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The development and use of imagination in the secondary art curriculum 1983

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THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF IMAGINATION IN THE SECONDARY ART CURRICULUM by MARY JANE DANIEL BOWERMAN B.A., The University of Saskatchewan, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l and Performing Arts i n Education Faculty of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1983 (3)Mary Jane Daniel Bowerman, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date SejftJUufot/ /7ttf( W 3 DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT The premise of t h i s thesis i s that learning within the classroom i s enriched when imaginative thinking and procedures are used i n combination with the B.C. Secondary A r t Guide (1983). The t h e s i s discusses philosophers since Plato u n t i l contemporary times and how t h e i r ideas continue to a f f e c t schooling today, inc l u d i n g p r a c t i c a l applications i n the a r t classroom. I t also investigates twentieth-century educators and philosophers involved with promoting the use of more imaginative thinking i n the classroom. P r i n c i p a l applications based on the Secondary A r t Guide dealing with the thematic units of the Figure and the Environment are given p a r t i c u l a r emphasis. These units from the guide i n combination with assignments to promote i n d i v i d u a l image-making r e s u l t i n images that are unique to the students. Sixty students from the Vancouver school system formed an i n t e g r a l p art of t h i s study by answering questions i n a classroom context and by being involved i n a r t assignments. The B.C. Secondary Art Guide, Foundation section on imagery was found to o f f e r good t e c h n i c a l strategies but lacked the necessary st r a t e g i e s for developing imagination that i s unique to students. The researcher's conclusion was that by teaching students how to use t h e i r imaginations to obtain new knowledge rather than assuming that imaginative thinking and viewing i s something they inherently know, that t h e i r image-making became more unique with the processes described. i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i - v Acknowledgement v i I. INTRODUCTION - SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1 Development of the Problem 2 What i s Imagination? 2 Obtaining Knowledge with Imagination 3 A Source of Images or Concepts 4 The Neglect of Imagination i n Education 5 Advances of the Uses of Imagination i n Education 7 Imagination and Contemporary Thought 9 Using Imagination to Seek the Sublime 13 The Image 17 Two Key Images 21 The Figure and the Environment 21 The Personal 22 The Environmental 26 Summary 31 I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 33 V i s u a l Thinking 38 Obtaining Images 43 The Mind's Eye 45 i v . Chapter Page I I . Memory Images 46 (cont'd)- Imagination Images 47 Autonomous Imagery 48 Dreams and Daydreams 49 Hallucinations 49 Directed Fantasy 50 Implementing Methods i n the School 51 I I I . THE PERSONAL IMAGE AND THE SECONDARY ART CURRICULUM 56 Developing Imagination i n the Classroom 56 Questions and Answers Given 57 Information C o l l e c t i n g Procedures 58 Imagination 58 Dreams 64 Heroes and Heroines 71 The Environment 76 Conclusions Regarding: Imagination, Dreams, Heroes, Environment 84 V i s u a l i z a t i o n - the Heroic Personal Image 86 This Game i s Ca l l e d Breathing 89 What i s the Name of this Game?/ 91 Conclusions 95 Dreams - A Container f o r the S e l f 96 Conclusions 98 Buil d i n g the Environment f o r the Hero 99 Conclusions 101 Chapter Page IV. DEVELOPING STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE OF AND ABILITY TO USE IMAGERY 103 The Secondary Art Guide's Approach to Imagery 103 Strategies that Encourage Technical S k i l l s 105 Strategies that Encourage Unique Image-Making 106 Suggested Strategies f o r the Secondary A r t Guide, Foundations Section 111 Analysis of Two Thematic Sections i n the Secondary Art Guide 114 The Figure and the Environment 114 Suggestions f o r Improving the Guide's Approach to Imagination 117 Developments Needed 118 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Implications of the Study f o r Implications of the Study f or Implications of the Study f o r BIBLIOGRAPHY 120 the Teacher 122 the Student 123 Art Education 123 127-131 v i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to acknowledge the hard work and constructive c r i t i c i s m given to me by Rosalie Staley, Bob Steele, and Penny Gouldstone who continuously offered i n s i g h t into the p h i l o s o p h i c a l issues as well as the more p r a c t i c a l aspects of the th e s i s . I would also l i k e to thank the students at Point Grey Secondary School i n Vancouver who were interested i n t h i s research and reacted e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to the ideas and the assignments. Special appreciation i s offered to Ken Annandale f o r h i s continuous wisdom and support. Thank you. You say I am repeating Something I have said before. I s h a l l say i t again. S h a l l I say i t again? In order to a r r i v e there, To a r r i v e where you are, to get from where you are not, You must go by a way wherein there i s no ecstasy. In order to a r r i v e at what you do not know You must go by a way which i s the way of ignorance. In order to possess what you do not possess You must go by the way of dispossession. In order to a r r i v e a t what you are not You must go through the way i n which you are not. And what you do not know i s the only thing you know And what you own i s what you do not own And where you are i s where you are not. T.S. E l i o t , "East Coker" 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION - SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY For a l l Men are in E t e r n i t y ... In your own Bosom you bear your Heaven and Earth and a l l you behold; tho' i t appears Without, i t i s Within, i n your Imagination of which t h i s World of Mo r t a l i t y i s but a Shadow. William Blake This thesis w i l l attempt to demonstrate that by examining the development and evolution of key images and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to art education, learning within the framework of the Secondary Art Guide may be more imaginative, productive, and f u l f i l l i n g . Man's v i s u a l symbols have been used from the past to the present i n psychology, science, medicine, and r e l i g i o n as w e l l as a r t . Symbols allowed man to represent ideas by using a r t i s t i c inventions with the help of the imagination. However, as the Secondary A r t Guide makes cl e a r , much of the learning i n the classroom i s objective and focuses on the student looking outward. This study w i l l promote the attitud e of being more subjective and focus on the student looking inward. Some of the processes that w i l l help the student i n th i s process and help develop imagination that i s p a r t i c u l a r to the i n d i v i d u a l and hopefully w i l l o f f e r an opportunity to learn i n a way that i s v a l i d to the student are: guided imagery and v i s u a l i z a t i o n ; analysis of key symbols i n the environment and the personal image i n p a r t i c u l a r ; 2 analysis of dreams and v i s i o n s and what they mean to the imaginative l i f e of the student. The importance of t h i s study l i e s i n the f a c t that the Secondary Art Guide o f f e r s few strategies f o r the development of images through the use of the imagination. The section on the "Knowledge of and A b i l i t y to Use Imagery" i n the foundations section w i l l be studied with regard to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r classroom a p p l i c a t i o n . Hopefully, the study w i l l encourage students to use imagination i n the art classroom as w e l l as for o v e r a l l educational enrichment. Development of the Problem When you are t o l d to use your imagination, i t i s assumed that you have the a b i l i t y to reach out and "grasp your imagination" and wonderful p o s s i b i l i t i e s are at hand. But i t c l e a r l y i s not t h i s simple. I t i s c r i t i c a l to look inward, f o r i t i s here that the r e a l p o t e n t i a l of imagination i s av a i l a b l e to be explored. What i s Imagination? The issue of d e f i n i n g imagination i s an o l d one and has been studied from many points of view through many ages, but i n most discussions the conclusion i s that without use of the imagination there can be no knowledge. According to Hume, ideas are d i s t i n c t from impressions and Collingwood explains that "there i s a sp e c i a l a c t i v i t y of mind c o r r e l a t i v e to them and t h i s i s what we generally c a l l imagination, as d i s t i n c t from sensation on the one hand and i n t e l l e c t on the 3 other" (1938, p.171). Hume says that "the differ e n c e twixt these consists i n the degree or force of l i v e l i n e s s , with which they s t r i k e upon the mind and make t h e i r way into our thought or consciousness" (Collingwood, 1938, p.183). Evolving from the i d e a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n of Kant, Collingwood envisions the human mind as forming symbols from the sense data by means of i n t u i t i o n and conceptual thought. The function of the imagination sets t h i s process i n t o motion, i n t h i s view. Collingwood suggests that we are able to imagine a l l aspects of an item and gives the example of the matchbox. He argues that we are able to understand the completeness of a form such as a matchbox only because we are able to imagine a l l aspects of the box. Through observation of the item, we see a l i m i t e d p i c t u r e of the form. However, through imagination, the t o t a l idea i s grasped. We are able to imagine the i n t e r i o r , the edges, the in s i d e contents of the matchbox. He concludes by saying that i t i s as Kant s a i d i t was that "imagination i s an "indispensable function' f o r our knowledge of the world around us" (1938, p.192). Obtaining Knowledge with Imagination In order to obtain knowledge, man uses imagination to help transcend what may appear obvious and views ideas and forms i n a new l i g h t ; new connections between f a c t s and/or ideas may be made and new solutions w i l l be caused to appear. In e f f e c t then, i n order f o r any new knowledge or learning to happen, imagination i s 4 the mechanism that w i l l put i t a l l i n motion. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, defines imagination as: Imagination i s generally held to be the power of forming mental images or other concepts not d i r e c t l y derived from sensation. In s p i t e of the popular usage of the term, the majority of philosophers from A r i s t o t l e to Kant considered i t i n r e l a t i o n to knowledge or opinion. They conceived i t e i t h e r as an element i n knowledge or as an obstacle to i t - as i n Plato's attack on art - or as both an obstacle or as an element.. Hume i s representative of the l a s t view: "nothing i s more dangerous to reason than f l i g h t s of the imagination, and nothing has been the occasion of more mistakes among philosophers." Yet, i n the same place he wrote of the understanding as "the general and more established properties of the imagination" (Treatise of Human Nature, Book 1, Part I-V, Sec. v i i ) . The fancy, the power of the imagination to combine ideas i n f a n t a s t i c a l ways, i s to be avoided, but nevertheless imagination i s v i t a l to knowledge. (Vols. 3 & 4, 1967, p.136) A Source of Images or Concepts Since there i s the assumption th a t images or concepts do not come d i r e c t l y from sensation, then where do they come from? Herbert Read, i n Art S Society, while discussing surrealism says that before t h i s a r t movement the a r t i s t "has been at the mercy of those conventions of naturalism, moralism, and idealism which prevent and r e s t r u c t the 5 free operation of the unconscious forces of l i f e , on which alone the v i t a l i t y of a r t depends. At times, the a r t i s t has thrown o f f these f e t t e r s and has allowed what has been c a l l e d the imagination to transform r e a l i t y ..." (p.123). In transforming r e a l i t y , Read says that these paintings are not the r e s u l t of any process of r e f l e c t i o n - there d i d not f i r s t e x i s t an external object, or even an i n t e r n a l f e e l i n g , f o r which the a r t i s t then found an equivalent symbol. The symbol became an automatic r e g i s t e r of the dimensions of the s e l f ; the awareness of the s e l f i s the awareness of a Gestalt that has not yet been organized for formal communication - that i s s t i l l f r e e . I t i s , of course, "communicated" as soon as i t appears on the a r t i s t ' s canvas; but the communication i s not c o n t r o l l e d . Like the dream, i t i s a b e t r a y a l of the secrets of the s e l f . (1955, p.122) Read's quote i s pertinent i n r e l a t i o n to the curriculum guide where there i s l i t t l e opportunity f o r the student to explore the secrets of the s e l f since the emphasis i s on looking outward. The awareness of the s e l f i s one of the sources of images for imagination i n art but i t i s t h i s process that i s not always tended to i n a r t education programmes. The Neglect of Imagination i n Education As described i n the Encyclopedia of Philosophy's d e f i n i t i o n of imagination, Plato regarded reason as the supreme aim of education. Plato's main concern was the developing and the nuturing of the i d e a l 6 state which i n s i s t e d on the person conforming to state rule for the good of the whole population. I f a person had f l i g h t s of fancy or used too much imagination such as that of the poets, then Plato believed that the state would be prevented from a t t a i n i n g this i d e a l . Feldman (1967) says that P l a t o n i c thought i s evident i n many a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s whom he c a l l s f o r m a l i s t s . The fo r m a l i s t "shares with the P l a t o n i s t the view that there i s an i d e a l or p e r f e c t embodiment of a l l things, and that a r t , when i t i s successful, reveals, represents, or communicates the i d e a l " (p.457). The formalists cut themselves o f f from f l i g h t s of fancy into the unknown because of t h e i r preconceived notions of what a r t should be. The power of imagination was recognized by Plato and as such, he f e l t that the use of the imagination or f l i g h t s of fancy i n h i b i t e d the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s p u r s u i t of the i d e a l s that contribute to the development of the good person. Plato's objections to a r t , and to the presence of a r t i s t s i n h i s i d e a l r e p u b l i c , can be reduced to two: the r a t i o n a l and the as c e t i c . Throughout Plato's philosophy there i s the assumption, and indeed the assertion and demonstration, that reason i s the noblest part of our nature, and that only a l i f e governed by reason can be a good and happy l i f e . He therefore regarded with suspicion a mode of expression which addressed i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y to the emotions and which could be wholly i r r a t i o n a l i n i t s o r i g i n and form. I t i s true that i n one passage (Philebus, 51b) he considers the p o s s i b i l i t y of an abstract or absolute ar t , but i n general a r t f o r Plato i s sensuous and seductive. The very f a c t that i t has much power over the feelings and imagination i s the reason why i t must be rigorously c o n t r o l l e d . (Read, 1967, p.103) 7 I t would not be d i f f i c u l t to demonstrate that t h i s notion i s s t i l l common in education today and that f l i g h t s of imagination or fancy are kept i n check. Plato held use of the imagination to be the equivalent of daydreaming and because of t h i s , he f e l t i t did* not contribute to the development of reason and therefore was not important. Plato's emphasis on reason i s s t i l l dominant and r e f l e c t e d i n our i n s t i t u t i o n s , but i t should also be argued that there are other forms of thought as w e l l . Although Plato d i d not acknowledge that imagination can be used i n i n t e l l e c t u a l thought, more contemporary studies (Eisner, 1979; McFee, 1977) argue that a r t i s a form of cognitive a c t i v i t y that i s also imaginative. Advances of the Uses of Imagination i n Education A r i s t o t l e f or instance held that because the poet or a r t i s t was able to make use of the imagination, he was able to transport us beyond the ordinary everyday events of l i f e i nto a realm that would make man real i z e , that he was p a r t of something more than was apparent; that he had a v i s i o n of what might be p o s s i b l e or f a n t a s t i c . Chamblis (1974) wrote of A r i s t o t l e : A r i s t o t l e ' s f i r m naturalism tempers the kind of enthusiasm which acts as i f imagination t h r i v e s i n a world of i t s own, immune from the world in which we l i v e ; and i t humbles the pretensions of those who would have i t that creations are free from the world i n which creators l i v e . To be true to the highest prospects of the world in which he l i v e s , the poet must show us what the world might be; and to be true 8 to the prospects that are created, the poet must not forget that the o r i g i n s of the created world are to be found i n the world i n which he l i v e s . As poet, as maker, he must learn how to work with both worlds, and i n doing so, he must understand that human p o s s i b i l i t i e s are humbled i n the' one and g l o r i f i e d i n the other. (pp. 26-27) The influence of A r i s t o t l e as w e l l as that of Plato i s s t i l l f e l t i n education today. There are educators, parents and i n s t i t u t i o n s who f e e l that education i s best served when a l l aspects of learning are taught and the whole of the c h i l d i s tended to. Mathematics, science, h i s t o r y , or the l o g i c a l subjects are given credence along with the art s which would include poetry - those subjects that en- courage f l i g h t s of fancy or learning that Plato would argue detract from a t t a i n i n g the i d e a l state. In A r i s t o t l e ' s theory, a l l subjects were considered necessary f o r an enlightened person. Many of the ideas i n f l u e n c i n g contemporary a r t education theory have precedents i n other areas. Something that the educational system may h a i l as new has i n r e a l i t y been discovered before. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s may be found i n the writings of the eighteenth century philosopher, Giambattista Vico. In The New Science, he gave r e s p e c t a b i l i t y to the imagination and the humanities, at a time when Descartes was w r i t i n g on mathematics and the exact sciences. His ideas (concerning a "new science" of humanity) seem f a r reaching and ahead of t h e i r time, e s p e c i a l l y when we seem to be discussing and grappling with many of the same issues today. 9 According to Verene (1981) "memory and imagination, at l e a s t as Vico understood them, are powers that give us an inside perspective, an i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n to the thing known" (p.20) . Instead of the p u r s u i t of Plato's "noble person", Vico talks of the hero and the heroic mind. In the oration On' the Heroic Mind (1732): Vico urges his l i s t e n e r s to seek to manifest the heroic mind we a l l possess, to lead ourselves beyond our believed c a p a c i t i e s , to enter areas of thought for which we do not think ourselves prepared. The heroic mind i s the basis for true eduction. I t seeks the sublime f i r s t , Vico says, i n the divine and then i n nature. F i n a l l y , i t has as i t s goal the wisdom of the human world oriented toward the good' of the human race. This wisdom of s p i r i t of the whole which pervades and informs a l l parts of true knowledge. (Verene, p.20) I t i s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n that I f i n d most su i t a b l e for the purposes of education, f o r in seeking the sublime outside of us we are seeking that which i s i n us. We are seeking ourselves and t h i s quote by Blake i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s profoundly: For a l l Men are i n E t e r n i t y ... In your own Bosom you bear your Heaven and Earth and a l l you behold; tho' i t appears Without, i t i s Within, i n your Imagination of which t h i s World of M o r t a l i t y i s but a Shadow. Imagination and Contemporary Thought Suzanne Langer (1957) i s more pragmatic i n her approach than 10 Vico but emphasizes that man does have a need to symbolize. She disagrees with what she terms the i d e a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s t a t i n g that she does not believe that: the study of symbol and meaning i s as a sta r t i n g - p o i n t of philosophy, not a d e r i v a t i v e from Cartesian, Humean, or Kantian premises; and the recognition of i t s fecundity and depth may be reached from various p o s i t i o n s though i t i s a h i s t o r i c a l f a c t that the i d e a l i s t s reached i t f i r s t , and have given us the most i l l u m i n a t i n g l i t e r a t u r e studies, however, are so intimately linked with t h e i r metaphysical speculations that the new key they have struck i n philosophy impresses one, at f i r s t , as a mere modulation within t h e i r o l d s t r a i n . I t s r e a l v i t a l i t y i s most evident when one r e a l i z e s that even studies l i k e the present essay, springing from l o g i c a l rather than from e t h i c a l or metaphysical i n t e r e s t s , may be actuated by the same generative idea, the e s s e n t i a l l y transformational nature of human understanding. (p. xiv) Langer appears to be saying that while the i d e a l i s t s have a strong t r a d i t i o n i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought, i n order for new ideas and theories to come f o r t h , philosophy w i l l have to be examined i n a new l i g h t . In d iscussing the a r t i s t i c process she says: I f the o r i g i n of a r t had to wait on somebody's conception of t h i s inner meaning, and on h i s in t e n t i o n to express i t , then our poor addle-brained race would probably never have produced the f i r s t a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . We see s i g n i f i c a n c e i n things long before we know what we are seeing, and i t takes some other i n t e r e s t , p r a c t i c a l or emotional or su p e r s t i t i o u s , to make us produce an object which turns out to have expressive v i r t u e 11 as w e l l . We cannot conceive s i g n i f i c a n t form ex n i h i l o ; we can only f i n d i t , - and create something i n i t s image; but because a man has seen the ' s i g n i f i c a n t form' of the thing he copies, he w i l l copy i t with that emphasis, not by measure, but by the s e l e c t i v e , i n t e r p r e t i v e power of h i s i n t e l l i - gent eye. (p. 2 51) Langer's use of the words i n t e l l i g e n t eye i s the clue to her thinking. I f Dewey were discussing expressiveness i n art he probably would have used the words imaginative eye or inner eye and t h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the following quote by Dewey: The work of a r t , however, unlike the machine i s not only the outcome of imagination, but operates imaginatively rather than i n the realm of p h y s i c a l existences. What i t does i s to concentrate and enlarge an immediate experience. The formed matter of e s t h e t i c experience d i r e c t l y expresses, i n other words, the meanings that are imaginatively evoked; i t does not, l i k e the material brought into new r e l a t i o n s i n a machine, merely provide means- by which purposes over and beyond the existence of the object may be executed. And yet the meanings imaginative, summoned, assembled, and integrated are embodied i n material existence that here and now i n t e r a c t s with the s e l f . The work of art i s thus a challenge to the performance of a l i k e act of evocation and organization through imagination, on the part of the one who experiences i t . I t i s not j u s t a stimulus to 12 and means of an overt course of a c t i o n . (1934, pp. 274-275) How are Langer's and Dewey's ideas r e f l e c t e d i n our educational system today? Langer sees the conception of inner meaning or imaginative under- standing with the i n t e l l i g e n t eye as r e s u l t i n g d i r e c t l y i n a form. This form does not come from nothing ( e x - n i h i l o ) , i s d i r e c t l y experienced i n the form and r e f l e c t s the inner meaning that the creator intended i t to have. She states that i t takes some outside influence to spur man to create. In our art classrooms i t i s the teacher who i s frequently the impetus or influence giving the students the inner meaning that helps them to create. In t h i s instance then, the meaning that the student would give to h i s work of a r t would come from an outside influence, the teacher, rather than from an inner need. