UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Decay of wood by the Dacrymycetales Seifert, Keith Anthony 1982

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DECAY OF WOOD BY THE DACRYMYCETALES by KEITH ANTHONY SEIFERT Hons. B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a t e r l o o , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Botany) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1982 © K e i t h Anthony S e i f e r t , 1982 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f B o t a n y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e J u l y 3 0 > !982 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT F o r t y - o n e s t r a i n s r e p r e s e n t i n g s i x t e e n s p e c i e s i n t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s w e r e t e s t e d f o r t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o d e c a y wood u s i n g t h e s o i l b l o c k t e s t . D a c r y m y c e s s t i l l a t u s . J2. c a p i t a t u s P.. d i c t y o s p o r u s . D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a . C e r i n o m y c e s c e r a c e u s a n d C a l o c e r a c o r n e a a n d _C. 1 u t e a c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d e c a y o f wood. Dacrymyces p a l m a t u s , _D. m i n o r , _D. n o v a e - z e l a n d i a e a n d C a l o c e r a v i s c o s a a l s o d e c a y e d wood t o a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . F o u r d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f d e c a y were n o t e d ; t h r e e t y p e s o f b r o w n - r o t and one t y p e o f w h i t e - r o t . T he b r o w n - r o t t i n g s t r a i n s w e r e u n u s u a l i n t h a t some d e g r a d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t s o f l i g n i n . M o n o k a r y o n s o f D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a showed a r e d u c e d c a p a c i t y t o d e c a y wood, w h i l e t h o s e o f Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s a n d D,. p a l m a t u s d i d n o t d e c a y w o o d . T y p e s o f r o t a s s o c i a t e d w i ^ t h s p e c i e s i n t h e T r e m e l l a l e s a n d A u r i c u l a r i a l e s t h o u g h t t o be s a p r o b i c on wood a r e p r e s e n t e d b a s e d on h e r b a r i u m s p e c i m e n s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t •• •- i i T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s . . . i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s i v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v Acknowledgements v i D e d i c a t i o n . v i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 M a t e r i a l s and Methods 4 R e s u l t s 19 D i s c u s s i o n 47 R e f e r e n c e s 57 Appendix 1: Media employed... 62 Appendix 2: Substratum i n d e x 63 Appendix 3: C o l l e c t i o n d a t a 73 X V LIST OF TABLES T a b l e I : Chemical and m o i s t u r e d a t a f o r c o n t r o l s . 31 T a b l e I I : Decay o f wood by Dacrymyces palmatus. Weight l o s s d a t a 32 T a b l e I I I : C h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f wood decayed by Dacrymyces  palmatus 33 T a b l e I V : Decay o f wood by Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s . W e i g h t l o s s d a t a . 34 T a b l e V: C h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f wood d e c a y e d by Dacrymyces.  s t i l l a t u s . •• 35 T a b l e V I : Decay o f wood by D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a . Weight l o s s d a t a 36 T a b l e V I I : C h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f wood decayed by D a c r y o p i n a x  s p a t h u l a r i a . 37 T a b l e V I I I : D e c a y o f wood b y v a r i o u s s p e c i e s i n t h e Da c r y m y c e t a l e s . Weight l o s s d a t a . 38 T a b l e I X : C h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f wood d e c a y e d by v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f Dacr y m y c e t a l e s 39-40 T a b l e X: Decay o f wood by some f u n g i i n the A p h y l l o p h o r a l e s . Weight l o s s d a t a 44 T a b l e X I : Decay o f wood by v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f Dacr y m y c e t a l e s on a v e r m i c u l i t e - s a n d m a t r i x . Weight l o s s d a t a 46 T a b l e X I I : Type o f r o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h wood i n h a b i t i n g member of the h e t e r o b a s i d i o m y c e t e s b e l i e v e d t o be s a p r o p h y t i c ( e x c l u d i n g D a c r y m y c e t a l e s ) 55 T a b l e X I I I : Type o f r o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f the D a c r y m y c e t a l e s based on h e r b a r i u m specimens i n UBC...56 LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1: G r o w t h o f D a c r y m y c e s s t i l l a t u s KAS 2 a n d Da c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 on Nobles' MA 21 F i g u r e 2: Growth o f Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s KAS i n GM and BM 23 F i g u r e 3: Growth o f Dacr y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 i n GM and BM 25 F i g u r e s 4-20: Wood b l o c k s d e c a y e d by v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f Dac r y m y c e t a l e s 28 F i g u r e s 21-31: Wood b l o c k s d e cayed by v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f Da c r y m y c e t a l e s 30 F i g u r e s 32-38: C o n t r o l b l o c k s 30 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am g r a t e f u l t o many p e o p l e f o r a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d me i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s p r o j e c t . F o r e m o s t a r e D r s R . J . B a n d o n i and E.C. S e t l i f f , who s u p e r v i s e d my work and renewed my i n t e r e s t whenever i t showed s i g n s o f decay. Dr. G.C. H ughes made numerous h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . F o r i n t e k Canada,Corp. k i n d l y a l l o w e d t h e use o f t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . P a r t i c u l a r t h a n k s a r e e x t e n d e d t o J a s o n N a u l t , May Chang, J e a n C l a r k , Tony B y r n e , A l R o s s , D r s Bob K e l l o g g , E r i c Swann, and Roger Smith o f F o r i n t e k . Drs L. Pazner and R. Kennedy o f t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , were most generous w i t h t h e i r t i m e and a d v i c e . M r s . F.F. L o m b a r d , F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L a b o r a t o r y , W i s c o n s i n , and Drs Ken W e l l s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B. Lowy, U n i v e r s i t y o f L o u i s i a n a , J . G i n n s , B i o s y s t e m a t i c s R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , O t t a w a , and G a r y Samuels, DSIR, New Zea l a n d , s u p p l i e d c u l t u r e s o r specimens. I am m o s t g r a t e f u l t o t h e N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s a n d E n g i n e e r i n g R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f Canada f o r p o s t g r a d u a t e s c h o l a r s h i p s awarded d u r i n g my s t u d i e s . T h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o Dr. I a n R e i d and the memory o f t h r e e warm p r a i r i e summers. 1 INTRODUCTION T h a t l o w e r b a s i d i o m y c e t e s do n o t c a u s e s i g n i f i c a n t d e c a y o f wood has been a p r e v a i l i n g f e e l i n g among f o r e s t p a t h o l o g i s t s ( B o y c e 1 9 6 1 , G i l b e r t s o n 1 9 8 0 ) . O f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2000 s p e c i e s o f wood decay f u n g i b e l i e v e d t o o c c u r i n N o r t h A m e r i c a ( G i l b e r t s o n 1 9 8 1 ) , o n l y e l e v e n s p e c i e s w i t h i n t h e h e t e r o b a s i d i o m y c e t e s have been s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g i n v o l v e d w i t h d e c a y o f wood. A p o r p i u m c a r y a e (Schw.) T e i x e i r a & Rogers (Macrae 1955), E x i d i a g l a n d u l o s a F r . ( M u l l e r & L o e f f l e r 1971), B o u r d o t i a e y r e i Wakef., B. g a l z i n i i ( B r e s . ) B r e s . & T o r r . , Sebac i n a c a l c e a ( P e r s . ) B r . , S_. e p i g a e a (B. & B r . ) B o u r d . & G a l z . ( L i n d s e y & G i l b e r t s o n 1978) a r e members o f t h e T r e m e l l a l e s w h i c h have been o b s e r v e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h w h i t e - r o t o f hardwoods. H e l i c o b a s i d i u m c o r t i c i o i d e s Bandoni, i n t h e A u r i c u l a r i a l e s , has had i t s decay a b i l i t i e s c o n f i r m e d i n pure c u l t u r e : i t c a u s e s a brown p o c k e t r o t o f s o f t w o o d s ( D a v i d s o n & H i n d s 1 9 5 8 ) . The o t h e r s p e c i e s s u s p e c t e d o f d e c a y i n g wood a r e members o f t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s . The D a c r y m y c e t a l e s i s an o r d e r c o n t a i n i n g a s i n g l e f a m i l y o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y s p e c i e s , a l l h a v i n g b i f u r c a t e b a s i d i a . A l l s p e c i e s i n the o r d e r grow on wood. B a s i d i o c a r p s o f most a r e g e l a t i n o u s and c o n t a i n y e l l o w i s h o r orange c a r o t e n o i d pigments (Goodwin 1953; Hanna & B u l a t 1953; V a i l & L i l l y 1968; C z e c z u g a 1980). The taxonomy o f 2 the group h a s been s t u d i e d by McNabb (1964, 1965a-e, 1966, 1 9 7 3 ) , Kennedy (1956, 1958ab, 1 9 6 4 ) , M a r t i n ( 1 9 5 2 ) , and R e i d (1974). S h i e l d s and S h i h (1975) s t u d i e d decay c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h r e e s p e c i e s i n t h i s o r d e r u s i n g a m o d i f i e d s o i l b l o c k t e s t . Two s t r a i n s o f C a l o c e r a c o r n e a t e s t e d c a u s e d a brown - r o t o f y e l l o w b i r c h , and 40% and 37.9% w e i g h t l o s s . One o f t h e above s t r a i n s c a u s e d a w e i g h t l o s s o f 62.3% on r e d p i n e . Two s t r a i n s o f D a c r y m y c e s s t i l l a t u s c a u s e d a b r o w n - r o t o f r e d p i n e , and 12.0% and 33.5% w e i g h t l o s s e s . D a c r y o m i t r a nuda caused a 3.5% w e i g h t l o s s i n r e d p i n e . C a l o c e r a v i s c o s a has been r e p o r t e d t o cause a h e a r t r o t i n stumps o f Douglas f i r (Siepmann 1977, 1979) and European L a r c h (Pawsey 1971) i n Europe. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t m e m b e r s o f t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s may be i m p o r t a n t i n t h e d e c a y o f wood. There i s a l s o some p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t t o s t u d y i n g t h e decay a b i l i t i e s o f s p e c i e s w i t h i n t h e o r d e r . C a l o c e r a c o r n e a ( S h i e l d s & S h i h 1975), Dacrymyces palmatus ( t h i s s t u d y ) , JJ. s t i l l a t u s ( B u l l e r 1922; Ramsbottom 1953; R e i d 1974; t h i s s t u d y ) , D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a (Duncan & Lombard 1965; t h i s s t u d y ) and D i t i o l a r a d i c a t a (Harmsen 1954; R e i d 1974) ar e a l l known from wood p r o d u c t s i n s e r v i c e . T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on t h r e e o f t h e s e f u n g i : Dacrymyces  p a l m a t u s , _D. s t i l l a t u s , a nd D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a . I s o l a t e s o f t w e l v e a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i e s i n t h e o r d e r h a v e been screened for a b i l i t y to decay wood, 4 MATERIALS AND METHODS PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS Growth o f Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s KAS 2 and D a c r y o p i n a x  s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 a t v a r i o u s t e m p e r a t u r e s was determined b y m e a s u r i n g g r o w t h on N o b l e s ' m a l t a g a r ( A p p e n d i x 1 ) . S i n g l e 2 mm p l u g s o f i n o c u l u m f r o m g r o w i n g a g a r c u l t u r e s were p l a c e d on t h e edge o f MA p l a t e s and i n c u b a t e d i n t h e d a r k a t 15, 20, 25 and 30°C, w i t h t h r e e r e p l i c a t e s a t each t e m p e r a t u r e f o r e a c h f u n g u s . R a d i a l g r o w t h was measured from t h e edge o f i n o c u l u m b l o c k t o t h e growing p o i n t o f the c o l o n y a f t e r 1 and 2 weeks. Co m p a r i s o n o f g r o w t h o f t h e above s t r a i n s was made i n two l i q u i d b r o t h m e d i a c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s o i l b l o c k t e s t i n o c u l a t i o n m e d i a . T h e s e were g l u c o s e m a l t b r o t h (GM) and a d e f i n e d b a l a n c e d medium (BM) (Appendix 1 ) . Two hundred and f i f t y ml erlenmeyer f l a s k s c o n t a i n i n g 50 ml o f GM were i n o c u l a t e d w i t h a g a r p l u g s o f t h e f u n g i and i n c u b a t e d f o r t h r e e weeks a t 20°C f o r u s e as i n o c u l u m . I n o c u l a were homogenized f o r 30 seconds a t t o p speed i n a W a r i n g b l e n d e r , and 1.0 ml o f i n o c u l u m was t r a n s f e r r e d t o 125 ml e r l e n m e y e r f l a s k s c o n t a i n i n