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Li Po : a biographical study Shih, Feng-yu 1983

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L I PO: A BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY  by  FENG-YU SHIH B.A., N a t i o n a l Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 M.A., N a t i o n a l Taiwan U n i v e r s i t y , 1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES • (Department o f A s i a n  We accept to  Studies)  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1983  0  Feng-yu Shih, 1983  DE-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head of representatives.  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s for financial  gain  Asian Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1 9 5 6 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 Y 3 Date  (3/81)  A p r i l 21, 1983  my  It i s thesis  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  thesis  written  Abstract  This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a c r i t i c a l poet L i Po  (701-62).  poet's background in  the l i g h t  study on the l i f e  F i r s t , I i n v e s t i g a t e the c o n t r o v e r s y about  and r e c o n s t r u c t a chronology of h i s l i f e .  of the h i s t o r i c a l  reality  as a T a o i s t  Then, two  namely, h i s p o l i t i c a l p u r s u i t s  recluse.  On L i Po's background, in  the  of h i s times, I examine the  most important a s p e c t s of the poet's l i f e , and h i s l i f e  o f the g r e a t T'ang  I endeavor  to demonstrate  t h a t the poet  a l l p r o b a b i l i t y from obscure o r i g i n s i n modern Szechwan.  was  He may  claimed membership i n the Lung-hsi L i c l a n t o promote h i s s o c i a l  have  status,  and have f a b r i c a t e d the s t o r y of h i s f a m i l y ' s l o n g e x i l e i n C e n t r a l A s i a to e x p l a i n why  he f a i l e d  to support,'his" c l a i m w i t h an a u t h o r i t a t i v e p e d i g r e e .  The chronology p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of L i Po's  life.  Besides  a d o p t i n g or r e v i s i n g the f i n d i n g s of p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s , I a l s o make s p e c i a l e f f o r t s to i l l u m i n a t e some obscure p a r t s of the poet's n o t a b l y the p e r i o d 727-40. f a m i l y a t An-chou and self  During t h a t p e r i o d , the poet kept h i s  then a t Nan-yang, but t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y him-  to seek h i s f o r t u n e , i n c l u d i n g v i s i t i n g Lo-yang and  A romantic dream predominated  Ch'ang-an.  i n L i Po's p o l i t i c a l l i f e .  Seeing  h i m s e l f as a born s a v i o r and a l o f t y r e c l u s e , the poet wished his to  life,  to  o b l i g a t i o n to the empire w i t h a q u i c k p o l i t i c a l success and l i v e i n seclusion.  prominent.  He  fulfill then  t r i e d almost a l l avenues a v a i l a b l e to become  However, he was  not endowed w i t h p r a c t i c a l wisdom.  s h o r t p e r i o d s of p o l i t i c a l involvement both ended i n f a i l u r e .  ii  His  two  L i Po's l i f e as a r e c l u s e p a r t l y r e s u l t e d from t h e c u r r e n t  idea  t h a t t h e l o f t i n e s s of t h e r e c l u s e was p r i z e d b o t h by s o c i e t y and by t h e government and, t h e r e f o r e , would l e a d t o eminence.  Indeed, r o m a n t i c as  he was, t h e poet a l s o f e r v e n t l y l o v e d t h e c o l o r f u l n e s s and m y s t i c i s m of t h e l i f e of t h e r e c l u s e , w h i c h by h i s time was much b l e n d e d w i t h t h e T a o i s t quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y .  When f r u s t r a t e d i n h i s p o l i t i c a l p u r s u i t s ,  he would t u r n t o T a o i s t a c t i v i t i e s f o r c o n s o l a t i o n . a strict  Taoist.  iii  But he never became  Contents  Acknowledgements  v  Introduction  1  Chapter One: The Enigma o f the O r i g i n s of L i Po . . .  7  Chapter Two: A G e n e r a l P i c t u r e o f L i Po's L i f e Chapter Three: The P o l i t i c a l  . . . .  45  Dream and P u r s u i t s  of L i Po  66  Chapter Four: L i Po as a T a o i s t R e c l u s e  116  Notes to I n t r o d u c t i o n  161  Notes to Chapter One  162  Notes t o Chapter Two  209  Notes to Chapter Three  276  Notes t o Chapter Four  304  Appendix A: Sources Relevant t o t h e term "Shan-tung L i Po" Appendix B: T e x t u a l Comparison of L i Po's O r i g i n s . .  334 336  Abbreviations  338  List  339  o f Works C i t e d i n the T h e s i s  iv  Acknowledgements  My g r a t i t u d e f i r s t goes t o my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r C h i a - y i n g Yeh Chao. and h e r c o n s t a n t  Professor  Her i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e  encouragement have been i m p e r a t i v e  To P r o f e s s o r J e r r y Schmidt I am t h a n k f u l f o r r e a d i n g making some u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n s .  poetry  t o my s t u d y . t h e t h e s i s and  I a l s o want t o express my g r a t i t u d e  to P r o f e s s o r D a n i e l Overmyer, who kept me informed o f r e c e n t  scholar-  s h i p i n r e l i g i o u s Taoism and who read t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h c h a p t e r s of t h i s t h e s i s . debt.  To P r o f e s s o r Edwin G. P u l l e y b l a n k I owe a s p e c i a l  He i n i t i a t e d me i n t o t h e study o f T'ang h i s t o r y , c a r e f u l l y  r e a d and commented on t h e t h e s i s , and e l u c i d a t e d many p o i n t s f o r me. I am t h a n k f u l a l s o t o Dr. A k l u j k a r f o r h i s encouragement and a d v i c e . And f i n a l l y , I w i s h t o thank t h e s t a f f of t h e U.B.C. A s i a n  Studies  L i b r a r y f o r t h e i r c o n s i s t e n t h e l p i n a c q u i r i n g f o r me t h e books I needed.  v  Introduction  T h i s study aims t o be a f u l l y documented c r i t i c a l b i o g r a p h y o f L i Po.  I t can be c o n v e n i e n t l y d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s .  C h a p t e r s One and Two, endeavors p o e t ' s o r i g i n s and l i f e .  The f i r s t  part,  to explore the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n of the  The second p a r t , t h e r e m a i n i n g two c h a p t e r s ,  w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e , i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t y o f t h e p o e t ' s t i m e s , two c l o s e l y r e l a t e d a s p e c t s o f L i Po's l i f e which a r e most e s s e n t i a l t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e poet.  These  a s p e c t s a r e L i Po's p o l i t i c a l p u r s u i t s and l i f e as a r e c l u s e , t h e l a t t e r including h i s Taoist a c t i v i t i e s . The most i m p o r t a n t p r i m a r y s o u r c e s f o r t h i s study a r e (1) those works of L i Po w h i c h mention p e r s o n s , p l a c e s , d a t e s , and i n c i d e n t s c l o s e l y  con-  n e c t e d w i t h t h e p o e t , (2) some l i t e r a r y w r i t i n g s by L i Po's f r i e n d s , which mention  t h e poet o r were p r e s e n t e d t o him, and (3) some b r i e f b i -  o g r a p h i c a l accounts  (about a dozen i n a l l ) d a t i n g from t h e T'ang and  Sung p e r i o d s , which e x i s t i n t h e forms o f p r e f a c e s t o e d i t i o n s o f t h e p o e t ' s works, memorial  w r i t i n g s i n t h e p o e t ' s honor, o r e n t r i e s i n t h e  s t a n d a r d h i s t o r i e s o f t h e T'ang d y n a s t y .  Most o f t h e s o u r c e s i n t h e  second and t h i r d c a t e g o r i e s a r e c o n v e n i e n t l y i n c l u d e d as appendices i n , ^ Wang C h ' i ' s  JsJ famous annotated e d i t i o n o f L i Po's c o l l e c t e d works  ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1758).^"  Anecdotes  about L i Po, though numerous and  c o l o r f u l , a r e u s u a l l y a v o i d e d i n t h i s study because they a r e o f t e n m i s l e a d i n g o r even s p u r i o u s . As one may e x p e c t , such p r i m a r y s o u r c e s as j u s t mentioned v e r y s k e t c h y and vague.  are mostly  I n f a c t , p a r t o f them, i n c l u d i n g some o f L i Po's - 1 -  own words, c o u l d even be u n r e l i a b l e . difficult Without  2  I t i s , therefore, a  t a s k t o draw a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f the poet out o f these s o u r c e s .  t h e admirable achievements  made by L i Po s c h o l a r s i n the p a s t ,  my study would c e r t a i n l y be i m p o s s i b l e . of  tremendously  In the f o l l o w i n g , i n the course  s p e c i f y i n g t h e main e f f o r t s I s h a l l make, I would l i k e t o d e s c r i b e  some of these  achievements.  On the problem o f L i Po's o r i g i n s , t h r e e works should be s p e c i a l l y mentioned.  Wang C h ' i ' s " L i T'ai-po n i e n - p ' u "  ^  ^  'td  -\  (in-  c l u d e d i n Wang's annotated e d i t i o n o f h i s works) i s t h e f i r s t  endeavor  3 to  d e a l w i t h t h i s problem  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and c r i t i c a l l y .  broader scope, Chan Y i n g ' s ) % •J^  ^  ^  J^-  In a much  " L i Po c h i a - s h i h k ' a o - i "  ( f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1945) i s dovoted  to the same t a s k . ^  As w i l l be shown i n due course i n Chapter One, Ch'en Yin-k'o's " L i T'ai-po s h i h - t s u c h i h i-wen" though  ^  &  \ \  Jjf  s  X.  fo\  (1935),  s h o r t and p r o b a b l y t e n t a t i v e , proposes a v e r y important  on the problem under d i s c u s s i o n . ^  view  The f i n d i n g s of these works enable  me t o a p p l y my energy d i r e c t l y to the s o l u t i o n o f two most p u z z l i n g p o i n t s , which  I s h a l l s p e c i f y i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  The e f f o r t s to r e c o n s t r u c t the chronology o f L i Po's l i f e can be t r a c e d back t o the Northern Sung p e r i o d . tsung ^  ^  (1068-85),  During the r e i g n of Shen-  Sung M i n - c h ' i u ^ f y f c ^  completed  the com-  p i l a t i o n o f what would be the o r i g i n o f a l l extant e d i t i o n s of L i Po's c o l l e c t e d works.  I n t h i s e d i t i o n , Sung d i v i d e d L i Po's poems i n t o  c a t e g o r i e s as sung jj^ someone) and so f o r t h . ^  ^  (seeing people o f f ) ,  tseng  such  (presented to  S h o r t l y a f t e r , t h e famous w r i t e r Tseng Kung  embarked upon a t a s k which p i o n e e r e d the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  L i Po's l i f e .  He t r i e d to arrange the poems i n some o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s  j u s t mentioned, m a i n l y o c c a s i o n a l poems, i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r and to  i n d i c a t e the p l a c e s o f t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n .  are  still  kept under the t i t l e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l poems i n some o l d  editions.^  Judging from the biography of L i Po i n c l u d e d i n h i s p o s t -  f a c e t o Sung's e d i t i o n , Tseng  seems to have accomplished a f a i r l y  a b l e o u t l i n e o f L i Po's l i f e . ^ yung  ^  completed p'u  Many o f h i s i n d i c a t i o n s  |^  j^-  .^  In the Southern Sung p e r i o d , Hsueh Chung-  ( f l . the shao-hsing  the f i r s t  reli-  £g j*§L  reign period  (1131-62))  chronology o f our poet w r i t t e n i n the form o f n i e n -  However, Hsueh does n o t seem to have surpassed Tseng i n 9  any way a l t h o u g h he u t i l i z e d  the l a t t e r ' s work.  H i s work was f o r g o t t e n  by most people a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Wang C h ' i ' s new chronology, which I have mentioned  above.  Based  on s o l i d r e s e a r c h and sharp a n a l y s e s , Wang  c o n v i n c i n g l y dated many important events i n L i Po's l i f e .  Even today h i s  chronology remains a good s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r s t u d e n t s o f the s u b j e c t a t issue.  On many p o i n t s , t h i s work i s w e l l strengthened by a r e c e n t book,  Chan Ying's L i Po shih-wen h s i - n i e n  ^  |r<jf j£_  3f"  (1958; r e s e a r c h  done m a i n l y i n t h e 1940's), a v e r y h e l p f u l volume aiming above a l l to date L i Po's w r i t i n g s . " ^  I n g e n e r a l , both Wang and Chan a r e weakest i n  t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f L i Po's whereabouts between the y e a r s when the poet s e t t l e d down a t An-chou Hsuan-tsung' s c o u r t (742). pien" ^  &  ($3  "H\ (about 727) and when he was summoned t o Pai-shan's j$f il)  " L i Po l i a n g - j u Ch'ang-an  i £ ffi (1962). sheds a l o t o f l i g h t on the p e r i o d  737-41 and thus a l s o paves the way f o r t h e e x p l o r a t i o n of the p e r i o d 727-37.  I n Chapter Two, my main t a s k i s to t r y to i l l u m i n a t e some s t i l l  obscure p a r t s o f L i Po's l i f e , to  i n c l u d i n g the p e r i o d j u s t mentioned, and  r e v i s e some of Wang's and Chan's arguments on those p a r t s which a r e  4 b e t t e r known to p e o p l e . R e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d accounts of L i Po's p o l i t i c a l  involvement  are  found i n most modern b i o g r a p h i c a l s t u d i e s of the poet w r i t t e n f o r g e n e r a l readers.  These s t u d i e s , to mention  o n l y a few of them, i n c l u d e A r t h u r  Waley's The P o e t r y and Career of L i Po  (1950), Wang Yao's ^  -  L  i Po (1971).  (1954),  But so f a r s c h o l a r s have c o n c e n t r a t e d mainly on the two most o u t s t a n d i n g events i n the poet's p o l i t i c a l l i f e , which a r e h i s s e r v i c e i n Hsiiantsung's c o u r t and h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the m i l i t a r y adventure of the P r i n c e of Yung.  In t h i s study, I s h a l l t r y to cover a l l the important  political activities  i n the poet's l i f e .  More i m p o r t a n t l y , I s h a l l i n -  t e r p r e t these a c t i v i t i e s i n the l i g h t of the n a t u r e and background the poet's p o l i t i c a l Li  Po's  of  ambition.  l i f e as a r e c l u s e has not been so w e l l i n v e s t i g a t e d as the  s u b j e c t s mentioned  above.  The o n l y important work on t h i s t o p i c I have  seen i s an a r t i c l e by Ch'en I - h s i n f$$L$.Q P^which d i s c u s s e s the p o l i t i c a l Besides t h i s ,  fi-  r s t  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the l i f e  published i n  1961,  i n question.''"'*"  t h e r e are o n l y some b r i e f p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s on L i Po's  Taoist a c t i v i t i e s ,  the main a c t i v i t i e s  i n the poet's l i f e  i n seclusion."'"  On the f o u n d a t i o n set by Ch'en, I s h a l l d i s c u s s e x t e n s i v e l y i n the beg i n n i n g of Chapter Four the r e l a t i o n s h i p between L i Po's c l u s e and h i s s e a r c h f o r p o l i t i c a l prominence.  l i f e as a r e -  In the r e s t of t h a t  c h a p t e r , I s h a l l examine the f o r m a t i o n , development and v a c i l l a t i o n o f the poet's b e l i e f  i n the T a o i s t  religion.  S e v e r a l o t h e r works, though not d e a l i n g s p e c i a l l y w i t h L i Po's are  a l s o of g r e a t importance  to :.my-- study.  Wang C h ' i ' s thorough  life, and  a u t h o r i t a t i v e a n n o t a t i o n i s undoubtedly L i Po.  The Kyoto concordance  compiled by Hanabusa H i d e k i  i s another i n v a l u a b l e t o o l o f r e s e a r c h . tfk  Chu Chin-ch'eng's  a t r e a s u r e to a l l s t u d e n t s of  Ch'u T ' u i - y i l a n J|  L i Po c h i c h i a o - c h u  l^ffij $^$f 3^  E lI  a n (  j£ $ L  $  *  (1980)  adopts t h e t e x t o f Wang C h ' i ' s e d i t i o n and l i s t s a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t r e a d ings i n n i n e o t h e r important e a r l y e d i t i o n s  (virtually  l e a v i n g out n o t h -  i n g e s s e n t i a l ) and e i g h t l i t e r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s t h a t c o n t a i n L i Po's works. I t immensely f a c i l i t a t e s t h e u s u a l l y p a i n s t a k i n g t a s k o f t e x t u a l  veri-  fication. Except i n some s p e c i a l c a s e s , I s h a l l c i t e L i Po's works from Wang Ch'i's e d i t i o n .  I have two reasons f o r t h i s p r a c t i c e .  F i r s t , as I have  j u s t suggested, Wang C h ' i ' s a n n o t a t i o n i s o f t e n needed f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of L i Po's works.  Second, t h i s e d i t i o n , though not one of t h e o l d e s t , 13  i s a r g u a b l y one o f t h e b e s t .  To minimize  the tedium o f t e x t u a l  criti-  cism, I s h a l l not i n d i c a t e t h e d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g s i n o t h e r e d i t i o n s u n l e s s they a r e o u t s t a n d i n g enough to a f f e c t Finally,  I would l i k e t o answer a q u e s t i o n which some people might  have i n t h e i r minds.  Why burden  t h e r e a d e r s w i t h a l o n g biography of  L i Po, who i s important m a i n l y because m o s t l y s u b j e c t i v e works. emotions.  t h e q u a l i t y o f my argument.  o f h i s poetry?  L i Po's poems a r e  They r e c o r d t h e poet's c a r e e r , thoughts and  ( T h i s i s why they a r e t h e main sources o f t h e poet's  However, these poems do not o f t e n supply s u f f i c i e n t backgrounds, stand them."^  biography.)  information of t h e i r  p h y s i c a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l , f o r t h e r e a d e r s t o f u l l y F o r example, t h e poem "Nan-pen s h u - h u a i "  ^  under-  ;j*J|^ ,  an admirably s u c c e s s f u l one, c o u l d be almost u n i n t e l l i g i b l e i f t h e r e a d e r does n o t have adequate  knowledge o f L i Po's involvement  i n the m i l i t a r y  6  a d v e n t u r e o f t h e P r i n c e o f Yung. chu  15  The meaning o f t h e p l a i n chueh-  poem "Tsao f a P o - t i -ch'eng" %  ft  r|r  will  prove  much r i c h e r i f t h e r e a d e r knows t h a t t h i s poem was w r i t t e n when L i Po j u s t returned Systematic  from t h e sad j o u r n e y  t o h i s place of e x i l e  Yeh-lang^^p  knowledge o f L i Po t h e man i s , t h e r e f o r e , o f t e n e s s e n t i a l t o  the r e a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i s poems as such. poems r e f l e c t h i s l i f e , t h e two c h a p t e r s  Moreover, s i n c e L i Po's  of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n dealing  w i t h t h e p o e t ' s p o l i t i c a l p u r s u i t s and l i f e i n s e c l u s i o n can r e a d i l y s e r v e as t h e f o u n d a t i o n  o f t h e study o f two major themes i n L i Po's p o e t r y .  Chapter  One:  The Enigma of the O r i g i n s of L i Po  For c e n t u r i e s even such b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n about L i Po as h i s b i r t h date, b i r t h p l a c e , and a n c e s t r y has remained obscure and  controversial.  The main reason f o r t h i s i s the u n r e l i a b i l i t y r a t h e r than the of r e l a t e d primary  sources.  