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The implementation of an art programme designed to develop cultural awareness among students in an urban.. Berger, Beverley Ann 1983-12-31

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THE  IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ART PROGRAMME DESIGNED  TO DEVELOP CULTURAL AWARENESS AMONG STUDENTS IN AN URBAN NATIVE INDIAN ALTERNATE CLASS: A CASE STUDY  by  BEVERLEY ANN BERGER B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Department o f V i s u a l and Performing A r t s Faculty  i n Education  o f Education  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1 9 8 3  (cT) Beverley Ann Berger, 1 9 8 3  In presenting  this  thesis i np a r t i a l  fulfilment of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  the L i b r a r y s h a l l  a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study.  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  I further  copying o f t h i s  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my  department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood that for  make  financial  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  gain  o f jE&uC*?t\ o r  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e c9r-robe»-  thesis  s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department  I t i s  /9f3  Columbia  ABSTRACT  This study documents the design and implementation art  of an  programme i n an urban Native Indian a l t e r n a t e c l a s s .  programme was  designed  The  to develop c u l t u r a l awareness and to en-  hance s e l f - c o n c e p t . To o b t a i n the data, the Coopersmith  Self-Esteem  Inventory  and an A r t and C u l t u r e t e s t were administered to s i x t e e n Native Indian students i n grades  5-7.  The c u l t u r e t e s t i n v o l v e d  the use of o r a l q u e s t i o n s , "touchable" o b j e c t s (most of them from the Museum o f Anthropology Columbia),  drawings,  a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  and p i c t u r e s .  These were chosen because of  t h e i r r e l e v a n c e to Indian c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y and i n p a r t i c u l a r to the Kwakiutl c u l t u r e o f m a j o r i t y of the students i n the  class-  room. The a r t programme i n v o l v e d N a t i v e Indian parents as r e source people. field trips,  A r t i f a c t s from the U.B.C. Museum of  Anthropology,  f i l m s , books, and photographs supplemented o b j e c t -  i v e s of each l e s s o n . The p o s t - t e s t responses  on the Coopersmith  Self-Esteem In-  ventory g e n e r a l l y showed no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n s c o r e s . ing  Dur-  the programme, however, students d i d show changes i n a t t i -  tude, and i n c r e a s i n g l y e x h i b i t e d p o s i t i v e behaviour. lems encountered  The  prob-  i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g both the t e s t s and programme  were i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g i n a new varying expectations.  s c h o o l with a new  teacher,  Responses on the A r t and C u l t u r e p o s t  t e s t showed a 12% improvement.  and  Background i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d concerning the h i s t o r y of Indian education i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t r a d i t i o n a l  Kwakiutl  culture. The  l i t e r a t u r e supports my h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d e s i r e to l e a r n  about Indian c u l t u r e i n s c h o o l i s regarded  as v i t a l by  Indian  communities, Indian p a r e n t s , and Indian and non-Indian Studies i n d i c a t e t h a t , although students may t h e i r c u l t u r e , they w i l l express  educators  not know much about  an i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g more  about i t . A r t can serve as a c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e , and as a means of g i v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n to c u l t u r e i n the classroom. f e c t i v e way  A r t i s an e f -  to teach b e l i e f s and values i m p l i c i t i n c u l t u r e and  revealed i n a r t .  D i f f e r e n c e i n c u l t u r e c o u l d mean changes i n  t e a c h i n g s t y l e s f o r non-Indian  teachers.  They must be  conscious  o f and g i v e c o n t i n u i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the most e f f e c t i v e ways to teach Native c h i l d r e n .  T r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g s t y l e s are t r a n s  f e r a b l e to the contempoary classroom. view:  My  study supports  Indian c h i l d r e n l e a r n b e s t , a c c o r d i n g to the  when they are taught a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own v i s u a l , k i n e s t h e t i c , and  l e a r n i n g through  this  literature,  learning styles:  observation.  When  Native c u l t u r e i s taught, u s i n g l e a r n i n g and t e a c h i n g s t y l e s e f f e c t i v e f o r N a t i v e c h i l d r e n , Indian students may  increase t h e i  achievement across the whole c u r r i c u l u m . This study can a s s i s t classroom teachers i n t e a c h i n g Indian c u l t u r e through a r t .  iv.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i i  Chapter I.  PURPOSE AND  BACKGROUND OF THE  STUDY . . . . . . . .  Background  1 1  The Impact of Europeans on Native Indian Education  1  The Major Elements of Native Indian C u l t u r e , P a r t i c u l a r l y i n B.C  II. III. IV.  13  Indian A r t  15  Kwakiutl C u l t u r e  18  The Purpose of the Study The S p e c i f i c Reason f o r the Study: Developing Growth i n C u l t u r a l Awareness through an A r t Programme f o r Native Indian Students  23  P r e l i m i n a r y Programme Planning  29  A r t and C u l t u r e i n Education  31  Teaching Native Indian C h i l d r e n and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T h i s Study  33  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  38  REVIEW OF THE THE  LITERATURE  CULTURAL SURVIVAL SCHOOL  TESTS Hypotheses Coopersmith  27  40 71 79 79  Self-Esteem Inventory  80  V.  Chapter  Page T e s t i n g the A r t and C u l t u r e  Pre-Test  a t Kumtuks School  82  The  83  selection  Touchables  85  Pictures  87  Results The  - Kumtuks  C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School A r t and  C u l t u r e Pre-Test  Dec. 1982  T e s t i n g a t the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School O r a l questions . . . . . S e l e c t i o n o f "touchables" Selection of pictures V.  90  THE ART PROGRAMME Rationale  f o r the A r t Programme  92 . . .  93 94 96 98 99 99  A r t Lesson S t r u c t u r e  103  I n t r o d u c t i o n to and Overview o f the I n d i v i d u a l Lessons  105  Classroom S t r u c t u r e  106  Teams  106  Discipline  107  A d u l t Resource Person  107  Parents as Resource People  108  Student Needs  109  Stations  110  Team P o i n t s  I l l  I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h Other Subjects  112  Clean-Up  113  vi. Chapter  Page A r t Lesson Format  113  Lesson 1:  126  I n t r o d u c t i o n and S e t t i n g  Lesson 2: Background Kwakiutl C u l t u r e  on T r a d i t i o n a l .  Lesson 3: The Environment i n Winter F i e l d T r i p , U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology Lesson 4:  F i s h i n g , A Major Occupation  Lesson 5:  The Cedar Tree  Lesson 6: Wood, A Major Yellow and Red Cedar Lesson 7:  158 . . . .  173 186  Technology: 19 7  Beaver S k i n n i n g , C a r v i n g  and B o o k l e t  205  Lesson 8:  P i c t u r e Making  Lesson 9:  Clothing  210  Technology:  Weaving-Wool and Soapberry Spoons  218  Lesson 10: Mask Making  227  Lesson 11: Mask Making, Weaving, C a r v i n g  . . .  Lesson 12: Mask Making Lesson 13: The Environment  i n Spring 253  Lesson 14: Masks and P r i n t making Lesson 15: P r i n t Making:  234 243  Field Trip  Contemporary A r t  Lesson 16: F i n a l Lesson - F i e l d The Aquarium Summary VI.  142  262 . .  268  Trip  THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY Post-Tests The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory . . . .  274 280 282 288 288  vii . Chapter  Page The A r t and C u l t u r e Test  VII.  291  Touchables  291  Pictures  292  INDIAN ART AND CULTURE:  A ROUTE TO  CONTEMPORARY EDUCATION  297  Test R e s u l t I m p l i c a t i o n s  297  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Repeating the Programme . . .  302  Principles  310  Emerging from T h i s Study  How to Measure Success  310  Signs o f success observed i n t h i s study Parental"Involvement  310 312  E f f e c t i v e Techniques Used Here i n Teaching Native Indian C u l t u r e Which Can be Used t o Teach the Standard C u r r i c u l u m  312  Teaching Techniques  313  A r t Programme  314  I f I Were S t a r t i n g  a School f o r Urban  N a t i v e Indian Students, I Would:  315  Form a Parent A d v i s o r y Committee  316  I m p l i c a t i o n s Concerning Indian Education i n General I m p l i c a t i o n s Concerning A r t Education in Particular Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY  317 318 320 322  viii. Page APPENDIX 1.  E v a l u a t i o n o f the F i r s t Year of the Vancouver Native Indian Cultural Survival Alternative Programme  3 34  APPENDIX 2.  Coopersmith  348  APPENDIX 3.  A r t and C u l t u r e Test  APPENDIX 4.  Approval  Self-Esteem Inventory  f o r Research  352 Project  360  ix.  LIST  OF PLATES  Plate  Page  1.  Worksheet assignment  114  2.  L o c a t i n g an a n c e s t o r  125  3.  Filing  139  4.  Gauging  5.  F i n i s h i n g an a r r o w h e a d  141  6.  F i e l d t r i p t o t h e U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology. Haida totem p o l e  156  F i e l d t r i p t o t h e U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology. Tsonokwa  15 7  Parent resource person the n e t t i n g needle  demonstrating 170  Parent resource person  demonstrating  7. 8. 9.  an a r r o w h e a d an a r r o w h e a d  the n e t t i n g  14 0  needle  171  10.  Making t h e f i s h  knife  by f i l i n g  172  11.  Making t h e f i s h  knife  by f i l i n g  172  12.  U s i n g a "D" a d z e on y e l l o w c e d a r  185  13.  Carving yellow cedar  196  14.  The b e a v e r  20 3  15.  Skinning the beaver  203  16.  Scraping the skin  204  17.  Working a t a s t a t i o n w i t h the classroom  from the f u r  t e a c h e r on b o o k l e t s  209  18.  Using the spindle  whorl  to spin  fleece  19.  W e a v i n g on t h e l a r g e  20. 21.  W e a v i n g on t h e l a r g e loom a t t h e s t a t i o n w i t h pau lp la er de n tf r or me s o on Mask t uhrec ce l ap ye r s mould  loom  215 216  217 225  X.  Plate  Page  22.  Tsonokwa masks  225  23.  Some c l a s s Tsonokwa masks  226  24.  C u t t i n g i n t o the paddle d e s i g n o f the  soapberry spoon  2 33  25.  C a r v i n g the soapberry spoon  233  26.  Tsonokwa masks  242  27.  F i e l d t r i p to the beach  251  28.  A team made an Indian v i l l a g e i n the  sand  251  29.  F i e l d t r i p to the woods, meeting a r a b b i t  30.  F i e l d t r i p to S t a n l e y Park.  A picnic  31.  F i e l d t r i p to S t a n l e y Park. a Canada goose  Feeding  . . . .  252 273 2 73  xi .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The author acknowledges w i t h deep a p p r e c i a t i o n the c o n s i s t ent and u n f l a g g i n g support and a s s i s t a n c e from h e r a d v i s o r , Graeme Chalmers, and her t h e s i s committee members, K i r k n e s s , and Madeline Rowan.  Verna  She i s f u r t h e r indebted to her  husband f o r h i s support and encouragement i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f this thesis.  F i n a l l y , the author would l i k e t o express her  g r a t i t u d e - t o the s t a f f ,  students, and parents a t the C u l t u r a l  S u r v i v a l School f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a r t programme under study.  1.  CHAPTER I PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  The w r i t e r ' s p r i n c i p a l h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t i f Native c h i l d r e n l e a r n about t h e i r c u l t u r e i t w i l l enhance t h e i r esteem and s e l f - c o n c e p t . t h i s i s through ture through  Indian self-  One o f the best means o f a c h i e v i n g  t e a c h i n g Indian a r t .  Learning about Indian  cul-  Indian a r t can be done by making use o f c o n v e n t i o n a l  t e a c h i n g methods and adapting these to the l e a r n i n g s t y l e s o f Indian c h i l d r e n .  N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n are v i s u a l ,  learners  1976, p. 140;-Ministry o f E d u c a t i o n , 1982,  (Pepper,  kinesthetic  p. 2 ) . A r t c l a s s e s may l e n d themselves t o e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g f o r a c l a s s o f Native Indian c h i l d r e n because o f the freedom o f movement i n a r t c l a s s e s , the v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s , the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t i n m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t o o l s and the o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n by o b s e r v a t i o n .  This study documents the design and implementa-  t i o n of an a r t programme i n an urban Native Indian a l t e r n a t e class.  The programme was designed  t o develop  c u l t u r a l awareness  and t o enhance s e l f - c o n c e p t . In t h i s f i r s t chapter I d i s c u s s the h i s t o r y o f Native Indian e d u c a t i o n i n B.C., the f a i l u r e o f N a t i v e Indian to achieve and reasons to p r o v i d e  students  f o r such f a i l u r e , some o f the steps  taken  " c u l t u r a l enrichment" f o r Native students, and the  s p e c i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f l i n k s between the s c h o o l and the home. suggest  I  t h a t the t e a c h i n g o f Northwest Coast Indian a r t may be  one o f the best ways o f r e s t o r i n g to Indian c h i l d r e n an awareness  2.  of t h e i r own  c u l t u r e and a t the same time i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r cap-  a c i t y to a s s i m i l a t e the standard academic programme.  Background  The  Impact of Europeans on  Indian  Native  Education  The c h i l d r e n i n our s c h o o l s know t h a t b e f o r e Europeans reached B r i t i s h Columbia i t was  the e s t a b l i s h e d homeland of Nat-  i v e Indian people with unique c u l t u r e s of t h e i r own.  Children  are too o f t e n , however, l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t the Native s o c i e t y was  a p r i m i t i v e one, without  i n s t i t u t i o n s , laws,  i o n or any of the other a t t r i b u t e s of our own o f t e n thought  be observed  It i s f o r the  Many b e l i e v e t h a t  t h a t remains are c r a f t s , c a r v i n g s , and p a i n t i n g s .  c h i l d r e n may  relig-  i n rundown s e c t i o n s of Indian r e -  serves or i n downtown Vancouver's skidrow. all  society.  to be a s o c i e t y t h a t has vanished, except  remnants t h a t may  Indian  Some  be aware o f the r e n a i s s a n c e i n Native Indian a r t  t h a t i s s a i d to be t a k i n g p l a c e today.  But evidences of t h i s  are regarded merely as h e a d s t o n e s — c o l o u r f u l though they may —in  the graveyard of Native Indian  be  culture.  T h i s a t t i t u d e towards N a t i v e Indian c u l t u r e has permeated the education not o n l y of m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e c h i l d r e n but a l s o of Indian c h i l d r e n . c u l t u r e belongs  They, too, have been l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r to the p a s t .  Indeed, the very o b j e c t of Native  Indian education f o r many years was  to e f f a c e Native Indian h i s -  t o r y , language and c u l t u r e from the minds of Native  Indian  3.  children.  There has, n e v e r t h e l e s s , emerged a growing movement  for self-determination. Native Indian people d i s t i n c t peoples  This movement r e f l e c t s the d e s i r e of  to r e t a i n  i n our midst.  land claims movement.  their collective  i d e n t i t y , as  I t i s best known to us as the  Where Indian t i t l e  to the land had not  been e x t i n g u i s h e d , Indian bands are c l a i m i n g Indian ownership stretching  back to "time immemorial."  The newspapers have f o r a  dozen years marked the progress o f the movement. At the same time there has been a s i m i l a r ian education. control learn  movement i n Ind-  I t i s an attempt by Native Indians t o a t t a i n  over the e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n  t o ensure t h a t they  about t h e i r own h e r i t a g e , t h e i r own people, and t h e i r own  past.  I t s purpose i s t o see n o t only t h a t they a c q u i r e a l l t h e  s k i l l s needed to f u n c t i o n i n the dominant s o c i e t y ,  but a l s o t h a t  they leave s c h o o l w i t h a s t r o n g sense o f t h e i r own i d e n t i t y as N a t i v e Indians.  B.C.'s Native Indian Teacher Education  Pro-  gramme, e s t a b l i s h e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and s i m i l a r programmes i n each p r o v i n c e o f Canada are a product o f t h i s movement. through  The success o f these programmes i s e v i d e n t  the numbers o f graduate  Native Indian teachers which to  date number over 500 across Canada. Before c o n t a c t , the Native Indian people extended f a m i l i e s .  I t was by an o r a l t r a d i t i o n  mitted t h e i r h i s t o r y ,  t h a t they t r a n s -  t h e i r language, and t h e i r legends  g e n e r a t i o n t o another. ucating their children. grandparents.  i n B.C. l i v e d i n  from one  The o r a l t r a d i t i o n p r o v i d e d a way o f edThey were taught by t h e i r parents and  4.  . . . f o r a people whole l i v e s are bounded by a few hundred  men and women and c h i l d r e n , every b i r t h ,  every  marriage and every q u a r r e l c a r r i e s a tremendous burden of  meaning.  Every event i s d e s c r i b e d again and a g a i n .  Only i n t h i s way w i l l the c h i l d r e n l e a r n what l i f e i s and how i t i s t o be l i v e d .  (Mead, 1974, p. 71)  C h i l d r e n were taught how t o hunt and f i s h and such p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s as c a r v i n g and weaving. social responsibilities.  They were taught t o assume t h e i r  In a d d i t i o n , they were taught the l e g -  ends of the people, and o f the quest f o r s p i r i t power--"the severe  t e s t o f r e s i s t a n c e and f o r t i t u d e "  (Drucker, 1965, p.  Education d i d not i n t e r r u p t the c h i l d ' s everyday ate  him from i t .  101).  l i f e or a l i e n -  When h i s parents went f i s h i n g , he f o l l o w e d ,  l e a r n i n g s k i l l s which he would use i n a d u l t  life.  White men e s t a b l i s h e d f u r t r a d i n g posts i n n o r t h e r n B.C. d u r i n g the e a r l y 1800's.  These posts were the source o f new  weapons, new t o o l s , and food and c l o t h i n g f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n people.  Native Indian f a m i l i e s l e f t t h e i r v i l l a g e s and r e l o c a t e d  c l o s e t o the t r a d i n g p o s t s , sometimes f a r from t h e i r h u n t i n g grounds  ( P a t t e r s o n , 1972, p. 149). The whites brought d i s e a s e  and l i q u o r t o the p o s t s .  In B r i t i s h Columbia,  the N a t i v e popu-  l a t i o n d e c l i n e d s h a r p l y from the 1830's on. Estimates o f p o p u l a t i o n i n 18 35 were I n t e r i o r (13,000); Tsimshian Salish  (12,000).  (8,500); Kwakiutl  Salish  (10 ,70 0) ;. -Coast  Modern medicine has stopped  smallpox  epidemics and g r e a t l y reduced the i n c i d e n c e o f t u b e r culosis  (but a cure has y e t t o be found f o r a l c o h o l i s m ) .  5. By  1885  the p o p u l a t i o n f o r a l l these people had  by another p.  f i f t y percent or more.  (Patterson,  fallen 1972,  161)  In the middle o f the 19th century, Roman C a t h o l i c ( O b l a t e ) , Methodist, A n g l i c a n  (Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y ) , and S a l v a t i o n  Army m i s s i o n a r i e s began a r r i v i n g i n B.C.  The Oblates of Mary  Immaculate a r r i v e d i n the 1840's and were f o r c e d to l e a r n  the  Native Indian languages s i n c e the Indians d i d n ' t know t h e i r s . The  1850's brought the A n g l i c a n s and,  Methodists ies  followed.  preached  Grammars and  ian  dictionaries  f o r use i n C h r i s t i a n i z i n g the N a t i v e Indians.  c a t i o n and m i s s i o n work were interdependent. b a r r i e r was  the  In each case, the f i r s t wave of m i s s i o n a r -  i n the n a t i v e tongue.  were prepared  a few years l a t e r ,  broken, catechism,  ceremonies were taught.  Once the language  s t o r i e s , songs, music, and  E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n had  uages were suppressed  Christconse-  quences f o r the whole p o p u l a t i o n , not j u s t the c h i l d r e n . went on, i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h was  As  time  promoted, Native Indian l a n g -  and the o l d e r people became separated  t h e i r c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n by language. r e q u i r e d as teachers of the young.  Edu-  They were no  Indeed, w i t h the  speaking d i f f e r e n t languages they c o u l d not be.  from longer  generations  Native  Indian  c h i l d r e n were taught i n a language t h a t the c h i l d r e n had  not  heard a t home.  thought  They were taught much t h a t t h e i r parents  untrue o r i r r e l e v a n t .  N a t i v e Indians s i l e n t l y q u e s t i o n e d  education of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  Some k i n s h i p groups became d i v i d e d  i n t o C h r i s t i a n s and n o n - C h r i s t i a n s . the new  the  r e l i g i o n s i n t o t h e i r own  Some of the people  Native Indian s p i r i t u a l  absorbed beliefs.  In the case of well-known Coast S a l i s h e l d e r , Dominic C h a r l i e , four d i f f e r e n t f u n e r a l ceremonies marked h i s death i n the 1970's The  fragmentation  of past b e l i e f s meant t h a t aspects of Native  Indian c u l t u r e , the product of thousands of y e a r s , became l o s t . Songs, dances, and myths, a l l of them connected uage, were no longer passed Standard  to t h e i r l a n g -  on.  e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r i e s make no r e f e r e n c e to  u i s t i c suppression.  ling-  Because the s c h o o l s were intended to c a r r y  out a programme of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , i t was s u p p r e s s i o n was  necessary.  good.  the Department o f Indian A f f a i r s announced,  In 1895,  This was  assumed t h a t language  f o r the N a t i v e Indian's  own "So  long as he keeps h i s n a t i v e tongue, so long w i l l he remain a community a p a r t "  (D.I.A., 1895,  p.  xxiii).  Today b i l i n g u a l i s m as between E n g l i s h and French trenched i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n .  I t i s not c o n s i d e r e d necessary  anyone to g i v e up h i s o r her f i r s t second.  But, as regards Native Indians, the f e d e r a l government' monolingual-  The n a t i v e language r e p r e s e n t e d a t i e w i t h a c u l t u r e t h a t  the m i s s i o n a r i e s were determined be  fo  language i n o r d e r to a c q u i r e  p o l i c y has been not of b i l i n g u a l i s m , but of E n g l i s h ism.  i s en-  to overcome, the way  of l i f e  to  destroyed. The Native Indian r e l i g i o n was  C h r i s t i a n i z i n g them.  viewed as an impediment to  Family t i e s were broken, d i s e a s e  off  Indian l e a d e r s h i p , and the people met  hol  and the v i o l e n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t s use.  carried  d e s t r u c t i o n from a l c o In the past  they  had drawn s t r e n g t h from t h e i r shamans, t h e i r language, t h e i r c h i e f s , and t h e i r elders--now they had been l e d to doubt them a l l and c u l t u r e was  eroded.  7.  The  missionaries  sought to remake Native  people.  a r a t e d them from the t h i n g s t h a t had meaning f o r  They sep-  them—their  language, t h e i r names, t h e i r h i s t o r y , t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h e i r people, and p l a c e d by  their religion.  Native  Indian  the names of white e x p l o r e r s .  potlatches  p l a c e names were r e -  The m i s s i o n a r i e s  as remnants of a t r a d i t i o n t h a t had  In the l a t t e r years of the  19th  focus of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . i n Chinook jargon  century,  The  stamped  the p o t l a t c h became a  p. 55), was  Indian  a tribal  culture.  The  and  commoners welcomed the  c h i e f s of rank, the c h i e f ' s f a m i l y , nobles, host and and  guest had  I f he was  guests a c c o r d i n g  of the host  of c o n t i n u i t y and  new  t i t l e s and The  host,  host  guests—  commoners.  Each  expected of h i s  groups, he a s s i s t e d i n s e a t i n g Guests were r e q u i r e d to  b e n e f i t t i n g the o c c a s i o n .  There was  dress  a sense  permanence, f o r p o t l a t c h e s were h e l d to honour  the memory of a dead c h i e f and on h i s successor  knew what was  to t h e i r s t a t u s .  behave i n a way  The  a c r e s t , knew what h i s r i g h t s  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were, and  group.  and  a p l a c e , had  and  institu-  potlatch  i n v o l v e d p u b l i c announcement o f a s i g n i f i c a n t event. c h i e f , h i s f a m i l y , nobles,  out.  p o t l a t c h , which means " g i v i n g "  (Drucker, 1965,  t i o n of Northwest Coast Native  to be  saw  to c o n f e r h i s s t a t u s and p o s i t i o n  (Drucker, 1965,  p. 55).  names were a l s o occasions  Marriage, b i r t h ,  death,  for potlatches.  f a m i l y and nobles e s t a b l i s h e d the c r e d e n t i a l s o f  people c o n f e r r i n g honours, and  the w i t n e s s e s , by t h e i r presence,  l e g i t i m i z e d the o c c a s i o n .  guests a l s o gave r e c o g n i t i o n to  The  the people both c o n f e r r i n g and  r e c e i v i n g honours.  People o f  l e s s e r rank a l s o r e c e i v e d names or p r i v i l e g e s from the (Drucker, 1965,  p. 55).  The  t a n g i b l e goods, the  group  presents  8. r e c e i v e d by  the  guests, have a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of observ-  ers of p o t l a t c h e s . self interest.) time t r a p p i n g  (This concern has  o f t e n been not without  Traders wanted the people to be  animals, and  missionaries  spending  their  wanted them c o n t r i b u t i n g  to b u i l d i n g a church r a t h e r than spending the time i n a ceremony t h a t seemed o f no v a l u e , The able.  and  t h e r e f o r e of no  r o l e that the a r t s played  A profusion  real  merit.  i n the p o t l a t c h was  consider-  o f c r e s t s , headdresses, c l o a k s , c l o t h i n g  and  j e w e l l e r y worn by the p r i n c i p a l s made the event memorable.  The  dancers wore costumes, masks; and  sing-  i n g , was  the music, accompanied by  more than entertainment; i t r e f e r r e d to the  p r i v i l e g e to be bestowed.  The  dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n s  event i n t o the memory of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . l a t c h the n a t i v e  language, spoken and  the legendary h i s t o r y and  hereditary etched  Throughout the  sung, was  r e c e n t h i s t o r y i n order to v a l i d a t e  h i s t o r y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . and  closely The  The  b a s i c s o c i a l u n i t was  the r e l a t i o n s h i p with the extended f a m i l y was  Rev.  William  Duncan s a i d t h a t the p o t l a t c h was  (1887).  In 1884,  i n the way  of i n f l u e n c i n g  p r e s s u r e from Indian  s i o n a r i e s r e s u l t e d i n the passage of a law ing.  The  a c t provided  that  "every Indian  gages i n or a s s i s t s i n c e l e b r a t i n g the the  the  complete consolidbound more  together.  tremely formidable o b s t a c l e Indians  pot-  used to review  p r e s e n t p o t l a t c h so t h a t i t c o u l d become a p a r t o f the  ated  the  ' p o t l a t c h ' or i n the Indian  i s g u i l t y of a misdemeanor and  ex-  the  agents and  mis-  prohibiting potlatchor other person who  Indian  en-  f e s t i v a l known as  dance known as the s h a l l be  an  'Tamanawas'  l i a b l e to imprisonment"  9.  (Canada S t a t u t e s , 1880, l a t c h was  p. 47).  h e l d at A l e r t Bay.  a r r e s t e d , and p o t l a t c h was  The  In 1921  the l a s t p u b l i c p o t -  Indians who  p a r t i c i p a t e d were  Indian a r t a r t i f a c t s were s e i z e d .  The end of the  the death k n e l l f o r Indian c u l t u r e .  One  United  Church m i n i s t e r s a i d t h a t "they c l i n g with p a s s i o n a t e r e s o l v e to the yaok, or p o t l a t c h .  That i s our mountain, say they, our  j o y , dearer than l i f e .  To p r i s o n and death we w i l l go r a t h e r  than y i e l d .  Yet t h i s was  son,  In 1906,  1972).  t h e i r r u i n , wrote Rev.  only  F i e l d " (Patter-  he wrote, "Most of the p o t l a t c h houses  have been abandoned, many o l d totem poles are t o t t e r i n g and  the  n a t i v e language has given way  43).  This was  t o E n g l i s h " (Crosby,  viewed as a p o s i t i v e s i g n of the I n d i a n s '  Indian c u l t u r e had been m o r t a l l y wounded. l a t c h was the New  the g r e a t e s t l o s s o f a l l .  Indian A c t l i f t e d  The  I t was  1914,  progress.  l o s s of the  not u n t i l  the ban on the p o t l a t c h .  1951  Education was  At f i r s t ,  potthat  The a s s a u l t  on Native s o c i e t y and b e l i e f s spanned the range of t h e i r utions.  p.  instit-  t h e r e f o r e not exempt.  schools were f i n a n c e d both by church c o n t r i b u t i o n s  and by Native Indians themselves who  donated l a n d .  A f t e r Con-  f e d e r a t i o n , the schools r e c e i v e d f e d e r a l government grants r e s e r v e s were e s t a b l i s h e d .  as  In 186 8 Indian e d u c a t i o n , and i n  f a c t the complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Native I n d i a n s , was under the newly c r e a t e d o f f i c e of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e . 1873  i t was  1876  Indian A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  placed In  t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Department o f the I n t e r i o r , i n f e d e r a l i z e d , i n 1880  the Department of Indian A f f a i r s , and of the Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and  i n 1936  i t went to  to the  Immigration.  jurisdiction  Since  1954  10. Indian education has come under the Department of Indian A f f a i r and Northern The  Development.  schools were run by the F e d e r a l government and  i s t e r e d from Ottawa.  The Native Indian way  o f l i f e was  e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h a t of the dominant white s o c i e t y . a r i e s and government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who  adminin dirMission-  succeeded them b e l i e v e d  t h a t N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n should be taught the uselessness of t r a v e l l i n g , hunting, and roaming a i m l e s s l y .  While Northwest  Coast people were not nomadic, they d i d make seasonal moves f o r f i s h , s h e l l f i s h , and b e r r i e s .  "They should be taught to c u l t i v -  ate the l a n d , to make a r e a l home t h e r e and the p o s s e s s i o n of a good w i f e and (•Crosby, 1914,  p. 43).  The  Indians i n t e r r u p t e d Rev. so he urged  the Methodist  f i n d happiness  in  the r a i s i n g of a f a m i l y "  seasonal m i g r a t i o n s of the Native  Thomas Crosby's  work with the  Church to e s t a b l i s h boarding  children, schools  where the c h i l d r e n might be p r o t e c t e d from the e v i l i n f l u e n c e s of t h e i r v i l l a g e s , and where they might become " c i v i l i z e d " more quickly. i n g and  The  Indian concepts of communal use of l a n d , and hunt-  f i s h i n g p a t t e r n based on seasonal p a t t e r n s  interfered  with Western n o t i o n s of s e t t l e d v i l l a g e s of E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g , monogamous, C h r i s t i a n , a g r i c u l t u r a l Native  Indians.  The purpose of the education of the Native people was  to  erase t h e i r h i s t o r y , language, r e l i g i o n and p h i l o s o p h y from t h e i minds, and to p l a c e s e c u r e l y i n i t s stead the language, h i s t o r y , r e l i g i o n , and p h i l o s o p h y of the white man. white man's instrument  School became the  f o r the a s s i m i l a t i o n and a c c u l t u r a t i o n of  the Native Indian c h i l d . e l d e r l y woman a t F o r t Rae,  These t h i n g s p e r s i s t to t h i s day. i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ,  told  An  lithe McKenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y i n 1976, s p o i l e d e v e r y t h i n g f o r the Native people, By  1900  schools and of 800  i n B.C.,  "The white man  even our own  children."  there were, f o r Native Indians, 28  s e v e r a l r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , with a t o t a l  (D.I.A., 1900).  has  day  enrollment  R e s i d e n t i a l schools p r o v i d e d s c h o o l i n g ,  room and board, i n t e r m i x e d with r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g .  The  curric-  ulum has been documented i n the Department o f Indian A f f a i r s Northern  Development r e p o r t s .  c o n s i d e r e d necessary ren were punished their families. society.  Removal from t h e i r f a m i l i e s  to the process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  f o r speaking  t h e i r own  language, and kept  Yet they were not accepted  They were suspended between two  The  The  a u t h o r i t y of the church  were operated  on,  from  (D.I.A.N.D., 1980,  over the schools ceased.  p.  op-  51).  Schools  d i r e c t l y by the f e d e r a l government; a l l p r o f e s From  the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s were used p r i m a r i l y f o r  secondary e d u c a t i o n schools by and  child-  worlds.  s i o n a l s t a f f i n the schools were f e d e r a l p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . about 1950  was  i n t o the non-Indian  In the l a t e 1930's, D.I.A.N.D. began to take over the e r a t i o n o f the r e s i d e n t i a l schools  and  (D.I.A.N.D., 1980,  l a r g e met  p. 51).  Provincial  the need f o r elementary  education.  S t a r t i n g i n the l a t e 1960's, D.I.A.N.D. adopted a p o l i c y of c l o s i n g down r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s  (D.I.A.N.D., 1980,  p. 51).  r e s i d e n t i a l schools c l o s e d , they were r e p l a c e d by boarding group homes.  Today the p r o p o r t i o n of Native students  home i s h i g h e r ; the m a j o r i t y of students  i n federal,  and band s c h o o l s l i v e a t home (D.I.A.N.D., 1980). the r e l u c t a n c e of students schools f a r from t h e i r  or  l i v i n g at provincial  This  reflects  (and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ) to a t t e n d  communities.  As  12. ( P r o v i n c i a l schools operated w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l system.) t u i t i o n and boards and  f o r Indian c h i l d r e n operate  Funding i s p r o v i d e d under a  c a p i t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n agreement between l o c a l the f e d e r a l government  (D.I.A.N.D., 1980).  school  In a d d i -  t i o n to the s c h o o l s operated by l o c a l s c h o o l boards, there are band schools operated d i r e c t l y by bands f i n a n c e d by the f e d e r a l government.  In 1966  there were no band operated  schools.  d i a n c o n t r o l o f Indian e d u c a t i o n began a f t e r 1971,  In-  and by  1979  8% of the Indian c h i l d r e n i n Canada were a t t e n d i n g band operated s c h o o l s , 53% were a t t e n d i n g f e d e r a l s c h o o l s , and attending p r o v i n c i a l schools. Canada today i s 100  The number of band s c h o o l s i n  (D.I.A.N.D., 1980).  In 1977  p o l i t a n Vancouver area, as f a r e a s t as Langley, students attended  39% were  f o u r types of schools  Provincial  Native  (Alan, 1977, 1,618  Band  i n the metroIndian  p.  1).  students  46 9 students  Federal P r i v a t e and Church Although  (Independent)  77  students  2 32  students  the Native Indian r a t e o f s c h o o l completion  improved modestly i n the past 15 years 1965  and  rate  (D.I.A.N.D., 1980,  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y between  1970), i t remains l e s s than one-quarter p. 49).  the n a t i o n a l  In f a c t , the p r o p o r t i o n of  Native Indian students between the ages of 14-18  enrolled in  schools a c r o s s Canada has s t e a d i l y d e c l i n e d s i n c e 1972-73 (D.I.A.N.D., 1980,  p.  49).  has  13. The Major Elements o f Native Indian C u l t u r e —Particularly  i n B.C.  Indian c u l t u r e s i n North America share many s i m i l a r i t i e s . Most Indian people l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s are l i v i n g on a remnant of t h e i r a n c e s t r a l t e r r i t o r y .  Native people have always been  c l o s e to the land and to nature; many o f them s t i l l t h a t s p i r i t s i n h a b i t the mountains, animals. customs,  believed  the sea, the t r e e s and the  Those people s h a r i n g common t e r r i t o r y , d i a l e c t , and r e f e r to themselves i n t h e i r language as "The People."  Many o f the names mean "People" i n d i f f e r e n t Indian languages. For Athapaskan-speaking  I n d i a n s , "Dene" i s "People."  Indian h i s t o r y i n Canada and the United S t a t e s i s s i m i l a r i n the welcome t h a t Indian people extended to the " v i s i t o r s " who subsequently supplanted them.  Traditional leadership roles  needed f o r the community to f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y c e n t r e d around the c h i e f , h i s f a m i l y , a shaman, craftsmen, h u n t e r s , fishermen, and g a t h e r e r s .  The s o c i a l system i n the Northwest  unique system o f rank. h e l d a rank.  Coast had a  W i t h i n the k i n s h i p system each person  " S o c i a l rank and k i n s h i p d i d not c o n f l i c t with but  m o d i f i e d each o t h e r " (Drucker, 1965, p. 49). The Native Indian people i n B.C. were d i v i d e d between n o r t h and south. Tsimshian, Athapaskan, Tlingit.  culturally  Northern people i n c l u d e d the Haida,  Northern K w a k i u t l , B e l l a Coola and Inland  The southern people i n c l u d e d the Coast S a l i s h ,  i o r S a l i s h and Kootenay.  Inter-  The m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i n the n o r t h was  n o t a b l e f o r the f i n e n e s s o f the dugout canoes and c a r v i n g o f wooden o b j e c t s .  In the south the emphasis was p l a c e d on weaving  14. f i n e baskets  and weaving b l a n k e t s  from dog and goat  hair.  Trade goods g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d a west to e a s t d i r e c t i o n . In some cases customs were borrowed from the t r a d i n g p a r t n e r . Tsimshian  t r a d e d w i t h the T a h l t a n , and the T l i n g i t t r a d e d w i t h  the Athapaskan.  "The  T l i n g i t , e s p e c i a l l y those i n h a b i t i n g the  mainland, were i n frequent communication with t h e i r Athapaskan neighbours,  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r purposes o f t r a d e " (Gunther, 19 72,  p. 144) . Indian c u l t u r e had undergone changes before white c o n t a c t . But with the advent of white e x p l o r e r s and change a c c e l e r a t e d .  traders c u l t u r a l  In e x p l o r e r s ' j o u r n a l s , Indians i n  were i n v a r i a b l e compared with non-Indians and E t h n o c e n t r i c Europeans regarded Indian c u l t u r e was  different.  found  B.C.  wanting.  Indians as i n f e r i o r because The elements o f European  civil-  i z a t i o n were m i s s i n g — b o o k s , a w r i t t e n language, and p r i v a t e property.  As soon as the value of sea o t t e r s k i n s was  discov-  ered and a system o f trade s e t up by the E n g l i s h , trade between Indians and  t r a d e r s became i n t e n s e on the west c o a s t .  The  dians were o f f e r e d a v a r i e t y of goods i n exchange f o r the "The  first  Infurs.  f u r t r a d i n g e x p e d i t i o n from the O r i e n t came to Nootka  Sound i n 178 5, and  l e f t John MacKay, the surgeon, to become ac-  quainted with the Indians and arrange (Gunther, 1972,  p. 193).  trading for their return"  B o l t s of c l o t h and g l a s s beads were  a few of the d e s i r e d items.  The  a d d i t i o n o f metal t o o l s brought  the a r t i s t i c t a l e n t of the Native Indian a r t i s t s i n t o f u l l Through "trade r e l a t i o n s and  intermarriage, i n t e r i o r  flower. tribes  such as the C a r r i e r and Tahltan began to adopt the s o c i a l systems  15.  and ceremonies  o f t h e i r more powerful c o a s t a l neighbours" (Duff,  1965,  Ceremonies t h a t were exported i n t h i s way were  p. 58).  adapted  t o the new s o c i e t y .  The T l i n g i t , Haida and Tsimshian  a l l used the Raven r a t t l e i n t h e i r ceremonies,  so i t i s d i f f i -  c u l t to determine which group i n t r o d u c e d i t to the o t h e r s .  Art-  i f a c t s i n museums are remnants o f the c u l t u r e t h a t produced  them.  The a r t i f a c t s were p a r t o f the m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , and t h e i r c a r v i n g , p a i n t i n g and d e c o r a t i o n g i v e s us a glimpse i n t o how they saw t h e i r world and how they r e p r e s e n t e d i t .  We can understand  t h e i r v a l u e s and t h e i r s o c i a l system through an examination o f their art.  Items t h a t the shaman employed had q u i t e  different  designs and m o t i f s from those used by the r e s t o f the community. The c h i e f used the f i n e s t and wore the f i n e s t .  A headdress  f i n e l y carved w i t h i n s e t abalone and decorated w i t h ermine and sea l i o n whiskers r e p r e s e n t e d the f i n e s t i n c r a f t s m a n s h i p o f natural materials.  What we see i n museums and i n photographs  are outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f i n t e r n a l i z e d , deeply h e l d about the nature o f t h e i r world, t h e i r p a r t i n i t ,  beliefs  and the manner  i n which they should l i v e i n i t .  Indian A r t  " A r t " was r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n g r a p h i c and s c u l p t u r a l of a n c e s t r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l beings c e n t r a l to f a m i l y and i d e n t i t y . l i e f s held.  form,  history  I t was a m a t e r i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f values and beA r t was an important aspect of a l l o f the Native  Indian c u l t u r e s on the Northwest  Coast.  16. During the past two decades, Native Indians have again been working as a r t i s t s , craftsmen, some B.C.  and c r a f t s t e a c h e r s .  In  s c h o o l s , Native Indian a r t i s t s teach Northwest  Indian a r t i n the classroom.  Coast  I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s necessary  to teach a r t i n the classroom w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f i t s c u l t u r e i n order to t r a n s m i t the meaning of the a r t o f the past and understand  how  to  the contemporary a r t i s t b u i l d s upon h i s know-  ledge of h i s c u l t u r e and the s t r e n g t h s of the p a s t . Indian c u l t u r e i s the r o o t t h a t makes the branches of a r t possible. connect has  The a r t t h a t Native Indian c h i l d r e n are taught must  to the r o o t of t h e i r c u l t u r e so t h a t what they  a r e l a t i o n s h i p to the a r t of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s .  c r e a t e d i n 3,00 0 B.C.  learn  Carved  motifs  can be of i n t e r e s t to a contemporary s t u d -  ent drawing designs f o r the f i r s t time.  "Why  d i d that a r t i s t  decide to carve those shapes out of a l l t h a t he might have chosen?"  T a l k i n g to contemporary a r t i s t s about how  the imagery when c r e a t i n g a p r i n t i s a l s o a way  they  develop  f o r Native I n -  d i a n students to connect w i t h the r o o t s of Indian c u l t u r e . past i s drawn upon i n o r d e r to c r e a t e a r t i n the p r e s e n t . day,  The To-  some Native Indian c h i l d r e n a t t e n d p o l e r a i s i n g ceremonies,  p o t l a t c h e s , and see a r t e x h i b i t s d i s p l a y i n g work of contemporary artists.  Based on my  l i m i t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s i n an urban s e t t i n g ,  I b e l i e v e t h a t they want to l e a r n about Indian a r t and are ready  to experience  i t i n a d i r e c t way.  t h a t they  As w i l l be  seen,  the a r t programme which i s the s u b j e c t o f t h i s study, a t l e a s t from the a v a i l a b l e evidence, bears out t h i s c o n v i c t i o n . Kwakiutl  a r t forms have been r e d i s c o v e r e d i n our own  time.  Bill  Reid, i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d Haida a r t i s t , i n h i s paper  "A New  Northwest  Coast A r t :  A Dream of the Past or A New  ening?" has p a i d t r i b u t e t o one who, way:  ". . . B i l l  (Holm) was  c i p l e s o f Northwest  Awak-  l i k e h i m s e l f , has l e d the  d i s c o v e r i n g the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n -  Coast a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the n o r t h e r n s t y l e ,  which e v e n t u a l l y became the b a s i s f o r h i s important book, Northwest Coast Indian A r t , which has become the B i b l e of many N a t i v e Indian a r t i s t s "  (Reid, u n p u b l i s h e d paper, 1979).  "On the North-  west Coast, a h i g h l y developed system f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f form and space i n two-dimensional d e s i g n as an a d j u n c t to the well-known symbolism"  (Holm, 1965,  Holm, "Design ranged from Con_  p. 92) emerged.  A c c o r d i n g to  . . . r e a l i s t i c to a b s t r a c t i o n  . . .  i n t e r l o c k i n g f o r m l i n e p a t t e r n o f shapes r e l a t e d i n form,  c o l o u r , and s c a l e "  (p. 92).  Yet Northwest  Coast a r t was  never  stagnant, s i n c e the "constant flow of movement, broken at r h y t h mic i n t e r v a l s by r a t h e r sudden, but not n e c e s s a r i l y j e r k y ,  chan-  ges o f m o t i o n - d i r e c t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e s both the dance and a r t o f the Northwest  Coast" (Holm, 196 5, p. 9 3).  "Some o f the most  s k i l l f u l a r t i s t s o f the southern Kwakiutl are a l s o among the b e s t dancers and song composers" (Holm, 1965,  p. 93).  "In the south,  p a r t i c u l a r l y among the K w a k i u t l , the p a i n t e d forms accent and conform to s c u l p t u r a l forms"  emphasize,  (Holm, 1965,  p. 13).  The b a s i c elements o f the a r t c o n s i s t e d o f c o l o u r , form, and design.  Colour used f o r primary f o r m l i n e s was  usually black,  whereas secondary f o r m l i n e s were u s u a l l y p a i n t e d r e d .  Formlines  were "one o f the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f Northwest art"  (Holm, 1965,  p. 37).  Coast  The c u r v i l i n e a r l i n e s s w e l l w i t h major  18. changes o f d i r e c t i o n and w i t h the p o s i t i o n of the design.  Form-  l i n e s u s u a l l y s w e l l i n the c e n t r e o f a design and d i m i n i s h a t the ends (Holm, 1965,  p. 35).  Northwest Coast design i n c l u d e d the  o v o i d which i s used as eyes, j o i n t s , and v a r i o u s space Its  fillers.  shape i s always convex on i t s upper s i d e and a t i t s ends  (Holm, 1965,  p. 37).  C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the o v o i d i s the  e y e l i d shape . . . i t i s " l e n t i c u l a r i n shape, rounded i n the c e n t r e , p o i n t e d a t the ends, and e n c l o s i n g a round or o v a l spot s u g g e s t i n g an i r i s o f the eye"  (Holm, 1965,  p. 40).  and i t s v a r i a n t s are used i n i n f i n i t e combinations.  The U form "Typically,  the U form i s t h i c k on the end and t h i n n e r on the s i d e s " 1965,  p. 41).  U's may  be primary, secondary,  (Holm,  and t e r t i a r y  with  s i d e s as t h i c k or t h i n as the f o r m l i n e s i n the d e s i g n , and the U may  be s o l i d or cross-hatched.  Designs  can be  configurative;  more r e a l i s t i c w i t h a n i m a l - l i k e observable o u t l i n e s ;  expansive,  where animal designs are d i s t o r t e d and rearranged to f i t a part i c u l a r space; d i s t r i b u t i v e , where p a r t s o f represented  animals  are so d i s l o c a t e d t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y the a b s t r a c t e d animal. art  These are simply the b a s i c elements of h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d  form. Inasmuch as more than seventy percent of the c l a s s used i n  t h i s study are Kwakiutl i t i s p e r t i n e n t to d i s c u s s some of the f e a t u r e s of t r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl a r t .  Kwakiutl C u l t u r e  Kwakiutl means Smoke-of-the world; which i s to say t h a t t h e i r greatness was  such i n g a t h e r i n g throngs  19. to t h e i r p o t l a t c h e s and ceremonials t h a t the smoke of t h e i r f e a s t f i r e s hung over the whole world. (Boas, 1966,  p. x i )  The Kwakiutl, or Kwawgewlth, are one o f ten l i n g u i s t i c groups i n B.C.  