Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The undiscovered "territory" : Mark Twain’s later Huck and Tom stories Phelps, Henry Carr 1982

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1983_A1 P54.pdf [ 9.69MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095876.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095876-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095876-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095876-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095876-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095876-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095876-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095876-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095876.ris

Full Text

THE UNDISCOVERED "TERRITORY": MARK TWAIN'S LATER HUCK AND TOM STORIES by HENRY CARR PHELPS B.A., The University of Toronto, 1972 M.A., The University of Calgary, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1982 (c) Henry Carr Phelps, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of LA The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE - 6 (3/81) ABSTRACT This d i s s e r t a t i o n looks at a l l works of Mark Twain' s. concerning the boys Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, p a r t i c -u l a r l y those written aft e r the completion of Adventures of  Huckleberry Finn (1884). These include the two published narra-t i v e s , Tom Sawyer Abroad (1893) and "Tom Sawyer, Detective" (1896), and f i v e fragments unpublished i n Twain's l i f e t i m e , but recently issued by the University of C a l i f o r n i a Press i n the volumes of the Mark Twain Papers Mark Twain's Hannibal, Huck &^  Tom (ed. Walter Blair) and Mark Twain' s Mysterious Stranger  Manuscripts (ed. William M. Gibson). These f i v e fragments are "Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer Among the Indians" (1884), "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" (1897-1899), "Doughface" (c. 1897), "Schoolhouse H i l l " (1898), and "Tom Sawyer's Gang Plans a Naval Battle" (c. 1900). After completing Huckleberry Finn, Twain wrote or t r i e d to write many more stories about Tom and Huck, continuing t h e i r adventures. Most of these were never finished, and the two that were completed and published are generally considered to be greatly i n f e r i o r to the e a r l i e r novels about the boys. Despite t h e i r flaws, though, these l a t e r narratives do possess hitherto undetected significance and value. A major aspect of the l a t e r stories about the boys i s Twain's deliberate and persistent attempt over a period of t h i r t y years to have Tom Sawyer grow up from a thoughtless boy to a responsible adult. Twain's e f f o r t s to do t h i s are v i s i b l e i n most of the l a t e r works, and the prominence of th i s attempted development demonstrates that Twain was v i t a l l y interested i n the problems of maturity and becoming an adult. For him, childhood was not merely a nostalgic refuge from the problems and complexities of l i f e , as scholars have tended to assume; rather, i t was a time of often p a i n f u l testing i n preparation for the d i f f i c u l t i e s of adult l i f e . In addition, the l a t e r Tom and Huck stories contain ele-ments that both p a r a l l e l and supplement Twain's better known works from t h i s time. The differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s between the narratives about the boys and his other works help to en-hance our understanding of Twain's thinking on a number of subjects. Among these subjects are the Transcendent Figure, the "Matter of Hannibal," and the f o l l y of romanticism. This d i s s e r t a t i o n , then, casts new l i g h t on hitherto obscure writings by Twain; i t attempts to assess t h e i r value and illuminate aspects of Twain's thought that have not yet been the subject of close scrutiny. In p a r t i c u l a r , the w i l l i n g -ness of Twain to grapple with issues of profound complexity i s revealed i n these works more c l e a r l y perhaps than anywhere else i n his canon. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Introduction 1 Chapter I: C r i t i c a l Perceptions 11 Chapter I I : History 39 Chapter I I I : The Theme of Maturity 91 Chapter IV: Other Themes 153 Conclusion 199 Bibliography 207 INTRODUCTION The long and persistent i n t e r e s t with which Mark Twain regarded his most famous characters, Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer, i s a s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e known and c r i t i c a l l y under-valued aspect of the author's career. Despite the vast amounts written about him, and p a r t i c u l a r l y about his masterpiece, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, i t i s not generally known that for v i r t u a l l y the entire span of Twain's l i f e as a writer of fic t i o n - - f r o m roughly 1870 to well into the 1900's--he created two novels, two1 novellas, a story, f i v e lengthy unfinished narratives, at least two b r i e f fragments, a play, and extensive notes, synopses, and outlines concerning the boys. This i s a far greater amount, and written over a much longer period, than the material Twain wrote about two other characters who intrigued him, Colonel S e l l e r s (of The Gilded Age [1873], "Colonel S e l l e r s as a S c i e n t i s t " [1884], and The American Claimant [1892]) and Simon Wheeler (of "The Celebrated Jumping Frog" [1867] and an unpublished novel and play, "Simon Wheeler, Detective" [1877-1879]). The great mass of material and the number of years over which the boys continued to i n t e r e s t him indicate the strong hold that Huck and Tom had on Mark Twain's imagination. There are several s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of these works that have not been recognized by the r e l a t i v e l y few scholars who have noticed the various unpublished pieces. F i r s t , despite the com-position of these works over such a long period and i n the varying 1 2 circumstances of Twain's l i f e , they possess a surprising con-sistency and coherence as a unit. In fact, they might almost be considered a continuing saga of the two boys. Secondly, these s t o r i e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t e r ones—show Twain grappling seriously with a number of ideas and themes through approaches that often are unique to these works. Consideration of these Huck and Tom s t o r i e s , therefore, illuminates c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Twain's thought that are not revealed i n the better known sources. The intention of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to provide such a consideration. The form of the d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l be thus: Following the introduction w i l l be a chapter focussing on previous c r i t i c i s m of the l a t e r Huck and Tom narratives, covering some of the prob-lems Twain scholars have encountered i n dealing with these stories and attempting to correct several misconceptions and errors. Then I w i l l discuss the history of the composition of the stories over more than t h i r t y years of Twain's l i f e . This w i l l be followed by extensive commentary on the major themes and concepts of these works, including the theme of maturation, the workings of fate, the "Matter of Hannibal," the Transcendent Figure, and Twain's attack on romanticism. Included i n t h i s discussion w i l l be relationships between these stories and other works by Twain from the same periods i n his l i f e . As I hope to demonstrate, the ideas explored i n these s t o r i e s provide t h e i r value not only for Twain scholars, but for general readers as well. 3 The material that w i l l be covered i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i n -cludes, f i r s t and foremost, a l l the surviving narratives about the boys written a f t e r Huckleberry Finn. They include the frag-ments "Huck and Tom among the Indians" ( 1 8 8 4 ) , "Doughface" (c. 1 8 9 7 ) , "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" ( 1 8 9 7 - 9 9 ) , "Schoolhouse H i l l " ( 1 8 9 8 ) , "Tom Sawyer's Gang Plans a Naval Battle" (c. 1 9 0 0 ) , and a play based on The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, written 1884-85. None of these works were published during Twain's l i f e -time, and were not generally available to scholars u n t i l they were published i n 1969 i n volumes of the Mark Twain Papers issued by the University of C a l i f o r n i a Press.^ As well, there are the two published narratives written by Twain i n the 1890's, and now held for the most part i n c r i t i c a l i l l - r e p u t e , Tom Sawyer Abroad (1893) and "Tom Sawyer, Detective" 2 ( 1 8 9 6 ) . Attention w i l l also be paid to a much e a r l i e r fragment, a tentative version of Tom Sawyer dating from the early 1870's, c a l l e d the "Boy's Manuscript." This work was published by 3 Bernard DeVoto i n Mark Twain at Work i n 1942. These works cover a fascinating range of p l o t and theme, as a b r i e f description of each one i l l u s t r a t e s . The "Boy's Manuscript" i s humorous and s a t i r i c a l , concerning the puppy-love a f f a i r between the hero (here c a l l e d B i l l y Rogers) and a l i t t l e g i r l . The work can be considered a draft of Tom Sawyer, for many of i t s scenes and dialogue reappear v i r t u a l l y unchanged i n the l a t e r novel. Unlike the l a t t e r , the "Manuscript" i s written i n the f i r s t person, however. 4 "Huck and Tom among the Indians" i s Twain's f i r s t attempt to write a sequel to Huckleberry Finn. Written soon after he finished that novel, the fragment i s an account of the journey the two boys and Jim make out west into the Indian t e r r i t o r y immediately aft e r t h e i r return from the Phelps farm i n Arkansas to St. Petersburg. A grim piece, the p l o t centres on the kid-napping of Jim and two daughters of a pioneer family by a band of bloodthirsty Indians. Huck, Tom and the fiance of the elder daughter are i n pursuit when the fragment breaks o f f . Tom Sawyer Abroad i s also an account of a journey, a voyage by the t r i o aboard a mysteriously powered balloon. B u i l t by a half-crazed s c i e n t i s t who f a l l s overboard shortly a f t e r the voyage begins, the balloon d r i f t s eastward across the A t l a n t i c and eventually to Egypt. There the narrative abruptly ends when the boys are ordered home by Aunt P o l l y . "Tom Sawyer, Detective" returns the boys (this time without Jim) to the Phelps farm i n Arkansas, where Uncle S i l a s i s arrested for the murder of the brother of a r i c h landowner, Brace Dunlap. Brace wishes to marry the eldest daughter of the Phelps but has been refused. When the convoluted plot i s f i n a l l y re-solved through Tom Sawyer's clever detective work, i t i s revealed that Brace t r i e d to frame S i l a s for the murder i n revenge for th i s r e f u s a l . The story i s based on an account of a Danish murder i n 1607 that Twain overheard at a dinner party. 5 "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" i s probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t of the l a t e r writings. A complex and elaborate narrative, i t concerns the scheme Tom Sawyer invents to cause excitement i n St. Petersburg by seeming to enact a slave uprising. But the prank turns suddenly serious when Jim i s arrested for the murder of the town's slave-trader. Tom knows where the r e a l murderers are hiding, but refuses to go to the authorities with the i n f o r -mation u n t i l i t i s too late and the men have vanished. The boy p a i n f u l l y acknowledges the extent of his f o o l i s h immaturity and recognizes how c a l l o u s l y he has treated Jim i n the course of the story. His self-knowledge i s unprecedented i n the Huck and Tom narrative, and evidently represents a conscious attempt by Twain to teach Tom a lesson i n moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . "Schoolhouse H i l l " i s a version of the Mysterious Stranger story set i n St. Petersburg. The a r r i v a l of a mysterious youth at the v i l l a g e school one morning causes a sensation among the children, including Tom and Huck, for he has supernatural powers. But aft e r the second chapter of the story, the c h i l d -ren's milieu i s forgotten as new characters are developed and vague plans are outlined for the salvation of human beings i n t h i s l i f e . The narrative breaks o f f abruptly before t h i s idea can be explored. Both "Doughface" and "Tom Sawyer's Gang Plans a Naval Battle" are very b r i e f fragments, perhaps parts of l o s t longer s t o r i e s . The former concerns a bizarre t r i c k played on an old lady by a g i r l i n a doughface mask; the l a t t e r i s an account of 6 the elaborate plans by Tom and his friends for a mock naval b a t t l e to be staged i n rafts.on the r i v e r . The play of Tom Sawyer i s based loosely on the events of the novel, culminating i n the death of Injun Joe and the d i s -covery of the treasure. I t i s a s u p e r f i c i a l and tedious work which t e l l s l i t t l e new about the boys or t h e i r world. In addition, the existence of at least two more lengthy fragments i s known, though they have not been located. These are "Tom Sawyer's Mystery" (1893) and an unnamed work involving the return of the boys to St. Petersburg as adults, written i n 4 1902. Hypotheses regarding these works and t h e i r place i n the Huck and Tom saga, w i l l be made on the basis of what i s known about them. As well, references w i l l be made where necessary to the extensive notes, outlines, and synopses of works about the boys. Naturally, a discussion of the l a t e r s t o r i e s about Tom and Huck cannot help but include emphasis on the two e a r l i e r works, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of Huckleberry  Finn. References to these novels w i l l be made as needed. Also, mention w i l l be made of p a r a l l e l s and s i m i l a r i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the treatment of themes, between the l a t e r Huck and Tom s t o r i e s and other works from the same period by Twain, to put the material about the boys into perspective. 7 The primary emphasis of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l be on the remarkable u n i t y and coherence of these works. The n a r r a t i v e s r e f l e c t what must have been a s t r o n g and p e r s i s t e n t i n t e r e s t i n the boys by Twain. P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i v e n to the author's e v i d e n t c o n t i n u i n g concern to have Tom and Huck grow up. Evidence from the s t o r i e s demonstrate t h a t the maturation of the boys was a major i n t e r e s t of Twain's t h a t remained s t r o n g over the y e a r s . Reinforcement f o r t h i s p o i n t comes from the o r i g i n a l o u t l i n e f o r The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, p u b l i s h e d i n 1961 by Hamlin H i l l . A c c o r d i n g to the o u t l i n e , the p r o j e c t e d novel was to cover the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : 1. Boyhood & youth; 2 ytouth] & e a r l y manh[ood]; 3 the B a t t l e of L i f e i n many lands; 4 (age 37 to 40,) r e t u r n & meet grown babies & t o o t h l e s s o l d d r i v e l e r s who were the grandees of h i s boyhood. The Adored unknown a [ i l l e g i b l e ] faded o l d maid & f u l l o f r a s p i n g , p u r i t a n i c a l v i n e g a r p i e t y . The novel as p u b l i s h e d covers o n l y the f i r s t two p o i n t s of t h i s o u t l i n e , but evidence both from the l a t e r s t o r i e s and notes and l e t t e r s by Twain i n d i c a t e s t h a t the i d e a of having the boys grow up remained a c e n t r a l concern i n h i s t h i n k i n g about Huck and Tom. In p a r t i c u l a r , the l o s t manuscript of 1902 ( w r i t t e n almost t h i r t y years a f t e r t h i s o u t l i n e ) seemed to have embodied the f i n a l p o i n t , Tom's r e t u r n to the v i l l a g e as an a d u l t and the changes t h a t he f i n d s t h e r e . That the q u e s t i o n (and the means) of the maturation of the boys ( p a r t i c u l a r l y of Tom) remained a major concern of Twain's 8 would seem, at the very least, to undermine the common image of Twain as "imprisoned i n boyhood"^ i n his writings. The author's concern with maturation suggests that his attitude towards the place and importance of childhood i n an individual's l i f e was more complex than his published works might indicate. Close examination of these l a t e r writings shows a surprising emphasis on ideas associated not with childhood, but with the sometimes pai n f u l process of growing up. Concepts such as the assumption of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the collapse of childhood dreams, knowledge of suffering, even human sexuality, play an important role i n the narratives. If these elements were indeed a part of Twain's understanding of childhood, they indicate a greater s o p h i s t i -cation and maturity i n his thought than perhaps can be seen anywhere else i n his writings. A surprising aspect also of these s t o r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y for a reader coming to them f a m i l i a r only with Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer,.is t h e i r remarkable emphasis on Tom Sawyer at the expense of Huck. As w i l l be discussed l a t e r , the portrayal of Tom i n the e a r l i e r novel i s so negative that i t seems puzzling, evidence almost of a c r i t i c a l b l i n d spot, for Twain to choose deliberately to focus on Tom rather than Huck, when the l a t t e r had provided him not only with the narrative voice but with affirmed values of his greatest novel. However, reasons w i l l be advanced to help explain Twain's perhaps sur-p r i s i n g decision to change the emphasis. These reasons provide additional evidence of the complexity of Twain's thinking about 9 the boys. The value of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n comes from i t s bringing to the reader's attention a little-known body of work by a major American author, and discussing t h i s work as a coherent unit. My emphasis on the coherence and unity of t h i s material r e f l e c t s what I believe to be Twain's intention i n writing i t . By cl o s e l y examining these narratives, I hope in the d i s s e r t a t i o n to shed some l i g h t on aspects of Twain's thought, most promin-ently childhood and maturity, unseen elsewhere i n his writings. By discussing a l l the l a t e r Huck and Tom stories together as a coherent whole, I hope to make the reader aware of t h e i r dominant position i n Twain's imaginative l i f e and of the com-ple x i t y they reveal of his relationship to his legendary characters, Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer. 10 NOTES x "Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer among the Indians," "Dough-face," "Tom Sawyer's Gang Plans a Naval Battle," and "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" were published i n Walter B l a i r , ed., Mark  Twain's Hannibal, Huck & Tom (Berkeley & Los Angeles: Univer-s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969), pp. 81-242. "Schoolhouse H i l l " was published i n William M. Gibson, ed., Mark Twain's  Mysterious Stranger Manuscripts (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969), pp. 175-220. 2 John C. Gerber, Paul Baender, and Terry F i r k i n , eds., The Works of Mark Twain, Volume 4_: The. Adventures of Tom  Sawyer; Tom Sawyer Abroad; Tom Sawyer, Detective (Berkeley Los Angeles & London: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1980), pp. 251-341; 357-414. 3 Bernard DeVoto, Mark Twain at Work (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942), pp. 25-44. 4 References to "Tom Sawyer's Mystery" are found i n l e t t e r s quoted i n Gerber, pp. 346 and 347. Reference to the story of the boys' return i s made i n a l e t t e r from William Dean Howells to Twain i n 1902 (Henry Nash.Smith and William M. Gibson, eds., Mark Twain-Howells Letters [Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1960], I I , 747). I t i s also mentioned i n an auto-biographical d i c t a t i o n by Twain i n 1906 (Bernard DeVoto, ed., Mark Twain i n Eruption [New York: Harper, 1940], p. 199), and in W. D. Howells' memoir My_ Mark Twain (New York: Harper, 1910, p. 90). 5 Hamlin H i l l , "The Composition and Structure of Tom  Sawyer," American Literature 32 (1961), 386. DeVoto, Work, p. 49, n. 1. CHAPTER I C r i t i c a l Perceptions  of the Later Huck and Tom Stories C r i t i c i s m of the l a t e r narratives about Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer—indeed, even an awareness that these works e x i s t — h a s been remarkably meagre. Much of what has been written about them suffers, as I have suggested, from serious misunderstand-ings of Twain's intentions i n writing these s t o r i e s . These comments apply to c r i t i c i s m of both the previously unpublished material and the two published novellas, Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective." The dearth of c r i t i c a l consideration of the l a t e r s t o r i e s about the boys i s surprising, given the vast amount written about the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of  Tom Sawyer. Very few c r i t i c s have f e l t i t necessary when d i s -cussing those works to pursue Twain's own thoughts about the boys to determine what his conception of them might have been after he completed Huckleberry Finn. U n t i l quite recently, the consensus about t h i s material has been that i t represents mere-l y i l l - c o n c e i v e d attempts by Twain to write i n f e r i o r sequels to his masterpiece. The published works, es p e c i a l l y , are seen as cheap exploitations of his famous characters, written out of Twain's desperate need fo r money i n the 1890's. What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y curious about th i s c r i t i c a l b l i n d spot regarding these works i s that i t was not caused (or, 12 should not have been) by ignorance of t h e i r existence. That Twain continued the story of the boys after Huck 1s famous decision to " l i g h t out for the T e r r i t o r y " was known as soon as Tom Sawyer Abroad was published i n 1893 with i t s deliberate linkage to the e a r l i e r novel. S i m i l a r l y , "Tom Sawyer, Detect-ive," i s c l o s e l y related to Huckleberry Finn i n i t s setting and characters, demonstrating that Twain saw the works as something of a continuing story. If c r i t i c s did not know of the e x i s t -ence of the other l a t e r s t o r i e s , they might see the two pub-lishe d works as mere aberrations on Twain's part, potboilers written at a time of great f i n a n c i a l pressure for the author and not r e a l l y representing a major creative impulse i n his l i f e . Hence, many c r i t i c s might j u s t i f i a b l y have f e l t no need to pursue t h i s aspect of Twain's writing, believing that there was l i t t l e to discover. That Twain wrote a large amount of unpublished material on the two boys has been general knowledge since just a f t e r Twain's death i n 1910, however. The existence of these narra-t i v e s , together with the two published s t o r i e s , should have alerted previous c r i t i c s to the importance of these characters in Twain 1s thought over a much longer time than i s indicated by the two early novels, Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. U n t i l very recently only two c r i t i c s , DeVoto i n 1942 and Albert E. Stone i n 1961, have made even a b r i e f evaluation of t h i s material. 13 Even the existence of the now-lost " F i f t y Years After" manuscript i s confirmed i n a number of d i f f e r e n t places. William Dean Howells mentions t h i s work i n his memoir, My_ Mark  Twain, although i n such tentative terms as to lead at least one l a t e r c r i t i c , DeVoto, to doubt that the work ever existed. Talking about the summer of 1902, which Twain spent at York Harbor, Maine, Howells says, There, unless my memory has played me one of those constructive t r i c k s that people's memories indulge i n , he read me the f i r s t chapters of an admirable story. The scene was l a i d i n a Missouri town, and the characters such as he had known i n boyhood; but often as I t r i e d to make him own i t , he denied having written any such story; i t i s possible that I dreamed i t but I hope the MS w i l l yet be found. 3-He does not say so e x p l i c i t l y , but from t h i s description i t seems p l a i n that t h i s i s indeed another Huck and Tom story, set i n St. Petersburg. Thirty years l a t e r , however, DeVoto said about t h i s work: "Mark once wrote about i t to Howells, who thought i t promising. I have found no evidence that he ever began to write i t — a n d 2 Howells was wrong." DeVoto was presumably r e f e r r i n g to Howells' rather vague comment above when he dismissed the story i n Mark  Twain at Work. Yet at th i s time—1942—at least three other e x p l i c i t references to the piece had been made. Albert Bigelow Paine, i n his 1912 biography of Twain, says very c l e a r l y about t h i s work that i t was a "new Huck Finn story, 14 inspired by [Twain's] t r i p to Hannibal [in 1902]. I t was to have had two parts—Huck and Tom i n youth and then t h e i r re-turn i n old age. He did some chapters quite i n the old vein, and wrote to Howells of his plan." He then goes on to quote part of a l e t t e r of October 20, 1902, from Howells to Clemens, in which the former comments: " I t i s a great layout; what I s h a l l enjoy most w i l l be the return of the old fellows to the scene, and t h e i r t a l l l y i n g . There i s a matchless chance there. I suppose you w i l l put plenty of pegs i n , i n t h i s prefatory part." Admittedly, t h i s quotation l e f t unclear how substantial the work actually was or how far Twain carried i t . Later c r i t i c s perhaps surmised that i t was only a tentative plan or a b r i e f o u t l i ne. The part of the l e t t e r quoted by Paine might lead to t h i s conclusion. Paine evidently did not have access to the entire l e t t e r , which makes p l a i n that a substantial portion of t h i s work had indeed been written. Twain did not merely write to Howells about t h i s idea; he gave or sent what must have been a f a i r l y bulky manuscript to him to read, i n -dicating that the story was carried quite f a r . DeVoto should have been aware of t h i s , for the l e t t e r was published i n f u l l by Mildred Howells i n her L i f e i n Letters of her father, i n 1928. The paragraph quoted by Paine begins: "I have got Huck Finn safe, and w i l l keep i t t i l l I come down [to New 4 York], or w i l l send i t by express, as you say." The fa c t that the manuscript might need to be sent by express demonstrates 15 that i t was f a i r l y lengthy and substantial. If he was f a m i l i a r with Miss Howells 1 book, DeVoto should have had no doubt about i t s i d e n t i t y i n spite of her confusing e d i t o r i a l reference to the fragment as "the manuscript of the book" Adventures of 5 Huckleberry Finn. For DeVoto himself had already edited and published a t h i r d reference to the manuscript: Twain's auto-biographical d i c t a t i o n on August 30, 1906, where he says that he had ca r r i e d the narrative as far as 38,000 words, but then destroyed i t : "for fear I might someday f i n i s h i t . " The accumulated weight of t h i s evidence proves—con-trary to DeVoto's a s s e r t i o n — t h a t Twain did indeed write at least a substantial part of a story involving the return of the boys to St. Petersburg as adults. Moreover, Howells, at least, admired i t . Given DeVoto 1s f a m i l i a r i t y with the Mark Twain papers, his b e l i e f that t h i s was not so seems somewhat peculiar. However, there i s a curious attitude running through-out his comments on a l l the l a t e r Huck and Tom s t o r i e s , which can only be described as vehement d i s l i k e . DeVoto was the f i r s t one to read and evaluate t h i s material and bring i t to public attention. But a l l his remarks about these works so t o t a l l y deny any l i t e r a r y value to them that to a l a t e r reader i t seems that he i s describing u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t s t o r i e s . For example, of the two major unfinished s t o r i e s , "Huck and Tom among the Indians" and "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," DeVoto says: "They are weakly imagined, aimless, and rambling, and large parts of the longer one ["Conspiracy"] are from the 16 i r r i t a t i n g no man's land between f i c t i o n and extravaganza into which Mark Twain usually strayed when he found that a l i t e r a r y 7 idea would move no farther on i t s own momentum." Later on, he denounces "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" i n even more wholesale terms: I t i s a maze of romance and rank improvis-ation that i s t r i v i a l to begin with and speedily becomes disheartening. It i s wholly without structure and moves without plan by dint of feverish extemporization which gets more mechanical and improbable as i t goes on. I t i s d u l l , humorless, without the enchantment of the great o r i g -i n a l s . Mark's touch i s altogether gone from i t and, what points most v i v i d l y to the truth, even the prose i s dead.^ DeVoto also comments negatively on two other b r i e f , surviving fragments (published i n the Hannibal, Huck &^  Tom volume as "Doughface" and "Tom Sawyer's Gang plans a Naval B a t t l e " ) , saying they "are t r i v i a l and even perfunctory, and the second 9 ["Naval Battle"] ... i s actually p a i n f u l . " As well, he des-cribes one of the versions of the "Mysterious Stranger" story set i n St. Petersburg (presumably "Schoolhouse H i l l " ) as "fumbling and tentative and i t frayed out.""^ Personal tastes i n l i t e r a t u r e of course d i f f e r , but the unfortunate major consequence of DeVoto's vehement denunciations of these stories was that subsequent Twain scholars have glanced at them only c u r s o r i l y for the most part, content to honour DeVoto's attitude towards them, or have ignored them e n t i r e l y . For example, DeLancy Ferguson, i n his Mark Twain: Man and 17 Legend (published i n 1943, a year after Mark Twain at Work) mentions the existence of "Huck and Tom among the Indians," but says merely that i t "bogged down" and Twain soon abandoned it.^"*" Gladys Carmen Bellamy, i n her Mark Twain as a L i t e r a r y A r t i s t (1950) v i r t u a l l y ignores a l l the l a t e r s t o r i e s about the boys. In his 1951 study of Twain and Henry James, Turn West, Turn East, Henry Seidel Canby merely refers to Twain's prolonged i n t e r e s t i n the two boys i n the "Indians" story and "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." He offers no comments on these works. In fact, he probably did not even read them, for he c a l l s the "Conspiracy" story "Tom and Huck," the name by which Paine refers to i t i n his 1912 biography of Twain, presumably 12 Canby's only source. This same pattern i s followed i n almost a l l of the major c r i t i c a l works about Twain during the 1950's and 1960's, with the exception of Albert E. Stone, Jr.'s The Innocent Eye, to be discussed l a t e r . Nothing i s said of these stories i n such thematic studies as Louis J . Budd's Mark Twain: Social Philos-opher (1962) , James M. Cox's Mark Twain: The Fate of Humour (1966), Pascal Covici's Mark Twain's Humour, Henry Nash Smith's Mark Twain: The Development of a Writer (1962), Roger B. Salomon's Mark Twain and the Image of History (1961), and Robert 13 A. Wiggins' Mark Twain: Jackleg Novelist (1964). Robert Regan, i n his Unpromising Heroes: Mark Twain and his Characters (19 66) does acknowledge the continuing i n t e r e s t that Twain had i n the boys, commenting i n t e l l i g e n t l y on why 18 Twain kept returning to St. Petersburg and Huck and Tom: "He was d i s s a t i s f i e d with the terms of the peace they had made at 14 the end of Huckleberry Finn." However, he does not follow t h i s up with what could have been trenchant remarks on how the l a t e r s t o r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," embody th i s idea. There were other unexploited opportunities at t h i s time for c r i t i c s to comment on the l a t e r Huck and Tom narratives. Edward Wagenknecht's revised edition of Mark Twain: The Man and  his Work (1961) comments on Twain's use of sources for the "Indians" story (as well as Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective"), but offers no c r i t i c a l evaluation of the story. Tony Tanner's Reign of Wonder (1965) describes the c r u c i a l confrontation between Huck and Tom i n "Indians" a f t e r the natives have massacred the M i l l s family, an experience shatter-ing Tom's i l l u s o r y b e l i e f s i n romantic visions of the world. However, he says merely that t h i s "only i l l u s t r a t e s an age-old grievance and adds l i t t l e to Clemens' l i f e - l o n g preoccupation with discrepancies between the i d e a l i t i e s of the l i t e r a t u r e of the o f f i c i a l culture and empirical f a c t s . In general, then, one can say that c r i t i c a l appreciation of the l a t e r Huck and Tom stories at t h i s time ranged from non-existent to minimal. The only exception was Stone's The Inno-cent Eye: Childhood i n Mark Twain's Imagination, which was published i n 1961, coincidentally the same year that Hamlin H i l l made public the 1874 outline for The Adventures of Tom 19 Sawyer, a prospectus demonstrating Twain's i n t e r e s t i n carry-ing his hero through to maturity. Stone makes the f i r s t attempt since DeVoto to discuss the l a t e r s t o r i e s c r i t i c a l l y . Though there are a number of errors and misunderstandings i n his comments, his analysis and evaluation of these works i s a major step forward from DeVoto's vehement denunciation of them twenty years before. Stone gives a detailed description of the plot , charac-ters, and probable sources of "Huck and Tom among the Indians," 16 regarding i t as "an honest portrayal of l i f e on the p l a i n s . " He speculates i n t e l l i g e n t l y on the possible reasons why Twain abandoned i t , suggesting p l o t complications caused by young Peggy M i l l s ' abduction and presumed rape (an episode which DeVoto avoids mentioning i n his account of the story): "Given Twain's juvenile and family audience and, even more s i g n i f i c -antly, his personal reticence about sexual matters, one can sense how ... embarrassing these facts about Indian l i f e I.17 were. However, Stone believes that the story was written i n 1889, regarding i t as quite a late Twain work which the author turned quickly away from to concentrate on the innocuous Tom  Sawyer Abroad. Stone was evidently unaware of the 1884 l e t t e r from Twain to Howells i n which he describes writing the story.* He may have been misled by the fact that Twain did have the fragment printed on the Paige typesetting machine i n 1889. (Curiously, DeVoto knew in 1942 that Twain wrote the "Indians" 20 19 story "not long after" f i n i s h i n g Huckleberry Finn, but Stone seems to have ignored t h i s comment.) I t i s now known that Twain wrote the work just a f t e r f i n i s h i n g the e a r l i e r novel, presumably i n the same wave of creative energy that enabled him to f i n i s h Huckleberry Finn after seven years. After the f a i l -ure of the "Indians" (and the f a i l u r e of a dramatization of Tom Sawyer written a few months l a t e r ) , Twain made no e f f o r t to continue the boys'- story for seven years. Regarding "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," Stone provides a useful and detailed description of the p l o t as well as some of the notes leading up to the story. He treats the work much more sympathetically than DeVoto, but s t i l l c a l l s i t "absurd," "morally incoherent," and "disjointed, incomplete, t y p i c a l l y 20 Twainian." He points out the importance of Tom i n the un-folding of the work, even quoting Huck's remark about Tom being "pisoned" by his success i n Arkansas i n "Tom Sawyer, Detective," but f a i l s to see the importance of Tom's moral education i n the work (as, indeed, no Twain scholar has) and the question of maturity i n general. As I hope to demonstrate, these ideas are of great significance i n the l a t e r s t o r i e s . Ignoring them does make these works seem incoherent and rather pointless. Nonetheless, i n his detailed descriptions of these works (and his comment that "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" i s the most 21 i n t e r e s t i n g boyhood story Mark Twain never finished" ), Stone provided subsequent Twain scholars with an important i n t r o -duction to t h i s m a t e r i a l — a n introduction which for the most p a r t has been ignored. In 1966, Eugene McNamara p u b l i s h e d an 22 a r t i c l e on "Huck and Tom among the Indians," based on a study of the manuscript. I t p r o v i d e s q u i t e a d e t a i l e d des-c r i p t i o n of the events of the fragment, and p o i n t s out some of the p a r a l l e l s between i t and the e a r l i e r n o v e l . But McNamara cannot see any theme o p e r a t i n g i n the work; though he mentions the a t t a c k on Fenimore Cooper's Indians, he does not t i e t h i s i n any way to an attempt to educate Tom Sawyer. As w e l l , he completely misunderstands the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the abduction of Jim and Peggy M i l l s , e i t h e r as a p l o t d e v i c e , o r - - i n the g i r l ' s r a p e — a s a p o s s i b l e reason f o r the s t o r y ' s abandonment. In f a c t , n e i t h e r McNamara nor Stone regard t h i s episode as possess-i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e I b e l i e v e i t has. As I w i l l d i s c u s s i n a l a t e r chapter, Twain uses Peggy's abduction and rape to i n t r o -duce h i s boyhood heroes to the g e n e r a l s u b j e c t of human s e x u a l i t y . Even a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of these works i n the Hanni-b a l , Huck &^  Tom volume i n 1969 (and the p u b l i c a t i o n of "School-house H i l l " i n the Mysterious Stranger Manuscripts volume i n the same y e a r ) , s c h o l a r s d i d not make any attempt to look at t h i s m a t e r i a l as a u n i t or as an important aspect of Twain's w r i t i n g . A r t h u r P e t t i t , i n h i s Mark Twain and the South (1974) comments a t great l e n g t h on another s e t of h i t h e r t o unpublished Twain m a t e r i a l , the "Which was the Dream" s t o r i e s , but says comparatively l i t t l e about the Huck and Tom m a t e r i a l . He looks at "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" o n l y from the p o i n t of view of i t s 22 portrayal of Jim--considering him to be degraded by Twain i n th i s work--and ignoring completely the importance Jim has i n the maturity of Tom Sawyer. Hamlin H i l l ' s God's Fool (1973) mentions both "Conspiracy" and the Return story in passing (admittedly, t h i s book i s primarily biographical); while William M. Gibson's The Art of Mark Twain (1976) says l i t t l e 23 about any of the l a t e r s t o r i e s . However, over the past several years, there has been an increasing i n t e r e s t i n many of Twain's unpublished works, not merely as f a i l u r e s or as indications of his breakdown as an a r t i s t i n hi s l a s t years. In 1976, Paul Delaney published an 24 a n a l y t i c a l discussion of the "Indians" story, not only des-cr i b i n g the work, but making the point that because of Peggy M i l l s ' rape "Huck i s ... the possessor of dark sexual knowledge 25 beyond anything he has understood before," and "to a four-teen- or fifteen-year-old boy a knowledge of sexual e v i l i s 2 6 fundamentally d i f f e r e n t " from a knowledge of violence. He implies that Twain here was indeed exploring new ideas i n his boy-books, more mature than anything he had attempted before. But i n ta l k i n g only about the "Indians" story, Delaney was unable to make any connections between t h i s work and the other l a t e r s t o r i e s involving the boys. William Macnaughton, on the other hand, i n his valuable Mark Twain's Last Years as a Writer (1979) concentrates on the l a s t dozen years of Twain's l i f e and comments usef u l l y on "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" and the Return. story; but Macnaughton i s unable to perceive connect-23 ions between these works and the e a r l i e r s t o r i e s , such as Tom- Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective," as well as "Indians." Macnaughton does regard the "Conspiracy" story sympathetically, though, rebutting DeVoto's comments about the i n t r i c a c y of the p l o t . He points out that Tom's unattractive behaviour--his obsessive quest for glory, his callousness and 27 i n s e n s i t i v i t y — a r e "central to the book." Furthermore, Macnaughton provides important information on the writing of "Conspiracy," "Schoolhouse H i l l , " and the " F i f t y Years After" narrative, and he speculates suggestively on what the l a t t e r may have contained. In addition, Scholom J . Kahn, i n Mark Twain's Mysterious  Stranger: A Study of the Manuscript Texts (1978), comments at some length on the "Schoolhouse H i l l " fragment, pointing out that when Twain placed the Mysterious Stranger i n St. Peters-burg, his problems became "tangled with the complex web of associations represented by Tom and Huck," perhaps contributing to i t s r e l a t i v e l y quick abandonment i n favour of a work set far 2 8 away i n Austria. Kahn also comments on p a r a l l e l s between "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" and the "Number 44" manuscripts, mentioning that both use the author's experience as a p r i n t e r — rare i n Twain's fiction--and one which he f e l t ambivalent 29 about. F i n a l l y , the introduction and notes that Walter B l a i r and William M. Gibson provide for the Hannibal, Huck & Tom and Mysterious Stranger Manuscripts volumes give much useful i n f o r -24 mation on the background, sources, and chronology of these works. For the most part these are descriptive rather than evaluative, though B l a i r o f fers c r i t i c a l comments on the s t o r i e s — e v e n though these comments are sometimes misleading. For example, he observes that "Jim i s given so small a role [in the "Indians" story] that one wonders why Mark Twain did not make the s l i g h t e f f o r t needed to remove him from his 30 f i r s t e f f o r t , " forgetting that i t i s Jim's abduction (not Peggy M i l l s ' ) that causes Tom Sawyer to pursue the Indians. Tom's recognition of his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for Jim's p l i g h t i s c r u c i a l to the boy's moral education. But B l a i r ignores t h i s theme, saying that "Twain never h i t s upon any s i g n i f i c a n t 31 theme" i n the work. (Within the context of a l l the l a t e r s t o r i e s , of course, there are a number of important themes.) B l a i r also published many of the notes Twain made while working on these s t o r i e s , including f a i r l y extensive notebook entries for "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." These notes provide valuable background to Twain's thinking about these works as he outlined and wrote them. In some cases, the notes correct misunderstandings that coloured several c r i t i c s ' comments on 32 Twain's l a t e r years. The meagreness of c r i t i c a l analysis of the unpublished works and the misunderstandings and errors i n what evaluations e x i s t , can perhaps be explained by the r e l a t i v e i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of t h i s material (at least before t h e i r pub-l i c a t i o n i n 1969). But even the two published works, Tom  Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective," have been given 25 scant attention over the years. The general assumption has been that they were i l l - c o n c e i v e d and h a s t i l y written attempts to cash i n the popularity of the two e a r l i e r novels (and i n the case of the "Detective" story, on the popularity of detective f i c t i o n i n the 1890's) during Twain's time of f i n a n c i a l stress. For example, Maxwell Geismar says, "Tom Sawyer Abroad and Tom Sawyer, Detective ... are very poor juveniles which cause one only to wonder how Clemens could so openly ex p l o i t his famous e a r l i e r book while debasing the o r i g i n a l characters 33 and concepts." In a s i m i l a r vein, Frank Baldanza c a l l s Tom 34 Sawyer Abroad a " t i r e d book," and regards "Tom Sawyer, 35 Detective" as "highly improbable and melodramatic"; while Douglas Grant considers most of Twain's l a t e r works, including the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s , mere "potboilers." To be sure, i t might be regarded as a sign of favour that these c r i t i c s chose to comment on the novellas, which i s more than either James M. Cox or Henry Nash Smith did i n t h e i r books on Twain. However, Smith had remarked about a l l the l a t e r s t o r i e s involving the boys e a r l i e r , i n his a r t i c l e on "Images of Hannibal" (1961) where he says that they a l l "make the same demonstration. The Lost World r e a l l y was l o s t . Adam could not re-enter Paradise, and America i n the Gilded Age could not 37 brxng back i t s agrarian past." 26 Not a l l the c r i t i c i s m of these works i s dismissive, though. Tom Sawyer Abroad has received i t s f a i r share of praise, including DeVoto's comment i n the Introduction to the Portable Mark Twain that the story i s a "deliberate exploration of the p r o v i n c i a l mind and i t s prejudices, ignorances, 3 8 assumptions, wisdoms, cunning." Robert Wiggins echoes th i s f e e l i n g , when he c a l l s the work "an exploration of the complex-39 i t i e s of the primitive mind." He goes on to add that the three characters, Huck, Jim and Tom " a l l share a wide sympathy 40 for t h e i r fellow man" --a remark that might s t r i k e some readers as s l i g h t l y puzzling, given the innumerable i n s u l t s , some of them quite v i c i o u s , that Tom Sawyer hurls at his t r a v e l -l i n g companions during the course of the journey. Perhaps the most extended and sympathetic analysis of the work occurs, i n Stone's The Innocent Eye, where he c a l l s Tom Sawyer Abroad " i n some respects the most charming and poised of 41 a l l Mark Twain's works about childhood." He considers the three major characters to be " i n personality, speech, and out-look unchanged from t h e i r l a s t appearance at Uncle S i l a s ' 42 farm" at"the end of Huckleberry Finn, and believes that i n 43 the story important " e x i s t e n t i a l questions" are raised, par-t i c u l a r l y about the difference between "'knowledge and i n -stink.'" He concludes, "The superiority of i n s t i n c t u a l per-ception over trained i n t e l l i g e n c e i s here vigorously proclaimed; 44 i t had merely been suggested before." His summation i s that "Tom Sawyer Abroad represents one of the l a s t times Twain was 27 able to juggle into s i g n i f i c a n t l i t e r a r y form his a n t i t h e t i c a l notions of human nature and behavior, of man's place i n a uni-45 verse possibly devoid of meaning." Stone regards "Tom Sawyer, Detective," however, much less sympathetically. He regards i t as "an involved and 46 tedious t a l e " and "perhaps Twain's poorest short story." But he also makes some provocative suggestions about the work as possibly a deliberate burlesque of the Sherlock Holmes t a l e s . As well, Stone notes the difference between the portrayal of the Phelps plantation at the end of Huckleberry Finn and i t s characterization i n t h i s work, saying i t "has been transformed into a nightmarish feuding-ground.... This destruction of the partly i d y l l i c close of Huckleberry Finn might have been a s i g n i f i c a n t and moving sign of s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l decay i f 47 i t were f o r c e f u l l y handled." The implication seems to be that i t was an additional f a i l u r e on Twain's part not to have written the story from t h i s perspective. Despite his detailed understanding of these works, and the valuable commentary he offers on them, Stone never mentions the questions of maturity and moral education i n these works, topics which I see as central to them. Because of t h i s over-sight, these stories are for Stone flawed and lacking any kind of unity. He seems to have been unaware of the 1874 outline for Tom Sawyer, or assumed that Twain l o s t his professed i n -terest i n having his boy-hero mature. Without an understanding of t h i s development, as we s h a l l see, much of the importance of 28 these l a t e r stories i s missed. 