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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Stasis and metamorphosis : modes of characterization in the works of Fritz von Unruh Buffinga, John O. 1983

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C-I STASIS AND METAMORPHOSIS: Modes of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n the works of F r i t z von Unruh By John 0. B u f f i n g a B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o , 1976 M.A. The U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Germanic Studies) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1983 © John 0. B u f f i n g a , 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of G h K l T i ^ n l C ^ T U O l /7g The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e Q - p r t ' l gof^ 1^83 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to a r r i v e at an understanding of F r i t z von Unruh's work by examining the author's modes of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . Unruh re p e a t e d l y i n t r o d u c e s kindred c h a r a c t e r s , c h a r a c t e r types, and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r s , but uses d i f f e r i n g methods of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n to p o r t r a y them. By i n v e s t i g a t i n g the works completed between 1910 and 1932 and by r e l a t i n g Unruh's techniques of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n to the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e of these works, a p a t t e r n may be observed which demonstrates that Unruh g r a d u a l l y adapts p r e - E x p r e s s i o n i s t methods of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n to those t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with Expressionism, by d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g hi; c h a r a c t e r s and by s u b o r d i n a t i n g them to the p o r t r a y a l of one c e n t r a l f i g u r e . T h i s p a t t e r n has i t s roots i n the pre-war dramas, culminates in the works completed during the war, and attenuates i n the post-war p l a y s . The v a r i o u s stages of t h i s metamorphosis are u l t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the message-oriented nature of the works. In the e a r l y p l a y s , the conventions of p r e - E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama are g r a d u a l l y adapted to s u i t the p o r t r a y a l of contemporary W i l h e l m i n i a n r e a l i t y and of a c e n t r a l f i g u r e who f i g h t s f o r a r e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the i d e a l s of the p a s t . In the works completed between 1914 and 1918 the author s u b j e c t s h i s major c h a r a c t e r s to a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : he presents the f i g u r e s as types, uses a form of c h a r a c t e r fragmentation, and makes the p l o t development as w e l l as the s c e n i c and dialogue composition s u b s e r v i e n t to the propagation of the ideas i n c o r p o r a t e d by the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r s . In the post-war p l a y s , f i n a l l y , each of these modes of c h a r a c t e r d e l i n e a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s s u b s e r v i e n t to the major f i g u r e s , but c h a r a c t e r i z e s the n e g a t i v e , unredeemed world about them, a g a i n s t which they have to a s s e r t themselves. In these p l a y s , the redemption of man i s no longer sought i n a past or present r e a l i t y , but i n a realm i n which o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y i s t r a n s f i g u r e d and transformed. S u p e r v i s o r : iv TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i I. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I . L i s t i n g s of dramatis personae 21 I I I . S e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n a) non-verbal 27 b) v e r b a l 79 IV. R e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n 132 V. The p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n the framework of p l o t development 183 VI. The p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n the framework of s c e n i c composition 197 V I I . The p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n the framework of dialogue composition 224 V I I I . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r and theme 239 IX. C o n c l u s i o n 254 Notes 267 L i s t of a b b r e v i a t i o n s 298 B i b l i o g r a p h y 298 1 I. INTRODUCTION F r i t z von Unruh's long l i f e (1885-1970) and p r o l i f i c l i t e r a r y output are s t r a n g e l y at odds with the German l i t e r a r y E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement with which he i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y asso-c i a t e d . U n l i k e most E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , Unruh not only s u r v i v e d the movement but a l s o the two world wars, and, as some would have i t , he even s u r v i v e d h i s own s i g n i f i c a n c e . One must, however, take issue with those who t r e a t Unruh's work and l i t e r a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e as p e r i p h e r a l . Although today an author known by and lar g e only to Germanists, 1 Unruh was a c e l e b r a t e d and h i g h l y honoured w r i t e r i n the f i r s t de-cades of t h i s century. He remains an important l i t e r a r y f i g u r e to those who want to pursue the e v o l u t i o n of an author's thought by studying the v a r i o u s modes and genres i n which he expresses and adapts i t to the l i t e r a r y movements c u r r e n t du-r i n g the inter-war years. Unruh's l o n g e v i t y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , ^ h i s many works, and the w e l l - r e s e a r c h e d l i t e r a r y era from which he emerged lend them-s e l v e s admirably to a study of the growth and maturing of h i s a r t . Even a c a s u a l reader of Unruh's work w i l l soon d i s c o v e r that they are a l l "fragments of a great c o n f e s s i o n , " ^ which t r a c e the author's stance with reference to the changing s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and a r t i s t i c demands of the time. They a l s o p r o v i d e a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the development of an author who, at the beginning of h i s c a r e e r , i s f i r m l y rooted i n the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s of the past, but whose work g r a d u a l l y e x h i b i t s 2 f e a t u r e s t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with Expressionism. T h i s process may be r e l a t e d to the message-oriented nature of the work. In the e a r l y stages of h i s c a r e e r Unruh judges l i t e r a t u r e on the b a s i s of i t s n a t i o n a l ethos and emulates the German c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s , i n h i s own e a r l y work, i n order to f o s t e r the awaken-ing to n a t i o n a l consciousness demanded by the W i l h e l m i n i a n s o c i e t y he l i v e d i n . In the l a t e r work the same i d e a l s are a b s t r a c t e d i n order to promote the awakening to p u r e l y s p i r i t u a l g o a l s , which i s the prime d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement. An a n a l y s i s of Unruh's work i s , t h e r e f o r e , of great i n t e r e s t p r e c i s e l y because of the author's s i n g u l a r s t a t u s w i t h i n the E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement. Unruh's l i t e r a r y output i s l a r g e . Of the planned twenty-volume e d i t i o n of h i s c o l l e c t e d works, f i v e volumes have been p u b l i s h e d to date (VII, 1970; V I I I , 1971; I I I , 1974; IV, 1975; and XVII, 1979). 4 However, more than h a l f of Unruh's work has appeared i n separate e d i t i o n s . The year 1932 marks the g r e a t watershed i n the author's l i t e r a r y c a r e e r . Whereas be-f o r e t h i s year Unruh wrote p r i m a r i l y p l a y s , he turned mainly to the novel when f o r c e d to l i v e i n e x i l e a f t e r the N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s s e i z e d c o n t r o l of Germany. Twelve out of t h i r t e e n p l a y s , two short works of prose, and numerous p o l i t i c a l speeches w r i t t e n before 1932 have been p u b l i s h e d to date. Of the f i f t e e n novels Unruh completed a f t e r the Second World War, seven have been p u b l i s h e d and of these three are a u t o b i o g r a p h i -c a l . ^  with these l a t e r novels, however, Unruh never r e -captured the success he had with some of h i s e a r l i e r p l a y s . 3 Although F r i t z von Unruh i s di s c u s s e d i n v i r t u a l l y a l l c r i t i c a l works which trace the development of German l i t e r a r y Expressionism, there are r e l a t i v e l y few works of a s c h o l a r l y nature which deal e x c l u s i v e l y with Unruh. Most a r t i c l e s about the author w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t two or three decades of t h i s century are e i t h e r t h e a t r e reviews or two or three-page c o n t r i b u t i o n s to l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l s . Although g e n e r a l , b r i e f , o f t e n c o n j e c t u r a l , and always s u b j e c t i v e , these a r t i c l e s do prov i d e a c l e a r p i c t u r e of Unruh's r e c e p t i o n by h i s contempo-r a r i e s and may serve to i l l u s t r a t e , broaden, or s t i m u l a t e the present d i s c u s s i o n . The longer and more s c h o l a r l y works from t h i s p e r i o d a l s o examine Unruh i n g e n e r a l . These not only i n c l u d e c h r o n i c l e s of contemporary t h e a t r e , such as those of J u l i u s Bab, Max Freyhan,^ and A l b e r t S o e r g e l , ^ but a l s o the more s p e c i a l i z e d s t u d i e s of Wilm Geyer, 9 Robert Meister,- 1- 0 K a r l V i S t o r , 1 1 Rudolf I b e l , 1 2 and Oskar Walzel.13 The approach used by each of them i s a thematic one which attempts to p l a c e Unruh i n l i t e r a r y p e r s p e c t i v e and i s concerned with questions of p e r i o d i z a t i o n . Whether they regard him p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y , a l l of the above c r i t i c s a t t e s t to Unruh's monumentality as a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e i n the 1920's. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many of the e a r l y c r i t i c s i s , how-ever, t h e i r u n c r i t i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Unruh's work; r a t h e r than analyze the work, they completely i d e n t i f y with i t , and r a t h e r than recognize i t as a l i t e r a r y testimony of a p a r t i c u -4 l a r time, they regard i t as an e x p r e s s i o n of the human predicament i n g e n e r a l . I n t e r e s t i n the work of Unruh waned with the advent of f a s c i s t r u l e i n Germany and soon h i s work was f o r b i d d e n and burned. E f f o r t s to r e f a m i l i a r i z e a reading audience with Unruh immediately f o l l o w i n g the Second World War came in p a r t from the U n i t e d - S t a t e s , i n the form of a r t i c l e s by Alexander Gode von Aesch-1-4 and a monograph by Alwin Kronacher.15 Since the r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n the E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement in the 1960's c r i t i c a l examinations of Unruh's work have a l s o appeared on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . In the l a t e 1950's and e a r l y 1960's an e d i t i o n of s e l e c t e d works by Unruh was p u b l i s h e d and e d i t e d by Georg Wieszner. 1^ In 1960, an anthology cum biography w r i t t e n by F r i e d r i c h R a s c h e ^ appeared and, i n 1964, W. F. Mainland- 1- 8 p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e on Unruh which a l s o provides an overview of the work. S e v e r a l s t u d i e s with a much more d e f i n i t e focus appeared i n the l a t e 1960's and i n the 1970's; most notable among these are the c o n t r i b u t i o n s by Manfred D u r z a k . 1 9 Of note are a l s o two unpublished d i s s e r t a t i o n s w r i t t e n i n the United S t a t e s by G. E. S a l t e r 2 ^ and P a t r i c i a Ward, 2 1 each of whom examines s p e c i f i c aspects of Unruh's work, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s use of C h r i s t i a n symbolism and h i s concept of the " S o l d i e r of Peace." Another i n q u i r y with a s p e c i f i c area of c o n c e n t r a t i o n was c a r r i e d out by J u d i t h A. T a y l o r , 2 2 who s t u d i e d the theme of death i n E i n G e s c h l e c h t . F i n a l l y , the 1970's a l s o saw 5 the p u b l i c a t i o n of f i v e volumes of the proposed twenty-volume e d i t i o n of Unruh's c o l l e c t e d works, e d i t e d by Hanns M a r t i n E l s t e r . 2 3 The l a c k of d i s t a n c e between the c r i t i c and the t e x t , observable i n examinations of Unruh's work before the Second World War, continues to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c r i t i c i s m s pu-b l i s h e d a f t e r 1945. However, the reason f o r t h i s lack of d i s -tance i s d i f f e r e n t . Although time put d i s t a n c e between the c r i t i c and the s u b j e c t of h i s r e s e a r c h , many of them now i n t e r -p r e t the work u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y according to Unruh's own r e t r o -s p e c t i v e comments. This obscures r a t h e r than c l a r i f i e s the work. S a l t e r , 2 4 f o r i n s t a n c e , analyzes C h r i s t i a n symbol-ism independently of an h i s t o r i c a l framework, f a i l s to demon-s t r a t e a development, and m y s t i f i e s the work to a degree which pre c l u d e s a r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s a l t o g e t h e r . Awareness of a p o s s i b l e development i n Unruh's work i s s i m i l a r l y absent from T a y l o r ' s a n a l y s i s of the theme of death i n E i n  G e s c h l e c h t 2 ^ , and from those works which e i t h e r focus on the f i r s t two p a r t s of the t r i l o g y mentioned above or d i s c u s s 0 ft Unruh w i t h i n the context of Expressionism i n g e n e r a l . The r e s u l t of t h i s , combined with the a b s t r a c t nature of Unruh's work w r i t t e n a f t e r 1914, i s that c r i t i c s o f t e n overlook the f a c t that E i n Geschlecht and P l a t z , f o r i n s t a n c e , are Unruh's response to the F i r s t World War and the subsequent r e -v o l u t i o n . Despite h i s v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s , Durzak 2^ f r e -q u e n t l y takes Unruh's r e t r o s p e c t i v e statements at face value as w e l l , and f a i l s to take issue with the author's c l a i m that the 6 year 1914 marked the t u r n i n g p o i n t of h i s l i f e and h i s r e j e c t i o n of P r u s s i a n t r a d i t i o n , m i l i t a r i s m , and war. Ina Gotz, whose d i s s e r t a t i o n on F r i t z von Unruh's work was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 7 5 , 2 8 i s one of the few c r i t i c s to be p u z z l e d by the d i s c r e p a n c y between Unruh's pro-war tendencies and p a c i f i s t i d e a l s i n works such as Vor der Entscheidung and Qpfergang. The concepts of " t r a d i t i o n " and " u t o p i a " are to Gotz the two poles between which Unruh's work v a c i l l a t e s between 1910 and 1932. Although the year 1914 i s s t i l l seen as the d i v i d i n g p o i n t , she argues that d e s p i t e the author's i n t e n t i o n s the work continues to be r e a c t i o n a r y and indebted to the t r a d i t i o n s of the past, even when i t c o n s c i o u s l y moves towards an a b s t r a c t e d , Utopian view of l i f e . In her e f f o r t to study Unruh's work w i t h i n the context of the inter-war years, Ina Gotz a r r i v e s at worthwhile c o n c l u s i o n s , which are made p o s s i b l e by not studying i n d i v i d u a l works in i s o l a t i o n from each other. She f a i l s to do j u s t i c e to the author, however, by a p p l y i n g to h i s work the y a r d s t i c k of Marxist i d e o l o g i e s and f i n d i n g i t wanting in i t s a b i l i t y to conform to these i d e a l s . 2 9 The most thorough a n a l y s i s of Unruh's e a r l y work was w r i t t e n by D i e t e r Kasang and p u b l i s h e d in 1980.^0 U n l i k e p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , Kasang's book i n c l u d e s an a n a l y s i s of unpublished manuscripts and e a r l y v e r s i o n s of works w r i t t e n p r i o r to 1918. He thereby c l a r i f i e s many i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and r e c t i f i e s numerous misconceptions about the author, which have hampered a proper understanding of Unruh's work from the 7 b e g i n n i n g . 3 1 Kasang examines the e a r l y work w i t h i n the context f i r s t of Wilhelminianism, understood as the ethos of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d between 1888 and 1918, and then of l i t e r a r y Expressionism. Both are present i n Unruh's work; the r i g o r o u s l y p a t r i a r c h a l nature of W i l h e l m i n i a n s o c i e t y a g a i n s t which the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s r e b e l l e d , and the E x p r e s s i o n i s t p r o t e s t i t s e l f . Of a l l the w r i t e r s whose youth was i n f l u e n c e d by a W i l h e l m i n i a n view of l i f e , and who l a t e r became E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , Unruh, a descendant of an a n c i e n t l i n e of the P r u s s i a n m i l i t a r y a r i s t o c r a c y , who grew up as a page to the sons of the K a i s e r , was probably the most deeply rooted in W i l h e l m i n i a n s o c i e t y . Kasang t r a c e s which E x p r e s s i o n i s t p o s i t i o n s are a l r e a d y l a t e n t i n W i l h e l m i n i a n thought, which Wi l h e l m i n i a n p o s i t i o n s are d i s c a r d e d or transformed by Unruh when becoming an E x p r e s s i o n i s t , and which he r e t a i n e d . U n l i k e Gotz, whose a n a l y s i s i s to a l a r g e extent r e d u c t i v e , Kasang does not e v a l u a t e Unruh's work as a v e h i c l e which e i t h e r conforms to or f a l l s s h o r t of pre-formulated s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i e s . In the c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on Unruh i n g e n e r a l , s t r u c t u r a l or formal aspects are l a r g e l y ignored or r e l e g a t e d to the p e r i p h e r y . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e , i n p a r t , to Unruh h i m s e l f , who r a r e l y expounded on l i t e r a r y theory and always con s i d e r e d h i s message to be more important than i t s medium. It cannot be denied, however, that the one i s dependent on the other and that i n i g n o r i n g the medium, the c r i t i c may not do j u s t i c e to - and may even misunderstand - the message. The aim 8 of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to a r r i v e at an understanding of Unruh's work by f o c u s i n g on one s p e c i f i c formal element: the author's modes of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . It i s s u r p r i s i n g that Unruh's techniques of c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n have never been the s u b j e c t of a c l o s e r s c r u t i n y , s i n c e one of the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of h i s work i s the recurrence of k i n d r e d c h a r a c t e r s , c h a r a c t e r types, and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r s . Frequently the author suggests that aspects of h i s protean p e r s o n a l i t y are p e r s o n i f i e d i n h i s c h a r a c t e r s , by p l a y -ing upon h i s own name. The c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n Vor der  Entscheidung (1914), f o r example, i s known as Ulan, and the hero i n Phaea (1930) and i n the three a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l novels w r i t t e n a f t e r World War Two i s named Uhle. Related c h a r a c t e r s l i k e the uhlan and Uhle may reappear under d i f f e r e n t names or i n d i f f e r e n t guises i n other works. In most of Unruh's works, the c e n t r a l f i g u r e has opponents and a l l i e s who appear in d i f f e r e n t guises as w e l l . The e a r l y dramas set the p a t t e r n f o r the l a t e r work. In the three pre-World War One dramas - Jtlrgen Wullenweber (1910), O f f i z i e r e (1911), and L o u i s Ferdinand (1913) - the c e n t r a l f i g u r e s are c o n s i s t e n t l y opposed and held in check by the f o r c e s of t r a d i -t i o n , as represented by c l e r g i c a l , m i l i t a r y , d i p l o m a t i c , and r o y a l f i g u r e s . The hero's a l l i e s , i n t u r n , are h i s more r u t h -l e s s e q u i v a l e n t s . Then, beginning with the drama P l a t z (1920), the hero's a d v e r s a r i e s are no longer p r i m a r i l y the r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s of t r a d i t i o n , but h i s contemporary equals who t h r e a t e n to undermine h i s m i s s i o n . Although reminiscent of the a l l i e s i n 9 the pre-war p l a y s , these f i g u r e s now appear under the generic name of S c h l e i c h or Krah, and represent the o p p o r t u n i s t i c f o r c e s of contemporary s o c i e t y . R e p e t i t i o n with v a r i a t i o n does not end here. In s e v e r a l works, the hero i s fla n k e d by two female f i g u r e s , one of whom re p r e s e n t s the s p i r i t u a l s i d e of man and the other the p h y s i c a l or s e n s u a l . His r e l a t i o n s h i p to these two women i s such that he i s i r r e s i s t a b l y drawn to the sensuous woman, but forsakes her i n favour of the woman who p e r s o n i f i e s the s p i r i t u a l . Although such p a t t e r n s bear a l l the t r a i t s of the a r c h e t y p a l , i t i s evi d e n t that Unruh uses them to e l u c i d a t e contemporary s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t r e n d s . These r e c u r r e n t p a t t e r n s r a i s e the q u e s t i o n , of course, of whether they remain s t r u c t u r a l l y c o n v i n c i n g and a r t i s t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g . They a l s o suggest that Unruh's view of l i f e and a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n of i t remain e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged. Important and overlooked by c r i t i c s , however, i s the f a c t that Unruh employs d i f f e r i n g techniques of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n to p o r t r a y these kindred c h a r a c t e r s , thereby f u r n i s h i n g them with a metamorphosed appearance. The v a r i o u s stages of t h i s metamorphosis, which are the r e s u l t of a process of a b s t r a c t i o n , u l t i m a t e l y shed l i g h t on Unruh's gradual alignment with Expressionism from a s t r u c t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . In the e a r l y work Unruh f o l l o w s i n the f o o t s t e p s of e i g h t e e n t h and nine t e e n t h century d r a m a t i s t s . Although he d e f i n e s h i s c h a r a c t e r s i n terms of s o c i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and p o l i t i c a l background, he does not, on that account, demonstrate 10 through them the c o r r e l a t i o n between an i n d i v i d u a l and h i s environment; the p r o t a g o n i s t s are members of an e l e v a t e d s o c i a l c l a s s , which g i v e s them the a p p r o p r i a t e height from which to f a l l , and the common people are simply the u n d e r l i n g s . In the l a t e r work r e l a t e d f i g u r e s are s t r i p p e d of s o c i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , or p o l i t i c a l rank i n order to be p o r t r a y e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e types. S i m i l a r l y , the secondary f i g u r e s which surround the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r s i n the e a r l y p l a y s , and which reappear i n a d i f f e r e n t guise i n the l a t e r work, p r o g r e s s i v e l y l o s e t h e i r independence by becoming v i s i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the heroes' i n t e r n a l s e l v e s . Both the p r e s e n t a t i o n of dramatic f i g u r e s as symbolic or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e types and the technique of c h a r a c t e r fragmentation are f e a t u r e s t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with Expressionism. An a n a l y s i s of Unruh's modes of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n works p u b l i s h e d before, d u r i n g , and a f t e r the war, i n f a c t , demonstrates the development of an author who i s p r e d e s t i n e d to Expressionism. The focus of t h i s study i s , t h e r e f o r e , on formal aspects of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and not on a Freudian probing f o r unconscious motives or a Jungian search f o r u n i v e r s a l p a t t e r n s . ^ 2 The d i f f i c u l t y i n the a n a l y s i s of l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r i -z a t i o n i n any g i v e n work begins with the problematic term " c h a r a c t e r " i t s e l f , i n s o f a r as i t r e f e r s both to the f i c t i t i o u s person represented i n a drama or a work of prose, and to the aggregate of f e a t u r e s that form the i n d i v i d u a l nature of that f i g u r e . B o t h meanings of the word must be acknow-ledged. C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n may be d e f i n e d as the c r e a t i o n and 11 c o n v i n c i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of f i c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s ; the process of c h a r a c t e r c r e a t i o n , however, has no r e a l d o s s i e r and r e s i s t s p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n . In h i s book Das Drama, Manfred P f i s t e r draws a d i s t i n c t i o n between "Figurenkonzeption" and " F i g u r e n c h a r a k t e r i -s i e r u n g . " 3 4 The former, he s t a t e s , c o n s i s t s of both the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l model on which the dramatic f i g u r e i s based and of the conventions of i t s f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n ; the l a t t e r com-p r i s e s "die formalen Techniken der I n f o r m a t i o n s v e r g a b e . " 3 ^ Rather than being mutually e x c l u s i v e , the one i s dependent on the other: a s p e c i f i c conception of a f i g u r e i s the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n the author's s e l e c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r technique of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . 3 6 S i n c e Unruh's conception of dramatic c h a r a c t e r undergoes a change of appearance from work to work, a number of terms must be d e f i n e d which recur throughout t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In d i s c u s s i o n s on c h a r a c t e r , c r i t i c s draw a u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n between s t a t i c and dynamic, two and t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l , f l a t and round c h a r a c t e r s . Although intended to be p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e , these terms are f r e q u e n t l y used as value judgments. Hebbel, f o r i n s t a n c e , demands that c h a r a c t e r s be dynamic, so that an author may demonstrate through them the autonomous w i l l of the i n d i v i d u a l i n c o n f l i c t with the w i l l of the w o r l d . 3 ^ Whereas a dynamic conception of c h a r a c t e r , i n the sense t h a t Hebbel uses i t , presupposes an autonomous w i l l , a s t a t i c conception of c h a r a c t e r i s f r e q u e n t l y based on an ideology of s o c i a l , b i o l o g i c a l , or p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n . 12 An author's choice between s t a t i c and dynamic c h a r a c t e r s may a l s o depend on genre. Broadly speaking, the f i g u r e s of comedy are s t a t i c , whereas the f i g u r e s of tragedy tend to be dynamic. Few dramas, however, are populated e x c l u s i v e l y by d y n a m i c a l l y conceived c h a r a c t e r s ; the secondary f i g u r e s are most l i k e l y to e x h i b i t at l e a s t some s t a t i c f e a t u r e s . The d i s t i n c t i o n between two and thr e e - d i m e n s i o n a l , f l a t and round c h a r a c t e r s was made famous by E. M. F o r s t e r i n h i s book Aspects of the Novel.38 C h a r a c t e r s are s a i d to be f l a t when they e x h i b i t one or a set of f i x e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In i t s most extreme form, t h i s may lead to c a r i c a t u r e . The roundness of three-dimensional c h a r a c t e r s , by c o n t r a s t , i s based on the m u l t i p l i c i t y of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s inherent i n a f i -gure. These may be r e v e a l e d by the biography of a f i g u r e , f o r i n s t a n c e , by i t s p s y c h i c d i s p o s i t i o n , i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , or by i t s r e a c t i o n s to v a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s . A whole spectrum of intermediate forms may be found on a s c a l e between these binary o p p o s i t e s . When arranged according to i n c r e a s e d i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , c h a r a c t e r s may be d e f i n e d as p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , types, or i n d i v i d u a l s . The most a b s t r a c t conception of c h a r a c t e r i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . In the Medieval m o r a l i t y p l a y s or the J e s u i t drama of the Baroque p e r i o d , such p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s u s u a l l y appear w i t h i n the frame-work of a l l e g o r i c a l paradigms. Less one-sided than the person-i f i c a t i o n i s the type. In l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , the term "type" has two d i s t i n c t usages. In one, i t r e f e r s to a l i t e r a r y genre, a kind, with d e f i n a b l e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 13 In the other, i t i s a p p l i e d to a c h a r a c t e r who i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a c l a s s or kind of person. The f i r s t i s a stock c h a r a c t e r ; the second a type c h a r a c t e r . The type c h a r a c t e r need not have any q u a l i t i e s borrowed from l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s and may be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d ; i t i s a type c h a r a c t e r because i t embodies a s u b s t a n t i a l number of s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s group or c l a s s . A stock c h a r a c t e r , by c o n t r a s t , i s a s t e r e o t y p e , a c h a r a c t e r modeled on other f r e g u e n t l y used c h a r a c t e r s , o f t e n simply of s i m i l a r stock c h a r a c t e r s . 3 9 Whereas a type i s a b s t r a c t e d from the i n d i v i d u a l i n order to represent the general and the t y p i c a l , the i n d i v i d u a l demonstrates the unique and the e x c e p t i o n a l . A f i g u r e may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as an i n d i v i d u a l by means o f , f o r example, i t s appearance, language, behaviour, or biography. Such a conception of c h a r a c t e r dominates in the drama of the N a t u r a l i s t s . The N a t u r a l i s t s present t h e i r f i g u r e s n e i t h e r i n an a l l e g o r i c a l manner, as the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of an i d e a , nor as types, but i n a f a s h i o n which shows that the f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s both i t s e l f and r e a l i t y i n a l l i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . A f i n a l d i s t i n c t i o n may be drawn between what Manfred P f i s t e r c a l l s a t r a n s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and a p s y c h o l o g i c a l concep-t i o n of character.40 T r a n s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y conceived c h a r a c t e r s are those whose understanding of s e l f transcends the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e . V o l k e r K l o t z , among o t h e r s , comments on the high degree of consciousness c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f i g u r e s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l " c l o s e d " drama. T h i s allows them to r e f l e c t about human passions even when they themselves 14 are v i c t i m s of them. 4 1 Such f i g u r e s represent an i d e a l . R e a l i s t i c or N a t u r a l i s t i c drama, by c o n t r a s t , t r e a t s i t s f i -gures not as i d e a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s but as m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l beings. T h e i r consciousness i s l i m i t e d and r e l a t i v i z e d by the i r r a t i o n a l i t y of emotions and the u n c o n t r o l l a b l e i n f l u e n c e s of m i l i e u , environment, and the subconscious. A s p e c i f i c a l l y modern v a r i a n t of a conception of c h a r a c t e r i s the r a d i c a l l o s s of a c h a r a c t e r ' s i d e n t i t y . In the twen-t i e t h century, the c h a r a c t e r s f r e q u e n t l y d i s s o l v e , lack psycho-l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n or become s y m b o l i c . 4 2 Each of these phenomena may be observed i n the drama of Expressionism, i n which c h a r a c t e r s are fragmented and reduced to types. However, use of the word "type" in the t r a d i t i o n a l sense when r e f e r r i n g to E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama can be m i s l e a d i n g . Rather than present type or stock c h a r a c t e r s , or represent i n a f i g u r e a p a r t i c u l a r human v i r t u e or v i c e , the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s f r e e d t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s from the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on them by Naturalism and turned them i n t o embodiments of a c e r t a i n i d e a , concept, or f e e l i n g . Walter H. Sokel w r i t e s : "Der E x p r e s s i o n i s t w i l l keinen gemischten und daher lebenstreuen Charakter, sondern eine e i n h e i t l i c h e F i g u r , d i e die buchstflbliche Verkttrperung e i n e r W e l t a n s i c h t , eines grossen Gefuhls oder e i n e r s c h a r f p r o f i l i e r t e n Tendenz i s t " . 4 3 The E x p r e s s i o n i s t s are not concerned with s u r f a c e r e a l i t y but inner v i s i o n s , not wi t h momentary impressions but with e t e r n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ; i n s t e a d of reproducing man and the world, they create a "new man" and a "new world." 15 My t h e s i s i s that Unruh's conception of c h a r a c t e r i s con-s i s t e n t l y t r a n s p s y c h o l o g i c a l ; he views h i s f i g u r e s not as i r r a t i o n a l l y complex bundles of f e e l i n g s and emotions, but as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e beings whose i d e n t i t y e s t a b l i s h e s s p e c i f i c norms and v a l u e s . In the e a r l y work, the author's conception of c h a r a c t e r i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the rounded, i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , dyna-mic kind demanded in the i d e a l i s t i c dramaturgy of the e i g h t e e n t h and n ineteenth c e n t u r i e s ; i n the l a t e r work, h i s c o n c e p t i o n of c h a r a c t e r e x h i b i t s f e a t u r e s t y p i c a l of that of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s . An author's conception of c h a r a c t e r determines h i s s e l e c -t i o n from the r e p e r t o r y of techniques of c h a r a c t e r i z a t o n a v a i l -able to him. It i s usual i n commenting upon the task of the p l a y w r i g h t to draw a d i s t i n c t i o n between d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t methods of c h a r a c t e r d e l i n e a t i o n . A Manfred P f i s t e r takes these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a step f u r t h e r . He d i s t i n g u i s h e s between those instances i n which the c h a r a c t e r i -z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s t r a n s m i t t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e ( " f i g u r a l " ) and those which can o n l y be a t t r i b u t e d to the p o s i -t i o n of the i m p l i e d author ( " a u k t o r i a l " ) . He thereby a r r i v e s at four separate c l a s s e s of c h a r a c t e r d e l i n e a t i o n : " e x p l i z i t - f i g u r a l " , " i m p l i z i t - f i g u r a l " " e x p l i z i t - a u k t o r i a l " , and " i m p l i z i t - a u k t o r i a l . " The f i r s t , he b e l i e v e s , c o n s i s t s of e x p l i c i t s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n ; the second c o n s t i t u t e s a f i g u r e ' s i m p l i c i t s e l f - c h a r a c -t e r i z a t i o n , as conveyed by behaviour, gesture, or language; the t h i r d and f o u r t h , f i n a l l y , comprise the author's e x p l i c i t or 16 i m p l i c i t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of h i s f i g u r e s as r e v e a l e d by h i s c h o i ce of names f o r them, by stage d i r e c t i o n s i n which he d e s c r i b e s them, and by means of correspondence or c o n t r a s t between them. 4^ In order to focus on p a t t e r n s of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n Unruh's work, I have borrowed a s i m p l i f i e d scheme devised by F. Htlbner. 4^ He begins an a n a l y s i s of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n with an examination of the most b a s i c elements, then proceeds to the more complicated ones, and u l t i m a t e l y r e l a t e s a l l modes of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n to theme. A s i m p l i f i e d model i s j u s t i f i e d i n view of the a b s t r a c t nature of E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama, which moves away from the s p e c i f i c and the c o n d i t i o n e d to a more ge n e r a l sphere of r e f e r e n c e and s i g i f i c a n c e . A survey of the l i s t i n g s of dramatis personae w i l l i n d i -c a t e whether the author conceives of them as t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l , rounded, i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r s or as f l a t , two-dimensional p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s or types. F r e q u e n t l y the l i s t i n g s w i l l a l s o s t i p u l a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the f i g u r e s to the s e t t i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l works. From these most b a s i c f e a t u r e s , one may proceed to an a n a l y s i s of those instances i n which a f i g u r e c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t s e l f or o t h e r s : the f i r s t w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as s e l f -c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ; the second as r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . S e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n may be d i v i d e d i n t o a non-verbal and a v e r b a l s e c t i o n . A f i g u r e may c h a r a c t e r i z e i t s e l f by non-verbal means in terms of behaviour, g e s t u r e , s t a t u r e or appearance, and by v e r b a l means i n the form of e x p l i c i t self-commentary. 17 The l a t t e r s e c t i o n w i l l a l s o c o n t a i n an i n q u i r y i n t o the language p a t t e r n s and s t y l i s t i c t e x t u r e of the f i g u r e s ' speech. An examination of r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , i n t u r n , w i l l determine to what extent a f i g u r e ' s understanding of s e l f corresponds to that which another f i g u r e has of i t . By i n v e s t i g a t i n g each of these channels of i n f o r m a t i o n s e p a r a t e l y , a p a t t e r n may be observed which demonstrates the gradual t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , rounded c h a r a c t e r s i n t o fragmented, E x p r e s s i o n i s t types. A f t e r an a n a l y s i s of s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , I s h a l l t u r n to the l a r g e r , o v e r l a p p i n g s t r u c t u r a l and c o m p o s i t i o n a l elements of the works, through which the author may c h a r a c t e r i z e h i s f i g u r e s : the p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n the framework of p l o t development, 4 7 s c e n i c c o m p o s i t i o n , 4 ^ and d i a l o g u e . An examination of p l o t development i s u s e f u l i n e s t a b l i s h -ing to what extent the sequence of f a c t s , s i t u a t i o n s , and events - i n terms of p r o p o r t i o n , p a r a l l e l i s m , and symmetry -c o n t r i b u t e s to the p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r . I t may determine, f o r i n s t a n c e , which events the author c o n s i d e r s to be most important, how he develops the p l o t , and what the v a r i o u s stages of t h i s p rogession are. A p a t t e r n may be observed here as w e l l , f o r Unruh's play s i n c r e a s i n g l y f o l l o w a "revue" p a t t e r n , i n which sequences of scenes or " p i c t u r e s " take the p l a c e of c o n t i n u i t y of p l o t . An a n a l y s i s of s c e n i c composi-t i o n , i n t u r n , sheds l i g h t on the author's i n t e n t i o n s l e s s from an e x t e r n a l , s t r u c t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e than from w i t h i n . 18 P a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n t h i s context are correspondence and c o n t r a s t between f i g u r e s , the s e t t i n g s of the works, and those s c e n i c devices s t i p u l a t e d by stage d i r e c t i o n s . The l a t t e r w i l l c o n c u r r e n t l y g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n as to how the author v i s u a l i z e s the work on stage. An examination of the composition of d i a l o g u e , f i n a l l y , w i l l determine how the author composes dialogue as a means of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . I t w i l l r e v e a l that Unruh, by f o c u s i n g almost e x c l u s i v e l y on one c e n t r a l f i g u r e , sees l i f e i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s i n terms of communication and s o c i a b i l i t y . T h i s process reduces the other f i g u r e s to mere r e f l e c t i o n s of h i s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n . The p r o t a g o n i s t becomes the "new man," who u l t i m a t e l y embodies the i d e a l s proclaimed at the end of the work. In order to do j u s t i c e to the message-oriented nature not o n l y of Unruh's work but a l s o of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement with which he i s a s s o c i a t e d , a l l of the modes and methods of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n w i l l be r e l a t e d to theme in a f i n a l chapter. I t w i l l demonstrate that Unruh's v i s i o n of a "new man" and a "new world" i n the l a t e r work i s the a b s t r a c t e d e q u i v a l e n t of h i s search f o r a r e v i t a l i z e d German nation i n the e a r l y p l a y s . T h i s chapter w i l l a l s o c o n t a i n a summary of how an a n a l y s i s of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to an understanding of Unruh's p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the E x p r e s s i o n i s t movement, with r e f e r e n c e to the c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s s u b j e c t p u b l i s h e d to date. In view of Unruh's long l i f e and voluminous l i t e r a r y output, my f i r s t r e s t r i c t i o n regards the number of works to be examined. Related c h a r a c t e r s , c h a r a c t e r types, and 19 c o n s t e l l a t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r s r e c u r throughout Unruh's work. However, t h i s study w i l l focus on the work w r i t t e n before 1932. Almost a l l of the c o n f l i c t s which occur in the p u b l i s h e d work w r i t t e n a f t e r t h i s date have t h e i r antecedents i n the e a r l i e r work and are fought out by k i n d r e d c h a r a c t e r s . Since Unruh p u b l i s h e d no l e s s than twelve p l a y s and one prose work between 1910 and 1932, I reduce the number of t e x t s to be examined f u r t h e r by l e a v i n g out four more dramas: two of these, Rosengarten (1921) and Sturme (1922), are e s s e n t i a l l y p a r a p h r a s e s 4 9 of P l a t z (1920), the second p a r t of the t r i l o g y E i n Geschlecht, and the other two are " h i s t o r i c a l " dramas, e n t i t l e d H e i n r i c h aus Andernach (1925) and Bonaparte (1927). None of these p l a y s demonstrates a development w i t h regard to Unruh's techniques of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and r e f e r e n c e to them w i l l be made only to support arguments which a r i s e from an a n a l y s i s of the remaining works. The focus of t h i s study w i l l t h e r e f o r e be on three dramas w r i t t e n before World War One - Jurgen Wullenweber (1910), O f f i z i e r e (1911), and Louis Ferdinand, P r i n z von Preussen (1913) - three works w r i t t e n during World War One - Vor der  Entscheidung (1914), the prose work Opfergang (1916), and E i n Geschlecht (1917) - and three works w r i t t e n i n the post-World War One era - P l a t z (1920), Phaea (1930), and Zero (1932). L i k e Ina Gotz and D i e t e r Kasang before me, I have chosen a t i t l e which conveys j u x t a p o s i t i o n and i m p l i e s t e n s i o n . " S t a s i s " r e f e r s to the degree of sameness with which s p e c i f i c 20 p a t t e r n s r e c u r , both with r e f e r e n c e to Unruh's work as a whole and with regard to h i s p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r . "Metamorphosis" i n d i c a t e s the extent to which these p a t t e r n s undergo a change of appearance i n the course of Unruh's development as an author. An a n a l y s i s of the proposed elements i n v o l v e d i n the treatment of c h a r a c t e r i n the three " a b s t r a c t " works w r i t t e n d u r i n g the F i r s t World War, f l a n k e d by an examination of those in the dramas completed before and a f t e r i t , w i l l determine the degree of constancy and change. Since Unruh's work has appeared i n va r i o u s e d i t i o n s , I have decided to quote as f a r as p o s s i b l e e i t h e r from the u n f i n i s h e d e d i t i o n of c o l l e c t e d works, e d i t e d by Hanns Martin E l s t e r , or from the volumes of s e l e c t e d works, e d i t e d by Georg Wieszner. A v a i l a b l e in the former are Jurgen Wullenweber, Opfergang, E i n Geschlecht, and P l a t z ^ ^ ; a v a i l a b l e in the l a t t e r are O f f i z i e r e , L ouis Ferdinand, P r i n z von Preussen, and Phaea. 