They c o n s t i t u t e 5.6%  Native Indian p o p u l a t i o n i n B.C.  o f the t o t a l  today.  peoples, of whom the Kwakiutl are one,  registered  The West C e n t r a l Coast together make up  of the t o t a l r e g i s t e r e d Native Indian p o p u l a t i o n i n B.C.  Nuu-chah-nulth  (formerly c a l l e d Nootka)  16.8% today:  7.4%  B e l l a Coola  1.3%  Heiltsuk  2.5%  Kwawgewlth (Kwakiutl)  5.6% 16. 8% (Tennant,  19 82, p.  10)  The Kwakiutl i n h a b i t e d and continue to i n h a b i t the c o a s t l i n e of B.C. mat.  from the n o r t h e r n t i p of Vancouver I s l a n d to K i t i -  In the past they l i v e d o f f the sea and f o r e s t .  fishermen and l o g g e r s of today s t i l l  Kwakiutl  depend on these same r e -  sources . Before c o n t a c t with the non-Indian, c l o s e harmony w i t h t h e i r environment. salmon who,  i t was  the Kwakiutl l i v e d i n  Prayers were s a i d t o the  b e l i e v e d , w i l l i n g l y gave of themselves  t h a t Native Indian people c o u l d l i v e .  Prayers were a l s o  so said  20. to the cedar t r e e , which provided raw m a t e r i a l f o r houses, canoes, and c l o t h i n g . The  l a n d was mountainous, the f o r e s t dense, and the c o a s t -  l i n e rugged and indented. waters i n canoes designed  The Kwakiutl  f o r easy s t e e r i n g and l a r g e enough t o  c a r r y f a m i l y members and goods. were m o d i f i e d ,  t r a v e l l e d to i n l a n d  " D i s t i n c t i v e r e g i o n a l designs  . . . i n p r o p o r t i o n s and l i n e ,  . . . a c c o r d i n g to  the purpose f o r which the i n d i v i d u a l c r a f t was intended" 1965,  p. 27). The dugout canoes o f the Kwakiutl combined a l l o f  these a t t r i b u t e s : "The  (Drucker,  m a n e u v e r a b i l i t y , conunodiousness, r e l i a b i l i t y .  Europeans admired the b e a u t i f u l seaworthy Indian canoes,  some o f which were almost  as long as t h e i r own s h i p s "  (Gunther,  1972, p. 37). The constant r a i n f a l l o f autumn and w i n t e r o f f e r e d nourishment to the f o r e s t , producing  t r e e s of l a r g e s i z e .  These t r e e s were the raw m a t e r i a l f o r f a b r i c a t i n g canoes and f o r b u i l d i n g plank houses t o accommodate many r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s under one  roof.  In p r e - c o n t a c t times  "the w a l l s o f the houses were  b u i l t o f h o r i z o n t a l , o v e r l a p p i n g boards t h a t d i d not admit p a i n t i n g , except on separate p l a n k s "  (Boas,  1966, p. 341). The gable  r o o f type o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , borrowed from n o r t h e r n  neighbours,  was a v a r i a t i o n which provided space f o r p a i n t i n g e l a b o r a t e crests. "The most e l a b o r a t e , t e c h n i c a l l y  . . . i n c l o t h i n g , was the  " C h i l k a t " b l a n k e t worn on ceremonial o c c a s i o n s by Kwakiutl c h i e f s and h i g h r a n k i n g persons.  . . .  The b l a n k e t was o r i g i n -  a l l y worn only by women o f the C h i l k a t d i v i s i o n o f the T l i n g i t " (Drucker,  1965, p. 35). I t was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the Kwakiutl  c u l t u r e when Mary Ebbets Hunt, a T l i n g i t , married a Hudson's Bay  f a c t o r , Robert Hunt, and they both came to l i v e i n F o r t  Rupert.  While Mary Hunt wove C h i l k i t b l a n k e t s , she r e f u s e d to  teach the l o c a l Kwakiutl women the c r a f t .  Four women, however,  are known to have produced C h i l k a t b l a n k e t s " p.  (Hawthorne, 196 7,  258). Food p r o d u c t i o n was  lations.  About 1835,  important  f o r v i l l a g e s of l a r g e popu-  " i t has been estimated t h a t the  p o p u l a t i o n on the Northwest Coast was  aboriginal  a t l e a s t 80,000 . . .  Native North Americans found l i f e on the c o a s t l i n e more congeni a l than nomadic h u n t i n g e x i s t e n c e , . . . " 39). coast.  (Duff, 196 4, pp.  F o r t u n a t e l y , there were many sources of food along  38-  the  S p r i n g , summer, and autumn were times f o r h a v e s t i n g ,  p r e p a r i n g and s t o r i n g food.  The  but, h e r r i n g , olachen  (Drucker,  sea l i o n and whales.  Kelp and  sea p r o v i d e d salmon, cod, 1965,  p. 15), s h e l l f i s h ,  seaweed were p a r t of t h e i r  In f a c t , the Kwakiutls' main o c c u p a t i o n was  fishing.  The  hali-  seals, diet. great  v a r i e t y o f f i s h and mammals c a l l e d f o r i n g e n u i t y i n a d a p t i n g t h e i r h a r v e s t i n g methods to the h a b i t s of the f i s h or mammals they sought.  Besides u s i n g the cedar f o r canoes, hooks, n e t s ,  and c l o t h i n g , the Kwakiutl used o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s .  During  p r e - c o n t a c t times, stone, s h e l l , bone t o o t h s , and a n t l e r were used f o r spears, c l u b s and k n i v e s . o b t a i n e d through s h i a n , who  B i t s o f n a t u r a l copper were  trade w i t h n o r t h e r n t r i b e s such as the Tsim-  were c l o s e r to the Copper R i v e r i n the Yukon, the  source of n a t i v e copper.  Other metals  i n the p o s s e s s i o n of Kwakiutl people;  such as i r o n were found these metals  apparently  came from A s i a , presumably as the r e s u l t of ship-wrecks  or  through c o n t a c t w i t h A r c t i c h u n t e r s . The year culminated i n the w i n t e r or ceremonial S u p e r n a t u r a l s p i r i t s , i t was  season.  b e l i e v e d , r e t u r n e d to the v i l l a g e s  of the Kwakiutl i n w i n t e r ; s e c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s gave way  to s a c r e d  ceremonies. The o n l y s e c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s t i l l l a t c h e s and f e a s t s . was  c a r r i e d on were p o t -  Warrior-of-the-world (Winalagelis)  the s p i r i t whose a r r i v a l s i g n i f i e d the b e g i n n i n g  of the w i n t e r ceremonial. of-the-World was  Cannibal-at-the-North-End-  a l s o an important s u p e r n a t u r a l s p i r i t  d u r i n g the w i n t e r ceremonials.  (Boas, 1966,  p.  172)  The w i n t e r ceremonial began i n December and l a s t e d w e l l i n t o the f o l l o w i n g year  (MacNair,  1973/4, p. 9).  I t probably ended w i t h  s i g n s of the coming of s p r i n g ; these would have v a r i e d from year to year. Helen Codere wrote t h a t , Franz Boas was  one of the few a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s who  recorded d e t a i l s about the Kwakiutl c u l t u r e . over f o r t y years he worked w i t h L"Kwakiutl3 Hunt to form one of the most p r o d u c t i v e and  For  George enduring  r e l a t i o n s h i p s to e x i s t between an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t and a member of another c u l t u r e .  (Boas, 1966,  p.  xxviii)  While much has been documented, i n some areas the m a t e r i a l c u l t ure i s a l l t h a t remains  of the c u l t u r e .  One  gains a sense of  the a r t i s t i c and dramatic t r a d i t i o n of the Kwakiutl c u l t u r e  from  the number and v a r i e t y of carved and p a i n t e d masks i n museum c o l l e c t i o n s i n B.C.  and around  the world.  The U.B.C. Museum of  Anthropology  has a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f Kwakiutl Hamatsa masks  owing to the number of masks produced  f o r Winter  Ceremonials.  Of these, " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n masks i n v o l v i n g m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t y , exe m p l i f y i n g the complexity o f the Kwakiutl mythology,"  (Hawthorne,  196 7, p. 2 38) are the most complex w i t h t h e i r removable p a r t s and hinged p o r t i o n s .  Simpler, but s t r i k i n g masks r e p r e s e n t i n g  b i r d s , animals, f i s h , k i l l e r whales, and r e p r e s e n t i n g supernatural beings:  Bookwus  (Wild Man o f the Woods), Tsonokwa (Wild  Woman o f the Woods), and Komokwa (King o f the Undersea World), r e v e a l the v a r i e t y o f Kwakiutl masks.  Conventions  of carving  and p a i n t i n g were f o l l o w e d but, w i t h i n t h a t framework o f conv e n t i o n , i m a g i n a t i v e use of m a t e r i a l s o c c u r r e d . "a headdress  For example,  o f wood - a l s o c a l l e d dancing forehead masks (Haw-  thorne, 1967, p. 165)3, of wood, abalqne s h e l l , m i r r o r s , sea l i o n whiskers,, f e a t h e r s , down, ermine s k i n s " "was o f t e n a t t a c h e d to a head r i n g of r e i n f o r c e d cedar bark and c l o t h . i a l s added, i n i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y , t o the t o t a l  These mater-  composition.  The Purpose o f the Study  Recent  s t a t i s t i c s compiled by f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and  l o c a l s c h o o l boards have shown l i t t l e out r a t e f o r Native c h i l d r e n .  a m e l i o r a t i o n i n the drop-  The Vancouver School Board Demo-  graphic Study of Native Indian students c a r r i e d out i n 1980 i n d i c a t e d t h a t there were 1,210 Native Indian students i n Vancouver s c h o o l s , 980 of them i n elementary 3% of the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n .  s c h o o l , where they c o n s t i t u t e d  At the secondary  level  they  c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y 1% o f the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . i n grades 8-12, 36%,  among Native students, the drop-out  compared to 5.5%  f o r non-Native students.  number o f Native Indian drop-outs where the drop-out  r a t e was  5 9.0%.  students repeated a t l e a s t one 4.7%  rate  was  The g r e a t e s t  o c c u r r e d at the grade 8 l e v e l  t i o n Table c o n t a i n e d i n the survey,  the f i g u r e was  In the same year,  A c c o r d i n g to the 20.6%  Distribu-  o f the Native  grade, whereas f o r  Indian  non-Natives  ( A l l e n , 1977).  The most r e c e n t s t a t i s t i c s compiled by D.I.A.N.D. are f o r 1980.  These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t across Canada, Native  student enrollment drops d r a s t i c a l l y a f t e r grade 8.  Indian  In a graph  c o n t a i n i n g the t o t a l N a t i v e Indian s c h o o l enrollment i n p r e s c h o o l , elementary,  secondary,  and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n , the p r o -  p o r t i o n of Native Indian c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n elementary matches n a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s . i n g secondary secondary  school  A separate graph show-  s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t i o n shows t h a t , although  education enrollment has more than doubled  total  since  1965,  the p r o p o r t i o n o f N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d has been s t e a d i l y d e c l i n i n g s i n c e r e a c h i n g a peak i n 1972-73 ( A l l e n ,  1977).  Native Indian r e t e n t i o n r a t e remains f a r below those f o r nonIndians i n B.C.  Only  12% who  were i n grade one  i n 1958-59 en-  t e r e d grade 12 i n 1969-70 (the corresponding p r o v i n c i a l f o r a l l non-Indians was  82.6%) (Stanbury,  figure  1975).  There i s not complete agreement on the reasons why Native Indian students are not s u c c e s s f u l i n s c h o o l .  so many  It is  c l e a r t h a t not a l l Native c h i l d r e n have the same problems i n  school.  Furthermore; the schools t h a t Native c h i l d r e n a t t e n d  vary widely i n t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n o f the needs o f the Native child.  But F l o y Pepper, an American Indian educator, has s a i d  t h a t "academic success o r f a i l u r e appears to be as deeply  rooted  i n concepts o f the s e l f as i t i s measured i n mental a b i l i t y , i f not deeper"  (Jones, 1976, p. 141). She goes on to say t h a t "psy-  c h o l o g i s t s have found t h a t Indian c h i l d r e n have one o f the lowest self-images  . . . and t h e i r a n x i e t y l e v e l i s the h i g h e s t "  (Jones, 1976, p. 134). I t i s one o f the hypotheses o f t h i s  study  t h a t Native Indian c h i l d r e n don't achieve t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n s c h o o l because they don't b e l i e v e t h a t they can be s u c c e s s f u l . The n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s Native Indian c h i l d r e n have about s c h o o l are compounded by t h e i r p a r e n t s ' memories o f t h e i r own f r u s t r a t i o n and a n x i e t y i n s c h o o l . s c h o o l has by and l a r g e disappeared, are s t i l l  Although  the r e s i d e n t i a l  some N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n  sent away from t h e i r communities to stay i n boarding  homes when there i s no s c h o o l c l o s e to home.  The school at  Churchouse was c l o s e d by D.I.A.N.D. so students now attend s c h o o l i n Sliammon o r M i s s i o n .  C h i l d r e n , p a r e n t s , and grandparents are  cut o f f from each o t h e r , e r o d i n g f a m i l y t i e s .  One has only to  go to a Native f u n e r a l to see how s t r o n g these t i e s are.  Many  Native people t r a v e l g r e a t d i s t a n c e s t o be a t the f u n e r a l o f a member o f t h e i r f a m i l y o r o f t h e i r community.  The numbers o f  c h i l d r e n o f a l l ages a t f u n e r a l s c o n t r a s t s to m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e f u n e r a l s where few c h i l d r e n a t t e n d . such ceremonial  occasions.  These t i e s are a f f i r m e d on  But they are d i f f i c u l t t o maintain  on a day-to-day b a s i s when attendance  a t s c h o o l keeps f a m i l i e s  apart. I t i s , however, the c u r r i c u l u m t h a t l i e s a t the h e a r t of the i s s u e .  Today, most Native Indian c h i l d r e n are educated  the p u b l i c s c h o o l system.  in  I f what i s taught i n p u b l i c s c h o o l  has no meaning or r e l e v a n c e f o r the p a r e n t s , then parents  aren't  a b l e to r e i n f o r c e i n f o r m a t i o n taught at s c h o o l ; they cannot see s c h o o l as important  i n the l i v e s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  Native Indian c h i l d r e n are o f t e n l a t e o r absent  Therefore,  from s c h o o l .  More and more Native Indian f a m i l i e s are moving to the c i t y t h a t the percentage  o f s t a t u s Indians l i v i n g o f f r e s e r v e s i n  Canada i n c r e a s e d from 25.6% p o r t i o n o f B.C. i n 1962  to 34.6%  so  i n 1962  to 36.3%  i n 1972.  The  Indians l i v i n g o f f r e s e r v e i n c r e a s e d from i n 1972  (Stanbury,  1975,  p. 1).  Native  pro14.2%  Indian  f a m i l i e s are l e a v i n g the r e s e r v e s and coming to urban c e n t r e s to f i n d employment. s i n g l e most important 1975,  p. 2 ) .  "Employment and economic n e c e s s i t y was reason f o r coming to the c i t y "  Stanbury's  1975  study of Success  and  the  (Stanbury,  Failure:  Indians i n Urban S o c i e t y found t h a t "Indians who  l i v e i n urban  c e n t r e s continue to speak t h e i r n a t i v e language.  Fifty-seven  percent of the people  (dancing, pot-  attended  Indian ceremonies  l a t c h e s , and winter ceremonies). tended months.  Twenty-three percent had  three or more such ceremonies i n the p r e c e d i n g  at-  twelve  Forty-seven p e r c e n t o f the sample made two or more v i s -  i t s to the r e s e r v e a n n u a l l y  (Stanbury,  1975,  p. 14).  Native  Indian c u l t u r e i s p r e s e n t i n the urban s e t t i n g d e s p i t e the widely h e l d b e l i e f , of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e , t h a t i t i s not.  Can  the f a i l u r e o f Indian c h i l d r e n i n the urban schools  relieved?  be  I t i s one o f the hypotheses of t h i s study t h a t i t  can be by l i n k i n g the s t r e n g t h s of Indian c u l t u r e — a n d i t s pers i s t e n c e i n the urban s e t t i n g — t o  the c u r r i c u l u m .  In t h i s  school programmes improve the s e l f - c o n c e p t o f Native children.  way,  Indian  But the s c h o o l cannot work i n i s o l a t i o n , because o f  the great i n f l u e n c e t h a t the Native student's home and communi t y have on h i s or her e d u c a t i o n . schools t h a t understand  Native Indian people  them, t h e i r c u l t u r e , and t h e i r  need children.  I f schools welcome and i n v o l v e the Native Indian p a r e n t s '  cult-  ure and knowledge, they can achieve a f l e x i b l e , d e v e l o p i n g c u r riculum.  Parents, e l d e r s and teachers working together  have a common b o n d — t h e best i n t e r e s t s of the Native  will  Indian  child.  The S p e c i f i c Reason f o r the Study:  Developing  Growth i n C u l t u r a l Awareness Through an A r t Programme f o r Native Indian  Students  For any c u l t u r a l programme to be e f f e c t i v e , e l d e r s and ents must be i n v o l v e d .  At Coqualeetza,  par-  a Native Indian c e n t r e  i n S a r d i s , an e l d e r s ' c l u b began when e l d e r s met  to share  memories, and l o c a l h i s t o r y .  Now  people  The members of the Nanaimo Band  i n community s c h o o l s .  many of the e l d e r s are  songs, resource  b e l i e v e t h a t c u l t u r e taught by e l d e r s at an e a r l y age has an e f f e c t on the values and behaviour  t h a t c h i l d r e n adopt.  l i e v e t h a t the e l d e r s are t r u e t e a c h e r s .  "Those who  They behave kept  the accumulated wisdom over the c e n t u r i e s w i l l h e l p i n these  28. t r o u b l e d times"  (More, 1981, p. 91). Developing i n Native  students an enhanced c u l t u r a l awareness through an a r t p r o gramme r e q u i r e s drawing upon Native Indian v a l u e s , c u l t u r e , and history. of  Native resource people must share i n the development  the programme, and a l s o share i n s p e c i f i c l e s s o n p l a n n i n g  and e v a l u a t i o n . One might ask why Native Indian c h i l d r e n are s p e c i a l . c h i l d r e n come t o Canada from c o u n t r i e s around the globe. come not knowing the E n g l i s h language, tory.  Other They  the c u l t u r e , o r the h i s -  They must a d j u s t and l e a r n how to f i t i n t o the dominant  culture.  Some Chinese c h i l d r e n go t o Chinese s c h o o l a f t e r the  r e g u l a r s c h o o l t o l e a r n about t h e i r language and c u l t u r e . Schools have always been used as the means o f e n c u l t u r a t i n g the m i n o r i t y i n t o the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . c h i l d r e n o f Chinese  immigrants,  The d i f f e r e n c e between the  f o r example, i s t h a t they came  to  t h i s country.  They l e f t a country, t h e i r homeland, the p l a c e  of  t h e i r c u l t u r e , h i s t o r y , and language and came e x p e c t i n g to  adapt to a "new" country.  The Native Indian c h i l d cannot  any other country t o hear h i s / h e r language, c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y .  go t o  l e a r n about h i s / h e r  H i s / h e r home has always been here.  have come to Canada p o s s e s s i n g w r i t t e n languages,  People  knowing about  t h e i r h i s t o r y , and w i t h an i d e n t i t y as a p a r t i c u l a r people.  For  many Native Indian people, they have become s t r a n g e r s i n t h e i r own country.  The sense o f group d e p r e s s i o n i s f a r g r e a t e r f o r  the Native Indian than the people coming f u l l o f hope to the country o f t h e i r c h o i c e .  While A s i a n peoples have f a c e d d i s -  crimination, p a r t i c u l a r l y during d i f f i c u l t  economic times,  they  have competed more s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r jobs i n the white c o l l a r f i e l d than Native Indians.  Some o f the reasons have been out-  l i n e d i n the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s chapter.  There are many pro-  grammes t h a t have been developed  i n recent years.  I will  out-  l i n e p r e s e n t programmes designed  to meet the needs of Native  Indian c h i l d r e n as p a r t o f the review o f l i t e r a t u r e i n Chapter II.  This p r e s e n t study focuses on t e a c h i n g a r t with r e f e r e n c e  to c u l t u r e to a c l a s s o f Native Indian students i n an urban setting. G e n e r a l l y , the c u l t u r a l background o f Native Indian i n the c i t y v a r i e s g r e a t l y .  people  Some f a m i l i e s come t o the c i t y  knowing a great d e a l about t h e i r c u l t u r e and wanting t h e i r ren t o continue l e a r n i n g about Indian c u l t u r e . other f a m i l i e s with l i t t l e  child-  Whereas some  c u l t u r a l knowledge, l i v i n g i n t h e  c i t y o r r e c e n t a r r i v a l s o f t e n i n d i c a t e a wish t h a t t h e i r ren a t t e n d a s c h o o l where Indian c u l t u r e i s taught.  child-  Therefore,  the backgrounds o f the Native Indian students i n the a r t p r o gramme a t the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School v a r i e d , and the knowledge o f Native Indian c u l t u r e was a r e f l e c t i o n o f c u l t u r a l  experience  at home.  P r e l i m i n a r y Programme P l a n n i n g  The  c l a s s i n t h i s study was the grade 5-7 c l a s s a t the  Native Indian C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School i n Vancouver's East s i d e . The  students were between the ages o f ten and t h i r t e e n and were  predominantly  Kwakiutl.  The classroom teacher had, w i t h the  30 . support o f the School D i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n v i t e d the r e s e a r c h e r / t e a c h e r , B.B., t o p l a n and teach an a r t programme i n the s c h o o l . In  o r d e r to measure s e l f - c o n c e p t before b e g i n n i n g the p r o -  gramme the a r t t e a c h e r , B.B., administered the Coopersmith Concept t e s t t o the c l a s s . Vancouver School Board.  Self  The t e s t i s one recommended by the  The t e s t was r e - a d m i n i s t e r e d , a t the  c o n c l u s i o n o f the a r t programme, t o measure the change i n s e l f concept on the p a r t o f the i n d i v i d u a l students i n the c l a s s . An a r t and c u l t u r e t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d b e f o r e and a f t e r the a r t programme to measure the i n c r e a s e . i n achievement and t h e knowledge o f Native Indian c u l t u r e , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o Kwakiutl c u l t u r e . touchable o b j e c t s .  The t e s t c o n t a i n e d photographs,  drawings and  There was a t o t a l o f between 40-50  t h a t the students were asked  t o name.  with B.B. f o r the t e s t , who asked  items  Students met i n d i v i d u a l l y  them about t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s  r e g a r d i n g the a r t programme and recorded t h e i r responses. the Coopersmith  and the m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e t e s t are d i s c u s s e d i n  g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter of  Both  IV.  Long range and s h o r t range goals  t e a c h e r , p a r e n t s , and students were c o l l a t e d and a r e f e r e n c e  c h a r t was prepared.  There was a l i s t  of s k i l l s  (carving,  spin-  n i n g , e t c . ) and the l i s t was added to d u r i n g the programme. The  f i r s t c l a s s was a s h a r i n g o f i d e a s .  B.B. presented the  p l a n , t o which was added ideas and suggestions from present t h a t day. added.  Ideas  students  On subsequent days a d d i t i o n a l suggestions were  f o r i n v o l v i n g parents and e l d e r s were shared.  a l s o d i s c u s s e d what k i n d o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s others may make.  We Whom  do we know who  does beading,  leatherwork,  carving, knitting,  makes n e t s , o r can h e l p w i t h f i e l d t r i p s ? i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g the f i l m s with us?  Would parents How  be  can we make our  guests welcome? The programme i s f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  Art  Art  V.  and C u l t u r e i n Education  i s a s u b j e c t where there i s no r i g h t or wrong, j u s t  b e t t e r ways to achieve a g o a l . d i a n students  When I taught a r t to Native In-  (at S t . Thomas Aquinas i n North Vancouver) I c o u l d  hear them breathe a s i g h of r e l i e f as they e n t e r e d the  classroom  In  a r t , f o r some o f these Native Indian students, t h e i r a r t c l a s  was  the o n l y time d u r i n g the day when they f e l t t h a t they c o u l d  do something worthwhile.  These students were i n a C a t h o l i c  Re-  g i o n a l High School t h a t had numbers of students from a l l over the world w i t h l i t t l e  i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d  e n t s , Native Indian students, and white Canadian s t u d e n t s . my  In  view, a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a r t programme can become a v e h i c l e f o r  understanding between groups of s t u d e n t s . My own  experience t e a c h i n g Native Indian students and  o b s e r v a t i o n o f a r t programmes f o r them, have l e d me t h a t a r t cut a d r i f t  to b e l i e v e  from the c u l t u r e i s a r t i n a vacuum.  example, when students simply repeat Northwest Coast  my  For  designs  without understanding what they symbolize, they engage the i n t e l l e c t but not the s o u l .  The process of understanding  can not  be achieved at once but i s a b u i l d i n g up of e x p e r i e n c e s , i n s i g h t s , o b s e r v a t i o n s , and knowledge gained from r e s o u r c e s i n the  community.  Native Indian c u l t u r e has so many m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  t h a t i t would be impossible f o r anyone, p a r t i c u l a r l y a Indian, to f u l f i l l  the task of t e a c h i n g Indian c u l t u r e .  opment o f c u l t u r a l awareness through  to enable  Indian a r t i s t s . from h i s own  The process t h a t a l l  them to see what cannot be  to hear what i s not e a s i l y heard, i s a path to understanding  seen,  to touch what cannot be h e l d ,  the thoughts  and ideas o f  traditional  The Native Indian student can draw i n s p i r a t i o n  roots.  Much t h a t i s "Indian" i s subterranean  lodged i n half-memories and f o r g o t t e n words. t o l d me  Devel-  a r t e n t a i l s s t a r t i n g with  the s t u d e n t s ' present c u l t u r a l knowledge. a r t i s t s go through  non-  A Kwakiutl  and  carver  t h a t he c o u l d remember h i s g r a n d f a t h e r t e l l i n g him  stor-  i e s , but he s a i d t h a t he wasn't sure whether or not they were true.  The important p o i n t i s t h a t he remembered the  stories,  thus connecting h i m s e l f to h i s c u l t u r e . The  t r a d i t i o n a l Native Indian t e a c h i n g s t y l e was  by doing. struction.  The c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d by o b s e r v a t i o n , not v e r b a l i n C h i l d r e n would watch an a d u l t performing  over and over. he or she was "You  to teach  a  skill  The c h i l d only performed the task i n p u b l i c when ready.  No one  c o r r e c t e d him/her.  can't l e a r n to dance without dancing."  c h i l d r e n have an e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n a r t .  As e l d e r s say,  Many Native  Indian  I t i s also a subject  t h a t lends i t s e l f to c u l t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t can  be  performed by i n d i v i d u a l s or groups. My  a r t programme was  expected  to encourage the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  o f Native p a r e n t s , e l d e r s and resource people, so t h a t parents w i l l see t h a t they have a c o n t r i b u t i o n to make to the  education  o f t h e i r own  c h i l d r e n as w e l l as other Native c h i l d r e n .  Native  Indian parents and e l d e r s w i l l become acquainted with the  class-  room t e a c h e r and o t h e r students when they come t o the s c h o o l as guests, o b s e r v e r s , p a r t i c i p a n t s , h e l p e r s , or resource people. The involvement  of N a t i v e parents i s fundamental t o the  success  of Native c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l .  Teaching Native Indian C h i l d r e n and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T h i s Study  Before a non-Native  teacher can become s e n s i t i v e to the  c u l t u r e of the Native c h i l d , she must become aware of N a t i v e c u l t u r a l values and d i f f e r e n c e s between her own o f the Native c h i l d .  The  f o l l o w i n g are some of these  ences, t h a t i s , broad tendencies observed i o r a l aggregate  o f many people"  through  (Jones, 1976,  INDIANS  p.  differ-  "the behav135).  DOMINANT SOCIETY  Wisdom of age and i s respected.  c u l t u r e and t h a t  experience  E l d e r s are  r e v e r e d by t h e i r  Older people don't have a v a l u e d r o l e to p l a y .  people.  E x c e l l e n c e i s r e l a t e d to one's  Competition  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the group, not  win and thereby gain s t a t u s  to p e r s o n a l g l o r y .  is  Cooperation i s necessary f o r  Competition  group s u r v i v a l .  i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s or p r e s t i g e .  and s t r i v i n g to  emphasized. i s necessary f o r  INDIANS  DOMINANT SOCIETY  Children p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult  A d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n many  activities.  children's a c t i v i t i e s  and  sports. Family  life  i n c l u d e s the  Nuclear  f a m i l y predominates.  extended f a m i l y . Time i s present —there  oriented  i s a r e s i s t a n c e to  planning  and  s a v i n g f o r the f u t u r e .  f o r the f u t u r e .  What i s mine i s ours. People express t h e i r and  Time i s spent p l a n n i n g  What i s mine s t a y s mine. ideas  f e e l i n g s through t h e i r  People express themselves through speech.  actions. People conform to  nature.  People t r y to dominate  nature.  E a r l y c h i l d h o o d and r e a r i n g  E a r l y c h i l d h o o d and r e a r i n g are  are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f k i n  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  group and grandparents, as  nuclear  w e l l as  the  family.  parents.  Native r e l i g i o n never l y t i z e d ; i t was  prose-  a private  R e l i g i o n s p r o s e l y t i z e and t r y to  impose t h e i r b e l i e f s  on  matter.  others.  Land gives the Indian h i s  Land i s to be owned, s o l d ,  identity; his religion, his  changed.  life.  I t i s not to be owned,  but used by a l l . Going to s c h o o l i s to  gain knowledge.  necessary  Going to s c h o o l i s necessary  to  gain knowledge to compete i n the greater s o c i e t y f o r jobs.  INDIANS  DOMINANT SOCIETY  Indians have a s h o r t e r c h i l d -  Childhood i s extended, and  hood, g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  c h i l d r e n are dependent i n t o  earlier.  adulthood.  The areas o f c o n f l i c t i n g values t h a t F l o y Pepper ( i n Jones, 19 76)  r e f e r r e d t o above can c r e a t e a chasm between the non-  Indian teacher and the Indian c h i l d .  Some o f the ways t o make  p r a c t i c a l use o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e :  (a) The teacher can  use Native Indian people, p a r t i c u l a r l y e l d e r s , as resource people i n the classroom.  (b) The t e a c h e r can minimize  testing  and emphasize c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the group.  (c) The  teacher, r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t Native c u l t u r e g i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y early i n l i f e  to the c h i l d , can have the Native c h i l d  assist  her i n the classroom. Although there are many d i f f e r e n c e s between Native i n Canada and the United S t a t e s , there are some s i m i l a r traits.  Many o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t Native Indian  Indians cultural  children  experience i n the U.S.A. are s i m i l a r to the kinds o f problems experienced by Indian c h i l d r e n i n Canada.  Indian educators i n  both Canada and the U.S.A. have r e f e r r e d t o the importance o f Native Indian c u l t u r e i n schools t h a t Native c h i l d r e n  attend  (Pepper, 1976, p. 156). Ramona Weeks says t h a t : . . . an acceptance o f Indian c u l t u r e by a teacher  will  create a climate of tolerance that i s s u i t a b l e f o r learning.  Indian parents w i l l have more confidence i n  a school that i n d i c a t e s respect f o r native c u l t u r e . . .  a s c h o o l can bestow d i g n i t y upon Indian c u l t u r e and c r e a t e an aura o f o f f i c i a l  approval by adopting  m a t e r i a l s t o the l e a r n i n g programme.  Indian  (Pepper, 1976,  p. 9) Kleinfeld's  (1972) study, E f f e c t i v e Teachers  o f Indian and  Eskimo High School Students,  concluded  t h a t an e f f e c t i v e i n -  s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e must f i r s t  c r e a t e a warm p e r s o n a l  relation-  s h i p with the Native c h i l d , and only then present c l e a r demands f o r h i g h academic work. TAn important  i m p l i c a t i o n f o r t h i s study was t h a t e f f e c t i v e  teachers o f N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n a r e o f t e n e f f e c t i v e of a l l c h i l d r e n .  teachers  They g i v e c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s , they break down  t a s k s i n t o manageable p a r t s , they give few t e s t s , are c r e a t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s and give recogn i t i o n f o r work w e l l done ( K l e i n f e l d , 1972, p. 1 2 ) .  In par-  t i c u l a r , they g i v e encouragement t o c h i l d r e n who are having difficulties it.  and give them r e c o g n i t i o n when they have completed  The Native c h i l d i s s e n s i t i v e to b e i n g asked  task i n the p u b l i c s e t t i n g o f the classroom, or she hasn't mastered i t . cooperative a c t i v i t i e s . instruction.  to perform a  e s p e c i a l l y when he  He/she i s a t h i s / h e r best i n group,  The Native c h i l d needs one-to-one  He/she needs h e l p i n f i n d i n g a p l a c e f o r him/her-  s e l f i n the classroom and he/she needs to know t h a t he/she i s an equal and v a l u e d member o f s o c i e t y .  He/she a l s o gains i n  confidence when he/she l e a r n s about h i s / h e r own c u l t u r e and sees Native people as t e a c h e r s , r e s o u r c e people, and as a r t i s t s (Pepper,  1976).  The a r t programme t h a t I designed t o develop awareness was  developed  on s e v e r a l l e v e l s .  cultural  Students were p r e -  t e s t e d f o r f e e l i n g s about s e l f - c o n c e p t and knowledge about Native Indian c u l t u r e .  The need of Native Indian c h i l d r e n to  f e e l t h a t the teacher i s a f r i e n d and a c c e p t i n g of them r e s u l t e d i n the c l a s s being v i s i t e d s e v e r a l times b e f o r e the p r o gramme began with the c u l t u r a l p r e - t e s t conducted atmosphere, on a one-to-one b a s i s .  in a social  The expressed i n t e r e s t of  the students and t h e i r parents f o r them to l e a r n about Native Indian c u l t u r e r e s u l t e d i n an a r t programme which drew from a wide range of sources i n o r d e r t o t r a n s m i t a f e e l i n g about the c u l t u r e , as w e l l as knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n about i t . students saw N a t i v e Indian people i n the classroom: a r t i s t s , and resource people who the s t u d e n t s .  The  parents,  shared t h e i r e x p e r t i s e with  The team s t r u c t u r e of the programme, w i t h an  ad-  u l t i n charge of each team, gave each student the o p p o r t u n i t y to r e c e i v e one-to-one i n s t r u c t i o n whenever necessary.  The  age-  grade l e v e l s and d i v e r s e nature of the students meant t h a t the standards of achievement were f l e x i b l e , y e t with agreed upon c r i t e r i a p r i o r to b e g i n n i n g the p r o j e c t s .  The i n t e r e s t t h a t  Native Indian c h i l d r e n have i n a r t f o r a p r a c t i c a l between the ages o f 10-13  years of age,  of o b j e c t i v e s f o r each l e s s o n . l i s h e d w i t h i n one long  purpose,  i n f l u e n c e d the choice  A c t i v i t i e s t h a t c o u l d be accomp-  afternoon were p r e f e r r e d over more complex,  term p r o j e c t s .  I f time had p e r m i t t e d , some of the s t u d -  ents would have l i k e d to have repeated some of the a r t s e v e r a l times, s i n c e they enjoyed the process of making something as  38. much as, or even more than the a c t u a l o b j e c t produced.  The  s k i l l s , a p t i t u d e s , and i n t e r e s t s of the students were taken i n t o account p r i o r to the programme and d u r i n g i t . suggested were implemented  Ideas  (more carving) and a t the end o f the  programme the success of the f i e l d t r i p s meant t h a t they a f i e l d t r i p as the c u l m i n a t i n g a c t i v i t y . f r u s t r a t e d when an a c t i v i t y was lenge was  they  chose  The students became  too d i f f i c u l t and w h i l e c h a l -  important, they were r e l i e v e d and happy at the s u c c e s s -  ful  completion of a p r o j e c t .  ive  r e i n f o r c e m e n t t o encourage students to begin t o work and once  begun, to complete  it.  I t was  necessary t o use much p o s i t -  A sequence of c u l t u r a l l y r e l a t e d a r t p r o -  j e c t s g r a d u a l l y b u i l t upon a c q u i r e d s k i l l s .  For example, the  p r o p e r t i e s o f s l a t e were i n t r o d u c e d through making an arrowhead, and on the f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n making a f i s h k n i f e r e i n t r o d u c e d s l a t e and added wood.  When d i s c u s s i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l  Kwakiutl  seasonal a c t i v i t i e s , e x i s t i n g contemporary p a t t e r n s were examined.  Indian fishermen were s t i l l  salmon at the same times of y e a r . c u l t u r e , b e r r i e s are s t i l l is  still  c a t c h i n g the same types of Despite many changes i n the  p i c k e d i n the summer and cedar bark  c o l l e c t e d by some Indian people i n the  fall.  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  The  term N a t i v e Indian r e f e r s t o a l l Indian people of abor-  i g i n a l descent, s t a t u s or non-status. A s t a t u s Indian i s a person who or Act"  i s " r e g i s t e r e d as an Indian  i s e n t i t l e d to be r e g i s t e r e d as an Indian under the Indian (Cumming & Mickenberg,  1972,  p. 6).  A non-status  Indian i s the r e s u l t o f the union o f a Native  Indian woman who married a non-Indian. marriages  The c h i l d r e n o f such  have no s t a t u s and r i g h t s as Native Indians.  Also,  p r i o r t o 195 8, when Native Indians gained the r i g h t t o vote i n f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s , they c o u l d o n l y vote i f they became "enfranchised. "  But enfranchisement  f o r a s t a t u s Indian e n t i t l e s the  l o s s o f Indian s t a t u s ; i t meant g i v i n g up both the b e n e f i t s and burdens o f the Indian A c t (Cumming & Mickenberg, 1972, p.  6).  I t was one o f many devices t o encourage Native Indians t o embrace Canadian mainstream c u l t u r e . The  Indian band i s the u n i t o f Indian government under the  Indian A c t , and the band i s s u b j e c t t o the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the Department o f Indian and Northern holds band monies  Affairs  (D.I.A.N.D.), which  (D.I.A.N.D., 1980, p. 2 ) . L a s t year, 1982,  the f e d e r a l government delegated t o Indian bands i n Canada the power t o allow non-status  Native Indian women t o r e t a i n  band membership i f i t had been l o s t through marriage  their  t o a non-  Indian . The  Indian A c t was an a c t o f the p a r l i a m e n t o f Canada exer-  c i s i n g i t s l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r "Indians and lands r e served f o r I n d i a n s " assigned i n the B r i t i s h North America A c t , S e c t i o n 91 (24) (D.I.A.N.D., 1980, p.  2).  N a t i v e r e f e r s t o Canadians o f a b o r i g i n a l descent. i n c l u d e s t a t u s and non-status  I t can  Indians, I n u i t and M e t i s .  A l t e r n a t e s c h o o l f o r Native Indian c h i l d r e n r e f e r s t o schools t h a t are e s t a b l i s h e d t o meet the e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l needs o f Native Indian c h i l d r e n between the grades o f 5-12. Each s c h o o l has a p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s : p r e v e n t a t i v e , r e h a b i l i t a t i v e , and c u l t u r a l .  40.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE  My  LITERATURE  l i t e r a t u r e search, i n the area of a r t and c u l t u r a l edu-  c a t i o n , y i e l d e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n the form of books, pamphlets, speeches, j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , and papers presented ten y e a r s .  Although  d u r i n g the past  there i s a good d e a l o f m a t e r i a l t h a t sus-  t a i n s the g e n e r a l p r o p o s i t i o n s advanced i n Chapter I, t h e r e i s l e s s m a t e r i a l on the p r e c i s e s u b j e c t of t h i s The  l i t e r a t u r e suggests  thesis.  t h a t "more emphasis should  p l a c e d on t r a d i t i o n a l Indian a r t i n s t r u c t i o n to i n s t i l l  be i n stud-  ents g r e a t e r p r i d e i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s crafts"  (Tippeconnic, 1972,  i n t e n t i s merely show. face s k i l l s "  p. 0050).  But  "technique  A r t programmes without  (Chapman, 1978,  I t has been observed  p.  and  without  c u l t u r e , are s u r -  20).  t h a t "Indians are the focus of p r e s s -  ure to change i n a more p e r v a s i v e manner than are the r e s t o f us"  ( S p i c e r , 1962,  p. 30).  Thus e f f o r t s of educators  to b r i n g  about a " l e v e l l i n g of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i g n o r e s t h e i r  dis-  t i n c t i v e t r a d i t i o n s , d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r a l patterns" (Spicer, 1962,  p. 30)  and  " t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l experience which i s not  t h a t of the r e s t o f us"  ( S p i c e r , 1962,  p. 31).  like  Instead o f t r y i n g  to e l i m i n a t e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , those very d i f f e r e n c e s ought to be encouraged by c u l t u r a l l y aware a r t teachers because they are 1962,  "productive o f c r e a t i v e growth i n a r t and i n i d e a s " ( S p i c e r , p. 31).  In the p a s t , Native Indian a r t i s t s  "given  the  opportunity  . . . responded i n c r e a t i v e f a s h i o n . . . making  c r a f t s which were the r e s u l t of a f u s i o n of Western m a t e r i a l s and ideas with Indian ones" ( S p i c e r , 1962, Art  For Native people  styles"  I have met  (Chalmers, 1978,  enduring p.  t h e i r a r t forms can be one of the few  elements of t h e i r l i v e s .  people  31).  i s a means of "teaching c u l t u r e and i t i s an  c r i t e r i o n amid changing l i f e  ing  p.  endur-  For example, most Native  Indian  i n the c i t y know t h e i r c r e s t symbol.  generation of an Indian f a m i l y experiences  Each  a different  s e p a r a t i o n , but a s i m i l a r sense of l o s s of i d e n t i t y .  130).  cultural Thus,  when Native c h i l d r e n l e a r n t h e i r c u l t u r a l a r t forms, t h i s the process o f communication between g e n e r a t i o n s .  assists  Parents  and  e l d e r s see o b j e c t s from t h e i r c u l t u r e being brought home from s c h o o l , and there i s an o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e v a l u a t i o n on the b a s i s of experience o b j e c t makes involvement ive  A c u l t u r a l l y relevant  of parents more l i k e l y .  a r t forms i n the classroom  Native people who the  and knowledge.  Teaching  Nat-  can be a bonding agent between  went to r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l and the c h i l d i n  city. Indian a r t i s t , Jamake Highwater, p o i n t s out t h a t s o p h i s t i c -  ated contemporary a r t i s t s r e t u r n to the a r t of a b o r i g i n a l peoples for i n s p i r a t i o n .  "The  b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between t r a d i t i o n a l  Indian a r t and western a r t i s t h a t much of the a r t of North e r i c a n Indians  i s not a r t i n the formal western sense a t  but c a r e f u l iconography  given to a person  or given i n dreams o f l a t e r l i f e "  during v i s i o n  (Highwater, 1981,  p.  Am-  all, quest  86).  The  c r i t e r i a o f c r i t i c i s m o f the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e i s not  ily  a p p l i c a b l e to Native Indian a r t although  read-  i t has been used.  C r i t i c i s m of a b o r i g i n a l a r t i s not d e a l t w i t h i n the  literature  of a r t e d u c a t i o n . The  s t u d i e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s chapter d e a l t w i t h :  a r t , c u l t u r e , s e l f - c o n c e p t , and c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . 196 8 study was  done i n V i c t o r i a , B.C.  A  (Michelson & Galloway) i n  which students between the ages of three and t h i r t e e n , from four r e s e r v e s , were observed  i n a four week a r t programme.  Their  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r p i c t u r e s to a r t s u p e r v i s o r s and  Native  student a i d e s became more v i v i d and lengthy as the month passed. The vocabulary t h a t they used was was  a "hidden v o c a b u l a r y " t h a t emerged, w i t h a r t as the c a t a l y s t  (Michelson & Galloway, "The  not i n t r o d u c e d to them, but  1968,  p. 29).  The  researchers state that  l e v e l of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the p u p i l ' s hidden  would have been unsuspected thoughts  vocabulary  by the teacher had not the  child's  been r e l e a s e d through the i n t e r a c t i o n o f h i s a r t and  his verbalization"  (p. 29).  Teachers  ments given by c h i l d r e n i n response  o f t e n accept simple  state-  to a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n as an  i n d i c a t i o n of the extent o f t h e i r v e r b a l r e p e r t o i r e .  A teach-  e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r a student's performance might w e l l be modif i e d through  r e a l i z i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f u n l o c k i n g a hidden  vocabulary through c o n c r e t e m a n i p u l a t i o n and c r e a t i v e such as p a i n t i n g .  "Such e x p r e s s i o n s may  key to success i n s c h o o l l i f e " p. 31).  w e l l be an  (Michelson & Galloway,  activities  important 196 8,  There i s no evidence t h a t the p i c t u r e making had  c u l t u r a l content.  I t may  any  be t h a t the i n c l u s i o n of s i x Native  Indian a i d e s had i n f l u e n c e on what was  observed because they  probably became r o l e models f o r the s t u d e n t s .  The r e s u l t s of  the a r t programme might have been l e s s s t r i k i n g without  them.  However, I b e l i e v e t h a t the r e s u l t s o f the a r t programme would have shown even g r e a t e r language development i n the students i f the teachers had used Native c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s . Two  s t u d i e s t h a t may  be c o n s i d e r e d together are a  study o f Navajo and Pueblo a r t education needs a 1980  1971  (Kravanga) and  study d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a t Santa C l a r a Pueblo A r t  Education  (Zastrow).  Kravanga found  "the a r t education  field  i s not, i n most cases, s e n s i t i v e to c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  Art  education r e s e a r c h , by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on white, middle  class  ues, i s f u t i l e i n s o l v i n g problems i n Indian s c h o o l s "  (Kravanga,  p. 5107). image and  There seems to be a " r e l a t i o n s h i p between poor s e l f low achievement a r i s i n g out of c o n f l i c t s i n l e a r n i n g  s t y l e s and values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r t s , and a r t s and c r a f t duction"  val-  (Kravanga, p. 5107).  The  pro-  study examined t r a d i t i o n a l  a r t education and the i n h e r e n t " s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g g o a l s , s t r u c t u r e d i m i t a t i o n , r e l a t i o n s h i p between j u v e n i l e i m i t a t i o n  and  a d u l t p u r s u i t s and the t r a d i t i o n a l consensus on c u r r i c u l u m " (Kravanga, p. 5107). Indian a r t i s t and  A s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between the N a t i v e  the non-Indian  i s t h a t the  does not f e e l the need t o produce new  "Indian  craftsman  forms . . . the group  s t y l e and group world view i s paramount" (Kravanga, p. 510 7). The  study produced recommendations f o r improving  programmes f o r Indian people. f i e d craftsman  a r t education  The a r t teacher should be a q u a l i -  and a Native Indian.  Communities were urged  to  organize a r t i n d u s t r i e s and to p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n the e v a l u a t i o n of a l l Indian a r t education i n t h e i r community.  