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Ezra Pound’s early experiments with major forms, 1904-1925 : Directio Voluntatis McKeown, Thomas Wilson 1983

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EZRA POUND'S EARLY EXPERIMENTS WITH MAJOR FORMS, 1904-1925: DIRECTIO VOLUNTATIS by THOMAS WILSON MCKEOWN M. A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of E n g l i s h ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 © Thomas Wilson McKeown, 198 3 Previously unpublished material (c)1983 The Trustees of the Ezra Pound Literary Property Trust. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of E n g l i s h The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date F e b r u a r y 14, 1983 ABSTRACT T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n argues t h a t the coherent v i s i o n and s i n g l e impulse which l e d to the major form of the Cantos a l s o u n d e r l a y E z r a Pound's seemingly d i s p a r i t e e a r l y experiments. In o r d e r to demonstrate t h a t Pound's p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h major form p r o v i d e d a common denominator between h i s e a r l i e s t , middle, and mature poe t r y , I have d i v i d e d t h i s study i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s , which c o r r e s p o n d t o the th r e e main stages o f Pound's development. P a r t One: I n s t i g a t i o n (1904-1911), demonstrates the two t h e o r i e s of p e r f e c t form t h a t f i r s t a t t r a c t e d the young Pound, and documents h i s d r i v e toward e v e r - s u b t l e r a r c h i t e c t o n i c s t r u c t u r e s i n h i s i n i t i a l phase of development. P a r t Two: Experiment (1912-1919), r e - d e f i n e s the t h r e e q u a l i t i e s o f rhythm, tone, t e x t u r e , as they apply t o Pound's experiments w i t h major form. P a r t Three: Accomplishment (1920-1925), d e s c r i b e s what s t i m u l a t e d Pound's t h e o r e t i c a l breakthrough i n 1922, and t r a c e s the e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s t heory through XVI Cantos, to show t h a t t h i s f i r s t i n s t a l l m e n t o f Pound's major poem fused h i s theory and p r a c t i c e o f p o e t r y . T h i s achievement can o n l y be p r o p e r l y a p p r e c i a t e d p r o p e r l y , however, i n the cont e x t o f h i s e a r l i e r twenty-year experiment w i t h o t h e r major forms. The C o n c l u s i o n p o i n t s out t h a t the c r i t i c a l moment i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f P o u n d ' s e x p l o r a t i o n o f m a j o r f o r m s o c c u r r e d when he d r o p p e d h i s a s p i r a t i o n t o w r i t e a p u r e l y p e r s o n a l d o c u m e n t f e a t u r i n g " p e r f e c t " f o r m , a n d became c o n t e n t t o w r i t e a b r o a d e r s o c i a l " t e s t a m e n t . " U n d e r n e a t h t h e f o r m a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s o f h i s a t t e m p t s a t m a j o r f o r m , P o u n d ' s h o l i s t i c v i s i o n p r o v i d e d t h e b a s e , o r " u n w o b b l i n g p i v o t " , f o r h i s a t t e m p t t o "show men t h e way t o t r y " t o g a i n a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p a t t e r n e d i n t e g r i t i e s o f t h e " v i t a l u n i v e r s e " : s t o n e , t r e e , a n d m i n d — a l i v e . TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i INTRODUCTION 1 PART ONE: INSTIGATION (1904-1911) 9 I The S t a r t i n g P o i n t : P r a c t i c e and Theory 10 A. The E a r l y Poems 12 B. The C i r c l e 30 I I A r c h i t e c t o n i c s 44 A. The C y c l e o f Noh P l a y s 46 B. A Lume Spento 52 C. E x u l t a t i o n s and Canzoni 55 PART TWO: EXPERIMENT (1912-1919) 85 I I I A b s o l u t e Rhythm 8 6 A. Rhythmic V i t a l i t y 87 B. Image and Epigram 101 C. The S e q u e n t i a l Poem 119 IV Tone 125 A. War Poems . . 125 B. Poignancy 130 1. The L i t a n y 130 2. The L a t i n Sequences 134 3. P a t t e r n U n i t s • - 1 4 0 C. R e t i c e n c e 146 1. N a t u r a l Speech 146 2. Compressed N a r r a t i v e 151 3. Scenery 160 V Texture 167 A. Language and Imagery i n the Ur-cantos 167 B. The Homage as N a r r a t i v e 180 C. Mauberley: Texture as S t r u c t u r e 195 i v PART THREE: ACCOMPLISHMENT (1920-1925) 216 VI A D r a f t o f XVI Cantos: Some Formative I n f l u e n c e s 217 A. U l y s s e s 222 B. The Waste Land 227 C. B r a n c u s i and P i c a b i a : S t a s i s v e r s u s K i n e s i s 234 D. Economic Democracy 243 VII XVI Cantos: K i n e s i s 250 A. H o r i z o n t a l Chords 252 B. H o r i z o n t a l Designs 258 C. R h e t o r i c v e r s u s Aphorisms 266 D. The P r o c e s s i o n 271 E. The Compression of N a r r a t i v e ...279 F. D i r e c t Speech 284 G. Sigismundo M a l a t e s t a 291 CONCLUSION 300 NOTES AND REFERENCES 310 BIBLIOGRAPHY 328 APPENDIX 3^52 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The most unexpected reward I have discovered i n the course of my work on Ezra Pound has been the personal generosity of other Poundians. Such people have made the work a pleasure. In p a r t i c u l a r , Peter Quartermain, Keith A l l d r i t t , and John Rathmell, have counted more than I can say. As w e l l , I owe a great deal to Donald Gallup, Peter Dzwonkoski, Michael King, and other workers i n the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library for t h e i r f r i e n d l y and accomplished support during the course of my research. I would also l i k e to thank Princess Mary de Rachewiltz for her kind i n v i t a t i o n to begin my work at Brunnenberg, and for her patience i n making rare editions of Pound's early works avail a b l e to me, and for her encouragement. I wish to thank Olga Rudge, P a t r i z i a de Rachewiltz and Omar Pound, as well, for making me aware i n d i f f e r e n t ways and places of the truth that, even i n Pound's case, the poem i s always less i n t e r e s t i n g than the person who writes i t . In conclusion, I thank the Canada Council for supporting t h i s work, in i t s early stages of development, with a Doctoral Fellowship Award. v i ABBEVIATIONS ALS, 1908 A Lume Spento. Venice A n t o n i n i . ALS A Lume Spento and Other E a r l y Poems. London: Faber, 1965. C Canzoni. London: E l k i n Mathews, 1911. CEP C o l l e c t e d E a r l y Poems, ed. by M i c h a e l King. N.Y.: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1976. CNTJ The C l a s s i c Noh Theatre of Japan. New D i r e c t i o n s , 1959. CSP C o l l e c t e d S h o r t e r Poems. London: Faber, 1968. GB Gaudier-Brzeska: A Memoir. H e s s l e , East Y o r k s h i r e : M a r v e l l Press, 1960. GK Guide to Kulchur. London: Peter Owen, 1952. LE L i t e r a r y Essays of E z r a Pound, ed. T.S. E l i o t . N.Y.: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1968. MIN Make i t New. London: Faber, 1934. P, 1909 Personae. London: E l k i n Mathews, 1909. P Personae. N.Y.: Boni and L i v e r i g h t , 1926.-P/J . The L e t t e r s of E z r a Pound to James Joyce, ed. by F o r r e s t Read. N.Y.: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1967. PM P a t r i a Mia and the T r e a t i s e on Harmony. London: Peter Owen, 1962. SFL Pound's L e t t e r s to Dennis Goacher h e l d a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . SL S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s , ed. by D.D. Paige. N.Y.: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1971. SP S e l e c t e d Prose, ed. by W. Cookson. London: Faber, 1973. SR The S p i r i t of Romance. N.Y. : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1968. YC Yale C o l l e c t i o n , American L i t e r a t u r e . U n c o l l e c t e d and unpublished m a t e r i a l h e l d i n the Beinecke L i b r a r y . The 1979 New D i r e c t i o n s e d i t i o n of The Cantos i s used throughout t h i s work. References are given i n the t e x t as (CXVI, 796) to designate Canto CXVI, page 796. v i i to Peter "God i s t h a t one man helps another — E z r a Pound 0 INTRODUCTION Pound c r i t i c s have o c c u p i e d two main camps: those who d e a l mainly w i t h the e a r l y p o e t r y , up to 1920, and those who d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h the p o e t r y a f t e r 1920—which i s to say the Cantos. Among the former group, N. C h r i s t o p h e de Nagy has s a i d of h i s study o f the p r e - I m a g i s t stage: " I t would o b v i o u s l y be tempting and rewarding, w i t h 116 cantos and s e v e r a l books about them i n p r i n t , to examine the e a r l y p o e t r y o n l y i n so f a r as i t i s a stage towards Imagism, and e s p e c i a l l y the Cantos. But t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what i s going to be avoided."''" Other c r i t i c s o f the e a r l y p e r i o d , such as Hugh Witemeyer, Thomas H. Jackson, J . J . Espey, J.P. S u l l i v a n , S t u a r t McDougal, and E r i c Homberger, have f o l l o w e d s i m i l a r g u i d e l i n e s , f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on s i n g l e works or p e r i o d s of Pound's e a r l y development, w i t h l i t t l e 2 or no r e f e r e n c e to the Cantos• Among the l a t t e r group, we f i n d those who focus a t t e n t i o n on the Cantos, w h i l e making l i t t l e or no r e f e r e n c e to Pound's e a r l i e r work c o n s i d e r e d as a whole. T h i s group, which i n c l u d e s c r i t i c s l i k e C l a r k Emery, George Dekker, D a n i e l Pearlman, C h r i s t i n e Brooke-Rose, Ronald Bush, M i c h a e l B e r n s t e i n , and Donald Davie, has g e n e r a l l y down-played the r e l e v a n c e of Pound's e a r l i e r work to the 1 C a n t o s , f o l l o w i n g H u g h K e n n e r ' s l e a d , who s t a t e d i n h i s e a r l y v o l u m e o n P o u n d : " T h e e a r l y poems a r e d e f i c i e n t i n f i n a l i t y ; t h e y s u p p l e m e n t a n d c o r r e c t o n e a n o t h e r ; t h e y s t a n d u p i n d i v i d u a l l y a s r e n d e r i n g s o f m o o d s , b u t n o t a s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f m a t u r e s e l f - k n o w l e d g e ; t h e y t r y o u t p o s e s . T h e y a r e l e a d i n g t h e a u t h o r s o m e w h e r e ; t h e r e a d e r 4 may b e e x c u s e d i f h i s i n t e r e s t s a r e n o t w h o l l y e n g a g e d . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , n e i t h e r g r o u p h a s t a k e n t h e b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e o n P o u n d ' s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . T h e p r o b l e m h a s b e e n t h a t t h e t w o g r o u p s o f poems a r e s o d i f f e r e n t . T h e e a r l y p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y c o n s t a n t c h a n g e a n d e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h v a r i o u s p o e t i c m a s k s ; t h e l a t e r p e r i o d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y c o n s i s t e n c y , a n d a s t y l e t h a t s eems t o t a l l y r e m o v e d f r o m t h a t o f t h e e a r l i e r p o e m s . A v a s t g u l f s e p a r a t e s t h e m . S u r p r i s i n g l y , no o n e h a s a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l o r e i n d e t a i l t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s m o s t c u r i o u s a s p e c t o f P o u n d ' s w o r k , f i r s t n o t i c e d b y P e t e r R u s s e l l : w h e r e a s " t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s t y l e b e t w e e n a poem w r i t t e n b y P o u n d i n 1907 a n d o n e w r i t t e n i n 1917 i s t h e e a s i e s t t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d t o s p o t . . . i f o n e c o m p a r e s a c a n t o w r i t t e n i n 1920 w i t h o n e w r i t t e n i n 1 9 4 5 , a g a p o f 25 y e a r s , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o o b s e r v e a n y c h a n g e i n s t y l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , c r i t i c s h a v e t e n d e d t o s p e c i a l i z e i n o n e o f t h e s e a r e a s , w i t h t h e u n h a p p y r e s u l t o f s p l i t t i n g o u r v i s i o n o f P o u n d ' s ' o v e r a l l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . 2 Even where c r i t i c s have attempted to do j u s t i c e to both the e a r l y poems and the Cantos, they have been extremely s e l e c t i v e , examining o n l y a few elements of Pound's e a r l y work, such as the Image and the ideogrammic method. T h i s tendency i s understandable, because the sheer s i z e and complexity of the Cantos demands a l a r g e r amount of space than the e a r l y poems. Yet t h i s n e c e s s i t y has encouraged the b e l i e f t h a t Pound was s p l a s h i n g around b e f o r e 1920, and o n l y found h i s f e e t i n the Cantos. T h i s d i m i n i s h e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Cantos, making them appear to be a l a s t r e s o r t f o r a t i r e d t e c h n i c i a n ; i t a l s o d i m i n i s h e s the importance of the e a r l i e r poems, which appear to be s i m p l i f i e d masks, c a s t o f f on the journey toward the mature p o e t i c persona of the Cantos. N e i t h e r of these views does j u s t i c e to Pound's accomplishment. My c o n t e n t i o n i s t h a t t h i s accomplishment can o n l y be p r o p e r l y a p p r e c i a t e d when' we understand the c o n n e c t i o n between the e a r l y poems and the Cantos. E s s e n t i a l l y , I h o l d t h a t the e x p l o r a t i o n of major forms was the c o n s t a n t element, or c o n s t a n t denominator, i n Pound's p o e t i c development from the b e g i n n i n g , and t h a t t h i s focus stemmed from a deep and unchanging d e s i r e t o express h i s h o l i s t i c v i s i o n of the fundamental cohesiveness of the u n i v e r s e . ^ From the b e g i n n i n g , Pound's urge toward major form stemmed 3 from a deeply f e l t p h i l o s o p h i c i n t e n t — w h i c h remained unchanged throughout h i s l i f e . Seen i n t h i s l i g h t , h i s po e t r y i s seen t o have been motiv a t e d by a l a r g e l y u n a p p r e c i a t e d c o n s i s t e n c y o f purpose t h a t c o u l d l e a d to a r e v a l u a t i o n of h i s importance. Why has i t not p r e v i o u s l y been noted t h a t Pound worked a t major form long b e f o r e 1915? For one t h i n g , c r i t i c s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on the seen, r a t h e r than on the unseen. To use contemporary l e a r n i n g terminology, Pound seems to me to have been an extreme example of a " r i g h t - b r a i n " p e r s o n a l i t y : s t r o n g l y i n t u i t i v e , m u s i c a l , v i s u a l , g i v e n t o in s t a n t a n e o u s i n s i g h t s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f c e r t i t u d e , and r e s o l u t e l y n o n - s e q u e n t i a l ; t h e r e f o r e , he was more i n c l i n e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on m a n i p u l a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h i n g s than the t h i n g s themselves, and to pay as much a t t e n t i o n t o the space between h i s poems i n a volume as to the matter of the poems themselves. We can see t h i s from the f a c t t h a t he arranged each volume of p o e t r y w i t h extreme c a r e , s t r i v i n g f o r a concept o f major f o r m — a n e f f o r t which culm i n a t e d i n the Cantos. Consequently, i f a c r i t i c l ooks o n l y a t the poems i n a volume l i k e Canzoni he may see o n l y poor p o e t r y ; i f he a l s o looks a t the rhythms and "negative spaces" between the poems, he may see a f a s c i n a t i n g e a r l y attempt a t a major composition. 4 Another reason why Pound's experiments w i t h major form may have escaped some c r i t i c s i s t h a t the Pound A r c h i v e s a t Y a l e have o n l y been a c c e s s i b l e s i n c e 1976. T h i s c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s a number o f e a r l y u n p u b l i s h e d long poems o f up to 100 l i n e s , p l u s e a r l y u n p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r s t o h i s p a r e n t s and f r i e n d s , which c o n c l u s i v e l y document Pound's c o n c e n t r a t i o n on major form. Some of these m a t e r i a l s appear i n t h i s t h e s i s . A f u r t h e r reason f o r Pound's e f f o r t s a t major form remaining hidden l i e s i n the untrustworthy nature of Pound's t e x t s . Most c r i t i c s have tended to use the C o l l e c t e d  S h o r t e r Poems, which i s based on the 1926 Personae. They c o u l d not t e l l from e i t h e r t e x t t h a t "Alba" and "Tame Cat", which t h e r e appear as i n d i v i d u a l poems, were o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d as elements i n a l o n g e r sequence, "Ze n i a . " As a r e s u l t of t h i s k i n d of problem, we f i n d even one of Pound's best c r i t i c s , p a s s i n g on too q u i c k l y to a d i s c u s s i o n o f the Cantos, t e l l i n g us wrongly t h a t the e a r l y poem "Au Salon" f i r s t appeared i n Personae (1909), along w i t h "Cino", "Na A u d i a r t " , "Mesmerism", and " V i l l o n a u d f o r T h i s Y u l e . " 7 Having p o i n t e d these t h i n g s out, I would l i k e to add t h a t I owe an enormous debt to Pound's c r i t i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Hugh Kenner, K.K. Ruthven, Hugh Witemeyer, and Donald G a l l u p . More g e n e r a l l y , my understanding of the u n i t y of Pound's p o e t r y owes a g r e a t d e a l to the s t u d i e s of numerous 5 o t h e r c r i t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y to those by Donald Davie, D a n i e l Pearlman, and C h r i s t i n e Brooke-Rose. While I have noted p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e s of the h e l p they have p r o v i d e d i n my t e x t , i t i s a p l e a s u r e t o acknowledge here my g e n e r a l indebtedness t o t h e i r works. T h i s t h e s i s demonstrates t h a t the coherent v i s i o n and s i n g l e impulse which l e d to the form of the Cantos a l s o u n d e r l a y a l l Pound's seemingly d i s p a r i t e e a r l y g experiments. In o r d e r t o demonstrate the u b i q u i t y of t h i s i n t e n t i o n , I have d i v i d e d t h i s study i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the t h r e e main stages of Pound's e a r l y development. P a r t One: I n s t i g a t i o n (1904-1911), demonstrates the two t h e o r i e s of p e r f e c t form t h a t f i r s t a t t r a c t e d Pound, and documents h i s d r i v e toward e v e r - s u b t l e r a r c h i t e c t o n i c s t r u c t u r e s i n t h i s i n i t i a l phase. P a r t Two: Experiment (1912-1919), r e - d e f i n e s the t h r e e q u a l i t i e s o f rhythm, tone, t e x t u r e , as they apply to Pound's experiments w i t h major form. P a r t Three: Accomplishment (1920-1925), d e s c r i b e s Pound's t h e o r e t i c a l breakthrough i n 1922, both i n terms of what provoked i t and what i t shared w i t h h i s e a r l i e s t f o r m u l a t i o n s ; a l s o , i t t r a c e s the e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s theory through XVI Cantos, d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between what has been c a r r i e d forward from the e a r l i e r experiments and what has been added, to show 6 t h a t though i t marked the f u s i o n of Pound's theory and p r a c t i c e o f p o e t r y , i t can o n l y be p r o p e r l y a p p r e c i a t e d i n the c o n t e x t o f a twenty-year experiment w i t h major form. In the C o n c l u s i o n , I p o i n t out t h a t the key moment i n the h i s t o r y o f Pound's e x p l o r a t i o n of major forms o c c u r r e d when h i s a s p i r a t i o n changed from wanting t o w r i t e a p u r e l y p e r s o n a l document t o attempting t o w r i t e a broader s o c i a l "testament." Underneath the f o r m a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e of h i s attempts a t major form, Pound's h o l i s t i c v i s i o n p r o v i d e d the base f o r h i s attempt t o "show men the way to t r y " to g a i n a more comprehensive understanding of the p a t t e r n e d i n t e g r i t i e s of the " v i t a l u n i v e r s e " : stone, t r e e , and m i n d — a l i v e . T h i s study makes no c l a i m to have t r e a t e d a l l r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s of Pound's development of major form. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of such volumes as L u s t r a , Umbra, Quia Pauper  Amavi, and e s p e c i a l l y I n s t i g a t i o n s — o f which Pound s a i d i n 1934: "Years ago I made the mistake of p u b l i s h i n g a volume ( I n s t i g a t i o n s ) without b l a t a n t l y t e l l i n g the reader t h a t the book had a d e s i g n " (LE, 7 5 ) — c o u l d u s e f u l l y have been c o n s i d e r e d . However, t o have done so i n s a t i s f a c t o r y d e t a i l would have been t o e n l a r g e t h i s study w e l l beyond the imposed l i m i t s . S i m i l a r l y , my d i s c u s s i o n of XVI Cantos had t o be l i m i t e d t o a few of the ways i n which i t r e l a t e s to 7 themes and t e c h n i q u e s f i r s t e x p l o r e d i n e a r l i e r poems. I d e a l l y , the study would have i n c l u d e d a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the complete t e x t of Pound's Cantos, but t h i s would have taken the emphasis o f f the e x p l o r a t i o n of major form i n the e a r l y poems. The most t h a t can be c l a i m e d f o r t h i s study i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a new way of l o o k i n g a t the c o n t e x t o f Pound's e a r l y p o e t r y , draws a t t e n t i o n to h i s e a r l i e s t experiments w i t h major form, h i g h l i g h t s the i n t e g r i t y of h i s i n t e n t i o n d u r i n g the 1904-1925 p e r i o d , and documents h i s concern w i t h major form from the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s c a r e e r — a f a c t which, though o f t e n suspected or a s s e r t e d , has never b e f o r e been proved. 0 8 PART ONE: INSTIGATIONS: THE EARLY YEARS "A t r u e i d e a ( f o r we have a t r u e idea) i s something d i f f e r e n t from i t s i d e a l (ideatum). For a c i r c l e i s one t h i n g , and the i d e a o f one another. — B a r u c h Spinoza, "On the C o r r e c t i o n of the Understanding" "Most apt indeed t h a t I should choose t o study the 'F o o l ' s c i e n t i f i c a l l y " — E z r a Pound, 1905 9 I THE STARTING POINT: PRACTICE AND THEORY For the young Pound, the u l t i m a t e purpose of a r t was to draw the mind toward c o n t e m p l a t i o n of God."'' Duri n g the 1904-1911 p e r i o d he sought to c r e a t e through a r t what he termed an "equation of e t e r n i t y " which would l i f t him out of everyday e x p e r i e n c e i n t o a realm of e t e r n a l t r u t h , beauty, and j o y . H i s e a r l y p o e m s — p a r t i c u l a r l y the u n p u b l i s h e d o n e s — c o n t i n u a l l y r e f e r t o t h i s d e s i r e , but e x e m p l i f y the d i f f i c u l t y o f r e a l i z i n g i t . The fundamental problem i s t h a t he c o n c e i v e d the coherence of the u n i v e r s e not i n terms of an e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e o r d e r , as M i l t o n d i d , but r a t h e r as an e l u s i v e , s u b t l e , l i n k i n g f o r c e behind seemingly d i s p a r a t e r e a l i t i e s . Consequently, when he t r i e d to r e f l e c t t h i s k i n d of i n t a n g i b l e coherence i n the s t r u c t u r e o f h i s poems, he sometimes f a i l e d t o a chieve s u f f i c i e n t f o r mal u n i t y . Dante A l i g h i e r i , Pound's mentor a t t h i s time, c o u l d o f f e r no h e l p here. Pound's own profound b e l i e f i n a cosmos which i s e s s e n t i a l l y o r d e r e d and u n i f i e d c o n f l i c t e d w i t h h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f a s o c i a l o r human world which i s fragmented and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . He sought a form which would r e c o n c i l e h i s i n t u i t i v e c e r t i t u d e w i t h h i s immediate p e r c e p t i o n s , without b e i n g f a l s e t o e i t h e r . 10 A t t h i s v e r y e a r l y stage, Pound's p o e t r y v a c i l l a t e d between two g o a l s : " p e r f e c t " form and " o r g a n i c " form. We can see i n t h i s nascent stage a s t r o n g t e n s i o n between a p o e t i c form t h a t would i n i t s p e r f e c t i o n r e f l e c t the u l t i m a t e coherence of the u n i v e r s e , and a form t h a t would r e f l e c t not the a c h i e v e d coherence but the urge toward o r d e r of the c r e a t i v e human mind. Pound was a t t r a c t e d to both Dante and Browning. T h i s t e n s i o n between the q u a l i t i e s of s t a t i s and k i n e s i s became the s i n g l e most important s t r u g g l e i n the h i s t o r y of Pound's movement toward major form. I t was not u n t i l 1922 t h a t the s t r u g g l e was d e c i d e d — w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y but w i t h e q u a l l y d e c i s i v e f i n a l i t y — i n f a v o u r of k i n e s i s . Though t h i s s t r u c t u r a l d e c i s i o n gave the Cantos t h e i r mature shape, however, the b e l i e f i n d i v i n e o rder t h a t we see most c l e a r l y i n the e a r l i e s t poems c o n t r i b u t e s to the r e a d i n g of the Cantos i n a p e r v a s i v e and o f t e n unrecognized way. In t h i s c h apter we w i l l f i r s t i s o l a t e themes and techniques of Pound's e a r l i e s t p o e t r y t h a t are submerged, or hidden, i n h i s l a t e r work; next, we w i l l examine how the e v o l u t i o n of the metaphor of the c i r c l e i l l u s t r a t e s the d i r e c t i o n and pace o f Pound's g r a d u a l abandonment of the theory of p e r f e c t i o n as a b a s i s f o r the s t r u c t u r e of h i s own work. These two e a r l y glimpses of Pound's d e v e l o p i n g 11 mind and a r t p r o v i d e an important i n s i g h t to h i s l a t e r work. A The E a r l y Poems The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Pound's e a r l y quest t o g e t beyond c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y form i s t h a t they d i d not correspond, even from the b e g i n n i n g , to h i s i d e a of cosmogony. D e s p i t e the s u g g e s t i o n s of some c r i t i c a l c a r i c a t u r e s , however, Pound d i d not s t a r t out a f u l l - f l e d g e d l i t e r a r y r a d i c a l . He r e p u t e d l y wrote a sonnet a day f o r a y e a r . What he d i d w i t h the sonnet a f t e r t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s h i s temperament p e r f e c t l y . Becoming i m p a t i e n t w i t h the form's r e s t r i c t i o n s , he went on t o experiment w i t h the sonnet sequence. As R o s s e t t i had done i n the House o f L i f e , Pound sought to balance the demand of formal p e r f e c t i o n of the s i n g l e sonnet w i t h the emotional scope a f f o r d e d by a sequence of sonnets. Those who have p l a c e d Pound's experiments w i t h l o n g e r forms i n the 1915-20 p e r i o d have not taken these e a r l y experiments s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , p r o b a b l y because the sequences were broken up and p r e s e n t e d as s i n g l e sonnets by Pound i n c o l l e c t e d e d i t i o n s of h i s p o e t r y . 12 A t any r a t e , Pound's experiments d i d not stop w i t h the sonnet sequence. As e a r l y as 1911, he gave up w r i t i n g the sonnet a l t o g e t h e r , i n fa v o u r o f the canzone, which binds thought p a t t e r n s i n t o more s u b t l e , p o l y p h o n i c rhymes than the more c o n v e n t i o n a l and r e s t r i c t e d sonnet forms. T h i s e a r l y movement from w r i t i n g sonnets, t o sonnet sequences, and then t o the canzone, i l l u s t r a t e s t h r e e o f h i s b a s i c m o t i v a t i o n s : f i r s t , h i s urge toward p o e t i c i n c l u s i v e n e s s ; second, h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n o f l o s t p a t t e r n s of c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , as a t r i b u t e t o and a statement of a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h p a s t c r e a t i v e minds; t h i r d , h i s se a r c h f o r p o e t i c forms unusual enough t o express n e a r l y i n t a n g i b l e p e r c e p t i o n s — beyond the ear ' s normal range. These t e n d e n c i e s can be d e t e c t e d i n Pound's e a r l i e s t poems. "To La Contessa B i a n z a f i o r , " f o r i n s t a n c e , i s a sequence of f o u r sonnets meant f o r i n c l u s i o n i n Pound's second volume of p o e t r y , A Quinzaine For T h i s Yule ( 1 9 0 9 ) . T h i s sequence proves t h a t Pound c o u l d f o l l o w c o n v e n t i o n s . However, he d i d n ' t f o l l o w c o n v e n t i o n l o n g : i t i s the onl y one among dozens of h i s s e q u e n t i a l poems to m a i n t a i n a co n s t a n t number of l i n e s i n each s e c t i o n . Hugh Selwyn  Mauberley, Homage to Sextus P r o p e r t i u s , the Cantos, and ot h e r s h o r t e r and l e s s w e l l known s e q u e n t i a l poems d i f f e r from "To La Contessa", a l l being c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 13 g r e a t v a r i e t y i n the l e n g t h of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s . But although Pound f a i t h f u l l y f o l l o w e d a r i g i d scheme i n "To La Contessa B i a n z a f i o r , " i t i s amusing to n o t i c e t h a t even here he c o u l d n ' t r e s i s t g i v i n g the l i n e s some v a r i e t y . Hence, alt h o u g h the octave i n a l l f o u r sonnets f o l l o w s an i n d e n t i c a l rhyme (abbaabba), and s e c t i o n s I and IV have i d e n t i c a l rhymes i n the s e s t e t (cdeedc), the s e s t e t s i n s e c t i o n s I I and I I I v a r y from t h i s p a t t e r n ( i . e., cddccd; c d c e d e ) . S i m i l a r l y , Pound v a r i e s the l i n e a t i o n of the sonnets t o d i s g u i s e t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y , so t h a t whereas s e c t i o n I I I f o l l o w s the t r a d i t i o n a l arrangement of d i v i s i o n a f t e r the octave, s e c t i o n I d i v i d e s the l a s t l i n e i n t o two ("And l o l / A thousand s o u l s t o t h i n e are b r o u g h t " ) . S e c t i o n IV expands the f i r s t two l i n e s of the o ctave t o f o u r , as w e l l as i s o l a t i n g the l a s t l i n e of the octave between the two s e c t i o n s of the sonnet ("Ye mock the l i n e s . Pardon a poor f o o l ' s whim"). S e c t i o n I I then d i v i d e s i n t o two f o u r - l i n e stanzas and two more of t h r e e l i n e s each. By a l t e r i n g the u s u a l v i s u a l appearance of the sonnet i n these ways, Pound foreshadowed h i s l i f e - l o n g rendency to c a r e f u l l y d i s g u i s e h i s s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e s , and to adapt c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y methods to h i s own purposes. The c r i t i c a l treatment of h i s e a r l y poems as u n r e l a t e d fragments t e s t i f i e s t o the success of h i s d i s g u i s e s . 14 Another sonnet sequence we have access t o i s " L e v i o r a " , a sequence o f f o u r s o n n e t s — l i k e "To La Contessa B i a n z a f i o r " — t h r e e o f which Pound c u t from Canzoni a t the pro o f s t a g e s . In t h i s s e r i e s , l i k e the l a s t one, Pound f o l l o w s the abbaabba p a t t e r n i n each octave and v a r i e s the rhyme p a t t e r n i n the s e s t e t s . U n l i k e the sequence w r i t t e n t h r e e y ears e a r l i e r , however, " L e v i o r a " d i s c u s s e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s t r i c t requirements o f the sonnet form and the poet's need t o express h i m s e l f i n an o r i g i n a l f a s h i o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n , " A g a i n s t Form", laments the need t o speak through the sonnet form. To do so would be to abandon t r u t h f o r p r o p r i e t y : Whether my Lady w i l l t o hear o f me The unrhymed speech wherein the h e a r t i s heard, Or whether she p r e f e r the pefumed word And powdered cheek of masking i r o n y ? Decorous dance steps ape s i m p l i c i t y , The well-groomed sonnet i s t o t r u t h p r e f e r r e d ; L e t us be a l l t h i n g s so we're not absurd, Dabble w i t h forms and damn the v e r i t y . • • • And then t o have your fame f o r g e d doubly sure2 L e t t a s t e r u l e a l l and b i d the h e a r t be dumb. As soon as he wrote i t , Pound probably n o t i c e d t h a t t h i s sonnet s a c r i f i c e d " v e r i t y " t o form. At any r a t e , i n "Hie J a c e t " , the second sonnet, he d i s p a r a g e d h i m s e l f f o r having "Jammed our words w i t h i n the sonnet's rim." His 15 d i s c o m f o r t , w h i l e obvious, a t l e a s t shows t h a t he obeyed conv e n t i o n s b e f o r e he d i s c a r d e d them. In " L ' A r t , " however, the t h i r d sonnet o f the sequence and the o n l y one p u b l i s h e d i n Canzoni, Pound conceded t h a t master poets have been a b l e to t r e a t the same s u b j e c t i n w h o l l y o r i g i n a l ways. Horace, Shakespeare, S h e l l e y , and Keats have been a b l e to take a s i n g l e s u b j e c t and make i t new i n t u r n . Pound's c o n c l u s i o n from t h i s , " ' T i s A r t to hide our t h e f t e x q u i s i t e l y , " (C, 38) i m p l i e s t h a t genius can r e v i v i f y any f o r m — a c o n c l u s i o n which tempers h i s e a r l i e r c r i t i c i s m s . The f a c t t h a t the t h r e e o t h e r s e c t i o n s were d e l e t e d from Canzoni, however, abandoning the form, i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n h i s own experiments he was t u r n i n g away from the sonnet and toward the g r e a t e r scope of the canzone, as e a r l y as 1911. The sonnet was not the o n l y form of r e s t r i c t i o n from which Pound sought to break f r e e i n h i s a r t i n order to a c h i e v e t r u t h f u l n e s s . In the e a r l y poem o f some l e n g t h "Capilupus Sends G r e e t i n g s to Grotus," f o r i n s t a n c e , he gave p e r s o n a l g o a l s p r i o r i t y over c o n v e n t i o n a l rhymes and metres: I care no more f o r the tumble of an i c t u s 16 Or the t i n k l e of a rime' Than thou d o s t f o r the c o l o r Of the paper my b r i e f words Be p r i n t e d on, So to God's g l o r y they be s t r o n g , With a l l a man's good f e e l i n g And contempt of sneers. And know ye I w i l l not bend To rime yoke nor t o time yoke, Nor w i l l I bow to B a a l Nor weak c o n v e n t i o n That the c r a w l e r s t h i n k i s law. Know you t h a t I would Make my poem, as I would make myself From a l l the b e s t t h i n g s , o f a l l good men And g r e a t men t h a t go b e f o r e me. Yet above a l l be myself.(CEP,266) Pound's comparison of the c o n v e n t i o n a l use of metre and rhyme to bowing to a f a l s e god, shows t h a t h i s concept of v e r i t y i n a r t i n v o l v e d an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l stance toward and s e l e c t i o n from " a l l the b e s t t h i n g s , " " a l l the good men," i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e one's t r u e s e l f . H i s t e c h n i c a l i d i o s y n c r a c y i n l a t e r y e ars f i n d s i t s r o o t s here, i n the e q u a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n w i t h t r u t h f u l n e s s . Another of Pound's e a r l y u n p u b l i s h e d poems, "Alba," s i m i l a r l y defends f r e e e x p r e s s i o n . The t e n s i o n between the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the c o u p l e t s and the v a r i e t y of l i n e a t i o n supports Yeats' o b s e r v a t i o n about the young Pound: " i f he 17 w r i t e s rhyme l i k e an amateur he w r i t e s rhythm l i k e a 3 master." Oh why should I c h a i n them Free words and g l a d Into metre, i n t o rime Why make t h e i r joyous f e e t keep time To warden's c a l l And f e t t e r e d b a l l In l o c k - s t e p measure? What care you f o r p l o d d i n g f e e t Of d u l l hexametre, My Sweet? Why c o n f i n e your f l o w i n g h a i r In a sonnet's snood, My F a i r ? L e t winds make p l a y And r a i n k i s s s t r a y On your brow For I trow There i s enough of bondage now So t h a t we need not b i n d you, L i t t l e S i s t e r of the sun of dreams. The expanded f i n a l l i n e s u r p r i s i n g l y d e f i e s the r e s t r i c t i o n s on l e n g t h and the e x p e c t a t i o n s s e t up i n the r e s t o f the poem. I t s i n c l u s i v e n e s s e x e m p l i f i e s freedom from a l l forms of bondage. T h i s technique appears i n "Anima S o l a " as w e l l , where the f i n a l s tanza r e j e c t s the a l t e r n a t i o n o f th r e e and f o u r s t r e s s l i n e s s e t up e a r l i e r i n the poem: And l o ! I r e f u s e your b i d d i n g . I w i l l not bow to the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t ye have. Lo! I am gone as a r e d flame i n t o the m i s t , 18 My chord i s u n r e s o l v e d by your counter-harmonies. In both poems the i n c l u s i v e metre of the f i n a l l i n e serves to subsume a l l p r e c e d i n g i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s i n t o an o v e r a l l r e a l i t y , t o absorb d e t a i l s i n t o a s y n c r e t i c v i s i o n . T h i s i d e a of a f i n a l " r e s o l u t i o n " demonstrates Pound's p h i l o s o p h i c h o l i s m . The e p i g r a p h to "Anima S o l a " f u r t h e r expresses Pound's b i a s toward a concept of a g u i d i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e of the u n i v e r s e : "In the f i r m v e s s e l of harmony i s f i x e d God, a sphere, round, r e j o i c i n g i n complete s o l i t u d e " (ALS, 31) . Thus, a l t h o u g h the supreme i n t e l l i g e n c e appears as a sphere, symbolic of p e r f e c t i o n , i t s p e r f e c t harmonies are cosmic r a t h e r than human. Indeed, they may seem to human ears e i t h e r disharmonious, o or so s u b t l e as t o be n o n - e x i s t e n t : "My music i s your disharmony / I n t a n g i b l e , most mad." The p e r f e c t work o f a r t , s i m i l a r l y , may s u f f e r from the c r i t i c i s m t h a t i t i s e i t h e r disharmonious or so i n t e r n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d as to appear to conform to no r u l e s or o r g a n i z a t i o n . As we have seen, Pound was a l r e a d y w e l l on h i s way to r e j e c t i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n i n favour of l e s s t a n g i b l e s t r u c t u r i n g d e v i c e s , because these more n e a r l y approached h i s concept of the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e of the u n i v e r s e . The s t r u c t u r e of a r t was to m i r r o r the s t r u c t u r e 19 of r e a l i t y . "Pageantry," another e a r l y u n p u b l i s h e d poem of some l e n g t h , e l a b o r a t e d Pound's b e l i e f t h a t not o n l y must the a s p i r i n g poet f r e e h i m s e l f from c o n v e n t i o n a l modes, but a l s o express a l o v e f o r the d i v i n e element i n humanity. He must use p o e t r y to express h i s f a i t h i n the d i v i n e coherence of the u n i v e r s e , i n i t s e s s e n t i a l r i g h t n e s s : Spenser i n b r o i d e r e d v a i r Where i s thy s p i r i t , where Is the naked t r u t h That s t a n d e t h i n Browning's l i n e 'Thout ruth? Dante, amid the spheres Where i n the flow of years Thy f o l l o w i n g Who from the "olde French booke" Can take, as Chaucer took L i v e f o l k i n t r u e romance Where are the songs f o r dance Of P r o v e n c a l troubador? What f e l l o w here can . . . maketh moan For the measured song That the Greek c h o r i c throng R a i s e d unto marble d e i t i e s Neath the E l y s i a n t r e e s With robes of Cos and Chian wine T i l l man's s e l f grew d i v i n e A - p r a i s i n g Dion of the groves? 20 Where, men and b r o t h e r s , where Is t h e r e a wight w i t h w i t so r a r e That w i l l take l i f e ' s j o y t o the f u l l That w i l l make a song of h i s l i v i n g S p i t e the p r e f a c e o f prose That w i l l be t o God a joyous son , And t e a r the t h o r n from h i s r o s e . There i s no t r a c e here o f the " c u l t o f u g l i n e s s " which e n t e r s Pound's p o e t r y i n "Und Drang" (Canzoni) as he begins to d e a l w i t h modern s o c i e t y i n h i s work. Here the job of a r t i s simply t o c u l l the p a r a d i s a l garden, t o " t e a r the th o r n " from God's rose ( i . e . , man). T h i s a n t i - P r e s b y t e r i a n emphasis on man's e s s e n t i a l goodness does not emerge unchanged from Pound's desperate attempt t o make a l i v i n g by s e l l i n g h i s p o e t r y from 1911 onwards, but i t does remind us t h a t h o l i s m l i e s a t the core o f Pound's p o e t i c s . E s s e n t i a l l y , he saw the human s p i r i t as n u r t u r e d and p r o t e c t e d by the supreme i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the u n i v e r s e , a s p i r i n g as i n e v i t a b l y upwards to t h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e as a moth t o l i g h t , o r a flame t o the sky. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , Pound f e l t l i t t l e a f f i n i t y w i t h h i s contemporaries i n t h i s r e g a r d , nor w i t h h i s immediate l i t e r a r y p r e d e c e s s o r s , whose "poetry o f nerves" he 21 d i s m i s s e d i n " R e v o l t , A g a i n s t the C r e p u s c u l a r S p i r i t i n Modern Po e t r y " (Personae). He was more a t t r a c t e d to the Renaissance L a t i n i s t s , i n whose p o e t r y he admired not o n l y the f e e l i n g f o r n a t u r e , but a l s o the innocence and l a c k o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n found t h e r e . In the v e r y e a r l y essay, "M. Antonius F l a m i n i u s and JohnKeats," 5 he t r a n s l a t e d a passage from F l a m i n i u s which i s "not dead c l a s s i c i s m ; i t i s p a s t o r a l u n s p o i l e d by any sham beauty. He i s a l i v e t o the r e a l people as w e l l as t o the s p i r i t s o f the p o o l s and t r e e s " : Thus may the mother o f l o v e s be tender and g i v e thee youth f o r e v e r , Keeping the bloom of thy cheek unfurrowed. And a f t e r the day's l a s t meal, w i t h thy mother and sweet L y c i n n a , may'st thou v i s i t my mother, Pholoe b e l o v e d , And t o g e t h e r we w i l l watch by the g r e a t f i r e And t h a t n i g h t w i l l be more s h i n i n g than the f a i r n e s s o f the day, As the o l d wives r e t e l l t h e i r t a l e s we w i l l s i n g joyous songs, w h i l e l i t t l e L y c i n n a r o a s t s her c h e s t n u t s . Thus we w i l l b e g u i l e the n i g h t w i t h mellow m i r t h T i l l o v e r - c o v e r i n g s l e e p weight down our eye-l i d s . While l i t t l e L y c i n n a r o a s t i n g her c h e s t n u t s r e p r e s e n t s a d e f i n i t e accomplishment i n the p o r t r a y a l o f a r e a l person, and Pound's a d m i r a t i o n f o r her c o n v i n c e s , an urge to 2 2 s o p h i s t i c a t i o n a l s o appears i n the e a r l y Pound. His i n c r e a s i n g use of i r o n y and s a t i r e d u r i n g the l a t e 1910's t e s t i f i e d t o t h i s attempt t o a t t a i n s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Homage and Mauberley, but i t never e n t i r e l y d i s p l a c e d h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of innocence. Pound ends h i s essay on F l a m i n i u s w i t h a t r i b u t e t o the a b i l i t y o f the innoce n t h e a r t t o r e v e a l u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s : To Rome of golden L a t i n i t y the myths were s t a l e , a matter o f course, a b e l i e f b e g i n n i n g t o d i e . To the Renaissance they were a world of e l u s i v e beauty, new found (as i n C e l t i c myths i n our own day) and t h e i r wonder was dew-fresh upon them,.even as i t always i s to whoso t r u l y c a r e s t o f i n d i t . For M e t a s t a s i o was q u i t e r i g h t when he sang t h a t the Golden Age i s not a dead t h i n g , but s t i l l l i v i n g i n the h e a r t s o f the innoce n t . Pound quoted M e t a s t a s i o ' s c e l e b r a t i o n o f innocence, i n c r u c i a l l y important c o n t e x t s , over the next t h i r t y y e a r s . In "Prolegomena" (1912) , f o r i n s t a n c e , he l e d o f f one of h i s most extended d i s c u s s i o n s of the purpose of poetry w i t h t h i s comment: " M e t a s t a s i o , and he should know i f anyone," ass u r e s us t h a t t h i s age e n d u r e s — e v e n though the modern poet i s expected t o h a l l o a h i s v e r s e down a speaking tube to e d i t o r s of cheap m a g a z i n e s — . . . even though these t h i n g s be, the age of g o l d p e r t a i n s . Imperceivably, i f you l i k e , but p e r t a i n s . " As the e t e r n a l music i n "Anima S o l a " 23 seems i n t a n g i b l e , so the age of g o l d p e r t a i n s i m p e r c e i v a b l y ; p o e t r y p r e s e r v e s t h i s m a g i c a l v i s i o n o f d i v i n e grace and u l t i m a t e coherence. The f i r s t Ur-canto ( 1 9 1 7 ) p o i n t s to the e x i s t e n c e of gods, u s i n g Sirmione, as F l a m i n i u s had done, to exemplify not merely a p l a c e , but a s t a t e o f mind: Our o l i v e S i r m i o L i e s i n i t s b u r n i s h e d m i r r o r , and the Mounts Balde and R i v a Are a l i v e w i t h song, and a l l the l e a v e s are f u l l o f v o i c e s . "Non e f u g g i t o . " " I t i s not gone." M e t a s t a s i o Is r i g h t — w e have t h a t w o r l d about us, And the c l o u d s bow above the l a k e , and t h e r e are f o l k upon them . . . q How s h a l l we s t a r t hence, how b e g i n the p r o g r e s s ? H e r e — b e g i n n i n g h i s long-planned " l o n g poem"—Pound d e s c r i b e s Sirmione as the g o a l of "the p r o g r e s s . " From the b e g i n n i n g , the Cantos were c o n c e i v e d as a " p r o g r e s s " t h a t would l e a d man back to the p a r a d i s a l garden, the magic c i r c l e o f c e r t i t u d e and coherence. S i m i l a r l y , Pound chose to b e g i n XVI Cantos ( 1 9 2 5 ) w i t h a t r a n s l a t i o n from the o l d e s t p a r t of Homer's poem, the Nekuia: he began by r e t u r n i n g t o the l i t e r a r y source. A l s o , i n canto two he evoked a m y t h i c a l world: a r e t u r n t o the i m a g i n a t i v e 24 source. T h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e b i a s was p a r t of Pound's attempt t o r e c a p t u r e f o r h i s poem the s y n c r e t i c world v i s i o n o f the Renaissance and i t s f a i t h i n the coherence of the world. Hence, Pound agai n used M e t a s t a s i o ( i n Guide t o  Kulchur) to oppose the s k e p t i c i s m i n Johnson's "On the' V a n i t y of Human Wishes": "Taking i t by and l a r g e the poem i s buncombe. Human wishes are not v a i n i n the l e a s t . The t o t a l statement i s buncombe. The d e t a i l s acute and sagaciou s . M e t a s t a s i o knew more."