48 In Court T r i a l s i n Mark Twain and Other Essays (1958) , D. M. McKeithan might have made valuable c r i t i c a l evaluations as well as provide background information on Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective," As i t i s , the book offers useful background material on the sources of the two novellas, but l i t t l e e l s e. The "Detective" story i s also the subject of an essay by J . C h r i s t i a n Bay, "Tom Sawyer, Detective: The Origin of the Plot" (1929), 4 9 which provided McKeithan with his i n -formation on the work. Bay gives a detailed account of the source for the novella, an 1829 novel by Scandinavian writer Steen B l i c h e r , The Minister of Veilby. Blicher's novel con-cerns a complicated murder and subsequent t r i a l i n Denmark i n 1607. Bay, l i k e McKeithan, makes no c r i t i c a l analysis of Twain 1s narrative. Important additional background information on Tom  Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective" i s provided i n John C. Gerber's excellent Introduction and notes to the 1980 Iowa-C a l i f o r n i a volume of these stories (included with The Adventures  of Tom Sawyer). Gerber discusses, for example, Twain's o r i g i n a l plan to make Tom Sawyer Abroad only "the f i r s t i n a series of volumes i n which he would send Huck and Tom and Jim to various parts of the world." The abiding i n t e r e s t that Twain had i n the boys i s acknowledged i n Gerber's comment. Gerber also comments astutely on the l o s t manuscript, 29 "Tom Sawyer's Mystery," written between Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective." That Twain wrote a f a i r l y substantial 51 portion of t h i s work (at least 10,000 words ) seems v i r t u a l l y unknown to scholars—Kaplan, for example, never mentions Twain's work on i t . The information Gerber uses comes from published volumes of l e t t e r s for the most part, but they seem to have been overlooked by other c r i t i c s . The c r i t i c a l perspective on these works adopted by Gerber, though, i s very s i m i l a r to the predominantly negative points of view of most previous c r i t i c s . He sums up the narrative sequence of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer to Tom Sawyer Abroad to "Tom Sawyer, Detective" as "culmination, decline, and 52 collapse." He says almost nothing about the other l a t e r works Twain wrote about the boys, and makes no e f f o r t to f i t them into any kind of coherent pattern. P a r t i c u l a r l y useful might have been a discussion of p a r a l l e l s between the "Detect-ive" story and the l a t e r "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." In addition to the c r i t i c a l commentary on the l a t e r s t o r i e s , much of the c r i t i c i s m on the well-known novels, Tom  Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, i s also valuable for an under-standing of them. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of the two essays discussing the question of maturity i n Tom Sawyer, B l a i r ' s "On the Structure of Tom Sawyer" and H i l l ' s "The Composition and 5 3 Structure of Tom Sawyer." The l a t t e r , of course, i s espe-c i a l l y important for i t s publication of Twain's 1874 outline for the book. Both come to the conclusion that maturity i s an im-30 portant element of the novel. Even before H i l l , however, Barry A. Marks, i n "Mark Twain's Hymn of Praise" (1959) had made the same point. He says that the action of the book i s 54 e x p l i c i t l y a "process which issues i n Tom's maturation." A l l of these essays imply that Twain resolved the question of the boy's maturity at the end of the novel; none of them suggests (perhaps because of lack of f a m i l i a r i t y with the l a t e r stories) that t h i s remained an ongoing concern of the writer's. But even without knowing of the l a t e r works, a number of per-ceptive c r i t i c s arrived at provocative conclusions regarding Twain's attitude on t h i s point. For example, i n her essay, "Tom Sawyer, Delinquent" (1962) Diana T r i l l i n g points out the ambivalence with which Twain re-gards adulthood i n the novel. On the one hand, the character-i z a t i o n of adults i n Tom Sawyer i s almost uniformly negative on one l e v e l (the "ignorant bu l l y " schoolmaster, the "pompous ass" Judge Thatcher, "the Sunday-school superintendent a pious 55 toady"); yet on another l e v e l they are capable of remarkable "selflessness," such as i n t h e i r search for the l o s t children in the cave. And, as T r i l l i n g emphasizes, t h i s involves "no word of reproach" against Tom once the children are found and the c r i s i s i s over. The adults follow a recognized and accepted code of behaviour, about which Twain seems c e r t a i n l y not con-demnatory, and "the r e s u l t i s ... a boy l i k e Tom Sawyer who ... 57 i n r e a l i t y has enough conscience for any c i v i l i z e d man." The implication of T r i l l i n g ' s remarks i s that Twain had a conception 31 of adulthood to which he wished his boy-hero to aspire, one which involved not only r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for one's own actions, but also generosity and love. Something of t h i s v i s i o n i s em-bodied i n the adults of St. Petersburg-—at least i n Tom Sawyer. In the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn the question of maturity becomes much more complex, of course, but c r i t i c s who notice the vast difference between Huck and Tom at the- end of the novel are suggesting something of the depth of maturity that the former has attained. For example, Thomas Arthur Gullason considers Tom the "real antagonist" of the book, and says e x p l i c i t l y that at the end "Tom remains the c h i l d of the f i r s t chapters" while i n contrast, Huck has become "the edu-5 8 cated, morally responsible person." Walter B l a i r echoes these sentiments when he c a l l s Huck at the end of the novel "much 59 more mature," i m p l i c i t l y contrasting him with the c h i l d i s h Tom. Huck's suggested f l i g h t from human involvement at the very end of the novel, though, complicates this question immensely. Even though many c r i t i c s regard i t as a very apt conclusion 6 0 (T. S. E l i o t c a l l s i t "the only possible concluding sentence" 61 and Leo Marx regards i t as a breakthrough to "truth" ), i t can hardly be regarded as evidence of maturity i n a conventional sense. A l i f e of endless, s o l i t a r y f l i g h t cannot be considered a morally responsible reply to the problems of society. In t h i s context, as Marks points out, the ending of Tom Sawyer i s far more mature, for i n the course of the novel "Tom moves to 32 an affirmation of s o c i a l convention i n the interests of that 6 2 highest form of joy which i s founded on other-love." I f he flees alone, Huck Finn can hardly be expected to learn t h i s . Perhaps because he recognized that i t i s only within the context of society that genuine moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be learned, Twain never again had Huck run o f f alone l i k e t h i s . He chose instead to d i r e c t the l a t e r s t o r i e s toward the idea of teaching a boy maturity within the context of conventional s o c i a l norms. Seen i n t h i s l i g h t , the ending of Huckleberry  Finn becomes more of a dead end than a form of l i b e r a t i o n . The p o t e n t i a l dangers of remaining i n a state of arrested childhood can be seen best perhaps i n the context of Stone's perceptive comment about the ending of A Connecticut Yankee. He says that the massive, v i o l e n t destruction of the Battle of the Sand Belt reminds an adult "of nothing so much as a small 6 3 boy's revenge upon a grownup system that has frustrated him." As Yankee was the next novel that Twain completed aft e r Huckle-berry Finn, t h i s apocalyptic ending implies the negative con-sequences of tr y i n g to remain too long i n childhood rather than l i v i n g l i f e as an adult. Twain perhaps should be admired for discarding t h i s idea i n the l a t e r Huck and Tom s t o r i e s , i n -stead of being condemned for giving i n to convention. What c r i t i c i s m and analysis there i s of the l a t e r Huck and Tom s t o r i e s , then, has tended u n t i l the middle of the 19 70's to be s u p e r f i c i a l , biased and seriously flawed. Overlooking 33 the topic of maturity as an ongoing concern of Twain's, none of the c r i t i c s could see any kind of coherent pattern or con-s i s t e n t theme i n the s t o r i e s , and so for them these stories possess l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . Only within the l a s t few years, as part of the increasing scholarly i n t e r e s t i n a l l of Twain's l a t e r unpublished writings-—including the "Mysterious Stranger" manuscripts, the "Which was the Dream?" s t o r i e s , and his "Fables of Man"--have the l a t e r Huck and Tom stories been subjected to c r i t i c a l scrutiny, and not yet has a systematic study of a l l these narratives been undertaken. As Twain's l a t e r years have long been regarded as a time of great creative d i f f i c u l t y , a c r i t i c a l analysis of the l a t e r Huck and Tom works that shows them to possess undetected significance w i l l have great value i n providing a more accurate perception of his a b i l i t i e s and interests during t h i s time. 3H-NOTES Howells, p. 90. 2 DeVoto, Work, p. 49. 3 Albert Bigelow Paine, Mark Twain: A Biography (New York: Harper, 1912), I I I , 1181. 4 Mildred Howells, ed., L i f e i n Letters of William Dean  Howells (New York: Doubleday, 1928), I I , 162. 5 In introducing t h i s l e t t e r , with i t s reference to "Huck Finn," Miss Howells states: "Huck Finn was the manu-s c r i p t of the book." There i s no further c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n the text, and so a reader might assume that for some i n e x p l i c -able reason, Howells was reading (in 1902) the manuscript of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (published i n 1885). Evidently Miss Howells had no understanding of what the story referred to i n the l e t t e r r e a l l y was. 6 DeVoto, Eruption, p. 199. 7 DeVoto, Work, p. 48. 8 DeVoto, Work, p. 113. 9 DeVoto, Work, pp. 48-49. 10 DeVoto, Work, p. 127. 11 Delaney Ferguson, Mark Twain: Man and Legend (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1943), p. 250. 12 Henry Seidel Canby, Turn West, Turn East (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1951), p. 186. 13 Louis J. Budd, Mark Twain: Social Philosopher (Bloom-ington: Indiana University Press, 1962); Gladys Carmen Bellamy, Mark Twain as a L i t e r a r y A r t i s t (Norman: University of Okla-homa Press, 1950); James M. Cox, Mark Twain: The Fate of  Humour (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966); Pascal C o v i c i , J r . , Mark Twain's Humour: The Image of a World (Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 196.2); Henry Nash Smith, Mark Twain: The Development of a Writer (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962); Roger B. Salomon, Mark Twain  and the Image of History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961); Robert A. Wiggins, Mark Twain: Jackleg Novelist (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964). 35 14 . . Robert Regan, Unpromising Heroes: Mark Twain and his Characters (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1966), p. 91. 15 Tony Tanner, Reign of Wonder (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965), p. 175; Edward Wagenknecht, Mark  Twain: The Man and his Work, rev. ed. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961), p. 65. 16 Albert E. Stone, J r . , The Innocent Eye: Childhood i n Mark Twain's Imagination (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961), p. 180. 17 Stone, p. 179. 1 8 Smith and Gibson, I I , 496. 1 9 DeVoto, Work, p. 48. 2 0 Stone, pp. 196, 198, 199. 2 1 Stone, pp. 198-199. 22 Eugene McNamara, "Huck Lights Out for the T e r r i t o r y : Mark Twain's Unpublished Sequel," University of Windsor Review, 2 (1966), 67-74. 23 Arthur P e t t i t , Mark Twain and the South ( L o u i s v i l l e : University Press of Kentucky, 1974), pp. 164-65; Hamlin H i l l , Mark Twain: God's Fool (New York: Harper, 1973); William M. Gibson, The Art of Mark Twain (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976). 24 Paul Delaney, "You Can' Go Back to the Raft Ag'in, Huck Honey!: Mark Twain's Western Sequel to Huckleberry Finn," Western American Literature, 11 (1976), 215-229. 25 Delaney, p. 225. 2 ^ Delaney, p. 227. 27 William Macnaughton, Mark Twain's Last Years as a Writer (Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1979), p. 116. 2 8 Schblom J- Kahn, Mark Twain's Mysterious Stranger: A Study of the Manuscript Texts (Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1978), pp. 44-45. 29 Kahn, p. 2 0. 36 Walter B l a i r , "Introduction" to "Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer among the Indians," i n Mark Twain' s Hannibal, Huck j& Tom, p. 90, n. 7. 31 B l a i r , "Introduction," p. 90. 32 For example, i n Mark Twain at Work (p. 49, n. 1) DeVoto quotes a note by Twain: "Marion City. Steal s k i f f . Turning Huck black & s e l l him." DeVoto comments: "This grotesque idea had appeared i n notebook entries many years before. The idea was apparently to threaten Jim with en-slavement again and to have Huck wear blackface and substitute for him." Almost without question, Twain's notation i s simply another note for the story that would become "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" (though with Tom rather than Huck taking the part of the slave). Yet despite his f a m i l i a r i t y with the story, DeVoto did not seem to see the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. In his Reign of Wonder, Tony Tanner makes exactly the same'mistake when he comments (p. 183) about Twain's notes for further s t o r i e s about the boys: And the l a s t mention of Huck i n the note-books returns again to the never-explored idea of having Tom s e l l Huck as a nigger: l e f t so t a n t a l i z i n g l y unexplained one does not know whether Clemens intended i t as a sport, a plot to have some of Tom's special brand of "fun," or whether i t might have turned out to be the ultimate betrayal of the outcast by the conformist. Tanner i s evidently unfamiliar with the "Conspiracy" story; otherwise he could hardly regard the idea of one of the boys being sold as a slave as "never explored." 33 Maxwell Geismar, Mark Twain: An American.Prophet (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1970), pp. 156n-157. 34 Frank Baldanza, Mark Twain: An Introduction and Inter-pretation (New York: Holt, 1961), p. 120. 35 Baldanza, p. 122. 3 6 Douglas Grant, Twain (Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1962), p. 97. 37 Henry Nash Smith, "Mark Twain's Images of Hannibal: From St. Petersburg to Eseldorf," Texas Studies i n English, 37 (1958), 18. 37 3 8 Bernard DeVoto, ed. , The Portable Mark Twain (New York: Viking, 1946), p. 32. o q Robert A. Wiggins, Mark Twain: Jackleg Novelist (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964), p. 103. 40 Wiggins, p. 104. 41 Stone 42 p. 180. p. 183. p. 185. p. 187 p. 188. pp. 189-190. p. 190. D. M. McKeithan, Court T r i a l s i n Mark Twain and Other Stone 4 3 Stone 44 Stone 4 5 Stone 4 6 Stone 47 Stone 48 Essays (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1958). 49 J. C h r i s t i a n Bay, "Tom Sawyer, Detective: The Origin of the Plot," i n William Warner Bishop and Andrew Keough, eds., Essays Offered to Herbert Putnam by his Colleagues and Friends  on his T h i r t i e t h Anniversary as Lib r a r i a n of Congress 5_ A p r i l  1929 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1929), pp. 80-88. 50 John C. Gerber, "Introduction" to Tom Sawyer Abroad, i n Gerber et a l , eds., Works of Mark Twain, p. 245. "I am making good progress with 'Tom Sawyer's Mystery,' for I have written 10,000 words." Letter from Twain to Livy Clemens, November 6, 1893; quoted i n Gerber et a l , p. 347. 52 Gerber et a l , p. IX. 53 Walter B l a i r , "On the Structure of Tom Sawyer, Modern  Philology, 37 (1939), 75-88; H i l l , pp. 379-92. 54 Barry A. Marks, "Mark Twain's Hymn of Praise," English Journal, 48 (1959), 44. 55 Diana T r i l l i n g , "Tom Sawyer, Delinquent," i n her Claremont Essays (London: Seeker and Warburg, 1965), p. 146. 5 6 T r i l l i n g , p. 147. 38 T r i l l i n g , p. 149. 5 8 Thomas Arthur Gullason, "The 'Fatal' Ending of Huckleberry Finn," American Literature, 29 (1957), 90. 59 Walter B l a i r , Mark Twain and Huck Finn (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1960), p. 76. More recently, the immaturity of Tom has been discussed by Judith F e t t e r l y i n her a r t i c l e , "Disenchantment: Tom Sawyer i n Huckleberry Finn," PMLA, 87 (1972), 69-74, where she claims that by the time Twain came to the end of the novel, he had "become disenchanted with his boy-hero" (p. 69). Anna Mary Wells, i n a l e t t e r to the journal (PMLA, 87 [1972] , 1130-31), responded by arguing that by the end of the novel, " i t may be that Tom also has grown up." She agrees that for Huck, his famous "go to h e l l " speech i s indeed a moment of "coming of age." 6 0 T. S. E l i o t , "Introduction" to the Adventures of  Huckleberry Finn (London:.Cresset Press, 1950), p. x v i . 61 Leo Marx, "Mr. E l i o t , Mr. T r i l l i n g , and Huckleberry  Finn," American Scholar, 22 (1953), 439. ^ 2 Marks, p. 44. Stone, p. 16 8. 3<? CHAPTER II History of the Composition  of the Later Huck and Tom Stories Twain's stories about Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer emerged out of an i n t e r e s t i n children that existed v i r t u a l l y from the very beginning of his career as a professional writer. In t h i s chapter, I s h a l l trace the development of his use of c h i l d -characters i n his f i c t i o n , and give a chronological account of the writing of a l l the works involving Tom and.Huck. Though children appear i n Twain's e a r l i e s t writings, his i n t e r e s t i n them at f i r s t was quite limited. As Albert E. Stone has pointed out, his e a r l i e s t use of children i n his writings was primarily as "instruments of s o c i a l criticism.""'" It i s i n t h i s role that the boy characters i n such early pieces as "Those Blasted Children" (1867), "The Story of the Bad L i t t l e Boy" (1865), and "The Story of the Good L i t t l e Boy" (1870) appear. These are s a t i r i c works, and i n fact the two " L i t t l e Boy" stories are deliberate inversions of the t r a d i t i o n a l children's f i c t i o n of the time, i n which virt u e i s rewarded and e v i l punished. In the e a r l i e r story, "The Bad L i t t l e Boy," the hero Jim engages i n a l l the petty mischief of a young b o y — s t e a l i n g jam and apples, going boating on a Sunday—and yet suffers no e v i l consequences, contrary to the expectations that t r a d i t i o n a l 40 l i t e r a t u r e w o u l d h a v e r a i s e d . As t h e n a r r a t o r r e m a r k s , i n a t o n e o f mock w o n d e r , " N o t h i n g l i k e i t i n any o f t h e Sunday 2 S c h o o l b o o k s . " I n f a c t , a t t h e e n d o f t h e s t o r y , J i m — d e s p i t e h i s t r a n s g r e s s i o n s — " i s t h e i n f e r n a l e s t w i c k e d e s t s c o u n d r e l i n h i s n a t i v e v i l l a g e , a n d i s u n i v e r s a l l y r e s p e c t e d , a n d b e l o n g s 3 t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e . " The s a t i r i c p o i n t i n t h i s a nd o t h e r s i m i l a r s t o r i e s i s f a i r l y o b v i o u s , t h o u g h n o t w i t h o u t humour. I n f a c t , t h i s same t e n d e n c y t o s a t i r i z e h i s b o y - h e r o e s c a r r i e s o v e r t o a w o r k a s 4 l a t e as Tom S a w y e r , a s s e v e r a l c r i t i c s h a v e n o t i c e d , w i t h much t h e same humour and t h e same o b j e c t . What i s n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e s e w o r k s a s w e l l , t h o u g h , i s t h e r e a l i s m w i t h w h i c h t h e b o y s a r e d e p i c t e d — a s S t o n e s a y s , t h e y a r e " b o i s t e r o u s l y n a t u r a l . " ^ F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e "Bad L i t t l e Boy" s t o r y , J i m s t e a l s j a m f r o m t h e p a n t r y a n d r e p l a c e s i t w i t h t a r , r e m a r k i n g , " t h e o l d l a d y w o u l d g e t up a n d s n o r t " when t h e c r i m e was d i s c o v e r e d — a c o l o u r f u l , a s w e l l a s n a t u r a l a n d humorous o b s e r v a t i o n . The m a i n i n g r e d i e n t s f o r t h e Huck a n d Tom s t o r i e s , t h e n , w o u l d seem t o h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t i n T w a i n ' s m i n d a l m o s t f r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f h i s w r i t i n g c a r e e r — a n i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d r e n , a n d a c o n c e r n t o p r e s e n t them a s a c c u r a t e l y a s p o s s i b l e . B u t i t was n o t u n t i l t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e " m a t t e r o f H a n n i b a l " ( i n 7 H e n r y N a s h S m i t h ' s p h r a s e ) t h a t t h e t r u e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a n d t h e i r m i l i e u b e g a n t o o c c u r . T h i s was p e r h a p s p r e c i p i t a t e d b y T w a i n ' s m a r r i a g e t o O l i v i a L a n g d o n o f E l m i r a , 41 New York, on February 2, 1870; for only four days l a t e r Twain wrote his famous "fountains of the great deep" l e t t e r to his childhood f r i e n d , W i l l Bowen, i n which he enumerates a great many of the youthful experiences they had shared. As Stone 8 points out, many of the episodes mentioned i n the l e t t e r re-appear i n the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s . These include a portrayal of Jimmy Finn as town drunkard, scenes of "undressing and play-ing Robin Hood i n our s h i r t - t a i l s , " "swimming above the s t i l l -house branch," "vagrant f i s h i n g excursions," the shooting by Owsley of Smarr, and several incidents that appear i n the l a s t stories about the boys, written almost t h i r t y years l a t e r , such as Sam Clemens purposely catching measles from W i l l ("Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy"—1897) and Henry Beebe's "envied slaughter-house" ("Schoolhouse H i l l " — 1 8 9 8 ) . 9 An in d i c a t i o n of the importance of Twain's marriage to his attitude towards his childhood experience may be seen i n the fact that his e a r l i e r communications to W i l l Bowen contain no trace of anything more than casual i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r shared experiences. For example, i n a l e t t e r of May, 1866, he mentions only i n passing, "I have seen a fellow here [in Hawaii] that you and I knew i n Hannibal i n childhood—named Martin—he was a c a r p e n t e r . I t seems evident that i t was only aft e r he had "rained reminiscences for four & twenty hours""'""'" on his new bride i n February, 1870 (prompted, evidently, by a l e t t e r from Will) that Twain began to be aware of the power of his c h i l d -hood experiences to i n t e r e s t — i n fact, even e n t h r a l l — o t h e r 42 people. The importance of Livy Clemens i n Twain's creative use of his own past, i s perhaps best described by J u s t i n Kaplan: She i s a flesh-and-blood wife, but she i s also a guiding p r i n c i p l e , a symbolic figure he invests with i t s own power to select and p u r i f y . She has become an i d e a l i z e d superego which frees him from the t a i n t of adolescent experiments and f r o n t i e r lawlessness and allows him to experience a productive tension between the s o c i a l order he has become a part of and the boyhood r e a l i t y he can never leave behind him.H It i s out of the "productive tension" between these various forces that the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s were created. The f i r s t f r u i t of t h i s discovery by Twain of the creative p o s s i b i l i t i e s of his childhood may, i n fact, have come very shortly after his marriage, though there i s some uncertainty about the date. The e a r l i e s t surviving work i n which can be seen a recognizable Tom Sawyer-like character i s a fragmentary story known now as the "Boy's Manuscript," which, according to Albert Bigelow Paine, may very well have been written "about 13 1870." I t seems d e f i n i t e l y to have been, as Bernard DeVoto comments, "the e a r l i e s t attempt to use the material of Tom  S a w y e r , " i n any event. Despite i t s many flaws, t h i s work i s a c r u c i a l one i n the development of the world of Huck and Tom. DeVoto discusses i t at some length i n his essay, "The Phantasy of Boyhood,"- where 43 he sums i t up quite accurately: The sketch i s c e r t a i n l y the embryo of Tom Sawyer—but i t i s Tom Sawyer untouched by greatness, and Tom Sawyer without body-snatching and midnight murder, without Jackson's Island, without the cave, with-out Huck Finn. I t i s crude and t r i v i a l , f a l s e i n sentiment, clumsily f a r c i c a l , an experiment i n burlesque with a l l i t s standards mixed.^ The s i m i l a r i t i e s with the l a t e r novel, though, are quite s t r i k -ing i n the "Boy's Manuscript," extending even to the names of characters. The hero i s c a l l e d B i l l y Rogers—who w i l l become Ben Rogers, while a Bob Sawyer appears b r i e f l y . In the "Manu-s c r i p t , " Amy Lawrence i s the g i r l for whom young B i l l y yearns; i n Tom Sawyer she i s the g i r l Tom abandons i n favour of Becky Thatcher. In addition, there are quite clear elements of autobio-graphy i n the fragment, in d i c a t i n g that Twain was consciously experimenting with the events of his own childhood as a source for i n t e r e s t i n g f i c t i o n . B i l l Bowen appears i n the story under his own name (he becomes Joe Harper i n Tom Sawyer) and there i s a detailed account of the b a t t l e of the t i c k i n the schoolroom (which reappears i n chapter seven of Tom Sawyer) to which Twain appends the footnote: "Every d e t a i l of the above incident i s 16 s t r i c t l y true, as I have excellent reason to remember." However, the s a t i r i c impulse died hard i n Twain, and i n the "Boy's Manuscript," i t detracts from the r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a i t s 44 of a young boy. Most of the story concerns the agonies of young B i l l y ' s tortured relationship with l i t t l e Amy Lawrence; at the end of the "Manuscript," B i l l y has broken o f f with Amy, evidently irrevocably, but he has found a new " g i r l that i s my 17 doom. I s h a l l die i f I cannot get her." This g i r l , however, i s 19 years old, and from the text c l e a r l y has no int e r e s t i n l i t t l e B i l l y , so the perhaps cruel comic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the sit u a t i o n are evident. As well, there i s a persistent i f gentle s a t i r e of c h i l d -hood's naivety i n the presentation of the rel a t i o n s h i p between Amy and B i l l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the episode where they plan out their future l i f e together: "As soon as ever we grow up we'll be married, and I am to be a pirate and she'd to keep a 18 m i l l i n e r ' s shop. Oh, i t i s splendid." The obvious incon-gruity of the two careers (as well as the improbability of becoming a pirate) i s , of course, t o t a l l y l o s t on the two c h i l d -ren, and touching to the adult reader. The s a t i r e i n thi s story, i n which young B i l l y i s not only the instrument of humour but also the object of i t , re-f l e c t s an evident confusion i n the author's mind over exactly what his theme or target was, as well as over i t s intended audience—a problem that w i l l reappear with The Adventures of  Tom Sawyer. S t i l l , i n the "Manuscript," Twain made his f i r s t attempt at an extended account of a child's perception of the world and of his experiences i n i t . He uses, at least p a r t i a l l y , 45 a convincing presentation and genuinely attempts to convey the texture of a small boy's mind and feelings. As well, i n i t s use of Twain's own childhood experiences, the story represents a major step i n the creative process that would lead to the Huck and Tom works. The next stage i n the development of the work of Huck and Tom may be considered that of The Gilded Age, the collaboration between Twain and his Hartford neighbour Charles Dudley Warner i n 1873. The book served to impress further upon Twain the creative fund of his childhood memories and the s a t i s f a c t i o n and p r a c t i c a l i t y of exploiting them. The Gilded Age was written for an adult audience, for i t i s concerned primarily with the greed, corruption, and abuses of power in the society of the 1870's. However, i n i t Twain u t i l -izes childhood and i n fact draws heavily from his own family background, i n such d e t a i l s as the Tennessee land and the Hawkins family move to Missouri. Laura Hawkins, the heroine, i s named after Twain's early sweetheart i n Hannibal, as he mentions i n 19 a l e t t e r to W i l l Bowen. Further, the work's most famous character, Colonel S e l l e r s , i s based on Twain's cousin, James 20 Lambton. Other p a r a l l e l s , as Frank Baldanza points out, i n -clude the p o r t r a i t of Judge Hawkins, "precisely the picture we have of [Twain's father] Judge Clemens i n the Autobiography" and "the splendid p o r t r a i t of Orion Clemens ... i n the character of Washington Hawkins." In the early part of the novel, there 46 i s even some use of Twain 1s own youthful experience on the M i s s i s s i p p i : "Clemens used his own r i v e r experience ... i n the description of the steamboat race and the explosion of the Aramanth patterned after the destruction of the Pennsy1vania 21 xn which Sam's brother, Henry, died." The Gilded Age, then, though not a work for children and not primarily concerned with childhood, i s a major step i n Twain's use of his own past that would lead to the development of the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s . I t also introduces a number of major themes that w i l l reappear i n the l a t e r boy s t o r i e s . There i s the boredom and banality of small-town l i f e , i n the presentation of the hamlet of Obedstown, Tennessee at the beginning of the novel. There i s unease at the corrupting 22 power of wealth, and there i s even an element of misanthropy, such as i n the description of the jurors at Laura Hawkins' t r i a l : "some had a look of animal cunning, while the most were only stupid. The entire panel formed that boasted heritage 23 commonly described as the 'bulwark of our l i b e r t i e s . ' " In i t s presentation of slave characters, The Gilded Age enabled Twain to begin mining a r i c h source of creative ex-pression which would receive i t s highest form i n the present-ation of Nigger Jim i n the l a t e r Huck and Tom s t o r i e s . In The  Gilded Age, the r e a l i s t i c and sympathetic portrayal of such characters as Uncle Dan'1 can be seen as the f i r s t f r u i t of t h i s new i n t e r e s t . It led i n 1874 to Twain's moving p o r t r a i t 47 of the slave Auntie Rachel i n "A True Story"; and ultimately his concern for slave characters would provide a s i g n i f i c a n t element of the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s . With The Gilded Age, then, Twain continued and i n t e n s i f i e d the necessary exploration both of the techniques of writing f i c t i o n and the uses of his own past as a source for stories that would lead to his masterpieces. The same intense creative forces i n Twain that gave b i r t h to the "Boy's Manuscript" and the childhood episodes of The Gilded Age were s t i l l operating when Twain began to write The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, and these forces can a l l be seen f i r s t i n his "fountains of the great deep" l e t t e r to W i l l Bowen of February 6, 1870. According to DeVoto, Twain "began writing [Tom Sawyer] as we know i t i n 1873 or 1874 (on the whole, the l a t t e r seems 24 25 the l i k e l i e r year)," and Jus t i n Kaplan concurs. I t i s cer-t a i n that Twain had already written at least part of the novel by the end of the summer of 1874, only a year after The Gilded Age, for a l e t t e r to Dr. John Brown proving t h i s i s dated Sept-2 6 ember 4 of that year. A c r u c i a l event occurred i n that summer of 1874, one that affected a l l the l a t e r works about Huck and Tom. In fact, i t might be said to have provided the basis for Twain's continued i n t e r e s t i n and concern for Tom Sawyer for the next t h i r t y years. He wrote an o u t l i n e — f i r s t discussed by Hamlin H i l l — o f his projected work, l i s t i n g the major areas to be covered i n i t : 48 1. Boyhood and youth; 2 y [outh] & early manh [ood]; 3 the Battle of L i f e i n many lands; 4 (age 37 to [40?],) return & meet grown babies & toothless old d r i v e l l e r s who were the grandees of his boyhood. The Adored Unknown a [ i l l e g i b l e ] faded o l d maid & f u l l . o f rasping, p u r i t a n i c a l vinegar piety.27 A f u l l understanding of t h i s outline i s v i t a l to comprehending the subsequent stories about Tom. Two points immediately stand out to anyone f a m i l i a r with these s t o r i e s . F i r s t , Twain wanted Tom Sawyer to grow up i n the course of the projected novel. Secondly, t h i s does not happen i n the course of The Adventures  of Tom Sawyer—but as w i l l be discussed l a t e r on i n thi s disser-t a t i o n , Twain did not abandon t h i s central idea. According to Hamlin H i l l , Twain came extremely close to following t h i s plan i n the o r i g i n a l Tom Sawyer. H i l l suggests that t h i s outline was written very early i n the composition of the work--"if not before he began the book, before he reached page 169 of his manuscript. Before that page, the 'new g i r l ' was referred to as 'the Adored Unknown1 (Chapter III of the published book). On that page the name 'Becky Thatcher 1 appeared for the f i r s t time (Chapter VI). If Becky had been 'christened' when Twain wrote t h i s outline, i t seems l i k e l y that he would have used her name i n i t . " The outline must have served, therefore, as Twain's basic guide as he was working on the early chapters. As H i l l says, i f Twain had followed the outline, the book would have been " i n four parts, c l e a r l y pro-49 gressing from boyhood to maturity and ending with Tom's return 2 8 to St. Petersburg and a p u r i t a n i c a l Becky." The moment when the book changed seems to have come i n the Jackson's Island episode. H i l l makes a very convincing case that Twain's o r i g i n a l intention here was to have Tom Sawyer f l e e from both St. Petersburg and his companions, Huck Finn and Joe Harper, to s t a r t the "Battle of L i f e i n many lands." Twain's manuscript "shows that he pondered the wisdom of having Tom depart. Aware that a c r i t i c a l point i n the story was at 29 hand, he sprinkled the page with signs of his indecision." This may, i n fact, have been the point to which Twain referred years l a t e r when he said, "At page 400 of my manuscript the story made a sudden and determined halt and refused to proceed another step.""