scarcity  There a r e , i n a d d i t i o n to some passages  by L i Po h i m s e l f , a t l e a s t f o u r works which appear to be and have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as  authoritative:  1) L i Yang-ping's ^. jj^j /jjC " P r e f a c e to the Ts'ao-t'ang ( t i t l e of the e d i t i o n of L i Po's JjL  Yang-ping)"  2) Wei Hao's L i Po's  j^jjk  jp  c o l l e c t e d works compiled  , composed i n 762  death-bed request of L i Po.  chi  Yang-ping was  by  i n accordance-with the poet's l a s t  a  patron.  " P r e f a c e to the L i H a n - l i n c h i (an e d i t i o n of  works, compiled  by Wei)"  jji^  , composed  jfy^j^  2 c i r c a 762.  Wei was  a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d of the poet.  3) The memorial c o m p o s i t i o n about L i Po by the famous T'ang w r i t e r L i Hua  ^  i£  ( c . 7 1 5 - a f t e r c.  774).  3  4) The memorial c o m p o s i t i o n by Fan Ch'uan-cheng ^ b u i l t a new  tomb f o r the poet  a l l e g e d l y based  :h'in Ifafc  i n 817,  /jjjl  ,  who  composed i n the same year,  on m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n by the poet's o n l y son  Po-  !4  N e v e r t h e l e s s , these works p r o v i d e v e r y l i t t l e about the s u b j e c t i n quest i o n which can be r e a d i l y b e l i e v e d and yet v e r y much which must be p a i n s takingly c l a r i f i e d  or even d e n i e d .  A f t e r the e f f o r t s made by l e a d i n g  - 7 -  1  8  L i Po s c h o l a r s , two problems, no doubt the most i n t r i c a t e and of a l l , a r e y e t to be s o l v e d .  laborious  These problems a r e (1) whether L i Po  l y came from the famous L u n g - h s i  L i c l a n and was  a  real-  ninth-generation  descendant of one of i t s most d i s t i n g u i s h e d member L i Kao  ^  and  (2) whether L i Po's  family r e a l l y l i v e d i n e x i l e f o r generations  i n the  Western T e r r i t o r i e s  ( H s i - y u fj9 is^  ^  ) b e f o r e i t moved back to Shu  in  e a r l y T'ang t i m e s , as b o t h L i Yang-ping and Fan Ch'uan-cheng i n d i c a t e w i t h only s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n d e t a i l s .  I n t h i s c h a p t e r , these problems w i l l  o b v i o u s l y demand e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n . I t i s now  g e n e r a l l y accepted  t h a t L i Po was  b o r n i n •701."' Wang C h ' i  f i r s t reached t h i s c o n c l u s i o n f o r two r e a s o n s .  F i r s t , L i Po  to be f i f t y - s e v e n y e a r s o l d i n a memorial to Su-tsung jfc can be dated  t o 757.^  claimed , which  Second, a c c o r d i n g t o L i Hua  and L i Yang-ping g r e s p e c t i v e l y , L i Po d i e d a t the age of s i x t y - t w o i n the year 762. It seems t h i s argument w i l l stand f i r m d e s p i t e the e x i s t e n c e of one major 9  conflicting  s t a t e m e n t , which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  A l l primary basically Hao  sources  t h a t ever l i n k any p l a c e to L i Po's b i r t h seem  to .agree t h a t he was  e x p l i c i t l y says t h i s .  H s i n T'ang shu and a b r i d g e d  j^rj" j^*  later.  "HJ  b o r n i n Mien-chou  L i Yang-ping, Fan Ch'uan-cheng, and , which gives a v e r s i o n o b v i o u s l y  i n d i c a t e the name of the p r e f e c t u r e ) and,  immediate-  t h e r e f o r e , presumably mean the  poet h i m s e l f m a i n t a i n e d  to the p o e t ' s a l l e g e d chun-wang  the  ( L i Yang-ping does not  same thing."'""'" When people c a l l e d L i Po a L u n g - h s i son from L u n g - h s i ) — t h e  Wei  synthesized  from the former two, a l l d e s c r i b e the p o e t ' s b i r t h  l y a f t e r m e n t i o n i n g the L i f a m i l y ' s move to Shu  referring  of S h u . ^  ^  jen  j^jj^tjljl  (per-  t h i s , they were o b v i o u s l y ("the  prefecture i n  which an e l i t e f a m i l y has  i t s a n c e s t r a l home").  s c h o l a r puts i t , a man's chun-wang was r e s i d e n c e or r e g i s t r y , nor  12  And,  as a modern  "not n e c e s s a r i l y h i s p l a c e of  the p l a c e where he was  born [; i t ] was  instead  13 h i s c l a i m to membership i n a c e r t a i n descent was  a l s o c a l l e d a Shan-tung j en . L\A  For convenience, sources  756."^  As  The  to Hsueh Hua  Chan p o i n t s out,  e a r l i e s t of these ^  ^  , was  certain.  sources,  chrono-  the poem which  w r i t t e n i n Ch'ang-an i n about "Shan-tung L i Po"  in this  e x p l a n a t i o n comes from Chan Ying."*"^  In T'ang  the term Shan-tung r e f e r r e d to the v a s t  east of T'ung-kuan ^ , and was chung or Kuan-hsi (^j \£) . to a f r i e n d a l s o l i v i n g  the poet  i s , however, l e s s  f o r the meaning of the e x p r e s s i o n  poem, the most c o n v i n c i n g times,  Why  p e r t i n e n t to t h i s problem a r e l i s t e d  l o g i c a l l y i n Appendix A. Tu Fu presented  group."  area  u s u a l l y used i n c o n t r a s t w i t h KuanSince i n h i s poem he was t a l k i n g  i n Ch'ang-an about L i Po, who  conversely  had  l e f t Kuan-chung to l i v e around i n the east a f t e r 744,  Tu Fu used  this  term.^  S i m i l a r l y , .Yuan Chen  tung j e n L i Po" trasting T'ang shu  •f\_  >  l a t e r used the e x p r e s s i o n  i n h i s tomb i n s c r i p t i o n on Tu Fu because he was  the p l a c e s of r e s i d e n c e of L i and ^  "Shan-  has  Tu."^  con-  I t seems the  Chiu  d e s c r i b e d L i Po as a person v i r t u a l l y  from >  Shan-tung through i t s m i s r e a d i n g  of e i t h e r or both of Tu and  E q u a l l y u n r e l i a b l e i s the unique a l l e g a t i o n i n t h i s source f a t h e r once served as the s h e r i f f  (wei  of the Ming dynasty has  that L i  Po's a n <  t r a v e l l i n g which he does not  barked upon u n t i l h i s e a r l y f o r t i e s . " ^  Yuan.  ) of Jen-ch'eng / f ttylKt  h i s f a m i l y t h e r e f o r e r e s i d e d t h e r e , because t h a t a r e a was on the poet's e x t e n s i v e  18  only a  seem to have  In another way  i  stop em-  Yang Shen  a l s o m i s i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s poem of Tu Fu.  Quoting  10 from a work by t h e N o r t h e r n Sung s c h o l a r Yu*eh S h l h Vj^  (now n o t  e x t a n t ) , w h i c h says L i Po o f t e n c a l l e d h i m s e l f "Tung-shan" and as a r e s u l t was c a l l e d "Tung-shan L i Po" by some c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , Yang h o l d s t h a t Tu Fu's poem s h o u l d have read "Tung-shan" i n s t e a d o f "Shan-tung."  20  However, i t seems c e r t a i n t h a t Yueh S h i h ' s i s a g r e a t l y d i s t o r t e d a c count based on L i Yang-ping and Wei Hao.  Tung-shan, w h i c h o r i g i n a l l y  seems t o have meant t h e mountainous a r e a i n n o r t h - e a s t e r n Chekiang and was n o t a p r o p e r name, was t h e p l a c e where t h e famous E a s t e r n C h i n c h i e f m i n i s t e r H s i e h An  secluded himself before entering  offi-  21 cialdom.  S i n c e he admired H s i e h g r e a t l y , L i Po sometimes t r i e d to.  f o l l o w t h e l i f e s t y l e o f H s i e h and f r e q u e n t l y t a l k e d about "Tung-shan" 22 i n h i s poems. shan."  J£jj^ ^  What L i Yang-ping means by t h e p h r a s e " l u ch'eng Tungi s none o t h e r than t h e p o e t ' s f r e q u e n t m e n t i o n o f  t h a t p l a c e , and even Wei Hao goes o n l y so f a r as t o say t h a t t h e poet was nicknamed " L i Tung-shan." 23  "Tung-shan L i Po" i s s i m p l y a m i s l e a d i n g  Sung d y n a s t y i n v e n t i o n . What most e n t a n g l e s t h e problem o f d i s c o v e r i n g L i Po's b i r t h p l a c e l i e s i n t h e above-mentioned s t o r y about t h e p o e t ' s Western T e r r i t o r i e s connection.  Both L i Yang-ping and Fan Ch'uan-cheng i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e  L i f a m i l y d i d n o t move back t o Shu u n t i l " t h e b e g i n n i n g ( s h i h -j/jg o r ch'u fyf) , c o n v e n t i o n a l l y meaning t h e f i r s t y e a r ) o f t h e shen-lung  ^^1^  r e i g n p e r i o d , " t h a t i s , A.D. 705. And i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t o f t h e t h r e e a s s e r t i o n s (A) L i Po was b o r n i n 701^ (B) he was b o r n i n Shuj and (C) his  f a m i l y d i d n o t move t o Shu u n t i l 705, a t l e a s t one must be f a l s e .  S i n c e (A) i s c o n c l u d e d from an argument r e l y i n g m o s t l y on f i g u r e s , w h i c h a r e by n a t u r e r e l a t i v e l y d e f i n i t e , i t i s p r o p e r t h a t , as I have  11  p o i n t e d o u t , s c h o l a r s i n g e n e r a l do n o t doubt i t s c r e d i b i l i t y . (B) and ( C ) , Wang C h ' i c a u t i o u s l y s p e c u l a t e s t h a t shen-lung s h o u l d have r e a d shen-kung ^  tj)  o r (B) might be f a l s e . ^  About  probably But shen-  kung was an e x t r e m e l y s h o r t r e i g n p e r i o d , w h i c h l a s t e d o n l y from t h e 25 n i n t h month o f 697 t o t h e t h i r d day o f t h e next yeair.v  i t seems v e r y  u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s name c o u l d ever have been used t o g e t h e r w i t h words l i k e s h i h o r ch'u.  On t h e o t h e r hand, Ch'en Y i n - k ' o , p r o b a b l y unaware  of any p r o o f f o r ( B ) , h o l d s t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o (A) and ( C ) , L i Po was 26 b o r n i n t h e Western T e r r i t o r i e s .  Kuo Mo-jo-goes even f u r t h e r ; He  m a i n t a i n s t h a t L i Po was s p e c i f i c a l l y born i n S u i - y e h d i c a t e d by Fan; as t o T ' i a o - c h i h  j'ljr  ^  , as i n -  , t h e p l a c e name g i v e n by L i  Yang-ping, he i n c o r r e c t l y a s s e r t s t h a t i t means a broad a r e a i n c l u d i n g 27 S u i - y e h and t h e r e f o r e does n o t c o n t r a d i c t h i s v i e w . Ch'en and Kuo 28 have been a c c e p t e d by many s c h o l a r s .  However, even judged w i t h o n l y  t h e p r o o f s g i v e n so f a r , (B) i s more r e l i a b l e than (C) because b e s i d e s t h e i r common s o u r c e s i n L i and Fan, (B) i s a l s o s u p p o r t e d by Wei Hao. Moreover, most p a r t s o f t h e s t o r y i n q u e s t i o n have been s u s p e c t e d as u n l i k e l y by s c h o l a r s i n c l u d i n g Ch'en and Kuo, which suggests t h a t t h e 29 whole s t o r y might have been f a b r i c a t e d .  Such b e i n g t h e c a s e , i t  does n o t seem r e a s o n a b l e t o use ( C ) , a p a r t o f t h e s t o r y , t o deny ( B ) . To u n r a v e l t h e above problem, a thorough e x a m i n a t i o n o f L i and Fan's story i s necessary.  I s h a l l f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t e the exact l o c a t i o n of  the two u n f a m i l i a r - p l a c e s S u i - y e h and T ' i a o - c h i h and t h e i r w i t h China proper.  relationships  I n e a r l y s o u r c e s about t h e Western T e r r i t o r i e s o f 30  t h e T'ang, t h e name S u i - y e h appears r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y .  According to  Chavannes, i t i s one o f t h e Chinese t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s o f " S u j - a b , " t h e  12 name o f both the r i v e r which i s now the Chu (or C*u) i n R u s s i a n T u r k e s t a n and the m e d i e v a l  town on t h e south bank of the r i v e r a t  or near what i s now Tokmak.  Je Hai  (Hot Lake) and I - l i Ho  f^r tjg^ ^ y j * , two o t h e r g e o g r a p h i c a l names c o n c e r n i n g t h a t one w i l l encounter  the same r e g i o n  l a t e r , a r e none other than the p r e s e n t  Issyk K u l  32 and  H i River. A f a l s e and y e t e y e - c a t c h i n g passage i n the H s i n T'ang shu has, how-  ever, made some s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e t h a t Sui-yeh was i n Y e n - c h ' i ( K a r a s h a h r ) , o r t h a t t h e r e may have been two Sui-yeh's in Yen-ch'i  respectively.  33  ^  on the Chu and  I t says:  The Government-General ( t u - t u - f u  ) °f Y e n - c h ' i [was]  founded i n the e i g h t e e n t h year o f the chen-kuan |j (644) when the T'ang d e s t r o y e d  period  [the s t a t e o f ] Y e n - c h ' i .  There  ''t-  was a s t r o n g h o l d (ch' eng in  the f i r s t  Protector  year o f the t ' i a o - l u  [of A n - h s i  f o u r s i d e s and twelve  The mistakes survey  ) t h e r e named Sui-yeh.  jjjjj  Q  £j gates.  p j£_  p e r i o d (679) by the  ] Wang F a n g - i 34  of the T'ang's expansion  a Chinese  ^  j£  and had  i n t h i s passage w i l l become c l e a r i n the f o l l o w i n g toward t h e Sui-yeh r e g i o n .  T'ang armies conquered t h e s t a t e o f Kao-ch'ang J^j it  I t was b u i l t  p r e f e c t u r e (Hsi-chou fjt) -^+|  combined c i v i l and m i l i t a r y  ^  In 640,  (Karakhoja), made  ) , and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e a  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h Chinese  civil  offi-  c i a l s backed by a s t a n d i n g army, t h a t i s , the A n - h s i P r o t e c t o r a t e (tu-hu-fu  ^|^/f^  ).^~* T h i s was the f i r s t  s i g n i f i c a n t march westward  13 of  t h e T'ang empire.  Then, i n 644, s i n c e Y e n - c h ' i , which had begun  to pay t r i b u t e t o t h e T'ang s i n c e 632, a l l i e d i t s e l f w i t h t h e Western T u r k s , t h e T'ang g e n e r a l Kuo Hsiao-k'o  ^  jfy-  s e t o u t from H s i - c h o u  36 to a t t a c k i t and c a p t u r e d i t s - ' k i n g .  But t h i s kingdom was a g a i n a l l i e d  w i t h t h e Turks once t h e T'ang armies r e t r e a t e d , and was n o t r e a l l y brought under T'ang c o n t r o l u n t i l A - s h i h - n a She-er the  j5oJ  ^  $|  ,  T u r k i s h l e a d e r i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e T'ang c o u r t , conquered i t i n  648 i n an e x p e d i t i o n m a i n l y aimed a t a t t a c k i n g C h ' i u - t z ' u ^ ^ ^  (Kucha).  At t h e end o f 648 A - s h i h - n a She-er d e c i s i v e l y d e f e a t e d C h ' i u - t z ' u , capt u r e d i t s k i n g P u - s h i h - p i j^p ^  1^.  sumably a T'ang v a s s e l , succeed him.  , and made a b r o t h e r o f h i s , p r e L a t e r on, u n c e a s i n g t u r m o i l i n t h e  kingdom made t h e T'ang government f i r s t d e c i d e i n 650 t o send P u - s h i h - p i home t o p a c i f y h i s p e o p l e and then s e t o u t i n e a r l y 658 t o c r u s h t h e s t a t e once and f o r a l l .  A f t e r t h i s conquest, t h e T'ang c o u r t founded  t h e r e t h e Government-General of the  o f C h ' i u - t z ' u and made S u - c h i -j^t"  , son  P u - s h i h - p i , who had j u s t d i e d o f i l l n e s s , i t s g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l . I n f i f t h month o f t h e same y e a r , t h e C h i n e s e government t r a n s f e r r e d  38 the  seat o f t h e A n - h s i P r o t e c t o r a t e from H s i - c h o u t o C h ' i u - t z ' u .  king of Yu-t' i e n ^ ^  (Khotan) F u - s h e - h s i n ^  ^  The  was shocked  by t h e m i l i t a r y might o f t h e Chinese a f t e r t h e T'ang's f i r s t v i c t o r y f i c e r Hsueh Wan-pei ^ ^ . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he i m m e d i a t e l y promised over C h ' i u - t z ' u i n 648 and was p e r s o n a l l y i n t i m i d a t e d by t h e T'ang o f to pay a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e r u l e o f t h e T'ang and f o l l o w e d Hsueh t o t h e C h i n e s e c a p i t a l t o have an a u d i e n c e w i t h Kao-tsung m a t i o n about Shu-le  (  |j  (Kashgar) i s i n s u f f i c i e n t .  ^  .  Infor-  I t i s only  known t h a t i t was a T'ang t r i b u t a r y s t a t e as e a r l y as 635 b u t was -  14 probably under T u r k i s h c o n t r o l around or  a government-general  was  646, and t h a t some p r e f e c t u r e s  p r o b a b l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e i n 658 or ^Lj  North of what a r e the p r e s e n t T'ien-shan Mountains ^ y e a r s a f t e r I-p' i - s h e - k u e i & the  iffi. new  ^j"  ^  Qaghan to T'u-huo-lo  l e a d e r of the Western  o r i g i n a l l y a yaghu  ^  j^"  Qaghan e x p e l l e d  ^ J l 'X *f&.  40  , i n 648,  I-p'i-to-lu  (Tokhara) and became  T u r k s , ^ A - s h i h - n a Ho-lu  under  659.  jfej  ^)j5 ^  ,  I - p ' i - t o - l u , l e d h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s to  42 become Chinese s u b j e c t s . 9+J  T'ing-chou  They were arranged to s e t t l e down near  ( n o r t h of modern T u r f a n , on the edge of the D z u n g a r i a ) ,  and e a r l y i n the f o l l o w i n g year a government-general y& ~/&J  w  a  s  named Yao-ch'ih  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e w i t h Ho-lu as governor.  But Ho-lu  g r a d u a l l y broke w i t h the T'ang a f t e r T ' a i - t s u n g ' s death i n the summer of  649.  In e a r l y 651, he f i n a l l y f l e d westward, took the t i t l e of  Sha-po-lo' }'JT  t r i b e s under the  Qaghan, and by and l a r g e took over the T u r k i s h 44 I - p ' i - s h e - k u e i and r e p l a c e d him.  At the end of  T'ang government crushed Ho-lu and e s t a b l i s h e d two  named K ' u n - l i n g  and Meng-ch'ih  y^j  protectorates,  , to govern the t r i b e s  and s t a t e s under h i s c o n t r o l , which ranged from the A l t a i 45 in  the e a s t to the T a l a s R i v e r i n the west.  657,  T h i s was  Mountains  the f i r s t  time  T'ang c o n t r o l ever reached the Sui-yeh r e g i o n . N a t u r a l l y , s m a l l - s c a l e r e b e l l i o n s broke out from time to time i n these newly conquered  to  f o r e i g n t e r r i t o r i e s , but the T'ang does not seem 46  have s u f f e r e d any g r e a t s e t b a c k u n t i l 670.  T i b e t a n s , w i t h the h e l p of the Khotanese  In t h a t year the  king, i n f l i c t e d a severe defeat  upon the Chinese and s e i z e d p a r t of T u r k e s t a n ; the s i t u a t i o n became so difficult  f o r the T'ang to m a i n t a i n i t s t r o o p s t h e r e t h a t i t had to  15 withdraw from a l l o f i t s f o u r most important Four G a r r i s o n s (Ssu-chen  ) , namely, C h ' i u - t z ' u , Y u - t ' i e n ,  Shu-le, and Y e n - c h ' i . ^ was  strongholds, the s o - c a l l e d  There i s evidence t h a t t h e T'ang  withdrawal  not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w e d by T i b e t a n dominance, but no doubt t h e  T i b e t a n s had now become a f o r m i d a b l e f o e of t h e T'ang i n T u r k e s t a n . In 676, they r a i d e d t h e whole d i s t r i c t ,  48  captured Kao-ch'ang, and t h r u s t 49  as f a r east as the border o f p r e s e n t Kan-su. The event quoted  c o n c e r n i n g Wang F a n g - i and Sui-yeh i n c l u d e d i n t h e passage  above goes as f o l l o w s . S i n c e about 677, t h e Western T u r k i s h  qaghan A-shih-na  Mf  Tu-chih  under him named L i Che-fu T'ang and a l l i e d  ^  themselves  jQ  a  n  d  a  powerful  had g r a d u a l l y r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e  w i t h t h e T i b e t a n s . """^ To d e a l w i t h  problem, a d e l e g a t i o n headed by P ' e i H s i n g - c h i e n from  chieftain  ^jffc  this  s e t out  the e a s t e r n c a p i t a l Lo-yang i n t h e summer o f 679, d i s g u i s e d as an  e s c o r t to send home t h e P e r s i a n p r i n c e N i - n i e h - s h i h yj^ of P e i - l u - s s u  jjtff  %^  , son  ( F i r u z ) , who had j u s t d i e d i n e x i l e i n China.  Wang F a n g - i was, due to P ' e i ' s recommendation, appointed P ' e i ' s a s s i s t ant w i t h t h e t i t l e of " a c t i n g p r o t e c t o r of A n - h s i " . a h i g h - r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l a t Hsi-chou, thousand  S i n c e he was once  P ' e i immediately  had more than one  men t h e r e who would v o l u n t e e r t o accompany him. westward.  