(GK,180). The b r i e f n e s s of t h i s r e f e r e n c e has hidden i t s importance from Pound's c r i t i c s . I t c o n t a i n s a g r e a t d e a l o f u n - F a s c i s t i c t o l e r a n c e . The Ghero Anthology i n which Pound d i s c o v e r e d F l a m i n i u s i s c e l e b r a t e d i n another of Pound's e a r l y u n p u b l i s h e d poems, "On the F i n d i n g o f the C o l l e c t i o n of Ghero: Nigh an Hundred L o s t Poets of O l d Time T h e r e i n . " Here, as i n the essay, the L a t i n c l a s s i c i s t s o f the Renaissance are seen t o be i n p o s s e s s s i o n of a t r a d i t i o n o f e t e r n a l t r u t h s : C a p i l u p u s too was of you, was s i l e n t , T i l l h i s own s o u l found him, crowned him, bound him With new l a u r e l s p r o c l a i m e d him Master o f song, and named him "The poet of l o s t y e a r s . " Bowed 'neath times 25 o v e r - f l o o d B u r i e d i n tome-tomb o l d T i l l one who "understood" Flamed through the parchment's f o l d LO I AM THE RENAISSANCE. (YC) As "Pageantry" c e l e b r a t e d Dante, Spenser, Browning, Chaucer, and the tro u b a d o r s f o r t h e i r p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s , "Ghero" admired not o n l y the f a i t h o f the L a t i n w r i t e r s o f the Renaissance, but a l s o Ghero's accomplishment i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r w r i t i n g i n h i s anthology. Pound l a t e r admired C o n f u c i u s and the c o l l e c t o r o f the Noh p l a y s f o r the same reason, and compiled h i s own anthology, C o n f u c i u s to Cummings. While l i b e r a t i n g h i m s e l f from t e c h n i c a l c o n v e n t i o n s , Pound worked t o re-examine c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y i n se a r c h o f examples o f b u r i e d beauty. Respect f o r p a s t accomplishments i s another t r a i t f o r which Pound, as an i c o n o c l a s t , has not r e c e i v e d s u f f i c i e n t c r e d i t . The type of h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r Pound a p p r e c i a t e d can be seen i n another e a r l y poem of some l e n g t h , "Jacques C h a r d i n a l — o f the A l b i g e n s e s , " which p r e s e n t s the c u l t u r e o f the A l b i g e n s i a n s as a luminous d e t a i l , a peak of European c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . Here the doomed l e a d e r o f the A l b i g e n s i a n s defends the a b i l i t y o f A r t to s u r v i v e , to continue t o p r o t e c t t r u t h and beauty from the c o n s t a n t a s s a u l t s of a v i n d i c t i v e world: 26 the a r t s f a i l not w h i l e y e t our b l o o d s h a l l b i d the A r t s w i t h s t a y Hate and the c o l d and wrath wherewith the world would s l a y Beauty, t h a t b e i n g T r u t h doth a l l the world Accuse of a l l world's shame and w o r l d l y l i t t l e n e s s . So Triumph, t i l l the sun w i t h us S h a l l d i e f o r one l a s t time entombed i n g o l d . (CEP,245) M e t a s t a s i o ' s world, the magic c i r c l e , i s w i t h i n the reach o f those w i t h s u f f i c i e n t w i l l t o v i s i o n . The a r t i s t p r e s e r v e s T r u t h and Beauty by i n c o r p o r a t i n g them i n h i s song, p r o t e c t e d from the wrath o f "the world." T h i s concept o f o p p o s i t i o n between the a r t i s t and s o c i e t y , which l a t e r developed i n t o a s t a p l e of Pound's v e r s e , i s thus prepared f o r here. In the e a r l y u n p u b l i s h e d n a r r a t i v e poem "Old Chests: With Thanks t o L e i g h Hunt," the attempt to b u r s t the bands of technique and to p e n e t r a t e i n t o the e s s e n t i a l core o f t r u t h was subsumed under the attempt to r e v e a l the s o u l o f man: Nay t o be b r i e f and end i t a l l , . T h i s my mad s t r i v i n g t o b u r s t the bands of technique And p i e r c e t h ' e x p r e s s i o n t o the very t r u t h I'd show the h e a r t and b l o o d and not the c l o t h e s The k i n g and not h i s crown 27 The man's s o u l not h i s w a i s t c o a t . And i f I may not, a t l e a s t show Men the way to t r y . . . (YC) Such a p u r s u i t enobled p o e t r y f o r Pound, s i n c e i t concerned i t s e l f — a s d i d the supreme i n t e l l i g e n c e of the u n i v e r s e — w i t h e t e r n a l v a l u e s . T h i s b e l i e f g uided Pound's attempt t o w r i t e h i s long poem f o r the next s i x t e e n y e a r s . The e s s e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y which the young Pound encountered i n h i s attempt t o " a t l e a s t show/Men the way to t r y " t o p e n e t r a t e the t r u t h o f the cosmos, was t h a t as he grew he found h i s concept of the u n i v e r s e e n l a r g i n g . T h i s continuous d i s c o v e r y o f new i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r him to summarize h i s v i s i o n i n t o a s i n g l e coherent statement. H i s p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y was put most v i v i d l y i n the e a r l y , u n p u b l i s h e d , "To R.B." Though the " c r u s t o f dead E n g l i s h " s t i l l plagued h i s s t y l e , Pound s t a t e d h i s d i s c o v e r y i n Robert Browning of a shared v i s i o n of u n i v e r s a l coherence: Begin w i t h a d i f f e r e n t or a new i d e a and as we grow, f o l l o w i n g t h a t i d e a i n a l l i t s byways and branches, so we grow to comprehend i t but a p a r t o f some g r e a t e r thought t r e e , seen b e f o r e i n some o t h e r p a r t and not known by us to be the same. So my C a v a l c a n t i growing, j o i n s S o r d e l l o , S o r d e l l o whom my f a i n t u n d erstanding f a i l e d t o comprehend t i l l Guido stood ready f o r the 28 a c t i n g . Then l o o k i n g on the f r u i t s o f both these men For f r u i t i s the t r e e ' s token, Lo thou one branch, and I A s m a l l e r stem have broken, Both of one t r e e and i n q u a l i t y the same, thou show'st th'incomprehension's s e l f Being g r e a t e r and poet. . . . [40 l i n e s omitted] But I ramble as ever, Thought h a l f - c u t from next t h o u g h t — Two r a d i i i l l seen are b l u r r e d to one. And i n o'er g r e a t c o n f u s i o n The p r i e s t and l e v i t e p a s s i n g , See no r a d i i , as such, a t a l l ; Nor even guess the c i r c l e and i t s laws Or know a c e n t r e and t h a t l i v e s l e a d t h i t h e r . Or l i v i n g mid mixed l i n e s , Have no chance to hear The harmonies of thought God-leading. (YC) But Pound found h i s attempt to c r e a t e harmonies "of thought God-leading," to c r e a t e a magic c i r c l e i n h i s a r t , f r u s t r a t e d by h i s growth of understanding: "Two r a d i i i l l seen are b l u r r e d t o one." H i s d i f f i c u l t y r e v e a l e d i t s e l f through the two metaphors he chose to express coherence. On the one hand t h e r e i s the c i r c l e , p e r f e c t l y c e n t r e d by God, which r e f l e c t s i t s e l f i n the p e r f e c t work of a r t ; on the o t h e r , t h e r e i s the t r e e , which e x p l o r e d " i n a l l i t s • byways and branches" r e v e a l s i t s e l f but a p a r t "of some g r e a t e r thought t r e e , " and cannot f i n d i t s proper 29 e x p r e s s i o n i n a completed work of a r t . Pound d i d not y e t h o l d the b e l i e f t h a t s i n c e f o l l o w i n g the t r e e ' s byways and branches mimicks the mind's movement, a r t i s t i c k i n e s i s p r o v i d e s the b e s t way t o t r a c e the path of man's d i v i n e spark. B The C i r c l e I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the metaphor of the c i r c l e c h a r a c t e r i z e d Pound's comments about a r t d u r i n g the 1908-1915 p e r i o d . Dante's Commedia was the model Pound wanted to emulate i n h i s own long poem, and he compared i t s formal p e r f e c t i o n t o t h a t of the c i r c l e i n The S p i r i t of  Romance (1910). What i s more s u p r i s i n g i s the d e t a i l e d way i n which he compared i t s g e o m e t r i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s t o those of a mathematical e q u a t i o n . Pound cl a i m e d t h a t the f o u r l e v e l s o f meaning i n the poem ( i . e . , the l i t e r a l , the a l l e g o r i c a l , the a n a g o g i c a l , the e t h i c a l ) c o u l d be compared to the formula a 2 + b 2 = c 2 , which expresses: 1 s t . A s e r i e s of a b s t r a c t numbers i n a c e r t a i n 30 r e l a t i o n to each o t h e r . 2nd. A r e l a t i o n between c e r t a i n a b s t r a c t numbers. 3rd. The r e l a t i v e dimensions of a f i g u r e ; i n t h i s case a t r i a n g l e . 4th. The i d e a or i d e a l of a c i r c l e . Thus the Commedia i s , i n the l i t e r a l sense, a d e s c r i p t i o n of Dante's v i s i o n of a journey through the realms i n h a b i t e d by the s p i r i t s o f men a f t e r death; i n a f u r t h e r sense, i t i s the journey of Dante's i n t e l l i g e n c e through the s t a t e s of mind wherein d w e l l a l l s o r t s and c o n d i t i o n s of men b e f o r e death; beyond t h i s , Dante or Dante's i n t e l l i g e n c e may come to mean "Everyman" or "Mankind," whereas h i s journey becomes a symbol o f mankind's s t r u g g l e upward out of ignorance i n t o the c l e a r l i g h t o f p h i l o s o p h y . . . In a f o u r t h sense, the Commedia i s an e x p r e s s i o n of the laws o f e t e r n a l j u s t i c e ; " i l c o n t r a p a s s o , " the counterpass, as B e r t r a n c a l l s i t or the law of Karma, i f we are to use an O r i e n t a l term. Every g r e a t work of a r t owes i t s g r e a t n e s s to some such c o m p l e x i t y . (SR, 127-28). A r t becomes as e x p l i c a b l e as a mathematical formula f o r the c i r c l e . S i m i l a r l y , two years l a t e r , i n "The Wisdom o f Poetry"(1912), Pound made an extended comparison between what "the a n a l y t i c a l geometer does f o r space and time" and what "the poet does f o r the s t a t e s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s " : By ( a - r ) 2 + ( b - r ) 2 = ( c - r ) 2 , I imply the c i r c l e and i t s mode of b i r t h . I am l e d from the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r c i r c l e s formed by my i n k - w e l l and my t a b l e - r i m , to the contemplation of the c i r c l e a b s o l u t e , i t s law; the c i r c l e f r e e i n a l l space, unbounded, l o o s e d from the a c c i d e n t s of time and p l a c e . I s the formula n o t h i n g , or i s i t c a b a l a and the s i g n of u n i n t e l l i g i b l e magic? The engineer, understanding and t r a n s l a t i n g t o the many, b u i l d s f o r the u n i n i t i a t e d b r i d g e s and d e v i c e s . He speaks t h e i r language. For the i n i t i a t e d the s i g n s are a door i n t o e t e r n i t y and 31 the boundless e t h e r . As the a b s t r a c t mathematician i s to s c i e n c e so i s the poet to the world's consciousness. N e i t h e r has d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the many, n e i t h e r of them i s superhuman or a r r i v e s a t h i s u t i l i t y through o c c u l t and i n e x p l i c a b l e ways. Both are s c i e n t i f i c a l l y demonstrable. (SP,332). The poet seeks to c r e a t e a b s o l u t e equations i n h i s a r t , t o c r e a t e a "magic c i r c l e , " but he does so i n s c i e n t i f i c a l l y demonstrable ways, and h i s work may have p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s , l i k e a road or a b r i d g e ; hence, Pound went on to compare the poet's f u n c t i o n to t h a t of two mathematicians whose a b s t r a c t computations, undertaken " f o r no cause other than t h e i r p l e a s u r e i n the work" l e d to the w i r e l e s s t e l e g r a p h . And two years l a t e r , Pound p u b l i s h e d " V o r t i c i s m " i n the F o r t n i g h t l y Review (September 1914), u s i n g the formula f o r the c i r c l e developed e a r l i e r t o e x p l a i n the k i n d of dynamism i m p l i e d by " v o r t i c i s m . " Using the idiom of a n a l y t i c a l geometry, Pound says, "one i s a b l e a c t u a l l y to  c r e a t e " : The equation ( x - a ) 2 + ( y - b ) 2 = r 2 governs the c i r c l e . I t i s the c i r c l e . I t i s not a p a r t i c u l a r c i r c l e , i t i s any c i r c l e and a l l c i r c l e s . I t i s nothing t h a t i s not a c i r c l e . I t i s the c i r c l e f r e e of space and time l i m i t s . I t i s the u n i v e r s a l , e x i s t i n g 32 i n p e r f e c t i o n , i n freedom from space and time . . . . I t i s i n t h i s way t h a t a r t handles l i f e . The d i f f e r e n c e between a r t and a n a l y t i c a l geometry i s the d i f f e r e n c e o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o n l y . A r t i s more i n t e r e s t i n g i n p r o p o r t i o n as l i f e and the human co n s c i o u s n e s s are more complex and i n t e r e s t i n g than form and numbers . . . . Great works of a r t c o n t a i n t h i s . . . s o r t of e q u a t i o n . They cause form t o come i n t o b e i n g . By the "image" I mean such an eq u a t i o n ; not an eq u a t i o n o f mathematics, not something about a, b, and c, having something to do w i t h form, but about sea, c l i f f s , n i g h t , having something t o do w i t h mood. The image i s not an i d e a . I t i s a r a d i a n t node, or c l u s t e r ; i t i s what I can, and must p e r f o r c e , c a l l a VORTEX, from which, and through which, and i n t o which, i d e a s are c o n s t a n t l y r u s h i n g . That i s , the formula f o r the c i r c l e p r o v i d e s an analogy f o r a dynamic complexity i n a r t , a v i t a l i t y s p r i n g i n g out of the a r t i s t ' s a b i l i t y t o condense l i f e and "the human co n s c i o u s n e s s " i n t o an a r t i s t i c v o r t e x . Even from t h i s b r i e f s k e t c h of Pound's use of the e q u a t i o n f o r the c i r c l e , we can see h i s thoughts about i t e v o l v i n g . That i s , Pound's concept of a r t i s t i c p e r f e c t i o n changed d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d ; i t became an important duty of a r t to r e p r e s e n t the v i t a l i t y of " l i f e and the human co n s c i o u s n e s s " r a t h e r than to r e f l e c t the p e r f e c t formal u n i t y o f the cosmos. Not o n l y Pound's concept o f a r t , but h i s concept o f the u n i v e r s e had begun t o s h i f t i n emphasis 33 from s t a s i s to k i n e s i s . But p r i o r to 1914, Pound was l e s s a t t r a c t e d to Browning's view of s h i f t i n g r e a l i t i e s o f the u n i v e r s e i n S o r d e l l o than t o Dante's v i s i o n of i t s f o r m a l p e r f e c t i o n i n the Commedia. In h i s e a r l i e s t p r o j e c t i o n s o f the shape of h i s long poem, composed around 1904, he planned to develop i t i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s , each w i t h i t s own metre and i t s own mood: the f i r s t i n t e r z i n e , having to do w i t h emotion, . . the second i n pentameters, having t o do w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n ; the t h i r d i n hexameters, having to do w i t h contemplation.^''" He g r a d u a l l y dropped such r i g i d g u i d e l i n e s , and such a formal c o r r e l a t i o n between technique and manner o f treatment, but the f a c t t h a t he should have even s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d i t i s a s t o n i s h i n g when one l o o k s a t the unprogrammatic form of the Cantos. However, as l a t e as 1911 we can f i n d o t h e r evidence of h i s i n t e r e s t i n h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d works i n " R e d o n d i l l a s , or Something of That S o r t , " where he c i t e s the E t h i c s of Baruch Spinoza. He mentions Spinoza o n l y i n p a s s i n g w i t h i n the t e x t of the poem, but i n c l u d e s t h r e e q u o t a t i o n s from h i s work i n the appended notes, which p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t to Pound's thought a t t h i s time: 34 "The more p e r f e c t i o n a t h i n g possesses the more i t a c t s , and the l e s s i t s u f f e r s , and c o n v e r s e l y the more i t a c t s , the more p e r f e c t i t i s . " "When the mind contemplates i t s e l f and i t s power o f a c t i n g , i t r e j o i c e s , and i t r e j o i c e s i n p r o p o r t i o n to the d i s t i n c t n e s s w i t h which i t imagines i t s e l f and i t s power of a c t i o n . " And another passage . . . where he d e f i n e s "The i n t e l l e c t u a l l o v e " o f a n y t h i n g as "The u n derstanding of i t s p e r f e c t i o n s . " O b v i o u s l y , Pound had read the E t h i c s w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t . . The f i r s t q u o t a t i o n equates p e r f e c t i o n w i t h c r e a t i v e energy, the second equates joy w i t h the d i s t i n c t n e s s of mental v i s i o n (foreshadowing Imagisme), the t h i r d equates l o v e w i t h c r e a t i v e a n a l y s i s . I t i s not necessary to l a b o u r ' the p o i n t of how p r e c i s e l y these s e l e c t i o n s r e f l e c t e d Pound's a t t i t u d e to a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d to the n e c e s s i t y to add d e t a i l e d knowledge to i n s p i r a t i o n . He never v a l u e d a r t i s t i c s e r e n d i p i t y : e.g., "Here e r r o r i s a l l i n the not d o n e , / a l l i n the d i f f i d e n c e t h a t f a l t e r e d " (canto 81). Though h i s own mind jumped a b o u t — s e l e c t i v e l y — h e g r e a t l y admired works of the o p p o s i t e k i n d : cogent, s e q u e n t i a l , c a r e f u l l y reasoned. The occurrence of these c i t a t i o n s i n " R e d o n d i l l a s " does seem completely out of p l a c e , however, s i n c e i t 35 rambles from one thought to the next, whereas Spinoza's E t h i c s obeys r i g i d s t r u c t u r a l g u i d e l i n e s s e t out w i t h mathematical p r e c i s i o n , so t h a t i n i t i a l axioms are f o l l o w e d by p o s t u l a t e s , p r o o f s , e t c . Pound's a t t r a c t i o n to the book can be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t Spinoza, l i k e Dante, attempted a " s y n t h e s i s of the whole of r e a l i t y " i n h i s work, p r e c e i v e d the cosmos as Pure A c t , and man as moving through t h i s u n i f y i n g p a t t e r n guided toward harmony by the e n l i g h t e n i n g power of d i v i n e reason. As T.S. Gregory puts i t , Spinoza c o n c e i v e d of God as a verb, r a t h e r than a noun: Whereas i n common speech, the word God ranks as a noun so t h a t t h e o l o g i a n s w i l l make Him the s u b j e c t or o b j e c t of q u i t e o r d i n a r y p r e d i c a t e s w i t h a s t o n i s h i n g f a c i l i t y , S pinoza t h i n k s of God r a t h e r as a verb and of a l l e x i s t e n t t h i n g s a modes of t h i s a c t i v i t y . The world i s not a c o l l e c t i o n of t h i n g s , but a c o n f l a g r a t i o n of A c t whose innumberable flames are but one f i r e . Pound shared t h i s s y n c r e t i c v i s i o n of the cosmos as i n t e r a c t i n g f o r c e s , as shown i n h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r F e n o l l o s a ' s The Chinese W r i t t e n C h a r a c t e r as a Medium f o r  Poetry, which c e l e b r a t e s a c t i v e verbs as the key to u n d erstanding n a t u r a l p r o c e s s e s . S i n c e f o r Pound, too, the u n i v e r s e c o n s i s t e d of i n t e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i e s r a t h e r than " t h i n g s , " h i s concept of stone a l i v e , t r e e a l i v e , mind a l i v e , harmonized w i t h the thought of both F e n o l l o s a and 36 Spinoza. T h i s b r i e f review of some correspondence of thought between Pound and Spinoza makes i t e a s i e r t o understand why he o f f e r e d the p h i l o s o p h e r as a"world p r e s c r i p t i o n " f o r the 1910's i n " R e d o n d i l l a s " : I f you ask me to w r i t e world p r e s c r i p t i o n s I w r i t e so t h a t any may read i t : A l i t t l e l e s s P a ul V e r l a i n e , A good sound stave of Spinoza, A l i t t l e l e s s of our nerves A l i t t l e more w i l l toward v i s i o n (CEP,218-19) Pound's r e f e r e n c e t o a good sound " s t a v e " emphasized the music, the harmony, he heard through the mathematical s t r u c t u r e o f the E t h i c s . But more than t h i s , he chose to recommend Spinoza r a t h e r than D e s c a r t e s , f o r example, because he p r o v i d e d an example of 'a mind capable o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a s y n t h e s i s o f r e a l i t y — r a t h e r than an a n a l y s i s . As we have seen i n "To R.B.," Pound a s p i r e d t o a c h i e v e a s i m i l a r s y n t h e s i s i n h i s long poem, while a d m i t t i n g h i s c u r r e n t i n a b i l i t y to do so: "I ramble as ever,/thought h a l f - c u t from next thought—/Two r a d i i i l l seen are b l u r r e d to one." By 1912 Pound had i s o l a t e d a f u r t h e r aspect of 37 Spinoza's thought, t h a t of the n e c e s s i t y t o f r e e the i n t e l l e c t from s e t i d e a s and c o n v e n t i o n s . Pound r e l a t e d t h i s concept t o a r t ' s f u n c t i o n : P o e t r y , as regards i t s f u n c t i o n o r purpose, has the common purpose of the a r t s , which purpose Dante most c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s i n the l i n e where he speaks o f : "That melody which most doth draw The s o u l unto i t s e l f . " Borrowing a terminology from Spinoza, we might say: The f u n c t i o n o f an a r t i s t o f r e e the i n t e l l e c t from the tyranny o f the a f f e c t s . . . to st r e n g t h e n the p e r c e p t i v e f a c u l t i e s and f r e e them from i d e a s , c o n v e n t i o n s ; from the r e s u l t s o f ex p e r i e n c e which i s common but unnecessary, e x p e r i e n c e induced by the s t u p i d i t y o f the e x p e r i e n c e r and not by the i n e v i t a b l e laws o f nature . . . Poe t r y i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the o t h e r a r t s i n t h i s main purpose, t h a t i s , o f l i b e r a t i o n ; i t d i f f e r s from them i n i t s media. (SP,330) S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Pound t i t l e d t h i s essay "The Wisdom of Poetry," t o emphasize the bond i n h i s mind between a r t and i d e a t a . " A work of a r t need not c o n t a i n any statement o f . p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n v i c t i o n , " he says i n P a t r i a Mia 14 (1913), "but i t n e a r l y always i m p l i e s one." A poem n e c e s s a r i l y appeals t o both i n t e l l e c t and emotions. Thus, having d e f i n e d words as the poet's " e s s e n t i a l s to thought," he goes on to say t h a t the A r t of Poetry c o n s i s t s i n combining these 38 " e s s e n t i a l s t o thought" . . . w i t h t h a t melody of words which s h a l l most draw the emotions of the hearer toward a c c o r d w i t h t h e i r import, and w i t h t h a t "form" which s h a l l most d e l i g h t the i n t e l l e c t . By "melody" I mean v a r i a t i o n of sound q u a l i t y , m i n g l i n g w i t h a v a r i a t i o n of s t r e s s . By "form" I mean the arrangement of the v e r s e , s i c i n t o b a l l a d e s , c a n z o n i , and the l i k e symmetrical forms, or i n t o blank v e r s e or i n t o f r e e v e r s e , where presumably, the nature of the t h i n g expressed or of the person supposed to be e x p r e s s i n g i t , i s a n t a g o n i s t i c t o e x t e r n a l symmetry. Form may d e l i g h t by i t s symmetry or by i t s aptness. (SP,330) When the poet a c h i e v e s an emotional c o r r e l a t i o n between the melody of h i s p o e t r y and i t s s u b j e c t , and an i n t e l l e c t u a l c o r r e l a t i o n between the form of h i s poem and i t s s u b j e c t , h i s a r t mimics the u n i v e r s a l harmony and possesses an i n t e r i o r harmony which r e f l e c t s man's i n n a t e p e r c e p t i o n of d i v i n e o r d e r w i t h i n the cosmos. The key element i n t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s Pound's comment t h a t form may d e l i g h t by i t s symmetry or by i t s "aptness". . H i s p r e v i o u s comments on form had s t r e s s e d the need f o r symmetry i n a r t ; indeed, Canzoni c o n t a i n s experiments i n dozens of symmetrical forms emphasizing h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to put h i s t h e o r i e s i n t o p r a c t i c e . However, he had a l s o experimented i n e a r l y volumes wi t h form which d e l i g h t s by i t s aptness, as i n "La F r a i s n e " where i t would be hard to argue t h a t these d i s r u p t e d l i n e s f a i l to express M i r a u l t ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e a c c u r a t e l y : 3 9 Once t h e r e was a woman . . . . . . but I f o r g e t . . she was . . . . . . I hope she w i l l not come a g a i n . (ALS, 16) C l e a r l y , the use of a symmetrical form i n these l i n e s would be a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the nature of M i r a u l t ' s keen sense of l o s s . "La F r a i s n e " shapes f o r c e s i n t o i n t e l l i g i b l e p a t t e r n s which, though d i f f e r e n t from those of a canzone, are e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . The p a t t e r n s resemble those of the human mind s e t f r e e from c o n v e n t i o n r a t h e r than the symmetry and o r d e r of the cosmos. The most s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d i n Pound's p o e t r y from 1904 to 1912 i s h i s abandonment of symmetrical forms which r e f l e c t h i s e a r l i e s t n o t i o n s o f the o r d e r of the cosmos, i n favour of a s s y m e t r i c a l forms which attempt t o r e f l e c t a l e s s s t y l i z e d n o t i o n o f cosmic harmony. He moves away from Dante's Commedia and toward Browning's S o r d e l l o as a model. A t the same time, he can be seen moving away from a n o t i o n of a r t as a magic c i r c l e or sphere which o r b i t s i n s p l e n d i d i s o l a t i o n from the human world, and toward the concept of the u n i v e r s e as the g r e a t t r e e Y g g d r a s i l , which can never be known i n i t s e n t i r e t y , and so must be r e f l e c t e d i n an a r t t h a t f o l l o w s the human mind as i t searches t o extend i t s u nderstanding of u n i v e r s a l coherence. While t h i s movement away from a s t y l i z e d view of the u n i v e r s e and of 40 a r t was not completed u n t i l 1921, i t was w e l l underway by 1912. Hence i n " R e d o n d i l l a s " he complained of the deadly boredom i n s t i l l e d by p r e d i c t a b l e , c o n v e n t i o n a l metre i n a lo n g poem: "0 V i r g i l , from your green e l y s i u m / see how t h a t d a c t y l stubs h i s weary t o e s " . (CEP,220) The u l t i m a t e purpose o f a r t remained c o n s t a n t f o r Pound throughout t h i s development, however: To draw the human mind i n t o harmony w i t h God, o r as he l a t e r termed i t , the supreme i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the u n i v e r s e . Thus, i n Guide  to K u l c h u r (1938) he says t h a t "the worship o f the supreme i n t e l l i g e n c e of the u n i v e r s e i s n e i t h e r an inhuman nor b i g o t e d a c t i o n " , and goes on to d i s c u s s the r e l a t i o n o f a r t to t h i s a b s o l u t e : A r t i s , r e l i g i o u s l y , an emphasis, a s e g r e g a t i o n o f some component of t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e f o r the sake of making i t more p e r c e p t i b l e . The work of a r t ( r e l i g i o u s l y ) i s a door or a l i f t p e r m i t t i n g a man to e n t e r , or h o i s t i n g him m e n t a l l y i n t o , a zone of a c t i v i t y , and out of fugg and i n e r t i a . • (GK,189-90) Here, u n l i k e h i s e a r l i e s t statements, Pound c o n s i d e r s a r t to d e a l w i t h some component of the supreme i n t e l l i g e n c e of the u n i v e r s e , not w i t h i t s e n t i r e t y . A r t s e l e c t s , segregates, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h i s governing, 41 o r g a n i c i n t e l l i g e n c e t o make i t more p e r c e p t i b l e . When the a r t i s t succeeds, he i s l i f t e d i n t o a zone of a c t i v i t y - not i n t o a s t a t i c p a r a d i s e , but i n t o a s t a t e of boundless energy. T h i s dynamic s t a t e of mind " i s p a r a d i s i c a l and a reward i n i t s e l f . . . perhaps because a f e e l i n g o f c e r t i t u d e i n h e r e s i n the s t a t e of f e e l i n g i t s e l f . The g l o r y of l i f e e x i s t s w i thout f u r t h e r p r o o f " . (GK, 223-24). In t h i s c h apter we have examined Pound's th e o r y of a r t , i n terms of the themes and t e c h n i q u e s of h i s e a r l y p o e t r y and c r i t i c i s m and have found t h a t he v a c i l l a t e d between the examples of Dante and Browning i n h i s search f o r a form f o r h i s long poem, between k i n e s i s and s t a s i s . In G audier-Brzeska, he s a i d t h a t h i s bust by Gaudier was most s t r i k i n g two weeks b e f o r e i t was f i n i s h e d : " I t was perhaps a k i n e s i s , whereas i t i s now a s t a s i s " ; i t had a t i t a n i c energy: "I do not mean t h a t he was wrong to go on w i t h i t . Great a r t i s perhaps a s t a s i s . The u n f i n i s h e d stone caught the eye. Maybe i t would have wearied i t " . (GB,104). Pound had a r e l i g i o u s a d m i r a t i o n f o r both kinds of g r e a t a r t , which he never e n t i r e l y r e l i n q u i s h e d , but although he was s u f f u s e d w i t h a d m i r a t i o n f o r Dante's achievement, he came to r e a l i z e t h a t h i s own genius was fundamentally k i n e t i c . Hence the w i s t f u l n e s s w i t h which he looked back on h i s e a r l y theory of a b s o l u t e rhythm i n 1921, 42 when about t o abandon h i s a l l e g i a n c e t o h i s c h e r i s h e d m e t a p h y s i c a l a b s o l u t e s , as demonstrated i n h i s e a r l i e s t p o e t r y and c r i t i c i s m : Perhaps every a r t i s t a t one time or another b e l i e v e s i n a s o r t o f e l i x i r o r p h i l o s o p h e r ' s tone produced by the sheer p e r f e c t i o n of h i s a r t ; by the a l c h e m i c a l s u b l i m a t i o n of h i s medium; the e l i m i n a t i o n o f a c c i d e n t a l s and i m p e r f e c t i o n s . (LE,442) 43 I I ARCHITECTONICS Pound's t e c h n i c a l c h o i c e s r e f l e c t e d h i s n o t i o n of the moral f u n c t i o n of the poet. T h i s c hapter s e t s f o r t h those a r c h i t e c t o n i c p r i n c i p l e s i n Pound's e a r l y work which i l l u s t r a t e the p h i l o s o p h y u n d e r l y i n g h i s c o n s t a n t attempt t o w r i t e a l o n g poem and which p o i n t toward the method of XVI Cantos. Pound s e t out to w r i t e a long poem from 1904, and to model h i s e f f o r t on the most sublime of p h i l o s o p h i c e p i c s : "The f i r s t t h i n g was t h i s : You had s i x c e n t u r i e s t h a t hadn't been packaged. I t was a q u e s t i o n of d e a l i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l t h a t wasn't i n the D i v i n i a Commedia".^ Between 1902 and 1911 he wrote dozens of u n p u b l i s h e d poems, among them many of up to one hundred l i n e s - some of which have been quoted from i n Chapter One. Unpublished l e t t e r s w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d show t h a t he thought of h i s volumes of p o e t r y as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of a s y n c r e t i c v i s i o n , u n i f i e d by a coherent a e s t h e t i c p h i l o s o p h y . Both l o n g poems and l e t t e r s a t t e s t to h i s e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n major form. H i s a r t r e f l e c t e d , t h e r e f o r e , from i t s i n c e p t i o n , a 44 concern to p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n s . As s t r e s s e d i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h i s a e s t h e t i c b i a s stemmed from a h o l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y t h a t viewed i n c l u s i v e n e s s as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c r e a t i v e mind i n s e arch of knowlege, beauty, wisdom. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e r e f o r e , Pound most admired those poets who have g i v e n to the v a r i e t y of human experi e n c e a s i m i l a r coherence. In h i s essay "On V i r t u e " (1911) , he l i s t e d f o u r poets " i n e s p e c i a l v i r t u o u s " , who " r e p r e s e n t f o u r d i s t i n c t phases of c o n s c i o u s n e s s " : Homer of the Odyssey, a man c o n s c i o u s of the world o u t s i d e him . . . Dante, i n the D i v i n i a Commedia, man c o n s c i o u s of the world w i t h i n him; Chaucer, man c o n s c i o u s of the v a r i e t y of persons about him, not so much of t h e i r a c t s and the o u t l i n e s o f t h e i r a c t s as of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r , t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . . . Shakespeare, man c o n s c i o u s of h i m s e l f i n the world about him . . . (CP, 29-30) The c o n n e c t i o n Pound makes between v i r t u e and these major attempts to p r e s e n t human consciousness prepares us to d i s c e r n a r e l i g i o u s m o t i v a t i o n behind h i s l a s t i n g attempt to w r i t e a long poem. R e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e toward the w r i t i n g of a long poem c o n t r i b u t e s g r e a t l y to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the Cantos. 45 A The C y c l e of Noh P l a y s To i l l u s t r a t e the nature and importance of t h i s r e l i g i o u s element to Pound we can u s e f u l l y c o n s i d e r the b a s i s of a formal c o n n e c t i o n Pound sees between t h r e e works: The Commedia, a c y c l e of mystery p l a y s , and a c y c l e of Noh p l a y s . A h o l i s t i c v i s i o n based on a r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e t o l i f e u n i f i e s each of these e n t i t i e s . The f i r s t h i n t of the importance of t h i s element i n major works of a r t comes as a throw-away d u r i n g Pound's summation of the importance of the Commedia i n The S p i r i t o f Romance (1910). The D i v i n i a Commedia must not be c o n s i d e r e d as an e p i c ; to compare i t w i t h e p i c poems i s u s u a l l y u n p r o f i t a b l e . I t i s i n a sense l y r i c , the tremendous l y r i c o f the s u b j e c t i v e Dante . . . The Commedia i s , i n f a c t , a g r e a t mystery p l a y , or b e t t e r , a c y c l e of mystery p l a y s . (SR, 153-54) Pound p i c k e d up on the c e n t r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l i g i o u s element i n these mystery p l a y s f o r major works of a r t w h i l e e d i t i n g Japanese Noh p l a y s f i v e years l a t e r , i n 1915, when he p o i n t e d out t h a t the p l a y s of the Greek d r a m a t i s t s , Shakespeare, and the w r i t e r s of Noh drama, each had "an independent growth from m i r a c l e p l a y s — t h e f i r s t 46 from the p l a y s o f the worship of Bacchus, the second from the p l a y s o f the worship of C h r i s t , the t h i r d from the 2 p l a y s o f the worship of S h i n t o d e i t i e s and of Buddha". Here, Pound p o i n t s t o a r e l i g i o u s component i n each c u l t u r e which p r o v i d e d a common b a s i s f o r works otherwise and t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be s e p a r a t e . The o v e r a l l coherence which he noted i n the major works of Homer, Dante, Chaucer, and Shakespeare, i n 1911, are by 1915 found to be p r e s e n t as w e l l i n the i n d i v i d u a l works of the Greek d r a m a t i s t s and the w r i t e r s o f Noh. Pound's c r i t i c a l eye was h a b i t u a l l y s y n c r e t i c : h i s c r e a t i v e eye l i k e w i s e . His d e t a i l e d comments on the undetected p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y which binds t o g e t h e r the c y c l e o f Noh p l a y s a l e r t us to the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s i m i l a r element i n h i s own e a r l y work. Even s c h o l a r s of the Noh t h e a t r e , Pound s a i d , have been b l i n d t o a r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e which u n i f i e s and binds t o g e t h e r i n d i v i d u a l Noh p l a y s . They have not understood the f u n c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l p l a y s i n the performance and have thought them fragmentary, or have complained of t h e i r i m p e r f e c t s t r u c t u r e . The Noh p l a y s are o f t e n q u i t e complete i n themselves; c e r t a i n p l a y s are detachable u n i t s , comprehensible as s i n g l e performances, and without a n n o t a t i o n o r comment. Yet even these can be used as p a r t o f the Ban-gumi, the f u l l Noh programme. C e r t a i n o t h e r p l a y s are o n l y "formed and i n t e l l i g i b l e when c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f such a s e r i e s o f p l a y s . Again, the t e x t s or l i b r e t t i o f c e r t a i n o t h e r p l a y s , r e a l l y 47 complete i n themselves, seem to us u n f i n i s h e d , because t h e i r f i n a l scene depends more upon the dance than on the words. (CNPJ, 6) Perhaps Pound's comments on the f i n a l scene depending on a dance f o r completion connect w i t h the sheet of paper he handed Hugh Kenner on the lawn of S t . E l i z a b e t h ' s , " b e a r i n g 3 s i x t e e n idograms, ' f o r the l a s t canto". At any r a t e , Pound's i n t e r e s t here i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t i c u n i t s and major form i s c l e a r l y r e l e v a n t t o the s t r u c t u r e of the Cantos. Most important t o our d i s c u s s i o n of Pound's development of major form, however, i s the u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e behind the Noh c y c l e of p l a y s , or "Ban-gumi". Speaking of the p r i n c i p l e , Pound notes t h a t t r a d i t i o n d i c t a t e s t h a t s p e c i f i c k inds of p l a y s be arranged i n a s e t o r d e r , t o achieve a d e f i n i t e response from the audience. Remembering t h a t the Noh " t r a d i t i o n " a r i s e s from the "plays of the worship of the S h i n t o d e i t i e s and of Buddha", we w i l l d i s c e r n a s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s element i n t h i s arrangement, which Pound s e t s f o r t h by q u o t i n g from the " s e c r e t book of Noh".. A "Shugan" must come f i r s t . And Shugen, or 48 c o n t r a t u l a t o r y p i e c e s , are l i m i t e d to Noh of the Gods (that i s , t o p i e c e s connected w i t h some r e l i g i o u s r i t e ) , because t h i s c ountry of the r i s i n g sun i s the country of the gods . . . In p r a i s e of them we perform f i r s t t h i s Kami-No. The Shura, or b a t t l e - p i e c e , comes second . . . to .defeat and put out the d e v i l s we perform the Shura. (That i s to say i t i s sympathetic magic). Kazura, or Onna-mono . . . come t h i r d . Many t h i n k t h a t any Kazura w i l l do, ' but i t must be a "female Kazura", f o r a f t e r b a t t l e comes peace, or Yu-gen, mysterious calm, and i n time of peace the cases of love come to pass. Moreover, the b a t t l e - p i e c e s are l i m i t e d to men; so we now have the female p i e c e i n c o n t r a s t l i k e i n s i c and yo . . . The f o u r t h p i e c e i s Oni-No, or the Noh of s p i r i t s . A f t e r b a t t l e comes peace and g l o r y , but they soon d e p a r t i n t h e i r t u r n . The g l o r i e s and p l e a s u r e s of man are not r e l i a b l e a t a l l . . . Here are shown the s t r u g g l e s and the s i n s of m o r t a l s , and the audience, even w h i l e they s i t f o r p l e a s u r e , w i l l b e gin to t h i n k about Buddha and the coming world . . . F i f t h comes a p i e c e which has some b e a r i n g upon the moral d u t i e s of man . . . T h i s f i f t h p i e c e teaches the d u t i e s of man here i n t h i s world as the f o u r t h p i e c e r e p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of c a r e l e s s n e s s i n such d u t i e s . S i x t h comes another Shugen or c o n g r a t u l a t o r y p i e c e , as c o n c l u s i o n to the whole performance, to c o n g r a t u l a t e and c a l l down b l e s s i n g on the l o r d s p r e s e n t , the a c t o r s themselves, and the p l a c e . To show t h a t though the s p r i n g may pass, s t i l l t h e r e i s a time of i t s r e t u r n , t h i s Shugan i s put in^ a g a i n j u s t as a t the b e g i n n i n g . (CNPJ, 9-11) Such a c y c l i c a l s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s a coherent v i s i o n of l i f e . The "Ban-gumi" begins and ends w i t h a p l a y i n p r a i s e of the gods, the "Shugen", i n order to c a l l down b l e s s i n g 49 both on those p r e s e n t "and the P l a c e " . XVI Cantos possesses a s i m i l a r c y c l i c a l s t r u c t u r e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h Odysseus r e t u r n i n g from one war and ending w i t h the commencement of another. I t would be dangerous to pr e s s p a r a l l e l s too f a r , but p r a i s e of the gods (canto two) , b a t t l e - p i e c e s ( M a l a t e s t a versus Pope P i u s I I ) , peace a f t e r b a t t l e (Aphrodite's emergence a t the end of canto one), the t r a n s i e n c e of l i f e (canto f i v e ) , and emphasis on the moral d u t i e s o f man (Confucius i n canto t h i r t e e n ) , are a l l elements common to XVI Cantos and those l i s t e d i n "the s e c r e t book of Noh". Pound's elements are not ord e r e d as simply as those of the "Ban-gumi", but i t c o u l d be argued t h a t t h e i r r h y t h m i c a l arrangement has the m e r i t of c a t c h i n g the f l u x o f l i f e i n a l e s s " l i t e r a r y " f a s h i o n . As demonstrated i n Chapter S i x , the attempt to a v o i d a l l c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y a r t i f i c e p r o v i d e d the major breakthrough whereby Pound a r r i v e d a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y k i n e t i c s t r u c t u r e o f XVI Cantos, i n 1921. The f a c t t h a t a l l the elements of the "Ban-gumi" are s e t i n t o rhythm w i t h i n XVI Cantos i m p l i e s t h a t Pound may a l s o have taken over the concept o f u n i f y i n g h i s long poem w i t h a coherent p h i l o s o p h y . We know t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of f o l l o w i n g the use of a s i n g l e image to p r o v i d e u n i t y i n a Noh p l a y i n h i s long poem; why should he not a l s o have c o n s i d e r e d t h i s k i n d of s t r u c t u r e ? 50 Pound's comparison of the Japanese to the Western t r a d i t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e treatment of l i f e p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r c l u e to the i n f l u e n t i a l nature of the Japanese Noh. His p r a i s e of the Noh t h e a t r e ' s a b i l i t y to p r e s e n t a p r o p o r t i o n e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e s t r e s s e s a g a i n t h a t i t s p a r t i c u l a r power comes from b e i n g c l o s e r i n touch w i t h the r e l i g i o u s antecedents of a r t than the Western t r a d i t i o n . In the Noh t h e a t r e we do not f i n d a s e p a r a t i o n between a e s t h e t i c s and a coherent p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e . "The Noh", he says, holds up a m i r r o r to nature i n a manner v e r y d i f f e r e n t from the Western c o n v e n t i o n of p l o t . I mean the Noh  performance of the f i v e or s i x p l a y s i n order p r e s e n t s a complete s e r v i c e o f l i f e . We do not f i n d , as we f i n d i n Hamlet, a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n or problem s e t out and a n a l y z e d . The Noh s e r v i c e p r e s e n t s , or symbolizes, a complete diagram of l i f e and r e c u r r e n c e . . . As the t r a d i t i o n of Noh i s unbroken, we f i n d i n the complete performance numerous elements which have dis a p p e a r e d from our Western s t a t e ; t h a t i s , m o r a l i t y p l a y s , r e l i g i o u s m y s t e r i e s , and even dances - l i k e those of the mass - which have l o s t what we might c a l l t h e i r dramatic s i g n i f i c a n c e . (GNPJ, 11-12, my emphasis) Again, Pound s t r e s s e s the p o t e n t i a l v i a b i l i t y of a r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e t o p r o v i d e coherence to major l i t e r a r y form. In 1914 he p r a i s e d Joyce f o r not s t u f f i n g l i f e i n t o "neat l i t t l e diagrams". Here, a year l a t e r , he p r a i s e d "the complete diagram of l i f e and r e c u r r e n c e " i n the Noh. 51 To p r e s e n t a "complete s e r v i c e of l i f e " - note the r e l i g i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n - i s t o a v o i d fragmenting l i t e r a t u r e and one's p h i l o s o p h y o f l i f e . Worship f o r the c o h e s i v e powers of the l i f e - f o r c e c l e a r l y u n d e r l a y Pound's a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c y c l e o f Noh p l a y s . As we have seen, Pound d i s c e r n e d such r e l i g i o u s c e l e b r a t i o n o f the l i f e f o r c e i n s p i r i t i n g the D i v i n i a Commedia, the Greek p l a y s , Shakespeare's p l a y s , and the Japanese Noh t h e a t r e , p r o v i d i n g an o v e r a l l emotional u n i t y t o extended treatments of the human c o n d i t i o n . Pound's' unshaken c o n f i d e n c e i n t h i s f o r c e can be gauged by p r e c i s e l y those l i n e s i n D r a f t s  and Fragments which have been too o f t e n o n l y understood i n the n e g a t i v e sense: i . e . i t coheres a l l r i g h t even i f my notes do not cohere. (canto CXVI) B A Lume Spento The attempt to p r e s e n t such a "complete s e r v i c e of l i f e " l i e s behind Pound's e a r l i e s t experiments w i t h major 52 form, i n c l u d i n g h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of volumes of p o e t r y . For i n s t a n c e , having had A Lume Spento p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d i n Venice i n 1908, Pound sent a copy t o W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s . In answer t o a number of c r i t i c i s m s i n W i l l i a m s ' r e p l y , Pound a t one p o i n t showed t h a t he thought h i s book, f a r from b e i n g too gloomy, was too sunshiny: I f you mean to say t h a t A.L.S. i s a r a t h e r gloomy and d i s a g r e e a b l e book, I agree w i t h you. I thought t h a t i n Ve n i c e . Kept out of i t one tremendously gloomy s e r i e s of t en sonnets - a l a Thompson . . . which are p o e t i c a l l y r a t h e r f i n e i n s p o t s . Wrote or attempted t o w r i t e a b i t of sunshine, some of which - too much f o r my c r i t i c a l sense, - got p r i n t e d . (SL, 5) Pound a l r e a d y shows an awareness of the need to balance opposing elements w i t h i n the book. Hence he p o i n t s t o spots o f sunshine w i t h i n the book, and defends the i n c l u s i o n o f "The Decadence": "'Vana.' "Chasteus. 1 'Decadence'— w r i t i n p l u r a l ; even i f not i t i s answered and c o n t r a d i c t e d on the o p p o s i t e page". That i s , the gloom o f "The Decadence" ("We see A r t v i v e n t , and e x u l t to die") does not express Pound's p e r s o n a l gloom - i t i s w r i t t e n i n the p l u r a l — and i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by the "sunshine" of "R e d i v i v u s " , " L i B e l Chasteus", and "Vana" ( " A n d ' l i t t l e r e d e l f words c r y i n g 'A Song'"). Pound c r e a t e d opposing moods and s e t them i n t o j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h i n h i s f i r s t volume; 53 t h i s i s one s l i g h t i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he was t h i n k i n g about a r c h i t e c t o n i c s from the b e g i n n i n g of h i s c a r e e r , and t h a t h i s f i r s t p r i n c i p l e was to e s t a b l i s h c o n t r a d i c t o r y moods and emotions w i t h i n an o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e . Ten years l a t e r , i n 1918, remembering h i s e a r l y d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s r e g a r d , he o f f e r e d the r e s u l t s o f h i s l a b o u r t o Marianne Moore: For what i t i s worth, my ten or more years of p r a c t i c e , f a i l u r e , s u c cess, e t c . i n a r r a n g i n g t a b l e s of c o n t e n t s , i s a v o t r e s e r v i c e . Or a t any r a t e u n l e s s you have a d e f i n i t e scheme f o r a sequence, I would warn you of the v e r y g r e a t importance of the a c t u a l o r d e r of poems i n a b o o k l e t . (I have gone r i g h t and gone wrong i n t h i s a t one time or another and know the results.