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Medieval records of Ombersley manor : (rentals and court rolls, 1300-1500) Scardellato, Gabriele Pietro 1983

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MEDIEVAL RECORDS OF OMBERSLEY MANOR (RENTALS AND COURT ROLLS, 1300 - 1500) by GABRIELE PIETRO SCARDELLATO B.A . , Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 M.A., Univers i ty of Birmingham, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of History) We accept t h i s thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1983 © Gabriele P ie t ro Scarde l la to^ 11 * 3 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of [4 \S<±ory  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The h i s t o r y of E n g l i s h ru ra l s o c i e t y i n the Midd le Ages g e n e r a l l y i s w r i t t en on the b a s i s of records produced by manor ia l l o r d s which r e g i s t e r the dues and o b l i g a t i o n s of tenants as we l l as changes i n h o l d i n g s , f i n e s and other l e g a l t r a n s a c t i o n s which touch on the l i v e s of the v i l l a g e r s . This t h e s i s i s a c r i t i c a l study of the p o t e n t i a l uses of a group of such sources fo r an h i s t o r i c a l " r e c o n s t r u c t i o n " of medieval r u ra l c o n d i t i o n s . The records under review r e f e r to Ombersley, a Midlands manor be longing to the Bened ic t i ne abbey of Evesham, and cover the per iod of the four teen th and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . While by no means comple te , they have su rv i ved to an extent that a s p e c i a l study of t h e i r va lue and the problems connected w i th them i s war ran ted . A b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n on the geographic and set t lement cond i t i ons of the manor (Ch. 1) i s fo l l owed by a survey of the q u a l i t y and quan t i t y of the c o l l e c t i o n of Ombersley account r o l l s , cour t records and r e n t a l s , summarized i n a ca lendar (Ch. 2 and Append ix ) . Recent works on the " r e c o n s t i t u t i o n " o f m e d i e v a l r u r a l commun i t i es have r a i s e d a number of ques t ions on the use of such r e c o r d s ; the present t h e s i s attempts to focus t h i s d i s c u s s i o n to the use and misuse of r e n t a l s ( s u r v e y s ) . The importance of t h i s type of document i n the study of popu la t ion t r e n d s , land d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e l a t e d aspects of manor ia l l i f e de r i ves from i t s weal th of d e t a i l . However, owing to t h e i r s e i g n e u r i a l po in t of view and " s t a t i c " c h a r a c t e r , r e n t a l s are not as r e l i a b l e as o f ten assumed. The problems connected wi th them are d i scussed and i l l u s t r a t e d by an a n a l y s i s of two ex tens i ve r e n t a l s of Ombersley, presented in an annotated t a b u l a t i o n , combining t h e i r data wi th those e x t r a c t e d from cour t r o l l s and other manor ia l records (Ch. 3). These j u x t a p o s i t i o n s enable us to date these and other surveys c o r r e c t l y and to i d e n t i f y the " c a r e e r s " of a good number of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s on the manor. Based on the c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of these i n t e r r e l a t e d s o u r c e s , a summary of the major demographic and economic t rends i s o f f e red fo r the two c e n t u r i e s under rev iew , i n c l u d i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s of the manor 's p o p u l a t i o n , m o r t a l i t y r a t e , rep roduc t i ve c a p a c i t y and i t s economic development as r e f l e c t e d i n the payment of d i f f e r e n t s e i g n e u r i a l dues . Bear ing i n mind some of the common p i t f a l l s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , I p lan to use these data as a bas i s f o r monographic t reatment of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and other d e t a i l s i n Ombersley 's h i s t o r y . i i CONTENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF MAPS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION I. THE MANOR I I . THE RECORDS I I I . THE RENTALS The Rental of "1401" Fi f teenth Century Rental Fragments and Related Documents The Rental of 1472 Rental of 1486 and Later Fragments IV. SUMMARY Population Total Population and Mor ta l i ty Rates Replacement Population B i r th - ra te and Family Size Marriages and L i fe Expectancy Economy Rents Heriot Entry- f ines Economic and Social S t r a t i f i c a t i o n Tasks for Further Research APPENDIX: OMBERSLEY COURT RECORDS OF THE LATER MIDDLE AGES Calendar of Court Records ILLUSTRATIONS . REFERENCES i i i MAPS 1 ROADS, FOOTPATHS AND FIELD SYSTEMS Chapter I - page 9 OF N.E. OMBERSLEY 2 ROADS, FOOTPATHS AND FIELD SYSTEMS Chapter I - page 11 OF S . E . OMBERSLEY iv FIGURES 1 OMBERSLEY RECORDS, 1308-1509 2 A PARTIAL GENEALOGY OF THE LOMPE FAMILY 3 OMBERSLEY DEATHS PER ANNUM 4 ONE-HALF VIRGATE ENTRY FINES PAID IN CASH (FIVE-YEAR AVERAGES) Chapter II - page 21 Chapter I I I - page 108 Chapter IV - page 228 Chapter IV - page 280 v TABLES I PERIODS OF HIGH MORTALITY IN ENGLAND Chapter IV - page 231 IN THE LATER MIDDLE AGES II OMBERSLEY TENEMENT TRANSFERS — RELATION CHAPTER IV - PAGE 236 BETWEEN OLD AND NEW TENANTS III NUMBER OF OFFSPRING PER RECONSTITUTED Chapter IV - page 239 OMBERSLEY FAMILIES IV MALE REPLACEMENT RATES, OMBERSLEY AND Chapter IV - page 243 EAST ANGLIA V MARRIAGE FINES AND OTHER MARRIAGE-RELATED Chapter IV - page 247 PAYMENTS VI ' EXPECTATION OF LIFE AT TWENTY YEARS Chapter IV - page 251 OF AGE VII OMBERSLEY HERIOTS, 1308-1509 Chapter IV - page 258 VIII AVERAGE VALUES OF LIVESTOCK HERIOTS PER Chapter IV - page 264 TEN-YEAR PERIODS IX TYPES OF HERIOTS RENDERED Chapter IV - page 267 X OMBERSLEY ENTRY-FINES, 1308-1509 Chapter IV - page 272 XI OMBERSLEY ENTRY-FINE VALUES, AVERAGE Chapter IV - page 274 PER TEN-YEAR PERIOD vi ILLUSTRATIONS 1 Facsimile of sheet BA 3910/705:56/24(i) page 337 Rental 12 Ed.IV (1472) 2 Facsimile of BA 2910/705:56/24(i i) page 338 Rental 2 Hen.IV '1401' and t ranscr ip t ion of same 3 Facsimile of BA 3910/705:56/24(i) page 341 Rental 12 Ed.IV 1472 and t ranscr ip t ion of same ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research on which th is study i s based was made possible by f inancia l assistance provided by the univers i ty of B r i t i sh Columbia Grants Committee (H.R. MacMillan Scholarship) for which I would l i k e to take th is opportunity to express my apprec ia t ion. My s i s t e r , Teresa, very k indly volunteered to type the ' f i n a l ' draft and never suspected how her generosity would be rewarded. I can only hope that th is a l l too br ie f mention w i l l be some s l igh t repayment for the many hours she laboured on my behalf . My s i s t e r , C laud ia , was seconded for typing re-inforcement by v i r tu re of fami l ia l t i e s . For her cheerful good humour and a i d , I thank her. Miss M. Henderson and the s ta f f of S t . Helen's Record O f f i ce , Worcester, were forever p o l i t e , f r iend ly and eager to ass is t and the i r a t t i tude helped to l ighten the many hours spent within the walls of St . He len 's . Dr. Janos M. Bak was consis tent ly encouraging and patient and showed remarkable perseverance when faced with the incomprehensible and (worse) inedib le ' sa lad ' of pages. I owe him a debt which cannot be f u l l y acknowledged here. P r o f . R.H. Hi l ton provided his assistance in the very ear ly stages of research and kindly shared his considerable knowledge of the West Midlands and allowed me to use his t ranscr ip ts of various Evesham abbey documents. The postgraduate students of the Univers i ty of Birmingham, England (and by the i r i nv i ta t ion the i r tutors and other guests) allowed me to attend the i r s e r i e s of evening Medieval Seminars and consented o c c a s i o n a l l y to hear various versions of th is and other works. The comb'irration of conv i v ia l i t y and more scholar ly in terests was much appreciated. Drs. G.G. A s t i l l and S.A. Wright were there from the beginning and the i r encouragement, comments and f r iendship often proved to be very necessary t on i cs . A number of other people who I am s t i l l p r iv i leged to ca l l f r iends put up with me and my often narrow-minded concerns and always helped me to appreciate the importance of other and more ' r e a l ' i ssues. L a s t , but most cer ta in ly not l e a s t , my w i fe , Kathleen, has l i ved with th is from the beginning and to lerated both ' i t ' and me, helped to ta lk and type i t through i t s various versions and always had or made time to act as a c r i t i c a l audience. More important s t i l l was her insistence that i t could and should be f in ished and i t i s la rge ly because of her that I am able to present the study which fo l lows . To the memory of my fa ther , and for my mother; so that the i r labour, s a c r i f i c e and love is not forgotten. vi i i INTRODUCTION This study began as an attempt to reconstruct the l i f e of an English rural community in the la te r middle ages. Ombersley manor, within the old county of Worcester, i s a good subject for th is type of enterpr ise but some of the reasons for th is also proved to be obstacles to rea l i za t ion of the or ig ina l ambit ion. Consequently, the author's p r i o r i t i e s in a sense were reversed. The central in terest i s s t i l l the reconstruction of Ombersley l i f e in the l a te r middle ages but th is has been supplanted by a concern with the methods used for a reconstruction and more s p e c i f i c a l l y with the documentary sources which are i t s bui ld ing mater ia ls . The history of English medieval rural l i f e general ly has been studied from the vantage point of the h is tory of the great lay and ecc les ias t i ca l estates. Attempts to reconstruct or reconst i tute spec i f i c communities v i l l age and manorial soc ie t ies in par t i cu la r — are far less common. Those which have been produced are based on one type of primary source, namely, the records of the proceedings of manorial court sessions. The j u r i s d i c t i o n of such courts was general ly so broad that the records of t he i r proceedings preserve a surpr is ing var iety of information about__the l i f e of the community which was the i r purview. As we w i l l see, i f care i s taken with the methods used to "process" th is information, and i f a court ser ies i s s u f f i c i e n t l y well-preserved - - as i s the case with Ombersley court records we can often fo l low ind iv iduals through at least that portion of t he i r l i ves when they were act ive members of the i r community. The Ombersley co l lec t ion of primary sources (manorial or extra-manorial) i s also enhanced by i t s rentals and surveys. Most of these (and the rentals in par t icu lar ) are f i f teenth century in o r ig in and survive in conjunction 1 with the bulk of the court record se r i es . It i s the survival of both of these types of manorial documents which i s espec ia l ly important not only for th is study and for a h istory of Ombersley but also for s im i la r studies and for more general estate h i s t o r i e s . In the prel iminary stages of reconst i tu t ing Ombersley society (during the compilation of the biographies of the ind iv iduals who appear in i t s court records) anomalies began to appear as information from one type of document could not always be reconci led with that from another type. At the outset th is was at t r ibuted to the nature and qual i ty of the documents involved (small number of tax l i s t s and court records pre-Black Death, for example). However, th is did not suf f ice as an explanation for one of the main and persistent discrepancies which occurred and which raised the p o s s i b i l i t y that e i ther the court record ser ies was far more poorly preserved than was sus-pected or that another type of document in the Ombersley c o l l e c t i o n - - • rentals in par t i cu la r - - were not what they appeared to be. The nature of the problem only became c lear as more biographies of Ombersley residents were compiled and others improved in the amount of information they contained. Some ind i v idua l s , although said in court records to hold (or even to have held) a tenement "according to the custom of the manor" nonetheless did not appear in an Ombersley ren ta l . At worst we might expect th is type of document to be rather quickly outdated (given, for example, the rapid demographic and other changes which were the norm in the la te r middle ages) but i t should at least provide a general out l ine of condit ions at one point in t ime. In short a rental which i s normally considered to be a re l i ab le guide for a manor's tenant popula-t i o n , for information about the d is t r ibu t ion of land within that populat ion, and for information on one of the main sources of a land lord 's income ( rent ) , 2 proved to be of questionable value for any of these purposes. This obser-vation was very important for determining the general structure and concerns of th is study. In view of the errors which could resul t from a misinterpretat ion of an important type of manorial document (even more important in those instances where court records are not as p len t i fu l as they are for Ombersley) I decided to pursue a study of manorial documents in general - - and rentals in p a r t i -cular - - in the context of the Ombersley c o l l e c t i o n . Therefore, the concerns of th is study are th ree - fo ld . F i r s t , a f ter a br ie f discussion of Ombersley's e a r l y h i s t o r y and geographica l s e t t i n g , I w i l l attempt to desc r ibe the records on which a reconst i tut ion of a medieval peasant society can be based. Second, the uses (and p o s s i b l e abuses) of these records in general and rentals in par t i cu la r w i l l be considered (the l a t t e r being also useful for revealing the shortcomings of court records) . F i n a l l y , I shal l t ry to des-cr ibe the nature of the data which can be compiled from these records. By summarising them, I shal l t ry to i l l u s t r a t e how they are relevant for the study of two aspects (demographic trends and economic change) of manorial l i f e in the l a te r middle ages, and how they can serve as a basis for a f u l l e r reconstruction of the l i ves of tenants and the i r fami l ies at Ombersley. That task shal l have to be l e f t for a l a t e r , monographic, study. 3 I. THE MANOR The medieval manor of Ombersley was located some distance from Evesham, the abbey of which was i t s l o r d . It was si tuated to the north of Worcester on the eastern bank of the River Severn within what was the old county of Worcestershire. The area of the manor i s approximately three and one-quarter miles (5 km) wide and about 5 miles (8 km) in length along the Kidderminster-Worcester road which runs north-south through the manor. The v i l l age of Ombersley i t s e l f l i e s s l i g h t l y south of i t s geographical centre which is near the crossing of the Kidderminster-Worcester and the (east-west) Droitwich-Tenbury roads. From th is point the distance south to Worcester i s approxi-mately f i ve and two-thirds miles (9 km) and four miles east (6 1/2 km) to Droitwich. The manorial boundary was coterminous with that of the parish and fol lows a ser ies of natural features in the landscape. The River Severn forms the western boundary while the eastern one fol lows a number of streams, runs into the River Salwarpe in the south and f i n a l l y turns west into the Severn. At i t s southern-most point th is boundary i s approximately three and one-half miles (5 1/2 km) distant from Worcester. The northern boundary runs east from the Severn (along a l i ne formed by a gul ley in the side of a ridge which protrudes south i n t o the manor) and a f t e r c ross i ng the K iddermins te r -Worcester road turns south and east to jo in the streams already mentioned. Within these boundaries the manor/parish covers some 7,129 acres (c_. 2,887 hectares) of which, in 1913, [VCH Worcs., i i i , p.460] some 86 were covered by water. G e o l o g i c a l l y , the area i s by no means homogenous. The manor straddles two of the seven geological regions into which the county as a whole has been 4 d i v i d e d and t h i s i s compl ica ted f u r t h e r by the f a c t tha t the manor i s a l s o s i t u a t e d on a r i ve r -bank [Darby & T e r r e t t , 1971, p .267 ] . Almost the whole o f the nor thern p o r t i o n o f the manor, tha t i s the area nor th of the Tenbury-D r o i t w i c h r o a d , i s p a r t o f t h e s o u t h e r n - m o s t e x t e n s i o n o f t he T r i a s s i c Sandstone region of nor th W o r c e s t e r s h i r e , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " sha l l ow hungry s o i l s " [ i b i d . , p .269 ] . However, they improve in the southern reaches i n c l u -d ing Ombersley . The southern h a l f of the manor l i e s w i t h i n the region known as the P l a i n of Worcester which l o c a l l y c o n s i s t s of a " r o l l i n g lowland of redd ish Keuper M a r l " [ i b i d . , p .270 ] . A l though , i n g e n e r a l , the marls produce heavy, i l l - d r a i n e d s o i l s they are improved i n p laces by patches of sand and gravel which "p rov ide more favourab le s i t e s f o r se t t l emen t " [ i b i d . ] . The ex i s tence of t h i s sand/grave l f ea tu re i n the southern po r t i on of the manor i s i n d i c a t e d by the low land on the eas te rn s ide of the r i v e r Severn . The contours here i n d i c a t e r i v e r grave l t e r r a c e s more u s u a l l y assoc ia ted w i th meandering r i v e r s such as the Avon i n the south-eas t of the county i n the Vale of Evesham. This g e o l o g i c a l i n fo rmat ion i s important because of i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the chronology of se t t l emen t . I f , as has been suggested , the e a r l i e s t p r e -h i s t o r i c set t lement i n the West Midlands occurred i n the r i v e r v a l l e y s and p l a i n s where the s o i l cou ld be e a s i l y worked due to i t s sand/grave l base, or where the r i v e r s themselves prov ided easy access through dense f o r e s t to such s i t e s , then there i s good reason to assume tha t set t lement at Ombersley dates from t h i s pe r iod [ H i l t o n , 1966, pp .13 -4 , Sawyer, 1974, pp .274-94 ] . Recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n Warwickshi re have shown the "extreme importance of g l a c i a l sands and g rave ls i n r e l a t i o n to the s i t i n g of a se t t lement " and a l s o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the term "01 d f i e l d " as an i n d i c a t o r of such s i t e s [Sawyer, 1974, pp .288 -9 ] . At Ombersley an " O l d f i e l d " has su rv i ved as the 5 name of a farm north of the present v i l l age of Ombersley. This farm, l i k e the v i l l a g e , l i e s on the low land extending eastward from the banks of the Severn into the centre of the manor. There i s , in f ac t , some archaeological evidence for preh is tor ic s e t t l e -ment at Ombersley. A ground and polished stone axe of Neol i th ic date has been found at th i s 01df ie ld farm [Pevsner, 1968, p.42], and a ringed palstave of the Bronze age was dug up in a f i e l d in Lineholt Common in the north-east of the manor. At Hadley (on the Ombersley-Droitwich road) to the east of Ombersley there ex is ts the (undated) s i t e of a camp with entrenchments. In the ear ly nineteenth century several mounds near to th is s i t e were leve l led and "red earth" ware was discovered in them [VCH Worcs., i v , p.463]. The f i r s t reference to the manor dates from the ear ly eighth century. In 701, Egwin, bishop of Worcester, was granted land at a place ca l led Ethom ( la ter Evesham) and founded there a monastery dedicated to the Virgin Mary [VCH Worcs., i i , p.113, Knowles & Hadcock, 1953, p.54 et seq . ] . In 710 he resigned from the see of Worcester and became the abbot of his new founda-t i o n . By the time of his death in 717 the monastery owned some 120 mansus. Amongst these were twelve casata (hides) of land at Ombersley which had been granted to the Abbey in 706 by Ethel ward, subregulus of the Hwiccas, with the consent of King Coenred. The charter recording th is par t i cu la r grant refers to Ombersley by i t s Anglo-Saxon name, Ambreslege [Haddan & Stubbs, 1964, i i i , p.278, Cartularium Saxonicum, 1885-93, i , p.171, 116]. The name, held to mean Ambrose's leah , i s derived from two elements: a leah was an open place or c lear ing in-^a wood or forest and the name i s a version of the archaic Vandal personal name Ambri [Mawer, Stenton & Houghton, 1927, p.268]. Recent research indicates that the use of archaic personal name elements in place-name formation probably dates from the s ix th or seventh century as opposed to 6 the la te r Anglo-Saxon period [Sawyer, 1974, p.207]. This would also concur with what i s known of the immigration of the Saxons into the West Midland region. Domesday Book contains also only the manor's name, but a century la te r an estate survey reveals the existence of more than one settlement within the manor. An Evesham Abbey cartulary of the second hal f of the twelf th cen-tury* describes various tenants' holdings according to the manorial set t le- : ments to which they belonged. Seven settlements are referred to in th is document and, together with others, these appear in the ea r l i es t surviv ing court records more than a hundred years l a t e r . These hamlets continue to be l i s t e d throughout the 200 years covered by the records edited here, and most of them survive as e i ther hamlet or farm names. Of the twenty-one place-names contained in the rental of 1401, seventeen hamlet names can be found on modern maps. These hamlet names frequently appear in tenant surnames in order to d is t ingu ish between two persons with the same family name. In f ac t , there were seventeen tithingmen for the manor (as opposed to the more normal number of twelve found elsewhere in Worcestershire) who were ca l led upon in each cour t , one tithingman for each hamlet. The hamlets themselves are evenly d is t r ibuted over the area of the manor and, in the main, fo l low the geographical contours. The manorial boundary encompasses two h i l l s . The main north-south and east-west roads divide the manor into four (unequal) sections and the higher h i l l l i e s in the north-western sect ion thus formed. This h i l l i s actual ly the southern portion of a ridge which continues north into the adjoining parish of Hartlebury and i s approximately 350 feet (c . 115 m.) high where i t i s crossed by the northern boundary of the manor. On the eastern side of th is ridge are si tuated the hamlets Acton, Comhampton, Dunhampton, Brookhampton, Sytchampton, Northampton 7 and Uphampton. These a l l l i e within the 150 to 250 foot (c . 50 m to 80 m) contours and the land slopes away from them to the eastern boundary. On the western side of th is r idge, between i t and the River Severn, are the hamlets Winnal l , Boreley and Powers. Ombersley i t s e l f i s s i tuated almost at the southern t i p of th is ridge in a s l igh t va l ley between the two h i l l s . The second h i l l l i e s in the south-eastern sect ion of the manor and r ises only to approximately 200 feet (c. 65 m). Around i t , moving clockwise from Ombersley, are s i tuated the hamlets Hadley, Mayeux (now Mayhouse Farm), Woodhouse, Chatley and Suddington. These a l l l i e between the 100 to 150 foot (c_. 30 m to 50 m) contours. Chatley i s the southernmost of th is r ing of hamlets while Hawford l i e s s t i l l further south and west of Cha t l ey , j u s t o f f the main nor th -sou th road. This set t lement pa t te rn seems to be wel l su i t ed fo r the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the manor's resources. From the system of roads and footpaths, i t i s possible to see how each hamlet i s s i tuated so as to have access to water, pasture, meadow and arable [Ordinance Survey, Droitwich (West), Sheet SO 86, 1966 ed . ] . This i s pa r t i cu la r l y c lear in the area of the manor north of the Tenbury-Droitwich road. The "Ombersley-Hartlebury" ridge i s the area's most dominant geographical feature and the land on e i ther side seems to have been divided into r e c t i -l i near f ie ld-systems, running east to west. The road on the crest of the ridge would appear to be the boundary d iv id ing the land of the "hampton" hamlets on i t s eastern side from that of the hamlets on i t s western s ide . Thus, the "hamptons" had access not only to the low and marshy ground of the eastern edge of the manor (for good meadow and pasture) but also to the higher (and better drained) land on the slope of the r idge. Settlements l i k e Comhampton, Dunhampton, Brookhampton and Sytchampton are si tuated midway 8 between the eastern manorial boundary and the ridge-crest. Moreover, their otherwise close position to each other north to south is relieved by their access to land on the east and west (see Map I ) . MAP 1 - Roads, Footpaths and Field-systems of N.E. Ombersley ••Streams ••Manorial Boundary •-Worcester-Kidderminster Rd. -•'Ridge-Crest' Rd. Secondary Roads ^Footpaths and/or Tertiary Roads A Acton C Comhampton t> Dunhampton S Sytchampton ft Brookhampton N A s i m i l a r arrangement of f i e l d s can be seen on the western s ide of the r i d g e a l t h o u g h perhaps not as c l e a r l y because o f t h e s t e e p e r c o n t o u r s . Hamlets l i k e Bore ley are s i t u a t e d midway between the Severn and the r i d g e -c r e s t . F i n a l l y , i t should be noted tha t both s ides of the r idge have severa l streams and sp r ings which a f fo rded good access to a water supply f o r s e t t l e -ments. Comhampton, f o r example, i s s i t u a t e d at the head of a stream and names l i k e Brookhampton and Sytchampton [" the set t lement by the s i c or water -c o u r s e " , Mawer, Stenton & Houghton, 1927, p.168 et s e q . ] i n d i c a t e the a v a i l a -b i l i t y of water . In the cen t re and south of the manor the land i s g e n e r a l l y much lower and more open and the set t lement pa t te rn more d i s p e r s e d . The number of leah elements i n va r ious place-names (Had ley , C h a t l e y , Ombersley) and other r e f -erences to woodland (as i n Wood House hamlet) i n d i c a t e se t t lements i n an area which was once h e a v i l y wooded. The f i e l d - s y s t e m s of the cen t ra l and southern hamlets f o r the most par t surround t h e i r r espec t i ve se t t lements and i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to imagine the o r i g i n s of such set t lements in f o r e s t c l e a r i n g s which subsequent ly were expanded around each hamlet as i t s popu la t ion grew (see Map. 2 ) . 10 MAP 2 - Roads, Foothpaths and Field-systems of S .E . Ombersley « v St reams Manorial Boundary ••Worcester-Kidderminster Rd. Secondary Roads mm Footpaths and/or Tert iary Roads Woodhouse C Chatley M Hawford As s t a t e d , the hamlet names of Ombersley manor do not appear in documen-tary sources unt i l the second half of the twelfth century. However, the fact that a l l of them are derived etymological ly from Old English suggests a pre-Conquest date for the i r foundation, but th is is a l l that can be assumed with any cer ta in ty . No studies in toponymy and related matters are precise enough to reveal in deta i l the process of settlement expansion at Ombersley and with i t the chronology of the exp lo i ta t ion of i t s resources. It i s possible that the settlement pattern within the manor was already establ ished in 706 but unt i l more i s known about the extent of pre-Saxon settlement in such a r e a s , the number of Saxon immigrants who took them over and the development of Saxon populat ion, th i s question i s best l e f t unanswered. For our purposes i t i s su f f i c ien t to note that by the beginning of the fourteenth century the settlement pattern had reached what would appear to be a point of maximum expansion and was not altered substantially in the later Middle Ages. Unfor tunate ly , t h i s dearth of information concerning the chronology of settlement at Ombersley i s surpassed by the dearth of information on i t s inhabitants before the fourteenth century. Given th is lack , l i t t l e can be said about that society which already had been in existence for several centur ies, before we can study i t in the la te r Middle Ages through the c o l -lec t ion of manorial documents. Much of what i s re f lected in the records presented here would benefit from comparisons with pre-fourteenth century developments, but no records permit us to do so. Seen in the perspective of the whole of the Abbey's es ta te , Ombersley, while not as distant from Evesham as say Wimborne Minster, i s nonetheless an exception to the pattern of 'remarkable' concentrations [H i l t on , 1966, p.35] exhibi ted by the estate propert ies. Ombersley was also something of an exception in terms of the amount of income i t provided annually for the Abbey. In th i s respect, i t was second only to the Abbey's Evesham property as a source of revenue. According to the Valor Ecc les ias t icus of 1535, the Abbey received from the l a t t e r an annual to ta l income of 162-1 i .15s .8d . and from the churches w.ithin the same pa r i sh 134 l i . 1 9 s . 7 d . In comparison 12 Ombersley provided the Abbey with 127 l i . 7 s . 9 3/4d. in customary rents , demesne leases, f i n e s , e t c . , and the parish church at Ombersley netted the Abbey annually some 27 l i . l 5 s . , in to ta l 155 pounds, 2 s h i l l i n g s and 9 3/4 pence. Only two other manors from the Abbey's lengthy l i s t of propert ies came close to these t o t a l s . Comparisons between f igures recorded in the Valor and those in Domesday Book are cer ta in ly problematic, considering not only the several hundred years which separate the two surveys but, a l s o , the d i f ferent reasons for the i r compi lat ion. S t i l l , Ombersley's re la t i ve worth recorded in the Valor i s substantiated by the Domesday f igu res . In Evesham i t s e l f , the Abbey's holding was said to be three hides (a l l free from geld) and at the time of the Conquest th is was worth 3 l i . , afterwards 4 l i . , and by 1086, 5 l i . l O s . Bengeworth, l i s t e d as four h ides, was worth 3 l i . , 2 l i . 10s. and 3 l i . respect ively [VCH Worcs., i , pp.306-7]. At Ombersley the Abbey was said to have held f i f teen hides at the time of the Conquest and although i t was claimed that in the past twelve of these were free from geld the Domesday decision was that only three should be f ree . The manor was judged to have been worth 18 l i . at the Conquest (and af ter) and 16 l i . in 1086 [VCH Worcs., i , p.307]. These sums become a l l the more important when compared with the f igure of £ . 126 l i . which was the Domesday valuation for the whole of Evesham's estate. It i s not surpr is ing that th is manor (and others) was seen by the Abbey as a valuable estate asset and one that was not only worth f igh t ing for but also worthy of investment. In the th i r teenth century, the Abbey assarted land at Ombersley, made fish-ponds and carr ied out various bui ld ing works. Expenditure of th is type was continued into the fourteenth century and l a t e r , with the enclosure of 300 acres to make a deer-park, more bui ld ing and the restorat ion of fish-ponds and m i l l s [Chron. Ab. Eve. , 1863, pp.261-304]. 13 BL Cotton Ms. Vespasian Bxxiv f .26 , " , . . [A ]n unpublished cartu lary of Evesham Abbey.. .(containing) descr ipt ions of the manors. . . " of i t s estate which was compiled c i r ca 1182 [H i l t on , 1966, p.67], I am indebted to Professor Hilton for providing me with his transcript of this cartulary. 14 I I . THE RECORDS Having establ ished the geographic set t ing for the manor, the present chapter i s intended to survey the documentary sources and discuss the pro-blems encountered in the i r use as h i s t o r i ca l sources of information about the people of Ombersley. This w i l l include a review of the type, qual i ty and quantity of the documents in the Ombersley co l lec t ion and a descr ipt ion of the method of preparation of the information preserved in these documents for s t a t i s t i c a l and other types of ana lys i s . Studies which attempt to bring to l i f e medieval rural communities are not new. Some of these have been sub-jected to a c r i t i c a l review recent ly ; th is w i l l be considered because i t can provide a useful reference point for th is chapter and study. The major i ty of the documents which can be used to re-construct l i f e at Ombersley in the Middle Ages are manorial in o r i g i n . They were produced by Evesham Abbey in i t s posi t ion as lord of the manor and consequently are concerned d i r ec t l y with i t s resources — land and people — and the revenues which accrue from these. Another i n s t i t u t i o n , the crown, also was concerned occasional ly with Ombersley and was able to explo i t i t s resources. Some of the records which r e f l e c t these " s t a t e " i n t e r e s t s have s u r v i v e d . The ea r l i es t (apart from Domesday book already discussed above) are the Lay Subsidy R o l l s of 1327 and 1332-3; however, the in fo rmat ion which these preserve i s of l im i ted use for th i s study*. There are no Ombersley rentals of a contemporary date with these r o l l s with which we might compare names, tenements and the amount assessed for the subsidy, for example, and the number of Ombersley court records from th i s period (see below) i s too small to produce an accurate t a l l y of Ombersley t enan ts . In the 1327 tax l i s t a t o t a l of 94 people were assessed at 15 Ombersley for an average assessment of I s . but of those assessed, only 34 have names which are the same (or s im i la r to) people who appear in a manorial 2 court record of the same year (15 October 1327) . Nine Ombersley res idents, for example, were presented in the 1327 court for f a i l i n g to perform the i r autumn labour services (hence they were tenants presumably) but only two of these appear in the Subsidy. The other seven may have evaded the tax, the i r moveable goods were not valuable enough for them to be assessed, or they were 3 not tenants when the tax assessment was made . The subsidy r o l l for 1332-3 poses s im i la r problems of interpretat ion but these are compounded by the very poor condit ion of the surviv ing record. A to ta l of 79 entr ies were made in the r o l l for Ombersley but 47 of these are now pa r t i a l l y or completely i l l e g i b l e . Some of the leg ib le names also appear in the 1327 Rol l and in the court records. Robert atte Vorde purchased a l icense for chevagium (permission to leave and return to the manor) in 1333 (7 October) and a Robert atte Forde was assessed 3s.3d. in 1332-3 and 5s . in 1327 (the highest assessment in th is record). Wil l iam Tounesend or Wil l iam atte Townesende also appears in both r o l l s (he was assessed for 12d. tax in 1327 and 20d. in 1332-3) and the death of a W i l l i am a t te Townesend de  Opampton (Uphamton) was recorded in a 1334 (26 Ap r i l ) Ombersley court record. He had held a messuage and virgate of land and his heriot (an ox and a horse) had a to ta l value of 12s . However, without more information about the ind iv iduals named in these documents, i t cannot be establ ished whether they were also those named in contemporary court records. S imi lar problems ar ise with the attempted integrat ion of the information in two other extra-manorial documents and that preserved in Ombersley manorial records proper. Both of these documents were estate surveys, the ea r l i es t was produced by Evesham Abbey and the other, the Valor Ecc les ias t i cus , was produced by the crown. 16 Ombersley was inc luded by Evesham Abbey in a c a r t u l a r y of the l a t e twelf th century which consists of surveys of a number of the abbey's manors [BL Cotton Ms Vespasian Bxxiv f . 2 6 v ] . The Ombersley survey in the cartu lary mentions only s ix manorial hamlets (one of which, Clegehamt(un), has no counterpart on the fourteenth or f i f teen th century "map" of the manor) and tenants who he ld land in them at the end of the t w e l f t h cen tu ry . Many tenants were not named (the abbey's three cottars in Hevedlega or Hadley, for example) o r , along with the i r tenements, were described in a cursory fashion ("Alured son of U l f i " who held " land" in Barlega or Bor ley) . However, some tenants were named more f u l l y and, at l e a s t , the surnames which appear in these instances may have survived into the fourteenth and f i f teenth 5 centuries . The survey i s also important because i t provides information for a very long-term change in tenur ia l condit ions at Ombersley. The three Hadley cottars ..(cottagers or smallholders) bore the heaviest rent burden of any tenants named in the car tu la ry . They were obliged to labour three week-days for the lord and to fo ld the i r animals on his f i e l ds at n ight . They owed t a l l a g e , pannage and a i d , duty at the l o rd ' s court when he was present and they were required to plough for him (the cartu lary does not s ta te when or f o r how long) and a l so to perform boon (vo lun ta ry ) ploughing and harvest serv ices . Further, i t was stated that the cottars might pay 2s. rent (in l i eu of the three week-days of labour) i f so required together wi th the other 'customs' d e s c r i b e d . The o b l i g a t i o n s of other tenants appear to have been less onerous and were outl ined more b r i e f l y . Tenants in Boreley hamlet were apparent ly f ree from weekly labour services and instead owed a money rent and 'customary' ob l iga t ions , t o l l , pannage, and aid as well as ploughing and hay-making services (although again the l a t t e r were not described in d e t a i l ) ^ . The commutation- of rent to a 17 money payment at Ombersley cannot be out l ined with great precis ion but in la te r court records the scr iba l abbreviation of tenur ia l obl igat ions might refer to a money rent or to a combination of th is and the obl igat ions des-cribed in th i s survey^. The Valor Ecc les ias t icus has already been noted b r i e f l y in the descr ip-t ion of the geographical set t ing of Ombersley (and i t s place within the estate of Evesham Abbey) and i t preserves l i t t l e addi t ional information that i s relevant for a study of manorial inhabi tants. It confirms, for example, the continuation of the Hundredsilver obl igat ion owed by various Ombersley tenants but i t s valuation d i f fe rs from previous sums . The Valor provides some information about two ind iv iduals named in Ombersley manorial documents. Will iam Cokesey, l i s t e d in the Hundredsilver rental in 1498, appears in 1535 as a subseneschal and he may have been a r e l a t i v e of John Cookyshey, q described as "servante of my Lorde Abbott in Evesham" in 1504 (8 October) . John Hawford in the Valor was named as b a i l i f f of the manor of Ombersley and in the court records and rentals from 1493 (30 Apr i l ) to at least 1506 (13 October) we can fol low the career of John Hawford as the tenant of a messuage and v i rga te , j u ro r , tithingman and c o n s t a b l e ^ . However, these two i n d i v i -duals may have been part of an e l i t e or atypical group in Ombersley society and the co l lec t ion of Ombersley manorial documents i s much more important for a study of that larger en t i t y . As i s well-known, there are normally three main types of documents which can be used as sources of information on aspects of manorial l i f e in the Middle Ages. General ly, i f the manor in question was part of the estate of a l i t e r a t e and long- l ived i ns t i t u t i on ( l i ke the Benedictine Abbey of Evesham) that i ns t i t u t i on would have compiled accounts, ren ta ls , surveys, and records of manor court proceedings in i t s role as lord of the manor. A l l of these 18 types of documents survive for Ombersley for the la te r medieval period (some continuing well into the ear ly modern per iod) , although in some instances the i r qual i ty and quantity i s far from i d e a l * * . The medieval port ion of th is co l l ec t i on was writ ten on parchment mem-branes which vary considerably in s ize and in the i r present state of preser-vat ion. Some show signs of wear such as water-staining or tear ing but very few are now so d is f igured as to be i l l e g i b l e . Those which cannot be read with the naked-eye usual ly can be deciphered with the aid of an u l t r a - v i o l e t lamp. The co l l ec t i on suffers most in terms of the quantity of the various types of documents which have surv ived. This i s most evident in the paucity of surviv ing accounts. On th is point , both the Record O f f i ce ' s "Inventory" and "Handl is t" are inaccurate (as they are for the remainder of the medieval portion of the Ombersley c o l l e c t i o n ) . According to the "Handl ist" there are only three pre-sixteenth century accounts extant fo r Ombersley; those being f o r the "accoun t i ng " years (Michaelmas to Michaelmas) 1492-3, 1496-7 and 1499-1500 1 2 . There i s also a fourth surviv ing account for the year 1456-7 which has been 'bound' in the correct chronological sequence with the court records from the reign of Henry 1 3 VI . Obviously, these four are only a tiny__ remnant of those o r i g i n a l l y compiled for the period 1300-1500. However, because these were pr imar i ly "estate" documents "concerned exc lus ive ly with the land lord 's economy" t h i s low survival rate i s not surpr is ing (especia l ly when the estate in question was dissolved) [Titow, 1969, p.25]. In general , l a te r medieval manorial accounts are not highly regarded as sources of information on "the real l i f e of rural England". Many of the extant s e r i e s appear to have become " f o s s i l i z e d " , i n whole or in p a r t , through the la te r Middle Ages. Entr ies in such ser ies were repeated exact ly 19 from year to year , sometimes for a century or more [Carus-Wilson, 1962, p.159; Dyer, 1980, p.162]. References in the four extant accounts suggest that th is had not been the fate of the Ombersley se r i es . In pa r t i cu la r , the entry in these r o l l s which accounts for "allowed and decayed rents" does not show that many of the rents l i s t e d were not paid. In the 1456-7 r o l l , for example, only a port ion of three annual tenement rents were "al lowed" or pardoned and only two tenants were in arrears with the i r rent. However, apart from such suggest ions and re fe rences to l osses of other types of records, they are of l i t t l e use for the present study. The same cannot be said for the main type of document in th is c o l l e c t i o n , the records of the proceedings of manorial cour ts . The surviv ing records (with abbreviated archival references) are tabulated on Figure 1. 20 FIGURE 1: OMBERSLEY RECORDS, 1308-1509 Ed. I I R . I I H. IV H.V EO.IV E D . V - R . I l l H . V 1 I DATE I 1 3 2 6 1 3 2 7 1 3 3 S 1 3 3 6 1 1 3 5 6 1 3 5 7 \r 1 3 6 9 * i, 1 3 7 7 1 3 7 7 1 3 9 9 1 3 9 9 I 1 4 0 1 4-1 4 0 8 i, 1 4 1 2 1 4 1 3 1 4 1 9 4-1 4 2 2 1 4 2 2 1 4 2 2 if 1 4 2 8 1 4 4 6 J-1 4 5 3 t 1 4 5 6 - 7 •1/ 1 4 6 0 1 4 6 1 I 1 4 7 2 i, 1 4 7 7 i -1 4 8 2 1 4 8 3 I 1 4 8 5 1 4 8 5 I 1 4 8 6 14^ 2-3 1 4 9 6 - 7 I 1 4 9 9 - 1 5 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 5 0 7 COURT RECORDS 5 42(11-1»)/27(x1v)/4l(x) 1 7 39(11)/40(t-«) 37 39(1)/34(y-») I 25 35(11-111) V 2 1 2 4 ( v - x 1 ) 9 33(1-111) (Records of 'ordinary' business only)+ 27 27(1x-x111 . xy-xvH1) (Records of 'tenement' transactions only)* 28(x111)/35(1)/27(sv11) 28(x111)/22(v1.v111,x-x11)/35(1) [two records - 'ordinary' and tenement business - for each session held]* RENTALS/SURVEYS X Fx R/cr ACCOUNT ROLLS From 1369 the Abbey adopted a twice-yearly court session system (view of of frankpledge with court). (For a detailed description of the extant Ombersley court records see the Appendix, below) A complete Rental/Survey and/or Account Roll A Rental/Survey fragment (for dates and detailed description see below. Chapter I I I ) A Rental/Survey (Included In the court record series, see Chapter I I I , pp.58 sq) See the Appendix below for a more detailed description 1 4 0 1 1 4 0 8 c. 1 4 2 5 - 7 and revised c . 1 4 3 5 - 4 0 c . 1 4 5 6 - 6 2 c.1482 1498 R/cri R/cr Fx 24(11) (see Chap. I l l , p.l sqq) 28(x) (see Chap. I l l , p.57 sq) 2 4 ( v ) 27(xx) (see Chap. I l l , p.60 sqq) 33(111) (see the Appendix below) 23(x1) (see Chap. I l l , p.65 sqq) 24(1) (see Chap. I l l p.72 sqq) 22(11) (see Chap. I l l , p.171 sqq) (22(1v) (see Chap. I l l , p.1 7 3 sqq) 28(x111) (see Chap. I l l p. 1 7 5 ) 32(11) (see Chap. I l l , p.175 sqq) 1 4 5 6 - 7 1 4 9 2 - 3 1 4 9 6 - 7 33(111) 22(1) 22(111) | 22(y) 21 T h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o r c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e m a n o r c o u r t o f O m b e r s l e y w a s e x t r e m e l y b r o a d , a s w a s n o r m a l l y t h e c a s e w h e n a l o r d h e l d t h e f r a n c h i s e f o r t h e v i s u s f r a n c i p l e g i i t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s f e u d a l o r s e i g n e u r i a l c o u r t . C o n -s e q u e n t l y , t h e t y p e s o f p r o c e e d i n g s w h i c h c o u l d b e " h e a r d " s e m i - a n n u a l l y ( a t l e a s t ) a t O m b e r s l e y w e r e a m i x t u r e o f c r i m i n a l , c i v i l a n d l a n d l o r d a n d s e i g n e u r i a l b u s i n e s s . T h e c o u r t s e r v e d t h e l o r d ' s i n t e r e s t s a s l a n d l o r d , f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h a t i t d e a l t w i t h l a n d o r t e n e m e n t t r a n s a c t i o n s a m o n g s t h i s t e n a n t s , t h e u p k e e p o f t h o s e t e n e m e n t s , a n d v a r i o u s t y p e s o f t r a n s g r e s s i o n s a g a i n s t t h e l o r d ' s e s t a t e , l i k e p o a c h i n g o r t r e s p a s s i n h i s w o o d s . A s a v e h i c l e f o r t h e m a i n -t e n a n c e o f s e i g n e u r i a l r i g h t s , t h e c o u r t w a s u s e d t o c o n t r o l v i l l e i n m o b i l i t y ( t o a n d f r o m t h e m a n o r , f o r e x a m p l e ) , m a r r i a g e s , a n d t o e n s u r e t h e p a y m e n t o f v a r i o u s s e i g n e u r i a l d u e s . H o w e v e r , t h e c o u r t a l s o h e a r d c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e l o r d h a d n o i n v o l v e m e n t , e i t h e r a s s e i g n e u r o r l a n d l o r d , b u t w h i c h c a m e u n d e r i t s p u r v i e w a s a " c i v i l a u t h o r i t y " a n d w h i c h p r o v i d e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o l l e c t a f i n e . P l e a s o f d e b t o r b r o k e n c o n t r a c t b e t w e e n t w o t e n a n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n e v i t a b l y p r o v i d e d a f i n e f o r t h e l o r d r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e d i s p u t e . A l s o , t h e c o u r t w a s u s e d b y p e a s a n t s a s a " c i v i l a u t h o r i t y " i n d e f e n c e o f c o m m u n a l r i g h t s , a s i n a c t i o n s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u a l s w h o o v e r - b u r d e n e d t h e c o m m o n l a n d w i t h a n i m a l s , o b s t r u c t e d p u b l i c t h o r o u g h f a r e s , a n d e n c r o a c h e d o n b o u n d a r i e s . T h i s i s o n l y a s m a l l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h m a y b e f o u n d i n c o u r t r e c o r d s ( m o r e o f w h i c h w i l l b e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w ) b u t i t i s e n o u g h t o u n d e r l i n e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f m a n o r i a l d o c u m e n t f o r t h e s t u d y o f a p e a s a n t s o c i e t y . O f c o u r s e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a c o u r t r e c o r d s e r i e s b e a c o n t i n u o u s o n e a n d i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e O m b e r s l e y s e r i e s i s o n e o f 14 t h e b e s t ( a n d m o s t d e t a i l e d ) t o h a v e s u r v i v e d f o r t h e W e s t M i d l a n d s . 