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The reliance on aesthetic codes in contemporary architectural criticism Torsteinsrud, Ragnhild Kirsti 1983

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THE RELIANCE ON AESTHETIC CODES IN CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURAL CRITICISM by RAGNHILD KIRSTI TORSTEINSRUD B.Arch. Hon., Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School Of Architecture We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1983 © Ragnhild K i r s t i Torsteinsrud, 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of A r c h i t e c t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: 28 F e b r u a r y 1983 i i A b s t r a c t On an a n a l y t i c a l l e v e l t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s ; i t s s t r u c t u r e ; and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of such a d i r e c t i o n t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . A e s t h e t i c s i s an a s p e c t of a r c h i t e c t u r e t h a t , even though not c r u c i a l t o the u t i l i t a r i a n p urposes of b u i l d i n g , i n f l u e n c e our everyday a p p r e c i a t i o n of the environment. Our sense of the a e s t h e t i c i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h c u l t u r e as w e l l as e d u c a t i o n and a e s t h e t i c judgement i s based on e x p e r i e n c e , reason , and p r e f e r e n c e . In a r c h i t e c t u r e the a e s t h e t i c i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h b u i l t form; the shape and arrangement of forms; space; l i g h t ; and m a t e r i a l s . A r c h i e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s i s thus u n d e r s t o o d as i n c o r p o r a t i n g b o t h v a l u e s and form. Through an e x a m i n a t i o n of contemporary t h e o r i e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e the essence and s t r u c t u r e of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s may be e x p l a i n e d . The n o t i o n of code s , as a t o o l f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of meaning a t t r i b u t i o n , i s seen as a v a l i d c o n cept t h r o u g h which i t i s p o s s i b l e t o l i n k a e s t h e t i c s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l form. The n a t u r e of the a e s t h e t i c code i s examined t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s of a l l major a v a i l a b l e c r i t i c a l t e x t s f o r a s e l e c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s i n comparison w i t h t h e i r f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s . T h i s proceedure makes p o s s i b l e a s y s t e m i c c o l l e c t i o n of a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i f i c f o r m a l arrangements and i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n ways i n whi c h form can be l i n k e d t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . These t y p e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or a e s t h e t i c codes, a r e f u r t h e r examined and a r e c l a s s i f i e d as a s s o c i a t i o n a l , a r c h i t e c t u r a l , or s p a t i a l a c c o r d i n g t o the c o g n i t i v e and p e r c e p t i v e responses they evoke. The use of these codes as t o o l s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m i s d i s c u s s e d i n one c r i t i c a l example. The t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e n o t i o n of codes can be a p p l i e d t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . F u r t h e r m o r e , such a t h e o r y i s u s e f u l f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m and t h e r e b y p r o v i d e s a concept which can be r e l a t e d b o t h t o a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y and c r i t i c a l p r a c t i c e . i v T a b l e of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgements v i i PREFACE . 1 INTRODUCTION 4 A. INTENT OF THESIS 4 B. ORGANIZATION OF THESIS 7 C. NOTES 11 I . ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETICS 12 A. INTRODUCTION: PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRIES 12 B. ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION AND AESTHETIC VALUE 16 1 The Q u e s t i o n Of A r c h i t e c t u r a l E x p r e s s i o n 17 2 The Q u e s t i o n Of A e s t h e t i c V a l u e 23 C. CONCLUSION 26 D. NOTES 29 I I . AESTHETIC CODES 32 A. INTRODUCTION 32 1 . S t r u c t u r a l i s m 34 2. A r c h i t e c t u r a l S e m i o t i c s 35 B. AESTHETIC CODES 37 1 . The Na t u r e Of The Codes 38 2. System Of A e s t h e t i c Codes 39 C. CONCLUSION 42 D. NOTES 43 I I I . METHOD 45 A. INTRODUCTION 45 B. METHODOLOGY 47 C. DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS 54 1 . A e s t h e t i c Code 54 2. Formal E x p r e s s i o n 55 3. Formal E l a b o r a t i o n 56 4. A e s t h e t i c C o n n o t a t i o n s 56 5. A e s t h e t i c V a l u e s 57 D. CONCLUSION 57 E. NOTES 58 IV FORMULATION OF CODES 59 A. INTRODUCTION 59 B. FORMAL ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION OF CODES 64 1. Code: I t a l i a n V i l l a g e 64 2. Code: S t a g e - s e t 66 3. Code: P o i n t s Of I n t e r e s t 67 4. Code: P u l s a t i n g Space 69 5. Code: V a r y i n g Rhythm 70 C. AESTHETIC CONNOTATIONS AND VALUES 72 D. AESTHETIC CODES IN RELATION TO VALUES AND FORMS 73 1 . Kresge C o l l e g e 73 2. A d d i t i o n a l Data 75 2.1. T e x t u a l M a t e r i a l 75 2.2. T a b u l a t i o n s 77 E. CONCLUSION 81 F. NOTES 82 V. THE NATURE AND TYPES OF CODES . 83 A. INTRODUCTION 83 B. THE NATURE AND TYPE OF CODES 83 V 1. A s s o c i a t i o n a l Codes 83 2. A r c h i t e c t u r a l Codes 88 3. S p a t i a l Codes 90 C. CONCLUSION 93 V I . PROBLEMS WITH THE USAGE OF CODES 95 A. APPLICATION 95 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 95 2. Example 97 3. D i s c u s s i o n 104 4. C o n c l u s i o n 106 D. NOTES 108 V I I . CONCLUSION 110 A. NOTES 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY 116 v i L i s t of F i g u r e s 1 . A r c h i t e c t u r a l code 36 2. The model of c o n t e n t and e x p r e s s i o n i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . 40 3. Content and E x p r e s s i o n i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s .. 41 4. A e s t h e t i c code as i n t e r p r e t e d by the a u t h o r 41 5. C o n n o t a t i o n s of t h e column as seen by Eco 47 6. T a b u l a t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c code 52 7. A e s t h e t i c code - I t a l i a n v i l l a g e 54 8. Formal elements and t h e i r c o n n o t a t i o n s f o r Kresge C o l l e g e 61 9. Kresge C o l l e g e - I n f o r m a l B u i l d i n g Arrangement 65 10. Kresge C o l l e g e - S m a l l s c a l e b u i l d i n g s 65 11. Kresge C o l l e g e - S e c o n d f l o o r b a l c o n i e s 66 12. Kresge C o l l e g e - T h e S c r e e n s 67 13. Kresge C o l l e g e - E n t r a n c e g a t e s 68 14. Kresge C o l l e g e - P a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s 68 15. Kresge C o l l e g e - P l a c i n g of the p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t .... 69 16. Kresge C o l l e g e - C o n t r a c t i o n / e x p a n s i o n 70 17. Kresge College-Rhythm 70 18. Kresge C o l l e g e - A e s t h e t i c codes, v a l u e s , and forms . 74 19. K i m b e l l A r t Museum - A e s t h e t i c codes, v a l u e s , and forms 77 20. S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e - A e s t h e t i c codes, v a l u e s , and forms 78 21. The Atheneum - A e s t h e t i c codes, v a l u e s , and forms ... 79 22. San Juan C a p i s t r a n o L i b r a r y - A e s t . c o d e s , v a l u e s , and forms 80 23. The f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of a s s o c i a t i o n a l codes 87 24. Order i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s 89 25. Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - n o r t h f a c a d e 99 26. Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - s o u t h facade 100 27. Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - w e s t wing e n t r a n c e 102 28. Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - n o r t h facade 102 29. Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - l i b r a r y 103 0 • V l l Acknowledgement I would l i k e t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h a n k the v a r i o u s p e o p l e who h e l p e d make t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . - S h e l a g h L i n d s e y who as a s u p e r v i s e r p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t and encouragement. - R h o d r i Liscombe and Abraham R o g a t n i c k l e n d i n g t h e i r time and i n t e l l e c t as r e a d e r s on t h e c o m i t t e e . - I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my f r i e n d s h e r e , i n p a r t i c u l a r I r e n e S a k e l l a r i d o u , who made my time i n Vancouver most e n j o y a b l e , and whose i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s l e d t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of the t o p i c f o r t h i s t h e s i s . 1 PREFACE The i d e a s and approaches p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s were i n i t i a l l y a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h the work on a s t u d e n t paper i n 1981. The theme of the paper was the con c e p t of d e l i g h t i n contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r e , and an attempt was made t o i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s i s s u e s of importance i n contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . I s s u e s such as a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s t o our t i m e , a m b i g u i t y , a s s o c i a t e d space, and i n d e t e r m i n a t e forms show the type of c o n c e r n among c r i t i c s . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by an e x p l o r a t i o n of r e c e n t t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s and v a r i o u s r e l a t e d f i e l d s . The b a s i c a e s t h e t i c c o n c e p t s were examined i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r a t h e o r y c a p a b l e of e x p l a i n i n g the re a s o n s f o r , and the m e r i t s o f , t h e above mentioned i s s u e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e was g e n e r a l l y found t o approach the problem of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s from two b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t v i e w -p o i n t s . Some suggested t h a t c e r t a i n forms and o r g a n i z a t i o n s p o s s e s s an i n h e r e n t and o b j e c t i v e beauty, w h i l e o t h e r s took a more p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i r e c t i o n , r e f e r r i n g t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and t a s t e p r e f e r e n c e s . The former were seen t o e x c l u d e most c u r r e n t a e s t h e t i c i s s u e s , w h i l e the l a t t e r had a tendency t o a v o i d the q u e s t i o n of f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n . Thus i t i s sug g e s t e d t h a t a t h e o r y c o m p r i s i n g b o t h d i r e c t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , a n o t i o n e v i d e n t i n the w r i t i n g s o f , f o r example, Norberg S c h u l z . 2 On the b a s i s of t h i s , a t t e n t i o n was once a g a i n t u r n e d towards a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m , and Kresge C o l l e g e was s e l e c t e d as an example. C r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s and p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l was s t u d i e d i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , and t o attempt t o l i n k s p e c i f i c forms t o p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s . The c r i t i c i s m s c o n s u l t e d d i d not make e v i d e n t any d i r e c t l i n k between the forms and v a l u e s . P o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s about the b u i l d i n g seemed t o be of t h r e e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s ; some r e f e r r i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , some s u g g e s t i n g v a r i o u s a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s , w h i l e some r e p r e s e n t e d c e r t a i n n o t i o n s i n d i c a t i v e of b o t h f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n and a e s t h e t i c e s s e n c e . To e x p l o r e the a p p l i c a b i l i t y , and a l s o the n a t u r e of th e s e a e s t h e t i c n o t i o n s , an a n a l y s i s of 5 contemporary b u i l d i n g s was u n d e r t a k e n . The o b j e c t of the a n a l y s i s was t o examine the c o n t e n t of p u b l i s h e d c r i t i c i s m s i n r e l a t i o n t o the f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n and c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e s e s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g s . T h i s was e x p e c t e d t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y the a e s t h e t i c n o t i o n s and c o n n o t a t i o n s as p e r c e i v e d by the c r i t i c s . The aim of such an approach was t o u n d e r s t a n d how a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s a r e e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h a r c h i t e c t u r a l form, and t o d e f i n e t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n terms of i t s s t r u c t u r e . Seemingly a s t r u c t u r a l i s t i d e a , the n o t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p as a type of a r c h i t e c t u r a l code was i n t r o d u c e d . I t was assumed p o s s i b l e t o examine such a e s t h e t i c codes i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e t h e i r n a t u r e , p o s s i b l e c a t e g o r i e s , and t h e i r p l a c e i n a broader c o n t e x t of g e n e r a l codes, e x a m i n i n g t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h , and d i f f e r e n c e s from o t h e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l codes. 3 Thus the i n t e n t i o n became t o i l l u s t r a t e a method, by which one c o u l d r e l a t e a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l form. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of the method was a l s o thought t o p r o v i d e a more complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a e s t h e t i c 'essence' i n a b u i l d i n g as p e r c e i v e d by the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c . Through such a method of a e s t h e t i c a n a l y s i s , the aim became t o a r r i v e a t a t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound b a s i s p e r t a i n i n g t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . T h i s c o u l d make such c r i t i c i s m l e s s a r b i t r a r y w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y p r o m o t i n g an a b s o l u t i s t d o c t r i n e . 4 INTRODUCTION A. INTENT OF THESIS A r c h i t e c t u r e as a d i s i p l i n e , c o m p r i s e s p r a g m a t i c , f u n c t i o n a l , and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e r n s . P r a g m a t i c i s s u e s a r e g e n e r a l l y e a s i l y agreed upon due t o t h e i r measurable n a t u r e : they posess f a c t s and f i g u r e s t h a t may be a n a l y s e d and compared. T h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e r n s such as a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s , however, ar e g e n e r a l l y d i s p u t e d . T h i s may be reasoned i n terms of the l a r g e number of f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a e s t h e t i c s . A c c o r d i n g t o Webster's T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y , i t i s a " . . . p h i l o s o p h y ( t h a t ) ... i n c l u d e s the p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , e t h n o l o g y , and h i s t o r y of t h e a r t s and e s s e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d a s p e c t s . " 1 The f i e l d of a e s t h e t i c s has a p h i l o s o p h i c a l n a t u r e c o n cerned w i t h the i d e a s and b e l i e f s about the a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t . The main emphasis b e i n g th e n a t u r e of t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . A r c h i t e c t u r e on the o t h e r hand, i s a much more p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t , and t h e main q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s i s not why, but r a t h e r what i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a e s t h e t i c , and under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s t h e s i s aims p r i m a r i l y a t g a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f a c t o r s l i k e l y t o produce d e l i g h t i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l o b j e c t , and how t h e s e a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . Most r e c e n t t h e o r i e s on a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s attempt t o d e f i n e and e x p l a i n t h e f i e l d e i t h e r i n terms of the 5 a r c h i t e c t u r a l o b j e c t p o s s e s s i n g elements of e t e r n a l beauty , or i n terms of q u a l i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o p e o p l e ' s v a l u e systems. The former i s based on m a t h e m a t i c a l models and i d e a s of man's u n i v e r s a l g o a l s , w h i l e the l a t t e r i s based on s o c i o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t u d i e s . Both approaches t o u c h on i m p o r t a n t and r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s , but t h e r e have been few a t t e m p t s t o s t u d y the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two d i r e c t i o n s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s : i . e . , an i n q u i r y i n t o the c o n n e c t i o n between o b j e c t i v e , f o r m a l i s t i c c r i t e r i a , and s u b j e c t i v e , v a l u e - o r i e n t e d a s p e c t s . How a r e the s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e s and i n t e n t i o n s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e x p r e s s i v e form? I s i t p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n e x p r e s s i v e forms and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s e t of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s ? And i f so, what i s the n a t u r e of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p ? Another p o i n t of c o n c e r n i s the l a c k of r e l e v a n c e -of e x i s t i n g a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . A c r i t i c makes use of c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a and methods which can not be e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h the above mentioned t h e o r i e s . The i n t e n t i o n i s t o e s t a b l i s h the a e s t h e t i c essence i n a r c h i t e c t u r e as p r e s e n t e d by r e c e n t w r i t e r s on the s u b j e c t . Through t h i s , i t i s i n t e n d e d t o d e v e l o p a method, which f a c i l i t a t e s an a n a l y s i s of e x p r e s s i v e forms i n r e l a t i o n t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and i n t e n t i o n s . Thereby i t i s thought p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e a t a t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound b a s i s f o r c r i t i c i s m p l a c i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . As w r i t i n g s on a e s t h e t i c s t e n d t o be of a more p h i l o s o p h i c a l n a t u r e , the i d e a i s t o e x t r a c t the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s from these t h e o r i e s as a b a s i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a more f o r m a l a n a l y t i c a l system. C e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s w i t h i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e m i o t i c s 6 approach a n a l y s i s by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e r u l e s or codes, which i n d i c a t e the "- c o n v e n t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s between f o r m a t i o n s and meanings." 2 A s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h was thought s u i t a b l e i n an a n a l y s i s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and v a l u e s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e between meanings and v a l u e s . A v a l u e i s seen t o imply p r e f e r e n t i a l b e h a v i o u r , and an a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i s t r e a t e d as a ' c o n c e i v e d v a l u e ' . These have been d e f i n e d by M o r r i s , not merely as p r e f e r e n t i a l , but as r e f e r r i n g t o p r e f e r e n c e s t h a t can be f e l t or c o n s i d e r e d as j u s t i f i e d . 3 The i n t e n t i o n i s t o i d e n t i f y and d e v e l o p a c o d i f i c a t i o n system t h a t w i l l be e x p r e s s i v e of a c c e p t e d or common a s s o c i a t i o n s between a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . I t i s assumed t h a t , t h r o u g h examining t h e a e s t h e t i c code, one i s a b l e t o i n d i c a t e how s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e s and i n t e n t i o n s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l form, and t o i l l u s t r a t e the n a t u r e of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . In o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y and e x p l o r e such a system of a e s t h e t i c c o d e s , the t h e s i s u n d e r t a k e s t o a n a l y s e a few r e c e n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o j e c t s . The main o b j e c t i v e of the a n a l y s i s i s t o d e t e r m i n e the a e s t h e t i c codes i n each p r o j e c t i n terms of a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s and f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n . The d a t a f o r t h e a n a l y s i s i s d e r i v e d from a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s of- the r e l e v a n t c r i t i c i s m s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n of the f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of each example. The f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s and v a l u e s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e c r i t i c s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n terms of t h e a e s t h e t i c codes i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e t h e n a t u r e of these codes, as w e l l as t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r c o d i f i c a t i o n systems. 7 In summary, the i n t e n t i s t o e x p l o r e how a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and i n t e n t i o n s a r e r e l a t e d t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l form. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s seen as c r i t i c a l i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the essence of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s , and may prove u s e f u l i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . The s t r u c t u r e of such a r e l a t i o n s h i p may p r o v i d e the d e s i g n e r w i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t h i s b u i l d i n g w i l l have upon p e o p l e . I t may a l s o be h e l p f u l as a g u i d e l i n e f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c s i n an a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e more c o n s i s t e n t and more o b j e c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m . The d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of t h e t h e s i s w i l l now be d e s c r i b e d and o u t l i n e d i n the c o n t e x t of the a s sumptions and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s made. B. ORGANIZATION OF THESIS I n i t i a l l y the t h e s i s c o n s u l t s r e c e n t t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s on a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s a t work i n t h i s f i e l d . S e l e c t e d examples from a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m s a r e then examined t o g a i n a more s p e c i f i c o u t l i n e of how f o r m a l i s s u e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s a r e approached. The n o t i o n of a e s t h e t i c codes i s i n t r o d u c e d t o e x p l a i n and c l a r i f y two d i r e c t i o n s apparent i n the t h e o r e t i c a l and c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The a e s t h e t i c code i s s u g g e s t e d as a c r i t i c a l t o o l u s e f u l t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the 8 r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r c h i t e c t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . The v a l i d i t y of such a s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as i t s p o t e n t i a l advantages, has been i n d i c a t e d t h r o u g h d e v e l o p i n g a method of a n a l y s i s which i d e n t i f i e s the a e s t h e t i c codes i n o r d e r t o r e l a t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l form t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d i s c u s s e d i n an attempt t o p l a c e contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l form i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . An a p p l i c a t i o n of such a method i s suggested i n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s i t s u s e f u l n e s s as w e l l as i t s l i m i t a t i o n s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . C hapter I e s t a b l i s h e s the c o n c e p t u a l framework which forms the b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r a ssumptions and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s . Recent t h e o r i e s on a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s and c r i t i c a l d o c t r i n e s from r e l a t e d f i e l d s have been examined i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f , and main i n f l u e n c e s on, a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . A r e v i e w of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y two main t r e n d s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . The f i r s t d i r e c t i o n a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s on the b a s i s of s p e c i f i c f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s . The second r e f e r s t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and p r e f e r e n c e s as the i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s . The n o t i o n of a e s t h e t i c codes i s i n t r o d u c e d t o r e l a t e the f o r m a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l ' v o c a b u l a r y ' t o the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l domain. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e s e t h e o r i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e r e c e n t t r e n d s and i d e a s and do not n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the views of t h e a u t h o r . T h i s i d e a i n t r o d u c e s the concept of a p o s s i b l e r u l e -governed system of c o n n e c t i o n s , a n o t i o n which i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I . T h i s system of c o n n e c t i o n s i s thought of as a s e t of 9 codes t h a t a r e i n d i c a t i v e of e x p r e s s i v e forms as w e l l as s u b j e c t i v e v a l u e s and i n t e n t i o n s . A f t e r d e f i n i n g the l e v e l on which the a e s t h e t i c code i s d i s c u s s e d , t h i s c h a p t e r goes on t o e x p l o r e the n a t u r e and system of t h e s e a e s t h e t i c codes and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r c o d i f i c a t i o n systems. In an attempt t o c l a r i f y t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , c h a p t e r I I I p r e s e n t s a method of a n a l y s i s . The suggested method a p p l i e s a system of a e s t h e t i c codes i n o r d e r t o a n a l y s e s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g s t h r o u g h s e l e c t e d documentation and c r i t i c i s m s . The methodology e s t a b l i s h e d i s based on an a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e p r e v i o u s l y d emonstrated by Eco." B r i e f l y , t h i s c o n s i s t s of c o l l e c t i n g v a r i o u s p o s i t i v e t h o u g h t s and o b v i o u s r e f l e c t i o n s p r e s e n t e d by c r i t i c s i n acc o r d a n c e w i t h any f o r m a l a s p e c t i n a b u i l d i n g . These, i n t u r n , a r e r e l a t e d t h r o u g h the a e s t h e t i c code t o the s p e c i f i c r e l e v a n t f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s . T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o o f f e r s some d e f i n i t i o n s of main terms and c o n c e p t s . Chapter IV p r e s e n t s one complete example from the a n a l y s i s , s t a t i n g the s p e c i f i c i s s u e s of c o n c e r n . I t became apparent t h a t t h r o u g h i d e n t i f y i n g and summarizing the ' a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n n o t a t i o n s ' p r e s e n t e d i n the c r i t i c i s m s , i t was a c t u a l l y p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e a t c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s , or a e s t h e t i c c odes, c r u c i a l t o the a e s t h e t i c essence of the b u i l d i n g . These codes were s u g g e s t i v e of s p e c i f i c a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s , t h a t c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o more g e n e r a l a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . At the same t i m e , they were a l s o i n d i c a t i v e of p o s s i b l e f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s . To ensure t h e g e n e r a l i t y of such a p r o c e d u r e , a n o t h e r f o u r examples were a n a l y s e d ; the d a t a from which i s 10 summarized a t the end of t h i s c h a p t e r . Thus i n r e f e r e n c e t o the a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d o u t , c h a p t e r V engages i n a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e of t h e codes p r e s e n t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e i t a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e the p r i n c i p l e s , a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h , the code i s a b l e t o connect a r c h i t e c t u r a l form t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . Chapter VI p r e s e n t s a s u g g e s t i o n f o r a p p l y i n g such an a p proach i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . Based on the method as w e l l as t h e r e s u l t s from the a n a l y s i s , a c r i t i q u e of t h e Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t by M a c k i n t o s h i s c a r r i e d o u t . T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s the usage of a e s t h e t i c codes i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . F i n a l l y , the p o s s i b l e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of a p p l y i n g such a model i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m i s d i s c u s s e d ; the a b i l i t y of t h e a e s t h e t i c code t o l i n k a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i s summarized, and some i d e a s and d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e s u g g e s t e d . 