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The development and use of imagination in the secondary art curriculum Bowerman, Mary Jane Daniel 1983

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THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF IMAGINATION IN THE SECONDARY ART CURRICULUM by MARY JANE DANIEL BOWERMAN B.A., The University of Saskatchewan, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts in Education Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1983 (3)Mary Jane Daniel Bowerman, 1983 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date SejftJUufot/ /7ttf( W 3 DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT The premise of this thesis is that learning within the classroom is enriched when imaginative thinking and procedures are used in combination with the B.C. Secondary Art Guide (1983). The thesis discusses philosophers since Plato until contemporary times and how their ideas continue to affect schooling today, including practical applications in the art classroom. It also investigates twentieth-century educators and philosophers involved with promoting the use of more imaginative thinking in the classroom. Principal applications based on the Secondary Art Guide dealing with the thematic units of the Figure and the Environment are given particular emphasis. These units from the guide in combination with assignments to promote individual image-making result in images that are unique to the students. Sixty students from the Vancouver school system formed an integral part of this study by answering questions in a classroom context and by being involved in art assignments. The B.C. Secondary Art Guide, Foundation section on imagery was found to offer good technical strategies but lacked the necessary strategies for developing imagination that is unique to students. The researcher's conclusion was that by teaching students how to use their imaginations to obtain new knowledge rather than assuming that imaginative thinking and viewing is something they inherently know, that their image-making became more unique with the processes described. iii. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page Abstract ii Table of Contents iii-v Acknowledgement vi I. INTRODUCTION - SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1 Development of the Problem 2 What is Imagination?Obtaining Knowledge with Imagination 3 A Source of Images or Concepts 4 The Neglect of Imagination in Education 5 Advances of the Uses of Imagination in Education 7 Imagination and Contemporary Thought 9 Using Imagination to Seek the Sublime 13 The Image 17 Two Key Images 21 The Figure and the Environment 2The Personal 22 The Environmental 6 Summary 31 II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 33 Visual Thinking 38 Obtaining Images 43 The Mind's Eye 5 iv. Chapter Page II. Memory Images 46 (cont'd)-Imagination Images 7 Autonomous Imagery 48 Dreams and Daydreams 9 Hallucinations 4Directed Fantasy 50 Implementing Methods in the School 51 III. THE PERSONAL IMAGE AND THE SECONDARY ART CURRICULUM 56 Developing Imagination in the Classroom 56 Questions and Answers Given 57 Information Collecting Procedures 58 Imagination 5Dreams 64 Heroes and Heroines 71 The Environment 6 Conclusions Regarding: Imagination, Dreams, Heroes, Environment 84 Visualization - the Heroic Personal Image 86 This Game is Called Breathing 89 What is the Name of this Game?/ 91 Conclusions 95 Dreams - A Container for the Self 96 Conclusions 98 Building the Environment for the Hero 99 Conclusions 101 Chapter Page IV. DEVELOPING STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE OF AND ABILITY TO USE IMAGERY 103 The Secondary Art Guide's Approach to Imagery 103 Strategies that Encourage Technical Skills 105 Strategies that Encourage Unique Image-Making 106 Suggested Strategies for the Secondary Art Guide, Foundations Section 111 Analysis of Two Thematic Sections in the Secondary Art Guide 114 The Figure and the Environment 11Suggestions for Improving the Guide's Approach to Imagination 117 Developments Needed 118 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Implications of the Study for Implications of the Study for Implications of the Study for BIBLIOGRAPHY 120 the Teacher 122 the Student 123 Art Education 123 127-131 vi. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to acknowledge the hard work and constructive criticism given to me by Rosalie Staley, Bob Steele, and Penny Gouldstone who continuously offered insight into the philosophical issues as well as the more practical aspects of the thesis. I would also like to thank the students at Point Grey Secondary School in Vancouver who were interested in this research and reacted enthusiastically to the ideas and the assignments. Special appreciation is offered to Ken Annandale for his continuous wisdom and support. Thank you. You say I am repeating Something I have said before. I shall say it again. Shall I say it again? In order to arrive there, To arrive where you are, to get from where you are not, You must go by a way wherein there is no ecstasy. In order to arrive at what you do not know You must go by a way which is the way of ignorance. In order to possess what you do not possess You must go by the way of dispossession. In order to arrive at what you are not You must go through the way in which you are not. And what you do not know is the only thing you know And what you own is what you do not own And where you are is where you are not. T.S. Eliot, "East Coker" 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION - SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY For all Men are in Eternity ... In your own Bosom you bear your Heaven and Earth and all you behold; tho' it appears Without, it is Within, in your Imagination of which this World of Mortality is but a Shadow. William Blake This thesis will attempt to demonstrate that by examining the development and evolution of key images and their relationship to art education, learning within the framework of the Secondary Art  Guide may be more imaginative, productive, and fulfilling. Man's visual symbols have been used from the past to the present in psychology, science, medicine, and religion as well as art. Symbols allowed man to represent ideas by using artistic inventions with the help of the imagination. However, as the Secondary Art Guide makes clear, much of the learning in the classroom is objective and focuses on the student looking outward. This study will promote the attitude of being more subjective and focus on the student looking inward. Some of the processes that will help the student in this process and help develop imagination that is particular to the individual and hopefully will offer an opportunity to learn in a way that is valid to the student are: guided imagery and visualization; analysis of key symbols in the environment and the personal image in particular; 2 analysis of dreams and visions and what they mean to the imaginative life of the student. The importance of this study lies in the fact that the Secondary  Art Guide offers few strategies for the development of images through the use of the imagination. The section on the "Knowledge of and Ability to Use Imagery" in the foundations section will be studied with regard to the possibilities for classroom application. Hopefully, the study will encourage students to use imagination in the art classroom as well as for overall educational enrichment. Development of the Problem When you are told to use your imagination, it is assumed that you have the ability to reach out and "grasp your imagination" and wonderful possibilities are at hand. But it clearly is not this simple. It is critical to look inward, for it is here that the real potential of imagination is available to be explored. What is Imagination? The issue of defining imagination is an old one and has been studied from many points of view through many ages, but in most discussions the conclusion is that without use of the imagination there can be no knowledge. According to Hume, ideas are distinct from impressions and Collingwood explains that "there is a special activity of mind correlative to them and this is what we generally call imagination, as distinct from sensation on the one hand and intellect on the 3 other" (1938, p.171). Hume says that "the difference twixt these consists in the degree or force of liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind and make their way into our thought or consciousness" (Collingwood, 1938, p.183). Evolving from the idealistic tradition of Kant, Collingwood envisions the human mind as forming symbols from the sense data by means of intuition and conceptual thought. The function of the imagination sets this process into motion, in this view. Collingwood suggests that we are able to imagine all aspects of an item and gives the example of the matchbox. He argues that we are able to understand the completeness of a form such as a matchbox only because we are able to imagine all aspects of the box. Through observation of the item, we see a limited picture of the form. However, through imagination, the total idea is grasped. We are able to imagine the interior, the edges, the inside contents of the matchbox. He concludes by saying that it is as Kant said it was that "imagination is an "indispensable function' for our knowledge of the world around us" (1938, p.192). Obtaining Knowledge with Imagination In order to obtain knowledge, man uses imagination to help transcend what may appear obvious and views ideas and forms in a new light; new connections between facts and/or ideas may be made and new solutions will be caused to appear. In effect then, in order for any new knowledge or learning to happen, imagination is 4 the mechanism that will put it all in motion. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, defines imagination as: Imagination is generally held to be the power of forming mental images or other concepts not directly derived from sensation. In spite of the popular usage of the term, the majority of philosophers from Aristotle to Kant considered it in relation to knowledge or opinion. They conceived it either as an element in knowledge or as an obstacle to it - as in Plato's attack on art - or as both an obstacle or as an element.. Hume is representative of the last view: "nothing is more dangerous to reason than flights of the imagination, and nothing has been the occasion of more mistakes among philosophers." Yet, in the same place he wrote of the understanding as "the general and more established properties of the imagination" (Treatise of Human  Nature, Book 1, Part I-V, Sec. vii) . The fancy, the power of the imagination to combine ideas in fantastical ways, is to be avoided, but nevertheless imagination is vital to knowledge. (Vols. 3 & 4, 1967, p.136) A Source of Images or Concepts Since there is the assumption that images or concepts do not come directly from sensation, then where do they come from? Herbert Read, in Art S Society, while discussing surrealism says that before this art movement the artist "has been at the mercy of those conventions of naturalism, moralism, and idealism which prevent and restruct the 5 free operation of the unconscious forces of life, on which alone the  vitality of art depends. At times, the artist has thrown off these fetters and has allowed what has been called the imagination to transform reality ..." (p.123). In transforming reality, Read says that these paintings are not the result of any process of reflection -there did not first exist an external object, or even an internal feeling, for which the artist then found an equivalent symbol. The symbol became an automatic register of the dimensions of the self; the awareness of the self is the awareness of a Gestalt that has not yet been organized for formal communication - that is still free. It is, of course, "communicated" as soon as it appears on the artist's canvas; but the communication is not controlled. Like the dream, it is a betrayal of the secrets of the self. (1955, p.122) Read's quote is pertinent in relation to the curriculum guide where there is little opportunity for the student to explore the secrets of the self since the emphasis is on looking outward. The awareness of the self is one of the sources of images for imagination in art but it is this process that is not always tended to in art education programmes. The Neglect of Imagination in Education As described in the Encyclopedia of Philosophy's definition of imagination, Plato regarded reason as the supreme aim of education. Plato's main concern was the developing and the nuturing of the ideal 6 state which insisted on the person conforming to state rule for the good of the whole population. If a person had flights of fancy or used too much imagination such as that of the poets, then Plato believed that the state would be prevented from attaining this ideal. Feldman (1967) says that Platonic thought is evident in many artists and critics whom he calls formalists. The formalist "shares with the Platonist the view that there is an ideal or perfect embodiment of all things, and that art, when it is successful, reveals, represents, or communicates the ideal" (p.457). The formalists cut themselves off from flights of fancy into the unknown because of their preconceived notions of what art should be. The power of imagination was recognized by Plato and as such, he felt that the use of the imagination or flights of fancy inhibited the individual in his pursuit of the ideals that contribute to the development of the good person. Plato's objections to art, and to the presence of artists in his ideal republic, can be reduced to two: the rational and the ascetic. Throughout Plato's philosophy there is the assumption, and indeed the assertion and demonstration, that reason is the noblest part of our nature, and that only a life governed by reason can be a good and happy life. He therefore regarded with suspicion a mode of expression which addressed itself primarily to the emotions and which could be wholly irrational in its origin and form. It is true that in one passage (Philebus, 51b) he considers the possibility of an abstract or absolute art, but in general art for Plato is sensuous and seductive. The very fact that it has much power over the feelings and imagination is the reason why it must be rigorously controlled. (Read, 1967, p.103) 7 It would not be difficult to demonstrate that this notion is still common in education today and that flights of imagination or fancy are kept in check. Plato held use of the imagination to be the equivalent of daydreaming and because of this, he felt it did* not contribute to the development of reason and therefore was not important. Plato's emphasis on reason is still dominant and reflected in our institutions, but it should also be argued that there are other forms of thought as well. Although Plato did not acknowledge that imagination can be used in intellectual thought, more contemporary studies (Eisner, 1979; McFee, 1977) argue that art is a form of cognitive activity that is also imaginative. Advances of the Uses of Imagination in Education Aristotle for instance held that because the poet or artist was able to make use of the imagination, he was able to transport us beyond the ordinary everyday events of life into a realm that would make man realize, that he was part of something more than was apparent; that he had a vision of what might be possible or fantastic. Chamblis (1974) wrote of Aristotle: Aristotle's firm naturalism tempers the kind of enthusiasm which acts as if imagination thrives in a world of its own, immune from the world in which we live; and it humbles the pretensions of those who would have it that creations are free from the world in which creators live. To be true to the highest prospects of the world in which he lives, the poet must show us what the world might be; and to be true 8 to the prospects that are created, the poet must not forget that the origins of the created world are to be found in the world in which he lives. As poet, as maker, he must learn how to work with both worlds, and in doing so, he must understand that human possibilities are humbled in the' one and glorified in the other. (pp. 26-27) The influence of Aristotle as well as that of Plato is still felt in education today. There are educators, parents and institutions who feel that education is best served when all aspects of learning are taught and the whole of the child is tended to. Mathematics, science, history, or the logical subjects are given credence along with the arts which would include poetry - those subjects that en courage flights of fancy or learning that Plato would argue detract from attaining the ideal state. In Aristotle's theory, all subjects were considered necessary for an enlightened person. Many of the ideas influencing contemporary art education theory have precedents in other areas. Something that the educational system may hail as new has in reality been discovered before. An illustration of this may be found in the writings of the eighteenth century philosopher, Giambattista Vico. In The New Science, he gave respectability to the imagination and the humanities, at a time when Descartes was writing on mathematics and the exact sciences. His ideas (concerning a "new science" of humanity) seem far reaching and ahead of their time, especially when we seem to be discussing and grappling with many of the same issues today. 9 According to Verene (1981) "memory and imagination, at least as Vico understood them, are powers that give us an inside perspective, an internal relation to the thing known" (p.20) . Instead of the pursuit of Plato's "noble person", Vico talks of the hero and the heroic mind. In the oration On' the Heroic Mind (1732): Vico urges his listeners to seek to manifest the heroic mind we all possess, to lead ourselves beyond our believed capacities, to enter areas of thought for which we do not think ourselves prepared. The heroic mind is the basis for true eduction. It seeks the sublime first, Vico says, in the divine and then in nature. Finally, it has as its goal the wisdom of the human world oriented toward the good' of the human race. This wisdom of spirit of the whole which pervades and informs all parts of true knowledge. (Verene, p.20) It is this definition that I find most suitable for the purposes of education, for in seeking the sublime outside of us we are seeking that which is in us. We are seeking ourselves and this quote by Blake illustrates this profoundly: For all Men are in Eternity ... In your own Bosom you bear your Heaven and Earth and all you behold; tho' it appears Without, it is Within, in your Imagination of which this World of Mortality is but a Shadow. Imagination and Contemporary Thought Suzanne Langer (1957) is more pragmatic in her approach than 10 Vico but emphasizes that man does have a need to symbolize. She disagrees with what she terms the idealistic tradition stating that she does not believe that: the study of symbol and meaning is as a starting-point of philosophy, not a derivative from Cartesian, Humean, or Kantian premises; and the recognition of its fecundity and depth may be reached from various positions though it is a historical fact that the idealists reached it first, and have given us the most illuminating literature studies, however, are so intimately linked with their metaphysical speculations that the new key they have struck in philosophy impresses one, at first, as a mere modulation within their old strain. Its real vitality is most evident when one realizes that even studies like the present essay, springing from logical rather than from ethical or metaphysical interests, may be actuated by the same generative idea, the essentially transformational nature of human understanding. (p. xiv) Langer appears to be saying that while the idealists have a strong tradition in philosophical thought, in order for new ideas and theories to come forth, philosophy will have to be examined in a new light. In discussing the artistic process she says: If the origin of art had to wait on somebody's conception of this inner meaning, and on his intention to express it, then our poor addle-brained race would probably never have produced the first artistic creation. We see significance in things long before we know what we are seeing, and it takes some other interest, practical or emotional or superstitious, to make us produce an object which turns out to have expressive virtue 11 as well. We cannot conceive significant form ex nihilo; we can only find it, - and create something in its image; but because a man has seen the 'significant form' of the thing he copies, he will copy it with that emphasis, not by measure, but by the selective, interpretive power of his intelli gent eye. (p. 2 51) Langer's use of the words intelligent eye is the clue to her thinking. If Dewey were discussing expressiveness in art he probably would have used the words imaginative eye or inner eye and this is illustrated by the following quote by Dewey: The work of art, however, unlike the machine is not only the outcome of imagination, but operates imaginatively rather than in the realm of physical existences. What it does is to concentrate and enlarge an immediate experience. The formed matter of esthetic experience directly expresses, in other words, the meanings that are imaginatively evoked; it does not, like the material brought into new relations in a machine, merely provide means- by which purposes over and beyond the existence of the object may be executed. And yet the meanings imaginative, summoned, assembled, and integrated are embodied in material existence that here and now interacts with the self. The work of art is thus a challenge to the performance of a like act of evocation and organization through imagination, on the part of the one who experiences it. It is not just a stimulus to 12 and means of an overt course of action. (1934, pp. 274-275) How are Langer's and Dewey's ideas reflected in our educational system today? Langer sees the conception of inner meaning or imaginative under standing with the intelligent eye as resulting directly in a form. This form does not come from nothing (ex-nihilo), is directly experienced in the form and reflects the inner meaning that the creator intended it to have. She states that it takes some outside influence to spur man to create. In our art classrooms it is the teacher who is frequently the impetus or influence giving the students the inner meaning that helps them to create. In this instance then, the meaning that the student would give to his work of art would come from an outside influence, the teacher, rather than from an inner need. This is reflected in much of our learning in relation to the curriculum guide today. On the other hand, Dewey feels that a work of art is a direct result of the use of the imagination but it operates on two levels: imaginatively in the mind of the viewer and physically as a work of art. Referring back to Collingwood's description of the power of imagination in holding all aspects of an object, such as a matchbox, Dewey feels that the imagination can interpret many more aspects of the work of art than are apparent to the eye. Thus, with Dewey, the imagination is able to see much more than just the outer eye is able to. Langer's system would appear to be more simple, if as she says, the meaning would be evident in the form. From Dewey's point of view, the individual viewer could have a different interpretation from that 13 of the maker - his esthetic experience would be different. In the art classroom, both systems of thought could work, but it seems evident that Langer's point of view in this instance is confining. However, Langer wishes to develop a "new key" in philosophy - that is, a philosophy based on man's ability to symbolize. In education, our tradition has relied heavily on Platonic thought and ignored the intuitive side of educational thought which embraces symbols; it is in this latter direction that we must proceed. Using Imagination to Seek the Sublime In order for us to use our imagination to create new images, it is necessary to trust the intuitive part of us, to transcend the indoctrinations that we have had since early schooling - namely that reason, science, and measuring are what are important to us as individuals in the educational enterprise. Using the imagination will help us to recognize what Vico calls the "sublime" and this in turn will help us seek wisdom for the good of the human race. Verene (1981) comments on Vico's thought on imagination and explicates Vico's theory of imagination which is to draw out "imaginative universals". The universali fantastic! or imaginative universal is used by Vico to "designate this principle of the origin of human mentality" (p.66). The original power of imagination animated art and literature. Vico felt that with the use of recollective universals, involving memory of original metaphor, philosophical understanding evolves from the image rather than from the rational category. 