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n much of our learning i n r e l a t i o n to the curriculum guide today. On the other hand, Dewey f e e l s that a work of a r t i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the use of the imagination but i t operates on two l e v e l s : imaginatively i n the mind of the viewer and p h y s i c a l l y as a work of a r t . Referring back to Collingwood's description of the power of imagination i n holding a l l aspects of an object, such as a matchbox, Dewey f e e l s that the imagination can i n t e r p r e t many more aspects of the work of a r t than are apparent to the eye. Thus, with Dewey, the imagination i s able to see much more than j u s t the outer eye i s able to. Langer's system would appear to be more simple, i f as she says, the meaning would be evident i n the form. From Dewey's point of view, the i n d i v i d u a l viewer could have a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n from that 13 of the maker - h i s e s t h e t i c experience would be d i f f e r e n t . In the a r t classroom, both systems of thought could work, but i t seems evident t h a t Langer's point of view i n t h i s instance i s confining. However, Langer wishes to develop a "new key" i n philosophy - that i s , a philosophy based on man's a b i l i t y to symbolize. In education, our t r a d i t i o n has r e l i e d heavily on Pla t o n i c thought and ignored the i n t u i t i v e side of educational thought which embraces symbols; i t i s i n t h i s l a t t e r d i r e c t i o n that we must proceed. Using Imagination to Seek the Sublime In order f o r us to use our imagination to create new images, i t i s necessary to t r u s t the i n t u i t i v e p art of us, to transcend the indoctrinations that we have had since e a r l y schooling - namely that reason, science, and measuring are what are important to us as i n d i v i d u a l s in the educational enterprise. Using the imagination w i l l help us to recognize what Vico c a l l s the "sublime" and t h i s i n turn w i l l help us seek wisdom f o r the good of the human race. Verene (1981) comments on Vico's thought on imagination and explicates Vico's theory of imagination which i s to draw out "imaginative universals". The u n i v e r s a l i f a n t a s t i c ! or imaginative u n i v e r s a l i s used by Vico to "designate t h i s p r i n c i p l e of the o r i g i n of human mentality" (p.66). The o r i g i n a l power of imagination animated ar t and l i t e r a t u r e . Vico f e l t that with the use of r e c o l l e c t i v e universals, involving memory of o r i g i n a l metaphor, p h i l o s o p h i c a l understanding evolves from the image rather than from the r a t i o n a l category. 14 Vico o f f e r s us another p o s s i b i l i t y . His thought begins outside t h i s d i s j u n c t (of e x i s t i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l perspective or method). I t begins neither with Geist (philosophy of the i r r a t i o n a l ) nor with Leben (philosophy of l i f e and existence). I t begins instead with the imagination, with f a n t a s i a , as an o r i g i n a l and independent power of mind. (Verene, 1981, p.33) Verene f e e l s that Vico "stands outside the t r a d i t i o n of philosophic thought" (which has given credence to s c i e n t i f i c rationalism) and f e e l s that Ernst Cassirer i s complementary to Vico i n philosophic outlook. Concerning early metaphor, Cassirer (1923) wrote that: Every part of a whole i s the whole i t s e l f ; every specimen i s equivalent to the e n t i r e species. The part does not merely represent the whole, or the specimen i n i t s c l a s s ; they are i d e n t i c a l with the t o t a l i t y to which they belong; not merely as mediating aids to r e f l e c t i v e thought, but as genuine presences which a c t u a l l y contain the power, s i g n i f i c a n c e and e f f i c a c y of the whole. Here one i s reminded f o r c e f u l l y of the p r i n c i p a l which might be c a l l e d the basic p r i n c i p l e of verbal as w e l l as mythic "metaphor". (p.91-92) Cassirer f e l t that even f o r the simplest mythic form to evolve there was a need f o r transformation during the process to take i t beyond the everyday and the usual i n order for i t to be s i g n i f i c a n t - and t h i s involved not "only a t r a n s i t i o n to another category, but 15 ac t u a l l y the creation of the category i t s e l f " (1923, p.88). I f i n d i t i n t e r e s t i n g that i n our current society there are move- ments towards t h i s wholeness but i n order f o r us to understand what Vico, Cassirer or contemporary thinkers are saying, i t i s necessary for us to use our imaginations. We have to transcend our t i r e d notions and look at what happens when we use our imaginations as w e l l as time- honoured reason. We have to recognize what Vico and Cassirer found important i n education and that i s that imagination and c r e a t i v i t y are a common thread through a l l new learning i n science, languages as w e l l as the a r t s . Dewey (1934) explains i t t h i s way: Es t h e t i c experience i s imaginative. This f a c t , i n connection with a f a l s e idea of the nature of imagination, has obscured the larger f a c t that a l l conscious experience has of necessity some degree of imaginative q u a l i t y . For while the roots of every experience are found i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of a l i v e creature with i t s environment, that experience becomes conscious, a matter of perception, only when meanings enter i t that are derived from p r i o r experiences. Imagination i s the only gateway through which these meanings can f i n d t h e i r way i n t o a present i n t e r a c t i o n ; or rather, as we have j u s t seen, the conscious adjustment of the new and the old is_ imagination. Interaction of a l i v i n g being with an environment i s found i n vegetative and animal l i f e . But the experience enacted i s human and conscious only as that which i s given here, and now i s extended 16 by meanings and values drawn from what i s absent i n f a c t and present only imaginatively. (p.272) Dewey acknowledges that we have to look back to p r i o r experiences which Vico has c a l l e d the u n i v e r s a l imagination. In the f i e l d of a r t education the importance of recognizing the way to developing sound c u r r i c u l a f o r students i s not through ra t i o n a l i s m alone. There i s a need to nurture the learnings of the students by encouraging imaginative thinking by the use of metaphor, myth, poet i c thinking, and helping the a r t students to extend these metaphors in t o other areas of learning as w e l l . In other words, a r t teachers should be concerned with the making of Vico's heroic mind. In the current educational climate, i t would be understandable i f many teachers would rather look away from the i d e a l i s t i c and the i n t u i t i v e but the cost would be great. The strength of an a r t programme, the learning of the students depends upon the expansion of ways of looking at the image and acknowledging the importance of the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s world around him. I t i s t h i s premise which w i l l be developed in r e l a t i o n to the Secondary A r t Guide. But no man can l i v e e n t i r e l y by the l i g h t of reason and each of us holds within himself dark places of r e t r e a t where reason finds f e r t i l e concourse with phantasy and breeds anew. Seonaid Robertson, Rosegarden and Labyrinth 17 The Image "Imagination i s generally held to be the power of forming mental images or other concepts not d i r e c t l y derived from sensation" (Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vols. 3 & 4, 1967, p.136). In Vico's thought, images are not images of something; they are themselves manifestations of an o r i g i n a l power of s p i r i t which gives fundamental form to mind and l i f e . Images or u n i v e r s a l i f a n t a s t i c i are not, i n Vico's terms, simply concepts i n p o e t i c cloaks. The image i s not to be understood i n r e l a t i o n to the concept. The image Is to be understood on i t s own terms. (Verene, 1981, p.33) In a r t , when we think of images, we generally think of product or an object that has an image. As teachers, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to evaluate the image that a student holds i n h i s head unless i t i s translated i n t o some concrete form. I t i s one of the most d i f f i c u l t tasks but a most important lesson for the a r t teacher to transmit to students: to help students develop t h e i r own images and imagery. As w e l l , i t i s a basic premise of the Secondary A r t Guide that teachers emphasize the develop- ment of imagery. This i s not to say that technique, knowledge of materials and tools w i l l be neglected or ignored, but rather that they w i l l be used f o r purposes unique to that student. How do we do t h i s ? McFee and Degge (1977) say that there are f i v e basic needs that students have in common when they create a r t , and that they may be developed i n any order. F i r s t , they need to be motivated to create. They must have » 18 or have searched f o r , ideas to express and to which they can give form. Second, they need symbols, v i s u a l images, and designs or compositions that express these fee l i n g s and ideas. Third, they need to f i n d materials that are appropriate f o r the message. Fourth, they need s k i l l s to manipulate the media so t h e i r ideas or fee l i n g s can be brought out. And f i f t h , they need s k i l l s to c r i t i c i z e what they have done so that they can continue to develop. (p.155) McFee and Degge are saying that i f we want students to develop imagery that i s authentic to them, then teachers have to address the above needs. Both s t r e s s that students need to have motivation to create and that they must search f o r these ideas. Sometimes they do not come re a d i l y and i t i s necessary f o r the students to r e a l i z e that they may have to play with ideas i n order to discover ones s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t i n g . Feldman (1970) says that teachers frequently make the er r o r of en- trapping students i n t o doing a r t that teachers f e e l i s important rather than asking students to f i n d out what image making i s important to them. However, McFee and Degge are much more o p t i m i s t i c that children are capable of producing t h e i r own b e a u t i f u l , s e n s i t i v e images with q u a l i t y teaching and there are many p o s i t i v e aspects that come out of asking what the c h i l d wishes to create and what he wishes to communicate to others. Herbert Read said that "we have to recognize that expression i s also communication, or at l e a s t an attempt to communicate, and the question we are asking, therefore, i s why does the c h i l d desire to communicate?" (1956, p.163). But i s communication the main motivation 19 for the making of art? Or i s making a r t a synthesis of the c h i l d ' s experience and view of truth? I f the student i s representing h i s view of the world, hi s motivation may be a desire to synthesize experience, expressing h i s views of r e a l i t y and t r u t h , rather than a primary need to communicate. A communication as used by Read could be what Collingwood (1938) c a l l s an i m i t a t i o n as opposed to a representation. Representation must be distinguished from i m i t a t i o n . A work of a r t i s i m i t a t i v e i n v i r t u e of i t s r e l a t i o n to another work of a r t which affords i t a model of a r t i s t i c excellence; i t i s representative i n v i r t u e of i t s r e l a t i o n to something i n nature, that i s , something not a work of a r t . Imitation also i s a c r a f t ; and therefore a s o - c a l l e d work of a r t , i n so f a r as i t i s i m i t a t i v e , i s a work of art f a l s e l y so c a l l e d . (p.42) Communication.in art i s purposeful and useful i n t e l l i n g others a story or g i v i n g information. Religious a r t and sculpture i s a most obvious example. In Medieval and Renaissance times, people were un- able to read or did not have access to books and the sculpture and p a i n t i n g that existed at the time were created p r i m a r i l y to teach. The f a c t that many of the pieces resulted i n f i n e works of a r t was secondary to the main purpose of communicating to the masses. Is the communication of ideas what we wish to emphasize to our students? Of course communication i s necessary i n an a r t programme, but 20 i t i s also necessary to help the c h i l d recognize what i s important enough to symbolize in h i s v i s u a l communications. Therefore, teachers need to examine what i s important f o r the c h i l d to symbolize, what imagery i s , what the purpose of giving assignments for image-making i s , and they need to know how to help students a t t a i n imagery that i s authentic to them. Feldman (1967) states that one of the reasons "we are interested in v i s u a l a r t (is) as a means of expressing the psychological dimension of l i f e " . C a r l Jung spent most of h i s l i f e searching the meanings of images and learned that many of them defied explanation, but they could only be accepted as necessary i n order to advance s p i r i t u a l l i f e . He c a l l e d these images archetypes and described them as follows: The concept of the archetype ... i s derived from the repeated observation that, f o r instance, the myths and f a i r y t a l e s of world l i t e r a t u r e contain d e f i n i t e motifs which crop up everywhere. We meet these same motifs i n the fantasies, dreams, d e l i r i a , and delusions of i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g today. These t y p i c a l images and associations are what I c a l l archetypal ideas. The more v i v i d they are, the more they w i l l be coloured by p a r t i c u l a r l y strong feeling-tones ... They impress, influence, and fascinate us. They have t h e i r o r i g i n i n the archetype, which i n i t s e l f i s an irrepresentable, unconscious, pre-existent form that seems to be part of the i n h e r i t e d structure of the psyche and can therefore manifest i t s e l f spontaneously anywhere, at any time. Because of i t s i n s t i n c t u a l nature, the archetype underlies the feeling-toned 21 complexes and shares t h e i r autonomy. (Memories, Dreams, Reflections , p.392) Jung f e l t that these motifs were c r i t i c a l to the inner l i f e of persons and i t i s my premise that when we ask students to make images, as teachers, we tend to be timid and neglect t h i s c r i t i c a l area. Herbert Read (1955) agrees with "Jung's conception of the archetype" (p.31) and adds that "these s t r u c t u r a l features of the psyche can only have been evolved by c o l l e c t i v e experiences of long duration, and of great i n - t e n s i t y and unity" (p.31). Read t a l k s of the a r t of p r e h i s t o r i c man as being of s p e c i a l v i t a l i t y , and t h i s could be traced to the f a c t that the source for much of the work done i n caves was r e l a t e d to the archetype of the animal. Read f e e l s that any a r t w i l l have v i t a l i t y i f we acknowledge what "the p r e h i s t o r i c period establishes, i n a l l i t s independence, i s an i n s t i n c t i v e mode of prepresentation possessing v i t a l i t y " (p.32). I f we are concerned that students do develop images f o r themselves that are v i t a l , i t makes sense to assume that since archetypal images are u n i v e r s a l and available to a l l , then i t would be l o g i c a l and h e l p f u l to a i d students i n seeking out some of these key images. Two Key Images The Figure and the Environment There are many key images that most of us are able to i d e n t i f y with at one time or another i n our l i v e s , but I would l i k e to concentrate on the development of the figure or the personal image and the environment 22 The B.C. Secondary Art Guide uses "the Figure" as the basis of a thematic u n i t . I p r e f e r to use the word person or personal image for the reason that the word f i g u r e distances the viewer and p a r t i c i p a n t but the word person implies involvement with the making or viewing of the image. I t has been my experience that students and teachers are able to i d e n t i f y with e i t h e r the figure/person or the environment as r i c h sources of imagery. I t i s h e l p f u l here to explain Jung's (1961) theory of i n d i v i d u a t i o n . "Individuation means becoming a si n g l e , homogeneous being, and, i n so f a r , as ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y ' embraces our innermost, l a s t , and incomparable uniqueness, i t also implies becoming one's own s e l f . We could therefore translate individuation as 'coming of selfhood' or ' s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n ' " (p.395). Thus through the self-image and the image of s e l f i n the en- vironment, the students would hopefully become closer to Jung's theory of i n d i v i d u a t i o n . I t i s not the prime reason f o r developing personal imagery f o r the students but i t i s an Important component i n a t t a i n i n g images that are meaningful for the student. The Personal In discussing the personal image, i t i s appropriate that we examine the hero. I t i s important to recognize that there are demonic as well as div i n e heroes. In contemporary culture, many students i d e n t i f y with musical c u l t heroes, f i l m heroes, sports heroes, a l l of which may be placed i n the demonic or divine' categories. In music, the punk rockers are regarded by many as demonic, but Pat Boone may be regarded as divine; i n f i l m , Vincent P r i c e i s synonymous with e v i l but Superman i s the essence 23 of goodness; i n sports, John MacEnroe i s always the bad guy who challenges authority but Wayne Gretsky i s the boy next door who can do no wrong and accepts what happens to him. Students i d e n t i f y with these people and regard, them as larger than l i f e . The q u a l i t i e s that they consider important and v i t a l stem from the archetypes that Jung spoke of. Jung (1976) s a i d that man i s only s i g n i f i c a n t as a p a r t i c l e i n the mass and that "the c u l t u r a l point of view gives man a meaning apart from the mass, and t h i s , i n the course of centuries, l e d to the development of p e r s o n a l i t y and the c u l t of the hero" (p.177). The hero takes on q u a l i t i e s l arger than the mere mortal: What we seek i n v i s i b l e human form i s not man, but the superman, the hero or god, that quasi-human-being who symbolizes the ideas, forms, and forces which g r i p and mould the s o u l . These, so f a r as psychological experience i s concerned, are the archetypal contents of the (collective)unconscious, the archaic heritage of humanity, the legacy l e f t behind by a l l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and development and bestowed, upon a l l men l i k e sunlight and a i r . (p.178) In looking at the hero there are a myriad of images to draw from: the Goddess, the Temptress, Mother Universe, the Old Woman, the hero as Warrior, the hero as Lover, the hero as Ruler and Tyrant, the hero as World Redeemer and Saint. Campbell has discussed a l l of the above categories i n d e t a i l and they w i l l be r e f e r r e d to l a t e r i n the development of the images i n reference to the hero. In the Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, Cassirer t a l k s about the invocation of "a s p e c i a l 24 god as guardian or helper" (Vol. 2, p.203) and says that "countless gods he (man) makes for himself guide him not only through the sphere of objective r e a l i t y and change but above a l l through the sphere of h i s own w i l l and accomplishment, which they illumine from within" (p.203-204) . Cassirer f e e l s that "man can discover and determine the universe i n s i d e him only by thinking i t i n mythical concepts and viewing i t i n mythical images. But t h i s describes only a sin g l e d i r e c t i o n i n the development of the mythical-religious consciousness. Here again the inward path i s completed only i n conjunction with the seemingly opposite path, from the inside outward. For the most important f a c t o r i n the growth of the consciousness of pe r s o n a l i t y i s and remains the factor of a c t i o n " (p.199) . In her discussion of heroes, Suzanne Langer (1942) says that the heroes of f a i r y t a l e s and myths are markedly d i f f e r e n t and are not to be confused. In. f a i r y t a l e s , the heroes have few common t r a i t s but i t i s usually assumed that things work out for the best, or as Langer states, t h e i r purpose i s to g r a t i f y wishes. "Fairy s t o r i e s bear no r e l a t i o n to each other. Myths, on the other hand, become more and more c l o s e l y woven in t o one f a b r i c ; they form cycles, t h e i r dramatis personnae tend to be intimately connected i f not I d e n t i f i e d . Their stage i s the actual world - the Vale of Tempe, Mount Olympus, the sea, or the sky - and not some ungeographical f a i r y l a n d " (p.175-176). Ultimately the purposes of the myth and f a i r y t a l e are very d i f f e r e n t and Langer f e e l s that the myth's purpose i s more serious p a r t l y because the f a i r y t a l e ' s aim i s more i n s u l a r and subjective. But because of the framework i n which the hero i s set, the hero i s affected. In the f a i r y t a l e the hero 25 w i l l become more human and i n d i v i d u a l , rather than a symbolic figure f or a l l men that the hero becomes i n the myth. Langer says that the material that both use i s s i m i l a r , but that the uses are d i f f e r e n t ; "the one, p r i m a r i l y f or supplying v i c a r i o u s experience, the other e s s e n t i a l l y for understanding actual experience" (p.176). In the discussion of the hero i t i s c r i t i c a l that mythic examples are used to help students enter i n t o that realm where Langer says: the mythical hero i s not the subject of an egocentric daydream, but a subject greater than any i n d i v i d u a l , he i s always f e l t to be superhuman, even i f not quite d i v i n e . He i s at l e a s t a descendant of the gods, something more than man. His sphere of a c t i v i t y i s the r e a l world, because what he symbolizes belongs to the r e a l world, no matter how f a n t a s t i c i t s ex- pression may be (this i s exactly contrary to the f a i r y t a l e teachnique, which transports a natural i n d i v i d u a l to a f a i r y l a n d outside r e a l i t y ) . (p. 177) In the teaching s i t u a t i o n the power of helping students evolve t h e i r own mythic images cannot be underestimated. Seonaid Robertson (1963) discusses a powerful teaching day she experienced with, some adults who had no r e a l a r t i s t i c confidence i n themselves - much the same as many of our students. She talked with them about the myth of C i r c e . Her audience was begrudging of the time she was taking at f i r s t but became enraptured and at the conclusion of the t a l e she gave the assignment. Her students were awed at the images they created that they d i d not know they were capable of and through r e f l e c t i o n and discussion of these images, most concluded the day was very important 26 to each of them as we l l as productive i n the "product" sense. In our discussion of heroes i t i s not to be assumed that the only heroes are male nor do a l l our heroes come from myth but i t i s generally agreed upon that i t i s the mythic heroes that help man to i n s p i r e himself to help the world. Campbell (1949) speaks of the hero as: "the man or woman who has been able to b a t t l e past h i s personal and l o c a l h i s t o r i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s to the generally v a l i d , normally human form. Such a one's v i s i o n s , ideas, and i n s p i r a t i o n s come p r i s t i n e from the primary springs of human l i f e and thought. Hence they are eloquent, not of the present, d i s i n t e g r a t i n g society and psyche, but of the unquenched source through which society i s reborn. The hero has died as a modern man: but as eterna l man - perfected, u n s p e c i f i c , u n i v e r s a l - he has been reborn. His second solemn task and deed therefore (as Toynbee declares and as a l l the mythologies of mankind indicate) i s to return then to us, trans-figured, and teach the lesson he has learned of l i f e renewed. (p.19-20) The Environmental In discussing the environment, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain an image that i s as u n i v e r s a l as the hero. Instead, we w i l l look at the p h y s i c a l spaces and enclosures around us that have the a b i l i t y to c a l l up the same mythic meaning as the hero does. Feldman (1967) says that b u i l d i n g s can be both symbols and perform a function, whereas paintings can only serve as symbols. As well, many of our functions of buildings are not 27 adequate because there has been no comprehensive plan at the outset. "The design of a community has to be undertaken i n the l i g h t of a t o t a l philosophy of s o c i a l and personal i n t e r a c t i o n " (p.81). The purpose of t h i s section w i l l not to be to examine function on i t s own although i t might enter into the discussion, but to f i n d out what spaces evoke the same q u a l i t y of transcendence that we have been studying i n the hero. For environmental imagery, possibly a good place to begin would be caves. Robertson (1963) discusses many associations with caves and i d e n t i f i e s many of them with mythololgy (p.54-55) and describes caves as "the unfathomable places of the earth, drawing one i n c u r i o s i t y and fear, i n excitement and apprehension. Through them we go in t o the bowels of the earth, into secret places" (p.55). In her discussion she talk s of the cave as the f i r s t home of our ancestors and the many obstacles they encountered t r y i n g to make them habitable during the evolution to other housing forms: Caves are the legendary haunt of the snake and the dragon, guarding a treasure of gold or a princess; or the couch of mortals who sleep a hundred years and come f o r t h again. Caves are places to which sages, heroes and sai n t s r e t i r e f o r meditation or renewal - r e t i r e i n t o themselves perhaps, to b r i n g f o r t h a new capacity f o r thought or deeds. Caves are often the b i r t h - place of streams which well up as in e x p l i c a b l y from the depths as cr e a t i v e thought i t s e l f . (p.56) Robertson i s t a l k i n g about the f e e l i n g of the form around the person, what the space i n s p i r e s i n the p a r t i c i p a n t and what images the form (cave i n t h i s instance) c a l l s