11 C. NOTES Webster's T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y , S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.: G. and C. M e r i a n Company, 1963, p. 34. Donald P r e z i o s i , The S e m i o t i c s of the B u i l t Environment; An  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A r c h i t e c t o n i c A n a l y s i s , Bloommgton and London: I n d i a n a U n i v . P r e s s , 1979, p. 2. M o r r i s p o i n t s out t h a t the term ' v a l u e ' can be "used t o s i g n i f y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of v a l u e s i t u a t i o n s " . He r e f e r s t o ' o p e r a t i v e v a l u e ' which " s i g n i f i e s the d i r e c t i o n of p r e f e r e n t i a l b e h a v i o u r of a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s " ; ' c o n c e i v e d v a l u e ' , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a " p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e p r e f e r e n t i a l b e h a v i o u r { t h a t } may be a c c o r d e d t o a s i g n i f i e d o b j e c t or s i t u a t i o n " ; and ' o b j e c t v a l u e ' , which denotes " p r o p e r t i e s of an o b j e c t c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s a b i l i t y t o r e i n f o r c e p r e f e r e n t i a l b e h a v i o u r d i r e c t e d toward i t by some or g a n i s m s " . See C h a r l e s M o r r i s , S i g n i f i c a t i o n and S i g n i f i c a n c e , Cambridge, Mass.; M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964, pp. 12-20. Umberto Eco, "A Componential A n a l y s i s of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l Sign/Column/", i n G e o f f r e y Broadbent; C a r l e s J e n c k s ; and R i c h a r d Bunt; ( e d s . ) ; S i g n , Symbols, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , G r e a t B r i t a i n : John W i l e y and Sons, 1980, p. 224. 12 I . ARCHITECTURAL AESTHETICS A. INTRODUCTION: PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRIES The E n g l i s h word ' a e s t h e t i c s ' i s d e r i v e d from the Greek a i s t h e t i k e ; meaning ' p e r c e p t i b l e by the s e n s e s ' , and may be d e f i n e d as 'a b ranch of p h i l o s o p h y d e a l i n g w i t h beauty and the b e a u t i f u l , esp., w i t h judgements of t a s t e c o n c e r n i n g them'. But i t may a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning 'the p h i l o s o p h y or s c i e n c e of a r t : s p e c i f . ; the s c i e n c e whose s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s the d e s c r i p t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n of the a r t s , a r t i s t i c phenomena, and a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e and i n c l u d e s the p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , e t h n o l o g y , and h i s t o r y of the a r t s and e s s e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d a s p e c t s " . 1 The former d e f i n i t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t a e s t h e t i c s i s synonymous w i t h t h e ' b e a u t i f u l ' , and t h u s i l l u s t r a t e s one of t h e major problems i n a e s t h e t i c s : how t o a r r i v e a t an a c c u r a t e d e f i n i t i o n of the term. I f a e s t h e t i c s i s t o be l o o k e d upon as t h e b e a u t i f u l , t h i s poses problems f o r the a p p r e c i a t i o n of a r t t h a t i s c o n cerned w i t h themes such as the s u b l i m e , and i t does not e x p l a i n the e x c i t e m e n t and emotion t h a t may be f e l t when l o o k i n g a t Edwards Munch's 'Scream'. The h i s t o r y of the s u b l i m e d a t e s from the m i d - l 8 t h c e n t u r y when a new d i r e c t i o n emerged i n the p h i l o s o p h y of a e s t h e t i c s , i n c l u d i n g the s u b l i m e i n a d d i t i o n t o the b e a u t i f u l . T h i s d i r e c t i o n was e v i d e n t i n Burke's Essay on the Sublime and B e a u t i f u l (1756), and f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d by Kant i n O b s e r v a t i o n s on the f e e l i n g of t h e Sublime and  B e a u t i f u l ( 1764). Kant t r e a t s the s u b l i m e as p a r t of a e s t h e t i c 13 judgement, but he makes the d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t "beauty b e l o n g s t o the judgement of t a s t e , w h i l e the s u b l i m e i s r o o t e d i n an emotion of the i n t e l l i g e n c e " . He a l s o c l a i m s t h a t the s u b l i m e has two d i s t i n c t d i r e c t i o n s , one i s m a t h e m a t i c a l and " e x c i t e d by o b j e c t s which r e v e a l t h e importance of sense t o s a t i s f y t h e i d e a of t o t a l i t y " , t h e o t h e r d y n a m i c a l and "evoked by o b j e c t s or o c c u r r e n c e s which r e v e a l our p o w e r l e s s n e s s as n a t u r a l b e i n g s t o overcome the f o r c e s of N a t u r e . " 2 However, i t has been seen as adequate t o a c c e p t the more g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s of a e s t h e t i c s , a c k n o w l e d g i n g i t as a s c i e n c e which a t t e m p t s t o d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n the a r t s i n terms of t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n on p e r c e p t i o n and c o g n i t i o n . As s u c h , i t i s not d e t e r m i n e d o n l y by t h e p u r e l y v i s u a l a s p e c t s of a r t , and t h e above mentioned c o n f l i c t i s a v o i d e d . A e s t h e t i c p h i l o s o p h y i s g e n e r a l l y more concerned w i t h d e s c r i b i n g the n a t u r e of a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e , r a t h e r than e x p l a i n i n g the r e a s o n s f o r such a p r e f e r e n c e . S c r u t o n e x p l a i n s t h a t : The p h i l o s o p h e r wishes t o d e s c r i b e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s most g e n e r a l terms, so as t o d i s c o v e r i t s p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n i n the human mind, i t s r e l a t i o n , f o r example, t o s e n s a t i o n , t o emotion and t o judgement. T h i s t a s k he c o n c e i v e s of as a n e c e s s a r y p r e l i m i n a r y t o any d i s c u s s i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e and v a l u e of a r t . 3 T h i s , as S c r u t o n has p o i n t e d o u t , may g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the s t u d y of a e s t h e t i c s i s of a g e n e r a l n a t u r e , and t h a t t h e r e i s no r e a l s u b j e c t of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . 4 However, thr o u g h the a s p e c t s t h a t are p a r t i c u l a r t o a r c h i t e c t u r e one may make a case of f o r such a s e p a r a t e s t u d y : 14 Now as a matter of f a c t a r c h i t e c t u r e p r e s e n t s an immediate problem f o r any such g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r y of a e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t . Through i t s i m p e r s o n a l and a t the same time f u n c t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s a r c h i t e c t u r e s t a n d s a p a r t from the o t h e r a r t s , seeming t o r e q u i r e p e c u l i a r a t t i t u d e s , not o n l y f o r i t s c r e a t i o n , but a l s o f o r i t s enjoyment. 5 S c r u t o n goes on t o suggest t h a t g e n e r a l a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s , such as those of Kant and Schopenhauer, t e n d t o d e v e l o p i d e a s t h a t a r e not e a s i l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . In the c a s e of H e g e l , the t h e o r y i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o the o t h e r forms of a r t . For H e g e l , "... a r c h i t e c t u r e was a medium o n l y h a l f a r t i c u l a t e , unable t o g i v e f u l l e x p r e s s i o n t o the I d e a , and hence r e l e g a t e d t o the l e v e l of pure symbolism, from which i t must be redeemed by s t a t u a r y and ornament." 6 There a r e , a c c o r d i n g t o S c r u t o n , s e v e r a l such d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e p e c u l i a r t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . F i r s t i s the a s p e c t of u t i l i t y or f u n c t i o n , which would i n f l u e n c e one's a e s t h e t i c judgement i n so f a r t h a t "...our sense of the beauty i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms cannot be d i v o r c e d from our c o n c e p t i o n of b u i l d i n g s and the f u n c t i o n s t h a t t hey f u l f i l l " . S e c o n d l y , a r c h i t e c t u r e has a h i g h l y l o c a l i z e d q u a l i t y , so t h a t one's a e s t h e t i c judgement i s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the b u i l d i n g ' s c o n t e x t or s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h i r d l y , a r c h i t e c t u r e can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a p u b l i c o b j e c t , and as such, a e s t h e t i c judgement i s passed, not o n l y by a s m a l l group of i n t e r e s t e d a r t - l o v e r s , but by everyone who c a r e s t o l o o k a t the b u i l d i n g . I t s p u b l i c n a t u r e a l s o becomes i m p o r t a n t t h r o u g h h i s t o r i c a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes, as one of our c u r r e n t i d e o l o g i e s i s c oncerned w i t h newness and change. And, f i n a l l y , " . . . a r c h i t e c t u r e i s p r i m a r i l y a v e r n a c u l a r a r t : i t e x i s t s f i r s t 15 and foremost as a p r o c e s s of arrangement i n which e v e r y normal man may p a r t i c i p a t e , and indeed does p a r t i c i p a t e , t o the e x t e n t t h a t he b u i l d s , d e c o r a t e s and a r r a n g e s h i s rooms." 7 On the b a s i s of t h i s , S c r u t o n makes t h e case f o r a s e p a r a t e t h e o r y of a e s t h e t i c s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e ; one t h a t i s not based on achievements i n c r i t i c i s m s of t h e o t h e r a r t -d i s c i p l i n e s . He c a r r i e s out an e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s of the n o t i o n of t a s t e or a e s t h e t i c judgement, where he argu e s t h a t " . . . i n i m a g i n a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , reasoned r e f l e c t i o n , c r i t i c a l c h o i c e and immediate e x p e r i e n c e a r e i n s e p a r a b l e ... {and} i n the e x e r c i s e of t a s t e e x p e r i e n c e i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a s i g n of deeper v a l u e s , by b e i n g brought i n t o r e l a t i o n w i t h p r o c e d u r e s of c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n and co m p a r i s o n , p r o c e d u r e s which may be w h o l l y i n e x p l i c i t , but which i n f o r m the p e r c e p t i o n of the normal s e n s i t i v e eye." He a l s o c l a i m s t h a t " e x p e r i e n c e , reason and p r e f e r e n c e each l a y t h e i r s e p a r a t e c o n s t r a i n t s on a e s t h e t i c judgement", but a t the same time " a e s t h e t i c judgement m a i n t a i n s an i d e a l of o b j e c t i v i t y , and moreover a c o n t i n u i t y w i t h the moral l i f e . " 8 S c r u t o n ' s book The A e s t h e t i c s of A r c h i t e c t u r e has r e c e i v e d a l o t of a t t e n t i o n and c r i t i c i s m . 9 One of the main arguments a g a i n s t the book, i s t h a t i t s major theme, the dependence of the a e s t h e t i c sense on educated t a s t e , i s merely s t a t i n g the o b v i o u s . In h i s eagerness t o a v o i d dogmatisms such as f u n c t i o n a l i s m or e x p r e s s i o n i s m , S c r u t o n f o c u s e s on enjoyment, a p p r e c i a t i o n , or i n t e r e s t of a r c h i t e c t u r a l t a s t e . He c o n c e n t r a t e s on " a p p r e c i a t i o n i n i t s e l f , i n a b s t r a c t i o n from i t s o b j e c t " . 1 0 Thus the o n l y c o n c l u s i o n s he i s a b l e t o draw 16 r e g a r d i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n , a r e t h a t "the c e n t r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i n a l l a e s t h e t i c t a s t e ... i s the sense of d e t a i l " , and t h a t a b u i l d i n g needs a facade t h a t s t a n d s b e f o r e o n e . 1 1 The t h e o r y p r e s e n t e d by S c r u t o n p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t i n t o the p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s p e c t s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s : i t i s based on K a n t , who saw a e s t h e t i c s as a d i s t i n c t f a c u l t y of the human mind. As such, i t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n what a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s i s , r a t h e r than g i v e an account of how a r c h i t e c t u r e i s c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e reason f o r t h i s . I f one i s t o c r e a t e a u s e f u l c r i t i c a l a p p r o a c h , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have a background u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s i s , but t h i s does not form a b a s i s f o r any a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a , nor does i t g i v e any j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r such c r i t e r i a . A e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a a r e u n d e r s t o o d as a f u n c t i o n of b o t h f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . T h i s assumes t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r c h i t e c t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n and v a l u e s , and i s based on t h e n o t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l i s m . "A s t r u c t u r e i s a s e t of any elements between which or between c e r t a i n s u b - s e t s of which r e l a t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d . " 1 2 B. ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION AND AESTHETIC VALUE A c c e p t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a case f o r a s e p a r a t e s t u d y of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s , w h i l e a t the same time i n c l u d i n g the more p h i l o s o p h i c a l n o t i o n t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , r e a s o n , and p r e f e r e n c e p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n a e s t h e t i c judgement, one 17 may now t u r n t o approach the argument from an a r c h i t e c t u r a l v i e w p o i n t . A s u r vey of r e c e n t w r i t i n g s on a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y two s c h o o l s of t h o u g h t . One of which may be r e g a r d e d as an a b s o l u t i s t d o c t r i n e , c l a i m i n g t h a t a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i s i n h e r e n t i n the o b j e c t and independent of any s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . Such t h e o r i e s emphasize the a r c h i t e c t u r a l form or o r g a n i z a t i o n of form, and, on t h e b a s i s of c e r t a i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , attempt t o d e v e l o p c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s or c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n . The o t h e r d i r e c t i o n of t h e o r i e s a c c e p t t h a t p e o p l e have d i f f e r e n t t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s , b o t h i n d i v i d u a l l y , and c o l l e c t i v e l y i n terms of f o r example c u l t u r e and s o c i a l s t a t u s , and t h a t one of the b a s i c c r i t e r i a i n a e s t h e t i c s i s the i n c l u s i o n of v a l u e s . These t h e o r i e s m a i n l y attempt t o uncover the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s from one s o c i a l group t o a n o t h e r . In o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f , and main i n f l u e n c e s on, a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s , i t would be u s e f u l t o examine th e s e i d e a s more c l o s e l y . As mentioned b e f o r e , the f o l l o w i n g t h e o r i e s and s t a t m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e and examine r e c e n t t r e n d s and i d e a s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s and do not n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the v i e w s of the a u t h o r . 1 The q u e s t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n S e v e r a l a t t e m p t s have been made t h r o u g h the h i s t o r y of a r c h i t e c t u r e t o form a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i a based on f o r m a l 18 p r i n c i p l e s . T h i s assumes t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e can be l o o k e d a t i n terms of c a t e g o r i e s of forms and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t w i l l have i n h e r e n t a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y or v a l u e . Such a way of l o o k i n g a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by V i t r u v i u s 1 3 , and t h e r e a r e s t i l l t h e o r e t i c i a n s and c r i t i c s d e t e r m i n i n g beauty a c c o r d i n g t o s i m i l a r p r i n c i p l e s , e x p l a i n i n g the a e s t h e t i c s of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n terms of d i f f e r e n t forms and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, a c c e p t a n c e of the same f o r m a l p r i n c i p l e does not always l e a d t o the same p o i n t of view. C r i t e r i a , such as c o m p o s i t i o n a l c oherence or p a t t e r n s , a r e t o o vague t o form an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s , and they t e n d t o be f i t t e d t o the p e r s o n a l s t y l i s t i c p r e f e r e n c e s of the i n d i v i d u a l c r i t i c and thus becomes r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y . In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a v a l i d , o b j e c t i v e b a s i s f o r such f o r m a l i s t i c c r i t e r i a , a n a l o g i e s a r e o f t e n drawn from s t u d i e s of the human body or from mathematics. M a t h e m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been a n a l y s e d f o r c e n t u r i e s , and c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s , such as t h a t of the go l d e n s e c t i o n ((l-VB >)/2 ) i s s t i l l seen as v a l i d by some w r i t e r s . S t i l l o t h e r s l o o k a t the a e s t h e t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r i e s and e n t h r o p y , c a l c u l a t i o n s of the frequence of e x p e c t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s . M a a l o e 1 " c a r r i e d out some e x p e r i m e n t s i n Copenhagen where he asked s t u d e n t s t o choose, from a s e r i e s of a b s t r a c t p i c t u r e s , t h o s e which a e s t h e t i c a l l y were most f a s c i n a t i n g . H i s r e s u l t s showed t h a t from v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n s , t h e r e was a co r r e s p o n d e n c e between a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e , c o m p l e x i t y , and measurable o r d e r . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been p u b l i s h e d by F i n d l a y and F i e l d who c a r r i e d out a st u d y of human p e r c e p t i o n s and of user s a t i s f a c t i o n : 19 A p r o c e s s of a r o u s a l t h r o u g h r e c o g n i t i o n of c o m p l e x i t y and of d e - a r o u s a l t h r o u g h r e c o g n i t i o n of o r d e r , forms the b a s i s of the a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . Thus, i t i s the i n t e r a c t i o n of c o m p l e x i t y and c o n t i n u i t y t h a t forms the b a s i s of an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . 1 5 F i n d l a y and F i e l d , however, c a r r y t h e i r i d e a a b i t f u r t h e r , so as t o cover meanings, even though they see t h i s as t o t a l l y s e p a r a t e from a e s t h e t i c s : 1 6 Meaning i s d e r i v e d from the environment by the r e c o g n i t i o n of o r d e r d e r i v e d t h r o u g h c o n t i n u i t y . The meaning d e r i v e d from an environment a f f e c t s a pers o n i n a p r o c e s s c a l l e d r e i f i c a t i o n . T h i s p r o c e s s a f f e c t s the s e l f - i m a g e of the person and has a s t r o n g b e a r i n g on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e judgement c o n c e r n i n g the environment. Thus, meaning i s a more p o w e r f u l t o o l than pure a e s t h e t i c s . 1 7 Both t h e o r i e s a r e p e r f e c t i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Maaloe's p h i l o s o p h y - i t i s b e t t e r t o be t o o g e n e r a l and c o r r e c t , than s p e c i f i c and wrong. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n c l u d e from t h e o r i e s such as t h e s e , t h a t b o t h o r d e r and c o m p l e x i t y p l a y i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s , but t h i s i s a l s o the whole message. A more complex t h e o r y , based on the same i d e a s , has been put f o r t h by Krampen. 1 8 He s u g g e s t s an a n a l o g y between B i r k h o f f ' s f o r m u l a of c o m p l e x i t y and o r d e r , M=0/C (where M = t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d by the a e s t h e t i c measurement, 0 = the o r d e r of t h e s i g n e l e m e n t s , and C = the i n i t i a l e f f o r t due t o c o m p l e x i t y ) and Shannon's f o r m u l a of i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y : H=-n£jPjlog^pj (where H = i n f o r m a t i o n v a l u e ) and a r r i v e s a t a t h i r d f o r m u l a ; Ha«= 1 /H x-1 / H ^ 9 (where Ho* = the measure of a e s t h e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n , Hj = mean i n f o r m a t i o n v a l u e , and HMet= maximum i n f o r m a t i o n v a l u e ) . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t : 20 I f t h i s f o r m u l a i s a p p l i e d t o any of t h e d i v e r s e messages t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e i r a e s t h e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n measures s h o u l d be c a l c u l a b l e i f t h e i r s i g n r e p e r t o r y i s known. The problem would s i m p l y be t o a s s e s s the s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s i g n s i n the o b j e c t message and s u b s e q u e n t l y t o c a l c u l a t e ... the ' o b j e c t i v e ' a e s t h e t i c n u m e r i c a l i n d e x of t h a t o b j e c t . A c o mparison between a e s t h e t i c i n d i c e s of d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t s ... s h o u l d p e r m i t us t o p r e d i c t which of the o b j e c t s would t r i g g e r more and which l e s s ' f e e l i n g s of p l e a s u r e ' 2 0 D e s p i t e t h e t h o r o u g h m a t h e m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s p r e c e d i n g Krampen's c o n c l u s i o n , I w i l l argue t h a t such a t h e o r y would be d i f f i c u l t t o use i n c r i t i c i s m . There a r e a number of problems such as how t o d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n t , or a e s t h e t i c a l l y v a l u e d i n f o r m a t i o n , as w e l l as measuring the degree of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . Smith a r r i v e s a t the importance of a c o m b i n a t i o n of o r d e r and c o m p l e x i t y , or r a t h e r , a p e r c e i v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r d e r and c h aos, t o c r e a t e an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , a p p r o a c h i n g the problem t h r o u g h s t u d y i n g the human b r a i n . He c l a i m s t h a t t h e n e o - c o r t e x responds t o " r a t i o n a l , c l a s s i c a l c r i t e r i a " w h i l e t h e l i m b i c b r a i n responds t o n o n - r a t i o n a l v a l u e s , and t h a t a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e d e r i v e s from a d i a l e c t i c between the two b r a i n s , or " . . . b i - p o l a r e v e n t s . T h i s can be demonstrated on the h i g h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l when t h e r e i s t e n s i o n between the u n i t y of t h e whole and autonomy of component p a r t s i n a p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g . " 2 1 These t h e o r i e s d i s p l a y a d e s i r e t o t u r n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s i n t o a s c i e n c e which i s measurable, so t h a t the e x a c t a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e of a b u i l d i n g can be c a l c u l a t e d and p r e d i c t e d . However, I do not b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s p o s s i b l e nor e s s e n t i a l . I t w i l l be argued t h a t a e s t h e t i c s has an i n f l u e n c e upon c o g n i t i o n as w e l l as p e r c e p t i o n , an a s p e c t the above 21 mentioned t h e o r i e s do not ta k e i n t o a c c o u n t . Nor do they a c c e p t v a l u e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and t a s t e t o p l a y any r o l e i n the a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , a f a c t I b e l i e v e i s d i f f i c u l t t o i g n o r e . In an attempt t o i n c l u d e the s p e c t a t o r , W i n f i e l d c o n ducted a c o m p a r a t i v e study i n which he c l a s s i f i e d common e f f e c t s of forms i r r e s p e c t i v e of s t y l e . H i s c o n c l u s i o n s were t h a t s i m p l e shapes which g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n of b e i n g a t r e s t ; l i n e ; the r e l a t i o n s h i p of mass and shape; and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of forms t h r o u g h which movement i s conveyed, can produce a e s t h e t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e . 2 2 A much more complete study of the e f f e c t of b u i l t form has been c a r r i e d out by p s y c h o l o g i s t s such as Arnheim. H i s p r i n c i p a l c o n c e r n i s t h a t of d i s c o v e r i n g the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of forms on p e r c e p t i o n . He e x p l a i n s the e f f e c t s on p e r c e p t i o n of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l , s o l i d and h o l l o w , m o b i l i t y , o r d e r and d i s o r d e r , e x p r e s s i o n and f u n c t i o n , and a l s o symbols t h r o u g h dynamics, which he b e l i e v e s t o be e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h b a s i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l terms: The s p o n t a n e o u s l y p e r c e i v a b l e analogy between the v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r and b e h a v i o u r of an o b j e c t and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g mental or s p i r i t u a l c h a r a c t e r and b e h a v i o u r r e l i e s on v e r y g e n e r i c a t t r i b u t e s , such as h e i g h t or de p t h , openness o r e n c l o s u r e , o u t g o i n g n e s s or w i t h d r a w a l . I n a c o n v e n t i o n a l symbol, t h e g e n e r i c n a t u r e of the s i g n i f i e r i s a p p l i e d t o a s p e c i f i c t h i n g s i g n i f i e d , and the symbol i s t h e r e b y o f f i c i a l l y w i t h h e l d from the many o t h e r meanings i t c o u l d convey. W i t h o u t such l i m i t a t i o n , the h i g h l y a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s of the s i g n i f i e r remain open t o an i n f i n i t e number of p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . 2 3 Arnheim's t h e s i s g i v e s a thorough account of the e f f e c t on p e r c e p t i o n produced by c e r t a i n b a s i c t y p e s of forms. However, when he goes on t o e x p l a i n the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s of v a r i o u s 22 e f f e c t s and forms, h i s t h i n k i n g appears vague: "The meaning of beauty, ...emerges o n l y i f we u n d e r s t a n d beauty as a way of p e r f e c t i n g e x p r e s s i o n . " 2 " H i s work may p r o v i d e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r why we see c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n c e r t a i n ways, but i t does not form a b a s i s f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a e s t h e t i c . A s i m i l a r approach l i n k e d t o a r c h i t e c t u r e has been t a k e n by S m ith. He c o n c l u d e d t h a t f o u r a e s t h e t i c 'programmes' f u n c t i o n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y . These a r e a sense of p a t t e r n ; a p p r e c i a t i o n of rhythm; r e c o g n i t i o n of b a l a n c e and s e n s i t i v i t y t o harmonic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 2 5 The n o t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t r a n s c e n d c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d by Colquhoun. The b u i l d i n g w h i c h , l o n g a f t e r the f a s h i o n a b l e i d i o m s of i t s time have de g e n e r a t e d i n t o c l i c h e s , s t i l l c o n t i n u e s t o c o n t r i b u t e some memorable q u a l i t y t o human l i f e i s the b u i l d i n g which draws i t s communicative f o r c e from the unchanging e m o t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of the a r c h e t y p a l elements i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l language, t h o s e which a r e most d e e p l y r o o t e d i n the common sen s o r y e x p e r i e n c e of h u m a n i t y . 2 6 One may c o n c l u d e t h a t form, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . A r c h i t e c t u r e has i t s own f o r m a l v o c a b u l a r y , and i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h t h i s , t h a t i t s a e s t h e t i c message can be conveyed. However, t h e s e t h e o r i e s do not r e l a t e e x p e r i e n c e and reason t o the suggested f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s , and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o det e r m i n e how they may r e l a t e t o any a s p e c t of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . 23 2 The q u e s t i o n of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e I f S c r u t o n ' s n o t i o n t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , r e a s o n , and p r e f e r e n c e a r e e s s e n t i a l t o the outcome of any a e s t h e t i c judgement, then the s u b j e c t r a t h e r than the o b j e c t of form becomes i m p o r t a n t . The concept of v a l u e s becomes an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t i n a d i s c u s s i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . V a l u e s have been compared w i t h p r e f e r e n c e s or d e s i r e s , but not a l l p r e f e r e n c e s a r e v a l u e s . S c r u t o n , among o t h e r s has made t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . Some of our p r e f e r e n c e s ( f o r example, i n food and wine) we r e g a r d as r e f l e c t i o n s of our own p e r s o n a l i t y or c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e s e we a r e c o n t e n t t o r e g a r d as mere p r e f e r e n c e s , and we c o n s i d e r o u r s e l v e s under no o b l i g a t i o n ( a l t h o u g h we may have a d e s i r e ) t o j u s t i f y them when c h a l l e n g e d . V a l u e s a r e more s i g n i f i c a n t , and have a k i n d of a u t h o r i t y i n p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g t h a t no mere p r e f e r e n c e c o u l d a c q u i r e . Not o n l y do we f e e l c a l l e d upon t o j u s t i f y them w i t h reasons when n e c e s s a r y , we a l s o l e a r n t o see and u n d e r s t a n d the w o r l d i n terms of t h e m . 