3 J- Quotations from Vor der Entscheidung and Zero,53 i n t u r n , are taken from the o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n s . In the case of Vor der Entscheidung and Opfergang, moreover, I have a l s o quoted e x t e n s i v e l y from unpublished e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s , ^ 4 to which I had access at the Deutsches L i t e r a t u r a r c h i v i n Marbach am Neckar, West Germany. 2 1 I I . LISTINGS OF DRAMATIS PERSONAE The c a s t l i s t i n g s i n Unruh's work are most s p e c i f i c with r e f e r e n c e to the p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l or t y p o l o g i c a l r o l e of each of the f i g u r e s . The upper echelon of p o l i t i c a l power in Jurgen Wullenweber i s the mayoralty of the Hanseatic c i t y of Lilbeck i n the s i x t e e n t h century (1534-1537), along with the mayor's c o u n c i l , the m i l i t a r y , and the Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y . At the lower end of the h i e r a r c h y are the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of g u i l d s , a r t i s a n s and a p p r e n t i c e s , and the anonymous masses. In L o u i s Ferdinand, Unruh c o n f r o n t s h i s audience with the P r u s s i a n r o y a l f a m i l y i n power during the Napoleonic i n v a s i o n of 1806. Other s o c i a l groups in t h i s p l ay are represented by diplomats, o f f i c e r s , a r t i s t s and m u s i c i a n s, and o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s . In O f f i z i e r e , in t u r n , a l l of the f i g u r e s are e i t h e r i n the m i l i t a r y or i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d with i t and, as i n d i c a t e d by the "von" before proper names, a l l are from the upper s t r a t a of s o c i e t y . In conformance with the m i l i t a r y h i e r a r c h y , a l l the f i g u r e s are i d e n t i f i e d by rank. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that none of the t i t l e heroes i n the f i r s t three p l a y s i s i n a p o s i t i o n of d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y : Jurgen Wullenweber i s not even a c i t i z e n of Lttbeck but a master a r t i s a n from Hamburg; the o f f i c e r s i n O f f i z i e r e are bound by duty to t h e i r s u p e r i o r s ; Louis Ferdinand i s a c o u s i n to the king and only a f u t u r e successor to the throne. 22 The f i r s t two works w r i t t e n during the F i r s t World War, the dramatic "poem" Vor der Entscheidung and the prose work Opfergang, l a c k a l i s t i n g of f i g u r e s 5 5 and, in s t e a d of f o c u s i n g on p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s , bear a t i t l e with a thematic o r i e n t a t i o n . Whereas the m a j o r i t y of f i g u r e s i n the dramatic "poem" are i n the m i l i t a r y , the prose work i s populated e x c l u s i v e l y by a company of men sent out to capture the m i l i t a r y strongholds around Verdun. With the r e l e g a t i o n of the crown p r i n c e to the l e v e l of a " b a c k s t a g e " 5 6 f i g u r e i n the r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the prose work, the h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the men i s , as i n O f f i z i e r e , determined s o l e l y by m i l i t a r y rank. In Vor der Entscheidung, not only rank but a l s o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of r e a l i t y d i s t i n g u i s h e s the f i g u r e s . Unruh int r o d u c e s both f i g u r e s and types observable i n e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y and those of a m y s t i c a l , m y t h i c a l sphere: ghosts of P r u s s i a n regents of the past and well-known l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s , s p i r i t s , a mysterious " V e i l e d F i g u r e , " p e r s o n i f i e d flowers and v i c e s . T h i s immediately lends to the "poem" an a l l e g o r i c a l q u a l i t y or framework. I t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t that many of the f i g u r e s who belong to the l a t t e r category i n the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the work are expunged from the l a t e r one. The f i g u r e s i n E i n Geschlecht and P l a t z , the f i r s t two p a r t s of a t r i l o g y , 5 7 l a c k true i n d i v i d u a t i o n . T h i s i s in accordance with Unruh's s p e c i f i c a t i o n that the p l a y s be d e f i n e d n e i t h e r by p l a c e nor by t i m e . 5 8 The i n c i d e n t a l and h i s t o r i c a l are reduced i n order to a r c h a i z e the events and the 23 c h a r a c t e r s and to b r i n g out the " t y p i c a l " and the " m y t h i c a l . " In the f i r s t p a r t of the t r i l o g y , the two m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s and the anonymous troops are the onl y f i g u r e s to be i d e n t i f i e d by rank. They recur as the s o l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the m i l i t a r y i n the sequel P l a t z , i n which an "Oberherr" or supreme l o r d holds absolute a u t h o r i t y , a man named " G r e i s " i s a s e n i o r member of the senate, and a count i s the commander of the " P l a t z . " In Phaea and Zero, f i n a l l y , the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s that of a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i l m company and a gambling c a s i n o . The former i s headed by a p r e s i d e n t whose immediate aides are an a r i s t o c r a t i c g e n e r a l manager and a m i d d l e - c l a s s d i r e c t o r . The p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and p r o f e s s i o n a l nature and i d e n t i t y of the a c t o r s i n Phaea are unmasked as r o l e s : a Russian p r i n c e impersonates a German a r i s t o c r a t ; three second l i e u t e n a n t s act the p a r t of a major, a c a p t a i n , and a non-commissioned o f f i c e r ; one of the two p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t e r s i s a w r i t e r in the f i l m , whereas the other i s s a i d to be a " c o n f e r e n c i e r " ; a movie-star and a b a r - g i r l assume t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r and i d e n t i t y in the movie which i s being shot. In Zero, the cast of f i g u r e s i s more s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and i s headed by a casino d i r e c t o r , h i s male s e c r e t a r y , and the cas i n o p e r s o n n e l . None of the f i g u r e s i n t h i s p l a y i s of a r i s t o c r a t i c descent and only one - Major Segrave -bears a m i l i t a r y t i t l e . The f i g u r e s may be grouped c o n v e n i e n t l y according to age i n a l l but the l a s t two p l a y s . In the other works, the cast i s d i v i d e d i n t o an " o l d e r " and a "younger" g e n e r a t i o n : those in 24 p o s i t i o n s of power and a u t h o r i t y g e n e r a l l y belong to the former and the heroes to the l a t t e r . In Vor der Entscheidung, c e r t a i n secondary f i g u r e s are i d e n t i f i e d only by age, and the t e x t s p e c i f i c a l l y suggests a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of m a t u r i t y with r e f e r -ence to i t s p r o t a g o n i s t s by s t a t i n g that the uhlan i s t h i r t y and the v o l u n t e e r twenty years of a g e . 5 9 Although i n E i n  G eschlecht the age of those in power - the m i l i t a r y - i s not s p e c i f i e d , the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s are n e v e r t h e l e s s d i v i d e d i n t o an o l d e r and a younger g e n e r a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of a mother and her four c h i l d r e n . Two of the sons, in t u r n , are i d e n t i f i e d as an o l d e s t and a youngest son. C e r t a i n f i g u r e s may be grouped according to f a m i l y r e l a -t i o n s h i p s as w e l l . Of the works w r i t t e n before the F i r s t World War, these p l a y the most important r o l e i n L o u i s Ferdinand, in which the P r u s s i a n r o y a l f a m i l y - composed of King Wilhelm I I I , Queen L o u i s e , Louis Ferdinand and the P r i n c e of Orange - pro-v i d e s the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s . In a l l three pre-war dramas, how-ever, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are important with r e f e r e n c e to the p r i n c i p a l female f i g u r e s , i n s o f a r as they are e i t h e r the daughter or the wife of a l e a d i n g exponent of immediate s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . In Vor der Entscheidung and Opfergang, as w e l l as i n Phaea and Zero, f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s p l a y e i t h e r a very minor or a non-existent r o l e . In E i n  G e s c h l e c h t , however, the t i t l e i t s e l f a t t e s t s to t h e i r s i g n i f i -cance; except f o r the m i l i t a r y f i g u r e s , the e n t i r e cast i s b i o -l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d . The s u r v i v i n g members of t h i s f a m i l y r e -appear i n the sequel P l a t z . In the l a t t e r work, Unruh 25 r e i n t r o d u c e s a p a t t e r n f a m i l i a r from the three pre-war dramas, as two of the l e a d i n g female f i g u r e s are daughters of the p a t r i c i a n "Oberherr," r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of absolute a u t h o r i t y . With the e x c e p t i o n of the two " h i s t o r i c a l " dramas and the f i r s t two p a r t s of the trilogy,^° a l l the works have a more or l e s s contemporary s e t t i n g . In each work, moreover, the s e t t i n g s are predominantly p u b l i c , r a t h e r than p r i v a t e . In Jurgen Wullenweber, the a c t i o n takes plac e in p u b l i c l o c a -t i o n s such as the s t r e e t s , c i t y - h a l l , and church of LUbeck. In Louis Ferdinand, a l l of the f i g u r e s already lead a p u b l i c l i f e by reason of t h e i r r o y a l and d i p l o m a t i c p o s i t i o n s . O f f i z i e r e , Opfergang, and Vor der Entscheidung are s t r u c t u r a l l y r e l a t e d works, i n which the v a r i o u s s e t t i n g s i n d i c a t e a pro-g r e s s i o n . Whereas the former two works d e p i c t an e n t i r e com-pany of m i l i t a r y personnel which a n t i c i p a t e s , prepares f o r , and moves towards a b a t t l e d e s t i n a t i o n , the l a t t e r work focuses p r i m a r i l y on the experiences of o n l y one f i g u r e who passes through t e n 6 1 scenes or s t a t i o n s . Each of these s t a t i o n s has i t s own s e t t i n g and o f f e r s a d i f f e r e n t s l i c e or l e v e l of r e a l i t y which i s u l t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to war, the f a t h e r l a n d , and the p u b l i c good. In E i n Geschlecht, the p r i v a t e sphere of the f a m i l y i s given p u b l i c and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e by the a r r i -v a l of the m i l i t a r y at the beginning and at the end of the work. In the sequel P l a t z , the t i t l e i t s e l f h i n t s at the p l a y ' s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and, i n Phaea and Zero, Unruh presents the world as a stage and a p u b l i c gambling h a l l . 26 The p u b l i c s e t t i n g s of the works, combined with the pre-dominantly p u b l i c r o l e s of the f i g u r e s , suggests that the cen-t r a l c o n f l i c t i n each work i s a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l one. Whether i t has an " h i s t o r i c a l " or a contemporary s e t t i n g or whether i t i s w r i t t e n b e f o r e , d u r i n g , or a f t e r the war, each work introd u c e s a h i e r a r c h y which c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e s above and below i n terms of the o l d and the new, " f a t h e r " and "son", man and woman. It i s n o t i c e a b l e , moreover, that Unruh i n c r e a s i n g l y d i m i n i s h e s i n d i v i d u a t i o n , i n favour of p r e s e n t i n g h i s f i g u r e s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e types. This process of a b s t r a c t i o n and s t y l i z a t i o n may a l s o be observed by examining the f i g u r e s i n terms of appearance, behaviour, gesture, and speech. 27 I I I . SELF-CHARACTERIZATION (a) Non-verbal s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n An a n a l y s i s of non-verbal s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s t a r t s from the premise that a f i g u r e may c h a r a c t e r i z e i t s e l f by i t s a c t i o n s , behaviour, and gestures i n response to a c e n t r a l con-f l i c t or event. This c e n t r a l event g e n e r a l l y becomes the u n i -f y i n g p r i n c i p l e which ranks the f i g u r e s and arranges them i n t o main groups or subordinate groups according to the part they p l a y i n the p l o t . F i g u r e s w i l l , i n most cases, be d i s c u s s e d in the f o l l o w i n g order: p r o t a g o n i s t s and a l l i e s , a n t a g o n i s t s and a l l i e s , female f i g u r e s . T h i s w i l l determine whether the c h a r a c t e r s are d i v i d e d i n t o groups s i m i l a r to those observed i n the c a s t l i s t i n g s . It may a l s o e l u c i d a t e to what extent a f i -gure's a c t i o n s and behaviour are i n f l u e n c e d by - or a t t r i b u -t a b l e to - p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s , s o c i a l provenance, age, and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A f i g u r e ' s s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n w i l l always be compared with the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the author i n the form of stage d i r e c t i o n s . Since the c e n t r a l focus in t h i s sub-chapter i s on p a t t e r n s of behaviour and i n c r e a s e d s t y l i z a -t i o n , works completed before, d u r i n g , and a f t e r the war w i l l be examined c o n s e c u t i v e l y . In Jurgen Wullenweber, Unruh combines p o r t r a i t u r e with drama by b u i l d i n g up the c h a r a c t e r of the t i t l e hero as an i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l and as a dramatic f i g u r e i n a c t i o n . Amidst s o c i a l unrest and p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l , Jtirgen's f i r s t entrance 28 i s t h a t of a " t r u e " and " n a t u r a l " l e a d e r , whose c a r e f r e e bear-ing c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y with that of the anxious and concerned townspeople. He presents h i m s e l f as a j o v i a l but proud f i g u r e , who i s d e s c r i b e d i n many stage d i r e c t i o n s as "wuchtig" (41,43,103, J.W.) and as one who speaks "mit r u h i g e r , l a u t e r Stimme" (41,J.W.). As a merchant by p r o f e s s i o n he has worked h i s way up to become "Meister" (13,J.W.), but, d e s p i t e h i s e f f o r t s at p r o f e s s i o n a l self-improvement, Jtlrgen proclaims that he has not l o s t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r nature and the "higher" things i n l i f e (13, J.W.). Again by means of stage d i r e c t i o n s , Unruh s t r e s s e s Jtlrgen's tendency to c a r e f u l r e f l e c t i o n by d e s c r i b i n g him as "sinnend" (44,45,65,84,J.W.), " e r n s t , mit klarem B l i c k " (82, J.W.), or even as " p r o p h e t i s c h " (58,J.W.). These t r a i t s are u s u a l l y accompanied by corresponding g e s t u r e s : " s t r e i c h t s i c h d i e S t i r n e , l a c h e l t " (23,J.W.); "die Hand auf d i e Augen g e l e g t " (44,J.W.); "mit bezeichnender Handbewegung" (45,J.W.). A l l of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s suggest the hero's s u i t a b i l i t y as a l e a d e r . A f t e r winning the favour of the oppressed c i t i z e n s , deposing the a u t h o r i t i e s , and e s t a b l i s h i n g himself as mayor, Jurgen's f i r s t measure i s a c a l l f o r war against the Danes, who threaten to c o n t a i n and c o n t r o l the Hanseatic t r a d e . When the war proves to be a d r a i n on both money and human l i v e s and, moreover, f u t i l e (118,J.W.), Jdrgen l o s e s the support of the people of Ltlbeck, making him lose h i s composure and s e l f - c o n t r o l . Although r e p e a t e d l y d e s c r i b e d as " b i t t e r " (58,J.W.), "hohnisch" and " z o r n i g " (103,J.W.), h i s s t a t u r e as 29 a hero i s not diminished in the l e a s t ; i t becomes even g r e a t e r because he i s now presented as a leader whose greatness i s misunderstood. At the end of the drama, Jurgen g i v e s up h i s c a r e e r as a leader a l t o g e t h e r and, i n s t e a d of seeking q u a n t i t a t i v e r e c o g n i t i o n from the masses, contents h i m s e l f with a q u a l i t a t i v e one i n the arms of Thyra. In O f f i z i e r e , Ernst von S c h l i c h t i n g emerges as the domi-nant f i g u r e , s i n c e he i s the f i r s t to appear i n the p l a y and h i s death marks the drama's c o n c l u s i o n . Ernst i s d i f f e r e n t i -ated from the other o f f i c e r s by h i s utmost d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with h i s present l o t i n a peace-time g a r r i s o n . The oppressiveness of h i s s i t u a t i o n and h i s p e r s o n a l despondency are r e l i e v e d only when v o l u n t e e r s are needed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the suppression of the Herero u p r i s i n g i n A f r i c a . E r n s t immediately o f f e r s h i s s e r v i c e s and, i n a h i g h l y t h e a t r i c a l manner, proposes a t o a s t to death. The tedium of the g a r r i s o n threatens to repeat i t s e l f i n the A f r i c a n mountains, however, where Ernst i s f o r c e d to await o r d e r s . As punishment f o r k i l l i n g a number of Hereros on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , he i s r e l e g a t e d to s i g n a l - p o s t duty. His sense of duty i s once again put to the t e s t when communication i s cut o f f , while the Hereros have secured the watering-holes and the l i v e s of the o f f i c e r s are at stake. Again Ernst f o l l o w s h i s own d i c t a t e s , opens f i r e , and saves the l i v e s of the t r o o p s . S e v e r e l y wounded, but convinced of the greatness of h i s a c t i o n , E r n s t r e t u r n s to headquarters where, a f t e r an i n i t i a l condemnation by the commander which i s l a t e r followed by 30 a p p r o v a l , he d i e s i n the arms of Hedwig. A f t e r h i s death, he i s r e s t o r e d to f u l l honour and given a hero's f u n e r a l . In the t i t l e hero of L o u i s Ferdinand, Unruh c r e a t e s a second f i g u r e who, l i k e Jtlrgen Wullenweber, a c t i v e l y enters i n t o the p o l i t i c a l sphere, reaches the brink of r e v o l u t i o n , and then draws b a c k . 6 2 In t h i s p l a y , the t h r e a t of a Napoleonic i n v a s i o n causes the chain of a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s . As a person, Louis Ferdinand has a l l the q u a l i t i e s and a t t r i b u t e s which, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e Goethe's Egmont and S c h i l l e r ' s Don C a r l o s , have become stock i n trade f o r a r o m a n t i c i z e d type of hero who longs f o r freedom and s e l f - f u l -f i l m e n t . The hero's y o u t h f u l n e s s , h i s g e n e r o s i t y and enthu-siasm, h i s t a l e n t f o r intimate f r i e n d s h i p , h i s p o p u l a r i t y with members of the opposite sex, the c i t i z e n s , and the army a l l combine to monumentalize him. In Louis Ferdinand, m i l i t a r i s t i c and a r t i s t i c t r a i t s are mingled; he i s both extremely conscious of h i s d u t i e s as a P r u s s i a n p r i n c e and an a c t i v e musician and patron of the a r t s . His love of music, however, i s o n l y a form of compensation f o r h i s f r u s t r a t i o n with the peace p o l i c y of h i s c o usin the k i n g . Not music, but the Napoleonic t h r e a t shakes him out of h i s boredom and awakens him to a renewed i n -t e r e s t i n h i s own l i f e and in that of the s t a t e . Love of f r e e -dom and honour and a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of p a t r i o t i c f e r v o u r cause him to step forward and become the spokesman f o r the people, the o f f i c e r s , and the army. This p r e c i p i t a t e s a v i o l e n t inner s t r u g g l e between h i s duty to the king and h i s per-sonal i n c l i n a t i o n to launch a campaign. The s o l u t i o n i s a 31 compromise: unable to l i v e i n a country reduced to s e r v i t u d e , he and h i s f o l l o w e r s throw themselves i n t o b a t t l e with Napole-on's f o r c e s i n order to compel the king to d e c l a r e war, save P r u s s i a ' s honour, and thereby advance the cause f o r freedom. Contrasted with the heroes i n a l l three pre-war dramas are the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y . In Jurgen  Wullenweber the mayors, the c o u n c i l l o r s , and e s p e c i a l l y the c l e r g y are c a r i c a t u r e d f i g u r e s . The author d e s c r i b e s the coun-c i l l o r s as "gemtitlich, d i e HMnde liber den L e i b g e f a l t e t " (37,J.W.), whose so l e concern i s the g r a t i f i c a t i o n of p h y s i c a l needs. Petersen and B l i s s , the mayors of Lubeck who e l e c t themselves to o f f i c e a f t e r t h e i r predecessors suddenly v a n i s h -ed, are l a z y , incompetent f i g u r e s . They are u n f i t to r u l e and are p e r f e c t l y content to maintain and p r o t e c t t h e i r present t r a d e , i n s t e a d of wishing to expand i t , and guarantee the C a t h o l i c f a i t h (36-37,J.W.). By drawing a negative p i c t u r e of the present system of government, the author a u t o m a t i c a l l y v i n d i c a t e s Jilrgen's p o s i t i o n by c o n t r a s t . Unruh i s even more m e r c i l e s s i n h i s p o r t r a y a l of the Roman C a t h o l i c c l e r g y , the f a t h e r s F u l g e n t i u s and Benedictus. Where-as the former i s d e s c r i b e d in stage d i r e c t i o n s as " a l t , d i c k , k a l t , z y n i s c h " (26,J.W.), the l a t t e r i s portrayed as an " I d e a l i s t " and " G l a u b e n s e i f e r e r " with a " p r a r a f f a e l i t i s c h e s G e s i c h t " (26,J.W.). Like the mayors and the c o u n c i l l o r s , the c l e r g y , too, lead a l i f e t o t a l l y deprived of th i n g s s p i r i t u a l ; t h e i r l i v e s merely serve to f u l f i l t h e i r c o r p o r e a l needs.63 32 In O f f i z i e r e , the only r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the upper ranks of the m i l i t a r y to be po r t r a y e d i n any d e t a i l i s C o l o n e l von Kracht who, i n a l l ways, e x e m p l i f i e s the o b j e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e of m i l i t a r y duty. A r e a c t i o n to the m i l i t a r y from another per-s p e c t i v e i s conveyed through parson Gotz. Although h i s easy-going manners, Swabian d i a l e c t , and admiration f o r the o f f i c e r s make him very popular, the clergyman's behaviour i n general prevent him from being taken too s e r i o u s l y . The name "Gotz" suggests that i t i s Unruh's i n t e n t i o n to stereotype the parson. His complete i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the m i l i t a r y demonstrates the co - o p e r a t i o n between church and s t a t e , but h i s f o r c e d j o v i a l manners and h i s constant p r a i s e f o r the o f f i c e r ' s p h y s i c a l prowess and appearance seem to i n d i c a t e that the parson regards the Herero u p r i s i n g as a convenient d i s t r a c t i o n from p e r s o n a l problems. In L o u i s Ferdinand, King Wilhelm I I I i s the t i t l e hero's a n t a g o n i s t . Although young, the king la c k s v i t a l i t y and energy. Whereas the p r i n c e wants to l i v e up to the image of F r e d e r i c k the Great, l i k e n e s s to h i s ancestor i s a constant source of agony and reproach to the king (167,L.F.). In stage d i r e c t i o n s he i s d e s c r i b e d as "matt" (168,L.F.), "sehr matt" (170,L.F.), and "scheu" (227,L.F.) . The king's h e s i t a n c y i n d e c l a r i n g war, thereby s a c r i f i c i n g human l i f e , combined with a dubious i n d e c i s i v e n e s s i n the face of r e a l danger, make him an easy v i c t i m of the manipulations of h i s cunning a d v i s o r s . Unruh's h a b i t of showing where h i s sympathies l i e makes i t s e l f s t o n g l y f e l t i n the l a r g e l y negative p o r t r a y a l of the 33 k i n g ' s d i p l o m a t i c a i d e s : Lombard, Haugwitz, and Braunschweig. Lombard i s a t a c t l e s s and i n s e n s i t i v e l i b e r t i n e who i s more concerned with h i s success as a "dramatist" than with the f a t e of P r u s s i a . Haugwitz i s c r i t i c i z e d by Unruh in a s i m i l a r manner. His wish to inform the king about the contents of Napoleon's proclamation puts him i n a more favourable l i g h t than Lombard, but he i s the l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t of the two and i s not f u l l y aware of a l l i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . At the end, he j o i n s the party which favours war a g a i n s t the French only to g r a t i f y h i s own ambition f o r p e r s o n a l advancement. The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Lombard and Haugwitz e s s e n t i a l l y repeats i t s e l f i n two aged f i e l d marshals named Braunschweig and Hohenlohe. Like Lombard, Braunschweig i s a s e n s u a l i s t and l i b e r t i n e who r e s t s on l a u r e l s earned under F r e d e r i c k the Great. When war i s d e c l a r e d a g a i n s t Napoleon, however, he f a i n t s and i s the f i r s t to speak of surrender. Hohenlohe i s a man of a d i f f e r e n t c a l i b r e . He i s a l s o o l d enough to have fought under F r e d e r i c k the Great, but l e a r n s to recognize i n L o u i s Ferdinand a person more worthy of the crown than the pre-sent k i n g . As a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and r e l i a b l e s o l d i e r , however, he i s as much a type c h a r a c t e r as the s e n s u a l i s t Lombard, the dubious Haugwitz, and the effeminate Braunschweig. A l l of these c h a r a c t e r s are s t a t i c ; none of them undergoes any development. In a l l three pre-war dramas, the hero's a l l i e s are h i s contemporary equals. In Jurgen Wullenweber only Marx Meier and Oldendorp are portrayed i n any d e t a i l . They, too, are 34 c o n t r a s t i n g f i g u r e s : the former being the p r a c t i c a l man and the l a t t e r the dreamer. Li k e Jurgen, Oldendorp dreams of Germanic heroes and legends of a more h e r o i c past, the new Lutheran f a i t h , and a powerful Hansa (59,J.W.). U n l i k e Jurgen, however, Oldendorp l a c k s the q u a l i t i e s which make him acceptable as a l e a d e r . The p o r t r a y a l of Marx Meier i s based l a r g e l y on the powerful men of a c t i o n created during the "Sturm und Drang" p e r i o d . From an o r d i n a r y blacksmith he has r i s e n to h e r o i c s t a t u r e i n an e f f o r t to d r i v e away the Danes, launched by a " f a i t h f u l " contingent of the c i t i z e n s of LUbeck combined with F r e d e r i c k ' s armies. Upon h i s r e t u r n , he i s imprisoned by the r u l i n g a u t h o r i t i e s and held up as a negative example and d i s r u p t e r of the peace. His imprisonment, which the author o b v i o u s l y deems u n f a i r , i s meant to i n d i c a t e the t o p s y - t u r v y s t a t e of the p r e s e n t . As a Kosinsky r e d i v i v u s , Marx can be enthused " f u r a l l e s Grosse" (64,J.W.) and, upon meeting J i l r g e n , he recognizes a person of s t a t u r e to whom he i s more than w i l l i n g to swear a l l e g i a n c e . The e q u i v a l e n t of Marx Meier i n O f f i z i e r e i s Harry von Henner. Harry i s as d i s s a t i s f i e d as Ernst with the l o t of an o f f i c e r i n a peace-time g a r r i s o n , but h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n mani-f e s t s i t s e l f d i f f e r e n t l y . Whereas Ernst von S c h l i c h t i n g r e a c t s with a s e r i o u s n e s s and naivete which do j u s t i c e to h i s name, Harry von Henner responds to i t by l o s i n g himself i n wine, wo-men, and song. F o l l o w i n g h i s suspension from the m i l i t a r y and the news about the Herero u p r i s i n g , Harry, too, i s a f f e c t e d by 35 the general excitement and i s allowed to r e j o i n ( 3 7 0 , O f f . ) . In A f r i c a , h i s true nature comes to the s u r f a c e , e s s e n t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g the c a t e g o r i c a l imperative of the t i m e s : 6 5 "Handle nach d e i n e r K r a f t " (426,Off.). The remaining o f f i c e r s serve to provide a wider perspec-t i v e of the m i l i t a r y i n general and the Herero u p r i s i n g i n par-t i c u l a r . Reginald A l b e r m a r l e , nicknamed M i s t e r , i s a s o l i t a r y f i g u r e with a b r i t t l e nature who i s o l d e r than the o t h e r s . Unrequited love f o r Hedwig g i v e s him h i s brooding nature and makes him seek s o l a c e i n a l c o h o l . Although i n d i f f e r e n t and a p a t h e t i c about the u p r i s i n g at f i r s t , he vo l u n t e e r s f o r a most dangerous p a t r o l m i s s i o n as a means of escape. Another f i g u r e p o r t r a y e d i n some d e t a i l i s Edgar von D e t l e f f s e n , the m i s f i t o f f i c e r who r e v e l s i n music, reads books, and i s r i d i c u l e d f o r t h i s by o t h e r s . News about the u p r i s i n g reaches him at a time when he i s contemplating s u i c i d e . He i s snubbed by Kurt Globinsky, f o r whom he has homoerotic f e e l i n g s . As an u l t i m a t e s i g n of h i s f r i e n d s h i p , he k i l l s himself so that h i s s p i l l e d blood may save Kurt from dying of dehydration. The remaining f i g u r e s i n t h i s p l a y are types i n the sense that they t y p i f y c e r t a i n r e c o g n i z a b l e human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : Max epitomizes v a n i t y ; Kurt scorns Edgar's f r i e n d s h i p ; von Favarger, von Dosse, and von P l o t o are known f o r l i t t l e e l s e than t h e i r e s c a p i s t i n t e r e s t i n wine and women. At f i r s t h i g h - s p i r i t e d and i n s o l e n t , a l l of these f i g u r e s are overcome with a combina-t i o n of f e a r and eager a n t i c i p a t i o n when confronted with pending danger and death. 36 T h i s f e a r which everyone f e e l s , no one admits, and a l l d e r i d e , i s epitomized by an unnamed o f f i c e r . The d r a m a t i s t s t r i c t l y f o r b i d s the appearance, t o t a l s i l e n c e , and nervous pacing of t h i s f i g u r e to be played with any form of "Mystik" ( 3 9 9 , 0 f f . ) . He i s v a r i o u s l y regarded as a f i g u r e whose presence i n t r o d u c e s "die metaphysische Ablehnung des Krieges i n das Gesamtwerk" 6 6 or as a symbol of d e a t h . 6 7 Rather than f u r n i s h i n g Unruh with anti-war sentiments which, i n 1911, he d i d not h a v e , 6 8 the unknown o f f i c e r seems, as D i e t e r Dasang proposes, to be a symbol of " l i v i n g " d e a t h . 6 9 From the p o i n t of view of c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l , the f i g u r e of the unknown o f f i c e r i s not unimportant i n s o f a r as he recurs i n m o d i f i e d form as the cowardly son i n E i n  Ge s c h l e c h t and P l a t z . The primary a l l i e s of the p r i n c e i n L o u i s Ferdinand are the P r i n c e of Orange, the a r t i s t s and the m i l i t a r y , and W i e s e l . Although the P r i n c e of Orange appears only four times i n the drama (1,2 twice; I I , 1, and IV), h i s mere appearance i n s t r a -t e g i c p l a c e s and at c r i t i c a l moments lends to the drama an e l e -ment of foreboding and gloom. His s u i c i d a l death by drowning i n the r i v e r Saale (217,L.F.) p r e f i g u r e s the death of Louis Ferdinand and i s followed promptly by the d e s t r u c t i o n of P r u s s i a . The p h i l o s o p h e r Zeitblom, the h i s t o r y p r o f e s s o r Wenzel, the p a i n t e r Dr. Lazarus, and the conductor Dussek a l l bear t h e i r own d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mark, but, as " a r t i s t s " , they are u n i t e d i n t h e i r admiration f o r the p r i n c e , with whom they share r e c i t a l evenings, long d i s c u s s i o n s , and d r i n k i n g bouts. 37 Although Unruh intends to balance the m i l i t a r i s t i c i n Louis Ferdinand with the a r t i s t i c , the four members of t h i s " q u a r t e t " are s a t i r i z e d f i g u r e s 7 ^ who dream of the h e r o i c deeds of the Germanic past and p r o j e c t them i n t o the f u t u r e . T h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the masses in t h e i r ecstasy and t h e i r long-ing f o r a " s a v i o u r " are no more than an a e s t h e t i c experience which r e l a t i v i z e s the p r i n c e ' s s t a t u r e to a c o n s i d e r a b l e de-gree. Louis Ferdinand's primary a l l y and personal c o n f i d a n t i s W i e s e l , a f i g u r e whose name i s symbolic of what he says and does. His r e l a t i o n s h i p with the p r i n c e m i r r o r s that of Marx Meier and JUrgen Wullenweber, the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e being that the p r i n c e i s to him merely a pawn in h i s own p o l i t i c a l game of chess (220,L.F.) .71 w i e s e l i s a conniving p o l i t i c i a n and e f f e c t i v e p r o t a g o n i s t who only wishes to make Louis Ferdinand king i n order to appease h i s own c r a v i n g f o r power. Of the three pre-war dramas in which l o c a l , m i l i t a r y , and n a t i o n a l f i g u r e s are the p r o t a g o n i s t s , i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s and the masses p l a y an important r o l e only i n Jurgen Wullenweber; i n L o u i s Ferdinand t h e i r r o l e i s minor and i n O f f i z i e r e they are absent. In Jurgen Wullenweber, Unruh intends to dramatize the c o n f l i c t "eines g e n i a l i s c h e n E i n z e l n e n . . . m i t e i n e r b l i n d e n Umwelt." 7 2 Jtlrgen's c h a r a c t e r i s put to the t e s t only a f t e r h i s measures c o n f l i c t with the wishes of the people. Very l i t t l e can be s a i d about the masses, however, without s e e i n g them in connection with Jtlrgen. U n t i l he a r r i v e s , they are e s s e n t i a l l y p a s s i v e and, although there i s 38 growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the r u l i n g government, i t remains f o r the strong i n d i v i d u a l to prompt them to a c t i o n . The f i r s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the working c i t i z e n s of Lubeck are the c o b b l e r and h i s a p p r e n t i c e s . The cobbler i s presented as d i l i g e n t and honest but unimaginative; h i s love of nature i s c o n f i n e d to h i s own t i n y garden which c o n s i s t s of " e i n G e s t e l l mit Blumentopfen" (13,J.W.), from which b i r d -cages are suspended. F o l l o w i n g h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to Jurgen, however, he i s soon d e s c r i b e d i n stage d i r e c t i o n s as d i s p l a y i n g "eine v e r b i s s e n e Wut" (17,J.W.) a g a i n s t the present mayoralty and he, too, i s w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the "noble" f i g h t f o r the Lutheran f a i t h . In t h i s he i s n a i v e l y (19,J.W.) followed by h i s a p p r e n t i c e s . L a t e r the whole town j o i n s f o r c e s and pro-mises a l l e g i a n c e to Jtlrgen and h i s f i g h t . Although j u b i l a n t and f i l l e d with "Begeisterung" (45,J.W.), they n e v e r t h e l e s s l a c k a c l e a r p e r s p e c t i v e of what l i e s ahead of them and u s u a l l y present a confused and c h a o t i c p i c t u r e . In stage d i r e c t i o n s the author d e s c r i b e s them as "durcheinanderrufend" (45,J.W.) and l a t e r as " f r e n e t i s c h " (94,J.W.). Time and again r e f e r e n c e i s made to "das Toben des Pobels" (54,J.W.), "das Brausen des V o l k s " (94, J.W.), t h e i r "Johlen und G e b r U l l " (134,J.W.). They are e i t h e r e c s t a t i c or t o t a l l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d and these two extremes d e s c r i b e t h e i r emotional s t a t e before and a f t e r Jurgen's i n s t a l l a t i o n as mayor. As soon as the war a g a i n s t the Danes becomes a f i n a n c i a l burden on them, they lose t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n i t s higher goals and t h e i r thoughts r e t u r n to "Brot" and "Obdach" (118-119, J.W. ) . Unruh shares Jilrgen's 39 d i s c o n t e n t with the masses when he de n i g r a t e s a nightwatchman, f o r i n s t a n c e , as s t a r i n g "blflde i n die G l u t " (54,J.W.) or r e -f e r s to a woman "aus dem Volk" as walking about "mit a u f g e l o s t e n Haaren - unheimlich b l i t z e n d e n Augen - b l e i c h , h y s t e r i s c h , wahnsinnig" (53,J.W.). Such stage d i r e c t i o n s only negate them and t h e r e f o r e preclude an i n q u i r y by Unruh of a s o c i o l o g i c a l nature i n t o the reasons f o r t h e i r behaviour or of an e t h i c a l nature i n t o Jflrgen Wullenweber's r u l e . The c o b b l e r , f o r m e r l y i n s p i r e d by Jtlrgen to expose h i s inner " n o b i l i t y " and f i g h t the cause of Lutheranism, appears at the end of the work as host and eager supporter of the a u t h o r i t i e s whom he had o r i g i n a l l y helped to overthrow. He epitomizes the f i c k l e n e s s of the masses and i s " f o r t g e r i s s e n " (108,J,W.) by any " S c h a u s p i e l " (100,J.W.) which comes to town and s t r i k e s h i s fancy. S p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s which, i n Jurgen Wullenweber and L o u i s Ferdinand, a l i g n the f i g u r e s i n t o two opposing camps acco r d i n g to t h e i r l o y a l t y or d i s l o y a l t y to the t i t l e heroes recur i n the female f i g u r e s : Mala and Thyra, Pauline and the queen. From the beginning, Mala v o i c e s her d i s c o n t e n t with marriage and her absentee husband and compensates f o r h i s absence by at t e n d i n g Mass (30,J.W.). When Marx re t u r n s as JUrgen's devoted f r i e n d and v a s s a l (73,J.W.), she r e j e c t s him a l t o g e t h e r . Again stage d i r e c t i o n s provide most i n f o r m a t i o n as to Unruh's i n t e n t . Most f r e q u e n t l y she i s de s c r i b e d as " k a l t " (49,J.W.), "dumpf", "hohnend" (73,J.W.), or " f i n s t e r " 40 ( 76,J.W.). In the presence of Jurgen, however, she i s dep i c t e d i n stage d i r e c t i o n s as " f i e b e r h a f t " (79,J.W.), "mit fliegendem Atem" (136,J.W.), "gltthend" (137,J.W.), "wie in Extase" (137,J.W.). A l l of these d e s c r i p t i o n s are remark-a b l y s i m i l a r to those used to c h a r a c t e r i z e the masses and t h e i r f e t i s h i s t i c need f o r a strong l e a d e r . A f t e r being ignored by Jurgen, she double-crosses him by b e t r a y i n g Thyra. When Mala a l s o betrays Jtlrgen at the end of the drama, her i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n with the "Pobel" (143,J.W.) i s complete. Thyra i s the complete o p p o s i t e of Mala, d e s p i t e her shared d e v o t i o n to JUrgen and exce s s i v e emotionalism. F r e q u e n t l y she i s d e s c r i b e d as " f a s t von Sinnen" (49,J.W.), " l a c h t v e r z w e i f e l t " (50,J.W.), " w i r f t s i c h f l a c h zu Boden" (50,J.W.), "halb bewusstlos" (52,J.W.), and " e n t g e i s t e r t " (83,84,J.W.). A\L1 these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h i n t at the depth of her f e e l i n g , r a i s e her value as a l a r g e l y s p i r i t u a l l y o r i e n t e d person, and make her eminently s u i t a b l e as Jurgen"s female c o u n t e r p a r t . U n l i k e Mala, Thyra i s not a c h i l d of the people but the daughter of one of the r i c h e s t men i n LUbeck. In order to prevent a union between Jilrgen and Thyra, the f a t h e r stabs the daughter i n a manner s u p e r f i c i a l l y analogous to the death of L e s s i n g ' s E m i l i a G a l o t t i . Thyra d i e s , however, by her impetuous f a t h e r ' s hand and not, l i k e E m i l i a , at her own requ e s t , to spare her from the se d u c t i v e charms of her s u i t o r . The two women i n Louis Ferdinand are c h a r a c t e r i z e d along l i n e s s i m i l a r to those of Thyra and Mala. Queen Louise e p i t o -mizes grace and beauty and shows an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a r t s . 41 Her primary r o l e i s to mediate between p r i n c e and kin g . The Queen's serene composure and appearance on stage i n s i t u a t i o n s of s t r e s s lend her an " u n r e a l " , a n g e l i c q u a l i t y which makes her stand out i n o p p o s i t i o n t o P a u l i n e , wife of Wiesel and former m i s t r e s s of the p r i n c e . P a u l i n e i s a sl a v e to sensual impressions, makes Heinz her l o v e r when she f e e l s r e j e c t e d by the p r i n c e , suddenly drops him, and shouts with e c s t a s y upon seeing Napoleon (215,L.F.). In O f f i z i e r e , the female f i g u r e s are of secondary impor-tance but a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n emerges. Although Unruh c l e a r l y means to make the love between Ernst and Hedwig the s u b j e c t i v e motive f o r E r n s t ' s i d e a l i s m , Ernst n e v e r t h e l e s s regards love as i n t e r f e r i n g even with h i s p r i v a t e g o a l s . Whereas i n Jurgen  Wullenweber there i s already a gap between p r i v a t e and p o l i t i -c a l commitment, Ernst r e j e c t s Hedwig's dream of i d y l l i c happi-ness i n marriage a l t o g e t h e r . 7 3 At the end of the work, her acceptance of E r n s t ' s death and r e s i g n a t i o n to her own f a t e i s i n d i c a t e d i n a symbolic g e s t u r e : she "bindet s i c h langsam d i e Haube wieder tiber dem Haar f e s t , ordnet Verbandszeug" (442,Off.). Hedwig i s but a younger v e r s i o n of Frau von Rtlxleben, who i d e n t i f i e s completely with the m i l i t a r y system and r e s i g n s h e r s e l f to the subordinate r o l e of a woman w i t h i n t h i s system. As such, both women e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r a s t with the other female f i g u r e s i n the play who allow themselves to become the o f f i c e r s ' p l a y t h i n g s . 