22 The records of some 450 courts are extant for the period 1308-1509 but the average f igure of two and one-half courts per year which can be c a l c u -la ted from th i s i s somewhat mis leading. Lacunae in the s e r i e s , together with changes in the abbey's system of holding courts and recording t he i r pro-ceedings, produce d i s to r t i ons in the year ly d i s t r i bu t i on of court records. The smallest number — a to ta l of 23 - - has survived from the f i r s t hal f of the fourteenth century (1308-35). These are fol lowed by a 21-year hiatus (1336-56) in the s e r i e s . From 1357 to 1360 an average of nine court records per year have survived and these may denote an annual pattern of th i r teen 15 court sessions . Two of these sessions combined a view of frankpledge with small court whi le the remainder were designated as ' cour t ' or ( less frequent ly) "small court" and only once as Halmot(e). However, t h i s year ly pattern of court sessions was abandoned for Ombersley by the end of the 1360's and replaced by a semi-annual "view of frankpledge with small cour t " . One of these was held in the spr ing (normally in the Easter period) and the other in the autumn (at Michaelmas). This system cont inued, unchanged, un t i l the end of the f i f t een th century and beyond . We should a l s o note here tha t tw ice in the course of the f i f t e e n t h century the abbey changed i t s format for t ranscr ib ing the proceedings of Ombersley court sess ions. To judge from those records which survive for the period 1428-1452 the abbey had separated court proceedings into two coter -minous s e r i e s . One of these recorded a l l proceedings which did not include tenement t ransfers while the other ( referred to as the "demise r o l l " ) was devoted en t i r e l y to these p roceed ings 1 7 . In 1453 the abbey abandoned th i s format, and a l l of the extant records for the courts held in the next 24 23 y e a r s were w r i t t e n i n t h e p r e - 1 4 2 8 f o rma t o f one r e c o r d f o r a l l c o u r t b u s i n e s s . The abbey re tu rned to the two- reco rd format i n 1477 and t h i s was ma in ta ined u n t i l the end of the cen tu ry and beyond. T h i s i s a genera l d e s c r i p t i o n of the q u a n t i t y of ex tan t Ombersley cou r t r e c o r d s and no a t t e m p t has been made t o d e s c r i b e e v e r y 1 acuna i n t h e 18 s e r i e s . I t w i l l prove u s e f u l , however, t o d e s c r i b e the type of i n f o r m a t i o n norma l l y found i n an Ombersley cour t record be fore d e s c r i b i n g the methods used t o o rgan i ze t h i s i n f o rma t i on f o r a n a l y s i s . The reco rd of the p rocee -d ings of a "v iew of f rankp ledge w i th smal l c o u r t " s e s s i o n he ld on 1 Oc tober , 1381 has been chosen as the b a s i s f o r t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n b u t , where n e c e s s a r y , 19 re fe rence w i l l a l s o be made to o ther records . A l l Ombersley cour t records d i s t i n g u i s h "v iew of f r a n k p l e d g e " p roceed ings (which were recorded f i r s t ) from those of the " s m a l l " cour t by means of a separa te heading f o r the l a t t e r . Frankpledge bus iness norma l l y c o n s i s t s of the presentments o f the fou r manor ia l a l e - t a s t o r s and seventeen t i t h i n g m e n . In the Oc tober , 1381 s e s s i o n the a l e - t a s t o r s presented a t o t a l of 22 people who had brewed " a g a i n s t the a s s i z e " and the number of t imes each of them had done s o . The t i t h i n g men repor ted the d e f a u l t o r s , those who were o b l i g e d to a t tend the s e s s i o n but who were not i n a t tendance and a number of cases of breaches of the peace - - f o r example, an a f f r a y where b lood was drawn or a qua r re l (or o ther d i s t u rbance ) which caused the ' hue ' t o be r a i s e d . They a l s o presented a m i sce l l aneous c o l l e c t i o n of o f fenses such as tha t committed by John P i p s t i l e who wrongly ploughed the boundary between h i s land and the l o r d ' s demesne or t h a t committed by R ichard Crompe de Uppamton (Uphampton) who enc losed a p o r t i o n of common pas tu re i n B u r n e h l l e f e l d w i thout l i c e n s e . Th is p a r t i c u l a r s e s s i o n ends w i th a n o t i c e of f i n e s l e v i e d aga ins t R ichard Dyngul and Henry a t t e Mere who " d e c e p t i v e l y s o l d suspect pork meat" and t h i s 24 is followed by a note of the sun of money which is the aroint collected in perquisites at this session. Some otherwise common items of frankpledge business at Ombersley do not appear in t h i s record. It was a lso the duty of the tithingmen to repor t , when necessary, those male inhabi tants of the manor who had not been entered in to a t i t h i n g although they were of legal age or had resided in the manor for a year and a day. Legal age was spec i f i ed sometimes as twelve years but , for demographic a n a l y s i s , we can only assume that i f male o f fspr ing were older than t h i s then the tithingmen provide us with t h e i r actual age. In 1391 (3 A p r i l ) , fo r example, two sons were said to be fourteen years old and more and not entered into a t i t h i n g , and three others were twelve, th i r teen 20 and f i f t een years o ld . The tithingmen also normally reported the where-abouts of v i l l e i n s i f any were known to be dwel l ing outside the manor and these reports (espec ia l l y in the f i f t een th century) can be quite de ta i l ed . Through the l i s t s of na t i v i extra dominium we are often able to fol low- a v i l l e i n (year by year) from one extra-manorial residence to another and his or her career in terms of occupat ion, marriage, o f f sp r i ng , manumission and death. A s im i l a r report ing of na t i v i ext ra dominium has been noted on the manors of Ramsey abbey by P r o f . J . A . R a f t i s [1964, p .153 ] . At l e a s t a pa r t i a l answer to the question which he raised about the reason(s) for such l i s t s can be provided in two Ombersley careers . Margaret, widow of Wil l iam Al lewey, a v i l l e i n tenant, re-married in 1419 (1 May) and fo r fe i t ed the tenement which she had held according to her r ights as a v i l l e i n widow. The f o r f e i t was duly proclaimed in the court and Richard, son of Wi l l i am, was granted and surrendered his r ight because he was resident on the abbey's manor of Hampton (near Evesham). His brother, Thomas, was said to be "of such governance that he could not remain wi thin the county of Worcester". 25 Richard, sworn into a t i t h i n g in 1394, was f i r s t noted as outside the manor and in Evesham in 1396. In 1414 th i s report was amended to read "Hampton iuxta Evesham" and in 1432 he was said to "have issue the re " . His death at Hampton was recorded in an Ombersley court record of 14 October 1434 and th i s was repeated un t i l 1440 when his ' i s s u e ' was described as two daughters., Their marriages were recorded in 14 October 1442 and by 1447 someone produced the information that Richard also had a son who was, by t h i s date, the reeve on the abbey's manor of Bradwel l . It was obviously important in 1419 to es tab l i sh the r ights of Margaret 's (or Wi l l i am 's ) o f fspr ing to her tenement before i t was r e - l e t . It may have been as important to keep track of grand-c h i l d r e n f o r s i m i l a r reasons (no f u r t h e r genera t ions can be t r aced in Ombersley court records) . F i n a l l y we should a lso note that these absent v i l l e i n s were not necessar i ly fug i t i ves from the i r l o r d ' s domain. In 1414 (20 July) the tithingmen were ordered to enquire about two servants (famuli) "who might serve the l o r d " . The tithingmen duly reported the names of two sons of Ombersley residents (one a v i l l e i n and the other of " f ree condi t ion") and another r e s i d e n t was granted l i c e n s e to conduct one of these (the v i l l e i n ) to Evesham. The record of the "sma l l " court proceedings for October, 1381 (and such records in general) are somewhat more complex than those of frankpledge proceedings. The 1381 record begins with a l i s t of defaul tors (not only v i l l e i n s but also those who held customary tenements) fol lowed by a ser ies of admonitions against various tenants for not cu l t i va t i ng t h e i r land and order-ing them to do so under threat of a f i n e . Three other presentments con-cerning tenements were made in t h i s cour t . The f i r s t noted the death of a tenant, the her iot co l lec ted from the chat te ls he l e f t and the f a i l u r e of any hei rs to come and claim t he i r r ights to the vacant tenement (which was then 26 taken into "the l o r d ' s hands"). The second presentment recorded a surrender by a tenant of h is holding because he was unable to maintain i t . In the t h i r d presentment a "rundown" tenement cons is t ing of a messuage and ha l f - v i rga te of land was le t to E l i zabe th , daughter of Richard Dyr. Bes ides ent r ies of t h i s type a large part of each small court record i s normally taken up by cases of in t ra- tenant l i t i g a t i o n . In the October, 1381 sess ion , 30 cases were heard ranging from a charge of trespass made by one tenant against another to a charge of broken contract brought by two tenants against a t h i r d . In a d i f fe ren t ve in , the l o r d ' s b a i l i f f presented two residents for brewing ale and attempting to avoid the customary serv ice of 21 the manor known as Tolale and they were each f ined 3s .4d. . It was a lso recorded in t h i s court that Richard Pr iour was removed from the o f f i ce of beadle but his successor was not named. P o t e n t i a l l y there were a large number of manorial o f f i ces which could be held by Ombersley residents but the tenure of some i s reported more f r e -quently and regu lar ly than that of o thers. In the second ha l f of the four-teenth century, fo r example, we read occas ional ly of the replacement of one reeve by another or of woodwards, warreners, haywards and the l i k e but often only the o f f i ce was named and not the ind iv idua l who held i t . A l so , in t h i s per iod , no record was kept of the names of the seventeen tithingmen and 22 twelve j u r o r s who made presentments at each cour t s e s s i o n . In the f i f teen th century the l i s t s of both jurors and tithingmen normally were recorded for every court session as were the names of the four manorial a l e - t a s t o r s . The next most often mentioned were the two constables and two afeerers (assessors of f ines) but other posi t ions in manorial government ?3 continued to be mentioned infrequent ly . F i n a l l y , the l as t t yp ica l item of business in the October, 1381 record concerns the daughter of a v i l l e i n who 27 pa id 13s .4d . f o r l i c e n s e to marry a man of He r t l ebu ry ( the b ishop of Worces te r ' s manor immediate ly to the nor th of Ombers ley) . The l i c e n s e included permission for her to l i v e there with him for his l i f e t ime and to be allowed to come and go (enter and leave the manor) without impediment from the l o r d ' s "m in i s te rs " . An Ombersley court record obviously preserves a considerable amount of information on various aspects of manorial l i f e . The record described here mentions approximately 150 people in the course of some 20 d i f fe rent types of presentments even though the pract ice of l i s t i n g tithingmen and jurors had not yet been adopted and no presentment for na t iv i extra dominium were made. We need only m u l t i p l y t h i s example by the t o t a l number of ex tant cour t records to r ea l i ze the potent ia l amount of information ava i lab le in the en t i re s e r i e s . , I r o n i c a l l y , i n e i t h e r i t s medieval format or i n the more condensed version produced in the course of t ranscr ib ing the o r ig ina l documents, t h i s body of information i s i t s e l f an obstacle to research. In both these forms i t i s too cumbersome to al low ready access to i t s contents. This can be overcome to some extent by quant i fy ing items of information but a large part of the material e i ther does not al low such treatment or loses i t s s i g n i f i -cance i f so t rea ted . In the worst case i t even f a i l s to reveal the impor-tance of a pa r t i cu la r group of f a c t s . For example, we can quantify the number of people presented for brewing against the ass ize and ca lcu la te from th i s the average number of times each ind iv idua l did so over a given per iod. This procedure, however, might not reveal the fact that brewing was the l i ve l i hood of a pa r t i cu la r member of the community. 28 S i m i l a r problems a r i s e i f the presentment ( s e l l i n g suspect pork meat) aga ins t Henry a t t e Mere i n 1381 i s cons ide red on ly i n terms of f requency and average amount per f i n e . I t i s use fu l t o know these d e t a i l s but what appears to be more s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i s the f a c t t ha t Mere was presented f o r t h i s o f fence i n o ther s e s s i o n s and he was a l s o f i n e d f o r s e l l i n g mutton i l l e g a l l y , ove r -bu rden ing the commons, and brewing a g a i n s t the a s s i z e . Given t h i s type of i n f o r m a t i o n about Mere, a long w i th d e t a i l s about the land he he ld i n Ombersley, i t becomes p o s s i b l e to assess h i s p o s i t i o n i n Ombersley s o c i e t y . These few components of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b iography have been e x t r a c t e d from the cour t records through the use of a surname-based i ndex ing sys tem. 24 The procedure i n v o l v e d i s s i m p l e , a l though t ed ious . From the o r i g i n a l document each re fe rence to an i n d i v i d u a l i s cop ied onto an index c a r d . Where two or more people were i n v o l v e d i n a presentment a card i s compi led f o r each but the e n t i r e presentment i s on ly reproduced on the card composed f o r the p e r s o n j u d g e d t o be i t s p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e . The o t h e r c a r d s a r e c r o s s -re fe renced t o t h i s f i g u r e but o the rw ise con ta i n i n f o rma t i on thought t o be r e l e v a n t on l y t o the i n d i v i d u a l whom they r e p r e s e n t . Then, these cards are so r ted a l p h a b e t i c a l l y and by yea r and from the f i l e thus produced i t i s p o s s i b l e to compi le i n d i v i d u a l h i s t o r i e s or b i o g r a p h i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , but not u n u s u a l l y , these are r a r e l y as complete as we would l i k e them to be . One example, the b iography of W i l l i a m Ams lo t , w i l l s u f f i c e to i l l u s t r a t e those o m i s s i o n s w h i c h a r e e x p l i c a b l e i n te rms o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a v a i l a b l e sources and those which are no t . 29 AMSLOT, Wil l iam (a condensed version of his biography) 18 May 1373 son and hei r of the widow Agnes A . , succeeds her in 1 mes. and 1 nook and 1 mes. 1/2 v i rgate ca l l ed D o l u t e l l , both tens, in Hadley, entry f ines 10s. & 20s. 28 Oct. 1374 Exchanges land with Ric s . Couper, 5 se l ions of De lu te l fe ld for 3 se l ions of Amslotesfe ld, f ine for l i e . 6d. 2 Oct. 1391 sons Richard and John of legal age but not in t i t h i n g 19 Apr. 1395 son Thomas of legal age and not in t i t h i n g and Wm. f ined 22 Oct. 1397 son Henry " " " 2 Aug. 1406 l i s t e d as ju ror son John leased t en . Couper's in Hadley 14 Oct. 1408 l i s t e d as j u ro r , ca l l ed Wm Amslot de Hadley 4 Oct. 1412 Wm. & C r i s t i na his wife seek the i r r ights to Couper's t en , in Hadley but said to have fo r fe i t ed t he i r r ights ad~opus et  usus t he i r son John, t en . l e t to Thorn, at te Walle 16 Feb. 1419 ' Wm. named as Hadley free tenant in Hundredsi1ver l i s t 24(v) 7 Oct. 1427 Th. at te Wall surrenders 1 mes. 1/2 v i rgate ca l l ed Couperes i n Hadley ad opus et usus Wm. and Wm. leased i t and entry f ine 40d. e t c . In t h i s example several important items of biographical information are missing because of the nature of the documents used to compile the biography. Amslot 's age when he succeeded his mother was not recorded, although the fact that he inher i ted d i r e c t l y impl ies that he was not a minor. Minor i ty here can have a meaning which i s d i s t i n c t from that of t i t h i n g or " legal age" (which we assume to be twelve years or more) and can be determined by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to enter and maintain a tenement. A legal minor might lease a tenement but only in the custody of another tenant or parent who assumed respons ib i l i t y for the tenant and tenement. However, prospective tenants who were already of legal age or older were sometimes referred to as 30 minors and also placed in the custody of a guardian when they leased tene-ments. In other manorial j u r i s d i c t i o n s t h i s age was determined by custom but 25 no statement of the same has survived for Ombersley . An average (derived from biographies l i k e that of Wi l l i am's son John Amslot where we have some ind ica t ion of age) of c i r c a 20 years seems relevant for Ombersley at least in the period 1357-1427. Secondly, no record of Wi l l iam's marriage ex is ts and we can only speculate that t h i s occurred in or before 1379. This can be establ ished from the 1391 presentment where Amslot was said to have two sons of legal age who had not been entered into a t i t h i n g . Given such problems 26 any analysis of demographic or related topics must be pursued with care . On the pos i t i ve side i t should be noted here that in such biographies there i s a considerable amount of very useful in format ion. It i s poss ib le , for example, to es tab l i sh a tenant 's soc ia l status (Amslot 's pos i t ion as ju ror ) and, poss ib l y , occupation (Henry atte Mere). We are also able to surmise k inship t i e s where they might not otherwise have been suspected. Amslot, for example, exchanged land with Richard Couper in 1374 and in 1406 his son John entered a tenement ca l l ed Coupers in Hadley which had been surrendered by Richard Couper's widow. In 1412 Wi l l iam and Cr i s t i na were denied t he i r claim to t h i s tenement (previously f o r f e i t ed by the i r son) because they had surrendered the i r r ights in favour of John and could no longer claim i t . These r ights were not described but the impl icat ion in the presentment i s that they derived from a kinship t i e with the Coupers. This may wel l have e x i s t e d through C r i s t i n a Amslot because John in 1412 was 27 described as her son . F i n a l l y , i t i s in te res t ing to note that f i f t een years a f ter th i s claim the Couper tenement was surrendered to Wil l iam Amslot and subsequently leased by him. 31 Of c o u r s e , we have not exhausted the var ie ty of information preserved in court records. Nothing has been said about the data they contain for the study of economic developments (entry f i n e s , ren ts , her io ts and s im i l a r indices of economic trends can be studied in considerable de ta i l in Ombersley court records) but these w i l l be discussed below (Chapter IV). It i s impor-tant to note here that court records can also be used to evaluate other manorial documents and for Ombersley, at l e a s t , they are p a r t i c u l a r l y useful for a study of i t s extant rentals and surveys. Normally a number of d i f fe ren t types of manorial records are grouped together in t h i s category, t he i r common feature being some type of survey of tenant h o l d i n g s . Surveys proper d e s c r i b e t e n a n t s ' ho ld ings as we l l as demesne land while Custumals l i s t only tenants ' holding but a lso record a l l se rv i ces , dues and ob l igat ions associated with tenements. Extents describe both demesne and tenants ' land with valuat ions of each and Rentals normally are concerned on ly w i th tenant land and r e n t . With one excep t ion ( the twel f th-century car tu la ry already discussed above) a l l of these subdiv is ions are somewhat a r t i f i c i a l for the Ombersley co l l ec t i on and a l l the documents are best described as ren ta l s . R e n t a l s were use fu l not on ly f o r the l a n d l o r d s f o r whom they were compiled but a lso for t he i r successors because they preserved important information about a manor's most valuable asse ts , i t s land and tenants. This may explain why a r e l a t i v e l y abundant number of t h i s type of document have survived for Ombersley. With such records a landlord was able to determine the h is tory of various tenements i f questions arose about tenant inher i tance r ights and the lo rd could also es tab l i sh a tenant 's tenur ia l ob l i ga t ions . At Ombersley, for example, in 1357 (22 May) John Dodyng's query concerning " a l l the s e r v i c e s and customs" to which he was l i a b l e f o r h i s tenement was 32 resolved with a search "high and low" in the Londbok . This type of i n f o r -mation i s a lso important for contemporary research but rentals are more important because of what they reveal about the manorial tenant populat ion, d i s t r i bu t i on of tenements wi th in that populat ion, and the average s ize of tenement or ho ld ing . Court records may also contain t h i s information but i t i s c l ea r l y more d i f f i c u l t to compile from them and, unless the ser ies i s 29 s u f f i c i e n t l y we l l -p reserved, may resul t in serious misca lcu la t ions . A to ta l of nine f i f teenth-century Ombersley rentals are l i s t e d in the Record O f f i ce ' s "Inventory" but there are only four complete ren ta l s , those which are dated by t he i r headings as having been compiled in 1401, 1472, 30 1486, and 1500 . The other f i ve l i s t e d in the "Inventory" are fragments of complete r o l l s and, although the precise dating of some of these i s problem-a t i c , there seems l i t t l e doubt that they are also from the f i f teen th century. In addi t ion to these nine documents there are two renta l - type records which were not compiled as separate r o l l s but rather as part of the court record s e r i e s . The f i r s t of t h e s e , a l i s t of Ombersley tenants l i a b l e to the ob l iga t ion known as Hundredsil ve r , was recorded in a court held in 1419 (16 February). The other, a l i s t of tenants who held various port ions of demesne land , was compiled in 1448 on the back of a membrane recording the pro-31 ceedings of a court session of 24 Henry VI . The r e v i s i o n s which can be seen in some of these Ombersley rentals are a useful reminder of one of t he i r l i m i t a t i o n s ; namely, the s t a t i c character of t h i s type of manorial document should be noted. Rentals may mislead because they describe manorial condit ions at a f i xed moment and even a number of consecutive rentals cannot be re l i ed upon to reveal a l l of the de ta i l s of change. Secondly, i t i s impossible to e s t a b l i s h , on t h e ' b a s i s of renta ls a lone, whether the 'cond i t ions they describe are real or f i c t i t i o u s . For 33 example, though a tenant was charged in a rental with a cer ta in amount of rent , he or she may not have paid i t or may not have ex i s ted . The f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y i s important for a study of the land lo rd 's economy and the second equal ly important for a " recons t i t u t i on " of peasant soc ie ty . One of the uses of manor ia l r e n t a l s (or surveys) has r e c e n t l y been discussed — a lbe i t b r i e f l y - - i n a review of a number of studies of Engl ish medieval peasant soc ie ty . In the course of a c r i t i que of the work of Prof . J . A . R a f t i s and h i s c o l l e a g u e s , Dr. Z . Razi d e s c r i b e s h i s c r i t e r i a f o r de l ineat ing d i f fe ren t s t ra ta in peasant soc ie ty . These include economic indices t r a d i t i o n a l l y derived by h is to r ians " . . . according to the s ize of holdings recorded in manorial and state surveys . . . " to which he would add other c r i t e r i a derived from court records ( further evidence of an i n d i -v i dua l ' s economic p o s i t i o n , such as involvement in the land-market, and soc ia l - s ta tus information l i k e o f f i ce -ho ld i ng ) . His review ends with a plea (aimed at those who would attempt to reconst i tu te h i s t o r i c a l peasant soc ie t i es ) for "bet ter data and more sophis t icated methods" [Raz i , 1979, p.151]. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to argue with t h i s sentiment. "Soph is t i ca t ion" in the method(s) used to compile a census of a manorial or v i l l a g e population i s c l e a r l y necessary, for example, i f we wish to use that f igure for demographic or other ana l ys i s . However, Raz i ' s c r i t i que depends to some extent on the d i f f i c u l t supposit ion that the population being studied i s documented s u f f i -c i en t l y at the outset to f a c i l i t a t e the production of better data through more sophis t icated methods. At Halesowen, for example, even with i t s wealth of cour t r e c o r d s , Razi was unable to " l i n k " 23 per cent of the "males i den t i f i ed in the court r o l l s from 1350-1400" to fami l ies reconst i tuted for 32 t h i s period . , 34 This type of obstacle may help to explain why h is to r ians general ly have been content with d i f fe ren t types of " recons t i tu t ions" of manorial popu-l a t i o n s . Rentals or surveys, as Dyer has noted, provide a ready-made des-c r i p t i on of the s t ra ta which const i tu ted a manorial population and also perhaps a "reasonably accurate" census of what has been described as the most s i gn i f i can t group in that populat ion, i t s tenants [Dyer, 1980, p.220]. This census, when used in conjunction with court record data for tenant mor ta l i ty ra tes , can be used to measure the sever i ty of mor ta l i ty recorded at any pa r t i cu la r moment, for example. Moreover, a ser ies of rentals can also be used to judge changes in tenant numbers and changes in soc ia l (or other) groups because of the unchanging nature of the tenements which they descr ibe , as opposed to the i n s t a b i l i t y of t he i r tenants. We could begin , for example, with a reasonably accurate pre-Black Death tenant population f igure (derived from an estate survey) 'and, by comparing t h i s with a f igure (derived from s im i l a r sources) a f te r the Black Death, 33 produce an estimate of the mor ta l i ty caused by the plague . Then, on the basis of t h i s f igure and others derived from subsequent rentals we might es tab l i sh tenant number recovery a f te r the Black Death and s im i l a r long-term t rends. ' A l so , with court record data we can use these tenant population f i g u r e s to measure the s e v e r i t y of annual tenant m o r t a l i t y r a t e s . At Hart lebury, on Ombersley's northern boundary, Dr. C.C. Dyer notes that in the th i rd quarter of the f i f teen th century two sources (records of probated w i l l s and manorial court records) iden t i f y "1473 as a year of except ional ly high mor ta l i ty " independently of each other [Dyer, 1980, p.220]. According to Dr. Dyer's c r i t e r i a (confirmed from other studies of pre-indus t r ia l populations) a doubling of the annual death rate over a three per cent norm represents a moment of c r i s i s mor ta l i t y . A t reb l i ng of the rate 35 (from "about two tenant deaths per annum" in court records to seven in 1473) was c l e a r l y even more severe [Scho f i e l d , 1972; Dyer, 1980, p.221]. (Two tenant deaths per annum i s the equivalent of a three per cent annual mor-t a l i t y rate in a population of 80.) However, h is tenant population f igures are derived from an incomplete Hartlebury rental of 1479-83 which names 66 tenants and p r io r to t h i s an "adjusted" f igure of 80 tenants derived from 1351 accounts (which are backdated to 1349 in the aftermath of the plague) [Dyer,1980, p.237]. In the i n t e r v a l , tenant numbers recovered between the Black Death and the ear ly years of the f i f teen th century and rentals a lso show that on some manors of the estate of the bishop of Worcester ( inc lud ing Hartlebury) "the numbers and proport ions of tenants with large holdings 34 increased dramat ica l ly " by the la te f i f t een th century . This long-term overv iew of tenant popu la t i on t rends at Har t lebury r a i s e s at l e a s t two important quest ions. F i r s t , assuming that the 1349 f igure of 80 tenants i s reasonably accurate how was i t af fected by the post-Black Death recovery? Second, given such a recovery and red is t r i bu t i on of tenements to 1479-83 (so that fewer tenants held more tenements between them) what was Hart lebury 's tenant population in the l as t quarter of the f i f t een th century and do the seven tenant deaths recorded in 1473, for example, represent a moment of c r i s i s mor ta l i ty? (For Ombersley, as we w i l l see, i t i s a lso necessary to ask whether even a complete ren ta l can be t r u s t e d as a record of those condit ions which i t appears to describe and whether the tenants who appear in i t did in fact ex is t at the moment when i t was compiled.) Obv ious ly , we must be as aware of the potent ia l and the l im i ta t i ons of the information provided by rentals as we are of that which i s preserved in court records. The better data which might be produced as a resul t of t h i s awareness then might be used for a more sophis t icated analys is of change. 36 T h e r e f o r e , we propose to use the i n fo rma t i on from one type of manor ia l document court records « to evaluate the qua l i ty of the information con-ta ined in a d i f fe ren t type - - r en ta l s . Following the methodology out l ined above for reconstruct ion of the biographies of Ombersley peasants from court records we should be able to determine whether the manorial tenant population recorded in Ombersley rentals i s an accurate census. This w i l l a lso help to decide the type of analys is of demographic and other trends which i s possib le on the basis of both types of documents. As a resu l t of a l l of t h i s a f a i r l y accurate po r t ra i t should emerge of the Ombersley tenant population at a f i xed moment in t ime. 37 The subsidy of 1327 was a tax of one-twentieth of the value of moveable goods whi le that of 1332-3 was a f i f t een th [Lay Subsidy R o l l , 1895, and Lay Subsidy R o l l , 1899]. See a lso Lay Subsidy Rol l . . . [1893] . . . the port ion of the Tatter which records the Ombersley assessments i s much longer than the other two assessments discussed here (158 names inc luding the Abbot of Evesham for a to ta l in assessed taxes of 28 l i . 12s .2sd ) but i s even fur ther removed in time from the period of t h i s study. A to ta l of £ . 128 names appear in the court record i f we underestimate by count ing s im i l a r names as representing one ind iv idua l - - Richard le Porter and Richard le Portmon, for example. Dyer compares a 1299 survey of the bishop of Worcester's estate with the 1327 tax l i s t and concludes that 59% of the bishop's tenants were omitted i n the assessment. [Dyer, 1980, p.109]. The minimum value of moveable goods for inc lus ion in the assessment was 10s. and 22 of 94 Ombersley residents were assessed the minimum 6d. [ W i l l a r d , Mass. , 1934, p.88]. He was survived by his son Richard who paid 13s.4d. entry f ine for h is f a t h e r ' s tenement. For the nature of these exactions and the i r re la t i ve value at Ombersley in th i s period see Chapter IV below, p.46 et seq. Osbert Ruggs and Hugh Mac were named as Borley tenants in the car tu lary and W i l l i am de Brome was a tenant in Hadley. In Ombersley rental 24 ( i i ) a Richard Brome was l i s t e d as a Hadley tenant and John Rugge, Wil l iam Macke and John Macke were Borley tenants. See below, the ed i t ion of r en ta l 24(11) , 'nos.093, 115, 116 and 117, Chapter I I I , pp.51-97. Number references to ind iv idua ls in the Rentals are to the " I den t i f i ca t i on Number" (second column). BL Cotton Ms. Vespasian Bxx iv , v . 2 6 v , "Robert gives (renders) for his land 6s. and t o l l , pannage, and aid and (he) ploughs and turns the hay". A good descr ip t ion of tenur ia l ob l igat ions in the West Midlands in the twel f th and th i r teenth centur ies i s provided by Hi l ton [1966, p.131-148]. The sum entered in the Valor was 5 l i . 8 s . 5 d . which i s somewhat less than the to ta l ca lcu la ted from an Ombersley rental of 1498. Both of these sums, however, were i n f l a ted by comparison with the o r ig ina l "hundred s h i l l i n g s " noted in a 1419 (16 February) cour t r e c o r d . See below, Chapter I I I , p.99. BA 3910 /705 :56 /22 (x i i ) , 8th day of the month of Oc tober , 20 H.V I I . H e r e a f t e r re fe rences to s p e c i f i c cour t s e s s i o n s w i l l on ly be made accord ing to t he i r 'modern date' - - in t h i s instance 1 October, 1381 - -and the Record O f f i c e re fe rence number, d e s c r i p t i o n of the type of sess ion referred to and s im i l a r information then can be found on the basis of t h i s date in the Appendix, pp.298-333, below. 38 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 John son of W i l l i a m Hawford succeeded h i s f a t h e r i n a messuage and v i r g a t e and two ' p a r c e l s ' of meadow at the l a t t e r ' s death recorded in 1496 (11 October). The annual rent for h is holding was l l s . 9 d . q ' and he pa id 5 l i . as h is entry f ines in t h i s per iod. See below, Chapter IV, p.270 et seq. Ombersley manorial documents are now part of the Sandys' family pr ivate a r c h i v e which has been on permanent loan at St . Helen's Record O f f i ce , Worces te r (now par t of the County of Hereford and Worcester Record Off ice) s ince 1962. The Ombersley port ion of t h i s archive presumably passed in to the Sandys' possession when the family took over the manor in the seventeenth century [VCH Worcs., i i i , p.463-64]. The documents are now l i s t e d b r i e f l y in the Record O f f i c e ' s "Inventory of Records" under the Bulk Access ion (BA) number 3910/705:56 ass igned to the Sandys' a r c h i v e . They are fur ther c l a s s i f i e d according to a parcel number (now the storage box) and item number wi thin the pa rce l . Thus BA 3910/705:56/24(i) i s item number one in parcel/box number 24 and the ' i tem' i s a manorial rental of 12 Ed. IV (1472). The i r parcel and item number's are 2 2 ( i ) , 2 2 ( i i i ) , and 22(v). See also Figure 1. The account was rendered for 34-5 Henry VI and i s now in the court record ' s h e a f 33(111)-The s e r i e s cannot hope to compare with the 1,667 Halesowen court records for- the period 1270-1400, but i t i s much better preserved than that for Warboys (75 court records) or the ser ies for- the manors of the estate of the bishop of Worcester [Raz i , 1980, p.2, R a f t i s , 1974, p.10 and Dyer, 1980 p .2-6] . S imi lar to that of the manor of Halesowen, for example. The two were a l s o s i m i l a r , at least in t h i s per iod , in that each had a semi-annual 'Great Court ' (Halesowen) or 'View of Frankpledge' with 'small court ' (Ombersley) [Raz i , 1980, p.9-25] . However, i t s adoption did not preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y that the abbey occas iona l l y could (and did) hold a 'small cour t ' as well as the semi-annual ' v iew-w i th -cour t ' . See, for example, Chapter I I I , pp.99-101 for the February, 1419 'cour t ' held to mark the consecration of a new abbot. Only the ser ies for what we might c a l l 'ordinary business' as d i s t i n c t from 'tenement t rans fe rs ' has survived for the period 1428-1452, see the A p p e n d i x : Ombersley Court Records . . . pp.298-333 below fo r a more deta i led desc r i p t i on . A more de ta i led descr ip t ion can be found in the int roduct ion to the inven to ry of Ombersley court' records drawn up for th i s study and in the inventory i t s e l f . See Appendix, Ombersley Court Records below, pp.291-297. BA 3910/705:56/39(i)C8, "tuesday next a f ter the feast of S t . M ichae l " , 5 R. I I . 39 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 U n t i l the 1420's en t ry i n t o a t i t h i n g does not appear to have been determined by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s condi t ion (free or s e r v i l e ) . In 1391 (2 October) for example, Henry Eyr (also Neyr), the son of a free tenant, was ordered to enter a t i t h i n g . From the 1420's however, free residents were usua l ly declared to be old enough (or to have resided in the manor for a year and a day) to be 'sworn in to the a s s i z e ' . No descr ip t ion of the To!ale custom survives but i t may have been s im i l a r to that on the manors of the bishop of Worcester [Dyer, 1980, p. 103], The fact that i t was enforced in the ' s m a l l ' court and not wi th in the frankpledge j u r i s d i c t i o n suggests that i t was a seigneur ia l exact ion. The twe l ve f r e e j u r o r s conf i rmed or supplemented the work of the decennar i i . Af ter the l a t t e r ' s presentments the record of the f rank-pledge session e i ther states that the jurors "on t he i r oath" declare t h e s e presentments to be complete or they add t h e i r own and the decennar i i are f ined for having made an incomplete or fa l se report . As with other ' o f f i c e s ' in th i s period (or e a r l i e r ) we occas ional ly learn the name of an ind iv idua l tithingman or juror as in 1358 (26 January) when John Bourne was said to have behaved contemptuously in court and so Wil l iam Younge de Donhampton "was elected as tithingman in his name (p lace) " . The f i r s t l i s t of jurors was recorded in 1406 (2 August). For a s im i l a r observation and methodology see Raf t i s [1974, p.213], and Razi [1980, p.12 et seq . ] . Halesowen custom in the pre-Black Death period allowed for independent entry to a tenement at 20 years of age [Raz i , 1980, p.43]. A d i f fe ren t type of omission in t h i s biography derives from the character of another type of manorial document, namely, renta ls or surveys. There i s no en t ry f o r a W i l l i a m Amslot i n the 1401 ren ta l f o r Ombersley a l though a John Amslot, perhaps Wi l l i am's fa ther , was named as a Hadley t e n a n t . We w i l l consider t h i s type of document, and the 1401 rental in p a r t i c u l a r , in Chapter I I I . It seems l i k e l y that she was a re l a t i ve of the Coupers and that she and her husband pursued t he i r c laim on th i s basis and through her as the mother of a former tenant of the tenement. The ' f r e e ' status of the Amslots might a lso be involved here although they held customary or se r v i l e tenements. T h i s may have been the same John Dodyng recorded in ren ta l 2 4 ( i i ) (no.083) as the tenant of a messuage and ha l f - v i rga te in Comhampton, see below, Chapter I I I , p.72. The Londbok referred to has not survived but i t may have been a version of t h i s l a te r r e n t a l . , i b i d . , p.218, fn .6 for a s im i la r reference. For errors of t h i s type see the recent c r i t i que of the studies of J . A . Raf t is and the 'Toronto s c h o o l ' , and below [Raz i , 1979, pp.141-157]. 40 Thei r reference numbers ( in chronological order) are 2 4 ( i i ) , 24(1), 2 2 ( i i ) , and 3 2 ( i i ) . A l l of these are described in greater de ta i l in Chapter III below. The cour t proceedings on the face of t h i s membrane are those of a 9 May, 1446 sess ion , 24 Henry VI . Razi states that 422 of 550 males in the second ha l f of the fourteenth century were " l i nked" to fami l ies but his "Table 29" describes 147 of a to ta l of 550 males without loca t ion or f am i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p " ; that i s , 27 per cent and not 23 per cent as given in his text [Raz i , 1980, p.140]. Some care i s taken in t h i s case to ensure that the change in tenant numbers did not occur p r io r to the Black Death. [Dyer, 1980, p.237 et seq . ] . We take th i s to refer to Hartlebury in the period 1479-83 as the next f i g u r e in his "Table 42" refers to Hartlebury in 1525. See Dyer [1980, p.299] for t h i s table and the trend for engrossment of holdings and for the post-Black Death recovery in tenant numbers [ i b i d . , p.240]. 