-) (SL, 143) And when Pound sent a packet of poems t o V i o l e t Baxter Jordan on October 24, 1907, which were to appear i n A Lume  Spento, he e x p l a i n e d why he was sending more than o r i g i n a l l y i n t e d e d : "One can h a r d l y get a system of P h i l o s o p h y i n t o one l e t t e r ; ergo you w i l l have, i f you want i t , t o take the hodge podge as i t comes." In the same l e t t e r he r e v e a l s t h a t he i s o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t and e c s t a s y , " e c s t a s y , which I would d e f i n e as the s e n s a t i o n o f the s o u l i n ascent, a r t as the e x p r e s s i o n and s o l e means of transmuting, of p a s s i n g on t h a t e c s t a s y to o t h e r s " (p. 109). That i s , f o r the young Pound a r t expressed a system of p h i l o s o p h y which d i d not d e a l w i t h s o c i a l concerns such 54 as economics. Pound's s t r e s s on t h i s " a c t u a l order of poems i n a b o o k l e t " m e r i t s f u r t h e r study, f i r s t i n E x u l t a t i o n s , the Canzoni. C E x u l t a t i o n s and Canzoni Pound wrote an u n p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r t o V i o l e t S c o t t Jordan Baxter i n September 1911, two years a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of E x u l t a t i o n s (Oct. 1909). T h i s l e t t e r p r o v i d e s us w i t h s o l i d evidence t h a t Pound c a r e f u l l y arranged a group of poems i n t h a t volume to a c h i e v e an o v e r a l l e f f e c t , and t h a t the volume was an e a r l y attempt to p r e s e n t "a complete s e r v i c e of l i f e " . The l e t t e r i s i n defense of the poet's r i g h t to p r e s e n t s e x u a l p a s s i o n . U n l i k e l y as i t seems today, the poem i n q u e s t i o n i s " P i e r r e Vid'al Old" : And conquered1 Ah God! conquered! S i l e n t my mate came as the n i g h t was s t i l l . Speech? Words? Faugh! Who t a l k s of words and l o v e ? ! Hot i s such l o v e and s i l e n t , S i l e n t as f a t e i s , and as s t r o n g u n t i l I t f a i n t s i n t a k i n g and i n g i v i n g a l l 55 Pound's defence i s s t a r t l i n g : "The p o s i t i o n of the poem i s " s i c , - in?) a s e r i e s of e x u l t a t i o n s should be noted." He e l a b o r a t e s : Thus. N i g h t L i t a n y - Awe i n the presence of beauty. Sandalphon - The joy of submission t o an uncomprehended supreme power & wisdom. A l t a f o r t e - S t r i f e & Love of s t r i f e f o r s t r i f e ' s sake. & i f you w i l l l o v e of Blood. V i d a l - s e x u a l p a s s i o n . The Goodly Fere - l o v e of s t r e n g t h . What I mean by i t s p o s i t i o n i n the s e r i e s incomplete t h o 1 the s e r i e s s t i l l i s - i s t h a t the c o l l e c t i o n as a whole should g i v e a more or l e s s p r o p o r t i o n e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e . Each poem i s i n some ex t e n t the a n a l y s i s of some element of l i f e , s e t a p a r t from the r e s t , examined by i t s e l f . The o n l y q u e s t i o n to answer i s "Do I p r e s e n t these t h i n g s h o n e s t l y ? or do I t r y to persuade the reader to accept a f a l s e s e t of v a l u e s . " The r o t t e n e s t m o r a l i t y t h a t an a r t i s t can have i s t h a t s n i v e l l i n g " i d e a l i s m " which t r i e s t o p r e t e n d t h a t l i f e i s something more p r u d i s h than gord made i t . ( Y C ) T h i s v a l u a b l e l e t t e r p r o v i d e s undeniable evidence t h a t h i s o v e r a l l attempt was to g i v e "a more or l e s s p r o p o r t i o n e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e " i n the c o l l e c t i o n as a whole, l o n g b e f o r e he began a s i m i l a r attempt i n the Cantos. Pound's apology f o r the f a c t t h a t t h i s s e r i e s l a c k s completeness marks E x u l t a t i o n s as an e a r l y stage of h i s development. L a t e r , the open-ended format of the Cantos r e f l e c t e d Pound's mature b e l i e f t h a t any attempt to p r e s e n t l i f e i s n e c e s s a r i l y incomplete; one can never f i t l i f e i n t o "neat 56 l i t t l e diagrams". Pound's d e f i n i t i o n of a r t i s t i c m o r a l i t y makes p l a i n t h a t s e x u a l p a s s i o n must be p a r t of any attempt to g i v e a p r o p o r t i o n e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e . R e a l i z i n g t h i s h e l p s us to a p p r e c i a t e the moral b i a s behind the v i t r i o l of l a t e r poems such as "To a F r i e n d W r i t i n g On Cabaret Dancers" ( " U n t i l the l a s t s l u t ' s hanged and the l a s t p i g disembowelled"), which was an a t t a c k on the d i s h o n e s t p r e s e n t a t i o n of sex i n sugar-coated terms: "The r o t t e n e s t m o r a l i t y t h a t an a r t i s t can have." That Pound d e l i b e r a t e l y f o l l o w e d a master-plan to p r e s e n t a p r o p o r t i o n e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e i n h i s w r i t i n g even p r i o r t o 1911 i s f u r t h e r demonstrated by h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the s e r i e s "I Gather the Limbs of O s i r i s " i n The New Age (December 7, 1911). Both h i s c r i t i c a l prose and p o e t r y up t o Canzoni, he s a i d , were p a r t of h i s attempt to s e t f o r t h a s y n c r e t i c v i s i o n of l i f e . I am more i n t e r e s t e d i n l i f e than i n any p a r t of i t . . . One more word of the p l a n I have f o l l o w e d i n (my prose w r i t i n g ) . I have, i f you w i l l , hung my g a l l e r y , a g a l l e r y of photographs, of perhaps not very good photographs, but the b e s t I can l a y h o l d o f . In The S p i r i t of Romance I attempted to p r e s e n t c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t data . . . o f c e r t a i n poets . . . to make a s o r t of chemical spectrum of t h e i r a c t . I have s i n c e allowed i t to impinge on my p o e t r y i n Canzoni, which i s a g r e a t f a u l t i n the eyes of those c r i t i c s who t h i n k I should be more i n t e r e s t e d i n the p o e t r y which I w r i t e myself than i n " f i n e p o e t r y as a whole". P e r s o n a l l y , I t h i n k the corpus poetarum of more importance than any c e l l o r phalange, and s h a l l c o n t i n u e i n s i n . (CP, 23-24) 57 Here agai n we see the i n c l u s i v e tendency, the attempt to p r e s e n t a "chemical spectrum" o v e r r i d i n g the importance of the i n d i v i d u a l poem. Sin c e Pound s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions Canzoni, i t may be worthwhile examining the way Pound hung h i s " g a l l e r y of photographs" i n i t , i n o r d e r to g a i n a more d e t a i l e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s e d i t o r i a l p r i o r i t i e s . W r i t i n g to h i s mother from S i r m i o i n A p r i l 1910, Pound c o u l d s c a r c e l y c o n t a i n h i s p r i d e t h a t "the g r e a t e s t of l i v i n g poets" has p r a i s e d h i s work: News comes from London t h a t Yeats has been s a y i n g n i c e t h i n g s about me . . . to the e f f e c t t h a t "there i s no younger g e n e r a t i o n (of p o e t s ) . EP i s a s o l i t a r y v o l c a n o . " " I f he w r i t e s rhyme l i k e an amateur he w r i t e s rhythm l i k e a master." W e l l , he hasn't seen the l a t e r work where we b e g i n to c o n s i d e r whether w e ' l l rhyme or not. (YC) The " l a t e r work" r e f e r r e d to the t h r e e canzoni p r i n t e d i n The E n g l i s h Review of January 1910 ("Canzon: the Y e a r l y S l a i n " , "Canzon: The Spear", "Canzon (To be Sung Beneath a Window"). And the s t i m u l a t i o n f o r these experiments w i t h rhyme? The f u l l t i t l e o f the f i r s t canzone was "Canzon: the Y e a r l y S l a i n . W r i t t e n i n r e p l y to Manning's 'Kore'". T h i s t i t l e d i d not r e f e r to the o n l y poem which s t i m u l a t e d Pound's c o m p e t i t i v e s p i r i t . In F r e d e r i c k Manning's Poems 58 (1910) we f i n d : Canzone To Dorothy Shakespear Through the bare woods she came, and pools of l i g h t Were darkened at her coming; and a moan Broke from the shuddering boughs, and a l l the f l e e t Leaves whirled about her passage, with the throng Of her lamenting ghosts, who c r i e d regret, And passed as s o f t l y as the bats that f l i t Down s i l e n t ways, beneath the clouded skies. Wherefore, though i n the cold I wait my p l i g h t , And wander through the hoary woods, alone, Hunted, and smitten of the wind and s l e e t , Among these rooted souls, I would not wrong The intense white flame of beauty mine eyes met And married for a moment: i n t h i s p i t My blinded soul feeds on her memories. Go, thou my song! T e l l her, though weeping, yet Her face i s mine: such joy have I i n i t 7 I cannot shut the splendour from mine eyes. The f i f t e e n pounds paid to Pound by The English Review i n March 1910 for three canzoni paid his way to I t a l y , and Sirmione, where Dorothy and O l i v i a Shakespeare v i s i t e d him 59 i n A p r i l and May.° They brought him the news of Yeats' praise. Pound inscribed a copy of Provenca "Mistress Dorothy Shakespeare", and dedicated i t s f i n a l section ("Canzoniere: Studies i n Form") to O l i v i a and Dorothy 9 Shakespear. How natural i t i s that Canzoni (July 1911) should have begun with a canzone written i n reply to one by Manning, jousting p o e t i c a l l y for Dorothy's favour. "Canzon: the Yearly S l a i n " uses the form of Daniel's "Sols sui qui s a i lo sobrafan quern sortz" to puncture Frederick Manning's i d e a l i z e d p o r t r a i t of eternal love. I t claims i r o n i c a l l y — with reference to what Pound had learned at Sirmione of Manning's r e l a t i o n s h i p to Dorothy? — that love vanishes soon a f t e r the lady disappears from the lover's sight: 'Love also i s the Yearly S l a i n ' " (Canzoni, 3). And the volume ends with "Au Jardin", as Witemeyer and McDougal note a riposte to Yeats' "The Cap and B e l l s " . Pound's poem considers the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the poet and the lady he praises. Whereas the je s t e r i n Yeats' poem " f i r s t gives his heart and soul to the lady and, f a i l i n g to gain her attention, f i n a l l y presents her with his cap and b e l l s - a cle a r p h a l l i c image", Pound's poem states unequivocally that he desires a r e l a t i o n s h i p "that w i l l 60 t r a n s c e n d mere s e x u a l i t y " . Pound's p l a c i n g of these r e b u t t a l s o f h i s contemporaries, Manning and Yeats, a t the b e g i n n i n g and end of Canzoni, emphasizes h i s sense o f the d i f f e r e n c e between h i s attempt t o p r e s e n t "a p r o p o r t i o n e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l i f e " on the one hand, and Manning's i d e a l i s t i c s e n t i m e n t a l i t y and Yeats' p r u d i s h treatment o f s e x u a l i t y on the o t h e r . Moreover, Pound's two poems d i s p l a y h i s eagerness t o compete w i t h h i s contemporaries both i n t e c h n i c a l matters and i n the honest p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e — a l a s t i n g and profound element i n Pound's w r i t i n g . Pound's canzoni attempt t o surpass Manning's and to respond to Yeats' c r i t i c i s m o f h i s a b i l i t y t o rhyme. By answering the rhymes of "The Cap and B e l l s " : "I have cap and b e l l s , " he pondered, "I w i l l send them to her and d i e " ; And when the morning whitened He l e f t them were she went by. She l a i d them upon her bosom, Under a c l o u d of her h a i r , And her r e d l i p s sang them a love-song T i l l s t a r s grew out of the a i r w i t h the f r e e v e r s e of "Au J a r d i n " , however, Pound u n d e r l i n e d h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to go beyond Yeats' mastery of 61 rhyme and to e x p l o r e new modes of p o e t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . I l o v e d a l o v e once, And, may be, more times, But she dances l i k e a pink moth i n the shrubbery. Oh, I know you women from the "other f o l k , " And i t ' l l a l l come r i g h t , 0'Sundays. "The j e s t e r walked i n the garden." Did he so? ("Au J a r d i n " ) But f i n a l l y Pound's t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s i s not the most important t h i n g . For the a r t of p o e t r y c a l l e d f o r a p r e e m i n e n t l y t r u t h f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l i f e , not Manning's n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y romantic i d e a l i s m , nor the e a r l y Yeats' maudlin treatment of the lady w i t h her "red" l i p s , "bosom", and " c l o u d " of h a i r . While no one would c l a i m Canzoni marks Pound's achievement o f "a language to t h i n k i n " , i t does a t l e a s t i n d i c a t e a remarkable c l a r i t y o f purpose. The attempt: to arrange "a g a l l e r y of photographs", taken d i r e c t l y from l i f e , i n d i s t i n c t i o n t o p i c t u r e s l i k e Burne-Jones' Cophetua and the Beggar Maid, where E l i z a b e t h S i d d a l ' s eyes "teach / Cophetua to r a p h s o d i z e " (Mauberley). In 1917, Pound went on to experiment w i t h ways of a v o i d i n g rhapsody i n a r t , and p u b l i s h e d an essay t i t l e d "The Camera 62 i s F reed From R e a l i t y " i n Vortographs and P a i n t i n g s by  A l v i n Langdon Coburn. By t h i s time he had gone even f u r t h e r than the attempt i n Canzoni to hang a g a l l e r y of r e a l i s t i c photographs. Canzoni, s t i m u l a t e d by Pound's lo v e f o r Dorothy Shakespear, sought to p r e s e n t t h i s p e r s o n a l p a s s i o n i n a g a l l e r y of photographs of the Lady from A p u l e i u s to Heine. The s u b j e c t was not the Lady, however, but Beauty. Pound had been aware f o r a year and a h a l f t h a t t h i s was among the t a c k i e s t c h a l l e n g e s a poet c o u l d f a c e . W r i t i n g W i l l i a m s i n October 1908, he had compiled a " l i s t o f f a c t s on which I and 9,000,000 o t h e r poets have s p i e l e d e n d l e s s l y " — a m o n g them, these two: 2. Young man's fancy. L i g h t l y , h e a v i l y , g a i l y , e t c . 3. Love, a delightsome t i c k l i n g . I n d e f i n a b l e e t c . e t c . A) By day, e t c . e t c . e t c . B) By n i g h t , e t c . e t c . e t c . (SL, 4) Now he was aware t h a t Canzoni might not have overcome the c h a l l e n g e to make t h i s s u b j e c t i n t e r e s t i n g . Hence, i n a note d e l e t e d a t the p r o o f stage he pleaded f o r t o l e r a n c e : I ask you to c o n s i d e r whether i t be, not a ( s i c ) more d i f f i c u l t t o serve t h a t l o v e of Beauty (or, even of some p a r t i c u l a r s o r t of Beauty) which belongs to the 63 permanent p a r t o f o n e s e l f , than to express some sudden emotion o r p e r c e p t i o n which b e i n g unusual, b e i n g keener than normal, i s by i t s very way of b e i n g , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d or a t l e a s t s e t a p a r ^ from those t h i n g s o f the mind among which i t appears. Pound was uneasy about Canzoni's attempt t o serve t h a t " p a r t i c u l a r s o r t of Beauty" which "belongs to the permanent p a r t o f o n e s e l f " . The k i n d o f beauty he had i n mind can be garnered from a gl a n c e a t a group of h i s e a r l i e r poems which he r e p r i n t e d i n Canzoni. Immediately f o l l o w i n g the c a n z o n i e r e sequence which l e a d s o f f the volume comes a group of f i v e poems s e l e c t e d from A Lume Spento: "Era Mea" — a t r a n s l a t i o n of the L a t i n e p i g r a p h t o " D o n z e l l a Beata", "Threnos", "The Tree", "De Aegypton" and " l i B e l Chasteus". Why d i d he choose t o i n c l u d e o n l y these poems, and to p l a c e them a l l together? The obvious answer i s t h a t they a l l c e l e b r a t e a v a r i e t y o f r a r e and d e l i c a t e p e r c e p t i o n s o f beauty, which f i t s i n w i t h the o v e r a l l tone of the volume, i . e . , I, even I, am he who knoweth the roads Of the sky, and the wind t h e r e o f i s my body (De Aegypto): • • • No more d e s i r e f l a y e t h me, 64 No more f o r us the t r e m b l i n g At the meeting of hands. Lo the f a i r dead! (Threnos); I have been a t r e e amid the wood And many a new t h i n g understood That was rank f o l l y t o my head b e f o r e . (The T r e e ) ; We c o u l d not see the g r e a t green waves Nor rocky shore by T i n t a g o e l From t h i s our h o l d , But came f a i n t murmuring as undersong, E'en as the burghers' hum arose And d i e d as f a i n t wind melody Beneath our gates. ( L i B e l Chasteus); M i s t r e s s mine, i n what f a r l a n d , Where the m y r t l e bloweth sweet S h a l l I weary w i t h my way-fare, Win to thee t h a t a r t as day f a i r , Lay my r o s e s a t thy f e e t ? (Era Mea) That i s , these poems were c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d by Pound to f i t i n w i t h the tone o f Canzoni, not merely because he happened to l i k e them. They do not r e p r e s e n t the t y p i c a l note i n A Lume Spento: t h i n k of "Mesmerism" ("But God! what a s i g h t you ha'got o' our i n n a r d s " ) , "La F r a i s n e " ("Aie-e! ' T i s t r u e t h a t I am gay"), "Cino" ("Bah! I have sung women i n t h r e e c i t i e s , But i t i s a l l the same"). Pound's s e l e c t i o n of the s o f t e r note f o r i n c l u s i o n i n 65 Canzoni i n d i c a t e s a c o n s c i o u s attempt t o e s t a b l i s h , as a t r a d i t i o n i n h i s own work, the attempt t o serve t h a t l o v e of a p a r t i c u l a r s o r t o f beauty "which belongs t o the permanent p a r t o f o n e s e l f " . The f a c t t h a t c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n p a i d to Pound's e a r l y poems g e n e r a l l y r i v e t s o n l y on the v i g o r o u s note o f poems l i k e " S e s t i n a : A l t a f o r t e " ("Damn i t a l l ! a l l t h i s our South s t i n k s peace!"), supports h i s p e r c e p t i o n t h a t i t i s e a s i e s t t o a p p r e c i a t e some emotion which, "being unusual, b e i n g keener than normal, i s by i t s v e r y way o f b e i n g , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d o r a t l e a s t s e t a p a r t from those t h i n g s o f the mind among which i t appears". In h i s note, Pound goes on to say t h a t the form of the canzone p r o v i d e s a means of e x p r e s s i n g the i n t e n s e l y s u b j e c t i v e l o v e of beauty i n a p u b l i c manner. "The canzone i s t o me r a t h e r a r i t u a l , the h i g h mass, i f you w i l l , o f p o e t r y , than i t s p r a y e r i n s e c r e t . " The r i t u a l i s t i c arrangement o f words, the s u b t l e b l e n d i n g o f p o l y p h o n i c rhymes, render, f o r Pound, the canzone a p u b l i c a l t a r a t which the poet can b e s t worship Beauty. And as we s h a l l see i n Chapter Four, the l i t u r g i c cadences of the se q u a i r e of Goddeschalk p r o v i d e d Pound w i t h another s e r v i c e o r r e l i g i o u s i n s p i r a t i o n f o r g i v i n g h i s p o e t r y a s u b t l e k i n d of u n i t y , f o u r years l a t e r . I f Canzoni f a i l s t o express 66 the most permanent p a r t of Pound i n t e n s e l y enough, perhaps the comparative homogeneity of the volume i s to blame. C e r t a i n l y Pound's attempt here i s not t h a t o f A Lume Spento, where gloomy poems are "answered and c o n t r a d i c t e d on the o p p o s i t e page by sunshiny ones". When a r r a n g i n g Cathay f o u r y ears l a t e r — another g a l l e r y of photographs, from the Chinese t h i s time — Pound i n s e r t e d "The S e a f a r e r " i n the middle t o a c t as a f u l c r u m and p o i n t o f c o n t r a s t . Canzoni i s the most homogenous o f Pound's volumes of p o e t r y , and t h e r e f o r e o u t s i d e the main t h r u s t o f h i s development of major form, which i s u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by dramatic c o u n t e r p o i n t . We can, however, observe the b i r t h o f h i s l a t e r comparative method i n the s e q u e n t i a l poem which ends Canzoni, "Und Drang". T h i s p r o v i d e s the o n l y h arsh notes i n the volume. Whitemeyer has n o t i c e d the c r u c i a l importance of t h i s s e r i e s t o Pound's development of major form. Pound's s u b j e c t i s the c o n t r a s t between p a s t and pr e s e n t , between v i s i o n a r y c l a r i t y and e v i s c e r a t e d c o n f u s i o n , between c i v i l i z a t i o n and chaos. H i s formal s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t s o f an a g g r e g a t i o n o f separate u n i t s , l o c a l l y u n r e l a t e d but c o n t r i b u t i n g i n each case some new dimension to the t o t a l meaning of the sequence. I t i s a d i a l e c t i c s t r u c t u r e which juxtaposes c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s between poems and w i t h i n poems, working toward c l e a r e r d e f i n i t i o n s without a r r i v i n g a t a d e f i n i t e 67 s y n t h e s i s . W i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e , we encounter a v a r i e t y of moods and v o i c e s , r a n g i n g from the l y r i c and e x a l t e d t o the i r o n i c and c a s u a l . In a l l of these r e s p e c t s , "Und Drang" a n t i c i p a t e s Pound's l a t e r and more famous sequence poems: P r o p e r t i u s , Mauberley, and The Cantos. I t i f - S Pound's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l o n g poem i n embryonic form. The sequence c o n s i s t s of twelve poems, the f i r s t s i x o f which were dropped a f t e r r e p u b l i c a t i o n i n the American e d i t i o n of L u s t r a (1917). These s i x , as McDougal notes " d e p i c t the moral c o n f u s i o n of the pre-war world" w h i l e the l a s t s i x s t r e s s "the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of medieval v a l u e s to the contemporary world, as an a n t i d o t e t o the c o n d i t i o n s 14 c h r o n i c l e d i n the f i r s t s i x poems." As can be seen from these c r i t i c a l summaries, "Und Drang" juxtaposes c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s i n a way which i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to the homogenous o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e of Canzoni as a whole. Although the twelve s e c t i o n s of"Und Drang" v a r y g r e a t l y i n l e n g t h ( " E l e g i a " having 26 l i n e s , "The A l t a r " 4 ) , tone ( b i t i n g i r o n y i n "Au S a l o n " , pure a d o r a t i o n i n "The House of S p l e n d o u r " ) , and s u b j e c t matter (the modern world i n the f i r s t s i x poems, the medieval world i n the l a s t s i x ) , they are u n i t e d by the f a c t t h a t most of them u t i l i z e a d e c a s y l l a b i c l i n e . The sequence i s balanced too. 68 In the f i r s t h a l f the poet "laments" — no o t h e r word w i l l do — the p a r t i a l v i s i o n of h i s contemporaries. How our modernity Nerve-wracked and broken, t u r n s A g a i n s t time's way and a l l the way of t h i n g s , C r y i n g w i t h weak and e g o i s t i c c r i e s ! A l l t h i n g s are g i v e n over, Only the r e s t l e s s w i l l Surges amid the s t a r s Seeking new moods of l i f e , New permutations. See, and the very sense o f what we know Dodges and hi d e s as i n a sombre c u r t a i n B r i g h t threads l e a p f o r t h , and h i d e , and leave no p a t t e r n . (V) The attempt of the Ae s t h e t e s t o seek "new moods of l i f e , / New permutations", t o " f i x the l a s t f i n e shade", i s to l o s e s i g h t o f the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n . I t l e a d s t o a "poetry of nerves" and egoism. The r e s u l t c f t h i s " t r a d i t i o n " i s t h a t the modern poet who has not l o s t s i g h t o f the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n i s "out of step w i t h h i s time". H i s c o n v i c t i o n o f the i n t e g r i t y and coherence o f the u n i v e r s e i s a t t a c k e d from every s i d e o f s o c i e t y . C o n f u s i o n , clamour, 'mid the many v o i c e s 69 Is t h e r e a meaning, a s i g n i f i c a n c e ? That l i f e a p a r t from a l l l i f e g i v e s and t a k e s , T h i s l i f e , a p a r t from a l l l i f e ' s b i t t e r and l i f e ' s sweet, Is good. (II) Again, awful p o e t r y r e s u l t s from Pound's deepest c o n v i c t i o n s . In t h i s h a l f o f the sequence Pound d e a l s w i t h s o c i e t y f o r the f i r s t time; the uneasiness w i t h which he does so here became e s t a b l i s h e d as a hallmark of h i s p o e t r y . The poem stands as a m i l e s t o n e on Pound's road to d e a l i n g e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h s o c i e t y . The second h a l f of the sequence p o i n t s to the r a d i a n t w o r l d o f Provence as an a n t i d o t e t o modern s k e p t i c i s m . Here Pound i s much more c o n f i d e n t . As Whitemeyer notes, ' the " b r i g h t t h r e a d s " which "leave no p a t t e r n " i n the f i f t h s e c t i o n are " r e s t o r e d i n t o a meaningful t a p e s t r y " ^ i n "The House of Splendour": T ' i s Evanoe's, A house not made w i t h hands, But out somewhere beyond the w o r l d l y ways Her g o l d i s spread, above, around inwoven; Strange ways and w a l l s are f a s h i o n e d out of i t . (VII) And i n s e c t i o n e i g h t ("The Flame") Pound a s s e r t s t h a t t h i s 70 coherent v i s i o n remains p o s s i b l e because the world does cohere i n meaningful f a s h i o n : There i s the s u b t l e r music, the c l e a r l i g h t Where time burns back about t h e - e t e r n a l embers. We are not shut from a l l the thousand heavens: Sapphire Benacus, i n thy m i s t s and thee Nature h e r s e l f s turned m e t a p h y s i c a l , Who can look on t h a t b l u e and not b e l i e v e ? (C, 48-49) Pound's i r r i t a t i o n w i t h the shallowness o f contemporary s o c i e t y i n t r u d e s a g a i n i n s e c t i o n IX ("Au S a l o n " ) , p r o v i d i n g a s t a r t l i n g c o n t r a s t t o "The Flame". T h i s poem's s a t i r e i s d i r e c t e d not so much a t modern t r i v i a l i t y as a t the poet who i s w i l l i n g t o accept t r i v i a l i t i e s as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h i s l i f e : I suppose, when p o e t r y comes down to f a c t s , When our s o u l s are r e t u r n e d t o the gods and the spheres they belong i n , Here i n the every-day where our a c t s R i s e up and judge us; I suppose t h e r e are a few dozen v e r i t i e s That no s h i f t o f mood can shake f o r us; One p l a c e where we'd r a t h e r have t e a (Thus f a r hath modernity brought us) "Tea" (Damn you I) Have t e a , damn the Caesars, T a l k o f the l a t e s t success, g i v e wing t o some s c a n d a l , Garble a name we d e t e s t , and f o r p r e j u d i c e ? 71 Set l o o s e the whole consummate pack to bay l i k e S i r Roger de C o v e r l e y ' s T h i s our reward f o r our works, s i c c r e s c i t g l o r i mundi. (C, 50-51) F i n a l l y , o f course, "Und Drang" f a i l e d because the cozy tearooms of London c o u l d not adequately c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e the t r i u n e azures o f the Lago d i Garda i n Pound's own mind; one senses t h a t impatience w i t h t r i v i a l i t y was l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g t o Pound than l o v e of the b e a u t i f u l . The o p p o s i t i o n s e t up i s not dynamic enough, perhaps because Pound's p o e t r y seems w r i t t e n out of duty r a t h e r than p a s s i o n when i t "comes down t o f a c t s , " when he d e a l s w i t h s o c i e t y . The c o n t r a s t s w i t h i n "Und Drang" r e f l e c t the i n d e c i s i o n s o f Pound's own mind. The sequence p r e s e n t s the modern poet as t h r e a t e n e d by a l o s s o f s e l f i n i n d o l e n t languor, on the one hand, and by a l o s s o f d i r e c t i o n , purpose, amid the cacophony of modern s o c i e t y , on the o t h e r hand. Wishing t o pursue t r u t h and beauty, he f i n d s h i m s e l f i n und drang, .a s t a t e o f acute s t r e s s , caused by h i s p o s i t i o n amid the "many v o i c e s " of the u n d i r e c t e d mob. A l s o p a r a l y z i n g d i r e c t i o v o l u n t a t i s are the h y p n o t i c e f f e c t s o f l o v e , the e l u s i v e n e s s of c e r t a i n t y , and the ra n k i n g by s o c i e t y of deed b e f o r e thought, and thought b e f o r e v i s i o n , i n o r d e r of importance, e.g.: 72 The deed b l o t s out the thought And many thoughts, the v i s i o n ; And r i g h t ' s a compass w i t h as many p o l e s As t h e r e are p o i n t s i n her c i r c u m f e r e n c e , 'T i s v a i n t o seek to s t e e r a l l courses even, And a l l t h i n g s save sheer r i g h t are v a i n enough. (C, IV, 45) A g a i n s t t h i s , the sequence puts forward p o s i t i v e elements: the unsought v i s i o n , the ex p e r i e n c e o f t i m e l e s s n e s s , a sense o f profound s p i r i t u a l a f f i n i t y w i t h magic p l a c e s l i k e Lake Garda, t r a c e s o f beauty which remain i n the memory, an i n h e r e n t c e r t i t u d e o f the beauty o f l i f e . The poet t e e t e r s between s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y i n the sequence. He f a c e s two dangers. He may f a l l i n t o acceptance of the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the modern world, o r he may l a p s e i n t o a romantic dream-world t o t a l l y d i s c o n n e c t e d from present-day r e a l i t y . The sequence, and consequently Canzoni i t s e l f , ends w i t h Pound m a i n t a i n i n g a shaky balance. T h i s f a l s e " r e s o l u t i o n " i s t y p i c a l o f Pound's s e q u e n t i a l poems from "Und Drang" r i g h t down to the Cantos, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Homage. But the form o f "Und Drang" p r o v i d e d Pound f o r the f i r s t time w i t h a f i t t i n g e x p r e s s i o n f o r the q u i c k movement of h i s mind. As we have seen, i t balances the modern world a g a i n s t the medieval, beauty a g a i n s t u g l i n e s s , t r i v i a l i t y 73 a g a i n s t substance. And though the burden of the sequence as a whole i s t o express the l o v e o f beauty which p r o v i d e s the theme of Canzoni, i t does so by c o n t r a s t , not by the accumulation o f homogenous examples. The s t r u c t u r e of Canzoni i s roughly c h r o n o l o g i c a l , moving from 11th ce n t u r y Provence t o 20th century England. I t opens w i t h a group of canzoni and sonnets r e p r i n t e d from Provenca (1910), which are modelled on s p e c i f i c poems by Dante, Arnaut D a n i e l , J a u f r e Rudel and o t h e r troubadour poets, and which c e l e b r a t e Beauty i n p r e - R a p h a e l i t e d i c t i o n , as i n t h i s s tanza from "Canzon: The Spear," modelled on the form of stanza used by Rudel i n "D'un amor de lonh."15 My lov e i s l o v e l i e r than the sprays Of e g l a n t i n e above c l e a r waters, Of w h i t e s t l i l i e s t h a t u p r a i s e T h e i r heads i n midst o f moated waters. No poppy i n the May-glad mead Would match her q u i v e r i n g l i p s ' r e d I f ' g a i n s t her l i p s i t should be l a i d . (C, 4) The group of poems r e p r i n t e d from A Lume Spento mentioned e a r l i e r f o l l o w the c a n z o n i e r e sequence, d e a l i n g w i t h moments out of time. F o l l o w i n g t h i s group are a 74 number of e x c e l l e n t o r i g i n a l poems, i n c l u d i n g "Prayer f o r h i s Lady's L i f e , " B l a n d u l a , T e n u l l a , Vagula," "Maestro d i Tocar," " A r i a , " and the very b e a u t i f u l "Speech f o r Psyche i n the Golden Book of A p u l e i u s " : A l l n i g h t , and as the wind l i e t h among The c y p r e s s t r e e s , he l a y , Nor h e l d me save as a i r t h a t brusheth by one C l o s e , and as the p e t a l s of f l o w e r s i n f a l l i n g Waver and seem not drawn to e a r t h , so he Seemed over me to hover l i g h t as l e a v e s And c l o s e r me than a i r , And music f l o w i n g through me seemed to open Mine eyes upon new c o l o u r s . 0 winds, what wind can match the weight of him! (C, 22) Here Pound i s v e r y c l o s e to the o r g a n i c rhythm of "The Return," as he manages to convey E r o s ' t a c t i l e a e t h e r i a l i t y , a b e i n g both l i k e and u n l i k e a god and a man. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s poem i s w r i t t e n i n f r e e v e r s e , as are most of the b e s t poems i n Canzoni, and not i n the s t r i c t format of the canzone. W i t h i n t h i s group of o r i g i n a l poems Pound i n t e r s p e r s e d a number of t r a n s l a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g "La N u v o l e t t a , " "The Golden S e s t i n a : From the I t a l i a n of P i c o d e l l a M i r a n d o l a , " "Rome: From the French of Joachim du B e l l a y , " and "Her Monument, the Image Cut Thereon: From the I t a l i a n of 75 L e o p a r d i . " ' These poems, l i k e the " V i c t o r i a n Eclogues" which f o l l o w them, take f o r t h e i r s u b j e c t the p a s s i n g of beauty. "Her Monument, the Image Cut Thereon," f o r i n s t a n c e , b e g i n s : Such wast thou, Who a r t now But dust and r u s t e d s k e l e t o n . Above the bones and mire, M o t i o n l e s s , p l a c e d i n v a i n , Mute m i r r o r of the f l i g h t o f speeding y e a r s , Sole guard of g r i e f S ole guard of memory Standeth t h i s image of the beauty sped. (C, 28) Again, Pound focuses on remembered beauty r a t h e r than p r e s e n t d e s o l a t i o n ; the poems are e l e g i a c , but not d e s p a i r i n g . As mentioned, o r i g i n a l poems f o l l o w these t r a n s l a t i o n s , which are i n t u r n f o l l o w e d by the parody "Song i n the Manner of Houseman" and " T r a n s l a t i o n s From Heine." "Und Drang" ends the volume. "Song i n the Manner of Houseman" does add a welcome new note to the volume: 0 WOE, woe, People are born and d i e , We a l s o s h a l l be dead p r e t t y soon T h e r e f o r e l e t us a c t as i f we were dead a l r e a d y . 76 The b i r d s i t s on the hawthorne t r e e But he d i e s a l s o , p r e s e n t l y . Some l a d s get hung, and some get shot. Woeful i s t h i s human l o t . Woe I woe, e t c e t e r a . . . (C, 38) Pound's parody of the pessimism which sees no beauty or joy i n l i f e , p r o v i d e s a welcome new note but t h i s o ccurs r a t h e r l a t e i n the volume. The " T r a n s l a t i o n s From Heine" show Pound i n complete command of sound and a l i g h t - h e a r t e d i r o n y which he does not e x p l o r e a g a i n u n t i l the Homage, a f t e r which, i n Mauberley, i t becomes b i t t e r . In s e c t i o n f i v e , the d e l i c a t e t r i l l s of c h o i r boys s h a r p l y accentuate the t h i c k n e s s of the n a r r a t o r ' s v o i c e , and the syrupy female emotions: The m u t i l a t e d c h o i r boys When I b e g i n to s i n g Complain about the awful n o i s e And c a l l my v o i c e too t h i c k a t h i n g . When l i g h t t h e i r v o i c e s l i f t them up, B r i g h t notes a g a i n s t the ear, Through t r i l l s and runs l i k e c r y s t a l , Ring d e l i c a t e and c l e a r . They s i n g of Love t h a t ' s grown d e s i r o u s , Of Love, and j o y t h a t i s Love's inmost p a r t , And a l l the l a d i e s swim through t e a r s Toward such a work of a r t . (C, 40) 77 The humour, i r o n y , and c l a r i t y o f t h i s poem and of the sequence as a whole, m a s t e r f u l l y l i g h t e n s the tone of Canzoni. The long v e r s e n a r r a t i v e , " R e d o n d i l l a s , or Something of That S o r t , " was removed by Pound from the volume at the p r o o f stage. L i k e "Und Drang," i t shows Pound's t e c h n i c a l problems w i t h w r i t i n g a long poem to be r e l a t e d t o h i s i n a b i l i t y to d i s c o v e r a s u i t a b l e way of h a n d l i n g contemporary s o c i e t y . And, as i n "Und Drang," he s e t s up the l a c k of a coherent p h i l o s o p h y as the g r e a t e s t flaw i n the modern age, and the g r a v e s t o b s t a c l e to the poet w i s h i n g t o w r i t e a long poem: We ever l i v e i n the now i t i s b e t t e r to l i v e i n than s i n g o f . Yet I s i n g of the d i v e r s e moods of e f f e t e modern c i v i l i z a t i o n . I f you ask me to w r i t e world p r e s c r i p t i o n s I w r i t e so t h a t any can read i t : A l i t t l e l e s s P a u l V e r l a i n e , A good sound stave of Spinoza, A l i t t l e l e s s of our nerves A l i t t l e more w i l l toward v i s i o n . 1 6 Spinoza's c e r t i t u d e , d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and optimism seemed n a t u r a l a n t i d o t e s to the p o e t r y of "nerves" of the Aesthetes and Decadents, of whom Pound had w r i t t e n i n 1909: 78 Great God, i f these thy sons are grown such t h i n ephemera, I b i d thee g r a p p l e chaos and beget Some new t i t a n i c spawn to p i l e the h i l l s and s t i r T h i s e a r t h again.17 No doubt Pound's p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s need f o r a more potent b e l i e f t o be o f f e r e d the modern worl d m o t i v a t e d h i s p l a n t o w r i t e a book i n 1911 a n a l y s i n g the h i s t o r y of p h i l o s o p h y from R i c h a r d S t . V i c t o r t o P i c o d e l l a M i r a n d o l a . (YC) The c o n f l i c t between h i s l o v e of Beauty and h i s h a t r e d of modern s o c i e t y , which l a t e r became a permanent element i n Pound's p o e t r y , appeared i n the opening l i n e s of " R e d o n d i l l a s " : I s i n g the gaudy to-day and cosmopolite c i v i l i z a t i o n Of my h a t r e d of c r u d i t i e s , of my weariness of b a n a l i t i e s , I s i n g of the ways t h a t I l o v e , of Beauty and d e l i c a t e savours. In t h i s " s u r f e i t e d age" the poet needs "keen weapons f o r speaking," but the poem r e v e a l s Pound's nervous awareness t h a t n e i t h e r mind nor technique are y e t ready: Behold how I dabble i n cosmos. Behold how I copy my age, D i s m i s s i n g the g r e a t men w i t h a q u i b b l e . I know not much save myself, I know myself p r e t t y completely. 79 I p r e f e r most white wine to r e d, Bar o n l y some l o r d l y Burgundy. A poem which recommends Spinoza i n one b r e a t h , and white wine i n the next, does not d i s p l a y the t e x t u r e necessary t o a major poem. Pound i s aware of something wrong w i t h h i s technique as w e l l : I don't l i k e t h i s hobbledy metre but f i n d i t easy t o w r i t e i n , I would s i n g t o the tune of "Mi P l a t z " were i t not f o r the t r o u b l e o f rhyming. and T h i s hobbledy-hoy i s not my own p r i v a t e i n v e n t i o n , We are the h e i r s o f the p a s t , I t i s a s i n i n e not to admit i t . 0 V i r g i l , from your green e l y s i u m see how t h a t d a c t y l stubs h i s weary t o e s . The poem's p e r p e t u a l j o g - t r o t rhythm d i s t o r t s the s e n s i b i l i t y — e x t r e m e l y d e l i c a t e , concerned w i t h nuances of p e r c e p t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l p h i l o s o p h y — P o u n d was attempting to convey. I t i s a l s o out of keeping w i t h h i s quick changes of thought, which demand e q u i v a l e n t changes o f 80 metre. Pound should have known h i m s e l f b e t t e r than to attempt t o use such a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n . W r i t i n g to h i s mother i n February 1910 about h i s r e l i e f a t having f i n i s h e d The S p i r i t of Romance, he had s a i d : My mind, such as I have, works by a s o r t of f u s i o n , and sudden c r y s t a l i z a t i o n , and the e f f o r t t o t i e t h a t k i n d of a c t i o n to the dray work of prose i s very e x h a u s t i n g . One should have a v e g e t a b l e s o r t o f mind f o r prose. I mean the thought f o r m a t i o n should go on c o n s e c u t i v e l y and g r a d u a l l y , w i t h o r d e r r a t h e r than epigrams. (YL, 23/2/10) Pound's mind c o r u s c a t e d , never plodded d u t i f u l l y a l o n g . I t demanded a more f l e x i b l e metre than t h a t of " R e d o n d i l l a s . " H i s metaphor f o r po e t r y i n "The S e r i o u s A r t i s t " (1912) r e f l e c t s t h i s c a p a c i t y f o r qui c k movement: "Poetry i s a centau r . The t h i n k i n g , word-arranging, c l a r i f y i n g f a c u l t y must move and le a p w i t h the e n e r g i z i n g , s e n t i e n t , m u s i c a l f a c u l t i e s . " ( L E , 5 2 ) . The problem w i t h " R e d o n d i l l a s " i s t h a t i t p l o d s l i k e H u d i b r a s 1 nag, doesn't leap l i k e Pound's centaur. The b e s t moments i n the poem come when Pound r e g i s t e r s s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s of Beauty, and disa p p e a r whenever he speaks about contemporary s o c i e t y : 81 They t e l l me t o " M i r r o r my age," God p i t y the age i f I do i t , Perhaps I myself would p r e f e r To s i n g o f the dead and the b u r i e d . " R e d o n d i l l a s " i s a "statement of b e i n g " which r e g i s t e r e d Pound's awareness t h a t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h h i s age, as much as h i s t e c h n i a l l i m i t a t i o n s , prevented him from i n t e r p r e t i n g i t i n a long poem. Pound f i n d s n o t h i n g i n s o c i e t y , n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e , s t r o n g enough to balance h i s s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f beauty. T h i s remained the crux o f h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n w r i t i n g a long poem u n t i l he d i s c o v e r e d the theme of usury, which p r o v i d e s heavy c o u n t e r p o i n t i n the Cantos. To r e c a p i t u l a t e , we have seen how the attempt to pr e s e n t "a complete s e r v i c e o f l i f e " m otivated a l l Pound's experiments w i t h major form t o 1911, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f A Lume Spento and E x u l t a t i o n s . We have a l s o seen t h a t when he attempted to l e s s e n the emphasis on dramatic c o u n t e r - p o i n t o f o p p o s i t e s , as he d i d i n C a n z o n i — a p a r t from "Und D r a n g " — v i t a l i t y d i m i n i s h e d . Although Pound h a b i t u a l l y made r e t r o s p e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s o f e a r l i e r works, he p i c k e d out Canzoni f o r more c r i t i c i s m than any oth e r volume. 8 2 His doubts about the volume were f i r s t r e g i s t e r e d as e a r l y as the note i n which he pleaded f o r t o l e r a n c e i n h i s attempt to p r e s e n t " t h a t l o v e of Beauty" which belongs to "the permanent p a r t of o n e s e l f . " And by the autumn of 1921, as he was about to make the most s i g n i f i c a n t breakthrough of h i s c a r e e r , Pound had come to t h i n k of Canzoni as completely dead: "A work of a r t made to p l e a s e the a r t i s t my be comic . . . but i t w i l l not be dead. I t w i l l not have the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g l y moribund c h a r a c t e r of a review i n the "Times," or of the poems i n my volume Canzoni."19 Perhaps the reason Pound cu t " R e d o n d i l l a s " from Canzoni was because he f e l t t h a t he had not managed t o t r e a t s o c i e t y as w e l l as h i s s u b j e c t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n of beauty. But i n t h a t case, why d i d he not drop those e q u a l l y weak s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i e t y i n "Und Drang," e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e he d i d drop them a f t e r 1917? Perhaps because i n "Und Drang" they were needed to balance the s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the r a d i a n t medieval world, which are g e n e r a l l y good poems, and Pound f e l t Canzoni needed some such c o u n t e r p o i n t of o p p o s i t e s . A f t e r 1917 they were no l o n g e r needed, f o r he had begun i n t e n s i v e work on the Cantos. 83 Canzoni marks an important t u r n i n g p o i n t i n Pound's development, away from t h i s p u r e l y p e r s o n a l , s u b j e c t i v e note and toward an attempt to d e a l w i t h s o c i e t y . The b i r t h pangs of t h i s e f f o r t are r e g i s t e r e d i n "Und Drang" and " R e d o n d i l l a s , " both of which r e p r e s e n t i n i t i a l f a i l u r e s to counterpount the worlds of s u b j e c t i v e beauty and e x t e r n a l u g l i n e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h i n a long poem. But the s e q u e n t i a l form of "Und Drang" p r o v i d e d a more f i t t i n g e x p r e s s i o n f o r Pound's mind than the n a r r a t i v e c o n t i n u i t y of " R e d o n d i l l a s , " and p o i n t e d toward the method o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n XVI Cantos. T h i s poem t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t s the most important advance of a l l Pound's experiments w i t h a r c h i t e c t o n i c s d u r i n g the 1908-11 p e r i o d . 84 PART TWO: EXPERIMENT (1912-1919) T i c k i s a humble g e n e s i s , tock a f e e b l e apocalypse; and t i c k - t o c k i s i n any case not much of a p l o t . We need much l a r g e r ones and much more complicated ones i f we p e r s i s t i n f i n d i n g out "what w i l l s u f f i c e . " — F r a n k Kermode, The  Sense of an Ending 85 ABSOLUTE RHYTHM While Pound's Imagist stage has been e x t e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s e d , h i s experiments w i t h v i s u a l rhythms have gone unnoticed."'* T h i s i s odd, because we would expect t h a t someone e x p e r i m e n t a l enough to l e a v e the sonnet f o r the canzone might a l s o be e x p e r i m e n t a l enough to l e a v e the p u r e l y a u r a l f i e l d o f rhythm f o r r e l a t e d v i s u a l experiments. In P a r t One we examined Pound's e a r l y attempts to p r e s e n t a "complete s e r v i c e of l i f e " i n h i s e a r l y l o n g poems and c a r e f u l l y arranged volumes of p o e t r y to demonstrate the u b i q u i t o u s n e s s of h i s attempts a t major form. In t h i s chapter we w i l l f o l l o w Pound's attempts to achieve t h i s g o a l of i n c l u s i v e n e s s through the Imagist stage. Lawrence Binyon's The F l i g h t o f the Dragon: An essay on the theory and p r a c t i c e of a r t i n China and Japan: 2 (1911) p r o v i d e s the e s s e n t i a l c l u e to Pound's i m a g i s t experiments. The f a c t t h a t Pound i n s i s t e d on the enormous importance of t h i s work when he r e p r i n t e d s e c t i o n s from i t i n B l a s t No. 2 and Gaudier-Brzeska shows t h a t he was 86 c o n s c i o u s of i t s i n f l u e n c e h i m s e l f . C r i t i c s have not touched on i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e t o Pound's development. A Rhythmic V i t a l i t y In h i s essay, Binyon quotes the S i x Canons l a i d down by Hsieh Ho i n the s i x t h c e n t u r y as the c r i t i c a l t e s t s of p a i n t i n g . The f i r s t o f these i s most r e l e v a n t to Pound: 1. Rhythmic V i t a l i t y , or S p i r i t u a l Rhythm expressed i n the movement o f l i f e . 2. The a r t of r e n d e r i n g the bones of anatomical s t r u c t u r e by means of the brush. 3. The drawing of forms which answer to n a t u r a l forms. 4. A p p r o p r i a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the c o l o u r . 5. Composition and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , or grouping a c c o r d i n g t o the h i e r a r c h y of t h i n g s . 6. The t r a n s m i s s i o n of c l a s s i c models. The f i r s t o f these canons i s the a l l - i m p o r t a n t one; f o r the o t h e r s are concerned r a t h e r w i t h the means to a t t a i n the end which the f i r s t c o n t a i n s . U n c e r t a i n whether the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f i r s t canon comes through i n these words, Binyon o f f e r s a l t e r n a t i v e s : 87 Mr. Okakura renders i t , "The Life-movement of the S p i r i t through the Rhythm of t h i n g s " : o r , a g a i n , one might t r a n s l a t e i t , "The f u s i o n of the rhythm of the s p i r i t w i t h the movement of l i v i n g t h i n g s . " At any r a t e , what i s c e r t a i n l y meant i s t h a t the a r t i s t must p i e r c e beneath the mere asp e c t of the world to s e i z e and h i m s e l f to be possessed by t h a t g r e a t cosmic rhythm of the s p i r i t which s e t s the c u r r e n t s of l i f e i n motion. We should say i n Europe t h a t he must s e i z e the u n i v e r s a l i n the p a r t i c u l a r ; but the d i f f e r e n c e i n e x p r e s s i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . (Binyon, p. 14) To " s e i z e the u n i v e r s a l i n the p a r t i c u l a r , " as Binyon puts i t , i s e x a c t l y what Pound attempted i n h i s i m a g i s t poems. Binyon's essay l i k e l y p r o v i d e d the t h e o r e t i c a l spark f o r Imagism. The f a c t t h a t the S i x Canons apply to the v i s u a l a r t s seems to f i t p e r f e c t l y w i t h t h i s t h e o r y . The important t h i n g to note here i s the breadth and scope o f the t h e o r y t h a t h e l p e d g i v e b i r t h t o Imagism: i m a g i s t poems were never c o n c e i v e d as t i n y fragments. Rather, they aimed to express "the f u s i o n of the rhythm of the s p i r i t w i t h the movement of l i v i n g t h i n g s . " Pound's statment i n 1918 of the t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s of Imagism owes much to the S i x Canons: 1. D i r e c t treatment of the " t h i n g " whether s u b j e c t i v e or o b j e c t i v e . 2. To use a b s o l u t e l y no word t h a t does not c o n t r i b u t e to the p r e s e n t a t i o n . 