up from the people involved. Feldman 28 says that one of the main functions of architecture i s that i t i s a container. A cave i s also a container but i t i s also part of some- thing greater because i t c a l l s up images and our past. Francis Ching (1979) says that transformation i n architecture "should l e g i t i m a t e l y involve the study of i t s past, of p r i o r experiences, or endeavors and accomplishments from which much can be learned and emulated. The p r i n c i p l e of transformation accepts this notion" (p.382). He also makes the statement that "the a r t of architecture makes our existence not only v i s i b l e but meaningful" (p.386). Perhaps the assumption i s that i n order f o r man's existence to be meaningful he must have tangible r e s u l t s of h i s mental images and e f f o r t s . A r c h i t e c t u r a l r e s u l t s are generally with us f o r long periods of time and i n general they are forms of a r t and space that people have ready access to. William Bradley (1973) says of b u i l d i n g s : The perpetual mysteries of death and l i f e provided an impetus toward structures which would r e f l e c t man's personal and c o l l e c t i v e means of c o n t r o l over them. His archit e c t u r e be- came h i s "power" structures whereby a p a r t i c u l a r hierarchy of godliness could be reinforced through r e a l objects. They be- came totemic reminders of power which would, with a s i n g l e glance, a f f e c t the allegiance of those who stood before the gate. (p.36) I think that Bradley's notion i s true f o r some buil d i n g s and some men and the i n s t i t u t i o n s that run the men, but i t i s c e r t a i n l y not i n - d i c a t i v e of a l l great structures. But he i s r i g h t i n saying that our b u i l d i n g s throughout h i s t o r y have been totemic of another power or 29 have been i n honour of something - e i t h e r the churches honouring God, our banks honouring money or commercialism: Those who stand at t h e i r p o r t a l s must surely sense the same helpless dependence as the twentieth-dynasty Egyptian sensed at the pylons of the temples of the pharoahs: these high structures replace, i n a r e a l sense, the i m p e r i a l i s t architecture of Washington, which has always stood as an anomaly to the stated intent of the government i t houses - a new brand of power, (p.39) It i s not t h i s f e e l i n g of powerlessness of the i n d i v i d u a l , a f e e l i n g of one who i s not i n cont r o l of h i s l i f e or able to contribute to the o v e r a l l good of man or l i f e that I wish to dwell on. I would rather look at structures that w i l l make us f e e l that these aims are secondary and that there i s a greater purpose i n mind i n b u i l d i n g t h i s space. Bradley says that many of the town plans were b u i l t around the plan of the mandala: " C i t i e s , towns, and v i l l a g e s have often grown around the design of the ancient mandala - a magic c i r c l e with sections (usually f i v e or seven) r a d i a t i n g from a c e n t r a l core. The s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h i s n e o l i t h i c symbol and the plans f o r a contemporary c i t y can be seen" (p.39). Some of the contemporary earth sculptures r e f l e c t the idea inherent i n the mandala. In her discussion of Space — The New Aesthetic, Rosalie Staley talks of three kinds of space: mythical, aesthetic and t h e o r e t i c a l . The idea stems from an a r t i c l e by Cassirer c a l l e d , "Mythic, Aesthetic, and Theoretical Space", but what i s most i n t e r e s t i n g i s that i n her discussion 30 of space, Staley talks of the recent sculpture that involves earth sculptures, environmental sculptures and the l i k e . "In such works, aesthetic space i s pushed beyond the l i m i t s of the a r t object into a frame of reference which expands t r a d i t i o n a l concepts and boundaries1.', (p.4)., Feldman (1967) says that "thus f a r , earth sculptures constitutes mainly a change i n the materials, scale, and ambition of a r t ; i t appears to be, moreover a type of a n t i a r t - a gesture by a r t i s t s that expresses disgust with c i v i l i z a t i o n , resentment toward a r t i n s t i t u t i o n s , and contempt f o r the a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s of usefulness, object-ness, and meaning" (p.384). I disagree with the notion that i t expresses disgust with c i v i l i z a t i o n as the q u a l i t y and s p i r i t and image that many of these a r c h i t e c t u r a l sculptures have created could not have been formed with such an at t i t u d e on the a r t i s t s p a r t. Disappointment, perhaps would be a more accurate word. In order to conceive these images they are t r y i n g to transcend everyday notions about a r t - not destroying what has been. In f a c t , many of the earth sculpture ideas are remines- cent of mazes, labyrinths and mandalas. In conclusion, Staley (1980) says that "the function of space i s more important than structure :for Cassirer. "Mythic space" functions as an emotional c o l o r a t i o n given to l i f e events and q u a l i t i e s . This early form of space involves magic powers and i s devoid of l o g i c a l reasoning as we know i t " (p.3). In our pur s u i t of imagination and images that are t r u l y authentic to students, i t i s this "mythic space" i n a r t creation that w i l l be sought. 31 Thus f a r , i t has been established that imagination i s necessary i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of new knowledge and i t has been shown that there are advances i n encouraging the use of imagination i n education today. Using imagination i n r e l a t i o n to the figure as personal image and the environment as key images w i l l help give image-making i n a r t a sound purpose. The strength of using these images i n an a r t programme and the learning of the students depends upon the expansion of ways of looking at the image and acknowledging the importance of the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s world around him. In chapter two, further readings i n art education and r e l a t e d f i e l d s w i l l r e i n f o r c e the above p o s i t i o n . There w i l l be further discussion on how teachers may help students better use t h e i r imagination through the use of guided imagery and v i s u a l i z a t i o n ; analysis of key symbols i n the environment and the personal image; and analysis of dreams and v i s i o n s . These methods w i l l encourage the student to look inward and develop imagination that i s p a r t i c u l a r to him. Summary In t h i s chapter, i t has been established that imagination plays an important r o l e i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of new knowledge. Discussion of some ph i l o s o p h i c a l points of view have helped discern why we think the ways we do about the use of imagination i n education and that ideas presented by Plato and A r i s t o t l e are s t i l l r e f l e c t e d i n our schooling today. Advances through the uses of imagination i n education and contemporary thought were given support by eighteenth-century philosopher Vico who presented ideas that have f a r reaching e f f e c t s today as w e l l - most notably the seeking of the sublime. Two images, The Figure (referred to as The Personal) and The Environment drawn from the Secondary Art Guide Theme Book, were discussed i n reference to Jung's theory of i n d i v i d u a t i o n ; Langer's ideas concerning myths and f a i r y t a l e s ; Robertson's experiences with myth and space; Bradley and Staley's ideas concerning space. The ideas presented form the basis f o r the research done i n Chapters two and three. 33 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE When a f r i e n d informed Turner that h i s mother had l i k e d the snowstorm, Turner remarked: "I d i d not paint i t to be understood, but I wished to show what such a scene was l i k e : I got s a i l o r s to lash me to the mast to observe i t ; I was lashed f o r four hours, and I did not expect to escape, but I f e l t bound to record i t i f I d i d . But no one had any business to l i k e the p i c t u r e . " "But my mother went through j u s t such a scene, and i t brought i t a l l back to her." "Is your mother a painter?" "No." "Then she ought to have been thinking of something e l s e . " The question remains what made these works, l i k e a b l e or not, so new, so d i f f e r e n t . Turner transcended the p r i n c i p l e of t r a d i t i o n a l landscape: the p r i n c i p l e that a landscape i s something which unfolds before you. John Berger, About Looking What do a r t educators, such as Edmund Feldman and Herbert Read, think of images that seek to transform the viewer, or an a r t programme that has the making of authentic images i t s prime aim? In order to develop authentic student imagery i t i s h e l p f u l to explore with the student the reasons why they might s e l e c t , or reve a l , certain images i n connection with what they desire to express. Art 34 teachers play a c r i t i c a l r o l e a s s i s t i n g students i n developing this personal imagery, imagery that i s relevant to them. I t i s important for teachers to r e a l i z e the o r i g i n of t h e i r b e l i e f s , t h e i r ideas, t h e i r images, i n order to enhance t h e i r effectiveness with t h e i r students. Marilyn Ferguson (1980) makes the i n t r i g u i n g statement that "we determine which future we create by the views we hold" (p.59). Unfortunately, many educators are not as aware (as they should be) of the persuasiveness of t h e i r b e l i e f s and ideas upon those they teach. Because of t h i s , educators must assess how they view themselves and t h e i r places i n the world so that when they i n t e r r a c t with those they teach they w i l l be instrumental i n helping students i n the events of making images that are important to them and the p o s s i b i l i t y of helping them transform t h e i r l i v e s . Feldman (1970) states: Therefore, i t i s most important f o r anyone who teaches to know what he knows and how he came to know i t . Ultimately, we teach out of the ground of our own experience; and i n order to be s k i l l f u l or reasonably e f f e c t i v e , we must be honestly aware of what that experience has been and what i t means. For example, you ought to know how your ideas or d e f i n i t i o n s of a r t are r e l a t e d to the kind of person you are; and you ought to know or have some expectations about what chi l d r e n w i l l learn about a r t as a r e s u l t of your experience with a r t and the sor t of person they see i n you. (p.28) One of the consequences of not examining where ideas and b e l i e f s come from i s that the schools develop what Eisner (1979) c a l l s the 35 "hidden curriculum" and we s o c i a l i z e children to a set of expectations that some argue are profoundly more powerful and l o n g e r - l a s t i n g than what i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y taught or what the e x p l i c i t curriculum of the school provides" (p.75). Rather than developing i n i t i a t i v e , the hidden curriculum develops compliant behaviour. I t requires the c h i l d : (1) to conform to h i e r a r c h i c a l organization, one-way communication, routine or purposes set by another; (2) to recognize the importance of time i n regard to subject-time a l l o c a t i o n ; (3) to accept the culture being taught as the school i s a r e f l e c t i o n of that culture; (4) to accept " t o o l s " imposed upon "him as a way to l i m i t options; (5) to accept the l i m i t a t i o n s of the timetable and the importance of punctuality. The a r t educator, Laura Chapman (1978) has pointed out a lack of a reward f o r imagination i n the culture at large: Fantasy, imagination, and the inner l i f e of f e e l i n g s are c e r t a i n l y v a l i d motivational sources of children's a r t . . . I t i s p r e c i s e l y because our culture so often r i d i c u l e s fantasy and i n h i b i t s genuine expression of p r i v a t e fee l i n g s that teachers must nuture children's creative imaginations. (p.49) Eisner maintains that the content we a c t u a l l y teach has rather s h o r t - l i v e d value on the students, but that the "impact of the school structure does not cease u n t i l one leaves graduate school" (p.80). 36 The i m p l i c i t curriculum of a school i s i d e n t i f i e d by the organization of the school and the rules that must be adhered to as well as the p h y s i c a l environment that the students and teachers learn i n . In addition to the hidden curriculum, Eisner says the i m p l i c i t curriculum i s pervasive in schooling and that the lessons learned here long remain with the student. Robert Witkin (1974) i n The I n t e l l i g e n c e of Feeling says that when our theories break down i t i s necessary to revise our ideas and develop-new theories as a basis for new learning. To say that man needs freedom i s to say that he needs the creative moment and the act of r e c i p r o c a t i o n within i t . When the educational encounter comes to be seen as a vast sequence of creative moments then we w i l l produce a generation that has known freedom and can use i t , a generation that knows what i t r e a l l y means to i n s i s t upon oneself. (p.189) This might appear to be a rather i d e a l i s t i c notion i n r e l a t i o n to Eisner's preeeeding comments-. However, Eisner i s s t a t i n g how the s i t u a t i o n i s and not how i t should be in these comments. As one point, (1979) he suggested that many subjects are taught i n the schools not because of c a r e f u l analysis but because they have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been taught. Witkin f e e l s t h i s should be addressed. I f programmes are going to survive at a l e v e l that i s productive and meaningful to the students for longer periods of time than Eisner says they do, changes i n teachers' b e l i e f and though systems must be challenged and changed by teachers and those i n charge of t r a i n i n g teachers. F r i t j o f Capra (1982) i n h i s recent book The Turning Point 37 says that as a society we are i n a c r i s i s , and "that t h i s c r i s i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c r i s i s of perception. Like the c r i s i s i n physics i n the 1920's, i t derives from the f a c t that we are t r y i n g to apply the concepts of an outdated world view - the mechanistic world view of Cartesian-Newtonian science - to a r e a l i t y that can no longer be understood i n terms of these concepts" (pp.15-16). The c r i s i s Capra t a l k s of i s reinforced by our educational system and the continued reinforcement of outdated theories that we have used because they have always been there. Capra advocates a new paradigm - "a new v i s i o n of r e a l i t y ; a fundamental change i n our thoughts, perceptions, and values" (p.16) . His thesis i s supported by others from many areas of learning (Ferguson, Feldman, Hofstadter and Dennet, Huston, Bateson, Zukav) who f e e l that i t i s necessary to look at the whole of man and "envision" a new world and that one of the most obvious ways and necessary ways of doing t h i s i s through thinking and analyzing one's place i n the universe. There i s a need and a desire f o r change in. the educational enter*- p r i s e and there are i n d i c a t i o n s that teachers, administrators and the p u b l i c are receptive to change and are s t a r t i n g to assume some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r changes they f e e l are necessary: In Learning of Landscapes, (1978) Maxine Green says that: I f i n d i v i d u a l s are wide-awake and make decisions consciously to i n t e r p r e t a poem properly, to t r y to understand a period i n E n g l i s h h i s t o r y , or to p a r t i c i p a t e i n some type of s o c i a l inquiry, they are choosing to abide by ce r t a i n standards made 38 a v a i l a b l e to them. In doing so, they are becoming acquainted with what i t means to choose a set of norms. They are not only cre a t i n g value for themselves, they are creating themselves; they are moving towards more s i g n i f i c a n t , more understandable l i v e s . (p.49) In a s i m i l a r vein, Herbert Read, (1961) states: "We know that human beings are very apt to learn by i m i t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s o c i a l i m i t a t i o n . But i f they are i m i t a t i n g an imperfect pattern, no im- provement takes place. We merely propogate one another's v i c e s , along with a few convenient v i r t u e s " (p.268). I f what Read says i s true, then i t Is necessary that teachers and parents provide models fo r students to emulate so that we may a r r i v e at a more pe r f e c t pattern. A w e l l thought-out a r t programme i s one that emphasizes the use of the imagination i n image-making and i t i s through t h i s form that improvement w i l l take place. V i s u a l Thinking The a r t education l i t e r a t u r e on " v i s u a l thinking" may a f f e c t a growing respect f o r imagination and the image i n secondary c u r r i c u l a . Psychologist, Rudolph Arnheim's V i s u a l Thinking has made a contribution to t h i s trend as w e l l as Edmund Feldman's essays on " v i s u a l l i t e r a c y " . Robert McKim (1972) maintains that "the v i s u a l v e h i c l e , with i t s a b i l i t y to f a c i l i t a t e h o l i s t i c , s p a t i a l , metaphoric, transformational operations, provides a v i t a l and creative complement to the reasoning, l i n e a r operations b u i l t into the v e h i c l e of language" (p.5) . McKim 39 goes on to say that v i s u a l thinking i s pervasive, and i s supported by three kinds of v i s u a l imagery: 1. the kind that we see: People see images, not things 2. the kind that we imagine i n our mind's eye, as when we dream 3. the kind that we draw, doodle, or p a i n t Although v i s u a l thinking can occur p r i m a r i l y i n the context of seeing, or only i n imagination, or l a r g e l y with p e n c i l and paper, expert v i s u a l thinkings f l e x i b l y u t i l i z e a l l three kinds of imagery. They f i n d that seeing, imagining, and drawing are i n t e r a c t i v e (p.8). I t i s McKim's second proposition described above, that I would l i k e to pursue i n greater d e t a i l . In h i s book Experiences i n V i s u a l Thinking, McKim has a section c a l l e d "Imagining" and t h i s includes; the mind's eye, v i s u a l recall,.autonomous imagery, dir e c t e d fantasy, structures and abstractions, and f o r e s i g h t and i n s i g h t . McKim describes imagination i n the following terms: Human imagination enables us to transcend mortal l i m i t a t i o n s of space and time, to experience what was, what can be, what can never be; i t opens v i s t a s that are not a v a i l a b l e to the senses. "By h i s imagination," writes Frank Barron, "man makes new universes which are "nearer to the heart's d e s i r e . ' The sorcery and charm of imagination, and the power i t gives to the i n d i v i d u a l to transform his world into a new world of order and d e l i g h t makes i t one of the most treasured of a l l human c a p a c i t i e s . (p.88) 40 He f e e l s that i n o f f e r i n g exercises (which he does i n great detail) to anyone, that even i f they think they have no imagination (which he f e e l s i s simply due to lack of awareness) that they w i l l become more adept at using t h e i r imaginative powers. His methods might be one manner of s t a r t i n g to tap inner imagery f o r students (more of h i s ideas w i l l be discussed l a t e r ) . In "The Style of Fantasy", Feldman's section i n V a r i e t i e s of V i s u a l Experience, (1967) talks of fantasy i n r e l a t i o n to r e a l i t y : "Every r e a l i t y i n the man-made world almost surely had i t s o r i g i n i n someone's f a n t a s t i c imagination" (p.194). This r e l a t e s well to McKim's urgings that we allow ourselves the opportunity to imagine and fantasize anything we want i n order to s o r t through the ideas and obtain the ones that are most important to us to transform f a n c i f u l imagination i n t o the r e a l i t y of an image. Feldman also says that " a l l man-made r e a l i t i e s were once fantasies, but a l l fantasies do not necessar i l y become r e a l i t i e s . Nor are they intended to" (p.94). Feldman f e e l s that f a n t a s t i c a r t has both the l o g i c a l and i r r a t i o n a l mental processes involved i n the making and that there are no common set of v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s . But, i t i s evident that there i s frequently an underlying power of' f a n t a s t i c a r t that i s d i f f i c u l t to define but i t could be said to take the viewer out of himself into another space. "We can speak of a f a n t a s t i c s t y l e , then, only because cer t a i n works e x h i b i t a l o g i c based on h a l l u c i n a t i o n , dreams, Utopian hopes, and speculative v i s i o n . That i s why we discuss f a n t a s t i c a r t i n r e l a t i o n to science as well as myth. So f a r as ar t i s concerned, science 41 and s u p e r s t i t i o n are equally u s e f u l sources of imagery" (pp.194, 196) . Feldman f e e l s that t h i s mythic q u a l i t y of works was indoctrinated into us when we were very young and that i t has a l a s t i n g influence on us but that we have o f f i c i a l l y thought that t h e i r influence i s of the past even though the f e e l i n g s are continuously evoked with the medium of f i l m or p a i n t i n g or sculpture. Feldman (1967) describes why he thinks t h i s i s so: Why does myth have the power to compel our b e l i e f ? I t i s not that myths are true as science defines truth. Rather, myths e s t a b l i s h connections with the way our minds grasp r e a l i t y . Men are not r a t i o n a l , not completely evolved from t h e i r e a r l i e r psychological selves. Myths are t r u t h f u l accounts of the way men have seen themselves and the world for most of t h e i r l i f e on earth. They accurately explain a great deal about the way we think, f e e l , and behave. In v i s u a l a r t , as i n l i f e , mythmaking goes on continually. Whereas narrative types of mythmaking are employed i n l i t e r a t u r e , the v i s u a l arts use p l a s t i c fantasy - the invention of strange forms, or strange associations of known forms" (p.196). Feldman discusses the creation of these forms i n l i g h t of them being connected with the mythic components o f personality and that "surrendering to fantasy i s not abandoning truth; i t i s a way of gaining access to a s p e c i a l type of truth - a type which c i v i l i z a t i o n does not value highly but which nevertheless explains a great deal about our behaviour" (p. 197). 42 Feldman does not underestimate the importance of working with the imagination and says that other ways of obtaining t h i s important meaning i s through dreams and h a l l u c i n a t i o n s as the s u r r e a l i s t s d i d or through mystical transcendence through paint as some of the minimalists d i d combining r e l i g i o n and a r t to pursue mystical oneness, as did Tobey and Rothko. Contemporary a r t i s t s continue to work i n a l l media struggling to bring t h e i r v i s i o n s through with fantasy and i l l u s i o n i s m to help the viewer see r e a l i t y i n a d i f f e r e n t way than what was seen before. "Fantastic a r t thus manipulates i l l u s i o n and multiple l e v e l s of r e a l i t y . I t moves beyond shock and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n to create new perceptions of a r e a l world" (p.212). As with McKim, Feldman also seeks to discover new v i s i o n s or images through the imagination with the help of daydreams, h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , fantasy or myth. A humanist, Bob Samples f e e l s that these are i n t e g r a l parts of learning and has- written The Metaphoric Mind (1979) describing what he f e e l s i s powerful i n metaphoric learning; "the metaphoric mind i s the adversary of c u l t u r a l conformity. The metaphoric mind "feeds" on s t i m u l i ... i t digests them and transforms them into substance for motivation" (p.135). Samples f e e l s that most adults are not comfortable with the openendedness that metaphoric learning requires and that we seek to have chi l d r e n conform to behave i n manners that adults or teachers are secure with. But Samples (1977) says that "the r e a l advantage to metaphoric knowing i s that i t l a s t s longer" (p.184). He elaborates on how metaphoric learning takes place and uses as his prime metaphor f o r learning, nature. While Samples appears to be a g e n e r a l i s t (and t h i s could be supported by the f a c t that he has given extensive 43 workshops i n the Vancouver area to Art, S o c i a l Studies and English teachers plus people i n the f i e l d ) h i s ideas are r e a d i l y adaptable i f one i s w i l l i n g to make the e f f o r t . He i s not p r e s c r i p t i v e , but only o f f e r s suggestions and says that necessarily, the contents and context could and should change. His four main modes of symbolic learning are described on figure 1 and i t i s important to note the difference between the way we are able to function and the way he f e e l s we do function i n the school system. Samples defines metaphors as " r e s t l e s s i d e n t i t i e s " , the metaphoric mind as "transformative thinking" and the metaphoric modes as "ways to transform r e s t l e s s thinking" (1977, p.265). A transformation i s a "psychic quantum leap"; the transformative mind i s a "mind that knows i t can think new" and transformative thought i s "thinking new" (p.266). While some of h i s phrases seem to be the new jargon in education, the point Samples makes i s to have educators look at transformation and metaphor i n a l i g h t that they j u s t might give these areas some con- s i d e r a t i o n i n the classroom. Samples a l s o f e e l s 'that we must nurture ourselves and "our sense of oneness and harmony with a l l l i v i n g things". The main importance of Sample's work i s that he encourages the reader- teacher to explore what i s r i g h t f or him as an i n d i v i d u a l to implement i n the learning s i t u a t i o n and that he provides impetus f o r the teacher to adventure. Obtaining Images There are many methods- open to us to tap these images, some that we used when we were children but that we have allowed to f a l l i nto 44 Figure 1 from The Wholeschool Book, by Bob Samples, 1977. T H E S Y M B O L I C M E T A P H O R I C M O D E Definition: The symbolic metaphoric m o d e is expressed whenever concepts, experiences, processes, or ideas are expressed in either abstract or visual f o r m . T H E S Y N E R G I C C O M P A R A T I V E M O D E Definition: The synergic-comparative mode in- volves the blending of two or more concepts, ideas, and processes so as to transform their original meaning into a more universal context. T H E INTEGRATIVE M O D E Definition: T h e integrative mode exists w h e n the entire body of the learner is involved in the ex- ploration of concepts, ideas, and processes. T H E INVENTIVE M O D E Definition: The inventive mode exists whenever the learner creates a level of understanding of a concept, idea, or process new to themselves per- sonally or new to the culture in which they live. n a t u r a l c a p a c i t y s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e SYMBOLIC SYMBOLIC FORMAL OPERATIONAL CONCRETE OPERATIONAL PRE- OPERATIONAL SENSORY MOTOR I M P L I C A T I O N S O F T H E M E T A P H O R I C M O D E S Central to the formulation of the metaphoric modes was the issue of how they could fit into schools as they exist. A second issue was our concern about how the metaphoric modes relate to the rational developmental levels of Piaget. This led us to the next step. W e examined existing curriculum materials, standardized tests, ar>d the prevailing psychological vision (cognitive I F I G U R E O N E and behavioristic) and tried to determine at which levels of schooling the metaphoric modes were systematically excluded. The results are shown in Figure O n e . It was clear to us that the capacity to perform all the metaphoric modes is uniform throughout the rational stages of development. H o w e v e r , it was also clear that in terms of school experience there is a diminishing utilization of all the metaphoric modes except symbolic abstract as one goes up through the cognitive stages. 