42 An a n a l y s i s of non-verbal s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n r e v e a l s p a t t e r n s which demonstrate that the d i v i s i o n of the personnel ac c o r d i n g to s o c i a l provenance gains i n importance, whereas age and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s p l a y a r o l e only i n r e l a t i o n to the s o c i a l s t a t u s of the f i g u r e s . In a l l three heroes the w i l l to act i s combined with the v i s i o n a r y , the p r o p h e t i c , and an i n t e r e s t i n the s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s of l i f e which are d e r i v e d from t h e i r s o c i a l standing and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s : Jtirgen i s a master a r t i s a n from Hamburg who wishes to express h i s v i s i o n outwardly by c r e a t i n g a power-f u l Lubeck; E r n s t i s an o f f i c e r who seeks s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t w i t h i n the m i l i t a r y system by r e g e n e r a t i n g i t ; Louis Ferdinand i s a p r i n c e with a v i s i o n of a r e v i t a l i z e d monarchy. Not only do the e l e v a t e d s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s provide them with the appro-p r i a t e height from which to f a l l , which i s deemed t r a g i c i n the s o - c a l l e d " c l o s e d " 7 4 drama, but i t i s a l s o v i a the upper l e v e l s of s o c i e t y and the a r i s t o c r a c y that the heroes r e j e c t the i n c i d e n t a l and p h y s i c a l aspects of l i f e , and s t r i v e towards a more s p i r i t u a l l y o r i e n t e d form of e x i s t e n c e . A s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r , however, i s the p r o g r e s s i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the hero's a b i l i t y to a c t . Whereas Jurgen enters the p o l i t i c a l arena at a time of t r a n s i t i o n which allows him to take over power, and the Herero u p r i s i n g i s s t i l l h i s t o r i c a l l y expedient to promote E r n s t ' s need f o r s e l f - a s s e r t i o n , h i s t o r i c a l events reduce Louis Ferdinand's f i n a l p o l i t i c a l act to a symbolic g e s t u r e . More-over, Jilrgen's h e r o i c s t a t u r e i s undiminished f o l l o w i n g h i s withdrawal from p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e , whereas the j u s t i c e of 43 E r n s t ' s a c t i o n i s proven only a f t e r h i s death and the impact of Louis Ferdinand's f i n a l act i s ambivalent, i n s o f a r as i t i s denied success by the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of Napoleon's invasion.75 In a l l three plays the hero i s monumentalized at the ex-pense of those i n p o s i t i o n s of power and a u t h o r i t y . Here again a p a t t e r n may be observed. The degree of c r e d i b i l i t y of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a u t h o r i t y i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to the a b i l i t y of the heroes to a s s e r t themselves: i n r e l a t i o n to the undivided h e r o i c s t a t u r e of JOrgen, the mayors and c o u n c i l l o r s are the l e a s t c r e d i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a u t h o r i t y and i n r e l a t i o n t o the diminished a b i l i t y of Ernst and Louis Ferdinand to a c t , the c o l o n e l and the king are f i g u r e s which are to be taken more s e r i o u s l y . A p a t t e r n a l s o emerges with r e f e r e n c e to the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between the heroes and t h e i r primary a l l i e s , i n s o f a r as t h e i r r u t h l e s s n e s s i n c r e a s e s i n p r o p o r t i o n to the decreasing a b i l i t y of the heroes to impose t h e i r v i s i o n on the o u t s i d e world: Marx Meier i s s t i l l u ndivided i n h i s l o y a l t y ; Harry von Henner i s a l r e a d y a more r e l e n t l e s s v e r s i o n of E r n s t ; W i e s e l , f i n a l l y , only advances the cause of the p r i n c e i n order to gain power f o r h i m s e l f . With the e x c e p t i o n of O f f i z i e r e , i n which the p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r i s panoramic, showing the c h a r a c t e r s as p a r a l l e l f i g u r e s , i n s t e a d of a n t i t h e t i c a l ones, Unruh d i v i d e s the c a s t i n t o d i s t i n c t camps. By means of s t y l i z a t i o n - to which the dramatic genre already tends by i t s n a t u r e 7 6 - he i d e a l i z e s some and d e n i g r a t e s o t h e r s ; the p l a y s c o n t a i n both 44 p o r t r a i t s and c a r i c a t u r e s . Whereas the heroes are rounded by being shown from v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s and i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u -a t i o n s , the other f i g u r e s ( i n c l u d i n g the a l l i e s ) g e n e r a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e but one c e n t r a l f e a t u r e . The negative f i g u r e s are c a r i c a t u r e d by s i m i l a r means as i n p i c t o r i a l c a r i c a t u r e , i n which one or more f e a t u r e s are exaggerated u n t i l the i n d i v i d u a l i s f a r removed from r e a l i t y . However, d i f f e r e n t degrees of c a r i c a t u r e are used. Most n e g a t i v e l y p ortrayed are the masses i n Jurgen Wullenweber. In them, Unruh exaggerates a " N a t u r a l i s t i c " d e t a i l , such as t h e i r f i c k l e n e s s and t h e i r concern with p h y s i c a l needs brought on by poverty. Rather than v i c t i m s of circumstance, the masses are portrayed as grotesque f i g u r e s : t h e i r behaviour i s out of p r o p o r t i o n ; t h e i r m e r c u r i a l nature i n s p i r e s f e a r . That t h i s e x c e s s i v e i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g o r i g i n a t e s from the lower c l a s s e s and has even penetrated the upper l e v e l s of s o c i e t y i s made evident by the almost i d e n t i c a l behaviour of the mayors and c l e r g y i n Jurgen  Wullenweber and the diplomats i n L o u i s Ferdinand. Even the king i n the l a t t e r p lay and the c o l o n e l i n O f f i z i e r e are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g and a prudent nature which are deemed e x c e s s i v e . T h i s p a t t e r n i s repeated in the a n t i t h e t i c a l female c h a r a c t e r s , one of whom i s a s e r i o u s f i g u r e , who a l i g n s h e r s e l f with the p r o t a g o n i s t , whereas the other i s a grotesque f i g u r e , whose behaviour again marks an undue i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n which i s i d e n t i c a l to that of the lower c l a s s e s . 45 Rel a t e d p a t t e r n s emerge in the three works w r i t t e n during the war and r e v i s e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n a f t e r the war. However, s i n c e each of these works belongs to a d i f f e r e n t genre, i t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e to tr a c e these p a t t e r n s by d i s c u s s i n g the works i n a p p o s i t i o n . Vor der Entscheidung i s a dramatic "poem" composed of " S t a t i o n e n " , a s e r i e s of more or l e s s l o o s e l y connected scenes or " p i c t u r e s " , each of which re p r e s e n t s but one s l i c e of a t o -t a l r e a l i t y . The essence of t h i s r e a l i t y i s conveyed p r i m a r i l y by one c e n t r a l f i g u r e - the uhlan - who r e c u r s in each of the scenes, and by h i s negative antipode - the v o l u n t e e r - who appears i n most of them. In the f i r s t h a l f of the work, the uhlan i s confronted with war by observing i t s e f f e c t s on the people around him: the d e l i r i o u s s o l d i e r s i n the f i r s t ; the b i r t h of a c h i l d and the death of i t s mother i n the second; the wounded troops i n the t h i r d ; the trench s o l d i e r s in the f o u r t h ; 7 7 and the r o b o t - l i k e o f f i c e r s i n the f i f t h s t a t i o n . From the beginning i t i s evident that the uhlan i s estranged from r e a l i t y ; r e a l i t y e x i s t s i n s p i t e of him. Un l i k e t r a d i t i o n a l drama, i n which the p r o t a g o n i s t a c t s , i n f l u e n c e s or changes the people and events about him, the uhlan of Vor der Entscheidung meditates upon a r e a l i t y which he no longer understands: a c t i o n i s r e p l a c e d by r e a c t i o n . Stage d i r e c t i o n s d e s c r i b e him as " e r n s t " (15,V.d.E.II), " u n w i l l i g " (15, V . d . E . I I ) , and " s t i l l " ( 3 6 , V . d . E . I I ) . Burdened by an excess of emotion i n the f i f t h s t a t i o n , which can only be c a l l e d "unheimlich" 46 (43,V.d.E.II), the uhlan "taumelt" (44,V.d.E.II), " t r i n k t und t a n z t w i l d " (44,V.d.E.II), " f a i l t h i n " (45,V.d.E.II), " s t e h t auf, s i e h t a l l e an" (46,V.d.E.II). In the second h a l f of the work, the emphasis s h i f t s from a p o r t r a y a l of the p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s of war to scenes i n which more weight i s given to s p i r i t u a l concerns. In these scenes the uhlan t r a v e l s through an open f i e l d , a burning, destroyed v i l l a g e , the r u i n s of a church, an underground b u r i a l tomb, and an open area with a v i l l a g e and a church in the background. Whereas the uhlan i s s t r u c k with n e a r - p a r a l y s i s i n the f i r s t h a l f of the work, he emerges as a s e l f - a s s e r t i v e f i g u r e i n the second h a l f . Here the uhlan's a c t i v i t i e s are almost e n t i r e l y of a pantomimic nature and c o n s i s t of prayers and a c t i o n s or poses adapted to those u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with C h r i s t . Upon l i g h t i n g a match in order to read a roadsign i n the s i x t h s t a -t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , he i s suddenly confronted with the anguish-ed face of C h r i s t on the c r u c i f i x , whose "Wucht des A n b l i c k s " (60,V.d.E.II) causes him to tumble to the ground. Despite the f a c t that he i s surrounded by the remains of maimed corpses (62,V.d.E.II), he i s subseguently d e s c r i b e d i n stage d i r e c t i o n s as " b e g r e i f e n d " (61,V.d.E.II), "ahnend, jubelnd" (62,V.d.E.II), "machtig" (60,V.d.E.II), and even as "gross, verstehend" (62,V.d.E.II). In the e i g h t h s t a t i o n he addresses the image of C h r i s t again, t h i s time u n f a l t e r i n g l y and without l o s i n g h i s e q u i l i b r i u m . In stage d i r e c t i o n s he i s then d e s c r i b e d as mounting the steps of the a l t a r and reaching a stage of v i s i o n -ary e c s t a s y (87,V.d.E.II), while l o o k i n g up towards the 47 c r u c i f i x and heaven. P r i o r to r e t u r n i n g to e a r t h , f o l l o w i n g h i s passage through the underground i n the second to l a s t scene, the uhlan i s d e p i c t e d as c l i m b i n g on a rock and l i f t i n g h i s arms upward ( l j l , V . d . E . I I ) , i n a manner r e m i n i s c e n t of Moses on Mount S i n a i . In the l a s t scene, f i n a l l y , the uhlan i s por t r a y e d as standing beside a h i l l , which he a l s o proceeds to climb (120,V.d.E.II). Like h i s mounting of the a l t a r steps and the rock, the cli m b i n g of the h i l l s i g n i f i e s h i s s t r i v i n g upwards which separates him from others and d i s t i n g u i s h e s him as an i n s p i r e d , e n l i g h t e n e d , s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r . When he l a y s h i m s e l f down, gazes towards heaven, and then f a l l s a s l e e p , while h i s " d i s c i p l e s " to be are seen at the bottom of the h i l l , the p a r a l l e l with Jesus on the Mount of O l i v e s at Gethsemane i s unmistakable (121,V.d.E.II). Upon awakening, he i s d e s c r i b e d as "lachend" (137,V.d.E.II), drawing h i s sword (137,V.d.E.II), and l i f t i n g h i s arms towards the sun, while l e a d i n g h i s f o l l o w e r s to the top of the h i l l (140,V.d.E.II). The v o l u n t e e r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n with the v a r i o u s stages i n the "poem" i s f a r l e s s i n t imate than t h a t of the uhlan. The volun-t e e r i s e v e r y t h i n g which the uhlan i s not: u n t h i n k i n g , e x t r o -v e r t e d , and nai v e . Whereas the events of the f i r s t f i v e " p i c t u r e s " s t r i k e the uhlan with p a r a l y s i s , the vo l u n t e e r i s d e s c r i b e d in stage d i r e c t i o n s as " e r g r i f f e n " (23,V.d.E.II) or "berauscht" (27,V.d.E.II). Rather than being estranged from the r e a l i t y of war, the vo l u n t e e r continues to c a r r y out h i s duty with unimpaired a l a c r i t y : he d e l i v e r s corpses without q u e s t i o n i n the f i r s t scene; he i s u n r u f f l e d by the woman who 48 d i e s i n c h i l d b i r t h i n the second; he admires the heroism of the r e t u r n i n g troops in the t h i r d scene; a f t e r being absent i n the f o u r t h , he i s t r u l y i n h i s element i n the f i f t h scene, in which he, surrounded by f e l l o w - o f f i c e r s , i s seated on the b a r r e l of a howitzer and p r a i s e s the achievements of m i l i t a r y technology. The l a t t e r scene shows the v o l u n t e e r at the height of boldness; from then on he l o s e s composure in a manner d i r e c t l y propor-t i o n a l to the uhlan's i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - a s s e r t i v e n e s s . In stage d i r e c t i o n s Unruh now s t r e s s e s the v o l u n t e e r ' s growing f e a r . A f t e r r e g a i n i n g p o s s e s s i o n of himself w i t h i n the r u i n s of a church i n the e i g h t h scene, the v o l u n t e e r r e j o i n s the f i g h t i n g t r o o p s . His death on the b a t t l e f i e l d i s a reported event and he i s b u r i e d i n the f i n a l scene. Of the two p r o t a g o n i s t s i n Vor der Entscheidung, the v o l u n t e e r , as the exponent of a b l i n d b e l i e f i n a c t i o n - which i s e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l to that of Jtlrgen Wullenweber, Louis Ferdinand, and Er n s t von S c h l i c h t i n g - appears as a negative f i g u r e ; a man of i n a c t i o n , a seeker f o r a deeper meaning i n t o the nature of l i f e and war, now emerges as the p o s i t i v e one. T h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n d i v i d e s the secondary f i g u r e s i n t o d i s t i n c t camps. Ina Gotz sees the work "...durchzogen von der D a r s t e l l u n g Leidender, Kranker, I r r e r auf der einen S e i t e und g r o s s - s p r e c h e r i s c h B e g e i s t e r t e r auf der anderen S e i t e . " 7 8 Such a s t r i c t d i v i s i o n j u s t l y accounts f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the v o l u n t e e r with the other war e n t h u s i a s t s , but m i s l e a d i n g l y i m p l i e s that the uhlan i s to be viewed as one with the v i c t i m s of war. A t h i r d group of f i g u r e s may be 49 i d e n t i f i e d , who are not seen by the v o l u n t e e r and p l a y a r o l e only i n r e l a t i o n to the uhlan. Whereas the f i r s t group i s composed of m i l i t a r y f i g u r e s , and the second group comprises anonymous c i t i z e n s , refugees, and d i s p e r s e d troops, the t h i r d group i n c l u d e s both " r e a l " and " u n r e a l " f i g u r e s , of which a g e n e r a l , a mysterious " V e i l e d F i g u r e , " the " s p i r i t s " of Shakespeare, K l e i s t , and P r u s s i a n regents of the p a s t , are the most s i g n i f i c a n t . Since a l l of these secondary f i g u r e s appear i n one scene only, t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i s reduced to a p u r e l y demonstrative l e v e l ; they depend f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e s o l e l y on the s u b j e c t i v e experience of the two p r o t a g o n i s t s and disappear as these experiences have been overcome. With the death of the v o l u n t e e r the uhlan i s then the only p r o t a g o n i s t . S c a n t i n e s s of a c t i o n i s a l s o a marked f e a t u r e of Unruh's next work: Opfergang. Although a work of prose, i t i s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r i m a r i l y because i t e s t a b l i s h e s c o n t i n u i t y of theme with Vor der Entscheidung and E i n  Geschlecht, introduces kindred c h a r a c t e r s , and because i t has a formal s t r u c t u r e not u n l i k e that of Unruh's dramatic work. Most i n t e r e s t i n g , however, i s the p o i n t of view of the n a r r a -t o r . Since the i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s i n a work of prose are brought i n t o being only by the n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s - he serves as s e l e c t o r , p r e s e n t e r , guide, and commentator - an a n a l y s i s of Opfergang may provide a p e r s p e c t i v e which i s much more d i r e c t than i n a dramatic t e x t . Opfergang demonstrates the degree to which the r e a l i t y of war - the B a t t l e of Verdun - g r i p s the minds and a c t i o n s of an 50 e n t i r e company of m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l . In both Vor der Entscheidung and Opfergang, the background of war may be r e -7 Q garded as a more concentrated form of l i f e , which, in the words of Wm. K. P f e i l e r , "heightens the s e n s i b i l i t y of the c h a r a c t e r s and r e v e a l s t h e i r innermost nature as in a f l a s h . " 8 0 However, what P f e i l e r f a i l s to examine i s that Unruh, as a dramatist and n a r r a t o r , confronts h i s f i g u r e s with a r e a l i t y which p r o h i b i t s them from independent a c t i o n a l t o -g ether; i n other words, he f o r c e s them to give up the idea of a c t i n g independently and makes them a t t r i b u t e a deeper s i g n i f i -81 cance to something that e x i s t s independently of them. Independent a c t i o n i s r e p l a c e d by symbolic a c t i o n s and ges-t u r e s . These symbolic a c t i o n s and gestures again depend for t h e i r meaning on the context of the work. T h i s context changes d r a m a t i c a l l y from the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of the work - e n t i t l e d Verdun - to i t s r e v i s e d c o u n t e r p a r t - Opfergang - which was p u b l i s h e d a f t e r the war was a l r e a d y over. What the f i g u r e s have in common i s that they are a l l s o l d i e r s who f i g h t in the same b a t t l e ; on a second l e v e l , they experience the war according to t h e i r rank i n the m i l i t a r y and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n i n c i v i l i a n l i f e ; on a t h i r d and f i n a l l e v e l , they experience t h e i r p l i g h t i n d i v i d u a l l y as Werner, Clemens, H i l l b r a n d , P r e i s , Schmidt, F i p s , and Kox. An a n a l y s i s of a u t h o r i a l d e s c r i p t i o n c l e a r l y r e v e a l s that the n a r r a t o r i s l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n p o r t r a y i n g them as i n d i v i d u a l s e x a c t l y observed than he i s i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g them as symbolic types who serve the f a t h e r l a n d . The symbolic aspect of the f i g u r e s i s a l r e a d y 51 brought out by names which would normally c h a r a c t e r i z e them as i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than as types. Although l e s s o b v i o u s l y d e s c r i p t i v e than names such as Wiesel in Lo u i s Ferdinand, most of them do c h a r a c t e r i z e i m p l i c i t l y . By naming the p l a t o o n l e a d e r "Clemens," the idea of mercy or clemency i s brought out; the sergeant i s given the o l d t e u t o n i c name H i l l b r a n d , one a s s o c i a t e d with the battle-sword; Gretchen, the name of h i s wi f e , to whom repeated r e f e r e n c e i s made, c l e a r l y a l l u d e s to the beloved of Faust; Werner, the name of the c a p t a i n , i s a l s o an a n c i e n t name and means p r o t e c t i n g w a r r i o r ; the v o l u n t e e r , who c o n s t a n t l y t h i n k s of home and h i s mother, i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y named Heinz, r u l e r of the home; the name P r e i s i s exp l a i n e d by the drummer himself at one p o i n t as being synonymous with honour and g l o r y gained i n b a t t l e (49,Opf.). None of these names i s a r b i t r a r y . A n o t i c e a b l e f e a t u r e i s the emphasis on Germanic and w a r r i o r - l i k e q u a l i t i e s , which c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the author o r i g i n a l l y conceived of h i s f i g u r e s as r e i n c a r n a t i o n s of the heroes of the Germanic pa s t . A primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a u t h o r i a l d e s c r i p t i o n i s i t s s t y l i z a t i o n . In order to demonstrate the r e l e a s e of the poten-cy 0 t i a l energy of s o l d i e r s gripped by the power of warfare, the n a r r a t o r employs imagery which equates the men e i t h e r with animals or with v e g e t a t i o n and the elements. Conversely, na-ture i t s e l f i s a l s o p e r s o n i f i e d . The comparison of the f i g u r e s with phenomena observed in nature i n v a r i a b l y s t r e s s e s the e f f e c t of war as a u n i f y i n g f a c -t o r f o r those who f i g h t i n i t . I t i s s a i d that "im Glanzsturm 52 des Volkes wehten d i e Burschen dahin, wie B l t i t e n j u b e l " (12,Opf.) and frequent mention i s made of t h e i r p h y s i c a l appearance as having taken on the l i k e n e s s , c o l o u r , and odour of the e a r t h i t s e l f . In a s i m i l a r v e i n , the advancing troops are l i k e n e d to the " P l a t s c h e r n von tausend Bachen, d i e zum Meer streben" (30,Opf.). Whenever the n a r r a t o r wants to draw a p a r a l l e l between the e f f e c t s of war on man and on the surrounding environment, he uses tree and f o r e s t imagery. P r i o r to b a t t l e he says about the tro o p s : Dem Graben entgegen. Einen Augenblick schlug durch die Mannschaft e i n Zflgern, dass uber manchen Mclnnerrucken eine G&nsehaut r i e s e l t e , dem Schauder i n Baumkronen vor dem Herbstwind a h n l i c h . Aber dann wurde f r i s c h angetreten. (55,Opf.). The severed branches of t r e e s - "Geholz s p l i t t e r t e , Aste flammten" (108,Opf.) - correspond l i k e w i s e to p a r t s of the human body sundered by warfare: "Abgerissene Menschenglieder f l o g e n liber d i e Kompagnie" (109,Opf.) . A l s o the troops as i n d i v i d u a l men are l i k e n e d to t r e e s . The general's death i s d e s c r i b e d i n the terms " p l o t z l i c h ging e i n Z i t t e r n durch seinen L e i b ; er f i e l urn wie e i n hohler Stamm - " (122,Opf.) and, with r e f e r e n c e to H i l l b r a n d , the n a r r a t o r w r i t e s : "Den L e i b , der wie e i n g e f a l l t e r Stamm aussah, zog er (Clemens) auf seine Knie" (92,Opf.). War erases the d i s t i n c t i o n between man as an i n d i v i d u a l and man as a p a r t of nature; he i s por t r a y e d as a n a t u r a l element and becomes ( l i k e ) a t r e e . However, the n a r r a t o r does d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the degree to which the troops are l i k e n e d to nature, to e a r t h , and to n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n . The 53 cook, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s unable to soar to the heights of heroism of which some of the other f i g u r e s are capable. To convey t h i s , the n a r r a t o r duly d e s c r i b e s him as being p u l l e d and weighed down by the e a r t h i t s e l f : "An seinen Sporen, die e r n i c h t abgelegt h a t t e , k l e b t e n handgrosse Lehmklosse" (72,Opf.). H i l l b r a n d , however, makes a conscious e f f o r t to i g -nore the immediate present by c o n c e n t r a t i n g s o l e l y on the f u -t u r e . For the d u r a t i o n of the b a t t l e , time f o r him i s suspend-ed and he i s d e s c r i b e d not as being on the earth but as being p o i s e d or suspended over i t : "Ober Ackerkrumen schwebte e r , a l s hStte er F l t i g e l " (17,Opf.). Clemens, f i n a l l y , reaches a stage i n which he leaves the present and t h i s e a r t h a l t o g e -ther i n order to become one with i n f i n i t y , with the a l l : "Und wie er s i c h im Unendlichen v e r l o r , f t i h l t e er seinen L e i b n i c h t mehr" (93,Opf.), "Clemens l e b t e im G e i s t . Hunger und Durst beherrschte e r . W i r k l i c h k e i t sah er n i c h t mehr" (166,Opf.). Whereas F i p s i s p u l l e d down by the e a r t h and over-whelmed by the present, H i l l b r a n d ignores them and i s suspended i n time and p l a c e ; Clemens has no more connection with t h i s e a r t h and the present at a l l and merges with i n f i n i t y . The converse of the e l e m e n t a r i z a t i o n of man - the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of nature - a l s o holds t r u e : Kronen wankten; e i n S a n i t a t s s o l d a t , der Verwundete verband wurde durch e i n e r Eiche abgeschossenen, l e i b d i c k e n Zweig ze r s c h m e t t e r t . Wie e i n heulender Riese stand der verwundete Wald. (87,Opf.) Here nature i s p e r s o n i f i e d and presented as aggressor and v i c -tim at the same time. The most s i g n i f i c a n t instance of nature 54 or e arth p e r s o n i f i e d may be found in d e s c r i p t i o n s with r e f e r -ence to sergeant H i l l b r a n d , i n which the earth i n times of war i s equated d i r e c t l y with a woman i n c h i l d b i r t h : "Im Blutkrampf wSlzt s i c h d i e Menschheit" (66,Opf . ) . Such metaphors c l e a r l y demonstrate that the n a r r a t o r c o n s c i o u s l y forgoes d e s c r i p t i o n of a c t u a l events and a c t u a l people in favour of d e s c r i b i n g mental images of them i n met a p h o r i c a l terms. In most a u t h o r i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , the d i s t i n c t i o n between animate and inaminate o b j e c t s i s b l u r r e d , s t r e s s i n g the e s s e n t i a l oneness of the men with each other and with nature, as w e l l as the converse, the u n i t y of p l a c e s and inanimate o b j e c t s with man. A l l s t r i v e f o r the common g o a l : Jeder war auf seinem Posten. Am grossen Minenfeld glimmte d i e Zundschnur. UnterstSnde gluhten von Augen. In gedrangten MenschenknSulen schlug e i n Herzschlag der Erwartung. (85,Opf•) Death i t s e l f i s p e r s o n i f i e d and, along with the concept of Verdun, i s v i r t u a l l y t r e a t e d as a separate c h a r a c t e r . In order to s t r e s s the v a l o u r and heroism of which the f i -gures are capable when put to the t e s t and i n order to demon-s t r a t e the r e l e a s e of p u r e l y i n s t i n c t i v e and elemental f o r c e s which only war can br i n g out in man, the n a r r a t o r i n v a r i a b l y equates t h e i r behaviour and appearance with those of animals. I t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t that the species of animals to which the company i s l i k e n e d i n d i c a t e s the degree to which i t i s gri p p e d by b a t t l e and b u i l d s up courage and r e s i s t a n c e to i t . I n i t i a l l y the f i g u r e s are struck with fear and apprehension: "Wie Rehe im K l e e , wenn e i n Schuss g e f a l i e n , so stand a l l e s 55 einen Augenblick da" (28,Opf.). Soon they are l i k e n e d to "lauernden T i g e r n " or "wiehernden Rossen, die Triumph h i n t e r s i c h ahnen" (89,Qpf.). Werner i s r e p e a t e d l y l i k e n e d to a watchful eagle (86,110,Opf.) and h i s hands are equated with " F e u e r k r a l l e n " (89^, Qpf. ) . Clemens, in t u r n , i s d e s c r i b e d as a panther (86,Qpf.), when poised i n a p o s i t i o n of a t t a c k , 8 3 and H i l l b r a n d i s p o r t r a y e d p u r e l y and simply as "jene schflne B e s t i e " 8 4 which Nietzs c h e p r a i s e s as the man of the f u t u r e : An der K i r c h e oben, wo Treppen zum Eingang fuhren, r i s s er den Rock ab und stemmte s i c h mit nackten Burstwarzen gegen s c h w e f l i c h e , t f l d l i c h e DSmpfe, d i e aus T u r s p a l t e n nach ihm g r i f f e n . (90,Qpf.) His French opponent i s deemed sub-human by c o n t r a s t (90,Qpf.). In Qpfergang, however, animal imagery i s a l s o employed i n a manner d i f f e r e n t from that in the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n e n t i t l e d Verdun: to expose and d e s c r i b e the a n i m a l - l i k e c o n d i t i o n s to which the troops are subjected as v i c t i m s of war. Added are the l i n e s : An ihnen v o r b e i , wie eine H f l l l e n v i s i o n jagte von der Kirche her durchs Dorf e i n Rudel t i e r w i l d e r G e s t a l t e n . Abgerissene Menschenglieder schwangen s i e wie Keulen, B l u t f e t z e w i r b e l t e n . Des Wahnsinns G e b e l l deckte bei a l i e n das Z a h n f l e i s c h f r e i . (100,Qpf.) The eguation of man with animals can t h e r e f o r e a l s o be made to underscore c o n d i t i o n s of misery, as i t does almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n other novels about World War One, such as Le Feu by Henri B a r b u s s e 8 5 and Im Westen n i c h t s Neues by E. M. Remarque. 8 6 On the one hand, the n a r r a t o r i s 56 a p p a l l e d by the s u f f e r i n g the f i g u r e s have to endure and, on the other, he admires t h e i r courage i n the face of s u f f e r i n g . A h i g h l y metaphorical language i s one technique the n a r r a t o r uses to show the u n i t y between man, nature, and war; i t s formal and s t y l i s t i c t e x t u r e i s another. With the excep-t i o n of D i e t e r Kasang's examination, c r i t i c s have always asso-c i a t e d Unruh's l i n g u i s t i c p r a c t i c e s with those of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s . 8 7 Kasang p o i n t s out that they are only used, i n f a c t , to c r e a t e an i n t e n s i t y or dynamism which over-whelms the f i g u r e s , renders them incapable of independent ac-t i o n , makes them unable to understand what goes on around them i n r a t i o n a l terms, and serves as an apology f o r war and W i l h e l m i n i a n r u l e . 8 8 Two passages w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . In both the c e n t r a l symbol i s that of the t r a i n , the appearance and sound of which are a s s o c i a t e d with the m i l i t a r y and with war. The f i r s t passage i s r e l a t e d to Clemens. Relder auf SchienenI Schienen unter Radern! Drangender Dampf i n Rohren und Kolben. Stohnen und Jauchzen! Dem Clemens t r a t Schweiss auf d i e S t i r n e . Er zog die Beine zur Brust und horchte: Wollende F l u c h t von M i l l i o n e n Atomenl Bandigende Zucht, befehlender G e i s t ! E i s e n auf E i s e n , f l i e g e n d e K r a f t ! ( 1 2 , 0 p f . ) The n a r r a t o r c o n f r o n t s Clemens with the analogy between the t r a i n and war and f o r c e s him to r e a c t . What becomes immediate-l y e v ident from a s t y l i s t i c p o i n t of view are the short sen-tences, the emphasis on nouns and a d j e c t i v e s , p a r a t a x i s , the omission of a r t i c l e s , and the absence of verbs i n favour of t h e i r n o m i n a l i z a t i o n . T h i s c o n t r a c t i o n or 57 " S p r a c h b a l l u n g " s y . d i s t r i b u t e s a l l the weight of the passage onto words which recur throughout the prose work: "RSder," "Schienen," "Dampf," "Rohren," "Kolben," "Stohnen," "Jauchzen," " F l u c h t , " "Zucht," " G e i s t , " " E i s e n , " and " K r a f t . " The onomatopoeic aspect of such passages f o r c e s the f i g u r e s e i t h e r to accept the n a r r a t o r ' s a n a l o g i e s as a "higher" r e a l i t y , as i s the case with Clemens, or succumb to them by going mad. The l a t t e r i s indeed what happens to the "waiter", whom the n a r r a t o r a l s o c o n f r o n t s with the t r a i n as the essence of m i l i t a r y technology: Aber eisendonnernd schob s i c h der feuerspeiende Zug i n Richtung der dunklen Berge v o r b e i , r i s s von einem Apfelbaum am Wege Aste ab und s p l i t t e r t e einen im Vorwartsfahren b i s zur M i t t e des Stammes. E i n Mann, der zusprang, wurde an den Oberschenkeln abgequetscht. Schreie gingen unter, Leute rannten und verschwanden i n der Dunkelheit. Von Meter zu Meter s c h i e n des M e t a l l s Wucht s i c h i n eigenes Leben zu wachsen. (2 1,Opf.). The sentences are longer than i n the previous passage and, r a t h e r than nouns, verbs are emphasized. T h i s suggests t h a t the t r a i n assumes a l i f e which i s more intense than l i f e i t s e l f . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the degree of the n a r r a t o r ' s l i n g u i s t i c i n n o v a t i v e n e s s i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the ex-ten t to which he wants to make h i s f i g u r e s understand, accept, and p r o c l a i m the r e a l i t y of the b a t t l e at hand. The n a r r a t o r departs most from e s t a b l i s h e d l i n g u i s t i c precedents i n those passages i n which he c o n f r o n t s h i s f i g u r e s with " v i s i o n s . " These are e i t h e r d e p i c t e d i n a f a s h i o n which t o t a l l y a l i e n a t e s them or suggests that e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y i s t r a n s f i g u r e d 5 8 and transformed to a d i f f e r e n t , symbolic l e v e l which i s supposed to be the essence of the f i r s t . Whereas i n Vor der Entscheidung Unruh co n f r o n t s the con-t r a s t i n g f i g u r e s of the uhlan and the v o l u n t e e r with d i f f e r e n t s l i c e s of r e a l i t y , he presents the f i g u r e s i n the prose work Opfergang as symbolic types p r o j e c t e d i n t o war as an " a r t i s t i c " r e a l i t y and d e s c r i b e s t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s to i t . In E i n G e s c h l e c h t , the t h i r d work to be w r i t t e n during World War One, Unruh contraposes s t y l i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the m i l i t a r y with a b s t r a c t e d members of the "human f a m i l y " : a mother, an o l d e s t and a youngest son, a daughter, and a t h i r d son who i s designated as " F e i g e r Sohn." As " a b s t r a k t e s T h e a t e r , " 9 ^ t h i s p l ay dispenses with a c t i o n understood i n a t r a d i t i o n a l sense a l t o g e t h e r . I n s o f a r as the e n t i r e p l a y i s based on a v e r b a l dispute between the opposing p a r t i e s of two m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , a mother, and her four c h i l d r e n , the main i n t e r e s t i s not on a c t i o n but on gestures which i l l u s t r a t e and support the c e n t r a l arguments brought out i n the p l a y . The two anonymous m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , who are the f i r s t and the l a s t f i g u r e s to appear i n the drama, are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by brute f o r c e . At the beginning, they drag two c r i m i n a l s - the o l d e s t son and the coward - onto the h i l l t o p cemetery which forms the s e t t i n g of the p l a y . Here the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s meet the youngest son, who together with h i s mother and s i s t e r has j u s t b uried another brother k i l l e d i n a c t i o n , and demand of him that he execute h i s two brothers as a j u s t r e t r i b u t i o n f o r the crimes they committed a g a i n s t the m i l i t a r y , i n the form of rape 59 and d e s e r t i o n . When the youngest son refuses to c a r r y out t h i s b a r b a r i c form of f a m i l y j u s t i c e , the two lea d e r s r e t u r n to the "Kampftal" (14,E.G. ) or v a l l e y below. They take revenge on the youngest son by ta k i n g him with them to be d r i l l e d i n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e and abandon the c r i m i n a l sons to the mother, whom they b e l i e v e capable of c h i l d murder i n the s p i r i t of the c u r r e n t wave of p a t r i o t i s m . 9 1 The youngest son and the m i l i t a r y are absent dur i n g the c e n t r a l p a r t of the play and only r e t u r n towards the end. Although Unruh i s spa r i n g with stage d i r e c t i o n s in t h i s p l a y , the b r u t a l i t y of the m i l i t a r y i s n e v e r t h e l e s s conveyed by means of i t s e f f e c t on the youngest son, who i s d e s c r i b e d as "ei n g e s c h t i c h t e r t " (13,E.G.), " e r s t a r r t " (13,E.G.), and as l o s i n g consciousness. Upon t h e i r r e t u r n at the end of the work, however, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them i s r e v e r s e d . While i n the v a l l e y below, the youngest son appears to have undergone an educative process, f o r he suddenly a s s e r t s himself a g a i n s t the m i l i t a r y ; the troops, who accompany them on t h e i r r e t u r n , are i n s p i r e d by t h i s act of s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and, l e d by the youngest son, run down to the v a l l e y i n a s t a t e of drunken (48,E.G.) e c s t a s y . The two m i l i t a r y l eaders themselves are a l s o transformed at the end of the work; they f o r f e i t t h e i r r u t h l e s s n e s s and f o l l o w the youngest son and the troops down to the v a l l e y . The weakening of the m i l i t a r y i s suggested by the f a c t that they l o s e t h e i r " s t a f f " , a symbol of t h e i r power, to the mother. A f t e r the mother i s k i l l e d by them, the youngest son takes p o s s e s s i o n of i t . 60 The c e n t r a l and main s e c t i o n of the work c o n s i s t s e n t i r e l y of a v i o l e n t d i s p u t a t i o n and a p h y s i c a l s t r u g g l e between the o l d e s t son and the daughter, on the one hand, and between both of these and the mother, on the other. The coward remains i n the background; h i s s i l e n c e i s broken only by two c r i e s of h o r r o r u t t e r e d towards the end of the work. Both the o l d e s t son and the daughter are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v i o l e n t a c t i o n s and g e s t u r e s , which range from rape, i n c e s t , and s e l f - m u t i l a t i o n to attempted m a t r i c i d e and a c t u a l s u i c i d e . The c r u e l t i e s and p e r v e r s i t i e s committed by them shocked con-temporary audiences, who regarded them as proof of Unruh's "monomanische B e s e s s e n h e i t " 3 with sex and death, and s t i l l b a f f l e c r i t i c s even to t h i s day. Within context, how-ever, i t becomes ev i d e n t that Unruh views the f i g u r e s who commit these crimes as embodiments of an u l t r a - r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e , 9 3 which v i o l a t e s not o n l y the m i l i t a r y w i l l and a n c i e n t f a m i l y and s o c i a l taboos, but undermines the very b a s i s of l i f e . The coward, by c o n t r a s t , saps the foundation of l i f e not by v i o l e n t behaviour, but by apathy or a t o t a l lack of p a s s i o n . The behaviour of each of these f i g u r e s i s "unna t u r a l , " d e f i e s not only m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t y , but a u t h o r i t y i n whatever shape or form. I t exposes, moreover, an e x c e s s i v e concern with s e l f i n the form of p h y s i c a l or sexual g r a t i f i c a -t i o n . From t h i s p o i n t of view, t h e i r crimes are the magnified e q u i v a l e n t s of those of the negative f i g u r e s i n the pre-war dramas, as epitomized by the s e l f - o r i e n t e d a t t i t u d e s of the masses. In these works, the masses are portrayed as e i t h e r 61 secondary or minor f i g u r e s ; i n E i n G e s c h l e c h t , however, t h e i r negative t r a i t s are i n c o r p o r a t e d by f i g u r e s who are put i n the foreground and p l a y a l e a d i n g r o l e . Moreover, they are members of one f a m i l y who, as suggested by t h e i r " t i m e l e s s , " a b s t r a c t e d r o l e s , are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the younger gener a t i o n of mankind. In the case of the o l d e s t son and the daughter, the idea of t o t a l r e v o l u t i o n n e v e r t h e l e s s proves to be i t s own nemesis; whereas the former d i e s by h i s own hand, the l a t t e r q u e l l s f u -t u r e l i f e by d e s t r o y i n g her womb. I t s u r v i v e s , however, in the coward who i s chased by the m i l i t a r y i n t o the v a l l e y below (48,E.G.). The behaviour of the mother i s e n t i r e l y r e a c t i v e to that of her c h i l d r e n and c o n s i s t s e x c l u s i v e l y of animated g e s t u r e s , which a t t e s t to her symbolic r o l e as a u n i v e r s a l mother f i g u r e and a " m y t h i c a l " mother-earth. Whereas at the beginning of the v e r b a l d i s p u t e between her and her c h i l d r e n , the mother i s por-, trayed i n stage d i r e c t i o n s as " w i l d " (21,E.G.), " f l e h e n d " (34,E.G.) or "schluchzend" (35,E.G.), she undergoes a t r a n s -formation i n the course of the p l a y and i s l a t e r d e s c r i b e d as "machtig" (38,E.G.), " f r e i " (45,E.G.), "uber a l l e s Volk" (46,E.G.). At one p o i n t she threatens to k i l l her o f f s p r i n g with a shovel (16,E.G.) - a t h r e a t which i s analogous to the proposed j u s t i c e of the m i l i t a r y and m i r r o r s the aberrant be-h a v i o u r of her c h i l d r e n - and at other p o i n t s she embraces them. Throughout the t e x t , Unruh p o r t r a y s the mother as i d e n t i f y i n g with the e a r t h . She i s f i r s t seen s t r o k i n g (14,E.G.) the e a r t h , and stage d i r e c t i o n s r e p e a t e d l y s p e c i f y 62 her to be "am Boden" (e.g.41,E.G.). I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , how-ever, that the ea r t h with which she i d e n t i f i e s i s that of a cemetery. I n i t i a l l y the mother staggers on the cemetery (15, E.G.), l a t e r she i s on her hands and knees (36,E.G.), and twice she d i g s her arms i n t o the s o i l (36,37, E.G.), j u s t as Clemens di g s h i s arm i n t o the grave of H i l l b r a n d i n Opfergang (122,Opf.). The f a c t that Unruh conceives of the mother as a f i g u r e who i d e n t i f i e s with the e a r t h as the source of both l i f e and death i s unmistakable. I t i s l a t e r made v i s i b l e in a ges-ture s p e c i f i e d by a stage d i r e c t i o n , which d e s c r i b e s her as embracing and enveloping the corpse of the o l d e s t son (43,E.G.). The p h y s i c a l s t r u g g l e between the mother and the second m i l i t a r y l e a d er f o r c o n t r o l of the "Fuhrerstab" (44,E.G.) t o -wards the end of the work i s presented i n the form of a sexual union between mother e a r t h and the m i l i t a r y as " f a t e " . The mother's subsequent death at the hands of the second m i l i t a r y l e a d e r c o n t r a d i c t s t h i s union, as D i e t e r Kasang was the f i r s t to p o i n t o u t , 9 4 and appears to be a l a t e r r e v i s i o n . If one compares the behaviour of the f i g u r e s i n the pre-war plays with that i n the works w r i t t e n during the war, the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s become q u i t e apparent. The heroes s t i l l seek to impose t h e i r v i s i o n on the o u t s i d e world, but emphasis with r e f e r e n c e to the stance they should take has s h i f t e d . The p r o g r e s s i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the heroes' a b i l i t y to a c t , which has been observed i n the pre-war dramas, runs i t s 63 f u l l course i n the works w r i t t e n during the war. Rather than a c t , i n f l u e n c e or change the world around them, a l l of the f i -gures are now f o r c e d to adopt an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e stance. They are no longer grouped p r i m a r i l y according to t h e i r wish to overthrow or s i d e with the present system of government but, r a t h e r , a c cording to t h e i r a b i l i t y to endure and understand the contemporary r e a l i t y of war. Moreover, the author conceives of h i s f i g u r e s no longer as i n d i v i d u a l s , whose i d e n t i t y i s w e l l d e f i n e d i n time and space, but as types, whose r o l e i s r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e and whose a c t i o n s serve to i l l u s t r a t e the ideas i n -c o r p o r a t e d by them. Although s o c i a l c l a s s i s l e s s w e l l - d e f i n e d , the behaviour of the f i g u r e s i s n e v e r t h e l e s s v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to that of the c h a r a c t e r s i n the previous p l a y s . In these, c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of behaviour are a s s o c i a t e d with a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s ; i n the works completed during the war, the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are presented independent of s o c i a l c l a s s and environment. In Vor der Entscheidung, Unruh demonstrates why a b l i n d b e l i e f i n a c t i o n i s no longer s u f f i c i e n t to bear up a g a i n s t the r e a l i t y of war, by c o n t r a s t i n g the i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - a s s e r t i v e n e s s of the uhlan with the fear of the v o l u n t e e r . 