88 3. As r e g a r d i n g rhythm: to compose i n the sequence of the m u s i c a l phrase, not i n sequence of metronome. (LE, 3) The second t e n e t of Imagism advocates compression, p a r t i c u l a r i t y , as d i d Binyon when he recommended t h a t the a r t i s t s e i z e the u n i v e r s a l i n the p a r t i c u l a r . The t h i r d t e n e t : "to compose i n the sequence of the m u s i c a l phrase" a l s o shares common ground w i t h Binyon's e x p l a n a t i o n of the concept of "Rhythmic V i t a l i t y . " The most important i n s i g h t f o r Pound i n the S i x Canons was t h a t rhythm p r o v i d e s the " s e c r e t " v e h i c l e f o r the a r t i s t t o put h i s audience i n touch w i t h l i f e : A r t i s not an a d j u n c t to e x i s t e n c e , a r e d u p l i c a t i o n of the a c t u a l ; i t i s a h i n t and a promise of t h a t p e r f e c t rhythm, o f t h a t i d e a l l i f e . Whatever rhythm i s , i t i s something i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h l i f e , perhaps the s e c r e t of l i f e and i t s most p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n . . . Not t i l l the poet d i s c o v e r s h i s rhythm i s he a b l e to express h i s meaning.. (Binyon, p. 19) Pound's "Credo" (1912) p i c k e d up and echoed t h i s b e l i e f i n the transcendent q u a l i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s of rhythm: Rhythm—I b e l i e v e i n an " a b s o l u t e rhythm,"a rhythm, 89 t h a t i s , i n po e t r y which corresponds e x a c t l y t o the emotion o r shade of emotion to be expressed. A man's rhythm must be i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , i t w i l l be, t h e r e f o r e , i n the end, h i s own, u n c o u n t e r f e i t i n g , u n c o u n t e r f e i t a b l e . When Pound t a l k e d of rhythm from t h i s p o i n t on, he was not t h i n k i n g of i t as the product of a s e n s i b i l i t y l i m i t e d t o c o u n t i n g and comparing the number o f beats per l i n e of v e r s e . He was t h i n k i n g of i t as an a b s o l u t e : "the a r t i s t must p i e r c e beneath the mere asp e c t of the world to s e i z e and h i m s e l f t o be possessed by t h a t g r e a t cosmic rhythm of the s p i r i t which s e t s the c u r r e n t s o f l i f e i n motion." To be put i n touch w i t h the rhythmic v i t a l i t y o f the l i f e f o r c e was to u n i t e e n e r g e t i c a l l y w i t h the d i v i n e . In March 1913 Pound spoke of t h i s e x p e r i e n c e as the hallmark of imagism: An "Image" i s t h a t which p r e s e n t s an i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional complex i n an i n s t a n t of time . . . I t i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f such a "complex" i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y which g i v e s t h a t sense o f freedom from time l i m i t s and space l i m i t s ; t h a t sudden growth, which we experi e n c e i n the presence of the g r e a t e s t works of a r t . (LE, 4) The image does not p r e s e n t a s t a t i c emotion: i t unlocks 90 q u i c k movements of the mind and emotions. The importance of rhythm as w e l l as imagery to the i m a g i s t poem can be seen i n "In a S t a t i o n o f the Metro," f o r i n s t a n c e : The a p p a r a t i o n of these f a c e s i n the crowd : P e t a l s on a wet, b l a c k bough _ (Poetry, A p r i l 1913) where the sp a c i n g provokes a rhythm mimetic of Pound's v i s u a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d s i g h t o f the f a c e s a t La Concorde. Here, meaning i n h a b i t s the gaps, or "neg a t i v e space", betweeen the words. We e x p l o r e the spaces between the image c l u s t e r s — e a c h reader i n h i s own way. Of h i s attempt i n such poems Pound s a i d i n 1914: "One i s t r y i n g t o r e c o r d the p r e c i s e i n s t a n t when a t h i n g outward and o b j e c t i v e . . d a r t s i n t o a t h i n g inward and s u b j e c t i v e . " (GJ3,89). W r i t i n g w i t h "rhythmic v i t a l i t y " i n t h i s way f r e e s one from the r e s t r a i n t s of time, c r e a t i n g a t r a n c e - l i k e union w i t h the d i v i n e s p i r i t . The care i s i n the rhythm w i t h which the v i s u a l images are ordered and p r e s e n t e d . Pound's i m a g i s t poems attempt t o r e f l e c t a rhythmic p r o c e s s of s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t i s i n harmony w i t h the d i v i n e rhythms of the o b j e c t i v e u n i v e r s e . And t h i s s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n i s i n d i v i d u a l f o r every reader, even 91 though the poems d e a l w i t h the matter of e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y , because each man's p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y i s unique and s u b j e c t i v e : "A man's rhythm must be i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , i t w i l l be, t h e r e f o r e , i n the end, h i s own, u n c o u n t e r f e i t i n g , u n c o u n t e r f e i t a b l e . " Twenty-five years l a t e r than "In a S t a t i o n of the Metro," Pound e l a b o r a t e d on the technique, p a r t i c u l a r l y the way images juxtaposed i n c o r r e c t cadence can e n e r g i z e the r e a d e r s mind: I f l e s t y l e c ' e s t l'homme, the w r i t e r ' s b l o o d t e s t i s h i s s w i f t c o n t r a p o s i t i o n of o b j e c t s . Most hokkus are b i l a t e r a l . The f o o t - s t e p s of the c a t upon The snow: Plum-blossoms. May seem to the c a r e l e s s p e r u s e r to be o n l y b i l a t e r a l two v i s u a l images; but they are so p l a c e d as to c o n t a i n wide space and a s t r e t c h of c o l o u r between them. The t h i r d element i s t h e r e , i t s dimension from the f r u i t t o the shadow i n the f o o t - p r i n t s . No moral but a mood caught i n i t s p i n c e r s . The waves r i s e And the waves f a l l but you ( t h i s i s a hero's monument i n Nippon) Are l i k e the moonlight: always t h e r e . Another dimension. From dead t h e s i s , metaphor i s d i s t i n c t . Any t h e s i s i s dead i n i t s e l f . L i f e comes from metaphor and metaphor s t a r t s TOWARD ideogram. (SP, 422-23) 92 C l e a r l y , Pound had co n t i n u e d to b u i l d on h i s 1913 d i s c o v e r y f o r 25 y e a r s . The plum-blossoms hokku s e t s s p r i n g and w i n t e r i n t o dynamic, r e f l e c t i v e i n t e r p l a y . The round shape of a c a t ' s snowy pawprints suggests plum blossoms; the p u r p l e c o l o u r o f the mature summer f r u i t echoes the dark shadows c a s t by the i n d e n t a t i o n s i n the snow. The absence o f the l i v i n g c a t p r o v i d e s a plangent analogy f o r s p r i n g ' s disappearance, through the v i s u a l image of a dim t r a i l of paw p r i n t s d i s a p p e a r i n g i n the d i s t a n c e . The second hokku c o r r e l a t e s masculine heroism and feminine v e n e r a t i o n . The image o f a young widow l o o k i n g a t the moon i s not pr e s e n t , but may appear i n your mind when contemplating the poem. I f t h i s happens, you may suddenly see a v i s u a l analogy between the woman l o o k i n g a t the moon, and the same woman l o n g i n g f o r the dead hero. Pound termed t h i s complex and dynamic type of f u s i o n imagisme. The moon's permanence, i t s i n v i o l a t e , immortal beauty, c o n t r a s t s w i t h the f l u x o f waves, and of the human emotion under t i d a l i n f l u e n c e — t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n s t i m u l a t i n g the experien c e o f human l o s s . Both the mimetic rhythm o f the 93 v e r s e , and the mental rhythms t h a t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of numerous p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between the images s t i r i n one, p o i n t to Pound's c o n s c i o u s a r t i s t i c use o f the awareness t h a t rhythm " i s something i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h l i f e , perhaps the s e c r e t of l i f e and i t s most p e r f e c t e x p r e s s i o n , " found i n Binyon's essay. By A p r i l 1912 Pound extended h i s concept of rhythm to e x p r e s s l y i n c l u d e languages of the mind t h a t use no words. " I t i s nonsense," he says i n "The Wisdom of P o e t r y , " to c o n s i d e r words as the o n l y " e s s e n t i a l s to thought"; some people t h i n k i n terms of o b j e c t s themselves, some i n p i c t u r e s , diagrams, o r i n m u s i c a l sounds, and p e r c e p t i o n by symbolic v i s i o n i s s w i f t e r and more complex than t h a t by r a t i o c i n a t i o n . ( S P , 329) C l e a r l y , " p i c t u r e s " or images i n themselves d i d not command the major p o r t i o n of Pound's a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g the i m a g i s t p e r i o d . Rhythm d i d . For the a r t of p o e t r y c o n s i s t s of f i n d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e rhythms and shapes f o r a g i v e n e x p e r i e n c e : The A r t of Poetry c o n s i s t s i n combing these " e s s e n t i a l s t o thought," these dynamic p a r t i c l e s . . . w i t h t h a t melody of words which s h a l l most draw the emotions of the hearer toward acco r d w i t h t h e i r import, and w i t h t h a t "form" which s h a l l most d e l i g h t the 94 i n t e l l e c t . By "melody" I mean v a r i a t i o n o f sound q u a l i t y , m i n g l i n g w i t h a v a r i a t i o n o f s t r e s s . By "form" I mean the arrangement of the v e r s e , s i c i n t o b a l l a d e s , c a n z o n i , and the l i k e symmetrical forms, or i n t o blank v e r s e o r i n t o f r e e v e r s e , where presumably, the nature of the t h i n g expressed or of the person supposed t o be e x p r e s s i n g i t , i s a n t a g o n i s t i c to e x t e r n a l symmetry. (SP,330) Thus from the o u t s e t of the i m a g i s t p e r i o d Pound c o n s i d e r e d form t o be the a c c u r a t e e x t e r n a l t r a c i n g o f an i n t e r n a l flow o f energy: not a s h e l l imposed from without but a rhythmic p a t t e r n a r i s i n g from w i t h i n . To succeed i n t h i s was t o c r e a t e a p e r f e c t p a t t e r n , t o make an "equation o f e t e r n i t y . " A l l a r t i s t s , he s a i d i n Gaudier-Brzeska, are i n d i s s o l u b l y u n i t e d by " t h i s unending adventure towards ' arrangement 1 ,: t h i s s e a rch f o r the equations of e t e r n i t y . " (GB,122). The i m a g i s t poet e x p l o r e s one k i n d of "arrangement," searches i n one of many p o s s i b l e ways f o r such equations of e t e r n i t y . T h i s was h a r d l y a t r i v i a l attempt, and the i m a g i s t poem, as Pound c o n c e i v e d i t , was h a r d l y a t r i v i a l form. I t worked d y n a m i c a l l y , "composed i n the sequence of the m u s i c a l phrase"; i t was not s t a t i c . Rhythm i s fundamental; Binyon c a l l e d the f i r s t o f the S i x Canons "the a l l - i m p o r t a n t one; f o r the o t h e r s are concerned r a t h e r w i t h 9 5 the means to a t t a i n the end which the f i r s t c o n t a i n s " (Binyon, p. 13). I t was fundamental as w e l l t o Pound's experiments w i t h major form d u r i n g the Imagist p e r i o d , as we s h a l l see i n the second p a r t of t h i s c h a p ter. Pound's i n t e r e s t i n o r g a n i c rhythm, k i n e t i c form, g r a d u a l l y drew him away from h i s e a r l y a t t r a c t i o n t o the q u a l i t y of s t a s i s i n a r t . The search i n a r t f o r "equations of e t e r n i t y " was p a r t of Pound's attempt to d i s c o v e r cosmic rhythms of p e r c e p t i o n beyond the world of mass p r o d u c t i o n and c o n f o r m i t y . The i m a g i s t poem r e f i n e s our s e n s i b i l i t i e s . P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , i t awakens us t o the coherence of the v i t a l u n i v e r s e , t o our k i n s h i p "to the t r e e and the l i v i n g rock" (SR, 92) . Thus i n 1912 Pound compared the f u n c t i o n of the poet to t h a t of the a n a l y t i c g e o m e t r i c i a n , both of whom d e a l w i t h a b s o l u t e laws "unbounded, l o o s e d from the a c c i d e n t s of time and space," and found t h a t both p r o v i d e , f o r the i n i t i a t e d , "a door i n t o e t e r n i t y and the boundless e t h e r . " (CSP,332). Pound's p h r a s i n g here echoes t h a t of h i s d o c t r i n e of the Image, which he says "g i v e s t h a t sense of sudden l i b e r a t i o n ; t h a t sense of freedom from time l i m i t s and space l i m i t s ; t h a t sudden growth, which we experience i n the presence of the g r e a t e s t works o f a r t " ( L E , 4) . C l e a r l y t h e r e was a l i n k between the l i m i t e d purposes of p o e t r y g e n e r a l l y , the 96 attempt t o put man i n t o touch w i t h the d i v i n e — i n Binyon's words, "to s e i z e and h i m s e l f t o be possessed by t h a t g r e a t cosmic rhythm of the s p i r i t which s e t s the c u r r e n t s o f l i f e i n motion" (Binyon, p. 14). Hence Pound's a s s e r t i o n i n October, 1914: "The o n l y t r u e r e l i g i o n i s the r e v e l a t i o n 4 made i n the a r t s . " Such a r e v e l a t i o n would be induced p r i m a r i l y through the poet's h a n d l i n g o f rhythm. Pound's f a v o r i t e image f o r the c o n n e c t i o n between the rhythmic v i t a l i t y o f the u n i v e r s e and t h a t o f a poem was the rose i n the s t e e l dust. The p a t t e r n s p r e - e x i s t , are o r g a n i c , and known by t h e i r beauty; the job of the a r t i s t was t o b r i n g them i n t o cognizance. Hence Pound's c o n s t a n t experiments; why copy the form of sonnet or canzone once i t s p a t t e r n s have been f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d ? Most i m p o r t a n t l y , Pound enthused l e s s over f i n a l p a t t e r n s than the p r o c e s s whereby they come i n t o b e i n g , the rhythmic movement from i m p e r c e p t i b i l i t y toward the t a n g i b l e . Hence the s t r o n g s t r e s s on metamorphosis running through a l l h i s p o e t r y — " T h e Tree" stands f i r s t i n h i s C o l l e c t e d S h o r t e r  Poems. T h i s k i n d of rhythmic movement (chaos s t i r r i n g toward o r d e r ) , i s manifested i n "The Return", p r a i s e d by Yeats as "the most b e a u t i f u l poem t h a t has been w r i t t e n i n f r e e 97 form, one of the few i n which I f i n d r e a l o r g a n i c rhythm." 5 See, they r e t u r n ; ah, see the t e n t a t i v e Movements, and the slow f e e t , The t r o u b l e i n the pace and the u n c e r t a i n Wavering! See, they r e t u r n , one, and by one, With f e a r , as half-awakened; As i f the snow should h e s i t a t e And murmur i n the wind, and h a l f t u r n back; These were the "Wing 1d-with'Awe," I n v i o l a b l e . Gods of the winged shoe! With them the s i l v e r hounds, s n i f f i n g the t r a c e of a i r ! Haie! Haie! These were the s w i f t to ha r r y ; These the keen-scented; These were the s o u l s of b l o o d . Slow on the l e a s h , p a l l i d the leash-men! Ruthven m a i n t a i n s t h a t the poem i s about "the pagan gods who, v i g o r o u s i n a n t i q u i t y , have managed t o s u r v i v e o n l y as shadows of t h e i r former s e l v e s , b u t the poem cannot be t i e d t o one meaning. I t f o c u s s e s on the aftermath of a c o n f l i c t between g o d l i k e v i g o u r , c o n f i d e n c e , and some much g r e a t e r f o r c e . Those who r e t u r n are t o t a l l y b a f f l e d , t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o make sense of t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e r e f l e c t e d by 98 the rhythm; p r e o c c u p i e d , t h e i r wandering minds guide wandering f o o t s t e p s : "See, they r e t u r n , one, and by one, / With f e a r , as half-awakened." Organic rhythm i s a very d i f f e r e n t t h i n g , as Binyon had p o i n t e d out i n 1911, from "a mere mechanical s u c c e s s i o n o f beats and i n t e r v a l s " (Binyon, p. 15) . The r e v e l a t i o n which a r t aims a t cannot be a c h i e v e d u s i n g the most f l a g r a n t l y p r e d i c t a b l e rhythms. Organic rhythm i s not l i m i t e d to "The Return" among Pound's i m a g i s t poems; i t animates them a l l , even "Fan-Piece, f o r her i m p e r i a l l o r d , " perhaps the l e a s t l i k e l y - l o o k i n g c a n d i d a t e ; 0 fan of white s i l k , c l e a r as f r o s t on the g r a s s - b l a d e , You a l s o are l a i d a s i d e . (CSP, 118) In Binyon's essay Pound had read: " J u s t as a man's language i s an u n e r r i n g index o f h i s nature, so the a c t u a l s t r o k e s of h i s brush i n w r i t i n g or p a i n t i n g b e t r a y him and announce e i t h e r the freedom and n o b i l i t y o f h i s s o u l or i t s meanness and l i m i t a t i o n . P e r s o n a l i t y , i n the Chinese view of a r t , counts enormously" (Binyon, p.14). The c o u r t e s a n ' s r e t i c e n t , u n e f f u s i v e language r e f l e c t s her noble p e r s o n a l i t y . Her c o n t r a s t between the fan of s i l k 99 ( c a s u a l l y handled, a l t h o u g h d e l i c a t e ) and the green g r a s s - b l a d e covered by f r o s t , i n v i t e s a comparision between the indoor warmth of acceptance and c h i l l y e x c l u s i o n . L i k e her p r e c i s e o b s e r v a t i o n of d e t a i l s , the s c r u p u l o u s l y d e l i c a t e rhythm i n d i c a t e s n o b i l i t y of c h a r a c t e r . Even the l i n e - b r e a k s u n d e r l i n e the care w i t h which n o b i l i t y e xpresses p e r s o n a l emotion, each l i n e s e t out w i t h a rhythmic p r e c i s i o n o f e x p r e s s i o n too i n n a t e f o r a g o n i z i n g l o s s t o d i s r u p t . From these examples, then, we can see t h a t the i m a g i s t poem arranged a c l u s t e r o f rhythmic p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t s e t o f f echoing rhythms w i t h i n the mind. I t pre s e n t e d an equa t i o n o f e t e r n i t y through u n i v e r s a l rhythms composed i n "the sequence of the m u s i c a l phrase." Such phrases may be b r i e f ; t h e i r v a l i d i t y depends o n l y on the accuracy w i t h which they s t i m u l a t e the mind's movement. P e r f e c t form, as Pound now c o n s i d e r e d i t , r e s u l t e d when the unmechanical rhythms of language c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the s u b t l e rhythms of the p r o c e s s e s o f nature; then the a r t i s t had achieved "the f u s i o n of the rhythm of the s p i r i t w i t h the movement of l i v i n g t h i n g s . " 1 0 0 B Image and Epigram While the i m a g i s t poem a s p i r e d to "Rhythmic V i t a l i t y , " i t s primary r e l e v a n c e to Pound's development of major form l i e s i n h i s attempt t o combine i t w i t h the epigram. Consequently, the s e q u e n t i a l poems of the i m a g i s t p e r i o d which c o u n t e r p o i n t image and epigram, or the c u l t of beauty and the c u l t of u g l i n e s s , p o i n t more d i r e c t l y toward the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f the Cantos. Two f a c t o r s l i e behind the importance of these s e q u e n t i a l poems. F i r s t , as we saw i n Chapter I I , Pound r e a c t e d w i t h i r r i t a t i o n and d i s g u s t t o s o c i e t y , but more p o s i t i v e l y t o "beauty;" the s e q u e n t i a l poem allowed him t o segregate these two moods w i t h i n a s i n g l e poem, and i n t h i s way to b u i l d up a complexity of t e x t u r e i m p o s s i b l e u s i n g the i m a g i s t poem alone. In t h i s sense, these s e q u e n t i a l poems b u i l t on the p r i n c i p l e o f c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g o p p o s i t e s f i r s t e x p l o r e d i n A Lume Spento. Second, i f the rhythms of the i m a g i s t poem r e f l e c t e d Pound's n o t i o n of a harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and the cosmos, the epigram r e f l e c t e d the im p a t i e n t , disharmonious rhythms of Pound's a t t i t u d e to the t r i v i a l i t i e s o f modern s o c i e t y . By attempting t o yoke these rhythms i n t o a s i n g l e poem, Pound showed t h a t he f e l t 101 a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n p o s s i b l e i n a r t between h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the o r g a n i c o r d e r s of the cosmos, and h i s p e r c e p t i o n of a i m l e s s o r d e r s of s o c i e t y , "und drang." Although he f a i l e d a t t h i s time i n the attempt to c r e a t e a major form out of these m a t e r i a l s , the s e q u e n t i a l poems p o i n t toward the u l t i m a t e success of XVI Cantos i n y o k i n g the " c u l t s o f beauty and u g l i n e s s . " In h i s 1913 essay "The S e r i o u s A r t i s t , " (LE,41-57) Pound d e f i n e d the c u l t of beauty as the a r t of cure: " i t i s the hygiene, i t i s sun, a i r and the sea and the r a i n and the l a k e b a t h i n g . " The c u l t of u g l i n e s s , on the o t h e r hand, " i s the a r t of d i a g n o s i s . " During the 1912-14 p e r i o d , Pound expressed these c u l t s i n the i m a g i s t poem and the epigram, r e s p e c t i v e l y , but i n s i s t e d t h a t the two k i n d s of w r i t i n g have something i n common: "The c u l t of beauty and the d e l i n e a t i o n of u g l i n e s s are not i n mutual o p p o s i t i o n " (LE, 45). The c u l t of beauty i s a c o n s t a n t i n Pound's po e t r y from the b e g i n n i n g , w h i l e the c u l t of u g l i n e s s e n t e r s h i s p o e t r y o n l y once he began to d e a l e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h contemporary s o c i e t y , i n "Und Drang" and " R e d o n d i l l a s " (1911) . The nature of the o r i g i n and developement of the c u l t of u g l i n e s s i n the i m a g i s t p e r i o d t h e r e f o r e h e l p s us 102 understand Pound's e v e n t u a l c h o i c e of a major form. In October 1912, Pound sent H a r r i e t Monroe a batch of seemingly harmless poems t i t l e d "Contemporania." These i n c l u d e d "The G a r r e t , "The Garden," "Dance F i g u r e , " "Commission," "A Pact," and "In a S t a t i o n of the Metro." "I don't know t h a t America i s ready to be d i v e r t e d by the ultra-modern, u l t r a - e f f e t e t e n u i t y of Contemporania," he t o l d her. (SL,11). In December he sent her a d d i t i o n a l poems f o r the s e r i e s , "which ought to appear almost i n t a c t or not a t a l l , " and attempted to s e t t l e her f e a r s about t h e i r r e c e p t i o n by s a y i n g "we're i n such a b e a u t i f u l p o s i t i o n t o save the p u b l i c ' s s o u l by punching i t s f a c e t h a t i t seems a crime not to do so. (SL, 13). America was not ready to accept such treatment. "Contemporania" appeared i n the A p r i l 1913 e d i t i o n of Poetry. Perusers of t h i s i s s u e d i d not f i n d t h e r e i n the k i n d of p o e t r y they expected, such as the f o l l o w i n g gem of 7 Georgian b a n a l i t y o f f e r e d by A l d i n g t o n as t y p i c a l : A l i t t l e seed b e s t f i t s a l i t t l e s o i l , A l i t t l e t r a d e b e s t f i t s a l i t t l e t o i l : As my s m a l l j a r b e s t f i t s my l i t t l e o i l . 103 I n s t e a d , they were punched s e n s e l e s s : Round one: 0 g e n e r a t i o n of the t h o r o u g h l y smug and t h o r o u g h l y uncomfortable, I have seen fishermen p i c k n i c k i n g i n the sun, I have seen them w i t h u n t i d y f a m i l i e s , I have seen t h e i r s m i l e s f u l l o f t e e t h and heard u n g a i n l y l a u g h t e r . And I am h a p p i e r than you a r e , And they were hap p i e r than I am; And the f i s h swim i n the l a k e and do not even own c l o t h i n g . ( S a l u t a t i o n ) Round two: Go, my songs, t o the l o n e l y and the u n s a t i s f i e d , Go a l s o t o the nerve-wracked, go to the e n s l a v e d - b y - c o n v e n t i o n , Bear t o them my contempt f o r t h e i r o p p r e s s o r s . Go as a g r e a t wave of c o o l water, Bear my contempt of o p p r e s s o r s . (Commission) Round t h r e e : Here they stand without q u a i n t d e v i c e s , Here they are w i t h n o t h i n g a r c h a i c about them. Observe the i r r i t a t i o n i n g e n e r a l : "Is t h i s " , they say, "the nonsense t h a t we expect of poets?" "Where i s the P i c t u r e s q u e ? " ( S a l u t a t i o n the Second) To Pound's s u r p r i s e d d e l i g h t , h i s poems r a i s e d dust among the c r i t i c s . W i l l i a m Rose Benet r u f f l e d h i s f e a t h e r s : Mr. Pound's f i n a l jape has been too much f o r most of h i s admirers of the t h r e e r e a l l y good poems which he once wrote. He now seems to d e l i g h t i n p l a c i n g h i m s e l f i n the cheapest of c a t e g o r i e s . . . Is t h e r e no way gof p r e v e n t i n g youth from hanging i t s e l f i n i t s own ego? 104 And Wallace R i c e , a l s o w r i t i n g f o r The D i a l , exclaimed a g a i n s t t h i s h e r e t i c who t h r e a t e n e d p o e t r y i t s e l f by g " d e s t r o y i n g the conventions of rhyme and rhythm." A few c r i t i c s championed "Contemporania," n o t a b l y F l o y d D e l l of the Chicago Evening Post L i t e r a r y Review, whose e d i t o r i a l o f A p r i l 4, 1913 began: E z r a Pound, we s a l u t e you! You are the most enchanting poet a l i v e . Your poems i n the A p r i l P o e t r y are so mockingly, so d e l i c a t e l y , so u n b l u s h i n g l y b e a u t i f u l t h a t you seem to have brought back i n t o the world a grace which (probabaly) never e x i s t e d , but which we discoYgr by an i m a g i n a t i v e p r o c e s s i n H o r a t i u s and C a t u l l u s . " D e l l i s v e r y c o n s o l i n g . I t ' s c l e v e r of him t o d e t e c t the L a t i n tone" Pound wrote Monroe on A p r i l 22, from Sirmione (SL, 19) . Pound r e a c t e d to the c r i t i c a l f u r o r immediately, p r o b i n g w i t h t y p i c a l a g g r e s s i v e n e s s f u r t h e r i n t o the exposed nerves. By October, he had w r i t t e n a new s e r i e s of poems, which he sent to A l i c e Coburn Henderson: I wonder i f Poetry r e a l l y dares to devote a number to my new work. T h e r e ' l l be a howl. They won't l i k e i t . I t ' s a b s o l u t e l y the l a s t obsequies of the 105 V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d . I won't permit any s e l e c t i o n or e d i t i n g . I t stands now a s e r i e s of 24 poems, most of them v e r y s h o r t . . . T h e r e ' l l p r o b a b l y be 4 0 by the time I hear from you. I t ' s not f u t u r i s m and i t ' s not p o s t - i m p r e s s i o n i s m , but i t ' s work contemporary w i t h those s c h o o l s and to my mind the most s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t I have y e t brought o f f . I guarantee you one t h i n g . The reader w i l l not be bored. He w i l l say ahg, ahg, ahh, ahh, but-bu-bu-but t h i s i s n ' t P oetry. (SL, 23-24) Poetry d i d n ' t dare. F i f t e e n of Pound's s o f t e r poems were p i c k e d from t h i s bunch f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the November number: "Ancora," " S u r g i t fama," "The Choice," "Gentildonna," and the two s e q u e n t i a l poems " L u s t r a " and "Xenia." Pound r e s i g n e d as F o r e i g n e d i t o r i n November, p a r t l y because of Monroe's r e s i s t a n c e to p r i n t i n g H u e f f e r and p a r t l y , no doubt, because she r e f u s e d to p r i n t h i s more p r o v o c a t i v e poems. On December 8, he withdrew h i s r e s i g n a t i o n pending the g e n e r a l improvement of the magazine. On May 23, 1914, he gave Monroe p e r m i s s i o n t o omit poems l i k e l y to have the magazine suppressed, but i n s i s t e d t h a t she not make them " i n t o a f l a b b y l i t t l e Sunday s c h o o l l o t l i k e the bunch i n the November number." Pound's p o e t r y d i d not appear aga i n i n Poetry f o r nine months, u n t i l August 1914. The k i n d of poem Monroe r e s i s t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d 106 can be imagined by those appearing i n the December 1913 i s s u e o f Smart Set. At any r a t e , they seem t o be the k i n d of poem which would cause the reader t o say, "ahh, but-bu-bu-but t h i s i s n ' t P o e t r y . " She had a pig-shaped f a c e , w i t h b e a u t i f u l c o l o u r i n g , She wore a b r i g h t , dark-blue c l o a k , Her h a i r was a b r i l l i a n t deep orange c o l o r So the e f f e c t was charming ,. As long as her head was a v e r t e d . Why does the h o r s e - f a c e d l a d y of j u s t the unmentionable age Walk down Longacre r e c i t i n g Swinburne t o h e r s e l f , i n a u d i b l y ? Why does the r e a l l y handsome p r o s t i t u t e approach me i n S a c k v i l l e S t r e e t , -Undeterred by the m a n i f e s t age of my t r a p p i n g s ? Having got a r e a c t i o n by punching the p u b l i c ' s face once, Pound punched a g a i n , harder. I n e v i t a b l y , the e s c a l a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t l e d to h i s e x c l u s i o n from "the world of l e t t e r s . " The climax o f t h i s c o n f l i c t came w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of two numbers of B l a s t i n June 1914 and J u l y 1915. In 1914 Pound c o n t r i b u t e d t h i s epigram: The New Cake of Soap Lo, how i t gleams and g l i s t e n s i n the sun L i k e the cheek of a C h e s t e r t o n . (CSP, 108) 107 And i n 1915 he c o n t r i b u t e d a s a t i r e on Rupert Brooke's " n i n e t y P e t r a r c h a n sonnets" i n the " s t y l e V i c t o r i e n de l a 'Georgian Anthology'": Our Contemporaries When the T a h i t i a n p r i n c e s s Heard t h a t he had d e c i d e d , She rushed out i n t o the s u n l i g h t and swarmed up a cocoanut palm t r e e , But he r e t u r n e d to t h i s i s l a n d ^ And wrote n i n e t y P e t r a r c h a n sonnets. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s poem, though w r i t t e n b e f o r e Brooke's death i n the D a r d e n e l l e s , d i d not appear t i l l a f t e r i t . Brooke's E n g l i s h f r i e n d s and e d i t o r s , who i d o l i z e d him, were not amused. H a r o l d Monro, e d i t o r of the Georgian  A n t h o l o g i e s , was p a r t i c u l a r l y upset. "The f i r s t y ear o f the war knocked my i n t a k e g a l l y - h e l l y , " Pound w r i t e s h i s f a t h e r i n 1918: "the second year I got back to 50% of pre-war gate r e c e i p t s " (YC). In h i s own mind, the s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l of h i s s a t i r e s and t h i s f a l l i n h i s income were c a u s a l l y connected. H i s r e a c t i o n to t h i s p r e s s u r e toward c o n f o r m i t y appears i n a poem from B l a s t No. 2: "Et Faim S a l l i r Les Loups Des Boys": I w i l l c l i n g t o the spar, 108 Washed w i t h the c o l d s a l t i c e I w i l l c l i n g t o the s p a r — I n s i d i o u s modern waves, c i v i l i z a t i o n , c i v i l i z e d hidden snares. Cowardly e d i t o r s t h r e a t e n : " I f I dare" Say t h i s or t h a t , or speak my open mind, Say t h a t I hate my hates, Say t h a t I l o v e my f r i e n d s , Say t h a t I b e l i e v e i n Lewis, s p i t out the l a t e r Rodin, Say t h a t E p i s t e i n can carve i n stone, That Brzeska can use the c h i s e l , Or Wadsworth p a i n t ; Then they w i l l have my guts; They w i l l c u t down my wage, f o r c e me to s i n g t h e i r cant, Uphold the p r e s s , and be b e f o r e a l l a model of l i t e r a r y decorum. Merde1 Cowardly e d i t o r s t h r e a t e n , F r i e n d s f a l l o f f a t the p i n c h , the l o v e l i e s t d i e . That i s the path of l i f e , t h i s i s my f o r e s t . ( J u l y 1915, p.22) By t h i s time Pound was not o n l y u s i n g s a t i r e t o a t t a c k prudery i n modern s o c i e t y , but t o defend h i m s e l f a g a i n s t economic b l a c k l i s t i n g . The c u l t of u g l i n e s s had now become i n p a r t a defense mechanism, a way of r e a c t i n g to s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l . " I t i s c l e v e r of D e l l t o d e t e c t the L a t i n tone" he t o l d Monroe, c o n f i r m i n g the Roman s a t i r i s t s ' i n f l u e n c e . T h i s p l e a s e d a t t i t u d e d i f f e r s from the long d i a t r i b e he wrote a g a i n s t M a r t i a l i n 1904, which ended: 109 Yet l e t me cease my r e a d i n g ere the stench grow s t r o n g e r 0 M a r t i a l p r i n c e of f r a u d s . (YC) As l a t e as January 1907 he t o l d F e l i x E. S c h e l l i n g t h a t " s i n c e the study of M a r t i a l t h e r e i s n o t h i n g I approach w i t h such nausea and d i s q u s t as Roman l i f e (Das  P r i v a t l e b e n ) " (SL, 3). Between 1904-07 and 1913, s a t i r e became Pound's normal r e a c t i o n to contemporary Georgian s o c i e t y . Why? The theme of the i n f l u e n c e of economics on the a r t i s t e s c a l a t e s a l o n g w i t h Pound's use of s a t i r e . By the time he f e l t the p i n c h of economic b l a c k l i s t i n g i n the f i r s t year of the war, Pound was ready to change h i s e a r l i e r views of the i r r e v e l a n c e of economics to the a r t i s t . That i s , a concern w i t h economics predates Pound's meeting w i t h Major Douglas i n 1919, and even h i s l o s s of income through b l a c k l i s t i n g i n 1915. In The S p i r i t of Romance (1910) he mused on how f a r a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n depends on f i n a n c i a l p r o s p e r i t y : I f one were seeking to prove t h a t a l l t h a t p a r t of a r t which i s not the i n e v i t a b l e e x p r e s s i o n of genius i s a by-product of trade or a s e c r e t i o n of commercial p r o s p e r i t y , the f o l l o w i n g f a c t s would seem s i g n i f i c a n t . S h o r t l y b e f o r e the d e c l i n e of Portugese p r e s t i g e , Houtman, l y i n g i n j a i l f o r debt at L i s b o n , planned the 110 Dutch E a s t I n d i a Company. When P o r t u g a l f e l l , H o l l a n d s e i z e d the O r i e n t a l t r a d e , and soon a f t e r Roemer V i s s c h e r was h o l d i n g a s a l o n , w i t h which are connected the names of Rembrant, B r o t i u s , Spinoza, Vondel (born 1587) "the one a r t i c u l a t e v o i c e of H o l l a n d , " Erasmus, and Thomas-a-Kempis. (SR,221) And i n 1911 he e l a b o r a t e d on t h i s c o n n e c t i o n between a r t and t r a d e i n "I Gather the Limbs of O s i r i s " : When i n Burkhardt we come upon a passage: "In t h i s year the V e n e t i a n s r e f u s e d t o make war upon the Milanese because they h e l d t h a t any war between buyer and s e l l e r must prove p r o f i t a b l e t o n e i t h e r , " we come upon a p o r t e n t , the o l d o r d e r changes, one c o n c e p t i o n of war and of the S t a t e begins to d e c l i n e . The Middle Ages i m p e r c e p t i b l y g i v e ground to the Renaissance. A r u l e r owning a S t a t e and w i s h i n g to e n l a r g e h i s p o s s e s s i o n s , c o u l d under one regime, i n a matter opposed to sound economy, make war; but commercial sense i s sapping t h i s regime. (SP, 22) At t h i s stage, "commercial sense" and "sound economy" p r o v i d e d a luminous d e t a i l by which a s t a t e of c i v i l i z a t i o n such as t h a t of the Renaissance c o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d . Peace and a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i v i t y were seen by Pound to flow i n e v i t a b l y from a h e a l t h y , c a p i t a l i s t , economy. By October 1914, however, Pound trembled on the verge of h i s l a t e r b e l i e f t h a t the economy of Georgian England 111 had become d i s e a s e d . T h i s now seemed a c r i t i c a l flaw to the a r t i s t who saw t h a t he must be f r e e from economic w o r r i e s t o c r e a t e " u n t e n a b l e beauty": Nothing but a lo v e o f p e r f e c t i o n , or of "God," or of "the u n t e n a b l e beauty," or something o f t h a t s o r t , w i l l make a human b e i n g i n t o the s o r t o f person one wishes to meet. And n o t h i n g but such l o v e , p l u s some reasonable chance of seeking t h a t p e r f e c t i o n , or t h a t "God" or t h a t " u n t e n a b l e beauty," w i l l keep s a i d human bei n g a b e a r a b l e companion. The " l o v e " i s , I suppose, " i n n a t e , " or an " a c c i d e n t , " or a " p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , " or whatever one l i k e s t o c a l l i t ; the "chance of seeking" i s , I suppose, the concern of man's economic and l e g i s l a t i v e f a c u l t i e s . One gets bored w i t h "economists" and a l l t h e i r g a l l e r y , because they keep h a r p i n g on the "chance" and b e c a u s e they want to p r e s c r i b e what one s h a l l do w i t h i t . Pound's boredom w i t h economics began t o d i s a p p e a r a f t e r he f e l t the economic p i n c h h i m s e l f i n 1914-15, and n o t i c e d how i t impinged on h i s c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s . The c l u e to how he would attempt t o i n c o r p o r a t e economics i n t o h i s p o e t r y , however, was a l r e a d y t h e r e . Although Kenner says Mauberley (1919) i s "Pound's f i r s t work t o c o n t a i n the word ' u s u r y ' " ^ , "Octave" was p r i n t e d i n Canzoni (1911): F i n e songs, f a i r songs, these golden u s u r i e s Her beauty earns as but j u s t increment, And they do speak w i t h a most i l l i n t e n t Who say they g i v e when they pay debtor's f e e s . 112 I c a l l him bankrupt i n the c o u r t s of song Who hath her g o l d t o eye and pays her not, D e f a u l t e r do I c a l l the knave who hath got Her s i l v e r i n h i s h e a r t , and doth her wrong. (C, 15) T h i s e a r l y song p o i n t s t o how Pound was l a t e r a b l e t o r e c o n c i l e the c u l t o f beauty and economics. Kenner has noted, i n t h i s r e g a r d , t h a t the f i r s t s i x t e e n cantos "march s t r a i g h t from Homer's time, and A p h r o d i t e bedecked i n g o l d , to the World War which came about because g o l d was misapprehended" (PE, 408). Both the v o c a b u l a r y and the a s s o c i a t i o n between g o l d and beauty were e s t a b l i s h e d as a t r a d i t i o n i n Pound's work b e f o r e 1919, when he began to t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n f u l l y t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t and s o c i a l economics. He a l r e a d y knew t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o g r a f t h i s new concern w i t h economics onto the c u l t o f beauty. Pound took a w h i l e , however, to f u l l y r e a l i z e t h a t the "commercial sense" of the Renaissance was no l o n g e r o p e r a t i v e i As l a t e as August 1912, he wrote h i s f a t h e r t o ask: "What's the matter w i t h Wilson? Of course I don't mind T.R. i f he r e a l l y means to smash the t r u s t s , t a r r i f f , express c o s t s , e c t . " (YC) . I t was not u n t i l f o u r years l a t e r t h a t he began to r a i l a g a i n s t Wilson, as i n 113 "L"Homme Moyen Sensuel," f o r i n s t a n c e : An a r t ! You a l l r e s p e c t the a r t s , from t h a t i n f a n t t i c k Who's now the e d i t o r o f The A t l a n t i c , From Comstock's s e l f , down to the meanest r e s i d e n t , T i l l up ag a i n , r i g h t up, we reach the p r e s i d e n t , Who shows h i s t a s t e i n h i s ambassadors: A n o v e l i s t , a p u b l i s h e r , to pay o l d s c o r e s , A n o v e l i s t , a p u b l i s h e r and a preacher, That's sent t o H o l l a n d , a most p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e , Henry Van Dyke, who t h i n k s t o charm the Muse you pack her i n A s o r t of s t i n k i n g d e l i q u e s c e n t s a c c h a r i n e . (CSP, 256) America i s "an i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c d e s e r t , " Pound wrote h i s f a t h e r i n October 1916. "AND no one has y e t shot Woodrow Wilson" (YC). A f u r t h e r s t i m u l u s t o study economics came when E l k i n Mathews' p r i n t e r r e f u s e d t o s e t up a number of poems i n L u s t r a . Lawrence's The Rainbow had been suppressed i n 1915, and he was unable t o get Women i n Love p r i n t e d . "You know I f i n i s h e d a n o v e l , Women i n Love, which I know i s a masterpiece," Lawrence wrote Edward Marsh on January 5th, 1917, but i t seems i t w i l l not f i n d a p u b l i s h e r . I t i s no good, I cannot get a s i n g l e t h i n g I w r i t e p u b l i s h e d i n England. There i s no s a l e of the books t h a t are p u b l i s h e d . So I am di s h e d . I know i t i s no good w r i t i n g f o r England any more. England wants s o o t h i n g pap, and not h i n g e l s e , f o r i t s 114 l i t e r a t u r e ; sweet inno c e n t babe of a B r i t a n n i a ! T h e r e f o r e I have got to get out some way or o t h e r . Do you t h i n k they would l e t -jrae go to New York? I know I c o u l d make a l i v i n g t h e r e . With these s i g n s around him, Pound saw an age of r e p r e s s i o n c o n t r a r y t o a l l he had been working f o r loom over the h o r i z o n . He saw the law of c e n s o r s h i p , passed i n the i n t e r e s t s of n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , b e i n g m i s a p p l i e d i n support of prudery. R e a c t i n g w i t h t y p i c a l energy, and w i t h John Quinn's h e l p , he arranged f o r an uncensored v e r s i o n of L u s t r a (1917) to be p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d i n America. He began t o t h i n k t h a t i t might w e l l behoove the poet to t u r n h i s a t t e n t i o n t o the r o l e of economics, to ensure t h a t such a c o n s t r i c t i o n of the poet's a b i l i t y to communicate h i s thought would not a r i s e a g a i n . But a t t h i s time h i s thoughts on economics d i d not express themselves through h i s p o e t r y . And b e f o r e economics? How c o u l d Pound t u r n h i s n e g a t i v e emotions about s o c i a l prudery and r e p r e s s i o n i n t o p o e t r y , whose e x p r e s s i o n of "a p o s i t i v e " d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t from prose? T h i s i s the weakness of h i s epigrams and s a t i r e s , the c u l t of u g l i n e s s , i n the 1912-14 p e r i o d . He d e s p i s e d above a l l the t r i v i a l i t y of the p e r i o d . But what 115 can one u s e f u l l y s e l e c t t o symbolize t h i s ? In "Und Drang" he had t r i e d a t t a c k i n g " t e a rooms." In "A m i t i e s " he c a s t i g a t e d f r e q u e n t e r s of moderate "chop-houses." He found both a dead end: The mind a c h i n g f o r something t h a t i t can honour under the name of " c i v i l i z a t i o n , " the mind, s e e i n g t h a t s t a t e a f a r o f f but c l e a r l y , can o n l y f l a p about p e t t i s h l y s t r i k i n g a t the host o f t r i v i a l s u b s t i t u t e s p r e s e n t e d to i t . And y e t h i s anger a t the contemporary s t a t e o f l e t t e r s i n England was very r e a l . " P o s s i b l y a h y p e r - a e s t h e s i a , " he wrote Edgar Jepson i n May 1917, but I f i n d no o t h e r word but ". . . "; the s e n s a t i o n of bei n g t h r u s t head downward up to the c h i n i n t o the mire of an open p r i v v y which comes upon me a t the mention of the house o f Murray, the Bookman, Seccombe, C h e s t e r t o n , the whole o r d e r o f these t h i n g s . New Statesman conveys a d r y e r , a more dusty f e e l i n g . C e r t a i n people have f e l t t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g about " l i f e , " I f e e l i t about contemporary " l i t t e r c h u r e , 1 1 g e n s d e l e t t r e s , e t c . Poetry gets out of reach of the stench . . . . (SL, 112) His response was to a t t a c k t a r g e t s which r e p r e s e n t t h i s " l i t t e r c h u r e , " such as The Times. In h i s a r t i c l e "Wyndham Lewis" (The E g o i s t , June 15, 1914), he h e l d up f o r 116 r i d i c u l e a s e l e c t i o n from The Times "Poets, l i k e P i e r r o t s , indeed, i n the days of t h e i r youth should t h i n k no l o n g e r than a minute a t a time, a t any r a t e w h i l e w i t h pen i n hand." "The r e a l l y v i g o r o u s mind," Pound s a i d , might be able to e r e c t t h i s k i n d of b a n a l i t y i n t o a symbol of the s t a t e o f mind which The Times r e p r e s e n t e d , "which i s a loathsome s t a t e of mind, a malebolge of obtuseness" (SL, 234). A mere f i v e days l a t e r he answered h i s own c h a l l e n g e w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of " S a l u t a t i o n the T h i r d " i n B l a s t No. 1: L e t us d e r i d e the smugness of "The Times": GUFFAW! So much f o r the gagged r e v i e w e r s , I t w i l l pay them when the worms are w r i g g l i n g i n t h e i r v i t a l s HERE i s the t a s t e of my BOOT,,„ CARESS i t , l i c k o f f the BLACKING. Pound was not e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l : here; h i s d e l i n e a t i o n o f u g l i n e s s was too u g l y , unleavened by w i t . Though t h i s was c e r t a i n l y not the " P i c t u r e s q u e " t h a t we "expect o f poets , " n e i t h e r d i d i t possess the Olympian a u t h o r i t y o f The  Dunciad. "I am not a t a l l sure," E l i o t wrote of Pound i n The  Athenaeum (1919), " t h a t , even w i t h M a r t i a l behind i t , the 117 modern s a t i r i c a l v e i n i s of permanent importance." P u t t i n g h i s f i n g e r — f o r o n c e — d i r e c t l y on Pound's p u l s e , he observed t h a t h i s s a t i r e s o f t e n " i r r i t a t e i n a way i n which good poems should not i r r i t a t e ; they make you c o n s c i o u s o f having been w r i t t e n by somebody; they habve not w r i t t e r 19 themselves." Perhaps the e x t r e m i t y o f Pound's r e a c t i o n to contemporary t r i v i a i s , f i n a l l y , the most b a f f l i n g a s p e c t of h i s work. At any r a t e , Pound was s t i l l p repared t o defend h i s anger seven years l a t e r , i n 1922, when w r i t i n g to F e l i x S c h e l l i n g : H o n e s t l y , I t h i n k L u s t r a has done a work of p u r g a t i o n of minds, m e r i t o r i o u s as the p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t s o f Beecham. Being intemperate, a t moments, I shd. p r e f e r dynamite but i n measured moments I know t h a t a l l v i o l e n c e i s u s e l e s s (even the v i o l e n c e o f language . . . ) However, one must know an i n f i n i t e amount b e f o r e one can deci d e on the p o s i t i o n of the border l i n e between s t r o n g language and v i o l e n t language. (SL, 181-82). For Pound, a t l e a s t , the c u l t o f u g l i n e s s was a necessary p a r t of the attempt to purge s o c i e t y o f t r i v i a l i t y . We have t r a c e d Pound's a t t i t u d e to s o c i e t y from 1912 to 1916, and seen i t move from r e l a t i v e l y good-humoured 118 s a t i r e toward d i a t r i b e . We have a l s o seen Pound's a t t e n t i o n t u r n i n c r e a s i n g l y toward the r e l a t i o n between economics and the a r t i s t , under the p r e s s u r e of f i n d i n g h i m s e l f e c o n o m i c a l l y b l a c k l i s t e d f o l l o w i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of B l a s t No. 1. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h i s f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e u n d e r l i e s Pound's subsequent examination of the r e l a t i o n between i n v i d i o u s economic p o l i c i e s and war. The o p p o s i t i o n between s u b j e c t i v e beauty and s o c i a l u g l i n e s s , which developed i n t o a s t a p l e of Pound's p o e t r y , a c h i e v e d i t s f i r s t f u l l f o r m u l a t i o n d u r i n g the i m a g i s t p e r i o d . I t i s not s u p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , to f i n d t h a t Pound's experiments w i t h major form d u r i n g t h i s time attempted to i n c o r p o r a t e these two a t t i t u d e s — t h e c u l t s of beauty and u g l i n e s s — w i t h i n s i n g l e s e q u e n t i a l poems. C The S e q u e n t i a l Poem Pound p u b l i s h e d s i x s e q u e n t i a l poems i n 1913 and 1914: " L u s t r a " and "Xenia" i n Poetry (Nov. 1913); "Zenia" i n Smart Set (Dec. 1913); " S a l v a t i o n i s t s , " " A m i t i e s , " and " L a d i e s " i n Poetry (Aug. 1914). Of these, "Zenia" b e s t 119 i l l u s t r a t e s the nature o f Pound's attempt to overcome the l i m i t a t i o n s of imagism, i t s homogeneity, by c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g i t w i t h the epigram. "Zenia" b u i l d s a dynamic by c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g the c u l t of beauty w i t h the c u l t of u g l i n e s s throughout the e l e v e n 20 s e c t i o n s . Thus the s a r c a s t i c " E p i t a p h " f o l l o w s the g e n t l e "Alba": I I As c o o l as the p a l e wet l e a v e s of l i l y - o f - t h e - v a l l e y She l a y b e s i d e me i n the dawn. I l l (Epitaph) L e u c i s , who intended a Grand P a s s i o n , Ends w i t h a w i l l i n g n e s s - t o - o b l i g e • By j u x t a p o s i n g i m a g i s t poems and epigrams w i t h i n the framework o f a s e q u e n t i a l poem i n t h i s way, Pound kept the reader a l e r t . While the f i r s t poem d e a l t w i t h the economic l i m i t a t i o n s o f the a r t i s t ' s l i f e , the l a s t p r e s e n t e d one of i t s (non-economic) advantages: I Who am I to condemn you, 0 Div e s , I who am as much emb i t t e r e d With p o v e r t y 120 As you are w i t h u s e l e s s r i c h e s ? IX " I t r e s t s me t o be among b e a u t i f u l women. Why should one always l i e about such matters? I r e p e a t : I t r e s t s me t o converse w i t h b e a u t i f u l women Even though we t a l k n o t h i n g but nonsense. The p u r r i n g o f the i n v i s i b l e antennae I f i n d both s t i m u l a t i n g and d e l i g h t f u l . " I f the i m a g i s t poem and epigram are thought o f as c o n t r a s t i n g c o l o u r s , "Zenia" can be c o n s i d e r e d an attempt to p r e s e n t a broad range of hues w i t h i n a s i n g l e c omposition. How does t h i s r e l a t e t o Pound's attempt a t major form? In 1922, he wrote S c h e l l i n g : "The f i r s t 11 cantos are p r e p a r a t i o n o f the p a l e t t e . I have t o get down a l l the c o l o u r s or elements I want f o r the poem" (SL, 180). And as e a r l y as May 1914, Pound had w r i t t e n t o ask h i s mother t o send him the names of "a c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d s c a l e " o f seven c o l o u r s he had a c q u i r e d e a r l i e r from Whiteside (YC). "Zenia"'s c o u n t e r p o i n t aimed a t v a r i e t y and range r a t h e r than homogenous u n i t y . F o r r e s t Read has d i s c r i m i n a t i n g l y noted Pound's " b e l i e f t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y c o u l d g i v e a s o r t o f u n i t y t o ap p a r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t poems, or t h a t a c o l l e c t i o n of 121 d i f f e r e n t elements c o u l d be h e l d t o g e t h e r by the f o r c e of the c r e a t i v e mind, one formal p r i n c i p l e o f The Cantos. In t h i s r e s p e c t , Read noted t h a t Pound r e f e r r e d to L u s t r a not by t i t l e , but by a monogram f o r h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , i . e . , 21 "£". And as we saw i n the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r , f o r Pound, rhythm pre-eminently expressed p e r s o n a l i t y , as he had l e a r n e d from h i s study o f Binyon's The F l i g h t o f the  Dragon. Thus the c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g o f image and epigram i n the s e q u e n t i a l poem suggests t h a t here Pound e x p l o r e d a new k i n d o f rhythmic c o u n t e r p o i n t between the c u l t s o f beauty and u g l i n e s s , which l a t e r became an important p a r t o f the method of the Cantos. The s t r u c t u r e o f another of Pound's s e q u e n t i a l poems of the i m a g i s t p e r i o d , "Xenia," r e i n f o r c e s t h i s t h e o r y . I t o r i g i n a l l y appeared i n seven s e c t i o n s (The s t r e e t i n Soho The c o o l f i n g e r s o f s c i e n c e d e l i g h t me, A Song of the De g r e e s / I I I - V , I t e , Dum Cap i t o l u m ) , but was broken up when r e p r i n t e d i n the C o l l e c t e d S h o r t e r Poems. I t begins w i t h an unusual poem which i s p a r t image, p a r t s a t i r e : Out of the overhanging gray m i s t There came an ug l y l i t t l e man C a r r y i n g b e a u t i f u l f l o w e r s . 