185 45 disuse. There are many reasons for t h i s , but the primary ones are that our schooling has always encouraged us to learn by being r a t i o n a l , that i s understandable i n our approach to our assignments and learning. This was explained e a r l i e r while discussing the P l a t o n i c attainment of the noble person where f l i g h t s of fancy and daydreaming were to be d i s - couraged and so i t i s today. The following ways described by McKim (1972) w i l l help to r e t r i e v e these ways of obtaining images. The Mind's Eye McKim s t a r t s with a seemingly simple explanation of ensuring that a l l of us have imaginations. This i s necessary, because even children f e e l at times that they are unimaginative or uncreative. He says that "Imagination so permeats human experience that many i n d i v i d u a l s f r e - quently claim they have no imagination. Imagination i s more than the power to be c r e a t i v e . Imagination i s a l l that you have ever learned or experienced; i t i s c e n t r a l to your every perception and act" (p.88). He o f f e r s a simple exercise (p.88) to help a student e s t a b l i s h where he/she i s i n r e l a t i o n to our p h y s i c a l cosmos and also speaks why i t i s important f o r us to be aware of what our imagination i s : The power "to capture the Imagination" often describes the a b i l i t y of leaders to seduce and v i c t i m i z e a group of followers. Consider the m i l l i o n s of people whose imaginations were captured by H i t l e r i a n r e a l i t y . Consider the m i l l i o n s whoseJlives today are molded by the mythology promulgated by Madison Avenue and the mass media. How can the p r o v e r b i a l ten m i l l i o n Frenchmen be r i g h t when t h e i r imaginations have been programmed with d i s t o r t e d , 46 biased, and even b l a t a n t l y untruthful images? Only i f we are aware of our imaginations can we know t h e i r i l l u s o r y powers; with a c t i v e and t r a i n e d imaginations we can chart a course through i l l u s i o n toward r e a l i t y . By contrast, those who are p a s s i v e l y unaware of t h e i r imaginations are easy targets for promulgators of i l l u s i o n . (p.89) So one must examine where one i s i n order to be aware of and use your imagination i n a constructive way. But he emphasizes that because our educational system places l i t t l e value on inner images, he says that there may be a good deal of d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining access to these images without some work. But he f e e l s that the mind's eye can be re- opened and revived.using two exercises i n p a r t i c u l a r - after-image and luminous dust. He f e e l s that the necessary conditions f o r encouraging inner imagery are: a quiet environment, motivation, relaxed attention and a focus of your imagery. McKim is. thorough i n his' exercises i n helping teacher and student a l i k e i n f e e l i n g confident they can s t a r t to obtain images. In V a r i e t i e s of V i s u a l Experience, Feldman con- centrates on the established a r t i s t , with the assumption that a r t i s t s do acknowledge and are aware of tapping t h e i r images for image-making. Memory Images Memory images are i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n that McKim c a l l s v i s u a l r e c a l l and while h i s section is- intensive to help persons use t h e i r memory function more e f f e c t i v e l y , the main section that concerns us i s the use of the memory for r e t r i e v i n g and obtaining images. Most 47 people bank these images i n t h e i r memories and some people store the images with much greater d e t a i l or more information than others, and are c a l l e d e i d e t i c imagers. These i n d i v i d u a l s have the a b i l i t y to see the p i c t u r e i n the mind and report a remarkably precise amount of d e t a i l of the r e a l event or item. This i s f u n c t i o n a l l y a great asset for many people but the majority have not trained t h i s q u a l i t y i n ourselves even though up to s i x t y percent possessed i t as c h i l d r e n . (McKim, p.95). So, helping students r e c a l l t h e i r images with greater c l a r i t y could aid the students' progress with regard to more ^detail i n t h e i r work. Imagination Images However, i t i s not only that people with e i d e t i c imagery see things p r e c i s e l y , but i n the a b i l i t y to play with the images i n the mind and produce juxtaposition of a v a r i e t y of images and patterns that more unique image-making to the i n d i v i d u a l might take place. This i s what Michael Samuels (1975) c a l l e d "imagination images". An imagination image may contain elements of past perceptions, but arranged in a d i f f e r e n t way than when they were o r i g i n a l l y preceived. A continuum e x i s t s among imagination images from those which r e l y heavily on past perceptions to those which are l a r g e l y made up of newly created material. As opposed to memory images, imagination images generally have no f i x e d reference point, that i s , they are not t i e d to a s p e c i f i c occasion. (p.43) 48 Even though they are not fi x e d or t i e d to a precise occasion or loc a t i o n , chances are that many of the ideas w i l l come from j u s t such a pl a c e . The important aspect here i s that the teacher w i l l be able to help make the images mean something f o r the students by a s s i s t i n g i n what Samuels r e f e r s to as "imagination images". I t must be remembered that at times i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r the student to verb a l i z e and that t h i s i s not always desireable. However, an experienced, s e n s i t i v e teacher should be able to t e l l i f these images are important to the s tudent. Au ton omous Image ry Autonomous imagery includes hypnogogic imagery which i s "autonomous inner imagery experienced j u s t before f a l l i n g asleep. Hypnopompic imagery i s s i m i l a r i n character but occurs i n the drowsy state of coming awake" (McKim, p . 1 0 0 ) . McKim says that t h i s i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t as there i s no possible way for people to d i r e c t t h i s imagery, i t i s e n t i r e l y independent of what we might wish to see or dream. He also quotes statements by many a r t i s t s and writers who f i n d t h i s to be a very r i c h source of imagery f o r t h e i r work. In order f o r th i s to be e f f e c t i v e i n the classroom s e t t i n g , i t would be necessary for us to follow some of -.his suggestions, such as keeping a dream diary, encouraging ourselves to daydream to enter i n t o i n t o t h i s hypnogogic cinema and then attending to the. information revealed during t h i s time to help us think productively. 49 Dreams and Daydreams In the classroom, many teachers have experienced daydreams and perhaps many have used daydreams themselves to escape from the r e a l i t y and r i g o r s of d a i l y l i f e . But that i s not our purpose of using day- dreams. McKim speaks of dreams as being great sources of "creative i n s i g h t s " and use of the dreams as solutions or as the outcome of a p a r t i c u l a r work or v i s i o n . Feldman c a l l s our dreams "further examples of the connection between fantasy and the r e a l world" (p.199). He says that while dreams appear to be unorganized while we are conscious, they do make sense to us v i v i d l y and are very important to us while we are asleep and some people are able to make sense of them when they are awake. "Dreams break a l l the laws of ca u s a l i t y , of time and space chronology, of r a t i o n a l thought. A dreamer can f l y through the a i r unaided, be a c h i l d one second and an adult the next, t r a v e l thousands of miles i n a moment, a l l with no break i n the dream's inner l o g i c " (Samuels, p.50). Hallucinations Hallucinations are another form of autonomous imagery that i s synonymous to many of us with Insanity or a drugged state. I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that Feldman has them c l a s s i f i e d together. He says that "an a r t , using a r e a l i s t i c mode of representation, can employ images as they appear to us i n h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , images s i m i l a r to thoas caused, f o r example, by a high fever" (p.199). He f e e l s that such an a r t i s Surrealism. "An a r t i s t employing dream material can ex p l o i t i t s i r r a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s to j a r people out of t h e i r usual ways 50 of seeing" (p.199). However, a more complete d e f i n i t i o n of h a l l u c i n a t i o n according to Samuels i s t h i s : "The person who experiences a v i s i o n (hallucination) believes that i t i s occuring i n the outer world, although another person who was with them would not necessarily agree. Obviously, a v i s i o n i s an extremely v i v i d image. P s y c h i a t r i s t s sometimes diagnose people who have vi s i o n s or h a l l u c i n a t i o n s as psychotic" (p.50) . So the h a l l u c i n a t i o n may be s a i d to seem outside the mind's eye and i s valued as r e a l by the creator of the image and the dream image i s something that has happened ins i d e the mind and i s recognized as r e a l i n the imaginative realm. However, McKim says that h a l l u c i n a t i o n s can be creative and are not ne c e s s a r i l y to be avoided. "Mystical and visionary experiences frequently have the q u a l i t y of h a l l u c i n a t i o n ; although we commonly deny t h i s kind of experience today, we must nevertheless acknowledge that a vis i o n a r y such as poet and painter William Blake found much of the beauty that he gave the world i n a hal l u c i n a t o r y state of consciousness" (p.103). However, i n the classroom s i t u a t i o n , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to encourage imagery d i r e c t l y through h a l l u c i n a t i o n s and i t i s u n l i k e l y that most teachers would be comfortable with t h i s area but should be aware of i t i n the visi o n a r y sense i n the event that there are students who are i n c l i n e d to imagine i n t h i s way. Directed Fantasy Directed fantasy i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from autonomous imagery because i t i s c o n t r o l l e d or d i r e c t e d from without - e i t h e r by a guide or by the person doing the f a n t a s i z i n g . This i s quite p o s s i b l y the 51 area that teachers w i l l f e e l most comfortable with i n the classroom as they might f e e l more able to be i n the ro l e of the leader. Perhaps th i s would also be more b e n e f i c i a l to the student as w e l l because as McKim says, i t i s not necessary to be a clear imager f o r these exer- cises and that most importantly, one must relax and be content with what happens at f i r s t as anxiety or anxiousness w i l l only i n h i b i t the a v a i l a b i l i t y of images. In order to help i n t h i s area, he suggests that you frequently remind yourself that anything i s possible i n your world of fantasy and that you should be as non-judgmental as p o s s i b l e . McKim describes methods to relax, involve groups, overcome blocks that keep you from imagining and eventually how to d i r e c t your own fantasies. At h i s conclusion, he tal k s of a merged viewpoint and says t h i s i s where you i d e n t i f y with your imaginings and i n essence become one with what you are imagining. (suggestions w i l l be given i n chapter three) The a b i l i t y to move your imaginative viewpoint i n space and time i s t r u l y one of the most valuable powers of direc t e d imagination. (McKim, p.109) Implementing Methods i n the School V i s u a l thinking, the mind's eye, memory images, imagination images, autonomous imagery, dreams and daydreams, and d i r e c t e d fantasy w i l l be invaluable i n f a c i l i t a t i n g obtaining imaginative images from students. The p o s s i b i l i t y of implementing these methods e f f e c t i v e l y i n the classroom depends upon the teacher. Teachers have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been teaching content without r e a l l y analyzing what t h e i r b e l i e f s and ideas 52 are and how they a f f e c t content. Frequently what they teach i s less important than what they do not teach, as i l l u s t r a t e d by Eisner (1979) or the manner i n which they present t h e i r lessons. I t i s desireable f o r teachers to examine t h e i r own ideas c l o s e l y , i n order to more i n t e l l i g e n t l y help the students have access to images and ideas which are meaningful. The problem, most w i l l agree, i s not to t e l l them what to do - but to help them a t t a i n some kind of c l a r i t y about how to choose, how to decide what to do. And t h i s involves teachers d i r e c t l y , immediately - teachers as persons able to present themselves as c r i t i c a l thinkers w i l l i n g to d i s c l o s e t h e i r own p r i n c i p l e s and t h e i r own reasons as w e l l as authentic persons l i v i n g i n the world, persons who are concerned - who care. (Green, p.48) One of the main aims of the B.C. Secondary Art Guide i s the development of imagery and as such, many of the mentioned examples w i l l be h e l p f u l i n aiding the students- obtain imagery through imagination i f the teacher has already done some groundwork i n creative a r t experiences. Transformation, v i s i o n , image, metaphor and myth are dominant words found i n readings supporting our inquiry. How does the Secondary Art Guide support these concepts? The 1981 prog-ram d i f f e r s In several respects from the previous a r t program prepared i n 1965/66. F i r s t of a l l , i t emphasizes imagery as the c e n t r a l focus of a r t and considers the image 53 i t s e l f as c e n t r a l to v i s u a l learning. Imagery e x i s t s i n both the mental process and the product of a r t . I t i s a l l important since there i s no a r t without an image. There are many le v e l s of imagery, yet a l l are products of the imagination - products created through observation or from the memory of the student. Even when an imposed subject i s used to f a c i l i t a t e learning, the image i s v i t a l . I t Is the means by which students learn to know, apply, and consider a r t . (p.4) I t i s not the purpose here to c r i t i c i z e the guide but i t must be acknowledged that t h i s i s a very l i m i t e d d e f i n i t i o n of the importance of and the sources of i n d i v i d u a l imagery. However, i t i s assumed and stated that the q u a l i t y of the a r t program rests with them and that " I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of teachers to ensure that t h e i r students, regardless of t h e i r l e v e l , achieve these learning outcomes, and thus the program goals, and there are countless ways of doing so" (p.21);. In a c t u a l i t y , the thematic booklet accompanying the curriculum guide devotes a great deal of space towards aiding the student with a c t i v i t i e s to help the student develop images by producing student a r t works. However, the developing of the images i s done through explaining and contemplating the thematic units i n r e l a t i o n to such elements.as: juxtaposition, d i s t o r t i o n and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . The main concern i n the method and the progress of the students while these elements are being taught. Indeed, as Witkin states- i n The I n t e l l i g e n c e of Feeling, " i f the p u p i l i s to r e t a i n h i s respect for the things he makes then his needs f o r control of the medium must be g r a t i f i e d rather than shelved" 54 (1974, p.113). I t cannot be denied that process and a b i l i t y to handle materials have long been considered important aspects of a good a r t programme but many ar t educators do not reach t h e i r students with more than t h i s manipulation of materials. I f students are to have a worth- while a r t education that w i l l have some purpose and usefulness to them a f t e r leaving the system, teachers must enhance t h i s process. While the new guide i s thorough i n o u t l i n i n g how to do things, i t i s found lacking i n how to get at images and ideas, how to think of ideas i n d i f f e r e n t ways, and how to solve our v i s u a l problems i n a way that represents our inner v i s i o n that i s unique to a l l of us. Two images that were discussed i n depth i n chapter one were the fig u r e and the environment. These were chosen because they are dealt with i n the thematic booklet; they are images that I have found to be important to students; and they are images that I have worked with extensively myself. These reasons f i t the requirements that are necessary f o r students to. develop imagery that i s unique to them: they have q u a l i t i e s that transcend the usual; they have a wide range of metaphors that students-will have access to; the teacher has experience and i n t e r e s t i n t h i s area so i t should be with some understanding and empathy with the process both of image-making and transformation that the units w i l l be approached. The teacher must have b e l i e f i n the i n t e g r i t y of the ideas presented to p a r t i c i p a t e in the adventure with the students. The success of the study w i l l depend to a large extent on how at ease the teacher i s with exploring and presenting d i f f e r e n t ways of looking at images and ideas. In order to help students perceive these, Eisner (1979) asks: 55 How does t h i s classroom lead i t s l i f e ? What kind of personage does t h i s teacher represent to h i s class? To reveal these p a r t i c u l a r s , to capture these "essences" one must not only perceive t h e i r existence but also be able to create a form that intimates, d i s c l o s e s , reveals, imparts, suggests, implies t h e i r existence. In t h i s process of transformation, metaphor i s , of course, a c e n t r a l l y important device. Metaphor breaks the bonds of conventional usage to e x p l o i t the power of connotation and analogy. I t c a p i t a l i z e s on surprise by p u t t i n g meanings i n t o new combinations and through such combinations awakens our senses. Metaphor i s the arch enemy of the stock response. (p.200) In Eisner's terms, i s i t p o s s i b l e for a classroom to lead i t s l i f e using these methods? What are the implications for t r y i n g them i n the classroom? Would there be any resistance from students to these methods i n the high school s i t u a t i o n ? Is a programme l i k e t h i s too ambitious f o r students or too soon- for t h e i r l e v e l s of learning? I think not. I think that i f we ask what Eisner asks-, "How does t h i s classroom lead i t s l i f e ? " and answer Feldman's question, "What does t h i s c h i l d want to learn?" we w i l l be able to t r u s t ourselves to answer t r u t h f u l l y and base image-making on an imaginative foundation. In chapter three the w r i t e r w i l l respond to these questions and o f f e r suggestions for inte g r a t i n g these ideas with the B.C. Secondary Art Guide. 56 CHAPTER THREE THE PERSONAL IMAGE AND THE SECONDARY ART GUIDE By creating f or ourselves an imaginary experience or a c t i v i t y , we express our emotions; and t h i s i s what we c a l l a r t . R.J. Collingwood, The P r i n c i p l e s of Art Developing Imagination i n the Classroom This chapter w i l l deal p r i m a r i l y with the ways of f o s t e r i n g the development and use of imagination i n the classroom. The figure as personal image and the s e l f i n the environment are two areas that have been dealt with extensively. To t h i s end, at the suggestion of Read, Feldman and McFee, s i x t y junior.high school students have been asked a series of questions so that the teacher would be f a m i l i a r with what they thought about the personal image and the environment; what they thought imagination was; and whether they thought that dreams had anything to do with t h e i r imaginative l i v e s . Students' responses to these questions are synthesized. Where the questions were r e l a t i v e l y straightforward and required l i t t l e or no analysis, the responses r e f l e c t t h i s and there i s no summary. Where the questions were more complex, the responses are given i n point form and include comments or summary. The second part of chapter three focuses on ways i n which the information gathered i n the f i r s t section i s u s e f u l i n the p r a c t i c a l sense i n the classroom. To t h i s end, a v i s u a l i z a t i o n section concentrating on Heroic Personal Image i s described. In addition, v i s u a l i z a t i o n using dreams, i s used to help students b u i l d containers f o r the s e l f , 57 and f i n a l l y , students were o f f e r e d the oportunity to b u i l d an en- vironment f o r the hero. A l l of the ideas presented were explored through the use of v i s u a l i z a t i o n , daydreams, guided imagery and i n t e l l e c t u a l thought on the parts of the students. In other words, the attainment of new images and ideas were made av a i l a b l e to them through the use of t h e i r imaginations. Students were guided i n learning how to use t h e i r imaginations rather than being t o l d , "use your imaginations!" They were given time to synthesize the concepts and ideas given and were given some ways to gain access to t h e i r images through the use of t h e i r imaginations. Questions and Answers Given In each section, the questions w i l l be given i n t o t a l as they were offered to the students. For c l a r i t y , the questions w i l l be repeated before the pertinent responses. The sections are responded to i n order: 1. Imagination 2. Dreams 3. Heroes and Heroines 4. The Environment These areas were chosen because they are powerful archetypal images that hold i n t e r e s t for a l l on many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . The symbolism and strength of these images w i l l o f f e r students s i g n i f i c a n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r using t h e i r imaginative powers. The teacher giving the i n s t r u c t i o n has an i n t e r e s t and some experience i n these areas and t h i s w i l l be communicated to the students. 58 Information C o l l e c t i n g Procedures To provide material f o r this..chapter, s i x t y junior high school male and female students from a Vancouver Art Programme were o f f e r e d questionnaires during a r t period. Each student was given a copy of the questions and was asked to respond on foolscap using whatever time was needed to answer the questions as completely as p o s s i b l e . Students answered the questionnaire that was pertinent to the assign- ment they were working on with the exception of the environment for the hero where the students answered questions only on the environment. Imagination Imagination i s not a tal e n t of some men but i s the health of every man. Emerson, Letters and S o c i a l Aims: Poetry and Imagination The following are questions which the researcher asked the students in the classroom s e t t i n g : 1. What i s an image? 2. What i s imagination? 3. What i s important to show when you use imagination? 4. Is i t necessary for other people to understand your images? 5. How do you get your ideas f o r images? 6. Can you create ideas that are t o t a l l y unique to you? 7. Who uses t h e i r imaginations and has ideas? 8. Do you think i n images when you read or paint or think? 9. Who has imagination? 