41 I I I . OMBERSLEY RENTALS The rental of "1401" The f i r s t document in the Ombersley rental ser ies - - rental 24 ( i i ) - -apparently was compiled as a record of Ombersley rents due at the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed V i rg in Mary*. Ombersley tenement rents were paid in four insta l lments annually and th i s feast-day marked one of the terms at which rent was due. The other terms were marked by the feast-days of the Nat iv i ty of St . John the Bap t i s t , S t . Andrew the Apostle and St . Michael the Archangel (Michaelmas) . In rental 24 ( i i ) tenants were l i s t e d under- hamlet sub-headings and t he i r names, the s ize of t he i r tenement(s), occas ional ly a tenement name(s), and the amount of rent due were recorded. On the basis of the 25 March, 1401'date from the heading of the r e n t a l , I have attempted to integrate t h i s rental with tenant careers or biographies compiled from pre-1401 court record references. It soon became apparent that t h i s procedure was producing more problems than i t was s o l v i n g . More than hal f of the f i r s t twenty tenants named in the r e n t a l , fo r example, could not be known to have been act ive at Ombersley in the period 1390-1410. Nonethe-l e s s , I continued a tenant-by-tenant ana lys is of the rental in the hope that some of the biographies would produce a l i k e l y compilation date. On the basis of these b iographies, reproduced below (in very abbreviated form) opposite a rental ent ry , tenants named in the rental have been div ided into three main ca tegor ies : (1) known, (2) uncer ta in , (3) not known. The f i r s t category contains those whose manorial career can be traced in the court records and whose tenement holding(s) in the course of that career seem to concur with the ent r ies in rental 2 4 ( i i ) . The examples below of Coke and 42 Strannge ( i d . nos.035 and 043) both f a l l in to th is "known" category, as do 70 other tenants. The 'uncer ta in ' category consis ts of a to ta l of 64 tenants whose manorial careers could not be f i rm ly es tab l i shed . Wi l l iam Sanndr ( i d . no.003), for example, i s named in 24 ( i i ) as the tenant of a nook in Ombersley v i l l a g e but i t cannot be establ ished with cer ta in ty that t h i s was the same tenant whose death was recorded in 1374 and who was said in the same entry to have held one messuage and one-ha l f -v i rgate in Hadley. Tenants in the "not known" ca tegory (a t o t a l of 97) are so desc r i bed because , l i k e W i l l i a m Clopson ( i d . no.092), the rental entry i s the only evidence about his e x i s -tence at Ombersley. The number of tenants in each of these three categories depends somewhat on the suspected compilat ion date of 24 ( i i ) and on the surv iva l of court records. In the category of "uncer ta in" tenants, for example, a tenant who was act ive from c.1371, as was Wil l iam Macke ( i d . no.116), i s counted 4s "un-ce r ta in " par t ly because of the date of his f i r s t appearance in the court records. This occurs well a f te r the suspected compilat ion date of 2 4 ( i i ) . However, Macke may well have appeared in a court record which has not sur-vived (e .g . of 1359, or 1362). Tenants are a lso grouped as "uncerta in" i f the tenement with which they were associated were d i f fe ren t from that as-cr ibed to them in the r en ta l . Therefore, i t i s important to es tab l i sh with some accuracy the compila-t ion date and th i s can be attempted v ia the "known" tenant category and, to a lesser extent, by that of "not known" and "uncerta in" tenants. Rental 24 ( i i ) does not appear to have been compiled in 1401 which i s the year recorded in i t s heading. Rather, t h i s may be a copy of a rental which was compiled o r i -g ina l l y much e a r l i e r , perhaps in the la te 1350's or ear ly 1360's. In the case of the 72 "known" tenants, a l l save f i ve can be shown to have d ied , 43 surrendered t he i r tenements, or otherwise ceased the i r tenant careers at Ombersley before 1401. Henry Coke ( i d . no.035), for example, appears f i r s t in the court records in 1358 and again in 1360 (25 Jan.) when his death was recorded. In the f i r s t appearance he was impleaded for trespass by Henry Strannge ( i d . no.041) and at h i s death he was s a i d to have he ld on ly a cottage ( in Ombersley v i l l a g e , according to the renta l ) as he did when the o r ig ina l of 24 ( i i ) was compiled. Henry Strannge, on the other hand, who appears frequent ly in the court records between 1358 and 1397, was named in the rental as the tenant of a messuage and ha l f - v i rga te in Comphampton and a 3 cottage in Ombersley . However, Strannge had surrendered the Comphampton tenement (because of "impotence") in 1376 (19 Apr.) and the Ombersley cottage in 1383. It should be noted a lso that at leas t four of these "known" tenants apparen t l y began t h e i r ca ree rs be fore the Black Death. John Tyby ( i d . no.085) appears to have entered the tenement ascribed to him in the rental in 1329. In tha t year he su rv i ved Agnes Tyby i n a h a l f - v i r g a t e and one ferendel1 us (a quar ter -v i rgate) and at his death, recorded in 1368 (16 A p r . ) , he was desc r i bed as having he ld one messuage and th ree nooks or t h r e e -quarters of a v i rgate (see a lso nos. 061, 141 and 157). Furthermore, at least twenty of the "not known" and f i ve of the "uncer ta in" tenants can be shown to have ex is ted pre-Black Death. The court records for the l a t t e r period are very scanty but i t i s s i gn i f i can t nonetheless that someone l i k e John Rome ( i d . no.033) appears in the l a t t e r but not in the surv iv ing post-Black Death records and tha t i n 1334 (25 Oc t . ) he entered a co t tage i n Ombersley which i s the tenement which he was said to hold in the r e n t a l . S i m i l a r l y , Henry at te Hulle ( i d . no.080) i s counted as "uncer ta in" because 44 although a person so -ca l l ed was act ive at Ombersley from £.1365, no record remains of h i s death nor of any tenement(s) which he might have h e l d . However, in 1333 an Henry de" Hulle (6 May) survived Agnes de Hulle in a tenement of three nooks (the hamlet name was not recorded) and in the rental Henry at te Hul le was said to be the tenant of a messuage and three nooks. A l l of the above suggests that the o r ig ina l of the rental was compiled we l l before 1401 but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h a more p r e c i s e d a t e . Obviously, the biographies of "known" tenants are not very useful to t h i s end because, with a few except ions, they do not include a tenant 's date of entry to a tenement pre-1357 (see Appendix f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the gap i n Ombersley court records pre-1357). Such dates are recorded for the four "known" tenants whose careers appear to have begun pre-1336 but at best they 4 can provide only a post quern compilat ion date of £.1333 . However, the fact that only 29 (approximately) of the tenants named in 24 ( i i ) can be traced to the pre-1336 period suggests a somewhat l a te r compilat ion date. A date between 1336 and 1356 (and possib ly post-Black Death, that i s , post-1348-9) would accord well with several instances where the tenant named in 24 ( i i ) appears pre-1336, as did John Amby ( i d . no.014), but not post-1356. In the r e n t a l , Amby was named as the tenant of one nook in Ombersley v i l l a g e and the same (or a s im i la r ) tenement in Ombersley v i l l a g e was held by Richard Amby at his death in 1390 (11 O c t . ) . The l a t t e r appears in the court records from £.1365 and may well have been John Amby's successor who entered the Amby tenement pre-1357. S i m i l a r l y , Henry Pach ( i d . no.168), according to 2 4 ( i i ) , was the terfant of a nook in Fernhampton. There are no references to a Henry Pach (of Fernhampton) post-1356 but in 1360 (7 Mar.) a John, son of A l i ce Pach, (perhaps Henry's widow), entered a tenement of one messuage and one 45 nook in Fernhampton and he held t h i s to the end of the century . Given the length of tenancy of Richard Amby and John Pach (approximately 30 and 40 years respect ive ly ) i t would seem reasonable to argue that the rental was compiled a f ter the Black Death and before 1357 6 . However, addi t ional e v i -dence, espec ia l l y that derived from the biographies of "known" tenants, i s somewhat cont rad ic to ry . The e a r l i e s t ante quern date for the compilat ion of 24 ( i i ) occurs in the biography of Roger Pr iour ( i d . no.008) who, in 1358 7 , surrendered a messuage and nook which he had held in Ombersley v i l l a g e and which had been a t t r ibu ted to him in the r e n t a l . However, the l a t t e r date cannot be accepted without reservat ions. Wi l l iam Taylor [ Ta i l l ou r ] ( i d . no.194) was said to be the tenant of "the Chaplains house" in 24 ( i i ) and th i s would appear to be the same tenement of one cottage ca l led "the Chapla in 's house" which Taylor was said to have leased in a 1365 (3 Feb.) court record. At his death in 1399 (14 Apr.) he held a cottage ca l led "Presteshous". Equa l ly , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to expla in how a tenant (Henry C lech, no.46) apparently leased a tenement in 1363 (23 Mar.) or another, Richard Jones, ( i d . no.108), in 1364 (11 Jan.) which he was said to hold in 2 4 ( i i ) , i f a pre-1357 date for the o r ig ina l compilat ion of t h i s rental i s assumed. These instances are contradicted by references ( i d . nos.157 and no.035) to tenants whose deaths were recorded as ear ly as 1360 and who held at t he i r demise the tenements ascr ibed to them in 24(11). There i s a lso another anomaly which should be considered as part of the task of dating t h i s r e n t a l . At the end of the r e n t a l , four tenants were l i s t e d under a general heading "Lenchford Rents". No s p e c i f i c tenements were ascribed to any of them under t h i s heading but they were each assessed a (quarter ly) rent of 3s.4d. A possib le explanation for t h i s separate heading 46 and group of tenants i s provided in a 1399 (14 Apr.) court record where these four tenants leased j o i n t l y ( for l i f e ) "that pasture in Lyncheford which was formerly arable l a n d " . This lease was repeated in 1409 (15 Oct.) when the same jo in t - tenants were named and the annual rent for the pasture was said to o be 53s.4d. — that i s , 3s.4d. per tenant per quarter . The heading a f te r "Lenchford Rents" reads "Suddington Tenants" but t h i s i s c l ea r l y not a general l i s t of tenants who held tenements in Suddington. Rather, t h i s port ion of the rental a lso records four jo in t - tenants ( i d . nos.231, 228, 232, 233), except that the name of one of them (Richard Lompe) i s repeated so that f i ve names appear under th i s heading. According to a 1419 (29 Sep.) entry in the court records (when four new tenants were named) the tenants in the rental had been j o i n t - l essees of demesne land in Sudding-ton - - namely, a pasture ca l led LythewalImor and a meadow ca l l ed Hynemedue. A record of the o r ig ina l lease of the above "demesne land in Suddington" has not survived but the biographies of i t s four tenants suggest a r e l a t i v e l y g la te date for t h i s t ransact ion . The Lenchford t ransact ion i s c l e a r l y dated to the end of the century o r , to be more p rec ise , i t occurred jus t two years before 1401, the date recorded at the head of 2 4 ( i i ) . These two sub-headings in the r e n t a l , occurr ing as they do on i t s las t membrane, probably are best explained as genuine 1401 addenda to a copy of an e a r l i e r document. In conc lus i on , i t i s obvious that no precise date for the or ig ina l com-p i l a t i o n of rental 24 ( i i ) can be deduced given the nature of the evidence discussed above. At best i t can be shown that the 1401 date preserved in i t s heading was in fact a copy date (except for the two addenda headings) and that the o r ig ina l may have been compiled in the la te 1350's or ear ly 1360's. The l a t t e r period a lso seems l i k e l y because of the d i s loca t ion which may have bean produced by demographic catastrophes l i k e the Black Death or the plague 47 of 1361 and a resul tant desire on the abbey's part to keep track of a rap id ly changing tenant populat ion. It may be mere coincidence — but nonetheless worth mentioning — that the number of "not known" tenants derived from th i s rental i s approximately 40% of a l l tenants l i s t e d , a f igure which accords well with Black Death mor ta l i ty rates establ ished for other manors in the region [Dyer, 1980, p.239]. In the t rans la ted ed i t ion of rental 2 4 ( i i ) , below, a l l headings, hamlet subheadings, tenant names and so for th have been copied in the order in which they appear in the o r i g i n a l . Hamlet and tenants ' given names have been modernized but surnames have not been a l t e red . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number assigned to each name i s intended as a guide to avoid repet i t ious e n t r i e s ; that i s , those in which we suspect that two or more ent r ies in the rental re fer to one person though they might appear as tenants in d i f fe rent hamlets. Thus Henry P i p e s t i l l ( i d . no.062), f i r s t appears in the rental as an Uphamp-ton tenant but he a lso held a tenement in Woodhouse, another in Hadley and under "Free Tenants" he was named as the lessee of Hadley m i l l . In to ta l 42 tenants were recorded more than once in the rental and these held between them 106 tenements and to determine the t o t a l number of tenants in the r e n t a l , some 64 ent r ies should be discounted as " r e p e t i t i o n s " . No i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n numbers have been assigned to those ent r ies where the tenant 's name was entered incompletely in the o r ig ina l (a to ta l of ten en t r ies ) nor to the f i ve i n s t i t u t i o n a l tenants (the Preaching F r ia rs or Dominicans of Worcester, for example) l i s t e d under "Free Tenants". With these allowances a to ta l of 48 233 tenants are recorded in the rental . The se r i a l number assigned to each rental entry has been used for the purpose of cross-references within the renta ls themselves. The format f o l l owed in the c o m p i l a t i o n of t h i s r en ta l grouped some tenants not according to the geographical locat ion of t he i r tenements but rather to t he i r personal s ta tus , that i s , as "Free Tenants". Court records and l a te r renta ls show that the tenements in th i s sect ion were a l l free ho ld-ings . The same i s true of a l l the tenements l i s t e d under various hamlet names a f te r the "Free Tenants" s e c t i o n 1 1 . The repe t i t i on of some hamlet headings a f te r "Free Tenants" may have been j u s t i f i e d because each of the hamlets named had a s u f f i c i e n t l y large number of f ree holdings to warrant such a heading. This format for the compilat ion of renta ls was not immutable 12 and was changed considerably by the end of the f i f t een th century . The l as t entry on rental 24 ( i i ) - - the to ta l amount of rent due at the term of the Annunciation of the Blessed V i rg in Mary in "the ninth year of the reign of King Henry IV" — only serves to increase the confusion concerning t h i s docu-ment's date. Are we to conclude that the information i t contains i s relevant to .conditions at Ombersley in 1401 or 1407-08 and what of the p o s s i b i l i t y that i t was compiled in the aftermath of the Black Death? These questions can be answered best by re-examining assumptions about the funct ion of a " r en ta l " and the type of information a rental i s expected to record. The author(s) of t h i s document may have been concerned pr imar i ly with tenements and the revenue expected from them and not with the tenants who may or may not have held them. Thus, a tenement in a given hamlet was expected to provide the abbey with a given amount of rent at the term noted at the head of the r e n t a l , as was each hamlet and, of course, the ent i re manor. This type of document would have served as a use fu l account ing a i d f o r 49 manor ia l o f f i c e r s but a q u e s t i o n a b l e gu ide f o r those w i sh ing to know, f o r example, the s i z e of the tenant popu la t i on of Ombersley at the end of the f ou r t een th c e n t u r y . Th i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n t e n t or f u n c t i o n of t h i s r e n t a l i s sugges ted , f i r s t , by the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered (and a l ready d i s c u s s e d ) i n a t t e m p t i n g t o i n t e g r a t e i t s c o n t e n t s w i t h t h e c a r e e r s o f Ombersley t e n a n t s ; second , by f ea tu res i n the document i t s e l f ; and, t h i r d , by a comparison w i th o ther s i m i l a r documents. 50 Ombersley Ren ta l /Su rvey B A 3 9 1 0 / 7 0 5 : 5 6 / 2 4 ( i i ) 'Ombersley Rental f o r the Annunc ia t ion of the B lessed V i r g i n Mary i n the second ar of the Reign of the K ing Henry the Four th a f t e r the Conquest ' (25 March 1401) I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e OMBERSLEY [VILLAGE i n c l u d i n g BURITON] 1 001 C r i s t i n a Hol te 2 002 Michae l at Gomstol 3 003 W i l l i a m Sanndr 4 004 A l i c e P r i o u r 5 005 Agnes de Wynhale 6 006 ' John Hastynge 7 007 W i l l i a m Grender 1 m[es]s [ua]g [e ] 6 d . 1 nook 1 nook 1 nook 1 nook 1 nook 4d .ob . 6 d . 6 d . 1 nook 6 d . 1/2 v i r g [ a t e ] 9d .q , 6 d . Caree r of Tenant & Fami ly c .1364 -1376 , widow of Rob. H o l t e , h e l d 1 messuage and land i n Ombers ley, re -mar r i ed to J . Knot te i n 1376 not known; a Wm. a t t e Gomstole f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death u n c e r t a i n ; death of a Wm. Sanndr recorded i n 1374, had he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n Hadley f l . c .1358-1367 , had he ld at death 1 messuage 1 nook i n BURITON, s u r v i v e d by R i c . P r i o u r not known not known; a Hugo Hastyng known p r e - B l a c k Death not known; r e f . t o a John Grender i n 1376 51 I den t . S i z e (and name) . Din No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent 8 008 Roger P r i o u r 1 nook 6 d . 9 009 G a l f r i d o Pach 1/2 v i r g 14d.ob. 10 010 Thomas Sandr 1/2 v i r g 13d. 11 O i l W i l l i a m a t t e S t y l l e 1 nook 6 d . q . 12 012 R ichard Hay 1/2 v i r g 12d.ob. 13 013 R icha rd Simond 1 nook 4d .ob . 14 *014 John Amby 1 nook 4d .ob . lb 015 John athe Lone 1 co t t 9 d . 16 016 N i cho las Coly 1/2 v i r g l O d . 52 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c .1358 -1367 , sur rendered 1 messuage 1 nook i n BURIT0N i n 1358, at death he ld 1 messuage 1 hook taken by Wm. P r i o u r not known not known not known f l . c .1358-1399 , he ld at death 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n OMBERSLEY f 1 . c .1360 -1375 , had he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n POWERS (see no . 206 ) , no r e f . at death to t h i s tenement o f one nook i n OMBERSLEY. not known; a J . Amby known p r e - B l a c k Death , a R i c . Amby known from c .1365-1390 , R i c . Amby he ld at death 1 messuage 1 nook i n OMBERSLEY not known; an Agnes Lone ob . 1385 and had he ld 1 co t tage w i t h garden i n OMBERSLEY, may have been widow of John l i s t e d here u n c e r t a i n ; on ly cour t record re fe rence to t h i s tenant i s a brewing f i n e l e v i e d in 1360 I den t . No . No. Name of Tenant 17 017 R icha rd a t te S tay r 18 018 John ate Stayr 19 019 W i l l i a m Knot te 20 020 21 021 22 022 W i l l i a m Denacour R icha rd G a l l y e John R u s s e l l 23 023 John Ho l te 24 024 W i l l i a m a t temu l le S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 1 nook 1/2 v i r g 1 c o t t 1 c o t t 1 co t t 1 co t t 1 co t t near Cot temul le f o r the other cot tage (near Co t temu l le 4d .ob . 13d .q . lOd.ob, 2 d . , q . 4 d . - b l . -4d. 4d, lOd Career of Tenant & Fami ly u n c e r t a i n ; on ly two r e f . t o a R i c . a t t e S t a y r , both i n 1398 not known u n c e r t a i n ; i n 1334 a W i l l i a m son of Th . Knot te en tered 1 co t tage at h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , two tenan ts c a l l e d Wm. Knot te were a c t i v e p o s t - B l a c k Dea th , one d ied i n 1376 and the o ther f i r s t appears i n the 1 3 7 0 ' s , n e i t h e r seem to ' f i t ' w i t h the en t r y i n the r e n t a l not known f l . C . 1 3 5 7 - C . 1 3 9 7 f l . c .1360-1376 , at death had he ld two tenements i n UPHAMPT0N (see no.60) o f 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e e a c h , f i n e d i n 1366, 1371 f o r s u b - l e t t i n g co t tage i n BURITON (Ombersley) f 1 . C . 1 3 6 3 - C . 1 3 7 8 , no r e f . to h i s death not known; a W i l l i a m Mul leward f 1 . C . 1 3 6 0 - C . 1 3 6 9 but no r e f . t o h i s death 53 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 25 025 Michael Sheperde 26 025 the same Michael 27 026 John Bercar 28 027 Thomas B r i c h e r s 1 co t t 1 c r o f t 1 f u r l o n g "Conynger" 1 co t t 1 co t t 2 s . 2 d . 4d . 4 d . , lOd f 1 . c .1358-1378 , he ld at death 1 messuage 'w i t h l a n d 1 1 messuage nook c a l l e d Gomstole and 1 c r o f t c a l l e d Conynger not known; a John l e Bercar f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death not known 29 028 Henry a t t e Mere 30 029 John Jonkon 31 029 the same John 32 030 Wal ter Bewe 1 co t t 1 co t t f o r another co t tage 1 co t t 3 d . o b . ' i j t 0 ' 6d .ob. 4d . 4d . u n c e r t a i n ; two tenan ts by t h i s name, one f 1 . c .1360-1366 , s a i d to have h e l d at death 2 co t tages i n BURIT0N (see no.49) and 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n POWERS, the o ther Hen. a t t e Mere f l . t o c .1398 u n c e r t a i n ; f l , c . l 3 5 8 - c . l 3 9 7 , no r e f . t o death e t c . a J u l i a n a Jonkyns i n 1377 sur rendered 1 messuage 1 co t t age c a l l e d H u l l e p l a c e i n BYRYT0N not known 54 Icient. No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 33 031 J u l i a n a Symonds 34 032 W i l l i a m a t t e Stayre 35 029 John Jonkyn 36 033 John Rome 37 034 Thomas Benet 38 034 the same Thomas 39 035 Henry Coke 40 036 W i l l i a m Frensh 41 037 Radul f Bereforde 42 038 R ichard May 1 co t t 3d .ob . , l d . q . " P i l c h e p l a c e " 1 co t t 4d .ob . " J u l . Symondes" 1 co t t 1 co t t 8d . , 3 d . , 3 d . o b , 6 d . , 3 d . , 3d. 1 co t t 6d. "Webbeplace" 1 co t t 4d. " E ' Smyth" 1 co t t fo rmer ly 9d. "Brakon" 1 co t t 6d, " l e F rensh" 1 co t t 6d, 1 co t t 6d, f l . c . 1358 -1369 , he ld at death 1 messuage 1 co t tage c a l l e d Symonds i n BURIT0N u n c e r t a i n ; r e f . from c .1365 but no r e f . t o h i s death not known; a John Rome f 1 . p re -B lack Death and i n 1334 s a i d to have en te red a co t tage i n BURIT0N not known f 1 . c .1358 -1360 , he ld 1 co t tage i n BURITON at death not known; a R i c . Frensh known from c .1394 not known not known; a R i c . Maye f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death 43 -b l - Marc 1 co t t 6d. not known 55 I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 44 039 John Whelar 1 c o t t 6d . 45 040 Henry Heynes 1 co t t 6d . "Wal ter Swones" 46 034 Thomas Benet 1 co t t 6d . 47 041 Henry Strannge 1 co t t 6d . 48 042 Margaret A le r 1 co t t 6d . " E ' Mak" 49 028 Henry Meres 1 co t t 6d . -b l - Gar lek mercer 1 co t t - b l - Makk 1 c o t t -b l - Couper 1 co t t -b l - P i p p e s t i l l 1 co t t -b l - A lcock 1 co t t - b l - Bremesgrave 1 co t t -b l - Bremesgrave 1 co t t 56 Career of Tenant & Fami ly u n c e r t a i n , f 1 . c . 1 3 6 3 - 1 3 9 1 , no r e f . t o h i s d e a t h ; i n 1393 f i r s t r e f . t o a J u l i a n a Whelar who he ld a co t tage i n B u r i t o n , may have been J o h n ' s widow. u n c e r t a i n ; f 1 . c .1358-1384 , had he ld 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Knot te and 1 messuage 1 nook i n FERNHAMPT0N, s u r v i v e d by h i s widow J u l i a n a f l . c .1358-1387 , no r e f . t o death e t c . ; i n 1376 s a i d t o ho ld lm 1/2 v i r g a t e i n C0MHAMPT0N and he sur rendered 1 co t tage w i th garden i n 1383 not known; a C r i s t i n e A l e r known p r e - B l a c k Death It would appear t ha t these co t tages had been combined t o form one tenement. There are 15th cen tu ry re fe rences to these be ing h e l d en b loc by Ombersley t e n a n t s . The tenant i s not l i s t e d here un less Henry Meres was understood as such.' Icient. No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent ' S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 50 043 W i l l i a m Osegod 51 044 John C lech 52 044 the same (John) 53 . . . -b l - Gosenhul le 54 032 W i l l i a m ate Stayr 55 045 Wal ter Tay lo r 56 029 John Jonkyn 57 028 Henry a te Mer 58 044 John C lech 1 co t t 6d . " a t t e Gumstol" 1 co t t 6d . "John F lechewar" 1 co t t - b l -25 headlands annexed to h i s garden 4 -1 /2 s e l i o n s ( i n ? ) a headland 9 -1 /2 headlands h a l f of a headland "Bromyacr" 6d . - b l -3d .ob .q , l d . o b . 2d .ob . l d . 3d . f l . c .1364 -1403 , he ld at h i s d e a t h , 1 co t tage wi th garden i n BIRYT0N i n l e Gonge S t ree t f l . c .1366-1376 , he ld at h i s death 2 (see below) co t t ages i n BIRYT0N i n L o g e s t r e t e , s u r v i v e d by I s a b e l l a h i s widow f 1 . C .1358-C .1376 , l e f t the manor i n 1376 and s a i d t o have h e l d 1 co t tage Webbelond i n OMBERSLEY 57 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Caree r of Tenant & Fami ly 59 046 Henry C lech Sum [of r e n t ] UPHAMPTON 60 022 John R u s s e l l 61 047 Henry Per te 62 048 R ichard Bryd 63 049 R icha rd Schut te 64 050 Adam Pope 8 s e l i o n s in 4 d . , q . WEREW0DE 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 37s .9d . l i d . o b . l i d . o b . 12d .q . 13d. l l d . o b f l . c .1363-1408 , mar r ied i n 1363 to C r i s t i n a B u t t a r and entered 1 messuage 3 nooks and F o x c r o f t i n FERNHAMPT0N (see no.196) and 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n UPHAMPTON which she had h e l d . Held these at death 64(a) 051 Symon Rouge 1/2 v i r g 12d. not known; a J u l i a n a Per te f1. p r e - B l a c k Death and a W i l l i a m and John Per te f1 . p o s t - B l a c k Death f1 . c . l 3 6 5 - c . l 4 0 2 , su r rendered tenement i n 1402 f1. C .1360-C .1365 , no r e f . to h i s d e a t h , e t c . , but was f i n e d i n 1365 f o r non-maintenance of tenement c a l l e d Shut i n UPHAMPTON f l . c .1358 -1391 , he ld at h i s death 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Popes i n UPHAMPTON and tenement remained vacant a f t e r h i s death u n t i l 1395 when i t was l e t to John Portman not known 58 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 65 052 Thomas a t t e nash 1/2 v i r g l l d . q . 65(a) 053 John Gerveyse 1 v i r g 12d.ob. 66 054 R i cha rd a t te Wal le 3 nooks 14d. 67 055 J u l i a n a Heyne 1 nook 5 d . o b . q . 68 056 John a t t e Nash 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 69 057 Thomas Grenehul l 1/2 v i r g 15d.ob. 70 058 Agnes Reygnald 1/2 v i r g 12d. 71 059 Thomas Godmon 1/2 v i r g 12d.ob. not known; a T h . a t t e Nash f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death d i e d 1361, s u r v i v e d i n t h i s tenement by J u l i a n a h i s widow f 1 . C .1365-C .1393 , sur rendered tenement i n 1393 but t h i s d e s c r i b e d as on ly 1/2 v i r g a t e i n UPHAMPT0N u n c e r t a i n ; r e f . i n 1360 and i n 1363 f i n e d f o r non-maintenance of tenement i n UPHAMPT0N, no r e f . to her d e a t h , s u r r e n d e r , r e - m a r r i a g e , e t c . not known; an Agnes Nash o b . 1365 and she had h e l d 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e tenement c a l l e d Nash i n UPHAMPT0N and s u r v i v e d by R i cha rd her son u n c e r t a i n ; on ly two r e f s . , i n 1358 f o r debt and i n 1365 f o r d e f a u l t f 1 . C .1362-C .1372 , i n 1362 an Agnes, daughter o f John Reygnald en te red a tenement o f 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n UPHAMPT0N which had been he ld by her f a t h e r , no r e f . t o her death e t c . Death recorded i n 1369, s u r v i v e d i n tenement o f 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e in UPHAMPT0N by h i s widow J u l i a n a 59 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 72 060 Thomas Alcok 1/2 v i r g 9 d . 73 061 Henry at Nuwe 1/2 v i r g 8 d . 73(a) 022 John R u s s e l l 1/2 v i r g 8 d . " E o r l l e s l o n d " 74 062 Henry P i p e s t i l l 1/2 v i r g 8 d . o b . q . 75 063 R icha rd Crompe 1 v i r g 17d.ob. 76 064 John Playdour 1 v i r g 17d. 77 065 Henry Inthenard 1 v i r g 16d. not known; a John A lcok known from c.1363 and i n 1377 entered a tenement o f 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n UPHAMPTON f l . c .1333-1376 , i n 1333 s u r v i v e d C r i s t i n a a t t e Nuwe i n 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n 0PHAMPT0N, at h i s death had he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Henry a t t e Nuwe and 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d P i p p s t i l l e l o n d , s u r v i v e d by Agnes h i s widow f 1 . 1363-1387, d e s c r i b e d as m i l l e r i n 1369 (see below under ' F r e e Tenants ' o r Woodhouse), no mention of t h i s tenement at h i s death but had he ld 1 co t tage i n HADLEY (see no.115) f l . c .1363-1380 , c a l l e d R i c . Crompe de Uphampton at death and su rv i ved by Henry h i s s o n , another R i c . Crompe (de Uphampton) a c t i v e c .1358-1401 , (see no.78) u n c e r t a i n ; f 1. C .1366-C .1387, no re fe rence t o h i s death not known; on ly o ther appearance of t h i s surname occurs i n the 1327 Subs idy where a R i c h a r d I thenard was assessed at 2 s . 60 I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 78 066 R ichard Crompe 1 v i r g 12d. 79 067 John ate Wall 1 v i r g 17d.ob. 80 068 John Gen ty l l 3 nooks 14d .ob . , 10d . 81 069 Margaret A l d r i c h 1 nook 6d . 82 070 R ichard T r a i l l e b a r 1 nook 7d .0b . 83 071 R ichard Palmar 1 nook 7 d . q . Sum [of r e n t ] 25s.2d (another f i g u r e of 2 7 s . 3 d . q . entered i n green i nk ) u n c e r t a i n ; may have been one of two tenan ts desc r i bed i n no .75 above, at death of R i c . C . de Hadley i n 1401 he was s a i d t o have h e l d two tenements of 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e e a c h , both s a i d t o be i n Tapenhale f 1 . c .1366-1376 , had h e l d 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e at h i s death at BORLEY (see no.138) and s u r v i v e d by h i s widow M a t i l d a but she d i d not s tay on i n tenement not known; a W i l l i a m G e n t i l l known p r e - B l a c k Death and a P e t r o n i l l a G e n t y l l s a i d t o be absent i n WORCESTER i n 1365 not known p o s t - B l a c k Dea th ; a Margaret A l d r i c h known from 1327 and i n 1333 she s u r v i v e d her husband Alphredus A l d r i c h de Uphampton i n 1 nook not known not known 61 Ic ient . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e NORTHAMPTON 84 072 Si b i l l a Fercok 3 nooks 21d .ob . 85 073 Agnes Bromes 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 86 074 W i l l i a m M o i l l 1/2 v i r g 1 7 d . q . 87 075 Henry ate Wall 3 nooks 19d.ob. 88 076 W i l l i a m Tomes 1/2 v i r g 22d.ob. 89 077 John Beward 90 078 W i l l i a m Huckis 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 12d.ob. 62 Career of Tenant & Fami ly u n c e r t a i n ; on ly one r e f . i n 1364, she was accused of d e s t r o y i n g Henry Nuwe's rye w i th her sheep f 1 . c . l 3 6 5 - c . l 3 7 0 , i n 1365 mar r ied by John Workeman de HADLEY and s a i d there to ho ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n NORTHAMPTON and in 1370 an Agnes Brome named as widow and r e - m a r r i e d John Lye de Lydum and she he ld at marr iage 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e u n c e r t a i n ; on ly two r e f . to Wm. M o i l l p o s t - B l a c k Death , in 1358 and 1365 s a i d to have devasta ted tenement but t h i s s a i d to have been i n FERNHAMPTON; one r e f . to Wm. M o i l l p r e - B l a c k Death u n c e r t a i n ; a Hen. ate Wall known from c . 1374 t o 1379 but at death s a i d to have he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n UPHAMPT0N u n c e r t a i n ; on ly r e f . to Wm. Tomes from 1388 not known not known I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 91 079 John Duyr 1/2 v i r g 12d. Sum [of r e n t ] OTHER NORTHAMPTON 92 080 Henry a t t e Hul l 10s .8d .q , 1 msg 3 nooks 13d .ob .q . 93 081 John at Hul l 3 nooks 13d .ob .q . 94 082 R icha rd Englyes 95 083 John Dodyng 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 13d.ob. (c rossed out and 12d. s u b s t i t u t e d ) 19d .q . 63 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f l . c . 1357 -1373 , had he ld at h i s death two tenements of 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e e a c h , s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Agnes and son R icha rd u n c e r t a i n ; i n 1333 Henry de Hu l le s u r v i v e d Agnes de H u l l e i n 3 nooks ; r e f . t o Hen. a t t e Hu l l p o s t - B l a c k Death f 1 . c . 1 3 6 5 , no r e f . t o h i s death f l . C .1363-C .1394 , i n 1394 sur rendered 1 messuage 3 nooks c a l l e d H u l l e r e s l o n d i n NORTHAMPTON and taken by h i s son Henry not known u n c e r t a i n ; one (or more) John Dodyngs f l . from C . 1357-C . 1435 , i n 1393 a John Dodyng su r rendered 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n COMHAMPTON and i n 1394 a John Dodyng en te red 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Engl yes !ond (no.94 above) i n NORTHAMPTON Iden t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 96 084 W i l l i a m A l l y 3 nooks 2 s . o b . q , u n c e r t a i n ; i n 1373 an A l i c e A l l y widow ob . and had h e l d 1 messuage 3 nooks i n NORTHAMPTON; she may have been the widow of t h i s tenant and she was s u r v i v e d by R i cha rd A l l y i n t h i s tenement 97 085 John Tyby 3 nooks 20d .ob .q . (No sum of rent f o r 'Other Northampton' recorded i n the o r i g i n a l , t o g e t h e r . ) RECTORY 98 086 John Wyse 99 087 Adam Sare 100 088 John a te Bourn 1 nook 1/3 v i r g 1/3 v i r g 12d. 12d. 12d. f l . c .1365-1368 , he ld at h i s death 1 messuage 3 nooks and was s u r v i v e d by h i s 1 2 - y e a r - o l d son John , i n 1329 a John Tyby s u r v i v e d an Agnes Tyby i n 1/2 v i r g a t e and 1 fe rende l1 us (nook or 1/4 v i r g a t e ) These and the Rectory ren ts were t a l l i e d not known; Henry l e Wyse known p r e - B l a c k Death u n c e r t a i n ; on l y one r e f . t o an Adam Sare i n 1364 f o r t r e s p a s s i n the l o r d ' s wood, i n 1359 a Thomas Sare en te red 1 messuage 1/3 v i r g a t e not known; a John Bourn f 1 . from c .1385 and a John a te Bourn known p r e - B l a c k Death and was assessed 18d. i n 1327 Subsidy Sum [of r e n t ] l l s . 8 d . q . 64 I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly HADLEY 101 089 John a te More 102 090 R ichard Skyrry 103 091 R ichard do L y t e l l ( D o l y t e l l ) 104 090 R ichard Skyrry 105 092 W i l l i a m Clopson 106 093 R ichard Brome 107 094 Margaret Yonge 108 095 R ichard Fou l l 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 14d. 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q . 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 1 msg 1 c r o f t l a c r e 3 nooks 1/2 v i r g 3 nooks 12d.ob. 15d.ob. 6d . 2 s . l d . o b . 12d.ob. 2 s . 5 d . q . not known not known; on l y one r e f . t o a W i l l i a m S k i r r y i n 1387 not known; f o r the second v e r s i o n of t h i s surname see be low, John D o l u t e l l , no.150 not known; t h i s i s the on ly appearance of t h i s surname at OMBERSLEY i n the pe r iod under s tudy not known; a 1 2 - y e a r - o l d R i c . Brome named i n 1393 and a R i c . Brome f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death u n c e r t a i n ; a John Yong ob . 1388 and had h e l d 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n HADLEY, may have been a descendant of Margaret Yonge not known; r e f . t o Agnes and Elena F o u l l e s from c.1371 t o c .1381 and 1370 t o 1384 r e s p e c t i v e l y ; on l y appearance of t h i s surname 65 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 109 096 Elena Sholveton 110 097 Wi l iam Dod 111 098 Henry Brye 112 099 John Wayte 113 100 C r i s t i n a a te Grene 114 101 Henry Osemonde 115 062 Henry P i p e s t i l l 116 102 John Ge rva l l 1.2 v i r g 1.2 v i r g 1 nook 1 nook 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 1 c o t t 1 co t t 14d. l O d . o b . q . 18d.ob. 18d. 12d.ob. l l d . o b . 4d .ob . 4d .ob . u n c e r t a i n ; one r e f . i n 1367 when she was ' h u e d ' , p r e - B l a c k Death r e f . t o Wm. de Shel f ton ( ' s h o l f t o n ' ) , assessed 5d . i n 1327 Subsidy not known not known not known , Death recorded i n 1363 (on ly r e f . ) and had h e l d 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e Grenelond i n HADLEY, s u r v i v e d in t h i s tenement by Wm. a t t e Wal le u n c e r t a i n ; r e f . 1365 f o r t r e s p a s s , recorded as absent from manor from c .1395 not known Sum [of r e n t ] 18s .9d .ob . 66 S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant HAWFORD (Her t f o rd i n the o r i g i n a l ) 117 103 John Pat ryk 1 msg 1 v i r g 20d. 118 104 John Gynu l f 1/2 v i r g Sum [o f r e n t ] BORLEY 119 105 John C le rk 1 msg 1 v i r g 16d.ob. 3 s . [ s i c ] 23d. 67 Caree r of Tenant & Fami ly u n c e r t a i n ; may have been as many as th ree tenants w i th t h i s name one of whom f 1 . c .1358 to 1378 and s a i d to have f l e d the manor i n t ha t yea r as a f e l o n and had he ld 1 messuage and ' l a n d ' i n HARTFORD; t h i s r e f . may be to the John Pat ryk entered h e r e ; a J o h n , son of John Pat ryk d i ed i n 1376 and had he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n W00DH0USE (no.242) and i n t h i s r e n t a l a John Pat ryk i s a l s o named as tenant o f 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n CHATLEY (no.192) not known; an Agnes Gynu l f t d ied in 1361, she had he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e and had no s u r v i v o r s , she may have been the widow of the John Gynu l f named here not known; a John l e C l e r k f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death Icient. No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 120 106 R ichard Bornwal 3 nooks 20d. not known; i n 1334 a R icha rd de Bornwal l succeeded Ed i tha de Bornwal1 i n a tenement of 1 messuage 3 nooks , p o s t - B lack Death a R i cha rd Bornwal l known from c.1400 121 107 John A l l y 1 nook 3 s . 3 d . o b . u n c e r t a i n ; f 1 . c . 1357-1384, at death s a i d to have he ld 1 messuage 1 v i r g and s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Margaret 122 . . . - b l - T i lbeneye 1/2 v i r g 8d .ob . ( c rossed out ) l O d . 123 108 R icha rd Jones 1/2 v i r g 8 d . 124 109 John Carpenter 1/2 v i r g 8 d . 125 110 John Alysanndr 1 v i r g 126 111 R ichard Culvard 1 v i r g u n c e r t a i n ; a R i c . Jones s a i d to have en te red 1 m 1/2 v i r g a t e i n B0RLEY i n 1364, no r e f . t o su r render e t c . and s a i d t o be absent from the manor from c .1374 unknown; a John Carpentere assessed i n 1327 Subsidy f o r 12d. 22d .q . f 1 . c .1358-1369 , he ld at death 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n B0RLEY and s u r v i v e d by h i s widow P e t r o n i l l a (see a l s o nos .287 -8 be low, no r e f . at death t o ho ld ings d e s c r i b e d t h e r e ) 2 s . 3 d . o b . u n c e r t a i n ; Cu lva rd a . k . a . Newelonde, i n 1369 a Margaret a t t e Newel onde s u r v i v e d her husband R icha rd i n 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n BORLEY and i n 1375 a Margaret a t t e Newlond was f i r s t ordered to r e p a i r a tenement of 68 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 127 112 Thomas ate Croce 3 nooks 2 s . 2 d . 128 113 John a te Newelond 1 v i r g 2s . 129 114 R ichard Dod 1 nook 7d. 130 . . . -b l - H y l l a r y 1/2 v i r g 23d. 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n BORLEY fo rmer l y of R ichard Cu lva rd and i n the same cour t a Margaret Cu lva rd sur rendered s a i d tenement c a l l e d Cu l va rdes lond and t h i s was then l e a s e d by her son c a l l e d John a t t e Nuwelond f l C . 1359-C . 1399 , no r e f . t o h i s death e t c . , i n 135? l e a s e d tenement (no s i z e g iven) i n BORLEY and i n 137? s a i d t o be former tenant of 1 messuage 3 nooks i n BORLEY, no r e f . t o tenement i n SYTCHAMPTON (see no.162) u n c e r t a i n ; a John a te Newelond known from c .1358 and i n 1360 l eased 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n the Rectory (not mentioned i n t h i s r e n t a l ) , see a l s o no.126 above and R ichard and Margaret Cu lva rd a . k . a . Nuwelonde, no r e f . t o death e t c . of John a te Newelond Re f . t o a R icha rd Dod de bo r l ey whose death was recorded i n 1369 and had h e l d 1 messuage 1 co t tage wi th garden i n BORLEY 69 Ic ient . No. No. Name of Tenant 131 115 John Rugge 132 116 W i l l i a m Macke 133 117 John Macke 134 118 Henry a t t e Forde 135 119 136 119 137 120 John a t t e Forde John a t t e Forde John Gal l ye S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 1 v i r g 2 s . 5 d . 1/2 v i r g 12d.0b. 1/2 v i r g 12d.ob. 1 nook 2d. 1/2 v i r g 14d .q ' 1/2 v i r g l i d . 1 c o t t 1 c r o f t 3d . u n c e r t a i n ; a John Rugge known from 1373 and p r e - B l a c k Death a John Rugge s a i d to have d ied 1328 and had he ld 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e and was s u r v i v e d by Roger Rugge u n c e r t a i n ; a Wm. Macke known from c.1371 and at h i s death i n 1385 s a i d to have he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n BORLEY and 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e , he was s u r v i v e d by h i s son John f l . c .1358-1369 , s a i d to have he ld at death 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e and 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e both i n BORLEY, he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow who was not named u n c e r t a i n ; a Henry a t t e Forde f 1 . c.1371 t o 1418 and s a i d t o have he ld at death 1 messuage 1 t o f t and two tenements of 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e each , a l l i n BORLEY not known; a John ate Forde f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death and was assessed at 2 s . i n 1327 Subsidy not known 70 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 138 067 John ate Wall ' l e Lode ' 9d. Sum [of r e n t ] 2 5 s . 5 d . o b . DUNHAMPTON 139 121 Agnes E l y o t 140 122 W i l l i a m Yonge 141 123 Wal te r F o u l l 142 124 John Wal tero 143 125 W i l l i a m Al lewy 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 1 v i r g 3 nooks 1 v i r g 1/2 v i r g . 23d. 17d.ob. 23d. l l d . o b . not known; one r e f . i n 1363 to an Henry E l i o t not known; a John Yong f 1 . from c.1375 and a W i l l i a m l e Yong known p r e - B l a c k Death not known; see no.108 above f l . c . 1360 -1397 , he ld at h i s death 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e and was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Agnes ( i n DUNHAMPTON) not known; assessed 12d. i n 1327 Subsidy Sum [o f r e n t ] 7 s . 2 d . [ s i c ] WINNALL 144 126 Thomas Wynhal 1 msg 1 v i r g l l d . o b , u n c e r t a i n ; a Thomas Wynhal i n 1363 s a i d to have son W i l l i a m who c la imed 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e vacated by C r i s t i n a Wynhal , and a Thomas Wynhal 71 I d e n t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 145 127 John Myryva l l 146 128 John Wynhal 147 129 W i l l i a m Wymede 148 130 W i l l i a m Hol te 1/2 v i r g 6d . 1 v i r g l O d . o b . q . 1 v i r g 5 s . 2 d . o b . 1/2 v i r g 15d.ob. Sum [o f r e n t ] 9 s . 9 d . [ s i c ] COMHAMPTON 149 083 John Dodyng 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 72 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly o b . 1389 and s a i d to have he ld 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n WYNHALE and s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Marga re t , see a l s o no.146 not known; a W i l l i a m M u r i v a l l f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death u n c e r t a i n ; f l . c .1358-1369 , at death s a i d to have he ld only 1 messuage 1 nook i n WILNHAL and s u r v i v e d by h i s son Thomas u n c e r t a i n ; f 1 . c , 1 3 6 7 - c . l 4 2 5 but no r e f . to death e t c . u n c e r t a i n ; i n 1357 a W i l l i a m de h o l t e leased 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n SUDDINGTON ( i . e . not i n WINNALL) and i n 1394 a Wm. Ho l t l eased 1 messuage 1 nook i n ' F r o g g e l a n e ' I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 150 131 John D o l u t e l l 1/2 v i r g 151 132 Thomas Pach 1/2 v i r g 152 133 R icha rd P r i o u r 1/2 v i r g Sum [of r e n t ] BR00KHAMPT0N 153 134 Thomas Al lewy 1 nook 154 135 W i l l i a m Toly 1/2 v i r g 9d .ob . 8d .ob . 9d .ob . 3 s . 2 d . 6 d . o b . q . l l d . o b . 73 Caree r of Tenant & Fami ly . not known; a W i l l i a m D o l u t e l l f 1 . c .1378-1395 and a John D o l u t e l l known p r e - B l a c k Death and was assessed 15d. i n 1327 Subs idy f 1. c .1363-1397 , he ld s a i d tenement at death and s u r v i v e d by h i s widow J u l i a n a f l . c . 1363 -1391 , at death s a i d t o have he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n C0MHAMPT0N and 1 messuage 1 nook i n BYRYTON, s u r v i v e d by h i s widow C r i s t i n a and t h e i r son Mathew (see below no.273 where a R i c . P r i o u r s a i d to ho ld another 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e and see A l i c e P r i o u r , no.4 above) f l . C . 1367-C . 1386 , i n 1386 sur rendered 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Alweyes due to ' impo tence ' i n BROOKHAMPTTJN u n c e r t a i n ; one r e f . i n 1365 f o r t h e f t of a cow, r e f . from 1385, none to tenements, s a i d to have d ied i n 1403 and had h e l d 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e I d e n t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 155 136 Thomas Brome 1 nook 14d.ob. 156 134 Thomas Al lewy 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 157 137 John A l lewy 1 nook 8 d . 158 138 Henry a te Perche 1 nook lOd .ob .q , 159 139 W i l l i a m Sampson nook 5 d . o b . q . Sum [o f r e n t ] 5 s . 8 d . o b . [ s i c ] 74 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly To l yes i n BROOKHAMPTON and 1 messuage 1 nook Sampsons (no r e f . here to l a t t e r ) and s u r v i v e d by Margaret h i s widow u n c e r t a i n ; f 1 . c .1363-1399 , s a i d t o ho ld a t death 1 messuage 3 nooks i n HADLEY u n c e r t a i n ; f 1 . c .1357-1387 o b . , s a i d at death to ho ld 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e c a l l e d A l l y e s , su rv i ved by h i s widow Margaret not known not known; some r e f . t o John Sampson, see no.154 above f o r Wm. Toly who h e l d 1 messuage 1 nook c a l l e d Sampsons at h i s death i n 1403 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce SYTCHAMPTON 160 140 Henry Swetr 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d.ob. 161 141 R ichard B issop 1/2 v i r g 12d.ob. ( B i s h o p , e t c . ) 162 112 Thomas a te Croce 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 163 142 R ichard Hemyng 1/2 v i r g 14d .q . 164 143 Henry Suward 1/2 v i r g 13d .q . 75 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1369-1412 , at death s a i d t o ho ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n SYTCHAMPTON and 1 messuage 2 nooks i n BR0KHAMPT0N, s u r v i v e d by h i s widow C r i s t i n e , see below no.295 f 1 . c . 1360 -1361 , s a i d t o ho ld at death two tenements of 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e each (no second en t ry i n t h i s r e n t a l ) and was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow C r i s t i n e , i n 1370 a John B isshop c la imed 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n SYTCHAMPTON and h i s c l a i m was con tes ted by C r i s t i n e widow of R ichard B i s s h o p , i t was granted t o J o h n . In 1328 a R i cha rd B isshop was named as h e i r t o P e t r o n i l l a B isshop and entered her former tenement of 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e not known; i n 1372 a John Hemyng en te red a tenement 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n SYTCHAMPTON, perhaps a descendant of the R ichard Hemyng named here not known; an Hen. Suward assessed i n 1327 Subsidy f o r 6 d . I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 165 144 John Wendout 166 145 R i cha rd Perdu 167 145 R icha rd Perdu Sum [o f r en t ] W00DH0USE 168 146 Thomas ate Bourn 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 13d.ob. 13d.ob. 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 8s .5d .ob , 1 msg 3 nooks 22d .ob . f l . c .1363-1399 , he ld at death 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n SYTCHAMPTON and s u r v i v e d by widow J u l i a n a f 1 . c . l 3 6 3 - c . l 3 9 3 , no r e f . to death e t c . but i n 1387 he sur rendered 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e in SYCHAMPTON c a l l e d Perdeus which was then leased by an Henry Perdu ( e i t h e r h i s son or g randson ) , no f a t e g iven r e : second tenement of 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n SYTCHAMPTON, see next en t r y (no.167) u n c e r t a i n ; a T h . a t t e Bourn i n p l e a . of t r e s p a s s i n 1378, ob . 1381 and s a i d to have he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n un-named hamle t , was s u r v i v e d i n t h i s by W i l l i a m a t t e Bourn , re fe rence to tenement o f 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n CHATLEY (see no.193) asc r i bed i n t h i s r e n t a l a l s o t o T h . a te Bourn ; i n 1385 John son of Th . a t t e Bourn l eased 1 messuage 1 nook i n W00DH0USE 76 I den t . S i ze (and name No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement 169 103 John Patryk 1/2 v i r g 170 147 John Godmon 1/2 v i r g 171 . . . - b l - Hunte 1 nook 172 148 Symon a t t e Grene 1 nook 173 149 J u l i a n a Webb 1/2 v i r g 174 150 R ichard Newman 1/3 v i r g 175 151 R icha rd Tapenhal 1 v i r g 176 152 J u l i a n a Tapenhal 1 v i r g 177 153 R ichard a t te Bourn 1/2 v i r g Due Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 2 s . l i d . 4 d . o b . ( c rossed out) 5 s . at the f e a s t of S t . Michae l 4d .ob . 