^ If t h i s i s so, when he returned to the story Twain may have made the decision to keep Tom's story for the moment i n St. Petersburg, and concentrate only on the f i r s t point i n his outl i n e . H i l l concludes, perhaps prematurely, "Whether from expediency, indifference, or, most l i k e l y , the r e a l i z a t i o n that Tom Sawyer was not the boy to send o f f on the 'Battle of L i f e 31 i n many lands,' Twain decided not to s t a r t Tom's journeying." There i s further evidence, however, that Twain was s t i l l not s a t i s f i e d or even f u l l y decided on the scope of Tom's story, even as late as the summer of 1875. An exchange of l e t t e r s i n June and July of that year between Twain and William Dean 50 Howells i n d i c a t e s t h a t Twain was s t i l l undecided about where he wanted h i s s t o r y to go. On June 21, a f t e r Howells had made some e v i d e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t comments on .the work i n pro g r e s s , Twain wrote him a l e t t e r which suggests he s t i l l had the o u t l i n e o f the p r e v i o u s summer very much i n h i s mind: "Since t h e r e i s no p l o t to the t h i n g , i t i s l i k e l y to f o l l o w i t s own d r i f t , & so i s as l i k e l y to d r i f t i n t o manhood as anywhere—I won't i n t e r -32 pose" (emphasis added). Howells responded on J u l y 3, f u l l y s u p p o r t i n g the n o t i o n : "don't waste i t [the s t o r y ] on a boy, and don't hurry the w r i t i n g f o r the sake o f making a book. Take your time and 33 d e l i b e r a t e l y a d v e r t i s e i t by A t l a n t i c p u b l i c a t i o n . " But on J u l y 5, Twain r e p l i e d r a t h e r unexpectedly ( c o n t r a r y t o h i s l e t t e r of June 21): "I have f i n i s h e d the s t o r y & d i d n ' t take the chap beyond boyhood. I b e l i e v e i t would be f a t a l to do i t i n any shape but a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l l y . " (By " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l l y , " Twain presumably means w r i t i n g i t i n the f i r s t - p e r s o n . ) Yet d e s p i t e t h i s sudden abandonment of the o r i g i n a l o u t l i n e , Twain's conc e p t i o n of the novel remained the same as Howells'. I t was a s t o r y aimed a t a d u l t s , hence q u i t e s u i t a b l e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n Howells' A t l a n t i c Monthly: " I t i s not a boy's book, a t a l l . I t w i l l o n l y be read by a d u l t s . I t i s onl y w r i t t e n f o r a d u l t s . " 3 4 T h i s p o i n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r i t g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n of how Twain conceived of the novel when he f i r s t completed i t : 51 as a book about childhood, but written from an adult's point of view, and of in t e r e s t primarily to adults. This follows How-e l l s ' conception, as expressed i n his l e t t e r of July 3 and (presumably) i n the comments Howells made to Twain about the story p r i o r to the l a t t e r ' s June 21 l e t t e r . In fact, Howells' insistence on t h i s point may indicate that while working on i t i n the spring of 1875, Twain had suddenly begun to regard i t as a book only about childhood, contrary to the 1874 outline, and that i t was only after t h i s exchange of l e t t e r s that he changed his mind again and considered carrying his hero into adulthood. Whether Twain changed his mind once or twice, however, we must notice the remarkable degree of ambivalence he f e l t about the book's scope and i t s intended audience. Understanding his ambivalence i s d i f f i c u l t , because i t i s not clear what kind of story either Howells or Twain regarded as suitable for a par-t i c u l a r audience. O r i g i n a l l y Twain may have f e l t that only a Bildungsroman, tracing a boy's growing into maturity would be of i n t e r e s t to an adult audience and planned his story i n 1874 on that basis. But he may have temporarily abandoned t h i s idea, for some unknown reason, by the spring of 1875, deciding to write a book only about childhood for children. Then, after his conversations with Howells i n June, 1875, he may have changed his mind once more, returning to his o r i g i n a l plan of carrying the boy through adulthood, a plot suitable once again for an adult audience. This would have prompted the exchange of 52 l e t t e r s at the end of June. Again for unknown reasons (perhaps he suddenly did not wish to face bringing Tom to adulthood), he reverted to the childhood scope of the story., but protested at the same time that despite t h i s change i t was s t i l l "only written f o r adults." I t seems evident that t h i s ambivalence characterized Twain's attitude towards Huck and Tom long aft e r he had finished the novel. That the o r i g i n a l 1874 outline was s t i l l i n h is mind even after he completed Tom Sawyer i s shown by a further comment i n his July 5 l e t t e r to Howells: "By & by I s h a l l take a boy of twelve & run him on through l i f e (in the f i r s t person) but not Tom Sawyer—he would not be a good 35 character for i t . " This, as c r i t i c s have long noted, was 3 6 the germ of Huckleberry Finn. But perhaps too much has been read into t h i s remark. Twain may be saying not that Tom Sawyer would be a poor character to run through l i f e , but merely that he would be a poor character to develop thus i n the f i r s t per-son . Evidence to support t h i s idea comes from the fact that, as DeVoto has pointed out, o r i g i n a l l y the novel was written i n the f i r s t person (as was the "Boy's Manuscript"), though Twain subsequently changed i t : the author "actually did begin to write the book i n the f i r s t person—the form established by [the "Manuscript"] endured that long. ... [The] manuscript con-tains one v e s t i g i a l page from an e a r l i e r beginning.... And a l l down the page the I of the narrative has been crossed out and 37 he has been substituted.... It was a wise change." 53 A d m i t t e d l y , T w a i n r e m a r k e d i n t h e l e t t e r o f J u l y 5 r a t h e r m y s t e r i o u s l y t h a t i f he t o o k Tom " i n t o manhood, he w o u l d be j u s t l i k e a l l t h e one h o r s e men i n l i t e r a t u r e a n d t h e r e a d e r 3 8 w o u l d c o n c e i v e a h e a r t y c o n t e m p t f o r h i m . " B u t t h e f a c t t h a t a l l t h e l a t e r w o r k s a b o u t t h e b o y s a r e c e n t r e d o n Tom i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p l a n o f t h e o r i g i n a l o u t l i n e , t o r e c o u n t Tom's g r o w i n g up, s t a y e d w i t h T w a i n u n t i l t h e end o f h i s c a r e e r . ( H u c k l e b e r r y  F i n n , t h e e x c e p t i o n , o f c o u r s e e m b o d i e s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y T w a i n ' s d e s i r e t o r u n a b o y t h r o u g h l i f e " i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n . " ) The " F i f t y Y e a r s A f t e r " m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ' s , w h i c h seems n o t t o h a v e s u r v i v e d , r e i n f o r c e s t h e i d e a t h a t T w a i n m a i n t a i n e d a n i n t e r e s t i n f o l l o w i n g t h e o u t l i n e , f o r i t was e v i d e n t l y a s t o r y o f t h e b o y ' s r e t u r n t o t h e v i l l a g e a f t e r an a b s e n c e o f h a l f a c e n t u r y . T h e r e f o r e , T w a i n ' s o b j e c t i o n s t o Tom's s u i t a b i l i t y f o r m a t u r i t y must h a v e b e e n o n l y t e m p o r a r y . The q u e s t i o n o f T w a i n ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s s t o r y a t t h i s t i m e i s f u r t h e r c o n f u s e d b y w h a t o c c u r r e d when H o w e l l s f i n a l l y r e a d t h e m a n u s c r i p t c o m p l e t e d b y T w a i n i n J u l y o f 1875. H o w e l l s d i d n o t r e a d i t u n t i l November o f t h a t y e a r , a n d t h e s u d d e n , m a r k e d r e v e r s a l i n H o w e l l s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r k c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t ( a n d T w a i n ' s ) when t h e two w r i t e r s d i s c u s s e d i t a n d c o r r e s p o n d e d a b o u t i t i n t h e s p r i n g o f 187 5 . On November 2 1 , H o w e l l s w r o t e : " I t i s a l t o g e t h e r t h e b e s t b o y ' s s t o r y I e v e r r e a d . . . . B u t I t h i n k y o u o u g h t t o t r e a t i t e x p l i c i t l y a s a b o y ' s s t o r y . Grown-ups w i l l e n j o y i t j u s t a s much i f y o u do; a n d i f y o u s h o u l d p u t i t f o r t h a s a s t u d y o f 54 boy character from the grown-up point of view, you'd give the 39 wrong key to i t . " This contradicts absolutely his comments in his l e t t e r of July 3; but once again Twain followed his lead, replying to Howells on November 23: "Mrs. Clemens de-cides with you that the book should issue as a book for boys, 40 pure & simple ;—& so do I. I t i s surely the correct idea." But even t h i s exchange of l e t t e r s did not end the matter i n Twain's mind. On January 18, 1876, he wrote Howells regarding the use of the word " h e l l " i n the novel: "Since the books i s now professedly & confessedly a boy's & g i r l ' s book, that dern word bothers me some nights, but i t never did u n t i l I had ceased 41 to regard the volume as being for adults." (This l a s t comment comes despite his account e a r l i e r i n the l e t t e r of having "long ago" checked the use of the word with both Mrs. Clemens and her mother and aunt—vindicating the degree of Twain's discomfort with i t . ) Howells r e p l i e d that he would "have that swearing 42 out i n an instant.... I t won't do for the children." And i n 43 the published novel, the " h e l l " has become "thunder." The fact that Twain remained uneasy for so many months about the intended audience of his novel (and hence about i t s scope and purpose) suggests that he had not reconciled himself to abandoning the o r i g i n a l outline and writing a book just for children. ( A l l his previous works, afte r a l l , had been d i r e c t -ed at an adult audience.) His comment about the book that would become Huckleberry Finn, that he would run the boy "on through l i f e , " supports the idea that he had not abandoned the o r i g i n a l 55 outline. If Hamlin H i l l ' s hypotheses about the abrupt change in plans for Tom Sawyer are correct, i t reinforces the point, for Huck's sudden f l i g h t down the r i v e r on the r a f t has obvious s i m i l a r i t i e s to what may have been Tom's plan to f l e e down the r i v e r from Jackson's Island (with the townspeople believing he 44 i s dead, as H i l l points out ) after making elaborate prepar-ations and leaving his valuables with his friends. I t was less than two years l a t e r that Twain wrote the opening chapters of Huckleberry Finn and quite possibly his o r i g i n a l conception for Tom's "Battle of L i f e " may have been at the back of his mind as he wrote out the preparations that Huck made for h i s . Even i n the published novel, there are s t i l l indications that the idea of maturation and manhood was very close to the surface i n Twain's thinking about Tom. The "Conclusion" to the novel states quite e x p l i c i t l y that "the story could not go much 45 further without becoming the history of a man." And we r e c a l l 46 that at the end of Tom Sawyer his surrogate father Judge Thatcher i s planning an admirable adult career for the boy: "He meant to look to i t that Tom should be admitted to the National M i l i t a r y Academy and afterward trained i n the best law school i n the country, i n order that he might be ready for either career 47 or both." This would indicate that at the end of Tom Sawyer Twain had t r i e d to resolve the problem of the boy's maturation and manhood s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; and H i l l ' s analysis of Twain's revisions to the manuscript that indicate he "was working with 4 8 the deliberate intention of showing Tom's maturation" support 56 t h i s point. Yet Twain continued to write further works about the boy— none of which mention anything more about a career i n law or the m i l i t a r y . A reason can be advanced to explain t h i s change i n focus. Twain may have r e a l i z e d a f t e r f i n i s h i n g Tom Sawyer that the problem of an individual's coming of age involved something far more complex than parental approbation and careful career plans. Paradoxically, evidence of such a r e a l i z a t i o n by Twain comes from the next work he wrote about the boys—the Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n — d e s p i t e the r e l a t i v e absence of Tom i n i t . Twain began writing Huckleberry Finn i n the summer of 1876, almost as soon as he had finished with Tom Sawyer. There were many elements i n the e a r l i e r work that made continuing the story an easy decision. In fact, i n the published Conclusion to the novel, Twain had commented e x p l i c i t l y , "Some day i t may seem worthwhile to take up the story of the younger ones again and 49 see what sort of men and women they turned out to be." As well, as DeVoto comments, the p o s s i b i l i t y of Huck's Pap return-ing to the v i l l a g e (mentioned i n Chapter 25 of Tom Sawyer) was a p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g p l o t element: "The o r i g i n a l impetus that launched Mark's masterpiece seems to have been that possi-b i l i t y plus the chance he saw to burlesque once more a species 50 of romantic f i c t i o n . " This, combined with his renewed i n -terest i n t e l l i n g a story from the fi r s t - p e r s o n point of view 57 (returning to the form of the "Boy's Manuscript") must have made the decision a simple one. The opening of the new novel makes e x p l i c i t the connection to the e a r l i e r one: "You don't know about me, without you have read a book by the name of 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,' but 51 that a i n ' t no matter." Huck, the narrator, then goes on to give a b r i e f summary of the closing events of that work and how they are related to his present s i t u a t i o n , but aft e r t h i s a l -most immediately embarks on new material, an account of his l i f e with the Widow Douglas, which may have been excised from 52 the published version of Tom Sawyer. Almost immediately—within a month, according to a l e t t e r 53 to Howells of August 9, 1876 —problems arose, and despite the quick and easy beginning, i t was not, of course, u n t i l seven years l a t e r that the work was completed. Much has been written on t h i s hiatus, most notably Walter B l a i r ' s Mark Twain and 54 55 Huckleberry Finn and DeVoto's essay Noon and Dark, to which the reader i s referred for extensive commentary on these prob-lems. What i s most noteworthy-—and paradoxical — from the point of view of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s the undisputed fa c t that the elements that make Huckleberry Finn a "masterpiece" are those contained i n the section of the novel i n which Tom Sawyer i s noticeably absent. As DeVoto says about the beginning, "the o r i g i n a l 'idea' for Huckleberry Finn was l i t t l e more than a con-tinuation of Tom Sawyer.... But there i s no dynamic purpose i n 58 t h i s scheme, no p a r t i c u l a r course of action which would make the core of a book. Tom Sawyer's Gang [the major p l o t element in the early chapters] proved to be pretty feeble s t u f f . Similar and more c r i t i c a l comments have been made quite j u s t i -f i a b l y about the ending of the novel, Tom's grand Evasion; and even a dedicated partisan of the boy must admit that there are times i n the book he becomes quite tiresome. Yet despite the creation of a masterpiece i n the account of Huck's journeying without Tom, despite the obvious success of the idiomatic f i r s t - p e r s o n narration by Huck, despite Twain's giving himself a b r i l l i a n t opening for a pote n t i a l sequel i n Huck's f i n a l comment i n the novel ("I reckon I got to l i g h t out 57 for the T e r r i t o r y ahead of the r e s t " ) , Twain never allowed Huck to go o f f on his own again. A l l the subsequent s t o r i e s about the boys are focussed on Tom, and Huck merely acts as a narrative instrument for t e l l i n g each story. The appeal that Tom Sawyer had for Twain—even greater than that of Huck—was a complex one, summed up best perhaps by Stone when he says, "The boy's combination of imagination, s e l f -dramatization, and common sense was, after a l l , a part of Twain himself and could never be wholly derided. Indeed, he l i k e d Tom and. reproduced his e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n many g u i s e s — i n Tom Canty, i n Hank Morgan, i n Pudd'nhead Wilson, and 58 i n several minor personages of the t r a v e l books." Indeed, when one looks at Twain's own l i f e , i t would seem that the Tom 59 Sawyer elements o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y were by f a r the dominant ones. His extra v a g a n t house i n H a r t f o r d i s a case i n p o i n t : " $ 7 0 , 0 0 0 worth of t u r r e t s and b a l c o n i e s housing $ 2 1 , 0 0 0 worth of f u r n i t u r e and perched on a f i v e - a c r e $ 3 1 , 0 0 0 t r a c t of land, 59 Nook Farm's ... gau d i e s t landmark." Then th e r e are h i s ex-t e n s i v e t r a v e l s w i t h a l a r g e entourage, h i s endless monologues, even h i s white l i n e n s u i t s . A l l served to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n i n ways Tom Sawyer would have admired. But more important than t h i s from a l i t e r a r y p o i n t of view i s the f a c t t h a t Huck s u f f e r s from two b'asic weaknesses as a c h a r a c t e r which Tom does not share: he i s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y p a s s i v e , and he i s an o u t s i d e r t o s o c i e t y . What made these aspects o f Huck so d i f f i c u l t to u t i l i z e i n the l a t e r s t o r i e s are, I b e l i e v e , s e v e r a l important d i s c o v e r i e s t h a t Twain made i n the long course o f w r i t i n g Huckleberry F i n n , d i s c o v e r i e s about the nature o f e v i l , the r o l e o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i e t y , the dilemma of love versus r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and even about ado-l e s c e n t s e x u a l i t y . These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d at g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n a subsequent s e c t i o n ; f o r the moment i t can be hypothesized t h a t a t the end of Huckleberry F i n n , Twain found h i m s e l f c o n f r o n t e d w i t h an e x t r a o r d i n a r y a r t i s t i c dilemma. He was burdened w i t h a c h a r a c t e r who, because of l i m i t a t i o n s i n the way he had been o r i g i n a l l y conceived and presented, c o u l d no longer adequately embody or c o n f r o n t the complex i s s u e s Twain wished to e x p l o r e . Yet a t the same time, Huck's f i c t i o n a l v o i c e Twain found con-g e n i a l . The author may have r e a l i z e d t h a t Huck c o u l d be used 60 to p r e s e n t the i s s u e s , but the focus o f them would be on the o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t of the s t o r i e s , Tom Sawyer. A major element of the l a t e r works about the boys i s a repeated attempt to r e s o l v e t h i s problem s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note i n t h i s regard t h a t Twain e v i -d e n t l y found i t q u i t e easy, at l e a s t a t f i r s t , to continue the s t o r y of Tom and Huck immediately a f t e r f i n i s h i n g Huckleberry  F i n n . Evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t he began a sequel t o the novel i n the summer of 1884, bef o r e Huckleberry F i n n was even pub-6 0 l i s h e d , and w h i l e he was s t i l l r e a d i n g p r o o f s o f t h a t n o v e l . T h i s immediate c o n t i n u a t i o n of the s t o r y may have been helped by the f a c t t h a t there seems to have been no c o n f u s i o n or un-c e r t a i n t y i n Twain's mind over the new book's intended audience. The ease w i t h which Twain continued the saga o f Huck and Tom i n d i c a t e s t h a t he found the combination o f Huck's n a r r a t i v e v o i c e and a p l o t focus on Tom very c o n g e n i a l . At the same time, he was ab l e to use t h i s combination to expl o r e some s i g n i f i c a n t i d e a s . "Huck F i n n and Tom Sawyer among the Indians," the sequel to Huckleberry F i n n t h a t Twain began t o w r i t e i n the summer of 1884, i l l u s t r a t e s the author's e x p l o r a t i o n of s e v e r a l of the themes t h a t he had d i s c o v e r e d i n the course of w r i t i n g Huckle- b e r r y F i n n . Among them are the i n t r i n s i c e v i l of s l a v e r y , the boredom of everyday l i f e , and the h y p o c r i s y of people. In a d d i t i o n t o these, though, he a l s o begins t o examine o t h e r s as w e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y (to r e t u r n to the 1874 o u t l i n e ) the problem 61 of a boy's growing up. In the exploration of t h i s question es p e c i a l l y , the e v i l of slavery and the dehumanization of the black man were discovered to be of v i t a l importance. One of the major concerns of the "Indians" story can be seen as the need to give Tom a lesson i n moral education and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y — a v i t a l part of the process of becoming a man— through the agency of Jim, whom the boy had treated so callous-l y i n the l a s t ten chapters of Huckleberry Finn. Thus, the kidnapping of. Jim i s an important element i n the fragment. Tom wishes to pursue the Indians who did i t to f i n d Jim. He says e x p l i c i t l y , "I got Jim into t h i s scrape, and so of course I ain't going to turn back towards home t i l l I've got him out of 6 2 i t again." His attitude can be contrasted to Huck's, whose major in t e r e s t i n th e i r pursuit of the Indians i s finding seven-teen year-old Peggy M i l l s — d e s p i t e the close, almost f i l i a l bond he and the slave had developed during the journey down the r i v e r . Unfortunately, for reasons which w i l l be discussed l a t e r , "Huck and Tom among the Indians" did not turn out to be a suitable vehicle for exploring the topic of Tom's maturation, and the story was abandoned within a few weeks after he started with less than nine chapters written. His f a i l u r e to complete thi s story, despite i t s many poten t i a l themes and plot develop-ments, may have contributed to Twain's evident abandonment of a l l things concerned with Tom and Huck for several years; be-62 tween 1884 and 1890 there are no comments or notes about the boys i n any s u r v i v i n g l e t t e r s or notebooks. A l s o , Twain may have found h i m s e l f t i r e d and s t a l e a f t e r d e a l i n g so e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h h i s boy c h a r a c t e r s i n the year p r e c e d i n g t h i s p e r i o d : between the summers of 1883 and 1884, Twain f i n i s h e d Huckle-b e r r y F i n n ( a f t e r seven years of t r y i n g ) , completed a f o u r - a c t p l a y based on the novel Tom Sawyer i n the w i n t e r of t h a t year, read p r o o f s and arranged f o r . t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of Huckleberry  F i n n i n the s p r i n g , and i n the summer of 1884, planned and wrote the 20,000 word fragment we have been d i s c u s s i n g . Twain may have r e t u r n e d to the boys b r i e f l y i n 1888 or 1 8 8 9 , but o n l y so f a r as to have the incomplete "Indians" f r a g -ment s e t up and run o f f as an experiment on the Paige type-6 3 s e t t i n g machine i n which he had i n v e s t e d so h e a v i l y . But t h i s p e r i o d was one of the l e a s t p r o d u c t i v e — l i t e r a r i l y — i n Twain's l i f e (he p u b l i s h e d no major work between Huckleberry  F i n n i n 1885 and A C o n n e c t i c u t Yankee i n King A r t h u r ' s Court i n 1 8 8 9 ) . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , perhaps, t h a t a f t e r the f a i l u r e of "Indians," Huck and Tom should have been t e m p o r a r i l y j e t t i -soned i n Twain's mind by the Yankee on the one hand and the Paige t y p e s e t t i n g machine on the other. But i t i s worth specu-l a t i n g t h a t t h i s f a l l o w p e r i o d may suggest the importance to Twain's i m a g i n a t i o n of the boy c h a r a c t e r s and the problems of t h e i r maturation which had t e m p o r a r i l y defeated him. In the e a r l y 1890's, however, Twain r e t u r n e d to the boys (as w e l l as other c h a r a c t e r s from e a r l i e r works) wi t h a venge-a n c e , p e r h a p s p r o m p t e d b y h i s d e s p e r a t e n e e d f o r money a f t e r t h e c o l l a p s e o f b o t h h i s i n v e s t m e n t scheme f o r t h e t y p e s e t t e r and h i s p u b l i s h i n g h o u s e , C h a r l e s L. W e b s t e r & Co. B u t t h e t o n e o f h i s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e b o y s was now v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f s e v e r a l y e a r s e a r l i e r . A f a i r l y l e n g t h y n o t e i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1891 s t a t e s : Huck comes b a c k 6 0 y e a r s o l d , f r o m n o b o d y knows w h e r e — & c r a z y . T h i n k s he i s a b o y a g a i n , & s c a n s a l w a y s e v e r y f a c e f o r Tom & B e c k y &c. Tom comes, a t l a s t , 60 f r o m w a n d e r i n g t h e w o r l d & t e n d s Huck, & t o g e t h e r t h e y t a l k o f o l d t i m e s ; b o t h a r e d e s o -l a t e , l i f e h a s b e e n a f a i l u r e , a l l t h a t was l o v a b l e , a l l t h a t was b e a u t i f u l is^„ • 64 u n d e r t h e m o u l d . They d i e t o g e t h e r . A n o t h e r n o t e s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r r e p e a t s t h i s i d e a : "Tom & Huck d i e . Where t h e e m p h a s i s was now on l i f e ' s d e f e a t s , i t h a d e a r l i e r b e e n on l i f e ' s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I n T w a i n ' s n o t e s f o r f u r t h e r s e q u e l s t o H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n w r i t t e n j u s t a f t e r c o m p l e t -i n g t h e n o v e l i n 18 84 we f i n d : " C o n t i n u e Tom and Huck. P u t more o f S i d t h e mean b o y i n , " "Make a k i n d o f Huck F i n n n a r r a t -i v e on a b o a t — l e t h i m s h i p a s C a b i n b o y and a n o t h e r b o y a s a cub p i l o t , " " P u t Huck a n d Tom and J i m t h r o u g h my Mo. c a m p a i g n . " A l l h a v e a c e r t a i n v i t a l i t y a n d m i g h t p o s s i b l y h a v e made q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g f i c t i o n . B u t t h e i d e a o f t h e r e t u r n t o t h e v i l l a g e a s a d u l t s h a d b e e n p r e s e n t i n T w a i n ' s m i n d e v e r s i n c e t h e 1874 o u t l i n e , o f 64 c o u r s e , when he p l a n n e d t o r e t u r n h i s h e r o t o t h e t o wn a t "age 37 t o ( 4 0 ? ) " — i n t e r e s t i n g l y , r o u g h l y h i s own age when he w r o t e t h i s — a n d t h e i d e a was r e p e a t e d i n a s y n o p s i s f o r a p l a y b a s e d on t h e n o v e l Tom S a w y e r t h a t T w a i n c o p y r i g h t e d i n J u l y , 1875: " F I F T Y YEARS L A T E R . — O v a t i o n t o G e n e r a l S a w y e r , R e a r - A d m i r a l H a r p e r , B i s h o p F i n n , a n d I n s p e c t o r S i d S a w y e r , t h e c e l e b r a t e d d e t e c t i v e . " ^ As W a l t e r B l a i r comments, t h i s s y n o p s i s was p r o b a b l y 6 8 " w r i t t e n b e f o r e t h e p l a y was," a n d i n f a c t t h e v e r s i o n o f t h e p l a y t h a t T w a i n d i d w r i t e i n t h e w i n t e r o f 1884-85 c o n t a i n s no h i n t o f a r e t u r n t o t h e v i l l a g e y e a r s l a t e r . H o wever, t h e b r i e f comment i n t h i s s y n o p s i s p r o v i d e s a s u g g e s t i v e i l l u m i n -a t i o n o f w h a t T w a i n t h o u g h t o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s , a n d w h a t k i n d o f a d u l t s t h e y w o u l d b e , s t i l l a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f w h a t w o u l d become t h e H u c k a n d Tom s a g a . " G e n e r a l S a w y e r , " i s o f c o u r s e a p p r o p r i a t e i f Tom f o l l o w e d t h e c a r e e r s u g g e s t e d f o r h i m by J u d g e T h a t c h e r a t t h e e n d o f Tom S a w y e r , e n t e r i n g t h e N a t i o n a l M i l i t a r y Academy; " R e a r - A d m i r a l H a r p e r " may be s u g g e s t e d b y J o e ' s e v i d e n t l e a d e r s h i p shown by h i s r a n k o f G e n e r a l i n t h e b o y s ' army i n t h e n o v e l , c o m b i n e d w i t h h i s t a s t e f o r a q u a t i c a d v e n t u r e s i n t h e : J a c k s o n ' s I s l a n d e p i s o d e ; " B i s h o p F i n n " may be s e e n a s an i n t e r e s t i n g a n t i c i p a t i o n o f H u c k ' s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d m o r a l i t y c h a n n e l e d i n t o more c o n v e n t i o n a l s o c i a l f o r m s t h a n w o u l d be p o s s i b l e f o r T w a i n t o e n v i s i o n f o r t h e b o y a f t e r h a v i n g d e v e l o p e d H u c k ' s d e t e r m i n e d d i s a f f i l i a t i o n f r o m s o c i e t y i n H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n . The t r a n s m u t a t i o n o f t h e h a t e f u l S i d i n t o 6 5 "the celebrated detective" may be a r e f l e c t i o n of Twain's own l i f e l o n g amused contempt for p o l i c e , as evidenced i n such works as "The Stolen White Elephant" ( 1 8 8 2 ) and "A Double-Barrelled Detective Story" ( 1 9 0 2 ) . Curiously, the return of the boys i n the synopsis " f i f t y years l a t e r " would mean that they would be the same age, rough-l y , as that of Tom and Huck i n the l a t e r , lugubrious notes of 1 8 9 1 — a b o u t 6 0 , and the difference i n t h e i r fates shows quite markedly the difference i n Twain's feelings betwen 1 8 7 5 and 1 8 9 1 . However, the author seems never to have even begun a story about the boys incorporating the mournful attitude of the 1 8 9 1 notes, and when, shortly afterwards, he began a sequel to Huckleberry Finn, i t shows no trace of t h i s despairing out-look . This sequel, which became the novella Tom Sawyer Abroad, was written i n the summer of 1 8 9 2 , and was f i r s t planned as part of a much vaster scheme. Gerber notes that Twain's o r i g i n a l intention "was to make i t the f i r s t i n a series of volumes i n which he would send Huck and Tom and Jim to various parts of the world. He could add a m i l l i o n words ... simply 'by adding " A f r i c a , " "England," "Germany," etc. to the t i t l e 6 9 page of each successive volume of the se r i e s . ' " This elabor-ate plan, however, came to nothing, but i t gives an i n d i c a t i o n of the reawakened hold that the boys had on his imagination by t h i s point i n his l i f e , i n contrast to a few years e a r l i e r , 66 both i n terms of the f i c t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s they offered, and of course i n the f i n a n c i a l opportunity that such a series would create. "Since t h i s was the age of the tremendously popular Nick Carter, Oliver Optic, and Horatio Alger series, i t i s not surprising that Mark Twain—and his f a m i l y — s h o u l d consider the 70 p o s s i b i l i t y of a Tom Sawyer or Huck Finn Series." The form of Tom Sawyer Abroad was the same as that of both Huckleberry Finn and the abortive "Huck and Tom among the Indians": a f i r s t person narrative by Huck. This must have caused some confusion or uncertainty i n the author's mind as to exactly which character he was focussing on. Before s e t t l i n g on the f i n a l t i t l e , Twain considered a number of d i f f e r e n t ones for the work: "Huck Finn i n A f r i c a , " "New Adventures of Huckle-berry Finn," "Huckleberry Finn Abroad," or "Huckleberry Finn 71 and Tom :Sawyer Abroad," A l l but the l a s t of these indicates that he f e l t his primary emphasis was on the narrator, Huck— at least while he was s t i l l writing; but by the end of the sum-mer of 1892, he f i n a l l y decided on the t i t l e used i n publication, demonstrating that he had r e a l i z e d that the major focus of the story was on Tom. This would be the form for a l l the l a t e r works about the boys--"Tom Sawyer, Detective," "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy"--and i t provides additional evidence of how strong the hold was that Tom, rather than Huck, had on his imagination. Tom Sawyer Abroad was published more than a year af t e r i t s completion, i n Mary Mapes Dodge's St. Nicholas Magazine 67 from November, 1893 through A p r i l , 1894, a f t e r s e v e r a l months 72 of n e g o t i a t i o n s , and i s s u e d i n book form i n A p r i l , 1894 by Ch a r l e s L. Webster & C o . — " t h e l a s t book p u b l i s h e d by Clemens' 73 own p u b l i s h i n g house." Twain seems not to have concerned h i m s e l f much wit h the n o v e l l a a f t e r i t had been accepted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by Mrs. Dodge i n the f a l l o f 1892 but i n the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , the two boys once again began to s t i m u l a t e h i s c r e a t i v i t y , and he began p l a n n i n g a new work concerning them which, as f a r as i s known, has been l o s t . On A p r i l 5, 1 8 9 3 , he wrote h i s daughter C l a r a a l e t t e r i n which he g i v e s a b r i e f account of the new s t o r y : I have been a l l day mapping out an ad-venturous summer f o r Huck and Tom and Jim. As a r e s u l t I have two c l o s e l y w r i t t e n pages of notes, enough f o r the whole book. There w i l l be mysterious murders i n the f i r s t chapter. The book w i l l be devoted to f i n d i n g out who com-m i t t e d them.74 He continued working on t h i s n a r r a t i v e i n the f a l l of 1 8 9 3 , f o r on November 10 of t h a t year, he wrote h i s w i f e , L i v y , a l e t t e r mentioning t h a t "I am making good progress w i t h 'Tom Sawyer's Mystery,' f o r I have w r i t t e n 10,000 words, which i s one-seventh of a book l i k e Huck F i n n or P r i n c e & Pauper.... The s t o r y t e l l s i t s e l f . " 7 5 Thus although the "Mystery" manuscript seems not to have s u r v i v e d , the r e f e r e n c e s to i t i n d i c a t e t h a t Mark Twain's i n -t e r e s t i n the boys must have been s t i m u l a t e d enough by the 68 completion and publication of Tom Sawyer Abroad for him to con-tinue thinking and planning works about them immediately after that story was done (a similar pattern, we r e c a l l , , to Twain's behaviour after f i n i s h i n g Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry F i n n — immediately planning sequels to them). Also, the outline of the story makes quite e x p l i c i t an element of Tom Sawyer's per-sonality that had only been implied i n e a r l i e r works. With his cleverness and imagination, he would be able to work out com-plex series of events and solve crimes quite e a s i l y , and there-fore could play the role of detective very naturally. He had already displayed something of t h i s a b i l i t y i n Tom  Sawyer, i n tracking down Injun Joe; and i n the "Evasion" episode of Huckleberry Finn he had i n e f f e c t acted as a mirror image of a detective, planting clues such as anonymous notes to make i t seem as i f a great crime was about to be committed. In the "Mystery" story, however, Tom's penchant for deduction would form a major, i f not central, element of the p l o t . I t may, therefore, have been an a n t i c i p a t i o n of the l a t e r "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." The next story about the boys, "Tom Sawyer, Detective," was published i n 1896. I t was written very quickly i n January, 1895, just after Twain heard the story of the Danish pastor, Soren Jensen Quist, evidently from Anna L i l l i e Greenough, wife 16 of a former Danish ambassador to the United States. This complex t a l e — w r i t t e n as the novel, The Minister of Veilby i n 69 1829 by Steen Steenson B l i c h e r — o f disappearance, murder, re-venge, rejected love, somnambulism, and other elements, evid-ently appealed immediately and strongly to Twain's imagination, for just after hearing the story, he wrote to his f r i e n d H. H. Rogers that he considered i t "a f i r s t - r a t e subject for a book. I t kept me awake a l l night, and I began and completed i t i n my mind. The minute I f i n i s h Joan [of Arc] I w i l l take i t .,77 up. Its appeal was so strong, i n fact, that he was able to complete the story i n three weeks, tra n s f e r r i n g quite straight-forwardly the Scandinavian plot to the Phelps plantation on the banks of the M i s s i s s i p p i . Some elements of the l o s t "Mystery" manuscript may, however, also have been included i n the l a t e r work. The ex-slave Jim was present i n the "Mystery" story (see the l e t t e r of A p r i l 5, 1893 above). Although Jim does not appear i n "Detective," Gerber thinks that "Jim was i n the present story at one time" and that his presence was transferred from the "Mystery" fragment: A portion of the manuscript, pages 15-20, begins, "Our nigger Jim was with us." What follows i s an account of how the boys with t h e i r treasure money [from the Adventures of Tom Sawyer] had freed Jim's wife and "deef and dumb" daughter and how Jim from then on i n s i s t e d on taking care of the boys wherever they went. The passage ... has at least two ear-marks of being copied from something else. The manuscript for the section i s ex-ceptionally clean (only two changes i n 485 words) and the handwriting i s larger 70 and more free-flowing than usual. At the end of the passage the author's hand-writing abruptly reassumes i t s customary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . ^ Yet the presence of Jim, whatever i t s source, was perhaps too d i f f i c u l t for the Quist-Veilby story to absorb, and the slave was deleted at some point before the "Detective" story was pub-lishe d . Other elements may have come from the "Mystery" fragment, though, which would help explain some of the anomalies and com-p l e x i t i e s of the published work. Gerber thinks that "Possibly the male twins come from the o r i g i n a l story ["Mystery"]. Almost c e r t a i n l y the business of the diamonds does, for ... the impor-tance of the diamonds i n the plot fades once the boys get to Arkansas and elements from the Blicher story take over." As well, Twain seems to have had to "discard an i d e n t i f y i n g mark that many might have recognized and substitute o n e — J u b i t e r ' s habit of drawing a cross with his finger on his cheek i n moments 79 of s t r e s s — t h a t only Tom Sawyer would recognize." If these and perhaps other elements were transferred, we have a clear i n d i c a t i o n of Twain's u t i l i t a r i a n attitude toward his characters and s t o r i e s . He was w i l l i n g to f i t them together almost l i k e a jigsaw puzzle i n order to save e f f o r t i n achieving the e f f e c t he wanted at the moment. The Blicher story, of course, contains many elements that naturally would have appealed to Twain and which he would have 71 recognized as e a s i l y f i t t i n g into a Tom Sawyer n a r r a t i v e — p a r t i c u l a r l y one t o l d by Huck Finn. This i s e s p e c i a l l y evident when one considers that t h i s was the height of the Sherlock Holmes craze: "Twain must have been e s p e c i a l l y pleased to d i s -cover how e a s i l y Tom and Huck f i t into the famous roles of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. A l l he had to do was to make Tom even shrewder than he had been, and Huck even more of the 8 0 admiring straight man." As J u s t i n Kaplan comments, "Tom Sawyer, Detective was a frank attempt to cash i n on the current 81 rage for Sherlock Holmes and detective f i c t i o n i n general." The story, therefore, would have not merely ready-made charac-ters, but a ready-made audience for i t as well. In addition, there were i n i t such f a m i l i a r Twain devices as "a f a l s e deaf-mute, the fear of ghosts, swindles perpetrated on the innocent, murder, mistaken i d e n t i t i e s , and a dramatic 8 2 t r i a l . " A l l of these, combined with the quick p r o f i t he made from the story--$2,600 for s e r i a l i z a t i o n i n Harper's (though i t did not appear u n t i l more than a year l a t e r : August-September, 8 3 1896) —demonstrates why he found i t so quick and easy to write and then s e l l the work. These same elements also resulted i n the generally poor regard i n which the story has been held. The i n c r e d i b l y com-plex plot , the s u p e r f i c i a l characters, the formulaic writing, a l l serve to make the work a very shallow one i n most c r i t i c s ' regard. Even Twain himself seems to have offered an oblique 72 c r i t i c i s m : "What a curious thing a 'detective' story i s . And was there ever one that the author needn't be ashamed of, except 84 'The Murders i n the Rue Morgue?'" "Tom Sawyer, Detective," then, c l e a r l y has many li m i t a t i o n s and flaws. Yet, as we s h a l l see i n ensuing chapters., i t plays an important t r a n s i t i o n a l r o l e leading to the major surviving work i n the series, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." The complicated—and perhaps unresolved—arguments over the intended audience for the Adventures of Tom Sawyer made a curious reappearance i n the case of both these l a t t e r novellas, Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective." In regard to the former, Clemens' wife and children "thought i t a story for young folk , but the humourist cannily declared that i t was for any boy between eight years and eighty. 