59 10. Why i s imagination used? 11. Is imagination necessary to learn? 12. Is imagination necessary f o r making images? What i s an image? Here, the answers were many and varied: - a p i c t u r e or scene you see - a p i c t u r e i n your mind - a reproduction of an object - a p i c t u r e which i s relayed from your eye to the brain - a thought inside - the appearance of an object i n our minds or otherwise - a r e f l e c t i o n of something you see - something from your imagination - a p i c t u r e which forms i n your mind - the p i c t u r e your mind sees - an image i s a p i c t u r e you can see i n your mind or a p i c t u r e that i s r e a l . Some students d i d think that an image could be something outside your mind as we l l as within your mind at the same time but f o r many others i t was e i t h e r one or the other. However, during discussion, a l l students agreed that both outer forms and inner forms could be images. What i s imagination? There was general consensus on t h i s question. Most agreed upon the following points: 60 - something which helps us think of things c r e a t i v e l y or i n a d i f f e r e n t way - the creations our brains think up - imagination decides what the p i c t u r e w i l l be - an imagination i s a person thinking of something that might be true but usually i s not - imagination i s what you think up as i n a play or to draw something - imagination is. something that goes on i n a person's head - imagination i s idealism, craftsmanship, your ideas - your imagination i s something that i s d i f f e r e n t f o r everyone - when you use your images i n an i n d i v i d u a l way - imagination i s part of your mind which allows you to invent s i t u a t i o n s that previously d i d not e x i s t - imagination i s your a b i l i t y to think o f things, making them your own way - imagination i s the creative part of the br a i n - imagination i s creative thinking - to come up with something new. What i s important to show when you use your imagination? Many students d i d not know what was important to show when they use t h e i r imaginations but those who answered were sure that you would come up with something new and o r i g i n a l and offered the following responses: - to show f e e l i n g and d e t a i l - show your complete thought or ideas 61 - show unique features so that people w i l l know you were responsible f o r the concept - so you can demonstrate that you understand your imagining and are s a t i s f i e d with i t - to show your creativeness. These responses demonstrate that the students f e e l that imagination should show something new and unique - use of the imagination helps create new knowledge for the students because the imagination i s creating something new for the students. Is i s necessary for other people to understand your images? Overwhelmingly students f e l t that i t was not important f o r other people to understand what one i s doing when making images because that could be explained to them i f i t was necessary: - i f people could figure i t out that was good but no one else has the same imagination so i t i s okay to be d i f f e r e n t - i t i s your thought and not anyone elses - sometimes the people do not always need to know and sometimes they have to use t h e i r imaginations. How do you get your ideas f or images? The students had no problem answering t h i s . - from your surroundings - from the ideas of others - to form an idea you just look at something and i t sets o f f a whole new t r a i n of thought - from looking at people's work and by thinking of the en- vironment you are i n 62 - you get ideas by just thinking - from your imagination while wondering about something - you look at nature - they come from your mixed up thoughts - from the top of your head - from what you see and what you know from the past - t a l k i n g to people or reading from books - thinking q u i e t l y about a subject and things r e l a t e d to i t and to use them. Thus students r e a l i z e that they a r r i v e at ideas by thinking i n many sorts of ways and d i r e c t i o n s . They are cognizant that they do not ju s t happen. Can you create ideas that are t o t a l l y unique to you? The students were divided i n t h i s area. - everyone i s unique and therefore t h e i r ideas are unique as w e l l - i t i s not possible to create images and ideas that are t o t a l l y i n d i v i d u a l - i t i s possible to create unique images but i t becomes harder as you grow older - i t i s possible i f no one looks over your shoulder while you are working. The implications here are that the students' uniqueness and o r i g i n a l i t y w i l l d i r e c t l y be influenced by t h e i r b e l i e f s and i t i s important that teachers recognize t h i s when o f f e r i n g ideas f o r image making. 63 Who uses imagination and has ideas? A l l students f e l t that everyone uses imagination and has ideas but some s a i d that there are people who are more capable than others in t h i s area. One student said that everyone has imagination - even John Doe. Do you think i n images when you read or paint or think? Most students s a i d that they do think i n images. Some responded as follows: - everyone thinks i n p i c t u r e s - photographers and palm readers think i n images - only when describing something - only when reading. Who has imagination and why i s imagination used? This question received the same responses as "Who uses t h e i r imagination and has ideas?" A l l of the students f e l t that everyone has imagination and that imagination i s used for a r t , drama, architecture, thinking, cooking, ideas, turning ideas into r e a l i t y , w r i t i n g , f i l m s , making new things, to beautify, to create, to fantasize, to form i n t e r e s t i n g images which are d i f f e r e n t from other peoples. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the students' examples were almost e x c l u s i v e l y p o s i t i v e i n approach and not one of them suggested the use of the imagination i n a negative or harmful manner. Is imagination necessary to learn? A l l but two students f e l t that imagination i s necessary and important for learning. - I t i s not necessary because you are learning other people's ideas - i t may be f o r some subjects but not a l l 64 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that many students equate learning within the classroom subject areas. Not one student mentioned learning taking place outside of the school environment. Is imagination necessary f o r making images? Most of the students f e l t that imagination i s important f o r making unique images i n art but there were a few surprises as w e l l : - imagination i s necessary or else everything would be the same - imagination i s necessary because a r t i s the a r t of the imagination. The responses to the questions on imagination are very s e n s i t i v e and thoughtful i n attit u d e and t h e i r answers enabled close work with the students on the units to be described l a t e r . Dreams Dreams in t h e i r development have breath, And tears, and tortures, and the touch of joy; They leave a weight upon our waking thoughts; And take a weight from our waking t o i l s ; They do divide our being; they become A portion of ourselves as of our time, And look l i k e heralds of e t e r n i t y . Byron, The Dreams, S t . l The following are questions which the researcher asked the students i n the classroom s e t t i n g : 65 1. Do you dream? 2. Do you consider your dreams to have any meaning to you? 3. Do you f i n d your dreams i n t e r e s t i n g or disturbing? 4. Do you keep a dream diary or journal? 5. Did you know that some people have spent many years t r y i n g to analyze the importance of dreams? 6. Do you know where dreams come from? 7. Do you daydream? 8. What i s the difference between daydreaming and dreaming? 9. Do you think that dreams have any purpose? 10. Is there a difference'between a dream and a vision? 11. Can you name a visi o n a r y who has had a far reaching e f f e c t on the l i f e of man? 12. Can you name a dreamer who has had a f a r reaching e f f e c t on the l i f e of man? 13. What does i t mean to dream? Do you dream? A l l students but one said they had dreams and t h i s student said he di d not know for sure because o c c a s i o n a l l y he thought he had one. Do you consider your dreams to have any meaning to you? About one t h i r d of the cl a s s f e l t that t h e i r dreams had no s p e c i f i c meaning to them while the remainder of the students f e l t that some dreams d i d have s p e c i f i c meanings to them but they d i d not know what the meanings were. To most students t h i s d i d not seem an important point but t h i s i s j u s t the way dreams are. 66 Do you f i n d your dreams i n t e r e s t i n g or disturbing? The majority of students f e l t that t h e i r dreams are i n t e r e s t i n g and oc c a s i o n a l l y d i s t u r b i n g . A few mentioned that t h e i r dreams were f a s c i n a t i n g and that when they t r i e d to int e r p r e t them they became di s t u r b i n g I Do you keep a dream diary or journal? The majority of students did not " d i a r i z e " as they c a l l e d i t or keep a journal. Three students s a i d they do t r y to f i n d meaning to t h e i r dreams by w r i t i n g them down and one said she recorded them so she had a source of ideas f o r creative composition. Do you know that some people have spent many years t r y i n g to analyze the importance of dreams? A l l but one student was aware of the research and some sa i d they knew i t had gone on f o r some time. One even sa i d he would l i k e to have some of h i s dreams analyzed by someone who knew what he was doing. Do you know where dreams come from? The answers to t h i s question were very s e n s i t i v e and some are as follows: - from your inner most f e e l i n g s - from your fears, your wants and wishes - from your subconscious or your inner personal s e l f that you never know - from your mind - from thoughts i f I have problems that can hot be solved - from things that happen 67 - from the f i r s t or t h i r d stage of sleep - from di s t u r b i n g f a c t s i n your subconscious but I can not figure i t out - dreams are put together by the subconscious part o f the mind - they are made from ideas and things a f f e c t i n g us - dreams sometimes p r e d i c t the future. There were a few students who said they did not know where t h e i r dreams came from and that they j u s t happened. Do you daydream? A l l but one student said that they daydream but the answers were that they daydreamed i n varying amounts. Most students said they daydreamed at p a r t i c u l a r times but one student said she found i t a most enjoyable a c t i v i t y and d i d i t more than most other things. What i s the difference between daydreaming and dreaming? The students had l i t t l e trouble i n d e f i n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s : - daydreaming occurs when you are in a less s l e e p - l i k e state and are more conscious than while you sleep - daydreaming i s when you create a scene by your own choice - dreaming i s when your awake conscience i s asleep and your subconscious takes over - you can see the dreams What i s the diffe r e n c e between daydreaming and dreaming? - i n your mind's eye - daydreaming i s the r e s u l t of your mind wandering while you are 68 awake, and because you are conscious and can control the thoughts so they are usually pleasant - dreams are controlled by your subconscious so there i s no c o n t r o l over the degree of horror or whatever - daydreams happen when you are awake - dreams happen i n the night and they are sometimes interlocked - you dream what you might daydream - you have more control over your daydreams than your dreams. Do you think that dreams have any purpose? The majority f e l t that dreams do have a purpose but were not sure how to define i t , some of t h e i r responses are as follows: - dreams l e t your subconscious take over and sometimes they have meaning f o r you and your l i f e - they are a vent f or your subconscious - they l e t you think about things you would not when you are awake - dreams take you away from r e a l i t y - you can l e t loose your true s e l f - dreams sometimes t e l l you things - dreams take you away from the pressures of r e a l l i f e - dreams are something to watch while you are asleep - dreams release what you can not say Is there a di f f e r e n c e between a dream and a vis i o n ? This question was very d i f f i c u l t f o r the majority of students. They found i t hard to write an answer at a l l and many of them said they j u s t d i d not know. A few answered as follows: - a v i s i o n i s something you believe i n and a dream i s not 69 - a v i s i o n i s usually r e l a t e d to something you have seen but a dream i s made up of something from your subconscious - a v i s i o n and a dream are the same in d i f f e r e n t circumstances - a v i s i o n i s more f o r e t e l l i n g and would happen while you are awake - they can happen while conscious and o f f e r i n s i g h t i n t o something - dreams are usually more complex than a v i s i o n - dreams usually have motion and sometimes a story l i n e - dreams have keys to working things out - dreams contain v i s i o n s . Can you name a v i s i o n a r y who has had a far reaching e f f e c t on the l i f e of man? Many of the students f e l t that Jesus was an important v i s i o n a r y . Other frequent responses were C h u r c h i l l and H i t l e r , Napolean, Ghandi, and Mother Theresa. Individual responses were the planners of the space programme, people of the s i x t i e s , Mohammed, Lenin and Joan of Arc. Almost a l l the v i s i o n a r i e s mentioned were p o l i t i c a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Can you name a dreamer who has had a f a r reaching e f f e c t on the l i f e of man? In t h i s section, the a r t i s t i s mentioned more as we l l as s c i e n t i s t s : Leonardo da V i n c i , John Lennon, Michelangelo, E i n s t e i n , Newton, Plato and Socrates. The most unusual response was the student who s a i d that union leaders are the dreamers who have the most f a r reaching e f f e c t . He di d not elaborate. 70 What does i t mean to dream? Some of the students thought that dreaming helped you to discover yourself and other responses follow;. - to dream means to l i s t e n to your subconscious, your fears and hunches - to dream means you could wish for something subconsciously - to dream means you can do anything you wish because you can l e t your mind go - to dream means you get away from r e a l l i f e and l e t your imagination take co n t r o l of your mind - to dream means an active subconscious - to dream means to have your thoughts, ideas, fantasies, inner consciousness a l l put together. - to dream means that you are a human being - to dream i s to relax - to dream means you are a l i v e - to dream i s to show that we are i n d i v i d u a l people working things out within ourselves. The students' responses to t h i s section were very s e n s i t i v e and well thought out. Many of t h e i r answers were i n s i g h t f u l and indicate that they take t h e i r inner dream l i f e s e r i o u s l y . Students f e l t they had something to say on t h i s subject and appreciated the opportunity to do so. They a l l indicated that dreams play a great part i n t h e i r inner l i v e s and most indicated that they are struggling with t h e i r ideas i n t h e i r dreams to t r y and determine some meaning f or themselves from them. 71 Heroes and Heroines A hero ventures f o r t h from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are encountered and a de c i s i v e v i c t o r y i s won: the hero comes back from t h i s mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on h i s fellow man. Joseph Campbell, The Hero With a Thousand Faces The following are questions which the researcher asked the students i n the classroom s e t t i n g : 1. Who i s a hero/heroine i n your opinion? 2. What q u a l i t i e s make t h i s person a hero/heroine? 3. Is i s necessary that the hero/heroine have q u a l i t i e s that everyone i s able to i d e n t i f y with and admire? 4. Describe a hero/heroine from h i s t o r y as w e l l as you are able to and j u s t i f y why t h i s person was/is a hero/heroine. 5. Which hero /heroine would you l i k e to emulate (follow) and why? 6. Any comments regarding heroes/heroines? The questions p e r t a i n i n g to heroes and heroines encouraged the students to give feminine as w e l l as masculine examples. However, for c l a r i t y the word hero w i l l be used i n the students' responses and w i l l be synonymous with heroine. 72 Who i s a hero/heroine i n your opinion? S u r p r i s i n g l y , there were some students who were unable to name a hero of any kind. The heroes most frequently mentioned were members of the students' f a m i l i e s . Heroes mentioned outside of the family structure included Ghandi, Mother Theresa, Terry Fox, Dustin Hoffman and Jesus. Many of the students are obviously affected by the heroes that are popularized by the media. What q u a l i t i e s make t h i s person a hero or heroine? The students seemed to f e e l that a hero does everything r i g h t and always does things for other people. Some other responses are: - he always thinks about other people before himself - he i s s e l f l e s s , brave and compassionate - he possesses leadership and humanitarianism - he has the a b i l i t y to s t i c k to something even though i t i s very hard doing something not for himself but f o r others - he i s someone that' we can a l l look up to - he works for the good of a l l and not j u s t himself. When the responses are examined, i t i s easy to see why the students had d i f f i c u l t y i n answering the f i r s t question about who i s a hero - there standards are very high and d i f f i c u l t to l i v e up to. Is i t necessary that the hero/heroine have q u a l i t i e s that everyone i s able to i d e n t i f y with and admire? The majority of students f e l t that t h i s was necessary and they r e p l i e d as follows: 73 - people may l i k e c e r t a i n aspects of a hero but not others - the hero may ' s p e c i a l i z e ' i n c e r t a i n areas that are not admired by a l l - d i f f e r e n t things are important to d i f f e r e n t people - a hero only needs p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s f o r c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s - a hero for one person may have no s i g n i f i c a n c e to another person because those q u a l i t i e s are not c r i t i c a l to them - some heroes could be scorned by others but they have s t i l l done heroic deeds - there are d i f f e r e n t types of heroes - a hero need not have q u a l i t i e s that everyone can i d e n t i f y with as a hero can be anyone who j u s t once does something p a r t i c u l a r l y noble and s e l f l e s s There were some students i n the minority who f e l t that the hero had to have u n i v e r s a l q u a l i t i e s f o r i f he could not be admired by a l l then he was not a hero and t h e i r responses were: - a hero was someone to look up to and was admired by everybody - a hero w i l l become dormant and unliked i f people can not i d e n t i f y with h i s character - nobody has q u a l i t i e s that everybody l i k e s but everybody should be able to recognize the good q u a l i t i e s of a hero. Describe a hero/heroine from h i s t o r y as w e l l as you are able to and j u s t i f y why t h i s person was/is a hero/heroine. The heroes mentioned most frequently were h i s t o r i c a l or b i b l i c a l i n nature. There was some mention of heroes from mythology as well 74 but i n more of a minor way: C h u r c h i l l , H i t l e r , Lord Nelson, Joan of Arc, Mother Theresa, David and Goliath, Jesus C h r i s t , Aphrodite and Hercules. Perhaps the students are r e a l l y unaware of the many sorts of heroes there have been throughout h i s t o r y or mentioned only the ones that they have most recently learned about i n school or seen on TV or at the movies. The responses here r e i n f o r c e what was said i n answer to "Who i s a hero/heroine in your opinion?". Which hero/heroine would you l i k e to emulate (follow) and why? The answers to t h i s question were var i e d indeed. One student said she wanted to be l i k e the Queen of England!' Other popular figures were James Bond, the White Knight, Robin Hood, Jesus C h r i s t , Kato, Hercules, the Bladerunner, Abraham Lincoln, part of the A-Team and Conan the Barbarian. These students f e l t i t was not necessary to explain why because the answers are obvious. There were students who said that they d i d not wish to emulate any person i n p a r t i c u l a r but f e l t that there were certain q u a l i t i e s that were important,for t h e i r heroes to have: kindness, unselfishness, good company f o r others, the a b i l i t y to do something p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l , and the a b i l i t y to be courageous i n the face of d i f f i c u l t i e s . Any comments regarding heroes/heroines? Many of the students chose not to elaborate but those who d i d offered the following i n t e r e s t i n g ideas: - heroes have the a b i l i t y to move people by what they have done 75 without being aware of t h e i r s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s - t h i s makes t h e i r contributions more important - having heroes i s important as emulating a hero can help to change a l i f e s t y l e or mannerisms (some times f o r the worse) - e v i l people would have e v i l heroes - a hero i s a b i g word - I admire many people but when you say the word hero my standards are very high. Just to think of a hero i s a great task - i f you are a hero you do not l e t anything get i n your way - you conquer i t and not j u s t l i v e with i t , r - i n China they say a hero i s simply two things - one who serves h i s country and one who serves h i s people - there are several types of heroes but the two most common are the ones who are kind, f o r g i v i n g , help others and the ones who do dangerous deeds and perhaps k i l l f o r t h e i r mission - there are not enough r e a l heroes anymore to admire - r e a l heroes i n my opinion are not the very famous. They are the ordinary nameless people who do something maybe only once - f o r example, a person who rescues someone from a burning b u i l d i n g at the r i s k of h i s own l i f e . Most students recognized a need for a hero i n t h e i r l i v e s . This hero seems to take form most frequently i n one of the figures made popular by the media. Many adults recognize t h i s need i n themselves but would not use the word hero but "mentor" to describe a person important to them. There i s no doubt that students recognize the need and importance of heroes i n t h e i r l i v e s and the exercise l a t e r on w i l l help them recognize the hero i n themselves. 76 The Environment Inner, harmony i s attained only when, by some means, terms are made with the environment. John Dewey, Art as Experience The following are questions which the researcher asked the students i n the classroom s e t t i n g : 1. What does environment mean? 2. What i s the most i n t e r e s t i n g environment you have been in? 3. I f you could go to an environment i n the past where would you go and why would t h i s i n t e r e s t you? 4. Do you know of any buildings that are what might be c a l l e d "powerful" to you? I f so, why do you think they were b u i l t t h i s way? 5. Do you think that where we learn has any e f f e c t on how we learn? 6. What might you change i n your environment i f you could? How would you do t h i s ? (This pertains to the structure only and does not include the " n i c i t i e s " of l i f e , i . e . stereos, cars.) 7. I f you could go to any p h y s i c a l environment without b u i l d i n g s , where would you go and why? 8. Is there anywhere that you f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y s p i r i t u a l or that there i s a purpose f o r man/woman being on t h i s earth? 