9 5 In the prose work, in which the c h a r a c t e r s are graduated i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t with the p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r i n O f f i z i e r e , a u t h o r i a l d e s c r i p t i o n separates the p r i n c i p a l s (Werner, Clemens, H i l l b r a n d ) from the remaining f i g u r e s by f u r n i s h i n g the former with an a b i l i t y to endure and understand what goes on around them, whereas the l a t t e r e i t h e r 64 accept i t without q u e s t i o n or become v i c t i m s of i t by l o s i n g t h e i r s a n i t y . In E i n Geschlecht, f i n a l l y , each of the f i g u r e s demonstrates a d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e to war by means of i t s behaviour: the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s are s t y l i z e d i n terms of t h e i r b l i n d and brute e x e r t i o n of the power vested in them by an un-questioned " f a t e " ; the o l d e s t son, the daughter, and the coward r e b e l a g a i n s t t h i s f a t e and are i d e n t i f i e d by r e v o l u t i o n a r y be-haviour which undermines the w i l l of the m i l i t a r y and l i f e i t -s e l f ; the mother, i n t u r n , c o n t r a s t s with the m i l i t a r y i n adopting an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e stance, and with her c h i l d r e n i n be-ing an a f f i r m a t i v e f i g u r e who i n s t i n c t i v e l y r e b e l s a g a i n s t those who would destroy the " n a t u r a l " course of l i f e ; the youngest son, f i n a l l y , embodies the i d e a l s of the f u t u r e , since he runs down to the v a l l e y to p r o c l a i m the essence of what he has learned from the r e v o l u t i o n a r y behaviour of h i s b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r and from the union between the m i l i t a r y and "mother e a r t h . " In order to d i s c o v e r by what means the c h a r a c t e r s d e f i n e themselves in the p l a y s completed a f t e r the war, I s h a l l now turn to P l a t z , Phaea, and Zero. P a t t e r n s of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n f a m i l i a r from the p revious s i x works may be found i n each of the post-war p l a y s as w e l l . Reminiscent of the pre-war dramas are the i d e a l i z a t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s , the negative s t y l i z a t i o n of a l l opponents, and the a n t i t h e t i c a l p o r t r a y a l of the female f i g u r e s ; more akin to the works w r i t t e n during the war i s the i n a c t i v i t y imposed 65 on the heroes. A new development i s the emphasis on the grotesque in P l a t z and Phaea, which gives way i n Zero to a l i g h t e r , l e s s s t i f l i n g form of i n c o n g r u i t y c o n s i s t e n t with Unruh's d e s i g n a t i o n of the play as a comedy. The heroes i n each of the post-war dramas are again d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the others by t h e i r p r o p h e t i c q u a l i t i e s . D i e t r i c h , the youngest son of E i n Geschlecht, who gains the i n d i v i d u a t i o n of a name in the sequel P l a t z and becomes i t s p r o t a g o n i s t , a r r i v e s i n the p l a y as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i s t who i s cheered by the masses. His r e n u n c i a t i o n of the a u t h o r i -t i e s and t r a d i t i o n s of the past, as represented by the p u b l i c "sguare" to which the t i t l e r e f e r s , i s conveyed by a number of symbolic g e s t u r e s : he' removes the s c a l e s from a stone s t a t u e of j u s t i c e (65,PI.); he r e j e c t s the god of war (68,PI.); he exchanges the symbol of the c r u c i f i x f o r a f i r e l i l y (90-91,PI.); he d e s t r o y s the " P l a t z g o t t " (106,PI.), j u s t as F r i e d r i c h i n Ernst T o l l e r ' s Wandlung destroys the statue of the f a t h e r l a n d ( f o u r t h s t a t i o n ; seventh scene); f i n a l l y , he t e a r s o f f the f o o l ' s frock put on him by the a u t h o r i t i e s and dances o f f stage with Irene. Instead of devoting himself to the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l cause, D i e t r i c h opts f o r f u l f i l m e n t i n the p r i v a t e sphere. Upon reaching the b r i n k of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n the f i r s t p a r t , D i e t r i c h - l i k e h i s predecessor Jurgen Wullenweber - draws back and r e t r e a t s i n t o a p r i v a t e e n c l a v e . In the second part of the p l a y , two s i g n i f i c a n t deeds and gestures underscore D i e t r i c h ' s r e n u n c i a t i o n of the s o c i o - p o l i -t i c a l r e a l i t y of both the past and the present. The f i r s t of 66 these i s h i s abandonment of the coward. Although the coward i s f a m i l i a r from E i n Geschlecht, Unruh no longer conceives of him p r i m a r i l y as a renegade and d e l i n q u e n t s o l d i e r but, r a t h e r , as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the suppressed masses. In the sequel, the coward i s l i t e r a l l y tossed between D i e t r i c h , who renounces the s o c i a l cause, and h i s enemies, who e x p l o i t i t f o r p e r s o n a l advancement. The second gesture which suggests D i e t r i c h ' s t u r n i n g away from s o c i a l i s s u e s i s h i s d i s m i s s a l of the globe (44,PI.), a v i s i b l e symbol of s o c i e t y and the world as a whole. Rather than focus on h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y , however, the second p a r t of the p l a y p r i m a r i l y p o r t r a y s D i e t r i c h as one who experiences a severe i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e . More than seventy stage d i r e c t i o n s p r e s c r i b e h i s p h y s i c a l and emotional s t a t e . A l l of them a t t e s t to the i n t e n s i t y of h i s s t r u g g l e , the d i f f i c u l t y of h i s choice between s o c i a l and p r i v a t e o b j e c t i v e s and to h i s wavering nature which v a c i l l a t e s between s e l f - a s s e r -t i o n and s e l f - n e g a t i o n . Moreover, he h e s i t a t e s between the o l d and the new and t e m p o r a r i l y r e g r e s s e s i n the second p a r t of the p l a y by r e v e r t i n g to the t r a d i t i o n a l powers which he had over-thrown i n the f i r s t . However, whereas D i e t r i c h t e a r s o f f the f o o l ' s f r o c k put on him by the a u t h o r i t i e s at the end of the f i r s t p a r t , he removes the count's armour at the end of the second p a r t ; l i k e a true prophet, he now stands " B r u s t e n t b l O s s t " (165,PI.). Although t h i s gesture s i g n a l s the completion of h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , he i s n e v e r t h e l e s s the a c t u a l l o s e r i n the p l a y . At the beginning of the work, 67 D i e t r i c h i s " g e s c h u l t e r t , Volksumdrangt" (5 9,PI.); at the end i t i s Scheich, h i s malevolent c o u n t e r p a r t . The r o l e of the hero in Phaea, named Adam Uhle, i s compli-cated and m u l t i - l a y e r e d . He i s not only the p r o t a g o n i s t in the p l a y , but a l s o the p r i n c i p a l a c t o r in the f i l m which i s being shot w i t h i n t h i s p l a y . Moreover, Uhle i s the author of the s c r i p t on which t h i s f i l m i s based. Since the s c r i p t i s auto-b i o g r a p h i c a l , Uhle t h e r e f o r e not only p o r t r a y s h i s own s i t u a -t i o n i n the w r i t t e n t e x t , but a l s o acts h i s own pa r t i n the movie. The p l a y , i n t u r n , c o n s i s t s of r e h e a r s a l s f o r the f i l m , r e f l e c t s the interdependence between pla y , s c r i p t , and movie, and e s t a b l i s h e s the l i n k between author and d i r e c t o r . The com-p l e x i t y does not end here. Uhle's involvement i n the a c t i o n of the f i l m a l s o d u p l i c a t e s i t s e l f i n the p l a y ; i n both he i s the v i c t i m of a p o l i t i c a l c o n s p i r a c y . Stage d i r e c t i o n s are again most s p e c i f i c with r e f e r e n c e to the emotional s t a t e of the hero and p o i n t to h i s u n c e r t a i n t y and d e s p a i r . Like the heroes of the works w r i t t e n during the war, Uhle i s unable to ac t , i n f l u e n c e or change the world; un-l i k e them, however, he i s reduced to i n a c t i v i t y because he becomes i t s scapegoat. He i s l i t e r a l l y duped, swindled, and cheated by a l l of the remaining f i g u r e s ; throughout the pl a y he f i g h t s a g a i n s t the v i o l e n c e done to h i s ideas, the a r b i t r a r y e d i t i n g of h i s s c r i p t , and the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the st u d i o - w o r l d . As h i s name suggests, Adam Uhle i s an owl caught i n the g l a r e of f l o o d l i g h t s ; 9 6 h i s Adamic innocence i s e x p l o i t e d by a c r u e l , s t i f l i n g l y g r o t e s q u e 9 7 environment. 68 T h i s malevolence, however, a l s o v i n d i c a t e s him and lends him at l e a s t an aura of n o b i l i t y , f o r the p l a y concludes with an iconography s i m i l a r to that i n Jurgen Wullenweber and P l a t z ; towards the end of the p l a y , Uhle suddenly becomes " g e f a h r l i c h " (553,Ph.) and, i n an ecce homo analogy, i s d e s c r i b e d by the author as "(Jber s i c h s e l b e r wachsend, machtig, dann wie v o l l i g zerbrochen" (554,Ph.). In Zero, which d e p i c t s the empty c r a v i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s f o r money and amusement i n a gambling casino of Monte C a r l o , the hero i s not a v i c t i m of s o c i e t y but stands above i t . As a p r o f e s s i o n a l r a c e - c a r d r i v e r who has broken a l l speed r e c o r d s , he i s even an extremely popular f i g u r e . Unruh d i s t i n g u i s h e s Segrave from the others by p r e s e n t i n g him as one who i s not of t h i s (gambling) world, but only passes through i t . A l l of h i s a c t i o n s and gestures are meant to be acts of p e r s u a s i o n , the success and s i g n i f i c a n c e of which are measured by the r e a c t i o n s of the other f i g u r e s . A l l of them are r e l a t e d , moreover, to the t i t l e of the work: "Zero" suggests not only that the money-o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y of the present has reached i t s n a d i r , but a l s o that t h i s zero-hour marks a d e c i s i v e or c r i t i c a l time and the beginning of a new e r a . Segrave proves that s o c i e t y i s doomed by p l a c i n g a bet on the number zero and then, to the s u r p r i s e of a l l , wins the jackpot; he h i n t s at the advent of a new e r a , i n t u r n , by d e s t r o y i n g the money earned and s c a t t e r i n g i t l i k e seed over the ground (112,5^). The u l t i m a t e symbolic act i s the race i t s e l f . By a t t a i n i n g the phenomenal speed of 600 k i l o m e t e r s per hour, Segrave transcends a l l p h y s i c a l 69 l i m i t a t i o n s and i s transformed i n t o pure sound and pure s p i r i t . The f a c t t h at Unruh t h i n k s of Segrave l e s s i n terms of a l i f e -l i k e f i g u r e of f l e s h and blood than as the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of an idea i s confirmed towards the end of the p l a y . When he prepares and dresses f o r the race, Segrave l o s e s c o r p o r e a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y a l t o g e t h e r ; i n stage d i r e c t i o n s he i s now d e s c r i b e d as a "Maske" (126,55^) or "weisse Flamme" (130, Z. ) which transforms and regenerates the e n t i r e world. As i s the case i n the pre-war dramas, the hero i n each of the post-war p l a y s i s e x a l t e d to an i d e a l at the expense of h i s primary opponents: those who hold p o s i t i o n s of power and a u t h o r i t y . In P l a t z , they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of an an t i g u a t e d f e u d a l i s m , c o n s i s t i n g of an omnipotent "Oberherr," an ageing senator, and a demented count. A l l three f i g u r e s are again s t y l i z e d n e g a t i v e l y by t h e i r l u d i c r o u s behaviour. When threatened by a power s u p e r i o r to h i m s e l f , in the form o f D i e t r i c h , the supreme l o r d f e i g n s death. The senator s e i z e s upon t h i s power vacuum by tak i n g over c o n t r o l f o r h i m s e l f . He appoints h i m s e l f as head of a c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement, whose primary goal i s the e l i m i n a t i o n of D i e t r i c h . His power i s , however, no l e s s i l l u s o r y than that of the supreme l o r d , because he i s o l d and i n a s t a t e of mental and p h y s i c a l decay. Count Gutundblut's only c l a i m to power, i n t u r n , are h i s i n h e r i t e d name and t i t l e . Immediately f o l l o w i n g D i e t r i c h ' s a r r i v a l , he has an u n s p e c i f i e d p h y s i c a l attack from which he emerges with a deranged mind. Upon l o s i n g the power and a u t h o r i t y vested i n them by the t r a d i t i o n s of the pa s t , a l l 70 three f i g u r e s c o n c u r r e n t l y f o r f e i t s e l f - c o n t r o l over nether d r i v e s ; they throw themselves f u l l f o r c e i n t o a sexual danse  macabre and prove the o b j e c t i v e t r u t h of the statement that c a r i c a t u r e i s "das Ende jede r Tat" (88,PI.). Despite the comedy generated by these f i g u r e s , who f i n d themselves i n the midst of a world turned t o p s y - t u r v y , 9 8 the comic merges with the t r a g i c and becomes grotesque, b i z a r r e , and s i n i s t e r . As c a r i c a t u r e s , the a b e r r a t i o n s of these f i g u r e s are exaggerated by Unruh to r i d i c u l e the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o i b l e s and p r e t e n s i o n s of the r u l i n g c l a s s e s ; as grotesque f i g u r e s , who behave i n a b i z a r r e , ugly, and s i n i s t e r manner, they i n s p i r e f e a r . T h e i r grotesqueness not only exposes the s i n i s t e r sources of a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the f o r c e s of t r a d i t i o n , but a l s o i n d i c a t e s that these f o r c e s may continue to a s s e r t themselves at some p o i n t i n the f u t u r e . T h i s i s , i n f a c t , confirmed i n Phaea, in which Unruh intro d u c e s a f i g u r e who enjoys complete s o v e r e i g n t y and dominion over h i s world and h i s people: the world i s that of a stage; h i s s u b j e c t s are h i s paid employees. Samuel M o r r i s i s the p r e s i d e n t of a t a l k i n g p i c t u r e company which bears the name "Photographische A k u s t i s c h e Experimental A k t i e n g e s e l l s g h a f t , " the acronym of which serves as the t i t l e of the work as a whole. Whereas h i s American t i t l e and name imply an attack by Unruh a g a i n s t the i n f l u e n c e of "Uncle Sam" on the Weimar Republic, h i s i n i t i a l s , S.M., bear witness to the author's understanding of him as a "Royal Highness." The premises on which he bases h i s power, however, are completely r e v e r s e d : 71 they are no longer the f o r c e s of t r a d i t i o n but only m a t e r i a l wealth. His o f f i c e , moreover, i s l o c a t e d above the s t u d i o and has a g l a s s f l o o r which pro v i d e s him with a g o d - l i k e vantage p o i n t from which to observe and d i r e c t the world or s t u d i o be-low. The f a c t that M o r r i s does not appear i n the e n t i r e f i r s t a c t and only h i s v o i c e i s heard "von oben" (455,461,478,483, 484,Ph.), adds to h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l aura. Unruh s t y l i z e s him as a f i g u r e who i s no l e s s grotesque than the " t r i o " i n P l a t z , by means of value judgements such as " g e i l " (555,Ph.) and "glotzend" (529,Ph.), but as one who i s i n f i n i t e l y more t h r e a t e n i n g . The lecherous and s a d i s t i c manner i n which he c u t s and e d i t s f i l m , communicates with the monitoring room, and experiments with hidden s p o t l i g h t s r e f l e c t s h i s view of the world as a stage, i n which the people are a c t o r s reduced to puppets. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the p r e s i d e n t ' s primary aides are a d i s -possessed count, named T r o t t , and a m i d d l e - c l a s s d i r e c t o r , named Stlssmilch. Both are a l r e a d y d i s c r e d i t e d by t h e i r name alone and both are intermediary f i g u r e s between the o f f i c e above and the s t u d i o below. Through them, Unruh c r i t i c i z e s the dependence on money of the a r i s t o c r a c y and the m i d d l e - c l a s s e s a l i k e . T h i s i s conveyed, i n p a r t , by t h e i r repeated gaze "nach oben," t h e i r f e a r of M o r r i s which makes the count " v e r d a t t e r t " and the d i r e c t o r " k r i e c h e r i s c h " (490,Ph.), and t h e i r r e a diness to compromise. Morris not only c o n t r o l s the f a t e of the a r i s t o c r a c y and the m i d d l e - c l a s s e s , but a l s o that of the m i l i -t a r y . The three second l i e u t e n a n t s , Z i t t w i t z , Bonien, and 72 Selm, who are discharged from the army a f t e r the war, are h i r e d by M o r r i s as a c t o r s i n h i s f i l m . Although each of these f i -gures i s r e q u i r e d to p l a y h i s own r o l e , t h e i r i n c o n g r u i t y with-i n the environment of a f i l m s t u d i o helps Unruh to put the anachronism of t h e i r s o c i a l provenance i n t o an i r o n i c and gro-tesque p e r s p e c t i v e . Following the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n -a l power s t r u c t u r e s i n P l a t z , Unruh thereby exposes the r o l e s of those formerly i n power as r o l e s . He achieves t h i s by r e -ducing each of these f i g u r e s to the lowest common denominator. T h e i r appearance and behaviour, f o r i n s t a n c e , are presented as s t e r e o t y p i c a l of the s o c i a l c l a s s to which they belong: Count T r o t t wears a t a i l c o a t and the Russian p r i n c e O r l o f f i s an a l c o h o l i c who i s d e c r i b e d as "liebenswurdig vornehm" (470,Ph.); the three m i l i t a r y f i g u r e s , i n turn, are s t e r e o t y p e d by t h e i r v a n i t y , h y p o c r i s y , and b i g o t r y . The tremendous wealth which, i n Phaea, f u r n i s h e s Samuel M o r r i s with a monopoly of power and a u t h o r i t y i s to Dr. Monsi, the d i r e c t o r of the gambling c a s i n o i n Zero, a commodity which he f e a r s to l o s e . However, he t h r i v e s on f e a r . Throughout the t e x t the dramatist d e s c r i b e s him as c o n c u r r e n t l y "nervos" (27, Z_;_) and " e l e k t r i s i e r t " ( 1 0 , ^ ) . Dr. Monsi shares t h i s nervousness with h i s s e c r e t a r y Angst, whose only t r a i t i t i s to be " a n g s t l i c h " ( 9 8 , ^ ) . Both c o n t r a s t with the 93-year o l d anonymous " G r e i s i n " who appears to exert a strange i n f l u e n c e over the r o u l e t t e wheel and r e p r e s e n t s the i n c a l c u l a b i l i t y of l i f e . 73 The source of the opportunism embodied by Samuel M o r r i s in Phaea and Dr. Monsi i n Zero may be t r a c e d to P l a t z i n the f i -gure of S c h l e i c h . S c h l e i c h can never be seen without D i e t r i c h , s i n c e he f o l l o w s and d i s c r e d i t s h i s every step. A f t e r D i e t r i c h r e j e c t s the "god of war," f o r example, S c h l e i c h pays t r i b u t e and f a l l s v i c t i m to i t (101,P1.). At the end of the work, i n f a c t , he v i r t u a l l y becomes a "god of war." The ending i n the p o l i t i c a l arena sheds l i g h t on S c h l e i c h ' s p e r v e r s i o n which be-g i n s i n the sexual sphere. In stage d i r e c t i o n s which p r e s c r i b e h i s behaviour, S c h l e i c h i s i n v a r i a b l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a sexual p r o l e t a r i a n " and p s y c h o p a t h : 1 0 0 " f o l g t Hyazinte besessen" (117, PI.) " e n t r e i s s t i h r e i n Strumpfband" (115, P I . ) , "er l e c k t den Boden" (117, P I . ) . A c t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of him are h i s o v e r t l y sexual a c r o b a t i c s w i t h Hyazinte and Bianka and h i s grotesque dancing movements. S c h l e i c h shares the h a b i t of expressing h i s perverse and r e s t l e s s nature i n grotesque dance and nervous, spasmodic mo-t i o n s not only with Samuel M o r r i s and Dr. Monsi i n Phaea and Zero, but with a l l the n e g a t i v e l y portrayed f i g u r e s i n these p l a y s who demonstrate an enslavement to money and amusement. Most notable among these are S c h l e i c h ' s l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g e q u i -v a l e n t s , named Krah i n both dramas, who are again p o r t r a y e d as the o p p o r t u n i s t i c c o u n t e r p a r t s of the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e . Phaea, moreover, opens as w e l l as c l o s e s with dance and, i n Zero, the f i g u r e s l i t e r a l l y dance on a "volcano" which i s about to e r u p t . 1 0 1 In the pre-war p l a y s as w e l l as i n Vor der  Entscheidung and E i n Geschlecht, f r e n z i e d and f r e n e t i c 74 behaviour i s a s s o c i a t e d with the masses, as minor f i g u r e s , and with the o l d e s t son and the daughter, as two of the protagon-i s t s i n E i n G e s c h l e c h t ; i n the post-war works, i t becomes a f e a t u r e of a l l of the f i g u r e s , e s p e c i a l l y of those i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y . The female f i g u r e s i n the post-war pla y s are once again presented as e i t h e r s e x u a l l y and m a t e r i a l l y or s p i r i t u a l l y o r i e n t e d beings. In P l a t z , the three female f i g u r e s form a threesome which p l a y s a r o l e only in r e l a t i o n to the three r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y and the t r i o composed of D i e t r i c h , S c h l e i c h , and the coward. Hyazinte and Irene both defy the a u t h o r i t y of t h e i r f a t h e r , the supreme l o r d , by f a l l i n g i n love with D i e t r i c h and by r e f u s i n g to u n i t e with count Gutundblut and S c h l e i c h r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the form of a pre-arranged marriage. For t h i s the f a t h e r threatens to put them in a convent i n the company of a l a s c i v i o u s l a d y - i n - w a i t i n g , named Bianka. Whereas both Bianka and Hyazinte are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r o v e r t l y sexual behaviour, which exposes a f e t i s h i s t i c dependence on men and power i d e n t i c a l to that of Mala and the masses in Jurgen  Wullenweber, Irene i s d e s c r i b e d as " v i s i o n a r " (166,PI.). Whereas the masochism of the former two women complements the sadism of S c h l e i c h , the l a t t e r i s the female e q u i v a l e n t of D i e t r i c h . T h i s p a t t e r n r e c u r s i n Phaea, in which a b a r g i r l or p r o s t i t u t e i s c o n t r a s t e d with a movie s t a r , who l i v e s and t h r i v e s on the cliche-image that people have of her. In the 75 l a t t e r f i g u r e , named Mia M o r e l l a , the disc r e p a n c y between appearance and r e a l i t y i s no l e s s grotesque than i n the other negative f i g u r e s , whereas the p r o s t i t u t e , named T o n i , i s the female c o u n t e r p a r t of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . For the f i r s t time i n Unruh's oeuvre, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the lower c l a s s e s or p r o l e t a r i a t emerges as a p o s i t i v e f i g u r e . Whether t h i s i s t h e m a t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i s not made evident by her behaviour alone, but i t i s c l e a r that T o n i , l i k e Uhle, i n s t i n c t i v e l y r e -b e l s a g a i n s t a world rendered a r t i f i c i a l by the p e r p e t u a l presence of l i g h t , cameras, and microphones. In Zero, f i n a l l y , the female f i g u r e s are no longer s t a r k l y c o n t r a s t e d ; they n e i t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h themselves by a s a i n t l y nature nor by b a l e -f u l and s i n i s t e r q u a l i t i e s . As comic f i g u r e s , t h e i r f a u l t s are exaggerated but minor. L i z z y , the mundane vamp, 1 0 2 over-comes her extravagance at the r o u l e t t e wheel and i s l i t e r a l l y converted by Segrave; Anne, the p r o s t i t u t e , i s transformed a f t e r B i r j i n s k y c o n f r o n t s her with the th r e a t of t o t a l a n n i h i -l a t i o n . As i n the pre-war works, the dramatic f i g u r e s i n the post-war p l a y s are, i n summary, i n s t a n t l y ranked e i t h e r by t h e i r complete i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the present system of r u l e or by t h e i r immediate r e j e c t i o n of i t . Whereas the c e n t r a l f i g u r e s s t r i v e towards something worthy of i m i t a t i o n , t h e i r opponents are c a r i c a t u r e d or rendered grotesque. This p a t t e r n recurs i n the p o r t r a y a l of the female f i g u r e s . Rather than seek to come to terms with the present, as i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the heroes 76 i n the works w r i t t e n during the war, D i e t r i c h , Uhle, and Segrave a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e j e c t i t . D i e t r i c h completes a trend begun by Jilrgen Wullenweber and L o u i s Ferdinand and r e a c t s to i t by c a s t i n g the s o c i a l and the p o l i t i c a l aside i n order to withdraw i n t o a p r i v a t e enclave. That h i s d e c i s i o n i s not an easy one i s suggested by h i s wavering nature which v a c i l l a t e s between the o l d and the new. S i m i l a r l y , Uhle i n s t i n c t i v e l y r e -b e l s a g a i n s t the present, but l a c k s the s t r e n g t h to f i g h t i t and becomes i t s v i c t i m . Only Segrave stands above s o c i e t y and regenerates i t by transcending a l l p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s i n a manner not u n l i k e that of the p r o t a g o n i s t s i n E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama. A l l three heroes are moral v i c t o r s by v i r t u e of t h e i r v i s i o n a r y or p r o p h e t i c q u a l i t i e s , but only Segrave i s an a c t u a l winner. The degree of t h e i r success i s , in f a c t , dependent upon the s t r e n g t h of t h e i r opponents. Although the supreme l o r d , the " G r e i s " , and the count are rendered impotent i n P l a t z , by being presented as c a r i c a t u r e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y which they represent, they a l s o i n s p i r e f e a r as grotesgue f i g u r e s . The demise of the corrupted r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t r a d i t i o n a l power s t r u c t u r e s i s a gradual one and may be r e v i v e d i n a f i g u r e such as S c h l e i c h . As a r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e of the emerging b o u r g e o i s i e , l i k e Wiesel before him, S c h l e i c h l a c k s the s t r e n g t h of t r a d i t i o n to j u s t i f y h i s c r a v i n g f o r power and e x p l o i t s the death of the i n s t i t u t i o n s of the past to advance h i m s e l f . That h i s r e v o l u t i o n i s merely a r e t u r n of the o l d , and i s j u s t i f i e d not by the f o r c e s of t r a d i -t i o n but by m a t e r i a l wealth, i s an o b j e c t i v e f a c t i n Phaea. In 77 t h i s p l a y an Americanized p r e s i d e n t i s a r e i n c a r n a t e d , omnipo-tent Royal Highness, whose immediate aides are the d i s p o s s e s s e d a r i s t o c r a c y and the b o u r g e o i s i e , who employs the m i l i t a r y as h i s p u p p e t - l i k e a c t o r s , and whose world i s that of a stage. The grotesqueness of t h e i r a r t i f i c i a l i t y and anachronism i s r e l i e v e d by a l i g h t e r form of "comedy" i n Zero, i n which money magnates and c l i q u e s have themselves become t h e i r own c a r i c a -t u r e s . The grotesqueness i n Phaea i s t h e r e f o r e r e p l a c e d by the l u d i c r o u s i n Zero; the former s t i f l e s the hero, while the l a t t e r allows him to remain s u p e r i o r . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of an a n a l y s i s of non-verbal s e l f - c h a r a c -t e r i z a t i o n i n each of the nine works, f i n a l l y , i s the c o n s i s -tency i t r e v e a l s i n the p a t t e r n s of behaviour of i t s f i g u r e s . I t a l s o suggests that Unruh views h i s c h a r a c t e r s not as i n d i v i -d u a l s , whose behaviour i s determined by m i l i e u or environment, but as types who are p r o j e c t e d i n t o an a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y . The process of a b s t r a c t i o n , which culminates i n the war works, i s occasioned by the a l t e r n a t e response f o r c e d upon the f i g u r e s i n the l i g h t of the app a r e n t l y fathomless nature of t h i s r e a l i t y . The powerful men of a c t i o n i n the pre-war p l a y s - who appear to be a W i l h e l m i n i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i g u r e s i n the work of K l e i s t or the Goethe's and S c h i l l e r ' s heroes of the Storm and S t r e s s p e r i o d - are deprived of t h e i r a b i l i t y to act i n the works completed during the war. What they r e t a i n i s t h e i r s e a r c h i n g nature. Since they are now reduced to types, t h i s s e a r c h i n g nature becomes t h e i r primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Combined with a p r o p h e t i c stance, t h i s f e a t u r e g r a d u a l l y a l i g n s 78 the heroes of Unruh's work with the p r o t a g o n i s t s t y p i c a l l y formed i n E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama. A s i m i l a r process of a b s t r a c t i o n and r e d u c t i o n of rounded i n d i v i d u a l s to E x p r e s s i o n i s t types may be observed w i t h i n the context of v e r b a l s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . 79 b) V e r b a l se_lf_-£haract.eriz^a_tion A f i g u r e may express i t s understanding of s e l f by means of e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t self-commentary, thereby becoming both the s u b j e c t and the o b j e c t of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The primary pur-pose of t h i s second sub-chapter i s to d i s c o v e r whether the f i -gures' p e r c e p t i o n of themselves again d i v i d e s them i n t o oppos-ing camps s i m i l a r to those observed w i t h i n the context of non-v e r b a l s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . T h i s may be achieved by examin-ing how the v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s or con-f i g u r a t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r s i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and what the func-t i o n of i t i s . Since Unruh c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e a l i z e s some charac-t e r s and d e n i g r a t e s o t h e r s , thereby arranging them i n t o a pre-ordained value system, t h i s may e l u c i d a t e how the author uses h i s f i g u r e s as mediators to e s t a b l i s h s p e c i f i c norms and v a l u e s . In the pre-war dramas, the l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e p r o t a g o n i s t s v o i c e a c a l l to l e a d e r s h i p which i s p r e d e s t i n e d by f a t e , j u s t i -f i e s a l l of t h e i r thoughts, and g i v e s them the stamp of l e g i t i m a c y : Jtlrgen: Mir gab das S c h i c k s a l i n mein ahnend Herz e i n Z i e l , das i c h v e r f o l g e n muss!... mein U r t e i l i s t gesprochen, bevor i c h i n der Wiege l a g . (57,J.W.) E r n s t : Leben muss i c h , was i c h b i n ! Machtiger i s t ' s a l s i c h ; Natur v e r l a n g t ' s von mir, wie Atmen. (380, O f f . ) L o u i s Ferdinand: Auf meiner S t i r n muss e i n G o t t e s z e i c h e n stehen. (188,L.F.) 80 Each of them takes h i s own greatness f o r granted and f e e l s " G o t t e r b l u t " (212,L.F.) course through h i s veins i n an era i n which man i s l o s i n g s i g h t of h i s greatness. The f a t h e r l a n d c o n f r o n t s a l l three heroes with the moral i s s u e s and e t h i c a l c h o i c e s by which to d e f i n e themselves. Jrirgen claims that the Danish defamation of the "deutsche Treue" makes him "rasend vor Wut" (67,J.W.). He speaks of "Manner urdeutsch" (60,J.W.), "die deutsche Treue" (67,J.W.), "deutsche A r t , " (97,J.W.), "unsrer deutschen Faust" (97,J.W.), and "das deutsche Mark" (188,J.W.). His v i s i o n of honour i s r e s t r i c t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r country, a p a r t i c u l a r town, namely Lubeck, and must i n e v i t a b l y be r e a l i z e d at the expense of o t h e r s . In-stead of r e c o g n i z i n g h i s ideas as a b l a t a n t form of n a t i o n a l expansionism, however, Jurgen th i n k s of them as " e i n edles Z i e l " (58,J.W.). He c o n s i d e r s i t to be the only a l t e r n a t i v e to a way of l i f e and system of government which threatens to be smothered by complacency. T h i s condemnation of the present i s shared by Er n s t i n O f f i z i e r e ; "Na, mein Friedensbedarf i s t gedeckt. Aber r e i c h l i c h " ( 3 36,Off.). He b e l i e v e s that man's primary goal i s to act (413,Off.) and proves t h i s dictum by r u t h l e s s l y c a p t u r i n g and k i l l i n g a number of Hereros, e x c l a i m -i n g : "Wie i c h den e r s t e n Schwarzen packte! F e i e r l i c h ! . . . 's kam etwas fiber mich wie e i n Richteramt" (407,Of f.) . Louis Ferdinand, i n t u r n , regards a t h r e a t to P r u s s i a as a p e r s o n a l a f f r o n t and f e e l s p e r s o n a l l y c a l l e d upon to set i t r i g h t : "Preussens S c h i c k s a l i s t das meine, und das r e g i e r e i c h " (188,L.F.). By means of p r o s t i t u t i o n imagery, he equates 8 1 P r u s s i a with a woman whose honour i s at stake: "Kann Preussens Ehre k a u f l i c h s e i n , wie eine Dime?....(164,L.F.). Such imagery, which i s stock in trade f o r the p e r i o d i n which the drama i s w r i t t e n , r e f l e c t s the hero's naive p a t r i o t i s m . His p l e a f o r a r e v i v a l of the P r u s s i a n t r a d i t i o n corresponds to E r n s t ' s p a s s i o n a t e wish f o r a r e v i v a l of the m i l i t a r y system and Jurgen's dream of a powerful Ltibeck. The language and imagery used by the three p r o t a g o n i s t s r e f l e c t a pathos and i d e a l i s m f a m i l i a r from the drama of the e i g h t e e n t h century o n w a r d s . 1 0 4 Images of f i r e are used to d e s c r i b e inner a g i t a t i o n and images of f l i g h t represent the s o a r i n g imagination of the s p i r i t . JrJrgen speaks of " e i n e d l e s Feuer" (20,J.W.), "Flammen der Begeisterung" (23,J.W.), "meine Flamme" (65,J.W.), "Sonnenhohe" (86,J.W.), and " G e i s t e s f r e i h e i t " (118,J.W.); E r n s t i s l e s s a r t i c u l a t e but ex-presses h i m s e l f i n terms which r e v e a l h i s "Titanenrausch" (435,Off.). The use of t h i s type of " c l a s s i c a l " imagery i m p l i e s acceptance of a world order which in i t s e l f i s meaning-f u l and harmonious, as Ina Gotz a p t l y observes. 1 0 5 I t a l s o r e f l e c t s a view which sees the past as more wholesome than the p r e s e n t . JrJrgen invokes and admires Luther, f o r i n -stance, not p r i m a r i l y f o r h i s t h e o l o g i c a l r e f o r m a t i o n , but as a true and a r c h e t y p a l German; 1 0 6 E r n s t and the p r i n c e com-pare the present with the more recent P r u s s i a n past of F r e d e r i c k the Great and f i n d i t wanting. The same imagery, however, a l s o p o i n t s to the p o t e n t i a l l y s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e . E r n s t ' s f a n a t i c d r i v e to succeed i s matched only- by h i s morbid 82 love f o r the solemnity of n i g h t , things t r a g i c , and death i t s e l f . He experiences "die F e i e r der Nacht" (390,Off.) only when he captures Hereros or i s f a t a l l y wounded i n the course of b a t t l e . The imagery used by Louis Ferdinand i s a l s o that of a p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e f i g u r e : Mein Herz war v o l l J u b e l , wie Granaten v o l l P u l v e r . Am l i e b s t e n hStte i c h d i e Sonne aus dem Himmel gesprengt. (130,L.F.) His e c s t a s y i n the face of b a t t l e and death outdoes even that of E r n s t and has l e d many a c r i t i c to draw a p a r a l l e l with the heroes i n the work of K l e i s t : ^ 7 L o u i s Ferdinand: Wir gehen zu h e i t e r e r S c h l a c h t . Folgen S i e mir. Egidy ( e k s t a t i s c h ) : Zu Pferde!! Ihr Himmel: Es g i b t kein Sterben! Louis Ferdinand: So breche die Flamme aus Saal f e l d a u f l Die Fackel l e u c h t e t der F r e i h e i t entgegenl Wir sehen s i e bald von Angesicht! Ober die Sonne s i n d wir i h r e B r t l d e r i . . . (224,L.F.) The p r i n c e ' s experience of war as a "Wachsen zum Hochsten" (221,L.F.) overshadows h i s " i d e a l i s t i c " death wish which, seen a g a i n s t the background of c e r t a i n d e s t r u c t i o n , i s f i t t i n g l y 108 d e s c r i b e d by one c r i t i c as " s i n n l o s e r Aktionismus."^ His death n e v e r t h e l e s s c o r r e c t s h i s f a i l u r e i n l i f e , s i n c e i t i s apotheosized as the t o t a l f u l f i l m e n t of the p r i n c e as a man and as a hero. The hero's v i t a l i s t i c c l a ims on l i f e f r e q u e n t l y reduce h i s speech to mime and g e s t u r e . C h r i s t o p h Eykman proposes these as prominent f e a t u r e s of E x p r e s s i o n i s t drama i n g e n e r a l , ^ 0 y but they apply t o Unruh's pre-war work as w e l l . E s p e c i a l l y i n 83 O f f i z i e r e , stage d i r e c t i o n s o f t e n outweigh the spoken t e x t q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . An example i s the f o l l o w i n g passage, i n which Erns t r e a c t s to the prospect of combat in the presence of Hedwig. The author r e p o r t s that E r n s t p r e s s t s i e l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h an s i c h , kflsst s i e lange. Draussen Musik. Man hort abmarschierende Truppen. Er r e i s s t s i c h mit Gewalt l o s , geht zftgernd zur TUr, wo er stehen b l e i b t , kehrt nochmals urn, ktisst Hedwig j e t z t w i l d : "Auf Wiederseh'n - - Und wenn n i c h t , dann - - auf Wiedersehn!" Stflrmt ab...(382,Off.) Such stage d i r e c t i o n s produce a much higher degree of d i r e c t -ness than the spoken word could impart. In the f i g u r e of the unknown o f f i c e r , mime and gesture have completely supplanted the spoken word, thus g i v i n g evidence of Unruh's wish to appeal to the emotional r a t h e r than the r a t i o n a l . Whereas Jurgen remains an u n d i v i d e d hero, who r e c o g n i z e s the f o o l i s h n e s s ^ - 0 of h i s f a i t h i n the l o y a l t y of the masses, and E r n s t ' s h e r o i c s t a t u r e i s r e s t o r e d to him a f t e r h i s death, Louis Ferdinand i s a f i g u r e who i s consumed by s e l f -doubt: " E i n Saulenbau beginnt zu wanken in mir: Eherner a l s das K a p i t o l i " (193,L.F.). His death i s a compromise which symbolizes h i s continued b e l i e f i n the i d e a l s i n s p i r e d by the P r u s s i a n past, on the one hand, but suggests a r e j e c t i o n of h i s former c o n v i c t i o n that these i d e a l s could be r e a l i z e d by usurping the power of the present king, on the other hand. Those who do not share the i d e a l s of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e s are s t y l i z e d n e g a t i v e l y . Only hatred c h a r a c t e r i z e s the language of the mayors and the c i t y c o u n c i l l o r s i n Jurgen  Wullenweber. Nowhere i s Unruh's p o r t r a y a l more negative and 84 more s t y l i z e d , however, than i n h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the c l e r g y . Father F u l g e n t i u s admits that the Holy Roman Empire i s governed by Rome "mit hflchster Kunst" (26,J.W.); he i s not o v e r l y concerned about the contents of the mass, because "wer hort denn b e i der Messe zu!" (26,J.W.); he admits that the foundation of the church i s human s i m p l i c i t y and ignorance; he sig h s at the thought of a l l the work ahead of him, "denn mancher Tropfen Schweiss wird wieder rinnen mfissen, eh a l l e Messen a b g e l e i e r t s i n d ! " (28,J.W.). Like the a u t h o r i t i e s and the masses, even the c l e r g y has l o s t i n t e r e s t i n " s p i r i t u a l " matters and leads a l i f e which i s s t r i c t l y p h y s i c a l . In L o u i s Ferdinand, the king and h i s court are s t y l i z e d n e g a t i v e l y . Whereas the p r i n c e advocates war i n order to p r o t e c t P r u s s i a n i n t e r e s t s , the king i s an "advocate f o r peace," as P a t r i c i a Ward o b s e r v e s . 1 1 1 Ward ignores, however, the f a c t t h a t Unruh condemns the king's stance and c o n s i d e r s i t a weakness. His r e l i a n c e on maxims and adherence to g e n e r a l l y v a l i d t r u t h s l a b e l him as an ep i g o n i c r u l e r who i s unable to adapt to the p o l i t i c a l developments of the pr e s e n t . The advanced age, v a n i t y , and s t u p i d i t y of the diplomats Lombard and Haugwitz are a l s o apt t a r g e t s f o r s a t i r e i n t h i s p l a y . Lombard i n t e r s p e r s e s h i s German with French and a s p i r e s to have h i s dramatic work La B e l l e (168,L.F.) performed i n P a r i s because " l e the a t r e f r a n g a i s e st l e modele de l a d e l i c a -t e s s e et de 1 1 elegance!" (169,L.F.). G e n t i l i t y and elegance are, however, not q u a l i t i e s which r e f i n e him i n h i s a t t i t u d e to women. He i s most i n t e r e s t e d i n " l e d e c o l l e t e " (136,L.F.), 85 would l i k e to s i t between " e i n paar Pfl&nzchen der H o l l e (136,L.F.), and r e g r e t s that i n the company of the queen even the " t e u f l i s c h s t e n Recken" take on a " H e i l i g e n s c h e i n " (136,L.F.). By means of language, Unruh s a t i r i z e s the diplomats, thereby i n v a l i d a t i n g t h e i r advice to the king and strengthening the views of the p r i n c e . U n l i k e the diplomats, the two ageing f i e l d m a r s h a l l s are c o n t r a s t i n g f i g u r e s . Whereas Braunschweig maintains that everybody i s "so a l t , wie er s i c h f t i h l t ! " (174,L.F.), and proves h i s dictum i n l i b e r t i n i s m , he r e a c t s with the excuse " . . . i c h b i n f u r s o l c h hochsten Posten wohl doch zu a l t I" (175,L.F.), when he i s c a l l e d upon to m o b i l i z e the army. Hohenlohe, by c o n t r a s t , responds with enthusiasm. In h i s p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n , Braunschweig resembles the king, whereas Hohenlohe's impatience and v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n are r e m i n i s c e n t of those of the p r i n c e : "Dies Hin und Her macht k o p f l o s " (200,L.F.). Whereas the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s are equipped with an i d e a l i s m which makes them want to r e a l i z e t h e i r m i s s i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l or m i l i t a r y arena, t h e i r primary a l l i e s express themselves by means of language and imagery which i d e n t i f y them as the heroes' one-sided c o u n t e r p a r t s . L i k e the t i t l e hero i n Jurgen Wullenweber, Marx Meier wants to r e v i v e the past and speaks with contempt of the p r e -se n t . His language demonstrates a d i s p o s i t i o n towards the masculine, the powerful. "Ich habe K r a f t " (6,J.W.), he proudly p r o c l a i m s and r e f e r s to h i m s e l f as " e i n Raubtier, das i n Ketten 86 schmachtet" ( 63 , J .W. ) . His vocabulary abounds with e x p l e t i v e s and metaphors of fire-*-- 1- 2 which suggest h i s uncomplicated " n o b i l i t y . " His l e s s noble e q u i v a l e n t i n O f f i z i e r e i s Harry von Henner, who expresses h i m s e l f in a m i l i t a r y jargon which o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l l y masks h i s i n s e c u r i t y . Although Harry d e t e s t s m i l i t a r y d r i l l - "Man bewegt uns a l l e an S t r i p p e n " (324,Off.) -he needs the framework of the m i l i t a r y to f u l f i l h i m s e l f ; h i s on l y o b j e c t i o n to i t i s the " S o l i d e s e i n " (419,Off.) of an o f f i c e r i n a peace-time g a r r i s o n . Once he i s given the o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i c e h i s s k i l l s i n A f r i c a , he makes E r n s t look naive by c o n t r a s t : Sag du: Ich w i l l ! In Fetzen a l l e T r a d i t i o n ! Auf s i c h s e l b s t s t e h t man h i e r ! ... Den G e i s t , an den du g l a u b s t , i c h nenn ihn: K r a f t , du Gott. ( 4 2 8 , O f f . ) . In L o u i s Ferdinand, the p r i n c i p a l a l l y of the p r i n c e i s not only a complementary f i g u r e but h i s p l e b e i a n c o u n t e r p a r t . No e f f o r t i s made by Unruh to make Wiesel appear as anything more than he i s : w e a s e l - l i k e . The language he uses r e f l e c t s h i s cunning: "Jedes wort wird maskiert" (179,L.F.). He con-c e a l s h i s scheming i n d e c e p t i v e l y p r o s a i c t h e o r i e s of l i f e and repeats with innuendo a phrase c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Haugwitz: "Man weiss n i e , wie oben d i e L u f t geht" (139,186,208,L.F.). Some of h i s l a s c i v i o u s jokes evoke " l a u t e s G e b r d l l " (156,L.F.) from bystanders and underscore the dram a t i s t ' s nega-t i v e understanding of him. The language and imagery of the remaining f i g u r e s i n L o u i s  Ferdinand d i f f e r from that of the heroes only i n degree. Some-87 what r e m i n i s c e n t of the sophomoric jargon of the students i n Heine's H a r z r e i s e i s the language of the p r i n c e ' s a r t i s t f r i e n d s . What t h e i r language has i n common i s i t s vagueness, v e r b o s i t y , hyperbolism; t h e i r experience of language i s p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c , at the expense of c l a r i t y and communication. This serves to d i s c r e d i t them as having only a s u p e r f i c i a l understanding of the i d e a l s of the p r i n c e . H 4 The only c h a r a c t e r s who demonstrate a true understanding of the i d e a l s of the heroes i n each of the p l a y s are the p o s i -t i v e female f i g u r e s . Thyra, who i s both f r a g i l e and strong and c l e a r l y fashioned a f t e r the heroines i n E m i l i a G a l o t t i , Die  Jungfrau von O r l e a n s , Maria S t u a r t , Faust, or Das Kathchen  von H e i l b r o n n , t r e a s u r e s her own " i n n e r s t e s Geftthl" (34,J.W.) and understands Jflrgen's "Schwung nach oben" (24,J.W. ) . She a l s o dreams of a " g e i s t i g e Gemeinschaft" (84,J.W.), i n s t e a d of a merely p h y s i c a l one. Her e q u i v a l e n t i n L o u i s Ferdinand i s Queen L u i s e , who i s p o r t r a y e d as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of P r u s s i a : Gegen F r a n k r e i c h habe i c h so wenig wie gegen i r g e n d e i n anderes Land, aber wie i c h meine Kinder vor a l i e n fremden z a r t l i c h e r l i e b e , so s i n d mir meine Brandenburger, meine Preussen i n n i g e r ans Herz gewachsen. Ihnen wollen wir unsere Krflfte b r i n g e n . Ferdinand, i c h erahne einen F r f l h l i n g (189,L.F .) The queen's l a s t words - "Sucht PreussenI Es g i b t keine Preussen mehr" (227,L.F.) - conclude the drama and imply a condemnation of those who allowed the Napoleonic i n v a s i o n to take p l a c e , while r e s t o r i n g the p r i n c e , whose death marks the end of the l a s t t r u e P r u s s i a n , to f u l l honour. Both Thyra and the queen have p l e b e i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s who express themselves i n 88 a manner i d e n t i c a l to that of the n e g a t i v e l y p o r t r a y e d masses. Mala, i n Jurgen Wullenweber, and P a u l i n e , i n L o u i s Ferdinand, v o i c e t h e i r concerns i n a s e x u a l l y t a i n t e d language, which demonstrates t h e i r lack of s p i r i t u a l depth: "Bin eben nur F l e i s c h . Fangen wir bei dem M a r s c h a l l an" (216,L.F.). It i s c l e a r that v e r b a l s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n d i v i d e s the c a s t of f i g u r e s i n each p l a y i n t o groups s i m i l a r to those observed w i t h i n the framework of non-verbal s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . In Jurgen Wullenweber and L o u i s  Ferdinand, the manner of e x p r e s s i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the heroes i s c o n t r a s t e d with that of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a u t h o r i t y . T h i s d i v i d e s the r e s t of the c a s t i n t o d i s t i n c t camps as w e l l . As judged by t h e i r view of l i f e and manner of e x p r e s s i o n , the f i g u r e s are reduced to the lowest common denominator; they may be c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or negative, strong or weak, i d e a l i z e d or grotesque. Whereas the heroes speak of themselves on l y i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r v i s i o n of and duty to the f a t h e r l a n d , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a u t h o r i t y i n v i t e mockery by speaking only of themselves and t h e i r immediate needs in the p r e s e n t . The former use the t r a d i t i o n s of the past as a y a r d -s t i c k by which to measure the p r e s e n t . The l a t t e r have l o s t s i g h t of t h i s i d e a l i s m and express themselves in outdated maxims. T h i s m i r r o r s t h e i r lack of understanding of the past and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to r e v i v e i t so as to regenerate the nega-t i v e present. 