thermore, by p r e t e n d i n g t h a t he would not proceed u n t i l  Fur-  the hot d e s e r t  weather was c o m p l e t e l y over and t h a t he was going to enjoy once more the p l e a s u r e of h u n t i n g t e n thousand  i n A n - h s i , P ' e i managed to gather around him  more young men from t h e s t a t e s governed by t h e A n - h s i  P r o t e c t o r a t e and to o r g a n i z e and t r a i n them without  alerting  Tu-chih.  T h i s army then marched west r a p i d l y and i n t h e autumn o f t h a t year  16 e a s i l y captured T u - c h i h , L i Che-fu and many other c h i e f t a i n s and sent these c a p t i v e s ' to S u i - y e h .  P ' e i then r e t u r n e d to t h e c a p i t a l w i t h  T u - c h i h and L i Che-fu and l e f t p r i n c e i s s a i d to have l i v e d  t h e P e r s i a n p r i n c e a t Sui-yeh, but t h e  i n T'u-huo-lo l a t e r .  On t h e other hand,  Wang F a n g - i was l e f t a t Sui-yeh to b u i l d a s t r o n g h o l d t h e r e . T h i s Sui-yeh was unmistakably Wang F a n g - i fought A-shih-na  t h e one on t h e Chu. jjt. ^  Ch'e-po j33f  t r i b e s under him a t I - l i Ho and Je H a i , both near  Firstly, a  n  a  t  n  e  i n 682 Turkish  t h e Chu but f a r from  ,53 Yen-ch i ; and t h e r e a r e s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e r e b e l l i o n s of Tu-chih 54 and  Ch'e-po took p l a c e i n t h e same d i s t r i c t .  Secondly,  i f the b a t t l e -  f i e l d had been a t Y e n - c h ' i , T u - c h i h must have a l r e a d y advanced a c r o s s the whole A n - h s i r e g i o n ; t h i s would have made i t v e r y u n l i k e l y f o r P ' e i to  c o l l e c t and t r a i n t r o o p s t h e r e and to l a u n c h s u r p r i s e a t t a c k s on  him."'"'  T h i r d l y , when t h e r e was a l r e a d y a famous town named Sui-yeh on  the Chu, i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e T'ang government would have g i v e n the same name t o a s t r o n g h o l d i n Y e n - c h ' i .  Moreover, t h e H s i n T'ang shu  does not mention any s t r o n g h o l d named Sui-yeh a t a l l i n two passages d e s c r i b i n g t h e o u t - p o s t s and s t r o n g h o l d s near Y e n - c h ' i , " ^ w h i l e t h e s t r o n g h o l d Wang F a n g - i b u i l t was a v e r y l a r g e one ( i t had " f o u r s i d e s and  twelve g a t e s " and r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d s t r e e t design) and was n o t 57 l i k e l y t o have been l e f t out. F i n a l l y , t h e main p a r t of t h e HTS passage c o n t a i n i n g t h e q u o t a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n may be an abridgement of a passage i n t h e T'ang hui-yao judged  c o n c e r n i n g t h e Four G a r r i s o n s ,  from t h e s t r o n g resemblance between them i n both content and 58  language.  In t h e THY, t h e event a t i s s u e i s presented  a f t e r a note by i t s o r i g i n a l c o m p i l e r  immediately  Su Mien, which shows Su was  17 p u z z l e d by the f a c t  that i n documents of d i f f e r e n t d a t e s , Y e n - c h ' i and  S u i - y e h were r e s p e c t i v e l y d e s c r i b e d as one o f the Four G a r r i s o n s .  The  HTS may have, as a r e s u l t , mixed up these two p l a c e s . The r o l e of S u i - y e h as one of the Four G a r r i s o n s i s the key to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n t h e r e b e f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the e i g h t h c e n t u r y , the time when L i Po's f a m i l y left  S u i - y e h f o r Shu.  To b e g i n w i t h , the Chiu T'ang shu i n one p l a c e  h o l d s t h a t t h e Four G a r r i s o n s ( i n c l u d i n g e a r l y as immediately 648;  allegedly  Sui-yeh) a l r e a d y e x i s t e d as  a f t e r t h e T'ang's v i c t o r y i n C h ' i u - t z ' u i n l a t e fLj^  s i m i l a r v e r s i o n s a r e a l s o found i n the T s ' e - f u yiian-kuei 59  and  the HTS.  I t i s , however, v e r y d o u b t f u l t h a t the T'ang c o u l d have  e s t a b l i s h e d a g a r r i s o n a t Sui-yeh l o n g b e f o r e i t d e f e a t e d A-shih-na Ho-lu i n l a t e 657.  Moreover, c l o s e examination w i l l r e v e a l t h a t  s o u r c e s , which a l s o c o n t a i n some o t h e r s u s p i c i o u s o r even f a l s e  these infor-  60 mation,  may have p r e s e n t e d the above date u l t i m a t e l y through t h e '  m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a memorial by T s ' u i Jung JJ£ ^dV  ..^  f e a s i b l e to assume t h a t the Four G a r r i s o n s were completed the T'ang conquered all  I t seems only a f t e r  and v e r y p r o b a b l y even c o n s o l i d a t e d i t s c o n t r o l over  f o u r s e a t s o f them, t h a t i s , a f t e r 658.  Even by then Sui-yeh does  not seem to have been one o f these g a r r i s o n s because we know t h a t when the T'ang withdrew from the Four G a r r i s o n s i n 670, they i n c l u d e d Y e n - c h ' i , 62 not S u i - y e h .  A c c o r d i n g t o one source, Sui-yeh r e p l a c e d Y e n - c h ' i i n  63 679.  T h i s , i f t r u e , presumably  followed P'ei Hsing-chien's v i c t o r y  and t h e b u i l d i n g of the s t r o n g h o l d t h e r e . unquestioned  And t h i s date i s the e a r l i e s t  one o f t h e T'ang's f i r m c o n t r o l over Sui-yeh.  In 686, f o u r  y e a r s a f t e r the above-mentioned r e b e l l i o n l e d by A - s h i h - n a Ch'e-po, a  18 Western T u r k i s h r e b e l l i o n probably  i n s t i g a t e d by t h e T i b e t a n s f o r c e d  the T'ang to once a g a i n withdraw from t h e Four G a r r i s o n s .  This  time  64 Sui-yeh was c l e a r l y one o f the f o u r .  After a f r u i t l e s s expedition  i n 687 a g a i n s t t h e T i b e t a n s i n the A n - h s i d i s t r i c t , ^ under t h e command o f Wang H s i a o - c h i e h  _J. " 5 ^  t h e Chinese  army  f i n a l l y succeeded i n  l a t e 692 i n a f f l i c t i n g a severe blow on them and r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Four G a r r i s o n s i n c l u d i n g S u i - y e h . ^  But, as would be expected,  near Sui-yeh were by no means over a f t e r t h a t . ^  jOk  ^  f^J  turmoils  Around t h e s h e n g - l i  p e r i o d (698-99), t h e T u r k i s h c h i e f t a i n T ' u - c h i - s h i h Wu-chih-le D e s : i  - g d e  e  Sui-yeh f o r y e a r s , o c c u p i e d a p a r t o f i t ,  and made t h a t p a r t h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s .  t r o o p s defending the 67 s t r o n g h o l d a r e s a i d to have almost s t a r v e d to death. I t seems t h e T'ang c o u l d o n l y a c q u i r e temporary peace by appeasing Wu-chih-le w i t h a titular position.  68  The Chinese  In 703, s i n c e Wu-chih-le q u a r r e l l e d w i t h some  other T u r k i s h t r i b e s and sent troops to cope w i t h them, t h i s  district 69  was  a g a i n i n u n r e s t and passage through  i t was t o t a l l y b l o c k e d .  By  chance, however, no sources r e c o r d any t u r m o i l t h e r e under t h e year 705. The name T ' i a o - c h i h which appears i n L i Yang-ping's work has long been c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f e r to t h e Government-General o f T ' i a o - c h i h o f the T ' a n g . ^  Some hasty attempts on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s  ment-general have a l s o been made, which conclude of T a l a s  (south-west  t h a t i t i s t h e town  o f Sui-yeh and t h e v e r y p l a c e where the Arabs  d e f e a t e d t h e T'ang army i n 751), it  govern-  i s t h e a r e a around S u i - y e h . ^  o r , as I have mentioned above, t h a t A l l these views a r e d o u b t f u l .  The Government-Generai o f T ' i a o - c h i h was e s t a b l i s h e d somewhere between 658 and 661.  I t was one of t h e numerous governments-general  19 e s t a b l i s h e d when the T'ang, a f t e r - i t s d e c i s i v e - v i c t o r y over t h e Western Turks  i n 657, d i s p a t c h e d envoys t o seek f o r a pledge  of l o y a l t y  from  the s t a t e s i n the r e g i o n from the T a l a s r i v e r southward to c e n t r a l A f g h a n i s t a n and n o r t h e r n P a k i s t a n .  72  The seat o f t h e government-general  was a c e r t a i n town named F u - p a o - s e - t i e n  ^  i n the s t a t e  73 of H o - t a - l o - c h i h  ^  ^  ,  which i n some other times  the T'ang p e r i o d was known as Ts'ao-chu-cha ^ "ff}^  ^  during  or Hsieh-yu  From s e v e r a l r a t h e r d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s on Ts'ao-chu-cha  and Hsieh-yu,  i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t , as Chavannes p o i n t s o u t , t h i s s t a t e  was l o c a t e d around the modern Afghan c i t y G h a z n l (southwest Except  f o r o c c a s i o n a l l y sending  ing o f f i c i a l powerful  t r i b u t a r y missions  of K a b u l ) .  7 5  to t h e T'ang, r e c e i v -  t i t l e s c o n f e r r e d by the T'ang c o u r t upon i t s k i n g and some  c h i e f t a i n s , and b e i n g a l l i e d  national a f f a i r s ,  l o o s e l y w i t h T'ang i n some i n t e r -  t h i s s t a t e does not seem to have had much r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h the T'ang e m p i r e . ^ 7  There i s . l i t t l e doubt t h a t _.the s o - c a l l e d  Government-General o f T ' i a o - c h i h was o n l y a nominal  establishment.  On the o t h e r hand, a s t a t e a l s o named T ' i a o - c h i h i s r e c o r d e d i n some standard h i s t o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g  the Han d y n a s t y .  i n g to these s o u r c e s , a p l a c e west of A n - h s i i n g a sea named H s i - h a i IHD  JL*  7 7  I t was, a c c o r d (Parthia),  ("Western Sea"), and producing 78  peacocks, and " b i g b i r d s " ( o s t r i c h e s ) .  borderlions,  There has been some c o n t r o -  v e r s y about the exact i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s s t a t e .  But s c h o l a r s seem  to agree t h a t the s o - c a l l e d H s i H a i was the p r e s e n t P e r s i a n G u l f and 79 T ' i a o - c h i h was l o c a t e d near the head o f i t . L i Yang-ping does not seem to have r e f e r r e d to the Government-General of T ' i a o - c h i h .  First,  i t seems the c e n t r a l A s i a n s t a t e s where the  20 T'ang e s t a b l i s h e d governments-general were i n g e n e r a l known t o the Chinese by the o r i g i n a l names of the s t a t e s , not by the names of the governments-general ( e . g . , Y u - t ' i e n and T'u-huo-lo, not T u - t u - f u and Y u e h - c h i h J^J  P'i-sha  T u - t u - f u ) ; and, as f a r as I know, t h i s  i s t r u e i n the p a r t i c u l a r case of H o - t a - l o - c h i h ( i n L i Po's  times,  80 Hsieh-yu).  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t L i Po c o u l d have used  " T ' i a o - c h i h T u - t u - f u , " and even l e s s so t h a t he c o u l d have used o n l y " T ' i a o - c h i h , " t o mean the s t a t e of H s i e h - y u .  B e s i d e s , had he been so  w e l l informed about the T'ang's m i l i t a r y achievements i n the west as to know about the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h i s n o m i n a l government-general, L i Po would not have t o l d L i Yang-ping t h a t h i s a n c e s t o r s had been  banished  t h e r e i n l a t e S u i o r even e a r l i e r (see the next page). L i Yang-ping c o u l d not have a c t u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o T ' i a o - c h i h of the Han  e i t h e r , because by h i s times t h a t s t a t e had not been heard of f o r  centuries.  I t seems he  (or L i Po) o n l y used " T ' i a o - c h i h " as a vague,  p o e t i c r e f e r e n c e to the f a r w e s t , h a r d l y s e r i o u s l y meaning any  particular  81 place.  For our need, however, I want to p o i n t out t h a t , by not u s i n g  the more f a m i l i a r name H s i - y u  ( o r , A n - h s i ) , he must have been t h i n k i n g  o f a p l a c e f a r t h e r west than the Western T e r r i t o r i e s of the T'ang. For two reasons I s h a l l c e n t e r my arguments upon S u i - y e h i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n on the p r o b a b i l i t y of the e x i l e of the L i f a m i l y . One  of these two reasons i s t h a t S u i - y e h has been w i d e l y a c c e p t e d  as  the p l a c e of the e x i l e i n q u e s t i o n ; the o t h e r i s t h a t , as f a r as  the  f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n I s h a l l r e a c h below i s c o n c e r n e d , most o f t h e s e  argu-  ments w i l l remain e f f e c t i v e w i t h L i Yang-ping's s o - c a l l e d T ' i a o - c h i h a l s o taken i n t o  account.  21 L i Yang-ping  and Fan Ch'uan-cheng seem to agree t h a t L i Po's  a n c e s t o r s came to the Western T e r r i t o r i e s because A c c o r d i n g to L i Yang-ping, tified  t h e i r banishment was  of banishment.  the r e s u l t  c o n v i c t i o n of a c e r t a i n member of the f a m i l y who  82  of an u n j u s -  o r i g i n a l l y had  83 been an o f f i c i a l .  When t h i s event took p l a c e i s not d e f i n i t e .  Fan  says i t happened d u r i n g the c a l a m i t o u s p e r i o d of l a t e S u i j5j| (the p e r i o d of  S u i : 581-617), w h i l e L i o n l y g i v e s an extremely vague d a t e : "the  middle  [of the f a m i l y ' s h i s t o r y ]  p o i n t between the b i r t h dates of L i Po and founder of the L u n g - h s i L i c l a n L i Kao  backwards f o r two or t h r e e decades, the same.  L i Po's  S i n c e the m i d d l e -  701 and A.D.  but a l s o may  a n c e s t o r s were u n l i k e l y  c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y  A.D.  upper  extended  one c o n c l u s i o n can be reached  here  suggested,  to have been banished to S u i - y e h i n  the times i n d i c a t e d by L i and Fan, because  beyond the dominance of any regime Judging from the words they use  t h a t p l a c e was 85  then f a r  i n China. ( L i : "t'ao k u e i "  j^jjr  ; Fan:  ) » L i and Fan both suggest t h a t L i Po's  r e t u r n e d u n l a w f u l l y to China proper i n 705. not have been the c a s e .  is  not be, as i s  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t , as Ch'en Yin-k'o  " c h ' i e n huan"  351)  N e v e r t h e l e s s , even i f the p o s s i b l e  l i m i t of the date meant by L i Yang-ping  all  )."  the g e n e r a l l y acknowledged  (A.D.  526, what L i means by t h i s e x p r e s s i o n may 84 u s u a l l y assumed, l a t e S u i .  tj?  (chung-yeh  Firstly,  family  But i t seems t h i s c o u l d  t h e r e were numerous g e n e r a l amnesties  d u r i n g the T'ang times b e f o r e 705, which i n g e n e r a l excluded o n l y such especially  a master  s e r i o u s crimes as t r e a s o n , p a r r i c i d e , 86  by a s l a v e .  and the murder of  As i s j u s t mentioned, the cause of the b a n i s h -  ment of L i Po's a n c e s t o r s does not seem to have been so grave a crime  22  as t h e s e .  Moreover, the L i ' s who  l i v e d around the year 705 were a t  l e a s t the t h i r d - o f f o u r t h - g e n e r a t i o n descendants of t h o s e who banished to Sui-yeh.  were  I t i s , hence, e x t r e m e l y d o u b t f u l t h a t , a f t e r  s e v e r a l decades of T'ang dominance a t S u i - y e h , L i Po's f a m i l y had t o f l e e back t o China p r o p e r as unpardoned  still  convicts.  S e c o n d l y , as p o i n t e d out above, w i t h i n t h e twenty y e a r s b e f o r e 705, the C h i n e s e t r o o p s were f o r c e d t o w i t h d r a w from S u i - y e h and o t h e r g a r r i s o n s i n T u r k e s t a n a t l e a s t once, and l o n g b e s i e g e d w i t h i n S u i - y e h by the Western Turks a t a n o t h e r t i m e . difficulty  O b v i o u s l y , the T'ang had g r e a t  even o n l y t o m a i n t a i n i t s m i l i t a r y presence a t t h a t  c a l l y and m i l i t a r i l y  turbulent place.  politic  Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t  seems u n l i k e l y t h a t the T'ang government would have d e t a i n e d t h e r e some descendants of a c e r t a i n c o n v i c t of a c e r t a i n former regime as L i Po's f a m i l y were. T h i r d l y , i n 705, a time when T u r k e s t a n was under f i r m Chinese cont r o l , i t was a l s o improbable f o r a f a m i l y w i t h c h i l d r e n to s t e a l from S u i - y e h a l l the way Kul  t o Shu ( i n modern Szechwan).  Between the I s s y k  and c e n t r a l Kansu, t h e r e a r e m a s s i v e d e s e r t s and mountain r a n g e s ,  so t h a t t r a v e l l i n g i s p o s s i b l e o n l y by f o l l o w i n g some f i x e d r o u t e s . A l s o , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t the T'ang government e s t a b l i s h e d m i l i t a r y 87 p o s t s a t most oases and mountain passes a l o n g t h e s e r o u t e s .  Moreover,  t h e r e were i n T'ang t i m e s r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h demanded a l l t r a v e l l e r s t o h o l d t r a v e l p e r m i t s c a l l e d kuo-so i f j ^ fff i f they wished t o pass any check p o i n t , and r e g u l a t i o n s a g a i n s t the smuggling of h o r s e s , w h i c h 88 were c a t e g o r i z e d as m i l i t a r y s u p p l i e s .  As the f o l l o w i n g  examples  w i l l demonstrate, t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s were v e r y s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d i n the  23 western f r o n t i e r s . 627,  When Hsiian-tsang s t a r t e d h i s j o u r n e y to I n d i a i n  the western border of China l a y i n p r e s e n t north-western Kansu.  Hsuan-tsang's biography by H u i - l i  ^  j£.  , which r e l a t e s h i s j o u r n e y  i n d e t a i l , g i v e s a v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n of how  the d e n s e l y deployed p o s t s  i n the d e s e r t s near the border had worked e f f e c t i v e l y a g a i n s t an t r a v e l l e r l i k e Hsuan-tsang.  89  The monk was  illegal  f i n a l l y a b l e to proceed  westward o n l y through the grace of some i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e r s who  were  90 moved by h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y r e l i g i o u s p i e t y .  Although s t o r i e s  by monks i n those days a r e sometimes exaggerated,  related  the p r e s e n t one i s  w e l l supported by some documents r e c e n t l y excavated.  Some kuo-so and  the a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r them were found a t T u r f a n , which date from the 91 k'ai-yuan p e r i o d  (713-41), a time v e r y c l o s e to 705.  c o n f i r m t h a t common t r a v e l l e r s indeed had a r e a governed  These documents  to use kuo-so i n the whole  by the A n - h s i P r o t e c t o r a t e .  A g r e a t number of them,  which r e p o r t the e x i s t e n c e of horses and donkeys, show t h a t the r e g u l a t i o n s about horse c o n t r o l were a l s o e n f o r c e d .  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  a c c o r d i n g to the extant p a r t o f a sheet a t t a c h e d to one of the kuo-so, presumably  f o r s i g n i n g or stamping  by i n s p e c t i n g o f f i c e r s ,  of the kuo-so handed i t i n to be checked p o s t s near Kua-chou w i t h i n only three d a y s — a  "H  the h o l d e r  a t no l e s s than f o u r  (present An-hsi  J^- ftp  c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the d e n s i t y and 92  shou-cho , Kansu) efficiency  of T'ang s e c u r i t y p o s t s i n t h a t a r e a . B e f o r e I proceed to i n v e s t i g a t e L i Po's L i c l a n , I want to c l a r i f y one more p o i n t .  