The l a t e r study, by Zastrow, i n 1980, was  based on  cultural  values o f the Santa C l a r a Pueblo r e l e v a n t to a r t e d u c a t i o n f o r the  Pueblo.  The e x i s t i n g Santa C l a r a e d u c a t i o n a l system taught  few c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and l i t t l e s c h o o l system.  Pueblo a r t was  observed i n the  Data f o r the study were c o l l e c t e d through i n t e r -  view and o b s e r v a t i o n of t r i b a l o f f i c i a l s ,  recognized experts,  a r t i s t s from the Pueblo, and Santa C l a r a e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l . I t was  found t h a t the people were u n c l e a r about the Pueblo a r t  and a r t e d u c a t i o n taught i n the Santa C l a r a s c h o o l  system.  "This suggests t h a t a s e p a r a t i o n of the s c h o o l and the community may  be a r e a l i t y "  fell  (Zastrow, 1980, p. 1354).  i n t o two a r e a s :  The  Pueblo a r t and a r t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s .  The primary t h r u s t o f the recommendations was art.  Pueblo a r t was  recommendations  d i r e c t e d a t Pueblo  viewed as a " c u l t u r a l v a l u e " (Zastrow,  p. 1354), as w e l l as an a r t to be taught.  1980,  "Pueblo a r t , as a  t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e , i n v o l v e d dancing, s i n g i n g , p a i n t i n g , weaving, pottery-making, and s t o r y - t e l l i n g as they r e l a t e d to the Native religion"  (Zastrow, 1980, p. 1354).  t i o n a l values: for  tradi-  "respect f o r s e l f , r e s p e c t f o r e l d e r s , r e s p e c t  the community, r e s p e c t f o r n a t u r e , s h a r i n g and c a r i n g ,  j u s t i c e and honesty" One of  Pueblo a r t i n v o l v e d  (Zastrow, 1980, p.  and  1354).  study, d i r e c t e d at a r t , sought to meet the sensory needs  N a t i v e s t u d e n t s , s i n c e the N a t i v e Indian c h i l d needs to see,  f e e l , l e a r n , and become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a l l the o b j e c t s most c h i l d r e n take f o r granted (Breiman, 1977, p. 4642).  I don't be-  l i e v e t h a t the r e s e a r c h done i n t h i s study shows c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n have the same sensory needs as m a j o r i t y  c u l t u r e c h i l d r e n o r t h a t programmes can meet the a e s t h e t i c needs o f Native c h i l d r e n through  making o f s u b s t i t u t i o n s o f  " I n d i a n " f o r "European" i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o meet the Indian need f o r b a s i c sensory e x p e r i e n c e " The  child's  (Breiman, 1977, p. 4642).  suggestion was made t h a t s u b s t i t u t i n g Indian music o r p i c -  t u r e s o f Indian c h i e f s would "provide p e r s o n a l (Breiman, 1977, p. 4642).  identification"  I believe that greater s e n s i t i v i t y i s  r e q u i r e d , concerning the Indian c u l t u r e represented i n the c l a s s room and the c u l t u r a l values o f the Indian community, than i s suggested  by t h i s CEMREL package o f s u b s t i t u t i o n s .  c o n f u s i n g c u l t u r a l mixes c o u l d occur.  Otherwise,  "There i s a n e c e s s i t y t o  p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e e x p l a i n i n g the meaning o f these c u l t u r a l aspects"  (Breiman, 1977, p. 4642).  S u b s t i t u t i o n s cannot  be made b e f o r e the a r t teacher becomes aware o f the c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s which are s i g n i f i c a n t i n the Indian c u l t u r e to be r e p r e s ented;  t h e r e f o r e , r e a d i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n the c u l t u r a l area i s im-  perative . S t u d i e s concerning Indian c u l t u r e found  t h a t , although  Nat-  i v e Indian students weren't knowledgeable about t h e i r h i s t o r y and  c u l t u r e , they wanted t o l e a r n more about them.  Indians were  p o s i t i v e about s e l f - c o n c e p t , a t t i t u d e s , and f e l t proud o f t h e i r own t r i b e .  In a 1975 (McCluskey) study o f Grand Forks,  North  Dakota, students i n K-12 used a Native American S e l f - C o n c e p t and A t t i t u d e Inventory  and a Native American C u l t u r e Knowledge I n -  ventory f o r Native students and a School Sentiment Index f o r nonIndians .  The  r e s u l t s showed t h a t Native students experienced  no  resentment, they had p r i d e i n t h e i r r a c i a l group and t h a t they scored l e s s than 50% on knowledge of h e r i t a g e and c u l t u r e .  They agreed overwhelmingly t h a t they  wanted to know more about the Indian way ture and h i s t o r y . There were two  (McCluskey, 1975,  cul-  p. 2702).  areas of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Native  and non-Native s t u d e n t s .  In grades K-3  l e s s p o s i t i v e than non-Natives 4-6  of l i f e ,  Native students  felt  Native students  felt  towards the teacher and i n grades  l e s s p o s i t i v e than non-Natives  towards  peers. Chicago's  Native students i n grades 9-12  sampled i n a 1977 they f e l t  urban study  (Rascher,  1977,  the education t h a t they r e c e i v e d was  and parents were p. 5319).  While  satisfactory,  they b e l i e v e d t h a t Indian c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y should be  offered  by q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s , and t h a t there should be a Native American on the Chicago elementary  School Board and an a l l - I n d i a n s c h o o l a t  and secondary  A South Dakota study  levels. (Spaulding, 1980,  s p e c i a l needs of Native c h i l d r e n through  p. 1459)  identified  i n t e r v i e w s with  par-  e n t s , students and members of the I n d i a n community, both on off  reserve.  The  and  f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs were i d e n t i -  f i e d by Indian p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s , and o t h e r members of the community, l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g to m a j o r i t y response: teachers and  c o u n s e l l o r s (53%); teach Dakota/Lakota c u l t u r e ,  h i s t o r y , values  (46%); i n v o l v e parents and grandparents  teach Dakota/Lakota language aides  (28%).  employ Indian  The  (30%); and employ Indian  ;  (38%); teacher  s p e c i a l needs i d e n t i f i e d by the s c h o o l  district  identified according  a different to majority  set of p r i o r i t i e s response:  (37%); home-school l i a i s o n counselling and  ( 2 3 % ) ; and  non-Indian  community  (20%).  identified  which are  parental costs  (30%);  Indian  The  study's  teacher  1980,  p.  1459).  implement  changes c a l l i n g  f o r "Major  I t seems t h a t I n d i a n  the p u b l i c s c h o o l  the  difficulties  that Native  a majority  culture.  Native  a d u l t s and  adolescents  found  Cultural  t o be  style.  i d e n t i f i e d with oriented, ics) .  criminator 19 81,  p.  curricula  found the  students  district school  system"  (Spaulding,  i t apart  2013)  hundred I n u i t ,  to from  identified  as m i n o r i t i e s  Metis,  Canada and  and  Inuit  and  concerned with found  be  teaching styles  t o be  the  and  non-  Alaska  were was  strongly  techniques and  m o r a l s and strongest  to achieve  ethdis-  (Koenig,  desirable to  c o g n i t i v e and  modify  a closer  learning styles  b a c k g r o u n d s i s one  There are  (people-  difference"  p o s s i b l e and  cultural  literature.  one  d i s c r i m i n a t o r of c o g n i t i v e  to c o g n i t i v e s t y l e  T h a t i t may  the  p.  "moral-relational cognitive style  of indigenous  main themes o f  regular  experience  that Indian, Metis,  in relation  content  1981,  i n Northern  b a c k g r o u n d was  2013).  Indian  background through v e r b a l i z e d statements  match between t e a c h i n g of  One  subjective, holistic,  Cultural  Indian  communities w i s h i n g  people  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  I t was  school  r e q u i r e d t o do  (Koenig,  within  studied.  for  system.  A Saskatchewan study of  change i n t h e  changes are  (27%);  systematic  system whereas the  significant  significant  aides  c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the  recommended c h a n g e s t h a t w o u l d s u p p l e m e n t t h e no  listed  (40%); t u t o r i n g  c u l t u r e awareness a c t i v i t i e s  changes i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l  curriculum with  also  of  the  differences in learning  48. s t y l e s between Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n and,  until  the  t e a c h i n g s t y l e s of m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e teachers a d j u s t f o r the c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , Native c h i l d r e n w i l l continue i n s e l f - c o n c e p t and One  fail  to s u f f e r  i n the s c h o o l system.  study a d d r e s s i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t , u s i n g the Coopersmith  Self-Esteem  Inventory,  ents i n grades 4-6  f o r Denver, Colorado  (Howell,  1978,  Native Indian  stud-  p. 4694), r e v e a l e d a general  d e c l i n e i n s e l f - c o n c e p t , as c h i l d r e n moved from lower t o h i g h e r grades,  f o r each e t h n i c group.  each e t h n i c group saw  Yet, i n the general samples,  i t s e l f i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n of  self-esteem  than t h e i r teachers d i d . A New  York study used a S e l f - C o n c e p t  b l a c k , white and  Indian students  Inventory  i n grades 3-12  and r u r a l s e t t i n g s (Sampson, 1980,  p. 5036).  (S.D.) on  l i v i n g i n urban  No d i f f e r e n c e was  found between e t h n i c groups, which c o r r o b o r a t e d the Howell (19 78)  study.  While s e l f - c o n c e p t s of Native females were more  p o s i t i v e than male, r u r a l s e l f - c o n c e p t s f o r both were s t r o n g e r than urban.  Native Indian students coming to urban s e t t i n g s  f o r s c h o o l do experience  problems i n adjustment.  The more pos-  i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t of Native Indian females i n urban s e t t i n g s i n d i c a t e d the need t h a t the Native Indian male has t i n g s f o r emotional The  and e d u c a t i o n a l  i n urban s e t -  support.  f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study l e n d support  to other  research  f i n d i n g s t h a t there i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t s among d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups, the s e l f - c o n c e p t s of f e males were more p o s i t i v e than those of males, l o c a t i o n may  have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the s e l f - c o n c e p t of  Indian students and s e l f - c o n c e p t changes across the grades i n a general d e c r e a s i n g d i r e c t i o n . 1980,  (Sampson,  p. 5036)  I b e l i e v e t h a t d e c r e a s i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t s of Native Indian c h i l d r e n can be m i t i g a t e d through  a r t programmes with c u l t u r a l f o c u s .  A r t as a c a r r i e r of c u l t u r e has been addressed  by few a r t  educators; June King McFee (1978) has r e c o g n i z e d the importance of c u l t u r e i n the education o f m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n .  A r t can p l a y  a r o l e i n c u l t u r a l maintenance but one needs to know the i f i c q u a l i t i e s t h a t the people  regard as e s s e n t i a l to maintain  and enhance t h e i r c u l t u r e , and how t u r a l value system ent  spec-  (McFee, 1978,  the a r t f i t s w i t h i n the  p. 48).  (Wilson, 19 82), c i t e d the involvement  cul-  A Native Indian paro f parents as  import-  ant; he a l s o made the complementary p o i n t t h a t i n c l u d i n g  Indian  c u l t u r e i n the c u r r i c u l u m would become a reason f o r parents become i n v o l v e d as c u r r i c u l u m resource people. needed to understand was  to  "Programmes are  the e l d e r s and what they are t e l l i n g  a view expressed by Harold C a r d i n a l (Underwood, 1982,  us," p. 4).  Native Indian c h i l d r e n i n some cases are cut o f f from t h e i r  own  c u l t u r e s , separated from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l teachers by an educ a t i o n a l system t h a t has always d i s c o u n t e d Indian c u l t u r e by omission.  In order to overcome the negative impact  i n t e n s i v e p a r e n t a l involvement  of h i s t o r y ,  i n the schools i s e s s e n t i a l .  The consensus i s t h a t p a r e n t a l involvement  i s c r u c i a l to the  success o f the programmes and t h e r e f o r e to the success of the Native c h i l d .  "The  p r e s e n t generations of parents have a r o l e  of p a r t i c u l a r importance s i n c e they are the l a s t l i n k between the t r a d i t i o n s of the past and modern l i f e .  They may  be  now  50. able to t r a n s m i t the best of both c u l t u r e s as w e l l as renewal of p r i d e i n t h e i r Indian t r a d i t i o n s "  ( K i r k n e s s , 1981,  p.  53).  " F a i l u r e to i n v o l v e the parents i n the shaping of education been perhaps the gravest mistake 1973,  p. 171).  of a l l "  has  (Sealey & K i r k n e s s ,  E f f o r t to impose c u r r i c u l u m on Native  children  has been u n s u c c e s s f u l because i t i s c o n t r a r y to both the  tradi-  t i o n a l view t h a t c u r r i c u l u m i s by consensus and c o n t r a r y to wishes of contemporary Native parents best of both c u l t u r e s . ant,  f o r c h i l d r e n to l e a r n  S e n s i t i v i t y to Indian parents i s import-  "the parents must be l i s t e n e d to f i r s t ,  t o . . . . the white person r e a l l y are and what we p. 96).  The  and then t a l k e d  does not r e a l l y understand  r e a l l y want i n e d u c a t i o n "  who  we  (Wilson,  Indian community cannot be ignored i n the  of i t s c h i l d r e n .  the  1982,  education  I t "must p a r t i c i p a t e i n programme changes.  No  i n n o v a t i o n s i n c u r r i c u l u m , t e a c h i n g methods, or p u p i l - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s can take p l a c e unless parents are convinced t h e i r value"  ( K i r k n e s s , 1981,  p. 453).  The  "new  of  r o l e o f the a r t  teacher i n a r t programmes with c u l t u r a l emphasis i s f o r c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n and development.  The teacher a c t s as  and becomes l e a r n e r i n the area of c u l t u r e " S o l d i e r , 1981, The  facilitator  (Foerster & L i t t l e  p. 3).  importance o f Native Indian c u l t u r e i s seen as a means  to improve the education of Indian c h i l d r e n by Native  Indian  educators.  transmis-  Fox  (1982) and Kirkness  (1981) r e g a r d the  s i o n of the best of both c u l t u r e s as an i d e a l . put i t t h i s  Fox  (1982) has  way:  To l e a r n about Indian c u l t u r e i s to l e a r n about Indian h i s t o r y , r o l e s of e l d e r s , Indian v a l u e s , food,  spiritual  b e l i e f s , r e s p e c t f o r a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s , e l d e r s ' messages, d i s c i p l i n e ,  family i n t u i t i v e  and most important  of a l l ,  understanding,  g e n e r o s i t y , one o f the  s t r o n g e s t f e e l i n g s o f value o f Indian people. According  (p. 9)  to K i r k n e s s , Indian c u l t u r e can be a "spring-board to  the o u t s i d e world.  C u l t u r e could be present i n a l l s u b j e c t s  through i n t e g r a t e d c u r r i c u l u m "  (1981, p. 266) , and " c u l t u r a l l y  r e l e v a n t e d u c a t i o n a l methods and m a t e r i a l s " (Pepper, 1976, p. 155). Teaching  Indian c u l t u r e i s a means o f r e c o g n i z i n g  "strengths o f Indian c h i l d r e n " to be responsive  (Bowd, 1979, p. 69); schools need  to the needs o f Native c h i l d r e n .  The I n s t i t u t e  of American Indian A r t s , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1962 (New, 1971), goes further:  " c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e p r e c i o u s and the Indian's  c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s are c h e r i s h e d preciated."  New observed  i s s t e e r e d t o success other areas.  He found  . . . honoured . . . and ap-  t h a t , a t the I n s t i t u t e , the c h i l d who  i n one area  (of a r t ) w i l l seek success i n  t h a t the "approach i s workable through  the a r t s even when i t may be q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e through academic subjects" The  (New, 1971, p. 412). a r t medium can be used as a means o f s t e e r i n g a c h i l d  who i s s u c c e s s f u l i n one a r t medium onto a s e r i e s o f successes i n o t h e r mediums which, i n t u r n , develop d i s c o v e r y and s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t "  the c a p a c i t y " f o r s e l f -  (New, 1972, p. 412). I t i s  e v i d e n t t h a t the I n s t i t u t e o f American A r t s ' g o a l t o g i v e the student a b a s i s f o r genuine p r i d e and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e r e s u l t s i n p e r s o n a l success  f o r i t s students.  The success r a t e o f 75% of  the I n s t i t u t e ' s students compared to the general drop-out r a t e of 40-50% o f Native Indian students o u t s i d e the I n s t i t u t e  i n d i c a t e s t h a t " I n s t i t u t e students have found a d d i t i o n a l of  sources  self-power not always a t t a i n a b l e i n other programmes"  1972,  p. 418).  I t appears  (New,  t h a t once the student i s a t peace  with h i m s e l f , he becomes more open to l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l . O r i e n t e d to h i s own  c u l t u r a l background, he i s not  f o r c e d to s a c r i f i c e h i s Indian nature and h e r i t a g e on the a l t a r s of e i t h e r withdrawal  or a s s i m i l a t i o n .  He i s enabled to f u n c t i o n wholly and h a p p i l y , making a proud, world.  p e r s o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to h i s time and h i s (New,  1972,  p.  418)  The c o n f l i c t between the Native c h i l d ' s c u l t u r e and has been r e c o g n i z e d  (B.C. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1981).  the l i t e r a t u r e overwhelmingly  achieve the goal?  Thus,  regards Native Indian c u l t u r e as  v i t a l i n the education of Native c h i l d r e n . to  school  The q u e s t i o n i s , how  The classroom teacher a c t i n g as  facilitator  and l e a r n e r , along with Native Indian parents and students, can design an a r t programme with emphasis on the predominant Indian c u l t u r e present i n the  classroom.  An i n t e r e s t i n t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary Indian a r t and i t s meaning addresses  those i n t a n g i b l e aspects of c u l t u r e which  can be impediments to understanding.  A r t without meaning i s  simply d e c o r a t i v e design; to teach a r t without concern about the c u l t u r e of the c h i l d r e n whose ancestors produced  i t , further  separates the Indian student from h i s / h e r h e r i t a g e and i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to l e a r n about Indian c u l t u r e without r e f e r e n c e to Indian a r t . or  In the classroom, a r t becomes a key f o r the Native  non-Native  the classroom.  teacher to unlock aspects of the c u l t u r e w i t h i n I t was  observed  i n a study of Coast S a l i s h Native  Indian, Chinese,  and E n g l i s h c h i l d r e n , t h a t the Native  Indian  c h i l d r e n were h a p p i e s t i n a r t s and c r a f t s t h a t had a f u n c t i o n and t h a t they were unhappy when they had to work w i t h m a t e r i a l s that l i m i t e d t h e i r imaginations paper)  (Courtenay,  1978).  ( f o r example, a r e c t a n g l e o f  The Native c h i l d r e n were " h i g h l y  spontaneous i n dance and movement, and showed great e x p r e s s i v e ness i n language i n t o n a t i o n and song.  While t h e i r  dramatiza-  t i o n s were l e s s s t r u c t u r e d than the o t h e r groups, they had open sensorium  i n c o n t r a s t t o the l e s s spontaneous Chinese"  (Court-  enay, 1978, p. 31) . Indian people, and students i n p a r t i c u l a r , acknowledge the value o f s t u d i e s and t r a i n i n g i n coping with the contemporary world, but they a r e not w i l l i n g t o r e l i n q u i s h p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l i n t e g r i t y i n the p r o c e s s . Teachers  need s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g to know how t o d e a l w i t h  cultural differences. service training"  "Teachers  o f Native c h i l d r e n need i n -  (Kirkness, 1981, p. 4534).  "They need to de-  v e l o p a warm, p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c h i l d f i r s t , and then to press f o r c l e a r demands f o r h i g h academic work" feld,  (Klein-  1972, p. 11). So " b e t t e r s e l e c t i o n i s i m p e r a t i v e s i n c e  not a l l teachers have the s p e c i a l s k i l l s needed f o r c r o s s c u l tural effectiveness" (Kleinfeld,  1972, p. 34). Students  need  Native Indian teachers who d i s p l a y "pride i n themselves and t h e i r h e r i t a g e , who know the Indian community and know the course they are t e a c h i n g " (Sealey & K i r k n e s s , 1972, p. 167). "The  a r t teacher needs a f i r m understanding  her own c u l t u r e "  (Smith,  o f the t r a d i t i o n s o f  1980, p. 88) so she can read the codes  and s i g n a l s o f o t h e r c u l t u r e s .  Furthermore, the a r t teacher  must b e l i e v e i n the value o f m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s , b e f o r e s/he be able to i d e n t i f y the meaning behind  those codes and  American Indian a r t educator L l o y d New  (19 72)  will  signals.  sees a r t i n  the e d u c a t i o n o f Native Indians as a process of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y and s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t  (p. 19).  "personal f u l f i l l m e n t " it  Laura Chapman (1978) c a l l s i t  (p. 19).  Since the a r t s are m u l t i f a c e t e d  i s p o s s i b l e f o r everyone to achieve a f e e l i n g of success i n  at l e a s t one  area of a r t .  In 196 2, Oscar Howe, an American In-  d i a n a r t i s t , s a i d t h a t the a c c e p t i n g Indian c u l t u r e "  "White c u l t u r e should be s t r o n g e r by ( I n s t i t u t e o f Indian S t u d i e s , 1982).  For Indian c u l t u r e and the s t r e n g t h s of Indian c h i l d r e n to be understood, source  the a r t teacher can use the c l a s s as a c u l t u r a l r e -  f o r a l l c h i l d r e n to b e n e f i t .  Today, the main t h r u s t i s f o r a l l Native Indian c h i l d r e n to l e a r n about t h e i r c u l t u r e s i n s c h o o l .  In many s c h o o l s ,  non-  Indian c h i l d r e n are l e a r n i n g about Indian c u l t u r e (Norgate entary School, North Vancouver) Elementary  School, B.C.)  (More, 1983,  (More, 1983,  p. 99).  p. 80), and  Elem-  Sechelt  However, A l f r e d  Youngman, an American Indian a r t i s t and p r o f e s s o r of a r t at the U n i v e r s i t y i n L e t h b r i d g e , A l b e r t a , has questioned the t r u e ext e n t o f progress i n education of urban Indians, s a y i n g t h a t i t i s based on  " p o l i t i c a l expediency  t i o n and acceptance mes  (19 82).  r a t h e r than s e r i o u s accommoda-  In c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r program-  f o r s c h o o l board money, Native Indian educators must con-  t i n u e t o p r e s s f o r s e r v i c e s and resources f o r Native c h i l d r e n i n order f o r the momentum i n Indian e d u c a t i o n to c o n t i n u e . The p u b l i s h e d books on Indian a r t and c u l t u r a l  education  are few.  While June King McFee  (1977, p. 291) has  suggested  t h a t a r t programmes may be a means o f i n c u l c a t i n g c u l t u r e , she examines a r t only i n the broadest  sense.  Native  Indian  author,  Emma LaRoque, says t h a t c r a f t programmes o f t e n miss out on the meaning of designs students  (1975, p. 24).  to t a n g i b l e a r t , but i t i s e q u a l l y important  what t h i s a r t r e f l e c t s . and  I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o expose  I f our goal i s to understand  to teach the l i f e  s p i r i t o f a people, we must probe t h e i r a r t because i t i s  one o f the ways through which we express sensations"  (LaRoque, 1975).  "human p e r c e p t i o n s and  " T r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t s c r e a t e d use-  f u l o b j e c t s t h a t conformed t o community conventions,  so t h a t  Indian a r t i s t s d i d n ' t f e e l the urge to be i n n o v a t i v e or e x p e r i mental" of  (Dickason,  19 73, p. 11).  A r t a l s o can serve as "a means  d i s c u s s i n g c u l t u r e . . . the i n n e r l i f e and s p i r i t of the  people whose a r t i t i s " (Dickason,  1973, p. 11).  The r o l e o f a r t i n c u l t u r e has been d i s c u s s e d by Highwater: " . . . for  art.  among the languages o f American Indians there i s no word For the Indian e v e r y t h i n g i s a r t . . . t h e r e f o r e i t  needs no name" (1981, p. 13).  As a r t f o r Indian people  tradi-  t i o n a l l y was i n s e p a r a b l e from the c u l t u r e , so a r t programmes f o r Native c h i l d r e n should encompass a g r e a t e r breadth than a r t programmes  f o r non-Native c h i l d r e n .  s t u d i e d , a r t , regarded  of m a t e r i a l  In one community  i n t h i s way, was p e r c e i v e d as a c u l t u r a l  value of g r e a t e r importance than a r t i s u s u a l l y p e r c e i v e d i n the non-Indian community.  Each Indian community, whether urban o r  r u r a l , has unique human resources duce i n t o a programme.  f o r the a r t teacher to i n t r o -  The a r t teacher of Native c h i l d r e n faces  a g r e a t e r task i n d e s i g n a t i n g an a r t programme, but i t i s one teacher dare not undertake Highwater ity cultures. out a r t we  the  alone.  (19 78) e x p l a i n s why  a r t f l o u r i s h e s i n many minor-  "Art puts us i n touch with each o t h e r . . . w i t h -  are a l o n e "  speaks to me with my  (p. 13). own  voice?  s t r a n g e r c a l l e d A r t " (p. 81).  Highwater  (1981) says,  "Who  From h i m s e l f comes a marvellous Highwater, with h i s a e s t h e t i c ,  v i s i o n a r y i n s i g h t s , c o n s i d e r s a r t from an Indian p h i l o s o p h i c a l perspective.  A r t educator McFee (1974) sees i t i n p r a c t i c a l  terms f o r , as she says, " i n v a l u i n g those i n t a n g i b l e aspects of a r t , a r t i s c u l t u r a l communication"  (p. 96).  On a deeper l e v e l ,  c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and f e e l i n g s which are d i f f i c u l t f o r m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e teachers to f u l l y comprehend, can be r e l e a s e d through  the f l e x i b i l i t y of a r t programmes s e n s i t i z e d to the  t u r e of Native c h i l d r e n .  cul-  A r t i n the classroom can perform many  roles for c h i l d r e n of minority cultures.  McFee sees a r t as  con-  t r i b u t i n g to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , e n a b l i n g communication w i t h i n the same c u l t u r e  (1974, p. 85).  A r t can become a means f o r m a j o r i t y  c u l t u r e teachers to gain understanding of the d i f f e r e n t  attitudes  and b e l i e f s of t h e i r students through d i s c u s s i o n about works of art.  Programmes which r e f l e c t Indian c u l t u r e are going to be  more e f f e c t i v e with the c h i l d r e n of t h a t c u l t u r e . Churchman t u r e and a r t :  (1975) c i t e s the importance  of l i n k s between c u l -  "Curriculum should r e l a t e to c u l t u r e ,  and symbols o f the m i n o r i t y group.  life-style  I t should demonstrate r i c h -  ness and be c o n s i s t e n t with t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of Indian communal i n t e r a c t i o n "  (p. 7).  But c u r r i c u l u m d i r e c t e d to the needs  of m i n o r i t i e s hasn't been r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  The v a l u e s t h a t  Native c h i l d r e n have are not c l e a r  (Haase, 1980).  The  Indian  communities have o n l y r e c e n t l y been i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c u r riculum  (North Vancouver, Sto  More, 1981,  p. 46).  :lo S i t e l )  (More, 1983,  pp.  80-86;  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to o r g a n i z e such a c u r r i c u -  lum i n an urban s e t t i n g , s i n c e parents come from d i f f e r e n t dian c u l t u r e s .  S p e c i a l schools f o r Native Indian c h i l d r e n are  only a r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n i n the Vancouver s c h o o l (Brenner,  1978,  In-  district  p. 1).  The means of a c h i e v i n g e f f e c t i v e programmes f o r Native c h i l d r e n i n the f i e l d of a r t and c u l t u r e are j u s t b e g i n n i n g be  to  understood. Despite c u r r i c u l u m changes and teacher aide programmes, what the c h i l d p e r c e i v e s or expects to l e a r n and  actu-  a l l y does l e a r n , c o n s t i t u t e s the components of the more fundamental aspects of education  . . . f o r the  Native  c h i l d to choose the best of both c u l t u r e s , he needs a s u f f i c i e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s own c u l t u r e of the other may ( F r i e s e n , 1977,  pp.  c u l t u r e so t h a t the  be comprehended or  understood.  53-54)  Thus Wolcott b e l i e v e s t h a t "the non-Indian  teacher should seek  not to change c u l t u r e , but seek to implement a mutual exchange of knowledge and c u l t u r a l uniqueness. w i l l not b r i n g about understanding of  i t s value system (1967, p. 130).  The products of a c u l t u r e  but a study of the e s s e n t i a l s Wolcott  (1967) sees  the  teacher d i r e c t i n g h i s / h e r energy toward s p e c i f i c elements i n h i s / her i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme r a t h e r than making an attempt a t c u l t u r e change (p. 131).  " I t i s b e t t e r f o r the teacher to  58. emphasize i n d i v i d u a l growth r a t h e r than c u l t u r a l change" c o t t , 1967,  p. 130).  Wolcott  saw  (Wol-  the t e a c h e r s ' r o l e as concen-  t r a t i n g on those s k i l l s t h a t can be taught i n s c h o o l which give a c h i l d access to the dominant s o c i e t y : E n g l i s h , and job i n f o r m a t i o n  (1967, p.  literacy,  standard  130).  Documentation o f a r t programmes which r e f e r to Indian t u r e are i m p o s s i b l e to l o c a t e .  Two  students were d e s c r i b e d i n two books 1967).  Although  the two  r u r a l schools f o r Kwakiutl (Rohner, 19 70;  Native Indian communities  were presented i n d e t a i l , i n n e i t h e r one was and c u l t u r e i n the classroom d i s c u s s e d .  Wolcott, (and  schools)  the t e a c h i n g of a r t  A book more r e l e v a n t to  the urban scene i s F l o y Pepper's chapter on can Indian i n Mainstream S e t t i n g s . "  cul-  "Teaching  I t i s an  the Ameri-  all-inclusive,  thorough review o f s t r e n g t h s o f Indian c h i l d r e n , with  suggested  approaches f o r t e a c h i n g them, u s i n g Indian c u l t u r e i n c r e a t i v e , r e l e v a n t , c u r r i c u l u m . She  maintains  t h a t a c h i l d ' s concept  of  a b i l i t y i s a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r of success than s e l f - c o n c e p t (19 76, p. 142).  The route to h e l p i n g the Native c h i l d b e l i e v e i n him/  h e r s e l f i s through an e f f e c t i v e way  h i s or her c u l t u r e .  A r t i s (appears  to i n t r o d u c e c u l t u r e s i n c e , as Indian  to be) artists  and a r t educators have s a i d , i t p r o v i d e s many avenues of  expres-  sion. Indian c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l i n the c u r r i c u l u m alone w i l l a s s i s t Indian c h i l d r e n to r e t a i n t h e i r Native c u l t u r e and ues  (Bayne, 1969).  not val-  "For the Native Indian c h i l d , e d u c a t i o n con-  s i s t s of complex p a t t e r n s of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h i s community t h i s community c o n t a i n s the source of the c h i l d ' s (Pepper,  1976,  p. 156).  The  and  identity"  Indian c u l t u r e must become p a r t o f  school c u r r i c u l u m to b r i d g e the s e p a r a t i o n between home and school  (More, 1983, pp. 80-86).  Some models, such as t h a t o f  North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , are w e l l planned,  thoughtfully  executed  participation  and thoroughly  of e l d e r s board  researched, with o r g a n i z e d  (through an E l d e r s C o u n c i l ) , band members, s c h o o l  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , teachers and students.  One elementary  s c h o o l i n the d i s t r i c t , Norgate Elementary, i s symbolic  o f the  c o o p e r a t i o n between the Indian and non-Indian communities. 1981,  a totem pole r a i s i n g was h e l d a t the s c h o o l , complete with  the a p p r o p r i a t e Indian ceremony, witnessed and  In  t h e i r parents.  by s c h o o l c h i l d r e n  One year l a t e r , the c h i l d r e n v i v i d l y remem-  ber many d e t a i l s o f the event.  At the school a Native  u n i t i s o f f e r e d a t grade 4/5 as a supplement to S o c i a l  cultural Studies  and a t 4/5 A r t with a design and drawing component c o n t a i n i n g b a s i c c a r v i n g and beading  skills  on by contemporary Indians) The  (a p o s t - c o n t a c t c r a f t  i s taught  grade 6/7 course culminates  carried  to a l l o f the students.  i n an o r i g i n a l c a r v i n g i n c o r p o r -  a t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l form and f i g u r e s from each c h i l d .  The c u r r i c u -  lum model i n North Vancouver began with s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s , toms, and v a l u e s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n education and a r t .  cus-  The goal was  f o r the Squamish c u r r i c u l u m to be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a wide range o f courses.  Help f o r Native c h i l d r e n a t the elementary l e v e l was  provided by a parent h i r e d to c o o r d i n a t e parent v o l u n t e e r s i n the classroom. The  traditional  "Indian c u l t u r e emphasized  (Pepper, 1976, p. 135; Sealey  & Kirkness,  temporary e d u c a t i o n a l approach developed (19 75)  cooperation"  1973, p. 115). A conby Johnson and Johnson  seems appropriate, f o r Indian education.  The Johnsons  60. advocate  s m a l l group peer t e a c h i n g with a common goal and i n d i v -  idual accountability.  T h e i r theory and r e s e a r c h demonstrates  that " . . . c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g i s more powerful than tion"  (1981, p.  competi-  3).  E d u c a t i o n a l processes which use approaches c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n a l Indian c u l t u r e , seem to be most e f f e c t i v e with Native Indian c h i l d r e n .  C u r r i c u l u m developed with p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f  Native parents and resource people f o r schools with numbers o f Native Indian students i s emerging i n the area o f a r t and c u l ture.  Often Native communities w i s h i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e v e l -  oping c u r r i c u l u m a r e u n c e r t a i n about how t o b e g i n .  Two American  Indian c u r r i c u l u m developers o u t l i n e d steps f o r community d e v e l opment o f c u r r i c u l u m (LaFrance  & Starkman, 1979).  "Curriculum  can be thought of as the Croutel by which a student gets from one p l a c e t o another.  I t i s a route f o r movement" (LaFrance  & Stark-  man, 1979, p. 3 ) . Value judgements are i n h e r e n t i n c r e a t i n g c u r r i c u l u m and the v a l u e s t h a t are seen t o be r e l e v a n t by the Indian parents and e l d e r s must be given importance values and b e l i e f s are avoided.  so t h a t c o n f l i c t s o f  When c o n f l i c t s a r i s e , the Native  c h i l d ends up " r e s i s t i n g both s e t s o f v a l u e s " (Berger, 1977, p. 92) . A course developed by Cathey, Wallace, and o t h e r s , Past and Contemporary Navajo C u l t u r e Go Hand i n Hand, C u r r i c u l u m Guide (1969) d e a l t w i t h Navajo h i s t o r y , language s t r u c t u r e ,  cultural  a r t , customs, b e l i e f s , c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , presented i n a s e q u e n t i a l and s y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n a l i n the classroom. Navajo secondary  The course f o r  s c h o o l students d e a l t i n p a s t , p r e s e n t , and  f u t u r e Navajo c u l t u r e  (Cathey, Wallace, e t a l . ,  1969).  The work  that has been done i n the Southwest United States i n Native  In-  dian education can be u s e f u l when s t u d y i n g other Indian c u l t u r e s . In the Cathey course  an " a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r c u l t u r a l a r t as a  means o f communication" c r o s s e s language and c u l t u r a l boundaries  (p. 0013) . A s e r i e s o f a r t programmes were developed  c h i l d r e n by A r t h u r Amiotte  i n 19 78 f o r Dakota  (1978, p. 0408); they combined  t r a d i t i o n s with contemporary ..art.  Aesthetics  ( v e r b a l and  c r e a t i v i t y , beauty, and the senses were emphasized. s t y l e s of t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary a r t and  Lacota visual),  Painting  i t s meaning were  combined i n the four p a r t programme. Native Indian students  l e a r n i n g about t h e i r c u l t u r e i n  Edmonton C a t h o l i c schools became more " v e r b a l about l i f e on r e s e r v e , brought a r t i f a c t s i n t o s c h o o l , spoke Cree, dances and songs f o r classmates,  performed  showed more enthusiasm towards  s c h o o l and non-Natives showed a l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n everyday on the r e s e r v e " - (Maracle, In B.C.  the  life  1973,.p. .11).  today, most s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have some programming  d i r e c t e d a t the c u l t u r e of Native Indian people.  Some of the  programmes are noteworthy because o f the approaches they have used or the i m a g i n a t i v e way  i n which they have i n t r o d u c e d a r t  and c u l t u r e i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m . for  secondary s c h o o l s , and  grades 8-12.  The  Most of the a r t programmes are  a l l of the c r e d i t courses  are f o r  approaches f a l l i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s :  (a) those u s i n g c r e a t i v e ideas i n the e d u c a t i o n o f N a t i v e ren; ages;  (b) those u s i n g l o c a l l y developed (c) those  child-  c u l t u r e c u r r i c u l u m pack-  t e a c h i n g Indian c u l t u r e through c r a f t s ;  and  (d) those which combine a r t and c r a f t s , with emphasis sometimes on c r a f t s , sometimes on a r t . The programmes developed g i o n a l concerns communities.  i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e f l e c t r e -  and v a r i a b i l i t y o f resources w i t h i n the Indian  Large, cohesive Indian communities e x h i b i t e d c r e a t -  i v i t y i n meeting the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f Native students. programmes have begun to use Native Indian a r t i s t s t o teach  Art North-  west Coast design p r i n c i p l e s , and N a t i v e Indian e l d e r s and parents are moving i n t o the classrooms  as resource people, t e a c h i n g  t u r a l v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and c r a f t s . Indian c u l t u r e o f the community.  cul-  C u r r i c u l u m k i t s r e f l e c t the For i n s t a n c e , k i t s about  fish  have been produced i n f i s h i n g communities such a s : K i t i m a t Small F i s h and Campbell R i v e r Indian  Fishing.  Native and non-Native Indian educators,  concerned  about the  education o f Native Indian c h i l d r e n , have c i t e d the importance o f l e a r n i n g about c u l t u r e i n the classroom.  A r t a t the elementary  s c h o o l l e v e l i s u s u a l l y i n c i d e n t a l ; i t may, f o r i n s t a n c e , be connected with i l l u s t r a t i n g a S o c i a l Studies p r o j e c t . til  In B.C., un-  r e c e n t l y , Native Indians were s t u d i e d only i n a grade 4  S o c i a l Studies u n i t .  Today, many s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s are i n c l u d i n g  Indian c u l t u r e i n the c u r r i c u l u m e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Indian  children.  Some i n t e r e s t i n g models have emerged. Two month long i n n o v a t i v e programmes were i n t r o d u c e d by communities w i t h d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s .  The f i r s t , C h e h a l i s (a  F r a s e r V a l l e y community), sought t o encourage students i n t h e i r Native Indian s c h o o l to read books.  A month long r e a d i n g Mara-  thon had t h i r t y students p a r t i c i p a t i n g . student's progress was monitored  During the month each  and a t the end o f the month two  students had read one hundred books. used i n a r t through p a i n t i n g , drawing, i n g , or c o l l e c t i n g  This approach  could be  c a r v i n g , beading, weav-  ( m a t e r i a l s from nature) marathons.  a Cowichan Indian community, sponsored ary s c h o o l , K o k s i l a h .  a legend month i n  students.  element-  The whole s c h o o l enjoys Indian c u l t u r e  being i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the s c h o o l programme; weaving and are emphasized.  The o t h e r ,  beading  During the legend month, e l d e r s t o l d legends to  During the month students read about legends, they  wrote, i l l u s t r a t e d them and they dramatized them.  At the end of  the month, the students shared t h e i r work with the e l d e r s .  The  e l d e r s played an important r o l e i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the u n i t on legends and, a t the completion, r o l e s as u n o f f i c i a l e v a l u a t o r s . The most complete s i g n p r i n c i p l e s was  approach  to t e a c h i n g Northwest Coast  de-  developed by a North Vancouver a r t teacher  (Anne S i e g a l ) who  taught Northwest Coast a r t i n two  and one secondary  s c h o o l i n the d i s t r i c t .  Northwest Coast designs at the elementary  elementary  The steps i n c r e a t i n g and h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l  are a v a i l a b l e i n a s e r i e s of worksheet designs c r e a t e d by the a r t teacher where there i s a p r o g r e s s i o n from simple to more complex designs.  The format of the c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d worksheet  l u s t r a t i o n s of the design f o r the day, a blackboard design t r a t i o n , i l l u s t r a t i o n i n c o l o u r e d c h a l k , and step-by-step i n unison w i t h the a r t t e a c h e r . t h e i r own,  ilillus-  drawing  Advanced students worked on  w h i l e l e s s experienced students f o l l o w e d the steps as  they r e q u i r e d .  The f l e x i b i l i t y of the o p t i o n s w i t h i n the c l a s s -  room encouraged  c o o p e r a t i o n between students o f d i f f e r e n t ages  and a b i l i t y .  The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s e q u e n t i a l b u i l d i n g of  designs broke otherwise complex designs down i n t o  understandable  parts.  The standard of work was  h i g h and Northwest Coast d e s i g n  p r i n c i p l e s were drawn w i t h p r e c i s i o n and accuracy by students had h i t h e r t o shown l i t t l e  i n t e r e s t i n drawing.  who  Some of the s t u d -  ents attended a s c h o o l where I taught A r t and S o c i a l S t u d i e s seve r a l years  ago.  Another approach has been used by an experienced Northwest Coast a r t i s t , Bradley Hunt, who  i s a l s o the S e c h e l t , B.C.  teacher, c o u n s e l l o r , and c u r r i c u l u m developer.  N a t i v e Indian  c h i l d r e n are i n the m i n o r i t y a t the S e c h e l t Elementary the Indian a r t c l a s s .  The  art  School i n  format o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o  the North Vancouver design where students f o l l o w the blackboard drawing o f the a r t teacher.  The S e c h e l t teacher has  designed  some three-dimensional models which the students c o n s t r u c t out of  B r i s t o l board:  p a t t e r n s of a canoe, longhouse,  storage  boxes, totem p o l e , r a i n hat, Hamatsa mask, are xeroxed B r i s t o l board cut  onto  the  (a f i r m p a p e r ) , the students p a i n t w i t h f e l t pens,  out, and c o n s t r u c t by g l u i n g s e c t i o n s .  c u r r i c u l u m packages a t i t s d i s p o s a l :  The d i s t r i c t has  two  The Sea Resources and  Northwest Coast k i t . A Northwest Coast a r t programme, i n V i c t o r i a School rict,  i s taught by a Native a r t i s t , George Hunt, and a  Indian a r t teacher, Jim G i l b e r t , who  non-  i s knowledgeable about  t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest design p r i n c i p l e s , and about the t i o n a l use of m a t e r i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y wood. c l a s s produced  Dist-  h i g h q u a l i t y cedar o b j e c t s .  Students  tradii n the a r t  Wooden plaques,  t r a y s and bowls c a r r i e d f i n e l y carved d e s i g n s .  An i n n o v a t i o n i n  the d i s t r i c t i s the master a r t i s t w i t h a p p r e n t i c e s  approach.  Students  are given the o p p o r t u n i t y to observe  r e s i d e n t Native a r t i s t .  The  and a s s i s t  the  c r a f t s t h a t are i n t r o d u c e d , are  taught w i t h the s i g n i f i c a n c e of ceremonial d r e s s , legends h i s t o r y through  involvement  of the l o c a l  Indian community.  The o n l y a r t programme to focus s o l e l y on the level, of  elementary  i s adjacent to an Indian a r t c e n t r e , K'san.  the l o c a l a r t resources r e s u l t e d i n a s k i l l e d  t e a c h i n g woodcarving i n two elementary  are Native Indian.  i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the a r t programme.  artist  designs a t an  The m a j o r i t y of the  Drawings, legends, and  duced f o r the d i s t r i c t by l o c a l  The r i c h n e s s  Indian  and three dimensional  s c h o o l i n Hazelton.  students  tapes of songs were  An e x c e l l e n t k i t was  artists:  and  pro-  B i r d s of K'san, and  another k i t , H a r v e s t i n g , w i t h tapes, legends, and h i g h q u a l i t y drawings. A b i b l i o g r a p h y of the a r t s and c r a f t s o f Northwest Coast Indians  (B.C. S t u d i e s , 1975)  i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to a r t  teachers of Northwest Coast a r t and c u l t u r e : S a l i s h , Haida, Kwakiutl, Nootka, Tsimshian,  B e l l a Coola, Tlingit.  The  Coast refer-  ences are c a t e g o r i z e d under sub-headings o f : b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , a r t i s t s , b a s k e t r y , b l a n k e t s , c a r v i n g , design, masks, totem p o l e s , weaving  ( g e n e r a l ) , dance, f a c i a l p a i n t i n g , k n i t t i n g , metal work,  p i c t o g r a p h s and p e t r o g l y p h s , s c u l p t u r e , and music. 85 l i t e r a r y  There are  r e f e r e n c e s to Kwakiutl a r t s and c r a f t s , which pro-  v i d e the a r t teacher with r i c h  sources of background m a t e r i a l  when p r e p a r i n g l e s s o n s on the Kwakiutl c u l t u r e , f o r example (Bradley, 1975). The  t e a c h i n g of Indian c u l t u r e i n the classroom i s o c c u r r i n g  i n most of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s where there are numbers of  Na-  tive children.  of  The approaches depend upon the involvement  the l o c a l Indian community, the s e n s i t i v i t y of the school d i s trict,  and  the money a v a i l a b l e to pay  ials.  Many Native people have v o l u n t e e r e d to e n r i c h the educa-  t i o n of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  f o r resources and mater-  Some approaches which have been suc-  c e s s f u l c o u l d be borrowed by o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s .  For exam-  ple,  ideas f o r  the Nanaimo School D i s t r i c t Indian community had  i n v o l v i n g e l d e r s so t h a t they p a r t i c i p a t e d together making group j o u r n a l s , shared songs and memories.  They were given the oppor-  t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l o c a l classrooms  through  sharing  t h e i r knowledge of songs, food p r e p a r a t i o n , c r a f t s , dancing, the Indian language, which they spoke when demonstrating skills.  and  their  Band members became a p p r e n t i c e d to e l d e r s to share  their  knowledge and the e l d e r became "teacher" i n the community as w e l l as i n the classroom.  M a t e r i a l s developed  through  the e f f o r t s of  the e l d e r s became t h e i r legacy to pass on as p a r t of the band's resources as a permanent r e c o r d . Although  o t h e r museums i n the p r o v i n c e have programmes, the  most i n n o v a t i v e a r e :  the P r i n c e Rupert s c h o o l d i s t r i c t which  has museum a r t i f a c t s and A l e r t Bay,  Skidegate,  "touchables" f o r use i n the  classroom;  and Cape Mudge communities a l s o have l o c a l  museums as an important  resource.  