14 Vico offers us another possibility. His thought begins outside this disjunct (of existing philosophical perspective or method). It begins neither with Geist (philosophy of the irrational) nor with Leben (philosophy of life and existence). It begins instead with the imagination, with fantasia, as an original and independent power of mind. (Verene, 1981, p.33) Verene feels that Vico "stands outside the tradition of philosophic thought" (which has given credence to scientific rationalism) and feels that Ernst Cassirer is complementary to Vico in philosophic outlook. Concerning early metaphor, Cassirer (1923) wrote that: Every part of a whole is the whole itself; every specimen is equivalent to the entire species. The part does not merely represent the whole, or the specimen in its class; they are identical with the totality to which they belong; not merely as mediating aids to reflective thought, but as genuine presences which actually contain the power, significance and efficacy of the whole. Here one is reminded forcefully of the principal which might be called the basic principle of verbal as well as mythic "metaphor". (p.91-92) Cassirer felt that even for the simplest mythic form to evolve there was a need for transformation during the process to take it beyond the everyday and the usual in order for it to be significant - and this involved not "only a transition to another category, but 15 actually the creation of the category itself" (1923, p.88). I find it interesting that in our current society there are move ments towards this wholeness but in order for us to understand what Vico, Cassirer or contemporary thinkers are saying, it is necessary for us to use our imaginations. We have to transcend our tired notions and look at what happens when we use our imaginations as well as time-honoured reason. We have to recognize what Vico and Cassirer found important in education and that is that imagination and creativity are a common thread through all new learning in science, languages as well as the arts. Dewey (1934) explains it this way: Esthetic experience is imaginative. This fact, in connection with a false idea of the nature of imagination, has obscured the larger fact that all conscious experience has of necessity some degree of imaginative quality. For while the roots of every experience are found in the interaction of a live creature with its environment, that experience becomes conscious, a matter of perception, only when meanings enter it that are derived from prior experiences. Imagination is the only gateway through which these meanings can find their way into a present interaction; or rather, as we have just seen, the conscious adjustment of the new and the old is_ imagination. Interaction of a living being with an environment is found in vegetative and animal life. But the experience enacted is human and conscious only as that which is given here, and now is extended 16 by meanings and values drawn from what is absent in fact and present only imaginatively. (p.272) Dewey acknowledges that we have to look back to prior experiences which Vico has called the universal imagination. In the field of art education the importance of recognizing the way to developing sound curricula for students is not through rationalism alone. There is a need to nurture the learnings of the students by encouraging imaginative thinking by the use of metaphor, myth, poetic thinking, and helping the art students to extend these metaphors into other areas of learning as well. In other words, art teachers should be concerned with the making of Vico's heroic mind. In the current educational climate, it would be understandable if many teachers would rather look away from the idealistic and the intuitive but the cost would be great. The strength of an art programme, the learning of the students depends upon the expansion of ways of looking at the image and acknowledging the importance of the individual in his world around him. It is this premise which will be developed in relation to the Secondary Art Guide. But no man can live entirely by the light of reason and each of us holds within himself dark places of retreat where reason finds fertile concourse with phantasy and breeds anew. Seonaid Robertson, Rosegarden and Labyrinth 17 The Image "Imagination is generally held to be the power of forming mental images or other concepts not directly derived from sensation" (Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vols. 3 & 4, 1967, p.136). In Vico's thought, images are not images of something; they are themselves manifestations of an original power of spirit which gives fundamental form to mind and life. Images or universali  fantastici are not, in Vico's terms, simply concepts in poetic cloaks. The image is not to be understood in relation to the concept. The image Is to be understood on its own terms. (Verene, 1981, p.33) In art, when we think of images, we generally think of product or an object that has an image. As teachers, it is not possible to evaluate the image that a student holds in his head unless it is translated into some concrete form. It is one of the most difficult tasks but a most important lesson for the art teacher to transmit to students: to help  students develop their own images and imagery. As well, it is a basic premise of the Secondary Art Guide that teachers emphasize the develop ment of imagery. This is not to say that technique, knowledge of materials and tools will be neglected or ignored, but rather that they will be used for purposes unique to that student. How do we do this? McFee and Degge (1977) say that there are five basic needs that students have in common when they create art, and that they may be developed in any order. First, they need to be motivated to create. They must have » 18 or have searched for, ideas to express and to which they can give form. Second, they need symbols, visual images, and designs or compositions that express these feelings and ideas. Third, they need to find materials that are appropriate for the message. Fourth, they need skills to manipulate the media so their ideas or feelings can be brought out. And fifth, they need skills to criticize what they have done so that they can continue to develop. (p.155) McFee and Degge are saying that if we want students to develop imagery that is authentic to them, then teachers have to address the above needs. Both stress that students need to have motivation to create and that they must search for these ideas. Sometimes they do not come readily and it is necessary for the students to realize that they may have to play with ideas in order to discover ones sufficiently interesting. Feldman (1970) says that teachers frequently make the error of en trapping students into doing art that teachers feel is important rather than asking students to find out what image making is important to them. However, McFee and Degge are much more optimistic that children are capable of producing their own beautiful, sensitive images with quality teaching and there are many positive aspects that come out of asking what the child wishes to create and what he wishes to communicate to others. Herbert Read said that "we have to recognize that expression is also communication, or at least an attempt to communicate, and the question we are asking, therefore, is why does the child desire to communicate?" (1956, p.163). But is communication the main motivation 19 for the making of art? Or is making art a synthesis of the child's experience and view of truth? If the student is representing his view of the world, his motivation may be a desire to synthesize experience, expressing his views of reality and truth, rather than a primary need to communicate. A communication as used by Read could be what Collingwood (1938) calls an imitation as opposed to a representation. Representation must be distinguished from imitation. A work of art is imitative in virtue of its relation to another work of art which affords it a model of artistic excellence; it is representative in virtue of its relation to something in nature, that is, something not a work of art. Imitation also is a craft; and therefore a so-called work of art, in so far as it is imitative, is a work of art falsely so called. (p.42) Communication.in art is purposeful and useful in telling others a story or giving information. Religious art and sculpture is a most obvious example. In Medieval and Renaissance times, people were un able to read or did not have access to books and the sculpture and painting that existed at the time were created primarily to teach. The fact that many of the pieces resulted in fine works of art was secondary to the main purpose of communicating to the masses. Is the communication of ideas what we wish to emphasize to our students? Of course communication is necessary in an art programme, but 20 it is also necessary to help the child recognize what is important enough to symbolize in his visual communications. Therefore, teachers need to examine what is important for the child to symbolize, what imagery is, what the purpose of giving assignments for image-making is, and they need to know how to help students attain imagery that is authentic to them. Feldman (1967) states that one of the reasons "we are interested in visual art (is) as a means of expressing the psychological dimension of life". Carl Jung spent most of his life searching the meanings of images and learned that many of them defied explanation, but they could only be accepted as necessary in order to advance spiritual life. He called these images archetypes and described them as follows: The concept of the archetype ... is derived from the repeated observation that, for instance, the myths and fairytales of world literature contain definite motifs which crop up everywhere. We meet these same motifs in the fantasies, dreams, deliria, and delusions of individuals living today. These typical images and associations are what I call archetypal ideas. The more vivid they are, the more they will be coloured by particularly strong feeling-tones ... They impress, influence, and fascinate us. They have their origin in the archetype, which in itself is an irrepresentable, unconscious, pre-existent form that seems to be part of the inherited structure of the psyche and can therefore manifest itself spontaneously anywhere, at any time. Because of its instinctual nature, the archetype underlies the feeling-toned 21 complexes and shares their autonomy. (Memories, Dreams,  Reflections, p.392) Jung felt that these motifs were critical to the inner life of persons and it is my premise that when we ask students to make images, as teachers, we tend to be timid and neglect this critical area. Herbert Read (1955) agrees with "Jung's conception of the archetype" (p.31) and adds that "these structural features of the psyche can only have been evolved by collective experiences of long duration, and of great in tensity and unity" (p.31). Read talks of the art of prehistoric man as being of special vitality, and this could be traced to the fact that the source for much of the work done in caves was related to the archetype of the animal. Read feels that any art will have vitality if we acknowledge what "the prehistoric period establishes, in all its independence, is an instinctive mode of prepresentation possessing vitality" (p.32). If we are concerned that students do develop images for themselves that are vital, it makes sense to assume that since archetypal images are universal and available to all, then it would be logical and helpful to aid students in seeking out some of these key images. Two Key Images The Figure and the Environment There are many key images that most of us are able to identify with at one time or another in our lives, but I would like to concentrate on the development of the figure or the personal image and the environment 22 The B.C. Secondary Art Guide uses "the Figure" as the basis of a thematic unit. I prefer to use the word person or personal image for the reason that the word figure distances the viewer and participant but the word person implies involvement with the making or viewing of the image. It has been my experience that students and teachers are able to identify with either the figure/person or the environment as rich sources of imagery. It is helpful here to explain Jung's (1961) theory of individuation. "Individuation means becoming a single, homogeneous being, and, in so far, as 'individuality' embraces our innermost, last, and incomparable uniqueness, it also implies becoming one's own self. We could therefore translate individuation as 'coming of selfhood' or 'self-realization'" (p.395). Thus through the self-image and the image of self in the en vironment, the students would hopefully become closer to Jung's theory of individuation. It is not the prime reason for developing personal imagery for the students but it is an Important component in attaining images that are meaningful for the student. The Personal In discussing the personal image, it is appropriate that we examine the hero. It is important to recognize that there are demonic as well as divine heroes. In contemporary culture, many students identify with musical cult heroes, film heroes, sports heroes, all of which may be placed in the demonic or divine' categories. In music, the punk rockers are regarded by many as demonic, but Pat Boone may be regarded as divine; in film, Vincent Price is synonymous with evil but Superman is the essence 23 of goodness; in sports, John MacEnroe is always the bad guy who challenges authority but Wayne Gretsky is the boy next door who can do no wrong and accepts what happens to him. Students identify with these people and regard, them as larger than life. The qualities that they consider important and vital stem from the archetypes that Jung spoke of. Jung (1976) said that man is only significant as a particle in the mass and that "the cultural point of view gives man a meaning apart from the mass, and this, in the course of centuries, led to the development of personality and the cult of the hero" (p.177). The hero takes on qualities larger than the mere mortal: What we seek in visible human form is not man, but the superman, the hero or god, that quasi-human-being who symbolizes the ideas, forms, and forces which grip and mould the soul. These, so far as psychological experience is concerned, are the archetypal contents of the (collective)unconscious, the archaic heritage of humanity, the legacy left behind by all differentiation and development and bestowed, upon all men like sunlight and air. (p.178) In looking at the hero there are a myriad of images to draw from: the Goddess, the Temptress, Mother Universe, the Old Woman, the hero as Warrior, the hero as Lover, the hero as Ruler and Tyrant, the hero as World Redeemer and Saint. Campbell has discussed all of the above categories in detail and they will be referred to later in the development of the images in reference to the hero. In the Philosophy  of Symbolic Forms, Cassirer talks about the invocation of "a special 24 god as guardian or helper" (Vol. 2, p.203) and says that "countless gods he (man) makes for himself guide him not only through the sphere of objective reality and change but above all through the sphere of his own will and accomplishment, which they illumine from within" (p.203-204) . Cassirer feels that "man can discover and determine the universe inside him only by thinking it in mythical concepts and viewing it in mythical images. But this describes only a single direction in the development of the mythical-religious consciousness. Here again the inward path is completed only in conjunction with the seemingly opposite path, from the inside outward. For the most important factor in the growth of the consciousness of personality is and remains the factor of action" (p.199) . In her discussion of heroes, Suzanne Langer (1942) says that the heroes of fairytales and myths are markedly different and are not to be confused. In. fairytales, the heroes have few common traits but it is usually assumed that things work out for the best, or as Langer states, their purpose is to gratify wishes. "Fairy stories bear no relation to each other. Myths, on the other hand, become more and more closely woven into one fabric; they form cycles, their dramatis personnae tend to be intimately connected if not Identified. Their stage is the actual world - the Vale of Tempe, Mount Olympus, the sea, or the sky -and not some ungeographical fairyland" (p.175-176). Ultimately the purposes of the myth and fairytale are very different and Langer feels that the myth's purpose is more serious partly because the fairytale's aim is more insular and subjective. But because of the framework in which the hero is set, the hero is affected. In the fairytale the hero 25 will become more human and individual, rather than a symbolic figure for all men that the hero becomes in the myth. Langer says that the material that both use is similar, but that the uses are different; "the one, primarily for supplying vicarious experience, the other essentially for understanding actual experience" (p.176). In the discussion of the hero it is critical that mythic examples are used to help students enter into that realm where Langer says: the mythical hero is not the subject of an egocentric daydream, but a subject greater than any individual, he is always felt to be superhuman, even if not quite divine. He is at least a descendant of the gods, something more than man. His sphere of activity is the real world, because what he symbolizes belongs to the real world, no matter how fantastic its ex pression may be (this is exactly contrary to the fairytale teachnique, which transports a natural individual to a fairyland outside reality). (p. 177) In the teaching situation the power of helping students evolve their own mythic images cannot be underestimated. Seonaid Robertson (1963) discusses a powerful teaching day she experienced with, some adults who had no real artistic confidence in themselves - much the same as many of our students. She talked with them about the myth of Circe. Her audience was begrudging of the time she was taking at first but became enraptured and at the conclusion of the tale she gave the assignment. Her students were awed at the images they created that they did not know they were capable of and through reflection and discussion of these images, most concluded the day was very important 26 to each of them as well as productive in the "product" sense. In our discussion of heroes it is not to be assumed that the only heroes are male nor do all our heroes come from myth but it is generally agreed upon that it is the mythic heroes that help man to inspire himself to help the world. Campbell (1949) speaks of the hero as: "the man or woman who has been able to battle past his personal and local historical limitations to the generally valid, normally human form. Such a one's visions, ideas, and inspirations come pristine from the primary springs of human life and thought. Hence they are eloquent, not of the present, disintegrating society and psyche, but of the unquenched source through which society is reborn. The hero has died as a modern man: but as eternal man - perfected, unspecific, universal - he has been reborn. His second solemn task and deed therefore (as Toynbee declares and as all the mythologies of mankind indicate) is to return then to us, trans-figured, and teach the lesson he has learned of life renewed. (p.19-20) The Environmental In discussing the environment, it is difficult to obtain an image that is as universal as the hero. Instead, we will look at the physical spaces and enclosures around us that have the ability to call up the same mythic meaning as the hero does. Feldman (1967) says that buildings can be both symbols and perform a function, whereas paintings can only serve as symbols. As well, many of our functions of buildings are not 27 adequate because there has been no comprehensive plan at the outset. "The design of a community has to be undertaken in the light of a total philosophy of social and personal interaction" (p.81). The purpose of this section will not to be to examine function on its own although it might enter into the discussion, but to find out what spaces evoke the same quality of transcendence that we have been studying in the hero. For environmental imagery, possibly a good place to begin would be caves. Robertson (1963) discusses many associations with caves and identifies many of them with mythololgy (p.54-55) and describes caves as "the unfathomable places of the earth, drawing one in curiosity and fear, in excitement and apprehension. Through them we go into the bowels of the earth, into secret places" (p.55). In her discussion she talks of the cave as the first home of our ancestors and the many obstacles they encountered trying to make them habitable during the evolution to other housing forms: Caves are the legendary haunt of the snake and the dragon, guarding a treasure of gold or a princess; or the couch of mortals who sleep a hundred years and come forth again. Caves are places to which sages, heroes and saints retire for meditation or renewal - retire into themselves perhaps, to bring forth a new capacity for thought or