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The use of modal auxiliaries in the language of three-year-old children Godinho, Marie-Lisette 1983

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THE USE OF MODAL AUXILIARIES IN THE LANGUAGE OF THREE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN By MARIE-LISETTE GODINHO B.Sc , The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Audiology and Speech Sciences We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRIT ISH COLUMBIA J u n e 19 83 ®Marie-Lisette G o d i n h o , 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Audiology and Speech Sciences The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e ' J u l Y 5> 1983 DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT The c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e moda l a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m by young c h i l d r e n i s l i m i t e d t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e and use o f e a r l y f o r m s and t h e use o f f o r m s i n i m i t a t i o n t a s k s by o l d e r c h i l d r e n . The age a t w h i c h a g r e a t e x p a n s i o n o f t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b s y s t e m o c c u r s (3;0+) has n o t been i n v e s t i g a t e d w e l l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e moda l s y s t e m , an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e v e r b p h r a s e . T h i s s t u d y i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moda l f o rms and f u n c t i o n s i n t h e s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h o f c h i l d r e n aged 3,-4 t o 3;11. S t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s i x c h i l d r e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r g e n e r a l l e v e l o f l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . The c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l samp le was f o u n d t o be r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous. E a c h c h i l d ' s s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h was r e c o r d e d f o r one hour d u r i n g a f r e e - p l a y s e s s i o n i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . The s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s were e x a m i n e d f o r o c c u r r e n c e and use o f a u x i l i a r y v e r b s . A more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s was u n d e r t a k e n . The r e s u l t s a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e h y p o t h e s e s p r o p o s e d r e g a r d i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b s y s t e m . A w i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f fo rms and f u n c t i o n s a r e i n use by age 3,-4-3;11 and o c c u r i n a r a n g e o f s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e c h i l d r e n use f o r m s t o code a v a r i e t y o f mean -i n g s , t h e y have n o t m a s t e r e d t h e f u l l r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s c a r r i e d by moda l a u x i l i a r i e s . The use o f m o d a l s w i t h 3rd p e r s o n s u b j e c t s and t o r e f e r t o e v e n t s d i s p l a c e d f r o m i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e more a d v a n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f m o d a l a u x i l i a r i e s i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e s e t h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s s u g g e s t e d t o f u l l y e x p l a i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h i s c o m p l e x s y s t e m . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES_ i v CHAPTER 1 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Review of the Modal A u x i l i a r y System 1 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 7 Statement of the Problem and Hypotheses 19 CHAPTER 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY 23 Subjects 23 Data C o l l e c t i o n 24 Nature of the Tasks 25 Tra n s c r i p t i o n of Data 27 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 29 Baseline Data 29 General Description of Children's Use of A u x i l i a r i e s and Other Relevant Forms 30 General Description of Modals and Other Relevant Forms 37 Imitation of Modal Forms 37 Sentence Types 39 Question-response Framework 41 Subject use with Modals and Other Relevant Forms 44 Contexts 46 Form/Function Analysis of Modals and Other Relevant Forms 47 Role of Input 58 CONCLUDING REMARKS 63 BIBLIOGRAPHY 67 APPENDIX A 70 APPENDIX B 72 APPENDIX C 77 APPENDIX D 78 i v L I S T OF TABLES TABLE 1 Age and measures o f l i n g u i s t i c m a t u r i t y f o r e a c h c h i l d . 30 TABLE 2 Number o f a u x i l i a r y v e r b s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s (ORF) i n t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s . 31 TABLE 3 A u x i l i a r y i n v e r s i o n i n q u e s t i o n s . 34 TABLE 4 C h i l d ' s p e r f o r m a n c e on C E L I i t e m s w i t h m o d a l s . 38 TABLE 5 Number o f m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s used i n e a c h s e n t e n c e t y p e by e a c h c h i l d . 40 TABLE 6 C h i l d ' s use o f m o d a l s and ORF i n a d i s c o u r s e f r a m e w o r k . 43 TABLE 7 Number o f s u b j e c t s u s e d w i t h m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s . 45 TABLE 8 Number o f t o k e n s and number o f f u n c t i o n s o f e a c h moda l u s e d by e a c h c h i l d . 48 & 49 TABLE 9 T y p e s and t o k e n s o f f o r m s e x p r e s s i n g e a c h f u n c t i o n used by e a c h c h i l d . 52 TABLE 10 Number o f m o d a l s ( t o k e n s ) u s e d w i t h e p i s t e m i c and n o n -e p i s t e m i c mean ing by e a c h c h i l d . 54 TABLE 11 R a t i o o f number o f f o rms t o moda l mean ings u s e d by e a c h c h i l d . 58 TABLE 12 M o d a l s and ORF a d d r e s s e d t o e a c h c h i l d by h i s o r h e r p a r e n t and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , a c c o r d i n g t o s e n t e n c e t y p e 60 TABLE 13 M o d a l s and ORF a d d r e s s e d t o e a c h c h i l d by h i s o r her p a r e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o s e n t e n c e t y p e . 62 1 CHAPTER 1 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM M o d a l a u x i l i a r i e s a r e a s e t o f v e r b s t h a t behave s y n t a c t i c a l l y l i k e o t h e r a u x i l i a r i e s b u t code a d i v e r s e r a n g e o f m e a n i n g s . They c o m p r i s e a g r a m m a t i c a l c a t e g o r y w h i c h i s a s u b s y s t e m o f t h e v e r b p h r a s e and c a n be d e f i n e d f a i r l y s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s y n t a c t i c r u l e s and s e m a n t i c c a t e g o r i e s . B a s e d on f o r m a l c r i t e r i a t h e n i n e c l a s s i c a l m o d a l s a r e l i s t e d a s : CAN, COULD, WILL , WOULD, SHALL , SHOULD, MAY, MIGHT and MUST. The t e r m ' m o d a l i t y ' i s a s e m a n t i c one used t o r e f e r t o the mean ings o f t he moda l v e r b s ( P a l m e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . The moda l a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m i s p e r h a p s one o f t he most c o m p l e x s y s t e m s t o be m a s t e r e d o w i n g t o the i n t r i c a c i e s o f mean ing c a r r i e d by t h i s s e t o f v e r b s i n E n g l i s h . T h i s s t u d y was done w i t h the aim-o f c o n t r i b u t i n g t o o u r knowledge o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t he moda l s y s t e m i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f young E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n . I s h a l l b r i e f l y r e v i e w t h e moda l s y s t e m o f E n g l i s h . Then I s h a l l d i s c u s s t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f f o r m s and f u n c t i o n s o f t h i s s y s t e m and t h e i r i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p . Some o f t h e ma jo r i s s u e s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d and some h y p o t h e s e s p r o p o s e d . I n the s e c o n d c h a p t e r I s h a l l d e s c r i b e a s t u d y d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s . C h a p t e r t h r e e w i l l be a r e p o r t o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y and I s h a l l d i s c u s s t h e r e s u l t s i n l i g h t o f o u r c u r r e n t k n o w l e d g e . R e v i e w o f t h e M o d a l A u x i l i a r y Sys tem Forms M o d a l a u x i l i a r i e s f o rm a c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r s as the f i r s t s y n t a c t i c 2 c a t e g o r y f o l l o w i n g t h e s u b j e c t i n p h r a s e - s t r u c t u r e r u l e s ; t h e ( S y n t a c t i c  S t r u c t u r e s ) r u l e f o r a u x i l i a r y e x p a n s i o n b e i n g (Chomsky, 1957) : AUX > T e n s e (MODAL) (have + en) (be + i n g ) M o d a l s , l i k e o t h e r a u x i l i a r i e s , p o t e n t i a l l y f u n c t i o n i n f o u r ma jo r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s : 1 . S e n t e n c e n e g a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e NOT i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w s o r c o n t r a c t s w i t h the moda l o r o t h e r AUX p r e s e n t . 2 . I n v e r s i o n w i t h the s u b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n s and i n f o r m a l c o n d i t i o n a l o r r e s t r i c t i v e u s e s . 3 . E m p h a t i c a f f i r m a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e m a i n s t r e s s o f t h e s e n t e n c e f a l l s on the AUX t o s i g n a l i n s i s t e n c e on t h e t r u t h o f t he s t a t e m e n t . 4 . E c h o - s u b s t i t u t e f u n c t i o n s , as i n t a g q u e s t i o n s , s h o r t a n s w e r s ( e l l i p s i s ) , and c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h ' a n d s o ' . A u x i l i a r i e s a r e an i n d i s p e n s a b l e component i n any E n g l i s h c o n s t r u c t i o n i n v o l v i n g t h e s e f o u r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s and i n t h e a b s e n c e o f an a u x i l i a r y i n t h e base s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e n t e n c e , t h e i n s e r t i o n o f DO i s r e q u i r e d a s a t e n s e c a r r i e r and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s i g n a l , hence t h e t e r m ' D o - s u p p o r t ' . As a c l a s s d i s t i n c t f r o m o t h e r a u x i l i a r i e s , m o d a l s s h a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g s y n t a c t i c r e s t r i c t i o n s : 1 . When a moda l o c c u r s i n a s e n t e n c e , i t i s t he f i r s t e l e m e n t o f t h e v e r b p h r a s e , r e g a r d l e s s o f how much f u r t h e r t h e a u x i l i a r y i s e x p a n d e d . 2 . A moda l r e q u i r e s a f o l l o w i n g v e r b t o c o m p l e t e the mean ing o f t h e s e n t e n c e u n l e s s t h e v e r b i s r e c o v e r a b l e f rom e l s e w h e r e i n t h e c o n t e x t e . g . Y e s , you c a n ( E l l i p s i s ) . 3 . M o d a l s do n o t c o - o c c u r . T h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s i n some d i a l e c t s o f E n g l i s h . However , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r m o d a l s and c a t e n a t i v e s t o c o - o c c u r as i n , We w i l l have t o go now, t h e c a t e n a t i v e o c c u r r i n g i n s e c o n d p o s i t i o n . 3 4 . M o d a l s do n o t o c c u r as t h e f i r s t e l e m e n t i n i m p e r a t i v e s . T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n may be r e l a t e d t o t h e c o - o c c u r r e n c e r e s t r i c t i o n s i n c e an i m p e r a t i v e i s s a i d t o c o n t a i n WILL i n i t s deep s t r u c t u r e , o r i t may be s e m a n t i c as t h e mean ings c a r r i e d by m o d a l s a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e mean ing c a r r i e d by i m p e r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s . 5 . M o d a l s do n o t o c c u r i n s u b o r d i n a t e v e r b a l p h r a s e s w i t h o r w i t h o u t an a u x i l i a r y b u t l a c k i n g ' t e m p o r a l o r i e n t a t i o n 1 e . g . p a r t i c i p l e o r i n f i n i t i v e p h r a s e s . These s y n t a c t i c r e s t r i c t i o n s a p p l y t o a l l c l a s s i c a l m o d a l s and some a p p l y t o m o d a l - l i k e c o n s t r u c t i o n s as w e l l . Some m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s o f m o d a l s s e r v e t o s u p p o r t t h e s y n t a c t i c c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d a b o v e : 1 . M o d a l s l a c k the - s marke r o f 3 r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r p r e s e n t t e n s e r e q u i r e d o f r e g u l a r v e r b s i n E n g l i s h . 2 . M o d a l s have c o n t r a c t e d n e g a t i v e fo rms w i t h n ' t . I n A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h , i t i s more common t o have n e g a t i v e c o n t r a c t i o n w i t h MUST and t h e f i v e ' r e g u l a r ' m o d a l s - CAN, COULD, WILL , WOULD and SHOULD. 3 . M o d a l s have u n s t r e s s e d fo rms w i t h r e d u c e d v o w e l s , a s w e l l a s s t r o n g fo rms w i t h f u l l v o w e l v a l u e . E x c e p t i o n s a r e : MAY, MIGHT, a l o n g w i t h t h e m a r g i n a l m o d a l s and c a t e n a t i v e s . 4 . M o d a l s do n o t t a k e v e r b i n f l e c t i o n s e . g . - i n g and - e n , and a r e n o t marked f o r t e n s e . I n c o n t e x t s r e q u i r i n g s e q u e n c e o f t e n s e , COULD and WOULD c a n be r e g a r d e d as p a s t t e n s e f o r m s o f CAN and WILL . However , d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o rm g e n e r a l l y do n o t s i g n a l a d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m e r e l a t i o n s h i p . A c c o r d i n g t o M a j o r , t h e m o d a l c a t e g o r y i s n e i t h e r as r e g u l a r as t h e r u l e s i n many t e x t s w o u l d have us b e l i e v e nor as f o r m l e s s as a g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s . I t i s , i n s t e a d , a c l a s s o f i t e m s s h a r i n g a number o f m o r p h o -l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s . . . 4 I t i s a s y s t e m w i t h a s h a r p c o r e (CAN, COULD, WILL , WOULD, SHOULD) w h i c h s h a d e s o f f i n s t e p s t o t h e r e s t r i c t e d m o d a l s (SHALL, MAY, MIGHT, MUST) , t o m a r g i n a l m o d a l s (OUGHT TO, 'D BETTER, 'D RATHER) , t o t h e s t r a d d l e r s (NEED, DARE) , and f i n a l l y t o c a t e n a t i v e s , e a c h s t e p s h a r i n g f e w e r and f ewer f e a t u r e s w i t h t h e c o r e . ( 1 9 7 4 : 3 8 ) . M a j o r i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e above i t e m s i n t h e s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r y 'MODAL' on t h e b a s i s o f f o r m a l g u i d e l i n e s d e r i v e d f r o m P a l m e r ( 1 9 6 5 ) , T w a d d e l l ( 1 9 6 3 ) , J o o s ( 1 9 6 4 ) , A l l e n (1966) and o t h e r s . F o r a more d e t a i l e d summary see M a j o r ( 1 9 7 4 ) . F u n c t i o n s The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h i s s y s t e m becomes more a p p a r e n t when one c o n s i d e r s m o d a l i t y and t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t he moda l a u x i l i a r i e s i n E n g l i s h . T h i s i s s u e has been e x p l o r e d by a number o f l i n g u i s t s s u c h as Ehrman ( 1 9 6 6 ) , L e e c h ( 1 9 6 9 ) , L y o n s (1977) and P a l m e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f f e r e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t , t o some e x t e n t , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l t h e o r e t i c a l b i a s e s , b u t a l s o r e v e a l t h e s e m a n t i c c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e E n g l i s h moda l s y s t e m . On r e v i e w i n g some o f t he l i t e r a t u r e , I have d e c i d e d t o p r e s e n t P a l m e r ' s s y s t e m b e c a u s e i t a p p e a r s t o be the most c o m p r e h e n s i v e a c c o u n t o f t h i s s u b j e c t ( P a l m e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . T a k i n g b o t h s y n t a x and s e m a n t i c s i n t o a c c o u n t , P a l m e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h r e e b a s i c k i n d s o f m o d a l i t y w h i c h he l a b e l s ' e p i s t e m i c ' , ' d e o n t i c ' and ' d y n a m i c ' . The f i r s t d i s t i n c t i o n he makes i s be tween e p i s t e m i c and n o n -e p i s t e m i c m o d a l i t y , i . e . t h e m o d a l i t y o f p r o p o s i t i o n s as o p p o s e d t o t h e m o d a l i t y o f e v e n t s / a c t i o n s / s t a t e s . However , he c a u t i o n s t h a t i t i s u n w i s e t o o v e r s t a t e the i m p o r t a n c e and c l a r i t y o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . He s u b d i v i d e s n o n - e p i s t e m i c m o d a l i t y i n t o s u b j e c t - o r i e n t e d (dynamic) and d i s c o u r s e -o r i e n t e d ( d e o n t i c ) , where t h e f o r m e r r e f e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y o r w i l l i n g n e s s 5 o f t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s e n t e n c e , and t h e l a t t e r r e l a t e s t o t h e a c t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r i n g i v i n g p e r m i s s i o n , l a y i n g an o b l i g a t i o n e t c . A f u r t h e r s u b -d i v i s i o n o f d y n a m i c m o d a l i t y r e n d e r s a ' n e u t r a l ' c a t e g o r y w h i c h a l l o w s f o r an e v e n t t o be p o s s i b l e o r n e c e s s a r y w i t h o u t r e l a t i n g t h i s e i t h e r t o t h e s u b j e c t o r t h e s p e a k e r . P a l m e r o p e r a t e s on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e b a s i c n o t i o n s o f m o d a l i t y a r e p o s s i b i l i t y and n e c e s s i t y , and t h a t mean ings o f p e r m i s s i o n , o b l i g a t i o n , p r e d i c t i o n , a b i l i t y , v o l i t i o n , e t c . s tem f r o m t h e s e ' c o r e ' n o t i o n s . He d e s c r i b e s t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f m o d a l i t y may be r e l a t e d . I f an e v e n t o r p r o p o s i t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d as a c o n c e p t u a l " s t a t e o f a f f a i r s " , t h e n : a) E p i s t e m i c m o d a l i t y s t a t e s t h a t s u c h a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i s p o s s i b l e o r n e c e s s a r y ; b) D e o n t i c m o d a l i t y - t h e s p e a k e r p e r f o r m a t i v e l y c r e a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o r n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e coming i n t o r e a l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t a t e o f a f f a i r s ; c ) Dynamic m o d a l i t y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t h e r e a l w o r l d w h i c h make p o s s i b l e o r n e c e s s a r y the coming i n t o r e a l i t y o f t h i s c o n c e p t u a l s t a t e o f a f f a i r s . W i t h n e u t r a l d y n a m i c m o d a l i t y t h e s e a r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n g e n e r a l w h i l e w i t h s u b j e c t - o r i e n t e d m o d a l i t y t h e y a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u b j e c t . P o s s i b i l i t y and n e c e s s i t y a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be ' d e g r e e s ' o f m o d a l i t y and P a l m e r a l s o p o s t u l a t e s a n o t h e r d e g r e e o f m o d a l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m o d a l s WILL and SHALL, w h i c h he d i s c u s s e s s e p a r a t e l y . He u s e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n be tween ' k i n d s ' and ' d e g r e e s ' o f m o d a l i t y t o c l a s s i f y t h e m o d a l s t h e m s e l v e s . To summar i ze P a l m e r ' s s y s t e m , I have made a t w o -d i m e n s i o n a l m a t r i x w i t h some e x a m p l e s t o c l a r i f y t h e d i f f e r e n t u s e s o f t h e m o d a l s . 6 KINDS OF MODALITY MODALS EPISTEMIC DEONTIC DYNAMIC N e u t r a l S u b j e c t -O r i e n t e d MAY MUST SHOULD WILL SHALL CAN HAVE TO WOULD " MIGHT • COULD -P o s s i b i l i t y N e c e s s i t y R e a s o n a b l e a s s u m p t i o n C o n f i d e n t s t a t e m e n t P o s s i b i l i t y N e c e s s i t y T e n t a t i v e f o r m s o f W i l l , May , Can P e r m i s s i o n O b l i g a t i o n P e r f o r m a t i v e N e c e s s i t y / O b l i g . N e c e s s i t y N e c e s s i t y W i l l i n g n e s s P o s s i b i l i t y A b i l i t y C i r c u m s t a n t i a l P o s s i b i l i t y N o t e : T h i s m a t r i x i s a c r u d e a t t e m p t t o summar i ze P a l m e r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n -t h e r e a r e many i r r e g u l a r i t i e s and e x c e p t i o n s i n the s y s t e m . F o r d e t a i l s see P a l m e r (1979) . Examp les o f t h e k i n d s o f m o d a l i t y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x A . The e x a m p l e s g i v e n ( i n t h e a p p e n d i x ) a r e some o f t h e l e s s ambiguous o n e s . P a l m e r d i s c u s s e s t h e e x c e p t i o n s and d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the s y s t e m i n some d e p t h and s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o f o r more d e t a i l . H i s a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e s b o t h fo rm and f u n c t i o n and he s t a t e s , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s b o o k , t h a t , We a r e f o r c e d . . . t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t b o t h f o rm and m e a n i n g . T h e r e c l e a r l y must be some k i n d o f s e m a n t i c b a s i s t o t h e c o n c e p t o f m o d a l i t y , y e t a t t h e same t i m e p r e c i s e l y what i s t o be h a n d l e d w i t h i n t h a t c o n c e p t w i l l depend on t h e f o r m a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e b e i n g d e s c r i b e d . ( 1 9 7 9 : 2 ) . T h i s v i e w i s u p h e l d by F l e t c h e r (1979) and o t h e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e moda l s y s t e m i n c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e . I s h a l l now r e v i e w t h e r e l e v a n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i t e r a t u r e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f f o r m s and t h e n f u n c t i o n s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . 7 R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e Forms I n h i s c h a p t e r on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e v e r b p h r a s e ( V P ) , F l e t c h e r (1979) o u t l i n e s t h r e e d i s t i n c t a r e a s o f mean ing r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e V P — t e n s e , a s p e c t and mood. I t i s t h e l a s t o f t h e s e t h a t t h i s p a p e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h . F l e t c h e r u s e s t h e t e r m ' V P ' t o summar i ze t h e r a n g e o f a u x i l i a r i e s , m o d a l s and i n f l e c t i o n s t h a t s i g n a l t e m p o r a l , a s p e c t u a l o r moda l mean ings ( p . 2 6 1 ) , and t h i s i s how I w i l l use t h e t e r m . He s t a t e s t h a t moda l a u x i l i a r i e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n VPs f o r t h e c h i l d and n e g a t i v e m o d a l s a r e one o f t h e e a r l i e s t VP m o d i f i c a t i o n s ( p . 2 7 9 ) . W e l l s ' (1979) d a t a seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t m o d a l s a r e one o f t h e most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g VP f o r m s , as o n e - t h i r d o f a l l VP fo rms u s e d - b y c h i l d r e n i n h i s s t u d y up t o age 3 ; 6 c o n t a i n e d m o d a l s . However , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e were CAN, WILL and t h e i r n e g a t i v e f o r m s , CAN 'T and WON'T. The e a r l y use o f t h e n e g a t i v e fo rms C A N ' T , WON'T and DON'T has been w e l l documented ( K l i m a & B e l l u g i , 1966 ; d e V i l l i e r s & d e V i l l i e r s , 1 9 7 8 ; W e l l s , 1 9 7 9 ; K u c z a j & M a r a t s o s , 1 9 7 5 ; e t c . ) These fo rms a p p e a r i n c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h a t a r o u n d age 2 ; 0 and have a d i s t i n c t l y p e r f o r m a t i v e f u n c t i o n , i n t h a t t h e y o c c u r as r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s o r r e q u e s t s f o r a c t i o n . They a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be monomorphemic n e g a t i v e m a r k e r s r a t h e r t h a n t r u e moda l a u x i l i a r i e s a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e b e c a u s e o f t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i v e fo rms and n e g a t i v e c o n t r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r f o rms s u c h as DOESN'T, D IDN 'T . D e V i l l i e r s & d e V i l l i e r s (1978) p r o p o s e t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r VP f o r m s i n E n g l i s h ( p . 