Vancouver and V i c t o r i a have,  u n t i l the p a s t decade, been the major sources t u r a l a r t i f a c t s of Indian c u l t u r e s i n  f o r a r t and  B.C.  The Vancouver Museum has a s c h o o l programme s e r i e s at  Indian c u l t u r e :  cul-  Coast S a l i s h Indians, Northwest  directed  Coast  67. Indians, M u s i c a l Instruments o f Native Peoples o f Canada, and Toys and Games o f Native People o f Canada. The P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a has e d u c a t i o n programmes d i r e c t e d a t ethnobotany f o r grades 5, 6, and 7.  P l a n t s played  a major r o l e i n the l i v e s o f B.C.'s Native Peoples.  T h e i r econ-  omic importance arose from t h e i r use as food, raw m a t e r i a l s and medicine.  Students l e a r n e d the importance o f p l a n t s i n a l l a s -  pects o f N a t i v e c u l t u r e . The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , has a v a i l a b l e f o r loan a West Coast Indian Fine A r t s K i t , The R e v i v a l , which  foc-  uses on the r e v i v a l o f t r a d i t i o n a l a r t form and the c r e a t i o n o f new forms i n the Northwest Coast a r t . The Museum o f Anthropology, a t U.B.C, has an e x c e l l e n t s c h o o l programme, "Garbanzo," which uses a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach  (mime, music, and masks) to teach about Northwest Coast  art. Three Vancouver I s l a n d Indian communities  developed c u l t u r e  programmes f o r Indian c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l system; p u b l i c s c h o o l and band operated s c h o o l .  Saanich developed a programme,  C u l t u r a l R e v i v a l P r o j e c t , which covered a broad spectrum:  bas-  k e t r y , loom weaving, c a r v i n g , t r a d i t i o n a l food p r e s e n t a t i o n and preparation.  Sooke, an a d j a c e n t community, u t i l i z e s the s k i l l s  of Native women to teach beading, k n i t t i n g , p a i n t i n g , and t r a d i t i o n a l designs i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l .  F u r t h e r n o r t h the K w a k i u t l ,  Nimpkish Band a t A l e r t Bay developed a u n i t on c u l t u r a l  living  where each month a u n i t was s e t up on s h e l t e r , animals, p l a n t s , foods, c u r r i c u l u m o r law, t a k i n g i n t o account the p r o v i n c i a l curriculum.  The u n i t draws from s e v e r a l a r e a s :  a legend i s t o l d  68. u s i n g vocabulary  from language, i n t e g r a t i n g the u n i t i n p r o g r e s s ,  the Indian dance l e s s o n i s added and masks are p r o v i d e d by band a r t i s t .  This format more c l o s e l y f o l l o w s Indian  where a l l of the a r t s played important theme of a c u l t u r a l event. developed  twelve  i n g , songs, and  the  The p u b l i c school i n A l e r t Bay  has  graded work books d e a l i n g with Kwakwala dancgames.  at the high s c h o o l l e v e l .  K i t i m a t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t has c r e d i t courses  10.  course,  grades 9-12,  and  L y t t o n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t has  c r e d i t courses f o r  These courses  i n the area of a r t , food and n u t r i t i o n , and  Design  traditions  r o l e s i n developing  S e v e r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s have developed students  the  g e n e r a l l y are  Indian S t u d i e s . f o r a Native A r t  and  Indian S t u d i e s f o r grades 9 and Indian Studies a t the grade  10  l e v e l which encompasses Native foods, f i s h i n g , g a t h e r i n g , d i p net p r o d u c t i o n , c a r v i n g , dancing, c r a f t s , h i s t o r y , and anthropology. 11, Northwest Coast Design,  craft material collection, P r i n c e Rupert o f f e r s C r a f t s  Foods and N u t r i t i o n  (Native f o o d s ) .  The elementary s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e focus on grade 4 S o c i a l Studies as a p l a c e to b r i n g i n c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s about Native people.  Some communities, such as Port Simpson, with a l a r g e  Indian p o p u l a t i o n , i n t r o d u c e s Indian c u l t u r e i n a grade 2 Science and S o c i a l Studies u n i t , Time and Change i n P o r t Simpson (More, 1983, use: and  p. 230).  They have a r t i f a c t r e p l i c a s f o r students'  cedar bark baskets, h a l i b u t hooks, bentwood boxes, adzes, soapberry  paddles.  At the elementary l e v e l , the use of a r t i f a c t s i s an i v e way  to encourage achievement.  effect-  Native Indian c h i l d r e n are  more s t i m u l a t e d by s e e i n g an a r t i f a c t than by s e e i n g a p i c t u r e  of one.  When they see a f i s h k n i f e b e f o r e they are i n s t r u c t e d  about how  t o make one,  t h e i r understanding  about the p r o p o r t i o n s ,  the weight and shape of the k n i f e a l l become p a r t of what  "fish  k n i f e " means and i s something t h a t h i s / h e r ancestor made b e f o r e him/her and what he/she i s about to make. dimension  There i s an added  to a r t i f a c t r e p l i c a s — N a t i v e students seem to be more  i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t which has a s p e c i f i c purpose, and,  something u s e f u l  i n the p r o c e s s , making something t h a t has meaning i n t h e i r  culture.  A r t i f a c t s f o r students to handle  and d u p l i c a t e need  to be a v a i l a b l e and can be an important a i d i n students unders t a n d i n g about t h e i r own As the r e s u l t s of my my  culture. study w i l l show, w h i l e the impact  of  a r t programme i s d i f f i c u l t t o measure ( s e l f - c o n c e p t and know-  ledge of Indian c u l t u r e were the o n l y t e s t s ) , i t i s e v i d e n t , a c c o r d i n g to the classroom t e a c h e r , t h a t d u r i n g the 1983  fall  term, the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e to work and t h e i r l e v e l o f a c h i e v e ment showed c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement.  This may  be due,  r e s p e c t s , to other aspects of the s t u d e n t s ' experience.  i n some How-  ever, l i t e r a t u r e supports the view t h a t a c h i e v i n g success i n a r t and i n l e a r n i n g about one's c u l t u r e can b r i n g about improvement i n l e v e l s of achievement.  Art, in i t s e l f ,  and unique b r i d g e between the two  cultures.  can p r o v i d e a r i c h I believe that i n  the a r t programme important connections were made between the i n h e r i t a n c e of the present as a r e f l e c t i o n of the legacy of the past.  Most o f the students i n the a r t programme knew more about  t h e i r own  c u l t u r e than even they r e a l i z e d , and they found i t more  i n t e r e s t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g than they expected.  As the programme  concluded, more p i e c e s were b e i n g f i t t e d i n t o the b r i d g e between  70 . both  cultures. A Native Indian woman t o l d a Senate Subcommittee on  Education,  " I f my  ity,  c h i l d r e n know who  i f my  be who  c h i l d r e n are proud, i f my  c h i l d r e n have  Indian ident-  they are and i f they are proud to  they are, t h e y ' l l be a b l e to encounter  anything i n l i f e ,  I t h i n k t h i s i s what education means" (Adams, 1974,  p.  22).  CHAPTER I I I THE  CULTURAL SURVIVAL SCHOOL  Many s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n B.C. have endeavoured t o meet the needs o f Native Indian students w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . number o f approaches have emerged. to  i n the p r e v i o u s  A  Some o f them were r e f e r r e d  chapter.  The Vancouver Native Indian C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School i s one of  f i v e Native Indian programmes undertaken by the Vancouver  School Board.  While each has a d i f f e r e n t focus and way o f oper-  a t i n g , a l l share the common goal o f e a s i n g the adjustment o f Native Indian students i n t o the s c h o o l system by p r o v i d i n g an environment t h a t i s " c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t and attuned t o needs of  Native Indian s t u d e n t s "  programmes are as f o l l o w s :  ( K e t t l e , March 1983, p. i ) . The f i v e (a) Four Native Indian Home School  workers are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h a n d l i n g problems i n separate of  the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t .  T h e i r primary  areas  r o l e i s to a s s i s t i n the  assessment and placement o f Indian c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l d i s trict,  (b) N a t i v e Indian C u l t u r a l Enrichment workers serve the  needs o f students i n f i v e schools by p r o v i d i n g t u t o r i a l and c u l t u r a l enrichment a c t i v i t i e s both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the c l a s s room,  (c) Outreach  A l t e r n a t i v e School serves students i n grades  8, 9, and 10, who need more support and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t than the r e g u l a r s c h o o l can o f f e r .  Those who l a c k the academic  skills  r e q u i r e d t o f u n c t i o n i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l system a r e g i v e n needed support.  (d) Kumtuks, an a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l f o r Indian  72. students, was  e s t a b l i s h e d to r e t a i n students d u r i n g the  years between grades 6 and  9.  I t o f f e r s a programme which  phasizes the development of s k i l l s necessary r e g u l a r s c h o o l s e t t i n g and enables  em-  to f u n c t i o n i n the  students to i n t e g r a t e i n t o a  f u l l r e g u l a r secondary  s c h o o l programme.  i s the one  a r t p r o j e c t was  i n which my  crucial  (e) The  f i f t h programme  conducted.  The Vancouver Native Indian C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School Appendix 1) was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n September, 1982  (see  i n response  need expressed by a Native Indian p a r e n t s ' group.  The  to a  school  i s l o c a t e d on the s i t e o f the B r i t a n n i a Secondary School and i s for  students i n grades 5-9.  a b l e classrooms. of  The  The  f a c i l i t i e s c o n s i s t of two  school has access to many o f the  port-  facilities  the B r i t a n n i a Complex, such as the p o o l , i c e s k a t i n g r i n k ,  resource c e n t r e and a workshop and an a c t i v i t y room a t the secondary s c h o o l . Once the p u b l i c announcement of the opening was  of the school  made, l e t t e r s were sent by the Board to parents who  had  pressed i n t e r e s t i n sending t h e i r c h i l d r e n to the s c h o o l . teachers were h i r e d , a Native Indian graduate d i a n Teacher Education Programme  exTwo  of the Native I n -  (N.I.T.E.P.) a t U.B.C, w i t h  one year's experience as a teacher a t an a l t e r n a t e s c h o o l f o r Native Indian c h i l d r e n and lor  f o r N.I.T.E.P.  four y e a r s ' experience as a c o u n s e l -  For the other classroom,  a non-Indian  f i v e y e a r s ' experience  t e a c h i n g Native Indian students a t  C u r r i e band s c h o o l was  hired.  was  shared by the two  adaptable.  The  two  teachers.  with Mt.  A f u l l - t i m e teaching a s s i s t a n t The programme was  teachers determined  how  flexible  and  they were going to  divide  up  the  s t u d e n t s , what t h e y were g o i n g  t h e y were g o i n g  to  to teach,  and  teach.  Some o f t h e programme o b j e c t i v e s most r e l e v a n t t o my programme w e r e : history, and  (a) t h a t t h e r e be  values, traditions,  contemporary;  (b)  sense o f c o n f i d e n c e as  Indian people;  parents (d)  and  the  a c a d e m i c and ren  and  skills  Native  both  Native  Indian c u l t u r e ,  behaviour apply.  who  and  Yet  p l a n and  events; be  implement  and  (e)  with  t h a t improvement Indian  T h e r e had  been no  commitment t o t h e t h e programme.  a shown p o t e n t i a l  o f the year  requirement  an o p p o r t u n i t y  Two  f o r parents  who  to d i s c u s s a c h i l d ' s progress. a r t programme as r e s o u r c e  butions.  success.  criteria (Kettle, be  had  two not  of the  goals o f the  not  been  J u n e 1983,  contacted  p.  as  students  report cards.  3)  to  into  procedduring  This  a l r e a d y done s o ,  was  t o come  were i n v o l v e d i n  making s i g n i f i c a n t  I t appears t h a t a g r e a t e r involvement  d e s i r e d i f one  could  n i g h t s were h e l d  Five parents people,  had  include a formal  parent  the  emphasized  for cooperative  admitting their  However, f u t u r e p l a n s  the year which c o i n c i d e d w i t h  child-  participating,  that parents  school before  f o r contacting parents.  of  r e s i d e n t i n Vancouver, i n  d e l i n e a t e d admissions  a t the b e g i n n i n g  students,  programmes;  s t r e s s e d to enable  c o m m i t t e d t o a t t e n d i n g and  developed  a  identity  a p l a c e where  w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m a programme t h a t  firmly  traditional  encouraged to develop  s c h o o l be  Indian student,  5-9,  is  be  art  culture,  increased self-esteem i n their  cultural  grades  the  Native  spiritualism,  that students  (c) t h a t t h e  social  a f o c u s on  t o a c q u i r e i n c r e a s e d s c h o o l c o m p e t e n c i e s and Any  ure  and  community c a n  t h a t t h e r e be  how  of Indian  programme i s t o  be  contripeople  74.  achieved,  that i s , to  n e e d s , and  the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s  e c o n o m i c and  cultural  Parents and  students  enrolled a t the  were b e h i n d The  about the  that their  their  of Native  skills  about a t t i t u d i n a l  12). culture  Many o f  grade l e v e l ,  (Kettle,  teachers  t o e s t a b l i s h where t h e  to teach the  p.  Indian  i n the s c h o o l .  s c h o o l r e a d below t h e i r  o b j e c t i v e of the  1983,  c h i l d r e n have i n t h e r e g u l a r  children  T h r o u g h e n c o u r a g e m e n t and gan  loss  and  involved i n p o l i t i c a l ,  ( K e t t l e , March  i n mathematics s k i l l s  principal  y e a r was  matters"  concerned  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  classroom  " e x p l o r e I n d i a n community v a l u e s  and  J u n e 1983,  the many  p.  7).  a t the b e g i n n i n g o f  s t u d e n t s were  c o o p e r a t i o n from  academically.  the student,  t h a t were m i s s i n g , i n o r d e r  changes i n the s t u d e n t s  the  they  be-  to b r i n g  a b o u t s c h o o l and  about  themselves. The  decision  S c h o o l was  to o f f e r  drop  ( K e t t l e , M a r c h 1983, 6,  and  work w i t h ,  5-9  a t the C u l t u r a l  made b e c a u s e o f s t a t i s t i c a l  Indian students  5,  grades  7 said  behind p.  significantly  i ) .  t h a t she  The  found  s i n c e a g e s and  evidence  i n those  classroom the  that  teacher  g r a d e mix  Survival Native  grades for  grades  very d i f f i c u l t  l e v e l s of maturity varied  consider-  ably.  Timetable ( 8:50-10:10 a.m.)  Roll  f o r grades  c a l l , daily  class,  6,  and  7  newspaper r e a d  to  mathematics, j o u r n a l w r i t i n g  spelling. Recess  5,  the and  to  (10:30-11:00 a.m.)  s i l e n t reading  (11:00-12:00 a.m.)  Indian dancing or a r t .  Those who  to dance, go to the l i b r a r y or do  don't want thinking  s k i l l s with the teacher. Lunch ( 1:00-  2:00  p.m.)  r e a d i n g or s o c i a l s t u d i e s or h e a l t h  ( 2:00-  3:00  p.m.)  creative writing *swimming Mondays 8:45  a.m.  *poetry Wednesdays * s k a t i n g Wednesdays 2:00-3:00  p.m.  *one-page essay F r i d a y mornings b e f o r e recess *once a week a r t programme Students  Linguistic Divisions  Grade 5  5 students  Grade 6  11 students  Grade 7  7 students  Northwest Coast  (  23 students  (Note:  Number  Kwakiutl Kwakiutl-Tsimshian Yukon Tlingit Cree 0j ibway Interior Salish Coast S a l i s h Shuswap  13 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2  s i x t e e n students were  23  present f o r both the p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s . ) The students o b v i o u s l y l i k e d b e i n g i n a Native Indian s c h o o l w i t h a Native Indian teacher.  S e v e r a l of them t o l d  me  d u r i n g the A r t and C u l t u r e p o s t - t e s t t h a t they l i k e d b e i n g a t the school and students who  misbehaved assured the classroom  teacher t h a t they would t r y harder to behave s i n c e they d i d n ' t want to be asked to t r a n s f e r out of the s c h o o l .  The mix of  students from d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the c i t y meant t h a t the  first  few weeks of s c h o o l were spent g e t t i n g to know each o t h e r , making  an adjustment  to being i n an a l l - N a t i v e Indian  which, f o r most of them, was The adjustment  a new  classroom  experience.  of the student body to the new  s i t u a t i o n took longer than a n t i c i p a t e d .  classroom  During the f a l l ,  new  students were added to the c l a s s b e f o r e classroom norms c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the consequence t h a t the classroom h e a l t h began to s u f f e r .  In December, when a teacher a i d e  h i r e d , the classroom s i t u a t i o n improved. and  teacher's  The classroom  was  teacher  teacher aide t r i e d d i f f e r e n t approaches to d i v i d i n g up  c l a s s i n t o working groups. team approach,  which was  For my  moderately  a r t programme, I t r i e d successful.  the the  Of the f o u r  teams e s t a b l i s h e d i n the classroom, two of them worked  reason-  ably w e l l , one worked together sometimes, and one team d i d n ' t work together a t a l l .  The  l a t t e r were a t times h i g h l y  ent, and a t o t h e r s , d i s t r a c t e d ;  working s p o r a d i c a l l y ,  independdisturb-  ing  other s t u d e n t s .  They were a c o l l e c t i o n of  individuals—this  was  e v i d e n t on f i e l d  t r i p s , when teammates worked i n d i v i d u a l l y  s i d e by s i d e or s o l i t a r y , a d i s t a n c e away. The classroom teacher and teacher aide were p l e a s e d w i t h the l e s s o n s I gave;  the students seemed genuinely i n t e r e s t e d i n  what we were doing i n the a r t programme.  Thus i n t r o d u c t i o n s to  the c l a s s as a whole, d u r i n g the programme, had to be s h o r t , s u c c i n c t , i n t e r e s t i n g , and i n v o l v e the students i n a d i r e c t  way.  For example, team competitions d u r i n g review q u e s t i o n s were much enjoyed s i n c e a l l students p a r t i c i p a t e d . lessons involved l i t t l e  The most s u c c e s s f u l  r e a d i n g or w r i t i n g , with changes of a c t -  i v i t i e s which r e q u i r e d l i t t l e  explanation.  Lessons  a l s o went  77.  smoothly when the whole c l a s s worked i n teams w i t h each i n d i v i d u a l working on h i s / h e r own a t the same p r o j e c t .  The students  stayed w i t h the same a d u l t s u p e r v i s o r f o r the whole a f t e r n o o n d u r i n g two of the mask making l e s s o n s .  I t seemed to help when  the a d u l t worked on h i s own mask so t h a t the students c o u l d observe.  The c u l m i n a t i n g f i l m a c t e d as a u n i t i n g and calming  agent a t the end o f the p e r i o d . I t was d i f f i c u l t t o conduct  c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the c l a s s  as a whole, because o f the d i s r u p t i v e a c t i o n s o f a few students. Those who were i n t e r e s t e d i n s h a r i n g ideas were i n t e r r u p t e d by others w i s h i n g to b r i n g negative a t t e n t i o n to themselves.  The  classroom had s e v e r a l d i s c o u r a g e d , demoralized students because when the s c h o o l opened, students w i t h problems i n t h e i r ious s c h o o l s were encouraged to e n r o l l i n the S u r v i v a l  prevSchool  w i t h the hope t h a t t h e i r academic and emotional needs would be q u i c k l y and e a s i l y s a t i s f i e d  ( K e t t l e , June 1983, p. 4 ) . The  academic d i f f i c u l t i e s were long s t a n d i n g and the s t u d e n t s concept had been d e f l a t e d t o the extent t h a t they worked ically.  1  self-  sporad-  The classroom teacher and teacher aide had not been  t r a i n e d t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i a l problems.  Some o f the students w i t h  s p e c i a l needs t r a n s f e r r e d from the classroom and some passed  into  the next grade and out o f the classroom. During the e v a l u a t i o n o f the f i r s t year o f the C u l t u r a l  Sur-  v i v a l School, students were i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o f i n d out how they f e l t about the s c h o o l . Without e x c e p t i o n , a l l students s a i d they were happy to be e n r o l l e d i n the programme.  Most i n d i c a t e d t h a t  t h e i r parents and f r i e n d s were a l s o happy they were  78. attending  . . . they a l s o f r e q u e n t l y mentioned about  l e a r n i n g about Native Indian c u l t u r e , b e i n g i n a c l a s s where a l l students are Native Indian and t a k i n g d i f ferent subjects. I t i s obvious year was  ( K e t t l e , June 1983,  p.  9)  from the e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t t h a t the f i r s t s c h o o l  seen as s u c c e s s f u l by students and p a r e n t s , and t h a t  the programme was  seen as having a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the s t u d -  ents i n terms of both attendance  and a t t i t u d e toward s c h o o l .  CHAPTER IV TESTS  Hypotheses  I t i s the purpose o f t h i s study to show, i n an urban Native Indian a l t e r n a t e c l a s s , whether there i s support ing  f o r the f o l l o w -  hypotheses: 1.  L e a r n i n g about c u l t u r e through  a r t increases s e l f -  esteem. 2.  L e a r n i n g about Indian c u l t u r e i s regarded  Indian communities, Indian p a r e n t s , and educators,  as v i t a l by Indian and  non-Indian. 3.  S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t , although students don't know  much about t h e i r c u l t u r e , they badly want to l e a r n more about i t . 4.  A r t i n the classroom can serve as a c u l t u r a l  resource,  and a means whereby c u l t u r e i s g i v e n r e c o g n i t i o n i n the classroom. 5.  A r t i s an e f f e c t i v e way to teach not only aspects o f  c u l t u r e , but a l s o the b e l i e f s i m p l i c i t i n c u l t u r e and u n d e r l y i n g art. 6.  L e a r n i n g about c u l t u r e through  s t y l e s of l e a r n i n g : l e a r n i n g through 7.  a r t can f o l l o w Indian  v i s u a l l e a r n i n g , k i n e t i c l e a r n i n g , and  observation.  Teaching  Indian c u l t u r e through  a l y s t to i n c r e a s e vocabulary of the c u r r i c u l u m .  and sharpen  a r t can a c t as a c a t i n t e r e s t i n other  areas  80 . 8.  Teaching Indian c u l t u r e through a r t can be a means by  which Indian students can i n c r e a s e t h e i r achievement across the whole c u r r i c u l u m .  Coppersmith  Self-Esteem  Inventory  "Self-esteem i s a p e r s o n a l judgement of worthiness expressed  that i s  i n the a t t i t u d e s the i n d i v i d u a l holds toward h i m s e l f "  (Coopersmith,  1967,  p. 4 ) .  Because one of the hypotheses i n g about one's c u l t u r e through s e l f - e s t e e m , I sought  learn-  a r t b r i n g s about an i n c r e a s e i n  to measure changes i n s e l f - e s t e e m as a  r e s u l t of the a r t programme. ventory was  of my p r o j e c t i s t h a t  The Coopersmith  Self-Esteem In-  used to t e s t a c l a s s of Native Indian students  be-  f o r e the commencement of the programme and a f t e r i t s completion. The  Coopersmith  Self-Esteem Inventory was  chosen because the  Vancouver School Board had i d e n t i f i e d the t e s t f o r use by Cultural Survival  School.  A review of r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e showed the Coopersmith Esteem Inventory  (Coopersmith,  school c h i l d r e n .  been used w i t h c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups LaTorre, 1982;  Self-  196 5) to be the most commonly  used s e l f - e s t e e m t e s t f o r elementary  Knight, 1979;  the  I t has  (Kagan &  Nelson, Knight, Kagan & Gumbiner,  1980). The Self-Esteem Inventory c o n s i s t s of 58 items.  F i f t y of  those items are used to assess an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - e s t e e m , and e i g h t items comprise  a l i e s c a l e u s e f u l i n determining the  i d i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s response.  val-  Where a student has a l i e  81. score of f o u r or more on the l i e s c a l e h i s / h e r responses cluded from s t a t i s t i c a l  analysis  pattern).  I  of a l l students because I have a  small group of students to begin w i t h and there i s a change i n responses  ex-  (since h a l f o f h i s / h e r respon-  ses on the l i e s c a l e suggest an i n v a l i d response i n t e n d to r e c o r d the responses  are  I a l s o wish to see i f  of students s c o r i n g high on the  l i e s c a l e d u r i n g the p r e - t e s t compared to the scores on the p o s t test.  The q u e s t i o n s on the l i e s c a l e are numbers 6,  41, 48, and  13, 27,  55.  The Coopersmith  Self-Esteem Inventory was  designed  for  year o l d s s i n c e t h i s i s the e a r l i e s t age when most c h i l d r e n t h i n k a b s t r a c t l y and make general assessment of t h e i r own l e c t u a l powers (Coopersmith, inally  34,  1967,  p. 8).  "The  t e s t was  designed as p a r t of a focus on p r e - a d o l e s c e n t s of  c l a s s background who  were male, white, and normal.  10-12 can  intelorigmiddle  Normal i n  t h i s case r e f e r s t o the s u b j e c t s being f r e e from symptoms of s t r e s s or emotional d i s o r d e r s " (Coopersmith, The  1967,  p. 8 ) .  Inventory c o n s i s t e d of 50 items concerned w i t h the sub-  j e c t ' s s e l f - a t t i t u d e s i n four areas: and p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s .  peers, p a r e n t s , s c h o o l ,  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e l f - a t t i t u d e between  the mean scores of the boys and g i r l s was  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  dif-  f e r e n t i n the t e s t d e s i g n . Coopersmith inite  found t h a t "the i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t more d e f -  structure . . .  greater c r e a t i v i t y " regimented  i s a s s o c i a t e d with h i g h e r s e l f - e s t e e m and (1967, p. 263).  I t appears  that neither a  classroom nor a completely f r e e one i s conducive  the development o f h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m i n s t u d e n t s .  "Children  to  82. with h i g h s e l f - e s t e e m have come from homes where boundaries c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and t r a n s g r e s s i o n s are d e a l t with f i r m l y consistently" what was  (Coopersmith,  1967,  p. 236).  are  and  The c h i l d r e n knew  expected of them, and the consequences i f they d i d not  meet those e x p e c t a t i o n s .  Thus r u l e s f o r the classroom should  be few but e n f o r c e a b l e , and there should be r e a l l a t i t u d e f o r students but w i t h i n the d e f i n e d l i m i t s p.  (Coopersmith,  1967,  128). An important q u e s t i o n remains, however, concerning the ac-  curacy of the Coopersmith t e s t w i t h Native Indian s t u d e n t s . we  are to be e f f e c t i v e i n the a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s , we  must  conduct o u r s e l v e s as l e a r n e r s or i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e r s f i r s t f o r e we  can assume e f f e c t i v e l y the r o l e of  t u r a l l y diverse pupils" We  ( F o e r s t e r & L i t t l e S o l d i e r , 1981,  they v e r b a l i z e  be-  'teachers' f o r c u l p. 3).  must know the c u l t u r e of m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e c h i l d r e n b e f o r e  can a c c u r a t e l y assess how  "If  we  feelings.  T e s t i n g the A r t and C u l t u r e P r e - t e s t a t Kumtuks School  Before i n t r o d u c i n g the A r t and C u l t u r e Test to the students at the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School, I o b t a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n to admini s t e r my A r t and C u l t u r e Test to students a t Kumtuks School i n order to e v a l u a t e the t e s t i n terms of l e n g t h and Kumtuks was  content.  e s t a b l i s h e d to r e t a i n students d u r i n g the  c r u c i a l years between Grades 6 and  9 when the drop-out  r a t e among Native Indian students i s h i g h .  It offers  a programme which emphasizes the development of  skills  83. necessary to f u n c t i o n i n the r e g u l a r s c h o o l s e t t i n g and enables students to i n t e g r a t e g r a d u a l l y i n t o a full  r e g u l a r secondary s c h o o l programme.  March 1983,  (Kettle,  p. i )  The s t u d e n t s , 7 boys and 2 g i r l s between the ages of 13 and were t e s t e d November 30,  The  14,  1982.  Selection "Touchable" a r t i f a c t s and p i c t u r e s were chosen as r e p r e s -  e n t i n g items used by Native Indian people i n g e n e r a l , and Kwakiutl people i n p a r t i c u l a r .  the  Items s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t e d a  v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s and i l l u s t r a t e d the s k i l l  and i n g e n u i t y of  the Native Indian people i n u s i n g m a t e r i a l s found i n t h e i r  en-  vironment . The Kwakiutl were a people w i t h deep m y t h o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . T h e i r p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e and t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s were exp r e s s e d v i s u a l l y i n designs p a i n t e d on t h e i r houses, t h e i r canoes, and even on t h e i r b o d i e s . rank and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n  "since i t was  totem p o l e s ,  Designs expressed  their  a s i g n of p r i v i l e g e to  use c e r t a i n animal f i g u r e s as p a i n t i n g s or c a r v i n g s on house f r o n t s , totem p o l e s , on masks, or on everyday u t e n s i l s " 1966,  p. 138).  With the sea to the west and steep mountains to  the e a s t , t h e i r l i f e p a t t e r n f a c e d out onto the sea and beach.  They t r a v e l l e d by sea i n canoes  bays and i n l e t s .  (Boas,  The f o r e s t was  the  i n and out of s h e l t e r e d  a r e s o u r c e and at the same time,  a f o r c e t h r e a t e n i n g and impenetrable.  There were four  seasons, each w i t h p a r t i c u l a r jobs r e l a t e d to i t .  The  distinct culmina-  t i o n of the year was w i n t e r , f o r then ceremonials gave d i r e c t i o n  84. and focus to r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s .  "The theory o f the w i n t e r  ceremonial i s based on the b e l i e f t h a t i n w i n t e r c e r t a i n  super-  n a t u r a l b e i n g s , who r e s i d e i n summer i n d i s t a n t c o u n t r i e s , come to the v i l l a g e "  (Boas, .1966, p. 172). S u r v i v a l was not always  easy and i t meant t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n and s u p p o r t i v e f a m i l y u n i t s were  important. The  f r e s h f i s h and seafood d i e t was supplemented w i t h seas-  o n a l l y a v a i l a b l e foods and d r i e d foods prepared i n times o f abundance.  C l o t h i n g was made from m a t e r i a l s found  plentifully  on the c o a s t — c e d a r bark woven capes, woven wool and cedar b l a n k e t s , arid tanned Salish.  The Southern  bark  l e a t h e r c l o t h i n g traded from the i n t e r i o r Kwakiutl a l s o wore sea o t t e r  One student a r r i v e d too l a t e to be t e s t e d . a t 9:15 a.m. and was completed  a t noon.  capes.  T e s t i n g began  I t took about twenty  minutes to t e s t each student i n the Home-School C o o r d i n a t o r ' s o f f i c e adjacent t o the classroom. room the students were watching screen t h e i r d e s i g n s .  When I a r r i v e d a t the c l a s s -  the classroom teacher  silk  The students asked me why I was t h e r e .  I t o l d them t h a t I had some a r t i f a c t s  from the Museum o f Anthro-  pology a t U.B.C. and some p i c t u r e s t h a t I wanted them t o i d e n t ify.  I e x p l a i n e d t h a t they were h e l p i n g me because I was going  to show the o b j e c t s and p i c t u r e s i n another s c h o o l .  I wanted  to make sure t h a t the p i c t u r e s were c l e a r and t h a t the o b j e c t s were t h i n g s t h a t most Native Indian students would r e c o g n i z e . They were very g l a d t h a t they d i d n ' t have to w r i t e anything. The classroom teacher decided who would come i n to see me and many o f them wanted t o come immediately.  first,  One boy p a r t i c u -  l a r l y wanted to come i n ; f i n a l l y he d i d , b e f o r e h i s t u r n .  It  85. seemed to them as i f something i n t e r e s t i n g was going t o happen. Students  entered and s a t beside the desk where I had p l a c e d  the p i c t u r e s .  I s a t beside the s h e l f where I had p l a c e d "the  touchables."  I began with the "touchables," h a n d l i n g each ob-  j e c t , one a t a time, to the student and I then asked tions l i s t e d .  the ques-  S e v e r a l times I had to ask an a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n  to  c l a r i f y the student's answer r e g a r d i n g the s i z e o f the o b j e c t  or  the m a t e r i a l t h a t the o b j e c t was made from.  For example,  s e v e r a l students c a l l e d the buckskin dress a j a c k e t . that at f i r s t  I noticed  the students were u n c e r t a i n about what they  say; they d i d n ' t l i k e to make a guess.  should  They l i k e d having some-  t h i n g to h o l d and touch; when they h e l d the o b j e c t s they r a n t h e i r hands over them and looked w i t h i n t e r e s t a t them. The in  first  the c l a s s .  students t o complete the t e s t were the two g i r l s They began immediately  s e l v e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  to t a l k t o me about them-  A boy came i n who seemed (and was,  a c c o r d i n g to the teacher) very shy. He d i d n ' t make eye c o n t a c t with me o r the teacher, but the teacher s a i d t h a t he o f t e n communicated with him by note. about Indian c u l t u r e . beading, his in  Another boy was very knowledgeable  He t o l d me t h a t h i s mother d i d weaving,  and sewing and t h a t he o f t e n went t o Indian events  parents.  The student who seemed to be the behaviour  with  problem  the c l a s s knew a g r e a t d e a l about f i s h i n g ; he seemed l i k e a  b u l l i n a c h i n a shop, needing t o keep on the move.  I saw him  b o t h e r i n g o t h e r students, y e t on a one-to-one b a s i s he seemed mature, knowledgeable and r e l a x e d . Touchables. (Touchables  These "touchables" proved  the most d i f f i c u l t .  a r e copies o f a r t i f a c t s t h a t have been made f o r  86 . students  t o examine.)  Students correctly  Touchable  identified  0  wedge  1  birch  1  button  Despite wedge,  = 9  the f a c t  I decided  bark  basket  blanket  t h a t none o f t h e s t u d e n t s  to retain  i t s i n c e I planned  i d e n t i f i e d the  to introduce the  students  t o i t and h a v e them u s e i t i n t h e a r t programme.  phrasing  i n t h e q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e h a l i b u t hook h a d t o be  changed used to  from  for?"  "What c o u l d y o u c a t c h w i t h  this?"  t o "What i s t h i s  Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s were c o m p l e t e l y  i t s u s e — s e w i n g was  one g u e s s .  d i s c u s s e d because they b a s k e t was  the s e t because  and i t was  button blanket a l s o proved  as  The b i r c h  bark  difficult for  n o t a p a r t o f t h e a r t programme. difficult  a n d , s i n c e i t was  The  created  t o remove i t as w e l l .  Questions  Since the stone  maul was  identified  changed t h e p h r a s i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n from " T h i s maul i s u s e d what i t was  3.  i t proved  during the post-contact p e r i o d , I decided Touchable  mystified  t e c h n o l o g i e s were  are i n c l u d e d i n Lesson  removed f r o m  them t o i d e n t i f y  Fishing  The  for  made f r o m  ?"  and t h e y  by no s t u d e n t s , I "What i s t h i s ? " t o  The s t u d e n t s  guessed  could  t h a t i t was  determine  used  f o r ham-  mering. Question ing  7 needed focus  i n challenge.  people?"  (Hamatsa)  s i n c e "What i s t h i s ? "  seemed  "What k i n d o f mask i s t h i s — b i r d ,  lack-  animal, or  87. Question 8 was changed to "What i s t h i s c a l l e d ? " to make i t more c h a l l e n g i n g than "Where would you put t h i s ? "  (choker)  Questions 10 and 11 were changed t o "The Cree g a u n t l e t s are  " (mitts) from  "The Cree g a u n t l e t s were made o u t  of  " (beads, f u r , l e a t h e r ) .  Pictures P i c t u r e s e l i m i n a t e d from t e s t design Number 13  The whale - Only one student c o r r e c t l y s t a t e d that harpooning was the way t h a t whales were caught. were used.  Most s a i d t h a t spears  (The c o n f u s i o n between h a r -  poons and spears i s even made by advanced students.)  Whales were important to West  Coast c u l t u r e s such as Nuu-chah-nulth  cul-  t u r e , but not g e n e r a l l y t o the K w a k i u t l . Number 30  Sea egg, sea anemone - Only one student i d e n t i f i e d i t and, while t i d a l pools were v i s i t e d d u r i n g the f i e l d t r i p t o the beach, sea eggs were found f u r t h e r o u t .  Number 3 3  Bighorn sheep - The animal was o f t e n fused with the mountain goat.  con-  I thought  t h a t i t made too g r e a t an emphasis to have both the goat and sheep on the t e s t  since  students c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d n e i t h e r o f them or both.  88. Number 36  Sxwaixwe mask - The Coast Salish mask was ne that none of the students had ever seen or heard about.  I t wasn't relevant to the  mask that was discussed and made i n the a r t programme.  Number 38  Cormorant - No one could i d e n t i f y i t and,  89.  Number 45  Crab - Too easy t o i d e n t i f y and minor i n the a r t and myths.  Number 4 8  Box - Proved s u r p r i s i n g l y  difficult  s i n c e i n the p i c t u r e i t was to  see what i t was made o f .  around the box prompted  Cree Indian dancer - i t was easy f o r the  students t o i d e n t i f y .  The c l a s s -  room teacher was s u r p r i s e d a t how w e l l they d i d on the t e s t .  He was a l s o  s u r p r i s e d t h a t there wasn't more o f a range i n the s c o r e s .  The rope  "packsack" or  puzzlement.  Number 4 9  difficult  90.  Results A r t and C u l t u r e Test R e s u l t s , Dec. 19 82, Kumtuks School Total  =61  Students p r e s e n t = 9  12 = "Touchables" 49 = P i c t u r e s Students  A l l students i d e n t i f i e d :  A = 38  mask  B = 44  around  the neck  (choker)  C = 41 D = 39  All  E = 38  following pictures:  F = 47  moccasin berries octopus beading deer canoe totem p o l e fish crab  G = 38 H = 42 I = 43 390 = T o t a l  students i d e n t i f i e d the  dancer None i d e n t i f i e d the wedge or copper, Sxwaixwe mask o r the cormorant . The c l a s s average was 75% When I asked the students what they thought about the t e s t they s a i d t h a t i t was e i t h e r easy o r hard. answers or they d i d n ' t .  They e i t h e r knew the  I f they knew the vocabulary f o r the ob-  j e c t s they c o u l d i d e n t i f y them.  Otherwise, they found i t  d i f f i c u l t to make s u b s t i t u t i o n s . the cormorant  For example, the p i c t u r e s of  e l i c i t e d few guesses, not even " d i v i n g b i r d . "  Perhaps language  a r t s l e s s o n s on adverbs  d i c a t e d , t o make language  more e x p r e s s i v e .  With these m o d i f i c a t i o n s I was Art  and a d j e c t i v e s are i n -  now  ready t o i n t r o d u c e the  and C u l t u r e Test to the students at the C u l t u r a l  Survival  School. Out o f the t o t a l of 51 p i c t u r e s , 14 o f those were K w a k i u t l . Out of a t o t a l of 51 p i c t u r e s , 3 of those were Tsimshian. By combining  the Kwakiutl and Tsimshian p i c t u r e s , 17 out of the  t o t a l of 51 are Kwakiutl-Tsimshian r e l a t e d p i c t u r e s P i c t u r e s chosen  (17/51=33%).  t h a t were g e n e r a l l y w e l l known to N a t i v e  Indian c u l t u r e were, out of a t o t a l of 51 p i c t u r e s  (19/51=37%).  By adding the number of Kwakiutl-Tsimshian p i c t u r e s to the of  total  g e n e r a l l y w e l l known p i c t u r e s , the t o t a l percent i s 70% which  relates directly  and g e n e r a l l y to the percentage o f K w a k i u t l -  Tsimshian students i n the classroom.  The r e s t of the p i c t u r e s  c o n t a i n e d i n the t e s t r e l a t e to the f o l l o w i n g l i n g u i s t i c Cree, Coast and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h , and  groups:  Haida.  "Touchables" - 12 o b j e c t s 1.  H a l i b u t hook - Kwakiutl  s i t y of B r i t i s h 2.  3. British 4.  Univer  (Museum o f Anthropology,  Univer  Columbia)  Bentwood box - Kwakiutl  s i t y of B r i t i s h  (Museum of Anthropology,  Columbia)  Stone maul - A l l (Museum of Anthropology,  U n i v e r s i t y of  Columbia) F i s h k n i f e - A l l (Museum of Anthropology,  U n i v e r s i t y of  British  Columbia)  5.  "D"  adze - Kwakiutl  pology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 6.  Yew  of B r i t i s h 7.  (Museum of  Anthro-  Columbia)  wedge - A l l (Museum of Anthropology,  University  Columbia) Mask - Kwakiutl  of B r i t i s h  (or S a l i s h )  (Museum o f Anthropology,  University  Columbia)  8.  Beaded necklace - Contemporary Indian j e w e l l e r y  9.  Woven basket - Coast S a l i s h , I n t e r i o r S a l i s h (B.B.)  10.  B i r c h bark basket - Cree  11.  Button b l a n k e t - Kwakiutl  University of B r i t i s h 12.  (B.B.) (Museum of  Anthropology,  Columbia)  Cree g a u n t l e t s -  V.K.  K = 5  (42% of the "touchables" are  C = 2  (16% of the "touchables" are Cree)  CS = 2  (16% o f the "touchables" are Coast  A l l =4  (B.B.)  Kwakiutl)  Salish)  (33% of the "touchables" are g e n e r a l t o the coast)  The C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School A r t and C u l t u r e P r e - t e s t December  1982  Before g i v i n g the A r t and C u l t u r e t e s t t h a t I had f o r students i n grades  5, 6, and 7 a t the C u l t u r a l  School, I wanted to f i n d out how  planned  Survival  much they knew about Native In-  d i a n c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l , and Kwakiutl c u l t u r e i n p a r t i c u l a r . Research  i n d i c a t e d t h a t Native Indian students don't do w e l l  on  written tests.  I planned a t e s t t h a t was completely o r a l .  It  was designed t o be given i n d i v i d u a l l y , i n a r e l a x e d , non-threatening s e t t i n g . 1.  The students were t o l d beforehand  t h a t , i n answering  my  q u e s t i o n s , they would not have to w r i t e a n y t h i n g down. 2.  They were questioned i n d i v i d u a l l y and away from the  classroom. 3.  Each student a r r i v i n g f o r the t e s t was given j u i c e and  cookies w h i l e I arranged the touchable o b j e c t s on the desk. 4.  The student was asked to i d e n t i f y the t e n "touchable"  o b j e c t s , and then asked to i d e n t i f y f o r t y 5.  pictures.  Questions were asked f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t period--no  longer than 20-25 m i n u t e s — d e p e n d i n g  on the l e n g t h o f a s t u d -  ent's answers. 6.  The tone o f the q u e s t i o n i n g was p o s i t i v e .  was encouraged  when g i v i n g c o r r e c t answers.  Each student  I n c o r r e c t answers  r e s u l t e d i n e i t h e r o f two approaches: - i f the student simply d i d n ' t know the o b j e c t o r p i c t u r e , I went to the next q u e s t i o n , t e l l i n g him t h a t he would be l e a r n i n g about,  f o r example, the s p i n d l e whorl, i n the a r t pro-  gramme ; - i f the student attempted  an answer, b u t had d i f f i -  c u l t y , f o r i n s t a n c e with s c a l e , and c a l l e d a S a l i s h b l a n k e t a mat,  I would say, "bigger than a mat."  i n response  I offered s i m i l a r clues  t o s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s with other q u e s t i o n s .  T e s t i n g a t the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l  School  The students were t e s t e d on December 10, a.m.; December 13,  a.m.  and p.m.;  and December 14, a.m.  The classroom teacher a r -  ranged f o r me to use an o f f i c e i n the main s c h o o l . out of twenty-three  students were t e s t e d .  Twenty-two  The one m i s s i n g s t u d -  ent came t o s c h o o l l a t e . I spoke t o the c l a s s b e f o r e the t e s t i n g began. they had been to the Museum o f Anthropology; students had v i s i t e d i t . totem p o l e s .  I asked i f  s e v e r a l o f the  They s a i d t h a t they had seen masks and  I i n t r o d u c e d the s u b j e c t by t e l l i n g the c l a s s t h a t  I had some a r t i f a c t s from the Museum o f Anthropology, of  University  B r i t i s h Columbia, and some p i c t u r e s f o r them to look a t , and  t h a t I would be a s k i n g them t o t e l l me what the o b j e c t s were c a l l e d o r what they were used f o r .  I t o l d them t h a t they would  not have to w r i t e anything down and, a t t h a t news, they b r i g h t ened p e r c e p t i b l y . candidate.  I q u i c k l y had a v o l u n t e e r t o be the f i r s t  I then p l a c e d the names of the r e s t of the c l a s s on  the blackboard  so t h a t they c o u l d come, one a t a time,  later.  G e n e r a l l y , the students came w i t h t r e p i d a t i o n , u n c e r t a i n about what they would be expected  t o say.  One student who had  taken the t e s t , speaking to the next student coming to see me, t o l d him t h a t "the c o n t e s t was f u n . " Oral questions.  The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s were asked  stud-  ents a t the C u t u r a l S u r v i v a l School d u r i n g the A r t and C u l t u r e pre-test to:  f i n d out what the s t u d e n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s were con-  c e r n i n g the a r t programme; l e a r n about resource people art  classroom;  f o r the  and d i s c o v e r the extent t h a t the students were  i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r own Indian c u l t u r e . 1.  What do you want to l e a r n from an a r t programme?  do you know about your own Indian c u l t u r e ?  What  2. person  Do y o u know someone t h a t w o u l d l i k e f o r t h e a r t programme?  f o r example, a f i s h e r m a n  t o be a r e s o u r c e  Perhaps i n the f i s h i n g  p a r e n t w o u l d be w i l l i n g  section,  t o come t o t h e  classroom? 3.  Do y o u go t o p o t l a t c h e s / p o w - w o w s ?  to c u l t u r a l  How  o f t e n do y o u go  events?  Most o f t h e s t u d e n t s h a d b e e n t o a pow-wow o r a p o t l a t c h , or both. ers,  Most o f them knew s e v e r a l  jewellers,  came f r o m  or fishermen.  seemed  the non-Indian  that  Learn  2.  Draw a l l s o r t s o f t h i n g s = 4 s t u d e n t s  3.  Bead = 3 s t u d e n t s  4.  Learn  5.  Do  6.  Weave = 1 s t u d e n t  the s i l k  as c a r v -  the students  and c r a f t s  to a  community.  1.  print  worked  want t o : t o c a r v e = 11  about b i r d s  students  = 1 student  l e a t h e r work, t o make g l o v e s = 1 s t u d e n t  P r i n t m a k i n g was in  The f a m i l i e s  t o be i n v o l v e d i n I n d i a n a r t s  g r e a t e r e x t e n t than Students  p e o p l e who  making  not mentioned.  The i n v o l v e m e n t  i s a recent innovation.  screening process  lends  itself  of Indians  I t has b e e n f o u n d t o Northwest Coast  that de-  signs . The number o f o b j e c t s i n t h e t e s t was I first total  experimented  with  t h e A r t and C u l t u r e t e s t  o f 60 o b j e c t s and p i c t u r e s  Kumtuks S c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t e d j e c t s were  limited  i n the t e s t .  i n the t e s t ,  When  t h e r e was  After  I observed  t o o many f o r them t o answer w i t h o u t  t o 50.  a  students at that  the t e s t  60  ob-  becoming  a chore towards the end,  so I removed some of the o b j e c t s  used a t o t a l of 50.  test in i t s final  a r t i f a c t s and  The  form c o n s i s t e d of  10  40 photographs.  S e l e c t i o n of  "touchables."  i n the c l a s s are Kwakiutl. t i o n and  and  Seventy percent  The  objects  of the  students  f o r the touchable  sec-  the p i c t u r e s f o r the p i c t o r i a l s e c t i o n of the t e s t were  s e l e c t e d because of t h e i r importance i n Kwakiutl c u l t u r e , for their representation  i n Native  Indian  cultures in  and  general.  Some of the items were examples of t o o l s t h a t would be used i n the a r t programme.  & 2.  Wedge and  stone-maul  used by  ents i n the l e s s o n f o c u s i n g on  studtech-  nology r e l a t e d to the use of wood, p a r t i c u l a r l y cedar, on the Northwest Coast 3.  "D"  (Lesson 5 & 6 ) .  adze - a l s o used by students i n  Lesson 4.  6.  Carved bowl - came under the heading of c o n t a i n e r s of wood  p .  5.  i n Lesson 6 (an example  technology).  F i s h k n i f e - each student made a k n i f e u s i n g the s l a t e and  cedar.  