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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A framework for neighborhood traffic planning Jacobsen, Linda 1983

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A FRAMEWORK FOR NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC PLANNING by ' LINDA JACOBSEN B.A. M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l Of Community And R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1983 © L i n d a J a c o b s e n , 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s un d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Community And R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: 12 October 1979 i i A b s t r a c t The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i d e n t i f y a p l a n n i n g framework t o guide the management of n o n - l o c a l t r a f f i c i n neighborhoods. Through t r a f f i c f i l t e r i n g onto l o c a l s t r e e t s reduces t h e i r s a f e t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . T h i s has become more p r e v a l e n t i n c i t i e s due t o (1) i n c r e a s i n g t r a f f i c volumes; (2) a g r i d p a t t e r n of s t r e e t s which p r o v i d e s p a r a l l e l r o u t e s t o major s t r e e t s ; (3) o v e r d e s i g n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , e s p e c i a l l y a t the c o l l e c t o r l e v e l ; and (4) r e c e n t emphasis on improved management of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s ( r a t h e r than new c o n s t r u c t i o n ) t o accommodate i n c r e a s e s i n t r a f f i c . To reduce e x t r a n e o u s t r a f f i c and i t s i m p a c t s , d e v i c e s f o r " r e t r o f i t t i n g " s t r e e t s t o d i s c o u r a g e n o n - l o c a l t r a f f i c a r e b e i n g used throughout the w o r l d . T h e i r i n s t a l l a t i o n may g e n e r a t e c o n f l i c t between r e s i d e n t s who v a l u e t h e i r l i v i n g e n vironment, and m o t o r i s t s who p e r c e i v e reduced a c c e s s i b i l i t y and i n c r e a s e d t r a v e l t i m e s . Because of the p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e of these t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e c i s i o n s , r e s o l u t i o n may be impeded. The problem i s compounded when the s e l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c d e v i c e s a re used t o combat symptoms of imbalances on the major s t r e e t network. When t h i s o c c u r s on a widespread b a s i s , the r e s u l t s of r e d u c i n g n e g a t i v e l o c a l t r a f f i c impacts may i n c l u d e i n c r e a s i n g c o n g e s t i o n on the major s t r e e t network. Because neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s a r e im m e d i a t e l y e f f e c t i v e a t r e d u c i n g l o c a l t r a f f i c i m p a c t s , a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and easy t o implement, system improvements d e a l i n g w i t h the o r i g i n of these impacts may be postponed, or not c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l o c a l t r a f f i c c o n t r o l so t h a t l o c a l and system a c t i o n s are complementary r a t h e r than c o n t r a d i c t o r y . By examining the l i t e r a t u r e and case s t u d i e s of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, S e a t t l e , Washington and Ottawa, O n t a r i o , a p l a n n i n g framework was d e v i s e d t o reduce the p o t e n t i a l f o r such c o n f l i c t , and encourage the use of l o c a l c o n t r o l s , where a p p r o p r i a t e , as p a r t of a l o n g e r - t e r m t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g y . I t was found t h a t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s and e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t were c r i t i c a l t o the development of o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n s , ones a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d i n i t i a l o p p o s i t i o n . I t was a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t where l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c measures ar e used t o t r e a t system-wide problems, neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s be c o n s i d e r e d as one of a range of p o s s i b l e s h o r t - t e r m t r a f f i c e n g i n e e r i n g or t r a n s p o r t a t i o n management s t r a t e g i e s t h a t can be implemented at the c i t y l e v e l . T h i s i n c l u d e s d e t e r m i n i n g how g o a l s and a c t i o n s a t the l o c a l or system l e v e l complement or d e t r a c t from one a n o t h e r i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p an o p t i m a l "package" of p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s . T r e a t i n g neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g o p t i o n s as p a r t of a c o r r i d o r s t r a t e g y i s a l s o advantageous i n terms of c o n s t r u c t i v e l y i n v o l v i n g n o n - r e s i d e n t s where l o c a l a c t i o n s would have s i g n i f i c a n t impacts beyond t h e i r s i t e . i v Table of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgements v i i i I . THE ACCESSIBILITY/ENVIRONMENT CONFLICT IN NEIGHBORHOODS 1 1. THE NATURE OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC PROBLEM ...1 2. CAUSES OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD TRAFFIC PROBLEM 3 3. SCOPE OF THE THESIS 5 I I . TRAFFIC IN THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT: A REVIEW 9 1 . INTRODUCTION 9 2. THEORETICAL CONTEXT 9 3. COMPONENTS OF THE ACCESSIBILITY-ENVIRONMENT CONFLICT 26 3.1 T r a f f i c Volume 28 3.2 T r a f f i c Speed 30 3.3 T r a f f i c N o i s e 32 3.4 T r a f f i c C o m p o s i t i o n 34 3.5 P l a n n i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s 34 4. TYPES OF NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC CONTROL MEASURES ..37 4.1 Neighborhood C o n t r o l Systems 39 4.1.1 Boundary C o n t r o l 39 4.1.2 I n t e r n a l C o n t r o l 39 4.1.3 Ad Hoc Systems 40 4.2 C o n t r o l D e v i c e s And T h e i r E f f e c t i v e n e s s 40 4.2.1 Stop S i g n s 43 4.2.2 No E n t r y S i g n s / T u r n P r o h i b i t i o n s 44 4.2.3 Speed L i m i t s 44 4.2.4 D i v e r t e r s , B a r r i e r s And C u l - d e - s a c s 44 4.2.5 S e m i - D i v e r t e r s 45 4.2.6 T r a f f i c C i r c l e s And I s l a n d s 45 4.2.7 S t r e e t Narrowing And Chokers 45 4.2.8 Speed Bumps And Rumble S t r i p s 46 4.3 Summary 47 I I I . THE RESIDENTIAL TRAFFIC PLANNING CONTEXT 48 1 . INTRODUCTION 48 2. EFFICIENCY AND THE ACCESSIBILITY-ENVIRONMENT CONFLICT 49 3. EQUITY--DISTRIBUTIONAL CONSEQUENCES 51 3.1 D i s t r i b u t i o n a l E f f e c t s And The Role Of C o s t -B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s 52 4. COMPONENTS OF A NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC PLANNING FRAMEWORK 54 4.1 P o l i c i e s And G u i d i n g P r i n c i p l e s 56 4.2 S p e c i f i c G o a l s And O b j e c t i v e s 56 4.3 P r i o r i t i e s And Fund A l l o c a t i o n 59 4.4 P l a n F o r m u l a t i o n Procedure 60 4.4.1 The Rol e Of The P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a f f 61 4.4.2 The Role Of E l e c t e d O f f i c i a l s 62 •4.5 T r i a l P l a n E v a l u a t i o n 63 4.6 C o n c l u s i o n 64 V IV. RESIDENTIAL TRAFFIC PLANNING IN PRACTICE 65 1. INTRODUCTION 65 2. TRAFFIC DIVERSION IN VANCOUVER 65 3. SEATTLE'S NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC CONTROL PROGRAM ..74 4. RESIDENTIAL TRAFFIC PLANS IN OTTAWA 78 5. DISCUSSION .81 5.1 G o a l s , O b j e c t i v e s And Programs 82 5.2 C i t i z e n Involvement 85 5.3 Goals-Achievement And The C i t y - W i d e C o n t e x t ....87 V. A PLANNING FRAMEWORK FOR NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC CONTROL 89 1. SYSTEM PROBLEMS AND LOCAL SOLUTIONS 89 2. A PLANNING PROCESS TO INTEGRATE LOCAL AND SYSTEM IMPACTS 93 2.1 I d e n t i f y i n g Problems And P r i o r i t i e s 93 2.2 The Scope Of C i t i z e n Involvement 97 2.3 D e v e l o p i n g S o l u t i o n s 100 3. CONCLUSIONS 100 BIBLIOGRAPHY v i L i s t of T a b l e s I . Some f u n c t i o n a l s t r e e t d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s 27 I I . N o i s e l e v e l s i n d e c i b e l s and some c o r r e s p o n d i n g e f f e c t s 33 I I I . T r a f f i c impacts and p l a n n i n g responses 36 IV. Neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s 42 V. Comparison of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s i n Vancouver, S e a t t l e and Ottawa 83 V I . C o m p a t i b i l i t y of some l o c a l and system t r a n s p o r t a t i o n g o a l s 94 V I I . C o m p a t i b i l i t y of some l o c a l and system a c t i o n s t o improve e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y 94 V I I I . Methods used t o determine e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c impacts 96 IX. Commonly used system and l o c a l a c t i o n s t o a l l e v i a t e t r a f f i c impacts 99 v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s 1. Elements of a n a l y s i s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l management 16 2. V i s u a l i n t r u s i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l management framework 17 3. Components of the l o c a l t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s 25 4. R e l a t i o n s h i p of t r a f f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o s t r e e t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t r a f f i c impacts 31 5. Types of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l systems 38 6. Some p h y s i c a l t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s 41 7. A c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g 55 8. Major s t r e e t s and f i l t r a t i o n r o u t e s i n Vancouver 68 9. T r a f f i c f i l t r a t i o n i n t o Shaughnessy 69 10. Proposed Shaughnessy t r a f f i c management p l a n 71 11. S e a t t l e ' s neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l program 77 12. Ottawa's a r e a t r a f f i c c o n t r o l program 79 13. C o n d i t i o n s recommending system-wide v e r s u s l o c a t i o n -s p e c i f i c s o l u t i o n s 91 14. Role of l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c and system s o l u t i o n s i n a l l e v i a t i n g t r a f f i c impacts 92 v i i i Acknowledgement In p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s , I acknowledge my in d e b t e d n e s s t o the f o l l o w i n g : • D r s . S e t t y Pendakur and F r a n c i s Navin who s u p e r v i s e d t h i s p r o j e c t ; • Mr. Ian Adam, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Engineer w i t h the C i t y of Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g Department, who p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and a g r e a t d e a l of the case study mater i a l s ; • D r s . C r a i g D a v i s and Henry Hightower, who s u p p l i e d me w i t h the computer account t h a t made the p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s so much e a s i e r ; • Amdahl 470 V / 6 - I I , who worked t i r e l e s s y t o p r e p a r e t h i s document, and made the p r o d u c t i o n of the t h e s i s a r e l a t i v e l y p a i n l e s s e x p e r i e n c e . I owe the g r e a t e s t d e b t , however, t o my p a r e n t s . T h e i r encouragement has been most i m p o r t a n t t o me and I cannot b e g i n t o e x p r e s s my tha n k s . 1 I . THE ACCESSIBILITY/ENVIRONMENT CONFLICT IN NEIGHBORHOODS 1. THE NATURE OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC PROBLEM The concern of t h i s t h e s i s i s the management of t r a f f i c i n e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d s , and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s u i t a b l e s t r a t e g i e s t o h e l p r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y i n urban a r e a s . The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o d i s c u s s whether n o n - l o c a l t r a f f i c does indeed c o n s t i t u t e a problem i n urban n e i g h b o r h o o d s , and t o i l l u s t r a t e how such a problem has d e v e l o p e d over the y e a r s . The remainder of t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e s c r i b e the f o c u s of the t h e s i s and how the a n a l y s i s of l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g methods w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n . A neighborhood t r a f f i c "problem" may be d e f i n e d as a d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l environment due t o t h e e f f e c t s of t r a f f i c ( o f t e n n o n - l o c a l t h r o u g h t r a f f i c ) . T h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n may r e s u l t from e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c volume, e x c e s s i v e n o i s e or fumes (perhaps heavy v e h i c l e s use the s t r e e t ) , or m o t o r i s t s who d r i v e t o o q u i c k l y or w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t c a u t i o n , i n s e n s i t i v e t o the many a c t i v i t i e s which t a k e p l a c e on or near the r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t . These a r e the s i t u a t i o n s i m p l i e d i n the phrase "neighborhood t r a f f i c problem" when used i n t h i s t h e s i s . W h i l e the a d v e r s e e f f e c t s of a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c on the neighborhood environment were r e c o g n i z e d even i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the a u t o m o b i l e e r a ( P e r r y 1929), r e c o g n i t i o n of the problems w i t h the development of s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s t o a l l e v i a t e them has 2 been r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t . Smith, A p p l e y a r d e t a l . (1980: 3) note M o n t c l a i r , New J e r s e y and Grand R a p i d s , M i c h i g a n as the f i r s t communities to i n s t a l l t r a f f i c d i v e r t e r s and c u l - d e - s a c s on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s " s p e c i f i c a l l y r e t r o f i t t o p r o t e c t neighborhoods from through t r a f f i c " . These measures were dev e l o p e d i n the 1940's and 1950's. S i n c e then, a growing number of communities, p e r c e i v i n g a r e d u c t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l amenity due t o i n c r e a s i n g or bothersome through t r a f f i c , have implemented s i m i l a r t y p e s of s o l u t i o n s . " R e t r o f i t t i n g " t he r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t by way of such d e v i c e s as d i v e r t e r s , c u l - d e - s a c s , t r a f f i c c i r c l e s , t u r n r e g u l a t i o n s and even s t o p s i g n s would make the neighborhood an u n d e s i r a b l e t r a v e l r o u t e f o r a l l m o t o r i s t s o t h e r than those w i t h d e s t i n a t i o n s w i t h i n the neighborhood i t s e l f . U n t i l 1976 however, and the p u b l i c a t i o n of L i v a b l e Urban S t r e e t s ( A p p l e y a r d et a l . 1976) which cov e r e d t r a f f i c management i n neighborhoods i n d e t a i l , the r e p o r t i n g of t h e s e t r a f f i c management s t r a t e g i e s had been c o m p a r a t i v e l y m i n i m a l . T h i s book, and the e x p e r i e n c e s i n The N e t h e r l a n d s i n the e a r l y 1970's w i t h the Woonerven, where s t r e e t d e s i g n f a v o u r s p e d e s t r i a n s and r e q u i r e s c a r s t o t r a v e l a t w a l k i n g pace (Whitehead 1980; Wynne 1980), seemed t o induce a g r e a t d e a l of i n t e r e s t and work i n t h i s s u b j e c t a r e a . S i n c e t h e n , papers d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t have formed major components of those p r e s e n t e d a t the 49th Annual M e e t i n g of the I n s t i t u t e of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r s (ITE 1979), the T e l A v i v c o n f e r e n c e of the I n s t i t u t e of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r s , the A s s o c i a t i o n of E n g i n e e r s and A r c h i t e c t s and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l 3 T e c h n i c a l C o o p e r a t i o n C e n t r e (Hakkert 1981), and a j o i n t seminar of the O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o - o p e r a t i o n and Development and the European Conference of M i n i s t e r s of T r a n s p o r t (OECD/ECMT 1979). 2. CAUSES OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD TRAFFIC PROBLEM The reason why t r a f f i c has become a t h r e a t t o the l i v a b i l i t y of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i s f o u r f o l d , c o m p r i s i n g the g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n a u t o m o b i l e s u s i n g the s t r e e t network, the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h a t s t r e e t network, i t s d e s i g n f e a t u r e s , and the c h a n g i n g emphasis of urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n the p a s t decade. F i r s t l y , w i t h g r e a t e r numbers of a u t o m o b i l e s u s i n g the s t r e e t s the c a p a c i t y of major a r t e r i a l s has been a t t a i n e d (or n e a r l y s o ) , e s p e c i a l l y i n peak t r a v e l h o u r s . As a r t e r i a l s d e s i g n e d t o accommodate t h r o u g h t r a f f i c , become c o n g e s t e d , m o t o r i s t s f i n d a l t e r n a t e r o u t e s t o a v o i d a c t u a l or p e r c e i v e d d e l a y s . O f t e n t h e s e " s h o r t - c u t " r o u t e s t r a v e r s e neighborhoods, where s t r e e t s are i n t e n d e d f o r l o c a l t r a f f i c , but which have n e v e r t h e l e s s become e s t a b l i s h e d a l t e r n a t e t r a v e l r o u t e s over t i m e . The second p a r t of the problem has t o do w i t h the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the s t r e e t network, which i s most o f t e n a g r i d i r o n p a t t e r n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . W h i l e urban s t r e e t s are u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n t e n d e d f u n c t i o n ( l o c a l , c o l l e c t o r , a r t e r i a l or freeway f o r example), the g r i d p a t t e r n 4 tends t o obscure the d i s t i n c t i o n somewhat and encourages the use of p a r a l l e l r e l i e f r o u t e s through neighborhoods t o a v o i d congested a r t e r i a l s by p r o v i d i n g easy a c c e s s , even on l o c a l s t r e e t s . The g r i d p a t t e r n a l o n e does not f o s t e r the neighborhood t r a f f i c problem as i t i s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , f o r the n u i s a n c e of e x t r a n e o u s t r a f f i c e x i s t s i n those s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h c u r v i l i n e a r s t r e e t p a t t e r n s as w e l l . S t r e e t d e s i g n and s t a n d a r d s a r e , however, v i t a l elements i n g i v i n g d e f i n i t i o n t o the f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s t r e e t s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , many urban s t r e e t s were d e s i g n e d u s i n g s t a n d a r d s adapted from those used by highway a u t h o r i t i e s f o r s t a t e highways or r u r a l roads. T h i s was r e a s o n a b l e f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of urban t h o r o u g h f a r e s , but s i n c e t r a f f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and maintenance r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r l o c a l s t r e e t s are d i f f e r e n t t o t h o s e of highways, the use of t h e s e s t a n d a r d s has been i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The r e s u l t has been m u n i c i p a l roads which a r e o v e r d e s i g n e d f o r t h e i r i n t e n d e d f u n c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y a t the c o l l e c t o r d e s i g n a t i o n (Urban Land I n s t i t u t e 1974). The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p o t e n t i a l p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y 1 of these s t r e e t s ( c a p a c i t i e s f o r t r a f f i c volume g r e a t e r than n e c e s s a r y f o r l o c a l a c c e s s ) has thus o b s c u r e d the f u n c t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n somewhat, making th e s e roads more a t t r a c t i v e t o n o n - l o c a l t r a f f i c . 1 The p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y of a s t r e e t r e f e r s t o the t r a f f i c volume i t was d e s i g n e d t o accommodate and s t i l l a c h i e v e a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of s e r v i c e . When the t r a f f i c volume exceeds the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n c a p a c i t y of the s t r e e t ( d u r i n g peak p e r i o d s , f o r example), c o n g e s t i o n and d e l a y r e s u l t . 5 The f i n a l r eason f o r an i n c r e a s e i n neighborhood t r a f f i c has been a c h a n g i n g emphasis i n urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g . W i t h v e r y l i t t l e f u n d i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n t i n u i n g expressway or t h o r o u g h f a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o t h e r c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e p r o j e c t s (which would t e n d t o a l l e v i a t e the problems caused by e x t e n s i v e use of the s t r e e t system by a l l modes of t r a n s p o r t ) , a g e n c i e s have r e l i e d on b e t t e r management of the e x i s t i n g urban s t r e e t network t o improve t r a f f i c f l o w . But even as a r t e r i a l r o u t e s are improved by i n t e g r a t e d systems of s i g n a l s ; p a r k i n g , s t o p p i n g and a c c e s s r e g u l a t i o n s ; and ad d i n g l e f t - t u r n bays a t major i n t e r s e c t i o n s , the m o t o r i s t may not p e r c e i v e t h e s e b e n e f i t s as a r t e r i a l c a p a c i t y i s approached. T h i s enhances the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t f o r t h r o u g h t r a v e l . 3. SCOPE OF THE THESIS The c o n c e r n of c i t i z e n s f o r t h e i r urban r e s i d e n t i a l environment i s common throughout the w o r l d . The i n t e n s i t y of th e s e c oncerns i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r example, was r e v e a l e d i n the r e s u l t s of the Annual Housing Census i n 1973. The two most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d neighborhood problems were u n d e s i r a b l e s t r e e t n o i s e and heavy t r a f f i c (U.S. Department of Commerce 1975). And y e t , even i n a r e a s where the t r a f f i c problem i s r e a d i l y acknowledged, a t t e m p t s t o i n t r o d u c e v a r i o u s methods f o r neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l o f t e n c r e a t e c o n f l i c t between those who v a l u e a c c e s s i b i l i t y and those s e e k i n g t o p r o t e c t t h e i r 6 r e s i d e n t i a l environment. Sometimes t h i s d e g e n e r a t e s f u r t h e r t o a p o l i t i c a l f i g h t , w i t h the r e s u l t i n g s o l u t i o n s ( i f they a re indeed implemented) p l e a s i n g few. Even though the r e t r o f i t t i n g of urban r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s i s i n c r e a s i n g throughout the w o r l d ( e s p e c i a l l y i n Europe, N o r t h A m e r i c a , Japan and A u s t r a l i a ) , t h e r e has been a d e a r t h of examples or a d v i c e on how t o be s t implement neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n s . S i n c e i n t e r e s t i n the t o p i c has become w i d e s p r e a d , some of t h e s e p r o c e d u r a l l e s s o n s have been l e a r n e d through e x p e r i e n c e but u n f o r u n a t e l y "more has been plan n e d than has been implemented, and more has been implemented than has been e v a l u a t e d t h o r o u g h l y " ( S m i t h , A p p l e y a r d e t a l . 1980: 24). One reason why s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n i s so seldom a c h i e v e d may be due t o the s h o r t - r a n g e , l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c n a t u r e of t h i s type of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problem. W h i l e frameworks and p l a n n i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s f o r l o n g - and medium-range t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems have been d e v e l o p e d and r e f i n e d (American S o c i e t y of C i v i l E n g i n e e r s 1982), minor changes t o the neighborhood c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n t a k e p l a c e on a more i n c r e m e n t a l , l e s s s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s . I t has been l a t e l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t such d e f i c i e n c i e s i n l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g can be s e r i o u s problems, " o v e r l o o k e d i n c o n v e n t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t s t u d i e s and which, i f t a c k l e d c o r r e c t l y , c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o an improved urban environment" ( B l a c k 1981: 214). While i n c l u d i n g the d e t a i l s of neighborhood t r a f f i c management schemes i n t o a l o n g -range t r a n s p o r t a t i o n study (which d e a l s w i t h broader i s s u e s ) would not be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l , a p l a n n i n g framework t o guide 7 i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s would encourage a more r a t i o n a l and e q u i t a b l e r e s u l t . T h i s would a l l o w b e t t e r p l a n e v a l u a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g , i n t u r n e n a b l i n g poor s t r a t e g i e s t o be i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c a r d e d . The i n c l u s i o n of neighborhood t r a f f i c management i n a more s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g framework i s j u s t i f i e d i n many i n s t a n c e s , f o r even though the tr e a t m e n t i s l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c , the problem may have s y s t e m i c o r i g i n s . The neighborhood p l a n t h u s t r e a t s the symptoms of the problem as m a n i f e s t e d i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n , but i n so d o i n g may have impacts on o t h e r p a r t s of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network. These may or may not be s i g n i f i c a n t , but s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l seek to f o r m u l a t e an a p p r o p r i a t e framework or p l a n n i n g methodology by which t o d e v e l o p s o l u t i o n s t o t r a f f i c problems i n neighborhoods. By r e v i e w i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and examples of neighborhood p l a n s as implemented i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, S e a t t l e , Washington, and Ottawa, O n t a r i o , the im p o r t a n t elements t o c o n s i d e r when a p p r o a c h i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - e n v i r o n m e n t c o n f l i c t s of such a l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c n a t u r e s h o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d . From t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a g e n e r a l or i d e a l i z e d c o n c e p t u a l model of a l o c a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can be d e r i v e d . Each of these c a s e s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Vancouver, have had t h e i r p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e and have e x p e r i e n c e d v a r y i n g degrees of su c c e s s w i t h neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s . A l l o w i n g f o r l o c a l v a r i a t i o n , s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d t o a common s e t of p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s a t the neighborhood l e v e l . 