deeds. Caves are often the birth place of streams which well up as inexplicably from the depths as creative thought itself. (p.56) Robertson is talking about the feeling of the form around the person, what the space inspires in the participant and what images the form (cave in this instance) calls up from the people involved. Feldman 28 says that one of the main functions of architecture is that it is a container. A cave is also a container but it is also part of some thing greater because it calls up images and our past. Francis Ching (1979) says that transformation in architecture "should legitimately involve the study of its past, of prior experiences, or endeavors and accomplishments from which much can be learned and emulated. The principle of transformation accepts this notion" (p.382). He also makes the statement that "the art of architecture makes our existence not only visible but meaningful" (p.386). Perhaps the assumption is that in order for man's existence to be meaningful he must have tangible results of his mental images and efforts. Architectural results are generally with us for long periods of time and in general they are forms of art and space that people have ready access to. William Bradley (1973) says of buildings: The perpetual mysteries of death and life provided an impetus toward structures which would reflect man's personal and collective means of control over them. His architecture be came his "power" structures whereby a particular hierarchy of godliness could be reinforced through real objects. They be came totemic reminders of power which would, with a single glance, affect the allegiance of those who stood before the gate. (p.36) I think that Bradley's notion is true for some buildings and some men and the institutions that run the men, but it is certainly not in dicative of all great structures. But he is right in saying that our buildings throughout history have been totemic of another power or 29 have been in honour of something - either the churches honouring God, our banks honouring money or commercialism: Those who stand at their portals must surely sense the same helpless dependence as the twentieth-dynasty Egyptian sensed at the pylons of the temples of the pharoahs: these high structures replace, in a real sense, the imperialist architecture of Washington, which has always stood as an anomaly to the stated intent of the government it houses - a new brand of power, (p.39) It is not this feeling of powerlessness of the individual, a feeling of one who is not in control of his life or able to contribute to the overall good of man or life that I wish to dwell on. I would rather look at structures that will make us feel that these aims are secondary and that there is a greater purpose in mind in building this space. Bradley says that many of the town plans were built around the plan of the mandala: "Cities, towns, and villages have often grown around the design of the ancient mandala - a magic circle with sections (usually five or seven) radiating from a central core. The similarities between this neolithic symbol and the plans for a contemporary city can be seen" (p.39). Some of the contemporary earth sculptures reflect the idea inherent in the mandala. In her discussion of Space — The New Aesthetic, Rosalie Staley talks of three kinds of space: mythical, aesthetic and theoretical. The idea stems from an article by Cassirer called, "Mythic, Aesthetic, and Theoretical Space", but what is most interesting is that in her discussion 30 of space, Staley talks of the recent sculpture that involves earth sculptures, environmental sculptures and the like. "In such works, aesthetic space is pushed beyond the limits of the art object into a frame of reference which expands traditional concepts and boundaries1.', (p.4)., Feldman (1967) says that "thus far, earth sculptures constitutes mainly a change in the materials, scale, and ambition of art; it appears to be, moreover a type of antiart - a gesture by artists that expresses disgust with civilization, resentment toward art institutions, and contempt for the artistic traditions of usefulness, object-ness, and meaning" (p.384). I disagree with the notion that it expresses disgust with civilization as the quality and spirit and image that many of these architectural sculptures have created could not have been formed with such an attitude on the artists part. Disappointment, perhaps would be a more accurate word. In order to conceive these images they are trying to transcend everyday notions about art - not destroying what has been. In fact, many of the earth sculpture ideas are remines-cent of mazes, labyrinths and mandalas. In conclusion, Staley (1980) says that "the function of space is more important than structure :for Cassirer. "Mythic space" functions as an emotional coloration given to life events and qualities. This early form of space involves magic powers and is devoid of logical reasoning as we know it" (p.3). In our pursuit of imagination and images that are truly authentic to students, it is this "mythic space" in art creation that will be sought. 31 Thus far, it has been established that imagination is necessary in the acquisition of new knowledge and it has been shown that there are advances in encouraging the use of imagination in education today. Using imagination in relation to the figure as personal image and the environment as key images will help give image-making in art a sound purpose. The strength of using these images in an art programme and the learning of the students depends upon the expansion of ways of looking at the image and acknowledging the importance of the individual in his world around him. In chapter two, further readings in art education and related fields will reinforce the above position. There will be further discussion on how teachers may help students better use their imagination through the use of guided imagery and visualization; analysis of key symbols in the environment and the personal image; and analysis of dreams and visions. These methods will encourage the student to look inward and develop imagination that is particular to him. Summary In this chapter, it has been established that imagination plays an important role in the acquisition of new knowledge. Discussion of some philosophical points of view have helped discern why we think the ways we do about the use of imagination in education and that ideas presented by Plato and Aristotle are still reflected in our schooling today. Advances through the uses of imagination in education and contemporary thought were given support by eighteenth-century philosopher Vico who presented ideas that have far reaching effects today as well - most notably the seeking of the sublime. Two images, The Figure (referred to as The Personal) and The Environment drawn from the Secondary Art Guide Theme Book, were discussed in reference to Jung's theory of individuation; Langer's ideas concerning myths and fairytales; Robertson's experiences with myth and space; Bradley and Staley's ideas concerning space. The ideas presented form the basis for the research done in Chapters two and three. 33 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE When a friend informed Turner that his mother had liked the snowstorm, Turner remarked: "I did not paint it to be understood, but I wished to show what such a scene was like: I got sailors to lash me to the mast to observe it; I was lashed for four hours, and I did not expect to escape, but I felt bound to record it if I did. But no one had any business to like the picture." "But my mother went through just such a scene, and it brought it all back to her." "Is your mother a painter?" "No." "Then she ought to have been thinking of something else." The question remains what made these works, likeable or not, so new, so different. Turner transcended the principle of traditional landscape: the principle that a landscape is something which unfolds before you. John Berger, About Looking What do art educators, such as Edmund Feldman and Herbert Read, think of images that seek to transform the viewer, or an art programme that has the making of authentic images its prime aim? In order to develop authentic student imagery it is helpful to explore with the student the reasons why they might select, or reveal, certain images in connection with what they desire to express. Art 34 teachers play a critical role assisting students in developing this personal imagery, imagery that is relevant to them. It is important for teachers to realize the origin of their beliefs, their ideas, their images, in order to enhance their effectiveness with their students. Marilyn Ferguson (1980) makes the intriguing statement that "we determine which future we create by the views we hold" (p.59). Unfortunately, many educators are not as aware (as they should be) of the persuasiveness of their beliefs and ideas upon those they teach. Because of this, educators must assess how they view themselves and their places in the world so that when they interract with those they teach they will be instrumental in helping students in the events of making images that are important to them and the possibility of helping them transform their lives. Feldman (1970) states: Therefore, it is most important for anyone who teaches to know what he knows and how he came to know it. Ultimately, we teach out of the ground of our own experience; and in order to be skillful or reasonably effective, we must be honestly aware of what that experience has been and what it means. For example, you ought to know how your ideas or definitions of art are related to the kind of person you are; and you ought to know or have some expectations about what children will learn about art as a result of your experience with art and the sort of person they see in you. (p.28) One of the consequences of not examining where ideas and beliefs come from is that the schools develop what Eisner (1979) calls the 35 "hidden curriculum" and we socialize children to a set of expectations that some argue are profoundly more powerful and longer-lasting than what is intentionally taught or what the explicit curriculum of the school provides" (p.75). Rather than developing initiative, the hidden curriculum develops compliant behaviour. It requires the child: (1) to conform to hierarchical organization, one-way communication, routine or purposes set by another; (2) to recognize the importance of time in regard to subject-time allocation; (3) to accept the culture being taught as the school is a reflection of that culture; (4) to accept "tools" imposed upon "him as a way to limit options; (5) to accept the limitations of the timetable and the importance of punctuality. The art educator, Laura Chapman (1978) has pointed out a lack of a reward for imagination in the culture at large: Fantasy, imagination, and the inner life of feelings are certainly valid motivational sources of children's art... It is precisely because our culture so often ridicules fantasy and inhibits genuine expression of private feelings that teachers must nuture children's creative imaginations. (p.49) Eisner maintains that the content we actually teach has rather short-lived value on the students, but that the "impact of the school structure does not cease until one leaves graduate school" (p.80). 36 The implicit curriculum of a school is identified by the organization of the school and the rules that must be adhered to as well as the physical environment that the students and teachers learn in. In addition to the hidden curriculum, Eisner says the implicit curriculum is pervasive in schooling and that the lessons learned here long remain with the student. Robert Witkin (1974) in The Intelligence of Feeling says that when our theories break down it is necessary to revise our ideas and develop-new theories as a basis for new learning. To say that man needs freedom is to say that he needs the creative moment and the act of reciprocation within it. When the educational encounter comes to be seen as a vast sequence of creative moments then we will produce a generation that has known freedom and can use it, a generation that knows what it really means to insist upon oneself. (p.189) This might appear to be a rather idealistic notion in relation to Eisner's preeeeding comments-. However, Eisner is stating how the situation is and not how it should be in these comments. As one point, (1979) he suggested that many subjects are taught in the schools not because of careful analysis but because they have traditionally been taught. Witkin feels this should be addressed. If programmes are going to survive at a level that is productive and meaningful to the students for longer periods of time than Eisner says they do, changes in teachers' belief and though systems must be challenged and changed by teachers and those in charge of training teachers. Fritjof Capra (1982) in his recent book The Turning Point 37 says that as a society we are in a crisis, and "that this crisis is essentially a crisis of perception. Like the crisis in physics in the 1920's, it derives from the fact that we are trying to apply the concepts of an outdated world view - the mechanistic world view of Cartesian-Newtonian science - to a reality that can no longer be understood in terms of these concepts" (pp.15-16). The crisis Capra talks of is reinforced by our educational system and the continued reinforcement of outdated theories that we have used because they have always been there. Capra advocates a new paradigm - "a new vision of reality; a fundamental change in our thoughts, perceptions, and values" (p.16) . His thesis is supported by others from many areas of learning (Ferguson, Feldman, Hofstadter and Dennet, Huston, Bateson, Zukav) who feel that it is necessary to look at the whole of man and "envision" a new world and that one of the most obvious ways and necessary ways of doing this is through thinking and analyzing one's place in the universe. There is a need and a desire for change in. the educational enter*-prise and there are indications that teachers, administrators and the public are receptive to change and are starting to assume some responsibility for changes they feel are necessary: In Learning of  Landscapes, (1978) Maxine Green says that: If individuals are wide-awake and make decisions consciously to interpret a poem properly, to try to understand a period in English history, or to participate in some type of social inquiry, they are choosing to abide by certain standards made 38 available to them. In doing so, they are becoming acquainted with what it means to choose a set of norms. They are not only creating value for themselves, they are creating themselves; they are moving towards more significant, more understandable lives. (p.49) In a similar vein, Herbert Read, (1961) states: "We know that human beings are very apt to learn by imitation, especially social imitation. But if they are imitating an imperfect pattern, no im provement takes place. We merely propogate one another's vices, along with a few convenient virtues" (p.268). If what Read says is true, then it Is necessary that teachers and parents provide models for students to emulate so that we may arrive at a more perfect pattern. A well thought-out art programme is one that emphasizes the use of the imagination in image-making and it is through this form that improvement will take place. Visual Thinking The art education literature on "visual thinking" may affect a growing respect for imagination and the image in secondary curricula. Psychologist, Rudolph Arnheim's Visual Thinking has made a contribution to this trend as well as Edmund Feldman's essays on "visual literacy". Robert McKim (1972) maintains that "the visual vehicle, with its ability to facilitate holistic, spatial, metaphoric, transformational operations, provides a vital and creative complement to the reasoning, linear operations built into the vehicle of language" (p.5) . McKim 39 goes on to say that visual thinking is pervasive, and is supported by three kinds of visual imagery: 1. the kind that we see: People see images, not things 2. the kind that we imagine in our mind's eye, as when we dream 3. the kind that we draw, doodle, or paint Although visual thinking can occur primarily in the context of seeing, or only in imagination, or largely with pencil and paper, expert visual thinkings flexibly utilize all three kinds of imagery. They find that seeing, imagining, and drawing are interactive (p.8). It is McKim's second proposition described above, that I would like to pursue in greater detail. In his book Experiences in Visual  Thinking, McKim has a section called "Imagining" and this includes; the mind's eye, visual recall,.autonomous imagery, directed fantasy, structures and abstractions, and foresight and insight. McKim describes imagination in the following terms: Human imagination enables us to transcend mortal limitations of space and time, to experience what was, what can be, what can never be; it opens vistas that are not available to the senses. "By his imagination," writes Frank Barron, "man makes new universes which are "nearer to the heart's desire.' The sorcery and charm of imagination, and the power it gives to the individual to transform his world into a new world of order and delight makes it one of the most treasured of all human capacities. (p.88) 40 He feels that in offering exercises (which he does in great detail) to anyone, that even if they think they have no imagination (which he feels is simply due to lack of awareness) that they will become more adept at using their imaginative powers. His methods might be one manner of starting to tap inner imagery for students (more of his ideas will be discussed later). In "The Style of Fantasy", Feldman's section in Varieties of  Visual Experience, (1967) talks of fantasy in relation to reality: "Every reality in the man-made world almost surely had its origin in someone's fantastic imagination" (p.194). This relates well to McKim's urgings that we allow ourselves the opportunity to imagine and fantasize anything we want in order to sort through the ideas and obtain the ones that are most important to us to transform fanciful imagination into the reality of an image. Feldman also says that "all man-made realities were once fantasies, but all fantasies do not necessarily become realities. Nor are they intended to" (p.94). Feldman feels that fantastic art has both the logical and irrational mental processes involved in the making and that there are no common set of visual qualities. But, it is evident that there is frequently an underlying power of' fantastic art that is difficult to define but it could be said to take the viewer out of himself into another space. "We can speak of a fantastic style, then, only because certain works exhibit a logic based on hallucination, dreams, Utopian hopes, and speculative vision. That is why we discuss fantastic art in relation to science as well as myth. So far as art is concerned, science 41 and superstition are equally useful sources of imagery" (pp.194, 196) . Feldman feels that this mythic quality of works was indoctrinated into us when we were very young and that it has a lasting influence on us but that we have officially thought that their influence is of the past even though the feelings are continuously evoked with the medium of film or painting or sculpture. Feldman (1967) describes why he thinks this is so: Why does myth have the power to compel our belief? It is not that myths are true as science defines truth. Rather, myths establish connections with the way our minds grasp reality. Men are not rational, not completely evolved from their earlier psychological selves. Myths are truthful accounts of the way men have seen themselves and the world for most of their life on earth. They accurately explain a great deal about the way we think, feel, and behave. In visual art, as in life, mythmaking goes on continually. Whereas narrative types of mythmaking are employed in literature, the visual arts use plastic fantasy - the invention of strange forms, or strange associations of known forms" (p.196). Feldman discusses the creation of these forms in light of them being connected with the mythic components of personality and that "surrendering to fantasy is not abandoning truth; it is a way of gaining access to a special type of truth - a type which civilization does not value highly but which nevertheless explains a great deal about our behaviour" (p. 197). 42 Feldman does not underestimate the importance of working with the imagination and says that other ways of obtaining this important meaning is through dreams and hallucinations as the surrealists did or through mystical transcendence through paint as some of the minimalists did combining religion and art to pursue mystical oneness, as did Tobey and Rothko. Contemporary artists continue to work in all media struggling to bring their visions through with fantasy and illusionism to help the viewer see reality in a different way than what was seen before. "Fantastic art thus manipulates illusion and multiple levels of reality. It moves beyond shock and disorientation to create new perceptions of a real world" (p.212). As with McKim, Feldman also seeks to discover new visions or images through the imagination with the help of daydreams, hallucinations, fantasy or myth. A humanist, Bob Samples feels that these are integral parts of learning and has- written The Metaphoric Mind (1979) describing what he feels is powerful in metaphoric learning; "the metaphoric mind is the adversary of cultural conformity. The metaphoric mind "feeds" on stimuli ... it digests them and transforms them into substance for motivation" (p.135). Samples feels that most adults are not comfortable with the openendedness that metaphoric learning requires and that we seek to have children conform to behave in manners that adults or teachers are secure with. But Samples (1977) says that "the real advantage to metaphoric knowing is that it lasts longer" (p.184). He elaborates on how metaphoric learning takes place and uses as his prime metaphor for learning, nature. While Samples appears to be a generalist (and this could be supported by the fact that he has given extensive 43 workshops in the Vancouver area to Art, Social Studies and English teachers plus people in the field) his ideas are readily adaptable if one is willing to make the effort. He is not prescriptive, but only offers suggestions and says that necessarily, the contents and context could and should change. His four main modes of symbolic learning are described on figure 1 and it is important to note the difference between the way we are able to function and the way he feels we do function in the school system. Samples defines metaphors as "restless identities", the metaphoric mind as "transformative thinking" and the metaphoric modes as "ways to transform restless thinking" (1977, p.265). A transformation is a "psychic quantum leap"; the transformative mind is a "mind that knows it can think new" and transformative thought is "thinking new" (p.266). While some of his phrases seem to be the new jargon in education, the point Samples makes is to have educators look at transformation and metaphor in a light that they just might give these areas some con sideration in the classroom. Samples also feels 'that we must nurture ourselves and "our sense of oneness and harmony with all living things". The main importance of Sample's work is that he encourages the reader-teacher to explore what is right for him as an individual to implement in the learning situation and that he provides impetus for the teacher to adventure. Obtaining Images There are many methods- open to us to tap these images, some that we used when we were children but that we have allowed to fall into 44 Figure 1 from The Wholeschool Book, by Bob Samples, 1977. THE SYMBOLIC METAPHORIC MODE Definition: The symbolic metaphoric mode is expressed whenever concepts, experiences, processes, or ideas are expressed in either abstract or visual form. THE SYNERGIC COMPARATIVE MODE Definition: The synergic-comparative mode in volves the blending of two or more concepts, ideas, and processes so as to transform their original meaning into a more universal context. THE INTEGRATIVE MODE Definition: The integrative mode exists when the entire body of the learner is involved in the ex ploration of concepts, ideas, and processes. THE INVENTIVE MODE Definition: The inventive mode exists whenever the learner creates a level of understanding of a concept, idea, or process new to themselves per sonally or new to the culture in which they live. natural capacity school experience SYMBOLIC SYMBOLIC FORMAL OPERATIONAL CONCRETE OPERATIONAL PRE OPERATIONAL SENSORY MOTOR IMPLICATIONS OF THE METAPHORIC MODES Central to the formulation of the metaphoric modes was the issue of how they could fit into schools as they exist. A second issue was our concern about how the metaphoric modes relate to the rational developmental levels of Piaget. This led us to the next step. We examined existing curriculum materials, standardized tests, ar>d the prevailing psychological vision (cognitive I FIGURE ONE and behavioristic) and tried to determine at which levels of schooling the metaphoric modes were systematically excluded. The results are shown in Figure One. It was clear to us that the capacity to perform all the metaphoric modes is uniform throughout the rational stages of development. However, it was also clear that in terms of school experience there is a diminishing utilization of all the metaphoric modes except symbolic abstract as one goes up through the cognitive stages. 