p a r t o f the l e s s o n on  This  fishing  was  (Lesson  4) . |£7Jj/-6.  H a l i b u t hook - i n c l u d e d i n the on  fishing.  lesson  97. Basket - an example of Coast S a l i s h  basket  making u s i n g the t w i n i n g method, with  cherry  bark woven i n to d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n s on basket  and  lid.  Students  bark w h i l e on the f i e l d  collected  trip  Weaving u s i n g f i b r e s was  the  cherry  to the  forest.  p a r t o f the l e s s o n  on weaving with wool, s p i n n i n g and dyeing wool (Lesson  of  5).  Large Hamatas mask - d i d n ' t prove difficult  f o r the students  as being a b i r d mask.  to i d e n t i f y  The  students  made a mask i n Lessons 10,  11, and  Bead choker - the necklace was ample of beading  an  12.  ex-  on an o b j e c t t h a t  a l l o f the students  could  identify.  Many of the students were headers.  Cree g a u n t l e t s - an o b j e c t with examp l e s of three Indian c u l t u r a l on one  article  work, beading  of c l o t h i n g . and  crafts Leather  f u r work were s k i l l s  used s i n g l y or i n a s s o c i a t i o n i n terms of Ten was  an a p p r o p r i a t e number of o b j e c t s to d i s p l a y comfortably  on a desk top and The  the design.  f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n a case  f o l l o w i n g scores are f o r the December 1982  students.  from the Museum. - 22 r e g i s t e r e d  98.  Selection of pictures.  The c h o i c e o f p i c t u r e s was based on  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the c u l t u r e s o f the students and the content o f the programme; p i c t u r e s o f people engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s common to most Indian c u l t u r e s i n B.C. The p i c t u r e s t h a t students found e a s i e s t i n the Kumtuks p r e t e s t were p l a c e d toward  the end o f the t e s t f o r the C u l t u r a l  S u r v i v a l School s t u d e n t s .  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the Kumtuks s t u d -  ents, who were o l d e r , had f l a g g e d towards the end o f the t e s t . Students a t the S u r v i v a l School took approximately t w e n t y - f i v e minutes t o complete  the t e s t .  I b e l i e v e t h a t the students enjoyed the t e s t .  They were  t r e a t e d i n a s p e c i a l way; they had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a l k to someone who was i n t e r e s t e d i n what they had t o say about a r t and c u l t u r e .  Indian  When some o f them asked me the next day i f  they c o u l d come again, I knew they would not o b j e c t t o the p o s t test.  CHAPTER V THE ART PROGRAMME  R a t i o n a l e f o r the A r t Programme  I t i s my b e l i e f — a n d one o f t e n documented by Indian educ a t o r s — t h a t Native Indian parents need to be more i n v o l v e d i n the e d u c a t i o n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  During my a r t programme,  f i v e parents p a r t i c i p a t e d i n important ways as resource i n the classroom.  I had presented my suggested  to the students b e f o r e the programme began.  people  a r t programme  But now t h a t I  know some o f the parents and they know me, I would, i n a f u t ure a r t programme, d i s c u s s i t with parents before p r e s e n t i n g it  to the s t u d e n t s .  I t would t h e r e f o r e become a blend o f par-  e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , student i n t e r e s t s , and teacher d e s i g n . The a r t programme focused on Kwakiutl c u l t u r e because 70% o f the students were Kwakiutl. I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n order f o r Native Indian students to succeed i n the contemporary world, they need to b e l i e v e t h a t they can succeed.  A c c o r d i n g t o the l i t e r a t u r e ,  "Indian s t u d -  ents who see themselves and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n a n e g a t i v e f a s h i o n u s u a l l y f a i l to achieve good grades.  Academic success o r  f a i l u r e appears to be as deeply r o o t e d i n concepts o f the s e l f as i t i s i n measured mental a b i l i t y , i f not deeper" 1976,  p. 141).  (Pepper,  T h i s i s true f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , but even more so  f o r Native Indian c h i l d r e n .  100.  I t h i n k t h a t Indian  t r a d i t i o n s are the means f o r some  students to achieve success i n contemporary s o c i e t y .  In  organized,  about  s e q u e n t i a l a r t programme, students l e a r n e d  some t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s by u s i n g t o o l s on m a t e r i a l s . served and  t h e i r environment i n w i n t e r and  fauna, and  imagined what i t was  the beach i n w i n t e r or s p r i n g . l i f e before  contact.  They  ob-  spring, c o l l e c t e d f l o r a  like living in villages  They were being  I observed t h a t d u r i n g  t u r e p o s t - t e s t there was  my  s e n s i t i z e d to  the A r t and  g r e a t e r confidence  on  Cul-  i n answers;  the  students were b e g i n n i n g to see r e l a t i o n s h i p s between what they saw  and  d i d and  there are s t i l l gatherings  t h e i r own  cultural heritage.  c u l t u r a l events:  at the Vancouver Indian  They know t h a t  p o t l a t c h e s , pow-wows, s o c i a l Centre, and  s o c i e t i e s such  as the W a g l i s l a which v i l l a g e r s from B e l l a B e l l a have formed and which meet here i n Vancouver. Nisgha T r i b a l C o u n c i l was h e l d honouring Nisgha post  Recently  a new  formed i n Vancouver.  l o c a l of  A banquet  secondary graduates, and  was  planned  p a r t o f the programme a speech g i v e n i n Nisgha language. t i v e Indian  students need encouragement and  the  recognition  as  Naand  some are g e t t i n g i t from t h e i r people, a community w i t h i n  the  city. An a r t programme t h a t focuses  on Indian  as a c a t a l y s t to l e a r n i n g i n areas other  than a r t .  ent c a l l e d a t o o l "that t h i n g , " he knew how i t was  used f o r , but  that  i t was  t h a t e x t r a dimension was  i t y to v e r b a l i z e t h a t which you know and student l e a r n e d  c u l t u r e can  "that t h i n g " was  When a s t u d used and what  missing—the  understand.  a "D"  act  Once the  adze, he had  a word to h i s vocabulary t h a t he wouldn't f o r g e t .  abil-  He was  added also  1.01.  able to make a connection  with  to other hand h e l d t o o l s .  The  the  "elbow" adze and  developing  from  c a p a c i t y to  there  articu-  l a t e what i s important to a student w i t h i n the boundaries of h i s / h e r c u l t u r e g i v e s the Native ops  skills  Indian student  to use w i t h i n the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e .  t o o l s and  devel-  Tools and  skills  which are t r a n s f e r a b l e from an a r t programme to l i f e w i t h i n m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e should be examined.  the  During an a r t programme  which emphasizes t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , students  can l e a r n to  im-  prove t h e i r a b i l i t y to f o l l o w w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s through  read-  i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s which review steps i n making a r t i f a c t s which i n t e r e s t e d them.  They can  l e a r n to work c o o p e r a t i v e l y  and  e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n an a r t programme team where l e s s pressure perform can  improve general  social s k i l l s .  They l e a r n to change  an a t t i t u d e of d e f e a t i n t o a f e e l i n g of b u i l d i n g  confidence  through l e a r n i n g to complete work begun by p e r s e v e r i n g i n g f o r help when needed.  Within  a team students  can  encouragement from a d u l t s and peers during the general b i l i t y of an a r t programme.  The  use and  t i e s of s y n t h e t i c and n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s . with c o n t r o l while  Students l e a r n two  They l e a r n the s u b t r a c t i v e process a totem p o l e .  ask-  receive flexican  d i s c o v e r y of properLearning  to use  tools  a s s i s t i n g i n eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n a l s o  comes a means of e x e r t i n g one's w i l l and of one's c u l t u r e .  and  e x p l o r a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s  develop c r e a t i v i t y i n i m a g i n a t i v e  mastering the  quite d i f f e r e n t  adzing, c a r v i n g , d i g g i n g , s p l i t t i n g , and and  be-  materials processes.  which i s used when c r e a t i n g  Redundant p i e c e s of wood are removed by  however, are shaped by pecking,  to  gauging.  students  sawing,  Hammerstones,  examined rocks  on  102. the beach d u r i n g the programme to f i n d s u i t a b l e hammerstones. The a d d i t i v e process was  used when students made a c l a y mould  f o r the TSonokwa mask, and when s p i n n i n g f l e e c e i n t o Tools and s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n contemporary  wool.  p r i n t making can o r -  i g i n a t e i n the t r a d i t i o n a l Coast S a l i s h p e t r o g l y p h s (I don't know of any Kwakiutl p e t r o g l y p h s ) .  Petroglyph designs can be  used as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to p r i n t making.  A drawing o f an ex-  i s t i n g p e t r o g l y p h can be c o p i e d onto a p i e c e of paper, p l a c e d onto an inked g l a s s and t r a c e d .  The paper i s then peeled o f f  and the r e s u l t a n t p r i n t i s c a l l e d a mono p r i n t . The h i s t o r y , languages, and c u l t u r e s o f N a t i v e Indian people have been ignored through omission w i t h i n the m a j o r i t y e d u c a t i o n system.  A r t c o u l d become a c r i t i c a l  factor i n cul-  t u r a l maintenance through p r i d e i n c u l t u r a l achievements,  and  a source of c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l f o r Indian people w i t h i n contemporary society.  Real understanding and acceptance of m i n o r i t i e s  i n our midst can o n l y occur through e d u c a t i o n a l programmes where a m i n o r i t y , such as Native Indian people, are given the  oppor-  t u n i t y to c o n t r i b u t e and share t h e i r c u l t u r e with a l l of us, and a r t c o u l d serve as an important v e h i c l e f o r t h i s s h a r i n g . "Art i s a p r i n c i p a l means of communicating ideas and emotional meanings from one person to another, from one group to another, from one g e n e r a t i o n to another"  (McFee & Degge, 1977,  p.  272).  During the p u b l i c opening of the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology e x h i b i t , The Copper That Came From Heaven, J u l y 198 3, Native Indian people of a l l c u l t u r e s gained p r i d e i n the c u l t u r a l achievements  of the a r t i s t s ' work on d i s p l a y i n s i d e the  103. Museum, and i n the performance o u t s i d e , o f Native Indians t i c i p a t i n g i n the ceremony, music and dance.  par-  In the outdoor  s e t t i n g a t the Museum, the a r t — m a s k s , r a t t l e s ,  blankets—were  seen i n a s e t t i n g which r e c r e a t e d a p o r t i o n o f an o r i g i n a l c e r e mony.  Native Indians g a i n new understanding  through  the oppor-  t u n i t y p r o v i d e d by Museum programmes which i n v i t e t h e i r t i c i p a t i o n , and r e s p e c t through culture.  par-  r e c o g n i t i o n given t o one Indian  Non-Indians r e c e i v e a new i n s i g h t i n t o Indian  cul-  t u r e s whose o b j e c t s had formerly been viewed s o l e l y i n g l a s s cases.  Art  The  Lesson  Structure  s t r u c t u r e o f the a r t l e s s o n s was developed  mind s e v e r a l f a c t o r s :  bearing i n  the l e v e l s o f achievement and s t r e n g t h s  and weaknesses o f the students, the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f the classroom,  and the r e s o u r c e people  available.  There was a t o t a l o f s i x t e e n l e s s o n s .  The o b j e c t i v e s o f  f o u r t e e n o f them was t o teach b a s i c s k i l l s and t r a d i t i o n a l of  life  Kwakiutl people, and the o b j e c t i v e o f two o f t h e l e s s o n s  focussed on contemporary a r t techniques o f Kwakiutl  artists.  The a r t programme design i n t r o d u c e d the p a s t , adding,  i n seq-  uence, d i r e c t experiences w i t h nature and m a t e r i a l s .  Skills  with t o o l s were i n c l u d e d and added. The  first  l e s s o n i n t r o d u c e d the a r t programme, made r e f e r -  ence t o a n c e s t o r s , and e s t a b l i s h e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  104 . B.C.,  Canada, and the world.  Native  The second l e s s o n d e a l t with  Indian l i f e b e f o r e c o n t a c t , and the t o o l s t h a t the s t u d -  ents' a n c e s t o r s used were examined i n p i c t u r e s . l e s s o n was a f i e l d t r i p  The t h i r d  to the beach, where the students ex-  p e r i e n c e d the beach and f o r e s t i n w i n t e r .  The theme o f the  f o u r t h l e s s o n was f i s h i n g , a t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n . the theme o f the three l e s s o n s t h a t f o l l o w e d . ered t h a t r e d cedar made the f i s h i n g technology fisherman  possible.  Students  discov-  o f the Kwakiutl  The student i n t e r e s t i n wood c a r v i n g r e -  s u l t e d i n a l e s s o n being added t o the two o r i g i n a l l y During  Wood was  the n i n t h l e s s o n the students  planned.  used the t r a d i t i o n a l  s p i n d l e whorl to s p i n sheep's f l e e c e (not t r a d i t i o n a l ) , dyed i t t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n h o r s e t a i l dye b a t h , and used i t f o r weaving on s m a l l cardboard  S a l i s h looms.  The students made masks u s i n g  contemporary p a p i e r mache. In S p r i n g , the students to  r e t u r n e d to the beach and f o r e s t  see the changes t h a t had o c c u r r e d s i n c e they had been there  i n Winter. pology  The students went to the U.B.C. Museum o f Anthro-  to f i n d those o b j e c t s t h a t they had l e a r n e d about d u r i n g  the a r t programme.  The f o u r t e e n t h l e s s o n i n t r o d u c e d the s t u d -  ents to contemporary p r i n t making techniques.  The students ex-  p e r i e n c e d mono p r i n t s , cardboard  p r i n t s , and s i l k  The  the o p p o r t u n i t y to make a group  l a s t c l a s s gave the students  screening.  d e c i s i o n about what they wanted to do on the l a s t day o f c l a s s . The m a j o r i t y of the students wished to have a f i e l d t r i p , and the p l a c e they wanted to v i s i t was S t a n l e y Park and the Aquarium.  105. I n t r o d u c t i o n to and Overview o f the I n d i v i d u a l Lessons  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n to each l e s s o n i n c r e a s e d i n length and  scope as t h e behaviour o f the c l a s s improved. c o n s i s t e d o f a s h o r t review o f the previous b r i d g i n g e a r l i e r l e s s o n s and the c u r r e n t  The i n t r o d u c t i o n  l e s s o n and m a t e r i a l  lesson.  Each l e s s o n had a theme, which was i n t r o d u c e d t u r e s , drawings, readings  through p i c -  from books, and a r t i f a c t s borrowed  from the U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology and the Vancouver Museum. There was a demonstration to the whole c l a s s o f the s k i l l s to be l e a r n e d t h a t day.  T h i s was f o l l o w e d by demonstrations a t  three o r four s t a t i o n s i n the classroom, whenever t e a c h i n g the skill  i n question The  ule  could be c a r r i e d out i n small  groups.  s m a l l groups, o r teams, worked a c c o r d i n g  which was posted  f o r reference.  to a sched-  F o r example:  Team Work: (1:30  - 1:50 p.m.)  1.  B.B. Eagles.  The time, the s t a t i o n  number and the team t h a t begins a t t h a t s t a t i o n a r e i n c l u d e d . (1:50  - 2:10 p.m.)  2.  Parent Resource.  first  20 minutes, the Falcons S t a t i o n 1 - Spinning  Falcons.  A f t e r the  move up to S t a t i o n 1.  a l e n g t h o f wool.  S t a t i o n 2 - The work f o r t h i s s t a t i o n i s l i s t e d . Following  team work a t the s t a t i o n s , I showed a f i l m r e -  l a t e d t o the theme of the day. beginning one  Twice the f i l m was used a t the  o f the l e s s o n as p a r t o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n .  During  l e s s o n , the c l a s s saw "Making A Totem P o l e , " i n which Mungo  M a r t i n used the t o o l s t h a t the students  had used minutes e a r l i e r  106. d u r i n g the l e s s o n on wood. o f the "D" lesson,  They saw Mungo M a r t i n making use  adze, "elbow" adze, wedge, and stone maul.  In the  " S a l i s h Weaving," a f i l m served as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to  the next l e s s o n on weaving.  The students responded  b e s t to  f i l m s shown a t the end o f a l e s s o n when they had completed work, r a t h e r than a t the b e g i n n i n g when they were anxious  the to  begin work.  Classroom S t r u c t u r e The classroom was or storage room.  small, with l i t t l e  tack board,  display,  The students s a t a t t a b l e s but there were no  e x t r a t a b l e s f o r p r e p a r a t i o n and no room f o r book d i s p l a y s .  Teams During the f i r s t  l e s s o n I found t h a t i t was  difficult  speak to the c l a s s as a whole and to h o l d everyone's  attention.  I t h e r e f o r e o r g a n i z e d the c l a s s i n t o teams to encourage a t i o n and a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e .  to  cooper-  The teams were a d j u s t e d s e v e r a l  times s i n c e c e r t a i n students were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h other s t u d ents.  Finally,  I suggested  t h a t team members c o u l d change a t  the end of the three week sequence s i n c e t h a t was team p o i n t s were t o t a l l e d . students who  The  when the  teams were based on groups of  had worked together i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s i n the  classroom under the classroom t e a c h e r .  One  team had to be  completely changed because the s t u d e n t s ' behaviour had become uncooperative towards each o t h e r .  A f t e r a few changes, the  students s e t t l e d i n t o the teams; these remained the same  107. thereafter. restaurant  Every  t h i r d week t h e w i n n i n g  team was t a k e n  to a  f o r p i z z a o r hamburgers.  Discipline D i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m was g r e a t l y when, i n M a r c h , t h e c l a s s r o o m icy.  Students  students) return Half  teacher e s t a b l i s h e d a firm classroom  rules  pol-  (drawn up by t h e  t h r e e t i m e s were s e n t home and were p e r m i t t e d t o  to the classroom  o n l y when a c c o m p a n i e d by a p a r e n t .  t h e members o f t h e c l a s s were s e n t home a t one t i m e o r  other a f t e r in  who b r o k e - t h e  improved  t h e s y s t e m was e s t a b l i s h e d .  Infrequent  attendance  s c h o o l by t h r e e s t u d e n t s was a c o n t i n u i n g p r o b l e m a n d , when  these  students  d i d a t t e n d they had l i t t l e  interest  in partici-  pating.  Adult  Resource An  Person  a d u l t was u s u a l l y  present  a t each  station  art  l e s s o n s , t o s u p e r v i s e and e n c o u r a g e e a c h  The  c o n s i s t e n t a d u l t resource people  the  t e a c h e r a i d e , and B.B.  present  f o r two l e s s o n s , a n d f i v e  as a d u l t r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s helped  were t h e c l a s s r o o m Indian student  Native  teacher,  t e a c h e r was  Indian parents  (one p a r e n t h e l p e d  a d u l t resource person  appropriate behaviour. privately their  other.  team o f s t u d e n t s .  f o u r times  acted and one  twice).  The  from  A Native  during the  and i s o l a t e d own work.  has t h e r o l e  of monitoring i n -  D i s r u p t i v e s t u d e n t s were s p o k e n t o before other  s t u d e n t s were drawn away  They e n c o u r a g e d s t u d e n t s  F o r e x a m p l e , two s t u d e n t s  having  t o h e l p one a n -  difficulty  smoothing  10 8.  t h e i r c l a y mask moulds were encouraged to observe experienced student smooth h i s c l a y .  another, more  They watched him work,  spoke t o him q u i e t l y , and r e t u r n e d to work on t h e i r own  masks.  This would not have happened without the a d u l t resource person. to  The r o l e i n v o l v e d h e l p i n g students move from one  the next.  In making a f i s h k n i f e , f o r example, one  stage student,  having s u c c e s s f u l l y f i l e d and sanded the b l a d e , d i d n ' t want to make a handle  f o r i t because, she s a i d ,  it."  a t one  Success  failure.  on.  stage can be as d i f f i c u l t  as  The student watched w i t h i n t e r e s t as the handle  understand  I t was  necessary  was  f o r her student to  the whole process i n d e t a i l b e f o r e she would even  starting.  Parents as Resource  People  The parents helped as resource persons to  to handle  f o r the k n i f e t h a t the a d u l t had been work-  prepared and f i n i s h e d .  risk  ruin  The a d u l t a t the student's s t a t i o n s a t beside her  and made a handle ing  " I ' l l probably  t h e i r own  experience.  For i n s t a n c e , one parent came to dem-  o n s t r a t e the s k i n n i n g of a beaver, came as resource people.  i n lessons r e l a t i n g  and twice Kwakiutl c a r v e r s  The parent fisherman was  particularly  e f f e c t i v e i n the use of the b l a c k b o a r d and h i s f i s h i n g gear demonstrated f o r the s t u d e n t s .  One  p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e as a h e l p e r . students and made her own  parent resource person  he was  She worked along w i t h the  mask as they made t h e i r s .  Whenever  the students i n her s t a t i o n became n o i s y or stopped working she looked d i r e c t l y a t them and spoke f i r m l y to them so they r e t u r n e d to work.  For parent r e s o u r c e people to be  effective,  109.  they had  to be c l e a r about the classroom g o a l s , the l e s s o n s '  o b j e c t i v e s , and prepared to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School was  initially  s e t up because  a group of Native Indian parents requested the Vancouver School Board t o e s t a b l i s h a s c h o o l where N a t i v e Indian c u l t u r e would be taught to Native Indian c h i l d r e n . w i t h a c h i l d i n the s c h o o l was  However, o n l y one  parent  on the Board of the s c h o o l .  The nature of the s c h o o l and the e d u c a t i o n a l and  emotional  needs o f the students made i t a p r i o r i t y to i n t e r e s t and i n v o l v e the parents at the s c h o o l .  The parents want t h e i r  ren to succeed but they don't know how turn for help.  some parents have attended. p l a i n enough.  which  The p a r e n t s ' d e s i r e to help  For i n s t a n c e , one parent who  was  a c t e d as a resource  l e s s o n and her  sister  l e s s o n to be parent h e l p e r s s i n c e they, too,  had c h i l d r e n i n the  The  made.  s e v e r a l p o t l u c k suppers  person brought her b r o t h e r d u r i n g one d u r i n g another  to h e l p them or where t o  However, some progress was  The s c h o o l has sponsored  child-  class.  Students' Needs Native Indian students need to see t h e i r parents and a  g r e a t e r number o f Native Indians as resource persons  i n school.  They need p o s i t i v e Native Indian r o l e models w i t h whom to i d e n t i f y and they need to l e a r n to l i s t e n and to t r e a t a d u l t s with r e s p e c t .  The classroom teacher and I have n o t i c e d t h a t  o f t e n the students don't l i s t e n to what a d u l t s say, and i f they do, they don't remember what was  said.  110. Stations The  s t a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d to correspond to the teams  o f students.  The  number of s t a t i o n s changed, depending upon  the theme of the a r t l e s s o n and  the number of resource  persons  available. The work a t the s t a t i o n s was Under each s t a t i o n was for  l i s t e d on the  the a d u l t s u p e r v i s o r ' s  the l e s s o n , the time to be spent and  which would v i s i t . themes:  name, the theme  the name of the team  For example, the f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n had  c a r v i n g and  Team Work  schedule.  two  weaving.  A d u l t Resource Person  Team  (1:30  - 1:50  p.m.)  1.  B.B.  (1:30  - 1:50  p.m.)  2. Classroom Teacher  Thunderbirds  (1:30  - 1:50  p.m.)  3. Teacher Aide  Falcons  (1:30  - 1:50  p.m.)  4. Parent Resource  Lions  Eagles  Team Work: S t a t i o n 1. S t a t i o n 2.  Soapberry Spoons Spinning  S t a t i o n 3.  Warping Looms  S t a t i o n 4.  Weaving on l a r g e , small looms  Each s t a t i o n had  a poster  that l i s t e d  the c r i t e r i a  f o r the  s t a t i o n , f o r example: Spinning  - Use  the s p i n d l e whorl to s p i n two  - T i e i t i n two  p l a c e s , put  team name on i t .  - Wash i n warm water w i t h soap. - Place i n mordant vat  f e e t of  (alum).  yarn.  During  the l e s s o n on mask making, each team remained at  the same s t a t i o n under the same s u p e r v i s o r f o r the whole l e s son.  I t was  not necessary  t h a t l e s s o n because i t was  f o r the students  easy to d u p l i c a t e m a t e r i a l s a t each  s t a t i o n , the work t h a t a l l of the students was  the same, and  concentrate others.  The  to change d u r i n g  d i d on t h e i r masks  the a d u l t s u p e r v i s o r a t the s t a t i o n  on students  she was  could  aware needed more help  s t a t i o n s were, a t other times,  than  s e t up f o r  two,  t h r e e , or f o u r d i f f e r e n t a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Some a r t p r o j e c t s took s e v e r a l l e s s o n s to complete. making, f o r i n s t a n c e , took three lessons to complete. c a r v i n g of the soapberry  possessed.  Then, too, some  o f the students worked more slowly than o t h e r s and took longer f o r the students  some  skills  to a c q u i r e than I had a n t i c i p a t e d ;  as a r e s u l t some o f the lessons had different  The  spoon r e q u i r e d more s k i l l with t o o l s  on wood than most of the students  at  Mask  s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s underway  stages.  Team P o i n t s Rationale for voting: 1. ing  To a s s i s t i n encouraging discouraged  students  by academic achievement, work h a b i t s , behaviour,  and  (judgatti-  tude to work) to become more p o s i t i v e about t h e i r c a p a c i t y to achieve. 2.  To develop an atmosphere of c o o p e r a t i o n  o f working f o r the success 3.  To g i v e students  and a sense  of the team. a sense of power over work and  p e r i e n c e d e c i d i n g on standards  ex-  i n s t e a d of e x t e r n a l e v a l u a t i o n  112. from the  teacher.  r e j e c t by  E x t e r n a l l y i m p o s e d s t a n d a r d s were e a s y  students.  Team p o i n t s were a l l o c a t e d by some o f  the  lessons;  t h e r e was  completion of each a c t i v i t y . completed d u r i n g next l e s s o n . a b o u t how  one  The  well  criteria.  a glued  period  voting  Usually  an In  so  full  a s s e s s m e n t was  work had  discussion  scored  out  of  a curved,  5 points.  11,  the  blade  p o i n t s were g i v e n  each p i e c e  a r t from the  team t o r e p r e s e n t  For  team m i g h t  filed  E a c h team c h o s e t h e  best  with for  example  them f o r e a c h  of of  categories.  Integration with During art  the  pre-established  activities.  six  not  the  e a c h member o f  In L e s s o n  for  made a t  form of  six different of  of  met  k n i f e with  wooden h a n d l e .  end  a g r e e d number o f p o i n t s  the  points  the  some c a s e s t h e work was  a p r o j e c t was  t o make a f i s h  c l a s s vote at  u s u a l l y took the  a student's  example, t o r e c e i v e have had  to  Other  Subjects  t h e week t h e  class included During the  students  in their  spelling  a r t programme t h e  t h e words on  had  a chart.  some v o c a b u l a r y  students  listened  read  Language a r t s and  ies  are  the  easiest subjects  to i n t e g r a t e with  Science  are  more d i f f i c u l t .  I think  categorized  and  leaves  that  the  really  or  t e s t e d by  flora  spring could  b r e a t h e , by  seeing,  to a  song  Social  art.  e x a m i n e d i n many d i f f e r e n t ways  or magnifying glasses) plants'  and  the  list.  and  t h a t were o b s e r v e d d u r i n g w i n t e r  from  Stud-  Math and  and  fauna  have b e e n  (microscopes  for instance, i f  p u t t i n g g r e a s e on  them.  113. S c i e n t i f i c experiments c o u l d have been s e t up to t e s t the prope r t i e s of the m a t e r i a l s . Two workbooks which to  focus on mathematics  a c u l t u r a l a r t programme a r e :  ( B i l l i n g s , Campbell, 1975).  The f i r s t ,  the  Popcorn  nock) would et  al.,  The I Hate Mathematics  & Schwandt, 1975)  Book, i l l u s t r a t e s  For example, i n the workbook,  (Bannock) k i d asks how  many p i e c e s of popcorn  f i t into a refrigerator  1975, p. 103).  (storage box)  to the  (ban-  (Billings,  In the second, A r t 'N' Math, there i s  an i n t r o d u c t i o n to graphing, math maps, and f o l d i n g paper g r i d s and cones.  Book  and A r t 'N' Math (Burns,  The I Hate Mathematics  many problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s .  and are adaptable  into  These can be adapted by comparing a longhouse  a r e c t a n g l e and a Cree t i p i  to a cone.  T r a d i t i o n a l use o f  f i n g e r s , hand, and arm to estimate l e n g t h and width c o u l d  be i n t r o d u c e d to the s t u d e n t s .  Clean Up This was most o f t e n done by students having to stay i n a f t e r s c h o o l f o r misbehaviour.  Team p o i n t s o c c a s i o n a l l y were  a l l o c a t e d by c l a s s vote a t the end o f the l e s s o n i n c l u d i n g an agreed number o f p o i n t s f o r c l e a n i n g up the s t a t i o n s and room.  Art  Time Frame:  Lesson  January - May  The a r t programme was the  Format  1983 designed so t h a t i t corresponded to  w i n t e r and s p r i n g season i n the Kwakiutl t r a d i t i o n .  l e s s o n s r e f e r r e d to the e a r l i e s t o b j e c t s  (3000 B.C.)  The  made by  P l a t e 1.  Worksheet assignment  115.  the Tsimshian, the neighbours  o f the K w a k i u t l .  Kwakiutl  f a c t s have n o t y e t been found d a t i n g to 3000 B.C. sons, I sought  arti-  In the l e s -  to b r i n g the h i s t o r y o f the Kwakiutl forward to  our own time, i n an attempt contemporary l i f e .  t o connect a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n s with  Kwakiutl a r t s t i l l  the U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology  thrives.  For i n s t a n c e ,  r e c e n t l y mounted an e x h i b i -  t i o n o f work by a famous f a m i l y o f Kwakiutl a r t i s t s , the Hunts. The Hunts a r e descendants  o f Mungo M a r t i n .  D i s c u s s i o n and ex-  amination o f Kwakiutl are enabled the c l a s s t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s from which i t emerged.  Lesson  1.  I n t r o d u c t i o n and S e t t i n g  The f i r s t l e s s o n e s t a b l i s h e d the p l a n f o r the programme: l o c a t i n g Canada i n the world, Canada's neighbours, and the p l a c e s where the s t u d e n t s ' a n c e s t o r s came from. a f t e r a guided imagery  Students,  e x e r c i s e , were d i r e c t e d to make draw-  ings o f what they imagined o f t h e i r own a n c e s t o r s and how they thought  t h a t they had l i v e d .  Each student completed  t h a t c o n t a i n e d a cover p i c t u r e o f a Tsonokwa mask.  a booklet The book-  l e t i n c l u d e d a map o f Canada, on which each student p l a c e d a s t a r to l o c a t e the p l a c e o f o r i g i n o f h i s / h e r a n c e s t o r s . I t a l s o i n c l u d e d a map of B.C., which c o n t a i n e d the l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n s o f the p r o v i n c e i n c o l o u r code, and on which each student c o l o u r e d the Kwakiutl l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n .  Locally,  t h e i r map b o o k l e t c o n t a i n e d a map o f the Vancouver r e g i o n w i t h the N a t i v e Indian v i l l a g e s marked.  During the f i e l d t r i p t o  the beach, the l o c a t i o n o f each Indian v i l l a g e i n the v i c i n i t y  116. of the beach, was p o i n t e d out and named.  For i n s t a n c e , Kokopai  and Snaq were v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d where J e r i c h o and K i t s i l a n o Beach are today.  Lesson 2.  Background on T r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl C u l t u r e  The second  l e s s o n d e a l t w i t h the o l d e s t known a r t i f a c t s  and the m a t e r i a l s from which they were made: a n t l e r , t e e t h , wood, and s h e l l .  stone, bone,  Tools were made from m a t e r i a l s  t h a t o c c u r r e d n a t u r a l l y i n the environment.  For example, a  stone maul was made by pecking a stone with another stone. worksheet given t o the students d u r i n g the second  A  l e s s o n con-  t a i n e d a t i m e - l i n e which began a t 3,000 B.C. and, i n 500 year sequences,  came up to the p r e s e n t .  intervals.  A r t i f a c t s were p l a c e d a t  The o l d e s t a r t i f a c t s were beaver  made i n t o t o o l s as l o n g ago as 3,000 B.C.  t e e t h , which were  (McDonald, 1982).  At the time of C h r i s t , wooden o b j e c t s were s t i l l fancy.  i n their i n -  The o b j e c t i v e was t o give the students an understanding  of the very l o n g time t h e i r people had occupied the l a n d here and f i s h e d the r i v e r s and the ocean.  Emphasis was upon a n c e s t -  o r s , the r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f e l d e r s , and the t r a d i t i o n s of the Kwakiutl to show t h a t o l d people are l o v e d and r e s p e c t e d by t h e i r people because they are the l a s t l i n k w i t h the " o l d days." In the f i l m ,  "Augusta,"  the students met a C h i l k o t i n e l d e r who  was t y p i c a l of many Indian grandmothers throughout  B.C.:  was seen v i s i t i n g f r i e n d s , speaking an Indian language  she  (Shuswap),  p r e p a r i n g f i s h , going to church, and s i n g i n g to c h i l d r e n .  117. Lesson  3.  The Environment i n Winter  - Field  Trip  Some urban students have f o r g o t t e n the rugged l o n e l i n e s s of  the c o a s t a l seashore and the f o r e s t .  Although  the sea i t -  s e l f has changed l i t t l e , the c r e a t u r e s t h a t l i v e i n the sea have d i m i n i s h e d i n numbers.  Some of them, f o r m e r l y abundant,  such as the sea o t t e r , are now  endangered s p e c i e s .  The beach  adjacent to the c i t y has changed a g r e a t d e a l , but some c r e a tures and p l a n t s known to t r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl s u r v i v e t h e r e . The f o r e s t s i n the Vancouver area are remnants; S t a n l e y Park i s one of o n l y two approximating years ago. still  i n s i z e and number those which stood here  150  S t a n l e y Park and the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands  resemble the f o r e s t s t h a t the Kwakiutl t r a d i t i o n a l l y knew. The  to  areas c l o s e to the c i t y where some t r e e s remain  field  t r i p w i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n t r o d u c e d the  the seashore, beach, and f o r e s t i n w i n t e r .  students  The aim was  that  the students should d i r e c t l y experience m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of winter:  c o o l temperature,  greyness Few  p l a n t and animal  l i f e available,  of the beach and emptiness of the beach and  the  forest.  Kwakiutl people ventured to the seashore d u r i n g the w i n t e r  but f o r the students to understand  the t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e  i n the  v i l l a g e s d u r i n g the w i n t e r and the s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s t h a t Indian people had about s u p e r n a t u r a l s p i r i t s t h a t entered v i l l a g e s i n w i n t e r i t was to  necessary t h a t they v i s i t  their  the beach  be aware of the wind, the waves pounding on the r o c k s , and  the f o r e s t , dark and  silent.  At the beach, the students c o l l e c t e d hammerstones which they l a t e r used d u r i n g the l e s s o n on wood (Lesson 5). teams d i d some work together and some i n d i v i d u a l  The f o u r  assignments.  118.  Teams were o r g a n i z e d to encourage c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t of  i n d i v i d u a l competition.  instead  Students answered q u e s t i o n s o r a l l y  about a totem pole by Mungo M a r t i n , one o f the g r e a t Kwakiutl c a r v e r s , w h i l e o t h e r s worked together a t the beach on v i l l a g e s they made i n the sand.  A parent who accompanied us on the  f i e l d t r i p was a descendant  o f Mungo M a r t i n .  The students com-  pared the Haida beaver and Mungo Martin's Kwakiutl beaver.  It  was f o r t u n a t e t h a t the students witnessed a U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology  p r e s e n t a t i o n by Garbanzo  (a t r a i n e d a n t h r o p o l o g i s t  who combines Northwest Coast Indian a r t with pantomime, music, and v i s u a l aids) which focused on the Kwakiutl a r t i f a c t s i n the Great H a l l . contact.  A t the beach they v i s u a l i z e d l i f e  They were i n t r o d u c e d t o two o f the s u p e r n a t u r a l s p i r -  i t s who were p a r t o f t h e Winter Ceremonials: World, and Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World. work drawing life:  as i t was b e f o r e  Warrior-of-theThe students s e t to  a l l o f the t h i n g s t h a t they knew about  longhouses,  f i s h r a c k s , canoes,  smoke houses,  traditional storage  boxes, l a k e s , r i v e r s , mountains, t r e e s , and totem p o l e s . teams c o l l e c t e d samples o f sea l i f e  The  t h a t Indian people would  have used, and from the f o r e s t they gathered samples o f p l a n t life  t h a t Indian people would have used.  The students had, f o r  r e f e r e n c e , two p o s t e r s w i t h prepared, mounted samples: Winter, one f o r S p r i n g . cussed:  one f o r  The growing p a t t e r n s o f p l a n t s was d i s -  the b e s t time to gather k e l p was i n l a t e summer.  The  students r e a l i z e d t h a t w i n t e r was not a good time to gather many foods.  F o r example, the leaves o f b l a c k b e r r i e s , s a l m o n b e r r i e s ,  h u c k l e b e r r i e s , r e d caps, and s a l a l b e r r i e s are i d e n t i f i e d i n  119. s p r i n g , but the b e r r i e s are p i c k e d i n summer.  During the  s p r i n g f i e l d t r i p to the f o r e s t , the b e r r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the shape o f t h e i r l e a v e s .  During the f i e l d  trip  to the f o r e s t i n w i n t e r , one o f the students read the p r a y e r to the cedar.  While a t the f o o t o f a r e d cedar they a l s o ex-  amined Museum a r t i f a c t s t h a t were made out o f cedar  (canoe  b a i l e r , cedar bark s t r i p , cedar plank) o r were used on cedar to smooth i t (the d o g f i s h  skin).  L a t e r i n the term, i n A p r i l , when the students r e t u r n e d to the seashore and the f o r e s t , a sense o f c o n t r a s t was observed between the sea l i f e p r e s e n t on the beach and i n the f o r e s t i n w i n t e r and s p r i n g .  When they r e t u r n e d to the Museum they went  to the Kwakiutl s e c t i o n i n v i s i b l e storage and i d e n t i f i e d ific  spec-  o b j e c t s t h a t they had l e a r n e d about d u r i n g the l e s s o n s on  salmon, cedar, weaving, and mask making.  Lesson 4.  F i s h i n g , A Major  Occupation  The major s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t y on the c o a s t was h a r v e s t i n g from the s e a . Eulachon  . . . were most v a l u e d f o r the r i c h o i l they  contained.  . . .  The sea p r o v i d e d h e r r i n g , cod, k e l p -  f i s h , salmon, r e d snapper, d o g f i s h , f l o u n d e r , smelt, devil fish  (octopus) and the r i v e r s y i e l d e d sturgeon,  t r o u t , s t e e l h e a d . . . the Northwest  Coast Indian . . .  was so completely i n tune w i t h the ways o f the sea and r i v e r t h a t he was able to d e v i s e many methods f o r reaping i t s harvest: or t r a p p i n g .  trolling,  gaffing, netting, spearing,  (Stewart, 1977, p. 21)  120.  The l e s s o n was  i n t r o d u c e d by a f i l m ,  "Salmon People," which  combined the t r a d i t i o n a l through the Raven and Salmon myth with contemporary  scenes of f i s h i n g .  During the l e s s o n a p a r -  ent r e s o u r c e person, a fisherman, demonstrated  how  to use the  n e t t i n g needle and then taught the students to use i t .  The  students made a t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h k n i f e , u s i n g the same m a t e r i a l t h a t t h e i r a n c e s t o r s would have used.  The aim was  to g i v e the  students a renewed r e s p e c t f o r the e f f o r t r e q u i r e d i n making knives u s i n g n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s .  Lesson 5, 6.  Wood, A Major Technology:  E x t e n s i v e f i s h i n g was canoes of r e d cedar.  Yellow and red cedar  made p o s s i b l e by the use of dugout  The s i z e of the t r e e s made i t p o s s i b l e to  d e s i g n and make canoes which c o u l d be taken a c r o s s the roughest sea.  From cedar came v i r t u a l l y a l l of the b a s i c m a t e r i a l needs  of Indian people f o r s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g , c o n t a i n e r s , and  tools.  Cedar s u p p l i e d the m a t e r i a l i n the form of wood, bark, withes, and r o o t s .  Cedar was  c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h the salmon and  f o r hooks, n e t s , rope, and s p e a r s . of p r e p a r i n g wood.  used  Tools were an i n t e g r a l p a r t  The students handled t r a d i t i o n a l t o o l s i n  order to d i s c o v e r what the t o o l s were " l i k e " on cedar, and which t o o l s were used f o r s p e c i f i c purposes.  I b e l i e v e d i t was  important t o t r y t o g i v e the students the k i n d of experience t h a t an a r t i s t had i n the o l d days. made from yew, adze,  They used wooden wedges  a hammerstone found a t the beach, an  "D" adze, and k n i v e s .  "elbow"  (In the f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n the s t u d -  ents s p l i t y e l l o w cedar w i t h the hammerstone and wedge to make  121. a soapberry  spoon.)  y e l l o w cedar.  They compared the p r o p e r t i e s of red and  The students examined a soapberry  spoon borrowed  from the Vancouver Museum b e f o r e making t h e i r own parent who  spoons.  A  worked with wood agreed to come to the c l a s s to  demonstrate the use of c a r v i n g t o o l s .  The reason I arranged  have t o o l s i n the classroom i s t h a t I was  to  s t r u c k by Boas' s t a t e -  ment t h a t : The a r t i s t must have an i n t i m a t e , p e r s o n a l and k i n e s t h e t i c knowledge of the c r a f t t h a t i s the foundation of the a r t . ledge o f how  He must have hand-eye know-  to h o l d and apply the v a r i o u s  the adze, k n i v e s , and mauls . . .  tools—  he must be  famil-  i a r w i t h the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of h i s m a t e r i a l s . . . red cedar, y e l l o w cedar  ...  he must be  w i t h the forms t h a t are to be produced masks. . . .  (Hawthorne, 196 7, p.  familiar  . . .  20)  Teams of f o u r students had access to an a d u l t resource person, saw  the a r t p r o j e c t of the l e s s o n demonstrated, had  process c h a r t s f o r r e f e r e n c e ( i f steps i n l e s s o n were f o r g o t ten) , had samples of work to examine, p i c t u r e s of sample work, and produced  work by the s k i l l  concepts or reviewed  just learned.  Films introduced  i n f o r m a t i o n , while design elements were  d i s c u s s e d i n f o r m a l l y w i t h the emphasis on m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , technique.  Lesson  7.  Beaver S k i n n i n g , Carving and  The students had a unique s k i n n i n g a beaver.  Booklet  o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  A f t e r a parent skinned the beaver  and  and  122. s u p e r v i s e d students doing i t ,  the s k i n was  s t r e t c h e d on a board  and students scraped s k i n and f a t from the h i d e . and k i l l was  The  dramatized by the students and a beaver  capture stew was  prepared and served by the parent to the students a t the end of the l e s s o n .  Lesson  8.  P i c t u r e Making  The students l e a r n e d about the Kwakiutl a r t c o l l e c t i o n s i n New  York museums.  They were i n t r o d u c e d to p i c t u r e method  as a means of d i f f u s i n g f e a r of a "haunted  Lesson 9.  C l o t h i n g Technology: and Soapberry  house."  Weaving-Wool  Spoons  The p r i n c i p a l c l o t h i n g of the Kwakiutl was  a blanket  made e i t h e r of tanned s k i n s or woven from mountain goat h a i r , dog h a i r , and  feathers.  The  relatively  m i l d w i n t e r c l i m a t e on the c o a s t made heavy c l o t h i n g unnecessary, some s o r t .  but the r a i n f a l l r e q u i r e d c l o t h i n g of Legs and f e e t were bare, but woven r a i n -  hats and capes the r a i n .  Lessons  from cedar bark gave p r o t e c t i o n  (Boas, 1966,  10, 11, 12.  p.  from  10)  Mask Making  Mask making focussed on Tsonokwa, "an e v e r - r e c u r r i n g f i g ure among the Kwakiutl.  Tsonokwa had two  forms:  a  female  g i a n t w i t h huge b r e a s t s and hands, and as a male g i a n t of f o r e s t and h i g h mountains" (Hawthorne, 1967,  p. 28).  123. Tsonokwa p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Winter Ceremonial  and  stud-  ents l i s t e n e d to a myth about her, heard d e s c r i p t i o n s of her appearance, and saw a poster.  Tsonokwa's a c t i o n s dramatized,  Making the mask was  and drawn on  extended over three l e s s o n s i n  order to complete the t h r e e - s t e p p r o c e s s .  Lesson  13.  The Environment i n S p r i n g :  A t r i p to the beach i n s p r i n g was the f i e l d  Field planned  Trip as a c o n t r a s t to  t r i p i n winter.  Lessons 14,  15.  Masks and Contemporary P r i n t Making  Much of t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast a r t was  two-  d i m e n s i o n a l , w i t h designs e i t h e r on p l a i n or carved f l a t s u r f a c e s or on three-dimensional masks.  shapes such  Thus the t r a n s i t i o n s to d e s i g n i n g on paper  would seem to be n a t u r a l .  I t was  not u n t i l  Mungo M a r t i n c r e a t e d the f i r s t important s i g n s a t U.B.C  designs  By  f a r the  g r a p h i c s technique adopted by Northwest  Coast Indian a r t i s t s , i n both commercial and terms, has been t h a t o f s i l k s c r e e n i n g . Blackman, & R i c k a r d , 1981,  technique  years  block p r i n t s , l i t h o g r a p h s ,  and p r i n t e d drawings and i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  important  that de-  During the past t h i r t y  on v a r i o u s g r a p h i c s media:  most important  1949  paper  other Northwest Coast a r t i s t s have produced  I t was  as  p.  artistic  (Hall,  49).  to i n t r o d u c e the students to s i l k  screening  s i n c e i t has become a contemporary media f o r Indian  124.  artists.  The  students used s m a l l i n d i v i d u a l cardboard  silk  screens w i t h a cut paper shape which c r e a t e d the d e s i g n . used f i r s t one,  then two  colours.  done any p r i n t making b e f o r e .  None of the students  Lesson  16.  The I t was  had  They were g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y  to experiment w i t h mono-prints and cardboard p r i n t i n g a t other s t a t i o n s i n the  They  two  classroom.  F i n a l Lesson - F i e l d T r i p :  The Aquarium  students requested a f i e l d t r i p f o r the l a s t l e s s o n .  the t h i r d f i e l d t r i p and  where sea l i f e ,  the f i r s t one  mammals, f i s h , and b i r d s t h a t were  i n the l i v e s of Native Indian people f i r s t hand.  The  to the Aquarium important  t r a d i t i o n a l l y were seen  f i n a l p i c n i c on the g r a s s , f e e d i n g the anim-  a l s and b i r d s c r e a t e d a c l o s e , p e a c e f u l mood--to such an t e n t t h a t some students d i d not want to go home.  ex-  125.  P l a t e 2.  L o c a t i n g an  ancestor  126. Lesson  1.  I n t r o d u c t i o n and  Setting  In t h i s l e s s o n I i n t r o d u c e d the o v e r a l l theme o f the a r t programme, by f o c u s s i n g on a n c e s t o r s as a means of the students to t h e i r h e r i t a g e .  L e a r n i n g about one's people  and i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h t h e i r s k i l l s would, i t was self-concept.  The  p l a c e s i n B.C.  or elsewhere  lived.  sensitizing  hoped, enhance  f i r s t l e s s o n i n v o l v e d students l o c a t i n g i n Canada where t h e i r a n c e s t o r s  Students were encouraged to respond  gramme, making suggested  the  to the planned  a d d i t i o n s or d e l e t i o n s .  f i r s t l e s s o n I a l s o i n t r o d u c e d the  During  pro-  the  " S p e c i a l Person of the Week,"  to improve s e l f - c o n c e p t .  