12d. 12d.ob. 13d. 13d. 19d. f l . c .1365-1404 , sur rendered i n 1403 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n W00DHOUSE which was then leased by h i s son J o h n , reco rd o f h i s death i n 1404 v i r t u a l l y i l l e g i b l e not known; one r e f . i n 1390 to a Symon a te Grene who was f i n e d f o r enc roach ing on the K i n g ' s way not known not known; a W i l l i a m and Robert Newman f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death not known; a R icha rd Tapenhale f 1 . f rom c .1380 but no r e f . connects him w i t h t h i s en t ry not known p o s t - B l a c k Dea th , a J u l i a n a Tapenhale f 1 . p r e - B l a c k death and was assessed at 6 d . i n 1327 Subs idy f l . c .1358-1377 , he ld at death 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n W00DH0USE c a l l e d Bou rne land , s u r v i v e d by son W i l l i a m 77 S ize (and name) Due Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Symon Knoket 1/3 v i r g l l d . o b . John Baron 1/3 v i r g 14d.ob. R i cha rd a t t e Wodehous 1/2 v i r g 17d. Thomas Hardynge 1/2 v i r g 13d. R ichard Maye 1 nook 4 d . o b . q . Symon Cane 1/3 v i r g lOd .ob . John Hanford 1 v i r g 18d. ob . R ichard Hanford 1 msg 2 c r o f t s 8d . 78 Career of Tenant & Fami ly not known not known; a Wal ter l e Baron f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death not known p o s t - B l a c k Death , a R i c . a t e Wodehous f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death and i n 1329 en te red tenement of Agnes, widow of John P a t r i c k , who he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e Death recorded i n 1360 and s a i d t o have he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e which remained vacant a f t e r h i s d e a t h ; i n 1328 a Thomas Hardyng was named as h e i r t o C r i s t i n a Hardyng and en te red 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e which she had he ld not known; an Agnes Cane known p r e - B l a c k Death u n c e r t a i n ; f 1 . c . l 3 5 8 - c . l 3 7 1 , i n 1371 r e f . t o a W i l l i a m son and h e i r of John Hanford who he ld ( i n custody of R i c . Hanford) 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n HANFORD u n c e r t a i n ; f 1. C . 1358-C . 1395 , no r e f . t o death e t c . see no.184 above I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant 186 161 Henry a te Ha l l 187 162 Thomas F o r s t e r 188 163 I s a b e l l a Houle S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Caree r of Tenant & Fami ly tenement next t o Wyshar tenement f o r t ha t ' p i e c e ' of waste ( land) i n W00DH0USE fo r 'S tokkyng ' & 'Ma r i o tes tokynga ' •bl 15d. not known; f i r s t r e f . t o Hen. a te H a l l occurs i n 1390 but l a t t e r was tenant i n SUDDINGTON u n c e r t a i n ; f i r s t r e f . c .1378-1398 , at death s a i d to have he ld 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n W0DEH0US and s u r v i v e d by Margaret h i s widow not known Sum [of r e n t ] 20d .8q . [ s i c . f o r 2 0 s . 9 d . q . ? ] CHATLEY 189 . . . - b l - H o u l l e 190 164 Symon B a l l 191 165 R ichard Hardyng 192 103 John P a t r i k 193 146 Thomas ate Bourn 1 msg 1 v i r g ' R u s s e l l ' 1 v i r g 1 v i r g 1 v i r g 1 v i r g 3 s . 9 d . 15d. (c rossed out) 2 s . 5 d . 15d. (c rossed out ) 2 s . 15d. (c rossed out ) 2 s . 6 d . 15d. (c rossed out ) 2 s . 6 d . not known; an E d i t h a B a l l known p r e - b l a c k Death u n c e r t a i n ; t h ree r e f . i n 1378 and i n 1383 and s a i d to be absent from the manor 79 I d e n t . No . No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 194 • b l - 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 7d . Sum [of r en t ] 1 9 s . l O d . [ s i c ] FERNHAMPTON 195 166 R icha rd Knotde 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 16d.ob. 196 046 Henry C lech 197 167 Henry ate Grene 3 nooks 1 nook 4d .ob . 14d.ob, 198 168 Henry Pach 1 nook 14d.ob. 199 169 R ichard Hal lward 200 170 Henry Knote 201 171 W i l l i a m Lomb 201(a) 019 W i l l i a m Knotte 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 1 msg 6 acres 1 nook 19d. 22d. 9 d . lOd . o b . q . f 1 . c .1358 -1366 , s u r v i v e d i n t h i s tenement by h i s widow G r i s t i n e not known; two r e f . 1358 f o r brewing f i n e s not known; an Hen. Pach known p r e - B l a c k Death ; i n 1360 r e f . t o a John son of A l i c e Pach who en te red 1 messuage 1 nook i n FERNHAMPTON not known not known not known; a Wm. Lomb known p r e - B l a c k Death 80 I den t . No. No. Name oT Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 202 172 John Heyweye 1 msg 4 acres 12d. 203 046 Henry C lech Sum [of r e n t ] ' F o x e s c r o f t ' 12d. l i s . 2 d . o b . q . not known; no p o s t - B l a c k Death r e f . t o John Heyweye but i n 1333 an Adam de Heyweye was s u r v i v e d by h i s son John i n a tenement of a 1 messuage 1/3 v i r g a t e ; i n 1361 a Thomas Heyweye d ied and had he ld 1 messuage 1 nook, ( i . e . c . 1/3 v i r g a t e ) and was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Agnes POWERS 204 173 W i l l i a m Dieson 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . 205 174 Henry Bornwall 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . f l . c .1368 -1372 , at death he ld i n POWERS 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e and two tenements o f 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e each i n 0VERSUDDINGT0N (see nos.252 and 256 ) ; s u r v i v e d by h i s widow C r i s t i n e and daughter M a t i l d a f l . c . 1363 -1383 , at death he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n un-named hamlet and s u r v i v e d by son John ; l a t t e r i n 1379 l e a s e d another tenement of 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n FERNHAMPTON 206 013 R ichard Symond 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . 81 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 207 17b M a t i l d a Heynes 208 176 Adam Hul lward 209 177 Henry A ld ryche 210 178 Wal ter ate Mere 211 179 W i l l i a m Fox 212 180 John Sheperde Sum [o f r e n t ] MAYEUS (Mayhouse) 213 181 Thomas Janekenes 214 068 John G e n t i l l 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . 2 s . 6 d . 2 s . 6 d . 2 s . 6 d . 1 c o t t & 2d.ob. 1 c u r t i l a g e not known not known not known p o s t - B l a c k Dea th ; an Hen. A l d r i c h f 1 . p r e - B l a c k Death and was assessed 6 d . i n 1327 Subs idy f l . c .1358-1369 , he ld at death 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n POWERS and s u r v i v e d by widow C r i s t i n e not known; a W i l l i a m Fox who entered i n t o a s s i z e i n 1365 i s u n l i k e l y t o have been t h i s t e n a n t ; p r e - B l a c k Death a W i l l i a m l e Vox i s known • b l - 2s .8d . u n c e r t a i n ; on ly r e f . t o A l i c e w i f e John Sheperde i n 1366, f i n e d as a ha rves t ' m a l e f a c t o r ' o f 2 5 s . 7 d . o b . [ s i c ] 1 msg 1 v i rg 5 s . 1 msg 1 v i r g 5 s . not known 82 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 215 182 John Gardner 1 msg 1 v i r g 5 s . 216 183 W i l l i a m Mayeux 1 msg 1 v i r g 5 s . 217 184 Henry Gardner messuage w i th garden 218 185 R icha rd Couper tenement next to Brodemor 14d.ob. Sum [of ren t ] 1 7 s . 3 d . q . [ s i c ] TENANTS (at the?) RECTORY 219 186 John Parsones 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . 83 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1363-1369 , he ld at death 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n MAYEUS, s u r v i v e d by h i s widow P e t r o n i l l a not known; a Thomas Mayeux l e a s e d tenement and land c a l l e d Mayieux i n 1372 and at h i s death s a i d Thomas he ld two tenements of 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e each c a l l e d Mayhewes and Jonkyns r e s p e c t i v e l y on ly re f . to death of Henry Gardener i n 1376, had he ld 1 co t t age w i th c r o f t i n MAYIEUX, en tered by John Gardener u n c e r t a i n ; a R icha rd Couper known from c.1364 but s a i d to have he ld land i n HADLEY; l a t t e r d i e d i n 1401 and had he ld 1 messuage 1 nook i n HADLEY and 1 co t tage w i t h 3 acres i n SUDDINGTON (see nos.249 and 299) Death recorded i n 1361 and s a i d t o have he ld two tenements o f 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e each (see next en t r y ) and was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Agnes I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due* of Tenement Rent . S e r v i c e Caree r o f Tenant & Fami ly 220 186 221 119 222 187 John ate Parsones John a t t e Forde John Wodeward Sum [o f r en t ] 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 'Rec to ry C l o s e ' 3 s . w i th Dovecot 1 0 s . 5 d . [ s i c ] u n c e r t a i n ; a John l e Wodeward known from c.1358 to c . 1 3 6 5 , no r e f . t o h i s d e a t h , s u r r e n d e r , e t c . FREE TENANTS 223 188 John Acton 224 189 225 190 Robert a t t e Wode Wal ter F o r s t e r ' A c t o n ' f o r tha t c u l t i v a t e d assa r t 18d, 3d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 9 d . o b . u n c e r t a i n ; a John Acton f 1 . C .1369-C .1424, no r e f . to h i s death e t c . u n c e r t a i n ; i n 1369 a Robert a t t e Wode d ied and s a i d to have he ld 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e o f ' f r e e ' land i n HADLEY, s u r v i v e d by son J o h n ; p r e - B l a c k Death a Robert a te Wode he ld a tenement which had been he ld by h i s f a t h e r Thomas. u n c e r t a i n ; one r e f . to a Wa l te r F o r s t e r i n 1368 when he leased 7 s e l i o n s (see n o . 2 8 9 ) ; a Wal te r F o r s t e r f 1 . p re -B lack Death 84 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) of Tenement Due Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 226 191 227 192 Thomas Bu t ta r W i l l i a m V ishar ( F i s h a r , e t c . ) 228 192 W i l l i a m V ishar 229 046 Henry C lech 230 193 W i l l i a m Smyth 231 194 W i l l i a m T a i l l o u r 232 195 R ichard P i p e s t i l l 233 062 Henry P i p e s t i l l 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 9 d . o b . the wei r i n 10s. the Severn wi th the f i s h e r y 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . 1 msg 1 nook 2s .6d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d. the C h a p l a i n ' s 12d. house the m i l l of T r i l lemul 1 the m i l l of HADLEY 7 s . 7 d . 8 s . 4 d . unknown; a Thomas known from 1395 when he entered i n t o a t i t h i n g f 1 . C .1360-C .1368, no r e f . t o h i s death e t c . , s a i d t o have he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e ' a t the l o r d ' s w i l l ' , see next en t r y u n c e r t a i n ; some r e f . t o W i l l i a m Smyth from c .1360 but none t o tenements he he ld e t c . , see n o s . 2 5 3 , 257, 259 f o r o ther ho ld i ngs f l . c .1365 -1399 , i n 1365 s a i d t o have l e a s e d the tenement c a l l e d ' the c h a p l a i n ' s house ' which c o n s i s t e d of one c o t t a g e ; a t h i s death i n 1399 he was s a i d to have h e l d a co t tage c a l l e d Presteshous not known; on ly r e f . t o a R i c . P i pest i l i e who d i e d i n 1358 but no r e f . t o tenancy of m i l l 234 196 Thomas Russe l l 1 msg 1 nook 2 s . l i d . not known 85 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 235 031 J u l i a n a Symond land i n Rodenhurst 5 d . 236 237 238 197 239 . . . 240 . . . 241 . . . 242 103 P r i o r e s s of Westwod Augus t i n i an F r i a r s of (Droi t )Wych W i l l i a m Rome Preach ing F r i a r s of Worcester land & meadow at Wadebrug -b l -1 msg fo rmer ly - b l -(he ld by) E ' Mep tenement i n BURYTON next t o the ' s t e p s ' ? S a c r i s t a n of Worcester the house f o r -( P r i o r y o f Worcester merly of Wm. Ca thed ra l ) V i s h a r & quarry Minor F r i a r s of Worcester John P a t r i k -b l -tha t pa rce l of 15d. quarry 4 s . 2 d , ' P h i l i p p s p l a c e ' 2 s . 2 d . & quarry ' B o l e r e s l o n d ' 2 s . i n 1359, a M a t i l d a Rome sur rendered her r i g h t s to a tenement i n BURITON and t h i s was then leased by W i l l i a m Rome; Wm. Rome ( the) ' c h a p l a i n ' su r rendered t h i s i n 1373 and was taken by A l i c e A l i s a n n d r 86 I d e n t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 243 198 John Diacon the p i ece of demesne land at park gate 6d . not known Sum [of r e n t ] 48s, SUDDINGTON 244 199 W i l l i a m St rokegreve 245 028 Henry ate Mere 246 200 R i cha rd C o l l e s o n 247 201 W i l l i a m Pach land of 3 s . I d , St rokegreve 1 msg i n 12d. BURYTON 'Henacr ' w i th l O d . hedges 6 s e l i o n s in 3d . 'TweythornS' not known; r e f . t o S a r r a S t rokegrey de Sodynton who d ied i n 1369 and had he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e which remained vacant a f t e r her death u n c e r t a i n ; a R i c . C o l l e s o n f 1 . c .1374-1398 , no r e f . t o t h i s tenement f l . c .1363-1384 , at death s a i d to have he ld among o ther tenements 6 acres o f the demesne of SUDDINGTON; he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow C r i s t i n e Sum [o f r en t ] 5 s . 2 d . 87 I d e n t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e OVERSUDDINGTON 248 202 R i cha rd Balk 1 msg 9 acres 15d. 249 185 250 203 R icha rd Couper R i cha rd Shyne de Comhampton 1 msg 2 acres 15d. 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 15d. 251 204 Agnes Mayeus ' B o l e r e s p l a c e ' - b l -252 173 W i l l i a m Dieson 253 193 W i l l i a m Smyth 254 189 Robert ate Wode 255 023 John Ho l te 256 173 W i l l i a m Dieson 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 'Smythesp lace ' 2 s . 3 d . i n 'Soddynton ' 1 msg w i th garden ' L a d y a c r ' l d . o b . 3 d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 1 5 d . , 2 2 d . , 6d, ' F renshe ' 257 193 W i l l i a m Smyth 1 msg 9 acres 15d. 88 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1358-1364 , he ld at death 1 messuage 9 acres and 1 nook i n 'Sodyn ton ' and these remained vacant u n c e r t a i n ; a R icha rd Shyne known c .1370 -78 , i n 1378 was s a i d to have en feo f fed John Porys w i th a tenement o f 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e but at R i c h a r d ' s death t h i s was t o r eve r t to R i c . ' s r i g h t f u l h e i r s i n p e r p e t u i t y u n c e r t a i n ; on ly one r e f . t o Agnes Mayeus i n 1370 I d e n t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 258 088 John ate Bourn 259 193 W i l l i a m Smyth 260 205 Emma Frensh 261 206 John Luket 262 038 R icha rd Meye 263 207 John Couper 264 039 John Wheolar 265 . . . - b l - A lysanndr 266 208 John Webb 267 209 John Strannge Sum [o f ren t ] 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2s .8d . 'Bou rn ' 1 msg 1 c r o f t 6d 1 msg w i th - b l -c r o f t 1/2 c o t t & 1/2 3d . c u r t i l a g e 1/3 par t of 3d .q . sa id co t tage (see next en t r y ) remainder of I d . co t tage (see above) f l . c . 1363 -1381 , s a i d t o have he ld at death 1 tenement w i th 1 c r o f t u n c e r t a i n ; f 1 . 1381-1391, he ld at death 1 co t tage w i th c u r t i l a g e i n BIRIT0N, s u r v i v e d by h i s widow u n c e r t a i n ; on ly one re fe rence t o John Couper i n 1360 f o r t r e s p a s s ve rsus John Ams lo t ; another (?) John Couper f l . from c.1387 co t tage ' C l e c h ' 6d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2s .7d tenement & 1/2 7d.ob, v i r g 'Dya r ' tenement & 1/2 18d. v i r g not known u n c e r t a i n ; r e f . t o John Webb i n 1358 and then a John Webb f 1 . from 1374 2 2 s . l 0 d . q . 89 I d e n t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly ACTON 268 210 W i l l i a m Dankenes 269 211 Henry Tyby 270 212 Thomas Heyne 271 213 Thomas Dankenes 272 214 Thomas B a l l Sum [o f r e n t ] 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 3 s . 4 d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 3 d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2s ' .10d. 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 7 d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 3 d . 9 s . l 0 d . [ s i c ] u n c e r t a i n ; a W i l l i a m Dankenes a c t i v e from 1358 but s a i d t o have he ld land i n HADLEY, NORTHAMPTON, BIRITON, d ied i n 1376 and he ld then 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Smythplace i n BYRYTON u n c e r t a i n ; a Henry Tyby l eased i n 1363 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n Acton c a l l e d B a i 1 l e s l o n d , only o ther r e f . p o s t - B l a c k Death was in 1374 f o r d e f a u l t ; an Henry Tyby known p r e - B l a c k Death and was assessed 12d . i n 1327 Subs idy f l . c .1360-1401 , s a i d to have sur rendered 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n ACTON i n 1379 f l . C .1358-C .1363 , i n 1363 sur rendered 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n ACTON because of ' impo tence ' not known I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly COMHAMPTON 273 133 R ichard P r i o u r 274 215 W i l l i a m in the Hale 275 216 John Chaloner 276 217 Reg ina ld Cromp 277 218 Henry Strugg 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 1 c o t t 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2s .7d 2 s . 5 d . ( c rossed out) 20d . 6d . 2 s . 6 d . 2 s . 6 . d (c rossed out) 20d. u n c e r t a i n ; f i r s t r e f . 1379, and i n 1387 sur rendered through ' impotence ' 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d St rugges i n COMHAMPTON and t h i s tenement remained vacant a f t e r h i s su r render not known; some r e f . t o a Thomas Cha loner pre-and p o s t - B l a c k Death not known f 1 . C .1358-C .1387 , no record o f h i s d e a t h , i n 1376 he sur rendered 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e i n COMHAMPTON through ' impo tence ' Sum [of r e n t ] 5 s . 6 d . [ s i c ] ( i n the manner o f 1/2 marc at the f e a s t of S t . M i chae l ) HADLEY 278 219 John Amslot 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . Died i n 1361 and s a i d to have he ld at death two tenements of 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e e a c h , both i n HADLEY; he was s u r v i v e d by h i s w i f e Agnes and at her 91 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 279 207 John Couper 280 220 Henry Tyard 281 220 Henry Tyard Sum [o f r en t ] HAWFORD 282 067 John a t t e Wall 283 ' 067 John a t t e Wall Sum [o f r en t ] W00DH0USE 284 . . . - b l - Tapenhale 285 062 Henry P i p e s t e l l death i n 1373 by t h e i r son W i l l i a m ; r e f . t o John Amslot a l s o p r e - B l a c k Death 1 msg 1 nook 19d. 1 msg 1 nook 2 s . 4 d . o b . u n c e r t a i n ; C . 1 3 6 0 - C . 1 3 6 6 , no record of h i s d e a t h , on ly tenement r e f . i s t o land i n SUDDINGTON which i s not recorded i n t h i s r e n t a l 1 msg 1 nook 2 s . 4 d . o b . 8 s . l 0 d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 2 d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 4 s . q . [ s i c ] 1 msg 1 v i r g - b l -m i l l of 5 s . , 6 s . 'Squyntesmul1 1 92 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant 286 221 287 110 288 110 289 190 290 191 291 023 292 222 John Janes John A lysanndr John A lysanndr Wal te r F o r s t e r The same Wal ter John Ho l te Thomas Brewar S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly ' c l o s e ' i n / o f SUDDINGTON 3 s . 4 d . f l . c .1360-1387 , at h i s death he he ld bes ides a ' p i e c e ' of land i n SUDDINGTON 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Dodynges and 1 messuage 1 nook c a l l e d Wyselond, he was s u r v i v e d i n par t o f t h i s tenement by h i s widow A l i c e ' c l o s e ' of 21d. the ' O l d e o r c h a r d ' 'Wyneyard' & 2 s . 6 d . 'Wodehamcroft ' 7 s e l i o n s 4 d . q . ' R u s e l T & ' l e S tokyng ' ' p i e c e ' of - b l -land enc losed w i t h / t o h i s tenement ' L a d y a c r ' 15d. i n the manner of 5 s . at 4 terms 'a te Waras lane ' 6 d . f 1 . c .1363-1398 , at h i s death s a i d to f i e l d have he ld 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d To lyes and 1 messuage 1 nook c a l l e d Gonges to l es ; no r e f . to t h i s tenement 93 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant 293 223 R icha rd Bu t ta r 294 . . . - b l - C los 295 140 Henry Swetr 296 224 John Cole Sum [o f r en t ] NEW TENANTS 297 225 John P e p p e s t i l l 298 223 R ichard le B u t t a r 299 185 R icha rd Couper 300 226 R icha rd Mayeus annua l l y S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami l y  - b l - 4 s . 7 d . 0 b . u n c e r t a i n ; a R ichard B u t t a r f 1 . c .1379-1417 ob . - b l - 6 s . 8 d . - b l - 20d. - b l - 20d. unknown 2 3 s . 8 d . o b . q . - b l - l O d . f l . c . 1358 -1397 , at death he he ld 1 messuage 1 nook i n SUDDINGTON, t h i s may have been the same tenement which had been leased i n 1358 d e s c r i b e d as 1 co t t age w i th 6 a c r e s ; a John P i p p e s t i l l was assessed i n the 1327 Subs idy at 9 d . - b l - 3 s . , 7d .ob . - b l - 3d-. - b l - 12d. (c rossed not known; i n 1378 a R icha rd Mayeux out but no sum was f i n e d f o r not being in the a s s i z e entered t o rep lace i t ) 94 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 301 227 Henry Lombe annua l l y 302 228 Thomas Alysanndr annua l l y -b l - - b l -• b l - 12d. u n c e r t a i n ; an Henry Lombe known from c.1360-1390 he ld at h i s death (by r i g h t o f h i s w i f e ) 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e o f f r e e land c a l l e d Frenshes i n SUDDINGTON, i t was r e ta i ned by h i s widow A l i c e a f t e r h i s death u n c e r t a i n ; a Thomas A lysanndr a c t i v e from c.1360 when he entered 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e fo rmer ly of Henry Couper [No 'Sum ' / r en t t o t a l recorded a f t e r t h i s "New Tenants" s e c t i o n . The above l i s t i s f o l l o w e d i n the o r i g i n a l by a l i s t o f annual terms of rent c o l l e c t i o n . ] LENCHFORD RENTS 303 063/ R i cha rd Crompe 3 s . 4 d . - b l -066 304 229 Roqer A l l y s a n d r 3 s . 4 d . - b l - u n c e r t a i n ; a Roger A lysanndr known from c .1378 , i n 1399 he l eased 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Newlondes in BORLEY and t h i s hamlet was next t o LENCHFORD, i n the same yea r he , Henry A l l y , R i c h a r d Crompe de Uphampton (see p reced ing en t r y ) and W i l l i a m Wymedewe leased from the l o r d t ha t pas tu re i n LYNCHEF0RD which was fo rmer l y a rab le l a n d , (see nos.305-306 below) 95 I d e n t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 305 129 W i l l i a m Wimedewe 306 230 Henry A l l y 3 s . 4 d . 3 s . 4 d . - b l -- b l -SUDDINGTON TENANTS 307 228 Thomas A l l y s a n d r 308 231 R i cha rd Lomppe 2 s . 2 s . -b l --b l -309 232 John Ophampton 2 s . • b l -96 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1374-1418 , he he ld at h i s death 1 messuage 1 nook c a l l e d S taye res i n BIRYT0N; i n 1399 he was named as c o - l e s s e e w i t h the o ther t h ree tenants named i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the pas tu re i n LYNCHEF0RDE and t h i s en t ry was repeated i n 1409 when the same j o i n t - t e n a n t s were named and the rent f o r the pas tures was recorded as 5 3 s . 4 d . per annum or 3 s . 4 d . per tenant at each o f the fou r , t e rms at which ren ts were due u n c e r t a i n ; r e f . t o R i cha rd Lomppe begin on ly i n 1406 and con t inue to c .1436 , no record of h i s death but r e f . t o v a r i o u s tenements which he he ld as f r e e tenant i n SUDDINGTON, see next en t ry u n c e r t a i n ; r e f . from c . 1 3 9 3 , i n 1419 he was named as former tenant w i t h R i cha rd Lombe, Thomas C le rk and Thomas Alysawndr (see nos .307 , 308, 310) o f demesne land i n SUDDINGTON I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 310 233 Thomas C le rk 2s, - b l - f 1. C .1383-C .1407, no r e f . t o h i s death e t c . , l a s t r e f . t o him occurs i n 1419 (see preced ing e n t r y ) 311 231 R ichard Lompe 2s, -b l Tota l sum [of r e n t ] 1 9 1 i . 1 0 s . 4 . d . o b . i n the n i n t h (?) year of the r e i gn of King Henry IV Entry on the back of the Rental on i t s l a s t membrane: Memo tha t John Toly [no other r e f . to him i n t h i s r e n t a l ] owes the l o r d net f o r ren ts f o r the term of the Annunc ia t i on of the B lessed V i r g i n Mary i n the second year of the r e i gn of King Henry IV 1 6 s . l 0 d . o b . q . 97 Fi f teenth century rental fragments and re lated documents The f i r s t decade of the f i f t een th century at Ombersley was a period of considerable demographic upheaval for i t s tenant population and yet t h i s does 13 not appear to be re f lec ted in the rental i t s e l f . No tenements were re -corded in i t (as was the pract ice in l a t e r documents) as being vacant or " i n the l o r d ' s hands" although the abbey recorded a l i s t of t h i s type in a 1409 (18 Oct.) court record. In rental 2 4 ( i i ) , even those tenement ent r ies where only a tenant 's surname was recorded a lso state the rent due from the tene-14 ment as i f i t were occupied . Some of these "blank" given names can be completed by comparing them with the relevant ent r ies in rental fragment 28(x), the next document in the Ombersley rental s e r i e s . The f i r s t complete hamlet record on rental fragment 28(x) i s a record of Sytchampton tenants. Under t h i s heading, seven ind iv idua ls were l i s t e d and each of them occupied a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e . These seven ind iv idua ls appear in exact ly the same order with the same tenements in the relevant sect ion of rental 2 4 ( i i ) 1 5 . The fo l lowing hamlet on 28(x) i s Woodhouse and although port ions of t h i s record are now i l l e g i b l e , those names which can be deciphered a lso copy those for the Woodhouse record in 2 4 ( i i ) . In shor t , a tenant-by-tenant and hamlet-by-hamlet comparison of these two documents shows them to be exact ly the same except for the rents recorded a f ter each tene-ment. We can surmise, there fore , that rental fragment 28(x) was longer by twelve sections than i t i s now l f \ At the end of rental fragment 28(x) two dates were included as part of the record of " to ta l sum of ren ts " . The entry reads "Sum.. . for the year of the Reign of King Henry the Fourth 33 1 i .5s .9d .ob .q . Also in the eleventh year of Henry the Fourth probated 33 l i . 1 5 s . l 0 d . " 1 7 . 98 Regard less of the heading which t h i s rental fragment might have had o r i -g i n a l l y , we can conclude that the rents which i t records were those due for Michaelmas term in 1408 (possibly 1409) and 1410. The reference to the "probate" might expla in the occasional revised tenement rent on the document although no tenant names appear to have been a l t e red . F i n a l l y , i t s probable use as an accounting a id in th i s period i s also suggested by marginal quietus abbreviat ions by which a manorial o f f i c i a l may have "checked of f " each tene-ment rent as i t was received. Further evidence that both rental 24 ( i i ) and rental fragment 28(x) do not record the actual tenant population of Ombersley nor the status of i t s tene-ments (whether vacant or not) in the f i r s t decade of the f i f t een th century i s contained in a renta l - type document in the Ombersley c o l l e c t i o n . In 1419 (16 February), the abbey drew up a l i s t of a l l Ombersley tenants who were l i a b l e to the payment known as "Hundredsi 1 ve r " . This was a f ine claimed by the abbey from Ombersley tenants in l i e u of t he i r attendance at i t s hundred court which was held in Evesham and therefore was too far away for them to a t tend. The l i s t was compiled in what was an 'ex t raord inary ' court session held to mark the consecration of the new abbot of Evesham, 18 Richard Bremysgrove . A to ta l of 151 ind iv idua ls were named according—to the hamlets in which they resided and the i r status was described as e i ther "tenants who hold (land) by custom of the manor and are of free condi t ion" or as " v i l l e i n s who hold (land) by the custom of the manor". The l i s t a lso includes a sect ion t i t l e d "widows...who hold tenements by the custom of the • manor" and concludes with the statement that a l l " . . . t enan ts a fo resa id . . . g i ve to the lo rd common f ine in recognit ion (of h is lo rdsh ip ) " and with a marginal note " C s . " (100s.) opposite t h i s statement. Some care was taken to d i f f e ren -t i a t e between tenants with the same name when the l i s t was compiled. Two 99 John Breweres, for example, were d is t inguished as " jun io r " and "senior" and one John Alysawndere was named as son of Roger while the other was described as "carpenter" . A study of the careers of those tenants named in 1419 shows that they can be i d e n t i f i e d read i ly in Ombersley court records and not only in the years immediately before and a f te r th is date. To take one example: in rental 24 ( i i ) and rental fragment 28(x) Richard Bisshop (no.141 in rental 2 4 ( i i ) ) , was s a i d to be the tenant of a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e in Sytchampton. At best , he could only be 'p laced ' at Ombersley in 1360-61 but in 1370 (25 Apr.) John, son and he i r of Richard Bisshop, success fu l l y claimed his r ights to a tenement of a messuage and ha l f - v i rga te in Sytchampton. John's career as an Ombersley tenant ended in 1420 (14 Oct.) when he sur-rendered "because of his s e n i l i t y " a messuage and ha l f - v i rga te of v i l l e i n land ca l l ed Bysshopys in Sytchampton ad opus et usus h is son, Wi l l iam. In the 1419 Hundredsilver l i s t John appears as a v i l l e i n tenant in Sytchampton. His son Wil l iam had already leased a tenement (8 Oct. 1414) pr io r to John's 19 surrender and he was named also as a v i l l e i n tenant in 1419 . The 1419 Hundredsilver l i s t i s an important cor rec t ive for Ombersley manorial documents. Not only does i t support the method (as seen above in the biographies of John and Wil l iam Bisshop) used, to prepare data derived from court records and other documents for analys is but i t i s a lso useful as an a id for determining the s i ze of the tenant population at Ombersley. With-out i t , for example, the f igure of c i r c a 233 Ombersley tenants ca lcu la ted from 24 ( i i ) would prove to be a serious mis in te rp re ta t ion . A l so , another Ombersley Hundredsi1ver l i s t (from the end of the f i f teen th century) suggests 20 that th i s payment was attached to tenements and not to tenants . This ra ises the p o s s i b i l i t y that the same was true in 1419; that i s , that the 1419 record only names those tenants who held par t i cu la r tenements. Given the 100 great d i f ference between the number of tenements and number of tenants wi th in rental 24 ( i i ) and the di f ferences between e i ther of these f igures and" the number of tenants named in 1419, a s e r i o u s m i s c a l c u l a t i o n of Ombersley tenants i s poss ib le . It was thought best , there fore , to doublecheck the 1419 l i s t by a survey of a l l the biographies compiled for the period 1400-1440. This demonstrated that some 27 tenants were omitted from the Hundredsil ver l i s t , although th i s may be a somewhat generous est imate. It inc ludes , for example, f i ve tenants l i k e Henry Peyntour or Richard Walker who were noted only as brewers and 21 taverners . The others had b r ie f and poorly documented careers , although some, l i k e John Lompe or Thomas Gervays, held at least a ha l f - v i rga te of 22 land . With some modi f icat ions the 1419 Hundredsil ver l i s t provides a f a i r l y careful estimate of the Ombersley tenant population in the second decade of the f i f t een th century; and in addi t ion i t i s useful for ah analys is of rental fragment 27(xx), the next document in the Ombersley rental series. Th is , the second rental fragment a f te r 28(x), i s a lso the shortest of the f i ve documents of t h i s type which have survived in the Ombersley c o l l e c -23 t ion . It cons is ts of the end of a parchment r o l l on which tenants were recorded under eight d i f fe rent hamlet sub-headings and a ninth sub-heading 24 t i t l e d "Free Tenants" . Individual ent r ies record the tenant 's name, the s ize of the tenement which she or he he ld , i t s name and i t s rent . The f rag -ment (and o r i g i n a l l y , perhaps, the en t i re rental ) was revised at some date and tenant names were crossed out and new names in te r l i nea ted over the o l d . After each hamlet sub-sect ion and the "Free Tenants" l i s t a sum of rent has been recorded and the l as t two ent r ies on the fragment give the to ta l "sum of rent" for the o r ig ina l document as 19 l i . 1 7 s . 5 d . and the "sum for (commuted) works (labour se rv i ces ) " as 3 0 s . q 1 . A comparison of th i s fragment with 28(x) 101 and with rental 24 ( i i ) reveals some in te res t ing d i f ferences between the three. To begin w i th , both of the rent t o t a l s in 28(x) - - as recorded for e i ther 1408 or 1410 — are approximately 14 l i . more than t he i r counterpart in 27(xx) whereas the 19 l i . 10s .4d .ob ' to ta l from 24 ( i i ) i s s im i l a r to the to ta l from 27(xx). From th i s evidence we can assume that t h i s fragment does not record Michaelmas rents but rather rents due for the term of the Annunciation of the Blessed V i rg in Mary (as in rental 24 ( i i ) ) or for the term of the 25 Nat iv i ty of S t . John the Bapt ist . The rental t o ta l s in 24 ( i i ) and fragment 27(xx), however, are one of the few s imi lar i t ies between these two documents. The f i r s t l eg ib l e sub-heading on the fragment i s that for "Tenants of the Rectory" and under t h i s , one tenant name, Wil l iam at te Nasse, was entered opposite four tenements. Three of these were each a messuage and ha l f -v'i rgate of land while the fourth was "the close with (the) dovecot of (the) rec to ry " . This i s fol lowed (as in rental 24 ( i i ) and fragment 28(x)) by the "Free Tenants" sub-heading. With few except ions, the order in which tene-ments were recorded fol lows the order in 24( i i ) and 28(x) but tenement des-c r ip t i ons in 27(xx) d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those in preceding ren ta l s . In 2 4 ( i i ) , for example, Wil l iam Vishar (above, no.192) was named as the tenant of the "weir in the Severn with the f i she ry " and ( in the next entry) of a messuage and ha l f - v i r ga te of land. In rental fragment 27(xx) A l i ce Wereman held the " f i shwei r and area in the Severn" and in the entry below th i s she was named as the tenant of a "messuage and ha l f - v i rga te ca l l ed Vysserys in H u l l " . Richard Hemyng, in the next ent ry , was named as the tenant of a messuage and quarter (v i rgate) of land ca l led Clech in Beryton while in 24 ( i i ) Henry Clech 's name (no.046, above) fol lows Wil l iam Vyshar's and Clech was said to hold an (unnamed) messuage and a nook or quar ter-v i rgate (of 102 l and) . The only tenement descr ip t ions in 27(xx) which do not adopt the name of t he i r " tenants" from 24 ( i i ) are those for which a name already ex i s ted . Thus, Wi l l iam Tai l lour (no.194 above) held the "Chapla in 's house" in 24 ( i i ) while in 27(xx) the Prestyshouse in Beryton was ascr ibed to Richard Lacy. Rental fragment 27(xx) a lso d i f f e r s from preceding rentals because of changes in the order in which some of the hamlet sect ions have been recorded and because some of these sect ions have been contracted or expanded. In rental 24 ( i i ) the "Free Tenant" sect ion i s fol lowed by a record of f i r s t Suddington and then Oversuddington tenements but in 27(xx) these two sect ions 26 were wri t ten up as a cont inuat ion of "Free Tenants" . This fragment does record a group of Suddington tenements but these formed part of the Woodhouse tenements of 2 4 ( i i ) . Squyntesmul1 i s the only entry under Woodhouse in 27(xx) and th i s i s fol lowed by a l i s t of seven tenements under a Suddington heading. In 24 ( i i ) Squyntesmul! and the same seven tenements were a l l l i s t e d under "Woodhouse". F i n a l l y , there are no separate records in 27(xx) of "New Tenants" or of "Lenchford Rents" but the l a t t e r , at l e a s t , may have been integrated with "Free Tenants". An entry under t h i s heading in 27(xx) reads "Henry A l l y and h is associates for the (former) demesne pasture in Lynchford 1 3 s . 4 d . " . Henry A l l y was a l s o one of the four tenants recorded under "Lenchford Rents" in rental 2 4 ( i i ) 2 7 . We have already expressed serious doubts about one complete rental and one rental fragment in the Ombersley co l l ec t i on and these doubts urge some caution toward fragment 27(xx). Can i t be t rusted or accepted as a record of real condit ions at Ombersley, and i f so , for what period? For th i s enquiry, as for the one conducted for 2 4 ( i i ) , I w i l l proceed on the basis of i n d i -vidual biographies but without the same at tent ion to each tenant named. As 103 w i l l be seen, v i r t u a l l y every tenant name in 27(xx) can be i den t i f i ed pos i -t i v e l y in Ombersley court records and the main question remains that of the date of i t s compi la t ion. The Record Of f ice inventory describes th i s fragment as a f i f t e e n t h -century rental but the biographies of two Ombersley m i l l e r s suggest a less 28 ambiguous date . In 27(xx) R ichard Lench was named as the tenant of Hadleymul1. He had leased th i s m i l l in 1422 (12 Oct.) and was named in sub-29 sequent cour t records as a m i l l e r u n t i l h i s dea th , recorded in 1465 Another m i l l , known as Squyntesmul 1, was described in 27(xx) as having been 30 held by Thomas at te Walle who remained i t s tenant un t i l 1441 . Thus, 27(xx) must have been compiled between 1422 and 1441. By using these ind iv idual b iographies, i t i s possib le to ref ine these parameters to the m id - twen t ies of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and four b i o -graphies, in p a r t i c u l a r , produce a f a i r l y precise date. One of the tenants concerned i s , aga in , Thomas at te Walle who was noted in 27(xx) not only as the tenant of Squyntesmull but also of a messuage and nook ca l l ed Tyards and of a messuage and ha l f - v i rga te ca l l ed Couperes (both in Hadley). Couperes had been seized in to the l o r d ' s hands in 1412 (4 Oct.) a f te r i t s tenant, John Amslot, had f l ed the manor as a f e l on . Walle leased i t a f te r Wil l iam and C r i s t i ne Amslot, John's parents, had been denied the i r claims to i t because they had "long ago" surrendered t h e i r r ights aci opus et usus j their son. However, Thomas at te Walle eventual ly surrendered Couperes ad opus et usus Wil l iam Amslot in 1427 (7 Oc t . ) . In 27(xx) however, Walle was s t i l l i t s 31 tenant so that the fragment must have been compiled before October, 1427 . The quest ion of how much before 1427 can be answered with the aid of the records of two other tenement t r ans fe r s . Wi l l iam Portar (also known as Portman) had surrendered a tenement described as a t h i rd of a cottage ca l l ed 104 Maye in Beryton ad opus et usus John Pope in 1425 (8 May). Pope was recorded as the tenant of Maye in 27(xx). In the same court record Robert Hydewode a l i a s Cooke leased a messuage and ha l f - v i rga te ca l l ed Heynys in Acton a f te r i t s tenant l e f t the manor; Robert Cook, in 27(xx), was the tenant of Heynys in Acton. Thus we can conclude that rental fragment 27(xx) was compiled between 1425 and 1427 and that such information as i t contains i s relevant to condi t ions at Ombersley at least for the 1420's. This can be confirmed not only through the types of biographies quoted above but a lso in the c o i n c i -dence between those tenants recorded in the special court session of 1419 and those who appear in 27(xx). Thomas at te Walle and Wil l iam Amslot, for example, were both noted in the 1419 Hundredsilver l i s t as free tenants of Hadley. Others, l i k e Ju l iana at te Mere in the 1419 l i s t (of widows) or Richard Lacy and Richard Lombe, named as Ombersley free tenants in the same l i s t , were a l l noted as tenants in Frag-ment 27(xx). It i s a lso in te res t ing to note that at least one tenant who appears in 27(xx) but not in 1419 may have been omitted for a good reason. Wi l l iam at te Nasse in 27(xx) was named as the sole tenant of the four tene-ments l i s t e d under "Tenants of the Rectory" (above, p.102). In 1422 (1 May) Richard atte Nasshe jun io r acted as ward for his son, Wi l l i am, who was a minor when he leased these four tenements. Richard atte Nasse jun io r appears in the 1419 l i s t (as a v i l l e i n tenant of Uphampton) but his son, Wi l l i am, does not. Wi l l i am's age was not noted in 1422 and i t i s not known whether he was considered a minor because he was too young to enter a t i t h i n g (which normally occurred a f te r twelve years of age) or because he was deemed too young to lease a tenement of h is own accord. In 1427 (7 Oct.) Wil l iam at te Nasshe was f ined for enclosing a parcel of Tand in le Parsonnage "against the Statute" which suggests that he was working his holding at about the time 105 that fragment 27(xx) was compiled . As noted, 27(xx) was revised a f ter i t s compilat ion and an attempt at es tab l i sh ing the probable date of that rev is ion w i l l prove useful for the d iscussion of 28 (x i ) , the next rental fragment in the Ombersley s e r i e s . The biographies of Ombersley tenants in the period 1428-1452 cannot be furnished with records of t he i r tenement t ransac t ions . For t h i s per iod, the rental fragments are usual ly the only ava i lab le sources of information for 33 the extent of a tenant 's holding . This i s a serious obstacle because often the beginning of a tenant 's career can only be determined on the basis of tenement t ransac t ions . Some tenants, l i k e Wil l iam atte Nasshe, do not appear to have changed t he i r tenements or ended t he i r careers before the rev is ion of 27(xx) because t he i r names were not a l te red in that document. Nasshe's death was recorded in 1472 (27 Apr i l ) and he was said to have held the same tene-ments a t t r ibu ted to him in 27(xx). In i t s e l f t h i s i s fur ther proof of the r e l i a b i l i t y of 27(xx) and possib ly of the rev is ions made in i t but i t i s of no use for dating these. In f a c t , to es tab l i sh a date for the rev is ion of 27(xx) we must assume, with the exception of one case perhaps, that the l as t court record reference to a tenant in the period 1428-52 was contemporary with the end of that tenant 's lease of the tenement(s) ascr ibed to him or her in the rental fragment. Richard Lompe, described as a free tenant of Ombersley hamlet in 1419 was recorded in 27(xx) as holding a cottage ca l l ed Whelarys in Suddington and a 34 cro f t of arable land next to the cottage ca l led Couperes . He was noted regular ly as a brewer from 1414 (26 Apr.) un t i l 1435 (24 Oct.) a f ter which there are no fur ther references to him in Ombersley court records. When 27(xx) was rev i sed , Lompe's given name ( in both ent r ies) was crossed out and the name Emmota was entered .above i t . Emmota Lombe f i r s t appears in 106 Ombersley cou r t records i n 1436 (25 O c t . ) when she was named as a brewer and vendor of a l e (a c a r e e r which she con t inued u n t i l 8 May, 1455) . Thus, 27(xx) c o u l d o n l y have been r e v i s e d a f t e r 1435 and t h e end o f R i c h a r d l o m p e ' s 35 c a r e e r . A number of o ther b i o g r a p h i e s of Ombersley tenan ts who were named i n 27(xx) suggest a s i m i l a r post quern date f o r i t s r e v i s i o n but on l y one would seem to p rov ide an ante quern date f o r the r e v i s i o n which i s c l o s e to 1435. 107 FIGURE 2: A PARTIAL GENEALOGY OF THE LOMPE FAMILY (1380-1390 ob.) HENRY LOMPE 1380 - Henry married 4 entered 1390 , — — (c.l406-c-1435) RICHARD LOHPE ALICE (dauther of Cristine Dyeson) Alice held 1 msg 1/2 virg Frenche in Suddington I Alice survived Henry in this tenement I ALICE (Lompe nee Dyeson?) [widow of Henry remarried to Richard?] - 2 Aug. 1406 - elected juror J - 1 June 1407 - elected_ale;Ustor i etc. to Onlf2?ta-"—"""" - 31 Mar. 1412 - ale-tastor"-. 1412 ? (c.1412-1421 ob.) 4 Oct. 1412 - Richard surrendered ad opus et usus his son John, 1 msg 1/2 virg Lompes in Suddington which Richard held by right of his wife, Al ice JOHN LOMPE - ISABELLA 26 Apr. 1414, Ombs. brewer to 24 Oct. 1435 27(xx) 1425-27 - tenant of Whelars in Suddington X 1 croft of arable land next to Coupers cottage rev. 27(xx) 1441 - Emmota Lombe replaces Richard Lombe in Whelars 28(xi) - Emmota Lombe tenant of Whelars in Suddington c/r 24(v) 1419 - John Lompe not l isted 7 Apr. 1421 - RICHARD, son and heir of John Lompe, surived his father in 1 msg 1/2 virg called Lompe in Suddington, Richard named as |ward of Isabella, widow of John 27(xx) 1425-27 - Isabella Lompe tenant of 1 msg 1/2 virg called Frenche in Suddington 10 Oct. 1430 - Richard Lompe entered into tithing 10 May 1440 - Richard Lompe elected juror rev. 27(xx) 1441 - Richard Lompe replaced mother in rental fragment revision 28(xi) - Richard Lompe named as tenant of 1 msg 1/2 virg French in Suddington and 1 msg 1/2 virg Mere in Power 4 Oct. 1468 - OBIT. Rev. 28(xi) 1472 - Richard replaced by Thomas Lombe in 1 msg 1/2 virg French in Suddington (c.1421-1468 ob.) - RICHARD LOMPE » ISABELLA (nee Byttar) THOMAS (m) 20 Oct. 1467 default fined for 4 Oct. 1468 - at his father' death he leased 1 msg 1/2 virg Frenshes in Suadington ,24 Oct. 1486 - died, Cristine remarried to Thomas Sanndres ^ HENRY (m) r-20 Oct. 1467 - fined for default |-4 Oct. 1468 - survived father in 1 msg 1/2 virg Meres in Powers 11 May 1490 - said to have left manor several years before. Meres claimed by his brother-in-law, Simon Rondul1, and brother John Lombe Margaret (f) •11 May 1490, her husband, Simon Rondull claims by her right her brother's tenement Meres in Powers .12 Oct. 1490 - Rondull, by right of his wife, Margaret, entered Meres in Powers John (m) •11 May 1490 - John claimed •Meres tenement in Powers formerly held by Henry his brother '6 Apr. 1497 - John Lombe of Worcester, as son and heir of Isabel l a , senior sister of Wil 1 iam Byttar, son of Thomas Byttar claimed and was granted 1 msg 1/2 virg Alcocks and 1 msg 3/virg ClTches 108 Thomas at te Walle already noted above as the tenant of Squyntesmul1 — was named as an Ombersley m i l l e r for the f i r s t time in 1416 (1 May) and thereaf ter regular ly un t i l 1440 (8 O c t . ) . His name was not changed when 27(xx) was revised and, there fore , the rev is ion must have occurred before 1440. When Thomas at te Walle was l as t named as a m i l l e r in Ombersley court records he was replaced in the record of the next court session (which was held on 2 May, 1441) by Thomas Sanndres as one of the three m i l l e r s then act ive on the manor . Sanndres' career at Ombersley began in 1422 (12 Oct.) when he married a widow, El izabeth Waterys. He held o f f i ce as tithingman in 1428 (27 Apr.) and in 1433 (8 O c t . ) , and he was named as an afeerer in 1437 (8 O c t . ) . His career as a m i l l e r las ted for nineteen years , from 1441 to 1459 (29 O c t . ) , during which period he a lso served occas iona l ly as tithingman and, in 1446 (10 May), as constable. Sanndres (with his. son Richard) was also noted as a demesne lessee in 1448 in the f i f t h document in the Ombersley rental ser ies of the f i f t een th century. This document i s s im i l a r to the 1419 Hundredsi1ver L i s t (see above, p.99) in that i t forms part of the court record s e r i e s ; however, i t was not com-p i l ed as part of a court sess ion . Rather, i t was wr i t ten on the back of a parchment membrane on the face of which are recorded the proceedings of a 37 'view of frankpledge with court ' session held in May, 1446 . According to i t s heading, the document i s a record of the "Grant(s) of demesne land to diverse tenants (from the) Second day of May in the twenty-s ixth year of the reign of King Henry the Sixth to the subsequent day up to the (same) feast for twelve years" (2 May 1448). / No exp lanat ion i s offered for the appearance of t h i s rental in the court record s e r i e s . The back of the membrane on which i t was wr i t ten simply may have been the only su i tab le piece of blank parchment ava i lab le at the t ime. . 