185 45 disuse. There are many reasons for this, but the primary ones are that our schooling has always encouraged us to learn by being rational, that is understandable in our approach to our assignments and learning. This was explained earlier while discussing the Platonic attainment of the noble person where flights of fancy and daydreaming were to be dis couraged and so it is today. The following ways described by McKim (1972) will help to retrieve these ways of obtaining images. The Mind's Eye McKim starts with a seemingly simple explanation of ensuring that all of us have imaginations. This is necessary, because even children feel at times that they are unimaginative or uncreative. He says that "Imagination so permeats human experience that many individuals fre quently claim they have no imagination. Imagination is more than the power to be creative. Imagination is all that you have ever learned or experienced; it is central to your every perception and act" (p.88). He offers a simple exercise (p.88) to help a student establish where he/she is in relation to our physical cosmos and also speaks why it is important for us to be aware of what our imagination is: The power "to capture the Imagination" often describes the ability of leaders to seduce and victimize a group of followers. Consider the millions of people whose imaginations were captured by Hitlerian reality. Consider the millions whoseJlives today are molded by the mythology promulgated by Madison Avenue and the mass media. How can the proverbial ten million Frenchmen be right when their imaginations have been programmed with distorted, 46 biased, and even blatantly untruthful images? Only if we are aware of our imaginations can we know their illusory powers; with active and trained imaginations we can chart a course through illusion toward reality. By contrast, those who are passively unaware of their imaginations are easy targets for promulgators of illusion. (p.89) So one must examine where one is in order to be aware of and use your imagination in a constructive way. But he emphasizes that because our educational system places little value on inner images, he says that there may be a good deal of difficulty in obtaining access to these images without some work. But he feels that the mind's eye can be re opened and revived.using two exercises in particular - after-image and luminous dust. He feels that the necessary conditions for encouraging inner imagery are: a quiet environment, motivation, relaxed attention and a focus of your imagery. McKim is. thorough in his' exercises in helping teacher and student alike in feeling confident they can start to obtain images. In Varieties of Visual Experience, Feldman con centrates on the established artist, with the assumption that artists do acknowledge and are aware of tapping their images for image-making. Memory Images Memory images are in the classification that McKim calls visual recall and while his section is- intensive to help persons use their memory function more effectively, the main section that concerns us is the use of the memory for retrieving and obtaining images. Most 47 people bank these images in their memories and some people store the images with much greater detail or more information than others, and are called eidetic imagers. These individuals have the ability to see the picture in the mind and report a remarkably precise amount of detail of the real event or item. This is functionally a great asset for many people but the majority have not trained this quality in ourselves even though up to sixty percent possessed it as children. (McKim, p.95). So, helping students recall their images with greater clarity could aid the students' progress with regard to more ^detail in their work. Imagination Images However, it is not only that people with eidetic imagery see things precisely, but in the ability to play with the images in the mind and produce juxtaposition of a variety of images and patterns that more unique image-making to the individual might take place. This is what Michael Samuels (1975) called "imagination images". An imagination image may contain elements of past perceptions, but arranged in a different way than when they were originally preceived. A continuum exists among imagination images from those which rely heavily on past perceptions to those which are largely made up of newly created material. As opposed to memory images, imagination images generally have no fixed reference point, that is, they are not tied to a specific occasion. (p.43) 48 Even though they are not fixed or tied to a precise occasion or location, chances are that many of the ideas will come from just such a place. The important aspect here is that the teacher will be able to help make the images mean something for the students by assisting in what Samuels refers to as "imagination images". It must be remembered that at times it will be difficult for the student to verbalize and that this is not always desireable. However, an experienced, sensitive teacher should be able to tell if these images are important to the s tudent. Au ton omous Image ry Autonomous imagery includes hypnogogic imagery which is "autonomous inner imagery experienced just before falling asleep. Hypnopompic imagery is similar in character but occurs in the drowsy state of coming awake" (McKim, p.100). McKim says that this is distinctly different as there is no possible way for people to direct this imagery, it is entirely independent of what we might wish to see or dream. He also quotes statements by many artists and writers who find this to be a very rich source of imagery for their work. In order for this to be effective in the classroom setting, it would be necessary for us to follow some of -.his suggestions, such as keeping a dream diary, encouraging ourselves to daydream to enter into into this hypnogogic cinema and then attending to the. information revealed during this time to help us think productively. 49 Dreams and Daydreams In the classroom, many teachers have experienced daydreams and perhaps many have used daydreams themselves to escape from the reality and rigors of daily life. But that is not our purpose of using day dreams. McKim speaks of dreams as being great sources of "creative insights" and use of the dreams as solutions or as the outcome of a particular work or vision. Feldman calls our dreams "further examples of the connection between fantasy and the real world" (p.199). He says that while dreams appear to be unorganized while we are conscious, they do make sense to us vividly and are very important to us while we are asleep and some people are able to make sense of them when they are awake. "Dreams break all the laws of causality, of time and space chronology, of rational thought. A dreamer can fly through the air unaided, be a child one second and an adult the next, travel thousands of miles in a moment, all with no break in the dream's inner logic" (Samuels, p.50). Hallucinations Hallucinations are another form of autonomous imagery that is synonymous to many of us with Insanity or a drugged state. It is interesting to note that Feldman has them classified together. He says that "an art, using a realistic mode of representation, can employ images as they appear to us in hallucinations, images similar to thoas caused, for example, by a high fever" (p.199). He feels that such an art is Surrealism. "An artist employing dream material can exploit its irrational qualities to jar people out of their usual ways 50 of seeing" (p.199). However, a more complete definition of hallucination according to Samuels is this: "The person who experiences a vision (hallucination) believes that it is occuring in the outer world, although another person who was with them would not necessarily agree. Obviously, a vision is an extremely vivid image. Psychiatrists sometimes diagnose people who have visions or hallucinations as psychotic" (p.50) . So the hallucination may be said to seem outside the mind's eye and is valued as real by the creator of the image and the dream image is something that has happened inside the mind and is recognized as real in the imaginative realm. However, McKim says that hallucinations can be creative and are not necessarily to be avoided. "Mystical and visionary experiences frequently have the quality of hallucination; although we commonly deny this kind of experience today, we must nevertheless acknowledge that a visionary such as poet and painter William Blake found much of the beauty that he gave the world in a hallucinatory state of consciousness" (p.103). However, in the classroom situation, it would be difficult to encourage imagery directly through hallucinations and it is unlikely that most teachers would be comfortable with this area but should be aware of it in the visionary sense in the event that there are students who are inclined to imagine in this way. Directed Fantasy Directed fantasy is distinctly different from autonomous imagery because it is controlled or directed from without - either by a guide or by the person doing the fantasizing. This is quite possibly the 51 area that teachers will feel most comfortable with in the classroom as they might feel more able to be in the role of the leader. Perhaps this would also be more beneficial to the student as well because as McKim says, it is not necessary to be a clear imager for these exer cises and that most importantly, one must relax and be content with what happens at first as anxiety or anxiousness will only inhibit the availability of images. In order to help in this area, he suggests that you frequently remind yourself that anything is possible in your world of fantasy and that you should be as non-judgmental as possible. McKim describes methods to relax, involve groups, overcome blocks that keep you from imagining and eventually how to direct your own fantasies. At his conclusion, he talks of a merged viewpoint and says this is where you identify with your imaginings and in essence become one with what you are imagining. (suggestions will be given in chapter three) The ability to move your imaginative viewpoint in space and time is truly one of the most valuable powers of directed imagination. (McKim, p.109) Implementing Methods in the School Visual thinking, the mind's eye, memory images, imagination images, autonomous imagery, dreams and daydreams, and directed fantasy will be invaluable in facilitating obtaining imaginative images from students. The possibility of implementing these methods effectively in the classroom depends upon the teacher. Teachers have traditionally been teaching content without really analyzing what their beliefs and ideas 52 are and how they affect content. Frequently what they teach is less important than what they do not teach, as illustrated by Eisner (1979) or the manner in which they present their lessons. It is desireable for teachers to examine their own ideas closely, in order to more intelligently help the students have access to images and ideas which are meaningful. The problem, most will agree, is not to tell them what to do -but to help them attain some kind of clarity about how to choose, how to decide what to do. And this involves teachers directly, immediately - teachers as persons able to present themselves as critical thinkers willing to disclose their own principles and their own reasons as well as authentic persons living in the world, persons who are concerned - who care. (Green, p.48) One of the main aims of the B.C. Secondary Art Guide is the development of imagery and as such, many of the mentioned examples will be helpful in aiding the students- obtain imagery through imagination if the teacher has already done some groundwork in creative art experiences. Transformation, vision, image, metaphor and myth are dominant words found in readings supporting our inquiry. How does the Secondary  Art Guide support these concepts? The 1981 prog-ram differs In several respects from the previous art program prepared in 1965/66. First of all, it emphasizes imagery as the central focus of art and considers the image 53 itself as central to visual learning. Imagery exists in both the mental process and the product of art. It is all important since there is no art without an image. There are many levels of imagery, yet all are products of the imagination - products created through observation or from the memory of the student. Even when an imposed subject is used to facilitate learning, the image is vital. It Is the means by which students learn to know, apply, and consider art. (p.4) It is not the purpose here to criticize the guide but it must be acknowledged that this is a very limited definition of the importance of and the sources of individual imagery. However, it is assumed and stated that the quality of the art program rests with them and that "It is the responsibility of teachers to ensure that their students, regardless of their level, achieve these learning outcomes, and thus the program goals, and there are countless ways of doing so" (p.21);. In actuality, the thematic booklet accompanying the curriculum guide devotes a great deal of space towards aiding the student with activities to help the student develop images by producing student art works. However, the developing of the images is done through explaining and contemplating the thematic units in relation to such elements.as: juxtaposition, distortion and simplification. The main concern in the method and the progress of the students while these elements are being taught. Indeed, as Witkin states- in The Intelligence of Feeling, "if the pupil is to retain his respect for the things he makes then his needs for control of the medium must be gratified rather than shelved" 54 (1974, p.113). It cannot be denied that process and ability to handle materials have long been considered important aspects of a good art programme but many art educators do not reach their students with more than this manipulation of materials. If students are to have a worth while art education that will have some purpose and usefulness to them after leaving the system, teachers must enhance this process. While the new guide is thorough in outlining how to do things, it is found lacking in how to get at images and ideas, how to think of ideas in different ways, and how to solve our visual problems in a way that represents our inner vision that is unique to all of us. Two images that were discussed in depth in chapter one were the figure and the environment. These were chosen because they are dealt with in the thematic booklet; they are images that I have found to be important to students; and they are images that I have worked with extensively myself. These reasons fit the requirements that are necessary for students to. develop imagery that is unique to them: they have qualities that transcend the usual; they have a wide range of metaphors that students-will have access to; the teacher has experience and interest in this area so it should be with some understanding and empathy with the process both of image-making and transformation that the units will be approached. The teacher must have belief in the integrity of the ideas presented to participate in the adventure with the students. The success of the study will depend to a large extent on how at ease the teacher is with exploring and presenting different ways of looking at images and ideas. In order to help students perceive these, Eisner (1979) asks: 55 How does this classroom lead its life? What kind of personage does this teacher represent to his class? To reveal these particulars, to capture these "essences" one must not only perceive their existence but also be able to create a form that intimates, discloses, reveals, imparts, suggests, implies their existence. In this process of transformation, metaphor is, of course, a centrally important device. Metaphor breaks the bonds of conventional usage to exploit the power of connotation and analogy. It capitalizes on surprise by putting meanings into new combinations and through such combinations awakens our senses. Metaphor is the arch enemy of the stock response. (p.200) In Eisner's terms, is it possible for a classroom to lead its life using these methods? What are the implications for trying them in the classroom? Would there be any resistance from students to these methods in the high school situation? Is a programme like this too ambitious for students or too soon- for their levels of learning? I think not. I think that if we ask what Eisner asks-, "How does this classroom lead its life?" and answer Feldman's question, "What does this child want to learn?" we will be able to trust ourselves to answer truthfully and base image-making on an imaginative foundation. In chapter three the writer will respond to these questions and offer suggestions for integrating these ideas with the B.C. Secondary Art Guide. 56 CHAPTER THREE THE PERSONAL IMAGE AND THE SECONDARY ART GUIDE By creating for ourselves an imaginary experience or activity, we express our emotions; and this is what we call art. R.J. Collingwood, The Principles of Art Developing Imagination in the Classroom This chapter will deal primarily with the ways of fostering the development and use of imagination in the classroom. The figure as personal image and the self in the environment are two areas that have been dealt with extensively. To this end, at the suggestion of Read, Feldman and McFee, sixty junior.high school students have been asked a series of questions so that the teacher would be familiar with what they thought about the personal image and the environment; what they thought imagination was; and whether they thought that dreams had anything to do with their imaginative lives. Students' responses to these questions are synthesized. Where the questions were relatively straightforward and required little or no analysis, the responses reflect this and there is no summary. Where the questions were more complex, the responses are given in point form and include comments or summary. The second part of chapter three focuses on ways in which the information gathered in the first section is useful in the practical sense in the classroom. To this end, a visualization section concentrating on Heroic Personal Image is described. In addition, visualization using dreams, is used to help students build containers for the self, 57 and finally, students were offered the oportunity to build an en vironment for the hero. All of the ideas presented were explored through the use of visualization, daydreams, guided imagery and intellectual thought on the parts of the students. In other words, the attainment of new images and ideas were made available to them through the use of their imaginations. Students were guided in learning how to use their imaginations rather than being told, "use your imaginations!" They were given time to synthesize the concepts and ideas given and were given some ways to gain access to their images through the use of their imaginations. Questions and Answers Given In each section, the questions will be given in total as they were offered to the students. For clarity, the questions will be repeated before the pertinent responses. The sections are responded to in order: 1. Imagination 2. Dreams 3. Heroes and Heroines 4. The Environment These areas were chosen because they are powerful archetypal images that hold interest for all on many different levels. The symbolism and strength of these images will offer students significant possibilities for using their imaginative powers. The teacher giving the instruction has an interest and some experience in these areas and this will be communicated to the students. 58 Information Collecting Procedures To provide material for this..chapter, sixty junior high school male and female students from a Vancouver Art Programme were offered questionnaires during art period. Each student was given a copy of the questions and was asked to respond on foolscap using whatever time was needed to answer the questions as completely as possible. Students answered the questionnaire that was pertinent to the assign ment they were working on with the exception of the environment for the hero where the students answered questions only on the environment. Imagination Imagination is not a talent of some men but is the health of every man. Emerson, Letters and Social Aims:  Poetry and Imagination The following are questions which the researcher asked the students in the classroom setting: 1. What is an image? 2. What is imagination? 3. What is important to show when you use imagination? 4. Is it necessary for other people to understand your images? 5. How do you get your ideas for images? 