89 W i t h i n t h i s a n t i t h e t i c a l p a t t e r n , Unruh uses a technique of g r a d a t i o n , which shows that groups of f i g u r e s are but v a r i a t i o n s of each other and express themselves i n language and imagery which d i f f e r only i n degree as w e l l . Whereas the v i s i o n a r y and the p r o p h e t i c are combined i n the f i g u r e of Jurgen, f o r i n s t a n c e , they are more or l e s s separated i n the f i g u r e s of Oldendorp, the dreamer, and Marx Meier, the man of a c t i o n . The m i l i t a r i s t i c and the a r t i s t i c , which are balanced with the i n t e l l e c t u a l i n the f i g u r e of Louis Ferdinand, i n t u r n , are separated i n h i s m i l i t a r y , a r t i s t , and i n t e l l e c t u a l a l l i e s , who i n c o r p o r a t e but one aspect of the p r i n c e ' s m u l t i - s i d e d p e r s o n a l i t y . The negative f i g u r e s are grouped in s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . The mayors and the clergymen in Jurgen  Wullenweber are but c o r r u p t v e r s i o n s of each other and, i n L o u i s Ferdinand, the diplomats Lombard, Haugwitz, and Braunschweig i n c o r p o r a t e only v a r y i n g degrees of p e r v e r s i o n , which have t h e i r source i n an e x c e s s i v e concern with s e l f . On the highest l e v e l of the p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h y , t h i s undue i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n i s demonstrated by the peace po-l i c y of the k i n g , and on the lowest l e v e l , i t i s demonstrated by the immoderate i n t e r e s t of the masses in food and s h e l t e r . T h i s p a t t e r n of p r e s e n t i n g the f i g u r e s i n graduated groups, t r i o s or p a i r s i s repeated i n the a n t i t h e t i c a l female f i g u r e s one of whom i s obsessed with sexual g r a t i f i c a t i o n whereas the other v o i c e s thoughts i d e n t i c a l to those of the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r . 90 The panoramic p o r t r a y a l of c h a r a c t e r i s most c o n s i s t e n t l y used i n O f f i z i e r e , i n which Unruh presents but one " l i f e s t y l e , " that of the m i l i t a r y , and i n which a l l the c h a r a c t e r s are p o r t r a y e d as p a r a l l e l f i g u r e s i n s t e a d of a n t i t h e t i c a l ones The l a t t e r f e a t u r e w i l l become even more important i n Unruh's l a t e r work and a l i g n s h i s techniques of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n with those of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , about whom one c r i t i c w r i t e s : Wenn Marcuse bemerkt, dass die Menschen des modernen Dramas n i c h t mehr gegeneinander, sondern p a r a l l e l zueinander stehen, so deutet er b e r e i t s auf die dramaturgische Funktion der Nebenfiguren h i n ; s i e e r f t l l l e n s i c h mit der Funktion i n Bezug auf d i e Wandlung der P r o t a g o n i s t e n . H 5 A f e a t u r e which a l s o begins to a l i g n Unruh's techniques o c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n with those of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s i s the s t y l i z a t i o n and the d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n of the f i g u r e s , who are i n c r e a s i n g l y p ortrayed as embodiments of s p e c i f i c ideas or i d e a l s . V e r b a l s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n r e v e a l s that the heroes advocate the r e t u r n of "Seele," the r u l i n g f i g u r e s are stereotyped by t h e i r r e i t e r a t i v e usage of the word " P f l i c h t , " the primary a l l i e s by the word " K r a f t , " and the negative f i g u r e s by the words "Brot" and "Obdach." Although an e x c e s s i v e i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g stems from the masses, a p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l view of l i f e i s a s s o c i a t e d with the b o u r g e o i s i e ( i . e . W i e s e l ) , a true understanding of the concepts of "Seele" and " G e i s t " i s r e s t r i c t e d to the upper c l a s s heroes and female f i g u r e s , Unruh does not present these f e a t u r e s as the r e s u l t of race, time, and m i l i e u . Rather, 91 r a c e , time, and m i l i e u . Rather, these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s gain an autonomy independent of s o c i a l c l a s s and environment and are, t h e r e f o r e , presented l e s s as inherent f e a t u r e s of the f i g u r e s as i n d i v i d u a l s than of the ideas f o r which they stand. In pre-s e n t i n g the " l i t t l e " people as being incapable of v o i c i n g the grand thoughts i n the grand language c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the heroes, Unruh appears to perpetuate a p r a c t i c e f a m i l i a r from the drama of the seventeenth century onwards. He uses i t , how-ever, to put them i n a grotesque p e r s p e c t i v e , and thereby even dispenses with the compassionate stance with which the N a t u r a l -i s t s p o r t r a y such f i g u r e s . In the works w r i t t e n during the war, i n which Unruh d e l i b e r a t e l y a b s t r a c t s and l i t e r a l l y erases a l l r e f e r e n c e s to race, time, and m i l i e u , r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r s are a b s t r a c t types i n the manner of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s . The g e n e r a l tone of the language in Vor der Entscheidung a l t e r n a t e s between despondency and e x h o r t a t i o n . T h i s a l r e a d y comes to the s u r f a c e i n the a n t i t h e t i c a l p o r t r a y a l of i t s pro-t a g o n i s t s ; when the uhlan i s d e j e c t e d i n the f i r s t h a l f of the work, the v o l u n t e e r speaks with excitement and, c o n v e r s e l y , when the uhlan gains a more p o s i t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n i n the second h a l f of the "poem", the v o l u n t e e r l o s e s h i s e q u i l i b r i u m and be-comes d i s h e a r t e n e d . Whereas in the heroes of the pre-war dramas the p r o p h e t i c and the v i s i o n a r y elements are combined with a strong w i l l to a c t , they are s p l i t i n the p r o t a g o n i s t s of Vor der Entscheidung: one i s an i n t r o v e r t and the other an e x t r o v e r t . T h i s a n t i t h e s i s i s achieved by a process of 92 s t y l i z a t i o n which suggests that the c h a r a c t e r of the uhlan u n f o l d s i n the course of the work, whereas that of the v o l u n t e e r i s a l r e a d y more or l e s s complete at the beginning: the v o l u n t e e r simply i s , the uhlan becomes; the v o l u n t e e r r e p r e s e n t s an ideology whereas the uhlan gains one. What i t i s the uhlan seeks i s , i n a c t u a l f a c t , an a l t e r n a t i v e to the i d e o l o g y i n c o r p o r a t e d by the v o l u n t e e r . The d i f f e r e n c e between the two v e r s i o n s of the "poem" a l r e a d y comes to the s u r f a c e i n the uhlan's opening l i n e s : Der Mond, der s i c h der Landschaft lang verbarg, Und zu v i e l Nacht urn meine Seele spannte, Rauscht s i l b e r n j e t z t um unsern Lanzenpark Und ktlhlt das Feuer, das zum Himmel brannte. (9,V.d.E.I) His choice of words i n the l a t e r v e r s i o n r e v e a l s a few s i g n i f i c a n t changes. Here he says: Der Mond, der s i c h den Lagern lang verbarg Und zu v i e l Nacht um mein Gewissen spannte, Rauscht s i l b e r n j e t z t um unsern Lanzenpark Und k t l h l t , was f i e b e r n d aus V e r z w e i f l u n g brannte.(9,V.d.E.II) In the f i r s t q u o t a t i o n , the uhlan simply expresses g r a t i t u d e f o r a moment of r e s t which allows him to r e f l e c t about h i s experiences i n war which, up u n t i l the present, have been spontaneous ("Mond," "Seele," "Feuer"); i n the second one, he demonstrates an uneasiness about h i s r o l e i n the war ("Mond," "Gewissen," " V e r z w e i f l u n g " ) . The words "Seele" - i n Unruh's vocabulary synonymous with " s p i r i t u a l " concerns, f l i g h t of the i m a g i n a t i o n - and "Gewissen" are antonyms i n the above l i n e s , conveying"the d i f f e r e n c e between the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n of Vor der Entscheidung and i t s r e v i s e d c o u n t e r p a r t , as w e l l as the 93 d i f f e r e n c e between i t s author at the beginning of the war and at the end of i t . 1 1 6 The d i f f e r e n c e between the two v e r s i o n s may a l s o be ob-served by t r a c i n g the a b s t r a c t i o n and s t y l i z a t i o n of the con-cept "Deutschtum." In the e a r l y work, the uhlan wonders s p e c i -f i c a l l y whether war w i l l e v e n t u a l l y lead to t h i s "Germanness" or "Germanity" and e l a b o r a t e s : N i c h t g l a u b l i c h s c h e i n t rair's, dass i n B l u t und Waffen E i n Volk s i c h diesen r e i n s t e n Kelch e r r i n g t : V i e l hohe G e i s t e r haben noch zu s c h a f f e n , Eh deutsche A r t d i e s "Deutschtum" ganz bezwingt. (27,V.d.E.I) A f t e r Unruh changes the l a s t l i n e to read "Eh 1 S e e l e n k r a f t i n uns das T i e r bezwingt" (26-27,V.d.E.II) i n the v e r s i o n of 1919, the uhlan i s made to express a transcendence not so much of the b l i n d m i l i t a n c y of the Germans, which he now f i n d s o p probrious, but of something much more vague and g e n e r a l : that of man over the b e s t i a l i n s t i n c t s w i t h i n h i m s e l f . The uhlan's t r a n s i t i o n from one s t a t e of consciousness to another i s much more pronounced i n the e a r l y work than i n the l a t e r one. In the former, the uhlan exclaims i n the middle of the work: "Ich ftihle e i n e r neuen Schopfung Brunst!" (61,V.d.E.I). In the l a t e r v e r s i o n , he continues to ask h i m s e l f questions s i m i l a r to those which recur throughout the f i r s t h a l f : "Warum e n t f l i e h " i c h diesem Wahnsinn n i c h t ? " (48,V.d.E.II). The second to l a s t stage reached by the uhlan i s one of t r a n s i t i o n , i n which he a l t e r n a t e l y exudes confidence on l y to lose i t again at a l a t e r p o i n t . At the end of both v e r s i o n s , the uhlan reaches the s t a b i l i t y which i s r e q u i r e d of 94 a true l e a d e r . He now adopts a p r o p h e t i c stance which i d e n t i -f i e s him i n 1914 as one who understands, j u s t i f i e s , and pro-c l a i m s the need f o r continued b a t t l e i n order to r e v i v e the l o s t i d e a l i s m of the (German) n a t i o n . In 1919 the r e m o b i l i z a -t i o n of the troops i s understood i n metaphorical terms as a " b a t t l e f o r p e a c e . " 1 1 7 The t r a n s i t i o n from "euphemism" to metaphor i s one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s of the language i n Vor der  Entscheidung. Despite d e l e t i o n s , a d d i t i o n s , and a l t e r a t i o n s , those images which are meant to be understood i n a l i t e r a l sense i n 1914 have a symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n 1919. Imagery of m a r t i a l weapons i s commonplace and f r e q u e n t l y the troops are urged to use t h e i r c l u b s and swing t h e i r spears: Schmiedet Eurer Liebe Feuer Euch zum Flammenschwert des Rechts! Seid d i e leuchtenden B e f r e i e r Dieses leidenden G e s c h l e c h t s ! (139,V.d.E.II) In the e a r l y t e x t , the "sword of f i r e " and r e l a t e d weapons are l i t e r a l l y meant to a i d the troops i n t h e i r f i g h t f o r "freedom"; in the l a t e r ones, they are f i g u r e s of speech. When the uhlan summons h i s troops by saying "Kommt, wir wollen Burgen b r e c h e n i " (140,V.d.E.II), he means l i t e r a l warfare i n 1914 and i s not merely speaking f i g u r a t i v e l y . F i n a l l y , death on the b a t t l e f i e l d i s a l i t e r a l death and not a metaphorical one: Vor dem Seelensturm der Erde F a l l e , wer n i c h t atmen kann.(140,V.d.E.II) Death, i n the e a r l y v e r s i o n , i s regarded as the quintessence of love f o r one's country, as the u l t i m a t e transcendence of the 95 s p i r i t u a l over the p h y s i c a l , and as the foundation f o r the r e t u r n of "Seele" and a b e t t e r world: R e i f s e i n , r e i f der hochsten L i e b e , Die uns e r s t zu Menschen macht. F o r d e r t a l l e r G i e r e n T r i e b e l W o l l t i h r : Sei d i e s Werk v o l l b r a c h t ! (133,V.d.E.II) The uhlan t h e r e f o r e a p p l i e s words and phrases to o b j e c t s and concepts which they denote l i t e r a l l y i n the e a r l i e r t e x t , whereas i n the l a t e r v e r s i o n they lose t h i s l i t e r a l q u a l i t y i n favour of a metaphorical one, the meaning of which i s a matter of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the uhlan's language i s i t s vagueness and i n d e f i n i t e n e s s . In an e a r l y assessment of the l a t e r v e r s i o n of the work, Oskar Walzel al r e a d y comments on i t s dream-like q u a l i t y , which i s achieved i n part by the ambiva-lence of the language: "Wie im Traume verschwimmen die Umrisse auch der Worte...Etwas Mehrdeutiges b l e i b t bestehen." T h i s leads Walzel to ask the q u e s t i o n : "1st das e i n A u f r u f zum 1 I Q Umsturz oder nur zur Erneuerung der Menschheit?" ± Rudolf Kayser has the same t h i n g i n mind when he w r i t e s : "Fest s t e h t , dass d i e prophetische Geste noch keine G o t t h e i t erzeugt."- 1- 2 0 Ina Gotz s t a t e s c a t e g o r i c a l l y that the work i s " e i n zweideutig unentschiedenes und von der Sprache her unzeitgemass k o n v e n t i o n e l l e s Drama." She argues that Unruh uses l i n g u i s t i c p r a c t i c e s a s s o c i a t e d with Expressionism only i n the prosework Opf ergang. -*-2-^  The vagueness of the language, which i s not merely an added f e a t u r e , combined with i t s dream-like q u a l i t y , are a r e f l e c t i o n of the uhlan's 96 i n t e r p r e t a t i v e stance and of h i s search f o r a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r war not w i t h i n the s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l realm but w i t h i n a m y t h i c a l sphere and h i s i n t e r i o r s e l f . The verb "ahnen" i s most prominent i n the uhlan's vocabu-l a r y ; i t a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s c r i b e s h i s i n t u i t i v e , r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l understanding of war. In 1914, he uses o r g a n i c imagery as a means to d e s c r i b e and j u s t i f y war as a step f o r -ward i n the e v o l u t i o n of mankind. In 1919, war i s regarded as a check to e v o l u t i o n a r y progress by means of the same o r g a n i c imagery. Not to be found i n the l a t e r v e r s i o n i s the f o l l o w i n g apology f o r war: Wie d i e Natur das Weib vom Manne s t o s s t , Wenn es d i e neue K r a f t des Kindes ahnt So wird d i e Welt von Welten a b g e l o s t -Und jede Z e i t hat s i c h den Weg gebahnt.(V.d.E.I) By means of organic imagery, imagery of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and imagery of c h i l d b i r t h , the menacing aspects of war are o b l i t e r a t e d , made comprehensible i n human terms, and u l t i m a t e l y j u s t i f i e d . 1 2 2 Organic imagery culminates i n imagery of cosmic c r e a t i o n : " S t i l l tiberall:/ Die GebSrungsstund/ Jauchzt auf i n Qual/ Durchs Weltenrund" (90,V.d.E.II). In o p p o s i t i o n to the conception of God proclaimed by the heroes of the e a r l i e r p l a y s , the uhlan i d e n t i f i e s e x c l u s i v e l y with the creator-God of Genesis: Ich f u h l e wie G o t t v a t e r mich V o l l k r a f t g e b a l l t e r Schopfermacht.(107,V.d.E.II) The uhlan regards C h r i s t , i n t u r n , as the a r c h e t y p a l man and he r e f e r s to h i s own m i s s i o n in terms of a Way of the Cross. His 97 l o n g i n g f o r a r e c r e a t i o n i s then p r o j e c t e d i n t o the f u t u r e by means of the v i s i o n a r y : Ach, umarmt von Schopfergnaden Wird der ganze E r d b a l l s e i n ! Und der ode Menschheitsschwaden WMchst in diesen Traum h i n e i n (87,V.d.E.II). In the l a t e r t e x t , however, the emphasis on the dream of the f u t u r e as a r e t u r n to the " U r q u e l l " (14,V.d.E.I), the o r i g i n of time per se, i s d e l e t e d . I 2 3 T h i s the uhlan r e d i s c o v e r s r a f t e being l e d through the sepulchre of P r u s s i a n kings of the p a s t : Genug, genug. Ich s c h l u r f e an den Quellen zum Meer ztiruck, das meine Durst e r r e g t . / (14,IX,V.d.E.I) Ich ahne aus dem Dunkel kunf t i g e r Jahre, Den h e l l s t e n Tag f u r s Deutsche Volkerheer (14,IX,V.d.E.I) Der Werdesturm wirbelnder Samen Sie h t seine S c h o l l e , s i e h t seinen Rahmen. (15,IX,V.d.E.I) B i s s i e e i n s t zur Sonnensonne Ihres U r q u e l l s s t l l r z t zuruck. ( 1 7 , I X , V . d . E . I ) 1 2 4 I f one ignores the apology f o r war and the alignment of the f u -ture with the past, the c a l l f o r a r e t u r n to the o r i g i n of time i s d e c i d e d l y E x p r e s s i o n i s t i c i n nature. The language and imagery employed by the v o l u n t e e r are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to those of the pre-war heroes. His voca-b u l a r y c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s h i s v i t a l i s t i c claims on l i f e . R e f e r -ences to youth, brawn, blood, and honour are commonplace and conform to a p a t t e r n of meaning al r e a d y observed i n the e a r l i e r p l a y s . He f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r s to God as a v i t a l i s t i c d e i t y of war more akin to " t e u t o n i c pagan ism"-'-2 5 than to the God of 98 C h r i s t i a n i t y . A name he suggests f o r the howitzer i s "Erzengel der G e r e c h t i g k e i t " (42,V.d.E.II), and he d e s c r i b e s the f i r e of a r t i l l e r y shots i n metaphorical terms as "Bluten, l e i c h t ins Blau g e s t r e u t " (26,V.d.E.II). A l l such v e r b a l i n f l a t i o n i s f a m i l i a r from O f f i z i e r e . In the l a t t e r i t serves to v i n d i c a t e the o f f i c e r s ' demands to have t h e i r energy put to the t e s t i n a manner which would m i n i s t e r to the s t a t e . In the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of Vor der Entscheidung, however, i t serves to d e p i c t the anachronism of such an a t t i t u d e i n the face of modern trench warfare and, f i n a l l y , i n 1919 i t i s condemned p o i n t - b l a n k as a s i g n of an an t i - h u m a n i t a r i a n view of l i f e . In the prose work Qpfergang, language and imagery are a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according to the d i s p o s i t i o n of the v a r i o u s speakers, i n s p i t e of the f a c t that the. language p a t t e r n s i n e v i -t a b l y o v e r l a p with those of the n a r r a t o r . That the language i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d at a l l i n the prose work i s due to Unruh's t e c h -nigue of f u r n i s h i n g a l l of h i s f i g u r e s with d i r e c t speech. A comparison of the r e v i s e d Qpfergang with i t s o r i g i n a l counter-p a r t Verdun r e v e a l s , however, that i t i s p r e c i s e l y d i r e c t speech which i s subjected to most r e v i s i o n . This i s most evident i n the speech of the upper ranks of the m i l i t a r y . The commanding g e n e r a l , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s stereotyped as a r e l e n t l e s and b i t t e r s type; h i s p a t e r n a l i s m i n the e a r l y v e r s i o n - "Ich kenne meine Truppe" (62,V) - i s re p l a c e d by c a l l o u s n e s s in the l a t e r one -"Sie muss h i n und kommt h i n ! (98,Qpf.). As f o r Captain Werner, c e r t a i n speeches which are of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance with regard to h i s c o n s i s t e n c y as a c h a r a c t e r are absent i n 99 Opfergang. An example i s h i s r e a c t i o n to the phenomenon of war: Und doch, e r s t i n der Gemeinschaft der Abwehr l e b t S i c h e r h e i t , und darum handelt es s i c h j e t z t . (21,V.) C o n s i s t e n t l y d e l e t e d from h i s vocabulary i s the word P r u s s i a ( e g . 2 5 , ^ ) . A passage i s a l s o removed in which he e x p l a i n s h i s own p e r s o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r war: Dass wir n i c h t mehr der Macht unseres Bauches l e b e n l Wir wollen f u r d i c h , " und er ktisste den Rock, " f t i r den Bestand d e i n e r Gesetze, du Zucht, du P f l i c h t , du Gott, f u r d i c h wollen wir l i e b e r s t e r b e n , a l s ohne d i c h T i e r e n g l e i c h leben!" (25,VO Unruh, t h e r e f o r e , o r i g i n a l l y conceived of t h i s f i g u r e as one who b e l i e v e s i n war as a means to transcend the p u r e l y p h y s i c a l l e v e l of man's being. A l t e r e d and a d d i t i o n a l statements c l e a r l y demonstrate the author's u n c e r t a i n t y as to what Werner's message should be i n the l a t e r v e r s i o n . In Verdun, the n a r r a t o r quotes an e n t h u s i -a s t i c and g r a t e f u l Werner as s a y i n g : "Dieser Z e i t Neues f i n d e t man nur aus dem Volke heraus. So Gewaltig, dass i c h meine Augen o f t s c h l i e s s e , fragend: ' B i s t du es, der d i e s a l l e s e r l e b t , und wie v e r d i e n s t du es?'" (12,V_j_). In Opf ergang, these l i n e s are r e p l a c e d by: "In mir wachst Z w e i f e l hoch, e k l i g wie e i n N a c h t p i l z . Zehnmal am Tage r e i s s i c h ihn aus. Hundertfach kommt er zurdck" (25,Opf.). Although h i s message i s a l r e a d y vague and a b s t r a c t i n the e a r l y t e x t , h i s doubts i n the l a t e r one are even more nebulous and b l a t a n t l y c o n t r a d i c t the context of the work as a whole. 100 The recurrence of the word "Gemeinschaft" i n d i c a t e s that Werner conceives of war as a c a t a l y s t in the c r e a t i o n of an org a n i c u n i t y between the people and the s t a t e . T h i s concept of "community" i s i n v a r i a b l y expressed i n imagery l i n k e d with the seasons, the elements, v e g e t a t i o n , and the n a t u r a l c y c l e of l i f e : F r u h l i n g s s t u r m , Du sprengst harte Erden! Du b r i c h s t mit der Wucht deiner Sonne i n k a l t e Raume, b i s s i e l i n d werden, wie Frauennflhe. (41,Qpf.) That he co n s i d e r s himself to be a member of t h i s "community" i s expressed by h i s ha b i t of using the c o l l e c t i v e "we" i n s t e a d of the p e r s o n a l " I " . Like Werner, H i l l b r a n d speaks i n the c o l l e c t i v e and be-l i e v e s that the wishes of the s t a t e now c o i n c i d e with those of the people. U n l i k e Werner, however, H i l l b r a n d remains an un-d i v i d e d f i g u r e i n Qpfergang; Unruh merely tempers h i s m i l i t a r -ism somewhat i n order to h i g h l i g h t h i s p i e t y . 1 2 6 He i s content to know that the b a t t l e i s fought f o r the f a t h e r l a n d and must, t h e r e f o r e , be an act sanctioned by God h i m s e l f . V e g e t a t i v e imagery i s employed by him to suggest that he i s f i r m l y "rooted" i n the f a t h e r l a n d . His i m p l i c i t t r u s t i n h i s s u p e r i o r s i s suggested by the r e c u r r e n t phrase "den Fuhrern v e r t r a u e n wir" (13,Off.) and by the metaphor: Es i s t , a l s hatten wir Nase und Lungen v o l l S alzgeruch. Den Ozean aber sehen wir n i c h t -(13,Qpf.) H i l l b r a n d speaks m e t a p h o r i c a l l y of a nation at war as a woman in c h i l d b i r t h and l i k e n s the m i l i t a r y commanders to the do c t o r s who a s s i s t i n the d e l i v e r y (66,Qpf.). The c e n t r a l idea of 101 "Opfergang", of s a c r i f i c e or the road to s a c r i f i c e , which becomes the t i t l e not only of the f i n a l chapter but of the l a t e r v e r s i o n as a whole, i s the next step from such a conception of b a t t l e and war. With r e s p e c t to Clemens, the t h i r d of the three p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e s , the author does not d e l e t e any statements, but a l t e r s some e x i s t i n g ones and adds many others i n order to suggest that he i s opposed to war. They do l i t t l e to c l a r i f y Clemens' views i n Opfergang, however, and are i n essence no l e s s vague, nebulous, and ambiguous than those of Werner. Despite a l t e r a -t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s , Clemens n e v e r t h e l e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i m s e l f as one who a l s o regards war as the t r a n s p o s i t i o n of the p h y s i -c a l and earth-bound i n t o the s p i r i t u a l : - ' - 2 7 Ach, Erdenvolker, geht es n i c h t um das L i c h t Eures G e i s t e s , - dann wurde a l l e s Pulver umsonst verschossen! (54,Opf.) Although he i s made to r e j e c t war i n the course of r e v i s i o n , Clemens never g i v e s up the i n s i g h t which he d e r i v e s from war i n the f i r s t p l a c e and which sees the s p i r i t win i n the e n d . 1 2 8 One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t ways i n which Unruh again se-parates the primary from the secondary f i g u r e s i s to f u r n i s h the former with ideas and i d e a l s dear to h i m s e l f , whereas those of the l a t t e r f i l l i n , complete, and round o f f these views. S i m i l a r l y , the language and imagery used by the secondary f i -gures rank them l e s s as i n d i v i d u a l s than as types. Heinz and the w a i t e r ' s repeated apostophes to C h r i s t c o n t r i b u t e to the p s e u d o - r e l i g i o u s tenor of the work. F i p s , the cook, d e l i v e r s 102 h i s simple commentaries in a burlesqued, e x a l t e d language, not, as wm. K. P f e i l e r suggests, " a f f o r d i n g a touch of grim irony i n an otherwise humourless world",-*- 2 y but adding to the v a l o u r and heroism of the men and s o l i c i t i n g sympathy and r e s p e c t f o r them by means of understatement. The "humour" which the cook d i s p l a y s by the use of stock phrases, such as "arme Zeitgenossen," "Verdun i s t keine Taube," and "Athen i s t e i n angenehmer A u f e n t h a l t , " i s not a s i g n of s u p e r i o r i t y but of bewilderment, and the comparison of the B a t t l e of Verdun with that of Troy a m y s t i f i c a t i o n of e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y . The p o r t r a y a l of the upper ranks of the m i l i t a r y i n Opfergang as r e l e n t l e s s m i l i t a r y types culminates i n E i n  G e s c h l e c h t i n the f i g u r e s of the two m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s . In t h i s p l a y , the m i l i t a r y i s all-encompassing, has the f o r c e s of t r a -d i t i o n , n e c e s s i t y , law, and f a t e at i t s command, and assumes i t s own absoluteness and d i v i n i t y i n order to uphold the g o a l s of the s t a t e and of the f a t h e r l a n d . T h e i r vocabulary abounds with the words "Machtgeist" (12,E.G.), "das V a t e r l a n d " (12,14,E.G.), "des Staates Wuchtgefttge" (47,E.G.), "den Stab u r h e i l g e r Macht" (44,E.G.), and "der Ordnung Thron" (45,E.G.) . T h e i r language i s c o e r c i v e and r e p l e t e with imagery of f u n c t i o n a l i s m and hard labour, which exposes t h e i r m e c h a n i s t i c view of l i f e : Entstihne schwere Schuld, eh Gott auf uns d i e Wucht der S t r a f e n s c h l e u d e r t ! (12,E.G.) Und wo wie h i e r noch Aussatz an den G l i e d e r n , s e i er von unserm Korper abgehackt!(12,E.G.) 103 War i s viewed by them as a "Feuerbad" (12,E .G.), which cleanses the "VolkerknMul" (13,E.G.) from the i m p u r i t i e s of s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t s and r a i s e s i t to a "Flammenglanz" (11,E.G.) of cour-age. As r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the s t a t e and of the "Gemeinsinn" (12,E.G.) of s o c i e t y , they t h e r e f o r e presume to transform " W i l l k u r " and " E i n z e l g i e r " i n t o o b e d i e n c e . 1 3 0 The m i l i -t a r y l e a d e r s themselves are the supreme proof of the degree to which a system i s able to reduce man to a cog of i t s own machine. As such they are the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n absolute a u t h o r i t y . Unruh unquestionably c r i t i c i z e s the m i l i t a r y systems f o r being s t r i c t l y governed by reason. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t and o f t e n overlooked by c r i t i c s , however, that the brunt of c r i t i c i s m i s d i r e c t e d not at the m i l i t a r y system i n g e n e r a l , but at the p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n of i t i n a s o c i e t y at w a r . 1 3 1 The system i t s e l f shows a p o t e n t i a l f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n , as i s i n -d i c a t e d by the d i f f e r e n c e between the two m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s and Unruh's own d e s i g n a t i o n of them as "Der S o l d a t e n f t i h r e r " and "Der andre S o l d a t e n f u h r e r " : the former i s more sympathetic than the l a t t e r . T h i s e x h i b i t s , once again Unruh's technique T O O of a rranging h i s f i g u r e s i n p a i r s and in g r a d a t i o n . ° At the end of the work, both f i g u r e s f o r f e i t t h e i r b r u t a l i t y : the f i r s t one by s w i t c h i n g from the c o l l e c t i v e "we" to the pe r s o n a l " I " , the second by v o i c i n g a view of l i f e expressed i n imagery which approaches the emblematic: Wir durfen n i c h t wie Wachs im Feuer weichen, Wenn d i e s e r Menschheit Guss gedeihen s o i l , wie Gott ihn s i c h i n hflchster Weisheit dachte, 104 dann mtissen wir d i e S i e g e s h a l t e r s e i n ! Wie der K r i s t a l l nach festem W i l l e n wachst, um im G e b i l d e leuchtender zu strahlen.(68,E.G.) Un l i k e the two m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , who i d e n t i f y e x c l u s i v e l y with the m i l i t a r y and the s t a t e and base t h i s on the f o r c e s of t r a d i t i o n and the supremacy of reason, the mother d e r i v e s s t r e n g t h from the b i o l o g i c a l rhythms of l i f e and the powers that c o n t r o l them. Like the author who c r e a t e d her, the mother t h i n k s of h e r s e l f l e s s as an i n d i v i d u a l than as a r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e being. The d e s t r u c t i o n of the earth wrought by war i s to her e q u i v a l e n t to the pain i n f l i c t e d by the death of a son i n combat: Nun steh i c h unter Trummern, g l e i c h der Nacht, besorgt den Schutt zu bergen, eh es tagt.(15,E.G.) The bereaved mother i s a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the war-torn e a r t h . Moreover, she i d e n t i f i e s with a l l mothers, f r e q u e n t l y addresses them i n the c o l l e c t i v e as "Wir Mutter" and appeals to them f o r help i n an e f f o r t to come to g r i p s with the d e s t r u c t i v e na-ture of war. Rather than r e j e c t war, the mother seeks a new b a s i s and reason f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e , thereby d u p l i c a t i n g i n many ways the search of the uhlan in Vor der Entscheidung. The use of organic imagery and images of f e r t i l i t y - such as " g e l i e b t e Erde, h e i l g e r Keime Schoss" (19,E.G.), "goldenes F r u c h t k l e i d " (19,E.G.), " f r u c h t r e i c h e Schollen"(36,E.G.) - are evidence of the mother's f a i t h i n the r e g e n e r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s of the e a r t h as the source of both l i f e and death: Was s i c h D i r a n v e r t r a u t e , warmes Land, kann n i c h t v e r l o r e n s e i n l Es webt und r i n n t durch diesen E r d b a l l wie Ge3der. (36,E.G.) 105 Death and decay renew the c y c l e of l i f e . The next step i n the mother's development i s to advocate a l i f e of gradual matura-t i o n and a q u i e t acceptance of f a t e i n whatever shape or form: Beglucktes Dulden war, der seine S t i r n e , n i e hadernd gegen S c h i c k s a l s W i l l e n hob.(31,E.G.) She draws no d i s t i n c t i o n between the inherent laws of nature and the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l powers which c o n t r o l the e a r t h , by appealing to the " G e l i e b t e Erde" (19,E.G.) and the "welterhaltende Gewalt" (34,E.G.) a l i k e . One can t h e r e f o r e only assume that the f a t e which she b e l i e v e s to be i n c o n t r o l of the c y c l e of l i f e and death may a l s o appear in the guise of m i l i t a r y i m p o s i t i o n , and that an acceptance of both l i f e and death i n c l u d e s a death on the b a t t l e f i e l d . 1 3 3 S i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s p o i n t i s the f a c t that i n embracing the whole of l i f e , the mother c h a r a c t e r i z e s h e r s e l f as an all-encompassing being, who stands out i n o p p o s i t i o n to the one-sided m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s who only acknowledge reason. The o l d e s t son, the daughter, and the coward c o n t r a s t with both the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s and the mother. In the course of war, the o l d e s t son i s confronted with a c r i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i -c a l to that of the v o l u n t e e r i n Vor der Entscheidung, who i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d when he f a i l s to f i n d in war the u l t i m a t e a d v e n t u r e : 1 3 4 ach, Rausch, der mich aus stumpfer K r a f t geworfen, v e r l i e f und zungelte i n LagerflSmmchen a l s Traumgewolk der Mtldigkeit zurtick. (18,E.G. ) His s u b j e c t i v e c r a v i n g i s not s a t i s f i e d i n war, because he f a i l s to d i s c o v e r i t s essence which would transform h i s subjec-106 t i v e w i l l i n t o a wish to f i g h t f o r the c o l l e c t i v e and the common c a u s e . 1 3 5 c r i m e Q f the o l d e s t son i s h i s own s u b j e c t i v i t y and e g o c e n t r i c frame of mind: Nun steh i c h da, e n t f e s s e l t , u n b e f r i e d i g t ! (18,E.G.) Ich ducke mich micht l i n g e r unter T e m p e l ( l ) , d i e V a t e r l a n d um unsre Ohnmacht baut. (19,E.G.) Ich g r e i f dem Massenwahn i n seine Zahne und schleudre seine Tatzen vom Genick! (19,E.G.) In c o n t r a s t to the m i l i t a r y , the o l d e s t son t h e r e f o r e i m p l i c i t -l y i d e n t i f i e s himself as one who embodies the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e . I 3 6 J u s t as he r e b e l s against the m i l i t a r y and a u t h o r i t y i n whatever shape or form - the f a t h e r , the o b j e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e of law and order, the God of P r o t e s t a n t i s m - he r e v o l t s a g a i n s t the e n t i r e c y c l e of l i f e and death. To him l i f e i s synonymous with l u s t and tantamount to l e p r o s y (25,E.G.) or " G i e r " (25,E.G.). He experiences i t as "Last der W o l l u s t " (25,E.G.), "Drang, der h i n t e r Nageln r e i z t und kocht" (25,E.G.), "Wirbelsturm" (18,E.G.) or as " S c h l e u d e r g l u t der Sinne" (18,E.G.). In being a v i c t i m of l u s t , he i s i m p r i -soned i n the c y c l e of l i f e and, a f t e r negating the value of l i f e , he a l s o proceeds to r e b e l against death: "Ich brech den H e i l i g e n s c h e i n des Todes durch!" (36,E.G.). Again, no d i s t i n c -t i o n i s drawn between a death of n a t u r a l causes and a death on the b a t t l e f i e l d f o r , i n Unruh's p l a y , they are synonymous. In r e j e c t i n g l i f e i n a l l i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , the o l d e s t son i s t h e r e f o r e the a n t i t h e s i s of both the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s and the mother; i n h i s r e v o l t against the former, he a l s o r e b e l s a g a i n s t the l a t t e r . 107 L i k e the m i l i t a r y and the mother, the o l d e s t son views himself as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e being and q u i c k l y draws a t t e n t i o n away from h i m s e l f , by p o s i t i n g h i s p a r t i c u l a r dilemma as the human predicament: Wie a l l e s an uns z e r r t , dass wir die Erde mit unserm Leichnam futtern...(37,E.G.) " I " becomes "we" and "my" becomes "our." S i m i l a r l y , he pro-ceeds from the p a r t i c u l a r to the general by e x p r e s s i n g h i s thoughts i n the form of s e n t e n t i a or maxims, which convey a g e n e r a l l y v a l i d t r u t h : Wird n i c h t die P e r l e an dem Grashalm Wasser, der grttne Traumsaal e i n v e r d o r r t e r Busch, kei n E d e l s t e i n , e i n abgerupftes Moos, das i n der Hand, die es bewundert, welkt? (28,E.G.) F i n a l l y , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e which he embodies i s not presented as a backlash a g a i n s t e x c e s s i v e m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g , but as an inherent q u a l i t y independent of time and m i l i e u . The anger which he d i s p l a y e d as an i n f a n t , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s " e i n scheues F l U g e l s c h l a g e n " (23,E.G.) of crimes he i s to commit as a youth by k i l l i n g a pregnant cat (32,E.G.) and as an a d u l t i n the army by raping a woman. Li k e Mala and P a u l i n e i n the pre-war pla y s and re m i n i s c e n t of K l e i s t ' s P e n t h e s i l e a , 1 3 7 the daughter seeks d i s s o l u t i o n of s e l f i n p h y s i c a l e c s t a s y as w e l l : "Ich w i l l n i c h t 13nger meine Waden bergen" (34,E.G.). Since her r e v o l t and r e b e l l i o n are centred e x c l u s i v e l y around the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on her sexual freedom, she i s a more one-sided v e r s i o n of the o l d e s t son, who a t t a c k s the whole range of laws, i n s t i t u t i o n s , norms, and v a l u e s . Like the o l d e s t son, she experiences l u s t as both 108 a "Sturmglut h e i s s e n t j a u c h z t e r Sinne"(32,E.G.), which b r i n g s her c l o s e to s e l f - d i s s o l u t i o n , and as "Schlamm" (16,E.G.), which threatens to engulf and destr o y her. Insofar as t h i s i s an experience which they share with the vo l u n t e e r of Vor der Entscheidung who, because of h i s s u p e r f i c i a l understanding of war f a i l s to d i s c o v e r i t s essence, i t i s c l e a r that the dra m a t i s t conceives of the daughter as a negative c o u n t e r p a r t of the mother and as a m a s o c h i s t i c complement to the o l d e s t son's sadism. At times the daughter resembles the mother: Der Du uns s c h u f s t mit unsern blauen Adern, dem Bau der Sehnsucht, dem nur F l u g e l f e h l e n , v e r l a s s mich nicht....(16,E.G.) At other times she i s as r a t i o n a l as the o l d e s t son: ...dass i c h den dunklen Sinn, der mir b e i jedem neuen Mond das B l u t aus diesem Kfirper j a g t , b e g r e i f e ! (31,E.G.) Although she wavers between the emotional and the r a t i o n a l , the daughter l a c k s both the d i s s e c t i n g i n t e l l e c t of her brother and the a f f i r m a t i v e a t t i t u d e of the mother. Like that of the o l d e s t son, however, the crime of the daughter i s not the r e -s u l t of circumstance, but an i n t r i n s i c element of her nature which a l r e a d y s u r f a c e d in her when s t i l l a c h i l d : Sah i c h Verbrechen sonst vortibergehen, drangt' Neugier mich an Wach und G i t t e r an, um auf dem kurzen Weg vom Tor zum Wagen den F l a c k e r b l i c k des Bflsen nah zu sehn. Nun q u i l l t er auf im eignen Blut...(15,E.G.) From t h i s i t f o l l o w s that the f e a r and weakness embodied by the coward are not the r e s u l t of war e i t h e r , as c r i t i c s g e n e r a l l y assume, but r a t h e r , that they are innate q u a l i t i e s independent 1 0 9 of the environment. V e r b a l s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n on the part of the coward i s , however, precluded by h i s muteness. The na-ture of h i s cowardice can t h e r e f o r e be examined only i n an a n a l y s i s of the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of him by o t h e r s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s of v e r b a l s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n i n the works w r i t t e n during the war are i n c r e a s e d s t y l i z a -t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n ; r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l s e x a c t l y observed, the f i g u r e s are presented as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e types which embody ideas or concepts pre-formulated by the author. From Jtirgen, E r n s t , and the p r i n c e i n the pre-war dramas to the uhlan of Vor der Entscheidung, a p r o g r e s s i o n may be ob-served which r e v e a l s that more and more emphasis i s put on the v i s i o n a r y and p r o p h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of the heroes, at the expense of t h e i r a b i l i t y to a c t . In the uhlan and the v o l u n t e e r , the v i s i o n a r y and the a c t i v e are s t r i c t l y separated; t h e i r ensemble c o n f i g u r a t i o n s e r v e s , i n f a c t , to demonstrate the n e c e s s i t y of adopting a v i s i o n a r y , i n t e r p r e t a t i v e stance, so as not to succumb to an e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y which suddenly turns an u g l y f a c e . Like l i g h t broken up by a prism, aspects of both the uhlan and the v o l u n t e e r appear i n the v a r i o u s f i g u r e s of Opfergang. In the prose work, the author conceives of h i s f i -gures not as a c c e p t i n g or r e j e c t i n g an ideology but, r a t h e r , as "symbolic types, "138 w ] r i o r e a c t to the ( a r t i s t i c ) r e a l i t y of war i n a manner appointed by him. As i n O f f i z i e r e , a technique of g r a d a t i o n i s used, which r e v e a l s that the r e a c t i o n s of the f i g u r e s d i f f e r only i n degree. E i n 110 G e s c h l e c h t , f i n a l l y , i n t r o d u c e s v a r i o u s opposing views of l i f e , which are f u r n i s h e d with a more or l e s s u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e by being presented by f i g u r e s who appear in the guise of r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e v o i c e s of mankind: a mother i s confronted with the graduated f i g u r e s of the m i l i t a r y and her c h i l d r e n . The heroes in the works w r i t t e n during the war - the u h l a n , the three p r i n c i p a l s i n the prose work, and the mother -express themselves in i d e n t i c a l language and imagery, which have t h e i r source i n the manner of e x p r e s s i o n of Queen L u i s e in L o u i s Ferdinand. Each of them advocates a gradual process of renewal, based on the r e g e n e r a t i v e a b i l i t i e s of the e a r t h and the n a t u r a l c y c l e of l i f e and death. They are opposed in t h i s by f i g u r e s , such as the v o l u n t e e r i n Vor der Entscheidung or the o l d e s t son and the daughter i n E i n Geschlecht, whose lack of p a t i e n c e demands immediate r e s u l t s . I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of c h a r a c t e r and t h e i r p o r t r a y a l which emerge i n Vor der  Entscheidung and Opfergang, of which there are extant unpu-b l i s h e d e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s , recur i n E i n Geschlecht, of which 139 o n l y the p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n e x i s t s . I t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s c l e a r , as D i e t e r Kasang was the f i r s t to o b s e r v e , 1 ^ 0 that the views i n c o r p o r a t e d by the heroes in a l l three works suggest an apology f o r war and W i l h e l m i n i a n r u l e ; the views of t h e i r opponents, by c o n t r a s t , are the f o r c e s which threaten to under-mine them. The s t y l i z a t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n which are a l r e a d y a f e a t u r e of the e a r l y v e r s i o n s are t h e r e f o r e i n t e n s i f i e d i n the course of r e v i s i o n . The r e s u l t of t h i s i s that the f i g u r e s are no longer recognized as embodiments of contemporary s o c i a l and I l l p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s but become, i n s t e a d , vague r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the human race. In p r o g r e s s i v e l y moving away from the s p e c i f i c to a more gene r a l sphere of r e f e r e n c e and s i g n i f i c a n c e , Unruh's r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the m a t e r i a l i s t i c philosophy of the N a t u r a l i s t s appears to be based on the same p r i n c i p l e s as those on which the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s base t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of them: to do away with c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r s and to show that man i s always f r e e to choose and change. Li k e that of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , Unruh's conception of c h a r a c t e r i s c o n s i s t e n t l y t r a n s p s y c h o l o g i c a l ; l i k e those of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , Unruh's major c h a r a c t e r s s t r i v e with r e l i g i o u s longing f o r something beyond the m a t e r i a l , f o r e t e r n a l and t r a n s c e n d e n t a l values; l i k e the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , Unruh d e p e r s o n a l i z e s h i s f i g u r e s and turns them i n t o embodiments of ideas or s t a t e s of mind. A f t e r obscuring the ideas i n c o r p o r a t e d by h i s f i g u r e s i n the war works, f i n a l l y , Unruh p o r t r a y s h i s f i g u r e s no longer as r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s of a new German na t i o n of the f u t u r e , but as r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s of the kind of u n i v e r s a l brotherhood e n v i s i o n e d by the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s . An a n a l y s i s of v e r b a l s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n the post-war p l a y s w i l l r e v e a l that the d i f f e r e n c e between these i d e a l s i s , indeed a very s u b t l e one. The " r e v o l u t i o n a r y " mandate to which the youngest son i s i n s p i r e d by the mother in E i n Geschlecht, and which D i e t r i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s at the beginning of the sequel P l a t z , turns out to be a stratagem used by the author to e s t a b l i s h c o n t i n u i t y 112 between the two t e x t s ; D i e t r i c h r e j e c t s i t almost immediately i n favour of an e v o l u t i o n a r y process of renewal which begins i n the p r i v a t e sphere. T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s u b j e c t i v e r a t h e r than s o c i a l r e a l i t y i s conveyed p r i m a r i l y by means of s e l f -c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , i n which the p e r s o n a l " I " takes precedence over the c o l l e c t i v e "we": "Du s o l l s t " i s t Zwang, s c h a f f t Zwang mir je Erlosung? i s t er n i c h t a l l e r Qualen Wurzelstock? "Ich w i l l " i s t ruhiges Atmen, i s t Natur! I s t meiner Seele e r s t e s F l t i g e l b r e i t e n ! (64,PI.) In the pre-war dramas, t h i s i n s i s t e n c e on the r i g h t s of the i n -s p i r e d i n d i v i d u a l i s regarded as a p o s i t i v e t r a i t to combat the aged and p e t r i f i e d power s t r u c t u r e s ; i n the e a r l y v e r s i o n s of the works w r i t t e n during the war, i t i s regarded as a c a r d i n a l s i n a g a i n s t the common goal of the people and the s t a t e ; i n P l a t z , i t i s once again regarded as a " n a t u r a l " s t r i v i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l to a t t a i n human f u l f i l m e n t : "Ich aber w i l l ! W i l l einmal, wie mein Drang urmachtig w i l l 1...