109 The rent due from each port ion of demesne land granted in the rental was recorded in the form of a s ing le sum at the end of each ent ry . In several ins tances, two or more tenants j o i n t l y leased a port ion of land and pre-38 sumably they div ided i t s rent amongst themselves . The to ta l rent due for the land in t h i s rental was noted at the end of the document as 48s.3d.ob' (from a to ta l of 25 tenants) . A l l of the i n d i -v iduals named in the rental were ac t ive at Ombersley in the middle of the f i f teen th century and most of them - - l i k e the m i l l e r Thomas Sanndres - - a lso 39 appear in rental fragment 28(xi) . This fragment i s somewhat longer than 27(xx). Fernhampton i s the f i r s t hamlet name which can be read on 28(xi) and t h i s i s fol lowed by Powers, Mayeux (Mayhouse) and "Tenants of the Rectory". The remainder of the fragment then fol lows the same format as 27(xx); in add i -t i o n , i t a lso copies the l a t t e r in the names at t r ibuted to tenements, in the s ize of the tenement so named, and in the order in which these were l i s t e d under t he i r respect ive headings. Tenants' names were recorded a l s o , of course, as were the rents and sums due in l i e u of labour serv ices ( i f any). At the end of the fragment the " to ta l sum" of rent was recorded as 19 l i . 2 s . 3d.ob. and the "sum of (commuted) works (labour serv ices) for th is term 29s .8d .ob .q ' " . No information has survived about the rent term which was referred to in t h i s note but because the sums are s im i l a r to those in 27(xx) 40 and not to those in 28(x) i t i s un l i ke l y to have been Michaelmas . Fragment 28(xi) i s a lso s im i l a r to 27(xx) in that i t was revised (names crossed out and new ones interlineated over the old) at some date after i ts compilation. The two sums at the end of the fragment are fol lowed by a note (wri t ten in d i f fe rent ink and by a d i f fe rent hand than that which compiled the o r i -g ina l ) which reads "In the year of Henry the Sixth the f i r s t " , and th is i s 110 expanded on the back of the fragment at i t s end with another note ( in the same ink and hand) which reads i n par t Ambresley Renta le de Anno primo  Henrici v j ^ 1 . . . . These appear to be the sources for the Record Off ice i n -ventory 's date or 1422-3 for the compilat ion of th i s r e n t a l . In 28 (x i ) , how-ever , Thomas Sanndres i s l i s t e d as the m i l l e r of Squyntesmul1 and, as we have seen, Sanndres succeeded Thomas at te Walle as the tenant of t h i s m i l l in 1441. Therefore, 28(xi) must have been compiled i n , or a f t e r , 1441; however, two tenant biographies suggest that even th i s date i s fa r too ea r l y . One of these tenants, Robert Cook, has been presented above already as the tenant of Heynys tenement in Acton in 27(xx). Cook surrendered th i s tenement in 1456 (21 Nov.) and in the same court session the tenement was leased by John Grove who was named also as i t s tenant in 28 (x i ) . This i s the la tes t post quern date for the compilat ion of 28(xi) which can be proposed on the basis of the careers of those tenants named in the surv iv ing port ion of the o r ig ina l r e n t a l . The c losest ante quern date to th i s i s contained in the career of Richard L i e . His f i r s t appearance in Ombersley court records occurred in 1421 (7 Apr.) 41 when he leased a messuage and v i rgate ca l l ed Gerveyse in Uphampton . Lie was not mentioned frequent ly in the court records, but in every second or t h i r d record he was f ined for brewing or was involved in trespass charges. 42 He also held o f f i ce occas iona l ly as an a le - tas te r . His death was recorded in 1462 (8 Oct.) and he was survived in Gerveyse and in a messuage and hal f-v i rgate ca l l ed Symondes in Powers by Henry Jones who was said to have married Richard 's widow, Clementia. There i s no record of her re-marriage in the court records but i t must have occurred between Richard 's death and the not ice of the same in 1462 (8 O c t . ) . The record of Uphampton tenants has not survived in rental fragment 28 (x i ) , but i t does ascr ibe the tenement ca l l ed 111 Symondes i n Powers to Henry Jones . Thus, 28 (x i ) was compi led between November, 1456 and October , 1462. Fur ther proof tha t t h i s document i s relevant to a study of condit ions at Ombersley i s provided not only by the rev is ions made in i t ( in t h i s instance the rev is ion date i s read i ly ascer-tained) but also by the reason for these rev i s i ons . Rental fragment 28(xi) was revised a f ter A p r i l , but not e a r l i e r than August, 1472. It was in the court session of 27 A p r i l , 1472 that John Tandy de Claynes became the tenant of Hadleymul1. Pr io r to th i s date, the m i l l had been held for b r ie f periods by Wil l iam Borley (7 Oct. 1466 to 27 Apr. 1472) and before him by Margaret, widow of John Clerk (29 Apr. 1466) and, before her , by her husband, John (15 May 1465 to 15 Oct. 1465) and before him by 43 Margaret's fa ther , Richard Lench . Lench had been the Hadley m i l l e r when 28(xi) was compiled but only Tandy's name was- recorded when i t was rev ised . Of course, the rev is ion of 28(xi) could have been accomplished at any date a f te r i t s compilat ion but several examples s im i l a r to that of the lease of Hadleymul! show that the rev is ion could only have occurred a f te r the court 44 session of 27 A p r i l , 1472 . Moreover , a comparison of a l l the revised names on fragment 28(xi) with those under corresponding hamlets in 24(i) - - the rental compiled on Tuesday, 4 August, 1472 - - suggests a reason for the rev is ion of 28(x i ) . In shor t , the l a t t e r was used as a "working copy" on which were noted tenant changes which had occurred a f te r i t s compilat ion and rental 24(i) was then copied verbatim from the revised version of 28 (x i ) . The copy i t s e l f appears to be quite accurate. We know, for example, that Henry Jones had married the widow Clementia Lie and entered the tenements which she he ld , inc luding that ca l l ed 112 Gerveyse i n Uphampton. In r e n t a l 2 4 ( i ) Henry Jones was recorded as the 45 tenant of Gerveyse . The ren ta l o f 1472 Renta l 2 4 ( i ) has been w e l l - p r e s e r v e d and i s i n good c o n d i t i o n th roughou t . It was compi led acco rd ing to the hamlet and tenant format a l r eady d e s c r i b e d f o r the two r e n t a l f ragments . I t c o p i e s , f o r example, the expansion of the "F ree Tenants" s e c t i o n ( f i r s t seen i n 27(xx) ) t o i n c l u d e Suddington and Over-sudd ing ton . The on l y obv ious d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s r e n t a l and i t s two immediate p redecessors (apar t from i t s s u r v i v a l as a complete document) i s the absence of any r e v i s i o n s on i t and the f a i l u r e to reco rd rent t o t a l s or t o t a l s f o r payments c o l l e c t e d i n l i e u of l abour s e r v i c e s a f t e r a l l but f ou r 46 very shor t hamlet s e c t i o n s . The e d i t i o n of t h i s r en ta l below i s more d e t a i l e d , by n e c e s s i t y , than t ha t of r en ta l 2 4 ( i i ) f o r " 1 4 0 1 " . The d e s c r i p t i o n s of tenements a lone are l onger because they i n c l u d e names d e r i v e d from t h e i r t enan ts i n e a r l i e r docu -ments. Al though the b i og raph ies of the 1472 tenants are reproduced here i n an abb rev ia ted f o rm , they s t i l l c o n t a i n f a r more i n f o r m a t i o n about i n d i -v i d u a l s than i t was p o s s i b l e to gather f o r those of the e a r l i e r r e n t a l . G e n e r a l l y on l y those f a c e t s of a t e n a n t ' s b iography which he lp to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r ca ree rs at Ombersley, t h e i r s t a t u s as l andho lde rs and , where p o s s i b l e , as members of Ombersley s o c i e t y , have been i n c l u d e d . Thus , a t e n a n t ' s f i r s t cou r t record appearance i s noted and i t s c i rcumstances d e s c r i b e d i f these seem s i g n i f i c a n t . References to tenement t r a n s f e r s i n which a tenant was i n v o l v e d are r e s t r i c t e d normal ly t o those which are immediate ly r e l evan t t o the t e n a n t ' s l a n d h o l d i n g as desc r i bed i n the r e n t a l . A l s o , tenan ts who were 113 t i t he farmers or lessees are so noted i f that information seems of pa r t i cu la r i n t e r e s t f o r t h e i r c a r e e r s . F i n a l l y , Ombersley cou'rt records of the f i f t een th century general ly contain l i s t s or the names of manorial o f f i c e -47 holders who made presentments in a given session . This information i s included in the biographies because often the knowledge of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s tenure of one (or more) of these o f f i ces i s useful not only for an appre-c i a t i o n of h i s ( o f f i c e - h o l d e r s were i n e v i t a b l y male) r o l e in Ombersley society but a lso of the cont inu i ty of a tenant 's career . Except ions to these types of biographies occur only in cases where there i s some doubt about a tenant 's i den t i t y or h i s to ry . These instances are worthy of mention although they are c l e a r l y not as numerous as they were e a r l i e r . Henry Burleye ( i d . no.008 below) cannot be i den t i f i ed in Ombersley court records but he may have succeeded h is widowed mother sometime af ter the 27 48 A p r i l , 1472 court session in which her death was recorded . This i s sug-gested by the fact that in 1477 (17 June) Richard, "second son" of Thomas Borley (Margaret's husband whose death was recorded in 8 Oct. 1462), claimed the tenement ascr ibed to Henry Burleye in 24 ( i ) . A d i f fe ren t type of i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n problem occurs for Isabel la Newton ( i d . no.060). F i r s t , she was c l ea r l y not the tenant of the messuage and v i rgate ca l l ed Playdores which was 49 a t t r ibu ted to her in the rental . Her name may have been copied acciden-t a l l y in 24(i) but t h i s seems un l i ke l y because the only other Isabel la Newton known from the court records leased a tenement in 1472 (6 Oct.) at 15 years of age. Both t h i s anomaly and that for Henry Burleye might be explained by the fact that both involve tenement t ransfers at about the time that the rental was compiled and there may have been some confusion about tenants and the i r tenements. Whatever the reason, i t i s important to note that these are 114 v i r t u a l l y the only instances in the rental where there i s some doubt as to whether a tenant ac tua l l y ex i s ted . There are far more examples in rental 24( i) of another aspect of t h i s question of iden t i f y ing tenants; namely, how many tenants are represented by one name? Ten tenant names can be c l a s s i f i e d as being of t h i s type and hal f of these can be i d e n t i f i e d ten ta t i ve l y as representing th i r teen ind iv idua l tenants. These have been numbered separately on the basis of the tenement(s) 50 they held when (or i f ) t he i r deaths were recorded . However, t h i s i s not always possib le because such records have not survived or because, pre-sumably, the tenants concerned out l i ved the t ime- l im i ts of t h i s study. Thus, for example, only one ( i d . no.116) of at least f i ve ind iv idua ls by the name of John A l l ye (also A l l y , E l lye e t c . ) can be i den t i f i ed with two of the tene-ments ascr ibed to John A l l ye in the r e n t a l . This leaves at least three i n d i -v iduals and two tenements with no account ing. Therefore, the ' t o t a l ' of 144 Ombersley tenants numbered in t h i s rental may be an underestimate of the actual tenant population in 1472. 115 Ombersley Ren ta l /Su rvey BA3910 /705 :56 /24( i ) Ombersley Anno C h r i s t i 1471 ( s i c ) Rental of the same (p lace ) made on the f o u r t h day of the Month of August i n the t w e l f t h year of the re ign of King Edward IV a f t e r the conquest f o r the term of t h e N a t i v i t y of S t . John t h e B a p t i s t d u r i n g t h e t i m e t h a t t h e l o r d John Derhurst (was) the C e l l a r e r of the Monastery of Evesham i n c l u d i n g money pa id at the s a i d term f o r customary labour s e r v i c e s I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly  BERYTON (Ombersley v i l l a g e ) 1 001 John Russe l l 1 m[es ]s [ua ]g [e ] 6d . l d . q ' f 1 . c . 1432-1491, t he re may have been 1 nook " H o l t e s " two John R u s s e l l s a c t i v e i n the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h cen tu ry and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between them. One appears from c.1432 and the o ther from c . 1 4 6 7 . In t h i s ren ta l the second or o ther John Russe l l was r e f e r r e d to as " j u n i o r " . 2 002 Thomas Hasul l 1 msg 1 nook 4d .ob . l d . q ' f 1 . c . 1443-1488, i n t h i s r en ta l "Gowmekestockes" Hasu l l was a l s o named as the tenant of (Gomestoles) 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d C le rkes i n BORLEY and 1 messuage 3/4 v i r g a t e Bornewal les i n BORLEY. He was named as one of the demesne l e s s e e s i n 3 3 ( i i i ) (1448) and h i s ca ree r i n c l u d e d o f f i c e - h o l d i n g as j u r o r , c o n s t a b l e and t i t h i n g m a n . In 1468 (8 May) he l eased the t i t h e sheaves of BORLEY hamlet f o r 20 yea rs f o r an annual rent of 22s. and i n 1480 (10 O c t . ) he l e a s e d th ree p o r t i o n s of pas tu res f o r an annual rent of 22s . 116 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 003 John Borne 1 msg 1 nook 6 d . l d . q ' a l i a s Her ford "Sanndres" 004 John P r i o r 1 msg 1/4 virgCate] " P r i o r e s " 6 d . l d . q ' 117 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f l . c . 1424-1479. Borne leased a tenement i n 1424 (Eas te r ) of 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e Gynnu l fys i n H e r t f o r d , (HAWFORD) and was apparen t l y known as John He r t f o rd f o r most of h i s c a r e e r . At h i s death in 1479 (15 June) he he ld 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Pa t r yks i n HAWFORD, two tenements of 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e each c a l l e d Gynnu l fys i n HAWFORD, lm l / 3 v ' c a l l e d Newmannes i n WOODHOUSE ( f o r a l l o f above see no .131 -33 , 189) and the messuage and 1/4 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Sanndres i n BERYTON as d e s c r i b e d h e r e . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Marga re t . f l . c . 1417-1475, a John P r i o u r i s known from 1417 (3 May) but v i r t u a l l y a l l e n t r i e s name him s imply as having been i n d e f a u l t of c o u r t . A n ine y e a r ' gap ' occurs i n t h i s ' c a r e e r ' (Oc t . 1444 to May 1453) f o l l o w e d by a n o t i c e o f d e f a u l t of cour t i n (24 O c t . ) 1453 and a 2d . f i n e f o r s u b - l e t t i n g an un-named tenement i n (8 May) 1455. Noth ing f u r t h e r was noted u n t i l 1463 when a spo rad i c record o f d e f a u l t resumes. His widow C r i s t i n e was denied en t ry t o h i s tenement i n 1475 because "she remained ou t s i de of the manor and d i d not come i n person t o . . . c o u r t to c l a i m her r i g h t " . Instead the tenement was l e t to "John son of R i c . P r i o u r [who was] son and h e i r of the a f o r e s a i d John P r i o r s e n i o r " . I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 5 005 W i l l e lmo A l l y 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 6d . 9 d . q ' "Wynhales" 6 006 Johne S tayar 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q ' 2d .ob . "Hastyng" 7 007 John Paynt rye 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 6d . l d . q "Brendes" f l . c . 1460-C .1498, A l l y ' s ca ree r begins i n 1460 (18 O c t . ) by e l e c t i o n to Ombersley a l e - t a s t o r ; he a l s o served as c o n s t a b l e (8 O c t . 1462) . He was l a s t 'named' i n r f . 2 2 ( i v ) , as tenant of Fowles i n FERNHAMPTON. f l . c .1436-1478 . f i r s t named i n 1436 (25 O c t . ) f o r d i s r e p a i r of the house on h i s tenement i n FERNHAMPTON. A l s o named in r e f . 2 8 ( x i ) as the tenant o f Ay l l ewardes p r im ius Bornewal l i n FERNHAMPTON. L i t t l e i s known about h i s c a r e e r ; at h i s death i n 1477 (16 S e p t . ) he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow C r i s t i n e and he was s a i d to have he ld the two tenements d e s c r i b e d h e r e . f l . c . 1446 -1481 . Appears i n 14 S e p t . 1446 as John de l e P a n t r y . He was f i n e d f o r d i s r e p a i r of a waterway i n BERYTON and was a l s o known as John de l a Pan t ry de Evesham (10 O c t . 1458) . He may have been an absentee tenant and the l o r d ' s s e r v a n t : in the 1457 Account R o l l ( 3 3 ( i i i ) ) 33s . 4 d . were accounted as pa id to John f o r h i s s tay i n London on the l o r d ' s bus iness concern ing W i l l i a m H o u l l e , f e l o n . At h i s death he was succeeded by h i s widow, M a t i l d a . 118 I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 8 008 Henry Bur leye 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 6d . l d . q ' " P r i o r e s " f 1 . c .1469-1504 et s e q . , Henry Bur leye (Bo r l eye ) was a t t r i b u t e d w i th two tenements i n t h i s r en ta l ( the second was Hyeweyes i n FERNHAMPTON, see no.220) but the on l y Henry Bo r ley a c t i v e i n the ex tant cour t records i n t h i s pe r i od was on ly mentioned from 1476 (27 May and s a i d t he re t o be n ine yea rs o l d ) . The two tenements named here had been he ld by Thomas Bo r l ey at h i s death recorded i n 1462 (8 Oc t . ) and they were r e t a i n e d by h i s widow, Margare t . She r e - m a r r i e d but at her death i n 1472 (27 A p r . ) she was s a i d to have he ld the tenement c a l l e d Hyghweyes i n FERNHAMPTON. No successo r was named f o r her tenements at her death and the en t r y i s incomple te (a long blank space has been l e f t i n the o r i g i n a l r e c o r d ) . Apart from the ren ta l e n t r i e s noted h e r e , the tenement c a l l e d Heyeweyes was next ment ioned i n 1477 (17 June) when i t was c la imed by R ichard " the second son of Thomas B o r l e y " . ( R i c h a r d , i n t h i s en t r y sur rendered h i s r i g h t s i n favour of h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w . ) Henry B o r l e y , the tenant named i n t h i s r e n t a l , succeeded Agnes, widow of Thomas B o r l e y e , and may have he ld these tenements from c .1472 t o c . 1 4 7 7 . 119 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 9 009 John Hou l l e 1 msg 1 v i r g 12d.ob. 2d .ob . "Pa tches " 10 010 R icha rd 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d. 2d .ob . Sanndres "Sanndres" 120 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1463-1474 , the ca ree r o f John Hou l le may have been t h i s shor t or may have s t r e t c h e d from c . 1432 (24 A p r . ) w i t h spo rad i c appearances to h i s death in 1474 (4 May ) . There are o c c a s i o n a l r e fe rences to h i s r o l e as Ombersley a l e - t a s t o r but the re are a l s o long ' g a p s ' i n h i s ca ree r ( e . g . 25 O c t . 1436 to 16 O c t . 1449) . At h i s death he was s a i d to have he ld a messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d H o u l l e s i n BERYTON and was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, Agnes. In 1477 (17 J u n e ) , Thomas H o u l l e , son and h e i r o f Agnes H o u l l e , widow, entered at her death a messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d H o u l l e s a l i a s Patches i n BERYTON. Thomas Hou l l e was named as the tenant o f Patches i n r en ta l 2 2 ( i i ) (1486) . f l . c .1435 -1478 , Sanndres was ' t i t h e d ' i n 1435 (24 O c t . ) and i n re f 2 8 ( x i ) he was s a i d to have he ld 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e Gardeners i n MAYEUX and was rep laced by W i l l i a m Sanndres when the l a t t e r was r e v i s e d . I t seems l i k e l y t ha t the ca ree r of another R i cha rd Sanndres ' (son of W i l l i a m Sanndres) ove r l aps tha t o f t h i s R i c h a r d . In 1462 R i cha rd Sanndres was named as a m i l l e r but he was not named as such e i t h e r i n r f 28 ( x i ) or i n r e n t a l 2 4 ( i ) . In 1478 (13 O c t . ) S imon, b ro the r I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 11 O i l W i l l i a m Rondulf 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 6 d . q ' l d . q ' " S t y l e s " 12 012 W i l l i a m Hou l le 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 2d .ob . "Hayes" 13 013 E l i z a b e t h Clerk 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 4d .ob . l d . q ' "Symondes" of R i c h a r d , came and c la imed ( u n s u c c e s s f u l l y ) Squyntesmul1 which fo rmer l y had been h e l d by R ichard Sanndres. f 1 . c .1444 -1493 , s e v e r a l tenan ts were so named i n the l a s t h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h cen tu ry and they h e l d tenements i n v a r i o u s pa r t s of the manor. L i t t l e attempt was made in the cour t o f records t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e them. A W i l l i a m Rondulf was ' t i t h e d ' i n 1444 (24 May) and leased t h i s tenement i n 1469 (15 May) at the death o f C r i s t i n e Stannere and d i e d i n 1493 (30 A p r . ) . At h i s death he was s a i d to have h e l d 1 messuage 1/4 v i r g a t e c a l l e d S t y l e s . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow J o a n . f l . c . ? - 1 4 9 1 , two tenan ts of t h i s name were a c t i v e i n the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . One was a tenant i n Cha t l ey who d i e d i n 1471 (15 O c t . ) and was s u r v i v e d by h i s son Thomas (12 years o l d ) wh i l e the o ther ( a l s o known as W i l l i a m Hou l l e de Evesham i n 2 2 ( i i ) , 11 May 1490) from an unknown date he ld the tenement d e s c r i b e d here and d i e d i n 1491 (17 May) s t i l l ho l d i ng i t . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s daughter and s o n - i n - l a w . f l . C .1472-C .1502 , E l i z a b e t h was the widow of W i l l i a m C l e r k ( f l . c .1444-1472) who s u r v i v e d her husband i n (27 Ap r . ) 1472. She con t inued w i t h a ca ree r as a 121 Ic ient. v S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent 14 014 John Deken 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 4d .ob . l d . q "Ambyes" 15 001 John R u s s e l l 1 c o t t "John 3 s . I d . 6 d . i n the Lanes" 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 122 Career of Tenant & Fami ly brewer and t a v e r n e r (her husband had a l s o been a brewer and t ave rne r throughout h i s c a r e e r ) u n t i l 1476 when she may have s u b - l e t her tenement. At her su r render i n 1502 (4 A p r . ) she was s a i d to have had a sub- tenant c a l l e d John E l l y . f l . C .1461-C .1502, i n 1461 (6 O c t . ) John entered t h i s tenement at the death " i n L i n c o l n county" o f h i s f a t h e r , W i l l i a m . John pa id 1 0 s . f o r h i s en t ry f i n e and f o r l i c e n s e to l eave the manor at w i l l and a l s o to s u b - l e t t h i s tenement. H is cour t record re fe rences c o n s i s t almost e n t i r e l y o f d e f a u l t s w i t h o c c a s i o n a l charges f o r d i s r e p a i r of h i s tenement. In R 2 2 ( i i ) and i n Account R o l l s 2 2 ( i ) (1492-3) and 2 2 ( i i i ) (1496-7) he rendered 4 d . annua l l y f o r the r i g h t t o s u b - l e a s e . The l a s t re fe rence to him was i n 1502 (4 A p r . ) f o r d e f a u l t . [ the ent ry has " u s u a l l y rendered 3 s . l d . - 6 d " ] I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 16 015 Si bi11 a 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9d . 2d.ob. A l i s s a n d r e " fo rmer l y Col yes except f o r 1 parce l of land at the end of her tenement c l o s e now leased t o John Hemyng as recorded below" 17 016 The s a i d " f o r the 3d. John Hemyng a f o r e s a i d parce l of l and on which he w i l l r e - b u i l d " 18 017 John Hani eye 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 4d .ob . l d . q ' " S t a y e s " 123 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . around 1472, Si bi11 a was the widow of W i l l i a m Alysawnder whose death was recorded i n (27 Ap r . ) 1472 and she s u r v i v e d him i n both of h i s tenements (see below) but t h i s i s the on ly r e f e r e n c e to her c a r e e r . (Her husband f l . c .1455 -1472 . ) f 1. C .1435-C .1488 , seve ra l John Hemings are known at OMBERSLEY i n the f i f t e e n t h cen tu ry and the one r e f e r r e d to here would appear to be John Hemyng s e n i o r e f i r s t des igna ted as such i n 1435 (24 O c t . ) . This i n d i v i d u a l had a l s o he ld (see no.69) 1 tenement next t o the Posternegate (sur rendered i n 1484, 1 June) and the pa rce l r e f e r r e d to here was sur rendered in 1488 (17 June) which may have marked h i s re t i r emen t as t h i s i s the l a s t cour t record re fe rence to John Hemyng, s e n i o r . f 1 . c . 1466 -1505 , the f i r s t appearance of John Hani eye was the record of h i s l e a s e of the t i t h e sheaves of SYCHAMPTON hamlet f o r which he was w i l l i n g to pay 36s . a n n u a l l y as compared t o 2 3 s . 4 d . pa id by the p rev ious ' f a r m e r ' . He mar r ied E l i s a b e t h , daughter and h e i r e s s of W i l l i a m H u l l e r i n 1473 (11 May) whereupon h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w sur rendered ad opus et usus John Hani eye 1 messuage 3/T~of l and c a l l e d I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 19 018 John A l i sannd r f msg 1/2 v i r g 12d .q ' 2d . Wen'e (Wensevis) 20 019 Henry Wynhale 1 co t t "wi th lOd .ob . appurtenances c a l l e d Kno t tes " 21 020 Elena B i t t e r 1 c o t t ld " f o rmer l y (he ld by) W i l l i a m Cleches l o r d ' s n e i f " 124 Career of Tenant & Fami ly H y l l e r s i n NORTHAMPTON. Hani eye d ied i n 1505 and was succeeded by W i l l i a m son of John Hy l l de A r e l e y . f 1 . c .1454 -1497 , seve ra l John A l i s a n n d r ' s were a c t i v e through the f i f t e e n t h cen tu ry and these are not always r e a d i l y s e p a r a t e d . Th is i n d i v i d u a l was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d as such at h i s e l e c t i o n t o the o f f i c e of Constab le (24 Oc t . 1454). He he ld the tenement named here at h i s death (6 Ap r . 1497) and a l s o the tenement c a l l e d Har rv fo rdes i n BORLEY (see n o . 1 5 0 ) . f 1 . c .1441 -1478 , Wynhale was a m i l l e r f o r par t of h i s ca ree r and a l s o a c o n s t a b l e , j u r o r and t i t h e corn farmer 1466 (7 O c t . ) . The tenement named here was l e a s e d by him i n 1462 (8 O c t . ) and sur rendered i n 1476 (27 May) two years p r i o r t o h i s d e a t h . He had a l s o he ld 1 messuage 1/4 of l and (see below) i n which he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow A l i c e . f l . c .1472 -1480 , t h i s i s the f i r s t reco rd of her e x i s t e n c e at OMBERSLEY and she was probab ly the widow of Thomas B y t t a r ( f l . C . 1398-C . 1458) . At her death (11 A p r . 1480) she was desc r i bed as widow and s u r v i v e d by a mar r ied daughter and a 22 year o l d g randson. I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se 22 021 Thomas Pope 1 co t t 2d . " Q u a r r i o u r e s " 23 021 The s a i d 1 c o t t 2d . Thomas (Pope) " G a l l e y e s " 24 022 Henry To ly 1 co t t 4d . " R u s s e l l e s " 125 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c .1441 -1493 , Thomas Pope had an ex t remely a c t i v e ca ree r which i n c l u d e d manor ia l o f f i c e s , c o n s t a b l e , t i t h i n g m a n , j u r o r and t i t h e - s h e a v e farmer i n 1468 (8 May) of the hamlets of PARSONAGE, POWERS, FERNHAMPTON and HULL. It i s not known when he l e a s e d the tenement named here but another co t tage c a l l e d Gal 1 eyes (see no.23) was l eased i n 1457 (10 b e t . ) and the pa rce l of pa rk land (see no.63) i n 1458 (10 O c t . ) and the parce l of pas ture i n MAYEUX (see no.237) i n 1465 (15 May). At h i s death he was s u r v i v e d by h i s son c a l l e d Henry Pope de B r i s t o l (8 Oc t . 1493) . f 1 . c . 1439 -1495 , Henry To ly had a very a c t i v e c a r e e r , and the f i r s t re fe rence t o him occu r red at h i s en t r y to a t i t h i n g . He he ld o f f i c e s of t i t h ingman and c o n s t a b l e and o c c a s i o n a l re fe rences a re made t o h i s se rvan ts (24 Oc t . 1486) ; he I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 25 023 Agnes Rondul f 1 c o t t 4 d . " C o t m u l l " 26 018 John A l i s a n n d r 1 c o t t 4 d . " C o t m u l l " 27 018 John A l i s a n n d r " the parce l lOd. c a l l e d the Conynger" 28 024 Henry C leve 1 c o t t 6d . "Mayewe Shephurdes" 126 Career of Tenant & Fami ly produced a son who became a c h a p l a i n (17 May 1491) . To ly he ld a l a r g e amount of land (as recorded at h i s death) f o r which he pa id a t o t a l rent of 2 0 s . 8 d . per annum. H is h e r i o t c o n s i s t e d of 3 h o r s e s , 2 oxen , 1 cow and 3 s . 4 d . i n c a s h . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, J u l i a n a , 3 sons and a mar r ied daughter (5 O c t . 1495) . J u l i a n a s u r v i v e d him u n t i l 1504 (8 O c t . ) . f 1 . c .1470-1480 , no record s u r v i v e s o f her en t ry t o t h i s tenement but she may have he ld i t and o thers through her r i g h t s as a widow. The 1470 re fe rence (16 O c t . ) was a f i n e l e v i e d aga ins t her f o r o b s t r u c t i n g the common way next t o her tenement i n l e Conynger (see n o . 3 0 ) . At her death she was s u r v i v e d by W i l l i a m Rondul f de Salwarpe desc r i bed as her " s e n i o r son" and by John Rondu l l her " j u n i o r s o n " . (11 A p r . 1480) . I t i s assumed here tha t t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s the same tenant desc r i bed above as John A l i s s a n d r , Wensevis (wagoner?) . f l . c . 1442 -1485 , C leve was f i r s t noted as a brewer and t ave rne r (14 O c t . 1442) and he con t inued to be noted f o r these a c t i v i t i e s f o r almost h i s e n t i r e c a r e e r . Iden t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 29 024 the s a i d Henry (Cleve) 30 023 Agnes Rondulf 31 023 the s a i d Agnes 32 025 Margaret Lenche " the f u r l ong 12d. of demesne land c a l l e d "Conynger" "another parce l 12d. of land c a l l e d Conynger" " the parce l of 3d . land next t o l e Wyneyard fo rmer ly (he ld by) John Brewar" 1 co t t 4d . "Shephurdes" 127 Career of Tenant & Fami ly He a l s o he ld o f f i c e as c o n s t a b l e , j u r o r , and t i t h ingman and was a j o i n t ' f a r m e r ' o f t i t h e sheaves w i th Thomas Pope (above, no . 22 ) . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Agnes i n 1485 (26 A p r . , a l s o known as Henry C l y v e ) . f l . c .1465 -1506 , at the death of R ichard Lenche, her f a t h e r , i n 1465 (15 May) she en tered the tenements he had he ld i n c l u d i n g t h i s c o t t a g e , Hadleymul le and a pas tu re next t o the m i l l . In the same en t r y she was s a i d to be mar r ied to John C le rk whose death was recorded i n the f o l l o w i n g cour t (14 Oc t . 1465). Margaret r e - m a r r i e d W i l l i a m Bor leye i n 1466 (7 O c t . ) and at h i s death i n 1472 (27 A p r . ) r e t a i n e d the co t tage d e s c r i b e d h e r e . She was mar r ied f o r a t h i r d t ime ( to Edmund I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 33 026 John Brewer 1 c o t t 4d . "Brewers" 34 026 the s a i d John (Brewer) 35 022 Henry Tolye 36 027 Thomas Pert " tha t parce l lOd . of l and c a l l e d the Conyngar" 1 c o t t "Meres" 7d .ob . (5d.q) and 4 s e l i o n s (2d. ) of demesne l and and 1 parce l of waste l and next t o the a f o r e -s a i d tenement fo rmer ly b u i l t upon 1 c o t t 6d .ob . "Jenkyns" 128 Career of Tenant & Fami ly Jones) and d i e d i n 1506 (13 Oc t . ) hav ing o u t l i v e d her t h i r d husband as wel l (Edmund's death was recorded i n 15 Oc t . 1499) . f l . C .1467-C .1472 , the death of Thomas Brewere was recorded i n 8 Oc t . 1462 and he had he ld 1 tenement c a l l e d Brewers i n BURYT0N and i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) John Brewer l e a s e d 1 co t tage i n BURYT0N fo rmer ly he ld by Thomas Brewar h i s f a t h e r . The 1472 ren ta l en t ry i s the l a s t mention of t h i s i n d i v i d u a l at OMBERSLEY. f 1 . C .1455-C.1496-7, f i r s t appearance (8 May 1455) was through a l i c e n s e to marry Elena daughter of W i l l 1iam Nasshe, n e i f , and i n 1464 (11 A p r . ) he l eased the tenement d e s c r i b e d h e r e . He was named I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 37 024 Henry Cleve 1 c o t t 2d . " H u l l e p l a c e " 38 028 John Lacy 1 c o t t 4d . "Watte Webbes" 39 028 the s a i d " the parce l l d . q 1 John (Lacy) of demesne land annexed to the s a i d (Watte Webbes) c o t t a g e " 129 Career of Tenant & Fami ly on l y once as a j u r o r (6 Oc t . 1472) and o therw ise does not appear t o have been very a c t i v e . No reco rd of h i s death s u r v i v e s but i n 1493 (30 A p r . ) he was named as the former tenant of an UPHAMPTON tenement (see no.74) which he had sur rendered i n 1481 (15 May) . The 1496-7 Account Ro l l d e s c r i b e d h i s h e r i o t as 1 sheep and 1 p i g ; i n 1497 (6 A p r . ) E l l e n a Per t was f i n e d f o r f a i l u r e to r e p a i r . E l l e n a Pert d i ed i n 1502 (4 A p r . ) and was s u r v i v e d by two s o n s . f l . c . ( 2 4 O c t . ) 1454-1506, Lacy l eased the tenement d e s c r i b e d here i n 1454 (24 O c t ; i t was c a l l e d Wal ter Webbes) as son and h e i r of Margaret Lacy and pa id an . en t r y f i n e of 1 3 s . 4 d . John was noted ma in ly as a brewer and t ave rne r and o c c a s i o n a l l y as an a l e - t a s t o r . At h i s death i n 1506 (13 O c t . ) he was s u r v i v e d by h i s son W i l l i a m . I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 40 029 John Crose 1 c o t t 3d .ob . " B a l k e s " 41 029 the same John (Crose) 42 029 the same John (Crose) 43 030 John Gardenar "1 parce l of l d . q ' demesne l and annexed to the s a i d tenement ( B a l k e s ) " "1 parce l of 6 d . l and of Symondes t e n e -ment" 1 co t t 6d . "Symondes" 130 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1. C . 1433-C . 1480 , a l s o known as John a t t e Crose or John Croce and he ld manor ia l o f f i c e as t i t h ingman and a f f e e r e r and was a l s o a t a v e r n e r fo r most of h i s c a r e e r . Between 1462 (8 Oc t . ) and (15 May) 1467 t h ree of h i s daughters were granted l i c e n s e t o mar ry . C r o s e ' s death was not recorded and he may have r e t i r e d from h i s h o l d i n g s . Par t of t h i s p rocess can be seen i n 1473 (11 May) when he sur rendered the co t t age desc r i bed here and two p a r c e l s of l a n d (see below) t o one of h i s s o n s - i n - l a w . The l a s t cour t record re fe rence (10 Oc t . 1480) d e s c r i b e d him as the former tenant of o n e - h a l f of a p a s t u r e . f 1. c . 7 - 1 4 9 8 , t he re were c e r t a i n l y two -and perhaps t h ree - tenan ts of t h i s name a c t i v e at OMBERSLEY when t h i s r en ta l was c o m p i l e d . The one named here d i e d i n 1498 (9 O c t . ) and h e l d t h i s tenement as wel l as one c a l l e d Yonges, 1 messuage and 1/2 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 44 030 the s a i d John "1 parce l of . 2d .ob . (Gardenar) demesne land annexed to the s a i d co t t age " 45 031 John Naissh 1 c o t t 7d .ob . "Pa t ches " 131 Career of Tenant & Fami ly v i r g a t e c a l l e d Skyr res and two o ther p a r c e l s of former demesne land (see n o . 1 2 2 , 119) . His was an a c t i v e ca ree r which i n c l u d e d o f f i c e - h o l d i n g as j u r o r , t i t h i ngman and c o n s t a b l e . Gardenar was a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y f i n e d f o r brewing and m a i n t a i n i n g a t a v e r n . His h e r i o t was a l r e a d y noted i n the Account f o r 1496-7 and he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Joan who d ied i n 1502. f l . c . 1440 -1499 , t h i s ren ta l l i s t s th ree John N a i s s h e ' s : one c a l l e d ' j u n i o r ' , the o ther ' s e n i o r ' and the t h i r d c a l l e d s imp ly John N a i s s h . In the cour t records t he re are a l s o re fe rences t o John Naissh de Crouche ( e . g . 20 Oc t . 1467) , John Naissh de Uphampton, John Naissh de Ombersley and John Naisshe de_ S t o k e . The John Naissh probab ly r e f e r r e d to here he ld at h i s d e a t h , recorded i n 1499 (15 O c t . ) , 1 messuage 3/4 v i r g a t e Doddes, 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e H i l l a r i e s , 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e Tapenhale and the co t tage c a l l e d P a t c h e s . He was s u r v i v e d i n these tenements by t h ree mar r ied daughters and a s o n . I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 46 031 the same John "1 parce l of l d . o b . (Na isshe) demesne l a n d . annexed t o the s a i d tenement" 47 032 John Ketulbye 1 c o t t wi th 6d . appurtenances "Romes" 48 022 Henry To ly 2 co t t wi th 6d. appurtenances "Webbes" and "Smethes" 49 033 W i l l i a m Buluacre 1 c o t t 9d, "Henry Cokes" fo rmer l y of F e l i c i a Webbe 132 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1. C .1469-C .1486 , he f i r s t appears as a brewer and t a v e r n e r i n 1469 and l eased t h i s tenement i n 1472 (27 Ap r . ) toge ther w i th a pa rce l of demesne and a p o r t i o n or p l o t of a co t tage c a l l e d Lyardes (see be low) . The l a s t re fe rences to him occur i n R . 2 2 ( i i ) , 1486. f 1 . c . 1 4 7 1 - c . 1 5 0 6 , W i l l i a m was mar r ied t o Margaret Colman i n 15 Oct . 1471 and he l eased 1 co t t age i n l_e Gomestole in BERYT0N which may be the tenement d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s r e n t a l . At Marga re t ' s death (13 Oc t . 1491) the co t tage c a l l e d Harrycokes was l e t t o Ma rga re t ' s marr ied daugn te r , A l i c e . Margaret had a l s o he ld 2 h a l f - v i r g a t e s c a l l e d Lyardes and Strannges which were d i s p u t e d by W i l l i a m her husband "by copy [o f cour t r e c o r d ] of x i Ed . IV" and by her s o n - i n - l a w i n 1492 (9 O c t . ) . I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 50 034 John Essex 1 co t t 4d . "F renshes" which used t o render per annum 2s . 51 035 Robert Knight 1 msg l d . o b . "S t rannges" 52 036 E l i z a b e t h Belcham 1 c o t t 6d . " B e r f o r d " W i l l i a m ' s c a r e e r on the manor con t inued u n t i l 1506 ( e t . s e q . ? ) and he may have r e - m a r r i e d ( re fe rence to h i s w i fe E l i z a b e t h i n 24 Oc t . 1503; he was named as a sub- tenant i n (2 June) 1500. f 1 . C . 1 4 3 6 - C . 1 4 8 6 , a John Essex appears i n Ombersley cour t records very s p o r a d i c a l l y , u s u a l l y f i n e d f o r d e f a u l t . In 1476 (27 May) Essex was s a i d t o be s u b - l e a s i n g h i s tenement and he su r rendered i t i n 1486 (24 O c t . ) which was h i s l a s t appearance i n Ombersley cour t r e c o r d s . f 1 . C . 1 4 6 3 - C . 1 5 0 6 , served as a l e - t a s t o r , j u r o r and t i t h ingman du r ing h i s c a r e e r . No n o t i c e of h i s death recorded but i n 1506 (13 O c t . ) he sur rendered t h i s and h i s o ther tenements (see below) ad opus et  usus h i s son Thomas. f l . c . 1461 -1499 , an E l i z a b e t h or I s a b e l l a Belcham was f i r s t noted i n 1461 (6 O c t . ) i n a case of a s s a u l t and she may have been a r e l a t i v e of John Belcham ( f l . C . 1 4 4 6 - C . 1 4 6 5 ) . She was s u r v i v e d by a son R icha rd i n 1499 (15 O c t . ) but he sur rendered h i s r i g h t i n favour of R ichard Fremon. 133 Ident . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 53 037 John Br idde 1 c o t t "Mayes" 6d. 54 038 R ichard Wall 2 c o t t "Mays" and "Whelars" 9d. 55 037 John Br idde 56 021 Thomas Pope 57 039 Thomas Peyntour 2 c o t t 6d . "Prynches" and "Romes" 2 c o t t w i th appurtenances "Strawngwyssh" 4d.ob. 2 c o t t " A l l y e s " 12d. and "Henry Me r c e r e s " 134 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f l . c . 1454 -1487 , Br idde l eased t h i s tenement i n 1465 (15 May) and i s noted i n the cour t records most l y as a brewer and t a v e r n e r . In 1479 (15 June) he became the ' f a r m e r ' of the t i t h e corn of HAWFORD. He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Agnes (8 May 1487) . f 1 . c . 1462 -1473 , named as a l e - t a s t o r (8 Oc t . 1462) but o therw ise shor t c a r e e r . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Joan (11 May 1473) and i n 1484 (1 June) W i l l i a m W a l l , 1 0 - y e a r - o l d son of R ichard ( s a i d to be de func t ) c la imed these two c o t t a g e s . Joan was r e - m a r r i e d by 1505 and she may have had another son (John) by R ichard (21 Oc t . 1505) . f 1 . c . 1464 -1489 , Thomas l eased these two co t tages i n 1469 (15 May) at the death of Ma rga re t , h i s mother and may a l r eady have he ld the nook c a l l e d Cleches a l s o a t t r i b u t e d to him i n t h i s ren ta l (see be low) . The deaths of Thomas and h i s w i f e Ident . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 58 040 E l i z a b e t h Jones 1 co t t 12d. "Gar lekmercers " 1 co t t "Ma lkes" 1 co t t "Henry Cokes" 1 co t t "John Sanndres" 1 c o t t "A l cokes" another c o t t "Bremesgroves" another co t t "Bremesgroves" another c o t t "B lancha rd " 59 013 E l i z a b e t h C lerk 1 co t t 7d . "Osegoodes" (3d. ) (and) 1 parce l of the l o r d ' s park (4d. ) 60 041 John Burton 2 c r o f t s 12d "F lesheheweres" 135 Career of Tenant & Fami ly were recorded i n 1489 (12 May) and they were s u r v i v e d by a son and mar r ied daugh te r . E l i z a b e t h Jones ' name appears oppos i t e t h i s l i s t as reproduced here and she may have h e l d these as one tenement. In format ion about her ca ree r at OMBERSLEY i s con f i ned t o t h i s ren ta l e n t r y . These e igh t co t tages formed part o f the ho l d i ng of Eus tach io Jones (see below) as d e s c r i b e d i n the record of h i s death i n 1479 (15 J u n e ) . f l . c .1432 -1490 , Burton h e l d o f f i c e as j u r o r and t i t h ingman and he was a l s o noted r e g u l a r l y as a b rewer . In 1466 (7 O c t . ) John ' s son R ica rdo sur rendered ad opus  usus h i s f a t h e r a co t t age c a l l e d Fleschehewars i n BURYT0N which may be par t o f the tenement d e s c r i b e d h e r e . J o h n ' s I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 61 014 John Dekon 62 020 E lena B i t t e r 63 021 Thomas Pope 64 007 John Pantre 65 042 Joan A l l y 1 parce l of l d . o b . demesne land "Bromyard" 8 s e l i o n s 4 d . i n Swerdlond next to B i t t e r e s l o n d conceded to the s a i d E lena 1 parce l w i t h i n l O d . the l i m i t s of the l o r d ' s park 1 parce l w i t h i n l O d . the l i m i t s of the l o r d ' s park 1 msg 1 nook l O d . "Dawkes" 136 Career of Tenant & Fami ly death was recorded i n 1490 (11 May) at which t ime he he ld on ly a messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d Newlond i n BORLEY a l s o a s c r i b e d to him i n t h i s r e n t a l , see n o . 1 4 3 ) . Newes was r e l e t i n the next cou r t (12 O c t . 1490) to R i cha rd Burton de Evesham, husband of A l i c e , daughter of John B u r t o n . f l . . c .1472 -1477 , Joan may have been the widow of Thomas A l l y ( f l . C . 1 4 2 0 - C . 1 4 5 0 ) who can be l i n k e d w i th another tenement (see below) a t t r i b u t e d t o Joan in t h i s r e n t a l . In 1474 Joan sur rendered Dawkes ad opus et usus John , her s o n , and at her I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant 66 043 W i l l i a m Jones 67 001 John R u s s e l l 68 001 John R u s s e l l 69 016 John Hemyng S i z e (and name) of Tenement Due Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly Dovecot house w i t h i n the manor pastures "de l e Hay, Broadmore, C o l l e s i n o " "pa rce l of land i n the upper end of the park" 1 tenement next to the Pos terngate new r e b u i l t l O d . 6d . l i d . 4 d . death she was d e s c r i b e d as the widow of Thomas A l l y and s u c c e s s i o n to her tenement was d i spu ted by fou r sons (not i n c l u d i n g J o h n , 17 June 1477) . f 1 . c . l 4 7 0 - c . l 4 7 7 , the Dovecot and o the r tenements were l e t to W i l l i a m i n 1470 (16 O c t . ) but on ly h i s tenancy of the Dovecot i s noted i n t h i s r e n t a l . No record of W i l l i a m ' s death has s u r v i v e d . He was d e s c r i b e d i n 1476 as a former b a i l i f f of the manor (27 May) . Sum [of r e n t ] Sum [o f labour s e r v i c e s ] 3 6 s . l i d . 