9 7 ) : 1 . I n f l e c t i o n s f o r 3 r d p e r s o n ; s i m p l e p a s t t e n s e ; p r o g r e s s i v e e n d i n g s . 8 2 . C a t e n a t i v e s - WANNA, GONNA and HAFTA. 3 . N e g a t i v e m a r k e r s - DON'T, CAN 'T and WON'T. 4 . P o s i t i v e a u x i l i a r i e s - DO, CAN, WILL , a p p e a r l a t e r . 5 . F u l l a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m o f E n g l i s h b l o s s o m s a r o u n d age 4 ; 0 (MLU 3 .5 ) 6 . H y p o t h e t i c a l m a r k i n g s - WOULD, MIGHT, COULD, and p e r f e c t f o rms - (HAVE + E N ) , t a k e c h i l d r e n l o n g e r t o m a s t e r . They s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s may be d e p e n d e n t on c o g n i t i v e r a t h e r t h a n l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t - a c l a i m t h a t has been r e f u t e d by F l e t c h e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o p e r f e c t f o rms ( F l e t c h e r , 1981). O t h e r a u t h o r s have documented a ' c a t a l o g u e o f f o r m s ' a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f VP d e v e l o p m e n t . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m o d a l c l a s s i n p a r t i c u l a r , L e o p o l d ' s d i a r y d a t a (see F l e t c h e r , 1979) l i s t s H i l d e g a r d ' s f o rms a t 2,-2 as WON'T and C A N ' T ; a t 2 ; 3 she added WILL and CAN i n y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s and r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s , and HAVE TO; a t 2 ; 4 MAY and WILL o c c u r r e d i n a s e n t e n c e where i t was n o t d e p e n d e n t on a q u e s t i o n ; and a t 3 ; 6 SHOULD + p e r f e c t f o r m , a p p e a r e d . M o s t o f t h e s e f o r m s o c c u r r e d i n v e r y r e s t r i c t e d c o n t e x t s a t f i r s t , a f a c t c o n f i r m e d by o t h e r s t u d i e s on the e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e moda l s y s t e m . F l e t c h e r has a l s o e x a m i n e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o d a l a u x i l i a r i e s i n one c h i l d , D a n i e l , between 2 ; 0 and 2 ; 2 . The f o r m s used d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n c l u d e CAN, C A N ' T , WILL , WILLN 'T and SHALL . F l e t c h e r c l a i m s t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n o f VP fo rms i s r e l a t i v e l y u n s y s t e m a t i c a t f i r s t , t h a t f o r m s a r e l e a r n e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and s e p a r a t e l y . He p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e s y n t a c t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e e a r l y m o d a l f o r m s i s l i m i t e d and i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d w i t h t h e i r m e a n i n g ; f o r m and f u n c t i o n a r e i n s e p a r a b l e a t t h i s p o i n t i n the c h i l d ' s l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s i s s u e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e p t h l a t e r o n . 9 Brown and a s s o c i a t e s (19 73) were p e r h a p s among t h e f i r s t t o document t h e p r e s e n c e o f m o d a l s CAN and WILL i n t h e i r s a m p l e s o f c h i l d r e n aged a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 ; 3 - 2 ; 8 (MLU 3 . 0 + ) . Th- is f i n d i n g has been c o n f i r m e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s . K u c z a j & M a r a t s o s ( 1 9 7 5 ) , i n a s t u d y o f one c h i l d ' s m o d a l s y s t e m between 2 ; 5 - 2 ; 7 (MLU 3 . 0 1 - 3 . 2 5 ) , showed t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s s y s t e m a p p e a r s t o be under way a t t h i s a g e . They examined t h e use o f t h e m o d a l s WILL , CAN, SHALL and MAY i n i m i t a t i o n t a s k s and s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h s a m p l e s . They f o u n d t h a t Abe i n i t i a l l y showed l i t t l e c o n t r o l o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s i n W h - q u e s t i o n s and y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s , b u t d e m o n s t r a t e d a f a i r amount o f knowledge o f t he d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s i n d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s . However , t he use o f moda l AUX i n i m i t a t e d y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s came i n w i t h i n some weeks o f p r o d u c t i v e u s e i n d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s and was l a r g e l y a c c u r a t e i n t h i s c o n t e x t ; i . e . m o d a l s o c c u r r e d i n i n v e r t e d , s e n t e n c e -i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n e . g . Can I go? T h i s d a t a c o n f i r m s a c l a i m made by B r o w n , C a z d e n & B e l l u g i (1969) t h a t t h e use o f m o d a l s i n y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s and d e c l a r a t i v e s i s p a r t o f a u n i f i e d s y s t e m . A b e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n i m i t a t i o n t a s k s r e q u i r i n g t h e i m i t a t i o n o f g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e s and t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f u n g r a m m a t i c a l s e n t e n c e s c o n t a i n i n g moda l a u x i l i a r i e s , showed t h a t he had a c h i e v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e moda l s y s t e m b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g p r o d u c t i o n . He s t a r t e d t o use moda l a u x i l i a r i e s s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n d e c l a r a t i v e s j u s t when h i s i m i t a t i o n s showed he had c o n s i d e r a b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r use i n y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s and some a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r use i n W h - q u e s t i o n s . K u c z a j & M a r a t s o s b e l i e v e t h a t c h i l d r e n d e m o n s t r a t e e x t e n s i v e p r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d a t a a b o u t t h e use o f t h e g e n e r a l s y s t e m and when t h i s c a n be shown t o e x i s t , i t s i g n a l s t h e c h i l d ' s a w a r e n e s s o f a l a r g e r ' i n t e g r a t e d s y s t e m w h i c h he w i s h e s t o m a s t e r b e f o r e u s i n g . T h i s c l a i m , h o w e v e r , i s l a r g e l y b a s e d on d a t a f r o m one c h i l d w h i c h may r e f l e c t t h e c h i l d ' s 10 i n d i v i d u a l l i n g u i s t i c s t y l e and t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be e a s i l y g e n e r a l i z e d . However , t h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e t h a t we must a l s o be c a u t i o u s a b o u t mak ing c l a i m s b a s e d o n l y on p r o d u c t i o n d a t a . K y p r i o t a k i ( 1 9 7 4 ) , i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s y n t a c t i c c a t e g o r y d e f i n e d as AUX ( a u x i l i a r y v e r b sys tem) by u s i n g an i m i t a t i o n t a s k t o t e s t 30 c h i l d r e n aged 2 ; 1 - 5 ; 1 . 20 s e n t e n c e s were p r e s e n t e d i n 3 f o r m s : 1 . p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t , 2 . p o s i t i v e q u e s t i o n , 3 . n e g a t i v e q u e s t i o n . She f o u n d t h a t c h i l d r e n e x p l o r e d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s a v a i l a b l e t o them. W h i l e some c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e AUX one e l e m e n t a t a t i m e , o t h e r s seem t o a c q u i r e v a r y i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f e l e m e n t s , t h e r e b y d e m o n s t r a t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n l i n g u i s t i c s t y l e . B e l l u g i (1971) examined a u x i l i a r y i n v e r s i o n i n q u e s t i o n s u s e d by t h r e e c h i l d r e n aged a b o u t 3 ; 0 ( P e r i o d C,MLU 3 . 5 ) . She had p r e v i o u s l y shown t h a t a u x i l i a r i e s o c c u r i n v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d : d e c l a r a t i v e s , n e g a t i v e s , y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s and W h - q u e s t i o n s ( K l i m a & B e l l u g i , 1 9 6 6 ) . She f o u n d t h a t the o c c u r r e n c e o f f o rms was n o t e q u i v a l e n t o v e r t h e two ma jo r t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s i n E n g l i s h . Y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s a r e fo rmed by i n v e r t i n g t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b and s u b j e c t n o u n - p h r a s e (and p r o v i d i n g D o -s u p p o r t where n e c e s s a r y ) o r by u s i n g r i s i n g i n t o n a t i o n w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g d e c l a r a t i v e word o r d e r . W h - q u e s t i o n s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n v o l v e , two g r a m m a t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s : f i r s t an i n t e r r o g a t i v e word i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an u n s p e c i f i e d e l e m e n t w h i c h i s b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d and t h e n t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e word i s l o c a t e d i n i t i a l l y i n t h e s e n t e n c e ; a n d , s e c o n d , t h e r e i s i n v e r s i o n o f n o u n - p h r a s e s u b j e c t and a u x i l i a r y ( w i t h D o - s u p p o r t i n t h e a b s e n c e o f A U X ) . T h e r e i s an i n t e r m e d i a t e f o r m o f W h - q u e s t i o n i n a d u l t s p e e c h , u s u a l l y c a l l e d an echo q u e s t i o n , w h i c h does n o t r e q u i r e i n v e r s i o n , e . g . She c a n do w h a t ? However t h e s e a r e v e r y r a r e i n c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h and o c c u r much l a t e r i n d e v e l o p m e n t . 11 B e l l u g i s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e use o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s i n q u e s t i o n s p r o g r e s s e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s : 1 . M o d a l s a r e u s e d i n d e c l a r a t i v e s b u t n o t i n y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s o r Wh-q u e s t i o n s . 2 . M o d a l s a r e u s e d i n y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s and a r e i n v e r t e d c o r r e c t l y b u t do n o t o c c u r i n W h - q u e s t i o n s . 3 . M o d a l s s t a r t t o a p p e a r i n W h - q u e s t i o n s b u t i n i n c o r r e c t , n o n - i n v e r t e d p o s i t i o n s , e . g . What you w i l l do? 4 . M o d a l s a r e c o r r e c t l y p l a c e d i n a f f i r m a t i v e W h - q u e s t i o n s b u t n o t i n n e g a t i v e s , e . g . Where s h o u l d we p u t them? Why we c a n ' t f i n d t h e r i g h t  one? 5 . M o d a l s a r e c o r r e c t l y p l a c e d i n n e g a t i v e W h - q u e s t i o n s , e . g . Why w o n ' t  you l e t me f l y ? B e l l u g i r e p o r t s t h a t moda l a u x i l i a r i e s d i d n o t b e g i n t o o c c u r i n Adam's s p e e c h u n t i l P e r i o d C (MLU 3 .5 ) and t h a t o n c e t h e y o c c u r r e d , t h e y were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i n v e r t e d i n y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s b u t n o t i n W h - q u e s t i o n s . She m a i n t a i n s t h a t i t i s n o t t h e a u x i l i a r y i n v e r s i o n r u l e t h a t p o s e s t h e p r o b l e m b u t r a t h e r , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n v e r s i o n and Wh-word p r e p o s i n g i n a s i n g l e s t r i n g t h a t a p p e a r s t o be d i f f i c u l t f o r c h i l d r e n . She s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a l i m i t on t h e p e r m i t t e d c o m p l e x i t y o f a s t r i n g t h a t a c h i l d i s a b l e t o p r o d u c e a t a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n - has been s u p p o r t e d by d e V i l l i e r s & d e V i l l i e r s ( 1 9 7 8 ) , who made t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n make s u r p r i s i n g l y few e r r o r s i n l e a r n i n g t h e V P , one p o s s i b l e r e a s o n b e i n g t h a t t h e y use o n l y one v e r b m a r k i n g a t a t i m e i n t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b s y s t e m . They a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o r d e r i n g i n t e rms o f d e r i v a t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t y w i l l p r e d i c t t h e o r d e r o f a p p e a r a n c e o f VP f o r m s , and t h a t f r e q u e n c y i n p a r e n t - t o - c h i l d s p e e c h may be t h e t r u e d e t e r m i n a n t o f a c q u i s i t i o n o r d e r . 12 As one c a n s u r m i s e f r o m t h e s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d so f a r , t h e r e s e a r c h t h a t has been done on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a u x i l i a r y f o r m s , i n c l u d i n g m o d a l s , has been r e s t r i c t e d t o the a p p e a r a n c e and use o f e a r l y f o r m s f r o m age 2 ; 0 - 3 ; 0 . A l t h o u g h a number o f a u t h o r s have a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b s y s t e m " b l o s s o m s " a f t e r t h i s p e r i o d , v e r y few s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s s y s t e m . S h i e l d s & S t e i n e r (1972) r e p o r t a marked i n c r e a s e i n t h e use o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s i n t h e s p e e c h o f 3 t o 5 - y e a r - o l d s f r o m t h e i r sample o f 107 c h i l d r e n . They e v e n c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s a s one o f t h e "ma in a r e a s o f g r o w t h " i n l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t o v e r t h i s p e r i o d , b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y , do n o t g i v e a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s ( F l e t c h e r , 1 9 7 5 ) . M a j o r (1974) d i d a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y on t h e ' a c q u i s i t i o n ' o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s by 44 c h i l d r e n ( K i n d e r g a r t e n t o Grade 3 ) , u s i n g t a s k s s u c h as i m i t a t i o n , c o n v e r s i o n o f a f f i r m a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s t o n e g a t i v e s , s u p p l y i n g o f t a g q u e s t i o n s and a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s o f a hand p u p p e t . As F l e t c h e r (1975) p o i n t s o u t i n h i s r e v i e w , M a j o r c a n n o t f u l l y a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f a c q u i s i t i o n as h e r s t u d y does n o t b e g i n u n t i l age 5 (Major g i v e s no i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t c h i l d r e n ' s ages) and t h e r e f o r e m i s s e s some c r u c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e f f e c t s o f f r e q u e n c y , s e n t e n c e l e n g t h and mean ing on t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d a r e d i f f i c u l t t o u n r a v e l and F l e t c h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t s t u d i e s t h a t use i m i t a t i o n t a s k s w h i c h t r e a t the m o d a l s as a p u r e l y s y n t a c t i c p r o b l e m a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o answer q u e s t i o n s a b o u t moda l a c q u i s i t i o n . M a j o r ' s r e s u l t s do show, h o w e v e r , t h a t moda l a c q u i s i t i o n i s n o t c o m p l e t e f o r some c h i l d r e n a t age 8 (Grade 3 ) . T h i s i s one o f t h e few s t u d i e s done on t h e l a t e r a c q u i s i t i o n o f moda l f o r m s b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y , l i t t l e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be e x t r a c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t s i m p o s e d , as d i s c u s s e d by F l e t c h e r . Functions 13 Even fewer researchers have investigated the a c q u i s i t i o n of functions of the modal a u x i l i a r i e s . As Fletcher (1979) has said , not only i s the c h i l d faced with learning the forms of the V P — the orders i n which they occur i n de c l a r a t i v e and interrogative sentences and the co-occurrence r e s t r i c t i o n s that hold among them— but he must also master the functions of the VP system. In the case of modals, the task i s p a r t i c u l a r l y awesome when one considers the complexity of meaning within the system. Le Bonniec (1974, c i t e d i n H i r s t & Weil, 1982) has provided evidence that the modal l o g i c a l notions of p o s s i b i l i t y , p r o b a b i l i t y and necessity are not mastered c o g n i t i v e l y by 7-year-olds and may not be f u l l y appreciated u n t i l the 11th or 12th year, although modal expressions for these concepts appear i n children's speech around 2;6 (Hirst & Weil, 1982). Fletcher argues that the modal expressions used by very young c h i l d r e n do not represent these modal l o g i c a l notions but rather, tend to be performative, interpersonal and action-oriented. He proposes that during development, VP forms used by the c h i l d may have a r e s t r i c t e d range of functions, an over-extended range of functions or functions that the adult form never has. Many modal forms are p l u r i f u n c t i o n a l i n adult language (see above), but i t i s not l i k e l y that a 2 or 3-year-old c h i l d w i l l have developed such an extensive range of functions. On examining the use of CAN in Daniel's speech between 2;0 - 2;2, Fletcher discovered that forms used were c l o s e l y related to actions and were seldom used independently of the actions to which they r e f e r r e d . He observed that modals were only used with 1st and 2nd person pronouns, i . e . the c h i l d either used the modal for h i m s e l f — t o indicate w i l l i n g n e s s , a b i l i t y or request for perm i s s i o n — o r to allow or p r o h i b i t an 14 a c t i o n by h i s a d d r e s s e e . He d i d n o t use m o d a l s t o r e f e r t o t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o r a b i l i t y o f 3 r d p e r s o n s . F l e t c h e r a l s o n o t e d t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f t he m o d a l s were q u e s t i o n s o r r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n s were n o t r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t p r e l i m i n a r i e s t o a c t i v i t y . The c h i l d a s k e d a q u e s t i o n t o r e q u e s t p e r m i s s i o n t o do s o m e t h i n g , t o g e t t h e a d u l t t o a c t f o r h im o r s i m p l y t o i n i t i a t e some a c t i o n . F l e t c h e r makes t h e i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n -r e s p o n s e f ramework i s a u s e f u l one f o r t h e c h i l d t o l e a r n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m s , a s t h e f o r m o f t h e q u e s t i o n d i c t a t e s t h e f o r m o f t h e r e s p o n s e e . g . Q: ( A d u l t ) Can Daddy go and g e t h i s t e a ? R: ( C h i l d ) You c a n , ( p . 2 8 0 ) . The e a r l y m o d a l s , t h e n , a r e p u r e l y p e r f o r m a t i v e ; t h e y r e l a t e t o a c t i o n w h i c h i s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l l i m i t s t h a t t h e c h i l d p e r c e i v e s . F l e t c h e r h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s w i l l depend o n : a) t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n f r o m i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n , and b) t h e i r use t o r e f e r t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y and p r o b a b i l i t y o f p r o p o s i t i o n s and e v e n t s , and t h e a b i l i t i e s and w i s h e s o f o t h e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o h i m , the c h i l d must d e v e l o p an o b j e c t i v i t y and a c o g n i t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h a l l o w h im t o use l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s ' d i s p l a c e d ' f r o m t h e e v e n t s t o w h i c h t h e y r e f e r . U s i n g L y o n s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m o d a l i t y , B loom & Lahey (1978) have p o s t u l a t e d an o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s : 1 . W i s h and i n t e n t i o n a r e t h e e a r l i e s t t o be marked i n c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h , u s u a l l y by t h e c a t e n a t i v e s - WANNA and GONNA. 2 . C e r t a i n t y and p o s s i b i l i t y a r e marked by t h e n e g a t i v e moda l CAN 'T and t h e n by C A N , i n c o n t r a s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s . 3 . N e c e s s i t y and o b l i g a t i o n a r e t h e l a s t t o be marked e . g . by MUST and HAFTA. W h i l e B loom and Lahey u s e d a d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t o r y scheme, t h e i r r e s u l t s 15 a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h F l e t c h e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s . As m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , d e V i l l i e r s & d e V i l l i e r s (1978) r e f e r t o t h e l a t e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h y p o t h e t i c a l m a r k i n g s c o d e d by m o d a l s WOULD and MIGHT i n c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e . T h i s q u e s t i o n has been a d d r e s s e d by K u c z a j & D a l y (1979), who d i d a s t u d y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n . T h e i r d a t a come f r o m a l o n g i t u d i n a l / c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l n a t u r a l i s t i c s t u d y i n v o l v i n g 15 c h i l d r e n i n t h e age r a n g e o f 2;6 - 5;6 and an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y i n v o l v i n g 75 c h i l d r e n i n g r o u p s o f 15, r a n g i n g i n age f r o m 3;0 t o 7;9. S p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h s a m p l e s were r e c o r d e d a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s i n the f i r s t s t u d y and c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e c o n d s t u d y were a s k e d t o t e l l a s t o r y and were t h e n a s k e d f a c t u a l and h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s a b o u t e a c h o f t h r e e s h o r t s t o r i e s r e a d t o them. K u c z a j & D a l y ' s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l s h i f t d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s f r o m i m p l i c i t h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e ( d e f i n e d as the o m i s s i o n o f n e c e s s a r y h y p o t h e t i c a l f o r m s e . g . moda l - WOULD, c o n d i t i o n a l IF ) t o e x p l i c i t h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e ( d e f i n e d as the use o f a t l e a s t q u a s i - a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m s e . g . WOULD, COULD, MIGHT, WILL , CAN, SHOULD). When c h i l d r e n b e g i n t o make e x p l i c i t h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e (age 2;9), t h e y use i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m s , f o r e x a m p l e , WILL f o r WOULD, and o n l y l a t e r do t h e y l e a r n t o use n e w l y a c q u i r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m s . T h i s i s o f f e r e d - , a s s u p p o r t f o r t h e f o r m / f u n c t i o n h y p o t h e s i s (see b e l o w ) . They a l s o f o u n d t h a t f u t u r e h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e (coded by m o d a l s WOULD, COULD and MIGHT) was an e a r l i e r and a p p a r e n t l y e a s i e r a c q u i s i t i o n (age 3;0) t h a n p a s t h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e (coded by above m o d a l s w i t h a u x i l i a r y HAVE and a p r o p e r l y t e n s e d m a i n v e r b ) , (age 4;2) . A s t h i s f i n d i n g c a n n o t be a c c o u n t e d f o r by s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y o r t e m p o r a l r e f e r e n c i n g s k i l l s , t h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t a c o g n i t i v e b a s i s f o r t h e l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f p a s t h y p o t h e t i c a l s . T h e i r r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y 16 r e f e r t o i s o l a t e d h y p o t h e t i c a l e v e n t s r a t h e r t h a n s e q u e n c e s o f r e l a t e d h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , and t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y o v e r a s e q u e n c e i n s e l f - i n i t i a t e d t h a n i n o t h e r - i n i t i a t e d h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e . They c o n c l u d e t h a t p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n have t h e c a p a c i t y f o r h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e b u t t h a t t h i s c a p a c i t y o p e r a t e s w i t h i n c e r t a i n c o n s t r a i n t s i n t h e e a r l y p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . T h i s s t u d y i s i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u s e the r e s u l t s show t h a t moda l a u x i l i a r i e s a r e u s e d by c h i l d r e n aged a b o u t 3 ; 5 , t o c o d e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e , b u t t h a t t h e f o r m s a r e n o t a l w a y s a p p r o p r i a t e . The f o r m / f u n c t i o n h y p o t h e s e s p u t f o r t h by a number o f t h e o r i s t s ( C a s s i r e r 1 9 5 5 , Cromer 1 9 6 8 ; 1 9 7 4 , S l o b i n 1 9 7 3 , Werner & K a p l a n 1963) r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f g r a m m a t i c a l f o rms and t h e mean ings e x p r e s s e d by t h e s e f o r m s may be p h r a s e d as f o l l o w s : 1 . Newly a c q u i r e d f o r m s a r e f i r s t u s e d t o e x p r e s s p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d f u n c t i o n s (new f o r m s e x p r e s s o l d m e a n i n g s ) . 