6. Can you create ideas that are totally unique to you? 7. Who uses their imaginations and has ideas? 8. Do you think in images when you read or paint or think? 9. Who has imagination? 59 10. Why is imagination used? 11. Is imagination necessary to learn? 12. Is imagination necessary for making images? What is an image? Here, the answers were many and varied: - a picture or scene you see - a picture in your mind - a reproduction of an object - a picture which is relayed from your eye to the brain - a thought inside - the appearance of an object in our minds or otherwise - a reflection of something you see - something from your imagination - a picture which forms in your mind - the picture your mind sees - an image is a picture you can see in your mind or a picture that is real. Some students did think that an image could be something outside your mind as well as within your mind at the same time but for many others it was either one or the other. However, during discussion, all students agreed that both outer forms and inner forms could be images. What is imagination? There was general consensus on this question. Most agreed upon the following points: 60 - something which helps us think of things creatively or in a different way - the creations our brains think up - imagination decides what the picture will be - an imagination is a person thinking of something that might be true but usually is not - imagination is what you think up as in a play or to draw something - imagination is. something that goes on in a person's head - imagination is idealism, craftsmanship, your ideas - your imagination is something that is different for everyone -when you use your images in an individual way - imagination is part of your mind which allows you to invent situations that previously did not exist - imagination is your ability to think of things, making them your own way - imagination is the creative part of the brain - imagination is creative thinking - to come up with something new. What is important to show when you use your imagination? Many students did not know what was important to show when they use their imaginations but those who answered were sure that you would come up with something new and original and offered the following responses: - to show feeling and detail - show your complete thought or ideas 61 - show unique features so that people will know you were responsible for the concept - so you can demonstrate that you understand your imagining and are satisfied with it - to show your creativeness. These responses demonstrate that the students feel that imagination should show something new and unique - use of the imagination helps create new knowledge for the students because the imagination is creating something new for the students. Is is necessary for other people to understand your images? Overwhelmingly students felt that it was not important for other people to understand what one is doing when making images because that could be explained to them if it was necessary: - if people could figure it out that was good but no one else has the same imagination so it is okay to be different - it is your thought and not anyone elses - sometimes the people do not always need to know and sometimes they have to use their imaginations. How do you get your ideas for images? The students had no problem answering this. - from your surroundings - from the ideas of others - to form an idea you just look at something and it sets off a whole new train of thought - from looking at people's work and by thinking of the en vironment you are in 62 - you get ideas by just thinking - from your imagination while wondering about something - you look at nature - they come from your mixed up thoughts - from the top of your head - from what you see and what you know from the past - talking to people or reading from books - thinking quietly about a subject and things related to it and to use them. Thus students realize that they arrive at ideas by thinking in many sorts of ways and directions. They are cognizant that they do not just happen. Can you create ideas that are totally unique to you? The students were divided in this area. - everyone is unique and therefore their ideas are unique as well - it is not possible to create images and ideas that are totally individual - it is possible to create unique images but it becomes harder as you grow older - it is possible if no one looks over your shoulder while you are working. The implications here are that the students' uniqueness and originality will directly be influenced by their beliefs and it is important that teachers recognize this when offering ideas for image making. 63 Who uses imagination and has ideas? All students felt that everyone uses imagination and has ideas but some said that there are people who are more capable than others in this area. One student said that everyone has imagination - even John Doe. Do you think in images when you read or paint or think? Most students said that they do think in images. Some responded as follows: - everyone thinks in pictures - photographers and palm readers think in images - only when describing something - only when reading. Who has imagination and why is imagination used? This question received the same responses as "Who uses their imagination and has ideas?" All of the students felt that everyone has imagination and that imagination is used for art, drama, architecture, thinking, cooking, ideas, turning ideas into reality, writing, films, making new things, to beautify, to create, to fantasize, to form interesting images which are different from other peoples. It is interesting to note that the students' examples were almost exclusively positive in approach and not one of them suggested the use of the imagination in a negative or harmful manner. Is imagination necessary to learn? All but two students felt that imagination is necessary and important for learning. - It is not necessary because you are learning other people's ideas - it may be for some subjects but not all 64 It is interesting to note that many students equate learning within the classroom subject areas. Not one student mentioned learning taking place outside of the school environment. Is imagination necessary for making images? Most of the students felt that imagination is important for making unique images in art but there were a few surprises as well: - imagination is necessary or else everything would be the same - imagination is necessary because art is the art of the imagination. The responses to the questions on imagination are very sensitive and thoughtful in attitude and their answers enabled close work with the students on the units to be described later. Dreams Dreams in their development have breath, And tears, and tortures, and the touch of joy; They leave a weight upon our waking thoughts; And take a weight from our waking toils; They do divide our being; they become A portion of ourselves as of our time, And look like heralds of eternity. Byron, The Dreams, St.l The following are questions which the researcher asked the students in the classroom setting: 65 1. Do you dream? 2. Do you consider your dreams to have any meaning to you? 3. Do you find your dreams interesting or disturbing? 4. Do you keep a dream diary or journal? 5. Did you know that some people have spent many years trying to analyze the importance of dreams? 6. Do you know where dreams come from? 7. Do you daydream? 8. What is the difference between daydreaming and dreaming? 9. Do you think that dreams have any purpose? 10. Is there a difference'between a dream and a vision? 11. Can you name a visionary who has had a far reaching effect on the life of man? 12. Can you name a dreamer who has had a far reaching effect on the life of man? 13. What does it mean to dream? Do you dream? All students but one said they had dreams and this student said he did not know for sure because occasionally he thought he had one. Do you consider your dreams to have any meaning to you? About one third of the class felt that their dreams had no specific meaning to them while the remainder of the students felt that some dreams did have specific meanings to them but they did not know what the meanings were. To most students this did not seem an important point but this is just the way dreams are. 66 Do you find your dreams interesting or disturbing? The majority of students felt that their dreams are interesting and occasionally disturbing. A few mentioned that their dreams were fascinating and that when they tried to interpret them they became disturbing I Do you keep a dream diary or journal? The majority of students did not "diarize" as they called it or keep a journal. Three students said they do try to find meaning to their dreams by writing them down and one said she recorded them so she had a source of ideas for creative composition. Do you know that some people have spent many years trying to analyze  the importance of dreams? All but one student was aware of the research and some said they knew it had gone on for some time. One even said he would like to have some of his dreams analyzed by someone who knew what he was doing. Do you know where dreams come from? The answers to this question were very sensitive and some are as follows: - from your inner most feelings - from your fears, your wants and wishes - from your subconscious or your inner personal self that you never know - from your mind - from thoughts if I have problems that can hot be solved - from things that happen 67 - from the first or third stage of sleep - from disturbing facts in your subconscious but I can not figure it out - dreams are put together by the subconscious part of the mind - they are made from ideas and things affecting us - dreams sometimes predict the future. There were a few students who said they did not know where their dreams came from and that they just happened. Do you daydream? All but one student said that they daydream but the answers were that they daydreamed in varying amounts. Most students said they daydreamed at particular times but one student said she found it a most enjoyable activity and did it more than most other things. What is the difference between daydreaming and dreaming? The students had little trouble in defining the differences: - daydreaming occurs when you are in a less sleep-like state and are more conscious than while you sleep - daydreaming is when you create a scene by your own choice - dreaming is when your awake conscience is asleep and your subconscious takes over - you can see the dreams What is the difference between daydreaming and dreaming? - in your mind's eye - daydreaming is the result of your mind wandering while you are 68 awake, and because you are conscious and can control the thoughts so they are usually pleasant - dreams are controlled by your subconscious so there is no control over the degree of horror or whatever - daydreams happen when you are awake - dreams happen in the night and they are sometimes interlocked - you dream what you might daydream - you have more control over your daydreams than your dreams. Do you think that dreams have any purpose? The majority felt that dreams do have a purpose but were not sure how to define it, some of their responses are as follows: - dreams let your subconscious take over and sometimes they have meaning for you and your life - they are a vent for your subconscious - they let you think about things you would not when you are awake - dreams take you away from reality - you can let loose your true self - dreams sometimes tell you things - dreams take you away from the pressures of real life - dreams are something to watch while you are asleep - dreams release what you can not say Is there a difference between a dream and a vision? This question was very difficult for the majority of students. They found it hard to write an answer at all and many of them said they just did not know. A few answered as follows: - a vision is something you believe in and a dream is not 69 - a vision is usually related to something you have seen but a dream is made up of something from your subconscious - a vision and a dream are the same in different circumstances - a vision is more foretelling and would happen while you are awake - they can happen while conscious and offer insight into something - dreams are usually more complex than a vision - dreams usually have motion and sometimes a story line - dreams have keys to working things out - dreams contain visions. Can you name a visionary who has had a far reaching effect on the  life of man? Many of the students felt that Jesus was an important visionary. Other frequent responses were Churchill and Hitler, Napolean, Ghandi, and Mother Theresa. Individual responses were the planners of the space programme, people of the sixties, Mohammed, Lenin and Joan of Arc. Almost all the visionaries mentioned were political personalities. Can you name a dreamer who has had a far reaching effect on the life  of man? In this section, the artist is mentioned more as well as scientists: Leonardo da Vinci, John Lennon, Michelangelo, Einstein, Newton, Plato and Socrates. The most unusual response was the student who said that union leaders are the dreamers who have the most far reaching effect. He did not elaborate. 70 What does it mean to dream? Some of the students thought that dreaming helped you to discover yourself and other responses follow;. - to dream means to listen to your subconscious, your fears and hunches - to dream means you could wish for something subconsciously - to dream means you can do anything you wish because you can let your mind go - to dream means you get away from real life and let your imagination take control of your mind - to dream means an active subconscious - to dream means to have your thoughts, ideas, fantasies, inner consciousness all put together. - to dream means that you are a human being - to dream is to relax - to dream means you are alive - to dream is to show that we are individual people working things out within ourselves. The students' responses to this section were very sensitive and well thought out. Many of their answers were insightful and indicate that they take their inner dream life seriously. Students felt they had something to say on this subject and appreciated the opportunity to do so. They all indicated that dreams play a great part in their inner lives and most indicated that they are struggling with their ideas in their dreams to try and determine some meaning for themselves from them. 71 Heroes and Heroines A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are encountered and a decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man. Joseph Campbell, The Hero With a Thousand Faces The following are questions which the researcher asked the students in the classroom setting: 1. Who is a hero/heroine in your opinion? 2. What qualities make this person a hero/heroine? 3. Is is necessary that the hero/heroine have qualities that everyone is able to identify with and admire? 4. Describe a hero/heroine from history as well as you are able to and justify why this person was/is a hero/heroine. 5. Which hero /heroine would you like to emulate (follow) and why? 6. Any comments regarding heroes/heroines? The questions pertaining to heroes and heroines encouraged the students to give feminine as well as masculine examples. However, for clarity the word hero will be used in the students' responses and will be synonymous with heroine. 72 Who is a hero/heroine in your opinion? Surprisingly, there were some students who were unable to name a hero of any kind. The heroes most frequently mentioned were members of the students' families. Heroes mentioned outside of the family structure included Ghandi, Mother Theresa, Terry Fox, Dustin Hoffman and Jesus. Many of the students are obviously affected by the heroes that are popularized by the media. What qualities make this person a hero or heroine? The students seemed to feel that a hero does everything right and always does things for other people. Some other responses are: - he always thinks about other people before himself - he is selfless, brave and compassionate - he possesses leadership and humanitarianism - he has the ability to stick to something even though it is very hard doing something not for himself but for others - he is someone that' we can all look up to - he works for the good of all and not just himself. When the responses are examined, it is easy to see why the students had difficulty in answering the first question about who is a hero - there standards are very high and difficult to live up to. Is it necessary that the hero/heroine have qualities that everyone is  able to identify with and admire? The majority of students felt that this was necessary and they replied as follows: 73 - people may like certain aspects of a hero but not others - the hero may 'specialize' in certain areas that are not admired by all - different things are important to different people - a hero only needs particular qualities for certain individuals - a hero for one person may have no significance to another person because those qualities are not critical to them - some heroes could be scorned by others but they have still done heroic deeds - there are different types of heroes - a hero need not have qualities that everyone can identify with as a hero can be anyone who just once does something particularly noble and selfless There were some students in the minority who felt that the hero had to have universal qualities for if he could not be admired by all then he was not a hero and their responses were: - a hero was someone to look up to and was admired by everybody - a hero will become dormant and unliked if people can not identify with his character - nobody has qualities that everybody likes but everybody should be able to recognize the good qualities of a hero. Describe a hero/heroine from history as well as you are able to and  justify why this person was/is a hero/heroine. The heroes mentioned most frequently were historical or biblical in nature. There was some mention of heroes from mythology as well 74 but in more of a minor way: Churchill, Hitler, Lord Nelson, Joan of Arc, Mother Theresa, David and Goliath, Jesus Christ, Aphrodite and Hercules. Perhaps the students are really unaware of the many sorts of heroes there have been throughout history or mentioned only the ones that they have most recently learned about in school or seen on TV or at the movies. The responses here reinforce what was said in answer to "Who is a hero/heroine in your opinion?". Which hero/heroine would you like to emulate (follow) and why? The answers to this question were varied indeed. One student said she wanted to be like the Queen of England!' Other popular figures were James Bond, the White Knight, Robin Hood, Jesus Christ, Kato, Hercules, the Bladerunner, Abraham Lincoln, part of the A-Team and Conan the Barbarian. These students felt it was not necessary to explain why because the answers are obvious. There were students who said that they did not wish to emulate any person in particular but felt that there were certain qualities that were important,for their heroes to have: kindness, unselfishness, good company for others, the ability to do something particularly well, and the ability to be courageous in the face of difficulties. Any comments regarding heroes/heroines? Many of the students chose not to elaborate but those who did offered the following interesting ideas: - heroes have the ability to move people by what they have done 75 without being aware of their special abilities - this makes their contributions more important - having heroes is important as emulating a hero can help to change a lifestyle or mannerisms (some times for the worse) - evil people would have evil heroes - a hero is a big word - I admire many people but when you say the word hero my standards are very high. Just to think of a hero is a great task - if you are a hero you do not let anything get in your way -you conquer it and not just live with it,r - in China they say a hero is simply two things - one who serves his country and one who serves his people - there are several types of heroes but the two most common are the ones who are kind, forgiving, help others and the ones who do dangerous deeds and perhaps kill for their mission - there are not enough real heroes anymore to admire - real heroes in my opinion are not the very famous. They are the ordinary nameless people who do something maybe only once - for example, a person who rescues someone from a burning building at the risk of his own life. Most students recognized a need for a hero in their lives. This hero seems to take form most frequently in one of the figures made popular by the media. Many adults recognize this need in themselves but would not use the word hero but "mentor" to describe a person important to them. There is no doubt that students recognize the need and importance of heroes in their lives and the exercise later on will help them recognize the hero in themselves. 76 The Environment Inner, harmony is attained only when, by some means, terms are made with the environment. John Dewey, Art as Experience The following are questions which the researcher asked the students in the classroom setting: 1. What does environment mean? 2. What is the most interesting environment you have been in? 3. If you could go to an environment in the past where would you go and why would this interest you? 4. Do you know of any buildings that are what might be called "powerful" to you? If so, why do you think they were built this way? 5. Do you think that where we learn has any effect on how we learn? 6. What might you change in your environment if you could? How would you do this? (This pertains to the structure only and does not include the "nicities" of life, i.e. stereos, cars.) 7. If you could go to any physical environment without buildings, where would you go and why? 8. Is there anywhere that you feel particularly spiritual or that there is a purpose for man/woman being on this earth? 