2 s . 4 d . o b . q ' 137 Iden t . No. No. Name of Tenant Si ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly UPHAMPTON 70 044 A l i c e Russe l l 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q ' 2d .ob . " R u s s e l l e s " 71 045 Joan Per t 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q ' 2d .ob . " P e r t e s " 72 046 Jacob Baker 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . o b . q ' . 2d .ob . " B r i d d e s " f 1 . c . 1467 -1473 , A l i c e was the widow of W i l l i a m R u s s e l l (ob . 20 Oc t . 1467) and she s u r v i v e d him i n both h i s tenements i n c l u d i n g tha t one d e s c r i b e d here and another i n BORLEY (see n o . 1 5 2 ) . A l i c e ' s death was recorded i n 1473 (11 May) and she was s u r v i v e d by two s o n s . f 1 . C . 1 4 6 2 - C . 1 4 7 2 , Joan was the widow of John Per t (ob. 8 Oc t . 1462) and she s u r v i v e d him i n a tenement w i th appurtenances c a l l e d Jonkyns and a messuage and the tenement Per tes d e s c r i b e d h e r e . In the en t r y she was desc r i bed as ( r e - ) mar r ied t o W i l l i a m Dyer and the l a t t e r at tempted to su r render Jonkyns i n 1471 (15 O c t . ) ; t h i s was appa ren t l y wi thout success as the t r a n s a c t i o n was c rossed out i n the cour t r e c o r d . The l a s t r e fe rence t o Joan was t h i s ren ta l en t r y and W i l l i a m was a c t i v e u n t i l 1502 (4 A p r . ) at l e a s t . f 1 . C . 1 4 6 3 - C . 1 4 7 5 , en t r y t o t h i s tenement occu r red i n 1463 (4 Oc t . ) a f t e r the death of W i l l i a m Wyredrawere, J a c o b ' s g r a n d f a t h e r . A year l a t e r (2 Oc t . 1464) Jacob was granted l i c e n s e to sub le t h i s tenement and he was subsequent ly noted r e g u l a r l y as a cour t d e f a u l t e r . In 1473 (11 May) he was charged w i th d i s r e p a i r of t h i s tenement and desc r i bed as Jacob Baker 138 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 73 047 R i cha rd Jones 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d. 74 027 Thomas Per t 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9d .ob . 2d.ob, "Rugges" 139 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly de Wygorn ' ; t h e l a s t r e fe rence t o him at OMBERSLEY occurs i n 1475 (9 O c t . ) when he c la imed h i s b ro the r Thomas' tenement a f t e r Thomas' d e a t h . In the same cour t record Jacob was s a i d to have the g rang ia c a l l e d B r i ddes barn on h i s tenement i n d i s r e p a i r . f l . c .1437-1478 , R i cha rd had an a c t i v e manor ia l c a r e e r and he ld o f f i c e as t i t h i ngman ( c . 1443-1475) . In 1478 (14 A p r . ) R i c h a r d sur rendered t h i s tenement and another which was a messuage and 1/2 v i r g a t e (see below) ad opus et usus h i s ( j u n i o r ) son Thomas. R i cha rcFs death was recorded i n the f o l l o w i n g cour t (13 O c t . 1478) . He was su rv i ved at death by h i s widow C r i s t i n e and a s e n i o r s o n , Edmund, was a l so named t h e r e . In 1484 (5 O c t . ) C r i s t i n e su r rendered ad opus e t usus Edmund her son and at her death i n 1486 (18 A p r . ) the l a s t tenement ( c a l l e d H a r r i r u s s e l l e s , see below) was d i spu ted by Edmund and her mar r ied daugh te r , E l i z a b e t h and her s o n , Thomas. A t h i r d s o n , J o h n , was named i n 1487 (8 May) when he a l s o c la imed h i s r i g h t t o t h i s tenement. I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 75 048 R ichard Burton 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q ' 2d .ob . "Popes" 76 049 John a t t Naissh 1 msg 1/2 v i r g lOd .ob . 2d .ob. J u n i o r " N a i s s h e s " 140 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1463-C .1509, the tenement named here was l e a s e d by R ichard i n 1465 (15 May) and i n the f o l l o w i n g yea r 1466 (7 O c t . ) R ichard sur rendered a co t taged c a l l e d Fleschehewars i n BURYTON ad opus et  usus John Burton (no.60 above) h i s f a t h e r . The reco rd o f R i c h a r d ' s l e a s e of the o ther messuage and 1/2 v i r g a t e d e s c r i b e d here (see no.85) has not s u r v i v e d and R ichard appears t o have r e t i r e d as the l a s t r e fe rence to him was h i s su r render ad opus  et usus h i s son P h i l i p i n 1509 (2 J u T y ) . f l . c .1463-1498 , one of the John N a i s s h ' s a c t i v e i n the 15th cen tu ry was f i r s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d as ' j u n i o r ' i n 1463 (23 May) . However, the John Naissh who d ied w h i l e the tenant of a tenement of 1 msg 1/2 v i r g c a l l e d Naisshes i n UPHAMPTON was d e s c r i b e d as John Na issh s e n i o r (11 O c t . 1498) . (See John N a i s s h , no.45 and John Naissh s e n i o r , n o . 8 0 ) . I den t , S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 77 050 Henry Jones 1 msg 1 v i r g l i d . 5 d . "Gerveyes" 78 051 W i l l i a m Neyr 1 msg 3/4 v i r g l l d . o b . q ' 3 d . o b . q ' "Wa l l es " 141 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c . l 4 3 4 - c . l 4 7 4 , he was f i r s t named as sworn i n t o a t i t h i n g i n 1434 (26 A p r . ) and served o c c a s i o n a l l y as t i t h i ngman and once as c o n s t a b l e . By 1462 (8 O c t . ) Henry had mar r ied Clemenc ia widow o f R i cha rd L i e and leased through her 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e i n UPHAMPTON c a l l e d Gerveyse and 1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e Symondes i n POWERS (see n o . 2 2 5 ) . Henry was l a s t named i n 1474 (4 May) when he sur rendered Symondes i n t o the l o r d ' s hands. f l . c .1450 -1473 , Neyr served o c c a s i o n a l l y as a l e - t a s t o r and j u r o r and leased a messuage and 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Harry a te Forde i n BORLEY (see no.151) i n 1455 (17 Nov. ) which was sur rendered by h i s f a t h e r (no.151 b e l o w ) . At h i s death (11 May 1473) h i s " s e n i o r son " W i l l i a m s u r v i v e d him i n the tenement d e s c r i b e d here and J o h n , h i s "second s o n " , i n the tenement c a l l e d H a r r y f o r d e s . The t h i r d tenement a s c r i b e d to W i l l i a m Neyr i n t h i s r e n t a l (1 messuage 1/2 v i r g a t e Reynaldes i n UPHAMPTON, see below) may in f a c t have been he ld by h i s son W i l l i a m . The l a t t e r f o r f e i t e d h i s tenement c a l l e d Wal les i n UPHAMPTON i n 1474 (4 May) because of a fe lony he committed and t h i s was then l e t t o E l i z a b e t h , h i s n i n e - y e a r - o l d s i s t e r . E l i z a b e t h , i n 1479 (14 O c t . ) , l eased a I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 79 052 W i l l i a m Palmer 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 4 d . o b . q ' l d . q ' "Heynes" 80 053 John Naisshe 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . o b . 2d .ob . "Nasshes" 81 054 Thomas Suard 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 13d .q ' 2d .ob . " G r e n e h u l l e s " tenement c a l l e d Re igno ld i n Uphampton at the death of her b r o t h e r , John , s a i d to be 19 y e a r s o l d . f l . C .1466-C .1502, Palmer entered t h i s tenement i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) and was o c c a s i o n a l l y named as a brewer and j u r o r . f l . c . ? - 1 4 9 8 , see no.45 and no.76 above. The death of a John Na issh s e n i o r was recorded i n 11 Oc t . 1498 and he was s u r v i v e d by h i s " s e n i o r s o n " and h e i r Henry in the tenement d e s c r i b e d here and by a " j u n i o r s o n " , Thomas, i n one q u a r t e r of land c a l l e d Knot t i n FERNHAMPTON. f 1 . c .1453-1474 , Thomas was named i n 1453 (24 O c t . ) when h i s f a t h e r sur rendered t h i s tenement under the c o n d i t i o n t ha t Thomas would be a l lowed to l ease i t . Th is was appa ren t l y a l lowed (a l though no record o f Thomas' e n t r y has s u r v i v e d because Thomas he ld t h i s tenement at h i s death recorded i n 1474 (4 M a y ) ) . Thomas a l s o su rv i ved h i s f a t h e r at the l a t t e r ' s death i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) i n a messuage and 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Suard (see be low) . Thomas was i n t u rn s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, Agnes, and a s i s t e r c a l l e d E l i z a b e t h Sare de Evesham and he may have been an absentee t e n a n t . In 1473 (5 O c t . ) he was s a i d to ho ld " d i v e r s e tenements and land w i t h i n the manor and remained o u t s i d e the manor con t ra r y to cus tom" . He was d e s c r i b e d as 142 I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 82 051 W i l l i a m Neyr 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9d .ob . 2d .ob . "Reyno ldes" 83 055 Thomas Heye 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . q ' 2d .ob . "Goodemarines" 84 056 John Tomes 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9d . 2d .ob. " A l c o c k e s " 143 Career of Tenant & Fami ly Thomas Suard de Evesham i n t h i s en t ry and o the rw ise appears very s p o r a d i c a l l y i n Ombersley cour t r e c o r d s . f 1. C.1463-C.1484, i n h i s f i r s t appearance i n 1463 (23 May) he was granted l i c e n s e to marry E l i z a b e t h daughter of Thomas A l l y e , n e i f , but no reco rd s u r v i v e s of h i s en t r y t o t h i s tenement. Thomas l e a s e d the ' f a r m ' of the t i t h e corn of " L i t t l e " NORTHAMPTON hamlet f o r 12 yea rs i n 1479 (14 O c t . ) f o r an annual rent of 2 6 s . 8 d . and i n the f o l l o w i n g year (10 Oc t . 1480) he l eased a qua r te r of a meadow c a l l e d Lyncheford f o r 20 yea rs f o r 5 s . annual r e n t . He served on ly once ( cons tab le i n 9 O c t . 1475) i n manor ia l o f f i c e and sur rendered the tenement named here i n 1484 (5 O c t . ) which i s the l a s t r e fe rence to him i n ex tant cour t r e c o r d s . f 1 . c .1464-1477 , he had a manor ia l c a r e e r as j u r o r , t i t h ingman and c o n s t a b l e . Severa l tenements are a s c r i b e d t o him i n t h i s r e n t a l but at h i s death i n 1477 (16 S e p t . ) he was s a i d t o ho ld on ly a messuage and 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Thomes i n NORTHAMPTON (see n o . 1 0 3 ) . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow E l i z a b e t h who was a l s o recorded i n subsequent r e n t a l s as h o l d i n g a l l the tenements here a s c r i b e d t o John I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 85 048 R ichard Burton 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 7 d . o b . q ' 2d .ob . "Newes" 86 057 John H u l l e 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 8 d . 2d .ob. " E r l e s l o n d " 87 058 Hugo Deken 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 8 d . q ' 2d .ob. " P i p s t i l l e s " 144 Career of Tenant & Fami ly but at her death in 1506 (13 O c t . ) she had he ld on l y the tenement c a l l e d Thommes i n NORTHAMPTON. f 1 . ? -1484 , t he re were two tenants so named and a c t i v e (from c .1435) at OMBERSLEY p r i o r t o the c o m p i l a t i o n of t h i s r e n t a l . The tenement named here was su r rendered by John Hy l l ad opus et usus Thomas A l l y e i n 1473 (11 T¥y7an"d -JoTin H y l l ' s death was recorded i n 1484 (1 June) where he was s a i d t o have h e l d on l y a messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d I thenardes i n UPHAMPTON (see n o . 9 0 ) . Nothing was recorded on the f a t e of the messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d Townesendes (see no.91) a l s o a t t r i b u t e d to John H u l l e i n t h i s r e n t a l . In 1462 (8 O c t . ) an Agnes H u l l e had l e a s e d a messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d Townnesendes i n UPHAMPTON and at her death (11 May 1473) she was s u r v i v e d by her s i s t e r and b r o t h e r - i n - l a w . Agnes had been p ledged by a John Hu l l e at her en t r y i n 1462. f l . C .1462-C .1489, Deken began h i s ca ree r as a brewer and t a v e r n e r ( to c . 1 4 6 5 , 14 O c t . ) but was noted then ma in ly as a cour t d e f a u l t e r . He l e a s e d a messuage and 1/2 v i r g a t e Newes i n I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 88 059 John Crompe 1 msg 1 v i r g 15d. 5d . "Crompes" s 89 060 I s a b e l l a Newton 1 msg 1 v i r g 15d .ob .q ' 5d . " P l a y d o r e s " 145 Career of Tenant & Fami ly UPHAMPTON i n 1464 (11 A p r . ) fo rmer l y he ld by John Burton (above no.60) and "the next yea r sur rendered t h i s ad opus et usus R icha rd Burton (no.75 aTove) ancT en te red the tenement desc r i bed here a f t e r i t had been sur rendered by R ichard B u r t o n . He su r rendered P i p s t i l l e s i n 1489 ad opus et  usus R ichard Burton and was not mentioned i n subsequent cour t r e c o r d s . f 1 . ? - ? , t h i s tenement was s a i d t o have been l e a s e d by John Knotte son of Henry Crompe, n e i f , i n 1419 (29 Sep t . ) and i t was named aga in ( i n 10 May 1440) i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i th John Knotte who ceases t o appear i n cour t records i n 1453 (24 O c t . ) . A John Crompe was a c t i v e at OMBERSLEY from 1451 (6 June) but at h i s death i n 1502 (4 A p r . ) he he ld on ly a messuage and 1/2 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Crompes i n C0MHAMPT0N (see n o . 2 9 0 ) . f l . C .1472-C .1486, i n view of the u n c e r t a i n t i e s su r round ing the tenancy of the messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d Crompes (above, no.88 ) i t shou ld be noted t ha t t h i s was he ld by Thomas Newton at h i s death recorded i n 1465 (15 May) . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s 1 2 - y e a r - o l d son who ceases t o be mentioned a f t e r 1467 (20 O c t . ) . A John Newton was named as a d e f a u l t e r i n 1469 (15 May) and charged f o r d i s r e p a i r of h i s tenement c a l l e d Knotte i n UPHAMPTON. At John Newton's death i n 1471 (15 O c t . ) I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 90 057 John Hu l l e 1 msg 1 v i r g " I thenardes" 13d.ob. 5d . 91 057 John Hu l l e 1 msg 1 v i r g "Townesendes" 12d. 5d . 92 061 John Moyle 1 msg 1 v i r g "Wat tes" fo rmer ly "Wall 15d .q ' 5d . 146 Career of Tenant & Fami ly he was s u r v i v e d by Symon son of E l i z a b e t h Coup te r . I s a b e l l a Newton was f i r s t named i n t h i s r e n t a l (as above) and i n 6 Oc t . 1472 at 15 years of age (and as daughter of John Newton s e n i o r ) she l eased a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Crompes i n UPHAMPTON. She was l a s t named at OMBERSLEY i n r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) where she was d e s c r i b e d as the tenant of Crompes i n UPHAMPTON. The tenement o f 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e c a l l e d PIaydores had been he ld by W i l l i a m Playdour and a f t e r h i s death (15 O c t . 1465) he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, Marga re t . She, i n t u r n , was s u r v i v e d (4 May 1473) by her s o n , R i c h a r d , who he ld t h i s tenement u n t i l h i s death i n 1505 (25 O c t . ) when he was s u r v i v e d by h i s s o n . No connec t ions between the Newton and P laydor f a m i l i e s are ev iden t i n the cour t r e c o r d s . f 1 . c .1453 -1480 , Moyle f i r s t appears i n 1453 h o l d i n g o f f i c e as a t i t h i n g m a n , a p o s i t i o n which he he ld u n t i l 1467 (20 O c t . ) . In 1455 (17 Nov.) he en tered a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e at the death of h i s f a t h e r and h i s mother s tayed on i n the messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d Wal les i n UPHAMPTON. At her death (20 O c t . 1467) , I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 93 . 027 Thomas Per t 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 6d . 94 000 (no name 1 msg 3/4 v i r g blank entered oppos i te " G e n t i l l " t h i s tenement which u s u a l l y renders 7 s . 3 d . 95 000 (no name 1 msg 1/4 v i r g entered oppos i te " T r a y l h a r e s " t h i s tenement) which u s u a l l y renders 5 s . 2 d . o b . 96 062 Thomas Yong 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 2 s . l i d . "Pa lmers " which u s u a l l y renders 3 s . l l d . o b . 147 Career of Tenant & Fami ly John entered the messuage and v i r g a t e now c a l l e d M o i l l e s i n UPHAMPTON which she had h e l d . When Moyle d ied i n 1480 (10 O c t . ) , he was s a i d to have he ld on ly a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Sweters (see no .101 ) , and a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Moyles (see be low) . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, I s a b e l l a , and at her death (6 A p r . 1497) she was noted as having he ld a l l t h ree tenements a t t r i b u t e d t o her husband i n t h i s r e n t a l . f 1 . c .1434-1475 , the second sum en te red a f t e r the ' n o r m a l ' rent f o r Palmers tenement i s the combined rent due from four tenements l i s t e d h e r e ; tha t i s , Gent i11 and Tray !1 hares (see n o . 9 5 ) , Palmers ( i n t h i s l i n e ) , and V i c a r y e s (see n o . 9 7 ) . Thomas appears very s p o r a d i c a l l y i n the ex tan t cour t records but i n 1464 (11 A p r . ) , f o r example, he was f i n e d f o r Ic ient . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Serv 97 000 (no name oppos i t e t h i s tenement) 1 msg 1 c r o f t " V i c a r y e s " which u s u a l l y renders 3 s . 4 d . 98 063 John A l i s a n n d e r Bocher 1 pa rce l o f the a f o r e s a i d four tenements in A l d e f o r d e f e l d 5d. Sum [of r en t ] ( l e f t blank in the o r i g i n a l . To ta l rent due at t h i s term 24s .3d . ) Sum [of labour s e r v i c e s ] ( l e f t blank in the o r i g i n a l , t o t a l due was 148 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f a i l u r e to r e p a i r the d i t c h o f Palmers tenement i n UPHAMPTON. Yong d ied i n 1475 (9 O c t . ) and was s u r v i v e d i n a l l o f the tenements l i s t e d here by h i s widow, Agnes . She d ied i n 1483 and was s u r v i v e d by her s o n , Simon, who pa id an en t ry f i n e o f 1 6 s . 8 d . The ren t f o r t h i s combined ho ld i ng i n 1483 was s a i d to be l l s . 8 d per annum and not the 1 9 s . 9 d . ' n o r m a l ' r e n t . f 1. C .1463-C .1500, he was s a i d to have su rv i ved h i s f a t h e r at the l a t t e r ' s death i n 1463 (23 May) but none of the tenements the re reappear i n t h i s or subsequent r e n t a l s . John was named as j u r o r once and o c c a s i o n a l l y f i n e d f o r b rew ing . The 1500 r e n t a l (32 ( i i ) ) was the l a s t r e fe rence to John A l i s a n n d e r , Bocher at OMBERSLEY. I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e NORTHAMPTON 99 064 David Hay 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 19d .ob .q ' 3 d . o b . q ' 100 065 Margaret Lye 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q ' 2d .ob . "Bromys" 101 061 John M o i l l e 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 15d. 2d .ob . " M o i l l e s " 102 038 R icha rd Wal le 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 17d.ob. 3 d . o b . q ' "Wa l l es " 103 056 John Tomes 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 18d.ob. 2 d . o b . "Tomes" 104 063 John A l i s a n n d r e 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 8d .ob . 2d .ob . Bocher "Herewardes" 105 066 W i l l i a m H u l l e r 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . q ' 2d .ob . "Hyches" 149 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1. C.1467-C.1472, apar t from t h i s r en ta l note David Haye was on ly named once (20 O c t . 1467) i n Ombersley cour t records when he was f i n e d f o r d e f a u l t . f 1 . c .1469-1473 , Margaret s u r v i v e d her husband i n t h i s tenement a f t e r h i s death recorded i n 1469 (15 May) . At her death (5 Oct 1473) 4 yea rs l a t e r she was succeeeded by W i l l i a m her son w i th the unders tand ing t ha t W i l l i a m would sur render h i s r i g h t s i f any h e i r s of h i s s e n i o r b ro the r Edmund appeared to c l a i m t h i s tenement. f l . c .1425-1478 , W i l l i a m entered a messuage and th ree nooks of land c a l l e d H u l l a r y s i n NORTHAMPTON (see under OTHER NORTHAMPTON no. 107) at the death of h i s g rand fa the r and grandmother recorded i n I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent' S e r v i c e 106 067 Thomas Baker 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . o b . q ' 2d.ob. "Duyres" Sum [o f r en t ] ( l e f t blank in the o r i g i n a l , t o t a l due was 9 s . 3 d . o b . ) Sum [of labour s e r v i c e s ] ( l e f t blank i n the o r i g i n a l , t o t a l was 22d .ob . ) OTHER NORTHAMPTON 107 066 W i l l i a m H u l l e r 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 13d.ob.q* 3 d . o b . q ' " H u l l e r e s " 150 Career of Tenant & Fami ly 1425 (9 O c t . ) . H is was a long and a c t i v e ca ree r du r i ng which he he ld o f f i c e most f r e q u e n t l y as t i th ingman and once as c o n s t a b l e (28 O c t . 1450) . In 1473 he sur rendered H y l l e r s i n NORTHAMPTON ad opus et usus John Hanleye h i s s o n - i n - l a w Trio. 187) and he was s u r v i v e d i n the tenement named here by another s o n - i n - l a w at h i s death recorded i n 1478 (14 A p r . ) . f 1 . c .1462 -1475 , Thomas was the b ro the r of Jacob Baker (above no.72) and Thomas entered the tenement d e s c r i b e d here i n 1463 (4 O c t . ) a f t e r the death of h i s g rand fa the r recorded i n 1462 (8 O c t . ) . In 1464 Thomas was granted l i c e n s e to s u b - l e t h i s tenement f o r four y e a r s , 4 d . per  annum, and he was o therw ise noted c h i e f l y as a cour t d e f a u l t e r . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s b ro the r Jacob i n 1475 (17 A p r . ) . I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 108 068 Margaret H u l l e r 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 13d .ob .q ' 3 d . o b . q ' " H u l l e r s ' 109 069 Thomas Hemmyng 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d. "Eng l ysshes " 110 069 Thomas Hemmyng 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 18d. 2d .ob . "Dodyng" 111 042 Joan A l l y e 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 20d .ob .q ' 3 d . o b . q ' " A l l y e s " f l . c .1467-1489 , she was the widow of John H u l l e r , n e i f , and succeeded him i n t h i s tenement and another o f the same s i z e c a l l e d Sares in the Rectory at h i s death i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) (see n o . 1 1 4 ) . At her death (12 May 1489) she was s u r v i v e d by a son and a mar r ied daugh te r . f l . c .1455-1474 , Thomas f i r s t appears (8 May 1455) as the ' f a r m e r ' o f o n e - h a l f of the t i t h e hay of Ladyhomme and Wynhales. He leased t h i s tenement (and the one noted below) at the death of E l i z a b e t h Dodyng (23 May 1463) where he was desc r i bed as her r e l a t i v e and r i g h t f u l h e i r . He served as a t i t h i ngman from c.1466 (29 A p r . ) t o c.1473 (5 O c t . ) and was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow E l i z a b e t h i n 1474 (19 O c t . ) . E l i z a b e t h re -mar r i ed o f f the manor i n 1480 (10 O c t . ) and was succeeded by her s o n , J o h n . 151 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 112 070 Joan Borne 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 17d .q ' 3 d . o b . q ' "Tybyes ' Sum [of r e n t ] (blank in the o r i g i n a l , the t o t a l was 7 s . 9 d . o b . ) Sum [of l abour s e r v i c e s ] (blank i n the o r i g i n a l , the t o t a l was 17d.ob . ) TENANTS OF THE RECTORY 113 071 W i l l i a m Gardenere 1 msg 1/3 v i r g l O d . "Wyses" 152 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f1 . 7 -1472, Joan Borne was not named i n the Ombersley cour t records but she may have been the w i f e and widow of W i l l i a m Borne who leased t h i s tenement i n 1463 (4 O c t . ) . W i l l i a m was s a i d t o be i n d e f a u l t of cour t i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) and again i n 1472 (27 A p r . ) . In 1473 (5 O c t . ) W i l l i a m Borne de Evesham was s a i d to ho ld land in OMBERSLEY but t o remain o f f the manor. He was r e g u l a r l y esso ined f o r d e f a u l t u n t i l h i s death recorded i n 1477 (17 June) when he was s u r v i v e d i n the tenement desc r i bed i n t h i s r e n t a l by Thomas Boorne de Wynhale. f l . c .1466-1500 , W i l l i a m l eased t h i s tenement 'by copy of cour t r e c o r d ' i n 1470 (17 May) at the death of h i s f a t h e r . S i x yea rs e a r l i e r he had pa id 12d. f o r the c o u r t ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n on h i s r i g h t to a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d fe theneyes (see under BORLEY no .137 , i n a I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 114 068 Margaret H u l l e r 115 072 John Jamies 1 msg 1/3 v i r g 10d. " S a r e s " 1 msg 1/3 v i r g l O d . "Bornes" 153 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly  r e v e r s i o n agreement w i t h h i s f a t h e r , 7 O c t . 1466) . W i l l i a m served f r e q u e n t l y as t i t h i ngman and j u r o r and at h i s death was s u r v i v e d by h i s s o n , Henry (2 June 1500) . f 1 . c .1445 -1473 , Jamies was noted from 1445 (25 O c t . ) t o 1448 (18 Nov. ) main ly f o r d i s r e p a i r of h i s tenements and from 1449 to 1472 f o r being i n d e f a u l t of c o u r t . The record o f h i s death s t a t e s that he d ied i n Sh ips ton super Stoure and the l o r d c o l l e c t e d from him a h e r i o t ( i n l i v e s t o c k ) which t o t a l l e d 5 l i . 8 s . 8 d . (11 May 1473) . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow A l i c e ( l a t e r known as E l i z a b e t h ) who i n 1474 (4 May) was granted l i c e n s e to ho ld land i n OMBERSLEY but to r e s i d e o f f the manor. She was a l s o granted l i c e n s e to have " v a r i o u s sub tenan ts " (not named). En t ry t o her tenements was d i spu ted by seven i n d i v i d u a l s (on ly one of whom was her son) at her d e a t h , recorded in 1484 (1 J u n e ) . E l i z a b e t h was s t i l l named as an Ombersley tenant i n r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) (1486) and i n r f . 2 2 ( i v ) . I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Sum [o f r en t ] 2 s . 6 d . Sum [of labour s e r v i c e s ] (c rossed through i n the o r i g i n a l ) HADLEY 116 073 W i l l i a m Cowpere 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d. 2d .ob . "Mores" 154 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f l . c . 1428 -1473 , a W i l l i a m Cowper was c o n s i s t e n t l y named as a cour t d e f a u l t e r from 1428 (27 A p r . ) t o 1446 (10 May) and f i n e d once f o r i l l e g a l l y s u b - l e t t i n g h i s tenement(s) i n t h i s pe r i od (14 O c t . 1442) . In 1448 (18 Nov.) a W i l l i a m Couper de Haddelegh was e l e c t e d c o n s t a b l e and he then served as j u r o r from 1450 (18 May) t o 1465 (15 O c t . ) . At h i s death (11 May 1473) he was su rv i ved by h i s widow E l i z a b e t h i n t h i s tenement and another c a l l e d Doddes (see n o . 1 2 5 ) . E l i z a b e t h sur rendered these two i n 1474 (4 A p r . ) t o a son and s e v e n - y e a r - o l d grandson and at her death i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , she was s u r v i v e d by a t h i r d son i n a messuage and c r o f t c a l l e d Quarryour (see W i l l i a m Cowper under ' F ree Tenan ts ' n o . 2 5 1 ) . The two tenements l i s t e d below (no .126 , 127) (which were recorded w i thout tenant names) a f t e r W i l l i a m ' s tenement c a l l e d Doddys may a l s o have been he ld by h im . Ic ient. S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 117 074 R icha rd Gardenere 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 7 d . q ' 2d .ob . " S k y r r y e s " 118 075 W i l l i a m Amslo t te 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . o b . 2 d . q ' 119 030 John Gardenere 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 13d.ob. 2 d . o b . " S k y r r e s " 120 076 Thomas B i l l y n t o n 1 msg 1 c r o f t 6 d . " C l o p s t o n e s " 155 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1. c .1451-1498 , the tenement named here was l eased by Gardenere i n 1470 (17 May, he was known as R icha rd Gardenere de  Hadley) but h i s f i r s t appearance i n OMBERSLEY c o u r t records occur red i n 1451 (6 J u n e ) . He served as t i t h ingman and o c c a s i o n a l l y as j u r o r and was s u r v i v e d by h i s son W i l l i a m (26 A p r . 1498) i n a l l the tenements a t t r i b u t e d to him i n t h i s r en ta l except f o r the tenement c a l l e d Knot tes (see be low, FERNHAMPTON) which he sur rendered i n 1487 (8 May) ad opus et  usus John Na issh de Uphampton. f l . C . 1 4 5 3 - C . 1 5 0 2 , W i l l i a m entered t h i s tenement i n 1453 (24 O c t . , at the death of h i s f a t h e r ) and he o c c a s i o n a l l y he ld o f f i c e as j u r o r and a l e - t a s t o r . With t h ree o ther tenan ts he leased the ' f a r m ' o f the t i t h e corn o f HADLEY and MAYEUX i n 1479 (15 June) and f i v e years l a t e r (22 O c t . 1482) t he ' f a r m ' o f the t i t h e hay of v a r i o u s meadows. f l . C . 1 4 6 7 - C . 1 4 7 3 , Thomas' death was o r i g i n a l l y noted i n 1472 (6 O c t . ) but the en t r y was c rossed out and repeated i n the cour t record f o r 11 May 1473. In the l a t t e r , Thomas was s a i d to have l e f t a t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s o n , Henry, as h e i r by h i s f i r s t w i f e and by h i s second w i f e a o n e - y e a r - o l d daughter (by custody of W i l l i a m A m s l o t , above no.1185) as the I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 121 076 s a i d Thomas B i l l y n t o n 122 030 John Gardener Sen io r 123 074 R icha rd Gardener J u n i o r 124 077 Henry Yong 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 23d.ob. 3 d . o b . q ' "Bromys" 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . o b . q 1 2 d . o b . "Yonges" 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 2 s . 4 d . o b . 3 d . o b . q ' " F o w e l l e s " 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 13d. 2d .ob . " S c h o l s t o n e s " 125 073 W i l l i a m Cowpere 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9d .ob . 2d .ob. "Doddys" 156 Career of Tenant & Fami ly h e i r e s s o f C l o p s t o n e s . The s o n , Henry, was i n the custody of Thomas C l e n t (no.128 below) who agreed tha t when Henry reached n ine years of age he would "he lp him to e n t e r a c r a f t o f h i s l i k i n g " . Thomas was desc r i bed as Henry ' s unc le at the l a t t e r ' s death i n 1480 (11 A p r . ) and Henry ' s tenement c a l l e d Bromys (see below) was entered by Thomas' s o n . f 1 . c .1444-1478 , t he re were two Henry Yongs a c t i v e at OMBERSLEY and t h e i r ca ree rs were a lmost co te rm inous . The one who held t h i s tenement (and Osmonds, see no.129) was r e f e r r e d to as Henry Yong de  Hadley and c i t e d ma in ly as a cou r t d e f a u l t e r . He d ied in 1478 (13 O c t . ) and was s u r v i v e d ( u n t i l 11 O c t . 1496) by h i s widow C r i s t i n a who was i n t u rn s u r v i v e d by two grandsons (sons of C r i s t i n a ' s d a u g h t e r ) . I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 126 000 127 000 128 078 129 077 130 079 (no name entered i n the o r i g i n a l , but see no. 140, Robert Bo r ley ) " the same" (no name entered i n the o r i g i n a l ) Thomas C len t 1 msg 1/4 v i r g " B r i d d e s " 1 msg 1/4 v i r g "Wayt tes" 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Grenys" 17d .ob . l d . q ' 17d. l d . q ' 9d .ob . 2d .ob . Henry Yong 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9d .ob . 2d .ob . "Osmondes" Wal ter Baker 1 msg w i th 6 d . appurtenances " P i p p s t i l l e s " & "Kna t tes " ( s i c  Kno t tes ) 157 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c .1447-1487 , Thomas' c a r e e r was an a c t i v e one: he he ld o f f i c e as t i t h i ngman and was f r e q u e n t l y accused of e n c l o s i n g p o r t i o n s of h i s tenements when they shou ld have been ' o p e n ' . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow A l i c e (9 O c t . 1487) and when she remar r ied (30 A p r . 1493) she was succeeded by a grandson and a daugh te r . f 1 . c . 1470 -1491 , Wal te r was a l s o known as W i l l i a m and he appears i n f r e q u e n t l y i n the ex tant cour t r e c o r d s . He was ' e l e c t e d ' once as a l e t a s t o r (5 O c t . 1473) and f i n e d i n 1486 (24 O c t . ) f o r bak ing bread and l e W a s t e l l e s which were s m a l l e r / l i g h t e r than s t a t u t e w e i g h t . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, A l i c e , i n 1491 (17 May) and h i s tenement was desc r i bed the re as 2 co t tages w i th gardens c a l l e d P i p p e s t i l l e s and K n o t t . s I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly •Sum [o f r en t ] (blank in the o r i g i n a l , the t o t a l rent due was Sum [o f l abour s e r v i c e s ] (blank in the o r i g i n a l , the t o t a l due was 16s .2d . ) 32d .ob . ) HAWFORD 131 003 John Borne 132 003 the s a i d John 133 003 the s a i d John Sum [o f r e n t ] Sum [o f labour s e r v i c e s ] 1 msg 1 v i r g " P a t r i k " which u s u a l l y renders 1 0 s . 7 d . q ' 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Gynu l f " which u s u a l l y renders 16d. 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Gynu l f " which u s u a l l y renders 4 s . 20d, 20d. 5 d . 5d . BORLEY 134 002 Thomas Hasu l l 1 msg " C l e 1/2 v i r g 21d, rkes 5d; 158 •9 Ic ient . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 135 002 Thomas Hasu l l 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 18d. 3d .ob .q " B o r n e w a l l e s 1 136 080 Simon Sanndres 1 msg 1 v i r g 3 s . l d . o b . 5 d . " A l l y e s " 137 071 W i l l i a m Gardenere 138 081 R i cha rd Jones 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . "Tetheneyes" 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 7 d . 2 d . " Jones " 159 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1447-1503 (et s e q . ) , Simon was sworn i n t o a t i t h i n g i n 1447 (17 O c t . ) and s a i d to be mar r ied to I s a b e l l a A l l y i n 1461 (6 O c t . ) and he ( u n s u c c e s s f u l l y ) c la imed a messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d C l e r k e s i n BERYTON by r i g h t of h i s w i f e i n 1475 (17 A p r . ) . A l though h i s was a lengthy c a r e e r , he held manor ia l o f f i c e ( cons tab le ) on ly once - i n 1473 (5 O c t . ) . In 1478 (13 O c t . ) he was named as b ro the r o f R i cha rd Sanndres (no.10) i n an ( u n s u c c e s s f u l ) attempt to l ease one of the f ou r manor ia l m i l l s . f l . c . l 4 6 5 - c . l 5 0 2 (et s e q . ) . R i cha rd son of Wal te r Jones entered a tenement of 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Carpenters (see no.139) at h i s f a t h e r ' s death (15 O c t . 1465) and R i c h a r d ' s b ro the r W i l l i a m entered a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d J o n e s . In the same c o u r t , W i l l i a m was repor ted as hav ing drowned i n the Severn and R i cha rd en te red h i s b r o t h e r ' s tenement. Carpen te rs was desc r i bed as a h a l f - v i r g a t e tenement i n t h i s r en ta l and R icha rd may have sur rendered h a l f of the o r i g i n a l tenement - the rent assessed here suggests t ha t a h a l f - v i r g a t e tenement was I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 139 081 R ichard Jones 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 7d . 2d .ob . "Carpen te res " 140 082 C r i s t i n e Turnor 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 20d .q ' 5d . " A l i s a n n d r e s " 141 072 John Jamies 1 msg 1 v i r g 2 s . l d . o b . 5d . " C u l l e f o r d e s " 142 029 John a t t e Crosse 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 2 s . 3d .ob .q " C r o s s e s " 143 041 John Burton 1 msg 1 v i r g 15d. "New!ond" 160 Career of Tenant & Fami ly i n t e n d e d ; t h a t i s , t h i s does not appear to be a s c r i b a l e r r o r . R i cha rd o c c a s i o n a l l y he ld o f f i c e as a t i t h i ngman and a l s o l eased p o r t i o n s o f v a r i o u s meadows (15 June 1479) . f 1 . C.1464-C.1472, C r i s t i n e was f i r s t named i n 1464 (20 O c t . ) as the widow of John Turnor and she s u r v i v e d him i n a messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d A lysanndres i n BORLEY. Apar t from t h i s r e n t a l e n t r y , the re are no o ther re fe rences to her c a r e e r . However, i n 1498 (26 A p r . ) a John Tu rno r , son and h e i r of C r i s t i n e Waxlodes, en te red a tenement of 1 messuage, 1 v i r g a t e c a l l e d A l i s a n n d r e s in BORLEY at C r i s t i n e ' s d e a t h . A R i cha rd Waxlowe was a c t i v e at OMBERSLEY from 1475 (9 O c t . ) and he may have mar r ied C r i s t i n e Turnor a f t e r the c o m p i l a t i o n of t h i s r e n t a l . I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 144 031 John a te Naisshe 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 6d . 3 d . o b . q ' "Doddes" 145 031 John ate Naisshe 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 3d . " H y l l a r e s " 146 083 R ichard Jones 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 7d . " H a r r y r u s s e l l " 147 084 W i l l i a m Symmes 1 msg 1 v i r g 2 s . 3 d . 5d. "Rugges" f 1 . 7 -1478, R i c h a r d ' s c a r e e r was coterminous ( u n t i l h i s death) w i th tha t of R i cha rd Jones (no.138) a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o un tang le the two b i o g r a p h i e s . A R ichard Jones was a c t i v e at OMBERSLEY from 1437 (wh i le the o ther R icha rd Jones began h i s ca ree r i n c . 1 4 6 7 ) . Th is R ichard sur rendered two tenements (Shut tes and K n o t t , see below) i n 1478 (27 A p r . ) ad opus et usus h i s son Thomas and at hisHeath i n the same yea r (13 Oc t . ) he was s u r v i v e d by his widow C r i s t i n e i n t he tenement l i s t e d here and i n the tenement c a l l e d Muryvale (see n o . 1 6 1 ) . She su r rendered the l a t t e r ad, opus et usus her son Edmund i n 1484 (5 O c t . ) and a t her death i n 1486 en t r y t o t h i s tenement ( H a r r i r u s e l 1 e s ) was d i s p u t e d by Edmund, Thomas and t h e i r mar r ied s i s t e r , E l i z a b e t h M y c h e l l . A t h i r d son John a l s o c la imed H e r r y r u s s e l l e i n 1487 (8 May) . f 1 . c .1441-1474 , Symmes he ld o f f i c e as a t i t h i ngman i n the 1440's and was o c c a s i o n a l l y f i n e d f o r b rew ing . At h i s death i n 1474 (4 May) he was s u r v i v e d by h i s " s e n i o r ' s o n , John . 161 Iden t . S ize (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 148 085 R ichard Hasul l 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l l d . o b . 2d .ob . " W i l l i a m Malkes" 149 029 150 018 151 051 152 044 153 056 154 000 John a t t e Crose John A l i sannd re W i l l i a m Neyre A l i c e Russe l l John Tomes (no name entered i n the o r i g i n a l ) 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "John Malkes" 1 msg 1/4 v i r g "Ha r r y f o rdes " 1 msg 1/2 v i r g " H a r r y f o r d s " 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Forden" 1 msg 1 c r o f t "Gal eyes" 1 parce l "Lode" l l d . o b . 2d .ob . 2d. l d . q ' 13d .q ' 2d .ob . l O d . 2d .ob . 3d. o b . 9d. 162 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . C . 1 4 3 4 - C . 1 4 8 0 , no record of H a s u l l ' s death has s u r v i v e d , but i n 1480 (10 O c t . ) he was named as a former tenant of v a r i o u s p o r t i o n s of meadows and i n 1494 (13 May) C r i s t i n e H a s u l l ' s (widow) death was recorded and she was s u r v i v e d i n a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Mackes i n BORLEY by her son R i c h a r d . She may have been the widow of the R ichard Hasul l named h e r e . The l a t t e r ' s ca ree r i nc luded o f f i c e - h o l d i n g as j u r o r and t i t h ingman and o c c a s i o n a l f i n e s f o r b rew ing . Icient. S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly Sum [of r e n t ] ( l e f t blank i n the o r i g i n a l , t o t a l rent due was 24s .ob . ) Sum [of l abour s e r v i c e s ] (blank i n the o r i g i n a l , t o t a l was 4 s . 4 d . o b . ) DUNHAMPTON 155 086 Henry Yong 156 086 Henry Yong 157 087 John Neyr 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q ' 2d .ob . " E l y o t t e s " 1 msg 1 v i r g 18d.ob. 5d. "Yonges" 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 16d. 3 d . o b . q ' "Fowl l e s " 158 088 W i l l i a m Wateres 1 msg 1 v i r g "Wateres" 1 8 d . o b . ' 5d. f l . c . 1434 -1473 , (see n o . 1 2 4 ) . Henry Yong served once as t i th ingman and seve ra l t imes as a l e - t a s t o r . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Joan (5 O c t . 1473) u n t i l 1495 (5 Oc t . ) when, at her d e a t h , she was i n t u r n s u r v i v e d by a mar r ied daughter and s o n . f 1 . C . 1 4 2 8 - C . 1 4 7 7 , John Neyr served as t i t h i ngman and j u r o r and was the f a t h e r of W i l l i a m Neyr ( n o . 7 8 ) . No record of h i s death has s u r v i v e d but he was named as pay ing pannage as a Dunhampton tenant i n 1477. f 1. C . 1 4 6 7 - C . 1 5 0 4 , W i l l i a m may have been the son of Thomas Whatyr who entered 1 messuage and 1 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Waterys i n DUNHAMPTON i n 1422 ( O c t . ) . Thomas ceases t o appear i n the cou r t records a f t e r 1455 and W i l l i a m Wateres was f i r s t named i n 1467 (20 O c t . , he was f i n e d f o r b rew ing ) . 163 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly W i l l i a m had a son sworn i n t o a t i t h i n g in 1485 (21 O c t . ) and i n 1489 (12 May) en tered a tenement Sares by r i g h t o f h i s w i f e . 159 089 Edmund Fox 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q ' 2d .ob . f 1 . c .1460-1498 , Edmund was the son o f "Gonnol f " Thomas Fox ( f l . c .1419-1469) who had been an a c t i v e tenant and accord ing to the 1456-7 account r o l l ( 3 3 ( i i i ) ) had arranged a cor rody w i t h the abbey. Edmund f i r s t appears i n Ombersley cour t records as manor ia l c o n s t a b l e (18 O c t . 1460) and he he ld o f f i c e r e g u l a r l y as t i t h i n g m a n . At the t ime of the comp i l a t i on of t h i s r e n t a l he he ld t h r e e tenements (see below) and he leased a f o u r t h i n 1480 (10 O c t . ) which » was a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e w i th an a s s a r t and a pa rce l of land c a l l e d Ladyes tock ing i n W0DEH0US. The abbey c o l l e c t e d , at h i s d e a t h , a h e r i o t i n l i v e s t o c k w i t h a t o t a l va lue of 2 6 s . l O d . and h i s t o t a l annual rent f o r h i s tenements amounted t o 2 2 s . 7 d . q ' . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, I s a b e l l a . Sum [of r e n t ] ( b l a n k . . . . t o t a l rent due was 5 s . l l d . o b . ) Sum of [ l a b o u r ] s e r v i c e s ( b l a n k . . . , t o t a l due was 1 8 d . o b . q ' ) 164 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e WINNALL 160 090 John Hemmyng 1 msg 1 v i r g l l d . o b . q ' l d . q ' "Wynhales" 161 083 R icha rd Jones 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 7 d . 2d .ob . "Muryva les" 162 091 Henry Wynhale 1 msg 1 v i r g l O d . o b . q ' l d . q ' "Wynhales" 165 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f l . c . 7 - 1 4 8 9 , (see n o . 1 7 ) . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o untang le the c a r e e r ( s ) of the v a r i o u s John Hemmyngs a c t i v e at OMBERSLEY i n the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In the 1486 r e n t a l ( 2 2 ( i i ) ) the tenant of a messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d Wynhales i n WYNHALE was known as John Hemmyng de Ombersley and n o t , f o r example, John Hemmyng de Wynhale who was a l s o a c t i v e i n t h i s p e r i o d . The tenant whose death was recorded i n 1489 ( c a l l e d the re s imp ly John Hemmyng) was s u r v i v e d i n the tenement named here by h i s s o n , R i cha rd Hemmyng de Evesham. f 1 . C.1465-C.1506, t h i s tenant would appear to be the i n d i v i d u a l noted i n the cour t records from 1465 (15 O c t . ) as Henry Wynhale de Wynhale. He he ld o f f i c e as a l e - t a s t o r , c o n s t a b l e and j u r o r and acted as ' a t t o r n e y ' f o r v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s ( g e n e r a l l y ) when they c la imed t h e i r r i g h t s to tenements ( eg . 11 O c t . 1496) . He was s t i l l named as a t i t h ingman i n 1506 (13 O c t . ) ; no o ther record of him s u r v i v e s t o 1509. I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 163 092 Thomas Perdewe 1 msg 1 v i r g 5 s . o b . . 5 d . "Wymedes" 164 093 John Rondulf 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 14d.ob. 2d .ob . a l ' Ho l te " H o l t e s " 166 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f 1. c .1451-1505 , Perdewe he ld o f f i c e as a f e e r e r , t i t h ingman and j u r o r and by 1472 he had l eased the ' f a r m ' o f the t i t h e corn of W inna l l (16 O c t . 1470) f o r s i x t e e n y e a r s a t 26s .8d per annum. He renewed t h i s l ease i n 1483 (14 O c t . ) w i t h h i s s o n , J o h n , and J o h n , son of Henry Wynhale de  Wynhale (no.162) f o r twe lve yea rs at the same r e n t . In the 1492-3 ( 2 2 ( i ) ) account r o l l he "and o t h e r s " were pa id 5 4 s . 9 d . f o r hedging work de l e Lyneho l t and i n 1492 (9 O c t . ) he and h i s son renewed the t i t h e corn l e a s e f o r the same rent as i n the two p rev ious l e a s e s . Thomas' death was recorded i n 1505 (21 O c t . ) and he was s u r v i v e d in the tenement named here by h i s s o n , J o h n . f l . C . 1 4 6 4 - C . 1 4 9 2 , Rondul f en tered t h i s tenement i n 1465 (15 O c t . ) at the death of h i s f a t h e r . As John H o l t e s he i s a l s o named i n t h i s r e n t a l as the tenant o f two tenements of a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e each c a l l e d St rugg and Reddes, both i n COMHAMPTON (see no .291 , as John Ho l te he l eased Redes i n 8 O c t . 