77 This need not be a church or place of worship but any place that i s precious to you. 9. Please o f f e r any comments regarding t h i s questionnaire. In the questions regarding the environment, the students responded with a great deal of enthusiasm and offered much information. What does "environment" mean? For the majority of students, the environment means the world around them and they described i t as follows: - your environment i s what i s around you p h y s i c a l l y - t h i s could be land or your family or school - environment means my bedroom because i t i s the most t e l l i n g about me - the environment i s our surroundings that a f f e c t our moods, thoughts and perceptions - the environment includes smells, views, areas of land and the atmosphere - environment i s a series of si t u a t i o n s and persons surrounding you - environment i s the place around us - the a i r , the water, the landforms, and the types of l i f e around us - environment i s the condition i n which you l i v e w i t h i n . What i s the most i n t e r e s t i n g environment you have been in? One of the most s u r p r i s i n g answers was that school was the most e x c i t i n g environment because there was constant information and new 78 ideas. Other responses are as follows: - Vancouver i s e x c i t i n g as i t i s so d i f f e r e n t from Denmark which i s where I am from - hotter climates such as A f r i c a , the Tropics, Macao, India - the sea - the forests of B.C. - the Rockies because of the f e e l i n g of freedom and natural beauty - v i s i t i n g friends houses because you are only an outsider but l i f e keeps going on and you can only watch when you are a v i s i t o r . I f you could go to an environment i n the past where would you go and why would t h i s i n t e r e s t you? Medieval times and ancient lands seemed to be the most popular answers along with: - English v i l l a g e s because of old buildings - the Middle Ages because there were l o t s of castles and kings and other powers - to the "Who1 concert because I had to miss the l a s t one for my s i s t e r ' s birthday - back to the Roman Empire with a camera to get some pi c t u r e s - to Greece or China 800 A.D. - to the time of C h r i s t - to India where there are people who can look at your hand and they can t e l l you your future 79 - to my grandmother's time, around 1905 to experience some of the things she d i d l i k e i r o n i n g with seven irons - to the e a r l y P r a i r i e s to see how s e t t l e r s l i v e d - p r e h i s t o r i c times to see what animals evolved from - to a ' b a l l ' environment when ladies wore long gowns to a b a l l - to Medieval times because things were simple - to the Roman seige of a c a s t l e or a seige of a Roman c i t y because the Romans are the builders of modern c i v i l i z a t i o n - Mesopotamia because i t i s such an ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n . Do you know of any buildings that are what might be c a l l e d "powerful" to you? I f so, why do you think they were b u i l t t h i s way? The responses were many and varied? - pyramids and castl e s are most powerful because they show power and t e r r i t o r y - the Empress h o t e l seems powerful and may have been b u i l t to r e f l e c t d i g n i t y and r o y a l t y and the c a p i t a l of B.C. - the Statue of L i b e r t y - the Parthenon - castles represent power because of the sheer awesomeness of t h e i r space and s i z e and they seem to symbolize strength. They were b u i l t large so that they could dominate the l i v e s of the people - the Planetarium i s powerful because of the room inside - there i s no b u i l d i n g that i s powerful - i t i s usually what i s insi d e the b u i l d i n g that i s 80 - the new Court House i n Vancouver - the Sears Tower i s powerful because i t i s b u i l t using a combination of concrete and glass and the glass r e f l e c t s the powerful sun - the B.C. Place Stadium i s powerful because i t i s unique - r e a l l y t a l l buildings are powerful because they make you f e e l smaller and more i n s i g n i f i c a n t than you are but the bui l d i n g s are b u i l t t h i s way merely to provide more space for o f f i c e s - c a s t l e s and churches are b u i l t t h i s way to represent power i n r e l i g i o n and government - churches were b u i l t large and powerful and with so much a r t to show people how b i g God i s . Do you think that where we learn has any e f f e c t on how we learn? Overwhelmingly, the students s a i d "yes". They f e l t that i n a negative environment you would be "negative" to learning anything but i n a " p o s i t i v e " environment you learn f a s t e r because of your better p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e . Other r e p l i e s include: - i f a person l i v e s i n a large c i t y he w i l l learn more science s t u f f than someone l i v i n g i n a small v i l l a g e - an environment gives us objects that we can r e l a t e to - your environment a f f e c t s your attitu d e - some places are quieter and n i c e r to learn i n - i f you l i v e i n a good community you have bet t e r schooling and people i n the environment a f f e c t us 81 - i f your school has a f r i e n d l y loose atmosphere i t w i l l change the amount or q u a l i t y of your t o t a l knowledge than i f you learn i n a very s t r i c t harsh school. - your surroundings often do a f f e c t your emotions ( i . e . colour) - i f your surroundings make you h o s t i l e , you w i l l not learn w e l l . What might you change i n your environment i f .you could? How would you do this ? (This pertains to the structure only and does not include the " n i c i t i e s " of l i f e , i . e . stereos, cars.) The answers were varied as some students f e l t they could change nothing but some other responses are: - downtown Vancouver should be changed to help out a l l the poor people and clean i t up a b i t - I would change my environment and go to the jungle - I would change the r e l a t i o n s h i p between my parents and myself but because I can not change t h i s I would change the yard - I would move to the wilderness or the ocean - I would change the government because they think too much of the nation and too l i t t l e of the people - school environments should be changed to create less s t r e s s - t h i s could be done by having courses that are more enjoyable - I would put a dome over Vancouver to keep the r a i n out - palm trees would change the environment - the weather. 82 I f you could go to any ph y s i c a l environment without b u i l d i n g s , where would you go and why? The students wanted to go to the moon or other planets and t h e i r answers r e f l e c t e d some of the responses given previously: - somewhere where there i s l o t s of w i l d l i f e - A f r i c a and the Rockies - the Canadian forests - the beaches of Hawaii or T a h i t i - under a f i g tree i n Greece on a h i l l overlooking the Mediterranean with a good book - to the seashore because i t i s quiet and serene - to the desert because i t i s a non-environment - to the jungle because i t i s t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from Vancouver - to a secluded i s l a n d - to the Bahamas - to the wilds - to go underwater. Is there anywhere that you f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y s p i r i t u a l or that there i s a purpose f o r man/woman being on t h i s earth? This need not be a church or place of worship but any place that i s precious to you. The places that most of the students selected were f o r the most part r e a d i l y accessible to a l l : - on top of a mountain s t a r i n g at the sta r s - outdoors at night when i t i s t o t a l l y quiet 83 - when you are with someone you r e a l l y love environments that are p h y s i c a l do not matter - i t i s the f e e l i n g that i s between two or more of you that i s s p e c i a l - i n church and with a youth group - by the seashore and the f o r e s t - with nature - f l y i n g and looking down on the land and up a t the s k i e s . Please o f f e r any comments regarding t h i s questionnaire. Many students chose not to answer t h i s but those who d i d o f f e r e d some i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t s . - these questions make me r e a l i z e how lucky I am to l i v e where I do - awkward to answer but s o r t of i n t e r e s t i n g - too complex - these questions r e a l l y bring the me out of myself - environment i s very important to me and a person can learn quite a l o t about himself with these questions - they are kind of hard but they make me think - I l i k e d the questions and the way you have to think of what i s around you and what i s important to you - I am glad we can answer how we f e e l rather than having a r i g h t answer - I would l i k e to l i v e i n the outdoors but I need some c i t y l i f e belongings - i n t e r e s t i n g questions but i t would have been ea s i e r to answer them o r a l l y rather than w r i t i n g them down. 84 Conclusions Regarding: Imagination, Dreams, Heroes, Environment Many of the students viewed the ideas presented as very complex and answered in kind; only occasionally were the responses s u p e r f i c i a l . They had a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n answering and g i v i n g t h e i r own opinions and looked forward to the opportunities to explore these ideas within the framework that was proposed. While t a l k i n g with the students concerning t h e i r answers I asked them i f the r e p e t i t i o u s responses meant that they were u n o r i g i n a l or i f t h i s made t h e i r ideas less important. They assured me that the r e p e t i t i o n did not matter, we a l l view the world from our own stance and what i s important to each of us at the time i s that the experience i s new. I t i s with t h i s i n mind that they f e l t that while the teacher or the parents might regard something as having been done before, f o r the student many times the idea or image was new and because o f t h i s the idea i s v a l i d and imaginative f o r the student to work with. The value of approaching students f o r t h e i r opinions and ideas cannot be over emphasized. Referring to the f i r s t chapter where both Feldman and Read s a i d that t h i s i s where we must s t a r t to obtain t r u l y authentic imagery, there can be no doubt that students respond to the approach that asks them "What do you think?". As a teacher, you are a f f i r m i n g t h e i r worth i n your eyes and saying that they have something to o f f e r . What better p o s i t i o n does the student have to work from than t h i s ? In the next section of t h i s chapter discussion and implementation of the units w i l l u t i l i z e the information gleaned by the previous 85 questions. A v i s u a l i z a t i o n exercise o f f e r s students opportunities to gain access to i n d i v i d u a l imagery i n dreams and place themselves i n an environment; the students designed containers with personal en- vironments f o r themselves. Using memory, f a n t a s i z i n g , and dreams, the students discovered and drew the heroes that are w i t h i n themselves and the heroes that i t i s possible for them to become. Some students attempted to build/draw the i d e a l environment that w i l l nurture the hero i n themselves. The teacher a c t i v e l y engaged i n these challenging assignments along with the students. The reason for t h i s i s that when obtaining imagina- t i v e imagery in these manners: v i s u a l i z a t i o n , f a n t a s i z i n g , guided imagery, daydreams f o r example, there are more r i s k s taken on the parts of the student. The student i s being asked to reveal personal ideas and look at ideas and images i n new ways. I f the student i s able to recognize that the teacher i s w i l l i n g to r i s k and struggle and reveal something personal about himself, then the student may be w i l l i n g to r i s k as w e l l . The teacher should be w i l l i n g to respond to the same challenges that are set for students. This i s to be an imaginative, e x c i t i n g u n i t where students learn something about exploring images that express t h e i r inner l i v e s . Wordsworth wrote about viewing the l i f e process as a whole and perhaps students might gain i n s i g h t into t h i s view as w e l l . Wordsworth imagined the following: 86 My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow i n the sky: So i t was when my l i f e began; So i t i s now, I am a man: So be i t when I s h a l l grow old, Or l e t me di e ! The C h i l d i s father of the Man; And I could wish my days to be Bound each to each by natural p i e t y . In the same manner, students are asked to give opinions, but the end form i s the transcendence of the facts to another form i n the imaginative realm. V i s u a l i z a t i o n - the Heroic Personal Image In Chapter two, v i s u a l i z a t i o n i s described as a good method f o r obtaining personal images f o r students. The following exercise has been tested thoroughly outside of the classroom with groups of students and teachers as w e l l as in the classroom. The thrust of t h i s section i s the use of t h i s exercise with junior high school students. Before beginning, there are a few p r e r e q u i s i t e s . Since the classroom i s accessible to o f f i c e personnel, adminis- t r a t i o n , counsellors, other teachers and students, i t i s necessary to ensure that students and teacher remain undisturbed f o r the class period. Make sure that there i s a notice on the door that you are not to be disturbed, c a l l the o f f i c e and ask them not to put any 87 c a l l s through i f there i s a phone i n your room, and make sure the address system i s turned o f f . This i s not d i f f i c u l t to arrange, but i t i s necessary so that the v i s u a l i z a t i o n experience w i l l be whole for a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g and not fragmented by outside interference. Af t e r explaining to the students what v i s u a l i z a t i o n i s , some students may f e e l unsure of themselves. I t i s necessary to place them at ease and often o f f e r i n g them the opportunity to leave the room, they w i l l u s u a l l y make the decision to stay. This i s the same for chronic t a l k e r s . I f someone does run the r i s k of s p o i l i n g the v i s u a l i z i n g experience f o r the other students, arrangements should have been made previously with the l i b r a r i a n , counsellor or other teacher f o r those students to be supervised. This has happened only r a r e l y and most students look on th i s as an adventure. Background music i s desireable and Paul Horn's f l u t e music or Brian Eno's 'Music for A i r p o r t s ' i s i d e a l , but any music that does not emphasize a changing rhythm but has a steady pattern i s i d e a l . This helps to set the tone and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y good for helping students focus on their, inner images. I f you wish, b l i n d s could be drawn and l i g h t s turned out. Ideally, students should be in a r e c l i n i n g p o s i t i o n but i f t h i s i s not p r a c t i c a l the v i s u a l i z i n g u n i t works j u s t as w e l l i n a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n . The following v i s u a l i z a t i o n journey i s only one suggestion that has been successful f o r obtaining self-images. There are many adaptations and r e v i s i o n s that may be made and should be made by i n d i v i d u a l teachers f o r students. Ensure the students that to s t a r t 88 t h i s journey, a l l they need to be i s relaxed, and many times with t h e i r l i v e s as pressured as they are, t h i s can be somewhat d i f f i c u l t . The researcher read the following statements to the students: One of the most important aspects of our l i v e s i s daydreaming or v i s u a l i z i n g what we would l i k e to see or have happen to us, those around us and i n our l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . In our e a r l y years, we are encouraged to think i n images, and indeed, when we f i r s t look at words, we perceive them as images i n the form of l e t t e r s . As we become older, we usually f i n d that we tend to deal with the w r i t t e n word more and with our v i s u a l vocabulary l e s s . When you consider t h i s , i t doesn't seem reasonable that we learn the majority of our information v i s u a l l y , but that we do not r e a l l y learn to us the v i s u a l i z a t i o n s k i l l s we a l l p o t e n t i a l l y have. By learning to v i s u a l i z e we may solve pro- blems, improve s k i l l s , see ourselves become the kinds of persons we would l i k e to become. I t i s easy i n part, but i t also means that we have to suspend some b e l i e f s about ourselves and the way we look at others as we go on our journey. You w i l l f i n d that the d e t a i l s and ideas presented are simple, and that everyone should be encouraged to t r y going on t h i s journey - your parents, friends and teachers are probably no more knowledgeable i n these v i s u a l s k i l l s than you are. This i s a very i n d i v i d u a l journey for each of us. I t i s also an ongoing learning journey in which you are the only judge as to the q u a l i t y of your ideas, learning and v i s u a l i z i n g . Your 89 c o l l e c t i o n of v i s u a l s and notes i s to be kept by you i n your f o l d e r and sketchbook i n any format you wish ... these ideas are f o r you to use not only f o r t h i s c l a s s , but f o r as long as you wish and i n any s i t u a t i o n you might wish to. At t h i s time, the teacher gave a breathing game exercise and the one chosen was by Robert McKim but there are many that may be bett e r for other s i t u a t i o n s and they may be invented as the teacher goes along. This game i s c a l l e d breathing Let us imagine that we have a g o l d f i s h i n front of us. Have the f i s h swim around/have the f i s h swim into your mouth/take a deep breath and have the f i s h go down into your lungs and into your chest/have the f i s h swim around i n t h e r e / l e t your breath out and have the f i s h swim out into the room again. Let's see you breathe i n a l o t of t i n y goldfish/have them swim around i n our chest/breathe them a l l out again. Let's see what kind of things you can breathe i n and out of your chest/breathe i n a l o t of rose petals/breathe them out again/breathe i n a l o t of dry leaves/have them blowing around i n your chest/breathe them out again/breathe i n a l o t o f water/ have i t gurgling i n your chest/breathe i t out again/breathe i n a l o t of raindrops/have them patterning i n your chest/breathe them out again/breathe i n a l o t of sand/have i t blowing around i n your chest/breathe i t out again/breathe i n a l o t of l i t t l e 90 firecrackers/have them popping i n your chest/breathe out the smoke and b i t s of them that are left/breathe i n a l o t of l i t t l e lions/have them a l l roaring i n your chest/breathe them out again. Breathe i n some fire/have i t burning and c r a c k l i n g i n your chest/breathe i t out again/breathe in some logs of wood/ set f i r e to them i n your chest/have them roaring as they burn up/breathe out the smoke and ashes. Have a b i g tree i n front of you/breathe f i r e on the tree and burn i t a l l up/have an o l d castle i n front of you/breathe f i r e on the c a s t l e and have i t f a l l down/have an ocean i n f r o n t of you/breathe f i r e on the ocean and dry i t a l l up. What would you l i k e to breathe i n now?/all r i g h t ... now what?/ a l l r i g h t ... now what?/ What would you l i k e to burn up by breathing on i t ? . . . . a l l r i g h t Be a fish/be the ocean/breathe the water o f the ocean/in and out/how do you l i k e that?/be a bird/be high i n the air/breathe i n the cold a i r / i n and out/how do you l i k e that?/be a camel/ be on the desert/breathe i n the hot wind of the desert/in and out/how does that feel?/be an o l d fashioned steam locomotive/ breathe out steam and smoke a l l over everything/how i s that?/be a stone/stop breathing/how do you l i k e that?/be a boy/girl/breathe the a i r of t h i s room ... i n and out/how do you l i k e that?/ 91 What i s the name of t h i s game? Now that we have f i n i s h e d our introduction to breathing using v i s u a l i z a t i o n , relax and savour the f e e l i n g s you have. Try not to judge or analyze, but j u s t relax with your eyes closed and t r y to enjoy these fee l i n g s and images. At the conclusion of the breathing game, the students are given time to savour t h e i r f e e l i n g s and then introduced to the following. In your mind's eye, continue to see y o u r s e l f as relaxed as you have been during the breathing game ... breathe i n whatever images you remember and return to where you f e l t most comfortable and savour the f e e l i n g s again. We are going on another journey together but each of us i s alone. You are walking and walking and walking but you are not t i r e d and soon you notice you are approaching a f o r e s t . This i s not your usual f o r e s t but t h i s i s a f o r e s t that contains trees that are most magical and wonderous ... unlike trees that we have seen before. Soon, you come upon a clearning and i f you look c l o s e l y , you w i l l f i n d a path leaving the clearing/see t h i s very c l e a r l y / take a look from f a r away/float above the trees and c i r c l e the c l e a r i n g and path/rest on a cloud/gather the trees with your eyes or hands/move in closer/what colours do you n o t i c e ? / what i s the texture of the leaves on the trees?/how does the a i r smell?/is there a sea nearby?/is i t hot/dry/cool/how does 92 the a i r f e e l on your skin and i n your h a i r ? / what d e t a i l s do you notice? When you decide to come to land, you w i l l continue upon your path ... i n the near distance, you see someone approaching on a gleaming white horse ... cantering, cantering slowly towards you ... the figure stops close to you and reaches out to you i n greeting/he says that you may have anything you wish ... and you give what he says c a r e f u l thought and you decide that there are many things that you would l i k e but the most im- portant things are not "things" at a l l but they are ideas that w i l l help make you the kind of person you would look up to and have other people to look up to ... these are ideas that would make you a hero i n your own eyes. What are those q u a l i t i e s that you ask the r i d e r for? They may be only one or two ideas or many but think c a r e f u l l y before you ask the r i d e r so you may be sure that they are what i s t r u l y important f o r you. A f t e r thinking c a r e f u l l y , you speak to the r i d e r on the gleaming white horse and he grants you these wishes and commends you on your choices and you and your newly found heroic q u a l i t i e s continue on your journey. In the distance you notice a da z z l i n g l y b e a u t i f u l b u i l d i n g and as you approach you notice the opening and you enter. In the entrance h a l l , blackness surrounds you but there i s a small shining l i g h t which you follow and as you follow i t you climb some s t a i r s and as you climb the s t a i r s , the l i g h t 93 becomes more b r i l l i a n t and at the top of the s t a i r s you stop and i n the corner of the room there i s an o l d o l d woman with kind eyes and she beckons you to come to her. You go and then you notice a most precious container that she i s holding and she t e l l s you that i n t h i s container there i s the clue that w i l l help you to become the kind of hero you would l i k e to become and w i l l help you to imagine the kind of l i f e you would l i k e to have. When you are ready, you open the container and see what i t i s that w i l l help you become who you want to become. Then thanking the o l d woman with the kind eyes and basking i n the b r i l l i a n t l i g h t , you turn to go down the s t a i r s which are no longer dark and emerge into the l i g h t of day which i s clean and pure and you f e e l the breeze against your cheeks and notice the b i r d s above and you continue back the way you came, along your path and back to the c l e a r i n g u n t i l you reach the trees. You make your way back slowly to your very s p e c i a l breathing space and when you are ready, slowly open your eyes. The students were given time to return to the classroom atmosphere at t h e i r own pace and were discouraged from t a l k i n g . Instead, they were asked to take the piece of paper that was i n front of them and asked to write down images that came to them when they met the r i d e r on the horse, what they found out from the wise o l d woman's con- tainer and any other images that were important f o r them during the exercise. They were asked to draw thumbnail sketches portraying these 94 ideas. A l l of these images and ideas went towards making t h e i r heroic self-images i n the following assignment. I t i s c r i t i c a l that the students have time to write t h e i r ideas and images thoroughly and to i l l u s t r a t e them with thumbnail sketches. They need time to catch t h e i r images while they are fresh i n t h e i r minds. The next step i n the assignment was to have the students trace each other's upper bodies on white bond paper. Their h a i r should f a l l i n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s and patterns so that the form i s obviously a person but each one w i l l be d i f f e r e n t because of the h a i r con- f i g u r a t i o n . This i s an important aspect of the assignment and helps each student r e t a i n some i n d i v i d u a l i t y even though they are a l l working on the same p r o j e c t . Tracing t h e i r own images i s important f o r then they are working on t h e i r own selves and creating what they want f o r themselves. Then, the students were asked to put t h e i r thumbnail sketches into t h e i r tracings of themselves as heroes. These sketches helped them i d e n t i f y the elements that w i l l help them become the h e r o i c people they would l i k e to be. In addition, students were encouraged to add ideas that had come to them since the v i s u a l i z a t i o n exercise. This helped to r e i n f o r c e that we are changing and ongoing i n our ideas and our images as w e l l . To help the students present t h e i r work i n the best possible manner, the techniques i n the foundations section on imagery presented i n the Secondary A r t Guide were used. 95 (This i s discussed further i n chapter four.) Various media were made available to them: p e n c i l crayons, f e l t pens, pain t , and p e n c i l helped them to have con t r o l and confidence over t h e i r media and gave them r e s u l t s that they f e l t proud of. Conclusions The students worked with great enthusiasm on t h i s assignment and the work produced by each was markedly i n d i v i d u a l . There were some problems with some students who were not quite sure what to focus on but with some i n d i v i d u a l imagery help, they were able to gain confidence i n the c r e d i b i l i t y of t h e i r own images and ideas. I t i s possible to lead a student into a v i s u a l i z a t i o n sequence while the hustle and bustle of the classroom l i f e goes on around him - indeed, i t i s almost l i k e a steady background rhythm si m i l a r to the music used for the students during the exercise. Once the students f e l t confident and competent i n presenting the i r ideas and they r e a l i z e d that there were no r i g h t answers, that t h e i r images were v a l i d for them and that they were not c r i t i c i z e d for presenting t h e i r images no matter what they were, they worked very hard and with z e a l . They were asked to f i l l the ent i r e i n t e r i o r of the body with images that represented t h e i r heroic selves. They were offe r e d the opportunity to b r i n g elements from outside themselves and place them outside t h e i r images. They were asked to deal i n symbols, i n images as metaphors for t h e i r l i v e s and in doing this they were able to develop images that 96 were authentic to them. In t h e i r head po r t i o n they placed images that were important to t h e i r minds and around t h e i r heart or lower portion, t h e i r images tended to concentrate on f e e l i n g s . The images var i e d greatly from student to student and at f i r s t some of the most obvious images came to a l l , but the students worked hard at s e l e c t i n g images that were t r u l y representative of themselves and that corresponded to the images r a i s e d i n the v i s u a l i z a t i o n experience. In discussing the u n i t with students at the conclusion of the assignment, the consensus was that the assignment was most i n t e r e s t i n g and unique. But, they stated that made sense because each of them i s a unique person. They were also asked to see them- selves i n the best possible circumstances and imagine what they could do and be i n the future as t h e i r heroic image. What bett e r spring- board could be offe r e d f o r anyone's imagination? A f t e r a l l , to many students, the most i n t e r e s t i n g person around i s oneself. I t i s important to state that the images produced were not what adults and teachers generally consider " a r t " but the importance of the work and t h e i r images was obvious. V i s u a l i z a t i o n i n t h i s context asked them to imagine f o r themselves the po s s i b l e hero that they could become. Dreams - A container f o r the s e l f The same clas s that wrote about dreams was asked to do t h i s assignment. As with the v i s u a l i z a t i o n exercise, the content i s concerned with the students own ideas and images and thus i s of 97 prime importance i n the motivation of the students. This assignment was considerably easier to implement with the students than the v i s u a l i z a t i o n unit because i t was not necessary to e s t a b l i s h a co n t r o l l e d classroom atmosphere. This i s not to say there was not order but i t was not important to have everyone p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the same thing at the same time. As with the v i s u a l i z a t i o n unit, the researcher asked the students to respond to some questions and they are as follows: 1. Describe a dream you have had recently that you think has meaning f o r your future. 