , Durkheim adds the f o u r t h category of s u i c i d e , c a l l e d a f a t a l i s t i c one, without g i v i n g f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . A p o s s i b l e reason f o r t h i s a d d i t i o n i s that f a t a l i s m i s a form of submission and does not s u i t h i s other c a t e g o r i z a t i o n by the forms of commitment. I t i s a c t i v e l y i n t e n t i o n a l , however, submission may be passive and s i t u a t i o n a l . I t i s the b a s i c a t t i t u d e of " r i t u a l man" I w i l l d i s c u s s i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . ± u C l a u d e L e v i - S t r a u s s , 1963, p. 203. 1 ]-Emile Durkheim, 1953, p. 93. ^ " 2 I b i d . , p . 93 . 1 3 I b i d . , p. 93. 1 4 I b i d . , p. 93. -49-1 5 I b i d . , p. 93. 1 6 K a r l Marx, 1970, p. 131. 1 7Anthony Wallace, 1966, p. 10. ^ I b i d . , p. 16 . 19 I b i d . , p. 13. 70 V i c t o r Turner, 1969, Chapter 3, pp. 94-130. 2 1 B e n d i x , 1968, p. 498. 2 2K. B u r r i d g e , 1981, p. 99. 2 3 J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , 1943(1972), p. 17. 24 "Reaching otherness" has been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by Burridge as the t h e s i s of f i e l d w o r k . See h i s Encountering  A b o r i g i n e s , 1973, pp. 6-37. CHAPTER I I SMBK AS A RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT -51-SOCIO-HISTORICAL BACKGROUND I t was suggested i n Chapter I that r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e may form an a n t i t h e s i s to the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n the wider s o c i e t y . The question which should f o l l o w t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s t h i s : What i s the nov e l t y of the r e l i g i o u s movement i n r e l a t i o n to the wider s o c i e t y ? The answer r e q u i r e s the p o s i t i o n i n g of the p a r t i c u l a r movement i n the context of the s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of the wider s o c i e t y , and a l s o the p o s i t i o n i n g of the movement i n r e l a t i o n to other r e l i g i o u s movements i n the same s o c i e t y . The b r i e f answer f o r SMBK i s t h i s : In Japanese s o c i e t y , throughout the modernization process, r e l i g i o u s movements occupied a n t i t h e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s to the n a t i o n a l government. Modernization i n Japan has been a n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t , and has been l e d by the n a t i o n a l govern-ment. The major theme of modernization i s to form a synt h e s i s between t r a d i t i o n and W e s t e r n i z a t i o n . Various groups besides the government have been engaged i n t h i s attempt, i n c l u d i n g both s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s movements. SMBK i s one of the n a t u r a l i s t - n a t i o n a l i s t r e v i v a l s which took place a f t e r World War I I . SMBK's b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n i s t y p i c a l l y seen i n i t s p r a c t i c e of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . In the f i r s t t w o -thirds of the modern age, from the -52-M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n (1868) to the end of World War I I (1945), State Shinto occupied the p o s i t i o n of the n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n of Japan, and other r e l i g i o n s were g e n e r a l l y considered 1 u n d e s i r a b l e . According to Ken A r a i , the Japanese government, on the s u r f a c e , advocated the se p a r a t i o n of "church" and S t a t e , and freedom of b e l i e f was assured i n the M e i j i C o n s t i -t u t i o n (1889). However, A r a i a l s o emphasizes that the C o n s t i t u t i o n f o l l o w e d v a r i o u s u n s u c c e s s f u l attempts to make Shinto the o f f i c i a l State r e l i g i o n , and even a f t e r promul-g a t i o n of the C o n s t i t u t i o n Shinto was t r e a t e d i n an excep-t i o n a l manner. I t was given the p o s i t i o n of the de f a c t o n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n through the Home M i n i s t r y ' s c o n s o l i d a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Shinto s h r i n e s . That i s to say, Shinto was considered to be a n o n - r e l i g i o n and thus el e v a t e d above any r e l i g i o n . Consequently, Shinto d o c t r i n e would serve to j u s t i f y the power of the Emperor through i t s mythology of K o j i k i (The Record of Ancient Ways) and Nihonshoki (The  Ch r o n i c l e s of Japan), to moralise the people through the Im p e r i a l R e s c r i p t on Education (1890), and to u n i t e the n a t i o n 2 under k o k u t a i . Thus, the s o - c a l l e d State Shinto regime was e s t a b l i s h e d . And sin c e Shinto was adopted as the r u l i n g i deology to i n t e g r a t e the Japanese i n t o a n a t i o n - s t a t e , other forms of r e l i g i o n came to be considered a n t i - n a t i o n a l , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r d o c t r i n a l content. -53-Concerning t h e i r d o c t r i n a l content, Tsushima et a l , d i s c e r n e d a common o r i e n t a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s movements centered around what they d e f i n e as a " v i t a l i s t i c conception of s a l v a t i o n " which: ... regards the cosmos as a l i v i n g body or the O r i g i n a l L i f e from which a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s emanate, and advocates the f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n of the growth and e f f l o r e s c e n c e of man's l i f e through harmony w i t h the O r i g i n a l L i f e . I t i s f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s e d by: ... an idea of a primary r e l i g i o u s Being which bears and nurtures a l l t h i n g s , confidence i n the inherent goodness of the world, e x h o r t a t i o n to thank the d e i t y f o r i t s b e n e f i c i a l bestowal of l i f e f o r c e , and an o p t i m i s t i c view of s a l v a t i o n which i s e a s i l y a t t a i n a b l e i n t h i s world. They conclude that the "concept of w o r l d l y b e n e f i t and s a l v a t i o n were conjoined without c o n t r a d i c t i o n , " because the founders d e r i v e d most of t h e i r teachings from f o l k r e l i g i o n s , and were t h e r e f o r e not d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by e s t a b l i s h e d 6 r e l i g i o n s which uphold o t h e r - w o r l d l y o r i e n t a t i o n : I t was i n the a c t i v i t i e s of f o l k r e l i g i o n l e d by s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l and shamanistic r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i t i o n e r s that the founders acquired t h e i r r e l i g i o u s experiences and deepened t h e i r f a i t h . Most of the teachings and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l devices of the New R e l i g i o n s 7 can be regarded as the developed form of the l o o s e l y - o r g a n i z e d symbolism and the a s s o c i a t i o n s (ko) of f o l k r e l i g i o n . ^ In t h e i r d o c t r i n e , such r e l i g i o u s movements o f f e r e d l i t t l e d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to the government. A r a i , f o r example, has w r i t t e n : ... r e l i g i o u s r e s i s t a n c e a g a i n s t the State was not common at a l l . I t r a r e l y happened that State p o l i c y was c r i t i c i z e d based on some r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e or i d e a . (And even i n the case where i t d i d happen) such r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s never gained a b a s i s f o r a wide s o c i a l movement.^ Nonetheless, the decade f o l l o w i n g 1935 was an age of per-s e c u t i o n f o r r e l i g i o u s movements. Omoto Kyo was suppressed f o r the second time i n 1935, f o l l o w e d by the i l l e g a l i s a t i o n of Hito-no-michi Kyodan i n 1936, Hon-michi i n 1938, and Soka Kyoiku Gakkai ( l a t e r Soka Gakkai) i n 1943. As A r a i i n d i c a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y the lese-majeste a f f a i r of Hito-no-michi Kyodan re v e a l e d the i n t e n t i o n of the government to e l i m i n a t e r e l i g i o u s " h e r e s i e s , " because t h i s r e l i g i o u s group had adapted w e l l to the State p o l i c y by even using the I m p e r i a l R e s c r i p t on Education as the c e n t r a l theme of i t s d o c t r i n e . However, i n 1945, w i t h the end of the War, the s i t u a t i o n was to change d r a s t i c a l l y . On J u l y 26, 1945, the A l l i e d Powers agreed on the Postdam D e c l a r a t i o n and on August 14th, the Japanese government submitted to i t . The D e c l a r a t i o n i t s e l f c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t e e n items, i n c l u d i n g a 6th item on e l i m i n a t i n g m i l i t a r i s m and a 9th item on e s t a b l i s h i n g and s o l i d i f y i n g a democracy based on freedom of b e l i e f . And -55-indeed, i n the s i x years of A l l i e d occupation which were to f o l l o w , the A l l i e d powers' main o b j e c t i v e s were concentrated on d e - m i l i t a r i s a t i o n and d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n . ^ What d i d t h i s mean f o r State Shinto? In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t must be r e c a l l e d t h a t , The second World War was not only a t o t a l m i l i t a r y war but a l s o an i d e o l o g i c a l war. The A l l i e d Powers, advocating democracy, set as t a r g e t s the t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m of Japan, Germany and I t a l y . Therefore, State Shinto was recognised as a l e a d i n g ideology of t o t a l i -t a r i a n i s m p a r a l l e l to the Naziism of Germany and the Fascism of I t a l y . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s , the p o l i c y of the a b o l i t i o n of State Shinto was already agreed by the A l l i e d Powers, even before the end of the War. The I n t e r - D i v i s i o n a l Area Committee on the Far East decided i n 1944, one and a h a l f years before the end of the War, that State Shinto should be a b o l i s h e d and that f o r t h i s purpose i t should be c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from other forms of Shinto c a t e g o r i z e d under the term ko-13 Shinto . W i t h i n a year of the occupation, t h i s p o l i c y was e n e r g e t i c a l l y a p p l i e d through v a r i o u s orders i n c l u d i n g the "Removal of R e s t r i c t i o n s on P o l i t i c a l , C i v i l and R e l i g i o u s L i b e r t i e s " (October 4 t h , 1945) and the " A b o l i t i o n of Govern-mental Sponsorship, Support, P e r p e t u a t i o n , C o n t r o l and 14 Dissem i n a t i o n of State S h i n t o " (December 15th, 1945). Thus, the p o s i t i o n of Shinto was reversed from nationwide reverence - 5 6 -to sudden condemnation. F o l l o w i n g the ten years of the post-War c o n f u s i o n , Japanese s o c i e t y entered an age of "high economic growth." Between 1959 and 1 9 7 4 , the L o r d - s a v i o r Okada, the founder of SMBK, was engaged i n h i s m i s s i o n . Some s t a t i s t i c a l surveys done between 1958 and 1 973 overlap by a year w i t h the p e r i o d of Okada's mission. The surveys show that the Japanese g e n e r a l l y r e t a i n e d t h e i r respect f o r r e l i g i o n , but resigned from r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . According to the N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Japanese: No. 3 , between 1958 and 1 9 7 3 , the number of 15 b e l i e v e r s i n (some) r e l i g i o n kept d e c l i n i n g : TABLE 1: RELIGIONS IN JAPAN 1958 1963 1968 1973 B e l i e v e i n some r e l i g i o n 35% 31 30 25 B e l i e v e i n : Shintoism 3% 2 3 2 Buddhism 24% 23 23 18 C h r i s t i a n i t y 1% 1 1 1 A New R e l i g i o n 2% 1 1 1 Not c l e a r 5% 4 2 3 Do not b e l i e v e i n any r e l i g i o n 65% 69 70 75 TOTAL 100% 100 100 100 (The 67o who d i d not answer the pool are not included.) ( N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Japanese: No. 3)15 The f o l l o w i n g graph shows the breakdown by age, f o r 1959 and 1 9 7 3 : GRAPH 1: R e l i g i o u s B e l i e v e r s According to Age (N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Japanese: No. 3) 16 % of b e l i e v e r s 2 0 :-S 30 3 F * > 4 ? » S 5 6 0 f I I i ! ! ' J i 24- 2 9 3 4 3 9 44- 4 9 5 4 S3 Age Exp l a n a t i o n : This graph shows that the o l d e r generation i s more r e l i g i o u s except f o r a s l i g h t i n c o n s i s t e n c y between 55 and 59 years of age. But i n the 15 years between the two l i n e s on the graph, the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n l o s t more b e l i e v e r s than the younger gener a t i o n when the same age groups are compared. F u r t h e r , i n order to i n d i c a t e the change i n 15 years of people born i n the same year, they are j o i n e d by dotted l i n e s . I f a dotted l i n e goes up (towards the r i g h t ) , the people became more r e l i g i o u s as they aged; i f the l i n e remains h o r i z o n t a l , they d i d not change. The dotted l i n e s between the two d i s t r i b u t i o n s show tha t there was a s l i g h t i n c l i n a t i o n towards becoming more r e l i g i o u s w i t h age, but the incr e a s e remained s m a l l . -58-In other words, the d e c l i n e i n r e l i g i o n f o l l o w e d the g e n e r a t i o n a l change, and was not simply a temporary change brought about by a sudden increase i n the number of non-r e l i g i o u s people. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the same survey reported that when the b e l i e v e r s were asked to d e s c r i b e the r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s they were p r e s e n t l y engaged i n , 1370 of the samples ( h a l f of 18 the number of b e l i e v e r s ) , reported no r e a l a c t i v i t i e s . And f i n a l l y , though i t would be easy to conclude from these tendencies that the Japanese are becoming l e s s and l e s s r e l i g i o u s , up to 847o of the same samples were e i t h e r b e l i e v e r s or they respected a " r e l i g i o u s mind": TABLE 2: Importance of R e l i g i o u s Mind B e l i e v e r s Non-believers R e l i g i o u s Mind i s < — — — Important Not Other/No Important Answer T o t a l (1958) 35% 47% 10% 8% 100% (1963) 31% 53% 9% 7% 100% (1968) 30% 53% 10% 7% 100% (19 73) 25% 52% 12% 11% 100% ( N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Japanese: No. 3 ) i y The gap between a r e l i g i o u s sentiment and a re l u c t a n c e to be i n v o l v e d i n r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i n r e a l i t y or even to i d e n t i f y o n e s e l f w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r group i s one -59-b a s i c c o n d i t i o n f o r r e l i g i o u s movements today. I f r e l i g i o n adds something to the l i f e of an unfortunate i n d i v i d u a l , i t i s good, but i f i t demands any s a c r i f i c e i n c l u d i n g a c o n t r i -b u t i o n i n terms of time and/or money, i t should be avoided. This a t t i t u d e i s o f t e n expressed to the b e l i e v e r engaged i n recruitment v i a the t y p i c a l c y n i c a l remark: " ( U n l i k e you) we are too poor to a f f o r d to be i n v o l v e d i n r e l i g i o n , " i n s p i t e of the f a c t that the general p u b l i c considers that b e l i e v e r s are poor, i n both e d u c a t i o n a l and economic senses. Thus, r e l i g i o n has a l a r g e r e s e r v o i r of sympathizers to a t t r a c t . However, a t t r a c t i o n does not e a s i l y a c t i v a t e them i n t o a passionate involvement. To the Japanese who have a sentiment against r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , i f not ag a i n s t r e l i g i o n i t s e l f , r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s are not d e s i r a b l e , because the movements are g e n e r a l l y o r i e n t e d towards a c t i o n . The success or f a i l u r e of the r e c r u i t e r depends on how c o n v i n c i n g l y he can present the argument that respect f o r r e l i g i o n should be expressed i n a c t i o n , and that the a c t i o n i s a segment of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In t h i s r e s p e c t , r e l i g i o u s movements i n v o l v e d i n h e a l i n g have an advantage because they can o f f e r not only the theory ( d o c t r i n e ) to e x p l a i n why a c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l , but a l s o the method ( h e a l i n g r i t u a l ) to show how the theory can be and should be p r a c t i s e d . Through the h e a l i n g r i t u a l , movements -60-could keep p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r s passive as c l i e n t s f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d of time. However, t h e i r passive a t t r a c t i o n has to be converted to an a c t i v e engagement. In SMBK, t h i s t u r n i n g p o i n t i s present i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . The s h i f t from the passive r o l e to the a c t i v e r o l e i n t h i s r i t u a l leads the performer to the change. EMERGENCE OF SMBK I t was durin g the age of "high economic growth" that some t r a d i t i o n a l i s t movements emerged and questioned the meaning and r e a l i t y of democracy. SMBK was one of these t r a d i t i o n a l i s t movements. The s o c i a l background f o r t h e i r emergence was the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the Japanese economy. Donald Hellmann e x p l a i n s the socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s age as f o l l o w s : Because Japan's remarkable economic growth has been t i e d so c l o s e l y to expanding i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , the need to mai n t a i n p o s i t i v e connections w i t h the g l o b a l economy provides an important c o n s t r a i n t on any autonomous m i l i t a r y or economic a c t i o n . Although Japan's dependence on imports (7-9 percent of GNP) i s w e l l below that of almost a l l West European nations and a s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t has been made to d i v e r s i f y the sources of imports, the country s t i l l r e l i e s h e a v i l y on ou t s i d e s u p p l i e s of b a s i c raw m a t e r i a l s such as o i l and i r o n ore. S i m i l a r l y , Japan i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y l e s s dependent on exports (8-9 percent of GNP) than any other country except the U n i t e d ' S t a t e s , but to s u s t a i n the momentum of economic growth sought by the Japanese government, i t w i l l be necessary to expand exports s t e a d i l y (at roughly 16 percent per annum) and to take a p r o g r e s s i v e l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l world trade. These goals can be reached only by c a r e f u l l y n u r t u r i n g economic and p o l i t i c a l t i e s w i t h the United States i n p a r t i c u l a r and a l l advanced i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s g e n e r a l l y . 0 I n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , t h i s time under a democratic o p e r a t i o n , again created the n e c e s s i t y of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i y -62-f o r the Japanese. The establishment of n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y had been one of the c o n s i s t e n t themes f o r modernization i n order to keep Japan an independent and i n t e g r a t e d country. Before the end of World War I I , State Shinto served t h i s purpose, and w e s t e r n i z a t i o n was d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d to encompass only the adoption of technology. However, a f t e r the end of the War, modernization changed i t s meaning to de m o c r a t i z a t i o n ; t r a d i t i o n was s a c r i f i c e d . Numerous books were published to di s c u s s who the Japanese a c t u a l l y are ( n i h o n - j i n r o n ) . Popular s u b j e c t s f o r d i s c u s s i o n were the Japanese ethos, n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t y p i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y types, s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between Japanese and Americans. The centre of a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d from Europe to the United States of America, because i t l e d the post-War d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of Japan. SMBK's c l a i m a g a i n s t democracy as an imported f o r e i g n system was most s t r o n g l y d i r e c t e d towards such s o c i a l f a i l u r e s as i n d u s t r i a l p o l l u t i o n and the d e s t r u c t i o n of nature caused by hasty development. SMBK a l s o objected to the over-use of medicines and r a p i d growth of the medical i n d u s t r y . When Okada f i r s t p u b l i c i z e d h i s o b j e c t i o n s , these i s s u e s h a r d l y a t t r a c t e d people's a t t e n t i o n . However, by the time of h i s death, they had become major s o c i a l problems. -63-Okada had a d o c t r i n a l b a s i s f o r making h i s o b j e c t i o n s : the SMBK d o c t r i n e i s based on n a t u r a l i s m , which demands a n a t u r a l l i f e and a n a t u r a l death. Although on the surface i t may appear to promote a cure from diseases i n a way s i m i l a r to that used by the medical s c i e n c e s , SMBK does not f i g h t a g a i n s t death. I t f i g h t s a g a i n s t unnatural events. These i n c l u d e an unhealthy s t a t e of body and mind, and death from unnatural causes. Because the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s considered to keep beings ( i n c l u d i n g human beings) i n the n a t u r a l s t a t e , the SMBK movement i s b u i l t on t h i s r i t u a l . Thus, Okada o f f e r e d not only a theory of e x p l a n a t i o n but a l s o a method f o r d e a l i n g w i t h problems on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . In the SMBK d o c t r i n e , the n o t i o n of the Japanese as su p e r i o r to other n a t i o n s , which had been once l o s t , was r e t a i n e d . According to the SMBK d o c t r i n e , the e x i s t i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n s i n the world were o r i g i n a l l y created by the Japanese. The e a r l i e s t human beings were born i n Japan. They were peoples d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n f i v e c o l o u r s , and were di s p e r s e d a l l over the world at the time of a n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r . In order to reorganize these peoples, s i x t e e n p r i n c e s of Japan went on d i v i n e missions. The pr i n c e s d i v i d e d the world i n t o s i x t e e n kingdoms. Thus, the SMBK s e a l today, which i s shaped i n the form of a chrysanthenum, has s i x t e e n p e t a l s . SMBK -64-claims that the Japanese have been appointed by d i v i n i t i e s to lead the world since t h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l time of the s i x t e e n p r i n c e s . DIAGRAM 5: D i v i n e Seal of SMBK 2 1 -65-The SMBK founder's n a t u r a l i s t - n a t i o n a l i s t o r i e n -t a t i o n has been f o l l o w e d by the second l e a d e r . Table 3 shows the r e a c t i o n of SMBK b e l i e v e r s ( i n 1 9 8 0 ) to the general s o c i a l tendency i n post-War Japan: only about 1 7 o of the respondents to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e l i e v e d that post-War Japanese s o c i e t y i s s u c c e s s f u l i n democracy, but t h a t SMBK d o c t r i n e i s supportive and would ensure i t s success. (Category 3 ) . In c o n t r a s t , about 4 0 7 o consider that the Post-War Japan has gone aga i n s t the d i v i n e teaching. (Category 1 and 2 ) . However, 1 7 7 . b e l i e v e t h a t the SMBK d o c t r i n e does not provide an answer f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n , and that they are not i n a p o s i t i o n to make a personal judgement (Category 6 ) . Moreover, another 4 0 7 o express d i f f i c u l t y even i n d e c i d i n g whether or not they can say t h a t they do not know the answer. (Category 7 ) . In t h i s case, they seem to need guidance from s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s . As Susumu Shimazono^'suggests, that the founder of a r e l i g i o u s movement i n Japan i s r a r e l y a c t i v e l y g l o r i f i e d , and the personal l i f e h i s t o r y of Okada, the founder of SMBK, i s t r e a t e d w i t h i n d i f f e r e n c e among b e l i e v e r s . The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s are adopted from Dojo w r i t t e n by Winston Davis: Okada Yoshikazu ( l a t e r Kotama), founder of Sukyo M a h i k a r i , was born i n t o a samurai f a m i l y . His grandfather had been a t u t o r to the f e u d a l l o r d s of Nakayama c a s t l e . His f a t h e r continued the f a m i l y p r o f e s s i o n u n t i l the M e i j i r e s t o r a t i o n - 6 6 -TABLE 3 QUESTION: What do you t h i n k about the general s o c i a l tendency i n the post-War (Japanese) s o c i e t y ? ANSWERS: 1. I t c o n t r a d i c t s the d i v i n e t e a c h i n g , because i t produces " s e l f i s h and arrogant people." 2. I t c o n t r a d i c t s the d i v i n e teaching f o r other reasons. 3. I t s u i t s the d i v i n e t e a c h i n g , because s o c i e t y promotes democracy. 4. I t s u i t s the d i v i n e teaching f o r other persons. 5. My answer i s d i f f e r e n t from 1-4 l i s t e d above. 6. I do not know. 7. (No answer). Category Number of believers' 1' 70 1 208 35.7 2 32 5.5 3 7 1.2 4 2 0.3 5 14 2.4 6 97 16.6 7 223 38.3 T o t a l 583 100.0 number of respondents who answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . - 6 7 -(1868), when he j o i n e d the new i m p e r i a l army and rose to the rank of major g e n e r a l . In h i s w i l l he d i r e c t e d h i s son, Yoshikazu, to f o l l o w the h e r e d i t a r y occupation of h i s forebears. The young man a c c o r d i n g l y entered_a m i l i t a r y academy c a l l e d .  the Rikugun Shikan Gakko and, a f t e r graduation, served i n the i m p e r i a l guards of the Taisho and Showa emperors. During the P a c i f i c War, Okada f e l l from h i s horse wh i l e s e r v i n g i n Indochina, s e r i o u s l y i n j u r i n g h i s back. When he returned to Japan f o r medical treatment, p h y s i c i a n s found t h a t he had t u b e r c u l o s i s of the spine and p r e d i c t e d that he had only three more years to l i v e . This was Okada's f i r s t encounter w i t h the l i m i t a t i o n s of Western medicine. A f t e r h i s r e l e a s e from the h o s p i t a l , he r e s o l v e d that he would devote the short time remaining to him "to the s e r v i c e of God and mankind." To c a r r y out h i s vow, he in v e s t e d a l l h i s savings i n f o u r f a c t o r i e s manufacturing m i l i t a r y a i r c r a f t f o r the Japanese a i r f o r c e . When these p l a n t s were gutted by the firebombing of Tokyo i n 1945, the fu t u r e S a v i o r was plunged i n t o d e s t i t u t i o n . L i k e others i n s i m i l a r s t r a i t s , Okada turned to r e l i g i o n , becoming a staunch member of the Church of World M e s s i a n i t y (Sekai Kyusei Kyo). Founded by Okada Mokichi (no r e l a t i o n to Mahikari's S a v i o r ) , Messia-n i t y taught that sickness and misfortune are caused by the "dust" t h a t accumulates on the surface of the s o u l . By purchasing an amulet a person could d i s p e l t h i s dust simply by r a i s i n g h i s hand over another's forehead. The amulet, a t r a n s m i t t e r of heavenly " s p i r i t r a y s , " was c r e d i t e d w i t h m i r a c l e s beyond number. By 1959, Okada Yoshikazu had f i n a l l y paid o f f the l a s t of h i s c r e d i t o r s . On February 22 of tha t year he developed a high f e v e r and became unconscious. Suddenly he found h i m s e l f t r a n s p o r t e d to the a s t r a l w o rld, where he saw an o l d man w i t h white h a i r standing i n a white cloud and washing c l o t h e s i n a golden tub. L a t e r , Okada i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s v i s i o n as a r e v e l a t i o n of Su-god (the Lord God) and of the c l e a n s i n g m i s s i o n that was about to be entrusted - 6 3 -to him. F i v e days a f t e r the v i s i o n , on h i s b i r t h -day, Okada was awakened at f i v e o'clock i n the morning by a d i v i n e v o i c e saying, "Get up. Change your name to Kotama (Jewel of L i g h t ) . Raise your hand. T r i a l s and t r i b u l a t i o n are coming!" Except f o r h i s boundless i n t e r e s t i n e v i l s p i r i t s , there was l i t t l e to d i s t i n g u i s h Okada's gospel from that of M e s s i a n i t y . The f i r s t to be healed by the new S a v i o r was a dog. "At l e a s t a dog won't laugh at me when I r a i s e my hand," he thought. G r a d u a l l y he began to make converts, h i s e a r l i e s t d i s c i p l e s being neighborhood b a r g i r l s . On August 28, 1960, Okada o f f i c i a l l y launched h i s movement, f i r s t c a l l e d the L. H. (Lucky and Healthy) Sunshine C h i l d r e n and l a t e r changed to the Church of the World True-Light C i v i l i z a t i o n (Sekai M a h i k a r i Bunmei Kyodan). For the next ten years he v i g o r o u s l y preached h i s gospel to a l l s o r t s of people, u n t i l M a h i k a r i had become a nationwide movement. His f o l l o w i n g i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y a f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l demonstration of h i s " p u r i f i c a t i o n " method on the t e l e v i s i o n program "Afternoon Show" i n November 1968. So s u c c e s s f u l d i d he become that he was f o r c e d to t u r n over the i n s t r u c t i o n and i n i t i a t i o n of neophytes to h i s d i s c i p l e s and c o n f i n e h i m s e l f to the p r e p a r a t i o n of amulets (omitama) and h i g h - l e v e l evangelism. As the movement expanded, Okada's messianic consciousness grew deeper. Although he never claimed to be the equal of Su-god, he regarded h i m s e l f as the p h y s i c a l embodiment of the god Y o n i -masu-o-amatsu and as God's e a r t h l y "Proxy, Carbon Copy, and Robot." To the t i t l e s of S p i r i t u a l Leader or Master (Oshienushisama) and S a v i o r (Sukuinushi-sama) were added the names Messiah Number One and Sacred Phoenix. Throughout t h i s p e r i o d , r e v e l a t i o n s c o n t i n u o u s l y came to Okada d u r i n g the n i g h t that he j o t t e d down i n "automatic w r i t i n g " w i t h i n c r e d i b l e speed. These were l a t e r c o l l e c t e d i n a 486-page volume c a l l e d the Goseigenshu, the s c r i p t u r e s of M a h i k a r i . Members regard a l l of the S a v i o r ' s words, even those that have appeared i n the Mahikari magazine, as part of h i s Holy Teachings, or Mioshie. -69-On February 17, 1972, Okada Kotama's career came to a climax when he was presented w i t h the me d a l l i o n of the Knight Commander of St. Denis by the American Academy of A r t s . The year a f t e r , he went to Europe and was granted a p r i v a t e audience w i t h Pope Paul VI. I am t o l d by Ma h i k a r i s t a l w a r t s that as a r e s u l t of t h e i r meeting, the Pope i n s t r u c t e d a l l Romaa C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s to study the Mah i k a r i Treatment. Davis c o l l e c t e d the above i n f o r m a t i o n from a r e l i g i o u s movement c a l l e d Sukyo M a h i k a r i . I t used to be an SMBK f a c t i o n , but l a t e r became independent from SMBK. I t s leader i s the L o r d - s a v i o r Okada's adopted daughter named K e i j u . Because she was the only person who had a c l o s e personal r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Lo r d - S a v i o r , s t o r i e s about him are c i r c u l a t e d more i n her movement than i n SMBK. A l s o , she i s r e l a t i v e l y more a c t i v e i n the attempt to g l o r i f y her adopted f a t h e r . This a t t i t u d e i s t y p i c a l l y shown i n the photographed p o r t r a i t of the L o r d - s a v i o r posted on the w a l l of the s h r i n e beside the d i v i n e s c r o l l i n the l o c a l c e n tre. In c o n t r a s t , i n SMBK, h i s p o r t r a i t i s not used on r e g u l a r r i t u a l 25 occasions. - 7 0 -SECOND START OF SMBK The death of the founder of SMBK, the L o r d - s a v i o r Okada, and the succeeding schism of the movement were the major c r i s e s i n SMBK h i s t o r y . Because h i s wife and two 2 6 c h i l d r e n were not i n v o l v e d i n the SMBK movement, the common succe s s i o n i n r e l i g i o u s movements i n Japan by a c h i l d through the blood of the founder d i d not occur i n SMBK. F o l l o w i n g the i n f o r m a l f u n e r a l ceremony f o r the L o r d - s a v i o r , K e i j u t o l d the top twenty-seven b e l i e v e r s that her f a t h e r had appointed Sakae Sekiguchi to be the second leader of SMBK. Sekiguchi was one of the e a r l i e s t f o l l o w e r s and a l s o a f i n a n c i a l backer of the movement. He had no k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n w i t h the Lord-s a v i o r . K e i j u emphasized that the s p e c i a l t a l i s m a n f o r the second and l a t e r leaders was l e f t to her to t r a n s f e r to Sek i g u c h i . The next day, i n f r o n t of the main s h r i n e , K e i j u handed to Sekiguchi the ta l i s m a n which c e r t i f i e s the SMBK l e a d e r s h i p . In the formal f u n e r a l ceremony which was performed about one month l a t e r , Sekiguchi acted as the second leader i n the presence of the body of SMBK b e l i e v e r s , which f i l l e d one of the l a r g e s t gymnasiums i n Tokyo (Budo Kan). However, s e v e r a l days before t h i s f u n e r a l ceremony, K e i j u s e c r e t l y r e g i s t e r e d h e r s e l f w i t h the government as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of SMBK. This means that she o f f i c i a l l y - 7 1 -became the leader of SMBK and Sekiguchi l o s t h i s l e g a l s t a t u s . The d o c t r i n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n K e i j u gave was that the Lord-s a v i o r ' s own t a l i s m a n kept by K e i j u was the r e a l one which a u t h o r i z e s the p o s i t i o n of the SMBK l e a d e r , and that both Sekiguchi's t a l i s m a n and h i s p o s i t i o n were meant to be temporary. Because K e i j u was the only " r e l a t i v e " l e f t i n SMBK by the L o r d - s a v i o r , her succession appealed as " n a t u r a l " to most a d m i n i s t r a t i v e members i n c l u d i n g the Heads of the l o c a l c e n t r e . They were convinced that K e i j u should be the second l e a d e r , and a few months l a t e r , she began to f u n c t i o n as the SMBK le a d e r . The d i s p u t e between Sekiguchi and K e i j u was taken to the court i n 1974. In 1977, Tokyo's High Court r u l e d t h a t Sekiguchi should o f f i c i a l l y represent SMBK. In 1978, K e i j u r e g i s t e r e d her f a c t i o n w i t h the government under the name of Sukyo M a h i k a r i , and became completely independent from SMBK. In other words, K e i j u became the founder of her own r e l i g i o u s movement. Such a schism as i s seen i n SMBK i s not uncommon among r e l i g i o u s movements i n Japan. The reason i s o r g a n i z -a t i o n a l . As Nakane suggests, groups which are formed on the ba s i s of person-to-person t i e s tend to be mutually e x c l u s i v e and become l o c a l i z e d . Therefore, the leader of the movement i s the only person who has access to a l l of the top f i g u r e s ( M a h i k a r i M a g a z i n e , 1982, J a n u a r y ) - 7 3 -of the l o c a l i z e d groups. When he d i e s , these f i g u r e s compete f o r succession. Because they are almost equal to each other under the deceased l e a d e r , a f t e r h i s death, no one can mediate t h e i r d i s p u t e . Thus, the common s o l u t i o n i s schism. In the SMBK case, Sekiguchi was the formal successor. However, the i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are so important i n SMBK that K e i j u , who was i n f o r m a l l y c l o s e s t to the deceased l e a d e r , appealed to the m a j o r i t y as e q u a l l y e l i g i b l e f o r succession. The change i n membership i n SMBK on Sekiguchi's s i d e between 1973 (the year of founder's death) and 1982 was as f o l l o w s : i n 1973, at the time of the schism, most b e l i e v e r s f o l l o w e d K e i j u , and Sekiguchi was l e f t w i t h about f o r t y b e l i e v e r s . With the Court's judgement i n favour of Sekiguchi i n 1977, h i s recruitment a c t i v i t i e s became v i v i d l y a c t i v e ; he encouraged the f o l l o w e r s of K e i j u , e s p e c i a l l y her Heads, to " r e t u r n " (moto g a e r i ) to him. This appeal was even more e n e r g e t i c a l l y made since K e i j u became independent from SMBK i n 1978. The number of Sekiguchi's l o c a l centres i n c r e a s e d from f o r t y i n 1978 to one hundred i n 1982. Since the oversea l o c a l centres i n Europe and South America stayed w i t h K e i j u , Sekiguchi has been t r y i n g to b u i l d new l o c a l centres i n South East A s i a . In March 1982, the f i r s t elementary s e s s i o n was he l d i n Singapore. The general composition of SMBK i n 1982 i s as - 7 4 -f o l l o w s : Due to the b i g turnover i n membership, and a l s o because the Main Headquarters i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n keeping records of r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s , t h e i r number i s not d e f i n i t e . However, my estimate i s about 20,000. The number of l o c a l centres i s about 100, and the number of r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s of one centre ranges from 100 to 300. The approximate p r o p o r t i o n between men and women i s 1:2. Although the membership e q u a l l y covers a l l generations, about o n e - t h i r d c o n s i s t s of those who are r e l a t i v e l y f r e e from p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . They are housewives, students, unemployed and r e t i r e d people. Except f o r students, these people l i k e l y s u f f e r from personal problems because they are l e s s i n v o l v e d w i t h p u b l i c r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s , and are consequently f r u s t r a t e d . The s t r a t i f i c a t i o n by income shows that SMBK i s s i m i l a r to other r e l i g i o u s movements i n Japan: the membership contains fewer middle-income people. More percentages i n the lower and upper ranges are shown i n the SMBK membership than those i n the general survey made by the government. The reason may be t h i s : the lower-income group wants some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l backup, but cannot achieve i t through employment. Japanese companies are well-known f o r the p r o v i s i o n of personal accommodations (such as housing, insurance, r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and other p r i v i l e g e s ) f o r permanent employees, who c o n s t i t u t e the middle-income group i n Japan. The r e l i g i o u s - 7 5 -moveraents a l s o a t t r a c t the higher-income group which has r e c e n t l y achieved i t s p o s i t i o n , and who are not yet accepted i n the more e s t a b l i s h e d high-income group. These r i c h but u n - e s t a b l i s h e d people were p r e v i o u s l y not respected even by the middle-income-group i n the wider s o c i e t y . Thus they o f t e n f i n d a comfortable p o s i t i o n i n r e l i g i o u s movements by making f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . - 7 6 -PRACTICE OF THE PURIFICATION RITUAL IN SMBK SMBK, as a r e l i g i o u s movement, i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to the wider s o c i e t y , mainly because of i t s a c t i v e and serious involvement w i t h s p i r i t possession. In the wider s o c i e t y , s p i r i t possession i s d i s d a i n e d as i r r a t i o n a l , and i s o f t e n considered to be a cheap t r i c k to d i s t r a c t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n from democracy. However, i n SMBK, acceptance of s p i r i t p o ssession as a f a c t i s the gateway to the d i v i n e order. SMBK o f f e r s concrete r i t u a l means to communicate w i t h possessing s p i r i t s through the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Thus, the r e p e t i t i v e and continuous performance of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l becomes the c e n t r a l i s s u e i n the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system. The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s a p a i r performance i n which the two performers exchange t h e i r r o l e s which are determined according to the requirements of t r a n s m i t t i n g the d i v i n e l i g h t from one to the other. In i t s performance, each performer adopts two r o l e s : one i s an a c t i v e r o l e as a p u r i f i e r or t r a n s m i t t e r of the d i v i n e l i g h t , and the other i s a passive r o l e as a r e c e i v e r of t h i s l i g h t . Because the a c t i v e performer c o n t r o l s the r i t u a l performance, h i s r o l e i s s u p e r i o r to the r o l e of the passive performer. However, a complete performance of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l means that one person more or l e s s s u c c e s s i v e l y takes both r o l e s . - 7 7 -Therefore, w i t h the completion of one round performance, the performers become equal. The partner may be the same person or may be d i f f e r e n t i n each part of the r i t u a l . The a c t i v e performer i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r keeping the r i t u a l under c o n t r o l , and the passive performer should f o l l o w the d i r e c t i o n s g i ven by the a c t i v e performer. The r i t u a l begins w i t h a prayer to the SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y . The passive performer s i t s behind the a c t i v e performer, both of them f a c i n g the s h r i n e which i s l o c a t e d on one w a l l of the room. Then, when they bow, c l a p t h e i r hands and make wishes, the passive performer has to time h i s a c t i o n s to synchronize as p r e c i s e l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h those of the a c t i v e performer. Subsequently, the a c t i v e performer turns around, and w i t h the a u t h o r i t y and power of the supreme d i v i n i t y behind him, r e c i t e s the Prayer of Heaven (Amatsu Norigoto) w h i l e the passive performer l i s t e n s , remaining i n a r e s t r i c t e d p h y s i c a l posture w i t h h i s eyes c l o s e d and h i s hands i n the praying p o s i t i o n . The a c t i v e performer holds up h i s palm above v a r i o u s p a r t s of the body of the passive performer c a l l e d kyu-sho ( " v i t a l p o i n t s " ) . The d i v i n e l i g h t r a d i a t e s from the palm of the a c t i v e performer and penetrates the body of the passive performer through h i s v i t a l p o i n t s . In t h i s way, the d i v i n e l i g h t i s b e l i e v e d to induce the discharge of the p o l l u t i n g - 7 8 element c a l l e d daku-doku ( " d i r t - p o i s o n " ) . Before the t r a n s -m i s s i o n of the d i v i n e l i g h t , except f o r the forehead, the a c t i v e performer uses h i s f i n g e r t i p s to l o c a t e any coagu-l a t i o n s , un-relaxed muscles, and body sores to i d e n t i f y the exact l o c a t i o n of the accumulated d i r t - p o i s o n , because such places are b e l i e v e d to be i t s nest. During the performance ( i n c l u d i n g the search f o r n e s t s ) , the passive performer r e l a x e s h i m s e l f . Often the passive performer i s permitted, or even asked, to l i e down. The performers are permitted to exchange t h e i r knowledge of the SMBK d o c t r i n e ; i n f a c t , most performers t a l k , but t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n o f t e n diverges from the d o c t r i n e and goes i n t o p r i v a t e s u b j e c t s . DIAGRAM 6: The Role Exchange a c t i v e performer passive performer audience l s t h a l f A B C 2nd h a l f B A C or C A B or l s t h a l f B A C 2nd h a l f A B C or A C B - 7 9 -The f i r s t ten minutes of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l are normally spent on p u r i f y i n g the forehead (the v i t a l p o i n t No. 8: Diagram 7) and i s considered s p e c i a l . The forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n i s b e l i e v e d to induce the possessing s p i r i t to appear from i t s r e g u l a r h i d i n g p l a c e , that i s , v a r i o u s p a r t s of the body of the possessed (the passive performer i n t h i s c o n t e x t ) . I t i s b e l i e v e d i n SMBK that a person has two s p i r i t s of h i s own: the major s p i r i t about ten centimeters i n s i d e h i s forehead and the subordinate s p i r i t s e v e r a l centimeters below h i s n a v e l . The subordinate s p i r i t c o n t r o l s h i s d e s i r e and the major s p i r i t r e l a t e s to d i v i n e order. Good combination of these two should be achieved, but n e i t h e r a c o n f l i c t between them nor the takeover of one by the other i s d e s i r a b l e . Since the possessing s p i r i t i s b a s i c a l l y t r e a t e d as a d e f i l e m e n t , when the d i v i n e l i g h t penetrates v i t a l p o i n t No. 8 one's whole body i s p u r i f i e d , and the possessing s p i r i t s u f f e r s l i k e a f i s h e x p e r i e n c i n g oxygen shortage. Under the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n , the possessing s p i r i t r i s e s to the surface of the body of the passive performer and, responding to the request of the a c t i v e performer, becomes, e i t h e r w i l l i n g l y or u n w i l l i n g l y , i n v o l v e d i n communication through the passive performer w i t h the a c t i v e . Thus: - 8 0 -ACTIVE PERFORMER SPIRIT OF PASSIVE PERFORMER ACTIVE PERFORMER SPIRIT ACTIVE PERFORMER SPIRIT ACTIVE PERFORMER I am speaking to Mr. s p i r i t ( h o n o r i f i c ) who i s occupying the body of Miss ( f u l l name). I f you agree w i t h what I am going to say, please i n c l i n e your head v e r t i c a l l y , and i f you do not, please shake i t h o r i z o n t a l l y . (Writes some l a r g e l e t t e r s on the tatami f l o o r mats on which they are s i t t i n g , u sing f l a t p i l l o w s . ) (Concentrates on reading the l e t t e r s , but i s not s u c c e s s f u l , and then looks at the passive performer's f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n very c a r e f u l l y . ) Guessing from your e x p r e s s i o n , I'd say you are angry. You are not asking f o r s a l v a t i o n . (short s i l e n c e ) Are you the s p i r i t ( h o n o r i f i c form i s used) of an animal? (long s i l e n c e ) Are you a human being? (Moves her head s l i g h t l y , as i f nodding). (Being very much encouraged) You r e a l l y wish to be saved, don't you? (Shakes her head, meaning "No"). (Disappointedly) Am I wrong? Then, what do you .... (As the passive performer begins to w r i t e more l e t t e r s , the a c t i v e performer stops t a l k i n g and watches the passive performer's hand. But the a c t i v e performer cannot read them. The passive performer stops w r i t i n g ) . DIAGRAM 7: V i t a l P o i n t s forehead 9lachrymal Vte, esophageal [12. stomach ^ n a v e l 7.ureter "18.bladder >\ i 7. hindbrain «.cervical vertebrea shoulder 4.shoulder blade 2. stomach & splee 21- -21 -A25 temple 16 esophageal 14 pylorus \ \ 12 Stomach _27 under \ x ^ 3 p a r o t o i d navel - 3 2 -This person i s SPIRIT ACTIVE PERFORMER ( I n t e r r u p t s the a c t i v e performer's words by b u s i l y waving her hand, meaning "No".) An ancestor of your f a m i l y ? SPIRIT : ACTIVE : PERFORMER SPIRIT (Nods, meaning "yes".) Counting from you as the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n , how many generations ago? (Writes "+" on the tatami mat.) ACTIVE : PERFORMER SPIRIT : ACTIVE : PERFORMER SPIRIT : (Since + means ten i n Japanese) Ten generations ago? (Shakes her head s e v e r a l times, and then says,) No. (In a hard, d i g n i f i e d tone) How many generations ago? (Again w r i t e s "+" on the tatami mat. ) ACTIVE : PERFORMER (Ignoring i t t h i s time) Kami-sama (The d i v i n i t y i n an h o n o r i f i c form) w i l l save you. I t took about three minutes up to t h i s p o i n t , and then continued f o r about ten more minutes, mostly r e p e a t i n g s i m i l a r questions and answers. (Often the forehead p u r i f i -c a t i o n goes on f o r over ten minutes, i f the s p i r i t i s responding s t r o n g l y . ) The t r a n s i t i o n from the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n to other v i t a l p o i n t s i s u s u a l l y smooth, and there i s c o n t i n u i t y . - 3 3 -In t h i s scene, the person speaking to the possessing s p i r i t was a Mrs. A, an a c t i v e member who used to be a l i v e - i n teacher before her marriage, and at t h i s time was the mother of a one-year o l d boy. Mrs. A asked such questions as: Can you speak? Try t o say i t , t r y t o speak! You are moving your l i p s , but i n the human world you have to say i t i n a v o i c e ( i n order to communicate). You know i t i s wrong to possess her l i k e t h i s . How d i d you leave your own a s t r a l world? A f t e r your death you must t r a i n y o u r s e l f not to be attached to t h i s world l i k e t h i s . But, i f you leave her body and r e t u r n to the a s t r a l world, the d i v i n i t y w i l l f o r -g i v e you. There i s a d i v i n e amnesty. The passive performer, a high school g i r l , kept nodding. Because she nodded so deeply, i t seemed that she swayed the top h a l f of her body. Mrs. A's v o i c e stayed s o f t and tender-When the g i r l was permitted to open her eyes, she looked at me and smiled s h y l y , which made me r e a l i z e t h a t my being there as an audience, that i s , as a witness from her po i n t of view, confirmed the f a c t that the r i t u a l act was a p u b l i c occasion. Mrs. A began to p u r i f y the g i r l ' s back, and r e l a x e d , they conversed c a s u a l l y . The g i r l s a i d to Mrs. A that she had experienced n e u r o s i s . Mrs. A answered d e c i s i v e l y that t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e was caused by an e v i l s p i r i t , adding t h a t the g i r l ' s backbone h e r n i a was c e r t a i n l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the same cause. The g i r l r e s i s t e d t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by saying that her h e r n i a was the r e s u l t of strenuous b a s k e t b a l l p r a c t i c e . Mrs. A immediately r e f u t e d t h i s , p o i n t i n g out that only few people would be h e r n i a t e d though very many people pl a y b a s k e t b a l l e q u a l l y as hard as she d i d . Mrs. A. emphasized that there had to be a p a r t i c u l a r reason why a c e r t a i n person should s u f f e r from a s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n , and that i t must be the s p i r i t which caused the t r o u b l e . Funda-me n t a l l y , t h i s d i s c u s s i o n was an exte n s i o n of the previous admonition. T h e i r manners were a l s o s i m i l a r : Mrs. A spoke i n the same s o f t and tender v o i c e as before, and the g i r l kept nodding i n the same way although her body was no longer swaying. - 8 5 -SMBK THEORY OF PURIFICATION The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s a s p e c i a l form of r i t u a l . I t presupposes an obj e c t to be p u r i f i e d or removed i n order to recover proper p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the "wholeness of the d i v i n e order." The l a c k of "wholeness" i s b e l i e v e d to cause two kinds of defilem e n t : accumulation of d i r t - p o i s o n and s p i r i t p o ssession. Thus, i n SMBK, the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s : 1. The f i r s t ten minutes: P u r i f y i n g one's major s p i r i t ( v i t a l p o i n t No. 8) v i t a l i z e s one's whole body. As the body movements, which are assumed to be caused by the possessing s p i r i t , occur on t h i s o c c a s i o n , t h i s part of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l may be des c r i b e d as "exorcism." 