g 20 ml o f e i t h e r GM or BM w i t h a s t e r i l e s e r o l o g i c a l p i p e t t e and a p r o p i p e t t e . F l a s k s were capped w i t h f o u r l a y e r s o f paper t o w e l s h e l d i n 5 p l a c e w i t h e l a s t i c b a n d s . F o r each f u n g u s , 18 f l a s k s o f e a c h medium were i n o c u l a t e d . _p_. s t i l l a t u s KAS 2 was i n c u b a t e d a t 20 °C and D_. s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 a t 25° C. C u l t u r e s were s t a t i o n a r y , i n a 12 h o u r l i g h t / 1 2 h o u r d a r k r e g i m e . A t w e e k l y i n t e r v a l s , t h r e e f l a s k s o f each fungus i n e a c h m e d i u m w e r e h a r v e s t e d . P r e w a s h e d Whatman q u a l i t a t i v e #1 50 mm f i l t e r p a p e r s o f known w e i g h t were p l a c e d i n 50 mm Buchner f u n n e l s , and w e t t e d w i t h d i s t i l l e d w a t e r . M y c e l i u m f r o m i n d i v i d u a l f l a s k s was f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e f u n n e l u s i n g an a s p i r a t o r . The f i l t e r p a p e r s w i t h m y c e l i u m were p l a c e d i n i n d i v i d u a l 5 cm p l a s t i c o r g l a s s p e t r i d i s h e s and d r i e d o v e r n i g h t i n a f r e e z e d r i e r b e f o r e w e i g h i n g . DECAY STUDIES P r e p a r a t i o n o f wood T r e e s were h a r v e s t e d a t M a p l e R i d g e , B l u e M o u n t a i n , B.C., on June 1, 1981. Trees s e l e c t e d were o f 9-12" dbh, a s u i t a b l e d i a m e t e r f o r o b t a i n i n g 1-2" o f sapwood. One t r e e o f e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s was f e l l e d : A l n u s r u b r a B o n g . ( r e d a l d e r ) , A c e r m a c r o p h y l u m P u r s h ( b i g l e a f m a p l e ) , T h u j a p l i c a t a D o n n . ( w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r ) , P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i ( M i r b e l ) F r a n c o ( D o u g l a s f i r ) , and T s u g a h e t e r o p h y l l a ( R a f . ) S a r g . ( w e s t e r n h e m l o c k ) . The maple t r e e s e l e c t e d had a s e v e r a l cm c o r e o f h e a r t r o t , but t h e sap wood was s o u n d . The o t h e r t r e e s were h e a l t h y . S p e c i e s s e l e c t e d a r e common s u b s t r a t a f o r s p e c i e s o f D a c r y m y c e t a l e s (Appendix 2 ) . A f t e r f e l l i n g , b r a n c h e s were removed and l o g s c u t i n t o a manageable s i z e . L o g s were t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e w o r k s h o p , c u t i n t o 60 cm l e n g t h s and q u a r t e r s a w n . B o a r d s 30 mm t h i c k w e r e c u t f r o m t h e q u a r t e r s such t h a t t h e g r a i n was a p p r o x i m a t e l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e t a n g e n t i a l s u r f a c e o f t h e b o a r d . These b o a r d s were debarked and k i l n d r i e d a t 120°C f o r f o u r days, t h e n a t 130° C f o r one day, r e s u l t i n g i n f i n a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t s o f 8 t o 22%. D r i e d b o a r d s w e r e p l a n e d t o 19 mm, and 19 mm w i d e s t r i p s o f sapwood were c u t . The r e s u l t i n g s t r i p s were c u t i n t o 19 mm cubes. Cubes o f h e a r t w o o d o f w e s t e r n r e d ced a r were p r e p a r e d i n an i d e n t i c a l manner. Cubes w i t h k n o t s o r d i s c o l o r a t i o n s were d i s c a r d e d . Feeder s t r i p s were p r e p a r e d by p l a n i n g d r i e d b o a r d s t o 25 mm and c u t t i n g 4.5 mm w i d e s t r i p s f r o m t h e sapwood. These s t r i p s were c u t i n t o 50 mm l e n g t h s . Feeder s t r i p s o f w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r h e a r t w o o d were p r e p a r e d i n an i d e n t i c a l manner. Fee d e r s t r i p s c o n t a i n i n g k n o t s o r d i s c o l o r a t i o n s were d i s c a r d e d . B l o c k s and f e e d e r s t r i p s o f P i n u s p o n d e r o s a D o u g l . (ponderosa p i n e ) sapwood were s u p p l i e d by F o r i n t e k Canada, Corp.Vancouver, from t h e i r s t o c k c o l l e c t i o n . B e f o r e use i n t e s t s , b l o c k s were s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o w e i g h t , so t h a t b l o c k s used i n a p a r t i c u l a r t e s t w o u l d be o f s i m i l a r mass. An a t t e m p t was made t o s e l e c t b l o c k s i n whic h t h e g r a i n was n e a r l y p a r a l l e l t o the t a n g e n t i a l f a c e . B l o c k s were numbered and coded w i t h p e n c i l , d r i e d o v e r n i g h t i n a 105°C f o r c e d a i r o v e n , c o o l e d i n a d e s i c c a t o r , and weighed p r i o r t o use i n t e s t s . F u n g a l c u l t u r e s W h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e , c u l t u r e s d e r i v e d f r o m f r e s h l y c o l l e c t e d b a s i d i o c a r p s w e r e u s e d . I f f r e s h l y c o l l e c t e d b a s i d i o c a r p s w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , r e c e n t l y c o l l e c t e d s p e c i m e n s were r e v i v i e d i n d i s t i l l e d w a t e r . P o r t i o n s o f s p o r u l a t i n g b a s i d i o c a r p s w e r e s u s p e n d e d o v e r MYPT a g a r ( A p p e n d i x 1) i n deep p e t r i d i s h e s u s i n g m a s k i n g t a p e . S p o r u l a t i o n was a l l o w e d t o o c c u r f o r s e v e r a l h o u r s a t a t e m p e r a t u r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t a t w h i c h t h e f u n g u s was c o l l e c t e d . A f t e r s p o r e g e r m i n a t i o n , a b l o c k o f a g a r c o n t a i n i n g g e r m i n a t e d s p o r e s was t r a n s f e r r e d t o MYP a g a r p l a t e s (Appendix 1 ) . C u l t u r e s o f s p e c i e s not found l o c a l l y and f o r w h i c h I was u n a b l e t o o b t a i n r e c e n t l y c o l l e c t e d s p e c i m e n s , w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m e s t a b l i s h e d c u l t u r e c o l l e c t i o n s . M o n o s p o r o u s c u l t u r e s o f P a c r y o p i n ax s p a t h u l a r i a w e r e i s o l a t e d f r o m a d r i e d c o l l e c t i o n . B a s i d i o c a r p s w e r e r e v i v e d a nd s u s p e n d e d o v e r a s t e r i l e m i c r o s c o p e s l i d e f o r s e v e r a l h o u r s , t h e n e j e c t e d s p o r e s a s e p t i c a l l y s c r a p e d i n t o 10 ml o f s t e r i l e w ater i n a screw cap t e s t t u b e . Loops o f t h e spore s u s p e n s i o n were s t r e a k e d o n t o MYPT p l a t e s . I n d i v i d u a l g e r m i n a t i n g b a s i d i o s p o r e s were removed from t h e p l a t e u s i n g a s t e r i l e n e e d l e under t h e d i s s e c t i n g m i c r o s c o p e , and p l a c e d on MYP p l a t e s . S t ock c u l t u r e s were m a i n t a i n e d on MYP s l a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g c u l t u r e s o f D a c r y m y c e t a c e o u s f u n g i were t e s t e d f o r wood d e c a y a b i l i t y u s i n g t h e s o i l b l o c k t e s t method. C o l l e c t i o n d a t a f o r t h e s e i s o l a t e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x 3. C u l t u r e s marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k were a l s o grown on a v e r m i c u l i t e - s a n d m i x t u r e . On a l d e r , maple, d o u g l a s f i r , w e s t e r n r e d cedar sapwood and heartwood. Dacrymyces palmatus (Schw.) B r e s . - UBC 6170 Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s Nees:Fr.- UBC 6146, UBC 6147 D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a (Schw.) M a r t i n - UBC 6101*, UBC 6126*, UBC 6171 On a l d e r o n l y : C a l o c e r a c o r nea B a t s c h : F r . - UBC 6151, UBC 6152, UBC 6153, UBC 6169 Cerinomyces c e r a c e u s G i n n s - UBC 6160* Cerinomyces c r u s t i l i n u s (Bourd. & G a l z . ) M a r t i n -UBC 6108 Dacrymyces c a p i t a t u s Schw.- UBC 6125*, UBC 6144 Dacrymyces n o v a e - z e l a n d i a e McNabb- UBC 6167 On Douglas f i r o n l y : C a l o c e r a l u t e a (Massee) McNabb- UBC 6150 C a l o c e r a v i s c o s a ( P e r s . : F r . ) F r . - UBC 6154, UBC 6168 Cerinomyces c a n a d e n s i s ( J a c k s . & M a r t i n ) M a r t i n -UBC 6094 Dacrymyces minutus (L. O l i v e ) McNabb- UBC 6175 Dacrymyces palmatus (Schw.) B r e s . - UBC 6120*, UBC 6148*, UBC 6166*, UBC 6176, KAS 17, W e l l s A-50-1,-4,-8 Da c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a (Schw.) M a r t i n - UBC 6171 monosporous 2, 4, 7 H e t e r o t e x t u s l u t e u s ( B r e s . ) McNabb- UBC 6125* On ponderosa p i n e o n l y : C a l o c e r a c o r n e a B a t s c h : F r - UBC 6152* Dacrymyces d i c t y o s p o r u s M a r t i n - UBC 6121*, UBC 6149 Dacrymyces p u n c t i f o r m i s Neuh.- UBC 6124* Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s Nees:Fr.- KAS 2 One cedar sapwood o n l y : Dacrymyces minor Pk.- UBC 6177 Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s Nees:Fr.- UBC 6145, W e l l s A-228-2,-7,-11 F o r p u r p o s e s o f c o m p a r i s o n , f o u r c u l t u r e s o f wood r o t t i n g A p h y l l o p h o r a l e s , o b t a i n e d f r o m F o r i n t e k , were t e s t e d f o r wood decay a b i l i t y i n the same c o n d i t i o n s . On a l d e r : C o r i o l u s v e r s i c o l o r ( L . : F r . ) Q u e l . - 105E Phanerochaete c h r y s o s p o r i u m Burds.- ME 461 On ponderosa p i n e : P o r i a p l a c e n t a ( F r . ) Cooke- 120F P o r i a s u b v e r m i s p o r a P i l a t - L6332 S o i l b l o c k t e s t Wood was d e c a y e d b y t h e t e s t f u n g i f o l l o w i n g t h e Am e r i c a n S o c i e t y f o r T e s t i n g M a t e r i a l s method (1976), w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n s . I n t h i s method, 16 ounce j a r s h a l f f i l l e d w i t h s o i l o f a known m o i s t u r e and m o i s t u r e h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y , w i t h 2 5 x 5 0 x 4 . 5 mm f e e d e r s t r i p s o f sapwood s u p p o r t e d by t h e s o i l , a r e i n o c u l a t e d w i t h a p u r e c u l t u r e o f f u n g u s . A f t e r t h r e e weeks i n c u b a t i o n , s t e r i l e 19 mm cubes o f wood a r e p l a c e d on t h e f e e d e r s t r i p s . The j a r s a r e i n c u b a t e d a f u r t h e r 12 weeks b e f o r e a n a l y s i s o f t h e b l o c k s . The d e t a i l s o f t h e method and t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s 11 adopted a r e d e s c r i b e d below. S i x t e e n ounce U n i v e r s a l g l a s s j a r s w i t h accompanying 63 mm l i d s w e r e s u p p l i e d b y Ampak, L t d . , R i c h m o n d , B.C. C u l t u r e l i d s were p r e p a r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e method o f Smith ( 1 9 7 8 ) . A 5 mm. d i a m e t e r h o l e was p u n c h e d i n t h e a p p r o x i m a t e c e n t r e o f e a c h l i d u s i n g a m e c h a n i c a l p r e s s f i t t e d w i t h a 5 mm d i e . Gelman GA-8 f i l t e r s , 25 mm diam. w i t h 0.2 um p o r e s , were s u p p l i e d b y W e s t e r n S c i e n t i f i c S e r v i c e s L t d . A f t e r w i p i n g t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e o f t h e l i d s w i t h a c e t o n e t o remove g r e a s e , t h e f i l t e r s were g l u e d o v e r t h e h o l e s t o t h e i n s i d e o f t h e l i d s u s i n g 24 h o u r e p o x y g l u e . The g l u e was a l l o w e d t o h a r d e n a t l e a s t one week b e f o r e t h e l i d s were used. P r i o r t o use, l i d s were wrapped i n l o t s o f t e n i n brown p a p e r and a u t o c l a v e d a t 121°C and 15 p s i f o r 20-30 minutes on t h e d r y o r wet c y c l e . The s t a n d a r d m a t r i x used f o r a l l f u n g i was an u n d e f i n e d medium c o n s i s t i n g o f s o i l , s a n d and w a t e r . S o i l was s u p p l i e d b y t h e D e p t . o f H o r t i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e and had been steam s t e r i l i z e d p r i o r t o b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e . S o i l was a n a l y s e d by t h e S o i l T e s t i n g L a b o r a t o r y o f the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, Kelowna, B.C. The s o i l was o f " c o a r s e " t e x t u r e , had an i n i t i a l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f 1 6 . 