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the L u n g - h s i Some primary s o u r c e s say  t h a t L i Po d r a f t e d f o r Hsuan-tsung's c o u r t a l e t t e r to a c e r t a i n b a r 93 barian state.  T h i s seems to some s c h o l a r s to suggest t h a t L i Po  24 knew some f o r e i g n language and t h a t h i s Western T e r r i t o r i e s might t h e r e f o r e be t r u e .  94  connection  In f a c t , however, the d r a f t s o f numerous  T'ang d i p l o m a t i c l e t t e r s a r e s t i l l  e x t a n t , and these d r a f t s a r e a l l  95 w r i t t e n i n Chinese.  The one t h a t L i Po composed does not prove any-  thing . My d i s c u s s i o n on the poet's a l l e g e d membership i n the L u n g - h s i L i c l a n w i l l b e g i n w i t h a b r i e f b i o g r a p h i c account of the founder of t h e c l a n L i Kao. so-called  L i Kao was the founder of Western L i a n g ( S h i h - l i u - k u o "j-*  Sixteen States  pendence i n n o r t h e r n China a f t e r the f a l l \jt]  .  ^  | § s j  , one o f the  ) t h a t claimed  inde-  o f the Western C h i n  dynasty  A l l e g e d l y , he was descended from the famous H a n ^  general  L i Kuang j^f ; h i s chun-wang, though u s u a l l y s a i d to be L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi ^  s i n c e T'ang times, was i n f a c t L u n g - h s i T i - t a o  He was o f t e n r e f e r r e d to by h i s posthumous t i t l e s P r i n c e Wu-chao fl^ ^_  Jlffi  ana i Emperor Hsing-sheng %. » *-^ l a t t e r c o n f e r r e d by Hsiian96 tsung i n 743. Supported by h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s , he claimed independence 97 at  Tun-huang i n A.D. 400.  to  Chiu-ch'uan j^j  ^  e  In 405, he moved h i s c a p i t a l  t o cope w i t h N o r t h e r n L i a n g ,  jJLijp '^LiH*.  under Chu-ch'u Meng-hsiin ' 99 .. of s i x t y - s e v e n . Chu-ch'u was a Hsiung-nu  H  e  At  died  Chang-yeh  >  Ku-tsang ^ In the f a l l  a n (  i  n  the regime ^17 a t the age  -^5^ by o r i g i n .  i n 401 i n r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t h i s r u l e r Tuan Yeh at  i  eastward  ^  took Tuan's p l a c e t h e r e .  , killed  and was d e f e a t e d  and k i l l e d ,  by Chu-ch'u Meng-hsiin.  Tuan  I n 412, he s e i z e d  (present Wu-weitf^,'}f$v ) and moved h i s c a p i t a l o f 420, L i Kao' s son and successor  He r o s e  H s i n ^ / ^ invaded  there. Chang-yeh  t o g e t h e r w i t h a t l e a s t two of h i s b r o t h e r s ,  Chii-ch'u then proceeded to s e i z e Chiu-ch'uan.  25 I n t h e s p r i n g o f 421, Chli-ch'u conquered Western L i a n g ' s f i n a l  base  Tun-huang, then under t h e command o f L i Hsiin '\vij , a younger b r o t h e r o f H s i n ' s ; Hsiin committed s u i c i d e .  Western L i a n g was thus c o m p l e t e l y  destroyed. A f t e r w a r d s , o n l y one branch descended from L i Kao remained in history.  L i Kao's grandson Pao ^  illustrious  s u r v i v e d t h e doom o f h i s f a m i l y and  l a t e r became an o f f i c i a l i n t h e c o u r t o f N o r t h e r n Wei.  Pao's descendants  soon emerged as a new l e a d i n g c l a n i n t h e E a s t - o f - t h e - M o u n t a i n (Shantung) a r e a when h i s youngest son Ch'ung ^ t j e n t i a l m i n i s t e r s o f Emperor Hsiao-wen  ^  7  became one o f t h e most i n f l u fjj^  and m a r r i e d a daughter 102  to t h e emperor and a n o t h e r daughter and a n i e c e t o two p r i n c e s . L i Po l i n k e d h i m s e l f w i t h L i Kao's c l a n i n two ways.  F i r s t , he a l s o  c a l l e d h i m s e l f a p e r s o n from L u n g - h s i (but n o t L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi, which b o t h L i Yang-ping and Fan Ch'uan-cheng used) and mentioned L i 103 Kuang as a d i s t a n t a n c e s t o r .  Second, he once c a l l e d h i m s e l f "an un-  worthy b r a n c h o r l e a f " o f t h e T'ang i m p e r i a l c l a n , which a l s o c l a i m e d 104 d e s c e n t from L i Kao.  The account t h a t t h e poet was a n i n t h - g e n e r a t i o n  descendant of Kao came down t o us f i r s t through L i (Yang-ping) and Fan. T h i s l i n k a g e has been s e r i o u s l y doubted by many s c h o l a r s . o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e i r arguments,  Here, i n  I s h a l l f i r s t l o o k i n t o some problems  c o n c e r n i n g t h e g r e a t chun-wang's i n g e n e r a l and t h e L u n g - h s i chun-wang of the L i ' s i n p a r t i c u l a r . point.  L i Kao's genuine chun-wang i s t h e s t a r t i n g  From t h e f o l l o w i n g e v i d e n c e , i t i s almost p o s i t i v e t h a t L i Kao  was from L u n g - h s i T i - t a o i n s t e a d o f L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi: (A) The f u n e r a l i n s c r i p t i o n s f o r s e v e r a l pre-T'ang descendants o f L i Pao a r e s t i l l e x t a n t , and t h e y a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c l a n was from T i - t a o . ( B ) The  26 same account i s found i n b o t h L i Kao's b i o g r a p h y i n t h e Wei shu and  t h e "Short H i s t o r y o f t h e S t a t e o f Western L i a n g "  the S h i h - l i u - k u o c h ' u n - c h ' i u t s u a n - l u  +  \£) yfc  in  fjfc  5^ | ^ 7%^K%~^J^  •  These  two works a r e , t o my knowledge, t h e o n l y e x t a n t h i s t o r i e s c o m p i l e d •  106  b e f o r e T'ang t i m e s t h a t ever mention L i Kao's chun-wang.  (C) Even  i n T'ang and post-T'ang s o u r c e s , members o f t h i s c l a n a r e s t i l l  often  s a i d t o be from T i - t a o . I t i s v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi chun-wang of L i Kao was f a b r i c a t e d by some o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i a n s i n e a r l y T'ang times.  To b e g i n w i t h , Kao's b i o g r a p h y i n t h e C h i n shu (compiled  T'ai-tsung's personal order  under  i n 646 and completed i n 648) seems t o be  the e a r l i e s t d e t a i l e d and well-known account o f t h e c l a n ' s h i s t o r y t h a t 108 g i v e s L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi as Kao's chun-wang. v e r s i o n i s w e l l j u s t i f i e d seeing  On t h e s u r f a c e  this  t h a t Kao was s a i d t o be descended  from Kuang, who, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S h i h c h i and t h e Han shu, came from 109 jL uu sn tg - mentioned i n d i c a t e t Nh ea vt e rtthhee lcelsasn, was h s i Ch'eng-chi. f o u rfrom o f "Ch'in-chou t h e f u n e r a l Liunnsgc -r hi sp it -i co hn us n T i - t a o - h s i e n Tu-hsiang H o - f e n g - l i " ^ and  flf|,*J  j^f^^Jf  #j5^^L £  t h i s i s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n t h a t c o u l d not have e x i s t e d  ,  U  °  during  t h e Former Han p e r i o d but most p r o b a b l y e x i s t e d i n Western C h i n ( 2 6 5 317) ."''*''"'' T h i s s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t t h e f a m i l y a t i s s u e began t o emerge as an eminent c l a n from T i - t a o no e a r l i e r t h a n Western C h i n .  It  seems, t h e r e f o r e , L i Kao's chun-wang was o r i g i n a l l y n o t connected w i t h , . „ 112 L i Kuang i n any way. I n the- same passage, seeming t o i n d i c a t e t h e o r i g i n o f L i Kao's Ch'eng-chi chun-wang, t h e C h i n shu says t h a t L i Kuang's g r e a t  grandfather  27 was k i l l e d  i n b a t t l e a t T i - t a o , and so Kuang's g r a n d f a t h e r  t o b u r y him and ended up by s e t t l i n g down t h e r e .  went  I t seems t o assume  t h a t t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between T i - t a o and Ch'eng-chi. l a t e r , t h e "Hsu-chuan"  jjfj.  there  of the P e i s h i h  j£_  Sometime  (Biographical 113  P o s t f a c e ; composed d u r i n g Kao-tsung's r e i g n i n o r s h o r t l y b e f o r e 6 5 9 ) , a l s o a d e t a i l e d account o f t h e s u b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n , even e x p r e s s l y 114 s t a t e d t h a t t h e s e two p l a c e s were i d e n t i c a l - . account r e p r e s e n t e d  And i t seems t h i s  t h e o f f i c i a l v i e w of t h e o r i g i n s of t h e T'ang clan.''"''"  5  However, T i - t a o (near what i s now L i n - t ' a o %!f yfe » Kansu) and Ch'engJ£ 1*7 116 0  chi  (near what i s now Ch'in-an  remained two i n d i v i d u a l h s i e n ' s  , Kansu)  seem t o have always  from Han t o T'ang t i m e s except i n some  p e r i o d s when one or b o t h of them were abolished."'""'" groundless.  7  To mix them up i s  A t h i r d v e r s i o n of t h e p o i n t under d i s c u s s i o n i s found i n  the "Tsung-shih s h i h - h s i - p i a o "  ^  ^  -rtf; fa ^  (Genealogical  of t h e I m p e r i a l Clan) o f the HTS, which c o n t a i n s  some m a t e r i a l s  Tables very  s i m i l a r t o but a l i t t l e more d e t a i l e d than those i n the "Hsu-chuan" 118 passage.  T h i s new v e r s i o n h o l d s t h a t t h e L i ' s moved from T i - t a o  t o Ch'eng-chi a f t e r Kuang's f a t h e r Shang $o)  became t h e m a g i s t r a t e  of  119 Ch'eng-chi.  Should t h i s be t r u e , the above d i f f i c u l t y  shu and t h e P e i s h i h would be r e a d i l y s o l v e d .  i n the Chin  But t h e S h i h c h i and  the Han shu r e c o r d o n l y one move of Kuang's f a m i l y , w h i c h was from Huai-li  (near Ch'ang-an)"'"^ t o Ch'eng-chi, and mention n e i t h e r 121 T i - t a o nor L i Shang. Other r e l e v a n t s o u r c e s p r i o r t o t h e HTS do 122  not m e n t i o n t h i s s o - c a l l e d f a t h e r of L i Kuang, e i t h e r . shih-piao" v e r s i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , very probably a fake.  The "TsungI t also  seems  t h a t t h e o r i g i n of t h i s v e r s i o n came i n t o e x i s t e n c e l a t e r t h a n t h e  28  "Hsii-chuan", because o t h e r w i s e i t would have been adopted by  the  123  "Hsii-chuan" o r even by the C h i n shu.  S i n c e a l l t h r e e sources r e -  f e r r e d t o here a r e supposed to be a u t h o r i t a t i v e , the above-mentioned m i s t a k e s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s do not seem to have been produced negligence.  through  R a t h e r , they suggest t h a t t h e r e have been c o n s i s t e n t  e f f o r t s i n the t h r e e sources to i n t r o d u c e , j u s t i f y , o r r e v i s e the same f a l s e account of L i Kao's chun-wang.  This view i s f u r t h e r  strengthened  by the f a c t t h a t , on some o t h e r p o i n t s , s i m i l a r e f f o r t s a r e a l s o more or li e s s m a n i f e s t- e dA . 1  Furthermore,  2  4  as Ch'en Y i n - k ' o p o i n t e d out s e v e r a l decades a g o ^ t h e  account about L i Ch'ung-er  Jj-  i s e q u a l l y suspect even though i t i s 125  c o n s i s t e n t l y p r e s e n t e d i n a l l c l o s e l y concerned was  sources.  Ch'ung-er  s a i d to be one of the sons and the would-be s u c c e s s o r of L i Hsin^jy^ ,  t o be a d i r e c t a n c e s t o r of the T'ang c l a n , and to have f l e d t o the L i u Sung /^'] ^  empire a f t e r the c o l l a p s e of Western L i a n g .  However, n o t h i n g  about t h i s person can be found i n r e l e v a n t pre-T'ang s o u r c e s .  Moreover,  a g r e a t p a r t of the c a r e e r of t h i s person happens t o t a l l y w i t h t h a t of a c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e named L i Ch'u-ku-pa ^ ^c/j ^ a m i d d l e - r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l e a r l y i n the N o r t h e r n Wei.  , who  was  T h e r e f o r e , Ch'en  c o n c l u d e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the person named L i Ch'ung-er d i d not e x i s t a t a l l and the T'ang c l a n was  a c t u a l l y descended from L i  .  Ch'u-ku-pa. Ch'en's f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the T'ang i m p e r i a l c l a i m t o descent from the L u n g - h s i L i c l a n may may  have attempted  of the two c l a n s .  be f a l s e , and t h a t some T'ang h i s t o r i a n s  to support t h i s c l a i m by m i x i n g up the h i s t o r i e s T h i s sheds some l i g h t upon the problem about L i Kao's  chun-wang.  As w i l l be shown below, the T'ang c l a n had p r o b a b l y once  c l a i m e d to be from L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi l o n g b e f o r e i t founded the T'ang 126 dynasty.  I t might have, a c c o r d i n g l y , a l s o t r i e d to i n f u s e t h i s  chun-wang i n t o L i Kao's h i s t o r y when l a t e r i t d e c i d e d to f a b r i c a t e i t s relationship with  Kao.  In f a c t , the c l a i m of the T'ang c l a n was e a r l y as T ' a i - t s u n g ' s t i m e .  s t r o n g l y c h a l l e n g e d as  A c c o r d i n g to one e a r l y T'ang B u d d h i s t  s o u r c e , i n 637, i n a s e v e r e d i s p u t e w i t h t h e T'ang c o u r t over a T'ang p o l i c y which g r a n t e d T a o i s t s a h i g h e r p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s than B u d d h i s t s , the monk F a - l i n yfc $rj$~ c l a i m e d b e f o r e T ' a i - t s u n g t h a t the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y was  of H s i e n - p e i  ^j.  o r i g i n , not descended from L a o - t z u  ( t h e r e f o r e no need to v e n e r a t e Taoism) and the L u n g - h s i L i c l a n , t h a t the L u n g - h s i L i c l a n were a c t u a l l y descendants  and 127  of some s l a v e s .  I t i s not c e r t a i n how much one can r e l y upon F a - l i n because the meaning  o f some c r u c i a l d e t a i l s i n h i s words i s not c l e a r today and 128  key g e n e a l o g i c a l work he quoted  i s not e x t a n t .  one  But j u d g i n g from  the s i t u a t i o n i n which he made these e x t r e m e l y o f f e n s i v e c h a r g e s , monk must have had some b a s i s f o r them.  the  Our  source seems r e l i a b l e 129 i n s a y i n g t h a t even the emperor h i m s e l f a d m i t t e d t h i s . And i t seems t h a t what i t c o u l d not c o n c e a l from F a - l i n , the T'ang i m p e r i a l f a m i l y 130  c o u l d not c o n c e a l from many o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ,  either.  .The m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h i s k i n d of f a b r i c a t i o n s h o u l d be seen i n the c o n t e x t of t h e v i g o r o u s campaign f i r s t launched by T ' a i - t s u n g t o a c q u i r e f o r the i m p e r i a l c l a n a s o c i a l s t a t u s comparable t o i t s p o l i t i c a l power.  I n those days, a group of o l d , i l l u s t r i o u s c l a n s i n the  East-of-the-Mountain area s t i l l held very high s o c i a l s t a t u s although  30 they were not p o l i t i c a l l y  powerful i n the new  dynasty.  Among them  s e v e r a l extremely eminent c l a n s even overshadowed the i m p e r i a l and  clan  i t s p o w e r f u l a l l i e s of whom most were newly emerged c l a n s from  the  n o r t h - w e s t e r n a r e a f o r m e r l y r u l e d by Western Wei and N o r t h e r n Chou.  It  i s r e c o r d e d t h a t people from lower c l a n s were o f t e n eager to pay morethan-decent  dowries o n l y to get l i n k e d w i t h these c l a n s through m a r r i a g e .  P r o b a b l y out of r e s e n t f u l envy and p o l i t i c a l apprehension,  the newly  e s t a b l i s h e d r u l i n g f a m i l y seemed determined  to suppress these c l a n s .  632,  Jjj^  T ' a i - t s u n g o r d e r e d Kao  officials  Shih-lien  •£  and s e v e r a l o t h e r h i g h  to i n v e s t i g a t e and r e v i s e a l l p e d i g r e e s i n the n a t i o n .  i n t e n t i o n was on the f i r s t  most c l e a r l y d r a f t Kao  His  shown i n the f o l l o w i n g p a r t o f h i s comments  p r e s e n t e d to him, which d i s p l e a s e d him by r a n k i n g  the T'ang c l a n under at l e a s t one of the g r e a t E a s t - o f - t h e - M o u n t a i n "In  In  clans:  t h i s s p e c i a l r a n k i n g of the c l a n s , i t has been my wish to honor the  officials  of t h i s c o u r t . . . .  You a r e not to c o n s i d e r former  genera-  t i o n s , but are simply to make your r a n k i n g s on the b a s i s of p r e s e n t o f f i c e s and  titles."  In 638,  the f i n a l  form of the work, known as the ( T r e a t i s e on the Clans of the  Chen-kuan P e r i o d ) , was  completed  and d i s t r i b u t e d throughout  Moreover, the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y avoided l e t t i n g  In 659,  ordered by Kao-tsung.  t a s k i s sometimes s a i d to have been i n s t i g a t e d by c e r t a i n for  some p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s .  But t h e r e seems l i t t l e doubt  gave h i s consent a t l e a s t p a r t l y because  empire.  the p r i n c e s and p r i n c e s s e s  marry members of the g r e a t E a s t - o f - t h e - M o u n t a i n c l a n s . r e v i s i o n of the n a t i o n a l genealogy was  the  another  This  officials that  Kao-tsung  the Chen-kuan s h i h - t s u  chih,  b e i n g l i m i t e d by the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e of i t s time, u l t i m a t e l y  had  not gone f a r enough to meet the i m p e r i a l wishes  In  i n t h i s matter.  31 the completed new  work, known as the H s i n g - s h i h l u - ^ . ^ Q  o f the C l a n s ) , the c r i t e r i o n used f o r the r a n k i n g was w i t h h i g h o f f i c e s were ranked h i g h and ranked l o w e r . bitant  dowries  (Record  indeed  that people  those w i t h lower o f f i c e s were  F u r t h e r m o r e , i n the same year Kao-tsung banned the  exor-  w h i c h were b e i n g p a i d t o eminent c l a n s by l e s s eminent  ones and f o r b a d e members of seven of the most p r e s t i g i o u s c l a n s of country to intermarry.  Both measures aroused s t r o n g resentment  the  and  131 scorn.  Compared w i t h t h e s e k i n d s of m i l i t a n t measures, s u b t l y and  i n o f f e n s i v e l y connecting  i t s e l f w i t h an eminent c l a n was  p r o b a b l y a more  a t t r a c t i v e means f o r the T'ang c l a n to b o o s t i t s p r e s t i g e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the T'ang's campaign a g a i n s t the g r e a t of-the-Mountain  clans again to a c e r t a i n extent betrayed  t i o n s h i p w i t h the L u n g - h s i L i c l a n . Lung-hsi was  East-  i t s false rela-  On one hand, i n the campaign the  L i c l a n — t h e n p r i m a r i l y the branches descended from L i P a o — 132  one of the s e v e r a l t a r g e t s t h a t were most s e v e r e l y a t t a c k e d .  T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t L i Pao's descendants h a r d l y r e c o g n i z e d any b l o o d w i t h the T'ang i m p e r i a l house. these two L i c l a n s was  A thaw i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between 133  t o come o n l y as l a t e as i n 742.  hand, i f the T'ang c l a n had  t i e of  On the  other  i n f a c t come from a p r e s t i g i o u s c l a n , i t  would have been t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y i n s o c i e t y and would not have been so h o s t i l e t o the g r e a t E a s t - o f - t h e - M o u n t a i n  c l a n s as i t was.  