122 And which ends w i t h these l i n e s : Know then t h a t I l o v e d you from a f o r e - t i m e , C l e a r speakers, naked i n the sun, untrammeled. As Ruthven p o i n t s out, i t s o r i g i n a l arrangement p r o g r e s s e d from "the 'gray m i s t ' of the c a n c e l l e d f i r s t s e c t i o n t o the s u n l i g h t o f 'Dum C a p i t o l i u m Scandet', from an a r t of shadowy e v o c a t i o n ('the c r e p u s c u l a r s p i r i t 1 ) t o an a r t of 22 c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c o n t o u r s . " And a l s o , i t might be added, from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f contemporary u g l i n e s s and m u t a b i l i t y (Soho, flowers) t o the e t e r n a l c l a r i t y o f a r t . While t h i s o r d e r l y p r o g r e s s i o n c o n t r a s t s w i t h the dynamic c o u n t e r p o i n t i n "Zeni a , " both poems add the tone of the epigram t o t h a t o f the image. Why Pound d e l e t e d the f i r s t two s e c t i o n s of the poem and h i d t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n we don't know; we do know t h a t he was making such formal experiments w i t h extended form i n the i m a g i s t p e r i o d . At the very b a s i s of the o r d e r i n g p r i n c i p l e o f Pound's s e q u e n t i a l poems of the 1912-14 p e r i o d , then, l a y the rhythmic t e n s i o n between image and epigram, the a r t i s t and s o c i e t y , the c u l t s o f beauty and u g l i n e s s . T h i s dramatic 123 c o u n t e r p o i n t r e p r e s e n t e d Pound's major advance, d u r i n g the i m a g i s t p e r i o d , toward major form. As we saw a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s c h a p t e r , the i m a g i s t poems expressed cosmic rhythms, and i n t h i s sense j o i n e d w i t h Pound's e a r l y poems, which sought t o r e f l e c t the e s s e n t i a l coherence of the cosmos. The epigram d i f f e r s from t h i s attempt, r e f l e c t s the harsher rhythms of Pound's p e r s o n a l impatience w i t h s o c i e t y . From 1916 onward, t e n s i o n between the c u l t s of beauty and u g l i n e s s l a y behind every one of Pound's experiments w i t h major form. 124 IV TONE A War Poems Pound wrote o n l y t h r e e poems d e a l i n g w i t h the war, perhaps because, l i k e many o t h e r s , he wanted t o i g n o r e i t . The f i r s t , "1915: February," was a p p a r e n t l y extremely p a s s i o n a t e : "I t h i n k i t has some guts, but am perhaps s t i l l b l i n d e d by the f u r y i n which I wrote i t , and s t i l l confuse the cause w i t h the r e s u l t , " he wrote Mencken (SL, 51) . But Mencken too wanted t o ign o r e i t , and a a matter of p r i n c i p l e r e f u s e d t o p r i n t a s i n g l e word about the war i n Smart Set, i n c l u d i n g Pound's poem. Indeed, i f the o n l y r e c o r d l e f t o f the 1914-19 p e r i o d were the f i l e s o f the Smart Set we would not have a s i n g l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e had been a war a t a l l . " ' " The second poem, "The Coming of War: Actaeon", viewed the war i n d i r e c t l y , from a s u b j e c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e : 125 An image of Lethe, and the f i e l d s F u l l o f f a i n t l i g h t but golden, Gray c l i f f s , and beneath them A sea Harsher than g r a n i t e , u n s t i l l , never c e a s i n g . . . (CSP, 117) While t h i s poem d e s c r i b e d the mood of a non-combatant, Pound's t h i r d poem on the war, "Poem: A b b r e v i a t e d from the c o n v e r s a t i o n o f Mr. T.E.H.," d e a l t w i t h the c o n f l i c t d i r e c t l y . I t was compiled from Hulme's t a l k "when he came home w i t h h i s f i r s t wound i n 1915," and f i r s t appeared i n C a t h o l i c Anthology, l a t e r b e i n g r e p r i n t e d i n Umbra. Here the war becomes, f o r an i n s t a n t , v e r y r e a l : Over the f l a t s l o p e of S t . E l o i A wide w a l l o f sandbags. Night, In the s i l e n c e d e s u l t o r y men P o t t e r i n g over s m a l l f i r e s , c l e a n i n g t h e i r m e s s - t i n s : To and f r o , from the l i n e s , Men walk as on P i c c a d i l l y , Making paths i n the dark, Through s c a t t e r e d dead horses, Over a dead B e l g i a n ' s b e l l y . The Germans have r o c k e t s . The E n g l i s h have no r o c k e t s . Behind the l i n e , cannon, hidden, l y i n g back m i l e s . Before the l i n e , chaos: My mind i s a c o r r i d o r . The minds about me are c o r r i d o r s . Nothing suggests i t s e l f . There i s n o t h i n g to do but keep on. 126 The most obvious reason f o r the development of t h i s new, non-dramatic poignancy was the death of Pound's c l o s e s t f r i e n d , Gaudier-Brzeska, a t N e u v i l l e S t . Vaast, on June 5, 1915. Hume's death i n September, 1917, was an added blow. And o f the death o f Remy de Gourmont i n l a t e r 1915 Pound s a i d simply, "the world's l i g h t i s darkened. . . . He i s as much 'dead of the war' as i f he had d i e d i n the t r e n c h e s " (SP, 390). The deaths of these f r i e n d s seemed more than a p e r s o n a l l o s s to Pound, i t seemed a l o s s t o c i v i l i z a t i o n . And, not s u r p r i s i n g l y , i n one who made such v a s t c l a i m s f o r a r t , Pound b e l i e v e d even d u r i n g the f i r s t year of war t h a t "the a r t s are the o n l y t h i n g s worth keeping up." As the war co n t i n u e d i n t o the second year, however, Pound began t o blame the h o l o c a u s t — n o t on economic c o n s p i r a t o r s , as he was l a t e r t o d o — b u t on i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s . They had not opened i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i n e s of communication between people, and had thus c o n t r i b u t e d t o mutual s u s p i c i o n and d i s l i k e . American a r t i s t s , Pound s a i d , had been p a r t i c u l a r l y n e g l i g e n t : U l t i m a t e l y , the imp r e s s i o n o f n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r or n a t i o n a l honesty i s a l i t e r a r y i m p r e s s i o n . I f we f i n d a body of w r i t e r s i n any country s e t t i n g down t h e i r b e l i e f s and impressions i n c l e a r words t h a t conform t o f a c t as we know i t or f i n d i t , we b e g i n , without f u s s or e b u l l i t i o n , t o have a q u i e t amity or r e s p e c t f o r t h a t n a t i o n . 127 Whenever I meet an i n t e r e s t i n g man i n e i t h e r England or America he i n v a r i a b l y t e l l s me t h i n g s which he " i s not allowed to p r i n t . " ( T h i s i s not a matter o f war c e n s o r s h i p ; I am aiming no s h a f t a t t h a t v e r y necessary board.) . . . And the r e s u l t of i t ? . . . That p r i v a t e l e t t e r s from America are i n t e r e s t i n g and t h a t p r i n t e d w r i t i n g i s not . . .. U n t i l t h e r e i s an e xact correspondence between what the man says to h i s f r i e n d i n p r i v a t e and what he w r i t e s i n h i s book or h i s paper t h e r e  i s not l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e r ^ i s no f i r m b a s i s f o r a l i e n f r i e n d s h i p and acquaintance. That i s , Pound d i d not see i t as the a r t i s t ' s duty t o take s i d e s i n h i s w r i t i n g i n the p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t . T h i s would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e , not o n l y because " t h i s war i s p o s s i b l y a c o n f l i c t betwen two f o r c e s almost e q u a l l y d e t e s t a b l e . Atavism and the loathsome s p i r i t o f m e d i o c r i t y c l o a k e d i n g r a f t " (SL, 46), but because the a r t i s t no l o n g e r shared concerns w i t h any o t h e r c l a s s : " I I admettait t r o i s a r i s t o c r a c i e s , l a n o b l e s s e , l e c l e r g d e t l a l i t t e r a t u r e , " wrote Renan of a c e r t a i n suave c l e r i c . . . . We no l o n g e r r e s p e c t the c l a s s , we r e s p e c t the i n d i v i d u a l of i t . The time when one might have looked on any s o r t of c l e r g y as an " a r i s t o c r a c y " i s so l ong gone t h a t one can o n l y look upon the i d e a as a q u a i n t s o r t of b r i c - a - b r a c . There remains an a r i s t o c r a c y o f the,, c r e a t i v e a r t s and an a r i s t o c r a c y of i n v e n t i v e s c i e n c e . And the f u n c t i o n of t h i s i s o l a t e d a r i s t o c r a c y of the c r e a t i v e a r t s was, Pound wrote i n Gaudier-Brzeska, to "keep 128 a l i v e the c r e a t i v e , the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y - i n v e n t i v e - c r e a t i v e s p i r i t and a b i l i t y i n man" (GB, 1 0 9 ) — e s p e c i a l l y i n a time of mass p r o d u c t i o n , mass propoganda, mass s l a u g h t e r . Consequently, Pound's w r i t i n g d u r i n g the war took the form of keeping the " i n t e l l e c t u a l l y - i n v e n t i v e - c r e a t i v e s p i r i t and a b i l i t y i n man" a l i v e . In 1915, p a r t i c u l a r l y , he threw h i m s e l f i n t o c r e a t i v e e f f o r t , not o n l y w r i t i n g " P r o v i n c i a D e s e r t a , " "Near P e r i g o r d , " " V i l l a n e l l e : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Hour," and Cathay, but a l s o b e g i n n i n g the Ur-cantos. A l l these works were l i n k e d by Pound's attempt to c e l e b r a t e the human p e r s o n a l i t y as i t r e a c t e d to v a r i o u s kinds of s t r e s s — a n obvious s i d e - e f f e c t of w a r — o r as i t attempted to c r e a t e a l i t e r a r y paideuma t h a t would p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e to the l e s s p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of contemporary " c i v i l i z a t i o n . " Though the content of these experiments had n o t h i n g to do w i t h World War I, t h e i r t o n a l i t y was e x a c t l y a p p r o p r i a t e to the war y e a r s . Pound's growth i n the a r e a o f e x p r e s s i n g poignancy and r e t i c e n c e d u r i n g t h i s time was to show i t s s t r e n g t h l a t e r , i n the Cantos. 129 B Poignancy 1. The L i t a n y Seeking a model f o r the c e l e b r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y i n the p a s t , Pound turned to the L a t i n poets of the t e n t h , e l e v e n t h , and t w e l f t h c e n t u r i e s , such as Goddeschalk, whose s e g u a i r e , Pound had noted i n "Psychology and Troubadours" (1912), marked the f i r s t c e l e b r a t i o n of the d i v i n i t y o f the human p e r s o n a l i t y . In t h i s s e g u a i r e , Pound says, "we see a new refinement, an enrichment, I t h i n k , o f paganism. The god has a t l a s t succeeded i n becoming human, and i t i s not the beauty of the god but the p e r s o n a l i t y which i s the g o a l of l o v e and the i n v o c a t i o n " (SR, 98). In 1915, Pound s a i d Remy de Gourmont's d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e had been i n f l u e n c e d by h i s study of Goddeschalk: In p o e t r y as i n prose de Gourmont has b u i l t up h i s own p a r t i c u l a r form . . . . His own mode began, I t h i n k , w i t h the t r a n s l a t i o n of the very b e a u t i f u l " s e q u a i r e " 130 of Goddeschalk i n Le L a t i n Mystique. T h i s he made, very p o s s i b l y , the b a s i s o f h i s " L i v r e de L i t a n i e s " , a t l e a s t t h i s c u r i o u s e v o c a t i o n a l form, the c u r i o u s r e p e t i t i o n s , the p e r s o n a l sweeping rhythm, a re made wh o l l y hiw own, and he used them l a t e r i n the "Les S a i n t s de P a r a d i s " , and l a s t o f a l l i n the prose sonnets. (SP,388) To Pound, the " e f f e c t i v e i n d i r e c t n e s s " of the "incomparable" rhythm i n a poem l i k e the " L i t a n i e s de l a Rose" must come to l i f e " i n a u d i t i o n , o r i n the f i n e r a u d i t i o n which one may have i n imaging sound. One must 'hear' i t , i n one way or another, and out o f t h a t i n t o x i c a t i o n comes beauty." Pound d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the mental rhythms which the poems causes to a r i s e i n the mind from de Gourmont's prose sonnets, which " r i s e out of n a t u r a l speech, out o f c o n v e r s a t i o n " (MIN, 188),. The rhythms o f the " L i t a n i e s de l a Rose" have a l i t u r g i c a l aroma: Rose h y a l i n e , c o u l e u r des sources c l a i r e s j a i l l i e s d'entre l e s herbes, rose h y a l i n e , Hylas e s t mort d'avour aime- t e s yeux, f l e u r h y p o c r i t e , f l e u r du s i l e n c e . Rose o p a l e , 6 s u l t a n e endormie dans l'odeur du harem, rose o p a l e , langueur des constantes c a r e s s e s , ton coeur c o n n a i t l a p a i x profonde des v i c e s s a t i s f a i t s , f l e u r h y y p o c r i t e , f l e u r du s i l e n c e . Rose amethyste, e t o i l e m a t i n a l e , tendresse e p i s c o p a l e , rose amethyste, t u dors sur des p o i t r i n e s devotes e t d o u i l l e t t e s , gemme o f f e r t e a Marie, 6 gemme 131 s a c r i s t i n e , f l e u r h y p o c r i t e , f l e u r du s i l e n c e . Rose c a r d i n a l e , rose c o u l e u r du sang de l ' E g l i s e Romaine, rose c a r d i n a l e , t u f a i s r e v e r l e s grand yeux des mignons e t p l u s d'un t ' e p i n g l a au noeud de sa j a r r e t i e r e , f l e u r h y p o c r i t e , f l e u r du s i l e n c e . Rose papale, rose a r r o s e e des mains q u i b e n i s s e n t l e monde, rose papale, ton coeur d'or e s t en c u i v r e , e t l e s larmes q u i p e r l e n t sur t a v a i n e c o r o l l e , ce sont l e s p l e u r s du C h r i s t , f l e u r h y p o c r i t e , f l e u r du s i l e n c e . F l e u r h y p o c r i t e , F l e u r du s i l e n c e . (MIN, 192) The unexpected s p a c i n g of the r e p e t i t i o n s ("Fleur h y p o c r i t e , / F l e u r du s i l e n c e " ) i n t o x i c a t e one when read a l o u d , as does the Mass. But the o b j e c t of v e n e r a t i o n i s not God; i t i s a more sensuous and o p u l e n t source of beauty. Pound's 1912 t r a n s l a t i o n of the s e q u a i r e of Goddeschalk p o i n t s out t h a t i t i s not the p l a s t i c beauty o f the god but "the p e r s o n a l i t y which i s the g o a l of the l o v e and the i n v o c a t i o n " . (my emphasis) Thus the l o v e occurs between two " p e r s o n " - a l i t i e s - though one of the i s " d i v i n e " , the o t h e r human. De Gourmont a p p r o p r i a t e s the l i t u r g i c a l rhythm to c e l e b r a t e human l o v e . In Goddeschalk's s e q u a i r e the l i t u r g i c a l rhythm conveys the f e e l i n g of v e n e r a t i o n d i s c u s s e d by Pound: The P h a r i s e e murmurs when the woman weeps, cons c i o u s o f g u i l t . S i n n e r , he d e s p i s e s a f e l l o w - i n - s i n . Thou, unacquainted w i t h s i n , hast r e g a r d f o r the p e n i t e n t , c l e a n s e s t the s o i l e d one, 132 l o v e d her to make her most f a i r . She embraces the f e e t of the master, washes them w i t h t e a r s , d r i e s them w i t h her h a i r ; washing and d r y i n g them she a n o i n t e d them w i t h unguent, covered them w i t h k i s s e s . These are the f e a s t s which p l e a s e thee, 0 Wisdom of the F a t h e r ! Born of the V i r g i n , who d i s d a i n e d not the touch of a s i n n e r . Chaste v i r g i n s , they immaculately o f f e r unto the Lord the s a c r i f i c e of t h e i r pure b o d i e s , c h o o s i n g C h r i s t f o r t h e i r d e a t h l e s s bridegroom. 0 happy b r i d a l s , whereto t h e r e are no s t r a i n s , no heavy d o l o r s of c h i l d b i r t h , no r i v a l m i s t r e s s t o be f e a r e d , no nurse m o l e s t f u l ! T h e i r couches, kept f o r C h r i s t a lone, are w a l l e d about by angels of the guard, who, w i t h drawn sword, ward o f f the unclean l e s t any paramour d e f i l e them. T h e r e i n C h r i s t s l e e p e t h w i t h them: happy i s t h i s s l e e p sweet the r e s t t h e r e , wherein t r u e maid i s f o n d l e d i n the embraces of her heavenly spouse. Adorned are they w i t h f i n e l i n e n , and w i t h a robe of p u r p l e ; these f l o w e r s are h i s chosen food. He l e a p e t h , and boundeth and gamboleth among them. (SR, 98-99) C l e a r l y , de Gourmont's " L i t a n i e s " p i c k up Goddeschalk 1s s e n s u a l i t y as w e l l as h i s i n c a n t o r y rhythms. Pound's o r i g i n a l work d u r i n g 1915, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Ur-cantos, b u i l t on the concept of u s i n g t h i s k i n d of e v o c a t i o n a l l i t u r g i c a l rhythm to c e l e b r a t e p e r s o n a l i t y . And s i n c e the c o n n e c t i o n between t h i s sweeping p e r s o n a l rhythm and the e x p r e s s i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y bears d i r e c t l y on Pound's development of the long poem, i t w i l l be worthwhile to i n q u i r e i n t o de Gourmont's concept of the nature and o r i g i n o f the s e q u e n t i a l poem. 133 2 . The L a t i n Sequences In Le L a t i n Mystique du Moyen Age, de Gourmont speaks o f the L a t i n sequences o r i g i n a t e d by Notker Balbus and developed by Goddeschalk i n the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , and f u r t h e r developed by S t . H i l d e g a r d and Thomas A Kempis, as p o s s e s s i n g a m a g i c a l or m y s t i c a l q u a l i t y . I I s ' a g i t du'une forme de l a p o e s i e l a t i n s p e c i a l e aux dixieme e t onzieme s i e c l e s ; prolongee jusgu'au douzieme par s a i n t e H i l d e g a r d e e t d ' a u t r e s , r e p r e i s e t o u t a l a f i n du moyen age par Thomas a Kempis, l e q u e l en f i t l e p r i n c i p e o c c u l t e q u i r£git l e s t y l e de son I m i t a t i o n e t de ses a u t r e s t r a i t e s mystiques. C'est un psaume de d i x a t r e n t e v e r s e t s , l e p l u s souvent, auquel des a l l i t e r a t i o n s , des recherches de mots, des rimes e t des assonances f i n a l e s ou i n t e r i e r e s donnent s e u l e s un a i r de poeme. The strange m u s i c a l i t y of these sequences s u p p l i e d t h e i r m ystic q u a l i t y , a f a c t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the f a c t t h a t the monks who composed them were musicians as w e l l as p r i e s t : "Notker e t a i t m u s i c i e n , composait ensemble l e s phrases v e r b a l e s e t l e s phrases v o c a l e s a i n s i , sans n u l doute, Wipo e t presque tous l e s s e q u e n t a i r e s . ^ The development of the form i n the Abbey of S t . - G a l l , where the d a i l y masses were i n t o n e d , l e d to a s e n s i t i v i t y t o the proper j u n c t u r e s between word and music; the term " s e q u e n t i a " i m p l i e s t h i s 134 m u s i c a l and r e l i g i o u s h e r i t a g e : C'est l a sans doute qu'a ces o c c a s i o n a l l e s compositions f u t donne l e nom de sequences. Pourquoi? L ' o n t - e l l e s emprunte a l a r u b r i q u e q u i s u i t imme'diatement l e g r a d u e l , Sequentia s a n c t i e v a n g e l i i , ou sequala, c ' e s t - a - d i r e s u i t e , s u i t e de notes on ne s a i t a c e t t e heure ce sont des pro s e s , e t d e j a , anciennement, on l e s denommait prosa our p r o s c u l a . P l u s gdneralement e t en s c i e n c e de l i t u r g i e , on l e s cons i d e r e comme des i n t e r p o l a t i o n s au t e x t e de l a messe, comme des t r o p e s (Trope, t h r o p h i ) ; l e s r e c u e i l s speciaux de sequences, quelques g f u r e n t conservees, s ' a p p e l a i e n t t r o p a i r e s , t r o p h a i r e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s k i n d o f experiment w i t h sound v a l u e s and contemporary troubadour experiments w i t h motz e son s t r u c k Pound f o r c i b l y . In "Psychology and Troubadours" he s p e c u l a t e d on the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the reverence f o r p e r s o n a l i t y i n the se q u a i r e may have been f u r t h e r developed by the troubadours t o p r a i s e , not the human q u a l i t i e s o f God, as i n Goddeschalk' s sequence,, but the d i v i n e a t t r i b u t e s o f the human p e r s o n a l i t y . Troubadours such as Arnaut D a n i e l were educated, l i k e Goddeschalk, i n abbeys where they might have p i c k e d up the reverence f o r p e r s o n a l i t y from the i n c a n t o r y rhythms and tone o f the s e q u a i r e . A t the dawning o f t h i s new impulse toward r e s p e c t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l human p e r s o n a l i t y , Pound reasoned, the 135 troubadours adapted t h i s form t o c e l e b r a t e the Lady. Hence, a r e l i g i o u s form and impulse attended the b i r t h o f Romantic l o v e - which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s treatment o f women as d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t i e s r a t h e r than as c h a t t e l s : " C o u r t l y Love i s . . . r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the ' d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n ' of r e l a t i o n s between men and women, inasmuch as not s o c i a l p o s i t i o n but i n t r i n s i c worth determined the mutual a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the p a r t n e r s a c c o r d i n g t o the c o u r t l y 9 code". And t h i s c o n j u n c t i o n of form and co n t e n t , Pound thought, might p r o v i d e a model of how to express t h i s sense of the v a l u e of i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the modern age, when a l l i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s were endangered: With such language i n the c l o i s t e r s , would i t be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the r e b e l s from i t , the c l e r k s who d i d not take o r d e r s , should have t r a n s f e r r e d something o f the manner, and something of the s p i r i t , t o the beauty of l i f e as they found i t , t h a t s o u l s who belonged, not i n heaven but, by reason of t h e i r refinement, somewhat above the m o r t a l t u r m o i l , should have chosen some middle way, something s h o r t o f g r a s p i n g a t the union w i t h the a b s o l u t e , nor y e t t h a t t h e i r c u l t s h ould have been e x t r a - m a r i t a l ? Arnaut was taught i n c l o i s t e r , Dante p r a i s e s c e r t a i n " p r i s e de romanzi" and no one can say p r e c i s e l y whether or no they were such prose f o r music as the L a t i n sequence I have j u s t quote. Yet one would be ra s h t o a f f i r m t h a t the "passada f o l o r " which he laments a t almost the summit of the p u r i f y i n g h i l l , and j u s t below the e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e , was a n y t h i n g more than d e f l e c t i o n . (SR, 99-100) That i s , the troubadours had chosen t o s i n g o f human 136 p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r than, l i k e Dante and the c l e r k s who took o r d e r s , man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the godhead. For Pound, t h i s c h o i c e ranked the troubadour, i n Dante's terms, " j u s t below the e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e " . As we have seen i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , Pound had been moving i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n : towards the c r e a t i o n and c e l e b r a t i o n of a p a r a d i s o t e r r e s t r e . Hence, s i n c e the s e q u e n t i a l poem marks the b e g i n n i n g of the concept of the p e r s o n a l i t y as d i v i n e , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t Pound would have looked very c l o s e l y a t i t s form. He had read i n de Gourmont t h a t these sequences r e p r e s e n t e d a new c y c l e , independent of the L a t i n ode: I n a u g u r a t i o n d'un c y c l e nouveau, absoluement inddpendant de l'ode l a t i n e , l e s sequences de Notker ont, en elles-memes, l a v a l e u r de poemes presque t o u j o u r s o r i g i n a u x , mais compact e t n o i r s , f r o i d s , rarement l y r i q u e s , s i ce n'est aux c o u r t e s phrases i n t e r j e c t i o n e l l e s q u ' i l l ance p a r f o i s en debutant, t e l l e s que de l o u r d e s notes de p s a l t e r i o n . (Gourmont, p. 110). In 1913 Pound noted " i n the b e s t v e r s e a s o r t of r e s i d u e of sound which remains i n the ear of the hearer and a c t s more or l e s s as an organ-base" (LE, 6-7) . I t seems he may be t h i n k i n g of the e f f e c t o f "de l o u r d e s notes de p s a l t e r i o n " . S i m i l a r l y , the i n t e r j e c t i o n o f l y r i c a l passages i n the 137 Cantos seems t o owe something t o the i n t e r j e c t i o n o f s h o r t l y r i c a l phrases w i t h i n the s e q u e n t i a l poems of the e a r l y Renaissance. And i n an 1914 e s s a y — s i g n i f i c a n t l y e n t i t l e d "The Prose T r a d i t i o n i n V e r s e " — P o u n d showed t h a t he was much p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h i m p o r t i n g t h i s new k i n d o f m u s i c a l i t y i n t o p o e t r y : S i n c e Dante's day - and indeed h i s day and C a s e l l a ' s saw a r e - b e g i n n i n g o f i t - "music" and "poetry" have d r i f t e d a p a r t , and we have a t h i r d t h i n g which i s c a l l e d "word music". I mean we have poems which are read o r even, i n a f a s h i o n , i n t o n e d , and are "m u s i c a l " i n some s o r t o f complete or i n c l u s i v e sense t h a t makes i t i m p o s s i b l e o r i n a d v i s a b l e t o " s e t them t o music". (LE, 376) The r e f e r e n c e t o poems which are "i n t o n e d " c a l l s Goddeschalk to mind once more. I t seems probable t h a t , s e e k i n g t o w r i t e a long poem, Pound would be a t t r a c t e d t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g the L a t i n sequences as a model t o a t t a i n a m u s i c a l element of "some s o r t o f complete or i n c l u s i v e sense", i n order t o p r o v i d e h i s poem w i t h an emotional, i f not s t r u c t u r a l , u n i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he wrote Amy L o w e l l i n Oct. 1913: "When you branch o f f i n t o n a r r a t i v e e t c . e t c My u n i t y i s an emotional u n i t y , but I don't want to p r e - and p r o - s c r i b e " (YC). 138 We can see, then, t h a t Pound's a d m i r a t i o n f o r de Gourmont's l i t a n i e s stemmed from t h e i r a b i l i t y t o express reverence f o r p e r s o n a l i t y i n a new k i n d of rhythm, modelled on the " c u r i o u s e v o c a t i o n a l form, the c u r i o u s r e p e t i t i o n s , the p e r s o n a l sweeping rhythm, of the L a t i n sequences. Submerged i n the f l u x of war, Pound saw the r o l e o f a r t as i t s a b i l i t y t o l i f t man's s p i r i t "out of the realm of annoyance i n t o the calm realm of t r u t h , i n t o the world unchanging, the world of f i n e animal l i f e , the world of pure form" (BG, 127) . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , he was a t t r a c t e d t o Goddeschalk, whom de Gourmont d e s c r i b e s as " p l u t o t un i m a g i n a t i f , un i n v e t d r e v i s i o n n a r i e q u i conte apres l e g r a d u e l l e s reves d i v i n s q u i ont v i s i t e ses m e d i t a t i o n s " . (Gourmont, p. 122).. The worship of p e r s o n a l i t y which Pound saw as the m o t i v a t i o n behind the form and as c a r r i e d by the rhythm, of the L a t i n sequences, p r o v i d e d him w i t h a model f o r h i s attempt to c e l e b r a t e i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s i n wartime. The tone, the e v o c a t i o n a l a s p e c t , the p e r s o n a l sweeping rhythm, the sense of p e r s o n a l i t y of the s e q u e n t i a l poem, and of de Gourmont's " L i t a n i e s " , seemed to him to suggest a way of r e c a p t u r i n g t h i s d e v o t i o n a l a t t i t u d e to the human p e r s o n a l i t y , and w i t h i t a way of e x p r e s s i n g w i t h f u l l poignancy the s p e c t r e of men a t war. 139 3 P a t t e r n U n i t s Under these rhythmic i n f l u e n c e s Pound wrote a f l u r r y of l ong poems i n 1915: " P r o v i n c i a D e s e r t a " , " E x i l e ' s L e t t e r " , "Near P e r i g o r d " , " V i l a n e l l e " The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Hour", the Ur-cantos. L i n k i n g a l l these experiments w i t h l o n g poems was the attempt to s u b s t i t u t e a s u b t l e , l a r g e - s c a l e rhythm f o r mechanical u n i f y i n g d e v i c e s . T h i s attempt e n l a r g e d on Pound's experiments i n h i s i m a g i s t poems to "compose i n the sequence of the m u s i c a l phrase", d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I . Hence, i n January 1915 he defended v e r s l i b r e as the o n l y p o s s i b l e e x p r e s s i o n of c e r t a i n emotions or e n e r g i e s : One " d i s c a r d s rhyme", not because one i s i n c a p a b l e of rhyming neat, f l e e t , sweet, meet, t r e a t , e a t , f e e t , but because t h e r e are c e r t a i n emotions or e n e r g i e s which are not to be r e p r e s e n t e d by the o v e r - f a m i l i a r d e v i c e s or p a t t e r n s ; j u s t as t h e r e are c e r t a i n "arrangements of form" t h a t cannot be worked i n t o dados.(SP, 345). He was working toward the n o t i o n of l a r g e r form h e l d t o g e t h e r by a method oth e r than the mechanical r e p e t i t i o n of a rhyme or image a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . Speaking of imagism 140 3 P a t t e r n U n i t s Under these rhythmic i n f l u e n c e s Pound wrote a f l u r r y of long poems i n 1915: " P r o v i n c i a D e s e r t a " , " E x i l e ' s L e t t e r " , "Near P e r i g o r d " , " V i l a n e l l e " The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Hour", the Ur-cantos. L i n k i n g a l l these experiments w i t h long poems was the attempt to s u b s t i t u t e a s u b t l e , l a r g e - s c a l e rhythm f o r mechanical u n i f y i n g d e v i c e s . T h i s attempt e n l a r g e d on Pound's experiments i n h i s i m a g i s t poems t o "compose i n the sequence o f the m u s i c a l phrase", d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I . Hence, i n January 1915 he defended v e r s l i b r e as the o n l y p o s s i b l e e x p r e s s i o n of c e r t a i n emotions or e n e r g i e s : One " d i s c a r d s rhyme", not because one i s i n c a p a b l e of rhyming neat, f l e e t , sweet, meet, t r e a t , e a t , f e e t , but because t h e r e are c e r t a i n emotions or e n e r g i e s which are not to be r e p r e s e n t e d by the o v e r - f a m i l i a r d e v i c e s or p a t t e r n s ; j u s t as t h e r e are c e r t a i n "arrangements of form" t h a t cannot be worked i n t o dados.(SP, 345). He was working toward the n o t i o n of l a r g e r form h e l d t o g e t h e r by a method oth e r than the mechanical r e p e t i t i o n of a rhyme or image a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . Speaking of imagism 140 i n p o e t r y , he says t h a t i t "may be r e i n f o r c e d by a s u i t a b l e or cognate rhythm-form and by timbre-form", but i s c a r e f u l to p o i n t out t h a t he i s not r e f e r r i n g t o a mechanical p a t t e r n , but r a t h e r to l a r g e - s c a l e s u b t l e ones: "By rhythm-form and timbre-form I do not mean something which must of n e c e s s i t y have a 'repeat' i n i t . I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t a too obvious 'repeat' may be d e t r i m e n t a l " . (SP,347) S u r e l y he had i n mind here de Gourmont's u n p r e d i c t a b l e spaced r e p e t i t i o n s i n the " L i t a n i e s de l a Rose" ( " f l e u r h y p o c r i t e , f l e u r du s i l e n c e " ) . U sing a metaphor drawn from the v i s u a l a r t s , he d i s t i n g u i s h e d between a " p a t t e r n - u n i t " and a p i c t u r e i n terms of t h e i r use of the repe a t . The moment the p a t t e r n - u n i t becomes p r e d i c t a b l e i t cannot be repeated without l o s i n g i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . I t i s "so simple t h a t one can bear having i t repeated s e v e r a l o r many times. When i t becomes so complex t h a t r e p e t i t i o n would be u s e l e s s , then i t i s a p i c t u r e , an 'arrangement of forms'". (SP,344) The p a t t e r n u n i t i s not the same as the r e p e t i t i o n of a s i n g l e geometric form. In t h i s k i n d of p a t t e r n , "the i n v e n t i o n was merely the f i r s t c u r l e y c u e , or p a i r o f them. The r e s t i s r e p e t i t i o n , i s copying". (SP,344) S o c i e t y was yokin g i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n t o b a t t a l i o n s ; Pound wished to r e j e c t t h i s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n h i s a r t . 141 To copy i s not to keep a l i v e the c r e a t i v e - i n v e n t i v e s p i r i t of man. In January 1915 Pound t o l d H a r r i e t Monroe: "My propaganda f o r what some may c o n s i d e r ' n o v e l t y i n e x c e s s 1 i s a n e c e s s i t y " (SL, 48). And i n March he added: "You c o n s t a n t l y t h i n k I undervalue e l a n and enthusiasm. I see a whole country r o t t e d w i t h i t , and no one to i n s i s t t h a t 'form' and i n n o v a t i o n are compatible" (SL, 55-56). Throughout 1915, he experimented w i t h forms which are u n i f i e d by something l e s s p r e d i c t a b l e than the r e g u l a r r e p e t i t i o n o f p a t t e r n u n i t s , whether of sound or image. T h i s can be seen i n a s e v e n t y - s i x l i n e poem sent to H a r r i e t Monroe f o r Poetry, which she chose not to p r i n t . "From Chebar" eschews rhyme and r e g u l a r stanzas i n p r e s e n t i n g Pound's v i s i o n of a r t . And y e t r e p e t i t i o n of phrases, t h a t v a r y throughout i n a manner r e m i n i s c e n t of de Gourmont's " L i t a n i e s de l a Rose", and of " P r o v i n c i a D e s e r t a " , p r o v i d e u n i t y of tone: Before you were, America! I d i d not begin w i t h you, I do not end w i t h you, America. You are the p r e s e n t veneer. I f my b l o o d has flowed through you, Are you not wrought from my people! 142 I d i d not b e g i n aboard "The L i o n , " I was not born a t the l a n d i n g . There i s no use your q u o t i n g Whitman a g a i n s t me, His time i s not our time, h i s day and hour were d i f f e r e n t . The o r d e r does not end i n the a r t s , The o r d e r s h a l l come and pass through them. The s t a t e i s too i d l e , the d e c r e p i t church i s too i d l e , The a r t s alone can t r a n s m i t t h i s . They alone c l i n g f a s t t o ghe gods, Even the s c i e n c e s are a l i t t l e below them. They are "Those who demand the p e r f e c t , " They are "Not a f r a i d of the dark," They are a f t e r you and b e f o r e you. They have not need of smooth speeches, There are enough who are ready to p l e a s e you. I t i s I, who demand our p a s t , And they who demand i t . I t i s I, who demand tomorrow, And they who demand i t . I t i s we, who do not accede, ^ We do not p l e a s e you w i t h easy speeches. The u n p r e d i c a b t l y spaced r e p e t i t i o n s of phrases and words i n t h i s poem ( i . e . , They a r e . . . They a r e . . . They a r e . . . They have... There are; I t i s I . . . And they... I t i s I . . . And they... I t i s we... We do n o t ) , a v o i d "a too obvious 'repeat'." And when Pound says: "The o r d e r does not end i n the a r t s , / The o r d e r s h a l l come and pass through them", we can d e t e c t h i s movement away from e x p r e s s i n g t h i s o r d e r , 143 t h i s u n i v e r s a l coherence, i n p r e c i s e l y symmetrical terms. He has a c h i e v e d a way of r e f l e c t i n g the cosmic o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e i n a long poem. However, the formal r e s o l u t i o n of the poem d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from XVI Cantos i n an i n t e r e s t i n g manner. The l a s t t h r e e stanzas move from the c o u n t e r p o i n t of " I " and "they" ( i . e . , " I t i s I, who demand tomorrow, / And they who demand i t " ) t o a grammatical r e s o l u t i o n ( i . e . , " I t i s we, who do not accede, / We do not p l e a s e you w i t h easy speeches") which a t once l i n k s Pound w i t h "the a r t s " , and s eparates t h e i r common purpose from t h a t of s o c i e t y . The rhythm i n these s t a n z a s , too, yokes the w r i t e r w i t h a r t s , r e s i s t i n g t o g e t h e r the w i l l o f s o c i e t y . No s i m i l a r r e s o l u t i o n o ccurs i n XVI Cantos. - an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t by 19 24 Pound had moved even f u r t h e r away from d e s i r i n g t o r e f l e c t coherence i n an e a s i l y d e s c e r n i b l e manner. How do these comments on form connect w i t h our d i s c u s s i o n of l a r g e - s c a l e rhythmic e f f e c t s ? Pound twice quoted from Binyon's The F l i g h t o f the Dragon i n 1915: Our thoughts about d e c o r a t i o n are too much dominated, I t h i n k by the c o n c e p t i o n of p a t t e r n as a s o r t of mosaic, each element i n the p a t t e r n b e i n g repeated, a form without l i f e of i t s own, something i n e r t and bounded by i t s e l f . We get a mechanical s u c c e s s i o n which,aims a t rhythm, but does not a t t a i n rhythmic v i t a l i t y . 144 As Pound's f i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to both B l a s t No. 2 and the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Gaudier-Brzeska, Binyon's i n s i s t e n c e t h a t t h e r e may be o r g a n i c rhythm of image and p a t t e r n as w e l l as of sound, r e f l e c t the s t r e n g t h of Pound's d e s i r e to break the r e s t r i c t i o n of "mechanical s u c c e s s i o n " d u r i n g 1915. He had a l r e a d y experimented w i t h an i n c a n t o r y rhythm t h a t owed a g r e a t d e a l to de Gourmont's " L i t a n i e s de l a Rose", of course, i n the 1912 poem "The A l c h e m i s t " : By the b r i g h t flame of the f i s h i n g t o r c h Remember t h i s f i r e . Midonz, w i t h the g o l d of the sun, the l e a f of the p o p l a r , by the l i g h t of t h i s amber, Midonz, daughter of the sum, s h a f t of the t r e e , s i l v e r o f the l e a f , l i g h t of the y e l l o w of the amber, Midonz, g i f t o f the God, g i f t of the l i g h t , g i f t of the amber of the sun, Give l i g h t t o the metal. (CSP, 86) J u s t as "From Chebar" av o i d s mechanical s u c c e s s i o n of sound, "The A l c h e m i s t " avoided such p r e d i c t a b l e r e p e t i t i o n both of image and of sound. M o d e l l i n g h i s c r e a t i v e work on the theory of the Chinese w r i t e r s and a r t i s t s p o i n t e d to by Binyon i n 1911, and on t h a t p e r c e i v e d by de Gourmont i n the s e g u a i r e of Goddeschalk, Pound s t r o v e to prove t h a t "'form' and 145 i n n o v a t i o n were compatible". Binyon's warning about the danger of mechanical r e p e t i t i o n o f p a t t e r n - u n i t s , combined w i t h de Gourmont's experiments w i t h the i n c a n t o r y rhythms of the " L i t a n i e s " , p r o v i d e d Pound w i t h g u i d e l i n e s which he used i n h i s own attempts a t major form, and the e x p r e s s i o n of a c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y . I t was the experi e n c e of l o s s , s e p a r a t i o n , o r u n f u l f i l l e d d e s i r e f o r such p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a t Pound's poems o f these years e x p l o r e d ; t h e r e f o r e , the tone of poignancy predominated. C Ret i c e n c e 1 N a t u r a l Speech Yet de Gourmont's i n f l u e n c e on Pound d i d not stop w i t h awakening him to the a b i l i t y of i n c a n t o r y rhythm to produce a sense of the d i v i n i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y i n the l i s t e n e r . Speaking of de Gourmont i n Make i t New, Pound p r a i s e d t h i s q u a l i t y , but went on to add: "The Sonnets i n prose are d i f f e r e n t ; they r i s e out of n a t u r a l speech, out of 146 c o n v e r s a t i o n " (MIN, 188). And i n Pound's memorial essay of 1915, "Remy de Gourmont", he p r a i s e d these prose sonnets as "among the few s u c c e s s f u l endeavours to w r i t e p o e t r y of  our own time". (SP, 388.) In them, Pound s a i d , de Gourmont has " s o l v e d the two t h o r n i e s t q u e s t i o n s " . The f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y i n a modern poem i s to g i v e a f e e l i n g of the r e a l i t y o f the speaker, the second, g i v e n the r e a l i t y of the speaker, to g a i n any degree of poignancy i n one's u t t e r a n c e . That i s to say, you must b e g i n i n a normal, n a t u r a l tone of v o i c e , and you must, somewhere, express or cause a deep f e e l i n g . (SP, 388) That i s , de Gourmont, here r e c e i v e d p r a i s e not f o r h i s e v o c a t i o n of the d i v i n i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y through sweeping m u s i c a l rhythms, as i n the " L i t a n i e s " , but f o r h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a r e a l i s t i c speaker through n a t u r a l speech rhythms i n the prose sonnets. Pound admired the f a c t t h a t de Gourmont "has not been d r i v e n even to an e x o t i c speaker. H i s sonnets b e g i n i n the m e t r o p o l i s . The speaker i s p a s t middle age" (SP, 389). Pound went on to g i v e s e l e c t i o n s from the sonnets to demonstrate how one i s l e d from the " n a t u r a l tone of the w r i t i n g , the s c i e n t i f i c dryness", 147 "C'est une b e l l e chose qu'une t e t e de femme, l i b r e m e n t i n s c r i t e dans l e c e r c l e e s t h e t i q u e . . . ~ "Je s c u l p t e une hypothese dans l e marbre de l a l o g i q u e e t e r n e l l e . . . " Les epaules sont des sources d'ou descent l a f l u i d i t e des b r a s . . . " i n t o sudden d i r e c t statement of f e e l i n g , "the poignancy". That i s , j u s t as one i s i n t e n t "and w h o l l y o f f guard, comes, out of t h i s 'unpoetic', unemotional c o n s t a t i o n " , t h i s passage: "Les yeux se f o n t des d i s c o u r s e n t r e eux. Pres.de se t e r n i r . . . l e s miens te p a r l e r o n t encore, i l s n 1emporteront pas b i e n l o i n t a reponse, Car on n'emporte r i e n , on meurt. L a i s s e - m o i done re g a r d e r l e s yeux que j 1 a i d e c o u r v e r t s , Les yeux q u i me s u r v i v r o n t . " (SP, 389) De Gourmont's prose sonnets, Pound s a i d , are "the triumph of s k i l l and r e a l i t y " (SP, 390) . They convey the sense of b e i n g spoken by a r e a l person. " E x i l e ' s L e t t e r " demonstrated Pound's attempt to d u p l i c a t e de Gourmont's success i n h i s prose sonnets. I t too begins i n a n a t u r a l tone of v o i c e : 148 Now I remember t h a t you b u i l t me a s p e c i a l t a v e r n By the south s i d e of the b r i d g e of Ten-Shin. I n t e l l i g e n t men came d r i f t i n g i n from the sea and from the west border, And w i t h them, and w i t h you e s p e c i a l l y There was n o t h i n g a t c r o s s purpose, And they made n o t h i n g of s e a - c r o s s i n g or of mountain-c r o s s i n g , I f o n l y they c o u l d be of t h a t f e l l o w s h i p , And we a l l spoke out our h e a r t s and minds, and without r e g r e t . And when I was sent o f f to South Wei, smothered i n l a u r e l groves, And you to the n o r t h of Raku-hoku, T i l l we had n o t h i n g but thoughts and memories i n common. (CSP, 144) And i t ends w i t h the e x p r e s s i o n of "deep f e e l i n g " : And i f you ask how I r e g r e t t h a t p a r t i n g ; I t i s l i k e the f l o w e r s f a l l i n g a t S p r i n g ' s end Confused, w h i r l e d i n a t a n g l e . What i s the use of t a l k i n g , and t h e r e i s no end of t a l k i n g , There i s no end of t h i n g s i n the h e a r t . I c a l l i n the boy, Have him s i t on h i s knees here To s e a l t h i s , And send i t a thousand m i l e s , t h i n k i n g . (CSP, 146) In October 1915 Pound p i c k e d " E x i l e ' s L e t t e r " , a l o n g w i t h " P r u f r o c k " , as a " p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t a b l e " p i e c e of work f o r the year (SL, 64). Although i t s n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from de Gourmont's prose sonnets, i t s 149 rhythms resemble those of the " L i t a n i e s " , and i t s n a t u r a l tone o f v o i c e l e a d i n g to the e x p r e s s i o n of deep f e e l i n g r e v e a l s the i n f l u e n c e o f the sonnets. Inddeed, the e x p r e s s i o n of poignancy through a n a t u r a l tone o f v o i c e , and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l cadences, i s t y p i c a l not o n l y o f " E x i l e ' s L e t t e r " , but of Cathay as a whole. Pound's a p p r e c i a t i o n of the prose sonnets as "the triumph o f s k i l l and r e a l i t y " has i t s p a r a l l e l i n h i s a t t i t u d e t o Joyce's P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man, which he p r i z e d f o r the r e a l i s t i c way i t p r e s e n t s l i f e . Pound had read i t by January 1914, and f o l l o w i n g i t s p u b l i c a t i o n by Grant R i c h a r d s on June 15, he reviewed i t f o r The E g o i s t (15 J u l y , 1914). He c h i e f l y admired the way Joyce a v o i d s formal conventions when d e s c r i b i n g s l i c e s of l i f e . L i k e de Gourmont, Joyce i s "a r e a l i s t " , p r e s e n t s b e l i e v a b l e people and r e a l - l i f e s i t u a t i o n s : He does not b e l i e v e " l i f e " would be a l l r i g h t i f we stopped v i c i s e c t i o n o r i f we i n s t i t u t e d a new s o r t of "economics". He g i v e s the t h i n g as i t i s . He i s not bound by tiresome c o n v e n t i o n t h a t any p a r t of l i f e , to be i n t e r e s t i n g , must be shaped i n t o the c o n v e n t i o n a l form o f a " s t o r y " . Since de Maupassant we have had so many people t r y i n g t o w r i t e " s t o r i e s " and so few people p r e s e n t i n g l i f e . L i f e f o r the most p a r t does not happen i n neat l i t t l e diagrams and no t h i n g i s more tiresome than the c o n t i n u a l p retense t h a t i t does. Mr. Joyce's "Araby", f o r i n s t a n c e , i s much b e t t e r than a " s t o r y " , i t i s a v i v i d w a i t i n g . (LE, 400) 150 Pound's long poems of 1915, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Ur-cantos - as we s h a l l see i n Chapter V — a t t e m p t e d to meet t h i s c h a l l e n g e of Joyce's prose r e a l i s m : to a v o i d "neat l i t t l e diagrams" i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e , and to p r e s e n t r e a l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r s . 2 Compressed N a r r a t i v e Pound's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l o o s e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s l o n g e r n a r r a t i v e poems, such as " R e d o n d i l l a s " , l e d to h i s experiments w i t h more condensed forms d u r i n g the Imagist p e r i o d . Now Pound became aware t h a t he shared t h i s urge toward the condensation of n a r r a t i v e not o n l y w i t h Joyce, but a l s o w i t h contemporary w r i t e r s o f n a r r a t i v e v e r s e : F r a n c i s Jammes, C h a r l e s V i l d r a c and D.H. Lawrence have w r i t t e n s h o r t n a r r a t i v e s i n v e r s e , t r y i n g , i t would seem to p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s as c l e a r l y as prose w r i t e r s have done, y e t more b r i e f l y . Mr. Joyce i s engaged i n a s i m i l a r c ondensation. He has kept to prose, not needing the p r i v i l e g e supposedly accorded to v e r s e to j u s t i f y h i s method. . . . M r . Joyce's more r i g o r o u s s e l e c t i o n of the presented d e t a i l marks him, I t h i n k , as b e l o n g i n g to my own g e n e r a t i o n , t h a t i s , to the " n i n e t e e n - t e n s " , not to the decade between "the n i n e t i e s " and to-day. (LE, 401-02) 151 Pound was p a r t i c u l a r l y enabled t o a p p r e c i a t e t h i s accomplishment i n prose, having junked two novel s and what was presumably a s h o r t s t o r y and based on de Maupassant, t i t l e d "Necklace" (YC, #88). St i m u l a t e d by the c h a l l e n g e o f Joyce's achievement i n 1915, Pound wrote " V i l l a n e l l e : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Hour", which i s an attempt t o condense V i l d r a c ' s treatment o f a s i t u a t i o n i n h i s v e r s e n a r r a t i v e , " V i s i t e " . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s attempt i s brought home when Pound p r a i s e s " V i s i t e " f o r u s i n g "one f i f t h of the words t h a t a good w r i t e r of s h o r t s t o r i e s would have needed f o r the n a r r a t i v e " (SP, 338) . By h i s own standards o f computation, " V i l l a n e l l e " used l e s s than one t e n t h o f the words t h a t a good w r i t e r o f s h o r t s t o r i e s , such as de Maupassant, would have needed. Pound p r o v i d e d a prose t r a n s l a t i o n o f " V i s i t e " i n h i s review o f V i l d r a c i n "the Approach t o P a r i s " , ( S P , 336 f f ) which b e g i n s : He was seated b e f o r e h i s t a b l e , His dreams i n d o l e n t l y marked out W i t h i n the domain of h i s lamp And he heard a g a i n s t h i s window The f r a g i l e a t t a c k s of the snow. And suddenly he thought Of a man whom he knew And whom he had not seen f o r a long time. And he f e l t an o p p r e s s i o n i n h i s t h r o a t , P a r t sadness and p a r t c h a g r i n . 