77 This need not be a church or place of worship but any place that is precious to you. 9. Please offer any comments regarding this questionnaire. In the questions regarding the environment, the students responded with a great deal of enthusiasm and offered much information. What does "environment" mean? For the majority of students, the environment means the world around them and they described it as follows: - your environment is what is around you physically - this could be land or your family or school - environment means my bedroom because it is the most telling about me - the environment is our surroundings that affect our moods, thoughts and perceptions - the environment includes smells, views, areas of land and the atmosphere - environment is a series of situations and persons surrounding you - environment is the place around us - the air, the water, the landforms, and the types of life around us - environment is the condition in which you live within. What is the most interesting environment you have been in? One of the most surprising answers was that school was the most exciting environment because there was constant information and new 78 ideas. Other responses are as follows: - Vancouver is exciting as it is so different from Denmark which is where I am from - hotter climates such as Africa, the Tropics, Macao, India - the sea - the forests of B.C. - the Rockies because of the feeling of freedom and natural beauty - visiting friends houses because you are only an outsider but life keeps going on and you can only watch when you are a visitor. If you could go to an environment in the past where would you go and  why would this interest you? Medieval times and ancient lands seemed to be the most popular answers along with: - English villages because of old buildings - the Middle Ages because there were lots of castles and kings and other powers - to the "Who1 concert because I had to miss the last one for my sister's birthday - back to the Roman Empire with a camera to get some pictures - to Greece or China 800 A.D. - to the time of Christ - to India where there are people who can look at your hand and they can tell you your future 79 - to my grandmother's time, around 1905 to experience some of the things she did like ironing with seven irons - to the early Prairies to see how settlers lived - prehistoric times to see what animals evolved from - to a 'ball' environment when ladies wore long gowns to a ball - to Medieval times because things were simple - to the Roman seige of a castle or a seige of a Roman city because the Romans are the builders of modern civilization - Mesopotamia because it is such an ancient civilization. Do you know of any buildings that are what might be called "powerful"  to you? If so, why do you think they were built this way? The responses were many and varied? - pyramids and castles are most powerful because they show power and territory - the Empress hotel seems powerful and may have been built to reflect dignity and royalty and the capital of B.C. - the Statue of Liberty - the Parthenon - castles represent power because of the sheer awesomeness of their space and size and they seem to symbolize strength. They were built large so that they could dominate the lives of the people - the Planetarium is powerful because of the room inside - there is no building that is powerful - it is usually what is inside the building that is 80 - the new Court House in Vancouver - the Sears Tower is powerful because it is built using a combination of concrete and glass and the glass reflects the powerful sun - the B.C. Place Stadium is powerful because it is unique - really tall buildings are powerful because they make you feel smaller and more insignificant than you are but the buildings are built this way merely to provide more space for offices - castles and churches are built this way to represent power in religion and government - churches were built large and powerful and with so much art to show people how big God is. Do you think that where we learn has any effect on how we learn? Overwhelmingly, the students said "yes". They felt that in a negative environment you would be "negative" to learning anything but in a "positive" environment you learn faster because of your better positive attitude. Other replies include: - if a person lives in a large city he will learn more science stuff than someone living in a small village - an environment gives us objects that we can relate to - your environment affects your attitude - some places are quieter and nicer to learn in - if you live in a good community you have better schooling and people in the environment affect us 81 - if your school has a friendly loose atmosphere it will change the amount or quality of your total knowledge than if you learn in a very strict harsh school. - your surroundings often do affect your emotions (i.e. colour) -if your surroundings make you hostile, you will not learn well. What might you change in your environment if .you could? How would you  do this? (This pertains to the structure only and does not include  the "nicities" of life, i.e. stereos, cars.) The answers were varied as some students felt they could change nothing but some other responses are: - downtown Vancouver should be changed to help out all the poor people and clean it up a bit - I would change my environment and go to the jungle - I would change the relationship between my parents and myself but because I can not change this I would change the yard - I would move to the wilderness or the ocean - I would change the government because they think too much of the nation and too little of the people - school environments should be changed to create less stress -this could be done by having courses that are more enjoyable - I would put a dome over Vancouver to keep the rain out - palm trees would change the environment - the weather. 82 If you could go to any physical environment without buildings, where  would you go and why? The students wanted to go to the moon or other planets and their answers reflected some of the responses given previously: - somewhere where there is lots of wildlife - Africa and the Rockies - the Canadian forests - the beaches of Hawaii or Tahiti - under a fig tree in Greece on a hill overlooking the Mediterranean with a good book - to the seashore because it is quiet and serene - to the desert because it is a non-environment - to the jungle because it is totally different from Vancouver - to a secluded island - to the Bahamas - to the wilds - to go underwater. Is there anywhere that you feel particularly spiritual or that there  is a purpose for man/woman being on this earth? This need not be a  church or place of worship but any place that is precious to you. The places that most of the students selected were for the most part readily accessible to all: - on top of a mountain staring at the stars - outdoors at night when it is totally quiet 83 - when you are with someone you really love environments that are physical do not matter - it is the feeling that is between two or more of you that is special - in church and with a youth group - by the seashore and the forest - with nature - flying and looking down on the land and up at the skies. Please offer any comments regarding this questionnaire. Many students chose not to answer this but those who did offered some interesting insights. - these questions make me realize how lucky I am to live where I do - awkward to answer but sort of interesting - too complex - these questions really bring the me out of myself - environment is very important to me and a person can learn quite a lot about himself with these questions - they are kind of hard but they make me think - I liked the questions and the way you have to think of what is around you and what is important to you - I am glad we can answer how we feel rather than having a right answer - I would like to live in the outdoors but I need some city life belongings - interesting questions but it would have been easier to answer them orally rather than writing them down. 84 Conclusions Regarding: Imagination, Dreams, Heroes, Environment Many of the students viewed the ideas presented as very complex and answered in kind; only occasionally were the responses superficial. They had a definite interest in answering and giving their own opinions and looked forward to the opportunities to explore these ideas within the framework that was proposed. While talking with the students concerning their answers I asked them if the repetitious responses meant that they were unoriginal or if this made their ideas less important. They assured me that the repetition did not matter, we all view the world from our own stance and what is important to each of us at the time is that the experience is new. It is with this in mind that they felt that while the teacher or the parents might regard something as having been done before, for the student many times the idea or image was new and because of this the idea is valid and imaginative for the student to work with. The value of approaching students for their opinions and ideas cannot be over emphasized. Referring to the first chapter where both Feldman and Read said that this is where we must start to obtain truly authentic imagery, there can be no doubt that students respond to the approach that asks them "What do you think?". As a teacher, you are affirming their worth in your eyes and saying that they have something to offer. What better position does the student have to work from than this? In the next section of this chapter discussion and implementation of the units will utilize the information gleaned by the previous 85 questions. A visualization exercise offers students opportunities to gain access to individual imagery in dreams and place themselves in an environment; the students designed containers with personal en vironments for themselves. Using memory, fantasizing, and dreams, the students discovered and drew the heroes that are within themselves and the heroes that it is possible for them to become. Some students attempted to build/draw the ideal environment that will nurture the hero in themselves. The teacher actively engaged in these challenging assignments along with the students. The reason for this is that when obtaining imagina tive imagery in these manners: visualization, fantasizing, guided imagery, daydreams for example, there are more risks taken on the parts of the student. The student is being asked to reveal personal ideas and look at ideas and images in new ways. If the student is able to recognize that the teacher is willing to risk and struggle and reveal something personal about himself, then the student may be willing to risk as well. The teacher should be willing to respond to the same challenges that are set for students. This is to be an imaginative, exciting unit where students learn something about exploring images that express their inner lives. Wordsworth wrote about viewing the life process as a whole and perhaps students might gain insight into this view as well. Wordsworth imagined the following: 86 My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky: So it was when my life began; So it is now, I am a man: So be it when I shall grow old, Or let me die! The Child is father of the Man; And I could wish my days to be Bound each to each by natural piety. In the same manner, students are asked to give opinions, but the end form is the transcendence of the facts to another form in the imaginative realm. Visualization - the Heroic Personal Image In Chapter two, visualization is described as a good method for obtaining personal images for students. The following exercise has been tested thoroughly outside of the classroom with groups of students and teachers as well as in the classroom. The thrust of this section is the use of this exercise with junior high school students. Before beginning, there are a few prerequisites. Since the classroom is accessible to office personnel, adminis tration, counsellors, other teachers and students, it is necessary to ensure that students and teacher remain undisturbed for the class period. Make sure that there is a notice on the door that you are not to be disturbed, call the office and ask them not to put any 87 calls through if there is a phone in your room, and make sure the address system is turned off. This is not difficult to arrange, but it is necessary so that the visualization experience will be whole for all participating and not fragmented by outside interference. After explaining to the students what visualization is, some students may feel unsure of themselves. It is necessary to place them at ease and often offering them the opportunity to leave the room, they will usually make the decision to stay. This is the same for chronic talkers. If someone does run the risk of spoiling the visualizing experience for the other students, arrangements should have been made previously with the librarian, counsellor or other teacher for those students to be supervised. This has happened only rarely and most students look on this as an adventure. Background music is desireable and Paul Horn's flute music or Brian Eno's 'Music for Airports' is ideal, but any music that does not emphasize a changing rhythm but has a steady pattern is ideal. This helps to set the tone and is particularly good for helping students focus on their, inner images. If you wish, blinds could be drawn and lights turned out. Ideally, students should be in a reclining position but if this is not practical the visualizing unit works just as well in a sitting position. The following visualization journey is only one suggestion that has been successful for obtaining self-images. There are many adaptations and revisions that may be made and should be made by individual teachers for students. Ensure the students that to start 88 this journey, all they need to be is relaxed, and many times with their lives as pressured as they are, this can be somewhat difficult. The researcher read the following statements to the students: One of the most important aspects of our lives is daydreaming or visualizing what we would like to see or have happen to us, those around us and in our life situations. In our early years, we are encouraged to think in images, and indeed, when we first look at words, we perceive them as images in the form of letters. As we become older, we usually find that we tend to deal with the written word more and with our visual vocabulary less. When you consider this, it doesn't seem reasonable that we learn the majority of our information visually, but that we do not really learn to us the visualization skills we all potentially have. By learning to visualize we may solve pro blems, improve skills, see ourselves become the kinds of persons we would like to become. It is easy in part, but it also means that we have to suspend some beliefs about ourselves and the way we look at others as we go on our journey. You will find that the details and ideas presented are simple, and that everyone should be encouraged to try going on this journey - your parents, friends and teachers are probably no more knowledgeable in these visual skills than you are. This  is a very individual journey for each of us. It is also an ongoing learning journey in which you are the only judge as to the quality of your ideas, learning and visualizing. Your 89 collection of visuals and notes is to be kept by you in your folder and sketchbook in any format you wish ... these ideas are for you to use not only for this class, but for as long as you wish and in any situation you might wish to. At this time, the teacher gave a breathing game exercise and the one chosen was by Robert McKim but there are many that may be better for other situations and they may be invented as the teacher goes along. This game is called breathing Let us imagine that we have a goldfish in front of us. Have the fish swim around/have the fish swim into your mouth/take a deep breath and have the fish go down into your lungs and into your chest/have the fish swim around in there/let your breath out and have the fish swim out into the room again. Let's see you breathe in a lot of tiny goldfish/have them swim around in our chest/breathe them all out again. Let's see what kind of things you can breathe in and out of your chest/breathe in a lot of rose petals/breathe them out again/breathe in a lot of dry leaves/have them blowing around in your chest/breathe them out again/breathe in a lot of water/ have it gurgling in your chest/breathe it out again/breathe in a lot of raindrops/have them patterning in your chest/breathe them out again/breathe in a lot of sand/have it blowing around in your chest/breathe it out again/breathe in a lot of little 90 firecrackers/have them popping in your chest/breathe out the smoke and bits of them that are left/breathe in a lot of little lions/have them all roaring in your chest/breathe them out again. Breathe in some fire/have it burning and crackling in your chest/breathe it out again/breathe in some logs of wood/ set fire to them in your chest/have them roaring as they burn up/breathe out the smoke and ashes. Have a big tree in front of you/breathe fire on the tree and burn it all up/have an old castle in front of you/breathe fire on the castle and have it fall down/have an ocean in front of you/breathe fire on the ocean and dry it all up. What would you like to breathe in now?/all right ... now what?/ all right ... now what?/ What would you like to burn up by breathing on it? ....all right Be a fish/be the ocean/breathe the water of the ocean/in and out/how do you like that?/be a bird/be high in the air/breathe in the cold air/in and out/how do you like that?/be a camel/ be on the desert/breathe in the hot wind of the desert/in and out/how does that feel?/be an old fashioned steam locomotive/ breathe out steam and smoke all over everything/how is that?/be a stone/stop breathing/how do you like that?/be a boy/girl/breathe the air of this room ... in and out/how do you like that?/ 91 What is the name of this game? Now that we have finished our introduction to breathing using visualization, relax and savour the feelings you have. Try not to judge or analyze, but just relax with your eyes closed and try to enjoy these feelings and images. At the conclusion of the breathing game, the students are given time to savour their feelings and then introduced to the following. In your mind's eye, continue to see yourself as relaxed as you have been during the breathing game ... breathe in whatever images you remember and return to where you felt most comfortable and savour the feelings again. We are going on another journey together but each of us is alone. You are walking and walking and walking but you are not tired and soon you notice you are approaching a forest. This is not your usual forest but this is a forest that contains trees that are most magical and wonderous ... unlike trees that we have seen before. Soon, you come upon a clearning and if you look closely, you will find a path leaving the clearing/see this very clearly/ take a look from far away/float above the trees and circle the clearing and path/rest on a cloud/gather the trees with your eyes or hands/move in closer/what colours do you notice?/ what is the texture of the leaves on the trees?/how does the air smell?/is there a sea nearby?/is it hot/dry/cool/how does 92 the air feel on your skin and in your hair?/ what details do you notice? When you decide to come to land, you will continue upon your path ... in the near distance, you see someone approaching on a gleaming white horse ... cantering, cantering slowly towards you ... the figure stops close to you and reaches out to you in greeting/he says that you may have anything you wish ... and you give what he says careful thought and you decide that there are many things that you would like but the most im portant things are not "things" at all but they are ideas that will help make you the kind of person you would look up to and have other people to look up to ... these are ideas that would make you a hero in your own eyes. What are those qualities that you ask the rider for? They may be only one or two ideas or many but think carefully before you ask the rider so you may be sure that they are what is truly important for you. After thinking carefully, you speak to the rider on the gleaming white horse and he grants you these wishes and commends you on your choices and you and your newly found heroic qualities continue on your journey. In the distance you notice a dazzlingly beautiful building and as you approach you notice the opening and you enter. In the entrance hall, blackness surrounds you but there is a small shining light which you follow and as you follow it you climb some stairs and as you climb the stairs, the light 93 becomes more brilliant and at the top of the stairs you stop and in the corner of the room there is an old old woman with kind eyes and she beckons you to come to her. You go and then you notice a most precious container that she is holding and she tells you that in this container there is the clue that will help you to become the kind of hero you would like to become and will help you to imagine the kind of life you would like to have. When you are ready, you open the container and see what it is that will help you become who you want to become. Then thanking the old woman with the kind eyes and basking in the brilliant light, you turn to go down the stairs which are no longer dark and emerge into the light of day which is clean and pure and you feel the breeze against your cheeks and notice the birds above and you continue back the way you came, along your path and back to the clearing until you reach the trees. You make your way back slowly to your very special breathing space and when you are ready, slowly open your eyes. The students were given time to return to the classroom atmosphere at their own pace and were discouraged from talking. Instead, they were asked to take the piece of paper that was in front of them and asked to write down images that came to them when they met the rider on the horse, what they found out from the wise old woman's con tainer and any other images that were important for them during the exercise. They were asked to draw thumbnail sketches portraying these 94 ideas. All of these images and ideas went towards making their heroic self-images in the following assignment. It is critical that the students have time to write their ideas and images thoroughly and to illustrate them with thumbnail sketches. They need time to catch their images while they are fresh in their minds. The next step in the assignment was to have the students trace each other's upper bodies on white bond paper. Their hair should fall in different positions and patterns so that the form is obviously a person but each one will be different because of the hair con figuration. This is an important aspect of the assignment and helps each student retain some individuality even though they are all working on the same project. Tracing their own images is important for then they are working on their own selves and creating what they want for themselves. Then, the students were asked to put their thumbnail sketches into their tracings of themselves as heroes. These sketches helped them identify the elements that will help them become the heroic people they would like to be. In addition, students were encouraged to add ideas that had come to them since the visualization exercise. This helped to reinforce that we are changing and ongoing in our ideas and our images as well. To help the students present their work in the best possible manner, the techniques in the foundations section on imagery presented in the Secondary Art Guide were used. 95 (This is discussed further in chapter four.) Various media were made available to them: pencil crayons, felt pens, paint, and pencil helped them to have control and confidence over their media and gave them results that they felt proud of. Conclusions The students worked with great enthusiasm on this assignment and the work produced by each was markedly individual. There were some problems with some students who were not quite sure what to focus on but with some individual imagery help, they were able to gain confidence in the credibility of their own images and ideas. It is possible to lead a student into a visualization sequence while the hustle and bustle of the classroom life goes on around him - indeed, it is almost like a steady background rhythm similar to the music used for the students during the exercise. Once the students felt confident and competent in presenting their ideas and they realized that there were no right answers, that their images were valid for them and that they were not criticized for presenting their images no matter what they were, they worked very hard and with zeal. They were asked to fill the entire interior of the body with images that represented their heroic selves. They were offered the opportunity to bring elements from outside themselves and place them outside their images. They were asked to deal in symbols, in images as metaphors for their lives and in doing this they were able to develop images that 96 were authentic to them. In their head portion they placed images that were important to their minds and around their heart or lower portion, their images tended to concentrate on feelings. The images varied greatly from student to student and at first some of the most obvious images came to all, but the students worked hard at selecting images that were truly representative of themselves and that corresponded to the images raised in the visualization experience. In discussing the unit with students at the conclusion of the assignment, the consensus was that the assignment was most interesting and unique. But, they stated that made sense because each of them is a unique person. They were also asked to see them selves in the best possible circumstances and imagine what they could do and be in the future as their heroic image. What better spring board could be offered for anyone's imagination? After all, to many students, the most interesting person around is oneself. It is important to state that the images produced were not what adults and teachers generally consider "art" but the importance of the work and their images was obvious. Visualization in this context asked them to imagine for themselves the possible hero that they could become. Dreams - A container for the self The same class that wrote about dreams was asked to do this assignment. As with the visualization exercise, the content is concerned with the students own ideas and images and thus is of 97 prime importance in the motivation of the students. This assignment was considerably easier to implement with the students than the visualization unit because it was not necessary to establish a controlled classroom atmosphere. This is not to say there was not order but it was not important to have everyone participating in the same thing at the same time. As with the visualization unit, the researcher asked the students to respond to some questions and they are as follows: 1. Describe a dream you have had recently that you think has meaning for your future. 