'I conceive the ri g h t way to write a story for boys i s to write i t so that i t w i l l not only i n t e r e s t boys but w i l l strongly inte r e s t any man who 8 5 has ever been a boy.'" On the other hand, with "Tom Sawyer, Detective," Twain said e x p l i c i t l y that i t " i s r e a l l y written for grown folk, 8 6 though I expect young folk to read i t , too." The somewhat wavering conception that the writer had of both works indicates that t h i s issue was s t i l l unresolved i n his mind. The next work i n the series, however, unquestionably ex-plores adult issues. This i s "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," and for Twain i t c l e a r l y represented a kind of culmination for a 73 number of issues that had been present from the very e a r l i e s t works about the boys, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, and Adven-tures of Huckleberry Finn. In fact, the seeds of the story may have been planted i n a notebook entry dating from the time of the completion of the l a t t e r novel. In 1884, Twain made a note-book entry: " V i l l a i n s very scarce.... P a t e r - r o l l e r s and 8 7 slavery." This, as Walter B l a i r makes clear, was "a reference to the p a t r o l l e r s who guarded p r e - C i v i l War Missouri towns 8 8 against a b o l i t i o n i s t s and escaping slaves." Nothing came of thi s idea, however, u n t i l many years l a t e r . In 1894 Twain wrote "A Scrap of Curious History," concerning an a b o l i t i o n i s t i n Hannibal who helped a slave escape and was hanged for i t . Many of the d e t a i l s of thi s event "would recur in "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy"—the fearsome a b o l i t i o n i s t s ; the captured runaway slave; the secret society with i t s costumes, ceremonies, and warning posters; the pious pr i n t e r ; murder; and 8 9 communal excitement and confusion." Two years l a t e r , Twain noted down another idea that would be u t i l i z e d i n the story: "Have Huck t e l l how one white brother shaved his head, put on a wool wig and was blackened and sold as a negro. Escaped that 90 night, washed himself, and helped hunt for himself under pay." A year l a t e r , he elaborated on t h i s idea: "Tom i s disguised as a negro and sold i n Ark [ansas] for $10, then he and Huck help 91 hunt for him afte r the disguise i s removed." This was the outline of the plot that was f i n a l l y used i n 74 the "Conspiracy" s t o r y — i n t y p i c a l Twain fashion, only aft e r years of rumination and discarded plans. The author began the work evidently i n the summer of 189 7, while i n Weggis, Switzer-92 land, more than two years a f t e r completing the preceding story i n the sequence, "Tom Sawyer, Detective." "Conspiracy," therefore, was the f i r s t Tom and Huck story written aft e r the f i n a l f a i l u r e of the Paige typesetting machine, personal bank-ruptcy, the round-the-world tour, the completion of the book based on i t (Following the Equator) to pay o f f his debts, and the death of his favourite daughter, Susie, i n the house at Hartford i n August, 1896. Written aft e r a l l these d i s a s t e r s — a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r with a lessening of f i n a n c i a l pressures—"Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" involves a deeper exploration of several profound themes than had been present i n any of the works from the early 1890's. Indeed, i t involved themes unexplored since the writing of "Huck and Tom among the Indians" almost f i f t e e n years e a r l i e r . The work i s c l o s e l y linked with the preceding story, "Tom Sawyer, Detective," and i n fact the events of that work provide much of the impulse for Tom's behaviour—and his r e t r i b u t i o n — i n t h i s one. Twain seems to have written about a t h i r d of the fragment by the end of the summer of 1897, up through the creation of the "Conspiracy" portion of the narrative. At t h i s point, the author's i n t e r e s t may have been directed to a new and deeply fascinating project, "The Mysterious Stranger" story, an idea 75 . that he had been exploring also for several years. In 1895, Twain had made a notebook entry, "What uncle 93 Satan said," and i n 1897 "was writing 'Letters to Satan' i n -94 v i t i n g His Grace to 'make a pleasure tour through the world"; in June of that year, just before beginning the "Conspiracy" story, he jotted down an idea for a book: "Satan's boyhood— going around with the other boys and surprising them with 95 d e v i l i s h miracles." When "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" f a l t e r e d i n the f a l l of 1897, Twain turned to the Satan narrative, placing the action i n the world of Huck and Tom, possibly to avoid abandoning e n t i r e l y his frustrated e f f o r t s . For the f i r s t version of the "Myster-ious Stranger" was evidently written i n the f a l l of 1897 and was set i n St. Petersburg and had Huck at least as one of the major 9 6 characters. But thi s version was almost immediately discarded as a viable narrative, and i t s nineteen manuscript pages were worked into the next version, "The Chronicle of Young Satan," which Twain worked on intermittently for the next three years. The "Chronicle" i s set i n ; a small town i n Austria i n 1702 — far removed, at least s u p e r f i c i a l l y , from the boyhood world of Twain's childhood. A year l a t e r , though, the author returned to the idea of setti n g the "Mysterious Stranger" story i n St. Petersburg, and in November, 1898, wrote out a long notebook entry o u t l i n i n g the form of such a story, quite d i f f e r e n t from the e a r l i e r attempt: 76 Story of l i t t l e Satan, j r , who came to (Petersburg (Hannibal)) went to school was popular and greatly l i k e d by (Huck and Tom) who knew his secret. The others were jealous, and the g i r l s didn't l i k e him because he smelt of brimstone.... By and by he i s converted and becomes a methodist. and quits miracling.... As he does no more miracles, even his pals f a l l away and disbelieve i n him. 5 3 7 Twain began a story based, very loosely, on t h i s outline shortly thereafter, and wrote six chapters of i t i n November and Decem-ber of 1898. This work, now known as "Schoolhouse H i l l , " has several i n t e r e s t i n g aspects, but on balance cannot be said to f i t more than remotely into the sequence of stories about the boys. I t i s the f i r s t surviving work involving Huck and Tom since the o r i g i n a l Adventures of Tom Sawyer that i s not written i n the f i r s t person; and afte r the f i r s t two chapters, Huck and Tom disappear completely'from the narrative. The focus of the work centres on Number 44, Satan's son, and to a lesser extent on Oliver Hotchkiss. Yet i n the b r i e f appearance of the two boys, and i n the omniscient author's comments about them and t h e i r fellows, the work provides a useful glimpse of Mark Twain's perception of them, now almost twenty-five years after t h e i r creation, a perception not f i l t e r e d through Huck Finn's consciousness. The omniscient narrator allows Twain more freedom to comment on his characters than would be possible i f Huck were the narrator. 77 For example, there i s a touching vignette at the beginning of "Schoolhouse H i l l " of Huck helping Tom with his sled i n front of the schoolhouse, "although he was not a member of the school in these days; he merely came i n order to be with Tom u n t i l 98 school 'took i n . 1 " In the emphasis on the closeness between the two boys, t h i s reminds us of the b r i e f but moving exchange between Huck and Tom i n the Adventures of Tom Sawyer, when they are discussing what they would do i f they f i n d the buried treasure. Tom announces he w i l l get married, and Huck r e p l i e s , "Only i f you get married I ' l l be more lonesomer than ever." To which Tom immediately responds, "No you won't. You'll come and 99 l i v e with me." These two incidents perhaps most c l e a r l y de-fine the fundamentally f a m i l i a l relationship between Huck and Tom. The relationship.was established i n the f i r s t novel and remains remarkably constant throughout a l l the stories involv-ing the boys. "Schoolhouse H i l l " seems to have been written i n a b r i e f spurt of c r e a t i v i t y and then abandoned, perhaps because of what William M. Gibson c a l l s "inherent contradictions within the character of 44 and his projected actions. Twain's exten-sive notes for the story, though, contain a number of promising p l o t l i n e s that might have created entertaining f i c t i o n : Number 44 would f a l l i n love with the daughter of a Presbyterian pastor, he would transport Tom and Huck around the world (reminding us perhaps of Tom Sawyer Abroad) and even into H e l l i t s e l f . There were plans for him to s t a r t an "anti-Moral Sense" Church,"'"^ "'' 78 and i n general he was to act as a kind of enlightened teacher to humanity. But the d i r e c t i o n "Schoolhouse H i l l " was taking by the si x t h chapter may have contributed to the story's abrupt abandon-ment. As i t i s written, the fragment increasingly becomes a philosophical t r a c t at the expense of f i c t i o n a l action and characterization, p a r t i c u l a r l y any action involving Huck and Tom, who completely disappear from the narrative by the end of the second chapter. In t h i s abandonment of the two boys, "Schoolhouse H i l l " resembles Twain's f i r s t attempt to write the "Mysterious Stranger" story, also set i n St. Petersburg. Its 19 pages were quickly abandoned and worked into the "Chronicle of Young Satan" narrative. William Macnaughton suggests another reason why "School-house H i l l " may have been so pr e c i p i t o u s l y abandoned afte r what 102 William Gibson c a l l s "a moderately promising beginning." Twain may have wanted a long subscription book once more, and what would be a better subject than a story about the two pop-ular boys, but not one that merely "tantalized his readers with references to Tom and Huck, but rather one that centered on 103 t h e i r adventures." Therefore, he may have returned at this point to the "Conspiracy" story that he had shelved a year e a r l i e r , this time continuing i t with the murder mystery element of Bat Bradish's k i l l i n g . At t h i s point i n the narrative, there were many things 79 that held a great deal of promise; the town has been "de-103 l i c i o u s l y frightened" by Tom's conspiracy, there i s the murder mystery, there i s the danger that the f a l s e l y accused Jim i s fac i n g — a n d the e f f e c t that t h i s has on Tom, there i s humour, s a t i r e , and a number of p o t e n t i a l l y rewarding plot complications that might have been developed, such as f l e e i n g with Jim to England"or "the' appearance' "of " " B u r r e l l ' s Gang" of 1 0 4 " ' cutthroats. But once again, the narrative seems to have 105 been shelved, perhaps i n January, 1899, evidently because, as Macnaughton suggests, Twain "was not ready to force his imagination" "in the'direction that any of these developments would have entailed. He seems to have returned from "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" story to the "Chronicle of Young Satan" i n the spring of 1899,"'" and worked primarily on the l a t t e r story over the next year or two. I t was not u n t i l the spring of 1902 that his i n t e r e s t i n the boys seems to have been reawakened, and at t h i s point he began to work e x p l i c i t l y on an idea that had been present at least at the back of his mind ever since beginning work on the novel Tom Sawyer i n 1874. This idea concerned the return of the boys to St. Petersburg as adults; i t was f i r s t mentioned, of course, i n the 1874 outline. Tom was to come back to the 108 v i l l a g e at the age of 37 or so. Then the motif was re-peated i n the b r i e f coda to the synopsis of the dramatization of that novel that Twain wrote i n 1875 (the return of "General Sawyer" and "Bishop Finn" f i f t y years l a t e r ) . Later, a f t e r 80 the misfortunes of the 1880's and 90's, i t was mentioned i n his notes with the idea of Huck and Tom dying i n despair. Now Twain began to plan and write a new novel based on t h i s scenario. His i n t e r e s t may have been prompted by Twain's own return to Hannibal i n the spring of 1902 to receive an honorary 109 degree from the University of Missouri. As quoted by B l a i r from the Ralls County Record, during t h i s v i s i t almost exactly f i f t y years aft e r he himself had l e f t the town, Twain "gave 'a very humorous and touchingly pathetic' speech, 'breaking down i n tears at i t s conclusion. 1 'Commenting on his boyhood days and r e f e r r i n g to his mother ... was too much for the great humorist, and he melted down i n tears.'" The depth of emotion that t h i s v i s i t seems to have prompted may be responsible for the rather remarkable tone and subject matter that t h i s new work about the boys contained, much more e x p l i c i t l y adult than any of the previous works con-cerning the two boys. G i r l s belong to Tom Sawyer's Gang, "kissing parties" are mentioned, and Twain reminds himself to "Name a l l the sweethearts ... Laura Hawkins Becky Pavey Mary M i l l e r Artemissa Briggs Jane Robards Sarah Robards Nanny Ousely Becky Thatcher Cornelia Thompson Jenny Brady Jenny Craig. There i s "even a suggestion that one g i r l , as 112 Huck says, was a 'horlat.'" Clearly, the p o s s i b i l i t y for a r e l a t i v e l y e x p l i c i t discussion of youthful sexuality was present i n t h i s work. 81 But another lengthy note suggests the same sort of evasiveness that characterized the references to Peggy M i l l s ' rape almost twenty years e a r l i e r i n "Huck and Tom among the Indians." This enigmatic note may have formed merely one plot l i n e of the " F i f t y Years After" narrative, or i t might have been the basis of the novel i t s e l f : The time John Briggs's nigger-boy woke his anger and got a cuffi n g ... John went, hearing his father coming, for he had done something so shameful that he could never bring himself to confess to the boys what i t was; no one knew but the negro lad, John's father i s i n a fury, and accuses the lad, who doesn't deny i t ; ... no corporeal [sic] punishment i s half severe enough—he s e l l s him down the r i v e r . John aghast when he sneaks home next day and learns i t . "What did you s e l l him for, father?" T e l l s him. John i s speechless,—can't confess. The lad, very old, comes back i n '02 and he and John meet, with the others l e f t a l i v e . 1 1 3 This note may conceivably refer to some sort of youthful sexual peccadillo, but i t i s so vague as to be impossible to know for sure. But what i s also noteworthy about t h i s plan i s that i t may represent a curious confusion i n Twain's mind between autobiography and f i c t i o n . John Briggs was one of his r e a l -l i f e boyhood friends (and Twain v i s i t e d with him during his 114 return to Hannibal i n 1902 ), yet he i s to appear i n a narrative t o l d by Huck F i n n — a f i c t i o n a l character. It was possibly at t h i s time also that Twain wrote a 82 b r i e f fragment—perhaps a reminiscent note—about an incident from his childhood which might have appeared i n the " F i f t y Years After" story. I t concerns a g i r l who scares an old lady 115 into "the sylum" by creeping up behind her with a mask and surprising her. This incident, based evidently on a r e a l 116 event of Twain's childhood, i s mentioned i n a note about the planned novel, with added, melodramatic touches: "old lady now, s t i l l i n asylum—a bride then. What went with him? Shall we v i s i t her? And s h a l l she be expecting him i n 117 her faded b r i d a l robes and flowers?" The surviving frag-ment, therefore, may be a discarded version of t h i s event. The i n t e r e s t created i n Twain i n the world of Huck and Tom i n 1902 may have also been s u f f i c i e n t for him to continue 118 work on "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" at t h i s time as well. I t was at t h i s point that he seems to have almost brought the story to a perhaps surprising conclusion, discarding a l l thoughts of the boys f l e e i n g with Jim to England. Instead, he concentrated on the idea of giving Tom Sawyer a badly needed lesson i n moral education, teaching him something about res-p o n s i b i l i t y , and thereby providing an appropriate conclusion to that long-wrestled with problem, that of Tom Sawyer's growing up. At least a portion of the " F i f t y Years After" story was written during the summer and early f a l l of 1902, for William Dean Howells makes a provocative reference to i t i n a l e t t e r 83 to Twain of October 20, 1902: I have got Huck Finn safe, and w i l l keep i t t i l l I come down, or w i l l send i t by express, as you say. I t i s a great layout; what I s h a l l enjoy most w i l l be the return of the old fellows to the scene, and t h e i r t a l l l y i n g . There i s a matchless chance. I suppose you w i l l put plenty of pegs i n , i n t h i s prefatory p a r t . 1 - ^ Despite t h i s encouragement, Twain seems not to have progressed much further with the narrative. In 1906, i n an autobiographical d i c t a t i o n , he stated that i n 1902 he had begun another Huck and Tom story "and carried i t as far as t h i r t y - e i g h t thousand 120 words," but then had destroyed i t . So far, no manuscript of the " F i f t y Years After" story has been found. The question remains as to why Twain seems neither to have finished nor made any e f f o r t to publish either t h i s work or the somewhat e a r l i e r "Conspiracy" story, despite t h e i r evident l i t e r -ary worth. (Howells, i n his 1910 memoir, My Mark Twain, refers 121 to the " F i f t y Years After" narrative as "an admirable story." Perhaps Macnaughton says i t best when he suggests that by the early years of t h i s century, the two boys had acquired a more than imaginative l i f e for Twain, and that perhaps " i t may have come to seem to Mark Twain almost a sacrilege ... to consider 122 compelling his boys to r i s k further public adventures." From a l l these narratives, a number of noteworthy points stand out regarding the history of Twain's involvement with the 84 two boys. Perhaps the most notable i s the remarkable in t e n s i t y of i n t e r e s t that Twain displayed towards them over such a long period of time--more than t h i r t y years from the "Boy's Manu-s c r i p t " to the " F i f t y Years After" narrative and "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." This was over a period of his l i f e that included the t r a n s i t i o n from bachelorhood to family man, extraordinary fame and prosperity, bankruptcy, the death of his favourite daughter, a slow recovery to economic health. Yet through a l l these experiences, Huck and Tom and th e i r world remain remark-ably consistent as a source for creative f i c t i o n for Twain. Prominent also i n the Huck and Tom narratives over the years i s Twain's persistent i n t e r e s t i n not merely t e l l i n g the story of boys, but of somehow carrying his protagonists through to adulthood. This persistence r e f l e c t s the o r i g i n a l 1874 outline for the novel Tom Sawyer. A major point i n i t , the return of the boys to the v i l l a g e as adults, remained i n Twain's mind throughout the history of the Huck and Tom saga, f i n a l l y emerging i n the " F i f t y Years After" narrative. NOTES 1 Stone, p. 41. Mark Twain, The Complete Short Stories, ed. Charles Neider (New York: Bantam, 1971), p. 7. 3 Twain, Stories, p. 9. 4 Stone, p. 61; Baldanza, pp. 104-106; B l a i r , pp. 75-83. 5 Stone, p. 44. g Twain, Stories, p. 7. 7 Smith, p. 4. g Stone, p. 46. Theodore Hornberger, ed., Mark Twain's Letters to W i l l Bowen (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1941) , pp. 18-20. ^ Hornberger, p. 11. Hornberger, p.. 18. 1 o J u s t i n Kaplan, Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1966), p. 115. 13 Quoted i n DeVoto, p. 5. 1 4 DeVoto, Work, p. 5. 1 5 DeVoto, Work, p. 7. 1 6 DeVoto, Work, p. 39. 1 7 DeVoto, Work, p. 44. 1 8 DeVoto, Work, p. 37. 19 Hornberger, p. 20. ^ Kaplan, p. 163. 86 21 Baldanza, p. 88. 22 Baldanza, p. 89. 23 Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (New York: New American Library, 1969), p. 376, 24 DeVoto, Work, p. 4. 25 Kaplan, p. 178. 2 6 Gerber, "Introduction," p. 10. 27 H i l l , p. 386; see also Kaplan, p. 179. 2 8 H i l l , p. 386. 2 9 H i l l , p. 387. 3 ^ DeVoto, Eruption, p. 197. 3 1 H i l l , p. 389. 3 2 Smith and Gibson, I, 87-88. 33 Smith and Gibson, I, 90-91. 34 Smith and Gibson, I, 91. 35 Smith and Gibson, I, 92. 3 6 See, for example, Walter B l a i r ' s Mark Twain & Huck p . 98. 37 DeVoto, Work, pp. 8-9. 38 Smith and Gibson, I, 91. 39 Smith and Gibson, I, 111. 40 Smith and Gibson, I, 112. 41 Smith and Gibson, I, 122. 42 Smith and Gibson, I, 124. 43 Gerber, p. 2 34. 44 H i l l , p. 387. 87 45 Gerber, p. 237. 46 Regan, pp. 114-115. 47 Gerber, p. 2 33. 48 H i l l , p. 391. 49 Gerber, p. 237. 5 0 DeVoto, Work, p. 47. ^ Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Adventures of Huckleberry  Finn (New York: Norton, 1961), p. 7. 52 DeVoto, Work, p. 46. 53 Smith and Gibson, I, 144. 54 See note 36. 55 DeVoto, Work, pp. 45-104. 56 DeVoto, Work, pp. 53-54. 57 Clemens, p. 226. 58 Stone, p. 189. 59 Kaplan, p. 142. 60 Walter B l a i r , "Appendix B" i n his Mark Twain's Hannibal, Huck &^  Tom, p., 3 7 3 . There may, however, have been some confusion i n the minds of other segments of society. The book was banned i n the Concord, Mass. l i b r a r y shortly a f t e r publication as u n f i t for children. See Kaplan, p. 268. fi 2 Mark Twain, "Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer among the Indians," i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 108. B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 373; and Stone, pp. 173-174. 64 Robert Pack Browning, Michael B. Frank, Lin Salamo, Mark Twain' s Notebooks Journals (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1979), I I I , 606. 88 ^ 5 Browning, I I I , 645. Mark Twain, Notebook 18, TS pp. 19, 21, 31, quoted i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 7. 6 7 Mark Twain, Synopsis of "Tom Sawyer: A Drama," i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 245. 6 8 B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 245. 69 Gerber, pp. 245-246. Gerber, p. 246, n. 113. 71 Gerber, p. 245, n. 9, and p. 246, n. 13; and D. M. McKeithan, A Mark Twain Notebook for 1892. The American In s t i t u t e of the University of Upsala Essays and Studies on American Language and Literature, Vol. 17 (Upsala: American In s t i t u t e , Upsala University, 1959), p. 16, n. 25. 72 Gerber, pp. 247-248. 73 Gerber, p. 249. 74 Quoted in Gerber, p. 346. 75 Quoted i n Gerber, p. 347. 76 Gerber, p. 349. See also Bay, 77 Quoted in Gerber, p. 348. 78 Gerber, p. 346. 79 Gerber, p. 353. 80 Gerber, pp. 352-353. 81 Kaplan, p. 332. 82 Gerber, p. 352. 83 Gerber, p. 351. 84 Mark Twain, Notebook , p. 355. 30, TS p 85 Gerber, p. 245. 89 8 6 Quoted i n Gerber, p. 344. 8 7 Browning, I I I , 30. 8 8 B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 152. 89 B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 153. 9 0 Mark Twain, Notebook 31, TS p. 22, quoted i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 153. 91 Mark Twain, Notebook 32a, TS p. 58, quoted i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 153. 92 Macnaughton, p. 33. 9 3 Mark Twain, Notebook 28, TS p. 51, quoted i n William M. Gibson, "Introduction," Mark Twain's Mysterious Stranger  Manuscripts, p. 17. 94 Gibson, p. 17. 9 5 • • Mark Twain, Notebook 32a, TS p. 37, quoted i n Gibson, p. 17. 96 Gibson, p. 5. 97 • • . -Mark Twain, Notebook 32, TS p. 50, quoted in-.. Gibson, p. 8. 9 8 Mark Twain, "Schoolhouse H i l l , " i n Gibson, p. 175. 9 9 Gerber, p. 178. 1 0 0 Gibson, p. 9. Twain's notes for thi s work are given i n Gibson, pp. 428-429. 102 a Gibson, p. 9. 103 Macnaughton, p. 112. Macnaughton, p. 116. 105 Macnaughton, pp. 116-117. Macnaughton, p. 116. 107 p. 23-124. 90 108 _ _ See p. 7. 109 T, -. 0 , c Kaplan, p. 365. ^ ® From the R a l l s County Record, quoted i n B l a i r , Mark  Twain's Hannibal, p. 17. Mark Twain, Notebook 35, TS p. 13, quoted i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, pp. 16-17. 112 Quoted i n Kaplan, p. 365. 113 Mark Twain, Notebook 35, TS p. 23, quoted i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 16. 114 B l a i r , Mark. Twain's Hannibal, p. 17. 115 Mark Twain, "Doughface," i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's  Hannibal, p. 144. 1 1 6 Mark Twain, " V i l l a g e r s of 1840-3," i n B l a i r , Mark  Twain's Hannibal, p. 32. 117 Mark Twain, Notebook 35, TS p. 12, quoted i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, p. 142. 118 Macnaughton, p. 184. 119 Smith and Gibson, L e t t e r s , I I , 747. 1 2 0 DeVoto, E r u p t i o n , p. 199. 121 Howells, p. 90. 122 Macnaughton, pp. 184-185. CHAPTER III The Theme of Maturity The outline for the novel Tom Sawyer that Twain wrote i n the summer of 18 74 demonstrates that when he started to write that book one of his major concerns was the process whereby a boy becomes a man.''" In the author's mind at thi s time, the process of maturing was seen to consist of a boy's running o f f and then returning years l a t e r to his home town as an adult. On t h i s point, the outline reads: "(age 37 to 40,) return & meet grown babies & toothless o l d dri v e l e r s who were the grandees of 2 his boyhood." Tom Sawyer, as i t was completed and published, shows that at some point i n i t s composition, Twain gave up thi s idea and deliberately chose to keep the story i n the boy's 3 childhood. If Hamlin H i l l ' s comments on the novel are correct, t h i s decision was reached only after a great deal of doubt and hesitatio n on the author's part. The c r u c i a l moment evidently came during the Jackson's Island episode, when i t seems as i f "preparations were ... made for Tom to begin his 'Battle of L i f e i n many lands,' to leave both St. Petersburg and his companions 4 who were about to return there." But Twain chose not to have Tom run o f f alone, with the intention of returning him years l a t e r to the v i l l a g e . Instead, he kept the locale of the book i n St. Petersburg, and kept Tom and his friends as boys. 92 A question has remained, therefore, as to what extent Twain retained an inte r e s t i n bringing his characters up, both i n t h i s work and i n a l l the subsequent narratives about the boys that he wrote over the next t h i r t y years. The end of the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, with i t s evasion of s o c i a l and emotional complexity, has added to the uncertainty about t h i s question. Close examination of the l a t e r works w i l l presently show that eventual maturity--the end and purpose of childhood— remained a concern of v i r t u a l l y a l l these s t o r i e s . Sometimes i t i s only i m p l i c i t ; often i t i s e x p l i c i t . This being so, i t c l e a r l y undermines the image of Mark Twain as "imprisoned i n boyhood," to use Bernard DeVoto 1s 5 phrase. In fact, i t might be more accurate as well as more just to describe Twain not as "imprisoned" (with i t s pejorative connotations) i n boyhood, but as extremely clever and s k i l f u l at using his boyhood experiences as a source for rewarding f i c t i o n . Always, though, the author concentrated on how these childhood experiences shaped the adult who would l a t e r emerge from them. In order to understand more f u l l y Twain's continuing i n -terest i n maturity, i t might be useful to begin by defining what childhood and maturity meant to Mark Twain, as far as can be determined from his stories about the boys. From the 1874 outline for Tom Sawyer, i t would seem that becoming an adult meant primarily the passage of time, coupled with a wide assort-93 ment of d i f f e r e n t experiences ("the Battle of L i f e i n many lands") i n a variety of circumstances. This i s what Twain him-s e l f had experienced i n the years since he l e f t Hannibal i n 1853. But by abandoning an account of "the Battle of L i f e " i n Tom Sawyer, together with Tom's return years later.as an adult, Twain avoided also somewhat f a c i l e melodrama. The arrangement and structure of the published novel reveal that a more s p e c i f i c and convincing approach to Tom's development emerged from t h i s change i n plan. As Hamlin H i l l points out, i n working on the manuscript Twain manipulated events, rearranged chapters, and in general, structured his story to show "Tom i n a group of c r i t i c a l situations toward the end of the book where maturer judgement and courage were v i t a l . These events required a Tom Sawyer who was nowhere apparent i n the i d y l l i c f i r s t half of the book." 6 Before H i l l , Walter B l a i r discussed t h i s same issue, com-ing to much the same conclusion. In Tom Sawyer, Twain was attempting to describe a " r e a l " boy, i n contrast to the unreal caricatures of "good boys" and "bad boys" that had dominated 7 so much of 19th-century f i c t i o n . "What a r e a l boy was was suggested by the very terms of the attack; he was not simply good or bad but a mixture of virtue and mischievousness. And he could play pranks at the same time he was developing q u a l i t i e s which would make him a normal adult." The passage of time, t h i s view of childhood implies, would change the 94 nature and q u a l i t y o f a c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s : As a " r e a l " boy grew up ... the nature of h i s a c t i o n s would change. Not only would they change from year to year but a l s o from month to month. Less and l e s s , he would be-have l i k e an i r r e s p o n s i b l e and i g n o r a n t savage; more and more he would a c t l i k e a r e s p o n s i b l e and i n t e l l i g e n t a d u l t . 9 B l a i r goes on to d e s c r i b e how each of the major n a r r a t i v e strands of the novel shows t h i s development o c c u r r i n g i n the boy: Three of these n a r r a t i v e s t r a n d s , however, are climaxed by a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and mature s o r t of a c t i o n , a s o r t of a c t i o n , moreover, d i r e c t l y opposed to the i n i t i a l a c t i o n . Tom c h i v a l r o u s l y takes Becky 1s punishment and f a i t h f u l l y h e l ps her i n the cave; he d e f i e s b o y i s h s u p e r s t i t i o n and courageously t e s t i f i e s f o r Muff P o t t e r ; he f o r g e t s a c h i l d i s h a n t i p a t h y and shows mature concern f o r h i s aunt's uneasiness about him. The Injun Joe s t o r y , though i t i s the l e a s t u s e f u l of the four so f a r as showing Tom's maturing i s concerned, by showing Huck conquering f e a r to rescue the widow, has value as a r e p e t i t i o n — w i t h v a r i a t i o n s — o f the m o t i f of the b o o k . 1 0 From t h i s r e a d i n g of the n o v e l , then, one o f the major components of m a t u r i t y i s t h a t of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , of b eing accountable f o r the consequences of one's own a c t i o n s . As w e l l , there must be courage and a c e r t a i n amount of empathy (as w i t h Aunt P o l l y i n the passage above) f o r the f e e l i n g s of other people, par-t i c u l a r l y those c l o s e to one. 95 At the end of Tom Sawyer, i t would seem that Tom i s well on his way to achieving t h i s sort of adulthood. Indeed, B l a i r remarks that by the end of the novel, "Something has happened to Tom. He i s ta l k i n g more l i k e an adult than l i k e an unsocial c h i l d . " " ^ Twain himself may have concurred with t h i s assessment, for he ended his "Conclusion" to the book, saying e x p l i c i t l y , "So endeth t h i s chronicle. I t being s t r i c t l y the history of a boy, i t must stop here; the story could not go much further 12 without becoming the history, of a man." But t h i s perception by Twain of what he had accomplished in t h i s , his f i r s t work of f i c t i o n , must have been quite a tenuous one. Otherwise, there would not have been the months of indecision and confusion over what audience the book was i n -13 tended for, as has been discussed e a r l i e r . In fact, his continued i n t e r e s t i n t e l l i n g the story of a boy growing up i s indicated i n his l e t t e r to Howells of July 5, 1875, just a f t e r announcing that he had finished Tom Sawyer: "By & by I s h a l l 14 take a boy of twelve & run him on through l i f e " i n a novel. The book embodying t h i s idea was Huckleberry Finn, f i n a l l y completed eight years l a t e r . In the year between the summer of 1875, when he fi n i s h e d Tom Sawyer, and the summer of 1876, when he began Huckleberry  Finn, t h i s idea seems to have diminished i n importance for Twain, however. The opening chapters of the new book, written during that summer, were, i n DeVoto's phrase, " l i t t l e more than 96 a continuation of Tom Sawyer,""1""' and "pretty feeble stuff,"" 1" 0 at that. "There was no narrative purpose, no end toward which 17 the story was moving," by the time Twain came to the end of the f i r s t section. Least of a l l was there any sense that t h i s work would t e l l of the maturation of a boy into a man. The a c t i v i t i e s that Tom Sawyer's Gang engage i n i n the f i r s t few chapters of the novel, such as the attack on the Sunday School, possess none of the significance or resonance that such events as Tom's rescuing Becky from the cave i n the l a s t chapters of Tom Sawyer have. There seems to be no re a l e f f o r t to continue the process of maturation that was evident i n the e a r l i e r work. Yet despite t h i s , even i n these opening chapters can be seen developments that w i l l provide an important element i n th i s process. Specifically,, when Huck and Jim j o i n together on Jackson's Island, Twain discovers i n the problem of slavery a topic that w i l l provide extraordinary significance, both for t h i s work and for many of the l a t e r s t o r i e s involving the boys. 18 As was mentioned e a r l i e r , Twain began to use slave characters as early as The Gilded Age (1873), with i t s sympathetic portrayal of Uncle Dan'l. This process was furthered i n "A True Story" (1874), the f i r s t work of Twain's published i n the Atlan-19 t i c . In i t are anticipations of future work. As Kaplan says about the story, " i n a number of ways i t foreshadows Huckleberry  F i n n — i n i t s e x p l i c i t sympathy for the Negro, i t s l e v e l v i s i o n of 97 the b r u t a l i t i e s of a slaveholding society, and the enormous s k i l l [Twain] displays i n t e l l i n g a fi r s t - p e r s o n story i n im-20 peccably nuanced but never obscure d i a l e c t . " In Tom Sawyer, the use and importance of slave characters are minimal. I t i s not u n t i l Twain began to write Huckleberry Finn, that he made one into an important element of the work. As Chadwick Hansen points out, Jim plays several—sometimes c o n t r a d i c t o r y — r o l e s i n the novel; among them are the comic stage darky, a father-figure, a Negro "Mammy," and "Man" i n the 21 abstract. It i s i n fact Huck 1s discovery of the humanity of the Negro that provides so important a part of his growing up. The recognition of the humanity of the slave i s a v i t a l element i n many of the l a t e r works where i t i s used i n the same way: to promote a boy's maturity. Huck 1s discovery of Jim's humanity, i t should be noted, i s not an easy or short process. At the beginning of the novel, Huck acquiesces i n Tom's c h i l d i s h t r i c k on Jim with the hat. Then, i n his account of the consequences of the t r i c k , the boy manifests a neutral, i f not mildly contemptuous attitude: "Jim was most ruined, for a servant, because he got so stuck up on account of having seen the d e v i l and been rode by 22 witches." It i s only aft e r the two fug i t i v e s arrive on Jackson's Island that Jim begins to develop a more complex per-sonality, and Huck begins to appreciate t h i s . When Huck plays his f o o l i s h t r i c k on him with the snake-skin i n Chapter 10, 98 Huck immediately recognizes his own s t u p i d i t y , commenting: "That a l l comes of my being such a f o o l as to not remember that whenever you leave a dead snake i t s mate always comes there and 23 curls around i t . But he s t i l l f e e l s no great empathy with the escaping slave or much remorse for what he has done. This absence of f e e l i n g indicates that he s t i l l has no r e a l sense of Jim's humanity. Not u n t i l the "dream" episode on board the r a f t i n Chapter 15 does Huck begin to r e a l i z e that the slave has f e e l -ings. He fools Jim once more with his assertion that t h e i r separation i n the fog was only a dream. Then aft e r Jim has "interpreted" the dream, he asks him what a l l the r e a l debris from t h e i r separation stands for. Jim r e p l i e s with extra-ordinary dignity: "Dat truck dah i s trash; en trash i s what people i s dat puts d i r t on de head er dey fren's en makes 'em 24 ashamed." This leads to Huck's famous confession, i n which he at l a s t acknowledges that Jim--too--has feel i n g s : " I t was f i f t e e n minutes before I could work myself up to go and humble myself to a nigger--but I done i t , and I warn't ever sorry for i t afterwards, neither. I didn't do him no more mean t r i c k s , and I wouldn't done that one i f I'd a knowed i t would make him f e e l that way." 2 5 But even t h i s incident, moving though i t i s , does not f u l l y persuade Huck of Jim's humanity--and hence the i n j u s t i c e of his enslavement. A few pages aft e r t h i s , the boy i s quite 99 seriously contemplating turning Jim over to the two slave 2 6 hunters. He only decides against i t at the l a s t moment. Shortly af t e r t h i s , Huck finds himself at the Grangerfords, and several days pass before.he even thinks of what has happened to his f r i e n d . Later on, i n the episodes with the King and the Duke, Jim disappears from the narrative for long periods of time and there i s no ind i c a t i o n that Huck concerns himself much i f at a l l with what he i s doing. At the same time, though, there are a number of events that reaffirm Jim's humanity, kindness and s e n s i t i v i t y . These incidents include his taking Huck's watch on the r a f t for him and the story of his deaf and dumb daughter. Huck 1s recounting of these events indicates that he i s aware of these q u a l i t i e s i n the black man. But the c r u c i a l moment of Huck 1s recognition, not merely of Jim's humanity but also of the bond that has grown up between them and the boy's debt to Jim for a l l his many kindnesses, does not occur u n t i l after the King and the Duke have sold Jim to S i l a s Phelps for fort y d o l l a r s . After much agonizing over the proper course of action—whether to inform Miss Watson of where her runaway slave is--Huck f i n a l l y decides, i n his famous " A l l righ t , then, I ' l l go to h e l l " speech, to 27 s t e a l Jim from slavery. This obviously i s a moment of extraordinary maturity for Huck, beyond anything that Tom Sawyer had experienced i n his novel. Huck decides not merely to take the morally proper course 1 0 0 of action, but also to take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for what he intends to do: he believes that to s t e a l Jim out of slavery i s without a question a s i n , but .is- s t i l l w i l l i n g to go to h e l l f or i t . At the same time, t h i s act shows the two other elements that characterize maturation as indicated by B l a i r : courage and a sense of empathy with another person's suffering. The extent to which Huck has grown up by thi s act i s shown most c l e a r l y by a comparison between him and Tom Sawyer when the l a t t e r reappears a few pages l a t e r . As Leo Marx comments, "By the time [Huck] arrives at the Phelps place, he i s not the boy who had been playing robbers with Tom's gang i n St. Petersburg the summer before. A l l he has seen and f e l t since he parted from Tom has deepened his knowledge of human 2 8 nature and of himself." I t might be added that Huck has undergone experiences that are far beyond anything Tom has endured, either i n thi s work or i n the previous novel. Yet when Tom reenters the book, he immediately starts to dominate the action. "Soon Huck has f a l l e n almost completely under his sway once more, and we are asked to believe that the boy who f e l t p i t y for the rogues i s now capable of making 2 9 Jim's capture the occasion for a game." The degree to which Huck has grown up while Tom has not can perhaps be measured by the amount of outrage many readers and c r i t i c s , such as Marx, f e e l when they contemplate the travesty into which Tom turns the l i b e r a t i o n of Jim i n the l a s t ten chapters of the book. 101 Although he knows that Jim i s already free under the terms of Miss Watson's w i l l , Tom forces the black man to go through an elaborate charade to gain freedom. The unquestionable difference between the two boys at t h i s point indicates that Tom Sawyer may not have been quite so close to adulthood at the end of The  Adventures of Tom Sawyer as his creator thought when he wrote the "Conclusion" to that novel. Further, more profound ex-periences w i l l be needed for Tom to achieve the same l e v e l of maturity that Huck arrives at i n the course of t h i s work. An in d i c a t i o n that Twain may have re a l i z e d that the ending of Huckleberry Finn l e f t many issues unresolved can be shown by the f a c t that he began work on a sequel to i t even before Huckleberry Finn was published. One major element i n t h i s sequel, "Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer Among the Indians," can be seen as the need to give Tom Sawyer a lesson i n moral education and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for his own actions similar to the one under-gone by Huck Finn i n h i s novel. In t h i s process, the figure of Jim becomes c r u c i a l . The problem of Negro slavery had been ignored i n The Adventures Of Tom Sawyer. The theme was d i s -covered by Twain only i n the writing of Huckleberry Finn, and now Twain was going to use i t to promote Tom's growth. The importance of slavery i n Twain's thought i s perhaps best described by Stone, who says that for Twain "slavery [was] the archetypal source of e v i l i n the world of his childhood." 3^ During the years that Twain wrote Huckleberry Finn, he came to 102 r e a l i z e the i n j u s t i c e of s l a v e r y . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t so much o f t h a t n ovel i s concerned with t e a c h i n g Huck the humanity of the Negro and t h e r e f o r e the t e r r i b l e crime o f h i s s l a v e r y . I t i s a l s o not s u r p r i s i n g , then, t h a t once having taught the l e s s o n o f the Negro's humanity to Huck, Twain should not have wanted t o teach i t t o the o t h e r major c h a r a c t e r from h i s c h i l d -hood, Tom Sawyer. When one c o n s i d e r s how hard and time-consum-i n g i t was f o r Huck, an o u t c a s t of s o c i e t y , t o reco g n i z e the humanity of the s l a v e , one can imagine the d i f f i c u l t y Tom w i l l have; f o r he i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h a t s o c i e t y and one whose TV 4- i 31 Aunt owns s l a v e s . The c a l l o u s n e s s w i t h which Tom t r e a t s Jim i n the "Evasion" episode of Huckleberry F i n n can be seen as having a moral and l i t e r a r y purpose. I t shows Tom a t h i s worst b e f o r e undergoing a major l e s s o n i n m a t u r i t y i n the next work i n the s e r i e s . Indeed, Twain may even have been p l a n n i n g the sequel to Huckle-b e r r y F i n n as he wrote the "Evasion" chapters, f o r the s t o r y he began immediately a f t e r f i n i s h i n g Huckleberry F i n n , "Huck and Tom Among the In d i a n s , " shows Tom r e c e i v i n g some q u i t e p a i n f u l l e s s o n s i n self-knowledge and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . There are two major elements of Tom's immaturity t h a t become obvious i n the l a s t t e n chapters o f Huckleberry F i n n . The f i r s t i s h i s ev e r - p r e s e n t d e s i r e t o t u r n a l l a c t i v i t y i n t o a "game," thereby m a n i f e s t i n g a c h i l d i s h ignorance o f the 103 r e a l i t y of s u f f e r i n g . He makes e v e r y t h i n g i n t o a "prank," as 32 B l a i r d e s c r i b e s i t . The second i s h i s l a c k of self-knowledge, h i s complete unconsciousness t h a t what he i s doing to Jim i s not o n l y f o o l i s h , but c r u e l and h e a r t l e s s as w e l l . Both of these elements w i l l r e c e i v e an a p p r o p r i a t e rebuke i n the "Indians" fragment, and t h i s development i n d i c a t e s t h a t Twain was w e l l aware of these f a i l u r e s i n h i s hero. The immediate impetus f o r the "Indians" sequel comes from a remark by Tom very c l o s e to the end of Huckleberry F i n n . He says, " "le's a l l three s l i d e out of here, one o f these n i g h t s , and get an o u t f i t , and go f o r howling adventures amongst the 33 Indians, over i n the T e r r i t o r y , f o r a couple of weeks or two." The b a n a l i t y of h i s conception of t h i s p l a n i s shown by h i s use o f the phrases "howling adventures" and " f o r a couple of weeks or two." U n l i k e Huck 1s profound and moving "adventures" on h i s f l i g h t down the r i v e r , t h i s new e x p e d i t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to Tom, w i l l j u s t be a b r i e f , v a c a t i o n - l i k e sojourn among the Indians b e f o r e a safe r e t u r n home. 34 Of course, as was mentioned e a r l i e r , Twain gave h i m s e l f an even s t r o n g e r p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a sequel i n Huck 1s c l o s i n g remarks to the book, h i s d e c l a r a t i o n : "I reckon I got to l i g h t out f o r the T e r r i t o r y ahead of the r e s t , because Aunt S a l l y she's going to adopt me and s i v i l i s e me and I can't stand i t . 