(64,PI.). T h i s i n -s i s t e n c e on the r i g h t s of the s e l f i s , however, a r e t r e a t i n t o inwardness and devoid of a s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , or h i s t o r i c a l framework. T h i s i s regarded as mere " Z u f a l l " (66,PI.) and " W i l l k u r " (113,PI.); the quintessence of l i f e i s sought in an a l l - e m b r a c i n g conception of love (91,PI.). In h i s e x c l u s i v e r e l i a n c e on s e l f and h i s " h e i l i g e s GefUhl" (129,PI.), D i e t r i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i m s e l f as both God and worm. At times he resembles the o l d e s t son of E i n  G e s c h l e c h t , whose death warned him against h u b r i s ; u n l i k e the o l d e s t son, however, D i e t r i c h i s conscious of the v o i d a 113 r e p u d i a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l norms and values w i l l leave and seeks to r e p l a c e i t . He i s capable of being both s e r i o u s and jocos e . In monologue, i n which one expects to f i n d the l e a s t p r etense, D i e t r i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i m s e l f as a s e r i o u s f i g u r e who wavers between s e l f - a s s e r t i o n and s e l f - n e g a t i o n ; i n d i a -logue, he adapts s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n to the s c e p t i c a l ears of hi s l i s t e n e r s and r e f e r s to himself as " e i n g e l e r n t e r Zaubrer i n [den] WUsten" (85,PI.), who i s "eben neugeboren" (84,PI.). An i r o n i c view of himself i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , the exception and not the r u l e ; i n s t e a d of r e l a t i v i z i n g h i s own stance, i t under-mines that of h i s l i s t e n e r s . Anyone whose purpose i t i s to d i s c o v e r the s o c i o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of D i e t r i c h ' s u l t i m a t e g o a l , however, f i n d s h i s ex p e c t a t i o n s f o i l e d , f o r i t i s a "Wiederkehr des G l e i c h e n . " 1 4 1 "A complete and f u l f i l l e d love between man and woman secures a happy ch i l d h o o d f o r i t s progeny," as Walter Sokel s t a t e s , and "represents a more concrete hope f o r the f u -ture than do a b s t r a c t schemes of u n i v e r s a l brotherhood" 1 4 2 o r , one might add, t a n g i b l e schemes of s o c i a l and po-l i t i c a l reform. The "new" language i s the " o l d " one as w e l l . 1 4 3 Aphorisms such as "was f a u l i s t , f S l l t , wenn es zum F a l l e n r e i f " (118,PI.) and " K a r i k a t u r " i s "das Ende jeder Tat" (88,P1.) a i d D i e t r i c h i n j u s t i f y i n g h i s r e j e c t i o n of the pre-sent and the immediate past. In b i b l i c a l imagery, moreover, he f i n d s h i s p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g s and emotions p r e - l i v e d : Ich werde eine S i n t f l u t kommen l a s s e n . (96,PI.) 114 Wclr i c h e i n Magier, kflnnte diesen P l a t z samt a l i e n Fratzen der Vergangenheit wie eine Herde Sflue von mir jagenl (87,PI.) Kfinnt die Erklarung auf dem Erdenrunde zehn Herzen, zwei, nur eines t i e f erlosen...(131,PI.) He regards h i s own redemption as the redemption of mankind, comparable to a second act of c r e a t i o n which c o r r e c t s the f i r s t . 1 4 4 D i e t r i c h vows to break the " T i e r k r e i s " (105,PI.) from h i s s o u l , and uses imagery of disease e x c l u s i v e l y with r e f e r e n c e to the desecrated p r o c r e a t i v e a c t , which grows from " e k l e r Betten F i n s t e r n i s " (121,PI.). The "disease" which corrodes and erodes the m i l i t a r y i n E i n Ge s c h l e c h t , t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e , norms, and values i n P l a t z , and i n d i v i d u a l human s e l f - c o n t r o l i n both, exposes the "animal" i n man and expresses i t s e l f as e r o t i c p e r v e r s i o n . D i e t r i c h ' s r e j e c t i o n of an abandon to sexual i n s t i n c t s i s analogous to h i s r e n u n c i a t i o n of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r e s e n t ; at the same time, i t serves as i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Die rote R i e s i n W i r k l i c h k e i t , hu, draussen... hebt schon den Arm, mich wie e i n Nachtinsekt, mich wie e i n Nachtinsekt...mich wie ein..ah! (146,PI.) In the post-war dramas, a r e j e c t i o n of both the recent war and the r e v o l u t i o n a r y present are regarded as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the dawn of a new e r a . The imagery D i e t r i c h uses to express h i s d i s m i s s a l of the present i s , i n the f i n a l a n a l y i s , i d e n t i c a l to that employed by the heroes i n the pre-war dramas and, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , by the p r o t a g o n i s t s of the war works to a l i g n themselves with the p r e -sent. He speaks of the "Flamme unserer G o t t l i c h k e i t " 115 (77,PI. ) , "der Mutter h e l l e r L i e b e s f lamme" (76,PI.") , "F e u e r b l u t e " ( 8 4 , P l ^ ) , "Sonne" (88,PI.), " L i c h t " (89,PI.) and, at the end of the work, becomes f i r e h i m s e l f : "Bin e i n e i n z i g Flammenbecken worden" (168,PI.). The d i f f e r e n c e i s that the imagery i n P l a t z i s a b s t r a c t e d , becomes autonomous, and gains a meaning independent of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s which o r i g i n a l l y gave r i s e to i t . 1 4 5 The hero now e s t a b l i s h e s h i s own norms and v a l u e s : L i e b e r a l s e i n Feuer ausposaunen, w i l l s e l b s t i c h Feuer s e i n ! (113,PI.) The new law i s _sought "im Gesetz der Sonne" (113,PI.) and "im Gesetz des Tanzens" (118,PI.); he s t r i v e s f o r a union with the cosmos, i n s t e a d of an i n d i v i d u a l n a t i o n . C i r c u l a r imagery r e m i n i s c e n t of that of the mother, such as " r e i f e n und s i c h runden" (113,PI.), d e r i v e s i n P l a t z from the globe as a v i s i b l e symbol of the world. I t i s t r e a t e d by some as a " B a l l " (120,?]^), a " B i l l a r d k u g e l " (120,PI.), a " K i n d e r b a l l " (155,PI.) or as "zwei B a l l c h e n der L u s t " ( 1 5 5 , P I . ) , 1 4 6 C i r c u l a r imagery culminates in the analogy between the world a x i s and the c entre w i t h i n man h i m s e l f : Kflnnt 1 i c h i n mir, wie du, g e l i e b t e Kugel, Gesetz des Tanzens ohne Grtibeln tragen. Vom M i t t e l p u n k t nach a l i e n S e i t e n wachsend, b i s s i c h d i e Wolbung baut und jeder Atem den G e i s t b e r u h r t , i n dessen Hauch wir f l i e g e n . ( 1 1 8 , P I . ) As most c r i t i c s p o i n t out, the language of D i e t r i c h r e v e a l s Unruh's debt to neo-Romanticism, the "Lebenskult" around the turn of the century, and " J u g e n d s t i l " . D i e t r i c h , however, i s both a neo-Romantic and an E x p r e s s i o n i s t hero. 116 Blue flower and f i r e l i l y as c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n s of l o n g i n g , com-bined with h i s philosophy of inwardness, r e v e r t to a p e r i o d which precedes Expressionism; D i e t r i c h ' s v i s i o n of a new man, however, expressed i n the language of a "messianic a c t i v i s t , " p o i n t s to Expressionism and beyond. A c e n t r a l f i g u r e ' s i n a b i l i t y to convince i s given thematic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Phaea, i n which i t i s demonstrated i n the environment of a f i l m s t u d i o that logos no longer has a b i b l i -c a l power of p e r s u a s i o n , but i s t r e a t e d as a mere t h e a t r i c a l r e q u i s i t e . On the one hand, Uhle i s denied the o p p o r t u n i t y to be heard by a malevolent f i l m crew who e d i t h i s manuscript and o b l i t e r a t e i t s message, but, on the other hand, Uhle o b s t r u c t s h i s own wish to be heard, by not being able to formulate h i s thoughts c o h e r e n t l y . 1 4 7 Moreover, h i s message, which i s unchanged from that of the heroes i n the previous works, i s exposed i n the f i l m s t u d i o of 1930 as the phraseology of 1 9 1 9 . 1 4 8 Uhle preaches a message of the heart (510,Ph.), of " G e i s t " (527,Ph.), of "Substanz" (52,Ph.), and of "der Sinn" " e i n e r Idee" (465-466,Ph.) which he, as a s o l d i e r , d e r i v e d from World War One. He r e b e l s a g a i n s t a world which b l o t s out memory and hides behind Reklamei Double! Tonkamera! Tausender! M i l l i o n s t e r ! D o l l a r ! Cash! K u l t u r f i l m ! 100%! Bankkonto! P u b l i c i t y ! Q u e c k s i l b e r ! Cash! Kasse! Cash! Kasse! - Sexappeal - (505,Ph.) Uhle's s t u t t e r and nominalized sentence s t r u c t u r e , which d i s -pense with v e r b a l l i n k s , are evidence of h i s i n a b i l i t y to come 117 to terms with the present by c l u t c h i n g to the a b s t r a c t , " i d e a l i s t i c " concepts of the p a s t : 1 4 9 "Oberhaupt, i c h f i n d e mich n i c h t mehr zurecht" (473,Ph.). Like h i s c o u n t e r p a r t i n P l a t z , Uhle c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i m s e l f with an irony which only r e l a t i v i z e s and renders grotesgue the views of l i f e held by o t h e r s : Bin Korrespondent der Mitternachtsstimme1(472,Ph.) Meine S t r a s s e ftihrt nun a b s e i t s , j e d e n f a l l s von der H a u p t a l l e e gemieden, - und womoglich g e z e i g t a l s Narr. (542,Ph.) I n t u i t i o n c a p i t u l a t e s to a world made conscious by s p o t l i g h t s , microphones, and cameras. At the end of the work, Uhle sudden-l y recognizes that h i s r o l e i n the f i l m i s i d e n t i c a l to the one i n the p l a y and the o u t s i d e world; i n both he i s f o r c e d to p l a y the s a c r i f i c i a l lamb. (550,Ph.) The c u r i o u s mixture of pathos and i r o n y , expressed by Uhle i n a r a t h e r "geschwollenes D e u t s c h , " 1 5 0 i s r e p l a c e d i n Zero by a l i g h t e r form of pathos. Segrave e x p l a i n s h i s ambition and success as a r a c e - c a r d r i v e r only by s a y i n g : A l s s i e b e n j a h r i g e r Bengel bin i c h mit meinem Fahrrad i n einen Milchwagen gesaust, - a l l e s k a p u t t l - das war meine e r s t e Sensation! -dann — s c h n e l l e r — immer s c h n e l l e r . . . G e i z ? Nee, - nur die uberholte Sekunde. (119,Z.) Segrave views speed as the essence of the s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n of matter; o n l y i t s highest attainment can s a t i s f y h i s "romantic" longing f o r i n f i n i t y . T h i s extreme dynamism, however, t r a n s -f i g u r e s an e x i s t i n g , n e g a t i v e , and oppressive r e a l i t y and does not b r i n g about a new o n e . 1 5 1 Segrave's message i s t h e r e -f o r e s t i l l i d e n t i c a l to that of a l l h i s predecessors. The 118 d i f f e r e n c e between Segrave and the heroes i n the previous two works i s that he i s magnanimous enough to forgo the n e c e s s i t y of s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t i o n ; the success of h i s a c t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on o t h e r s . A p r o g r e s s i o n may be observed from P l a t z to Phaea and Zero which shows that l e s s and l e s s credence i s given to the spoken word: whereas D i e t r i c h ' s words are misunderstood and Uhle's words are t r e a t e d as a mere t h e a t r i c a l r e q u i s i t e , Segrave v i r t u a l l y dispenses with language a l t o g e t h e r . U n l i k e the heroes, the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a u t h o r i t y i n v i t e mockery by the language they use. In P l a t z , the omnipotent supreme l o r d , the " G r e i s " , and the count are aware of t h e i r l o s s of power and can, t h e r e f o r e , no longer take i t f o r granted. T h e i r power i s only s u p e r f i c i a l , an e x t e r n a l l a y e r of "Pelz des Btirgers" (97,PI.). By attempting to enforce i t at a time when i t i s undermined by h i s t o r i c a l events, they o n l y draw r i d i c u l e upon themselves. The supreme l o r d l i v e s by the motto that the world i s " s e i t Adam u n v e r b e s s e r l i c h " (70,Ph.). He b e l i e v e s h i s power to be d i r e c t l y i n s t i t u t e d by God and views himself as the embodiment of the o b j e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e of law, beyond the c o n f i n e s of which he has never dared to ven-t u r e : "Ins Blaue, wo d i e Wesen F l u g e l tragen,/ wagt i c h mein e r d i g Auge nie zu heben" (95,Ph.). Beneath r i g i d l y e n f o r c e d laws and conventions l u r k s chaos i n the form of l u s t , the r e -le a s e of which bodes i l l f o r the p e r p e t u a t i o n of a s o c i e t y con-c e i v e d along t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s . He experiences h i s own l o s s of a u t h o r i t y as an exposure of nakedness, man's l i b i d o , and 119 expresses t h i s i n grotesque sexual imagery, which r e v e a l s the s i n i s t e r sources of a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l power s t r u c t u r e s . A f t e r proving that "Gesetz" i s "Form!" (96,Ph.) and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s chaos, the supreme l o r d exhausts h i s own symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the p l a y . The " G r e i s " shares the supreme l o r d ' s vampiric nature, has a macabre obsession with blood, and i s even more co r r u p t i n h i s r u t h l e s s defense of t r a d i t i o n and h i s abandon to s e x u a l i t y : Die t a u s e n d j a h r i g e n Mauern baute B l u t ! Nur B l u t , n i c h t s sonst! (81,P1. ) Ha, brach s i c h auch der E r d b a l l i n zwei H f l l f t e n . . . S o f f f r i s c h e s B l u t ! S o f f euer B l u t , i h r Bengels... Ich, i c h bin t o t ! Einmal mich ftihlen...Dann... (147,PI.) The ageing senator p e r s o n i f i e s the "baroque" concept of the t r a n s i t o r i n e s s of l i f e and the c e r t a i n t y of death (147,Pi.) . L i k e the supreme l o r d , the " G r e i s " expresses himself i n a grotesque manner which d i s c r e d i t s and makes a mockery of the maxims by means of which he p e r c e i v e s the world. In both f i g u r e s , the e s s e n t i a l l y s e r i o u s i s combined with the l u d i c r o u s and the b i z a r r e . In Gutundblut, Unruh c r e a t e s a c h a r a c t e r almost e n t i r e l y out of a name. The count t e l l s the guards to charge ahead "mit Gut und B l u t " (59,PI.) and he dreams of having l i t t l e "Gutundbluts" (137,PI.), because the world would be so "ode" and " w i t z l o s " (114,PI.) without them. A defense of t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s sounds even more l u d i c r o u s when i t iss u e s from h i s mouth than i t does from that of the other members of the t r i o . 120 The l o s s of c o n v e n t i o n a l norms and values robs the count of h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c veneer and again exposes the "animal" w i t h i n . Like the supreme l o r d and the senator i n P l a t z , the a u t h o r i t a r i a n p r e s i d e n t of the f i l m company i n Phaea c h a r a c t e r -i z e s h i m s e l f as both a r e a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h e r 1 5 2 and a f r a u d u l e n t entrepreneur, who p r o s t i t u t e s and e x p l o i t s the people below him. As the former he v o i c e s q u a s i - a p h o r i s t i c statements, such as "Das Leben i s t keine FlacheI Das Leben i s t d r e i d i m e n s i o n a l " (487,Ph.) or h i s t h i r d commandment "Du s o l l s t uns n i c h t belehren, sondern uns P l a t z l a s s e n f u r eigene GedankenI" ( 5 1 0 , P h . ) . 1 5 3 M o r r i s i s o n l y concerned with f a c t s (521,Ph.), he i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n "Natur" than "Pathos" (509,Ph.), and he does not b e l i e v e i n the p e r s u a s i v e power of the word (522,Ph.): "Wir haben es e r l e b t : K r i e g , R e v o l u t i o n , Zusammenbruch, a l l e s ohne Pathos" (509,Ph.). Rather than produce " N a t u r a l i s t i c " f i l m s or " r e a l i s t i c " docu-mentaries, however, Morris produces k i t s c h movies of the worst k i n d . T h i s i s i n accordance with h i s f i r s t two commandments, which c o n t r a d i c t the t h i r d one above: 1. Gebot: Du s o l l s t uns dienen! E r h e i t e r n l AmUsieren! A u f p u l v e r n ! 2. Gebot: Du s o l l s t n i c h t s machen, was deines n&chsten Weib, Knecht, Magd und Vieh n i c h t verstehen konneni(510,Ph.) Hi s s o l e motive f o r reaching out to the masses i s not to o f f e r them a serum f o r happiness (522,Ph.), but to s w e l l h i s own bank account (521,Ph.). T h i s d i s c r e d i t s him as a s e r i o u s f i -gure, sheds a grotesque l i g h t on h i s philosophy of l i f e , and v i n d i c a t e s the p o s i t i o n of Uhle, who counters M o r r i s ' maxim -121 "Der Weg zum Leben ftihrt durch die Dunkelkammer" (555,Ph.) -with one of h i s own making: "Der Weg zum Leben f i l h r t nur durch uns s e l b e r hindurch" ( 5 5 5 ,PhO . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s c l e a r : by i g n o r i n g the "-x," made famous by the N a t u r a l i s t s and c o n s i s t i n g i n Phaea of the "Reproduktionsbedin-g u n g e n " 1 5 4 of the t e c h n i c a l f i l m apparatus (5 2 1 ,Ph.), Mo r r i s f a i l s to d i s c o v e r the essence of l i f e . Monsi, the d i r e c t o r of the c a s i n o i n Zero, i s a r e l a t e d type of f r a u d u l e n t entrepreneur, whose primary motive i n l i f e i s the accumulation of money and the propagation of p l e a s u r e ( 7 8 , ^ ) . He i s enraptured by the phenomenal speed records of Segrave but, u n l i k e him, regards them as a symbol of the c i r c u l a t i o n of c a p i t a l from which he b e n e f i t s m a t e r i a l l y : die G e s c h w i n d i g k e i t . . . i s t Uberhaupt das Leben. Oder was i s t d i e Materie ohne d i e Geschwindigkeit? E i n Oder Haufen Dreckl So wie Geld ohne Umsatz ( 1 2 , Z_0 The t h r e a t of an e x p l o s i o n even i n c r e a s e s h i s r a p t u r e . T h i s i s again conveyed by means of apothegmatical statements, which suggest that Monsi assumes h i s view of l i f e to be a g e n e r a l l y v a l i d one: Wir leben doch auf E x p l o s i o n e n l - Explosionen t r e i b e n d i e Autos! Explosionen heben die Flugzeuge auf! - Madame, der Rhythmus unserer Z e i t h e i s s t : E x p l o s i o n ! - ( 60,Z.) In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , Monsi's philosophy of l i f e i s the a p o c a l y p t i c e q u i v a l e n t of that of Morris i n Phaea. Whereas M o r r i s i s enraptured by the p o t e n t i a l f o r a v i t a l i s t i c i n t e n s i -f i c a t i o n of l i f e by observing the people in the s t u d i o below -"Da, da, unter meiner Sohle s i n d Dschungel des B l u t s " 122 (489,Ph.) - Monsi i s e n t h r a l l e d by the p o s s i b i l i t y of t o t a l a n n i h i l a t i o n : Haben S i e keine Augst, Herr Angst. Unter Ihren S t i e f e l n : A l l e s f e u e r f l u s s i g . Schwefel! Heisse Gase! U r s t o f f ! Expansionsltisterne Atomel (98,Z.) The f e a r of f i r e and d e s t r u c t i o n f i l l s him with "Unerhfirtes" (106, Zj/) . I t has a c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t on him and i s again expressed i n a p s e u d o - a p h o r i s t i c statement which d i s c r e d i t s him as a f i g u r e to be taken s e r i o u s l y : "Die Angst i s t der hflchste Rausch" (131, Z . ) . The source of opportunism i n c o r p o r a t e d by both Morris and Monsi may be t r a c e d to Harry von Henner i n O f f i z i e r e and Wiesel i n L o u i s Ferdinand, both of whom are the l e s s noble and more r u t h l e s s e q u i v a l e n t s of the a r i s t o c r a t i c p r o t a g o n i s t s and crave power f o r themselves. W i e s e l , moreover, e x e m p l i f i e s the contemporary bourgeois s p i r i t and reappears i n P l a t z as the many-sided S c h l e i c h . S c h l e i c h i s d i v e r s i f i e d by h i s p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s . I n t e l l e c t i s the motor of h i s e x i s t e n c e and he uses i t f o r p e r s o n a l advancement: Gesetz? Z e r s e t z ! Mir Sprosse nur, Erstanfang! L e i t e r hoch zum Ich! S c h l e i c h , du! (101,PI.) He permanently negates t r a d i t i o n a l norms and v a l u e s - as suggested by h i s admitting to having k i l l e d h i s mother (67,PI.) - but never l o s e s e g u i l i b r i u m h i m s e l f . With the c o l l a p s e of the o l d system, war no longer appears to be a v i a b l e means of s e c u r i n g power and, s i n c e p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n has l e d him nowhere, S c h l e i c h seeks power and m a t e r i a l p r o f i t by e x p l o i t i n g the ideas of o t h e r s . He now s e i z e s upon the m u l t i f a r i o u s forms 123 of power inherent i n lov e , the meaning of which can be twi s t e d to s u i t many a r e l i g i o u s , e t h i c a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l g o a l . L i t e r a r y and b i b l i c a l f i g u r e s , such as T o l s t o y and John the B a p t i s t (101,PI.), become e f f i g i e s i n S c h l e i c h ' s advocacy f o r peace, l o v e , and u n i v e r s a l brotherhood, s i n c e i t i s completely devoid of an e t h i c a l b a s i s : " E t h i s c h e r Aureole b l e i b e f e r n ! " (138,PI.) Power i s a l s o h i s only c r i t e r i o n i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween man and woman. He draws a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between eros and agape and checks a p o t e n t i a l l o s s of s e l f - c o n t r o l , i n matters of l o v e , by op t i n g f o r p r o s m i s c u i t y i n s t e a d of f i d e l -i t y . An harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sexes i m p l i e s e q u a l i t y and a concomitant r e d u c t i o n of power f o r the male; a promiscuous r e l a t i o n s h i p allows one sex to remain i n c o n t r o l over the o t h e r : 1 5 5 " U r t i e r w i l l F u t t e r , w i t t e r t seine Macht." (68,PI.). S c h l e i c h ' s " r e f i n e d " i n t e l l e c t i s coupled with a coarse s e n s u a l i t y . Modesty i s regarded by him as an "Ichbremse" (142,PI.); the only r e a l i t y f o r him i s that of " F l e i s c h w i r k l i c h k e i t " (141,PI.); love i s reduced to a mechanical compulsion. The power which S c h l e i c h seeks to ex e r t over women i s not merely that of a man over a woman, but that of a man over s o c i e t y , the n a t i o n , the world at l a r g e . The name S c h l e i c h i s to become synonymous with power per se: Ich w i l l den E r b a l l drehen! Schleichtelegramme senden! Anerkennung von Staat zu Staat , g l o r r e i c h e Heere grtissen! (139,PI.) 124 The might he craves i s no l e s s than that of God whose mind c o n t r o l s the u n i v e r s e . 1 5 6 Whereas the imagery used by S c h l e i c h r e v e a l s the anthropo-l o g i c a l r e g r e s s i o n of t h i s f a l s e r e v o l u t i o n a r y , h i s novel, a s y n t a c t i c a l language d i s p l a y s the a t o m i z a t i o n , fragmentation, and u l t i m a t e d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s of t h i s f i g u r e . As a r e f l e c t i o n of the contemporary bourgeois s p i r i t , the l i n g u i s t i c t e x t u r e of S c h l e i c h ' s speech best e x e m p l i f i e s the r e g r e s s i v e nature of t o t a l r e v o l u t i o n 1 5 7 ; i t even a t t a c k s the organic nature of the German language by means of p a r a t a x i s , e l l i p s i s , condensa-t i o n , and screaming " F o r t i s s i m o - Reden" "auf dem hohen C " . 1 5 8 S c h l e i c h ' s language c o n t r a s t s e f f e c t i v e l y with that of D i e t r i c h , whose manner of expression i s meant to convey a more wholesome conception of the past and p o i n t s to a l e s s c h a o t i c f u t u r e . 1 5 9 Although c r i t i c s f r e g u e n t l y view the K r a h - f i g u r e s i n Phaea and Zero as S c h l e i c h ' s s u c c e s s o r s , they are f a r l e s s t h r e a t e n -i n g . The menacing aspects of S c h l e i c h are i n c o r p o r a t e d , r a t h e r , by M o r r i s , the p r e s i d e n t of "Phaea," and by Monsi, the d i r e c t o r of the c a s i n o ; Krah i s only one of t h e i r many subor-d i n a t e s . In both works, Krah c h a r a c t e r i z e s himself as a p r o t o -type of the 1 9 2 0 ' s 1 6 0 who f l o a t s on the s u r f a c e of s o c i e t y , t h r i v e s on the i n s e c u r i t y of h i s e x i s t e n c e , i s quick to compromise h i m s e l f , and i s enslaved by money which i s con-c e n t r a t e d i n the pockets of those who are even more o p p o r t u n i s -t i c than he. The fraudulence of Krah's e x i s t e n c e i s amply conveyed by means of s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n r e m i n i s c e n t of the 125 j argon of c a b a r e t : 1 6 1 - L ' e t a t c'est moi (451 fPh.) - Ich b i n das l e t z t e Exemplar des " p a r a s i t o s g e n i a l e s " (495,Ph.) - Gott, b i n i c h e i n E r o s t i k e r ! (19, Z . ) - Wir Krahs stammen von den Erzengeln ab ( 39,Z.) The "humour" they d i s p l a y r e f l e c t s the i n s e c u r i t y of the s o c i a l c l a s s to which they belong: J a ! - Ich weiss: v i e r t e r Stand! P r o l e t ! N i c h t wahr? Zigeuner! Ein A s s y r i e r ! O r i e n t zwischen zwei Germanen! (51,Ph.) Both f i g u r e s d i s c r e d i t themselves by t h e i r s p e c u l a t i v e , oppor-t u n i s t i c frame of mind and a concomitant debasement of language. Empty phrases a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e the three m i l i t a r y f i g u r e s i n Phaea, who express themselves i n m i l i t a r y jargon s i m i l a r to t h a t of the f i g u r e s i n O f f i z i e r e and the v o l u n t e e r in Vor der  Entscheidung. However, these w a r l i k e f i g u r e s are now h i r e d a c t o r s i n a f i l m , t h e i r duty i s exacted by a wealthy c i v i l i a n , and t h e i r c r a v i n g f o r a v i t a l i s t i c i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of l i f e i s now induced by f i n a n c i a l rewards. The i n a c t i v i t y imposed on them during endless r e h e a r s a l s i s n e v e r t h e l e s s i d e n t i c a l to the f r u s t r a t i o n experienced by t h e i r predecessors in a peace-time g a r r i s o n : Funf Minuten braucht man uns i n diesem v e r d a c h t i g e n Stuck, und dann l a s s t man uns d r e i Stunden in G e f e c h t s b e r e i t s c h a f t . (467,Ph.) Ich weiss n i c h t , warum s i e h t man immer nur Fetzen der Handlung? J e t z t s o l i wieder der Schluss v o r a u s p r o b i e r t werden. Wir wissen doch gar n i c h t , was l o s i s t . (4 67,Ph.) They dream of a r e t u r n to the m i l i t a r i s m of the recent p a s t , in which t h e i r r e a l r o l e was not r e l a t i v i z e d by t h e i r r o l e as 126 a c t o r s . Less h a r s h l y s a t i r i z e d than the m i l i t a r y i s the Russian p r i n c e named O r l o f f , who i s f u r n i s h e d with the i n s i g h t that the euphoric g i d d i n e s s of the present i s a danse macabre in disguise:162 dass wir uns a l s Tote auch noch drehen mtissen, immer drehen messieurs, a l s Gerippe drehen, immer in vierundzwanzig Stunden einmal um d i e eigene W i r b e l s S u l e . Wenn da die Wtirmer s c h l i e s s l i c h n i c h t s c h w i n d l i g werden und ablassen von unserer S e e l e . (503-504, Ph.) The r e i n s t i t u t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of an a n a c h r o n i s t i c , decaying past s i g n a l s s t a g n a t i o n i n s t e a d of p r o g r e s s . In Zero, Unruh continues the p r a c t i c e of i n t r o d u c i n g f i g u r e s who are both c a r i c a t u r e d and put in a favourable l i g h t . The l e a s t p o s i t i v e l y p o r t r a y e d i s the discharged schoolmaster Wenzel, a "ntichterner S c h l e s i e r " ( 2 0 , ^ ) who, as suggested by the stock phrase "Ihr mtisst d i e Abwege der Fortuna k a l k u l i e r e n " (60,Z_j_), d e f i e s the crack of doom. Funke i s a l t e r n a t i v e l y c a r i c a t u r e d as a Nazi p h i l i s t i n e who b e l i e v e s the " v f i l k i s c h e Einehe" to be the only stronghold against "die Gleichmacher" and " E r d f l f l h e " (25,Z_;_). Like Gutundblut before 1 fi 3 him, Funke i s c r e a t e d almost e n t i r e l y out of a name. D J The l a s t f i g u r e to be conceived along s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l i n e s i s B i r j i n s k y , a d i s a p p o i n t e d s o c i a l i s t , who vows to become Monte C a r l o ' s angel of d e s t r u c t i o n (128,2^), and b e l i e v e s that death i s nothing but "Neid auf das Leben"(12 8,Z.) As i n the pre-war dramas, very l i t t l e can be s a i d about the women i n the post-war pla y s without seeing them i n r e l a t i o n to the men: i n s t e a d of t a l k i n g about themselves as 127 i n d i v i d u a l s , the female f i g u r e s t a l k about the r o l e of a woman with r e f e r e n c e to that of a man. In P l a t z , the s p i r i t u a l and the p h y s i c a l are s t i l l r egard-ed by the author as being f a l s e l y a n t i t h e t i c a l . 1 6 4 A l l three women lament t h e i r f a t e at the hands of men: Irene bemoans t h e i r l a c k of f a i t h i n the s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n s of a woman (159,PI.); Hyazinte d e c r i e s t h e i r r e s t r i c t i o n s on her sexu a l freedom (136,PI.); Bianka nurtures and actuates pro-miscuous thoughts about the men who ignore her, while outwardly wishing to appear chaste. A l l three wish to be "redeemed." Bianka i s the most c o n s i s t e n t l y grotesque f i g u r e . For the uneven balance between body and s p i r i t , she blames men and, by ext e n s i o n , the t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s : Das hat der Mann aus meinem F l e i s c h gemacht Zur D i e n e r i n v e r d o r r t , v e r u r t e i l t , he? (123,PI.) I n s o f a r as male domination i n a r i g o r o u s l y p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y has reduced her to s e r v i t u d e , Bianka i s an embodiment of the masses.165 U n l i k e Bianka, Hyazinte no longer attaches any value to t r a d i t i o n a l norms and v a l u e s . She recognizes them to be i n a s t a t e of decomposition and, i n s t e a d , advocates a way of l i f e i n which the sexual i n s t i n c t s are given f r e e r e i n . Much l i k e Wedekind's L u l u , she i s an a l l e g o r y of l u s t but, u n l i k e L u l u , Hyazinte i s a f i g u r e conceived along the l i n e s of s p e c i f i c contemporary s o c i a l trends and embodies the l i b i d i n a l i n s t i n c t s which the author sees r e l e a s e d by the post-World War One r e v o l u t i o n . 1 6 6 ^ concept of love which counters both suppression and u n r e s t r i c t e d freedom of the sexual d r i v e i s 128 i n c o r p o r a t e d by Irene; she seeks e q u a l i t y between s p i r i t and body, male and female, and, again by extension, between the government and i t s people. In Phaea, the l u d i c r o u s and s a d i s t i c Mia M o r e l l a i s con-t r a s t e d with the good-natured T o n i . Whereas the former i s a p r o s t i t u t e by nature, the l a t t e r i s a p r o s t i t u t e by circum-stance. However, n e i t h e r f i g u r e i s equipped with an i n s i g h t i n t o i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l background and, f o r t h i s reason, Mia i s merely a c l i c h e movie s t a r who meets a j u s t f a t e when she i s f i r e d by M o r r i s ; T o n i , i n her unaffectedness, i s no-t h i n g but a c h i l d of n a t u r e . 1 6 7 Although she knows that in the o u t s i d e world she i s "'n Armes Luder" (492,Ph.), and r e -cognizes the s t u d i o and i t s personnel as a sham, Toni s t i l l speaks of "die grosse Liebe" (473,Ph.), marriage (476,492,Ph.), and the concomitant "zwei Betten" (492,Ph.). This d i s c r e p a n c y demonstrates t h a t her u n a f f e c t e d nature i s merely n a i v e t e . 1 6 8 In T o n i , Unruh combines r e a l i s t i c techniques of c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l with symbolic ones; the former serves to demonstrate her frankness and openness and the l a t t e r makes her an embodiment of " l i f e , " a l l t o l d . J u s t as Mia M o r e l l a i s merely an a r t i f i c i a l movie-star and Toni i s simply the good and f a i t h f u l c h i l d of nature, the female f i g u r e s i n Zero have no i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r r o l e with r e f e r e n c e to the n e g a t i v e l y p o r t r a y e d environment e i t h e r . The r e s u l t of t h i s i s again that L i z z y , a mundane vamp, i s merely a vamp whose only goal i n l i f e i s money. The p r o s t i t u t e Anne, who throughout the t e x t b a t t l e s i n court a g a i n s t an 129 i n j u s t i c e 1 6 9 done to her and who draws a p a r a l l e l between Monte C a r l o and Sodom and Gomorrha ( 1 0 4 , ^ ) , suddenly v i n d i c a t e s l i f e towards the end of the work, basing t h i s on the unadorned p r i n c i p l e that "Jeder w i l l leben!" - "Gott hat den Tod n i c h t gemacht" (129,Z.) I t i s c l e a r that Unruh continues to p e r c e i v e h i s f i g u r e s i n the post-war dramas as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v o i c e s of contemporary s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s , without demonstrating through them the c o r r e l a t i o n between an i n d i v i d u a l and h i s environment. In t h i s he continues to p r a c t i c e a technique used by the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s , who dispense with m o t i v a t i o n or g e n e t i c f a c t o r s of a p e r s o n a l or environmental kind and r e j e c t the p r i n c i p l e of mimesis in the c r e a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r . 1 7 0 In the case of Unruh, however, i t means an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of techniques a l r e a d y used in the pre-war dramas: the heroes embody the idea or c o n v i c t i o n which i s to be r e a l i z e d or brought i n t o being, the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a u t h o r i t y again i n c o r p o r a t e that which i s to be overthrown; the remaining male f i g u r e s are e i t h e r t o t a l l y s u b s e r v i e n t to the present r u l e or f l o a t on the surface of s o c i e t y ; the female f i g u r e s are again c o n t r a s t e d and e i t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z e themselves in a manner i d e n t i c a l to that of the hero or h i s negative c o u n t e r p a r t s . In the post-war p l a y s , however, the f i g u r e s are reduced to the lowest common denominator. This i s achieved by a process of a b s t r a c t i o n and s t y l i z a t i o n which has i t s r o o t s l e s s i n the pre-war dramas than i n the works w r i t t e n during the war. 130 Although the heroes are r e l a t e d to t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s, the language they use i s a b s t r a c t e d and i s now devoid of any s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l framework. They no longer view an alignment with the past or the present - i n the form of war - as a c a t a l y s t i n the transcendence of s p i r i t over matter, but advocate the d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e goal of a d i s m i s s a l of a l l l i n k s w i t h the corrupted past and the negative present, i n favour of a r e t r e a t i n t o inwardness. By f u r n i s h i n g h i s p r o t a g o n i s t s w i t h an a b s t r a c t message of peace, l o v e , and " l i f e " , Unruh t h e r e f o r e j o i n s the ranks of the E x p r e s s i o n i s t s not only from a f o r m a l -t e c h n i c a l p o i n t of view, but a l s o from a thematic p e r s p e c t i v e . However, t h i s message becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to convey by the spoken word and causes the heroes to become p r o g r e s s i v e -l y l e s s a r t i c u l a t e . T h e i r p o s i t i o n i s n e v e r t h e l e s s v i n d i c a t e d by c o n t r a s t with the views held by o t h e r s . In the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a u t h o r i t y , Unruh demonstrates the c o l l a p s e of the t r a d i t i o n s of the past i n P l a t z , and i t s r e v i v a l i n Phaea and Zero, based on a complete r e v e r s a l of the t r a d i t i o n a l premises. Power i s now concentrated i n the hands of the wealthy few who c o n t r o l the a r i s t o c r a c y , the m i l i t a r y , and the middle and lower c l a s s e s a l i k e , by reducing them to e f f i g i e s . Whereas the supreme l o r d , the senator, and the count are embodiments of the o b j e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e of law and order, o l d age, and a r i s t o c r a t i c d e l u s i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e i r counter-p a r t s i n Phaea and Zero are stereotyped e i t h e r by t h e i r mate-r i a l wealth or by t h e i r subservience to i t . In a l l three 131 works these " t y p i c a l " t r a i t s are l u d i c r o u s l y exaggerated, e i t h e r i n the form of the grotesque, which exposes the u n n a t u r a l , s i n i s t e r sources of a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the past, or i n the form of c a r i c a t u r e , which only h i g h l i g h t s d e f e c t s and p e c u l i a r i t i e s . In each case, moreover, the f i g u r e s are d i s c r e d i t e d by the anachronism of t h e i r p o s i t i o n and the d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i r e l e v a t e d s o c i a l s t a t u s , b i z a r r e behaviour, and debased language. Debasement of language i s best e x e m p l i f i e d by S c h l e i c h , who i n c o r p o r a t e s the bourgeois opportunism of the present and who, i n not having the f o r c e s of t r a d i t i o n and convention at h i s command, even a t t a c k s the organic u n i t y of the German language. L i k e Wiesel and the o l d e s t son before him, S c h l e i c h experiences e v e r y t h i n g i n a s u p e r f i c i a l manner. In h i s c r a v i n g f o r power, he e x p l o i t s , p r o s t i t u t e s , and rapes the ideas of o t h e r s . The degree to which h i s sexual p e r v e r s i o n and that of the other negative f i g u r e s i s an encoded r e p r e s e n t a t i o n not only of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l a c k of s e l f - c o n t r o l , or of the sexual imbalance between man and woman, but of a p o l i t i c a l imbalance between the s t a t e and the i n d i v i d u a l , comes to the s u r f a c e i n an a n a l y s i s of those i n s t a n c e s i n which the f i g u r e s c h a r a c t e r i z e each o t h e r . 132 IV. RECIPROCAL CHARACTERIZATION Whereas su b j e c t and o b j e c t are i d e n t i c a l in a f i g u r e ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of s e l f , they are d i f f e r e n t when one f i g u r e c h a r a c t e r i z e s another. The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to d i s -cover how Unruh p r o g r e s s i v e l y transforms r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i -z a t i o n i n t o pure "Gesinnungsaussage," 7 1 which serves the polemic purpose of c o n f r o n t i n g opposing ideas and d i s t i n g u i s h -ing the a p p r o p r i a t e from the i n a p p r o p r i a t e , r e p r e h e n s i b l e ones. In view of Unruh's r e t r e a t from the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l , as r e f l e c t e d by h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n of some and the o b l i g u i t y or the d e l i b e r a t e d i s t o r t i o n i n h i s p o r t r a y a l of o t h e r s , t h i s w i l l e l u c i d i d a t e to what extent r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n serves to provoke the heroes to move towards t h e i r own c e n t r a l i t y . In f a c t , an a n a l y s i s of r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n w i l l r e v e a l that both major f i g u r e s and minor f i g u r e s - those who are c r u c i a l to the c e n t r a l a c t i o n and those who have only t a n g e n t i a l r e l a t i o n to i t - i n c r e a s i n g l y lose t h e i r indepen-dence in order to be p ortrayed as components w i t h i n the heroes, which they e i t h e r promote or transcend. This p a t t e r n begins i n the e a r l y p l a y s , culminates in the war works, and attenuates in the post-war dramas. In the pre-war p l a y s , Unruh d e f i n e s the heroes p r i m a r i l y by comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g them with t h e i r c h i e f opponents: the mayors and c l e r g y in Jurgen Wullenweber, the c o l o n e l i n O f f i z i e r e , and the king and h i s a d v i s o r s i n L o u i s Ferdinand. In each work, the antagonism between them i s presented in the 133 form of a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d g e n e r a t i o n c o n f l i c t between " f a t h e r " and "son," which centres around an e q u a l l y t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u g g l e between duty and i n c l i n a t i o n . Whereas the " f a t h e r - s o n " c o n f l i c t i s r e l e g a t e d to a s u b - p l o t i n Jurgen Wullenweber, i t i s the g r a v i t a t i o n a l centre i n both O f f i z i e r e and L o u i s  Ferdinand. The p r o t a g o n i s t s e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own s u p e r i o r i t y by c h a r a c t e r i z i n g those i n power i n such a manner as to expose e i t h e r t h e i r indolence or t h e i r anachronism. In Jurgen  Wullenweber, the t i t l e hero i s not even f u r n i s h e d with an adversary worthy of him. The r u l i n g mayors are imprisoned before t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s are developed beyond the one-sided and are r e p l a c e d by an even more c o r r u p t mayor, a f t e r Jtirgen has al r e a d y withdrawn from the p o l i t i c a l arena. The bishop's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Jtirgen as a mere "Kaufmann" (76,J.W.) d i c t a t o r , and a n t i - C h r i s t (77,J.W.), in turn, immediately d i s s o l v e s the c r e d i b i l i t y of the C a t h o l i c Church, r a t h e r than shed l i g h t on Jdrgen's c h a r a c t e r . Disparaged by a s i m i l a r means i s Joachim von Gereken, who c o n s i d e r s JUrgen's supposed se d u c t i o n of Thyra, Gereken's daughter, to be i d e n t i c a l to h i s undermining of t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e by charming the masses. To him, Jtirgen i s Satan (143,J.W.) i n d i s g u i s e ; i n t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with him, t h i s makes Thyra and the masses the d e v i l ' s paramours. In L o u i s Ferdinand, the l e a s t worthy opponents of the t i t l e hero are the king's a d v i s o r s - Lombard, Haugwitz, and Braunschweig - with whose o l d age, f r e n c h i f i c a t i o n , and 134 l i b e r t i n a g e the p r i n c e e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r a s t s . The p r i n c e ' s r e a l antipode i s h i s cousin the k i n g . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the king attempts to r e l a t i v i z e the p r i n c e ' s h e r o i c s t a t u r e i n a manner v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l to Gereken's defamation of the t i t l e hero in Jurgen Wullenweber by c a l l i n g him a " S c h r e i e r " (165,J.W.), in whose eyes " l e u c h t e t die niedere Ehrung des Pflbels nach" (166,J.W.). The k i n g , however, i s no match f o r the i d e a l i z e d p r i n c e ; he could only have been an equal p a r t n e r i f the king's humanitarianism and advocacy f o r peace had been as c o n v i n c i n g as the p r i n c e ' s v i n d i c a t i o n of war. The anta-gonism between them n e v e r t h e l e s s develops along the l i n e s of a " c l a s s i c a l " agon, i n s o f a r as the p r i n c e renews h i s l o y a l t y to the king and r e s o l v e s the c o n f l i c t between duty and i n c l i n a t i o n on a "higher" plane of r e a l i t y , by dying a death on the b a t t l e -f i e l d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between E r n s t and the c o l o n e l i n O f f i z i e r e i s c o n v e n t i o n a l to an extreme. The c o l o n e l c a l l s E r n s t h i s son or "mein Junge" and E r n s t , i n t u r n , c a l l s him "raein V ater." The " f a t h e r " has great plans f o r h i s "son," but demands s t r i c t obedience; the "son" wants to please the " f a t h e r , " but i n s i s t s on h i s own r i g h t s as w e l l . At the end of the drama, t h i s leads to E r n s t ' s death and a b e l a t e d i n s i g h t on the p a r t of the c o l o n e l i n t o the j u s t i c e of E r n s t ' s d e e d . I 7 2 To E r n s t , the c o l o n e l i s the m i l i t a r y system p e r s o n i f i e d . T h i s makes him speak with a passion of which even the c o l o n e l disapproves, and which earns him the r e p u t a t i o n of being a "Schwarmer" (413,Off.). 