2. If you were unable to answer question one, fantasize a dream that would give meaning for your future. 3. Write or sketch some images from your past that are important to you as an individual. 4. What qualities make you special? 5- What dreams do you hold for yourself in the future? 6. What kind of person would you like to become? 7. How can you represent yourself best? After the questions had been responded to, the students were asked to visualize a container or box that would hold themselves and their lives. In the exercise, they were asked to place both two-dimensional and three-dimensional images that represented their lives by re ferring to the answers and questions above. As with the visualization unit, students were asked to record their images in thumbnail sketches to try to attain the images that were most important for them. 98 The next part of this unit required that the students actually construct or use a ready-built container to hold the two-dimensional and three-dimensional images that they had decided were representative of their inner and outer selves. For this unit, it was necessary that students bring items from home and that the teacher have a variety of materials on hand. Also, cooperation with the woodwork unit was convenient for those students who wished to build their containers, and many accomplished this. Conclusions The students were offered two one-hour planning sessions for this assignment and in retrospect, this was invaluable. It made the work thoughtful and helped each student attain imagery that was important to him. It was interesting to note that the more outgoing or ram bunctious students used a number of symbols that adults considered unacceptable such as violence, drugs and sex. As with the visualiza tion unit, this imagery was to be non-judgemental on the part of the teacher and these students in particular asked if they could do any thing and they were offered the opportunity without censure. Many of the students were very concerned about their places in the world to come and nuclear was was a dominant image in the way they viewed themselves and the world. However, there were many who saw themselves as poets and dreamers, artists and philosophers and this romantic view was offered with as much validity as the more aggressive visions. The students took great care with presenting their ideas and their results took many forms, such as a bird cage 99 containing boxes with treasures; a butter crate containing a beach with the student writing his own poetry; a shoe box entirely filled with three-dimensional and two-dimensional symbols that had great meaning for a mathematically minded student; a small match-box which showed the importance of music and the future place of it in the life of a student and many many more. Each student's work was distinct from the other. However, a few students did use cliches for special purposes but the majority of 8th and 9th grade students were able to discover personal imagery. Discussing this with the students was a revelation. They were pleased with their sense of self-worth and with their results. They also felt that working with some of their demons such as nuclear war and the violence around them that they were able to exorcise them to a degree. And most important of all, the students felt that we should be spending more time looking inwardly at ourselves and less out wardly. They felt the whole assignment was valid for their own image-making. Building the Environment for the Hero The students who engaged in this unit had answered the questions pertaining to imagination and the environment but had not done any previous work concerning the hero. Using the visualization and breathing game described earlier, the teacher led the students to explore images that interested them. Images were presented to the students that were based on their answers to questions concerning the environment. The teacher suggested to students that they visit 100 medieval castles, scale walls, climb mountains, fight battles, be heroes, float in an imaginary environment, and look inwardly to the environment that is within themselves. Images that Robertson said evoked Jungian archetypes such as caves and labyrinths were explored. The students were asked to see themselves as heroes in their en vironments and act in the manner that they felt was appropriate for heroes. The teacher took the students out of the visualization process slowly. At the conclusion, the students were asked to record their images with words and thumbnail sketches as has been described previously. Students were then asked to create an ideal environment for nurturing their heroes. They were offered the opportunity of working in either two-dimensional or three-dimensional format with any materials that they could find or that were available in the classroom. There is a wealth of materials that can be found for little or no money and the students were resourceful in this area. Money was to be no object in the designing of the environment for their hero. The researcher noted that because this group of students had not answered the questions concerning the hero, nordone the visualization in relation to the hero, many of the students had not formulated a clear idea of who a hero was. In discussion, it was revealed by the students that they saw no connection between heroes and themselves. Consequently, the images that were being dealt with in the environmental visualization sequence such as caves and labyrinths had no connection 101 with the images that came to the students minds regarding themselves as heroes. Instead, they saw themselves as rock stars, movie stars and beautiful men and women who could have whatever possessions they desired. This is where this assignment differed markedly from the results of the other two. Here, the images were mainly concerned with outer possessions that the students wanted to have and less with the inner images that the other two groups felt were important for their image-developmen t. Conclusions Many of the images developed from this unit were superficial and as such did not hold the interest of students for long periods of time. It is quite possible that the lack of preparation of images in relation to the hero was responsible in part. There is also the factor that building the environment for their hero meant to the students that they had to deal with money. The problem of "money" was observed by the researcher to inhibit the students' imagination in their art. The results were unremarkable. In repeating this unit, the researcher recommends that there be emphasis placed on: 1. preparation of the students by using the process of visualization more extensively with particular reference to the hero; 2. showing students slides that offer environments that had been made by people with vision; 3. emphasizing to students that the environment is sometimes within people as well as outside of them. 102 The differences in the groups of students could have been due to other reasons as well as the lack of preparation as described above. It could also be a reflection of their mental abilities and their levels of readiness for an assignment such as this. Where one group of students worked industriously and enthusiastically, the other was difficult to motivate. The latter group of students worked on the hero in the environment and when asked their opinions, they were unable to formulate well thought out responses. The researcher concludes that the poor results with this unit lie not with the idea but with the execution of the material as described. It may also be a reflection on the abilities of the students as the unit does use the hero and the environment whereas the other two units were the hero or the environment: one main image rather than two. The hero in the environment is a worthwhile project and the alterations suggested should improve the quality of images for the students and offer them a better base from which to start. 103 CHAPTER FOUR DEVELOPING STUDENTS' KNOWLEDGE OF AND ABILITY TO USE IMAGERY Imagination, not invention, is the supreme master of art as of life. Joseph Conrad In chapter three the basic purpose was to elicit from students their ideas concerning imagination, dreams, heroes and heroines and the environment. Based on these ideas, the students' interests were established. At this time, they were given assignments that directly related to these stated areas of interest in order to obtain unique image-making on the part of the students. One of the purposes of this thesis is to examine the B.C. Secondary  Art Guide, in terms of strengths and weaknesses of the foundations area, in the form of offering insights and criticisms where appropriate. The guide offers a basis for all students to start from but it is the researcher's opinion that it does not meet the needs of teaching and learning by using the imagination for unique image-making. A brief discussion of this aspect of the guide follows: The Secondary Art Guide's Approach to Imagery The guide states that imagery is the basis on which all learning in the new (1983) curriculum is to take place. All explanations that the researcher makes in this section are based on the objective in the guide that helps in "developing students' knowledge of and ability to 104 use imagery" (Art Foundations, p.29). The guide is not prescriptive but offers a variety of suggestions from which to start to develop imagery. The language of the guide is intended to be readily understood by any teacher and the guide is made available to all teachers of art whether or not they have background in art. As such, it is important that some methods be offered with the given strategies for the development of imagery through the use of the imagination. The researcher has observed that the guide is weak in this area. The foundations section of the curriculum guide was designed to be the base on which all art programmes are to be developed. In the researcher's opinion, this is a most critical portion of the high-school art programme. This is supported by the premise that if it is not possible to obtain positive response from students at the foundation level, then chances of developing students' interests at a later date are likely to be minimal. The foundations programme is the time in the art programme when a teacher has the opportunity to capture the enthusiasm and interest of students so it becomes imperative that students have a real sense of identity with the images that they are studying and making. The images must be their own and not those given to them solely by the teacher. Although the Secondary Art Guide states that imagery is the base on which all learning will take place, the researcher has found upon close examination of the guide, that the emphasis is on development of skills with particular reference to technical proficiency. The following section will discuss strategies that emphasize technical skills as well as three strategies that do touch upon imaginative learning. Suggestions for extending the guide's strategies are offered. 105 Strategies that Encourage Technical Skills In the imagery section of the foundation programme, it is apparent that many of the strategies used to fulfil the objective that students "will demonstrate a knowledge of and ability to use imagery" are very straight-forward and could easily be engaged in by all students. Some of these strategies are: simplification, juxtaposition, elabora tion, selection (Secondary Art Guide, pp.29-32). For example, in reference to simplification, the guide offers the following strategy: . Discuss the concepts "simplification" and "abstraction". . Working from one source, create a series of sketches gradually omitting detail. . Draw from a complex object, omitting some line to create implied line and/or lost and found edges. . Stylize or simplify shapes derived from the human figure. . Examine objects for their underlying geometric structure or shape, (p.29) It is readily seen that the main thrust of this strategy is in dealing with the techniques of "how to" simplify. It is a concept that does not really allow for the development of individual imagery but aids in the improvement of technical skill. To further illustrate that the guide portion of development of imagery emphasizes the use of technique, magnification as a strategy is illustrated by the following: . Discuss the concept "magnification". 106 . Use images seen through a microscope or magnifying glass as sources of design for silkscreen, stitchery, weaving. . Enlarge an image using the grid technique (p.30) . The foundations section is consistent in offering invaluable ideas for implementing techniques in their strategies. Analysis of the offered assignments shows clearly that the emphasis in these examples is on images outside of the student. There is no intent to make the images the student's own, but the purpose is to explore the strategy. The guide also suggests that there are strategies for arriving at imaginative image-making. These are by using techniques such as memory, imagination and visualization. Strategies that Encourage Unique Image-Making The concepts of memory, imagination and visualization are offered as strategies in much the same way as the examples of simplification and magnification are given. However, there is a difference in these concepts as the guide names them. Where simplification, magnification, juxtaposition and other strategies given all call for the observation of items from the outside and are readily understood by all, the concepts such as memory, imagination and visualization all call for the development of ideas from inside the student. Examine the following strategy with reference to imagination and visualization: . Discuss the concepts "imagination" and "visualization". . Invent images using inner thoughts and feelings. Fantasize and exaggerate. . Employ non-visual sources of inspiration such as listening to music and reading. 107 . Add to and extend a given image such as a photograph or rubbing. . Imagine and record dream landscapes, future architecture, interiors (p. 31). While the guide does encourage use of the imagination and visualiza tion, the guidance and support offered for these complex areas is minimal. If the language in the strategies of simplification and magnification is examined, it will become evident that words such as discuss, working, create, draw, stylize, examine, enlarge are words that are readily understood and that most teachers will be able to explain. The language in reference to imagination and visualization is more complex: "invent to develop inner thoughts and feelings, fantasize, exaggerate, inspiring (sic), extend, imagine". The examples given in reference to magnification and simplification are words of explication concerning processes outside of the student whereas the examples given in reference to imagination and visualization are words that deal with the inner workings of the students' minds and feelings. As such, the strategies given for imagination and visualization are much more complex and need more explanation. The first examples given may be taught by what Samples (1977) calls the didactic approach to education. "The didactic mode is the classic form of what we call a delivery approach to education. Delivery approaches to education take the form of modes in which the  content and the process are essentially delivered to the students (p.169). While the didactic mode may be acceptable for the strategies of magnification and simplification, there should be a better mode for the strategies of imagination and visualization. This is not to say 108 that the teacher cannot use the didactic process for aspects of an art programme. Nor should the teacher give the programme over wholly to what Samples terms the "process mode". The process mode was formed because in our technological era, "content was always changing, attention was focused on strategies for teaching and learning. If the what students learn is going to keep changing, let's put more attention on the ways students learn" (p.171). Because of the process mode, Samples says that many of the positive aspects of didactic learning were rejected. Samples says that the process mode is still largely directed by curriculum developers, scholars and teachers and that the "content ... learned were (sic) still determined by someone other than the student" (p.171). Because this type of learning is still largely directed by the teacher, Samples says the process mode is still a delivery system of education and that we should consider embarking upon the "intrinsic mode". His explanation of the intrinsic mode is worthwhile in relation to the strategies concerning imagination and visualization. It is the researcher's opinion that in order for learning to take place in these areas, the teacher must facilitate involvement for the students. These strategies do not allow the students or the teacher to stay detatched as in the didactic mode or be solely concerned with the process mode. The intrinsic mode is more of a synthesis of the former two and is described further: This mode is an access approach to education. In such an approach, students are legitimate decision makers. They can determine what content they will study and what means they 109 will take in the process of study. But they will not make such decisions in a vacuum. They will do so in partnership with a skilled and sensitive teacher ... one who is flexible, competent, and (you remember!) has a sense of humor. Such a teacher must know enough about subject matter to be interesting - and to know that he or she doesn't know everything. And enough about process to know there are many ways to learn. (p.172) Much of Samples' writing emphasizes the point that he feels that the teacher has an exacting influence on the lives of the students and perhaps this is an issue that should be discussed further but that is not the purpose of this paper. However, Feldman (1970) and Greene (1978) both agree that learning in the classroom will depend to a great extent upon the attitudes the teachers bring to their teaching. Greene reinforces this by saying: teachers must themselves be sensitive to the qualities of things as they must know personally what it means to be receptive to the arts. Only teachers like these can move the young to notice more, to attend more carefully, to express their visions, to choose themselves. Much depends upon how teachers choose themselves - whether they authentically delight in certain art experiences, whether they are informed enough to articulate what there is about the arts that expands human possibilities. (p.195) 110 McFee and Degge (1977) further explain with the following quote that while students do need help in developing skills, many students need help with looking inward: Students who enjoy being by themselves, who look within them selves rather than to others for their concepts and feelings usually need little help from teachers to express ideas through art. But many students who want to express themselves had not the opportunities or encouragement. They may need help in creating symbols, in selecting suitable materials, and in developing skills with media to express their ideas. (p.175) As this passage indicates, it is important that the teacher recognize that there are those students who do survive and do well without the teacher's help but the vast majority of students do need a perceptive teacher to help them develop and express ideas as well as skills with the students. Witkin (1974) stressed that skill development is important and that the "pupil's respect for his expressive act vanishes when he loses control of the medium" (p. 183). Witkin is referring to the older student and this is an aspect that should be supported and acknowledged by the teacher. The guide does support this aspect of image-making but to emphasize technique is a poor substitute for enabling the student to create authentic images. The concerned teacher must be wary of relying on technique alone for this is what will become the "communication" that was described by Collingwood in chapter one where it was determined that communication was secondary Ill to the real purpose of image-making. The researcher is making the assumption that the main reason for emphasizing skill development is communicated by the quote by McFee and Degge and further reinforced by Witkin but also assumes that technical strategies are areas where most teachers are confident of their ability and because with practice students may become reasonably proficient. This in turn helps both feel confident but does little to enhance their imaginative capacities. It could be argued in fact that images may become more mechanistic because they are not ex ploring inner imaginative dimensions but are concentrating instead on the outer appearances of their images. Suggested Strategies for the Secondary Art Guide, Foundations Section In addition to the strategies that are in the foundations section pertaining to the development of imagery, the researcher suggests that the following strategies would be helpful in the development of imagination and visualization: 1. inclusion of some methods for approaching this complex area of thought. An outline such as the unit in chapter three might be considered; 2. approaching students for their ideas and thoughts should be considered. The teacher should hold the ideas and thoughts of the students in some esteem. Basing some assignments on students ideas/opinions/interests could be a good starting point for students to develop imagery that is authentic to 112 them. Eisner (1972) offers support for this with the following: sound educational practice, in art education or in other fields, aims at establishing the type of relationships in classrooms that allow the feelings of the students as well as their ideas to be expressed. At the same time, it utilizes the maturity and professional skill of the teacher in making educational decisions. We must have it both ways. If_ authentic relationships are substituted for professional skill, the educational process will be poorer. If professional skill stifles warm human relationships, instruction will be empty, short-termed in effect, and joyless. Both must be used in their proper measure. What this measure is, is precisely the type of question that no book can answer (p.181). 