2. The succeeding f o r t y minutes: I n t e n s i v e p u r i f i -c a t i o n of the v i t a l p o i n t s and the d e f i l e d area. Diagram 7 shows the l o c a t i o n of the v i t a l p o i n t s . This part of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l may be des c r i b e d as " h e a l i n g . " In SMBK, causes of diseases are expl a i n e d i n terms of accumulation of d i r t - p o i s o n and/or s p i r i t possession. Moist p l e u r i s y i s caused by accumulated u r i n e , consequently i t s cure i s to induce u r i n e through the kidneys ( 1 ) , u r e t e r (17) and bladder (18) as i n d i c a t e d above. T u b e r c u l o s i s i s i d e n t i f i e d as a s i g n that the d i r t - p o i s o n i s r o t t i n g . P ossession by an e x t r a - r e s e n t f u l s p i r i t mainly causes heart t r o u b l e . Problems about the head are o f t e n i d e n t i f i e d as the r e s u l t of an improper treatment of the f a m i l y a l t a r or s h r i n e . Neurosis i s considered to be an a n c e s t r a l warning. Ear t r o u b l e s are sometimes i d e n t i f i e d as a possession by a minor d i v i n i t y c a l l e d Mokuryu J i n ( P l a n t D r a g o n ) . 2 7 The l a t t e r d i v i n i t y i s b e l i e v e d to l i v e i n a tre e or w e l l and possesses a human being when h i s residence i s destroyed. Some diseases and symptoms of disease i n the sense given by modern medical science are t r e a t e d i n SMBK as a process of h e a l i n g . They are assumed to be the discharge of d i r t - p o i s o n . D i a r r h e a , runny nose, bloody nose, s k i n problems s k i n i n f e c t i o n s are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e discharges which are a l l assumed to be h e a l i n g processes i n SMBK. Ringing i n the ear i s the noise of d i r t poison running i n the b r a i n . Taken as a s i g n of excessive d i r t - p o i s o n , defilement i s s t i l l accumulating. But i f the d i r t - p o i s o n i s thought to be running down toward the kidneys, i t i s regarded as a h e a l i n g process. In any case, the p u r i f i c a t i o n of v i t a l p o i n t s 27 and 23, as i s i n d i c a t e d i n Diagram 13, should induce the d i r t - p o i s o n down from the head. Hemorrhoids are i d e n t i f i e d mainly as the discharge of d i r t - p o i s o n from the head and - 3 7 -other i n t e r n a l organs. S k i n disease i s an i d e a l way to discharge e s p e c i a l l y t o x i c d i r t - p o i s o n because i t saves the kidneys from p o s s i b l e damage when the discharge i s i n t e n s i v e . Water eczema i s a miraculous w a y — a c c o r d i n g to SMBK—to discharge d i r t - p o i s o n from the head (the centre of the body) through a foo t (the most minor part of the body). Because SMBK considers that medicines provided by modern medical science block the discharge of d i r t - p o i s o n , the cure by medicines only a c c e l e r a t e s the accumulation of d i r t - p o i s o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the p u r i f i c a t i o n proceeds from the forehead through the d e f i l e d area toward the kidneys, based on the theory that most d i r t - p o i s o n i s discharged from the kidneys. However, the discharge from other areas such as the nose, ears and i n the form of d i a r r h e a may be simultaneously induced by the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . How the e f f o r t and i n t e n t i o n of the a c t i v e performer i s f u l f i l l e d i s s a i d to depend on the w i l l of the d i v i n i t y and on the s t a t e of mind of the passive performer. In other words, the r e s u l t v a r i e s g r e a t l y i n each case. The SMBK d o c t r i n e e x p l a i n s the meaning of p u r i f i -c a t i o n from the s t r u c t u r e of the three "bodies" that man i s supposed to have: a human being i s made of three bodies congruent i n one person, namely, the s p i r i t u a l body, the a s t r a l body, and the p h y s i c a l body. (See Diagram 18). These -88-three bodies are subordinate to one another i n the f o l l o w i n g order: the p h y s i c a l body i s under the c o n t r o l of the a s t r a l body, and the a s t r a l body i s under the s p i r i t u a l body. This order, considered according to e s s e n t i a l - n e s s , corresponds to the way i n which the SMBK cosmos i s viewed. (See Diagram 17.) Furthermore, the a s t r a l body i s a l s o considered as the body of mind, t h a t i s , consciousness. Therefore, the SMBK d o c t r i n e says t h a t , as the s p i r i t u a l body i s p u r i f i e d through the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the a s t r a l body i s induced to r e f l e c t on the s e l f and s p i r i t u a l phenomena. Mrs. Endo's case w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the l i n k a g e between the p h y s i c a l and mental aspects. In her case, disease i s f i r s t accepted as a s i g n that the body i s s t a r t i n g discharge of d i r t - p o i s o n , and t h i s new d e f i n i t i o n of disease brought her d e l i g h t . However, as the symptoms became i n t e n s i f i e d , she became r e s e n t f u l . Then, by l e a r n i n g to accept them as a t r i a l given by the d i v i n i t y , she achieved a s o l i d t h a n k f u l s t a t e of mind. Her f i r s t step toward c o n s i d e r i n g the disease as a s i g n of p u r i f i c a t i o n i s one step towards "wholeness" and her accepting i t as a t r i a l i s another step. Thus, Mrs. Endo, the mother of two daughters i n k i n d e r g a r t e n , says: In September of 1978, I happened to f i n d a book t i t l e d s e i y u ( D i v i n e Healing) i n a bookstore w h i l e doing my d a i l y shopping. Being p u l l e d by an i r r e s i s t i b l e f o r c e , I - 8 9 -opened that book and found that kami ( d i v i n i t y ) r e a l l y e x i s t s and that he has provided the means of p u r i f i c a t i o n . This was the knowledge I have always wanted to have, and I was s t r u c k by i t ... In October, I took the elementary l e c t u r e s e s s i o n (and became a b e l i e v e r ) . A f t e r the s e s s i o n , I had to have p u r i f i c a t i o n almost every day ... i n c l u d i n g f o r a runny nose, wet cough and i t c h y rashes a l l over my body. My body was d i s c h a r g i n g d i r t y things i n my u r i n e . In three months, I l o s t e i g h t k i l o g r a m s , but I was p e r f e c t l y f i n e . Some pressure behind my eyes disappeared. I thought that the ' p r i n c i p l e of c l e a n s i n g ' [the SMBK theory of p u r i f i c a t i o n ] was a f a n t a s t i c t i d i n g i n the world. At the same time, I r e a l i z e d my own mistake i n having d e f i l e d my p h y s i c a l body, which was o r i g i n a l l y a d i v i n e g i f t . Then, i n the second stage, when she thought she had achieved r e a l s t a t e of t h a n k f u l n e s s , a " t r i a l " began: On one of those days, I happened to t h i n k t h a t I had been very arrogant when I gave prayers to the d i v i n i t y . I o f t e n prayed f o r any k i n d of t r i a l , though the d i v i n i t y provided i t i n the best way to match my c o n d i t i o n . I n o t i c e d that I was not as sunao (obedient) as I thought but i n s t e a d I was a r r o g a n t l y i n v a d i n g the t e r r i t o r y of d i v i n e judgment. I f e l t ashamed and almost c r i e d . On that n i g h t , at home, I had acute d i a r r h o e a . Every time I went to the bathroom I had a tremendous amount of waste. A f t e r two days of watery d i a r r h o e a , I began to have blood mixed i n the waste. I had to have i t f i v e or s i x times a day, and every time I had almost one small g l a s s f u l of blood. Though I had been informed that t h i s k i n d of 2 9 phenomenon f o l l o w s a f t e r a " r e v e r s a l of thought," at the moment I j u s t could not t h i n k , w i t h my body completely weakened. I was l i k e a somnam-b u l i s t . -90-While I was having the watery d i a r r h o e a I s t i l l c ould h o n e s t l y thank the d i v i n i t y ( f o r c l e a n s i n g me), but a f t e r i t progressed to the bloody waste I f & l t too much s u f f e r i n g not to be r e s e n t f u l . Although I w i l l avoid quoting her long and compli-cated process of self-change, Mrs. Endo b e l i e v e s that her f a i t h was strengthened as she tended to regard her problems as a t r i a l . While she s u f f e r e d from blood i n her waste f o r two months, she apparently progressed to the stage i n which she b e l i e v e d she could be t h a n k f u l f o r whatever was given by the d i v i n i t y as a t r i a l . In other words, she learned to t o l e r a t e or even accept a disease as a precious chance to achieve a step towards "wholeness", not simply as an automatic discharge of defilement through r i t u a l as a mechanical procedure. Thus, r e p e t i t i v e and continuous performance of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l creates a long and e d u c a t i o n a l process towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the "wholeness" of the d i v i n e order. This process i n SMBK brings one i n t o the h i e r a r c h i c a l order i n s p i t e of the e g a l i t a r i a n nature of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i n one complete performance. -91-RITUAL PERFORMANCE AT SMBK LOCAL CENTRES In r i t u a l , the performer "experiences" temporary one-ness w i t h the d i v i n e order. In the beginning stage, h i s experience i s only formal and b e h a v i o r a l ; he i m i t a t e s the r i t u a l behaviour "as i f " he had already reached the f i n a l stage of spontaneous a c t i o n based on the SMBK paradigm. By doing t h i s , he i s brought to an awareness of the d i f f e r e n c e between h i s own "as i f behaviour" and the spontaneous behav-i o u r of more advanced performers. In other words, what i s s y m b o l i c a l l y and t e m p o r a r i l y r e a l i s e d i n h i s own body i n r i t u a l conveys a message about spontaneity but i t does not supply spontaneity. This ambivalent s i t u a t i o n urges him to know a " r e a l r i t u a l performance" i n c o n t r a s t to h i s own "as i f behaviour." Submission to the r i t u a l behavior c o n s t r a i n s the performer i n a p a r t i c u l a r way; he i s made to a s s i m i l a t e the form f i r s t and then the content: the form i s the r i t u a l behaviour c o n d i t i o n e d f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose and the content i s the s t a t e of mind which designates the r i t u a l behaviour as a spontaneous moral a c t i o n . This i s e x a c t l y the reason t h a t the r i t u a l l e a r n e r s b e l i e v e that a proper understanding of s e l f and world comes only through e x p e r i e n c i n g them not by reading about them. Experience here means a t o t a l -92-submission to the o c c a s i o n , which i s more than simply being present there. This i s the reason why SMBK b e l i e v e r s r e j e c t i n t e l l e c t u a l s and i n t e l l e c t u a l approaches to t h e i r d o c t r i n e . V i s i t i n g a l o c a l centre f o r performing the p u r i f i -c a t i o n r i t u a l c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of standardized behaviours, which i t s e l f may be r e f e r r e d to as r i t u a l . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s at the l o c a l centre shows the normal procedure i n one v i s i t : 1. E n t e r i n g the room 1.1 preparatory a c t s 1.1.1 s i g n i n g an attendance notebook 1.1.2 w r i t i n g a wish or words of thanks f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of previous wishes on a small (about 10 x 20 cm.) s l i p of paper 1.1.3 p i c k i n g up an envelope (about 15 x 25 cm.) which has the i n d i v i d u a l ' s name on i t , and p u t t i n g some donation (money) and the s l i p i n t o i t 1.2 prayer on a r r i v a l 1.2.1 p u t t i n g the envelope on a long t a b l e i n f r o n t of the s h r i n e 1.2.2 prayer to the supreme d i v i n i t y a) bowing twice b) c l a p p i n g the hands three times c) making a wish from a bowing p o s i t i o n d) c l a p p i n g f o u r times e) bowing once -93-f) bowing once very l i g h t l y 1.2.3 prayer to the c r e a t o r of Japan a) bowing twice b) c l a p p i n g three times c) making a wish from a bowing p o s i t i o n d) bowing once very l i g h t l y 1.2.4 bowing once very l i g h t l y f o r Su no kami 1.3 Greeting other b e l i e v e r s 1.3.1 bowing, saying the standardized words f o r g r e e t i n g (to which the other attendants respond) 2. I n t e r v a l a c t i v i t i e s ( f r e e time) 3. P u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l 3.1 Opening 3.1.1 prayer to the supreme d i v i n i t y (both performers together) a) bowing twice b) c l a p p i n g the hands three times c) making a wish from the bowing p o s i t i o n 3.1.2 g r e e t i n g one another, u s i n g the standard-i z e d words 3.2 forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n (about ten minutes or longer) 3.2.1 The passive performer - p u t t i n g h i s hands i n the prayer p o s i t i o n and c l o s i n g h i s eyes 3.2.2 The a c t i v e performer -94-a) c l a p p i n g three times b) chanting the Prayer of Heaven c) p u t t i n g h i s hand over the forehead of the passive performer, about a foot away, to transmit the d i v i n e l i g h t from i t s palm to the l o c a t i o n of the c e n t r a l s p i r i t of the passive performer. (The a c t i v e performer may use e i t h e r r i g h t or l e f t hand, but i s g e n e r a l l y encouraged to use the r i g h t hand. ) 3.2.3 Ending a) The a c t i v e performer - announcing the ending of the forehead p u r i f i -c a t i o n by pronouncing "calm down" three times, and t e l l i n g the passive performer to open h i s eyes b) The passive performer opening h i s eyes c) The a c t i v e performer - asking i f the s i g h t of the passive performer i s c l e a r d) The passive performer - u s u a l l y answering "yes" ( I f "No," the a c t i v e performer pronounces "calm down" a few more times.) 3.3 "H e a l i n g " (about 40 minutes) 3.3.1 The passive performer - r e l a x e s and t e l l s h i s problems (d i s e a s e , aching spots on the body, p s y c h o l o g i c a l or f a m i l y problems) 3.3.2 The a c t i v e performer - p u t t i n g h i s hand over the v i t a l p o i n t s 3.4 C l o s i n g 3.4.1 (same as "opening" 3.1.1) -95-3.4.2 Thanking one another, u s i n g the standard-i z e d words 4. I n t e r v a l a c t i v i t i e s ( f r e e time) 5. Leaving the room 5.1 prayer (same as the "prayer of a r r i v a l " g i ven to the supreme d i v i n i t y and the c r e a t o r of the Japanese n a t i o n , 1.2.2, and 1.2.3) 5.2 Departure g r e e t i n g to other b e l i e v e r s - bowing and saying the standardized words f o r l e a v i n g The i n t e r i o r of the l o c a l centre i s organized to meet the requirements of SMBK standards. I t has a s h r i n e , a r i t u a l room c a l l e d dojo and a t o i l e t . U s u a l l y i t a l s o has a k i t c h e n , bathroom and a p r i v a t e room f o r a l i v e - i n t e a c h e r ( s ) . In the Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e , f o r example, the i n t e r i o r of the apartment rented by SMBK i s remodeled to f u l f i l the r e q u i r e -ments: the screen-door p a r t i t i o n between two bedrooms has been removed to combine the f u n c t i o n s of a r i t u a l room. The e n t i r e f l o o r of the r i t u a l room i s covered w i t h tatami mats, i n c l u d i n g the c o r r i d o r (which i s not a common arrangement f o r a r e g u l a r Japanese residence.) The shr i n e covers one side of the w a l l . Although the sh r i n e o f t e n looks l i k e a w a l l d e c o r a t i o n of the r i t u a l room, the SMBK b e l i e v e r s s t r i c t l y d i s t i n g u i s h the shr i n e from the r e s t of the room and t r e a t i t as another room. In f a c t , when the apartment i s l a r g e and i t s c e i l i n g s are h i g h , the sh r i n e i s made i n t o a small room w i t h an e l e v a t e d f l o o r . The s i z e of the shr i n e v a r i e s a great -96-DI AG RAM 8 : Ko.eanei L o c a l Centre s c r o l 1 s t a t u e p r i v a t e room k i t c h e n f a c i l i t y t a b l e s h r i n e o r i t u a l room e n t r a link t o i l e t bath room s u p e r i o r n f e r i o r d e a l , from centre to c e n t r e , but sometimes i t i s deeper than two metres and i t s f l o o r i s elevated about two-thirds of a metre above f l o o r l e v e l . In the Koganei centre the s h r i n e i s about 3 metres h i g h , 4 metres wide, h a l f a metre deep, and i s e l e v a t e d about a h a l f metre above the f l o o r . The back w a l l of the sh r i n e i s covered w i t h a golden wall-paper which b r i g h t l y r e f l e c t s the f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t from the i n s i d e top of the s h r i n e . During the n i g h t the sh r i n e i s hidden behind bamboo c u r t a i n s . I t i s normally p r o h i b i t e d to step i n t o t h i s area. The i n t e r i o r arrangement of the sh r i n e i n the l o c a l centre i s much simpler than that i n the Main Headquarters. In the l o c a l c e n t r e , i n the centre of the sh r i n e there hangs a s c r o l l on which some words are w r i t t e n i n black i n k by the lea d e r of SMBK. The d i v i n e symbol i s above the words. The s c r o l l has two formats: when i t i s l o c a t e d on the top f l o o r of the house w i t h a r e g u l a r r o o f , the f u l l name of the supreme d i v i n i t y i s i n d i c a t e d . When i t i s l o c a t e d on the f l o o r which has another f l o o r ( s ) above i t , or the b u i l d i n g has a roof on which people can walk, the s c r o l l simply i n d i c a t e s the words " d i v i n e l i g h t . " The reason i s that no one should walk over the name of the supreme d i v i n i t y . A carved image of the d i v i n e c r e a t o r of the Japanese n a t i o n i s placed as a side f i g u r e beside the s c r o l l . In f r o n t of the s h r i n e i s a low be n c h - l i k e t a b l e to hold donations. These -98-are u s u a l l y given i n cash, but sometimes food or necessary m a t e r i a l s to f a c i l i t a t e the centre are given. Sections i n the l o c a l centre are ranked according to t h e i r s p i r i t u a l importance. The sh r i n e i s the s u p e r i o r s e c t i o n and the entrance the i n f e r i o r . The statue of the c r e a t o r of the Japanese n a t i o n i s placed on the side of the s c r o l l f a r t h e s t away from the entrance. That i s , i f the entrance i s on the l e f t s i d e of the sh r i n e (and so i s the s c r o l l ) , the statue i s l o c a t e d on the r i g h t s ide of the s c r o l l - as i t i s i n the Koganei l o c a l centre - and v i c e v e r s a . The p o s i t i o n s of the r i t u a l performers are de f i n e d by the s h r i n e . At the beginning and end of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l both performers face the s h r i n e and o f f e r prayers. During p u r i f i c a t i o n , the a c t i v e performer should show h i s back to the sh r i n e so that the d i v i n e l i g h t , which i s f i r s t r e c e i v e d by the d i v i n e s c r o l l , i s then absorbed through the back of the a c t i v e performer (not through the t a l i s m a n ) . I t r a d i a t e s from h i s palm and penetrates the v i t a l p o i n t s of the passive performer. C r o s s i n g the i n v i s i b l e l i n e of the d i v i n e l i g h t between the d i v i n e s c r o l l and the back of the a c t i v e performer i s s t r i c t l y p r o h i b i t e d . The teachers and b e l i e v e r s are q u i t e concerned about t h i s p r o h i b i t i o n , and gi v e a warning everytime i t i s v i o l a t e d . In the Koganei c e n t r e , there was a space which may SMBK S h r i n e a t t h e K o g a n e i L o c a l C e n t r e - 1 0 0 -be c a l l e d a si d e room. The f a c i l i t i e s f o r the preparatory ac t s are kept on the desk i n t h i s room. The ne w l y - a r r i v e d b e l i e v e r s r e p o r t e d t h e i r attendance by p l a c i n g t h e i r names i n a notebook prepared f o r t h i s purpose. From t h i s notebook I l a t e r learned that the average d a i l y attendance was about twenty persons. During the two and h a l f years of my f i e l d -work at t h i s c e n t r e , the number incre a s e d to approximately t h i r t y - f i v e a day. A f t e r r e g i s t e r i n g t h e i r attendance, b e l i e v e r s p i c k out t h e i r own envelope about 20 by 13 c e n t i -metres i n s i z e . These envelopes have the name of the b e l i e v e r s w r i t t e n on them and they are kept i n boxes according to the Japanese a l p h a b e t i c a l order. B e l i e v e r s s l i p p e d a donation i n t o the envelopes and a sheet of paper on which they wrote a wish or words of thanks f o r the f u l f i l m e n t of t h e i r previous wishes. The words are standardized and some examples are shown on the desk (Diagram 8). The b e l i e v e r s then proceeded to the sh r i n e and placed t h e i r envelopes on a square, wooden c o n t a i n e r c a l l e d sambo ( t y p i c a l l y used i n Shinto) on a long low t a b l e . A f t e r an opening prayer they walked backward, s t i l l f a c i n g the s h r i n e , to the other s i d e of the r i t u a l room and s a i d the words of g r e e t i n g , which are a l s o h i g h l y s t a n d a r d i z e d . Some s t a r t e d the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l immediately, w h i l e others went back to the si d e room. They o f t e n sat around a t a b l e near the -101-DIAGRAM 9: Statement of Donation (before f i l l e d out) 6.L c I--A h & _ _ statement of donation Koganei l o c a i centre name Year, month, date amount of money -102-«4 V < V •6\ * • 4zttft *i ?; ^ < Ml J n u l o IN > "1 DIAGRAM 10: Examples of the Statement of Donation Taken from Koganei L o c a l Centre STATEMENT OF A D O N A T I O N — f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f b u s i n e s s G r e a t Su no Kami and L o r d - t e a c h e r , i n s p i t e o f t h e economic d e p r e s s i o n , t h i s month I have been a b l e t o s e r v e many p e o p l e t h r o u g h my b u s i n e s s . W i t h y o u r s u p p o r t I am coming t o a new month w i t h o u t any w o r r y . Next month a l s o , I w i l l do my b e s t as b e i n g an SMBK b e l i e v e r . Here, I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k f u l n e s s f o r t h e p a s t month. £ 1 T r < ? v S 1 s% i ^ • r J 331 -' 1 n IT A, STATEMENT OF A DONATION—for p u r i f -c a t i o n G r e a t Su no Kami and L o r d -t e a c h e r , I have r e c e i v e d p u r i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h d i a r r h e a w i t h a c u t e p a i n s f o r t h r e e days from ( d a t e ) . I u n d e r -s t a n d i t was d i v i n e c l e a n - u p o f my body and my h e a r t was f i l l e d w i t h t h e f e e l i n g o f b l e s s i n g . I would l i k e t o s e r v e even b e t t e r t o t h e d i v i n e p r o p h e c y . H e r e , I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my t r u e t h a n k f u l n e s s . - 1 0 3 -desk, c h a t t i n g and d r i n k i n g t ea. In the Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e , t h i s space was so small (and a l s o served as a h a l l l e a d i n g to another s e c t i o n of the apartment) that i t was always crowded w i t h people, so c r e a t i n g an atmosphere of success and business. INDIVIDUAL BELIEVER'S CONTACT WITH SMBK In comparison w i t h r e l i g i o u s communes or v i l l a g e s i t u a t i o n s i n which b e l i e v e r s ' d a i l y l i f e i s contained w i t h i n "the r e l i g i o u s s e t t i n g s , SMBK b e l i e v e r s ' exposure to SMBK i s much more l i m i t e d . For r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i n SMBK, l o c a l centres o f f e r most occasions f o r t h e i r formal a c t i v i t i e s . Table 4 shows the frequency of v i s i t s to the l o c a l c e n tre. The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s that most respondents v i s i t the l o c a l centre at l e a s t once a week. H a l f of them, ( c a t e g o r i e s 2 + 3) do so more than once a week, and among these, 217o (category 3) v i s i t more f r e q u e n t l y than once every two days. From my o b s e r v a t i o n s , the l o c a l centre a t t r a c t s b e l i e v e r s of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s according to the day of the week and the time of the day. On week days between ten a.m. and four p.m., the main category of those who a l s o come are housewives, r e t i r e d people and those t e m p o r a r i l y o f f work due to some p h y s i c a l (or mental) problem. In c o n t r a s t , s t a r t i n g from around s i x p.m. and f i n i s h i n g at nine p.m., when the l o c a l centre c l o s e s , the main attendants change to those on t h e i r way home from t h e i r r e g u l a r jobs. Saturday afternoon i s a l s o the time f o r r e g u l a r workers to v i s i t the l o c a l c e n t r e , because companies commonly c l o s e at noon. As -105-most Sundays are taken up w i t h monthly prayer sessions ( f i r s t and second Sundays of the month) and other o c c a s i o n a l gatherings ( t h i r d and/or f o u r t h Sunday(s) of the month), the l o c a l centre i s almost deserted when i t does not have such sessions or g a t h e r i n g s . Although the f o u r t h (and sometimes f i f t h ) Sundays can be used f o r the performance of the p u r i f i -c a t i o n r i t u a l at the l o c a l c e n t r e , b e l i e v e r s apparently use them f o r other p r i v a t e purposes. This suggests that b e l i e v e r s operate on a monthly, and probably weekly, schedule f o r t h e i r v i s i t s . According to Table 5, more than h a l f of the respondents spent from 2 to 3 hours at the l o c a l centre per v i s i t . There i s a good reason f o r t h i s : d u r i n g a v i s i t the b e l i e v e r expects to complete the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l (1 hour and 40 minutes) and other pre- and post- r i t u a l acts such as r e g i s t e r i n g attendance, w r i t i n g wishes and thanks, g i v i n g oepning and c l o s i n g prayers to the d i v i n i t y , and g r e e t i n g s to o t h e r s . A l t o g e t h e r , these take more than two hours. In a d d i t i o n , most b e l i e v e r s l i k e to converse w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s , and o f t e n have a personal c o n s u l t a t i o n on t h e i r own p r i v a t e problems w i t h the head of the centre or the l i v e - i n teacher. B e l i e v e r s who spend l e s s than two hours at the centre (category 1) o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n only a part of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . However, t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that they n e g l e c t the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , because t h i s -105-r i t u a l i s commonly p r a c t i s e d among f r i e n d s o u t s i d e the l o c a l c e n t r e . When b e l i e v e r s p r e f e r to perform the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s , they v i s i t the l o c a l centre f o r other purposes: (apart from the r e g u l a r monthly prayer sessions) g i v i n g donations, a t t e n d i n g study s e s s i o n s , d a i l y prayers i n the morning f o r opening the centre and i n the evening f o r i t s c l o s i n g , e t c . (The c l o s i n g prayer i s held at seven p.m. but the centre i s s t i l l i n f o r m a l l y open u n t i l nine p.m. Some b e l i e v e r s v i s i t the centre r e g u l a r l y i n order to attend t h i s d a i l y evening prayer.) Some b e l i e v e r s , p r e s e n t l y s u f f e r i n g from i n t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l or mental problems, v i s i t the centre almost every day and stay f o r s i x to ten hours. The d i v i n e l i g h t r a d i a t i n g from the shrine of the centre i s s a i d to be a good "cure" along w i t h the d a i l y performance of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . The h i g h percentage of respondents i n category 3 — t h o s e .who spend more than three hours at the c e n t r e — c a n p a r t l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o the way i n which t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d ; that i s , through the l o c a l centre to i t s attendants. Although d i s t r i b u t i o n occurred over a p e r i o d of one month, those who were always around during t h i s time would have had a b e t t e r chance to answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , whereas some " b u s i e r " attendants l i k e l y overlooked or ignored i t . - 1 0 7 -TABLE 4: Frequency of V i s i t i n g the L o c a l Centre Number of Respondents % 1. about once a week 239 48.48 2. between category 1 and category 2 149 30.22 3. more o f t e n than every other day 105 21.30 T o t a l 493 100.00 TABLE 5: The Average Length of Time Spent at the L o c a l Centre f o r One V i s i t Number of Respondents % 1. l e s s than 2 hours 67 14.66 2. 2 - 3 hours 255 55.80 3. more than 3 hours 135 29.54 T o t a l 459 100.00 -108-sessions) g i v i n g donations, a t t e n d i n g study s e s s i o n s , d a i l y prayers i n the morning f o r opening the centre and i n the evening f o r i t s c l o s i n g , e t c . (The c l o s i n g prayer i s held at seven p.m. but the centre i s s t i l l i n f o r m a l l y open u n t i l nine p.m. Some b e l i e v e r s v i s i t the centre r e g u l a r l y i n order to attend t h i s d a i l y evening prayer.) Some b e l i e v e r s , p r e s e n t l y s u f f e r i n g from i n t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l or mental problems, v i s i t the centre almost every day and stay f o r s i x to t e n hours. The d i v i n e l i g h t r a d i a t i n g from the s h r i n e of the centre i s s a i d to be a good "cure" along w i t h the d a i l y performance of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . The high percentage of respondents i n category 3 — t h o s e who spend more than three hours at the c e n t r e — c a n p a r t l y be a t t r i b u t e d to the way i n which t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d ; t h a t i s , through the l o c a l centre to i t s attendants. Although d i s t r i b u t i o n occurred over a p e r i o d of one month, those who were always around dur i n g t h i s time would have had a b e t t e r chance to answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , whereas some " b u s i e r " attendants l i k e l y overlooked or ignored i t . -109-NOTES "*"K. A r a i , 1973, p. 231 (The quotations were t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese to E n g l i s h by K. Miyanaga.) 2 Kokutai was never c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , but e s s e n t i a l l y i t means "the n a t i o n a l s p i r i t , " which was viewed c o l l e c t i v e l y . 3 M. Tsushima, S. Nishiyama, S. Shimazono and H. Shiramizu, 1978, p. 83. (The term "New R e l i g i o n " i s a p p l i e d to r e l i g i o u s groups formed a f t e r modernization.) 4 Tsushima, e t . a l . , p. 83. ^ I b i d . , p. 83. 6 I b i d . , pp. 83-84. ^See note 3 above, g Tsushima, p. 83. 9 A r a i , p. 238. " ^ I b i d . , p . 231. 1 LM. Abe, 1973, p. 286. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 286. -110-13PWC-115/CAC-117 Japan: Freedom of Warship, the U.S. Government. 1 4 A b e , p. 278. "'•^Hayashi, e t . a l . , 1977, p. 67. (The quotations were t r a n s l a t e d by K. Miyanaga and S. Parr.) " ^ I b i d . , p. 68 . "^This aspect has been di s c u s s e d as the process of s e c u l a r i s a t i o n under modernization by v a r i o u s people i n c l u d i Bryan Wilson, but i t s t i l l remains c o n t r o v e r s i a l . 18 Hayashi, et a l , 1977, p. 68. • ^ I b i d . , p. 70. 2 0D. Hellman, 1972, p. 146. - 21 SMBK Intermediate Textbook. 22 S. Shimazono, 1979. 23 This i s an SMBK term i n d i c a t i n g an apostate from the d i v i n e power. 24 W. Davis, 1980, pp. 3-6. 25 The only exception i s the L o r d - s a v i o r ' s f u n e r a l a n n i v e r s a r i e s . His image i s used f o r h i s commemoration. 2 6 Okada's w i f e l e f t him when he s t a r t e d h i s movement, and h i s two c h i l d r e n were r a i s e d by her. -111-27 D i v i n i t i e s do not u s u a l l y possess human beings, except i n r a r e cases l i k e t h i s one. o o _ Y. Endo, 1978, pp. 42-45. (The q u o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d by K. Miyanaga.) 29 This p r i n c i p l e emphasizes the importance that i n SMBK common-sense reasoning of the wider s o c i e t y should be reversed. ^Endo, p. 45. 31 The reason f o r us i n g the r i g h t hand f o r the t r a n s -m i s s i o n of the d i v i n e l i g h t i s not c l e a r . Since the l e f t s i de of the body i s considered to be more s p i r i t u a l , some b e l i e v e r s wonder why i t i s not the l e f t s i d e , f o r which no answer i s provided. Teachers say that the reason has not been re v e a l e d . -112-CHAPTER I I I : SMBK SOCIAL ORGANIZATION HIERARCHY AND EGALITARIANISM -113-The two-fold d e f i n i t i o n of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I i s a l s o expressed i n SMBK s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s e g a l i t a r i a n i n each performance, but the continuous r e p e t i t i o n of i t s performance creates upward m o b i l i t y towards forming a h i e r a r c h y . In the SMBK membership o r g a n i z a t i o n , formal o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a hi e r a r c h y of s t a t u s , whereas i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a f r i e n d -s h i p network and i s e g a l i t a r i a n . E g a l i t a r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n i n inf o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a t t a i n e d through r o l e r e v e r s a l i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , and equal chance f o r a c h i e v i n g a higher s t a t u s i n competition. However, the degree of mastery i n the same r i t u a l d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the st a t u s i n the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . Upward m o b i l i t y a t t a i n e d on the ba s i s of the s h i f t of emphasis i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l from the passive r o l e to the a c t i v e r o l e corresponds to the s h i f t i n membership from i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n to formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . .Therefore, upward m o b i l i t y means more commitment to the h i e r a r c h i c a l order i n the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system. This process a l s o means a s s i m i l a t i o n of the SMBK paradigm, because the formal organ-i z a t i o n i s an express i o n of the paradigm, whereas the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n may not be. For a f u l l understanding of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , DIAGRAM 11: Formal and Informal Organizations Based on the D i f f e r e n c e i n the Type of Membership the wider s o c i e t y -115-both formal and i n f o r m a l dimensions should be i n v e s t i g a t e d . With regard to Japanese s o c i e t y , t h i s suggestion was f i r s t made by Chie Nakane. In her d a r i n g attempt to present an o v e r a l l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of Japanese s o c i e t y , she says as f o l l o w s : I t i s i n i n f o r m a l systems r a t h e r than i n overt c u l t u r a l elements that p e r s i s t e n t f a c t o r s are to be found. The i n f o r m a l system, the d r i v i n g f o r c e of Japanese a c t i v i t i e s , i s a n a t i v e Japanese brew, steeped i n a unique c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of Japanese c u l t u r e . In the course of modernization Japan imported many western c u l t u r a l elements, but these were and are always p a r t i a l and segmentary and are never i n the form of an o p e r a t i n g system. I t i s l i k e a language w i t h i t s b a s i c indigenous s t r u c t u r e or grammar which has accumulated a heavy o v e r l a y of borrowed vocabulary; w h i l e the outlook of Japanese s o c i e t y has s u f f e r e d d r a s t i c changes over the past hundred years, the b a s i c s o c i a l grammar has h a r d l y been a f f e c t e d . Here i s an example of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the import-a t i o n of western c u l t u r e not e f f e c t i n g changes i n the b a s i c c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e . The above paragraph, taken from Nakane, represents an o p i n i o n shared by some Japanese i n t e l l e c t u a l s concerning d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n a f t e r the end of World War I I i n 1945. That i s , democracy, p r i m a r i l y viewed as a Western property, had been imported and merely superimposed over the Japanese indigenous s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l system. Above a l l , the l a t t e r p e r s i s t e n t l y remained as the i n f o r m a l but o p e r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the s o c i e t y , whereas the former became only i t s formal and " f a s h i o n a b l e " aspect. Therefore, whenever the -116-indigenous s t r u c t u r e appeared dominant i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n - although i t was argued to be the r e g u l a r case — i t was as s e r t e d as evidence of a f a i l u r e i n de m o c r a t i z a t i o n and c r i t i c i z e d as a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c . Among those condemned as an t i - d e m o c r a t i c , r e l i g i o u s movements have been p a r t i c u l a r l y subject to t h i s c r i t i c i s m . In order to strengthen her argument, Nakane developed a unique s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s which became q u i t e i n f l u e n t i a l i n Japan soon a f t e r i t was published i n 1976. According to her: An o r g a n i z a t i o n which has i t s b a s i s on the f u n c t i o n of the " v e r t i c a l " l i n e i s d i f f e r e n t from the o r g a n i z a t i o n which has i t s f u n c t i o n i n the " h o r i z o n t a l " l i n e , or i n both " h o r i z o n t a l " and " v e r t i c a l " l i n e s . F i r s t , we e x p l a i n t h i s by p o s i t i n g two groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s , X ( v e r t i c a l ) and Y ( h o r i z o n t a l ) . Suppose that both c o n s i s t of the same number of members, a, b, and c. Y makes a t r i a n g l e , and X a t r i a n g l e without a bottom (see Diagram I ) . Diagram I X Y - 1 1 7 -When they develop t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , they become as i n Diagram I I , and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i s now more d i s t i n c t i v e . The d i f f e r e n c e s between these two are that the members of X are r e l a t e d to each other only through a, but the members of Y are r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to each other, and that X i s open to the o u t s i d e , whereas Y i s c l o s e d . Diagram I I X a / g \ or c — r u l e f / \ d e Nakane, 1967, pp. 114-5) Her p o i n t i s t h i s : i n the h o r i z o n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Y) each member i s equal under the same r u l e , whereas i n the v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (X) a h i e r a r c h y i s formed as the sum of each s u p e r i o r - i n f e r i o r human r e l a t i o n s h i p . Therefore, i n the l a t t e r the r u l e can be no more than an a r b i t r a r y (even tempo-ra r y ) agreement between the two persons i n v o l v e d i n a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , so i t f a i l s t o stand u n i v e r s a l l y above a l l the members. In other words, the members of the same o r g a n i z a t i o n -118-do not share the same r u l e . As a r e s u l t , human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (X) become emotional, whereas i n the h o r i z o n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (Y) they are r a t i o n a l . However, a few aspects i n her a n a l y s i s remains confusing. One of them i s i t s o b j e c t i v e . I t has not been made completely c l e a r i f her a n a l y s i s i s d i r e c t e d to e x t r a c t a general p a t t e r n f o r Japanese s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n or i f she i s t r y i n g to b u i l d a model of v e r t i c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n u s i n g Japanese s o c i e t y as an example. Although the model could be b u i l t through the e x t r a c t i o n of the Japanese p a t t e r n s , the d i s t i n c t i o n remains e s s e n t i a l . In the case of the Japanese pat t e r n s the major problem i s the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the e x t r a c t e d p a t t e r n to Japanese s o c i e t y , whereas i n the case of the model of the v e r t i c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n the p r i o r i t y should be given to the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y as a model. Assuming that her o b j e c t i v e i s the e x t r a c t i o n of the Japanese p a t t e r n s , Nobuhiro Nagashima summarizes the counter-arguments given by other Japanese s c h o l a r s as f o l l o w s : R e l a t i o n s h i p s based on personal submission such as oyabun-kobun [a s u p e r i o r - i n f e r i o r human r e l a t i o n s h i p maintained by a quasi-parent c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v i n g a sense of intimacy and c l o s e care] apply only to the r e l a t i v e l y newly developed v i l l a g e s i n Northeast Japan (which were taken as the model f o r the v e r t i c a l s o c i a l group). In the v i l l a g e s i n Southwest Japan, v o l u n t a r y groups based on i n d i v i d u a l commit-ment, such as ko [a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y fchrmed f o r the purpose of p i l g r i m -age to sacred r i t e s ] have developed. -119-Nagashima's p o i n t a g a i n s t Nakane i s that the v e r t i c a l organ-i z a t i o n i s h i s t o r i c a l l y new and l i m i t e d to p a r t i c u l a r areas i n Japan. Therefore, he argues, i t cannot be a general and a h i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n a p p l i c a b l e to a l l Japan. I f we assume that Nakane's o b j e c t i v e i s an attempt to b u i l d a model of v e r t i c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the above c r i t i c i s m does not i n v a l i d a t e her argument. For, whatever the v a r i e t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i f the v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n blocks democracy, the e s s e n t i a l problem should be found i n the f a c t that the nature of v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i r r a t i o n a l . This p o i n t r e q u i r e s a r e -examination of r a t i o n a l i t y , and i n e v i t a b l y goes beyond simply e x t r a c t i n g a general p a t t e r n f o r Japanese s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . A more t h e o r e t i c a l problem i n Nakane's a n a l y s i s i s t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between formal and i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s or systems i s not c l e a r l y made. In her own examples, some Japanese s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s apparently show the syndrome of v e r t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n her sense i n t h e i r formal aspects, although Nakane claims that she has ext r a c t e d t h i s from t h e i r i n f o r m a l aspects. This t h e o r e t i c a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n her a n a l y s i s i s not a c c i d e n t a l , f o r , as I s a i d before, she i d e n t i f i e s the democratic system of Japanese s o c i e t y and i t s formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the same phenomenon which together are - 1 2 0 -simply superimposed over the i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . This a s s e r t i o n i n e v i t a b l y made her ignore the a c t i v e and f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the formal and i n f o r m a l aspect of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . This chapter w i l l show how formal and in f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n SMBK are braided i n t o one another. Nakane's theory overlooks the p o s s i b i l i t y that e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be the product of syn t h e s i s a f t e r modernization. The pre-modern l i t e r a t u r e provides us w i t h some evidence t h a t pre-modern Japanese s o c i e t y was b u i l t on on and g i r i which i n d i c a t e a s c r i p t i v e s o c i a l r u l e s of r e c i p r o c a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . With modern-i z a t i o n , Japanese s o c i e t y became r e g u l a t e d by more a b s t r a c t r u l e s such as laws of St a t e . Ruth Benedict r e p o r t s how r e c i p r o c i t y was in c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the laws by the modern 4 Japanese Government before the end of World War I I . A f t e r the War, the consensus of the r u l e s of r e c i p r o c i t y was l o s t . However, r e c i p r o c a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s remained as a personal custom. The f o l l o w i n g example should i l l u s t r a t e the need f o r o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y to r e g u l a t e human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d a i l y l i f e . An SMBK b e l i e v e r , female and eighteen years o l d , answered my question concerning whether she had changed since she had j o i n e d SMBK: Before I j o i n e d SMBK, I was only copying my - 1 2 1 -mother. I gave g i f t s to my f r i e n d s on t h e i r b i r t h d a y s and other occasions, because she s a i d i t (x=keeping f r i e n d s h i p by g i f t g i v i n g ) was proper. But, sin c e I j o i n e d SMBK, I r e a l i z e d the meaning of f r i e n d s h i p , and n o t i c e d that my (previous) acts had been only formal and had no hear t . I no longer &ive g i f t s because occasions r e q u i r e them. The answer above i n d i c a t e s that the b e l i e v e r s t i l l m aintains the same g i f t - g i v i n g custom, but that she b e l i e v e s t h a t SMBK gives her moral support. The same s i t u a t i o n should apply to a number of people who j o i n r e l i g i o u s movements based on moral campaigns such as JRKK (see p. 177) and I t t o En Therefore, what Nakane sees as emotional or i r r a t i o n a l i s the l a c k of o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y which should combine the democratic i d e a l , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d a i l y l i f e . However, Nakane presents an i n -depth a n a l y s i s of the post-War general s i t u a t i o n of Japanese s o c i e t y , although t h i s a n a l y s i s may not have been her o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n . To t h i s general s i t u a t i o n , the SMBK s o c i a l organ-i z a t i o n responded i n the f o l l o w i n g aspects: formal organ-i z a t i o n i s o v e r t l y h i e r a r c h i c a l and i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d w i t h power and knowledge; i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s e g a l i t a r i a n ; the formal and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are f u n c t i o n a l l y combine to each other. This chapter w i l l d e s c r i b e the d i f f e r e n c e s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the formal and i n f o r m a l organ-i z a t i o n s of SMBK, -122-FORMAL HIERARCHY OF POWER AND KNOWLEDGE In SMBK, formal o r g a n i z a t i o n i s not merely nominal; i t has s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . Among c l e r i c s , i t i s the h i e r a r c h y of power and knowledge. The c l e r i c s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power f o r d e c i s i o n making and execution of the d e c i s i o n . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s organized to form a p a r a l l e l to the SMBK cosmology. Conse-quently, the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n becomes part of SMBK d i v i n e order, and i s an express i o n of the SMBK paradigm. However, among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s not d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h power. I n t h i s sense, the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r them i s more i d e o l o g i c a l than s u b s t a n t i a l . Because i t i s assumed as a part of d i v i n e order, both f o r the c l e r i c s and f o r the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s , the st a t u s gaps are l e g i t i m i z e d by the degree of exposure to the d i v i n e knowledge. Diagram 12 was drawn by one of the D i r e c t o r s , and represents the SMBK b e l i e v e r s ' general r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . Diagram 12 Lord-teacher D i r e c t o r s (at Head Quarters) l o c a l l o c a l l o c a l centre centre centre -123-Although Diagram 12 gives the impression that the l o c a l centres are under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the Lord-teacher, and th a t the D i r e c t o r s occupy an a d v i s o r y p o s i t i o n , the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n r e a l i t y , f u n c t i o n s d i f f e r e n t l y . We may be able to a b s t r a c t i t s h i e r a r c h y as f o l l o w s : DIAGRAM 13 c l e r i c s Lord-teacher / D i r e c t o r s Heads^of l o c a l centres Teachers A s s i s t a n t Teachers S t u d e n t s - i n - p r a c t i c e Candidate-students V a d m i n i s t r a t i o n Regular b e l i e v e r s at the advanced intermediate elementary l e v e l s 1. Lord-teacher The present l e a d e r of the SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n i s Lord-teacher S e k i g u c h i . Although he i s d o c t r i n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as a r e g u l a r human being, as i s c l e a r l y s a i d i n the elementary l e c t u r e s e s s i o n , r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s t r e a t him l i k e a (non-human) d i v i n i t y . They c a l l him by the t i t l e "Lord-teacher" not by h i s narne.^ This i s a common way i n Japan to show extreme respect f o r a s u p e r i o r , which p r i m a r i l y a p p l i e s to the Emperor who used to be t r e a t e d as a d i v i n i t y and s t i l l i s i n SMBK. A l s o , Sekiguchi as the Lord-teacher of SMBK i s s h i e l d e d from o u t s i d e r s . Even the r e g u l a r SMBK b e l i e v e r s have only a l i m i t e d access to him. They see him r e g u l a r l y i n the ceremo-n i a l gatherings but have almost no chance to speak to him p e r s o n a l l y . Sometimes, when he i s i n v i t e d to a c e l e b r a t i o n at a l o c a l c e n t r e , they may be able to s i t c l o s e and greet him r a t h e r c a s u a l l y but a long personal c o n v e r s a t i o n does not spontaneously develop. In order to be p e r s o n a l l y c l o s e to him, the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s have to g a i n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n based on an e x c e l l e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to SMBK. 2. C l e r i c s Under the Lord-teacher, there e x i s t s a wide s t a t u s gap between the body of c l e r i c s and the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . The body of c l e r i c s c o n s i s t s of the D i r e c t o r s , the Heads of l o c a l centres and the teaching s t a f f . For example, some - 1 2 5 -paragraphs of d i v i n e words r e c i t e d during a s p e c i a l r i t u a l to p u r i f y a d e f i l e d d i v i n e o b j e c t , such as a t a l i s m a n , are known only among the c l e r i c s . Furthermore, the D i r e c t o r s and most Heads are long-standing members of SMBK who were taught d i r e c t l y by t h e i r deceased f i r s t l e a d e r , L o r d - s a v i o r Okada (now considered to have been ele v a t e d to a d i v i n i t y ) . They are g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d to have been p e r s o n a l l y recognized by him as masters of the d o c t r i n e . A l s o , the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s r e g i s t e r t h e i r membership only at the l o c a l c e n t r e s . This means that t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s obscure. In c o n t r a s t , the c l e r i c a l members-register t h e i r names at the Main Headquarters and are given much c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n . The above c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n f u r t h e r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n w i t h i n themselves: the body of c l e r i c s i s separated i n t o two groups: a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the teaching s t a f f . The d i f f e r -ence between these two i s not only d o c t r i n a l , but whereas the former monopolizes the power of d e c i s i o n making, the teaching s t a f f i s g e n e r a l l y excluded from i t . 3. A d m i n i s t r a t i on A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n s i s t s of the D i r e c t o r s as s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e s , and the Heads of l o c a l centres as j u n i o r e x e c u t i v e s . The major d e c i s i o n s are normally made by D i r e c t o r s w i t h the Lord-teacher's approval. Heads are -126-permitted to make minor d e c i s i o n s to execute order given by the D i r e c t o r s . When the Board of C l e r i c s meets once a month, the D i r e c t o r s and Heads give r e p o r t s on t h e i r own centres and r e c e i v e new orders from the Lord-teacher. The teaching s t a f f may at t e n d , and are permitted to ask quest i o n s , but do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s . Status among the D i r e c t o r s i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from s p i r i t u a l to s e c u l a r . The sta t u s d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n among the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e members i s t y p i c a l l y shown i n the s e a t i n g order at the meeting of the Board of C l e r i c s and a l s o i n prayer s e s s i o n s . In 1980, the p o s i t i o n s of Area D i r e c t o r s were considered to be i n f o r m a l , and the seven seats of formal d i r e c t o r s h i p were d i s t r i b u t e d to only two persons. This was a temporary arrangement f o l l o w i n g the s p l i t of the SMBK movement i n 1978 - " u n t i l proper persons grow". These two d i r e c t o r s were a l s o appointed to be the Heads of the l o c a l c e n t r e . Some Heads were appointed f o r more than one centre. The c r i t e r i o n f o r the p l u r a l appointment seemed to be based on personal r e c o g n i t i o n r a t h e r than a c l e a r - c u t p r i n c i p l e . In 1982, the p o s i t i o n s of d i r e c t o r s h i p were reo r g a n i z e d , and t h i r t e e n p o s i t i o n s i n c l u d i n g Area D i r e c t o r s which were now formal were d i s t r i b u t e d to twelve people. Above these r e g u l a r D i r e c t o r s , two p o s i t i o n s of D i v i s i o n D i r e c t o r s were occupied by Mr. Tanaka, one of few o l d e s t f o l l o w e r s of the founder of SMBK, and Mr. K. S e k i g u c h i , a son -127-of the present leader of SMBK. Thus, the p o s i t i o n s of d i r e c t o r s h i p were organized as f o l l o w s i n 1982: Sukyo Kyokucho (:jp>l&Ofj-|?) - D i v i s i o n D i r e c t o r of R e l i g i o u s A f f a i r s S h i n j i Bucho C?^*f-^) - D i r e c t o r of the Di v i n e Matter r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : general planning of prayer occasions Fukyo Bucho (^f^ilf-g,) - D i r e c t o r of M i s s i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : m i s s i o n a c t i v i t y Koho Bucho f & l f f i . ) - D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c i t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : p u b l i c i t y Kunren Kyogaku Bucho ( t ' K f ^ ^ D - D i r e c t o r of Education and T r a i n i n g t r a i n i n g of the teaching s t a f f l e c t u r e sessions h e l d at the Main Headquarters - D i v i s i o n D i r e c t o r of Secular A f f a i r s - D i r e c t o r of Management finan c e and accounting - D i r e c t o r of General A f f a i r s miscellaneous work - D i r e c t o r of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the government and other groups o u t s i d e SMBK r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : Jimu Kyokucho (4Jhp^^|-|^) K e i r i Bucho ( f e f f f ^ ) r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : Somu BuchS r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : Shogai Bucho N ^ f f c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : -128-Area D i r e c t o r s ( s i x D i r e c t o r s ) r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n of l o c a l centres w i t h i n the area The s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among Heads depends on the s i z e s of the l o c a l centres to which they are assigned — because the s i z e s of the l o c a l centres vary g r e a t l y : some have a number of branches whereas others do not. Therefore, Heads compete w i t h one another to expand t h e i r own ce n t r e s . 4. Teaching s t a f f The teaching s t a f f does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the process of making new d e c i s i o n s , but executes the given d e c i s i o n s over r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . The s t a f f i s h i g h l y respected by the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s f o r i t s profound knowledge of SMBK d o c t r i n e and s k i l l s i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . A l s o , i t i s a Japanese s o c i a l custom to respect a person i n any teaching p o s i t i o n , which i s a l s o e f f e c t i v e i n SMBK. Through the l i v e - i n s t y l e of s e r v i c e at the l o c a l c e n t r e , the s t a f f i s always a v a i l a b l e f o r c l o s e and frequent contact w i t h the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . They are d i r e c t e d by the teaching s t a f f to accept the given d e c i s i o n s as part of the d i v i n e order. The teaching s t a f f i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o four 7 s t a t u s l e v e l s : teachers (doshi) , a s s i s t a n t teachers (doshi - 8 9 ho) , s t u d e n t s - i n - p r a c t i c e ( j i s s h u s e i ) , and candidate--129-students of the SMBK school (kunren s e i ) . Of these, candidate-students do not have sta t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among themselves. The other three c a t e g o r i e s of the teaching s t a f f become d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according to the s i z e and importance of the l o c a l centre to which they are assigned. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the teaching s t a f f to a l o c a l centre i s made i n such a way that no more than one person occupies the same s t a t u s or p o s i t i o n at one time. 5. Regular b e l i e v e r s The SMBK r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s form a t h r e e - l e v e l e d h i e r a r c h y based on the degree of exposure to the d o c t r i n e . (See Diagram 4 ) . The st a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s not d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h power. Each l e v e l begins w i t h a three-day i n t e n s i v e l e c t u r e s e s s i o n on the d o c t r i n e given by the c l e r i c a l members. The st a t u s of the l e c t u r e r d i f f e r s according to the l e v e l of the s e s s i o n , so the h i e r a r c h y based on knowledge becomes v i s u a l i z e d : the elementary l e c t u r e i s given by the teaching s t a f f who have been t r a i n e d at the SMBK school. The intermediate and advanced sessions are given by the D i r e c t o r s . The content of the teaching focuses on a d i f f e r e n t aspect of the d o c t r i n e at each l e v e l , although i t gives q u i t e a s c a t t e r e d impression to the i n i t i a l a ttendants. The c e n t r a l focus of the elementary s e s s i o n i s on moral s t o r i e s b u i l t on -130-the idea of s p i r i t p ossession, i n which possessing s p i r i t s and a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s appear as the moral e n f o r c e r s . The intermediate s e s s i o n presents the image of the cosmos as a product of c r e a t i o n by the supreme d i v i n i t y c a l l e d Su no Kami, and e x p l a i n s how, w i t h i n t h i s u n i v e r s e , the o r i e n t a t i o n given by him determines the way a l l l i v i n g and n o n - l i v i n g beings should go. And the most advanced s e s s i o n focusses on the Japanese as the chosen n a t i o n to r e a l i z e a new d i v i n e c i v i l i s -a t i o n , a heaven on e a r t h , a f t e r the e s c h a t o l o g i c a l end of the present world. In b r i e f , the elementary s e s s i o n concentrates on o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y , the intermediate s e s s i o n on cosmology, and the advanced s e s s i o n on prophecy. These three sessions are f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d f o r the b e l i e v e r to become a " r e a l " SMBK f a i t h f u l , the cosmology, which i s the core of the SMBK d o c t r i n e given at the intermediate l e v e l , provides the b e l i e v e r w i t h an i d e n t i t y by l o c a t i n g him at a s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n i n the d i v i n e cosmos viewed as a pantheon. W i t h i n t h i s pantheon he i s one of the lowest-ranking d i v i n i t i e s . This l e v e l of teaching i s h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d . However, i t i s a l s o h i g h l y a b s t r a c t because i t i s remote from the e m p i r i c a l phenomenon of h i s l i f e . For t h i s reason, the elementary s e s s i o n provides an o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y , that i s , a bundle of moral p r i n c i p l e s contained i n the moral s t o r i e s i n the form of fragmented images. The b e l i e v e r , when he i s f i r s t exposed -131-to the SMBK d o c t r i n e , l e a r n s to apply such fragments to h i s d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t i e s and human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This works i n two ways. I t ensures him of a f l e x i b i l i t y i n h i s choice of a c t i o n , because i t permits a wide range of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A l s o , i t s t i m u l a t e s h i s n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y . Here, l e t me present an analogy: assembling fragmented images i n an attempt to f i n d a c o n s i s t e n t p i c t u r e i s l i k e s o l v i n g a jigsaw p u z z l e . The advanced session, re-assures the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t e n t i o n towards c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n as a r e l i g i o u s movement, though he has already been a part of i t ever s i n c e he f i r s t become i n v o l v e d i n the SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n . The mastering of each s e s s i o n i s considered h i g h l y honourable. The stat u s d i f f e r e n c e i s expressed by the s i z e of the t a l i s m a n and p i n given at the end of each s e s s i o n . At the end of the elementary s e s s i o n each b e l i e v e r i s given these as proof that he has been i n i t i a t e d . Both are exchanged f o r l a r g e r ones each time the b e l i e v e r progresses to the next l e v e l . O b t a ining permission to attend a higher l e v e l s e s s i o n becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . An elementary s e s s i o n can be he l d at any l o c a l centre when i t has gathered more than ten new attendants, and s e v e r a l centres r e g u l a r l y provide monthly s e s s i o n s . A t t e n d i n g the three days of t h i s s e s s i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d as an i n i t i a t i o n to SMBK, so i t i s completely -132-open to anyone, whether or not he has already been i n v o l v e d i n some r i t u a l occasion. In c o n t r a s t , both intermediate and advanced sessions are he l d only at the Main Headquarters i n f r o n t of the C e n t r a l Shrine. The intermediate s e s s i o n i s given only once or twice a year, and the advanced s e s s i o n only every one or two years. An a p p l i c a t i o n to attend these two sessions must be approved by the head of the r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l c e n t r e , and the common i n t e r v a l between a t t e n d i n g the f i r s t s e s s i o n and a p p l y i n g f o r the second i s about two years, depending on the progress of each a p p l i c a n t . Often, f o r a wh i l e a f t e r a t t e n d i n g the intermediate s e s s i o n , the b e l i e v e r becomes discouraged and s k i p s a p p l y i n g to the advanced l e v e l once or t w i c e , u n t i l f i n a l l y he pushes h i m s e l f to do i t . E q u a l l y o f t e n , or even more commonly, the b e l i e v e r i s discouraged and gives up t r y i n g to go on to the higher l e v e l s , so t h a t the achievement of access to the advanced l e v e l , or even of the intermediate l e v e l , i s q u i t e an accomplishment. In SMBK, the a s s i m i l a t i o n of d o c t r i n e i s always r e l a t e d to r i t u a l a c t i o n s ; the aforementioned three sessions correspond to three sets of r i t u a l s and ceremonies: the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the group pra y e r s , and the f a m i l y r i t u a l s . The way they are organized i s r a t h e r complicated. F i r s t of i a l l , the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l c o n s t i t u t e s the core. I t i s most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to a l l three l e v e l s of the e d u c a t i o n a l -133-procedure: at the elementary l e v e l (between the elementary and i n t e r m e d i a t e sessions) the b a s i c requirement may be l i m i t e d to the mastery of a formal performance. But above t h i s l e v e l the b e l i e v e r should be able to a c t i v e l y communicate w i t h the possessing s p i r i t . Beyond t h i s l e v e l , the u l t i m a t e goal of the r i t u a l i s f o r the b e l i e v e r to become a master of h i s own s p i r i t . Therefore, the mastery of t h i s r i t u a l technique i s considered to a personal r e a l i z a t i o n of the d o c t r i n e , and the extent of the mastery of the d o c t r i n e i s considered to be r e f l e c t e d i n the mastery of the r i t u a l . In other words, the mastery of performance are i d e n t i f i e d as an i n d i c a t i o n of present s p i r i t u a l s t a t e and h i s progress i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the d o c t r i n e . The second set of r i t u a l s i n c l u d e s the group prayer s e s s i o n s . They c o n s i s t of v a r i o u s kinds of annual conventions and two monthly prayer s e s s i o n s , one at the Main Headquarters, and the other at the l o c a l c e n t r e s . These r i t u a l occasions are d e d i c a t e d to e x p r e s s i n g submission to the d i v i n e order of the supreme d i v i n i t y and h i s cosmos at a p u b l i c occasion. They are i n sharp c o n t r a s t w i t h the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Whereas the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s r e c i p r o c a l l y - o r i e n t e d , and t h e r e f o r e more e g a l i t a r i a n i n nature. In c o n t r a s t , group prayer sessions r e f l e c t the s t a t u s and p o s i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s of the b e l i e v e r s and are t h e r e f o r e more h i e r a r c h i c a l . This -13 4 -means that the prayer sessions are the r e a l i z a t i o n of the d i v i n e order on e a r t h , here and now, by the d i v i n e agency SMBK. They o f f e r a chance f o r the b e l i e v e r s to v i s u a l i z e the SMBK cosmology and the beauty and d i g n i t y i t c o n t a i n s . Therefore, the group prayer sessions are almost e x c l u s i v e l y r e l a t e d to the intermediate l e v e l i n which the cosmology i s taught. In s p i t e of t h i s , however, a l l the b e l i e v e r s are r e q u i r e d to attend these prayer sessions from the very beginning of t h e i r j o i n i n g SMBK, or sometimes even before they j o i n . But f o r those s t i l l remaining at the elementary l e v e l , before the exposure to the cosmology, the whole prayer s e s s i o n may l i k e l y appear p u z z l i n g . This i s another reason why b e l i e v e r s ' c u r i o s i t y f o r higher knowledge i s aroused. The t h i r d set i n c l u d e s the f a m i l y r i t u a l s . They are mainly of two k i n d s : one i s the d a i l y performance of a memorial r i t e to show respect to the f a m i l y a n c e s t o r s , and the other a d a i l y prayer given to the supreme d i v i n i t y and other d i v i n i t i e s . Although they a l s o take place i n the f a m i l y s e t t i n g , I w i l l exclude f u n e r a l s , weddings, and p r i v a t e performances of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , f o r the f i r s t two are too u n p r e d i c t a b l e to be woven i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m , w h i l e the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l should be c a t e g o r i z e d i n the f i r s t s e t , r e g a r d l e s s of the s i t e where i t i s performed. The performance of the a n c e s t r a l r i t e r e q u i r e s l e a r n i n g the -135-r o u t i n e SMBK way of doing i t and a l s o the p r e p a r a t i o n of a s p e c i a l l y equipped f a m i l y a l t a r . Every new b e l i e v e r , u s u a l l y a f t e r but sometimes even before the f i r s t elementary i n i t i a t i o n s e s s i o n , i s s t r o n g l y pressured to prepare the SMBK a l t a r . Since g i v i n g much respect to the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s i n the r e q u i r e d way i s considered as p r a c t i s i n g the elementary l e v e l of the d o c t r i n e , a c o n s i s t e n t performance of the r i t e i s considered a good b a s i s on which to judge whether the b e l i e v e r i s ready to go on to the next l e v e l . P ermission to advance to the inte r m e d i a t e l e v e l without i n s t a l l a t i o n of the SMBK a l t a r i s e x c e p t i o n a l . -136-INFORMAL FRIENDSHIP NETWORK In SMBK, i n f o r m a l membership o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a f r i e n d s h i p network and f u n c t i o n s to maintain group cohesion among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . The network expands on the b a s i s of formation of person-to-person t i e s , which i s a common phenomenon i n Japanese s o c i e t y . The t i e s are formed through frequent and d i r e c t contact which creates an i n t i m a t e atmosphere. Through the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p , r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s s a t i s f y not only t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs but a l s o t h e i r p r a c t i c a l needs (such as f i n d i n g j o b s ) . They meet r e g u l a r l y on p u b l i c occasions mainly at the l o c a l centre and a l s o at the Main Headquarters. However, they a l s o meet p r i v a t e l y on any excuse, mainly to perform the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . They meet because they i n t e n d to perform t h i s r i t u a l , but a l s o they perform i t whenever they meet. The e g a l i t a r i a n o r i e n -t a t i o n of the SMBK i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n depends l a r g e l y on the nature of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . I t i s s t r u c t u r e d to achieve e q u a l i t y by exchanging unequal r o l e s and so making the performers e q u i v a l e n t to each other. Membership among the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i s maintained through the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In po i n t of f a c t , the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r can maintain h i s membership s o l e l y on - 1 3 7 -i n f o r m a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s without f u l f i l l i n g formal o b l i g a t i o n s that r e q u i r e him to appear r e g u l a r l y at the l o c a l c e n t r e . As long as he maintains h i s i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , he w i l l never be f o r g o t t e n i n the SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n . The formal r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r SMBK membership among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i s r a t h e r c a s u a l ; the l o c a l centre merely records the name, address, and telephone number of each b e l i e v e r , w h i l e the Main Headquarters keeps no record of i n d i v i d u a l members. To maintain h i s formal membership, the b e l i e v e r i s o b l i g a t e d to appear at the l o c a l centre as o f t e n as p o s s i b l e on such occasions as p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l s , v a r i o u s prayer s e s s i o n s , some v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. p u b l i s h i n g a l o c a l centre n e w s l e t t e r , e t c . ) , and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (e.g. a t h l e t i c meetings, p i c n i c outings to h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s which have s p e c i a l s p i r i t u a l meaning f o r SMBK b e l i e v e r s ) . When a r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r t r i e s to withdraw from the SMBK movement, he has to withdraw from h i s i n f o r m a l human r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . Formal membership w i l l v a n i s h a u t o m a t i c a l l y when he stops going to h i s l o c a l c e n t r e . This makes dropping-out from SMBK much e a s i e r than other r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n which s i m i l a r person-to-person t i e s are a l s o f o r m a l l y recognized. For example, an SMBK b e l i e v e r who intends to leave the organ-i z a t i o n may f i r s t s h i f t the s i t e of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l from personal occasions to the l o c a l c e ntre. By doing so, -138-he can reduce contact w i t h h i s SMBK f r i e n d s . His f r i e n d s may mistake h i s change f o r a s i g n of more a c t i v e commitment to the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system, because, d o c t r i n a l l y , performing the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l at the l o c a l centre i s more d e s i r a b l e than performing i t among f r i e n d s . Once he has become obscure among h i s f r i e n d s , he can a l s o disappear from the l o c a l centre without a t t r a c t i n g much a t t e n t i o n to h i s withdrawal. In 1979, du r i n g my f i e l d w o r k , a formal d i v i s i o n of the b e l i e v e r s of the l o c a l centre i n t o small groups of 20-30 11 persons ( c a l l e d han) was a b o l i s h e d because i t f a i l e d to create a cohesive and e f f i c i e n t communication network among the b e l i e v e r s . This system was i n e f f e c t u a l because another i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n based on person-to-person t i e s between the b e l i e v e r s was, i n r e a l i t y , f u n c t i o n i n g more e f f e c t i v e l y . The way i n which these t i e s were formed i s t y p i c a l l y shown i n Nakane's diagram of v e r t i c a l s o c i a l groups, e s p e c i a l l y when based on the r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Through the c l o s e contact i n the recruitment a c t i v i t i e s , the r e c r u i t e r develops a good understanding o f , and cohesive r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h , the r e c r u i t . The r e c r u i t e r ' s p r a c t i c a l knowledge of the r e c r u i t ' s l i f e s t y l e permitted a s w i f t t r a n s m i s s i o n of messages from the l o c a l centre through the person-to-person t i e s to the bottom-ranked b e l i e v e r s . (See Diagram 14). The f a i l u r e i n the formal grouping (han) was caused by the -139-u n s u c c e s s f u l l i n k a g e among b e l i e v e r s already woven i n t o the person-to-person t i e s to other independent b e l i e v e r s who d i d not have a r e c r u i t e r . Diagram 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 — recruitment r e l a t i o n s h i p Table 6 shows that n e a r l y 507o of the respondents (category 1) maintain i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r r e c r u i t e r a f t e r becoming b e l i e v e r s . In my o b s e r v a t i o n s , these people develop personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s based on frequent mutual v i s i t s , o c c a s i o n a l exchange of g i f t s , and personal c o n s u l t a t i o n i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a l t a l k s on p r i v a t e matters. The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l plays a l a r g e r o l e i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r , i n p r i n c i p l e , i t has to be performed as o f t e n as once a day, and i t s performance r e q u i r e s a pa r t n e r . I t gives a good reason f o r an a c t i v e b e l i e v e r to v i s i t other b e l i e v e r s and p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r s . Once the b e l i e v e r i s woven i n t o t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , he tends to be h i g h l y dependent on the f e e l i n g of intimacy - 1 4 0 -Table 6 Question: What r e l a t i o n s h i p do you p e r s o n a l l y have w i t h your r e c r u i t e r ? Answer: 1. ( i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p ) I have a very c l o s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p . I see him/her o f t e n , have a p r i v a t e conver-s a t i o n and ask f o r personal c o n s u l t a t i o n . 2. ( c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p ) I o f t e n see him/her at the centre and a l s o p r i v a t e l y , but I do not t a l k about personal matters. 3. ( f a i r l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p ) I see him/her at the l o c a l centre and enjoy p a r t n e r s h i p f o r the p u r i f i -c a t i o n r i t u a l . 4. (formal r e l a t i o n s h i p only) I see him/her at the monthly prayer s e s s i o n s . 5. (remote r e l a t i o n s h i p ) I r a r e l y see him/her. 6. ( f a m i l y member) My r e c r u i t e r i s my own f a m i l y member. 7. ( p u b l i c a t i o n ) I was a t t r a c t e d to SMBK through the p u b l i c i t y a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , I have no r e c r u i t e r . 8. other Type of r e l a t i o n s h i p s Number of Respondants % 1. i n t i m a t e 249 47.07 2. c l o s e 12 2.27 3. f a i r l y c l o s e 21 3.97 4. formal 13 2.46 5. remote 71 13.42 6. f a m i l y member 91 17.20 7. p u b l i c i t y 38 7.18 8. others 34 6.43 T o t a l 529 100.00 - 1 4 1 -w i t h h i s r e c r u i t e r , and to be secured to the SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n through f r i e n d s h i p . Category 6 (The respondent's r e c r u i t e r i s h i s own f a m i l y member - 17%) may be added to category 1 . (The r e c r u i t e r and r e c r u i t keep an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p . ) However, the r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the same f a m i l y does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e such an i n t i m a t e a c t i v i t y as personal c o n s u l t a t i o n on p r i v a t e matters. Sometimes the whole f a m i l y j o i n s SMBK so that harmony and peace i n the household are maintained. In such a case, the degree of involvement i n SMBK v a r i e s among the f a m i l y members; the r e c r u i t e r i s l i k e l y a dedicated b e l i e v e r but other members' involvement i n the SMBK a c t i v i t i e s may be lower than the r e c r u i t e r or even be a compromise. Nev e r t h e l e s s , i n s p i t e of the v a r i e t y of involvement among the f a m i l y members, category 6 ( 1 7 7 , ) w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a part of the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h e i r f a m i l y t i e keeps them p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e and the r e c r u i t e r w i l l not los e h i s r e c r u i t s as long as the f a m i l y i s maintained. Thus, the i n f o r m a l t i e i n the SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n covers about 6 4 7 o of the b e l i e v e r s . However, some problems remain. About 2 0 7 , of the respondents ( 3 + 4 + 5 ) have f a i l e d to e s t a b l i s h an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the r e c r u i t e r , thereby becoming p o t e n t i a l -142-dropouts. About 107, (7 + 9) may be a c t i v e b e l i e v e r s but u n f o r t u n a t e l y do not have r e c r u i t e r s . Category 7 has been a t t r a c t e d by SMBK p u b l i c i t y through the Main Headquarters, w h i l e category 8 c o n s i s t s mostly of those who l o s t contact w i t h t h e i r r e c r u i t e r s because they have e i t h e r d i e d or moved to a remote p l a c e . The b e l i e v e r s who do not have r e c r u i t e r s are not n e c e s s a r i l y i n a c t i v e i n d o c t r i n a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . How-ever, they tend to drop out, because they o f t e n f a i l to r e c e i v e the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n to attend important but i r r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . They o f t e n become too i s o l a t e d from common p r i v i l e g e s given through i n t i m a t e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Morioka r e p o r t s on t h i s aspect of o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 12 h i s c l o s e study of K o s e i - k a i . This r e l i g i o u s movement f i r s t achieved a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n i t s membership through the formation of v e r t i c a l t i e s based on the r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t r e l a t i o n s h i p . However, i t had to reform i t s b a s i c organ-i z a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n from v e r t i c a l t i e s to r e s i d e n t i a l group-i n g s , because the maintenance of r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t r e l a t i o n -s h i p became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t due to a great i n t e r n a l m o b i l i t y which was gained as the movement expanded. For example, ... In consequence of t h i s reform 84 numbered Tokyo branches gave up a l l t h e i r non-Tokyo members, f o r m a l l y d i s s o l v e d themselves, and -143-then reorganized themselves i n t o 25 branches bearing Tokyo ward names ... . ^ I t appears to be a r u l e i n the r e l i g i o u s movement t h a t , w i t h the expansion of the movement, the person-to-person network has to be reorganized on the b a s i s of r e g i o n a l grouping. In SMBK, i n 1982, when the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was reformed, s i x Area D i r e c t o r s were newly assigned, Japan was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x areas, and the l o c a l centres under each area came to belong to a new category of "Area." In another example, the case of Soka Gakkai, each b e l i e v e r belongs simultaneously to the r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t h i e r a r c h y and r e s i d e n t i a l groupings. Membership of both i s o b l i g a t o r y . Diagram 15 taken from my M.A. paper shows the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e . The r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t h i e r a r c h y i s one of Nakane's t y p i c a l v e r t i c a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and the r e s i d e n t i a l grouping at the l e v e l of gurupu (group) i s e g a l i t a r i a n ( c l o s e to Nakane's model of h o r i z o n t a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ) . The b i l a t e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the Soka Gakkai o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n which one person i s doubly d e f i n e d , i s a l s o apparent i n SMBK. However, as i t s human r e l a t i o n s h i p s based on recruitment remain i n f o r m a l , the SMBK o r g a n i z a t i o n has d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from those of Soka Gakkai. In c o n t r a s t to other r e l i g i o u s movements ( i n c l u d i n g Soka Gakkai) where the r e c r u i t e r - r e c r u i t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a v e r t i c a l one _144-Diagram 15 SOKA GAKKAI ORGANIZATION ( o b l i g a t o r y to a l l members) Sakubuku L i n e ; (1) Sogo Honbu ( C e n t r a l Head Quarter) ( r e c r u i t o r - (2) Chiho Honbu ( D i s t r i c t Head Quarter r e c r u i t 4/ _ r e l a t i o n s h i p ) (3) So Shibu (Branches) (4) Chiku (Sections) (5) Han (Sub-sections) (6) Kumi ( C i r c l e s under r e c r u i t o r s ) (Model of Organization) / ( l ) / I (2) (2) (2) ^ ( 2 ) O r (3) (3) (3) / I (4) (4) (4) (4) (4) / / W (5) ( 5 ) ( 5 ) ( 5 ) ( 5 ) (5) (6) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) ( 6 ) (6) R e s i d e n t i a l Grouping: Sogo Burokku ( I n t e g r a t i n g Blocks) So Burokku ( C o l l e c t i v e Blocks) Dai Burokku ( B ig Blocks) I-Sho Burokku (Small Blocks) I -Gurupu (Groups) -145-(analogous to the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which there i s i r r e v e r s i b l e s u p e r i o r - i n f e r i o r o r i e n t a t i o n ) , i n SMBK, the s u p e r i o r - i n f e r i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s made ambiguous through the p r a c t i c e of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i n which the s u p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r r o l e s are exchanged. As the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s repe a t e d l y performed and the r e c r u i t becomes f a m i l i a r w i t h the idea of r o l e r e v e r s a l , the r e c r u i t u s u a l l y begins to extend the e g a l i t a r i a n i m p l i c a t i o n of the r o l e r e v e r s a l i n t o other aspects of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s r e c r u i t e r . When the r e c r u i t a t t a i n s the advanced l e v e l , he o f t e n f o r m a l l y achieves equal s t a t u s w i t h h i s r e c r u i t e r , or p o s s i b l y even higher s t a t u s i f h i s r e c r u i t e r has not reached that l e v e l . In t h i s way, the i n i t i a l v e r t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n between the r e c r u i t e r and r e c r u i t changes i n t o a more e g a l i t a r i a n f r i e n d -s h i p as time passes. When the r e c r u i t e r and r e c r u i t meet at the l o c a l c e n t r e , f o r example, i t i s not u s u a l l y p o s s i b l y to d i s t i n g u i s h s u p e r i o r s from i n f e r i o r s by t h e i r manners. This does not mean, however, that they have f o r g o t t e n t h e i r r e c r u i t -ment r e l a t i o n s h i p or that they are not p o l i t e or not concerned w i t h s t a t u s . In f a c t , the SMBK b e l i e v e r s o f t e n appear o l d -fashioned i n the eyes of l i b e r a l s not only because the b e l i e v e r s behave d i f f e r e n t l y according to t h e i r s t a t u s but a l s o because they j u s t i f y t h e i r acts of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Thus, among the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s , formal s t a t u s d i f f e r e n --14 6-A L e a f l e t Used f o r R e c r u i t m e n t S •« SC L! U *• < « SS E-J V i >o •I *<-o * 3 M •<* ¥•' i ° ^ - i « g s * 4 ) ^ ( j ; * j j ' •ii-rS'T!<a«*5-i' SMSSC* 1-*^**.'^ _> -o _> *•« ^  K * s *» a * u • s s as* is 6 « = S %> a S f *K ! " t H • t ft . » (WW) wa r*a*^=-j ^ « v a * 6 # * a * P < « . o J u : , ' o , i J u V vHKa->a->a«ut»->i)-< * a' • * u * -<*«•<-i as<wav -> *HS' S H I S S S i a l g a<=-«*>Nj° x v rO I IJU 4 ; H ^  *0 G i;—tiav' »<*• <«• n n * | » ^ - ) W i n i - H S ' i A j ! j » i V i 1 1 * • '«•«**' _><;=•- ^ n i i j ^ i ; 0 • * i a S L i * _> it z. a ) 5 -a u i 3i 1 *i W S S*iJI;3g-Ji.'a c «=• LI' s < i « N * • 6 « ' T - -3 ^  -> V 3 * 2 -i"1 ' S H T> *» « * P * « ' - 1 4 7 -t i a t i o n and i n f o r m a l f r i e n d s h i p c o e x i s t ; t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p permits the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r to i n t e r p r e t h i s p o s i t i o n i n v a r i o u s combinations ( i n h i s act and awareness). -148-UPWARD MOBILITY For i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and ideology i s a c o n t i n u i n g and emergent process moving towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n "wholeness" of d i v i n e order, and a c c o r d i n g l y , deeper engagement i n the SMBK paradigm. Upward m o b i l i t y i s a flow of b e l i e v e r s w i t h i n the h i e r a r c h y of power and knowledge. SMBK o f f e r s two accesses f o r upward m o b i l i t y : the r e g u l a r access f o r the m a j o r i t y of b e l i e v e r s and the access through teaching under more r e s t r i c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s . 1. Regular access Upward m o b i l i t y f o r r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s means to j o i n the body of c l e r i c s (Seep.124 f o r d e f i n i t i o n ) through success-f u l recruitment a c t i v i t i e s . (Diagram 4 ) . This a l s o means that b e l i e v e r s achieve membership through the more d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n SMBK d i v i n e order presumably embodied i n the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n , r a t h e r than through the i n f o r m a l and e g a l i t a r i a n f r i e n d s h i p network. Thus, b e l i e v e r s experience t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y h i e r a r c h i c a l as they climb up the s t r a t a . The goal of upward m o b i l i t y f o r the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r i s to become the Head of a l o c a l c e n t r e . U s u a l l y -149-a f t e r reaching the advanced l e v e l the owner of a f a m i l y s h r i n e i s encouraged to i n v i t e h i s r e c r u i t s and personal f r i e n d s (considered as p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r s ) to h i s f a m i l y prayer occasions and to the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . I f he i s s u c c e s s f u l , h i s home i s made i n t o an o-kiyome-jo ( p u r i f i c a t i o n s i t e ) , a formal branch belonging to h i s l o c a l c e n tre. When the number of b e l i e v e r s of h i s own branch centre reachs 100, i t achieves independence from i t s s u p e r i o r l o c a l centre and i t s e l f becomes a new l o c a l c e n t r e . The owner of the shr i n e normally becomes i t s Head. Therefore, the executive p o s i t i o n s are i n p r i n c i p l e e q u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to a l l r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . Achievement r a t e i n upward m o b i l i t y among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r i s as f o l l o w s (See Diagram 16): Table 7 shows that about 807. of the respondents to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e have i n s t a l l e d the SMBK f a m i l y a l t a r . (They w i l l be mentioned as "holder.") The t a b l e a l s o shows that about 157, have not i n s t a l l e d the a l t a r . (They w i l l be mentioned as "non-holder.") About 57. who have responded to t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e but d i d not answer t h i s p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n should be i n c l u d e d i n the category of non-holder, because the que s t i o n allows only a yes/no answer. A l s o , some b e l i e v e r s t o l d me that they d i d not answer because they f e l t , too ashamed to r e v e a l the f a c t that they had not i n s t a l l e d the a l t a r . Therefore, the r a t i o between the holder and non--150-DIAGRAM 16: Membership D i f f e r e n c e s i n SMBK S M B K " hangers-on Japanese s o c i e t y -151-holder i s 80% and 20%. Furthermore, Table 8 shows that the number of the el e m e n t a r y - l e v e l b e l i e v e r s approximates 40% of the t o t a l respondents. This i n d i c a t e s that the elementary l e v e l b e l i e v e r s c o n s i s t of 207, holders and 207, non-holders. That i s , the f i r s t 20% have no ambition f o r upward m o b i l i t y , because the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the a l t a r i s a major requirement f o r advancement, whereas another h a l f have already f u l f i l l e d i t . Concerning the membership composition i n a r e l i g i o u s movement i n Japan, Morioka says: A New R e l i g i o u s movement c o n s i s t s of two p r i n c i p a l p a r t s : a core group composed of f o l l o w e r s who c o n t i n u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the movement, and a p e r i p h e r a l group composed of those who cease to p a r t i c i p a t e a f t e r a short time. In a d d i t i o n , one can d i s t i n g u i s h a t r a n s i t i o n a l i n t e r -mediate group. Accepting Morioka's g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , the non-holders of the f a m i l y a l t a r , the bottom 207, of the SMBK movement should be d e f i n e d as a p e r i p h e r a l group. This group should a l s o c o n s i s t of a number of p o t e n t i a l drop-outs. The annual turn-over of membership at the l o c a l centre i n SBMK i s q u i t e h i g h . At the Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e , f o r example, i t i s as high as 80%,. This means that about 20 people out of 100 newly i n i t i a t e d annual stay at t h i s c e ntre. (At t h i s centre about ten people attend the elementary l e c t u r e s e s s i o n each time. The s e s s i o n i s held once a month at most and about 10 to 11 -152-TABLE 7: Question "Have you i n s t a l l e d the SMBK f a m i l y a l t a r ? " Number * 1. Yes 468 2. No 3. No answer T o t a l 84 31 80.27% 14.41% 5.32% 583 100.00% " Number of respondents to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . TABLE 8: The l e v e l of the l e c t u r e s e s s i o n of the respondent Number 1. elementary l e v e l 236 40 . 