2 7 A v a l u e t h u s , can be " c h a r a c t e r i z e d ...by i t s d e p t h , by the e x t e n t t o which i t b r i n g s o r d e r t o e x p e r i e n c e . " 2 8 For S c r u t o n , v a l u e s come about from thought and e d u c a t i o n . Reasoned argument can s u p p o r t , o v e r t h r o w , or modify them. I f t h i s i s so, a e s t h e t i c s i s not a mere ma t t e r of t a s t e . Those w i t h s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o share v a l u e systems. S e c o n d l y , some d i s t i n c t i o n s need t o be made i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e t h e n o t i o n of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . I t i s not merely a m a t t e r of the way something l o o k s as opposed t o what i t r e a l l y means. S c r u t o n has s t a t e d t h a t " . . . t h e r e i s no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n 24 between 'the way i t l o o k s ' , 'what i t means' and 'what i t does'. In the a r t of b u i l d i n g , the s t u d y of 'how i t l o o k s ' and the reasoned a p p r e h e n s i o n of one's t r u e end of a c t i o n , a r e i n s e p a r a b l e . " 2 9 An a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i s f o r i t s own sake, i t does not n e c e s s i t a t e any b e h a v i o u r . As an example S c r u t o n c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e a s o n s f o r the p urchase of a denim s u i t . The p u r c h a s e r may choose a denim s u i t because i t i s f u n c t i o n a l and cheap. I t i s n e i t h e r p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l nor p a r t i c u l a r l y cheap. I t e x p r e s s e s t h o s e a s p e c t s t h r o u g h i t s appearance, and the e x p e r i e n c e of the man who wears i t i s t h e r e b y a n t i c i p a t e d . So the reason g i v e n i s not the f u l l r e ason f o r a c q u i r i n g a denim s u i t . I t i s r a t h e r "a sense of the accommodation of the s u i t t o a l l p r e s e n t and f u t u r e aims {a} sense {which} i n v o l v e s the a c q u i s i t i o n of v a l u e s " t h a t was the d e c i s i v e f a c t o r . S c r u t o n c o n c l u d e s t h a t : Here we b e g i n t o see one way i n which something t h a t we might w i s h t o c a l l ' a e s t h e t i c v a l u e ' might be an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what we a r e d o i n g when we purchase c l o t h e s , d e c o r a t e a room or b u i l d a house. A l l t h e s e a c t s have consequences which l i e beyond the s a t i s f a c t i o n of any d e s i r e s t h a t we c o u l d p r e s e n t l y c o n f e s s t o . N e v e r t h e l e s s , we a r e s t i l l o b l i g e d t o s e a r c h f o r the forms and d e t a i l s t h a t w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e t o our l i v e s . That sense of the a p p r o p r i a t e r e q u i r e s some k i n d of i m a g i n a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i t r e q u i r e s us t o r e f l e c t on the l o o k and f e e l of something, and t o imagine what i t would be l i k e t o l i v e w i t h i t . 3 0 On the b a s i s of t h i s , an a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i n a r c h i t e c t u r e can be seen as the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n of c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s t h a t somehow r e f l e c t s one's i d e a l s . V e n t u r i and S c o t t - B r o w n 3 1 have p o i n t e d out t h a t i n a r c h i t e c t u r e "...because b u i l d i n g s and c i t i e s a r e b i g , they 25 i n e v i t a b l y s e r v e wide t a s t e p u b l i c s ; because they l a s t a l o n g w h i l e , over the l e n g t h of t h e i r l i v e s they s e r v e many d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . " Scott-Brown s u g g e s t s t h a t one s h o u l d t r y t o " . . . i s o l a t e and c h a r a c t e r i z e the v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r a l a u d i e n c e s ... e n c o u n t e r e d i n d e s i g n p r a c t i c e , t o promote an a r c h i t e c t u r e of g r e a t e r s o c i a l awareness t h r o u g h a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of form and m e a n i n g . " 3 2 W h i l e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n , u s e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a s t e a r e not c r u c i a l t o the theme of t h i s t h e s i s . S i n c e the aim i s t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l form, the v a l u e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the c r i t i c a l t e x t s have been a c c e p t e d , even though they may be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of o n l y a s m a l l group of contemporary a r c h i t e c t s and c r i t i c s . The c l a i m i s made t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e e x i s t s i n a s o c i o -c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e , and t h a t the f o r m a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s has some i n f l u e n c e on our a t t i t u d e towards a r c h i t e c t u r a l form. Mukarovsky d e v e l o p e d such a t h e o r y of a e s t h e t i c s i n the l a t e t w e n t i e s . Between the s u b j e c t and the o b j e c t " . . . l a y t h e paradigm of s o c i a l l y e x i s t i n g a e s t h e t i c norms which c o n d i t i o n and d e t e r m i n e any s u b j e c t - o b j e c t i n t e r a c t i o n which i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a e s t h e t i c . " 3 3 In o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e the a e s t h e t i c f u n c t i o n , he s u g g e s t s the example of p h y s i c a l e x c e r c i s e : I n s o f a r as p h y s i c a l e x c e r c i s e i s c o n c e i v e d i n i t s p r a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n ( s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the body, t r a i n i n g i n d e x t e r i t y , e t c . ) , the a c t i o n t h a t the body p e r f o r m s i s c o n s i d e r e d o n l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e r e s u l t s , as a means t o t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t . L e t us suppose, however, t h a t an a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n becomes c o n c o m i t a n t or even predominant. Immediately the a c t i o n performed i n the e x e r c i s e w i l l a c q u i r e v a l u e i n i t s e l f , and a t t e n t i o n w i l l be d i r e c t e d t o a l l t h e s t a g e s and d e t a i l s of i t s c o u r s e and c o n t i n u a t i o n , ... w i t h the a e s t h e t i c s i g n , a t t e n t i o n 26 i s concentrated on the very r e a l i t y which becomes a sign. The entire wealth of i t s properties appears before our eyes, and so do the entire wealth and complexity of the act by which we perceive i t . The thing that becomes an aesthetic sign reveals and allows man to perceive the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e a l i t y and i t s e l f . 3 4 C. CONCLUSION The embodiment of values i s es s e n t i a l to any a r c h i t e c t u r a l theory of aesthetics i f i t i s to take on a more s p e c i f i c nature. Scruton builds his argument on such an in c l u s i o n . . . . i f we provide an objective theory of the value of aesthetic taste, we w i l l have some basis for t r a n s l a t i n g our accumulated c r i t i c a l judgements into an a r c h i t e c t u r a l ideal . We s h a l l know what kind of thing we are looking for in architecture, and what kind of style might serve to thwart or further i t . For example, we can at least say that cer t a i n features of good architecture, while they may not be necessary in every successful s t y l e , bear a r e l a t i o n to a r c h i t e c t u r a l success which i s far from a c c i d e n t a l . 3 5 Scruton goes on to give examples of such perennial e f f e c t s ; the use of mouldings, and a v e r t i c a l facade in order to represent the 'moral force of human posture' through the feeling of upward movement of l i n e s . This, i t could be argued, i s not an eternal value, i t r e f l e c t s an individual's i d e a l . Its aesthetic value would depend on others holding the same id e a l ; the re l a t i o n s h i p to the surrounding context; and the v a l i d i t y of such an ideal for that p a r t i c u l a r type of building. The claim i s 27 made t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l method f o r c r i t i c i s m i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s depends on i t s a b i l i t y t o r a i s e i s s u e s of g e n e r a l importance as w e l l as i t s f l e x i b i l i t y f o r use i n d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Another approach t o e x p l a i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r c h i t e c t u r a l form has been made by s e m i o t i c s . Most s e m i o t i c a n a l y s i s a t t e m p t s t o i d e n t i f y the meaning of a b u i l t s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than i t s a e s t h e t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . There have been some a t t e m p t s a t l i n k i n g the two. A c r i t i q u e of work done on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e m i o t i c s and a e s t h e t i c s has been c a r r i e d out by Bunt. He r e f e r s t o B r a n d i who b e l i e v e s t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o the message t h e r e i s a l s o a need f o r a, presence or an essence b e f o r e t h e b u i l d i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d a work of a r t , which he reckons t o be found o u t s i d e the c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n . T h i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Bunt, i s s i m i l a r t o Z e v i ' s i d e a of an " e x p e r i e n t a l dimension of a r c h i t e c t u r e " . 3 6 He goes on t o say t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n s of a s e m i o t i c approach t o a e s t h e t i c s i s due t o g r a n t i n g a c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n t a l r e a l i t y t o the a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . T h i s b a s i c a l l y means t h a t t h e essence of a r c h i t e c t u r e cannot be r e p r e s e n t e d by any i n d i r e c t means of e x p r e s s i o n . Thus he c o n c l u d e s h i s essay: A c c o r d i n g l y , we must c o n c l u d e t h a t the e n t i r e e n t e r p r i s e of a s e m i o t i c s t u d y of a r c h i t e c t u r e based upon such p r e m i s e s must be c o n f i n e d w i t h i n an a e s t h e t i c c o n v e n t i o n which e i t h e r remains s e l f -r e f e r e n t i a l w i t h i n the p l a n e of e x p r e s s i o n , o r e l s e r e f e r s us t o a ' c o n t e n t ' which i s so a b s t r a c t e d from any e v i d e n c e of s p e c i f i c a l l y c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y t h a t i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o speak of a 'meaning' b e i n g p r e s e n t , o t h e r than i n the mind of the p e r c e i v e r . 3 7 Bunt seems unable t o e s t a b l i s h a u s e f u l l i n k between 28 meaning and a e s t h e t i c s because he v i e w s a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s p u r e l y i n such terms as geometry and f i g u r a t i o n . These a s p e c t s of a e s t h e t i c s might have, but they do not depend on an a s s i g n e d meaning f o r t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n . However, t h e i r e f f e c t on p e o p l e might be e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l p s y c h o l o g y . A r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s can be u n d e r s t o o d not as a whole, but as a c o r p us c o m p r i s e d of s e v e r a l a s p e c t s or a e s t h e t i c c odes. Some g a i n t h e i r beauty or v a l u e from an i n h e r e n t meaning w h i l e o t h e r s a c h i e v e v a l i d i t y from e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t s , f o r example. Then i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e u n d e r l y i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r code, and a f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n i n terms of t h a t code can be s u g g e s t e d . Based on t h e s e t h e o r i e s and i d e a s , i t i s c l a i m e d t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s r e l i e s on b o t h form and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e f o r i t s r e c o g n i t i o n . I t i s seen as d e t e r m i n e d by the a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n forms and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o charge one's p e r c e p t i o n and c o g n i t i o n i n such a way t h a t t hey can be r e l a t e d t o one's i n h e r e n t system of v a l u e s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p can be d i s c o v e r e d and examined t h r o u g h a n o t i o n of a e s t h e t i c codes. These codes form a s i m i l a r o r d e r e d body of r u l e s t o t h a t of o t h e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l codes. 29 D. NOTES These d e f i n i t i o n s were found i n Webster's T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l  D i c t i o n a r y , S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.: G. and C. Meriam Company, 1963, p. 34. For any f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on the h i s t o r y of t h e s u b l i m e , see B e r n a r d Bosanquet, A H i s t o r y of A e s t h e t i c s , C l e v e l a n d and New York: The World Publ.Co., 1957, 3rd ed. 1961. Roger S c r u t o n , The A e s t h e t i c s of A r c h i t e c t u r e , P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1979, p. 2. i b i d , p. 4. " I f p h i l o s o p h y i s t o be as a b s t r a c t as I c l a i m i t i s , ought i t not t o c o n s i d e r the a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s f u l l g e n e r a l i t y , i n i s o l a t i o n from the a c c i d e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by p a r t i c u l a r a r t forms and p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t i o n s of s u c c e s s ? Why i s t h e r e any s p e c i a l need f o r a p h i l o s o p h y of a r c h i t e c t u r e , o t h e r than the p u r e l y ephemeral one, t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e i s m i s u n d e r s t o o d by so many of i t s p r e s e n t p r a c t i t i o n e r s ? I s t h e r e not one and the same concept of beauty employed i n the d i s c u s s i o n of p o e t r y , m usic, p a i n t i n g and b u i l d i n g , and i s t h e r e not one s i n g l e f a c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n of a l l t h o s e a r t s ? " i b i d , p. 5. i b i d , p. 5. i b i d , pp. 5 -17. i b i d , C hapter 5, pp. 104-134. See f o r example; D a v i d D u n s t e r , "The A e s t h e t i c s of A r c h i t e c t u r e " , AD, v o l . 49, no. 12, 1979, p.327; Anthony S k i l l e n , "The F o u n d a t i o n s of Roger S c r u t o n ' s 'The A e s t h e t i c s of A r c h i t e c t u r e ' " , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c s , no. 20, 1980, pp. 257-265; and F r a n c i s S p a r s h o t t , " A e s t h e t i c s of S t r u c t u r e s " , a p u b l i c l e c t u r e a t the T e c h i n i c a l U n i v . of Nova S c o t i a , Report #45, 1980, u n p u b l i s h e d . The amount of i n t e r e s t i n the book may p a r t l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o the l a c k of o t h e r r e c e n t s e r i o u s w r i t i n g s on t h e s u b j e c t . R. S c r u t o n , o p . c i t . , p. 5. i b i d , p. 205. M i c h a e l Lane, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S t r u c t u r a l i s m , New York: B a s i c Books, 1975, p. 23. V i t r u v i u s , The Ten Books on A r c h i t e c t u r e , T r a n s l a t e d by M o r r i s H i c k y Morgan, New Y o rk: Dover P u b l . I n c . , 1960, ( 1 9 14). 30 1 0 E r i k Maaloe, " A e s t e t i s k Glede og G e n t a g e l s e af det F o r t s a t U f o r u d s i g e l i g e " , A r k i t e k t e n (Copenhagen), v o l . 74, no. 26, 1972, Dec. 22, pp. 543-551. 1 5 Robert A. F i n d l a y and Kenneth F . F i e l d , " F u n c t i o n a l R o l e s of V i s u a l C o m p l e x i t y i n User P e r c e p t i o n s of A r c h i t e c t u r e , " i n P o l l y B a r t , A l e x a n d e r Chen and Guido F r a n s e s c a t o , ( e d s . ) , EDRA 13, EDRA I n c . , 1982, pp. 145-153. 1 6 F i n d l a y and F i e l d keep the n o t i o n of meaning t o t a l l y s e p a r a t e from the n o t i o n of pure a e s t h e t i c s . Maaloe, however, goes even f u r t h e r towards a m a t h e m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of pure a e s t h e t i c s , as he d e f i n e s a e s t h e t i c s as a concept c a p a b l e of c r e a t i n g p e r c e p t u a l p l e a s u r e , and t h a t i s c o n t r a r y t o emotions, v i s i o n s and i d e a l s . 1 7 R.A. F i n d l a y and K.F. F i e l d , o p . c i t . , p. 152. 1 8 M a r t i n Krampen, Meaning i n the Urban Environment, London: P i o n L td.,1979. 1 9 T h i s i s r e a l l y a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of a f o r m u l a i n i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d by Bense; E i n f u h r u n g i n d i e  I n f o r m a t i o n s a s t h e t i k , 1968.See M. Krampen f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s . 2 0 M. Krampen, op. c i t . , p. 255. 2 1 P e t e r F.Smith, "Towards a Theory of A e s t h e t i c s " , B u i l t  E nvironment, v o l . 3, no. 1, 1974, J a n u a r y , pp. 31-35. 2 2 D a v i d W i n f i e l d , " A n Essay i n the C r i t i c i s m of A r c h i t e c t u r e " , i n Monroe C. B e a r d s l e y and H e r b e r t M. S c h u e l l e r ( e d s . ) , A e s t h e t i c  I n q u i r y , Belmont, C a l . : D i c k e n s o n P u b l . Comp. I n c . , 1967, p. 285. 2 3 R u d o l f Arnheim, The Dynamics of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Form, B e r k e l e y , C a l . : U n i v . of C a l . P r e s s , 1977, pp. 208-209. J e n c k s , however, s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e s w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t forms p o s s e s s i n g a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s a r e more e f f e c t i v e as symbols than s p e c i f i c ones. On t h e c o n t r a r y , J e n c k s c l a i m s t h a t such a b s t r a c t forms a r e endowed w i t h meanings from o u t s i d e the r e a l m of a r c h i t e c t u r e and thus make p e o p l e f e e l a l i e n a t e d and t a k e on a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e . See f o r example J e n c k s ' a n a l y s i s of S t e r l i n g ' s O l i v e t t i b u i l d i n g , w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o J e n c k s , has been l i k e n e d t o a bus, a t r a i n , a l e t t e r - b o x or an O l i v e t t i machine. C h a r l e s J e n c k s , "A Semantic A n a l y s i s of S t e r l i n g ' s O l i v e t t i C e n t r e Wing", i n S i g n s , Symbols, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , pp. 233-242. 2" R.Arnheim, o p . c i t . , p. 256. 2 5 P e t e r F. Sm i t h , "Urban A e s t h e t i c s " , i n Byron M i k e l l i d e s ( e d . ) , A r c h i t e c t u r e f o r P e o p l e , New Yo r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston , 1980, pp. 74-86. 31 2 6 A l a n Colquhoun, "Typology and D e s i g n Method", Arena: J o u r n a l of the A r c h i t e c t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967 June, pp. 11-14. 2 7 R . S c r u t o n , o p . c i t . , p. 32. 2 8 i b i d , p. 32. 2 9 i b i d , p. 35. 3 0 i b i d , p. 34. 3 1 See R o b e r t V e n t u r i , C o m p l e x i t y and C o n t r a d i c t i o n i n  A r c h i t e c t u r e , New York: Museum of Modern A r t , 1967; Robert V e n t u r i , D e n i s e Scott-Brown and S t e v e n I z e n o u r , L e a r n i n g from Las Vegas, Cambridge: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1977 (1972); and D e n i s e S c o t t - B r o w n , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l T a s t e i n a P l u r a l i s t i c S o c i e t y " , H a r v a r d A r c h i t e c t u r e Review, v o l . 1, 1980 S p r i n g , pp. 41-51 . 3 2 D. S c o t t - B r o w n , o p . c i t . , p. 47. 3 3 Jan Mukarovsky, S t r u c t u r e , S i g n , and F u n c t i o n , T r a n s l a t e d by John Burbank and P e t e r S t e i n e r , New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978, p i x . 3 4 i b i d , p. 20. 3 5 R. S c r u t o n , o p . c i t . , p. 253. 3 6 R i c h a r d Bunt, " L i n g u i s t i c s i n t o A e s t h e t i c s won't go", i n S i g n s , Symbols, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , pp. 422-424. 3 7 i b i d , p. 437. 32 I I . AESTHETIC CODES A. INTRODUCTION I t has been argued t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s i s dependent upon both i t s f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . The l a t t e r a r e d e t e r m i n e d by the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e . The problem t h u s becomes one of r e l a t i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l form t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . The argument w i l l be made t h a t t h i s i s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h c o d i f i c a t i o n and t h a t one may i d e n t i f y the c o n n e c t i o n s between a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , w hich form a r u l e - g o v e r n e d system or a body of codes. A l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h was undertaken t o j u s t i f y t h i s a p p r o a c h . Most t h e o r i e s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s t e n d t o l o o k f o r t h e o v e r r i d i n g p r i n c i p l e g o v e r n i n g the d i s c i p l i n e . 1 Few w r i t e r s suggest a composite approach. G a r r o n i p r o p o s e s a s e r i e s of a b s t r a c t models, based on the t y p o l o g y of f o r example use, s p a t i a l , or g e o m e t r i c a l e l e m e n t s , i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . He argues t h a t i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r the s p e c i f i c i t y of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l o b j e c t ...we must employ not a s i n g l e a b s t r a c t model, but an i n t e r r e l a t e d s e r i e s of such models w h i c h , between them, a r e c a p a b l e of c o v e r i n g a whole range of a t t r i b u t e s which embody the d i s t i n c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s of any a r c h i t e c t u r a l phenomenon - t h a t i s p r o p e r t i e s which a r e s p e c i f i c t o the r e a l m of a r c h i t e c t u r e . 2 T h i s i s an attempt a t l o o k i n g a t the a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t i n terms of s e v e r a l u n r e l a t e d models, but i t becomes a r a t h e r l e n g t h y p r o c e s s , and i t seems t o i m p l y t h a t each a r c h i t e c t u r a l o b j e c t has i t s own a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y ; i . e . , i t i s not comparable 33 t o o t h e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l o b j e c t s . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s the problem t h a t each f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n , as such, i s d i f f i c u l t t o l i n k t o an a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . There a r e too many v a r i a b l e s o u t s i d e the re a l m of e x p r e s s i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements such as the f u n c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g or the l o c a t i o n . N o r b e r g - S c h u l z has a l s o touched on the problem of l i n k i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n t o v a l u e s . The s t u d y of the e x p r e s s i v e problems above a l l t e l l s us t h a t t h e r e i s no o p p o s i t i o n between ' e x p r e s s i o n ' and form ( o r d e r ) . We can o n l y e x p r e s s o u r s e l v e s by  means of o r d e r . The e x p r e s s i o n i s not 'added' i t bel o n g s t o the form. But a form, as we have seen, i s not e x p r e s s i v e as a ma t t e r of c o u r s e . 3 The i n t e n t i o n of the ' e x p r e s s i o n ' means t h a t the ' f e e l i n g s ' come t o dominate p e r c e p t i o n . The f e e l i n g s , however, a r e not m y s t i c a l q u a l i t i e s w hich e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the o b j e c t s . They a l s o have t o be d e s c r i b e d ' i n terms of o b j e c t s ' , and a r e t o be un d e r s t o o d as a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of i n t e r m e d i a r y o b j e c t where ' v a l u e s ' (or c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s i n g e n e r a l ) ' c o l o u r ' the s i t u a t i o n . T h i s means t h a t p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g s a r e not c o n n e c t e d w i t h the t h i n g s a p r i o r i ; i n o t h e r words, the q u a l i t i e s a r e c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d . * The a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms do not e x p r e s s v a l u e s d i r e c t l y , but t h r o u g h a e s t h e t i c codes ( c f . N o r b e r g - S c h u l z ' s ' f e e l i n g s ' 5 ). I t i s because t h e forms can be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms of t h e a e s t h e t i c codes t h a t they can be combined w i t h c e r t a i n v a l u e s . The a e s t h e t i c code thus p r o v i d e s the l i n k between v a l u e s and forms. T h i s l e a d s t o the s t r u c t u r a l i s t n o t i o n t h a t i t i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . 34 1 . S t r u c t u r a l i s m S t r u c t u r a l i s m p r e s e n t s the i d e a t h a t "man has an i n n a t e s t r u c t u r i n g a b i l i t y , w hich d e t e r m i n e s the l i m i t s w i t h i n which the s t r u c t u r e of a l l s o c i a l phenomena can be f o r m e d . " 6 On t h i s b a s i s t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n r u l e s , o r n o t i o n s w h i c h govern t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and the b u i l t e n vironment. Given t h a t t h e r e i s an a c t i v e i n t e r d e p e n d a n c e between man and environment, we can no l o n g e r s i m p l y i n v e s t i g a t e human responses t o b u i l d i n g s and t r e a t them as i s o l a t e d dependent v a r i a b l e s . We must i n s t e a d e x p l a i n t h i s a c t i v e i n t e r d e p e n d a n c e i n terms of e q u i l i b r a t i n g mechanisms e x i s t i n g i n the form of r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e s t r u c t u r e s r e g u l a t i n g t h e n a t u r e of the i n t e r a c t i o n s . 7 These s t r u c t u r e s , can be seen as codes "...which are used t o g e n e r a t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and t o connect a whole range of i n t e n d e d meaning t o t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l form", and a t the same t i m e , they a l s o " r e g u l a t e the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p e r i e n c e of the b u i l d i n g . " 8 Such a system of a r c h i t e c t u r a l codes would i n c l u d e a s e r i e s of more s p e c i f i c r u l e s ; f o r example, p r a g m a t i c , t e c h n i c a l or a e s t h e t i c codes. The advantage of l o o k i n g a t an o b j e c t i n s t r u c t u r a l i s t terms i s , a c c o r d i n g t o B a r t h e s , i t s n a t u r e as "...a mode of thought (or a p o e t i c s ) which seeks l e s s t o a s s i g n c o m p l e t e d meanings t o o b j e c t s i t d i s c o v e r s , than t o know how meaning i s p o s s i b l e , a t what c o s t and what means." 9 Here one may see the s i m i l a r i t y t o s t u d i e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e m i o t i c s . 35 2. A r c h i t e c t u r a l s e m i o t i c s A r c h i t e c t u r a l s e m i o t i c s i s a n o ther f i e l d t h a t aims a t p r o v i d i n g a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s . I t assumes c o g n i t i o n as a p r i n c i p l e element of man's s t r u c t u r i n g a b i l i t y , and r e l i e s on the a c c e p t a n c e of the i d e a t h a t c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y can be u n d e r s t o o d as communication. In t h e s e terms, a r c h i t e c t u r e can be seen as a system of s i g n s t h a t convey meanings. Eco a t t r i b u t e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a r c h i t e c t u r e t o i t s a b i l i t y t o a l l o w "...us t o r e c o g n i z e i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s i g n s s i g n v e h i c l e s  c a p a b l e of b e i n g d e s c r i b e d and c a t a l o g u e d , which can denote p r e c i s e f u n c t i o n s p r o v i d e d one i n t e r p r e t s them i n the l i g h t of c e r t a i n c o d e s , and s u c c e s s i v e meanings w i t h which t h e s e s i g n v e h i c l e s a r e c a p a b l e of b e i n g f i l l e d , whose a t t r i b u t i o n can o c c u r , ...not o n l y by way of d e n o t a t i o n , but a l s o by way of c o n n o t a t i o n , on the b a s i s of f u r t h e r c o d e s . " 1 0 Through the c r i t i c a l use of s e m i o t i c s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a n a l y s e a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements and the meanings c o n n o t a t e d by them. However, i t i s merely an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l , i t i s not an e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e s s , and as such, i t does not d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s the q u e s t i o n of a e s t h e t i c s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e m i o t i c s and a e s t h e t i c s has however, been c o n s i d e r e d by s e v e r a l s e m i o t i c i a n s . M o r r i s s u g g e s t s t h a t : ...(an) approach t o the problem of a e s t h e t i c s v i a s e m i o t i c and a x i o l o g y would be t o attempt t o i s o l a t e a s p e c i a l form of a e s t h e t i c b e h a v i o u r , and then t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n of such b e h a v i o u r t o s i g n s and v a l u e s . One c a n d i d a t e f o r such b e h a v i o u r i s o f t e n c a l l e d ' a e s t h e t i c p e r c e p t i o n ' . As c o n t r a s t e d 36 t o c o g n i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n (where the s i g n i s p e r c e i v e d as g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about something o t h e r than i t s e l f ) and as c o n t r a s t e d t o p r a c t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n (where the s i g n i s responded t o as a way of a c c o m p l i s h i n g some p u r p o s e ) , a e s t h e t i c p e r c e p t i o n i s ' f o r i t s own sake'. What i s p e r c e i v e d a e s t h e t i c a l l y may, but need n o t , be a s i g n . 1 1 M o r r i s ' i d e a of forms of a e s t h e t i c b e h a v i o u r can be c o n s i d e r e d as a system of codes. P r e z i o s i d e f i n e d code as "...an o r d e r e d body of r u l e s which s p e c i f y the c o n v e n t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s between f o r m a t i o n s and meanings, and between the s i g n s t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s i g n s , of the same or of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s . " 1 2 As such, codes become i m p o r t a n t t o o l s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g one's e x p e r i e n c e of the b u i l t e n vironment, not o n l y the meaning but a l s o the a e s t h e t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . Formal e x p r e s s i o n Code Assoc i a t i o n F i g u r e 1 - A r c h i t e c t u r a l code 37 B. AESTHETIC CODES In her t h e s i s on a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o d e s , S a k e l l a r i d o u c o n c l u d e s t h a t codes "have been d i s c u s s e d o n l y on an a n a l y t i c a l l e v e l . But th r o u g h t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s y s t e m i c o p e r a t i o n h i dden i n t e n t i o n s can be u n c o v e r e d . " 1 3 T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h T a f u r i ' s i d e a t h a t "- the i d e o l o g y u n d e r l y i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l work i s a l w a y s , a f t e r a l l , a v i s i o n of the w o r l d t h a t tends t o pose as a c o n s t r u c t i o n of the human e n v i r o n m e n t . " 1 " By making r a t i o n a l , what, n o r m a l l y , i n a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y happens o u t s i d e a s t r i c t l o g i c a l check, and by d i s c o v e r i n g the i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e s of f o r m a l c h o i c e s o f t e n made out of h a b i t , c r i t i c i s m can f a c e the a r c h i t e c t w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a c o n t i n u o u s and p i t i l e s s check on t h e s o u r c e s and s y m b o l i c systems t o which he, c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , t r u s t s h i m s e l f ,.. 1 5 T a f u r i proposed t h a t i n t h i s sense, a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of U t o p i a . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t a method of c r i t i c i s m w hich c o u l d pay a t t e n t i o n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of one p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g and the system t o which i t b e l o n g s would uncover the elements of t h i s U t o p i a . The aim of i n t r o d u c i n g t h e n o t i o n of t h e a e s t h e t i c code i s c o n s e q u e n t l y one of naming t h e s e U t o p i a n i d e a l s and the way i n which they a r e r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h a r c h i t e c t u r a l form. 38 1 . The n a t u r e of the codes A e s t h e t i c codes can be seen as l i n k i n g forms and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s : they a r e i d e a s r a t h e r than p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s . They r e p r e s e n t the p e r c e p t i v e and c o g n i t i v e t h o u g h t s (which might be u n c o n s c i o u s ) i n i t i a t e d by c e r t a i n forms and r e l a t i o n s h i p s which p e r t a i n t o a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s and v a l u e s . The a e s t h e t i c code e s t a b l i s h e s a r e f e r e n c e . I t r e p r e s e n t s a concept on the b a s i s of which v a r i o u s a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s can be c o n s t r u c t e d . These i d e a s or codes a r e s t r u c t u r e d i n a s p e c i f i c manner t h a t may be i d e n t i f i e d i n o r d e r t o g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . S i m i l a r l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e can be examined. I t i s assumed t h a t codes may be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n t y p e s which would r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s suggested t h a t a e s t h e t i c codes form a system t h a t i s s i m i l a r or r e l a t e d t o o t h e r c o d i f i c a t i o n systems i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . By e x a m i n i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the s e systems, i t may be p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e the s t a t u s of the a e s t h e t i c as d i s t i n c t from o t h e r s i g n s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . In so f a r as the a e s t h e t i c code i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t can be a s s i m i l a t e d t o o t h e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l codes. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s p r o v i d e s the a e s t h e t i c code w i t h an e v a l u a t i v e q u a l i t y q u i t e d i s t i n c t from the p u r e l y a n a l y t i c a l n a t u r e of o t h e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l c odes. Because the a e s t h e t i c code 39 i n c l u d e s v a l u e judgements, i t touches on what i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y good and bad, i n a b u i l d i n g . These codes a r e s p e c i f i c t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . They d e a l not o n l y w i t h f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s but a l s o w i t h s p a t i a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s . They may r e f e r t o v a l u e s concerned w i t h p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l i d e a s such as the s p i r i t of a p l a c e as w e l l as the more g e n e r a l n o t i o n of r e c o g n i t i o n of p a t t e r n . 2. System of A e s t h e t i c Codes In an attempt t o d e s c r i b e the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s i g n , H j e l m s l e v 1 6 argues t h a t the s i g n i s s i t u a t e d between the two e n t i t i e s of e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t . He c l a i m s t h a t " . . . t h e r e w i l l never be a s i g n f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t , and t h o s e two w i l l never appear t o g e t h e r w i t h o u t the s i g n ' s f u n c t i o n between t h e m . " 1 7 The same d i s t i n c t i o n has been made by J e n c k s , who s u g g e s t s t h a t codes can a l s o be l o o k e d a t i n terms of c o n t e n t and e x p r e s s i o n . 1 8 T h i s model of c o n t e n t and e x p r e s s i o n has been e l a b o r a t e d by S a k e l l a r i d o u , and i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 2. 40 C O N T E N T E X P R E S S I O N Substance Form Substance Form A c t i v i t y and f u n c t i o n t i e d t o c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g F u n c t i o n a l / S p a t i a l u n i t i n c u l t u r a l / a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t e x t Range of means t o e x p r e s s t h e f u n c t i o n / s p a c e S p e c i f i c e n c l o s u r e ( t h r e e - d i m . form) F i g u r e 2 - The model of c o n t e n t and e x p r e s s i o n i n a r c h i t e c t u r e ( S o u r c e : I . S a k e l l a r i d o u : A r c h i t e c t u r a l Codes, p. 52.) S a k e l l a r i d o u a d v o c a t e s t h i s model, because "...not o n l y does i t e x p l a i n t h e way c o n t e n t i s t i e d t o e x p r e s s i o n , an i s s u e of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o d e s i g n , but a l s o , t h r o u g h t h e f u r t h e r s u b d i v i s i o n s o f form and s u b s t a n c e , i t o f f e r s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f o r m a t i o n of e x p r e s s i o n out of a g e n e r a l i n t e n t i o n i n a l l l e v e l s . " 1 9 The same model may p r o v e u s e f u l i n i l l u s t r a t i n g t he s t r u c t u r e of t h e a e s t h e t i c code, however, w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n . The c o n t e n t of t h e g e n e r a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l s i g n o r code as shown i n F i g . 2 r e f e r s t o t h e a c t i v i t y of a r c h i t e c t u r e a t t h e same ti m e as i t p l a c e s the b u i l d i n g i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . When a n a l y s i n g t h e a e s t h e t i c code t h e a c t i v i t y and i t s meaning i s no l o n g e r t h e c e n t r a l theme. The c o n t e n t w i l l have t o r e l a t e t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and s p e c i f i c c o n n o t a t i o n s , w h i l e s t i l l p l a c i n g t h e b u i l d i n g i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . S i m i l a r l y , t h i s t h e s i s i s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p e r c e p t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s r a t h e r than t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s . T h i s changes t h e emphasis of t h e s u b s t a n c e o f e x p r e s s i o n (see diagram) t o t h a t o f the knowledge of t h e range of means. 41 A e s t h e t i c code C O N T E N T E X P R E S S I O N Su b s t a n c e Form Substance Form A e s t h e t i c v a l u e s such as o r d e r , q u a l i t y , i n t i m a c y , e t c . , t i e d t o c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g S p e c i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n s and c o n n o t a t i o n s i n c u l t u r a l / a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t e x t Knowledge of range of means t o e x p r e s s t h e space / f o r m S p e c i f i c t h r e e - d i m . s pace/form F i g u r e 3 - Content and E x p r e s s i o n i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s A c c o r d i n g l y , the a e s t h e t i c code l i n k s a r c h i t e c t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n , t o a e s t h e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . Thus t h e f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n can be seen as a e s t h e t i c i n terms of t h e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a e s t h e t i c code t h r o u g h the f i l t e r of f o r m a l c o n t e n t . S i m i l a r l y , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e seen as a e s t h e t i c because t h e y a r i s e from a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s which a r e dependent on a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . The a e s t h e t i c code and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n and v a l u e s can be r e p r e s e n t e d as i n F i g . 4. a e s t h e t i c code knowledge of range~"of means t o e x p r e s s "form/space a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s t i e d t o c u l t u r a l , u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n a e s t h e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n F i g u r e 4 - A e s t h e t i c code as i n t e r p r e t e d by the a u t h o r 42 C. CONCLUSION In an attempt t o det e r m i n e the t y p e s of a e s t h e t i c codes, as w e l l as t o c l a r i f y t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , we may now t u r n t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . By c a r r y i n g out an a n a l y s i s of the w r i t t e n c r i t i c i s m s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c forms and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p based upon c o d i f i c a t i o n can be e x p l o r e d . The d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of codes may be i d e n t i f i e d and some u s e f u l c o n c l u s i o n s about the a p p l i c a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c codes t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m may r e s u l t . 43 D. NOTES 1 A c c o r d i n g t o N o r b e r g - S c h u l z , t h i s i s t y p i c a l of our c u l t u r e : "No p e r c e p t i o n i s i n r e a l i t y c o m p l e t e l y f r e e from an e m o t i o n a l c o n t e n t ; i t i s o n l y i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y of the p s y c h o l o g i s t t h a t we can i s o l a t e t h o s e pure s c h e m a t i z a t i o n s which have been mentioned above. In our c u l t u r e though, i t i s t y p i c a l t h a t we c o n s i d e r the pure o b j e c t s as our i d e a l g o a l s . " See C h r i s t i a n N o r b e r g - S c h u l z , I n t e n t i o n s i n A r c h i t e c t u r e , Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1965, p. 49. 2 R i c h a r d Bunt, " L i n g u i s t i c s i n t o A e s t h e t i c s won't go", i n S i g n s , Symbols, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 435. 3 C. N o r b e r g - S c h u l z , o p . c i t . , p.73. 4 i b i d , p. 49. 5 I f i n d t h e ' e x p r e s s i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l codes more a p p r o p r i a t e than f e e l i n g s . The a r c h i t e c t u r a l code i s q u a l i t y l o a d e d and i t evokes v a r i o u s f e e l i n g s , but most codes a l s o i n v o l v e a c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s , and i t i s thus not merely a q u e s t i o n of s e n s o r y f e e l i n g s , which the term f e e l i n g s tends t o g i v e an i m p r e s s i o n o f . 6 M. Lane, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S t r u c t u r a l i s m , New Y o r k : B a s i c Books, 1975, p. 23. 7 L i n d a C l a r k e , " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n t o the N a ture of E n v i r o n m e n t a l Codes", J o u r n a l of A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e s e a r c h , v o l 3. no 1, J a n u a r y 1974, p. 34. 8 For a more complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the g e n e r a l n o t i o n of codes see I r e n i S a k e l l a r i d o u , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Codes, M.Arch., S c h o o l of A r c h i t e c t u r e , U n i v . of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, Vancouver, Canada, 1982, u n p u b l i s h e d , pp. 96-99. 9 R o l a n d B a r t h e s , "The S t r u c t u r a l i s t A c t i v i t y " , i n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , T r a n s l a t e d by R i c h a r d Howard, N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v . P r e s s , 1972 (1963), pp. 213-220. 1 0 Umberto Eco, " F u n c t i o n and S i g n , The S e m i o t i c s of A r c h i t e c t u r e " , i n S i g n s , Symbols, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 20. 1 1 C. M o r r i s , S i g n i f i c a t i o n and S i g n i f i c a n c e , Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964, p. 73. 1 2 D. P r e z i o s i , The S e m i o t i c s of the B u i l t Environment; An  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A r c h i t e c t o n i c A n a l y s i s , B loomington and London: I n d i a n a U n i v . P r e s s , 1979, p. 2. 1 3 I . S a k e l l a r i d o u , o p . c i t . , p. 135. 1 4 Manfredo T a f u r i , T h e o r i e s and H i s t o r y of A r c h i t e c t u r e , G r e a t 44 B r i t a i n , : Granada, 1980, p. 203. i b i d , p. 201. L u i s H j e l m s l e v , Prolegomena t o a Theory of Language , t r a n s l a t e d by F r a n c i s J . W h i t e f i e l d , B a l t i m o r e : Waverly P r e s s , 1953. i b i d , p. 30. C h a r l e s J e n c k s , "The A r c h i t e c t u r a l S i g n " , i n S i g n s , Symbols, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , pp. 107-110. I . S a k e l l a r i d o u , o p . c i t . , p. 52. 45 I I I . METHOD A. INTRODUCTION A textual analysis of selected examples of a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m for p a r t i c u l a r buildings was adopted to demonstrate that the relationship between formal expression and aesthetic value i s a function of aesthetic codes. There i s precedent for the type of textual analysis used, in the work of Eco. 1 I n i t i a l l y , a procedure was devised to reveal the codes by which the c r i t i c s formulated th e i r ideas about the buildings. Then, the texts chosen for each building were analyzed in d e t a i l to l i n k the formal elements and the connotations with the codes that were understood to connect expression with aesthetic values. To further elaborate the function of codes a building was analysed without consulting texts. The codes revealed in t h i s procedure were then compared with those evident in selected c r i t i c i s m s . The r e s u l t s of both the f i r s t procedure and the second indicate that aesthetic codes can be used not only by c r i t i c s but also by students of aesthetic to introduce more o b j e c t i v i t y into the d i s c i p l i n e of a r c h i t e c t u r a l aesthetics. Eco, using 1componential analysis', c o l l e c t e d and related several statements about the column. From these statements he compiled an inventory of connotations associated with that building element. The connotations were organized according to content. It was evident to him that there were three types of connotations: a r c h i t e c t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l , and aesthetic. The statements used by Eco were generated through conversations with several architects and from an a r t i c l e "Eternidad de l a Columna" by Dora I s e l l a R u s s e l l which had been p r i n t e d i n the d a i l y paper "La P r e n s a " , 26. J u l y , 1970. For Eco, the a r t i c l e p r o v i d e d " . . . o b v i o u s r e f l e c t i o n s {which} c o r r e s p o n d p r e c i s e l y t o an i n v e n t o r y of the c u r r e n t t r a d i t i o n of thought about t h e column." These meanings may be viewed as 'endoxa' i n the A r i s t o t e l i a n sense of the term ( t h a t i s : g e n e r a l o p i n i o n s or s o c i a l l y c o d i f i e d a c q u i r e d h a b i t s ) . S o c i e t y , t h a t i s , r e c o g n i z e s s e v e r a l o b v i o u s m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s i n t h e column, such as presence of s h a f t , base, the c a p i t a l , and so f o r t h . One may a l s o e x t r a p o l a t e from a number of 'pseudo-p o e t i c ' s t a t e m e n t s s e v e r a l semantic f e a t u r e s such as ' v e r t i c a l i t y ' , ' s u p p o r t ' , e t c . 2 C o l l a t i n g a l l t h e c o n n o t a t i o n s u n d e r t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , E c o a r r a n g e d t h e u n i t s a s r e l a t e d s e t s . architectural historical aesfhet/c connotations connotations connot&llom A. tree-trunk 1. the winds of time a affirms its timeless blow around it destiny B. apparent fragility 2. venerable b. amongst them wanders the shadow C. supports without of melancholy 3. last relic left rfinding c it rises aristocratically being supported of vanished grandeur D. effortless 4. unscathed document d. universal E. enriches monuments 5. commemoration of e. pure events, great deeds. heroes F. gives solidity to 6. mast of ship of time f. legendary facade C. gives somptuousness 7. has the patina of g. audacity of to facade millennia imagination H. gives grandeur to 8. allegory of the h. mounts vertiginously interior miracle of survival upwards, pointing towards heaven 1. unity in repetitive 9. time-defying i poeticized by lyrical variety raptus J. unity in modulating j. neck of beloved variety K. irremovable k. slender body L. mast of ship I. shapely arm M. airy m perfectly formed leg N. gives harmony to n obstinate building o. arrogant p solitary q sacred remain* r. Creek miracle ••- .-s. prodigious F i g u r e 5 - C o n n o t a t i o n s of the column as seen by Eco 47 The i n t e n t of Eco's method was not t o d i s c o v e r the c o n n o t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e column or any o t h e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l element i n p a r t i c u l a r , but r a t h e r t o e s t a b l i s h the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t form and a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s can be l i n k e d . Eco's work suggested t h a t the pr o c e d u r e c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o c r i t i c i s m of b u i l d i n g s r a t h e r than mere elements. F i v e b u i l d i n g s , d e s i g n e d and com p l e t e d w i t h i n t h e l a s t 10 y e a r s but of d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s were s e l e c t e d . A c o r p u s of c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d i n g comments by the a r c h i t e c t f o r each was then a n a l y z e d t o i d e n t i f y p o s i t i v e t h o u g h t s and o b v i o u s r e f l e c t i o n s . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t , by e x t e n d i n g Eco's method, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a e s t h e t i c c o d e s , r a t h e r than merely c o n n o t a t i o n s c o u l d be r e v e a l e d . B. METHODOLOGY The 5 b u i l d i n g s examined, were s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a . The b u i l d i n g s chosen were d e s i g n e d w i t h i n the l a s t 10 y e a r s . T h i s i s t h e same time p e r i o d as f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s which had been c o n s u l t e d . F o l l o w i n g J e n c k s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of b u i l d i n g -s t y l e s 3 , the d e s i g n s chosen belon g t o d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s was done i n an attempt t o get a broader view of the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n , and a l s o t o show t h a t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c code i s not l i m i t e d t o one p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l 48 s t y l e . The b u i l d i n g s were f i n a l l y chosen i n terms of the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l by c r i t i c s as w e l l as the a r c h i t e c t f o r t h e b u i l d i n g s . T h i s s h o u l d e n s u r e a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f o p i n i o n s , and t h e r e b y p r e s e n t a r e l a t i v e l y o b j e c t i v e v i e w . U s i n g t h e s e c r i t e r i a , t h e f i v e b u i l d i n g s s e l e c t e d were: K i m b e l l A r t Museum, F o r t Worth, Texas, L o u i s Kahn,1966-72; K r e s g e C o l l e g e , S a n t a C r u z , C a l . , C h a r l e s Moore, 1972; S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e f o r t h e V i s u a l A r t s , N o r w i c h , G r e a t B r i t a i n , Norman F o s t e r , 1974-78; The Atheneum, New Harmony, I n d . , R i c h a r d M e i e r , 1979, and San Juan C a p i s t r a n o L i b r a r y , San J u a n , C a l . , M i c h a e l G r a v e s , 1981. A b i b l i o g r a p h y of c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s c o n s u l t e d i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h each example. The t e x t s f o r each b u i l d i n g were examined t o i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s p o s i t i v e t h o u g t i t s and o b v i o u s r e f l e c t i o n s g i v e n by the a u t h o r s about the f o r m a l a s p e c t s of the b u i l d i n g s . The p r o c e d u r e w i l l be e x p l a i n e d b r i e f l y f o r o n l y one of t h e b u i l d i n g s , Kresge C o l l e g e . T h i s was chosen as an i l l u s t r a t i o n b ecause of t h e v a r i e t y of a e s t h e t i c codes i n o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s b u i l d i n g . Below i s a p a r a g r a p h from Bloomer and Moore, d e s c r i b i n g Kresge C o l l e g e . * F ormal a s p e c t s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e t e x t a r e d e s i g n a t e d by j, a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s by C ) and a e s t h e t i c codes by The scheme, t h e n , was based on a p e d e s t r i a n s t r e e t w i n d i n g up t h e r i d g e i n the f o r e s t t i g h t l y f l a n k e d by b u i l d i n g s , | t h e i r | f r o n t s p a i n t e d w h i t e [ t o ( b r i n g l i g h t i n t o t h i s passage i n the dark f o r e s t . } (The o t h e r s i d e of the b u i l d i n g s , f a c i n g t h e f o r e s t , a r e 49 p a i n t e d a dark ochre,| so as (to merge i n t o the t r e e s . ) ) The imagery of | w h i t e w a l l e d g a l l e r i e s a l o n g a w i n d i n g s t r e e t ] i s of c o u r s e of a v i l l a g e , and the (i n t i m a c y ) of a v i l l a g e i s a u s e f u l model. But t h i s i s o n l y a p a r t i a l metaphor h e r e ; t h e r e i s no mayor, no r i c h and poor, no o v e r t h i e r a r c h y of power. There a r e , i n s t e a d , ( a s p e c t s o f m a k e - b e l i e v e ^ o r an u r g e n t l y i m p o r t a n t f o u r - y e a r - l o n g o p e r e t t a . (A r e v i e w e r d e l i g h t e d t h e a r c h i t e c t s by t h i n k i n g he had wandered i n t o a ( S i c i l i a n p r o d u c t i o n of "The St u d e n t  P r i n c e " . ) ) The c h o r e o g r a p h i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s of such a v i s i o n f a s c i n a t e d t h e a r c h i t e c t s , and th e y f a s h i o n e d t h e w h i t e g a l l e r y w a l l s , w h i c h t h e y p a i n t e d b r i g h t c o l o u r s on t h e i r " r e v e r s e s i d e s , i n t o c u t - o u t p l a n e s , l i k e s t a g e - f l a t s , a d d i n g o t h e r c u t - o u t w a l l s so t h a t p e o p l e w a l k i n g i n t h e s t r e e t , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r own b o d i e s moving t h r o u g h p l a n e s , would f e e l t h e m s e l v e s i m p o r t a n t , l i k e (dancers on a stage.) (That happens, t o a r e m a r k a b l e e x t e n t , and t o the o b j e c t i o n of some.) The b u i l d i n g s a r e c a r e f u l l y and c o n s c i o u s l y s t a g e s e t s , f o r a (drama) i m p r o v i s e d by t h e i n h a b i t a n t s . An e x c i t i n g moment f o r the a r c h i t e c t s came one H a l l o w e e n , when t h e t w i l i g h t j a c k - o ' - l a n t e r n s appeared a l o n g the g a l l e r y r a i l s and w h i t e - s h e e t e d f i g u r e s w a i l e d g h o s t l y sounds as t h e y danced up the s t r e e t . As e v i d e n t from t h e t e x t u a l s c o r i n g , a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s c o u l d be i n d i v i d u a l words o r s e n t e n c e s d e s i g n a t i n g 50 i m p l i c i t p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s . They were seen as a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t somehow s u g g e s t e d a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s ; i . e . , v a l u e s t h a t c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as e x i s t i n g f o r t h e i r own s a k e , o r f o r man's s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . The a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s were seen as d e n o t i n g such a s s o c i a t i o n s , e i t h e r by t h e m s e l v e s , f o r example (^aspects of make-believe'^) or by t h e way t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e f o r m a l a s p e c t s . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s would be t h e e x p r e s s i o n ^ t o merge i n t o t h e t r e e s ^ ) which i s seen i n r e l a t i o n t o ' t h e i r f r o n t s p a i n t e d w h i t e t o ( b r i n g l i g h t i n t o t h i s passage i n the d a r k fore~st ) i The |other s i d e of the b u i l d i n g s , f a c i n g the f o r e s t . a r e p a i n t e d a d a r k o c h r e ' . The p h r a s e s o r s e n t e n c e s i d e n t i f i e d show what was thought t o be t h e most p r e c i s e d e n o t a t i o n of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . I n the p h r a s e s ' a d d i n g o t h e r c u t - o u t w a l l s so t h a t p e o p l e w a l k i n g i n the s t r e e t , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r own b o d i e s moving t h r o u g h p l a n e s , would f e e l t h e m s e l v e s i m p o r t a n t , l i k e ( d a n c e r s on a stage'), o n l y ^ d a n c e r s on  a s t a g e 7 ) was i d e n t i f i e d as an a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n . The a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s might a l s o sometimes e x p r e s s an a e s t h e t i c v a l u e d i r e c t l y , such as i n t h e c a s e of (intimacy*^ The f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n s i d e n t i f i e d a r e o f an a r c h i t e c t o n i c n a t u r e , and as s u c h , t h e y do g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n of the type of a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n t h a t can be l i n k e d t o them, e.g., 'a p e d e s t r i a n s t r e e t w i n d i n g up t h e r i d g e i n t h e f o r e s t t i g h t l y f l a n k e d by b u i l d i n g s ' . P u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e t erms such as an e x p l a n a t i o n of the p l a n n i n g have not been e x t r a c t e d as they do not g i v e any i n d i c a t i o n of q u a l i t i e s or a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . S i m i l a r l y , p h r a s e s t h a t do not d e s i g n a t e any f o rm of d e s c r i p t i o n 51 have a l s o been l e f t o u t , as they do not g i v e any j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s u p e r l a t i v e s . The e x c e r p t s t h a t were e x t r a c t e d show the c o n n o t a t i v e r e f e r e n t s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l i s s u e s . -The a e s t h e t i c codes e s t a b l i s h a b a s i s f o r the o r d e r i n g of v a r i o u s a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s as w e l l as c r u c i a l f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s . For example, the sentence i n the t e x t , "The imagery of w h i t e w a l l e d g a l l e r i e s a l o n g the w i n d i n g s t r e e t i s , of c o u r s e , of a v i l l a g e , and the i n t i m a c y of a v i l l a g e i s a u s e f u l model" l i n k f o r m a l f e a t u r e s by the a e s t h e t i c code v i l l a g e t o the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n i n t i m a c y . The a e s t h e t i c code e s t a b l i s h e s a r e f e r e n c e : i t r e p r e s e n t s a concept on the b a s i s of which v a r i o u s a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d . The i d e a of the v i l l a g e g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of a r t i c u l a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The c r i t i c , as w e l l as the d e s i g n e r , can use the code t o e l a b o r a t e the f o r m a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between the v i l l a g e and Kresge C o l l e g e . Once i n t r o d u c e d , the n o t i o n t a k e s o v e r . I t becomes a v e h i c l e f o r the a t t i t u d e s towards th e s e f o r m a l a s p e c t s . A e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s are adopted t h r o u g h the code v i l l a g e r a t h e r than by f o r m a l d e s c r i p t i o n s such as ' s m a l l s c a l e b u i l d i n g s ' or 'second-f l o o r b a l c o n i e s ' . S i m i l a r l y , the phrase ' w h i t e w a l l e d g a l l e r i e s a l o n g t h e w i n d i n g s t r e e t ' may be r e g a r d e d as d e n o t i n g the a e s t h e t i c . I t w i l l be argued t h a t t h i s o c c u r s , not because t h e s e a r e forms p o s s e s s i n g o b j e c t i v e b e a u t y , but because of a p o e t i c use of the language, c r e a t i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n r e s e m b l i n g t h a t of an i d y l l i c v i l l a g e i n the sun. The a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s a r e s t i l l formed through t h e r e f e r e n c e t o the v i l l a g e . The a e s t h e t i c codes a r e i d e n t i f i e d as the n o t i o n s or t h e terms of r e f e r e n c e t h a t c o l l e c t c e r t a i n f o r m a l a s p e c t s and d e t e r m i n e the a e s t h e t i c 52 c o n n o t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e a s p e c t s . By naming the r e f e r e n c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s p e c i f y a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s as w e l l as a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m a t i o n s . The code t h e r e b y i m p l i e s i t s own p r i n c i p l e s and r u l e s . A l l t h e c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s c o n s u l t e d f o r Kresge C o l l e g e were a n a l y z e d i n t h i s manner. By comparing the s t a t e m e n t s of s e v e r a l w r i t e r s , a more p r e c i s e n o t i o n of t h e a e s t h e t i c codes and t h e s e v e r a l c o n n o t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them was a r r i v e d a t . The i d e a o f t h e v i l l a g e , f o r example, was f o r m u l a t e d more p r e c i s e l y a s an I t a l i a n v i l l a g e . P h o t ographs and d r a w i n g s were a l s o c o n s u l t e d t o v e r i f y the c o d e s . Each code was then t a b u l a t e d a l o n g w i t h v a l u e s and forms as i n F i g . 6. V a l u e Form A e s t h e t i c V a l u e A e s t h e t i c C o n n o t a t i o n A e s t h e t i c Code Form a l E x p r e s s i o n E l a b o r a t i o n A b s t r a c t i o n F i g u r e 6 - T a b u l a t i o n o f t h e a e s t h e t i c code Two v a l u e - o r i e n t e d c a t e g o r i e s have been i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of t h e a e s t h e t i c code. One, a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s , i s more s p e c i f i c , and r e f e r s d i r e c t l y t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l space and e l e m e n t s and t h e i r e f f e c t . I t p r e s e n t s t h e i m p l i c i t p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e forms, as seen by the c r i t i c s , and t h e r e b y may g i v e an i d e a of why a p a r t i c u l a r code i s seen as a e s t h e t i c . Each a e s t h e t i c code i s l i n k e d t o s e v e r a l r e l a t e d c o n n o t a t i o n s , w h i c h , i n t u r n , p o i n t t o a more fundamental 53 concept t h a t may be seen as the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . Thus, a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s i l l u s t r a t e the more g e n e r a l a s p e c t of s i g n i f i c a n t c o n n o t a t i o n s : they r e p r e s e n t t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e w e i g h t i n g . L i k e w i s e , the f o r m a l a s p e c t s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n two d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s ; f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n / a b s t r a c t i o n . The c a t e g o r y , f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n g i v e s a d e s c r i p t i v e a c c o u n t , as p e r c e i v e d , of the f o r m a l a s p e c t s t h a t j o i n t o g e t h e r t o a r t i c u l a t e the code. The c a t e g o r y e l a b o r a t i o n / a b s t r a c t i o n o f f e r s a more g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of th o s e elements i n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e how t h e y , t h r o u g h c o g n i t i o n , can be r e l a t e d t o the a e s t h e t i c code and c o n n o t a t i o n s . I t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n the p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t o n i c a s p e c t s of the form i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . For f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e s e n o t i o n s , see C. D e f i n i t i o n of terms and c o n c e p t s on page 54. An example of the t a b u l a t i o n i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 7. For the code I t a l i a n v i l l a g e i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the c o n n o t a t i o n s r e f e r t o f a m i l i a r i t y and i n t i m a c y . The i m p l i c a t i o n can be drawn t h a t a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s r e f e r t o v a l u e s common t o a l l a s p e c t s of l i f e and not m e r e l y t o a r c h i t e c t u r e . They a r e seen i n terms of the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s r a t h e r than the code, and as such, a r e not always l i n k e d d i r e c t l y t o the code. The a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n e l a b o r a t e s and d e s c r i b e s the a e s t h e t i c code i n a p o s i t i v e semantic f i e l d , w h i l e the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e r e l a t e s the n o t i o n t o a much broader and more g e n e r a l system of v a l u e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e our w e l l - b e i n g i n l i f e ; o r , as we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , a f e e l i n g of p l e a s a n t n e s s . 