135 A p a t t e r n may be observed which shows that the degree to which the opponents are e i t h e r s t y l i z e d n e g a t i v e l y (as i n Jurgen Wullenweber), p o s i t i v e l y (as i n O f f i z i e r e ) or both (as i n L ouis Ferdinand) depends on t h e i r competency i n c h a r a c t e r i -z i n g the hero adequately, and i s a d i r e c t s i g n of the p o t e n t i a l f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n of the system of a u t h o r i t y f o r which they stand. By p r e s e n t i n g the c o n f l i c t between the r u l i n g f i g u r e s and the p r o t a g o n i s t i n the form of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between " f a t h e r " and "son", which becomes more and more i n t i m a t e , the dramatist c o n c u r r e n t l y i n d i c a t e s that the hero i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a l i z e s the e x t e r n a l system of law and o r d e r . A reverse trend may be observed i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the hero and h i s f o l l o w e r s . In Jurgen Wullenweber, the t i t l e hero seeks to expand h i s v i s i o n outwardly by seeking favour with the masses. He hears them out, g i v e s them time to voice t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s , and uses a s u b t l e form of i r o n y - which i s l a t e r r e p l a c e d by b l a -t a n t sarcasm - i n order to arouse t h e i r emotions. His "Schwung nach oben" (24,J.W.) i s soon recognized as a s i n c e r e d e s i r e to f i g h t f o r the cause of "humanity" against a r b i t r a r y r u l e and o p p r e s s i o n . His success seems assured a f t e r the c o b b l e r i n s i s t s that the people swear undivided a l l e g i a n c e to Jtirgen alone. U n l i k e Jtirgen, who woos the masses and seeks support from them by demagogic means, the p r i n c e i n Louis Ferdinand i s apotheosized as a l e a d e r from the beginning. L i k e Goethe's Egmont, he i s the d a r l i n g of a l l . His name i s "im Mund der 136 Menge" (65,L.F.) and i s engraved as a " S c h l a c h t r u f " (125,L.F.) on the swordblades of the e n t i r e regiment. The pages a l s o do t h e i r share i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the aura of the p r i n c e , by s a t i r i z i n g the proceedings of the king's court i n a s k i t . 1 7 3 The a r t i s t s or " p r o g r e s s i v e " r e a c t i o n a r i e s of the drama, i n t u r n , admire the p r i n c e l e s s f o r h i s a c t i o n s than f o r h i s " a t h e r i s c h e Phantasie" (152,L.F.). In t h e i r company the p r i n c e consigns h i s d i s c o n t e n t with the world to o b l i v i o n -" S i c h einmauern l a s s e n ! Und spinnen mit Euch!" (152,L.F.) -and threatens to become a "Talmiheld", as Harry K e s s l e r s u g g e s t s , 1 7 4 j u s t as the a r t i s t s and the king are counter-f e i t f i g u r e s . The hero in O f f i z i e r e i s f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d nega-t i v e l y by o t h e r s . He i s envied only when he captures ten Hereros on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e ( 407,Off.). Harry a p p r o p r i a t e l y c a l l s Ernst a "verrttckte Schraube" (325,Off.) and E r n s t , i n t u r n , h e a r t i l y disapproves of Harry's seemingly lax morals and compulsive gambling. To the v a r i e t y of names given to E r n s t a l r e a d y , M i s t e r adds " u l k i g e r Kauz" (402,Off.) and "Ernst mit seinem Feuerkopf!" (405,Off.). However, s i n c e M i s t e r s u f f e r s from i n e r t i a and p e r s o n a l defeat and s i n c e the p u r s u i t s of the other o f f i c e r s are put in a q u e s t i o n a b l e l i g h t , Ernst emerges as a more p o s i t i v e f i g u r e , r a t h e r than s u f f e r i n g from t h i s defamation of c h a r a c t e r . Those who c o n t r i b u t e the most to the p e r s o n a l i t y c u l t of the heroes in the pre-war p l a y s are t h e i r primary a l l i e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between them i s the t r a d i t i o n a l one between hero 137 and c o n f i d a n t , and serves a r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n of p r e s e n t i n g monologue i n dialogue f o r m . 1 7 5 Unruh p o r t r a y s Jtirgen i n such a f a s h i o n as to make him an h e r o i c f i g u r e who n e v e r t h e l e s s has human w e a k n e s s e s . 1 7 6 In order not to d e v i a t e from the path of d e s t i n y , f a t e has put Marx Meier at h i s si d e whose primary purpose i t i s to give Jtirgen, a successor to N i e t z s c h e ' s "schone B e s t i e , " the o c c a s i o n a l push: Denn einen Sporn, der s i c h i n meine Flanken grMbt, wenn Zagheit vor der Grosse mich b e s c h l e i c h t , den brauch i c h , Marxl (65,J.W.) I n s t a n t l y i n s p i r e d by Jtirgen's "Herrscherton" (62,J.W.), Marx becomes an e f f e c t i v e propagandist and urges support f o r him i n q u a s i - b i b l i c a l language: Ihr braucht i n d i e s e r Stunde einen Mann, der a l l s e i n B l u t mit Freuden ftir Euch o p f e r t , - s e i n B l u t - und auch noch mehr. (126,J.W.) . . . drum glaubt an ihn und fdgt Euch seinem W i l l e n ! (126,J.W.) Marx Meier only acknowledges Jilrgen's h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s and conceals h i s human f r a i l t i e s . In O f f i z i e r e , the unscrupulous Harry von Henner urges the hero to a c t . The d i f f e r e n c e between them i s brought out most c l e a r l y i n a v e r b a l d u e l , which forms the g r a v i t a t i o n a l centre of the f o u r t h a c t . Here E r n s t ' s dreamy d i s p o s i t i o n forms a c o n t r a s t to Harry's s o c i a l l y - D a r w i n i s t i c "Pack am Schopf, was du kriegen kannst" (427,0ff.) a t t i t u d e : E r n s t : Uns Lenkt eine Macht, ob wir am Ztigel k n i r s c h e n oder n i c h t . Glaub mir! Harry: An deinen Bauch glaub, wenn er k n u r r t . An den Arm, wenn du ihn spannst. (427,0ff.) 138 In the act of saving the l i v e s of h i s men, Ernst i s neverthe-l e s s able to a s s e r t himself i n a manner suggested by Harry, without g i v i n g up h i s b e l i e f i n the s u p e r i o r power and duty which guide him as an i n s p i r e d i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s compromise i s no longer tenable i n L o u i s Ferdinand, i n which Wiesel reminds the t i t l e hero of h i s unique and great p e r s o n a l i t y . L i k e h i s predecessor Marx Meier, Wiesel urges support f o r the hero by demagogic means. In doing so, however, he f a i l s to a l i g n h i m s e l f with the i d e a l s which form the very b a s i s of the p r i n c e ' s s u p e r i o r i t y , thereby robbing himself of h i s own e x i s t e n c e . U n l i k e Marx and Harry i n the p r e v i o u s two p l a y s , who r e t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y as more or l e s s independent f i g u r e s , Wiesel i s a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the demagogic, "bourgeois"- 1-'' component of the a r i s t o c r a t i c c e n t r a l f i -gure. Whereas the p e r s o n a l i t y of the t i t l e hero i n Jurgen  Wullenweber remains u n d i v i d e d , that of Louis Ferdinand i s , t h e r e f o r e , d i v i d e d i n t o c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s which c o n t r a d i c t each other. As a mode of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , t h i s f e a t u r e i s a l r e a d y p r e f i g u r e d i n the f i r s t p l a y , i n which Jurgen suddenly r e l i n q u i s h e s h i s l e a d e r s h i p of the masses. The degree to which the p r o t a g o n i s t i n Jurgen  Wullenweber becomes a u t h o r i t a r i a n and d i c t a t o r i a l i s propor-t i o n a l to the o p p o s i t i o n he meets from the c i t i z e n s . When the people complain about the d r a i n of money and human l i v e s i n war, Jurgen defends h i s own p o s i t i o n , by p o i n t i n g out the d i s c r e p a n c y between h i s own l o f t y i d e a l s and t h e i r demand f o r 139 peace, food, and p h y s i c a l comfort. In using wind imagery (120, J .W. ) to d e s c r i b e the f i c k l e n e s s of the masses, Jilrgen suddenly shares the a r i s t o c r a t i c von Gereken's negative o p i n i o n of them (43,J.W.).178 jUrgen continues to uphold h i s own e l i t i s t - a r i s t o c r a t i c world view u n t i l the end of the drama, and he c o n f e r s upon Gemot the p r i v i l e g e of dying a s o l d i e r ' s death f o r him by f i g h t i n g back the "Pobel" (142,J.W.), e x c l a i m i n g : B e f r e i e n w o l l t i c h Euch fttrs Leben, - j e t z t macht mich f r e i von Euch - - - - - -gebt mir - den T o d e s s t r e i c h ! (144,J.W.) Jtirgen t h e r e f o r e d i s s o c i a t e s h i m s e l f completely from the masses, a f t e r they turn a g a i n s t him, and becomes t h e i r martyr. Louis Ferdinand's h e r o i c s t a t u r e r e s t s on degradation of the masses as w e l l . He uses a whip, f o r i n s t a n c e , to c l e a r a passage through a crowd of w e l l - w i s h e r s who " k r e i s c h t e n wie ein Schwarm S i n g v o g e l , unter den eine Eule geflogen war" (128,J.W.). Although he i n i t i a l l y appears to need the support of the people, he suddenly r e j e c t s them a l t o g e t h e r upon r e c o g n i z i n g h i s p o t e n t i a l s e l f i n the f i g u r e of Napoleon. Napoleon does not need to be shown on stage in order to evoke f e a r and awe, s i n c e a l r e a d y h i s reported presence alone makes the world stand s t i l l (215,L.F.). Upon seeing him, the p r i n c e i s overcome with a m y t h i c a l s h u d d e r , 1 7 9 because he r e c o g n i z e s i n him the kind of hero that he should have or would have been but which, at the same time, he could not be. From an a r i s t o c r a t i c p o i n t of view, the p r i n c e r e j e c t s Napoleon's omnipotence, by viewing i t as the product of an enslavement of 140 the masses to a strong i n d i v i d u a l , and renews h i s l o y a l t y to the k i n g : "Kfinig! Mein Kftnig...(Ab)" (216,L.F.). A f t e r the p r i n c e ' s unnerving c o n f r o n t a t i o n with Napoleon, h i s p o t e n t i a l s e l f , he c o n c u r r e n t l y d i s s o c i a t e s h i m s e l f from the masses and h i s a l l i e s and d i s s o l v e s h i s symbiotic r e l a t i o n -s h i p with W i e s e l . He can now only c a s t aside the Wiesel-component w i t h i n h i m s e l f , which was f o r c i n g him to deny h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c h e r i t a g e i n the f i r s t p l a c e : L o u i s Ferdinand: S p r i c h s t du von mir? W i e s e l : G i b t es sonst e i n Gesprach? L o u i s Ferdinand: Guter, voneinander mussen wir doch. Wiesel: Wie? Louis Ferdinand: Deine Hand? Wiesel: E i , das h i e s s e d i e Sonne s p a l t e n . Louis Ferdinand: Ich f u h l e es, Wachsen zum Hflchsten f o r d e r t von uns e i n ewiges Sichtre n n e n . Lebwohl, Wiesel! (221-222,L.F.) Since Wiesel only i n c o r p o r a t e s the demagogic q u a l i t i e s of the c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r , he recognizes h i s own s u p e r f l u o u s n e s s f o l l o w i n g the p r i n c e ' s r e j e c t i o n of the crown and d e c i s i o n to d i e i n b a t t l e . He can n e i t h e r f o l l o w the p r i n c e , nor can he keep on l i v i n g ; h i s r a t i o l a c k s the body of the p r i n c e . Unruh c o n t r a s t s the death of Louis Ferdinand with that of W i e s e l : the e c s t a s y with which the p r i n c e faces death e l u c i d a t e s Wiesel's n o t h i n g n e s s . 1 8 0 U n l i k e the hero's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of those in p o l i t i c a l power, whose i d e o l o g i e s and views of l i f e he i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a l i z e s and regenerates, h i s changing p e r c e p t i o n of h i s f o l l o w e r s and a l l i e s and h i s p r o g r e s s i v e d i s s o c i a t i o n from them 141 t h e r e f o r e s i g n a l the v a r i o u s stages of h i s development. T h i s reduces the independence of both the former and the l a t t e r f i -gures to p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of components w i t h i n the hero, which he e i t h e r promotes or transcends. The purpose of p r e s e n t i n g the f i g u r e s as " A b s p a l t u n g e n " 1 8 1 of the p r o t a g o n i s t s can be most c l e a r l y d i s c e r n e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i n -c i p a l f i g u r e s and the female c h a r a c t e r s , s i n c e i t i s with r e -ference to them that the p o l i t i c a l and the personal strands of the p l o t merge i n t o one. L i k e the masses i n Jurgen Wullenweber, Mala i s most i n -t e r e s t e d i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n of immediate m a t e r i a l and p h y s i c a l needs. In f i n d i n g JrJrgen "so s c h r e c k l i c h schon wie L u z i f e r , / des L i c h t e s Trager und der F i n s t e r n i s . . . " (72,J.W.), her f e e l i n g s epitomize i n sexual form the i n t o x i c a -t i o n of the masses with the h e r o i c nimbus which surrounds the t i t l e hero. She deludes h e r s e l f , moreover, in the b e l i e f that Jurgen could e l e v a t e and improve her being: " i c h f u h l s -Du konntest mich erheben, b e s s e r n , / r e i n i g e n , - wie C h r i s t u s e i n s t der Ehebrecherin/vergeben - so b l i c k i c h auf zu D i r ! (139,J.W.). Marx Meier only h i n t s at an analogy between Jurgen and C h r i s t ; Mala draws a d i r e c t p a r a l l e l . In L o u i s Ferdinand, Pauline Wiesel i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a p r o t o t y p e of the masses. The p r i n c e himself draws a t t e n t i o n to the resemblance between them as he contemplates p i c t u r e s of p r e v i o u s m i s t r e s s e s : (Wahrend er die B i l d e r o r d n e t ) : Sie sehen s i c h doch a l l e a h n l i c h ! - A l l e ? (Hebt die Mtttzen auf.) 142 Eure Augen! Meine stinkenden, g e l i e b t e n Burger. (133 fL.F.) In the p r i n c e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n with h i s former m i s t r e s s P a u l i n e , the author t h e r e f o r e again makes v i s i b l e a stage i n the hero's l i f e which he has now outgrown. His r e j e c t i o n of her concur-r e n t l y marks the end of h i s c o u r t i n g of - and devotion to - the masses, whose p e t t y and m a t e r i a l i s t i c concerns and p u r s u i t s he 1 8 2 now suddenly views as a d e m o r a l i z a t i o n of h i s m i s s i o n . In r e j e c t i n g Mala and P a u l i n e , the t i t l e heroes a l i g n themselves with Thyra and the queen: the former teach them what love i s not; the l a t t e r demonstrate to them the essence of l o v e . With the people, Thyra shares the " d e l u s i o n " of the C a t h o l i c b e l i e f but, u n l i k e them, she r e t a i n s her b e l i e f i n J t i r g e n . 1 8 3 Although she does not demonize the power which he holds over her, as Mala does, she n e v e r t h e l e s s t r a n s f i g u r e s h i s h e r o i c s t a t u r e . Haunted by f e e l i n g s of g u i l t and equipped with an imagination e n l i v e n e d by a strong C a t h o l i c f a i t h , she reaches a s t a t e of e c s t a s y upon seeing Jtirgen and h i s f o l l o w e r s enter the church and s t e a l i t s t r e a s u r e s : seht dort h i n . . . ...Eine P r o z e s s i o n - d i e Kirchenfahnen wallen -Ziehen durch d i e L u f t - (50,J.W.) Such a s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of an e s s e n t i a l l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y act i s no doubt meant to r e v e a l Thyra's innate innocence and p i e t y , but exposes a s i m i l a r rapturous displacement of emotion as Mala's hero-worship. To the one, Jurgen i s a s a i n t and to the other he i s L u c i f e r ; to both he appears powerful and e x a l t e d . U n l i k e Mala, however, Thyra undergoes a development in the drama and t h i s s h i f t s the emphasis from b l i n d submission i n 143 matters of love to r e c i p r o c i t y . I n i t i a l l y , she d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between body and s p i r i t and i n s i s t s on the s p i r i t u a l with an adamance to r i v a l that of Mala's i n s i s t e n c e on the p h y s i c a l . To counter such a d i v i s i o n , Jurgen v o i c e s a tenet which i s to become c e n t r a l to Unruh's thought, namely the harmony of "Korper - Seele - G e i s t " (86,J.W.), which can be brought about when "zweier Menschen L e i b / und Seele s i c h verschmelzen" - (141,J.W.). The d i f f e r e n c e s between hero and heroine are r e s o l v e d when Thyra admits to him: "was Du a l s Mann in wildem, offnem Wort gewunscht,/ i n meinem Busen trug i c h es a l s g l e i c h e n Wunsch - - - " (141,J.W.). She, too, has now been r a i s e d to the l e v e l of the t i t l e hero and confesses that she now b e l i e v e s (133,J.W.) only i n him. It i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t that a f t e r the people l o s e i n t e r e s t i n Jurgen and he, i n t u r n , i s bored (122,J.W.) with them, he becomes as a u t h o r i t a r i a n with Thyra as he i s with the c i t i z e n s of Ltibeck. T h i s process begins when he i n s i s t s that Thyra swear a l l e g i a n c e to h i s God (34,J.W.); l a t e r he demands t h a t she i s to become h i s alone - " i c h muss Dich ganz b e s i t z e n " (87,J.W.) - and then l i t e r a l l y s e i z e s hold of her. Even with her he demands t o t a l submission; the type of i d e a l love which Jurgen envisages i s o b j e c t i v e l y nothing more than male dominance over the female. The trend i n Unruh's work which shows the p o s i t i v e female f i g u r e as the pole towards which the hero s t r i v e s continues i n L o u i s Ferdinand, with r e f e r e n c e to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r i n c e and the queen. As a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of P r u s s i a , the 144 queen i s v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as " g o t t l i c h e Frau" (129,L.F.), "hone Frau" (186,L.F.), and as "der S t o l z der Weiber" (136,L.F.). In h i s love f o r her, which bears a l l the d i s t i n -g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of the o e d i p a l but more s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i g n a l s h i s realignment with P r u s s i a n i d e a l s , the p r i n c e f e e l s "nur Harmonie" ( 1 8 9 , L . F . ) ; 1 8 4 t h i s harmony i s to become "der Weg f u r Preussens F r e i h e i t ! " (190,L.F.). In O f f i z i e r e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the hero and the p o s i t i v e l y p o r t r a y e d female f i g u r e p l a y s a secondary r o l e . Whereas i n L o u i s Ferdinand i t i s her marriage to the king which prevents the p r i n c e ' s love f o r the queen from developing beyond the p l a t o n i c , Ernst i s known p r i m a r i l y f o r h i s apparent lack of i n t e r e s t in Hedwig, the c o l o n e l ' s daughter. He only d i s p l a y s a strong a f f e c t i o n f o r her a f t e r he has volunteered f o r s e r v i c e . Rather than d e l i b e r a t e l y exclude Hedwig from h i s l i f e , however, Erns t merely r e j e c t s Hedwig's i d e a l of matrimonial b l i s s and transcends the e s s e n t i a l l y p r i v a t e aspect of t h e i r love by dying a v i c t o r i o u s death on the b a t t l e f i e l d , thereby t a k i n g the essence of love with him i n t o the cosmic s p h e r e . 1 8 5 From Jurgen Wullenweber to L o u i s Ferdinand and O f f i z i e r e the love of the hero f o r the p o s i t i v e l y p o rtrayed female f i g u r e t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s i n g l y becomes a r e f l e c t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l i d e a l s to which he s t r i v e s . I t i s not a man's love f o r woman as an independent being, which Unruh p o r t r a y s , but a man's love f o r the n a t i o n a l i d e a l s i n c o r p o r a t e d by her; i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , she i s an embodiment of the " s p i r i t u a l " q u a l i t i e s w i t h i n h i m s e l f . The degree to which the female f i g u r e s become 145 p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s independent beings i s , i n f a c t , p r o p o r t i o n a l to the i n c r e a s i n g l y p o s i t i v e p o r t r a y a l of the " f a t h e r " f i g u r e s : those in p o l i t i c a l or n a t i o n a l power. In Jtirgen Wullenweber, the negative p o r t r a y a l of Joachim von Gereken f o r c e s Jtirgen to dream of matrimonial b l i s s with Thyra o u t s i d e of the s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l realm; i n L o u i s Ferdinand, the king i s por-trayed as having some q u a l i t i e s which demonstrate a p o t e n t i a l f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n and, as a r e s u l t , l e s s emphasis i s put on the r e a l i z a t i o n of the p r i n c e ' s goals w i t h i n the p r i v a t e sphere of marriage; s i n c e the c o l o n e l i n O f f i z i e r e i s a p o s i t i v e f i g u r e , who l e a r n s to accept E r n s t ' s deed and even rewards him f o r i t , E r n s t i s able to f u l f i l h i m s e l f by r e g e n e r a t i n g the m i l i t a r y system and c o n s c i o u s l y r e j e c t s marriage a l t o g e t h e r . T h i s p a t t e r n i s c a r r i e d to i t s c o n c l u s i o n i n the works completed durin g the war, i n which the p u r s u i t of p r i v a t e f u l f i l m e n t i s t o t a l l y e c l i p s e d by a search f o r f u l f i l m e n t w i t h i n an e x t e r n a l s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and n a t i o n a l framework. Emphasis on r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s h i f t s and v a r i e s i n each of the war works. In Vor der Entscheidung i t i s one-s i d e d , s i n c e a l l the secondary f i g u r e s e x i s t to demonstrate the q u a l i t i e s of the p r i n c i p a l f i g u r e ; i n the prosework Opfergang, r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t ; i n E i n  G eschlecht i t i s used as r h e t o r i c a l evidence which serves to i l l u s t r a t e the i d e o l o g i e s and views of l i f e brought out i n the c e n t r a l d i s p u t e between the f i g u r e s . 146 The purpose of the a n t i t h e t i c a l p o r t r a y a l of the uhlan and the v o l u n t e e r i n Vor der Entscheidung i s to provide the uhlan's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n with a negative backdrop. As a p a i r they are r e m i n i s c e n t of the duos i n the e a r l i e r p l a y s , but, because of t h e i r t y p o l o g i c a l r o l e s , t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e i s r e -duced to embodying but b a s i c i d e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . 1 8 6 However, the s p l i t t i n g of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y , that i s , the way one outgrows the other, i s much c l e a r e r in the e a r l y v e r s i o n of the work than i n the l a t e r one, i n which they are simply c o n t r a s t e d . Upon seeing the v o l u n t e e r at the beginning of the e a r l y v e r s i o n , the uhlan wonders: Sooft i c h ihn e r b l i c k , Empfind i c h Schmerz und L u s t . Verkflrpert er e i n Gltick, Das f l i e h t aus meiner Brust? (11,V.d.E.I) No such envy f o r the d i s p o s i t i o n of the v o l u n t e e r i s evident i n the l a t e r v e r s i o n , i n which p r e c i s e l y those l i n e s are d e l e t e d which suggest that the v o l u n t e e r represents a stage i n the• uhlan's l i f e which he i s now outgrowing. In both v e r s i o n s of the work, the volunteer accuses the uhlan of v a n i t y and l o s s of touch with r e a l i t y . The uhlan c r i t i c i z e s him, i n t u r n , f o r the c o n t r a d i c t o r y l i f e - d e a t h wish, which the v o l u n t e e r i n h e r i t s from h i s predecessors Ernst von S c h l i c h t i n g and Louis Ferdinand i n the pre-war p l a y s : Das w i l l n i c h t mehr leben, Das w i l l nur den S i e g : Den F r i e d e n erheben Vom b l u t i g s t e n K r i e g . (90,V.d.E.II) 147 What the v o l u n t e e r l a c k s i n the e a r l y v e r s i o n i s , however, something e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n the l a t e r one: i n the former, the uhlan accuses him of a lack of "Seele" (25,V.d.E.I), which makes him apostrophize h i s own courage and lose s i g h t of the "higher" goals f o r which the war i s fought; i n the l a t t e r , the v o l u n t e e r i s reproached f o r a want of "Gewissen" (26,V.d.E.II), a lack of compassion and regard f o r human l i f e . In the course of r e v i s i o n , the relevance of the volunteer t h e r e f o r e changes i n accordance with the a l t e r e d consciousness - and conscience -of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . The v o l u n t e e r ' s death marks a d e c i s i v e step forward i n the completion of the uhlan's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Just as Wiesel i s superseded by the p r i n c e i n L o u i s Ferdinand, the v o l u n t e e r i s supplanted by the uhlan and thereby l o s e s the b a s i s of h i s e x i s t e n c e . Although Unruh d e l e t e s the uhlan's l i n e s " o f t sann' i c h , wenn der l i e b e Junge f311t,/0b i c h ihn trauernd wtird' i n s Grab wohl legen?"(27,V.d.E.I) in the l a t e r t e x t , the uhlan n e v e r t h e l e s s proceeds to dub the v o l u n t e e r h i s " G o t t e s s t r e i t e r " (89,V.d.E.II) and to regard h i s death on the b a t t l e f i e l d as a death of a t o n e m e n t : 1 8 7 Den Funken, der die wunde Brust Solang i n h e i s s e n Atem zwang -Warfst du i n junger H e l d e n l u s t Zurttck i n seinen Flammenfang. Wie hebt d e i n Opfertod d i c h r e i n Und rtihrend auf zu Gottes Fttssen! (126,V.d.E.II) D i e t e r Kasang's twofold i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v o l u n t e e r ' s death i s apt. F i r s t of a l l , i t f o l l o w s l o g i c a l l y from the volun-t e e r ' s s u b j e c t i v e euphoria, i n which he p a r a d o x i c a l l y hopes to 148 s a t i s f y h i s intense longing f o r l i f e i n death; second, the v o l u n t e e r ' s death i m p l i e s the h i s t o r i c a l end of t h i s paradox-i c a l l i f e - d e a t h wish as the primary motive f o r the m i l i t a n c y of the German a r m y . 1 8 8 With t h i s h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , Unruh t h e r e f o r e c o r r e c t s h i s philosophy i n the e a r l i e r p l a y s : the s u b j e c t i v e stance of the v o l u n t e e r , which was not yet put to the t e s t before the war, i s r e p l a c e d by that of the uhlan which develops under a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s of combat. With the continued and i n c r e a s e d process of a b s t r a c t i o n i n the l a t e r v e r s i o n of the work, which h i n t s at a r e j e c t i o n of war a l t o g e t h e r in favour of a r e g e n e r a t i o n of mankind which transcends n a t i o n a l boundaries, the v o l u n t e e r ' s death appears then to i n d i c a t e the v i c t o r y over man's compulsion to war i t s e l f , based on a l i f e devoted to peace. I t i s important that the uhlan's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v o l u n t e e r c r e a t e s the relevance of t h i s f i g u r e i n the f i r s t p l a c e . 1 8 9 The v o l u n t e e r does not lead an e x i s t e n c e independent of that of the uhlan, and only the uhlan's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of him a t t r i b u t e s to him a thematic s i g n i f i c a n c e r e l e v a n t to the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . T h i s a p p l i e s to a l l of the f i g u r e s with whom the uhlan i s c o n f r o n t e d . Among these are a host of war e n t h u s i a s t s who embody c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i d e o l o g i e s i d e n t i c a l to those of the v o l u n -t e e r and serve to guide the uhlan's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n by t h e i r ne-g a t i v e example. In 1914 he f e a r s that t h e i r s p o n t aneity may not bear up a g a i n s t genuine b a t t l e c o n d i t i o n s ; i n 1919 t h e i r 149 enthusiasm i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a lack of reverence f o r l i f e . An ou t s t a n d i n g example of t h i s form of s t y l i z a t i o n i s the a d a p t a t i o n of the f i g u r e of K l e i s t . In the v e r s i o n of 1919, K l e i s t appears no longer p r i m a r i l y as j u s t another r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of y o u t h f u l impetuosity, but as the i d o l of German c h a u v i n i s m , 1 9 0 who exclaims to the uhlan: "Brennend vor Wut und L u s t / Schlug meine Zahne i c h / T i e f i n die Welsche B r u s t - / Liebe zerkampfte i c h ! / " (104,V.d.E.II). In order to adapt K l e i s t to h i s new message of peace and love, Unruh t h e r e f o r e p o r t r a y s him n e g a t i v e l y , thereby f u r n i s h i n g the uhlan with a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of war: namely, i t s b e l l i g e r e n c e . 1 9 1 The group of f i g u r e s which serves to guide the uhlan by i t s p o s i t i v e example i s much more d i v e r s i f i e d . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the uhlan draws no d i s t i n c t i o n between f i g u r e s and types obser-vable i n e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y and those of an " u n r e a l , " m y s t i c a l , and m y t h i c a l sphere; the advice given by a P r u s s i a n p r i n c e , a g e n e r a l , and s e v e r a l mothers i s to him as v a l i d as that of " s p i r i t s " or a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s . In the v e r s i o n of 1914, a l l of them embody the idea or concept of a s a c r i f i c e of s e l f or a loved one f o r the cause of the f a t h e r l a n d ; i n the l a t e r t e x t , the sorrow they i n c o r p o r a t e i s regarded as the supreme proof of the f u t i l i t y of a death on the b a t t l e f i e l d . T h i s s t y l i z a t i o n i s achieved.by v a r i o u s means. Unruh de-l e t e s those f i g u r e s which convince the uhlan of the world m i s s i o n of P r u s s i a i n the v e r s i o n of 1914. Among them are a P r u s s i a n p r i n c e and a host of g h o s t - l i k e , s u p e r n a t u r a l 150 c r e a t u r e s , which demonstrate that Unruh o r i g i n a l l y conceived of the work i n terms of an alignment with Faust I I . 1 9 2 The gene r a l i s presented i n a l e s s s t o i c manner i n the l a t e r t e x t ; he no longer speaks of "die grosse Sache" (55,V.d.E.I) but mourns the death of h i s only son. The s p i r i t of Shakespeare, i n t u r n , i s s t y l i z e d as a l i f e - a f f i r m i n g f i g u r e with p a c i f i s t t r a i t s , who now imparts the wisdom that "war i s the p r i n c i p l e that i s f o r e v e r opposed to a r t and that war i s the p r o d i g a l waste of a r t ' s i r r e p l a c e a b l e raw m a t e r i a l : the human i n d i v i d u a l . " 1 9 3 ^ r e l a t e d b e l i e f i n the values of peace i s g r a f t e d upon the three p a t r i o t i c females i n the l a t e r t e x t . 1 9 ^ F i n a l l y , the a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e of "Trauer" who, i n 1914, reminds the uhlan that human f u l f i l m e n t must needs be preceded by a p e r i o d of g r i e f , i s a b s t r a c t e d and designated as a " v e r h u l l t e G e s t a l t " , a v e i l e d female f i g u r e whose symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e i s e q u a l l y m a s k e d . 1 9 5 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between her and the uhlan n e v e r t h e l e s s continues to be that of master and p u p i l ; as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of "higher", m y t h i c a l powers, the sorrow and p i t y which she i n c o r p o r a t e s are now meant to turn the uhlan away from war and to focus h i s a t t e n t i o n i n s t e a d on human f u l f i l m e n t i n g e n e r a l . The t h i r d group of f i g u r e s with which the uhlan i s con-f r o n t e d c o n s i s t s of v i c t i m s of war and represents a c r o s s - s e c -t i o n of wartime s o c i e t y . The reason f o r the appearance of these f i g u r e s i s based on the same p r i n c i p l e as that of a l l the o t h e r s : they serve to make v i s i b l e a stage in the uhlan's own development. T h e i r madness and grotesque behaviour i n the 151 i n i t i a l h a l f of the e a r l y v e r s i o n represent a p o t e n t i a l stage of the uhlan himself and provide him with the i n i t i a t i v e to d i s c o v e r the essence of war, which these f i g u r e s were unable to f i n d . In the l a t t e r h a l f , the uhlan's c o n f r o n t a t i o n s with them no longer serve to measure the degree of h i s estrangement but, aided by the advice given to him by the P r u s s i a n p r i n c e , the g e n e r a l , Shakespeare, and o t h e r s , to i n d i c a t e that he has overcome and transcended h i s former s e l f . The degree to which a l l of these secondary f i g u r e s depend f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e and meaning on the consciousness of the hero i s , once again, brought out most c l e a r l y by comparison with the r e v i s e d t e x t : from grotesque f i g u r e s , the v i c t i m s of war turn i n t o f i g u r e s to be p i t i e d , not because t h e i r behaviour or speech i s any d i f f e r e n t , but only because of the a l t e r e d p e r s p e c t i v e of the uhlan who now views them with at l e a s t a h i n t of compassion. Two f a c t o r s are s i g n i f i c a n t with r e f e r e n c e to the p o r t r a y -a l of c h a r a c t e r at the end of the work. F i r s t , the uhlan no longer c h a r a c t e r i z e s the r e t u r n i n g troops but, c o n v e r s e l y , they address and c h a r a c t e r i z e the uhlan; second, the uhlan remains p a s s i v e u n t i l the troops themselves appear to be ready to accept the uhlan's newly gained i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of war, by merely l o o k i n g at him. C h a r a c t e r i z e d by the troops as Moses (134,V.d.E.II) and " d i e s e r Allschweigsame" (131,V.d.E.II), whose " R a t s e l b l i c k " (132,V.d.E.II) confounds them and p a r a l y z e s them in t h e i r path, the uhlan b r i n g s the runes of wisdom back i n t o the kingdom of h u m a n i t y 1 9 6 and d e l i v e r s the message that " G e i s t " w i l l 152 u l t i m a t e l y b r i n g about " F r e i e r e Erden" (137,V.d.E.II). In o r d e r to overcome t h e i r p u r e l y p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e and reach that stage of " s p i r i t u a l i t y " a l r e a d y a t t a i n e d by the uhlan, the troops rush out at the end of the work to face t h e i r f i n a l b a t t l e . Whether i t be understood i n a l i t e r a l or a metaphori-c a l sense, t h i s b a t t l e i s the "Entscheidungs-schlacht"(59,V.d.E.I) and r e p r e s e n t s the u l t i m a t e outcome of the d e c i s i o n to which the t i t l e r e f e r s . In a "Wandlungsdrama" or drama of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , such as Vor der Entscheidung, r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s of n e c e s s i t y one-sided. The f u n c t i o n of the secondary f i g u r e s i s not to c h a r a c t e r i z e the c e n t r a l f i g u r e but only to make v i s i b l e the v a r i o u s stages of h i s development. His c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of them, i n t u r n , serves to expose how he a r r i v e s at the i n s i g h t s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e by the author of the t e x t . Since t h i s i s a l s o the main purpose of r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n the pre-war p l a y s , Unruh t h e r e f o r e c a r r i e s an e a r l i e r trend to i t s c o n c l u s i o n , r a t h e r than i n t r o d u c i n g a new mode of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . In Qpfergang, Unruh adapts the same p r i n c i p l e of c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l to a work of prose. Since the f i g u r e s are now i n t r o -duced by an omniscient and omnipotent n a r r a t o r , he i s able to c a r r y the lack of true i n t e r a c t i o n between the f i g u r e s to an even g r e a t e r extreme. Instances in which the f i g u r e s c h a r a c t e r i z e each other are, i n f a c t , e s s e n t i a l l y non-exis-t e n t . 1 9 7 Moreover, the immediacy of war and the overwhelm-ing nature of the a c t i o n prevent the f i g u r e s from t h i n k i n g 153 about each other. This helps the author to demonstrate how each f i g u r e g r a d u a l l y embraces the i d e a l s of the s t a t e on an i n d i v i d u a l and v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . In the tragedy E i n G e s c h l e c h t , the same i d e a l i s promoted i n the form of a v i o l e n t d i s p u t a t i o n between two m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s , a mother, and her four c h i l d r e n . U n l i k e the two pre-vious works, E i n G e s c h l e c h t i s a dramatic te x t which r e l i e s on r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n to expose the m u l t i p l e l e v e l s of meaning of the ideas i n c o r p o r a t e d by i t s f i g u r e s . The o l d e s t son addresses h i s mother in the c o l l e c t i v e as "Ihr Mutter" and views her, t h e r e f o r e , as a prototype of mothers, j u s t as the mother regards h e r s e l f as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b e i n g. However, the o l d e s t son goes f u r t h e r by regarding her as the " Q u e l l e " (35,E.G.) of the p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y - u n i t , of war-time s o c i e t y and the i d e o l o g i e s which give r i s e to i t , and of the present system of government which d i c t a t e s war and thereby c o n t r o l s l i f e and death. The mother embodies a l l that he opposes and appears to him as the " v i e l k o p f g e Macht" (40,E.G.) or polycephalous monster whose "Tatzen" (19,E.G.) he vows to t e a r from the nape of h i s neck. In the mother he sees p e r s o n i f i e d the a b s u r d i t y of a l i f e which only leads to death. His r e i t e r a t i v e usage of the words " V e r l e g e n h e i t " (28,E.G.), "Ohnmacht" (36,E.G.), and "Schwache" (19,29,E.G.) r e f e r s , on the one hand, to a mother's wish to see her o f f s p r i n g p a r t i c i p a t e l i k e nature in the " S p i e l der J a h r e s z e i t e n " (24,E.G.) and, on the other hand, to a f a t h e r ' s i n s t i l l m e n t of the norms and values of t r a d i t i o n i n t o the minds 154 of h i s c h i l d r e n . 1 y t f Whereas he c a l l s the mother " e i n Kind" (22,E.G.), he d e n i g r a t e s the f a t h e r as " e i n Ochse ... am Heu der Hoffnung kauend" (27,E.G.); both, i n h i s view, smugly evade the r e a l i s s u e s of l i f e by d e r i v i n g s t r e n g t h from nature and the t r a d i t i o n s of the past. The mother i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p e r p e t u a t i n g the p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y u n i t and i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s , s i n c e she i s e s s e n t i a l l y the one who imprisons her c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the c y c l e of l i f e . Whereas the o l d e s t son summarily r e v o l t s a g a i n s t a l l p o l i -t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l , f a m i l y , and b i o l o g i c a l t i e s i n h i s d i a t r i b e a g a i n s t the mother, h i s charges a g a i n s t the daughter are p r i m a r i l y of a sexual nature. In both h i s s i s t e r and h i s mother he sees o n l y the a b s u r d i t y of womanhood. The daughter t y p i f i e s but an e a r l i e r stage of the mother and, although he i n i t i a l l y admires and d e s i r e s her p h y s i c a l l y , he soon imagines that she, l i k e the mother, rep r e s e n t s the c y c l e of l i f e and death, of p l e a s u r e and p a i n . In g i v i n g himself to p a s s i o n , he would become bound to s u f f e r i n g once again. At f i r s t he c a l l s her "Madchen" (15,E.G.), but soon he i d e n t i f i e s her as a l u s t y panther (16,E.G.), whose f l e s h craves only p h y s i c a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n . L a t e r he simply dismisses her as a " N a r r i n " (28,E .G.), whose sexual o v e r t u r e s he resents because they cloud h i s mind. He views the coward, i n t u r n , as both a "Genosse"(39,E.G.)199 and as h i s own "beschlagner S p i e g e l " (39,E.G.); on the one hand, the coward r e f l e c t s the o l d e s t son's motive f o r r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t war and, on the other, he 155 m i r r o r s the hopelessness of h i s r e v o l t a gainst i t . T h i s paradox ce n t r e s around the coward's bleakness and nothingness: "Tag f r i e r t herauf. Da hangt der Bruder, k a l t / wie e i n b e r e i f t e r welker Ast, und z i t t e r t " (39,E.G.). His f r i g i d i t y and s i l e n c e , which make him appear even l e s s l i f e l e s s than death i t s e l f , reminds the o l d e s t son of h i s own r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y , f o r , p r i o r to committing s u i c i d e , he s t i f l e s the coward and e x c l a i m s : "Ich wtirge jeden Laut an Deinem Mund! Und h o f f n u n g s l o s im Rund wachst grauer S t e i n ! (39,E.G.). Unlike the o l d e s t son, the daughter v a c i l l a t e s between u n r e s t r i c t e d p a s s i o n and m o r a l i t y . T h i s i s brought out by her c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of both the o l d e s t son and the coward, on the one hand, and of the mother, on the other. Throughout the pl a y , the daughter i s a t t r a c t e d i n a r a t h e r morbid manner to both the a b j e c t s t a t e of the coward and the lawlessness of the o l d e s t son. Immediately a f t e r h i s f i r s t advances towards her, the daughter l i t e r a l l y throws h e r s e l f at the o l d e s t son, e x c l a i m i n g : " Z e r r e i s s t mich, Hande" (16,E.G.). Whereas the o l d e s t son conceives of love i n terms of b r u t a l f o r c e , the daughter's understanding of i t i s t h e r e f o r e e q u a l l y degenerate, m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f as a complementary "Liebestaumel" (28,E.G.). In order to evade the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on her by f a m i l y , church, s o c i e t y , and s t a t e , she wishes to escape with him to the mountains and s t a r t a new human race (21,E.G.). A f t e r the o l d e s t son's s u i c i d e , however, the daughter's dream i s a l s o s h a t t e r e d . Her comments about h i s death form a negative c o n t r a s t to the i n e b r i a t e d happiness of the mother. The words 156 "Mein Bruder, Bruder! G e i e r f r a s s , Gestank!" (40,E.G.) even r e l a t i v i z e the o l d e s t son's s u i c i d e and i n d i c a t e that the daughter now acknowledges that even t o t a l s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i s not ab s o l u t e , but a l s o s u b j e c t to death and decay. Whereas the o l d e s t son s t i f l e s the coward, i n order not to be confronted with the emptiness which l u r k s behind the r e v o l u t i o n a r y deed, the daughter wonders s p e c i f i c a l l y whether the same source which e x t i n g u i s h e d the coward's l i f e i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r enflaming hers: "Ich brech den Kiefer!