48% 2. intermediate l e v e l 209 35 .85% 3. advanced l e v e l 123 • 21 .10% 4. below elementary l e v e l 3 0 .51% T o t a l 583 100 .00% TABLE 9: Question "Have you i n s t a l l e d the SMBK f a m i l y s h r i n e ? " Number 1. Yes 401 68.78% 2. No 124 21.27% 3. No answer _5_8 9.9 5% T o t a l 583 100.00% -153-times a year. ) A l a r g e p o r t i o n of the bottom 207, of the respondents ("peripheral group") r e p r e s e n t i n g the p e r i p h e r a l group should a l s o overlap w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l part of the 807, turn-over. In other words, the members i n the bottom 207> change c o n s t a n t l y . This high turn-over r a t e i s one reason why the Main Headquarters does not keep a record of r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . The up-to-date record i s p o s s i b l e only at the l o c a l centre l e v e l . I n s t a l l i n g a f a m i l y s h r i n e i s a great honour f o r the f a m i l y , because i t i s permitted only to the b e l i e v e r who has been recognized as a 'master of the r i t u a l and the d o c t r i n e at a l l three l e v e l s . Thus, Table 8 shows that about 217, of the respondents to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e have i n s t a l l e d the f a m i l y s h r i n e . This corresponds to the f i g u r e s i n Table 2 which shows that about 217, have f i n i s h e d the advanced-level l e c t u r e s e s s i o n . I f we f o l l o w Morioka's d i s t i n c t i o n , these 217, are the core group which has reached the highest l e v e l among the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . They have a good chance to promote them-selv e s to be Heads of t h e i r own l o c a l c e n t r e s . Since about another 207, c o n s t i t u t e the p e r i p h e r a l group, the remaining 607, may be d e f i n e d as the " t r a n s i t i o n a l i n t e r m e d i a t e " group. This group a s p i r e s to a higher s t a t u s . However, the t u r n -over r a t e of t h i s group i s not c l e a r to me. I was t o l d that sometimes the Head of the l o c a l centre permits a b e l i e v e r of the intermediate l e v e l to i n s t a l l a f a m i l y s h r i n e i f the Head recognizes him as an e x c e p t i o n a l l y good b e l i e v e r . Such a case appears to be a r e a l e x c e p t i o n , and i t does not show i n the s t a t i s t i c s . 2. Access through teaching In 1982, s i x d i r e c t o r s out of twelve, and t h i r t e e n Heads of l o c a l centres out of one hundred and ten, were former teachers. The reason why as many as h a l f the number of D i r e c t o r s were former teachers was that the o r i g i n a l f o l l o w e r s of the founder of SMBK were a l l considered to be teachers. Those who wish to be on the teaching s t a f f are asked to s t a r t t h e i r career by l i v i n g i n the SMBK school f o r one year f o r i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g . During t h i s p e r i o d , i d e a l l y , they should be segregated from any outs i d e i n f l u e n c e i n c l u d i n g that of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The SMBK school s t a r t e d i n 197 5. The number of the students i n the annual c u r r i c u l u m f o r the f i r s t f o u r years s i n c e 1975 was about f o u r . However, since 1979, i t has jumped to f o r t y - f i v e . In 1981, f o r t y nine students were admitted, and f o r t y - s i x graduated. In 1982, the number of s t u d e n t s - i n -p r a c t i c e i s f o r t y - s i x , t h a t of the a s s i s t a n t teacher t h i r t y -seven, and that of the teacher seventy-one. (From M a h i k a r i Magazine, 1982,January) -156-The admittance procedure to the SMBK school i s as f o l l o w s : The b a s i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i s that the a p p l i c a n t i s p r e s e n t l y a b e l i e v e r . The entrance examination i s g i ven only once a year. I t i s i n two p a r t s , and a l l b e l i e v e r s are n o t i f i e d of i t s dates and c o n d i t i o n s through the l o c a l c e n t r e s . The two pa r t s of the examination are: a comprehensive examination on the s e c u l a r and d i v i n e knowledge 15 (5:00-7:00 p.m. normally a f t e r O h a r a i - s a i i n December); and an o r a l examination on p e r s o n a l i t y (5:00-7:00 p.m. normally 16 a f t e r R i s s h u n - s a i i n February). The comprehensive examination i s given to t e s t the a p p l i c a n t ' s a b i l i t y to master the SMBK d o c t r i n e and to teach i t to others i n the f u t u r e . The d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y , r e v e a l e d by the o r a l examination, i s harmonious, s p i r i t u a l , and p r a c t i c a l . The harmonious aspect i s important because teaching s t a f f are expected to " l i v e i n " the l o c a l centre and the candidate has to prepare f o r t h i s through the c o l l e c t i v e process of education at the SMBK sch o o l . The p r a c t i c a l aspect of p e r s o n a l i t y i s another important requirement, because the SMBK school t r i e s to avoid those who separate theory and p r a c t i c e as two u n r e l a t e d spheres of l i f e . The SMBK b e l i e v e r s c o nsider t h i s type of person to be one who " l e a r n s by head not by body." This means that he can understand but does not act on h i s under-standing, or does not even imagine that a change i n under-- 1 5 7 -standing r e q u i r e s a change i n a c t i o n . The SMBK people tend to dism i s s t h i s type of person as an i n t e l l e c t u a l . Those a p p l i c a n t s who have passed the entrance examination r e c e i v e a n o t i c e by ma i l i n March and then begin one year of f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g . The c u r r i c u l u m i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p e r i o d s , one from A p r i l to September (or October) and the other from October (or November) to March.^ 7 (The former may be c a l l e d "the f i r s t term" and the l a t t e r "the second term" f o r convenience.) From 1979 to 1980, the SMBK school c u r r i c u l u m ran as f o l l o w s : i n the f i r s t term the SMBK school students, c a l l e d kunren-sei ( c a n d i d a t e - s t u d e n t s ) , were ordered to l i v e i n the school b u i l d i n g i n Tokyo. In the mornings they attended a l e c t u r e on d o c t r i n e , and i n the afternoons they were sent to the l o c a l centres i n and near Tokyo to expose themselves to the d o c t r i n a l and r i t u a l i n t e r c o u r s e of the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . In my f i e l d w o r k d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the Koganei l o c a l centre r e c e i v e d two candidate-students f i v e or s i x days a week, from about 3:00-6:00 p.m. In the second term, the candidate-students were ordered to l i v e i n l o c a l c entres throughout Japan i n order to t r a i n themselves f o r the l i v e - i n s t y l e of s e r v i c e normally r e q u i r e d f o r the teaching s t a f f . They are o b l i g a t e d to gather at the Main Headquarters i n Tokyo f o r monthly and annual prayer s e s s i o n s . In t h i s way they keep i n contact w i t h one another, and are expected to -158-remain f r i e n d s w h i l e r e c e i v i n g some general d i r e c t i o n s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s from the D i r e c t o r of Education and T r a i n i n g . The c u r r i c u l u m was changed duri n g the p e r i o d of my f i e l d w o r k . From 1980-1981 the t r a i n i n g content of the f i r s t term and the second term was reversed. From May to October the candidate-students were sent to l i v e i n l o c a l centres a f t e r a one-month t r a i n i n g p e r i o d i n d a i l y - l i f e manners, i n s t e a d of f i r s t l e a r n i n g the d o c t r i n e at the SMBK school. The r a t i o n a l e g iven f o r t h i s change was "experience f i r s t , e x p l a n a t i o n next." A f t e r graduation from t h i s s c h o o l , before becoming an SMBK teacher, there are s t i l l more steps to take: f o l l o w i n g g r a d u a t i o n , the candidate-student i s given the stat u s j i s s h u - s e i ( s t u d e n t - i n - p r a c t i c e ) and u s u a l l y spends one more year l i v i n g i n a l o c a l c e n tre. Then he w i l l be permitted to go on to a higher s t a t u s e n t i t l e d doshi-ho ( a s s i s t a n t teacher) f o r another year. A f t e r a l l these steps he i s normally appointed to be doshi ( t e a c h e r ) , although he begins w i t h the t i t l e of n i - k y u doshi (second c l a s s t e a c h e r ) , and i t takes one or more years to reach the st a t u s of i-kkyu doshi ( f i r s t c l a s s t e a c h e r ) . SOME FLEXIBILITIES Upward m o b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d to a personal r e l a t i o n -s h i p which may be named a c r o s s - s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The way the c l o s e and h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p f u n c t i o n s depends on the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : f i r s t , i n SMBK, any r e c o g n i t i o n from a s u p e r i o r ( e i t h e r d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t ) i s considered to be honourable. The most e x p l i c i t example i s the a t t e n t i o n given by the Lord-teacher S e k i g u c h i : i t i s an honour f o r r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s even to r e c e i v e a few k i n d words from him, because the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r i s not allowed to ask f o r them. Besides, the Lord-teacher r a r e l y speaks to r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . Sometimes a f t e r a prayer s e s s i o n , the Lord-teacher shakes hands w i t h r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i n order to show h i s a f f e c t i o n towards them. Even i n t h i s o ccasion they are not supposed to speak to him. Overt f r i e n d l i n e s s from them to him i s regarded as a request f o r more a t t e n t i o n from him which w i l l l i k e l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as a p u b l i c d i s p l a y of a s p e c i a l personal r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h him. This act w i l l be considered to be an aggressive one. The second c o n d i t i o n f o r the c l o s e and h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t formal r e l a t i o n s h i p s are a l s o accompanied by personal involvement (The opposite i s not n e c e s s a r i l y true.) -160-The L o r d - t e a c h e r g i v i n g c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o h i s f o l l o w e r s . ( M a h i k a r i M a gazine, 1979, May) -161-the f a i l u r e i n mutual and personal involvement means the f a i l u r e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For example, the D i r e c t o r s and most Heads are not only long-standing members of SMBK but a l s o are g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d to have had an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the deceased f i r s t l e a d e r , L o r d - s a v i o r Okada (now considered to have been e l e v a t e d to a d i v i n i t y ) . T h e i r p o s i t i o n s are a u t h o r i z e d i n t h i s way. Under such circumstances, i t i s important f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e members to pay a c t i v e and personal a t t e n t i o n t o the b e l i e v e r s who may p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e to the expansion of the SMBK movement. W i t h i n a l o c a l centre t h i s i s v i g o r o u s l y done, because the Head i s c l o s e to r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . Between the Main Headquarters and the l o c a l c e n t r e , r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s who have been recognized as having a high commitment to recruitment a c t i v i t y are o c c a s i o n a l l y sent to the Main Headquarters to serve the C e n t r a l Shrine. This creates a chance f o r D i r e c t o r s to develop a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them, to encourage them to promote themselves to be Heads, and a l s o to i n v e s t i g a t e the p e r s o n a l i t y of these p o t e n t i a l Heads. Therefore, by the time a b e l i e v e r achieves the p o s i t i o n of Head, h i s personal r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the D i r e c t o r s has already been e s t a b l i s h e d . Thus, intimacy or personal closeness mainly f u n c t i o n s i n two ways: 1. Among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s , i t t i e s the r e c r u i t e r and -162-the r e c r u i t i n a h i g h l y e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p . 2. Between an executive member and a r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r , i t f u n c t i o n s to s t i m u l a t e upward m o b i l i t y of the SMBK h i e r a r c h y . These two f u n c t i o n s of i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s may confuse r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s , because both f u n c t i o n s d e r i v e from the two-f o l d d e f i n i t i o n of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . I t o f f e r s to the r e c r u i t to develop an e g a l i t a r i a n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the r e c r u i t e r , but the r e c r u i t must r e l i n q u i s h i t as he gains upward m o b i l i t y through the perf ormance of the same p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Another element of ambiguity i s the f a c t that p e r s o n a l i t y counts g r e a t l y i n i n f o r m a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This i s the aspect p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c i z e d by Nakane as being indigenous, emotional and, t h e r e f o r e , i r r a t i o n a l . However, i f we d e f i n e p e r s o n a l i t y as a l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n which the person r e l a t e s h i m s e l f to the world — r a t h e r than the combination of repressed d e s i r e s and the e f f o r t of surface r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of them — i t s involvement i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i r r a t i o n a l . The po i n t i s that anyone i n an i n f o r m a l and personal r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e q u i r e d to master the way to deal w i t h personal d i v e r s i t y . In the SMBK movement, the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l o f f e r s an e s t a b l i s h e d and s t y l i z e d means to master such human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (Chapter V) -163-In the l o c a l c e n t r e , the c l o s e and personal a t t e n t i o n given by the s u p e r i o r creates a double exposure of a r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r to two a u t h o r i t i e s , the teaching s t a f f and the Head. This double exposure to higher a u t h o r i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t statuses becomes d i s t i n c t i v e when i t occurs between r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s and c l e r i c s , because human r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s are h i g h l y e g a l i t a r i a n . Table 10 shows the preference of the r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r f o r personal c o n s u l t a t i o n and advice. (The t o t a l of the t a b l e exceeds the t o t a l number of the respondents because the c a l c u l a t i o n i n c l u d e s cases i n which one respondent gave more than one answer.) According to t h i s t a b l e the most p r e f e r r e d c o n s u l t a n t i s the Head of the l o c a l c e n t r e , i n s p i t e of the f a c t that the Head i s u s u a l l y engaged i n h i s own s e c u l a r job and h i s v i s i t s to the l o c a l centre are r a t h e r l i m i t e d , and that the l i v e - i n teachers are always a v a i l a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , the high r a t e of c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Head a l s o i n d i c a t e s an easy access to him. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e at the Koganei c e n t r e , because the Head o f t e n sat w i t h r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s e i t h e r sharing the same food or t a l k i n g c a s u a l l y about d o c t r i n a l matters. This s i t u a t i o n adds an element of i n s e c u r i t y to the teacher's p o s i t i o n . I n some cases, h i s a u t h o r i t y over r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i s undermined i f a r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r complains to the Head. The power s t r u c t u r e -164-TABLE 10: P r e f e r r e d Personal Consultant i n SMBK 1. Head 2. Teacher 3. R e c r u i t e r 4. Other 5. None T o t a l Number of respondents 288 220 143 74 17 742 38.82 29.65 19.27 9.97 2.29 100.00 -165-i n the l o c a l centre i n t h i s respect may be diagrammed as f o l l o w s : Head teacher r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s Table 11 shows the way i n which b e l i e v e r s r e l a t e to t h e i r s u p e r i o r s . When an order from the s u p e r i o r comes i n t o doubt, 2 7 % of b e l i e v e r s simply obey the order, 3 2 7 o ask questions but obey, 11% go to a higher a u t h o r i t y , but only l e s s than 1%, r e j e c t the order. In other words, once the order i s g i v e n , the b e l i e v e r s normally accept i t . Therefore, the m a j o r i t y consider that a disagreement between a s u p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r i s (and should be) r e s o l v e d by the two d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d . This supports Nakane's argument that i n such a h i e r a r c h i c a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p , as has been e x p l a i n e d i n Diagram 14 (p. 110), a person has access to power only through h i s d i r e c t s u p e r i o r . However, according to Table 11 more than one out of ten SMBK b e l i e v e r s assume that i t i s proper to b r i n g the iss u e to a higher a u t h o r i t y . This creates an ambiguity i n the power s t r u c t u r e and sometimes puts the d i r e c t s u p e r i o r i n an ambivalent p o s i t i o n w i t h r e l a t i o n to h i s -166-TABLE 11: What would you do when you do not t h i n k that the order from your s u p e r i o r i s a r i g h t one? Answers: 1. (obedience) I would obey without q u e s t i o n i n g . 2. (agreement) I would immediately ask f o r reason and c l a r i f y the p o i n t . 3. (withdrawal) I would ask my s u p e r i o r to exclude me from the a c t i v i t y . 4. (higher a u t h o r i t y ) I would go and ask questions to the person of higher s t a t u s than my s u p e r i o r . 5. other 6. no answer Number of Respondents % 1. obedience 157 26.93 2. agreement 139 32.42 3. withdrawal 5 0.86 4. higher a u t h o r i t y 65 11.15 5. other 37 6.35 6. no answer 130 22.30 T o t a l 583 100.00 -167-s u p e r i o r . The teacher's p o s i t i o n at the l o c a l centre i s a d i s t i n c t i v e example of t h i s s o r t . However, the ambiguity remains w i t h i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l or l i m i n a l sphere i n SMBK, and does not jeop a r d i z e the o v e r - a l l frameworks of the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system. -163-NOTES 1C. Nakane, 1970, p. 154. 2 C. Nakane, 1967. The d i r e c t quotes from t h i s reference which f o l l o w were t r a n s l a t e d by K. Miyanaga and S. P a r r . 3 N. Nagashima, 1977, pp. 185-216. (The q u o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese to E n g l i s h by K. Miyanaga.) 4 R. Benedict, 1946. For more d i s c u s s i o n on g i r i , see Chapter V. ^This answer was s t r i k i n g to some of my Japanese c o l l e g u e s studying s o c i o l o g y of r e l i g i o n , because i t i s widel y b e l i e v e d among s o c i o l o g i s t s that her generation has l o s t any concern w i t h the r e c i p r o c a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 6 Sekiguchi san or sama, or even Sekiguchi s h i it*f) i s not used among r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s . 7 =4 -± 8 A -* 9 % % 10 ¥\ $ t % 11 y j t Kc5sei-kai i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n of Rissho K o s e i - k a i . K. Morioka, 1980, p. 249. -169-1 4 I b i d . , p. 239. 15 O h a r a i - s a i : The annual prayer s e s s i o n to p u r i f y the d i r t - p o i s o n accumulated f o r the year. 16 R i s s h u n - s a i : The annual prayer s e s s i o n held on the f i r s t day of s p r i n g , i n order to p u r i f y the " o r i g i n a l s i n . " (See Chapter IV f o r the " o r i g i n a l s i n . " ) 17 The academic year i n Japan normally runs from A p r i l to March. 18 — — — The t i t l e s , i k k y u and n i k y u doshi were a b o l i s h e d a f t e r the death of the f i r s t leader"^ the L o r d - s a v i o r Okada. - 1 7 0 -CHAPTER IV: SMBK DOCTRINE CONTAINMENT OF EQUALITY IN HIERARCHY - 1 7 1 -The SMBK r e l i g i o u s system i s a h i e r a r c h y of power and knowledge which c o n s i s t s of formal o r g a n i z a t i o n as the top s t r u c t u r e and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as the bottom s t r u c t u r e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system corresponds to the composition of SMBK d o c t r i n e . Cosmology j u s t i f i e s h i e r a r c h y whereas o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y demands an e g a l i t a r i a n p r a c t i s e of compassion. However, there i s a s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e i n composition between membership o r g a n i z a t i o n and d o c t r i n e . In d o c t r i n e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two components i s containment; o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s contained i n cosmology. In c o n t r a s t , formal and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are only juxtaposed. Nevertheless, because the d o c t r i n e provides e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between formal and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s conceived as p a r a l l e l to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between cosmology and o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y . This i s the reason why the formal s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s f u n c t i o n a l l y only nominal but does have an i d e o l o g i c a l meaning. When the membership o r g a n i z a t i o n i s viewed through the SBMK d o c t r i n e , i t appears as i f the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n were contained w i t h i n the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . Thus, i n SMBK, the membership o r g a n i z a t i o n and the d o c t r i n e are conceived as p a r a l l e l to each other. Therefore, the s h i f t from e q u a l i t y to h i e r a r c h y - 1 7 2 -i n upward m o b i l i t y occurs simultaneously i n both spheres. (Diagram 17). In the SMBK d o c t r i n e , cosmology i s an expres s i o n of the r e l i g i o u s paradigm. Because r e l i g i o n r e f e r s to "wholeness (Chapter I ) , the SMBK cosmology a l s o a s c r i b e s "wholeness" to the d i v i n e order. The n o t i o n of "wholeness" i n d i c a t e s l o g i c a l completion. This means that the part of r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e which subscribes t o the "wholeness" of d i v i n e order i framed i n a completely deductive l o g i c and i s not subject to e m p i r i c a l examination. Therefore, a p a r t i c u l a r myth of c r e a t i o n i s l o g i c a l l y necessary f o r the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of exi s t e n c e as a perceived r e a l i t y . I t may be the product of one e s s e n t i a l being, the Creator. That i s , the order i s considered to be an expres s i o n of the Creator's w i l l . However order may a l s o have been born from a s t a t e which i s not order, such as chaos, as i n Greek mythology. In the l a t t e r case, the process i s j u s t i f i e d because i t happened. Therefore, the d i v i n e order may be expressed i n the form of the cosmological order as i t i s b e l i e v e d to be and/or as the w i l l of the omnipotent d i v i n i t y who r u l e s the cosmos. When the w i l l i s emphasized, the image of the cosmos may be poor. On the other hand, si n c e the s t a t e of the order i s u s u a l l y the main focus, d o c t r i n e normally contains an elab o r a t e cosmology. As may be seen i n a v a r i e t y of -173-DIAGRAM 17: U n i l i n e a l Process of Upward M o b i l i t y Through the Hierarchy of Power and Knowledge the wider s o c i e t y mythologies, the cosmos i s g e n e r a l l y viewed as a pantheon.^- I t c o n s i s t s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d i v i n i t i e s , s p i r i t s , s u p e r n a t u r a l beings, heroes and human beings. The s t a t e of the cosmos and w i l l of the d i v i n i t y may w e l l be combined, as i s the case i n SMBK. An example of an e l a b o r a t e cosmology, i n which the pantheon i s an e x p r e s s i o n of order considered to have been born from non-order, and i n which the cosmos i s t y p i c a l l y viewed as an order of s t a t i c power, i s provided by the M i c h i H i r a k i , a s e l f - p r o c l a i m i n g Shinto t h e o r i s t group, c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by a cosmology q u i t e s i m i l a r to that of SMBK but f a r more elab o r a t e and d e t a i l e d . I t s name means "opening a way" w i t h michi meaning "way" and h i r a k i meaning "opening." As i s o f t e n the case i n A s i a , the "way" means the "proper way to be a human being." The M i c h i H i r a k i d o c t r i n e shows "the way," by p o s i t i o n i n g the b e l i e v e r i n a f i n e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d pantheon. The d o c t r i n e i s independent of e m p i r i c a l examination because i t stands on the myth of c r e a t i o n . Consequently, the l o g i c contained i n the d o c t r i n e becomes s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . The M i c h i H i r a k i pantheon may be b r i e f l y sketched. The supreme d i v i n i t y i s a pure s p i r i t which f i l l s the cosmos but does not have a t a n g i b l e "body." He i s not an anthropo-morphic f i g u r e . In c o n t r a s t , at the bottom l e v e l of the pantheon, i n f e r i o r d i v i n i t i e s have human-like appearances. - 1 7 5 -Between these two, the pantheon develops as v a r i o u s stages of p u r i t y / d e f i l e m e n t i n combination. In t h i s pantheonic order, the t a n g i b i l i t y of the "body" of the d i v i n i t y i s considered to be p a r a l l e l to the degree of defile m e n t . This s p a t i a l order, viewed as a pantheon, a l s o i n d i c a t e s the b i r t h order of the d i v i n i t i e s . That i s , the s p a t i a l order and the b i r t h order correspond w i t h one another, r e p r e s e n t i n g the n e c e s s i t y of the higher d i v i n i t y i n r e l a t i o n to the lower. Thus, the supreme d i v i n i t y i s the parent of the d i v i n i t i e s i n the second l e v e l of the pantheon and the second-level d i v i n i t i e s are contained i n the parent; the second-level d i v i n i t i e s are the parents of those i n the t h i r d l e v e l ; the t h i r d - l e v e l d i v i n i t i e s are the parents of those i n the f o u r t h l e v e l , and so on. In t h i s way, the pantheon a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s a k i n s h i p map of the d i v i n i t i e s . Each human being i n t h i s k i n s h i p map i s s p i r i t u a l l y t i e d to a p a r t i c u l a r parent d i v i n i t y from whom the human being has been given s p i r i t . As each d i v i n i t y i s considered to embody a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y , the q u a l i t y of the parent d i v i n i t y determines that of the c h i l d . This q u a l i t y i s a l s o assumed to be r e f l e c t e d i n the name of the c h i l d , f o r example, because the i n s p i r a t i o n from the parent d i v i n i t y c o n t r o l s the naming through the human parents and/or r e l a t i v e s . When I st u d i e d the M i c h i H i r a k i d o c t r i n e w i t h the - 1 7 6 -female leader of t h i s group, she s a i d that I was predestined to be i n anthropology because my personal name, Kuniko, means country or n a t i o n . According to her, anthropology i n a broader sense i s the study of human nature, which i s a l s o the study of the n a t i o n a l o r i g i n of human nature i n a more s p e c i f i c sense. She i n s i s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , that my name guided me i n t o anthropology. She a l s o t o l d me that a p a r t i c u l a r female d i v i n i t y of wisdom i s my parent d i v i n i t y . According to her, t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i v i n i t y was a l s o her own s p i r i t u a l parent. Therefore, we were s p i r i t u a l k i n . However, she added that she was a d i r e c t descendant wh i l e I was a f i g u r e of an i n f e r i o r side-stream. That was why she was teaching her d o c t r i n e to me. Thus, when one f i n d s one's own parent d i v i n i t y i n the pantheon, one a l s o f i n d s one's p o s i t i o n i n i t . That i s , one f i n d s one's own f a t e . . This f a t e , from an anthro-p o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view, may be i n t e r p r e t e d as s e l f - i d e n t i t y . Although the M i c h i H i r a k i leader emphasizes that her f o l l o w e r s should be able to r e g u l a t e t h e i r personal l i v e s based on t h e i r knowledge of the cosmos, they themselves expressed d i f f i c u l t i e s . When I was studying the d o c t r i n e w i t h her, her f o l l o w e r s sometimes telephoned to ask her how to deal w i t h t h e i r d a i l y l i f e problems. Instead of g i v i n g them a pragmatic s o l u t i o n , she emphasized t h a t they should study the d o c t r i n e more deeply. In other words, the M i c h i H i r a k i d o c t r i n e does not provide an o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y which d i r e c t l y r e g u l a t e s d a i l y l i f e through the a p p l i c a t i o n of c l e a cut p r i n c i p l e s . I would l i k e to corroborate t h i s p o i n t w i t h the f o l l o w i n g JRKK example. JRKK i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r J i s s e n R i n r i Kosei K a i which may be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h as the " A s s o c i a t i o n of P r a c t i c a l E t h i c s . " This group i s more widely known as Asaoki Kai ( E a r l y B i r d A s s o c i a t i o n ) because they meet e a r l y f o r s e s s i o n s . The b e l i e v e r s have r e g u l a r p u b l i c c o n f e s s i o n sessions among themselves every morning before t h e i r d a i l y j o b s , most commonly from 5:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m. The content of t h e i r m o r a l i t y i s dependent on such common sense norms as respect f o r parents, p r a c t i c e of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , harmony, independence, happiness, v i t a l i t y , p r a c t i c a l i t y , e t c . These moral aspects do not have any f u r t h e r i n t e g r a t i n g theory and are reduced to f i v e p r i n c i p l e s which should be r e c i t e d every morning. 1. A l l day today, I w i l l work g l a d l y f o r three on* ( s o c i a l on, teacher's on, parent on): 2. A l l day today, I w i l l not c r i t i c i z e o t h e r s , w i l l not advocate my good deeds. 3. A l l day today, I w i l l do immediately without h e s i t a t i o n whatever I n o t i c e I should do. 4. A l l day today, I w i l l not be angry, and w i l l be s a t i s f i e d . 5. A l l day today, I w i l l l i v e newly and s t r o n g l y -178-on e a r t h without three abuses (abuse of 3 m a t e r i a l s , abuse of time, abuse of mind). Although JRKK has been r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the Govern-ment as a r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n , and has a l s o been categor-i z e d as one of the New R e l i g i o n s by academics, s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s of JRKK o f t e n emphasize that JRKK i s not a r e l i g i o n but a moral campaign. The reason may be as f o l l o w s : As r e l i g i o n has been condemned as a f a l s e ideology since the end of World War I I , i t i s not unusual that r e l i g i o u s people advocate themselves as " s c i e n t i f i c e n l i g h t e n i s t . " Even SMBK claims to be one, although t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t to j u s t i f y because, to o u t s i d e r s , i t s heavy involvement i n s p i r i t p ossession appears too i r r a t i o n a l to be s c i e n t i f i c . The JRKK's case has an advantage compared to SMBK because JRKK's d o c t r i n e c o n s i s t s almost e x c l u s i v e l y of moral p r i n c i p l e s . The only e x c e p t i o n a l conception i n JRKK i s nature (or Nature); but t h i s i s not f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t e d i n t o a cosmology, even though i t f u n c t i o n s to j u s t i f y the moral p r i n c i p l e s i n the same way as the SMBK cosmology does. In JRKK nature (or Nature) i s not viewed i n imagery but i s used i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: " I t i s n a t u r a l to respect your parents." or "You can get up e a r l y i n the morning w i t h no d i f f i c u l t y once i t becomes a n a t u r a l way (because i t should be)." When the JRKK b e l i e v e r s say that they are not - 1 7 9 -r e l i g i o u s , they are t r y i n g to d e f i n e themselves as e n l i g h t -e n i s t s . However, they a c t i v e l y advocate themselves as sympathizers of r e l i g i o n by saying that t h e i r d o c t r i n e "opens the gate to r e l i g i o n . " In t h i s way they t a c t f u l l y t r y to achieve a n o n - r e l i g i o u s p o s i t i o n , although they are i n favour of r e l i g i o n . This p o s i t i o n i n g of JRKK may a l s o have h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s i n Confucian t r a d i t i o n . For a long time u n t i l r e c e n t l y , as a r u l i n g c l a s s i d e o l o g y , Confucianism occupied an important p o s i t i o n i n Japanese s o c i e t y . I t s b a s i c d o c t r i n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to JRKK because of i t s l a c k of cosmology and promotion of e t h i c s as a n a t u r a l way. A problem a r i s e s when a d o c t r i n e contains both an ela b o r a t e cosmology and a developed o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y . There can be a l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the cosmology and the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y . The o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of d a i l y l i f e r e a l i t y , and a c c o r d i n g l y , i s i n d u c t i v e . In c o n t r a s t , cosmology i s a system of deductive l o g i c which c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r s to "wholeness" and completion. The process of reasoning i s not the same i n the cosmology and the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y . In the SMBK example, the oper-a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s h i g h l y f l e x i b l e i n nature, because i t b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t s of confessions t o l d by possessing s p i r i t s . Because confessions may c o n t a i n any fragments of the d a i l y l i f e r e a l i t y , the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y may expand e n d l e s s l y as - I S O -confessions are accumulated. On the other hand, the cosmology i s s t i l l complete and does not expand. However, the problem i s that the m o r a l i t y has to be a part of the cosmology because d a i l y l i f e i s an in d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t of the cosmos. The question then i s how the m o r a l i t y f i t s i n t o the cosmology. In SMBK, the m o r a l i t y i s expressed i n s t o r i e s , and furthermore, t h e i r scenes are " g e o g r a p h i c a l l y " l o c a t e d i n c e r t a i n parts of the cosmos. This containment i s p o s s i b l e through the meta-p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y . In c o n t r a s t , i n a s t r o l o g y , a compartment of an ela b o r a t e image of cosmos f u n c t i o n s as the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y f o r a person, according to h i s z o d i a c ; m o r a l i t y simply i n d i c a t e s f a t e w i t h regard to h i s p o s i t i o n i n the cosmos. There i s no discrepancy i n the process of reasoning between cosmology and m o r a l i t y . The d i f f erence between SMBK and a s t r o l o g y should be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that the SMBK d o c t r i n e i s a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n a s o c i a l movement, whereas a s t r o l o g y normally serves a d i s c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l . -181-COSMOLOGY: PURITY AND PANTHEON In the SMBK cosmology, h i e r a r c h y and e q u a l i t y correspond to order and d i s o r d e r , and a l s o to containment and c o n f l i c t . In other words, e q u a l i t y i s r e l a t e d to the n o t i o n of c o n f l i c t and c o n s t i t u t e s d i s o r d e r . On the other hand, order i s h i e r a r c h i c a l but encompasses e q u a l i t y , c o n f l i c t and d i s o r d e r . 1. Pantheon What SMBK d o c t r i n e i n s i s t s on i s a d i v i n e order " g i v e n " by the c r e a t o r . SMBK people b e l i e v e that our cosmos i s an e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of the w i l l of t h e i r supreme d i v i n i t y named Mioya-moto Su Ma h i k a r i Qmikami, u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as Su no Kami. As i s the case i n the S h i n t o i s t way of naming d i v i n i t i e s , h i s name i s a compact summary of h i s c h a r a c t e r : mioya means parent, moto o r i g i n , su l o r d , mahikari true l i g h t (or d i v i n e l i g h t ) and omikami great d i v i n i t y . He i s , t h e r e -f o r e , the g r e a t ( e s t ) d i v i n i t y and the c r e a t o r (parent and o r i g i n of a l l b e i n g s ) , who f i l l s h i s own cosmos w i t h the true l i g h t which i s the source of l i f e . A l l the beings i n h i s cosmos can l i v e only by r e c e i v i n g energy ( l i g h t ) from him. This f i r s t premise of the c r e a t i o n of the cosmos forms an o n t o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r m o r a l i t y such that a l l the beings i n -182-"Omoto no Kami (Su no Kami) Mioya-moto Su Mahikari Omikami (He has many other names.) i \ \ \ J d i v i n i t y of time i v i n i t y of space i v i n i t y of f i r e i v i n i t y of the p i r i V of words Heavenly d i v i n i t i e s (5th male f emale i v i n i Y i e s of l i g h t d j - v i n i i i e s of c r e a t i o n generation) f i r s t - Heavenly d i v i n i t i e s (6th generation) male female Heavenly d i v i n i t i e s ! 7 t h generation) male female Royal family Ame no Hi no Moto A s h i k a - b i k i Nushi no Mikoto (male) A daughter of the Moon D i v i n i t y (f emale) DIAGRAM 18: Pantheon ( l a y e r e d cosmos) -183-h i s cosmos should l i v e only f o r the purpose of r e a l i z i n g the w i l l and order of the supreme d i v i n i t y . The cosmic order i s embodied i n a pantheon, that i s , a h i e r a r c h y of d i v i n i t i e s d i s t r i b u t e d i n cosmic space based on t h e i r s t a t u s and power d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s . (Diagram 18). D i v i n i t i e s of higher l e v e l s are more powerful and l e s s d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d , w h i l e those of lower l e v e l s are g r e a t e r i n number, each s p e c i a l i z i n g i n a more l i m i t e d r o l e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the SMBK pantheon under i t s supreme d i v i n i t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o seven l e v e l s . At the top (seventh) l e v e l the e s s e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s of the supreme d i v i n i t y are separated i n t o the image of three d i v i n i t i e s , namely, the d i v i n i t i e s of time, space, and l i f e . These are s a i d to have been "born" from the supreme d i v i n i t y . " C r e a t i o n " i s considered as g i v i n g b i r t h , although b e l i e v e r s c l a i m that the act of c r e a t i o n at t h i s l e v e l i s t o t a l l y beyond our conception. These three d i v i n i t i e s are considered to have d i r e c t l y a s s i s t e d the supreme d i v i n i t y when he created h i s cosmos. The sun, s t a r s , and g a l a x i e s were "born" from the d i v i n i t i e s of time and space, and the d i v i n i t i e s of the s i x t h l e v e l were born from the d i v i n i t y of l i f e . The s i x t h l e v e l has f i v e d i v i n i t i e s who represent other p r o p e r t i e s of the supreme d i v i n i t y which are s i m i l a r but not e x a c t l y the same: the d i v i n i t y of the s p i r i t of words, two d i v i n i t i e s of l i g h t , and again two d i v i n i t i e s of l i f e . At t h i s l e v e l the r o l e of c r e a t i o n i s d i v i d e d between two d i v i n i t i e s , male and female, so that the meaning of c r e a t i o n becomes analogous to g i v i n g b i r t h i n a b i o l o g i c a l sense. Thus, the d i v i n i t i e s of the f i f t h l e v e l were born from the i n t e r a c t i o n of a male and a female d i v i n i t i e s at the s i x t h l e v e l . Moreover, the f i f t h l e v e l has numerous d i v i n i t i e s of seed s p e c i a l i z i n g i n growing d i f f e r e n t species of p l a n t s , and v a r i o u s d i v i n i t i e s of l i g h t . The God of the C h r i s t i a n B i b l e i s c l a s s i f i e d as one of them because He i s considered as l i g h t . The f o u r t h l e v e l has a tremendous number of minor d i v i n i t i e s born from the d i v i n i t y of the sun of the f i f t h l e v e l . The f o u r t h l e v e l a l s o holds the s p i r i t s of the dead, so that the cosmos at t h i : l e v e l contains both heavens and h e l l s , u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as yu-kai (the a s t r a l w o r l d ) . The t h i r d l e v e l i s gen-kai, the present world of men considered as bottom ranking d i v i n i t i e s , although the word " d i v i n i t y " i s not u s u a l l y a p p l i e d to them. At t h i s l e v e l (and probably at the f o u r t h l e v e l , although t h i s i s not c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d ) only one descent l i n e c a l l e d su no g o - r e i t o (the d i v i n e s p i r i t u a l l i n e of the supreme d i v i n i t y ) i s born from the d i v i n i t i e s of the higher l e v e l , and others are born from the couple of the same l e v e l belonging to t h i s l i n e . At the t h i r d l e v e l , that i s among men, such descendants are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the r o y a l f a m i l y of Japan and claimed to be the ancestors of a l l Japanese. Furthermore, d i v i n i t i e s of the f o u r t h and f i f t h l e v e l s , f o l l o w i n g a s p e c i a l prophecy, may go down to t h i s l e v e l ; the second l e v e l i s chi-dama (the core of the earth) and the f i r s t (bottom) l e v e l i s hi no d e i - k a i (a mud ocean of 4 f i r e ) . In t h i s way, every being i s considered a p a r t i a l r e a l i z a t i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e order of the cosmos according to h i s g i ven s t a t u s . These seven l e v e l s of the cosmos form o v e r l a p p i n g l a y e r s such t h a t a l o w e r - l e v e l l a y e r i s added to i t s h i g h e r -l e v e l l a y e r ( s ) . A h i g h e r - l e v e l l a y e r does not d i s c o n t i n u e at the p o i n t where i t contacts the next lower l e v e l , but i t continues down to the very bottom of the cosmos. The seventh (top) l e v e l continues down to the f i r s t (bottom) l e v e l , the s i x t h l e v e l a l s o reaches the f i r s t l e v e l , the f i f t h l e v e l again goes down to the f i r s t l e v e l , and so on. As the r e s u l t , l o w e r - l e v e l l a y e r s of the cosmos share a l l the q u a l i t i e s of h i g h e r - l e v e l l a y e r s . Or, each l e v e l , toward the bottom of cosmos, accumulates more l a y e r s of new q u a l i t y . By the same token, the d i v i n i t i e s i n the SMBK cosmos gai n more l a y e r s of "body" as t h e i r ranking i s reduced: the supreme d i v i n i t y and the top three d i v i n i t i e s are pure power and do not have bodies. The d i v i n i t i e s of s i x t h and f i f t h l e v e l s have r e i - t a i ( s p i r i t u a l b o d i e s ) , and those of the f o u r t h l e v e l g a i n another l a y e r , y u - t a i ( a s t r a l body). In the t h i r d l e v e l , men are - 1 3 6 -DIAGRAM 19: Layers of the Human Body (a copy of a diagram drawn by an SMBK teacher at the elementary l e c t u r e session) - 1 8 7 -burdened w i t h three l a y e r s of body: s p i r i t u a l body, a s t r a l body, and p h y s i c a l body. These bodies are i n one person, each belonging to a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of the cosmic order (Diagram 18). 