54 V a l u e Form A e s t h e t i c V a l u e A e s t h e t i c C o n n o t a t i o n A e s t h e t i c Code Fo r m a l E x p r e s s i o n E l a b o r a t i o n A b s t r a c t i o n f a m i l i a r i t y i n t i m a c y ( i ) p l e a s a n t n e s s a f f e c t i o n ( i i ) r e i n f o r c i n g t h e s t u d e n t s sense of l i v i n g i n a s o c i a l p l a c e ( i i i ) p r o t e c t i o n I t a l i a n ( i ) i n f o r m a l b u i l d i n g arrangement ( i i ) s m a l l s c a l e b u i l d i n g s ( i i i ) w h i t e c o l o u r ( i v ) s e c o n d - f l o o r b a l c o n i e s s i m i l i a r i t y i n s c a l e , o r g a n i z a t -i o n of form c o l o u r and one t y p i c a l f e a t u r e , t o th e I t a l i a n v i l l a g e v i l l a g e (a) a l s o , a n a l o g i e s w i t h c u b i c , w h i t e - w a l l e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t y l e F i g u r e 7 - A e s t h e t i c code - I t a l i a n v i l l a g e The d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e method a l o n g w i t h how t h e d a t a from t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s was marked makes p o s s i b l e a c l e a r e r e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e c o n c e p t s used t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s . C. DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS 1 . A e s t h e t i c code P r e z i o s i ' s d e f i n i t i o n of codes as "...an o r d e r e d body of r u l e s which s p e c i f y t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s between f u n c t i o n s and meanings ,..", 5 has been a c c e p t e d . An a e s t h e t i c code r e p r e s e n t s t h e r u l e s a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h a r c h i t e c t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s a r e l i n k e d t o a e s t h e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . The 55 a e s t h e t i c code i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a concept which has s p e c i f i c f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s governed by the code, and on the b a s i s of which a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s a r e formed. The a e s t h e t i c code p r o v i d e s t h e terms of r e f e r e n c e w h i c h c o l l e c t c e r t a i n f o r m a l a s p e c t s and d e t e r m i n e the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e a s p e c t s . I t r e l a t e s a r c h i t e c t o n i c f o r m a t i o n s t o a e s t h e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , or v i c e v e r s a . 2. Formal e x p r e s s i o n The f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n s i d e n t i f i e d i n the a n a l y s i s a r e a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a r e t a l k e d about i n a p o s i t i v e manner by the c r i t i c s . As such they a r e of a n a t u r e s i m i l a r t o P r e z i o s i ' s a r c h i t e c t o n i c codes. The a r c h i t e c t o n i c code i s e s s e n t i a l l y a system of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which s i g n i f i c a t i v e e n t i t i e s a r e d e f i n e d i n terms of t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l network of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For t h i s r e a s o n , two a p p a r e n t l y i d e n t i c a l f o r m a t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t systems a r e o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l l y 'homonymous', s i n c e each b e l o n g s t o , and i s d e f i n e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o , the o v e r a l l system of s i g n s of which each i s an exemplar or m a t e r i a l r e a l i z a t i o n . . . I t s ' v o c a b u l a r y ' i s s p a t i a l and g e o m e t r i c i n n a t u r e , and a r c h i t e c t o n i c f o r m a t i o n s are o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the .parameters of t o p o l o g i c a l , p e r s p e c t i v a l and E u c l i d e a n m e t r i c f o r m a t i v e f e a t u r e s . 6 Thus, the f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l form p e r c e i v e d i n r e l a t i o n t o f o r m a l s u b s t a n c e . See F i g u r e s 3 and 4 on page 41. 56 3. Formal e l a b o r a t i o n The f o r m a l e l a b o r a t i o n s u g g e s t e d i n the a n a l y s i s i s an attempt t o c o n c e n t r a t e on the f u n c t i o n of the f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n r e l a t i v e t o the a e s t h e t i c code. A c c o r d i n g t o P r e z i o s i , " . . . a r c h i t e c t o n i c f o r m a t i o n s are i n h e r e n t l y m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l i n n a t u r e , and ... r e f e r e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n or i n t e n d e d (and e f f e c t i v e ) usage i s but one d i m e n s i o n of a r c h i t e c t o n i c f u n c t i o n . An a r c h i t e c t o n i c o b j e c t may be s a i d t o f u n c t i o n r e f e r e n t i a l l y t h r o u g h an o r i e n t a t i o n upon the c o n t e x t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s or usages which a c o r p u s p r e s c r i b e s . " 7 The f o r m a l e l a b o r a t i o n p o i n t s t o t h o s e a s p e c t s of the f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r the d e n o t a t i o n of each p a r t i c u l a r code. 4. A e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s A e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s r e f e r t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n n o t a t i o n s w h i c h have an a e s t h e t i c n a t u r e . An a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the i m p l i c i t p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d by the f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n s , and as such t h e y a r e formed on the b a s i s of an a e s t h e t i c v a l u e . See F i g u r e s 3 and 4 on page 41 . 57 5. Aesthetic values An aesthetic value i s seen as a value that can exist for i t s own sake. It i s not a value that depends on p r e f e r e n t i a l behaviour. It i s a value that allows attention to concentrate on the aesthetic object i t s e l f without any further motive. Scruton has suggested i t s importance among other value systems. The process of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n i s possible only when the world responds back to me an image of my true fu l f i l m e n t . The aesthetic sense, . . . i s preci s e l y devoted to the task of endowing the world with an order of that kind. 8 D. CONCLUSION Following t h i s methodology, a content analysis was carri e d out, c o l l e c t i n g a l l aesthetic connotations and formal a r t i c u l a t i o n s of aesthetic s i g n i f i c a n c e . These posit i v e thoughts as expressed by the c r i t i c , were then compared and summarized in order to a r r i v e at the aesthetic codes and the i r s i g n i f i c a n t expression and value. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s process, the following chapter presents the extracted r e f l e c t i o n s and connotations, a description of the formulation of a code, as well as a detailed formal description of each code seen to operate in Kresge College. 58 E. NOTES U. Eco, "A Componential A n a l y s i s of t h e A r c h i t e c t u r a l Sign/Column/", i n S i g n s , Symbols, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , pp. 213-232. i b i d p. 224. C h a r l e s J e n c k s , L a t e Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e , New York: R i z z o l i , 1980. H i s s t y l i s t i c v a r i a b l e s i n late-modern/post-modern a r c h i t e c t u r e i n c l u d e s : s u p e r s e n s u a l i s m , s l i c k s k i n / h y b r i d e x p r e s s i o n ; second machine a e s t h e t i c / e x p r e s s i o n of c o n t e n t and semantic a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s towards f u n c t i o n ; extreme a r t i c u l a t i o n / s e m i o t i c a r t i c u l a t i o n ; s t r u c t u r e - c o n s t r u c t i o n as orn a m e n t / p r o - o r g a n i c and a p p l i e d ornament; complex s i m p l i c i t y / c o m p l e x i t y ; extreme i s o t r o p i c s p a c e / v a r i a b l e space w i t h s u r p r i s e s ; extreme r e p e t i t i o n / e c l e c t i c ; s c u l p t u r a l f o r m / c o n v e n t i o n a l and a b s t r a c t form; humorous; r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ; m e t a p h o r i c ; h i s t o r i c , and s y m b o l i c . Kenneth C.Bloomer and C h a r l e s W.Moore, Body, Memory, and  A r c h i t e c t u r e , New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977, pp. 115-116. D. P r e z i o s i , The S e m i o t i c s of the B u i l t Environment: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A r c h i t e c t o n i c A n a l y s i s , Bloomington and London: I n d i a n a U n i v . P r e s s , 1979, p. 2. i b i d , p. 2. i b i d , p. 64. R. S c r u t o n , The A e s t h e t i c s of A r c h i t e c t u r e , P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1979, p. 248. 59 IV FORMULATION OF CODES A. INTRODUCTION As a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d , a e s t h e t i c codes f u n c t i o n t o r e l a t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . Codes a r e not synonymous w i t h the elements from the t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s . The c o n n o t a t i o n s were t a b u l a t e d as elements or i s s u e s t o i l l u s t r a t e the f o r m a l a s p e c t s of a e s t h e t i c c o n c e r n . Not a l l f o r m a l a s p e c t s have an a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n . I t i s o n l y t h r o u g h a c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n of the c o n n o t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n f o r m a l elements and how t h e s e a r e t r e a t e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g t h a t the codes may be i d e n t i f i e d . As mentioned above, s t a t e m e n t s from the s e v e r a l t e x t s c o n s u l t e d were combined t o i d e n t i f y f o r m a l a s p e c t s , a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s , and how codes d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y l i n k e d them. F i g u r e 8 i s a c o m p i l a t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements and the c o n n o t a t i o n s e v i d e n t i n the t e x t u a l c o r pus of Kresge C o l l e g e . The t e x t s c o n s u l t e d were: Bloomer, K.C. and Moore, C.W., Body, Memory, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977, pp. 114-119. B r u b a k e r , W., "Kresge C o l l e g e " , P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e , J a n u a r y 1970, p.82. Hubbard, W., C o m p l e x i t y and C o n v i c t i o n : Steps toward an A r c h i t e c t u r e of C o n v e n t i o n , Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT P r e s s , 1980 pp. 179-196. Lyndon, D., " F i v e Ways t o Peop l e P l a c e s " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e c o r d , September 1975. "Another A m e r i c a " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, J u l y , 1974, pp. 28-31. 60 "On-campus L i v i n g : A T e s t of M u l t i p l e C h o i c e " , I n t e r i o r s , November, 1974, pp. 86-89. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t some of the c o n n o t a t i o n s i n f i g u r e 8 r e f e r t o s e v e r a l e l e m e n t s , but have been l i s t e d w i t h the element which i s most i m p o r t a n t t o the s t a t e m e n t . T h i s a p p a r e n t d i s c r e p a n c y i s remedied by the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the codes, which s e r v e t o l i n k s e v e r a l f o r m a l a s p e c t s and t h e i r c o n n o t a t i o n . 61 F i g u r e 8 - Formal elements and t h e i r c o n n o t a t i o n s f o r Kresge C o l l e g e CONNOTATION CONNOTATION I Organl-Sat Ion -adopting a model of a shopping centre; l e . Put crowd gatherers (dlntng and assembly quarters pluss o f f i c e s ) at opposite ends of a pedestrian s t r e e t provides a residence that should promote a f e e l i n g of community as well as an awareness of s e l f . (K.C.Bloomer and C.W.Moore) -the Imagery of whitewalled g a l l e r i e s along a winding s t r e e t resembles the intimacy of a v i l l a g e which i s a us e f u l model as well as providing aspects of make-b e l i e v e which 1s thought s u i t a b l e f o r students. (K.C.Bloomer and C.W.Moore) -the design choreographs our movements to make us c o n s t a n t l y aware of the p o s i t i o n of our body within the space. (W.Hubbard) -the l i n e a r space brings to mind s t r e e t s and squares in I t a l i a n v i l l a g e s and thus suggests resonant analogies to the viewer, and as one investigates the space, the dual imagery i s not overthrown but 1s r e i n f o r c e d and a r t i c u l a t e d . (W.Hubbard) -the strongest Image Is that of the I t a l i a n v i l l a g e and the design thus embodies a patterning whose sense w i l l engage our sympathy and so our c o m p l i c i t y : It gi v e s r e a l form to an a s p i r a t i o n about what an academy cou l d be, and thus makes us want i t to be the way i t Is and not some other. (W.Hubbard) -the smaller u n i t s are consistent with the o v e r a l l p lan f o r Santa Cruz, which i s one b i g happy p r o t e s t i n g f amily, and at the same time It i s appropriate to the property, as well as g i v i n g a sense of 'ordlnaryrtess'. (W.Brubaker) -the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the u n i t s connects well with the landscape. (W.Brubaker) -the b u i l d i n g s crowd a narrow s t r e e t on to which face the communal l i v i n g areas i n an attempt to create a t i g h t community in the s o l i t u d e of a redwood f o r e s t . (Arch.Rev.) p l a c i n g the assembly b u i l d i n g at the end of the s t r e e t increases the l i k e l i h o o d of ''.chance encounters between students and teachers. (Arch.Rev.) -the spine is a less-than-true-acale auto-free pedes t r ian s t ree t wh1ch prov1des an ana1ogy to dlsneyland. ( I n t e r i o r s ) the sp1ne ( I n t e r i o r s ) bent to mirror the natural contours. I n f l e c t i n g the main s t r e e t creates a r i c h e r space time sequence. ( I n t e r i o r s ) a p a t t e r n of space c o n s t r i c t i n g , then widening, then nar row1ng. e t c . , resu11 s In a pu1sa 11ng space. ( I n t e r l o r s ) b u i l d i n g s wrapping around the outdoor area provides an entrance court. ( I n t e r i o r s ) -the ensemble of s t r u c t u r e s i s highly i r r e g u l a r which makes the r e t u r n Journey more i n t e r e s t i n g , not Just a mirror-image. ( I n t e r i o r s ) It U a masterpiece of urban design s t a g e - c r a f t . ( I n t e r l o r s ) the way resident t a l . academic. s o c i a l and adminastrative f u n c t i o n s are d i s t r i b u t e d through the c o l l e g e r e i n f o r c e s the students sense of l i v i n g 1n a s o c i a b l e p l a c e . ( I n t e r i o r s ) -the winding s t r e e t ( I n t e r i o r s ) i s an of p r o t e c t i o n . the b u i l d i n g - f r o n t s are painted white which brings l i g h t Into a dark passage. (K.C.Bloomer and C.W.Moore) the s i d e s of the b u i l d i n g f a c i n g the f o r e s t are painted dark ochre. so as to merge into the trees. (K.C.Bloomer end C.W.Moore) supporting f a c i l i t i e s have d i s t i n c t form or paint treatment to aat them apart as s p e c i a l . (W.Hubbard) the white. stuccoed Spanish c o l o n i a l present c l e a r analogies with cubic, white walled i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t y l e . (Arch.Rev.) the backs of the b u i l d i n g s are c l a d d i f f e r e n t l y from the f r o n t s which i s another analogy to Disneyland. ( I n t e r i o r s ) -the e x t e r i o r walls are painted a d u l l brown to be minimally o b t r u s i v e In the f o r e s t . ( I n t e r i o r s ) -the s i d e that face the p u b l i c c i r c u l a t i o n spine are painted white to maximize the l i g h t and to sat o f f the p l a y f u l a r c h i t e c t u r a l forma. ( I n t e r i o r s ) BaIconies Forms F igures -the white g a l l e r y walls are painted bright colours' on the reverse s i d e and fashioned Into cut-out planes, l i k e stage f l a t s . which make people walking In the s t r e e t e s p e c i a l l y conscious of t h e i r own bodies moving through planes, so they can f e e l themselves important. l i k e dancers on a stage. (K.C.Bloomer and C.W.Moore) -the b u i l d i n g s a r e c a r e f u l l y and consciously stage sets f o r a drams Improvised by the tnhabltants, (K.C.Bloomer and C.W.Moore) -b u i l d i n g s l i k e stage sets can support the a c t i o n of human bodies and encourage the strengthening of fantasy In human experience. (K.C.Bloomer and C.W.Moore) -each housing block i s given the same type of screen wall which provides contingency. (W.Hubbard) -the forms themselves occupying then, mak (W.Hubbard) can r e c a l l Images of people l ng the spaces fee1 peop1ed. -the shapes of screen-walls, windows and painted decorations, b r i n g to mind Images of town h a l l s of northern Europe. (W.Hubbard) -the openings i n the screen walls have a syncopated rhythm that has l i t t l e to do with the widths of f e n e s t r a t i o n of the u n i t s behind, t h i s makes us f r e e d and enabled t o construct reasons about why the openings have the s i z e and the spacing they do and they can be arranged according to what f e e l s r i g h t . (W.Hubbard) -the breaking up of the c o n t i n u i t y would t e l l of people's inherent need to form themselves into groups. (W.Hubbard) -the white. stuccoed Spantah super c o l o n i a l of slmoultaneous simp11c1ty and flamboyant verve i s c o n s i s t e n t with l o c a l t r a d i t i o n s and sets up analogies with art-deco. another Santa Barbara convention. (Arch.Rev.) -the s t y l e Is an a f f e c t i o n a t e t r i b u t e to vernacular b u i l d i n g and a p l a y f u l indictment of a r c h i t e c t u r a l pretens Ions. ( I n t e r l o r e ) -the long s t r e e t needs landmarks to be comprehensible and to s i g n a l students where they are. (K.C.Bloomer and C.W.Moore) -the use of t r i v i a l monuments, such as entrance gate, a fountain. br Ight paInt over outdoor p o s t - o f f I c e , mock-monumenta 1 entrance to the laundry. a speaker * s rostrum painted red, white and blue with a garbage c o l l e c t i o n room underneath, telephone booths Joined with a rainbow, the lopsided triumphal arch beside the l i b r a r y . and a ye Mow-lined rotunda: none of which bear any h i e r a r c h i c a l onus, and is thus s u i t a b l e to a c o l l e g e . (K.C.Bloomer and C-W.Moore) -the s p e d a l n e s s of the a c t i v i t y Is r e f l e c t e d i n the form of the a r c h i t e c t u r e , but i n no case i s the a c t i v i t y named, thus because of slippage we are given the g r i s t f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g reasons as to "why the form i s the way i t i s " , but we are not bound forever and only to that reason. (W.Hubbard) -the f o u n t a i n i n a p a r t i a l l y closed atrium i s reminiscent of the courtyard of a house in Mexico, and the shape of the phone booth reminds one of a trlumpha 1 arch, t h i s suggests resonant ana 1ogies to the viewer and as one Investigates the space, the dual Imagery 1s not overthrown but Is r e i n f o r c e d and a r t leu l a t e d . (W.Hubbard) -to give people o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r spontaneous a c t i o n , the scheme has c o n t e s t a b l e spaces; u s u a l l y they have no s p e c i f i c boundaries; they are wedged between things, and they nave walls, columns and other props that help people use them for a v a r i e t y of purposes. (O.Lyndon) - i t s forms and d e t a i l s mock the notion of great gestures and monumental 1 ty even as they f l i r t with those very q u a l i t i e s . ( I n t e r i o r s ) -symbol t e a l l y portrayed 'event' - b u i l d i n g s along the route enriches the space-time sequence. ( I n t e r i o r s ) . the p h y s i c a l complexity allows d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s to take p l a c e 1n d i f f e r e n t areas. ( I n t e r i o r s ) 62 Each element i n the t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s may have a range of d i v e r s e c o n n o t a t i o n s which r e f e r t o d i f f e r e n t a r t i c u l a t i o n s of the element. An element may t h e r e b y e s t a b l i s h the f o r m a l b a s i s f o r s e v e r a l codes. See f o r example th e c e n t r a l s t r e e t i n Kresge C o l l e g e which i s one of the main elements b o t h i n the code I t a l i a n v i l l a g e and i n P u l s a t i n g space. A l s o , the a e s t h e t i c code must be e x p r e s s i v e of both a f o r m a l element, or p o s s i b l y s e v e r a l , and i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n or o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s o n l y t h r o u g h i t s a r t i c u l a t i o n t h a t i t i s c a p a b l e of e x p r e s s i n g any k i n d of q u a l i t y . As such, the b a s i c element does not seem t o be v e r y i m p o r t a n t , even though v a r i o u s s t y l e s have t h e i r f a v o u r e d e l e m e n t s , see f o r example the i d e a of space i n the modern movement. The a e s t h e t i c code i s then u n d e r s t o o d as d e n o t i n g a r e f e r e n c e which governs the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms i n o r d e r t o r e l a t e them t o s p e c i f i c c o n n o t a t i o n s . The sample t e x t from Bloomer and Moore f o r Kresge C o l l e g e g i v e n i n Chapter I I I , i n d i c a t e s t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of forms and c o n n o t a t i o n s i s a s e p a r a t e but s i m o u l t a n e o u s p r o c e s s , by which s t a t e m e n t s a r e g a t h e r e d and r e l a t e d , i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t an i n c l u s i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The code, however, i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n any one t e x t , as i n the c ase of v i l l a g e f o r Kresge C o l l e g e . The i d e a of the v i l l a g e a c c o u n t s f o r the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d . However i t i s thought t o o vague t o e x p l a i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n ; i t does not g i v e any i n d i c a t i o n of f o r example the c o l o u r i n g or the s e c o n d - f l o o r b a l c o n i e s . Through c a r e f u l l y c o l l e c t i n g and comparing a l l the c o m b i n a t i o n s of a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l forms 63 from a l l the texts consulted,a more comprehensive aesthetic code is arrived at. The scheme was thought of as a S i c i l i a n production of The Student Prince, which reinforces the notion of an I t a l i a n s e t t i n g . This, in conjunction with the idea of the v i l l a g e , i s seen as an adequate representation of an aesthetic code. The concept of the I t a l i a n v i l l a g e i s seen to contain the essence of the aesthetic connotations presented, as well as the formal a r t i c u l a t i o n of Kresge College. The aesthetic code i s sometimes evident from only one word and sometimes from a whole sentence. It attempts at providing the most e f f e c t i v e representation of a reference, on the basis of which, aesthetic connotations can be linked to s p e c i f i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l formations. This can be compared to Barthes' notion of l e x i a in the analysis of the written text. The tutor s i g n i f i e r w i l l be cut up into a series of b r i e f , contiguous fragments, which we s h a l l c a l l l e x i a s , since they are units of reading. ... The lex i a w i l l include sometimes a few words, sometimes several sentences; i t w i l l be a matter of convenience: i t w i l l s u f f i c e that the l e x i a be the best possible space in which we can observe meanings; i t s dimension, empirically determined, estimated, w i l l depend on the density of connotations, variable according to the moments of the text... 1 On the basis of the texts analysed, Kresge College has 5 aesthetic codes; I t a l i a n V i l l a g e , Stage Set, Points of Interest, Pulsating Space and Varying Rhythm. 64 B. FORMAL ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION OF CODES Each a e s t h e t i c code i s seen i n terms of s e v e r a l a s p e c t s of form and o r g a n i z a t i o n . The number and t y p e s of f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the c o m p l e x i t y of the a e s t h e t i c code. The f o r m a l a s p e c t s p r e s e n t e d below a r e those seen as e s s e n t i a l , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d e s i g n , i n o r d e r t o e x p r e s s each i n d i v i d u a l code. 1 . Code: I t a l i a n v i l l a g e One of the a e s t h e t i c codes have been l a b e l l e d I t a l i a n  v i l l a g e . I t r e l i e s on a p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y between some of the main f o r m a l a s p e c t s of Kresge C o l l e g e and a M e d i t e r r a n e a n v i l l a g e , i n o r d e r t o r e c a l l the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d by t h e c r i t i c s . The f o r m a l a s p e c t s t h a t have been used t o c r e a t e such an a s s o c i a t i o n i s seen a s ; i n f o r m a l b u i l d i n g arrangement; s m a l l s c a l e b u i l d i n g s ; the w h i t e c o l o u r ; and the s e c o n d - f l o o r b a l c o n i e s . 65 I n f o r m a l b u i l d i n g arrangement The scheme i s composed of a range of s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s . These u n i t s a r e p l a c e d c l o s e t o each o t h e r , f a c i n g a w i n d i n g p a t h i n the c e n t r e , and c l o s i n g o f f the p a t h a t e i t h e r end. T h i s arrangement i s s u p p o r t e d by l e v e l changes t h a t a r e a r t i c u l a t e d i n an i n f o r m a l way, t h u s r e i n f o r c i n g t h e n a t u r a l p a t h . T h i s l a y o u t i s seen as s i m i l a r t o t h a t of an I t a l i a n v i l l a g e , a t t h e same time as i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c o l l e g e community, as w e l l as t o the t r e e - c o v e r e d s l o p i n g s i t e . F i g u r e 9 - Kresge C o l l e g e - I n f o r m a l B u i l d i n g Arrangement S m a l l s c a l e b u i l d i n g s K r e s g e C o l l e g e c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of s m a l l s c a l e b u i l d i n g s , 1, 2, 3 and 4 s t o r i e s h i g h . T h i s c r e a t e s a s i m i l a r i t y i n s c a l e t o t h a t of an I t a l i a n v i l l a g e , w i t h an ap p r o x i m a t e h e i g h t d i f f e r e n c e of 1 s t o r i e from one b u i l d i n g t o t h e n e x t . T h i s i s a l s o seen t o p r o v i d e a f r i e n d l y , humane environment a p p r o p r i a t e b o t h t o the f u n c t i o n of a c o l l e g e and t o the s u r r o u n d i n g s , as w e l l as a l l o w i n g the t r e e s t o be seen o v e r and above t h e b u i l d i n g s . F i g u r e 10 - Kresge C o l l e g e - S m a l l s c a l e b u i l d i n g s The w h i t e c o l o u r A l l t he b u i l d i n g s a r e p a i n t e d a c r i s p w h i t e c o l o u r on the s i d e f a c i n g the s t r e e t . T h i s i s 66 r e i n f o r c e d by the e x t e r i o r s i d e ( t h e edge f a c i n g the f o r e s t ) b e i n g p a i n t e d a dark o c h r e . Thus the s t r e e t i s r e i n f o r c e d , showing a b r i g h t , l i g h t , man-made c o l o u r , t h a t i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t used i n s o u t h e r n c l i m a t e s as w e l l as b e i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l o c a l t r a d i t i o n s . S e c o n d - f l o o r b a l c o n i e s The h o u s i n g b l o c k s have t a l l , open, second f l o o r b a l c o n i e s . A l s o t h e r e a r e c a n t i l e v e r e d e n c l o s e d b a l c o n i e s a p p e a r i n g on the second f l o o r . See F i g u r e 11. T h i s s u g g e s t s a s i m i l a r i t y i n s t y l e t o t h a t of an I t a l i a n v i l l a g e . F i g u r e 11 - Kresge C o l l e g e - S e c o n d f l o o r b a l c o n i e s 2. Code: S t a g e - s e t The second a e s t h e t i c code i s a l s o of an a s s o c i a t i v e n a t u r e . Some of the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s depend on a p e r c e i v e d a l l u s i o n i n the b u i l d i n g s t h a t would be r e m i n i s c e n t of a s t a g e -s e t . T h i s i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h ; t h e s c r e e n s i n f r o n t of the b a l c o n i e s , which do not seem t o c o r r e s p o n d t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l f u n c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the f r o n t of a l l b u i l d i n g s and s c r e e n s are p a i n t e d ; the w h i t e c o l o u r , which makes the forms s t a n d out more c l e a r l y . 67 F i g u r e 12 - Kresge The Screens The t h i n n e s s df the s c r e e n s , as w e l l as t h e p r o p o r t i o n s of t h e o p e n i n g s , which do not c o r r e s p o n d t o what i s b e h i n d , i s seen as h a v i n g a f a k e a p p e a r a n c e . T h i s makes t h e s c r e e n s s t a n d out as c a r d b o a r d f a c a d e s , o r s t a g e - p r o p s . The w h i t e c o l o u r A l l e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e s ; i . e . , f a c i n g t h e s t r e e t r a t h e r t h a n t h e b u i l d i n g , a r e p a i n t e d w h i t e . T h i s makes t h e forms s t a n d out more c l e a r l y a g a i n s t t h e dark t r e e s and t h e b u i l d i n g s i n shadow. ) l l e g e - T h e Screens 3. Code: P o i n t s of i n t e r e s t Rather than c r e a t i n g an atmosphere, as was the major aim of the two p r e v i o u s codes, p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t s e t s up r e f e r e n c e s i n the space - time continuum. T h i s i s an attempt t o engage one's i n t e r e s t and thus draw one th r o u g h the d e s i g n . I t i s a c h i e v e d through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o l o u r t o an o t h e r w i s e a l l -w h i t e scheme, and the use of r e c o g n i z a b l e and d i s t o r t e d 'monuments'. These i n c l u d e ; a p a i n t - d e c o r a t e d e n t r a n c e g a t e ; a mock-monumental e n t r a n c e t o the l a u n d r y ; a l o p s i d e d t r i u m p h a l a r c h b e s i d e the l i b r a r y ; a f o u n t a i n ; p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s ; and u n l i k e l y c o n n e c t i o n s , such as the s p e a k e r ' s r o s t r u m w i t h a garbage c o l l e c t i o n room underneath. Another i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t i s the p l a c i n g of the p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t . 