35 I been there b e f o r e . " However, Twain chose to ignore the s o l i t a r y journey when he came to w r i t e the sequel and i n s t e a d 104 concentrated on Tom's plan. A number of reasons can be surmised for t h i s . F i r s t among them i s the appeal that Tom Sawyer had 3 6 for the author. Characters s i m i l a r to Tom i n outlook and personality appear i n many others of his works—Hank Morgan, Tom Canty, and others. Twain himself shared many of Tom's t r a i t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y that of self-dramatization. As well, the pas s i v i t y displayed by Huck i n almost a l l of his encounters with others limited the kinds of situations he could engage i n for suitable exploitation i n f i c t i o n . But perhaps most im-portantly, at the end of his novel, Huck had received his lesson in moral education. He had grown up as much as he could, and Twain may have simply wanted to turn his attention back to Tom, who, after a l l , was the focus of the o r i g i n a l 1874 outline for the story. The culmination of the outline was to be the maturation of the hero Tom Sawyer, not Huck Finn. I t i s of course impossible to determine exactly what Twain's ruminations on t h i s point may have been. Yet the fact remains that when Twain came to write the sequel he deliber-ately followed Tom's plan to have " a l l three" of them head for the Indian T e r r i t o r y , and not Huck alone. Without question, Twain gave a great deal of thought to this work and made ex-tensive plans. Walter B l a i r describes i n d e t a i l the number of books about the West that Twain consulted i n preparation for 37 the story, including Richard Irving Dodge's The Plains of the Great West and Their Inhabitants and his Our Wild Indians: Thirty-three Years' Personal Experience Among the Red Men of 105 the Great West. (In the l a t t e r Twain wrote 375 notes i n the 3 8 margin. ) Many p a r a l l e l s between Twain's s t o r y and h i s sources can be seen, i n c l u d i n g the names of c h a r a c t e r s , d e s c r i p t i o n s , 39 and even a number of events. In e v i d e n t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the "Indians" s e q u e l , Twain even went so f a r as to have a change made i n i t s predecessor, Huckleberry F i n n , i n order f o r the e a r l i e r book to conform to the planned l a t e r one. He had h i s business agent " a l t e r the t i t l e page of Adventures  of Huckleberry F i n n so t h a t i t would read 'Time, f o r t y t o f i f t y y ears ago' i n s t e a d of 'Time, f o r t y years ago.'" T h i s "probably r e f l e c t e d Twain's r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the i n c i d e n t s he was borrow-i n g from h i s 'Injun, books 1 dated from the mid-1830's, not the mid-1840's o f h i s c h i l d h o o d . " 4 0 The opening events o f "Huck and Tom Among the Indians" conform q u i t e c l o s e l y to the p l a n mentioned by Tom Sawyer at the end of Huckleberry F i n n . A f t e r some c o m p l i c a t i o n s , Huck and Jim head o f f i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s west of M i s s o u r i f o r t h e i r "howling adventures." T h i s o c c u r s , though, only a f t e r Tom has n a i v e l y d e s c r i b e d Indians as "the n o b l e s t human beings t h a t ' s 41 ever been i n the world." He continues w i t h a several-page p e r o r a t i o n on the v i r t u e s o f the Red Man. Tom's statement, s i g -n i f i c a n t l y , overcomes Jim's o b j e c t i o n s to the scheme and convinces him to come along. "Jim's eyes was s h i n i n g , " says Huck a t the end of Tom's speech, "and so was mine, I reckon, 42 and he was e x c i t e d . " Huck simply comes along s i n c e the other two are now going. 106 The f a c t t h a t Tom convinces Jim to come along on the e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t h i s b e t t e r judgement c r e a t e s the same s o r t of moral indebtedness owed by the boy to the b l a c k man t h a t had e x i s t e d by the end of the "Evasion" episode i n Huckleberry F i n n . In the "Indians" fragment, though, Tom w i l l not be able to buy x h i s way out by the payment of a mere f o r t y d o l l a r s (as he does a t the end of t h a t n o v e l ) , as the events of the s t o r y make c l e a r . Twain c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t s the next s e v e r a l chapters i n order to make t h i s p o i n t obvious. Once out on the l o n e l y p l a i n s , the t r i o l i n k s up w i t h a p i o n e e r f a m i l y heading towards Oregon. In the group's f i r s t encounter with Indians a few days l a t e r , i t seems t h a t a l l of Tom's i d e a l s about them are t r u e . Says Huck, "Tom he was j u s t w i l d over the Injuns, and s a i d there warn't white men so noble; and he warn't by h i m s e l f i n i t , because me 4 3 and Jim, and a l l the r e s t o f us got r i g h t down fond of them." But the Indians' sudden, cold-blooded massacre of most of the M i l l s f a m i l y , and the kidnapping of Jim and the two M i l l s daughters, i s meant to d e s t r o y Tom's i l l u s i o n s about them. S i g -n i f i c a n t l y , Tom's i l l u s i o n s are destroyed, and the boy r e c o g n i z e s the d e s t r u c t i o n . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n i s f a r more e x p l i c i t than had o c c u r r e d i n the p r e c e d i n g n o v e l . There, Tom had not seen any of the events o f the "Evasion" episode (even being shot h i m s e l f ) as c h a l l e n g i n g any of h i s n a i v e , romantic conceptions of l i f e . Here, when Huck asks Tom d e l i b e r a t e l y , 107 "Tom, where did you learn about I n j u n s — how noble they was, and a l l that?" He give me a look that showed me I had h i t him hard, very hard, and so I wished I had-n't said the words. He turned away his head, and after a minute he said "Cooper's novels," and didn't say anything more, and I didn't say anything more, and so that changed the s u b j e c t . 4 4 This painf u l admission by Tom i s a major step i n the pro-cess of his maturation. It i s not simply an expression of Twain's " b e l i e f that Cooper's Indians are f a l s e l y drawn and that 4 5 actual Indians are scoundrels," as B l a i r would have i t . Rather, i t i s an admission by Tom that he i s f i n a l l y aware that there i s a discrepancy between the r e a l world (in which e v i l exists and suffering occurs), and the book-derived, make-believe world i n which he has l i v e d as a c h i l d for so long. Add i t i o n a l l y , another aspect of Tom's response to the t e r r i b l e massacre shows how much he has learned by t h i s event. As we have seen, Tom persuades Jim to go on t h i s expedition through the i n t e n s i t y of his own b e l i e f i n "Cooper's" Indians. Now, when the Indians have destroyed t h i s image of themselves, Tom immediately accepts the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of what he has done to Jim and i s w i l l i n g to atone for his action, thus showing another component of maturity. In fact, he c a r e f u l l y d i s -criminates between what he has done and Huck's role i n the events: "I got Jim into t h i s scrape," Tom says e x p l i c i t l y , "and so I ai n ' t going to turn back towards home t i l l I've got him out of i t again, or found out he's dead; but you ai n ' t i n f a u l t , 108 l i k e me, so i f we run across any trappers bound for the S t a t e s — . " Huck cuts him o f f before he can suggest that Huck return to c i v i l i z a t i o n by himself, leaving Tom to pursue Jim alone. But the fact that Tom could even contemplate making th i s o f f e r shows the emotional distance he has t r a v e l l e d since the end of Huckleberry Finn. Interestingly, the depth of Tom's sudden commitment to Jim i s emphasized by the contrast between his reaction to the events and Huck's. The l a t t e r , after Tom gives his plan to pursue Jim, r e p l i e s , "I want to help save Jim, i f I can, and I want to help save Peggy [ M i l l s ] , too. She was 46 good to us, and I couldn't rest easy i f I didn't." Jim i s dismissed by Huck in a single sentence, while he indicates that his r e a l concern i n pursuing the Indians i s finding the seven-teen year-old Peggy. The comment by Tom that he feels responsible for what has happened to Jim i s the furthest extent to which t h i s aspect of the theme of maturation i s taken i n t h i s story. Subsequent events i n i t introduce the idea of human sexuality, an aspect of maturation, i n perhaps the most e x p l i c i t form that Twain ever managed in a story intended for a general audience. The author's complex attitude towards t h i s subject has been the focus of a number of d i f f e r e n t studies, most notably Alexander E. Jones' 4 7 "Mark Twain and Sexuality." However, Jones was unfamiliar with the "Indians" fragment and many of his comments follow DeVoto's somewhat misleading thoughts on the subject. For 109 example, the l a t t e r remarks about one aspect of Twain's attitude: "He was almost l u s t f u l l y hypersensitive to sex i n p r i n t . . . . . His timorous circumlocutions, published and un-published, are astonishing. ... There i s no evidence that he 48 thought of [boyhood] as otherwise than sexless." S u p e r f i c i a l readings of the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s would seem to support t h i s idea. Without question sex plays an almost i n v i s i b l e role as far as e x p l i c i t motivation for any of the boys' actions i n the surviving stories i s concerned. Stone, following DeVoto, comments about Tom Sawyer i n t h i s regard: "Time and Change are to be r e s i s t e d , and sex would mean growing 49 up," and therefore the boys are "pre-sexual." Yet i f one of Twain's concerns i n the storie s was the maturity of the boys, i t would seem l o g i c a l that an awareness of human sexuality should play a part i n t h e i r l i v e s ; and c e r t a i n l y i n the "Indians" story--as well as i n some l a t e r notes for future s t o r i e s - - t h i s development can be seen. In order to display the utter depravity of the Indians, 50 Twain—following his sources —makes the point quite evident that the Indians kidnap Peggy M i l l s i n order to sexually abuse her. At one point, i n f a c t , he indicates that they have t i e d 51 her down and gang-raped her. The terms he uses to describe these events are c e r t a i n l y "timorous" and vague. Nonetheless, i t i s obvious that Huck has an awareness and understanding of sex, and conveys t h i s knowledge to Tom Sawyer. As the story un-110 folds, Brace Johnson, Peggy's fiance, makes p l a i n that he wanted her to commit suicide i f she were captured, to avoid being raped. His insistence that Peggy must commit suicide causes confusion for Huck u n t i l he finds out why. The issue i s described i n d i r e c t l y . Huck says: "I up and asked Brace i f he actually hoped Peggy was dead; and i f he did, why he did. He 52 explained i t to me, and then i t was a l l clear. Later on, Huck has to explain the same point to Tom, and he does so i n the same i n d i r e c t terms: "At l a s t I come out with i t [the reason why Brace thinks Peggy must commit suicide] and then Tom was s a t i s f i e d . 1 , 5 3 Twain of course does not describe either conversation i n d e t a i l , but the meaning i s clear. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , neither boy reacts to t h i s knowledge with anything resembling shock, sur-p r i s e , or undue disturbance. Both seem to understand that sexual desire can form one of the motivations for human action. In fact, they seem much less upset at what may be happening sexually to Peggy, and much more concerned that she remain a l i v e than the older, more experienced Brace. As the story progresses, the boys play elaborate charades to make him think she has k i l l e d h erself. At the same time, when a f l a s h flood endangers them a l l , Huck comments, "Me and Tom was down-hearted and miser-able on account of Jim and Peggy and Flaxy, because we reckoned 54 i t was a l l up with them and the Injuns, now." In t h e i r im-p l i c i t , humanistic rebuke of the r i g i d i t y of V i c t o r i a n views of female sexuality, the boys might even be said to be more mature I l l than Brace, who e v i d e n t l y b e l i e v e s q u i t e s t r o n g l y i n "a f a t e worse than death." T h i s r e l a t i v e l y frank e x p l o r a t i o n of human s e x u a l i t y from an a d o l e s c e n t ' s p o i n t of view may have been one of the reasons why the s t o r y was abandoned s h o r t l y a f t e r the boys and Brace d i s c o v e r f o u r stakes i n the ground and a bloody p i e c e of Peggy's dr e s s , c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t she i s s t i l l a l i v e and a t the mercy of her c a p t o r s . Paul Delaney, one of the few commentators on t h i s work, p e r c e p t i v e l y notes the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t Twain must have suddenly found h i m s e l f i n by e x p l o r i n g t h i s theme: Huck can witness such e v i l s as murder, grave-robbing, g r a f t , f r a u d , h y p o c r i s y — but they do not a f f e c t him because he i s i n no way p a r t of them. But to a f o u r t e e n -or f i f t e e n - y e a r - o l d boy a knowledge of sexual e v i l i s fundamentally d i f f e r e n t . P e r c e p t i o n of such an e v i l i n v o l v e s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the i n t e r - r e l a t e d n e s s o f one's own d e s i r e with a u n i v e r s a l ex-p e r i e n c e which can somehow r e s u l t i n the h o r r o r of Peggy M i l l s b e i n g r a v i s h e d be-tween f o u r s t a k e s . "Huck F i n n and Tom Sawyer among the Indians" thus r e v e a l s Mark Twain s t r u g g l i n g to d e p i c t the f a t e of h i s boyhood c h a r a c t e r coping w i t h g r e a t e r i n s i g h t s than h i s inno-cent eye c o u l d comprehend.5 5 Twain may have gi v e n up t h i s work because of d i s c o m f o r t a t what he suddenly found h i m s e l f d i s c u s s i n g . But h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s theme, however h e s i t a t i n g , incomplete and c i r c u m l o c u t o r y i t may have been, seems to me to have been an e x t r a o r d i n a r y step forward f o r the w r i t e r . I t was a theme, though, t h a t had been 112 a n t i c i p a t e d i n e a r l i e r works about the boys and one t h a t would reappear i n l a t e r ones. S e x u a l i t y as a f a c t o r i n human behaviour i s v i s i b l e as e a r l y as Tom Sawyer. In t h a t novel occurs the i n c i d e n t between Tom and Becky Thatcher over the nude p i c t u r e i n the s c h o o l -master's anatomy book, which has c l e a r sexual undertones. In the o r i g i n a l account of the i n c i d e n t , b e f o r e i t was changed a t W i l l i a m Dean Howells' s u g g e s t i o n , 5 6 Tom was allowed to comment, "How c o u l d I know i t wasn't a n i c e book? I d i d n ' t know g i r l s e v e r — " The sentence i s l e f t s u g g e s t i v e l y h a l f - f i n i s h e d , but l a t e r on Tom t h i n k s , again i m p l y i n g h i s (and Twain's) awareness of a d o l e s c e n t sexual c u r i o s i t y , "But t h a t p i c t u r e — i s - - w e l l , now i t a i n ' t so c u r i o u s she f e e l s bad about t h a t . No ... No, 59 I reckon i t a i n " t . " In the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n o f the n o v e l , a d m i t t e d l y , t h i s i n c i d e n t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y shortened and much of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i s l o s t (Becky's d i s c o m f o r t stems from the f e a r o f being whipped f o r t e a r i n g the page of the book, not over what she has been caught s e e i n g ) . But there remains i n the book the matter o f Injun Joe' s revenge on the Widow Douglas. T h i s a l s o has been " s a n i t i z e d " f o r a c h i l d audience: Joe s t a t e s , "When you want to get revenge on a woman you don't k i l l h e r — b o s h ! you go f o r her l o o k s . You s l i t her n o s t r i l s — y o u notch her ea r s , l i k e a 5 8 sow's!" But f o r an a d u l t , i t would seem c l e a r , as Dixon Wecter remarks, t h a t Joe's r e a l i n t e n t i o n i n t h i s i n c i d e n t i s 113 not simply mutilation, but "rape or at least sexual a f f r o n t . " 3 y In fact, l a t e r on Joe threatens suggestively, " I ' l l t i e her to 6 0 the bed." This threat once more indicates Twain's willingness to hint at sexuality as a factor i n human actions. But none of these incidents plays a great role i n the topic of Tom's maturity i n t h i s book. Near the end, he and Becky wander alone for several days i n the dark cave without the s l i g h t e s t suggestion of anything "more subtle on t h e i r mind (or on yours, reading) than cold, hunger, darkness, loneliness, p i t f a l l s , and a desperado who would k i l l them," as George P. E l l i o t t remarks.^ But at the same time, the novel i s hardly devoid of an awareness of human sexuality and the problems i t can create. S i m i l a r l y , i n Huckleberry Finn sexuality plays no overt role i n the actions of most of the characters. Yet i t provides an undertone to many of the incidents, e s p e c i a l l y i n Twain's manuscript of the story, i n which many comments were quite ex-p l i c i t . Most of these remarks were changed i n the published novel, yet the fact that they were present i n the manuscript c e r t a i n l y indicates that Twain allowed himself to think of Huck (who, after a l l , i s the narrator of a l l these incidents) as a sexually knowledgeable i n d i v i d u a l , and of sexual awareness as an aspect of growing up. DeVoto's comments on the changes Twain made i n the manuscript i l l u s t r a t e how c l e a r l y the idea of sexuality was v i s i b l e i n the o r i g i n a l version: 114 Kings are not permitted to "wallow around the harem," as he o r i g i n a l l y wrote, but instead must more decorously "hang around." ... S i m i l a r l y , i n three d i f f e r e n t passages the king's s a t i s f a c t i o n i n k i s s i n g the Wilks g i r l s i s deleted and Mary Jane i s . not even permitted to kiss him "on the mouth." More flagrant ... i s a change i n Colonel Sherburn's decision of the mob that comes to lynch him. The text now reads, "Because you're brave enough to tar and feather poor friendless cast-out women that come along here ..." The single adjective "cast-out" i s notable as one of the very few admissions i n a l l Mark's works that p r o s t i t u t i o n e x i s t s , but he f e l t that the o r i g i n a l sentence was too s p e c i f i c or too suggestive and cut out the completing phrase which he had written, "lowering themselves to your l e v e l to earn a b i t e of b i t t e r bread to eat."62 These changes diminish the sense of Huck's sexual awareness, but c e r t a i n l y do not remove i t . In the Grangerford-Shepherdson feud, as well, there i s an intimation of sexual violence, foreshadowing the events of the subsequent "Indians" fragment. When young Buck Grangerford and his cousin are massacred by the Shepherdsons, Huck comments, "I t made me so sick I most f e l l out of the tree. I ain't agoing to t e l l a l l that happened—it would make me sick again i f I was to do that. I wished I hadn't ever come ashore that night, to 6 3 see such things." This sounds rather s i m i l a r to Tom Sawyer's account to Huck of what the Indians had done to the bodies of Buck [I], Sam, and B i l l M i l l s after the massacre: "He t o l d me how else they had served the bodies, which was h o r r i b l e , but i t 64 would not do to put i t i n a book." In both cases, there i s 115 at least the suggestion of sexual mutilation of the corpses, an act so h o r r i f y i n g to the adolescent Huck that he cannot even begin to describe i t . As i n Tom Sawyer, these events i n Huckleberry Finn do not play a major role i n the process of Huck's maturity. Yet they indicate that i n Twain's mind sexuality was an i m p l i c i t part of growing up. As well, these events show that the sexual ex-p l i c i t n e s s of the "Indians" fragment was not an aberration, but a l o g i c a l outgrowth of concerns that had been present i n the e a r l i e r works. This i s born out by the fact that even a f t e r abandoning the "Indians" story, Twain continued to portray aspects of human sexuality i n st o r i e s about the boys. To. be sure, there i s v i r t u a l l y no concern with sex i n Tom  Sawyer Abroad, which i s the f i r s t work about the boys that Twain wrote after abandoning "Indians" eight years e a r l i e r . At the same time, t h i s story also possesses almost no concern with the theme of maturation i n any form, so the absence of any mention of sex may not be surprising. The next surviving work, "Tom Sawyer, Detective," however, does present sexual desire as at least an i m p l i c i t motivation for a major element of the p l o t . The i n t e r e s t that Brace Dunlap, the v i l l a i n of the story, has in a t t r a c t i v e , sixteen-year-old Benny Phelps would seem, at l e a s t to an adult (and Twain described the story as being "written for grown f o l k " ^ 5 ) , to be quite c l e a r l y sexual. The motivation for his revenge on the family, a f t e r Brace has been 116 turned down for Benny's hand, can be seen as jealousy. Once again, Twain does not have the boys p a r t i c i p a t e i n any of the sexually motivated a c t i v i t y (when Tom saves Uncle S i l a s by revealing the d e t a i l s of Dunlap's revenge p l o t , Benny rushes to kiss her father, not Tom). But i n allowing the boys to observe sexual desire and sexual jealousy, the story serves as an important preparation for l a t e r s t o r i e s involving the boys in which sex would play an even more dramatic r o l e . Notebook entries from the l a t e r 1890's show Twain planning a story i n which a runaway slave rapes a white g i r l and then murders the g i r l and her brother. Then an innocent slave g i r l i s unjustly hanged for the murder of a baby: Whites seized the slave nurse & hanged her for poisoning the baby while another party was scouring the woods & discovered the baby's uncle i n suspicious circumstances, hiding something, & charged him (Tom or Huck discovered him) & he confessed; & he arrived i n custody just a f t e r the innocent slave g i r l had been lynched--or (shan't) Tom and Huck s h a l l save her.^6 This note was written at the same time that Twain wrote his reminiscences of growing up i n Hannibal, " V i l l a g e r s , 1840-43." In t h i s , Twain gave a "penetrating picture of the seamy under-side of the St. Petersburg i d y l l , " as Macnaughton terms i t , focussing on the adulteries, murders, cohabitations, and assorted other vices of the townspeople, many of the vices s p e c i f i c a l l y sexual i n nature. This might indicate that Twain was quite con-sciously attempting to explore his memories of Hannibal as a 117 source for new f i c t i o n that would be q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the works about childhood he had written e a r l i e r , f i c t i o n using much more e x p l i c i t l y adult themes and concerns. It i s not known how far Twain may have progressed with any of these plans for s t o r i e s , but i n 1902 he did begin another 6 8 story about the boys, getting as far as 38,000 words in i t . This story, u n t i t l e d and unfinished, was evidently written i n two parts. The f i r s t concerned Huck, Tom and t h e i r friends as teenagers i n St. Petersburg; the second was to be about t h e i r return to the v i l l a g e as adults f i f t y years afterwards. The second part i s a r e p e t i t i o n , of course, of the f i n a l point of the o r i g i n a l 1874 outline, the return of the boys to t h e i r home-town as adults. This narrative seems not to have survived, so i t cannot be determined now what i t may have contained. But the notes that Twain wrote while planning t h i s story are very suggestive. Among them are the ambiguous note about John Briggs' "shameful" act, the l i s t of a l l the "sweethearts," and notes mentioning "swings—picnics ... Doughnut party. Horse-hair snakes ... 6 9 serenades." The fact that Tom Sawyer's Gang was to include g i r l s for the f i r s t time i n any of the stories indicates that in t h i s work, Twain might have intended to show the growth of normal romantic love between young men and women, rather than the platonic puppy-love of the "Boy's Manuscript" and Tom  Sawyer. Later, when the boys return to St. Petersburg as adults 118 i n the second half of the story, perhaps with children of t h e i r own, one can assume that they had developed normal adult sexual relationships as they matured. Therefore, i t i s clear that sexuality played a role i n Twain's thoughts and writings about Huck and Tom, at least once 7 he had finished Tom Sawyer, with i t s "quality of arrested time," as Stone terms i t . As we have seen, close examination of these l a t e r writings show a noticeable emphasis on sex, despite Twain's "timorous" approach to the subject. The emphasis demonstrates that the author had a sense of the importance of sexual awareness i n a boy's growing up. More noticeable than sexuality as an aspect of maturity, though, i s the question of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for one's own actions. This aspect of maturity i s one that Twain could be much more e x p l i c i t about. The issue of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be seen f i r s t i n the "Indians" story, where Tom p a i n f u l l y recognizes the difference between his c h i l d i s h perception of the world derived from "Cooper's novels" and the r e a l thing; and the theme becomes even more evident i n several of the l a t e r writings about the boys. In Tom Sawyer Abroad, a major and dangerous part of Tom's personality i s made e x p l i c i t for the f i r s t time. This part i s his obsessive quest for "glory"—renown fame, importance i n the eyes of the community. To be sure, t h i s desire was present 119 in the boy as early as Tom Sawyer where, by t e s t i f y i n g against Injun Joe at Muff Potter's t r i a l , Tom becomes "a g l i t t e r i n g 71 hero." But his testimony was a genuinely courageous act, given Joe's reputation, and one done i n the service of a good cause. Then, i n Huckleberry Finn, Tom's entire "Evasion" scheme i s simply an elaborate game to pass the time and s t i r up excite-ment i n the town. I t displays t h i s quality of Tom's i n a new and much less a t t r a c t i v e l i g h t . In Tom Sawyer Abroad, Huck, once again the narrator, makes th i s q u a l i t y of Tom's e x p l i c i t from the very beginning. In the opening paragraph, he says: "Do you reckon Tom Sawyer was s a t i s f i e d a f t e r a l l them adventures? I mean the adventures we had down the r i v e r and the time we set the darky Jim free and Tom got shot i n the leg. No, he wasn't. I t only j u s t p'isoned 72 him for more" (emphasis added). Huck's use of the word "p'isoned" both i n t h i s story and other l a t e r ones i s meant per-haps to be taken almost l i t e r a l l y . Tom's quest for glory i s a kind of disease within him that can only be cured by a pai n f u l antidote. After t h i s promising beginning, though, very l i t t l e i s made of t h i s topic i n Tom Sawyer Abroad. I t i s Tom's desire to outshine the other prominent person i n the v i l l a g e , the post-master Nat Parson, that leads him (together with Huck and Jim) onto the balloon where they are kidnapped by the mad s c i e n t i s t . This opening c e r t a i n l y had p o s s i b i l i t i e s s i m i l a r to those of 120 the "Indians" story, for Tom once again has led Jim into un-necessary and avoidable danger. But soon the work declines into "more or less conventional going for the young readers of Mrs. 73 Mary Dodge's St. Nicholas Magazine," for whom the story was written. Tom learns nothing i n the course of the work, and undergoes no r e a l change i n personality. Perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t l y , Tom Sawyer Abroad i s never mentioned by Twain i n any of his l a t e r s t o r i e s or notes about the boys, i n d i c a t i n g that he may have r e a l i s e d that t h i s mildly d i v e r t i n g tale was a dead end, as far as any serious exploration of themes regarding the boys was concerned. The missing manuscript of "Tom Sawyer's Mystery," written between Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective," may have contained elements involving the maturity of Tom, but so l i t t l e i s known about i t that i t i s impossible to say. The subsequent "Detective" story contains no overt lesson i n moral education or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . But i t p l a i n l y serves as a preparation for the lesson that Tom learns i n the next work i n the series, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." Twain may very well have been planning the l a t e r work as he wrote "Tom Sawyer, Detective" i n January, 74 1895. For as we have seen, his imagination was concerned i n the mid-1890's with the elements of the story that would become "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." In "Tom Sawyer, Detective," Twain allows the boy a v i r -t u a l l y unalloyed triumph i n the f a m i l i a r setting of a courtroom. 121 In the subsequent "Conspiracy" narrative, the author completely reverses the s i t u a t i o n i n a si m i l a r setting. In the "Detective" story, Tom i s able to save Uncle S i l a s 1 l i f e through his powers of observation, his cleverness, and his deductive a b i l i t y . At the conclusion of the story, the boy i s basking i n the admiration of the community,' and wins a $2,000 reward. I t i s somewhat reminiscent of the p o s i t i v e ending of Tom Sawyer, where he finds the $12,000 treasure, g l o r i e s i n the admiration of the Thatcher family and the townspeople, and seems pointed toward a l i f e t i m e of success and prosperity. In contrast, the disaster that Tom experiences i n "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" i s so c a r e f u l l y p l o t t e d — a n d linked to the e a r l i e r work--that i t indicates Twain was consciously comparing the two narratives. One shows Tom triumphant; the other shows him i n despair. The roots of the "Conspiracy" narrative may go back even further than "Tom Sawyer, Detective," i n fac t . In the summer of 1884, just a f t e r concluding Huckleberry Finn with the "Evasion" episode, the author jotted down i n his notebook another reminiscence from his childhood i n Hannibal: " V i l l a i n s 75 very scarce. P a t e r - r o l l e r s and slavery." This, as has been 7 6 noted, formed the germ of the "Conspiracy" story, though only a f t e r many years of thought and several intervening i n s p i r a t i o n s . When he began the work i n the summer of 1897, thirteen years after he had f i r s t attempted to explore the same theme i n 122 the "Indians" fragment, the author c a r e f u l l y focussed the work on Tom Sawyer and h i s dreams of g l o r y . From the very beginning, he emphasizes t h a t what happens i n the s t o r y i s e n t i r e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f Tom. As i n the "Evasion" episode, which must have been i n h i s mind when he f i r s t noted down the p l o t element of " p a t e r - r o l l e r s , " Twain here has Tom concoct an e l a b o r a t e , dangerous, and e n t i r e l y unnecessary scheme s o l e l y out of a d e s i r e t o make h i m s e l f the centre of a t t e n t i o n and to break the day-to-day monotony of l i f e i n the v i l l a g e . Tom's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s emphasized i n the opening para-graphs o f the work, i n which Huck comments s p e c i f i c a l l y : " I t was Tom's i d e a to p l a n out something to do, me and Jim never planned out t h i n g s to do, which wears out a person's b r a i n s and . ,. „77 (Emphasis added.) A c l e a r d i s -axn t any use anyway. ^ t i n c t i o n i s drawn here between Tom as the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r the scheme, and Huck and Jim who merely p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t under h i s d i r e c t i o n and a t h i s u r g i n g . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s maintained throughout the work, where a t c r u c i a l moments Tom w i l l always a c t e n t i r e l y of h i s own v o l i t i o n i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y i r r e s p o n -s i b l e manner. The a d m i t t e d l y complex p l o t o f the s t o r y has been the source o f some c o n t r o v e r s y . DeVoto, f o r example, c o n s i d e r e d "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" t o be "an experiment w i t h a para-7 8 l y s i n g l y i n t r i c a t e p l o t " and "a maze o f romance and rank 79 i m p r o v i s a t i o n , wholly without s t r u c t u r e . " Macnaughton, on 123 the other hand, believes "the f i r s t section of t h i s story i s 8 0 well-plotted," and o v e r a l l , "the p l o t ... i s e x c i t i n g and 81 entertaining." The work c e r t a i n l y seems to. f a l l into two somewhat incongruent parts, the "conspiracy" section at the beginning, and the murder mystery i n the second h a l f . But even these two d i v i s i o n s can be seen to have a thematic relationship with each other. The "conspiracy" section shows the towns-people of St. Petersburg as remarkably slow-witted and g u l l i b l e , e a s i l y fooled by the machinations of Tom Sawyer. The second half, i n contrast, shows Tom u t t e r l y humiliated i n front of the same people he had toyed with so c a l l o u s l y and thus emphasizes the extent of his downfall. In addition, a number of comments and incidents i n the f i r s t half of the story seem deliberately to foreshadow events of the second h a l f . For example, when Tom f i r s t outlines his plan for a conspiracy, Jim exclaims, "My Ian', Mars Tom! W'y 8 2 d e y ' l l hang us." At the end of the story, of course, Jim i s facing hanging for a murder he did not commit. As well, when Tom suggests having a revolution, Jim wonders whether "when we got the revolution done our old king would show up and hog the whole thing." To which Huck comments, "Well, i t begun to sound 8 3 l i k e l y , the way Jim put i t , and i t got me to f e e l i n g uneasy." At the end of the story, the King and the Duke do appear, for they are the r e a l murderers. 124 There i s also an i r o n i c thematic foreshadowing when Tom suggests having a c i v i l war, only to give i t up afte r Jim ob-je c t s . The boy's consideration of Jim on thi s r e l a t i v e l y minor matter contrasts dramatically with his t o t a l lack of s e n s i t i v i t y towards him at the end of the story, where he manipulates Jim into almost being hanged unjustly for murder. The irony i s reinforced by the almost embarrassing effusion of praise Huck heaps upon Tom i n his comments on t h i s incident: It shows what a good heart he had; he had been just dead set on getting up a c i v i l war, and had even planned out the prepar-ations for i t on the biggest scale, and yet he throwed i t a l l aside and give i t up to accommodate a nigger. Not many boys would a done such a thing as that. But that was just his s t y l e ; when he l i k e d a person there wasn't anything he wouldn't do for them. I've seen Tom Sawyer do many a noble thing, but the noblest of a l l , I think, was time he countermanded the c i v i l war.°4 Given Tom's u t t e r l y inconsiderate treatment of Jim at the end of the story, there seems to be at least a mild degree of sarcasm in Huck's remarks here, as well as authorial irony. Huck c a l l s Tom noble here for merely s a c r i f i c i n g a pet project. But as the story develops, i t becomes clear that n o b i l i t y i s a quality that for Tom to achieve w i l l take far more s a c r i f i c e and suffering than a meagre concession to Jim. E a r l i e r , Tom's basic motivation for embarking on any of his schemes was made e x p l i c i t . His strongest desire i s for "glory," even more than for excitement. When Tom f i r s t proposes 125 s t a r t i n g a c i v i l war, Huck responds with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c scepticism, "I might a known you'd get up something that's f u l l of danger and expense and a l l that." To which Tom r e p l i e s excitedly, "And glory ... you're forgetting the g l o r y — forgetting the main thing." "Oh, cert'nly," I says, " i t ' s got to have that i n , you needn't t e l l a person that. The f i r s t time I catch old Jimmy Grimes fetching home a jug that hain't got any rot-gut i n i t , I ' l l say the next mericle that's going to happen i s Tom Sawyer fetch-ing home a plan that hain't got any glory i n . " I said i t very s a r c a s t i c . I just meant to make him squirm, and i t done i t . He s t i f f e n e d up, and.was very distant, and said I was a jackass.85 "Glory," as can be seen i n a l l of the s t o r i e s involving Tom Sawyer, had a very special meaning and importance for the boy. Tom's desire for glory and renown i s perhaps the single most important motivation for his action. The desire can be seen i n the e a r l i e s t fantasies of Tom's prototype, B i l l y Rogers of the 1870 "Boy's Manuscript," who wanted to return to his 8 6 v i l l a g e i n triumph as "Rogers the Pirate." Later, the same motivation i s evident throughout the many incidents of The  Adventures of Tom Sawyer where the boy becomes the centre of attention i n St. Petersburg. Later s t i l l , his triumph i n the courtroom i n Arkansas i n "Tom Sawyer, Detective" i s another example. 126 The d i f f i c u l t y that the t h i r s t for "glory" presents i n a maturing character i s a complex one, which may be why Twain took so long to resolve i t i n Tom's case. Fantasy i s useful, even necessary i n the process. But the problem seems to be that the boy's dreams of glory are t o t a l l y c h i l d i s h , with no r e a l sense of the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n an adult's l i f e . A sense of this childishness may have been what prompted DeVoto to say about Tom's dreams of piracy and circuses i n Tom Sawyer, "Had he no nebulous, i n a r t i c u l a t e v i s i o n of growing up, did he get 8 7 no nearer than t h i s to the threshold of ambition and desire?" For Tom, thi s seems to have indeed been the case i n the novel. But i t may have been the resolve to force Tom to elevate his dreams that prompted Twain to create a lesson i n moral education for him, a lesson that would force the boy to see the c h i l d i s h -ness and immaturity of his desires. Whatever his conscious intentions, Twain does accomplish t h i s advance i n Tom's character i n the "Conspiracy" narrative. At the beginning of the story, the conspiracy that Tom devises once more demonstrates his remarkable cleverness and imagination. These are pe r f e c t l y admirable q u a l i t i e s , but here are used i n the service of a pointless and p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous scheme. The s i t u a t i o n , i n fact, resembles the morally bankrupt "Evasion" episode of Huckleberry Finn, for Tom i s c a p i t a l i z i n g on an a l -ready e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i n order to try to reap excitement and renown. In the e a r l i e r work, the si t u a t i o n was Jim's i n -127 carceration at the Phelps farm. Here the fear and suspicion permeating St. Petersburg over the p o s s i b i l i t y of a slave up-r i s i n g i s what Tom uses as the springboard for his scheme. The utter self-centredness of Tom's present plan i s shown by the fact that he i s p e r f e c t l y w i l l i n g to use t h i s genuine fear and anger simply for his own amusement. It does not occur to him that people might actually suffer and f e e l pain through what he does. He i s not malicious i n t h i s ; that i s , he i s not planning for them to suffer. Rather, he has a child's complete lack of consciousness of what the consequences of h i s actions might be. We remember that for Twain one of the components of growing up, according to B l a i r , was becoming responsible for one's own action. This Tom has refused to do, though we saw an attempt at i t i n the "Indians" fragment. Here, the boy's acknowledgement of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for his own actions w i l l occur even more e x p l i c i t l y — a n d more p a i n f u l l y . An example of Tom's self-centredness—one that has paral-l e l s to si m i l a r events i n e a r l i e r works—occurs when the boy del i b e r a t e l y contracts deadly s c a r l e t fever. He believes t h i s action w i l l a s s i s t the conspiracy by forcing his troublesome brother Sid to leave town. But Tom ignores the possible con-sequences. Huck movingly describes what happens: 128 Tom was sick two weeks and got very bad, and then one night he begun to sink, and sunk pretty f a s t . A l l night long he got worse and worse, and was plumb out of his head, and babbled and babbled, and give the conspiracy plumb away, but Aunt Po l l y was that beside herself with misery and g r i e f that she couldn't take notice, but only just hung over him, and c r i e d , and kissed him, and bathed his face with a wet rag, and said oh, she could not bear to lose him, he was the d a r l i n g of her heart and she couldn't ever l i v e without him. ... And i n the morning when the doctor came and looked at him and says, kind of tender and low, "He doeth a l l things for the best, we must not repine," she—but I can't t e l l i t , i t would a made anybody cry to see her. This i s reminiscent of the scene i n The Adventures of Tom Saw-yer, where Tom runs o f f to Jackson's Island leaving Aunt Po l l y to think that he i s drowned. He then returns to the v i l l a g e to see what e f f e c t his action has had, and watches as "Aunt Pol l y knelt down and prayed for Tom so touchingly, so appeal-ingly, and with such measureless love i n her words and her old trembling voice, that he was weltering i n tears again, long 8 9 before she was through." Yet i n the "Conspiracy" story, the s u f f e r i n g that he has de l i b e r a t e l y caused his Aunt has no e f f e c t on him. I t c e r t a i n l y does not cause him to change either his outlook or his plans i n any way. At t h i s stage of the work, Tom i s s t i l l very much the unconscious, irresponsible c h i l d , l e t t i n g n o t h i n g — c e r t a i n l y not the feelings of other people—stand i n the way of working out his scheme. 