2. P u r i t y and power The second premise of SMBK cosmology concerns the concept of p u r i t y and def i l e m e n t . The SMBK pantheon i s a l s o ordered according to p u r i t y . The supreme d i v i n i t y i s considered a b s o l u t e l y pure and other d i v i n i t i e s accrue r e l a t i v e i m p u r i t y according t o t h e i r s t a t u s e s . I n other words, the SMBK cosmos i s viewed i n two ways, as a pantheon and a l s o according to p u r i t y . This means that the SMBK cosmos has a double d e f i n i t i o n ; that i s , on the one hand, the pantheon viewed i n imagery as a q u a l i t a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and on the other, according to p u r i t y as a q u a n t i t a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The SMBK d o c t r i n e r e f e r s to these i n t e r -changeably according to the context. The SMBK conception, r e i s o ^ ( s p i r i t u a l l e v e l ) , bridges p u r i t y and pantheon: R e i s o - k a i i n d i c a t e s the pantheon, whose l i t e r a l meaning i s the " l a y e r e d world of 7 s p i r i t . " By the same token, r e i s o shoge means the " e l e v a t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l l e v e l " or "ascension through the la y e r e d world of s p i r i t . " This i n d i c a t e s that the e l e v a t i o n of one's -188-s p i r i t u a l l e v e l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the upward m o b i l i t y i n the pantheon. Thus, Lord-saviour Okada says: The d i v i n i t y has r e v e a l e d (to meJ t h a t the tane  kon° (leaven s p i r i t ) of j i n kon (human s p i r i t ) of a human being l i v i n g i n t h i s world i s h e l d i n the r e i s o k a i (the l a y e r e d world of s p i r i t ) . S p i r i t s towards the top of the l a y e r e d world of the s p i r i t are higher r a n k i n g , more r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the w i l l of the supreme d i v i n i t y and b e t t e r q u a l i f y to be happy. Lower-ranking s p i r i t s are l e s s happy and those at the bottom are miserable. The h i g h e r - r a n k i n g s p i r i t s (of the human being) are permitted to r e s i d e i n the Paradise of Eden, which means a Heaven. There i s no d i s e a s e , no d i s p u t e , and an abundance of m a t e r i a l goods. The purer the leaven s p i r i t (of a p a r t i c u l a r person) becomes, the more upwards he moves i n the l a y e r e d world of the s p i r i t and, accordingly, the happier he becomes i n t h i s world. This paragraph r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . In the SMBK metaphor, one person i s u s u a l l y viewed as having a p l u r a l i t y of s p i r i t s . Confusion occurs as they are commonly c a t e g o r i z e d together or broken f u r t h e r i n t o sub-categories according to the context. In the above q u o t a t i o n , Lord-s a v i o u r Okada r e f e r s to two f a i r l y l a r g e c a t e g o r i e s of the s p i r i t of a person, namely human s p i r i t and leaven s p i r i t . The human s p i r i t i s i d e n t i f i e d as the s p i r i t of the person which belongs to t h i s world (where h i s p h y s i c a l body belongs), and the leaven s p i r i t i s the s p i r i t which belongs to the l a y e r e d world of s p i r i t . Although the l a y e r e d world of s p i r i t i n general usage should i n d i c a t e the whole pantheon, i n t h i s s p e c i f i c -189-context i t means the a s t r a l world. The reason i s that the Heavens and H e l l s Okada mentions above are l o c a t e d i n the a s t r a l world, and that the " a f t e r l i f e " f o r an o r d i n a r y human being takes place i n the a s t r a l world. In some e x c e p t i o n a l cases, human beings a f t e r death achieve a place outside and purer than the a s t r a l world, although both are the same f o u r t h l e v e l , or even at the f i f t h l e v e l . However, s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s c l a i m t h a t those who ascend through two l e v e l s have to be those d i v i n i t i e s which have descended o r i g i n a l l y from t h a t l e v e l to t h e i r present l e v e l f o r a s p e c i a l prophecy given by the supreme d i v i n i t y . The deceased Lord-saviour Okada i s i d e n t i f i e d as one of them according to some s e n i o r members and teachers. In any case, as death i s viewed i n SMBK as l o s i n g the p h y s i c a l body, and, a c c o r d i n g l y , the human s p i r i t , the s p i r i t s of the dead (meaning the s p i r i t of the person which remains w i t h him a f t e r h i s death) should be i n t e r p r e t e d as the leaven s p i r i t Okada r e f e r s t o . Thus, a l i v i n g human being i n the context of Okada's argument above has two d i f f e r e n t s p i r i t s of h i s own l o c a t e d i n two places i n the cosmos at the same time, as I i n d i c a t e d i n Diagram 19. The l e v e l of the leaven s p i r i t i s extremely f l e x i b l e : i t changes c o n s t a n t l y , corresponding to s l i g h t changes i n the person's behaviour and thought. The l e v e l of the human s p i r i t a l s o has a c e r t a i n f l e x i b i l i t y but i t i s more r e s t r i c t e d -190-DIAGRAM 20: Human S p i r i t and Leaven S p i r i t SMBK ;mos belongs one perse 4* leaven s p i A i t -1 sub-layer: ( e x a c t number i s u n c l e a r a s t r a l world (a t the f o u r t h l e v e l ) t h i r d l e v e l ( t h i s world) human s p i r i t -191-because i n t h i s world the change i s expressed i n h i s s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Although t h i s p a r t of cosmology i s not shared by SMBK, the M i c h i H i r a k i e x p l a n a t i o n may give a b e t t e r image of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two s p i r i t s of one person. In M i c h i H i r a k i , the human s p i r i t i s l o c a t e d i n s i d e the head of the human body and the leaven s p i r i t 1 1 i s i n s i d e the head of 12 the a s t r a l body. Since the a s t r a l body i s f a r bigger than the human body, the a s t r a l body overlaps w i t h the human body such that the human s p i r i t r e s i d e s r i g h t under the navel of the a s t r a l body. The M i c h i H i r a k i leader drew a diagram f o r me as f o l l o w s (Diagram 21): DIAGRAM 21: M i c h i H i r a k i View of the Bodies -192-In SMBK, p u r i t y i s viewed as a s t a t e of power. For example, when two people w i t h a s p i r i t u a l gap i n t h e i r s p i r i t u a l s t a t e come i n t o c l o s e contact w i t h one another, the p u r i t y of the s p i r i t u a l l y s u p e r i o r person a u t o m a t i c a l l y induces the discharge of the defilement of the i n f e r i o r person. This discharge could be s k i n problems, rashes, d i a r r h o e a , v o m i t i n g , b l e e d i n g , and other symptoms. In SMBK they are a normal process a t t r i b u t e d to the nature of the human body ("physical body"), although i n modern medical sciences they are d e s c r i b e d as symptoms of di s e a s e . When the gap between the two subjects i s gre a t , the d e f i l e d person i s b e l i e v e d to di e because h i s human body cannot endure i n t e n s i v e discharge of defilement caused by the gap. When order i s considered to be a s t a t e , the power attached to order remains p o t e n t i a l u n t i l the boundary i s v i o l a t e d . Once the removal occurs, the person who i s d i s q u a l i f i e d from a c e r t a i n s t a t e of p u r i t y (because he i s more d e f i l e d ) becomes exposed to danger. These c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e that p u r i t y a l s o represents the n o t i o n of " r i g h t , " t hat i s , the s t a t e f o r which the person q u a l i f i e s and which he can c l a i m without endangering h i m s e l f . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may e x p l a i n some aspects of magic and w i t c h c r a f t when they are a p p l i e d to the p r o t e c t i o n of a r i g h t or a property. For example, i n a case of t r e s p a s s i n g or t h e f t , the punishment -193-f o r boundary breaking i s automatic. I t happens because the boundary has been set to p r o t e c t the i n d i v i d u a l from i n v a s i o n . However, there i s another k i n d of power: the power which d e r i v e s from the w i l l of the supreme s p i r i t u a l being. I t i s i n t e n t i o n a l . In c o n t r a s t , s t a t i c power contained i n the s t a t e of s p i r i t u a l potency i s mechanical. This power f u n c t i o n s as i t was o r i g i n a l l y set or ordered. In such a case, the order according to which the s t a t i c power works i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and u n r e v i s i b l e . Where the supreme d i v i n i t y i s e x t e r n a l to the order of cosmos which c o n s i s t s of the s t a t i c power, he maintains and changes the order by h i s w i l l power. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two powers may be w e l l v e r i f i e d i n the SMBK d o c t r i n e : The supreme d i v i n i t y i s the only being who sets the order, and he can a l s o change i t . The power w i t h which he charges the SMBK cosmos f u n c t i o n s mechanically as he has o r i g i n a l l y ordered i t . Therefore, a l l the beings i n h i s cosmos should submit themselves to h i s order, because i t means t h e i r f a t e . Other d i v i n i t i e s may be able to change the order only when they g a i n a p o r t i o n of h i s power. When the supreme d i v i n i t y wants to r e v i s e the e x i s t i n g order, he gives a "power of a t t o r n e y " f o r a s p e c i f i c m i s s i o n . Sometimes, human beings are given missions and are delegated w i t h the power of the supreme d i v i n i t y . Leaders of r e l i g i o u s movements i n c l u d i n g the SMBK l e a d e r s , are considered to be -194-DIAGRAM 22: The SMBK Model of Cosmos, Power and Order supreme d i v i n i t y pbwer of a t t o r n e y c o n t r o l s o r d e r -195-such people. They are supposed to be able to change the e x i s t i n g order i n a l i m i t e d area of cosmos. The supreme beings i n some cosmologies l a c k t h i s k i n d of i n t e n t i o n a l power which i s e x t e r n a l and s u p e r i o r to the s t a t i c cosmic order. In M i c h i H i r a k i , the supreme d i v i n i t y i s another name f o r cosmos. He and i t are congruent. This a l s o a p p l i e d to D a i n i c h Buddha. The supreme d i v i n i t y i n these cases i s o n t o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than i n t e n t i o n a l . The above g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l power and boundary w i l l c l a r i f y some ambiguity i n v o l v e d i n the meaning of the SMBK t a l i s m a n given at the i n i t i a t i o n . The f i r s t major aspect of the t a l i s m a n advocated i n SMBK i s that the b e l i e v e r who wears i t r e c e i v e s a g r e a t e r amount of d i v i n e l i g h t which u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e s from the supreme d i v i n i t y and p u r i f i e s any e x i s t i n g o b j e c t s i n h i s cosmos. The second aspect i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the f i r s t ; the holder of the ta l i s m a n i s assured that he w i l l be provided w i t h the c a p a c i t y to perform the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l as an a c t i v e performer, although anyone can be a passive performer w i t h or without the t a l i s m a n . This i s l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t because the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the d i v i n e l i g h t , and a l s o because the a c t i v e performer needs to r e c e i v e a great deal of the l i g h t i n order to p u r i f y the passive performer. However, the f i r s t aspect of the t a l i s m a n i s fo l l o w e d by a c o n d i t i o n which may -196-appear confusing. Although the ta l i s m a n i n c r e a s e s the holder's a b i l i t y to r e c e i v e the l i g h t , the ta l i s m a n i s not a r e c e i v e r of the l i g h t . What, then, i s the t a l i s m a n e x a c t l y ? My answer i s t h a t the ta l i s m a n i s a device which provides the holder w i t h the power of a high s p i r i t u a l s t a t e . As the t a l i s m a n e l e v a t e s the general s t a t e of h i s s p i r i t u a l potency, i t creates a boundary which f u n c t i o n s to p r o t e c t the holder from anyone o u t s i d e of i t . Therefore, the t h i r d aspect of the ta l i s m a n advocated i n SMBK i s that i t provides p r o t e c t i o n from s p i r i t p ossession and p o s s i b l e negative i n f l u e n c e from e v i l s p i r i t s i n c l u d i n g the e v i l i n t e n t i o n s of a l i v i n g human being. Furthermore, the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l provides the a c t i v e performer w i t h a s p e c i a l a b i l i t y . He can d i r e c t h i s high s p i r i t u a l potency towards a s p e c i f i c person, the passive performer. The d i v i n e l i g h t which the holder can transmit a c t i v e l y r a d i a t e s , p e n e t r a t i n g the boundary and reaching the d e f i l e d being. When t h i s happens, the d e f i l e d being has only two choices to make: he can e i t h e r be destroyed because he i s d e f i l e d or change h i s s p i r i t u a l p o s i t i o n by submitting h i m s e l f to the SMBK order. Therefore, the power of p u r i f i -c a t i o n i s the power to recover the proper order of the cosmos. According to SMBK l o g i c , he does not have the choice of committing h i m s e l f to more defilement and somehow c r e a t i n g a counter power agai n s t the power of the supreme d i v i n i t y . In -197-other words, there i s no bl a c k magic i n SMBK. E v i l s d e r i v e from mistakes and are changeable. However, the holder should a l s o be pr o t e c t e d from the d i v i n e l i g h t . The reason f o r t h i s i s that r e c e i v i n g the l i g h t places the person i n a dilemma. That i s , more l i g h t i s d e s i r a b l e , but i t i s a l s o dangerous when i t induces an i n t e n s i v e discharge of defilement. With the t a l i s m a n , he can enjoy p u r i f i c a t i o n on the b a s i s of reduced and slower discharge of d e f i l e m e n t . I t may be c o n t i n u a l , but i t w i l l not be d e s t r u c t i v e . He may be able to continue h i s d a i l y l i f e work and even experience discharge at the same time. Thus, SMBK b e l i e v e r s who wear a ta l i s m a n can achieve a higher s p i r i t u a l potency. In c o n t r a s t , the non-holder i s under constant t h r e a t from the d i v i n e l i g h t . The reason why he can s u r v i v e i s that h i s high defilement blocks him from r e c e i v i n g too much l i g h t . But at the same time, because he i s blocked from i t , he remains h i g h l y d e f i l e d . This i s a v i c i o u s c i r c l e . The only way he can break i t i s to become a t a l i s m a n h o l d e r . Thus, the SMBK d o c t r i n e claims that the same amount of e f f o r t makes a great d i f f e r e n c e between the holder ( b e l i e v e r ) and the non-holder ( n o n - b e l i e v e r ) . (See Diagram 23.) With regard to the t a l i s m a n , the SMBK leader i s delegated w i t h the power of the supreme d i v i n i t y . F i r s t , he can " a c t i v a t e " the ta l i s m a n through a s p e c i a l r i t u a l known 198 DIAGRAM 23: .Differences Between the L i v e s of the F a i t h f u l and A t h e i s t s small d e f i l e m e n t A small redemption p u r i f i c a t i o n t r e c e i v i n g the d i v i n e l i g h t plus redemption through r i t u a l and longer ^ ascension easy ascension p u r i f i c a t i o n t r e f l e c t i o n on own s e l f more and more thankful on from d i v i n i t i e s on f rom teachers on f rom parents FAITHFULS A T H E I S M S / business "\ gain f o r himself and use f o r himself no c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r others no a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the parents' kindness v r y s e l f i shness and arogance cheating no r e f l e c t i o n s e l f ishness arogance hate d i v i n i t i e s ascension towards un-disturbable happiness I-r e a l ease i n old age n a t u r a l death a f t e r healthy l i f e , going to a paradise great goodness accomplished i n the next l i f e I l i v e i n e t e r n a l happiness ^ def ilement becoming stronger d e s t r u c t i v e l i f e bad f a t e s e l f d e s t r u c t i o n g i v i n g great misfortune to others give s u f f e r i n g s to others more s p i r i t u a l problems more defilement I great e f f o r t only to r e c e i v e hardships I 03 -199-only to him. Consequently he i s a boundary s e t t e r . Second, he can maintain the s p i r i t u a l boundary of i t s holder through another r i t u a l technique. These r i t u a l s are considered to be the formal way to delegate the power from the supreme d i v i n i t y . The s p i r i t u a l boundary which creates and maintains the s p i r i t u a l potency of the holder of the t a l i s m a n does not l a s t a u t o m a t i c a l l y . The power of the t a l i s m a n i s v a l i d only as long as the t i e between the holder and the supreme d i v i n i t y i s provided by the SMBK le a d e r . The b e l i e v e r i s o b l i g a t e d to give a monthly donation f o r i t s p r o v i s i o n . Sometimes we become separated from the d i v i n i t y , ^become s u s p i c i o u s of him and even f o r g e t about him. But even during such p e r i o d s , our Lord-teacher apologizes to him i n place of us, keeps our t i e w i t h him and ask him to p r o t e c t us. So we give a donation f o r the Lord-teacher's e f f o r t . I t i s the fee f o r the maintenance of the s p i r i t u a l t i e . Although the amount of our donation i s s m a l l , i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n of thank-f u l n e s s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and m i r a c l e s that we have r e c e i v e d through the t a l i s m a n d u r i n g the past month, and a l s o i t i s a wish to r e c e i v e t h i s d e l i g h t f u l d i v i n e l i g h t c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r the next month. This donation i s s p i r i t u a l l y extremely meaningful as i s s t a t e d above, so we must not f o r g e t i t . Even a person i n economic d i f f i -c u l t y must manage to give t h i s donation, f o r t h i s i s the e a s i e s t way f o r him to express t h a n k f u l -ness and s i n c e r i t y to the d i v i n i t y . This w i l l redeem h i s accumulated economic defilement i n h i s f a m i l y . From the p o i n t of expressing t h i s donation must be given i n t h a n k f u l n e s s , advance f o r the -200-coming month at the end of each month, (so i t does not appear to b^ paying f o r the already given r e s u l t . ) Because the t a l i s m a n t i e s the b e l i e v e r to the supreme d i v i n i t y , i t s treatment r e q u i r e s a great deal of care which i t s e l f becomes a complex r i t u a l . In SMBK, any p r i n c i p l e s i n c l u d i n g respect f o r the ta l i s m a n should be r e a l i z e d i n a c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e summary of t h i s r i t u a l based on the SMBK elementary l e c t u r e s e s s i o n and i t s t e x t book: 1. Anyone, before touching the t a l i s m a n , must wash h i s hands. The b e l i e v e r s do t h i s even when t h e i r hands are not p h y s i c a l l y d i r t y . A f t e r washing, the hands must not touch any other o b j e c t s . I f they do they must be washed again. This p r i n c i p l e i s a p p l i e d most s t r i c t l y to the n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d . The a p p l i c a t i o n becomes r e l a x e d to the s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s who are considered to have achieved a more s o l i d s t a t e of f a i t h . 2. The t a l i s m a n must not be opened. I t i s a l o c k e t which contains the d i v i n e s i g n w r i t t e n on a paper. Since the i n s i d e of the l o c k e t has been p u r i f i e d by the Lord-teacher, i t must not be d e f i l e d by contact w i t h the -201-u n p u r i f i e d o u t s i d e a i r . The holder of the t a l i s m a n must pay the monthly maintenance f ee, f o r which the Lord-teacher t i e s him w i t h the d i v i n i t y . The t a l i s m a n must be worn a l l the time, even i n bed, i n the washroom and during p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s . The hinge of the ta l i s m a n must be placed on the l e f t s i de of the holder. When the ta l i s m a n i s kept i n a la c e cover and/or a co t t o n cover, the c o r r e c t side should be i n d i c a t e d on the surface of the top cover 15 (by an embroided cross p a t t e r n , f o r example). The t a l i s m a n must not be loaned to other s . I t belongs s t r i c t l y to the holder. Other talismans must not be p i l e d on top of the SMBK ta l i s m a n because t h e i r i n d i v i d u -a l i t i e s may become confused. I t must be kept dry. For t h i s purpose, i t must be wrapped i n f i v e or s i x l a y e r s of p l a s t i c f i l m f o r food and sealed w i t h c e l l o -phane tape under the l a c e and/or c o t t o n c o v e r ( s ) . The wrap-film must be exchanged o f t e n , f o r example, a f t e r heavy p e r s p i r a t i o n . -202-9. The ta l i s m a n must not touch any place which has p o s s i b l y been stepped on, such as the f l o o r , the ground and even the bedsheet and 16 the b l a n k e t s . SMBK suggests that the holder should make a pocket i n s i d e the under-wear and put the t a l i s m a n i n i t . The pocket may be cl o s e d by a hook or s a f e t y p i n so the ta l i s m a n does not s l i p out, even duri n g sleep. 10. The standard chain suspender f o r the t a l i s m a n may be repl a c e d w i t h a s t r i n g when the chain causes s k i n t r o u b l e (This s k i n t r o u b l e i s r a t h e r common and considered to be a s i g n of high d e f i l e m e n t ) . A new suspender must be p u r i f i e d before use. 11. The t a l i s m a n should not hang below the n a v e l . 12. When the holder takes o f f h i s t a l i s m a n , f o r example, f o r bathing: (a) at home, i t should be hooked on an L-shaped n a i l f i x e d on the w a l l only f o r t h i s purpose. (b) on a t r i p , i t should be kept i n a s p e c i a l ( p u r i f i e d ) box which should be placed on a sheet of paper ( a l s o p u r i f i e d ) on a s h e l f . -203-Any f a i l u r e to meet these c o n d i t i o n s i s considered to be defilement and subject to a s p e c i a l p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l a ccording to the degree of de f i l e m e n t . - 2 0 4 -0PERATI0NAL MORALITY The o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y of SMBK i s subject to constant r e v i s i o n . The SMBK cosmology has been and can be reve a l e d only by the SMBK l e a d e r s , mostly by the deceased f i r s t l e a d e r , L o r d - s a v i o r Okada. In c o n t r a s t , the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s c o n s t a n t l y revealed i n the form of s t o r i e s through r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s i n encounter w i t h the possessing s p i r i t s i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . The f o l l o w i n g example w i l l show a t y p i c a l SMBK way i n which a moral p r i n c i p l e i s advocated. I t begins as f o l l o w s : One day, a p r e t t y young geis h a , about seventeen years o l d , came to ask f o r a p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . When her possessing s p i r i t began to respond under the r i t u a l , the geisha blew her own hands and other p a r t s of her body. Then, she patted her breast and arms, screaming, "Burning, burning ...." I t looked as i f her body had caught on f i r e . She even s t r u c k her head u n t i l her b e a u t i f u l l y done chignon came u n t i e d . F i n a l l y , she tore the sleeves of her p r e t t y kimono dress. When the possessing s p i r i t became r e l a t i v e l y calm, i t revealed that i t was the geisha's s i s t e r . Several years before, the s i s t e r was burned to death i n her sleep i n the barn of her own coun t r y s i d e home. Her agony i n burning to death was s t i l l l a s t i n g at t h i s time, and drove her to possess her own s i s t e r . When the possessing s p i r i t disappeared w i t h "calm down", the geisha s a i d , "My body was burning as i f i t had caught on f i r e " -205-The s e c t i o n above d e s c r i b e s a scene from the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Then the t e x t s h i f t s to a moral teaching based on the s t o r y . I t extends f u r t h e r than the content revealed d i r e c t l y by the possessing s p i r i t . She was possessed by a s p i r i t which escaped from the H e l l of F i r e . U s u a l l y the s p i r i t s of the dead i n the H e l l of F i r e and a l s o the H e l l of Ice cannot escape from t h e i r S i t e . However, one out of one thousand does and possesses a l i v i n g human being. In the H e l l of F i r e , there are people f o r c e d to stay f o r d i s c i p l i n e i n c l u d i n g those whose death was caused by f i r e such as i n the above case, and those who k i l l e d themselves by jumping i n t o a volcano or u s i n g g a s o l i n e to burn t h e i r own body'. I am s o r r y to say t h i s , but the Vietnamese Buddhist p r i e s t who committed s u i c i d e i n p r o t e s t using g a s o l i n e must have gone to t h i s H e l l . A l s o , those who d i s t u r b others or g i v e great damages to others f o r mistakenly u s i n g f i r e go to the H e l l of F i r e . We must t r u l y be cautious i n d e a l i n g w i t h f i r e . ^ This i s the end of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y . There, i t converges i n t o a moral p r i n c i p l e which i n d i c a t e s t h a t we must be cautious w i t h f i r e . The emphasis i n the s t o r y i s that the agony at the time of death caused by the f i r e w i l l l a s t even a f t e r death. The way Japanese houses are c o n s t r u c t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c i t y area, may be r e l a t e d to t h i s s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n on f i r e as i s shown i n the SMBK case. In pre-modern Japan, when houses were normally c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h wooden m a t e r i a l s w i t h paper screens used f o r p a r t i t i o n , f i r e 19 was a s e r i o u s menace. E s p e c i a l l y w i n t e r i n Edo (Tokyo ) i s -206-extremely dry f o r more than a few months, and the humidity i s reduced to l e s s than 2570. Moreover, strong winds blow most of the time. Any f i r e could devastate a l a r g e p a r t of the c i t y . The Tokugawa Shogunate Government has records of such b i g f i r e s . Since Edo had a s p e c i a l importance as the residence f o r the Shogunate, those who caused a la r g e f i r e were s e r i o u s l y punished. Although today the p o s s i b i l i t y of holocaust i s reduced, f i r e could s t i l l be a major problem where the houses are b u i l t c l o s e together and where t r a f f i c congestion o f t e n slows down the rescue a c t i v i t y . Besides, the t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e remains that the person who caused f i r e damage to others sometimes has to compensate them f o r i t w i t h money, i n order to maintain h i s s o c i a l r e p u t a t i o n as a moral person, although he may not have any l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n . Concerning f i r e , SMBK takes a most t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e : i t appears that even a mistake i s subject to punishment. However, the iss u e s of mistake and punishment need to be f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d . In SMBK, the supreme d i v i n i t y does not punish the beings i n h i s cosmos, but demands c o r r e c t i o n of wrong s e l f - o r i e n t a t i o n through d i s c i p l i n e s . Ignorance i s i d e n t i f i e d as the cause f o r the f a i l u r e i n submission to the d i v i n e order. In the example, above, of a geisha's s i s t e r , what should be c o r r e c t e d i s her ignorance of such important aspects of d a i l y l i f e as the proper treatment of f i r e . Her unexpected death, from the SMBK point of view, -207-could have been avoided only i f she had had the proper knowled When ignorance i s to blame, no mistake i s excusable; the mistake i s intended i n so f a r as the ignorance i s admitted, or the p r a c t i c a l e f f o r t to e r a d i c a t e the misdeed i s ignored or overlooked. Therefore, re-adjustment of ignorance i s given i n the form of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e which b r i n g s the " s i n n e r " to an awareness of h i s a c t s . He should r e a l i z e the nature of h i s misdeed through h i s own p a i n f u l experiences i n H e l l . Endorsing t h i s view, the SMBK textbooks commonly use the word " d i s c i -p l i n e " (gyo or shugyo) when d e s c r i b i n g scenes i n v a r i o u s H e l l s But they do not r e f e r to punishment (batsu or b a c h i ) . By the same token, an SMBK teacher l i v i n g i n the Koganei l o c a l centre o c c a s i o n a l l y t o l d other b e l i e v e r s that the SMBK d i v i n i t y does not give punishment. I t seems to me that punish ment i n the r e g u l a r sense i s only d e s t r u c t i v e to the SMBK b e l i e v e r s . An ignorant person w i l l repeat the same mistake no matter how o f t e n the punishment i s gi v e n , unless he r e a l i z e s the cause of h i s mistake. For t h i s reason the SMBK d i v i n i t y does not give punishment but s t a r t s the " s i n n e r " i n a process of re-adjustment. This process could l a s t f o r e v e r depending on h i s progress. In t h i s world we know the purpose of our e f f o r t . But i n the a s t r a l world the purpose i s unknown and the e f f o r t i s endless. I t i s the d i s c i -p l i n e to press the person to r e a l i z e h i s own f a u l t . At the very moment of r e a l i z a t i o n ( s a - t o r i ) 2 0 -208-u n t i l t h i s happens, he w i l l be for c e d to continue h i s d i s c i p l i n e even f o r hundreds of years. Another moral p r i n c i p l e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the SMBK n o t i o n of re-adjustment i s the Law of R e t r i b u t i o n adopted from Buddhism. An SMBK textbook says: Buddhists b e l i e v e i n the Law of R e t r i b u t i o n . This i s the teaching t h a t a good deed w i l l be rewarded w i t h happiness and a bad deed w ^ l l be f o l l o w e d by a misery. Ancient people p r a c t i s e d t h i s law i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . Shaka taught t h i s law since_he witnessed the r e a l i t y i n the a s t r a l world. He r e a l i z e d that the cosmic order depends on the Law of R e t r i b u t i o n when he saw a number of s p i r i t s of the dead d i s c i p l i n e d . An e v i l person may appear prosperous f o r a while but he should be destroyed even i n t h i s present world. Other-wise, he must redeem h i s s i n i n the a s t r a l world. 2 4 Here, the n e c e s s i t y of re-adjustment i s expl a i n e d a l s o i n terms of redemption; that i s , a misdeed has to be compensated. By the same token, being i n a miserable c o n d i t i o n i n d i c a t e s that the person has performed a misdeed and i s now i n the process of redemption. Here again, t h i s s p i r i t u a l s i t u a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of p u r i t y and defilem e n t . Thus, the above t e x t continues as f o l l o w s : When a person i s re-born before he has p u r i f i e d h i s s p i r i t w e l l enough, he has to continue h i s redemption i n t h i s world. Those who are born i n a poor f a m i l y or l i v e a miserable l i f e have not had s u f f i c i e n t d i s c i p l i n e i n the a s t r a l world. -209-Questioning of the possessing s p i r i t s under the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l r e v e a l that f a c t that both t h e i r present l o c a t i o n i n the a s t r a l world and t h e i r m i s e r i e s correspond to t h e i r ( e v i l ) deeds i n t h e i r previous l i v e s . Most possessing s p i r i t s l o s e t h e i r expressions of burning hatred and resentment and t u r n t h e i r heads down when they are asked i f they are s u f f e r i n g from the same misdeed as they have done to others i n t h e i r previous l i v e s . 2 5 A p a r t of the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s re v e a l e d i n r e l a t i o n to the image of H e l l . The H e l l of F i g h t i s an example i n which the dead f i g h t w i t h each other u n t i l they become completely t i r e d (The s p i r i t of the dead have a s t r a l bodies so they can " p h y s i c a l l y " f i g h t ) . Those who are placed here are: 1. Persons who have l i k e d f i g h t i n g i n t h e i r previous l i v e s 2. E a s i l y provoked persons 3. V i o l e n t husband 4. Persons who complain a l l the time and are unable to thank others 5. Vengeful persons Another example i s the H e l l of Blood Pond, i n which the dead s u f f e r from worms c r a w l i n g on t h e i r faces w h i l e t h e i r bodies are placed i n a b l o o d - l i k e l i q u i d up to the neck. 1. L u s t f u l women -210-The H e l l o f Snake p o l i t i c i a n s and s c h o l a r s A s u p e r i o r p e r s o n s h o u l d be more humane. The H e l l o f F i r e b u r n i n g ! ILLUSTRATIONS i n B a p t i s m o f F i r e • ( T r a n s l a t e d f r o m J a p a n e s e by K. M i y a n a g a ) b u r n i n g ! -211-2. Women who have deceived men i n t h e i r previous l i v e s 3. Female a t h e i s t s (This h e l l i s designed e s p e c i a l l y f o r women.) The t h i r d example i s the H e l l of Lu s t , i n which the 2 6 dead are t o r t u r e d by vengeful people of the opposite sex. Those who are placed here are: 1. Men who have t r e a t e d women as sexual instruments 2. Men who have seduced women out of t h e i r l u s t 3. Women who have seduced men and destroyed t h e i r l i v e s 4. Women who have considered sex only as a matter of pleasure 5. Women who have committed a d u l t e r y 5. Women who make money by p r o s t i t u t i o n . The f o u r t h example i s the H e l l of Snakes, i n which 7 7 vengeful snakes t o r t u r e the dead u n t i l they l e a r n that a person h o l d i n g a s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n must achieve toku (moral e x c e l l e n c e ) . Those who are placed here are: 1. P o l i t i c i a n s 2. High government o f f i c i a l s 3. Scholars 4. P r o f e s s o r s 5. Persons i n s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n s who have damaged t h e i r i n f e r i o r s because of t h e i r bad deeds 6. Company men who have betrayed t h e i r own company. -212-The f i f t h example i s the H e l l of S t a r v a t i o n , i n which the dead, s u f f e r i n g from s t a r v a t i o n and t h i r s t , cannot eat or d r i n k . Those who are placed here are: 1. The l u x u r i o u s person w i t h no sense of c h a r i t y 2. The husband who has eaten w e l l and drunk much outs i d e h i s household, without feeding h i s f a m i l y w e l l . Another part of the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s r e l a t e d to the image of r e - b i r t h . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t c o n tains examples of human beings w i t h p a r t i c u l a r moral de f e c t s who are born as animals. fox: l i a r s c a t : persons who have l e d a p l a y f u l l i f e without work, such as the m i s t r e s s of a r i c h man dog: persons who have been too curious of others' p r i v a t e l i v e s horse: e g o t i s t s who have worked only f o r themselves w i l d boar or wolf: gangsters, drug-pushers sheep: a p a t h e t i c persons cock: men who have s l e p t w i t h many women and abandoned them The s p i r i t s of the dead, which have the p e r s o n a l i t y d e f e c t s l i s t e d above, cannot r e s i s t the temptation to possess l i v i n g animals w i t h the same de f e c t s (the Law of Balance). -213-Therefore they n e g l e c t the d i s c i p l i n e of the a s t r a l world arid escape back i n t o the present world. As they possess the body of animals w i t h which they share the same d e f e c t s , the possessing s p i r i t s ( o r i g i n a l l y human beings) become completely harmonized w i t h the animal nature. By being i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d , the q u a l i t y of t h e i r nature i s reduced to the l e v e l of animals. Therefore, even when they are permitted to be reborn i n t h i s world, they are reduced to animals. This r e d u c t i o n i s considered a d i s g r a c e . The d o c t r i n e a l s o says that once they are reduced to animals i t i s r a r e f o r them to r e t u r n as a human being. A more general and c o n s i s t e n t p r i n c i p l e behind these moral p r i n c i p l e s and images i s the demand f o r a profound engagement w i t h o t h e r s . That i s to say, compassion ( o m o i y a r i ) . This was a common t r a d i t i o n a l sentiment which has become obscure since Japanese s o c i e t y a f t e r World War I I i n s i s t e d on i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . SMBK i s one of the movements attempting to r e t a i n o l d va l u e s . The reason why t h i s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e remains r a t h e r i m p l i c i t i n SMBK i s that i t s r e l i g i o u s d i s c i p l i n e i s b u i l t on r i t u a l . In r i t u a l , the b e l i e v e r acts out the messages b u i l t i n t o i t s r i t u a l s t r u c t u r e . Learning i s beha v i o u r a l r a t h e r than conceptual. This means that p r o v i d i n g he i s engaged w i t h others i n the SBMK way through r e a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s unnecessary f o r the b e l i e v e r to c o n s t a n t l y confirm h i s own behaviour i n words. Although I w i l l develop t h i s p o i n t i n Chapter V I would l i k e to c l a r i f y i t s b a s i c d o c t r i n a l aspect here. In the SMBK d o c t r i n a l vocabulary, the nearest word 28 to compassion i s r i t a - a i . I t s l i t e r a l meaning i s a l t r u i s t i c l o v e . However, I would p r e f e r to apply the word "compassion" to i t , because " a l t r u i s t i c l o v e " emphasizes too much s e l f -s a c r i f i c e to s u i t the SMBK concept of r i t a - a i . By s e l f -s a c r i f i c e I mean that one has to s a c r i f i c e one's own i n t e r e s t s i n order to serve the i n t e r e s t s of other s . Here, s e l f and others are i n e t e r n a l c o n f l i c t . Hans Kung, a C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i a n , r e f l e c t s on. t h i s i s s u e as f o l l o w s : To many a n o n - C h r i s t i a n i t seems tha t the C h r i s t i a n i s so i n t e n t on s e l f - d e n i a l and s e l f -r e n u n c i a t i o n that he neg l e c t s h i s s e l f -development . The C h r i s t i a n may indeed want to l i v e f o r men, but he i s o f t e n not enough of a man h i m s e l f . He i s very ready to save o t h e r s , but he has never learned p r o p e r l y to swim h i m s e l f . He proclaims the s a l v a t i o n of the world, but does not perceive the r e l a t i v i t y of h i s own environment. He devises f i n e programs to give e f f e c t to l o v e , but does not see through h i s own pre-programming. He i s t r o u b l e d about the souls of o t h e r s , but does not recognize the complexes of h i s own psyche. By a t t a c h i n g too much importance to and making too many demands on love of neighbor, s e r v i c e , s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , he i s very l i k e l y -£p break down, become discouraged and f r u s t r a t e d . To SMBK b e l i e v e r s , the d e n i a l of one's own s e l f f o r others i s remote. In SMBK i t i s f i r m l y b e l i e v e d t h a t good deeds f o r others w i l l be rewarded e i t h e r i n t h i s l i f e or i n -215-the next l i f e . For example, a poor man may be born i n t o a r i c h f a m i l y , a woman may be r e i n c a r n a t e d as a man. Hence, a g i v i n g act i s more l i k e an investment f o r the f u t u r e w e l f a r e i n both a s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l sense. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the common j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s p o i n t i n SMBK i s taken from the B i b l e , although the SMBK i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t from the common C h r i s t i a n understanding of i t . In SMBK, the s e c t i o n i s understood to encourage an investment f o r f u t u r e w e l f a r e ; one w i l l r e c e i v e g r e a t e r p r o f i t i f one i n v e s t s i n s p i r i t u a l matters. Lay not up f o r yourselves treasures upon e a r t h , where moth and r u s t doth c o r r u p t , and where th i e v e s break through and s t e a l : But l a y up f o r y ourselves t r e a s u r e s i n heaven, where n e i t h e r moth nor r u s t doth c o r r u p t , and where t h i e v e s do not break through nor s t e a l : For where your t r e a s u r e i s , there w i l l your heart be a l s o . 0 The essence of SMBK compassion, e x t r a c t e d i n the form of a p r i n c i p l e , i s not to hurt others. This i s d i f f e r e n t from shaping one's act to s u i t laws or r u l e s which are fundamentally intended to be impersonal. In order not to hurt o t h e r s , one has to l e a r n when and how a p a r t i c u l a r person of a s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y may be hu r t . Although t h i s may sound elementary, the po i n t i s tha t others may be hurt i n the same way as oneself i s h u r t ; i n a d d i t i o n , they may be hurt d i f f e r e n t l y from o n e s e l f . The former case r e q u i r e s sympathy, -216-and the l a t t e r case knowledge of other s . Without sympathy or knowledge, others w i l l be e a s i l y d isregarded. This i s e x a c t l y the reason why s p i r i t possession gains a moral meaning. I t has to occur i n order f o r the v i c t i m to r e v e a l the other side ( v i c t i m ' s side) of the s t o r y of the same event which has been t o t a l l y d i sregarded by the a s s a i l a n t ; the possessing s p i r i t demands, t h r e a t s , and begs that the person i t i s possessing must know i t s own si d e of the s t o r y and accept i t . The l o g i c behind the act of the possessing s p i r i t i s t h i s : F i r s t , ignorance i s considered to cause a person to v i c t i m i z e o t h e r s , r e g a r d l e s s of h i s i n t e n t i o n . Second, s p i r i t p o ssession i s b e l i e v e d or "regarded as b r i n g i n g " the ignorant person to a b e t t e r awareness. Therefore, the l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t , s i n c e ignorance i s the cause, awareness should be the s o l u t i o n . This i s the b a s i c moral standpoint of SMBK b e l i e v e r s . Out of numerous moral s t o r i e s , I would l i k e to c i t e some examples from an SMBK p u b l i c a t i o n to i l l u s t r a t e the po i n t s j u s t d i s c u s s e d . The f i r s t s t o r y i s about a problem caused by the s p i r i t of a dog which resented her m i s t r e s s . A middle-aged woman, the mother of two c h i l d r e n , v i s i t e d an SMBK l o c a l centre f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n because her husband began to have an a f f a i r w i t h another woman three months e a r l i e r . She wanted to b r i n g him back to her through SMBK. -217-Immediately she was given a p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Her possessing s p i r i t was i d e n t i f i e d as a female dog she had kept i n her f a m i l y f o r seven years. (The s p i r i t of the dog said,) "When I was kept i n her house, she threw water over my men (male dogs) and blocked me from f u l f i l l i n g my n a t u r a l d e s i r e to preserve my blood l i n e . She even locked me up i n s i d e the house, so I barked and b i t around i n v a i n to l e t her know I wanted an i n t e r c o u r s e which I under-stood was my r i g h t g i ven by the d i v i n i t y . But, she was t o t a l l y o b l i v i o u s to my communication. A f t e r a l l I had to leave t h i s present world f o r the a s t r a l world ( d i e d ) , because of too much f r u s t r a t i o n . As my resentment remained as strong as before, I possessed her body f o r revenge. I a l s o drove her good husband to go to another woman to l e t her know the importance of compassion and harmony. However, she d i d not r e f l e c t on her own misdeed but wished to get her husband back. She i s too s e l f i s h . P l e a s e , make her know that even a dog has t h i s much thought." This was an o p i n i o n that Miss Doggie s t a t e d w i t h a sad and annoyed ex p r e s s i o n . Now the woman has understood what she d i d to her dog. Then i t i s the t u r n of the s p i r i t of the dog to l e a r n that e i t h e r remaining r e s e n t f u l or possessing a l i v i n g person i s not good. This i s a l s o considered a fundamental mistake caused by ignorance. Thus, an SMBK teacher gives the f o l l o w i n g admonition to the s p i r i t of the dog: "Your agony i s the r e s u l t of your own defi l e m e n t . Do understand i t and t r y to be engaged i n the s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e and ask f o r a d i v i n e pardon. Furthermore, do not fo r g e t about the kindness - ^ g i v e n by your m i s t r e s s f o r seven years. Go back to the a s t r a l world." ' -218-As a r e s u l t : Through t h i s admonition the s p i r i t ' s r e s e n t -ment was wiped out. So i t returned to the a s t r a l world.35 The next day the woman v i s i t e d the l o c a l centre w i t h a b i g smile on her face and t e a r s of deep a f f e c t i o n i n her eyes, and s a i d : "Only w i t h your he l p , my husband came back. I f e e l f i n e . " 3 6 This s t o r y ends w i t h a moral teaching such t h a t : This s t o r y t e l l s us that we must have compassion and s i n c e r i t y f o r a l l the l i v i n g beings and s p i r i t s . 3 7 The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of the moral runs as f o l l o w s : (1) Ignorance or the l a c k of compassion causes the misery of others and the v i c t i m resents the a s s a i l a n t ; (2) the v i c t i m , a f t e r h i s death,possesses the a s s a i l a n t , so the p o s i t i o n s of v i c t i m and a s s a i l a n t are reversed; (3) through the SBMK p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l and te a c h i n g , both p a r t i e s develop understanding and compassion, and the one r e c o n c i l e s to the other; (4) at the time of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n the departure of the possessing s p i r i t from the body of the l i v i n g person and the person's recovery from h i s own problems occur simultaneously. I would l i k e to emphasize again that the c o n s i s t e n t u n d e r l y i n g l o g i c here i s that ignorance i s the cause of di s p u t e and that p r o v i d i n g proper knowledge i s the key to the s o l u t i o n . S o c i a l success i s o f t e n assumed to i n d i c a t e a l a c k of compassion because i t may f o s t e r arrogance. SMBK b e l i e v e r s share such a sentiment that s u c c e s s f u l people tend to j u s t i f y -219-t h e i r own ignorance and l o s e compassion. Wealth, an i n d i c a t o r of s o c i a l success, i s considered l i k e l y to have been gained by d e p r i v i n g o t h e r s . The second example concerns a 26 y e a r - o l d man (Mr. Kawara i n pseudonym i n the SMBK textbook) who was the owner of four companies i n 1956 but l o s t a l l h i s fortune over a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l years. In June 1956 a bank b u i l d i n g h i s company had co n s t r u c t e d was burnt down the n i g h t before the t r a n s f e r day. In 1956, the roof of a tunnel h i s company was c o n s t r u c t i n g f e l l i n , and some workers were k i l l e d . Moreover, Mr. Kawara was a l s o almost k i l l e d by the same a c c i d e n t . In 1959 he began a new business to recover from the l o s s caused by the l a s t two a c c i d e n t s . This was the breeding of s w e e t f i s h , which he thought promised success. However, when i t came near to success a sudden fog covered the whole f i s h pond and su f f o c a t e d the f i s h to death. He f a i l e d again and was l e f t w i t h a b i g d e f i c i t . Through the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the cause of h i s f a i l u r e was i d e n t i f i e d as the c r u e l t y of h i s ancestor. Mr. Kawara's ancestor s i x generations before was a t a x a t i o n o f f i c e r of Kishu Han.^8 He was a c r u e l man and e x p l o i t e d farmers extremely hard. (This i m p l i e s that he embezzled a part of the tax and became r i c h , which was not unusual e s p e c i a l l y before modernization.) When a farmer could not pay h i s annual t a x , and sent h i s daughter to him so that her labour would compensate a part of the unpaid t a x , the -220-o f f i c e r not only v i o l a t e d her but, w i t h i n two months, a l s o asked again f o r the tax. (This means that he was making i t i m p o s s i b l e , because the farmer, assumed to be a r i c e c u l t i v a t o r , had a harvest only once a year and, a c c o r d i n g l y , only one chance of paying any debts.) The farmer and h i s wife committed s u i c i d e . T h e i r daughter a l s o k i l l e d h e r s e l f i n f r o n t of a s h r i n e dedicated to a d i v i n e dragon, s u p p l i c a t i n g f o r revenge f o r her f a m i l y . Accepting her s u p p l i c a t i o n , the dragon k i l l e d the o f f i c e r . Then he prevented the Kawara f a m i l y from having sons, so they had to maintain t h e i r f a m i l y l i n e by adoption f o r four generations down to Mr. Kawara. The dragon became i r r i t a b l e a f t e r he f a i l e d to destroy the Kawara f a m i l y by e l i m i n a t i n g t h e i r blood l i n e and decided to b r i n g an economic d i s a s t e r ... 