2 . Newly a c q u i r e d f u n c t i o n s a r e f i r s t e x p r e s s e d by p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d f o r m s (new m e a n i n g s a r e f i r s t e x p r e s s e d by o l d f o r m s ) . K u c z a j (1982) t e s t e d t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s i n a s t u d y i n v o l v i n g 15 c h i l d r e n f r o m age 2 ; 6 t o 5 ; 6 . L o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a were o b t a i n e d f r o m h i s son A b e , whose s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h was s a m p l e d a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s f r o m 2 ; 5 - 5 ; 0 . The o t h e r c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e d a c r o s s s e c t i o n a l s a m p l e . K u c z a j examined the use o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s and r e l a t e d f o r m s t o e x p r e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g m e a n i n g s : f u t u r e o f p r e s e n t i n t e n t (F I ) , f u t u r e o f p r e s e n t c a u s e ( F C ) , f u t u r e o f p r e d i c t i o n ( F P ) , a b i l i t y ( A B ) , p e r m i s s i o n ( P E ) , p o s s i b i l i t y (PO) , w i l l i n g n e s s (WI) , o b l i g a t i o n -n e c e s s i t y (ON), and h y p o t h e t i c a l (HY) ( p . 5 6 ) . He d o e s n o t d i s c u s s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r c h o o s i n g t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y . A f i n e - g r a i n e d a n a l y s i s o f A b e ' s f o r m s and t h e mean ings t h e y c o d e d when f i r s t o b s e r v e d i n 17 h i s s p e e c h l e d K u c z a j t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e f o r m / f u n c t i o n h y p o t h e s e s do n o t a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t he moda l s y s t e m i n c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h . W h i l e some o l d f o r m s were i n i t i a l l y used t o e x p r e s s new mean ings and new fo rms t o e x p r e s s o l d f u n c t i o n s , t h e r e was a l s o some s i m u l t a n e o u s a c q u i s i t i o n o f a new mean ing and a new f o r m , as w e l l as t h e use o f o l d f o r m s ( p r e v i o u s l y u s e d t o e x p r e s s o t h e r f u n c t i o n s ) t o e x p r e s s o l d f u n c t i o n s ( p r e v i o u s l y e x p r e s s e d by o t h e r f o r m s ) . K u c z a j n o t e d t h a t some a c q u i s i t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t h e r e p l a c e -ment o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m s w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n . He s u g g e s t s a g e n e r a l a c q u i s i t i o n p a t t e r n i n w h i c h a l i m i t e d number o f f o r m s a r e used t o e x p r e s s a l i m i t e d number o f f u n c t i o n s e a r l y i n d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f f u n c t i o n s a c q u i r e d and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n t h e number, o f f o rms u s e d t o e x p r e s s t h e f u n c t i o n s , some o f w h i c h do n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o a d u l t u s a g e . L a t e r , c h i l d r e n s t a r t t o n a r r o w t h e i r r e f e r e n t i a l use o f f o rms s o t h a t t h e y become r e s t r i c t e d t o the a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n s . K u c z a j c l a i m s t h a t t h i s i s a g r a d u a l , c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s w i t h no e v i d e n c e o f an ' e x p l o s i o n ' i n t h e use o f moda l f o r m s o r f u n c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s some s u p p o r t f o r t h e f o r m / f u n c t i o n h y p o t h e s e s , t h e r e a r e o t h e r r e l a t i o n s between f o r m s and f u n c t i o n s , as K u c z a j has d e m o n s t r a t e d , and t h e s e need t o be s p e c i f i e d more c l e a r l y . F l e t c h e r (1975) has s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e e p i s t e m i c / n o n - e p i s t e m i c d i s t i n c t i o n i s r e l e v a n t f o r a c q u i s i t i o n and t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s mean ing d i s t i n c t i o n on moda l a c q u i s i t i o n r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . K u c z a j ' s (1982) r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h , c h i l d r e n between 2;6 -3;6 p r o d u c e more d e o n t i c t h a n e p i s t e m i c m o d a l s compared t o c h i l d r e n between 4 ; 0 and 5 ; 9 . He f o u n d t h a t m o d a l s o f p e r m i s s i o n (PE) were u s e d f r e q u e n t l y by c h i l d r e n aged 2;6, w h e r e a s m o d a l s o f p o s s i b i l i t y d i d n o t o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y u n t i l 3;3. I t a p p e a r s t h a t n o n - e p i s t e m i c u s e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y d e o n t i c ) . a r e a c q u i r e d b e f o r e e p i s t e m i c u s e s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s r e c e i v e s some s u p p o r t f r o m ) 18 spontaneous speech data of the studies discussed so f a r . H i r s t & Weil (1982) c a r r i e d out an experimental study to investigate the a c q u i s i t i o n of epistemic and deontic meaning of the modals MUST, SHOULD and MAY. They claim that the propositions these modals q u a l i f y vary i n strength i n a l i n e a r fashion: MUST SHOULD ;> MAY, and that the larger the d i f f e r e n c e i n strength, the e a r l i e r i t should be appreciated. They also included factual/modal contrasts i n t h e i r study. Their sample was comprised of 54 c h i l d r e n in seven groups, ranging i n age from 3;0 to 6;6. The tasks were designed to access children's appreciation of r e l a t i v e force of the modal propositions. Children had to choose between two propositions i n the epistemic task and two commands i n the deontic task. H i r s t & Weil's r e s u l t s support th e i r hypothesis, in that factual/modal contrasts were appreciated e a r l i e r than modal/modal contrasts, and that the greater the r e l a t i v e degree of force, the e a r l i e r the contrast was learned, i . e . MUST/MAY preceded MUST/ SHOULD and SHOULD/MAY. Their data also seem to indicate that c h i l d r e n acquire an appreciation of epistemic modals a year e a r l i e r than deontic modals, a f i n d i n g that runs counter to a l l that i s known about the a c q u i s i t i o n of modals. H i r s t & Weil acknowledge that t h e i r claim contradicts Kuczaj's data and suggest that the discrepancy may be task-dependent. Two points need to be c l a r i f i e d with regard to t h i s issue. F i r s t of a l l , comprehension data (Hirst & Weil) i s being compared to production data (Kuczaj) and t h i s i s always r i s k y , as the authors point out. Second, their r e s u l t s may simply be a r e f l e c t i o n of the cognitive demands of the tasks they chose rather than a true r e f l e c t i o n of children's semantic organization or a c q u i s i t i o n . They admit that the cognitive demands of the two tasks d i f f e r e d , in that the deontic task involved more complex s o c i a l dynamics which were not present in the epistemic task. In a purely experimental study, such a c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e introduces a complicating factor when 19 i n t e r p r e t i n g l i n g u i s t i c d a t a , and may w e l l i n v a l i d a t e t h e c l a i m s made a b o u t c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c competence b a s e d on t h a t d a t a . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e moda l s y s t e m , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o f u n c t i o n . F l e t c h e r (1979) has e m p h a s i z e d t h a t b o t h f o r m and mean ing have t o be examined c o n c o m i t a n t l y when i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e V P , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e moda l s y s t e m . He s t a t e s t h a t q u e s t i o n s a b o u t moda l a c q u i s i t i o n w i l l n o t be f u l l y a n s w e r e d by i m i t a t i o n t a s k s t h a t t r e a t m o d a l s as a p u r e l y s y n t a c t i c p r o b l e m . He s u g g e s t s t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o i m i t a t i o n t a s k s , we need d a t a f r o m s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h much y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n . He a l s o adds t h a t t h e i n q u i r y needs t o be i n f o r m e d by t h e i n s i g h t s o f d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e a d u l t l a n g u a g e and by d e v e l o p m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g y . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m and H y p o t h e s e s The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e has i d e n t i f i e d some o f t h e i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e moda l a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m i n E n g l i s h . M o s t o f t h e a u t h o r s have s u g g e s t e d f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o c l a r i f y some o f t h e u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e s a b o u t t h e use o f t h i s c o m p l e x s y s t e m by young c h i l d r e n . B e l l u g i ( 1 9 6 6 ) , K u c z a j ( 1 9 8 2 ) , F l e t c h e r (1979) and o t h e r s have o u t -l i n e d t h e e a r l y a c q u i s i t i o n o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s w h i c h o c c u r s between 2 ;0 and 3 ; 0 , and h a v e , t o some e x t e n t , d i s c u s s e d the d e v e l o p m e n t o f b o t h fo rms and f u n c t i o n s . The g e n e r a l p i c t u r e t h a t emerges i s t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o d a l s b e g i n s a t a b o u t 2 ; 0 b u t i s n o t c o m p l e t e by age 8 ; 0 . A l t h o u g h t h e s y s t e m seems t o d e v e l o p d r a m a t i c a l l y between 3 ; 0 and 5 ; 0 t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d a t a on the use o f m o d a l s d u r i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d o f l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t , p e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t p e r i o d i n te rms o f t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b s y s t e m . 20 In o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s s y s t e m , b o t h f o r m and mean ing must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t as F l e t c h e r has s u g g e s t e d . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f o r m s u s e d by c h i l d r e n , we need t o l o o k n o t o n l y a t t he a c t u a l f o r m s b u t a l s o a t t h e s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s i n w h i c h t h e y o c c u r . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e e a r l y f o r m s o c c u r i n v e r y r e s t r i c t e d s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e same u t t e r a n c e . The m a j o r i t y o f m o d a l s a r e shown t o be t i e d t o a q u e s t i o n - r e s p o n s e f r a m e w o r k ; many o c c u r w i t h o u t ma in v e r b s ; t h e y a r e used o n l y w i t h 1 s t and 2nd p e r s o n p r o n o u n s and a r e c o r r e c t l y i n v e r t e d i n y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s b u t n o t i n W h - q u e s t i o n s . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y o f s e q u e n c e s c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o p r o d u c e d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b d e v e l o p m e n t . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o ask c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f moda l f o r m s , i . e . between t h e ages o f 3 ; 0 t o 5 ; 0 . F o r i n s t a n c e : 1 . What i s t he d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f o r m s u s e d by 3 and 4 - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n ? 2 . A r e o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r , o r u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h m o d a l f o r m s ? 3 . Do f o r m s u s e d by c h i l d r e n t h i s age o c c u r i n r e s t r i c t e d s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s ? 4 . Do t h e y o c c u r i n v a r i o u s s e n t e n c e t y p e s and i n c o m p l e x s e q u e n c e s ? 5 . Do m o d a l s o c c u r w i t h o u t m a i n v e r b s ? 6 . A r e t h e y c o r r e c t l y i n v e r t e d i n b o t h a f f i r m a t i v e and n e g a t i v e Wh-q u e s t i o n s ? 7. I s t h e use o f f o r m s t i e d t o a q u e s t i o n - r e s p o n s e s e q u e n c e ? 8 . A r e m o d a l s u s e d w i t h s u b j e c t s o t h e r t h a n 1 s t and 2nd p e r s o n p r o n o u n s ? 9 . A r e t h e y i m i t a t e d c o r r e c t l y e v e n though t h e y d o n ' t a p p e a r i n s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h ? 1 0 . A r e t h e f o r m s u s e d s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i m m e d i a t e i n p u t o r by p a r e n t s 1 s p e e c h ? From what i s known a b o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s s y s t e m , one w o u l d e x p e c t c h i l d r e n between 3 ; 0 and 4 ; 0 t o have a c q u i r e d a g r e a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f moda l f o r m s , t o use them i n a w i d e r a n g e o f s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s ; t o i n v e r t them c o r r e c t l y i n y e s / n o and a f f i r m a t i v e W h - q u e s t i o n s and t o use them w i t h i m p e r s o n a l and 3 r d p e r s o n p r o n o u n s . I f c h i l d r e n i n t h i s age r a n g e a r e j u s t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f m o d a l s , we m i g h t be a b l e t o d i s c e r n some o r d e r i n how t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s y s t e m p r o c e e d s . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e moda l s y s t e m , the f o l l o w i n g p i c t u r e e m e r g e s . E a r l y f o r m s do n o t have t h e same r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e a d u l t f o r m s h a v e . They t e n d t o be p e r f o r m a t i v e , i n t e r p e r s o n a l , and a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d , and e p i s t e m i c f u n c t i o n s a r e r a r e i n t h e s p e e c h o f young c h i l d r e n . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t e x p a n s i o n o f f u n c t i o n s o f moda l f o rms a f t e r age 3 ; 0 , and t h e n a s u b s e q u e n t d e c r e a s e a s t h e r e f e r e n t i a l use o f f o r m s i s n a r r o w e d t o more c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e t h e a d u l t s y s t e m . K u c z a j (1982) s t a t e s t h a t t h e p e r i o d w i t h h i g h f o r m / f u n c t i o n r a t i o s c a n be r e g a r d e d as a p e r i o d o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d . C h i l d r e n under t h e age o f 3 ; 0 do n o t seem t o use m o d a l s t o r e f e r t o a c t i v i t i e s / s t a t e s / e v e n t s t h a t a r e n o t i n t h e p r e s e n t and t i e d t o i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f u s i n g some h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e , i t i s u s u a l l y i m p l i c i t , i n i t i a l l y , and when e x p l i c i t , many i n a p p r o p r i a t e fo rms a r e u s e d . The q u e s t i o n s t h a t may be a s k e d a b o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f u n c t i o n s i n t h e l a t e r p e r i o d a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1 . What i s t h e r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s b e i n g c o d e d by the moda l f o r m s ? 2 . A r e moda l f u n c t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o d e d by o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s ? 22 3 . A r e t h e f o r m / f u n c t i o n r a t i o s p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h o r l o w , i . e . i s t h e r e a r e s t r i c t e d o r o v e r - e x t e n d e d r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s ? 4 . What k i n d s o f m o d a l i t y do t h e s e f u n c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a d u l t system?. 5 . A r e m o d a l s u s e d e p i s t e m i c a l l y a t t h i s age? (3 ;0 - 4 ; 0 ) 6 . A r e m o d a l s u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e a b i l i t i e s , " i n t e n t i o n s and w i s h e s o f o t h e r s ? 7 . A r e t h e y u s e d t o r e f e r t o n o n - p r e s e n t , n o n - i m m e d i a t e e v e n t s / s t a t e s ? 8 . Do c h i l d r e n t h i s age use e x p l i c i t h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e a p p r o p r i a t e l y ? 9 . What i s t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between f o r m and f u n c t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t ? One w o u l d e x p e c t c h i l d r e n between 3 ; 0 and 4 ; 0 t o have an o v e r - e x t e n d e d r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s ; t o be u s i n g m o d a l s e p i s t e m i c a l l y , t o r e f e r t o n o n - p r e s e n t , n o n - i m m e d i a t e e v e n t s / s t a t e s and t o use some e x p l i c i t h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e . F i n a l l y , i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o l o o k a t t he r o l e o f i n p u t i n m o d a l a c q u i s i t i o n . K u c z a j & M a r a t s o s ( 1 9 7 5 ) , and d e V i l l i e r s & d e V i l l i e r s (1978) have s u g g e s t e d l o o k i n g a t i n p u t f r e q u e n c y and t h e f o r m a l n a t u r e o f c o n s t r u c -t i o n a d d r e s s e d t o c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s v a r i a b l e on t h e use o f m o d a l s by young c h i l d r e n . T h i s s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f moda l a c q u i s i t i o n i n t h e f o u r t h y e a r o f l i f e (3 ;0 - 4 ; 0 ) , a p e r i o d when t h e c h i l d s h o u l d be u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f moda l f o r m s , c o d i n g a v a r i e t y o f s e m a n t i c n o t i o n s and u s i n g m o d a l s n o t o n l y f o r h i m s e l f b u t t o r e l a t e t o o t h e r s . D a t a f rom c h i l d r e n ' s s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h a r e u s e d t o a d d r e s s a number o f t h e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d a b o v e . 23 CHAPTER 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were s i x c h i l d r e n , t h r e e boys and t h r e e g i r l s , r a n g i n g i n age f r o m 3 ; 3 . 2 6 t o 3 ; 1 1 . The c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d f r o m a n o r m a l p r e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , had no h i s t o r y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n d i s o r d e r s , had i n t e l l i g i b l e s p e e c h and n o r m a l h e a r i n g . A l l t h e c h i l d r e n were m o n o l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s who were o n l y e x p o s e d t o E n g l i s h i n t h e i r home e n v i r o n m e n t . The s u b j e c t s were a l l f i r s t - b o r n c h i l d r e n : two were o n l y c h i l d r e n , t h r e e had one younger s i b l i n g and one had two younger s i b l i n g s . The f a m i l i e s o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n l i v e d i n t h e f a m i l y h o u s i n g a r e a on t h e U . B . C . campus and t h e c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d a c o - o p p r e s c h o o l . D u r i n g the p e r i o d o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e f a t h e r s were f u l l - t i m e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and t h e m o t h e r s were a t home w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . A l l f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d , t h e s e c h i l d r e n f o r m a f a i r l y homo-geneous p o p u l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s a m p l e . The s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were c h o s e n i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n an e f f o r t t o r e d u c e the e f f e c t o f v a r i a b l e s s u c h as d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , e t c . on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e p r o d u c t i o n . However , t h e r e were o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t h a t some o f t h e c h i l d r e n were q u i t e t a l k a t i v e and e x t r o -v e r t e d w h i l e o t h e r s were more r e s e r v e d and shy i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n . T h i s f a c t o r may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e l e n g t h o f t h e l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s , b u t d o e s n o t seem t o have a f f e c t e d the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e l a n g u a g e . u s e d , no r i s i t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e s on t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s . 