1462 n o . 1 6 8 ) . He sur rendered these two tenements i n 1479 (14 O c t . , he was c a l l e d John H o l t e s a l i a s d i c t o Rondul1) and then leased them again t oge the r w i t h h i s s o n . In 1487 (8 May) he I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Sum [o f r e n t ] ( b l a n k . . . d u e was 8 s . 8 d . o b . ) Sum [o f l abour s e r v i c e s ] ( b l a n k . . . d u e wa.s 12d.ob . ) COMHAMPTON 165 094 John Hemmyng 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . 2d .ob . de Evesham "Dodyng" 166 089 Edmund Foxe 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9d .ob . 2d .ob . " D o l n y t u l l e s " 167 000 (no name 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 8d .ob . 2 d . o b . entered in "Pa tches " the o r i g i n a l ) 167 Career of Tenant & Fami ly was named as the former tenant of St rugges i n COMHAMPTON and in 1492 (9 O c t . ) he sur rendered (and perhaps r e t i r e d as an a c t i v e tenan t ) the tenement named in t h i s r e n t a l e n t r y . He was succeeded i n i t by h i s s o n . f l . c .1472 -1497 , (see no.017 and n o . 1 6 0 ) . A tenant named John Hennyng de Evesham d ied i n 1464 (11 A p r . ) and he had he ld at h i s death the tenement desc r i bed h e r e . The tenant named in t h i s r e n t a l may have been the T a t t e r ' s h e i r . In 1473 (5 O c t . ) John Hemmyng de Evesham was s a i d td ho ld a tenement i n OMBERSLEY but to r e s i d e o f f the manor and he was c o n s i s t e n t l y named as a cour t d e f a u l t e r from 1484 to 1493. Three i n d i v i d u a l s c la imed h i s tenement at h i s death i n 1497 (6 A p r . ) . I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 168 093 John Ho l te 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 8d .ob . 2d .ob . "Redes" Sum [o f r e n t ] ( b l a n k . . . 35d.) Sum o f [ l a b o u r ] s e r v i c e s ( b l a n k . . . lOd . ) BROOKHAMPTON 169 022 Henry To lye 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 6 d . l d . q ' "A l l eweyes " 170 095 John To lye 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 10d. 2d .ob . " T o l y e s " 171 096 R icha rd Naisshe 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 12d.ob. 3ds .ob .q "Bromes" 168 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . C . 1 4 2 1 - C . 1 4 5 8 , a John To ly succeeded h i s widowed mother i n 1421 (Oc t . ) i n a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d To l yys i n BROKHAMPTON when she r e m a r r i e d . He served o c c a s i o n a l l y as t i t h ingman and t h i s was the l a s t re fe rence to him in 1458. (10 O c t . ) apar t from t h i s r e n t a l e n t r y . The next re fe rence to t h i s tenement occurs i n r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) (1486) where i t was a s c r i b e d to R i cha rd To ly who held i t u n t i l h i s death i n 1491 (13 May) . f l . c .1464 -1481 , l i t t l e i s known about t h i s tenant - h i s f i r s t appearance (2 O c t . 1464) was h i s en t ry to B isshoppes tenement i n SICHAMPTON (see no.177) when W i l l i a m B isshop sur rendered i t . R i cha rd was s a i d to be mar r ied to W i l l i a m ' s daughter and he agreed to p rov ide h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w w i t h fou r bushe ls o f rye and f ou r bushe ls o f I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 172 096 R i cha rd Naisshe 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9d .ob . 2 d . o b . " A l l eyes" 173 097 W i l l i a m Perdewe 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 10d. "Porches" 174 019 Henry Wynhale 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 5 d . "Sampsones" 175 097 W i l l i a m Perdewe 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 7d . " J o n a l l e y e s " l d . q ' l d . q ' l d . q ' oa ts a n n u a l l y . R i c h a r d ' s death was recorded in 15 May 1481 and he was s u r v i v e d i n B i s s h o p p e s , Bromys and A l l y e s (see no.172) by h i s widow, Agnes . She, i n t u r n , i n 1500 (20 O c t . ) , was s u r v i v e d by a granddaughter , a daughter and a widowed daughter i n these t h ree tenements . f l . C.1451-C.1500, W i l l i a m entered t h i s nook and J o n a l l e y e s (see no.175) i n 1451 (6 June) a f t e r h i s f a t h e r had sur rendered them and he acqu i red the t h i r d tenement a t t r i b u t e d to him i n t h i s r e n t a l (see no .181 , Perdewes i n SYTCHAMPTON) at h i s f a t h e r ' s death i n 1461 (6 O c t . ) . W i l l i a m served o c c a s i o n a l l y as t i t h i ngman and once as c o n s t a b l e (20 O c t . 1467) . Sum [of r e n t ] ( b l a n k . . . Sum of [ l a b o u r ] s e r v i c e s ( b l a n k . . . 5s) I s . l d . q ' ) 169 I d e n t S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e SYTCHAMPTON 176 061 John M o i l i e 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . q ' 2d .ob . "Sweters" 177 096 R icha rd Nasshe 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . q ' 2 d . o b . "Busshoppes" 178 098 John Portemon 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q ' 2d .ob . " C r o s s e s " 179 099 Margaret Hemmyng 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d. 2d .ob . "Hemmyng" 180 054 Thomas Suard 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l i d . 2d .ob . "Suardes" 170 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1462-1484 , John Portemon was a l s o known as John Polehous and at the death o f h i s f a t h e r , R i cha rd P o l e h o u s , i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) , John leased the tenement named h e r e . H i s s i s t e r , Agnes, l eased a tenement c a l l e d Patches i n COMHAMPTON MAGNA at t h e i r f a t h e r ' s death and i n 1480 (11 A p r . ) John l eased t h i s a f t e r i t had been " i n the l o r d ' s hands f o r s i x y e a r s " . John he ld o f f i c e o c c a s i o n a l l y as j u r o r and was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Joan i n 1484 (5 O c t . ) . In the reco rd of h i s d e a t h , he was d e s c r i b e d as John Portemon a l ' Po lehouse . f l . c . l 4 6 9 - c . l 4 7 8 , Margaret was the widow of Henry Hemmyng ( f 1 . c .1451-1469) and su rv i ved him i n t h i s tenement i n 1469 (17 O c t . ) . She remar r ied o f f the manor i n 1478 (14 A p r . ) and was succeeded by her s o n , J o h n . I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 181 097 W i l l i a m Perdewe 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l O d . q ' 2d .ob . "Perdewes" 182 100 Simond Rondul f 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 9 d . q ' 2d .ob . "Perdewes" 183 101 R ichard Hemmyng 1 msg 1/2 v i r g l l d . q ' 2d .ob . "Wyndowtes" Sum [of r en t ] ( b l a n k . . . Sum of [ l a b o u r ] s e r v i c e s ( b l a n k . . . 6 s . l l d . o b . ) 20d.) 171 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1467 -1500 , Simon l eased t h i s tenement i n 1469 (15 May) at h i s f a t h e r ' s death but appears i n f r e q u e n t l y i n ex tan t cour t r e c o r d s . In 1490 he c la imed (11 May) and was granted (12 O c t . ) by r i g h t of h i s w i f e Ma rga re t , 1 messuage 1 v i r g a t e c a l l e d Meres i n POWERS and at h i s death in 1500 (2 June) she su rv i ved him i n both these tenements . f 1 . c .1446-1502 , Hemmyng's was an a c t i v e ca ree r du r i ng which he he ld o f f i c e as t i t h i n g m a n , cons tab le and a f e e r e r . In 1480 (11 A p r . , w i t h John Hemyng) he leased the ' f a r m ' of the t i t h e corn of SYCHAMPT0N f o r twenty y e a r s pay ing 3 8 s . per annum. From 1468 (4 O c t . ) he a l s o he ld the r i g h t t o cu t t r e e branches " i n Je^  Lyneho l t c a l l e d l e Lyndes" apparen t l y f o r basketmaking (17 May 1491, " f o r l e b a s t a t i l l " ) . At death (4 A p r . 1502) he was s u r v i v e d by a son and mar r ied daugh te r . I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly WOODHOUSE , 184 102 E l i z a b e t h Borne 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 21d .ob . 3 d . o b . q ' "Bornes" 185 103 Thomas P a t r i k 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 18d. 2d .ob . " P a t r i k " f l . c . l 4 7 2 - c . l 4 8 5 , E l i z a b e t h was the widow of John Borne j r . (ob .1472 , 27 A p r . ) and she s u r v i v e d him i n t h i s tenement and a nook c a l l e d Kanes ( a l s o i n W00DEH0USE, see n o . 1 9 8 ) . She was l a s t named i n 1485 (26 A p r . ) when her son Thomas was s a i d to be of t i t h i n g age but not entered i n t o a t i t h i n g . f l . c .1460-1479 , at the death o f C r i s t i n e (widow of R i cha rd P a t r i k ) i n 1460 (25 May) Thomas leased a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e which she had he ld c a l l e d Wodhous i n CHATLEY. In the same en t r y R i c h a r d , son o f C r i s t i n e , l eased a messuage and 2 acres i n SUDYNTON and a pa rce l o f land c a l l e d Hithemore which she had a l s o h e l d . In t h i s r e n t a l , R i cha rd i s a t t r i b u t e d w i t h these tenements and a l s o w i th a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Wodhous i n WOODHOUSE (see no.195) but R i cha rd d i d not hold the l a t t e r at h i s death recorded i n 1491 (13 O c t . ) . Thomas P a t r i k , on the other hand, he ld P a t r i k s ( l i s t e d here) and Wodhous at h i s death in 1479 (14 O c t . ) . Thomas was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow J u l i a n a u n t i l 1506 (et s e q . ? , 13 O c t . ) . 172 I d e n t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e lOd. 2d .ob . 186 104 R icha rd Goodeman 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Godemonhes" 187 074 R ichard Gardenere 1 msg 1/4 v i r g "Hontes" & "Grenes" 15d. 188 105 Thomas Car te re de Cokeseye 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Webbes" l i d , 2d.ob, 189 003 John Borne de He r t f o rd 1 msg 1/3 v i r g "Newmannes" lOd .ob . ld.q' 190 106 W i l l i a m Wal le 1 msg 1 v i r g "Tapenha les" 12d. 5 d . 173 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c .1468-1488 , R i cha rd f i r s t appears in the cour t records as the l e s s e e of t h i s tenement when i t was f o r f e i t e d by h i s ' r e l a t i v e ' , W i l l i a m Godman. L i t t l e i s known about R i cha rd and at h i s death he was s u r v i v e d by h i s son , s a i d to be 11 yea rs o l d . In 1499 (15 O c t . ) , R i c h a r d ' s b r o t h e r ' s death was recorded (see no.193 ) and t h r e e o f R i c h a r d ' s o f f s p r i n g (a son N i c h o l a s , and two marr ied daughters ) c la imed t h e i r u n c l e ' s tenements . f l . c .1462 -1473 , C a r t e r e was noted i n f r e q u e n t l y i n Ombersley cour t records and at h i s death (5 O c t . 1473) he was su rv i ved by a granddaughter and h i s death was s a i d to have occur red i n C0KESEY. H is h e i r e s s was s a i d to be l i a b l e f o r two h e r i o t s i n " c h a t e l s " i f she shou ld d i e ou t s i de the manor or 40d. i n c a s h . f 1 . c .1466-1500 , Wa l le was f i r s t noted in 1466 (7 O c t . ) as hav ing mar r i ed J o a n , widow of Thomas Rondu l f . Joan had su rv i ved Thomas i n the tenement d e s c r i b e d here and Thomas Wal le was desc r i bed as de  Wiche (DROITWICH) and may have been a I den t . S i z e (and name) No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent 191 031 John Nassh 1 msg 1 v i r g 12d. "Tapynhales" 192 107 W i l l i a m Rondul f 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d. "R icha rd at Bornes" 193 108 John Godmon 1 msg 1/3 v i r g "Knoket t " i n or dur ing the m i n o r i t y ("minor age") o f John Godmon 12d. Career o f Tenant & Fami ly newcomer t o the manor. He he ld o f f i c e as j u r o r from 1470 (17 May) t o 1485 (21 O c t . ) . f 1 . c . 7 - 1 4 8 8 , t h i s may be the tenant d e s c r i b e d i n 1469 (15 May) as W i l l i a m Rondul l de Salwarpe when he was ordered not to have more than twenty sheep on h i s h a l f - v i r g a t e . (de Salwarpe may r e f e r t o the r i v e r Salwarp on the southern boundary o f the manor. WOODHOUSE hamlet was a l s o i n the sou th (eas t ) o f the manor.) In 1474 (19 O c t . ) a Wi11iam Rondul1 de Wodhous was e l e c t e d a l e - t a s t o r and the death of W i l l i a m Rondul l was recorded i n 1488 (17 J u n e ) . In tha t r e c o r d , W i l l i a m was s a i d to have he ld 2 co t tages (Tumors and C u t m u l l , both i n OMBERSLEY hamlet) and a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Bornes in WODHOUS. W i l l i a m was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, E l i z a b e t h (see a l s o n o . 1 1 ) . f l . c . 1444-1499, the re fe rence to the " m i n o r i t y " of John Godmon i n t h i s en t ry i s not c l e a r . No record s u r v i v e s of a minor h e i r i n t h i s p e r i o d who would f i t the c i rcumstances d e s c r i b e d h e r e . John Godmon ( s e n i o r ? ) was a c t i v e from c.1444 (25 May) and i n 1456 (21 Nov. ) he l eased the ' f a r m ' o f the t i t h e sheaves of WOODHOUSE, CHATLEY I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 194 109 John C o l l e 1 msg 1/3 v i r g 13d.ob. l d . o b . q "Baron" and HAWFORD fo r s i x t e e n yea rs f o r an annual rent of 2 6 s . 8 d . (He renewed t h i s l e a s e i n 26 Ap r . 1472 w i th Margaret h i s w i fe f o r twenty years at the same r e n t ) . He se rved as j u r o r and t i t h ingman from 1456 (21 Nov.) t o the end of h i s ca ree r and once as c o n s t a b l e (6 O c t . 1472). At h i s death recorded i n 1499 (15 O c t . ) , he he ld - apa r t from the tenement d e s c r i b e d here and another messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d Pa t t r yk i n CHATLEY (see no.209) - a co t tage w i th c u r t i l a g e , a c r o f t of a r a b l e l a n d , two c l o s e s and a pa rce l of l and and seven s e l i o n s of l a n d . John was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow Marga re t , two n ieces and a nephew (see n o . 1 8 5 ) . f 1 . c .1462-1497 , no record s u r v i v e s of C o l l e ' s e n t r y t o t h i s tenement. In 1464 (11 A p r . ) , he l eased a tenement i n SUDINGTON (see no .279 , under ' F ree Tenan ts ' f o r Whelares) and i n 1471 (15 O c t . ) he l eased a tenement w i th appurtenances i n CHATLEY sur rendered by h i s m o t h e r - i n - l a w (see n o . 2 1 0 , Bornes i n CHATLEY). This r en ta l a l s o names him as the tenant of a parce l of l and c a l l e d Henacre, a c r o f t of a r a b l e land next t o Couper ' s tenement (see no .260 , 283, under 'F ree Tenants ' f o r both of t h e s e ) , and a messuage and v i r g a t e Barones i n CHATLEY (see n o . 2 1 0 ) . C o l l e sur rendered Whelers and the c r o f t next t o Coupers i n 1474 (19 O c t . ) and at h i s death (10 Oc t . 1497) he 175 Iden t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 195 110 R ichard P a t r i k 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 16d. 2d .ob . "Wodehous" 196 111 E l i s a b e t h Borne 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d.ob. 2d .ob . "Bornes" 176 Career of Tenant & Fami ly he ld on ly a messuage and th ree par ts of one v i r g a t e c a l l e d Barons i n WOODHOUSE and a messuage and v i r g a t e Boornes i n CHATLEY. He was s u r v i v e d by h i s " s e n i o r s o n " John and " j u n i o r son " R i c h a r d . C o l l e served as j u r o r from c.1470 u n t i l h i s death and as c o n s t a b l e i n 1484 (5 O c t . ) . f 1 . c . 1460 -1491 , no reco rd s u r v i v e s o f R i c h a r d ' s en t r y t o t h i s tenement and i t was not named a t h i s death recorded i n 1491 (13 O c t . ) a l though a Thomas P a t r i k (no.185 above) h e l d a h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Wodhous at h i s death i n 1479. In 1460 (25 May) , R i cha rd en te red a messuage and 2 acres i n SUDYNTON and a parce l of land c a l l e d Hithemore (see "F ree Tenants" no .265 , 267) at the death of h i s mother and he was s u r v i v e d i n these by h i s widow, Marga re t , i n 1491. She i n t u rn was s u r v i v e d (13 May 1494) by a son and mar r i ed daugh te r . f 1 . 7 - C . 1 4 7 1 , E l i s a b e t h f i r s t appears i n Ombersley cour t records i n the record of the death of her husband, John (20 O c t . 1467) . She sur rendered a tenement w i th appurtenances i n WODEHOUS c a l l e d Boornes and a pa rce l of meadow c a l l e d Phe lppo les (see below) i n 1471 (15 O c t . ) which was then l e a s e d by her s o n . She a l s o sur rendered a tenement w i th appurtenances i n CHATLEY which was then l e a s e d by her s o n - i n - l a w ( n o . 9 3 , John C o l l e ) and a Icient. S i ze (and name) Due N o . ' No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 197 112 Thomas Houl le 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 3 d . o b . q ' l d . q ' j u n i o r "Mayes" 198 102 E l i s a b e t h Borne 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 15d. j u n i o r "Canes" 199 113 W i l l i a m Hanford 1 msg 1 v i r g 17d.ob. 5d. "Hanfordes" 200 072 John Jamies 1 msg 2 c r o f t s 8d . "Hanfordes" 177 Career of Tenant & Fami ly tenement i n WOODHOUSE c a l l e d Hardyng. Except f o r the e n t r i e s i n t h i s ren ta l she does not appear aga in i n Ombersley r e c o r d s . f 1 . ? - c . l 5 0 6 (et s e q ) , t he re were at l e a s t two i n d i v i d u a l s known by t h i s name a c t i v e at OMBERSLEY i n the p e r i o d when t h i s r e n t a l was comp i l ed . Th is ren ta l en t ry i s the on ly i n s t a n c e where one of these i n d i v i d u a l s was d e s c r i b e d as " j u n i o r " . The cour t records d i s t i n g u i s h between Thomas Hou l l e w e n s e v i s , Thomas Hou l le de  Ombers ley, Thomas Hou l l e de Cha t l ey and Thomas H o u l l e . In l a t e r r e n t a l s , the tenement desc r i bed here was a t t r i b u t e d t o Thomas Hou l l e de Cha t l ey ( ren ta l 2 2 ( i i ) , r en ta l fragment 2 2 ( i v ) , and ren ta l 3 2 ( i i ) , 1500) and the l a t t e r was a c t i v e from at l e a s t 1487 (9 O c t . ) as j u r o r and ( l e s s f r e q u e n t l y ) t i t h i n g m a n . f 1 . c .1465-1496 , t h i s tenant appears very i n f r e q u e n t l y i n Ombersley cour t records and served on l y once (15 Oc t . 1465) as t i t h i n g m a n . At h i s death (11 Oct . 1496) he was s u r v i v e d by h i s son John . Iden t . No. No. Name of Tenant 201 114 John Werman S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 1 p l o t 2d. " H u l l e p l a c e " 202 115 W i l l i a m Crosse c e r t a i n parce l 6d . of demesne land "Stokkyng" & " M a r i o t t i s t o k k y n g " 203 116 John A l l ye parce l of 13d. land "More lond" 178 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c . 1444 -1481 , Wereman was f i r s t named i n 1444 (24 May) at h i s en t r y t o a t i t h i n g and from 1461 (6 Oc t . ) t o 1475 (9 Oc t . ) he was named o c c a s i o n a l l y as j u r o r . No record s u r v i v e s of h i s en t r y t o t h i s tenement but he en tered the tenement c a l l e d Fysshers (see n o . 2 4 5 , ' F ree Tenan ts ' ) i n 1469 (15 May) at h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h . P r i o r t o t h i s , he and h i s f a t h e r had been j o i n t tenan ts of a f i s h wei r i n the Severn (8 May 1468) and i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) John had l e a s e d , w i th f i v e o ther t e n a n t s , Lyncheford pas tu re . At h i s death recorded i n 1481 (15 May) John was s u r v i v e d by h i s s o n , Thomas. f 1 . c . 1448 -1491 , Crosse was f i r s t named i n 1448 (18 Nov.) i n an a s s a u l t and i n 1462 (8 O c t . ) he sur rendered a tenement c a l l e d Knot tes i n BURYTON (see n o . 2 0 ) . In 1466 (7 O c t . ) he was e l e c t e d a l e - t a s t o r and was f i n e d as a brewer and t a v e r n e r from tha t date u n t i l 1472 (27 A p r . ) . He was e l e c t e d aga in as a l e - t a s t o r i n 1487 and at h i s death (13 Oct . 1491), he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, J u l i a n a . Her death was recorded two years l a t e r (8 Oc t . 1493) and she was s u r v i v e d by two mar r ied daugh te rs . f 1 . c . ? - ? , i n the reco rd of the c6ur t s e s s i o n he ld some two months a f t e r (6 Oc t . 1472) the comp i l a t i on of t h i s r e n t a l , t he re were at l e a s t f i v e i n d i v i d u a l s by the name of John A l l ye and these were I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s : (1) T a i l l o u r ; (2) de  C h a t ! e y e ; (3) at the Co rne r ; (4) w e n s e v i s ; and (5) s e n i o r e husbondmon. In t h i s r e n t a l , f o u r tenements ( i n c l u d i n g the one l i s t e d here) were a s c r i b e d s imp ly t o John A l l y . In 1497 (10 O c t . ) , a John E l l y at Corner was s a i d to have he ld at h i s death two of these tenements (see ' F r e e T e n a n t s ' , no .247 , 265 , f o r the tenement c a l l e d Smethes and tha t c a l l e d Ba lkes ) but i t i s not c l e a r which of the o ther John A l l y e ' s a l s o he ld land at OMBERSLEY. Sum [of r e n t ] (blank in the o r i g i n a l , but c a l c u l a t e d here as 2 0 s . 2 d . o b . q ' ) Sum of [ l a b o u r ] s e r v i c e s (blank i n the o r i g i n a l , the t o t a l was 35d .ob . ) CHATLEY 204 117 Thomas Hou l le 1 msg 1 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . f 1 . c . 1 4 7 1 - c . 1506 e t secj^., i n 1471 (15 " R u s s e l l " O c t . ) at the death o f h i s f a t h e r , W i l l i a m , a Thomas H o u l l e , "a t twe lve y e a r s o f age" entered the tenement desc r i bed here and a pa rce l o f land c a l l e d Brydewal l and a meadow c a l l e d Longmede i i i CHATLEY (see f o r both of t h e s e , no .205 , 206 ) . See a l s o no .196 . 179 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se 205 117 Thomas Hou l le 207 117 Thomas Hou l le 208 118 Thomas Cowpere 1 pa rce l of l d . o b . pasture "Brydeweyhu l l " 1 meadow 5 s . "Longemede" 1 msg 1 v i r g 2 s . " B a l k e s " 208(a) 116 John A l l y e 209 108 John Godmon 210 109 John C o l l e 1 msg 1 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . "Hardyng" 1 msg 1 v i r g 12d. " P a t r i k " 1 msg 1 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . "Bornes" 180 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c .1455-1499 , Cowpere o r Couper was sworn i n t o a t i t h i n g i n 1455 (8 May) and some e leven yea rs l a t e r (7 O c t . 1466) he entered a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Ba lkes in CHATLEY which had been sur rendered f o r him by John A l y s a n n d r , Boche r . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Ba lkes as a h a l f - v i r g a t e tenement may have been a s c r i b a l e r r o r because i n 1476 (27 May) Thomas sur rendered a messuage and v i r g a t e c a l l e d Ba lkes i n CHATLEY aci opus e t usus John A l l y e . Two y e a r s l a t e r (14 A p r . 1478) Thomas en te red a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Meres i n HADLEY at the death of h i s nephew, Henry . Thomas' death was recorded i n 1499 (15 O c t . ) and he was s u r v i v e d i n Meres by h i s widow, I s a b e l l a . Ic ient. S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se 211 109 John C o l l e 1 v i r g 7 d . "Barones" Sum [of r en t ] (blank i n the o r i g i n a l , 1 6 s . 2 d . o b . ) Sum o f [ l a b o u r ] s e r v i c e s (blank in the o r i g i n a l , and none was due) FERNHAMPTON 212 098 John v Portemon 213 119 Thomas Tomes 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 15d.ob. l d . "Kno t tes " 1 msg 3/4 v i r g 4 d . o b . l d . " C l e c h e s " 214 120 Thomas Symes 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 12d.ob. I d . "Grenys" 181 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly Th is i s the on ly re fe rence to the e x i s t e n c e of a Thomas Tomes at OMBERSLEY i n the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In subsequent r e n t a l s , t h i s tenement was a s c r i b e d to E l i s a b e t h , widow of John Tomes (see n o . 8 4 ) . The on ly o ther connec t i on between t h i s tenement and the Tomes f a m i l y occur red i n 1497 (10 O c t . ) when W i l l i a m , son of E l i s a b e t h , ac ted as ' a t t o r n e y ' f o r Thomas B i t t e r i n h i s c l a i m f o r the tenement c a l l e d C leches i n FERNHAMPTON. f 1 . c . l 4 6 1 - c . l 5 0 0 , Thomas was a l s o known as Thomas Symes de Soneford (see under ' F r e e Tenan ts ' no.273) and he took up t h i s tenement and Prynches (see no.215) i n 1461 (6 O c t . ) . He was ' e l e c t e d ' cons tab le i n 1465 (15 O c t . ) and served a l s o as j u r o r I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly and t i t h i ngman from c.1475 to c .1499 and he was named as an a f e e r e r i n 1487 (9 O c t . ) . He sur rendered Grenys and Prynches  ad opus e t usus h i s son i n 1500 (2 June) when he a l s o arranged f o r the r e v e r s i o n of a t h i r d tenement which he he ld (see no .273 , Smethes under ' F r e e T e n a n t s ' ) to h i s w i f e and s o n . 215 120 the same Thomas 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 12d.ob. l d . q ' Symes " c a l l e d Prynches fo rmer l y ( c a l l e d ) Pa tches" 216 006 John S taya r 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 17d.ob. l d . q ' " A i l l e w a r d e s " then " B o r n e w a l l " 217 083 Ri 218 005 Wi 219 074 Ri chard Jones 11iam A l l y e chard Gardener 1 msg 1/2 v i r g ' K n o t t e s " 1 msg 6 acres "Loombes" 1 msg 1/4 v i r g "Kno t t es " 21d. l d . q ' 9d . l d . q ' l O d . o b . q ' l d . q ' 220 008 Henry Bur leye tenement & 12d. o b . 4 acres "Hyeweyes" 182 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 221 056 John Tomes c r o f t " F o x e c r o f t " 12d. Sum [of r e n t ] (blank in the o r i g i n a l , t o t a l was Sum o f [ l a b o u r ] s e r v i c e s (blank i n o r i g i n a l , t o t a l was 1 0 s . 7 d . q ' ) l O d . o b . ) POWERS 222 011 / W i l l i a m Rondulf 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . 107 " H a l l " 223 121 C r i s t i n a Walker 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . "Bo rnewa l l es " 224 011 / W i l l i a m Rondulf 107 225 050 Henry Jones 226 022 Henry To lye 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 8 d . "Shuphurdes" 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . "Symondes" 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . "Heynes" f 1 . c .1471-1488 , C r i s t i n a f i r s t appears i n Ombersley cour t records at the death o f her husband, Jacob ( f l . c .1434-1471) recorded i n 1471 (15 O c t . ) . At her death i n 1488 (17 June) she was s u r v i v e d by her mar r ied daugh te r , J o a n . 183 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant 227 122 Simon Yonge S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Oldwardes" 2 s . 6 d . 228 123 Eustace Jones 1 msg 1/2 v i r g " A l d r i c h e s " 2 s . 6 d , 184 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . C.1465-C.1502 e t s e £ . , Yonge f i r s t appears i n Ombersley cour t records i n 1465 (15 May) when he en tered the tenement named h e r e . In 1469 (15 May) , he mar r ied J o a n , daughter of R i c h a r d J o n e s , (no.1463) and from c.1470 to c .1493 he he ld o f f i c e as t i t h i ngman and j u r o r . Wi th h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , he leased i n 1480 (10 O c t . ) p o r t i o n s o f v a r i o u s pas tu re f o r a term of twenty yea rs f o r an annual rent o f 2 2 s . In 1484 (5 O c t . ) he was s a i d t o have a s o n , R i c h a r d , who had not been t i t h e d and i n 1495 (5 O c t . ) he and h i s s o n , and John and E l i z a b e t h J o n e s , renewed t h e i r l e a s e s of the a f o r e s a i d p o r t i o n s o f pas tu res f o r a pe r i od of 25 years f o r 22s . per annum. f l . c .1461-1479 , the f i r s t r eco rd of t h i s tenant at Ombersley occurs i n 1461 (6 O c t . ) when he was ' e l e c t e d ' as a l e - t a s t o r . In 1472 (6 O c t . ) to 1476 (27 May) he was named as one of the f ou r Ombersley m i l l e r s (he was the tenant o f T r y l l e m u l 1 , see ' F r e e Tenan ts ' n o . 2 4 9 ) . At h i s death recorded i n 1479 (15 June) he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, C r i s t i n e , i n the tenement named here as we l l as T r y ! l e m u l l e (she was able to l ease the m i l l by "he r copy of cou r t r e c o r d ' ) and a tenement c a l l e d Hyeweyes in FERNHAMPTON which he had leased i n 1477 (17 June) a f t e r h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w had sur rendered i t ad opus  e t usus E u s t a c e . C r i s t i n e a l s o l eased a tenement c o n s i s t i n g o f 8 co t tages which I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se 229 124 John R u s s e l l 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . j u n i o r "Meres" 230 011 / W i l l i a m Rondulf 1 c o t t w i th 2d .ob . 106 garden "Foxes" 185 Career of Tenant & Fami ly her husband had he ld (see no.58 i n BERYTON). In t h i s cour t reco rd (15 June 1479) , a f t e r C r i s t i n e ' s appa ren t l y s u c c e s s f u l c l a i m t o Try11 emu 11, i t was s a i d to have been l e t to R i c h a r d , son of Eustace J o n e s . R ichard a l s o c la imed h i s r i g h t t o the tenements c a l l e d Heyeweyes and A l d r y c h e s a f t e r C r i s t i n e ' s death recorded i n 4 A p r . 1502 ( R i c h a r d ' s c l a i m s were recorded i n the cour t record of 11 O c t . 1502) . f 1 . C . 1 4 6 7 - C . 1 5 0 6 e t s e q . , see n o . l above f o r something of the c a r e e r o f another John R u s s e l l , a c t i v e at Ombersley i n the second h a l f o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . One of the two (probab ly n o . l ) served as the l o r d ' s b a i l i f f (7 O c t . 1466 tb 17 May 1470?) wh i l e a John R u s s e l l j u n i o r was f i r s t named as such i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) as one of the manor ia l j u r o r s and ( l a t e r ) a l s o t i th ingman (15 May 1469) . A c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between the ca ree rs of these two tenan ts i s f u r t h e r comp l i ca ted by the appearance (from c . 6 O c t . 1472) i n the cour t records of another i n d i v i d u a l desc r i bed as John R u s s e l l de Uphampton or John R u s s e l l de Uphampton s e n i o r . I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 231 092 Thomas Perdewe 232 092 Thomas Perdewe 1 pa rce l o f 3 d . "Powersgrove" another parce l 3 d . of the same wood Sum [o f r e n t ] (blank i n the o r i g i n a l , the t o t a l due was 18s .10d .ob . ) (No en t ry was drawn up fo r expected labour s e r v i c e payments because(?) none were due.) MAYEUX (MAYHOUSE) 233 125 W i l l i a m Sanndres 1 msg 1 v i r g 3 s . 4 d . "Jenkyns" 186 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1. C .1439-C .1488, acco rd ing to a memoranda recorded i n the 16 A p r i l ' , 1439 cour t r e c o r d , W i l l i a m Sanndres was a l ready (or had r e c e n t l y become) the tenant of t h i s v i r g a t e because the manor ia l b a i l i f f was ordered to d i s t r a i n "ad opus e t usus W i l l i a m Sanndres 3 s . 4 d . of the goods and c h a t e l l s o f Wa l te r Jonys f o r one brass pot one h o r s e - c o l l a r one ewer appurtenant to the tenement Jenkyns i n Mayeux" . Sanndres served as t i t h i ngman from c.1447 (25 O c t . ) to c.1470 (16 O c t . ) but the records of h i s en t ry to the th ree v i r g a t e s a s c r i b e d to him i n t h i s r en ta l have not s u r v i v e d . No record o f h i s death s u r v i v e s and he may we l l have been r e t i r e d as a tenant p r i o r t o h i s death because i n 1480 (10 O c t . ) he I den t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 234 126 Thomas Herford 1 msg 1 v i r g 3 s . 4 d . " G e n t e l e s " 187 Career of Tenant & Fami ly sur rendered one v i r g a t e ad opus et usus h i s son John and i n 1483 - [23 AprT]" Tie sur rendered the tenement named here t o h i s son R ichard and i n 1488 (21 O c t . ) he sur rendered ( a l s o to R ichard ) h i s t h i r d v i r g a t e tenement. f 1 . C . 1 4 3 8 - C . 1 4 7 5 , apar t from t h i s ren ta l e n t r y , t he re are no o ther re fe rences to the e x i s t e n c e of a Thomas Her ford who was a c t i v e at Ombersley i n the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . However, r en ta l 2 2 ( i i ) (1486) a s c r i b e s the tenement c a l l e d Gente les i n MAYEUX t o Thomas A l l y e as wel l as the tenement c a l l e d John Wal les i n HAWFORD. John Wal les i n t h i s ren ta l (see n o . 2 9 5 , these were two tenements of a h a l f - v i r g a t e each) was a s c r i b e d to Thomas A l l y e and because of such co i nc i dences i t i s assumed tha t Thomas Her fo rd was the i n d i v i d u a l more commonly known as Thomas A l l y e . The l a t t e r was en tered i n t o a t i t h i n g i n 1438 (30 A p r . ) and served as t i t h ingman from c .1444 (24 May) t o c .1450 (18 May) . No reco rd of h i s death has s u r v i v e d , but i n r e n t a l 3 2 ( i i ) (1500) , the tenement named h e r e , as we l l as John_ Wal les i n HAWFORD, were both he ld by a c e r t a i n John El l y e ( A l l y e ) who may have been a descendant (or o ther r e l a t i o n ) of Thomas A l l y e . Iden t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 235 125 W i l l i a m Sawnndres 1 msg 1 v i r g 3 s . 4 d . "Gardeners" 236 125 W i l l i a m Sawnndres 1 msg 1 v i r g 3 s . 4 . d . "Mayeux" 237 021 Thomas Pope 1 parce l of 14d.ob. pasture " the Dene next to Brademore" Sum [of r e n t ] (b lank i n the o r i g i n a l , t o t a l rent due was 14s .6d .ob . ) TENANTS OF THE RECTORY 238 127 Agnes Naisshe 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 3 s . "Pa rson " 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Fo rdes " 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Pa rsons " 1 c l o s e wi th the Dovecot of the Rectory 188 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . C .1472-C .1489, Agnes s u r v i v e d her husband i n these tenements a t h i s death recorded i n 1472 (27 A p r . ) . Th is ho l d i ng of one and o n e - h a l f v i r g a t e s , p lus the c l o s e w i th the doveco t , was l e a s e d as one tenement i n 1422 (1 May) by W i l l i a m a t t e Nasse i n the custody of h i s f a t h e r , R i cha rd a t t e Nasse j u n i o r e . Agnes ' s u c c e s s i o n to these tenements i n 1472 was con tes ted by Henry, son and h e i r of W i l l i a m N a i s s h . Henry 's c l a i m was not a l l owed because h i s f a t h e r had ar ranged f o r the r e v e r s i o n of h i s h o l d i n g s . t o Agnes "as recorded i n the yea r J jJ H^ _ v j , " . The r e c o r d of t h i s r e v e r s i o n arrangement has not s u r v i v e d , but i n 1473 (5 O c t . ) Henry I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Sum [of r e n t ] (blank i n the o r i g i n a l , the t o t a l rent due was 3 s . ) FREE TENANTS 239 128 Humphrey S t a f f o r d tenement 3d . "Bur ton Wodehous" 189 Career of Tenant & Fami ly l eased these tenements f o r an annual rent of 12s . and a 2 0 s . ent ry f i n e . In 1475 (27 May) , Agnes N a i s s h , v i d u a , was s a i d to have reached an agreement w i th Henry Na issh tha t he would p rov ide her w i t h s i x bushe ls of rye and s i x bushels o f mixed g r a i n and 4 0 d . i n cash a n n u a l l y . I f Henry f a i l e d to observe t h i s agreement then " the s a i d Agnes would en te r and have her land a g a i n " . The l a s t cour t record r e f e r e n c e t o Agnes N a i s s h , v i d u a , occurs i n 1489 (12 May) i n p l e a of broken con tac t w i t h R i c h a r d To ly because he d i d keep i n r e p a i r " the tenement which he held of h e r " . f l . c .1472-1486 , S t a f f o r d appears on ly tw ice i n Ombersley cour t r e c o r d s . In 1474 (4 May) S t a f f o r d , d e s c r i b e d as armiger and c h i e f s teward , w i th a number of o ther o f f i c i a l s o f the abbey, were named as the promulgators of a memorandum concern ing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of Ombersley tenan ts who r e s i d e d o f f the manor and s u b - l e t t h e i r tenements i n the manor. In 1486 (24 O c t . ) the tenement desc r i bed here was s a i d Iden t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Serv 240 129 241 129 242 130 John Tandye de water M i l l 8 s . 4 d . Claynes "Hadleymul 1" John Tandy de Claynes Joan Cooke fo r tha t 3d. Moor i n the same p lace ( that i s , by "Had leymu l l " ) 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2s .6d . 1 a s s a r t i n W0DEH0US and fo r t ha t pa rce l " Ladys tokk i ng " 190 Career of Tenant & Fami ly t o be vacant because "Humphrey S t a f f o r d , a rm ige r , had been d e c a p i t a t e d at the Towrehyl 1 i n London" . f 1 . C . 1 4 7 2 - C . 1 4 7 3 , Tandy f i r s t appears i n Ombersley cour t records i n 1472 (27 A p r . ) when he l eased t h i s m i l l . He was named as a m i l l e r i n the two subsequent cour t records (6 Oc t . 1472 and 11 May 1473) and i n 1473 (5 Oc t . ) he was s a i d to have sur rendered h i s l e a s e of t h i s m i l l and the abbey d i d not c o l l e c t a h e r i o t because Tandy had removed h imse l f from the manor. f 1 . C . 1 4 2 8 - C . 1 4 7 6 , Joan may have been the widow of Robert Cook ( f l . C . 1 4 2 8 - C . 1 4 5 6 ) . She f i r s t appears i n 1428 (27 A p r . ) i n a case of a s s a u l t and aga in i n a s i m i l a r case i n 1434 (14 O c t . ) . No reco rd s u r v i v e s of Robert Cooks ' death but at the r e v i s i o n of r en ta l fragment 28 ( x i ) h i s name was s t r uck out and J o a n ' s i r i t e r l i n e a t e d above i t . Joan was l a s t mentioned i n Ombersley cour t records i n 1476 (27 May) i n a case of t h e f t (of f i rewood) which she brought aga ins t another t e n a n t . I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 243 020 Elena B i t t e r 244 131 John Parker 1 msg 1/2 v i r g " B i t t a r e s " 6s . l d . o b , the f i s h - w e i r and " a r e a " by the Severn 6 s . 8 d . 245 114 John Werman 1 msg 1/2 v i r g lOd, " F y s s h e r e s " which used to p e r t a i n to the a f o r e s a i d (no.243 above) f i s h - w e i r 246 039 Thomas Peyntour 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 20d. " C l e c h e s " i n BERITON 191 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f l . C . 1 4 6 8 - C . 1 4 7 2 , i n 1468 (8 May) i n h i s f i r s t appearance i n Ombersley cour t r e c o r d s , John l e a s e d the f i s h - w e i r i n the Severn "by the same terms by wh ich 'Wa l te r Weremon and h i s son John (see no.245) had he ld i t p r e v i o u s l y " . John agreed t o r e p a i r the we i r and t o m a i n t a i n i t as necessary and he was to p rov ide the l o r d and h i s se rvan ts w i th the f i r s t salmone and f i r s t Lampreye of each y e a r . Apart from t h i s l e a s e and a record of d e f a u l t i n 1472 (6 O c t . ) no o ther re fe rences to John Parker s u r v i v e i n ex tan t cour t r e c o r d s . In 1478 (13 Oc t . ) the f i s h - w e i r was l e t t o Robert Grene who agreed t o r e p a i r i t w i th wood p rov ided by the l o r d ; the f i r s t term rent was reduced and the e n t r y - f i n e waived because the f i s h - w e i r was " r u i n o u s " . Ident . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 247 116 John A l l y e 1/2 v i r g 12d. 1 a s s a r t 2 ac res "Smethes" and 1 a s s a r t "S tokkyng" 248 001/ John Russe l l 1 msg 6 d . 124 "P res tehous" i n BYRYTON 249 123 Eustace Jones 250 000 252 073 W i l l i a m Cowpere fo r the 5 s . water m i l l " T r y l l e m u l l " the newly no th ing " r a i s e d " ( r epa i r ed? ) m i l l c a l l e d "Pyggysmul l " no th ing accounted f o r here because i t i s i n the l o r d ' s hands (and) i t normal ly renders 20d. (but see no.277) 1 msg 1 c r o f t 6 d . 'Quar ryo res " 252 015 S i b i l l a A l i sannd r 1 msg 1/4 v i r g 2 s . l i d . " R u s s e l l e s at Morehomme" 192 Ic ient. S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 253 030 John Gardenere 254 000 255 000 256 103 Thomas P a t r i k 257 089 Edmund Fox 1 pa rce l 5 d . "Radenhurs t " and tha t s tone - noth ing quarry pa rce l which the Dominican F r i a r s of Worcester used to hold which used to render 5 s . annua l l y noth ing here because i t i s i n the l o r d ' s hands and the 2 s . 6 d . F ranc i scan F r i a r s of Worcester f o r 1 pa rce l of s tone-quar ry w i th the house of the same 1 parce l 2 s . " B o l e r e s l o n d " 1 parce l at 6 d . the "door" (en t rance?) o f the l o r d ' s park on which a house has been newly b u i l t 193 I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant 258 132 John R o l f de Evesham S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent Se 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 3 s . l i d . "S t roggy" i n COMHAMPTON 259 074 R icha rd Gardenere 1 msg "Harryatmere" i n BERITON 12d. 260 109 John C o l l e 1 parce l "Henacre" w i th hedges i n CHATLEYE 6 d . 261 031 John Nasshe s i x s e l i o n s at The Twey Thornes 3 d . 194 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c .1467-1486 , John leased t h i s tenement i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) at the death o f h i s s t e p f a t h e r . In 1473, he was s a i d to ho ld land i n Ombersley but to be r e s i d e n t o u t s i d e the manor " c o n t r a r y t o custom" and he was r e g u l a r l y noted as be ing i n d e f a u l t f o r s u i t of cou r t to h i s death recorded i n 1486 (14 M a r . ) . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, Marga re t , u n t i l 1492 (9 O c t . ) when t h i s tenement was leased by h i s daugh te r , M a t i l d a . She was r e g u l a r l y noted as being in d e f a u l t f o r s u i t of cour t and f i n e d f o r the d i s r e p a i r o f t h i s tenement u n t i l 1503 (24 O c t . ) . I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly 262 011 / W i l l i a m Rondul f 107 1 Stakyng ( ' s t o c k i n g ' c l e a r i n g i n woodland) at the Moreshomme or 6d. 263 066 W i l l i a m H u l l e r 264 038 R icha rd Wall and 022 Henry To lye 265 116 John A l l y e the demesne 13s.4d, pas ture at Lyncheford 1 " c a r u c a t e " 10s . "Knygtes lond Lythe Wall More" and "Hynemede" 1 msg 9 acres 12d. " B a l k e s " i n SUDYNGT0N 266 110 R icha rd P a t r i k 1 msg w i th c r o f t and 2 acres "Couperes" i n SUDYNGT0N 15d. 267 110 and the same (R ichard P a t r i k ) 1 pa rce l "Hethemore" ( rent combined w i th preceding tenement) 195 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se 268 133 R ichard Wynhale 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 15d. 196 Caree r o f Tenant & Fami ly  f 1 . c .1447-1494 , Wynhale f i r s t appears i n Ombersley cour t records i n 1447 (17 O c t . ) i n an exchange of one s e l i o n o f land w i th another t e n a n t . In 1455 (17 Nov.) he leased by r i g h t o f h i s w i f e , E l i z a b e t h , daughter and h e i r e s s o f Margaret Amslotes a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Couperes i n HADLEY (see under "HADLEY" n o . 2 9 3 ) . R i c h a r d he ld o f f i c e as j u r o r from c.1457 (10 O c t . ) to 1475 (17 A p r . ) . He sur rendered (13 O c t . 1478) t h e tenement l i s t e d here and another o f s i m i l a r s i z e c a l l e d P r i o u r e s ( a l s o i n COMHAMPTON, see no.287) and then leased them again w i t h h i s s o n , Thomas. In 1479 (14 O c t . ) he and Thomas Wynhale (p robab ly h i s son) toge the r w i t h a t h i r d tenant leased the ' f a r m ' of the t i t h e corn of BROOKHAMPTON f o r twe lve y e a r s f o r 1 8 s . per annum. Towards the end of h i s c a r e e r he was charged f o r hav ing h i s tenements i n d i s r e p a i r and f o r t h i s reason he was th reatened w i th the f o r f e i t of h i s tenement i n HADLEY, f o r example, ( s a i d to be "occup ied by John A m s l o t t e s " ) i n 1491 (17 May) . At h i s d e a t h , recorded in 1494 (13 May) he was s u r v i v e d i n Shenes by h i s s o n , Thomas. Shenes i n t h i s record was d e s c r i b e d as a v i r g a t e of land and , because no re fe rence was made t o the tenement c a l l e d P r i o r e s the s c r i b e may have j o i n e d the two i n t h i s e n t r y . I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 269 035 Robert Knyght 270 035 Robert Knyght 271 018 John A l i s a n n d r 272 134 Thomas Loombe 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d. "Deysones" i n SUDINGTON 1 msg and 18d . d i v e r s e p a r c e l s (of land?) "Smethes" 1 acre l d . o b . (of land?) "Ladyac re " 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 21d. 197 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly R ichard was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow E l i z a b e t h (p ledged by her b r o t h e r s , John and W i l l i a m Amslot ) i n the tenement c a l l e d Couperes and she , i n t u r n , was s u r v i v e d by her s o n , Henry i n 1500 (20 O c t . ) . f l . c .1467-1486 , Loombe (o r Lombe) f i r s t appears i n 1467 (20 O c t . ) charged w i t h be ing i n d e f a u l t f o r s u i t o f cou r t and i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r (4 O c t . 1468) he s u r v i v e d h i s f a t h e r i n the tenement named h e r e . In 1479 (15 June) w i th another tenant he l eased the ' f a r m ' o f the t i t h e corn of SUDDINGTON f o r a pe r i od of twe lve y e a r s f o r an annual rent o f 4 0 s . He he ld o f f i c e as j u r o r i n 1484 and 1485 and he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, C r i s t i n e , i n 1486 (24 O c t . ) . I den t . S i z e (and name) No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent 273 120 Thomas Symes de 1 msg 9 acres 15d. Soneford "Smethes" i n the same (SUDINGTON) 274 023 Agnes Rondul f 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . " T u m o r s " i n the same (SUDINGTON) 275 135 W i l l i a m B lanche fe l d 1 msg 1 c r o f t 6 d . "Smethes" Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f l.C . 1 4 6 2-C . 1 5 0 2 , B l a n c h e f e l d f i r s t appears i n Ombersley cour t records i n 1462 (8 O c t . ) charged w i t h not be ing entered i n a t i t h i n g and he was named t he re (and again i n 11 A p r . 