39 • The s t r u c t u r e of t h i s s t o r y i s the same as the f i r s t one: (1) ignorance or the l a c k of compassion by the Kawara f a m i l y caused misery to the farmer's f a m i l y which d i e d r e s e n t i n g the Kawaras; (2) the dragon, r e p r e s e n t i n g the v i c t i m , possessed Mr. Kawara, so t h e i r v i c t i m - a s s a i l a n t r o l e s were reverse d ; ( 3 ) through the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l and teaching they are expected to reach understanding. However, i n t h i s example, the idea of defilement and redemption i s c l e a r e r than i n the f i r s t one: He (Mr. Kawara) was made to r e a l i z e that h i s f a m i l y defilement was so deep that he had no chance to c o n s t r u c t a good l i f e . He f i n a l l y became an (SMBK) teacher to save hi m s e l f through saving o t h e r s . Since then he has been engaged i n the a c t i v i t y to save those l e a d i n g a mere day-to-day l i f e motivated by t h e i r own s e l f i s h d e s i r e s , l i k e h i m s e l f before. He teaches them now that one -221-cannot r e a l l y achieve success out of one's egotism.40 Concerning the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a moral s t o r y , the r o l e of the a c t i v e performer i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l has to be c l a r i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n to the other two p a r t i e s . F i r s t , the dragon r e p r e s e n t i n g the v i c t i m s ' side now as an a s s a i l a n t , r e v e a l s the unknown side of the s t o r y . Second, Mr. Kawara, the descendant of the a s s a i l a n t f a m i l y now as a v i c t i m , has to accept the dragon's s i d e of the s t o r y no matter how unreasonable i t seems to him because, f o r him, i t i s the only way to save h i m s e l f . Standing between these two, the a c t i v e 2 performer (=an SMBK teacher, i n t h i s case) f u n c t i o n s as a mediator, r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i v i n e order by o f f e r i n g a common ground f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . The po i n t i s that the teacher does not make a judgment. In other words, the dis p u t e has to be d e a l t w i t h by the p a i r d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d . The extent of Mr. Kawara's attempted redemption i s dependent on the dragon's generosity,•and Mr. Kawara has to keep appealing to the dragon's sympathy. In summary, any di s p u t e has to be solved on the ba s i s of n e g o t i a t i o n s between the d i r e c t v i c t i m and a s s a i l a n t under the d i v i n e guidance of the SMBK teacher. One f u r t h e r p o i n t has to be made. Although SMBK p u b l i c a t i o n s give the impression to readers that the possessing s p i r i t r e v e a l s i t s s t o r y as c l e a r l y as a c r i m i n a l -222-i n a d e t e c t i v e s t o r y confesses to a d e t e c t i v e - h e r o , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a meaningful s t o r y through the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l u s u a l l y takes a long time. When the p u b l i c a t i o n says "The s p i r i t gave a l l these s t o r i e s i n three days," t h i s o f t e n means that the s t o r i e s given by the possessing s p i r i t began to make sense i n three days, which i s q u i t e an e x c e p t i o n a l speed. A l s o , the time given by b e l i e v e r s i s not always r e l i a b l e , because i t i s o f t e n f o r g o t t e n i n t h e i r memory that they had to spend a long time before they began to d e r i v e r e s u l t s from the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i n the form which f i t s i n t o the SMBK d o c t r i n e . According to my o b s e r v a t i o n , each b e l i e v e r spends a long p e r i o d of time r e g u l a r l y v i s i t i n g a l o c a l c e n t r e , performing the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , having personal c o n s u l -t a t i o n s w i t h the teaching s t a f f and the Head and l e a r n i n g the d o c t r i n e . By doing so they are expected to go through a p e r s o n a l i t y change. This I w i l l d i s c u s s i n the next chapter. Compassion, a core n o t i o n i n the SMBK m o r a l i t y , f u n c t i o n s as an e q u a l i z i n g element. The po i n t here i s that r o l e - r e v e r s a l i s the SMBK way of c o n s t r u c t i n g e q u a l i t y . This r e v e r s a l i s experienced i n two ways i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l : one i s i n the form of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i t s e l f (Chapter I I ) , and the other i n the content of moral s t o r i e s r e v e a l e d by possessing s p i r i t s . In the moral s t o r i e s , the r o l e - r e v e r s a l occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g way. The a s s a i l a n t -223-has to experience the misery of the v i c t i m by hi m s e l f being v i c t i m i z e d by h i s o r i g i n a l v i c t i m . When the o r i g i n a l a s s a i l a n t becomes a v i c t i m , the o r i g i n a l v i c t i m i s i n the p o s i t i o n of a s s a i l a n t . Both sides must know the r e a l c o n d i t i o n s of the other by e x p e r i e n c i n g them; not only has the a s s a i l a n t to experience the agony of the v i c t i m , but a l s o the v i c t i m has to experience that i t i s so easy to be c r u e l and ag g r e s s i v e , as possessing s p i r i t s normally are. In both form and content, the r o l e r e v e r s a l provides a p a r t i c u l a r sense of e q u a l i t y . This a l so means that i n each p a i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , there i s not e q u a l i t y . Between the two performers of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the a c t i v e performer c o n t r o l s the passive performer, and between v i c t i m and a s s a i l a n t , the a s s a i l a n t o b v i o u s l y has a power over the v i c t i m . Here the e q u a l i t y depends on the assumption th a t h i s advantaged or disadvantaged p o s i t i o n i s only temporary. -224-DIVINE HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHICAL CONTAINMENT OF DISORDER IN ORDER In the SMBK d o c t r i n e , e q u a l i t y and d i s o r d e r of the o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y are a l s o contained i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l order of the cosmology. This containment i s made p o s s i b l e by the image of a la y e r e d cosmos. In SMBK, only c e r t a i n l a y e r s of the cosmos are t e m p o r a r i l y i n d i s o r d e r , and the beings s u f f e r i n g from c o n f l i c t s are a l l contained w i t h i n these l a y e r s . Therefore, the l a y e r s which c o n t a i n e g a l i t a r i a n elements are a l s o p a r t of the h i e r a r c h y . In i t s m y t h o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y , the SMBK d o c t r i n e e x p l a i n s i n terms of o r i g i n s the reason why the present cosmic order i s improper. At the very beginning of time, men l i v e d i n p e r f e c t harmony. There were never any c o n f l i c t s because men were not given " d e s i r e s " . However, t h i s made them slow i n the process of c o n s t r u c t i n g a d i v i n e c i v i l i z a t i o n on e a r t h , f o r which purpose they had been created. Therefore, the d i v i n i t i e s of the sun, who supervised the c r e a t i o n of men, f i n a l l y decided to increase the speed and e f f i c i e n c y i n men's work by g i v i n g them d e s i r e s and indu c i n g competition. In order to do so the d i v i n i t i e s of the sun delegated the task and a u t h o r i t y to the d i v i n i t i e s of the moon who s p e c i a l i z e i n the c r e a t i o n of d e s i r e s . Although the d i v i n i t i e s of the sun -225-intended t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s to be only a short p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n , the d i v i n i t i e s of the moon took advantage of the t r u s t g iven them by the d i v i n i t i e s of the sun and decided to keep themselves f o r e v e r i n power over the e a r t h . As a r e s u l t , when the d i v i n i t i e s of the sun asked the d i v i n i t i e s of the moon when they would re-subordinate themselves, the d i v i n i t i e s of the moon, i n s t e a d of g i v i n g a humble answer, cast a s p e l l and s a i d , "Come back when roasted beans bloom" Roasted beans, of course, do not bloom. They then threw roasted beans at the d i v i n i t i e s of the sun. The c h i l d r e n of the d i v i n i t i e s of the moon were even worse: they stung the eyes of the a s t r a l bodies t h a t the d i v i n i t i e s of the sun l e f t behind when the l a t t e r withdrew themselves to the s i x t h l e v e l of the cosmos where they p r o p e r l y belonged. This was e q u i v a l e n t to a v i o l a t i o n of the bodies of the dead. F o o l i s h l y enough, men, now a c t i v a t e d by d e s i r e s , f o l l o w e d the d i v i n i t i e s of the moon. They a l s o threw roasted beans, cast the same s p e l l , and v i o l a t e d the a s t r a l bodies of the d i v i n i t i e s of the sun. This i s the " o r i g i n a l s i n " of a l l mankind, and the source of a l l d e f i l e m e n t . SMBK b e l i e v e r s consider that t h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l event i s the o r i g i n of the ceremonial act s t i l l common among contemporary Japanese. On the eve of the f i r s t day of s p r i n g , c h i l d r e n throw roasted beans at a f i g u r e wearing a monster -226-DIAGRAM^4 : D i v i n e arrangement - 2 2 7 -mask, saying, "Go away, monster. Come i n , wealth." Some t r a d i t i o n a l people decorate t h e i r door-ways w i t h a branch of h o l l y wood w i t h a f i s h head (sardine) stuck to i t . This repeated c e l e b r a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l s i n , which adds more to already-accumulated d e f i l e m e n t , i s considered a challenge to the SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y . Thus, the SMBK b e l i e v e r s have a r e g u l a r prayer s e s s i o n on the f i r s t day of s p r i n g (Risshun  s a i ) w i t h the aim of redeeming such s i n . F u l l redemption i n the SMBK d o c t r i n e i m p l i e s that the proper order w i l l be r e s u r r e c t e d under the guidance of the supreme d i v i n i t y . The end of the r e i g n of the d i v i n i t i e s of the moon i s almost at hand. The m a t e r i a l i s t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n b u i l t on d e s i r e s w i l l be transcended, and a more s p i r i t u a l era under the d i r e c t i o n of the d i v i n i t i e s of the sun w i l l r e t u r n to power. And u l t i m a t e l y the supreme d i v i n i t y w i l l p u r i f y h i s cosmos w i t h a "baptism of f i r e . " According to the SMBK d o c t r i n e , only a l i m i t e d number of people w i l l be chosen to su r v i v e t h i s p e r i o d of f i r e . They w i l l be known as "leaven men," and w i l l be the b u i l d e r s of a new d i v i n e c i v i l i z a t i o n on ea r t h a f t e r the end of the present world. Hence, because of t h e i r d i v i n e knowledge and mastery of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l s , the SMBK b e l i e v e r s w i l l occupy a s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n i n the cosmos at t h i s c r u c i a l moment of the recovery of the d i v i n e order. For t h i s reason the SBMK d o c t r i n e compels i t s -228-f o l l o w e r s to master the d o c t r i n e and r i t u a l s p e r t a i n i n g to p u r i f i c a t i o n . In the SBMK cosmology, the proper order i s viewed as harmonious and s t a t i c . N e v e rtheless, the cosmos contains p e r p e t u a l movements w i t h i n i t s e l f which are c a t e g o r i z e d i n terms of time and space. The movement i n terms of space i s the r o t a t i o n of the cosmos which i s shown as the movement of the sun, s t a r s , p l a n e t s , e t c . The movement i n terms of time i s the h i s t o r y of the cosmos seen as doom f o r the many and r e s u r r e c t i o n f o r the few. This i s an endless r e p e t i t i o n whose c o n t i n u a t i o n i s caused by c o r r u p t i o n . This i s s a i d to have already been repeated seven times. The process of t h i s r e p e t i t i o n i s viewed as a s p i r a l movement (Diagram 24) i n which the beginning of each millennium i s assumed as the achievement of a new c i v i l i z a t i o n b e t t e r , that i s , purer, than the previous one. This h i s t o r i c a l process takes place only below the s i x t h l e v e l so t h a t the hi g h e s t two l e v e l s remain undisturbed. In t h i s way, a l l the changes i n v o l v e d i n d i v i n e h i s t o r y are a part of a r e g u l a r process arranged by the supreme d i v i n i t y . The r o l e g iven to the SMBK i s to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n t h i s process. -229-NOTES 1-The importance of pantheon has been mentioned by Y. Kubota (1978, pp. 217-8). 2on: ( ) kindness. 3 _ Kosei Magazine, J u l y 1977. 4 The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these bottom two l e v e l s are not c l e a r l y understood among SMBK c l e r i c s , although the pr e v i o u s l y -mentioned Shinto group, M i c h i H i r a k i , has an ela b o r a t e d o c t r i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r them. Q IF 8 # ^ 10 Okada, 1970 (b) (The qu o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese by K. Miyanaga.) ''"''"Leaven s p i r i t i s an SMBK word. I use i t to avoid c o n f u s i o n . 12 I am not sure i f M i c h i H i r a k i d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the a s t r a l body and the s p i r i t u a l body. I used the world " a s t r a l " to avoid confusion. 13 The Japanese word kami i n d i c a t i n g d i v i n i t y could a l s o i n d i c a t e e i t h e r the s i n g u l a r or the p l u r a l form. Here I t r e a t e d i t i n the s i n g u l a r to i n d i c a t e any d i v i n i t y who i s i n the p o s i t i o n to give p r o t e c t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r person or people. -230-1 / The SMBK Elementary Session Textbook (not d i s t r i b u t e d o u t s i d e SMBK), pp. 63-4. (The q u o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese by K. Miyanaga.) 15 The cross i n SMBK symbolizes harmony and energy. 16 Because i t i s the Japanese custom to place d i r e c t l y on the tatami f l o o r the mattress and the mat (covered w i t h a bedsheet") and blanket ( o f t e n placed i n a ca s e ) , the sheet and (the case of) the blanket may be u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y stepped on, although i t i s considered to be bad manners. "^S. S e k i g u c h i , 1978, pp. 137-8. ( T r a n s l a t i o n from Japanese by K. Miyanaga.) 1 8 I b i d . , p. 138. 19 Edo i s the name f o r Tokyo i n the Tokugawa P e r i o d . I t s po p u l a t i o n i s estimated to have been about one m i l l i o n . 20 For the meaning of s a - t o r i , see Chapter IV. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 130. 22 Mukashi no h i t o a l s o means the t r a d i t i o n a l people i n c o n t r a s t to the modern and r a t i o n a l people. 23 The a s t r a l world contains v a r i o u s H e l l s . 2 4 I b i d . , pp. 152-3. 2 ^ I b i d . , pp. 153-4. 2 6 These people are not s p e c i f i e d i n the SMBK d o c t r i n e . 27 The SMBK d o c t r i n e e x p l a i n s that these snakes are not r e a l snakes but the vengeful s p i r i t s of the dead human beings who have gained a s t r a l bodies i n a snake f i g u r e . -231-2 8 H . Kiing, 1978, p. 530. 2 9The Holy B i b l e , Matthew: 6-19, 20, 21. (Authorized King James v e r s i o n . 3 0 K. Okada, 1970(a), p. 214. 1 (The q u o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese by K. Miyanaga.) on (>vi-v ) 32 3 A-In the o r i g i n a l , the world r e i - k a i which normally used to mean the s p i r i t u a l world i s used. However, I have i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s here as the a s t r a l world, because sometimes the a s t r a l world i s considered as a part of the s p i r i t u a l world i n a broader sense. In my t h e s i s I l i m i t e d t h e i r usage to the narrower meanings to avoid confusion. 33 J J I b i d . , P- 214. I b i d . , P- 215. 3 6 I b i d . , P- 215. I b i d . , P- 215. 38 u Han i s awa era. a t e r r i t o r y 39 J ^ I b i d . , PP . 197-8. I b i d . , f a m i l y . This p. 198. In SMBK a person i s i d e n t i f i e d by h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. -232-CHAPTER V: INDIVIDUALS IN THE SMBK RELIGIOUS SYSTEM -233-The h i e r a r c h y of power and knowledge i n SMBK serves the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r by o f f e r i n g an e s t a b l i s h e d procedure f o r s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , which occurs w i t h i n the given frame-work of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . C o l l e c t i v e l y , nothing changes. The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l repeats the same p a t t e r n i n every performance. However, the r e p e t i t i o n creates a long process of s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I t i s a tr a n s f o r m a t i o n from the non-SMBK s e l f to the SMBK s e l f . The SMBK s e l f i n d i c a t e s the s t a t e of one-ness w i t h the d i v i n e order. In t h i s s t a t e , the b e l i e v e r t h i n k s and acts according to SMBK cosmology. Or, probably more c o r r e c t l y from h i s p o i n t of view, he l i v e s i n the SMBK cosmos w i t h f u l l awareness of the f a c t t h a t he does. The non-SMBK s e l f i n d i c a t e s the s t a t e of i s o l a t i o n from the d i v i n e one-ness. The two s t a t e s of s e l f are e x c l u s i v e to each other and, a c c o r d i n g l y , the s e l f i n one-ness does not emerge from the s e l f i n i s o l a t i o n . There-f o r e , i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h i s process of s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n means a t o t a l change. I t should be r e f e r r e d to as an e x t r a -paradigmatic change. This change, i n other words, i s a s h i f t from one paradigm to another. The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l o f f e r s the only method f o r tr a n s f o r m a t i o n from the non-SMBK s e l f to the SMBK-self, or from the o l d paradigm to the new paradigm. The key i s -234-b e h a v i o r a l submission. I t enables the performer to act according to the new paradigm which he has not yet mentally a s s i m i l a t e d . He s t i l l t h i n k s according to h i s o l d paradigm. Consequently, h i s s e l f experiences a s e p a r a t i o n of body and mind, which i s a r t i f i c i a l l y c r eated i n the r i t u a l context. This s e p a r a t i o n o f t e n causes absent-mindedness i n the d a i l y l i f e of the b e l i e v e r . He becomes d i s o r g a n i z e d , f o r g e t f u l , s e l f - i n v o l v e d and c a r e l e s s of e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s . SMBK teachers and s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s advise the b e l i e v e r i n t h i s s t a t e to perform the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l r e g u l a r l y and f r e q u e n t l y but not to p h i l o s o p h i z e about h i s experience. In other words, t h i s stage should be overridden q u i c k l y by i n t e n s i v e l e a r n i n g . The SMBK standard i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that such disturbances are caused by s p i r i t p ossession, and the performance of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s the s o l u t i o n f o r these d i s t u r b a n c e s . The a s s i m i l a t i o n of the new paradigm i s only p o s s i b l e b e h a v i o r a l l y , because the new paradigm does not emerge from the o l d paradigm. This change n e c e s s i t a t e s the p u r i f i -c a t i o n r i t u a l . By reading the SMBK p u b l i c a t i o n s outside of the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the new paradigm can be understood only through the o l d paradigm. This i s a process of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ; the new paradigm i s screened by the o l d paradigm. Consequently, the b a s i c epistemology of the person remains the same. In c o n t r a s t , i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n -235-r i t u a l , the way to r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s d e l i b e r a t e l y blocked. The performer f i r s t has to see the fragmented parts of the new paradigm through the lens of the o l d paradigm. Subsequently, he has to f i n d a new p e r s p e c t i v e i n which a l l the fragmented p a r t s become i n t e l l i g i b l e . This p e r s p e c t i v e i s the new paradigm, and i s o f f e r e d i n the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Thus, from the point of view of an o u t s i d e r , r i t u a l l e a r n i n g appears as an i r r a t i o n a l process. I t i s a process of submission, but not commitment i n so f a r as the l a t t e r i s a r a t i o n a l a ct p o s s i b l e on the b a s i s of r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g i n the o l d paradigm. In SMBK, the r i t u a l process which begins w i t h the disengagement from the o l d paradigm and which ends w i t h the engagement i n the new paradigm i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l . In other words, a s s i m i l a t i o n of s e l f i n t o the SMBK paradigm i s incre m e n t a l . The b e l i e v e r f i r s t l e a r n s to accept s p i r i t p o ssession as a f a c t . Second, the b e l i e v e r i s t a c t f u l l y guided to recognize the importance of other s . T h i r d , the importance of others converges i n t o that of h i s own ancestors. Fourth, he r e a l i z e s that h i s ancestors are part of the pantheon. F i f t h , he a s s i m i l a t e s the concept that the pantheonic order c o n s t i t u t e s the SMBK cosmos. F i n a l l y , he accepts that i t was created by the SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y . The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l which c e r t i f i e s these steps i s a s p e c i a l form of r i t u a l . I t presupposes an object to be p u r i f i e d or removed. The removal presupposes the ex i s t e n c e of d e f i l e m e n t . The defilement has to be removed because i t i s b l o c k i n g the person from the achievement of one-ness w i t h d i v i n e order. The se p a r a t i o n of the person from the d i v i n e order i s considered to be d i s o r d e r . The person, by becoming a r i t u a l performer, gains the a b i l i t y to convert d i s o r d e r i n t o order. This i s the meaning of the act of p u r i f i c a t i o n . The recovery of order from d i s o r d e r i s l o g i c a l l y made p o s s i b l e by the assumption that the s t a t e of one-ness i s proper and that s e p a r a t i o n i s a temporary and improper c o n d i t i o n . (See Chapter IV.) In the SMBK p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the r i t u a l performer ( p u r i f i e r ) and the possessing s p i r i t (to be p u r i f i e d ) both recover order. In the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , s p i r i t possession i s o f t e n t r e a t e d as a defilem e n t . In SMBK, the possessing s p i r i t i s a s p i r i t of the dead which i s i s o l a t e d from order by being d i s p l a c e d i n the pantheon.. T h e r e a f t e r , i t represents d i s o r d e r . I t possesses the human being who a l s o represents d i s o r d e r by being i n a s t a t e of i s o l a t i o n from one-ness. In other words, both the possessing s p i r i t and the possessed belong to d i s o r d e r . Since d i s o r d e r i s defilement i n SMBK, -237-p u r i f i c a t i o n i s n e c e s s i t a t e d i n order to recover the proper order. In t h i s context s p i r i t possession i s a " c a l l i n g " , as I.M. Lewis''" phrases i t , because the possessing s p i r i t e x p l i c a t e s the dynamic between order and d i s o r d e r . A l s o , the possessing s p i r i t motivates the b e l i e v e r to be engaged i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . In SMBK, only s p i r i t s of the dead have the m o b i l i t y f o r possession. The d i v i n i t i e s are viewed as b a s i c a l l y s t a t i c and not i n v o l v e d i n possession. -238-SATORI AND SELF-CHANGE IN THE RITUAL CONTEXT S a t o r i i s the s t a t e of s e l f which has achieved one-ness w i t h the d i v i n e order. In SMBK, t h i s word has s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t meanings which u l t i m a t e l y i n d i c a t e the awareness achieved at v a r i o u s l e v e l s i n the process of tr a n s f o r m a t i o n towards one-ness. However, before going i n t o i n q u i r i n g i n t o the SMBK meaning of s a t o r i , I would l i k e to b r i e f l y mention s a t o r i i n Zen Buddhism, f o r two reasons: f i r s t , long before SMBK a s s i m i l a t e d the n o t i o n of s a t o r i , i t was h i s t o r i c a l l y the o b j e c t i v e f o r Zen and was elabo r a t e d i n v a r i o u s ways by Zen masters; second, the SMBK meaning of s a t o r i i s b a s i c a l l y an adoption from Zen w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n by the L o r d - s a v i o r Okada, the o r i g i n a t o r of SMBK. I begin the d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Zen meaning of s a t o r i , f o c u s i n g on the aspect p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d to SMBK. Then, I go on to di s c u s s how Okada modified the meaning. A world famous Zen master, D. Suzuki, e x p l a i n s s a t o r i as f o l l o w s : The ob j e c t of Zen d i s c i p l i n e c o n s i s t s i n a c q u i r i n g a new viewpoint f o r l o o k i n g i n t o the essence of t h i n g s . I f you have been i n the ha b i t of t h i n k i n g l o g i c a l l y according to the r u l e s of dualism, r i d y o u r s e l f of i t and you may come around somewhat to the viewpoint of Zen. You and I are supposedly l i v i n g i n the same world, but who can t e l l that the t h i n g we p o p u l a r l y c a l l a stone that i s l y i n g before -239-my window i s the same to both of us? You and I s i p a cup of te a . That act i s apparently a l i k e to us both, but who can t e l l what a wide gap there i s s u b j e c t i v e l y between your d r i n k i n g and my d r i n k i n g ? In your d r i n k i n g there may be no Zen, while mine i s b r i m f u l of i t . The reason f o r i t i s : you move i n a l o g i c a l c i r c l e and I am out of i t . Though there i s i n f a c t nothing new i n the s o - c a l l e d new viewpoint of Zen, the term "new" i s convenient to express the Zen way of viewing the world, but i t s use here i s a condescension on the part of Zen. This a c q u i r i n g of a new viewpoint i n Zen i s c a l l e d s a t o r i (wu i n Chinese) and i t s verb form i n s a t o r u . Without i t there i s no Zen, f o r the l i f e of Zen begins w i t h the "opening of s a t o r i . " S a t o r i may be de f i n e d as i n t u i t i v e l o o k i n g - i n t o , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to i n t e l l e c t u a l and l o g i c a l understanding. Whatever the d e f i n i t i o n , s a t o r i means the u n f o l d i n g of a new world h i t h e r t o unperceived i n the confusion of a d u a l i s t i c mind.2 Although i t s use i s s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d only by expedience f o r r e a l beginners, Zen Buddhists o c c a s i o n a l l y use 3 a diagram p o p u l a r l y c a l l e d the " p i c t u r e of ten oxen". This diagram e x p l a i n s the process of " a c q u i r i n g a new viewpoi n t " i n ten stages as f o l l o w s . 1. Seeking the ox; a person decides to f i n d the "true s e l f " . 2. F i n d i n g the ox's foot p r i n t s ; he i s l e a r n i n g about the "true s e l f , " but only t h e o r e t i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y not i n p r a c t i c e . 3. F i n d i n g the ox; h i s t h e o r e t i c a l l e a r n i n g begins to make sense i n p r a c t i c e . 4. Catching the ox; he s t r u g g l e s not to los e h i s once-made sense. 5. Herding the ox; h i s understanding and p r a c t i c e are becoming h i s own. - 2 4 1 -3. F i n d i n g t h e ox 4 . C a t c h i n g t h e ox - 2 4 2 -5. H e r d i n g t h e ox -243-8 . No ox, no s e l f -245-6. Going back home on the ox's back; h i s transcendence i s completed. Now he i s the master of h i m s e l f . 7. No ox, but h i s own s e l f ; s a t o r i as an e x t e r n a l o b j e c t i v e has disappeared, so eve r y t h i n g i s contained i n h i s own s e l f . 8. No ox, no s e l f ; ( d u a l i s t i c ) d i s t i n c t i o n or s p l i t s disappear, i n c l u d i n g that between the s e l f and e x t e r n a l o b j e c t i v e ( s a t o r i ) and a l s o that between the s u b j e c t i v e s e l f and the r e f l e c t i v e s e l f . 9. Returning to the essence; the r e l i g i o u s s e l f achieves one-ness w i t h nature (or Nature). 10. Returning to society.; he goes b a c k 4 to l i v e w i t h r e g u l a r people to show them the r e a l l i f e . In SMBK, the L o r d - s a v i o r Okada i n t e r p r e t s the ox sequence diagram as f o l l o w s : A man has a beast i n h i s mind ( l i k e t h i s ox) p u l l i n g him away from h i s proper way. Reaching a s t a t e of ma t u r i t y r e q u i r e s him to be the master of such elements. ... Often we go around the same c i r c l e e n d l e s s l y being p u l l e d by our own mind l i k e t h i s ox w i t h no c o n t r o l over i t , although i t i s no doubt our own mind. We f a l l i n t o such c o n d i t i o n s when our mind i s " f l a t . " Then Okada adds h i s own metaphorical e x p l a n a t i o n : For example, man has i n t e l l e c t , sentiment (emotions), and w i l l . These form a f l a t t r i a n g l e the c e n t r o i d of which i s mind. (Diagram 25).... However, proper s t a t e of mind i s cubic so that i n t e l l e c t , sentiment, and w i l l have to form a cubic t r i a n g l e . This i s an ascending movement. (Diagram 25). The top of t h i s movement should reach Su no Kami (the SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y ) , t hat i s , ^ (chyon). But, we have a ^ i n the depth of our mind, and a l s o have another ^ even i n the deeper place i n s i d e of the f i r s t ^ . Moreover, i n s i d e of the second ^ , there i s one more N> which i s our given p o r t i o n of the s p i r i t -246-DI AG RAM .25: F l a t and Cubic T r i a n g l e s - 2 4 7 -of the supreme d i v i n i t y . [Nesting i s a t y p i c a l SMBK metaphor.] In other words, as our mind ascends, our d i v i n e s p i r i t i n the r e a l depth of our mind w i l l be d i r e c t l y conjoined to the d i v i n i t y . Powerful ascension w i l l combine us to d i v i n i t y a f t e r a l l . This i s s a t o r i of the cubic t r i a n g l e . In the statement above, the Lord-Saviour Okada holds that s a t o r i i s the recovery of one-ness w i t h the order of the cosmos and i t s producer, the SMBK supreme d i v i n i t y . The s t a t e of one-ness i s as s e r t e d as proper and, a c c o r d i n g l y , the improper s e p a r a t i o n from the order (and from i t s producer) has to be adjusted. In order to c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t , I would l i k e to b r i e f l y summarize the meaning of the word s a t o r i , because the SMBK usage of t h i s word i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from the r e g u l a r one. L i n g u i s t i c a l l y , s a t o r i i s a noun form of one simple verb s a t o r u , and has two meanings, s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s . The s e c u l a r meaning i s simply to comprehend or to understand. I t s c onnotation has a strong emphasis that such comprehension or understanding i s an achievement. The r e l i g i o u s meaning of s a t o r i i s s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , that i s , one-ness w i t h the order of the cosmos or nature. This i n d i c a t e s the goal of achievement as i s the case i n Zen, f o r example. However, SMBK has i t s own unique i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s a t o r i . According to SMBK, i t i s not a simple noun s a t o r i but a compound noun s a - t o r i ; sa i s a gap and t o r i removal. Together, the SMBK meaning of s a - t o r i i s removing a gap between man and the -248-d i v i n e order. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n provides two usages s i m i l a r but s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from the r e g u l a r ones. F i r s t , i n SMBK, s a - t o r i i s viewed as a process of achievement r a t h e r than the u l t i m a t e one-ness i t s e l f . I t i s a process of self-change or the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from one s e l f to another. However, t h i s process i s a l s o viewed as numerous stages of s p i r i t u a l ascension - l i k e going up a long stairway. Thus, the second meaning of s a - t o r i i s the achievement of each stage. This i s s i m i l a r to the s e c u l a r usage of the o r i g i n a l word s a t o r i , because both focus on the accomplishment of understanding, although i n SMBK the object of understanding i s l i m i t e d to i t s d o c t r i n e . Although the use of the diagram of oxen i s admitted to be an expedient, i n p r i n c i p l e , Zen r e j e c t s s a t o r i as a gradual change. P r o f e s s o r K e i j i Iwata of the N a t i o n a l Museum of Ethnology of Japan, a l s o w e l l known as a Zen Buddhist a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , suggested to me that a u t h e n t i c s a t o r i must be tongo (an immediate or sudden r e a l i z a t i o n of true s e l f ) not 7 zengo (a gradual change of s e l f ) . From the point of view of such Zen Buddhists who support the idea of tongo, zengo i s a methodological detour which could s p o i l the q u a l i t y of s a t o r i i t s e l f . More p r e c i s e l y , tongo i s the way to cut through a l l the surface phenomena to the true s e l f , but zengo as a method w i l l l i k e l y i n s t e a d mislead a person i n t o a — 249 — f e e l i n g of better-ness i n d a i l y l i f e r o u t i n e s . Therefore, from the Zen po i n t of view, i f such a n o t i o n of s a t o r i as gradual change i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , as i t i s i n SMBK, the people i n the p u r s u i t of s a t o r i w i l l l i k e l y be misguided. Concerning t h i s p o i n t , an SMBK member (a young man of about twenty at the Kanazawa l o c a l centre) gave me an i n t e r e s t i n g o p i n i o n , r e f e r r i n g to an i n c i d e n t of someone f i n d i n g 100 m i l l i o n yen on the s t r e e t (money which e v e n t u a l l y became h i s ) . When you want to be r i c h , i f you are an or d i n a r y person, you had b e t t e r accumulate money l i t t l e by l i t t l e , though i t i s not completely meaningless to s t a r t l o o k i n g f o r 100 m i l l i o n yen on the s t r e e t , f o r t h i s has happened to someone i n r e a l i t y . You cannot say t h i s way of becoming r i c h i s u n r e a l i s t i c . I t c ould even make you a m i l l i o n a i r e ! (He laughed). And he added: Since I am an o r d i n a r y person, I t h i n k I should achieve my s a t o r i l i t t l e by l i t t l e . I f anyone b e l i e v e s that he can achieve great s a t o r i a l l at once, please t r y . I t i s t o t a l l y h i s c h o i ce. -250-MORAL SPONTANEITY The c e n t r a l i s s u e f o r transcendence or self-change i s s o l i d i t y of the "newly a c q u i r e d " s e l f . The r e l i g i o u s s e l i s an i n t e g r a t e d s e l f i n so f a r as i t p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the "wholeness" of d i v i n e order. The fragmented or compartment-a l i z e d s e l f i s a s i g n of f a i l u r e i n self-change, because compartmentalization i n d i c a t e s the l a c k of "wholeness", which may be e i t h e r the r e s u l t of the transcendental attempt or the c o n t i n u i t y of the compartmentalized s e l f before the attempt. Even o u t s i d e of r e l i g i o n , some e x i s t e n t i a l psy-g c h i a t r i s t s such as Frank A. Johnson d e f i n e the l a c k of s e l f -i n t e g r a t i o n as the s c h i z o i d s t a t e and, a l s o , the s t a t e of a l i e n a t i o n (Johnson's word used i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l sense). In Zen, as I have s t a t e d e a r l i e r , the s o l i d l y i n t e g r a t e d s e l i s assumed to produce spontaneous a c t i o n s . Therefore, i t s h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i n t e l l e c t u a l way of a s s i m i l a t i n g Buddhism i s appr e c i a t e d only when i t i s p r a c t i s e d . Compared to Zen, SMBK places emphasis on m o r a l i t y i n human r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . As I have exp l a i n e d i n the previous chapter, compassion as an SMBK o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y has two s i d e s : f i r s t , a compassionate s t a t e of mind, and, second, the act o a s s i m i l a t i n g the knowledge of other s . Moral spontaneity i n - 2 5 1 -SMBK i s a demand to amalgamate these i n t o a spontaneous a c t i o n . As a moral a t t i t u d e , t h a t i s , a more g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e of mind which supports t h i s moral spontaneity, compassion may be d e s c r i b e d as w i l l i n g n e s s or readiness to a s s i m i l a t e others' s i d e s of the s t o r y about the same event. Without t h i s , one's moral a c t i o n w i l l be h y p o c r i t i c a l ; the a c t i o n taken on the b a s i s of good knowledge but without compassion i s m a n i p u l a t i v e . A c t i o n based on a f e l t compassion w i t h no understanding of others may o f t e n r e s u l t i n mere s e l f -s a t i s f a c t i o n , or worse, an e x p l o i t a t i o n of others' s u f f e r i n g s . In f a c t , t h i s i s , apart from the SMBK moral t h e s i s , a q u estion fundamental to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f and o t h e r s , or i n t e n t i o n and ex p r e s s i o n . Therefore, moral spontaneity i s not a unique problem f o r SMBK. In Japan, t h i s theme has been one of the major is s u e s i n r e l i g i o u s and moral p r a c t i c e s , and a l s o i n drama and a r t i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e . In these, the whole problem has been made i n t e l l i g i b l e i n a p o p u l a r l y accepted moral dichotomy, g i r i and n i n j o . S e m a n t i c a l l y , n i n j o i s a compound noun w i t h n i n meaning human and jo_ meaning f e e l i n g s . Together, n i n jo means the n a t u r a l human f e e l i n g s that a l l human beings are supposed to be born w i t h . I t i s s i m i l a r to compassion but i t s con n o t a t i o n i s much wider. G i r i i s another compound noun w i t h g i meaning j u s t i c e and r i meaning reason. G i r i i n d i c a t e s the -252-r u l e s through which n i n j o should be r e a l i z e d . From our anthro-p o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between g i r i and n i n j o may be found to be s i m i l a r to that between the s o c i a l norm or law and the common sentiment i n the Durkheimian sense. For, g i r i represents the c o l l e c t i v e and normative system of s o c i e t y and n i n j o i s a p a r a l l e l n o t i o n to the common sentiment which represents the p s y c h o l o g i c a l side of t h i s system. As i n the Durkheimian sense, law has a d e f i n i t e p r i o r i t y over sentiment when they come i n t o c o n f l i c t ; g i r i has to be chosen and the n i n j o side has to be repressed. The poi n t i s that both are d i f f e r e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the same m o r a l i t y , i n s p i t e of the f a c t that they could come i n t o c o n f l i c t . However, there i s a d i f f e r e n c e between Durkheim and the t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese moral dichotomy: f o r Durkheim, the s p l i t between law and sentiment i s i n e v i t a b l e i n a modern s o c i e t y . Therefore, s o c i e t y has to be r e g u l a t e d by law, and sentiment has to be ignored when i t does not support law. Hence, law and sentiment may be regarded as p a r a l l e l to reason and emotion. In modern s o c i e t y , a p o l i t i c a l s t a t e whose f u n c t i o n i s based on law re p r e s e n t s , or should represent, reason. In c o n t r a s t , r e l i g i o n i s a l s o considered by opponents of r e l i g i o n as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the emotional aspects of s o c i e t y . In the t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese dichotomy of g i r i and -253-n i r i j o , there i s a strong tendency to negate the s p l i t ; they are d i f f e r e n t - or more c o r r e c t l y , t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i s recognized - but such d i f f e r e n c e should not e x i s t . Thus, Minamoto makes an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t i n c t i o n between two kinds of g i r i as f o l l o w s : Then what i s g i r i ? As f a r as the present usage of t h i s word we have discussed before i s concerned, g i r i should be separated i n t o "warm g i r i " and " c o l d g i r i " . Cold g i r i i s the k i n d of g i r i which makes us f e e l " f o r c e d to do" as i s i n d i c a t e d i n the^usage of t h i s word such as "to do f o r g i r i " . T his g i r i i n d i c a t e s s o c i a l norms or customs under enforcement and subject to sanctions which we may be r e l u c t a n t to accept. Cold-ness of g i r i and coldness f e l t i n our mind d e r i v e from such u n w i l l i n g n e s s . (In c o n t r a s t ) warm g i r i i s an i n t e r n a l moral norm of a person, that i s a m o r a l i t y of h i s own mind r e a l i z a b l e i n a personal and a f f e c t i o n a t e human r e l a t i o n s h i p . 10 SMBK people are engaged i n an attempt to e l i m i n a t e the s p l i t between these two spheres of m o r a l i t y . In t h e i r case, compassion as an o p e r a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y i s a l s o i n danger of forming a s p l i t s i m i l a r to Minamoto's n o t i o n of " c o l d " g i r i and n i n j o , or Durkheim's n o t i o n of law and sentiment. A c h i e v i n g spontaneity i n the r i t u a l way of a s s i m i l a t i n g m o r a l i t y depends on how the performer goes beyond the formal stage. In order to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s aspect, some b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r i t u a l r e q u i r e d i s c u s s i o n . -254-SPIRIT POSSESSION AS A CALLING' The process of s a - t o r i i n SMBK begins when the b e l i e v e r accepts s p i r i t possession as a f a c t . The body move-ments o f , and response given by the passive performer under the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n (Chapter I I ) i s , according to SMBK, the evidence that the s p i r i t e x i s t s and that i t possesses a l i v i n g human being f o r a c e r t a i n reason. Accepting or r e j e c t i n g t h i s p o i n t i s a fundamental choice. I f the person r e j e c t s s p i r i t p ossession as a f a c t , he has no need to seek i t s reason. But once he accepts i t as a f a c t , he has to know the reason f o r such a m y s t i f y i n g phenomenon, and SMBK d o c t r i n e provides an answer. The f e a r of s p i r i t possession i s d i s s o l v a b l e by mastering the d o c t r i n e and the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . However, "drop-outs" from SMBK may not be able to escape from the f e a r to which he has been exposed. Acceptance of s p i r i t possession has to be c o n s t a n t l y confirmed and s o l i d i f i e d through the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . This i s the reason why SMBK b e l i e v e r s are so anxious to witness the scene i n which a possessing s p i r i t a c t i v e l y responds to the given questions d u r i n g the forehead p u r i f i -c a t i o n . Furthermore, the communication w i t h the possessing s p i r i t r e q u i r e s the a c t i v e performer to b e l i e v e f i r m l y that he i s speaking to the possessing s p i r i t not to the passive -255-performer. For the same reason, such an advanced stage of communication as " i n v e s t i g a t i o n " ( i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the possessing s p i r i t ) and "admonition" (teaching of the d o c t r i n e ) i s i m possible without t h i s f i r m b e l i e f . When the person given the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l begins to be " c o n t r o l l e d " by the possessing s p i r i t and acts i n some "strange" way, b e l i e v e r s watching him u s u a l l y show obvious signs of involvement i n the event. T y p i c a l l y , c h a t t i n g stops and the whole room becomes calm except f o r the loud v o i c e s of r e c i t a t i o n of sacred verses, or whispering of p r i v a t e t a l k s . Other p a i r s performing the' p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l o f t e n pretend that they are c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e i r own performances, but they become u n n e c e s s a r i l y s t r a i n e d or cast frequent glances towards the scene. Sometimes b e l i e v e r s (and some non-believers) a t t e n d i n g the scene, but not performing the r i t u a l , show t h e i r i n t e n s e c u r i o s i t y by s t a r i n g at the person who i s speaking and a c t i n g i n a "strange" way. Some-times they are so i n v o l v e d they even make f a c i a l expressions as the person c o n t r o l l e d by the possessing s p i r i t shows va r i o u s emotions. An example i s sadness and resentment on h i s face. This happens not only w i t h the u n i n i t i a t e d or newly i n i t i a t e d , but a l s o w i t h b e l i e v e r s at much higher l e v e l s , although u n i n i t i a t e d or newly i n i t i a t e d people are e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e because of t h e i r degree of s t r a i n and t h e i r -256-mixed expressions of f e a r and c u r i o s i t y . An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s that a l l such r e s t r a i n e d signs of excitement are heard by the person under the c o n t r o l of h i s possessing s p i r i t . Since h i s eyes are c l o s e d , o f t e n h i s hearing becomes keener. However, before going i n t o more d e t a i l s on SMBK s p i r i t p ossession, I would l i k e to c l a r i f y some b a s i c p o i n t s . The f i r s t p o i n t i s tha t my attempt i s not intended to judge i f s p i r i t possession e x i s t s as a f a c t (as the b e l i e v e r s i n s i s t ) or e s p e c i a l l y as a s c i e n t i f i c f a c t , but to explore and under-stand how SMBK b e l i e v e r s d e f i n e i t and what.logic they c o n s t r u c t based on such a premise. For t h i s purpose, I have found the d e f i n i t i o n g i ven by Raymond F i r t h to be a good s t a r t . He d e f i n e s s p i r i t p ossession as "a form of trance i n which the behavior a c t i o n s of a person are i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence of a c o n t r o l of h i s behavior by a s p i r i t normally e x t e r n a l to him." ^however, sin c e the meaning of trance begs the quest i o n , I would p r e f e r to change "a form of tr a n c e " simply i n t o "a s t a t e " . Then, my d e f i n i t i o n i s that s p i r i t possession i s "a s t a t e i n which behavior a c t i o n s of a person are i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence of a c o n t r o l of h i s behavior by a s p i r i t normally e x t e r n a l to him." According to Paulson, a person i n ecstacy can -257-r e c a l l h i s own experience l a t e r when he rec o v e r s , but he cannot i n s p i r i t possession. Concerning t h i s p o i n t , however, 12 O e s t e r r e i c h r e p o r t s two kinds of s p i r i t p ossession, somnam-b u l i s t i c and l u c i d , and says that i n the l u c i d form of possession the possessed person preserves h i s consciousness. F o l l o w i n g t h i s typology, the SMBK case seems to be a l u c i d form of s p i r i t possession. Furthermore, the SMBK case i s not a s p i r i t mediumship, f o r a s p i r i t medium a c t i v e l y and purpose-f u l l y o f f e r s h i m s e l f as a v e s s e l f o r a s p i r i t and i s protected from the p o s s i b l e e v i l i n f l u e n c e of the s p i r i t . In SMBK, the possessed i s d e f i n e d as a v i c t i m of h i s possessing s p i r i t . p assive performer considered as c o n t r o l l e d by the possessing s p i r i t may be roughly c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o two stages of i n t e n s i t y : one i s a s e r i e s of minor body a c t i o n s or r e a c t i o n s such as dimsightedness, t r e m b l i n g of the hands i n the praying p o s i t i o n , t w i c h i n g of c l o s e d e y e l i d s , and the gradual l e a n i n g of the body i n va r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s . Although they begin u n i n t e n -t i o n a l l y and the b e l i e v e r i s t o l d not to stop them, they can be stopped. These body motions are overt c o n f i r m a t i o n of s p i r i t possession whenever any doubt i s expressed. the second category of response to p u r i f i c a t i o n i s more meaningful f o r SMBK. That i s , the communication based on The response to the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l by the Although the b o d i l y r e a c t i v e response i s important, -258-questions and answers between the a c t i v e performer and the possessing s p i r i t of the passive performer. The possessing s p i r i t answers i n both words and p h y s i c a l motions. The communication i s under the c o n t r o l of the a c t i v e performer, and the possessing s p i r i t only responds to the given questions. Obviously, the whole process of communication i s guided. The guidance by the a c t i v e performer i s done i n two ways: the questions are designed according to the SMBK d o c t r i n e ; the answers are i n t e r p r e t e d a l s o according to the SMBK d o c t r i n e . However, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not simply given to the possessed person as a d i a g n o s i s of h i s problem a f t e r the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , but has to be confirmed by the s p i r i t d u r i n g the r i t u a l . Thus, through questions and answers, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c o n f i r m a t i o n , and d e n i a l of the given