129 The success o f the f i r s t p a r t o f the c o n s p i r a c y would seem, i n f a c t , to suggest t h a t Tom's p o i n t of view has some m e r i t . He seems to be able to do anything he wants without s u f f e r i n g more than minor setbacks. The c r u d e l y p r i n t e d hand-b i l l s Tom and Huck pos t a l l around S t . Pet e r s b u r g warning of an imminent s l a v e u p r i s i n g have the d e s i r e d e f f e c t of throwing the townspeople i n t o a s t a t e of t e r r o r and c o n f u s i o n . The v i l l a g e r s b e l i e v e "they would a l l wake up some n i g h t w i t h t h e i r 90 t h r o a t s c u t . " Subsequent h a n d b i l l s inflame the s i t u a t i o n even more, r e v e a l i n g the s u s p i c i o n and f e a r u n d e r l y i n g the l i f e of the v i l l a g e , and throwing everyone i n t o a s t a t e of near-h y s t e r i a and p a n i c . T h i s i s the hig h p o i n t o f Tom's c o n s p i r a c y , f o r he has been able to manipulate events e x a c t l y as he wishes i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e the d e s i r e d e f f e c t . But now Twain begins to d i r e c t the p l o t of the s t o r y c a r e -f u l l y , so t h a t the exte n t o f Tom's l i m i t a t i o n s i n c o n t r o l l i n g events becomes c l e a r . T h i s development occurs when the out-l i n e s o f Tom's scheme begin to go awry. The boy's o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n had been to blacken h i m s e l f and pass h i m s e l f o f f as a runaway s l a v e to Bat B r a d i s h , the town s l a v e - t r a d e r . Then he would run o f f from B r a d i s h , c o n f i r m i n g the f e a r s p l a n t e d i n the community by the h a n d b i l l s . But t h i s p a r t o f the scheme begins t o unr a v e l when Huck d i s c o v e r s t h a t B r a d i s h a l r e a d y has a runaway s l a v e to d e a l w i t h , and cannot handle another one. Tom's r e a c t i o n to the news, when Huck t e l l s him of t h i s develop-130 merit, shows how inconceivable he finds a sudden b a r r i e r to his plans. Says Huck, " I t just broke his heart. I knowed i t would. He had been imagining a l l kinds of adventures and good times he was going to have when he was washed up and hunting for him-91 s e l f , and he couldn't seem to get over i t . " The extent of Tom's i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from t h i s point on becomes more and more e x p l i c i t . The escaped slave whom Bradish has taken charge of i s also white, as Tom discovers when he examines the man while he sleeps. He i s a person attempting the same fraud as Tom wished to undertake i n what might be ca l l e d a t y p i c a l l y Twainian coincidence. At th i s c r u c i a l moment, Tom i s given the opportunity to behave i n a responsible, adult manner—and he deliberately throws i t away. Huck suggests the proper course of action to Tom: "The thing for us to do i s to rush to the s h e r i f f ' s and t e l l him, so he can s l i p up here and catch t h i s humbug and j a i l him for swindling Bat." But Tom s t i l l has a c h i l d i s h b e l i e f i n his power to control events, and responds: "You think so, do you?" It made me f e e l very sheepish, but I said "Yes," anyway, though I didn't say i t very confident. "Huck Finn," he says, kind of sorrowful, "You can't ever seem to see the noblest opportunities. Here i s th i s conspiracy weaving along just perfect, and you want to turn him i n i n t h i s ignorant way and s p o i l i t a l l . " 9 2 131 At t h i s moment, the c o n s p i r a c y i s a b r u p t l y changing from a b o y i s h prank i n t o something f a r more s e r i o u s , but Tom r e f u s e s to r e c o g n i z e t h i s . Twain's care and s k i l l i n h a n d l i n g the events of t h i s p a r t of the s t o r y i n d i c a t e the degree of thought he must have put i n t o w r i t i n g i t with the aim of t e a c h i n g Tom something about m a t u r i t y . The events t h a t f o l l o w the boy's d e c i s i o n not to t u r n the f r a u d u l e n t s l a v e i n c o n f i r m the s e r i o u s n e s s of what i s happening. Bat B r a d i s h i s k i l l e d by the " s l a v e " s h o r t l y a f t e r -wards, and Jim i s a r r e s t e d f o r the murder on s t r o n g circum-s t a n t i a l evidence. Tom's r e a c t i o n to these events shows h i s c a l l o u s n e s s , h i s l a c k of empathy f o r those c l o s e to him. As Huck d e s c r i b e s i t , "Tom's face l i t up pious and h a p p y — i t made me s h i v e r to see i t . . . . Tom says, k i n d of g r a t e f u l , ' A i n ' t i t b e a u t i f u l , the way i t ' s d e v e l o p i n g out?—we c o u l d n ' t ever 93 thought of t h a t , and i t ' s the s p l e n d i d e s t design y e t . " Tom sees the t r a g i c event, i n f a c t , as j u s t another oppor-t u n i t y to reap more " g l o r y , " though the f a t e of h i s f r i e n d hangs i n the b a l a n c e . Instead of immediately going to :the s h e r i f f and t e l l i n g what he knows about the crime, Tom d e l i b e r a t e l y conceals h i s knowledge of the crime and even i n v e n t s a "motive" f o r Jim to have k i l l e d B r a d i s h , to make the case a g a i n s t Jim even s t r o n g e r . T h i s c o l d - h e a r t e d m a n i p u l a t i o n of the b l a c k man i s o n l y the l a s t example of Tom's c a l l o u s n e s s towards him. The boy's u n t h i n k i n g behaviour toward Jim began wi t h the 132 "Evasion" episode i n Huckleberry Finn, continued i n "Huck and Tom Among the Indians," and even included the kidnapping of Jim and the boys by the mad s c i e n t i s t i n Tom Sawyer Abroad. The s i m i l a r i t y of t h i s motif p e r s i s t i n g i n a l l these s t o r i e s i n -dicates that Twain was aware of t h i s streak of callousness i n Tom's personality. But here i n the "Conspiracy" story he w i l l force Tom to acknowledge i t as well. Tom's new plan now involves emulating as cl o s e l y as possible the events that took place i n Arkansas i n "Tom Sawyer, Detective," for he hopes to reap the same kind of triumph here i n St. Petersburg that he garnered there. Twain c a r e f u l l y l i n k s the two stories together, i n fa c t , as the narration makes clear. Huck t r i e s to persuade Tom, before i t i s too la t e , to t e l l the s h e r i f f what he knows, rather than wait u n t i l Jim's t r i a l , but the boy w i l l have none of i t . "He wanted to get the [murderers] into the court without them suspicioning anything—and then make the grand pow-wow, the way he done i n Arkansaw. That Arkansaw 94 business had just pisoned him, I could see i t p l a i n . " Yet Tom's ref u s a l to follow Huck's well-meant and res-ponsible advice i s his l a s t moment of immature self-confidence. The next day, when the boys return to the hide-out of the murderers, just to make sure the men are s t i l l there, they d i s -cover to t h e i r horror that the murderers are gone. This moment, l i k e the massacre of the M i l l s family and the kidnapping of Jim in the "Indians" story, i s an instant of overwhelming s e l f -133 knowledge f o r Tom, and Huck's n a r r a t i o n of the event makes t h i s p a i n f u l l y e x p l i c i t : I j u s t f e l l f l a t , where I was. E v e r y t h i n g was swimming, i t seemed to me t h a t I was going to f a i n t . Then I l e t go and c r i e d , I c o u l d n ' t h e l p i t and d i d n ' t want t o . And Tom was c r y i n g , too, and s a i d - -"What d i d I ever do i t f o r ? Huck what d i d I do i t f o r ! I had them safe and c o u l d a saved Jim s p i t e of anything anybody c o u l d do, i f I o n l y hadn't been a fool-. Oh, Huck you wanted me to t e l l the s h e r i f f , and I was an i d i o t and wouldn't l i s t e n , and now they've got away and w e ' l l never see them again, and n o t h i n g can save Jim, and i t ' s a l l my f a u l t , I wish I was d e a d . " 9 5 Tom's s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n , and the e x p l i c i t acknowledgement of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r what has happened, i s almost unbear-ab l e i n t h i s scene, and Huck's n a r r a t i v e commentary r e i n f o r c e s the boy's anguish: He took i t so hard, and s a i d so many hard t h i n g s about h i m s e l f t h a t I hadn't the h e a r t to say any myself, though I was going t o , and had them on my tongue's end, but you know how i t i s , t h a t way. I begun to t r y and comfort him, but he c o u l d n ' t bear i t , and s a i d c a l l him names, c a l l him the rough-e s t names I knowed, i t was the o n l y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d do him any good.9 6 Twain's s k i l l i n d e v e l o p i n g t h i s theme i s shown by the f a c t t h a t as the s t o r y continues t h i s moment i s o n l y the b e g i n n i n g of a p a i n f u l p e r i o d of moral growth and m a t u r i t y f o r Tom. T h i s i n s t a n t o f self-awareness--when he d i s c o v e r s the murderers are gone and Jim i s doomed—is s t i l l o n l y a p r i v a t e i n c i d e n t , be-134 tween h i m s e l f and Huck. But as Tom's triumphs were i n v a r i a b l y p u b l i c ones (we t h i n k immediately of such episodes as h i s r e -t u r n to h i s own f u n e r a l i n Tom Sawyer or h i s day of g l o r y i n Arkansas i n "Tom Sawyer, D e t e c t i v e " ) , so must the e x t e n t of h i s h u m i l i a t i o n be made p u b l i c as w e l l . The balance of the s t o r y i s c a r e f u l l y c r a f t e d by Twain to enable t h i s development to occur. In h i s n e a r - h y s t e r i a a t d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t the two murderers have disappeared, Tom develops v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s as to where they might have gone. In order to f o l l o w one p o s s i b l e t r a i l , he and Huck board a steamboat heading down the r i v e r , where Huck a b r u p t l y encounters the King and the Duke, the two con-men from Huckleberry F i n n . As these two are the a c t u a l murderers of B r a d i s h (as i s r e v e a l e d a t the end), the subsequent sequence of events i s handled very c a r e f u l l y by Twain. His s k i l l enables the suspense to mount and f o r c e s Tom to experience a prolonged p e r i o d of agony b e f o r e enduring h i s extreme moment of humil-i a t i o n and p a i n a t the c l i m a c t i c moment of the s t o r y . The author b u i l d s the suspense by very c l e v e r movement of the c h a r a c t e r s . Huck has not a c t u a l l y seen the two men who mur-dered B r a d i s h ; thus when he meets the King and the Duke he can e x p l a i n Jim's predicament to them i n complete innocence. They,, i n t u r n , r e a l i z i n g they are not suspected of the crime, q u i c k l y work out a scheme f o r s a v i n g the f r e e d s l a v e . T h i s p l a n i s q u i t e i n c h a r a c t e r f o r the two f r a u d s . They 135 w i l l go to Saint Louis and obtain forged papers claiming Jim i s wanted for an imaginary murder i n Kentucky some months e a r l i e r . As t h i s "crime" w i l l have chronological precedence over the murder of Bradish, they can merely take Jim i n t h e i r custody down the r i v e r and s e l l him somewhere, thereby both saving his l i f e and reaping a quick p r o f i t . Huck readi l y agrees to t h i s scheme as he knows that he and Tom can s t e a l Jim out of slavery almost immediately and take him, i n a some-what vaguely described plan, to England. In a c a r e f u l l y constructed sequence, therefore, Huck returns to Tom on another part of the boat to t e l l him of t h i s scheme. I t naturally delights the boy. At the same time, Tom wants to see the two frauds again, as he had only caught a glimpse of them when they were tarred and feathered, and hence unrecognizable, i n Huckleberry Finn. However, by the time the boys return to that part of the boat, the King and the Duke are gone, and Huck and Tom must disembark and return to St. Petersburg. I f Tom had seen them, of course, his moral edu-cation would have ended abruptly, as he would have recognised them at once as Bradish's murderers, and Jim would have been saved. By postponing the moment of recognition, Twain forces Tom into a lengthy period of anxiety and fear, prolonging the agony of his self-examination. As i t i s , Tom's response to the King and the Duke's plan shows the distance he has t r a v e l l e d i n self-awareness i n the 1 3 6 few s h o r t hours t h a t have passed s i n c e he l e a r n e d t h a t Jim was doomed because of h i s c h i l d i s h f o o l i s h n e s s . Not o n l y does he w i l l i n g l y accede to a scheme not of h i s own d e v i s i n g , but he embraces i t e a g e r l y and even wishes to make i t s i m p l e r . T h i s change i n the boy i s s t r e s s e d e x p l i c i t l y by Huck: He s a i d he'd got h i s l e s s o n , and warn't going to throw any more chances away f o r g l o r y ' s sake; no, l e t g l o r y go, he was f o r b u s i n e s s , from t h i s out. He was go-i n g to save Jim the q u i c k e s t way, never mind about the showiest. I t sounded good, and I l o v e d to hear i t . He hadn't ever been i n h i s r i g h t mind b e f o r e ; I c o u l d see i t p l a i n . Sound? He was as sound as a nut, now.9 7 A subsequent a c t of g e n e r o s i t y by Tom confirms how much the boy has changed i n t h i s s h o r t time. He o f f e r s to buy Jim out of s l a v e r y once the King and the Duke have p o s s e s s i o n of him, with the money he and Huck had d i s c o v e r e d i n the cave a t the end of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. T h i s would a v o i d another t e d i o u s "escape" attempt, perhaps s i m i l a r to the "Evasion" episode of the l a s t ten chapters of Huckleberry F i n n . As Tom had a c t u a l l y had enough money to do t h i s a l l along, h i s o f f e r i s another c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of how much he has matured. He acknowledges h i s debt to Jim by o f f e r i n g once more to g i v e the b l a c k man h i s freedom, but t h i s time without any o f the c o m p l i c a t i o n s he had i n f l i c t e d on him i n the e a r l i e r n o v e l . But so f a r Tom's p a i n and anguish have o n l y been p r i v a t e , shared w i t h the empathetic Huck. His s u f f e r i n g needs to be made public, as I have said, for as Tom's triumphs and successes had been shared with the community, so now must his humiliation and self-knowledge be shared as well. Therefore, as the narrative progresses, the King and the Duke—who had promised to return very quickly from St. Louis to rescue Jim from the consequences of Tom's excesses—abruptly vanish, leaving the boys to wait for them i n increasing fear. Jim's t r i a l , and seemingly i n -evitable conviction, are set for three weeks hence. This dead-l i n e causes Huck and Tom to t r a v e l to St. Louis to look for the two frauds i n the "calaboose." But, says Huck: "By George they warn't i n the calaboose, and hadn't been! I t was per-f e c t l y awful. Tom was that sick that he had to set down on 9 8 something—he couldn't stand." The boys return to St. Peters-burg, and for the ensuing three weeks Tom undergoes a form of purgatory during which he must continually endure the knowledge of his own childishness and stu p i d i t y at every moment, with Jim's hanging as the climax of the waiting. As the three weeks pass, t h i s process i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the change i n the boy's reaction to the a r r i v a l of the d a i l y steamboat from St. Louis. As the boat i s the means by which the King and the Duke would return to St. Petersburg, and there-fore the sole p o s s i b i l i t y of salvation for Tom, the boys wait for i t each day. At f i r s t they are eager and impatient for i t s a r r i v a l . Then, as time passes, they wait with increasing hope-lessness. As Huck says: "Toward the l a s t we only went becuz we couldn't help i t , and looked at the passengers without any 138 i n t r u s t , and turned around and went away without saying anything 9 9 when they had a l l come'ashore." The contrast between the Tom Sawyer of t h i s period, waiting hopelessly for the steamboat that he no longer believes w i l l bring the solace he seeks, and the Tom Sawyer of the e a r l i e r part of the story, developing and stage-managing the many d e t a i l s of his complex conspiracy, could not be greater. This period of anxious waiting i n which g u i l t and anguish tear at the boy, i s a f i t t i n g preparation for the cli m a c t i c moment of Tom's moral education i n the story. Appropriately, t h i s moment occurs i n the fa m i l i a r setting of a courtroom, a place where so many of Tom's e a r l i e r moments of triumph took place. These included his sensational testimony against Injun Joe to save Muff Potter i n Tom Sawyer, and his b r i l l i a n t deductive work during the t r i a l of S i l a s Phelps i n the preced-ing work, "Tom Sawyer, Detective." D i s t i n c t p a r a l l e l s are drawn, in fact, between the t r i a l scene i n that work, and the present one. The defense counsel i n the "Detective" story was "a mud-t u r t l e of a back settlement lawyer.""'"00 Here "Jim's lawyer was a young man and new to the v i l l a g e and hadn't any business, becuz of course the others didn't want the job for a free nigger.""'"0''" Both counsellors are c l e a r l y inexperienced and barely competent, thereby enabling the focus of the events of the t r i a l to be on Tom Sawyer, not on the defense lawyer. 139 In a d d i t i o n , the sense of Jim's t r i a l as a major event i n the o r d i n a r y l i f e o f the v i l l a g e i s made very e v i d e n t , as was Uncle S i l a s ' t r i a l a major event i n the l i f e of the town i n Arkansas. Both t r i a l s are almost l i k e stage p l a y s , witnessed by an audience o f e x c i t e d townspeople. In the "Conspiracy" s t o r y , i n f a c t , Twain takes pains to e s t a b l i s h the presence of a l l the important members of the community i n the courtroom on the morning o f Jim's t r i a l . "The court-house was jammed," says Huck. "P l e n t y of l a d i e s , t o o — s e v e n or e i g h t benches of them; and Aunt P o l l y and Miss Watson and the Widow Douglas and Mrs. Lawson, they a l l s e t together, and the Thatchers and a l o t more back of t h e m — a l l o f the q u a l i t y . " " ^ 1 These are the r e s p e c t e d , i n f l u e n t i a l people of the v i l l a g e . I t i s i n f r o n t of them t h a t Tom Sawyer's h u m i l i a t i o n w i l l occur. The i n t e n s e focus on Tom i n t h i s scene i s shown by the r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e time spent i n i t on e a r l y procedures and the f i r s t w i t n e s s e s ' testimony. The p r o s e c u t i o n and defense make opening s t a t e m e n t s — i n which the evidence a g a i n s t Jim seems q u i t e d a m n i n g — f o l l o w e d by testimony of the f i r s t t h ree w i t -nesses. These statements are given i n a few b r i e f paragraphs of i n d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n from Huck. They c o n t r a s t d r a m a t i c a l l y w i t h the pages of d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n from Tom t h a t w i l l be g i v e n l a t e r on. Even Huck's own testimony i s mentioned o n l y b r i e f l y , covered i n a s i n g l e sentence. "Then I t o l d a l l I knowed and 140 got back out of the way; and hadn't done no good, becuz there wasn't anybody there believed any of i t , and most of them 102 looked i t . " As i s customary i n a l l the l a t e r writings about the boys, Huck plays an almost i n v i s i b l e role here. Many of the same hard questions about his actions that w i l l be asked of Tom Sawyer could have been addressed to him, though, and he would have the same d i f f i c u l t y i n answering them. But as Huck needs no lesson i n moral education, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n front of the entire community, the author allows him here to play a very minor r o l e . Twain leaves the pain and anguish for Tom alone. When Tom i s f i n a l l y c a l l e d to the witness stand, his importance i n the community i s once again emphasized, as Huck's commentary makes clear: Then they c a l l e d Tom Sawyer, and people around me mumbled and said, "'Course— couldn't happen 'thout him being i n i t ; couldn't do an eclipse successful i f Tom Sawyer was took sick and couldn't super-intend." And his Aunt Polly and the women perked up and got ready to wonder what kind of 'sistence he was going to contribute and who was going to get the benefit of i t . 1 0 2 The irony that Twain establishes here, of course, i s that the reputation that Tom has laboured so hard to develop i s now about to be t o t a l l y o b l i t e r a t e d . In Tom's testimony, the importance of the "conspiracy" part of the story becomes evident. Tom relates the d e t a i l s of his scheme to the now astonished courtroom, and the e f f e c t i s 141 to make several prominent members of the community look extreme-ly f o o l i s h . Colonel Elder and Captain Sam set there looking ashamed and pretty mad, for most everybody was laughing; and when he showed that i t was us that was the Sons of Freedom and got up the s c a r e b i l l s and stuck them on the doors, and not Burrel, which Flacker said i t was, they laughed again, and i t was Flacker's turn to look sick, and he done i t . Twain here creates a thematically appropriate balance, for as these people are now humiliated by Tom's actions, very shortly the boy himself w i l l be t o t a l l y devastated i n front of a l l of them as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of his own deeds. Tom's t a l e of the conspiracy does have a generally p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the v i l l a g e r s . As Huck notes: " i t sounded honest and didn't have a made up look." But i n contrast, when he comes to the ending of the conspiracy and the murder of Bradish, the mood i n the courtroom s w i f t l y changes. The towns-people's response to the boy's account of the murderers' i n -criminating conversation which he overheard i n the i r hiding place, exemplifies t h i s . "When Tom got done i t was dead s t i l l , j ust the way i t always i s when people has been l i s t e n i n g to a yarn they don't take no stock i n and are sorry for the person that has t o l d i t . I t was kind of miserable, that s t i l l n e s s . " I t i s at t h i s point, when the atmosphere becomes cold and inhospitable, that the judge puts to Tom the c r u c i a l question 142 with which they boy has been tormenting himself for the l a s t several weeks, ever since he discovered that the two murderers had f l e d and he had l o s t the chance to turn them i n and save Jim. The judge asks e x p l i c i t l y : "If t h i s i s true, how i s i t you didn't come straight and t e l l the s h e r i f f ? How do you explain t h a t ? " 1 0 4 The judge's question i s an unanswerable one for Tom, for i t forces him to face p u b l i c l y the t e r r i b l e fact of his own i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , immaturity and stu p i d i t y . In fact, he never r e a l l y does answer i t . But Huck's account of the boy's re-sponse shows his value as the narrator. For Huck, who knows Tom better than anyone else i n the v i l l a g e , i s able to give a precise and i n s i g h t f u l account of exactly what i s going through Tom's mind at t h i s profound and t e r r i b l e moment: Tom was working at a button with his fingers and looking down at the f l o o r . I t was too many for him, that question, and I knowed i t . How was he going to t e l l them he didn't do i t becuz he was going to work the thing out on detective p r i n c i p l e s and g i t glory out of i t ? And how was he going to t e l l them he wanted to make the glory bigger by making i t seem Jim k i l l e d the man, and even crowded him into a motive, and then went and told about the motive where Mr. Lawson could get on i t — a n d so just by reason of him and his foolishness the murderers got away and now Jim was going to be hung for what they done. No, s i r , he couldn't say a word. And so when the judge waited awhile, everybody's eyes on Tom a fooling with his button, and then asked him why he didn't go and t e l l the s h e r i f f , he swallowed two or three times, and the tears come i n his eyes, and he says, very low— "I don't know, s i r . " ± U 4 143 In t h i s account Huck has summed up a l l of Tom's i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and f o o l i s h dreams, his immaturity and his c h i l d i s h vanity, as well as his anguish, g u i l t and helpless despair. A l l of these q u a l i t i e s have been made evident to Huck and the reader. They remain unknown, however, to the general public of St. Petersburg, though Tom's performance on the witness stand serves to humil-iate him i n front of them. Twain was unwilling or unable to have Tom at thi s moment burst out the true motive for his silence i n a great climactic scene, which would obviously be the f i n a l , public step i n his moral education. The author may have decided that Tom could not r e a l i s t i c -a l l y be expected to move so far a l l at once, and that therefore his s i l e n t humiliation i n t h i s scene would have to s u f f i c e as a lesson i n moral education. Huck's analysis, making Tom's s e l f -knowledge clear to the reader, takes the place of a public confession by Tom of his monstrous childishness. Twain may have f e l t that the fact that Tom and Huck and the reader a l l knew the extent of the boy's i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was s u f f i c i e n t . As well, the fact that Tom would forever have to bear the townspeople's conviction that not merely was he a l i a r , but an incompetent one at that may have seemed to Twain enough of a public humil-i a t i o n . In any event, th i s moment i n the t r i a l i s c l e a r l y a coming of age for Tom Sawyer, as Huck Finn's "go to h e l l " speech i n his Adventures was for that boy. Tom has f i n a l l y acquired s e l f -144 knowledge and an awareness of his own i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and immaturity. In a sense, although i t i s Jim who i s at the bar here, i t i s Tom who discovers himself on t r i a l for his own li m i t a t i o n s . A sense of despair i s v i v i d l y conveyed i n Huck 1s descrip-t i o n of what happens immediately aft e r Tom utters his s e l f -lacerating reply to the judge: "I don't know, s i r . " He comments i n a single, rhythmically r i v e t t i n g , s t y l i s t i c a l l y appropriate sentence: It was s t i l l again for a minute, then the lawyers made t h e i r speeches, and Mr. Lawson was t e r r i b l e s a r c a s t i c on Tom and his f a i r y t a l e , as he c a l l e d i t , and so then the jury fetched Jim i n g u i l t y i n the f i r s t degree i n two minutes, and o l d Jim stood up and the judge begun to make his speech t e l l i n g him why he'd got to die; and Tom he set there with his head down, crying.104 The image of Jim s t o i c a l l y accepting his fate while Tom s i t s over to one side weeping for his own g u i l t and loss of inno-cence i s the f i n a l overwhelming gauge of how much Tom has learned and suffered i n the course of the narrative to this point. I t i s i n t h i s image, too, that a reason can be seen for Twain's sudden abandonment of the story a few paragraphs l a t e r . The King and the Duke return at t h i s moment, and Tom quickly recognizes them as the r e a l murderers. But t h i s turn of events presented Twain with what was evidently an impossible choice. 145 To ensure that the f u l l extent of Tom's i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y be im-pressed upon the boy, i t would be necessary for the innocent Jim to die--a s a c r i f i c e to Tom's vanity and c h i l d i s h games-playing. Yet that may have seemed too high a price to pay, and for t h i s reason, perhaps, at the l a s t moment Twain brings the two frauds back to save Jim. But assuming that Tom i d e n t i f i e d them as the murderers, as he i s on the point of doing when the narrative breaks o f f , i t i s possible that he would reap a modest measure of glory from the astonished community even a f t e r a l l he has done; and that would jeopardize his hard-learned lesson in r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Twain may have decided simply not to try to resolve t h i s dilemma, and so abruptly l e f t the work un-fi n i s h e d . The next work about the boys that Twain embarked upon evidently showed them quite e x p l i c i t l y as grown-up men. This 105 i s the " F i f t y Years After" manuscript referred to by Howells, which seems not to have survived. Details of t h i s narrative are not known. But from the surviving notes and comments on 105 t h i s work, i t seems clear that i t embodied the f i n a l point of the o r i g i n a l 1874 outline and concerned Tom's return to the v i l l a g e as an adult. Of course, i n view of the intervening stories and notes about the boys, the work was very l i k e l y quite d i f f e r e n t from what Twain had o r i g i n a l l y intended t h i r t y years before. But the existence of t h i s work shows that Twain's, o r i g i n a l plan to bring a boy to manhood was s t i l l present i n his mind. The theme of maturation, therefore, was a persistent 146 one through a l l these years. I t can be seen i n a l l these works, even though the author temporarily changed his emphasis i n both Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. The persistence of the theme in Twain's f i c t i o n about the boys over three decades shows the strength of his desire to bridge the gap l e f t i n these stories between childhood p o t e n t i a l i t y and adult p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the world. 147 NOTES 1 See pp. 47-48. 2 H i l l , p. 386. 3 H i l l , pp. 386-387. 4 H i l l , p. 387. 5 DeVoto, Work, p. 49, n. 1. 6 H i l l , p. 391. 7 B l a i r , "Structure," pp. 75-79. g B l a i r , "Structure," p. 83. 9 B l a i r , "Structure," p. 84. 1 0 B l a i r , "Structure," pp. 84-85. 1 1 B l a i r , "Structure," p. 88. 12 Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, xn Gerber, p. 237. 1 3 See pp. 49-51. 14 Smxth and Gxbson, I, 92. 1 5 DeVoto, Work, p. 53. 1 6 DeVoto, Work, p. 54. 1 7 DeVoto, Work, pp. 54-55. 148 18 See p. 46, 19 20 21 Kaplan, p. 181. Kaplan, pp. 180-181, Chadwick Hansen, "The Character of Jim and the Ending of Huckleberry Finn," Massachusetts Review 5 (1963), 4 5-66. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Clemens Clemens Clemens Clemens Clemens Clemens p. 11. p. 46 . p. 71. PP. 71-72. p. 74. p. 168. Leo Marx, "Mr. E l i o t , Mr. T r i l l i n g , and Huckleberry Finn," American Scholar 22 . (1953), 428. 29 30 31 Marx, 429 Stone, p. 195, See Albert Bigelow Paine, ed., Mark Twain's Auto-biography (New York: Harper, 1924), I, 123-125, for Twain's comments on his mother's attitude towards slavery. Despite her kindness and humanity, Jane Clemens never once questioned the i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f . 32 33 34 B l a i r , p. 83, Clemens, pp. 225-226 See p. 58, 35 Clemens, p. 226 149 3 6 See pp. 58-59. 3 7 B l a i r , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " pp. 84-87. 3 8 B l a i r , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " p. 85. 3 9 B l a i r , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " pp. 85-88. 4 0 Delaney, pp. 216-217. 41 Twain, "Indians," p. 94. 42 Twain, "Indians," p. 96. 4 3 Twain, "Indians," p. 102. 4 4 Twain, "Indians," p. 109. 4 5 B l a i r , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " p. 90. 4 6 Twain, "Indians," p. 108. 4 7 Alexander E. Jones, "Mark Twain and S e x u a l i t y , " PMLA 71 (1956), 595-616. 4 8 DeVoto, Work, p. 15. 49 Stone, pp. 67-77. 5 0 B l a i r , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " p. 87. 5 1 Twain, "Indians," pp. 136-137. 52 Twain, "Indians," p. 113. 5 3 Twain, "Indians," p. 118. 5 4 Twain, "Indians," p. 135. 55 Delaney, p. 227. 150 5 6 DeVoto, Work, p. 14. 57 Quoted i n DeVoto, p. 14. 5 8 Twain, Tom Sawyer, p. 19 8. 59 Dixon Wecter, Sam Clemens of Hannibal (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1952), p. 158. 6 0 Twain, Tom Sawyer, p. 199. 61 George P. E l l i o t , "Afterword," i n Mark Twain, The  Adventures of Tom Sawyer (New York: The New American Library, 1959), p. 224. 6 2 DeVoto, Work, p. 84. 6 3 Clemens, p. 94. 64 Twain, "Indians," p. 107. 6 5 Quoted i n Gerber, p. 349. 6 6 Quoted i n Macnaughton, p. 361. 6 7 Macnaughton, p. 34. 6 8 DeVoto, Eruption, p. 199. 69 Quoted i n B l a i r , "Introduction," p. 16-18. 70 Stone, p. 77. 71 Twain, Tom Sawyer, p. 17 3. 7 2 Twain, Tom Sawyer Abroad, i n Gerber, p. 255. 7 3 Kaplan, p. 314. 7 4 See p. 73. 151 75 Browning, I I I , 30. 7 6 See pp. 73-74. 77 Mark Twain, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," i n B l a i r , Mark  Twain's Hannibal, p. 164. 7 8 DeVoto, Work, p. 48. 79 DeVoto, Work, p. 113. 8 0 Macnaughton, p. 39. 81 Macnaughton, p. 115. 8 2 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 174. 8 3 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 176. 84 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 166. 8 5 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 165. p c Mark Twain, "Boy's Manuscript," i n DeVoto, Work, p. 37, 8 7 DeVoto, Work, p. 21. 8 8 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 182. 8 9 Twain, Tom Sawyer, p. 129. 9 0 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 196. 91 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 202. 92 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 205. 9 3 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 213. ^ 94 Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 218. 152 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 Twain, "Conspiracy," pp. 218-219. Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 219. Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 227. Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 235. Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 236. Twain, "Detective," p. 401. Twain, "Conspiracy," p.,237. Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 23 8. Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 239. Twain, "Conspiracy," p. 241. Howells, p. 90. B l a i r , "Introduction," pp. 16-19. / S 3 CHAPTER IV Other Themes Other themes, ideas, and motifs are prominent i n the l a t e r Huck and Tom s t o r i e s , i n addition to the theme of maturation. Their significance l i e s i n the p a r a l l e l s and differences between Twain's treatment of these ideas i n the Huck and Tom stories and i n his other l a t e r f i c t i o n . A com-parison between the two can help to illuminate Twain's thoughts on these ideas and perhaps c l a r i f y some aspects of his l a t e r works, both published and unpublished. Among these themes are the "matter of Hannibal" and the "Transcendent Figure" (as defined by Henry Nash Smith"*") , the workings of Providence, and the attack on Romanticism. There i s not a single work involving Huck and Tom i n which at least one of these themes i s not present. As with the theme of maturation, the persistence with which the author treats these ideas over a period of many years would seem to demonstrate once more the remarkable hold that the world of Huck and Tom had on him over several decades. The most prominent of these themes i s the "Matter of Hannibal." It was f i r s t discussed by Smith i n his "Mark Twain's 154 Images of Hannibal: From St. Petersburg to Eseldorf" which charts the changing image of the small town i n Twain's f i c t i o n from Tom Sawyer to the Mysterious Stranger. Twain begins, Smith points out, with a perception of St. Petersburg as v i r t u a l l y Edenic, "a v i l l a g e of absolute innocence." Even the most unsavoury aspects of the town, the Injun Joe-Muff Potter episode, are not r e a l l y a part of the l i f e of the 2 v i l l a g e ; "they are stage properties." The change i n image of the small town begins i n Huckle-berry Finn, e s p e c i a l l y i n those parts written after 1880. This can be seen p a r t i c u l a r l y , Smith points out, i n the contrast between the St. Petersburg of the e a r l i e r novel and the squalid l i t t l e v i l l a g e of B r i c k s v i l l e , where Colonel Sherburn shoots Boggs, i n the l a t e r one. The contrast i s emphasized by the "whiteness" of St. Petersburg and the "dingy and weather-beaten" colour of B r i c k s v i l l e : "One suspects that St. Peters-burg has been whitened and B r i c k s v i l l e darkened i n colour mainly by projected emotion. Mark Twain meant to affir m St. 3 Petersburg; he means to rej e c t B r i c k s v i l l e . " The darkening of the small town image continues i n Twain's next novel, A Connecticut Yankee i n King Arthur's  Court. Here, as Smith demonstrates, King Arthur's B r i t a i n re-sembles Twain's perception of the ante-bellum South. It i s contrasted unfavourably with the Yankee's progressive demo-4 cracy, modelled upon late 19th-century New England. The 155 l i t t l e v i l l a g e s of B r i t a i n are described as squalid and poverty-stricken. The changes that the Yankee would bring to them involve i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , exploitation, and "progress," a l l a l t e r i n g them irredeemably. This i s a process that Twain, in the novel, seems to support. Works of the 1 8 9 0 ' s confirm the increasingly negative view of v i l l a g e l i f e . We see i t most prominently i n the novel Puddn'head Wilson ( 1893 ) and the story "The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg" (1 8 9 9), where the small town i s shown not to be a place of innocence, but the s i t e of hypocrisy, greed, and a fundamental e v i l . The contrast with the white-hued St. Peters-burg of Tom Sawyer could not be greater. F i n a l l y , i n The  Mysterious Stranger Twain brings a supernatural figure into the p l a c i d l i f e of a v i l l a g e i n order to point out what he believes are truths about human existence. The contrast that Smith draws i n th i s a r t i c l e i s between the paradigmatic purity and innocence of Tom Sawyer's St. Petersburg and the increasingly unattractive versions of the v i l l a g e i n the l a t e r writings. A l l of these l a t e r versions, however, are given d i f f e r e n t names: B r i c k s v i l l e , Pokeville, Dawson's Landing, Hadleyburg, Eseldorf. The implication seems to be that "St. Petersburg"—the name and the town—remained for Twain an embodiment of the p o s i t i v e memories of Hannibal. Negative memories of this same town were incorporated into communities with d i f f e r e n t names. For as Smith observes, 5 156 Twain's r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the r e a l Hannibal included some very post-Edenic episodes, as i s demonstrated i n his account of l i f e there i n the 1840's, "V i l l a g e r s of 1 8 4 0 - 3 . " 6 Looking at the l a t e r s t o r i e s involving Huck and Tom, however, one sees that even when stories are set i n St. Peters-burg, that town begins to resemble the unattractive communities portrayed i n other stories under other names. In "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," for example, St. Petersburg resembles Puddn'head Wilson's Dawson's Landing far more closely than i t does the St. 7 Petersburg described as a "Delectable Land" i n Tom Sawyer. This change would seem to demonstrate that St. Petersburg did not remain a fixed e n t i t y associated only with childhood inno-cence i n Twain's imagination. As the author's perceptions changed, the description of the v i l l a g e also altered to r e f l e c t these changing perceptions. This a l t e r a t i o n i n St. Petersburg may also be related to Twain's i n t e r e s t i n the boys' maturation. To regard a town as a place of innocence i s quite appropriate for small children. But as children grow older t h e i r perceptions change and enlarge. Therefore, i t i s not surprising that t h e i r understanding of l i f e i n the v i l l a g e might also change. The descriptions of St. Petersburg i n the l a t e r Huck and Tom stories seem to demonstrate th i s more sophisticated perception. This process i s not v i s i b l e i n the f i r s t of the l a t e r s t o r i e s , "Huck and Tom Among the Indians," for the boys spend v i r t u a l l y no time i n St. Petersburg i n t h i s work. However, i n 157 the next story i n the sequence, the published novella Tom  Sawyer Abroad, there i s a b r i e f glimpse of the town before the boys and Jim embark on t h e i r balloon ride. The view given suggests that there i s an undercurrent of fear and suspicion i n the p l a c i d l i t t l e v i l l a g e . Huck comments about the towns-people's reaction to the odd behaviour of Nat Parsons, the postmaster: Of course, people got to avoiding him and shaking their heads and whispering, because, the way he was looking and act-ing, they judged he had k i l l e d somebody or done something t e r r i b l e , they didn't know what, and i f he had been a stranger, they would've lynched him.^ The casual, matter-of-fact tone i n which Huck mentions t h i s p r o v i n c i a l h o s t i l i t y emphasizes the pot e n t i a l for b r u t a l -i t y and violence i n the v i l l a g e . The town now suddenly seems to share q u a l i t i e s with B r i c k s v i l l e or Pokesville rather than resemble the St. Petersburg of Tom Sawyer. It i s impossible to t e l l how the l o s t manuscript, "Tom Sawyer's Mystery," written i n 189 3, might have treated t h i s theme, but the fact that the story concerned "mysterious mur-9 ders" and took place i n the summer (when the boys would be out of school) indicates that i t was perhaps set i n a fear-stricken St. Petersburg possibly resembling the description of the town i n the l a t e r "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," with i t s v i g i l a n t e s and morbidly suspicious townspeople. 