8 More i m p o r t a n t l y , i n t e g r a t i n g the l o c a l t r a f f i c p l a n i n t o a more comprehensive p l a n n i n g framework, i n c o r p o r a t i n g c i t y - w i d e g o a l s , would e n a b l e a b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n of the neighborhood problem. In t u r n , more a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s , r a n g i n g from l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l ( r e t r o f i t t i n g ) and r e g u l a t o r y ( s i g n i n g ) s o l u t i o n s t o improvements a t the c o r r i d o r l e v e l , can be implemented. Because neighborhood t r a f f i c problems have a v a r i e t y of o r i g i n s , and l o c a l t r a f f i c p l a n s can have a number of l o c a l and s y s t e m i c i m p a c t s , s u c c e s s f u l neighborhood t r a f f i c management s t r a t e g i e s may be v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . One management p l a n may use a v a r i e t y of d e v i c e s , or a community may f a v o u r and r e c e i v e good r e s u l t s w i t h a d e v i c e which has not performed w e l l i n many o t h e r communities. In sum, the development of such a p l a n n i n g framework w i l l encourage r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g t o be a p p r o p r i a t e , c o s t - e f f e c t i v e , e f f i c i e n t and e q u i t a b l e , w h i l e r e i n f o r c i n g the l o n g e r range t r a n s p o r t a t i o n g o a l s of the c i t y . 9 I I . TRAFFIC IN THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT: A REVIEW 1. INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n t e x t f o r r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management by r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t . L i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h t r a f f i c i n the r e s i d e n t i a l environment u s u a l l y belongs t o one of two groups: (1) d e f i n i n g the n a t u r e of the problem and a t t e m p t i n g t o q u a n t i t a t i v e l y d e l i m i t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t i e s 2 and t r a d e - o f f s between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and r e s i d e n t i a l amenity; and (2) d e v e l o p i n g s t a n d a r d s and t e c h n i c a l means f o r managing t r a f f i c i n neigh b o r h o o d s . Much of the t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s on p r o t e c t i n g neighborhoods u s i n g s p e c i a l c o n t r o l d e v i c e s has been w r i t t e n i n the p a s t decade. Whi l e the problems f a c e d by urban r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a r e becoming acute due t o h i g h t r a f f i c volumes, the co n c e r n over e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y and i t s d e g r a d a t i o n due t o e x c e s s i v e a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c has, however, a l o n g h i s t o r y . 2. THEORETICAL CONTEXT As e a r l y as the 1920's the e f f e c t s of a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c and the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the g r i d i r o n s t r e e t p a t t e r n were becoming a p p a r e n t . I t was an American p l a n n e r , C l a r e n c e P e r r y , who d e v i s e d the "neighborhood u n i t " concept t o enhance s a f e t y 2 The e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y of a s t r e e t i s the t r a f f i c volume the s t r e e t can support w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . ( 1 0 and neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n (1929). The g r i d p a t t e r n of s t r e e t s was adequate f o r c a r r i a g e s but u n s u i t a b l e f o r a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c , as i t broke up the neighborhood i n t o r e c t a n g u l a r i s l a n d s surrounded by n o i s e , d i r t , fumes and danger.... The c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l might or might not be a g r e a t d i s t a n c e from home but i t was o f t e n on the o t h e r s i d e of a stream of through t r a f f i c . . . W r i t i n g i n 1929, P e r r y . . . s t a t e d t h a t more than one c h i l d a day d i e d as a r e s u l t of t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s i n New York C i t y a l o n e ( D a h i r 1947: 22). The neighborhood u n i t s were t o c o n t a i n s c h o o l s , p a r k s and o t h e r n e c e s s a r y community f a c i l i t i e s , and were t o be p r o t e c t e d from through t r a f f i c by c o n f i n i n g i t t o a r t e r i a l s a t the p e r i p h e r y of each u n i t . The r a t i o n a l e f o r s t r i c t l y e n f o r c i n g the l o c a l f u n c t i o n was t h a t ( i ) f some s t r e e t s are t o be adapted t o f a s t and through t r a f f i c , why s h o u l d not o t h e r s be adapted t o make l o c a l t r a f f i c slow and c a u t i o u s ? I f some a r e a s are t o be m o d i f i e d i n the a r e a s of b u s i n e s s , why s h o u l d t h e r e not a l s o be m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the i n t e r e s t of r e s i d e n t i a l l i f e ? ( P e r r y 1929: 30). I t was a l s o a t t h i s time t h a t Radburn, New J e r s e y , was b e i n g d e v e l o p e d on the s u p e r b l o c k concept so as t o b e t t e r accommodate the a u t o m o b i l e . The c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n was s u p e r i o r t o the g r i d p a t t e r n i n t h a t s a f e t y was enhanced by r e d u c i n g the number of t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n s and s e p a r a t i n g p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . S i n c e t h e n , newer r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s have been d e s i g n e d w i t h c i r c u l a t i o n systems i n c o r p o r a t i n g t r a f f i c management p r i n c i p l e s . By u s i n g d e v i c e s 11 such as c u l - d e - s a c s , p r o t e c t e d e n t r y p a t t e r n s and non-continuous s t r e e t p l a n s , these s u b d i v i s i o n s can accommodate l o c a l v e h i c l e s w h i l e not s u f f e r i n g i n o r d i n a t e l y from t h r o u g h t r a f f i c . I t i s the o l d e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , nearer the c e n t r a l c i t y and s u b d i v i d e d on a g r i d s t r e e t p a t t e r n , which encounter the worst t r a f f i c problems. The work which has had the most i n f l u e n c e on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the Commonwealth, i s the Buchanan r e p o r t (1964). T r a f f i c i n Towns was the f i r s t p l a n n i n g document t o address the problem of t r a f f i c f i l t e r i n g t h r o ugh r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s by d r i v e r s on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e "or as the r e s u l t of o f f i c i a l p o l i c i e s f o r e x p e d i t i n g t r a f f i c movement" (1964: 2 5 ) . B e f o r e t h i s t i m e , " t r a f f i c management" r e f e r r e d t o ways of speeding up the f l o w of t r a f f i c and making i t more e f f i c i e n t , w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d t o the maintenance of amenable l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s . S e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t concepts and recommendations were put f o r w a r d i n the r e p o r t t o d e a l w i t h i n c r e a s i n g numbers of a u t o m o b i l e s w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . The foremost among these i s the statement t h a t " t r a f f i c and roads a r e not ends i n t h e m s e l v e s , they are s e r v i c e s o n l y " (1964: 60). What t h e y serve (or s h o u l d s e r v e ) i s an urban f a b r i c c o n s i s t i n g of p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d " e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r e a s " c o n t a i n i n g the minimum l e v e l of s t r e e t t r a f f i c , s e t w i t h i n a network of d i s t r i b u t o r y s t r e e t s , c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r f u n c t i on. Another concept i n t r o d u c e d by Buchanan, and one c r u c i a l i n 1 2 the study of r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c c o n t r o l , i s t h a t of " e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y " . T h i s r e f e r s t o "the volume and c h a r a c t e r of the t r a f f i c p e r m i s s a b l e i n the s t r e e t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the maintenance of good e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s " (p. 73). The e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y of each s t r e e t w i l l v a r y depending upon the d i m e n s i o n s of the s t r e e t , t h e b u i l d i n g t y p e s and l a n d uses i t s e r v e s and the number of p e d e s t r i a n s u s i n g i t . For t h e s e reasons the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y of a s t r e e t i s u s u a l l y l e s s than the a c t u a l t r a f f i c volume the s t r e e t can accommodate ( p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y ) . Thus Buchanan a d v o c a t e d t h a t " e n v i r o n m e n t a l management" r e p l a c e " t r a f f i c management", the g o a l b e i n g the removal of e x t r a n e o u s t r a f f i c from e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r e a s . T h i s was a v e r y i m p o r t a n t change i n approach f o r t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g . S i n c e t h e Buchanan r e p o r t , s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s have e v o l v e d to p r o t e c t s t r e e t s from e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c , but u s u a l l y on an i n d i v i d u a l , c ase-by-case b a s i s u n t i l r e c e n t l y . In the p a s t , i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w between l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s was poor and many ca s e s went u n r e p o r t e d . T h i s d e a r t h of a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s tended to cause r e p e a t e d m i s t a k e s i n c o p i n g w i t h s t r e e t t r a f f i c i n n e i ghborhoods. The c o n c e p t s of " e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y " and " e n v i r o n m e n t a l management" were, however, s t u d i e d f u r t h e r so as t o b e t t e r d e f i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t i e s i n terms of a c c e p t a b l e t r a f f i c volumes, n o i s e l e v e l s , t r a v e l speeds and t r a f f i c c o m p o s i t i o n f o r each s t r e e t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . R e s earch on how r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e the e n v i r o n m e n t a l 13 q u a l i t y of t h e i r s t r e e t was p u b l i s h e d by A p p l e y a r d and L i n t e l l (1970, 1971). In San F r a n c i s c o , t h r e e r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , s i m i l a r but f o r L i g h t , Moderate and Heavy t r a f f i c volumes, were chosen so as t o c o n t r a s t the e f f e c t s of t r a f f i c on s i m i l a r t y p e s of s t r e e t s . D e t a i l e d i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n e n a b l e d the a u t h o r s t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t s of t r a f f i c on e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o s a f e t y ; s t r e s s , n o i s e and p o l l u t i o n ; p r i v a c y and home t e r r i t o r y ; n e i g h b o r i n g and v i s i t i n g ; and i d e n t i t y and i n t e r e s t . P r e d i c t a b l y these t r a f f i c e f f e c t s were the l e a s t of a problem on the l i g h t l y t r a v e l l e d s t r e e t s where the g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n was over the t r a f f i c h a z a r d caused by an o c c a s i o n a l s p e e d i n g c a r . The r e s i d e n t s of the Heavy s t r e e t , by c o n t r a s t , e x p e r i e n c e d a g r e a t d e a l of s t r e s s due t o i n t e n s i v e t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s . 3 T h e i r s u r p r i s i n g f i n d i n g was t h a t those l i v i n g on the Moderate s t r e e t were l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r environment than the a c t u a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s s u g g e s t e d . The reason f o r t h i s was due t o the changing c h a r a c t e r of the s t r e e t from a q u i e t r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t t o a more h e a v i l y t r a v e l l e d one. T h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r l i v i n g environment were g r e a t e r than those who l i v e d on the a l r e a d y h e a v i l y t r a v e l l e d s t r e e t and so t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was g r e a t e r . While t h i s study d i d not o f f e r s p e c i f i c measurements or s t a n d a r d s ( i n the form of t r a f f i c volumes or speeds, n o i s e 3 These i n c l u d e d : n o i s e s over 65 d e c i b e l s 45 per cent of the t i m e , and under 55 d e c i b e l s l e s s than 10 per cent of the t i m e ; average d a i l y t r a f f i c volumes of 15,750 v e h i c l e s ; and an average v e h i c l e speed of '45 m i l e s per hour. 1 4 l e v e l s or s t r e e t d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s ) f o r d e f i n i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y of a s t r e e t , i t d i d h i g h l i g h t the importance of r e s i d e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the c h a r a c t e r of the s t r e e t environment i n d e f i n i n g d e s i r a b l e l e v e l s or ranges. The development of a methodology f o r computing t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y of roads was a t t e m p t e d f o r the South C o r r i d o r area of L o u i s v i l l e , Kentucky (Sharpe and Maxman 1972). In t h i s a r e a i t was deemed n e c e s s a r y t o q u a n t i f y the e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s of s t r e e t or t r a n s i t improvements so t h a t they c o u l d be p r o p e r l y e v a l u a t e d . To d e v e l o p an index of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y , s t r e e t s i n the a r e a were c l a s s i f i e d based on roadway and l a n d use c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . An annoyance index f o r each p r o t o t y p e was d e v e l o p e d by q u e s t i o n n a i r e s or i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e s i d e n t s , workers and shoppers on the s t r e e t . The annoyance index was e x p r e s s e d as the t r a f f i c volume which c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the p e r c e p t i o n s of n o i s e , s a f e t y and a i r p o l l u t i o n on the s t r e e t . W h i l e the s t u d y d i d not d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t i e s f o r each c r i t e r i o n ( n o i s e , a i r p o l l u t i o n and s a f e t y , f o r example) a l l o w s the most d i s r u p t i v e elements t o be i d e n t i f i e d , t h u s b e t t e r e n a b l i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s t o a l l e v i a t e them. Techniques such as t h i s would be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l t o i d e n t i f y t r a f f i c problems on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s and the most a p p r o p r i a t e t r a f f i c c o n t r o l methods. Other work f o l l o w i n g on Buchanan's concept of e n v i r o n m e n t a l management was done by A n t o n i o u (1971). The emphasis of t h i s 1 5 book was the p l a n n i n g and a n a l y s i s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l management t e c h n i q u e s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n was p r i m a r i l y on mechanisms by which t o b r i n g about a b a l a n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n system f o r the l o c a l s t r u c t u r e of s t r e e t s g i v i n g a c c e s s t o and from the l i v i n g and w o r k i n g a r e a s of c i t i e s . T h i s g o a l i s seen as a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s of maintenance and r e a d j u s t m e n t which c o o r d i n a t e s new c o n c e p t s , as and when they m a t e r i a l i z e , w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g l a y o u t of l o c a l s t r e e t s and networks. Importance i s , t h e r e f o r e , a t t a c h e d t o methods of c a r r y i n g out s h o r t - t e r m improvements i n r e l a t i o n t o l o n g term s o l u t i o n s ( A n t o n i o u 1971: 8 ) . F i g u r e s 1 and 2 below summarize some of the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l management. These i n c l u d e g u i d e l i n e s f o r d e f i n i n g b a s i c elements f o r a n a l y s i s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g the element of v i s u a l i n t r u s i o n , and t e c h n i q u e s of p l a n n i n g the environment to p r o p e r l y accommodate t r a f f i c . A g a i n , however, e n v i r o n m e n t a l management elements f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s were not d e a l t w i t h s p e c i f i c a l l y , but the work p r o v i d e s frameworks and g u i d e l i n e s by which e n v i r o n m e n t a l management elements f o r l o c a l s t r e e t s may be a n a l y z e d . At about the same, time Dutch p l a n n e r s and t r a f f i c e n g i n e e r s began e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h a new approach t o neighborhood t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t - - t h e Woonerf or " r e s i d e n t i a l p r e c i n c t " . The woonerf does not e x c l u d e a u t o m o b i l e s , but uses s t r e e t d e s i g n and l e g i s l a t i o n t o r e q u i r e the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of the a u t o m o b i l e t o the p e d e s t r i a n . The Dutch Motor Code r e q u i r e s the m o t o r i s t t o slow down t o a pace "no f a s t e r than a r i d e r a l l o w s h i s horse t o walk", or a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 t o 20 k i l o m e t e r s per hour (G u t t e n b e r g 1981: 19). T h i s 16 AREA ANALYSIS TRAFFIC CONDITIONS volume, speed, o r i g i n -d e s t i n a t i o n , v e h i c l e t y p e ; p a r k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; c u r r e n t management t e c h n i q u e s ; t r a f f i c d e f i c i e n c i e s ; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS l a n d u s e s ; f r o n t a g e a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s ; c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s ; p e d e s t r i a n g e n e r a t o r s ; ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS p e d e s t r i a n s a f e t y , c o n v e n i e n c e ; t r a f f i c n o i s e ; v i s u a l i n t r u s i o n ; LAYOUT PATTERN l a y o u t s t r u c t u r e ; space h i e r a r c h y ; s c a l e of development; VISUAL DEFINITION age and c o n d i t i o n of sp a c e ; c o m p o s i t i o n of sp a c e ; e x t e r n a l space c h a r a c t e r ; v i s u a l d i s p l a y ; elements of d e t a i l ; COMMUNITY AWARENESS degree o f t r a n s i e n c e ; m o b i l i t y a t t i t u d e s ; degree of t r a f f i c i n t r u s i o n s ; r i s k and i n t i m i d a t i o n from t r a f f i c -v i s u a l a p p l i c a t i o n of s u r r o u n d i n g s RESIDENTIAL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT I s t r a f f i c l o c a l or n o n - l o c a l ? Whence i s i t g e n e r a t e d ? How do i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s impact upon t h e neighborhood? How a r e the l o c a l s t r e e t s used, i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g t r a f f i c c o r r i d o r s ? In what way a r e t r a f f i c i m p a c t s m a n i f e s t e d ? What a r e the a c c i d e n t r a t e s ? How does n o i s e i n t e r f e r e ? What i s the n a t u r e of the s t r e e t p a t t e r n and i t s f u n c t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y ? Have t r a f f i c i m p a c t s i n f l u e n c e d v i s u a l elements of the s t r e e t , f o r example, how f r o n t a g e s a r e m a i n t a i n e d ? How does the t r a f f i c i n f l u e n c e r e s i d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r l i v i n g e nvironment? How do t h e y r e a c t ? Has r e l i e f been r e q u e s t e d ? S o u r c e : adapted from A n t o n i o u , J . 1971. E n v i r o n m e n t a l M n a o ^ n . -p l a n n i n g f o r t r a f f i c . London: M c G r a w - H i l l , p.85 i g u r e 1 - Elements of a n a l y s i s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l management 1 7 TRAFFIC FACTORS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Source: Antoniou, J . 1971. Environmental management: planning for  traffic. London: McGraw-H i l l , p. 71 F i g u r e 2 - V i s u a l i n t r u s i o n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l management framework 18 i s r e i n f o r c e d w i t h s i g n s , humps, bumps, c u r v e s and n a r r o w i n g , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e and p l a n t i n g s . P l a y a r e a s a r e p r o v i d e d , a l t h o u g h p l a y on the roadway i s p e r m i t t e d and b r e a k s i n the curb s encourage p e d e s t r i a n s not t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o the s i d e w a l k a l o n e . Users ( p e d e s t r i a n s , c h i l d r e n , b i c y c l e s and c a r s ) a r e i n t e g r a t e d r a t h e r than s e p a r a t e d . In 1972 D e l f t became the f i r s t European c i t y t o implement a neighborhood t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t program u s i n g the woonerf c o n c e p t , and s i m i l a r programs have s i n c e been d e v i s e d i n over 100 Dutch c i t i e s (Whitehead 1980). The concept a l s o l e n d s i t s e l f t o German c i t i e s , where i t i s known as V e r k e h r s b e r u h i g u n g or " t r a f f i c t r a n q u i l i z a t i o n " . Neighborhoods i n German c i t i e s a f t e r World War I I s u f f e r e d from the e f f e c t s of t r a f f i c and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g which sought t o i n c r e a s e t r a f f i c speed and volume even a t t h e i r expense. R e p a i r i n g the damage t o urban neighborhoods caused by t r a f f i c and i t s u n p l e a s a n t s i d e e f f e c t s ( p o l l u t i o n , n o i s e , t h r e a t of i n j u r y , and l o s s of p u b l i c space f o r r e c r e a t i o n and communication) i s viewed by German p o l i c y m a k e r s as an e s s e n t i a l urban p o l i c y g o a l f o r the 1980s. T h i s g o a l commands much p o p u l a r s u p p o r t (Whitehead 1980: 23). The s u c c e s s and p o p u l a r i t y of downtown p e d e s t r i a n zones c o u l d be c a l l e d the p r e d e c e s s o r of the woonerf concept. By l i m i t i n g a u t o m o b i l e t r a f f i c on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s i n t h i s manner a movement back t o the c i t y from the suburbs and a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of urban neighborhoods was sought. By so d o i n g , a u t h o r i t i e s were b e t t e r accommodating th o s e 50 p e r c e n t of Germans who walked 19 or c y c l e d t o s c h o o l or work, and p r o v i d i n g encouragement t o m o t o r i s t s t o s w i t c h modes by making waking and c y c l i n g c o n d i t i o n s more p l e a s a n t . In b o th Germany and The N e t h e r l a n d s s t a t e and f e d e r a l governments p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e and c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l funds t o t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t programs such as t h e s e , and t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s a re u s u a l l y undertaken by c i t i e s i n a more comprehensive manner than t h e i r N o r t h American c o u n t e r p a r t s . Cologne, f o r example, has r e v i s e d i t s g e n e r a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n such t h a t the d i f f e r e n t t r a f f i c problems i n each d i s t r i c t a r e g i v e n s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n . T h i s p l a n , and any changes i n t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s , i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the c i t y ' s development p l a n so as to a c h i e v e a comprehensive improvement of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , and i t s V e r k e h r s b e r u h i g u n g program i s funded i n l a r g e measure by the s t a t e of N o r t h R h i n e - W e s t p h a l i a (Whitehead 1980). Other German s t a t e s have spent m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s s t u d y i n g t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s or p e r f o r m i n g t e s t s i n a l a r g e number of c i t i e s . I t i s t h i s g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t of s t a t e and f e d e r a l governments which i s such a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t t o neighborhood t r a f f i c management i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . From a s t u d y of 100 woonerven r e s i d e n t s and 100 r e s i d e n t s of t r a d i t i o n a l Dutch n e i g h b o r h o o d s , the woonerven a r e h i g h l y r e g a r d e d . A l t h o u g h woonerven r e s i d e n t s were p l e a s e d w i t h the r e s u l t s , they " d i d not t h i n k t h a t they had much i n f l u e n c e on the d e c i s i o n t o c o n v e r t t h e i r neighborhoods i n t o woonerven" ( G u t t e n b e r g 1981: 21). C o n v e r s e l y , when neighborhood t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s through 20 p h y s i c a l d e s i g n are implemented i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , a c t i o n i s u s u a l l y the r e s u l t of l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e s . Another c o n t r a s t i s the a t t i t u d e of European and N o r t h American d r i v e r s towards p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l measures. In most West European c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g H o l l a n d , m o t o r i s t s d r i v e u n c o n s c i o n a b l y f a s t . Some American d r i v e r s a l s o speed t h r o u g h q u i e t r e s i d e n t i a l n e i ghborhoods, but i n Europe i t seems t o be the g e n e r a l r u l e t o do so. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the taming of the motor v e h i c l e which woonerf p l a n n e r s hope t o a c h i e v e m a i n l y by means of p h y s i c a l r e s t r a i n t s may have proceeded f u r t h e r by d r i v e r e d u c a t i o n and t r a f f i c law enforcement a l o n e ( G u t t e n b e r g 1981: 2 0 ) . One would t h e r e f o r e expect more c o n t r o v e r s y over p h y s i c a l t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s i n Europe than i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , a l t h o u g h the r e v e r s e seems t o be t r u e . T h i s seems t o be because the woonerf concept i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the l o n g - h e l d European v a l u e s of h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n ; neighborhood u n i t y and i n t e g r i t y ; b i c y c l e use and f u l l a c c e p t ance of the p r i n c i p l e of l i m i t i n g t r a f f i c i n i n n e r c i t i e s ( B r a m b i l l a and Longo 1980: 1). P r o b a b l y the f i r s t comprehensive work d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h d e t r i m e n t a l t r a f f i c e f f e c t s i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and a l t e r n a t i v e t y p e s of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l measures was L i v a b l e Urban S t r e e t s ( A p p l e y a r d e t a l 1976; r e v i s e d 1981). The book was w r i t t e n as a response t o a c h a n g i n g emphasis i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and sought t o e x p l a i n some of the p l a n n i n g dilemmas i t would produce. By 1970, d e l e t e r o u s t r a f f i c - r e l a t e d impacts on r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s were b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y p e r c e i v e d . T r a f f i c e f f e c t s c r e a t e d more concern than crime as a neighborhood problem 21 a c c o r d i n g t o surveys i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , U n i t e d Kingdom and Japan. T h i s was a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of the h a l t i n freeway c o n s t r u c t i o n programs and urban r e n e w a l . These programs, and the arguments which ended them, encouraged a r e s u r g e n c e of i n t e r e s t i n the q u a l i t y of the urban l i v i n g environment, and the demands f o r r e l i e f from the type of t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g d e s i g n e d to improve v e h i c l e f l o w a t any c o s t , even t o the d e t r i m e n t of the neighborhood environment. At the time t h i s book was w r i t t e n , p e o p l e had a l r e a d y l e a r n e d of the types of t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s they c o u l d demand t o reduce t r a f f i c impacts on l o c a l s t r e e t s . C o n s i d e r i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e methods f o r r e d u c i n g t h e s e e f f e c t s (major road b u i l d i n g , t r a n s i t improvements, road t a x e s , v e h i c l e n o i s e and e m i s s i o n l e g i s l a t i o n , f o r example) neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l methods were the l e a s t e x p e n s i v e s o l u t i o n s , easy t o implement and i m m e d i a t e l y e f f e c t i v e . P r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e i r i n s t a l l a t i o n i s u s u a l l y r e l a t i v e l y m i l d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , they may a l s o have complex s i d e e f f e c t s , and t h e i r comprehensive i m p l e m e n t a t i o n r a i s e s some s e r i o u s p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n s . S i d e e f f e c t s i n c l u d e r e s e n t f u l m o t o r i s t s ; s u r p r i s e d r e s i d e n t s who i n c u r i n c o n v e n i e n c e ; c o n s t r a i n t s on emergency and s e r v i c e v e h i c l e s ; c o n cerns of merchants over p o s s i b l e r e d u c t i o n s i n revenue; o p p o s i t i o n from r e s i d e n t s on s t r e e t s which g a i n t r a f f i c due t o the measures; e i t h e r g e n t r i f i c a t i o n of the area or a s t a b i l i z a t i o n of middle-income r e s i d e n t s i n an a r e a of lower-income i n t r u s i o n and d r a m a t i c l a n d use or l a n d v a l u e changes ( A p p l e y a r d et a l 1981: 10). 22 P r o t e s t o f t e n comes from those who l i v e on q u i e t , p r o t e c t e d s t r e e t s t h e m s e l v e s , r e v e a l i n g c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s towards t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t , as each person has p l a y e d the r o l e of p e d e s t r i a n / r e s i d e n t and d r i v e r . The a u t h o r s seek t o d e a l w i t h " t h i s c o n f l i c t between l i v i n g and a c c e s s , between r e s i d e n t and t r a v e l e r , between s t r e e t l i f e and the t h r e a t of d e a t h " (1981: 1). They do so by p r e s e n t i n g some of the c o n t r o v e r s i e s (such as those i n B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a and Camden and Barnesbury, England) t o l e a r n what the problems have been and how t o b e t t e r manage t r a f f i c . They a l s o cover t h e i r work i n San F r a n c i s c o , which i n c l u d e s d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of s t r e e t t r a f f i c and i t s impacts upon r e s i d e n t s ; s t r e e t images and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; r e s i d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , needs and v a l u e s . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e t h a t w h i l e the s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e s i s n a t u r a l l y a f a c t o r i n s u c c e s s f u l l y managing neighborhood t r a f f i c , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s - - e s p e c i a l l y the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n component--is c r i t i c a l t o the s u c c e s s of the p l a n i n e f f e c t i v e l y r e s t r a i n i n g t r a f f i c , e n s u r i n g s i d e e f f e c t s a r e m i n i m i z e d , and r e d u c i n g c o n f l i c t . T h i s p l a n n i n g framework would i n v o l v e : 1. A thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what goes on i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , who l i v e s t h e r e , the p a r t i c u l a r problems of d i f f e r e n t groups, and the changes t a k i n g p l a c e . 2. A v a r i e t y of s t r a t e g i e s t o c r e a t e more l i v a b l e s t r e e t s and p r o t e c t e d neighborhoods t o a l l e v i a t e or compensate f o r c o n d i t i o n s where t r a f f i c i s n e c e s s a r y . 3. E f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs t h a t p r o p e r l y i n f o r m and encourage those a f f e c t e d by t r a f f i c changes t o become i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 4. R e l i a b l e and r e l e v a n t methods of a s s e s s i n g the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of changes t o d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n and i n t e r e s t groups (1981: 11). 23 Widespread a p p l i c a t i o n of neighborhood t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s has the p o t e n t i a l t o a f f e c t r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by c a u s i n g s e r i o u s c o n g e s t i o n and d e l a y s on the major s t r e e t system. T h i s l e a d s t o the n e c e s s i t y of d e c i d i n g whether t o i n c r e a s e a r t e r i a l c a p a c i t y or a l l o w c o n g e s t i o n t o occur as p a r t of the r e s t r a i n t p o l i c y , hoping t h a t a s h i f t t o o t h e r modes w i l l t ake p l a c e . These c o n s t i t u t e the new i s s u e s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The c u r r e n t " s t a t e of the a r t " document on neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s was sponsored by the U.S. Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (Smith, A p p l e y a r d e t a l . 1980). The r e p o r t p r e s e n t s r e c e n t r e s e a r c h on neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s t r a t e g i e s , and a l s o i n c l u d e s g u i d e l i n e s f o r the p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management s t r a t e g i e s . T h i s i s undoubtedly h e l p f u l , s i n c e the success of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l v e r y much depends on an e f f e c t i v e , w e l l -o r g a n i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The f o l l o w i n g reasons a re put fo r w a r d . f o r the o f t u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s a t neighborhood t r a f f i c management: (1) Lack of a c t i o n because s t a f f do not p e r c e i v e the problem, or do not have the p r o c e d u r e s or r e s o u r c e s f o r h a n d l i n g c o m p l a i n t s of t h i s n a t u r e ; (2) Hasty i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of seemingly o b v i o u s s o l u t i o n s , w i t h o u t t h o r o u g h l y a s s e s s i n g the problems or needs of the a r e a ; (3) An o u t l o o k which i s too narrow, c o n f i n i n g the problem (and s o l u t i o n ) t o a s p e c i f i c s i t e when a systems view i s w a r r a n t e d ; 24 (4) Lack of community i n v o l v e m e n t , which may l e a d t o l e s s than o p t i m a l t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s as w e l l as area-wide d i s c o n t e n t ; (5) The l e n g t h and d i s c o n t i n u i t y of the p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s ; (6) Lack of a p l a n e v a l u a t i o n stage which i n c l u d e s s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o p i n g w i t h i n i t i a l s e t b a c k s and unexpected e f f e c t s ; and (7) Absence of a f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n a f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d of d i s c u s s i o n . From the s e o b s e r v a t i o n s an o u t l i n e ( a l b e i t v e r y g e n e r a l ) i l l u s t r a t i n g some of the components of an e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was d e v i s e d (see F i g u r e 3 ) . The c r i t i c a l element i n t h i s p r o c e s s i s " e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t i n g community i n p u t s w i t h t e c h n i c a l work" (Smith, A p p l e y a r d e t a l . 1980: 20). S p e c i f i c mechanisms by which t h i s would occur a r e not d i s c u s s e d however, so as not t o encourage adherence t o one format or s o l u t i o n f o r e v e r y problem, s i n c e each s i t u a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d unique. 25 Source: adapted from Smith, D.T.; Appleyard, D. et al. 1980. State of the art: residential traffic management. Washington, D .C . : U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, p. 19 gure 3 - Components of the l o c a l t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s 26 3. COMPONENTS OF THE ACCESSIBILITY-ENVIRONMENT CONFLICT When r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e a t r a f f i c problem i n t h e i r n eighborhood i t i s because of a r e d u c t i o n i n s a f e t y , c o m f o r t and con v e n i e n c e which may be r e a l or p e r c e i v e d . Of c h i e f c o n c e r n i s the s a f e t y of the s t r e e t ( f o r c h i l d r e n , c o n v e n i e n c e or p r o t e c t i o n of p r o p e r t y ) and i t s amenity as an e x t e n s i o n of the l i v i n g a r e a . The concern over the s a f e t y of the s t r e e t i s w e l l founded. A p p l e y a r d e t a l . (1981: 129) have found t h a t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1976, 21 per c e n t of deaths of c h i l d r e n aged f i v e t o f o u r t e e n were due t o t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , i n Sweden most c h i l d r e n ' s a c c i d e n t s occur i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , the r i s k s b e i n g s i x times g r e a t e r i n o l d e r a r e a s where p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c l e t r a f f i c are not s e p a r a t e d . Solomon (1981: 211-212) has s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d the cause f o r co n c e r n i n A u s t r a l i a over t r a f f i c s a f e t y on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s . In Melbourne, f o r example, w h i l e r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s comprise f o u r - f i f t h s of t o t a l m i l e a g e , they c a r r y o n l y o n e - q u a r t e r of the v e h i c l e m i l e s . And y e t , 7% and 8% of a l l t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s o c c u r e d a t mi d - b l o c k on l o c a l and c o l l e c t o r s t r e e t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . And a c c i d e n t s a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s where at l e a s t one s t r e e t was a l o c a l s t r e e t account f o r 36% of a l l a c c i d e n t s . Given t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s c a r r y such a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of t r a f f i c , t hese f i g u r e s ar e d i s t u r b i n g . T a b l e I - Some f u n c t i o n a l s t r e e t d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s SUGGESTED RESIDENTIAL STREET CLASSIFICATIONS DESIGN STANDARDS FOR CANADIAN ROADS AND STREETS 2 STREET TYPE 1 ANNUAL ADT 1 FUNCTION STREET TYPE ANNUAL ADT | PAVEMENT WIDTH I I | (m e t e r s ) P l a c e | 0-100 i |A s h o r t s t r e e t ( c u l - d e - s a c , P-| 11oop, c r e s c e n t ) c o n n e c t i n g l o c a l j Lane | 75-350 | t r a f f i c t o and from h i g h e r o r d e r j j | s t r e e t s . No thro u g h t r a f f i c . 1 S u b c o l l e c t o r j 200-1000 | P r o v i d e s a c c e s s to p l a c e s o r | | | l a n e s and c o n d u c t s t r a f f i c to j I ( h i g h e r o r d e r s t r e e t s or a c t i v i t y | I | c e n t r e s . j j j Minor l o c a l 1000 j 7.5 - 8.0 C o l l e c t o r j 800-3000 |Conducts t r a f f i c between a r t e r i a l s j 1 |and a c t i v i t y c e n t r e s . Can s u p p o r t Major l o c a l 1500 j 8.0 - 8.5 | |some r e t a i l or com m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y ] Minor c o l l e c t o r 1500-3000 | 8.5 A r t e r i a l j 3000+ |A n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t which j | 1 | c o n d u c t s t h r o u g h t r a f f i c to j Major c o l l e c t o r 3500 + | 10.0 - 12.5 1 |expressways or r e t a i l , c o mmercial j 1 |and i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s . | | ^ r b a n Land I n s t i t u t e et a l . 1974. R e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s ; o b j e c t i v e s , p r i n c i p l e s and d e s i g n s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . W ashington, D.C.: U L I ~ ~ Roads and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada. 1976. G e o m e t r i c d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s f o r C a n a d i a n ro a d s and s t r e e t s . Ottawa: RTAC 28 3.1 T r a f f i c Volume E x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c volume i s the most common source of r e s i d e n t c o m p l a i n t s . T r a f f i c volume a l o n g a l e n g t h of s t r e e t i s measured i n v a r i o u s ways; these are commonly annual average d a i l y t r a f f i c ( a . d . t . ) , or v e h i c l e s per l a n e per hour. I t i s volume i n the peak hours t h a t i s o f t e n the g r e a t e s t n u i s a n c e . Problems f o r t r a f f i c occur when volume exceeds the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n c a p a c i t y of the s t r e e t ; r e s i d e n t s w i l l p e r c e i v e a d e c r e a s e i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l ' q u a l i t y b e f o r e p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y i s r e a c h e d , a t a p o i n t where volume exceeds the e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t y . T h i s p o i n t not o n l y depends upon the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n c a p a c i t y of the s t r e e t (which i s i n t u r n based on i t s i n t e n d e d f u n c t i o n ) , but a d j a c e n t l a n d uses and the e x p e c t a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s of r e s i d e n t s as w e l l . E x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c volume can t h e r e f o r e be d e f i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r s t r e e t . Recommended s t r e e t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and t r a f f i c volumes v a r y , however, between j u r i s d i c t i o n s . C u r r e n t s t a n d a r d s , c o m p i l e d i n Table I , demonstrate the range of a c c e p t a b l e t r a f f i c volumes f o r c e r t a i n s t r e e t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . V a r i a t i o n s i n s t a n d a r d s a s i d e , c o m p l a i n t s t e n d t o become numerous when t r a f f i c volumes and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those the r e s i d e n t s p e r c e i v e or expect t o be a p p r o p r i a t e . Thus the n a t u r e of the c o m p l a i n t s , and the l e v e l of t r a f f i c a t which they o c c u r , w i l l a l s o v a r y depending upon the f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r s t r e e t . For example, r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g on a " l o c a l " s t r e e t w i l l tend t o 29 become annoyed w i t h t r a f f i c i f i t i s seen t o comprise a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h rough t r i p s , r e g a r d l e s s of whether t r a f f i c volume f a l l s w i t h i n a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s . The s t r e e t i s not p e r f o r m i n g i t s d e s i g n a t e d f u n c t i o n , but p o s s i b l y t h a t of a c o l l e c t o r . I f t r a f f i c volume i n c r e a s e s t o t h a t i n d i c a t i v e of a c o l l e c t o r , i f t h i s " f u n c t i o n a l t h r e s h o l d " i s r e a ched, t r a f f i c becomes a d e f i n i t e i r r i t a n t , c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e s i d e n t s demand t h a t t r a f f i c be reduced ( S m i t h , A p p l e y a r d et a l . 1980: 100). The r o l e of neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g , t h e r e f o r e , i s t o d e f i n e and e n f o r c e the f u n c t i o n of the s t r e e t . R e t r o f i t t i n g d e v i c e s such as c u l - d e -s a c s , d i v e r t e r s and s t r e e t n a r r o w i n g s , f o r example, are i n s t a l l e d f o r t h i s purpose. Because c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g t r a f f i c volume do not i n c r e a s e l i n e a r l y as volume i n c r e a s e s but i n s t e a d i n c r e a s e i n a s t e p w i s e f a s h i o n as the t h r e s h o l d of a h i g h e r f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s r e a c hed, c r i t i c a l t r a f f i c volumes can t h e r e f o r e be i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4. These t h r e s h o l d s are e s t i m a t e s of the t r a f f i c volume at which a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from e x p e c t a t i o n s , and a u t h o r s tend t o agree on the volume range which i s e x c e s s i v e f o r a l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t . L i p i n s k i (1979) s t a t e s t h a t peak hour t r a f f i c volumes of 250 t o 400 v e h i c l e s per hour (2500-4000 a.d.t.) a r e e x c e s s i v e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s . Based upon t h e i r work i n San F r a n c i s c o , A p p l e y a r d et a l . (1981: 251) r e p o r t t h a t volumes g r e a t e r than 2000 v e h i c l e s per day are u n a c c e p t a b l e f o r s t r e e t s 30 w i t h c h i l d r e n . Comparable t o the f i n d i n g s of A p p l e y a r d et a l . and L i p i n s k i a r e the s t a n d a r d s used i n Ottawa f o r t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a t r a f f i c p l a n s . Volumes of 100 v e h i c l e s per hour on l o c a l s t r e e t s , 300 v e h i c l e s per hour on minor c o l l e c t o r s and 600 v e h i c l e s per hour on on major c o l l e c t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d h i g h e r than the " t o l e r a b l e l i m i t s f o r the t y pe of s t r e e t s i n c e i t c a r r i e s volumes h i g h e r than 85 p e r c e n t of s i m i l a r r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s i n Ottawa" ( M a l i n s k y 1979: 143). 3.2 T r a f f i c Speed The speed of t r a f f i c i s a n o ther annoyance t o r e s i d e n t s , s i n c e i t t h r e a t e n s s a f e t y and a c c e n t u a t e s t r a f f i c n o i s e . T h i s a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o the g e n e r a l speed of the t r a f f i c t r a v e l i n g a l o n g the s t r e e t or t o the o c c a s i o n a l s p e e d i n g c a r . A p p l e y a r d et a l . (1981: 32-33) s t a t e t h a t as f a r as v e h i c l e speed i s c o n c e rned, the p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o r of the t r a v e l e r i s as much a problem as v e h i c l e volume or t y p e . C r u c i a l here i s the m a tter of d r i v e r c a r e . I f d r i v e r s were more c o n s i d e r a t e of the r e s i d e n t i a l environment, t h e i r b e h a v i o r would be l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s as t o what i s a " s a f e " speed i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y between d r i v e r s and r e s i d e n t s . The d r i v e r may not be e x c e e d i n g the speed l i m i t , but depending on the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the s t r e e t , 3 1 s t r e e t a c c e s s n e i g h b o r h o o d i m p a c t u n r e s t r i c t e d l o c a l a c c e s s c o m p l e t e a c c e s s c o n t r o l no t h r o u g h t r a f f i c MOVEMENT FUNCTION—TRAFFIC VOLUME E SPEED; PROPORTION OF THROUGH TRIPS 1 - t r a f f i c i m p a c t s b e g i n t o be p e r c e i v e d as t h r o u g h t r a f f i c i s o b s e r v e d , a l t h o u g h volume i s n o t e x c e s s i v e 2 - t r a f f i c i m p a c t s become a n n o y i n g as t h e s t r e e t assumes a " c o l l e c t o r " f u n c t i o n 3 - t r a f f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s do n o t match r e s i d e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s . R e l i e f f rom i n t e n s e i m p a c t s i s demanded S o u r c e : a d a p t e d from R e i l l y , N.R. e t a l . I 9 6 0 . D e s i g n o f ur b a n s t r e e t s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.:' U.S. Department o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , F e d e r a l Highway A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 3-1. F i g u r e 4 - R e l a t i o n s h i p of t r a f f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o s t r e e t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t r a f f i c impacts 32 whether or not t h e r e i s o n - s t r e e t p a r k i n g , and the number of young c h i l d r e n or e l d e r l y p e o p l e , the r e s i d e n t may f e e l t h a t the d r i v e r i s , i n d e e d d r i v i n g c a r e l e s s l y . And y e t , a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h e r speeds and h i g h e r a c c i d e n t r a t e s cannot be d e t e r m i n e d f o r s t r e e t s of s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s due t o the n a t u r e of a c c i d e n t r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d (Marconi 1977). 3.3 T r a f f i c N o i s e N o i s e g e n e r a t e d by e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c i n neighborhoods i s a v e r y r e a l problem, one whose e f f e c t s on h e a l t h and d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s can be e a s i l y q u a n t i f i e d . T a b l e I I summarizes the e f f e c t s of i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of t r a f f i c n o i s e on h e a l t h and d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . Few r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s are s u b j e c t e d t o c o n t i n u o u s h i g h l e v e l s of t r a f f i c n o i s e such t h a t h e a r i n g i s j e o p a r d i z e d , but streams of t r a f f i c (such as those e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g peak hours) do g e n e r a t e enough n o i s e so t h a t they i n t e r f e r e w i t h both indoor and outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . Some work (Brown and Saur 1976, f o r example) has shown, however, t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n of n o i s e as an i r r i t a n t i s r e l a t e d not o n l y t o f l u c t u a t i o n s i n a c t u a l n o i s e l e v e l s , but t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the r e s i d e n t s of how q u i e t t h e i r l i v i n g environment s h o u l d be (much the same way as i s volume). T h i s may, i n t u r n , be p a r t l y dependent upon c e r t a i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 33 T a b l e I I - N o i s e l e v e l s i n d e c i b e l s and some c o r r e s p o n d i n g ef f e c t s | dBA EFFECTS 1 o B a r e l y a u d i b l e | 35-50 L e v e l o f t r a f f i c n o i s e w h i c h i n t e r f e r e s w i t h s l e e p | 45 S t r e e t t r a f f i c i n t e r f e r e s w i t h s o f t speech i n d o o r s | 80 N o i s e l e v e l common on a busy c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t . H e a r i n g may be i m p a i r e d a f t e r c o n t i n u e d exposure t o t h i s l e v e l of n o i s e . | 92 N o i s e e m i t t e d a t s o u r c e from an i n d i v i d u a l j c a r . | 95 R i s k of d e a f n e s s a f t e r c o n t i n u e d e x p o s u r e j t o t h i s n o i s e l e v e l . j 130 N o i s e e m i t t e d a t t h i s i n t e n s i t y b e g i n s t o j cause p a i n j S o u r c e s : adapted from A p p l e y a r d , D. e t a l . 1981. L i v a b l e S t r e e t s , B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , p. 252; and A n t o n i o u , J . 1971. E n v i r o n m e n t a l Management: P l a n n i n g f o r T r a f f i c . London: M c G r a w - H i l l , p. 63. 34 3.4 T r a f f i c C o m p o s i t i o n The c o m p o s i t i o n of the t r a f f i c u s i n g the s t r e e t w i l l a l s o a f f e c t whether or not i t i s p e r c e i v e d as an i r r i t a n t . C o m p o s i t i o n may e i t h e r r e f e r t o the o r i g i n - d e s t i n a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t r a f f i c ( i s i t through t r a f f i c or l o c a l l y g e n e r a t e d ? ) or the t y p e s of v e h i c l e s u s i n g the s t r e e t . As mentioned above, r e s i d e n t s do become concerned when a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the t r i p s a l o n g t h e i r s t r e e t a r e s h o r t - c u t s , as the s t r e e t f u n c t i o n s h o u l d s e r v e l o c a l t r i p s . R e g arding d i f f e r e n t v e h i c l e t y p e s , buses, heavy t r u c k s and m o t o r c y c l e s a r e most i r r i t a t i n g t o r e s i d e n t s because of the h i g h n o i s e l e v e l s , v i b r a t i o n , d i s t i n c t i v e fumes and h a z a r d s they a r e seen t o g e n e r a t e . 