152 He knew t h a t t h i s man was without p r i d e E i t h e r i n h e a r t or i n word And t h a t he was without charm L i v i n g l i k e the t r e e s I s o l a t e d , on a ba r r e n p l a i n ; He knew t h a t f o r months He had been p r o m i s i n g t h i s man To v i s i t him, And t h a t the other Had thanked him g e n t l y f o r each one of these promises And had pretended to b e l i e v e i t . When V i l d r a c ' s n a r r a t o r f i n a l l y pays h i s v i s i t he f i n d s the man and h i s companion s u s p i c i o u s o f h i s motives f o r coming, e x p e c t i n g an u l t e r i o r purpose, and t h i s k i l l s any p o s s i b i l i t y o f communication. Unable t o break the s p e l l , he gets up t o go. Suddently understanding h i s ge s t u r e o f f r i e n d s h i p , the man and women s t r i v e t o keep him, but i n v a i n : They stood up be f o r e him B e t r a y i n g a c h i l d i s h need Of s k i p p i n g and c l a p p i n g t h e i r hands... He promised to come a g a i n . But b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the door He s e t c l e a r l y i n h i s memory The p l a c e t h a t bordered t h e i r l i v e s , He looked c a r e f u l l y a t each o b j e c t Then a t the man and woman a l s o , Such f e a r d i d he have a t the bottom o f h i s h e a r t That he would never come back. A f t e r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n Pound p o i n t s t o what he f i n d s 153 e x c e l l e n t i n V i l d r a c ' s poem. His comments make p l a i n t h a t he f i n d s i t c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h the b e s t modern prose (he i s not y e t f u l l y aware of D u b l i n e r s • ) Even more i m p o r t a n t l y , they show t h a t Pound i s a l r e a d y s p e c u l a t i n g on how to improve upon V i l d r a c ' s achievement, t h a t i s , on n a r r a t i v e v e r s e : I have been t o l d t h a t t h i s i s sentiment and t h e r e f o r e damned. I am not concerned w i t h t h a t argument. I dare say the poem makes a poor showing i n t h i s rough and h u r r i e d t r a n s l a t i o n ; t h a t p o i n t i s t h a t M. V i l d r a c has t o l d a s h o r t s t o r y i n v e r s e w i t h about one f i f t h o f the words t h a t a good w r i t e r of s h o r t s t o r i e s would have needed f o r the n a r r a t i v e . He has conveyed h i s atmosphere, and h i s people, and the event. He has  brought n a r r a t i v e v e r s e i n t o c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h n a r r a t i v e  prose without g i v i n g us long stanzas of bombast. You may make whatever o b j e c t i o n you l i k e t o genre p a i n t i n g . My o n l y q u e s t i o n i s : would i t be p o s s i b l e t o improve on M. V i l d r a c ' s treatment of a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n ? (SP, 368, my emphasis.) " V i l l a n e l l e : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Hour" was Pound's immediate r e p l y to t h i s 1913 c h a l l e n g e "to improve on M. V i l d r a c ' s treatment of a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . " I t i s roughly h a l f as long as " V i s i t e , " t r e a t i n g V i l d r a c ' s "given s i t u a t i o n " i n the condensed manner t y p i c a l of Pound's mature s t y l e . Pound's main a l t e r a t i o n of V i l d r a c ' s s i t u a t i o n was to r e p l a c e the v i s i t o r w i t h a man w a i t i n g f o r f r i e n d s to f u l f i l t h e i r promise to v i s i t him. He p r e s e r v e d V i l d r a c ' s 154 c h a r a c t e r s : two men and a woman., the emphasis on a promise to v i s i t ("twice they promised to come," "But they promised a g a i n : 'Tomorrow at t e a - t i m e ' " ) , and the bad weather as a background to the emotion: So much b a r r e n r e g r e t So many hours wasted! And now I watch, from the window, the r a i n , the wandering buses. (CSP, 177) And he i m p l i e d a p l o t which does more than b r i n g n a r r a t i v e v e r s e i n t o c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h n a r r a t i v e prose; i t shows Pound d e v e l o p i n g a condensed s t y l e which r e - e s t a b l i s h e d what he f e e l t was the undoubted s u p e r i o r i t y of p o e t r y : i t s a b i l i t y t o evoke condensed emotions unexpectedly: In the v e r s e something has come upon the i n t e l l i g e n c e . In the prose the i n t e l l i g e n c e has found a s u b j e c t f o r i t s o b s e r v a t i o n s . The p o e t i c f a c t p r e - e x i s t s . In a d i f f e r e n t way, of course, the s u b j e c t of the prose p r e - e x i s t s . . . . Yet I t h i n k t h i s o r d e r l i n e s s  i n the g r e a t e s t p o e t i c passages, t h i s q u i e t statement  t h a t p a r t a k e s of the nature of prose and i s y e t  f l o a t e d and t o s s e d i n the emotional surges, i s perhaps as t r u e a t e s t as t h a t mentioned by the Greek t h e o r e t i c i a n . (LE, 53-54, my emphasis.) 155 The aim i n p o e t r y i s to t o s s deep emotions up out of q u i e t statement. The n a r r a t o r i n " V i l l a n e l l e , " as i n de Gourmont's "Prose Sonnets," causes a deep emotion t o a r i s e out o f a n a t u r a l tone of v o i c e . Thus " V i l l a n e l l e " ends: Now the t h i r d day i s h e r e — no word from e i t h e r ; No word from her nor him, Only another man's note: "Dear Pound, I am l e a v i n g England." (CSP, 178) Pound was not sure whether he had accomplished s u f f i c i e n t poignancy i n " V i l l a n e l l e . " "I t h i n k I have missed f i r e " he t o l d h i s f a t h e r i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n j u s t b e f o r e Christmas i n 1915. "I wanted t o convey the 'sense - the f e e l ' t h a t  something c r i t i c a l i s happening t o someone e l s e a t a  d i s t a n c e . I t i s a p e r f e c t l y d e f i n i t e emotion. I have however o n l y succeeded i n g i v i n g the imp r e s s i o n t h a t I was d i s a p p o i n t e d by t h e i r absence" (YC). He w o r r i e d t h a t the poem's emotion i s too p e r s o n a l and does not achieve a more u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y . S i n c e the poem was q u i t e o b v i o u s l y w r i t t e n out of concern f o r f r i e n d s i n the f r o n t - l i n e t r e n c h e s , t h i s flaw was a c r u c i a l one i n Pound's eyes. In the same l e t t e r , he d i s c u s s e d h i s attempt t o achieve a s u b t l e k i n d o f repeat through r e c u r r e n c e of theme—a 156 s t a p l e i n the Cantos. He a l s o i n s e r t e d t h r e e l i n e s which do not appear i n the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the poem p u b l i s h e d i n Poetry (December 1915). The reason he g i v e s f o r i n s e r t i n g these l i n e s i s to prepare the reader f o r the end of the poem; we can see from t h i s how c a r e f u l l y he balanced the need f o r c l a r i t y w i t h the d e s i r e f o r compression: V i l l a n e l l e i s the name of an o l d v e r s e w i t h rhymes & a r e f r a i n . I wanted the e f f e c t of a r e c u r r e n c e of theme and meant " V i l a n e l l e " t o mean g e n e r a l l y the f e e l f o the v i l a n e l l e form i n a modern s u b j e c t . I t h i n k I have missed f i r e . I wanted to convey the " s e n s e — t h e f e e l " t h a t something c r i t i c a l i s happen-i n g t o someone e l s e a t a d i s t a n c e . I t i s a p e r f e c t l y d e f i n i t e emotion. I have however o n l y succeeded i n g i v i n g the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t I was d i s a p p o i n t e d by t h e i r absence. I t ' s not good enough. The 2 opening l i n e s of second paragraph o f d i v i s i o n I, ought to be expanded and made t o dominate the r e s t . As i t i s they pass u n n o t i c e d & the end i s n ' t s u f f i c i e n t l y prepared for.. We must have another t r y a t i t . . . . Perhaps you c o u l d j a c k up the v i l l a n e l l e i f you i n s e r t a f t e r the words " D i v e r s e f o r c e s " the l i n e s "How do I know? Oh, I know w e l l enough For t h e r e i s something a f o o t . " As f o r me I had over-prepared, e t c . (YL, i b i d . Pound's emphasis) Pound's comments show t h a t " V i l l a n e l l e , " l i k e Cathay, draws on the p a s t to c a s t l i g h t upon the p r e s e n t , and to put s u f f e r i n g i n t o a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . He was t r y i n g to 157 g r a f t the o l d French form onto a modern s u b j e c t (psychology); thus the t i t l e " V i l l a n e l l e : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Hour." A t the same time, he w r e s t l e d w i t h h i s u l t i m a t e c h a l l e n g e : how to master the t r i c k of the u n n o t i c e d r e p e a t . How to a t t a i n rhythmic v i t a l i t y . H is r e f r a i n i s c r a f t e d : "Beauty i s so r a r e a t h i n g / So few d r i n k of my f o u n t a i n , " repeated once o n l y to e s t a b l i s h i t s harmonies i n the mind. Then the s u b t l e r e p e a t : compacted, the phrase means something d i f f e r e n t : "Beauty would d r i n k of my mind." "Organic rhythm," Yeats had s a i d o f "The Return." Here i t i s ag a i n , w i t h a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f meaning; no mechanical s u c c e s s i o n . R i n g i n g the changes, Pound s l i p s i n another s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e : I had over-prepared the event . . . I had l a i d out j u s t the r i g h t books, I had almost turn e d down the pages . . . I had over prepared the event . . . As he would l a t e r say of such d e v i c e s , some minds take p l e a s u r e i n c o u n t e r p o i n t p l e a s u r e i n c o u n t e r p o i n t (canto LXXIX) 158 T h i s way l a y mastery. L i k e Joyce's "Araby," " V i l l a n e l l e " i s "much b e t t e r than a ' s t o r y ' , i t i s a v i v i d w a i t i n g . " Here Pound avoided the "neat l i t t l e diagrams" of n a r r a t i v e . As w e l l , " V i l l a n e l l e " answered the c h a l l e n g e of de Gourmont's prose sonnets. "The f i r s t d i f f i c u l t y i n a modern poem," Pound s a i d i n p r a i s i n g t h e i r success, " i s to g i v e a f e e l i n g o f the r e a l i t y of the speaker, the second, g i v e n the r e a l i t y of the speaker, to g a i n any degree of poignancy i n one's u t t e r a n c e " (SP, 388). T h i s comment was p u b l i s h e d i n the F o r t n i g h t l y  Review on December 1, 1915. " V i l l a n e l l e " was p u b l i s h e d i n Poetry the same month. Pound was responding to the c h a l l e n g e , both of V i l d r a c ' s V i s i t e " and de Gourmont's prose sonnets, w i t h the s h o r t s t o r i e s of Joyce, de Maupasant, and the s e g u a i r e of Goddeschalk i n the background! To keep the c r e a t i v e - i n v e n t i v e s p i r i t o f man a l i v e . Where e l s e can one f i n d a comparable reverence f o r t r a d i t i o n , s c h o l a r s h i p , c r e a t i v i t y , energy, concern f o r humanity, d u r i n g World War I? "Near P e r i g o r d " was p u b l i s h e d along w i t h " V i l l a n e l l e " i n Poetry (December 1915). I t was Pound's f i r s t major attempt a t the s e q u e n t i a l poem. Behind i t l a y "Zenia," "Zenia," "Und Drang." I t showed a way out of the impasse 159 of n a r r a t i v e . M echanical s u c c e s s i o n s of metre, rhyme, image, d i s a p p e a r . No l o n g e r was the long poem to be plagued by the e a r l y problem: "I don't l i k e t h i s hobbledy metre / but f i n d i t easy to w r i t e i n " ( " R e d o n d i l l a s " ) . 13 Indeed, Pound c o n s i d e r e d i t the u l t i m a t e i n f r e e v e r s e . And w i t h t h i s success another: the d i s c o v e r y of how to use scenery to h i g h l i g h t p e r s o n a l i t y . Scenery On the f i r s t o f December, 1915, Pound wrote t o H a r r i e t Monroe warning her about the k i n d of nature p o e t r y she was p r i n t i n g : Remember t h a t p o e t r y i s more important than v e r s e f r e e or o therwise. Be g l a d you have a r e c k l e s s competitor i n N.Y. (Others) to keep you from b e l i e v i n g t h a t scenery alone and unsupported i s more i n t e r e s t i n g than humanity. R e a l l y geography IS not the source of i n s p i r a t i o n . O l d Yeats pere has sent over such a f i n e l e t t e r on t h a t s u b j e c t . I hope to p r i n t i t sometime, or see i t p r i n t e d . (SL, 67) And by May, 1917, he r e p r i n t e d i t i n h i s e d i t i o n of Jack Yeats' L e t t e r s : 160 The t a s t e f o r scenery has t h i s advantage over the t a s t e f o r human nature; the h e a r t i s not b r u i s e d . Yet s i n c e scenery i s never absurd as are poor m o r t a l s , n e i t h e r i s th e r e l a u g h t e r nor g e n i a l p i t y . We lo v e scenery p r i n c i p a l l y because the f e e l i n g s i t c r e a t e s are t r a n q u i l and e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d , so t h a t we can enjoy our f u l l measure of s e l f - c o n t e n t ; d e a l i n g w i t h human nature the poet cannc-£ be the s u p e r i o r person nor can he be proud. Both " P r o v i n c i a D e s e r t a " ( Po e t r y , March 1 9 1 5 ) and "Near P e r i g o r d " humanize geography i n Yeats S r . ' s sense. L i k e " V i l l a n e l l e , " they show Pound responding t o the successes and c h a l l e n g e s o f oth e r a r t i s t s . In any case, geography, although i t comes to be of major importance t o Pound's long poems f o r the f i r s t time i n 1 9 1 5 , i s f i r m l y p l a c e d as a background to human emotions. Pound had been aware of t h i s a s p e c t as i t e x i s t s i n troubadour p o e t r y — s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n and backdrop t o the p o e m — f o r a few y e a r s . I t was n a t u r a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t he f o l l o w t h i s l e a d i n a poem on; the troubadour Bertan De Born. L i k e a l l of Pound's important poems i n 1 9 1 5 , "Near P e r i g o r d " h i g h l i g h t e d the importance of i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y . De Born i s the s u b j e c t of two 1 6 1 s e c t i o n s ; Maent j o i n s him i n the t h i r d . The poem p r e s e n t s a q u e s t i o n : What was the m o t i v a t i o n behind de B o r n 1 s l o v e song t o Maent? The poem e x p l o r e s t h i s problem, but does not attempt t o s t u f f l i f e i n ; t o "neat l i t t l e diagrams." In a note o r i g i n a l l y p r i n t e d w i t h the poem Pound r a i s e d the co n n e c t i o n between geography on the one hand, and romance and p o l i t i c s on the one hand, and romance and p o l i t i c s on the o t h e r : As t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e behind the apparent l o v e poem we have no evidence save t h a t o f f e r e d by my own o b s e r v a t i o n ; o f the geography of P e r i g o r d and Limoges. I must leav e the p r o f e s s i o n a l t a c t i c i a n s t o dec i d e whether B e r t r a n ' s p r o c l i v i t i e s f o r s t i r r i n g up the barons were due to h i s l i v e r o r t o " m i l i t a r y n e c e s s i t y . " When he d i d not keep them busy f i g h t i n g each o t h e r they mcjst c e r t a i n l y d i d close, i n upon h i m — a t l e a s t once. T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s e x p l o r e d i n s e c t i o n one: How would you l i v e , w i t h neighbours s e t about y o u — P o i c t i e r s and B r i v e , untaken Rochecouart, Spread l i k e the f i n g e r - t i p s o f one f r a i l hand; And you on; t h a t g r e a t mountain of a p a l m — Not a neat ledge, not F o i x between i t s streams, But one huge back h a l f - c o v e r e d up wit h p i n e , Worked f o r and snatched from the s t r i n g - p u r s e of Born-The f o u r round towers, f o u r b r o t h e r s — m o s t l y f o o l s : What c o u l d he do but p l a y the desperate chess, And s t i r up o l d grudges? (CSP, 172) 162 The g e o g r a p h i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n ("one huge back h a l f - c o v e r e d up w i t h pine") expresses de Born's c h a r a c t e r , the s t r e n g t h and s o l i d i t y of the palm c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the " f i n g e r - t i p s of one f r a i l hand" b e l o n g i n g to " f o u r b r o t h e r s — m o s t l y f o o l s . " De Borns c h a r c t e r i n f u s e s the c o u n t r y s i d e near Perigeux. The second s e c t i o n , f i c t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n , s e t s the composition of h i s poem h i g h i n H a u t e f o r t ' s tower; beneath, "the r i b b o n - l i k e road l i e s , i n r e d c r o s s - l i g h t , / Southward toward Montaignac": And the green c a t ' s - e y e l i f t s toward Montaignac. "Ribbon" not f o r the road o n l y , but t o foreshadow Maent as w e l l ; "red c r o s s - l i g h t " and "green c a t ' s - e y e " f o r the opposing p a s s i o n and j e a l o u s c a l c u l a t i o n i n h i s c h a r a c t e r — a complex study i n psychology. The t a n g l e d roads symbolize communication problems between people as w e l l as p l a c e s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s another dimension of de Born's c h a r a c t e r . . As o r i g i n a l l y p r i n t e d , i t began: I l o v e d a woman. The s t a r s f e l l from heaven. And always our two natures were i n s t r i f e . 163 Pound immediately d e l e t e d these two l i n e s as unnecessary prose statement. "Glad you l i k e the P e r i g o r d poem," he w r i t e s h i s f a t h e r i n December, 1915, the month of the poem's p u b l i c a t i o n : You w i l l improve i t c o n s i d e r a b l y i f you b l o t out the f i r s t 2 l i n e s o f p a r t I I I (p. 118) . Begin t h a t s e c t i o n w i t h " B e w i l d e r i n g e t c . " . . . The l i n e s are unnecessary & d e t r a c t a good d e a l from the v i v i d n e s s of t h a t p a r t o f the poem. (YC #406) As Ruthven n o t i c e s , Pound's r e v i s i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t he was " i n the p r o c e s s o f abandoning c o n c a t e n a t i o n as a s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e i n favour o f the b o l d e r j u x t a p o s i t i o n s o f the ideogrammic m e t h o d . T h e d e c a s y l l a b i c l i n e o f a l l t h r e e s e c t i o n s , the focus on de Born's p e r s o n a l i t y , the s w i t c h i n g from images of medieval Provence t o 1915 speech r h y t h s , c a r r y the o v e r a l l rhythm of the poem. In the t h i r d s e c t i o n de Born's p e r s o n a l i t y emerges as o n l y capable o f u n i t i n g w i t h Maent's a t i n t e n s e i n t e r v a l s . The nature o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p was f i n a l l y " b e w i l d e r i n g , " and geography r e i n f o r c e s t h i s : B e w i l d e r i n g s p r i n g , and by the Auvezere Poppies and day's eyes i n the green email Rose over us; and we knew a l l t h a t stream, 164 And our two horses had t r a c e d out the v a l l e y s ; Knew the low f l o o d e d lands squared out w i t h p o p l a r s , In the young days when the deep sky b e f r i e n d e d . From t h i s i d y l l t o s e p a r a t i o n . Maent's m i s t r u s t o f de Born's mind, juxtaposed w i t h her p a s s i o n a t e a t t r a t i o n ; to h i s s o u l , h i s hands: and then the c o u n t e r - t h r u s t : "Why do you l o v e me? W i l l you always l o v e me? But I am l i k e the g r a s s , I can not lov e you." Or, "Love, and I lov e and l o v e you, And hate your mind, not you, your s o u l , your hands." A complex n a r r a t i v e p l o t l i n e i m p l i e d i n f o u r l i n e s o f d i a l o g u e . Maent 1s c h a r a c t e r i s l i k e g r a s s : sensuous, u n t h i n k i n g : "She who had nor ears nor tongue save i n her hands." The u l t i m a t e i m p l i c a t i o n : a l a c k of t r u s t . Female i n t u i t i o n c o u n t e r p o i n t s male p l o t t i n g : "And always our two natures were i n s t r i f e . " And the geography? I t p e r s o n i f i e s de Born: the poem might be t i t l e d "Near B e r t r a n de Born" "Near P e r i g o r d " s e t s up an " o r g a n i c rhythm" between scenery and human p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t avoids neat l i t t l e sketches of human l i f e , and p l a c e s them i n dynamic i n t e r r e l a t i o n through a s c e n i c background t h a t p e r s o n i f i e s 165 them so s t r o n g l y t h a t i t seems to speak f o r them. And always, Pound emphasizes "human" na t u r e . Throughout 1915, Pound r e j e c t e d the n o t i o n of w r i t i n g war poems, and i n s t e a d experimented w i t h e x t e n d i n g the range of p o e t r y to the p o i n t where i t c o u l d d e a l w i t h human emotions as c r e a t i v e l y , s e l e c t i v e l y , and v i v i d l y as the prose of masters l i k e J oyce. " V i l l a n e l l e " and "Near P e r i g o r d " were p a r t of t h i s e f f o r t . H i s g r e a t e s t successes were to develop a new poignancy and r e t i c e n c e of tone, to develop the concept of a s u b t l e "repeat" as a method of u n i f y i n g a long poem, to b r i n g geography i n t o the poem as a r e i n f o r c e m e n t of human p e r s o n a l i t y , and to compress a n a r r a t i v e s t o r y l i n e i n t o a v i v i d s k e t c h of s i t u a t i o n a t one p o i n t i n time. The o v e r a l l attempt: to weave "luminous d e t a i l s " i n t o major form. 166 V Texture A Language and Imagery i n the Ur-Cantos Pound's language underwent a dramatic and permanent s h i f t with the pu b l i c a t i o n of canto four by the Ovid Press on October 4, 1917—just two months a f t e r the pu b l i c a t i o n of the t h i r d Un-canto i n Poetry. (August 1917) . E a r l i e r , Pound's personality provided the main unifying device i n long poems such as "Redondillas" (1911): I would sing . . . • • • I would sing . . . I sing . . . I would write . . . I would sing . . . I don't l i k e . . . I would sing . . . The dominance of the f i r s t person singular, together with the use of the future c o n d i t i o n a l , had r e f l e c t e d his 167 u n c e r t a i n t y about how to s t r u c t u r e h i s long poem. In " P r o v i n c i a D e s e r t a " (1995) , he had moved a step f u r t h e r , w r i t i n g from e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r than f u t u r e e x p e c t a t i o n s , i n the p a s t tense: I have walked . . . I have c r e p t . . . I know . . . (CSP, 132) The f i r s t Ur-canto (June 1917), two years l a t e r , r e t a i n e d the focus on the author but r e v e r t e d t o the f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n a l , a g a i n e x p r e s s i n g Pound's u n c e r t a i n t y about the d i r e c t i o n o f h i s major work: But say I want t o , say I take . . . Let i n your q u i r k s and twjeks, and say the t h i n g ' s an a r t - f o r m . . .? Pound took the c r i t i c a l step between June and August, when the t h i r d Ur-canto appeared. Although he i n t r o d u c e d h i s t r a n s l a t i o n from Homer w i t h a p e r s o n a l r e f e r e n c e ("I've s t r a i n e d my ear f o r . . . And cracked my w i t on . . .") , once he got f u l l y i n t o i t the f i r s t - p e r s o n mask s l i p p e d o f f Pounds' face and onto Odysseus': 168 And then went down to the s h i p , Set k e e l to b r e a k e r s , f o r t h on the godly sea, and Then s a t we . . . Came we then . . . I dug . . . Then prayed I . . . . . . And I c r i e d i n h u r r i e d speech . . . . By the p u b l i c a t i o n of canto f o u r i n October, the a u t h o r i a l v o i c e no l o n g e r p r o v i d e d the s u b j e c t of the poem, but was r a t h e r almost s u b j e c t to what i t p e r c e i v e d . Things have a r e a l i t y independent of the n a r r a t o r : P a l a c e i n smoky l i g h t , Troy but a heap of smouldering boundary-stones, ANAXIFORMINGESI A u r u n c u l e i a ! Hear me. Cadmus of Golden Prows; The s i l v e r m i r r o r s c a t c h the b r i g h t stones and f l a r e , Dawn., to our waking, d r i f t s i n the green c o o l l i g h t ; Dew have b l u r r s , i n the g r a s s , p a l e ankles moving. Beat, beat, w h i r r , thud, i n the s o f t t u r f under the apple t r e e s , Choros nympharum, g o a t - f o o t w i t h p a l e f o o t a l t e r n a t e . Here Troy's d e s t r u c t i o n , and Cadmus' e x p e d i t i o n to found Thebes, juxtapose w i t h images of growth to show c u l t u r a l f e r t i l i t y a r i s e from d e s t r u c t i o n . The dream-like j u x t a p o s i t i o n s r e c e i v e no e x p l a n a t i o n . No commentary i n t r u d e s t o t a l k "about" the e x p e r i e n c e . 169 The d e c i s i o n to r e s e r v e the f i r s t person s i n g u l a r f o r personae such as Cadmus and Odysseus, r a t h e r than f o r h i m s e l f , marks the b i r t h of Pound's mature c a n t i c s t y l e . The author's persona no l o n g e r p r o v i d e s the u n i f y i n g focus f o r the long poem; i n s t e a d , ccoherence a r i s e s from the sense of a coherent a r t i s t i c i n t e l l i g e n c e behind . the s u r f a c e t e x t u r e s e l e c t i n g and a r r a n g i n g the s u b j e c t matter. The c o n s i s t e n c y o f the rhythm and movement of the language i t s e l f p e r s o n i f i e s the persona. Pound's reason f o r d i m i n i s h i n g the importance of the a u t h o r i a l v o i c e p r o v i d e d i n h i s 1963 t r a n s l a t i o n of the Marquise de B o u f f l e r s ' " a i r : S e n t i r Avec Ardeur", throws a s p o t l i g h t on t h i s r e j e c t i o n of the a u t h o r i a l f i r s t person i n a long poem: You need not always n a r r a t e ; c i t e ; date, But l i s t e n a w h i l e and not say: " I ! I" Want to know why? The ME i s t y r a n n i c a l ; academical. E a r l y , l a t e Boredom's cognate mate i n step a t h i s s i d e And I w i t h a ME, I f e a r , y e t again! Say what you w i l l i n two Words and get t h r u ! Long, f r i l l y P a l a v e r i s s i l l y . 170 The e v o l v i n g c o n t e x t of the l i n e "Gods f l o a t i n the azure a i r " through the 1915 p e r i o d demonstrates how Pound a c h i e v e d growing v i v i d n e s s by a p p l y i n g t h i s r u l e to h i m s e l f : In the f i r s t Ur-canto, the v i s i o n a r i s e s out of a w e l t e r o f a u t h o r i a l s p e c u l a t i o n s on Browning's concept o f major form and h i s method of composi t i o n : So you worked out new form, the m e d i t a t i v e , Semi-dramatic, semi-epic s t o r y , And we w i l l say: What's l e f t f o r me t o do? Whom s h a l l I conjure up, who's my S o r d e l l o , My pre-Daun Chaucer, p r e - B o c c a c c i o , As you have done pre-Dante? Whom s h a l l I hang my shimmering garment on; Who wear my f e a t h e r y mantle, hagoromo; Whom s e t t o d a z z l e the s e r i o u s f u t u r e ages? Not Arnaut, not de Born, not Uc S t . C i r c who has w r i t out the s t o r i e s . Or s h a l l I do your t r i c k , the showman's booth, Bob Browning, Turned a t my w i l l i n t o the Agora, Or i n t o the o l d t h e a t r e a t A r i e s , And s e t the l o t , my v i s i o n s , t o confounding The w i t s t h a t have s u r v i v e d your damn'd S o r d e l l o ? (Or s u l k and leave the word t o n o v e l i s t s ? ) What a hodge-podge you have made t h e r e ! — Zanze and swanzig, of a l l opprobrious rhymes! And you t u r n o f f whenever i t s u i t s your fancy, Now a t Verona, now w i t h the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n s , or now a- g a b b l i n g o f the "Tyrrhene whelk." "The l y r e should animate but not m i s l e a d the p e n — That's Wordsworth, Mr. Browning. (What a p h r a s e ? — That L y r e , t h a t pen, t h a t b l e a t i n g sheep, W i l l Wordsworth!) That should have taught you a v o i d speech f i g u r a t i v e And s e t out your matter As I do, i n s t r a i g h t simple phrases: Gods f l o a t i n the azure a i r . . . . (Poetry, June 1917, 117-18) 171 When r e v i s e d soon a f t e r f o r i t s appearance i n L u s t r a (1917), the twenty-eight l i n e s of i n t r o d u c t o r y matter were s l a s h e d t o f o u r : Worked our new form, m e d i t a t i v e , semi-dramatic, Semi-epic s t o r y ; and what's l e f t ? Pre-Daun Chaucer, P r e - B o c c a c c i o ? Not Arnaut Not Uc S t . C i r c . Gods f l o a t i n the azure a i r . Pound dropped the e x p l a n a t o r y n a r r a t i v e , as e x t r i n s i c t o h i s 4 r e a l matter. And by A D r a f t of XVI Cantos (1925) the v i s i o n was moved t o canto t h r e e , i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t e n t i r e l y : And the l i t cross-beams, t h a t year, i n the M o r o s i n i , And peacocks i n Kore's house, or t h e r e may have been. F l o a t : Gods f l o a t i n the azure a i r (XVI Cantos, 11) F i n a l l y , f o r our r e c e i v e d t e x t of the passage, Pound dropped even the t r a n s i t i o n a l " F l o a t " : And peacocks i n Kore's house, or t h e r e may have been. Gods f l o a t i n the azure a i r . ( I l l , 11) 172 These a l t e r a t i o n s focus the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on the experie n c e of the immediate v i s i o n r a t h e r than a u t h o r i a l s p e c u l a t i o n s , so t h a t the f i n a l v e r s i o n of the l i n e i s l e s s immediately comprehensible, though more v i g o r o u s and muscular, and possesses a more assured tone. Pound f i n a l l y h i g h l i g h t e d the v i s i o n , not h i s own i d i o s y n c r a c i e s . T h i s growing focus on the v i s i o n d u r i n g s u c c e s i v e r e w r i t i n g s reminds us t h a t as e a r l y as September 1914, he had c o n s i d e r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of u n i f y i n g h i s long poem around a c e n t r a l image: I am o f t e n asked whether th e r e can be a long i m a g i s t e o r v o r t i c i s t poem. The Japanese, who ev o l v e d the hokku, e v o l v e d a l s o the Noh p l a y s . In the b e s t "Noh" the whole p l a y may c o n s i s t o f one image. I mean i t i s gathered about one image. I t s u n i t y c o n s i s t s i n one image, e n f o r c e d by movement and music. I see no t h i n g a g a i n s t a l o n g v o r t i c i s t poem. As we saw i n Chapter I I , the s t r u c t u r e of the f u l l Noh program of f i v e o r s i x p l a y s t o p r e s e n t a "complete s e r v i c e of l i f e had e a r l i e r i n f l u e n c e d Pound's concept of major form; here he c o n s i d e r e d the usage of one image t o achieve u n i t y w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l p l a y . H is i n t e n t i o n a t one p o i n t was to p a t t e r n h i s long poem wit h images of growth (the ' p l o t ' was to be t h a t of Takasago, the Noh p l a y about sacre d 173 p i n e t r e e s ) . " But Pound found t h i s means of a c h i e v i n g u n i t y through "one image, e n f o r c e d by movement and music," i n c r e a s i n g l y unworkable. In March 1917 he wrote to Joyce t h a t he had "begun an e n d l e s s poem, of no known cat e g o r y . " T h i s was o n l y t h r e e months b e f o r e the appearance of canto one i n P o e t r y . He went on to say t h a t the v i s u a l element may have g o t t e n r a t h e r out of hand, d e s c r i b i n g h i s poem as phanopoeia or something or o t h e r , a l l about e v e r y t h i n g . . . . Probably too s p r a w l i n g and unmusical to f i n d favour i n your e a r s . W i l l t r y to get some melody i n t o i t f u r t h e r on. Though we have no ombra and ingombra to end our l i n e s w i t h , or p o l u p h l o i s b i o u s t h a l l a s s a s t o e n r i c h the middle f e e t . Pound's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the s p r a w l i n g form of the Ur-cantos, and i t s l a c k of u n i t y , p o i n t s out h i s i n a b l i l i t y t o l o c a t e a s i n g l e u n i f y i n g image, or sequence of images. Pound does t a l k a good d e a l about the v i s u a l element i n the Ur-cantos, and p r e s e n t s a number of images, even i f none of them a c t s as a c a t a l y s t . In canto one, f o r example, he c a l l s S o r d e l l o Browning's attempt "to p a i n t . . . the h a l f or t h i r d of your i n t e n s e s t l i f e " — a s though v i s u a l a r t was 174 foremost i n h i s thought - and ends the canto w i t h an exclamation about the p o t e n t i a l of such a method: Ba r r e d l i g h t s , g r e a t f l a r e s , new form, P i c a s s o or Lewis. I f f o r a year man w r i t e to p a i n t , and not to music — 0 C a s e l l a ! (Poetry, June 1917, 121.) S i m i l a r l y i n canto two, Pound recounts coming upon a sudden sense of the r e a l i t y o f J o i o s 1 p e r s o n a l i t y i n a b l u e and g i l d e d manuscript Decked out w i t h C o u c i ' s r a b b i t s , And the p i c t u r e s twined w i t h the c a p i t a l s . (Poetry, J u l y , 180) As i f to s t r e s s t h i s element, canto one begins w i t h a d e c o r a t e d i n i t i a l l e t t e r , which a n t i c i p a t e s the g r e a t e r complexity of the i n i t i a l s i n XVI Cantos (by Henry S t r a t e r ) , Cantos 17-27 (by Gladys H i n e s ) , and XXX Cantos (by Dorothy Shakespeare Pound). The absence of these o f t e n b e a u t i f u l scenes "twined w i t h the c a p i t a l s " i n subsequent e d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e s Pound's d e c i s i o n t o c o n c e n t r a t e a t t e n t i o n on the l i n g u i s t i c element of h i s work a f t e r 1930. S i m i l a r l y , the second Ur-canto ends w i t h a s t o r y of an 175 a r t i s t from the mid-West sent by h i s f a t h e r t o P a r i s t o study. A f t e r "Ten years of J u l i a n ' s and the a t e l i e r s " and some success he r e t u r n s to Indiana and h i s f a m i l y , reduced to p a i n t i n g "the l o c a l drug-shop and soda-bars," or a f l e a - b i t t e n sheep to hang over the l o c a l d o c t o r ' s man t l e p i e c e , but e n r i c h e d by h i s e x p e r i e n c e , "dreaming h i s r e n a i s s a n c e . " Pound d e d i c a t e d h i s Ur-cantos to t h i s a r t i s t : "Take my S o r d e l l o ! " (Poetry, J u l y , 188). While v i s u a l imagery dominates i n canto one, and anecdotes f i l l two, canto t h r e e p r i m a r i l y concerns i t s e l f w i t h language. Having g i v e n h i s v e r s i o n of John Heydon's v i s i o n near the b e g i n n i n g of canto t h r e e , f o r example, Pound q u i c k l y moved away from t h i s v i s u a l emphesis to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Heydon's use of language: "I have seen John Heydon." L e t us hear John Heydon! "Omniformis Omnis i n t e l l e c t u s e s t — thus he b e g i n s , by s p r o u t i n g h a l f of P s e l l u s . (Then comes a note, my assiduous commentator: Not P s e l l u s De Daemonibus, but Porphyry's Chances, In the t h i r t e e n t h c hapter, t h a t "every i n t e l l e c t i s omniform") (Poetry, August, 248-49) "Let us hear John Heydon." Quoting Heydon i n the o r i g i n a l L a t i n , Pound p r o v i d e s an i n f a l l i b l e index to Heydon's 176 c h a r a c t e r — f o r a man's rhythm i s " h i s own, u n c o u n t e r f e i t i n g , u n c o u n t e r f e i t a b l e " (LE, 9) . Here Pound employs d i r e c t quotes t o r e v e a l p e r s o n a l i t y . The spoken phrase, or t a g , becomes a d i r e c t l i n k , l i k e having someone on the telephone, between the man of the p a s t and the pre s e n t r e a d e r . S i m i l a r l y , l a t e r i n the canto, Pound d i f f e r e n t i a t e s Browning's emphasis on p e r s o n a l i t y i n h i s p o e t r y from V a l l a ' s emphasis on s o c i e t y , as expressed i n language: Ha! S i r B l a n c a t z , S o r d e l l o would have your h e a r t t o g i v e t o a l l the p r i n c e s ; V a l l a , the h e a r t o f Rome, S u s t a i n i n g speech, s e t out b e f o r e the people. "Nec bonus C h r i s t i a n u s ac bonus T u l l i a n u s . " V a l l a t r a n s l a t e s the h e a r t o f an e n t i r e t r a d i t i o n f o r the read e r , not the h e a r t of a s i n g l e person p r i n c e l y e l i t e . And a g a i n , as wit h Heydon, d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n conveys V a l l a ' s reverence f o r T u l l y ' s thought which i n t h i s way becomes p a r t o f the t r a d i t i o n . To emphasize t h a t E n g l i s h has taken over from L a t i n the r o l e o f a l i n g u a f r a n c a , Pound t r a n s l a t e s V a l l a ' s remarks on 177 Rome: "More than the Roman c i t y , the Roman speech" (Holds f a s t i t s p a r t among the e v e r - l i v i n g ) . "Not by the e a g l e s o n l y was Rome measured." "Wherever the Roman speech was, t h e r e was Rome," Wherever the speech c r e p t , t h e r e was mastery (Poetry, August, 250) A t r a n s l a t i o n from Homer f o l l o w s , as though t o emphasize Pound's d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o use h i s long poem to exceed the g l o r y o f L a t i n and Greek i n E n g l i s h . "I b e l i e v e language has improved," Pound wrote I r i s B a r r y i n August 1916, " t h a t L a t i n i s b e t t e r than Greek and French than L a t i n f o r e v e r y t h i n g save c e r t a i n melodic e f f e c t s . " (SL, 95) And, no doubt, E n g l i s h b e t t e r than French, and American b e t t e r than E n g l i s h . F i r s t , however, he pays t r i b u t e t o Andreus Divus' Rennaissance t r a n s l a t i o n , by p r o v i d i n g a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n from the L a t i n : "Down to the s h i p s we went, s e t mast and s a i l , / B l a c k k e e l and beasts f o r bloody s a c r i f i c e . " T h i s homage completed, he makes h i s own r e - c r e a t i o n from the L a t i n : I've s t r a i n e d my ear f o r -ensa, -ombra, and -ensa And cracked my w i t on d e l i c a t e c a n z o n i 178 Here's but rough meaning: "And then went down to the s h i p , s e t k e e l to b r e a k e r s , F o r t h on the godly sea; We s e t up mast and s a i l on t h a t swart s h i p , Sheep bore we aboard her, and our bodies a l s o Heavy w i t h weeping. (Poetry, August, 251) Here, "rough meaning" r e c a l l s Pound's complaint i n h i s l e t t e r t o Joyce t h a t "we have no ombra and ingombra t o end our l i n e s w i t h , " t h a t E n g l i s h l a c k s m u s i c a l i t y . I t a l s o p o i n t s t o the p r i o r i t y he had de c i d e d to g i v e c l e a r speech i n h i s poem d e s p i t e Browning's example, i n S o r d e l l o , o f co n v o l u t e d syntax t h a t " f o l l o w s the b u i l d e r ' s whim." The f a c t t h a t Pound l a t e r chose to be g i n h i s major poem w i t h h i s own t r a n s l a t i o n from Divus i n rough "Anglo-Saxon" speech, shows not o n l y h i s d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n and extend a t r a d i t i o n of g r a f t i n g the b e s t from e a r l i e r c u l t u r e s onto modern ones, but a l s o h i s d e s i r e t o s h i f t the focus on phanopoeia i n the Ur-cantos onto language i t s e l f , onto i t s d e n o t a t i v e component r a t h e r than i t s m u s i c a l q u a l i t i e s . H is long poem was e v e n t u a l l y t o c e n t r e not around a c e n t r a l image but around the p o t e n t i a l f o r the c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n o f meaning o f f e r e d by modern E n g l i s h . In 1915, however, the implementation of t h i s d e c i s i o n was s t i l l e i g h t y e ars i n the f u t u r e . 179 We have seen how the Ur-cantos p r o g r e s s e d from the use of the a u t h o r i a l " I " to i t s use by v a r i o u s personae, and from a focus on phanopoeia t o a focus on language, i n c l u d i n g the v o i c e s of many c h a r a c t e r s o t h e r than the author. These experiments allowed Pound t o t h i c k e n the t e x t u r e of h i s poe t r y by t a k i n g the burden of u n i f y i n g the poem o f f the p e r s o n a l i t y of the author and l e t t i n g v a r i o u s personae speak i n t h e i r own v o i c e s . B The Homage as N a r r a t i v e The c l e a r e s t p r o g r e s s i o n from the Homage to Sextus  P r o p e r t i u s (1917) through Mauberley (1920) to XVI Cantos (1925) was the d i s p e n s i n g w i t h obvious s t r u c t u r a l frameworks. Pound moved from the use of a n a r r a t i v e framework (the Homage), to the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an i m p l i e d argument by example or i l l u s t r a t i o n (Mauberley), t o the use of r e c u r r e n t m o t i f s (XVI Can t o s ) , i n o r d e r t o u n i f y h i s long poem. T h i s movement toward a l e s s obvious framework f o r the long poem marked a movement away from c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y forms toward what Pound con c e i v e d of as more n a t u r a l , o r g a n i c modes of o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g l y , Pound 180 emphasized the t e x t u r e o f words on the page, and t h e i r u n p r e d i c t a b l y spaced r e p e t i t i o n , r a t h e r than l a r g e symmetrical p a t t e r n s o f development. He moved away from l i t e r a r y frameworks toward an emphasis on n a t u r a l p a t t e r n s of r e c u r r e n c e . T h i s p a t t e r n can be seen i n embryonic form i n the Homage. For w h i l e Pound used P r o p e r t i u s as a c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r "to hang my shimmering garment on," he suppressed n a r r a t i v e l i n k s between and w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s of the poem, and i n t h i s way f o c u s s e d the rea d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n on the l i n g u i s t i c t e x t u r e o f the poem. We do not enjoy the Homage so much f o r i t s p l o t , as f o r what i t s language t e l l s us about P r o p e r t i u s ' c h a r a c t e r . Over the next s i x years Pound moved much f u r t h e r i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . As an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the Homage i t . w i l l be u s e f u l t o quote from Pound's essay "Henry James," which appeared i n the L i t t l e Review of August, 1918. F o l l o w i n g James' death i n 1916, Pound read the e n t i r e canon over a two-year p e r i o d . The Homage was begun i n l a t e 1916 and completed the f o l l o w i n g year, so Pound was r e a d i n g James w h i l e composing h i s poem on P r o p e r t i u s . In h i s review Pound says t h a t "the supreme reward f o r the a r t i s t " who has spent y e a r s d e v e l o p i n g h i s 181 c r a f t comes when the momentum of h i s a r t , the sheer bulk of h i s p r o c e s s e s , the ( s i l i c e t ) s i z e of h i s f l y - w h e e l , should heave him out of h i m s e l f , out of h i s p e r s o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s , out of the t a n g l e s of p e r s o n a l h e r e d i t y and of environment, out of the b i a s of h i s e a r l y t r a i n i n g , of e a r l y p r e d i l i c t i o n s , whether of F l o r e n c e , A.D. 1300, or of Back Bay of 1872, and l e a v e him simply the g r e a t t r u e r e c o r d e r . (LE, 299-300). As we saw w i t h r e g a r d to canto f o u r , Pound too was i n v o l v e d i n r i d d i n g h i m s e l f of p e r s o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s , d i s p e n s i n g w i t h the p u r e l y p e r s o n a l " I " i n h i s w r i t i n g . Here he r e v e a l s h i s d e s i r e t o emulate James by overcoming h i s own p r e d i l i c t i o n f o r " F l o r e n c e , A.D. 1300" ( i . e . , Dante). He had spent years p e r f e c t i n g the s h o r t i m a g i s t poem and epigram, and begun to w r i t e l o n g e r poems l i k e "Near P e r i g o r d " i n 1915; i t i s l i k e l y t h a t he now f e l t h i s " f l y - w h e e l " had a c h i e v e d s u f f i c i e n t momentum to p r o p e l him through the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a l o n g e r poem. In t h i s r e s p e c t , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Pound went on i n h i s review to mark the way James develops away from the s h o r t sentence, away from the p l o t , toward an emphasis on t e x t u r e . As James matured, Pound notes, t h e r e ensued a growing 182 d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the s h o r t sentence, epigram, e t c . i n which he does not a t t h i s time a t t a i n d i s t i n c t i o n ; the c l a r i t y i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the author, h i s donnee being r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of h i s contempories. The " s t o r y " not b e i n g r e a l l y what he i s a f t e r , he s t a r t s to b u i l d up h i s medium; a t h i c k e n i n g , a c h i a r o s c u r o i s needed, the long sentence; he wanders, seeks to add a needed o p a c i t y , he overdoes i t , produces the cobwebby n o v e l , emerges or j u s t i f i e s h i m s e l f i n M a i s i e and manages h i s long-sought form i n The Awkward  Age. (LE, 304) T h i s d e s c r i b e s Pound's own development, away from the "epigram," away from "the s t o r y , " towards a b u i l d i n g up of h i s medium, the " l o n g sentence" or long poem, toward a t h i c k e n i n g of h i s a r t . There seems l i t t l e doubt the Pound's review of James development s t i m u l a t e d h i s d e s i r e t o break through i n t o major form, a d e s i r e r e g i s t e r e d by h i s composition o f the Homage, M a u b e r l e y l , and the Cantos. The major q u e s t i o n he f a c e d was what k i n d of form to use. I t seems n a t u r a l t h a t he should look to adapt the n a r r a t i v e methods of contemporary n o v e l i s t s l i k e Henry James. Indeed, he says as much to F e l i x S c h e l l i n g i n a 1922 l e t t e r , where he speaks of Mauberley as "a study i n form, an attempt to condense the James n o v e l " (SL, 180) . But the n a r r a t i v e elements of p l o t and c h a r a c t e r development are much more obvious, l e s s condensed, i n the Homage. These elements are worth g l a n c i n g a t . S e c t i o n I, the f i r s t of 183 twelve i n the sequence, introduces Propertius 1 reasons for pre f e r r i n g the l y r i c mode to that of the epic. Section II shows Propertius i n a comic l i g h t as he t r i e s unsuccessfully to i n t e r e s t himself i n writing about war. Section III introduces Cynthia as someone for whom Propertius r i s k s death, while Section IV shows him r e a l i z e but ignore her inconstancy. Section V combines the themes of the previous four sections, as Propertius mocks the bombastic component of epic, and compares i t s l i t e r a r y stimulus unfavorably with that of his own poetry: "Neither C a l l i o p e nor Appolo sung these things into my ear, / My genius is. no more than a g i r l . " Section VI warns Cynthia of the f i n a l i t y of death, which comes even to lovers. Section VII shows Propertius at the summit of his happiness, as he r e c o l l e c t s t h e i r nights of love-making. In Section VIII, Propertius pleads with Jove to spare Cynthia's l i f e , and Section IX ends with her recovery. In Section X, Propertius v i s i t s Cynthia a f t e r a night on the town, only to f i n d her sleeping alone, angred by his lack of attention. In Section XI, Propertius t e l l s Cynthia that her consequent attempt to avoid him i s f u t i l e , and that, despite her encounters, he w i l l forgive everything. Section XII recounts Propertius' discovery of Cynthia's a f f a i r with Lynceus, writer of bombastic epics, and asserts his willingness to make verse i n Cynceus' fashion, " i f she should command / i t . " Propertius 1 8 4 w i l l i n g n e s s to w r i t e even e p i c p o e t r y — a t C y n t h i a ' s command— t i e s the theme of e p i c p o e t r y t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s l o v e a f f a i r v e r y n e a t l y . Throughout the poem he has r e v e r s e d the t r a d i t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s t o a s s e r t the pre-eminence of the l y r i c mode over the e p i c . I t i s c l e a r from even t h i s sketchy and s u p e r f i c i a l paraphrase t h a t the Homage possess a rudimentary p l o t l i n e as w e l l as c h a r a c t e r development. Such d e v i c e s to p r o v i d e a sense of u n i t y were g r a d u a l l y phased out by Pound i n Mauberley and XVI Cantos, as he moved f u r t h e r away from a r e l i a n c e on t r a d i t i o n a l methods of a c h i e v i n g n a r r a t i v e u n i t y . Although the Homage possesses these u n i f y i n g elements, i t experiments w i t h ways of condensing n a r r a t i v e . Pound's use of the " c u t " between i n d i v i d u a l s e c t i o n s of the poem i s perhaps the c l e a r e s t i n d i c a t i o n i f h i s attempt - a technique a l r e a d y used s i x y ears e a r l i e r i n "Und Drang", and developed f u r t h e r i n "Xenia", " Z e n i a " , and " V i l l a n e l l e : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Hour". Hence, S e c t i o n I I ends w i t h " M i s t r e s s C a l l i o p e " (the muse of e p i c poetry) demanding t h a t P r o p e r t i e s w r i t e e p i c : Thus M i s t r e s s C a l l i o p e , 185 D a b b l i n g her hands i n the f o u n t , thus she S t i f f e n e d our f a c e w i t h the backwash of P h i l e t a s the Coan, wh i l e S e c t i o n I I jumps to a more welcome k i n d of message, from C y n t h i a : M i d n i g h t , and a l e t t e r comes to me from our m i s t r e s s : T e l l i n g me to come to T i b u r , At once!! S i m i l a r l y , S e c t i o n VI ends w i t h P r o p e r t i u s 1 reminder to C y n t h i a t h a t time i s s h o r t f o r both of them: In v a i n , you c a l l back the shade, In v a i n , C y n t h i a . V a i n c a l l t o unanswering shadow, Small t a l k comes from s m a l l bones, w h i l e S e c t i o n VII begins w i t h j o y f u l eagerness: Me happy, n i g h t , n i g h t f u l l of b r i g h t n e s s ; On couch made happy by my long d e l e c t a t i o n s . And w h i l e S e c t i o n XI ends w i t h a statement of e t e r n a l d e v o t i o n to C y n t h i a , d e s p i t e her f l a g r a n t s e l f - a d v e r t i s e m e n t 186 as a p r o s t i t u t e : "Though you walk i n the V i a Sac r a , w i t h a peacock's t a i l f o r / a f a n , " S e c t i o n XII leaps t o P r o p e r t i u s ' s u r p r i s e a t the news of her i n f i d e l i t y w i t h Lynceus: "Who, who w i l l be the next man to e n t r u s t h i s g i r l / t o a f r i e n d ? " As i n i m a g i s t poems l i k e "Fan-Piece", a whole range of ex p e r i e n c e - not e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d - i s i m p l i e d i n the i n t e r v a l . The u b i q u i t y o f t h i s k i n d o f c i n e m a t i c break between s e c t i o n s e l e v a t e s i t t o a method. And j u s t as abrupt breaks occur between s e c t i o n s , so w i t h i n them Pound d i s r u p t s . l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s o f syntax, i n t h i s case o f t e n t o c h a r a c t e r i z e P r o p e r t i u s by r e f l e c t i n g h i s h a b i t u a l l y d i s j o i n t e d t h o u g h t - p a t t e r n s . In S e c t i o n I I I , f o r example, C y n t h i a ' s demand t h a t P r o p e r t i u s come a t once i s not grammatically t i e d t o the image which f o l l o w s : M i d n i g h t , and a l e t t e r comes to me from our m i s t r e s s : T e l l i n g me t o come to T i b u r , At once!! " B r i g h t t i p s reach up from twin towers, Anienan s p r i n g water f a l l s i n t o f l a t - s p r e a d p o o l s . " What i s to be done about i t ? S h a l l I e n t r u s t myself t o ent a n g l e d shadows, Where b o l d hands may do v i o l e n c e t o my person? The method i s i n e x p l i c a b l e , i l l o g i c a l , but e f f e c t i v e . The images b u r s t out of the surrounding n a r r a t i v e , as welcome as 187 a moment of p a s s i o n t o a mind engaged i n bookkeeping. The method p r o v i d e s a t e r r i f i c a l l y economical and apt r e v e l a t i o n o f P r o p e r t i u s ' l e c h e r o u s but wimpish p e r s o n a l i t y , and marks a r e a l advance i n Pound's a b i l i t y t o dispense w i t h unneded as p e c t s o f n a r r a t i v e c o n t i n u i t y , t o s h i f t the re a d e r ' s focus o f a t t e n t i o n from l a r g e r s t r u c t u r e s onto the t e x t u r e o f the poem. In a s i m i l a r manner, Pound's t r i c k o f j u x t a p o s i n g E n g l i s h l a t i n a t e d i c t i o n w i t h L a t i n t a g s — e . g . , "And my v e n t r i c l e s do not p a l p i t a t e t o C a e s a r i a l ore rotundos" (V) — p r o v i d e s an economical and humorous means of exposing both P r o p e r t i u s ' modernity, and the s i m i l a r i t i e s between Augustan Rome and Georgian London, i n a very condensed way; Pound f i t s P r o p e r t i u s ' tongue v e r y n e a t l y i n t o h i s own cheek. Pound employes the r e s o u r c e s of l o g o p o e i a i n t h i s manner throughout the poem, to c r e a t e a sense of the i n t e r p e r m e a t i o n of p e r s o n a l and p u b l i c concerns. The l i n g u i s t i c t e x t u r e of the poem thus becomes of supreme importance, so t h a t u l t i m a t e l y , P r o p e r t i u s ' c h a r a c t e r i s conveyed t o us not so much by what he does as by what he says. And what he says i s not merely t h a t he has had an a f f a i r w i t h C y n t h i a , but t h a t the l y r i c i s b e t t e r than the 188 e p i c because i t a r i s e s out of c r e a t i v e d e s i r e , not out of the wish to p l e a s e a C a e s a r — o r even a Muse: N e i t h e r C a l l i o p e nor Apolloa 1 sung these t h i n g s i n t o my ear, my genius i s no more than a g i r l . (V) P r o p e r t i e s ' i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h C y n t h i a l e a d s n a t u r a l l y to h i s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h l y r i c p o e t r y ; t h e r e f o r e , the t e x t u r e of the poem, i t s language, r e f l e c t s t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . P r o p e r t i u s ' s u b j e c t i v e concerns c o u n t e r p o i n t a defense o f the l y r i c mode. T h i s i s d i f f i c u l t , f o r While the p a r t i c u l a r element of P r o p e r t i e s ' p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t Pound wished to r e v e a l i s h i s humur, h i s l o v e of " t y i n g a b l u e r i b b o n i n the t a i l s o f V i r g i l and Horace" (SL, 178) , he a l s o wanted to make a p e r f e c t l y s e r i o u s case f o r the supremacy of the l y r i c mode. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o be humorous and s e r i o u s a t the same time. How Pound approaches t h i s problem can b e s t be seen by comparing two s e c t i o n s of the poem, which p r e s e n t these f a c e t s of P r o p e r t i u s ' c h a r a c t e r . In the f i r s t of these, a t the end of S e c t i o n I, P r o p e r t i u s makes a s e r i o u s defense of the "genius" of l y r i c i s m ; i n the second example, taken from the end of S e c t i o n X I I , Pound submerges a humorous se x u a l pun beneath the s e r i o u s s u r f a c e of the passage i n order to 189 prevent us from i g n o r i n g the s u b j e c t i v e b a s i s of P r o p e r t i u s 1 defense of the l y r i c mode. Tak i n g a c l o s e look a t the l i n g u i s t i c t e x t u r e of these two passages, we note f i r s t t h a t the ending to S e c t i o n I i s e l e g i a c i n tone, and t h a t P r o p e r t i u s speaks without a t r a c e of i r o n y : Happy who are mentioned i n my pamphlets, the songs s h a l l be a f i n e tomb-stone over t h e i r beauty. But a g a i n s t t h i s ? N e i t h e r expensive pyramids s c r a p i n g the s t a r s i n t h e i r r o u t e , Nor houses modelled upon t h a t of Jove i n E a s t E l i s , Nor the monumental e f f i g i e s o f Mausolus, are a complete e l u c i d a t i o n of death. Flame burns, r a i n s i n k s i n t o the cr a c k s And they a l l go t o rack r u i n beneath the thud o f the y e a r s . Stands genius a d e a t h l e s s adornment, a name not to be worn out w i t h the y e a r s . ( S u l l i v a n , P. 119) Looking more c l o s e l y , we n o t i c e the care w i t h which t h i s passage i s c o n s t r u c t e d . The f i r e which e r a d i c a t e s the p r e t e n t i o u s houses, pyramids, and e f f i g i e s , and the r a i n which s i n k s i n t o the c r a c k s i n the newly scorched e a r t h , f l a r e s and h i s s e s i n the " r " s and "s"s of the f i n a l f i v e l i n e s . The spondees on "Flame burns", " r a i n s i n k s " , and 190 "rack r u i n " , a c t l i k e a b a t t e r i n g - r a m , the r e c u r r e n t thump of which the " t h " sounds of "beneath the thud o f t h e / y e a r s " mimick. With complete a r t i s t r y , Pound r e v e r s e s these c o n n o t a t i o n s i n the f i n a l two l i n e s , so t h a t the opening spondee, "Stands g e n i u s " , r e p l a c e s the concept o f f a l l i n g w i t h t h a t o f s t a n d i n g , the d e s t r u c t i o n o f f i r e w i t h the c r e a t i v i t y o f genius. S i m i l a r l y , the " t h " sound i s a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r the p o s i t i v e concept " d e a t h l e s s " , w h i l e the a n a p e s t i c metre: "of t h e / y e a r s " , d i s r u p t e d by the l i n e - b r e a k , t ransforms i t s e l f i n the f i n a l l i n e t o flow w i t h p e r f e c t assurance: "a name not to be worn out w i t h the y e a r s " . L i k e a phoenix, " l y r i c " genius a r i s e s out of flame and ashes i n the f i n a l two l i n e s , triumphant and e t e r n a l . Pound's c a r e f u l use of language here emphasizes the s i n c e r i t y o f P r o p e r t i u s ' b e l i e f i n the importance o f the l y r i c mode. Pound thus e s t a b l i s h e s a concern w i t h broad s o c i a l i s s u e s as an important element i n h i s c h a r a c t e r . But the ending o f S e c t i o n XII p r e s e n t s us w i t h a c o u n t e r p o i n t t o t h i s , f o r although the cadences here too are e l e g i a c , Pound i n s e r t s a r e f e r e n c e to the element of schoolboy s e x u a l i t y i n P r o p e r t i u s ' c h a r a c t e r : Varro sang Jason's e x p e d i t i o n , Varo, o f h i s g r e a t p a s s i o n L e u c a d i a , There i s song i n the parchment; C a t u l l u s the h i g h l y 191 indecorous, Of L e s b i a , known above Helen; And i n the dyed pages of Cal v u s , Calvus mourning Q u i n t i l i a , And but now G a l l u s had sung of L y c o r i s . F a i r , f a i r e s t L y c o r i s — The waters of Styx poured over the wound; And now P r o p e r t i u s of C y n t h i a , t a k i n g h i s stand among these. ( S u l l i v a n , 171) At the v e r y moment o f P r o p e r t i u s ' a p o t h e o s i s as l y r i c poet i n the poem, Pound s l i p s i n a se x u a l pun ("taking h i s stand") - which rhymes w i t h t h a t i n the t i t l e o f the poem -i n o r d e r t o prevent the reader from n e g l e c t i n g the wh i m s i c a l , p l a y f u l , and p r o f e s s e d l y s e x u a l , mainsprings o f P r o p e r t i u s ' i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h the l y r i c mode. He h i d e s the pun beneath the s u r f a c e o f the poem, j u s t as t h i s element of P r o p e r t i u s 1 p o e t r y had been hidden from s c h o l a r l y eyes. We have seen t h a t p l o t and c h a r a c t e r development p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l framwork f o r the Homage, and gl a n c e d a t how Pound attempts t o c o u n t e r p o i n t the s e r i o u s and comic elements of P r o p e r t i u s ' c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n the t e x t u r e o f the poem. Other c r i t i c s have d e a l t w i t h how Pound adapted P r o p e r t i u s ' p o e t r y t o h i s own purposes i n s i m i l a r ways. J.P. S u l l i v a n , f o r i n s t a n c e , has b r i l l i a n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d the way i n which Pound h i g h l i g h t s the s i m i l a r i t i e s between P r o p e r t i u s ' a t t i t u d e to the Empire and h i s own ( S u l l i v a n , 192 pp. 5 8 f f . ) f w h i l e more r e c e n t l y , Mark Turner has shown i n d e t a i l how Pound changes P r o p e r t i u s ' main p r o p o s i t i o n , "The mental s t a t e of the l o v e poet; the poet as l o v e r " , i n t o a d i f f e r e n t main theme, "The c u l t u r e d poet v e r s u s the g Empire". But i t may be worthwhile to glance here a t a f u r t h e r technique used by Pound to achieve u n i t y of t e x t u r e , as w e l l as of theme, i n the poem. T h i s technique c o n s i s t s of u s i n g a d i s t i n c t i v e speech p a t t e r n to c h a r a c t e r i z e P r o p e r t i u s , one which uses, not mechanical r e p e t i t i o n , but r e p e t i t i o n w i t h v a r i a t i o n : e.g., B r i n g i n g the G r e c i a n o r g i e s i n t o I t a l y , and the dance i n t o I t a l y ( I ) ; A l b a , your k i n d , and the realm your f o l k have c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h such i n d u s t r y S h a l l be yawned out on my l y r e — w i t h such i n d u s t r y . (II) When, when, and whenever death c l o s e s our e y e l i d s , Moving naked over Acheron Upon the one r a f t , v i c t o r and conquered t o g e t h e r , Marious and Jugurtha t o g e t h e r , one t a n g l e of shados. • • • One r a f t on the v e i l e d f l o o d of Acheron, Marius and Jugurtha t o g e t h e r . (VI); Me happy, n i g h t , n i g h t f u l l o f b r i g h t n e s s ( V I I ) ; Persephone and D i s , D i s , have mercy upon her (IX); L i g h t , l i g h t of my eyes (X) Escape! There i s , 0 I d i o t , no escpe (XI); Who, who w i l l be the next man to e n t r u s t h i s g i r l ( X I I ) . 193 Through t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c speech p a t t e r n , Pound makes P r o p e r t i u s 1 v o i c e i n s t a n t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e , conveys a d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y . The cadences are l y r i c a l not n a r r a t i v e . They f u n c t i o n m u s i c a l l y r a t h e r than t o advance the p l o t , c o n t r i b u t e l e s s to pa r a p h r a s a b l e meaning than t o emotional u n i t y . D e s p i t e the symmetrical framwork of the Homage and i t s n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n , Pound i s a l r e a d y deeply i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the o v e r r i d i n g importance of t e x t u r e as an a n c i l l a r y means of a c h i e v i n g u n i t y i n h i s lon g poem. One oth e r important l i n k between the Homage and Pound's l a t e r l o n g poems may be d i s c e r n e d i n the placement o f S e c t i o n V I I . I t p r e s e n t s the peak of P r o p e r t i u s ' happiness w i t h C y n t h i a ; the o t h e r s e c t i o n s l e a d towards and f a l l away from t h i s moment. I t a c t s as a minature of the poem as a whole; i t s language e v o l v e s from the e x p r e s s i o n through d i s r u p t e d rhythms of i n c i p i e n t nervousness about impending joy ("Me happy, n i g h t , n i g h t f u l l of b r i g h t n e s s " ) , t o a f f i r m a t i v e cadences i n d i c a t i v e o f a mature a f f a i r : Hers w i l l I be dead, I f she c o n f e r such n i g h t s upon me, long i s my l i f e , long i n y e a r s , I f she g i v e me many, God am I f o r the time. 194 H i g h l i g h t i n g the middle s e c t i o n of a long poem, u s i n g i t as a fulcrum, r e p r e s e n t s an imporant stage i n Pound's experiments w i t h p r o v i d i n g a s t r u c t u r a l framwork f o r the long poem. I t i s not found, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n " R e d o n d i l l a s " , or i n "Und Drang", where the f i r s t h a l f o f the poem i s balanced a g a i n s t the f i n a l s i x s e c t i o n s . Pound f i r s t uses the technique when he p l a c e s "The S e a f a r e r " i n the middle of Cathay. I t occ u r s a g a i n i n XVI Cantos, w i t h the i n s e r t i o n o f the f o u r M a l a t e s t a cantos, w h i l e the P i s a n cantos occupy a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n i n the Cantos. And as the symmetry of the Homage suggests the c y c l i c a l nature o f p a s s i o n , so i n XVI Cantos Pound uses the same technique t o suggest the c y c l i c a l nature of war (canto one begins w i t h Odysseus r e t u r n i n g from one war, w h i l e canto s i x t e e n ends w i t h the commencement of a n o t h e r ) . But i n the l a t e r poems Pound dispenses w i t h even the v e s t i g e o f l i t e r a r y framework found i n the Homage, r e l y i n g on thematic r e c u r r e n c e and c o n s i s t e n c y o f t e x t u r e t o c a r r y the burden of u n i f y i n g the long poem. C Hugh Selwyn Mauberley: Texture as S t r u c t u r e While the Homage has a d e f i n i t e n a r r a t i v e framwork, 195 Pound's next attempt a t the long poem, Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920), i s much l e s s o b v i o u s l y s t r u c t u r e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Pound o r g a n i z e d i t a c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p l e s of l o g i c a l argument, even i f these p r i n c i p l e s are not immediately apparent. The Ode which opens P a r t I p r e s e n t s the t h e s i s t h a t EP' s attempt t o " r e s u s c i t a t e the dead 9 a r t / O f p o e t r y " has f a i l e d w h i l e S e c t i o n s I I - X I I p r o v i d e s u p p o r t i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which make such a f a i l u r e understandable. As a counter-argument, o r a n t i t h e s i s t o t h i s , " E nvoi" stands a t the end of t h i s sequence t o show t h a t EP's powers cannot be so e a s i l y w r i t t e n o f f . P a r t I I develops a p a r a l l e l argument. In S e c t i o n I Mauberley i s pr e s e n t e d as " P i s a n e l l o l a c k i n g the s k i l l / T o f o r g e A c h a i a " , w h i l e S e c t i o n s I I - I V p r o v i d e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f those c h a r a c t e r weaknesses which l e a d "To h i s f i n a l / E x c l u s i o n from the world of l e t t e r s " . As i n P a r t I, " M e d a l l i o n " stands a t the end of the sequence to show t h a t Mauberley* s powers too, wh i l e not equal t o EP's have been underestimated. Thus, by b a l a n c i n g the c r i t i c a l mode a g a i n s t the p o e t i c a l mode i n P a r t s I and I I , Pound advances the argument t h a t t h e r e i s more c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i n the age than the c r i t i c s show the a b i l i t y to a p p r e c i a t e . 196 But t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r t w i s t to t h i s argument. L i k e the c r i t i c s , Pound i s c r i t i c a l of EP and Mauberley, but not because he i s b l i n d t o t h e i r accomplishments. By r e s t r i c t i n g themselves t o the s p e c i a l t i e s of melopoeia and phanopoeia r e s p e c t i v e l y , EP and Mauberley have made a f a t a l mistake: s h i f t e d p r i o r i t i e s away from meaning. Pound h i m s e l f makes no such mistake i n Mauberley, which p r e s e n t s a very meaningful argument i n e x p e r t l y handled language. T h i s r e a d i n g o f Pound's i n t e n t i o n e x p l a i n s h i s ambiguous use of "thou" i n " E n v o i " , which can r e f e r t o e i t h e r to the woman or the song; the l y r i c mode s a c r i f i c e s r e f e r e n t i a l c l a r i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n harmonizes w i t h the e v o l v i n g emphasis on language apparent i n Pound's r e v i s i o n s of the Ur-cantos. Read i n t h i s way, Mauberley argues t h a t modern p o e t r y must move beyond the e x p r e s s i o n of p u r e l y l y r i c a l or v i s u a l s u b j e c t s toward more d i d a c t i c concerns. The f a c t t h a t the argument of the poem i s l e f t f o r the reader t o d i s c o v e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t Mauberley r e p r e s e n t s the second stage i n Pound's movement (begun i n the Homage) away from u s i n g obvious s t r u c t u r a l framworks f o r h i s long poem. Keeping t h i s o v e r a l l argumentative s t r u c t u r e i n mind, we can move to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the t e x t u r e o f the poem, i n o r d e r to see how not o n l y Pound's concept of s t r u c t u r a l framworks, but a l s o h i s a t t i t u d e t o s o c i e t y , has changed 197 s i n c e w r i t i n g the Homage. The d i r e c t i o n of t h i s change can be seen immediately by comparing the opening o f the Homage: Shades of C a l l i m a c h u s , Coan ghosts of P h i l e t a s , I t i s i n your grove I would walk, I who come f i r s t from the c l e a r f o n t B r i n g i n g the G r e c i a n o r g i e s i n t o I t a l y , and the dance i n t o I t a l y . w i t h the opening o f Mauberley: For t h r e e y e a r s , out of key w i t h h i s time, He s t r o v e t o r e s u s c i t a t e the dead a r t Of po e t r y ; t o m a i n t a i n "the sublime" In the o l d sense. Wrong from the s t a r t — B i t t e r i r o n y has supplanted l y r i c a l cadences, emphasizing Pound's growing sense o f the f u t i l i t y o f the attempt t o e s t a b l i s h a secure p l a c e f o r the l y r i c v o i c e w i t h i n the s u p e r f i c i a l i t y o f contemporary s o c i e t y . As i n e x o r a b l y as a death-march, Mauberley s e t s f o r t h i n sequence the i n t o l e r a b l e s o c i a l b i a s f a c i n g the a r t i s t : The t e a - r o s e , tea-gown e t c . Supplants the mousseline of Cos, The p i a n o l a " r e p l a c e s " Sapphos's b a r b i t o s . 198 C h r i s t f o l l o w s Dionysus, P h a l l i c and am b r o s i a l Made way f o r macerations; C a l i b a n c a s t s out A r i e l . Faun's f l e s h i s not to us, Nor the s a i n t ' s v i s i o n . We have the pre s s f o r wafer; F r a n c h i s e f o r c i r c u m c i s i o n . Rhymes punch the s t a c c a t o rhythms down, l i k e c o f f i n - n a i l s ; f r e e e x p r e s s i o n has no p l a c e i n the s o c i a l system. In p l a c e o f the swinging dance rhythms of the Homage, rhyme p r e c i s e l y c o n f i n e s each l i n e as t i g h t l y as s o c i e t y does the a r t i s t . Pound's s c a t h i n g i r o n y marks the end of h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o compromise; he sees n o t h i n g amusing i n the a r t i s t ' s p o s i t i o n . The element of p l a y i n the Homage d i s a p p e a r s completely i n Mauberley. Kenner's comment t h a t the e a r l i e r poem r e p r e s e n t s "Pound's triumph o f l o g o p o e i a , the f r u i t o f a c r e a t i v e e x a s p e r a t i o n he never r e g a i n e d ( h i s l a t e r e x a s p e r a t i o n s y i e l d e d i n v e c t i v e ) " , ( P E , 288) emphasizes the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e . As one i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s change, c o n s i d e r the smouldering, p a s s i o n a t e resentment which f l a r e s under 199 these l i n e s : Some q u i c k to arm some f o r adventure, some from f e a r of weakness, some from f e a r o f censure, Some f o r l o v e o f s l a u g h t e r , i n i m a g i n a t i o n , l e a r n i n g l a t e r . . . some i n f e a r , l e a r n i n g l o v e o f s l a u g h t e r ; Died some, pro p a t r i a , non " d u l c e " non "et decor" . . . The A l l i e d o f f e n s i v e o f the second b a t t l e o f the Somme began J u l y 1, 1916. On the f i r s t day t h e r e were 150,000 c a s u a l t i e s ; on the second, 110,000 - the scorn behind the two words "Died some" f l a r e s up i n the l i g h t o f these s t a t i s t i c s . As i n the Homage, the l o s s of p a s s i o n symbolizes the dehumanization of every aspect o f s o c i e t y : "Even the C h r i s t i a n beauty / D e f e c t s — a f t e r S a m o t h r a c e " — t h i s b e i n g a l o c a t i o n f o r the c e l e b r a t i o n o f p h a l l i c r i t e s of the C a b i r i d e i t i e s . The p e r v e r s i o n o f se x u a l p a s s i o n s l e a d i n g up t o the war, and beyond i t , p r o v i d e s a thematic l i n k between S e c t i o n s VI and X I I . In "Yeux Glauques" V i c t o r i a n a f f a i r s o f p a s s i o n are i n d i c t e d , i n "Siena me f e " warmed-over memories of the wanly l i c e n t i o u s N i n e t i e s are drawn out of M. Verog "Among the p i c k l e d f o e t u s e s and b o t t l e d bones" 200 where they have been s h e l v e d . "Brennbaum 'The Impeccable'" takes r e f u g e from l i f e i n s t i f f p r o p r i e t y , and "Mr. Nixon" i n t h i n k i n g of people as o b j e c t s : "The h a r d e s t nut I had to c r a c k / Was Mr. Dundas". S e c t i o n X sees p a s s i o n r e l e g a t e d t o a p i g farm i n the country, where Ford the s t y l i s t took s h e l t e r from s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l w i t h h i s "uneducated m i s t r e s s " . Meanwhile, here o p p o s i t e , the " C o n s e r v a t r i x o f M i l e s i a n " , l i v i n g i n the suburb of E a l i n g , succeeds because No i n s t i n c t has s u r v i v e d i n her Old e r than those her grandmother T o l d her would f i t her s t a t i o n . (XI) And t h i s V i c t o r i a n p r i s s i n e s s i s c a r e f u l l y p r e s e r v e d i n Georgian London, wehre the poet f i n d s h i s coat i n s u f f i c i e n t l y f a s h i o n a b l e t o s t i m u l a t e i n the Lady V a l e n t i n e "A durab l e p a s s i o n " ( X I I ) . The i r o n y behind t h i s s k etch becomes e v i d e n t when we r e a l i z e t h a t the Lady V a l e n t i n e i s modelled on Pound's memory of the Lady Diana, as d e s c r i b e d by Gordon C r a i g , son of E l l e n T e r r y , i n the E n g l i s h Review of August, 1911: The Lady Diana, who was a very grand person i n S o c i e t y , looked up the meaning of the word "choreography" and took a p a r t y t o the Russian b a l l e t . 201 " I t ' s something new", she s a i d , "Choreography they c a l l i t but p e r s o n a l l y I t h i n k t h i s C l e o p a t r a b a l l e t r a t h e r t i r e s o m e " . And her f r i e n d s mostly agreed. One person defended the work and p o i n t e d out t h a t the n e g l e c t of Augustus John's p o r t r a i t s f o r those of the academic p a i n t e r s emphasized a g e n e r a l d i s r e g a r d f o r the a r t s . "I don't understand". A n d ^ h e Lady Diana turn e d upon him her famous L u i n i s m i l e . Thus the " L u i n i s m i l e " i s a s s o c i a t e d f o r Pound w i t h s t y l e r a t h e r than substance, and w i t h "a g e n e r a l d i s r e g a r d f o r the a r t s " ; s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s Lady p r o v i d e s the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r Mauberley's " L u i n i i n p o r c e l a i n " i n " M e d a l l i o n " . Having s e t f o r t h the g e n e r a l ambience of t h i s p a s s i o n l e s s s o c i e t y , Pound p r o v i d e s a s p e c i f i c example of i t s e f f e c t on the a r t i s t i n the "Mauberley" sequence. Mauberley's escape from s o c i e t y ' s demands i s not to P r o p e r t i u s ' whorish C y n t h i a ; a r t i s h i s m i s t r e s s . H i s c a p a c i t y f o r p a s s i o n completely a n a e s t h e t i z e d , he sees the l a d y ' s c o l o u r "Tempered as i f / I t were through a p e r f e c t g l a z e " . I n t e r p r e t i n g l i f e through the terms of an emaciated a r t , he d r i f t s out of the p i c t u r e : And h i s d e s i r e f o r s u r v i v a l , F a i n t i n the most strenuous moods, Became an Olympian ap a t h e i n In the presence of s e l e c t e d p e r c e p t i o n s . 202 And not o n l y i s M a u b e r l e y 1 s p a s s i o n a n a e s t h e t i z e d , but h i s a b i l i t y to handle language as w e l l . Lack of p a s s i o n a t e d i r e c t i o n of the w i l l , o f d i r e c t i o v o l u n t a t i s , i s s i g n a l l e d i n Pound's work by language t h a t i s s i m i l a r l y u n d i r e c t e d , as i n the e a r l y poem "La F r a i s n e " : Once t h e r e was a women... ...but I f o r g e t . . . s h e was... ...I hope she w i l l not come a g i a n . . . . I do not remember... I t h i n k she h u r t me once but... That was v e r y long ago. (ALSO, 16) The d e s c r i p t i o n of the ae s t h e t e i n S e c t i o n I I of the "Mauberley" sequence shows a s i m i l a r l i n g u i s t i c d r i f t , conveying Mauberley's i n a b i l i t y t o r a i s e the energy r e q u i r e d to make sense of h i s s i t u a t i o n : D r i f t e d . . . d r i f t e d p r e c i p i t a t e , A s k i n g time to be r i d o f . . . Of h i s bewilderment; t o d e s i g n a t e H i s new found o r c h i d . . . To be c e r a t i n . . . c e r t a i n . . . (Amid a e r i a l flowers) ... time f o r a r r a n g e m e n t s — D r i f t e d on To the f i n a l estrangement 203 In o r d e r t o c o n t r a s t h i s own a b i l i t y to handle language w i t h Mauberley's d i f f i d e n c e , Pound passes judgment on the a e s t h e t e i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n i n cadences as waterproof and compacted as M a u b e r l e y 1 s own are lo o s e and d i r e c t i o n l e s s : Incapable of the l e a s t u t t e r a n c e or com-p o s i t i o n , Emendation, c o n s e r v a t i o n of the " b e t t e r t r a d i t i o n , " Refinement of medium, e l i m i n a t i o n o f s u p e r f l u i t i e s , August a t t r a c t i o n o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n . Nothing, i n b r i e f , but maudlin c o n f e s s i o n , I r r e s p o n s e to human a g g r e s s i o n , Amid the p r e c i p i t a t i o n , down-float Of i n s u b s t a n t i a l manna, L i f t i n g the f a i n t s u s u r r u s Of h i s s u b j e c t i v e hosannah. Each phrase i n v o l v e s a p a i r o f p a r a l l e l concepts, e.g., u t t e r a n c e - c o m p o s i t i o n , emendation-conservation, r e f i n e m e n t -e l i m i n a t i o n , a t t r a c t i o n - c o n c e n t r a t i o n , c o n f e s s i o n - i r r e s p o n s e , p r e c i p i t a t i o n - d o w n - f l o a t , i n s u b s t a n t i a l - s u b j e c t i v e . But the e f f e c t i s not one o f redundancy o r t a u t o l o g y , so c a r e f u l l y i s the language handled. The assurance of movement i n these l i n e s i s obvious, but i t should be noted t h a t t h e i r triumph comes i n the f a c t t h a t the music never obscures the meaning. U n l i k e both EP and Mauberley, Pound 204 uses the f u l l r e s o u r c e s of the language. The main c o n t r a s t i n the poem, between Pound's own a b i l i t y t o handle language on the one hand, and EP's l y r i c i s m and Mauberley's a e s t h e t i c u n c e r t a i n t y on the o t h e r , i s h i g h l i g h t e d i n "Envoi" and " M e d a l l i o n " , which end the f i r s t and second h a l v e s of the sequence. " M e d a l l i o n " i l l u s t r a t e s the s t r e n g t h s and the shortcomings of the a r t of the pure a e s t h e t e . L i k e the f i r s t two Ur-cantos, i t accentuates the t e c h n i q u e s of phanopoeia, r a t h e r than those of melopoeia. But s i n c e , as we have seen, Pound's p r o g r e s s between 1917 and 1920 was l a r g e l y away from v i s u a l toward m u s i c a l v a l u e s , and away from both of these towards an emphasis on meaning, " M e d a l l i o n " appears to r e p r e s e n t an approach t h a t Pound h i m s e l f had begun to grow away from t h r e e years p r e v i o u s l y . Moreover, " M e d a l l i o n " stands as the work of a minor a r t i s t i n c a p a b l e of r e n d e r i n g "the whole man" t h a t Browning had p o r t r a y e d i n S o r d e l l o : Not the f u l l s m i l e , His a r t , but an a r t In p r o f i l e . ( I , 128) 205 Mauberley's i n s p i r a t i o n i s one of s e r e n d i p i t y , of c a s u a l browsing " i n the opening / Pages of Reinach". The r e p e t i t i o n i n the l i n e , "His a r t , but an a r t " c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the v a r i e t y of p a r a l l e l i s m s i n "The Age Demanded" ( i . e . , "Incapable of the l e a s t u t t e r a n c e or c o m p o s i t i o n " ) , i n d i c a t i n g Mauberley's l a c k of i n v e n t i v e n e s s when compared w i t h t h a t of E.P. And although " M e d a l l i o n " possesses a rhythm t h a t s u i t s the k i n d of r e s t r i c t e d a r t i t p r e s e n t s , the imagery of the poem r e s t r i c t s i t s e l f t o t r a c i n g the b o u n d i n g - l i n e s of the l a d y ' s f a c e : The s l e e k head emerges From the g o l d - y e l l o w f r o c k As Anadyomene i n the opening Pages of Reinach. Honey-red, c l o s i n g the f a c e - o v a l , A basket-work of b r a i d s which seem as i f they were Spun i n King Minos' h a l l From metal, or i n t r a c t a b l e amber; The f a c e - o v a l beneath the g l a z e , B r i g h t i n i t s suave b o u n d i n g - l i n e as, Beneath h a l f - w a t t r a y s , The eyes t u r n topaz. The f i r s t quoted stanza sketches i n the g o l d gown c u t t i n g a c r o s s the s i n g e r ' s neck; the second draws i n the g o l d 206 b r a i d s which frame the r e s t of her f a c e . The t h i r d s tanza opens w i t h renewed emphasis on the b o u n d i n g - l i n e o f her f a c e — a s y e t , we have no c l u e to her c h a r a c t e r or p e r s o n a l i t y . In the f i n a l l i n e we hear, r a t h e r than see, t h a t her eyes are t u r n i n g a t r a n s l u c e n t y e l l o w a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i l i c a t e of aluminum— she i s undergoing metamorphosis i n t o a form of m i n e r a l l i f e , as opposed to the metamorphosis i n t o v e g e t a t i v e l i f e ( c f . "The Tree.") The f a c t t h a t we see both the l a d y ' s eyes i n the f i n a l l i n e i n d i c a t e s t h a t Mauberley has overcome h i s e a r l i e r l i m i t a t i o n s of c r e a t i n g "an a r t / In p r o f i l e " , but l i g h t does not emanate from w i t h i n ; i t i s c o n f e r r e d by dim " h a l f - w a t t r a y s " . In troubadour p o e t r y , McDougal t e l l s us, "the l i g h t t h a t emanates from the lady d e f i n e s her whole be i n g , and serves as a source of i l l u m i n a t i o n (both l i t e r a l l y and f i g u r a t i v e l y ) f o r those who come i n t o her presence . . . Love emanates from her glance . . . and a l l men become powerless i n her presence" (McDougal, p. 76) . In " M e d a l l i o n " , however, the l a d y ' s p e r s o n a l i t y does not r a d i a t e outward; i t i s e n c l o s e d by a "basket-work" ( c f . casket) of m e t a l l i c b r a i d s t h a t smother e x p r e s s i o n . Moreover, u n l i k e the "magic amber" of "Envoi" i n which the l a d y ' s beauty i s p r e s e r v e d f o r f u t u r e ages, t h i s l a d y ' s charms are hardened beneath " i n t r a c t a b l e amber". 207 " M e d a l l i o n " , then, does not r e p r e s e n t a triumph of Mauberley's a r t so much as the n e c e s s a r i l y s t i l l - b o r n p r oduct o f out-dated a e s t h e t i c i s m . The alchemy of the l a s t l i n e i s not t h a t of a stone s t a t u e coming t o l i f e , but of a p e r s o n a l i t y t u r n i n g i n t o m e t a l — a n d though g o l d i s b e a u t i f u l , no one who knows Pound c o u l d b e l i e v e t h a t he would p l a c e the v a l u e o f any metal above t h a t of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y . I f " M e d a l l i o n " r e p r e s e n t s one b e a u t i f u l dead-end f o r the modern poet, "Envoi" too has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . I f " M e d a l l i o n " gathers around a s i n g l e image, "Envoi" gathers around a s i n g l e rhythm. I t p r o v i d e s , as Kenner says, "A time t u n n e l c l e a r back t o Sappho's rose and Chaucer's 'Go l i t e l bok', a s e l f - i n t e r f e r i n g p a t t e r n 'from which, and through which, and i n t o which' rush W a l l e r ' s r o s e s , Lawe's music, Raymond C o l l i n g n o n ' s s i n g i n g , o t h e r times' d i c t i o n , and ours; an a r t of the Vortex, by and l a r g e hopeless here, where e n e r g i e s have f a i l e d . " ( P E , 288). But although i t r e p r e s e n t s the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f a l y r i c l t r a d i t i o n t h a t has been completely "understood", the f a c t t h a t i t i s i s o l a t e d at the end of a sequence of poems which i l l u s t r a t e the argument t h a t contemporary s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s are a n t i p a t h e t i c t o the c r e a t i o n o f a r t i s t i c m a s t e r p i e c e s , emphasizes Pound's r e l u c t a n t awareness t h a t the f u l l 208 e n e r g i e s o f modern a r t cannot be expressed w i t h i n the l y r i c mode. "Envoi" i l l u s t r a t e s the k i n d of l y r i c a l p o e t r y which might have w r i t t e n under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s , had the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s mentioned i n the poems which precede i t not p e r t a i n e d ; i n t h i s sense i t i s l e s s a l y r i c than an e l e g y . L i k e phanapoeia, l y r i c a l melopoeia i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t mode i n which t o express the modern s e n s i b i l i t y , Pound t h i n k s , because i t tends " to l u l l , o r t o d i s t r a c t the reader from the exact sense o f the language" (LE, 26). The l a d y i n "Envoi" o f f e r s no r e s i s t a n c e to the pro c e s s of c a p t u r i n g her beauty i n song, u t t e r s no "profane p r o t e s t " such as t h a t i n " M e d a l l i o n " . Hence Pound p r e s e n t s the a u r a l t r a d i t i o n as a time c a p s u l e i n which beauty may h i b e r n a t e through a c u l t u r a l w i n t e r . The cadences o f t h i s l y r i c c o n t r a s t w i t h the end-stopped, s t u l t i f y i n g v e r s e s o f "M e d a l l i o n " as though t o emphasize song's a b i l i t y t o keep the t r a d i t i o n a l i v e : T e l l her t h a t sheds Such t r e a s u r e i n the a i r , Recking naught e l s e but t h a t her graces g i v e L i f e t o the moment, I would b i d them l i v e As r o s e s might, i n magic amber l a i d , Red overwrought w i t h orange and a l l made One substance and one c o l o u r B r a v i n g time. 209 Red r o s e s overwrought w i t h orange amber stand as a metaphor f o r beauty's permanence. T h i s metaphor r e f l e c t s Pound's s y n c r e t i c v i s i o n , h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r the attempt to get " a l l forms i n t o one form", t h a t i s , to produce "an e l i x i r " through "the sheer p e r f e c t i o n of a r t " . The beauty of t h i s metaphor surpasses t h a t of Mauberley's poem and, combined w i t h an unmatchable melody, approaches as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e p e r f e c t i o n o f f o r m — a n attempt l i m i t e d o n l y by the age's i n a b i l i t y to a p p r e c i a t e such beauty, to s u s t a i n i t , and to a l l o w i t t o grow. I t possesses the strange, f r o z e n beauty of a p e t r i f i e d f o r e s t . In o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e the f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of "Envoi" t o Pound's development of major form d u r i n g the l a t e 1910's i t i s necessary t o put i t i n t o the c o n t e x t of h i s i n t e r e s t i n music d u r i n g t h i s time. On December 6, 1917, j u s t f o u r months a f t e r the appearance of the t h i r d Ur-canto i n Poetry, Pound p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r s t a r t i c l e on music i n the New Age, under the pseudonym W i l l i a m A t h e l i n g . T h i s s e r i e s c o n t i n u e d a t i n t e r v a l s u n t i l January 6, 1921."''"'" On January 1, 1918, he wrote t o H a r r i e t Monroe t h a t he was about to engage i n "some more work on sound", because "the v e r s l i b r e p u b l i c are probably by now as stone b l i n d to the v o c a l or o r a l p r o p e r t i e s of a poem as the 'sonnet' 210 p u b l i c f i v e or seven years ago to the a c t u a l language" (SL, 127). In the same month he wrote Margaret Anderson t h a t he d e s i r e d "to r e s u r r e c t the a r t of the l y r i c " , I mean words to be sung, f o r Yeats' o n l y w a i l and submit t o keening and c h a u n t i n g (with a u) and Swinburne's o n l y r h a p s o d i f y . And w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s (a few i n Browning) th e r e i s s c a r c e l y a n y t h i n g e l s e s i n c e the time of W a l l e r and Campion. AND a mere i m i t a t i o n o f them won't do. (SL, 128) By 1920, however, Pound's d e f i n i t i o n o f melopoeia became more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d : "there are th r e e k i n d s of melopoeia, t h a t i s to say, poems made to speak, t o chant, and to s i n g " (LE, 167). Mauberley c o n t a i n s a l l th r e e k i n d s of melopoeia, c a r e f u l l y zoned, w i t h "Envoi" o b v i o u s l y b e i n g meant to be sung. The l i m i t a t i o n s of l y r i c i s m had become c l e a r t o Pound d u r i n g the w r i t i n g of Mauberley, as he r e a l i z e d t h a t the modern poet, u n l i k e the troubadours, c o u l d not a f f o r d t o s a c r i f i c e meaning f o r melody. In h i s 1920 essay on Arnaut D a n i e l he noted: The P r o v e n c a l s were not c o n s t r a i n e d by the modern l i t e r a r y sense. T h e i r r e s t r a i n t s were the tune and the rhyme-scheme, they were not c o n s t r a i n e d by a need f o r c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s of w r i t i n g , without which no modern 211 poem i s complete or s a t i s f a c t o r y . They were not competing w i t h De Maupassant's prose. (LE, 115) And as e a r l y as March 1918, b e f o r e w r i t i n g Mauberley, Pound c r i t i c i s e d Swinburne f o r "having n e g l e c t e d the v a l u e of words" because he was c h i e f l y " i n t e n t on t h e i r v a l u e as sound" (LE, 292) . I t seems c l e a r from the above q u o t a t i o n s t h a t Pound used " E n v o i " i n Mauberley to a c t as a reminder t h a t the l y r i c impusle by i t s e l f was not enough to reanimate modern p o e t r y . Coming as i t does a f t e r the poems made to be spoken and chanted i n the f i r s ' t h a l f of the sequence, i t was meant t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the modern poet cannot r e s t r i c t h i m s e l f t o one mode of e x p r e s s i o n , and must concern h i m s e l f more w i t h meaning than w i t h sound. T h i s b e l i e f c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h h i s e a r l y n o t i o n of c e n t e r i n g poems around a b s o l u t e s , as expressed, f o r example, i n h i s p r e f a c e t o the t r a n s l a t i o n s from Guido C a v a l c a n t i i n 1910: "I b e l i e v e i n an a b s o l u t e symbol or metaphor." C l a s s i c a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s have demonstrated the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g e n t i r e temples based on the mathematical p r i n c i p l e s of harmony e n u n c i a t e d by Pythagoras, from the 212 p r o p o r t i o n s of a few e x t a n t p i l l a r s ; i n much the same way, Pound b e l i e v e d i t p o s s i b l e "to show t h a t any g i v e n rhythm i m p l i e s about i t a complete m u s i c a l f o r m — f u g u e , sonata, I cannot say what form, but a form, p e r f e c t , complete. Ergo, the rhythm s e t i n a l i n e of p o e t r y connotes i t s symphony, which, had we a l i t t l e more s k i l l , we c o u l d score f o r o r c h e s t r a " . T h i s b e l i e f e x p l a i n s the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n Pound's mind between the s i n g l e image (e.g., " a b s o l u t e metaphor") or the s i n g l e p e r f e c t phrase (e.g., " a b s o l u t e rhythm"), and major form. While " M e d a l l i o n " forms around a s i n g l e image, and "Envoi" around a s i n g l e melody or rhythm, n e i t h e r poem i m p l i e s around i t s e l f the "major form" t h a t i s Mauberley. In o t h e r words, Pound has moved away from h i s e a r l i e r theory i n h i s p r a c t i c e of p o e t r y ; he no l o n g e r seeks u n i t y i n a s i n g l e metaphor or rhythm. The way i s open f o r a new experiment. Hence, by the autumn of 1921, Pound r e c a l l e d h i s e a r l i e r t heory i n terms which i n d i c a t e t h a t he no l o n g e r adhered to i t : In the p r e f a c e t o my Guido I have t r i e d to express the i d e a s o f an a b s o l u t e rhythm, or the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t . Perhaps every a r t i s t a t one time or another b e l i e v e s i n a s o r t of e l i x i r or p h i l o s o p h e r ' s tone produced by the sheer p e r f e c t i o n of h i s a r t , by the a l c h e m i c a l s u b l i m a t i o n of h i s medium; the e l i m i n a t i o n o f a c c i d e n t a l s and i m p e r f e c t i o n s . (LE, 442) 213 From 1904 to 1921, the key to w r i t i n g a long poem had seemed to Pound to l i e i n the " e l i m i n a t i o n of a c c i d e n t a l s and i m p e r f e c t i o n s " , l e a d i n g to a p e r f e c t image, or an a b s o l u t e rhythm, capable of i m p l y i n g around i t , or c a u s i n g to grow up o r g a n i c a l l y , a " p e r f e c t form". T h i s theory of major form g e r m i n a t i n g out of a s i n g l e seed was r e p l a c e d i n e a r l y 1922 w i t h the theory t h a t major form must a r i s e out of the accumulation of v a s t numbers of " w i l d s h o t s " t h a t end by e x p r e s s i n g "a p e r s o n a l i t y " , as we s h a l l see i n the next c h a p t e r . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of Mauberley p r o v i d e d a s t e p p i n g - s t o n e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . " ^ In t h i s c h apter we have seen how the Ur-cantos e x p l o r e d ways of u n i f y i n g the long poem through images, c h a r a c t e r , and language. We have a l s o seen how the Homage, whi l e p o s s e s s i n g a n a r r a t i v e framework, supplemented t h i s u n i f y i n g element w i t h the use of d i s t i n c t i v e cadences to c h a r a c t e r i z e P r o p e r t i u s , and w i t h the use of c o u n t e r p o i n t to h i g h l i g h t the s i m i l a r i t i e s between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c concerns. In Mauberley, we have seen Pound move f u r t h e r away from obvious frameworks i n h i s long poem, and towards a new emphasis on meaning, as he employed a s u b t l e s t r u c t u r e of argument to p o i n t out the absence of p o s i t i v e v a l u e s i n modern s o c i e t y , and the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of both phanapoeia or melopoeia i n themselves. N e i t h e r the 214 open-ended s t r u c t u r e o f the Ur-cantos, however, nor the symmetry o f the Homage, nor the d i d a c t i c element o f Mauberley, p r o v i d e d Pound w i t h a usable s t r u c t u r e f o r a r e a l l y l o n g poem. His major advance toward major form d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d l a y i n h i s development of an i n c r e a s i n g l y complex l i n g u i s t i c t e x t u r e t h a t was capable o f c a p t u r i n g the r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t w i thout r e l y i n g on a c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y framework. 215 PART THREE: ACCOMPLISHMENT (19 20 -1925) A l l e x c e l l e n t t h i n g s are as d i f f i c u l t as they are r a r e . --Spinoza, E t h i c s 216 VI A DRAFT OF XVI CANTOS: SOME FORMATIVE INFLUENCES Pound made the s i n g l e most important breakthrough of h i s c a r e e r i n e a r l y 1922: He s t r u c t u r e d h i s f i n a l " l o n g poem". He had been stuck on t h i s problem s i n c e 1919; as Myles S l a t i n notes, "The w r i t i n g of VII took t h r e e weeks; on December 13, 1919, Pound announced i t to h i s f a t h e r : 'done cantos 5, 6, 7, each more incomprehensible than the one p r e c e d i n g i t ' . . . Unexpectedly, here the poem stopped; no f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e to the composition of the Cantos seems to have been made u n t i l 1922: some t h r e e years later"." 