i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the reason f o r a p a r t i c u l a r case of possession i s g r a d u a l l y made c l e a r . I t i s u s u a l l y sought i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the possessing s p i r i t and the possessed person ( i . e . the passive performer i n t h i s c o n t e x t ) . The search f o r a reason f o r possession normally f o l l o w s a long process of u n f o l d i n g a s t o r y of resentment which f i r s t comes i n fragments and then i s g r a d u a l l y assembled i n t o the SMBK p a t t e r n of a moral s t o r y . The s t o r y and process w i l l be disc u s s e d l a t e r . At t h i s p o i n t , the t h i r d question i s who are -259-considered or t r e a t e d as the possessed. L o r d - s a v i o r Okada, the o r i g i n a t o r of SMBK says that 807o of the whole world's p o p u l a t i o n i s possessed by e x t e r n a l s p i r i t s . By t h i s a s s e r t i o n , there should be a way to d i s t i n g u i s h the possessed person from the non-possessed person, and the o p e r a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n should be the occurrence or non-occurrence of body movements and the response to the given questions under the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . However, t h i s theory does not apply to any r e a l r i t u a l scenes. In the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , passive performers are a l l t r e a t e d as possessed, which means that a l l the b e l i e v e r s are t r e a t e d as possessed. The p r i n c i p l e o p e r a t i n g here i s t h i s : everyone i s possessed whether he responds to the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l or not. In other words, the occurrence or non-occurrence of the response to the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l does not d i s t i n g u i s h the possessed person from the non-possessed person. Furthermore, no response from the possessing s p i r i t i n d i c a t e s the power of r e s i s t a n c e : a weak s p i r i t i s considered e a s i l y invokable by the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n , shows the signs of i t s possession and answers the given questions. In c o n t r a s t , the strong possessing s p i r i t does not r e v e a l i t s e l f , t h e r e f o r e no response i s apparent. According to t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , non-occurrence of the s i g n of s p i r i t possession i s evidence of s p i r i t possession by an even stronger s p i r i t . This i s the b a s i c o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n . The only but m i l d exception to - 2 6 0 -t h i s i s the case i n which the person was born w i t h a s p e c i a l d i v i n e prophecy. In t h i s case, h i s possessing s p i r i t i s under the c o n t r o l of a d i v i n i t y so that i t stays calm under any c o n d i t i o n s u n t i l h i s d i v i n e prophecy i s f u l f i l l e d . The point i s t hat even i n t h i s case the person i s considered to be possessed. According to the SMBK d o c t r i n e , being a r e g u l a r human being and becoming a non-possessed person i s an achievement based on an i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t . However, the standard i s almost too high to achieve; i t i s c o n s i s t e n t one-ness w i t h the supreme d i v i n i t y . With t h i s one-ness, the b e l i e v e r becomes an embodiment of the d i v i n e order and a l s o the master of h i s s p i r i t . In t h i s s t a t e a l l h i s wishes are f u l f i l l e d and no e x t e r n a l s p i r i t s can bother him. This i s the go a l . No matter how d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r them to achieve, SMBK b e l i e v e r s are o b l i g a t e d to s t r i v e f o r t h i s . One of the major pressures f o r making the i n i t i a l choice between acceptance and r e j e c t i o n of the s p i r i t p ossession i s f e a r . I t i s t e r r i f y i n g to "see" the possessing s p i r i t on the body of others waving t h e i r bodies and speaking i n a "strange" way during the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n . I t i s even more t e r r i f y i n g when t h i s happens to one's own body. SMBK b e l i e v e r s are aware of t h i s p o i n t i n t h e i r recruitment a c t i v i t y . In recruitment they t r e a t the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l as a h e a l i n g instrument and d e l i b e r a t e l y avoid the forehead -261-p u r i f i c a t i o n , although they are a l s o aware that t h i s way of t r e a t i n g the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s permitted only as an expedient f o r recrui t m e n t . In f a c t , SMBK b e l i e v e r s commonly experience that t h e i r c a r e l e s s leakage of the i n f o r m a t i o n on s p i r i t possession e a s i l y d r i v e s away p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r s who have been a t t r a c t e d to SMBK f o r such pragmatic reasons as a quick and p a i n l e s s recovery from t h e i r present s u f f e r i n g s . Therefore, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s p i r i t possession i s saved u n t i l the i n i t i a t i o n o c c a s i o n , that i s , the elementary l e v e l of the three-day l e c t u r e s e s s i o n on the SMBK d o c t r i n e . On t h i s o c c a s i o n , the n o t i o n of s p i r i t possession i s given as a question which should negate the b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n of one's l i f e , and i t s answer i s already a v a i l a b l e f o r the newly-i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r to take. Of course, the answer i s SMBK d o c t r i n e . For the f i r s t experience of the forehead p u r i f i -c a t i o n , a n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r (and sometimes a p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r d u r i n g the short w a i t i n g p e r i o d before i n i t i a t i o n ) o c c a s i o n a l l y shows a f i r m d e n i a l of s p i r i t possession b e l i e v i n g that body movements could occur to others but not h i m s e l f . One reason may be that he a t t r i b u t e s the cause of such body movements to p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s e c u r i t y or v u l n e r a b i l i t y and dec l a r e s that he him s e l f does not have such weaknesses. Or, he simply b e l i e v e s that he i s stronger than others who have -262-shown such body movements or stronger than the b e l i e v e r who seems to g a i n a power i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Thus, once h i s body happens to move again s t h i s w i l l h i s f e a r i s tremen-dous. This type of person - and he i s r a t h e r t y p i c a l - asks f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n w i t h the same degree of enthusiasm which c h a r a c t e r i z e d h i s i n i t i a l d e n i a l of s p i r i t possession. However, u n t i l one i s f u l l y informed about the d e s t r u c t i v e power i n v o l v e d i n s p i r i t p ossession, one can r e c e i v e the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l without much f e a r . The r i t u a l i s g e n t l e and r e l a x i n g , the l o c a l centre i s b r i g h t and c l e a n , and b e l i e v e r s are f r i e n d l y and open. Sta y i n g comfortable as an ignoramus i s the general p o s i t i o n f o r the people who are not dedicated but who remain l o o s e l y i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . They refus e to be i n i t i a t e d and c l i n g to a c l i e n t e l e p o s i t i o n . This marginal group appears to be the f o u r t h category not t r e a t e d by Morioka. (Diagram 15). These most marginal f o l l o w e r s of the movement may be c a l l e d "hangers-on." The common i n t e r e s t of these persons i n SMBK i s h e a l i n g . The SMBK p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l f o r t h i s purpose does not r e q u i r e them to be more than passive performers. But they can s t i l l r e c e i v e almost the same p r i v i l e g e s as the b e l i e v e r s as f a r as the " e f f e c t " of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s concerned. In t h i s way, they can avoid a r e l i g i o u s involvement which o f t e n causes an a d d i t i o n a l (and sometimes more se r i o u s ) problem w i t h t h e i r - 2 6 3 -f a m i l i e s than the o r i g i n a l problem that has motivated them to contact SMBK. In the three-day elementary l e c t u r e s e s s i o n , those becoming b e l i e v e r s are exposed to the SMBK n o t i o n of s p i r i t p ossession. On the f i r s t day before the l e c t u r e , they appear to be q u i t e r e l a x e d . They g e n e r a l l y hope to hear about the d i v i n e l i g h t and d i v i n i t i e s . However, the elementary s e s s i o n concentrates on s p i r i t p ossession, although i t i s mixed w i t h some i n f o r m a t i o n about the d i v i n i t i e s . On the t h i r d day they u s u a l l y become s t r a i n e d . On t h i s day i n the e a r l y a f t e r n o o n , they are given the t a l i s m a n and become i n i t i a t e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s they spend about three hours p r a c t i s i n g the a c t i v e r o l e i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l - f o r the f i r s t time i n t h e i r experience. They commonly d i s c o v e r that the a c t i v e r o l e i n the same p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the passive r o l e . This i s the moment when the body movements of the passive performer, which have been only a "strange" s i g h t w i t h some s p i r i t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n , suddenly stand out w i t h a c l e a r SMBK meaning. They "see" the possessing s p i r i t i n s t e a d of the passive performer. When I attended the elementary s e s s i o n as a p a r t i c i -pant observer, I experienced a f e a r of s p i r i t possession. I asked how other n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r s f e l t . The most common exp r e s s i o n they gave me was "kimochi (ga) warui." -264-This l i t e r a l l y means that my f e e l i n g i s bad. Or, i t simply means that i t i s d r e a d f u l or uncanny. This e x p r e s s i o n i s a l s o a p p l i e d to a p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n meaning that I f e e l bad or even that I am nauseous. Much l a t e r I had a chance to speak to a female b e l i e v e r who was about 45 years o l d , a housewife and a w e l l -educated suburban r e s i d e n t . She o v e r t l y expressed her f e e l i n g a g a i n s t the SMBK d o c t r i n e e s p e c i a l l y about s p i r i t p o s s ession, and kept u s i n g the above expression. She e x p l a i n e d to me the reason why she j o i n e d SMBK. She had i n t e n s i v e pains i n the l e n g t h of her backbone and i n her jaw. Although she had seen more than seven medical d o c t o r s , she s t i l l could not escape from the pains. F i n a l l y she decided to t r y a r e l i g i o u s method and j o i n e d SMBK. She was i n i t i a t e d and given a t a l i s m a n . She explained that she d i d i t f o r the hope f o r a cure, and s a i d , "Otherwise, who would l i k e to bother w i t h such a d r e a d f u l (kimochi warui) r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i s e ? " When she s a i d i t , she made a face as i f she had a l s o had some p h y s i c a l l y bad f e e l i n g . I asked i f the SMBK p r a c t i s e was that much "kimochi warui." She s a i d , "yes. Of course. With such a t h i n g as s p i r i t p o s s e s s i o n ! " I saw t h i s person only a few times at the Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e , and a f t e r t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n I d i d not see her again. For a few weeks to a few months a f t e r the i n i t i a t i o n , -265-depending on h i s enthusiasm and mastery, each b e l i e v e r i s encouraged to v i s i t the l o c a l centre as o f t e n as p o s s i b l e f o r the p r a c t i c e of the r o l e of the a c t i v e performer. During t h i s p e r i o d , the SMBK l i v e - i n teacher of the l o c a l centre emphasizes to the n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d not to i n q u i r e about s p i r i t possession more than he i s taught at the elementary s e s s i o n and simply to concentrate on mastering the r i t u a l performance. The teacher e x p l a i n e d to me that too much t h i n k i n g about i t o f t e n makes the n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d nervous or even n e u r o t i c because of the f e a r of s p i r i t possession. The poin t i s simply to accept whatever happens and t r u s t the d i v i n i t i e s . The b e l i e v e r s go through d i f f e r e n t emotional stages i n d e a l i n g w i t h s p i r i t possession. In order to reduce the f e a r and nervousness at the beginning stage, the newly-i n i t i a t e d are u s u a l l y matched w i t h partners who already know not to show a v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n to the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , or w i t h c h i l d r e n whose response i s normally much mi l d e r than that of the a d u l t . The n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d should concentrate d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d on l e a r n i n g the proper acts of r i t u a l performance and memorizing the Prayer of Heaven. Exp e r i e n c i n g "the possessing s p i r i t " beginning to show i t s e l f under one's palm i s always f r i g h t e n i n g f o r the f i r s t time, even i n the case where one has already had some minor experience of the body movement. This f e e l i n g i s -266-maximized when the possessing s p i r i t r e s i s t s the given request, because n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r s are o f t e n t o t a l l y convinced that the possessing s p i r i t cannot r e s i s t the power of the d i v i n e l i g h t which comes i n through the t a l i s m a n . But, i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , as has been discussed i n Chapter IV, they are mistaken. The t a l i s m a n i s n e i t h e r a r e c e i v e r of the l i g h t nor a t r a n s m i t t e r of power from the supreme d i v i n i t y , but i t only p r o t e c t s the holder from an e x c e s s i v e l y i n t e n s i v e discharge of defilement and a l s o from e v i l s p i r i t s , w hile he i s making e f f o r t s towards d i v i n e one-ness. P r o t e c t i o n provided by the t a l i s m a n i s r e l a t i v e , depending on the degree of engagement i n the s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e . The newly-i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r s u s u a l l y miss the r e l a t i v e nature of the t a l i s m a n , and mistake unusual response of possessing s p i r i t s f o r the l a c k of p r o t e c t i o n i t s e l f . This problem i s t y p i c a l l y experienced when the s p i r i t r e f uses to proceed w i t h the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l from the f o r e -head to other v i t a l p o i n t s . At l e a s t i n p r i n c i p l e , the passive performer should immediately recover from the s t a t e of "having been taken-over" when he hears "O-shizumari!" (calm down). This ( h o r r i b l e occasions) happened to me, when I was an a c t i v e performer as a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r : the possessing s p i r i t of the passive performer refused to disappear. I asked the Head of the centre f o r help. He t o l d me to pray - 2 6 7 -to the supreme d i v i n i t y and repeat "O-shizumari" a few more times. I d i d , but the s p i r i t s t i l l r efused to calm down. F i n a l l y I had to ask the Head to calm down the s p i r i t f o r me. A f t e r the performance he s a i d that the reason I could not handle the s p i r i t was that my ego was too dominant to accept the d i v i n e w i l l . This i s the standard e x p l a n a t i o n f o r f a i l u r e i n the handling of the s p i r i t s . The f a i l u r e i n performance o f f e r s an occasion i n which a n e w l y - i n i t i a t e d b e l i e v e r r e a l i z e s that the t a l i s m a n i s not a mechanical device which w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y b r i n g him power over the possessing s p i r i t . A f t e r the i n i t i a l wave of f e a r , p u r i f i c a t i o n becomes an amusement. Once the f e a r i s reduced i t i s q u i t e a pleasant f e e l i n g to be able to c o n t r o l others simply by h o l d i n g up one's palm. I t i s around t h i s time that the b e l i e v e r ' s c u r i o s i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y aroused. He begins to r e f l e c t on the l e c t u r e content of the elementary s e s s i o n and analyze the meaning of the words spoken by the s p i r i t s . A l s o , he o f t e n develops an i n t e r e s t i n the r e a c t i o n s of the s p i r i t s when other b e l i e v e r s are e x o r c i s i n g . This means from the SMBK po i n t of view th a t he becomes l e s s i n v o l v e d i n h i s own ego and more l i b e r a t e d from the i n i t i a l d e s i r e f o r h i s own quick s a l v a t i o n . He begins to r e a l i z e that such a d e s i r e i s an ego-c e n t r i c one, framed i n a complete i n d i f f e r e n c e to othe r s . At -268-t h i s stage the se n i o r b e l i e v e r s encourage him to ask questions, but g i v e answers i n fragments to see i f he i s w i l l i n g to make an e f f o r t to assemble and f i n d a meaning i n them. This guidance i s i n d i v i d u a l l y and c a r e f u l l y g i v e n , and when the Head of the centre approves, commonly w i t h the recommendation of the l i v e - i n teachers, the person i s permitted to attend the intermediate s e s s i o n . A f t e r t h i s s e s s i o n - or even before i f p o s s i b l e - the b e l i e v e r i s expected to achieve f u r t h e r understanding: t h a t the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l should become a n e c e s s i t y of l i f e , l i k e b r e a t h i n g . Although f e a r and amusement and, most l i k e l y , c u r i o s i t y s t i l l remain, they should be harmoniously encompassed i n the spontaneous a c t i o n s i n the r i t u a l performance. The achieved s t a t e i s considered to be n a t u r a l . Although I imagine t h i s s t a t e should be aes t h e t -i c a l l y p l e a s i n g , i t does not seem to be a c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r SBMK. Wit h i n the e s t a b l i s h e d form of the r i t u a l frame, b e l i e v e r s above the advanced l e v e l ( s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s ) are more r e l a x e d and achieve more f l e x i b i l i t y than oth e r s . Senior b e l i e v e r s are more spontaneous. The a b i l i t y to be spontaneous i s e s p e c i a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r such advanced r i t u a l acts as "admonition" (o-s a t o s h i ) and " i n v e s t i g a t i o n " ( r e i s a ) . These two are the focus of communication because i n SMBK the possessing s p i r i t i s not made to leave a g a i n s t i t s own w i l l -269-but i s based on i t s own s a - t o r i through persuasion. I f the possessing s p i r i t i s fo r c e d to le a v e , i t i s b e l i e v e d to go s t r a i g h t down to H e l l ; t h e r e f o r e , the SMBK people do not . permit themselves to be engaged i n such an excessive use of power - even over an e v i l s p i r i t . The purpose of p u r i f i c a t i o n i s aimed at saving both the possessing s p i r i t and the pos-sessed. For t h i s purpose "admonition" i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important because the s p i r i t has to be convinced to leave. Preceding admonition, i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s necessary. For, i n SMBK, the s i n i s not a general a t t i t u d e but a p a r t i c u l a r mistake. I t has to be " p i n - p o i n t e d " and a l l the names of the people i n v o l v e d i n the case must be i d e n t i f i e d . Thus, admonition i s not simply a preaching of general moral p r i n c i p l e s but normally leads to an u n f o l d i n g of a long s t o r y of how the mistake has been made and how i t has i n f l u e n c e d oth e r s . The e f f i c i e n c y and accuracy of the unfolded s t o r y l a r g e l y depends on the s k i l l of the a c t i v e performer. At t h i s stage of spontaneity i n the r i t u a l p e r f o r -mance, the d i s t i n c t i o n between form and content disappears from the a c t i v e performer. The r i t u a l becomes as n a t u r a l as br e a t h i n g . According to Table 1 (Chapter I ) , about 217o of the respondents reach t h i s stage by the SMBK standard, assuming that spontaneity i n performance i s one of the major q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the advanced l e v e l . This f i g u r e a l s o shows - 2 7 0 -that other b e l i e v e r s remain at v a r i o u s emotional stages: some w i t h more f e a r and some w i t h more amusement. However, I d i d not see any c l e a r c o r r e l a t i o n between these emotional s t a t e s and the choice f o r l e a v i n g or s t a y i n g i n SMBK. The f o l l o w i n g example i s a scene from admonition. The dialogue develops much more spontaneously and may be compared to the example i n Chapter I I from an e a r l y stage of i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . I t i s t r a n s c r i b e d from a v e r b a l scene tape-recorded at the Koganei l o c a l c e n tre. In t h i s case, the a c t i v e performer was a female SMBK teacher, and the passive performer a female high school student. The a c t i v e performer was t r y i n g to persuade the possessing s p i r i t of the passive performer to accept the SMBK d o c t r i n e and leave her body. The a c t i v e performer pressured the possessing s p i r i t i n v a r i o u s ways i n c l u d i n g c o e r c i o n , d i s p l a y of sympathy and understanding, and suggestions f o r asking f o r f o r g i v e n e s s . Some b e l i e v e r s w i t n e s s i n g t h i s scene suggested to me that the possessing s p i r i t spoke l i k e a c h i l d and that i t was i d e n t i f i e d and t r e a t e d as a c h i l d . ACTIVE PERFORMER: I f you apol o g i z e to the d i v i n i t y from your h e a r t , he w i l l f o r g i v e you. Please move to the t i p of the f i n g e r s or toes, or be l e s s b o t h e r i n g (to the possessed). SPIRIT (of PASSIVE PERFORMER): No, No. I won't. ACTIVE PERFORMER: He w i l l not l i k e you saying that you - 2 7 1 -SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: won't. (In a tone of vo i c e as i f t a l k i n g to a c h i l d , s ince the possessing s p i r i t speaks l i k e one). I promise not to be d i s t u r b i n g . Forgive me. The head and neck (of the possessed) are a very important part of the body. Your s t a y i n g there i t s e l f i s i n s u l t i n g the d i v i n i t y . But I don't want to move. ( P a t i e n t l y ) You must move. Other-wise, your apology i s meaningless. ( C a r e f u l l y observing the r e a c t i o n of the r e c e i v e r , he adds:) Demonstrate your apology by moving to an u n d i s t u r b i n g p a r t . ( I m p a t i e n t l y ) So I am saying I ' l l not be bothering any more. I won't be bothering you anymore. The head and neck are important. Move to the t i p of the f i n g e r s or toes. Otherwise you ( C u t t i n g i n t o the t r a n s m i t t e r ' s words, unresponsively) Not to such a p l a c e , but I want to go back to the a s t r a l world. So I am saying, go back to such a pla c e . (In a r e l a x e d tone of voice) Go back from there?! Otherwise, you cannot communicate your f e e l i n g of apology. (In the middle of the t r a n s m i t t e r ' s words, suddenly s a y s ) , I am so r r y ( i n a very r e g r e t f u l tone of v o i c e ) . - 2 7 2 -ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: We l l , f o r today, I am going to say "o-shizumari" (calm down), so please move to the t i p of the f i n g e r s or toes, and calm down q u i e t l y . Now ... (Is about to pronounce " o - s h i z u m a r i " ) . ( H a s t i l y ) No, nooooo. Longer ... ( i n a c h i l d i s h manner). ( P a t i e n t l y ) You cannot be p u r i f i e d a l l at once. Yes ! ! You cannot be saved unless you obey the law. Yes! ( R e s e n t f u l l y ) I am going to be nasty. Then you cannot go back to the a s t r a l world. Yes. Yes. You w i l l not be able to go back to the a s t r a l world. And the d i v i n i t y w i l l g ive you hardship. No, I don't l i k e i t . Don't scare me ( i n a weeping tone of v o i c e ) . (With d i g n i t y ) Calm down g e n t l y . (In a weeping voice) No. I don't l i k e that e i t h e r . ( P a t i e n t l y repeats the teachings.) You apologized to the d i v i n i t y a few minutes ago. You s a i d you would not be d i s t u r b i n g any more, d i d n ' t you? No. ! The d i v i n i t y i s watching you. No. ! -273-ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: ACTIVE PERFORMER: SPIRIT: He i s watching you c a r e f u l l y . No, I am scared. You a p o l o g i z e . No. Noooo. I won't. No. (In a t i r e d v o i c e ) I f you say no ... (Slows down, being t i r e d ) . Yes ... (Changes to a sweet tone of v o i c e , i n response to the change i n the tone of v o i c e of the a c t i v e performer.) (Her d i g n i t y r e s t o r e d ) You don't mind i f you cannot go back to the a s t r a l world? Yes. Ye. . .s. I don't l i k e that e i t h e r ! This forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n continued about t h i r t y minutes r e p e a t i n g almost the same questions and answers. Then, f i n a l l y the possessing s p i r i t accepted the suggestion to "calm down" f o r the day, and the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l ended f o r t h i s time. Numerous accumulations of such answers given by a possessing s p i r i t i n fragments are assembled i n t o a moral s t o r y of the SBMK p a t t e r n . As the above pace i s more or l e s s t y p i c a l of the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n , i t takes a long time even to assemble one s t o r y . In the r i t u a l o c c a s i o n , the content of question and answer, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (by the a c t i v e performer), c o n f i r m a t i o n or d e n i a l (by the possessing s p i r i t ) , r e --2 74-i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (by the a c t i v e performer), i n the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n i s u s u a l l y continued i n a casual manner durin g the " h e a l i n g " p a r t of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . On such an occa s i o n , other b e l i e v e r s who happen to be there o f t e n give t h e i r comments and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a c t i o n s of the possessing s p i r i t of the passive performer. Of course the suggestions given by the SMBK teachers or the Head of the l o c a l centre have the strongest a u t h o r i t y and are most l i k e l y to be accepted. When the moral s t o r y i s formed, the b e l i e v e r i s given a chance to p u b l i s h i t i n a casual p u b l i c a t i o n such as a l o c a l centre n e w s l e t t e r , l e a f l e t s f o r r e c r u i t m e n t , or monthly SMBK magazine. I f the moral s t o r y forms an e x c e l l e n t case of moral t e a c h i n g , i t i s pub l i s h e d i n a textbook. The u n f o l d i n g of the moral s t o r y may take from a few weeks to s e v e r a l years. In the long-term u n f o l d i n g u s u a l l y the passive performer, the possessed, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the process of forming the s t o r y and informing other b e l i e v e r s , because the a c t i v e performers vary through the p e r i o d . In a short-term u n f o l d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y when the case i s s t r i k i n g , sometimes the a c t i v e performer, l i k e l y an SMBK teacher or the Head of the l o c a l c e n t r e , assembles the fragmented i n f o r m a t i o n spoken by the possessing s p i r i t i n t o one moral s t o r y . The moral s t o r i e s i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n are the f i n a l product taken from the SMBK textbooks. -275-ANCESTRAL SPIRITS AS A GUIDE TO THE PANTHEON Once s p i r i t possession i s accepted as a f a c t , the message that the possessing s p i r i t b r i n g s to the possessed should a l s o be accepted as a f a c t . The focus of the message i s one-ness w i t h the order of the cosmos and submission to the w i l l of the supreme d i v i n i t y who created the cosmos. The c o m p l i c a t i o n occurs because, i n the SMBK cosmology, the order i s considered to c o n t a i n some i n d i s p e n s a b l e elements of d i s o r d e r . This means that d i s o r d e r i s encompassed w i t h i n order. However, at the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n of the cosmos appears as a c o n f l i c t , that i s , as a s p l i t between order and d i s o r d e r . Hence, a l l the cosmic beings, i n c l u d i n g the s p i r i t s of the dead, men (as one k i n d of d i v i n i t y ) and other d i v i n i t i e s are given a choice of j o i n i n g e i t h e r the order or the d i s o r d e r . This i s considered an i n d i v i d u a l o p t i o n , although choosing d i s o r d e r i s d e f i n e d as a mistake. With t h i s c o n d i t i o n , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s may be r e s t a t e d as the choice between j o i n i n g the order or making a mistake. Thus, i n the SBMK cosmos, a l l the beings below the t h i r d l e v e l i n c l u d i n g the d i v i n i t i e s make mistakes, because d i s o r d e r , the source of mistakes, i s ass e r t e d to e x i s t below t h i s l e v e l . The a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n here i s that those who have -276-made a mistake should admit i t and change t h e i r a t t i t u d e , so that they do not repeat the same mistakes. Making a mistake i s acceptable as long as i t i s c o r r e c t e d ; the mistake i s a r e s u l t of immaturity and m a t u r i t y can be achieved only through the negation of immaturity. Therefore, i n p r i n c i p l e , imma-t u r i t y i s encompassed i n m a t u r i t y because the d i s o r d e r i s encompassed i n order. Those who happen to j o i n the order are considered to have already achieved a higher l e v e l of p u r i t y and a great d e a l of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e (redemption) has been achieved e i t h e r by themselves i n t h e i r previous l i v e s or by t h e i r ancestors. However, i n these cases the SMBK d o c t r i n e warns the b e l i e v e r s who are s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d not to become over s e l f - c o n f i d e n t , because t h e i r choice of order could be a f r a g i l e one. They have only " i n h e r i t e d " the accumulated p u r i t y but are not yet aware of the meaning and i n e v i t a b i l i t y of t h e i r c h o i c e . These people are q u i t e f r e e to make mistakes and d e f i l e themselves again. In t h i s way, even i n the case of a s u c c e s s f u l c h o i c e , the SMBK d o c t r i n e emphasizes the p o s s i -b i l i t y of making a mistake. In p r a c t i c e , the SMBK r e l i g i o u s d i s c i p l i n e simply begins whenever someone f e e l s m i s erable, because the d o c t r i n e claims that human s u f f e r i n g s are a r e s u l t o f , or an exp r e s s i o n o f , the mistake. The a s s e r t i o n that s e p a r a t i o n from one-ness i s a mistake i s f o l l o w e d by another a s s e r t i o n that the p r o v i s i o n of knowledge about the cause of the mistake w i l l b r i n g him to an immediate s o l u t i o n . In SMBK, e v i l i s simply a mistake and i s a d j u s t a b l e through the communication of proper knowledge. The concrete method e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h i s i s the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . In t h i s sense, the SMBK d o c t r i n e i s m o n i s t i c , and does not c o n t a i n a d u a l i s t i c and absolute s p l i t between good and e v i l . Although t h i s l o g i c seems to work w e l l among the Japanese, i t o f t e n r e c e i v e s a strong o b j e c t i o n from those brought up i n a C h r i s t i a n background. For example, a B r a z i l i a n Caucasian businessman about 30 years o l d and married to a Japanese woman who was an a c t i v e b e l i e v e r of SMBK, i n s i s t e d t hat the SMBK approach was powerless. Although he admitted th a t the SMBK p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l had had some e f f e c t on him (he f e l t good a f t e r i t was g i v e n ) , he refused to j o i n the SMBK order, saying that the SMBK d i v i n i t i e s would not be able to compete w i t h some demons i n B r a z i l which had t e r r i b l e power. He claimed that SMBK b e l i e v e r s would be e a s i l y defeated by the B r a z i l i a n demons before they could p o s s i b l y persuade the demons. He f i r m l y b e l i e v e d that such demons were more power-f u l than any SMBK d i v i n i t i e s , and h i s wi f e could not dissuade him from b e l i e v i n g h i s p o i n t . The n o t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n SMBK i s an i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s p u t e not a c o n f l i c t w i t h i n one's s e l f . This i s the reason why s p i r i t p ossession i s l o g i c a l l y necessary; only the -278-possessing s p i r i t can e x p l i c a t e the c o n f l i c t as a dis p u t e i n terms of an a s s a i l a n t - v i c t i m r e l a t i o n s h i p . Subsequently, the n o t i o n of a s s a i l a n t and v i c t i m i s r e s o l v e d i n t o the idea s i m i l a r to karma v i a r e - d i s c o v e r y of the constant i n f l u e n c e of the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s . In the SMBK way of t h i n k i n g the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s guide the person to an awareness of the cosmos as a pantheon to which both he and h i s ancestors belong This procedure may be schematized as f o l l o w s : The cosmos i s a pantheon c o n t a i n i n g order. Although i t i s b a s i c a l l y a s t a t i c o n s t e l l a t i o n of d i v i n i t i e s , i t encompasses s p i r i t possession and c o n f l i c t s ( d i s o r d e r ) . Between these two the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s bridge the gap." Therefore, the SMBK b e l i e v e r seeking s a - t o r i f i r s t encounters the possessing s p i r i t , then the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t , and f i n a l l y f i n d s h i m s e l f as a " r e a l " human being, that i s , a d i v i n i t y i n the pantheon. In SMBK he i s c a l l e d , at t h i s stage, " d i v i n e c h i l d " (kami no ko). The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l f u n c t i o n s to provide b e l i e v e r s w i t h d e f i n i t i o n s of c o n f l i c t s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a scene from the Koganei l o c a l c e n t r e . A woman about f o r t y years o l d dressed e l e g a n t l y i n a kimono responded to the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l by waving her body i n v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s and a l s o rubbing i t a l l over e s p e c i a l l y around her breasts and l a p . She made some n o i s e s , t r y i n g to say something, but could not formulate them i n t o words. The Head of the cen t r e , -279-a f t e r the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , i n t e r p r e t e d such a c t i o n s as caused by a possessing s p i r i t r e s e n t i n g u n f u l f i l l e d l o v e , because her possessing s p i r i t , u s i n g her hands, enjoyed f e e l i n g her body. The Head was c e r t a i n that the act of the possessing s p i r i t had a sexual connotation and added that she must have a t t r a c t e d many men i n her youth. O b j e c t i n g to h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , she s a i d that a l l her a c t i o n s seemed to have been motivated i n the depth of her mind. (Her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s modern and shows that she i s r a t h e r w e l l educated.) The Head denied her p o i n t of view f i r m l y , by saying, "No, i t i s not i n the depth of your mind. I t i s the possessing s p i r i t . I t i s not i n the depth of your mind. I t i s the possessing s p i r i t . I t i s not part of you." Thus, i n SMBK, c o n f l i c t s do not e x i s t i n mind, but i n dispu t e s w i t h other beings e x t e r n a l to the person. To be a f a i t h f u l SMBK b e l i e v e r , she was encouraged to accept the viewpoint given by the Head. The Law of Balance d i s s o l v e s c o n f l i c t s i n t o harmony. According to SMBK, i n the process of self-change the stage of awareness of the possessing s p i r i t i s considered to be equal to that of the possessed. This i s c a l l e d the Law of Balance. According to t h i s law, f o r the possessing s p i r i t and the possessed to stay together i n the form of s p i r i t p o s s ession, they have to be at the same stage of awareness — which a l s o means at the same degree of p u r i t y / d e f i l e m e n t . -280-Therefore, i n order to encourage the possessing s p i r i t to leave, the possessed should achieve more and more s a - t o r i . This e f f o r t puts the possessing s p i r i t i n a double-bind c o n d i t i o n ; the possessing s p i r i t a l s o has to achieve s a - t o r i i n order to keep i n balance w i t h the possessed, but by doing so the possessing s p i r i t i s for c e d to l e a r n the SMBK d o c t r i n e which p r o h i b i t s s p i r i t possession as a mistake to be adjusted This i s the fundamental technique of "exorcism" i n the SMBK r i t u a l ; i t i s persuasion based on i n v e s t i g a t i o n ( i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of the possessing s p i r i t i n r e l a t i o n to the possessed) and admonition (teaching of the SBMK d o c t r i n e ) , but not condemnation by a stronger f o r c e . A l s o , according to the Law of Balance, the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the possessing s p i r i t corresponds to the s p i r i t u a l s t a t e of the possessed. An a c t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n by the possessing s p i r i t i s appreciated as the s i g n of self-change of the possessed. By the same token, no m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the possessing s p i r i t means that both the possessing s p i r i t and the possessed are stubbornly r e s i s t i n g self-change towards s a - t o r i . The audience of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l at the l o c a centre a c t i v e l y supports the a s s e r t i o n that the possessing s p i r i t and the possessed share the same stage of s e l f -development. In the previous example of a forehead p u r i f i -c a t i o n (pp. 270-273), a f r i e n d of the passive performer was -281-p a r t i c u l a r l y v i v i d i n her r o l e as audience. (Both subjects were female highschool students and o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i t e d the Koganei L o c a l Centre together a f t e r school.) The f r i e n d suggested to me that the possessing s p i r i t could be a c h i l d , because i t spoke and behaved l i k e a c h i l d . I was not sure, although her suggestion made me concentrate on some p o s s i b l e j u v e n i l e gestures and vocabulary. A l s o , she suggested i t could be a boy, but I could not decide. The a c t i v e performer, on t h i s o c c a s i o n , was an SMBK teacher. A f t e r the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n , when the r i t u a l continued to deal w i t h other v i t a l p o i n t s as u s u a l , the a c t i v e performer began to make suggestions i n a s i m i l a r manner to the admonition i n the forehead p u r i f i c a t i o n . When the a c t i v e performer s a i d , "So, you must be obedient to your . . . " (I could not hear the l a s t word), the passive performer suddenly responded by s a y i n g , "No, no, no, I don't l i k e i t , no, no." And she shook her body. Without a moment's delay, her f r i e n d s a i d to the passive performer, "Ah, t h i s i s e x a c t l y the way your possessing s p i r i t acted i n your p u r i f i c a t i o n . " Then she asked f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n from the a c t i v e performer. " I s n ' t i t t r u e , Teacher?" and waved her body i m i t a t i n g the way. The passive performer was embarrassed and turned her face downward. Throughout the occasion the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l continued smoothly without being i n t e r r u p t e d by the f r i e n d ' s commenting -282-on the performance. Based on the type of dispute they present, possessing s p i r i t s may be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o three groups, namely, r e s e n t f u l s p i r i t s , a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s , and miscellaneous s p i r i t s . The r e s e n t f u l s p i r i t s are the f i e r c e s t . Out of t h e i r resentment, they possess the descendants of t h e i r o r i g i n a l a s s a i l a n t , i n t e n d i n g to e l i m i n a t e t h e i r f a m i l y l i n e . Or they possess the a s s a i l a n t a f t e r he i s re-born as a d i f f e r e n t person. This type of s p i r i t a c t i v e l y t r i e s to give the possessed as much s u f f e r i n g as p o s s i b l e f o r revenge. The f o l l o w i n g are a few examples out of numerous s t o r i e s i n SMBK textbooks. Example 1: One morning, Yoko woke up w i t h her heart beating hard. She could h a r d l y breathe. But, s t r a n g e l y enough, when she spoke to her husband and gave advice to her c h i l d r e n she had no problem. When she was s i l e n t , she f e l t her heart beating too hard to breathe. In the case of o r d i n a r y heart d i s e a s e , she should s u f f e r when she speaks or walks around. But, her case was j u s t the opposite. Out of her past experience, she n o t i c e d that i t could have been caused by some s p i r i t u a l reasons, so she h u r r i e d l y went to an SMBK l o c a l c e ntre. Soon a f t e r the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l ( f o r the forehead) began, her l e f t arm f e l l asleep i n a praying p o s i t i o n . The p a r a l y z i n g and s t i n g i n g f e e l i n g extended i n t o the l e f t h a l f of her body. Then i t went i n t o her r i g h t arm, and she f e l t a l l of her body becoming burning hot. Both her arms f e l l on her l a p . She poised her elbows l i k e a w a r r i o r , and looked down slo w l y . Hot tears f e l l from her eyes. Her l i p s were t i g h t w i t h s t r a i n . -283-"What k i n d of s p i r i t would you be" asked one of the l e a d i n g f i g u r e s of the centre who was nerforming the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l f o r h e r . 