68 A p a i n t e d and d e c o r a t e d open gate t h r o u g h t h e w a l l a t the e n t r a n c e t o t h e c o l l e g e c r e a t e s a d e f i n i t e p o i n t of e n t r y and t h u s c e l e b r a t e s coming i n t o a p l a c e . A l s o , an u n d e c o r a t e d mock-monumental e n t r a n c e t o the l a u n d r y and an u n d e c o r a t e d l o p s i d e d a r c h which has been l i k e n e d t o a ' t r i u m p h a l a r c h ' b e s i d e t h e l i b r a r y s e t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a p a r t as s p e c i a l , t h ey a r e made d i s t i n c t from h o u s i n g and c l a s s r o o m s . F i g u r e 13 - Kresge C o l l e g e - E n t r a n c e g a t e s F o u n t a i n A f o u n t a i n s e t i n a p a r t i a l l y c l o s e d a t r i u m i s s i m i l a r t o what i s found i n f o r example Mexican a t r i u m s , and thus s t a n d s out as s e p a r a t e from the r e s t of the scheme. P a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s A b r i g h t r e d r e c t a n g l e p a i n t e d over the p o s t - o f f i c e , a s p e a k e r ' s r o s t r u m p a i n t e d r e d , w h i t e and b l u e , t e l e p h o n e booths j o i n e d w i t h a rainbow, and a y e l l o w - l i n e d r o t u n d a , a r e a l l s e t a p a r t as s p e c i a l t h r ough t h e i r c o l o u r f u l d e c o r a t i o n s . F i g u r e 14 - Kresge C o l l e g e - P a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n s Telephone booths j o i n e d w i t h a rainbow 69 U n l i k e l y c o n n e c t i o n s , puns. The mock-monumental e n t r a n c e t o the l a u n d r y and the s peaker's r o s t r u m w i t h a garbage c o l l e c t i o n room underneath, comment on the a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r assumed a c c e p t e d meaning and v a l u e . P l a c i n g of t h e p o i n t s of  i n t e r e s t The p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t m e n t ioned above a r e spaced a p a r t , a l o n g the whole l e n g t h of t h e s t r e e t . T h i s does not g i v e major i m p o r t a n c e t o any one p l a c e , r a t h e r i t draws one t h r o u g h t h e scheme from one p o i n t t o t h e n e x t . F i g u r e 15 - Kresge C o l l e g e - P l a c i n g of the p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t 4. Code: P u l s a t i n g space T h i s a e s t h e t i c code i s s i m i l a r t o the l a s t o n e , i n t h a t i t d e s c r i b e s a space t h a t i s c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g , and t h u s makes a r e f e r e n c e t o the spaces i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e e d i n g as w e l l as beyond. The c e n t r a l s t r e e t i s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g i n w i d t h , and the degree of o p e n / c l o s e d n e s s , g i v e s the s t r e e t a d i f f e r e n t f e e l i n g , or a d i f f e r e n t i d e n t i t y from one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r . The s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m a l a s p e c t i s seen a s ; C o n t r a c t i o n / E x p a n s i o n . 70 C o n t r a c t i o n / E x p a n s i o n The c e n t r a l s t r e e t i s c o n s t a n t l y c o n t r a c t i n g and e x p a n d i n g , c o n s t r i c t i n g t h e v i s i b l e space by t r e e s and b u i l d i n g s spaced f a r a p a r t or c l o s e t o g e t h e r , l i n i n g t h e s t r e e t a t an a n g l e , so t h a t t h e s t r e e t i s s l o w l y c l o s i n g i n and opening up. O c c a s i o n a l v i s t a s t h r ough t o the f o r e s t b e h i n d adds t o t h e f e e l i n g of c h a n g i n g o p e n / c l o s e d s p a c e . T h i s p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g space t h a t has room f o r d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s . F i g u r e 16 - Kresge C o l l e g e - C o n t r a c t i o n / e x p a n s i o n 5. Code; V a r y i n g rhythm The l a s t a e s t h e t i c code denotes the rhythm t h a t has been s e t up by the s c r e e n w a l l s . The f e n e s t r a t i o n i n the s c r e e n w a l l s p r o v i d e s a beat t h a t g i v e s o r d e r w i t h v a r i a t i o n . Thus the r e f e r e n c e on which the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s a r e based becomes a r c h i t e c t u r e i t s e l f , i n t h a t i t r e f e r s t o an a c c e p t e d s t r u c t u r i n g of elements; rhythm. • «. - n i -i — - o i i i i i i i • i i i i i i i i i i i Rhythm 4 d i f f e r e n t s i z e s of s p a c i n g (a,b,c and d) a r e combined i n a random way t o form t h e s c r e e n -w a l l s . T h i s c r e a t e s a system w i t h v a r i a t i o n t h a t can be a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o c o n s t r a i n t s o t h e r t h a n p u r e l y f u n c t i o n a l ones. F i g u r e 17 - Kresge College-Rhythm 71 As mentioned b e f o r e , c e r t a i n f o r m a l a s p e c t s can be p a r t of s e v e r a l codes. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s t r e e t , f o r example, i s p a r t of b oth P u l s a t i n g Space and I t a l i a n V i l l a g e . S i m i l a r l y , the s c r e e n w a l l s i n f r o n t of the b a l c o n i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h r e e d i f f e r e n t codes, I t a l i a n V i l l a g e , Stage Set and V a r i e d Rhythm. Such f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s , which form p a r t of s e v e r a l codes, c o n s t i t u t e the key elements i n the d e s i g n i n terms of a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s . The same element may be e v i d e n t i n s e v e r a l codes. However, t h e form i s not t r e a t e d m e r e l y i n a m o r p h o l o g i c a l way, but c o n t r i b u t e s t o the f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n t h r o u g h the f u n c t i o n of more than one code. T h i s i s i m p l i e d i n the t e x t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of these e l e m e n t s . In the case of the I t a l i a n  V i l l a g e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s t r e e t i s r e f e r r e d t o as ' s t a g g e r e d , i n f o r m a l arrangement of b u i l d i n g s ' , w h i l e i n the case of P u l s a t i n g Space, i t i s r e f e r r e d t o as ' c o n t r a c t i o n and e x p a n s i o n ' . The way i n which the elements a r e d e s c r i b e d i n the t e x t s , i s r e l a t e d t o t h e a e s t h e t i c code, and s u g g e s t s t h a t the forms a r e seen as a e s t h e t i c i n terms of the code. 72 C. AESTHETIC CONNOTATIONS AND VALUES The a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t the p o s i t i v e i d e a s and s u p e r l a t i v e s put f o r t h i n t h e t e x t s . By i d e n t i f y i n g t he p o s i t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s suggested by t h e c r i t i c s , the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s e x p r e s s e d by Kresge C o l l e g e a r e i n d i c a t e d . Lang proposed how v a l u e s can be u n d e r s t o o d i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . V a l u e s a r e r e l a t e d t o m o t i v a t i o n s f o r th e y d e f i n e the a t t r a c t i v e and r e p u l s i v e elements of the w o r l d . . . V a l u e s r e p r e s e n t a l i n k a g e between a per s o n ' s e m o t i o n a l f e e l i n g s , m o t i v a t i o n s and b e h a v i o u r . 2 What t h e c r i t i c s w r i t e about r e f l e c t s t h e i r own i d e a l s and v a l u e s . These c o u l d be p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . However, s i m i l a r c o n n o t a t i o n s appeared i n s e v e r a l of the t e x t s . A group of a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c s , i n a g i v e n s h o r t p e r i o d , may a c c e p t t h e same a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s and v a l u e s . The v a l u e s d e r i v e d from the examples a r e p a r t i c u l a r t o contemporary thought amongst a r c h i t e c t s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c s i n N o r t h America and Europe. The v a l u e s d i s c u s s e d i n the t e x t s , or thought i m p o r t a n t , may change over time and from one c u l t u r e t o a n o t h e r . They r e f l e c t a s p e c i f i c s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e . The a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s found i n the a n a l y s i s of Kresge C o l l e g e a r e of two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s ; emotive and c o g n i t i v e . Some of the c o n n o t a t i o n s i n v o l v e d emotive q u a l i t i e s of the d e s i g n and e x p r e s s e d such f e e l i n g s as p l e a s a n t n e s s , a f f e c t i o n , f r i e n d l i n e s s , p r o t e c t i o n , i m p o r t a n c e , p r i v a c y , and e x c i t e m e n t . These emotions were seen t o r e f l e c t two deeper v a l u e s ; one con c e r n e d w i t h f a m i l i a r i t y or i n t i m a c y , the o t h e r 73 w i t h s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . The r e m a i n i n g c o n n o t a t i o n s were of a more c o g n i t i v e n a t u r e , d e a l i n g w i t h drawing one's a t t e n t i o n , s i g n a l l i n g where one i s or s e t t i n g up a rhythm. These were seen t o r e f l e c t a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s such as movement, comprehension and o r d e r . Once the f u n c t i o n of the codes was u n d e r s t o o d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the c o n n o t a t i o n s of the f o r m a l e l e m e n t s , the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s c o u l d a l s o be e x p l a i n e d by the codes. D. AESTHETIC CODES IN RELATION TO VALUES AND FORMS 1 . Kresge C o l l e g e F i g . 18 shows the a e s t h e t i c codes i d e n t i f i e d i n Kresge C o l l e g e , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . A d i s t i n c t i o n has been drawn between a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . As mentioned b e f o r e , the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t the i m p l i c i t p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n n e c t e d t o the forms as seen by the c r i t i c s . A e s t h e t i c v a l u e s i l l u s t r a t e t he more g e n e r a l a s p e c t of s i g n i f i c a n t c o n n o t a t i o n s : they r e p r e s e n t t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e w e i g h t i n g . Formal e x p r e s s i o n g i v e s a d e s c r i p t i v e account of the f o r m a l a s p e c t s t h a t j o i n t o g e t h e r t o a r t i c u l a t e the code. E l a b o r a t i o n / a b s t r a c t i o n a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n the p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t o n i c a s p e c t s of the form i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . 74 F i g u r e 18 - Kresge C o l l e g e - A e s t h e t i c c o d e s , v a l u e s , and forms (See p. 61 f o r t h e t e x t s c o n s u l t e d . ) ! V *1ue Form Aesthetic value Aesthetic connotation Aesthetic code Formal expression Elaborat1on faml1iarity, intImacy (I) pleasantness, affect ion (II) reinforcing the students sense of 1 Wing l n a social place ( I I I ) protect ion Ital Ian- vi 1 lage (a) also, analogies with cubic, Internat. Style ( I ) staggered, informal arrangement of bulIdlngs ( I I ) smal1 scale buildings ( 1 i1)wh1te colour (1v) second-floor balconies similarity in scale, organization of form, colour, and one typ1ca1 feature, to the ItalIan viilage self-awareness (1) make the students. feel important, 1 ike dancers on a stage ( 1 1*) offers aspects of make-belleva, suitable for students and ensourages the strengthening of fantasy in human exper i ence Stage-set ( I ) screen-wal1s ( I I ) uniform white colour the apparent fakeness of the screens. I .e . , their proportions co not seem to correspond to architectural funct ion comprehens ion (i) to engage one's Interest and thus draw one through the design (11) to signal students where they are Points of interest ( I ) entrance gates ( I I ) fountain ( i i i ) painted decorations (iv) unl1kely connections, puns the introduction of colour to an otherwi se al 1 -white scheme, and the use of recognizable and destorted monuments/figures movement (I) attention through an alternation between Intimacy and openness ( I I ) give people opportunity for spontaneous action Pulsat ing space (i) central street contracting and expanding (11) vistas the space is constant 1y changing in width thus changlng 1n Its degree of open/c1osedness order (1) rhythm, with variety tieing the archi tectural elements together Varied rhythm (i) 4 different sizes . of spacing of open i ngs. comb 1ned in a random way to form the screen wal 1 s varied rhythm G i v e n t h i s d i s t i v a l u e and form f o r any of th r o u g h t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l , n c t i o n , t h e way i n w h i c h codes t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r b u i l d i n g s can be r e p r e s e n t e d i n a t a b l e may l i n s t u d i e 75 2. A d d i t i o n a l d a t a F i g u r e s 19 - 22 show the a e s t h e t i c codes i d e n t i f i e d i n K i m b e l l A r t Museum, The S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e f o r the V i s u a l A r t s , The Atheneum, and San Juan C a p i s t r a n o L i b r a r y . The codes have been r e l a t e d t o t h e i r f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n , and a l s o t o the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s as d e s c r i b e d by the c r i t i c s . 2.1. T e x t u a l m a t e r i a l K i m b e l l A r t Museum: " K i m b e l l A r t Museum", A r c h t l . Forum, v o l . 137, no.1, 1972, J u l y / A u g , pp. 56-61. " K i m b e l l A r t Museum", A r t i n Ame r i c a , v o l . 60, no. 5, 1972 S e p t . / O c t . , pp. 44-48. "Kahn's K i m b e l l : a b u i l d i n g i n p r a i s e of n a t u r e and l i g h t " , I n t e r i o r s , v o l . 132, no. 8, 1973 March, pp. 84-91 . " K i m b e l l A r t Museum", A r c h t l . Review, v o l . 155, no. 928, 1974 June, pp. 320-342. " K i m b e l l A r t Museum", A l A J n l . , v o l . 63, 1975 May, pp. 38-39. John L o b e l l , Between S i l e n c e and L i g h t , B o u l d e r , C a l . : Shambhala P u b l . I n c . , 1979, pp. 94-99. The S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e f o r the V i s u a l A r t s : " F o s t e r i n g t h e A r t s " , A r c h i t e c t s J n l . , v o l . 167, 1978 A p r i l 5, pp. 622-625. M a r t i n S p r i n g , " A r t Shed; the S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e f o r the V i s u a l A r t s " , B u i l d i n g , v o l . 234, 1978 A p r i l 7, pp. 52-53. S i r R o b e r t S a i n s b u r y and P e t e r Cook, " E a s t A n g l i a 76 A r t s " , A r c h t l . Review, v o l . 164, 1 978 D e c , pp. 345-362. Andrew Peckham, " F o s t e r A s s o c i a t e s ' S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e " , A r c h t l . D e s i g n , v o l . 49, no. 2, 1979, pp. 1-32, 67-68. Suzanne Stephens, "Modernism r e c o n s t i t u t e d : S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e f o r the V i s u a l A r t s " , P r o g r e s s i v e  A r c h i t e c t u r e , v o l . 60, no. 2, 1979 F e b r . , pp. 49-58. The Atheneum: Kenneth Frampton, R i c h a r d M e i e r A r c h i t e c t : B u i l d i n g s  and P r o j e c t s 1966-1976. Joseph Rykwert, "New Harmony p r o p y l a e o n " , Domus, no. 603, 1980 Fe b r . , pp. 12-17. Suzanne Stephens, "Emblematic e d i f i c e " , P r o g r e s s i v e  A r c h i t e c t u r e , v o l . 61, no. 2, 1980 Fe b r . pp. 67-75. S t a n l e y A bercrombie, "A v i s i o n c o n t i n u e d : the Atheneum," A l A J n l . , v o l . 69, no. 6, 1980 Mid-may, pp. 126-137. R i c h a r d M e i e r and Kenneth Frampton, "The Atheneum", GA document, no. 1, 1980 Summer, pp. 29-65. San Juan C a p i s t r a n o L i b r a r y : B a r b a r a G o l d s t e i n , "Graves wins l i b r a r y c o m p e t i t i o n " , P r o g r e s s i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e , v o l . 62, no. 3, 1981 March, pp. 25-26. "San Juan C a p i s t r a n o P u b l i c L i b r a r y d e s i g n c o m p e t i t i o n " , A r c h . Record, v o l . 169, no. 4 ( 3 ) , 1981 March, pp. 46-49. C h a r l e s J e n c k s and M i c h a e l G r a v e s , " M i c h a e l G r a v e s " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n : F r e e - S t y l e C l a s s i c i s m , v o l . 52, no. 1/2, 1982. 77 2 . 2 . T a b u l a t i o n s F i g u r e 13 - K i m b e l l A r t Museum - A e s t h e t i c codes, v a l u e s , and forms V alue Form Aesthetic value Aesthetic connotation Aesthetic code Formal expression Elaboration movement leglbl11ty. understanding (1) relieve the interior space, liveliness (if) encourage movement (I11)giv1ng the materials an ever-changing, luminous glow (Iv) express changing moods, calm from the diffused soft 1ight. and up-lifting from the direct 1ight (v) natural light offers the control of knowing the time of day Changing qual1ty of light (I) use of natural 1 ight (II) 3 different ways of letting 1ight Into the building; diffuse overhead 11ght; 11ght from courtyards and slots of direct 1Ight at vault ends 3 different ways of letting natural 1ight into the building, making use of large expances of glass, smal1 slots, diffused, bounced and direct 1ight appreciation of the sk111 unity, visual cont inui ty (I) grace, pleasure (II) knowing and appreciating the efforts and ski 1 Is of architectural workmanship * • Careful detailing (1) materials and elements meet, leaving a smal1 visual gap or a noticeable overlap ( 11 ) structural artIculat1on by means of siender lines and lunettes of daylight Joints completed 1n a careful and precise manner unity, visual cont1nu1ty ( 1) similarity of materials makes the building monolithic, but not completely (II) the materials create patterns (III) mater1als similar and appropriate to surrounding landscape Subtle mater 1als (I) subtle and similar col our 1ng (II) similarity in texture each material is perceived as related to. and working with the other materials Leglbl1ity. understanding (I) mark the building entrance (II) a symbol of we1comm1ng (III) express the structural character of the buiIding (W) different materials for different functions give definition and visual interest to the spare forms (v) a symbol of the buiIding itself Porch -open vault (I) the structure of vaulted roof and co1umns left open at the entrance of the buiIding (II) different materials for di fferent functions a typical element left open at the entrance order (I) repetition, tlelng the architectural elements together (II) cont inually reaffirms one's welcome and delight Rhythm (1) the vaulted structure Is repeated 6 times, spaced apart and connected with flat-topped Infil l wal 1 repetition of the basic structure, creating a simple, regular rhythm unity, visual cont inui ty (I) the gentle curve reinforces the continuity of the space (II) appropriate to the size of the individual, thus a feeling of being home and safe, protective as well as welcomming Proport ion of vault (1) shallow cycloids gentle curvature 78 F i g u r e 20 - S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e - A e s t h e t i c c o d e s , v a l u e s , and forms Va lue Form Aesthetic value Aesthetic, connotation Aesthetic code Formal expression Elaboration appreciat Jon of technology (I) sophisticated, seduct1ve (II) an Image of Industrial perfect ion. ( 111 )sIgmf les detachment from nature High-tech Imagery (I) ribbed aluminium panels and neoprene gaskets (II) exposed structure and services (III) apparent Inter-changeable system of panels, with glazed and louvred panels at random Intervals (1v) the large hal1 (v) prefabricated elements with careful attent 1oh to Joints materlals, detal1Ing and space-arrangement simllar to that | of Industrial | building, with exposed technical and structural elements and careful attention to mechanical prec1s1on impression. (I) awe-1nsp1r1ng, seduct We, transcending everyday l i fe and Its disorder Into peace and calm (II) the drama of entering that space (III) the landscape acts as a surreal backdrop to the exhibitions ^ Immense space (I) the building 1s one large hal1 (II) partitions are kept low and away from ce11ing ( 11l)s1m1laMty of colour on al1 surfaces, 11ght grey (iv) uninterrupted views through completely glazed end-walls no visible division of (v) siting of building no perceived sub-divisions as wet 1 as designed for open panorama views throughout the building the glass myst ique (I) shimmerIng, abstract magic (II) creating lacework patterns Filtered 1Ight (1) wall and celling louvres f11terlng the sunl1ght ———————.... , . . _— . several small 1Ightslots 79 F i g u r e 21 - The Atheneum - A e s t h e t i c c o d e s , v a l u e s , and forms Vfi lue Form Aesthetic value Aesthetic connotation Aesthetic code Formal express ion Elabora t ion un1 ty appreciation of contextual ism - Impression (I) unifying element, sculpture (II) form related to context, grid refers to street grid, diagonal to the edge of the town, and weav1ng to the r1ver (III) stunn1ng, spectacular, fasclnatIng, powerful (iv) the last white icon of the Enlightenment Amorphous, sh1mmer1ng membrane (i) a combination of straight, angled and weaving (11) whi te, square enamelled steel panels put together with clean, crisp detal 1 mg to form sheer, unified planes of wal1 a tight, white and shiny building skin stretched around an amorphous form anticipation (1) reveal glimpses of the Intricacy of levels within Open - closed buiIding form (1) a mixture of solid and glazed walIs voids created in the buiIding skin anticipation leglbi11ty. understanding (I) a continuous experience (II) contraction/ expansion continually draws one on (III) sets the building in mot ion (1V) a key to compre-hending the building (v) the building as a place of social Interaction Ramped, open clrculation spine (I) ramp 1ocated centrally 1n the bu11d1ng (II) open (III) two overlaying grids, so that it cont1nua11y narrows and widens a centrally. located, open circulation ramp that widens and narrows complex 1ty antIcipation (I) the complexity creates Intricate abstract patterns (II) gradual unravelling of space Complex Interior space (I) the interior space Is generally only par 11 a 11y revea1ed, In the causeway approaches in the var1ous access stairs, from the circulation ramp, past screens and columns and througr, railings and beams (II) a multltude of different natural 11ght sources inter i or space complex, element and space perceived only partlally at one t i me Orlentat1on (1) adds to the visual complexity, but at the same time provides orientation Framing (I) views are selected and framed through the use of large . w1ndows, narrow window bands and picture-size wi ndows (II) pauslng-places are provided at view-points windows and stop-points are provided at possible view-points, so that the windows and the building form a frame around the view 80 F i g u r e 22 - San Juan C a p i s t r a n o L i b r a r y -A e s t . c o d e s , v a l u e s , and forms V a lue Form Aesthetic value Aesthetic connotation Aesthetic code Forma 1 express 1on Elaboration appreciation of contextua11sro inspiration. Innovation t (I) evoke the spirit of the mission (II) relate to surroundings (lil)show the Inspiration of exotic, vernacular Images (Iv) Interest through varied, animated facades (v) exaggerated proportions to make the project seem larger and heavier and thus give it the substance and Importance of a real civic bulldlng Exaggerated, varied and exot1c metaphor (I) differentiation In roof shapes and heights, some sloping and covered in red t i les (II) alternation between sol Id walIs and collonades ( 111 )protruding elements such as boxes. Towers, turrets, etc. (Iv) smal1, regular windows placed high up^ on the wal1 (v) stucco walls painted a 1ight creamy colour, combined with red and black roofs (vi) heavy masonry walls (v11) enclosed courtyard (vi11)everyth1ng is scaled down (lx) circulation and entrance are tall and narrow (x) reading rooms are short and stocky a similarity in form, materials and some typi cal features such as columns, towers turrets and smal1 windows, to that of Med 1terrenean and South American architecture. This provides Complexity and variation in the architectural elements, with proportIons that extend beyond the scale one expects to see 1ntimacy ant iclpat ion (1 ) a sense of personalized space (11) visual interest of surprise spaces Special places ( 1 ) individually artIculated spaces. such as the garden reading rooffls. the story nook, the entrance to the auditorium and the enclosed courtyard a differentiation in form and 1Ight qualIty, creating special places order (I) establishing a beat (II) repetition and rhythm tielng the architectural elements together Order 1y rhythm (1) a regular rhythm established by the repetition of small windows, turrets and columns repetition of elements creating a simple, regular rhythm Anticipation (I) direct movement (II) encourage movement (III) convey movement as processional and measured Directional space (I) circulation occurs along straight axis (II) circulation axis 1ined wlth parallei collonades (n1)clrculation axis 1 11 through clearstor ie (Iv) variation in light levels at axis Intersections or at special places linear circulation routes emphasized by corresponding collonades and 1 1ght 81 E. CONCLUSION The c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s of a column by Eco, prompted the p r o c e d u r e by which t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t the n o t i o n of a e s t h e t i c codes can f u n c t i o n i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m t o connect f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s w i t h a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . The g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n of the codes so e s t a b l i s h e d s u g g e s t e d t h a t a b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t may be u n d e r s t o o d t h r o u g h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of codes w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g t e x t s . B e f o r e c o n d u c t i n g such an a n a l y s i s , the n o t i o n of code i s t o be f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d . 82 F. NOTES 1 R o l a n d B a r t h e s , S/Z, T r a n s l a t e d by R i c h a r d M i l l e r , New York: H i l l and Wang, 1974, p.13. 2 Jon Lang, "Symbolic A e s t h e t i c s i n A r c h i t e c t u r e : Towards a Rese a r c h Agenda," i n P o l l y B a r t , A l e x a n d e r Chen, and Guido F r a n s e s c a t o , ( e d s . ) , EDRA 13, EDRA I n c . , 1982, p. 117. 83 V. THE NATURE AND TYPES OF CODES A. INTRODUCTION To g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a e s t h e t i c codes and the way i n which they o p e r a t e , t h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e codes d i s c o v e r e d t h r o u g h the a n a l y s i s . I t i s suggested t h a t t h r o u g h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the n a t u r e of a e s t h e t i c codes i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a method of c r i t i c i s m t h a t would i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l i s s u e s w i t h o u t imposing the b i a s e s of the c r i t i c . The a e s t h e t i c codes p r e s e n t i n the examples were found t o be l o n g t o e i t h e r one of t h r e e , s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s . These can b r o a d l y be named as a s s o c i a t i o n a l , a r c h i t e c t u r a l , and s p a t i a l codes. B. THE NATURE AND TYPE OF CODES 1 . A s s o c i a t i o n a l codes Some of the codes i d e n t i f i e d i n the examples were of an a s s o c i a t i o n a l n a t u r e ; i . e . , the a r c h i t e c t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n r e l i e s f o r i t s a e s t h e t i c communication on a p e r c e i v e d a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h something e l s e , g e n e r a l l y a p l a c e or a s t r u c t u r e . The a e s t h e t i c code may p r e s e n t a r e f e r e n c e t o , and a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the a r c h i t e c t u r a l o b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n and some known s t r u c t u r e . The a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e i s , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , dependent on one's a t t i t u d e towards the known s t r u c t u r e . An example of t h i s i s e v i d e n t from the a n a l y s i s of Kresge C o l l e g e . One of the 84 a e s t h e t i c codes i s the I t a l i a n V i l l a g e , see F i g . 7 - A e s t h e t i c code - I t a l i a n v i l l a g e p.54. I n t h i s example, the a e s t h e t i c code r e l i e d i n i t s f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n on s i m i l a r i t i e s t o the I t a l i a n v i l l a g e i n s c a l e ; o r g a n i z a t i o n of form; c o l o u r ; and one t y p i c a l f e a t u r e . The a e s t h e i c c o n n o t a t i o n s were s i m i l a r t o those i n i t i a t e d by a r e a l I t a l i a n v i l l a g e . The f i n a l a e s t h e t i c judgement r e l i e d on the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of such c o n n o t a t i o n s i n the case of Kresge C o l l e g e . The e f f e c t of the a s s o c i a t i o n a l v a l u e s depends on the s p e c t a t o r ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e the e s t a b l i s h e d a s s o c i a t i o n and a l s o h i s b e l i e f i n i t s v a l i d i t y . Colquhoun e x p l a i n e d t h i s i n terms of the a b i l i t y of images t o summarize, g a t h e r , and r e p r e s e n t s e v e r a l e x p e r i e n c e s so as t o be more e f f e c t u a l , and thus c r e a t e a r i c h e r and more complex a r c h i t e c t u r e : The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of f i g u r e s and t r o p e s r e s i d e s i n t h e i r s y n t h e t i c power. They draw t o g e t h e r and c r y s t a l l i z e a s e r i e s of complex e x p e r i e n c e s , which a r e d i f f u s e and i m p e r c e p t i b l e . The f i g u r e , t h e r e f o r e , i s a c o n d e n s a t i o n , the immediate e f f e c t of which i s t o suggest the r i c h n e s s and c o m p l e x i t y of r e a l i t y . In t h i s way the s p e c t a t o r or l i s t e n e r i s a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n between t h a t which he sees or h e a r s and h i s own e x p e r i e n c e . 1 S i m i l a r l y , Prak c l a i m e d t h a t by c r e a t i n g an a r c h i t e c t u r e of a s s o c i a t i o n , the a r c h i t e c t i s a l s o a b l e t o engage p e o p l e ' s emotions w h i c h , i n h i s mind, i s the most e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t , as "the meaning of a r t i s p r i m a r i l y one of f e e l i n g ; the works of a r t a r e symbols of e m o t i o n . " 2 The e x p r e s s i o n of t h e s e codes depends on s i m i l a r i t i e s between f o r m a l a s p e c t s ; e.g., form, o r g a n i z a t i o n of form, s c a l e , p r o p o r t i o n s , c o l o u r , m a t e r i a l s , d e t a i l i n g , space-arrangement, 85 l i g h t , and the formal expression of whatever i t i s associated with. Jencks discusses the cognitive tendency to group objects which are s i m i l a r . People invariably see one building in terms of another, or in terms of a similar object; in short as a metaphor. The more unfamiliar a modern building i s , the more they w i l l compare i t metaphorically to what they know. This matching of one experience to another i s a property of a l l thought, p a r t i c u l a r l y that which i s c r e a t i v e . 