5 % , a pH o f 6.0-6.1, a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f 166 ppm NO^, 292 ppm P, 447 ppm K, 2285 ppm Ca, and 319 ppm Mg, and a s a l t c o n d u c t a n c e o f 2.68 12 Mmhos./cm. S o i l was s i f t e d t h r o u g h a 1 cm s c r e e n p r i o r t o u s e . Medium washed r i v e r sand was p u r c h a s e d f r o m T a r g e t C o n c r e t e P r o d u c t s , L t d . , B u r n a b y , B.C. The u n d e f i n e d medium c o n s i s t e d o f 1 p a r t sand and 3 p a r t s s o i l , enough t o h a l f f i l l t h e j a r s , and 40 m l o f w a t e r p e r j a r . T h i s m i x t u r e had a m o i s t u r e h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y o f 36%, between t h e 20-40% l i m i t s a l l o w e d by the ASTM s t a n d a r d . The c u l t u r e v e s s e l s were a s s e m b l e d by f i l l i n g c l e a n j a r s w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a m o u n t o f s o i l a n d s a n d , h o m o g e n i z i n g t h e m a t r i x b y h a n d s h a k i n g , a d d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e amount o f w a t e r , and t a p p i n g t h i s m i x t u r e down g e n t l y w i t h a wooden p l u n g e r . One f e e d e r s t r i p o f sapwood was p l a c e d f i r m l y on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e m a t r i x , and t h e j a r s l o o s e l y s e a l e d w i t h o r d i n a r y m e t a l l i d s . The j a r s were a u t o c l a v e d f o r 1 h o u r a t 121°C and 15 p s i on t h e wet c y c l e a n d a l l o w e d t o c o o l i n a l a m i n a r f l o w h o o d . F o l l o w i n g c o o l i n g , t h e m e t a l l i d s were a s e p t i c a l l y r e p l a c e d w i t h s t e r i l e c u l t u r e l i d s . F i v e j a r s o f each s p e c i e s were i n o c u l a t e d f o r each s p e c i e s o f wood t o be decayed. Two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n o c u l a were used i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y . In l a r g e e x p e r i m e n t s , b l o c k s were i n o c u l a t e d w i t h b l e n d e d m y c e l i u m f r o m 3-6 week o l d l i q u i d b r o t h c u l t u r e s grown i n BM. J a r s i n s c r e e n e x p e r i m e n t s were i n o c u l a t e d w i t h a gar c u l t u r e s b l e n d e d w i t h s t e r i l e w a t e r . C u l t u r e s w e r e b l e n d e d f o r 30 s e c o n d s i n s t e r i l e W a r i n g b l e n d e r s , o r f o r 10 s e c o n d s i n s t e r i l e S o r v a l b l e n d e r s . A l l j a r s r e c e i v e d 1.0 m l o f i n o c u l u m , d e l i v e r e d w i t h s t e r i l i z e d s e r o l o g i c a l p i p e t t e s and a p r o p i p e t t e . The i n o c u l a t i o n method o f t h e ASTM s t a n d a r d , i n w h i c h s m a l l b l o c k s o f agar c u l t u r e s a r e p l a c e d o n t o t h e f e e d e r s t r i p s , was abandoned a f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y e x p e r i m e n t s due t o s l o w growth. A f t e r i n o c u l a t i o n , j a r s were i n c u b a t e d a t 25°C i n t h e d a r k f o r 3 w e e k s t o a l l o w f u n g a l g r o w t h t o b e c o m e e s t a b l i s h e d . Then numbered, w e i g h e d , s t e r i l i z e d , 19 mm cubes o f sapwood o f t h e same s p e c i e s as t h e f e e d e r s t r i p s were a s e p t i c a l l y p l a c e d on t o p o f t h e f e e d e r s t r i p s , two b l o c k s p e r j a r , u s i n g 10" f o r c e p s . B l o c k s were soaked f o r a t l e a s t 1 h o u r , and t h e n a u t o c l a v e d a t 121° C and 15 p s i f o r 20 minutes on the wet c y c l e . F o l l o w i n g i n c u b a t i o n f o r a f u r t h e r 12 weeks, b l o c k s were removed, s u r f a c e mycelium g e n t l y s c r a p e d o f f , and wet w e i g h t s d e t e r m i n e d . Notes on a p p e a r a n c e and h a r d n e s s o f t h e wood were t a k e n . B l o c k s were o v e n d r i e d o v e r n i g h t , c o o l e d , and f i n a l d r y w e i g h t s m e a s u r e d . R e s u l t s a r e e x p r e s s e d as % w e i g h t l o s s r e l a t i v e t o i n i t i a l d r y w e i g h t . C o n t r o l j a r s w e r e t r e a t e d i n t h e same m a n n e r as e x p e r i m e n t a l j a r s , but no l i q u i d o f any k i n d was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o v e s s e l s a f t e r a u t o c l a v i n g . J a r s were i n c u b a t e d f o r e a c h wood s p e c i e s d u r i n g e a c h t e s t and w e i g h t l o s s e s d e t e r m i n e d as above. V e r m i c u l i t e - s a n d m a t r i x e x p e r i m e n t s S t r a i n s marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k above were a l s o grown on a v e r m i c u l i t e - s a n d m a t r i x c o n t a i n i n g a d e f i n e d medium. M e t h o d o l o g y f o r t h e s e t e s t s was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t f o r t h e s o i l j a r t e s t w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a n g e s . R a t h e r t h a n s o i l , a m i x t u r e o f 5 p a r t s v e r m i c u l i t e and 6 p a r t s medium wash e d r i v e r s a n d was a d d e d t o e a c h j a r . R a t h e r t h a n w a t e r , 86 ml o f a n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n , i d e n t i c a l t o BM b u t w i t h t h e c a r b o n and n i t r o g e n s o u r c e s removed, pH a d j u s t e d t o 4.5 w i t h s o l i d KOH, was added t o each j a r . T h i s m i x t u r e had a m o i s t u r e h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of 39%. C u l t u r e s grown i n BM were used as i n o c u l a . CHEMICAL ANAYLSES P r e p a r a t i o n o f Wood f o r A n a l y s i s Decayed b l o c k s o f wood were ground i n t o sawdust u s i n g t h e method o f C o w l i n g ( 1 9 6 1 ) . The b l o c k s were ground t o pas s t h r o u g h a 1 mm mesh wood was passed t h r o u g h 10 and 20 mesh s c r e e n s t w i c e , and 40 mesh once, on a s m a l l t a b l e t o p 15 m i l l . The 40 mesh and f i n e r sawdust was c o l l e c t e d a f t e r each s t e p u s i n g a 40 mesh s i e v e . E x t r a c t i o n o f Wood Sawdust was e x t r a c t e d u s i n g ethanol-benzene f o l l o w e d by 95% e t h a n o l (TAPPI s t a n d a r d T12 OS-75). A l l g r o u n d wood from each t r e a t m e n t was p l a c e d i n an oven d r i e d , weighed 33 x 94 mm Whatman c e l l u l o s e e x t r a c t i o n t h i m b l e , oven d r i e d o v e r n i g h t , c o o l e d and weighed. The t h i m b l e and wood were p l a c e d i n a 250 ml S o x h l e t e x t r a c t o r , which was a t t a c h e d t o a 250 m l r o u n d b o t t o m f l a s k c o n t a i n i n g 200 m l o f et h a n o l - b e n z e n e , 1 volume e t h a n o l t o 2 volumes benzene, and s e v e r a l m i c r o - p o r o u s b o i l i n g c h i p s . A -piece o f 7 cm f i l t e r p a p e r was f o l d e d i n t o a f u n n e l and p l a c e d o v e r t h e t o p o f t h e t h i m b l e t o p r e v e n t s p a t t e r i n g o f t h e wood. The a s s e m b l y was a t t a c h e d t o a c o n d e n s e r , s e a t e d i n a h e a t i n g m a n t l e , and h e l d f i r m l y t o a s c a f f o l d i n g u s i n g clamps. The h e a t i n g m a n t l e was c o n n e c t e d t o a t r a n s f o r m e r , and w i t h a c u r r e n t o f 60-70 v o l t s , t h e wood was e x t r a c t e d a t a r a t e o f f o u r syphonings p e r hour. A f t e r t h e e x t r a c t i o n was c o m p l e t e d , t h e a s s e m b l y was a l l o w e d t o c o o l o v e r n i g h t . The t h i m b l e was removed from t h e e x t r a c t o r u s i n g f o r c e p s , p l a c e d u p r i g h t i n a b e a k e r , a n d t h e c o n t e n t s w a s h e d t w i c e w i t h 9 5 % e t h a n o l . The o r g a n i c l i q u o r was d i s c a r d e d and the g l a s s w a r e r i n s e d t w i c e w i t h 9 5% e t h a n o l . The t h i m b l e was p l a c e d b a c k i n t o t h e e x t r a c t o r , a n d e x t r a c t e d a s a b o v e w i t h 200 ml o f 9 5 % e t h a n o l f o r 4 h o u r s . ' F o l l o w i n g t h e e t h a n o l e x t r a c t i o n , t h e a s s e m b l y was a l l o w e d t o c o o l , and t h e t h i m b l e was removed. The t h i m b l e was l e f t f o r a day i n a fume hood t o a l l o w most o f t h e t e t h a n o l t o e v a p o r a t e , t h e n oven d r i e d o v e r n i g h t . A f t e r c o o l i n g , t h e t h i m b l e and e x t r a c t e d wood were we i g h e d , and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f o r g a n i c e x t r a c t i v e s c a l c u l a t e d b a s e d on th e o r i g i n a l w e i g h t o f t h e wood. S i n c e o n l y one sample o f wood was e x t r a c t e d i n e a c h c a s e , no e r r o r a n a l y s i s was made. C o n t r o l wood was e x t r a c t e d i n t r i p l i c a t e . F o l l o w i n g o r g a n i c e x t r a c t i o n , t h e wood was e x t r a c t e d w i t h h o t w a t e r . Sawdust was t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e t h i m b l e i n t o a 1000 ml e r l e n m e y e r f l a s k c o n t a i n i n g 500 ml o f d i s t i l l e d w a t e r . The water-sawdust m i x t u r e was b o i l e d f o r one h o u r on a h o t p l a t e , w i t h a g l a s s r o d p l a c e d i n t h e f l a s k t o p r e v e n t bumping. The sawdust was f i l t e r e d f r o m t h e w a t e r u s i n g a 500 ml c o a r s e p o r o s i t y s c i n t e r e d g l a s s c r u c i b l e o f known w e i g h t . A f t e r oven d r y i n g , and c o o l i n g , t h e e x t r a c t e d wood was w e i g h e d . W a t e r e x t r a c t i v e s a r e e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e o r i g i n a l , u n e x t r a c t e d wood. K l a s o n l i g n i n a n a l y s i s o f wood K l a s o n l i g n i n p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e wood was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e m e t hod o f E f f l a n d ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T h r e e h u n d r e d mg s a m p l e s o f g r o u n d , e x t r a c t e d wood, w e i g h e d t o 3 d e c i m a l p l a c e s , were p l a c e d i n 60 m l b e a k e r s . T h r e e ml o f 72% H2S0 . were added t o each b e a k e r , and t h e m i x t u r e s t i r r e d w i t h a g l a s s s t i r r i n g r o d u n t i l a l l t h e sawdust was w e t t e d . The b e a k e r s and c o n t e n t s were i n c u b a t e d a t room temperature f o r 1 h o u r , w i t h p e r i o d i c s t i r r i n g . The c o n t e n t s o f t h e b e a k e r s were t r a n s f e r r e d t o 250 ml e r l e n m e y e r f l a s k s u s i n g 84 ml o f d i s t i l l e d w a t e r . F l a s k s were capped w i t h aluminum f o i l and a u t o c l a v e d f o r 60 m i n u t e s a t 121°C and 15 p s i . A f t e r a u t o c l a v i n g , t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e f l a s k s were f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h 30 o r 60 m l medium p o r o s i t y s c i n t e r e d g l a s s c r u c i b l e s o f known mass, u s i n g an a s p i r a t o r , and washed w i t h 100 ml o f h o t w a t e r . Samples were t h e n oven d r i e d , c o o l e d , and weighed. A n a l y s i s o f each sample was performed i n t r i p l i c a t e . K l a s o n l i g n i n i s e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f e x t r a c t e d wood. A c i d s o l u b l e l i g n i n was n o t measured due t o l a c k o f a s u i t a b l e s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r . C h l o r i t e h o l o c e l l u l o s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f decayed wood The method used t o measure c h l o r i t e h o l o c e l l u l o s e was d e v e l o p e d by t h e U.B.C. F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y . Samples o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 mg o f decayed, e x t r a c t e d wood, weighed t o t h r e e d e c i m a l p l a c e s , w e r e p l a c e d i n 50 m l S o v i r e l e r l e n m e y e r f l a s k s w i t h t h r e a d e d n e c k s o r 100 ml S o v i r e l sample b o t t l e s w i t h t h r e a d e d n e c k s . To each f l a s k , 7.0 ml o f a b u f f e r s o l u t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f 60 ml a c e t i c a c i d and 1.3 g NaOH pe r l i t e r o f w ater was added, f o l l o w e d by 3.0 ml o f 2 0 % , w e i g h t / w e i g h t , a q u e o u s s o l u t i o n o f s o d i u m c h l o r i t e , NaC102' The f l a s k s were s e a l e d u s i n g #22 o r #25 caps w i t h t e f l o n l i n e r s , and i n c u b a t e d f o r 16 t o 20 h o u r s i n a 50°C s h a k i n g i n c u b a t o r . The r e a c t i o n was s t o p p e d by p l a c i n g t h e f l a s k s i n t o c o l d w a t e r . The c o n t e n t s o f t h e f l a s k s were t r a n s f e r r e d t o 60 ml c o a r s e p o r o s i t y s c i n t e r e d g l a s s c r u c i b l e s o f known mass u s i n g 100 ml o f 1% a c e t i c a c i d , and an a s p i r a t o r . The h o l o c e l l u l o s e was washed t w i c e w i t h 5 ml o f a c e t o n e , g r a v i t y d r a i n e d , t h e n oven d r i e d f o r two hours b e f o r e w e i g h i n g . Three r e p l i c a t e s o f each sample w e r e r u n f o r t h e h o l o c e l l u l o s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f h o l o c e l l u l o s e i n wood i s e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f e x t r a c t e d wood. H o l o c e l l u l o s e v a l u e s were n o t c o r r e c t e d f o r r e s i d u a l l i g n i n . A random s e l e c t i o n o f 12 h o l o c e l l u l o s e s a m p l e s , u s i n g t h e m i c r o K a p p a number method o f B e r z i n s ( 1 9 6 6 ) showed r e s i d u a l l i g n i n i n t h e h o l o c e l l u l o s e t o be 1.71% w i t h a s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f 0.11%. 19 RESULTS PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS R e s u l t s o f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e growth e x p e r i m e n t a r e shown i n F i g u r e 1. Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s KAS 2 grew b e s t a t 25°C, grew w e l l a t 20°C, b u t showed r e d u c e d growth a t 15 and 30° C. D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 grew b e s t a t 30°C but a l s o g r e w v e r y w e l l a t 25°C. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s , 25°C was s e l e c t e d as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e i n c u b a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e f o r s o i l b l o c k t e s t s . F i g u r e 2 shows growth o f D_. s t i l l a t u s KAS 2 i n GM and BM. G r o w t h was a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r t i m e s g r e a t e r i n BM. The g r o w t h peak a p p a r e n t l y o c c u r r e d a t 6 weeks, b u t no d e c l i n e i n d r y w e i g h t was o b s e r v e d . F i g u r e 3 shows t h e growth o f D.. s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 i n GM and BM. Growth o f t h i s fungus i n BM i s a l s o f o u r t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n i n GM. The g r o w t h peak i n BM i s r e a c h e d a t 4 weeks; t h e g r o w t h peak was n o t r e a c h e d i n GM i n 6 weeks. I n BM d r y w e i g h t d e c l i n e d a f t e r 4 weeks. Based on t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s , BM was s e l e c t e d as t h e medium f o r growth o f i n o c u l a f o r l a r g e s o i l b l o c k t e s t s . 20 F i g u r e 1: G r o w t h o f D a c r y m y c e s s t i l l a t u s KAS 2 a n d Da c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 on Nobles' MA. K =15° C • =20°C A =25° C O=30°C RADIUS (mm.) RADIUS (mm.) F i g u r e 2: Growth o f Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s KAS 2 i n GM and 23 24 F i g u r e 3: Growth o f Dacryopinax s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 i n GM and BM. 25 Dac ryop inax s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 1 2 3 4 5 6 TIME (weeks ) DECAY EXPERIMENTS S o i l B l o c k T e s t s F i g u r e s 4 t o 31 show wood decayed toy v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f D a c r y m y c e t a l e s . F o r purposes o f comparison, c o n t r o l b l o c k s a r e shown i n F i g u r e s 32 t o 38. Weight l o s s and c h e m i c a l d a t a f o r s o i l b l o c k e x p e r i m e n t s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e s I I t o IX. Chemical and m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t d a t a f o r c o n t r o l s a r e shown i n T a b l e I . Four d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f decay were found on wood b l o c k s d e c a y e d by members o f t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s . The f i r s t t y p e o f r o t was a u n i f o r m d e c a y , r e s u l t i n g i n a b r o w n i s h d i s c o l o u r a t i o n o f t h e wood. C o n s i d e r a b l e s o f t e n i n g and s h r i n k a g e o c c u r r e d a t h i g h e r w e i g h t l o s s e s . The s o f t e n i n g was u s u a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e e a r l y w o o d , w i t h l a t e wood m a i n t a i n i n g i t s i n t e g r i t y . Some c r a c k i n g o c c u r r e d upon d r y i n g . T h i s t y p e o f r o t was c a u s e d by a l l s t r a i n s o f D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a ( F i g s . 4-8, 2 1 - 2 5 ) , Dacrymyces  s t i l l a t u s KAS 2 on a l d e r , D. c a p i t a t u s UBC 6143 ( F i g . 9 ) on D o u g l a s f i r , JD.. d i e t y o s p o r u s UBC 6149 ( F i g . 26) on ponderosa p i n e , Cerinomyces c e r a c e u s UBC 6160 ( F i g . 30) on a l d e r , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t Dacrymyces palmatus UBC 6170. A l l o f t h e s e s t r a i n s d e g r a d e d c a r b o h y d r a t e s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f JD_. p a l m a t u s UBC 6 1 7 0, a l l d e g r a d e d s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f l i g n i n . F i g u r e s 4-20: Wood b l o c k s d e c a y e d by v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f D a c r y m y c e t a l e s . 4 - 8 : D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101. 4 : c e d a r sapwood. 5:Douglas f i r . 6 : a l d e r . 7:hemlock. 8:maple. 9:Dacrymyces c a p i t a t u s UBC 6143 on Douglas f i r . 10: D_. c a p i t a t u s UBC 6144 on a l d e r . 11 -.Calocera v i s o c a UBC 6154 on Douglas f i r . 12-17:Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s UBC 614/. 12:Douglas f i r . 13:hemlock. 14:cedar sapwood. 15:cedar h e a r t w o o d . 1 6 : a l d e r . 17:maple. 1 8 : C a l o c e r a c o r n e a UBC 6152 on a l d e r . 19:C_. cornea UBC 6177 on cedar sapwood. F i g u r e s 21-31: Wood b l o c k s d e cayed by v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f D a c r y m y c e t a l e s . 21-2 5 : D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6171. r 21:Douglas f i r . 22:hemlock. 23:cedar sapwood. 2 4 : a l d e r . 25:maple. 26:Dacrymyces d i c t y o s p o r u s UBC 6149 on ponderosa p i n e . 2 7:Dacrymyces n o v a e - z e l a n d i a e UBC 6167 on a l d e r . 2 8 : D a c r y m y c e s s t i l l a t u s UBC 6145 on c e d a r s a p w o o d . 2 9 : C a l o c e r a l u t e a UBC 615U on Douglas f i r . 3U-Cerinomyces  c e r a c e u s UBC 6160 on a l d e r . 3 1 : C a l o c e r a cornea UBC 6152 on ponderosa p i n e . F i g u r e s 3 2 - 3 8 : C o n t r o l b l o c k s . 3 2 : D o u g l a s f i r . 3 3 : h e m l o c k . 3 4 : c e d a r s a p w o o d . 3 5 : c e d a r h e a r t w o o d . 3 6 : a l d e r . 37:maple. 38:ponderosa p i n e . TABLE I : Chemical and m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t d a t a SPECIES %MC %ORGANIC %WATER EXTRACTIVES EXTRACTIVES S t d . S t d . e r r o r e r r o r Douglas f i r 30-44 1. 33 0. 04 4. 18 0. 13 hemlock 33-40 1. 70 0. 26 3. 85 0. 16 ce d a r sap 27-91 1. 63 0. 25 4. 01 0. 07 cedar h e a r t 28-36 2. 12 0. 35 4. 58 0. 24 p i n e 38 2. 76 0. 31 5. 06 0. 51 maple 42-70 3. 13 0. 16 3. 36 0. 31 a l d e r 34-97 2. 21 0. 33 2. 50 0. 20 f o r c o n t r o l s . %KLAS0N %HOLOCELLULOSE %MIS-LIGNIN S I N G S t d . S t d . e r r o r e r r o r 29. 49 0. 46 70. 63 0. 37 -0.12 30. 72 0. 16 69. 30 0. 20 -0.02 32. 13 0. 27 66. 04 0. 38 1.83 33. 21 0. 30 64. 38 0. 81 2.41 26. 88 0. 15 73. 52 0. 24 -0.50 23. 49 0. 30 75. 51 0. 56 1.00 24. 42 0. 91 74. 72 0. 19 0.86 I—1 TABLE I I : Decay o f wood by Dacrymyces palmatus. Weiqht 1 d a t a . UBC# ORIGINAL SUBSTRATE SUBSTRATE 6170 unknown D o u g . f i r hemlock cedar sap cedar h e a r t a l d e r maple 6120 f i r D o u g . f i r 6148 hemlock D o u g . f i r 6166 c o n i f e r D o u g . f i r 6176 unknown D o u g . f i r KAS 17 unknown D o u g . f i r A50-4 unknown D o u g . f i r A50-8 unknown D o u g . f i r %MC %WT. LOSS S t d . e r r o r 40. 25 7.90 0.68 37.45 4.66 0.67 40.38 4.51 0.45 27.24 0.03 0.06 37. 79 5.03 0.99 41.84 3. 79 0.39 48.86 0.43 0.07 76.57 8.20 3.33 43.77 0.65 0.09 93. 27 1.93 0.05 130.31 1.64 0.11 87.15 1.35 0.07 132.94 1.28 0.10 TABLE I I I : Chemical analysis of wood decayed by Dacrymyces palmatus. UBC# WOOD %WT.LOSS %OE %WE IKLASON %HOLOCELLULOSE %CHANGE %CHANGE %CHANGE %CHANGE %MISSING LIGNIN OE WE LIGNIN HOLOCEL. Std. Std. error error 6170 DF 7.90 2.37 31.34 0.21 62.95 0.22 H 4.66 3.05 4.60 32.44 0.19 61.24 0.20 71.05 13.91 -1.56 -17.62 6.32 CS 4.51 2.09 4.66 32.56 0.21 65.57 0.25 22.44 10.97 -4.47 -6.30 1.87 CH 0.03 2.20 3.12 33.74 0.50 70.57 0.24 3.74 -31.90 3.07 11.20 -4.31 A 5.03 4.20 1.22 24.73 0.13 69.07 0.23 80.49 -53.65 -4.54 -12.87 6.20 M 3.79 3.45 8.64 24.80 0.05 76.43 0.30 6.05 147.40 -4.51 -8.45 -1.23 6120 DF 0.43 2.56 2.82 29.41 0.54 72.83 1.26 91.65 -32.83 -0.56 2.81 -2.24 6148 DF 8.20 2.64 6.77 32.13 0.24 59.48 0.18 82.22 46.68 -4.11 -25.88 8.39 6166 DF 0.65 2.02 3.38 30.27 0.25 67.39 0.38 50.89 -19.66 2.10 -5.10 2.34 6176 DF 1.93 1.91 3.17 31.19 0.15 74.58 1.17 40.84 -25.63 4.20 4.03 -5.77 KAS17 DF 1.64 1.97 4.09 31.29 0.18 67.79 0.22 45.69 -3.76 3.76 -6.14 0.92 34 TABLE IV: Decay o f wood by Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s . Wei< d a t a . UBC# ORIGINAL SUBSTRATE %MC %WT. LOSS SUBSTRATE S t d . e r r o r 6146 c o n i f e r D o u g . f i r 144.87 15.50 0.48 hemlock 159.08 14.17 0.43 cedar sap 268.46 20. 25 1.27 cedar h e a r t 65.54 7.52 1.79 a l d e r 150.54 20.53 1.35 maple 116.24 16.34 0.60 6147 c o n i f e r D o u g . f i r 213.81 10.98 0.35 hemlock 320.83 13.15 0.29 cedar sap 172.52 9.79 0.44 cedar h e a r t 131.21 3.04 0.07 a l d e r 212.65 22.34 0.63 maple 142.14 14.89 0.23 6145 c o n i f e r c edar sap 338.23 13.69 1.04 KAS 2 maple a l d e r 44.55 9.40 1.03 A2 28-2 unknown cedar sap 213.31 0.00 0.00 A228-7 unknown cedar sap 204.83 0.00 0.00 a228-llunknown cedar sap 193.13 0.10 0.00 TABLE V: Chemical analysis of wood decayed by Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s , UBC# WOOD %WT.LOSS %OE %WE %KLASON LIGNIN Std. error IHOLOCELLULOSE %CHANGE %CHANGE %CHANGE %CHANGE OE WE LIGNIN HOLOCEL. Std. error %MISSING 6146 DF 15.50 9.49 36.15 0.37 62.16 0.08 H 14.17 3.42 6.46 34.39 0.07 63.36 0.26 CS 20.25 3.04 5.96 33.56 0.20 64.75 0.34 CH 7.52 4.40 4.76 34.53 0.29 68.22 0.21 A 20.53 4.40 7.30 27.38 0.21 63.98 0.20 M 16.34 3.39 5.82 25.59 0.05 65.21 0.25 6147 DF 10.98 1.94 3.53 35.54 0.25 59.79 0.45 H 13.15 2.56 5.39 36.21 0.64 60.55 0.49 CS 9.79 1.81 4.75 34.22 0.26 63.62 0.10 CH 3.04 2.87 2.48 35.07 0.20 61.97 0.61 A 22.34 4.83 5.30 30.37 0.10 62.09 0.12 M 14.89 2.77 5.33 25.41 0.10 68.45 0.18 6145 CS 13.69 1.90 6.41 32.04 0.47 64.31 0.37 KAS2 A 9.40 2.79 5.69 26.90 0.70 60.23 0.49 ————— 1.69 72.67 44.02 -8.32 -25.12 2.25 48.74 18.53 -19.67 -24.59 1.69 91.94 -3.89 -6.34 ^1.59 -2.75 58.22 132.05 -17.43 -36.94 8.74 -9.39 44.91 -11.51 -29.85 9.20 29.89 -24.82 7.33 -24.61 4.67 30.79 21.59 -0.23 -26.04 3.24 0.17 6.86 •^ 1.86 -13.94 2.16 31.26 •^7.50 3.87 -5.32 2.96 69.73 64.64 -8.91 -39.14 7.54 -24.63 35.01 -9.52 -24.13 6.14 0.61 37.97 -16.38 -18.33 3.65 14.38 106.21 -4.15 -29.86 12.87 U) 36 TABLE V I : Decay o f wood by Dac r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a . Weiqht l o s s d a t a . " UBC# ORIGINAL SUBSTRATE %MC %WT. LOSS SUBSTRATE S t d . e r r o r 6101 unknown D o u g . f i r 157.47 33.53 0.56 hemlock 138.89 29.64 1.07 cedar sap 132.34 33. 77 0.73 cedar h e a r t 26.81 0.09 0.04 p i n e * 174.39 41.96 0.64 a l d e r 81.90 23.85 2.02 maple 153.70 29.82 1.63 6126 a p p l e D o u g . f i r 175.85 12.52 1.20 hemlock 163.40 15.34 0.84 cedar sap 23.52 2.48 maple 145.48 22.61 1.38 6171 unknown D o u g . f i r 133.37 26.17 0. 78 hemlock 140.92 29.14 0.62 cedar sap 120.84 32.55 0.86 cedar h e a r t 34. 33 0.37 0.27 a l d e r 111.47 18. 28 1.37 maple 150.22 29.93 0.43 6171- •2 unknown D o u g . f i r 180.61 8.01 1.42 6171- •4 unknown D o u g . f i r 122.53 7.30 2.47 6171- 7 unknown D o u g . f i r 115.85 2.31 0.35 * - I n c u b a t i o n t i m e 15 weeks. TABLE VII: Chemical analysis of wood decayed by Dacryopinax spathularia. UBC# WOOD %WT.LOSS %OE %WE IKLASON LIGNIN %HOLOCELLULOSE %CHANGE ICHANGE %CHANGE %CHANGE %MISSING 6101 DF H CS CH PP A M 6126 DF H CS M 6171 DF H CS CH A M 33.53 29.64 33.77 0.09 41.96 23.85 29.82 12.52 15.34 23.52 22.61 26.17 29.14 32.55 0.37 .18.28 29.93 9.26 5.37 48.17 9.57 6.54 42.72 11.33 7.60 46.11 4.24 5.51 33.11 10.67 13.34 52.69 9.19 7.50 28.57 8.39 5.30 30.31 31.72 34.27 3.37 7.01 2.81 4.82 4.39 8.25 5.28 7.05 5.05 5.61 5.88 4.19 4.44 7.97 8.26 39.97 50.33 12.02 42.95 3.53 42.70 6.04 27.41 Std. error 0.37 0.08 0.16 0.20 0.37 1.72 0.76 0.08 0.40 26.60 0.07 0.61 0.76 0.23 0.08 0.47 47.86 48.08 46.99 66.20 36.85 59.61 59.12 61.89 58.57 59.51 63.97 56.58 49.69 53.03 62.07 61.76 Std. error 0.60 0.14 0.15 0.21 0.04 0.21 0.24 0.02 0.25 0.11 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.50 0.56 0.09 8.09 7.17 29.98 0.42 56.53 0.23 OE 362.79 296.09 360.36 99.82 124.38 216.66 88.12 121.66 39.94 105.98 30.55 180.33 133.84 143.32 96.91 64.18 81.11 WE -14.61 19.52 25.52 20.20 53.01 128.45 10.70 46.71 5.99 57.35 62.38 40.77 52.03 102.18 -23.21 97.44 49.52 LIGNIN HOLOCEL. -1.90 -13.10 -18.34 -3.64 -6.21 -22.11 -16.42 -10.75 -7.64 -17.84 -7.89 5.87 -21.55 26.70 -13.83 -18.96 -59.31 -56.64 -59.51 -0.62 -76.02 -46.89 ^19.28 -27.30 -30.02 -36.19 -38.53 -45.56 -53.67 -52.87 -4.99 -36.54 -52.46 3.97 9.20 6.90 0.69 10.46 11.82 10.57 6.38 7.16 9.43 3.45 -0.02 4.02 -4.77 10.83 13.49 38 TABLE V I I I : Decay of wood by various species i n the Dacrymycetales. Weight loss data. FUNGUS Calocera  cornea lutea viscosa Cerinomyces  canadensis  ceraceus  crustulinus Dacrymyces  capitatus dictyosporus minor  minutus novae-zelandiae  punctiformis Heterotextus luteus UBC# ORIGINAL SUBSTRATE %MC %WT. LOSS SUBSTRATE Std. errco 6151 hardwood alder 104.16 4.04 0.45 6152 hardwood alder 83.64 2.80 0.39 6152 hardwood pine 115.75 11.89 0.72 6153 hardwood alder 107.29 1.38 0.20 6169 bamboo alder 114.36 16.53 1.52 6150 unknown Doug.fir 120.15 18.97 1.12 6154 conifer Doug.fir 91.28 3.91 0.39 6168 conifer Doug.fir 62.97 2.85 0.15 6094 Doug.fir Doug.fir 43.85 0.96 0.07 6160 magnolia alder 136.17 19.88 0.52 6108 unknown pine 33.96 0.25 0.03 6125 6143 6144 6121 6149 6177 6175 6167 6167 alder hardwood oak pine unknown unknown conifer unknown pine alder Doug.fir alder pine pine cedar sap Doug.fir alder pine 31.76 125.89 207.20 67.84 214.81 207.48 70.18 124.93 32.38 0.77 15.44 36.47 0.33 26.56 4.10 1.42 5.66 0.33 0.01 0.47 2.02 0.06 2.57 0.52 0.10 0.70 0.04 6165 Doug.fir Doug.fir 35.79 0.38 0.08 TABLE IX: Chemical analysis of UBC# WOOD %WT.LOSS %0E %WE wood decayed by