3.5 P l a n n i n g I m p l i c a t i o n s A m e l i o r a t i n g these t r a f f i c impacts i s a v i t a l p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n s i n c e the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i s p a r t i a l l y dependent upon the r e g u l a t i o n of t r a f f i c , v e h i c l e use and p a r k i n g . T r a f f i c impacts i n neighborhoods a r e , however, o f t e n symptomatic of l a r g e r s c a l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. I t would t h e r e f o r e seem f i t t i n g t o approach the i s s u e s of volume, speed, n o i s e , p o l l u t i o n and v i s u a l i n t r u s i o n a t t h e i r o r i g i n s r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c s o l u t i o n s . The range of remedies t o a l l e v i a t e these t r a f f i c impacts i s set f o r t h i n Table I I I . D e a l i n g w i t h t r a f f i c impacts on a 35 system-wide s c a l e i s c o s t l y and d i f f i c u l t to implement. In a d d i t i o n , t h e s e s o l u t i o n s may be n e i t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y nor i m m e d i a t e l y e f f e c t i v e a t the l o c a l l e v e l where impacts are f e l t most a c u t e l y . T r a f f i c c o n t r o l a t the neighborhood l e v e l has the advantage of b e i n g e a s i l y i n s t a l l e d and i m m e d i a t e l y e f f e c t i v e . I t s ever i n c r e a s i n g use as a method t o enhance the s a f e t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s does, however, generate f u r t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n s , as s t a t e d by A p p l e y a r d et a l . (1981: 11): P o l i c i e s p r o t e c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s a r e l o c a l p o l i c i e s . They s t a r t from the problems of the s m a l l -s c a l e environment of p e o p l e ' s homes. But i f w i d e l y a p p l i e d , they can a f f e c t r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and 'land use i s s u e s . I f , f o r i n s t a n c e , a l l neighborhoods i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a a r e defended from t h r o u g h t r a f f i c , the major s t r e e t system i s l i k e l y t o become o v e r l o a d e d . Should we i n c r e a s e t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y of t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t t h a t a l l o w s c o n g e s t i o n t o o c c u r , w i t h a l l the p a i n s t h a t e i t h e r c h o i c e e n t a i l s ? And how many people w i l l be w i l l i n g t o s h i f t t o p u b l i c t r a n s i t ? These are the new i s s u e s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g . Indeed these c h o i c e s w i l l need t o be made e v e n t u a l l y . In the meantime, neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s a l l o w some of the worst t r a f f i c impacts t o be a l l e v i a t e d a t the l o c a l l e v e l . A number of methods have been dev e l o p e d t o reduce the volume of through t r a f f i c , t r a f f i c speed and n o i s e , and t o reduce dangers on the r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t . Some have been more s u c c e s s f u l than o t h e r s . They are e x p l a i n e d b r i e f l y below and i n T a b l e IV. Table III - T r a f f i c impacts and planning responses TRAFFIC IMPACT PLANNING RESPONSES COMMENTS VOLUME Reduce volume o f a u t o m o b i l e s on the urban s t r e e t network by e n c o u r a g i n g t r a n s i t , w a l k i n g , c y c l i n g ; r e d u c e e x p e n d i t u r e on r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n -ance to i n c o n v e n i e n c e commuters; l i m i t downtown p a r k i n g . Use urban £ r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t o d i s c o u r -age s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n , i n c r e a s e r e s i d e n t i a l o p p o r t u n -i t i e s i n the i n n e r c i t y . Implement n e i g h b o r h o o d t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s to make t h r o u g h t r i p s i n c o n v e n i e n t i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e . On a c i t y - w i d e s c a l e , commuting by p r i v a t e a u t o m o b i l e can be d i s c o u r a g e d by r o a d t a x e s 6 s u b s i d i e s , down-town p a r k i n g c o s t s , h i g h o c c u p a n c y v e h i c l e l a n e s and s u b s i d i z e d t r a n s i t f a r e s . Some good r e s u l t s have been o b t a i n e d but t h e s e measures, as w e l l as a t t e m p t i n g to r e d u c e w o r k - t r i p s t h r o u g h c i t y p l a n n i n g , a r e d i f f i c u l t to implement s t r i n g e n t l y enough to s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e t r a f f i c volumes and t h r o u g h t r i p s . N e i g h b o r h o o d t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s a r e an e a s i l y i m plemented, e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e NOISE Reduce n o i s e a t s o u r c e by r e g u l a t e i n g the auto i n d u s t r y t o produce q u i e t e r v e h i c l e s . Use b u i l d i n g and s i t e d e s i g n to m i n i m i z e n o i s e , i . e . d o u b l e -g l a z e windows, use e a r t h berms, t r e e s . Reduce t r a f f i c volume on the s t r e e t . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s c a n n o t r e g u l a t e auto i n d u s t r y . S i t e d e s i g n more f e a s i b l e f o r new c o n s t r u c t i o n . N e i g h b o r -hood t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s r e d u c e n o i s e by r e d u c i n g t r a f f i c volume, l o w e r i n g s p e e d s and p r o h i b i t i n g heavy v e h i c l e s . SAFETY I n c r e a s e s t r e e t s a f e t y by c h a n g i n g d r i v e r b e h a v i o r t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . I n s t a l l s t o p s i g n s a t problem i n t e r s e c t i o n s . Use s t r e e t d e s i g n t o narrow l a n e s , add s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e , v a r y pavement m a t e r i a l s t o f a v o r p e d e s t r i a n s and c y c l i s t s and r e d u c e v e h i c l e s p e e d . Use t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s t o r e d u c e speed and volume. D r i v e r a t t i t u d e s change s l o w l y , a l t h o u g h c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o s a f e t y . Many l o c a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s do not meet volume w a r r a n t s f o r s t o p s i g n s . S i g n s o n l y r e d u c e speed a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n , may d e c r e a s e s a f e t y i f i n c r e a s e d i n s t a l l a t i o n c a u s e s a d i s r e g a r d f o r s i g n s p e r f o r m i n g v a l i d s a f e t y f u n c t i o n s . W o o n e r f - t y p e i n s t a l l -a t i o n s a r e c o s t l y . N e i g h b o r h o o d t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s a r e v e r y e f f e c t i v e ( r o a d humps, t r a f f i c c i r c l e s , d e v i c e s t o re d u c e volume and d i v e r t t r a f f i c ) . VISUAL INTRUSION Reduce t r a f f i c volume t h r o u g h c i t y - w i d e p o l i c y (see VOLUME) o r n e i g h b o r h o o d t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s . C o n f i n e heavy v e h i c l e s t o d e s i g n a t e d r o u t e s Implement r e s i d e n t i a l p a r k i n g p o l i c i e s where non-r e s i d e n t p a r k i n g i s a p r o b l e m . C r e a t e a sen s e o f n e i g h b o r h o o d and s h a r e d s p a c e t h r o u g h t r a f f i c man-agement and s t r e e t d e s i g n . W o o n e r f - t y p e improvements a r e c o s t l y . Truck r o u t e s and n e i g h b o r h o o d p a r k i n g p o l i c i e s have been implemented s u c c e s s f u l l y i n many c i t i e s . T r a f f i c managements s t r a t e g i e s a r e an e f f e c t i v e way to improve the v i s u a l q u a l i t y o f the n e i g h b o r h o o d and e n c o u r a g i n g n e i g h b o r -hood a c t i v i t i e s . POLLUTION Reduce t r a f f i c volume c i t y - w i d e ( s e e VOLUME). R e g u l a t e auto i n d u s t r y t o p r o d u c e l e s s p o l l u t i n g v e h i c l e s . R e q u i r e c i t y v e h i c l e i n s p e c t i o n s . P r o -h i b i t heavy v e h i c l e s from l o c a l s t r e e t s . Reduce l o c a l s t r e e t t r a f f i c volume t h r o u g h n e i g h b o r h o o d t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s c a n n o t r e g u l a t e auto i n d u s t r y . I n s p e c -t i o n s e n s u r e v e h i c l e s a r e w e l l - m a i n t a i n e d , t h u s l e s s p o l l u t i n g . T r u c k r o u t e s and r e d u c i n g volume on l o c a l s t r e e t s t h r o u g h d i v e r s i o n s t r a t e g i e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y e a sy to i m p l e m e n t . 37 4. TYPES OF NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC CONTROL MEASURES The p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e d some of the components of the neighborhood t r a f f i c problem. There a re a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o reduce e x t r a n e o u s t r a f f i c and e x c e s s i v e speeds, enhance s a f e t y and neighborhood amenity. These p h y s i c a l and r e g u l a t o r y measures w i l l r e c e i v e a b r i e f r e view h e r e . These t r a f f i c c o n t r o l measures, by r e d u c i n g the volume and speed of through t r a f f i c , i n c r e a s e s a f e t y and reduce n o i s e i n the neighborhood. O r l o b (1975) has e s t i m a t e d t h a t the a c c i d e n t r e d u c t i o n s i n S e a t t l e as a r e s u l t of t h e i r Neighborhood T r a f f i c C o n t r o l program r e s u l t e d i n c o s t s a v i n g s t o the C i t y of $20,000 per y e a r . By r e d u c i n g t h r o u g h t r a f f i c some s t r e e t maintenance c o s t s a r e a l s o reduced, a l t h o u g h the l o n g e r d i v e r s i o n r o u t e s may i n c r e a s e energy c o s t s f o r o t h e r s e r v i c e v e h i c l e s . In a d d i t i o n , by c o n f i n i n g c r o s s t r a f f i c on a r t e r i a l s t o s i g n a l l i z e d i n t e r s e c t i o n s , the flo w of t r a f f i c on the a r t e r i a l i s improved. There a r e , however, some severe o b j e c t i o n s t o neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l measures,. When t r a f f i c i s d i v e r t e d , f o r example, t h i s t r a f f i c may f i n d a l t e r n a t e r o u t e s on o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s i n s t e a d of a r t e r i a l s . T h i s may l e a d t o f u r t h e r r e q u e s t s f o r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l from o t h e r neighborhoods d e s i r i n g r e l i e f and e q u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t . D i v e r t e r s may be 38 BOUNDARY semi -d iver te r / —traf_f_ic s i g n a j _ CONTROL Entry restricted INTERNAL CONTROL \ diagonal d iver ters r J I Entry unrestricted Internal circulation modified to prevent direct travel through the neighborhood F i g u r e 5 - Types of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l systems 39 i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r emergency v e h i c l e s , s c h o o l bus r o u t e s and p u b l i c t r a n s i t , and l o n g d i v e r s i o n r o u t e s a re not i n the i n t e r e s t of energy c o n s e r v a t i o n . And f i n a l l y , i f not c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d they can be p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c o n v e n i e n t t o the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s they were d e s i g n e d f o r . 4.1 Neighborhood C o n t r o l Systems Three s t r a t e g i e s f o r systems of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l can be i d e n t i f i e d . S i n c e t r a f f i c problems a re u s u a l l y a r e a problems r a t h e r than s i t e s p e c i f i c ones, some d e v i c e s have an impact beyond t h e i r s i t e , w h i l e o t h e r s must be i n s t a l l e d as a p a r t of a system t o be i n any way e f f e c t i v e . These systems a re o u t l i n e d below and a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 5. 4.1.1 Boundary C o n t r o l These s t r a t e g i e s reduce t r a f f i c t r a v e l l i n g t h r ough the neighborhood by r e s t r i c t i n g e n t r y t o i t . C o n t r o l d e v i c e s i n c l u d e d i v e r t e r s or b a r r i e r s , NO ENTRY or NO TURN s i g n s a t the neighborhood b o u n d a r i e s . 4.1.2 I n t e r n a l C o n t r o l In t hese s t r a t e g i e s d r i v e r s a r e not r e s t r i c t e d from e n t e r i n g the neighborhood, but the i n t e r n a l s t r e e t system i s made i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r through t r i p s by the use of d i v e r t e r s or one-way mazes. The one-way system r e s t r i c t s e n t r i e s and f o r c e s t r a f f i c t o change d i r e c t i o n a t each i n t e r s e c t i o n . I n t e r n a l c o n t r o l systems have the d i s a d v a n t a g e of b e i n g c o n f u s i n g t o d r i v e r s . 40 4.1.3 Ad Hoc Systems Here no c l e a r system i s i n e f f e c t . The use of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of d e v i c e s and c i r c u l a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s o f t e n o c c u r s where t h e r e a r e i n c r e m e n t a l improvements, a g r e a t d e a l of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a complex s t r e e t p a t t e r n . 4.2 C o n t r o l D e v i c e s And T h e i r E f f e c t i v e n e s s The t y p e s of d e v i c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l a r e numerous, and e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e i r performance a r e not y e t complete. D i f f e r e n t d e v i c e s w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i f f e r e n t neighborhoods, depending on the n a t u r e of the problem, the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network, and d r i v e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E f f e c t i v e n e s s may v a r y . Any neighborhood may need t o employ more than one of these d e v i c e s to s u c c e s s f u l l y d e a l w i t h t h e i r problems. T r a f f i c c o n t r o l methods can be d i v i d e d i n t o two t y p e s : r e g u l a t o r y and p h y s i c a l . R e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s i n c l u d e STOP and YIELD s i g n s , NO ENTRY and no l e f t / r i g h t t u r n s i g n s , p o s t e d speed l i m i t s , t r u c k p r o h i b i t i o n s and t r a f f i c s i g n a l s . P h y s i c a l s o l u t i o n s i n c l u d e b a r r i e r s , d i v e r t e r s , c u l - d e - s a c s , speed bumps, rumble s t r i p s , c h o k e r s and s t r e e t n a r r o w i n g , t r a f f i c c i r c l e s and s t r e e t c l o s u r e s . In g e n e r a l , r e g u l a t o r y measures ar e not v e r y e f f e c t i v e ( e x c ept i n a r e a s w i t h a h i g h degree of a c c e p t a n c e f o r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l measures g e n e r a l l y ) , are e a s i l y v i o l a t e d and d i f f i c u l t t o e n f o r c e , but are i n e x p e n s i v e . P h y s i c a l c o n t r o l s are more e f f e c t i v e , but t h e i r major drawback i s c o s t . 41 A summary t a b l e of d e v i c e s and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s i n c l u d e d below (Table I V ) , w h i l e F i g u r e 6 i l l u s t r a t e s some of the c o n t r o l d e v i c e s . Intersection Cul-de-sac" Traffic Circle Star Diverter 4 i I T Semi-diverters 0 Diagonal, Diverter Street Narrowing r F i g u r e Some p h y s i c a l t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s Table IV - Neighborhood t r a f f i c control devices and t h e i r effectiveness DEVICE | VOLUME | SPEED NOISE SAFETY EMERGENCY VEHICLE ACCESS | COMMENTS C h o k e r s / N a r r o w i n g | | _ no p r o b l e m s 1 moderate t o h i g h c o s t I n t e r s e c t i o n C u l - d e - s a c 1 r e d u c e s |reduces r e d u c e s improves some i n c o n v e n i e n c e at f i r s t | c o s t l y ; s h i f t s a c c i d e n t s M i d - b l o c k C u l - d e - s a c |reduces | re d u c e s r e d u c e s improves some i n c o n v e n i e n c e at f i r s t | c o s t l y ; s h i f t s a c c i d e n t s D i a g o n a l D i v e r t e r s |reduces ! re d u c e s r e d u c e s improves some i n c o n v e n i e n c e | c o s t l y ; s h i f t s a c c i d e n t s S e m i - d i v e r t e r s | r e d u c e s | re d u c e s r e d u c e s improves no p r o b l e m s | c o s t l y ; s h i f t s a c c i d e n t s F o r c e d t u r n c h a n n e l i z a t i o n |reduces |reduces r e d u c e s improves c o n s t r a i n s a c c e s s |moderate c o s t Median B a r r i e r |reduces r e d u c e s improves c o n s t r a i n s a c c e s s | Rumble S t r i p s - | red u c e s i n c r e a s e s i mproves no e f f e c t |low c o s t ; i n t e r f e r e s w i t |snow plows Speed Bumps ! = | i n c o n s i s -t e n t i n c r e a s e s r e d u c e s no e f f e c t . ilow c o s t ; i n t e r f e r e s w i t ,snow plows; bumpy r i d e Road Humps/Undulations = |reduces no e f f e c t 11 ow c o s t i j c o n t r a d i c t - | c o s t l y ; f r e q u e n t l y T r a f f i c C i r c l e s i 1 r e d u c e s = o r y r e s u l t s m i n o r p r o b l e m s | v a n d a l i s e d i 1 re d u c e s c o n t r a d i c t - | S t e p S i g n s i |at s i g n i n c r e a s e s o r y r e s u l t s no e f f e c t |very low c o s t i I | d i f f i c u l t t o e n f o r c e ; P o s t e d Speed L i m i t s i | = = no e f f e c t | o f t en v i o l a t e d i j [ d i f f i c u l t t o e n f o r c e ; Turn P r o h i b i t i o n s | r e d u c e s | re d u c e s r e d u c e s i n c r e a s e s no e f f e c t | o f t e n v i o l a t e d S o u r c e : a d a p t e d from S m i t h , D.T.; A p p l e y a r d , D. et a l . 1980. S t a t e o f th e A r t : R e s i d e n t i a l T r a f f i c Management. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department o f T r a n s p o r t , F e d e r a l Highway A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , pp. 22-23. 43 4.2.1 Stop S i g n s Once used o n l y t o ensure s a f e t y a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s , STOP and YIELD s i g n s have become p o p u l a r methods t o reduce t r a f f i c speed and volume i n neighborhoods due t o low c o s t and ease of i n s t a l l a t i o n . As t o t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r t h i s purpose, M a r c o n i (1977) found t h a t w h i l e s t o p s i g n s were v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n s l o w i n g down t r a f f i c §_t the i n t e r s e c t i o n , t h e i r range was l i m i t e d . I t i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e i r e f f e c t on volume i s n e g l i g i b l e , and t h a t i n d i s c r i m i n a t e placement of s t o p s i g n s causes d i s r e s p e c t f o r those s t o p s i g n s which p e r f o r m a v a l i d s a f e t y f u n c t i o n . The poor performance of non-warranted s t o p s i g n s i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n study r e s u l t s from t h e C i t y of Windsor (1977) and S e a t t l e ( O r l o b 1977). Both found average speeds unchanged, as d e l a y s a t the s i g n s were made up by i n c r e a s e d speeds between i n t e r s e c t i o n s . Non-observance was a l s o common. On F a i r v i e w Avenue E a s t i n S e a t t l e over 3 l o c a t i o n s , between 49 and 62 per cent of the d r i v e r s made complete s t o p s ; between 32 and 47 per cent made r o l l i n g s t o p s ; between 2 and 5 per cent d i d not s t o p at a l l . S i m i l a r l y i n Windsor, over 8 non-warranted four-way s t o p i n t e r s e c t i o n s , 25 per c e n t of d r i v e r s came t o a f u l l s t o p , 75 per cent came t o a r o l l i n g s t o p . The low observance r a t e caused the c i t y t o f e a r t h a t the s i g n s were l u r i n g p e d e s t r i a n s i n t o a f a l s e sense of s e c u r i t y . 44 4.2.2 No E n t r y S i g n s / T u r n P r o h i b i t i o n s O f t e n i n e f f e c t d u r i n g peak h o u r s , t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e of dubious e f f e c t i v e n e s s . D i s o b e d i e n c e i s common, e s p e c i a l l y a t n i g h t , and m o t o r i s t s may use l e s s d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n s or e f f e c t hazardous maneuvers t o make the t u r n . These s i g n s a r e , however, the most w i d e l y used d e v i c e i n Montgomery County, Md. and y i e l d good r e s u l t s (Kanz and Keim 1979). T h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n Ottawa has been g r e a t l y enhanced when accompanied by t u r n c h a n n e l i z a t i o n on a r t e r i a l s or good enforcement ( M a l i n s k y 1979: 146). 4.2.3 Speed L i m i t s S p e c i a l r e s i d e n t i a l speed l i m i t s a r e not a ve r y e f f e c t i v e means t o reduce speed or volume, s i n c e enforcement i s d i f f i c u l t . 4.2.4 D i v e r t e r s , B a r r i e r s And C u l - d e - s a c s These c o n t r o l s a re e f f e c t i v e a t r e d u c i n g t r a f f i c volume, i n t u r n r e d u c i n g n o i s e and enhancing s a f e t y . In B e r k e l e y however, over a network of 40 d i v e r t e r s , i n j u r y a c c i d e n t s i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y due t o the v e h i c l e maneuvers n e c e s s i t a t e d by the d i v e r t e r s , w h i l e t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s d e c r e a s e d (Sinemus 1979). They a r e best used as p a r t of a system of d e v i c e s so as t o pr e v e n t s h i f t i n g the t r a f f i c problem t o nearby r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s . Major drawbacks i n c l u d e i n c o n v e n i e n c e f o r emergency and s e r v i c e v e h i c l e s as w e l l as f o r the r e s i d e n t s they were d e s i g n e d f o r . 45 4.2.5 S e m i - D i v e r t e r s Designed t o p r e v e n t t r a v e l i n one d i r e c t i o n o n l y , they a r e o f t e n p l a c e d at i n t e r s e c t i o n s t o p r o h i b i t e n t r a n c e t o the neighborhood. Emergency v e h i c l e s can d r i v e i n the "wrong" d i r e c t i o n , s i r e n s s o unding, w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y . They can be q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l a t r e d u c i n g t r a f f i c volume ( a l t h o u g h they a r e e a s i l y v i o l a t e d ) , and t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h l o c a l c i r c u l a t i o n makes them a c c e p t a b l e t o most r e s i d e n t s . 4.2.6 T r a f f i c C i r c l e s And I s l a n d s These are the p r e f e r r e d method of r e d u c i n g speeds and a c c i d e n t s a t neighborhood i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n S e a t t l e (Dare and Schoneman 1982). W h i l e the f i r s t permanent i n s t a l l a t i o n s c o s t up t o $30,000 (U.S.) per c i r c l e , the C i t y has r e d e s i g n e d the c i r c l e s so t h a t i n s t a l l a t i o n now c o s t s o n l y $5000 per c i r c l e . A c c i d e n t s have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced because of the slower t r a f f i c . The w i d t h of the approach tends t o determine v e h i c l e speed a t the approach t o the c i r c l e , w h i l e the n e c e s s i t y t o maneuver around the i s l a n d keeps v e h i c l e speeds below 32 k i l o m e t e r s per hour (20 m i l e s per hour) up t o 46 meters (150 f e e t ) beyond the c i r c l e (Marconi 1977). Use of t r a f f i c c i r c l e s a l o n e ( r a t h e r than i n a system u s i n g o t h e r d e v i c e s ) does not seem t o have much of an e f f e c t on t r a f f i c volume. 4.2.7 S t r e e t N a r r o w i n g And Chokers W h i l e b e l i e v e d t o slow t r a f f i c , M a r c o n i (1977) found t h a t n a r r o w i n g l a n e s t o 3.3 meters (11 f e e t ) d i d not r e s u l t i n any d e c r e a s e i n speed. Chokers a l s o have dubious m e r i t and can be hazardous i n t h e m s e l v e s , a l t h o u g h they may be e f f e c t i v e i n 46 c o n t r o l l i n g heavy t r u c k t r a f f i c ( A p p l e y a r d e t a l . 1981: 300). 4.2.8 Speed Bumps And Rumble S t r i p s Speed bumps have been r e c o g n i z e d as u n a c c e p t a b l e neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s s i n c e A l l e n and Walsh (1975) found t h a t they were i n e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g both speed and volume, i n c r e a s e d n o i s e , and gave an u n c o m f o r t a b l e bumpy r i d e f o r d r i v e r s of emergency v e h i c l e s and o t h e r heavy v e h i c l e s . They pose a d e f i n i t e h a z a r d t o b i c y c l e s and m o t o r c y c l e s , and a p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d t o a l l o t h e r t y p e s of v e h i c l e s . Rumble s t r i p s ( g r a v e l and epoxy, l e s s than 4 c e n t i m e t e r s h i g h ) a re even n o i s i e r , t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s r a n g i n g from poor t o good. T e s t e d i n C a l g a r y and Ottawa, t h e i r e f f e c t was n e g l i g i b l e , and r e s i d e n t s r e q u e s t e d t h e i r removal because of the n o i s e they g e n e r a t e d ( S m i t h , A p p l e y a r d e t a l . 1980: 2 9 ) . C o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s i n S e a t t l e of r a i s e d c r o s s w a l k s , rumble s t r i p s and c h e c k e r b o a r d pavement a l s o n o t e d the p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d of the s e d e v i c e s ( C i t y of S e a t t l e 1978). A s i m i l a r d e v i c e , road humps or u n d u l a t i o n s a r e g e n t l y s l o p i n g bumps no more than 10 c e n t i m e t e r s h i g h a t the m i d p o i n t and 3.6 meters i n l e n g t h . T e s t e d i n the U n i t e d Kingdom, they were found e f f e c t i v e a t r e d u c i n g t r a f f i c speed and f l o w , and c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r e d u c t i o n i n a c c i d e n t s i n a l l t e s t l o c a t i o n s (Sumner et a l 1978). They have, a f t e r 4 y e a r s of t e s t i n g , been made l e g a l i n the U.K. and are e x p e c t e d t o be i n s t a l l e d on hundreds of r e s i d e n t i a l roads ( C o u n c i l f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Urban L i a i s o n 1981b). 47 4.3 Summary The w i d e s p r e a d use of t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s such as t h o s e d e s c r i b e d above i s q u i t e r e c e n t . R i g o r o u s t e s t i n g and e v a l u a t i o n of d e v i c e s , as was c a r r i e d out f o r road humps i n B r i t a i n , i s a l s o r e c e n t but has been a b l e t o p i n p o i n t p r o m i s i n g as w e l l as dangerous d e v i c e s . The d e s i g n of t h e s e d e v i c e s can v a r y w i d e l y , and s t a n d a r d s have y e t t o be r e c o g n i z e d i n the manuals of u n i f o r m t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s used i n each j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h i s makes many r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c p l a n s easy t o c h a l l e n g e i n c o u r t depending upon the e x t e n t of powers d e l e g a t e d t o l o c a l governments. The c i t y of B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , was f a c e d w i t h removing i t s comprehensive t r a f f i c management scheme (which i n c l u d e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 d i v e r t e r s ) a f t e r i t was s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e d on the grounds t h a t the d i v e r t e r s were not t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s as d e f i n e d i n the S t a t e ' s Manual of  U n i f o r m C o n t r o l D e v i c e s . The d e c i s i o n was o v e r t u r n e d on a p p e a l (van Antwerp and M i l l e r 1981; A p p l e y a r d e t a l 1981), a l t h o u g h a 1982 r u l i n g by the C a l i f o r n i a Supreme Court u p h e l d the o r i g i n a l Alameda County S u p e r i o r Court d e c i s i o n . 48 I I I . THE RESIDENTIAL TRAFFIC PLANNING CONTEXT 1. INTRODUCTION In g e n e r a l , much of the work t o date on r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management has e i t h e r d e a l t w i t h the development of b e t t e r t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o d e t e r t r a f f i c and s t a n d a r d s t o judge when t r a f f i c and i t s e f f e c t s have become e x c e s s i v e . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , however, i s t o determine e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . E x c l u d i n g the work of A p p l e y a r d e t a l . (1981) and Smith, A p p l e y a r d et a l . (1980), v e r y few c a s e s have been m o n i t o r e d and e v a l u a t e d t h o r o u g h l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h neighborhood t r a f f i c problems, implementing and m o n i t o r i n g s o l u t i o n s , arid p l a c i n g l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c t r a f f i c management w i t h i n a broader s t r a t e g i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g framework. The d i f f i c u l t y i n d e v e l o p i n g a g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g framework f o r d e a l i n g w i t h neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l l i e s i n i t s (sometimes) d u a l n a t u r e . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , l o c a l t r a f f i c c o n t r o l p l a n s may have e f f e c t s o u t s i d e the neighborhood r a n g i n g from n e g l i g i b l e t o p r o f o u n d . For t h i s r e a s o n , some p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s can ta k e p l a c e a t the neighborhood l e v e l a l o n e , u s i n g p r i n c i p l e s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p e r t a i n i n g t o p r o c e d u r e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. These p r o c e d u r e s seldom account f o r e f f e c t s on n o n - r e s i d e n t s or c i t y - w i d e p o l i c i e s . Where t h e p a r t i c u l a r t r a f f i c problem i s t r u l y l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c , or one t h a t i s q u a n t i f i a b l y dangerous, t h i s l o c a l ' b i a s ' i n p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s i s p r o b a b l y w a r r a n t e d , a broader 49 p e r s p e c t i v e b e i n g unduly complex. But t h e r e may a l s o be c a s e s which do have impacts beyond the neighborhood b o u n d a r i e s , and c i t y - w i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n g o a l s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g s i d e l o c a l g o a l s . The q u e s t i o n s p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e : • What are the p l a n n i n g frameworks f o r neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s ? How a r e they s i m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t ? • Are p l a n n i n g frameworks d e v e l o p e d f o r the l o c a t i o n -s p e c i f i c components? Are they i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o c i t y -wide t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s ? I f so, how? o When does a neighborhood c o n t r o l s t r a t e g y b e g i n t o have s i g n i f i c a n t impacts beyond i t s b o u n d a r i e s ? • What form of a n a l y s i s would best i n c o r p o r a t e the l o c a l l e v e l p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s i n t o a p l a n n i n g framework c o m p r i s i n g c i t y - w i d e c o n c e r n s ? The c i t y - w i d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r l o c a l a c t i o n s as they p e r t a i n t o the a c c e s s i b i l i t y - e n v i r o n m e n t c o n f l i c t i n urban r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a r e those of e f f i c i e n c y and e q u i t y . These c o n c e p t s a r e e x p l a i n e d below. 2. EFFICIENCY AND THE ACCESSIBILITY-ENVIRONMENT CONFLICT Access t o p r o p e r t y ( r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l or o t h e r w i s e ) and ease of m o b i l i t y between s i t e s a r e v i t a l components of the urban system and i t s economy. The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network s e r v e s b o t h of these f u n c t i o n s , i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e by way of a p e r v a s i v e network of l o c a l s t r e e t s 50 and l a n e s , and i n the l a t t e r case by systems of a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s and expressways. Because of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , however, n e g a t i v e e x t e r n a l i t i e s (such as n o i s e , s a f e t y h a z a r d s , p o l l u t i o n , and v i s u a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t r u s i o n ) a r e imposed upon the p o p u l a t i o n . In t u r n , urban l a n d uses and the b u i l t form tend t o c o n s t r a i n the e f f i c i e n t f l o w of t r a f f i c by r e d u c i n g speed and l i m i t i n g p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y . Up t o a p o i n t , t h e s e i n e f f i c i e n c i e s a r e t o l e r a t e d by the community. C o n f l i c t g e n e r a l l y ensues when measures t o make t r a f f i c f l o w more e f f i c i e n t l y r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t t r a d e - o f f s of r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , or when improvements t o r e s i d e n t i a l amenity (by t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s , f o r example) cause p e r c e i v e d i n c o n v e n i e n c e t o m o t o r i s t s . Making such t r a d e -o f f s i n v o l v e s an " e f f i c i e n c y " d e c i s i o n ; t h a t i s , do the b e n e f i t s of an a l t e r n a t i v e exceed the d i s a d v a n t a g e s i t imposes on the commun i t y i Pendakur and Brown (1970:44-45) i l l u s t r a t e how p l a n n i n g f o r m o t o r i s t s and p e d e s t r i a n s o f t e n c o n t a i n s c o n f l i c t i n g a c t i o n s . Those changes d e s i g n e d t o meet o b j e c t i v e s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y ( p e d e s t r i a n s a f e t y , c o n v e n i e n c e , comfort and appearance) may reduce motor v e h i c l e a c c e s s i b i l i t y ( m o t o r i s t s a f e t y , c o n v e n i e n c e , p e n e t r a t i o n and v i s u a l harmony), and v i c e v e r s a . Community g o a l s and p r e f e r e n c e s w i l l form a b a s i s f o r how a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o m o t o r i s t c o n v e n i e n c e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y w i l l be t r a d e d o f f a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r . 51 3 . EQUITY—DISTRIBUTIONAL CONSEQUENCES E q u i t y d e a l s w i t h the l o c a t i o n of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s . While e f f i c i e n c y can be thought of as t o t a l b e n e f i t s b e i n g g r e a t e r than t o t a l c o s t s , e q u i t y i s concerned w i t h who i s p a y i n g f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvements and who i s r e a p i n g the b e n e f i t s . When t r a d i n g o f f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y and r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , two d i s t i n c t f a c e t s of e q u i t y need t o be c o n s i d e r e d . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , i n c r e a s e s i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y d e s i g n e d to enhance the convenience of a u t o m o b i l e d r i v e r s i n g e n e r a l may be a c h i e v e d a t the expense of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y i n a p a r t i c u l a r neighborhood. Or c o n v e r s e l y , t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s i n a p a r t i c u l a r neighborhood g i v e the b e n e f i t of i n c r e a s e d s a f e t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y t o r e s i d e n t s a t a c o s t t o m o t o r i s t s i n g e n e r a l , as t a x p a y e r s and perhaps i n terms of i n c r e a s e d t r a v e l t imes. The second i n s t a n c e c o n c e r n s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of n e g a t i v e e x t e r n a l i t i e s and p r o t e c t i v e measures between neighborhoods. Depending on a d j a c e n t l a n d u s e s , the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network and perhaps the soci o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the neighborhood ( s i n c e the e f f e c t s of through t r a f f i c a r e p e r c e i v e d as w e l l as r e a l ) , some s t r e e t s and neighborhoods w i l l s u f f e r g r e a t l y from the e f f e c t s of n o n - l o c a l through t r a f f i c , o t h e r s h a r d l y a t a l l . D e c i d i n g how t o weigh each i n t e r e s t and t r a d e them o f f a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t , s i n c e an 52 " e q u i t a b l e " d i s t r i b u t i o n of n e g a t i v e impacts or p r o t e c t i v e measures i s a v a l u e determined c o n c e p t . 3.1 D i s t r i b u t i o n a l E f f e c t s And The Role Of C o s t - B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s The s t a n d a r d t h e o r e t i c a l t o o l t o c l a r i f y t h e s e t r a d e - o f f s , and r e a l i z e g o a l s of d i s t r i b u t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y and e q u i t y i s c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s . Commonly used i n B r i t a i n t o e v a l u a t e l a n d use or t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g schemes (see f o r example L i c h f i e l d and Chapman (1968) or L e i t c h (1978) f o r a c t u a l e v a l u a t i o n methods), t h i s framework seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o weigh the advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o each i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y , f o r each a l t e r n a t i v e , t o a t t a i n o p t i m a l l e v e l s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y and r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m i n g the a n a l y s i s i n a r i g o r o u s way i s d i f f i c u l t , time consuming and c o s t l y , and may indeed g e n e r a t e dubious r e s u l t s . One of the f i r s t o b s t a c l e s t o a p p l y i n g a c o s t - b e n e f i t framework t o the e v a l u a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management schemes i s d e f i n i n g the scope of the e f f e c t s . A s i d e from the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , who are the a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s , and t o what degree a r e they a f f e c t e d (and i s t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t enough f o r the e f f e c t s t o be i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s ) ? A second problem i s v a l u i n g the e f f e c t s of such a program. I t i s d i f f i c u l t enough to v a l u e time s a v i n g s ( H a r r i s o n and Quarmby 1972) and s a f e t y h a z a r d s (Mishan 1972), these v a l u e s weighted and d i s c o u n t e d f o r the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d . In 53 a d d i t i o n , however, are a number of " i n t a n g i b l e s " or p e r c e p t u a l e f f e c t s ( d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ) which seem t o d e f y b e i n g q u a n t i f i e d or o b j e c t i v e l y v a l u e d . R e l a t e d t o problems of v a l u a t i o n i s the q u e s t i o n of whether or not the l e v e l s of time s a v i n g s or i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s a r e r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o even m e r i t i n c l u s i o n i n the a n a l y s i s . T h i r d l y , the c o s t - b e n e f i t method of a c c o u n t i n g compares and a g g r e g a t e s a l l c o s t s , but c o s t s and b e n e f i t s may a p p l y t o d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s i n which case they cannot be s i m p l y compared and added ( H i l l 1973: 218). In sum t h e n , the c o s t - b e n e f i t framework would be an i n v a l u a b l e t o o l t o c l a r i f y the i s s u e s and reduce the u n c e r t a i n t y o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n d e c i s i o n s over r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management, but the c o n d i t i o n s f o r making c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s most u s e f u l are a b s e n t . Weiss (1972: 88) l i s t s t hese as (1) when e x i s t i n g d a t a (or e a s i l y c o l l e c t i b l e or c r e d i b l y r e c o n s t r u c t i b l e data) i n d i c a t e the scope and degree of program impact; (2) when the main b e n e f i t s can be reduced t o d o l l a r terms w i t h o u t o v e r l y fancy guesswork or n e g l e c t of c r u c i a l e f f e c t s : and, a t l e a s t up t o now, (3) when g e n e r a l b e n e f i t l e v e l r a t h e r than d i s t r i b u t i o n a l change of b e n e f i t s i s the main c r i t e r i o n . The d e s i r a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y of r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management programs can s t i l l , however, be d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g l e s s r i g o r o u s t y p e s of c o s t - b e n e f i t frameworks, such as a t a b l e showing the i n c i d e n c e and degree of impacts a p r o j e c t w i l l g e n e r ate (Manheim 1979). The s i m p l e s t and best method of a s s e s s i n g t h e s e t y p e s of t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g programs, however, may 54 s t i l l be the degree t o which the p l a n meets e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t g o a l s s e t f o r the c i t y or m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h i s d e r i v e s from the Goals-Achievement M a t r i x d e v e l o p e d by H i l l (1968, 1973). In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r a number of cases w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d and i n c l u d e d i n a s i m i l a r t y p e of m a t r i x . Some, such as Ottawa ( M a l i n s k y 1979), have c l e a r s t a t e m e n t s i n an o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n which s t i p u l a t e s t h a t neighborhoods have a r i g h t t o be p r o t e c t e d from e x c e s s t r a f f i c . The comprehensive improvements t o i n t e r s e c t i o n s and neighborhood s t r e e t s i n S e a t t l e a r e a r e s u l t of c o n c e r n f o r s a f e t y (Dare and Schoneman 1982). Most o f t e n , however, s t r e e t improvements a r e i n i t i a t e d by way of c i t i z e n c o m p l a i n t or p e t i t i o n on an ad hoc b a s i s i n the absence of c l e a r p o l i c y g u idance. 4. COMPONENTS OF A NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC PLANNING FRAMEWORK To ensure t h a t l o c a l a r e a p l a n s a r e o p t i m a l i n terms of e f f i c i e n c y / e q u i t y or achievement of community g o a l s , an a p p r o p r i a t e framework s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d t o d e a l w i t h neighborhood t r a f f i c i m p a c t s . T h i s framework s h o u l d be f l e x i b l e enough t o d e a l w i t h a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c t r a f f i c p roblems, y e t be a b l e t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e whether or not c i t y - w i d e g o a l s are b e i n g complemented, or whether system e f f e c t s and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of impacts i s a p p r o p r i a t e . To b e g in w i t h , however, the framework s h o u l d be d e f i n e d f o r the l o c a l l e v e l because t h i s i s where t r a f f i c impacts b e g i n t o 55 be f e l t . I t s components a r e d i s c u s s e d below and summarized F i g u r e 7. POLICIES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES GOALS AND OBJECTIVES PROGRAM FOR RESPONDING TO REQUESTS OR INITIATING ACTION FUNDING FORMULA STAFF EVALU/tTES S ANALYSES; GENERATES ALTERNATIVES CITIZEN INVOLVEMENT MODIFIES THESE ROLES LOCAL OFFICIALS GOVERN PROCEDURE £ FINAL CHOICE ^ PUBLIC HEARINGS TO APPROVE TRIAL PLAN ± INSTALL TRIAL PLAN * MONITOR AND EVALUATE PLAN; SURVEY RESIDENTS FINAL HEARIN MODI FIE 3 TO APPROVE D PLAN \ INSTALL PERMANENT PLAN F i g u r e 7 - A c o n c e p t u a l framework p l a n n i n g f o r r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c 56 4.1 P o l i c i e s And G u i d i n g P r i n c i p l e s The importance of h a v i n g a broad p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e as a framework f o r these s p e c i f i c a c t i o n cannot be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . W i t h o u t them (they may be e x p l i c i t , as p a r t of a r e g i o n a l or m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a p l a n n i n g document, or i m p l i c i t ) the c r e d i b i l i t y of the r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management program i s j e o p a r d i z e d , s i n c e c i t y - w i d e support f o r the s e a c t i o n s has not been a s s u r e d . These p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s may be g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s (such as s e e k i n g t o p r o t e c t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s from d e g r e d a t i o n by s t r e e t t r a f f i c ) , and s p e c i f i c measures need not be d e f i n e d . 4.2 S p e c i f i c G o a l s And O b j e c t i v e s Once a p o s i t i o n has been a r t i c u l a t e d by an endorsed p o l i c y , more s p e c i f i c g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s can be e a s i l y f o r m u l a t e d . In S e a t t l e , f o r example, a p o l i c y t o enhance the s a f e t y of r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s has suggested the g o a l of a t t e n d i n g t o i n t e r s e c t i o n s whose a c c i d e n t r a t e s a r e h i g h e r than the c i t y - w i d e average (Dare and Schoneman 1982). Other o b j e c t i v e s may i n c l u d e r e d u c i n g e x t r a n e o u s t r a f f i c volume, r e d u c i n g speed, r e d u c i n g n o i s e l e v e l s and v i s u a l i n t r u s i o n , and m i n i m i z i n g r e s i d e n t i n c o n v e n i e n c e and m o t o r i s t d e l a y s . Lack of s p e c i f i c , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e s makes the d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of an a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y more d i f f i c u l t , s i n c e p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e w i l l be p o o r l y r e a l i z e d when the r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d the p r o p o s a l s a re u n c l e a r . R e s i d e n t s s h o u l d , i n a d d i t i o n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the advantages of the 57 s t r e e t management s t r a t e g y , u n d e r s t a n d the n a t u r e of the t r a f f i c problem they are e x p e r i e n c i n g , the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s b e h i n d a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s , and the s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n of the c o n t r o l d e v i c e s recommended t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r t r a f f i c problem ( f o r example, t r a f f i c c i r c l e s slow t r a f f i c but do not a f f e c t volume, s t o p s i g n s are i n e f f e c t i v e f o r b o t h speed and volume r e d u c t i o n ) . P o o r l y a r t i c u l a t e d o b j e c t i v e s a l s o r e s u l t i n o v e r s i m p l i f i e d p e r c e p t i o n s of the t r a f f i c problem and i t s s o l u t i o n . T h i s l e a v e s l o c a l governments p o o r l y p r e p a r e d t o f i n d a range of s o l u t i o n s t o meet o b j e c t i v e s . B r i n d l e (1981: 191) i d e n t i f i e s t h i s as a common problem f o r many A u s t r a l i a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Here the n o n - l o c a l v e h i c l e i s g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d as the problem, and the s o l u t i o n has been " s t o p i t ! " , u s u a l l y by means of h a s t i l y i n s t a l l e d s t r e e t c l o s u r e s . As a r e s u l t , many att e m p t s a t r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management have been a b o r t e d due to the d i f f i c u l t y of implementing such a s i n g l e - m i n d e d s o l u t i o n . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e r e i s g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y i n both i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and t y p e s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the e x c l u s i o n of such t r a f f i c management d e v i c e s from the v a r i o u s manuals of u n i f o r m t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s . Thus the r e q u i r e d w a r r a n t s and d e s i g n s of d i v e r t e r s , t r a f f i c c i r c l e s , speed bumps, u n d u l a t i o n s and o t h e r measures have not been s t a n d a r d i s e d . T h i s has l e d some communities t o d e v i s e independent w a r r a n t s (minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s i n terms of average d a i l y t r a f f i c volume or a c c i d e n t s i n one y e a r , f o r example) which must be met b e f o r e improvements a r e c o n s i d e r e d . In Montgomery County, M a r y l a n d , 58 f o r example, w a r r a n t s have been d e v i s e d f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of multi-way s t o p c o n t r o l s a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a l t h o u g h s t o p s i g n s are i n e f f e c t i v e f o r speed c o n t r o l , n e i t h e r the w a r r a n t s of the s t a t e manual nor p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s a l o n e were s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h e i r c r i t e r i a c o n s i s t of (1) 60-40% volume s p l i t f o r four-way i n t e r s e c t i o n s ; (2) 75-25% volume s p l i t f o r three-way i n t e r s e c t i o n s ; (3) more than t h r e e c o r r e c t i b l e a c c i d e n t s i n one y e a r ; (4) unique d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; and (5) the s t r e e t s must be a t l e a s t c o l l e c t o r s t r e e t s . T h i s s e t of w a r r a n t s a l l o w s g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y t han the manual, but p r e v e n t s the i n s t a l l a t i o n of s t o p s i g n s on a s o l e l y p o l i t i c a l b a s i s (Kanz and Keim 1979: 150-151). T h i s example r e p r e s e n t s a s p e c i f i c way i n which p r i o r i t i e s may be s e t and o b j e c t i v e s a t t a i n e d . Because of the l a c k of guidance i n the s t a n d a r d manuals, i t may be a prudent s t r a t e g y f o r i n d i v i d u a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s t o c a r e f u l l y d e v i s e a s e t of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l w a r r a n t s , based on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t r e e t network c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , d r i v e r b e h a v i o r and community a t t i t u d e s . In t h i s way the i n s t a l l a t i o n of d e v i c e s on the b a s i s of p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l o n e i s a v o i d e d , and ensures t h a t the d e v i c e s p e r f o r m a v a l i d t r a f f i c c o n t r o l or t r a f f i c s a f e t y f u n c t i o n . Another consequence of u s i n g measures not c o v e r e d i n the d e s i g n a t e d manuals i s a g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y of l e g a l a c t i o n over the i n s t a l l a t i o n of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s . T h i s was the s i t u a t i o n i n B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , where an e x t e n s i v e area-wide t r a f f i c management p l a n was i n v o k e d . In 1977, i n the case of 59 Rumford et a l . v. C i t y of B e r k e l e y , the t r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n s t r a t e g y was s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a l l e n g e d i n the S t a t e S u p e r i o r Court on the grounds t h a t the d i v e r s i o n d e v i c e s were not s p e c i f i e d i n the Manual of U n i f o r m T r a f f i c C o n t r o l D e v i c e s of the S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a . In many j u r i s d i c t i o n s the i s s u e of l e g a l i t y i s one not y e t c l e a r l y r e s o l v e d , and thus t r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n p l a n s must be d e v e l o p e d and implemented w i t h g r e a t c a r e . Van Antwerp and M i l l e r suggest t h a t t o a v o i d problems of t h i s n a t u r e , the words " t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s " s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , and the terms " c h a n n e l i z a t i o n d e v i c e s " or " d i v e r s i o n d e v i c e s " be s u b s t i t u t e d . Even more i m p o r t a n t l y , the e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and by-laws of the m u n i c i p a l i t y s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y r e v i e w e d , and a l l l e g a l i s s u e s c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e t h e s e p l a n s are implemented (1981: 48). 4.3 P r i o r i t i e s And Fund A l l o c a t i o n D e s i g n a t i n g p r i o r i t y a r e a s i s c r i t i c a l t o ensure some measure of e q u i t y i n the a l l o c a t i o n of funds t o enhance neighborhoods by implementing a r e a t r a f f i c p l a n s . The o r d e r i n which a r e a s w i l l r e c e i v e h e l p s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d , depending on s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s . In t h i s way, funds can be a l l o c a t e d f i r s t t o those a r e a s s u f f e r i n g the most due t o the e f f e c t s of t r a f f i c . Were the c i t y t o r e l y on p e t i t i o n s and c i t i z e n r e q u e s t s a l o n e as a b a s i s f o r a c t i o n , a r e a s l e s s v o c a l , l e s s aware of the s e r i o u s n e s s of the s a f e t y h a z a r d i n t h e i r community, but h a v i n g some of the worst problems, may not r e c e i v e prompt or adequate 60 a t t e n t i o n . ( P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the p r o c e d u r e based on p e t i t i o n may seem more d e m o c r a t i c and e f f e c t i v e , as l o c a l governments thus appear t o be more r e s p o n s i b l e t o the needs of t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s . ) S i m i l a r l y w i t h a f u n d i n g f o r m u l a i n e f f e c t , a d e s i g n a t e d fund r e p l e n i s h e d y e a r l y c o u l d ensure t h a t neighborhood t r a f f i c management was m a i n t a i n e d as an ongoing program, r a t h e r than b e i n g t a c k l e d on an ad hoc, i s s u e - b y - i s s u e b a s i s . I t a l s o a c c e n t u a t e s the importance of s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s , so t h a t the program can be c o s t - e f f e c t i v e . 4.4 P l a n F o r m u l a t i o n P r o c e d u r e To be of g r e a t e s t e f f e c t , s t a f f s h o u l d have a s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e f o r a n a l y z i n g problems w a r r a n t i n g neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s and d e v i s i n g s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e problems. T h i s s h o u l d comprise the i n t e r a c t i o n of t h r e e groups: (1) the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f ; (2) the c i t i z e n s ; and (3) t h e e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s . As Manheim s t a t e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n s encompass an e v a l u a t i o n component and a c h o i c e component, e v a l u a t i o n b e i n g the a c t i v i t y of examining the a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s i n l i g h t of p o s s i b l e g o a l s , a s s e s s i n g the r e l a t i v e d e s i r a b i l i t y of each a c t i o n , and summarizing the key i s s u e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d by i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s i n r e a c h i n g a d e c i s i o n . C h o i c e i s the a c t i v i t y of r e a c h i n g a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n as to, which of the a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s ( i f any) t o implement; c h o i c e t a k e s as i n p u t the r e s u l t s of e v a l u a t i o n (1979: 331). Thus the p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e e v a l u a t o r s , the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s are d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , and c i t i z e n s or i n t e r e s t groups o p e r a t e t o 61 modify the a c t i o n s of the f i r s t two groups. 4.4.1 The Role Of The P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a f f The r o l e of t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s (such as p l a n n e r s and e n g i n e e r s ) i s a c r i t i c a l one. I t i s t h e i r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and knowledge of the s u b j e c t a r e a which a l l o w s the g e n e r a t i o n of a range of s o l u t i o n s t o r e a l i z e s t a t e d g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s or s o l v e problems a r t i c u l a t e d by the community. T h e i r r o l e i s p r i m a r i l y an a n a l y t i c a l one, where the o b j e c t i v e of t h e i r a n a l y s i s i s t o c l a r i f y the i s s u e s t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d by d e c i s i o n makers, t o a s s i s t them i n r e a c h i n g a d e c i s i o n on a c o u r s e of a c t i o n (Manheim 1979: 330). T h i s i s indeed a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n , f o r when a n a l y s e s are c a r r i e d out s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and r a t i o n a l l y , u s i n g the r e l e v a n t d a t a taken from p r o p e r l y d e s i g n e d s u r v e y s or s t u d i e s , f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n s are o f t e n the r e s u l t . The n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n of the community, however, m o d i f i e s the f u n c t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l . In a d d i t i o n t o one of c o l l e c t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t e c h n i c a l d a t a , i d e n t i f y i n g s o l u t i o n s , c o n s t r a i n t s and e f f e c t s of a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e becomes one of i n v o l v i n g the p u b l i c throughout the p r o c e s s , m e d i a t i n g i n t e r g r o u p c o n f l i c t s , a c t i n g as a v o i c e f o r l e s s v o c a l groups ( c h i l d r e n , e l d e r l y , h a n d i c a p p e d ) , c a r e f u l l y w e i g h i n g d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s and f i n a l l y a d v o c a t i n g both e f f e c t i v e and e q u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . 62 The i nvolvement of the p u b l i c s h o u l d , i d e a l l y , be f r e q u e n t , and made and i n t e g r a l p a r t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s (Wellman 1974). L e t t e r and t e l e p h o n e s u r v e y s , n e w s l e t t e r s , c i t i z e n committees which meet r e g u l a r l y w i t h s t a f f and l o c a l o f f i c i a l s (Beaubien 1982), and p u b l i c meetings a re a l l c o n s t r u c t i v e ways i n which the p u b l i c can become i n v o l v e d . 4.4.2 The Role Of E l e c t e d O f f i c i a l s The e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s u s u a l l y make the f i n a l d e c i s i o n on an a r e a ' s t r a f f i c p l a n . T h e i r d e c i s i o n i s made on the b a s i s of a d v i c e from s t a f f and the d e s i r e s of the community. At l e a s t some e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d i n t e r a c t w i t h s t a f f and c i t i z e n s t hroughout the p l a n n i n g phase (perhaps by way of a s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e ) , and once made, the d e c i s i o n s h o u l d s t a n d f i r m . D e l a y i n g the d e c i s i o n , or c h a n g i n g the vo t e on a d e c i s i o n i s c o s t l y f o r s t a f f , may waste funds removing t r a f f i c c o n t r o l i n s t a l l a t i o n s , and g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c problems b e i n g an unimportant i s s u e , d e a l t w i t h i n a f l i p p a n t way by a l o c a l government t o o v u l n e r a b l e t o the l o b b y i n g of c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t groups. 63 4.5 T r i a l P l a n E v a l u a t i o n T h i s i s a n other c r i t e r i o n by which t o e v a l u a t e the s u c c e s s of any neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l program. The e x i s t e n c e of a t r i a l p l a n , w i t h temporary i n s t a l l a t i o n s , a l l o w s the s i t e and system e f f e c t s of the p l a n t o be m o n i t o r e d and a n a l y z e d . R e s i d e n t r e a c t i o n i s a l s o t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . The l e n g t h of time i n which these e v a l u a t i o n s a r e performed v a r i e s . In Vancouver the e v a l u a t i o n was performed i n t h r e e months (Adam 1982). In Ottawa, where the c l i m a t e e x p e r i e n c e s extreme v a r i a t i o n t hroughout the y e a r , the e v a l u a t i o n was l o n g enough so t h a t performance c o u l d be m o n i t o r e d i n a l l weather c o n d i t i o n s ( M a l i n s k y 1979). The t r i a l p l a n a l l o w s d e f i c i e n c i e s t o be r e c o g n i z e d and c o r r e c t e d a t a r e a s o n a b l y low c o s t . Or, i f the p l a n p roves u n f e a s i b l e a l t o g e t h e r , i t can be s u b s t a n t i a l l y changed or even removed. The e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d concern i t s e l f w i t h the f u n c t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p l a n , t h a t i s , whether or not i t a c c o m p l i s h e s i t s s t a t e d g o a l . To do t h i s , " b e f o r e and a f t e r " comparisons s h o u l d be made of t r a f f i c volumes, t r a f f i c speeds, a c c i d e n t s , n o i s e l e v e l s and o r i g i n - d e s t i n a t i o n s u r v e y s . A f f e c t s on the system s h o u l d a l s o be noted ( d i d t r a f f i c i n c r e a s e on a d j a c e n t s t r e e t s or l a n e s , f o r example?). The r a t e of v i o l a t i o n of the c o n t r o l s i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t , as are e f f e c t s on emergency and s e r v i c e v e h i c l e s and r e s i d e n t t r a v e l p a t t e r n s . A t i m e - d e l a y study f o r the t h rough t r a f f i c may a l s o be a p p r o p r i a t e , t o f i n d out i f d e l a y e x p e r i e n c e d by the m o t o r i s t because of the new t r a f f i c p l a n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 64 4.6 C o n c l u s i o n D e s i r a b l e elements of a l o c a l a r e a t r a f f i c management framework thus d e s c r i b e d , the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l c o n s i d e r i n d e t a i l the neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s i n Vancouver, S e a t t l e and Ottawa. These examples r e p r e s e n t i n c r e a s i n g l y f o r m a l i z e d p l a n n i n g frameworks, from the ad hoc p r o c e d u r e s o p e r a t i n g i n Vancouver to the more comprehensive e x e r c i s e u ndertaken i n Ottawa. The degree t o which each c i t y i n c o r p o r a t e s the above elements and a c c o u n t s f o r c i t y - w i d e g o a l s and impacts can be seen as a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the s u c c e s s of neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n s . 65 IV. RESIDENTIAL TRAFFIC PLANNING IN PRACTICE 1. INTRODUCTION Many c i t i e s and towns throughout the w o r l d employ some means t o d i v e r t or d i s c o u r a g e t h r o u g h t r a f f i c on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s . These range from the o c c a s i o n a l s t o p s i g n , t o a comprehensive, area-wide system of d i v e r t e r s , c u l - d e - s a c s , s t o p s i g n s and s i g n a l improvements as undertaken i n B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a . The ways i n which t h e s e improvements are implemented v a r y t o o , w i t h more s t a t e and f e d e r a l government involvement i n r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g i n Europe and Japan than i n N o r t h America ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on Neighborhood T r a f f i c R e s t r a i n t s 1981). The r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, however, c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a t y p i c a l example of why t r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n i s sought and how i t i s p l a n n e d and implemented. 2. TRAFFIC DIVERSION IN VANCOUVER The r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e i n Vancouver c o n c e r n i n g t r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r the Shaughnessy a r e a c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s some of the problems and p r o s p e c t s i n the p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l . Vancouver has much i n common w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e of o t h e r c i t i e s i n the way i n which e x c e s s i v e or troublesome t r a f f i c i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i s h a n d l e d . A c t i o n i s o f t e n i n i t i a t e d as a response t o r e s i d e n t c o m p l a i n t s over e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c volume, speed or p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - l o c a l t r a f f i c , and the procedure f o l l o w e d , i n the absence of e x p l i c i t p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s and a f o r m a l 66 commitment t o a r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management s t r a t e g y , i s d e c i d e d l y ad hoc. ( T r a f f i c c o n t r o l s may a l s o be i n s t a l l e d as p a r t of a l o c a l a rea p l a n . ) A c t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d s i m i l a r l y i n Toronto ( P r y e r 1979) and i n many A u s t r a l i a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( B r i n d l e 1981; Solomon 1981), f o r example. The Vancouver C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g Department does not use an i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e r i v e d s e t of w a r r a n t s t o determine the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of v a r i o u s c o n t r o l d e v i c e s , but the a c c e p t a b l e average d a i l y t r a f f i c volume on a l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be between 500 and 1000 v e h i c l e s , and a more d e t a i l e d t r a f f i c s tudy of the l o c a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out i f the A.D.T. i s g r e a t e r than 1500 v e h i c l e s (Adam 1982). There seem t o be few s t o p s i g n s and t r a f f i c c o n t r o l measures i n the C i t y which can be deemed s t r i c t l y " p o l i t i c a l " i n s t a l l a t i o n s . L e t t e r s u r v e y s m a i l e d by the Department determine the degree t o which the neighborhood d e s i r e s r e l i e f t h r o u g h the i n s t a l l a t i o n of r e s t r i c t i v e measures, a n d ' p u b l i c meetings a r e sometimes h e l d t o p r e s e n t and d i s c u s s a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s . The C i t y has complete j u r i s d i c t i o n over i t s s t r e e t s and t h e i r use, such t h a t l a w s u i t s over any neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n are u n l i k e l y . The power t o r e g u l a t e t r a f f i c , s t e e t s and t h e i r use i s g i v e n t o the C i t y E n g i n e e r i n P a r t I , S e c t i o n 4 of the S t r e e t and T r a f f i c By-Law No. 2849 ( C i t y of Vancouver 1981). S i n c e t h e s e d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers a r e v e r y broad, i t i s customary t o seek C o u n c i l a p p r o v a l t o implement any r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management scheme. W h i l e t h i s i n s u r e s t h a t the procedure i s n e i t h e r a r b i t r a r y nor u n r e a s o n a b l e , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n can a l s o be 67 d e l a y e d over l e n g t h y debate and v o c a l l o b b i e s , o r a b o r t e d a l t o g e t h e r . The s t r e e t s i n Vancouver conform, f o r the most p a r t , t o a g r i d p a t t e r n w i t h major ( t h a t i s , a r t e r i a l ) s t r e e t s a t s p a c i n g s of one h a l f m i l e . T h i s network of major s t r e e t s a l l o w s through t r a f f i c t o a v o i d l o c a l s t r e e t s , except where l i n k s a r e m i s s i n g i n the g r i d network. In these, c ases t h r o u g h t r a f f i c uses l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s as by-pass r o u t e s , as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 8. The Shaughnessy a r e a was not s u b d i v i d e d on a g r i d p a t t e r n , and s i n c e i t s t r a d d l e s major n o r t h - s o u t h commuter r o u t e s has been s u b j e c t t o the f i l t r a t i o n of n o n - l o c a l t h r o u g h t r a f f i c f o r many y e a r s . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 9. B u r r a r d S t r e e t , f o r example, i s not o r i g i n - d e s t i n a t i o n c omplete; t r a f f i c must d i v e r t t o complete movement i n t o or out of the c i t y on major s t r e e t s s i n c e B u r r a r d a b r u p t l y ends on the n o r t h e r n boundary of Shaughnessy (16 t h Avenue) and becomes a l o c a l s t r e e t (Cedar S t r e e t ) . T r a f f i c volumes on the Cedar/Cypress S t r e e t r o u t e were between 4000 and 5000 v e h i c l e s per day, much h i g h e r than a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s . S i n c e 1975, a d d i t i o n a l s t o p s i g n s were i n t r o d u c e d , w i t h no r e d u c t i o n of t r a f f i c impact, however. Changes t o the t r a f f i c s i g n a l at B u r r a r d and 16th Avenue were s u b s e q u e n t l y implemented t o fa v o u r l e f t and r i g h t t u r n s onto 16th Avenue and reduce n o r t h - s o u t h volumes, but t h i s was o n l y e f f e c t i v e f o r a s h o r t time ( C i t y of Vancouver. C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g Department 1982). 68 F i g u r e 8 - Major s t r e e t s and f i l t r a t i o n r o u t e s i n Vancouver 69 FROM BURRARD .BRIDGE 15th AVF 16th AVE. Itf 19th AVE' • TRAFFIC FILTRATION TO EAST BOULEVARD, ANGUS DRIVE S o u r c e : V a n c o u v e r , C i t y o f . 1982. N o r t h w e s t Shaughnessy a r e a t r a f f i c management  program. R e p o r t o f the C i t y E n g i n e e r t o V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l , March 22, 1982. V a n c o u v e r , B.C. F i g u r e 9 - T r a f f i c f i l t r a t i o n i n t o Shaughnessy 70 In 1980, r e s p o n d i n g t o numerous c o m p l a i n t s , the C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g Department undertook a study of t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s i n the Cedar C r e s c e n t / C y p r e s s S t r e e t a r e a . From t h i s s t u d y , a n eighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n was d e v i s e d i n September 1980, which C o u n c i l d e c i d e d unanimously t o implement s u b j e c t t o the r e s u l t s of a l e t t e r survey of the a r e a t o determine the r e s i d e n t s ' o p i n i o n . The l e t t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d a map of the proposed p l a n ( F i g u r e 10), and a summary of the advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of the p l a n . Of 198 l e t t e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t , 134 (68%) were r e t u r n e d . Of those r e t u r n e d 72% were i n f a v o u r of the p l a n . (These 96 respondents r e p r e s e n t 48% of the t o t a l l e t t e r s s e n t . ) On the b a s i s of t h i s r e s u l t , C o u n c i l v o t e d , a g a i n unanimously, t o implement the p l a n f o r a s i x month t r i a l p e r i o d . In December 1981 the d i v e r t e r s were i n s t a l l e d and a r t e r i a l s i g n a l improvements added. Soon a f t e r the temporary d i v e r t e r s were i n s t a l l e d i t was found t h a t v e h i c l e s were d r i v i n g over s i d e w a l k s , b o u l e v a r d s and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , and u s i n g back l a n e s to by-pass the d i v e r t e r s . T h i s p r a c t i c e was stopped by i m p r o v i n g the d i v e r t e r d e s i g n . The v a n d a l i s m which d i d o c c u r was m i n i m a l . The apparent s u c c e s s of the Shaughnessy t r a f f i c p l a n i n a c h i e v i n g a r e d u c t i o n i n t r a f f i c b e l i e s the p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y c r e a t e d by i t s i n s t a l l a t i o n . The n o r t h - s o u t h r o u t e through Shaughnessy had been i n use f o r many y e a r s . And so w h i l e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s sought ways t o p r o t e c t t h e i r neighborhood from the impact of t h r o u g h t r a f f i c , those opposed, a r g u i n g f o r the r i g h t of f r e e a c c e s s t o any p u b l i c r i g h t - o f - w a y , were 71 S o u r c e : V a n c o u v e r , C i t y o f . 1982. No r t h w e s t Shaughnessy a r e a t r a f f i c management pro g r a m . R e p o r t o f t h e C i t y E n g i n e e r t o Va n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l , March 22, 1982. V a n c o u v e r , B.C. F i g u r e 10 - Proposed Shaughnessy t r a f f i c management p l a n 72 s u f f e r i n g a p e r c e i v e d i n c o n v e n i e n c e due to the removal of a network l i n k which had e x i s t e d f o r y e a r s . Both groups were w e l l - o r g a n i z e d . Those s u p p o r t i n g t r a f f i c r e s t r i c t i o n s s u g g e sted a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s l e s s i n c o n v e n i e n t t o l o c a l a c c e s s d u r i n g the t r i a l p e r i o d , as they too f e l t the e f f e c t s of t h e d i v e r s i o n p l a n . Those opposed m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , c i r c u l a t e d p e t i t i o n s , d i s t r i b u t e d bumper s t i c k e r s , h e l d p u b l i c meetings and appeared i n the l o c a l media t o g a i n support f o r t h e i r c ause. Not o n l y d i d t h i s group oppose the r e t e n t i o n of the t r a f f i c p l a n i n Shaughnessy, but a l s o the r i g h t of any r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t o c o n t r o l n o n - l o c a l t r a f f i c , and thus demanded the removal of a l l o t h e r e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s . As the debate c o n t i n u e d over the t r i a l p e r i o d , the i s s u e became more than a c o n t r o v e r s i a l l o c a l problem, but r a t h e r one of c i t y - w i d e p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t . One person o p p o s i n g the d i v e r t e r s announced h i s i n t e n t i o n t o run f o r C i t y C o u n c i l u s i n g neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l as h i s p l a t f o r m . With e l e c t i o n s t o be h e l d i n November 1982, C o u n c i l members were s u b j e c t e d t o i n t e n s e l o b b y i n g from a l l s i d e s . In F e b r u a r y C o u n c i l v o t e d t o s h o r t e n the t r i a l p e r i o d from s i x t o f o u r months. The E n g i n e e r ' s r e p o r t was p r e s e n t e d on March 28, 1982, showing t h a t the t r a f f i c p l a n had s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced t r a f f i c volumes i n the a r e a , and had c o n t r i b u t e d t o somewhat sl o w e r speeds and a reduced a c c i d e n t r a t e . While emergency v e h i c l e a c c e s s d i d not seem t o be i m p a i r e d , some r e s i d e n t s c o m p l a i n e d of the c i r c u i t o u s r o u t e s r e q u i r e d f o r l o c a l a c c e s s . 73 C o u n c i l n a r r o w l y v o t e d i n favour of a compromise s o l u t i o n whereby a t r a f f i c c i r c l e would be i n s t a l l e d t o r e p l a c e the p r i n c i p l e d i v e r t e r a t Cedar/Cypress i n a d d i t i o n t o some o t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s . The t o t a l c o s t of the t r a f f i c p l a n would be $114,000. T h i s d e c i s i o n d i d not calm the o p p o s i t i o n t o any g r e a t degree, and as the d i v e r s i o n p l a n became a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e i n the c i v i c e l e c t i o n campaign, meetings and p u b l i c i t y s t u n t s took p l a c e throughout t h e summer. The example of Shaughnessy may encourage s i m i l a r c o n t r o v e r s i e s when neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n s a re attempted i n o t h e r p a r t s of the c i t y . To be s u r e , the r e a c t i o n t o neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l i n Vancouver, and Shaughnessy i n p a r t i c u l a r , has been v e r y i n t e n s e . Neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s have a l s o been the s u b j e c t of p o l i t i c a l debate and c i v i c e l e c t i o n s i n B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , whose t r a f f i c p l a n was comprehensive and a r e a - w i d e , c o m p r i s i n g the i n s t a l l a t i o n of over 40 d i v e r t e r s , a dozen t r a f f i c s i g n a l s and 350 s t o p s i g n s i n 1975 (Sinemus 1979). Perhaps neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l t a k e s on such an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t i n Vancouver due t o the importance of the minor s t r e e t network. Vancouver has no network of g r a d e - s e p a r a t e d or l i m i t e d - a c c e s s expressways t o h andle through t r a f f i c . A l l t r a f f i c movement, i n c l u d i n g t r a n s i t , t a k e s p l a c e on the a t - g r a d e s t r e e t network of the c i t y . Thus where major s t r e e t l i n k s a r e i n c o m p l e t e or where b o t t l e n e c k s o c c u r , the c o l l e c t o r (and sometimes l o c a l ) s t r e e t s p e r f o r m the f u n c t i o n s of h i g h e r o r d e r s t r e e t s by f a c i l i t a t i n g t r a f f i c f l o w . And so when these l i n k s a r e removed, t h e i r l o s s i s k e e n l y f e l t by the m o t o r i s t . 74 3. SEATTLE'S NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC CONTROL PROGRAM S e a t t l e i s one c i t y which has a f o r m a l Neighborhood T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Program, one which uses p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t and the a r t i c u l a t i o n of t a n g i b l e o b j e c t i v e s t o i t s advantage i n a t t a i n i n g g o a l s of s a f e r and more l i v a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s (Dare and Schoneman 1982; O r l o b 1975). Neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s have been i n s t a l l e d i n S e a t t l e s i n c e 1960 when a t f i r s t t he C i t y responded t o s p e c i f i c r e q u e s t s from r e s i d e n t groups. Then, i n 1968, a $12 m i l l i o n Forward T h r u s t Bond Issue was approved by c i t y v o t e r s t o fund the Neighborhood Improvement Program. T h i s o r d i n a n c e p r o v i d e d funds f o r improvements i n s e l e c t e d neighborhoods t o p r e v e n t them from becoming slums. T r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n d e v i c e s were c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of the s t r e e t - r e l a t e d p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s f o r these a r e a s . T h i s bond i s s u e , and a d e m o n s t r a t i o n d i v e r s i o n p r o j e c t begun i n 1971 i n the Stevens neighborhood, p r o v i d e d the impetus f o r t he development of the more f o r m a l i z e d and r i g o r o u s Neighborhood T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Program (NTCP) i n S e a t t l e . The Stevens p r o j e c t ( O r l o b 1975) i l l u s t r a t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n r e d u c i n g a c c i d e n t s on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , and s t i m u l a t e d r e q u e s t s from o t h e r neighborhoods f o r s i m i l a r p l a n s . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s emphasized the importance of c i t i z e n involvement on an ongoing b a s i s . A m a i l - b a c k l e t t e r s u r v e y was the p r e f e r r e d method f o r o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on r e s i d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s so as t o m i n i m i z e b i a s . Then, a w e l l - p u b l i c i z e d p u b l i c meeting would be h e l d t o 75 d i s c u s s the s u r v e y r e s u l t s , t r a f f i c d a t a and a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s , and t o hear s u g g e s t i o n s from c i t i z e n s . S i n c e 1978 the NTCP has shown g r e a t e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l measures. The g o a l s f o r the NTCP have been slow e r t r a f f i c and improved s a f e t y on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , and f o r t h i s reason t r a f f i c c i r c l e s have been the p r e f e r r e d t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e (Dare and Schoneman 1982) . The t r a f f i c c i r c l e s are d e s i g n e d t o c o r r e c t the c o l l i s i o n r a t e a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s where the i n s t a l l a t i o n of s t o p s i g n s (due t o w a r r a n t s i n the Manual of U n i f o r m T r a f f i c C o n t r o l D e v i c e s ) a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e . As i n the case of Ottawa, independent g u i d e l i n e s have been d e v i s e d , but t h i s time f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of t r a f f i c c i r c l e s . I n t e r s e c t i o n s w a r r a n t improvement when they have c o r r e c t i b l e c o l l i s i o n r a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than the c i t y - w i d e a v e r a g e . Another f e a t u r e of the program i s t h a t i t was e s t a b l i s h e d as ongoing, p r o v i d i n g $20.0,000 per year t o improve problem i n t e r s e c t i o n s . A g a i n , c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t , but the s p e c i f i c a l l o c a t i o n of funds t o the program makes i t even more c r i t i c a l t o ensure t h a t these funds ar e d i s t r i b u t e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y , i m p r o v i n g a r e a s w i t h the most s e r i o u s t r a f f i c problems f i r s t . Neighborhoods p e t i t i o n e d t o be i n c l u d e d i n the program, which at f i r s t c o u l d o n l y fund a few p r o j e c t s per year due t o the h i g h c o s t of the c i r c l e s . S i n c e the number of a p p l i c a n t s was much l a r g e r , however, p r i o r i t y p o i n t s were g i v e n on the b a s i s of c o l l i s i o n s , t r a f f i c volumes and t r a f f i c speeds. 76 M e e t i n g s would then be a r r a n g e d i n those neighborhoods w i t h the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y r a t i n g s . U n t i l 1981, t h e p r o c e s s of im p l e m e n t a t i o n a f t e r the i n i t i a l meeting was l e n g t h y . ( F i g u r e 11 summarizes t h i s p r o c e s s , and compares i t t o the r e c e n t l y r e v i s e d p r o c e d u r e . ) U n t i l 1981, the NTCP was, l i k e those i n most o t h e r c i t i e s , o n l y r e s p o n d i n g t o • r e s i d e n t s ' r e q u e s t s , which i s not n e c e s s a r i l y an o p t i m a l way t o a l l o c a t e a f i x e d l e v e l of fu n d s . The development of a ranked, r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n c o l l i s i o n - r a t e l i s t p r o v i d e d the C i t y w i t h the ne c e s s a r y t o o l t o i d e n t i f y the most s e r i o u s neighborhood s a f e t y problems. The C i t y now i n i t i a t e s c o n t a c t w i t h the r e s i d e n t s of problem l o c a t i o n s t o advocate the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e s (Dare and Schoneman 1982: 23-24). Another r e v i s i o n has been a s t a n d a r d i z e d c i r c l e d e s i g n , r e d u c i n g the c o s t such t h a t 19 p r o j e c t s per year c o u l d be funded. To i n s t a l l these many c i r c l e s , however, the l e n g t h y p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s would need t o be s t r e a m l i n e d (see F i g u r e 11). T h i s c o u l d be proposed due t o the p o p u l a r i t y and s u c c e s s of the t r a f f i c c i r c l e s t h e m s e l v e s , a l t h o u g h would p r o b a b l y be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o t h e r t y p e s of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s . 