Objectives To i n t r o d u c e a proposed students through and t h e i r  f o u r month a r t programme to the  a focus on students' a n c e s t o r s , t h e i r  origins  culture.  To encourage the students to c o n t r i b u t e to the design  and  content of the a r t programme.  Resources Globe and M a i l "Indians of Canada" p o s t e r . Maps:  Maps of the world, of Canada, of B.C.,  and of cover p i c t u r e of a Tsonokwa mask. f o r each student w i t h : and a map  l i n g u i s t i c map  Books:  Boas, F.  of Chicago P r e s s , 1966;  A four page b o o k l e t  of B.C.,  of Indian v i l l a g e s o f the lower  a map  of Canada,  mainland.  Kwakiutl Ethnology, Chicago: Mathews, J.S.  of Vancouver  University  Conversations w i t h  127. Khatsahlano, Vancouver:  C i t y A r c h i v e s , 1955.  Materials B.B. prepared an A r t Programme p o s t e r ; the date and obj e c t i v e s o f each l e s s o n were l i s t e d on i t . B.B. prepared a " S p e c i a l Person o f the Week" p o s t e r .  Method/Organization o f the Classroom 1:00-1:15 p.m.  Introduction.  " S p e c i a l Person o f the  Week. " 1:15-1:45 p.m.  Planned A r t Programme and l e s s o n o f the day.  The  " S p e c i a l Person o f the Week" i s an i d e a that I had  used i n the p a s t w i t h a c l a s s o f grade 8 students (at S t . Thomas Aquinas School i n North Vancouver) ment.  who needed  encourage-  I t was s u c c e s s f u l t h e r e , so I thought t h a t i t would h e l p  at the S u r v i v a l School to change the mood o f the classroom from n e g a t i v e to p o s i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s .  At S t . Thomas Aquinas,  each  student had h i s / h e r name drawn i n t u r n , and h i s / h e r p i c t u r e was p l a c e d on the p o s t e r w i t h space below f o r classmates to w r i t e what they l i k e d o r admired about t h a t person.  I f the students  d i d n ' t f o l l o w the i n s t r u c t i o n s t o w r i t e p o s i t i v e comments, the programme was t o be d i s c o n t i n u e d . Planned A r t Programme.  The students took turns r e a d i n g  the plans f o r the f o l l o w i n g f o u r months' l e s s o n s . a t the bottom o f the p o s t e r encouraged  A section  suggestions o f names o f  resource people and ideas f o r the a r t programme.  128. "On  the map  o f the world, f i n d Canada on the map.  c o u n t r i e s are our neighbours?  (USA,  Denmark, I r e l a n d , Great B r i t a i n ) . countries?  Which  R u s s i a , Japan, P o r t u g a l , Traders came from which  (Russia, Spain, England)."  "Find B r i t i s h Columbia  on the map  of Canada.  c e s t o r s came from a p r o v i n c e other than B.C.?  Whose an-  (An a n c e s t o r i s  the o l d e s t person t h a t you have heard about i n your f a m i l y . ) Where d i d your a n c e s t o r s come from? "Look a t the map a n c e s t o r s came from?  o f B.C.  P l e a s e show us on the  or Canada to t e l l  On the map  map."  us where your  of Canada or B.C.  p l a c e your  r e d s t i c k e r where your a n c e s t o r s came from." "Colour the Kwakiutl area on your map s i o n s i n B.C.  f o l l o w i n g the c o l o u r key.  the p a r t of B.C.  A l i n g u i s t i c map  shows  The other l i n g u i s t i c areas may  c o l o u r e d d u r i n g the week i n your f r e e  houses f o r each o f the v i l l a g e s on the map. Coast S a l i s h shed r o o f e d houses was (1:45-2:30)  Students drew l o n g (A p i c t u r e of the  provided f o r reference.)  Students moved i n t o f o u r teams  (already e s t a b l i s h e d by the classroom t e a c h e r f o r S o c i a l i e s ) and each group was  be  time."  of Indian v i l l a g e s i n Vancouver:  Team Work.  divi-  where Kwakiutl people l i v e d a t the time o f  c o n t a c t with the non-Indian.  Map  of l i n g u i s t i c  Stud-  a s s i g n e d a corner of the classroom.  Each student f o l l o w e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r completing t h e i r  four  page b o o k l e t .  Coast S a l i s h shed r o o f e d house  129. P i c t u r e Making.  (2:30-2:50 p.m.)  "My  Ancestors."  To Native Indian people, t h e i r a n c e s t o r s were the l i n k between sacred r i t u a l s o f the past with animal, f i s h , or b i r d spirits  and succeeding generations o f Indian people  the same c r e s t symbols.  possessing  "Go back i n your memory and t h i n k  about something t h a t you know o r l e a r n e d from an e l d e r .  An  ancestor i s someone who was r e l a t e d to you who l i v e d a long time ago, t h a t i s , o l d e r than an e l d e r . " An e x e r c i s e to use the i m a g i n a t i o n :  "My  Ancestors"  (Murdock, 19 82, p. 10 3) was read t o the s t u d e n t s , who c l o s e d t h e i r eyes as they l i s t e n e d .  With eyes c l o s e d , t h e i r h e a r i n g  was more acute and they were l e d by s u g g e s t i o n back i n time to t h e i r a n c e s t o r s ' world.  When i t was completed, they opened  t h e i r eyes, and used the f e e l i n g s , thoughts,  and i n f o r m a t i o n t o  draw a p i c t u r e about how t h e i r ancestor l i v e d , what the e n v i r o n ment was l i k e , what they were doing, what they looked l i k e , and the c o l o u r s , s m e l l s , and sounds they were aware o f . Indians of Canada P o s t e r .  (2:50-3:00)  "During the week,  look a t the v a r i o u s Indian people and the o b j e c t s from t h e i r c u l t u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d on t h i s p o s t e r . " Review:  "What d i d we l e a r n today?  (About where our an-  c e s t o r s l i v e , where we are now, where Canada i s i n the world).. Where do the people who are Kwakiutl  live?  Vancouver I s l a n d to K i t i m a t on the c o a s t ) . Indian v i l l a g e s around here l o c a t e d ?  (Northern end of Where were the  (Musqueam, P o i n t Grey,  Spanish Banks, J e r i c h o , K i t s i l a n o , F a l s e Creek, S t a n l e y Park, West and North Vancouver).  Next week we w i l l  f i n d out the  130.  answers to some q u e s t i o n s . some of them a l r e a d y .  Perhaps you know the answers to  What kinds of t o o l s , weapons, and  s i l s were used by ancestors long ago? heads, spearheads).  (stone, s t r o n g , hard). carved, rough).  (hammerstones, arrow-  What m a t e r i a l s d i d they use to make them?  (stone, bone, t e e t h , s h e l l )  ted,  uten-  What kinds of t o o l s d i d they need?  What d i d t h e i r t o o l s look l i k e ?  (poin-  You w i l l make an arrowhead next week and  you w i l l have an arrowhead from the archaeology Museum of Anthropology  s e c t i o n of the  a t U.B.C. to copy."  Evaluation When the students e n t e r e d the classroom a f t e r lunch art  programme commenced i n the a f t e r n o o n ) , they seemed d i s -  t r a c t e d , some of them were e x c i t e d . the attendance. programme. riately. what was  The classroom teacher  Then I i n t r o d u c e d the proposed  I t appeared  took  o u t l i n e of the  I n o t i c e d s e v e r a l of the students a c t i n g  inapprop-  t h a t , i n s t e a d of b e i n g c u r i o u s about  going to happen, they were more i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g  the a t t e n t i o n o f other s t u d e n t s . me  (the  The classroom teacher  told  l a t e r t h a t , w h i l e the c l a s s i s always d i f f i c u l t t o handle,  when any change i n classroom r o u t i n e occurs they become even more u n s e t t l e d .  For example, when the teacher a i d e  first  s t a r t e d to work i n the classroom, a month p r e v i o u s l y , the s t u d e n t s ' behaviour became p a r t i c u l a r l y When the c l a s s was teacher aide t o l d me  unruly.  over, the classroom teacher and  the  t h a t i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e to teach or  demonstrate to the c l a s s as a whole, as I had t r i e d to do.  131.  T h e i r p r a c t i c e was to d i v i d e the c l a s s i n t o groups.  EVen  w i t h i n the s m a l l groups there were some students who c o u l d not c o n c e n t r a t e on a s i n g l e a c t i v i t y .  Therefore a new system  was  i n s t i t u t e d by the classroom t e a c h e r . Students who c o n s i s t e n t l y completed  t h e i r work went to  the l i b r a r y f o r a s p e c i a l p r o j e c t on Coast S a l i s h  culture.  (It was not, however, u n t i l f o u r months i n t o the s c h o o l year t h a t the l i b r a r i a n a t B r i t a n n i a Secondary  was prepared f o r  students from the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School to work on l i b r a r i a n - d i r e c t e d work i n the l i b r a r y . ) Students having d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e i r work r e c e i v e d speci a l .attention from the teacher a i d e ( i n a s m a l l group o f f i v e students). Students who were moved from a t a b l e to an i n d i v i d u a l desk and s t i l l  d i s r u p t e d the c l a s s were sent out o f the c l a s s -  room. The c l a s s was d i f f i c u l t handle.  f o r the classroom teacher to  Sometimes almost h a l f the c l a s s was l a t e i n the morn-  i n g so she put t h e i r names on the b l a c k b o a r d to i n d i c a t e they would have to make up the time  that  lost.  During the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the " S p e c i a l Person o f the Week," the students seemed i n t e r e s t e d i n having a person chosen, although a few i m p l i e d t h a t they were n o t .  The students  put t h e i r names i n t o a box, the classroom teacher drew a name and a student who had come l a t e name drawn.  (as she u s u a l l y did) had her  I t seemed t h a t she was b e i n g rewarded f o r b e i n g  l a t e but, on the other hand, as she came l a t e , I thought i t might make her more e n t h u s i a s t i c about s c h o o l .  Several  132.  students wrote on the p o s t e r immediately, the week the student had encouraging  and a t the end of  comments, on a l l o f the  sheets s t a p l e d a t the bottom o f the p o s t e r , t o take home. The Planned A r t Programme.  I t had been my i n t e n t i o n to  have a student read out what I had planned  f o r each week's  l e s s o n f o r the next four months.  I had expected  r e a c t i o n s to what I had planned.  The students who v o l u n t e e r e d  to read, read s l o w l y and w i t h d i f f i c u l t y .  to get some  The r e s t o f the  students d i d n ' t appear i n t e r e s t e d i n what was going to happen tomorrow, next week, o r next month.  I t seemed to me t h a t they  were more i n t e r e s t e d i n what was going to happen now. impression was not a l t o g e t h e r sound, as I l a t e r  discovered.)  They c o u l d not seem to imagine what a p l a n w i l l be how a p l a n w i l l work out.  like—or  For the l a s t l e s s o n o f the a r t pro-  gramme, the students suggested v i t i n g guests.  (This  food, dancing  ( I n d i a n ) , and i n -  They d i d not r e a c t t o the i d e a t h a t we might,  on the l a s t day, put up a d i s p l a y o f t h e i r work. those who produced  Apparently  good work o f t e n had t h e i r work taken or dam-  aged by other s t u d e n t s .  Others, who u s u a l l y d i d n ' t complete  t h e i r work, d i d not want a d i s p l a y .  The students d i d , however,  suggest names o f resource people t o come to the c l a s s f o r the l e s s o n s on f i s h , wood, and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s , and to accompany us on the f i e l d Maps.  trips.  The students were i n t e r e s t e d i n the maps o f the  world, Canada, B.C., and Vancouver I s l a n d . Canada, B.C., and Vancouver.  They l i k e d  locating  They l i s t e n e d w i t h i n t e r e s t when  I t o l d them about the e a r l y t r a d e r s on the Northwest Coast: Russians, Spanish, and E n g l i s h .  133. They enjoyed p u t t i n g s t a r s on the i n d i v i d u a l maps o f Canada and B.C., and marking the p l a c e s where t h e i r ancestors came from.  They p l a c e d r e d c i r c l e s on the l a r g e w a l l map showing  where the a n c e s t o r s o f each member o f the c l a s s came from.  Two  of the students s a i d t h a t they d i d n ' t know o f an a n c e s t o r o f t h e i r s , so I decided to s t a r t o f f the f o l l o w i n g week's l e s s o n with the f i l m ,  "Augusta."  I thought  t h a t those students who  were u n c e r t a i n about who t h e i r ancestors were would r e c o l l e c t , a f t e r s e e i n g the f i l m , a r e l a t i v e of t h e i r own who had d i e d and was remembered f o n d l y . Student Map B o o k l e t .  The students h a p p i l y c o l o u r e d the  Tsonokwa mask cover and showed r e a l i n t e r e s t i n p u t t i n g s t a r s on the map o f Canada and B.C.  Some o f the students c o l o u r e d  the Kwakiutl area on the l i n g u i s t i c map. drew longhouses asked  A few o f the students  f o r the v i l l a g e s around Vancouver.  When I  the c l a s s t o name a v i l l a g e a t the end o f the c l a s s , many  of the students c a l l e d out "Luck Lucky" (a v i l l a g e t h a t was s i t u a t e d where downtown Vancouver i s today)  (Matthews, 1955,  p. 8 c ) . P i c t u r e Making. cessful.  The p i c t u r e making e x e r c i s e was not suc-  I t was the wrong p l a n f o r the wrong group a t the  wrong time.  The e x e r c i s e r e q u i r e d t h a t the c l a s s be i n s t r u c t e d  as a whole.  The students found i t d i f f i c u l t to s i t s t i l l and  they d i d n o t l i s t e n to i n s t r u c t i o n s — p a r t i c u l a r l y ative stranger.  They would not keep t h e i r eyes c l o s e d and  l i s t e n t o what I was r e a d i n g to them. completed  from a r e l -  Four o f the students  p i c t u r e s o f t h e i r a n c e s t o r s , but the r e s t e i t h e r d i d  134.  not do i t , s t a r t e d one thing  and d i d n ' t complete i t , or drew some-  silly. Review.  I drew the l e s s o n to a c l o s e by a s k i n g the s t u d -  ents to t e l l me  something they had  l e a r n e d t h a t day.  I  s u r p r i s e d t h a t they remembered as much as they d i d .  felt  I reminded  them about the b o o k l e t they were to complete d u r i n g the week. I ended the l e s s o n by t e l l i n g them t h a t the next  l e s s o n would  d e a l with the t o o l s , weapons, a r t , and m a t e r i a l s t h a t t h e i r a n c e s t o r s used l o n g  ago.  The main o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s f i r s t  l e s s o n were achieved i n  t h a t the students became acquainted with the content of the a r t programme.  The  s p e c i a l person  programme was  more, the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s f o r the f i r s t in  begun.  l e s s o n were achieved  t h a t most of the students were a b l e to l o c a t e an  and most began working on t h e i r b o o k l e t s . making was  not s u c c e s s f u l :  Further-  ancestor  However, the p i c t u r e  the students were not able to  ex-  p e r i e n c e t h e i r a n c e s t o r s ' l i v e s v i c a r i o u s l y through drawing. My  impression was  of  using t h e i r v i s u a l imagination.  consciousness ing  t h a t many o f the students had  f o r them; they b a l k e d .  a f i l m , making an a r t i f a c t , and  ials,  I t was  l i t t l e notion  too great a leap i n  I think that, a f t e r  see-  s e e i n g f u r t h e r v i s u a l mater-  the p i c t u r e making might have come e a s i e r to them.  They  a l s o had d i f f i c u l t y l i s t e n i n g to v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s . The  seatwork f o r the c l a s s was  lacking i n challenge  cause I had wanted them to f e e l s u c c e s s f u l a f t e r t h e i r art  lesson.  The  age,  room meant t h a t I had  be-  first  grade, and range of a b i l i t y i n the  class-  to aim at the median l e v e l , which f o r  some students d i d not r e p r e s e n t a c h a l l e n g e .  Tsonokwa mask  136 .  NAME INDIANS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA:  LINGUISTIC  SUBDIVISIONS  F i n d the p l a c e on the map t h a t the o l d e s t people i n your f a m i l y come from. Put a s t a r on t h a t p l a c e . Colour the E t h n i c D i v i s i o n s with the c o l o u r beside them.  Language Haida = Haida (yellow) H. Tsimshian . = Tsimshian (blue) Ts.  x  Kwakiutl = Kwakiutl (red) K. Nuu-chah-nulths = Nuu-chahn u l t h (grey) N. B e l l a Coola = B e l l a (green) B.C.  Coola  Coast S a l i s h = Comox, S e c h e l t , Squamish, Halkomelem, S t r a i t s S a l i s h (purple) C S . I n t e r i o r S a l i s h = Thompson, L i l l o o e t , Shuswap, (white) I.S.  Okanagan  Kootenay = Kootenay (orange) Ko. Athapaskan -- C h i l c o t i n , C a r r i e r , Sekani, T a h l t a n , Kaska, S l a v e , Beaver (brown) A. Inland T l i n g i t = T l i n g i t  (pink) T.  NAME 1. I f your ancestors came from another province than B.C., put a s t a r where they came from. 2. F i n d and name B r i t i s h Columbia. 3. Can you f i n d and name Saskatchewan? 4. F i n d and name the Yukon T e r r i t o r y .  Draw a longhouse f o r each Native Indian v i l l a g e .  • Musqueam  P l a t e 3.  F i l i n g an arrowhead  140 .  P l a t e 4.  Gauging an arrowhead  141.  P l a t e 5.  F i n i s h i n g an arrowhead  142. Lesson 2.  Background on T r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl C u l t u r e  Objectives To g i v e a classroom o f Native Indian students the experience o f making a s l a t e arrowhead, a weapon used by t h e i r ancestors . To i n t r o d u c e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g through teamwork.  Resources Film: Record:  N.F.B., Augusta, P r e t t y Brown.  #76178. D i s t r i b u t e d by Noona Music,  Providence I s l a n d , M a t o u l i n I s l a n d , O n t a r i o , Canada, POP 1T0 S l a t e p o i n t borrowed from the U.B.C. Museum o f A n t h r o p o l ogy, Archaeology  section.  Materials B.B. prepared a worksheet on Stone, Bone-Antler, Wood and S h e l l , Old Combs (Tsimshian), Tsimshian  artifacts.  Schedule f o r Team Work, c h a r t f o r s l a t e l e s s o n , c h a r t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r three  worksheets.  S l a t e f o r each student c u t a t a l o c a l s t o n e c u t t e r ' s , f i l e s t h i c k and t h i n . Cedar f o r handles, twine, saw, glue, boards s l a t e while Xeroxed  for placing  filing. p i c t u r e s of arrowhead  artifacts.  F e a t h e r s , s t r i p o f l e a t h e r , s h e l l s , stone beads, wooden beads, w i r e .  143. Method/Organization o f the Classroom 1:00-1:10 p.m.  L a s t week's " S p e c i a l Person" r e c e i v e d the  p o s t e r t o take home and, McDonald's with tion.  on the t h i r d a r t l e s s o n , went to  the f i r s t winning team from the team competi-  "Last week when I suggested the ' S p e c i a l Person o f the  Week,' some o f you s a i d t h a t you'd done i t b e f o r e  and I got  the f e e l i n g t h a t you weren't f e e l i n g e x c i t e d about doing i t . So I am i n t r o d u c i n g a new i d e a f o r team work. having with  I thought t h a t  you i n four teams working f o r p o i n t s f o r every l e s s o n ,  the t o t a l s f o r each team added up every t h i r d week, would  be fun.  A t t h e end o f three weeks, the winning team goes t o -  gether t o McDonald's a f t e r s c h o o l f o r hamburgers.  What do you  t h i n k about the i d e a ? " They l i k e d the i d e a o f going pizza).  "Now we have to decide  together  f o r hamburgers (or  on names f o r the teams.  i s a suggested l i s t o f team membership.  Here  I f you want to trade  with a team member on another team, you must do i t today, o r a t the end o f the t h i r d week. f o r the f o u r teams." 1:10-1:30 p.m. age,  We a l s o have t o decide  (Eagles, Thunderbirds, F a l c o n s , F i l m , Augusta.  She has o u t l i v e d every-  one  i n h e r f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g Sammy, her n i e c e ' s  had  r a i s e d u n t i l h i s death by drowning.  and  speaks Shuswap.  she  l o s t her s t a t u s i n 1903.  the Soda Creek Reserve. d e s p i t e poverty pity.  Lions)  Augusta Evans, 88 years o f  l i v e s a t One Hundred M i l e House.  As she married  on names  son, whom she  Augusta i s Athapaskan  a non-registered  Indian,  She l i v e s c l o s e t o , but not on  A proud, independent, warm human being  and tragedy,  she i s without b i t t e r n e s s o r s e l f -  144. "Does anyone know someone l i k e Augusta?  I f you haven't  made your p i c t u r e of an a n c e s t o r , you c o u l d make a p i c t u r e o f Augusta." 1:30-1:40 p.m.  Record, P r e t t y Brown, by David  Campbell.  Class sang along with the tape, words on a p o s t e r . 1:40 p.m.  "The f i r s t team o f students s i t t i n g  w i l l be the f i r s t t o work w i t h Team Work:  Time a t the s l a t e  slate. table.  (1:40-2:00 p.m.)  1.  B.B.  (2:00-2:20 p.m.)  2.  classroom  (2:20-2:40 p.m.)  3.  teacher aide  Eagles  (2:40-3:00 p.m.)  4.  parent resource person  Lions  S t a t i o n 1.  table  Slate  quietly  Thunderbirds teacher  team  Falcons  2 3.V Worksheets 4 The teams were s e t up t h i s 1.  way:  The f o u r teams c o n s i s t e d o f groups a l r e a d y s e t up by  the classroom teacher f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s . even i n s i z e :  the s m a l l e s t team was made up o f students who  found i t d i f f i c u l t 2.  The teams were un-  to s e t t l e down t o work.  Each l e s s o n r e q u i r e d a s p e c i f i c number of p i e c e s of  work to be done. p i e c e s of work:  For example, i n l e s s o n 2 there were f i v e one drawing t o be done, three worksheets to be  done, and an arrowhead to be made.  Any team completing a l l  f i v e p i e c e s , got f i v e p o i n t s f o r the day.  Some o f the work was  a team e f f o r t and some o f the work was done by i n d i v i d u a l  145. members of the team. 3.  The students had to complete  the number of p i e c e s of  work t h a t had been a s s i g n e d f o r the day, u n l e s s given permiss i o n to f i n i s h them d u r i n g the week, i n which case they had to have i t completed  f o r the f o l l o w i n g week's l e s s o n .  I b e l i e v e t h a t the team approach the " S p e c i a l Person" w i t h my The team approach  i s more c o n s i s t e n t than  goal of enhancing s e l f - c o n c e p t .  emphasizes c o o p e r a t i o n and l e a r n i n g  group a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l c o m p e t i t i o n .  through I t en-  courages  teammates to help one another, and p l a c e s the respon-  sibility  f o r completing the work on the team, r a t h e r than on  the teacher and the i n d i v i d u a l student. a s s i s t e d through team work d u r i n g f i e l d room.  Classroom  was  t r i p s out of the c l a s s -  Teams t h a t worked c o o p e r a t i v e l y d u r i n g f i e l d  ities  learning  trip  activ-  were rewarded by r e c e i v i n g p o i n t s f o r t h e i r achievement. Worksheets f o r students not working on 1.  slate:  Stone, b o n e - a n t l e r , wood, and s h e l l - a r t i f a c t s c u t out  and pasted under one of f o u r headings  determined  by m a t e r i a l  they were made from. 2.  Combs - copying the o l d designs of three Tsimshian  combs. 3.  Tsimshian a r t i f a c t s - c u t t i n g and p a s t i n g a time  line.  Drawing the a r t i f a c t s i n d i c a t e d i n the 11 boxes. Demonstration whole c l a s s .  of shaping s l a t e f o r the arrowhead to the  Using the t o o l s f o r shaping, f i l i n g ,  and  sanding.  S l a t e l e s s o n f o r teams: I demonstrated slate.  "We  to the f i r s t team how  are l e a r n i n g how  to shape and f i l e the  to make something  that the  first  146. people made i n o r d e r to l i v e . found i n t h e i r environment. slate.  They made i t from s l a t e they They had to make t o o l s to work the  When working w i t h s l a t e you must remember t h a t the  ' p r o p e r t i e s ' o f s l a t e a r e t h a t i t i s b r i t t l e and e a s i l y broken. I t i s f i n e g r a i n e d , b l u i s h - p u r p l e metamorphic you t h i n k your a n c e s t o r made an arrowhead? bone t o o l ) .  rock.  How do  (by c h i p p i n g w i t h a  What d i d they make t h e i r t o o l s out o f ? (stone,  bone-antler, s h e l l ,  teeth).  Why d i d they make arrowheads? (to  make weapons f o r k i l l i n g game to e a t ) .  Here i s an arrowhead  t h a t I brought from the U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology (at the Museum i t i s c a l l e d a s l a t e p o i n t ) . are  Look a t the shape.  p i c t u r e s f o r you t o r e f e r to when making your  Northwest Coast people d i d n ' t wear arrowheads they d i d n ' t wear f e a t h e r s . lone, d e n t a l l i u m ) .  Here  arrowhead.  as j e w e l l e r y and  S h e l l s were used as j e w e l l e r y (aba-  You may use your i m a g i n a t i o n to change the  t r a d i t i o n a l arrowhead  i n t o a p i e c e o f contemporary  j e w e l l e r y by  adding stone and wood beads, f e a t h e r s , and l e a t h e r s . " Each student r e c e i v e d a board, a p i e c e o f s l a t e , a f i l e , and l i n o - c u t t i n g t o o l s f o r c u t t i n g and shaping. e r a l shape was a c h i e v e d , a h o l e was d r i l l e d  f o r the students  w i s h i n g to make a pendant out o f the arrowhead. to  Once the gen-  The teams came  the s l a t e t a b l e a c c o r d i n g to the t i m e t a b l e . Review:  (3:00 p.m.)  about working w i t h s l a t e ?  "What was the most d i f f i c u l t What was the e a s i e s t ?  teach a c h i l d to make an arrowhead? bone? came).  (pendant).  thing  How would you  Name something made out o f  P r e - c o n t a c t means? (before the non-Indians  Next week we w i l l go to the U.B.C. Museum o f A n t h r o p o l -  ogy, to the f o r e s t , and to the beach.  We w i l l  see Garbanzo  147.  (in  the Museum) use h i s magic m i r r o r on the totem p o l e s ,  we w i l l see h i s unusual t e l e v i s i o n s e t . who  uses pantomime, music and  through drama and  and  Garbanzo i s a clown  magic to t e l l Northwest myths  pictures."  During the week the students worked on the a r t i f a c t worksheets; Map  they drew " P r e t t y Brown"; and  they handed i n completed  Booklets.  Evaluation The ceding  classroom teacher was  the l e s s o n and was  the l e s s o n as w e l l . absent.  The  classroom.  students were u n s e t t l e d when she a i d e , and  f o r the a r t programme.  I were i n the  gone very w e l l , she  With fewer students i t was  couragement and  When I t o l d  the  t h a t there were only t h i r t e e n students  t h a t the l e s s o n had  and  s a i d , "That's an  ideal  p o s s i b l e to give more en-  supervision.  When I e x p l a i n e d  the new  makeup of the teams, and  how  team system to the students,  the  the p o i n t system would work, I  not t h i n k t h a t the c l a s s would f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e what the  team system meant u n t i l a team had won, On  was  T h i r t e e n students out of twenty-two came back to  classroom teacher  did  absent f o r the three days f o l l o w i n g  s u b s t i t u t e , the teacher  s c h o o l a f t e r lunch  number."  The  absent f o r the four days pre-  the f i r s t day  gone f o r hamburgers.  of the team system, the team t h a t f i n i s h e d  f i r s t c o n s i s t e d of two aged the boy  and  students;  to keep working and  the g i r l on the team encourto do the l a s t drawing so  he,  too, would f i n i s h .  Thus encouraged he worked hard,  ing  so t h a t t h e i r team r e c e i v e d 5 p o i n t s .  The  girl  that  finish-  s a i d , "I  148.  can h a r d l y w a i t t o t e l l  D. about t h i s . "  team who was absent t h a t day.  D. was a member o f her  Rewarding the team that worked  most e f f e c t i v e l y a t the end o f the three week p e r i o d enabled the c l a s s t o see t h a t I was s e r i o u s about the reward f o r teams t h a t worked t o g e t h e r . When I i n t r o d u c e d the f i l m ,  "Augusta," the students  liked  the i d e a o f having a f i l m , but d i d n ' t a t the o u t s e t seem part i c u l a r l y taken w i t h the s t o r y about an Indian e l d e r .  However,  w h i l e the f i l m was i n p r o g r e s s , I c o u l d see them becoming absorbed i n Augusta's s t o r y . t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to the f i l m .  Three students were s p o r a d i c i n One was e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e be-  cause he s a t a p a r t , l o o k i n g o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y a t the f i l m . L a t e r he walked a c r o s s the room and s a t a t h i s desk s n i f f i n g "Scratch and S n i f f " s t i c k e r s on h i s book. first  I t may have been the  time he had earned one f o r h i s c l a s s work.  He was i n a  small working group where each student r e c e i v e d a s t i c k e r a t the end of the day i f he/she f i n i s h e d h i s / h e r work.  Another  student seemed preoccupied, and she t r i e d to d i s t r a c t the s t u d ents around her. to  observe  The t h i r d student kept h o l d i n g up h i s f i n g e r s  t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n on the s c r e e n .  " P r e t t y Brown," a song - F o l l o w i n g the f i l m I put on a tape of  music by David Campbell,  the Indian musician-composer.  students were s u r p r i s e d when the music began and I s t a r t e d ing  the words on the p o s t e r .  The sing-  They l i s t e n e d to the words to the  song but o n l y a few j o i n e d i n s i n g i n g .  One student who d i d very  l i t t l e r e a d i n g came up and showed me where I had made a mistake in  s p e l l i n g one o f the words on the p o s t e r .  him and gave him a hug.  I was g r a t e f u l t o  Immediately he went over to another  149.  student and h i t him. embarrassed, of  h i s own  I t h i n k t h a t he f e l t uncomfortable  so he had to c o u n t e r a c t how  a g a i n s t another student.  and  he f e l t by an a c t i o n  I l e f t the song f o r the  students to l e a r n . Making the Arrowhead  (or s l a t e p o i n t ) .  The s l a t e p o i n t ,  borrowed from the museum, gave the students the o p p o r t u n i t y to see the r e l a t i o n s h i p between what they were making and a r e a l artifact.  I asked the students why  t h e i r a n c e s t o r s made arrow-  heads and t h e i r answers s u r p r i s e d me. moose, deer."  such l a r g e animals, unless many were  The students gained s a t i s f a c t i o n from working w i t h t o o l s  on the s l a t e .  They were more p a t i e n t than I had expected, i n  shaping a f i l i n g the arrowhead shape.  Two  worked w i t h obvious enjoyment on something w i t h t h e i r hands.  One  going to carve today?" s h e l l I was I had made.  wearing  b r o t h e r s i n the c l a s s t h a t they c o u l d do  of the students kept a s k i n g , "Are Then he asked me  we  i f he c o u l d have the  around my n e c k — a t t a c h e d  to the arrowhead  I n o t i c e d t h a t when the students f e l t happy they  wanted to be c l o s e to me, kept a s k i n g how was  "Whale,  The s m a l l s i z e of the s l a t e p o i n t would have been  ineffective for k i l l i n g used.  They s a i d ,  and wanted to t a l k to me.  One  t o use the t o o l s , but he kept working,  boy  which  unusual, as he o f t e n disappeared from h i s desk when he  supposed to be doing seatwork.  I found t h a t s i x students  was was  the maximum number t h a t I c o u l d s u p e r v i s e and a s s i s t w h i l e they were shaping, f i l i n g , making a h o l e , and f i n i s h i n g o f f the arrowhead pendant.  No one c u t or gouged a f i n g e r .  When one  team came to the s t a t i o n , one of the students s a i d ,  "I can't do  this."  shaping the  But when he saw  the s l a t e p o i n t , watched me  150.  arrowhead and saw  the other students working,  arrowhead without d i f f i c u l t y .  he completed  A g i r l f i l e d p a t i e n t l y and  ieved a w e l l shaped arrowhead w i t h a f i l e d shape carved and r e p e a t i n g , the e x t e r i o r shape. a f t e r s c h o o l to f i n i s h  but c h a l l e n g i n g .  ach-  into,  Three of the g i r l s worked  t h e i r arrowhead pendants.  worked to complete them i n order to give them as Worksheets.  his  A l l of them gifts.  I t h i n k they found the worksheets i n t e r e s t i n g , Judging by the students t h a t were  the amount of work was  more than s u f f i c i e n t .  One  working,  l e s s worksheet  would have enabled more o f the students to do a drawing of " P r e t t y Brown," but we The  ran out of  time.  f i r s t team t h a t had worked w i t h s l a t e had t r o u b l e s e t -  t l i n g down to the worksheets a f t e r the excitement w i t h the s l a t e .  One  student had  to be asked  of working  to l e a v e the t a b l e  to make room f o r a student i n the next team. The students needed c o n t a c t w i t h m a t e r i a l s , working w i t h a goal. of  The problem l i e s  i n t e a c h i n g a s k i l l to a s m a l l number  students while the remainder  p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l to be l e a r n e d .  work on seatwork r e l a t e d to the I t h i n k t h a t the team system  o f f e r e d i n c e n t i v e to use the time w i s e l y , f o r those w a i t i n g to work w i t h t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s .  Henceforth, when the  classroom  t e a c h e r , the teacher a i d e , and I were i n the classroom d u r i n g the l e s s o n s , the l e s s o n ran f a i r l y smoothly. the l e s s o n were achieved. lesson.  The o b j e c t i v e s of  I c o n s i d e r e d i t a very s u c c e s s f u l  151.  WHAT  1NDIAW  DRAW THP THE  CAN YOU  DES1-NS  COKBS AM  TN THE  v£«V  Olt>.  BOX  SFf  Otf THS"  COMBS?  0EXOW.  TH6V  WB«£  M/)PE  XN TMB  YEAR  2000  b**vf W o n t b r a . c c i*T  LQ&SL  S+one maul STOne. a d z e  500  v k m f c decorwfcd CJub /.SCO PC  wvooete*> paddlft I w o o d e n \otjK.  beaver /OOP  flCJbo^  ^tu  3 ooo i3c  153.  Kwakiutl food t r a y , bucket  whale o f whale bone  154.  bone awl  Tsimshian bone bear comb. 800 A.D. oldest decorated artifact.  bear's t o o t h charm stone slave killer  Kwakiutl wooden box bone pendant  stone beads l a d l e made o f Bighorn sheep horn  Haida hawk rattle a n c i e n t type of box  bone T l i n g i t bracelet  155  UnpukJfShed Vancouver of  material  B , C . J>y r.. 0  ^ O H c w a ^ PERS0NNAL  presented  George  a t S i men F r a s e r  McDonald, the. d i r e c t o r  Sowrfre J>r. C t o r t f w * j e i d A00RNMENT  AO 2 0 0 0  DECORATED  University, o f +h* Mas-eutn  U B . C ,Dept. STONE  of  DECORATED  r  1500  1000  500  AD.  - o — a> — & •  0  500  1000  1500  2000  2500  •OK  Anrnropoloay  .._._L. Temporal occurrence of s e l e c t e d a r t object:, from the Tsimshian area  BONE  P l a t e 6.  F i e l d t r i p to the U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology Haida totem pole  157.  P l a t e 7.  F i e l d t r i p to the U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology Tsonokwa  158. Lesson 4.  The Environment  i n Winter - F i e l d  Trip:  The U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology  Objectives To i n t r o d u c e the students to the beach, seashore, and f o r est  i n w i n t e r and to t r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl l i f e  and a c t i v i t i e s i n  winter.  Resources Books:  Braun, E.  Healdsburn, C a l i f o r n i a : Stott, ver:  M.  E x p l o r i n g P a c i f i c Coast Tide P o o l s , Naturegraph Co., 1966; Rowan, M., &  Guide t o t h e U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology.  Gordon Soules Book P u b l i s h e r s , 1978; S t a r k , R.  Herbs.  Vancouver:  VancouIndian  Hancock House P u b l i s h e r s , 1981.  Museum o f Anthropology a r t i f a c t s : cedar plank, d o g f i s h s k i n ,  stone maul, cedar bark,  and cedar canoe b a i l e r .  Parent r e s o u r c e person.  Materials Lunches, tes,  j u i c e , donuts, can opener, paper p l a t e s ,  serviet-  p l a s t i c bags l a b e l l e d w i t h numbers f o r the four teams (8  bags). Charts: sea  B.B. made two p o s t e r s w i t h c o l l e c t e d  and f o r e s t  life  examples o f  i n Winter.  Method/Organization o f the Classroom 10:30  a.m.  Two d r i v e r s l e f t the s c h o o l :  one, a parent,  took 13 students and the teacher a i d e i n a van; the o t h e r , the  159 . classroom teacher, took f i v e students i n her c a r . I n s t r u c t i o n s for  the d r i v e r were l e f t a t the school the day before the f i e l d  trip.  On the way t o the museum the d r i v e r was to ask the s t u d -  ents:  "What i s a museum?" (a p l a c e where a r t i f a c t s are k e p t ) . 11:20 a.m.  A r r i v e d a t the Museum, l e f t  lunches i n c l a s s -  room, had d r i n k s o f water, e t c . 11:30-12:20 p.m.  Garbanzo performance i n Great  Hall.  Garbanzo combined i n f o r m a t i o n about Kwakiutl c u l t u r e w i t h music, mime, and remarkable  masks t h a t he had made from p a p i e r mache.  During the performance he made r e f e r e n c e s to the Mungo M a r t i n totem p o l e s , a Kwakiutl house p o s t , and the s e c t i o n i n the Great H a l l t h a t c o n t a i n s many Kwakiutl o b j e c t s used d u r i n g Kwakiutl f e a s t i n g and p o t l a t c h i n g ceremonies. 12:25-1:00 p.m.  Lunch.  U.B.C. Native Indian Teacher  Museum Seminar, Room #217.  A  Education student was our guest.  She spoke t o t h e students about the Outreach programme she d i d i n the s c h o o l s f o r the Museum.  I t o l d the students about the  a l l o c a t i o n o f p o i n t s f o r the day.  There were 10 p o i n t s :  p o i n t each f o r Mungo M a r t i n ' s beaver Kwakiutl bear  1  ( o u t s i d e ) , a Haida or  ( i n s i d e ) , o r a l q u e s t i o n s to parent resource p e r -  son, v i l l a g e made i n the sand a t Spanish Banks, behaviour, t i c i p a t i o n , and 4 p o i n t s f o r mounting c o l l e c t e d samples  par-  from  f o r e s t and beach. Museum Questions: 1.  Students  examined two Mungo M a r t i n totem p o l e s .  The  parent resource person t o l d the students about Mungo M a r t i n , an ancestor o f h i s . to  Students were l e d t o the Kwakiutl  the S i s i u t l and to the Tsonokwa f e a s t d i s h e s .  section,  160.  2. behind  Students  looked f o r the carved Haida  the canoe.  Kwakiutl beaver 3.  They l a t e r  they d i f f e r ? " bear  naturalistic, 4.  bear,  and  (deeper  t o t h e Museum, t h e the K w a k i u t l bear  c a r v i n g was  i s more s t y l i z e d , p r o p o r t i o n s are  done on  and  "Look a t Mungo M a r t i n ' s b e a v e r , beaver.  How  are they d i f f e r e n t ? "  large  incisors  and  smooth, a l m o s t  whereas the K w a k i u t l beaver snout:  proportions  1:00-1:15 p.m. adult  l e a d e r who  reminded a l l o f the ferences  "How  the Kwakiutl  Mungo M a r t i n  and  posts, and  totem  compare i t t o  (the Haida  sculptural  the  beaver  has  quality carving,  i s more l i f e l i k e  w i t h a more prom-  differ).  Great H a l l .  had  opposite.  different).  Haida  inent  pole  students  the Kwakiutl dramatic  S t u d e n t s went o u t s i d e t o t h e two  poles.  the  compared i t t o Mungo M a r t i n ' s  Close to the entrance  the Haida  on  o u t s i d e t h e Museum.  looked a t the Haida do  beaver  E a c h team was  a c o p y o f t h e programme and location  o f t h e p o l e s and  i n t h e c a r v i n g s t y l e between H a i d a  i n g as t h e teams moved down t h e ramp.  assigned to  an  questions.  I  identifiable  and  Students  Kwakiutl were  dif-  carv-  directed  t o t h e K w a k i u t l b e a r w h i c h h e l d a human b e i n g u n d e r i t s c h i n ; it  was  mouth. at  p a r t of a longhouse. The  the Haida  students continued beaver.  many a r t i f a c t s .  The  H a l l were compared. Martin ing  totem  The  p o l e and  in its tail  The two  into  Kwakiutl  b e a r had  a frog  in its  t h e G r e a t H a l l and  looked  a r e a i n the Great H a l l  Mungo M a r t i n t o t e m  Outside  the students  looked a t the beaver  (with another  1:20-1:25 p.m.  Haida  Students  p o l e s i n the  held Great  l o o k e d a t t h e Mungo and  face carved into  the  subtle carv-  it).  were d r i v e n t o S p a n i s h  Banks  161. Beach p a r k i n g l o t adjacent to the u n i v e r s i t y .  Since Kwakiutl  v i l l a g e s were too f a r away to v i s i t , we  substituted ancient  Coast S a l i s h v i l l a g e s i n the v i c i n i t y .  The students were t o l d  to  gather i n one area t o s i t and hear  " P i c t u r e what i t was r i g h t , around  "what was  l i k e here 800 years ago.  the corner, was  going t o happen." Along to the  a S a l i s h Indian v i l l a g e  called  Kokopi, and beyond i t another v i l l a g e , Snaq" (Matthews, 195 5, p. 8 c ) .  Winter was  the time when Warrior-of-the-World came to  the Kwakiutl v i l l a g e s ; h i s a r r i v a l meant t h a t w i n t e r were to b e g i n .  He was  the t a l l e s t of men,  ceremonies  s l i m with long arms,  and s m a l l head, a b l a c k body and w i t h s m a l l eyes l i k e a bat. t r a v e l l e d c o n s t a n t l y but he never l e f t h i s canoe, which was and very narrow.  His canoe was  n i b a l a t the North-end-of-the-World  around.  He ate men  1966,  Those myths were p a r t of the Kwakiutl  was  "Can-  l i v e d w i t h many h e l p e r s i n  the mountains.  Winter was  long  i n v i s i b l e but you c o u l d hear h i s  paddle h i t t i n g the s i d e of the canoe when he was  p. 172).  He  a t the mouth of the r i v e r "  a s p e c i a l time of the year.  (Boas, culture.  "What do you p i c t u r e i t  l i k e here, on the beach, i n the v i l l a g e s , so long ago?" 1:45-2:10 p.m.  Beach.  "You w i l l have f i f t e e n minutes f o r  each team to draw or make a t r a d i t i o n a l Indian v i l l a g e i n the sand.  Show where the longhouses,  The parent r e s o u r c e person chose  canoes,  and f i r e s were p l a c e d . "  the team w i t h the most d e t a i l e d ,  i m a g i n a t i v e v i l l a g e ; t h a t team (or teams) r e c e i v e d a team p o i n t . 2:10-2:30 p.m.  Seashore.  Teams gathered and were shown a  hammerstone borrowed from the U.B.C. Museum of  Anthropology  which served as an example o f the shape the students looked f o r i n a hammerstone.  (The hammerstone was  used by students d u r i n g  162. a subsequent lesson.) "Each team w i l l c o l l e c t f i v e samples o f sea l i f e t h a t your ancestors used every day (clams, mussels, o y s t e r s , k e l p , seaweed) .  Use t h i s p o s t e r to r e f e r t o .  Put the examples t h a t you  can name i n t o the p l a s t i c bag f o r your team.  Each o f you w i l l  have your own hammerstone, which must be f l a t , able to h o l d i t s e c u r e l y . sea  and you must be  You have 15 minutes t o c o l l e c t your  l i f e and your hammerstones.  The hammerstones go i n t o the  cardboard box w i t h your name on i t i n o i l p a s t e l . " 2:00-2:30 p.m. the  Dog T r a i l park.  The F o r e s t .  D r i v e r s took the students to  Student teams c o l l e c t e d f i v e samples o f  p l a n t s t h a t Indian people used, u s i n g the p o s t e r o f l a b e l l e d samples Oregon  bag.  f o r reference  (moss, b l a c k b e r r y , f e r n , cherry bark,  grape, salmonberry).  Each team had a numbered  plastic  Students were t o l d to look f o r a cedar t r e e . The teams were c a l l e d t o g e t h e r and one student read the  "Prayer t o the Young Cedar."  (This p r a y e r was used by those  who p u l l e d cedar bark o f f cedar t r e e s . ) 2:45-3:00 p.m.  Prayer t o the Young Cedar.  Look a t me, f r i e n d !  I come to ask f o r your dress f o r  you have come t o take p i t y on us; f o r t h e r e i s n o t h i n g for  which we can not use you, f o r you a r e w i l l i n g to  g i v e us your d r e s s , I come t o beg you f o r t h i s ,  long  l i f e maker, f o r I am going to make a basket f o r l i l y r o o t s out o f you.  I pray you f r i e n d not to f e e l angry  on account o f what I am going t o do to you; Take care, friend!  Keep s i c k n e s s away from me, so t h a t I may not  163. be k i l l e d by s i c k n e s s o r i n war.  1930,  p.  Oh f r i e n d !  (Boas,  189)  The students t h a t had gathered a t the base o f the cedar t r e e were shown f o u r "touchable" o b j e c t s from the Museum; a canoe b a i l e r which Indian people made from cedar bark taken o f f the t r e e s , a d o g f i s h s k i n which was used f o r sanding the wood, cedar bark, and a cedar plank which was taken o f f the cedar t r e e by using a hammerstone w i t h many yew wedges. The students experienced the environment ors  of t h e i r ancest-  i n w i n t e r on the beach, the seashore and i n the f o r e s t .  There were f r e i g h t e r s i n the bay, and S t a n l e y Park was the l a s t remaining f o r e s t .  Sea l i f e had d i m i n i s h e d .  Museum was connected  The t r i p t o the  i n a g e n e r a l way to the a r t programme, and  the f i e l d t r i p t o the beach, sea, and f o r e s t was connected, i n s p e c i f i c ways, to f u t u r e l e s s o n s .  The f i e l d t r i p to the beach  r e l a t e d to the f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n which had f i s h as the theme. The beach was the p o i n t o f departure f o r Native Indian f i s h e r men.  When the students stood on the beach we d i s c u s s e d the  changes t h a t had o c c u r r e d i n the sea, on the beach, and i n the forest.  In the f o r e s t students saw the cedar t r e e i n t a c t w i t h  bark, branches,  and withes.  The l e s s o n f o l l o w i n g , t h a t on f i s h  r e l a t e d t o cedar, emphasized t h a t cedar and salmon were c e n t r a l to Kwakiutl c u l t u r e ; they p r o v i d e d e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l s f o r the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s o f the people. 3:00 p.m. at home.  Departure  f o r home.  I s o r t e d o u t the samples  164. Evaluation The d e t a i l e d programme and  schedule  f o r the f i e l d  trip  l e f t w i t h the classroom teacher, teacher aide and parent days b e f o r e the f i e l d t r i p was  three  f o l l o w e d by the teacher a i d e .  The classroom teacher and resource parent d i d not use the ions t h a t I had  listed.  The  teacher aide and  q u e s t i o n s and themes suggested.  quest-  I f o l l o w e d the  In the Great H a l l , a t Garban-  zo's p r e s e n t a t i o n , the students were c a p i t i v a t e d , judging by t h e i r expressions.  S e v e r a l o f them had been to the Museum but  none of them had seen Garbanzo b e f o r e .  When they f o l l o w e d Gar-  banzo i n t o the a u d i t o r i u m some of the students became r e s t l e s s and d i s r u p t i v e . p o r t was  The a u d i t o r i u m was  l e s s i n t i m a t e and the rap-  lost.  Some of the students had not brought lunch so i t was  for-  tunate t h a t the teacher aide had brought e x t r a sandwiches.  I  had brought j u i c e and donuts to supplement t h e i r l u n c h .  the  By  time the guest had a r r i v e d they had eaten and were anxious get going.  to  When she t o l d the students about the programme she  worked on, the students only h a l f l i s t e n e d and d i d not a c t a t all  i n t e r e s t e d i n what she had  to say.  J u s t b e f o r e she came  i n t o the room, when I s a i d t h a t we would have a guest, one the students s a i d ,  "I hate  guests!"  In the Great H a l l the students were able to i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e i n c a r v i n g s t y l e between the bear on the Haida and  the Kwakiutl  kiutl  totem p o l e .  We  the pole  When we moved down to the Kwa-  s e c t i o n s e v e r a l of the students went over to the  a b l e " B i l l Reid bear  of  "touch-  (a s i g n i n d i c a t e d students c o u l d touch i t ) .  gathered by the Mungo M a r t i n totem p o l e because I  expected  165 .  the parent to t a l k to the students about the c a r v i n g . t h a t he p r e f e r r e d to t a l k to the students  individually.  Outside one student r a n over t o the barbecue s t a r t e d to jump up and down on the r a c k s . off.  The student d i d n o t l i k e t h a t .  He s a i d  p i t s and  A guard ordered him  I n s i d e the Museum another  student had been t o l d by a guard not t o touch the totem p o l e s . She t o l d me t h a t she d i d n ' t t h i n k the f i e l d t r i p was f u n . I t h i n k t h a t those students who were not used to a c t i n g w i t h r e s t r a i n t i n t h e i r p r i v a t e l i v e s found i t d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l their actions i n public.  When the group moved over to the  Mungo M a r t i n totem p o l e s , two students suddenly s t a r t e d to climb the totem p o l e . show some r e s p e c t . " s h e e p i s h l y got down.  The parent s a i d to them, "Get down and They stopped dead i n t h e i r t r a c k s and They stood s t i l l  d i d n ' t know what to do.  f o r a few minutes and  I t was much more e f f e c t i v e f o r a Na-  t i v e Indian person t o t e l l  them how t o behave than f o r a non-  Indian i n a uniform to do so. At the beach the logs and sand were wet, so most o f the students were r e l u c t a n t to s i t down.  I had to do my i n t r o d u c -  t i o n to the beach i n w i n t e r w i t h the group o f students s t a n d i n g all  around me.  mediate.  Therefore the r e a c t i o n and responses were im-  One student  responded  immediately  d i f f e r e n t i f we were l i v i n g 800 years ago?" be b i g g e r and most o f what we see around  to "What would be ("The f o r e s t would  us wouldn't be here,"  he s a i d . ) Teams - Sand v i l l a g e s . of  The teams were new and membership  some o f them d i d n ' t mesh, so some students made t h e i r own  lages i n s t e a d o f c o o p e r a t i n g on one v i l l a g e w i t h t h e i r team.  vil-  166.  