U n t i l r e c e n t l y two major t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g the T'ang i m p e r i a l f a m i l y have been proposed. t h i s f a m i l y had come from e i t h e r an extremely one of the renowned Chao-chun  j£j5 L i c l a n .  o t h e r s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was  the genuine o r i g i n of Ch'en Y i n - k ' o  held that  obscure branch o r a  fake  On the o t h e r hand, some  s i m p l y of f o r e i g n o r i g i n .  Neither  32 134 of  these two  t h e o r i e s seems to be supported by c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e .  I t i s beyond the scope of t h i s study to e x p l o r e t h i s q u e s t i o n f u l l y . Hence, I s h a l l conclude t h i s background  i n f o r m a t i o n about  the L u n g - h s i  L i c l a n w i t h some b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n on the p r o b a b l e o r i g i n of the T'ang c l a n ' s Ch'eng-chi  chun-wang.  I t seems t h a t , no matter where i t o r i g -  i n a l l y came from, the T'ang c l a n had a t l e a s t been known as a f a m i l y from L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi  f o r sometime b e f o r e i t claimed f a l s e  s h i p w i t h L i Kao,  o t h e r w i s e i t would have adopted L i Kao's 135  because  T i - t a o chun-wang r e a d i l y .  But the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n named  L u n g - h s i [-chim] Ch'eng-chi s i n c e 114 B.C.,  and  relation-  [-hsien] seems to have ceased t o e x i s t  the custom f o r eminent f a m i l i e s to form and  empha-  s i z e t h e i r chun-wang's d i d not come i n t o e x i s t e n c e u n t i l the Wei 136 220-265) and C h i n p e r i o d s .  T h e r e f o r e , the T'ang c l a n ' s Ch'eng-chi  chun-wang c o u l d a l s o be a f a k e . Wei-Northern regime was who  Chou  rjt) | ^  ^  (A.D.  jf]  I t may period.  have been made up i n the Western The Western Wei-Northern  founded by a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l group  were l e d westward by Yu'-wen T ' a i ^  Chou  o f Northern Wei s u b j e c t s .  In i t s e a r l y y e a r s ,  t h i s regime adopted a s e r i e s of d r a s t i c measures to c o n s o l i d a t e i t s e l f . One  of these measures i s to command t h a t those who  had rendered good  s e r v i c e to the founding of the regime and had c o n s e q u e n t l y become illustrious  under i t should abandon t h e i r E a s t - o f - t h e - M o u n t a i n chun-  wang 's and adopt new  chun-wang's from the p r e f e c t u r e s i n and  near  137 Kuan-chung. (Note t h a t L u n g - h s i T i - t a o must have been i n c l u d e d i n the E a s t - o f - t h e - M o u n t a i n chun-wang's because L i Kao's c l a n had l o n g 138 been an eminent one i n t h a t r e g i o n b e f o r e Western Wei.) found i n both T'ang and pre-T'ang  I have  sources t h r e e (and the o n l y t h r e e )  c a s e s i n which a c l a n w i t h h i g h o f f i c i a l s i n the Western Wei-Northern Chou c o u r t i s s a i d to have o r i g i n a t e d from L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi and  yet  139 no l i n k between t h i s c l a n and  t h a t of L i Kao  i s mentioned.  In  one  c a s e , the c l a n appeared to be i n f a c t a f o r e i g n f a m i l y w h i c h moved to 140 China w i t h the Toba's; a c e r t a i n Liao-tung the a n c i e n t  i n a n o t h e r , the c l a n was  Hsiang-p'ing  3^jfl ||_  -^f  o r i g i n a l l y from  L i clan.'^"'"  p l a c e name L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi was  I t seems  then r a t h e r w i d e l y  adopted  by c l a n s named L i (be they t r u e or f a l s e L i ' s ) because of i t s l i n k L i Kuang.  with  K a o - t s u ' s f a t h e r or g r a n d f a t h e r o b v i o u s l y belonged i n those 142  who  were commanded to change chun-wang's.  T h i s c l a n may  have a l s o  assumed the Ch'eng-chi chun-wang. S i n c e the T'ang c l a n were f a l s e L u n g - h s i L i ' s , does L i Po's t o membership i n i t not mean t h a t he was Some s c h o l a r s  t i o n e d , was  also a f a l s e Lung-hsi L i ? 143  seem i n c l i n e d to answer yes r e a d i l y .  s i t u a t i o n appears to be q u i t e o t h e r w i s e .  claim  But  the  F a - l i n , the monk j u s t men-  b a n i s h e d from the c a p i t a l f o r " s l a n d e r i n g " the  imperial  house's a n c e s t o r s even though T ' a i - t s u n g conceded t h a t he had 144 e v i d e n c e on h i s s i d e .  then a taboo.  Besides,  the T'ang's r u l e proved h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l and  accordingly  some  T h i s shows t h a t , as would be e x p e c t e d ,  t r u e o r i g i n of the T'ang c l a n was by and  actual  as time went  i t s prestige  r o s e , p e o p l e would have become more impressed by  i n the T'ang c o u r t and  the  positions  l e s s concerned w i t h the i m p e r i a l c l a n ' s  probable  145 mediocre o r i g i n .  M u t u a l r e c o g n i t i o n of k i n s h i p seems to have g r a d -  u a l l y become r a t h e r common among members of the Chao-chun, L u n g - h s i , 146 and  imperial L i clans.  the s e v e n t h month of 742,  Moreover, i t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t l a t e r , i n L i Yen-yiin  ^  /{j  , a L u n g - h s i L i then  34 s e r v i n g i n the c o u r t , and some other mitted  o f f i c i a l s p e t i t i o n e d to be ad-  to the i m p e r i a l house on the ground t h a t they were a l s o descended  from L i Kao.  Hsuan-tsung accepted t h i s a p p e a l and decreed t h a t  four  branches o f the L u n g - h s i L i c l a n descended from L i Pao be i n c l u d e d i n the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y .  T h i s marked the f o r m a l  and complete end o f the 147  c o l d r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t had once e x i s t e d between the two c l a n s .  There  i s no i n d i c a t i o n whether L i Yen-yun made t h i s a p p e a l p u r e l y on h i s own initiative.  But t h e r e  i s some evidence t h a t the new p o l i c y was 148  before  long welcomed by some members of t h e f o u r branches a t l e a s t .  There-  f o r e , a f t e r 742, i t was l e g i t i m a t e and n a t u r a l f o r a L u n g - h s i L i t o c l a i m membership i n the i m p e r i a l house.  The poem i n which L i Po made 149  such a c l a i m was composed long a f t e r 742. S i m i l a r l y , i n L i Po's time, the use o f t h e s o - c a l l e d L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi chun-wang seems no proof Lung-hsi L i c l a n , e i t h e r . for  o f f a l s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  I have found t h r e e f u n e r a l i n s c r i p t i o n s  members of t h i s c l a n , w r i t t e n between 768 and 789, which  L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi as the chun-wang o f these p e o p l e . ^ ® p r a c t i c e may w e l l have begun long b e f o r e passage i n the Shih t'ung ^ J^lJ  £fj  ^  give  T h i s k i n d of  768 because, as a c e r t a i n  shows, by the time of L i u C h i h - c h i  (661-721) L u n g - h s i Ch'eng-chi had a l r e a d y been w i d e l y used  i n p l a c e o f Ti-tao."'"^"'" 152 Some s c h o l a r s h o l d  t h a t even L i Po's surname i s dubious.  Their  arguments a r e u l t i m a t e l y a l l based on t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the f o l l o w i n g p a r a l l e l words by L i Yang-ping and Fan Ch'uan-cheng: " [ A f t e r L i Po's f a m i l y f l e d back t o Shu, L i Po's p a r e n t s (?)] f u c h i h l i - s h u e r sheng Po-yang  \% $  j-fy ffjf)  " ( L i ) and "On [ L i Po's]  35  b i r t h , h i s l a t e f a t h e r p o i n t e d a t some h e a v e n l y branches  (t'ien-chih 153  >}"jL  '  usua  ^-'-y meaning branches of t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y ;  meaning branches of a l _ i ^ was  here  , o r plum t r e e , so phrased because L i  the surname of t h e then i m p e r i a l f a m i l y ) and resumed t h e i r surname,  [which the f a m i l y had abandoned w h i l e l i v i n g i n the Western (Fan).""'" ^ 5  Territories]  There i s a l e g e n d which says t h a t L a o - t z u , s t y l e d Po-yang,  was born under a plum t r e e and, b o r n a b l e t o speak, p o i n t e d a t t h e t r e e and s a i d , "Be t h i s my surname.""'"  55  For some unknown r e a s o n t h i s  l e g e n d i s not i n c l u d e d i n the T'ang i m p e r i a l p e d i g r e e now t o us.  available  But i t seems t o have been i n m e d i e v a l t i m e s a p o p u l a r p a r t of  the p e d i g r e e of the L i ' s , who v e n e r a t e d L a o - t z u as one of t h e i r most prominent d i s t a n t ancestors."'" ^ Thus, L i Yang-ping's words, which 5  appear d i f f i c u l t to u n d e r s t a n d , may  on one hand mean t h a t , as Fan s a y s ,  the f a m i l y resumed the surname L i on L i Po's b i r t h , and on the o t h e r hand suggest t h a t f o r the L i ' s L i Po's b i r t h was as s i g n i f i c a n t as t h a t of L a o - t z u . mentioned  There i s no p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n f o r the s c h o l a r s j u s t  to b e l i e v e t h a t , i n accordance w i t h the above words of L i  and Fan, L i Po's f a m i l y borrowed  even i t s surname.  Indeed, however, L i Po's membership i n the L u n g - h s i L i c l a n i s doubtful.  To b e g i n w i t h , i n a p e r i o d l i k e T'ang t i m e s when membership  i n a decent c l a n meant a g r e a t d e a l to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l f a l s e c l a i m s of a n c e s t r y were u n d o u b t e d l y v e r y common."'"  57  The  two c i t a t i o n s p r e s e n t a r a t h e r v i v i d p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n .  status, following First,  L i u Chih-chi said: R e c e n t l y , p e o p l e named P i n g jjjfl  and Hung HA  a l l changed t h e i r  names i n t o L i , s i n c e these words v i o l a t e d n a t i o n a l taboos. when they wrote about t h e i r n a t i v e p l a c e s , they a l l used o r Chao-chun.  Then  Lung-hsi  I f even people w i t h f a l s e surnames have done t h i s , 158  one knows v e r y w e l l what t h o s e w i t h genuine surnames have done.  Second, t h e b i o g r a p h y r e i g n , i n the CTS  L i I - f u was  of L i I - f u  ^  , a c h i e f m i n i s t e r i n Kao-tsung's  says:  from Ying-chou Jao-yang [-hsien]  ' f ^ f^rj  . . . .  A f t e r he became i l l u s t r i o u s , I - f u c l a i m e d to be from Chao-chun and began t o c l a i m b l o o d t i e s w i t h and assume s u i t a b l e g e n e r a t i o n p o s i t i o n s among (hsii chao-mu p r i n c i p l e d people  $0.£\Q "f^  ) the L i ' s .  Many un-  . . . humbly r e c o g n i z e d him as t h e i r e l d e r  b r o t h e r or u n c l e on the p a t e r n a l s i d e .  The Grand S e c r e t a r y [of  the Department of I m p e r i a l C h a n c e l l e r y ] ( c h i - s h i h - c h u n g L i Ch'ung-te  jf.^~^ ^  at f i r s t a l s o i n c l u d e d him i n the same  p e d i g r e e and r e c o g n i z e d a c e r t a i n g e n e r a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h him. j|t-  But a f t e r I - f u was  r e l e g a t e d as the P r e f e c t o f P'u-chou  -^fj , [Ch'ung-te] e l i m i n a t e d [ I - f u ' s name from t h e p e d i g r e e ] . 159  When he heard of t h i s , I - f u c h e r i s h e d h a t r e d i n h i s mind.  Such b e i n g the c a s e , i t seems t h a t v e r i t a b l e p e d i g r e e s were r e q u i r e d when on some s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s members of eminent c l a n s had to s e r i o u s l y c l a i m t h e i r membership.  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y the r e a s o n why  funeral i n -  s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h i s k i n d of people o f t e n i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were based upon " n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s and f a m i l y p e d i g r e e s " ( k u o - s h i h c h i a - t i e h  )  37 |fl|  ^jfl  >t  ^  °  r  s  l  m  i  l  a  r  authorities.  not seem t o have had t h i s k i n d o f a u t h o r i t y .  1 6 0  And L i Po j u s t does  I n h i s e p i t a p h f o r L i Po, '  L i Hua d i d n o t say a word about t h e poet's o r i g i n s , t o t a l l y a g a i n s t  161 b o t h t h e u s u a l c o n v e n t i o n o f e p i t a p h w r i t i n g and h i s own p r a c t i c e . T h i s suggests  t h a t L i Hua v e r y p r o b a b l y o m i t t e d t h a t p a r t on purpose f o r  the r e a s o n t h a t he had n o t o b t a i n e d s u b s t a n t i a l m a t e r i a l t o j u s t i f y an account a s p r e s e n t e d by L i Yang-ping.  such  B e s i d e s , Fan Ch'uan-cheng  said: S i n c e [ L i Po] had no h e i r , I was u n a b l e t o o b t a i n t h e genealogy of h i s f a m i l y .  A granddaughter o f h i s searched a  s u i t c a s e and found a p i e c e o f paper w i t h ten-odd l i n e s w r i t t e n by h i s l a t e son:Po-ch'in.  The p i e c e was ragged.and many-  words were m i s s i n g ; so i t s c o n t e n t s were n o t complete.  To  count i t r o u g h l y , t h e poet was a n i n t h - g e n e r a t i o n descendant o f P r i n c e Wu-chao o f L i a n g .  During the calamitous p e r i o d of l a t e  S u i , h i s branch [ o f t h e L i c l a n ] was e x i l e d t o S u i - y e h , and i t s members had s c a t t e r e d a p a r t and changed t h e i r names ever s i n c e . T h e r e f o r e , s i n c e t h e f o u n d i n g o f our n a t i o n a l d y n a s t y , [ t h e poet's • . perial  f a m i l y has been] l e f t out from t h e r e g i s t e r o f t h e imhousehold. ^ 1 6  D e s p i t e a l l t h a t he s a i d t o c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t L i Po o r i g i n a l l y must have owned a genealogy, Fan f i n a l l y c o u l d not b u t r e v e a l t h a t he had n o t found any copy o f i t .  F u r t h e r m o r e , L i Po came t o s e r v e i n  Hsuan-tsung's c o u r t r i g h t a f t e r t h e 742 d e c r e e a l l o w e d L i Pao's  38 descendants to be He  included  i n the r e g i s t e r of the i m p e r i a l household.  a l s o became connected w i t h L i Yen-yun by  uncle  on the p a t e r n a l  recognizing  him  X63  as a grand-  s i d e p r o b a b l y w h i l e both of them were s t i l l  i n the  164 capital.  T h i s makes i t v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t he would have  or f a i l e d  to get  qualified.  But,  included as one  here quoted, L i Po was  i n the i m p e r i a l r e g i s t e r i f he  can d e t e c t not  included  Appendix B,  one  can  see  origins.  indeed  was  from the f i n a l p a r t of Fan's words i n that r e g i s t e r .  Here i t i s h e l p f u l to examine the n a t u r e and whole account of L i Po's  forgotten  r e l i a b i l i t y of Fan's  From the p a r a l l e l t e x t s g i v e n  t h a t Fan's account i s simply  a  in  differently  phrased v e r s i o n of t h a t of L i Yang-ping except f o r the change of c h i h i n t o S u i - y e h and  the i n c l u s i o n of the f o l l o w i n g  1. h i s f a i l u r e to o b t a i n L i Po's f a i l u r e , and  pedigree,  the source of h i s account  2. the e f f o r t to e x p l a i n why  L i Po's  l o g i c a l connection 3.  points:  the r e a s o n f o r  this  ( S e c t i o n C of Appendix B);  f a m i l y had  the r e g i s t e r of the i m p e r i a l household  T'iao-  been l e f t out  from  ( S e c t i o n G and i t s  with Section F ) ;  the nickname of L i Po's  f a t h e r and  the reason why  he was  un-  known to people ( S e c t i o n I ) .  And  a l l these p o i n t s are d o u b t f u l .  First,  i f the poet's granddaughter  would s t i l l  c a r e f u l l y p r e s e r v e a " r o t t e n " p i e c e of paper, of which  c o n t e n t was  s i m i l a r to that of a p e d i g r e e ,  a p e d i g r e e to be l o s t even i f she was poet?  Second, i s what Fan  obtained  why  would she  have a l l o w e d  o n l y a female descendant of  a standard  the  the  v e r s i o n of L i Po's •  o r i g i n s u l t i m a t e l y based on t h e poet h i m s e l f ?  I f n o t , why i s i t so  c l o s e t o L i Yang-ping's p r e f a c e , which was composed on L i Po's r e q u e s t ? And  i f s o , why i s t h e r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e between T ' i a o - c h i h and S u i - y e h ;  why  would L i Yang-ping have o m i t t e d  such an i m p o r t a n t m a t e r i a l as t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n o f L i Po's f a t h e r ; and how c o u l d L i Po have been i g n o r a n t of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e L u n g - h s i L i ' s were n o t a d m i t t e d i m p e r i a l house u n t i l 742?  i n t o t h e T'ang  T h i r d , why, as Fan seems t o say, d i d  mention only h i s grandfather's  Po-ch'in  nickname b u t n o t h i s r e a l name i n some-  thing w i t h the nature of a f a m i l y h i s t o r y ?  I s i t t h a t he s i m p l y d i d  not know t h a t name because h i s f a t h e r L i Po never mentioned i t t o him? I f s o , would t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g be l i k e l y i n those days?  A f t e r con-  s i d e r i n g these d o u b t f u l p o i n t s as a whole, I would c o n j e c t u r e t h a t Fan i n f a c t d i d n o t f i n d a n y t h i n g w r i t t e n by P o - c h ' i n , was  t h a t h i s account  based on L i Yang-ping, and t h a t he made a l l changes and a d d i t i o n s  g r o u n d l e s s l y i n o r d e r t o defend t h e s t o r i e s o f L i Po's o r i g i n s as known to p e o p l e through L i Yang-ping, who may have been s e r i o u s l y doubted b e f o r e Fan s time. A n o t h e r argument a g a i n s t L i Po's c l a i m i s t h a t L i Po never s e r i o u s l y maintained  t h a t he was a n i n t h - g e n e r a t i o n descendant o f L i Kao, which  L i Yang-ping s a i d he was, when a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h members o f t h e T'ang and  the Lung-hsi  L i clans.  T h i s argument was f i r s t proposed by Chan  Y i n g and l a t e r c i t e d by Kuo M o - j o . C h a n l i s t e d a group o f L i ' s w i t h whom L i Po c l a i m e d t i e s o f b l o o d and used t h e "Tsung-shih p i a o " and  t h e " T s a i - h s i a n g s h i h - h s i p i a o II  (Genealogical  T a b l e s f o r t h e Clans o f t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r s ) i n t h e HTS t o check t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h L i Kao.  Since the r e l i a b i l i t y of the  40 t a b l e s i n the HTS  was  o f t e n doubted i n the p a s t ,  times not w e l l r e c e i v e d .  167  But  some r e c e n t  Chan's method was  extensive  some-  investigations  have shown t h a t , except f o r the accounts of the d i s t a n t a n c e s t o r s  of  the 168  various And, nor  c l a n s , these t a b l e s a r e , to a v e r y g r e a t  extent,  dependable.  as Chan argued, a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r the a u t h e n t i c i t y of L i Po's the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the persons mentioned by L i Po w i t h  namesakes on the t a b l e s i n the HTS  *  v i d e proof  *  U-  f o r hxs  Some of L i Po's shed a l i t t l e  ,  6  hence, c o u l d  words, though r a t h e r  i n c o n s i s t e n t or sketchy,  l i g h t on the p r o b a b l e way  i n which the poet evolved  In a l e t t e r w r i t t e n around the age  i l l u s t r i o u s clan.  Chu-ch'uMeng-hsun  /jJ.  the o f f i c i a l posts  Fan  .  [ h e l d by  'JT ^  e a r l y years  the  thirty  ^  , which  f a m i l y was  I t then moved around  i t s members] the Han  |j]  jjjrj $~  Rivers  has  caused  forced following •  It  t h a t I spent  170  d i f f e r e n t from the s t o r i e s g i v e n by L i Yang-ping  Ch'uan-cheng.  from C h i n - l i n g and pp.  , my  i n the a r e a of the Yangtze and  These words are v e r y and  of  Because of the c a l a m i t y  ^  to f l e e to H s i e n - C h ' i n  my  may  said:  long been an  was  pro-  9  I o r i g i n a l l y come from a f a m i l y i n C h i n - l i n g  by  some  argument.  s t o r i e s of h i s o r i g i n s . (730), L i Po  1  their  c o u l d be always beyond q u e s t i o n ,  persons on h i s l i s t were too famous to be mistaken and, •A  works  In a d d i t i o n , some p o i n t s  the c a l a m i t y  24-25)) a p p a r e n t l y  can not  i n them (e.g., a  caused by Chu-ch'u Meng-hsiin be  combined smoothly.  family  (see  Therefore,  at  41  l e a s t one s c h o l a r i n t h e p a s t c o m p l e t e l y  denied  its authenticity.  1 7 1  But so f a r no s t r o n g e v i d e n c e o f any k i n d has been found t o support t h i s view.  Wang C h ' i i s more a c c e p t a b l e  i n only asserting that  this  172  passage may c o n t a i n some t e x t u a l e r r o r s . Some s c h o l a r s , i n c l u d i n g Wang, have t r i e d t o i n t e r p r e t o r emend 173  t h i s passage i n such ways as t o make i t conforming t o L i and Fan. One  e f f o r t shared by them a l l i s t o make C h i n - l i n g , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  but n o t o f t e n t h e o f f i c i a l name o f what i s now Nanking, i n t o a p l a c e near L u n g - h s i  o r w i t h i n what was t h e t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e Western L i a n g .  I t i s suggested t h a t C h i n - l i n g p r o b a b l y  should be read as Chin-ch'eng  (at o r near p r e s e n t Lan-chou, Kansu), r e f e r t o t h e Chien-k'ang-chun  fo$  o r t h a t i t might  (near p r e s e n t K a o - t ' a i ^  Kan-su) e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Former L i a n g  ^  .  ( a l s o one o f t h e S i x t e e n  S t a t e s ) because C h i n - l i n g had been known a s Chien-k'ang d u r i n g t h e Eastern Chin p e r i o d .  I f , however, L i Po i n t e n d e d  1 7 5  t o i n t r o d u c e him-  s e l f as a L u n g - h s i L i , i t i s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i d e a o f chun-wang, extremely  u n l i k e l y f o r him t o say t h a t he o r i g i n a l l y  came from a f a m i l y i n Chin-ch'eng o r Chien-k'ang no m a t t e r whether some o f h i s a n c e s t o r s r e a l l y had l i v e d i n those p l a c e s .  Besides, i t  i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e Chien-k'ang i n Kansu was a l s o known as C h i n - l i n g , ;  and even more so t h a t L i Po would have used so well-known a p l a c e name as C h i n - l i n g t o r e f e r t o a remote o b s c u r e former county i n t h e n o r t h west w i t h o u t  any f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n (Chien-k'ang-chun was a b o l i s h e d 17 6  i n the Northern  Chou).  These s p e c u l a t i o n s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y  untenable.  A n o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n , a b o l d l y i m a g i n a t i v e one made by Kuo Mo-jo, i s t h a t H s i e n - C h ' i n p(i  may be t h e c o r r u p t form o f S u i - y e h ^  I^T  .  1 7 7  Admittedly, Hsien-Ch'in  j5:jj| ,  (Hsien presumably means Hsien-yang  w h i l e C h ' i n means the Shensi a r e a , which had'been the t e r r i t o r y of s t a t e of Ch'in) i s a r a t h e r r a r e combination, one.  but i t i s not an  A l s o , i t i s l o g i c a l t h a t a f a m i l y t h a t encountered  to the p r e s e n t Shensi a r e a .  not n e c e s s a r i l y need emendation here. suggested,  Kuo  impossible  a calamity i n  what i s the p r e s e n t Kan-su a r e a , where Chu-ch'u's regime was might have f l e d  located,  Hence, L i Po's words do  B e s i d e s , even w i t h the change he  c o u l d not make the passage i n q u e s t i o n compatible  L i and Fan: L i Po s a i d here the o f f i c i a l posts  the  t h a t h i s f a m i l y had  with  "moved around f o l l o w i n g  [held by i t s members]," not l i v e d  i n e x i l e ; and  a  c a l a m i t y caused by Chii-ch'u Meng-hstin c o u l d not have taken p l a c e as as s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s a f t e r L i Kao  late  or even the end of the S u i dynas-  . 178 ty. I t seems more a p p r o p r i a t e to t r e a t  t h i s passage as a somewhat c o r r u p t 179  earlier  independent  from the improper  v e r s i o n of the poet's o r i g i n s .  d i c t a t i o n of L i and Fan,  There are,: a p a r t  some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t L i Po  might a l r e a d y be c l a i m i n g to be a L u n g - h s i L i i n t h i s v e r s i o n . s h o r t l y a f t e r , around 734, letter  to Han  Ch'ao-tsung  ch'u Meng-hsiin, who  was  First,  he c l e a r l y made t h i s c l a i m i n h i s famous j£|:J tj^  180  g  e c o n (  j  j  the mention of Chii-  not famous i n Chinese h i s t o r y , i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y  u n l i k e l y t o have been made by an e d i t o r or a t y p e - s e t t i n g or t y p e c u t t i n g worker; and tremendously  the d e s t i n y of the L u n g - h s i L i c l a n was  a f f e c t e d by Chii-ch'ii.  As to the s t o r y about L i Po's  i l y being e x i l e d to the Western T e r r i t o r i e s , developed My  i t yet a t t h i s  really  i t seems the poet had  famnot  stage.  l a s t p o i n t above can be somewhat strengthened by t h r e e poems by  43 L i Po. These poems a r e : (1) "Sung t s u - t i Wan ts'ung-chiin A n - h s i " Hfefy  H  &  Tu-ku p'an-kuan f u A n - h s i and  '  ( 2 )  m  u  "  S u n g  -  C h  '  f  e n  u  8  L  "  (3) " C h i a n g - h s i sung y u - j e n c h i h L o - f u" jj.  i  u  e r  &  shih-yvi c h i e n f  t  $  >  ^  They a r e t h e o n l y e x t a n t works by L i Po which mention  ]  ,  )%  .  1 8 1  t h e Western 182  T e r r i t o r i e s and shed l i g h t on t h e poet's a t t i t u d e toward t h a t d i s t r i c t . Among them o n l y t h e t h i r d , which i s composed a f t e r L i Po's c o u r t l i f e 183 (742-44), mentions A n - h s i as t h e poet's home d i s t r i c t .  The o t h e r  two, b o t h p r e s e n t e d t o p e o p l e d e p a r t i n g f o r A n - h s i d u r i n g e i t h e r o f t h e p o e t ' s two s t a y s i n Ch'ang-an ( t h e f i r s t i n 737-41 and t h e second i n 742-44), do n o t show any s i g n o f p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h a t a r e a a t 184 all.  I would, t h e r e f o r e , v e n t u r e t o c o n j e c t u r e t h a t L i Po d i d n o t  i n v e n t t h e s t o r y about h i s f a m i l y ' s e x i l e u n t i l 742 o r l a t e r .  It is  p r o b a b l e t h a t , s i n c e he came t o s e r v e i n Hsiian-tsung' s c o u r t r i g h t a f t e r t h e L u n g - h s i L i ' s were g r a n t e d a d m i s s i o n t o t h e i m p e r i a l house, L i Po found h i m s e l f e n g u l f e d i n a stream o f newly aroused i n t e r e s t i n the o r i g i n s o f a l l o f f i c i a l s named L i . Without any p e d i g r e e , he may have then found i t n e c e s s a r y t o i n v e n t t h i s s t o r y t o j u s t i f y h i s a l l e g e d s t a t u s as a L u n g - h s i L i .  Or, as t h e s t o r y o f L i I - f u c i t e d  earlier  s u g g e s t s , L i Po may have been a c c e p t e d as a L u n g - h s i L i as l o n g as he s e r v e d i n t h e c o u r t , but was under a t t a c k and, hence, had t o f a b r i c a t e t h e Western T e r r i t o r i e s c o n n e c t i o n t o defend h i m s e l f a f t e r he l o s t Hsiian-tsung ' s patronage i n 744. In a passage c o n c e r n i n g L i Po's b i r t h p l a c e Mien-chou, t h e Sung d y n a s t y geographer  Ou-yang M i n  ;£r  a n c e s t o r s had been b a n i s h e d t o Sui-chou ^  s a i d t h a t "some o f Po's 'H\  ( i n present  Hsi-ch'ang  44 yftj  ^  i n s o u t h - w e s t e r n Szechwan) and t h e i r descendants had  later  185 moved back" t o Mien-chou. be c o n f i r m e d i n any way f a r from t h e f a c t .  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s u n i q u e and can not  today.  But, a t any r a t e , Ou-yang may  That L i Po, who  not be  o b v i o u s l y c a r e d much about h i s  o r i g i n s , d i d not mention the o f f i c i a l p o s t h e l d by, or even s i m p l y the name o f , any i l l u s t r i o u s c l o s e a n c e s t o r or c l o s e r e l a t i v e t h a t he c o u l d h a r d l y be from any eminent f a m i l y .  demonstrates  Even the s p e c u l a t i o n  t h a t h i s f a m i l y might have by h i s time become v e r y w e a l t h y from r u n n i n g b u s i n e s s i s groundless."*"^ origins  i n Szechwan.  6  I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , L i Po was from o b s c u r e  Chapter Two: A G e n e r a l  As  I have i n d i c a t e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , t h i s chapter w i l l  a c o n c i s e chronology ing  t h i s chronology  will  P i c t u r e of L i Po's L i f e  o f L i Po's l i f e .  S i n c e the process  i s o f t e n very complicated,  some e x p l a n a t i o n .  the t e x t o f the chapter  i n t h i s chronology  needs  In most times of the T'ang p e r i o d , the p r e f e c t u r e s  t h e empire were c a l l e d chou' s -Jf]  unchanged.  and t h e i r names o f t e n remained  In 742, however, the T'ang government changed t h e term chou  i n t o chu'n j^JJ  and changed the names of almost a l l p r e f e c t u r e s .  d e s i g n a t i o n s were not r e s t o r e d u n t i l 7 5 7 .  1  place-names would o b v i o u s l y cause g r e a t f u s i o n , I s h a l l , whenever n e c e s s a r y ,  T h i s v a r i e t y of  inconvenience.  provide  To a v o i d  con-  the T'ang names o f t h e  chou's and t h e i r modern e q u i v a l e n t s or approximations. the reader  The o l d  In a d d i t i o n , L i Po f r e q u e n t l y  used a n c i e n t and i n f o r m a l place-names i n h i s works.  for  of r e c o n s t r u c t -  i n c l u d e o n l y the r e s u l t s o f t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  The way place-names a r e to be presented  in  present  To make i t easy  t o approach L i Po h i m s e l f , however, I s h a l l u s u a l l y keep  the names the poet used.  1. 701-724: L i f e i n Shu 2 There i s l i t t l e  doubt t h a t L i Po grew up i n Shu.  Mien-chou, the  p o e t ' s home p r e f e c t u r e , was l o c a t e d i n what i s t h e p r e s e n t  yX. yfel and  area i n northern  Szechwan.  3  Chiang-yu  The poet began t o read  broadly 4  became i n t e r e s t e d i n f e n c i n g when he was s t i l l v e r y young.  c o r d i n g t o one poem, he once attempted t o v i s i t the nearby T a i - t ' ien-shan  Mountain - 45 -jf^  vl)  Ac-  some T a o i s t adepts i n  , but d i d n o t meet them  I t i s not c e r t a i n i f he i n d e e d , as a c e r t a i n Sung d y n a s t y s o u r c e s e c l u d e d h i m s e l f i n t h i s mountain.^  In a work composed about the  of t h i r t y , n e v e r t h e l e s s , the poet d i d say t h a t he had f o r s e v e r a l years  ( t h e f i g u r e may  Chao was jj^  a s e n i o r of L i Po's  V+j  (around p r e s e n t  pa c h i h tao  j  t  -  ^  lived i n seclusion  ?  -j*  I t has been  jjji^ ff^  none o t h e r than Chao J u i  from the n e i g h b o r i n g 5.  San-t'ai  e x t e n s i v e knowledge i n the  age  have been exaggerated) i n h i s home  d i s t r i c t w i t h a r e c l u s e s t y l e d Tung-yen-tzu ^ s p e c u l a t e d t h a t Tung-yen-tzu was  holds,  ^  .^  p r e f e c t u r e Tzu-chou  ) , and was  famous f o r h i s  a r t s of r u l i n g by l e g i t i m a c y or m i g h t (wang-  '  ^  u r  P  o e t  w a s  obviously very f a m i l i a r with 9  him w h i l e i n Shu, be the above s p e c u l a t i o n c o r r e c t or n o t . s h o r t l y a f t e r 720, Ch'eng-tu ^  $j5  the poet made a t r i p to I-chou ^» ).  (present  There he sent a v i s i t i n g c a r d to Su T'ing  the C h i e f A d m i n i s t r a t o r (chang-shih General  ~H\  I n or  of I-chou, when Su was  ^  ^  ,  ) of the Grand Government-  once out i n the s t r e e t s .  Su, the poet  c l a i m e d , t r e a t e d him c o u r t e o u s l y and warmly p r a i s e d h i s l i t e r a r y  tal-  ent."^.  Some poems show t h a t he v i s i t e d the renowned 0-mei-shan M o u n t a i n  • J ^ J_\  ^  o n  h i s way  out of Shu,  "mountains of the i m m o r t a l s " l i f e i n the w o r l d o f the  e u l o g i z e d i t as the top of  the  of Shu, and dreamed about a happy, m y s t i c a l  immortals."^  2. 724-737: " T r i f l i n g Away Ten Y e a r s " a t An-chou The  poet l e f t Shu and  t r a v e l l e d east a l o n g the Yangtze R i v e r i n 12  about the autumn of 724.  As he h i m s e l f i n d i c a t e d , he d i d not make  t h i s j o u r n e y m e r e l y f o r s i g h t - s e e i n g ; he c l e a r l y saw  i t as the  beginn-  i n g of h i s s e a r c h f o r a b e t t e r c a r e e r i n the more m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s  47 of the empire. p!"L  a n c  *  s  e  13  e  m  He t r a v e l l e d as f a r as Yang-chou J^jp Vfj s  t o  and C h i n - l i n g  have spent about two y e a r s i n t h a t r e g i o n .  then t r a v e l l e d back up the r i v e r . h i s money and planned  to go home  1 4  He  I suspect t h a t he had spent most of  1 5  now.  •But he.stopped i n what i s the p r e s e n t Hupei i n about 727 and b e f o r e l i ( p r e s e n t A n - l u !$r j^P- ) to a woman named  got m a r r i e d a t An-chou ^ Hsi il lyjp  , who  seems to have come from a r a t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d f a m i l y 16  i n that place. at A n - c h o u .  17  He l a t e r s a i d t h a t he had  " t r i f l e d away t e n y e a r s "  A l t h o u g h he o f t e n used numbers v e r y l o o s e l y , the f o l -  l o w i n g t e x t w i l l show t h a t he may  have r e a l l y kept h i s f a m i l y t h e r e  and l i v e d t h e r e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y h i m s e l f u n t i l a f t e r h i s m i d - t h i r t i e s . Soon a f t e r h i s m a r r i a g e , L i Po made a t r i p t o what he c a l l e d Ju-hai  jjjr yfl-  a r e a ( p r e s e n t N o r t h Ju-ho  it  yk  the  >f a r e a i n Honan).  He may  have made t h i s t r i p t o s t a y w i t h h i s i n t i m a t e  f r i e n d Yuan T a n - c h ' i u ~f\_± *fjr~ J f -  Taoism-orientated  a t Yiian's r e t r e a t i n Ying-yang  jJ^  19 ( p r e s e n t h s i e n i n Honan).  Around t h a t t i m e , he a l s o passed some  s h o r t p e r i o d s of s e c l u d e d l i f e i n some o b s c u r e h i l l s a t or near An-chou. But he was  by no means s o l e l y o c c u p i e d w i t h l i f e , ' i n the mountains.  By  about 730, he had a l r e a d y t r i e d more than once to f i n d a p a t r o n i n the senior o f f i c i a l s li u c ki . 2  1  of An-chou; o n l y he does not seem t o have had  He then went to Lo-yang to seek h i s "fortune.  any  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t he  went t h e r e s h o r t l y a f t e r the a r r i v a l of Hsuan-tsung's c o u r t i n the 11th month of 731, because the presence of the c o u r t must have been 22 one of the most a p p e a l i n g t h i n g s t h e r e . At any r a t e , when e a r l y i n 732 the T'ang army was sent o f f on an e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t the K h i t a n  48 under the command of the P r i n c e of Hsin-an L i I ^ L i Po was  f£- J _ ^  ,  a l r e a d y t h e r e to w r i t e a f a r e w e l l poem to a c e r t a i n Mr. L i a n g  Kung-ch'ang  , who  would serve i n the p r i n c e ' s h e a d q u a r t e r s .  The poet o f t e n drank wine and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h people a t t a v e r n s near -jjs  the T ' i e n - c h i n - c h ' i a o B r i d g e ^  , which l e d to the  imperial  24 palaces.  A poem of h i s c l e a r l y shows t h a t he was  fascinated  by  the s i g h t of handsomely d r e s s e d o f f i c i a l s p a s s i n g the b r i d g e on h o r s e back t o have audiences w i t h the emperor, a l t h o u g h a t the end o f  this  poem, s t i l l unable to f i n d any avenue to j o i n the ranks of these people, he a l s o s a i d something  about  the m e r i t s of an unbound In  the danger of s e r v i n g the emperor and 25  life.  the t e n t h month of 732,  by way  "HJ  of Lu-chou jff  T'ai-yiian  ( p r e s e n t Ch'ang-chih  , and was  s  the T'ang c o u r t l e f t Lo-yang f o r Ch'ang-an -J^  not to come back u n t i l  , Shansi)  and  the f i r s t month  26 of  734.  Probably because  had l e f t ,  L i Po seems to have l e f t Lo-yang i n l a t e 732.  s o u t h , he p a i d a v i s i t "J-ij  Sui-chou master  jjjj^ ^  a f r i e n d named Yiian Yen  -;-H  was  to Yiian T a n - c h ' i u a t Ying-yang;  ( p r e s e n t h s i e n i n Hupei) to v i s i t  Hu Tzu-yang  and who  h i s s t a y had no meaning a f t e r the c o u r t 27  . -ffi  the famous T a o i s t joined  by  , whose a c q u a i n t a n c e he made i n Lo-yang  ; p r e s e n t P o - h s i e n i n Anhwei).  a t Ch'iao-chun  J$£  /£j5  (Po-chou  In the w i n t e r , Yuan Yen  the poet and went to s e c l u d e h i m s e l f i n the nearby  left  Hsien-ch'eng-shan  He seems to have been j o i n e d by the poet i n  the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g parted.  then he went to  While a t Sui-chou, he was  l a t e r to become an o f f i c i a l  Mountain  On h i s way  (733).  T h e n — i t i s not c l e a r w h e n — t h e two  The poet r e t u r n e d to some of h i s p l a c e s of s e c l u s i o n a t  friends  49 An-chou and Yuan headed f o r h i s home i n Ch'ang-an. In jj^  t h e s p r i n g o f 734 o r , l e s s p r o b a b l y , 735, L i Po v i s i t e d Hsiang-yang  jj^  ( p r e f e c t u r e seat o f Hsiang-chou).  I n a d d i t i o n to t o u r i n g the  s c e n i c s p o t s t h e r e , t h e poet f i r s t p a i d a v i s i t and then w r o t e a l e t t e r to Han Ch'ao-tsung  ^  , e a g e r l y s e e k i n g f o r Han's  patronage.  Han was a t t h a t time t h e C h i e f A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e Grand Government'H]  G e n e r a l o f Ching-chou  (J^S  (present Chiang-ling  , Hupei)  28 and P r e f e c t o f Hsiang-chou.  But a g a i n h i s e f f o r t s were o f no a v a i l . 29  I t seems he s t a y e d a t Hsiang-yang u n t i l a f t e r autumn. In  t h e f i f t h month o f 735, t h e poet and Yuan Yen were found  on t h e rugged paths i n t h e T'ai-hang-shan M o u n t a i n j o u r n e y t o P i n g - c h o u jff T'ai-yuan).  toiling  iX) on a  ( i n 735, t h e S u p e r i o r P r e f e c t u r e o f  They a r r i v e d a t t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n i n autumn.  The poet  was so warmly h o s t e d by Yuan and Yiian's f a t h e r , who was a h i g h o f f i c i a l i n t h e p r e f e c t u r e , t h a t , " i n his^own words, he was "drunk and f u l l and did  n o t t h i n k o f home.""^  He o f t e n v i s i t e d C h i n - t z ' u j|p ^.gj  , a  s c e n i c spot i n t h e west o f t h e c i t y o f T ' a i - y u a n , sometimes w i t h s i n g 31 song g i r l s .  He s t a y e d t h e r e u n t i l a f t e r t h e s p r i n g o f 736.  