3. suggesting that the teacher participate in the assignments with the students. This will demonstrate to the students that the teacher has belief in the integrity of the ideas that are presented to the class. In addition, the teacher will have empathy for the students process and know that the issues are complex for all participants as learners. This is reinforced by Eisner's argument that he wants "the development of a type of relationship that breeds trust and openness enhances (sic) the teacher's understanding of the student (and vice versa)" (p.180). In Eisner's opinion, a good relationship between teacher and student will "provide conditions that will make the student's experience in school educational" (p.180). 113 4. stressing throughout the imagery section of the guide that this aspect of art is what makes it a truly unique discipline. Imagination is what enables all people engaged in creative endeavours to say, "This is what I am. I am unique. I am me . 5. encouraging teachers to be adventuresome in their approaches to teaching and learning. If as was. stated in chapter one, that imagination had to be used in the learning of new know ledge, then it must be assumed that imagination should be used consistently if one wishes to continue learning and if one is to continue to grow intellectually and imaginatively. Most teachers do know how to do things, but it is important as well to endorse and encourage teachers to help students to think and this is only possible if teachers themselves think. "Yet the most important aspect of art education from the standpoint of the student is what happens in the classroom or school. As long as schools remain the major social vehicle through which formal education is provided, the character of teaching will be a central consideration for those who wish to improve the quality of education" (Eisner, 1972, p.179). The researcher acknowledges that the preceeding ideas are complex. However, in order for imaginative image-making to take place within the curriculum guide, these issues should be addressed by the individual teacher and by curriculum planners. The next portion of this chapter will deal with two thematic sections specifically, offering criticisms and suggestions where they are helpful. 114 Analysis of Two Thematic Sections in the  Secondary Art Guide The Figure and The Environment These sections were chosen for close examination because of the similarity of content for the personal image and the environment as described in chapter three and referred to in chapters one and two. It bears repeating here that the researcher preferred to use the words personal image throughout the research because the words implied looking inward or being involved whereas the figure implied looking at or being outside of. Imagination is dealt with in a limited manner in the Figure section of the thematic book. Again, the language is similar to that in the foundations section. For example, "Examine the work of artists who have used the figure image in imaginative and fanciful ways or in commemorative ways ... Marc Chagall's Lovers Over the City uses the figure in imaginative and fanciful ways" (p.60). It seems to the researcher that it is almost impossible to examine how Chagall's work is imaginative. Perhaps the words feel, intuit, or sense would be more appropriate. By keeping the language more clinical, the real essence of the importance of examining Chagall's work is denied. By making no committment to using language that will encourage imaginative thinking in relation to looking at Chagall's work, the imagination is placed at the same level as the learning of skills in the strategies described earlier in the chapter. 115 Concerning the theme of the environment, the thematic booklet proceeds in a similar vein: . Discuss the concept "imagination" as it relates to built environment imagery. . Work with realistic mainstreet images to further develop them in an imaginative way. . Use a continuous line drawing approach to develop images for an imaginary mainstreet. (p.66) From the limited suggestions given for this area it is felt that the curriculum planners think that teachers implicitly understand how to promote the use of imagination in the classroom. It is a paradox then that so much emphasis is given in describing possible techniques with which to make authentic imagery. As with the foundations section, the thematic sections as well are useful as starting points for teachers, but if the programme ends with the suggestions offered, it is of limited value. As illustrated, the guide's foundations are good for developing a sound technical basis from which to build the imaginative sections. Students do need to feel confident with techniques so that they will be able to work so that their imagery will be unique to themselves. The researcher acknowledged the strength of this aspect of the programme in relation to the units described and implemented in chapter three. Graham Collier illustrates what he feels will happen when a more scientific analytical view (which could be aligned with the art guide's technical mastery) and the subjective artistic (which could be aligned with the 116 researcher's emphasis on the imagination) meet: What is it that impels the artist to work in the first place? ... art is the result of man's visual confrontation with the world. Man responds subjectively as an image-maker - that is to say, he responds "image-inatively" to the external fact of his environment. At the one extreme, this response may be characterized by an analytical attitude to the formal, physical, "how" of the object, which we might regard as visually scientific. At the other extreme, the artist may respond to experiences of the world by creating images from his own resources which embody no objective reality. And in the middle position, an artist may respond through a desire for a synthesis in which the separate elements of man and object become united in an image of some complexity. (p.212) Collier thinks that we need to have a synthesis of the more technical scientific approach and the subjective imaginative so that the artist and that which he is creating become an "image of some complexity". It could be argued here that Collier is mirroring much of the language in the guide but what Collier says about the artist's compulsion to work is what is most important here. This either comes from a need within the artist or from some stimulation outside so that the artist will respond subjectively. If this is extended to the classroom situation, the teacher should realize that it is not enough to present objects to students for image-making. Ideas should be 117 presented for the necessary stimulation that some students need so that they are enabled to respond imaginatively. Suggestions for Improving the Guide's Approach to Imagination It must be stessed that too literal use of the guide should not be encouraged and that everyone should be interested in extending and elaborating on ideas presented. The criticisms and suggestions that follow are based on the Foundations section on the development of imagery in the B.C. Secondary Art Guide. 1. The emphasis is technical. Ideas need to come from thinking imaginatively as articulated in chapter three - not doing mechanistically. 2. There are suggestions for how to learn techniques/terms/and mention of imagination but there are no strategies and ideas for actual implementation. 3. The guide fosters looking outward at things rather than inward at ideas and finding out where images come from. In order to do this, introspection and time for that inward looking needs to be encouraged and it would be beneficial to explain this to teachers. 4. Flights of fancy, imaginative thought and ways to get these images are really not supported in the present guide's suggestions. If they were considered integral, they would be present throughout the guide. 118 5. In essence, the guide is more of a "how to" approach to observation and the outer aspects of art rather than an exposition of the critical areas that truly do make art -the use of authentic images through imagination. Developments Needed 1. In the Thematic Book, developed by the B.C. Curriculum Art Committee, the two sections on the Figure and the Environ ment, showed little attention was paid to the imaginative aspects of making images. Outlines presented in chapter three would be helpful in the guide. As mentioned earlier, teachers do not need as much help with technique as with how to obtain ideas. 2. The guide should encourage looking at images in different ways. Since this is the basic art curriculum guide for art education in British Columbia, there must be support at this level for imaginative images or it will be difficult for teachers to foster imaginative image-making in their class rooms unless there is some guidance for teachers. 3. There must be opportunities within the guide to encourage the teacher to ask the students what they think about various ideas and what it is important for them to learn and show in their image-making. The guide must encourage teachers in this venture. 4. The guide must encourage teachers to become involved with their own development of images and imagination in order to give credence to the ideas they present to their students. 119 The guide should emphasize the development of images that have particular meaning to the students rather than concentrate on images that have meaning to the teachers as illustrated earlier by Feldman, Eisner and McFee. The ideas on imagination should not be considered isolated units but should be continuously integrated with the imaginative image-making life of the student. By emphasizing one aspect of the guide in isolation, the purpose of integrating imagination in all activities will be defeated. In chapter one, the notion of wholeness was presented. Integrating imagination will help to unify rather than fragment ideas to see images as part of a powerful whole rather than in parts. The guide should encourage using imagination for seeing the whole (as in the mind's eye as described by Collingwood) with out actually seeing the whole physically. 120 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Wu li Masters perceive in both ways, the rational and the irrational, the assertive and the receptive, the masculine and the feminine. They reject neither one nor the other. They only dance. Gary Zukav, The Dancing Wu Li Masters The ideas presented in this thesis are to encourage and give heart to those teachers who are adventurous and care to advance the purpose of art education by helping students create images through the use of the imagination. In previous chapters, it has been established that imagination played an important role in creating new knowledge. Chapters three and four demonstrated that for students to develop images that were authentic to them, it was necessary for them to use their imaginations. The philosophical perspective outlined in chapters one and two provided a focus for the practical applications of using the imagination in Chapter three. The Secondary Art Guide was examined in chapter four and suggestions were offered to extend the foundations given in the guide to include reasons for supporting different approaches to individual imagery. The researcher chose to discuss the curriculum guide in reference to the personal and the environmental images as these areas allow students and teachers to focus inwardly as well as outwardly. The researcher feels that outward observation is important but felt that 121 teacher developed units that grew from the need for more introspection were necessary. As such, the researcher incorporated the goals of the guide and the strengths of the tenets developed in chapters one and two to form the imagining units developed in chapter three. Here questions and ideas were presented to extend the strengths described and to elicit responses from students to find out what they thought of the ideas offered. Since there were no right or wrong responses and the questions were anonymously answered, the information is assumed to be accurate.* Students were asked what it was important for them to imagine and create for themselves and then they were asked to use those ideas in creating their own images through the use of the discussed practical applications. From the students' responses, both visual and verbal, there is evidence to confirm that one's imagery is a way of expressing the imagina tion to others as well as to oneself. This plays a significant role in developing new ideas, confirming traditional or agreed upon notions of society in general and the self in particular, and enhancing an awareness of the self. This study states why imagination should be considered more of an integral continuous part of the Secondary Art Guide and offers some approaches for implementing units that compliment the strategies offered by the guide. *The missing ingredient that would give more credibility to the exercise would be an examination of responses over a longer period of time - say five years and include a wide variety of students. 122 Implications of the Study for the Teacher If teachers are going to be facilitators for their students in helping them to make images that use their imaginations, it is necessary that teachers involve themselves in the same processes. This seeking of self-knowledge on the part of teachers will make them more committed and genuine in the eyes of the students and this is reflected in the students' attitudes towards the ideas offered. Lawrence Kubie (1958) says that this quest for self-knowledge is never ending and that unless we seek self-knowledge there can be no wisdom or maturity. Teachers may enhance this process by helping students gain some self-knowledge through their questions and assignments that culminate in unique image-making. Teachers should keep in mind the following when developing units: 1. Teachers need to believe that this approach to image-making is valid. As previously mentioned by Greene and Eisner, teachers attitudes are a powerful influence on the classroom and if teachers wish to be effective, they should believe what they teach. 2. Teachers should consider participating in some of the approaches they ask their students to. This is not an absolute, but there are times when teachers should go beyond being an observer or facilitator for the students. 3. Teachers should remember that students have a real desire to say what is important to them and have it taken seriously. By tending to these needs and integrating them in art programmes, 123 the students should be fulfilling their needs for image-making and not the teachers' needs. Teachers who keep these points in mind should be able to enhance the image-making processes for students and see their progress in the development of their own images. Implications of the study for the Student The most obvious implications for the students are that they are actively involved with images that concern themselves and are developing images and ideas that have meaning to them. The curriculum is student-oriented rather than teacher-oriented and this is why the students in the study felt committed to the units. The majority of the students wanted more assignments that allowed them the opportunities to explore where their ideas and images came from and felt that they had learned a great deal about themselves as well as being very pleased with the quality of images in their work. The overall results of their work pleased both students and the teacher and brought a renewed sense of importance and meaning to the creation of images in art activities. Implications of the Study for Art Education One of the most pressing problems in the field of art education has been the need for acceptance and validation by the "back to basics" movement. By that it is meant that the art programme is not considered relevant to that basic core of skills, knowledge, and information that is deemed necessary to our learning. It is not the purpose of this paper to enquire deeply into this matter but it should be stated that art 124 programmes do not gain credibility with the established educational enterprise because the art programmes and curriculum guides tend to follow similar ground rules that are in use for academic subjects. Art cannot be "learned" in the same manner as academic subjects and until educators recognize the essential uniqueness of art and encourage those other aspects of learning, art programmes will continue to be regarded as secondary to programmes in math, English, and science which are considered basic subjects. In the researcher's opinion, the curriculum planners need to acknowledge the uniqueness of the subject of art by supporting innovative ways of approaching students and the content of teaching art. Instead of assuming that teachers are knowledge able in these areas, there should be explicit information consistently reinforcing the importance and validity of individual imagery throughout all aspects of prescribed curriculum. It may be argued that this is solely the responsibility of the teacher-training institutions but it may be easily shown that there are teachers teaching art who do not have a background in learning how to teach art. Feldman (1970) says that "there is considerable educational validity in the view that instruction and learning are shaped and organized to a large extent by a teacher's character and knowledge (p.28). If a teacher's in struction is shaped by his knowledge, then it is important that the guide be more positive in offering methodological support and suggestions. Teachers who have not taught art before will look to the guide as a "guide" and while the curriculum does not intend to be prescriptive, it may serve that purpose. 125 This study indicates that a fusion between the philosophical ideas concerning imagination and the practical aspects of the art room are not only possible but are beneficial to the image-making of the students. New ideas and images are given strength when the teacher approaches the students for input into the programme. This gives the students status and a feeling that they have worth as people and they are able to ex tend this to their image-making. The teacher should consider taking on new learning experiences in reference to the planned units in this thesis. The researcher has found that remaining open to personal change helps in the personal interaction between teacher and students. Fixed notions concerning what students and teachers should be doing were consistently examined and re-examined to have continuous life and meaning to the image-makers. The researcher feels that if the teacher regards the ideas and units that were explored as a "formula", this attitude will be reflected in the students attitudes and efforts as well. The teacher can and should help students realize that through the making of their own images with the described methods, they are being offered the opportunities to explore their inner lives through their images, and that they do this for themselves. The meaning of this experience should stimulate them to critical awareness and have them recognize their work as imaginative as opposed to mundane. It is emphasized that the ideas presented are meant to be challenged, revised, and changed and that these units are only a starting point for teachers who truly have a desire to help students develop their own images. This is a difficult but rewarding process. 126 In conclusion, the researcher has found that imagination offers the opportunities for looking inward to where real potential for learning is available. It is a means by which we gain new knowledge and insight and we are able to transform our everyday reality and events of life. Imagination offers us the possibility of envisaging and seeking the sublime and helps us trust what we intuit naturally. Imagination is able to nurture learnings by encouraging imaginative thinking with the use of metaphor, myth, analogies and key images as inspiration and motivation for authentic image-making. Through this authentic image-making we are able to gain access to a special type of truth which will remain with us. If curriculum emphasizing imagination through image-making develops students' awareness of the value of their own images, this will enable the students to look inward as well as outward, help the students look at images and ideas in different ways and develop images that transcend the usual. Students should be able to solve visual problems in ways that represent their inner vision that is unique to them all. Imaginative image-making will aid in helping the students have belief in the integrity of their ideas by asking their opinions and beliefs; helping the students be aware that our inner visions and inner lives affect our outer attitudes and these are reflected in our images; helping the students realize that the spirit of their work is a most critical aspect of image-making and that it may be enhanced by knowledge of techniques. 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