various species of Dacrymycetales, Calocera cornea 6151 6152 A A PP 6153 A 6169 A C, lutea 6150 DF C. viscosa 6154 DF 6168 DF 4.04 2.80 11.89 1.38 16.53 18.97 3.91 2.85 1.21 1.30 4.09 1.65 3.05 2.24 1.32 Cerinomvces canadensis 6094 DF 0.96 1.34 C. ceraceus 6160 A 19.88 5.32 C_. crustulinus 6108 PP 0.25 4.21 %KLAS0N LIGNIN 3.55 2.89 6.38 2.75 4.14 25.56 25.18 30.21 21.41 26.53 Std. error 0.34 0.08 2.49 0.45 0.11 %HOLXELLULOSE %CHANGE %CHANGE %CHANGE %CHANGE OE WE LIGNIN HOLOCEL. Std. error 73.43 75.05 62.20 78.69 72.34 0.36 0.23 0.54 0.39 0.33 -47.46 •^2.82 30.57 -26.37 15.20 4.81 5.24 2.92 7.21 6.74 28.93 31.53 30.45 25.13 28.76 0.10 0.14 0.03 0.21 0.14 70.58 67.32 64.82 66.07 63.21 0.53 0.28 0.62 0.23 0.34 61.84 -3.58 -0.22 92.87 52.15 36.26 12.36 11.10 8.43 38.23 4.29 5.75 34.56 0.42 60.06 0.15 161.37 11.46 10.57 21.79 -30.81 131.07 32.87 0.39 0.77 -5.75 -1.84 -3.82 -27.60 -13.25 4.20 -11.68 -21.29 -9.59 -34.40 -7.27 2.72 -5.54 -8.43 3.61 -7.90 -24.32 -34.97 3.10 -17.15 continued... %MISSING 1.01 -0.23 7.59 -0.10 1.13 5.38 0.49 1.15 4.73 8.80 8.03 vo TABLE IX (continued): UBC# WOOD %WT.LOSS %0E %WE %KLASON %HOLOCELLULOSE %CHANGE %CHANGE %CHANGE %CHANGE %MISSING LIGNIN OE WE LIGNIN HOLOCEL. Std. Std. error error Dacrymyces capitatus 6125 A 0.77 1.42 1.94 23.77 0.16 71.60 0.10 -36.24 -23.00 -2.04 -3.57 4.63 6143 DF 15.44 2.45 7.10 31.80 0.16 61.94 0.30 55.77 43.63 -12.01 -29.01 6.26 6144 A 36.47 5.83 8.40 29.50 0.12 63.13 0.23 67.59 113.46 -30.92 -51.69 7.37 D. dictyosporus 6121 PP 0.33 3.79 3.09 28.77 0.74 70.76 0.31 36.87 -39.13 7.77 -3.09 0.47 6149 PP 26.56 5.75 8.50 33.73 0.16 63.93 0.06 53.00 23.37 -14.22 -40.59 2.32 D. minor 6177 CS 4.10 5.21 32.76 0.14 67.77 0.26 0.58 D. minutus 6175 DF 1.42 1.90 3.05 33.05 0.45 68.23 0.29 40.83 -28.07 11.14 -4.21 -1.28 12. novae-zelandiae 6167 A 5.66 2.22 2.83 24.88 0.03 76.82 0.49 -5.23 6.79 -4.23 -3.35 -1.70 D. punctiformis 6124 PP 0.33 3.39 3.50 28.76 0.31 67.40 0.03 22.42 -31.06 7.71 -7.70 3.83 Heterotextus luteus 6165 DF 0.38 2.06 4.16 31.62 0.72 69.17 0.27 54.30 -0.86 6.01 -3.17 -0.79 o The second t y p e o f d e c a y p r o d u c e d was a brown p o c k e t r o t , i n w h i c h s m a l l , l i n e a r t o i r r e g u l a r l y e l l i p s o i d p o c k e t s o f wood, up t o 5 mm i n d i a m e t e r , were d i s c o l o u r e d b r o w n . S i g n s o f s o f t e n i n g and c o l l a p s e o f t h e t i s s u e w i t h i n t h e p o c k e t s were sometimes e v i d e n t . P o c k e t s were u s u a l l y more numerous a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e b l o c k s . T h i s t y p e o f d e c a y was c a u s e d by C a l o c e r a c o r n e a UBC 6151, UBC 6152 ( F i g . 1 8 ) , UBC 6153, UBC 6169 ( F i g . 1 9 ) , Dacrymyces  c a p i t a t u s UBC 6144 ( F i g . 1 0 ) , and p_. n o v a e - z e l a n d i a e UBC 6167 ( F i g . 27) a l l on a l d e r , and D. palmatus UBC 6148 on Douglas f i r . A l l o f t h e s e s t r a i n s degraded c a r b o h y d r a t e s , but o n l y C_. cornea UBC 6169, D,. c a p i t a t u s UBC 6144 and p_. n o v a e - z e l a n d i a e UBC 6167 degraded l i g n i n t o any e x t e n t . The t h i r d t y p e o f r o t decayed and d i s c o l o u r e d t h e wood brown p r o g r e s s i v e l y from t h e bottom of t h e b l o c k upwards. E a r l y w o o d d i s a p p e a r e d a t t h e base o f the b l o c k s , l e a v i n g a brown s k e l e t o n o f l a t e w o o d . D r i e d b l o c k s were b r i t t l e and s l i g h t l y s h r u n k e n a t t h e b a s e . T h i s t y p e o f d e c a y was caused by Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s UBC 6147 ( F i g . 12-17) and UBC 6146 on a l l t y p e s o f wood, UBC 6145 ( F i g . 28) on cedar sapwood, C a l o c e r a c o r n e a UBC 6152 ( F i g . 31) on ponderosa p i n e , and Dacrymyces m i n o r UBC 6177 ( F i g . 2U) on c e d a r sapwood. E x t e n s i v e d e g r e d a t i o n o f c a r b o h y d r a t e s o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e s e s t r a i n s . V a r i a b l e amounts o f l i g n i n were a l s o removed. The f o u r t h t y p e o f d e c a y i s s i m i l a r t o a w h i t e - r o t . There was l i t t l e o r no d i s c o l o u r a t i o n o f the wood, but some s o f t e n i n g a n d s h r i n k a g e o c c u r r e d . S o f t e n i n g was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e e a r l y w o o d . T h i s t y p e o f d e c a y was c a u s e d by C a l o c e r a 1 u t e a UBC 6150 ( F i g . 2 9 ) , and C. v i s c o s a UBC 6154 ( F i g . 11) and UBC 6168, a l l on D o u g l a s f i r . C a r b o h y d r a t e s were reduced by a l l t h r e e s t r a i n s . C_. l u t e a UBC 6150 and C_. v i s c o s a UBC 6154 removed s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f l i g n i n . S e v e r a l s t r a i n s t e s t e d showed l i t t l e o r no c a p a c i t y t o decay wood, and caused no changes i n the appearances o f the b l o c k s . These s t r a i n s were Dacrymyces p a l m a t u s UBC 6120, UBC 6166, UBC 6176, KAS 17 on D o u g l a s f i r , D_. c a p i t a t u s UBC 6125 on a l d e r , D.. minutus UBC 6175 on Douglas f i r , D. p u n c t i f o r m i s UBC 6124 on p o n d e r o s a p i n e , C e r i n o m y c e s  c a n a d e n s i s UBC 6094 on D o u g l a s f i r , .C_. c r u s t u l i n u s UBC 6108 on ponderosa p i n e , and H e t e r o t e x t u s l u t e u s UBC 6165 on D o u g l a s f i r . C h e m i c a l d a t a f o r t h e s e s t r a i n s , b e c a u s e o f low w e i g h t l o s s e s , a r e d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t , but most o f t h e s e s t r a i n s appear t o have b e e n r e d u c i n g t h e e x t r a c t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e wood. _D. palmatus UBC 6166 and KAS 17, D.. c a p i t a t u s UBC 6125, Cerinomyces c a n a d e n s i s UBC 6094 and C. c r u s t u l i n u s UBC 6108 d e p l e t e d t h e c a r b o h y d r a t e s t o some e x t e n t . A l l o f t h e monokaryons t e s t e d showed a reduced c a p a c i t y t o decay wood. Monokaryons o f D_. palmatus KW-A-5 0, grown on D o u g l a s f i r , and o f D.. s t i l l a t u s . KW-A-228 grown on c e d a r sapwood, d i d n o t d e c a y wood. Monokaryons d e r i v e d f r o m Da c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u 1 a r i a UBC 6171 showed e x t r e m e v a r i a t i o n i n a b i l i t y t o grow on and d e c a y D o u g l a s f i r . Some b l o c k s s u p p o r t e d e x t e n s i v e g r o w t h a n d d i s p l a y e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s o f t e n i n g o f t h e e a r l y w o o d . O t h e r s s u p p o r t e d l i t t l e g r o w t h and d i s p l a y e d l i t t l e o r no s o f t e n i n g . D e c a y e d b l o c k s were o f t h e u n i f o r m b r o w n - r o t t y p e . No c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f wood d e c a y e d b y m o n o k a r y o n s was c a r r i e d o u t . Comparison T e s t s W e i g h t l o s s and m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t d a t a f o r t h e f o u r s p e c i e s o f A p h y l l o p h o r a l e s t e s t e d a re summarized i n T a b l e X. No c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h i s wood was performed. P o r i a p l a c e n t a 120F grew v e r y w e l l on po n d e r o s a p i n e . The b l o c k s were d i s c o l o u r e d t o a d a r k brown c o l o u r , and c o n s i d e r a b l e s o f t e n i n g was n o t e d . E a r l y w o o d was s o f t e r t h a n l a t e w o o d . Upon d r y i n g , t h e wood showed e x t e n s i v e s h r i n k a g e and c r a c k i n g ; many o f t h e b l o c k s were d i f f i c u l t t o h a n d l e w i t h o u t d i s i n t e g r a t i n g . P o r i a s u b v e r m i s p o r a L6332 showed e x c e l l e n t g r o w t h on p o n d e r o s a p i n e . B l o c k s w e r e b l e a c h e d w h i t e b u t n o t n o t i c e a b l y s o f t e n e d . No s h r i n k a g e was noted upon d r y i n g . P h a n e r o c h a e t e c h r v s o s p o r i u m ME461 a n d C o r i o l u s  v e r s i c o l o r 105E tooth grew e x c e l l e n t l y on a l d e r . B l o c k s were b l e a c h e d w h i t e , e x t r e m e l y s o f t , and c l e a r l y of reduced 44 TABLE X: Decay of wood by some fungi i n the Aphyllophorales Weight loss data. Fungus WFPL# %MC % WT. LOSS Std. error C. v e r s i c o l o r 105E 199.31 52.54 7.06 -P. chrvsosporium ME461 167.12 49.51 2.97 P. placenta 120F 234.60 61.09 2.50 P. subvermispora L6332 43.77 21.05 1.20 45 d e n s i t y . No s h r i n k a g e was n o t e d upon d r y i n g , but t h e wood was o f a spongy c o n s i s t e n c y . V e r m i c u l i t e - S a n d M a t r i x Weight l o s s and m o i s t u r e d a t a f o r f u n g i grown on t h e v e r m i c u l i t e - s a n d m a t r i x are shown i n T a b l e X I . No c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h i s wood was performed. No s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n wood appearance were caused b y C e r i n o m y c e s c a n a d e n s i s UBC 6 0 9 4 on D o u g l a s f i r , D acrymyces c a p i t a t u s UBC 6125 on a l d e r , D_. p a l m a t u s UBC 6120 and UBC 6166 on Douglas f i r , D_. d i c t y o s p o r u s UBC 6121 and _D_. p u n c t i f o r m i s UBC 6124 on p o n d e r o s a p i n e , and H e t e r o t e x t u s l u t e u s UBC 6165 on Douglas f i r . Brown p o c k e t r o t s , as d e s c r i b e d above, were caused by D_. p a l m a t u s UBC 6148 on Douglas f i r , and _D. s p a t h u l a r i a UBC 6101 on a l d e r and h e m l o c k , and UBC 6126 on D o u g l a s f i r and h e m l o c k . C a l o c e r a c o r n e a UBC 6152 on ponderosa p i n e and Cerinomyces  c e r a c e u s UBC 6150 on a l d e r c a u sed t h e same t y p e s o f decay as on t h e s o i l m a t r i x , b u t t o a much l e s s e r e x t e n t . TABLE XI: Decay of wood by various species of Dacrymycetales on a vermiculite-sand matrix. Weight loss data. FUNGUS UBC# ORIGINAL SUBSTRATE %MC %WT . LOSS SUBSTRATE Std. error 6152 hardwood pine 0.08 0.05 Calocera cornea Cerinomyces canadensis 6094 Doug f i r ceraceus 6160 Magnolia Dacrymyces capitatus 6125 alder dictyosporus 6121 pine palmatus 6166 conifer 6148 hemlock 6120 f i r pUrtctiformis 6124 pine Dacryopinax spathularia 6101 unknown 6126 apple Heterotextus luteus 6165 Doug f i r Doug f i r 156.00 0.04 0.03 alder 82.77 4.48 0.89 alder 69.12 0.06 0.02 pine 117.58 0.00 0.00 Doug f i r 91.48 0.10 0.03 Doug f i r 139.21 2.06 1.09 Doug f i r 133.48 0.06 0.03 pine 116.84 0.00 0.00 Doug f i r 0.15 0.11 hemlock 0.72 0.05 cedar sap 0.02 0.02 cedar heart 0.00 0.00 alder 0.77 0.13 maple 1.40 0.24 Doug f i r 199.77 0.55 0.12 hemlock 175.94 0.61 0.25 cedar sap 0.00 0.00 maple 6.52 2.56 Doug f i r 0.00 0.00 DISCUSSION T h i s s t u d y c o n f i r m s t h e p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s o f S h i e l d s and S h i h ( 1 9 7 5 ) a n d d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t s p e c i e s i n t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s cause a s i g n i f i c a n t p r i m a r y decay o f wood. I n p a r t i c u l a r , Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s , D. c a p i t a t u s , D. d i c t y o s p o r u s , P a c r v o p i n a x s p a t h u 1 a r i a , C e r i n o m y c e s  c e r a c e u s , C a l o c e r a c o r n ea and C_. l u t e a may cause e x t e n s i v e decay. N o t e w o r t h y d e c a y may a l s o be caused by Dacrymyces  p a l m a t u s , D_. m i n o r , D.. n o v a e - z e l a n d i a e , and C a l o c e r a  v i s c o s a . Of s i x t e e n s p e c i e s s t u d i e d , o n l y C e r i n o m y c e s  c a n a d e n s i s , C_. c r u s t u l i n u s , D a c r v m y c e s m i n u t u s . p_. p u n c t i f o r m i s , and H e t e r o t e x t u s 1 u t e u s , showed l i t t l e c a p a c i t y t o decay wood. C h e m i c a l d a t a f o r t h e s e s t r a i n s s uggest t h e y s u b s i s t on e x t r a c t i v e components o f wood. The f a i l u r e o f t h e s e s t r a i n s t o d e c a y wood s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a b s o l u t e s t a t e m e n t s f o r t h e s p e c i e s i n v o l v e d . As d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , t h e a g e o f t h e c u l t u r e a n d t h e s u b s t r a t u m i t i s grown on may have c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on t h e decay p r o d u c e d . The D a c r y m y c e t a l e s s t u d i e d h e r e decay wood a t l e v e l s c o m p a r a b l e t o many o f t h e p o l y p o r e s and a g a r i c s c l a s s i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d s t r o n g decay f u n g i (Humphrey 1923; B a i l e y 1941; C o w l i n g 1961; DaCosta and K e r r u i s h 1965; Amburgey 1967; A b o u - H e i l a h e_t .aj,. 1977 ; E l l i o t e_£ a l . 