/Und h o i mir Wflrter aus dem Schlund h e r a u f i " (41,E.G.). Nevertheless the a b j e c t s t a t e of the coward p r o v i d e s both with a reason to de s t r o y l i f e : the o l d e s t son by tak i n g h i s own; the daughter by g u e l l i n g f u t u r e l i f e . The daughter's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the mother r e v e a l s that she views her as a w i l l i n g instrument of the s t a t e i n p r o v i d i n g i t with the m i l i t a r y manpower needed f o r war. She l i k e n s the mother not only to "das Meer, das S c h i f f e trug und s c h l u c k t e " (40,E.G.), but a l s o to the land which i s i t s e l f ravaged by war: Wie e i n Sttick F l e i s c h am Markttag l i e g s t du f e i l , das i c h beSugen muss i n a l i e n Fasern! (33,E.G.) With t h i s i n s i g h t , the daughter c h a r a c t e r i z e s her mother i n a manner i d e n t i c a l to that of the o l d e s t son, to whom the nature of war i s q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y the same as that of the mothers who serve i t . S i m i l a r as we l l i s the daughter's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the m i l i t a r y , whose b l i n d obedience to the o b j e c t i v e 157 p r i n c i p l e of law and order she d e s c r i b e s i n images of animal husbandry: K r i e c h t Ihr herauf? Gehorsam? Helmgedrtickt? In Eurer Brust geknechtet s e l b s t , wie S t i e r e , f u r die e i n Zuchtherr Stund und Tag bestimmt! (42,E.G.) I f one examines the other si d e of the argument, i t becomes apparent that the mother's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of her c h i l d r e n v i r t u a l l y c o i n c i d e s with that of the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s ' e v a l u a -t i o n of them. To the m i l i t a r y , the act of r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t war and the s t a t e i s tantamount to " W i l l k u r , " " G i e r , " " U n h e i l , " " E k e l , " and " E i n z e l g i e r " (11-12,E.G.); the mother c a l l s her c h i l d r e n "meine Brut" or "undankbare Brut" (38,E.G.) and l i k e n s the o l d e s t son's d i s s e c t i n g i n t e l l e c t to "eine Ratte" (21,E.G.) and a b l o o d-sucking, " g r a u e l g e s c h w o l l n e [ r ] " (31,E.G.) b i r d of prey (34,E.G.). She r e p e a t e d l y r e f e r s to the o l d e s t son's "freche K r a f t " (17,E.G.) and v i c i o u s " K r a l l e n " (25,E.G.), the d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s of which revealed i t s e l f at an e a r l y age (23,E.G.). In her eyes, man becomes "ein Wolf, und -g r e u l i c h e r " (34,E.G.), once the e t e r n a l laws of nature are no l o n g e r obeyed. The animal imagery she uses to d e s c r i b e her c h i l d r e n c l e a r l y r e v e a l that the mother views t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n -ary "rote B l i c k e " (33,E.G.) as a form of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e g r e s s i o n . Whereas in the o l d e s t son and the daughter, the mother d i s c o v e r s man's " s o u l " to be on a dead-end course (33,E.G.), she sees i t i n the coward "zur Marmorlast e r s t a r r t " (33,E.G.). She, too, r e cognizes in him the emptiness which l u r k s behind the r e v o l u t i o n a r y deed: 158 Die Tat i s t n i c h t s l Doch das Gespenst d a h i n t e r , Wer das e r b l i c k t , wird schwarz wie Bluhn im F r o s t . (33,E.G.) In her mind, both types of people deserve the e p i t h e t "Unmenschen" (33,E.G.). Although the mother concurs with the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s ' view of her c h i l d r e n , she v a c i l l a t e s between r e v o l t and under-s t a n d i n g . The e p i t h e t s she uses to d e s c r i b e the o l d e s t son vary a c c o r d i n g l y from " E n t s e t z l i c h e r " (23,E.G.) to "Ach, Kind! 0 l i e b e r Junge! Herzenskind1" (28,E.G . ). She t r e a t s and regards the daughter, i n t u r n , as her own "verwandte Form" (17,E.G.). At one p o i n t she uses the p h y s i c a l beauty of her daughter as a means to demonstrate to the o l d e s t son the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of l i f e . However, the mother overcomes her a p p r e c i a t i o n of the merely p h y s i c a l by attempting to p r o t e c t her c h i l d r e n from the " S t r u d e l der V e r i r r u n g " (17,E.G.) and by d i r e c t i n g them towards a t r a d i t i o n a l , more " n a t u r a l " way of l i f e: l a s s Dich dem Strome Kind, er wird Dich tragen wie er schon vor D i r a l l e Weiber t r u g . (31,E.G.) The " f a t e " to which she r e p e a t e d l y commends the o l d e s t son and the daughter to submit themselves i s the f a t e of being conf i n e d w i t h i n the c y c l e of l i f e , and does not exclude the g i v i n g of b i r t h to those whose d e s t i n y i s a death on the b a t t l e f i e l d . In contemplating the f a t e of her c h i l d r e n , however, the mother suddenly recognizes that i t i s her own as w e l l : In mir f l i e s s t jeder Brunnen Eurer Sinne, auch mich t r i e b Lust i n Arme eines Mannes, auch mir versagten Kniee o f t vor Angst. Nun schaumt es auf i n Euren l i e b e n L e i b e r n . (10,E.G._) 159 In other words, the mother i s the o l d e s t son, the daughter, and the coward and the s t r u g g l e between them i s , t h e r e f o r e , a meta-p h o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the mother's i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e with the human weaknesses of anger, l u s t , and f e a r . Like the o l d e s t son, the mother t e m p o r a r i l y r e b e l s against the c o e r c i v e n e s s of m i l i t a r y power but, u n l i k e him, she overcomes t h i s and d i s -covers a s o l u t i o n i n the merging of the wishes of the people and those of the s t a t e , i n terms of organic growth; l i k e the daughter, the mother t e m p o r a r i l y attaches value to the merely p h y s i c a l beauty of l i f e and t r a n s f i g u r e s i t but, u n l i k e her, she l e a r n s t h a t even the d e s t r u c t i o n of l i f e may be necessary i n order to b u i l d a new f u t u r e ; l i k e the coward, the mother momentarily l o s e s courage but, u n l i k e him, d e r i v e s s t r e n g t h from the e a r t h , the l i f e - c y c l e , and the inherent n a t u r a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s which are in c o n t r o l of i t . In being both f o r g i v i n g and m e r c i l e s s , cowardly and courageous, the mother embodies a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of human nature i n response to l i f e and death. The s u i c i d e of the o l d e s t son marks the completion of the mother's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from one who unco n s c i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e s with the laws of nature ( i . e . war and Wilhelminian r u l e ) , to one who t e m p o r a r i l y r e b e l s a g a i n s t them, and, f i n a l l y , to one who re g a i n s c o n t r o l of h e r s e l f and c o n s c i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e s with them. I t i s to her an awakening, f o r i n the o l d e s t son's death, nature i t s e l f takes revenge on one who opposes i t s laws and r u l e s : Die F e l s e n , d i e du s p r e n g t e s t , schlugen Dich 160 und tun wie f a l l e n d e s G e r o l l im Sturz schon i h r e Wirkung. Seltsam wird es Tag-, a l s b l i e s e neuer Odem in die Brust! (40-41, E .G.) The d i f f e r e n c e between the mother's understanding of her c h i l -dren and that of the m i l i t a r y i s the f a c t that the mother's i s b e t t e r and deeper; what the m i l i t a r y t r i e d to c o r r e c t and punish by brute f o r c e , the mother achieves by l e t t i n g nature run i t s f u l l course. Since the power wielded by the m i l i t a r y i s considered to be as one-sided as the extreme s e l f - a s s e r t i o n of the two b r o t h e r s and the s i s t e r , a union of the ideas i n c o r p o r a t e d by the mother and the m i l i t a r y i s o f f e r e d as the only v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to r e v o l u t i o n and i s presented i n a symbolic form of sexual i n t e r c o u r s e between male and female, " G e i s t " and "Natur." The p a r a d o x i c a l ending, i n which the mother, the youngest son, and the troops turn a g a i n s t the m i l i t a r y , the mother i s k i l l e d by the second l e a d e r , and the troops f o l l o w the youngest son i n order to overthrow the e x i s t i n g m i l i t a r y r u l e , c o n t r a d i c t s the e n t i r e context and s t r u c t u r e of the p l a y . T h i s can only mean, as Ina Gotz appears to s u s p e c t 2 0 0 and D i e t e r Kasang proves, t h a t i t i s a l a t e r a d d i t i o n . The key to t h i s paradox i s the f i g u r e of the youngest son. At the beginning of the p l a y , the youngest son charac-t e r i z e s the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s as c r u e l defenders of the p u b l i c s p i r i t and accuses them of advocating a f a u l t y c i v i c sense (12-13,E.G.): Wer i s t d i e Macht, die a l l e Wesen beugt, b i s s i e den eignen W i l l e n ganz v e r l i e r e n ? (13,E.G.) 161 The m i l i t a r y warn the youngest son, i n t u r n , a g a i n s t the dangers of s e l f - a s s e r t i o n f o r which h i s brothers stand c o n v i c t -ed. When he r e t u r n s at the end of the work, a f t e r having been s u c c e s s f u l l y d r i l l e d i n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , and sees that the o l d e s t son i s dead, the youngest son immediately b e l i e v e s the mother to have k i l l e d h i s brother and admires her f o r i t : Mit Euren raschen Handen f o r t ! Die Mutter! Und f u r c h t b a r vor des Bruders Leiche ragend wie eine wilde G o t t h e i t ! Mutter! Darf i c h den Arm, der solc h e s Werk getan, verehren? (43,E.G.) The youngest son p e r s o n i f i e s the u n i t e d views of the m i l i t a r y and the mother. I t i s t h e r e f o r e f i t t i n g that he should take the " s t a f f " of power. However, h i s f i n a l words are: 0 Mutterhauch, Von d i r geschmolzen r o l l e die Lawine auf d i e Kasernen der Gewalt hinab, und was s i c h je zu f r e c h ins Blau gebaut, f a l l e h i n ! (48,E.G.) The r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e , which the youngest son now p e r s o n i f i e s , c o n t r a d i c t s the e v o l u t i o n a r y process of renewal advocated by the mother; i t can only be regarded as " e i n b l i n d e s M o t i v , " 2 0 2 which serves to e s t a b l i s h c o n t i n u i t y with the sequel P l a t z . In each of the post-war dramas, the f i g u r e s are arranged i n a manner f a m i l i a r from the pre-war p l a y s : the c e n t r a l f i -gure a s s e r t s himself against those in p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y , i s surrounded by those who e i t h e r e x p l o i t or are i n d i f f e r e n t about h i s m i s s i o n , i s i n love with one of the female f i g u r e s , and resents or i s p e r f u n c t o r y towards the o t h e r s . Although 162 the c o n f i g u r a t i o n s are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l , t h e i r f u n c t i o n with r e f e r e n c e to the c e n t r a l f i g u r e undergoes a s i g n i f i c a n t change: the technique of c h a r a c t e r fragmentation, which gains promi-nence once again i n P l a t z , i s r e p l a c e d i n Phaea and Zero by a mode of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n which the secondary f i g u r e s r e g a i n a s t a t u s independent of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . In P l a t z , a f a i r amount of comedy i s generated by the e p i -t h e t s D i e t r i c h employs to convey h i s contempt f o r the represen-t a t i v e s of t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y . He c a l l s the supreme l o r d a " F e r i e n k i n d " (62,PI.), a "Brummbar" (84,PI.), and a "Volkspapa aus Mfinchner B i l d e r b o g e n " ( 85, PI. ) , with "Plomben im Gebiss" ( 8 5 , P i . ) . His a u t h o r i t y i s judged to be h o p e l e s s l y a r c h a i c , a n a c h r o n i s t i c , and d e s p e r a t e l y i n need of replacement. The " G r e i s " , i n t u r n , i s simply c a s t aside as a p e r s i s t e n t but t o t a l l y s u p e r f l u o u s c r e a t u r e . He and the gentlemen of the c o u r t are regarded as "Gerippe, d i e entzflckend g r i n s e n " (104,PI.) In Count Gutundblut, the commander of the p u b l i c "square," D i e t r i c h dismisses a c o r r u p t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a r i s t o c r a c y . There i s no immediate contact between D i e t r i c h and the count; i n h i s d e l i r i u m , the count can h a r d l y be taken s e r i o u s l y and c e r t a i n l y presents no t h r e a t . D i e t r i c h , t h e r e f o r e , judges the s t r e n g t h or c r e d i b i l i t y of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s i n c o r p o r a t e d by the t r i o i n descending order: he views the o b j e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e of law and order as h i s most powerful opponent; the corrupted f o r c e s of t r a d i t i o n and the past deserve only mockery; the a r i s t o c r a c y i s no longer a f o r c e to be reckoned with. Unlike the mother of 163 E i n G e s c h l e c h t , who proves the l a c k of v i t a l i t y of the m i l i t a r y to be capable of a m e l i o r a t i o n , D i e t r i c h judges those respon-s i b l e f o r the " S t e i n w e l t " (85,PI.) of the present to be incap-able of r e g e n e r a t i o n . He expresses t h i s i n an aphorism which lends h i s view a u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e : "Was f a u l i s t , f M l l t , wenn es zum F a l l e n r e i f " (118,PI.). The converse a p p l i e s as w e l l : the supreme l o r d i s much more v o c a l and a r t i -c u l a t e in h i s condemnation of D i e t r i c h than the " G r e i s , " who only acknowledges a small p a r t of D i e t r i c h ' s g o a l ; the " G r e i s , " i n t u r n , i s more i n t e l l i g i b l e than the count. In h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the hero, the supreme l o r d e x h i b i t s h i s s c h i z o p h r e n i c nature as both a grotesque and a s e n s i b l e f i g u r e . He appears to be most reasonable when he warns D i e t r i c h - j u s t as the mother of E i n G e s c h l e c h t warns the o l d e s t son - a g a i n s t a rash and hasty r e j e c t i o n of the p a s t : Der Du Vergangenheit zerschmettern w i l l s t , der Mensch t r a g t seine U r z e i t i n den Z e l l e n und l e b t von Gestern wie von Muttermilch. (77,PI.) Reminiscent of the mother as w e l l i s the animal imagery he uses to condemn any form of r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y . The supreme l o r d i s of the o p i n i o n that once the frame of r e f e r e n c e of the law i s removed, L u c i f e r w i l l g r i n even from the pages of the Holy B i b l e (157,PI.). I t exposes the "Ungetier" (85,PI.) and the " A f f e n l t i s t e " (85,PI.) w i t h i n man and turns him i n t o a "Machtwolf, hungerstinkend" (78,PI.). The s o l u t i o n to the pro-blem of r e v o l u t i o n o f f e r e d by the " G r e i s " i s to d e c a p i t a t e "des Chaos Haupt" (75,PI.), before the masses have a chance to regard him as a martyr. Both the supreme l o r d and the senator 164 a s s o c i a t e D i e t r i c h with the c o l o u r red: the former d e s c r i b e s the l i g h t of D i e t r i c h ' s " f i r e l i l y " as a " v e r f l u c h t e s I r r l i c h t ! Rote N a c h t l a t e r n e " (84,PI.) and the l a t t e r designates h i s i n s u r r e c t i o n as "den roten Schrecken" (107,PI.). Both prove the o b j e c t i v e t r u t h of t h e i r statement in the second part of the p l a y , i n which the f o r c e s of t r a d i t i o n are swept away by an i n t e r n a l process of decomposition and decay. As negative f i -gures themselves, t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of D i e t r i c h i s h a r d l y adequate w i t h i n the context of the play; i t merely r e f l e c t s t h e i r own p e r v e r s i o n and the corruptness of the ideas f o r which they stand. In Phaea, i n which f i g u r e s r e l a t e d to those of P l a t z assume a u t h o r i t y with a complete r e v e r s a l of the t r a d i t i o n a l premises, the c e n t r a l c o n f l i c t i s fought out by Uhle, a s c r i p t w r i t e r , and M o r r i s , the p r e s i d e n t of a f i l m company. In Uhle and M o r r i s , Unruh juxtaposes "Pathos" and "Natur" (509,Ph.), an " i d e a l i s t i c " and a " r e a l i s t i c " view of l i f e ; whereas Morris wants to p o r t r a y l i f e as i t i s , Uhle wants to show i t as i t should be. U n l i k e Uhle, however, Morris knows th a t they are both e s s e n t i a l l y pursuing the same g o a l : "Mensch! Wir wollen doch beide das G l e i c h e ! " (520,Ph.). In c a l l i n g each other a seducer (511,Ph.), each c r i t i c i z e s in the other the use of l i f e as the b a s i s f o r a r t i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e media. The c o n f l i c t between them i s n e v e r t h e l e s s presented in a manner which suggests that Uhle v i n d i c a t e s l i f e , whereas M o r r i s e x p l o i t s i t . For h i s " n a t u r a l i s t i c " f i l m p r o d u c t i o n , Morris needs Uhle, in f a c t , i n order to p o r t r a y genuine 165 " M e n s c h l i c h k e i t " (520,PI.) on the f i l m s c r e e n . When Uhle adamantly i n s i s t s that i n p r o v i d i n g Morris with the s c r i p t , he has not s o l d him h i s "Substanz" (508,Ph.), i t becomes c l e a r that Unruh conceives of the antagonism between them i n terms of a F a u s t i a n pact with the d e v i l . 2 0 3 M o r r i s ' treatment of the manuscript, i n which every page i s " b e a r b e i t e t , z e r a r b e i t e t , v e r a r b e i t e t " (508,Ph.) r e f l e c t s h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n of l i f e . The c r e a t i v e act i t s e l f , that i s , the shaping of l i f e i n t o a r t , which i s to Uhle an unconscious process and which Morris renders conscious by means of t e c h -n i c a l apparatus, serves at the same time as a metaphorical r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a r u l e r and h i s s u b j e c t s . J u s t as the c r e a t i v e act i t s e l f i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d by M o r r i s , the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h y i s exposed and r a t i o n a l i z e d as w e l l . The anonymous c o e r c i v e power e x e r c i s e d by the m i l i t a r y i n E i n Geschlecht, which i s followed by the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y i n P l a t z , i s no longer of unknown authorship i n Phaea, but unmask-ed as the r e s u l t of " H e r r s c h a f t . " 2 0 4 Although i t i s the m a t e r i a l wealth of Morris and i t s e f f e c t s on those who crave money which f u r n i s h Uhle with the i n s i g h t i n t o the machina-t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l ascendancy, he m y s t i f i e s and m y t h i c i z e s them again by p e r s o n i f y i n g the r i c h e s of Morris as an e v i l s p i r i t or d e i t y and the greedy p u r s u i t of i t as Mammonism. Uhle's wish to escape from M o r r i s ' world (500,Ph.) i s , moreover, an i l l u -s i o n of which n e i t h e r he nor h i s c r e a t o r seem to be aware, f o r Unruh a t t r i b u t e s to h i s c h a r a c t e r s a u n i v e r s a l s i g i f i c a n c e 166 which i m p l i e s that the world o u t s i d e of the s t u d i o i s i d e n t i c a l to the one w i t h i n . 2 0 5 In each of the post-war dramas, the hero i s a s o l i t a r y f i -gure. He not only d i s m i s s e s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a u t h o r i t y of both the past and the present, but a l s o d e l i b e r a t e l y ignores h i s contemporary equals. In P l a t z , D i e t r i c h immediately recognizes the o p p o r t u n i s -t i c nature of S c h l e i c h who undermines h i s m i s s i o n : Eine Winterkrahe, l e i c h e n f e t t und g e p f l e g t . WShrend der Vesuv s p i e , war er in Rom, j e t z t w i t t e r t er e i n Museum unter der Lava. (66,PI.) S c h l e i c h copies the e x t e r n a l i t i e s of D i e t r i c h ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y overthrow of power, i n t e r p r e t s i t as a propagation of congeni-t a l d i s e a s e , advocates " k i t z e l s l l s s e Orgien" (173, PI.) and the "Enthemmung a l l e r Locher" (140,PI.), and c o n s i d e r s h i s mi s s i o n to be completed upon seeing that "des G e i s t e s A r s c h r u c k t w e i t e r " (138,PI.). S c h l e i c h p r o f i t s m a t e r i a l l y from the r e v o l u t i o n a r y upheaval i n i t i a t e d by D i e t r i c h and, l i k e the supreme l o r d and the senator, e s t a b l i s h e s i t s l i n k with the baser i n s t i n c t s of l i f e and the p o l i t i c a l l y burdened c o l o u r red: "Rot i s t die Farbe, d i e den Gaumen k i t z e l t " (141,PI.). When D i e t r i c h r e l i n q u i s h e s h i s l e a d e r s h i p of r e v o l u t i o n , a f t e r he recognizes that i t would r e p l a c e the personnel but not the system i t s e l f , S c h l e i c h scents an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r power and takes over. The t e r t i u m quid i n t h i s r e p u d i a t i o n and promotion of r e v o l u t i o n i s the f i g u r e of the coward. In P l a t z , the coward r e p r e s e n t s downtrodden humanity, man reduced to h i s lowest l e v e l , and, simply by l o o k i n g at him, 167 D i e t r i c h i s reminded of h i s duty towards mankind, by viewing him as "die P e i t s c h e [seiner] Sendung" (62,PI.). However, once D i e t r i c h opts f o r an e v o l u t i o n a r y process of renewal, which begins i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f , the importance and s i g n i f i -cance of the coward with r e f e r e n c e to h i s own development are r e d u c e d . 2 0 6 He and other tormented r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s o c i e t y now only o b s t r u c t D i e t r i c h ' s m i s s i o n (113,PI.). Cast a s i d e , the coward f a l l s v i c t i m to the c l e v e r schemes of C h r i s t l i e b S c h l e i c h . Since S c h l e i c h i s the only f i g u r e i n P l a t z to p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s at hand, he i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of any and a l l p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i -c a l attempts at s o c i a l r e f o r m . 2 0 7 Along with the r e p u d i a -t i o n of the past and i t s laws, norms, and values, D i e t r i c h t h e r e f o r e a l s o negates the present and, with i t , a l l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s of contemporary s o c i e t y . 2 0 8 T h i s leaves him without any framework anchored in o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . U n l i k e D i e t r i c h , who i n d i s m i s s i n g the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the past as v e r i t a b l e s k e l e t o n s n e v e r t h e l e s s expresses h i s o p i n i o n about them, S c h l e i c h never c h a r a c t e r i z e s those f o r m e r l y i n power but immediately s e i z e s upon t h e i r demise i n order to advance h i m s e l f . The f a c t that he does not even occupy h i s thoughts with them i s a d i r e c t s i g n of h i s own lack of h i s t o r i -c a l r o o t s . The same h i s t o r i c a l vacuum may be observed i n Phaea, in which the S c h l e i c h - l i k e Samuel Morris wields absolute power. The p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r e s i d e n t ' s omnipotence are unmasked by h i s employees' c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of him. Count 168 T r o t t and the bourgeois d i r e c t o r Stissmilch merely r e g u r g i t a t e the p r e s i d e n t ' s maxims and thereby r e v e a l t h e i r own t o t a l s ubservience to m a t e r i a l wealth. P r i n c e O r l o f f draws an analogy between Morris and the Russian t s a r , and e l a b o r a t e s : "Dank Ih r e r Grossmut, Monsieur, s p i e l e i c h eine R o l l e ! Aber ebensowenig habe i c h e i n s t am k a i s e r l i c h e n Hof meine R o l l e s p i e l e n konnen" (50 6,Ph.). The three m i l i t a r y f i g u r e s l i k e w i s e admire M o r r i s from t h e i r lowly "Hundeperspektive" (505,Ph.), address him as "Euer Hochwohlgeboren", and suggest that he should r u l e P r u s s i a (507,Ph.). In h i s absence, however, they r e f e r to him as " d i e s e r Jude" (4 91,Ph.) or "Hebraer" (503,Ph.). Krah, the p r o l e t a r i a n w r i t e r - c o n f e r e n c i e r , goes so f a r as to c a l l M o r r i s " E i n Casar! E i n C o l l e o n i , du, e i n D i k t a t o r ! E i n w i r k l i c h e r K a i s e r l (493,Ph.). He r e f e r s to the s t a i r s which lead to the p r e s i d e n t ' s o f f i c e as a "Himmelsleiter" (49,Ph.), l i k e n s the money which Morris p e r i o d i c a l l y dispenses to heavenly manna (471,Ph.), and d e i f i e s the p r e s i d e n t h i m s e l f : Er thront dort h i n t e r L i n s e n g l a s , donnert und b l i t z t , macht das L i c h t und die F i n s t e r n i s . Aber vor allem kann er Menschen machen! Deshalb d i e s e s Gedrange um i h n ! In dem grossen Krach nach dem Kriege hat er Tod und T e u f e l zusammengekauft ... und dann diese Welt aus dem Chaos geschaffen! Gewfihnlichen S t e r b l i c h e n b l e i b t er u n s i c h t b a r . (462,Ph.) Since a l l of these f i g u r e s are s a t i r i z e d , they merely put each other i n a grotesque l i g h t . The irony of the i n e q u a l i t y between Uhle and Morris i s underscored by the f a c t that i t i s the grotesque Krah f i g u r e 169 who draws a t t e n t i o n to i t : " ( z e i g t nach oben) weisst du, das i s t der Oberste im F i l m . - Und, ( z e i g t auf Uhle) der das Manuskript geschrieben hat, das i s t der U n t e r s t e , der i s t ganz unwichtig" (463,Ph.). The o b j e c t i v e t r u t h of t h i s statement i s proven i n M o r r i s ' e x p l o i t a t i o n of Uhle as an instrument to evoke the f i v e genuine human emotions and pass i o n s of "Liebe, E i f e r s u c h t , Hass, Schmerz, Mordgier" (487,Ph.), by c o n f r o n t i n g the hero with f i g u r e s who are l i t e r a l l y made to d i s p l a y these emotions towards him: T o n i , an u n a f f e c t e d " c h i l d of nature," a p p r e c i a t e s Uhle f o r h i s p u r i t y and f a l l s i n love with him; the love between them makes Krah, Toni's p r o c u r o r , i n t e n s e l y j e a l o u s ; the three m i l i t a r y types, who are f i l l e d with b i t t e r n e s s about P r u s s i a ' s l o s s in World War One, hate Uhle f o r h i s pan-Europeanism (535,Ph.) and p a c i f i s t c o n v i c t i o n s ; the di s p o s s e s s e d Russian p r i n c e r e l i v e s the pain of h i s d i s g r a c e i n the presence of Uhle, i n whom he sees epitomized the e g a l i t a r i a n views which lead to the l e v e l l i n g of s o c i a l c l a s s e s i n the Russian r e v o l u t i o n . J e a l o u s y , hatred, and pain combined produce the "Mordgier" or b l o o d t h i r s t i n e s s r e q u i r e d by Morris i n the f i l m . In s e l e c t i n g d i l e t t a n t e s (459,Ph.), who d i s p l a y genuine emotions towards each other, r a t h e r than p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s , who have to simulate them, Morris t h e r e f o r e d e v i s e s a p e r f e c t c a s t . U n l i k e P l a t z and Phaea, i n which Unruh r e l i e s on r e c i p r o -c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n order to expose the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e and the machinations of p o l i t i c a l ascendancy, Zero v i r t u a l l y dispenses with r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n 170 a l t o g e t h e r : n e i t h e r do the employees and guests c h a r a c t e r i z e the d i r e c t o r , nor does the d i r e c t o r c h a r a c t e r i z e them. The m e r c a n t i l e system presented i n t h i s p lay e x i s t s f o r and by i t s e l f , without any of the f i g u r e s - with the e x c e p t i o n of the p r o t a g o n i s t - showing any awareness of who or what i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t or how i t f u n c t i o n s . The lack of r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t h e r e f o r e emphasizes the anonymity and s e l f -p e r p e t u a t i n g nature of a c a p i t a l i s t i c s o c i e t y ; the numerous p l o t s and i n t r i g u e s , i n t u r n , underscore the a b s u r d i t y of a c r a v i n g f o r m a t e r i a l wealth and the d e l u s i o n of a b e l i e f i n the m a n i p u l a b i l i t y of the r o u l e t t e wheel which, by i t s nature, d e f i e s m a n i p u l a t i o n . The sudden t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of each of the f i g u r e s at the end of the work n e v e r t h e l e s s occurs i n response to the a c t i o n s of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . Whereas Segrave i s heralded as a symbol of the propagation and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of money at the beginning, he becomes a v e r i t a b l e angel of l i g h t and a "strahlende M a t e r i e " (130,Z_^) to everyone at the end of the p l a y . The transcendence of s p i r i t over matter, as demonstrated by Segrave, l i t e r a l l y s e t t l e s a l l d i f f e r e n c e s and h o s t i l i t i e s between the f i g u r e s ; i t s p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s suggested by the f a c t that i t even r e c o n c i l e s the two opposing p o l i t i c a l c u r r e n t s of the "reds" and the " b l a c k s " and r e p l a c e s them with "white," the c o l o u r of S e g r a v e . 2 0 9 The t i t l e "Zero" t h e r e f o r e a l s o r e f e r s to the e q u a l i z a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l oppo-s i t e s and the beginning of a new c i v i c e r a . 171 Whereas the immediate s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l context of the post-war dramas i s e s t a b l i s h e d v i r t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e l y by the male f i g u r e s , a p e r s o n a l - b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l c o n s i s t s of the r e l a -t i o n s h i p s between the sexes. Rather than being mutually e x c l u s i v e , the s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l and the p e r s o n a l - b i o l o g i c a l l e v e l s of meaning are interdependent and r e f l e c t i o n s of each o t h e r . In P l a t z , the removal of an e x t e r n a l l e g a l framework exposes in the supreme l o r d , the senator, and the count the darker recesses of t h e i r being, which express themselves i n the form of sexual vampirism. As a r e s u l t of the a r t i f i c i a l nature of the c o n t r o l s put on t h e i r own l i b i d i n a l i n s t i n c t s , the s t r e n g t h and power of which they never p r o p e r l y recognized, the s e n s u a l i t y of the three f i g u r e s has become warped. T h i s i s a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r l o s s of c o n t r o l over the masses they once r u l e d and who now suddenly turn a g a i n s t them. The masses are represented by the coward, the servant Bianka, and Hyazinte. In the coward, the r e l e a s e of a r t i f i -c i a l l y imposed a u t h o r i t y and s e l f - c o n t r o l r e v e a l s the degree to which years of oppression have numbed and deadened man. The coward has a T e r t u l l i a n f e a r of woman and i s devoid of s e n s u a l -i t y a l t o g e t h e r . As a prototype of the masses, h i s p o t e n t i a l power i s n e v e r t h e l e s s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that he r e g a i n s the f a c u l t y of speech, and then i n s i s t s on the r i g h t to happiness. In Bianka, the removal of a u t h o r i t y expresses i t s e l f as a sudden, u n n a t u r a l , and uncanny sexual a p p e t i t e . In Hyazinte, f i n a l l y , i t exposes an even g r e a t e r hunger f o r sexual 172 g r a t i f i c a t i o n . Hyazinte p e r s o n i f i e s the mutinous, r e v o l u t i o n a r y aspect of the masses and i s i d e n t i f i e d as such by her f a t h e r , the supreme l o r d : Mit siebzehn Jahren schwenkt man rote Fahnen und schwort i n e r s t e n Backfischnachten Gott der Schopfung Bau von Grund auf zu erneuern? (72,PI.) A l l three f i g u r e s - the coward, Bianka, and Hyazinte - speak of being " b l u t u n e r l o s t " ( i . e . 141,170,PI.) and, a f t e r D i e t r i c h r e j e c t s them, they turn to S c h l e i c h to be l i b e r a t e d and redeemed. Whereas D i e t r i c h , l i k e the mother of E i n Gesc h l e c h t , 71 n l e a r n s to view r e v o l u t i o n as a form of "Ungeduld , which d e f i e s the inherent laws of nature, S c h l e i c h i s the p r a c t i c a l man who f u l f i l s t h e i r immediate needs. Unl i k e the bigoted t r i o , whose s e n s u a l i t y i s warped by an extended p e r i o d of suppression and s e l f - d e n i a l , S c h l e i c h gives f r e e r e i n to h i s pri m a l i n s t i n c t s and uses them to suppress and enslave the female sex, so as not to lose c o n t r o l h i m s e l f . Not one, but a l l women are to be under h i s c o n t r o l ; i n the women he seduces he only r e c o g n i z e s "das Weib" (123,PI.), thereby p e r p e t u a t i n g the s p i r i t of the o l d e s t son i n the previous p l a y . Whereas Irene r e j e c t s S c h l e i c h ' s sexual advances o u t r i g h t , he succeeds i n e n s l a v i n g both Bianka and Hyazinte. Of the two women, Bianka i s the e a s i e r to subdue. Since the t r a d i t i o n a l norms and v a l u e s , to which she as a servant and l a d y - i n - w a i t i n g i s s t i l l a t tached, are erodin g , she w i l l i n g l y throws h e r s e l f i n t o the same w h i r l p o o l of l u s t which the supreme l o r d , the senator, and the count had entered before her. In v a i n she 173 t r i e s to arouse the supreme l o r d and the count; soon S c h l e i c h becomes her "Gott" (142,PI.) and she h i s m a l l e a b l e worshipper. Hyazinte becomes h i s v i c t i m by way of a d i f f e r e n t r o u t e . In the f i r s t p a r t of the pl a y , S c h l e i c h r e j e c t s her on the b a s i s that "Weiblust i s t Schlamm, f u r Macht kein Ankergrund" (101,P1.). In the second p a r t , however, he recognizes the t o -t a l l y u n i n h i b i t e d sexual i n s t i n c t s i n c o r p o r a t e d by Hyazinte as a p o t e n t i a l springboard f o r power.211 when he recognizes t h i s , he needs her l e s s than she needs him: Hyazinte: Du brauchst mich, S c h l e i c h ! S c h l e i c h : Nein, ganz und gar n i c h t , F r S u l e i n . -E i n s t Hosenschntiffler! Sechs pro Tag, V o r b e i - / Entschuhte Zehe F i s c h e r unter Rflcken?/ Mir n i c h t mehr Sen s a t i o n ! V o r b e i ! N e u k i t z e l ! / V o l k s f u h r e r ! Massenbrausen! Schaukelt mich./ (139,PI. ) To S c h l e i c h , t h i s marks the end of "G r e t c h e n s p i e l e " (171,PI.). Hyazinte i s denigrated as an "Ursau" (171,P1.), subsequently s e r v i n g as a c a r i c a t u r e d image of woman f o r S c h l e i c h ' s m i s o g y n i s t i c m i s s i o n of making women the p r i v a t e property of men. The coward, i n tur n , becomes an e f f i g y of downtrodden hu-manity and serves to lend him at l e a s t a token of l e g i t i m a c y . As renewed v i c t i m s , the fa t e of the coward, Hyazinte, and Bianka i s i d e n t i c a l to what i t was under the r u l e of the supreme l o r d , the senator, and the count. U n l i k e any of the other f i g u r e s , the hero i s a t t r a c t e d to both the p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l aspects of woman. He expe-r i e n c e s i n a concrete manner the c o n f l i c t between an i n s t i n c -t i v e d i s s o l u t i o n of s e l f in the sexual act and the s p i r i t u a l e x a l t a t i o n induced by an experience of lov e , i n which body and 174 s o u l are i n p e r f e c t harmony. 2 1 2 The r e j e c t i o n of the former i n favour of the l a t t e r i s marked by D i e t r i c h ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Hyazinte and Irene. Both women regard D i e t r i c h as t h e i r s a v i o u r "vor schnoder Hochzeitsnacht!" (59,PI.) . The women's c h a r a c t e r i -z a t i o n of D i e t r i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t with t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l beauty; whereas Hyazinte r e p e a t e d l y c a l l s him her "Gott," i n the presence of whom her blood "kocht, s i n g t , ach s i e d e t ! " (59,PI.), Irene regards him as her redeemer whose " B l i c k f o l g t u b e r a l l " and e c l i p s e s the world (63,P1.). Both c o n t r i b u t e to the monumentalization of the hero i n a manner i d e n t i c a l to Mala and Thyra's i d e a l i z a t i o n of the t i t l e hero i n Jurgen Wullenweber. D i e t r i c h ' s own a p p r e c i a t i o n of the women, however, i s more complicated than that of the hero i n the e a r l i e r p l a y ; i n D i e t r i c h ' s mind, q u a l i t i e s of both a demonic vamp and a redemp-t i v e f i g u r e merge i n t o the one f i g u r e of I r e n e . 2 1 3 The names of the two women are symbolic: whereas "Hyazinte" i s an a l l u r i n g p l a n t known f o r i t s s p i k e s of f r a g r a n t , b e l l - s h a p e d f l o w e r s , "Irene" i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of peace. In pursuing Irene, i n s t e a d of Hyazinte, D i e t r i c h i n s t i n c t i v e l y s t r i v e s t o -wards h i s true g o a l , 2 1 4 but s t i l l has to overcome h i s assessment of woman as "der Schlange Urverfuhrung" (153,PI.). Upon r e c o g n i z i n g the " i d e a l n o r m a l i t y " 2 1 5 of Irene's love f o r him and h i s love f o r her, the s y n t h e s i s of mind and heart i s a t t a i n e d . The unio mystica which fo l l o w s i s a c e l e b r a t i o n of a renewed i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a monogamous, p a t r i a r c h a l 175 f a m i l y u n i t . ^ 1 b T h i s suggests, once again, that the b a t t l e between the sexes i s a m e t a p h o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a r u l e r and h i s sub-j e c t s ; what i s sought i s a reformed r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which woman read masses or "Volk" - i s no longer "zum T i e r entwttrdigt" (159 ,P1. ) . T h i s balance i s no longer sought in an e x t e r n a l frame of r e f e r e n c e , as i n a l l the previous works, but w i t h i n man h i m s e l f . Although the cast of f i g u r e s in Phaea a l s o i n c l u d e s two opposing female f i g u r e s , r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t o n i s s i g n i f i -cant only with r e f e r e n c e to T o n i . To both Uhle and M o r r i s , Toni c o n t r a s t s f a v o u r a b l y with the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of a l l the other f i g u r e s and represents "das Leben" and "die Natur," a l l t o l d . 2 1 7 What the a n t a g o n i s t s see i n Toni d i f f e r s o n l y i n degree; whereas Uhle d i s c o v e r s i n Toni Archimedes' p r i n c i p l e (472,Ph.) of l i f e , M orris uses her unaffectedness and naivete to p o r t r a y an u l t i m a t e t r u t h i n h i s f i l m . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s that Uhle understands Toni - read " l i f e " - b e t t e r and more "deeply" than M o r r i s , j u s t as the mother's depth of understand-ing with r e f e r e n c e to her c h i l d r e n i n E i n Geschlecht i s g r e a t e r than that of the m i l i t a r y . M o r r i s e x p l o i t s Toni f o r m a t e r i a l p r o f i t . He views her, moreover, as a prototype of the p r o l e -t a r i a t and uses her i n a manner i d e n t i c a l to h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n of Uhle: to evoke genuine l o v e , hate, j e a l o u s y , p a i n , and b l o o d t h i r s t i n e s s . He purposely uses her to i n f u r i a t e Uhle and to arouse i n him the l o v e , compassion, s u f f e r i n g , and pathos r e q u i r e d f o r h i s f i l m . He even arranges a marriage between 176 Toni and the Russian p r i n c e i n order to unit e the a r i s t o c r a c y with the p r o l e t a r i a t . In a l l h i s e f f o r t s M o r r i s succeeds: Uhle's m y s t i f i e d love f o r Toni i s thwarted and desublimated by M o r r i s ; the p r i n c e i n s t a n t l y recognizes Toni as a "Bolschewik" and a "rote Ratte" (453,Ph.) and makes an attempt on her l i f e . The l a t t e r view of Toni i s shared by the three m i l i t a r y f i g u r e s , who denigrate her as a "Genossin" (450,Ph.) and a p a r a s i t i c i n s e c t (471,Ph.), which they, as members of the "Bund der F l e d e r m a u s e " 2 1 8 , vow to e r a d i c a t e from the face of the f a t h e r l a n d . In Zero, the e v i l s of s o c i e t y are, once again, blamed on the f a u l t y r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and woman. A l l of the s a t i r i z e d f i g u r e s t r e a t woman openly as a whore; o n l y Segrave a p p r e c i a t e s her f o r both her s p i r i t u a l and sensual q u a l i t i e s . The r e s u l t of the union between Segrave and L i s s y , i s , once again, the c e l e b r a t i o n of a regenerated monogamous f a m i l y - u n i t ; L i s s y undergoes a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from a "red" goddess of fortune (85,Z_^) to one who r e u n i t e s with her husband and dreams of having a c h i l d . 2 1 9 Although an a n a l y s i s of r e c i p r o c a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n expo-ses s i m i l a r i t i e s between the three post-war p l a y s , which are u l t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r kindred themes, i t a l s o b r i n g s a major d i f f e r e n c e to l i g h t : i n P l a t z , a l l of the secondary f i -gures are, i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , p e r s o n i f i e d components and mirror-images of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . T h i s i s no longer the case i n Phaea and Zero, i n which a l l of the f i g u r e s lead an ex i s t e n c e independent of the p r o t a g o n i s t . 177 D i e t r i c h i s aware of h i s own dependence on those conven-t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s which have been corrupted i n the h i s t o r i -c a l p r o c e s s . While h o l d i n g the supreme l o r d ' s head, f o r i n s t a n c e , he asks: "Sink i c h i n Schflchten eigner R S t s e l n i e d e r ? " (85,PI.). In order to break such t i e s , he non-vio-l e n t l y k i l l s the "Oberherr" w i t h i n himself and thereby b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f to have c r e a t e d the b a s i s f o r a new order (42,PI.). As D i e t r i c h ' s primary opponent, the supreme l o r d has a symbolic f u n c t i o n as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e , but u l t i m a t e -l y r e presents that aspect of D i e t r i c h ' s own nature which i s s t i l l to be r e g e n e r a t e d . 2 2 0 F i r s t v i c t o r y must be won ag a i n s t the s e l f . The senator and the count are no l e s s p e r s o n i f i e d compo-nents of the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . At one p o i n t , D i e t r i c h stumbles upon the senator and comments: "E i n S p i e g e l hemmt die zar t e Sandspur? L e i c h t , / das l i e b e Wesen muss gewichtlos s e i n , / wie hingehaucht...?" (75,PI.). No matter how amusing and l i g h t -hearted D i e t r i c h t r i e s to be, he sees himself m i r r o r e d i n the " G r e i s " as w e l l ; what he sees r e f l e c t e d in him, however, i s not s p e c i f i c but h i s own c l i n g i n g to the misunderstood past i n g e n e r a l . A f t e r having negated the o l d "law" w i t h i n h i m s e l f , D i e t r i c h i s at f i r s t incapable of c r e a t i n g a new order to take i t s p l a c e : "Der Schatten des Gesetzes wich? Dafur/ nur r i e s e n h a f t e r b l e i b t das Kreuz?"(89,PI.). When the supreme l o r d f e i g n s death, t h e r e f o r e , D i e t r i c h ' s goal appears "betaubend" and "umnebelt"(118,Ph.), a l l o w i n g i t to be misunderstood and 178 m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a Witches' Sabbath of f e e l i n g s and emotions.221 Along with the negation of the type of s e l f - c o n t r o l a c q u i r e d by the corrupted f o r c e s of t r a d i t i o n , the past, and the a r i s t o c r a c y , D i e t r i c h i s a l s o i n danger of l o s i n g h i s conscience: "Als i c h den P l a t z und s e i n Gesetz i n mir/ samt a l i e n Eiden a u s r i s s , s t a r b ' s Gewissen." - (84,P1.). This i s made v i s i b l e by h i s r e j e c t i o n of the coward as h i s conscience p e r s o n i f i e d . I t i s accompanied, moreover, by a p e r p e t u a l f e e l -ing of g u i l t and a s u s c e p t i b i l t y to the weakness of the f l e s h which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l the other f i g u r e s as w e l l . U n l i k e the o t h e r s , D i e t r i c h overcomes t h i s weakness. T h i s e l u c i d a t e s the changed meaning of that which i s cowardly in P l a t z : cowardice i s not only to l o s e o n e s e l f i n sexual promi-s c u i t y , i . e . i n r e v o l u t i o n , but a l s o the compliance with - and a l l e v i a t i o n of - those i n immediate p h y s i c a l need. The l a t t e r would merely change the personnel but not the system i t s e l f . The g r a v e s t danger f o r D i e t r i c h l i e s i n the realm of h u b r i s , the Schleich-component of h i s c h a r a c t e r , which t h r e a t -ens to k i l l the e t h i c a l i d e a l s behind h i s r e j e c t i o n of the mis-i n t e r p r e t e d p a s t . 2 2 2 S c h l e i c h t e l l s D i e t r i c h that he i s h i s " i n n e r s t e s G e s i c h t ! " (134,PI.) and that "Ich" i s "Du" (135,Ph.). D i e t r i c h , i n t u r n , recognizes S c h l e i c h as a poten-t i a l w i t h i n himself and views the l a t t e r ' s sexual abandon as a p o s s i b l e m o t i v a t i o n behind h i s own d i s m i s s a l of the negative a u t h o r i t i e s of the past: " I s t ' s Echo? S p i e g e l ? " (140,PI. ). The r e p u d i a t i o n of that p a r t of h i s psyche that f u n c t i o n s l i k e 179 the conscience and mediates between d r i v e s and learned values or i d e a l s a l s o manifests i t s e l f i n D i e t r i c h as a complete r e v e r s a l - read r e v o l u t i o n - which t e m p o r a r i l y allows the former to e c l i p s e the l a t t e r . T h i s i n t e r n a l dichotomy i s made v i s i b l e by h i s choice between Hyazinte and Irene. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Irene and Hyazinte resembles that between D i e t r i c h and S c h l e i c h . B. Diebold w r i t e s : "Der m t i t t e r l i c h e n Irene B i l d v e r s c h i e b t i n d i e f l e i s c h l d s t i g e Hyazinte, d i e jener eingeboren i s t , wie S c h l e i c h dem D i e t r i c h . " 2 2 3 However, t h i s i s not a l l . Hyazinte, name-l y , sees h e r s e l f a l s o m i r r o r e d i n S c h l e i c h - "In ihm: Ich, s p i e g e l n d : Ich?" (145,PI.) - and both the i n s i d i o u s n e s s and e r o t i c i s m i n c o r p o r a t e d by S c h l e i c h and Hyazinte are p o t e n t i a l Judas-components (138,PI.) w i t h i n the c e n t r a l f i g u r e . In r e j e c t i n g Hyazinte, he merely r i d s himself of the o v e r t l y base sexual i n s t i n c t s , but does not yet d i s c o v e r a balance between the p h y s i c a l and the s p i r i t u a l . T h i s i s embodied by Irene. Irene i s the only f i g u r e who can adequately epitomize D i e t r i c h ' s i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e . His v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of her as "der Schlange Urverftthrung" (153,Ph.), f o r example, are a p p r o p r i a t e l y countered by Irene's words of command " S c h l e i c h d i c h hinaus!" (159,PI.). She reminds him that i n a l l o w i n g the ghosts of the past and the g o b l i n s of the pre -sent to take c o n t r o l of him, he exposes a flaw i n h i s own c h a r a c t e r (158,PI.) and that the p o t e n t i a l f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n l i e s o n l y w i t h i n h i m s e l f : "In d i r ! In d i r ! F l i e h s t du an Weltenenden" (158,Ph.). 180 D i e t r i c h ' s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s complete once he has overcome "die pest'ge Btlrde [seines] Ichs" (165,PI.) and i s able to d e c l a r e : " s i e h a l l e , d i e an uns gestorben s i n d " (167,PI.). What he overcomes are the pangs of g u i l t experienced in the presence of the coward, h i s h a b i t u a l r e l i a n c e on the norms and v a l u e s of the corrupted p a s t , and h i s abandon to the p h y s i c a l d r i v e s embodied by Hyazinte and S c h l e i c h . Once the three r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y are n o n - v i o l e n t l y k i l l e d w i t h i n h i s s o u l , a more n a t u r a l and spontaneous o u t l e t f o r human i n s t i n c t s can be found, which i s not simply sexual abandon or a "compulsion of conscience&quo