3 The designer should consider what kind of associations he wants to evoke. This type of code i s the most e f f e c t i v e in creating the s p i r i t of the place. From the texts examined the most successful application of such a code i s the I t a l i a n  V i l l a g e , where the s p i r i t of an actual I t a l i a n v i l l a g e i s c l o s e l y related to the s p i r i t of Kresge College and i t s setting. An example where the metaphor i s less successful would be the Sainsbury Centre. A few c r i t i c s questioned the connection between the s p i r i t of high-tech imagery and the s p i r i t of the green open s i t e and the function of an art g a l l e r y . An aesthetic value i s not created merely through the conscious creation of associations, but through the creation of associations which can be perceived as appropriate to the essence of design concerns other than aesthetic ones. From the texts analysed, i t seems that most often, the strongest e f f e c t from setting up associations results from formal expressions derived from borrowing t y p i c a l elements, such as columns, balconies, or t u r r e t s . However, associations can be established through a d i r e c t re-use of forms, or the elements can be d i s t o r t e d . As suggested by B r o l i n , there are b a s i c a l l y 86 f o u r ways of making c o n n e c t i o n s and images. He s u g g e s t s c o p y i n g e x i s t i n g d e s i g n m o t i f s , which has been done i n the F r i c k Museum A d d i t i o n , or u s i n g b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r forms r e a r r a n g e d , as i n the B r a n t House, Bermuda. He a l s o s u g g e s t s i n v e n t i n g new forms which have the same v i s u a l e f f e c t as the o l d , which can be seen i n Quincy M a r k e t , B o s t o n , or a b s t r a c t i n g the o r i g i n a l forms as i n the N a t i o n a l Permanent B u i l d i n g , Washington, D.C..ft J e n c k s i s more s p e c i f i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o the e x p r e s s i o n of forms when he d i s c u s s e s a e s t h e t i c codes. Some of t h e s e codes a r e s u g g e s t i v e of s p e c i f i c m o d u l a t i o n s of form t o a c h i e v e v e r y s p e c i f i c a e s t h e t i c i n t e n t i o n s . They do not r e l y on the a s s o c i a t i o n a l s p i r i t f o r t h e i r a e s t h e t i c a p p e a l , but r a t h e r on the c a p a b i l i t y of e v o k i n g the norm i n the s p e c t a t o r , and then d i s t r a c t i n g from i t . These m o d u l a t i o n s can a l s o be a p p l i e d t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l codes i n o r d e r t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o J e n c k s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l ways of d o i n g t h i s , t h r o u g h ' f e t i s h i s m and s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n , which f o r e g r o u n d s "elements ( d o o r s , windows, s t e p s ) by e x p l o d i n g t h e i r s i z e , t i l t i n g them sideways, p r o j e c t i n g them away from the normal volume of the b u i l d i n g . " An example from the a n a l y s e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s c o u l d be t h e p r e c i s e d e t a i l i n g t h a t i s p a r t of t h e h i g h - t e c h code i n the S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e . The p r e c i s i o n w i t h which the b u i l d i n g s k i n has been a r t i c u l a t e d does have f e t i s h i s t i c symptoms. Other codes i d e n t i f i e d by J e n c k s r e g a r d d i s t o r t i o n and d i s r u p t i o n . I t i s "...a f a v o u r i t e d e v i c e of R . V e n t u r i f o r c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the s c a l e of h i s a r c h i t e c t u r e ...{through} the ornamental s t r i n g c o u r s e or m o u l d i n g , which i s o f t e n p l a c e d 87 where i t s h o u l d n ' t be...". A s i m i l a r d e v i c e c a n be seen i n t h e example of t h e San Juan C a p i s t r a n o L i b r a r y where t h e e x a g g e r a t e d p r o p o r t i o n s draw more a t t e n t i o n t o the e x o t i c metaphor than would have been the c a s e w i t h a d i r e c t t r a n s f e r o f forms. J e n c k s a l s o r e g a r d s redundancy and m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n as a code. Through t h e o r d e r i n g of t h i s code v a r i o u s p a r t s of t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e a r e f u s e d by f i n d i n g some s e m i o t i c l i n k t h a t e i t h e r hadn't e x i s t e d .before o r was u n n o t i c e d . The l i n k t hen r e l a t e s p a r t t o p a r t i n such a way t h a t t h e i r p r e v i o u s meaning i s m o d i f i e d and t r a n s f o r m e d . An example can be found i n t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e S a i n s b u r y C e n t r e . The same m a t e r i a l s a r e used f o r the r o o f and w a l l s ; f o r l o u v r e s and s o l i d w a l l s ; i n s i d e and o u t s i d e a r e more or l e s s t h e same. The m a t e r i a l s t h u s becomes the l i n k w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o the h i g h - t e c h i m a g e r y . 5 A d i a g r a m of t h e p r o c e s s employed i n the f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n of a s s o c i a t i o n a l codes i l l u s t r a t e s how th e y f u n c t i o n . s p i r i t a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h a t of t h e new b u i l d i n g ' s f u n c t i o n , c o n t e x t , e t c . a s s o c i a t i o n t h r o u q h s i m i l a r form c o p y i n g forms u s i n g s i m forms but r e a r r a n g e d I new forms w i t h same v i s u a l e f f e c t f e t i s h i s m and s e l f -r e f l e c t i o n 1 a b s t r a c t i n g ] the o r i g i n a l forms d i s t o r t i o n and d i s r u p t i o n redundancy and m i n i -t u r i z a t i o n F i g u r e 23 - The f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n of a s s o c i a t i o n a l codes As i n t e r p r e t e d by a u t h o r (based on B r o l i n and J e n c k s ) 88 2. A r c h i t e c t u r a l codes Another way i n which a e s t h e t i c codes may be s t r u c t u r e d i s t h r o ugh a r e f e r e n c e t o known a r c h i t e c t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s . By a l l u d i n g t o e x i s t i n g a r c h i t e c t u a l p r a c t i c e , but a t the same t i m e p r e s e n t i n g a r e f i n e d v e r s i o n , t h e code draws a t t e n t i o n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b u i l d i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r e . The code may a l s o r e p r e s e n t an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s the outcome of n o t i c i n g an i n g e n i o u s s o l u t i o n , or a c a r e f u l l y a r r a n g e d and a r t i c u l a t e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l o b j e c t . In The K i m b e l l A r t Museum one of the codes has been l a b e l l e d C a r e f u l D e t a i l i n g . I t r e f e r s t o a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s such as g r a c e , p l e a s u r e , and a d m i r a t i o n of the s k i l l w i t h which the p a r t s have been assembled. The s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n r e l i e s on the j o i n t s c o m pleted i n a c a r e f u l and p r e c i s e manner. A r c h i t e c t u r a l codes e s t a b l i s h r e c o g n i t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , l e g i b i l i t y , o r r e c o g n i t i o n of p a t t e r n i n the b u i l d i n g and t h e environment. They r e f e r t o an a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r d e r t h a t can be a p p r e c i a t e d on s e v e r a l l e v e l s ; from a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of where one i s ( r e c o g n i z i n g e l e m e n t s ) , through r e c o g n i z i n g s i m i l a r elements t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e l e m e n t s . Order has o f t e n been v a l u e d merely on the grounds t h a t i t i s one of our e l e m e n t a l and p e r s i s t e n t a s p i r a t i o n s . K u l l e r e x p l a i n s i t s e f f e c t i n terms of i n v o l v i n g t h e p r o c e s s of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , and thus o r d e r i n g , which he sees as a b a s i c a l l y a e s t h e t i c p r o c e d u r e . 6 K a p l a n ' s approach i s somewhat s i m i l a r : 89 B a s i c p r o c e s s e s s u c h a s r e c o g n i z i n g a n d p r e d i c t i n g a r e , u n d e r a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , h i g h l y a f f e c t l a d e n . A f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e , f o r e x a m p l e , c a n be c o n f u s i n g t o t h e p o i n t o f b e i n g p a i n f u l , a n d h i g h l y i n t e r e s t i n g a t t h e same t i m e . C o m p a r a b l y , b e i n g a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e d e s p i t e d i f f i c u l t y a n d u n c e r t a i n t y c a n be a s o u r c e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e p l e a s u r e . 7 T h e r e i s a g r e e m e n t i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s t h a t a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f o r d e r a n d c o m p l e x i t y c o n t r i b u t e s t o d e l i g h t . Too much c o m p l e x i t y l e a d s t o c h a o s a n d t o o much o r d e r l e a d s t o m o n o t o n y . A r n h e i m h a s a l s o p o i n t e d o u t , t h a t c o m p l e x i t y i s m e a n i n g l e s s u n l e s s t h e r e a l r e a d y i s an e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r . A b u i l d i n g c a n n o t a f f o r d t o be d i s o r d e r l y . A d i s o r d e r l y o b j e c t c a n a c t a s a symptom o f d i s o r d e r b u t n o t a s a s y m b o l o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t . I f a b u i l d i n g i s d i s o r d e r l y i n i t s e l f , i t makes no s t a t e m e n t a b o u t t h e e x i s t i n g d i s o r d e r , b u t m e r e l y compounds i t . 8 , O r d e r i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e c h o i c e o f e l e m e n t s , how t h e y a r e c o m p o s e d , a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r u l e s f o r t h e i r c o n j u n c t i o n a r e b r o k e n . 9 ^ F o r m a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ r h y t h m , r e p e t i t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n ^ " ' " " ^ o r d e r l o g i c ^ — - . S y s t e m a t i c d e f o r m a t i o n c o h e r e n c e f r a g m e n t a t i o n c o n t r a d i c t i o n c o m p l e x i t y i n c o n s i s t e n c y F i g u r e 24 - O r d e r i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s As i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e a u t h o r 90 The codes concerning a r c h i t e c t u r a l order progress from a r e l a t i v e l y simple idea of establishing points of reference, or orientation, through v i s u a l continuity to the idea of repetition and rhythm. Whatever l e v e l of complexity, these codes are a l l v i s u a l codes; i . e . , they depend on one's a b i l i t y to see the formed re l a t i o n s rather than on any cognitive process. Orientation can be established through the use of windows or openings by which the user relates inside to outside, s i m i l a r l y a landmark; i . e . , a building or element that i s e a s i l y v i s i b l e and d i s t i n c t from other elements, contributes to recognition. Visual continuity may be established by forms that are related to each other, including minor elements such as cornices and r a i l i n g s . Materials that are combined in an ordered manner or l i g h t that i s varied in an ordered manner can also encourage forming v i s u a l l y perceivable relationships between elements. Rhythm can be created through the r e p e t i t i o n of elements such as columns, windows, turr e t s , or vaults. 3. Spatial codes The t h i r d type of code evident in the textual analysis was s p a t i a l . The code may be related to a space - time continuum; i . e . , where the architecture i s expressed in such a way that the present experience refers to both past and future experiences in the building. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of an 91 a r c h i t e c t u r a l element t o p r e v i o u s elements i s e v i d e n t a t the same time as i t s r e f e r e n c e t o e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s a e s t h e t i c code r e p r e s e n t s a s p a t i a l continuum t h a t communicates w i t h the i m a g i n a t i o n by c r e a t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s which a r e e i t h e r f u l f i l l e d or c o n t r a d i c t e d . An example of a s p a t i a l code from the Atheneum, i s the Ramped C i r c u l a t i o n S p i n e , which a l l u d e s t o a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s such as c o n t i n u o u s e x p e r i e n c e , a n t i c i p a t i o n and comprehension. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r code i s formed t h r o u g h a c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d c i r c u l a t i o n ramp t h a t widens and narrows. The v a l u e of m a n i p u l a t i n g space i s t w o f o l d , d r a w i n g the s p e c t a t o r s i n t e r e s t or c r e a t i n g an atmosphere. The n a t u r e of these a e s t h e t i c codes i s not p u r e l y v i s u a l or p u r e l y a s s o c i a t i o n a l . N o r b e r g - S c h u l z ' i d e a of r e g a r d i n g space i n e x i s t e n t i a l terms i s c l o s e s t t o the n o t i o n s found i n the t e x t s . 1 0 There a r e s e v e r a l i d e a s e v i d e n t i n the t e x t s as r e g a r d s the f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n concerned w i t h e i t h e r the c i r c u l a t i o n and p r o c e s s i o n t h r o u g h space, or the s c a l e of the space. One way of a t t r a c t i n g the s p e c t a t o r t o and t h r o u g h the b u i l d i n g i s by p r o v i d i n g p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t en r o u t e . These may be f i g u r e s p l a c e d i n the space such as a f o u n t a i n or a s p l a s h of c o l o u r , o r they c o u l d be columns p l a c e d a l o n g the c i r c u l a t i o n t o put more emphasis on ones movement th r o u g h space. The space c o u l d be g i v e n a c h a n g i n g q u a l i t y , so t h a t one i s a lways a p p r o a c h i n g a d i f f e r e n t space. T h i s i s e a s i l y a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h w i d e n i n g and n a r r o w i n g t h e c i r c u l a t i o n r o u t e or p a t h , or s i m p l y by a change i n l i g h t q u a l i t y . 92 A space t h a t i s g r a d u a l l y u n f o l d i n g a l s o seems t o a t t r a c t the s p e c t a t o r ' s i n t e r e s t , and can be a r t i c u l a t e d t h r o u g h w i n d i n g c i r c u l a t i o n , complex spaces or spaces where one i s a l l o w e d o n l y a g l i m p s e here and t h e r e t o what i s ahead. I f the aim i s t o impress t h e s p e c t a t o r , or s e t t i n g some k i n d of mood, one i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r seems t o be the s c a l e of the space; a s m a l l s c a l e space tends t o g i v e a f e e l i n g of i n t i m a c y , a v a s t space can be seen as a w e - i n s p i r i n g . Lang p o i n t s out the l a c k of r e s e a r c h done i n t h i s a r e a ; he o n l y draws a g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n : The volume, degree of e n c l o s u r e , and p r o p o r t i o n s of e n c l o s e d space a l s o c a r r y meaning. The consumption of space, per se, i s an i m p o r t a n t symbol. H i g h e r s t a t u s p e o p l e i n most o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f o r m a l or communal, i n h a b i t p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g s which a r e l a r g e r i n s i z e than t h o s e i n h a b i t e d by those of lower rank. 1 1 However, space i s not mer e l y m a n i p u l a t e d t h r o u g h the placement of s u r r o u n d i n g o r a d j o i n i n g forms, but as can be seen i n the examples, l i g h t , c o l o u r s and m a t e r i a l s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n c r e a t i n g t h e ambience i n a p l a c e as w e l l as i n p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t i o n and i n t e r e s t . 93 C. CONCLUSION I t i s suggested t h a t a e s t h e t i c codes, t h e i r t y p e s and a r t i c u l a t i o n s as d e s c r i b e d above a r e used i n contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . Through an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of e f f e c t s as w e l l as p o s s i b l e a r t i c u l a t i o n s of the v a r i o u s t y p e s of a e s t h e t i c c o d e s , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i n o t h e r p e r i o d s a l s o can be d e t e r m i n e d . The t y p e s of a e s t h e t i c codes a r e of a n a t u r e such t h a t t hey p o i n t t o the i s s u e s of importance i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s r a t h e r than promoting a p a r t i c u l a r d o c t r i n e . Thus i t i s suggested t h a t the same t y p e s of a e s t h e t i c codes may be found i n a l l a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m of t h i s c e n t u r y , even though the l a b e l l i n g of each i n d i v i d u a l code may d i f f e r . I n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r a t t e m p t s an a p p l i c a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c codes t o the c r i t i c i s m of The Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t by C h a r l e s Rennie M a c k i n t o s h , 1899-1909. The a p p l i c a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d as a d i s c u s s i o n t o demonstrate some of the advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of u s i n g a e s t h e t i c codes i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m . 94 D. NOTES A l a n Colquhoun, "Form and F i g u r e " , i n Essays i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l C r i t i c i s m : Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e and H i s t o r i c a l Change, Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1981, p. 191. N i e l s L u n i n g P r a k , The Language of A r c h i t e c t u r e , The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1968. C h a r l e s J e n c k s , The Language of Post Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e , New York: R i z z o l i , 1981 (1977). B r e n t C. B r o l i n , A r c h i t e c t u r e i n C o n t e x t , F i t t i n g New B u i l d i n g s  w i t h O l d , New York:Van N o s t r a n d R e m h o l d Co., 1980, p. 140. C.Jencks l i s t s 5 d i f f e r e n t ' a e s t h e t i c c odes'; " f e t i s h i s m and the s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n " , " d i s t o r t i o n and d i s r u p t i o n " , "redundancy and m i n i a t u r a z a t i o n " ( a l l of which a r e i n c l u d e d i n the main t e x t as m o d u l a t i o n s of form t o a c h i e v e c e r t a i n meanings and a s s o c i a t i o n s ) , "the a e s t h e t i c t e x t " as "hermen u e t i c , e s o t e r i c and . . . c o m p l e t e l y p r i v a t e " (which i s co n c e r n e d w i t h the c r e a t i o n of new meanings and the d e c o d i n g of t h e s e ; a s u b j e c t which i s seen as i r r e l e v a n t t o the c o n t e n t of t h i s t h e s i s ) and "the a e s t h e t i c t e x t " as " c o n t i n u a l l y open t o new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " (which i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the change i n a e s t h e t i c meaning and thus i s o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s t h e s i s ) . C.Jencks, "The A r c h i t e c t u r a l S i g n " , i n S i g n s , Symbols, and A r c h i t e c t u r e , p.95. R i c h a r d K u l l e r , " A r c h i t e c t u r e and Emotions", i n B. M i k e l l i d e s , ( e d . ) , A r c h i t e c t u r e f o r P e o p l e , New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wi n s t o n , 1980, pp. 87 - 100. Steven K a p l a n , "Where C o g n i t i o n and A f f e c t Meet: A T h e o r e t i c a l A n a l y s i s of P r e f e r e n c e " , i n P o l l y B a r t ; A l e x a n d e r Chen; and Guido F r a s e s c a t o ; ( e d s . ) ; EDRA 13, EDRA I n c . , 1982, p. 185. R. Arnheim, The Dynamics of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Form, B e r k e l e y , C a l . : U n i v . of C a l . P r e s s , 1977, p. 178. A s t r u c t u r e has been d e v e l o p e d i n l i t e r a r y a e s t h e t i c s which c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l i d e a s , and t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s the t y p e s of o r d e r t h a t w i l l i n f l u e n c e the f i n a l form. T h i s was demonstrated i n a l e c t u r e p r e s e n t e d a t U n i v . of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s p r i n g 1981, by Lubomir D o l e z e l , Dept. of S l a v i c Languages and L i t e r a t u r e , U n i v . of T o r o n t o . N o r b e r g - S c h u l z r e f e r s t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l space as the c o n c r e t i z a t i o n of e x i s t e n t i a l space. He c l a i m s t h a t e x i s t e n t i a l space " . . . i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l concept d e n o t i n g the schemata man d e v e l o p s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the environment i n o r d e r t o get a l o n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . " C h r i s t i a n N o r b e r g - S c h u l z , E x i s t e n c e , Space, and  A r c h i t e c t u r e , New York: P r a e g e r , 1974, p. 17. Jon Lang, "Symbolic A e s t h e t i c s i n A r c h i t e c t u r e : Towards a Re s e a r c h Agenda", i n EDRA 13, p. 176. 95 V I . PROBLEMS WITH THE USAGE OF CODES A. APPLICATION 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n I t has been proposed t h a t because a b u i l d i n g can be seen i n terms of a e s t h e t i c c o d e s , 1 i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make c e r t a i n a e s t h e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . Through i d e n t i f y i n g t h e codes i n a b u i l d i n g , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e the p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a l a s p e c t s t h a t i n f l u e n c e one's a e s t h e t i c judgement, as w e l l as the s p e c i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n s made, and the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s t h a t form the b a s i s f o r t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , and t h e r e b y a l s o the judgement. The a p p l i c a t i o n a t t e m p t e d below i s based on the r e s u l t s from t h e a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r s I I I and I V . I t s h o u l d be not e d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n has been t r i e d o n l y on one b u i l d i n g . As such, i t shows t h a t the n o t i o n i s v a l i d f o r the c r i t i c i s m of The Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t , but i t does not i l l u s t r a t e t o which e x t e n t i t may be used i n the c r i t i c i s m of b u i l d i n g s of o t h e r p e r i o d s or f u n c t i o n s . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e may be a d d i t i o n a l t y p e s of codes t o t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d , or the s e t y p e s may o n l y be a p p l i c a b l e t o contemporary d e s i g n s . However, i t i s sug g e s t e d t h a t the above mentioned t y p e s of codes a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of most a s p e c t s of c o n c e r n i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s i n t h i s c e n t u r y . They were the o n l y ones found i n the f i v e p r o j e c t s a n a l y s e d w h i c h were chosen on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r d i v e r s i t y of s t y l e . F u r t h e r t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s of c r i t i q u e s f o r s e l e c t e d 96 b u i l d i n g s as w e l l as the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of codes w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g t e x t s may r e v e a l a d d i t i o n a l t y p e s of codes d i r e c t i n g a e s t h e t i c judgement. The f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s i s how t o i d e n t i f y a e s t h e t i c codes. T h i s can be done, as i n the a n a l y s i s , t h r o u g h a t h orough e x a m i n a t i o n of suggested c o n n o t a t i o n s and f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n . By f o l l o w i n g the method d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I I , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e a t t h e same, or s i m i l a r codes as t h o s e i n the c r i t i c i s m s of the p r o j e c t . T h i s method i s assumed a p p l i c a b l e t o any a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . T h i s however, r e q u i r e s a l e n g t h y s t u d y of a l l a s p e c t s of the d e s i g n i n o r d e r t o denote the e x a c t r e f e r e n c e which e s t a b l i s h e s the a e s t h e t i c code. The t h r e e t y p e s of codes a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d , were used as a b a s i s f o r the t e s t . The aim i n i t i a l l y was t o i d e n t i f y the a p p r o ximate terms of r e f e r e n c e , or t y p e s of codes which c o u l d then be r e f i n e d . I t was a l s o s u g g ested t o attempt i d e n t i f y i n g the codes w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g e x i s t i n g c r i t i c i s m s . Such an approach s h o u l d i l l u s t r a t e the v a l i d i t y of u s i n g a e s t h e t i c codes i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m as w e l l as some p o s s i b l e problems. By e xamining the c r u c i a l f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o each t y p e of a e s t h e t i c code, i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a c h e c k - l i s t . On the b a s i s of t h i s , t h e presence of any code, i t s f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s can p o s s i b l y be s u g g e s t e d . These c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s have been e x t r a c t e d from the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s . 97 2. Example The Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t was chosen f o r the t e s t because i t i s d i f f e r e n t i n both s t y l e and g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n from Kresge C o l l e g e . A l s o , the b u i l d i n g has been the s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a b l e c r i t i c i s m , much of which i s p o s i t i v e . A v a i l a b i l i t y of g r a p h i c and c r i t i c a l m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as p e r s o n a l knowledge of the b u i l d i n g a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e c h o i c e . I t i s suggested t h a t i n o r d e r t o c onduct a v a l i d c r i t i c i s m of any b u i l d i n g i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have a thorough knowledge of both f o r m a l and s p a t i a l m o d u l a t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e c o n t e x t of the p r o j e c t . C h a r l e s Rennie M a c k i n t o s h was born i n Glasgow i n 1868. H i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l c a r e e r began i n 1884, when, a t the age of 16, he s t a r t e d as an a p p r e n t i c e i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m . At the same age he a l s o e n r o l l e d i n e v e n i n g c l a s s e s a t the Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t . At t h e time t h e S c h o o l was t h e c e n t r e of a r t i s t i c advance w i t h an emphasis on the use of n a t u r a l forms as a r t i s t i c s o u r c e s , a s e n s i t i v e use of m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i q u e s ; as w e l l as an i n t e r e s t i n b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r d i s p a r a t e a r t i s t i c s o u r c e s and r e f e r e n c e s . T h i s seemed t o s u i t M a c k i n t o s h w e l l . H i s a r c h i t e c t u r e shows a s t r a n g e and i n t r i g u i n g m i x t u r e of P u g i n ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m , a c o n c e r n f o r c r a f t s m a n s h i p and d e t a i l ( w i t h most of h i s ornament based on n a t u r a l forms) a s e n s i t i v i t y towards the use of m a t e r i a l s , as w e l l as t h e language of the S c o t t i s h B a r o n i a l s t y l e . He was h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s e a r l y c a r e e r and won the c o m p e t i t i o n he had e n t e r e d i n 1895 f o r the d e s i g n of the new Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t . The d e s i g n was a t t h e time g e n e r a l l y condemned f o r b e i n g A r t Nouveau, but the r e l a t i v e l y p l a i n , 98 a s y m m e t r i c a l b u i l d i n g a p p e a l l e d t o the head of the s c h o o l , F r a n c i s Newbery. The e a s t wing of the b u i l d i n g was completed i n 1899, w h i l e the west wing, which was c o m p l e t e l y r e d e s i g n e d by M a c k i n t o s h i n 1906-07 was not c o mpleted u n t i l 1909. M a c k i n t o s h was meanwhile growing more c o n f i d e n t w i t h h i s new v o c a b u l a r y and s t y l e , r e s u l t i n g i n a much more d a r i n g as w e l l as a u s t e r e west wing. The s c h o o l i s b u i l t on a narrow, s l o p i n g s i t e w i t h masonry and b r i c k w a l l s and s t r u c t u r a l d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e s of wrought i r o n . I t has f o u r d i s t i n c t i v e e l e v a t i o n s , e n c l o s i n g spaces t h a t were d e s i g n e d t o f i t t h e i r f u n c t i o n . The t e s t i s based on g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l o n l y . No c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e was i n i t i a l l y c o n s u l t e d . The t e s t was c a r r i e d out by i d e n t i f y i n g the p o s s i b l e t y p e s of a e s t h e t i c codes and d e s c r i b i n g the codes as they c o u l d be seen t o d a y . S e a r c h i n g the scheme f o r p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s , one of the f i r s t t h i n g s t h a t comes t o mind i s the range and d i v e r s i t y of p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t can be seen. As such, the a s s o c i a t i o n a l code seems t o be t h e c r i t i c s most p o w e r f u l t o o l . I t i n f l u e n c e s the r e a d e r s p e r c e p t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e of the atmosphere of the p l a c e , and can e a s i l y be t u r n e d from p o s i t i v e t o n e g a t i v e , or v i c e v e r s a , t h r o u g h the c h o i c e of code. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h r o u g h l a b e l l i n g a code, c e r t a i n c o n n o t a t i o n s a r i s e , w h i l e o t h e r s might by the same p r o c e s s be e x c l u d e d . The l a b e l l i n g of an a e s t h e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n a l code may even make the r e a d e r see the b u i l d i n g i n a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . Another p o i n t t o keep i n mind i s t h a t t h r o u g h the c h o i c e of l a b e l f o r such a code, a c r i t i c may e x p r e s s h i s p e r s o n a l l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . However, w i t h a body of c r i t i c s s u g g e s t i n g the same 99 a e s t h e t i c code, i t i s seen as a r e f l e c t i o n of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e r a t h e r than a p u r e l y i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e . In The Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t t h e r e a r e a number of a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t may be emphasized. The l a r g e g l a z e d a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the n o r t h f a c a d e , made up of square windows s e t i n a l a r g e s c a l e and heavy b u i l d i n g mass, as w e l l as the c h o i c e of m a t e r i a l s , masonry and b r i c k w o r k , may convey an i n d u s t r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n . Such c o n n o t a t i o n s can be seen as a p p r o p r i a t e t o the i d e o l o g y of an a r t s c h o o l i n the e a r l y p a r t of the c e n t u r y . An i n t e r e s t i n new t e c h n o l o g y and the c l o s e l i n k between the a r t s and c r a f t s , i n c l u d i n g i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i z e d the s c h o o l . At the t i m e , compared w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r emphasis on c l a s s i c a l d e t a i l s , t h i s approach was thought n o v e l . F i g u r e 25 - Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - n o r t h facade However, by s u g g e s t i n g the code I n d u s t r i a l D e s i gn the emphasis i s c o n c e n t r a t e d around the n o r t h f a c a d e , and i n p a r t i c u l a r on the p r o p o r t i o n s of the g l a z e d a r e a s . Such a code does not t a k e i n t o account f o r example the e n t r a n c e which has a 100 t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r . Another problem t h a t a r i s e s i s how t o determine the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s and v a l u e s . One may suggest v a l u e s such as a p p r e c i a t i o n of t e c h n o l o g y as a c r a f t o r of i n n o v a t i v e s o l u t i o n s , but t h e s e a r e merely t e n t a t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s w i t h o u t the s u p p o r t of a thorough study r e g a r d i n g p e o p l e ' s response t o I n d u s t r i a l D e s i g n . The c o n n o t a t i o n s may o f f e r an i n d i c a t i o n of the k i n d of v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such a code, but s h o u l d by no means be u n d e r s t o o d as the d e f i n i t e v a l u e . As mentioned above, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t can be made. I f , r a t h e r than s t r e s s i n g the i n d u s t r i a l a s p e c t s and t h e r e b y the n o v e l t y of the d e s i g n , the c r i t i c would l i k e t o emphasise the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y of the b u i l d i n g , he c o u l d r e f e r the reader t o the s o u t h facade and suggest an a n a l o g y w i t h S c o t t i s h c a s t l e s . W ith i t s s m a l l windows and t o w e r - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n s , i t can be seen t o have an a u s t e r i t y r e m i n i s c e n t of S c o t t i s h c a s t l e s . But a g a i n , t h i s t a k e s account of o n l y c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the s o u t h f a c a d e , and i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o the e a s t wing than t o the western end of the b u i l d i n g . I F i g u r e 26 - Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - south facade 101 T u r n i n g t o the a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements and t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n , i t seems e a s i e r t o suggest codes t h a t do not n e c e s s a r i l y d e s t o r t the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e . But even so, the c r i t i c s t i l l has the power, e i t h e r by e m p h a s i z i n g or by o v e r l o o k i n g c e r t a i n e l ements, t o l e a d the r e a d e r s a t t e n t i o n i n c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s . I t may be suggested t h a t the b e a u t i f u l ornament, the s l i g h t c u r v e s , and the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l elements i n the l a r g e b u i l d i n g mass s o f t e n the d e s i g n . I t c r e a t e s a l a y e r of f r i v o l i t y t h a t adds i n t e r e s t and makes one c o n s t a n t l y t u r n back f o r a c l o s e r l o o k . A l s o , t h a t t h e c a r e taken t o d e s i g n a l l elements i n harmony w i t h each o t h e r , i n c l u d i n g the f u r n i t u r e t h a t has been d e s i g n e d t o f i t the b u i l d i n g , add t o the i m p r e s s i o n of a complete and c a r e f u l l y thought out d e s i g n . I t seems t h a t i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t an account of the a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t s i n a b u i l d i n g i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o use c o n n o t a t i v e words such as ' b e a u t i f u l ' , ' s o f t e n ' or ' f r i v o l i t y ' . Such words o f f e r c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s : the reader e x p e r i e n c e s the b u i l d i n g r a t h e r than p a s s i v e l y w a t c h i n g i t . But a t the same t i m e , the c r i t i c d i r e c t s the reader t o c e r t a i n c o n n o t a t i o n s which w i l l i n f l u e n c e the a e s t h e t i c judgement. F i g u r e 27 - Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - w e s t wing e n t r a n c e 102 Another s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of the b u i l d i n g i s the remarkable b a l a n c e e v i d e n t i n the d e s i g n . There a r e e s t a b l i s h e d symmetries which are thrown o f f by v a r y i n g rhythms and e x a g g e r a t i n g p r o p o r t i o n s . However, the d e s i g n can be seen as u n i f i e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e v i s u a l i n t e r e s t t o which a t t e n t i o n i s drawn. In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , the t a l l , e x a g g e r a t e d p r o p o r t i o n s have become something of a h a l l m a r k . They s i g n i f y a d e s i g n by M a c k i n t o s h , and can p r o v i d e the s a t i s f a c t i o n of r e c o g n i t i o n . F i g u r e 28 - Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - n o r t h facade As r e g a r d s any s p a t i a l codes, they do not seem as o b v i o u s as i n any of the contemporary d e s i g n s a n a l y s e d . A p o i n t which makes sense, b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t the Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t was d e s i g n e d a t the v e r y b e g i n n i n g of the Modern e r a ; a p e r i o d p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h space. However, t h e r e are d i s t i n c t and c l e v e r s c a l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s and s p a t i a l i n t r i c a c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l i b r a r y . The p o s t s h o l d i n g up the b a l c o n y a r e s e p a r a t e d from i t which c r e a t e s a busy space w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g v i e w i n g a n g l e s t h a t c o n s t a n t l y change as one moves around. There i s a m i x t u r e 103 of low c e i l i n g spaces and t a l l , l o f t y ones, e x a g g e r a t e d by M a c k i n t o s h ' s use of dark m a t e r i a l s and dim l i g h t i n g i n the s m a l l e r spaces, l e a v i n g the l a r g e spaces b r i g h t and o f t e n t o p l i t . T h i s p r o v i d e s an a l t e r n a t i o n of i n t i m a t e atmosphere i n some p l a c e s and a sudden grandness when i t opens up i n o t h e r s which i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the f u n c t i o n of t h e s e s p a c e s . F i g u r e 29 - Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t - l i b r a r y The codes i n o p e r a t i o n i n the Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t can thus be i l l u s t r a t e d as i n F i g u r e s 25-29 above. Even though the b u i l d i n g i s f u l l of i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s , the above mentioned p o i n t s seem t o d e s c r i b e those a s p e c t s which a r e most i m p o r t a n t a e s t h e t i c a l l y . However, i t became e v i d e n t t h a t the c h o i c e of words and l a b e l l i n g of codes s t r o n g l y a f f e c t the reader and the way i n which he sees the b u i l d i n g . Once i d e n t i f i e d , the codes c r y s t a l l i z e the i n d i v i d u a l a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s as w e l l as r e l a t e the v a r i o u s f o r m a l a s p e c t s t h a t combine t o g i v e r i s e t o such c o n n o t a t i o n s . 104 3. D i s c u s s i o n R e a l i z i n g the problems w i t h , and i n f l u e n c e s of the wording of codes, some e x i s t i n g c r i t i c i s m s of The Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t was c o n s u l t e d . 2 I t was e v i d e n t t h a t the c o n s u l t e d c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e was u s i n g t h e n o t i o n of a e s t h e t i c codes. I t a l s o showed c r i t i c i s m s s i m i l a r t o the r e f e r e n t s and codes suggested above. However, the a e s t h e t i c codes, c o n n o t a t i o n s , and f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s were not s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y i n any one of the c r i t i c i s m s . Only two or t h r e e a e s t h e t i c codes were used by any one c r i t i c . The c r i t i c i s m s gave d e t a i l e d and a p p r a i s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c o m p o s i t i o n a l b a l a n c e ; 3 the e x c e p t i o n a l d e t a i l i n g and ornament;* and the e x c i t i n g s p a t i a l m o d u l a t i o n of t h e l i b r a r y . 5 The l i k e n e s s t o an i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g was b r i e f l y mentioned, as w e l l as the resemblance between the south facade and a S c o t t i s h c a s t l e . An example i l l u s t r a t i n g c o n n o t a t i o n s and a r t i c u l a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the code concerned w i t h the d e t a i l i n g and o r n a m e n t a t i o n can be found i n the c r i t i c i s m by Howarth. T h i s i s a l s o a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of how a d j e c t i v e s such as gay or a u s t e r e can be used t o engage the r e a d e r s e x p e r i e n c e and t h u s s e t up the ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' c o n n o t a t i o n s . I n s t e a d of a g e n t e e l facade b e f i t t i n g a s c h o o l of A r t i t had g r e a t windows 18 f t . a c r o s s w i t h unmoulded m u l l i o n s s t i f f e n e d by c u r i o u s m e t a l b r a c k e t s , t h e s e i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a s h i o n s e r v i n g a p r a c t i c a l purpose as w e l l as by t h e i r g a i e t y r e l i e v i n g an o t h e r w i s e a u s t e r e f a c a d e . 6 105 I t was s uggested e a r l i e r t h a t the a e s t h e t i c codes may change over t i m e . Even though no unexpected comments were found i n the c r i t i c i s m s which d a t e d from c i r c a 1935 - 1980, t h e r e was a s t r o n g e r emphasis upon the s p a t i a l m a n i p u l a t i o n of the l i b r a r y , than upon the importance of p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s c o u l d be due t o a change i n emphasis over t i m e . Contemporary a r c h i t e c t s a r e more concerned w i t h and have more f a c i l i t y and p r a c t i c e w i t h space and movement t h r o u g h space than a r c h i t e c t s were a t the b e g i n n i n g of the c e n t u r y . T h i s might have l e d c r i t i c s ( i n c l u d i n g m y s e l f ) t o expect b o l d e r and more d a r i n g s p a t i a l arrangements. S i m i l a r l y , the importance a t t r i b u t e d t o a s s o c i a t i o n a l a s p e c t s seems much s t r o n g e r i n contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r e and t h u s a l s o i n the above a p p l i c a t i o n than i n the e x i s t i n g c r i t i c i s m s of the Glasgow S c h o o l of A r t . T h i s may be due t o the p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t i n meaning a t t r i b u t i o n and a r i c h e r environment. The c o n c l u s i o n can be made t h a t the t y p e s of a e s t h e t i c codes a r e r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . Changes over t i m e , however, may o c c u r because of a d i f f e r e n c e i n emphasis and f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n r a t h e r than t h r o u g h c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t codes. I t i s a l s o suggested t h a t changes over time may be e x p r e s s e d i n t h e l a b e l l i n g of a code, t h a t t h e n o t i o n may r e f l e c t our change i n a t t i t u d e . 106 4. C o n c l u s i o n The attempt has been made t o i l l u s t r a t e the v a l i d i t y of a method of c r i t i c i s m based on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c codes and t h r o u g h t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o a b u i l d i n g . As the comparison w i t h e x i s t i n g c r i t i c i s m s shows the n o t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c codes l e d t o r a i s i n g i s s u e s of c r i t i c a l a e s t h e t i c i m p o r t a n c e . T h i s seems t o p o i n t t o the most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of t h i s t y pe of c r i t i c i s m : , i . e . , t h a t t h e i s s u e s of c o n c e r n can be i d e n t i f i e d . Because the codes r e p r e s e n t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and a e s t h e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n , they do not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e s e n t any dogmas. They a r e a l s o a p p a r e n t l y u s e f u l i n s e v e r a l s t y l i s t i c c o n t e x t s . T h i s , however, would need f u r t h e r t e s t s i n o r d e r t o be v e r i f i e d . On the o t h e r hand, i t became e v i d e n t t h a t the l a b e l g i v e n t o a code t a k e s on c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . The c r i t i c s ' c h o i c e of words may be a p p r o p r i a t e t o o n l y a s m a l l p a r t of the b u i l d i n g , but by b e i n g mentioned, t h i s may t a k e on precedence. Another problem becomes one of d e t e r m i n i n g the p o s s i b l e c o n n o t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the code. By c o l l e c t i n g and comparing c o n n o t a t i o n s by s e v e r a l c r i t i c s as was done i n the a n a l y s i s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o get an o v e r a l l view of a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s . The code may suggest the type of c o n n o t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , but i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e a complete range of c o n n o t a t i o n s and v a l u e s from i t . Thus i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t a e s t h e t i c codes have been used 107 i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m , not o n l y i n contemporary w r i t i n g s , and not o n l y f o r contemporary s t y l e s . I t i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t the n o t i o n i s s u i t a b l e i n the c r i t i c i s m of a r c h i t e c t u r e , as i t p r o v i d e s the r e a d e r w i t h a c e r t a i n v i s u a l and e x p e r i e n t a l i n s i g h t t o the b u i l d i n g . The a e s t h e t i c code i s a l s o c a p a b l e of g r o u p i n g c e r t a i n f o r m a l a s p e c t s i n t o one i d e a , and t h e r e b y a v o i d i n g problems such as the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a h o r i z o n t a l r a t h e r than a v e r t i c a l l i n e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the c r i t i c s t i l l has w i t h i n h i s power t o emphasize or t o o v e r l o o k c e r t a i n a s p e c t s t h r o u g h t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d , i f a t a l l mentioned. 108 D. NOTES A r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s i s here d e n o t i n g merely the p r i n c i p a l a s p e c t of t h i s t h e s i s , i . e . , i t i s m a i n l y concerned w i t h f o r m a l a s p e c t s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r the c o n n e c t i o n between f o r m a l a s p e c t s and a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s . L o o k i n g p r i m a r i l y a t the p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s , t h e r e would be o t h e r , more a p p r o p r i a t e ways of a p p r o a c h i n g the s u b j e c t . P h i l i p M. Shand, " S c e n a r i o f o r a Human Drama: The Glasgow I n t e r l u d e , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, v o l . 77, J a n . 1935, pp. 23-26. Thomas Howarth, " C h a r l e s Rennie M a c k i n t o s h (1868-1928): A r c h i t e c t and D e s i g n e r " , R.I.B.A. J o u r n a l , v o l . 58, Nov. 1950, pp. 15-19. N i c h o l a s P e v s n e r , Sources of Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e and D e s i g n , New York: F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1968. N i c h o l a s P e v s n e r , S t u d i e s i n A r t , A r c h i t e c t u r e , and D e s i g n , London: Thames and Hudson, 1968. D a v i d Walker, " C h a r l e s Rennie M a c k i n t o s h " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review, v o l . 144, Nov. 1968, pp. 355 e t . seq. D a v i d Walker and Andor Gomme, A r c h i t e c t u r e of Glasgow, London: Lund, Humphries, 1968. K u r t Rowland, A H i s t o r y of the Modern Movement: A r t , A r c h i t e c t u r e and D e s i g n , New York and London, 1973. N i c h o l a s P e v s n e r , P i o n e e r s of Modern D e s i g n , ( r e v i s e d e d . ) , T h e t f o r d , G.B.: Lowe and Brydone L t d . , 1974. A l v i n Boyarsky and Andy M a c M i l l a n , ( e d s . ) , Some D e s i g n s by CR M a c k i n t o s h , London: E.G. Bond L t d . , 1981. "The f r o n t would be a f u n c t i o n a l g r i d , i f i t were not f o r the e n t r a n c e bay or f r o n t i s p i e c e w hich i s p l a c e d out of the c e n t r e and i s a f r e e , a s s y m e t r i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n of elements of the Baroque, of t h e S c o t t i s h b a r o n i a l p a s t and of the Shaw - Voysey t r a d i t i o n . " N.Pevsner, The Sources of Modern A r c h i t e c t u r e and D e s i g n , o p . c i t . , p. 132. "Moreover, the f u n c t i o n a l g r i d and the s t u r d i n e s s of the c e n t r e a r e r e l i e v e d by d e l i g h t f u l , v e r y t h i n metalwork, the a r e a r a i l i n g s , the h a n d r a i l of the b a l c o n y and e s p e c i a l l y the odd hooks c a r r y i n g t r a n s p a r e n t , f l o w e r - l i k e b a l l s i n f r o n t of t h e upper windows. T h e i r p r a c t i c a l purpose i s t o h o l d boards f o r w i n d o w - c l e a n i n g , but t h e i r a e s t h e t i c p u r p o s e , l i k e t h a t of a l l the o t h e r metalwork i s t o p r o v i d e a d e l i c a t e s c r e e n of l i g h t and p l a y f u l forms t h r o u g h which the s t r o n g e r and sounder r e s t w i l l be seen." i b i d , p. 132. " . . . { t h e l i b r a r y } i s a room which, l i k e the i n t e r i o r s of the g r e a t G o t h i c c h u r c h e s , never p r e s e n t s a s t a t i c i m p r e s s i o n . I t i s not d e s i g n e d t o be e x p e r i e n c e d from one p o i n t o n l y , but depends f o r i t s t o t a l e f f e c t on the v a r y i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s o b t a i n e d as one moves th r o u g h a volume c o n t a i n e d by t h e c o m p l i c a t e d e n c l o s u r e of 109 the w a l l s : an e x p e r i e n c e i n t i m e . " D.Walker and A.Gomme, o p . c i t . , p. 217. 6 T.Howarth, o p . c i t . , p. 17. 110 V I I . CONCLUSION The aim of t h i s t h e a i s was t o i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s and t o e x p l o r e and dete r m i n e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . By c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h i n g a d e f i n i t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a method of c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s by which t o i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s i s s u e s of a e s t h e t i c importance i n a b u i l d i n g . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a dogmatic approach t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m c o u l d be a v o i d e d . The u n d e r l y i n g theme was formed t h r o u g h an e x p l o r a t i o n of the t r e n d s i n contemporary a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s . The d i r e c t i o n t aken was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e m i o t i c s . Two major i s s u e s were the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the t h e s i s . F i r s t of a l l , an e x p l o r a t i o n of r e c e n t t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s on a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s showed a wide v a r i e t y of d i s p a r a t e v i e w - p o i n t s . Another p o i n t of c o n c e r n was t h e i r l a c k of r e l e v a n c e t o a e s t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m of a r c h i t e c t u r e . The i n t e n t i o n became t o d e v e l o p a t h e o r y of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s t h a t would e x p l a i n s p e c i f i c f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n s as w e l l as a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . I f such a t h e o r y c o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d , the r e l e v a n c e of a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m c o u l d be e x p l o r e d . The l i t e r a t u r e s u r v ey l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n f o r m a l a s p e c t s of a b u i l d i n g which i n f l u e n c e our p e r c e p t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c ; such as rhythm; v i s u a l c o n t i n u i t y ; or the r i g h t p r o p o r t i o n s . There were a l s o some i n d i c a t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t emotions such as f a m i l i a r i t y , e x c i t e m e n t , or a 111 f e e l i n g of the a p p r o p r i a t e form the b a s i s f o r a sense of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . However, a p a r t from s t u d i e s by Arnheim i n p s y c h o l o g y , 1 t h e r e have been l i t t l e or no a t t e m p t s made t o d i s c o v e r t h e corres p o n d e n c e between a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s . How a r e a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t e d by a r c h i t e c t u r a l form, and under what c i r c u m s t a n c e s does one p a r t i c u l a r form change i t s s i g n i f i c a t i o n ? I t was the s e a r c h f o r t h i s c o n n e c t i o n which l e d t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e m i o t i c s and c o d i f i c a t i o n . A r c h i t e c t u r a l codes a r e u n d e r s t o o d t o "ge n e r a t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l form and t o connect a whole range of i n t e n d e d meaning t o t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l f o r m . " 2 The n o t i o n of codes was seen as a p p r o p r i a t e i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s as w e l l as i n s e m i o t i c s and d e s i g n methodology. I f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r the meanings conveyed by a code, i t was a l s o thought p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h the a e s t h e t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e meanings. F u r t h e r m o r e , the n o t i o n of codes i n d i c a t e s a r u l e - g o v e r n e d system of c o n n e c t i o n s which would r e v e a l c r i t i c a l i s s u e s and t h e r e b y e n a b l e one t o e s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a a c c o r d i n g t o which an o b j e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t . In o r d e r t o examine the v a l i d i t y of such a c o n c e p t , i t was d e c i d e d t o i d e n t i f y and study t h e a e s t h e t i c codes f u n c t i o n i n g i n a b u i l d i n g . The attempt was made t o base the study on an a n a l y s i s of a l l major a v a i l a b l e c r i t i c a l t e x t s f o r a s e l e c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s . The da t a s e l e c t e d c o u l d perhaps a v o i d an a p r i o r i approach t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . Such an approach has been r e c o g n i z e d by T a f u r i i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e and i n t e g r i t y of the c r i t e r i a used by c r i t i c s . 1 12 What, t h e n , i s the d i f f e r e n c e between V e n t u r i ' s p r o p o s a l and t h e p o e t i c s of many h i s t o r i c a l a v a n t -gardes - most of a l l P a u l K l e e ' s - t h a t r e c o g n i s e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the u n c o n s c i o u s , of the i r r a t i o n a l , of a m b i g u i t y and of the u n s o l v e d t e n s i o n between o p p o s i t e p o l a r i t i e s , i n t o the s t r u c t u r e s of a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y ? K l e e does not s t a r t from a p r i o r i c a t e g o r i e s (not even from h i s t o r i c a l l y d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s ) i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y the di m e n s i o n s of h i s p o e t i c . The h i g h d i d a c t i c c o n t e n t i n Theory of Form and F i g u r a t i o n i s i n K l e e ' s c o n t i n u o u s comparison between s u b j e c t i v e c h o i c e s and f o r m a l p r o c e s s e s i n the r e a l i t y of p e r c e p t i o n . For K l e e , i r o n y , c o m p l e x i t y , and soundings on the verge of the r a t i o n a l a r e end r e s u l t s and not s t a r t i n g p o i n t s . 3 • The attempt was made t o a d d r e s s the e x i s t e n c e and n a t u r e of a e s t h e t i c codes. The o b j e c t of such an approach was t w o - f o l d ; t o e s t a b l i s h how form and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e can be r e l a t e d t h r o u g h the c o d e s , and t o dete r m i n e the use of a e s t h e t i c codes i n c r i t i c i s m . From the a n a l y s i s , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n can not be r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o a e s t h e t i c v a l u e , but t h a t a r t i c u l a t i o n and v a l u e can be c o r r e l a t e d t h r o u g h the n o t i o n of a common r e f e r e n c e or an a e s t h e t i c code. The forms, i n terms of the a e s t h e t i c code, can be r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s and t h e r e b y a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . The a e s t h e t i c code p r o v i d e s the terms of r e f e r e n c e by which t o r e l a t e c e r t a i n f o r m a l a s p e c t s and the a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e a s p e c t s . The a e s t h e t i c a r c h i t e c t u r a l codes a r e more s p e c i f i c than a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o d e s , i n t h a t they r e l a t e a r c h i t e c t o n i c f o r m a t i o n s t o a e s t h e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s and v i c e v e r s a . In o r d e r t o e x p l o r e the v a l i d i t y of the a e s t h e t i c code i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m , an a p p l i c a t i o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g 1 13 was u n d e r t a k e n . The c r i t e r i a employed were based on an e x a m i n a t i o n of the codes and t y p e s of codes o b s e r v e d i n the t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s of some c r i t i c i s m s f o r f i v e b u i l d i n g s . Due t o i t s n a t u r e , the a e s t h e t i c code p r o v i d e s a way of p o i n t i n g t o s p e c i f i c i s s u e s of a e s t h e t i c r e l e v a n c e . A t e n t a t i v e c r i t i c i s m based on c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d from the a e s t h e t i c code showed t h a t the i s s u e s r a i s e d and the c r i t i c i s m s employed, were c o m p a t i b l e w i t h e x i s t i n g c r i t i c i s m s c o n d u c t e d over the p a s t 50 y e a r s . However, i t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e i s a range of codes t h a t can be s u g g e s t e d , some of which may be c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Moreover, even though i t may be p o s s i b l e t o suggest c e r t a i n c o n n o t a t i o n s , a t h o r o u g h study of p e o p l e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h each code would be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o get a complete v i e w . The t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s and a p p l i c a t i o n t o one b u i l d i n g r e l i e d on a s s o c i a t i o n s and a e s t h e t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d by a r c h i t e c t s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c s . The a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h o s e h e l d by o n l y a s m a l l group of p r o f e s s i o n a l s r a t h e r than the p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e r e i s no a l l o w a n c e made f o r t a s t e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t may occur between groups. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on a s o c i o l o g i c a l l e v e l would be r e q u i r e d t o det e r m i n e any d e v i a t i o n s as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t t a s t e p r e f e r e n c e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n k e e p i n g w i t h the i n t e n t of t h i s t h e s i s , an i n q u i r y was made i n t o how a r c h i t e c t u r e i s p e r c e i v e d r a t h e r than how i t i s c o n c e i v e d . I t has been suggested t h a t the a e s t h e t i c codes can be u n d e r s t o o d and put i n t o o p e r a t i o n by the d e s i g n e r a l o n g the same l i n e s t h a t they a r e read and u n d e r s t o o d by the c r i t i c . The knowledge and a c c e p t a n c e of such a s t r u c t u r e 1 14 may be h e l p f u l on a d e s i g n l e v e l i n t h a t i t can encourage a c o n s c i o u s development of what a r c h i t e c t u r e s h o u l d be. T h i s , however, has not been e x p l o r e d , but would form a t o p i c f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . A e s t h e t i c codes are t h u s a c c e p t e d as a u s e f u l n o t i o n i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . T h e i r s p e c i f i c n a t u r e as the c o n n e c t i o n between f o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e p r o v i d e s a d i r e c t i o n t o d i s c o v e r the c r u c i a l i s s u e s i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s . A view of a r c h i t e c t u r a l a e s t h e t i c s based on such a r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o v i d e s a t h e o r y t h a t a l s o t a k e s i n t o account a r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c i s m , and t h a t may form a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of such c r i t c i s m . As T a f u r i has n o t e d ; "by making r a t i o n a l , what, n o r m a l l y , i n a e s t h e t i c a c t i v i t y happens o u t s i d e a s t r i c t l o g i c a l check, and by d i s c o v e r i n g the i d e o l o g i c a l v a l u e s of f o r m a l c h o i c e s o f t e n made out of h a b i t , c r i t i c i s m can f a c e the a r c h i t e c t w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a c o n t i n u o u s and p i t i l e s s check on t h e s o u r c e s and s y m b o l i c systems t o which he, c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , t r u s t s h i m s e l f . " 4 115 A. NOTES 1 See f o r example Arnheim's The Dynamics of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Form, B e r k e l e y : U n i v . of C a l . P r e s s , 1977, which r e l a t e s s o l i d s and h o l l o w s , v e r t i c a l s and h o r i z o n t a l s , e t c . , t o p e r c e p t i o n and e motion. T h i s , however, seems d i f f i c u l t t o a p p l y when d e a l i n g w i t h the c o m p l e x i t y of a complete d e s i g n . One may p o s s i b l y p e r c e i v e the b u i l d i n g i n f r a c t u r e s , but t h e r e a r e o f t e n b oth v e r t i c a l s and h o r i z o n t a l s , e t c . , combined i n one image. Thus a p p l y i n g Arnheim's p r i n c i p l e s i n c r i t i c i s m would o f t e n l e a d t o c o n t r a d i c t o r y s t a t e m e n t s . 2 I . S a k e l l a r i d o u , A r c h i t e c t u r a l codes, M.Archh. t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d a t U n i v . of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1982, u n p u b l i s h e d , p. 99. 3 M . T a f u r i , T h e o r i e s and H i s t o r y of A r c h i t e c t u r e , G r e a t B r i t a i n : Granada, 1980, pp. 213-214. fl i b i d , p. 201. 116 BIBLIOGRAPY A l l s o p p , B r u c e . A Modern Theory of A r c h i t e c t u r e , London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1977. Arnheim, R u d o l f . 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