I t seems t h a t , on h i s way home, L i Po came t o Lo-yang a g a i n , came a c r o s s Yuan Tan-ch'iu  t h e r e , and l e f t t h e r e f o r home sometime b e f o r e  the t e n t h month o f t h a t y e a r , when Hsiian-tsung's c o u r t l e f t Capital.  the Eastern  He then seems t o have l i v e d w i t h h i s f a m i l y f o r one year o r  so ( t o 737).  Probably  i n t h e autumn o f 737, t h e poet w r o t e a poem t o  Yuan T a n - c h ' i u , who had r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d a r e t r e a t near Nan-yang ( i n Teng-chou expressed  ')•*] ; p r e s e n t Nan-yang, Honan) .  I n t h i s poem he  some d e s i r e t o s e c l u d e h i m s e l f , t o o . He soon went t o v i s i t  50 Yuan, maybe even b e f o r e r e c e i v i n g Yiian's answer.  But he o n l y s t a y e d  32 o v e r n i g h t w i t h Yuan i n the Mountains.  A c c o r d i n g to some s o u r c e s , 33 the poet and h i s f a m i l y were then l i v i n g a t Nan-yang. . This i s t h e e a r l i e s t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t L i Po's f a m i l y had a l r e a d y l e f t An-chou.  3. 737-740: F i r s t V i s i t to Ch'ang-an 34 B e f o r e l o n g , the poet t r a v e l l e d west to Ch'ang-an. u l a t e t h a t he a r r i v e d i n t h e c a p i t a l a t the t u r n o f 737 was  I would  spec35 and 738. He 36  t o spend more than two whole y e a r s i n the Kuan-chung a r e a .  The  purpose of t h i s s o j o u r n was no doubt c l o s e l y connected w i t h the presence of  t h e T'ang c o u r t , which d i d not move to Lo-yang a g a i n a f t e r i t l e f t  t h e r e i n 736. There a r e some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the poet c a r r i e d w i t h him a t l e a s t one fu. t o p r e s e n t to the emperor and spent the b e g i n n 37 ing  of h i s s t a y i n the c a p i t a l w a i t i n g f o r the outcome.  a f t e r he became aware t h a t h i s show-piece  Probably  of l i t e r a r y t a l e n t would  not  b r i n g about a n y t h i n g , t h e poet went to l i v e as a r e c l u s e i n the Chung-nan-shan Mountain  JH  ( s o u t h of Ch'ang-an)."^  Some  poems show t h a t i n the autumn of a c e r t a i n y e a r (my s p e c u l a t i o n i s i t was  the year 738), JJ^~ '  L i Po t r i e d to become a p r o t e g e of P r i n c e s s Yu-chen l i iv i l l a i n the Chung-nan-shan Mountain. v  e  d  na  The p r i n c e s s was a s i s t e r of Hsiian-tsung' s and was a p i o u s T a o i s t . 39 t r e a t m e n t t h e poet r e c e i v e d i n h e r v i l l a was Maybe i n t h e summer o f 739, H s i n - p ' i n g ^fr  ^  (Pin-chou ^  chilly.  L i Po l e f t the c a p i t a l f o r a t r i p to j)\  , c a l l e d Pin-chou  'H\  T'ang times and H s i n - p ' i n g i n t h e S u i ; p r e s e n t P i n - h s i e n n o r t h - w e s t of S i a n ) and Fang-chou 1%  i n early ,  (around p r e s e n t H u a n g - l i n g  The  51  t ft V  40 , n o r t h of Sian) .  g-  Hsin-p'ing.  41  He  spent  I t seems he then had  the summer and  autumn a t  to l e a v e t h e r e because the patronage  he had r e c e i v e d from a c e r t a i n l o c a l o f f i c i a l had waned. a t Fang-chou t i l l his  about the s p r i n g of the f o l l o w i n g year.  s o j o u r n t h e r e was  some o f f i c i a l s and  42  He  43  stayed  Although  s h o r t , the poet s t i l l managed to a s s o c i a t e w i t h  e a g e r l y expressed  to them a r e q u e s t f o r p o l i t i c a l  44 help.  He  came back to the Chung-nan-shan Mountain i n the same  45 spring. us  As  to h i s l a t e r a c t i v i t i e s t h e r e , v e r y l i t t l e  i s known to  now. 4. 740-742: Short Stays i n Lu and  Hsuan-chou 46  In 740,  the poet l e f t  He may  have t r a v e l l e d  rived  a t the Liang-yuan  present K'ai-feng  fjf]  Ch'ang-an f o r the E a s t - o f - t h e - M o u n t a i n  area.  a l o n g the water ways from the c a p i t a l and  ^  Garden /|L  ^  near Pien-chou  }\  , Honan) i n the f i f t h m o n t h .  the same month, he t r a v e l l e d  .^j*  f a r t h e r to Tung Lu  47  ar(around  Still  in  (Yen-chou  ^  a r e a south of the T ' a i - s h a n Mountain fo ); he then s e t t l e d down 48 t h e r e f o r some time. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t d u r i n g t h i s s o j o u r n he a s s o c i a t e d i n the T s ' u - l a i - s h a n Mountain yjj^ w i t h K'ung Ch'ao-fu <3L  ifr  "Six  a n <  * four other hermits,  Hermits a t C h u - h s i " Vf )%  When the poet l e f t I have found  ^  the group of them known as  1^,  .  4 9  Tung Lu i s not v e r y c l e a r .  the f o l l o w i n g .accounts  t o u r to the T ' a i - s h a n Mountain i n the f o u r t h and 5 1  T h i r d , b e f o r e he was  From v a r i o u s  about h i s whereabouts.  d i d not l e a v e Tung Lu b e f o r e the s p r i n g of 7 4 1 .  742.  the  5 0  sources,  F i r s t , he  Second, he made a f i f t h months of  summoned to the c a p i t a l i n the autumn of  52  742  (see below) , he once made a t r i p to the Hang-chou ^-fL V'J'j  and s t a y e d t h e r e a t l e a s t from autumn to s p r i n g ( o r , l e s s the o t h e r way  round).  52  district  probably,  F o u r t h , b e f o r e he s e t o f f f o r the c a p i t a l i n (present  N a n - l i n g , Anhwei) t o see h i s c h i l d r e n , whom he o b v i o u s l y had accommodated t h e r e e a r l i e r (N.B.: the poet's w i f e Hsu i s not mentioned i n t h i s a c 53  count)  .  U n l e s s one or more of these accounts s h o u l d prove u n r e l i a b l e ,  L i Po seems t o have v i s i t e d the Hang-chou r e g i o n sometime between the s p r i n g s of 741 and 742 and to have r e t u r n e d t o Lu f o r a l i t t l e  while  b e f o r e coming south a g a i n to the lower Yangtze v a l l e y i n the summer of 742.  T h i s i t i n e r a r y , however, i s somewhat p u z z l i n g .  To be  specific,  what had caused the poet t o make such a s h o r t t r i p back to Lu?  He i s  not l i k e l y to have r e t u r n e d t h e r e o n l y f o r s i g h t - s e e i n g . A c c o r d i n g to Wei Hao, the poet once c o h a b i t e d w i t h a woman named L i u ^ ' j and t h i s 54  woman l e f t him b e f o r e l o n g .  A poem by the poet suggests  that, before  he l e f t N a n - l i n g f o r Ch'ang-an, he had j u s t broken w i t h a w i f e who scorned him f o r h i s o b s c u r i t y and i m p r a c t i c a l a m b i t i o n . W a s wife Liu? his  had  this  (The p o e t ' s c o h a b i t a t i o n w i t h L i u and h i s accommodating  c h i l d r e n a t N a n - l i n g b o t h suggest t h a t h i s f i r s t w i f e Hsu had been  dead f o r sometime.)  I f such i s the case, d i d the poet r e t u r n to Lu  to take h i s c h i l d r e n south because d u r i n g h i s s o j o u r n i n the Hang-chou r e g i o n he had found a common-law w i f e a t N a n - l i n g , who, c o u l d take c a r e of them?  he  thought,  We need more i n f o r m a t i o n to r e a c h any  conclusion. 5. 742-744: S e r v i c e i n the H a n - l i n Academy  definite  53 Then came the most g l o r i o u s episode i n the poet's l i f e , i n Hsiian-tsung's c o u r t . the autumn of 742. w i t h a fu_ e n t i t l e d  As u s u a l l y accepted, he went to Ch'ang-an i n  Some sources say t h a t he impressed  i n attendance  ).  5 7  He  then became a H a n - l i n jj^-  ( H a n - l i n kung-feng  the w i n t e r of t h a t year he had a l r e a d y attended quets, accompanied the emperor to the Hot kung  ^  the emperor  "In P r a i s e of the Great Undertaking of the T'ang"  ("Hsiian T'ang hung yu" academician  his service  )•  By  the emperor a t ban-  Spring Palace  (Wen-ch'uan-  ), the i m p e r i a l w i n t e r r e s o r t n o r t h - e a s t of Ch'ang-an, 59  and composed a f i i to e u l o g i z e an i m p e r i a l h u n t i n g t h e r e .  By  the  m i d - s p r i n g of 743, he had become the p o e t - l a u r e a t e of the p a l a c e and had been busy composing l a u d a t o r y v e r s e s to e n t e r t a i n the emperor and his  concubines  on t h e i r s p r i n g - t i m e m e r r y - m a k i n g . ^  A f t e r he l e f t  c o u r t , the poet made i t w i d e l y known t h a t beyond the  the  entertainment  d u t i e s j u s t mentioned, he had o c c a s i o n a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d j 61 d r a f t i n g decrees.  i n the t a s k o f  £  Sudden success no doubt i n t o x i c a t e d the poet. described h i s glorious l i f e  In a poem, he  thus  i n those days: i n the morning he went to the  p a l a c e to pay r e s p e c t s to the emperor; then he waited t h e r e f o r summonsto  s e r v e the emperor, u s u a l l y w i t h complimentary  c o m p o s i t i o n s ; when  the sun s e t , he p r o u d l y f l e w home on h i s v a l u a b l e horse; and a t home he enjoyed w i t h h i s guests wine, f e a s t s , and charming L i f e was  t r a n s i t o r y , he concluded, and  become prominent  e a r l y than  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , L i Po's than h i s l i f e .  i t was  sing-song  girls.  d e f i n i t e l y b e t t e r to  late.  p o l i t i c a l prominence was  f a r more t r a n s i t o r y  Around the autumn of 743, he complained  i n a poem  54  presented to the Chi-hsien-yuan  ^  [5^  academicians  t h a t he had  63  been m a l i g n e d .  He kept making t h e same a l l e g a t i o n a f t e r he l e f t  64  the c a p i t a l .  I n t h e s p r i n g o f 7 4 4 , he was f i n a l l y "bestowed some  g o l d " and " a l l o w e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e m o u n t a i n s . "  65  There w i l l be c l o s e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n Chapter Three i n t o t h e causes of L i Po's sudden p o l i t i c a l r i s e and f a l l as w e l l as t h e n a t u r e o f h i s job i n the court.  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l end w i t h some d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i c  f r i e n d s h i p between L i Po and Ho Chih-chang  ^ tyo  jjjf  .  Ho, a romant  T a o i s m - o r i e n t a t e d m a n - o f - l e t t e r s , h e l d t h e p o s t s o f m o n i t o r o f the crown p r i n c e ( t ' a i - t z u p i n - k ' o -a JK % ^  %-  )  a n c  * d i r e c t o r o f t h e impe-  ri in a l7 4 l2i.b r a r yP r o(mi-shu c h i e an f fy^ & )a when b a b l y soon t e r %. L i Po's r r i v a lL iaPo t tcame h e c a ptiot aCh'ang-an l , Ho came 6 6  a c r o s s L i a t t h e Temple o f L a o - t z u and, t o L i ' s g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n , p r a i s e d L i as a "banished i m m o r t a l " (che h s i e n - j e n  ) and  67  gave him a h e a r t y t r e a t a t a wine shop.  Because o f age and poor  h e a l t h , Ho r e s i g n e d h i s o f f i c e s and l e f t t h e c a p i t a l w i t h f u l l honor i n e a r l y 744.  ^fg  He d i e d s h o r t l y a t h i s home i n t h e K u e i - c h i  region.  L a t e r , L i Po w r o t e s e v e r a l poems s a d l y l a m e n t i n g Ho's d e a t h and r e c a l l i n g 68  Ho's  kindness.  The d e s i g n a t i o n " b a n i s h e d i m m o r t a l " was remembered 69  and p r i z e d b o t h by t h e poet h i m s e l f and by h i s a d m i r e r s . 6 i 7 4 4 - 7 5 5 : Long Years of Wanderings L i Po spent t h e t e n y e a r s o r so a f t e r h i s second d e p a r t u r e Kuan-chung t r a v e l l i n g around south-eastward, Pa-shang  i n the eastern provinces.  passed t h e P o - l u - y l i a n T e r r a c e "t)  from  He f i r s t went (i.e.,  , l o c a t e d s o u t h - e a s t o f Ch'ang-an), and a r r i v e d a t  55 -V  Shang-chou jfa he v i s i t e d  f\]  ( p r e s e n t Shang-hsien, S h e n s i ) .  the tombs of the f o u r famous Han  the "Four White-Haired fa  ssu-hao  ®  70  dynasty  At Shang-chou, hermits  known as  Ones of the Shang-shan Mountain" (Shang-shan  &  ).  ? 1  I t i s not c e r t a i n where L i Po went to Hsiian-chou, spent  t r a v e l l e d next.  the summer t h e r e , and  I suspect  t h a t he  then took h i s c h i l d r e n  72 w i t h him  to the n o r t h .  (744), L i Po was Pien-chou,  At any  r a t e , i n the autumn of t h a t year  t o u r i n g i n the Liang-Sung ^ j ;  or, Ch'en-liu-chiin  Shang-ch'iu |$] jt|3  j^p  ^  •j\  region (Liang:  ; Sung: Sung-chou, the  a r e a i n Honan) w i t h Tu Fu, Kao  present  Shih ^  and  73 some o t h e r p e o p l e .  He had  o r i g i n a l l y come to C h ' e n - l i u to ask h i s  f r i e n d L i Yen-yiin, the then Grand I n s p e c t o r of the Ho-nan tao, to h e l p him a c q u i r e a T a o i s t r e g i s t e r a T a o i s t master i n P e i - h a i j^L Wei-fang y$|£ ^  (lu  ) from Kao  '/Sf  (Ch'ing-chou  area i n Shantung) .  r e g i s t e r i n the temple of L a o - t z u  He  -bj)  Ju-kuei -j+j  , the  ^  ,  present  seems to have r e c e i v e d h i s  i n Ch'i-chou  ( p r e s e n t Chi-nan  y^f" 1^1 )-^ I t i s not c l e a r whether the poet came a c r o s s Tu and Kao b e f o r e or a f t e r h i s t r i p to Ch'i-chou. Tu Fu and Kao S h i h were both s t i l l obscure then. A c c o r d i n g to a poem by Tu, the t h r e e of 75 them might have begun t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p i n a wine shop i n Sung. Together  w i t h some o t h e r s , they toured such h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s as  C h ' u i - t ' a i Tower Shan-fu ^  X.  r|h  i n L i a n g and  the C h ' i n - t ' a i Tower ^sL  the ^  at  , Sung-chou. ^ 7  In l a t e autumn, our poets p a r t e d . e a s t ; j u d g i n g from some poems by Kao, Sung r e g i o n no l a t e r than Kao  Kao  S h i h headed f o r the  L i Po and Tu Fu l e f t  himself.  7 7  The  south-  the L i a n g -  f r i e n d s h i p between L i  56  and Kao seems t o have ended w i t h t h e i r p a r t i n g . events o f t h e P r i n c e of Yung's and  Later, during the  r e b e l l i o n i n t h e t u r n o f 756  757, Kao was t o become one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  f i g u r e s who brought  about t h e d e f e a t o f t h e p r i n c e , w h i l e L i Po would j o i n t h e p r i n c e ' s 78  t r o o p s and would be c o n v i c t e d as a t r a i t o r . d e f e a t he was i m p r i s o n e d to  a t Hsun-yang ^  While a f t e r the prince's , L i Po once w r o t e a poem  a Mr. Chang JfJ^ , who was going t o K u a n g - l i n g ^  jJ^  (Yang-chou) t o  79  p r e s e n t some m i l i t a r y p l a n s t o Kao.  He v a g u e l y  expressed  a t t h e end  o f t h i s poem some w i s h f o r h e l p from Kao, b u t he d i d n o t mention h i s p a s t c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Kao a t a l l .  Except f o r t h i s poem, n o t h i n g i s  known t o have been composed by these two poets about each o t h e r . It  i s n o t c l e a r whether L i Po and Tu Fu t r a v e l l e d on t o g e t h e r o r 80  separately,  #  b u t they showed up t o g e t h e r i n Lu >Q* i n t h e f o l l o w i n g 81  s p r i n g (745).  Except f o r t h e summer, when he made a t r i p t o C h ' i - c h o u ,  Tu Fu l i v e d a t a p l a c e i n L u named Shih-men JQ L i Po's r e s i d e n c e .  , rather close to  They had some happy times t o g e t h e r t o u r i n g and 82  v i s i t i n g l o c a l hermits.  I n a poem about t h e i r v i s i t t o a h e r m i t  named Fan, Tu thus d e s c r i b e d h i s i n t i m a c y w i t h L i Po: " I l o v e him l i k e a b r o t h e r . / I n e b r i a t e , we s l e e p i n t h e same bed i n autumn; / Hand 83  i n hand, we w a l k t o g e t h e r d a i l y . "  They p a r t e d i n autumn: L i Po s t a y e d 84  i n L u and Tu Fu t r a v e l l e d west t o Ch'ang-an. They d i d n o t see each o t h e r a g a i n . L i Po wrote two warm poems t o Tu, on and soon a f t e r Tu's departure  respectively.  But i t seems he soon f o r g o t h i s then obscure  85  younger f r i e n d .  On t h e c o n t r a r y , L i Po's p o e t i c t a l e n t and p e r s o n a l 86  charm l i v e d i n Tu's memory through Tu's l i f e . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t L i Po f e l l i l l i n Lu f o r a r a t h e r l o n g  57 p e r i o d o f time and planned t o t r a v e l t o Chiang-tung y£- ^ e a s t o f t h e Che-chiang R i v e r ^|fj'  (the area  , i n c l u d i n g K u e i - c h i and Shan-chung.  87 \^  ^ij  ) when he began t o r e c o v e r i n t h e autumn o f 746.  I would,  t h e r e f o r e , s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e poet a r r i v e d i n Chiang-tung i n l a t e o r 747.  A c c o r d i n g t o a poem by J e n Hua  746  , a contemporary a d m i r e r  88 of L i Po, t h e poet had gone t h e r e t o j o i n h i s o l d f r i e n d Yiian T a n - c h ' i u . B e f o r e l o n g , a n o t h e r f r i e n d o f t h e p o e t , K'ung Ch'ao-fu, came t o j o i n  89 them from t h e c a p i t a l , h a v i n g grown t i r e d o f p o l i t i c s .  The t h r e e o f  90  v  them a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e famous T a o i s t adept Wu Yun ^  £y  I t seems t h e poet then s t a y e d i n t h e Yangtze D e l t a r e g i o n t i l l a t l e a s t  91 the summer o f 749. The poet l e f t h i s daughter P'ing-yang  ^  j}^  and son P o - c h ' i n ^ty jfjj  i n L u when he went t o C h i a n g - t u n g ; they b o t h seem t o have h a r d l y e n t e r e d t h e i r teens t h e n .  As h i s s o j o u r n i n t h e s o u t h dragged on and on, L i Po  m i s s e d t h e s e c h i l d r e n so much t h a t i n s e v e r a l poems w r i t t e n t o o r about  92 them he u t t e r e d t h e deepest p a t e r n a l f e e l i n g e v e r found i n h i s works. Wei Hao t e l l s us t h a t L i Po once c o h a b i t e d w i t h a woman from L u and had w i t h h e r a son named P o - l i $ J |  .  9 3  I t i s n o t c e r t a i n i f L i Po  had t h i s common-law w i f e d u r i n g h i s second s o j o u r n i n Lu (744-746 or 747) and l e f t P'ing-yang and P o - c h ' i n t h e r e t o l i v e w i t h h e r . I n t h e autumn o f about 749, L i Po v i s i t e d t h e P r i n c e o f Wu L i C h ' i jjp.  ftjj^  -ffij  (Lu-chou Jj^ j|j  , who then was t h e P r e f e c t o f L u - c h i a n g - c h i i n ~ J. j^|3 y  , around t h e p r e s e n t Ch'ao-hu Lake ^  , Anhwei).  He may have gone t o L u - c h i a n g on t h e way t o t h e Huo-shan ^ south-west Anhwei) and t h e L u - s h a n ^ / ^  fo  Mountains.  9 5  fo  (in  I n accordance  w i t h a poem he wrote t o Yuan T a n - c h ' i u , L i Po s t a y e d i n t h e s e mountains  9 4  58 f o r " q u i t e a l o n g t i m e " and was  accompanied by a w i f e and a  daughter, 96  who  were b o t h a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n the l i f e of the i m m o r t a l s .  w i f e was  This  p r o b a b l y none o t h e r than the poet's second f o r m a l w i f e , a  woman named Tsung ^; , a descendant of Tsung Ch'u-k'o ^ S97 who was a c h i e f m i n i s t e r i n the Empress Wu's r e i g n . As f o r the r  ,  daughter mentioned h e r e , she must have been P'ing-yang, not a daughter borne by Tsung, s i n c e the poet and Tsung do not seem t o have been 98 married long. Mountain ^  Yuan T a n - c h ' i u had s e c l u d e d h i m s e l f i n the Sung-shan fr  ( s o u t h - e a s t of Lo-yang) and had f r e q u e n t l y i n v i t e d  L i Po to v i s i t him. ..  The poet promised  t o take h i s w i f e and  daughter 99  w i t h him t o j o i n Yuan, but i t i s not known i f he r e a l l y d i d so. L a t e r , the poet may  have made a j o u r n e y to Ching-chou.''"^  Then, i n l a t e 750 o r 751, L i Po s e t t l e d down i n L i a n g , where Tsung seems to have come from."*"^  At r o u g h l y the same t i m e , he made a t r i p 102  t o Lu, v e r y p r o b a b l y to see h i s son P o - c h ' i n .  