1 ^ From Yoko's l i p s were squeezed out some words. " K i l l e d . . . The Ancestor of A k i t a s (Yoko's f a m i l y name) k i l l e d me and a l l my f a m i l y . . . I resent i t ! I w i l l never f a i l to balance out t h i s resentment!" "You were a w a r r i o r . Why were you k i l l e d ? " "The A k i t a s were merchants. They loaned me some money . . . Although I promised to pay i t back, they used outlaws . . . " The possessing s p i r i t caused her l i p s to tremble. The summary of Yoko's s t o r y i s as f o l l o w s : This w a r r i o r ' s name was Yamada. (Yoko f o r g o t h i s f i r s t name. s i c ) He l i v e d about three hundred years ago. He r e c e i v e d money as a loan from the A k i t a s . Because he delayed i n r e t u r n i n g the l o a n , the A k i t a s used outlaws to k i l l a l l of the Yamadas. The wife of the w a r r i o r was raped and k i l l e d i n h i s presence, and a l s o h i s th r e e - y e a r - o l d son, T s u r u k i c h i , was k i l l e d . The w a r r i o r was beheaded. I t was indeed a t r a g i c s t o r y . Out of t h i s resentment, these f a m i l y members of the w a r r i o r possessed every gene r a t i o n of the A k i t a s and k i l l e d them. As Yoko was a subject of the w a r r i o r i n her former l i f e (she was a man at that t i m e - s i c ) , the w a r r i o r had possessed her since her chi l d h o o d , made her marry i n t o the A k i t a f a m i l y , and arranged v a r i o u s types of revenges using her as h i s a i d . The w a r r i o r and h i s f a m i l y members k i l l e d Yoko's f a t h e r - i n - l a w named G i ' i c h i who d i e d at 54. They a l s o k i l l e d G i ' i c h i ' s o l d e r -284-brother who d i e d at the age of 25. K o j i (her son) was possessed by the s p i r i t of the c h i l d who had been k i l l e d at the age of 3. K o j i ' s wanderlust 1and v i o l e n c e were both due to s p i r i t p ossession. Example 2: About four hundred years ago, a w a r r i o r was i n v o l v e d i n a c r i m i n a l case. An ancestor of the Shimomuras happened to be the s u p e r i o r , and judged that t h i s w a r r i o r should take a l l the blame and commit h a r a k i r i . The w a r r i o r f o r c e d to commit h a r a k i r i b i t t e r l y and permanently resented the ancestor of the Shimomuras, and k i l l e d every one of Shimomura's genera t i o n by possessing them. Apparently, some members of t h i s w a r r i o r ' s f a m i l y today are possessing Shimomura's f a m i l y members. The w a r r i o r d i d not t e l l h i s name (even f o r " i n v e s t i g a t i o n " ) , or h i s s t o r i e s i n d e t a i l . But, Shimomura's mother t o l d him that the ancestors of the Shimomuras were w a r r i o r s . , . * Anyway, under such circumstances the s p i r i t of the w a r r i o r confessed that i t arranged f o r Shimomura to have frequent car a c c i d e n t s . In the case of a motorcycle a c c i d e n t , Shimomura's f r i e n d f a i n t e d , and i n the case of a car c o l l i s i o n , the s p i r i t blocked Shimomura from seeing the car coming toward him. When he c o l l i d e d w i t h a super-express t r a i n , the possessing s p i r i t blocked the noise and shape of the t r a i n from Shimomura's p e r c e p t i o n . Although i t may be an i n e v i t a b l e question to ask i f a s p i r i t of the dead i s powerful enough to be able to do such t r i c k s , Shimomura l a t e r experienced a f a c t which proved i t to him. I t was about one month a f t e r h i s possessing s p i r i t began to r e v e a l i t s e l f d uring the f o r e -head p u r i f i c a t i o n . On that day, Shimomura decided to go to h i s l o c a l centre i n s t e a d of working because he f e l t h i s body weak and h i s head u n c l e a r . At a c r o s s i n g , seeing a green -285-l i g h t , Shimomura drove h i s car s t r a i g h t on at the same speed. At t h i s moment, a c h i l d on a b i c y c l e darted out. F o r t u n a t e l y , Shimomura stopped h i s car only a second before running over the c h i l d , and then he saw the l i g h t was i n f a c t red! On the way to the l o c a l c e n t r e , he could not escape from the f e e l i n g that something was strange. Then, i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , he experienced an i n t e n s i v e body movement caused by the possessing s p i r i t : h i s body began to r o l l around i n the l o c a l c e n tre. Shimomura was s u r p r i s e d that such words as "Too bad. I f a i l e d , Too bad!" came out of h i s own mouth. This shows that the possessing s p i r i t r e g r e t t e d that i t had f a i l e d to cause Shimomura to have a s e r i o u s car ac c i d e n t . For t h i s i t even maladjusted h i s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n from the morning. A f t e r a l l , i t was an easy task f o r a possessing s p i r i t ' t o change a red l i g h t to a green l i g h t i n h i s eyes. Shimomura s a i d that he was convinced that he had experienced the f e a r f u l power of the s p i r i t of the dead on t h i s occasion. The second category, the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t , possesses i t s descendants when the descendants neglect the a n c e s t r a l r i t e s . Since the s p i r i t s of the dead s t i l l need to absorb k i ( c h i i n Chinese) of food and d r i n k f o r a w h i l e a f t e r death ( s e v e r a l years or more, depending on each c a s e ) , i t i s the duty of the descendants to o f f e r food ( t h e r e f o r e k i ) to the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s . The s p i r i t s of the dead spend a t r a n -s i t i o n a l p e r i o d a f t e r death adapting to the more s p i r i t u a l way of the a s t r a l world. U n t i l then, they are not completely f r e e -286-from the way they have been as l i v i n g human beings and need to absord k i of food and d r i n k , although they do not l i t e r a l l y eat and d r i n k i n the same way as l i v i n g human beings do. According to SMBK, a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s can do t h i s only when they possess - l i t e r a l l y i n the sense of s p i r i t p ossession - t h e i r own t a b l e t s on which t h e i r names are w r i t t e n . These t a b l e s are l o c a t e d i n t h e i r f a m i l y a l t a r s to which food and d r i n k are o f f e r e d . SMBK has an elaborate way of f u l f i l l i n g t h i s need fo a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s : Name t a b l e t s have to be black w i t h g o l d l e t t e r s and to be placed i n s i d e the a l t a r compartment i n a c e r t a i n order; the food and d r i n k have to be o f f e r e d three times a day at the beginning, and l a t e r can be reduced. A l s o , SMBK's unique way of showing respect t o , and f u l f i l l i n g the needs o f , a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s r e q u i r e s the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a f l u o r e s c e n t l i g h t i n s i d e the a l t a r and the p o s i t i o n i n g of the a l t a r above e y e - l e v e l . Incence burning i s not p r a c t i s e d . With any f a i l u r e to complete t h i s f o r m a l i t y , a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s may f i n d possession of t h e i r descendants as an i n e v i t a b l e a i d f o r communication. The f o l l o w i n g examples show s p i r i t possession of t h i s k i n d . Example 3 i s w r i t t e n i n a n a r r a t i v e form, but, i n t h i s case a l s o , the s t o r y has been assembled i n the same way as the others . -287-Example 3: In November, I attended an elementary l e c t u r e s e s s i o n . In December, w i t h my husband's approval, I performed a memorial r i t e f o r the honour of the Yasui f a m i l y . Although he was s u s p i c i o u s at the beginning, my husband agreed w i t h my a t t e n d i n g the l e c t u r e s e s s i o n and performing t h i s r i t e , s i n c e he had witnessed my recovery from dise a s e . A f t e r the memorial r i t e , my h e a l t h became even b e t t e r . The procepharic p a i n which had been reduced to an o c c a s i o n a l p a i n since r e c e i v i n g the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l disappeared completely a f t e r the r i t e . The r i g h t hand p a r a l y s i s disappeared and hives became r a r e . My husband attended the elementary l e c t u r e s e s s i o n i n February t h i s year (1978). He r e a l i z e d the importance of the memorial r i t e of the ancestors and developed sympathy towards the Hamada f a m i l y (one of the f a m i l i e s r e l a t e d to him, which had l o s t i t s s u c c e s s o r ) . In March we had the memorial r i t e f o r the Hamadas. Then, i n f r o n t of the l o c a l centre s h r i n e , the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s of the Hamadas possessing my body a l l appeared one a f t e r another and thanked the supreme d i v i n i t y . They came out t a k i n g t u r n s : the s p i r i t of the grandfather f i r s t , then, the e l d e s t son, the second son, the wife of the e l d e s t son, e t c . These s p i r i t s a l l promised c l e a r dates on which they would leave my body. Because i t went too w e l l , I had a s l i g h t s u s p i c i o n at the beginning that some animal s p i r i t was r i d i c u l i n g me. But, on the appointed dates a l l the possessing s p i r i t s l e f t as they had promised. A l l of them l e f t f o r the a s t r a l world whole-h e a r t e d l y t h a n k f u l that they could be p e a c e f u l l y i n v o l v e d i n a s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e because of the proper a n c e s t r a l r i t e . Each time a possessing s p i r i t l e f t , my p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n improved. Now, I have recovered almost completely from Basedow's d i s e a s e , d i a b e t e s , and the symptoms of other a f f l i c t i o n s . -283-The t h i r d category i s a group of s p i r i t s of the dead (sometimes of animals) which possess s t r a n g e r s . The reasons vary: asking f o r s a l v a t i o n by speaking through a l i v i n g person without knowing that i t i s an improper method, occupying a l i v i n g body without being f u l l y convinced that they are dead, enjoying the cosy t e x t u r e of a l i v i n g body knowing they are already dead, or even f o r amusement r i d i c u l i n g l i v i n g people. The next example i s the s t o r y of the s p i r i t of a fox which wanted to enjoy e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g l i k e a l i v i n g human being. A l s o , the standard SMBK i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of an animal s p i r i t pretending to be a d i v i n i t y i s that the s p i r i t i s enjoying r i d i c u l i n g people, since r e a l d i v i n i t i e s are considered not to possess the body of othe r s . Example 4: Yaeko (pseudonym-six ), married f o r about two years, suddenly began to make strange statements, such as " I am so-and-so d i v i n i t y , " which s u r p r i s e d her i n - l a w s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough her strange a c t i v i t y was l i m i t e d to a c e r t a i n time of the day and d i d not j e o p a r d i z e her normal d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . She ate w e l l and went to work w i t h no problems. On the f o u r t h day of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , when her v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e to the r i t u a l d i m i n i s h e d , the SBMK teacher began " i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . " I t was a s p i r i t of a fox c a l l e d Fushimi I n a r i , ^ a s the teacher had a n t i c i p a t e d . Responding to the teacher's question on the reason f o r possession, the fox answered, " I wanted to be a d i v i n i t y so that I could eat the same d e l i c i o u s food as human beings eat." Or, "Last year around t h i s time, t h i s woman -289-came to my shrine w i t h her husband. They looked so i n t i m a t e I could not r e s i s t the temptation to posses^ her. I envied human beings ( l i k e h e r ) . " The a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t f u l f i l l s the same r o l e without possessing the descendant as the possessing s p i r i t does f o r awakening him. In Japan i t i s widely b e l i e v e d that a l i v i n g person i s pr o t e c t e d by a guardian s p i r i t or s p i r i t s which i s / are u s u a l l y h i s own a n c e s t o r ( s ) . The guardian s p i r i t s do not possess a l i v i n g person but only remain standing behind him. In t h i s p o s i t i o n the guardian s p i r i t s p r o t e c t him and i n s p i r e good ideas (which i s normally r e c e i v e d as coming from h i s own i n t u i t i o n ) . Therefore, i f the descendant i s e a s i l y possessed by miscellaneous s p i r i t s , i t means that h i s guardian s p i r i t ( s ) cannot help him much i n a normal way because h i s s e p a r a t i o n from the order i s too great. Here s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to s p i r i t p o ssession i s a l s o taken as an i n d i c a t o r of h i s s e p a r a t i o n from the order. Apart from s p i r i t p ossession, the guardian s p i r i t s warn him by g i v i n g him s u f f e r i n g . In such a case a warning from the guardian s p i r i t ( s ) i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e because i t begins w i t h a small a c c i d e n t such as h u r t i n g h i s f i n g e r by h i t t i n g i t or c u t t i n g i t w i t h a k i t c h e n k n i f e , or dropping a book on h i s toe, and then e s c a l a t e s i n t o more se r i o u s and more p a i n f u l events. A l s o , i f i t i s a warning, disease or any p h y s i c a l damage should be concentrated on the -290-l e f t h a l f of the body because the l e f t h a l f of the body represents the s p i r i t u a l aspect. For example, when a book f a l l s on h i s l e f t toe, i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d as an a n c e s t r a l warning, but on the r i g h t toe i t i s normally dismissed as an accide n t or as a r e s u l t of p h y s i c a l exhaustion. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n SMBK, other a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s , not only the guardian, may give warnings without possession, although t h i s case i s not emphasized so much. The s p i r i t s of the dead i n a l l f o u r c a t e g o r i e s t i e a possessed i n d i v i d u a l to h i s ancestors. These f o u r c a t e g o r i e s , i n summary, i n c l u d e two c a t e g o r i e s of a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s (one, possessing and the other non-possessing), r e s e n t f u l s p i r i t s , and miscellaneous s p i r i t s . The two c a t e g o r i e s of the s p i r i t of an ancestor i n t e n t i o n a l l y demand an i d e n t i t y from t h e i r descendants i n terms of descent l i n e : the possessing s p i r i t does t h i s through possession and a non-possessing s p i r i t through causing minor but continuous t r o u b l e s . In the case of the r e s e n t f u l s p i r i t , the involvement of a descent l i n e i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l , because the resentment i s d i r e c t e d towards the o r i g i n a l a s s a i l a n t and h i s descendants. More p r e c i s e l y , the r e s e n t f u l s p i r i t possesses a person i n three cases: f i r s t , the a s s a i l a n t h i m s e l f i f he i s s t i l l a l i v e ; second, the reborn f i g u r e of the a s s a i l a n t ; and t h i r d , the descendants of the a s s a i l a n t . Because the r e s e n t f u l -291-s p i r i t i d e n t i f i e s the second and t h i r d as the same as the f i r s t , the possessed a l s o has to accept t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a f a c t when he accepts s p i r i t possession as a f a c t . In the case of a miscellaneous s p i r i t , the n o t i o n of descent i s more r e l a t e d to p r o t e c t i o n than to possession. Although the miscellaneous s p i r i t possesses anyone a v a i l a b l e , such a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r possession i s considered to be an i n d i c a t i o n of low p r o t e c t i o n from the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t . In the l a s t case the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t appears as a k i n d of d i v i n i t y g i ven a r o l e i n the pantheon according to the cosmic order. The SMBK b e l i e v e r then i s g r a d u a l l y guided by h i s teachers and s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s so he can i n t e g r a t e these experiences i n t o the n o t i o n of p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the f o l l o w i n g three p a r t i e s : h i m s e l f , possessing s p i r i t s and a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s . In other words, he " d i s c o v e r s " a pantheon i n which these three are l o c a t e d and p a r a d o x i c a l l y may be te m p o r a r i l y d i s l o c a t e d . For an i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r i n h i s r i t u a l experience, the process of a s s i m i l a t i o n of such know-ledge i s an on-going d i a l e c t i c a l process - d i a l e c t i c a l i n the most e s s e n t i a l sense of the word. The b e l i e v e r , l e a r n i n g the p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s ancestor and h i s possessing s p i r i t , l o c a t e s h i m s e l f i n the pantheon. At the same time, by l o c a t i n g h i m s e l f i n the pantheon he can c l a r i f y the p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s ancestor and h i s possessing -292-Su no Kami time space. f i r s t \ s p i r i t of l i g h t l i g h t l i f e l i f e female\ words l i g h t . l i g h t seeds , seeds f / i r s t r o y a l 1 a l e f i r s t r o y a l female words, T .words wind wind e t c , human being-s ( f i v e r a c e s ) DIAGRAM 26: The SMBK pantheon as a k i n s h i p map -293-s p i r i t s . In t h i s way, possessing s p i r i t s and a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t s , o v e r l a p p i n g i n some cases, both c a l l an i n d i v i d u a l to an awareness of the d i v i n e order v i s u a l i z e d i n the image of pantheon through the n o t i o n of descent l i n e . In the SMBK d o c t r i n e , the pantheon i s a k i n s h i p map. Diagram 21 of the SMBK cosmos below shows why the l i n e a l male descent l i n e should be the most respected. This n o t i o n of the male l i n e a l descent l i n e i s most e x p l i c i t i n the r i t u a l s concerning the f a m i l y a l t a r . Or, i t may be more accurate to say that the f a m i l y a l t a r i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e instrument when the b e l i e v e r a s s i m i l a t e s the n o t i o n of the descent l i n e through r i t u a l l e a r n i n g . The SMBK d o c t r i n e a s s e r t s that each f a m i l y must have an a l t a r to c e l e b r a t e r e g u l a r a n c e s t r a l r i t e s and to make food o f f e r i n g s to the male l i n e a l ascendants (plus t h e i r wives and t h e i r f a m i l y members who die d before marriage). In the e x c e p t i o n a l case i n which the wife i s the l a s t s u r v i v i n g descendant of her own f a t h e r ' s l i n e a l descent l i n e , she should i n s t a l l another a l t a r f o r her f a t h e r ' s l i n e . In t h i s case her a l t a r should be s m a l l e r than her husband's. In another e x c e p t i o n a l case i n which a possessing s p i r i t demands the r i t e s and food o f f e r i n g s of the possessed, although the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the possessing s p i r i t and the possessed i s remote or even non-e x i s t e n t i n terms of descent l i n e , the possessed should s t i l l -294-i n s t a l l an a l t a r . In t h i s case the a l t a r may be a very small one. I f one person happens to have a l l three, the s i z e of the a l t a r should be changed according to importance; the f a t h e r ' s a l t a r should be the l a r g e s t , the mother's second, and the others the s m a l l e s t . -295-NOTES 1 I . M. Lewis, 1971, p. 148. 2D. T. Suzuki, 1934, p. 41. 3 Z. Shibayama, 1975, pp. 35-6). Although the diagrams w i t h ten oxen are most common and w e l l known, according to Shibayama, there are many other types of diagrams i n Zen w i t h more or l e s s than ten stages. ^This "Diagram of Ten Oxen" i s according to Kakuan. ( I b i d . pp. 37-58). (The qu o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d from Japanese by K. Miyanaga.) ^"Teaching of Ten Oxen and Human Mind" ( T r a n s c r i p t from a recorded l e c t u r e g iven by Okada, p. 12). (The quotations were t r a n s l a t e d by K. Miyanaga.) 6tongo (#. t | ) zengo (51^r '1'-% ) Zen of zen-go means "gradual". I t i s not zen of zen ) Buddhism. 8 Frank A. Johnson, 1976, "Some Problems'of R e i f i c a t i o n i n E x i s t e n t i a l P s y c h i a t r y : Conceptual and P r a c t i c a l Consider-a t i o n s " i n Theories of A l i e n a t i o n (ed.) R. F e l i x Gayer and David Schweitzer. ^ G i r i de suru. 10 Minamoto, 1969, pp. 26-27. (The qu o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d by K. Miyanaga.) 1 1 F i r t h , 1959, p. 129. -296-1 2 T . K. O e s t e r r e i c h , 1966, pp. 26-90. 13 Here the a c t i v e performer i s engaged i n " i n v e s t i g a t i o n " ( i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the possessing s p i r i t ) . 14 Natsumura, 1977, pp. 58-61. (The q u o t a t i o n was t r a n s l a t e d by K. Miyanaga.) 1 5 S e k i g u c h i , 1979, pp. 42-44. 16 In Japan the fox i s commonly considered a d i v i n e being and given a s h r i n e . Such a fox and i t s s h r i n e are c a l l e d i n a r i , and the fox of the Fushimi s h r i n e i s considered one of the most powerful. * 1 7 0 k a d a , 1970, pp. 259-260. -297-CONCLUSION -293-This d i s s e r t a t i o n has been focused on what SMBK people wish to become and what they achieve. The c e n t r a l theme has been s o c i a l c r e a t i v i t y : the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s system under given s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . From t h i s p o i n t of view, the i n q u i r y i n t o m o t i v a t i o n has been d e l i b e r a t e l y avoided. The reason i s t h e o r e t i c a l . The i n q u i r y i n t o m o t i v a t i o n gains v a l i d i t y only i f the assumption i s c o r r e c t that aspects of the r e l i g i o u s movement are u l t i m a t e l y determined by f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l to the c r e a t i v e attempt of the people i n v o l v e d . Such determinism may be viewed e i t h e r s o c i a l l y or p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . In s o c i a l determinism, the determinants may be demographic f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g the age and sex d i s t r i b u t i o n among the b e l i e v e r s , or they may be other s o c i a l elements such as economic c o n d i t i o n , c l a s s and f a m i l y background. In the p s y c h o l o g i c a l approach, p e r s o n a l i t y type and personal l i f e h i s t o r y are probably the major f a c t o r s which are considered to determine the b a s i c consistency of the people i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s movement: the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the movement are considered to be the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a syndrome which belongs to a p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l type. Therefore, i n e i t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l or s o c i a l determinism, -299-people's attempts at new c r e a t i o n are t h e o r e t i c a l l y ignored; a p a r t i c u l a r movement i s taken to emerge from those who are a l r e ady thought of as p a r t i c u l a r . In c o n t r a s t to the d e t e r m i n i s t i c approach, the emphasis i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s that people g a i n p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the movement through i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the wider s o c i e t y . Therefore, t h i s approach does not devaluate the meaning of s o c i a l tendencies i n the wider s o c i e t y . S o c i e t y o f f e r s m a t e r i a l s and reasons f o r the people i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l movements to work f o r negation. Probably the a t t r a c t i o n e x i s t i n g i n the wider s o c i e t y to r e l i g i o u s movements i s found where the wider s o c i e t y f a i l s to f u l f i l l e x p e c t a t i o n s . For example, p h y s i c a l and mental p a t i e n t s who have not been cured by modern medical science o f t e n go i n t o r e l i g i o u s movements which o f f e r some c u r i n g methods. People who s u f f e r from the l o s s of moral p e r s p e c t i v e i n the modern wider s o c i e t y may j o i n movements which enunciate c l e a r moral p r i n c i p l e s . Those who f e e l a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r own nature i n modern technology and a s s o c i a t e d p o l l u t i o n may seek some n a t u r a l i s t i c l i f e s t y l e s i n r e l i g i o n . The p o i n t i s , however, that "who chooses which movements" remains obscure. R e l i g i o n o f t e n i s e s o t e r i c , and b e l i e v e r s are u s u a l l y not f u l l y informed at the i n i t i a l contact about what they are going to experience i n the movement. A l s o , the i n t e n s i t y of exposure to the recruitment a c t i v i t y and the s k i l l of r e c r u i t e r s add complex elements. Therefore, i n d i v i d u a l s ' encountering and j o i n i n g p a r t i c u l a r -300-movements tend to be r a t h e r a c c i d e n t a l , although I emphasize that general s o c i a l tendencies are observable. What i s not a c c i d e n t a l are the procedures through which the p a r t i c i p a n t s achieve f a i t h , and the r e l i g i o u s system which provides and ensures t h i s procedure. In modern s o c i e t y , however, both r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and i t s products have to be recognized as democratic by the wider s o c i e t y . Therefore, they a l s o have to be r a t i o n a l , because democracy i s considered to be r a t i o n a l by d e f i n i t i o n . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s system which i n v o l v e s such i r r a t i o n a l elements as magical h e a l i n g and s p i r i t p o ssession i s not f u l l y a c ceptable, and o f t e n comes i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h i t s wider s o c i e t y . In order to be democratic, the system must be e q u a l l y as comprehensible to o u t s i d e r s who do not wish to share i t . SMBK may be pointed out as a t y p i c a l example, because i t i n v o l v e s s p i r i t possession as a c e n t r a l theme of the d o c t r i n e , which i s t o t a l l y incomprehensible to o u t s i d e r s . The s o c i a l tendency a g a i n s t r e l i g i o n i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y strong i n Japan today, because the f a i l u r e i n democracy before the end of World War I I has been blamed on the r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s h i p of the S t a t e . The a c c u s a t i o n extends to r e l i g i o n i n general beyond State Shinto and Shrine Shinto which used to serve as the n a t i o n a l ideology. However, i n the SMBK example, i t has been shown that a r e l i g i o u s movement, to a c e r t a i n extent, can achieve a democratic i d e a l of the wider s o c i e t y under the r e l i g i o u s ideology and r i t u a l p r a c t i c e , although both are d i s d a i n e d by the wider s o c i e t y . -301-In SMBK, the norm of formal democracy and i n f o r m a l h i e r a r c h y of the wider s o c i e t y i s reversed. In Japanese s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l , i n c l u d i n g SMBK, s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of two s i d e s , formal and i n f o r m a l . Formal o r g a n i z a t i o n embodies the ideology of the group, and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t i e s the group members together i n t o a team i n order to f u l f i l l group t a s k s . The ba s i c d i f f e r e n c e between SMBK and the wider s o c i e t y l i e s i n the reversed combination of formal and i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s : i n the wider s o c i e t y , formal o r g a n i z a t i o n i s intended to be democratic, but i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which s u b s t a n t i a t e s the whole system preserves indigenous h i e r a r c h y . In c o n t r a s t , the SMBK formal organ-i z a t i o n i s e x p l i c i t l y h i e r a r c h i c a l . But, i t s i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an e g a l i t a r i a n f r i e n d s h i p network. Although, i n SMBK, e g a l i t a r i a n engagement moves upwardly to formal h i e r a r c h y , the m a j o r i t y of b e l i e v e r s remain w i t h i n the e g a l i t a r i a n network of the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The e g a l i t a r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n of SMBK, however, becomes a major weakness f o r cohesion. "Dropping out" of SMBK i s not d i f f i c u l t . The reason i s the l a c k of a norm of a permanent r e l a t i o n s h i p . In Japan i n g e n e r a l , because i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an aggregation of numerous p a i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r i m a r i l y separate from each other, the nature of cohesion i s per s o n a l . The cohesion of the system as a whole i s a sum of -302-l o y a l t y achieved by the p a i r s . Therefore, the s t r e n g t h of cohesion depends on the promotion of l o y a l t y i n personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A quasi p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s commonly imposed by the o r g a n i z a t i o n on the p a i r s f o r t h i s purpose. I t s b a s i c p a t t e r n i s simple; the "parent" and the " c h i l d " r e c i p r o c a t e v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s , and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , the "parent" provides p s y c h o l o g i c a l support f o r the " c h i l d . " The point i s that the content of the s e r v i c e s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l support depends on each p a i r . As a r e s u l t , the p a i r s develop p e r s o n a l i s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u i l t on the same p a t t e r n . Soka Gakkai, Rissho Kosei K a i and even Sukyo Ma h i k a r i (a s p l i n t e r f a c t i o n of SMBK), f o r example, develop h i e r a r c h i c a l p a i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which the concept of "dropping-out" i s s t r i c t l y c o n s t r a i n e d under quasi p a r e n t - c h i l d bonds. Instead of o f f e r i n g a quasi p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n -s h i p f o r the b a s i s of cohesion, SMBK o f f e r s engagement through cure. The SMBK b e l i e v e r s enter " p a i r i n g " through the r e p e t i t i v e performance of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . I t provides the b a s i c context and meaning of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a c t i o n . The context i s acted and experienced. Therefore, i t i s l i v e d . Although the a c t i o n i n the r i t u a l i s a symbolic one, f o r the b e l i e v e r s who have exper enced i t the r i t u a l i s no longer an a r t i f i c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of ideology. I t becomes a s p e c i a l sequence of l i f e i n which -303-i t s essence i s rev e a l e d . Thus, the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l cohesion i n SMBK i s "metaphorical." The s t r e n g t h of cohesion l i e s i n the st r e n g t h of r i t u a l experience. Hence, the r e a l i t y of s p i r i t p ossession as the case experience i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l becomes a c r u c i a l element. The i n i t i a l engagement i n the process of cure i n SMBK i s p h y s i c a l . Table 12 i n d i c a t e s the c a t e g o r i e s which b e l i e v e r s d e f i n e as t h e i r " m o t i v a t i o n s . " The Table i n d i c a t e s t h a t , at the po i n t of j o i n i n g , most b e l i e v e r s are not much d i s t u r b e d by disput e s and d i s p u t i n g and, t h e r e f o r e , there i s n e i t h e r much n o t i o n of s p i r i t possession nor concern f o r o t h e r s ; l e s s than 47, of the respondents ( c a t e g o r i e s 5, 6 and 7) s t a t e d i s p u t e as t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n . But 707> ( c a t e g o r i e s 1, 2, 3 and 4) r e g i s t e r i l l h e a l t h ( i n c l u d i n g mental) e i t h e r h i s own or i n h i s f a m i l y as the p r i n c i p a l m o t i v a t i o n . About 257. (category 9) are motivated by a d o c t r i n a l i n t e r e s t i n Shi n t o , SMBK cosmology, and s p i r i t s . The reason why the overwhelming m a j o r i t y i n d i c a t e i l l h e a l t h i s that SMBK r e c r u i t e r s t a c t -f u l l y d e l i v e r the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l as a therapy f o r d i s e a s e s . Some advanced b e l i e v e r s t o l d me that s u c c e s s f u l recruitment depended on showing the instantenous e f f e c t of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l f o r such minor p h y s i c a l t r o u b l e s as sore t h r o a t from a c o l d , a pain from a minor i n j u r y , burnt s k i n , sore shoulders, and t i r e d f e e l i n g s i n the body. - 3 0 4 -TABLE 12: Advocated M o t i v a t i o n f o r J o i n i n g SMBK 1. P h y s i c a l i l l h e a l t h of the respondent 2. Mental i l l h e a l t h of the respondent 3. P h y s i c a l i l l h e a l t h i n the respondent's f a m i l y 4. Mental i l l h e a l t h i n the respondent's f a m i l y 5. Disputes i n f a m i l y 6. Troublesome human r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the job s i t u a t i o n 7. Other t r o u b l e i n human r e l a t i o n s h i p s 8. Trouble concerning money 9. Other 10. No answer Categories Number 1. 196 33.6 2. 51 8.8 3. 93 16.0 4. 19 3.3 5. 14 2.4 6. 2 0.3 7. 3 0.5 8. 0 0.0 9. 125 21.4 10. 80 13.7 T o t a l 583 100.0 -305-In s p i t e of a f a i r success of the modern medical system i n Japan, the demand f o r n a t u r a l i s t i c c u r i n g i n c l u d i n g the SMBK means has not diminished. Japanese s o c i e t y s i n c e the p e r i o d of high economic growth a f t e r the end of World War I I has developed general medical care through the Government's medical insurance system. The i n f a n t i l e m o r t a l i t y r a t e has d r a s t i c a l l y decreased, and Japan has achieved the longest l i f e expectancy i n the world. However, the quick expansion of the modern medical system has caused some problems: over-use of medicine (because the p h y s i c i a n s are paid through the Government l a r g e l y f o r the medicines they p r o v i d e ) , and the l a c k of care f o r the comfort of the p a t i e n t . Thus, i t has been s a i d , "Modern medicine cures the d i s e a s e , but k i l l s the p a t i e n t . " In sharp c o n t r a s t to modern medical s c i e n c e , n a t u r a l i s t i c cures i n c l u d i n g the SMBK method provide h o l i s t i c care which have no s i d e - e f f e c t s . I t may not "cure" the disease but w i l l "cure" the person. P r o v i s i o n of i n t e n s i v e care f o r the comfort of the s i c k person by h i s f a m i l y i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y a t r a d i t i o n a l aspect encouraged i n n a t u r a l i s t i c c u r i n g . As has been pointed out, the idea of segregating the handicapped d i d not e x i s t i n t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese s o c i e t y . The s i c k person was c l o s e l y watched by h i s f a m i l y and given a s p e c i a l d i e t . This t r a d i t i o n i s s t i l l remaining today. In - 3 0 6 -t r a d i t i o n a l areas, h o s p i t a l s r e c e i v e many v i s i t o r s who wish to encourage the p a t i e n t s and a l s o t h e i r f a m i l i e s who b r i n g s p e c i a l food. However, i n modern areas, h o s p i t a l s o f t e n d e l i b e r a t e l y discourage the p a t i e n t s ' f a m i l i e s , or even p r o h i b i t them, from p r o v i d i n g t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l care. This i s one reason why such an apparently "backward" r e l i g i o u s movement as SMBK gains p o p u l a r i t y e s p e c i a l l y i n modern areas r a t h e r than t r a d i t i o n a l areas. Although modern and n a t u r a l i s t i c c u r i n g t h e o r e t i -c a l l y oppose one another, i n p r a c t i c e , people o f t e n use thes two means together. This aspect i s true even among SMBK be l i e v e r s . - For example, intravenous feeding i s o f f i c i a l l y approved i n SMBK, because i t i n j e c t s energy i n t o the body. A l s o , b e l i e v e r s , e s p e c i a l l y at the bottom l e v e l , o f t e n take medicines and perform the p u r i f i c a t i o n . r i t u a l at the same time. There i s no a c t i v e punishment f o r the double p r a c t i c e and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of the p r o h i b i t i o n of t a k i n g medicines i s l e n i e n t , u n t i l the b e l i e v e r i n d i v i d u a l l y comes to the po i n t where he r e a l i z e s he must make a choice f o r the SMBK sense of " n a t u r a l l i f e and n a t u r a l death" over the modern n o t i o n of therapy of diseas e . This circumstance e x p l a i n s the high membership"turn-over M r a t e a f t e r i n i t i a t i o n Nine out of ten leave SMBK, when they r e a l i z e that they must r e j e c t modern medical means f o r the SMBK s p i r i t u a l c u r i n g . - 3 0 7 -However, SMBK c o n s t a n t l y a t t r a c t s new-comers. Japanese people are extremely curious about both o l d and new means of n a t u r a l i s t i c c u r i n g such as acupuncture, S h i a t s u (pressure massage), "mushroom t e a , " ( D r i n k i n g tea "fermented" w i t h a s p e c i a l k i n d of mushroom spread wide and f a s t but diminished q u i c k l y when i t came i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h medical r e g u l a t i o n s . ) , and SMBK hand h e a l i n g . The l a t e r d e n i a l of the n o t i o n of "hand h e a l i n g , " a p h y s i c a l therapy f o r diseases which i s i n i t i a l l y imposed, i s systematic and e f f e c t i v e i n the SMBK ed u c a t i o n a l procedure. In the advanced n o t i o n of SMBK, diseases are non - e x i s t e n t . What i s considered to e x i s t i s defilem e n t . SMBK conceives the defilement i n two c a t e g o r i e s : d i r t - p o i s o n and possessing s p i r i t s . The process of e i t h e r accumulation or discharge of d i r t - p o i s o n i s , according to SMBK, f a l s e l y conceived as disease by medical s c i e n c e . Therefore, SMBK i n s i s t s that the treatment provided by medical science a c c e l e r a t e s the accumulation of the d i r t - p o i s o n by b l o c k i n g i t s access to disch a r g e . SMBK a l s o i n s i s t s that the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , i n c o n t r a s t to the medical treatment, charges the performers w i t h the d i v i n e l i g h t which i s a property of the supreme d i v i n i t y and i s the source of l i f e . The d i v i n e l i g h t p u r i f i e s the performers and, t h e r e f o r e , induces the discharge of d e f i l e m e n t . The process of charging oneself w i t h the -303-d i v i n e l i g h t i s a s p i r i t u a l cure, and the process of d i s -charging the defilement i s i t s " p h y s i c a l " s i d e . The po i n t s are that the s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l cures are two sides of the same c o i n , and .that the s p i r i t u a l cure i s e s s e n t i a l and the p h y s i c a l cure i s epiphenomenal. The systematic d e n i a l of the diseases by the i n t r o -d u c t i o n of s p i r i t u a l cure i s p o s s i b l e only i n the context of the c o n t i n u a l p r a c t i c e of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , because s p i r i t u a l cure i n SMBK begins w i t h the acceptance of s p i r i t p ossession as a f a c t . I t gains r e a l i t y e x c l u s i v e l y through the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i n which possessing s p i r i t s and human beings d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t e r a c t . In SMBK, possessing s p i r i t s are b a s i c a l l y t r e a t e d as defilement s i m i l a r to d i r t - p o i s o n , both of which should be discharged and p u r i f i e d . The d i f f e r e n c e between d i r t - p o i s o n and possessing s p i r i t s i s t h a t , i n order to overcome the f e a r of s p i r i t p ossession, the b e l i e v e r has to become an a c t i v e performer i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Being an a c t i v e performer, when the b e l i e v e r a s s i m i l a t e s the SMBK paradigm as h i s own epistemology, he can re d e f i n e s p i r i t possession as a d i v i n e c a l l i n g . The supreme d i v i n i t y l e t s e v i l e x i s t so that other beings become aware of goodness through knowing the nature of e v i l . In other words, s p i r i t s possess l i v i n g beings only to lead both p a r t i e s to the p u r i t y of the d i v i n e order, a property of -309-which i s mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . The di s c o v e r y of the d i v i n e w i l l and r e - d e f i n i t i o n of s p i r i t possession w i l l e l i m i n a t e f e a r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p i r i t possession. The "drop-outs" from the process of s p i r i t u a l cure may not f i n d an a c t i v e way to escape from the f e a r of s p i r i t possession o u t s i d e of SMBK. However, the f e a r seems to fade away a f t e r the person has l e f t the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l which o f f e r s a s t r i k i n g s t a g e - s e t t i n g f o r s p i r i t p ossession. Of the two c a t e g o r i e s of defilement i n SMBK, d i r t -poison can be discharged through the passive r o l e , although s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s always emphasize that the a c t i v e r o l e i s f a r more e f f e c t i v e . Some b e l i e v e r s express the view that the passive r o l e i s already e f f e c t i v e enough f o r them, and they would r a t h e r avoid more i n t e n s i v e d i s c h a r g e s . The "hangers-on" o f t e n wish to remain u n i n i t i a t e d f o r the same reason. They would r a t h e r a v o i d SMBK s p i r i t u a l d i s c i p l i n e and be comfortable b e n e f i c i a r i e s of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . The t u r n i n g p o i n t from a p h y s i c a l n o t i o n of cure to a s p i r i t u a l n o t i o n of cure i s an i n d i v i d u a l " d i s c o v e r y , " although the framework of the SMBK ed u c a t i o n a l procedure thorugh the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s c o l l e c t i v e . The " d i s c o v e r y " i s p o s s i b l e only through the b e h a v i o r a l submission to the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Because the -310-r i t u a l i s cons t r u c t e d to represent the SMBK paradigm (the d i v i n e o r d e r ) , submission to the context of r i t u a l means the b e h a v i o r a l adoption of the paradigm which has not yet mentally been a s s i m i l a t e d . However, i n i n i t i a t i o n , h i n t s have been given . Based on them, the meaning of the change of emphasis i n cure and, a c c o r d i n g l y , i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l from the passive r o l e to the a c t i v e r o l e has to be i n d i v i d u a l l y " d i s c o v e r e d . " Although the paradigm i s exposed i n the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , the change i t s e l f i s not suggested i n the form of the r i t u a l . The p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l i s b a s i -c a l l y performed i n the same way throughout the h i e r a r c h y of SMBK, although, according to s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s who have already accomplished the change, the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the elementary and advanced l e v e l s i s obvious. However, the d i f f e r e n c e only becomes obvious once the meaning of the change i s d i s c o v e r e d . I f the change i s not discovered the d i f f e r e n c e remains p u z z l i n g ; the r i t u a l s t i l l appears the same to the eyes of those who have not discovered i t s meaning. They cannot f i l l the gap between what they see and what s e n i o r b e l i e v e r s say about the same r i t u a l . Recruitment a c t i v i t y presses the b e l i e v e r to d i s c o v e r the meaning of the change of emphasis i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . The meaning, of course, i n d i c a t e s the - 3 1 1 -r e d e f i n i t i o n of the p h y s i c a l cure by the n o t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l cure. In recruitment a c t i v i t y , the b e l i e v e r i s an a c t i v e performer, by d e f i n i t i o n . The s k i l l and meaning of the performance i s subject to question. The people he t r i e s to r e c r u i t w i l l l i k e l y represent the o u t s i d e r ' s c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n a g a i n s t r e l i g i o n . He i s on constant t r i a l . Therefore, recruitment creates c o n f r o n t a t i o n : i t i s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the outs i d e r a t i o n a l world through the p o t e n t i a l b e l i e v e r s as w e l l as w i t h the s p i r i t u a l world through the possessing s p i r i t i n v o l v e d i n the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l . Furthermore, i t i s a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h h i s own s e l f through the simultaneous c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the r a t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l worlds. The d i a l e c t i c of s e l f and oth e r s , d e s c r i b e d above, occurs w i t h i n the given framework of the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system. I t i s r i g i d and e s s e n t i a l l y unchangeable. With the di s c o v e r y of the meaning of the s h i f t i n emphasis from the passive r o l e to the a c t i v e r o l e , the b e l i e v e r a l s o s h i f t s from the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n to the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . This s h i f t i n d i c a t e s upward m o b i l i t y . However, f o r the i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r , moving upward a l s o means g i v i n g up c r e a t i v i t y : the products syn t h e s i z e d between SMBK and the wider s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g e g a l i t a r i a n i s m and the f r i e n d s h i p network, must be i n d i v i d u a l l y renounced. SMBK d o c t r i n e -312-emphasizes the importance of t o t a l submission to the SMBK d i v i n e order and o v e r t l y denies i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y . What i s important i s a d i v i n e " g i v e n , " and i n d i v i d u a l s become " c r e a t i v e " when the d i v i n i t y gives them such t a l e n t according to the n e c e s s i t y f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of the d i v i n e w i l l . T herefore, c r e a t i v i t y i s a l s o simply a "gi v e n . " This d e n i a l of c r e a t i v i t y embodied i n the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n combined w i t h freedom i n the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s u l t s i n many r e g u l a r b e l i e v e r s r e l i n q u i s h i n g upward m o b i l i t y . For example, one intermediate b e l i e v e r resented the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system as too r i g i d (she s a i d , "As r i g i d as Soka Gakk a i " ) , and i n s i n u a t e d that e g a l i t a r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n and freedom i n the in f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n were even deceptive. The o v e r a l l framework of the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system i s r i g i d , because i t embodies order which the SMBK d o c t r i n e d e s c r i b e s as a d i v i n e c r e a t i o n and a l s o unchangeable. Because the order i s r e a l i z e d w i t h i n SMBK (at the t h i r d l e v e l of the SMBK u n i v e r s e ) , the wider s o c i e t y i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y assumed as a d i s o r d e r . SMBK d i v i n e h i s t o r y t e l l s us that the whole world i s i n a s t a t e of d i s o r d e r now, and that SMBK i s the only entrance to the coming order, that i s , another d i v i n e c i v i l i z a t i o n . However, at the same time, according to SMBK, order contains v a r i o u s changes and a c t i v i t i e s which are considered to be d i s o r d e r s . For example, the i n f o r m a l -313-DIAGRAM 28: Enclosure of Diso r d e r i n the SMBK Cosmos from the SMBK Po i n t of View -314-o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a d i s o r d e r , because i t i s not h i e r a r c h i c a l . In t h i s sense, the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and the wider s o c i e t y are more or l e s s continuous. This means that j o i n i n g the h i e r a r c h i c a l order i s the " r e a l " membership i n SMBK, and i s achieved through s p i r i t p ossession, another d i s o r d e r which e x i s t s both i n s i d e and outs i d e SMBK, but which r e v e a l s i t s r e a l meaning only i n SMBK. S p i r i t possession i s immoral and d i s o r d e r l y . However, s p i r i t s ' making mistakes by possessing l i v i n g human beings i s , i n f a c t , expected. By l e a r n i n g the meaning of the reason why mistakes are permit t e d , the person can a s s i m i l a t e h i m s e l f i n t o the order. That i s , without mistakes there i s no s a - t o r i e i t h e r . Thus, i n SMBK, p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n d i s o r d e r i s a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r choosing order as one's goal i n l i f e . The metaphorical reasoning of the SMBK cosmology enables c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the process of d i s o r d e r contained i n order. I t i s a "ge o g r a p h i c a l " containment: d i s o r d e r i n the middle and bottom l a y e r s of the cosmos i s contained i n the order of "wholeness" of the cosmos. Because e q u a l i t y i s another name f o r d i s o r d e r i n SMBK, e q u a l i t y i s a l s o considered to be contained i n h i e r a r c h y ( o r d e r ) . By the same token, the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( e g a l i t a r i a n and so a d i s o r d e r ) i s considered to be contained i n the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n ( h i e r a r c h i c a l and an o r d e r ) , although the -315-r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n r e a l i t y i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n (Diagram 29). The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s that a set of bin a r y o p p o s i t i o n s such as o r d e r / d i s o r d e r and h i e r a r c h y / e q u a l i t y does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y form a d i a l e c t i c . W i t h i n SMBK, the patterns of n o n - d i a l e c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p are o r g a n i z a t i o n a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n and d o c t r i n a l containment. Through metaphorical reasoning, the d i a l e c t i c i n SMBK i s kept separate between the i n d i v i d u a l and the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l s so t h a t the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system i s c o n s i s t e n t l y reproduced. I t may expand by drawing members from the wider s o c i e t y , but the framework of the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system w i l l remain unchanged. A l l the s y n t h e t i c products between SMBK and the wider s o c i e t y created by i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s are absorbed i n t o the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and l o s e d o c t r i n a l j u s t i f i -c a t i o n as meaningful components of the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system. In the SMBK example, ideology i s not a simple r e f l e c t i o n of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n provides a c o n t r a d i c t o r y pathway to the ideology through s p i r i t possession i n terms of s p i r i t u a l c u r i n g . In t h i s way, i n SMBK, i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e r s go through a gradual e d u c a t i o n a l procedure step by step as going up a stairw a y . T h e i r negation of the epistemologies achieved i n each step c o n s t i t u t e s the c o n d i t i o n f o r advancement to the next step towards a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o the SMBK r e l i g i o u s paradigm. -316-DIAGRAM 29: O r g a n i z a t i o n a l J u x t a p o s i t i o n and D o c t r i n a l Containment i n the SMBK R e l i g i o u s System p a r a l l e l e x p r e s s i o n s -317-I t sets the goal f o r i n d i v i d u a l submission to the context of the p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l , and harmonizes ' c o n f l i c t s which might otherwise l e a d to change of the given framework of the SMBK system. Under the SMBK paradigm, that i s , containment of d i s o r d e r i n order, i n d i v i d u a l changes do not i n i t i a t e c o l l e c t i v e changes. However, the r i g i d i t y of the framework of the SMBK r e l i g i o u s system does not jeop a r d i z e the v i t a l i n d i v i d u a l attempt at self-development, but, i n s t e a d , ensures i t . BIBLIOGRAPHY ABE, M i y o s h i . 1973. "Post-War S i t u a t i o n , " R e l i g i o n s of the Japanese IV (Kosei Shuppan, Tokyo, i n Japanese). ARAI, Ken. 1973. "Resistance to State Power a n d _ i t s Foundation," R e l i g i o n s of the Japanese IV (Kosei Shuppan, Tokyo, i n Japanese). BENDIX, Reinhard. 1968. "Weber, Max," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Encychropedia of S o c i a l Sciences. ( c h i e f ed. David L. S i l l s ) (The~Macmillan Company & The Free Press, New York). BENEDICT, Ruth. 1946. The Chrysanthenum and the Sword (Houghton M i f f l i n , New York). BURRIDGE, Kenelm. 1973. 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