24 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n L o c a t i o n The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n a l a b o r a t o r y i n t h e S c h o o l o f A u d i o l o g y and S p e e c h S c i e n c e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A p l a y a r e a was s e c t i o n e d o f f by m o b i l e room d i v i d e r s . C h i l d r e n ' s p o s t e r s were p u t up on t h e w a l l s and a l o w t a b l e and s m a l l c h a i r s were used t o make a more c o m f o r t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t he c h i l d r e n . A v a r i e t y o f t o y s were a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o p l a y w i t h and a l a r g e p u p p e t (Bunny R a b b i t ) was u s e d t o ' c a m o u f l a g e ' t h e m i c r o p h o n e . E q u i p m e n t A M a i c o 124 A u d i o m e t e r was used f o r h e a r i n g s c r e e n i n g . A u d i o t a p e r e c o r d i n g s were made on a S c u l l y 280 m a c h i n e w i t h remote c o n t r o l . The t a p e s used were Ampex V m y l a r / p o l y e s t e r a u d i o t a p e s . A c a r d i o i d m i c r o -p h o n e , A l t e c LO 681A, was p l a c e d on a f l e x i b l e s t a n d a t t a c h e d t o a c h a i r between the i n v e s t i g a t o r and t h e c h i l d . The p u p p e t was made t o s i t on t h e c h a i r , h i d i n g the m i c r o p h o n e s t a n d f rom v i e w . Type o f a c t i v i t y and p a r t i c i p a n t s The c h i l d r e n were f i r s t s e e n d u r i n g a home v i s i t , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s were t o l d a b o u t t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . P r i o r t o c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e d a t a , a s e s s i o n i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y was a r r a n g e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f f a m i l i a r i z i n g e a c h c h i l d w i t h t h e s e t - u p o f t h e t e s t a r e a and the i n v e s t i g a t o r . D u r i n g t h i s s e s s i o n , t h e c h i l d was g i v e n a h e a r i n g s c r e e n i n g t e s t and t h e Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t , Form A (PPVT) was a d m i n i s t e r e d . The c h i l d was t h e n a l l o w e d t o p l a y , ask q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e e q u i p m e n t and s o o n . The s u b s e q u e n t s e s s i o n s were h e l d i n t h e same l o c a t i o n 25 and s u b j e c t s were a l l o w e d a 1 0 - m i n u t e warm-up p e r i o d b e f o r e t h e s e s s i o n was r e c o r d e d . The C a r r o w E l i c i t e d Language I n v e n t o r y , (CELI) was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e s e c o n d s e s s i o n , w h i c h l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f hour f o r e a c h c h i l d . The p a r e n t was p r e s e n t b u t d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e s s i o n . I n t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n , e a c h c h i l d ' s s p o n t a n e o u s c o n v e r s a t i o n was r e c o r d e d f o r one h o u r . B o t h i n v e s t i g a t o r and p a r e n t p a r t i c p a t e d i n t h e s e s s i o n , p l a y i n g and c o n v e r s i n g w i t h t h e c h i l d . D u r i n g t h e i m i t a t i o n t a s k ( C E L I ) , t h e c h i l d was s e a t e d o p p o s i t e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w h i l e t h e p a r e n t s a t on t h e s i d e , be tween t h e t w o . However , d u r i n g t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l i n g , t h e c h i l d was a l l o w e d t o move f r e e l y a r o u n d t h e t e s t a r e a b u t was e n c o u r a g e d t o p l a c e t h e t o y s on t h e t a b l e s o t h a t a good sound r e c o r d i n g c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . An e x t r a samp le was t a k e n f o r one c h i l d (M .S . ) i n h i s home e n v i r o n m e n t as h i s mother f e l t t h a t t h e samp le o b t a i n e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y was n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s n o r m a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h i s r e c o r d i n g was done on a p o r t a b l e Sony t a p e r e c o r d e r and t h e p a r e n t s were n o t p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n . The c h i l d p l a y e d w i t h h i s own t o y s and h i s s p e e c h was r e c o r d e d f o r one hour w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a c t i n g a s a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r . T h i s s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e samp le was added t o t h e c o r p u s o f d a t a f o r a n a l y s i s a s a s e p a r a t e s a m p l e . N a t u r e o f t h e t a s k s I m i t a t i o n t a s k I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n some b a s e l i n e d a t a on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t as w e l l as l o o k a t t h e i m i t a t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g m o d a l a u x i l i a r y v e r b s , I d e c i d e d t o use t h e C E L I , t h e C a r r o w E l i c i t e d Language I n v e n t o r y . The C E L I i s a s t a n d a r d i z e d d i a g n o s t i c t e s t d e s i g n e d t o measure a c h i l d ' s p r o d u c t i v e c o n t r o l o f grammar. 26 I t i s b a s e d on t h e t e c h n i q u e o f e l i c i t i n g i m i t a t i o n o f a sequence o f s e n t e n c e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a w i d e r a n g e o f g r a m m a t i c a l c o m p l e x i t y . I t c o n s i s t s o f 52 s t i m u l u s i t e m s , 51 s e n t e n c e s and one p h r a s e r a n g i n g i n l e n g t h f rom two t o t e n w o r d s . The C E L I has been s t a n d a r d i z e d on a p o p u l a t i o n o f 475 w h i t e , A m e r i c a n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n between t h e ages o f 3 ; 0 and 7 ; 1 1 . The t e s t g i v e s a c h i l d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s a w i d e r a n g e o f g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s and t h e r e b y p r o b e s h i s g r a m m a t i c a l c o m p e t e n c e . E l i c i t e d i m i t a t i o n has been shown t o be a u s e f u l t o o l f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ( S l o b i n , 1 9 7 3 ) , ( K u c z a j & M a r a t s o s , 1 9 7 5 ) . I t c i r c u m v e n t s t h e s a m p l i n g p r o b l e m and i s e a s y t o use i n e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s . However , i t imposes l i m i t s on t h e c h i l d ' s s p e e c h as i t i s h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d , t he i n t e r a c t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and t h e r e i s no c o n t e x t u a l s u p p o r t f o r t he s e n t e n c e s u s e d . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , o n l y l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c h i l d ' s l a n g u a g e i s a c c e s s e d by t h i s t e c h n i q u e . I t does n o t p r o v i d e any i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o use v a r i o u s s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s , e . g . m o d a l s , t o communicate p a r t i c u l a r m e a n i n g s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t does n o t sample a c h i l d ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e competence and i t s u s e f u l n e s s i s t h e r e f o r e l i m i t e d . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , t h e C E L I p r o v i d e s a s i m p l e means o f a s s e s s i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l ( s y n t a x ) compared t o o t h e r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n o f t h e same a g e . I n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n o n - t a s k b e h a v i o u r w i t h t h i s age g r o u p , a peg b o a r d was u s e d f o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t . A f t e r e a c h i m i t a t i o n , t h e c h i l d p l a c e d a c o l o u r e d peg o f h i s c h o i c e i n t o a h o l e . T h i s was f o u n d t o be a s u c c e s s f u l r e i n f o r c e r and t h e e n t i r e t a s k was c o m p l e t e d i n a b o u t 20 m i n u t e s . E l i c i t a t i o n o f a s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e samp le A c c o r d i n g t o B loom & Lahey (1978) , c o l l e c t i n g a s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e samp le i n v o l v e s o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g t h e c h i l d ' s l a n g u a g e b e h a v i o u r i n a 27 l o w - s t r u c t u r e d e n v i r o n m e n t . I n t h i s t a s k , an a t t e m p t was made t o m i n i m i z e t h e a d u l t ' s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n . The c h i l d was a l l o w e d t o move a b o u t f r e e l y i n t h e t e s t a r e a , i n i t i a t e p l a y a c t i v i t i e s and c h o o s e the t o y s he wanted t o p l a y w i t h . A h o u s e k e e p i n g c o r n e r was s e t up w i t h a s t o v e , s i n k , d i s h e s , p o t s and a b room. A c r i b w i t h t h r e e d o l l s i n i t and a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r t o y s s u c h a s p u p p e t s , p u z z l e s , l e g o , d i s c s , f a r m a n i m a l s e t c . were a v a i l a b l e . P a r e n t s were e n c o u r a g e d t o i n t e r a c t i n a n a t u r a l way w i t h t h e i r c h i l d . A l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d was p e r m i t t e d t o l e a d t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n o r change t o p i c , a t some p o i n t i n n e a r l y a l l t h e s a m p l e s , some i n f o r m a l e l i c i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s had t o be u s e d t o s t i m u l a t e t h e c h i l d t o t a l k . The p a r e n t s and i n v e s t i g a t o r a l s o made s u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t the d i r e c t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s f rom t i m e t o t i m e . I t was hoped t h a t a l l o w i n g t h e c h i l d t h e f r e e d o m t o move a r o u n d and c h o o s e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f p l a y w o u l d p r o v i d e a s a m p l i n g o f l a n g u a g e t h a t was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t he c h i l d ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e f o r one c h i l d ( M . S . ) , b u t he was c o n s i d e r e d an e x c e p t i o n . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s was t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t how t h e s e 3 - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n a r e u s i n g t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b s y s t e m , and m o d a l s i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o code t h e mean ings t h e y w i s h t o e x p r e s s i n a s p o n t a n e o u s p l a y s i t u a t i o n . T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f D a t a The u t t e r a n c e s f r o m t h e C E L I and t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s were t r a n s c r i b e d f r o m t h e a u d i o t a p e s i n f u l l E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h y by t h e i n v e s t i -g a t o r . The c h i l d ' s , p a r e n t ' s and i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s s p e e c h was t r a n s c r i b e d i n two c o l u m n s , a d u l t and c h i l d , and c o n t e x t was n o t e d i n a t h i r d c o l u m n . Words 28 t h a t were u n i n t e l l i g i b l e were t r a n s r i b e d p h o n e t i c a l l y ( b road IPA) and t h e n an E n g l i s h g l o s s was w r i t t e n i f t h e word was a t a l l d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . D y s f l u e n c y and d e l i b e r a t e r e p e t i t i o n s were a l l t r a n s c r i b e d , b u t v o c a l i z a t i o n s and j a r g o n were n o t , f o r t he most p a r t . A r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k f o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n s was done on s a m p l e s o f b o t h t a s k s by a t r a i n e d , i n d e p e n d e n t t r a n s c r i b e r . P o r t i o n s o f t he C E L I and t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s were c h o s e n a t random and t r a n s c r i b e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . R e l i a b i l i t y b a s e d on 5 0 - u t t e r a n c e s e q u e n c e s i n t h r e e s a m p l e s , was 98% f o r t h e C E L I and 80% f o r t h e s p o n t a n e o u s s a m p l e s . The o n l y o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s and t h e i n d e p e n d e n t t r a n s c i b e r ' s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s was t h e s e g m e n t a t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r t r a n -s c r i b e d t h e c h i l d ' s u t t e r a n c e s on a s i n g l e l i n e u n l e s s t h e r e was a change o f t o p i c o r an o b v i o u s p a u s e , w h e r e a s t h e l a t t e r t r a n s c r i b e d p o r t i o n s o f u t t e r a n c e s s e p a r a t e d by p a u s e s on s e p a r a t e l i n e s . However , t h i s d i d n o t a f f e c t i n t e r - t r a n s c r i b e r r e l i a b i l i t y o f a c t u a l morphemes. 29 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION B a s e l i n e D a t a T a b l e 1 d e s c r i b e s the b a s e l i n e d a t a f o r t h e s i x s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y . The c h i l d r e n r a n g e i n age f r o m 3 , -3 .26 t o 3 , - 1 1 . 0 . The MLU r a n g e i s 3 .94 t o 5 . 2 8 . T h i s p l a c e s t h e c h i l d r e n i n B r o w n ' s L a t e S t a g e V , e x c e p t f o r M . N . and B . F . i n E a r l y S t a g e V . T h e r e i s no o b v i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n be tween c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and MLU. However , t h e MLU v a l u e s f a l l w i t h i n n o r m a l r a n g e f o r c h i l d r e n t h i s a g e , e x c e p t f o r M . S . ( H ) , whose MLU i s more t h a n 1 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n above the mean f o r h i s a g e . (See M i l l e r & Chapman, 1 9 8 1 : 2 6 ) . The PPVT s c o r e s p l a c e t h e c h i l d r e n as a g r o u p i n a h i g h p e r c e n t i l e r a n g e f o r t h e i r age ( 8 8 - 9 8 % i l e ) e x c e p t f o r K . M . ( 5 5 % i l e ) . These c o r r e s p o n d t o r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y ages o f 4,-5 t o 6 ; 1 s h o w i n g t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n have a r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y a t l e a s t s i x months t o two y e a r s above age l e v e l . R e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one i n d e x o f c h i l d r e n ' s l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . (The PPVT t e s t u s e d was t h e f i r s t v e r s i o n and s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r e s a r e somewhat h i g h e r t h a n i n the new v e r s i o n ) . C E L I s c o r e s p l a c e t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e 7 8 t h - 9 8 t h p e r c e n t i l e r a n g e f o r t h e i r a g e . The s t a n i n e s c o r e s were 7 , 8 and 9 w h i c h a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y 2 , 3 and 4 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s above t h e mean. B a s e d on the s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s s c o r e s a r e above a v e r a g e f o r t h e i r a g e . 30 TABLE 1 AGE AND MEASURES OF L INGUISTIC MATURITY FOR EACH CHILD PPVT C E L I *MLU R e c e p t i v e CHILD a A G E % i l e V o c a b . Age % i l e S t a n i n e M . S . ( H ) 3 , -6 .14 5 .28 c 98 6 ; 1 9 8 . 0 9 B . P . 3 ; 6 . 1 4 4 . 7 6 96 5 ; 9 7 7 . 9 7 B . A . 3 ; 6 . 0 2 4 . 7 3 94 5 ; 2 9 7 . 0 9 K . M . 3 ; 1 1 . 0 4 . 2 5 55 4,-5 9 3 . 0 8 M . S . ( L ) 3 ; 6 . 0 4 4 . 1 5 98 6 ; 1 9 8 . 0 9 M . N . 3 , -3 .26 4 . 0 0 94 4 ; 5 8 2 . 6 7 B . F . 3 , -9 . 26 3 . 9 4 88 5 ; 5 9 6 . 5 9 Age n o t a t i o n i s y e a r ; m o n t h s , d a y s ' ' S u b j e c t s a r e o r d e r e d f rom h i g h e s t t o l o w e s t MLU i n t h i s and a l l s u b s e q u e n t t a b l e s . c 0 n e c h i l d , (M .S . ) has two s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s , one t a k e n i n t h e l a b (L) and one t a k e n a t home (H ) . The same t e s t s c o r e s a r e shown f o r b o t h e n t r i e s . G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n Of C h i l d r e n ' s Use Of A u x i l i a r i e s And O t h e r R e l e v a n t Forms T a b l e 2 p r e s e n t s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' use o f a u x i l i a r y v e r b s . The t o t a l number o f u t t e r a n c e s i n t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y (120 - 264 u t t e r a n c e s ) . M . S . ' s l a b o r a t o r y samp le (L) had 120 u t t e r a n c e s , l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e number i n h i s home sample (H ) ; t h i s d i f f e r e n c e 31 TABLE 2 NUMBER OF AUXIL IARY VERBS AND OTHER RELEVANT FORMS *(ORF) IN THE SPONTANEOUS LANGUAGE SAMPLES S u b j e c t & MLU #utt i n sample #utt c o n t a i n i n g AUX T o t a l # AUX i n Sample # o f M o d a l s # o f ' ORF % AUX t h a t a r e M o d a l s T o t a l # M o d a l s & ORF M . S . ( H ) 5 . 2 8 263 53 55 12 42 2 1 . 8 54 B . P . 4 . 7 6 257 85 98 23 25 2 3 . 5 48 B . A . 4 . 7 3 264 48 54 12 33 2 2 . 2 45 K.M. 4 . 2 5 163 23 26 8 0 3 0 . 8 8 M . S . ( L ) 4 . 1 5 120 32 38 10 1 2 6 . 3 11 M . N . 4 . 0 0 332 74 79 29 34 3 6 . 7 63 B . F . 3 . 9 4 203 37 42 9 22 2 1 . 4 31 ORF i n c l u d e c a t e n a t i v e s & a d v e r b i a l s . was due t o h i s r e t i c e n c e t o t a l k i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y d e s p i t e a warm-up p l a y p e r i o d p r i o r t o r e c o r d i n g . The t o t a l number o f a u x i l i a r y t o k e n s used r a n g e d f r o m 26 t o 9 8 . N o t more t h a n t e n u t t e r a n c e s i n e a c h s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e c o n t a i n e d more t h a n one a u x i l i a r y v e r b . M o s t o f t h e u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g more t h a n one 32 a u x i l i a r y were c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e s w i t h c o n j o i n e d c l a u s e s , e . g . * M . N . ' s I t w i l l c r u s h i t up and i t w i l l b r e a k . These c h i l d r e n a r e n o t u s i n g s e q u e n c e s o f a u x i l i a r i e s i n a s i n g l e s e n t e n c e as an a d u l t w o u l d , e . g . He  may have t a k e n t h e b o a t o u t t o n i g h t . M o d a l f o r m s c o m p r i s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21% t o 36% o f a u x i l i a r y v e r b s i n t h e s a m p l e s . O t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s (ORF) i n c l u d e c a t e n a t i v e s ( e . g . GONNA, HAFTA, GOTTA); c o n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h m o d a l - l i k e mean ings ( e . g . NEED TO, B E , SUPPOSED T O ) : and t h e a d v e r b i a l MAYBE. These fo rms a r e n o t a u x i l i a r i e s b u t c o n v e y mean ings s i m i l a r t o t h o s e c o n v e y e d by moda l f o r m s . Some o f t h e c h i l d r e n used f a r more o f t h e s e f o r m s t h a n o t h e r s d i d . The a u x i l i a r y v e r b s commonly u s e d by the s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e a l l f o r m s o f B E , HAVE, DO and m o d a l s . These o c c u r i n most o b l i g a t o r y c o n t e x t s , w h i c h w o u l d be e x p e c t e d o f c h i l d r e n a t B r o w n ' s S t a g e V . C o p u l a BE i s a l s o u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y and o c c u r s i n n e a r l y a l l o b l i g a t o r y c o n t e x t s as w e l l . T h i s f a c t i s p r e d i c t a b l e , s i n c e c o p u l a p r e c e d e s a u x i l i a r y i n l i n g u i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t (Brown, 1 9 7 3 ) . The a u x i l i a r y v e r b s i n t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s a r e u s e d w i t h a v a r i e t y o f noun p h r a s e s u b j e c t s , and a r e emp loyed c o r r e c t l y i n a f f i r m a t i v e and i n t e r r o g a t i v e u t t e r a n c e s . D o - s u p p o r t i s used w i t h a p p a r e n t f a c i l i t y i n f o r m i n g y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s and n e g a t i v e s e . g . M . S . ( L ) How does he s t a n d up? B . P . Does she have n i p p l e s ? M . N . I t d o e s n ' t go a r o u n d . DO i s by f a r t h e most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g a u x i l i a r y f o r m . The c h i l d r e n use a v a r i e t y o f t e n s e and a s p e c t m a r k i n g s i n m a t u r e w a y s . T h e r e a r e a few e x a m p l e s o f i n c o r r e c t t e n s e use and o t h e r a u x i l i a r y v e r b e r r o r s i n t h e s a m p l e s , e . g . M . N . We j u s t b u i l d t h a t a l r e a d y and we d o n ' t  n o t have t o wash i t t h e n . P e r f e c t f o r m s a r e r a r e ; t h i s i s i n a c c o r d a n c e * A l l u t t e r a n c e s p r e c e d e d by a c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l s a r e r e a l u t t e r a n c e s . (See A p p e n d i x D f o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ) . 33 w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n A m e r i c a n - E n g l i s h ( A E ) - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n (B rown , 1 9 7 3 ) . The p e r f e c t t e n s e has been d e s c r i b e d as a l a t e a c q u i s i t i o n i n A E - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n b u t a p p e a r s e a r l y i n the s p e e c h o f B E - s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n ( W e l l s , 1979) . T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s b e l i e v e d t o be a f u n c t i o n o f i n p u t and d i a l e c t ( F l e t c h e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . Some e x a m p l e s o f t e m p o r a l a d v e r b i a l s were f o u n d i n t h e s a m p l e s , e . g . B . A . We j u s t d i d t h a t a l r e a d y M . N . I 'm gonna make you a p u p p e t show l a t e r  t h e n and H e ' s t i r e d a f t e r d r i v i n g i t and M . S . ( H ) D o q - I ' m n o t gonna  s l e e p t o m o r r o w . An i n c r e a s e i n t h e use o f t e m p o r a l a d v e r b i a l s t o s p e c i f y t e m p o r a l r e l a t i o n s , as c h i l d r e n m a t u r e , i s one o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n s made by F l e t c h e r (1979) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b s y s t e m . Q u e s t i o n s The t o t a l number o f q u e s t i o n s i n e a c h s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e samp le were c o u n t e d (see T a b l e 3 ) . These i n c l u d e d e l l i p t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , e g . B . A . L o t s o f t h e s e ? and q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t a u x i l i a r y o r c o p u l a , e . g . B . A . What a b o u t m ine? Of the t o t a l number d f q u e s t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g a u x i l i a r y v e r b s , t h e m a j o r i t y were c o r r e c t l y i n v e r t e d i n o b l i g a t o r y c o n t e x t s . The s a m p l e s o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n , K . M . , M . S . ( H & L) and B . F . , had no i n s t a n c e s o f u n i n v e r t e d a u x i l i a r i e s i n o b l i g a t o r y c o n t e x t s , and t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n had o n l y one o r two u n i n v e r t e d a u x i l i a r i e s where o b l i g a t o r y , e . g . B . A . I 'm  gonna f i l l y o u r s and y o u r s ? . I n a few c a s e s , t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b o r c o p u l a was o m i t t e d i n an o b l i g a t o r y c o n t e x t , e . g . B . P . Nobody g e t them now? and Where my p l a t e ? Many q u e s t i o n s a r e e l l i p t i c a l and t h e r e f o r e do n o t r e q u i r e a u x i l i a r i e s o r ma in v e r b s t o be c o l l o q u i a l l y c o r r e c t , e . g . B . A . ( A d u l t ) You c a n TABLE 3 AUXILIARY INVERSION IN QUESTIONS D i s t r i b u t i o n A u x i l i a r i e s I n v e r t e d CHILD T o t a l # Q u e s t i o n s # w i t h AUX i n v e r s i o n # w i t h o u t o b l i g . AUX i n v e r s i o n COPULA-BE AUX-BE HAVE DO MODALS M . S . ( H ) 26 12 0 4 2 • • • 5 1 B . P . 83 46 1 13 3 2 26 2 B . A . 59 28 2 15 2 2 9 K . M . 12 7 (5 t a g s ) 0 1 • • • 1 M . S . ( L ) 45 25 0 12 • • • 11 2 M . N . 48 23 1 16 5 2 B . F . 21 15 0 4 11 • • • 35 b u i l d s t u f f . ( C h i l d ) W i t h t h e s e ? and ( A d u l t ) I t ' s j u s t a b a b y , d o l l y . ( C h i l d ) A g i r l baby? I n t e r r o g a t i v e s s i g n a l l e d o n l y by i n t o n a t i o n , i . e . w i t h i n v e r t e d a u x i l i a r y o r c o p u l a , a r e a l s o a c c e p t a b l e i n a d u l t l a n g u a g e , e . g . B . P . He d o n ' t know what I 'm d o i n g ? and B . A . T h e y ' r e dead? Where p a r t o f t h e a u x i l i a r y and t h e s u b j e c t a r e o m i t t e d a l t o g e t h e r , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i f a u x i l i a r y i n v e r s i o n has o c c u r r e d , e . g . B . P . Gonna have some? M . S . ( H ) Want s o m e t h i n g i n h e r e ? S u b j e c t WHO and WHAT i n t e r r o g a t i v e s a r e c o r r e c t l y i n v e r t e d , e . g . K . M . Who keeps i t i n ? M . S . What goes f i r s t ? and B . A . Who b r o k e t h i s one? T a b l e 3 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a u x i l i a r y i n v e r s i o n i n q u e s t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g d i f f e r e n t f o r m s , i n c l u d i n g c o p u l a - B E . The most common f o r m s used i n q u e s t i o n s a r e c o p u l a - B E and DO. T h e r e i s w i d e s p r e a d use o f D o -s u p p o r t i n q u e s t i o n f o r m a t i o n . A few e x a m p l e s o f i n v e r t e d q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w : C o p u l a - BE M .N . B . P . Where i s h i s m i l k p o u r e r ? I s t h e r e more? AUX - BE B . P . M . S . (H) What i s he s i t t i n g on? When a r e y o u gonna open i t ? AUX - HAVE B . A . B . P . What has he g o t - c a n d y ? Why h a v e n ' t he g o t n i p p l e s ? AUX - DO M .N . B . F . Where do you p u t t h i s one? D i d you f e e l t h a t ? (Moda ls and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) A u x i l i a r i e s a r e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i n v e r t e d i n q u e s t i o n s , i n o b l i g a t o r y c o n t e x t s . T h e r e i s i n v e r s i o n o f a u x i l i a r i e s i n b o t h a f f i r m a t i v e and n e g a t i v e W h - q u e s t i o n s . Some e x a m p l e s f o l l o w : B . A . Why do y o u g o t s o many o f t h e s e on? How d i d you g e t t h i s s t o v e up h e r e ? B . F . Where does i t go? Why d o n ' t we t a k e t h e s e o u t r i g h t now? M . S . ( L ) What d ' y o u do w i t h them? Why d o e s n ' t he s t a n d up? I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e f a i r l y a d v a n c e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o use a u x i l i a r i e s c o r r e c t l y i n q u e s t i o n - f o r m a t i o n and n e g a t i o n . Tag q u e s t i o n s , c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f t h e most d e r i v a t i o n a l l y c o m p l e x c o n s t r u c t i o n s (Brown & H a n l o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , were f o u n d i n o n l y one samp le - K . M . (MLU 4 . 