158 By comparing the next work, "Tom Sawyer, Detective," with the e a r l i e r Huckleberry Finn, we can see an e x p l i c i t con-t r a s t between Twain's treatment of the same v i l l a g e i n an e a r l i e r work and i n a l a t e r one, though the v i l l a g e i s not St. Petersburg. I t i s the unnamed town i n Arkansas where the Phelps family l i v e and where Jim i s imprisoned i n the e a r l i e r novel. Of course, even the description given of the community in Huckleberry Finn i s not e s p e c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e . The town seems to resemble more the t i r e d v i l l a g e s along the r i v e r that Huck had v i s i t e d during the course of his voyage than the edenic St. Petersburg. There i s also a surprising degree of fear and b r u t a l i t y i n the town even i n the e a r l i e r novel. The inhabitants are quick to fear the attack of an imaginary "des-prate gang of c u t t h r o a t s " 1 0 s t e a l i n g Jim away. The v i l l a g e r s immediately assemble, a l l heavily armed, to repel the supposed attack, although i t i s only the product of Tom Sawyer's imagi-nation. Their behaviour indicates that there was already for Twain a certain degree of tension permeating v i l l a g e l i f e . But i n "Tom Sawyer, Detective" the l e v e l of fear i s great-er and the undercurrent of b r u t a l i t y and violence runs far closer to the surface. As Stone comments, i n the "Detective" story the town "has been transformed into a nightmarish feud-ing ground. Tom and Huck move i n a miasma of suspicion, fear, and confusion.""'"1 Twain's sense of the small town as a source of e v i l rather than as a paradise, i s made dramatically evident by the events of the story. The overwhelming tedium of l i f e 159 in the v i l l a g e i s demonstrated by the fact that the towns-people welcome any diversion from t h e i r day-to-day l i f e , even a brutal murder. When Uncle S i l a s i s arrested for the supposed murder of Jubiter Dunlap, none of the townspeople makes any e f f o r t to defend him. A l l seem pe r f e c t l y w i l l i n g to believe he i s g u i l t y , even though i t would seem impossible that mild and sweet-tempered Uncle S i l a s could commit such a crime. S i l a s " t r i a l for murder, i n fact, seems to be regarded by the v i l l a g e r s as nothing more than an amusing entertainment put on for t h e i r benefit. The idea that people are suffering from i t (the Phelps family) does not seem to enter anyone's mind. During the t r i a l , the v i l l a g e r s react with t i t i l l a t e d horror to the most l u r i d and emotional of the various wit-nesses' testimony, as Huck's narration makes p l a i n . After each p a r t i c u l a r l y t e l l i n g point, the boy makes comments such as, 12 "It kind of froze everybody's blood to hear i t , " or " I t made 13 the people shiver." Twain's portrayal of the townspeople as i n s e n s i t i v e and callous participants i n the degradation and humiliation of the Phelps family i s a dramatic contrast to the characterization of the inhabitants of St. Petersburg i n Tom Sawyer. The v i l l a g e r s i n the "Detective" story resemble far more the un-ruly mob faced down by Colonel Sherburn i n Huckleberry Finn than they do the e s s e n t i a l l y good-hearted folk of the e a r l i e r novel. I t seems evident from t h i s change that the ambience 160 of the Huck and Tom stories was hardly immune from the same changes i n Twain's attitude that other works of t h i s period demonstrate. This change i n attitude can be seen most c l e a r l y , per-haps, i n the next work in the sequence, "Tom Sawyer's Con-spiracy." This narrative i s the f i r s t involving the boys since The Adventures of Tom Sawyer that i s set primarily i n St. Petersburg. Nowhere else can be seen so dramatically the con-t r a s t between Twain's early and late views of the town. In the "Conspiracy" story, St. Petersburg i s portrayed quite ex-p l i c i t l y as class-ridden (with a F i r s t Family of V i r g i n i a gentry resembling that i n Puddn'head Wilson's Dawson's Landing), f e a r f u l , and v i o l e n t . The major difference i n the two views of the town can be summed up very simply: i n "Conspiracy," there i s an emphasis on the tensions caused by slavery as there i s not i n Tom Sawyer. Twain's discovery of the thematic importance of slavery 14 i n his work occurred, as we have seen, during the writing of Huckleberry Finn. In Tom Sawyer's St. Petersburg slavery, as 15 Smith remarks, " i s hardly noticeable." But i n the "Con-spiracy" story i t i s the major s o c i a l fact i n the town. The presence of slavery i s the primary reason for the high degree of fear and suspicion that Tom's imaginary conspiracy arouses among the v i l l a g e r s . Twain suggests that Tom's game exacer-bates an already present sense of g u i l t and i n j u s t i c e that the 161 townspeople refuse to acknowledge. Their fear and g u i l t i s shown most dramatically when Tom and Huck post protective notes (supposedly from the conspirators) on the doors of a number of the more prominent v i l l a g e r s . The reaction of the townspeople c r y s t a l l i z e s the sense of mistrust and suspicion underlying the ordinary l i f e of the v i l l a g e . [This] made another big s t i r , and them that had [the notes] on t h e i r doors was thankful and glad, and them that hadn't was scared and mad, and said pretty rough things about the others, and said i f they warn't a b l i t i o n -i s t s they was pets of them, anyway, and they reckoned i t was about the same thing. And everybody was astonished to see how the ... gang had managed to come ri g h t into town and s t i c k up the things under the sol d i e r s ' s noses; and of course they was troubled and worried about i t , and got suspicious of one another, not knowing who was a f r i e n d and who wasn't; and some begun to say they believed the town was f u l l of t r a i t o r s ; and then they shut up, a l l of a sudden, and got a f r a i d to say anything; and got a notion that they had a l -ready said too much, and maybe to the wrong people.!6 The f a c t that these crudely written handbills could pro-voke such a strong reaction from the v i l l a g e r s shows that Tom has unwittingly struck a strong nerve here, and Huck's com-mentary makes p l a i n the depth of fear i n the small town. The "Conspiracy" story i s perhaps Twain's most e x p l i c i t treatment of the pernicious e f f e c t s that slavery has, not merely on the slaves but on the slave owners as well. The p o r t r a i t of the town here i s f a r removed--and perhaps much more accurate—than 17 the description of St. Petersburg i n the e a r l i e r novel. 162 Plans for further stor i e s about the boys might have con-tinued t h i s process of portraying a darker and more r e a l i s t i c v i s i o n of the "matter of Hannibal." There i s Twain's note from the l a t e r 1890's in which he considered writing a story where an "innocent slave g i r l had been lynched—or ... Tom and Huck 18 s h a l l save her." Such a crime i s obviously an incident that could not even have been mentioned i n the o r i g i n a l Tom Sawyer. Twain's note shows c l e a r l y the change i n his conception of the v i l l a g e over the years since he had written that novel. Moreover, there i s the l o s t manuscript concerning the return of the boys to St. Petersburg " F i f t y Years Later." The missing story contained, no doubt, a description of the v i l l a g e as vastly d i f f e r e n t from the boys' i d y l l of the f i r s t novel. Since the major impulse of t h i s story seems to have been Twain's own return to Hannibal i n 1902, almost f i f t y years af t e r he had 19 l e f t the town, i t seems safe to assume that the portrayal of the v i l l a g e displayed some of Twain's own mature attitude to-ward the town. Though these differences i n the p o r t r a i t of the v i l l a g e are inconsistent within themselves (the St. Petersburg of "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy" i s d i f f e r e n t from the one i n The Ad-ventures of Tom Sawyer), the change i n outlook can be seen i n other of the author's work written at the same time. Smith's a r t i c l e points out the differences that developed i n Twain's descriptions of small towns afte r Huckleberry Finn, including his b a s i c a l l y negative treatment of them in such works as A 163 Connecticut Yankee, Puddn'head Wilson, and "The Man that 20 Corrupted Hadleyburg." What the l a t e r Huck and Tom stories prove i s that these same changes occurred i n the author's con-ception of St. Petersburg i t s e l f . Twain's own rather l u r i d 21 r e c o l l e c t i o n s of Hannibal ("Villagers of 1840-43" ) suggest i n his treatment of the town he moved toward a more true-to-l i f e , i f darker and more vi o l e n t , characterization of the com-munity. In addition to the "matter of Hannibal," Smith noticed another major element i n Twain's f i c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t e r works, that can be seen i n the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s . This i s the Transcendent Figure, which according to Smith plays a dominant role i n much of Twain's l a t e r writings. As defined by Smith, the Figures possess the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : "They are i s o l a t e d by t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l s uperiority to the community; they are contemptuous of mankind i n general; and they have more than ordinary power. Satan, the culmination of 22 the series, i s omnipotent." Smith considers Colonel Sherburn of Huckleberry Finn to be the f i r s t of these figures. Others include A Connecticut Yankee's Hank Morgan, and Puddn'head Wilson, i n addition to The Mysterious Stranger's Satan. The stranger who corrupted Hadleyburg could also be regarded as one of them. In the l a t e r Huck and Tom s t o r i e s , a number of characters immediately stand out as sharing several of the t r a i t s out-164 l i n e d by Smith. Among them are Brace Johnson of "Huck and Tom Among the Indians," Number 44 of "Schoolhouse H i l l , " and to a certain extent, i n Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective," even Tom Sawyer himself. What i s noteworthy, how-ever, i s the f a i l u r e of any of these characters to dominate the action of the stories they are i n , as do th e i r counter-parts i n the published works. (An exception, perhaps, i s Number 44 i n "Schoolhouse H i l l . " This work, however, i s a version of the "Mysterious Stranger" narrative, and only i n c i -dentally a Huck and Tom story.) Also, there i s a surprising tentativeness i n Twain's characterization. The differences between the author's handling of the Figure i n the Huck and Tom stories and i n his other late f i c t i o n indicate that his inte r e s t i n the "Transcendent Figure" may have been less strong than Smith suggests. Brace Johnson i n the "Indians" story, for example, has certain s i m i l a r i t i e s to Colonel Sherburn of Huckleberry Finn. This i s not surprising, perhaps, as "Indians" was written so soon afte r Twain completed the e a r l i e r novel. Johnson i s superior i n many ways to the average person,- i n his v i s i o n and his tracking and deductive a b i l i t i e s , for instance. His con-tempt for the treacherous Indians he and the boys are following i s reminiscent of Sherburn's attitude towards the townspeople he confronts i n Huckleberry Finn. The Colonel t e l l s the mob, "Why, a man's safe i n the hands of ten thousand of your k i n d — 23 as long as i t ' s day-time and you're not behind him." In 165 "Indians," Huck comments about Johnson' s feelings, towards the natives, "When he talked about Injuns, he talked the same as i f he was ta l k i n g about animals; he didn't seem to have much 24 idea that they was men." As well, the treachery of the Indians i n abruptly attacking a vastly outnumbered group of fr i e n d l y whites i s sim i l a r to the cowardice of a mob for which Colonel Sherburn attacks the townspeople i n the e a r l i e r novel. Brace Johnson, then, possesses at least some of the q u a l i t i e s of the "Transcendent Figure." But at the same time, he i s given other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that undermine t h i s character-i z a t i o n of him. He cares deeply about at least one other human being, Peggy M i l l s . Also, he develops i n the course of the story a certain fondness for Huck and Tom. His concern i n -dicates that he i s hardly i s o l a t e d from humanity and c e r t a i n l y has strong feelings of a f f e c t i o n . These feelings are shown by his reaction to the account of the attack on the M i l l s family, and on Peggy i n p a r t i c u l a r . Huck comments: "And when we come to t e l l about Peggy, he couldn't stand i t ; his face turned as white as milk, and the tears run down his cheeks, and he kept saying 'Oh, my God, oh my God ... I s h a l l never see her again--never never any more—my poor l i t t l e darling, so young and 25 sweet and be a u t i f u l . ' " This i s hardly the response of a person who feels himself superior to, and i s contemptuous of, humanity. At the same time, the deception that Huck and Tom practice 166 on him r e g a r d i n g the supposed death o f Peggy undercuts the sense o f Johnson's i n t e l l e c t u a l s u p e r i o r i t y . He accepts t h e i r v e r s i o n of events r e g a r d i n g her p o s s e s s i o n o f the d i r k w i t h which she was to k i l l h e r s e l f . L a t e r , he b e l i e v e s t h e i r s t o r y of f i n d i n g and b u r y i n g her body. He does so r e l u c t a n t l y , to be sure. But the f a c t t h a t he i s w i l l i n g to deceive h i m s e l f , r a t h e r than c o n f r o n t the unbearable p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t she i s s t i l l a l i v e and being v i o l a t e d by the Indians, i n d i c a t e s the l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s c a p a c i t y to face l i f e ' s r e a l i t i e s w i t h the e x t r a o r d i n a r y toughness o f a Transcendent F i g u r e . The ease w i t h which the boys deceive him, i n f a c t , g i v e s the impression t h a t Johnson, r a t h e r than being i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s u p e r i o r , i s somewhat slow about s u b j e c t s t h a t t h r e a t e n him. Since "Huck and Tom Among the Indians" was never completed by Twain, we cannot know what Brace Johnson might f i n a l l y have become. But the t h r u s t of the a c t i o n — e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t Tom and Huck possess knowledge of an awful f a c t Johnson w i l l not con-f r o n t — s u g g e s t s t h a t one c o n c l u s i o n o f the s t o r y might have been to face him wit h t h i s f a c t , and such a development would h a r d l y r e i n f o r c e Johnson's image as a Transcendent F i g u r e , d e s p i t e obvious s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h such c h a r a c t e r s i n Twain's canon. The ambivalence o f Johnson's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n suggests, at any r a t e , t h a t Twain's conception of the Transcendent F i g u r e was not always of the one-dimensional, almost superhuman b e i n g t h a t i t l a t e r became. 167 Something of the potential for more complexity i n the presentation of such a character can be seen i n the two pub-lishe d novellas, Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective." In both of these works, Tom Sawyer himself possesses some of the q u a l i t i e s of the Figure. But i n both cases, even though the characterization i s somewhat tentative and incomplete, the foundations of a convincing roundness are established. In Tom  Sawyer Abroad the boy displays obvious i n t e l l e c t u a l superiority over his companions on board the mad professor's balloon, Huck and Jim. He knows a variety of information regarding navi-gation, for example, that the other two are not f a m i l i a r with. This knowledge.serves to i s o l a t e him s l i g h t l y from them, and he frequently addresses the others with quite contemptuous remarks. He t e l l s Jim at one point, "Oh, do shut up, and wait 2 6 t i l l something's started that you know something about," and 27 l a t e r he c a l l s Huck Finn a "lunkhead." But there i s no question that Tom retains a genuine af f e c t i o n for the other two and depends upon them i n a way that prevents him from becoming t o t a l l y i s o l a t e d . Furthermore, Tom's own human li m i t a t i o n s are made s t a r t l i n g l y clear at the end of the narrative, when Aunt Polly abruptly orders them a l l back to St. Petersburg. As Huck comments: "So then we shoved 2 8 for home, and not f e e l i n g very gay, neither." Tom's recog-n i t i o n of his relationship to Aunt Polly and of her power over him can scarcely be said to conform to the omnipotent image of 168 a Transcendent Figure. The only other character i n t h i s story, i n fact, who shares some q u a l i t i e s of the Figure i s the mad professor who created the mysteriously powered c r a f t . His superiority to most people i s amply demonstrated by his invention of the wondrous balloon. The c r a f t i s c l e a r l y the product of an ad-vanced technology—so advanced, to be sure, that Twain never sp e c i f i e s exactly how the c r a f t operates. But the professor's 29 undoubted "genius" (as Huck s p e c i f i c a l l y terms i t ) has served to separate him dangerously from the rest of humanity. He i s "a lean pale f e l l e r with that so f t kind of moonlight i n 30 his eyes, you know," comments Huck ominously i n the f i r s t encounter with him. This i s o l a t i o n causes him to regard other people with utmost contempt. Huck describes his actions: "He could turn on them and shake his f i s t and say they was animals and b l i n d . " The professor therefore possesses the superiority and contempt of the Transcendent Figure. Yet his fate i n the story hardly suggests that Twain regards him as admirable i n any way. The professor plunges overboard on the second night of the voyage while tr y i n g to k i l l Tom. Once he i s gone, no further mention i s made of him and there i s no sense that his i s an example that should be followed by anyone. One might argue, in f a c t , that the mad professor of Tom Sawyer Abroad i s Twain's attempt to portray the dark underside of the Transcendent 169 F i g u r e , i n whom i s o l a t i o n and s u p e r i o r i t y l e a d o n l y to madness and d e s t r u c t i o n , not to any k i n d of redemption. As i n Tom Sawyer Abroad, there i s i n "Tom Sawyer, D e t e c t i v e , " the next s u r v i v i n g work about the boys, the same kin d of p a r t i a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Tom as a Transcendent F i g u r e . In the " D e t e c t i v e " s t o r y , the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s presented i n almost wholly p o s i t i v e terms. In s o l v i n g the "murder" of J u b i t e r Dunlap and s a v i n g Uncle S i l a s from the gallows, Tom d i s p l a y s unquestionable i n t e l l e c t u a l s u p e r i o r i t y over the i n h a b i t a n t s of the v i l l a g e . None of them, i t seems c l e a r , c o u l d have seen the p a t t e r n between such s u p e r f i c i a l l y u n r e l a t e d events as the murder of the r e a l Jake Dunlap, the disappearance o f J u b i t e r , the sudden appearance of a deaf-and-dumb s t r a n g e r i n the town, and the myriad other d e t a i l s t h a t make up the convoluted p l o t of the s t o r y . As the judge a t the t r i a l o f Uncle S i l a s says to Tom: "Not two i n a m i l l i o n 31 c o u l d 'a' done [ t h i s ] . You are a very remarkable boy." Although Tom i s o b v i o u s l y s u p e r i o r to the v i l l a g e r s i n the s t o r y , he d i s p l a y s none of the contempt or i s o l a t i o n of the 32 Transcendent F i g u r e . He gets "cords of g l o r y , " as Huck terms i t , f o r h i s a c t i o n s . But he accepts the admiration and esteem o f the townspeople with.remarkable grace and modesty. At the end of the s t o r y , he g i v e s Huck h a l f of the two thousand d o l l a r s reward money f o r f i n d i n g the jewels "and never t o l d 33 anybody so." Such behaviour i s once again not the a c t i o n of 170 someone who feels himself i s o l a t e d from humanity. The next story i n the series, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," shows perhaps most c l e a r l y Twain's ambivalence toward the Transcendent Figure i n the Huck and Tom narratives. In the two previous works, Tom Sawyer displays at least some of the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Figure. The same i s true i n the "Con-spiracy" narrative. In th i s work, Tom's imagination, clever-ness and creative energy i n devising and carrying out his com-plex plan are c l e a r l y far above the capacities of anyone else i n the community. His talents are demonstrated most obviously, perhaps, i n the ease with which he fools the townspeople and sends the v i l l a g e into a state of near panic. His superiority to the rest of the community i s demonstrated here, and the im-p l i c i t cruelty with which Tom plays with the genuine fears of the v i l l a g e r s indicates a degree of contempt i n his attitude towards them. The second half of the narrative, i n which the boy's g i f t s and c r e a t i v i t y lead only to humiliation and disaster, would seem to indicate that Twain may have distrusted these a b i l i t i e s to manipulate and exert power over other human beings. In Tom's case, the d i s t r u s t i s surely associated with the over-r i d i n g theme of maturation present i n the story. But i t i s noteworthy that at v i r t u a l l y the same time that Twain was ex-34 p l o r i n g the Mysterious Stranger theme — w i t h e x p l i c i t l y super-human characters embodying the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Transcend-171 e n t F i g u r e - - h e was s e e m i n g l y u n d e r c u t t i n g t h e w h o l e c o n c e p t o f t h e o m n i p o t e n t f i g u r e b y a r r a n g i n g f o r t h e d e v a s t a t i n g h u m i l i -a t i o n o f Tom S a w y e r a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f a t l e a s t some o f t h e s e same T r a n s c e n d e n t q u a l i t i e s . Of c o u r s e , t h e a u t h o r may h a v e f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o t u r n t o e x p l i c i t l y non-human c h a r a c t e r s (Number 44, L i t t l e S a t a n ) i n o r d e r t o embody h i s c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e q u a l i t i e s , p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e f a i l u r e o f human 35 b e i n g s t o embody them f u l l y . P e r h a p s i n an a t t e m p t t o b r i d g e t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e r e a l i s m o f h i s S t . P e t e r s b u r g s t o r i e s a n d t h e f a n t a s t i c q u a l i t i e s o f h i s o t h e r l a t e r w o r k s , T w a i n t r i e d t w i c e t o w r i t e a s t o r y s e t i n t h e v i l l a g e i n t r o d u c i n g a s u p e r n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r 3 6 i n t o i t . The m a j o r s u r v i v i n g f r a g m e n t , " S c h o o l h o u s e H i l l , " shows t h e d i f f i c u l t y he h a d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o c o m b i n e t h e two e l e m e n t s . The s t o r y b e g i n s i n t h e w o r l d o f Huck a n d Tom. A t t h e s c h o o l w h i c h t h e b o y s a t t e n d , a l o n g w i t h S i d S a w y e r , B e c k y T h a t c h e r , a n d o t h e r c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e e a r l i e r n o v e l s , a r r i v e s t h e m y s t e r i o u s y o u t h , Number 44. I n t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r , t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n b e t w e e n 44 and t h e s c h o o l b u l l y , H e n r y Bascom, f o l l o w s r e a l i s t i c a l l y t h e r u l e s f o r s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , u n t i l t h e s t r a n g e r b e a t s Bascom u n m e r c i f u l l y t h r o u g h s u p e r n a t u r a l means. The i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o a c h i l d ' s w o r l d o f a b e i n g w i t h e v e n g r e a t e r p o w e r s t h a n an a d u l t b u t s t i l l w i t h t h e i n n o c e n c e a n d a p p e a r a n c e o f a c h i l d p r o m i s e d p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h s u b j e c t 172 matter for the narrative. However, almost immediately—as i f Twain abruptly became aware of the v i r t u a l l y unlimited p o s s i b i l i t i e s of an omni-potent c h a r a c t e r — t h i s idea i s abandoned and 44 disappears from the world of Huck and Tom. The boys vanish from the story a f t e r the second chapter. 44 becomes involved with new characters i n the v i l l a g e , the Hotchkiss family. When the fragment breaks of f , Number 44 i s working on a plan for "ameliorating the 37 condition of the [human] race i n some ways i n t h i s l i f e . " Twain seems to have conceived of him as being almost a surro-gate Christ using his powers to save humanity, rather than merely a boon companion for Huck and Tom. Curiously, the note of November, 1898, i n which Twain outlined the story he was contemplating, the action i s kept much more cl o s e l y focussed on the boys. The story was to include such events as l i t t l e Satan's taking "Tom and Huck 3 8 down to stay over-Sunday i n h e l l , " for they were to be the only ones i n the v i l l a g e who knew his secret. This outline might have led to a more coherent and more entertaining narra-t i v e than "Schoolhouse H i l l " would have become. However, Twain never seems to have written any work incorporating these ele-ments . His f a i l u r e to do so may have been because the task of uniting the world of the boys and the theme of the Mysterious Stranger was too d i f f i c u l t for the author. The Transcendent 173 Figure i s an important element of much of Twain's l a t e r f i c t i o n , as Smith points out, but as we have seen, though there are e x p l i c i t aspects of the Figure present i n characters i n a l l of the l a t e r Huck and Tom s t o r i e s , the Figures are treated with he s i t a t i o n and ambivalence. Twain's uncertain characterization suggests that at least as far as these works are concerned, the Figure could not be the dominant force, the centre of a l l of the action. In the world of the boys there were too many other elements for that to happen. The quick abandonment of the two works set i n St. Petersburg and involving the Mysterious Stranger (both given up far sooner than the other two narratives on the same theme) suggests that Twain r e a l i z e d the world of Huck and Tom was an inappropriate setting for a story with a 39 Mysterious Stranger. The creation of the Transcendent Figure, p a r t i c u l a r l y the omnipotent beings of the Mysterious Stranger narratives, can be seen as one of Twain's responses to the general question of the workings of fate. His int e r e s t i s espe c i a l l y noticeable i n the l a t e r writings. The author's views on the nature of human destiny varied over the years but perhaps are best summed up in John Tuckey's comments: Mark Twain's view of the human predicament ... recognizes man as the creature of an unavail-ing god, a creator immensely above and remote from man—at best i n d i f f e r e n t , at worst, v i n d i c t i v e . I t contemplates a basely made, a destructively crafted human race that actually collaborates i n i t s own de-gradation. 40 174 This "rather grim" perception of human destiny i s one that per-meates most of the author's l a t e r works, and the Huck and Tom stor i e s are no exception. The question of an individual's r e l a t i o n to fate, though, had been present i n a l l the works about the boys from the very beginning. In the e a r l i e s t narratives, i t i s presented i n a r e l a t i v e l y unthreatening way. For example, i n The Adventures  of Tom Sawyer, the boys e x p l i c i t l y recognize powers beyond 4 human control i n their discussions of charms, r i t u a l s , witches and other supernatural elements. These they accept without question as having a place i n ordinary l i f e . I t might be re-ca l l e d that the reason Tom and Huck are i n the graveyard i n which they witness the murder of Dr. Robinson by Injun Joe i s to act out a superstitious r i t u a l to remove warts. This, of course, introduces one of the most important p l o t elements of the novel. The juxtaposition of the two events—the super-s t i t i o u s r i t u a l and the murder—dramatizes the place of super-natural b e l i e f s i n the boys' world. At the end of the book, though, a r a t i o n a l order of things seems to be reasserted i n Judge Thatcher's admirable plans for Tom—law school and the m i l i t a r y academy. His plans suggest that human beings can order t h e i r own destinies as they grow older, along rather conventional l i n e s . Tom's future seems secure, at least according to the Judge, and there i s no i n d i c a t i o n that Tom feels any o b j e c t i o n — p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y or 175 emotionally—to his destiny. As Walter B l a i r says about the ending: "He has, i t appears, gone over to the side of the 42 enemy [adults]." But almost immediately, i n Huckleberry Finn, the idea of supernatural powers c o n t r o l l i n g an individual's destiny i s reintroduced. In the f i r s t chapter of that book, Huck burns up a spider i n a candle flame, and at once recognizes t h i s as a portent of misfortune: "I didn't need anybody to t e l l me that i t was an awful bad sign and would fetch me some bad 43 luck, so I was scared and most shook the clothes off me." This theme, of the omnipotence of forces beyond human control, underlies much of the novel, and i s seen most obvious-l y i n the character of Jim and the wisdom he possesses regard-ing these forces. In contrast to the s i t u a t i o n i n Tom Sawyer, these powers are almost always seen i n terms of e v i l , not benevolence. This view i s made evident when Huck and Jim, on Jackson's Island, discuss the importance of supernatural "signs." I said i t looked to me l i k e a l l the signs was about bad luck, and so I asked him i f there warn't any good-luck signs. He says: "Mighty few—an' dey ain' no use to a body. What you want to know when good luck's a-comin1 for? want to keep i t o f f ? " 4 4 176 As D a n i e l G. H o f f m a n comments: "The w o r l d o f s u p e r -n a t u r a l omens ... J i m , t h e runaway s l a v e , b e s t u n d e r s t a n d s . Huck F i n n i s t h e s o r c e r e r ' s a p p r e n t i c e . The s u p e r s t i t i o u s i m a g i n a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s e v i l as a d y n a m i c f o r c e ; i t a c k n o w l e d g e s 45 d e a t h . " H o f f m a n goes on t o p o i n t o u t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e b e l i e f s a n d omens: " t h e y a r e o f s i g n a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e t h e m a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e b o o k . " Many i n c i d e n t s i n t h e n o v e l , i n c l u d i n g t h e q u i c k s i l v e r i n t h e l o a v e s o f b r e a d t o f i n d d r o w n i n g v i c t i m s , t h e s n a k e s k i n e p i s o d e , t h e " t r a s h " e p i -s o d e , t h e w i t c h e s who t h r e a t e n U n c l e S i l a s ' s s l a v e , a n d o t h e r s , t e s t i f y t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s i d e a i n t h e w o r k . A t t h e e n d o f H u c k l e b e r r y F i n n , h o w e v e r , t h e b e n e v o l e n c e o f f a t e o r P r o v i d e n c e seems t o be o n c e a g a i n e s t a b l i s h e d . D e s p i t e a l l t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s a n d d a n g e r s o f t h e " E v a s i o n " e p i s o d e ( a l l , o f c o u r s e , u n n e c e s s a r y ) , t h e e n d i n g i s h a p p y . J i m i s _ f r e e d ; Tom s u r v i v e s h i s b u l l e t wound w i t h no l a s t i n g c o m p l i c a t i o n s , a n d i n f a c t s t a r t s t o p l a n f u r t h e r a d v e n t u r e s . A k i n d o f P r o v i d e n t i a l s e a l o f a p p r o v a l i s e v e n g i v e n t o t h e e v e n t s o f t h e l a s t p a r t o f t h e n o v e l b y J i m , a f t e r Tom g i v e s h i m f o r t y d o l l a r s . J i m was p l e a s e d most t o d e a t h , a n d b u s t e d o u t , and s a y s : " P a h , now, Huck, w h a t I t e l l y o u ? — w h a t I t e l l y o u up d a y i n J a c k s o n i s l a n ' ? I t o l e y o u I g o t a h a i r y b r e a s ' , en w h a t ' s de s i g n un i t ; en I t o l e y o u I b e n r i c h w u n s t , e n g w i n e t e r t o be r i c h a g i n ; e n i t ' s come t r u e ; e n h e a h s h e i s ! P a h , now! 177 doan' t a l k to m e — s i g n s i s s i g n s , mine I t e l l you; en I knowed j i s 1 's w e l l at I 'uz gwineter be r i c h a gin as I's a s t a n n i n 1 heah d i s minute."46 T h i s good f o r t u n e seems to apply even to Huck, f o r wit h the death of Pap (which Jim now r e v e a l s to him) h i s six-thousand d o l l a r f o r t u n e i s secured. I t would seem, then, t h a t d e s p i t e the undercurrent o f e v i l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the workings of f a t e i m p l i c i t i n much of the work, there i s s t i l l the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Providence w i l l bestow good l u c k on i n d i v i d u a l s , even as l a t e as the c o n c l u s i o n to Huckleberry F i n n . E x p l i c i t commentary on the workings of f a t e begins to appear i n the next work i n the s e r i e s , the fragment "Huck and Tom Among the Indians." In the d i s c u s s i o n s o f the b e l i e f s h e l d by the Indians, Twain has Huck and Brace Johnson make suggest-i v e remarks on the powers of f o r c e s o u t s i d e human c o n t r o l ( i n t h i s case, the good and bad gods of the Indians) and what i n -f l u e n c e i n d i v i d u a l s can have on them. Brace, i n f a c t , d e s p i t e h i s contempt f o r what he c o n s i d e r s the n a t i v e s ' d e p r a v i t y , 4 7 regards t h e i r b e l i e f s as "such a s e n s i b l e r e l i g i o n . " In t h i s , he i s r e f l e c t i n g the author's own f e e l i n g : "We have to keep our God p l a c a t e d w i t h p r a y e r s , and even then we are never 4 8 sure o f him—how much high e r and f i n e r i s the Indian's God." As presented by Twain, the Indians' r e l i g i o n i n v o l v e s two gods, a good one and a bad one. As Huck says, the n a t i v e s "never p a i d no a t t e n t i o n to the good one, nor ever prayed to 178 him or worried about him at a l l , but only t r i e d t h e i r l e v e l best to f l a t t e r up the bad god and keep on the good side of him; because the good one loved them and wouldn't ever think of 49 doing them any harm." Such a set of b e l i e f s seems to Huck, Brace, and presumably Twain a much more sensible system than the C h r i s t i a n one. As B l a i r remarks, i t provides "a l o g i c a l solution for what the humourist saw as two unsolved dilemmas i n C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f — t h e inexplicable combination i n the C h r i s t i a n deity of superhuman benevolence with f e r o c i t y and the puzzling f a c t that men were required to fear and placate 50 a God who purportedly loved them." In addition to these comments on the Indian gods, and the suggestion that they provide a more l i k e l y way to influence human events than does the t r a d i t i o n a l western deity, there i s also i n the story a notable stress on negative destiny i n the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s . Even Brace Johnson, who shares many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Transcendent Figure, i s portrayed as being at the mercy of forces beyond his control, so much so, i n fact, that the mere eating of meat on Friday, contrary to his own vow, brings down a s t r i n g of misfortunes not only on Brace, but on Huck and Tom as well. Once again, i t seems that Twain, as i n Huckleberry Finn, i s demonstrating the im-potence of individuals i n the face of unaccountably h o s t i l e supernatural forces. In the "Indians" story the powers acting upon the 179 characters are presented i n almost wholly negative terms. An extraordinary chain of disasters b e f a l l s almost a l l of the characters. These disasters include the massacre of most of the M i l l s family and the kidnapping of Jim, Peggy and Flaxy, Tom's being l o s t on the p r a i r i e , the f l a s h flood, and the increasing indications as the story proceeds that Peggy M i l l s i s s u ffering what, for Brace Johnson, i s the worst of a l l possible fates. Perhaps somewhat repelled by the unrelenting bleakness of the view of the human predicament evident i n the "Indians" story, Twain underplayed t h i s element i n the next two surviving works about the boys, the novellas Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective." In fact, both of these works present a f a i r l y o p t i m i s t i c view of human existence. In Tom Sawyer Abroad there are episodes of violence and suffering, such as the death of the mad professor and bloody attack on a caravan. But the balloon i n which the boys and Jim f l o a t exists as a kind of ins u l a t i n g device, allowing them--and the reader--to remain detached emotionally from what they observe. This detachment l i m i t s the significance of threatening events. Stone points out: "The balloon i t s e l f , of course, i s a new kind of r a f t . The three 'erronorts' d r i f t comfortably along, elevated safely above the dangers of the desert. ... Quite c l e a r l y , Huck and his friends a l o f t are 51 enacting Mark Twain's own dream of escape." With such a 180 mood dominating the novella, i t i s not surprising that there i s no sense of the bleakness of the human condition. In addition, i n Tom Sawyer Abroad there i s very l i t t l e commentary by any of the characters on the workings of fate or Providence. The absence of any such discussion i s perhaps due to the i n -tended audience of the work, the c h i l d readers of Mrs. Dodge's St. Nicholas Magazine. Twain may have r e a l i z e d that such readers would get nothing out of the kind of remarks made i n the "Indians" narrative about good and bad gods. As Stone suggests, t h i s audience may have "enabled (or forced) him to 52 mute his destructive pessimism." The e f f e c t , i n any event, i s a considerably more cheerful work than the preceding one i n the series, or than other works written at the same time. Something of the same optimism permeates "Tom Sawyer, Detective." The triumph that Tom i s allowed to have i n th i s story suggests that the i n d i v i d u a l can have some control over his own fate. Through his own g i f t s and energy a person may achieve p o s i t i v e results i n l i f e . The assumption that one can possess such power i s clo s e l y related to the concept of the Transcendent Figure, of course, for the Figure i s somewhat re-moved from the normal l i m i t a t i o n s of human l i f e . As we have seen, i n th i s work Tom Sawyer possesses some of the q u a l i t i e s of the Figure. I t i s perhaps not surprising, then, that Tom's actions i n the "Detective" story may be an expression of Twain's hope that some people, at least, can control destiny. If Tom ] 181 had not intervened, i t seems evident that Uncle S i l a s would have been executed for a murder that never happened. His im-pending execution might therefore be seen as the working of not merely an i n d i f f e r e n t god, but a malicious one as well, a god who delights i n the unnecessary suffering of innocent people. The f a c t , then, that Tom's cleverness i n working out what actually happened prevents th i s fate suggests some human control over destiny and contributes to the generally p o s i t i v e tone of the work. But th i s p o t e n t i a l theme i s not exploited. As Stone remarks, the " f r e n e t i c a l l y busy" plot "dominates everything. ... Even death i t s e l f i s less s i g n i f i c a n t than 53 unraveling the i d e n t i t y of i t s perpetrator." Thus there i s no convincing attempt i n the story to treat any serious theme so that i t i s not surprising that a sustained or systematic emphasis on the workings of fate, p o s i t i v e or negative, i s also lacking. As we have noticed i n discussing the theme of maturation, the events of "Tom Sawyer, Detective" are an e x p l i c i t prepar-ation for the events of the next work i n the series, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." This same preparation can be seen with regard to the workings of Providence as well. Tom's triumph i n the e a r l i e r work causes him to believe that he i s capable of manipulating events for his own advantage, and his b e l i e f provides the basic impetus for the p l o t of the "Conspiracy" story. 182 The c o n f l i c t between destiny and human w i l l i s emphasized from the very beginning of the "Conspiracy" story. Within a few paragraphs of the opening, Tom and Jim are engaged i n a discussion of the extent to which an in d i v i d u a l can plan things in contradiction to the desires of Providence. Tom, of course, believes i n the power of the i n d i v i d u a l , while Jim i s very hesitant to go against what he sees as an uncontrollable destiny. The c o n f l i c t i s f i n a l l y resolved i n a somewhat am-biguous manner. "Well, then, i t ' s r i g h t for me to go ahead and keep planning out things t i l l I f i n d out which i s the one [Providence] wants done, ain't i t ? " "W'y sutt'nly, Mars Tom, dat's a l l r i g h t , o'course, en ain' no s i n en no harm—" "That i s , I can suggest plans?" "Yassah, sutt'nly, you can sejest as many as you want to."55 Tom seems here to accept the omnipotence of an inscrutable Providence. But the subsequent events of the story suggest that i n fac t he believes he i s i n charge of his own destiny and that he i s merely deferring to Jim here i n order to main-t a i n calm. The debate between these two i s s i g n i f i c a n t not only because i t introduces the theme so early i n the narrative, but because of the participants i n i t . Tom, of course, i s the p r i n c i p a l of both the theme of maturation and the idea of the 183 Transcendent Figure. He believes he exists outside the power of supernatural forces, which as we have seen, generally mani-fest themselves i n negative forms. Jim, on the other hand, i s the spokesman and purveyor of wisdom about these forces, as was evident throughout Huckleberry Finn. The c o n f l i c t between the two views i s clear here; the events of the story w i l l indicate whose v i s i o n i s close to Twain's. The awesome magnitude of the powers with which Tom i s playing i s stressed throughout the narrative. At f i r s t , though, they seem completely benevolent. At c r u c i a l moments in the f i r s t half of the story, events turn out even better than Tom had planned. For example, when Tom crawls into bed with Joe Harper to catch measles and thereby drive Sid and Mary out of town i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the workings of the conspiracy, Joe's i l l n e s s turns out to be not measles, but the far more dangerous'scarlet fever and almost k i l l s Tom. But th i s brush with death seems to the boy to be a sign of Providential favour. He t e l l s Huck: "What good was measles, when you come to look at i t ? None. ... But you take the sc a r l e t fever and what do you find? You scour out the place, and burn up every rag when i t ' s over and you're well again, and from that very day no Sid and no Mary can come anear i t for six s o l i d useful weeks. Now who thought of s c a r l e t fever for us, Huck, and arranged i t , when we was ignorant and didn't know any better than to go for measles? Was i t us? You know i t warn't. Now l e t that learn you. 184 T h i s c o n s p i r a c y i s being taken care of by a wiser wisdom than ourn, Huck.56 There i s no sense here t h a t Tom r e a l i z e s t h a t any power possess-i n g such benevolence might a l s o c o n t a i n equal malevolence, and suddenly t u r n a g a i n s t him. The boy's u n w i l l i n g n e s s to imagine such a p o s s i b i l i t y i s emphasized by the f a c t t h a t s h o r t l y afterwards when the f i r s t s i g n s appear t h a t the c o n s p i r a c y i s going awry, Tom s t i l l keeps h i s f a i t h . The o r i g i n a l p l a n must be abandoned when i t i s d i s -covered t h a t Bat B r a d i s h , the s l a v e d e a l e r , a l r e a d y has a run-away s l a v e to cope with and would not be able to take Tom on ( i n b l a c k f a c e ) , as had been intended. Huck comments, p r e s c i e n t -l y as i t turns out: " I t looked to me, i n a p r i v a t e way, l i k e 57 Providence was drawing out of the c o n s p i r a c y . " But Tom r e -fuses to b e l i e v e such a development c o u l d occur, and h i s f a i t h seems confirmed when i t develops t h a t the new runaway i s a l s o white, a man p l a y i n g the same t r i c k on B r a d i s h as Tom had i n -tended. The boy t e l l s Huck: " I t ' s the very same game we l a i d out to p l a y o u r s e l v e s . Providence hasn't changed anything ex-cept j u s t the p e r s o n - - t h a t ' s a l l . Now I reckon y o u ' l l have t r u s t h e r e a f t e r . ... We don't know what the change i s made f o r 5 8 Huck, but we know one t h i n g - - i t was f o r the b e s t . " Once more, Tom assumes u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y t h a t Providence has o n l y h i s i n -t e r e s t s a t h e a r t . 