I n l a t e 751 o r e a r l y  752, he s e t out from L i a n g on a l o n g j o u r n e y to Yu-chou Peking area) . »  e a  i n Han-tan  He passed Kuang-p' ing-chun  s t of modern Han-tan ^jj  tfpjjj?|5  if  %^  ^jfej  (present  (Ming-chou  , Hopei) and had a b r i e f  stop  ( p r e s e n t h s i e n i n Hopei) i n the s p r i n g o f 752."'"^  The T'ang army under An Lu-shan had waged a war a g a i n s t t h e K h i t a n s i n the autumn of 751 and had been s e v e r e l y d e f e a t e d .  I n the t h i r d  month of 752, An Lu-shan l e d h i s r e i n f o r c e d t r o o p s to a t t a c k t h e Khitans a g a i n . T h e  poet appears to have seen i n Han-tan the 106  starting-  gonet r to oo p sYu-chou h the i n t He e n t ithen o n tot r af iv ne dl l ea d j of ba r ti hne rthen o army. opoet f f o fhadsome f o r t h wi is t war. rth and a r r i v e d " i n Yu-chou around the 10th month of 752.  I t seems the  108  59 Yu-chou was,  however, a r e g i o n where people were f u l l of a f i e r c e  and  109 proud  spirit.  r i d i n g and  T h e r e f o r e , the poet found  a r c h e r y was  n o t h i n g remarkable  t h a t h i s own  there. "'" 1  0  skill in  Probably a f t e r  the  111 w i n t e r of 752-53, the poet l e f t Yu-chou i n On h i s way  disappointment.  south, L i Po passed K u e i - h s i a n g ^  around p r e s e n t Ta-ming an o l d acquaintance  ( i n Wei-chou  7^ fy , H o p e i ) , where Wei L i a n g - t s a i  summoned to the c a p i t a l f o r a new The poet to  Shantung).  was  B e f o r e l o n g , he o b v i o u s l y d e c i d e d  t r a v e l to the lower Yangtze R i v e r r e g i o n . ^  then Wei  L i Po  appointment.  then r e t u r n e d to L i a n g .  Ts'ao-nan ^  JjT fj^ Sjjr ,  of the p o e t ' s , happened to be the m a g i s t r a t e .  spent a l i t t l e w h i l e t h e r e e n j o y i n g Wei's h o s p i t a l i t y ; 112  ;  He  first  t o u r e d e a s t to  ( i n f o r m a l name f o r Ts'ao-chou; p r e s e n t Ho-tse  ,  A contemporary who  saw him o f f s a i d t h a t he c a r r i e d w i t h 113 him sacks of T a o i s t s c r i p t u r e s and drugs of i m m o r t a l i t y . I suspect t h a t L i Po had planned to t r a v e l v i a Ts'ao-nan to Lu to see h i s son 114 b e f o r e going south.  case, a poem shows t h a t l a t e r the poet  f o r Chiang-nan y"J_ {jf\  was  heading  bye  to some o f f i c i a l s In  In any  there.  the autumn of 753,  from Ts'ao-nan and was  1 1 5  L i Po a r r i v e d a t Hslian-chou and  C h i n g - t ' ing-shan Mountain Sfk^ r j ji-t 7  ch'eng-hsien ficials.  .  1 1 6  L i Po,  i n the'  near the p r e f e c t u r e s i t e Hsiian-  soon began to a s s o c i a t e w i t h l o c a l o f 1 1  (754), Wei  Hao,  an e n t h u s i a s t i c  t r a v e l l e d a c r o s s h a l f the empire to v i s i t 119  poet, and met Mountain  lived  In l a t e autumn, he l e f t Hsuan-chou f o r C h i n - l i n g . ^  1 1 7  the s p r i n g of the next year of  He  s a y i n g good-  %  him  i n Kuang-ling.  Wei was  the  In  admirer  ever-travelling  a r e c l u s e i n the Wang-wu-shan  (on the border of modern Shansi and Honan) and,  60  a c c o r d i n g t o h i m s e l f , had t h e fame o f b e i n g an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s o n . L i Po and Wei t o u r e d t o g e t h e r t o C h i n - l i n g ( o f f i c i a l l y , j^-  120  Chiang-ning  ) ; t h e r e they were h o s t e d by t h e poet's new p a t r o n , t h e magJ-  121  tf  i s t r a t e o f C h i a n g - n i n g Yang  .  When they p a r t e d i n t h e summer, 122  t h e poet and Wei p r e s e n t e d l o n g poems t o each o t h e r .  The poet even  e n t r u s t e d t o Wei a l l t h e m a n u s c r i p t s of h i s works i n h i s hands, and 123  asked Wei t o e d i t them i n t o a c o l l e c t i o n . d e p i c t i o n o f L i Po's appearance His  F o l l o w i n g i s Wei's unique  and way o f l i f e :  p u p i l s were s p a r k l i n g and as huge as those o f a hungry  tiger.  He sometimes wore a b e l t , and l o o k e d r e a l l y handsome  and p o i s e d . . . .  From time t o t i m e , he took h i s s i n g - s o n g  g i r l s Chao-yang  ^  fcjp  [He t r a v e l l e d  and C h i n - l i n g ^  out w i t h him. . .  w i t h ] h i s v a l u a b l e s t e e d and p r e t t y c o n c u b i n e s .  Whereever he went, p r e f e c t s came out o f t h e towns t o welcome him.  He drank s e v e r a l tou's ( ij-  , a l i q u i d measure) o f wine  [at a t i m e ] ; when he g o t drunk, he had h i s s e r v a n t Tan-sha jfy-  jfojr  p e r f o r m t h e Ch' i n g - h a i - p o  dance.  The poet then went back t o Hsuan-chou; t h e r e he f i r s t l i v e d a t N a n - l i n g (from t h e summer o f 754) and then l i v e d a t Ch'iu-p'u seems he s t a y e d i n t h a t r e g i o n t i l l  7.  755-759:  ,^~  >  It  t h e t e n t h month.  D i s a s t r o u s Involvement  i n the M i l i t a r y  Adventure of t h e P r i n c e o f Yung  61 I n the 11th month o f 755, An Lu-shan r o s e i n r e b e l l i o n i n Yu-chou. He s w i f t l y conquered the p r e f e c t u r e s i n what a r e the p r e s e n t Hopei and 127 n o r t h e r n Shantung, and s e i z e d Lo-yang i n the 12th month.  There i s  some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t L i Po then happened to be i n what i s the  present 128  Honan and w i t n e s s e d I suspect  the f a l l of t h a t r e g i o n i n t o the r e b e l s ' hands.  t h a t he had gone n o r t h s h o r t l y b e f o r e the o u t b r e a k of  r e b e l l i o n to see h i s w i f e Tsung, whom he had 129 t r a v e l l e d t o Hsuan-chou i n 753.  The  the  l e f t i n L i a n g when he  couple then seem t o have f l e d  130 south t o g e t h e r .  The  S h o r t l y a f t e r , Wu 0  p o e t ' s son P o - c h ' i n was ^-jcj  some unknown r e a s o n s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , Wu's P o - c h ' i n was  Hsiin-yang j^. jljjj  i n Lu.  , a h e r o i c a d m i r e r and d i s c i p l e of  p o e t , promised t o go t o Lu t o h e l p P o - c h ' i n  realized.  l e f t behind  still  f l e e to the  promise was  i n Lu when L i Po was  the  s o u t h . F o r  obviously  imprisoned  not at  i n the s p r i n g o f 7 5 7 . A s  f o r the p o e t ' s daughter 133 P'ing-yang, she seems to have got m a r r i e d and d i e d e a r l i e r . The poet a r r i v e d i n Hsuan-ch'eng i n the s p r i n g of 756. While there, •Jt 1 *> 134  he once planned to go to Shan-chung But now  we do not know i f he indeed  t h a t he t r a v e l l e d around i n the Wu ^  *f  to l i v e i n s e c l u s i o n .  t r a v e l l e d t h a t f a r ; we o n l y know r e g i o n (modern s o u t h e r n  Kiangsu  and n o r t h e r n Chekiang) and was  l e a v i n g Yii-hang ( n o r t h of 135 Hang-chou) on an e a r l y autumn day. By the end o f 756, he was 13 6 s e t t l e d down i n the Lu-shan Mountain w i t h h i s w i f e . As w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r ,  L i Po soon got i n v o l v e d i n the b i t t e r power s t r u g g l e between the P r i n c e of Yung L i L i n ^ I n the m i d d l e of 756,  _J_ ^  and L i n ' s e l d e r b r o t h e r  Su-tsung.^  on h i s f l i g h t to Shu, Hsiian-tsung a p p o i n t e d  Lin  7  62 to govern the south of the empire. from C h i a n g - l i n g ^"2-  Late  i n 756,  L i n led his f l e e t  down the Yangtze R i v e r .  L i Po was  i n t o the p r i n c e ' s headquarters when the f l e e t was destination.  But  soon the f l e e t was  at Ling-wu ^  seventh month of 756. s h o r t l y before This b r i e f Still  Ningsia)  as-  i n the only  early'757.  he gave h i m s e l f up at P'eng-tse  , the present  first  Censorate Sung J o - s s u ^  ^  )^  a t l d  vj? $C ^  g u i l t on the ground t h a t he had  executed.  t  n  e  n  t  was  Fortunately,  two  Commissioner of Chiang-nan n  e  V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of  jfe Jj?> , t r i e d  been coerced  to c l e a r him  to j o i n L i L i n ' s  f l e d halfway on the p r i n c e ' s e x p e d i t i o n . i n the autumn of 757  area i n Kiangsi) ,  s i t u a t i o n s t h e r e and  the Grand Comforting  "K  rjjf] ^  , (ji n  ^  ( p r e f e c t u r e s i t e of Chiang-chou).  the p r o b a b i l i t y of b e i n g  friendly officials,  -jii ; i -  Chiu-chiang  some extremely u n f a v o r a b l e  once haunted by  to Hsiin-yang  arbitrarily  i n amazement and h o r r o r  thrown i n t o p r i s o n at Hsiin-yang  T s ' u i Huan yj.  to  involvement i n p o l i t i c s caused L i Po a long o r d e a l .  experienced  and had  ( i n present  poet f l e d  i n the s p r i n g of 757,  and was  , who  the d e f e a t of the p r i n c e i n  Chiang-chou y i - */fj  He  The  ^  halfway to i t s  d e f e a t e d by f o r c e s l o y a l  Su-tsung, the former Crown P r i n c e L i Heng ^ cended the throne  recruited  Sung, who  on a m i l i t a r y m i s s i o n  the of  fleet  had  come  to Ho-nan tao,  r e l e a s e d L i Po s h o r t l y , made the poet an a i d e i n h i s headquarters, even sent a memorial to the c o u r t to recommend him. went w i t h  Sung as f a r west as Wu-ch'ang jj^,  But L i Po  (in late  In the e i g h t h month, the c h i e f m i n i s t e r Chang Hao  and  only  autumn). ^ 13  was  sent  out of the c o u r t to s u p e r v i s e m i l i t a r y deployments i n the Ho-nan and Huai-nan r e g i o n s .  The  poet was  i l l l i v i n g at Su-sung ^  (north  63 of the Po-yang-hu Lake ^jj) Still,  ^jfj  ) when Chang came to the s o u t h - e a s t .  b e f o r e the m i d d l e of the t e n t h month, he wrote Chang two poems, 139  i n which he showed g r e a t enthusiasm f o r s e r v i n g i n Chang's army. U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the poet, the T'ang him.  c o u r t d e c i d e d not to pardon  .In about e a r l y 758, the poet r e c e i v e d h i s v e r d i c t :  to Yeh-lang ^  "|[j5  (north-west of p r e s e n t Cheng-an JE  banishment  -^C  >  140 Kweichow).  He headed f o r h i s sad d e s t i n a t i o n by way 141  R i v e r , p r o b a b l y s t a r t i n g o f f a t Hsun-yang. p a r t u r e was  not l o n e l y .  Tsung Ching ^ s h o r t way busy. fifth he was  of the Yangtze  N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s de-  In a d d i t i o n to h i s w i f e Tsung and her b r o t h e r  £^  , some l o c a l d i g n i t a r i e s accompanied him f o r a 142 up the r i v e r . And h i s s c h e d u l e of t r a v e l was by no means  He a r r i v e d a t C h i a n g - h s i a y%-  ( p r e s e n t Wu-ch'ang) i n the 143  o r s i x t h month o f the same y e a r (758). still  By the e i g h t h month,  a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h some o f f i c i a l s a t a l a k e i n the n e i g h b o r -  i n g p r e f e c t u r e Mien-chou  yty  Vtj  (around the p r e s e n t Han-yang  y^.  j^)*^^  He ' a n gof - h sthe i a Gorge If Mountain tf& and ascended what c a l lpassed e d the the h i g hCehs' iti - t peak Wu-shan 4* fo\ around the he 145 second or t h i r d month of 759. w i f e , who  was  Soon a f t e r , he wrote a l e t t e r to h i s  then l i v i n g at Yu-chang  p r e s e n t Nan-ch'ang jijf] Jj  ^  , Kiangsi).Judging  ,  from the l o c a t i o n  of Yeh-lang and the mention of the Ming-yueh-hsia Gorge ( e a s t of p r e s e n t Ch'ung-ch'ing ^  '^"j  (Hung-chou  ^  jJi^  ) by the poet i n a poem t a l k i n g  about t h i s j o u r n e y , L i Po seems t o have planned to go to Yeh-lang a l o n g the p r e s e n t C h i - c h i a n g R i v e r ^jp. , which runs i n t o the Yangtze 147 R i v e r west of Ch'ung-ch'ing.  But the poet was  he passed the Ch'u-t'ang-hsia Gorge.  148  pardoned soon a f t e r  64 8. 759-762: E p i l o g u e The poet's r e t u r n j o u r n e y , now Still  downstream, was  i n the t h i r d month (759), he passed  Chiang-hsia.He  stayed t h e r e t i l l  Mr.  Wang  1 5 1  autumn, p r i m a r i l y under the  later.  , who  was  In a long poem p r e s e n t e d  then t r a v e l l e d to P a - l i n g  p r e s e n t Yueh-yang ^ officials,  Jjjs  then  he made when p a s s i n g t h i s a r e a  not to f o r g e t h i s a b i l i t y  He  1 5 2  ^  pa-  i n  H i s d e s i r e f o r p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e d i d not d e c l i n e  as a r e s u l t of h i s r e c e n t o r d e a l . he asked Wei  149  the m a g i s t r a t e of Han-yang  , whose acquaintance  the summer of 7 5 8 .  swift.  C h i a n g - l i n g and a r r i v e d a t  tronage of h i s o l d f r i e n d Wei L i a n g - t s a i ^ the p r e f e c t of C h i a n g - h s i a , and  extremely  to  Wei,  i f Wei became more powerful  tJLi J ^ (Yueh-chou ^  jfj ,  5  i n Hunan); t h e r e he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some  i n c l u d i n g Chia Chih ^  ^_  , who  was  a l s o a well-known  153 l i t e r a r y man.  A c c o r d i n g to a poem by C h i a , L i Po made a t o u r to  Ling-ling  (Yung-chou  jj^  , p r e s e n t L i n g - l i n g - h s i e n i n Hunan)  154 i n the autumn.  He r e t u r n e d to C h i a n g - h s i a around the b e g i n n i n g of  7 6 0 . L a t e r ,  he seems to have gone to Yu-chang to l i v e f o r a w h i l e  w i t h h i s w i f e Tsung and a young In the f i f t h month of 761, %  $U  5^3  (Ssu-chou  w  >E9  a  s  ordered  child.  the famous T'ang g e n e r a l L i Kuang-pi  to s t a t i o n h i s t r o o p s a t L i n - h u a i $£j  ; near p r e s e n t Ssu-hung -fj9  informed of t h i s matter,  the poet made a l a s t  p o r t u n i t y to use h i s t a l e n t s : he t r i e d Y e t , he had  h i s way  to g i v e up h i s p l a n halfway  to go  -J^  effort  When  1 5 7  to f i n d an  op-  to j o i n G e n e r a l L i ' s army.  because of poor h e a l t h . 158  back, he came to C h i n - l i n g i n the autumn.  he t r a v e l l e d  , Kiangsu).  /j-L  On  Before long,  to Hsuan-ch'eng-chun (Hsuan-chou) and l i v e d under the  65  patronage of L i Yang-ping lij^  . ^ 1 5  ^. j ; ^ /7J^- > the m a g i s t r a t e of Tang-t'u  He d i e d o f i l l n e s s a t Tang-t'u i n l a t e 762."*"^  He  was  s u r v i v e d by two sons, i n c l u d i n g P o - c h ' i n ; i t i s not known i f he was a l s o s u r v i v e d by h i s w i f e Tsung.  Chapter Three: The P o l i t i c a l Dream and P u r s u i t s of L i Po  As i s c l e a r from the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , L i Po s t r e n u o u s l y sought f o r p o l i t i c a l prominence throughout h i s l i f e .  T h i s was a l l too n a t u r a l i n  t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese s o c i e t y , i n which p o l i t i c a l prominence was way of w o r l d l y s u c c e s s .  the s o l e  Our poet was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , f a r from b e i n g m e r e l y  one of the innumerable o r d i n a r y p u r s u e r s of power and w e a l t h i n h i s t o r y , even though we do not t a k e h i s p o e t i c a l achievements i n t o a c c o u n t .  The  k i n d of p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r he dreamed of and the way he t r i e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t dream t o g e t h e r v i v i d l y r e f l e c t a unique c h a r a c t e r r e a c t i n g t o the s p e c i a l p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r e a l i t y of t h e H i g h T'ang p e r i o d . I s h a l l f i r s t expound t h e p o e t ' s i d e a l p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r h e r e .  The  e a r l i e s t and a l s o t h e c l e a r e s t e x t a n t d e l i n e a t i o n of t h a t c a r e e r appears i n a l e t t e r composed i n An-chou soon a f t e r 7 2 7 . in seclusion i n a h i l l  1  The poet was then l i v i n g  i n An-chou named Shou Shan ^  through the mouth of the p e r s o n i f i e d  JJ  , and he s a i d  hill:  R e c e n t l y , the r e c l u s e L i Po came here from the O-mei-shan Mountain. He has h i s appearance from Heaven and h i s l o o k s from the Way  [sic];  he would n e i t h e r stoop t o a n y t h i n g nor seek patronage from a n y o n e — a f t e r Ch'ao [-fu]  ^  and [Hsu] Yu ^  r e c l u s e s i n the time of the Emperor Yao ^ [ t h a t can do t h i s ] .  . . .  lJ}  (famous l e g e n d a r y  ) , he i s the o n l y p e r s o n  [With my h e l p , he has been a b l e t o a t -  t a i n the l i f e of the i m m o r t a l s (rough meaning of the passage omitted).]  Y e t , suddenly M a s t e r L i s i g h e d d e e p l y i n t o the sky and  s a i d t o h i s f r i e n d , " I cannot l e a v e t h i s w o r l d .  - 66 -  You and I s h o u l d  67  try  to save the whole w o r l d when i n s u c c e s s , and to t a k e c a r e of  our own m o r a l u p l i f t when i n o b s c u r i t y (note t h a t the emphasis was eat your  on the f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s a n t i t h e s i s ) .  poet's How  could I  p u r p l e m i s t , r e s t i n the shades of y o u r p i n e t r e e s , ;  f l y your phoenix and c r a n e s , and r i d e your dragons, and one  day  ascend i n t o heaven and become j u s t a r e s i d e n t on the I s l e s of Fang-chang and P ' e n g - l a i ?  T h i s cannot be.'"  They then r o l l e d  up  t h e i r e l i x i r manuals, put t h e i r j a d e - d e c o r a t e d z i t h e r s back to boxes, and began to engage themselves  i n such a r t s t o h e l p emperors  r u l e s u c c e s s f u l l y as the t e a c h i n g s of Kuan [Chung] Yen  [Ying] g£  .  rj*p ^  and  They w i s h to e x e r t a l l t h e i r wisdom and  a b i l i t y to a s s i s t the emperor p a c i f y a l l q u a r t e r s i n the empire. A f t e r they have f u l f i l l e d t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n t o s e r v e t h e i r  ruler  and to g l o r i f y t h e i r p a r e n t s , [they t h i n k , ] i t w i l l no l o n g e r be d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o enjoy a f r e e l i f e on the l a k e s o r w a t e r margins ( p l a c e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d i d e a l f o r l i f e i n s e c l u -  The  s i o n ) as [Master] T'ao  Chu  j ^ ) $j-L  ( i . e . , Fan L i -j^  the M a r q u i s o f L i u  ^  ( i . e . , Chang L i a n g  j|r  ) and  ) did.  same dream as p o r t r a y e d i n these words i s a l s o i n d i r e c t l y  t h r o u g h t h e p o e t ' s l i f e - l o n g a d m i r a t i o n f o r some h i s t o r i c a l  expressed  figures.  These f i g u r e s , t o mention o n l y a few o f them, i n c l u d e the famous p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i s t (tsung-heng-chia Lu C h u n g - l i e n Shang  fe?)  /(cj?  ^  ) i n the Warring  and such d i s t i n g u i s h e d s c h o l a r - r e c l u s e s as Lu  ( a l s o known as Chiang T ' a i Kung J^.  the s e r v i c e he rendered  States period  ; famous f o r  f o r the f o u n d i n g of the Chou d y n a s t y ) , Chu-ko L i a n g  68 ^  %  tfb  '  H  s  i  e  h  A  n  Shang-shan Mountain  ^  ^t  -  C9  '  a  n  d  t  h  e  'So"  F  o  u  r  W  h  i  t  e  -  H  a  i  r  e  °  a  n  e  s  °  f  t  h  e  Among these p e o p l e , Lu and H s i e h  3 seem t o have been most esteemed by t h e poet.  Therefore, a b r i e f d e s c r i p -  t i o n o f t h e i r c a r e e r s (which a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c a r e e r s o f a l l the people j u s t named) w i l l g r e a t l y f u r t h e r our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f L i Po's  dream. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e S h i h c h i , L u C h u n g - l i e n was from t h e s t a t e o f C h ' i 4  but t r a v e l l e d t