2 5 ) . F i v e o f t w e l v e q u e s t i o n s she a s k e d were t a g q u e s t i o n s , e . g . K . M . My gramma's c a b i n i s s t r o n g , i s n ' t i t ? T h a t , t h a t t i m e we had s p a g h e t t i f o r l u n c h , d i d n ' t we? We, we h e a r e d t h a t s o m e t h i n g h i t some - some o f a l i g h t h i t s o m e t h i n g , d i d n ' t i t ? B u t the g i r l d i d n ' t g i v e h im any m o r e , d i d n ' t he? D i d n ' t s h e ? And t h i s i s a c o w , i s n ' t he? T h i s c h i l d was engaged i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h h e r m o t h e r , who used t a g s f r e q u e n t l y i n h e r s p e e c h t o K . M . (16 t a g q u e s t i o n s ) , f o r e x a m p l e : T h a t was  t h e wrong c o l o u r , w a s n ' t i t ? You c a n p a t them, c a n ' t you? B e l l u g i f o u n d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u e s t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t a f t e r MLU 3 . 5 i n the c h i l d r e n she s t u d i e d . I n t h i s c a s e , i t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r t h e r o l e o f i n p u t i n t h i s c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t o f t a g q u e s t i o n s . However , I w i l l n o t d i s c u s s t h i s i s s u e f u r t h e r i n t h i s p a p e r . 37 An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e d a t a f o r t h e s i x c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l s e x t e n s i v e use o f t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b s y s t e m i n a v a r i e t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s . These c h i l d r e n d e m o n s t r a t e f l e x i b i l i t y and f a c i l i t y w i t h t h e use o f a u x i l i a r y v e r b s i n E n g l i s h . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MODALS AND OTHER RELEVANT FORMS  I m i t a t i o n o f M o d a l Forms The e i g h t s e n t e n c e s i n t h e C E L I c o n t a i n i n g m o d a l s were a n a l y z e d t o compare the c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n i m i t a t i o n w i t h t h e i r s p o n t a n e o u s c o n -v e r s a t i o n (see T a b l e 4 ) . Two o f t he C E L I s e n t e n c e s w i t h m o d a l s a r e q u e s t i o n s , two a r e n e g a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e s and t h e r e s t a r e a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e s . The s e n t e n c e s w i t h moda l f o r m s C A N ' T , WILL AND WON'T were i m i t a t e d c o r r e c t l y by a l l t h e c h i l d r e n , as one m i g h t e x p e c t . COULDN'T, WOULD, MAY and COULD p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m s f o r some o f t h e c h i l d r e n . However , t h e s e m o d a l s a l s o o c c u r r e d i n more c o m p l e x c o n s t r u c t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , MODAL + PRESENT PERFECT, e . g . Those t o y s MAY HAVE BEEN m i n e . I n o n l y t h r e e i n s t a n c e s was t h e m o d a l f o rm o m i t t e d o r i n c o r r e c t l y i m i t a t e d - B . S . #49, M . N . #27 and B . F . #49. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r f o r m s were n o t u s e d by t h e r e s p e c t i v e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e . However , some fo rms w h i c h d i d n o t a p p e a r i n s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e were c o r r e c t l y i m i t a t e d by some c h i l d r e n , e . g . MAY was i m i t a t e d by 5 o f t he s u b j e c t s b u t n e v e r a p p e a r s i n any o f t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s . O t h e r e r r o r s i n i m i t a t i o n o f t he s e n t e n c e s may have been i n f l u e n c e d by the p r e s e n c e o f t he moda l f o r m . The i m i t a t i o n d a t a a r e v e r y s c a n t y and t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be c o n c l u s i v e , b u t i t does i n d i c a t e " that TABLE 4 C H I L D ' S PERFORMANCE ON C E L I ITEMS WITH MODALS CHILD C E L I SENTENCES BY NUMBER B . P . B . A . K . M . M.S 17. The g i r l c a n ' t go o u t s i d e . . + + + + 22. C o u l d n ' t Daddy have been c o m i n q ? + - - + 25. The l a d y w i l l s i t down. + + + + 27. She w o u l d have l i k e d , t o q o . + + - + 35. Those t o y s may have b e e n mine.. + - + + 41. W i l l he jump on t h e c a r ? + + + + 49. The c a r s t o p p e d b e f o r e I c o u l d c a l l . , - . - + + 52. I f i t r a i n s we w o n ' t go t o t h e b e a c h . + + + + E r r o r s by c h i l d and t h e i r number B . P . #49 The c a r c o u l d c a l l . The c a r s t o p p e d s o I c o u l d c a l l . B . A . #22 C o u l d n ' t Daddy been CginJ c o m i n g ? #35 Those t o y s been may H»f] had £a f ] been mine #49 The c a r s t o p p e d b e f o r e I c a l l e d . K . M . #22 C o u l d n ' t Daddy f_ h X f «"] be c o m i n g ? #27 She w o u l d f a n j a i k j t o g o . M . N . #27 S h e ^ h a d n ] l i k e s t o g o . #35 Those t o y s Q i 3 mb in ] £ r v 3 n j m i n e . B . F . #49 The c a r s t o p p e d b e f o r e I £ k i ? k 3 J c a l l . 39 c h i l d r e n i m i t a t e fo rms t h a t t h e y may n o t be u s i n g s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e l a n g u a g e . K u c z a j and M a r a t s o s (1975) showed t h a t i m i t a t i v e competence p r e c e d e s competence i n p r o d u c t i v e l a n g u a g e and s u g g e s t e d t h a t f o rms t h a t a r e i m i t a t e d c o r r e c t l y b u t do n o t appear i n s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h may be i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g a c q u i r e d . S e n t e n c e Types T a b l e 5 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f o rms o v e r t h e f o u r ma jo r t y p e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n E n g l i s h . I n t h e s e s a m p l e s , a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e s c o m -p r i s e 75% o f a l l u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s . V e r y few o f t h e s e f o r m s o c c u r i n i n t e r r o g a t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y W h - q u e s t i o n s . M o s t o f t he u t t e r a n c e s a r e f u l l s e n t e n c e s w i t h ma in v e r b s a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e a few e l l i p t i c a l u t t e r a n c e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t s . E x c e p t f o r B . P . ' s , o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f u t t e r a n c e s a r e c o m p l e x , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e a few e x a m p l e s i n t h e d a t a o f c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e s u s i n g o t h e r a u x i l i a r i e s o r c o p u l a , e . g . M . N . He w a n t s t o l i e down ' c o s h e ' s t i r e d . S i n c e most o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s u t t e r a n c e s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n s , t h e r e i s a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f s h o r t p h r a s e s , s i m p l e d e c l a r a t i v e s and s i n g l e w o r d s , s u c h as names o f a n i m a l s . D i s c u s s i o n o f p a s t e v e n t s and p r e t e n d p l a y s t i m u l a t e d more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l a n g u a g e , e . g . K . M . When A a r o n was a baby t h e r e was a r e a l bad - t h e r e was a r e a l s c a r y s t o r m . We, we h e a r e d t h a t s o m e t h i n g h i t some . . . some o f a l i g h t h i t s o m e t h i n g , d i d n ' t i t ? M . N . Y e a h , t h i s dog i s n o t v e r y good d a n c i n g , s o i t c a n be i n t h e a u d i e n c e . M . S . ( L ) I 'm f i n d i n g a p l a c e where t h e d i n o s a u r s c a n l i v e . 40 TABLE 5 NUMBER OF MODALS AND OTHER RELEVANT FORMS USED IN EACH SENTENCE TYPE BY EACH CHILD . CHILD A f f i r m . D e c l . N e g . D e c l . Y e s / N o - Q WH - Q ^COMPLEX * F . E . F . E . F . E . F . E . M . S . ( H ) 42 1 6 1 2 2 7 B . P . 29 4 4 3 3 3 2 14 B . A . 4.0 1 4 3 K . M . 3 4 1 3 M . S . ( L ) 5 2 2 2 3 M . N . 44 1 10 5 3 5 B . F . 25 1 4 1 4 TOTALS 188 7 31 13 12 3 6 260 (75%) (16 .9%) (5.8%) ( 2 . 3 i ^ F u l l s e n t e n c e s (F) E l l i p t i c a l s e n t e n c e s (E) Complex s e n t e n c e s a r e a l r e a d y c o u n t e d as one o f 4 s e n t e n c e t y p e s a b o v e . By a d u l t s t a n d a r d s , have t o - complements and o t h e r c a t e n a t i v e s a r e c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e s , b u t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t f o r t h i s s t a g e i n l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t t h e y do n o t f u n c t i o n a s t r u e c o m p l e x s e n t e n c e s . See f o r e x a m p l e , R. C l a r k (1974) and Bowerman ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y have n o t been c o u n t e d as c o m p l e x c o n s t r u c t i o n s . 41 The f r e q u e n c y d a t a i n T a b l e 5 s u p p o r t B e l l u g i ' s (1965) c l a i m t h a t f o rms s p r e a d f r o m a f f i r m a t i v e d e c l a r a t i v e s t o n e g a t i v e s t o q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n s c o m p r i s e o n l y a b o u t 8% o f u t t e r a n c e s c o n t a i n i n g m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o rms (ORF f r o m now o n ) . However , a u x i l i a r y i n v e r s i o n i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . Some e x a m p l e s o f a u x i l i a r y i n v e r s i o n i n W h - q u e s t i o n s w i t h m o d a l s and ORF f o l l o w : e . g . M . S . ( L ) Where s h o u l d I p u t t h i s ? Where c o u l d t h e r e be a j u n g l e ? M . S . ( H ) How c a n he s i t down? When a r e you gonna open i t ? B . P . What am I gonna do now? Now, w h a t ' r e y o u gonna do now? I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e 3 - y e a r - o l d s use a v a r i e t y o f s e n t e n c e t y p e s w i t h m o d a l s and ORF ( p r e d o m i n a n t l y d e c l a r a t i v e s ) and i n v e r t a u x i l i a r i e s c o r r e c t l y i n q u e s t i o n s . V e r y few e r r o r s a r e a p p a r e n t i n t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . One i n t e r e s t i n g example i s a y e s / n o q u e s t i o n w i t h c o r r e c t a u x i l i a r y i n v e r s i o n b u t o m i s s i o n o f t h e m a i n v e r b : B . P . Can she s o f u n n y ? Q u e s t i o n r e s p o n s e Framework F l e t c h e r (1979) has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n - r e s p o n s e f ramework i s a u s e f u l one f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n t h e fo rms o f t h e v e r b p h r a s e . He f ound t h a t younger c h i l d r e n ( 1 ;6 - 3 ; 0 ) u s e d m o d a l s and ORF a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n a q u e s t i o n - r e s p o n s e f ramework and t h a t t h e y t e n d e d t o r e p e a t t h e f o r m u s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . T a b l e 6 shows t h a t w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y r e s p o n d t o some o f t h e i m m e d i a t e i n p u t , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s w i t h m o d a l s and ORF a r e s e l f - i n i t i a t e d , i . e . 42 n o t r e s p o n s e s t o an a d u l t ' s p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . The a d u l t - i n i t i a t e d u t t e r a n c e s a r e s u b d i v i d e d i n t o i n t e r r o g a t i v e f o r m s ( y e s / n o and W h - q u e s t i o n s ) and n o n - i n t e r r o g a t i v e f o r m s (comments and s u g g e s t i o n s ) . A r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f f o r m s were d i r e c t l y b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e — shown i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n T a b l e 6 and t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h d i s c o u r s e c o n t e x t i n A p p e n d i x B . I n a few c a s e s , t h e f o r m s u s e d by t h e a d u l t were i m i t a t e d by the c h i l d , n o t i m m e d i a t e l y b u t t h r e e o r f o u r u t t e r a n c e s l a t e r . These i n s t a n c e s were c o u n t e d , a s t h e y r e m a i n e d w i t h i n t h e same t o p i c , e . g . A d u l t C h i l d Maybe Mummy w o u l d l i k e a t u r n . S h e ' s g o o d . P u t the Mummy on? The Mummy d o e s n ' t f a l l o f f . Goes v e r y f a s t . Maybe - maybe D o g g i e w o u l d have a t u r n . One i n t e r e s t i n g example o f s e l f - i n i t i a t e d use o f a s e q u e n c e o f moda l f o r m s comes f r o m the i m i t a t i o n d a t a . B . P . C E L I I tem #28 : The dog i s up i n the t r e e . S e l f - i n i t i a t e d : Why i s he up i n t h e t r e e ? S h o u l d n ' t ' C o s he m i g h t b r e a k t h e t r e e . I ' 1 1 show you what I h a v e . e t c . (12 more u t t e r a n c e s ) C E L I i t e m #30 : The dog i s under the h o u s e . S e l f - i n i t i a t e d : How d i d he g e t up t h e r e ? He s h o u l d n ' t be under the h o u s e . C E L I I t e m #40 S e l f - i n i t i a t e d W i l l he jump on t h e c a r ? Can he? TABLE 6 C H I L D ' S USE OF MODALS AND ORF IN A DISCOURSE FRAMEWORK O t h e r - i n i t i a t e d S e l f - i n i t i a t e d R e s p o n s e s t o a d u l t R e s p o n s e s t o a d u l t CHILD I n t . f o r m s a N o n - I n t . f o r m s O t h e r M.S. ' (H) 20 8 26 k ( 7 ) (4) B . P . 8 8 32 (3) (5) B . A . 9 17 19 (1) K . M . 4 0 4 (2) M . S . ( L ) 8 1 2 (5) M . N . 28 11 24 (12) (4) B . F . 14 10 17 (5) N o n - i n t e r r o g a t i v e fo rms i n c l u d e s u g g e s t i o n s , comments , commands. Number o f m o d a l s and ORF i n c h i l d ' s r e s p o n s e t h a t a r e d i r e c t l y b o r r o w e d f r o m p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . These a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e moda l c o u n t n o t i n p a r e n t h e s e s . 44 These a r e e x a m p l e s o f t he s t i m u l a t i o n o f moda l usage where t h e c h i l d i s r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e m a n t i c s o f t h e i m i t a t e d s e n t e n c e . The d a t a show t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e beyond t h e s t a g e where t h e y a r e d e p e n d e n t on a q u e s t i o n - r e s p o n s e f r a m e w o r k . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e s e n s i t i v e t o the d i s c o u r s e ( i m m e d i a t e i n p u t ) , t h e y a r e a b l e t o use m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t he a d u l t ' s u t t e r a n c e s . S u b j e c t use w i t h m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o rms The s u b j e c t s o f s e n t e n c e s w i t h m o d a l s and ORF a r e shown i n T a b l e 7 . I t c a n be s e e n t h a t most c h i l d r e n a r e u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s . These i n c l u d e s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n s , nouns and d e m o n s t r a t i v e / d e i c t i c p r o n o u n s . I n t w e n t y - f o u r u t t e r a n c e s , s u b j e c t s were o m i t t e d a l t o g e t h e r , e . g . B . F . C a n ' t o p e n ! G o t t a p u t i t a l l back t o g e t h e r . M . N . W a i t - has t o w a i t . C a n ' t p u l l i t o f f . The d a t a i n T a b l e 7 show t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s use o f m o d a l s and ORF i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o 1 s t and 2nd p e r s o n s i n g u l a r p r o n o u n s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f ' I ' and ' Y o u ' f o r some o f t h e c h i l d r e n , o t h e r p r o n o u n s and nouns a r e a l s o b e i n g u s e d i n s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e u s i n g m o d a l s and 'ORF i n a n o n - e g o c e n t r i c way , t h a t i s , t o r e f e r t o the a b i l i t y , i n t e n t i o n s and w i s h e s o f o t h e r s . The d a t a s u p p o r t F l e t c h e r ' s p r e d i c t i o n a b o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e moda l a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m . Some e x a m p l e s o f moda l use w i t h s u b j e c t s o t h e r t h a n 1 s t and 2nd p e r s o n p r o n o u n s f o l l o w : TABLE 7 NUMBER OF SUBJECTS USED WITH MODALS AND OTHER RELEVANT FORMS CHILD & I You He/She We They It Demons. Deictic Noun M.S.(H) 4 2 10 6 1 - 9 3 3 ... 14 B.P. 3 22 6 11 ... 1 1 ... ... 2 B.A. 2 15 4 3 2 1 4 6 1 3 K•M• X ••• 1 ••• 2 ••• 3 ••• 1 M•3•(L) 6 2 ••• ••• ••• 2 1 M.N. 6 16 4 5 3 5 14 4 ... 6 46 M . S . ( H ) She s h o u l d go t o w o r k . (Mummy d o l l ) Then it c a n ' t t u r n I ( M e r r y - g o - r o u n d ) B . P . Now she c a n s l e e p t h e r e w i t h t h e o t h e r d o l l s , ( d o l l ) Bunny c a n ' t - y o u ' r e r i g h t . B . A . They w o n ' t s t i c k t o g e t h e r . ( a n i m a l s ) Maybe we c a n p r e t e n d t h i s i s t h e t a p . K . M . B o t h ways and t h i s c a n come o f f t o o . ( b u r n e r ) I f t h a t c o u l d come a r o u n d and t h e n g o e s , t a k e s t h i s a r o u n d . (knob) M . N . She c a n have t h i s . ( w i t c h ) K a n g a r o o c a n ' t s t a n d . B . F . No , t h e egg was gonna go t h r o u g h t h e l i n e o f . . . N o , i t c a n ' t go t h e r e . (key) C o n t e x t s The t y p e o f p l a y a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n engaged i n d i c t a t e d t h e c o n t e x t f o r t h e i r l a n g u a g e use t o a l a r g e e x t e n t . The p r e d o m i n a n c e o f p r e s e n t and i m m e d i a t e r e f e r e n c e (here and now) i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r p l a y , i . e . h o u s e k e e p i n g a c t i v i t i e s , d o l l s , p u p p e t s , L e g o , a n i m a l s , e t c . However , t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e f r o m the s a m p l e s t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e o f u s i n g l a n g u a g e t o r e f e r t o n o n - p r e s e n t , n o n - i m m e d i a t e e v e n t s , e . g . p a s t and f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e , and h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e : B . F . T h e y ' r e gonna g e t l o s t . M . N . I gonna make a p u p p e t show f o r you l a t e r t h e n . M . S . ( L ) I ' d j u s t d r i v e o f f - I ' d j u s t jump o f f t h e r e . K . M . One day when I went t o t h e zoo I saw g i r l t h r o w a a p p l e a t t h a t monkey and he c o u l d n ' t g e t i t , and t h e n . . . 47 B . A . T h a t m i g h t pee i n h i s p a n t . B . P . I c o u l d g e t i n t h e r e - i f I 'm b i g . M . S . ( H ) Maybe , maybe D o g g i e w o u l d have a t u r n . M o s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n s c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e i r i m m e d i a t e a c t i v i t y o r p l a y o b j e c t . The p a r e n t s and i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d n o t make a d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t t o e l i c i t c o n v e r s a t i o n a b o u t p a s t , f u t u r e o r h y p o t h e t i c a l e v e n t s , as K u c z a j & D a l y (1979) d i d i n t h e i r s t u d y . These f a c t o r s p r o b a b l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e p a u c i t y o f h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e i n t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s . Had t h e c h i l d r e n been i n v o l v e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s o f p a s t f a c t u a l o r p a s t and f u t u r e h y p o t h e t i c a l e v e n t s , t h e r e may have been more e x a m p l e s o f moda l use n o t t i e d t o i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n . K . M . , f o r e x a m p l e , was q u e s t i o n e d e x t e n s i v e l y by h e r mother a b o u t r e c e n t p a s t e v e n t s , and h e r samp le c o n t a i n s p r e d o m i n a t l y n o n - p r e s e n t , n o n - i m m e d i a t e r e f e r e n c e compared t o t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n . The r a n g e o f moda l f o r m s and t h e f u n c t i o n s t h e y e x p r e s s a r e shown i n T a b l e s 8 and 9 . I d e c i d e d t o use K u c z a j ' s (1982) s y s t e m o f c o d i n g f u n c t i o n s , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f one e x t r a c a t e g o r y , l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y ( L N ) , w h i c h seemed more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r some o f t h e f o r m s c o d i n g e p i s t e m i c n e c e s s i t y . F o r a l i s t o f f u n c t i o n s and a b b r e v i a t i o n s , see A p p e n d i x C . F u n c t i o n s were c o d e d t w i c e — once by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and t h e n i n d e p e n d e n t l y by a n o t h e r p e r s o n , as a r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k . R e l i a b i l i t y r a n g e d f r o m 78% t o 90% a c r o s s t h e s a m p l e s . The f o r m s t h a t c a u s e d d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e c o d e r s were t h e same o n e s i n a l m o s t e v e r y i n s t a n c e . Some o f t he FORM/FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF MODALS AND OTHER RELEVANT FORMS TABLE 8 NUMBER OF TOKENS AND NUMBER OF FUNCTIONS OF EACH MODAL USED BY EACH CHILD MODALS M.S. (H) *T. F. B.P. B.A. K.M. M.S. (L) M.N. T. T. B.F. T. Total # of tokens Can Can't W i l l '11 Won't Could Couldn't Should Shouldn't Would "d Might Must 1 1 4 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 1 1 12 10 3 3 27 31 4 10 3 15 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 03 TABLE a: NUMBER OF TOKENS AND NUMBER OF FUNCTIONS OF EACH ORF USED BY EACH CHILD ORF M.S. (H) F. B.P. T. F. B.A. T. F. K.M. T. F. M.S. T. (L) F. M.N. T. F. B.F. T. F. Total # of tokens Gonna 15 2 14 2 14 4 • • • • • • 1 1 18 3 13 4 75 Haf ta 18 2 4 1 14 3 15 3 1 1 52 Gota 3 2 . . i • • • 4 1 7 Need to . . . 4 2 1 1 5 Be supposed to 4 1 2 2 6 Maybe 2 1 3 2 4 1 . . . . . . 1 1 2 1 12 Tokens (T) Functions (F) 50 d i f f i c u l t i e s were r e s o l v e d a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n and r e l i a b i l i t y t h e n was even h i g h e r ( 86%) . The m a j o r i t y o f u t t e r a n c e s were c o d e d r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y u s i n g c o n t e x t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e mean ing o f e a c h f o r m . F l e t c h e r (1981) c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t i m p o s i n g a d u l t mean ings on t h e c h i l d ' s f o r m s and s u g g e s t s u s i n g c o n t e x t u a l s u p p o r t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e mean ing t h a t t h e c h i l d i s t r y i n g t o c o m m u n i c a t e . Even w i t h c l u e s f r o m t h e c o n t e x t , h o w e v e r , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e e x a c t l y what the c h i l d meant i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s . T h i s a m b i g u i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e use o f d o u b l e c o d e s , e . g . P e r m i s s i o n ( P E ) / A b i l i t y ( A B ) . T a b l e 8 shows t h e numbers o f t o k e n s o f e a c h f o r m and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f u n c t i o n s u s e d by e a c h c h i l d i n t h e s t u d y . The most commonly u s e d m o d a l f o r m s a r e CAN (27 t o k e n s ) , CAN 'T (31 t o k e n s ) , COULD (15 t o k e n s ) , 1 L L (10 t o k e n s ) , and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s : GONNA (75 t o k e n s ) , HAFTA (52 t o k e n s ) and MAYBE (12 t o k e n s ) . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e c a t e n a t i v e s GONNA and HAFTA a r e used f a r more o f t e n t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g moda l f o r m s WILL and MUST t o e x p r e s s moda l m e a n i n g s . T h e r e a r e 13 i n s t a n c e s o f W I L L / ' L L and o n l y one example o f MUST i n t h e e n t i r e c o r p u s . I t i s commonly a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t c a t e n a t i v e s emerge e a r l i e r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s e q u e n c e and a r e used w i t h f a c i l i t y by age 3 ; 0 , w h i l e m o d a l s emerge l a t e r and a r e r a r e ' i n y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h . However , t h e d i s c r e p a n c y may a l s o be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e f r e q u e n c y o f use o f f o r m s by a d u l t s s p e a k i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t . As the d a t a r e p r e s e n t a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l sample and n o t a l o n g i t u d i n a l o n e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p o s t u l a t e an o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f f o r m s . B a s e d on f r e q u e n c y d a t a a l o n e , i t w o u l d appear t h a t c e r t a i n f o r m s , l i k e WILL , WOULD, SHOULD, MIGHT and MUST w h i c h o c c u r i n o n l y a few o f t h e s a m p l e s and have o n l y one o r two t o k e n s , a r e l a t e r - e m e r g i n g f o r m s . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d t o some d e g r e e by o t h e r s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . C e r t a i n f o r m s 51 s u c h a s W I L L , WON't and WOULD, may be i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g a c q u i r e d , a s t h e s u b j e c t s d e m o n s t r a t e d an a b i l i t y t o i m i t a t e t h e s e f o r m s a l t h o u g h t h e y were n o t common i n s p o n t a n e o u s s p e e c h . Two moda l f o r m s , MAY and SHALL , were n o t used s p o n t a n e o u s l y by any o f t h e c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h MAY was i m i t a t e d c o r r e c t l y by f i v e c h i l d r e n . The i n p u t d a t a (see f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ) show t h a t t h e r e were a few i n s t a n c e s o f SHALL (used by the i n v e s t i g a t o r ) b u t none o f MAY i n t h e a d u l t s ' s p e e c h t o t h e c h i l d r e n . One c o u l d c o n c l u d e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r f o r m s r e f l e c t s t h e d i a l e c t o f t h i s g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n . The f u n c t i o n s e x p r e s s e d by e a c h c h i l d a r e shown i n T a b l e 9 . M o s t f u n c t i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d by more t h a n one f o r m ; f o r e x a m p l e , p o s s i b i l i t y (PO) i s c o d e d by t h e m o d a l s COULD, CAN, C A N ' T , WON'T, MIGHT, WOULD, and the a d v e r b i a l MAYBE. C e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s were a b s e n t f r o m t h e s a m p l e s o f some o f t h e c h i l d r e n . T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h i l d has n o t a c q u i r e d a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n o r i t may be an a r t i f a c t o f t h e s a m p l i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , K . M . i s shown t o e x p r e s s o n l y two f u n c t i o n s , AB and PO, and t h i s i s p a r t l y b e c a u s e she t a l k e d a l o t a b o u t p a s t f a c t u a l e v e n t s and d i d n o t engage i n t h e same s o r t o f ' p r e t e n d ' p l a y w i t h t h e a v a i l a b l e t o y s as t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n . C o n s e q u e n t l y she had v e r y l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s f u n c t i o n s l i k e f u t u r e i n t e n t / p r e d i c t i o n o r o b l i g a t i o n - n e c e s s i t y . On the o t h e r h a n d , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t M . N . has n o t a c q u i r e d the f u n c t i o n s l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y (LN) and h y p o t h e t i c a l (HY) s i n c e he p r o v i d e d an a d e q u a t e l y l a r g e sample w i t h numerous e x a m p l e s o f o t h e r f u n c t i o n s . However , more l o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o make c l a i m s a b o u t a c q u i s i t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s . V The f u n c t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y e x p r e s s e d by a l l t he c h i l d r e n a r e p o s s i b i l i t y and a b i l i t y , f o l l o w e d by o b l i g a t i o n - n e c e s s i t y , f u t u r e o f p r e d i c t i o n and f u t u r e o f p r e s e n t i n t e n t . O t h e r f u n c t i o n s a p p e a r more s p o r a d i c a l l y i n t h e TABLE 9 TYPES AND TOKENS OF hrORMS EXPRESSING EACH FUNCTION USED BY EACH CHILD aFunctions CHILD FI FC FP AB PE PO WI ON LN HY M.S. (H) Gonna (5) Gonna (10) Can (1) Could (2) Can't (4) Would (1) Maybe (2) Should (2) Hafta (16) Supposed to (4) Gota (2) •Hafta (2) B.P. Gonna •11 (13) (1) Won't (1) Gonna (1) Can (1) Can't (5) Could (4) Can (1) Can (2) Might (1) Maybe (3) Can't (1) Could (1) Maybe (1) Hafta (4) Need to (3) Could (2) B.A. Gonna Hafta (8) (2) Gonna (1) Gonna (2) Can (2) Maybe (4) Can (2) Won't (1) Might (1) •11 (4) Gonna (3) Hafta (11) Need to (1) Hafta (1) Might (1) U l K.M. Gonna (13) Can't (3) Couldn't (1) Can (2) Can't (1) Could (1) — K> M.S. (L) Gonna (1) Can't (1) Can (1) Can't (1) Can't (2) Will (1) Should (1) Could 'D (1) (2) M.N. '11 (3) Gonna (3) Hafta (1) Will (2) Will (1) Gonna (7) Can (4) Can't (6) Can (5) Could (1) Can (1) Can't (2) Maybe (1) Can't (2) Can (1) Hafta (14) Hafta (1) B.F. '11 (2) Gonna (5) Gonna (1) Won't (1) Gonna (6) Can (1) Can't (1) Can't (1) Maybe (2) Gota (4) Have to (1) Must (1) Gonna (1) 1 F^unctions are those defined by Kuczaj (1982) See Appendix C. Ambiguous forms are not included in the table: M.S. Gota (1) FI/ON, Could (2) PE/PO. B.P. Can (1) AB/WI, Shouldn't (1) PE/ON, Need to (1) ON/LN, Could (1) HY/AB; B.A. Can (1) PE/PO; M.N. Gonna (1) FI/FC, Gonna (2) FI/FP, Can (1) PE/FI; B.F. Can't (1) PO/AB, Be supposed to (1) ON/FI. 53 table, e.g. l o g i c a l necessity (LN), permission (PE) and hypothetical (HY). Contrary to what Fletcher (1980) has reported, modals coding permission (PE) are rare i n these samples. This i s probably context-bound, i n that the samples were recorded during a play session which, i n comparison to everyday a c t i v i t i e s i n the home, did not provide the c h i l d with much opportunity to request or grant permission. Hypothetical reference (HY) i s also rare i n the samples, as mentioned before. However, four of the subjects did have examples of e x p l i c i t hypothetical reference, coded by the forms COULD, 'D, MIGHT and GONNA. Examples are: B.P. I could get i n there - i f I'm big. I wish he could s i t . Oh no! I wish he could s i t r i g h t there. B.A. ... 'cos there's a s l o t here 'cos someone might broke i t . M.S.(L) I'd j u s t drive o f f - I'd j u s t jump o f f there. Where could there be a jungle? B.F. No, the egg was gonna go through the l i n e of people ... of the animals. Only.future hypotheticals were used by the c h i l d r e n (except for B.F. #216). These are acquired before past hypotheticals so one would expect to see more examples of the former than the l a t t e r . As previously discussed, contextual support for the children's language was based p r i m a r i l y i n the 'here and now' so i t i s not su r p r i s i n g that there are few references to hypothetical events/states i n the data. The data are too scanty to make any claims about the use of modals for hypothetical reference i n the language of these c h i l d r e n . However, i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to tes t t h e i r 54 TABLE 10 NUMBER OF MODALS (TOKENS) USED WITH EPISTEMIC AND NON-EPISTEMIC MEANINGS BY EACH CHILD CHILD EPISTEMIC NON-EPISTEMIC M . S . ( H ) 6 48 B . P . 4 44 B . A . 5 40 K . M . 0 8 M . S . ( L ) 0 11 M.N 8 54 B . F . 1 28 a b i l i t y t o make e x p l i c i t h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e , p e r h a p s u s i n g K u c z a j & D a l y ' s (1979) t e c h n i q u e o f e l i c i t i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l s i n c o n v e r s a t i o n and i n e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k s . F u n c t i o n s o f m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s i n t h e c o r p u s were d i v i d e d i n t o e p i s t e m i c o r n o n - e p i s t e m i c , a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d t i o n a l c r i t e r i a ( L y o n s , 1 9 7 7 ) . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 0 . A l t h o u g h t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n was r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r , t r y i n g t o f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e t h e n o n -e p i s t e m i c f u n c t i o n s i n t o d e o n t i c , n e u t r a l d y n a m i c and s u b j e c t - o r i e n t e d d y n a m i c ( P a l m e r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , 1 9 7 9 ) , p r o v e d t o be more d i f f i c u l t . I t was o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e p r e c i s e l y w h a t f u n c t i o n t h e c h i l d was t r y i n g t o c o m m u n i c a t e . S i n c e o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have o n l y d i s c u s s e d e p i s t e m i c and 55 • n o n - e p i s t e m i c u s e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s m o d a l s , I d e c i d e d t o make o n l y t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n . As e x p e c t e d , n o n - e p i s t e m i c u s e s f a r outnumber e p i s t e m i c o n e s . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , f i v e o f t he c h i l d r e n d i d use some m o d a l s and ORF e p i s t e m i c a l l y , i . e . t o make t r u t h - v a l u e j udgments a b o u t p r o p o s i t i o n s . I n some c a s e s e p i s t e m i c m o d a l s and ORF a r e c l e a r l y u s e d i n a ' c o n c l u s i o n f r o m e v i d e n c e ' s e n s e . Some e x a m p l e s o f e p i s t e m i c m o d a l s / O R F f o l l o w : B . F . I t must, be a k a n g a r o o w i t h a mask o n . M . N . A , a s n a i l c a n ' t t a l k . B . A . Maybe , maybe t h e r e ' s a p l a c e r i g h t down h e r e . Many f o r m s a r e used p e r f o r m a t i v e l y and a r e t h e r e f o r e n o n - e p i s t e m i c . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m s code d e o n t i c n e c e s s i t y , where t h e c h i l d l a y s an o b l i g a t i o n on t h e l i s t e n e r o r o b j e c t : T h a t m i g h t pee i n h i s p a n t . B . P . T h e r e , I p u t i t r i g h t under t h e r e s o i t w o n ' t g e t r a i n on i t . M . S . Then i t c a n ' t t u r n ! The l a d d e r f e l l o f f - has t o hook o n . M . S . You have t o p u t i t r i g h t h e r e . ( i n d i c a t e s l o c a t i o n ) She s h o u l d go t o w o r k . ( r e f e r s t o Mummy d o l l ) B . P . Have t o b r u s h y o u r t e e t h a f t e r . ( t e l l s L . as he o f f e r s h e r some c o o k i e s ) B . F . Now we g o t t a g o . ( r e f e r s t o s e l f and mother ) T h e r e a r e a few e x a m p l e s o f m o d a l s / O R F b e i n g u s e d t o e x p r e s s p r e s e n t o r f u t u r e i n t e n t : B . A . I 'm gonna t a k e t h i s a p a r t (as she p u l l s l e g o p i e c e s a p a r t ) B . P . Now I 'm gonna make s c r a m b l e d e g g s . M . N . I ' 1 1 go g e t t h e o t h e r baby and I ' 1 1 s t a n d t h e s e guys h e r e . I n some c a s e s , t h e c h i l d i s r e q u e s t i n g t h e a d u l t t o a c t , e . g . M . N . C o u l d you p u t t h i s on me? You c a n s t i c k i t r i g h t i n t h e r e . B . P . T h i n k you c o u l d g e t t h a t o u t ? T h e r e a r e numerous e x a m p l e s o f m o d a l s / O R F b e i n g used t o e x p r e s s t h e w i s h e s o r a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s u b j e c t , e . g . B . P . T h e r e , nobody c a n ' t l i s t e n t o me - b e c a u s e I have e a r p h o n e s . I w i s h I c o u l d f i t i n t h e r e , ( t r y i n g t o s q u e e z e i n t o c u p b o a r d ) K . M . T h a t c a n ' t make t h i s . ( t r y i n g t o b u i l d s o m e t h i n g w i t h s t i c k s ) B . A . I c a n c a r r y a l l t h r e e o f them. T h e s e e x a m p l e s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e g i v e n by F l e t c h e r (1979) f o r y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n . However , w h i l e F l e t c h e r ' s s u b j e c t s used m o d a l s and ORF d e o n t i c a l l y , i . e . f o r p e r f o r m a t i v e , i n t e r p e r s o n a l and a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d f u n c t i o n s , t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y a l s o use m o d a l s and ORF t o make j udgments a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y , p r o b a b i l i t y and n e c e s s i t y o f p r o p o s i t i o n s and e v e n t s i n w h i c h 57 a r e n o t p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d . T h i s s u p p o r t s F l e t c h e r ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the e v o l u t i o n o f t h e m o d a l s y s t e m n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e use o f m o d a l s i n c o n t e x t s d i s p l a c e d f r o m i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n and d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e s p e a k e r . Many o f t h e f o r m s u s e d a r e p l u r i f u n c t i o n a l , t h a t i s , one f o r m c o d e s more t h a n one f u n c t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d . F o r e x a m p l e , CAN i s used f o r A B , PO and PE by B . P . ; MIGHT i s u s e d f o r PO and HY by B . A . : and GONNA i s used f o r F I , F C , FP and HY by B . F . By t h e same t o k e n , most f u n c t i o n s a r e c o d e d by more t h a n one f o r m . F o r i n s t a n c e , p o s s i b i l i t y i s c o d e d by t h e f o r m s COULD, CAN, C A N ' t , WOULD and MYABE by M . S . , o b l i g a t i o n - n e c e s s i t y i s c o d e d by HAVE TO and NEED TO by B . A . and p e r m i s s i o n i s c o d e d by CAN and COULD by M . N . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o what K u c z a j (1982) d e s c r i b e s i n h i s s t u d y o f f o r m / f u n c t i o n r e l a t i o n s i n young c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h . F l e t c h e r (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t c h i l d r e n may have a r e s t r i c t e d o r o v e r - e x t e n d e d r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m compared t o a d u l t u s a g e . T a b l e 11 shows t h e f o r m / f u n c t i o n r a t i o s f o r e a c h c h i l d i n the s t u d y . These were c a l c u l a t e d by c o u n t i n g t h e number o f f o r m s u s e d t o e x p r e s s e a c h o f t h e t a r g e t mean ings by e a c h c h i l d and t h e n d i v i d i n g t h i s by t h e t o t a l number o f mean ings e x p r e s s e d by t h e c h i l d . T h i s g i v e s a r o u g h e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e a v e r a g e number o f f o r m s u s e d t o e x p r e s s a f u n c t i o n by e a c h c h i l d , (see K u c z a j , 1 9 8 2 : 5 9 ) . The f o r m / f u n c t i o n r a t i o s range f r o m 1 . 5 t o 2 . 5 . These a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r a t i o s o b t a i n e d by K u c z a j f o r s i m i l a r M L U ' s . However , t h e r e i s no o b v i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n be tween MLU and f o r m / f u n c t i o n r a t i o . A c c o r d i n g t o K u c z a j , as c h i l d r e n ' s moda l s y s t e m m a t u r e s , t h e y n a r r o w t h e i r use o f r e f e r e n t s t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n s and t h u s have l o w e r f o r m / f u n c t i o n r a t i o s t h a n a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e when i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m s may be used t o e x p r e s s c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s and v i c e - v e r s a . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n have s t a r t e d t o n a r r o w t h e i r r e f e r e n t i a l use o f f o r m s , as t h e i r f o r m / 58 TABLE 11 RATIO OF NUMBER OF FORMS TO MODAL MEANINGS USED BY EACH CHILD CHILD MLU F:F RATIO M.S.(H) 5.28 2.17 B.P. 4.76 2.33 B.A. 4.73 1.78 K.M. 4.25 2.5 M.S.(L) 4.15 1.5 M.N. 4.00 2.22 B.F. 3.94 1.88 function r a t i o s are r e l a t i v e l y low and there aren't many obvious examples of inappropriate use of forms. I t would be d i f f i c u l t to conclude that any c h i l d has an over-extended or r e s t r i c t e d range of functions based on a single sample of spontaneous speech. There i s , however, wide v a r i a t i o n i n the use of modals and ORF to express modal meanings by c h i l d r e n i n the study and t h i s i s probably a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l i n g u i s t i c s t y l e s . ROLE, OF-.' INPUT Input was not examined in great d e t a i l . I t i s comprised of both the investigator's (L) and parent's (P) utterances. For some of the samples 59 t h i s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l , w h e r e a s i n o t h e r s , mos t o r a l l o f t h e i n t e r -a c t i o n o c c u r r e d between i n v e s t i g a t o r and c h i l d . The s m a l l c o r p u s o f p a r e n t s ' u t t e r a n c e s make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f l o n g t e r m i n p u t ( i . e . t h e d a i l y l a n g u a g e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c h i l d ) . O n l y i m m e d i a t e i n p u t ( d i s c o u r s e ) c a n be d i s c u s s e d , b u t t h i s may be i n t e r e s t i n g a s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s p e a k s a d i f f e r e n t E n g l i s h d i a l e c t f r o m t h i s g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n . (The i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s d i a l e c t i s i n f l u e n c e d by E a s t A f r i c a n -B r i t i s h - and C a n a d i a n - E n g l i s h ) . T a b l e 12 shows t h e number o f u t t e r a n c e s (bo th i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s and p a r e n t ' s ) c o n t a i n i n g e a c h o f t h e m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s i n d i f f e r e n t s e n t e n c e t y p e s . By f a r t h e most common f o r m used t o c h i l d r e n i s CAN (129 t o k e n s ) , f o l l o w e d by GONNA ( 6 5 ) , HAVE TO (56 t o k e n s ) , MAYBE (54 t o k e n s ) and ' L L (44 t o k e n s ) . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s r o u g h l y t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s use o f f o r m s , a l t h o u g h CAN 'T was u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y by c h i l d r e n t h a n a d u l t s . T h e r e were no e x a m p l e s o f WOULDN'T and MAY, w h i c h a l s o c o r r e l a t e s w i t h the c h i l d d a t a . SHALL was t h e o n l y m o d a l w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n t h e i n p u t b u t d i d n o t o c c u r i n c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h . The i n s t a n c e s o f SHALL , as m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , were a l l i n q u e s t i o n s a s k e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , and i s a f o r m f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n h e r d i a l e c t . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e n t e n c e t y p e s u s e d by t h e a d u l t s r e v e a l s t h a t o v e r h a l f (52.7%) were d e c l a r a t i v e s ( i n c l u d i n g n e g a t i v e s ) ; a b o u t a t h i r d (34.1%) were y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s and the r e s t (13.13%) were W h - q u e s t i o n s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d u l t s u s e a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f i n t e r r o g a t i v e f o r m s i n t h e i r s p e e c h t h a n do c h i l d r e n , a f i n d i n g w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d i n i n p u t l i t e r a t u r e . I t may r e f l e c t t h e a d u l t s ' a t t e m p t s t o e l i c i t s p e e c h f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n o r t o c o n t r o l t h e i n t e r a c t i o n by m a k i n g s u g g e s t i o n s u s i n g i n t e r r o g a t i v e f o r m s . TABLE 12 Modals & ORF MODALS AND ORF ADDRESSED TO EACH CHILD BY HIS OR HER PARENT AND THE INVESTIGATOR, ACCORDING TO SENTENCE TYPE DECLARATIVES MS(H) BP BA KM MS(L) MN BF 7 5 14 3 6 15 10 3 4 .. 1 5 .. 4 5 10 1 7 7 7 • • X • • •• • • 2 1 2 .. 4 4 5 .. 1 4 1 1 .. 2 . .3 2 1 1 . . . . 4 .. 1 1 .. 2 .. .. 4 1 1 . . 11 10 3 7 4 4 10 9 5 .. 1 .. .. 6 1 5 2 4 2 .. 8 2 2 1 1 1 1 . . . .1 1 .. 1 42 29 44 12 25 60 49 Y/N - QUESTIONS MS(H) BP BA KM MS (L) MN BF WH. - QUESTIONS MS(H) BP BA KM MS(L) MN BF TOTAL CAN CAN'T WILL 'LL WON'T COULD COULDN'T SHALL SHOULD SHOULDN'T WOULD ' D WOULDN'T MIGHT MUST MAY MAYBE GONNA HAVE TO GOTTA NED TO SUPPOSED TO 2 8 10 9 1 2 1 1 1 6 3 1 .. 1 1 21 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 4 3 20 1 1 2 5 1 1 2 129 13 9 44 4 28 2 9 21 5 16 9 0 5 8 0 54 65 56 6 10 4 TOTAL 32 8 20 18 23 48 20 25 11 12 8 61 The i n f l u e n c e o f a d u l t s ' use o f f o r m s on c h i l d r e n ' s m o d a l s and ORF has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d t o some e x t e n t . A p p e n d i x B g i v e s e x a m p l e s o f d i s c o u r s e i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d m i m i c k e d o r used f o r m s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e a d u l t ' s p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . The e x a m p l e s n i c e l y d e m o n s t r a t e the u s e f u l n e s s o f a q u e s t i o n - r e s p o n s e f ramework i n l e a r n i n g moda l f o r m s . However , t he c h i l d r e n d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o many o f t he a d u l t f o rms and used s e l f - i n i t i a t e d moda ls and ORF q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y , as d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r e n t ' s u t t e r a n c e s i s shown i n T a b l e 1 3 . These r e p r e s e n t l e s s t h a n 20% o f t h e t o t a l c o r p u s o f i n p u t u t t e r a n c e s . The f o r m s SHALL, SHOULDN'T, ' D , WOULDN'T, MUST, MAY GOTTA and BE SUPPOSE TO, d i d n o t a p p e a r i n any o f t h e p a r e n t s ' u t t e r a n c e s . Y e t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f SHALL , WOULDN'T and MAY, t h e s e f o r m s were used by some o f t h e c h i l d r e n . W i t h s u c h a s m a l l c o r p u s , h o w e v e r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw any c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a r e n t s ' m o d a l s and ORF. V e r y few W h - q u e s t i o n s w i t h m o d a l s / O R F were a s k e d by p a r e n t s b u t y e s / n o q u e s t i o n s were a l m o s t as f r e q u e n t as d e c l a r a t i v e s . I t w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o l o o k a t p a r e n t s ' s p e e c h i n more d e t a i l i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the r o l e o f l o n g t e r m i n p u t on c h i l d r e n ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e moda l a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m . C e r t a i n l y , t h e d a t a seem t o show t h a t c h i l d r e n t h i s age do r e s p o n d t o i n p u t and a r e s e n s i t i v e t o i m m e d i a t e i n p u t i n a d i s c o u r s e f r a m e w o r k , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y d e p e n d e n t on i t . 62 TABLE 13 MODALS AND ORF ADDRESSED TO EACH CHILD BY HIS OR HER PARENT ACCORDING TO SENTENCE TYPE Modals & ORF DECLARATIVES BP BA KM MS MN BF Y/N - QUESTIONS BP BA KM MS MN BF WH. - QUESTIONS BP BA KM MS MN BF CAN CAN'T WILL •LL WON'T COULD COULDN'T SHALL SHOULD SHOULDN'T WOULD •D WOULDN'T MIGHT MUST MAY MAYBE GONNA HAVE TO GOTTA NEED TO SUPPOSED TO . . . . 