They took some time to get s t a r t e d but the winning  team became  so i n v o l v e d t h a t they continued working w e l l a f t e r the t i o n was who  over.  competi-  Another team contained a c o n s c i e n t i o u s student  f e l t m i s e r a b l e because her team f a i l e d to work t o g e t h e r . Before the students were i n s t r u c t e d to look f o r hammer-  stones, they were shown the shape of the hammerstone and i t s purpose was  explained.  Despite i n s t r u c t i o n s , some students  brought back stones t h a t weren't f l a t , to h o l d .  One  f l a t on one this!"  and d i d n ' t have a p a r t  student threw h i s down when I s a i d i t had  side.  He i m p a t i e n t l y s a i d ,  to be  "I don't want to do  I t o l d him to keep l o o k i n g because I knew t h a t he c o u l d  f i n d one w i t h a f l a t He gave me  side.  a hard look.  I showed him the hammerstone a g a i n .  S e v e r a l students became s i d e - t r a c k e d  and came back w i t h wood, k e l p , and p i e c e s of g l a s s , which they p r o u d l y showed o f f .  I brought some b o o k l e t s along on sea  life  t h a t I r e f e r r e d to i n order to i d e n t i f y what the  students  brought to show me.  "They're having  the time of t h e i r  The classroom  teacher s a i d ,  lives."  Sea l i f e c o l l e c t i o n .  Students p u t t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s  t h e i r l a b e l l e d bags, which I took home to f l a t t e n and  into  sort  out.  The p o s t e r w i t h samples to r e f e r t o , had proved i n v a l u a b l e . Forest c o l l e c t i o n . the hood of my  I p l a c e d the p o s t e r f o r the f o r e s t on  c a r and gave out the l a b e l l e d team bags.  I  should have brought s e v e r a l e x t r a because some team members p r e f e r r e d to work a l o n e . les of  The  students were i n t e r e s t e d i n the samp-  of cedar and d o g f i s h s k i n which I showed to them a t the f o o t the cedar t r e e .  I showed them the canoe b a i l e r which  was  o f t e n made by women a t the f o o t of the cedar t r e e , when the bark  167. was f r e s h l y p u l l e d from the t r e e . students had.gathered  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , not a l l o f the  t h e r e ; some plunged  i n t o the f o r e s t o s t e n -  s i b l y l o o k i n g f o r a cedar t r e e b u t I b e l i e v e t h a t they were savo u r i n g the sheer j o y and freedom o f being i n the f o r e s t d u r i n g school  time.  The team composition needed improvement, s i n c e i t was e v i d ent from the a c t i v i t i e s which teams worked i n c o o p e r a t i o n and which d i d not.  One team member complained  would never win, although i t was obvious  t o me t h a t h i s team  to everyone except him-  s e l f t h a t i t was he who prevented i t working e f f e c t i v e l y . I t h i n k t h a t the f i e l d lesson.  t r i p achieved the o b j e c t i v e s o f the  Some o f my o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t e d to p a t t e r n s o f behavior  which were o f long s t a n d i n g , and o c c u r r e d both i n and out o f the classroom.  The classroom teacher s a i d t h a t she would l i k e to  b r i n g the students back to the beach another  time so t h a t they  c o u l d e x p l o r e to t h e i r h e a r t s ' d e l i g h t i n an u n s t r u c t u r e d way. However, I t h i n k t h a t the s t u d e n t s , i f they are to work e f f e c t i v e l y , r e q u i r e an e s t a b l i s h e d framework.  A variety of a c t i v i t -  i e s around a c e n t r a l theme gave the students a f e e l i n g o f accomplishment.  Many o f the students d i d n ' t l i s t e n to d i r e c t i o n s ,  and t h e r e f o r e d i d not obey them. t r a t e d by a d u l t responses  to them.  The same students became f r u s "Why d i d he say t o stop  t h a t ? " o r "What d i d I do?" they s a i d when a guard about t o u c h i n g an a r t i f a c t . quences o f misbehaviour  spoke to them  Students need to know the conse-  f o r future f i e l d t r i p s .  t h a t misbehaved f e l t t h a t they had been u n f a i r l y  Those students criticized.  Yet, when a student who had sworn i n c l a s s because she d i d n ' t want to do her s p e l l i n g , observed  another  student swearing, she  168. said,  "They swear a l o t i n here, don't t h e y ? " Judging by the v i l l a g e s t h a t the teams made i n the sand,  the students possess c e r t a i n knowledge about the t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e o f Native Indian people.  They drew canoes b e s i d e shores  of Spanish Banks, drew smoke houses and f i s h racks i n t h e i r villages.  They were l e s s c e r t a i n about the shape o f the houses.  The plank houses o f the Coast S a l i s h people have not been r e produced i n l o c a l museums and the Kwakiutl longhouse i n the B.C.  P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a i s the c l o s e s t one to Van-  couver . Review.  On Monday, when I r e t u r n e d to the classroom, I r e -  viewed what had been l e a r n e d on the f i e l d t r i p through an o r a l quiz t o the teams.  F i r s t of a l l ,  I asked a l l o f the teams a  q u e s t i o n and gave one p o i n t f o r each c o r r e c t answer. asked a q u e s t i o n t o two teams; the person answering earned a p o i n t f o r h i s team.  Then I correctly  The students found the experience  interesting. 1.  The t o t a l p o i n t s i n c l u d i n g January 26 l e s s o n were ad-  ded and the winning team was announced. 2.  F i e l d T r i p t o t a l p o i n t s = 10 p o i n t s .  Criteria for  booklets established. , F i e l d T r i p Questions 1.  I n s i d e the Museum we compared the s t y l e o f the Kwakiutl and the Haida  2.  (bear) .  Outside the Museum, "What were we l o o k i n g a t on Mungo  M a r t i n ' s totem p o l e ? " (beaver). 3.  In the Kwakiutl s e c t i o n o f the Museum the Wild Woman o f  the Woods i s  (Tsonokwa) .  169. 4.  The double-headed snake i s  5.  Name two s p i r i t s that came to the v i l l a g e s i n w i n t e r : and  (Sisiutl).  (Warrior-of-the-World)  (Canni-  bal-at-the-North-End-of-the-World). 6.  Museum a r t i f a c t s t h a t we saw on the f i e l d t r i p were and i n the woods  and  ,  ,  ,  (hammerstone, cedar bark, cedar plank, d o g f i s h  s k i n , canoe b a i l e r ) . 7.  What Indian c u l t u r e a r e we l e a r n i n g about, why?  (Kwakiutl, because most o f us i n the c l a s s a r e K w a k i u t l ) . 8.  Why do we want to l e a r n about how your ancestors l i v e d  and what they d i d i n t h e i r l i v e s ?  (to understand how much has  changed and what i s the same). 9.  What d i d they make out o f stone, bone, s h e l l ?  stone, awl, c u t t i n g 10.  (hammer-  edge).  What was an arrowhead used f o r ?  (to k i l l  animals  such  as d e e r ) . 11.  D i d Indian people wear arrowheads?  (No)  What j e w e l -  l e r y d i d they wear? ( s h e l l s s t r u n g on sinew). 12.  What s p i r i t brought winter?  13.  What was the f i l m Augusta  Shuswap p e o p l e ) .  (Warrior-of-the-World).  about?  (an ancestor o f some  P l a t e 8.  Parent resource person demonstrating n e t t i n g needle.  the  171.  Parent resource person the n e t t i n g needle.  demonstrating  172.  P l a t e 11.  Making the f i s h k n i f e by  filing.  173. Lesson 4.  F i s h i n g , a Major Occupation  Objectives To i n t r o d u c e the students to salmon f i s h i n g , the major o c c u p a t i o n o f the Kwakiutl people on the Northwest  Coast.  To r e l a t e the f i e l d t r i p to the beach and seashore (the p r e v i o u s lesson) to the l i f e o f the Kwakiutl f i s h e r m a n — t r a d i t i o n a l and  contemporary.  Resources Film;  N.F.B., #1438, "The Salmon People."  Parent resource person:  Fisherman  U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology:  Fish knife, dogfish  skin  Materials Cedar h a l f rounds p r e - c u t , s l a t e , s h u t t l e s les),  twine, net,  ( n e t t i n g need-  hooks.  Worksheet - B.C.  Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n Lesson A i d s S e r v i c e ,  F i s h i n g Implements o f the Northwest  Coast.  Baked salmon, ban-  nock, s e r v i e t t e s . Method/Organization o f the Classroom 10:00  a.m.  I n t r o d u c t i o n to f i s h i n g .  Students were given  p i e c e s o f baked salmon and bannock to eat as p a r t o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n to f i s h . people.  Salmon was  the b a s i c food f o r the Kwakiutl  Indian legends r e f e r r e d to the salmon not as f i s h , but  as people l i v i n g i n a g r e a t wooden house under the sea. summer they  (the salmon) sent t h e i r young men  Every  and women to meet  the Kwakiutl people and give of themselves k i u t l to s u r v i v e . made i t s way  A f t e r the salmon was  to enable the Kwa-  caught and eaten, i t  back to the house under the sea.  the salmon was  The coming of  one of the most important events i n the year.  The salmon had to be t r e a t e d r e s p e c t f u l l y ; each Indian band had i t s own mon  ceremony f o r c l e a n i n g and cooking the f i s h , as the  sal-  people had i n s t r u c t e d them to do. One  o f the students v o l u n t e e r e d to read the prayer to the  salmon from a p o s t e r : Prayer to the Sockeye Salmon 0 Swimmers, t h i s i s the dream given by you, way  of my  to be  the  l a t e grandfathers when they f i r s t caught  at your p l a y .  you  I do not c l u b you twice, f o r I do not  wish to c l u b to death your s o u l s , so t h a t you may  go  home to the p l a c e where you came from, Supernatural Ones, you, g i v e r s of heavy weight. mers, why  I mean t h i s , Swim-  should I not go to the end of the dream given  by you?  Now  my house.  I s h a l l wear you as a n e c k r i n g going t o  S u p e r n a t u r a l Ones, you, Swimmers.  c a t c h i n g nine sockeye  salmon i n the r i v e r the  (After fisherman  s t r i n g s them on a s t r i n g of cedar withes and says  the  p r a y e r , then he takes the salmon home and continues to pray.) The  (Stewart, 1982,  p.  164)  f i v e t r i b e s , as they were c a l l e d  guests) of salmon were: Species  (Wilhelmsen,  Kwakiutl name  1980,  (they were t r e a t e d as p. Run  79) time  1. Chinook (spring)  Sas  June 1 - August  2. Sockeye  Metek  J u l y 1 - September 15  (red)  15  175. 3.  Humpback (pink)  Hanon  August  15-31  4.  Dog  Gwaxnis  October  1 - November 2 5  5.  Coho  Dzawun  Late f a l l ,  (chum) (silver)  10:00 d i d we  a.m.  "We  are l e a r n i n g about  Indian t r a d i t i o n s .  go to the beach on our f i e l d t r i p ?  on the beaches of Indian v i l l a g e s ?  early winter Why  What u s u a l l y happened  When you drew your  villages  i n the sand a t Spanish Banks, s e v e r a l of you drew smoke houses and f i s h d r y i n g r a c k s .  How  many of you have been f i s h i n g ?  i s r e l a t e d to a fisherman? "Salmon was occupation.  Who  wants to be a fisherman?"  a b a s i c food and f i s h i n g was  What does t h a t mean?  I t was  every summer the salmon sent t h e i r young men the Kwakiutl people and gave of themselves to e a t .  always a major  There were many t r a d i t i o n s  and legends connected with the salmon.  would have something  Who  believed  that  and women to meet  so t h a t the people  When the salmon were caught  and  eaten, and the bones were r e t u r n e d to the water, they r e g a i n e d form again as a f i s h and r e t u r n e d t o the home a t the bottom of the sea  (Drucker, 1965,  p. 85).  T h e r e f o r e , the salmon had to  be r e s p e c t e d , and t r e a t e d i n a s p e c i a l way.  Salmon had r e q u i r e d  a s p e c i a l ceremony; each band had a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ceremony. The proper means of c l e a n i n g and cooking was Indians by the salmon people 10:10-10:40 a.m.  r e v e a l e d to Native  themselves."  A parent resource person who  i s a Kwa-  k i u t l fisherman agreed to share with the c l a s s h i s experience gained a t sea s i n c e he was  11 years o l d .  He d i s c u s s e d t r a d i -  t i o n s t h a t he c o u l d remember and s a i d that once he saw fishermen s a y i n g prayers b e f o r e going out to sea.  elderly  He d i s c u s s e d  176 . the v a r i o u s ways of c a t c h i n g salmon, and the r e q u i r e d equipment. He spoke of a t y p i c a l day:  s t a r t i n g time, weather, jobs on the  boats, what had to be done b e f o r e s e t t i n g out to sea, and what happened w h i l e out a t sea. a fisherman," he s a i d .  "I'm  still  l e a r n i n g about work as  He spoke o f the v a r i e t i e s of f i s h ,  and  l i f e a t sea. Team Work:  A f t e r the f i r s t  15 minutes,  each team moved  up to the next s t a t i o n f o r the next 15 minutes, (10: 40- 10 : 55 a .m.)  1.  Parent  (10 : 55- 11: 10 a • m.)  2.  B.B.  (11: 10- 11: 25 a .m.)  3.  Teacher  (11: 25- 11: 40 a .m.)  4.  Classroom  S t a t i o n 1.  Netting.  team used the s h u t t l e  fisherman  and so on.  Falcons Lions  aide  Thunderbirds  teacher  Parent fisherman. (or needle)  Eagles Each member of the  to mend the net.  Lou  dis-  cussed each item o f f i s h i n g equipment shown on a c h a r t :  hali-  but hooks, cod hook, g a f f hook, l e i s t e r , cod l u r e , h e r r i n g rake, d i p net, weight,  shuttle, float,, p i l e driver, f i s h lines,  k n i f e , and anchor.  He demonstrated  how  club,  to use the s h u t t l e to  make n e t t i n g . S t a t i o n 2.  Slate knife.  B.B.  Students examined a f i s h  from the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology. s l a t e k n i f e were demonstrated. s l a t e blade and demonstrated one end.  how  B.B.  The steps i n making a  began w i t h shaping the  the handle f i t t e d together on  Each student began making a s l a t e  (fish) k n i f e :  ends of the s l a t e were rounded by b e i n g c h i s e l e d , and the blade end was  knife  sanded by f i l e s to achieve an edge.  the  sanded, Wood f o r  177 . the handle was c u t to f i t the blade with a saw. was  then sanded.  Each c u t end  The s l a t e was p l a c e d , sandwich f a s h i o n , be-  tween the two h a l v e s o f cedar and glued t o g e t h e r .  When sanding  the students compared the d i f f e r e n c e between sanding with dogf i s h s k i n and commercial S t a t i o n 3.  sandpaper.  F i s h i n g implements.  Teacher  aide.  The team r e -  c e i v e d three sheets o f paper; one worksheet and two blank sheets o f paper which were f o l d e d i n t o e i g h t squares  each.  Each square was t o be l a b e l l e d a c c o r d i n g to the p o s t e r sample. Team P o i n t s : the  There were 4 team p o i n t s f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g  following: 1.  Made n e t t i n g w i t h the s h u t t l e  (each member o f the  team). 2.  The team completed  the f i s h i n g worksheet.  3.  Each member o f the team made a f i s h k n i f e blade (2  points). Sheet 1.  Southern  1  s t y l e bent wood  Sheet 2 1.  h a l i b u t hook 2.  Northern s t y l e h a l i b u t hook  3.  Northern s t y l e b l a c k cod hook  4.  Small weight o r s i n k e r to h o l d down net  2.  Net needle o r s h u t t l e f o r making o r mending nets  3.  F l o a t used f o r h o l d i n g up  Gaff hook w i t h detachable  e i t h e r a n e t or hook and  head  line  5.  L e i s t e r spear head  6.  H e r r i n g rake  4.  Stone p i l e - d r i v e r t o d r i v e stakes i n t o r i v e r bed  178. 7.  Net used f o r small f i s h —  5  oolichan 8.  Cedar rope was used f o r fishline  Lure f o r cod  (Dried and t w i s t e d k e l p used for  fishlines)  6  Club used f o r k i l l i n g  7  Metal k n i f e used f o r c u t t i n g salmon.  Ground  fish  slate  before contact Stone anchor used f o r a deep s e t cod l i n e Sheet 1  Sheet 2  S t a t i o n 4.  F i s h i n g implements.  Classroom t e a c h e r .  (Same as  above.) 11:50-12:20.  Film,  "The Salmon People."  24 min.  colour.  Due t o the l e n g t h o f the p r e v i o u s l e s s o n , the f i l m was shown d u r i n g the extended l e s s o n . graphed.  "This f i l m  i s b e a u t i f u l l y photo-  I t t e l l s about the Tsimshian legend o f Sauk-Ai and the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between Raven, the hunter and Salmon woman, who became h i s w i f e .  Salmon woman was the s p i r i t o f the salmon.  "Treat me w i t h r e s p e c t , ' she s a i d .  Salmon gave the Raven  s t r e n g t h and he was s u c c e s s f u l a t h u n t i n g .  You w i l l see Indian  fishermen g a f f i n g f i s h and Indian women p r e p a r i n g f i s h f o r smoking,  and working i n a cannery.  You w i l l see a dance r i t u a l per-  formed a g a i n s t the backdrop o f carved totem p o l e s , masks, and Indian music.  In the o l d days, the salmon was t r e a t e d as a  'Holy guest.'  One wonders whether,  i f we t r e a t e d the salmon  w i t h r e s p e c t today, the salmon would be d i s a p p e a r i n g the way i t seems t o be."  179.  Evaluation The  o b j e c t i v e s f o r the l e s s o n were achieved  proceeded as planned. over.  and the l e s s o n  However, I f e l t exhausted when i t was  I made the bannock the n i g h t before  the l e s s o n and e a r l y  i n the morning, the day o f the l e s s o n , I baked the salmon.  The  morning o f the l e s s o n , I went t o the Museum o f Anthropology t o p i c k up the f i s h k n i f e and to get the p i e c e o f d o g f i s h s k i n .  I  then went to the N.F.B. to p i c k up the f i l m , and then t o p i c k up the guest and h i s equipment. I t h i n k t h a t i n the e a r l i e r l e s s o n I had t r i e d t o i n t r o d u c e too much i n f o r m a t i o n  i n too s h o r t a time.  f i s h l e s s o n , I served  In i n t r o d u c i n g the  the salmon and bannock.  During the i n t r o -  d u c t i o n , as soon as I saw a t t e n t i o n wandering, I moved i n t o the s e c t i o n r e l a t i n g to the parent  fisherman who had an abundance o f  v i s u a l a i d s — n e t s , r i n g s , weights, needles, s i z e s and buoys  ( f l o a t s ) and the students  watched and l i s t e n e d t o him. with ease he d e s c r i b e d students  were s i l e n t as they  He was nervous a t f i r s t , but soon  the l i f e he knew as a fisherman.  The  s a t without moving o r speaking f o r f i f t e e n minutes.  When he d i s c u s s e d  the f i v e types o f salmon,  p o s t e r t h a t I had made.  he r e f e r r e d to a  He d i d not, however, d i s c u s s the moun-  ted f i s h i n g worksheet sample as thoroughly would.  twines o f d i f f e r e n t  as I had hoped he  He knew contemporary f i s h i n g but when he looked  a t the  p o s t e r which i l l u s t r a t e d t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g equipment, he d i d not f e e l competent to d i s c u s s t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g which n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s and b a s i c s k i l l s .  utilized  A l l o f the s i x t e e n o b j e c t s  on the worksheet had contemporary e q u i v a l e n t s which were used by present  day fishermen.  He  spoke with a u t h o r i t y about the net  180.  and the needle.  The f i l m seen a t the end o f the l e s s o n f e a t -  ured the k i l l i n g o f f i s h by g a f f i n g .  I demonstrated u s i n g imag-  i n a r y o b j e c t s , how the p i l e d r i v e r , l e i s t e r , and h e r r i n g rake were used.  The students remembered s e e i n g the h a l i b u t hook dur-  i n g the p r e - t e s t , so they were able to see s i m i l a r i t i e s between the design o f hooks: but hooks.  cod hook, and northern and southern  hali-  They found the p i c t u r e o f the f i s h c l u b d i f f i c u l t  to understand  s i n c e i t looked as i f the hand had a b a l l i n i t .  A l l o f the teams d i d the f i s h i n g worksheet and a l l o f them d i d i t correctly.  I had a sample p o s t e r f o r them to r e f e r t o .  Two  students on one team continued t o work on t h e i r team's worksheet d u r i n g the f i l m . The guest used the blackboard to draw a diagram o f a f i s h i n g boat, the net, and the beach so t h a t the students c o u l d understand  more c l e a r l y how the nets were s e t out.  the sea anchor,  He mentioned  purse l i n e s , h e a d l i n e s , and jobs t h a t men had  on the f i s h boats; s k i f f men, and t i e up men.  When some s t u d -  ents i n the back o f the classroom began moving about and bothe r i n g other students, I suggested  t h a t we break i n t o teams.  One  team ( F a l c o n s ) , had been l i s t e n i n g i n t e n t l y so they were f i r s t to go to n e t t i n g s t a t i o n .  The L i o n s had been q u i e t and coopera-  t i v e so they came t o the t a b l e to work on s l a t e f o r the f i s h k n i v e s , and the remaining sheets.  teams worked on t h e i r f i s h i n g work-  One student q u i c k l y l e f t the n e t t i n g group d u r i n g h i s  team's t u r n , s a y i n g , " I f I can't take the net home, I'm not going to do i t . "  He was one o f the very few who weren't happy  and e x c i t e d by the day's a c t i v i t i e s .  Another student who had  been p i n c h i n g those around her d u r i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  181. immediately knife.  s e t t l e d down when she began working on her  I t was  slate  s a t i s f y i n g f o r the two sons of the r e s o u r c e per-  son to see t h e i r f a t h e r i n the classroom, t e a c h i n g a s k i l l w i t h confidence. that  They were p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s about t h e i r work  day. During the making of the s l a t e k n i f e , i t was  important f o r  the students, when f i l i n g  the blades f o r t h e i r k n i v e s , t o have  a f i s h k n i f e to examine.  The students l e a r n e d by watching  I handled each t o o l , l o o k i n g a t the f i n i s h e d product, and working on t h e i r own  blades.  how then  The students worked with determin-  a t i o n and, as s e v e r a l achieved an edge, i t spurred more on, s i n c e they r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was t h e i r s l a t e was  p o s s i b l e d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t  t h i c k e r than the s l a t e on the sample k n i f e .  Those students who  had been f r u s t r a t e d and bored i n r e a d i n g and  a r i t h m e t i c worked hard to complete knives.  t h e i r s l a t e blades f o r t h e i r  Making a f i s h k n i f e t h a t was  used t r a d i t i o n a l l y  by  Indian people gave e x t r a i n c e n t i v e and p r o v i d e d added enjoyment. S e v e r a l of them s a i d , this?"  I take t h i s home?"  "I want t o take t h i s home t o my mom."  me what the k n i f e was them t h a t i t was i t was  "Can  I keep  The students t o l d I had  told  f o r c u t t i n g up f i s h ; they l a t e r t o l d me  that  f o r removing  used f o r without my a s k i n g .  s c a l e s too.  more than one l e s s o n . minutes,  "Can  The making of a f i s h k n i f e  Since each team had l e s s than  I t o l d them t h a t they c o u l d complete  took  fifteen  t h e i r k n i v e s next  week, d u r i n g the l e s s o n on wood, by adding the wood to the handle. On the F i s h i n g Worksheet, a number of o b j e c t s on i t were i n c i d e n t a l to the l e s s o n .  The o b j e c t s which were d i r e c t l y  182.  r e l a t e d were:  the net, the weight,  and the needle.  While the  net i n the p i c t u r e had been made out o f n e t t l e , the two contemporary nets i n the classroom were made out o f s i s a l nylon.  (rope) and  The f i s h k n i f e should have been i n c l u d e d on the work-  sheet along w i t h some o f the items t h a t the parent brought to the  classroom. I t was d i f f i c u l t to c o o r d i n a t e the time r e q u i r e d to com-  p l e t e the work i n the three areas.  The s l a t e corner took the  l o n g e s t and the worksheet and the n e t t i n g areas needed to be c l o s e l y watched s i n c e some o f the students avoided work i n v o l v i n g w r i t i n g on paper and mastering new s k i l l s .  I wanted t o make  sure t h a t everyone had a t u r n l e a r n i n g how to use the n e t t i n g needle under s u p e r v i s i o n .  Some o f the Thunderbirds were  r e l u c t a n t to move from the s l a t e to n e t t i n g . avoided what was not important team and t h i s became apparent  Some students  to them, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r to t h e i r team members.  Conse-  q u e n t l y , a t the end o f the three week p e r i o d s e v e r a l students wished to be on other teams. When working w i t h teams and t o o l s , three s t a t i o n s was the maximum t h a t c o u l d be handled supervision required.  given the t o o l s a v a i l a b l e and the  I i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f o l l o w i n g week,  those t h a t had n o t worked on t h e i r blades should be t h e f i r s t to come to the s l a t e t a b l e .  The speed t h a t the students worked  v a r i e d w i d e l y i n the classroom and some students needed much longer to complete a p r o j e c t than o t h e r s who worked q u i c k l y and, a t times, i n c o m p l e t e l y . The l e s s o n ended with the f i l m , which the students and the guest enjoyed  immensely.  The f i l m was a l t o g e t h e r s u i t a b l e f o r  183.  the c l a s s as i t combined t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary l i f e , f i t t e d w e l l i n t o the theme o f the l e s s o n . transformation  and  The i n c l u s i o n of a  mask t i e d i n w i t h a l e s s o n to f o l l o w on mask mak-  ing. To Native the present,  Indian people, from the time o f the ancestors  to  the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the salmon had been a s p i r -  i t u a l as w e l l as a m a t e r i a l one. The students were t o l d t h a t a t the end o f the l e s s o n the t o t a l s f o r the teams would be added and the winning team, to be announced on Monday, would go t h a t day f o r hamburgers.  The  student teams had 4 p o s s i b l e p o i n t s to earn so s i n c e a l l of the students i n a l l o f the teams completed the assigned teams r e c e i v e d 4 p o i n t s . end  work, a l l  The team p o i n t s were t o t a l l e d a t the  o f the f o u r t h l e s s o n and the winning team was announced the  f o l l o w i n g week.  184.  185.  186.  Lesson 5.  The Cedar Tree  Objectives To i n t r o d u c e the students to r e d and y e l l o w cedar; to l e a r n about the d i f f e r e n c e s between them, and to l e a r n the  four p a r t s o f the cedar t r e e :  about  withes, bark, r o o t s , and  wood.  Resources Vancouver  Museum - soapberry  spoon  U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology - "D" adze,  "elbow" adze,  three c a r v i n g k n i v e s , cedar bark, cedar plank.  Materials H i l a r y Stewart's Cedar Tree drawing, xeroxed  (with per-  mission) f o r each student. Four l a r g e sheets o f paper, one f o r each team. S l a t e t o o l s , saw, b o n d f a s t , sandpapers,  files for fish  knife. Yellow cedar, r e d cedar b l o c k s of wood. P a i n t , crayons, pens, f e l t s , glue f o r b o o k l e t s .  Method/Organization o f the Classroom 1:00  p.m.  Introduction.  f o r e s t was reviewed.  The f i e l d t r i p to the beach and  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i s h  (introduced  i n the p r e v i o u s lesson) and wood (with emphasis on r e d and y e l low cedar) was d i s c u s s e d . "During our t r i p to the beach, one student t o l d  us that  187. one of the changes d u r i n g the p a s t 800 years was of  the f o r e s t s .  the s h r i n k i n g  The g r e a t cedar t r e e s t h a t were used f o r totem  p o l e s and dugout canoes have become fewer. t r e e s so l a r g e ? "  (the r a i n f a l l  Why  were the cedar  of autumn and w i n t e r nourished  the f o r e s t and the t r e e s were mature t r e e s which had never been cut) . The p r o p e r t i e s of r e d cedar; 1.  The wood s p l i t s  s t r a i g h t so i t was  i d e a l f o r house  planks. 2.  The r e s i n , phenol, acted as a p r e s e r v a t i v e i n the wood  even a f t e r the t r e e was  cut down.  "Who  can remember, from the  t i m e - l i n e sheet s t u d i e d i n Lesson 2, the age of the o l d e s t i f a c t made out of cedar?" 3.  art-  (3,000 B.C.).  Red cedar i s c o n s i d e r e d mature a t 100 years o l d .  The p r o p e r t i e s of y e l l o w cedar: 1.  I t has a f r e s h aromatic s m e l l .  2.  I t doesn't s p l i t as e a s i l y as red cedar.  I t i s more  dense. 3.  I t doesn't have the p r e s e r v a t i v e , phenol, i n i t .  4.  I t takes 200 years to reach m a t u r i t y .  Demonstration stone was  The hammer-  p i c k e d up from the beach d u r i n g the f i e l d t r i p ,  the wedge was how  of the hammerstone and wedge.  borrowed from the Museum.  "Now  I will  and  show you  to use your hammerstones with the wedge"to s p l i t o f f a  p i e c e of y e l l o w cedar l o n g and wide enough f o r a soapberry spoon." Cedar worksheets. sheet.  Each student was  given a cedar work-  Four l a r g e blank p i e c e s of paper were taped to the w a l l .  188. Each sheet r e p r e s e n t e d one category on the cedar worksheet: withe, wood, r o o t , and bark.  On the worksheet there were  spaces  f o r each of the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s , and p i c t u r e s with l a b e l s of each p a r t of the cedar t r e e . follows: (wood).  The students were questioned  "Under which category would we put the plank "Where would we put the canoe b a i l e r ? "  as  houses?"  (bark).  We  read aloud together the prayer a t the bottom of the worksheet. Each team was  g i v e n l i n e d paper and blank paper f o r the prayer  and i l l u s t r a t i o n .  Each of the teams chose one p a r t of the  cedar t r e e and was  given a l a r g e p i e c e of paper to draw and  l a b e l the items made from t h a t p a r t . Team Work: to  A f t e r the 20 minute i n t r o d u c t i o n , teams went  stations.  (1:30-2:15 p.m.)  1.  B.B.  L i o n s and  (2:15-2:50 p.m.)  2.  Classroom  teacher  and Teacher S t a t i o n 1.  Eagles  aide  Falcons  and  Thunderbirds  Slate.  1.  Blades to be completed  2.  Red cedar handles  first.  sanded and glued t o f i t the  slate  blade. S t a t i o n 2.  Splitting  y e l l o w cedar, worksheets  1.  Worked on cedar c h a r t p i c t u r e s and  labels.  2.  Prayer to the cedar t r e e and group  illustration.  3.  S p l i t y e l l o w cedar f o r soapberry  4.  Teams worked on Sea, Seashore,  Team P o i n t s :  The students had  spoon.  and F o r e s t b o o k l e t s .  to decide how  to d i v i d e  up  the work i n t h e i r teams; which students would w r i t e the p r a y e r , which students would work on the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the cedar  tree,  189. and which student would work on the one category t h a t they had chosen. (2:50 p.m.)  V o t i n g on work.  Did each team member  A l l o c a t i o n o f team p o i n t s .  complete:  1.  Fish knife  2.  Cedar c h a r t p i c t u r e s ,  3.  Cedar prayer,  4.  Booklet  5.  Yellow cedar s p l i t by each team member  6.  Clean-up.  Clean-up  labels  illustration  Extra points  Schedule  1.  Thunderbirdis - c l e a n s l a t e  table.  2.  Eagles - c l e a n y e l l o w cedar c o r n e r .  3.  Falcons - c l e a n b o o k l e t t a b l e .  4.  Lions - c l e a n f l o o r , s i n k , bathroom o f paper.  Evaluation During the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the l e s s o n , r e f e r e n c e was made to the salmon and cedar through review o f the f i e l d t r i p . I demonstrated s p l i t t i n g y e l l o w cedar  (which was d i f f i c u l t s i n c e  the cedar was as hard as s t o n e ) , I passed L.T.,  After  the job over to Mr.  the Native Indian student teacher who had been a s s i g n e d  to the classroom f o r p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g three days e a r l i e r . sawed the p i e c e s i n t o manageable s i z e s f o r s p l i t t i n g .  He  He  s u p e r v i s e d a l l students who s p l i t the cedar f o r t h e i r spoons. The  s l a t e t a b l e was crowded w i t h the F a l c o n s and Lions  o f f t h e i r f i s h knife blades.  finishing  When students f i n i s h e d the blades  190.  they went over to the wood t a b l e to saw the handles of t h e i r k n i v e s .  o f f p i e c e s of wood f o r  I t meant t h a t there was  a lot  happening; the students were kept busy and the four a d u l t superv i s o r s found themselves  doing s e v e r a l t h i n g s a t once.  I had  to  watch c l o s e l y the students sawing because some, d e s p i t e being given complete i n s t r u c t i o n s , were r e c k l e s s w i t h t o o l s . upon b e i n g t o l d to watch h i s hand, s a i d ,  "I'm  tough,  One  I can  boy, take  it. " Prayer to a Young Cedar Tree. chart) which the students had to the f o r e s t . team was  I read the prayer  (from the  f i r s t heard d u r i n g the f i e l d  The cedar worksheet i n c l u d e d the p r a y e r .  trip Each  assigned to w r i t e the cedar prayer and on a separate  p i e c e o f paper draw what they thought were the most uses of red cedar. them completed  Two  important  teams wrote out the p r a y e r , but none of  the p i c t u r e due  to l a c k of time.  Sea, Seashore and F o r e s t B o o k l e t s .  While  I had t o l d  the  teams to complete the b o o k l e t s , I d i d not s e t out the m a t e r i a l s f o r the students soon enough, so the students d i d not complete t h e i r booklets. Cedar Worksheet c a t e g o r i e s .  I used the cedar worksheet to  make a heading on each o f four p i e c e s of c h a r t paper. was  g i v e n one  ence.  to complete,  u s i n g the cedar worksheet f o r r e f e r -  Three out of f o u r teams completed  and i l l u s t r a t e d i t . a t i v e and d i d not  The  one of the c a t e g o r i e s  f o u r t h team, the L i o n s , were uncooper-  finish.  I t r i e d to get some suggestions about c r i t e r i a f o r completed  Each team  work.  for points  The students were good a t s u g g e s t i n g r e a s -  onable a l l o c a t i o n o f p o i n t s f o r each p i e c e of work but, when i t  1.91.  came to t h i n k i n g about what a good f i n i s h e d product should look like,  they seemed u n i n t e r e s t e d .  haven't  I t h i n k t h i s i s because they  had the o p p o r t u n i t y to e s t a b l i s h standards o f t h i s k i n d .  S u r p r i s i n g l y , more work was apparent  d u r i n g the l e s s o n .  pleted their f i s h  a c t u a l l y completed  A l l of the students present com-  k n i v e s ; most of them c u t a p i e c e of y e l l o w  cedar to be used to make soapberry I spoke to one  spoons f o r the next l e s s o n .  student about the p i c t u r e her team would  make, showing what they thought was cedar.  She s a i d ,  if  the most important  use f o r  "Where i s there something to copy?"  her to look a t the cedar worksheet. difficult  than seemed  I told  Some students found i t  to draw u s i n g t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n and they f e l t  happier  they c o u l d copy something because they aimed f o r r e a l i s m . A f t e r the students had been working on t h e i r p r o j e c t s f o r  Ik hours, tion.  I n o t i c e d a breakdown i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t and  concentra-  They needed to be guided from one a c t i v i t y i n t o the next.  Once the Falcons and Lions had completed  t h e i r k n i v e s and  split  y e l l o w cedar, they were not i n t e r e s t e d i n doing the cedar prayer or  the cedar worksheet.  The  team format, where groups of s t u d -  ents worked together a t t a b l e s or i n the corner on a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t , seemed to encourage those not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d to wander a i m l e s s l y about d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h e i r team had work to  do. The  j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s next door was  stretching  hide o u t s i d e our classroom and b e f o r e long some o f our were going o u t s i d e to watch.  My  o u t s i d e because t h e i r teacher was  deer  students  c l a s s c o u l d not j o i n the c l a s s busy w i t h h i s own  students.  192. Perhaps we was  should have a l l gone out, had a look, found out what  happening, and  returned.  Four students worked b u s i l y n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a l l of the f u s i o n of the l a t t e r p a r t o f the l e s s o n . a l l y and two  S i x worked s p o r a d i c - .  undertook p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e by s i t t i n g  and doing l i t t l e .  Two  con-  quietly  of the students were absent and  seven  r e f u s e d to do any r e a d i n g or drawing. Classroom  Behaviour:  1.  The students d i d not read i n s t r u c t i o n s posted f o r team  2.  They d i d not l i s t e n to v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s and  work.  e d l y asked  for c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  3.  They became d i s t u r b e d by change i n r o u t i n e .  4.  They became r e s t l e s s a f t e r one hour of a c t i v i t y ,  matter how 25  repeat-  interesting.  They needed changes i n a c t i v i t y  no every  minutes. 5.  They d i d not move e a s i l y from one a c t i v i t y t o another;  they o f t e n had d i f f i c u l t y s e t t l i n g down.  I f the teacher  not present to d i r e c t t r a n s i t i o n , they d i d not make i t on  was their  own. 6.  They needed a c t i v i t i e s t h a t d i d not r e q u i r e very much  r e a d i n g , or they became d i s c o u r a g e d and stopped r e a d i n g . working w i t h t o o l s , they needed c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . they d i d not i n j u r e themselves,  When  Although  they c o u l d have damaged the  tools. 7.  They r e q u i r e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were i n t e r e s t i n g ,  d i d not i n v o l v e very much e x p l a n a t i o n : too d i f f i c u l t .  Within a three graded  but  c h a l l e n g i n g , but not  classroom, w i t h a range  193.  i n academic a b i l i t y ,  i t i s very d i f f i c u l t  to prepare work based  on i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programmes. The d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t I had i n t h i s l e s s o n were perhaps i n g to s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s :  the team complexion  ow-  had changed  because four students had t r a d e d p l a c e s ; the classroom teacher had t o l e a v e the classroom f o r the a f t e r n o o n w i t h a student; there was a new person i n the classroom teacher).  (Mr. L.T., the.student  The c l a s s next door was doing something  t h a t seemed  i n t e r e s t i n g and, once the students i n my c l a s s who don't r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , o r drawing had completed was fun, they m e n t a l l y packed up.  what they  enjoy  thought  Most o f t h e students who  found i t d i f f i c u l t  to work were on the Lions team.  v i o u s t h a t working  to earn p o i n t s f o r the team was n o t something  t h a t i n t e r e s t e d them.  I t was ob-  They don't t h i n k i n terms o f l o n g range  o b j e c t i v e s , or team work. Group a c t i v i t i e s  t h a t i n v o l v e d d i s c u s s i o n , p l a n n i n g , and  agreement between members was d i f f i c u l t teams were f a r from c o h e s i v e .  f o r the c l a s s .  The  Yet, to my s u r p r i s e , when I read  out the clean-up schedule, the students s c u r r i e d about i n a frenzy of a c t i v i t y .  Each team earned p o i n t s f o r the clean-up.  Two students even swept the whole classroom f l o o r .  I t was p e r -  haps a r e l i e f t o do a job t h a t they knew was p r e l i m i n a r y t o l e a v i n g f o r home.  Or, i t may have been t h a t clean-up was a job  t h a t they c o u l d do w i t h c o n f i d e n c e . This i s the second  f r u s t r a t i n g l e s s o n t h a t I have had.  Whenever t h i s has happened, a student has sensed my d i s a p p o i n t ment and given me something  t h a t he has made.  A t the f i r s t  son, a student gave me a necklace t h a t she had made.  les-  On t h i s  194.  occasion  a student gave me a p i c t u r e t h a t he had worked on i n  the c o r n e r o f the classroom. i n f u r i a t i n g , and saddening.  They are f r u s t r a t i n g , l o v a b l e , I think t h a t some of them are so  t i e d up i n knots i n s i d e t h a t they explode a t the s l i g h t e s t provocation.  0  THE CEDAR V/06pV\,'0R.KlMC  LIFE GIVING  TOOLS  FOfS T H E  TR£E  INDIANS  O F TVIE NJORrWWEST COAST  pi? A V E R  TO SPIRIT  CF c e W g , TRgg-Bl^FORE  "LOOK A TM E r-RieMo!  I COME  T O A S K FOR, YOUR,  C O M E T o T A K E P I T Y ONl U 5 ; BE  THERE  MAKE  T O B E . GV O U F O R . T M I S , LPWC A  BA-5K6V.  YOUR. F G J E . N D 5  O  F  ABOUT  ROO"rS WHAT  G~ISA  D R H A S ,  15 K I O T I - l l u q  U S & P , B E C A U S E | T I S VOUC» W A V T H A T  CAMMOT U S E S O U , F O R V X l A R E R.EALL-V I COME  PU LU  THEFiE  R_K1 V ^ R V O UHAVE" .  F © ( < WWICtA V O U C M J K J O T  I S J J O T V U N q F O R . WW O A W E  VJILLINC TO GIVE LIFE. M A K E £ J _ ,  O U T O F V O U_  I A S K .O F V O L ' _ T A K E  OS VOOIZ.  DRJSS _  F O G I A M GoiNff T O  I PRAV CAR.E  FFUPNP, FPUGMP-  T O TELL K ^ E P  • b l C K W C S S A ^ l A V F f S O M M E T H A T I MA.V M o T B E K I L L G P 8 Y s i C K k l e r ^ s OR. W A R , O F R I E N p l?2|  Drawings r e p r i n t e d with p e r m i s s i o n from a r t i s t H i l a r y Stewart, ( c o p y r i g h t 1978)  196.  P l a t e 13.  Carving yellow  cedar.  197.  Lesson 6.  Wood, a Major Technology:  Yellow and Red Cedar  Objectives To extend the students * knowledge o f the use o f r e d and y e l l o w cedar i n Kwakiutl Indian m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e .  To l e a r n  about the d i f f e r e n c e s between r e d and y e l l o w cedar and the prope r t i e s o f the two woods.  To b e g i n t o make a soapberry spoon  from y e l l o w cedar.  Resources Parent r e s o u r c e person: Film:  A Kwakiutl c a r v e r .  Making a Totem P o l e , U.B.C. Space & A.V.  Materials Red and y e l l o w cedar, hammerstones, k n i v e s , sandpapers. A p a i n t e d cedar p l a t t e r , carved cedar plaque, and two carved cedar plaques brought from home.  The f o l l o w i n g items were bor-  rowed from the U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology:  "D" adze,  "elbow"  adze, stone maul, wedges, and t h r e e c a r v i n g k n i v e s . Posters:  B.B. prepared soapberry spoon i n f o r m a t i o n —  Using T o o l s , Making Designs, C a r v i n g the Soapberry Spoon, Team Schedule, and Time Schedule.  Sea, Seashore, and F o r e s t B o o k l e t .  Method/Organization o f the Classroom During the f i r s t twenty minutes f o r a s h o r t review of q u e s t i o n s .  the c l a s s remained together  Students who answered the  q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t l y earned a p o i n t f o r t h e i r team.  The teams  198. were o r g a n i z e d by p l a c i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from each o f the four teams s i d e by s i d e , each seated on a c h a i r .  Team members  stood behind t h e i r team r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , prepared t o whisper a c o r r e c t answer i f necessary.  Only one o f the f o u r team r e p r e s -  e n t a t i v e s c o u l d c a l l o u t an answer.  A student was able to c o r -  r e c t l y answer each q u e s t i o n . Review:  "How long ago d i d Native Indians make t o o l s out  of wood?" (3,000 B.C.). p r e s e r v e s r e d cedar?" an's  "What i s the name o f the r e s i n t h a t  (phenol).  "What was the o l d Indian wom-  name i n the f i l m t h a t you saw?" (Augusta).  made o u t o f t e e t h ? " (a pendant).  "Name something  "Name three more kinds o f  m a t e r i a l t h a t a r t i f a c t s were made o u t o f besides wood, s h e l l , and stone"  (bone, a n t l e r , and t e e t h ) .  our guest t a l k about?" the  (purse s e i n i n g ) .  and the  the message o f the f i l m ? " r e s p e c t , i t w i l l go away.) (fish knife). berry  "What k i n d o f f i s h i n g d i d "We saw a f i l m about  (salmon,  raven) .  What was  (If you don't t r e a t the salmon w i t h "What d i d we make o u t o f stone?"  "What d i d we make o u t o f y e l l o w cedar?"  (soap-  spoon). The i n t r o d u c t i o n to the l e s s o n o f the day f o l l o w e d , and  the guest's  introduction.  Team Work:  Student worked a t one s t a t i o n f o r 15 minutes,  then teams moved up to the next  station.  (2:00-2:15 p.m.)  1.  Student  teacher  (2:15-2:30 p.m.)  2.  Parent resource  Thunderbirds  (2:30-2:45 p.m.)  3.  Classroom  Falcons  (2:45-3:00 p.m.)  4.  B.B.  teacher  Eagles  Lions  199.  S t a t i o n 1.  Using t o o l s on red and y e l l o w cedar.  on red and y e l l o w cedar  ("D"  adze,  To use  tools  "elbow" adze, wedges, stone  maul, and k n i v e s ) . S t a t i o n 2.  Watching an experienced Kwakiutl c a r v e r .  out the shape of a soapberry S t a t i o n 3.  elling  spoon.  Working with c o l o u r on paper.  cover of the Sea, Seashore,  trip.  most i n t e r e s t i n g on the f i e l d  trip.  the  Mounting, l a b -  I l l u s t r a t i n g what was  the  B.B.  Team P o i n t s : ing  Illustrating  and F o r e s t b o o k l e t .  samples from the f i e l d  S t a t i o n 4.  Carving  Teams r e c e i v e d p o i n t s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e l y us-  t o o l s and f o r clean-up.  f o r the soapberry spoon.  The o b j e c t i v e was  to make a design  P i c t u r e s of soapberry spoons, c a r d -  board templates and sample student-made soapberry spoons another a r t c l a s s ) were a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e .  (from  When an hour  had e l a p s e d , the students came together to view the f i l m which reviewed what they had l e a r n e d about working with wood d u r i n g the l e s s o n .  The spoons and b o o k l e t s were not s u f f i c i e n t l y com-  p l e t e to a l l o c a t e  points.  Evaluation S t a t i o n 1.  The student teacher r e p o r t e d t h a t a l l o f the  teams t h a t came to h i s s t a t i o n had used a l l of the t o o l s t h a t each student had understood  and  the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s m e l l ,  touch, and t e x t u r e between red and y e l l o w cedar.  200. S t a t i o n 2. his  The parent resource person had brought  two o f  own c a r v i n g k n i v e s to add to the t o o l s a v a i l a b l e f o r the  s t u d e n t s ' use. A young Native Indian male entered the c l a s s room, a s t r a n g e r , who stood b e s i d e the c h a i r o f one o f the s t u d ents and s a i d ,  "I d i d n ' t know how to carve when I was your age;  i n f a c t , I've never  l e a r n e d how t o c a r v e . "  While he spoke the  students s a t c a r v i n g with s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i d n ' t say a word. S t a t i o n 3.  The classroom teacher noted t h a t the students  had worked hard on the cover o f t h e i r b o o k l e t s and on the p i c ture about a memorable p a r t o f the f i e l d t r i p . of  time, however, they d i d not mount t h e i r S t a t i o n 4.  t i a l l y completed  F i f t e e n out o f seventeen  Owing to l a c k  samples. students a t l e a s t par-  design f o r t h e i r soapberry spoons.  I noticed  t h a t , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the sample designs a v a i l a b l e and templates, some o f the designs by the students contained shapes.  Students who p r i d e d themselves  i t y tended to  t o draw soapberry  asymmetrical  on t h e i r drawing  spoon designs which were  abil-  difficult  carve. I b e l i e v e t h a t the l e s s o n was s u c c e s s f u l because there were  changes i n a c t i v i t i e s every f i f t e e n minutes,  there was l e s s  oral  i n s t r u c t i o n , no w r i t i n g was r e q u i r e d , and r e a d i n g was i n c i d e n tal.  Information t h a t the students needed to know was i n c l u d e d  on a c h a r t a t each s t a t i o n where an a d u l t was i n charge. art  The  l e s s o n o f the day c o n s i s t e d o f working w i t h t o o l s on wood,  something t h a t a l l o f the students, a t the o u t s e t o f the p r o gramme, s a i d they wished to do.  While  the s t u d e n t s ' ancestors  used stone and bone k n i v e s t o shape t h e i r spoons, and sanded  201.  them w i t h d o g f i s h s k i n , the students used contemporary k n i v e s . In  a d d i t i o n to the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s which were achieved, an  u n d e r l y i n g goal o f the a r t programme f o r Native Indian s t u d e n t s , to  enhance t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t , may have been achieved.  a normally d i s r u p t i v e student, who never has anything ing  to say to f e l l o w students, c a l l out,  I heard encourag-  "Way to go, S". ! "  when a teammate gave a c o r r e c t answer d u r i n g the review. I t h i n k t h a t i n order to r e c o g n i z e p a r e n t s ' s k i l l s ,  i t is  important t o use parents as resource persons whenever p o s s i b l e . We had, on t h i s o c c a s i o n , one parent as a r e s o u r c e person and one parent as an unexpected  guest.  