2. I f you were unable to answer question one, fantasize a dream that would give meaning f or your future. 3. Write or sketch some images from your past that are important to you as an i n d i v i d u a l . 4 . What q u a l i t i e s make you special? 5- What dreams do you hold for yourself i n the future? 6. What kind of person would you l i k e to become? 7. How can you represent yourself best? Af t e r the questions had been responded to, the students were asked to v i s u a l i z e a container or box that would hold themselves and t h e i r l i v e s . In the exercise, they were asked to place both two-dimensional and three-dimensional images that represented t h e i r l i v e s by re- f e r r i n g to the answers and questions above. As with the v i s u a l i z a t i o n unit, students were asked to record t h e i r images i n thumbnail sketches to t r y to a t t a i n the images that were most important f o r them. 98 The next part of t h i s u n i t required that the students a c t u a l l y construct or use a ready-built container to hold the two-dimensional and three-dimensional images that they had decided were representative of t h e i r inner and outer selves. For t h i s unit, i t was necessary that students b r i n g items from home and that the teacher have a v a r i e t y of materials on hand. Also, cooperation with the woodwork unit was convenient for those students who wished to b u i l d t h e i r containers, and many accomplished t h i s . Conclusions The students were offered two one-hour planning sessions f o r t h i s assignment and i n retrospect, t h i s was invaluable. I t made the work thoughtful and helped each student a t t a i n imagery that was important to him. I t was i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the more outgoing or ram- bunctious students used a number of symbols that adults considered unacceptable such as violence, drugs and sex. As with the v i s u a l i z a - tion unit, t h i s imagery was to be non-judgemental on the p a r t of the teacher and these students i n p a r t i c u l a r asked i f they could do any- thing and they were offered the opportunity without censure. Many of the students were very concerned about t h e i r places i n the world to come and nuclear was was a dominant image i n the way they viewed themselves and the world. However, there were many who saw themselves as poets and dreamers, a r t i s t s and philosophers and t h i s romantic view was offered with as much v a l i d i t y as the more aggressive v i s i o n s . The students took great care with presenting t h e i r ideas and t h e i r r e s u l t s took many forms, such as a b i r d cage 99 containing boxes with treasures; a butter crate containing a beach with the student w r i t i n g h i s own poetry; a shoe box e n t i r e l y f i l l e d with three-dimensional and two-dimensional symbols that had great meaning f o r a mathematically minded student; a small match-box which showed the importance of music and the future place of i t i n the l i f e of a student and many many more. Each student's work was d i s t i n c t from the other. However, a few students did use c l i c h e s f or s p e c i a l purposes but the majority of 8th and 9th grade students were able to discover personal imagery. Discussing t h i s with the students was a r e v e l a t i o n . They were pleased with t h e i r sense of self-worth and with t h e i r r e s u l t s . They also f e l t that working with some of t h e i r demons such as nuclear war and the violence around them that they were able to exorcise them to a degree. And most important of a l l , the students f e l t that we should be spending more time looking inwardly at ourselves and le s s out- wardly. They f e l t the whole assignment was v a l i d for t h e i r own image- making. Bu i l d i n g the Environment for the Hero The students who engaged i n t h i s u n i t had answered the questions p e r t a i n i n g to imagination and the environment but had not done any previous work concerning the hero. Using the v i s u a l i z a t i o n and breathing game described e a r l i e r , the teacher led the students to explore images that interested them. Images were presented to the students that were based on t h e i r answers to questions concerning the environment. The teacher suggested to students that they v i s i t 100 medieval c a s t l e s , scale walls, climb mountains, f i g h t b a t t l e s , be heroes, f l o a t i n an imaginary environment, and look inwardly to the environment that i s within themselves. Images that Robertson said evoked Jungian archetypes such as caves and labyrinths were explored. The students were asked to see themselves as heroes i n t h e i r en- vironments and act i n the manner that they f e l t was appropriate f o r heroes. The teacher took the students out of the v i s u a l i z a t i o n process slowly. At the conclusion, the students were asked to record t h e i r images with words and thumbnail sketches as has been described previously. Students were then asked to create an i d e a l environment for nurturing t h e i r heroes. They were offered the opportunity of working i n e i t h e r two-dimensional or three-dimensional format with any materials that they could f i n d or that were a v a i l a b l e i n the classroom. There i s a wealth of materials that can be found f o r l i t t l e or no money and the students were resourceful i n t h i s area. Money was to be no object i n the designing of the environment f or t h e i r hero. The researcher noted that because t h i s group of students had not answered the questions concerning the hero, nordone the v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the hero, many of the students had not formulated a cl e a r idea of who a hero was. In discussion, i t was revealed by the students that they saw no connection between heroes and themselves. Consequently, the images that were being dealt with i n the environmental v i s u a l i z a t i o n sequence such as caves and labyrinths had no connection 101 with the images that came to the students minds regarding themselves as heroes. Instead, they saw themselves as rock s t a r s , movie stars and b e a u t i f u l men and women who could have whatever possessions they desired. This i s where t h i s assignment d i f f e r e d markedly from the r e s u l t s of the other two. Here, the images were mainly concerned with outer possessions that the students wanted to have and le s s with the inner images that the other two groups f e l t were important for t h e i r image-developmen t. Conclusions Many of the images developed from t h i s unit were s u p e r f i c i a l and as such did not hold the i n t e r e s t of students f o r long periods of time. I t i s quite possible that the lack of preparation of images i n r e l a t i o n to the hero was responsible i n part. There i s a l s o the factor that b u i l d i n g the environment for t h e i r hero meant to the students that they had to deal with money. The problem of "money" was observed by the researcher to i n h i b i t the students' imagination i n t h e i r a r t . The r e s u l t s were unremarkable. In repeating t h i s unit, the researcher recommends that there be emphasis placed on: 1. preparation of the students by using the process of v i s u a l i z a t i o n more extensively with p a r t i c u l a r reference to the hero; 2. showing students s l i d e s that o f f e r environments that had been made by people with v i s i o n ; 3. emphasizing to students that the environment i s sometimes within people as w e l l as outside of them. 102 The differences i n the groups of students could have been due to other reasons as w e l l as the lack of preparation as described above. I t could also be a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r mental a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r l e v e l s of readiness f o r an assignment such as t h i s . Where one group of students worked in d u s t r i o u s l y and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , the other was d i f f i c u l t to motivate. The l a t t e r group of students worked on the hero i n the environment and when asked t h e i r opinions, they were unable to formulate w e l l thought out responses. The researcher concludes that the poor r e s u l t s with t h i s u n i t l i e not with the idea but with the execution of the material as described. I t may also be a r e f l e c t i o n on the a b i l i t i e s of the students as the u n i t does use the hero and the environment whereas the other two units were the hero or the environment: one main image rather than two. The hero i n the environment i s a worthwhile project and the a l t e r a t i o n s suggested should improve the q u a l i t y of images f o r the students and of f e r them a bet t e r base from which to s t a r t . 103 CHAPTER FOUR DEVELOPING STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE OF AND ABILITY TO USE IMAGERY Imagination, not invention, i s the supreme master of a r t as of l i f e . Joseph Conrad In chapter three the basic purpose was to e l i c i t from students t h e i r ideas concerning imagination, dreams, heroes and heroines and the environment. Based on these ideas, the students' i n t e r e s t s were established. At t h i s time, they were given assignments that d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to these stated areas of i n t e r e s t i n order to obtain unique image-making on the part of the students. One of the purposes of t h i s thesis i s to examine the B.C. Secondary Art Guide, in terms of strengths and weaknesses of the foundations area, in the form of o f f e r i n g i n s i g h t s and c r i t i c i s m s where appropriate. The guide o f f e r s a basis for a l l students to s t a r t from but i t i s the researcher's opinion that i t does not meet the needs of teaching and learning by using the imagination f o r unique image-making. A b r i e f discussion of t h i s aspect of the guide follows: The Secondary Art Guide's Approach to Imagery The guide states that imagery i s the basis on which a l l learning i n the new (1983) curriculum i s to take place. A l l explanations that the researcher makes i n t h i s section are based on the objective i n the guide that helps i n "developing students' knowledge of and a b i l i t y to 104 use imagery" (Art Foundations, p.29). The guide i s not p r e s c r i p t i v e but o f f e r s a v a r i e t y of suggestions from which to s t a r t to develop imagery. The language of the guide i s intended to be r e a d i l y understood by any teacher and the guide i s made av a i l a b l e to a l l teachers of a r t whether or not they have background i n a r t . As such, i t i s important that some methods be offered with the given s t r a t e g i e s for the development of imagery through the use of the imagination. The researcher has observed that the guide i s weak i n t h i s area. The foundations section of the curriculum guide was designed to be the base on which a l l art programmes are to be developed. In the researcher's opinion, t h i s i s a most c r i t i c a l p o r t i o n of the high- school a r t programme. This i s supported by the premise that i f i t i s not possible to obtain p o s i t i v e response from students at the foundation l e v e l , then chances of developing students' i n t e r e s t s at a l a t e r date are l i k e l y to be minimal. The foundations programme i s the time in the a r t programme when a teacher has the opportunity to capture the enthusiasm and i n t e r e s t of students so i t becomes imperative that students have a r e a l sense of i d e n t i t y with the images that they are studying and making. The images must be t h e i r own and not those given to them s o l e l y by the teacher. Although the Secondary Art Guide states that imagery i s the base on which a l l learning w i l l take place, the researcher has found upon close examination of the guide, that the emphasis i s on development of s k i l l s with p a r t i c u l a r reference to t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y . The following section w i l l discuss strategies that emphasize t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s as w e l l as three strategies that do touch upon imaginative learning. Suggestions for extending the guide's s t r a t e g i e s are o f f e r e d . 105 Strategies that Encourage Technical S k i l l s In the imagery section of the foundation programme, i t i s apparent that many of the str a t e g i e s used to f u l f i l the objective that students " w i l l demonstrate a knowledge of and a b i l i t y to use imagery" are very straight-forward and could e a s i l y be engaged i n by a l l students. Some of these s t r a t e g i e s are: s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , j u x t a p o s i t i o n , elabora- t i o n , s e l e c t i o n (Secondary Art Guide, pp.29-32). For example, i n reference to s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , the guide o f f e r s the following strategy: . Discuss the concepts " s i m p l i f i c a t i o n " and "ab s t r a c t i o n " . . Working from one source, create a s e r i e s of sketches gradually omitting d e t a i l . . Draw from a complex object, omitting some l i n e to create implied l i n e and/or l o s t and found edges. . S t y l i z e or s i m p l i f y shapes derived from the human f i g u r e . . Examine objects f o r t h e i r underlying geometric structure or shape, (p.29) I t i s r e a d i l y seen that the main thrust of t h i s strategy i s i n dealing with the techniques of "how to" s i m p l i f y . I t i s a concept that does not r e a l l y allow f o r the development of i n d i v i d u a l imagery but aids in the improvement of te c h n i c a l s k i l l . To further i l l u s t r a t e that the guide portion of development of imagery emphasizes the use of technique, magnification as a strategy i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the following: . Discuss the concept "magnification". 106 . Use images seen through a microscope or magnifying glass as sources of design f o r si l k s c r e e n , s t i t c h e r y , weaving. . Enlarge an image using the gr i d technique (p.30) . The foundations section i s consistent i n o f f e r i n g invaluable ideas for implementing techniques i n t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s . Analysis of the offered assignments shows c l e a r l y that the emphasis i n these examples i s on images outside of the student. There i s no intent to make the images the student's own, but the purpose i s to explore the strategy. The guide also suggests that there are st r a t e g i e s f o r a r r i v i n g at imaginative image-making. These are by using techniques such as memory, imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n . Strategies that Encourage Unique Image-Making The concepts of memory, imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n are offered as s t r a t e g i e s i n much the same way as the examples of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and magnification are given. However, there i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n these concepts as the guide names them. Where s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , magnification, juxtaposition and other s t r a t e g i e s given a l l c a l l f o r the observation of items from the outside and are r e a d i l y understood by a l l , the concepts such as memory, imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n a l l c a l l for the development of ideas from inside the student. Examine the following strategy with reference to imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n : . Discuss the concepts "imagination" and " v i s u a l i z a t i o n " . . Invent images using inner thoughts and f e e l i n g s . Fantasize and exaggerate. . Employ non-visual sources of i n s p i r a t i o n such as l i s t e n i n g to music and reading. 107 . Add to and extend a given image such as a photograph or rubbing. . Imagine and record dream landscapes, future a r c h i t e c t u r e , i n t e r i o r s (p. 31). While the guide does encourage use of the imagination and v i s u a l i z a - t i o n , the guidance and support offered for these complex areas i s minimal. I f the language in the s t r a t e g i e s of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and magnification i s examined, i t w i l l become evident that words such as discuss, working, create, draw, s t y l i z e , examine, enlarge are words that are r e a d i l y understood and that most teachers w i l l be able to explain. The language in reference to imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n i s more complex: "invent to develop inner thoughts and f e e l i n g s , fantasize, exaggerate, i n s p i r i n g ( s i c ) , extend, imagine". The examples given i n reference to magnification and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n are words of e x p l i c a t i o n concerning processes outside of the student whereas the examples given in reference to imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n are words that deal with the inner workings of the students' minds and f e e l i n g s . As such, the s t r a t e g i e s given for imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n are much more complex and need more explanation. The f i r s t examples given may be taught by what Samples (1977) c a l l s the d i d a c t i c approach to education. "The d i d a c t i c mode i s the c l a s s i c form of what we c a l l a d e l i v e r y approach to education. Delivery approaches to education take the form of modes i n which the content and the process are e s s e n t i a l l y d e l i v e r e d to the students (p.169). While the d i d a c t i c mode may be acceptable f o r the s t r a t e g i e s of magnification and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , there should be a b e t t e r mode for the strategies of imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n . This i s not to say 108 that the teacher cannot use the di d a c t i c process f o r aspects of an a r t programme. Nor should the teacher give the programme over wholly to what Samples terms the "process mode". The process mode was formed because i n our technological era, "content was always changing, attention was focused on strategies for teaching and learning. I f the what students learn i s going to keep changing, l e t ' s put more attention on the ways students learn" (p.171). Because of the process mode, Samples says that many of the p o s i t i v e aspects of d i d a c t i c learning were re j e c t e d . Samples says that the process mode i s s t i l l l a r g e l y d i r e c t e d by curriculum developers, scholars and teachers and that the "content ... learned were (sic) s t i l l determined by someone other than the student" (p.171). Because this type of learning i s s t i l l l a r g e l y directed by the teacher, Samples says the process mode i s s t i l l a de l i v e r y system of education and that we should consider embarking upon the " i n t r i n s i c mode". His explanation of the i n t r i n s i c mode i s worthwhile i n r e l a t i o n to the strategies concerning imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n . I t i s the researcher's opinion that i n order f o r learning to take place i n these areas, the teacher must f a c i l i t a t e involvement f o r the students. These st r a t e g i e s do not allow the students or the teacher to stay detatched as i n the d i d a c t i c mode or be s o l e l y concerned with the process mode. The i n t r i n s i c mode i s more of a synthesis of the former two and i s described f u r t h e r : This mode i s an access approach to education. In such an approach, students are legitimate decision makers. They can determine what content they w i l l study and what means they 109 w i l l take in the process of study. But they w i l l not make such decisions i n a vacuum. They w i l l do so i n partnership with a s k i l l e d and s e n s i t i v e teacher ... one who i s f l e x i b l e , competent, and (you remember!) has a sense of humor. Such a teacher must know enough about subject matter to be i n t e r e s t i n g - and to know that he or she doesn't know everything. And enough about process to know there are many ways to learn. (p.172) Much of Samples' w r i t i n g emphasizes the point that he f e e l s that the teacher has an exacting influence on the l i v e s of the students and perhaps t h i s i s an issue that should be discussed further but that i s not the purpose of t h i s paper. However, Feldman (1970) and Greene (1978) both agree that learning i n the classroom w i l l depend to a great extent upon the attitudes the teachers bring to t h e i r teaching. Greene reinforces t h i s by saying: teachers must themselves be s e n s i t i v e to the q u a l i t i e s of things as they must know personally what i t means to be receptive to the a r t s . Only teachers l i k e these can move the young to notice more, to attend more c a r e f u l l y , to express t h e i r v i s i o n s , to choose themselves. Much depends upon how teachers choose themselves - whether they a u t h e n t i c a l l y d e l i g h t i n c e r t a i n a r t experiences, whether they are informed enough to a r t i c u l a t e what there i s about the a r t s that expands human p o s s i b i l i t i e s . (p.195) 110 McFee and Degge (1977) further explain with the following quote that while students do need help i n developing s k i l l s , many students need help with looking inward: Students who enjoy being by themselves, who look within them- selves rather than to others for t h e i r concepts and f e e l i n g s usually need l i t t l e help from teachers to express ideas through a r t . But many students who want to express themselves had not the opportunities or encouragement. They may need help i n creating symbols, i n s e l e c t i n g suitable materials, and i n developing s k i l l s with media to express t h e i r ideas. (p.175) As t h i s passage in d i c a t e s , i t i s important that the teacher recognize that there are those students who do survive and do w e l l without the teacher's help but the vast majority of students do need a perceptive teacher to help them develop and express ideas as w e l l as s k i l l s with the students. Witkin (1974) stressed that s k i l l development i s important and that the "pupil's respect for h i s expressive act vanishes when he loses c o n t r o l of the medium" (p. 183). Witkin i s r e f e r r i n g to the older student and t h i s i s an aspect that should be supported and acknowledged by the teacher. The guide does support t h i s aspect of image-making but to emphasize technique i s a poor substitute f o r enabling the student to create authentic images. The concerned teacher must be wary of r e l y i n g on technique alone for t h i s i s what w i l l become the "communication" that was described by Collingwood i n chapter one where i t was determined that communication was secondary I l l to the r e a l purpose of image-making. The researcher i s making the assumption that the main reason for emphasizing s k i l l development i s communicated by the quote by McFee and Degge and further reinforced by Witkin but a l s o assumes that t e c h n i c a l s t r a t e g i e s are areas where most teachers are confident of t h e i r a b i l i t y and because with p r a c t i c e students may become reasonably p r o f i c i e n t . This i n turn helps both f e e l confident but does l i t t l e to enhance t h e i r imaginative c a p a c i t i e s . I t could be argued in f a c t that images may become more mechanistic because they are not ex- p l o r i n g inner imaginative dimensions but are concentrating instead on the outer appearances of t h e i r images. Suggested Strategies f o r the Secondary Art Guide, Foundations Section In addition to the strategies that are in the foundations section p e r t a i n i n g to the development of imagery, the researcher suggests that the following strategies would be h e l p f u l in the development of imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n : 1. i n c l u s i o n of some methods f o r approaching t h i s complex area of thought. An o u t l i n e such as the u n i t i n chapter three might be considered; 2. approaching students f o r t h e i r ideas and thoughts should be considered. The teacher should hold the ideas and thoughts of the students i n some esteem. Basing some assignments on students ideas/opinions/interests could be a good s t a r t i n g point for students to develop imagery that i s authentic to 112 them. Eisner (1972) of f e r s support f o r t h i s with the following: sound educational p r a c t i c e , i n a r t education or i n other f i e l d s , aims at e s t a b l i s h i n g the type of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n classrooms that allow the feeli n g s of the students as w e l l as t h e i r ideas to be expressed. At the same time, i t u t i l i z e s the maturity and p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l of the teacher i n making educational decisions. We must have i t both ways. If_ authentic r e l a t i o n s h i p s are substituted f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l , the educational process w i l l be poorer. I f p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s t i f l e s warm human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be empty, short-termed i n e f f e c t , and j o y l e s s . Both must be used i n t h e i r proper measure. What t h i s measure i s , i s p r e c i s e l y the type of question that no book can answer (p.181). 