1 2 5 1 5 1 . . . . 5 2 1 1 2 11 1 .. I l l 5 .. 4 . . 2 3 3 6.. .. .. 1 1 .. 1 .. 1 .. 1 .. 3 1 .. .. .. 1 .. .. 1 1 2 . . .. .. 1 .. .. 1 .. 15 1 1 .. 1 63 CONCLUDING REMARKS In t h i s s t u d y , I have a t t e m p t e d t o c l a r i f y some o f t h e u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and use o f t h e moda l a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m by E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n i n an a c t i v e phase o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . The moda ls a r e a c o m p l e x s e t o f v e r b s t o l e a r n owing - t o t h e i n t r i c a c y o f mean ing t h a t t h e y e n c o d e . When and how c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f t h e v e r b p h r a s e has n o t been f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . P o r t i o n s o f t h i s p r o c e s s , l i m i t e d t o a n a r r o w age r a n g e , have been w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . However , t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e use o f moda l a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m by t h r e e and f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y c o n f i r m some o f t he c l a i m s made i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a u x i l i a r y v e r b s y s t e m , and l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s p r o p o s e d by F l e t c h e r (1979) and o t h e r s , r e g a r d i n g t h e e x p a n s i o n and use o f t h e moda l s y s t e m i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f c h i l d r e n aged a b o u t 3 ; 4 t o 3 ; 1 1 . A l t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t s fo rmed a f a i r l y homogeneous c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s a m p l e , t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l a n g u a g e s a m p l e s . P e r s o n a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l l i n g u i s t i c s t y l e s p r o b a b l y a c c o u n t f o r some o f t he v a r i a t i o n . I t may a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n d i d n o t have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e f u l l r a n g e o f moda l f o r m s and mean ings w i t h i n t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c competence i n a s i n g l e l a n g u a g e s a m p l e . T h i s i s a p r o b l e m i n h e r e n t i n any s p o n t a n e o u s s a m p l i n g o f l a n g u a g e and t h u s i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o s u p p l e m e n t s p o n t a n e o u s d a t a w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k s w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e - i m i t a t i o n ' d a t m . (CELI s e n t e n c e s ) d i d r e v e a l a h i g h l e v e l o f a c c u r a c y a c r o s s s u b j e c t s i n t h e i m i t a t i o n o f moda l f o r m s , some o f w h i c h were n o t used s p o n t a n e o u s l y by a l l t h e c h i l d r e n . I t i s 64 p o s s i b l e t h a t s u c h f o r m s a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g a c q u i r e d by some c h i l d r e n as i m i t a t i v e competence p r e c e d e s p r o d u c t i v e competence a s K u c z a j & M a r a t s o s (1975) have d e m o n s t r a t e d . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e t h r e e - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y a r e u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s t o code m o d a l m e a n i n g s . Mos t o f t h e s e f o r m s do n o t o c c u r i n r e s t r i c t e d s y n t a c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s . They appear i n a l l s e n t e n c e t y p e s i n c l u d i n g c o m p l e x s e q u e n c e s a l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y a r e u s e d i n s i m p l e d e c l a r a t i v e s , b o t h a f f i r m a t i v e and n e g a t i v e . O t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c a t e n a t i v e s , a r e u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y by some o f t h e c h i l d r e n and may be s u b s t i t u t e s f o r m o d a l s s u c h as WILL , MUST and MAY. M o d a l s and ORF o c c u r w i t h o u t m a i n v e r b s i n e l l i p t i c a l u t t e r a n c e s , w h i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l y r a r e , b u t n e a r l y a l w a y s o c c u r w i t h m a i n v e r b s , i n c o r r e c t o r d e r , i n f u l l s e n t e n c e s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f B . P . and K . M . , a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f m o d a l s / O R F a r e t i e d t o a d i s c o u r s e f r a m e w o r k . However , none o f t h e c h i l d r e n a r e c o m p l e t e l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e f o r m s i n t h e a d u l t ' s p r e v i o u s u t t e r a n c e . A u x i l i a r y i n v e r s i o n a p p e a r s t o be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s s t a g e and m o d a l s / O R F a r e c o r r e c t l y i n v e r t e d i n b o t h a f f i r m a t i v e and n e g a t i v e W h - q u e s t i o n s . M o d a l s / O R F a r e f r e q u e n t l y u s e d w i t h 3 r d p e r s o n s u b j e c t s and a r e a l s o used t o r e f e r t o n o n - p r e s e n t , n o n - i m m e d i a t e c o n t e x t s when a p p r o p r i a t e . These f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t F l e t c h e r ' s p r e d i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f moda l f o r m s by o l d e r c h i l d r e n . The r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s b e i n g c o d e d i s f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a p p a r e n t i n t h e s a m p l e s and may e i t h e r be a r e f l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l l i n g u i s t i c s t y l e o r a s a m p l i n g b i a s . The f o r m / f u n c t i o n r a t i o s o b t a i n e d a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e g i v e n by K u c z a j (1982) and seem t o i n d i c a t e 65 t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e u s i n g f e w e r , more a p p r o p r i a t e fo rms t o code v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s t h a n c h i l d r e n a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t m i g h t u s e . N o n - e p i s t e m i c m o d a l s / O R F a r e used f a r more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n e p i s t e m i c m o d a l s . However , t h e r e a r e e x a m p l e s o f e p i s t e m i c u s e s i n f i v e o f t h e s e v e n s a m p l e s . / The c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y a p p e a r t o have a r e s t r i c t e d r a t h e r t h a n an o v e r - e x t e n d e d r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s . T h i s w o u l d be e x p e c t e d o f c h i l d r e n between age 3 ; 0 and 4 ; 0 and F l e t c h e r (1979) has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t w o u l d be r e m a r k a b l e f o r a t h r e e - y e a r - o l d t o have m a s t e r e d t h e f u l l a d u l t r a n g e o f f u n c t i o n s o f t h e moda l s y s t e m . As F l e t c h e r p r e d i c t s , t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o use m o d a l s t o r e f e r t o o t h e r s ; i n d e p e n d e n t o f i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n and i n c o n t e x t s removed f r o m t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . The e x a m p l e s o f e x p l i c i t h y p o t h e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e , though i n f r e q u e n t i n t h e s a m p l e s , l e n d s u p p o r t t o F l e t c h e r ' s h y p o t h e s i s . I t w o u l d appear t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y a r e a t a s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t where t h e y a r e e x p a n d i n g t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e use o f m o d a l s and o t h e r r e l e v a n t f o r m s . I n most i n s t a n c e s , t h e m o d a l s / O R F a r e s y n t a c t i c a l l y c o r r e c t and s e m a n t i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e , a l t h o u g h t h e e x a c t mean ings a r e n o t a l w a y s c l e a r . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f f o r m s and f u n c t i o n s , t h e s e t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s do n o t have f u l l p r o d u c t i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e E n g l i s h moda l a u x i l i a r y s y s t e m . In o r d e r t o e l u c i d a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h i s s y s t e m , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o l l e c t l o n g i t u d i n a l d a t a f o r s u c h a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n s t a r t i n g a t age 2 ; 0 t o a b o u t 4 ; 0 o r 5 ; 0 . T h i s s h o u l d be s u p p l e m e n t e d by e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n d e v e l o p m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , i m i t a t i o n d a t a , c o m p r e h e n s i o n t a s k s , use o f h y p o t h e t i c a l m a r k i n g s and s o o n . 66 I t w o u l d a l s o be i n t e r e s t i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f p a r e n t a l s p e e c h , b o t h i m m e d i a t e and l o n g t e r m , on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f moda l a u x i l i a r i e s . By u s i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s p o n t a n e o u s and e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a , one c o u l d s e p a r a t e v a r i a t i o n s due t o l i n g u i s t i c s t y l e and i n p u t f r o m s a m p l i n g a r t i f a c t o r i n v e s t i g a t o r - b i a s . T h i s s h o u l d p r o v i d e us w i t h a more c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and use o f t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g and c o m p l e x l i n g u i s t i c s y s t e m . 67 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , R . L . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . The v e r b - s y s t e m o f p r e s e n t day A m e r i c a n - E n g l i s h . The Hague : M o u t o n . B e l l u g i , U . ( 1 9 7 1 ) . S i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e . I n R. H u x l e y & E . Ingram ( e d s ) , Language a c q u i s i t i o n : M o d e l s and m e t h o d s . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . B e l l u g i , U . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r r o g a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s s p e e c h . I n R i e g e l , K . F . ( e d ) , The d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e  f u n c t i o n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n C e n t e r f o r Human G r o w t h and D e v e l o p m e n t , R e p o r t No . 8 . B l o o m , L . & L a h e y , M. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Language d e v e l o p m e n t and l a n g u a g e d i s o r d e r s . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s . B r o w n , R. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . A f i r s t l a n g u a g e : t h e e a r l y s t a g e s . C a m b r i d g e M a s s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . B r o w n , R. & H a n l o n , C . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . D e r i v a t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t y and o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n i n c h i l d s p e e c h . I n J . Hayes ( e d . ) , C o g n i t i o n and t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s . B r o w n , R . , C a z d e n , C , & B e l l u g i , U . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . The c h i l d ' s grammar f r o m 1 t o 1 1 1 . I n J . H i l l ( e d ) , M i n n e s o t a s y m p o s i a on c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y . V o l 1 1 . M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s . C a r r o w , E . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . C a r r o w E l i c i t e d Language I n v e n t o r y . A u s t i n , T e x a s : L e a r n i n g C o n c e p t s . d a s s i r e r , E . ( 1 9 5 5 ) . The p h i l o s o p h y o f s y m b o l i c f o r m s . V o l . 1 . New H a v e n , C o n n . : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Chomsky, N . ( 1 9 5 7 ) . S y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s . The Hague : M o u t o n . C r o m e r , R. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e and c o g n i t i o n : t h e c o g n i t i o n h y p o t h e s i s . I n B . F o s s ( e d ) , New p e r s p e c t i v e s i n c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t . H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n B o o k s . C r o m e r , R. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e m p o r a l r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g t h e  a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n g u a g e . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y . d e V i l l i e r s , J . & d e V i l l i e r s , P . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Language a c q u i s i t i o n . . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s , :v:Har.vaEd ^ . U n i v e r s i t y . . P r e s s . 68 Dunn, L . M . (1959). The Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t . C i r c l e P i n e s , M i n n . : The A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e , , Ehrmann , M. (1966) . The mean ings o f t h e m o d a l s i n p r e s e n t - d a y A m e r i c a n  E n g l i s h . The Hague : M o u t o n . F l e t c h e r , P . (1981). D e s c r i p t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f v e r b - f o r m s . J . C h i l d L a n g . 8, 93-108. 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Towards a s e m a n t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f E n g l i s h . - B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . L y o n s , J . (1977). S e m a n t i c s . C a m b r i d g e : Cambr idge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . M a j o r , D. (1974). The a c q u i s i t i o n o f m o d a l a u x i l i a r i e s i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f  c h i l d r e n . The Hague : M o u t o n . M i l l e r , J . F . (1981). A s s e s s i n g Language p r o d u c t i o n i n c h i l d r e n : E x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s . B a l t i m o r e : U n i v e r s i t y P a r k P r e s s . M i l l e r , J . F . & Chapman, R . S . (1979). The r e l a t i o n between age and mean l e n g t h  o f u t t e r a n c e i n morphemes. U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n M a d i s o n . 69 Palmer, F.R. (1979). Modality and the English modals. London; Longman Group Ltd. Palmer, F.R. (1965). A l i n g u i s t i c study of the English verb. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd. Sheilds & Steiner. (1972). Cited i n Fletcher, P. (1975). Book review, J . C h i l d Lang. 2:2, 320. Slobin, D. (1973) . Cognitive p r e r e q u i s i t e s for the development of grammar. In C. Ferguson & D. Slobin (eds), Studies of c h i l d language  development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Slobin, D. & Welsh, C. (1973). E l i c i t e d i m i t a t i o n as a research t o o l i n developmental p s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s . In C. Ferguson & D. Slobin (eds,), Studies of c h i l d language development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Twaddell, W.F. (1963). The English verb a u x i l i a r i e s . Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University Press. Wells, C.G. (1979). Learning and using the a u x i l i a r y verb i n E n g l i s h . In V. Lee (ed.) Cognitive development: language and thinking from b i r t h to adolescence. London? Croom Helm. Werner, H. & Kaplan, S. (1963). Symbol formation. New York: Wiley. 70 APPENDIX A E x a m p l e s o f D i f f e r e n t K i n d s o f M o d a l i t y i n E n g l i s h (Taken f r o m P a l m e r , 1979) E P I S T E M I C - r e l a t e s t o an i n f e r e n c e , o r j udgement made by t h e s p e a k e r i . e . I t i s p o s s i b l e / n e c e s s a r y t h a t . . . . a . P o s s i b i l i t y : 1 . He MAY be q u a l i f i e d t o be r e c o g n i z e d as a t e a c h e r o f F r e n c h o r German o r o f s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . (p .41 ) 2 . I MAY go up a t t h e end o f A u g u s t , (p .43 ) 3 . So he MIGHT go and l i v e w i t h h i s p a r e n t s , (p .48 ) b . N e c e s s i t y ; 1 . T h i s MUST be one o f t h e f i n e s t v i e w s o f t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s i o n a l r o u t e . (P -41 ) 2 . You MUST f i n d i t q u i t e a change b e i n g back i n L o n d o n , (p .44) 3 . T e l l h im P r o f e s s o r C r e s s a g e i s i n v o l v e d - he WILL know P r o f e s s o r C r e s s a g e . (p .47 ) DEONTIC- b a s i c a l l y p e r f o r m a t i v e . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t s w i t h t h e s p e a k e r t o g i v e p e r m i s s i o n (MAY, C A N ) , make a p r o m i s e o r t h r e a t (SHALL) o r l a y an o b l i g a t i o n (MUST). a . P o s s i b i l i t y : 1 . I f you want t o r e c a l l t h e d o c t o r , you MAY do s o . (p .59 ) 2 . Of c o u r s e you CAN i n s p e c t t h e n u r s e r i e s . . . . ( p .60 ) 3 . You CAN t e l l K a y a b a s h i - s a n t h a t t h e back r o a d i s i n v e r y good c o n d i t i o n and w i l l be q u i t e s a f e . (p .60) b. N e c e s s i t y : 1 . I ' v e been t e l l i n g P e t e r . . . ' y o u MUST g e t i n t o pe rmanent j o b s ' . . . (p .61) 71 2 . You MUST keep e v e r y t h i n g t o y o u r -s e l f , be d i s c r e e t , (p .62 ) 3 . Oh , you MUST come round and see i t . (p .62 ) c . P r o m i s e / t h r e a t : 1 . i SHALL c e r t a i n l y a p o l o g i z e t o t h e C h a i r m a n , C a p t a i n , ( p .63 ) 2 . You SHALL have i t t o m o r r o w , (p .62) N o t e : ( T h i s use o f SHALL i s more common i n B r i t i s h E n g l i s h (BE) t h a n A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h ( A E ) . 3 . DYNAMIC- m o d a l i t y o f e v e n t s t h a t a r e n o t c o n -d i t i o n e d d e o n t i c a l l y ; c o n c e r n e d w i t h a b i l i t y and d i s p o s i t i o n , i . e . ' I t i s p o s s i b l e / n e c e s s a r y f o r . . . . a . P o s s i b i l i t y : 1 . N e u t r a l 2 . s u b j e c t - o r i e n t e d 3 . 4 . S i g n s a r e t h e o n l y t h i n g s you CAN o b s e r v e , ( p .71 ) You CAN g e t q u i t e l o s t i n t h a t , I t h i n k , you s e e . (p .72 ) I f e e l t h a t . . . my d e s t i n y ' s v e r y much i n my c o n t r o l and t h a t I CAN make o r b r e a k my l i f e and m y s e l f , ( p .73 ) R e l i g i o n CAN summate, e p i t o m i z e , r e l a t e , and c o n s e r v e a l l h i g h e s t i d e a l s and v a l u e s , (p .73 ) b . N e c e s s i t y : 1 . i f t h e r a t e p a y e r s s h o u l d be c o n -s u l t e d , so t o o MUST t h e c o u n c i l t e n a n t s , (p .91 ) 2 . Y e s , I MUST ask f o r t h a t Monday o f f . (p .91 ) V o l i t i o n : 1 . Hang on a m i n u t e and I ' L L t r y t o f i n d i t . (p .109) 2 . I s a i d 'Why d o n ' t you go and s e e i f M a r t i n WILL l e t you s t a y ? " (p .109) APPENDIX B USE OF MODALS AND OTHER RELEVANT FORMS IN RESPONSE TO IMMEDIATE DISCOURSE P . U . ( A d u l t ) # C h i l d ' s R e s p o n s e M.S.(H) L . Where do y o u t h i n k t h e y s h o u l d go? 0 1 6 8 S h o u l d she p u t t h e baby t o s l e e p 0 3 2 5 She s h o u l d go t o work B u t t h e n w h a t a r e t h e k i d s gonna do? 0 3 2 7 Oh I know what you c a n d o . 0 3 4 8 And w h a t ' s Mummy gonna do h e r e ? 0 3 8 5 L . Maybe Mummy w o u l d l i k e a t u r n . P u t 4 3 2 t h e Mummy on? 4 3 5 4 3 7 4 3 8 A l l t h r e e c a r s ! Who 's gonna - w h o ' s 516 g o i n g t o d r i v e t h e c a r s ? What a r e t h e y gonna do a t t h e r a n c h ? 0 688 Daddy when . . . when i t ' s m o r n i n g Daddy s h o u l d work on t h e r o o f ' c o s , ' c o s t h e r e ' s c r a c k s i n i t . No . She s h o u l d go t o w o r k . D a d d y ' s gonna b a b y s i t t h e m . I know w h a t y o u c o u l d d o . S h e ' s gonna f i x t h e r o o f t o o . S h e ' s g o o d . The Mummy d o e s n ' t f a l l o f f . Goes v e r y f a s t . M a y b e , maybe D o g g i e w o u l d have a t u r n . Mummy's gonna d r i v e t h i s c a r and D a d d y ' s gonna d r i v e t h i s c a r . They gonna t a k e t h e l a d d e r away . P . U . ( A d u l t ) # C H I L D ' S RESPONSE M . S . ( L ) You c a n make s o m e t h i n g w i t h t h i s . Why d o n ' t y o u p u t some on t h e f l o o r and s e e i f y o u c a n make s o m e t h i n g . Oh I wonder i f any more c a n f i t i n t h e r e ? 796 798 805 1141 N o t h i n 1 i n t h e r e . I c a n * t make t h i s . I d i d b u t I c a n ' t . I t h i n k y o u c a n ' t f i t i n t h e r e ' c o s t h e r e ' s gonna be l o t s and l o t s o f a n i m a l s i n t h e r e . -J L O E g s . M . N . Can some go i n t h e r e t o o ? A r e y o u s u r e i t c a n ' t f i t i n ? I t h i n k may be i t c a n . Oh , maybe y o u c a n g i v e h im t h e m i l k j u g , t h e n . 211 233 736 Y u h . T h i s one c a n go i n . S e e ? S e e ? See - i t c a n ' t . Too b i g . O k a y . He c a n d r i n k t h i s . W h a t ' r e you g o i n g t o make me? 795 1 < m g o n ' make y o u s c r a m b l e d eggs w i t h t o a s t . L . What y o u you g o i n g t o b u i l d M i c h a e l ? 0126 Gonna b u i l d s o m e t h i n g . H e r e . P . U . ( A d u l t ) Can y o u s t i c k t h i s one i n somewhere? Can y o u b u i l d s o m e t h i n g f o r t h e g i r l ? Can y o u t e l l t h e g i r l w h a t c o l o u r s t h e r e a r e ? C a n ' t y o u ? What i s y o u r p u p p e t show gonna do? T h i n k t h e y have t o t a l k ? What a r e t h e y gonna do t h e r e ? T h e y ' r e gonna g e t c o l d . I s i t ? Do you t h i n k t h e y ' l l go t o s l e e p now? Have t o go home and have l u n c h and t h e n have t o go t o w o r k . C h i l d ' s R e s p o n s e M . N . You c a n s t i c k i t r i g h t i n t h e r e . N o , I c a n ' t . No . I c a n ' t . Gonna have a s n a i l on a n d , a n d , and i t ' s gonna h o l d t h e d i c e . N o , t h e y d o n ' t have t o t a l k . N o t g o n ' d o a n y t h i n g - t h e y ' r e gonna jump b a c k down . B u t t h i s , b u t , b u t t h i s one i s , i s t h e , i s warm. Y e s , t h i s one i s warm. And t h e y a r e n o t gonna g e t c o l - c o l d . Y e s , t h e y w i l l . B u t , b u t i t has t o be a p u p p e t show r i g h t now. P.U. (Adult) # L. Oh I see. You're gonna make a line of 233 animals. Would you like to buy some animals? 424 No? What".re you gonna make me then? 0141 Child's Response B.F. Yah, and then i t ' s gonna go through and then they're gonna wash the animals - put them in baby animals. And they're .... And they're gonna give this one to somebody else. I would like a egg. I'm gonna get these things washed. P . U . ( A d u l t ) # C h i l d ' s R e s p o n s e B . P . T h i n k y o u c a n make s o m e t h i n g t h e r e ? You have t o be c a r e f u l - y o u mighfe f a l l . A s a baby - needs t o s t a n d . T h e r e . Maybe now y o u c o u l d g i v e them l u n c h ? So t h e b a b i e s c a n s e e what y o u ' r e d o i n g ? 0 2 7 8 0 4 4 0 0 4 7 8 0 4 7 6 0 4 8 0 0 4 9 8 0 4 9 9 0 5 0 0 I t h i n k I c a n make s o m e t h i n g . Oh - I m i g h t . And he n e e d s t o s i t . Now he n e e d s t o s i t . M a y b e . They a l l c a n s e e what am I d o i n g . She c a n ' t Bunny c a n ' t - y o u ' r e r i g h t . —i You c a n k e e p t h o s e o u t i f y o u l i k e . W h a t ' s t h a t baby gonna do? And we have t o t a k e t h e s t o v e down, t o o . Can y o u p u l l them a p a r t ? Oh , t h a t c a n come o f f t o o ? • 9 3 6 1 1 8 8 1 1 2 0 0 6 1 7 1 0 0 0 B . A . O k a y . And we c a n p u t one l i k e t h i s . S h e ' s gonna s i t on h e r l a p . Y e a h , y o u have t o , t o o . K . M . No , c a n ' t come a p a r t . They a l l c a n come o f f . 