Each a d u l t brought  a young  c h i l d a l o n g w i t h them. The  film,  "Making a Totem P o l e , " worked w e l l because i t  f e a t u r e d Mungo M a r t i n , a Kwakiutl c h i e f from whom s e v e r a l o f the students a r e descended, who r e p r e s e n t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e o f the m a j o r i t y o f the s t u d e n t s .  Indian  The students had seen  two o f Mungo Martin's totem p o l e s p r e v i o u s l y d u r i n g a f i e l d t r i p to the U.B.C. Museum o f Anthropology.  In the f i l m , Mungo  M a r t i n was a t work u s i n g the same k i n d o f t o o l s t h a t the s t u d ents had been u s i n g minutes b e f o r e i n the c l a s s : "elbow" adze, and curved k n i v e s . and  "D" adze,  Despite the l e n g t h o f the f i l m  the d e t a i l i t c o n t a i n e d , the students watched i t q u i e t l y  w i t h e x p r e s s i o n s o f i n t e r e s t because o f t h e i r g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n c a r v i n g , and they r e a l i z e d they were watching at work.  a master c a r v e r  The presence o f two parents was an added  stabilizing  f a c t o r i n the classroom. I r e t u r n e d to the s c h o o l and posted photographs taken  202. d u r i n g the previous the soapberry  art lessons.  spoon designs  I l e f t the f i l e  so t h a t those  f o l d e r with  students who  f i n i s h e d c o u l d do so d u r i n g the i n t e r v e n i n g week.  had  not  P l a t e 15.  S k i n n i n g the beaver.  204.  P l a t e 16.  Scraping the s k i n from the  fur.  205.  Lesson 7.  Beaver S k i n n i n g , C a r v i n g , and Booklet  Objective To p a r t i c i p a t e i n s k i n n i n g a beaver, to carve a soapberryspoon, and t o work on b o o k l e t s .  Resources Parent r e s o u r c e person, and a Kwakiutl c a r v e r . Film;  "Tony Hunt, Kwakiutl A r t i s t , " PEMC (#VSO-0344 A2)  Materials Carving knives, f i l e s , carving sets.  sandpapers,  l i n o k n i v e s and wood-  A r t materials f o r booklets:  p a i n t , f e l t pens,  crayons, glue, drawing paper, brushes, and drawing Teacher made c h a r t s :  pencils.  Large soapberry spoon d e s i g n ,  b e r r y spoon design  worksheets.  Method/Organization  o f the Classroom  During the f i r s t f i v e minutes the c l a s s remained for of  a s h o r t review o f q u e s t i o n s . Lesson 6 was repeated.  The team c o m p e t i t i o n  soap-  together system  Students who answered the questions  c o r r e c t l y earned a p o i n t f o r t h e i r team. Review.  "Name a t o o l f o r s p e a r i n g f i s h "  k i n d o f f i s h i n g d i d Lou t a l k about?"  (leister).  (seining).  "What  "What d i d Mungo  M a r t i n carve onto the beaver t a i l on h i s totem p o l e ? " "Why i s a soapberry spoon made from y e l l o w cedar?"  (face).  (yellow  cedar does not have the r e s i n phenol, which would g i v e an unp l e a s a n t t a s t e i f put i n t o the mouth).  206 . The  parent  prepared  resource person  to g i v e a complete  l e a r n e d about the n i n g and  N e x t , he of  the  location  beaver  and  pairs,  scraped  ents  left  and  students  killing  s t r e t c h e d the the  For h a l f tions. tion ted  a board  f a t from  an h o u r t h e  I t was  i n the to the  cooked  the  He  fur. he  stew f o r t h e  skin-  returned to  c h o p p e d up  students'  studthe  meat,  lunch.  of three  more t h a n  s k i n n i n g took  the  students, i n  When t h e  s t u d e n t s worked a t one  because the beaver  students  recreation  where t h e  n o t p o s s i b l e f o r them t o v i s i t  time  come  beaver.  i n a c r e a t i v e drama  f o r t h e team work i n s t a t i o n s ,  added v e g e t a b l e s , and  The  previously frozen,  s k i n on  had  organs d u r i n g the  of the beaver.  s k i n and  He  the beaver.  internal  of a r e a l ,  l e d the  introduced.  l e s s o n on  e x t e r n a l and  dissection,  was  up  sta-  one  time  sta-  allot-  art lesson.  Team Work: (11:00-11:30 a.m.)  Station  1.  1.  Kwakiutl  2.  Teacher  aide  Eagles  3.  Student  teacher  Thunderbirds  Kwakiutl  b e g i n work on  design  carver.  To c a r v e  i f time  permitted.  Station  2.  Teacher  aide.  Station  3.  Student  teacher.  Team P o i n t s : questions previous  and two  After view the  carver  To  Lions,  a soapberry  spoon.  complete  team b o o k l e t s .  To  a soapberry  carve  Team p o i n t s f o r t h e day  clean-up.  Falcons  were f o r  To  spoon. review  They were added t o t h e p o i n t s f o r t h e  lessons.  the h a l f  film,  h o u r was  up,  the  students  "Tony Hunt - K w a k i u t l  Artist."  came t o g e t h e r  to  207.  Evaluation S t a t i o n 1.  The c a r v e r tended  s i t t i n g next to him.  to watch o n l y those  students  Some o f the students c o u l d not f i n d  spoons o r needed another p i e c e o f wood, e t c .  their  I found t h a t I  was kept busy keeping a l l o f the s t a t i o n s s u p p l i e d with  equip-  ment s i n c e the storage space was a t a premium and the t o o l s and equipment had to be p l a c e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t S t a t i o n 2.  locations.  The teacher a i d e s a i d t h a t two students worked  hard.  Two other members o f the team worked p r i m a r i l y on the  beaver  s k i n which h e l d a p a r t i c u l a r f a s c i n a t i o n f o r them.  two g i r l s completed  t h e i r b o o k l e t cover, f i n i s h e d t h e i r  and began s o r t i n g through S t a t i o n 3.  The  picture,  their plants.  The student teacher worked w i t h some students  who had not begun a spoon, and those who had s t a r t e d began  fin-  i s h i n g o f f the c a r v i n g and sanding. The o b j e c t i v e s o f my l e s s o n were not achieved f o r the whole c l a s s because o f the parent resource person a r r i v i n g 45 minutes late.  I began my l e s s o n a t 11:00 a.m.,  so my p l a n n i n g had to be a d j u s t e d .  i n s t e a d o f 10:00 a.m.,  The beaver  l e s s o n was  l o o s e l y o r g a n i z e d and students wandered around between steps i n the s k i n n i n g .  A f t e r the beaver  l e s s o n was over, i t took some  time f o r the students to s e t t l e down.  They were very e x c i t e d .  The o l d e r students from the classroom next door came f o r the beaver  l e s s o n too, so some o f the students i n the a r t programme  acted up f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t .  I had been t o l d by the parent r e -  source person t h a t there would be two c a r v e r s so I planned a s t a t i o n f o r each c a r v e r , but one o f the c a r v e r s had to leave a f t e r the beaver  skinning.  The classroom teacher was absent so  208.  one  o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t  have t o do what t h e the classroom, the  students  tail  teacher  so w h i l e  to monitor  is difficult  The  as p e o p l e  guests  the b e h a v i o u r  i n the  the  volunteer. should  a g a i n p l a n an  excited nature  the o f an  related  students  the a r r i v a l  an  The  to the film,  disturbed their  heard  had  a b o u t c a r v e r s and  t o be  skill  per-  herself.  such  as s k i n n i n g  ability  to cope. should  The be  Artist,"  The  students  a b o u t Tony Hunt, and  carving.  spoken t o about t h e i r  Several students, talking,  featured  they  watched liked  however,  m o v i n g , t u r n i n g , and  twitching. The  class  a  Changes i n r o u t i n e  "Tony Hunt - K w a k i u t l  had  pre-  experience.  the  s i n c e they  them  of a resource  to the c l a s s  art lesson.  o f Mungo M a r t i n .  films  t h i r d was  the  a r t l e s s o n t o f o l l o w a l e s s o n by  Tony Hunt, a d e s c e n d a n t film  of  a r t l e s s o n f o l l o w i n g s k i n n i n g a beaver  directly  Film.  and  take  cur-  beaver.  A l e s s o n about a t r a d i t i o n a l  f o l l o w , not precede  in  people,  would  b e c a u s e two  s c h o o l , and  to c o n t r o l  who  d i d not  son u n l e s s the t e a c h e r b r i n g s t h a t p e r s o n I would never  "I o n l y  T h e r e were t h r e e g u e s t s  guests  occupied w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n of the It  said,  t h e y were v i e w e d as r e s o u r c e  inappropriate behaviour.  not have c h i l d r e n  to handle,  says!"  d i d not view the  responsibility did  students  ended w i t h b e a v e r  stew b e i n g  served  for lunch.  209.  P l a t e 17.  Working a t a s t a t i o n w i t h  classroom teacher on b o o k l e t s .  the  210.  Lesson  The  planned  connected My  with  p l a n was  seen  The by  one  and  the  f o l l o w i n g one  school,  class  said  moans, f e l t  b e e n swept by  student, told  and  about the  I was  of  seen  spread  throughout  t e a c h e r was  t h e s c h o o l was  went t o t h e h o u s e .  and  had  been l i v i n g  the  situation  up by  a l l of  four a l l i e s ,  the classroom  the a r t c l a s s .  The  entire  after  school, with  f a r from  the the  heard house  the r e s u l t  During  this  school, sick.  The  that  period principal  in.  They  were d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e  t h a t someone, o r s e v e r a l h o u s e was  curred,  I had  York v i s i t i n g  persons  then boarded  d e c l a r e d o u t o f bounds f o r t h e s t u d e n t s .  t h e Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and  teacher  c l a s s went t o t h e  the c l a s s .  The  them  Apparently  a s k e l e t o n a t t h e window,  There mattresses  b e e n i n New  to  instigated  and was  in  c a n c e l the a r t  c o n s u l t e d ; t h e p o l i c e were c a l l e d  i n the house.  unfore-  a wave o f h y s t e r i a  away f r o m  basement, a l o n g w i t h e v i d e n c e  order.  However,  a h a u n t e d house n o t  g r o u n d move.  at r e c e s s , at lunch time,  the c l a s s r o o m  8.  lessons  course.  s i t u a t i o n by  to teach  t h a t t h e y had  the h y s t e r i a  taken  t h a t t h e r e was  the  latter  of  in a logical  to choose to e i t h e r  I chose the  had  I was  and  another  f o l l o w i n g week, o r t o a d a p t  the n i g h t b e f o r e students  f o r c e d me  needs.  female  female.  Making  to i n t r o d u c e weaving i n Lesson  lesson u n t i l 1  Picture  a r t programme c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s  circumstances  the c l a s s  8.  up  When t h i s  the Kwakiutl  oc-  collections  t h e N a t i v e A m e r i c a n Museum.  211.  Objective To share my t r i p to the c o l l e c t i o n s i n the New York museums. To use p i c t u r e making to d i f f u s e the f e a r the students had of what they saw or thought  they saw a t the haunted house.  Resources Film:  " S a l i s h Weaving," from the P r o v i n c i a l  Media Centre  Education  (PEMC).  Materials Large and s m a l l p i e c e s o f drawing paper.  F e l t pens, c r a y -  ons, p a i n t brushes, p a i n t , drawing p e n c i l s .  Method/Organization  of the Classroom  The c l a s s was together f o r the f i r s t h a l f hour, d u r i n g which team p o i n t s f o r work completed  d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s l e s s o n  and d u r i n g the week were t o t a l l e d and the winning nounced.  So t h a t the o t h e r teams would n o t f e e l  team was andiscouraged,  I s a i d t h a t the next time we would look a t the team p o i n t s o f the most improved team. I t o l d the students about my t r i p to the Kwakiutl s e c t i o n s of the Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and the Native American Museum. I spoke o f the a r t i f a c t s I had seen t h e r e , made by t h e i r tors.  ances-  I t o l d them t h a t the Education C o o r d i n a t o r o f the Native  American Museum s a i d t h a t some o f the a r t i f a c t s would be r e turned to the Kwakiutl museums a t Cape Mudge and A l e r t Bay. I then turned to the haunted house, w i t h a view to having the students draw p i c t u r e s o f what they had seen by t a l k i n g to  212.  the  students about what I had heard had happened.  I said  that  sometimes we are f r i g h t e n e d by something that we t h i n k i s going to harm us.  "Once, long ago, I had f a l l e n a s l e e p on the bed.  I was alone, and when I awoke I saw t h a t i t was dark and somet h i n g had awakened me.  I heard a door slam w i t h a bang down-  s t a i r s , and my c a t came running i n t o the room and jumped up onto me.  I t was summer, and there had been no wind so i t c o u l d n ' t  have been the wind.  My h e a r t pounding, I walked downstairs  h o l d i n g the c a t f o r p r o t e c t i o n , t u r n i n g the l i g h t s on as I went.When I reached the basement, however, I r e a l i z e d t h a t the c a t must have pushed a g a i n s t the door which made i t slam, and f r i g h t e n e d her.  There c o u l d be no o t h e r r e a s o n . "  I drew my  p i c t u r e on a p i e c e o f newsprint w i t h f e l t pens, d i s c u s s i n g the placement o f the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r and c o l o u r s t h a t I would  (me), the s i z e , the shapes  choose.  I then s a i d I wanted them to draw p i c t u r e s o f what they had seen.  The students were given the c h o i c e o f doing t h e i r  p i c t u r e s i n teams on a l a r g e p i e c e o f drawing paper, o r on smaller  paper w i t h a p a r t n e r o r , i f they p r e f e r r e d , a l o n e .  They  were t o l d t o pretend t h a t they had come home a f t e r v i s i t i n g the house w i t h the o t h e r s t u d e n t s , and t h a t when they opened mouths t o t e l l out.  t h e i r mothers  So, because  about i t , the words wouldn't come  "you r e a l l y wanted your mom to know what had  happened, you had to draw a p i c t u r e to t e l l her about i t : you saw, heard,  their  what  felt."  During the l a s t half' hour o f the c l a s s the students watched " S a l i s h Weaving," a f i l m about weaving, to w a l l hangings.  from s h e a r i n g the sheep  213.  Evaluation As I had expected, the c l a s s was d i s t r a c t e d .  Most o f them  were i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g which team would win, b u t the s t u d ents who had d i f f i c u l t y  s e t t l i n g down to work were on the two  teams t h a t had not y e t won. would "never win."  One student s a i d t h a t h i s team  The students were i n t e r e s t e d i n h e a r i n g  about the t r i p to the museums and o f the a r t i f a c t s made by t h e i r ancestors.  When I t o l d them t h a t a t the end o f the p e r i o d I  would g i v e each o f them a pen from the United Nations purchased  (I had  the pens a t the U.N. b u i l d i n g ) , they b r i g h t e n e d and  a few o f the students s a i d t h a t they would remind me so t h a t I wouldn't f o r g e t .  (They reminded me s e v e r a l  times.)  I had thought t h a t i f the students faced t h e i r f e a r s ely  squar-  i n a p i c t u r e making e x e r c i s e , i t would make the experience  seem l e s s u n s e t t l i n g . the classroom.  I had misjudged  the l e v e l o f h y s t e r i a i n  They seemed uneasy and took a w h i l e to begin  drawing.  One student s a i d ,  enough?"  Two students s a i d t h a t they would r a t h e r w r i t e about  it.  "We've t a l k e d about i t , i s n ' t  The team t h a t won worked on a p i c t u r e t o g e t h e r .  s t u d e n t s , two students d i d n o t complete of  that  Of the 17  t h e i r p i c t u r e s and one  them threw the p i c t u r e t h a t she had done i n t o the waste  basket. I had l i m i t e d success i n d e a l i n g w i t h the h y s t e r i a p i c t u r e making. and behaviour.  through  The c l a s s had reached a low p o i n t i n morale The classroom teacher found i t necessary t o c a l l  i n the Native Indian c o n s u l t a n t t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n to the many problems t h a t had beset the c l a s s d u r i n g the year.  A t the end  214 .  of  the c l a s s one student l e f t c r y i n g , and I l a t e r found out  t h a t he had been punched by another had been jammed up h i s nose by s t i l l  student and t h a t a f e l t pen another  student.  He has  withdrawn from the c l a s s . The students were g e n e r a l l y u n s e t t l e d d u r i n g the f i l m .  It  was, however, probably the o n l y a c t i v i t y they were capable o f h a n d l i n g a t t h a t time.  The f i l m s u p p l i e d the f i r s t step i n the  p r e p a r a t i o n o f wool f o r weaving by showing a N a t i v e Indian couple, the man engaged i n s h e a r i n g t h e i r sheep, the woman c o l l e c t e d the f l e e c e , combing i t i n t o bats and s p i n n i n g i t .  The  f i l m was a good i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the l e s s o n t o f o l l o w , i n which the students would s p i n raw f l e e c e u s i n g a s p i n d l e whorl.  The  students i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c h i l d r e n shown h e l p i n g t h e i r mother c o l l e c t flowers and l i c h e n f o r dyeing. ive  The f i l m was an e f f e c t -  t e a c h i n g v e h i c l e because i t f e a t u r e d a Native Indian weaver  who t o l d the s t o r y o f the p r e p a r a t i o n o f wool i n her own words. At the end, one o f the boys s a i d t h a t the f i l m was " b o r i n g . " Another boy, however, t o l d me w i t h excitement  t h a t h i s grand-  mother had taught him t o s p i n on a s p i n d l e whorl, and t h a t she had a l s o taught him t o weave.  Coast S a l i s h women t r a d i t i o n a l l y  spun wool u s i n g s p i n d l e whorls. I t was a d i f f i c u l t ,  exhausting c l a s s .  The o n l y a l t e r n a -  t i v e would have been t o c a n c e l i t a l t o g e t h e r . t h a t i t would be tough;  i t was.  I had thought  P l a t e 18.  Using the s p i n d l e whorl to s p i n f l e e c e .  P l a t e 19.  Weaving on the l a r g e loom.  217.  P l a t e 20.  Weaving on the l a r g e loom a t the s t a t i o n w i t h a parent resource person.  218.  Lesson 9.  C l o t h i n g Technology:  Weaving-Wool  and Soapberry Spoons  Obj e c t i v e s / A i m s To complete the c a r v i n g o f and the designs on the soapb e r r y spoons. To i n t r o d u c e weaving.  Resources Film: Centre  " S a l i s h Weaving,"  from P r o v i n c i a l Education Media  (PEMC) (#VSO 280, 1978).  Parent resource person. Books:  Gustafson, P.  S a l i s h Weaving.  Douglas & M c l n t y r e , 19 80; Hawkins, E. Basketry. Weaving.  Seattle: Sardis:  Vancouver:  Indian Weaving,  Hancock House, 1978; W e l l s , 0.  Knitting,  Salish  O l i v e r W e l l s , 1969.  Materials For soapberry spoons:  c a r v i n g t o o l s f o r f i n i s h i n g the  spoons, c a r v i n g d e s i g n s , sandpaper. For weaving:  l a r g e loom, two s m a l l looms, wool, f l e e c e ,  cardboard looms f o r each student, wool f o r warping, dyed wool, s p i n d l e whorl, and my own weavings:  l a r g e w a l l hanging, s c u l p -  t u r a l weaving, and a small w a l l hanging. Charts:  B.B. d e s i g n e d .  Warping the loom, vocabulary  c h a r t , weaving wool, f o u r s t a t i o n c h a r t s , S a l i s h weaving t i o n s , p i c t u r e s o f weavings.  instruc-  219 .  Method/Organization o f the Classroom (1:00-1:30 p.m.)  I n t r o d u c t i o n to the l e s s o n o f the day  with a review o f vocabulary i n t r o d u c e d through the f i l m Weaving," seen a t the c l o s e o f the p r e v i o u s l e s s o n :  "Salish  warp,  s h e a r i n g , combing, t e a s i n g , c a r d i n g , weaving,  s p i n n i n g , dyeing,  C h i l k a t b l a n k e t , S a l i s h loom, s p i n d l e whorl.  The vocabulary  was a l s o i n c l u d e d on the weekly The c l a s s remained  s p e l l i n g l i s t o f words.  together f o r t h i r t y minutes  the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :  to consider  the same team c o m p e t i t i o n s t r u c t u r e  was used. 1.  "What were the steps i n p r e p a r i n g wool from the sheep  to the loom?" (shearing, t e a s i n g , combing, s p i n n i n g , mordanti n g , and d y e i n g ) . 2.  "Why d i d N a t i v e Indian people weave t h e i r c l o t h i n g  cedar bark, mountain  goat wool, and dog h a i r ? "  p l e n t i f u l throughout the Coast; mountain  from  (cedar bark was  goat wool was, however,  s c a r c e ; h a i r from white dogs was o b t a i n a b l e o n l y from the Coast Salish people). 3.  "What u s e f u l o b j e c t s were made out o f cedar bark?"  (hats, capes, mats, s c r e e n s , s k i r t s , b a s k e t s ) . 4.  "What s p e c i a l b l a n k e t was made by Kwakiutl people f o r  c h i e f s to wear?" Team Work:  (Chilkat). A l l o f the students were then asked to come to  the demonstration t a b l e . of weavings:  There they saw t h r e e d i f f e r e n t types  one l a r g e w a l l hanging, one s c u l p t u r a l  and a s m a l l w a l l hanging.  These i l l u s t r a t e d  i a t i o n s p o s s i b l e i n weaving wool.  weaving,  f o r them the v a r -  The students were t o l d to  220 continue work on t h e i r soapberry they were not y e t The  spoons and t h e i r designs i f  complete.  students were shown the s p i n d l e whorl and how  used to s p i n carded f l e e c e i n t o y a r n . the l a r g e loom and how  to s t a r t a row  i t was  They were a l s o shown of weaving.  They were  given a supply of dyed wool. A s m a l l cardboard know the p r o c e s s .  loom was  warped up so t h a t they would  The diagram f o r the students to f o l l o w was  put on the w a l l . Team Work: (1:30-1:50 p.m.)  1.  (1:50-2:10 p.m.)  2.  (2:10-2:30 p.m.)  3.  Parent  (2:30-2:50 p.m.)  4.  Teacher  S t a t i o n 1.  Classroom  teacher  Lions  B.B.  Falcons  Carving soapberry  resource  Eagles  aide  Thunderbirds  spoons  soapberry  spoon  Begin design f o r paddle. S t a t i o n 2.  L e a r n i n g to use the s p i n d l e whorl. j- Carded  f l e e c e spun, t i e d i n t o c i r c l e s f o r washing,  spindle  whorl  spun f l e e c e  l a r g e loom S t a t i o n 3.  Weaving on the l a r g e loom. band of c o l o u r .  Each team weaves a  221.  S t a t i o n 4.  Warping up a cardboard  loom and then weaving on i t .  i  Each student f o l l o w s the example on the diagram, then weaves the f i r s t warp.  The  rows with the same wool as the  Weave rows of c o l o u r w i t h p r o v i d e d wool. Film:  of  two  (2:50-3:10 p.m.)  carved masks.  .  During the l a s t f i f t e e n minutes  the c l a s s , the students watched a f i l m c a l l e d f i l m was  s m a l l loom  "Magic K n i v e s . "  of a Kwakiutl legend i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h  traditional,  The masks dominated the myth; they seem to have  a l i f e of t h e i r own.  The f i f t e e n minute f i l m was  an i n t r o d u c -  t i o n to the f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n on mask making.  Evaluation The i n t r o d u c t i o n to weaving was l e s s o n s thus f a r .  I was  a b l e to e s t a b l i s h a framework f o r un-  i n t e r r u p t e d weaving of wool. r e f e r e n c e was  one of the most s u c c e s s f u l  The  focus was  mainly on wool, but  made to weaving cedar bark through a p o s t e r i l -  l u s t r a t i n g a woven cedar cape and hat i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g the lesson.  During the i n t r o d u c t i o n a l l of the students s a t a t t e n -  t i v e l y , and answered q u e s t i o n s by r a i s i n g t h e i r hands. q u i t e e x h i l a r a t e d by the response, to  and i t gave me  I  felt  an o p p o r t u n i t y  p r o v i d e the students with a good background about weaving. I demonstrated to the c l a s s the f o u r s k i l l s  t h a t they would  be u s i n g a t each s t a t i o n , and the students were a t t e n t i v e .  I  showed the students the f i n i s h e d weavings t h a t I had made on a handmade loom u s i n g handspun, nature dyed wool.  They showed  great i n t e r e s t i n them, and examined the weavings c l o s e l y . The change i n the classroom was  notable from p r e v i o u s  lessons.  The f o l l o w i n g r u l e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d by the c l a s s -  room teacher w i t h suggestions from the c l a s s s i n c e the p r e v i o u s art lesson.  The behaviour o f the students had reached a p o i n t  where something  had to be done. f Students who break a r u l e  1.  No t a l k i n g unless about work  2.  No f i g h t i n g  three times d e s p i t e warnings  3.  No swearing  from the classroom teacher,  4.  No f o o l i n g  5.  No i n t e r r u p t i n g  around  are sent home w i t h a note o f ^  e x p l a n a t i o n to the parent. The student may o n l y r e - e n t e r the classroom when accompani e d by h i s o r her parent f o r Va  Two students who had broken  consultation.  the c l a s s r u l e s had been sent  home and were absent the day o f the l e s s o n . The c a r v i n g s t a t i o n t h a t the classroom teacher s u p e r v i s e d took much l o n g e r than I had i n t e n d e d . takes time to a c q u i r e . it  Carving i s a s k i l l  that  The boys l i k e d to carve and p r e f e r r e d  to any other a c t i v i t y .  S e v e r a l of them wanted to begin on  another spoon when something  went wrong with the spoon they had  been working on; f o r i n s t a n c e , i f they c u t the handle too s h o r t or s p l i t the paddle a c c i d e n t a l l y they wanted t o begin a g a i n . S e v e r a l o f the spoons had disappeared and some o f the owners decided to begin a g a i n . only p a r t i a l l y met.  For these reasons, the o b j e c t i v e s were  The s p i n n i n g s t a t i o n t h a t B.B. s u p e r v i s e d  was s u c c e s s f u l f o r the two teams t h a t p e r s e v e r e d .  They spun  lengths o f wool i n t o yarn and worked e f f e c t i v e l y i n p a i r s . student who had mastered  The  the technique showed one who had n o t .  One  student was  knowledgeable about the process s i n c e h i s grand-  mother spun, dyed, and weaved. his  enthusiasm  and s a i d ,  S e v e r a l of the boys d i d n ' t match  "This i s f o r g i r l s ! "  At the weaving  s t a t i o n , the parent resource person d i d a good job s u p e r v i s i n g students on the b i g loom.  She had  the students each weave a  s e c t i o n on the loom a t the same time.  When the next team a r -  r i v e d they e i t h e r continued i n t h a t area or began another tion.  While  a t the warping s t a t i o n , the teacher aide  v i s e d the most d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s . to  The students were r e q u i r e d  the teacher aide c o u l d g i v e them i n d i v i d u a l h e l p .  They  to p u l l the warp threads too t i g h t so t h a t the heavy  board  until tended  cardboard  Each student i n the teams t h a t v i s i t e d began a c a r d -  loom. I was  to  super-  f o l l o w a diagram f o r warping t h e i r looms on t h e i r own,  buckled.  sec-  asked by the classroom teacher and the teacher aide  leave the weaving m a t e r i a l s and c a r v i n g t o o l s behind so t h a t  the students who  had not completed  c o u l d do so d u r i n g the week. had suggested  t h e i r weaving or spoons  This was  the f i r s t time t h a t they  t h a t I leave m a t e r i a l s f o r the students to work  on between c l a s s e s .  They s a i d t h a t , b e f o r e the changes they  had made i n the classroom,  they d i d not t h i n k t h a t they c o u l d  t r u s t the students to use the m a t e r i a l s i n the manner i n which they were i n t e n d e d .  The teacher and teacher a i d e p r e v i o u s l y  had f e l t under s e i g e from the s t u d e n t s .  With improved behav-  i o u r i n the classroom they f e l t a sense of r e l i e f ment about the f u t u r e . a few students may  and  excite-  I t has not been an easy t r a n s i t i o n  and  have to leave the classroom permanently  be-  f o r e i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the r e s t of the students to l e a r n  without f e a r of harassment. ested had  Most o f the boys were more i n t e r -  i n weaving than c a r v i n g , although s e v e r a l of the  the c a p a c i t y to t r a n s f e r t h e i r good eye and  t i o n from weaving to c a r v i n g small The  v o t i n g was  of the students had tions.  The  l e f t to the  hand  girls  coordina-  objects.  f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n s i n c e not a l l  time to complete work a t a l l of the  students would work on t h e i r p r o j e c t s d u r i n g  stathe  week. The  f i l m during  the l a s t f i f t e e n minutes of the c l a s s  brought the students together  and  served  as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to  masks, the theme of the f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n .  The  attentive during  an i d e a l end-to a  full  lesson.  the s h o r t f i l m , which was  students were  225.  P l a t e 22.  Tsonokwa masks.  227.  Lesson 10.  Mask Making  Obj e c t i v e s / A i m s To i n t r o d u c e mask making and to show how  i t was  an essen-  t i a l aspect of the Winter Ceremonials o f Kwakiutl c u l t u r e .  Resources A Tsonokwa and Raven mask made by Parent Resource person. Books:  B a y l o r , B.  They Put On Masks.  S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1974; Hawthorn, A. Douglas & M c l n t y r e , 196 7; Machon, M. Coast.  Milwaukee:  A World o f Faces.  Milwaukee Portland:  Indian Tales of the Northwest.  New  York:  Kwakiutl A r t .  Charles  Vancouver:  Masks o f the Northwest  P u b l i c Museum, 1966; M a l i n , E. Timber Press, 1978; Mason, P. Victoria:  CommCept, 19 76.  Materials For each s t a t i o n : f o r k , and 20 boards.  c l a y , v a s e l i n e , a bowl, a k e t t l e , a Brown paper bags to p r o v i d e four  layers,  f o r each mask, o f t h i c k , c o l o u r e d , medium and t h i n paper. Spindle whorl.  Method/Organization of the Classroom I i n t r o d u c e d the l e s s o n d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f hour o f the c l a s s , by r e a d i n g aloud to the c l a s s from They Put On Masks. The s t o r y i s about mask making i n North American Indian c u l t u r e s and f e a t u r e s the Kwakiutl Hamatsa on the cover, and c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n on Kwakiutl masks.  228.  I showed a Tsonokwa mask I had made w h i l e ground i n f o r m a t i o n to the s t u d e n t s . nature.  At times she was  times r i d i c u l o u s and much loved and  "Tsonokwa had  f e a r f u l and  a two-sided  awesome, and a t other  s t u p i d " (Malin, 1978,  respected,  I gave back-  p. 66).  "She  was  a s u p e r n a t u r a l being represented  a  in  the c r e s t s of many t r i b e s , d e p i c t e d on cedar columns, i n potl a t c h houses, and  i n graveyards"  (Malin, 1978,  p. 66).  "Tson-  okwa 's i n c r e d i b l e powers, her a p p e t i t e , her f e e d i n g , her f e a s t ing,  the f e a s t i n g of the people was  such as the Kwakiutl of g i f t s ,  and  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a s o c i e t y  whose o r i e n t a t i o n was  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth"  Tsonokwa, Giantess  of the Woods, was  to food, the g i v i n g (Malin, 1978, covered  p.  67).  from head to  toe with a heavy coat o f h a i r so Tsonokwa dancers wore bear suits.  She had  l a r g e b r e a s t s and  c a r r i e d a burden basket  her back to put young v i c t i m s i n to eat when she was On her head she wore a mask which had sunken cheeks, and p r o t r u d i n g l i p s . and  eyebrows.  The  hungry.  s l e e p y , h a l f shut eyes, H a i r or f u r i s on the head  " A l l Tsonokwas are sleepy dancers and do  keep time to the music, being a l t e r n a t e l y sleepy and (Boas, 1966,  p.  not  wakeful"  182).  two-sided nature of Tsonokwa was  d e s c r i b e d on a news-  p r i n t c h a r t i n the form of review of the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t students  had  just learned.  ents, we  drew Tsonokwa on newsprint.  the  From d e s c r i p t i o n s given by the  The modeling of the Tsonokwa mask was sample mould d i s p l a y e d f o r the students Team Work:  on  demonstrated and  stud-  a  to r e f e r t o .  Each s t a t i o n l e a d e r gave c l a y and  a board to  229. each student i n the team a t her s t a t i o n . (1:10-3:00 p.m.)  1.  B.B.  2.  Parent  3.  Classroom  4.  Teacher  Lions resource teacher  aide  S t a t i o n s 1, 2, 3, and 4.  Falcons Thunderbirds Eagles  Each s t a t i o n worked on the same  p r o j e c t d u r i n g the whole c l a s s , making a c l a y base f o r a Tsonokwa mask.  Evaluation The  students l i s t e n e d w i t h i n t e r e s t to the p r e s e n t a t i o n  about masks i n g e n e r a l , and the Kwakiutl Tsonokwa mask i n particular.  They responded  w e l l to q u e s t i o n s I asked them about  vocabulary i n the book, They Put On Masks.  The s t o r y i s about  Indian masks i n North America and c o n t a i n s a s e c t i o n on Northwest Coast Kwakiutl masks.  The s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t began t o wane  a f t e r f i f t e e n minutes i n t o the book, when I n o t i c e d some o f the students not l o o k i n g a t the i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  One student p o i n t e d  out t h a t the a l l o t t e d time f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n had gone by and I r e a l i z e d t h a t they were eager  to begin making t h e i r masks.  I f i n i s h e d the book by showing them the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and simply t e l l i n g them the names o f the southwest Indian people who made some o f the i l l u s t r a t e d masks.  The same student showed me a  p i c t u r e o f southwest Indian Kachina d o l l s which were i l l u s t r a t e d i n another book, a week l a t e r .  I thought he had not been  listen-  i n g and had simply been w a i t i n g f o r a pause i n the s t o r y so the c l a s s c o u l d begin t h e i r own masks.  He not o n l y had l i s t e n e d ,  but he remembered the name o f the d o l l .  230. During the mask making, when a l l o f the students were doing the same work, i t was not necessary t o change s t a t i o n s twenty minutes.  every  I t was l e s s d i s r u p t i v e to leave each team w i t h  an a d u l t s u p e r v i s o r f o r the whole p e r i o d .  When each s t a t i o n i s  doing a d i f f e r e n t p r o j e c t o r the e x p e r t i s e o f a s t a t i o n l e a d e r i s important  to share, then i t i s necessary to change.  Other-  wise, i t i s a good i d e a to keep teams i n one p l a c e . The students  1  i n t e r e s t i n making t h e i r own masks was s t i m -  u l a t e d by s e e i n g a completed  Tsonokwa mask, a p a r t i a l l y com-  p l e t e d raven mask, and the c l a y mould used t o produce the Tsonokwa mask.  The raven mask was p a i n t e d and completed  following lesson.  f o r the  The students found the mould, the Tsonokwa  mask, and the c h a r t u s e f u l f o r r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g the l e s s o n , w h i l e they were making t h e i r own masks.  During the l e s s o n , I  had l i s t e d q u a l i t i e s o f Tsonokwa, drawn h e r , and dramatized her a c t i o n s ; a l l o f t h i s s t i m u l a t e d the i n t e r e s t o f the s t u d e n t s . The c l a s s was a success because b e f o r e i t was over a l l o f the students made a mould f o r t h e i r Tsonokwa masks d u r i n g the c l a s s and most o f them completed  a t l e a s t one l a y e r o f p a p i e r -  mache on t h e i r masks, completing the other three l a y e r s on the f o l l o w i n g day.  The students worked c o o p e r a t i v e l y and with  dili-  gence and energy. The s t r u c t u r e o f the c l a s s added to the l i k e l i h o o d o f success.  There was an a d u l t a v a i l a b l e f o r each team o f students  to g i v e h e l p and encouragement t o those who o f t e n f e l t ted.  frustra-  The teacher a i d e worked with one student from another  who had g i v e n up.  team  She had a h e l p e r a t her s t a t i o n , a Native  Indian h i g h s c h o o l student, who worked on her own mask a t the  2.31.  station.  One  student t e m p o r a r i l y j o i n e d another  a f r i e n d cover her mask with papier-mache. was  the o n l y a d u l t who  her team.  worked on her own  The  team to h e l p parent-helper  mask w h i l e s u p e r v i s i n g  T h i s proved p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e ; I n o t i c e d the  students examining source person was  her e f f o r t s w i t h i n t e r e s t .  The parent r e -  a l s o e f f e c t i v e i n q u i e t i n g her team which  contained s e v e r a l r e s t l e s s , noisy students.  She  said,  out!" when some of them began p l a y i n g and g i g g l i n g . q u i c k l y subsided.  "Cut i t  They  She i s r e l a t e d to s e v e r a l students i n the  class. The s t r u c t u r e worked w e l l because students who couraged  c o u l d be helped immediately,  became d i s -  before they l o s t  interest  i n the task a t hand, and those w i t h s h o r t a t t e n t i o n spans c o u l d be a s s i s t e d and encouraged to remain a t the t a s k .  Students  who  d i s r u p t e d o t h e r students by t h e i r a c t i o n s c o u l d be spoken to p r i v a t e l y , or i s o l a t e d b e f o r e other students became i n v o l v e d w i t h them.  They can work more c o o p e r a t i v e l y i n s m a l l groups i f  they are s u p e r v i s e d by an a d u l t w h i l e they help one another. suggested  t h a t two  students watch another student, who  ienced w i t h working with c l a y , work on  h i s mask.  This  enabled us to help students to make the t r a n s i t i o n from  I  i s experformat one  stage to another.  I have n o t i c e d t h a t they o f t e n stop work a f -  t e r success a t one  stage because they are a f r a i d t h a t they  make a mistake was  or " r u i n i t "  d u r i n g the next stage.  One  will  student  r e l u c t a n t to papier-mache her mask a f t e r doing a good job  on the c l a y base. many s t u d e n t s .  The  t r a n s i t i o n stage looms as a b a r r i e r f o r  The teacher aide t o l d me t h a t on the next day a l l o f the students f i n i s h e d the next three l a y e r s o f papier-mache on t h e i r masks.  S p e l l i n g words taken from the vocabulary of  weaving, c a r v i n g , and mask making were l e f t w i t h the classroom teacher.  P l a t e 24.  C u t t i n g i n t o the paddle d e s i g n of the soapberry  P l a t e 25.  spoon.  C a r v i n g the soapberry spoon.  234.  Lesson 11.  Mask Making, Weaving, and C a r v i n g  Objectives To complete stage 2 i n mask making. To complete the process o f weaving-spinning, dyeing, and weaving.  To complete the c a r v i n g  section.  Resources Books: Coast  Kwakiutl A r t (Hawthorn);  (Machon); A World o f Faces  Northwest  ( M a l i n ) ; Indian T a l e s o f the  (Mason); p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d  Dye P l a n t s and Dyeing - A Handbook Brooklyn B o t a n i c Gardens,  Masks o f the Northwest  f o r Lesson 10.  ( V o l . 20, No.  3).  Baltimore:  1964.  Carved t a l k i n g s t i c k , Tsonokwa, Raven masks, woven hat, medium S a l i s h  loom.  Parent resource p e o p l e :  two parents p a r t i c i p a t e d .  Materials Bondfast, brushes, s p i n n i n g whorl, spun wool, dyed wool, carded wool, l a r g e loom, medium loom, i n d i v i d u a l cardboard looms, onion s k i n s , h o r s e t a i l s , enamel b a s i n s , wooden spoon, k e t t l e , c a r v i n g t o o l s , alum, y e l l o w cedar soapberry spoons.  Method/Organization o f Classroom During the f i r s t h a l f hour the same format f o r review was used as i n the p r e v i o u s l e s s o n s . ative  ( d i f f e r e n t f o r each r e v i e w ) .  Each team chose a r e p r e s e n t I asked o r a l q u e s t i o n s on  2 35. p r e v i o u s l e s s o n s , and drew p i c t u r e s on the blackboard which they i d e n t i f i e d a l o u d . Review: 1.  "What i s the r e s i n c a l l e d t h a t i s i n r e d cedar?"  (phenol). 2.  "Where d i d the spoon t h a t we made get i t s name?" (soap-  berries) . 3.  "Name a Kwakiutl c h i e f "  4.  "What d i d you l e a r n t h a t beaver's  for?"  (Mungo M a r t i n ) . t e e t h were used  (carving). 5.  "What i s the word C h i l k a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ? "  6.  "Name the s u p e r n a t u r a l s p i r i t  feasting" 7.  (blanket).  t h a t i s the symbol f o r  (Tsonokwa). "Name something  made from cedar w i t h e "  (sinker, hafted  maul). 8.  "We s a i d a prayer t o two important s p i r i t s i n the l i v e s  of Kwakiutl people. 9. (beaver 10.  What were they?"  "The o l d e s t known a r t i f a c t ,  (Salmon, Cedar). 3,000 B.C., i s  "  teeth). "Name f i v e p l a n t s found i n the f o r e s t i n w i n t e r "  (fern,  b l a c k b e r r y , oregon grape, moss, l i c h e n ) . 11.  "Name sea l i f e  found a t the beach i n w i n t e r "  seaweed, o y s t e r , clam, mussel, 12.  "What a r e these?".  (kelp,  crab).  (Drawn on blackboard by B.B.)  herring  13. materials. teeth,  rake  gaff  line  southern halibut hook  "The o l d e s t a r t i f a c t s were made out o f s i x n a t u r a l They a r e ? "  (wood, bone, horn, stone,  antler,  shell).  14.  "Name the four p a r t s o f the cedar t r e e t h a t was  used"  (wood, r o o t s , bark, w i t h e s ) . I read the Tsonokwa myth and drew the s u p e r n a t u r a l s p i r i t on the blackboard w i t h suggestions from the s t u d e n t s . Team Work:  Students worked i n s i x a r e a s :  carving, spin-  ning, weaving on small and l a r g e looms, dyeing, and g l u i n g masks (1:40-2:00 p.m.)  1.  B.B.  (2:00-2:40 p.m.)  2.  Classroom  (2:20-2:40 p.m.)  3.  Parent r e s o u r c e  Falcons  (2:40-3:00 p.m.)  4.  Parent resource  Lions  S t a t i o n 1. designs.  Completing  Thunderbirds teacher  soapberry  spoons.  Eagles  Carving or p a i n t i n g  Spinning.  S t a t i o n 2.  Weaving on s m a l l loom.  S t a t i o n 3.  G l u i n g papier-mache mask i n s i d e and out.  S t a t i o n 4.  Spinning, washing, dyeing wool.  p l a c e d i n alum mordant  Weaving on l a r g e loom.  Washed, spun wool  (makes wool r e c e p t i v e to dye), then wool  p l a c e d i n dye bath of h o r s e t a i l s .  237. Team P o i n t s : their  best  spinning,  samples  ple, with  glued  a total  end  of  to McDonald's. one  team was  winning. t h a t the  The two  most i m p r o v e d make any  the  large  mask. of  the  voting,  f o r each of  w e a v i n g on  loom, d y e i n g  a t the  For  The  the  asked  six categories  loom and  on  the  points.  and  the  and  a risk  s e c o n d most c o h e s i v e teams t h a t h a d n ' t won idea.  They d i d n o t  Salish  f o r each  Team t o t a l s were added  most i m p r o v e d  t h e r e was  choose  (carving,  small  team was  most i m p r o v e d a p p r o a c h was  strong  to  F i v e p o i n t s were a l l o w e d  thirty  lesson  e a c h team was  used  to  up go  because  t h a t they would o n c e and  c o u l d be  e n c o u r a g e d by that  I  keep  team won  seem t o t h i n k  sam-  thought the  i t would  difference.  Evaluation The new  r e v i e w method was  representative.  tened  to the  questions  to i d e n t i f y with  the  The  remainder of  The  and  students  the  was  an  effective  use  different  types of  had  to l i s t e n  carefully  the  No  one  thirteen  the  e a c h team c h o s e format fun  drawings t h a t  could  identify  t o answer  as  I read  myth, I drew Tsonokwa on  clues  clues  the  and  lis-  t h e y were gaff  line  three-quarters  students  them t h e  the  Tsonokwa  blackboard.  were r e q u i r e d  to give  the  c o r r e c t answer.  to questions  and  to the  i n the  a  questions.  review because the  for visual  aged t o t h i n k o f  watched the  listened carefully  B a s e d on  look  found  teams were a b l e  myth.  to  students  interest.  o r h a l i b u t hook. of  The  successful again:  p i c t u r e s , and  Tsonokwa i n t e r m s o f  the  myth.  t h e y were  dramatization  It to  They  They  had  encourwhich  238. they saw and how  the p r e v i o u s l e s s o n . i t was  A s s o c i a t i o n s between i n f o r m a t i o n  l e a r n e d were given d u r i n g the q u e s t i o n i n g .  For  example, when remembering what p l a n t s grew i n the f o r e s t i n w i n t e r , I t o l d them to imagine  t h a t they were back i n the  for-  e s t , and the students remembered a few more p l a n t s . The o b j e c t i v e of the s p i n n i n g and c a r v i n g s t a t i o n was  suc-  c e s s f u l f o r three out of four teams.  The o b j e c t i v e of the  c a r v i n g was  as some o f the students  had  more d i f f i c u l t to monitor  f i n i s h e d t h e i r spoons d u r i n g p r e v i o u s l e s s o n s and had  them home, some spoons had been " l o s t , " some had been and some were s t i l l  being carved.  spoons.  I t was  some of the team members found between spoons. the classroom was  broken,  At the end o f the l e s s o n each  team had to choose the spoon t h a t b e s t met on f o r soapberry  taken  the c r i t e r i a  decided  an i n t e r e s t i n g process s i n c e  i t difficult  to make a d e c i s i o n  A Native Indian h i g h s c h o o l student present i n appointed to a l l o c a t e the p o i n t s f o r the  spoons, which seemed to s a t i s f y a l l of the s t u d e n t s .  The weav-  i n g s t a t i o n had some success because some of the students to weave and continued on t h e i r weaving.  liked  Some of the boys d i d  the minimum weaving on t h e i r s m a l l looms.  Each team chose a  sample of weaving from the s m a l l looms but few of the worked on the l a r g e loom i n the time a v a i l a b l e .  The  students students  worked hard g l u i n g masks a t the g l u i n g s t a t i o n and dyed a l l a v a i l a b l e wool a t the dyeing s t a t i o n .  By the end of the p e r i o d ,  a l l of the students had a p p l i e d glue both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e i r masks. One  The h o r s e t a i l dyebath was  used by two of the teams.  team spun t h e i r wool but c o u l d not dye i t u n t i l i t had been  washed.  Another team d i d not s p i n t h e i r wool e a r l i e r , so they  239. c o u l d not dye i t u n t i l i t had been washed. not s p i n t h e i r wool a t a l l .  The  f o u r t h team d i d  The h o r s e t a i l dyebath,  a traditional  dye used by Native Indian weavers, gave the wool a l i g h t  grey-  i s h green c o l o u r . The students enjoyed change, but w i t h i n a framework.  They  c o u l d r e l a t e to work they d i d as p a r t of a team e v a l u a t i o n o n l y a f t e r s e v e r a l experiences w i t h the p r o c e s s . the team c o m p e t i t i o n was  The team t h a t  a team i n which f o u r out o f f i v e s t u d -  ents had behaviour problems i n the classroom. won  they c o u l d not b e l i e v e i t .  to i n s t r u c t i o n s .  I saw  When t h e i r team  T h e i r team d i d w e l l d u r i n g the  o r a l review q u e s t i o n s and, when i t appeared good chance of winning,  as i f they had a  team members paying more a t t e n t i o n  They asked me  about the next steps and seemed  more concerned w i t h the outcome than ever b e f o r e . them t h e i r p a t t e r n of behaviour was d i d not seem important.  When t h e i r team earned some p o i n t s i t What was  g e t t i n g them i n v o l v e d i n doing something  c o u l d do, and they d i d n ' t mind doing. had a new  importance  they each p r i v a t e l y  For some of  to pay no a t t e n t i o n to what  began to look as i f some e f f o r t would pay o f f . q u i r e d was  won  What was  re-  t h a t they  not s a i d to them  since i t r e l a t e d to t h e i r d e c i s i o n (I suspect) made with themselves.  that There  was  not a g r e a t r i s k o f no p a y - o f f f o r the e f f o r t , s i n c e they had a l r e a d y achieved a higher score than teams t h a t might have gotten even h i g h e r s c o r e s , and i t was  worth i t s i n c e they  liked  going out together to McDonald's.  They knew t h a t the work c o u l d  be done and they d i d not have n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s about doing i t . During the t r i p to McDonald's, i t was the students out o f the classroom.  i n t e r e s t i n g to see  The two g i r l s i n the team  240. were n o i s y and seemed to be l a c k i n g s e l f c o n t r o l . a t t e n t i o n t o themselves laughing loudly.  They  brought  i n the r e s t a u r a n t by speaking and  They egged each o t h e r on and seemed to be  competing w i t h each other f o r b e i n g the most outrageous.  After  e a t i n g , I drove each student home and I had the o p p o r t u n i t y to meet the mother o f two o f the boys, who seemed happy about t h i s . I met the younger b r o t h e r o f another student t h a t we p i c k e d up from  daycare. The next day was the l a s t day o f school b e f o r e E a s t e r , so o.  I brought hunt.  c h o c o l a t e E a s t e r eggs to s c h o o l f o r an E a s t e r egg  The o l d e r students from grades  r e s t r a i n e d from h u n t i n g f o r eggs. lunch a f t e r c l a s s . day b e f o r e  8, 9, and 10 had t o be  I took three students f o r  One o f the students from the team t r i p the  (she decided not to come t h a t day), and two s t u d -  ents from the f o u r t h team t h a t hadn't won a t a l l .  They were  the o n l y students from the team present t h a t day, and they were the two t h a t had worked hard d e s p i t e two uncooperative teammates.  We a l l enjoyed  the lunch and when I dropped them o f f a t  home, I f e l t glad t h a t I had had a chance to see these three undemanding members o f the c l a s s who never complained  or brought  a t t e n t i o n to themselves. When I thought back on the lunches w i t h the teams o f s t u d e n t s , I r e a l i z e d t h a t they had j u s t begun to see me as a person who was