1979; S e t l i f f and Eudy 1981; H i g h l e y 1982). The decay caused by most members o f t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s t e s t e d i s m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o b r o w n - r o t t e d wood p r o d u c e d by members o f t h e h o m o b a s i d i o m y c e t e s ( G i l b e r t s o n 1 9 8 1 ) . The wood i s d i s c o l o u r e d b r o w n , s h r u n k e n , and b r i t t l e . As i s t y p i c a l f o r b r o w n - r o t t e d wood, the m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s h i g h and e x t e n s i v e removal of c a r b o h y d r a t e s has o c c u r r e d . Many o f t h e s p e c i e s t e s t e d , however, i n c l u d i n g Da c r y o p i n a x s pa t h u 1 a r i a , Da c r y m y c e s s t i l l a t u s , D_. c a p i t a t u s , D_. d i c t y o s p o r u s , C a l o c e r a c o r n e a , C_. l u t e a , a n d C e r i n o m v c es c e r a c e u s . a r e c a p a b l e o f r e m o v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a m o u n t s o f l i g n i n . C r a w f o r d ( 1 9 8 1 ) h a s r e v i e w e d t h e e f f e c t s o f b r o w n - r o t t i n g homobasidiomycetes on l i g n i n . B r o w n - r o t f u n g i i n i t i a l l y d e g r a d e l i g n i n i n a s i m i l a r m a n n e r t o w h i t e - r o t f u n g i . D e m e t h y i a t i o n , h y d r o x y l a t i o n and s i d e c h a i n o x i d a t i o n s o c c u r , b u t u n l i k e w h i t e - r o t s , b r o w n - r o t f u n g i a p p e a r u n a b l e t o c l e a v e t h e a r o m a t i c n u c l e i o f l i g n i n . However, t h e r e i s some evi d e n c e t h a t s t r a i n s o f some b r o w n - r o t f u n g i may be a b l e t o c l e a v e l i g n i n ' s a r o m a t i c r i n g . H a i d e r and T r o j a n o w s k i ( 1 9 8 0) found t h a t G l o e o p h y l l u m trabeum ( F r . ) Murr., _G_. a b i e t i n u m ( F r . ) K a r s t . , _G. s a e p i a r i u m ( F r . ) K a r s t . and P o r i a  c o n t i g u a ( P e r s . ) K a r s t . r e l e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f 1 4 - C 0 2 f r o m DHP and c o r n s t a l k l i g n i n w h i c h had l a b e l l e d a r o m a t i c r i n g s . The h i g h l i g n i n l o s s e s c a u s e d b y some members o f t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s s u g g e s t s e x t e n s i v e r i n g c l e a v a g e may be o c c u r r i n g . Indeed, the r a t i o s o f l i g n i n t o c a r b o h y d r a t e s removed, w h i c h a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.2 5-1.0 f o r t h e s p e c i e s o f D a c r y m y c e t a l e s s u s p e c t e d o f d e g r a d i n g l i g n i n , a r e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e o f many w h i t e - r o t f u n g i ( S e t l i f f and Eudy 1980). The p r o d u c t i o n o f a brown p o c k e t r o t by some members of t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s i s w o r t h y o f n o t e . Brown p o c k e t r o t s a r e caused by some members o f t h e P o l y p o r a c e a e , but are not common. Boyce (1961) d e s c r i b e d brown p o c k e t r o t s caused by a number o f f u n g i i n t h i s f a m i l y . T y p i c a l l y t h e s e r o t s a r e l o n g n a r r o w c o l u m n s o f c u b i c a l b r o w n - r o t , s e p a r a t e d by a p p a r e n t l y sound wood, o c c u r r i n g i n t h e h e a r t w o o d . The brown p o c k e t r o t s produced by s p e c i e s o f t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o compare t o t h i s because o f t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e p o c k e t s . The o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e p o c k e t r o t a p p e a r s t o have some r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s u b s t r a t u m . C a l o c e r a cornea UBC 6152, f o r example, produced a p o c k e t r o t on a l d e r b u t a b a s a l brown-rot on ponderosa p i n e . G i l b e r t s o n ( 1 9 8 0 , 1 9 8 1 ) h a s r e m a r k e d u p o n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between w h i t e - r o t f u n g i and a n g i o s p e r m s , and b r o w n - r o t f u n g i and gymnosperms. S e v e r a l w o r k e r s h a v e i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e t h e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f wood among wood deca y f u n g i ( H i g h l e y 1 9 7 3 , 1976, 1 9 8 2 ; R y p a c e k 1 9 7 6 ) . The s u b s t r a t u m i n d e x i n A p p e n d i x 2 shows t h a t many s p e c i e s i n t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s do show p r e f e r e n c e f o r a n g i o s p e r m o r gymnosperm wood. A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t e s o f d e c a y on d i f f e r e n t s u b s t r a t a , t h e b r o a d s p e c i f i c i t y e x p r e s s e d i n n a t u r e i s n o t a l w a y s a p p a r e n t f o r Dacrymycetaceous f u n g i i n t h e s o i l b l o c k t e s t . D a cryopinax  s p a t h u l a r i a i s most o f t e n r e p o r t e d from angiosperms y e t UBC 6101 and 6171 c a u s e d more w e i g h t l o s s on gymnosperm wood t h a n on a n g i o s p e r m wood. C a l o c e r a c o r n e a i s most o f t e n r e p o r t e d from a n g i o s p e r m s . C_. c o r n e a UBC 6152, i s o l a t e d from an angiosperm, decayed ponderosa p i n e fair b e t t e r t h a n i t d i d a l d e r . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t e s o f t h e same s p e c i e s t o decay wood. T h i s type o f v a r i a t i o n i s not un u s u a l f o r wood d e c a y f u n g i ( D a C o s t a and K e r r u i s h 1965; Amburgey 1967; A b o u - H e i l a h e t a l . 1977; E l l i o t e i a l . 1979; S e t l i f f and Eudy 1980; R e i d and S e i f e r t 1982). G e n e t i c v a r i a b i l i t y i s t h e most l i k e l y c a u s e . G e n e t i c v a r i a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n c e s among i s o l a t e s f r o m s e p a r a t e g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a l i t i e s . An e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s t h e f o u r s t r a i n s o f C a l o c e r a c o r n e a g r o w n on a l d e r . A l l c u l t u r e s w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y o f t h e same a g e , b u t t h e i s o l a t e f r o m Papua-New G u i n e a d e c a y e d a l d e r much b e t t e r t h a n d i d t h e e a s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s t r a i n s . A b o u - H e i l a h & H u t c h i n s o n ( 1 9 7 8 ) c o r r e l a t e d wood d e c a y i n g a b i l i t i e s o f d i f f e r e n t i s o l a t e s o f S e r p u l a lacrymans ( F r . ) S c r o e t . w i t h l e v e l s of e x t r a c e l l u l a r c e l l u l a s e s produced. T h i s may be one type of g e n e t i c v a r i a t i o n a f f e c t i n g decay by t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s i n t h i s s t u d y . C u l t u r e s o f wood d e c a y f u n g i have been s u s p e c t e d o f l o s i n g t h e i r wood d e c a y i n g a b i l i t i e s w i t h a g e. My d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s phenomenon o c c u r s w i t h some s p e c i e s i n t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s . The two o l d i s o l a t e s o f Dacrymyces  p a l m a t u s , UBC 6 1 6 6 a n d 6 1 2 0, 47- a n d 1 6 - y e a r s o l d r e s p e c t i v e l y , d i d not decay wood, w h i l e the o t h e r i s o l a t e s , a i l l e s s t h a n a y e a r o l d , d i d cause some decay. S i m i l a r l y , a n 8 y e a r o l d c u l t u r e o f Dacrymyces c a p i t a t u s , UBC 6125, and a 14 y e a r o l d c u l t u r e o f D.. d i e t v o s p o r u s , UBC 6121, f a i l e d t o decay wood, w h i l e f r e s h c u l t u r e s o f both s p e c i e s d e c a y e d wood v e r y w e l l . These d i f f e r e n c e s , w h i c h may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o g e n e t i c v a r i a t i o n , suggest t h a t c u l t u r e s of Dacrymycetaceous f u n g i may change o v e r t i m e . I have a l s o o b s e r v e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h p_. p a l m a t u s , a g r a d u a l o r s u d d e n l o s s o f t h e a b i l i t y t o s y n t h e s i z e c a r o t e n o i d p i g m e n t s a f t e r many t r a n s f e r s . C a r e must be t a k e n i n d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s f rom e x p e r i m e n t s p e r f o r m e d w i t h o l d c u l t u r e s . The a b i l i t y o f D a c r y m y c e s s t i l l a t u s t o d e c a y c e d a r h e a r t w o o d i s w o r t h y o f m e n t i o n . Heartwood o f w e s t e r n r e d ce d a r i s h i g h l y r e s i s t a n t t o decay by most f u n g i because o f h i g h l e v e l s o f t h u j a p l i c i n ( J o h n s o n & C s e r j e s i 1 9 8 0 ) . Whereas D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a and Dacrymyces p a l m a t u s c a u s e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d e c a y o f c e d a r h e a r t w o o d , b o t h i s o l a t e s o f D_. s t i l l a t u s caused a s i g n i f i c a n t , i f reduced, amount o f d e c a y . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a c e r t a i n amount o f t o l e r a n c e t o t h u j a p l i c i n . O t h e r f u n g i w h i c h h a v e been n o t e d as r e s i s t a n t t o t h u j a p l i c i n a r e t h e h y p h o m y c e t e s , P h i a l o p h o r a h o f f m a n n i i (Beyma) Sch o i - S c h w a r z and E x o p h i a l a  m a n s o n i i ( C a s t e l l . ) deHoog ( S m i t h and Swann 1968), and the h o m o b a s i d i o m y c e t e P o r i a , i n c r a s s a t a ( B e r k . & C u r t . ) B u r t (Humphrey 1923). Wood p r e s e r v a t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g a r s e n i c , may i n d u c e s p o n t a n e o u s monokaryon f o r m a t i o n i n d i k a r y o t i c m y c e l i u m o f some f u n g i ( D a C o s t a and K e r r u i s h 1962; K e r r u i s h and D a C o s t a 1963; Amburgey 1 9 6 7 ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e n , t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o m p a r a t i v e d e c a y c a p a b i l i t i e s o f monokaryons and d i k a r y o n s o f f u n g i found on wood p r o d u c t s i n s e r v i c e . The r e s u l t s f o r D a c r y o p i n a x  s p a t h u l a r i a show t h a t monokaryons o f t h i s s p e c i e s have a reduced c a p a c i t y t o decay wood. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been r e p o r t e d f o r monokaryons o f Fomes i q n i a r i u s ( F r . ) G i l l . ( V e r r a l l 1 9 3 7 ) , and P l e u r o t u s c o r t i c a t u s F r . ( K a u f e r t 1 9 3 6 ) . F u n g i i n w h i c h m o n o k a r y o n s a r e more o r e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n d e c a y o f wood i n c l u d e .Ganoderma a p p l a n a t a ( G r a y ) P a t . ( A o s h i m a 1 9 5 4 ) , P o r i a v a i l l a n t i i ( D C : F r . ) Cooke ( D a C o s t a and K e r r u i s h 1 9 6 5 ) , G l o e o p h y l l u m t r a b e u m ( D a C o s t a and K e r r u i s h 1965; Amburgey 1967) and S e r p u l a  l a c r v m a n s ( E l l i o t e t a l . 1979). The h i g h s t a n d a r d e r r o r 53 f o r D_. s p a t h u l a r i a , and t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f d e c a y t h a t were e v i d e n t upon v i s u a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f b l o c k s decayed by any one s t r a i n , s u g g e s t s t h a t monokaryons may h a v e some d i f f i c u l t y i n c o l o n i z i n g wood. The d a t a f o r Dacrymyces p a l m a t u s monokaryons a r e n o t c o n c l u s i v e , s i n c e t h e m o n o k a r y o n s c a n n o t be c o m p a r e d d i r e c t l y t o a n y o f t h e d i k a r y o n s t e s t e d . S i n c e p_. p a l m a t u s i s o f t e n a weak d e c a y f u n g u s , t h e l o w w e i g h t l o s s e s caused by the monokaryons do not n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y a reduced c a p a c i t y f o r decay. Monokaryons o f _D. s t i l l a t u s d i d n o t d e c a y wood. I f t h i s i s a c o r r e c t r e s u l t , i t - i s i n d e e d a s u r p r i s e . No p r e v i o u s work known t o me documents a s t r o n g decay fungus whose monokaryons a r e c o m p l e t e l y u n a b l e t o decay wood. I t i s w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g , i n t h i s r e g a r d , t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n t h e s e c u l t u r e s w e r e i s o l a t e d f r o m o r i g i n a t e d i n W est Germany. Perhaps t h e E u r o p e a n s t r a i n s o f t h i s t a x o n a r e n o t as e f f e c t i v e i n wood d e c a y a s t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . The f a i l u r e o f t h e d e f i n e d v e r m i c u l i t e - s a n d m a t r i x t o s u p p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t decay i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g . Two problems must be s o l v e d b e f o r e t h i s method can be used f o r t e s t i n g o f wood d e c a y f u n g i . F i r s t , t h e e x t r e m e l y h i g h m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t s o f b l o c k s p l a c e d on t h i s m a t r i x s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e wood may h a v e b e e n s a t u r a t e d w i t h w a t e r , e f f e c t i v e l y p r e v e n t i n g a n y d e c a y f r o m o c c u r r i n g . E v i d e n t l y , t h e m o i s t u r e h o l d i n g and m o i s t u r e r e l e a s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v e r m i c u l i t e and s a n d d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m t h o s e o f s o i l . A d d i t i o n o f some c l a y t o t h e m a t r i