77 APPENDIX C FUNCTION CODES USED FOR MODALS AND ORF (Taken f r o m K u c z a j , 1982:56) CODE FUNCTION EXAMPLE F I f u t u r e o f p r e s e n t i n t e n t : I w i l l draw a d o g . FC f u t u r e o f p r e s e n t c a u s e : I t w i l l f a l l . FP f u t u r e o f p r e d i c t i o n : D a d d y ' s gonna b r i n g me a s u r p r i s e . AB a b i l i t y : I c a n r i d e a b i k e . PE p e r m i s s i o n : You c a n have o n e . PO p o s s i b i l i t y : I-t m i g h t f a l l . WI w i l l i n g n e s s : I ' l l b r u s h my h a i r . ON o b l i g a t i o n - n e c e s s i t y : You s h o u l d c l e a r t h a t u p . HY h y p o t h e t i c a l : T h a t w o u l d h u r t me. ( A d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r y ) LN l o g i c a l - n e c e s s i t y : T h a t must be t h e way i t t u r n s . P.U. # CHILD 1-(H.) CONTEXT IS. FUNCOTION 064 You have to l e t go. Showing L. how to work racing cars ON 078 You has to do i t on the f l o o r • Showing L. to to work racing cars ON 100 They're gonna have dinner outside, though • Playing with toy house and d o l l s FP 109 This 1 s for the daddy. This i s the same.... It's supposed to be rig h t over here. Talking about beds for the d o l l s ON 133 You have to be quiet 'cos Michael Coulter i s sleeping. Warning L. to t a l k more s o f t l y . ON L. Let's put the beds i n - where are we gonna put the beds? 144 The bed's supposed to be around here where the windows are. Moving beds around. ON This baby's sleeping outside here? okay 162 You suppos r - you have to leave t h i s outside . ON Okay, we' l l leave that outside 163 I'm not gonna drink the coke. Pick up toy coke bo t t l e FI No. I don't think i t ' s very good for you. What s h a l l we do with i the baby's pen? 166 Y' have to - you have to put i t right here. ON You t e l l me where to put the people. Where do you think they should go? 168 Daddy .... When-when i t ' s morning Daddy should work on the roof.... 'cos there's cracks in i t . Playing with ?;Daddy' d o l l ON And where's the g i r l gonna sleep' 179 Daddy's gotta work on the car. ON Okay, when he wakes up. 181 Mummy's gonna sleep i n the baby's bed. FI And where's the dog gonna be? 191 He's gotta stay outside. FI/ON Yeah - he has to look after the baby, right? He has to watch the baby. 193 Yup. "Dog I'm not gonna sleep tomorrow." Puts on 'baby voice'. FI TJ TJ H 2 D M 0 0 P.U. Where's the boy? ooh - you're putting him i n the b i g yellow chair. Okay - there's another chair f o r the brother. I though: he was gonna f i x the roof? What's Mummy gonna do now? Let's make Mummy do something. Should she put the baby to sleep She should go to work? But then what are the kids gonna do? Okay and what are the boys gonna do? Oh I see Oh you know what? Maybe i t f i t s on t h i s way. Oh r i g h t . I wonder i f . . . . oh I know what you can do. What? And what's Mummy gonna do here? Because there's no one to look after the baby i f everyone's up there f i x i n g the roof. What happened? |224 246 2 7.4 292 325 327 332 335 345 348 350 385 388 381 CHILD CONTEXT (HB M.S. FUNC TION How can he s i t down? After, a f t e r , a f t e r they eat break-f a s t , they're gonna play soccer -at the soccer team. People aren't on this side, may be on thi s side. Doggie's on this side. Yup. Have to work f i r s t . No. She should go to work. Daddy's gonna babysit them. They gon 1 - they gonna f i x the roof with daddy. Hafta get ladder. No, can' t. I know what you could do. You could ... oh yeah,yeah. That makes i t be good idea. She's gonna f i x the roof too. Everybody can't be up.... These two. Only one boy could be up. Doggies gonna f i x the roof. Puts boy d o l l on chair, (legs won't bend). L ooking at pictures on sides of house. Making daddy d o l l ring b e l l . AB F I PO ON ON FP FP ON PO PO/PE PO/PE FP PO PO FP P.U. # And they take the ladder down -woops - there we go - where we gonna put the ladder? In the Maybe Mummy would l i k e a turn. Put the Mummy on? (Put on voice) Oh, but can't I s i t on top? On top of the hole. I don't f i t on too well, oh-oh! What's Daddy going to do now? L. Which car are they going to takei A l l three cars! Who's gonna -who's going to drive the cars? Now, where's everybody gonna f i t 407 432 459 461 469 501 513 516 520 538 CHILB 3'(H) M.S. CONTEXT FUNC TIO The ladder 'pose to be here. That i s the ladder place. And t h i s . She's good. TheMummy doesn't f a l l o f f . Goes very f a s t . Maybe - maybe Doggie would have a turn. S i t on top where? Then i t can't turn ! Have to do slow. He's gotta look after baby. He's not very good. They goin' take this car. and t h i s car] and this car. Mummy's gonna drive this car and Daddy's gonna drive t h i s car. And, and, and he's, he i s r e a l l y goody of drivin g 'cos he, he can't even f a l l out of the car. Well, these has to stay here. And the ladder has to come. Playing on a merry-go-round. Animal toy with tr i a n g u l a r base. Demonstrates Low Daddy d o l l drives car. P.U. # Why does the ladder have to come? Daddy can drive that car arid Mummy can drive t h i s car. L. What f e l l o f f ? (Puppet voice) "Let's put them a l l down". Oh. To do what? Do you need to go to the bathroom? Okay. Who 1 re you gonna be? What are they gonna do at the ranch? What are they going to do? Oh i t ' s that other s t u f f CHILD Because, 'cos. This not very f a r away. You don't has to drive - you just has to walk. The ladder has to come. This the ladder.. . This could carry the ladder. The ladder f e l l o f f . (whisper) -has to hook on. This has to hook on l i k e that? Do you know what? They hafta -the have to bring the ladder up. They have to bring the ladder up. No. I think we have to hold onto i t . (I don't wanna.) They gonna take the ladder away. Do you know how they're gonna get down? Jump down l i k e t h i s . When are you gonna open i t ? A. <fc) CONTEXT T e l l s L. Trying to balance ladder on top of car. Showing L. how folded ladder attaches to car. M.S. FUNCTION'' Puts ladder back onto car. Playing with puppets. Looking at box i n L's hands. ON ON ON PO LN LN ON ON ON FP FP FI P.U. L. What're you going to make us for breakfast? Maybe you should move that broom out of the way so you don't t r i p on i t . Oh my f a v o r i t e - thank you M. Yes please. Yes please, thankyou. Did you forget your cup? CHILD 1. B.P. CONTEXT FUNCTION I don't know - scrambled eggs maybe I'm j u s ' gonna sweep now. What am I gonna do now? You have to brush your teeth. Have to brush your teeth a f t e r . There, I put i t right under there so i t won't get rai n on i t . Now, I'm gonna make scrambled eggs. Now what're you gonna do now? Hmm -I'm gonna what's that for? For I could get in there. I could get i n there - i f I'm big. You have to brush your teeth a f t e r you have two cookies. There. I'm gonna eat. I'm (gonna) have some.... I'm gonna have some milk. Gonna have some? I'm just gonna get one when i t come a f t e r - s i l l y . Think you could get that out? Now she can sleep - there with the other d o l l s . Picks up broom and s t a r t s sweeping. Looking inside cupboard Hands out cookies to L and Mum. Asks L. sees microphone Talks about getting into cupboard. Helps himself to a "cookie" Holding teapot (offers) Asks L. i f she wants tea. Asks L. to take d o l l out of cradle. Puts d o l l into cradle. PO FI FI ON 0 N FC FI F I FI AB HY /AB ON FI FI F I F I WI PE 0 0 to P.U. # CHILD 2. I CONTEXT .P. FUNCTION 254 I'm just gonna try out t h i s . P u l l s toy out of cupboard. F I L. Think you can make something there ? 278 283 I think I can make something. Make something. Don't know what I'm gonna make. Playing with lego. AB/WI FI 318 I have to b u i l d something. Talking to s e l f . ON Thode are my bracelets. 325 Aren't you gonna wear 'em on? Sees L's bracelets. FI You l e f t i t out 352 I need to take this off and put that on there. ' course. Playing with puzzle. ON A sheep - mhmm. 370 A bunny rabbit - I can't see that. Bunny rabbit maybe. Naming animals i n puzzle p i c t u r e . AB PO What's the witch doing? 392 400 She's gonna put her i n the cage. Why does she have a long hat? Plays with puppets -Hansel & Gretl FP I don't know. What should she have? 401 She shouldn't, eh? P E/ON Bye! See you - have a good t r i p . 428 okay Hey, I can't p u l l t h i s . Struggling with door of cupboard. AB M. Well, h i ! 434 I wish I could f i t i n there. S i t t i n g inside cupboard. AB You've managed to f i t i n pretty w e l l . 437 439 I wish I could f i t i n there. I wish I could f i t i n here. AB AB You have to be careful -you might f a l l . 440 442 oh - I might! Help! Help! I'm f a l l i n g Pretends to f a l l . P 0 468 470 Can- can she so funny? Can he? Asking why d o l l s don Jt have nipples. PO P0 P.U. L. Why don't you make him sit.over here? It's a baby - needs to stand. L. That's i t . There. Maybe now you could give them lunch? So the babies can see what you're doing? M. Bunny can't Mhmm. Oh you sure do. • # 471 472 47^3 475 476 477 478 480 498 499 500 521 527 CHILD I ' l l put this why? Can't And he needs to s i t . He needs to s i t . Now he need to s i t . I wish he could s i t . Oh no! I wish he could s i t right there. Maybe They a l l can see what am I doing. She can't. Bunny can't - you're ri g h t . I'm -jus' gonna be trying these. There, nobody can't l i s t e n to me -because I have(earphones). CONTEXT 3. B.P. I FUNCTION FI Refusal i y j Referring to baby d o l l . D o l l f a l l s - B puts i t back again. ON Tri e s to make d o l l s i t with-| 0 N out support. ' ON HY HY WI AB AB AB Puts earphones on. I FI AB P.U. # CHILD 1. B. CONTEXT A. FUNCTIO L. Nothing 225 Do you have to get l o t s of them -these and these and these? And these? Lots of these? Referring to coloured discs. ON L. See? You can make a wheel and then you can build more stuff on. Do you know how to put them together? 240 Yes. But people have to help me. Playing with d i s c s . ON I guess i t won't s t i c k on. 555 'Cos he's - 'cos i t has to be glued. L. trying to s t i c k h a i r ontc d o l l . LN You're making them s t i c k together. 722 They won't s t i c k together. Trying to s t i c k 2 animals together. PO Yeah, I guess he is n ' t here. 916 Maybe you lost him. B. asks f o r "daddy" elephant. PO Mhmm I guess I did Mhmm. You could check. 919 Maybe he's i n the box. PO Put these guys away. 933 I ' l l put these away. Putting animals away. WI You can keep these out i f you l i k e . 936 Okay. And we can put one l i k e t h i s . Lego pieces. PO 939 I'm gonna take t h i s apart. Lego. FI L. But there's no place, what're we gonna do? 0109 Maybe, maybe there's a place ri g h t down here. Putting d o l l s i n c r i b . PO M. H's a muffin with a hole i n i t . 0510 I'm gonna make some muffins. Picking up donut-shaped discs. FI FI L. You could pretend thi s i s the milk jug f o r tea, okay? And the sugar. 0530 I have to cook sugar. 0534 There has to be a sl o t right here. Indicates corner of s l i d i n g door. LN P.U. Mhmm. Why? That's gonna be d e l i c i o u s ! Is the tea ready yet? M. Cheese powder, eh? L. We'11 put Bunny over here. See he's a nice soft bunny. M. Can I have some more? Could you take my cup? Is t h i s some peppermint tea? L. Mmm...that was good hot tea. L. Okay t h a t ' l l keep him warm. Maybe your baby wants to go back Tnto the cradle. 0538 0556 0558 0584 0587 0601 686 717 768 771 775 779 906 910 925 1039 1069 1071 1158 CHILD 'Cos, 'cos there's a s l o t - 'cos •'. '-. there's a s l o t heres 'cos someone might broke i t . I don't know where the tap i s though. Maybe we can pretend this i s the tap. No. This i s gonna be ...powder. And i t ' s gonna be, um, when I cook i t , i t ' s gonna be cheese powder. It's gonna be cookin'. He have to s i t up here. This i s gonna be my tea. Okay, mine f i r s t . A l l people have to bring t h e i r cups here so I can pour some more i n . Have to cook i t some. These have to leave here for a minute. Yep. pood people. You have to leave i t there to cook. I'm gonna f i l l yours and yours? That might pee in his pant. I'11 put her back i n . Gonna put a l l three of them back i n . Does your baby need to go back to bed? CONTEXT 2. B.A. FUNCTION Points to tap. S t i r r i n g pot-Referring to donuts. Referring (meaning "stay" here). Picking up teapot. Referring to baby d o l l . Rocks baby d o l l . Starts placing d o l l s i n crib HY PO AB FI FI FC FP ON FI ON PO ON ON ON FI HY WI FI ON oo P.U. # CHILD 3. B. CONTEXT A. FUNCTION L. What's that baby gonna do? 1188 She's gonna s i t on her lap. FP Oh I see , okay . 1192 You gonna stay downstairs? FI Yeah - the babies go downstairs 1194 Okay, I ' l l take them down. W I 1196 These have to go inside here. Puts cups etc into cupboard. ON Right. 1200 I can carry a l l three of them. Referring to d o l l s . AB Can you? Actually the big baby that you're holding stays here -that's mine. 1206 Okay. I ' l l j u s t take i t down for you. Holds baby d o l l . WI Okay. The other two go down i n the cradle. 1211 1213 1214 I'm gonna j u s t carry them down. I'm ju s t gonna carry... I'm gonna just put them back i n the house downstairs. Picks up other d o l l s . WI WI WI Okay. This stays up here 1217 I'm going with my mum. I can play down there. PO/PE L. And we have to take the stove down, too. 1220 1222 Yeah. You have to, too. Those have to stay up. T e l l s mother. ON ON 0415 I f i r s t have to put some water i n . Pours water into teapot, then puts i t ins i d e stove. FI P .u. # 464 Can you take them out? | 617 M. Did we need to worry about those ones? Why? I 706 L. They're both what? 997 Oh that can come o f f too? 1000 L029 M. Make the other babies cry. 1190 L192 CHILD CONTEXT K.M. FUNCTION One day when I went to the (zoo) I saw a g i r l (throw) a apple at that monkey and, and he couldn't get i t and then she (threw) a banana at the monkey and he ate i t ( a l l ) up and took the peel o f f . No, can't come apart. No 'Cos they got big fence so they can't get out. Both ways and this can come o f f too. They a l l can come o f f . If that could come around and then goes, takes t h i s around That can't  This baby can' t do i t . She did i t again! Conversation with L. Trying to p u l l blocks apart. Talking about wolves at the zoo. Taking o f f burner. Turning screws under burner knob. Turning d o l l over to make her ' cry 1 . AB PO AB PO PO AB ' AB CO o o P.U. What would you do? You take i t o f f , you do i t . You can make something with t h i s . You can't? Why don't you put some on the f l o o r and see i f you can make something? What are you doing? Well we can make a jungle a f t e r -wards . (using Bunny voice) Can I be i n your jungle too? Couldn't I just pretend I was l i t t l e ? Oh I wonder i f any more can f i t i n there? Where are the other animals of the jungle? Maybe you should t e l l Bunny not toj be frightened. 309 537 ,629 796 798 801 805 867 1048 1054 1060 1141 1158 CHILD Where should I put this? I'd j u s t drive off -I'd just jump o f f there. I can't • Nothing i n there. I can't make t h i s . 'Cos i t always f a l l s apart. I did but I can't . I'm f i n d i n ' a place where the dinosaurs can l i v e . Where could there be a jungle? You're too b i g . You w i l l go up there. I think you can't f i t i n there there's gonna be lots and l o t s animals i n there. Not to be frightened. CONTEXT 1. M.S.(L) I FUNCTION Asking L. about s t i c k s Talking about spaceship. Looking into t i n of s t i c k s , blocks etc. ON HY HY WI AB W I Takes dinosaurs and goes under table. PO Asks s e l f . HY Talking to Bunny. Puts Bunny up on table. ON Talking to Bunny. PO FP P.U. L. You forgot i t ? Or you didn't want to b r i n g i t ? Three cups! So you can make us something to eat, too. Is water on that one too? I wonder how come? Oh. F. Thank you. Aren't you going to have some? Or how about Bunny? I was going to say - that's very good coffee, M. L. Teddy maybe? Can you b r i n g the big d o l l y up? L. What's that? Mhmm Do you want to bring that up here so Bunny can see? Can some go i n there too? Oh r i g h t - do you think the other one can f i t in? 310 362 424 473 478 650 6 70 687 723 088 092 138 211 219 222 CHILD No. I'm, I'm gonna bring i t l a t e r . They have to go r i g h t there. Ha' to wash i t , though. We have to wash i t , then. (Hey t h i s one not water.) So we don't not have to was i t . This i s .... She can have t h i s cup. I'm gonna put It over here. Yuh Wait - has to wait. This big one? I t has to s i t i n that chair. A racing car See (?) I t can go t h i s f a s t . I' 11 take them up. This one can go i n . See? This one's too big So i t has to go up (in) top. CONTEXT 1. ,M.N. FUNCTION Ref e r r i n g to boat that he l e f t at home. Pu t t i n g cups i n t o cupboard. Referring to a p l a t e he j u s t found i n cupboard. Picks up donut shaped p l a s t i c r i n g . Refers to another r i n g . Pouring " c o f f e e " i n t o cups. P l a c i n g cup i n front of Bunny (annoyed) Puts teddy bear back i n place. Places d o l l next to himself Pushes car along f l o o r . R e s i s t s Father's help i n p u t t i n g toys on t a b l e top. Puts a car i n the "car c a r r i e r t h i n g ' . Puts another car on top of c a r r i e r . F I ON ON ON ON. PE FI ON ON AB FI P0 LN P.U. Oh I see. Right there. Are you sure i t can't f i t in? I think maybe i t can. Too b i g . Oh, okay. What do you need to do here? L. Perhaps you can give him the milk jug them. F. What're you going to make me? L. Do you want to play with the babies now or with some of the things i n there? Look how many things are here! Yes i t does. You have to p u l l hard. F. Bunny took i t . What happened? L. Put one f i n g e r i n there and one -woops- through that hand F. And w i l l you have that? L. We can keep the witches' (toys) down here. Maybe t h i s funny thing too. Ttfhat else? I don't know. Maybe you '11 have to look. CHILD See? See - i t can't. Too b i g . It - i t w i l l - i t w i l l crush i t up and i t w i l l break. You have to put, put t h i s , t h i s t hing r i g h t i n t h i s hole. Okay. He can dr-drink t h i s . I'm gon' make you scrambled eggs with toast. I'm gon' play with the animals. Can we open thi s ? Does i t open? Ahh! Can't p u l l i t o f f . No She can have i t . Could you put t h i s on me? I can' t . I'm too- I'm too... l i k e that| You gonna have t h i s ? Yuh. She can have t h i s . I can open i t . I can't. 2. CONTEXT M.N. FUNCTION T r i e s to f i t car into c a r r i e r ! Demonstrates how truck attaches to c a r r i e r . Pours h i s milk i n t o jug f o r Bunny. Vigorously shaking pan on burner. Puts d o l l s away. Finds t i n of s t i c k s . Struggles to open l i d . Shakes t i n . Gives s t i c k to Bunny. Hands puppet to L. Indicates f i n g e r s are too f a r apart. O f f e r s g i r l puppet to Father. P u t t i n g toy animal aside f o r 'witch' puppet. Attempts to open p l a s t i c c o f f i n . PO FC FC ON PE FI FI |AB/PE "AB PE PE AB FI PE AB AB P.U. What are you going to build, M? Can I stick this one in somewhere F. Could it be a windmil? No it doesn't L. Can you build something for the girl? F. Can you tell the girl What colours these are? Can't you ? F. What is your puppet show gonna do? The dice! Oh my goodness! Think they have to talk? Don't they? Oh, to me that's a seat. What does? Oh look! What's that? // CHILD 3. CONTEXT *l.N. FUNCTION 0065 Ahh - I can't get this one out. Trying to pull lego pieces apart. AB 0126 Playing with lego. FI 10135 You can stick it right in there. P laying with lego. PE 0159 0165 0170 0173 No It is! It's a windmil, see? It (doesn't) go around. Maybe it's not. Looking at new toy. PO 0208 I'm gonna build red ones. No Playing with pegs. FI 0279 I can't. Refusal, (knows name of colours) WI 0390 Gonna have a snail on and, and, and it's gonna hold the dice. Geting toy animals ready for show. FP FP 0400 The bunny's gonna come in first. (not handling bunny) FP 0426 No, they don't have to talk. ON 0429 A, a snail can't talk. P0 0456 And, and, and it has to stand on this. The Bunny. Referring to Bunny. ON 0461 The Bunny has to stand on a bigger one Putti g Bunny on car. ON 0467 He can stand on the car. See? Putting Bunny on car. AB 0493 See? This can be in, in the audience. Picks up kangaroo - like animal. FI/PE P.U. // CHILD 4. CONTEXT M.N FUNCTION L. What are they gonna do there? 0536 Not gon' do anything - they're gonna jump back down . M. decided puppets were going up i n the sky! FP FP F. In the audience or i n the show? In the audience, eh? Okay 0559 Elephant i s gonna be i n the show. Places elephant on stage. FI/FC F. Is that a better dancing elephant' 0579 Yeah. This dog i s not very good dancing, so i t can be i n the audience. ON Is he a good dancer? 0594 Yes. Oh this has to be in the audience. Places one animal i n "audience" ON L. She c r i e s when you turn her over see? She's a crying baby. 0621 I ' l l go get the other baby, and I ' l l stand these guys here. FI FI 0625 Wait, 'cos, cos the puppet show i s not going to be here yet. Goes over to cradle. (Meaning -not 'starting'yet) FP/FI 0635 0637 This i s a crying baby too. It doesn't - uhh, i t does, i t can't cry. Picks up small d o l l and turns i t over. AB 0664 Now i t ' s gonna s t a r t . Referring to puppet show. FP/FI F. And what are they doing there? 0686 Kangaroo can't stand. It f a l l s down. He hurt h i s s e l f . Puts elephant and kangaroo on stage. AB L. Think they can f i t in? 0734 This one has to l i e right beside the baby. Places d o l l s i n c r i b . ON F. They're gonna get cold. 0747 0748 Yes, this one i s warm. And they are not gonna get c o l - c o l d . FP L. Do you think t h e y ' l l go to sleep now? 0752 Yes, they w i l l . Rocks c r i b . FP W i l l you help me put the things away now? Time to go. 0757 No 'Cos i t has to be a,a,a, puh-puppet show ON F. Have to go home and have lunch and then I have to go to work. 0767 But, but i t has to be a puppet show right now. ON P.U. # CHILD 5 M.t CONTEXT v . , FUNCTION . 1 That big? We'll have to see i f we can get you one that big. L. Now, can you put these things in? 0788 0795 I'm gonna get one l i k e that b i g . I gonna make a puppet show for you l a t e r then. Indicates s i z e with arms. FP FI 1 1 P.U M. Maybe he'd l i k e to s i t on the egg, hmm? L. Oh, I see. You're gonna make a l i n e of animals: Let's make a l i n e of animals. Mum., that's r i g h t . M. This guy won' t stand up. S h a l l I j u s t l i e him down? Do you think so? L. Now, would you care f o r some animals? Would you l i k e to buy some animals! L. Is the dinosaur drinking some pop? Okay, we'11 play s t o r e . What does i t look l i k e ? M. Some of them only have one. L. So you have to turn the key. That's i t - you get i t ! Yeah you can. 937 CHILD He's t e l l i n g a l l the people no.... he's no. No the egg was gonna go through the l i n e of people, of the animals. Yah, and then i t ' s gonna go through and then they're gonna wash the animals - put them i n baby animals. And they're gonna give t h i s one to somebody e l s e . He's gonna s i t on i t . Cani't open! Maybe I ' l l t r y s i t t i n g on t h i s egg. Yah. these (nardstf 1) gonna go through the l i n e . No they're.... okay, they gotta run to the s t o r e . They gotta run there. I would l i k e a egg. No. Gonna go i n the pop and get a l l wet. This i s a l l t h i s I'm gonna buy. Uh - I doni't know. It must be a kangaroo with a mask on. Yah. I'11 see i f there's another one here. Now we take t h i s out too - can't . Gotta put i t a l l back together. 1. CONTEXT L i n i n g up toy animals. Puts Donald Duck on egg. T r i e s to crack egg. ( i n D. Duck voice) FUNC TIOiN P l a y i n g 'store'. Puts dinosaur on pop b o t t l e C o l l e c t i n g up "wares". T r i e s to p u l l key out of h o i PI aying with keybox. HY FP FP FP FP P O/AB PO FT FP ON ON FI FI FI LN FI ^. AB ON P.U.  Oh, there you go. 955 That's r i g h t ! 957 963 L. That's r i g h t . Where does the 1092 red key go? In the l a s t one? Right. M. Maybe you should keep the blocks |ll00 i n too so they don't get l o s t . No? ...I'm so thirsty;,' maybe you could make me some tea. Like to make some tea for" me and Mummy? Oh, good f o r you. You got i t back together. Have you got i t in? Good. What' re you gonna "make me , then? Yeah, we' 11 go home".and have lunch 1118 1134 1160 1162 1188 1209 0141 0278 994 CHILD CONTEXT B.F Now we gotta go. You don't have to turn t h i s one arourjd 'cos i t ' s easy. No i t can't go there. Gonna turn i t up. No, you're supposed to take the blockjs up take the blocks out. They're gonna get l o s t . No, 'posed to put a b a l l down there. Gonna get the f l o o r a l l wet. G e t t i n ' the f l o o r a l l wet. But i t won ' t stay. See t h i s one? Gonna put i t i n here. I'm gonna get these things washed-She can s t i l l cry l i k e t h i s . Where does t h i s go? Maybe here. (Key doesn't f i t ) , Turns key. Playing with t i n of s t i c k s . Pushes "tap" away from sink and turns i t on. Puts t o r t o i s e back together. P u t t i n g hand i n t o puppet. Shaking baby d o l l . FUNC TION ON LN PO FI ON/FI FP ON FC FB F I FI AB PO 

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