1464) as W i l l i a m Iryschemon, l a b o r e r i u s ( s i c ) . When he l eased t h i s tenement i n 1466 (7 O c t . ) he was desc r i bed as W i l l i a m B l a n c h e f e l d , Hybe rn ious . He he ld o f f i c e as a l e - t a s t o r and was o c c a s i o n a l l y ' f i n e d ' as a brewer and t a v e r n e r . In 1484 (1 June) he and th ree o ther tenan ts were accused of keeping " s e c r e t h o s p i c e s " i n which they harboured "beggars and o ther s u s p i c i o u s t r a v e l l e r s ( v i n e n t e s ) each o f whom pa id 6d . per n igh t whether du r ing f e a s t days or at o the r t i m e s " . B l a n c h e f e l d ' s l a s t appearance i n Ombersley cour t records surveyed f o r t h i s study occu r red i n 1502 (4 A p r . ) when he sur rendered the tenement named h e r e . Ident . S ize (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 276 000 1 cot tage p lo t noth ing "F renshes" and 1/2 of Luket co t tage which normal ly renders 9d . per annum noth ing (accounted fo r here) because i t i s i n the l o r d ' s hands and 1 ies unused 277 136 John Dodyng 1/3 par t of 2 d . q ' Mayes co t tage i n the same (SUDINGTON) 199 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c .1440 -1500 , John was desc r i bed as " t h i r t e e n yea rs (o l d ) and more" i n 1440 10 May) and he was sworn i n t o a t i t h i n g . He was named as a cour t d e f a u l t e r i n 1446 (14 S e p t . ) and he was ' e l e c t e d ' cons tab le i n 1453 and he ld o f f i c e as j u r o r from 1461 (6 O c t . ) t o 1476 (9 O c t . ) and t i t h ingman from 1476 (27 May) t o 1493 (8 O c t . ) . In 1463 (23 May) he l e a s e d the tenement named here and i n 1472 (6 O c t ; ) the m i l l c a l l e d Pyggesmul1 i n LYNEH0LT w i th the pond and f i s h e r y c a l l e d Newepole. A year l a t e r (5 O c t . 1473) he l eased the ' f a r m ' of the t i t h e corn of BORLEY hamlet and the t i t h e hay of l e Hades i n the same hamlet f o r twenty years at 40s. rent per annum. He renewed t h i s l ease w i th h i s son John i n 1490 (11 May, the t i t h e hay of l e Hades was not mentioned) f o r another twenty Iden t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) of Tenement Rent Due S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly years at the same r e n t . In ren ta l 2 2 ( i i ) (1486) Doding was named as the tenant of Mayes as wel l as of a t h r e e - q u a r t e r -v i r g a t e tenement c a l l e d Croces i n BORLEY which he must have l e a s e d between 1472 and 1480 (see n o . 4 0 ) . He sur rendered Pyggesmull w i th the f i s h pond i n 1497 (10 O c t . ) w i th r e v e r s i o n to h i s " j u n i o r " son (named Simon Yoxhale and p o s s i b l y a s tepson) and i n 1500 he sur rendered Croces  ad opus et usus the same s o n . Dodyncps death was recorded i n the en t r y f o l l o w i n g h i s su r render of Croces and he was s u r v i v e d i n h i s remain ing tenement -namely , t he t h i r d par t of Mayes co t tage -by h i s daugh te r , E l i z a b e t h . 278 000 f o r 1/3 par t of a co t tage noth ing fo rmer l y (he ld by) John Coupere i n the same (SUDINGTON) which normal ly renders l d . no th ing (accounted f o r ) because i t i s i n the l o r d ' s hands 200 Iden t . S i ze (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce 279 109 John C o l l e 1 c o t t wi th 6d . c u r t i l a g e "Whelares" i n SUDINGTON 280 137 John John ( s i c ) 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2s .7d . Rondulf "A l i s a n n d r e s " 281 000 1 msg p lo t noth ing "Lya rdes " which normal ly renders 7d .ob . noth ing because i t i s i n the l o r d ' s hands 282 032 John Ketu lbye 2 h a l f - v i r g s l O d . "Lya rdes" & "S t rannges" 201 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f l ' . c . 1466 -1498 , John R o n d u l f s ca ree r i s approx ima te ly coterminous w i th tha t of John Rondulf a l i a s Ho l te (see no.164) and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the two. The tenant named here l eased Al i sanndres i n 1466 (29 A p r . ) and by the t ime of h i s death recorded i n 1498 (9 O c t . ) he was s a i d to have he ld two co t tages c a l l e d Al 1 yes and Herrymerces, a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d Tu rne rs , the tenement d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s e n t r y , and o n e - h a l f of 1 c r o f t below Bornegrove (see under SUDDINGTON n o . 3 0 2 ) . He was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, C r i s t i n e . I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant S i ze (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career of Tenant & Fami ly 282 109 John C o l l e 284 032 John Ketu lbye Sum [of r e n t ] ( b l a n k . . . . ACTON 285 138 R i cha rd Stormye 1 c r o f t 12d. of a r a b l e l a n d next t o Coupere 's tenement 1 co t t 5d . p l o t "Lya rdes " 8 7 s . 9 d . q ' ) 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Dawkes" which normal ly renders 7 s . 8 d . per  annum 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Tybyes" which normal ly renders 8 s . per annum 1 msg 1/2 v i r g "Dankens" which normal ly renders 5 s . per annum 1 msg 1/2 v i r g " B a i l l y e s " which normal ly renders 6 s . 8 d . per annum 4 s . 9 d . f l . c . 1473-1479, t h i s i s the on ly s u r v i v i n g re fe rence t o R i cha rd Stormye i n Ombersley r e c o r d s . However, the death of a R i cha rd Portman ( f i r s t named i n 11 May 1473 i n an a f f r a y ) was recorded i n 1479 (14 O c t . ) and he was s u r v i v e d i n the fou r tenements named here by h i s widow, Marga re t . In 1484, (1 J u n e ) , W i l l i a m , s e v e n t e e n - y e a r - o l d son of R ichard Portman, c la imed and was granted these tenements which "Margaret Portman fo rmer l y h e l d " . At W i l l i a m ' s death i n 1487 (9 O c t . ) , he was s u r v i v e d by h i s mar r ied s i s t e r " s e n i o r daughter of t h e i r f a t h e r , R i cha rd Por tman" . 202 Iden t . S ize (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent Se rv i ce Career of Tenant & Fami ly 286 139 John Grove Sum [of r e n t ] COMHAMPTON 287 133 R icha rd Wynhale 288 022 Henry To lye 289 000 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 12d. f 1 . c . 1447 -1473 , Groves was f i r s t named as "Heynes" a cour t d e f a u l t e r i n 1447 (27 May) and he l e a s e d t h i s tenement i n 1456 (21 N o v . ) . He he ld o f f i c e as j u r o r from 1458 (10 O c t . ) to 1473 (11 May) . His death was recorded i n 5 O c t . , 1473 cour t s e s s i o n and he was s u r v i v e d by h i s daugh te r , Margare t . 5 s . 9 d . 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 7 d . " P r i o r e s " 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 20d. " H a l e s " 1 co t t no th ing "Pa tches " which normal ly renders per annum 12d. noth ing (accounted f o r ) here because i t i s i n the l o r d ' s hands 203 I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2 s . 6 d . "Crompes" 290 059 John Crompe 291 093 John Ho l te de 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 15d. Wynhale "S t rugg" Sum [o f r en t ] ( b l a n k . . . 8 s . ) HADLEY 292 140 John Amslot 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 2s .6d , "Amslo tes" Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f 1 . c .1451-1494 , t h i s may be the same i n d i v i d u a l named as the tenant of a messuage and a v i r g a t e c a l l e d Crompes i n UPHAMPTON in t h i s r e n t a l (see UPHAMPTON, n o . 8 8 9 ) . The tenant named here leased t h i s tenement i n 1455 (17 Nov.) and another c a l l e d Redes i n COMHAMPTON a t h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h . Seven years l a t e r (8 O c t . 1462) he sur rendered Redes (which was then leased by John H o l t e s , see no.1643 i n COMHAMPTON) and at h i s death i n 1494 (13 May) he was s u r v i v e d by h i s widow, Ma rga re t . f 1 . c .1455 -1495 , John leased t h i s tenement i n 1455 (17 Nov.) a f t e r i t had been sur rendered by h i s mother . H i s mar r ied s i s t e r , E l i z a b e t h (w i fe of R i cha rd Wynhale, see no.293) leased a tenement of s i m i l a r s i z e , c a l l e d Couperes , i n the same e n t r y . J o h n , w i t h h i s b ro ther W i l l i a m (no.1195) and two o ther t e n a n t s , l eased the ' f a r m ' of the t i t h e corn o f the hamlets o f HADLEY and MAYEUX i n 1479 (15 June) f o r twenty yea rs f o r an annual rent I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 293 133 R icha rd Wynhale 1 msg 1/2 v i r g 19d. "Couperes" 294 078 Thomas C len t 1 msg 1 nook 18d. "Tyardes" 295 141 Robert Bor ley 1 msg 1 nook 18d. "Tyardes" Sum [of r en t ] ( b l a n k . 7 s . l d . ) 205 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly  o f 6 l i . He he ld manor ia l o f f i c e on ly once, as t i t h i n g m a n , i n 1490 (11 May) . At h i s d e a t h , recorded i n 1495 (5 O c t . ) , he was s u r v i v e d by h i s s o n , Thomas. f 1 . c .1472-1477 , R o b e r t , at twe lve yea rs of age, s u r v i v e d h i s f a t h e r W i l l i a m a f t e r the l a t t e r ' s death recorded i n 1472 (27 A p r . ) . However, the tenement l i s t e d here was s a i d i n t ha t record to have been leased by R o b e r t ' s b r o t h e r , John , and Rober t h i m s e l f took up two tenements of a q u a r t e r - v i r g a t e each ( c a l l e d B r iddes and Waytes) - t hese two tenements were both l i s t e d i n t h i s r en ta l w i thout a t e n a n t ' s name (see above i n HADLEY). R o b e r t ' s death was recorded i n 1477 (17 June) and he was s u r v i v e d by a b ro the r i n B r i ddes and by a s i s t e r i n Waytes. The tenement Tyardes named here was vacated i n 1476 (27 May) when John Bor ley l e f t OMBERSLEY to become a monk of Evesham abbey and John was succeeded i n i t by h i s b r o t h e r , Henry. I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e HAWFORD 296 126 Thomas A l l y e 2 msg 4s .6d , 2 h a l f - v i r g s "John W a l l e s " Sum [of r e n t ] 4 s . 6 d , WOODHOUSE 297 142 John Sanndres the water 5 s . M i l l c a l l e d "Squyt temul1" 206 Career of Tenant & Fami ly f 1. C .1467-C .1506 e t s e q . There was a tenant named John Sanndres a c t i v e at OMBERSLEY i n the second h a l f o f the f i f t e e n t h cen tu ry but t h i s i s the on ly i n s t a n c e where he was mentioned i n con junc t i on w i th t h i s m i l l ; t ha t i s , he was never named as one of the manor ia l m i l l e r s . Renta l 2 2 ( i i ) , 1486, a s c r i b e s t h i s m i l l t o a R i cha rd Sanndres (above no.10) and R ichard was r e g u l a r l y named as a m i l l e r from 1462 (8 O c t . ) t o 1487 (8 May) . In 1489 (6 O c t . ) R i cha rd was named as the former tenant of Squyttemul1 and " a f t e r h i s demise" i t was l e t t o John N a i s s h , b a i l i f f . John Sanndres , on the o ther hand, he ld o f f i c e as t i t h i ngman throughout h i s ca ree r and l e a s e d , i n 1480 (10 O c t . ) , a messuage and v i r g a t e which h i s f a t h e r , W i l l i a m (no.236 above) sur rendered ad opus et usus e i u s . Ic ient. S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Sum [o f r e n t ] 5 s . SUDDINGTON 298 143 W i l l i a m Parsones 1 c l o s e i n 3 s . 4 d . de Cropthorne the same p lace (SUDDINGTON) " Jones " 299 063 John A l i s a n n d r the c l o s e 21d. " C o l o r c h a r d " 300 144 W i l l i a m Gardenere , v i c a r 1 c l o s e 2 s . 6 d . " the Wyneyard" and "Woddehomme C r o f t " 207 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly f l . c .1463 -1485 , Pa rsones ' f i r s t appearance i n ex tan t cour t records occur red i n 1463 (23 May) when he was s a i d to have a d i t c h i n SUDDINGTON poor l y main ta ined and he may thus a l r eady have been a tenant i n tha t hamle t . He was named r e g u l a r l y f o r e i t h e r t h i s d i s r e p a i r or f o r d e f a u l t of cour t u n t i l h i s death f i r s t recorded i n 1485 (21 O c t . ) . In t h i s r e c o r d , no successo r was named f o r h i s tenement, but i n 1486 (18 A p r . ) an Agnes Parsones was accused of not m a i n t a i n i n g her d i t c h i n SUDDINGTON. The record o f W i l l i a m ' s death was repeated i n 1486 (18 A p r . ) and Agnes , h i s widow, r e l i n q u i s h e d her r i g h t s to Jones c l o s e and i t was then leased by her s o n , R i c h a r d . In r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) , 1486, t h i s tenement was a s c r i b e d t o John A l i s a n n d r , Boche r , (see no.98 i n UPHAMPTON and no.104 i n NORTHAMPTON). f 1 . c . 7 - 1 4 7 7 , W i l l i a m Gardenere , the v i c a r and W i l l i a m Gardener (no.113 above) tenant i n BORLEY and of the Rectory were two separa te i n d i v i d u a l s but l i t t l e ' i n fo rma t ion on the V i c a r s u r v i v e s i n ex tan t cou r t r e c o r d s . He he ld t h i s c l o s e I den t . S i z e (and name) Due No. No. Name of Tenant of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e 301 144 302 137 035 011/ 107 303 020 054 305 035 the s a i d Wi11i am (Gardenere, v i c a r ) John Rondul f Robert Knyght W i l l i a m Rondul f E lena B i t t e r 304 001/ John R u s s e l l 124 Thomas Suard Robert Knyght 1 parce l of a rab le land next to " l e Wyneyard" 1 c l o s e below Bornegrove 1 f i e l d i n SUDYNGT0N lOd. 1 pas ture "Br ideweye" 6 s . 8 d , 21d, 1 pasture 5 s . "Fysshereshome" 2 s . 208 Career o f Tenant & Fami ly and the p a r c e l of a r a b l e land ( l i s t e d i n the next en t ry i n t h i s r e n t a l ) when what i s now r e n t a l fragment 2 8 ( x i ) was c o m p i l e d . No successor to these tenements was named i n 1477 (16 S e p t . ) when the death of W i l l i a m Gardenere , v i c a r was r e c o r d e d . In r e n t a l 2 2 ( 1 1 ) , 1486, Wyneyard c l o s e was a s c r i b e d to P h i l i p Tewe, v i c a r . I den t . No. No. Name of Tenant 306 050 Henry Jones S i z e (and name) Due of Tenement Rent S e r v i c e Career o f Tenant & Fami ly c e r t a i n Bu t t s (of land) below Bornegrove 7d. (In r e n t a l fragement 2 7 ( x x ) , Henry Jones was named as the tenant o f l e bu t t below Bornegrove and i n r e n t a l fragment 2 8 ( x i ) he he ld 8 b u t t i s below Bornegrove . ) Sum [of r e n t ] ( b l a n k . . . 2 4 s . 5 d . ) To ta l Sum [o f r e n t ] . (Th is t o t a l was not c a l c u l a t e d on the o r i g i n a l document. The t o t a l rent due f o r t h i s quar te r was To ta l Sum of [ l a b o u r ] s e r v i c e s . (Th is t o t a l was not c a l c u l a t e d on the o r i g i n a l document but i t amounted to 18 l i . 1 8 s . l d . o b . q ' ) 18s .4d .ob . ) 209 A r e v i e w of the Ombersley b i o g r a p h i e s compi led from the cour t reco rds of the-second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h cen tu ry con f i rms the r e l i a b i l i t y of the 1472 r e n t a l as a census of i t s tenant p o p u l a t i o n . There a r e , f o r example, no i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e as " t e n a n t s " , t ha t i s , none charged w i th wrongful e n c l o -s u r e , t r e s p a s s , f a i l u r e to r e p a i r tenements or o therw ise c o n s i s t e n t l y named i n connec t i on w i th tenements , who cannot be i d e n t i f i e d a l s o i n the r e n t a l . The c a r e e r s of tenan ts w i th s i m i l a r names (as noted above) prove to be d i f f i -c u l t to un tang le i n some i n s t a n c e s and the re i s a p o s s i b i l i t y tha t t h i s may produce an i n a c c u r a t e t a l l y of the tenant p o p u l a t i o n . However, t he re i s no impress ion (as was o f ten the case f o r r en ta l 2 4 ( i i ) ) tha t r e n t a l 2 4 ( i ) d e s -c r i b e s f i c t i t i o u s c o n d i t i o n s o r p e o p l e . T h i s i s no t t o say t h a t a l l Ombersley r e s i d e n t s or even a l l those who farmed or worked i t s land i n t h i s pe r iod a l s o appear i n the r e n t a l . The b i o g r a p h i e s of some of the widows i n r en ta l 2 4 ( i ) exemp l i f y the ( g e n e r a l l y ) very poor documentat ion a v a i l a b l e f o r the l i v e s of women. U s u a l l y t h e i r ' l i v e s ' on ly begin at t h e i r husbands' death and , i f they r e - m a r r y , they prompt ly d i sappear a g a i n . It i s not p o s -s i b l e to d e s c r i b e the c a r e e r s of those women who were not connected w i th tenements e i t h e r through t h e i r husbands or i n t h e i r own r i g h t as h e i r e s s e s . Of c o u r s e , men i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s are almost as i n v i s i b l e i n Ombersley cour t r e c o r d s . W i l l i a m Weth leye , f o r example, r e s i d e d at Ombersley from 1471 (15 O c t . ) , when he was f i n e d f o r b rew ing , t o 1498 (15 O c t . , he was s a i d to be in d e f a u l t of c o u r t ) . He appears very r a r e l y i n cour t r e c o r d s , however, and was never mentioned i n connec t ion w i th a tenement. In 1484 (1 June) he was d e s c r i b e d as a l abou re r "o f the v i l l of Powers w i t h i n the p a r i s h of Ombersley" when he was accused of t h e f t from the grange of Henry C lyve ( i d . no.024 above ) . A year l a t e r (26 A p r . 1485) he appeared a g a i n , a l s o d e s c r i b e d as " l a b o u r e r " and 210 as "a t h i e f of l o n g - s t a n d i n g " and known to have harboured another t h i e f , Simon C l e r k . The two o f them were " p i l l o r i e d and b a n i s h e d " f rom t h e 51 l i b e r t y . W i l l i a m ' s ca ree r spans the date of the c o m p i l a t i o n of r e n t a l 2 4 ( i ) and a l s o r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) (1486, the next i n the Ombersley s e r i e s ) but he was not named as a t e n a n t . We can on ly specu la te t ha t he may have l eased a messuage, at l e a s t , as a sub- tenan t of one of the 1472 t e n a n t s , seve ra l o f whom were ' f i n e d ' f o r s u b - l e a s i n g i n the course of t h e i r c a r e e r s . His ca ree r and seve ra l o the rs l i k e i t , t oge the r w i th the re fe rences to s u b - t e n a n t s , however, serve as use fu l reminders of some of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the d o c u -mentary sources at our d i s p o s a l . The biography of another Ombersley r e s i d e n t from t h i s pe r i od who a l s o does not appear i n the 1472 r e n t a l (a l though t h i s may have been an o v e r s i g h t ) can se rve as a use fu l c o n t r a s t to Weth leye ' s c a r e e r as w e l l as an i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e nex t r e n t a l i n t he Ombers ley s e r i e s 5 2 . A c o m p l e t e account of the ca ree r of John Walker - - both be fore and a f t e r 1472 - - would be f a r too lengthy and w i l l have to be abb rev ia ted c o n s i d e r -53 ab ly . From the beg inn ing of h i s ca ree r i n 1461 (6 O c t . ) to 1472 (27 A p r . ) he was i n v o l v e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t cour t cases which i n c l u d e d p leas of d e b t , t r e s p a s s and (once) a charge of having overburdened the common pas tu re "w i th a g rea t magnitude of an ima l s " (6 Oc t . 1461) . A l s o in t h i s pe r iod (2 Oc t . 1464) he became a sub- tenant of Simon Bakere (no.046 above) and i n 1470 (17 May) he l eased the ' f a r m ' of the t i t h e corn of Northampton fo r twenty yea rs at 2 6 s . 8 d . a n n u a l l y . He u n s u c c e s s f u l l y c la imed h i s r i g h t to B a k e r e ' s 54 tenement i n 1472 (5 Oc t . ) and leased h i s f i r s t tenement i n 1473 (5 O c t . ) . By 1485 (5 Oc t . ) he was d e s c r i b e d as John Wa lke r , yeoman and he r e t a i n e d at l e a s t one s e r v a n t . In the next y e a r , i n r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) , Wa l ke r ' s ho ld i ng 211 c o n s i s t e d of four h a l f - v i r g a t e tenements and another which was a q u a r t e r -v i r g a t e . He had acqu i red these between 1473 and 1484 (5 O c t . ) and a l s o he ld the t i t h e ' f a r m ' (as above) of Northampton and a p o r t i o n o f the ( former) 55 demesne pas tu re of Lyncheford . W a l k e r remained prominent i n Ombersley l i f e at l e a s t u n t i l 1509. H is l a s t cour t appearance c o i n c i d e s w i th the l a s t cou r t record (2 J u l y 1509) surveyed f o r t h i s study and i n i t he u n s u c c e s s f u l l y c la imed a tenement which had been sur rendered i n t o the l o r d ' s hands. He was a g g r e s s i v e in the p u r s u i t of h i s i n t e r e s t s throughout h i s ca ree r and most ly s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g 56 them . We do not know much about h i s c i r cumstances at the beg inn ing of h i s ca ree r but some re fe rences suggest t h a t i n i t i a l l y he was f a r b e t t e r p laced i n 57 Ombersley s o c i e t y than someone l i k e W i l l i a m Wethleye . Court reco rds and r e n t a l s i n t h i s i n s t a n c e p rov ide a number of use fu l c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s i n a t e n a n t ' s c a r e e r . Moreover , W a l k e r ' s b iography a l s o suggests the genera l r e l i a b i l i t y of r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) as a guide f o r the Ombersley tenant popu la t i on in the 1 4 8 0 ' s . Rental of 1486 and l a t e r f ragments T h i s document , acco rd ing to i t s h e a d i n g , was s a i d to have been "renewed on the f ou r teen th day of March i n the f i r s t year of the re ign of King Henry the Seventh a f t e r the conquest " (Tuesday, 14 March , 1486) . In i t , we can see an attempt made by Evesham abbey to r a t i o n a l i s e and s i m p l i f y p rev ious formats used f o r the c o m p i l a t i o n of Ombersley r e n t a l s . At the beg inn ing of 2 2 ( i i ) , a f t e r the main head ing , two sub-head ings ( w r i t t e n bes ide each o the r ) were drawn up. The f i r s t of these reads "Terms of S t . Andrew the Apos t l e the Annunc ia t ion of the B lessed V i r g i n Mary and the 212 N a t i v i t y of S t . John the B a p t i s t " and the second reads "Term of S t . Michael the A r c h a n g e l " . These refer to the two separate sums recorded a f te r the name of each tenant and h o l d i n g . The f i r s t sum i s a composi te of the ren ts owed a t t h e t h r e e t e rms c i t e d above and t h e second sum the r e n t owed a t Michae lmas. No ren t t o t a l s were recorded at the end of each hamlet s e c t i o n nor was a sum of a l l ren ts c a l c u l a t e d at the end of the document. Thus, the e n t i r e y e a r ' s ren t f o r one tenement was recorded on a s i n g l e r e n t a l . The f i r s t sum was owed th ree t imes a y e a r at the dates g iven i n i t s sub-heading 58 wh i l e the second , and g e n e r a l l y l a r g e r sum, was owed fo r Michaelmas term . At l e a s t from 1486, t h e n , the abbey appears to have d ispensed w i th the more complex system of i n d i v i d u a l term r e n t a l s and , a l s o , i t s t a n d a r d i z e d the sums owed f o r a t l e a s t t h ree t e r m s . The abbey a l s o s i m p l i f i e d the hamlet format i n t h i s r en ta l and most of i t s tenement d e s c r i p t i o n s . Three p r e v i o u s l y separa te headings w i th t h e i r tenements — Ombersley ( v i l l a g e ) or B e r y t o n , "F ree T e n a n t s " , and Suddington — were combined and form the f i r s t tenement s e c t i o n i n the r e n t a l . The two "Tenants of the Rec to ry " s e c t i o n s seen i n r e n t a l 2 4 ( i ) a l s o were combined i n t o one as were the ' d o u b l e ' Comhampton, Hawford and Woodhouse s e c t i o n s . The on ly excep t i on to these changes was a l lowed f o r the second Hadley s e c t i o n i n 2 4 ( i ) which was re-named Hadley Parva in 1486 and changed i n i t s p o s i t i o n so as to f o l l o w the f i r s t (and l a r g e r ) Hadley s e c t i o n . A l l tenement names appear as they d i d i n e a r l i e r documents but g e n e r a l l y tenements of a s tandard s i z e (a nook or q u a r t e r - v i r g a t e , a h a l f - v i r g a t e and so f o r t h ) were d e s c r i b e d by name o n l y . Excep t ions were made f o r v a r i o u s p a r c e l s of l a n d , s e l i o n s and c r o f t s (as i n 2 4 ( i ) ) and co t t ages were d e s c r i b e d as s u c h , t oge the r w i t h t h e i r customary 59 names . 213 A t a l l y of the tenant p o p u l a t i o n of Ombersley made on the b a s i s of t h i s r e n t a l shows tha t i t had not changed s i n c e 1472. The d i f f i c u l t i e s encoun-te red i n 2 4 ( i ) when a t tempt ing to determine how many i n d i v i d u a l s were r e p r e -sented by one tenant name p e r s i s t so tha t on ly the (p robab le) underes t imate of c i r c a 143 tenants can be proposed f o r 2 2 ( i i ) . The t a l l y a l s o revea led the f a c t t ha t t h i s r e n t a l was, by i t s heading at l e a s t , some four yea rs out o f d a t e . F e l i c i t y , widow of W i l l i a m L y e , l e f t the manor i n 1483 (23 A p r . ) and her f o r f e i t e d tenement was l eased by Thomas, bas ta rd son of W i l l i a m Lye . Howeve r , F e l i c i t y was s t i l l named as a t e n a n t when r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) was compiled*"^.. The e a r l i e s t post quern date tha t can be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r 2 2 ( i i ) i s p rov ided by the reco rd of death of John P a n t r y . He was s u r v i v e d i n 1481 (23 O c t . ) by h i s widow, M a t i l d a , who was named as the tenant of a l l h i s t e n e -C 1 ments i n r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) . T h i s i s a l s o the best p lace to d i s c u s s the l a s t r e n t a l fragment i n the s e r i e s of f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Ombersley r e n t a l s . The beg inn ing of the o r i -g i n a l of what i s now r e n t a l fragment 22 ( i v ) has been l o s t but the p o r t i o n which remains i s i d e n t i c a l i n format t o 2 2 ( i i ) (see a b o v e ) . Dunhampton i s the f i r s t l e g i b l e hamle t -head ing on the fragment which suggests tha t we are m i s s i n g the records of the f i r s t e i g h t s e c t i o n s of a complete r e n t a l . The format a lone suggests a l a t e f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y date of c o m p i l a t i o n and t h i s i s conf i rmed by i n f o rma t i on from the b i og raph ies of tenan ts named i n i t . Agnes Naisshe s u r v i v e d her husband ( i d . no.096 above) i n h i s tenements i n 1481 (15 May) and she he ld those same tenements when 22 ( i v ) was c o m p i l e d . In f a c t , a name-by-name comparison of the r e l evan t p o r t i o n s of 22 ( i v ) and 2 2 ( i i ) shows them to be i d e n t i c a l except f o r one en t ry at the end of the l a t t e r . Oppos i te a l i s t of f i v e tenant names, each assessed 4 d . , the s c r i b e noted " f o r l i c e n s e to make (have) s u b - t e n a n t s " . Agnes Mathews, one of the f i v e so 214 l i c e n s e d , was not named i n the r e n t a l p rope r . She on ly became a tenant i n 1484 and was noted subsequent ly i n the cou r t « reco rds as pay ing l i c e n s e (4d . ) CO f o r sub - tenan ts and f o r be ing i n d e f a u l t of cour t a t tendance . Another of these f i v e t e n a n t s , Thomas Borne , appears i n r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) as the tenant o f Al l yes i n "Other Nor thampton" . His death was recorded i n 1487 (17 June) when 64 he was s u r v i v e d by h i s s e n i o r daugh te r , E l i z a b e t h . Th is ev idence suggests t ha t a t l e a s t the l i s t i n r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) o f those who s u b - l e t t h e i r tenements i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p e r i o d 1484-7 and may e x p l a i n t h e 1486 d a t e and t h e renewal r e fe rence i n i t s h e a d i n g . A copy of 2 2 ( i v ) may have been needed and the sub- tenant addenda i n c l u d e d when the copy was made. The p e n t u l t i m a t e f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e n t a l i n the Ombersley s e r i e s i s 65 dated from i t s heading as 14 J a n u a r y , 1498 . Th is r e n t a l i s subd i v i ded i n t o th ree s e c t i o n s each w i t h i t s own h e a d i n g . The f i r s t of these i s i l l e g i b l e but the e n t r i e s under i t r e f e r to ho ld ings of demesne a r a b l e or p a s t u r e , meadow and woodland as d i s t i n c t from ' cus tomary ' o r 'named' tenements . The rent owed f o r these h o l d i n g s i s g i ven i n the form of two equal sums at the end of each en t ry as i n r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) . The second heading reads "Ren ta l of the t i t h e corn of d i v e r s e v i l l s of the s a i d p l ace renewed i n the Month and y e a r a b o v e s a i d p a y i n g a t two annua l t e rms namely a t t h e F e a s t of t he Annunc ia t ion of the B lessed V i r g i n Mary and the N a t i v i t y of S t . John the B a p t i s t by equal amounts" . Thus i n t h i s s e c t i o n , R i cha rd Perdewe h e l d the farm of the corn t i t h e of Brookhampton and pa id the abbey 1 8 s . 4 d . per annum, 66 i n two equal i n s t a l l m e n t s of 9 s . 2 d . each . The t h i r d s e c t i o n of fragment 2 8 ( x i i ) i s t i t l e d "Renta l of Hundreds i l ve r of the s a i d p lace renewed the-twen t i e th day of December i n the t h i r t e e n t h yea r of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh paying a n n u a l l y at the Term of the Feast o f S t . Michael the Archangel" (20 December 1497). In t h i s sect ion tenants are l i s t e d by hamlets 215 and a t o t a l was c a l c u l a t e d at the end of each hamle t . The i n f o rma t i on p r e -served i n the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s of t h i s r e n t a l proves to be accu ra te to a t l e a s t 1495 and perhaps l a t e r . The number of tenan ts i n both l i s t s i s r e l a -t i v e l y smal l and t h i s l i m i t s the number of b i o g r a p h i e s which can be compared w i th the h o l d i n g s i n the r e n t a l 6 7 . The H u n d r e d s i l v e r record i n r e n t a l 2 8 ( x i i ) i s more d e t a i l e d , though s h o r t e r , than i t s 1419 coun te rpa r t (above, p . 9 9 ) . Tenement names were i n -c luded t oge the r w i th t h e i r tenan ts and the ' H u n d r e d s i l v e r ' amount due from each of them. The sums vary from 4 d . t o 23d. per tenement and the abbey CO expected to c o l l e c t 106s .5d . from t h i s o b l i g a t i o n . Th is sum i s p robab ly not a random amount g iven the name of the payment and by 1497, at l e a s t , i t had c l e a r l y come to be connected w i th some tenements and not o t h e r s . Th is can be seen i n Comhampton where on ly four of ten tenements were assessed or 69 i n Hadley (Magna) where twe lve of f i f t e e n were l i a b l e . A l s o , some tenants were on ly assessed f o r some of t h e i r tenements so tha t a t o t a l of 125 sums were due f rom 116 t e n a n t s . F i n a l l y , t h e l i s t i s an a c c u r a t e ( a l t h o u g h l i m i t e d ) record of tenan ts and t h e i r tenements at the end of 1497, much more so than the f i n a l f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Ombersley r e n t a l 7 ^ . R e n t a l 3 2 ( i i ) i s d a t e d f rom i t s h e a d i n g as h a v i n g been c o m p i l e d i n Oc tobe r , 1 5 0 0 7 1 . I t s format i s the same as tha t of r e n t a l 2 2 ( i i ) . However, where rent t o t a l s i n the former were l e f t b l a n k , i n r e n t a l 3 2 ( i i ) they were recorded i n t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e p laces as an annual sum. The abbey 's rent income from i t s Ombersley tenements was c a l c u l a t e d as 90 l i . l l s . o b . q . on the b a s i s of t h i s r e n t a l . Th is f i g u r e , at l e a s t , i s i n accordance w i th o ther Ombersley manor ia l documents from t h i s pe r i od but the same i s not t r ue of 70 some of i t s tenement r e c o r d s ' . 216 Renta l 3 2 ( i i ) i s ' a c c u r a t e ' on ly f o r those tenement t r a n s f e r s which were completed by the end of the s p r i n g , 1497 (26 A p r . ) cou r t s e s s i o n . George Hampton, f o r example , s o n - i n - l a w of I s a b e l l a M o y l l e , succeeded her i n the tenement c a l l e d Watt i n Uphampton i n 6 A p r i l , . 1497 and he i s i t s tenant i n 3 2 ( i i ) . However, the death of John E l l y at Corner was repor ted i n the autumn cour t f o r the same year (10 Oc t . 1497) . He was s u r v i v e d i n a p o r t i o n of h i s h o l d i n g by h i s w idow , A g n e s , but she was not named as a t e n a n t i n t h i s 73 record . Thus r e n t a l 3 2 ( i i ) a c t u a l l y ' p r e - d a t e s ' the Hundreds i1ver ' r e n t a l ' 74 of Oc tober , 1497 by approx imate ly s i x months . F i n a l l y , the number of Ombersley tenan ts i n c r e a s e d from 143 in 1483 to 152 i n 1497 a l though t h i s f i g u r e ( l i k e the e a r l i e r one) i s an under -es t ima te because of the problems 75 posed by s e v e r a l tenant surnames . 217 BA 3910 /705 :56 /24 ( i i ) "Ombersley Rental f o r the (term of the) A n n u n c i a t i o n of the B lessed V i r g i n Mary i n the second yea r of the Reign of King Henry the Four th a f t e r the conquest " (25 March 1401). See f o r example the manor ia l account r o l l f o r Ombersley, 3 3 ( i i i ) , 1456-7 where ren ts were accounted f o r a t these d a t e s . Strannge and Coke may have been ne ighbou rs , hence the p lea of t r e s p a s s i n 1358. See n o . 6 1 , Henry a t t e Nuwe who en te red a tenement i n 1333 (6 May) which he was s a i d to ho ld at h i s death in 1376 (19 A p r . ) In 1400 (25 Nov.) a John Pach , probably the son of the John Pach named i n 1360, l eased a tenement of a messuage and nook i n Fernhampton. A rem inde r (memorandum) Was recorded i n a 1394 (4 May) cou r t record " to s c r u t i n i z e the o l d land and tenements ,book f o r the tenement and h a l f v i r g a t e of land c a l l e d F rensshep lace i n Sodyngton fo rmer l y granted by Emma l e Frensshe de Ambresleye to W i l l i a m Dieson and h i s w i f e C r i s t i n e on the f i r s t monday a f t e r the f e a s t of S t . Clement i n the twen ty -e igh th yea r of the re ign of King Edward I I I By which grant R ichard Frenshe now c l a i m s t h i s tenement and land as f r e e and not s e r v i l e " . The death of Emma l e F r e n s s h e , no.205 i n r e n t a l 2 4 ( i i ) , was recorded i n 1381 (28 A p r i l ) and the tenement c a l l e d Frenshe i n (Over)Suddington i n the same r e n t a l was a t t r i b u t e d t o W i l l i a m D i e s o n ( n o . 1 7 3 ) . T h i s memo may r e f e r t o t h e o r i g i n a l document (compi led some t ime a f t e r 28 Ed . I l l , 1353-4?) which was used f o r the c o m p i l a t i o n of r e n t a l 2 4 ( i i ) . For a s i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e t o a l a n d book (Londbok) i n t h i s pe r i od see Chapter I I , p.33 and the enqu i ry conducted f o r John Dodyng's rent o b l i g a t i o n s . 7 0 5 : 5 6 / 3 9 ( i i ) B25 the cou r t heading i s i l l e g i b l e In r e n t a l fragment 27(xx) t h i s heading was i n t e g r a t e d w i th the l i s t o f ' F r e e Tenan t s , see below fn .27 p .220 . Four tenan ts i n r e n t a l fragment 2 8 ( x i i ) were each s a i d to ho ld "1 p o r t i o n " , t ha t i s , one qua r te r of the demesne pas tu re o f - L y n c h f o r d and each of them was s a i d to owe 3 s . 4 d . per q u a r t e r . R i c h a r d Lompe, n o . 2 3 1 , f o r example, on ly begins to appear i n the cour t reco rds from c.1406 (2 A u g . ) . The t o t a l i s 227 i f s i x (of e i g h t ) tenants named i n the two 'addenda ' are d i scoun ted as a d d i t i o n s to a copy of an e a r l i e r document'. Only s i x shou ld be d i scoun ted on t h i s b a s i s because the o ther two (nos .063/066 and no.228) were named e lsewhere i n 2 4 ( i i ) . In r e n t a l fragment 2 7 ( x x ) , f o r example, none of the tenements named from t h e f i r s t en t ry under "F ree Tenants" to the end of the r e n t a l i n c l u d e d a sum owed f o r commuted labour s e r v i c e s as par t of t h e i r q u a r t e r l y r e n t . The i r t e n a n t s , moreover, were d e s c r i b e d as 1 i b e r i i n the 1419 'Hundred-s i l v e r ' l i s t ' . See pp .99 -101 . 218 12 Some changes are a l r eady e f f e c t e d i n r e n t a l fragment 2 7 ( x x ) , p . 1 0 1 , and see a l s o p.212 e t s e q . f o r f u r t h e r changes i n r e n t a l s 2 2 ( i i ) e t s e q . 13 C a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of average numbers of tenant deaths i n the cou r t r e c o r d s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e annua l t e n a n t m o r t a l i t y r a t e was 4 . 7 i n 1 3 9 0 - 9 9 , 5.9 i n 1400-09 and 4 .0 i n 1410-19. The annual average f o r the p e r i o d 1357-1427 was 4 .5 tenant d e a t h s . 14 S e v e r a l examp les o f t h i s t y p e o f e n t r y i n 2 4 ( i i ) a p p e a r under t he Ombersley (hamlet or v i l l a g e ) h e a d i n g , p p . 2 4 - 3 1 . See a l s o r e n t a l 2 4 ( i ) , p . 2 0 1 , Patches co t tage i n Comhampton ( a f t e r Acton at the end of the r e n t a l ) where the co t tage was s a i d to be " i n the l o r d ' s hands" and to render noth ing of i t s usual r e n t . 15 16 17 18 19 20 See under Sytchampton, p p . 7 5 - 6 . U s i n g 2 4 ( H ) as a g u i d e , the hamlet s e c t i o n s from Ombersley (hamlet or v i l l a g e ) at i t s beg inn ing down to Brookhampton have not s u r v i v e d on 2 8 ( x ) . The Michaelmas term ren ts were the h ighes t of the four q u a r t e r l y ren ts ' i n s t a l l m e n t s ' owed by Ombersley t e n a n t s . See, f o r example, the 1456-7 mano r i a l account r o l l (BA 3 9 1 0 / 7 0 5 : 5 6 / 3 3 ( i i i ) ) where the rent c o l l e c t e d f o r M i c h a e l m a s te rm was _c_. 32 l i . , abou t 12 l i . more t han t h e n e x t h ighes t sum which was c o l l e c t e d at the term of S t . Andrew the A p o s t l e . BA 3910/705:56/24(V) "Ombersley Court he ld on the f i r s t thursday a f t e r t h e f e a s t of S t . V a l e n t i n e the martyr i n the s i x t h yea r of the re ign of K ing Henry the f i f t h a f t e r the conquest t h i s the f i r s t cour t a f t e r the c o n s e c r a t i o n o f l o r d R i c h a r d B remysg rove ( a s ) A b b o t " . The ' e x t r a -o r d i n a r y ' c h a r a c t e r of t h i s cou r t i s surmised because , f i r s t , i t was d e s c r i b e d as " the f i r s t c o u r t " a f t e r the c o n s e c r a t i o n of the new abbo t , second , i t on ly records four i tems of normal cou r t p roceed ings apar t from the tenant l i s t , a n d , t h i r d , i t was a " s m a l l " cou r t s e s s i o n he ld i n Feb rua ry , independent of the sequence of sp r i ng and autumn s e s s i o n s of view of f rankp ledge w i th cour t which were the normal Ombersley p a t t e r n by 1419. W i l l i a m Bysshop a l s o was named as a tenant i n r e n t a l fragment 27(xx) and i n the 1448 record of demesne l eases (see below fo r these two documents) . W i l l i a m ' s l a s t appearance i n Ombersley cour t records occu r red i n 1464 (2 O c t . ) when he f o r f e i t e d Bysshopes in Sytchampton. It was leased then by h i s s o n - i n - l a w . See t h e d i s c u s s i o n of r e n t a l fragment 2 8 ( x i i ) , p.216 et s e q . A l s o , see P o l l o c k and M a i t l a n d [ 1 8 9 8 , V o l . I, p p . 533 e t s e q . ] f o r h u n d r e d a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n genera l and the changes by which s u i t of the hundred count took " r oo t i n p a r t i c u l a r a c r e s " [ i b i d . , p. 540 ] , 219 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Henry Peyn tour ( f l . c . 10 Oc t . 1415 - 17 Nov. 1455 ob . ) was s a i d to have h e l d two co t t ages atTTiis d e a t h , but o therw ise he appears as a brewer and t ave rne r i n every ex tan t cour t reco rd f o r h i s 40-year ca ree r and was a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n p leas of debt or cases of a s s a u l t . R i cha rd Walker ( f l . c_. 26 A p r . 1414 - c_. 25 Oc t . 1436) appears as c o n s i s t e n t l y as P e y n t o u r T u t on ly as a brewer and t a v e r n e r . John Lompe en te red a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e i n 1412 (4 O c t . ) and he ld o f f i c e as a j u r o r between 1414 (26 A p r . ) and 1420 (14 O c t . ) . At h i s d e a t h , he was s u r v i v e d by h i s s o n , R i c h a r d , s a i d to be a minor and a ward of J o h n ' s widow, I s a b e l l a (7 Ap r . 1421) . See a l s o F i gu re 2 , p .108 . Thomas Gervays was f i n e d once f o r d e f a u l t of cour t i n 1416 (1 May) and i n h i s second and l a s t cou r t appearance i n 1419 (1 May) he sur rendered h i s h a l f - v i r g a t e tenement. BA 3910/705:56/27(XX) See the e d i t i o n of 2 4 ( i i ) where the "F ree Tenants" sub-heading f o l l o w s "Tenants (at the) Rec to ry " as i t does i n 2 7 ( x x ) . However, the re are d i f f e r e n c e s i n format between 27(xx) and 2 4 ( i i ) , see p p . 8 4 - 8 7 . See the e d i t i o n of r e n t a l 2 4 ( i ) which was compi led f o r t h i s term and a l s o the d i s c u s s i o n of rent l e v e l s Chapter IV, pp .253-256 . John D i a c o n , no .198 , who he ld ' t he p iece of demesne land at the park g a t e ' was the l a s t ' F ree t e n a n t ' en t ry i n 2 4 ( i i ) and the f i r s t tenant named under the Suddington heading was W i l l i a m S t r o k e g r e v e , no .199 , who h e l d ' t h e land of S t r o k e g r e v e ' . Thomas Smyth, i n the 27(xx) Free Tenant s e c t i o n was named as the tenant of a ' p a r c e l of demesne land at the park g a t e " a n d , i n the next e n t r y , W i l l i a m Ro l f was recorded as the tenant of a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e of land c a l l e d S t rogrey i n Comhampton. Th is en t r y i n 27(xx) suppor ts the p o s s i b i l i t y posed above , p . 4 6 , t h a t "Lench fo rd Rents" was an addenda to r e n t a l 2 4 ( i i ) , depend ing , of c o u r s e , on the c o m p i l a t i o n date of 2 7 ( x x ) . County of Here ford and Worcester Record o f f i c e , S t . H e l e n ' s Worces te r , " I n v e n t o r y o f R e c o r d s " , V o l . 1 7 , B u l k A c c e s s i o n s 3 9 0 1 - 1 4 0 0 , f o l i o s n o . 0 - 2 2 . H i s l e a s e of the m i l l i s a l s o h i s f i r s t appearance i n Ombersley cour t r e c o r d s and he may have been a newcomer to the manor as he was d e s c r i b e d as R ichard Lench de Claynes i n 1422. He a l s o he ld o f f i c e r e g u l a r l y as j u r o r and was named once , 16 O c t . 1449, as c o n s t a b l e . His death was recorded i n 15 May, 1465. Thomas was f i r s t named as a m i l l e r i n 1 May, 1466 but no reco rd remains of h i s en t ry to Squyntesmul1. In 27(xx ) W i l l i a m Amslot was s a i d to ho ld a messuage and h a l f - v i r g a t e c a l l e d A m s l o t t e s i n H a d l e y w h i c h he had t a k e n up i n 1373 a f t e r h i s mother ' s d e a t h . See i d . no .219 , John Ams lo t , i n r e n t a l 2 4 ( i i ) . 220 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 W i l l i a m ' s death was recorded i n 27 A p r . , 1472 f o r which see i d . no.127 i n r e n t a l 2 4 ( i ) . See above, Chapter I I , p.23 and Appendix pp.291-297 f o r the lacuna i n the i n f o rma t i on con ta ined i n the cour t records ex tan t f o r t h i s p e r i o d . See F igu re 2 , p .108. Both of Lombe's tenements were recorded under "F ree Tenants" i n 2 7 ( x x ) . R i c h a r d Lompe ( s r . ) shou ld not be confused w i th R icha rd Lompe ( j r . ) son o f John and I s a b e l l a Lompe, see F igu re 2 . There i s some ove r l ap between t h e two c a r e e r s but i t seems u n l i k e l y t ha t R i cha rd Lompe ( j r . ) , en tered i n t o a t i t h i n g i n 1430, was a brewer from 1414 to 1435 or even from 1430 to 1435. For one of R i cha rd Lombe's ( j r . ) successo rs /descendan ts see no .134 , Thomas Loombe, i n r e n t a l 2 4 ( i ) . The c a r e e r s o f Ombers ley m i l l e r s can be f o l l o w e d v e r y c l o s e l y i n Ombersley cour t records because , u n l i k e b rewers , f o r example, t h e i r numbers were l i m i t e d . In the f i r s t 75 yea rs o f the f i f t e e n t h century o n l y t h r e e (of a p o s s i b l e f ou r ) manor ia l m i l l s were i n o p e r a t i o n . A l s o , m i l l e r s were presented r e g u l a r l y i n each cour t s e s s i o n and ' f i n e d ' f o r c o l l e c t i n g an e x c e s s i v e t o l n e t u m ; tha t i s , more than the amount of f l o u r t o which they were e n t i t l e d i n re tu rn f o r g r i n d i n g c o r n . The r e g u l a r n a t u r e of these ' f i n e s ' suggests tha t they were l i c e n s e s to opera te a m i l l r a t h e r than punishments f o r wrong-do ing . BA 3 9 1 0 / 7 0 5 : 5 6 / 3 3 ( i i i ) The cour t s e s s i o n was he ld on "monday next a f t e r the f e a s t of S t . John be fore the l a t i n g a t e " , " 2 4 H .V I , 10 May, 1446. The f o l l o w i n g membrane i n t h i s sheaf — the reco rd of a 25 Oc tober , 1445 c o u r t s e s s i o n — i s out of sequence but i t i s f o l l owed by the record of the cou r t s e s s i o n he ld on 14 September, 1446. See Append ix . Thomas Sanndres and h i s s o n , R i c h a r d , f o r example, l eased a "meadow c a l l e d Brademorefor long (and another medow?) c a l l e d O ldehey fo r l ong (and) o n e - h a l f f u r l o n g c a l l e d Lokenhul l and one f u r l o n g c a l l e d Schepynland i n S tande fe ld f o r the s a i d term ( twe lve y e a r s ) " f o r 6 s . 8 d . , i b i d . Th is reco rd of "demesne l e a s e s " was r e v i s e d s l i g h t l y ( f i v e names c rossed o u t and r e p l a c e d by new ones) sometime a f t e r 1448. R ichard Had ley , f o r e x a m p l e , a l s o named as a tenant i n 2 7 ( x x ) , was rep laced by Joan Hadley when the r e n t a l was r e v i s e d . R ichard was l a s t mentioned i n Ombersley c o u r t r e c o r d s i n 8 May, 1455 when he s u r r e n d e r e d a c o t t a g e c a l l e d R u s s e l l e s , i n Be ry ton . See p . 102 and p .99 . The term may have been tha t marked by the f e a s t - d a y of the N a t i v i t y of S t . John the B a p t i s t . P a r t o f t h i s l e a s e i n c l u d e d an agreement t o r e p a i r a l l the b u i l d i n g s on the tenement and to b u i l d "a new grange of t h ree bays" w i th wood p rov ided by t h e l o r d . He was a l s o pardoned two yea rs rent because he was to make h i s f i r s t payment "a t the f e a s t of S t . Andrew i n the year M c c c c x x i i j " . V+C, 7 A p r . 1421. 221 42 43 44 H i s l o n g e s t pe r i od i n t h i s o f f i c e was from 6 June , 1429 to 18 September, 1431. 45 46 47 48 .49 50 51 52 53 54 L e n c h , as we have he remained i t s t 15 May, 1465 and he was s e e n , was a l s o the tenant of Hadleymul1 i n 27(xx) and enant when t h i s was r e v i s e d . His death was recorded i n s u r v