77 ORIGINAL PROCEDURE INI T I A L NEIGHBORHOOD MEETING PREFERRED SOLUTION SELECTED REVISED PROCEDURE CITY INITIATES CONTACT BASED ON PRIORITIZED LIST BOARD OF PU PUBLIC r BLIC WORKS EARING DEMONSTRATION PROJECT MONITORING PERFORMANCE & RESIDENT SURVEYS NEIGHBORHOOD MEETING WITH PROJECT MANAGER £ RESIDENTS NEIGHBORHOOD MEETINGS AT THE 19 PROPOSED SITES TO SEEK RESIDENT SUPPORT PERMANENT TRAFFIC CIRCLES INSTALLED f MONITOR CIRCLES FOR 6 MONTHS , ^ SURVEY RESIDENTS IN CASES WHERE COMPLAINTS ARE RECEIVED BOARD OF PU PUBLIC \ BLIC WORKS EARING / RECOMMENDATION ON DEVICES I FINAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE CITY COUNCIL \ f PERMANENT TRAFFIC PLAN CITY ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAKES RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ALL 19 CIRCLES AT A SINGLE HEARING RETAIN APPROVED CIRCLES; REMOVE OTHERS S o u r c e : Dare, J . and Schoneman, F. 1982. S e a t t l e ' s N e i g h b o r h o o d T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Program. ITE J o u r n a l , 5 2 ( 2 ) : 22-25. F i g u r e 11 - S e a t t l e ' s neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l program 78 4. RESIDENTIAL TRAFFIC PLANS IN OTTAWA The r i g h t of neighborhoods t o seek r e l i e f from d i s r u p t i v e or e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c has been f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by both the C i t y C o u n c i l and i n the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of the 1974 Ottawa-C a r l e t o n R e g i o n a l O f f i c i a l P l a n ( M a l i n s k y 1979). In the e a r l y 1970's a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d e s i g n e d t o m i n i m i z e t r a f f i c o d i s r u p t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s was d e v i s e d i n response t o the r e q u e s t s made t o C i t y C o u n c i l by c i t i z e n groups. The key a s p e c t of t h i s p r o c e s s i s c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t , each neighborhood t r a f f i c study g u i d e d by a c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y committee. The p r o c e s s u s u a l l y t a k e s a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s from i n i t i a t i o n t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F i g u r e 12 shows how such a t r a f f i c s t udy i s u s u a l l y c a r r i e d o u t . A f t e r the f i r s t phase i t can be d e c i d e d whether or not a t r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n scheme i s indeed j u s t i f i e d . I f so, the second phase i s i n i t i a t e d . In t h i s phase a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s are d e v e l o p e d and reviewed by the community. These r e v i e w s c o n s i s t of b l o c k m e e t i n g s , meetings w i t h the c i t i z e n a d v i s o r y committee and a t l e a s t t h r e e p u b l i c m eetings. N e w s l e t t e r s a r e a l s o sent t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and s o l i c i t o p i n i o n s . The f i n a l phase, m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the t r i a l p l a n , i s performed under a l l weather c o n d i t i o n s and thus t a k e s up to one year t o c o m p l e t e . Ottawa has a l s o d e v e l o p e d an independent s e t of g u i d e l i n e s and w a r r a n t s t o determine whether or not a t r a f f i c p l a n i s j u s t i f i e d i n a s p e c i f i c neighborhood. E x c e s s i v e volume i s determined by f i r s t d e f i n i n g the f u n c t i o n a l s t r e e t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r the l o c a l a r e a . Volumes on g i v e n s t r e e t s 79 DATA COLIECTION REPORT PLAN DEVELOPMENT £ IMPLEMENTATION REPORT EVALUATIONS £ RECOMMENDATIONS REPORT ORGANIZE STUDY IDENTIFY PROBLEMS / PROPOSE ALTERNATIVE TRIAL TRAFFIC PLANS f REVIEW WITH CITIZENS £ TECHNICAL AGENCIES v s PRESENT RECOMMENDED TRIAL PLAN TO COUNCIL / IMPLEMENT TRIAL PLAN v. / ANALYSE £ MONITOR TRIAL PLAN \ / REVIEW WITH TECHNICAL CITIZENS £ AGENCIES / PRESENT FINAL PLAN PROPOSALS TO COUNCIL / IMPLEMENT PERMANENT PLAN S o u r c e : M a l i n s k y , G. 1979. R e s i d e n t i a l N e i g h b o r h o o d " B a r r i c a d e s " : t he Ottawa E x p e r i e n c e . Compendium o f T e c h n i c a l P a p e r s . I n s t i t u t e o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r s 49th Annual M e e t i n g . T o r o n t o : I T E . F i g u r e 1 2 - Ottawa's a r e a t r a f f i c c o n t r o l program 80 are termed e x c e s s i v e i f two-way peak hour volumes ( v e h i c l e s per hour) a r e g r e a t e r than those e x p e r i e n c e d on 85 per cent of s i m i l a r l y c l a s s i f i e d s t r e e t s i n Ottawa. Warrants f o r m ulti-way s t o p s on minor r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s have been approved such t h a t C o u n c i l has b e t t e r t e c h n i c a l g u i d e l i n e s . T h i s tends t o reduce the i n s t a l l a t i o n of " p o l i t i c a l " s t o p s i g n s . As of 1979, two permanent r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c p l a n s had been approved by C o u n c i l ( i n 1974 and 1975), f i v e neighborhoods had t r i a l p l a n s i n s t a l l e d , and t h r e e a r e a s were a w a i t i n g t r i a l p l a n i n s t a l l a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c p l a n s a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d as v a l i d and o f t e n d e s i r a b l e t r a f f i c management t o o l s . M a l i n s k y (1979: 146) p o i n t s o u t , however, t h a t few c a s e s ( i n d e e d o n l y two) can be c o n s i d e r e d u n q u a l i f i e d s u c c e s s e s , and t h a t the i n s t a l l a t i o n of d i v e r t e r s or b a r r i c a d e s has spawned some c o n t r o v e r s y . For the " s u c c e s s f u l " Glebe neighborhood p l a n , most r e s i d e n t s s u p p o r t e d the p l a n g e n e r a l l y a l t h o u g h over h a l f were opposed t o the most e f f e c t i v e elements ( i n terms of c h a n g i n g t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s ) of the p l a n . Many f e e l , however, t h a t the t r a f f i c p l a n was a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of G l e b e , an i n n e r - c i t y n eighborhood, as a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . Even so, the g e n e r a l l e v e l of support f o r r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c p l a n s i n Ottawa appears t o have d i m i n i s h e d . From the s e p l a n n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , however, M a l i n s k y (1979: 146-146.) c o u l d i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development of r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c p l a n s which were a c c e p t a b l e to both the neighborhood and r e g i o n . These i n c l u d e : ® the a s s i s t a n c e of a c i t i z e n s ' committee, made up of 81 neighborhood r e s i d e n t s and businessmen, i n the p l a n n i n g s t u d y ; • a c l e a r s e t of g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s ; • the p r e s e n t a t i o n of an e x i s t i n g and d e s i r e d f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s t r e e t s ; • the p r e p a r a t i o n of a t r i a l p l a n based upon i n p u t from t e c h n i c a l a g e n c i e s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e p o t e n t i a l impact on a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s ; • the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s t r i a l p l a n t o r e s i d e n t s ; • the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the t r i a l p l a n as soon as p o s s i b l e a f t e r C o u n c i l a p p r o v a l ; and • an adequate t r i a l p e r i o d ( m o n i t o r i n g performance under a l l weather c o n d i t i o n s ) b e f o r e f i n a l a p p r o v a l . 5. DISCUSSION From the c a s e s p r e s e n t e d above, i t seems t h a t s u c c e s s f u l neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g frameworks a r e those h a v i n g (1) c l e a r l y d e f i n e d g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l and (2) the presence of a p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t r a t e g y which encourages a c t i v e r e s i d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l s t a g e s of the p r o c e s s . These a t t r i b u t e s can be a c h i e v e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways. The s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g i n Vancouver, S e a t t l e and Ottawa show how i m p o r t a n t these elements a r e . Even though each c i t y may have se t d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s and have v e r y d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 82 systems, t h e s e components ensure t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s a re used t o abate t r a f f i c i mpacts i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . T a b l e V compares the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s of the t h r e e c i t i e s , the problems each a t t e m p t s t o s o l v e and the degree of s u c c e s s they a t t a i n . As can be seen, r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management s e r v e s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t purposes i n each c i t y . Problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a , p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s and t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s v a r y a c c o r d i n g l y and the t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s t h e m s e l v e s seem t o work e f f e c t i v e l y . Important f e a t u r e s become apparent when c o n s i d e r i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and g o a l s -achievement components of the m a t r i x ; ones which w i l l l e n d t h emselves t o the development of a g e n e r a l neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g framework. 5.1 G o a l s , O b j e c t i v e s And Programs F i r s t l y , the cases e x h i b i t t h r e e l e v e l s of approach t o neighborhood t r a f f i c problems. In Vancouver, neighbohrood t r a f f i c c o n c e r n s a r e d e a l t w i t h as they a r i s e , on a case-by-case b a s i s (or as p a r t of l o c a l a r e a p l a n s ) i n the absence of a f o r m a l p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n . The p o l i c y in- S e a t t l e i s t o improve s a f e t y on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , and a t p r e s e n t d e a l s w i t h more l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s . The a r e a t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g program i n Ottawa stemmed from a set of r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n g o a l s , of which the r i g h t of neighborhoods t o be f r e e from d i s r u p t i v e t r a f f i c i n f l u e n c e s was one. 83 Table V - Comparison of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s i n Vancouver, S e a t t l e and Ottawa o U J «r CITY VANCOUVER None f o r m a l l y . E n g i n e e r i n g Dep-a r t m e n t p r o v i d e s r e l i e f t o a r e a s w i t h e x c e s s i v e volumes o f t h r o u g h t r a f f i c . Responds t o r e -q u e s t s ; a c t i o n i n i t i a t e d a t h i g h h a z a r d l o c a t i o n s . I f A.D.T. =. 1500+ a r e a i s s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l : v o l u m e s , s p e e d s , a c c i d e n t s , o r i g i n -d e s t i n a t i o n , t r a v e l t i m e s . P a r t o f l o c a l a r e a p l a n o r m a i l - b a c k / d o o r -t o - d o o r s u r v e y . Some n e i g h b o r -hood m e e t i n g s . C o u n c i l a p p r o v a l r e q u i r e d . T r i a l p l a n : Shaugh-n e s s y e v a l u a t i o n o v e r <t month p e r i o d . z u —I QUO ec *— w  P h y s i c a l d i v e r -s i o n u s u a l l y . L e s s r e s t r i c t i v e means a r e not as e f f e c t i v e . E f f e c t i v e l y r e -duce s t r a f f i c volume a l t h o u g h i s i n c o n v e n i e n t t o r e s i d e n t s . Enhanced e n v i r o n -m e n t a l q u a l i t y . I n s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n t r a v -e l t i m e m a i n t a i n e f f i c i e n c y . May be i n e q u i t y b e t -ween n e i g h b o r h o o d s . No f o r m a l f r a m e -work r e l a t i n g l o c a l a c t i o n t o c i t y t r a n s p o r t g o a l s . C o n f l i c t due t o i m p o r t a n c e o f mi n o r s t r e e t n e t w o r k ; l a c k o f g o a l s . SEATTLE OTTAWA G o a l s : i n c r e a s e d s a f e t y , t r a f f i c c o n t r o l £ q u a l -i t y o f l i f e . R e c e n t l y empha-s i z e d r e d u c i n g a c c i d e n t s a t l o c a l s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n s . Responds t o p e t i t i o n s . I d e n t i f -i e s p r o b l e m s u s -i n g r a n k e d c o l l -i s i o n r a t e l i s t . S t o p s i g n s where w a r r a n t e d . Un-w a r r a n t e d l o c a t -i o n s w i t h c o r r -e c t i b l e c o l l i s -i o n r a t e s above c i t y a v e r a g e can have c i r c l e s . C i t y i d e n t i f i e s s i t e s . N e i g h b o r -hood m e e t i n g . R e s i d e n t s u r v e y i f c o m p l a i n t s r e c e i v e d . S i x month e v a l u a t i o n F i x e d a n n u a l b u d g e t , o n g o i n g p r o g r a m . Some p h y s i c a l d i v e r s i o n t o c o n v e r t g r i d t o n o n - c o n t i n u o u s s t r e e t p a t t e r n t o enhance s a f e -t y . T r a f f i c c i r -c l e s s l o w speeds & promote g r e a t -e r d r i v e r c a r e . P h y s i c a l d i v e r - |Enhanced s a f e t y , s i o n r e d u c e s | 0 v e r a l l a c c i d e n t volume, o v e r a l l | r a t e r e d u c t i o n a c c i d e n t r a t e . | a c h i e v e s e f f i c i e n c y . C i r c l e s do not | E q u i t y s e r v e d by re d u c e volume | p r i o r i t y r a n k i n g b u t a l l o w n e i g h - | C a c t i v e c i t y r o l e , b o r h o o d a c c e s s . | p u t u r e use o f d i v e r -E f f e c t on a c c i - | s i o n 6 l e s s e x c e s s d e n t r a t e not a s | c a p a c i t y may d r a m a t i c as t h a t | a f f e c t p r o gram of p h y s i c a l f p r o c e d u r e . d i v e r s i o n . I G o a l : m i n i m i z e d i s r u p t i v e t r a f f i c i m p a c t s , i . e . e x c e s s i v e volume & s p e e d , as o u t l i n e d i n r e g i o n a l p l a n . S t u d i e s v o l u m e , j s p e e d , o r i g i n -| d e s t i n a t i o n , | a c c i d e n t s . E x-c e s s i v e volume |when a s t r e e t | c a r r i e s a volume | h i g h e r t h a n 8 5 * |of s i m i l a r l y ] c l a s s i f i e d | s t r e e t s . Review a l t e r n a t - | L a r g e number o f |Stop s i g n s have i v e s w i t h comm- | m u l t i - w a y s t o p | no e f f e c t on u n i t y . C i t i z e n | s i g n s due t o r e - | s p e e d o r volume, p a r t i c i p a t i o n | v i s e d w a r r a n t s , J To r e d u c e speed, u s e s c i t i z e n a d -|ease o f i n s t a l l - | c o n v e r s i o n t o v i s o r y c o m m i t t - | a t i o n £ p o l i t i c - | t w o - w a y f r o m ee. A t t e m p t t o |a1 a c c e p t a b i l i t y | o n e - w a y o p e r a t -c o o r d i n a t e p l a n s | I n c l u d e d i n s y s - | i o n £ n a r r o w i n g |Reduces t r a f f i c | i m p a c t s . E f f i c i e n -cy m a i n t a i n e d as | a r t e r i a l s a l s o l i m p r o v e d . A t t e m p t j t o v i e w n e i g h b o r -h o o d t r a f f i c p l a n s |as one o f many ( t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 5 non-j t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h a r t e r i a l Items w i t h one- |are somewhat i m p r o v e m e n t s . |way e x i t s , d i v - | e f f e c t i v e . En | e r t e r s , c h a n n e l - | f o r c e m e n t works |measures t o a c h i e v e l i z a t i o n a t | b e s t . D i v e r t e r s | l o c a l E r e g i o n a l | i n t e r s e c t i o n s . |S p e r i p h e r a l | t r a f f i c management I | t u r n p r o h i b i t - | g o a l s . I | i o n s r e d u c e | I [ v o l u m e . | 84 The e x i s t e n c e of g o a l s , improved s a f e t y on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s i n the case of S e a t t l e , makes the d e f i n i t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s a s i m p l e manner ( f o r example, d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r s e c t i o n s h a v i n g a c c i d e n t r a t e s h i g h e r than the c i t y average) and a l l o w s the development of programs t o d e a l s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and f a i r l y w i t h r e s i d e n t r e q u e s t s f o r r e l i e f from t r a f f i c i m p a c t s . B r i n d l e (1981: 190) p o i n t s out t h a t l a c k of c l a r i t y i n o b j e c t i v e s sometimes l e a d s " t o a l a c k of p o s i t i v e n e s s i n e x p l a i n i n g and d e f e n d i n g them." Programs are a l s o b e n e f i c i a l i n t h a t they can attempt t o promote a degree of e q u i t y t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The more ad hoc system g e n e r a l l y p r a c t i c e d , where r e q u e s t s made t o the l o c a l c o u n c i l a r e d e a l t w i t h as they a r i s e , seems the model of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l o c a l government but p a r a d o x i c a l l y can be the most i n e q u i t a b l e . L o c a t i o n s w i t h the worst t r a f f i c problems may not r e c e i v e r e l i e f , the most v o c a l a r e a s may r e c e i v e more than t h e i r f a i r s h a r e . L o c a l c o u n c i l s , i n the absence of t e c h n i c a l or program g u i d e l i n e s , a r e more s u s c e p t i b l e t o the i n f l u e n c e of v o c a l l o b b i e s on the d e c i s i o n . For example, the i n t e r e s t (or v o t e s ) of the wider community w i l l always t e n d t o outweigh those of the i n d i v i d u a l neighborhoods s e e k i n g r e l i e f , u n l e s s s p e c i f i c g o a l s or o b j e c t i v e s deem o t h e r w i s e . Thus some a r e a s may r e c e i v e r e l i e f , o t h e r s not, not on the t e c h n i c a l m e r i t s of each s i t u a t i o n , but f o r reasons which c o u l d o n l y be a s c e r t a i n e d as " p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t " . In t h i s way i s n e i t h e r e q u i t y nor e f f e c i e n c y s e r v e d . The e x i s t e n c e of g o a l s can a l s o s e r v e t o p l a c e the 85 neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n the c i t y - w i d e c o n t e x t , and a i d i n the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s a r e o n l y one of a range of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and n o n - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o b e t t e r accommodate t r a f f i c and enhance e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . 5. 2 C i t i z e n Involvement A l l the t h e s e c i t i e s i n c o r p o r a t e r e s i d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s , u s u a l l y t h rough m a i l - b a c k or d o o r - t o -door s u r v e y s , a l t h o u g h Ottawa i n c l u d e d a more f o r m a l c i t i z e n committee i n each a r e a . The importance of c i t i z e n involvement cannot be overemphasized. A g a i n t h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y of ways t o i n c o r p o r a t e the p u b l i c i n the p r o c e s s , but the b e s t methods a r e those i n which p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s f a c e - t o - f a c e and ongoing, i n t e g r a t e d i n t o each stage , of the p l a n n i n g and implementing p r o c e d u r e . Formal committees, such as those formed i n Ottawa, are a good s t r a t e g y as l o n g as they a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community. T r o y , M i c h i g a n has a s i m i l a r t y pe of s t a n d i n g committee, a C i t i z e n T r a f f i c Committee e s t a b l i s h e d by the C i t y C o u n c i l i n 1975. The Committee c o n s i s t s of seven v o t i n g c i t i z e n members, and the T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r , P o l i c e C h i e f and F i r e C h i e f , who do not v o t e but p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e . The Committee makes recommendations on t r a f f i c items t o C i t y C o u n c i l . I t has had 86 n o t a b l e s u c c e s s i n b r i n g i n g a degree of o b j e c t i v i t y t o the d e c i s i o n s made by the C i t y C o u n c i l w i t h r e s p e c t t o neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s , t r a f f i c s i g n a l i n s t a l l a t i o n s , speed l i m i t s , p a r k i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s , and o t h e r a r e a s of t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n . The Committee p r o v i d e s both t e c h n i c a l and c i t i z e n r e q u e s t i n p u t t o C i t y C o u n c i l . When the Committee i s f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y , i t makes the t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s more a c c e s s i b l e t o c i t i z e n s ; i t a s s u r e s t h a t items t o be c o n s i d e r e d by the C i t y C o u n c i l have a f i r s t h e a r i n g t o c l a r i f y the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d ; and i t p r o v i d e s recommendations f o r im p r o v i n g h i g h h a z a r d l o c a t i o n s (Beaubien 1982: 2 9 ) . Wh i l e such a committee may not be d e s i r a b l e i n eve r y community, i t s e r v e s as an example of the scope f o r p r o v i d i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t r a f f i c management i s s u e s . E f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t i n g c i t i z e n involvement a t eve r y stage of the p r o c e s s of c o u r s e changes the r o l e of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . For the p r o c e s s and r e s u l t i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e indeed p o l i t i c a l and not o n l y t e c h n i c a l . The v i r t u e of c i t i z e n i nvolvement i s t h a t the needs and d e s i r e s of the p u b l i c have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n . T h i s makes the p r o c e s s more complex, and the r e s u l t i n g d e c i s i o n s l e s s than " o p t i m a l " i n the te x t b o o k sense. The t e c h n i c a l s t a f f do have a v i t a l r o l e t o p l a y , however, i n p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l g u i d e l i n e s and a d v i c e , a s s e s s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , d e t e r m i n i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n a l consequences and u s i n g p o l i t i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s t o d e v e l o p c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g p r i o r i t i e s . , In a d d i t i o n , the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f s h o u l d ensure l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s , such as the F i r e and P o l i c e departments. T h i s i s the framework from which a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s 87 r e s u l t . In t h i s way the p r o f e s s i o n a l e n s u r e s t h a t the p r o c e s s o p e r a t e s i n an e f f e c t i v e , e f f i c i e n t and e q u i t a b l e manner. There a r e , however, s t i l l some q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g community involvement i n the neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Most c i t i e s s u r v e y o n l y the r e s i d e n t s i n the v i c i n i t y i m m e d i a t e l y s u r r o u n d i n g any proposed t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s . As was a p t l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n Shaughnessy, c i t i z e n s of the wider community are a f f e c t e d by t h e s e l o c a l t r a f f i c management d e c i s i o n s and can become q u i t e v o c a l . What weight s h o u l d t h e i r o p i n i o n s be g i v e n ? They most c e r t a i n l y can o u t -v o t e the neighborhood. I f a p p r o p r i a t e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s have been deve l o p e d (based on community v a l u e s ) , then a c t i o n s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management s h o u l d be a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d i n i t i a l o p p o s i t i o n . 5 . 3 Goals-Achievement And The C i t y - W i d e C o n t e x t The m a t r i x a l s o shows t h a t o n l y i n the case of Ottawa were ar e a t r a f f i c p l a n s somewhat f o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o c i t y - w i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y , i n t h a t i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e were a number of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and n o n - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c t i o n s t o m i n i m i z e t r a f f i c i m p a cts. Indeed, the e f f e c t s of the a r e a t r a f f i c p l a n s on the major s t r e e t system were used to i d e n t i f y p r i o r i t i e s f o r a r t e r i a l improvement. T h i s i s not t o say t h a t the p l a n s i n s t a l l e d i n S e a t t l e or Vancouver have not been s a t i s f a c t o r y . In both c a s e s enhanced s a f e t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y have been the r e s u l t . The g o a l s of e f f i c i e n c y and 88 e q u i t y seem a l s o t o have been met. But w h i l e p r o t e s t has been m i n i m a l i n S e a t t l e due i n p a r t t o ample a r t e r i a l c a p a c i t y and the r e l a t i v e l y inocuous n a t u r e of the t r a f f i c c i r c l e s , i n c r e a s i n g c oncern may be e x p e c t e d as a r t e r i a l s become co n g e s t e d and the NTCP a g a i n b e g i n s t o use more d i v e r s i o n d e v i c e s . The p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t i s q u i t e h i g h i n Vancouver due t o the r e l a t i v e importance of the minor s t r e e t network and the n e c e s s i t y of u s i n g p h y s i c a l d i v e r s i o n d e v i c e s i n o r d e r f o r neighborhood t r a f f i c t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r educed. I t seems t h a t a g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n of l o c a l and c i t y - w i d e g o a l s and the use of a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l y t i c a l methods w i l l need t o occur i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r manage t r a f f i c on both the l o c a l and major s t r e e t n e t w o r k s , and t h u s s t r a t e g i c a l l y p l a n f o r f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s of the urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. 89 V. A PLANNING FRAMEWORK FOR NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC CONTROL 1 . SYSTEM PROBLEMS AND LOCAL SOLUTIONS The p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n has demonstrated the importance of i n t e g r a t i n g neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n n i n g and m e t r o p o l i t a n t r a f f i c management s t r a t e g i e s . W h i l e s p e c i f i c r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c impacts a r e h i g h l y l o c a l i z e d , the reasons which cause t h r o u g h t r a f f i c t o use s t r e e t s d e s i g n e d f o r l o c a l a c c e s s may be system-wide i n scope. T r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n p l a n s r e l i e v e the symptoms of i n c r e a s i n g a u t o m o b i l e use, the reduced c a p a c i t y of a r t e r i a l s t o accommodate th r o u g h t r a f f i c w i t h o u t d e l a y s or b o t t l e n e c k s , and s t i l l u n r e a l i z e d g o a l s of b e t t e r t r a n s i t and i n c r e a s e d r i d e r s h i p . R e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , and p l a n n i n g f o r i t s maintenance, s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a t t h i s l a r g e r s c a l e as w e l l . Neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l measures are e f f e c t i v e a t r e l i e v i n g symptoms, and a r e a t p r e s e n t a r e l a t i v e l y l e s s e x p e n s i v e means to do so (as opposed t o the c o s t of a l l e v i a t i n g the causes of these symptoms). But to m a i n t a i n an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y i n urban n e i g h b o r h o o d s , the problems i n t h e i r l a r g e r c o n t e x t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y need t o be a d d r e s s e d . To b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d how and why neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the broader t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g framework, i t i s h e l p f u l t o c o n s i d e r the range of s h o r t - t e r m t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system management a c t i o n s , and the type s of s i t u a t i o n s which suggest t h e i r use as opposed t o neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s a l o n e . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n 90 F i g u r e s 13 and 14, where c o n d i t i o n s w a r r a n t i n g l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c or a rea-wide t r e a t m e n t a r e p r e s e n t e d a l o n g w i t h the range of a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s . As th e s e f i g u r e s demonstrate, c o n d i t i o n s u s u a l l y f a l l between th e s e two extremes, i n which case e i t h e r type of s o l u t i o n may be used. The l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c methods would seem t o be p r e f e r r e d , s i n c e they a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and easy t o implement, a r e i m m e d i a t e l y e f f e c t i v e , and c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s of government i s seldom r e q u i r e d . However as t r a f f i c impacts become more and more the r e s u l t of system-wide i m b a l a n c e s , neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y have impacts beyond t h e i r l o c a t i o n and w i l l f u n c t i o n more as stop-gap measures u n t i l system imbalances are a d d r e s s e d . Some suggested c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the p o i n t a t which neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a "package" of system-wide (or c o r r i d o r - w i d e ) a c t i o n s i n c l u d e : • when t r a f f i c p l a n impacts i n c l u d e an i n c r e a s e i n t h r o u g h t r a f f i c i n a d j a c e n t neighborhoods; • when d e l a y s on the major s t r e e t network become s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r due t o the l o s s of the neighborhood l i n k ; ® when a c c i d e n t s a r e s h i f t e d t o a r t e r i a l s and o t h e r l o c a l s t r e e t s ; o when c o n t r o l s must be so r e s t r i c t i v e t o be e f f e c t i v e t h a t r e s i d e n t c onvenience i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced. 91 -Volume does n ot excee d c a p a c i t y on major s t r e e t s - P u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e f o r r e s t r i c t i n g l o c a l s t r e e t a c c e s s - S i t e - s p e c i f i c n e i g h b o r h o o d i m p a c t s -Those n e i g h b o r h o o d s s u f f e r i n g t r a f f i c i m p a c t s a r e i s o l a t e d c a s e s LOCATION-SPECIFIC -Volume on major s t r e e t s g r e a t e r t h a n c a p a c i t y - I n c r e a s i n g t r a v e l demand - D e c r e a s i n g t r a n s i t l e v e l o f s e r v i c e -Reduced CBD a c c e s s -Reduced l e v e l o f s e r v i c e f o r goods movement -Reduced e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y - I n c r e a s e d scope o f t r a f f i c i m p a c t s at t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d l e v e l SYSTEM-WIDE F i g u r e 13 - C o n d i t i o n s l o c a t i o n -recommending system-wide v e r s u s s p e c i f i c s o l u t i o n s 92 - A r t e r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n - T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m management HOV l a n e s P r i o r i t y a c c e s s f o r b u s s e s S i g n a l c o n t r o l £ r o u t e c o n t r o l R i d e s h a r i n g Truck" r o u t e s - T r a n s i t o p e r a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s -Road £ t r a n s i t p r i c i n g p o l i c y -CBO a u t o r e s t r i c t e d z o n e s - P a r k i n g management Downtown p a r k i n g p o l i c y R e s t r i c t e d p a r k i n g on a r t e r i a l s R e s i d e n t p a r k i n g p e r m i t s - F l e x i b l e work h o u r s SYSTEM SOLUTIONS 1"> SYSTEM IMBALANCES S I T E - S P E C I F I C IMPACTS - R e s t r i c t n e i g h b o r h o o d a c c e s s P h y s i c a l d i v e r s i o n R e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s -Improve h a z a r d o u s l o c a t i o n s P h y s i c a l c o n t r o l s ( t r a f f i c c i r c l e s , r o a d humps) R e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s ( w a r r a n t e d s t o p s i g n s , e n f o r c e d s p e e d l i m i t s ) -Reduce v i s u a l £ p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t r u s i o n S t r e e t d e s i g n , s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e , p l a n t i n g R e s i d e n t i a l p a r k i n g p o l i c y LOCAL SOLUTIONS F i g u r e 14 - R o l e of l o c a t i o n - s p e c i f i c and system s o l u t i o n s i n a l l e v i a t i n g t r a f f i c impacts 93 2. A PLANNING PROCESS TO INTEGRATE LOCAL AND SYSTEM IMPACTS The f i r s t s t e p i n i n c o r p o r a t i n g neighborhood t r a f f i c i m p a c t s w i t h broader p o l i c i e s i s t o c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r each l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . Once d e f i n e d , i t s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d how these g o a l s r e i n f o r c e or d e t r a c t from one a n o t h e r , and how p l a n n i n g a c t i o n s might be combined t o a t t a i n a b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t . Examples a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s VI and V I I . Where g o a l s or a c t i o n s c o n f l i c t , the outcome w i l l need t o be de t e r m i n e d p o l i t i c a l l y . Here peak hour a r t e r i a l p a r k i n g r e g u l a t i o n s combined w i t h r e s i d e n t - o n l y p a r k i n g on n e i g h b o r h i n g s t r e e t s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as c o n f l i c t i n g a c t i o n s . 2.1 I d e n t i f y i n g Problems And P r i o r i t i e s The c h o i c e of a c t i o n s i s of co u r s e dependent upon the type of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems which e x i s t , as w e l l as network c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A n a l y s i n g these f e a t u r e s a t the c o r r i d o r l e v e l a l l o w s s p e c i f i c c o r r i d o r problems t o be r e c o g n i z e d , and may a i d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l o c a l t r a f f i c i m p a c t s caused by the s t r e e t c o n f i g u r a t i o n and t r a v e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the c o r r i d o r . A f t e r d e f i n i n g the p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n f o r the c o r r i d o r s t u d y , i n c o r p o r a t i n g neighborhood g o a l s where a p p r o p r i a t e , data c o l l e c t i o n and problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t . R e q u i r e d data i n c l u d e socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l a n d use, auto t r a v e l t r e n d and t r a n s i t t r a v e l t r e n d i n f o r m a t i o n , f u n c t i o n a l s t r e e t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and s t r e e t and t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s (ASCE 1982). 94 T a b l e VI - C o m p a t i b i l i t y of some l o c a l and system t r a n s p o r t a t i o n g o a l s to <c o t3 1 C C o SYSTEM GOALS ° REDUCED THROUGH TRAFFIC REDUCED ROAD MAINTENANCE COSTS REDUCED TRAFFIC SPEED INCREASED SAFETY REDUCED POLLUTION REDUCED NOISE REDUCED VISUAL INTRUSION REDUCED GROWTH RATE OF TRAVEL DEMAND + 0 + 0 + + + INCREASED TRANSIT SHARE OF MODE SPLIT + + 0 0 + + + REDUCED ROAD MAINT-ENANCE COSTS + + 0 0 0 0 0 REDUCE TRAVEL TIME FOR ALL MODES - 0 - - 0 0 0 REDUCED FUEL CONSUMPTION - - 0 0 0 0 0 REDUCED POLLUTION + 0 0 0 + 0 0 INCREASED SAFETY + 0 + + 0 0 0 REDUCED NOISE + 0 0 0 0 + 0 + r e i n f o r c i n g ; 0 n e u t r a l ; - d e t r a c t i n g . T a b l e V I I - C o m p a t i b i l i t y of some l o c a l and system a c t i o n s t o improve e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y LOCAL ACTIONS SYSTEM ACTIONS RESTRICT NEIGHBOR-HOOD ENTRY RESIDENT PARKING PERMIT SYSTEM LIMIT PEAK HOUR ARTERIAL CROSS TRAFFIC AT UNCON-TROLLED INTERSECTIONS + 0 PROVIDE LEFT-TURN BAYS, SIGNAL PRIORITIES AT MAJOR INTERSECTIONS + 0 NO ON-STREET PARKING IN PEAK HOURS 0 -+ r e i n f o r c i n g ; 0 n e u t r a l ; - d e t r a c t i n g . 95 I t has been shown i n the second c h a p t e r of the t h e s i s t h a t the p o i n t a t which c o n g e s t i o n , t r a f f i c speeds, a c c i d e n t s , e m i s s i o n s and v i s u a l i n t r u s i o n becomes e x c e s s i v e i s dependent upon p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . The use of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t i e s as g u i d e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s of these t r a f f i c impacts t a k e s these p e r c e p t u a l components i n t o account i n a more o b j e c t i v e manner. A methodology f o r computing e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t i e s f o r roads i n a c o r r i d o r study has been d e v e l o p e d , and l e n d s i t s e l f t o the i n c l u s i o n of some r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s (Sharpe and Maxman 1972). R e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t p r o t o t y p e s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , l a n d use, p o p u l a t i o n , s o c i o -economic s t a t u s and t r a f f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . By i n t e r v i e w i n g r e s i d e n t s and p e d e s t r i a n u s e r s of the s t r e e t and c o n d u c t i n g a t t i t u d i n a l s u r v e y s , t r a f f i c volumes c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t o l e r a b l e l e v e l s of n o i s e , v i s u a l impact and p e d e s t r i a n d e l a y s can be a s c e r t a i n e d . These e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t i e s p r o v i d e s t a n d a r d s w i t h which to compare the performance of v a r i o u s t r a f f i c management a l t e r n a t i v e s , and perhaps r e f i n e f u n c t i o n a l s t r e e t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o meet community s t a n d a r d s . These measurements a l s o a l l o w t r a f f i c impacts of g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n t o r e s i d e n t s t o be i d e n t i f i e d , t h u s g u i d i n g the c h o i c e of a p p r o p r i a t e t r a f f i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s . 96 T a b l e V I I I - Methods used t o determine e x c e s s i v e t r a f f i c i mpacts or » o o >—< o w «r Q => i«t •—< c_> Q-CJ c e o Q: H oo >- or co «i HH<X iu z UJ oo IMPACT U J X 3 ; <x a. u B E < K U J O •— i — O CO t— o o o . VOLUME ADT; v e h i c l e s / h o u r ( i n peak h o u r s ) ADT o r ve h / h o u r compared t o 8 5 % of r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s R a t i o o f volume t o p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y (V/C) V/EC r a t i o * Peak h o u r s o r a l l day? NOISE dBA; a t - i n t e r s e c t i o n s ; - m i d - b l o c k ; - s o u r c e dBA; - l o c a t i o n ; - s o u r c e V/EC r a t i o As d e f i n e d by h e a l t h a g e n c y . As d e f i n e d f o r a u t o i n d u s t r y . Peak h o u r s o r a l l day? SPEED Km/hour Km/hour on s t r e e t s o f s i m -l a r f u n c t i o n T o l e r a b l e speed c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s i d e n t c o n -v e n i e n c e P o s t e d l e g a l s peed l i m i t O c c a s i o n a l s p e e d i n g c a r ? Peak h o u r s o r a l l day? THROUGH TRAFFIC % t o t a l v olume. D e t e r m i n e d by l i c e n s e p l a t e o r i g i n -d e s t i n a t i o n s u r v e y P r o p o r t i o n o f t h r o u g h t r a f f i c on s t r e e t s o f s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n V/EC r a t i o As d e f i n e d i n f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n H i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h r o u g h t r a f f i c i n peak h o u r s ? VISUAL INTRUSION Number o f p a r k e d c a r s . X r e s i d e n t c a r s . Impact on s t r e e t m a i n t e n -ance and a p p e a r a n c e V/EC; d e t e r -mined by a t t i -t u d e s u r v e y Peak h o u r s o r a l l day? PSYCHOLOGICAL INTRUSION Hon do c a r s i n t e r f e r e w i t h r e s i d e n t s ' e n j o y m e n t o f t h e i r l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t ? V/EC; d e t e r -mined by a t t i -t u d e s u r v e y When i s t r a f f i c i n t e r f e r e n c e most i n t e n s e ? SAFETY A c c i d e n t s / y e a r -by t y p e ; - a t i n t e r s e c t - , i o n s ; - a t m i d - b l o c k C i t y - u i d e a v e r -ages f o r s i m i l -a r s t r e e t s ; -by t y p e ; -by l o c a t i o n MUTCD i n c l u d e s c o l l i s i o n s as c r i t e r i a f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n o f s t o p s i g n s Peak h o u r s o r a l l d ay? EMISSIONS PPM or.'PPB.af n o x i o u s g a s e s PPM o r PPB V/EC r a t i o A c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s as d e f -i n e d by h e a l t h £ e n v i r o n m e n t -a l a g e n c i e s Peak h o u r s o r a l l day? S o u r c e ? *V/EC i s t h e volume c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s o f t r a f f i c i m p a c t s ; t r a f f i c i m p a c t s a r e e x c e s s i v e when V/EC i s g r e a t e r t h a n 1. 97 T a b l e V I I I shows how some of t h e s e t r a f f i c impacts can be measured and compared t o e i t h e r o b j e c t i v e or p e r c e p t u a l s t a n d a r d s . When i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a l i m pacts, i t s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d whether or not the l o c a l s t r e e t s e r v e s a h i g h e r o r d e r f u n c t i o n . I f impacts a r e more s i t e - s p e c i f i c or i s o l a t e d , then i t w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e t o c a r r y out the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s on a s t r i c t l y l o c a l l e v e l . W e l l - d e f i n e d l o c a l g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , a t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the n a t u r e of the t r a f f i c problem b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d , and a h i g h degree of c i t i z e n involvement s h o u l d ensure a s u c c e s s f u l t r a f f i c p l a n . Once d e t e r m i n e d t h a t c e r t a i n network l i n k s can be s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the broader p e r s p e c t i v e , s k e t c h p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s can be used t o compare the s c e n a r i o s r e s u l t i n g from d i f f e r e n t s e t s of a c t i o n s , sometimes i n c l u d i n g t h e l o s s of an i m p o r t a n t network l i n k as the r e s u l t of a neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n . T h i s would a l l o w t r a d e - o f f s t o be i d e n t i f i e d as t i m e - d e l a y s t u d i e s , c o n g e s t i o n , and the degree of e n v i r o n m e n t a l improvement and n o i s e r e d u c t i o n are s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d . R e s u l t s c o u l d a l s o be compared t o some of the s t a n d a r d s o u t l i n e d i n the problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x t o measure p l a n performance i n terms of g o a l s - a c h i e v e m e n t . 2 . 2 The Scope Of C i t i z e n Involvement No l e s s i m p o r t a n t a t a h i g h e r s c a l e of a n a l y s i s , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v i t a l . In a d d i t i o n t o c o n t r i b u t i n g t o an a c c e p t a b l e p l a n at the c o r r i d o r l e v e l , i t may have an i n f l u e n c e on the t y p e s of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s t r a t e g i e s which 98 emerge as a r e s u l t . I d e a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s encouraged d u r i n g a l l s t a g e s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i n s i m i l a r ways as those mentioned e a r l i e r i n the t h e s i s . I n c l u d i n g n o n - r e s i d e n t s somewhat i n the development of neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n s has a number of advantages: • n o n - r e s i d e n t c o n c e r n s can be v o i c e d i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e way r a t h e r than as the u s u a l p r o t e s t ; • the n a t u r e of the neighborhood t r a f f i c i m p a c t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r o r i g i n i n system i m b a l a n c e s , and t h e i r i n t e n s i t y r e l a t i v e t o those f e l t i n o t h e r s i m i l a r neighborhoods can be f u l l y d emonstrated; • s i n c e the c o n t r o l p l a n would be o n l y one a c t i o n i n a s e t d e s i g n e d t o improve t r a f f i c f l o w or e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , n o n - r e s i d e n t s would be a b l e t o see t h a t l o s i n g the neighborhood t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k may be b e n e f i c i a l t o them i n terms of time s a v i n g s and a c c i d e n t r e d u c t i o n , f o r example; and • i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n began w i t h the g o a l and p o l i c y d e f i n i t i o n s t a g e s , b e i n g a b l e t o demonstrate how the d i f f e r e n t s e t s of a c t i o n s a c h i e v e g o a l s s h o u l d h e l p t o reduce the p o t e n t i a l f o r v o c i f e r o u s p r o t e s t . Care s h o u l d be t a k e n , however, such t h a t the l a r g e r i n t e r e s t s do not dominate the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s where a neighborhood l e v e l impact i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . 99 T a b l e IX - Commonly used system and l o c a l a c t i o n s t o a l l e v i a t e t r a f f i c impacts PLANNING PROBLEMS SYSTEM SOLUTIONS NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC CONTROLS ACTIONS TO AVOID NOISE -A u t o i n d u s t r y r e g u l a t i o n s - T r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t p o l i c i e s - T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m management - E n c o u r a g e o t h e r modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - P h y s i c a l d i v e r s i o n d e v i c e s - R e g u l a t o r y d i v e r s i o n : no e n t r y / no t u r n s i g n s ( a l l day o r d u r i n g peak h o u r s ) , one-way e x i t s - P l a n t i n g s -Speed bumps -Rumble s t r i p s -Road humps - S t o p s i g n s SPEED - P o s t e d s p e e d l i m i t s - E n f o r c e m e n t - D r i v e r e d u c a t i o n -Speed l i m i t s - E n f o r c e m e n t -Road humps - T r a f f i c c i r c l e s Road n a r r o w i n g - S t o p s i g n s -Speed bumps -Rumble s t r i p s VOLUME - T r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t p o l i c i e s ; TSM -E n c o u r a g e o t h e r modes o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - L a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g ( l o n g - t e r m ) -Downtown p a r k i n g p o l i c y - P h y s i c a l d i v e r s i o n d e v i c e s - R e g u l a t o r y d i v e r s i o n : a l l day o r d u r i n g peak h o u r s - C h a n n e l i z a t i o n a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s - S t o p s i g n s -Speed bumps -Rumble s t r i p s - T r a f f i c c i r c l e s SAFETY - D r i v e r e d u c a t i o n - P o s t e d speed l i m i t s - E n f o r c e m e n t - T r a f f i c s i g n a l s ; p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g s - W a r r a n t e d s t o p s i g n s - T r a f f i c c i r c l e s - D r i v e r e d u c a t i o n -Road h u m p s / r a i s e d c r o s s w a l k s -Speed bumps - U n w a r r a n t e d s t o p s i g n s VISUAL INTRUSION - T r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t p o l i c i e s - P a r k i n g p o l i c i e s - R e s i d e n t i a l p a r k i n g p e r m i t s - P h y s i c a l / r e g u l a t o r y t r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n - S t r e e t and c u r b r e d e s i g n - P l a n t i n g -Speed bumps -Rumble s t r i p s EMISSIONS |-Auto i n d u s t r y r e g u l a t i o n I - T r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t p o l i c i e s | | - C i t y t e s t i n g o f v e h i c l e s | | - D e s i g n a t e d t r u c k r o u t e s | 1 1 - P h y s i c a l / r e g u l a t o r y t r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n | - P r o h i b i t heavy t r u c k s f r o m | l o c a l s t r e e t s - P l a n t i n g j -Speed bumps -Rumble s t r i p s -Road humps - T r a f f i c c i r c l e s - S t o p s i g n s J 100 2.3 D e v e l o p i n g S o l u t i o n s Once problems and imp o r t a n t c o n c e r n s have been i d e n t i f i e d , a range of s o l u t i o n s can be c o n s i d e r e d . Table IX p r e s e n t s l o c a l and system s o l u t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e t o abate s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g problems. They can be implemented s i n g l y or i n tandem, a l t h o u g h r e l i e f from i n t e n s e neighborhood impacts w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d more e f f e c t i v e l y t h r ough u s i n g neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s . Not a l l neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e , however, so the m a t r i x i n c l u d e s a l i s t of a c t i o n s t o a v o i d . The advantage of both neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s and many of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system management a c t i o n s i s t h a t t h e i r low c o s t and ease of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( t h e y a r e not c a p i t a l -i n t e n s i v e and seldom r e q u i r e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s of government) makes m o n i t o r i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , and most i m p o r t a n t l y , r e f i n i n g the p l a n r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e . T h i s a l l o w s the development of a s e t of Optimal s o l u t i o n s t o meet the needs and r e q u i r e m e n t s of the s p e c i f i c neighborhood and i t s s u r r o u n d i n g s . 3. CONCLUSIONS The i s s u e of neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l may b e g i n t o become one of c i t y - w i d e concern as t r a f f i c p l a n s b e g i n t o have s i g n i f i c a n t impacts beyond t h e i r s i t e . Most r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management co n c e r n s w i l l be s t r i c t l y l o c a l i n impact, and the l o c a l g u i d e l i n e s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I of the t h e s i s s h o u l d be adequate, a l t h o u g h the use of r e c e n t l y d eveloped a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s i s suggested. I n c l u d i n g neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n s i n 101 ongoing programs as a response t o s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r a c c e p t a b i l i t y . In some c a s e s , however, the widespread use of neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n s t o reduce t r a f f i c impacts may a f f e c t t h r ough t r a f f i c where the minor road network has assumed an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n . Here the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o v e r s y , as w e l l as c o s t s t o n o n - r e s i d e n t s , may be h i g h . A l a r g e r s c a l e of a n a l y s i s , and the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a broader range of s o l u t i o n s , may s e r v e t o b e t t e r accommodate th r o u g h t r i p s w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . T h i s s t r a t e g y would i n c l u d e , f i r s t l y , the e x i s t e n c e of an e x p l i c i t p l a n , a r t i c u l a t i n g the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c management seeks t o a c c o m p l i s h , p r e p a r e d i n the c o n t e x t of p o p u l a t i o n growth, economic development and changing l a n d uses, and e v o l v i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s of the urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network. As demonstrated i n Chapter I I I and i n the d i s c u s s i o n of case s t u d i e s i n Chapter IV, g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , a c t i v e c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t and m o n i t o r i n g of neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n impacts are c r u c i a l t o the s u c c e s s of the s t r a t e g y . To be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s o v e r a l l p l a n a r e s t a n d a r d s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y and c r i t e r i a by which t o o b j e c t i v e l y d e termine the i n t e n s i t y and scope of neighborhood t r a f f i c i m p a c t s . These may i n c l u d e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a p a c i t i e s d e t e r m i n e d w i t h the a i d of a t t i t u d e s u r v e y s f o r s t r e e t p r o t o t y p e s , as e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter I I , or a b s o l u t e c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d by p u b l i c h e a l t h or s a f e t y a g e n c i e s ( i n the case of n o i s e f o r example). The s t a n d a r d s , as w e l l as the p l a n i t s e l f , s h o u l d be 1 02 a s c e r t a i n a b l e and encourage an e q u i t a b l e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o a m e l i o r a t e n e g a t i v e t r a f f i c i m p a c t s . The m o n i t o r i n g of t r a f f i c impacts i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s would i d e a l l y be c a r r i e d out on an ongoing b a s i s t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c problems. T h i s i s performed i n S e a t t l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s ranked c o l l i s i o n - r a t e l i s t (Chapter I V ) . C i t y - w i d e t r a f f i c t r e n d s s h o u l d a l s o be m o n i t o r e d from the p e r s p e c t i v e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact. Because t r a f f i c impacts v a r y i n n a t u r e , i n v o l v i n g h e a l t h and s a f e t y as w e l l as community e x p e c t a t i o n s , and because enforcement i s a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n any program of neighborhood t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t , m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d i n v o l v e a l i a i s o n between p u b l i c h e a l t h and p o l i c e a g e n c i e s , p l a n n i n g and e n g i n e e r i n g departments. The v a l u e of i n c l u d i n g neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s i n a l o n g e r - r a n g e p l a n n i n g framework i s t h a t measures t o s a f e g u a r d e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y (hence neighborhood p r o p e r t y v a l u e s ) can be j u s t i f i e d as i n t e r e s t i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s f l u c t u a t e s . Such a p l a n p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the q u a l i t y of the urban r e s i d e n t i a l environment i s c a s e s where f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s make l a r g e r i n v e s t m e n t s i n t r a f f i c accommodation or t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t more d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r t a k e . In t h i s way, urban neighborhoods need not s u f f e r unduly from t r a f f i c impacts but may s u c c e s s f u l l y p r o t e c t and enhance t h e i r a m e n i t i e s . 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Adam, I a n . 1982. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Ian Adam, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r w i t h the Vancouver C i t y E n g i n e e r i n g Department. Vancouver, B.C., August 25, 1982. 2. A l l e n , C h a r l e s D. and Walsh, Lawrence B. 1975. A Bumpy Road Ahead? T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r i n g 4 5 ( 1 0 ) : 11-14. 3. American S o c i e t y of C i v i l E n g i n e e r s . 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