1" T h i s c hapter e x p l o r e s the i n f l u e n c e s which l e d t o Pound's breakthrough, u s i n g h i s c r i t i c a l essays i n the L i t t l e Review and the D i a l t o i l l u s t r a t e the way i n which he a r r i v e d a t h i s f i n a l d e c i s i o n . The importance w i t h which Pound h i m s e l f viewed the c r i t i c a l t h e o r i e s he e n u n c i a t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d can be gauged from h i s l e t t e r t o R.P. Blackmur on March 26, 1 9 2 5 — a mere two months a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of XVI Cantos: There i s the q u e s t i o n of whether the e i g h t D i a l 217 l e t t e r s , which I happen to have r e r e a d t h i s A.M. are more u s e f u l than P a u l i t o ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n of having s a t on Sarah's l a p . There i s a l s o the p o i n t t h a t has not been r a i s e d : i . e . , whether I haven't o u t l i n e d a new c r i t i c i s m or c r i t i c a l system. I don't propose to go back over my p r i n t e d s t u f f , volumes, e t c . and detach t h i s . But t h e r e i s m a t e r i a l f o r an essay, or a Ph.D. t h e s i s , or a volume. (SL, 198-199) Sin c e Pound viewed c r i t i c a l t heory as v a l u a b l e o n l y when i t l e d t o c r e a t i v e work, h i s enthusiasm f o r h i s c r i t i c a l system stemmed d i r e c t l y from the sense t h a t h i s t h e o r i e s had helped him to s t r u c t u r e XVI Cantos. We w i l l t h e r e f o r e e l u c i d a t e important a s p e c t s of h i s c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s b e f o r e moving on to a d i s c u s s i o n of the p o e t r y of XVI Cantos i n Chapter V I I . A t the e a r l i e s t stage, Pound thought of emulating Dante's Commedia by d i v i d i n g h i s poem i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s : "the f i r s t i n t e r z i n e , having to do w i t h emotion . . . the second i n pentameters, having to do w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n ; the t h i r d i n hexameters, having to do w i t h contemplation." By the time Pound c o n s t r u c t e d E x u l t a t i o n s (1909), he had a l r e a d y adopted a l e s s s t y l i z i z e d mode of o r g a n i z a t i o n , a r r a n g i n g i n d i v i d u a l poems so as to g i v e "a more or l e s s p r o p o r t i o n e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e " . He had extended t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n d u r i n g the Imagist p e r i o d , by c o u n t e r p o i n t i n g image and epigram to o b t a i n a h i g h e r 218 v e l o c i t y i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f v a r i o u s moods and f a c e t s of l i f e . From 1915, he had experimented w i t h the use of l i t u r g i c a l rhythms, f o l l o w i n g de Gourmont and Goddeschalk, i n o r d e r t o a v o i d "mechanical s u c c e s s i o n which aims a t rhythm, but does not ac h i e v e rhythmic v i t a l i t y " i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l o n g e r poems. And i n the Ur-cantos, the Homage, and Mauberley, he had p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e f i n e d h i s use of language t o the p o i n t where the long poem no l o n g e r r e l i e d on c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y framework t o s u s t a i n i n t e r e s t ; the t e x t u r e of the poem r a t h e r than p l o t o r c h a r a c t e r development had come t o be of paramount importance. A l l these experiments p o i n t e d toward a long poem which would be s e l f - p r o p e l l i n g , s u l f - s u s t a i n i n g , and which would attempt t o keep the r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t a l i v e by a v o i d i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l modes of r e p e t i t i o n and symmetrical s t r u c t u r e . That Pound was c o n s c i o u s of the obvious dangers of t h i s approach can be seen i n h i s comment i n 1934 about the Commedia: "Dante, i n t a k i n g up n a r r a t i v e , chucked out a number of MINOR c r i t e r i a , as any w r i t e r o f a long poem must i n f avour of a main v i r t u e " (LE, 203) . In chucking out n a r r a t i v e as a framework f o r h i s own long poem, Pound remained t r u e to the wish he expressed t o John Quinn i n January, 1917, when j u s t b e g i n n i n g h i s " r e a l l y LONG, en d l e s s 219 l e v i a t h a n i c " poem: "I have always wanted to w r i t e 'poetry' t h a t a grown man c o u l d read without groans of ennui" (SL, 103) . Pound found p r e d i c t a b l e r e p e t i t i o n b o r i n g , j u s t as he was bored by p r e d i c t a b l e p l o t l i n e s , and f o r t h i s reason was w i l l i n g t o take the r i s k of o b s c u r i t y . Yet he found i t d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c o v e r a s u i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r h i s long poem. He was tugged i n two d i r e c t i o n s . As l a t e as 1920 he was s t i l l drawn to the q u a l i t y of s t a s i s he admired i n Dante's Commedia, w h i l e a t the same time h i s own w r i t i n g s t y l e and p e r s o n a l i t y were l e a d i n g him i r r e v o c a b l y toward k i n e t i c form. H i s d e c i s i o n i n e a r l y 1922 to f o l l o w h i s own nature stands out as the most s i g n i f i c a n t of h i s c a r e e r . I t seems t h a t Pound's composition of XVI Cantos was s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s r e c o g n i t i o n , as r e c o r d e d i n a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n d u r i n g 1921 and 1922, t h a t - he c o u l d o n l y express h i s i d e a s i n a k i n e t i c form. We can most e a s i l y t r a c e h i s v a c i l l a t i o n between the q u a l i t i e s of, s t a s i s and k i n e s i s i n two of these a r t i c l e s , where he a s s o c i a t e s the q u a l i t y of s t a s i s w i t h an a b s t r a c t s c u l p t u r e of C o n s t a n t i n B r a n c u s i , and the q u a l i t y o f k i n e s i s w i t h a s m a l l monograph by the a r t i s t F r a n c i s P i c a b i a , t i t l e d Pensees sans  language; poeme. Pound read t h i s work a t a moment i n h i s 220 c a r e e r when he was ready to o r g a n i z e h i s poem i n an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l manner, and i t p r o v i d e d him w i t h one i n d i c a t i o n t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y frameworks might not be the p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r major form he had p r e v i o u s l y thought them to be. As w e l l as d e a l i n g w i t h Pound's a t t i t u d e t o B r a n c u s i and P i c a b i a , t h i s c h apter glances a t ways i n which Pound's n o t i o n of the proper tone and s u b j e c t matter f o r h i s long poem was i n f l u e n c e d by James Joyce, T.S. E l i o t , and Major Douglas. In t h i s way, and without any p r e t e n s e to the comprehensive treatment which Ronald Bush has p r o v i d e d , I mean t o suggest something of the complexity of the c l u s t e r of i n f l u e n c e s which u n d e r l i e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f XVI  Cantos. The chapter begins w i t h a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n of ways i n which Joyce and E l i o t , by b r e a k i n g through i n t o major form i n 1921, i n U l y s s e s and the Waste Land r e s p e c t i v e l y , s t i m u l a t e d Pound to renew h i s attempts to c a s t h i s poem i n t o shape. Pound's comments on t h e i r work are then used to i l l u s t r a t e h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to f o l l o w up t h e i r n e g a t i v e assessments of the e r a w i t h a more i n t e g r a t i v e , p o s i t i v e approach. F o l l o w i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , I go on t o examine Pound's enthusiasm f o r the w h i m s i c a l arrangement of P i c a b i a ' s Pensdes sans langage; poeme i n terms of h i s growing d i s b e l i e f i n the a b i l i t y o f 221 c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e s to adequately r e f l e c t the h u r r y i n g i d e a t i o n of the modern a r t i s t . In the c o n c l u s i o n to the c h a p t e r , I go on to show how Pound's entusiasm f o r Major Douglas' economic theory r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o h i s r e j e c t i o n of the n o t i o n of a r t i s t i c p e r f e c t a b i l i t y and the e x i s t e n c e of a " p h i l o s o p h e r ' s stone". I f one no l o n g e r b e l i e v e s t h a t pure a r t can r e i f y s o c i e t y , then one i s f o r c e d t o adopt a d i f f e r e n t means of e x p r e s s i o n . S i n c e Pound a s s o c i a t e d p e r f e c t symmetry of form and the q u a l i t y of s t a s i s w i t h "pure a r t " , h i s d e c i s i o n to model XVI Cantos on P i c a b i a ' s method of o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than on t h a t of B r a n c u s i p r o v i d e s the formal r e f l e c t i o n of an important p h i l o s o p h i c a l c h o i c e . Pound abandoned the n o t i o n of a r t as a magic c i r l e because he became aware t h a t s o c i e t y was i n d e sperate need, and because he wished to c o n s t r u c t p o s i t i v e remedies. A U l y s s e s The p r e l i m i n a r y s t i m u l a t i o n f o r Pound's changing concept of how to s t r u c t u r e h i s long poem came from the c ompletion, i n 1921, of U l y s s e s and The Waste Land. In December 1917, t h r e e months a f t e r the t h i r d Ur-canto was 222 p u b l i s h e d i n Poetry, Pound r e c e i v e d the f i r s t c h a p t e r of U l y s s e s . Immediately, he sent i t on to the L i t t l e Review w i t h an e u l o g i s t i c note, which Margaret Anderson quoted from i n her January announcement t h a t U l y s s e s would be s e r i a l i z e d : I t i s , I b e l i e v e , even b e t t e r than the P o r t r a i t . So f a r i t has been read by o n l y one c r i t i c o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n . He says: " I t i s c e r t a i n l y worth running a magazine i f one can get s t u f f l i k e t h i s t o put i n i t . Compression, i n t e n s i t y . I t l o o k s to me r a t h e r b e t t e r than F l a u b e r t " . T h i s announcement means t h a t we are about to p u b l i s h a prose m a s t e r p i e c e . ( P / J , 129-130) As F o r r e s t Read says, Pound "was 'Ulysses e d i t o r 1 f o r more than t h r e e y e a r s " f o l l o w i n g the p u b l i c a t i o of i t s f i r s t c h a p ter i n . t h e L i t t l e Review of March 1918 (P/J, 130). He c o n t i n u e d t o r e c e i v e c h a p t e r s episode by episode u n t i l 1921, when the magazine was e n j o i n e d from p r i n t i n g f u r t h e r s e c t i o n s because o f the o b s c e n i t y i n "Nausikka". That i s , Pound knew the work i n t i m a t e l y . But h i s thoughts about the n o v e l d i d not come to head u n t i l he had a chance to read i t i n i t s e n t i r e t y f o l l o w i n g i t s completion on h i s b i r t h d a y , October 30, 1921. The importance which Pound a t t r i b u t e s to Joyce's accomplishment 223 can be gauged from the f a c t t h a t he concocted an e n t i r e l y -new c a l e n d a r which dates the end of an e r a from the completion of t h i s work: "The C h r i s t i a n e r a came d e f i n i t e l y t o an END a t midnight of the 29-30 of October (1921) o l d s t y l e . " 2 Pound's j u b i l a t i o n a t Joyce's accomplishment stemmed from h i s r e l i e f t h a t the s t a b l e s had been c l e a n e t a t l a s t , l e a v i n g him " f r e e t o get on w i t h my own p r e f e r r e d job" (P/J, 11) . He had attempted h i s own a n a l y s i s of contemporary s o c i e t y i n Mauberley; i n c r e a s i n g l y , he f e l t t h a t p o e t r y should abandon t h i s s a t i r i c a l , a n a l y t i c a l f u n c t i o n t o prose, and c o n c e n t r a t e on p o s i t i v e v a l u e s . As e a r l y as 1918, he had n o t i c e d i n Joyce's P o r t r a i t the p r e v a l e n c e of the c u l t o f u g l i n e s s : "On almost every page of Joyce, you w i l l f i n d . . . s w i f t a l t e r n a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e beauty and e x t e r n a l shabbiness, s q u a l o r , and s o r d i d n e s s . I t i s the bass and t r e b l e of h i s method" (LE, 412) . And he had j u s t i f i e d J oyce's r e g i s t r a t i o n s of d i s g u s t : I have y e t to f i n d i n Joyce's p u b l i s h e d works a v i o l e n t or malodorous phrase which does not j u s t i f y i t s e l f not o n l y by i t s v e r i t y , but by i t s h e i g h t e n i n g of some o p p o s i t e e f f e c t , by the poignancy which i t imparts to some emotion or to some thwarted d e s i r e f o r beauty. D i s g u s t w i t h the s o r d i d i s but another e x p r e s s i o n of a s e n s i t i v e n e s s t o the f i n e r t h i n g . There i s no p e r c e p t i o n of beauty without a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s g u s t . (LE, 415) 224 However, although Pound defended Joyce's method i n P o r t r a i t i n May, by August 1918, having read s e v e r a l of the e a r l y c h a p t e r s of U l y s s e s , he came to have second thoughts about the n e c e s s i t y f o r "malodorous" phrases. In a f o o t n o t e to h i s essay "Henry James", which he spent two years p r e p a r i n g t o w r i t e , he s t a t e s w i t h complete c o n v i c t i o n , t h a t whereas most good prose a r i s e s from "an i n s t i n c t of ne g a t i o n " , p o e t r y i s "the a s s e r t i o n o f a p o s i t i v e , i . e . , d e s i r e " . I f Pound c o u l d say t h i s about the prose o f Henry James, he was most c e r t a i n l y aware of i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o Joyce as w e l l : Most good prose a r i s e s , perhaps from an i n s t i n c t o f negatio n ; i s the d e t a i l e d , c o n v i n c i n g a n a l y s i s o f something d e t e s t a b l e ; o f something which one wants to e l i m i n a t e . Poetry i s the a s s e r t i o n o f a p o s i t i v e , i . e . of d e s i r e , and endures f o r a lo n g e r p e i o d . P o e t i c s a t i r e i s o n l y an a s s e r t i o n o f t h i s p o s i t i v e , i n v e r s e l y , i . e . as of an o p p o s i t e h a t r e d . T h i s i s a h i g h l y u n t e c h n i c a l , u n i m p r e s s i o n i s t , i n f a c t almost t h e o l o g i c a l matter of statement; but i s perhaps the r o o t d i f f e r e n c e between the two a r t s o f l i t e r a t u r e . Most good p o e t r y a s s e r t s something t o be worth w h i l e , or dams a c o n t r a r y ; a t any r a t e a s s e r t s emotional v a l u e s . . . Poetry=Emotional s y n t h e s i s , q u i t e as r e a l , q u i t e as r e a l i s t as any prose (or i n t e l l e c t u a l ) a n a l y s i s . (LE, 324) "Poetry=Emotional s y n t h e s i s " r e c a l l s Pound's comment to Amy Lo w e l l i n 1913: "My u n i t y i s an emotional u n i t y , but I 225 don't want to p r e - and p r o - s c r i b e " (YC). As we saw i n chapter one, Pound's v i s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y s y n c r e t i c ; by 1918 he had come to d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s emphasis on emotional s y n t h e s i s i n p o e t r y , from the i n t e l l e c t u a l a n a l y s i s of prose. T h i s h e l p s to e x p l a i n h i s growing impatience w i t h prose, w i t h what he comes to term Joyce's "excremental o b s e s s i o n " , as he c o n t i n u e d to r e c e i v e c h a p t e r s of U l y s s e s . His June 10th, 1919 l e t t e r t o Joyce c o n c e r n i n g " S i r e n s " makes t h i s c l e a r : Caro mio: Are you sending t h i s c h apter because you f e e l bound to send i n copy on time . . .? 1. you have got some new e f f e c t s 2. I t i s too long 3. One can f a h r t w i t h l e s s pomp & circumstance (3a. g a l l i c p r e f e r e n c e f o r P h a l l u s — p u r e l y p e r s o n a l — k n o w m i t t e l europa humour runs to o t h e r o r i f i c e . — B u t don't t h i n k you w i l l s t r e n g t h e n your impact by t h a t p a r t i c u l a r . . . . Abnormal keeness of i n s i g h t O.K. But o b s e s s i o n s a r s e o r e - i a l , c l o a c a l , d e i s t , a e s t h e t i c as opposed to a r s e t h e t i c , any o b s e s s i o n or t i c shd. be very c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e b e i n g turned l o o s e . (P/J, 158) Pound came more and more d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d to d i s t i n g u i s h hiw own p h a l l i c i m a g i n a t i o n from Joyce's concern w i t h the excremental, as Read has n o t i c e d (P/J, 146) . At the same 226 time, a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i v i s i o n between prose and p o e t r y , a l r e a d y formulated, became c l e a r e r . Pound's p r e f e r e n c e f o r p o e t r y as the e x p r e s s i o n of a d e s i r e , l e a d i n g to "emotional s y n t h e s i s " , and h i s " g a l l i c p r e f e r e n c e of P h a l l u s " , r e l f e c t h i s i n t e g r a t i v e c r e a t i v e , and h o l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y . B The Waste Land L i k e Pound, T.S. E l i o t read the l a t t e r p a r t of U l y s s e s i n manuscript d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1921, and found i t 3 " t r u l y m a g n i f i c e n t " . As w i t h Pound, i t s t i m u l a t e d h i s c r e a t i v e urge, and by May 9th h i s own " l o n g poem" was 4 p a r t l y on paper. The Waste Land, l i k e U l y s s e s , had an enormous i n f l u e n c e on Pound's development of XVI Cantos. Although Pound had seen p a r t s of E l i o t ' s poem by J u l y , 1921, the major p o r t i o n of i t was not completed u n t i l E l i o t v i s i t e d Lausanne f o r treatment of h i s nerves around November 21, 1921."* By the 24th of December, s c a r c e l y one month l a t e r , E l i o t r e c e i v e d t h i s l e t t e r of c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s : Complimenti, you b i t c h . I am wracked by the seven j e a l o u s i e s , and c o g i t a t i n g an excuse f o r always exuding my deformative s e c r e t i o n s i n my own s t u f f , and never 227 g e t t i n g an o u t l i n e . I go i n t o nacre and o b j e c t s d ' a r t . (SL, 169) Pound's s e l f - c r i t i c i s m c e n t e r s around h i s i n a b i l i t y t o get an o u t l i n e i n h i s p o e t r y and i t s "mother of p e a r l " t e x t u r e . He most l i k e l y has Mauberley i n mind here, f o r he termed the work " s h o r t poems" i n a l e t t e r t o h i s f a t h e r dated A p r i l 1920 (YC), i m p l y i n g t h a t he d i d not t h i n k of i t as an e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l - o r d e r e d work. But he was s u r e l y a l s o t h i n k i n g of the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n s o f Cantos I-VII which were c u r r e n t l y a ppearing i n the D i a l — a l t h o u g h as we have seen, Pound had stopped composing them w i t h the completion of canto seven i n 1 9 1 9 — f o r these were completely r e - o r d e r e d w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of XVI Cantos i n 1925. Pound was mainly impressed w i t h the r e a l i s m of E l i o t ' s poem, a f a c t which can be most c l e a r l y seen i n these r a t h e r s e l f - p i t y i n g , almost E l i o t i c , l i n e s from a poem e n c l o s e d w i t h h i s l e t t e r of c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s : E.P. hopeless and unhelped Enthroned i n the marmorian s k i e s His v e r s e omits r e a l i t i e s , . A n g e l i c hands w i t h mother of p e a r l Retouch the s t r a p p i n g s e r v a n t g i r l , 228 The barman i s to b l i n d e d him S i l e n u s b u b b l i n g a t the brim, The g l a s s e s t u r n to c h a l i c e s In h i s fumbling a n a l y s i s And h o l y h o s t s of h e l e n i s t s Have numbed and honied h i s c e g v i c c y s t s D e s p i t e h i s hebrew e u l o g i s t s . Pound laments h i s mythopoetic tendency to transmute r e a l i t y i n t o myth: the barman becomes S i l e n u s , the c o c k t a i l g l a s s e s become c h a l i c e s . The mundane becomes m a r v e l l o u s . Enthroned i n "marmorian s k i e s " , a s t a t e o f a e s t h e t i c i s m c u t o f f from r e a l i t y , he c o u l d o n l y admire E l i o t ' s achievement of r e a l i s m from a d i s t a n c e . Pound's burgeoning impatience w i t h h i s own l a c k of accomplishment came i n t o s t a r k focus i n h i s l e t t e r t o Agnes Bedford l a t e r i n the same month, December, but the energy of h i s language seems to h e r a l d the awakening of h i s c r e a t i v e powers: OhCHRRRIST, the whole morning gone, and n o t h i n g done toward i m m o r t a l i t y g i v e n a v a l e t , a s e c r e t a r y , an e r r a n d boy and a b u s i n e s s manager, I might be d e c e n t l y run, c a p i t a l i s e d , bonded, b o t t l e d , decanted, e t c . Have come to t h a t time of l i f e — a l s o a s t e n o d a c t y l l o . The f a i l i n g mind w i t h d i f f i c u l t y c o r r e l a t e s the waning muscular a c t i o n . (YC) 229 Pound's e n e r g i e s d i d not d i m i n i s h i n the f a c e of E l i o t ' s achievement; two months l a t e r he wrote t o Quinn: "About enough, E l i o t ' s poem, to make the r e s t o f us shut up shop. 7 . . I haven't done so." For by t h i s time Pound had, s u r p r i s i n g l y , begun t o w r i t e cantos a g a i n — c a n t o e i g h t was p u b l i s h e d i n the D i a l i n May 1922—and he d i d not stop u n t i l he had f i n i s h e d XVI  Cantos i n 1924. And a f t e r t h i s almost a l l h i s c r e a t i v e e n e r g i e s went i n t o the composition o f h i s long-sought long poem. When i n c l u d e d i n XVI Cantos, the o r i g i n a l canto e i g h t was renumbered canto two; l i k e The Waste Land i t d e a l s w i t h myth, but the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two works are h e l p f u l i n our attempt t o understand the m o t i v a t i o n behind Pound's renewed b u r s t o f c r e a t i v i t y . In Pound's hands the mythic method d i d not d e a l w i t h E l i o t ' s images of s t e r i l i t y and waste, but r a t h e r c o n s t r u c t e d a world i n which the m y t h i c a l i m a g i n a t i o n — A c o e t e s ' a b i l i t y to r e c o g n i z e the god i n L y a e u s — p r o t e c t s those who possess i t from those who do not, l i k e the " e x - c o n v i c t out of I t a l y " . To r e c o g n i z e the potency o f t h i s v i s i o n a r y world i s t o r e c e i v e a s p e c i a l d i s p e n s a t i o n , i . e . , 230 And Lyaeus: "From now, Acoetes, my a l t a r s , F e a r i n g no bondage, f e a r i n g no c a t of the wood, Safe w i t h my l y n x e s , f e e d i n g grapes to my l e o p a r d s , Olibanum i s my i n c e n s e , g the v i n e s grow i n my homage." Not o n l y d i d Pound r e p l y t o E l i o t ' s poems by demonstrating the c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l of myth, he a l s o d e c i d e d to group h i s cantos around a s i n g l e c r e a t i v e , h i s t o r i c i n d i v i d u a l . He seems to have been i n l i t t l e doubt where to look f o r such a f i g u r e . In February 1922 he wrote: "our envy must be f o r the p e r i o d when the i n d i v i d u a l c i t y ( I t a l i a n mostly) t r i e d t o outdo i t s neighbours i n the degree and i n t e n s i t y of i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n , to be the v o r t e x f o r the most l i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . G l i  uomini v i v o n i i n p o c h i . " A month l a t e r , on March 27, Pound and Dorothy l e f t P a r i s f o r a t h r e e month t r i p t o I t a l y ( " t r y i n g a new s l i c e , P e r u g i a & S i e n a , the middle b i t " (YC), d u r i n g which time he c o l l e c t e d a mass of m a t e r i a l f o r the • " M a l a t e s t a " cantos, which e v e n t u a l l y became the p i v o t a l p o i n t f o r XVI Cantos. These f o u r cantos honour the c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i n man, as though to emphasize the f a c t t h a t a modern poem need not concern i t s e l f w i t h e n l a r g i n g on E l i o t ' s b l e a k , n e g a t i v e v i s i o n . 231 Pound's d e c i s i o n on how to s t r u c t u r e h i s long poem dates from t h i s t r i p t o I t a l y . G r a d u a l l y the I t a l i a n c i t y s t a t e s of R i m i n i and S i e n a supplanted P a r i s i n Pound's mind as p e r f e c t examples of the c r e a t i v e m e t r o p o l i s ; a t the same time, he began to e x p l o r e p a s t c u l t u r e s f o r o t h e r examples of a e s t h e t i c and economic freedom and c r e a t i v i t y . Hence, Pound i n s e r t e d a phrase echoing The Waste Land at the b e g i n n i n g of the f i r s t M a l a t e s t a canto, number e i g h t : "These fragments you have s h e l v e d (shored)," to emphasize t h a t h i s fragments of M a l a t e s t a ' s c h a r a c t e r are not s h e l v e d i n testimony to the bleakness of a modern waste l a n d , but r a t h e r shored up a g a i n s t the c u r r e n t of the time, j u s t as d e s p i t e the o p p o s i t i o n of h i s s o c i e t y , M a l a t e s t a had been a b l e to accomplish a c t s of c r e a t i v i t y l i k e the e r e c t i o n of the Tempio. I t seems c l e a r t h a t Pound's m o t i v a t i o n f o r w r i t i n g XVI Cantos was t o e r e c t a p o s i t i v e l i t e r a r y monument on the f o u n d a t i o n s b l a s t e d c l e a r by Joyce and E l i o t . Pound's d i s c o v e r y of M a l a t e s t a was the key to t h i s e f f o r t . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t Pound con c e i v e d him as an a n t i d o t e t o Joyce's Leopold Bloom, f o r having f i n i s h e d c e n t e r i n g XVI Cantos around M a l a t e s t a by l a t e 1924, Pound wrote h i s f a t h e r t h a t he was l o o k i n g f o r another such 232 "bhloomin h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r who can be used as i l l u s t r a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n t c o n s t r u c t i v i t y " ( Y C ) . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s c h a r a c t e r be h i s t o r i c shows Pound responding to h i s e a r l i e r s e l f - c r i t i c i s m of h i s v e r s e f o r o m i t t i n g " r e a l i t i e s " . Sigismundo was to be, l i k e Bloom, "polumetis and a r e c e i v e r of a l l t h i n g s " (P/J, 195), but to be c r e a t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e as w e l l . For Bloom, Pound says i n " U l y s s e s " (May 1922), i s — u n l i k e S i g i s m u n d o — " t h e b a s i s of democracy; he i s the main i n the s t r e e t . . . n o t our p u b l i c but Mr. W e l l s ' p u b l i c . . . h e i s 1'homme moyen s e n s u a l ; he i s a l s o . . . the man who b e l i e v e s what he sees i n the papers, Everyman, and 'the g o a t 1 " (LE, 403). I f Mauberley i s Pound's e q u i v a l e n t of B l o o m — t h e s a c r i f i c i a l g o a t — M a l a t e s t a i s an attempt to c r e a t e a more c o n s t r u c t i v e c e n t r a l persona. Q u i t e c l e a r l y , then, w h i l e Pound a p p r e c i a t e d the accomplishments of Joyce and E l i o t , he wanted h i s long poem to have more p o s i t i v e t h r u s t then e i t h e r U l y s s e s or The  Waste Land. And although h i s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e to E l i o t ' s poem i n The New Age (March 30, 1922) d e s c r i b e d i s as "a v e r y important sequence of poems, one of the few t h i n g s i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e to which one can a s c r i b e permanent v a l u e " , 1 0 i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t he was a l r e a d y f u l l y engaged i n the e f f o r t t o b u i l d above E l i o t ' s accomplishments. 233 For i n s p i r a t i o n Pound turned, as i n the f i r s t Ur-canto (1917), to the v i s u a l a r t s . In the f a l l of 1921 he contemplated p u b l i s h i n g a book, Four Modern A r t i s t s , which was to d e a l w i t h P i c a s s o , Lewis (both mentioned i n the e a r l i e s t v e r s i o n of canto one), B r a n c u s i , and P i c a b i a . T h i s book was never p u b l i s h e d , but from Pound's essays on B r a n c u s i and P i c a b i a i n The L i t t l e Review and The D i a l i n the autumn of 1921, we can t r a c e the sudden c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f h i s thoughts about the form h i s long poem should take. The two essays on B r a n c u s i and P i c a b i a weigh the v i r t u e s o f a l t e r n a t i v e concepts o f form which Pound was c o n s i d e r i n g f o r the s t r u c t u r e o f h i s l o n g poem. By r e j e c t i n g the use i n h i s own poem of the formal symmetry which was the hallmark of B r a n c u s i ' s work, i n favour o f the open-ended, a s s y m e t r i c a l s t y l e adopted by P i c a b i a , Pound made the most e x c i t i n g d e c i s i o n of h i s c a r e e r . Soon a f t e r , he began t o compose a t a f u r i o u s r a t e , and w i t h i n two years had shaped XVI Cantos. I t w i l l be worthwhile, then t o c o n s i d e r the opposing concepts i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . C. B r a n c u s i and P i c a b i a : S t a s i s v e r s u s K i n e s i s Pound's essay on C o n s t a n t i n B r a n c u s i appeared i n the Autumn 1921 i s s u e of The L i t t l e Review. Although Pound 234 s a i d he had known of B r a n c u s i ' s s c u l p t u r e s f o r o n l y "a few weeks", he was g r e a t l y • e x c i t e d by a concept of form embodied i n B r a n c u s i ' s a b s t r a c t marble s c u l p t u r e of a g e o m e t r i c a l f o r m — t h e o v o i d . I t appeared t o Pound t o l i v e as f r e e from a l l t e r r e s t r i a l g r a v i t a t i o n , w i t h i n the laws of i t s b e i n g , as the form o f the a n a l y t i c geometers; indeed Pound thought the o v o i d seemed from some angles "ready t o l e v i t a t e " (LE, 444). B r a n c u s i had accomplished, i n Pound's eyes, the a p o t h e o s i s o f pure form, the p e r f e c t s t a s i s . Pound noted t h a t B r a n c u s i shared t h i s g o a l w i t h o t h e r a r t i s t s : Dante b e l i e v e d i n the "melody which most i n - c e n t r e s the s o u l " , he s a i d , w h i l e i n the p r e f a c e t o my Guido I have t r i e d t o express the i d e a o f an a b s o l u t e rhythm, or the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t . Perhaps every a r t i s t a t one time or another b e l i e v e s i n a s o r t o f e l i x i r o r p h i l o s o p h e r ' s stone produced by the sheer p e r f e c t i o n o f t h i s a r t ; by the a l c h e m i c a l s u b l i m a t i o n of the medium; the e l i m i n a t i o n o f a c c i d e n t a l s and i m p e r f e c t i o n s . (LE, 442) In B r a n c u s i ' s case, t h i s search f o r p e r f e c t i o n c u l m i n a t e d w i t h the c r e a t i o n of the marble o v o i d , which p r o v i d e d the "master-key" t o as much as B r a n c u s i had found o f "the world of form": i t c o n t a i n s or i m p l i e s "the t r i a n g l e and the c i r c l e " . Pound's c i r c l e metaphor a l e r t s us to the 235 r e l a t i o n s h i p between B r a n c u s i ' s o v o i d and Dante's Commedia, the p e r f e c t i o n of which, as we saw i n Chapter I, Pound a l s o equated to t h a t of the c i r c l e ; B r a n c u s i , l i k e Dante, had a c h i e v e d the p e r f e c t a r t i s t i c s t a t i s . Even w h i l e Pound p r a i s e d B r a n c u s i , however, one can see him moving away from t h i s b e l i e f i n the v i a b i l i t y of a r t which must be d i s t i l l e d from l i f e , which d e a l s i n a b s o l u t e s . The problem Pound f a c e d i n i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h i s q u a l i t y w i t h i n h i s own poem was t h a t whereas 'Brancusi c o u l d cut h i m s e l f o f f from the world i n h i s s t u d i o , l e a v i n g him f r e e t o c r e a t e u n t r o u b l e d by the world, Pound's growing s o c i a l c o n s c i e n c e compelled him "to move about i n a w o r l d f u l l o f junk-shops" (LE, 444), where the sense of p e r f e c t form seemed out of p l a c e . That i s to say, by the time Pound read The Waste Land i n l a t e 1921 he was ready to a p p r e c i a t e i t s treatment of " r e a l i t y " ; B r a n c u s i ' s n o t i o n of p e r f e c t a r t r e q u i r e d p e r f e c t s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s composition, and Pound no l o n g e r b e l i e v e d t h a t these p e r t a i n e d i n h i s case. Small wonder t h a t he f i n a l l y r e j e c t e d B r a n c u s i ' s n o t i o n of formal p e r f e c t i o n as a v i a b l e a r t i s t i c g o a l . Pound became aware t h a t f o r him, a t any r a t e , a r t c o u l d not be c u t o f f from l i f e ; c onsequently, he was ready to c a s t around f o r 236 a l t e r n a t i v e models. P i c a b i a ' s n o t i o n of u n c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y form p r o v i d e d him, a t p r e c i s e l y the r i g h t moment, w i t h one such model. Hence he f i n a l l y gave up h i s l o n g - h e l d n o t i o n of employing a symmetrical form i n h i s l o n g poem, such as t h a t used by Dante i n the Commedia, i n favour of a l e s s s t y l i z e d mode of o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s moment s i g n a l l e d a profound and l a s t i n g change i n Pound's sense of p r i o r i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the shape of h i s long poem. The g r e a t works of the European t r a d i t i o n t h a t had served as e a r l y models f o r h i s concept of form: the Odyssey, Commedia, and Aeneid, share a formal s t r u c t u r e , a s t a s i s , t h a t r e f l e c t s a p h i l o s o p h i c c e r t a i n t y w i t h which Pound c o u l d no l o n g e r i d e n t i f y , j u s t as he c o u l d a p p r e c i a t e , but not share, B r a n c u s i ' s n o t i o n of i d e a l form. 'Casting round f o r a new model of l i t e r a r y s t r u c t u r e a p p r o p r i a t e to the new e r a and b e t t e r s u i t e d to h i s growing sense of the i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of symmetrical modes of o r g a n i z a t i o n , he l i g h t e d on F r a n c i s P i c a b i a ' s Pensees sans  language; poeme (1919), the s t r u c t u r e of which i s e s s e n t i a l l y k i n e t i c . While t h i s 119-page monograph seems a t f i r s t s i g h t to be extremely c a p r i c i o u s i n terms of form and content, Pound m a r v e l l e d a t the i n t e r e s t i n s t r i k e s up i n the r e a d e r . His 237 a p p r e c i a t i v e review of t h i s "poeme" appears i n the D i a l a t a c r u c i a l moment of h i s development, October 1921. I n c l u d i n g a number of q u o t a t i o n s from P i c a b i a 1 s monograph, Pound's review began by s a y i n g t h a t i t s form i s v e ry annoying to people who want l i t e r a t u r e to bulk up, and who b e l i e v e t h a t every time one has an i d e a one should embody i t i n a p o l i t e essay. P i c a b i a has found a new way of l e a v i n g h i s c a r d . "Dieu e t a i t j u i f mais l e s c a t h o l i q u e s l ' o n t r o u l e . " "I dreamt t h a t my g r e a t g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r d i s c o v e r e d America, but not b e i n g an I t a l i a n he s a i d n o t h i n g about i t to anyone." "Those who have g i v e n the dimension of the i n f i n i t e as one metre are i n e r r o r , the. dimension of the i n f i n i t e i s e x a c t l y two metres cinquante." The photo of an autograph l e t t e r of I n g r e s . N e i t h e r the squibs nor the photo can be " c o n s i d e r e d as l i t e r a t u r e " ; any more of course than c o u l d the X e n i a , the l i t t l e two l i n e tags which M a r t i a l made f o r s a t u r n a l i a p r e s e n t s , be " c o n s i d e r e d as l i t e r a t u r e " , not a t l e a s t , as l o n g as t h e r e are o n l y a few dozen, but an accumulation of such w i l d shots ends by e x p r e s s i n g a p e r s o n a l i t y , j u s t as the Maxims of Rouchefoucauld, or the L i v r e de Diane expressed the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of t h e i r a uthors. T h i s d i s p e n s i n g w i t h l i t e r a r y mechanisms i s perhaps the mark of extreme c i v i l i z a t i o n . T h i s t o t a l l a c k of c o n n e c t i o n between the q u o t a t i o n s from P i c a b i a seems to Pound a p o s i t i v e v i r t u e . Pound a p p r e c i a t e d the f a c t t h a t , l i k e Joyce i n D u b l i n e r s , P i c a b i a d i d not f a l s i f y l i f e by p r e s e n t i n g i t i n "neat l i t t l e diagrams". Pound's r e f e r e n c e to M a r t i a l ' s "Xenia" echoes the t i t l e s o f the s e q u e n t i a l poems he had w r i t t e n i n 1913, 238 "Xenia" and " Z e n i a " , where he f i r s t experimented w i t h the agglomeration of " s q u i b s " ( i m a g i s t poems and epigrams). Here he seems to t h e o r i z e t h a t the poet might expand t h i s technique to b u i l d a major poem. He a c c e p t s the v a l i d i t y o f a l i t e r a r y work which "ends by e x p r e s s i n g a p e r s o n a l i t y " . A l l c o n v e n t i o n a l l i t e r a r y mechanisms can go by the board i f the poet succeeds i n h o l d i n g the r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t by e x p r e s s i n g h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y through the s e l e c t i o n and arrangement of m a t e r i a l . While we have seen i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s t h a t Pound's e a r l i e r poems were o f t e n l i n k e d t o g e t h e r i n a seemingly random manner, i t was demonstrated t h a t an o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e governs t h e i r s e l e c t i o n and arrangement. In most cases t h i s o v e r a l l u n i t y can be f o r m a l l y demonstrated. "Und Drang", f o r example, balanced the modern and medieval worlds i n i t s two s e c t i o n s ; "Xenia" p r o g r e s s e d from darkness to l i g h t ; the Homage was s y m m e t r i c a l l y arranged around s e c t i o n V I I ; Mauberley c o u n t e r p o i n t e d "Envoi" w i t h " M e d a l l i o n " . T h i s p r o g r e s s i v e arrangement of s n i p p e t s was not q u i t e the same t h i n g as P i c a b i a ' s " w i l d s h o t s " , though i t l eaned i n the same d i r e c t i o n . Pensees sans langage; poeme showed Pound t h a t he needed to pay even l e s s a t t e n t i o n to c o n v e n t i o n a l forms than p r e v i o u s l y . His review shows him b r i n g i n g i n t o cognizance, f o r the f i r s t 239 time, the n o t i o n t h a t s e l e c t i o n and o r d e r i n g of m a t e r i a l need pay no a t t e n t i o n to c o n v e n t i a l l i t e r a y forms. E a r l i e r , Pound had e x p l o r e d r e c o n d i t e forms such as the canzone and the s e g u a i r e , which o f f e r e d means of i n c o r p o r a t i n g more d i v e r s e m a t e r i a l s and p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o p o e t r y than more po p u l a r methods; now he went beyond t h i s p o i n t i n h i s t h i n k i n g , t o accept the n o t i o n t h a t any k i n d of arrangement chosen by an author might be j u s t i f i e d i n l i t e r a r y terms, even i f i t obeyed no "law" of formal i n t e g r i t y o t h e r than t h a t a f f i r m e d by the f a c t o f i t s e x i s t e n c e . He had made a le a p of f a i t h , e s t h e t i c a l l y speaking, t h a t i m p l i e d complete c o n f i d e n c e i n a u t h o r i a l judgement. Perhaps t h i s i s why he l a t e r found i t d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v i d e a f u l l y c o n v i n c i n g account of h i s "method" i n the Cantos. P i c a b i a ' s work awakened Pound t o the e x i s t e n c e o f a compatible l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i n which h i s p r o j e c t e d long poem c o u l d be p l a c e d , encompassing the works of M a r t i a l , La Rochefoucauld, Remy de Gourmont, and P i c a b i a , not to mention Mauberley and The Waste Land. T h i s t r a d i t i o n was l a t e r c a r r i e d f u r t h e r i n t o the t w e n t i e t h century by such works as Zukofsky's "A", Olson's Maximus poems, W i l l i a m ' s Paterson, Jones', Anethemata, Bunting's B r i g g f l a t s , and the Cantos. I t became, i n f a c t , the major e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h i s 240 century's poetic s e n s i b i l i t y . The method re j e c t s " l i t e r a r y mechanisms" of a t r a d i t i o n a l kind i n an attempt to express the f u l l o r i g i n a l i t y of the author's personality, not merely i n subjective terms, but also with regard to what the author considers important i n the worlds of economics, p o l i t i c s , and other contemporary issues. The rat i o n a l e behind t h i s method was that the purpose of a r t i s to r e f l e c t the nature of man's perceptions without reference to l i t e r a r y molds, and to reveal the incapacity of received notions of formal or s y n t a c t i c a l completeness to mirror l i f e t r u l y , Hence, i n his essay on Picabia he praised a novel of the American Natalie Barney, "who has published with complete mental laziness a book of unfinished sentences and broken paragraphs, which i s , on 12 the whole, readable". And sixteen years l a t e r , Pound looked back even on Lewis' writing i n Blast as cleaving too clo s e l y to the requirements of s y n t a c t i c a l completeness. "The durable malady or l i m i t a t i o n of the c r i t i c i s m i n Blast," Pound says, " i s not that i t i s broken and jabby; but that there s t i l l hangs about i t a 'morning-after'. Lewis had escaped from the p o l i t e paragraph but the old i n e r t i a of momentum s t i l l led him to f i n i s h his sentences, often when the complete revelation of idea had been made i n a single phrase" (SP, 426). These comments reveal a 241 c r i t i c a l s h i f t i n Pound's thoughts about major form, from s t a s i s to k i n e s i s . That i s to say, the s y n t a c t i c a l incompleteness of the Cantos was part of Pound's e f f o r t to eliminate s u p e r f l u i t i e s , such as the ending to a sentence, the "structuring" of a poem, and to mirror i n the movement of language the kaleidoscopic movement of the mind. Picabia had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the attempt c a r r i e d out by Pound and others, throughout the 1910's, to get out of the "nineteen hundred and eights (London) or the f i n du s i e c l e  dixneuvieme (Paris) and leave a place free for Prufrock. I mean for a new decade to get started without cerements, without verbal l i g a t u r e s s t i l l binding i t to the world of my adolescence, of Lewis' adolescence" (SP, 429). I t i s therefore not s u r p r i s i n g that Pound should have been influenced by his work. Pound exchanged Brancusi for Picabia as a model much as one might leave the security of a c i t a d e l i n order to f i g h t more openly. The weapons he chose were the short, jabby phrase and jagged syntax of d i s t i l l e d perceptions. In Mauberley Pound had made his f i n e s t use of irony, which he termed the " l a s t c i t a d e l of the i n t e l l i g e n c e " ; i n XVI  Cantos he abandoned t h i s covert, sophisticated means of 242 e x p r e s s i o n i n favour of compressed, d i r e c t statement. In the Homage he had w r i t t e n h i s most s u c c e s s f u l defense of the a e s t h e t i c t r a d i t i o n ; i n XVI Cantos he e n l a r g e d t h i s focus on e s t h e t i c s t o i n c l u d e the new dimension of d e t a i l e d s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s — h e was no l o g g e r content merely to d i s m i s s the modern world, but,attempted t o ana l y s e i t i n or d e r t o suggest remedies. "The s y m b o l i s t p o s i t i o n , a r t i s t i c a l o o f n e s s from world a f f a i r s i s no good now", he says. " I t may have a s s i s t e d s e v e r a l people t o w r i t e and work i n the 80's but i t i s not, i n 1921, opportune o r 13 a p p o s i t e . " That i s , Pound's p o e t r y would no lo n g e r "omit r e a l i t i e s " . D Major Douglas' Economic Democracy S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the above comment was p a r t of Pound's review of Major Douglas' Economic Democracy: i f the e s t h e t e i s to come down i n t o the arena t o f i g h t he must get h i s hands d i r t y , c o n f r o n t major s o c i a l i s s u e s l i k e economics. The shock, indeed the outrage, which Pound e x p e r i e n c e d a t t h i s s h i f t from a e t h e t i c i s m t o s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e ss i s conveyed by the v i o l e n t metaphor he used t o d e s c r i b e the book's 243 impact on him: "Don't imagine I f i n d economics i n t e r e s t i n g — n o t as B o t t i c e l l i or P i c a s s o i s i n t e r e s t i n g . But a t p r e s e n t they, as the r e a l i t y under p o l i t i c a l camouflage, are i n t e r e s t i n g as a gun muzzle aimed a t one's own head i s " i n t e r e s t i n g " when one can h a r d l y see the face of the gun h o l d e r and i s wh o l l y u n c e r t a i n as to h i s 1 4 temperament and i n t e n t i o n s . " From co n t e m p l a t i o n of pure form, Pound had turne d t o the contemplation of a mugger p o i n t i n g a gun to h i s temple. He had ample cause t o f e a r t h i s enemy, f o r as E l i o t wrote Quinn on the 25th of January 1920, "the f a c t i s t h a t t h e r e i s now no organ of any importance i n which he can express h i m s e l f , and he i s becoming f o r g o t t e n . I t i s not enough f o r him simply t o p u b l i s h a volume of v e r s e once a y e a r — o r no matter how o f t e n — f o r i t w i l l simply not be reviewed and w i l l be k i l l e d by s i l e n c e . " 1 5 Although Quinn responded by a r r a n g i n g f o r Pound's appointment as P a r i s correspondent of the D i a l , both the Athenaeum and the New  Age dispensed w i t h h i s c r i t i c a l s e r v i c e s i n J u l y 1920 and January 1921 r e s p e c t i v e l y . And by March 1923 he was sacked by the D i a l as w e l l . C u r i o u s l y , j u s t as i t had i n the f i r s t y ear of the war, t h i s e r o s i o n o f Pound's f i a n c i a l s e c u r i t y spurred him to a g r e a t c r e a t i v e e f f o r t , and h i s p l a n f o r XVI Cantos began t o f a l l i n t o p l a c e . Now, 244 however, he had the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e to make the study of economics r e l e v a n t t o h i s long poem, and a guide i n Major Douglas. Hence, i n h i s " P a r i s L e t t e r " of February 1922, Pound showed t h a t he had become aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n such l i t e r a r y s u b j e c t s as Henry James' p o r t r a y a l o f the "gentleman". He had once admired James 1 avoidance of the economic f a c t o r i n h i s n o v e l s by making h i s c h i e f c h a r a c t e r s f i n a n c i a l l y independent; now he wondered i f such a e s t h e t i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t i e s evaded important i s s u e s . Perhaps the new era demanded t h a t the a r t i s t attempt to b r i n g the r e a l l y complex i s s u e s of the modern world i n t o c l e a r f o c u s : The q u e s t i o n s come, w i t h the supposed i n c r e a s e i n the g e n e r a l psychology, whether we don't want something w i t h more wealth of motive, more l a r g e s s e , more i n t e l l i g e n c e . . . . whether we haven't to t u r n t o and b u i l d r a t h e r ^ than s c r a t c h round f o r remnants and b r i c - a - b r a c . That i s , t h e r e was l i t t l e p o i n t i n s c r a t c h i n g around f o r examples of the "gentleman" (as Pound had done i n "Moeures Contemporaines") when s o c i e t y was i n desperate need of p o s i t i v e remedies. 245 When c o n s i d e r i n g Pound's d e c i s i o n t o i n c l u d e the study of economics i n the poem, then, i t i s important to note i t s p o s i t i v e s t i m u l u s . What Pound noted as most important i n h i s review of Economic Democracy f o r the L i t t l e Review i n A p r i l 1920 was t h a t i t was w e l l d i r e c t e d "toward a more humane standard of l i f e ; d i r e c t e d t o the p r e v e n t i o n of new wards, wars blown up out of economic v i l l a i n i e s a t the whim and i n s t i g a t i o n s of s m a l l bodies of i r r e s p o n s i b l e 17 i n d i v i d u a l s " . As noted i n Chapter IV, Pound's dream of a new c i v i l i z a t i o n was s h a t t e r e d by the deaths of Gaudier, Hulme, and de Gourmont d u r i n g the war. H i s r e a c t i o n was to immediately redouble h i s c r e a t i v e e f f o r t , t o r e a f f i r m the v a l u e of i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y amid the s o c i a l h o l o c a u s t . By 1920 he was ready to support the p o s i t i v e economic p r o p o s a l s s e t f o r t h by Douglas which he thought capable o f d e f u s i n g the economic bomb ready to blow up i n t o another war. Pound's " i n t e r e s t " i n economics was u n e q u i v o c a l l y clamped to h i s b e l i e f i n the v a l u e of a "more humane standard of l i f e " . He took up the study of economics not merely out of s e l f i n t e r e s t , but out of h i s concern f o r s o c i e t y a t l a r g e : " a r t i s t i c a l o o f n e s s from world a f f a i r s i s no good now." Hence, i n the February 1922 i s s u e of the D i a l Pound d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between B r a n c u s i ' s t r u s t i n the a b i l i t y o f 246 pure a r t to. r e i f y human nature and h i s own growing b e l i e f t h a t t o be e f f e c t i v e as an a r t i s t he must f i r s t promote those c o n d i t i o n s which make a r t p o s s i b l e , d e a l w i t h the economic f a c t o r : I can s t i l l hear the p l e a s a n t v o i c e o f a h a l e , h e a r t y chap, who was s e l l i n g torpedo-boats t o R u s s i a back i n 1912 or '13: "Peace? Nao, not w h i l e ye hav' two b i l l i o n s o f money i n v e s t e d i n the making of war machinery." That i s about the s i z e o f i t ; and th e r e i s a l s o the problem of usury, and mankind's i n c a p a c i t y t o grasp the simple e q u a t i o n 6-6=1. In the face o f which . B r a n c u s i dreams of a p e r f e c t form which s h a l l r e v e a l the i n f i n i t e beauty of the u n i v e r s e and b r i n g a saeculum novum of s u p e r - C h r i s t i a n b e n i g n i t y and k i n d l i n e s s ; and P a r i s perhaps remains the meeting p o i n t f o r those who have c a s t o f f the s a n c t i f i e d s t u p i d i t i e s and timidities and are i n d e f i a n c e o f t h i n g s as they a r e . Seen i n r e t r o s p e c t , the r e g r e t w i t h which Pound r e j e c t e d B r a n c u s i ' s i d e a l i s m i s extremely moving. He i n c o r p o r a t e d t h i s c o n n e c t i o n between usury and war i n t o h i s p o e t r y as e a r l y as canto e i g h t e e n : "Peace! P i e y c e ! ! s a i d Mr. G i d d i n g s , " U n i - v e r - s a l ? Not w h i l e yew got tew b i l l i o n s ov money," S a i d Mr. G i d d i n g s , " i n v e s t e d i n the man-u-facture "Of war machinery." ( X I I I , p81) Major Douglas' famous economic formula was thus g r a f t e d 247 onto B r a n c u s i ' s single-minded focus on a e s t h e t i c s , w i t h the common purpose of improving s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . By e a r l y 1922 Pound had come to b e l i e v e t h a t the "saeculum novum of s u p e r - C h r i s t i a n b e n i g n i t y and k i n d l i n e s s " must be f i r s t p r e p ared f o r by c r e a t i n g an e n l i g h t e n e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of economics. However, although Pound r e j e c t e d B r a n c u s i ' s r e f i n e d a e s t h e t i c i s m , the concept of a r t as a magic c i r c l e which no contemporary s o c i a l concerns e n t e r e d , he accepted the c r e a t i v e s p i r i t behind B r a n c u s i ' s " d i f f i c u l t e x p l o r a t i o n toward g e t t i n g a l l the forms i n t o one form" (LE, 442) . The attempt might deserve p r a i s e , even i f i t f a i l e d t o reach a l l i t s c r e a t i v e o b j e c t i v e s : A r t very p o s s i b l y ought to be the supreme achievement, the "accomplished"; but t h e r e i s the o t h e r s a t i s f a c t o r y e f f e c t , t h a t of a man h u r l i n g h i m s e l f a t an i n d o m i t a b l e chaos, and yanking and h a u l i n g as much as p o s s i b l e i n t o some s o r t of o r d e r (or b e a u t y ) , aware of i t both as chaos and p o t e n t i a l . (LE, 396) I t i s important to note t h a t t h i s q u o t a t i o n comes from an essay w r i t t e n i n 1928, t h r e e years a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of XVI Cantos and contemporaneous w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of A D r a f t of Cantos: 17 to 27. With these experiments behind 248 him, Pound had not l o s t f a i t h i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of h i s attempt to h u r l h i m s e l f a t "an i n d o m i t a b l e chaos" i n o r d e r to yank i t i n t o some s o r t of o r d e r and beauty. Indeed, Pound went so f a r as to o f f e r the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t " p l o t , major form, or o u t l i n e should be l e f t to authors who f e e l some i n n e r need f o r the same; even l e t us say a v e r y s t r o n g