3. suggesting that the teacher p a r t i c i p a t e i n the assignments with the students. This w i l l demonstrate to the students that the teacher has b e l i e f i n the i n t e g r i t y of the ideas that are presented to the c l a s s . In addition, the teacher w i l l have empathy for the students process and know that the issues are complex f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s as learners. This i s rei n f o r c e d by Eisner's argument that he wants "the development of a type of r e l a t i o n s h i p that breeds t r u s t and openness enhances (sic) the teacher's understanding of the student (and v i c e versa)" (p.180). In Eisner's opinion, a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher and student w i l l "provide conditions that w i l l make the student's experience i n school educational" (p.180). 113 4. s t r e s s i n g throughout the imagery section of the guide that t h i s aspect of a r t i s what makes i t a t r u l y unique d i s c i p l i n e . Imagination i s what enables a l l people engaged i n creative endeavours to say, "This i s what I am. I am unique. I am me . 5. encouraging teachers to be adventuresome i n t h e i r approaches to teaching and learning. I f as was. stated i n chapter one, that imagination had to be used i n the learning of new know- ledge, then i t must be assumed that imagination should be used c o n s i s t e n t l y i f one wishes to continue learning and i f one i s to continue to grow i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and imaginatively. Most teachers do know how to do things, but i t i s important as w e l l to endorse and encourage teachers to help students to think and t h i s i s only possible i f teachers themselves think. "Yet the most important aspect of a r t education from the standpoint of the student i s what happens i n the classroom or school. As long as schools remain the major s o c i a l v e h i c l e through which formal education i s provided, the character of teaching w i l l be a ce n t r a l consideration f o r those who wish to improve the q u a l i t y of education" (Eisner, 1972, p.179). The researcher acknowledges that the preceeding ideas are complex. However, in order f o r imaginative image-making to take place within the curriculum guide, these issues should be addressed by the i n d i v i d u a l teacher and by curriculum planners. The next p o r t i o n of t h i s chapter w i l l deal with two thematic sections s p e c i f i c a l l y , o f f e r i n g c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions where they are h e l p f u l . 114 Analysis of Two Thematic Sections i n the Secondary Art Guide The Figure and The Environment These sections were chosen for close examination because of the s i m i l a r i t y of content for the personal image and the environment as described i n chapter three and r e f e r r e d to i n chapters one and two. I t bears repeating here that the researcher p r e f e r r e d to use the words personal image throughout the research because the words implied looking inward or being involved whereas the f i g u r e implied looking at or being outside of. Imagination i s d e a l t with in a l i m i t e d manner in the Figure section of the thematic book. Again, the language i s s i m i l a r to that i n the foundations section. For example, "Examine the work of a r t i s t s who have used the figure image i n imaginative and f a n c i f u l ways or in commemorative ways ... Marc Chagall's Lovers Over the C i t y uses the f i g u r e i n imaginative and f a n c i f u l ways" (p.60). I t seems to the researcher that i t i s almost impossible to examine how Chagall's work i s imaginative. Perhaps the words f e e l , i n t u i t , or sense would be more appropriate. By keeping the language more c l i n i c a l , the r e a l essence of the importance of examining Chagall's work i s denied. By making no committment to using language that w i l l encourage imaginative thinking i n r e l a t i o n to looking at Chagall's work, the imagination i s placed at the same l e v e l as the learning of s k i l l s i n the s t r a t e g i e s described e a r l i e r i n the chapter. 115 Concerning the theme of the environment, the thematic booklet proceeds i n a s i m i l a r vein: . Discuss the concept "imagination" as i t r e l a t e s to b u i l t environment imagery. . Work with r e a l i s t i c mainstreet images to further develop them in an imaginative way. . Use a continuous l i n e drawing approach to develop images for an imaginary mainstreet. (p.66) From the l i m i t e d suggestions given for t h i s area i t i s f e l t that the curriculum planners think that teachers i m p l i c i t l y understand how to promote the use of imagination i n the classroom. I t i s a paradox then that so much emphasis i s given i n d e s c r i b i n g p o s s i b l e techniques with which to make authentic imagery. As with the foundations section, the thematic sections as w e l l are useful as s t a r t i n g points for teachers, but i f the programme ends with the suggestions offered, i t i s of l i m i t e d value. As i l l u s t r a t e d , the guide's foundations are good for developing a sound t e c h n i c a l basis from which to b u i l d the imaginative sections. Students do need to f e e l confident with techniques so that they w i l l be able to work so that t h e i r imagery w i l l be unique to themselves. The researcher acknowledged the strength of t h i s aspect of the programme in r e l a t i o n to the units described and implemented i n chapter three. Graham C o l l i e r i l l u s t r a t e s what he f e e l s w i l l happen when a more s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y t i c a l view (which could be aligned with the a r t guide's t e c h n i c a l mastery) and the subjective a r t i s t i c (which could be aligned with the 116 researcher's emphasis on the imagination) meet: What i s i t that impels the a r t i s t to work i n the f i r s t place? ... art i s the r e s u l t of man's v i s u a l confrontation with the world. Man responds s u b j e c t i v e l y as an image-maker - that i s to say, he responds "image-inatively" to the external f a c t of h i s environment. At the one extreme, t h i s response may be characterized by an a n a l y t i c a l a t t i t u d e to the formal, p h y s i c a l , "how" of the object, which we might regard as v i s u a l l y s c i e n t i f i c . At the other extreme, the a r t i s t may respond to experiences of the world by creating images from his own resources which embody no objective r e a l i t y . And i n the middle p o s i t i o n , an a r t i s t may respond through a desire for a synthesis in which the separate elements of man and object become united i n an image of some complexity. (p.212) C o l l i e r thinks that we need to have a synthesis of the more te c h n i c a l s c i e n t i f i c approach and the subjective imaginative so that the a r t i s t and that which he i s creating become an "image of some complexity". I t could be argued here that C o l l i e r i s mirroring much of the language i n the guide but what C o l l i e r says about the a r t i s t ' s compulsion to work i s what i s most important here. This e i t h e r comes from a need within the a r t i s t or from some stimulation outside so that the a r t i s t w i l l respond s u b j e c t i v e l y . I f t h i s i s extended to the classroom s i t u a t i o n , the teacher should r e a l i z e that i t i s not enough to present objects to students for image-making. Ideas should be 117 presented f o r the necessary stimulation that some students need so that they are enabled to respond imaginatively. Suggestions f o r Improving the Guide's Approach to Imagination I t must be stessed that too l i t e r a l use of the guide should not be encouraged and that everyone should be interested i n extending and elaborating on ideas presented. The c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions that follow are based on the Foundations section on the development of imagery i n the B.C. Secondary Art Guide. 1. The emphasis i s te c h n i c a l . Ideas need to come from thinking imaginatively as a r t i c u l a t e d i n chapter three - not doing mechanistically. 2. There are suggestions for how to learn techniques/terms/and mention of imagination but there are no s t r a t e g i e s and ideas for actual implementation. 3. The guide fosters looking outward at things rather than inward at ideas and fi n d i n g out where images come from. In order to do t h i s , introspection and time f o r that inward looking needs to be encouraged and i t would be b e n e f i c i a l to explain t h i s to teachers. 4. F l i g h t s of fancy, imaginative thought and ways to get these images are r e a l l y not supported i n the present guide's suggestions. I f they were considered i n t e g r a l , they would be present throughout the guide. 118 5. In essence, the guide i s more of a "how to" approach to observation and the outer aspects of a r t rather than an exposition of the c r i t i c a l areas that t r u l y do make art - the use of authentic images through imagination. Developments Needed 1. In the Thematic Book, developed by the B.C. Curriculum Art Committee, the two sections on the Figure and the Environ- ment, showed l i t t l e attention was paid to the imaginative aspects of making images. Outlines presented i n chapter three would be h e l p f u l i n the guide. As mentioned e a r l i e r , teachers do not need as much help with technique as with how to obtain ideas. 2. The guide should encourage looking at images i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Since t h i s i s the basic a r t curriculum guide for art education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, there must be support at t h i s l e v e l f o r imaginative images or i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r teachers to fo s t e r imaginative image-making i n t h e i r c l a s s - rooms unless there i s some guidance for teachers. 3. There must be opportunities within the guide to encourage the teacher to ask the students what they think about various ideas and what i t i s important for them to learn and show i n t h e i r image-making. The guide must encourage teachers i n t h i s venture. 4. The guide must encourage teachers to become involved with t h e i r own development of images and imagination i n order to give credence to the ideas they present to t h e i r students. 119 The guide should emphasize the development of images that have p a r t i c u l a r meaning to the students rather than concentrate on images that have meaning to the teachers as i l l u s t r a t e d e a r l i e r by Feldman, Eisner and McFee. The ideas on imagination should not be considered i s o l a t e d units but should be continuously integrated with the imaginative image-making l i f e of the student. By emphasizing one aspect of the guide i n i s o l a t i o n , the purpose of i n t e g r a t i n g imagination i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be defeated. In chapter one, the notion of wholeness was presented. Integrating imagination w i l l help to unify rather than fragment ideas to see images as part of a powerful whole rather than i n p a r t s . The guide should encourage using imagination f o r seeing the whole (as i n the mind's eye as described by Collingwood) with- out a c t u a l l y seeing the whole p h y s i c a l l y . 120 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Wu l i Masters perceive i n both ways, the r a t i o n a l and the i r r a t i o n a l , the assertive and the receptive, the masculine and the feminine. They r e j e c t neither one nor the other. They only dance. Gary Zukav, The Dancing Wu L i Masters The ideas presented i n t h i s thesis are to encourage and give heart to those teachers who are adventurous and care to advance the purpose of a r t education by helping students create images through the use of the imagination. In previous chapters, i t has been established that imagination played an important role i n creating new knowledge. Chapters three and four demonstrated that for students to develop images that were authentic to them, i t was necessary f o r them to use t h e i r imaginations. The p h i l o s o p h i c a l perspective outlined i n chapters one and two provided a focus f o r the p r a c t i c a l applications of using the imagination i n Chapter three. The Secondary Art Guide was examined i n chapter four and suggestions were off e r e d to extend the foundations given i n the guide to include reasons for supporting d i f f e r e n t approaches to i n d i v i d u a l imagery. The researcher chose to discuss the curriculum guide i n reference to the personal and the environmental images as these areas allow students and teachers to focus inwardly as w e l l as outwardly. The researcher f e e l s that outward observation i s important but f e l t that 121 teacher developed u n i t s that grew from the need f o r more introspection were necessary. As such, the researcher incorporated the goals of the guide and the strengths of the tenets developed i n chapters one and two to form the imagining units developed i n chapter three. Here questions and ideas were presented to extend the strengths described and to e l i c i t responses from students to f i n d out what they thought of the ideas o f f e r e d . Since there were no r i g h t or wrong responses and the questions were anonymously answered, the information i s assumed to be accurate.* Students were asked what i t was important for them to imagine and create f o r themselves and then they were asked to use those ideas i n creating t h e i r own images through the use of the discussed p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . From the students' responses, both v i s u a l and verbal, there i s evidence to confirm that one's imagery i s a way of expressing the imagina- t i o n to others as w e l l as to oneself. This plays a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n developing new ideas, confirming t r a d i t i o n a l or agreed upon notions of society i n general and the s e l f i n p a r t i c u l a r , and enhancing an awareness of the s e l f . This study states why imagination should be considered more of an i n t e g r a l continuous part of the Secondary Art Guide and o f f e r s some approaches for implementing units that compliment the s t r a t e g i e s offered by the guide. *The missing ingredient that would give more c r e d i b i l i t y to the exercise would be an examination of responses over a longer period of time - say f i v e years and include a wide v a r i e t y of students. 122 Implications of the Study f o r the Teacher I f teachers are going to be f a c i l i t a t o r s f o r t h e i r students i n helping them to make images that use t h e i r imaginations, i t i s necessary that teachers involve themselves i n the same processes. This seeking of self-knowledge on the part of teachers w i l l make them more committed and genuine i n the eyes of the students and t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the students' attitudes towards the ideas o f f e r e d . Lawrence Kubie (1958) says that this quest f o r self-knowledge i s never ending and that unless we seek self-knowledge there can be no wisdom or maturity. Teachers may enhance t h i s process by helping students gain some self-knowledge through t h e i r questions and assignments that culminate i n unique image-making. Teachers should keep i n mind the following when developing u n i t s : 1. Teachers need to beli e v e that t h i s approach to image-making i s v a l i d . As previously mentioned by Greene and Eisner, teachers att i t u d e s are a powerful influence on the classroom and i f teachers wish to be e f f e c t i v e , they should b e l i e v e what they teach. 2. Teachers should consider p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some of the approaches they ask t h e i r students to. This i s not an absolute, but there are times when teachers should go beyond being an observer or f a c i l i t a t o r f o r the students. 3. Teachers should remember that students have a r e a l desire to say what i s important to them and have i t taken s e r i o u s l y . By tending to these needs and int e g r a t i n g them i n a r t programmes, 123 the students should be f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r needs for image-making and not the teachers' needs. Teachers who keep these points i n mind should be able to enhance the image-making processes for students and see t h e i r progress i n the development of t h e i r own images. Implications of the study f o r the Student The most obvious implications for the students are that they are a c t i v e l y involved with images that concern themselves and are developing images and ideas that have meaning to them. The curriculum i s student-oriented rather than teacher-oriented and t h i s i s why the students i n the study f e l t committed to the u n i t s . The majority of the students wanted more assignments that allowed them the opportunities to explore where t h e i r ideas and images came from and f e l t that they had learned a great deal about themselves as w e l l as being very pleased with the q u a l i t y of images i n t h e i r work. The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s of t h e i r work pleased both students and the teacher and brought a renewed sense of importance and meaning to the creation of images i n art a c t i v i t i e s . Implications of the Study f o r Art Education One of the most pressing problems i n the f i e l d of a r t education has been the need f o r acceptance and v a l i d a t i o n by the "back to b a s i c s " movement. By that i t i s meant that the a r t programme i s not considered relevant to that basic core of s k i l l s , knowledge, and information that i s deemed necessary to our learning. I t i s not the purpose of t h i s paper to enquire deeply i n t o t h i s matter but i t should be stated that art 124 programmes do not gain c r e d i b i l i t y with the established educational enterprise because the a r t programmes and curriculum guides tend to follow s i m i l a r ground rules that are i n use for academic subjects. Art cannot be "learned" i n the same manner as academic subjects and u n t i l educators recognize the e s s e n t i a l uniqueness of a r t and encourage those other aspects of learning, art programmes w i l l continue to be regarded as secondary to programmes i n math, Eng l i s h , and science which are considered b a s i c subjects. In the researcher's opinion, the curriculum planners need to acknowledge the uniqueness of the subject of art by supporting innovative ways of approaching students and the content of teaching a r t . Instead of assuming that teachers are knowledge- able i n these areas, there should be e x p l i c i t information co n s i s t e n t l y r e i n f o r c i n g the importance and v a l i d i t y of i n d i v i d u a l imagery throughout a l l aspects of prescribed curriculum. I t may be argued that t h i s i s s o l e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the teacher-training i n s t i t u t i o n s but i t may be e a s i l y shown that there are teachers teaching art who do not have a background i n learning how to teach a r t . Feldman (1970) says that "there i s considerable educational v a l i d i t y i n the view that i n s t r u c t i o n and learning are shaped and organized to a large extent by a teacher's character and knowledge (p.28). I f a teacher's i n - s t r u c t i o n i s shaped by h i s knowledge, then i t i s important that the guide be more p o s i t i v e i n o f f e r i n g methodological support and suggestions. Teachers who have not taught a r t before w i l l look to the guide as a "guide" and while the curriculum does not intend to be p r e s c r i p t i v e , i t may serve that purpose. 125 This study indicates that a fusion between the p h i l o s o p h i c a l ideas concerning imagination and the p r a c t i c a l aspects of the a r t room are not only possible but are b e n e f i c i a l to the image-making of the students. New ideas and images are given strength when the teacher approaches the students f or input i n t o the programme. This gives the students status and a f e e l i n g that they have worth as people and they are able to ex- tend t h i s to t h e i r image-making. The teacher should consider taking on new learning experiences i n reference to the planned units i n t h i s t h e s i s . The researcher has found that remaining open to personal change helps i n the personal i n t e r a c t i o n between teacher and students. Fixed notions concerning what students and teachers should be doing were co n s i s t e n t l y examined and re-examined to have continuous l i f e and meaning to the image- makers. The researcher f e e l s that i f the teacher regards the ideas and units that were explored as a "formula", t h i s a t t i t u d e w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the students attitudes and e f f o r t s as w e l l . The teacher can and should help students r e a l i z e that through the making of t h e i r own images with the described methods, they are being of f e r e d the opportunities to explore t h e i r inner l i v e s through t h e i r images, and that they do t h i s f o r themselves. The meaning of t h i s experience should stimulate them to c r i t i c a l awareness and have them recognize t h e i r work as imaginative as opposed to mundane. I t i s emphasized that the ideas presented are meant to be challenged, revised, and changed and that these units are only a s t a r t i n g point f o r teachers who t r u l y have a desire to help students develop t h e i r own images. This i s a d i f f i c u l t but rewarding process. 126 In conclusion, the researcher has found that imagination o f f e r s the opportunities f o r looking inward to where r e a l p o t e n t i a l f o r learning i s a v a i l a b l e . I t i s a means by which we gain new knowledge and i n s i g h t and we are able to transform our everyday r e a l i t y and events of l i f e . Imagination o f f e r s us the p o s s i b i l i t y of envisaging and seeking the sublime and helps us t r u s t what we i n t u i t n a t u r a l l y . Imagination i s able to nurture learnings by encouraging imaginative thinking with the use of metaphor, myth, analogies and key images as i n s p i r a t i o n and motivation for authentic image-making. Through t h i s authentic image-making we are able to gain access to a s p e c i a l type of truth which w i l l remain with us. I f curriculum emphasizing imagination through image-making develops students' awareness of the value of t h e i r own images, t h i s w i l l enable the students to look inward as well as outward, help the students look at images and ideas i n d i f f e r e n t ways and develop images that transcend the usual. Students should be able to solve v i s u a l problems i n ways that represent t h e i r inner v i s i o n that i s unique to them a l l . Imaginative image-making w i l l aid i n helping the students have b e l i e f i n the i n t e g r i t y of t h e i r ideas by asking t h e i r opinions and b e l i e f s ; helping the students be aware that our inner visions and inner l i v e s a f f e c t our outer attitudes and these are r e f l e c t e d i n our images; helping the students r e a l i z e that the s p i r i t of t h e i r work i s a most c r i t i c a l aspect of image- making and that i t may be enhanced by knowledge of techniques. The researcher f e e l s that this has considerable implication to not only the d i r e c t i o n of art curriculum but to the general acceptance and in c l u s i o n of a r t a c t i v i t i e s as an e s s e n t i a l part of c u r r i c u l a i n our schools today. 127 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, W.H. "Varying s t y l e s of v i s u a l i z i n g " . School a r t s 80, A p r i l 1981, 64-69. Arguelles, J.A. The transformative v i s i o n . Berkley: Shambhala, 1975. Arnheim, R. 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