x t o h o l d w a t e r may be a d v i s a b l e . The m o i s t u r e r e l a t i o n s o f any new d e f i n e d m a t r i x w i t h wood m o i s t u r e and decay p r o p e r t i e s must be o p t i m i z e d by t r i a l and e r r o r . A d h e r e n c e t o t h e ASTM s t a n d a r d recommendations f o r m o i s t u r e and m o i s t u r e h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y i s n o t a d v i s a b l e i n t h i s c a s e . S e c o n d l y , t h e t y p e s and l e v e l s o f n u t r i e n t s i n c l u d e d i n t h e b r o t h a r e i n a d e q u a t e when c o m p a r e d w i t h t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e s o i l a n a l y s i s . G i v e n the low c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f n i t r o g e n i n wood, and t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o n t e n t i n s o i l , c e r t a i n l y a n i t r o g e n s o u r c e s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e b r o t h . H i g h e r l e v e l s o f phosphorus would a l s o be d e s i r a b l e . G i v e n t h a t t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e wood d e c a y f u n g i , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t o t h e r f a m i l i e s w i t h i n t h e h e t e r o b a s i d i o m y c e t e s may c o n t a i n e q u a l l y p o t e n t wood d e c a y e r s . T a b l e X I I l i s t s t y p e s o f d e c a y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p e c i m e n s o f v a r i o u s h e t e r o b a s i d i o m y c e t e s , b a s e d on l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t s and on specimens i n the UBC h e r b a r i u m . T a b l e X I I I l i s t s t y p e s o f d e c a y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h members o f t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s n o t t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 55 TABLE XII: Type of rot associated with wood inhabiting members of the heterobasidicmycetes believed to be saprophytic (excluding Dacrymycetales). Based on herbarium specimens i n UBC. FUNGUS HOST TYPE OF ROT TREMELIALES Aporpium carvae (Schw. JTeixeira & Rogers Pact i f e r a pululahuana (Pat.)Donk Ductifera sucina (Moller)Wells E i c h l e r i e l l a spinulosa (Berk. & Curt.)Burt E i c h l e r i e l l a macrosoora (E. & E.) Martin Exidia Candida Lloyd Exidia glandulosa Fr. Exidia iteinos K l e t t Exidia populi J . Erikson Exidia r e c i s a Fr. Exidia repanda Fr. Exidia saccharina Fr. Exidia z e l l e r i Lloyd Exidiopsis calcea (Pers.)Wells Exidiopsis g l a i r a (Lloyd)Wells Exidiopsis grisea (Pers.JBourd. & Maire Exidiopsis laccata (Bourd. & Maire)Wells Exidiopsis molybdea (McGuire)Erwin Exidiopsis plumbescens (Burt)Wells Exidiopsis s u b l i l a c i n a (Martin)Erwin Heterochaete albida Pat. Heterochaete sublivida Pat. Holtermannia corniformis Kobayasi Myxarium podlachia (Bres.)Raitvir .Phlogiotis. helvelloides (Fr.)Martin Protodaedalea hispida Imazeki Pseudohydnum gelatinosum (Fr.)Karst. A U R i a E A R I A L E S A u r i c u l a r i a auricula (Hcok)Underw. Au r i c u l a r i a fuscosuccinea (Mont.)Farl. Helicogloea lagerheimi Pat. Ulmus angiosperms angiosperms Pppulus Elder Alnua, Betula angiosperms Sa l i x Populus angiosperms Alnus. Betula Picea. Pinus angiosperms Alnus unknown Alnus. S a l i x unknown unknown angiosperms Alnus unknown unknown unknown Alnus conifers unknown conifer white white white white white white \\faite white white white white white white white brown? white white white white white white white white white brown white brown or White angiosperms white angiosperms white angiosperms white 56 TABLE X I I I : Type of rot associated with various species of the Dacrymycetales based on herbarium specimens i n UBC. FUNGUS •Salccera sinensis McNabb w h i t e ^ ^ Cerinomyces lagerheimi(Pat.)MrNxKh b r o w n Dacrymyces abietinus Schroet. brown D. enatus(Berk. &Curt.)Mass. brown"? £. ovisporus Bref. b r o w n * D. sebaceus Berk. & Br. white Dacryonaema rufum(Fr. per Fr.JNannf. brown Dacryopinax eleganstBerk. & Curt.)Martin white D r t i o l a r|dicata(Berk. &Curt.)L. 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C o l o n i z a t i o n and d e g r e d a t i o n o f Red Cedar s h i n g l e s and s h a k e s by f u n g i . M a t e r i a l und Organismen 3:253-262. T e c h n i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e P u l p and P a p e r I n d u s t r y . 1975. P r e p a r a t i o n o f wood f o r c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s . TAPPI St a n d a r d T 12 OS-75. 2 pp. New York. V a i l , W. J . and V. G. L i l l y . 1968. The l o c a t i o n o f c a r o t e n o i d p i g m e n t s and t h i c k n e s s o f t h e c e l l w a l l i n l i g h t - and d a r k - g r o w n c e l l s o f D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a . M y c o l o g i a 60:902-907. V e r a l l , A.F. 1937. V a r i a t i o n i n Fomes i g n i a r i u s ( L . ) G i l l . M i n n . A g r . Exp. S t n . T e c h . B u l l 117:1-41 ( c i t e d i n DaCosta & K e r r u i s h 1965). APPENDIX I : MEDIA EMPLOYED Compostion o f Glucose M a l t medium (GM) Components g/1 D-glucose 10.0 D i f c o m a l t e x t r a c t 12.5 d i s t i l l e d H20 1000 C o m p o s i t i o n o f B a l a n c e d Medium (BM) f o r P h a n e r o c h a e t e  c h r y s o s p o r i u m ( R e i d & S e i f e r t 1982) Components g/1 D-glucose 10.0 NH4C1 0.5 KH2P04 0.18 K2S04 0.05 MgC12.6H20 0.5 t h i a m i n e 0.0001 t r a c e element s o l u t i o n 0.1 ml d i s t i l l e d H20 1000 C o m p o s i t i o n o f Nobles' m a l t agar (MA) (Nobles 1965) component g/1 ma l t e x t r a c t 12.5 D i f c o B a c t o - a g a r 15.0 d i s t i l l e d H2U 1000 C o m p o s i t i o n o f MYP and MYPT media (Bandoni 1972). components g/1 M a l t e x t r a c t 7.0 Soytone 1.0 Ye a s t e x t r a c t 0.5 D i s t i l l e d H20 1000 ICN agar 6 Fo r MYPT, 100 mg o f t e t r a c y c l i n e p e r l i t r e , d i s s o l v e d i n a few mis o f 95% e t h a n o l , a re added a f t e r a u t o c l a v i n g . APPENDIX 2: SUBSTRATUM INDEX T h i s i n d e x p r o v i d e s l i s t s o f r e c o r d e d s u b s t r a t e s f o r s p e c i e s i n t h e D a c r y m y c e t a l e s . Each l i s t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s ; f i r s t , a n g i o s p e r m s u b s t r a t a , t h e n c o n i f e r o u s s u b s t r a t a . Numbers f o l l o w i n g s u b s t r a t a r e f e r t o l i t e r a t u r e l i s t e d a t t h e end o f t h i s appendix o n l y . C i t a t i o n s t o UBC r e f e r t o specimens i n the UBC h e r b a r i u m , o r t o c u l t u r e s i n t h e UBC c u l t u r e c o l l e c t i o n . CALOCERA CORNEA ( B a t s c h t F r . ) F r . Ace r macrophvllum (12) Ace r sp. (20) A l n u s r u b r a (12, UBC) Al n u s sp. (UBC) C o r v l u s a v e l l a n a (17) Fagus s v l v a t i c a (17) F r a x i n u s sp. (19) Populus t r e m u l o i d e s (11, 12, 17, UBC) Populus t r i c h o c a r p a (12) Prunus avicum? (17) Prunus c a r a s u s (17) Prunus emarqinata (12) Prunus sp. (UBC) Quercus suber (17) Quercus sp. (2, 17, 19, 20) S a l i c e s anonvmae (17) S a l i x sp. (UBC) Sorbus a u c u p a r i a (17, 19) T i l e a sp. (19) Ulmus c a m p e s t r i s (17) Ulmus sp. (19) A b i e s sp. (20) P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s (17) P i n u s sp. (20) Bambusa sp. (UBC) CALOCERA FURCATA ( F r . ) F r . A b i e s s a c h a l i n e n s i s (10) A b i e s sp. (19) P i n u s e x c e l s a (17) P i n u s s y l v e s t r i s (17) P i n u s sp. (19) CALOCERA GLOSSOIDES ( P e r s . : F r . ) F r . Acer pseudoplantanus ( l y ) A l n u s q l u t i n o s u s ( l y ) Faqus sp. ( l y ) Quercus sp. (1'/, l y , 20) CALOCERA PALLIDO-SPATHULATA R e i d L a r i x sp. ( l y ) P i c e a sp. ( l y ) CALOCERA VISCOSA ( P e r s . t F r . ) F r . Ace r macrophyllum (UBC) Quercus sp. (17) A b i e s a l b a (17) P i c e a e x c e l s a (17) P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s (UBC) P i n u s s y l v e s t r i s (17) P i n u s sp. (20, UBC) Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i (21) Thu j a p l i c a t a (12, UBC) M a g n o l i a f r a s e r i (20) M a g n o l i a v i r g i n i a n a (20) CERINOMYCES CANADENSIS ( J a c k s . & M a r t i n ) M a r t i n Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i (UBC) CERINOMYCES CERACEUS Ginns M a g n o l i a g r a n d i f l o r a (8) CERINOMYCES CRUSTULINUS (Bourd. & G a l z . ) M a r t i n Quercus sp. (2) P i n u s sp. (5) CERINOMYCES PALLIPUS M a r t i n Malus sp. (13) Quercus sp. (13) PACRYMYCES ABIETINUS S c h r o e t . P i c e a e n q e l m a n i i (15) P i n u s ponderosa (4) 1 P i n u s s t r o b u s (2) P i n u s sp. (3, 12) Thu j a p l i c a t a (12, UBC) Thu j a sp. (2) DACRYMYCES ADPRE5SUS Groqn. L a r i x k a e m p f e r i (9) P i c e a e x c e l s a (17) DACRYMYCES CAESIUS Sommerf. S a l i c e s anonvmae (17) S a l i x a l b a (17) DACRYMYCES CAPITATUS Schw. Ac e r sp. (20, UBC) Al n u s g l u t i n o s u s (19) Al n u s r u b r a (12, UBC) Al n u s ruqosa (UBC) Al n u s s i n u a t a (UBC) Al n u s sp. (3, 20) B e t u l a l u t e a (3) B e t u l a sp. (20) Cedrus a t l a n t i c a (19) C y t i s u s sp. (12, UBC) Populus t r e m u l o i d e s (UBC) Populus t r i c h o c a r p a (12, UBC) Prunus padus (19) Quercus sp. (1, 19, 20, UBC) Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s (12) Rubus sp. (UBC) S a l i x sp. (3, 12, UBC) Sambucus racemosa (12) Sambucus sp. (UBC) Viburnum sp. (19) A b i e s sp. (UBC) P i c e a sp. (15) Pi n u s sp. (UBC) DACRYMYCES CHRYSOCOMUS ( B u l l . r F r . ) A b i e s sp. (20) P i c e a e x c e l s a (17) Pi n u s d e n s i f l o r a (9) Pi n u s s v l v e s t r i s (17, 19) Pi n u s sp. (5, 20) DACRYMYCES CONFLUKNS K a r s t . P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s (17) / 66 DACRYMYCES CORTICIOIDES E l l . & Ev. P i n u s r i q i d u s (20) P i n u s s t r o b u s (20) P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s (17) Tsuga c a n a d e n s i s (20) DACRYMYCES DICTYOSPORUS M a r t i n P i n u s e n g e l m a n n i i (UBC) P i n u s oocarpa (14) P i n u s ponderosa (6) DACRYMYCES ENATUS (Berk. & C u r t . ) L. Kennedy A l n a s t e r f r u t i c o s a ( l y ) A l n u s i n c a n a (2, UBC) A l n u s sp. (1, l y ) C i t r u s limonum (17) L i q u s t r u m sp. (19) ' Quercus sp. (1, l y ) Pi n u s r e s i n o s a (UBC) P i n u s s t r o b u s (2) DACRYMYCES ESTONICUS R a i t v . P i c e a sp. (18) P i n u s sp. (18, l y ) DACRYMYCES FUSCOMINUS Coker Quercus sp. (20) DACRYMYCES LACRYMALIS ( ( P e r s . ) S . F . Gray) Sommer Quercus m i r b e c k i i (17) DACRYMYCES MACNABII R e i d P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s ( l y ) DACRYMYCES MICROSPORUS K a r s t . A b i e s a m a b i i i s (UBC) Pi n u s s v l v e s t r i s (17) DACRYMYCES MINOR Peck A c e r macrophyllum (12, UBC) A l n u s r u b r a (12, UBC) B e t u l a sp. (12, UBC) L i q u s t r u m s i n e n s e (20) Machera p o m i f e r a (20) Malus sp. (1) Populus sp. (3, 20) Quercus sp. (20, UBC) S a l i x sp. (3) Ulmus sp. (1) Pi n u s c o n t o r t a (12, UBC) P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s ( l y ) P i n u s sp. (UBC) Thu j a p l i c a t a (12, UBC) P r o s o p i s j u i i f l o r a (7) DACRYMYCES MINUTUS (L. O l i v e ) McNabb V a c c i n i u m sp. (UBC) A b i e s a m a b i l i s (UBC) P i c e a q l a u c a (UBC) P i n u s c o n t o r t a (12, UBC) Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i (UBC) Symplocos c r a t e a g o i d e s (9) DACRYMYCES OVISPORUS B r e f . P i c e a sp. (5) P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s (19) Taxus b r e v i f o l i a (12, UBC) DACRYMYCES PALMATUS (Schw.) B r e s . B a n k s i a s e r r u l a t a (UBC) B e t u l a sp. (12, UBC) Quercus s e r r a t a (UBC) Populus t r i c h o c a r p a (UBC) A b i e s q r a n d i s (12, UBC) A b i e s sp. (9, 20) L a r i x l a r i c i n a (19) L a r i x sp. (9) P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i (15) P i c e a g l a u c a (12, 15) Picea. mariana (15) P i n u s ponderosa ( 6 ) P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s (17, 19) P i n u s t o e d a (UBC) P i n u s sp. (9, 20, UBC) Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i (20, UBC) T h u j a p l i c a t a (UBC) Tsuga c a n a d e n s i s (19) 68 DACRYMYCES PEDUNCULATUS (Berk. & C u r t . ) Coker P i n u s sp. (3) DACRYMYCES PUNCTIFORMIS N euh. P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i (15) P i c e a sp. (y, 19) P i n u s c o n t o r t a (20) P i n u s ponderosa (6) P i n u s s t r o b u s (2) P i n u s sp. (5, 19, UBC) DACRYMYCES STILLATUS Neess F r . A c e r macrophvllum (12, UBC) Ac e r sp. (UBC) Alnu s r u b r a (12, UBC) E u c a l v p t i s sp. (20) Fagus s y l v a t i c a (17) I l e x a q u i f o l i u m (17) Populus t r e m u l o i d e s (11) Populus t r i c n o c a r p a (12, UBC) Quercus a l b a (20) Quercus suber (17) Quercus sp. (17, 20) Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s (12, UBC) Sambucus pubens (UBC) Sambucus racemosa (12) Sambucus sp. (UBC) A b i e s a l b a (17) A b i e s q r a n d i s (20) J u n i p e r u s v i r g i n i a n a (20) L a r i x eruopaea (17) L a r i x o c c i d e n t a l i s (20) P i c e a e x c e l s a (17) P