185 Twain, then, seems c l e a r l y to be manipulating events i n the story i n order to present a view of Providence as b a s i c a l l y malevolent. Tom's naive unwillingness to conceive that Provi-dence could turn against him tends even to dramatize the idea, and most of the events of the narrative reinforce Twain's view. Certainly the collapse of Tom's conspiracy with the slaying of Bradish and the arrest of Jim for his murder seems to exemplify the malevolent aspects of fate that were seen i n much of Huckle-berry Finn and throughout "Huck and Tom Among the Indians." (The theme of negative destiny also serves the story's central purpose, that of giving Tom a lesson i n moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . ) However, at the very end of the story, the fortuitous return of the King and the Duke, just i n the proverbial nick of time, allows both Jim and Tom to be saved from the consequences of the boy's actions. This turn of events would seem to suggest, contrary to the thematic thrust of the second half of the narra-t i v e , that Providence i s benevolent, at least towards Tom Sawyer. This contradiction may have i n t e n s i f i e d the dilemma 59 Twain found himself i n at t h i s point i n the story, and per-haps provided an additional reason to abandon i t so close to i t s conclusion. In sum, i t seems evident from these works that Twain's conception of Providence was, as Tuckey remarks, "less than con-s i s t e n t . The author suggests a force that at the same time seems to be both u t t e r l y distant from human a f f a i r s and ma-186 l i c i o u s l y concerned with v i s i t i n g pain and suffering on human beings. Then, i n the "Conspiracy" story he implies that some individuals can i n fact be favoured by Providence. Other works by Twain on t h i s same theme, works such as the "Emperor-God fil fi"? Satire" and the "Private Secretary's Diary," r e f l e c t this same ambivalence, so that i t i s not surprising that the Tom and Huck st o r i e s also are not p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y consistent. More-over, they contain many other themes and concepts that attracted the author's i n t e r e s t , such as maturation and the Transcendent Figure. The presence of these elements i n the stories may have prevented Twain from f u l l y thinking out the implications of his ideas about fate and contributed to t h e i r inconsistency. The power of Providence, then, plays an important role i n almost a l l the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s . Twain c l e a r l y wished to dramatize the workings of an inscrutable Fate on the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l characters, including Tom and Huck. The o v e r a l l impression i s that any character, even one as creative and energetic as Tom Sawyer, i s at the mercy of forces he cannot control. Another topic i n many of the stories involving the boys i s Twain's attack on romanticism—or, perhaps more precisely, what Twain saw as an excess sentimentality, hypocrisy, and lack of realism i n the writings of several authors, most noticeably S i r Walter Scott and James Fenimore Cooper. H o s t i l i t y to t h e i r attitudes i s found i n many of Twain's works, of course, from 187 the beginning of his f i c t i o n - w r i t i n g career. In fact, his f i r s t s t o r i e s about children are simply s a t i r e s and burlesques of conventional children's f i c t i o n of the time. Conventional s t o r i e s , with t h e i r s t i l t e d , unreal characters and absurd pre-tension that i n the end e v i l was punished and virt u e rewarded, 6 3 were easy targets for the writer. Later, when the Huck and Tom stories developed from interests that can be seen i n these early works, i t i s not surprising that the same attacks on un-r e a l accounts of human behaviour continue. Sentimentality i s a prominent object of Twain's wrath, and t h i s can be seen as early as The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. He uses the occasion of the v i l l a g e school graduation and the "compositions" read during the ceremony as an opportunity to make some e x p l i c i t comments on the qua l i t y of these e f f o r t s : "A prevalent feature i n these compositions was a nursed and petted melancholy; another was a wasteful and opulent gush of 'fine language'; another was a tendency to lug i n by the ears p a r t i c u l a r l y prized words and phrases u n t i l they were worn en-64 t i r e l y out." Twain j u s t i f i e d his attack on t h i s kind of writ-ing by pointing out that "the pretended 'compositions' quoted i n t h i s chapter are taken without a l t e r a t i o n from a volume en-t i t l e d Prose and Poetry, by a Western Lady." °^ It i s with Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, though, that Twain's h o s t i l i t y to such writing becomes prominent. The ver-nacular narration and down-to-earth realism of Huck Finn drama-i 188 t i z e the idea, for Huck's voice immediately highlights any pre-tension and falseness i n any other character. Twain's antipathy can be seen f i r s t i n the contrast between Huck and Tom Sawyer. The l a t t e r , i n the opening chapters of the novel, outlines his elaborate, book-derived plans for his gang. The force of his eloquence and evident expertise i s enough at f i r s t to persuade the other boys to quite l i t e r a l l y "play along" with him. But after a month, says Huck, "I resigned. A l l the boys did. We hadn't robbed nobody, we hadn't k i l l e d any people, but only just pretended. ... I couldn't see no p r o f i t i n i t . " 6 6 The difference i n point of view between the two boys i s made p l a i n here, though at t h i s stage Tom's attitude i s s t i l l harmless. Only at the.end of the novel, i n the "Evasion" e p i -sode, are the dangers of Tom's romantic outlook f u l l y demon-strated. The unnecessary suffering undergone by a l l the p a r t i c i -pants i n the boy's elaborate charade makes the point. The sources of Tom's ideas for escapes i n this episode are the im-p l i e d objects of Twain's attack on thi s whole way of thinking: "Baron Trenck ... Casanova ... Benvenuto Chelleeny ... Henri I V . " 6 7 But even before the l a s t part of the novel, Twain provides himself with a deliberate opportunity to attack another author, S i r Walter Scott. As Richard P. Adams observes, 189 One of the antipathies which Clemens cherished most warmly and flourished most often was his detestation of S i r Walter Scott and a l l or almost a l l of his works. In L i f e on the  M i s s i s s i p p i Scott i s blamed for having checked the "wave of progress" i n the South with his propaganda for medieval feudalism, which, according to Clemens, "sets the world i n love with dreams and phantoms; with decayed and swinish forms of r e l i g i o n ; with decayed and degraded systems of government; with the s i l l i n e s s e s and emptinesses, sham grandeur, sham gauds, and sham c h i v a l r i e s of a brain-less and worthless long vanished society."68 A commonly c i t e d connection between the falseness of Scott's world, i n Twain's view, and Tom Sawyer's world i s the suggest-ively-named steamboat S i r Walter Scott which Huck and Jim explore a f t e r Huck has made the remark: "Do you reckon Tom Sawyer would ever go by t h i s thing? Not for pie, he wouldn't. He'd c a l l i t an adventure—that's what he'd c a l l i t ; and he'd 69 land on that wreck i f i t was his l a s t act." This episode almost costs Huck and Jim t h e i r l i v e s when t h e i r boat disappears. Huck's bringing himself and Jim into unnecessary danger-emulating Tom Sawyer—can be seen as another example of the romantic imagination's causing needless suffering. Tom Sawyer as a creature of the bankrupt romantic imagi-nation i s presented most c l e a r l y i n the "Evasion" episode of Huckleberry Finn. The unattractiveness of his portrayal i n these chapters and the unnecessary su f f e r i n g that his actions here cause have led Thomas Arthur Gullason to remark that Tom i s "the r e a l antagonist of the novel." In t h i s view, Tom's 190 whole " l i f e has been a continuous l i e , and i t i s t h i s f i n a l harmful l i e i n a s e r i o u s a d u l t s i t u a t i o n ... t h a t e p i t o m i z e s 70 hxs romantxc nonsense." C e r t a i n l y , the f o o l i s h i n s e n s i t i v i t y of the boy's a c t i o n s i n t h i s p a r t o f the book would seem to j u s t i f y t h i s k i n d of comment. Yet, w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a l l the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s , what g i v e s the a t t a c k on romanticism i t s importance i s i t s complex i n t e r t w i n i n g w i t h the o t h e r , major themes i n the works: the process of maturation, the c o n f l i c t w i t h Providence, even the freedom of the Transcendent F i g u r e . The i n t e r t w i n i n g be-comes even more e v i d e n t i n the next s t o r y , "Huck and Tom Among the Indians," where Twain f o l l o w s much the same p a t t e r n as i n the "Evasion" episode. Only i n the "Indians" fragment does he f o r c e Tom to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own a c t i o n s . The need f o r moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d to the a t t a c k on romanticism from the very b e g i n n i n g of t h i s work. I t i s Fenimore Cooper's novels about Indians t h a t l e a d Tom o f f on the bloody adventures on the p r a i r i e s , dragging Huck and Jim along w i t h him. Twain a t t a c k s Cooper f o r f a l s e l y p o r t r a y i n g the Indians. He demonstrates the dangers of such i n a c c u r a c y by p l a c i n g Tom, who b e l i e v e s the w r i t e r u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y , and the o t h e r two i n a v o i d a b l e danger. But Tom's e x p l i c i t ac-knowledgement of the f a l s i t y o f t h i s view, a f t e r the Indians massacre the M i l l s f a m i l y , i s a major d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s work and the p r e c e d i n g one. In Huckleberry F i n n , the boy never 191 admits that his "best a u t h o r i t i e s " ' x h a v e not the s l i g h t e s t relevance to the task of helping Jim gain his freedom, and that they actually hinder a safe and easy escape. In the "Indians" story, then, the attack on romanticism i s e f f e c t i v e l y fused with other s i g n i f i c a n t themes. However, thi s work i s the l a s t one i n the Huck and Tom series i n which i t plays an important r o l e . In the stories from the 1890's there i s much less evidence of Twain's h o s t i l i t y to romanticism. Lessening of the author's antipathy may have come about because the major intervening work, A Connecticut Yankee i n King  Arthur's Court (1889) was, as S. B. L i l j e g r e n remarks, Twain's "most elaborate and sustained attack on Romanticism. ... The aim of the book i s to show that the Middle Ages, which Scott had described as i n s t i n c t with high ideals, c hivalry, r e f i n e -ment, and truth, actually constituted a period of ignorance, crime, low culture, d e f i c i e n t hygiene, superstition, and 72 boorishness." Thus A Connecticut Yankee may have re l i e v e d Twain's need to attack f a c i l e romanticism, at l e a s t i n the subsequent Huck and Tom s t o r i e s . Perhaps that i s why Twain's antipathy i s evident (and only to a limited extent) i n just one of these s t o r i e s , "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." At the beginning of t h i s story, Tom Sawyer—in c h a r a c t e r i s t i c fashion—spends time de-scribingelabbrate r i t u a l s for "two Councils of State to run [the] conspiracy ... a Council of Ten and a Council of Three; 192 b l a c k gowns f o r the Ten and red f o r the Three, and masks f o r 73 a l l . " But the l i t e r a r y sources f o r Tom's ideas are not em-p h a s i z e d i n the s t o r y , and d i s c u s s i o n s of r i t u a l s and costumes g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e second h a l f . The most important f u n c t i o n of the romantic t r a p p i n g s seems to be merely to r e i t e r a t e the p o i n t t h a t the s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the events of the c o n s p i r a c y l i e s w i t h Tom. He c o n s t i t u t e s h i m s e l f alone as the " C o u n c i l of Three," and as Huck comments, "The C o u n c i l of Three was supreme and c o u l d abrogate anything the o t h e r C o u n c i l done." A l l decision-making powers, t h e r e f o r e , are c a r e f u l l y p l a c e d i n Tom's hands, w i t h — a s we have s e e n — d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s . Indeed, the most important f e a t u r e of these less-prominent themes i n the Huck and Tom s t o r i e s i s the care w i t h which Twain interwove them e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h o t h e r elements i n the works (and, i t should be emphasized once more, t h i s took p l a c e over decades). As the boys grow o l d e r and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and understanding of human behaviour deepen and darken, so does t h e i r view of the paradigmatic v i l l a g e , S t . P e t e r s b u r g . I f there i s an o v e r r i d i n g Providence which c o n t r o l s events, as Twain i m p l i e s , one of i t s p r i o r i t i e s would seem to be the t e a c h i n g of moral l e s s o n s to c h a r a c t e r s , such as Tom Sawyer, who need them. The a t t a c k on romanticism i s used both i n Huckleberry F i n n and "Indians" as an element of the maturation theme, r e l a t e d a l s o to the workings o f f a t e . Even the i d e a of 193 the Transcendent Figure i s connected to a l l of these, for Tom Sawyer, the focus of a l l these l a t e r narratives, seems at times to believe himself to be a kind of Transcendent Figure. He considers himself an i n d i v i d u a l not bound by the workings of fate and not needing any kind of lesson i n moral responsi-b i l i t y . The e f f e c t of these l a t e r works, of course, i s to prove otherwise to him. The persistence with which Twain r e i t e r a t e s these themes, then, and the generally e f f e c t i v e use to which he puts them, provide additional i l l u s t r a t i o n of the importance of these works to the author. As with the theme of maturation, these motifs show that Twain returned again and again to the world of Huck and Tom because i t enabled him to embody concepts that were s i g n i f i c a n t to him and that c a l l e d for development. NOTES The "Matter of Hannibal" i s defined i n Smith, "Images," pp. 3-4. The Transcendent Figure i s defined i n Smith, Mark Twain, pp. 136-137. 2 Smith, "Images," p. 8. 3 Smith, "Images," p. 11. 4 Smith, "Images," pp. 12-13. 5 Smith, "Images," pp. 3-5. 6 " V i l l a g e r s of 1840-43" has been published i n B l a i r , Mark Twain's Hannibal, pp. 28-40. In i t are such descriptions as: "Pavey ... A lazy, vile-tempered old h e l l i o n " ; "The  Hanged Nigger. He raped and murdered a g i r l of 13 i n the woods"; "The Stabbed C a l [ i f o r n i a ] Emigrant"; and a son of the R a t c l i f f e family, who "had to be locked into a small house i n corner of the yard—and chained." 7 Twain, Tom Sawyer, p. 46. o Twain, Tom Sawyer Abroad, p. 256. 9 Quoted i n Gerber, p. 346. 1 0 Clemens, p. 209. 1 1 Stone, p. 190. 12 Twain, "Tom Sawyer, Detective," p. 402. 13 Twain, "Tom Sawyer, Detective," p. 404. See pp. 96-97. 195 15 Smith, "Images," p. 8. 16 Twain, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," p. 199. 17 It should be remembered that the o r i g i n a l impetus for the s t o r y — " P a t e r - r o l l e r s and slavery"—stemmed from r e a l events i n Hannibal i n the early 1840's. See B l a i r , Intro-duction, pp. 152-153. 18 Quoted i n Macnaughton, p. 25. 19 B l a i r , Introduction, p. 17. 2 0 Smith, "Images," pp. 15, 18-19. 21 See Note 6 above. Further examples include the t r a g i c marriage of Mary Moss and lawyer Lakenan, the mysterious murder of Jesse Armstrong's husband for which she and her lover were t r i e d and acquitted, and the Blankenship g i r l s , "charged with p r o s t i t u t i o n — n o t proven." 22 Smith, Mark Twain , p. 136 • 23 Clemens, p. 117. 24 Twain, "Indians," p. 120. 25 Twain, "Indians," p. 111. 26 Twain, Tom Sawyer Abroad, P- 281. 27 Twain, Tom Sawyer Abroad, P- 287. 28 Twain, Tom Sawyer Abroad, P- 341. 29 Twain, Tom Sawyer Abroad, P- 264. 30 Twain, Tom Sawyer Abroad, P- 263. 31 Twain, "Tom Sawyer, Detective 196 32 33 34 35 Twain, "Tom Sawyer, Detective," p. 414. Twain, "Tom Sawyer, Detective," p. 415. See pp. 77-78. It should be noted also that af t e r the death of his daughter Susie i n 1896, Twain wrote numerous st o r i e s and frag-ments that are e x p l i c i t l y fantasies, such as "The Great Dark" and "The Enchanted Sea-Wilderness," involving improbably events and supernatural characters. The Mysterious Stranger narra-tives should be regarded as additional examples of t h i s vein of Twain's l a t e r writings. 36 37 38 39 Gibson, pp. 4-9. Twain, "Schoolhouse H i l l , " p. 217. Quoted i n Gibson, p. 429. "The Chronicle of Young Satan" (written between 1897 and 1900) was car r i e d to 423 manuscript pages; "No. 44, The Mysterious Stranger" (1902-1908) i s 530 manuscript pages. Both are far lengthier fragments than the two St. Petersburg versions. See Gibson, pp. 5-11. 40 John S. Tuckey, Introduction to Mark Twain s Fables  of Man (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1972), p. 3. 41 A l i t t l e - n o t e d fact i s that St. Petersburg has a resident witch, Mother Hopkins. Before the opening of the novel she has bewitched Huck 1s Pap. See Twain, Tom Sawyer, p. 76. 42 43 44 B l a i r , "Structure," p. 88, Clemens, p. 9.. Clemens, p. 41. 197 45 Daniel G. Hoffman, "Black Magic—and White—m Huckleberry Finn," i n his Form and Fable i n American F i c t i o n (New York: Oxford University Press, 1961), p. 320. 4d^ Clemens, p. 225. 4 7 Twain, "Indians," p. 120. 48 Quoted i n B l a i r , Introduction, p. 90. 4 9 Twain, "Indians," p. 120. Quoted i n B l a i r , Introduction, pp. 90-91. 51 Stone, p. 183. 5 2 Stone, p. 188. 5 3 Stone, p. 190. 5 4 See pp. 120-121. 5 5 Twain, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," p. 164. 5 6 Twain, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," p. 191. 57 Twain, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," p. 202. 5 8 Twain, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," p. 204. 5 9 See pp. 144-145. 6 0 Tuckey, p. 4. 61 Tuckey, ed., Mark Twain's Fables, pp. 118-120. f> 2 Tuckey, ed., Mark Twain's Fables, pp. 126-128. 6 3 See pp. 39-40. 198 Twain, Tom Sawyer, p. 160. Twain, Tom Sawyer, p. 163n. Clemens, p. 15. Clemens, p. 186. 6 8 Richard P. Adams, "The Unity and Coherence of Huckle-berry Finn," Tulane Studies i n English, 6 (1956), 94. Clemens, p. 57. Gullason, pp. 89-90. Clemens, p. 18 7. S. B. L i l j e g r e n , The Revolt against Romanticism i n  American Literature as Evidenced i n the Works of S. L. Clemens (Upsala: The American Inst i t u t e i n the University of Upsala's Essays and Studies on American Language and Li t e r a t u r e , I, 1945), 49-50. 73 Twain, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," p. 173. CONCLUSION The characters Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn represented an ex t r a o r d i n a r i l y complex and s i g n i f i c a n t part of Mark Twain's creative l i f e . They were the focus of deep and sometimes ambiva-lent feelings, memories, hopes and dreams for the writer. They had so strong a hold on him that over t h i r t y years and through dramatic changes i n his l i f e and circumstances Tom and Huck provided a continuing source of creative i n s p i r a t i o n . The sheer mass of material involving Twain's writings about the boys t e s t i f i e s to the remarkable and prolonged i n t e r e s t he maintained i n them: there are four published works, at l e a s t f i v e lengthy fragments, a play, two b r i e f fragments, outlines, synopses, and countless pages of notes, written over a period from the early 1870's to aft e r the turn of the century. His in t e r e s t i n the boys continued from the time of his marriage and the beginnings of his fame through the b i r t h of his c h i l d -ren, the years of prosperity i n Hartford, his subsequent f i n a n c i a l disaster and bankruptcy, the death of Susy, prolonged residence abroad, and f i n a l l y to the return of h i s f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y and his worldwide fame i n the early 19 00's. In addition to the amount of material written about the boys (and the time and energy t h i s represents), another i n d i -200 cation of t h e i r abiding importance to him i s the depth and com-pl e x i t y of the ideas and themes discussed i n these works. Several of the ideas are unique to the Tom and Huck s t o r i e s . Among the prominent issues explored i n these narratives are maturity, moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the profound e v i l of slavery, sexuality, and l i f e i n small towns. In many of the s t o r i e s , several of these themes are care-f u l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . Tom and Huck achieve maturity, for example, by learning t h e i r moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards the slave Jim. Human sexuality and desire underlie many characters' actions, as the boys come to understand t h i s part of growing up. Sexu-a l i t y can be seen most prominently i n the "Indians" fragment, but as a motivation for some human behaviour i t i s v i s i b l e also in Tom Sawyer, "Tom Sawyer, Detective," and evidently i n the l o s t " F i f t y Years After" manuscript. Small town l i f e i s related to the maturity theme i n that a less a t t r a c t i v e view of the town can be traced to the deepening of a child's understanding as he grows older. In Twain's canon such a complex interweaving of these themes i s unique to the l a t e r Huck and Tom narratives. The stories concerning Tom and Huck began with the "Boy's Manuscript," written perhaps quite soon aft e r the writer's marriage and rediscovery of his own past (as evidenced by the February, 1870 l e t t e r to W i l l Bowen). But that work seems to have been primarily s a t i r i c a l i n i t s impulse. Only with the writing of the 1874 outline for Tom Sawyer did Twain begin to 2 0 1 d i s c o v e r the v a s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t a r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l of c h i l d h o o d presented. His o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n was to c h a r t the course of a boy's growing up, from e a r l y c h i l d h o o d through middle age. E v i d e n t l y because of comments from Howells, u n c e r t a i n t y arose i n Twain's mind over how f a r along to b r i n g the boy, and he ended Tom Sawyer w i t h h i s hero s t i l l a c h i l d . But Twain's f i r s t i n t e n t i o n remained. His o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n of Adventures  of Huckleberry F i n n was to take a boy of twelve and "run him on through l i f e , " " ' ' as he t o l d Howells. In the course o f Huck's t r a v e l s , though he c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y remains a c h i l d , he endures enough experiences to mature him d r a m a t i c a l l y . By the end of the n o v e l , he has l e a r n e d the importance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the need f o r empathy, and the humanity o f the Negro. Tom Sawyer, i n c o n t r a s t , has not y e t l e a r n e d any of these l e s s o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n outlook between the two boys becomes d r a m a t i c a l l y e v i d e n t (to many l a t e r c r i t i c s ' i r r i t a t i o n ) i n the l a s t ten chapters of Huckleberry F i n n . Twain may have been aware o f t h i s perhaps unexpected d i s -p a r i t y between h i s two c h a r a c t e r s . He may q u i t e d e l i b e r a t e l y have attempted, i n the l a t e r s t o r i e s , to remedy the d i s p a r i t y by f o r c i n g Tom to undergo experiences t h a t would enable him to develop the same l e v e l of m a t u r i t y d i s p l a y e d by Huck. T h i s process was complicated, of course, by the g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e i n the boys' c h a r a c t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y by Tom's flamboyance and d e s i r e to c o n t r o l events as opposed to Huck's p a s s i v i t y and 2 02 desire for anonymity. The experiences that Tom would have to endure, therefore, would have to be quite d i f f e r e n t i n form and scope from those undergone by Huck on his d r i f t i n g voyage down the M i s s i s s i p p i . In p a r t i c u l a r , Twain seems to have r e a l i z e d that the most appropriate maturing experience for Tom was one caused by his own actions, not one caused merely by circumstance. The boy would have to embark de l i b e r a t e l y on a course of action of his own devising, against well-meant advice, then watch disaster develop, and f i n a l l y acknowledge his own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for what has occurred. Adding profound significance to t h i s process, as Twain came to discover, was the figure of the black slave, Jim. The black man was the focus of a major part of Huck 1s maturity. In the l a t e r s t o r i e s he would become a c r u c i a l part of the process of Tom's.growing up. The writer began t h i s pro-cess almost immediately aft e r f i n i s h i n g Huckleberry Finn, i n the unfinished fragment, "Huck and Tom Among the Indians." There Tom brings Jim into pointless and unnecessary danger--in e f f e c t , as part of a game--but he e x p l i c i t l y acknowledges his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h i s action. Such an admission had not occurred i n either Tom Sawyer or Huckleberry Finn. The "Indians" story was abandoned shortly afterwards, but Twain's persistent i n t e r e s t i n the characters and i n the ideas they embodied—even afte r t h i s s e t b a c k — i s demonstrated by his 203 return to the boys and Jim i n three works from the early 1890's. These are the two published works Tom Sawyer Abroad and "Tom Sawyer, Detective," and the l o s t manuscript, "Tom Sawyer's Mystery." Though the two surviving works are somewhat super-f i c i a l and t r i v i a l , even they contain indications of Twain's abiding concerns with such topics as i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the workings of fate, and the q u a l i t y of small-town l i f e . It i s with the next story i n the sequence, "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy," that these various ideas are brought into a com-prehensive a r t i s t i c whole. Twain's s k i l l i n writing the narra-t i v e i s evident despite the fact that the story was written over a period of several years following the author's bankruptcy, the death of Susy, and other traumas of his l a t e r l i f e . In the work Tom elaborates a complex scheme to enliven l i f e i n the small town and t e r r o r i z e the v i l l a g e r s , a plan s i m i l a r to his "Evasion" scheme i n Huckleberry Finn. Once t h i s i s under way Twain c a r e f u l l y allows the plan to disintegrate. With Jim as the primary catalyst, he forces the boy to learn the nature of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a context of public humiliation. What i s more, Tom accepts the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for his actions and the suffering he has caused. The boy's recognition of his res-p o n s i b i l i t y f u l f i l l s a major c r i t e r i o n of maturity that Walter 2 B l a i r saw emerging as early as Tom Sawyer. F i n a l l y , the l o s t manuscript of 1902 seems to have con-tained the culmination of the 1874 outline, the return of the 204 boys to S t . P e t e r s b u r g as a d u l t s . E v i d e n t l y , the s t o r y e x p l o r e d the changes i n p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t the passage of time b r i n g s a b o u t — a s , indeed, had o c c u r r e d i n Twain h i m s e l f i n the decades s i n c e he l e f t Hannibal. E a r l i e r s c h o l a r s and c r i t i c s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h DeVoto, tended e i t h e r t o d e n i g r a t e or to ignore these works, f a i l i n g to see i n them any k i n d of thematic coherence or p a t t e r n . These e a r l y o v e r s i g h t s l e d , i n l a t e r c r i t i c s , to an i n a c c u r a t e focus on Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n as embodying a l l t h a t Twain had to say about the boys. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h a t novel l e f t the impression of Tom Sawyer as something of a v i l l a i n i n the w r i t e r ' s eyes. Yet the l a t e r s t o r i e s e s t a b l i s h without q u e s t i o n t h a t Twain remained p r o f o u n d l y i n t e r e s t e d i n Tom, disabused him of some of h i s more u n a t t r a c t i v e t r a i t s , and chose him to rep-r e s e n t p r a c t i c a l m a t u r i t y . Recent Twain c r i t i c i s m , i n con-c e n t r a t i n g more o b j e c t i v e l y on h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g s , p l a c e s the w r i t e r ' s a t t i t u d e towards the boys i n a more ac c u r a t e p e r s p e c t i v e . The importance of Tom and Huck i n Twain's thought through-out h i s w r i t i n g c a r e e r , then, i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t . With t h i s new understanding, something of the complexity of a t t i t u d e towards c h i l d h o o d and growing up i s becoming c l e a r e r . These s t o r i e s demonstrate t h a t r a t h e r than b e i n g "imprisoned i n boyhood," Twain saw c h i l d h o o d not simply as a p l a c e of escape from the problems of adulthood, but as a p r e p a r a t i o n o f v i t a l importance f o r the events of l a t e r l i f e . Twain saw 205 childhood experiences as events i n which a c h i l d learned lessons about behaviour that would be s i g n i f i c a n t for him as an adult. A c h i l d could be irresponsible; a c h i l d could i g -nore the feelings of others; a c h i l d could be unconscious of the interdependence of human beings. An adult must behave otherwise. In these stories the experiences the boys undergo teach them t h i s lesson. Tom Sawyer was the more appropriate character on which to focus t h i s lesson, for he i s involved i n the community, as well as being dynamic and creative. In contrast, s o l i t a r y and passive Huck Finn would always remain on the fringes of society. Any lesson he learned would remain unique to his own experience. Tom Sawyer, on the other hand, could serve as an example for the rest of society. In the "Conspiracy" story, had Twain been able to allow Tom a public confession of what he had learned, such an act would i l l u s t r a t e t h i s point most dramatically. As i t i s , the fact that Huck and the reader know what he has learned must be considered s u f f i c i e n t . The loss of the " F i f t y Years After" manuscript makes Tom's t r i a l scene Twain's l a s t surviving comment on the subject. NOTES Smith and Gibson, I, 92. B l a i r , "Structure," p. 84. BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Browning, Robert Pack et a l , eds. Mark Twain's Notebooks  and Journals. Vol.. I I I . Berkeley, Los Angeles & London: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1979. Clemens, Samuel Langhorne. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Ed. Sculley Bradley, et a l . New York: Norton, 1961. DeVoto, Bernard, ed. Mark, Twain i n Eruption: Hitherto Un-published Pages about Men and Events. New York: Harpers, 1940. Gerber, John C. et a l , eds*. The Works of Mark Twain. Vol. IV The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; Tom Sawyer Abroad; Tom  Sawyer, Detective. Berkeley, Los Angeles & London: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1980, for the Iowa Center for Textual Studies. Hornberger, Theodore, ed. Mark Twain's Letters to W i l l Bowen. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1941. Paine, Albert Bigelow, ed. Mark Twain's Autobiography. New York: Harpers, 1924. Smith, Henry Nash and William M. Gibson, eds. Mark Twain-Howells Letters. 2 vols. Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1960 Twain, Mark. "Boy's Manuscript." In Mark Twain at Work. Ed. Bernard DeVoto. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942, pp. 25-44. . "Doughface." In Mark Twain' s Hannibal, Huck &^  Tom. Ed. Walter B l a i r . Berkeley & Los Angeles, Univer-s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969, pp. 141-44. • • • • "Emperor-God Satire . " In Mark Twain's Fables of Man. Ed. John S. Tuckey. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1972, pp. 118-120. 208 _. "Fenimore Cooper's L i t e r a r y Offenses." In The Complete Humorous Sketches and Tales of Mark Twain. Ed. Charles Neider. New York: Doubleday, 1961, pp. 631-44. . "Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer Among the Indians." In Mark Twain's Hannibal, Huck & Tom, pp. 81-140. . "The Private Secretary's Diary." In Mark Twain's Fables of Man, pp. 126-128. • "Schoolhouse H i l l . " In Mark Twain's Mysterious Stranger Manuscripts. Ed. William M. Gibson. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969, pp. 175-220. . "The Story of the Bad L i t t l e Boy." In The Com-plete Short Stories of Mark Twain. Ed. Charles Neider. New York: Doubleday, 1957,.pp. 6-9. . "The Story of the Good L i t t l e Boy." In The Com-plete Short Stories of Mark Twain, pp. 66-70. . "Those Blasted Children." In The Works of Mark Twain, Vol. XV: Early Tales &. Sketches: Vol. I_: 1851-1864. Ed. Edgar Marquess Branch and Robert H. H i r s t . Berkeley, Los Angeles & London: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, for the Iowa Center for Textual Studies, 1979, pp. 351-56. . "Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy." In Mark Twain's Hannibal, Huck & Tom, pp. 152-242. . "Tom Sawyer's Gang Plans a Naval Battle." In Mark Twain' s Hannibal, Huck &_ Tom, pp. 145-51. . "A True Story." In The Complete Short Stories of Mark Twain, pp. 94-98. . "Vi l l a g e r s of 1840-43." In Mark Twain's Hannibal, Huck &^  Tom, pp. 28-40. 209 Secondary Sources Adams, Richard P. "The Unity and Coherence of Huckleberry  Finn." Tulane Studies i n English, 6 (1956), 87-103. Rpt. i n Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Adventures of  Huckleberry Finn. Ed. Sculley Bradley et a l . New York: Norton, 1961, pp. 342-57. Baldanza, Frank. Mark Twain: An Introduction and Inter-pretation . New York: Holt, 1961. Bay, J . C h r i s t i a n . "'Tom Sawyer, Detective 1: The Origin of the Plot." In Essays offered to Herbert Putnam by his  Colleagues and Friends on his T h i r t i e t h Anniversary as  Li b r a r i a n of Congress, 5_ A p r i l 1929. Ed. William Warner Bishop and Andrew Keogh. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1929, pp. 80-88. B l a i r , Walter. "Introduction." In Mark Twain's Hannibal, Huck &^  Tom, pp. 1-20. . Mark Twain &^  Huck Finn. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1960. . "On the Structure of Tom Sawyer." Modern Philology, 37 (1959) , 75-88. Brooks, Van Wyck. The Ordeal of Mark Twain. Revised e d i t i o n . New York: Dutton, 1947. Canby, Henry Seidel. Turn West, Turn East. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1951. Delaney, Paul. "You Can't Go Back to the Raft Ag'in, Huck Honey!: Mark Twain's Western Sequel to Huckleberry Finn." Western American Literature, 11 (1976), 215-29. DeVoto, Bernard. Mark Twain at Work. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942. ______ "Introduction." In The Portable Mark Twain. New York: Viking, 1946, pp. 1-34. 210 E l i o t , T.S. "Introduction." In The Adventures 1 Of Huckleberry  Finn. London: The Cresset Press, 1950, pp. v i i - x v i . Rpt. i n Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Adventures of  Huckleberry Finn, pp. 320-27. E l l i o t t , George P. "Afterword." In Mark Twain, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. New York: New American Library, 1959, pp. 220-24. Ferguson, DeLancy. Mark Twain: Man and Legend. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1943. Fetterley, Judith. "Disenchantment: Tom Sawyer i n Huckleberry  Finn." PMLA, 87 (1942), 69-74. Geismar, Maxwell. Mark Twain: An American Prophet. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1970. Gibson, William M. "Introduction." In Mark Twain's Mysterious  Stranger Manuscripts.. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969, pp. 1-34. Grant, Douglas. Twain. Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1962. Gulla son, Thomas Arthur. "The 'Fatal' Ending of Huckleberry Finn." American Literature, 29 (1957), 86 - 9 T ] .Rpt. i n Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Adventures of Huckleberry  Finn, pp. 357-61. Hansen, Chadwick. "The Character of Jim and the Ending of Huckleberry Finn." Massachusetts Review, 5 (1963), 45-66. H i l l , Hamlin. "The Composition and Structure of Tom Sawyer." American Literature, 32 (1961) , 379-92. Hoffman, Daniel G. "Black Magic--and W h i t e — i n Huckleberry Finn." In his Form and Fable i n American F i c t i o n . New York: Oxford University Press, 1961, pp. 317-42. Rpt. in Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Adventures of Huckleberry  Finn, pp. 396-409. Howells, Mildred. L i f e i n Letters of William Dean Howells. Vol. I I . New York: Doubleday, 1928. Howells, William. My Mark Twain. New York: Harpers, 1910. 211 Jones, Alexander E. "Mark Twain and Sexuality." PMLA, 71 (1956), 595-616. Kahn, Sche-lom J . Mark Twain's Mysterious Stranger: A Study of the Manuscript Texts. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1978. Kaplan, J u s t i n . Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966. Li l j e g r e n , S. B. The Revolt Against Romanticism i n American  Literature as Evidenced i n the Works of S_. L. Clemens. The American Inst i t u t e of the University of Upsala Essays  and Studies on American Language and Literature, Vol. I. Upsala: The University of Upsala Press, 1955. Macnaughton, John C. Mark Twain's Last Years as a Writer. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1979. McKeithan, D. M. Court T r i a l s i n Mark Twain and Other Essays. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1958. . A Mark Twain Notebook for 1892. The American Insti t u t e of the University of Upsala Essays and Studies  on American Language and Literature, Vol. 17. Upsala: The University of Upsala Press, 1959. McNamara, Eugene. "Huck Lights Out for the T e r r i t o r y : Mark Twain's Unpublished Sequel." University of Windsor  Review, 2 (1966), 67-74. Marks, Barry A. "Mark Twain's Hymn of Praise." English  Journal, 48 (1959), 443-48. Marx, Leo. "Mr. E l i o t , Mr. T r i l l i n g , and Huckleberry Finn." American Scholar, 22 (1953), 423-40. Rpt. i n Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, pp. 328-41. Paine, Albert Bigelow. Mark Twain: A Biography. 3 Vols. New York: Harpers, 1912. P e t t i t , Arthur. Mark Twain and the South. L o u i s v i l l e : University Press of Kentucky, 1974. Regan, Robert. Unpromising Heroes: Mark Twain and his Characters. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1966. 212 Rogers, F r a n k l i n . Mark Twain's Burlesque P a t t e r n s . D a l l a s : SMU Pr e s s , 1960. Smith, Henry Nash. "Mark Twain's Images of Hannibal: From St. P e t e r s b u r g to E s e l d o r f . " Texas S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , 37 (1958), 3-23. . Mark Twain: The Development of a W r i t e r . Cam-b r i d g e : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1962. Stone, A l b e r t E., J r . The Innocent Eye: Childhood i n Mark Twain's Imagination. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1961. Tanner, Tony. The Reign o f Wonder. Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. T r i l l i n g , Diana. "Tom Sawyer, Delinquent." In her Claremont  Essays. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1964, pp. 143-52. T r i l l i n g , L i o n e l . "The Greatness o f Huckleberry F i n n . " In h i s The L i b e r a l Imagination. 'Garden -City: Doubleday, 195 0, pp. 100-113. Rpt. i n Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Adventures of Huckleberry F i n n , pp. 310-20. Tuckey, John S. " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " In Mark Twain's F a b l e s of Man. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1972, pp. 1-29. Wecter, Dixon. Sam Clemens of Hannibal. Ed. E l i z a b e t h Wecter. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1952. We l l s , Anna Mary. L e t t e r . PMLA, 87 (1972), 1130-31. Werge, Thomas. "Huck, Jim, and F o r t y D o l l a r s . " Mark Twain  J o u r n a l , 13 (1968), 15-16. Wiggins, Robert A. Mark Twain: J a c k l e g N o v e l i s t . S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s , 1964. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095876/manifest

Comment

Related Items