i c e a s i t c n e n i s (UBC) P i n u s c o n t o r t a (20) P i n u s s t r o b u s (20) P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s (17) P i n u s sp. (3, 5, 20) Sequoia g i g a n t e a (20) Thuja p l i c a t a (12, UBC) Tsuga c a n a d e n s i s (20) Tsuga h e t e r o p h v l l a (12, UBC) DACRYMYCES SUECIUS McNabb Pi n u s h a l e p e n s i s (17) DACRYMYCES VARIISPORUS McNabb P i c e a sp. (19) DACRYONAEMA RUFUM ( F r . p e r F r . ) Nannf. A b i e s sp. (16) P i c e a sp. (16) P i n u s c o n t o r t a (UBC) P i n u s sp. (5, 16, UBC) DACRYOPINAX ELEGANS (Berk. & C u r t . ) M a r t i n Sambucus sp. (1) Ulmus sp. (1, 20) J u n i p e r u s communis (20) DACRYOPINAX SPATHULARIA (Schw.) M a r t i n A c e r r u b r a (2) B e t u l a l u t e a (20) Castanea d e n t a t a (20) C i t r u s a u r a n t i u m (17) Facfus g r a n d i f o l i a (20) Malus sp. (UBC) Quercus sp. (1, 20, UBC) S a l i x sp. (UBC) T i l i a sp. (20) J u n i p e r u s v i r q i n i a n a (20) P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s (17) P i n u s sp. (20) DITIOLA. RADICATA (Rprk. & C u r t . ) L. Kennedy A c r o s t a p h y l o s columbiana (UBC) Al n u s r u b r a (UBC) B e t u l a sp. (20) Faqus s y l v a t i c a (17) Quercus sp. (UBC) S a l i x sp. (UBC) V i t i s l a b r u s c a (20) P i c e a e x c e l s a (17) P i n u s s t r o b u s (UBC) P i n u s s v l v e s t r i s ( 1 / , 19) P i n u s sp. (5, 20) P s e u d o t s t u g a m e n z i e s i i (12) Tsuga c a n a d e n s i s (.2 0) Tsuga h e t e r o p h v l l a (12) 70 FEMSJONIA PEZIZAEFORMIS (Lev.) K a r s t . A l n u s i n c a n a (3 , 1/) B e t u l a l u t e a (3, UBC) B e t u l a pubescens (17) B e t u l a v e r r u c o s a (17) B e t u l a sp. ( l y ) C o r y l u s sp. (UBC) Quercus sp. (17, l y ) Tsuga h e t e r o p h v l l a (12) GUEPINIOPSIS BUCCINA ( P e r s . i F r . ) L. Kennedy ^ Aln u s sp. (19) C a r p i n u s sp. (19) Fagus sp. (19) Quercus i l e x (17) Quercus sp. (17, 19) S a l i c e s anonvmae (17) S a l i x sp. (19) U l e x sp. (19) J u n i p e r u s sp. (2) Pi n u s s t r o b u s (2) HETEROTEXTUS ALPINUS ( T r a c y & E a r l e ) M a r t i n A lnus r u b r a (12, UBC) A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a (12, UBC) A b i e s sp. (UBC) L a r i x k a e m p f e r i (9) P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i (15, 20) P i c e a s h a s t a (UBC) Pi n u s ponderosa (6) Pi n u s s v l v e s t r i s (19) Pi n u s sp. (20) Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i (12, UBC) Tsuga h e t e r o p h v l l a (12) Tsuga metensiana (12) HETEROTEXTUS L_yjTE_US_ ( B r e s . ) McNabb ( a s G u e p i n i o p s i s chrysocoma ( B u l l . r F r . ) B r a s f . ) A b i e s a m a b i l i s (12) A b i e s sp. (UBC) P i c e a sp. (UBC) Pi n u s sp. (20) Tsuga h e t e r o p h v l l a (12, UBC) LITERATURE CITED IN THIS INDEX 1. B r a s f i e l d , T.W. 1 9 3 8 . The D a c r y m y c e t a e e a e o f temperate N o r t h A m e r i c a . Am. M i d i . Nat. 20:211-235. 2. . 1940. Notes on the Dacrymycetaceae. L l o y d i a 3:105-108. 3. B u r t , E.A. 1921. Some N o r t h A m e r i c a n T r e m e l l a c e a e , D acryomycetaceae and A u r i c u l a r i a c e a e . Ann. M i s s . B o t . Gard. 8:361-l9b. 4. C o o k e , W.B. and C.G. Shaw. 1953. The S u s k d o r f Fungus c o l l e c t i o n s . Res. S t u d i e s S t a t e C o l l . Wash. 21:3-56 5 . E r i k s s o n , 'J.. 1 9 5 8 . S t u d i e s i n t h e h e t e r o b a s i d i o m y c e t e s and h o m o b a s i d i o m y c e t e s - A p h y l l o p h o r a l e s o f Muddus N a t i o n a l P a r k i n N o r t h Sweden. Symbolae B o t . U p s a l . XVI, 1-1/2. 6. G i l b e r t s o n , R.L. 1974. F u n g i t h a t d e c a y P o n d e r o s a  P i n e . U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a P r e s s , Tuscon A r i z o n a . 7. G i l b e r t s o n , R.L., H.H.^ B u r d s a l l J r . and E.R. C a n f i e l d . 1976. F u n g i t h a t d e c a y m e s q u i t e i n s o u t h e r n A r i z o n a . Mycotaxon 3:487-551. 8. G i n n s , J . 1982. C e r i n o m y c e s c e r a c e u s sp. nov. and t h e s i m i l a r _C_. g r a n d i n i o i d e s and C_. l a q e r h e i m i i . Can. J . B o t . 60:519-524. 9. K o b a y a s i , Y. 1939a. On t h e Dacrymyces group. S c i . Rept. Tokyo Bun. D a i g . Sec. B. # 7 0 4:105-128. 10. . 1939b. On the genera F e m s j o n i a , G u e p i n i a and C a l o c e r a from J a p a n . S c i . Rept. Tokyo Bun. D a i g . Sec. B. # 74 4:215-228. 1 1 . L i n d s e y , J . P . a n d R.L. G i l b e r t s o n . 1 9 7 8 . B a s i d i o m y c e t e s t h a t d e c a y a s p e n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . B i b l i o t h e c a M y c o l o g i c a 63, J . Cramer, Vaduz. 12. Lowe, D.P. 1969. C h e c k l i s t a nd h o s t i n d e x o f b a c t e r i a , f u n g i , and m i s t l e t o e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F o r e s t Res. Lab., V i c t o r i a B.C. I n f . R e p t . BC-X-32. Dept. o f F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 13. M a r t i n , G.W. 1949. The g e n u s C e r a c e a C r a g i n . M y c o l o g i a 41:77-86. 72 14. .1958. A new s p e c i e s o f Dacrymyces from Honduras. M y c o l o g i a 50:939-941. 15. M a r t i n , K . J . and R.L. G i l b e r t s o n . 1980. S y n o p s i s o f wood r o t t i n g - f u n g i on s p r u c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a I I I . Mycotaxon 10:479-501. l b . N a n n f e l d t , J.A. 1947. Sphaeronaema Dacrymycetaceae. Svensk. Bot. T i d s s k r i f t 41:321-338. 17. Oudemans, C.A.J.A. 1919-1924. Enumerato s y s t e m a t i c a  funqorum. 5 V o l . , M a r t i n u s N i j h o f f , The Hague. 18. R a i t v i r , A.G. 1967. Key t o h e t e r o b a s i d i o m y c e t i d a e o f t h e USSR. Acad. S c i u . USSR, t r a n s l . from R u s s i a n by Z. S h a p i r o , U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , S p r i n g f i e l d , Va. 19. R e i d , D.A. 1 9 7 4 . A m o n o g r a p h o f t h e B r i t i s h D a c r y m y c e t a l e s . T r a n s . B r . mycol. Soc. 62:433-494. 20. Seymour, A.B. 1929. Host index of the f u n g i o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass. 21. S i e p m a n n , R. 1979. Stamm- und w u r z e l f a u l e n i n D o u g l a s i e n P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i ( M i r b . ) F r a n c o . E u r . J . F o r . P a t h . 9:70-78. 73 APPENDIX 3: COLLECTION DATA FOR SPECIMENS USED FOR CULTURING A l l c o l l e c t i o n s w e r e made and d e t e r m i n e d b y m y s e l f u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d . S p e c i m e n s f o r KAS, RJB and JAM numbers a r e i n UBC. RJB=R.J. B a n d o n i . JAM=J. Andrew MacKinnon. C a l o c e r a c o r n e a KAS 83 (UBC 6 1 5 1 ) : A u g . 31, 1 9 8 1 , P a r k r i d g e woods, Sudbury, O n t a r i o , on Populus o r A c e r . C a l o c e r a c o r n e a KAS 84 (UBC 6152): Aug. 16, 1981, Turkey Run S t a t e P a r k , I n d i a n a , on hardwood. C o l l . KAS & JAM. C a l o c e r a c o r n e a KAS 85 (UBC I t a s k a S t a t e P a r k , M i n n e s o t a , JAM. 6 1 5 3 ) : Aug.12, 1981, L a k e on hardwood. C o l l . KAS & C a l o c e r a c o r nea KAS 122 (UBC 6169): Aug. 9, 1981, NW s i d e o f L a i n g I s l a n d , Madang P r o v i n c e , Papua-New Guinea. C o l l . G.C. Hughes I I I . C a l o c e r a l u t e a RJB 6783 (UBC 6150): Aug. 15, 1981, Creek near Cameron's Camp, H a s t i n g s F o r e s t , NSW A u s t r a l i a . C o l l . RJB. C a l o c e r a v i s c o s a KAS 99 (UBC 6 1 5 4 ) : S e p t . 23, 1 9 8 1 , S a l i s h T r a i l , UBC Endowment L a n d s , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. on softwood. C o l l . JAM. C a l o c e r a v i s c o s a KAS 117 (UBC 6 1 6 8 ) : O c t . 17, 1 9 8 1 , Pa s a t a n Creek, B.C. C o l l . P a u l K r o e g e r . Cerinomyces c a n a d e n s i s KW 2525 (UBC 6094): Nov. 21, 1978, Brandywine F a l l s , B.C. on Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i . C o l l . & Det. Ken W e l l s . C e r i n o m y c e s c e r a c e u s HHB 8968 (UBC 6160): A p r i l 5, 1976, Choctaw C i r c l e B a s i n , H a r r i s o n Exp. F o r e s t Rd. H5, Desoto N a t i o n a l F o r e s t , H a r r i s o n County, M i s s i s s i p p i , on M a g n o l i a  g r a n d i f l o r a . C o l l . H.H. B u r d s a l l , J r . Det. J . G i n n s . O b t a i n e d from C e n t r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, Ottawa. C e r i n o m y c e s c r u s t u l i n u s UBC 6108: Nov. 22, 1979, UBC campus, Vancouver, B.C.. C o l l . RJB. Det. JAM. Dacrymyces c a p i t a t u s KAS 88 (UBC 61 4 2 ) : Aug. 30, 1981, S e c o r d R d . s o u t h o f S u d b u r y , O n t a r i o o n ? P o p u l u s  t r e m u l o i d e s . 74 Dacrvmcyes c a p i t a t u s KAS 89 (UBC 6 1 4 3 ) : Aug. 30, 1981, K i l l a r n e y Rd. s o u t h o f Sudbury, O n t a r i o . Dacrymyces c a p i t a t u s KAS 90 (UBC 6 1 4 4 ) : Aug. 22, 1981, P i n e r y P r o v i n c i a l P a r k , O n t a r i o , on Quercus. C o l l . KAS, JAM & N. More. Dacrymyces d i c t y o s p o r u s RLG 10/13 (UBC 6121): Aug. 18, 1972, Turkey Creek, C h i r a c a h u a Mountains, Coronado N a t i o n a l F o r e s t , C o c h i s e C o u n t y , A r i z o n a , on P i n u s e n q e l m a n n i i . C o l l . & D e t . R.L. G i l b e r t s o n . O b t a i n e d f r o m F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L a b o r a t o r y , Madison, W i s c o n s i n . Dacrymyces d i c t y o s p o r u s HC 45 (UBC 6149): May 22, 1981, V a l l e de B r a n o , r o a d t o T e n e s c a l p a n , S t a t e o f M e x i c o , M e x i c o . C o l l . H. de l a Cueva. Dacrymyces minor KAS 18 (UBC 6177): Sept. 27, 1980, Cades Cove, SW o f G a t t i n b u r g , Tenn. C o l l . J . & L. DeLange. Dacrymyces m i n u t u s UBC 6175: Nov. 18, 1981, Wreck Beach, Vancouver, B.C. on c o n i f e r . C o l l . KAS & H. de l a Cueva. Dacrymyces n o v a e - z e l a n d i a e KAS 111 (UBC 6167): June 29, 1 9 8 1 , M i l l B a y , A u k l a n d , New Z e a l a n d . C o l l . P.R. J o h n s t o n & E. Horak Dacrymyces p a l m a t u s RLG 5853 (UBC 6 1 2 0 ) : June 24, 1966, Echo L a k e , F l a t h e a d N a t i o n a l F o r e s t , M o n t a n a , on A b i e s  g r a n d i s . C o l l . & Det. R.L. G i l b e r t s o n . O b t a i n e d from F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L a b o r a t o r y , Madison, W i s c o n s i n D a c r y m y c e s p a l m a t u s F3521 (UBC 6 1 6 6 ) : A u g. 30, 1933, F a i r y L a k e n e a r H u l l , Quebec, on c o n i f e r , C o l l . J.W. Groves. O b t a i n e d from C e n t r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, Ottawa. Dacrymyces p a l m a t u s KW#50. d a t e unknown. C a l i f o r n i a . C o l l . W e instock 2. Monosporous c u l t u r e s o b t a i n e d from K. W e l l s . D a c r y m y c e s p a l m a t u s KAS 13 (UBC 6 1 7 0 ) : O c t . 4, 1980, S e s q u i c e n t e n n i a l P ark, Columbia, South C a r o l i n a , C o l l . J . & L. DeLange. Dacrymyces palmatus KAS 17: same as p_. minor KAS 18. Dacrymyces p a l m a t u s KAS 2 2 (UBC 6176): same as p_. m i n o r KAS 18. Dacrymyces p a l m a t u s KAS 113 (UBC 6148): S e p t . 22, 1981, Honey Harbour, O n t a r i o , on hemlock. C o l l . R.C. Shipman. 75 Dacrymyces p u n c t i r o r m i s HHB 671 (UBC 6124): June 17, 1968, G r e e n b e l t P a r k , G r e e n b e l t , M a r y l a n d . C o l l . H.H. B u r d s a l l , J r . Det. K.K. Nakasone. O b t a i n e d from F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L a b o r a t o r y , Madison, W i s c o n s i n . Da c r y m y c e s s t i l l a t u s KAS 2: S e p t . 1 1 , 1 9 8 0 , n e a r A n t h r o p o l o g y Museum, UBC campus, Vancouver, B.C. on A c e r . Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s KAS 100 (UBC 6145): S e p t . 30, 1981, UBC Endowment Lands, Vancouver, B.C. Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s KAS 101 (UBC 6146): same as KAS 100. Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s KAS 103 (UBC 6147): same as KAS 100. Dacrymyces s t i l l a t u s KW 2876. C o l l . b y K. W e l l s , West Germany, W e l l s c u l t u r e # 228, monosporous c u l t u r e s o b t a i n e d from K. W e l l s . D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a RJB 6424 (UBC 6101): June 1979, Lyon Arboretum, H o n o l u l u , H a w a i i . C o l l . & Det. RJB. D a c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u l a r i a FP 101783 (UBC 6126): S e p t . 27, 1980, M e r r i l S p r i n g s Rd., Dane County, Madison, W i s c o n s i n , on Malus sp. C o l l . F.F. Lombard. Det. H.H. B u r d s a l l , J r . O b t a i n e d f r o m F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L a b o r a t o r y , M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n . Da c r y o p i n a x s p a t h u 1 a r i a UBC 6 1 7 1 a n d m o n o k a r y o n s : L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , B a t o n Rouge, L a . , on l i d o f wooden t r a s h c a n . C o l l . B. Lowy, M e r e d i t h B l a c k w e l l . Det. B. Lowy. H e t e r o t e x t u s l u t e u s KAS 50 (UBC 6 1 6 5 ) : May 8, 1981, UBC Research F o r e s t , Haney, B.C. on Douglas f i r . 

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