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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ART PROGRAMME DESIGNED TO DEVELOP CULTURAL AWARENESS AMONG STUDENTS IN AN URBAN NATIVE INDIAN ALTERNATE CLASS: A CASE STUDY by BEVERLEY ANN BERGER B.Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts i n Education Faculty of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1983 (cT) Beverley Ann Berger, 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agr e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f jE&uC*?t\ro The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia 1956 Main Mall V a n c ouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date c9r-robe»- /9f3 ABSTRACT This study documents the design and implementation of an art programme i n an urban Native Indian alternate class. The programme was designed to develop c u l t u r a l awareness and to en- hance self-concept. To obtain the data, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and an Art and Culture test were administered to sixteen Native Indian students i n grades 5-7. The culture test involved the use of o r a l questions, "touchable" objects (most of them from the Museum of Anthropology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia), drawings, and pictures. These were chosen because of t h e i r relevance to Indian culture generally and i n p a r t i c u l a r to the Kwakiutl culture of majority of the students i n the c l a s s - room. The art programme involved Native Indian parents as re- source people. A r t i f a c t s from the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology, f i e l d t r i p s , films, books, and photographs supplemented object- ives of each lesson. The post-test responses on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem In- ventory generally showed no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n scores. Dur- ing the programme, however, students did show changes i n a t t i - tude, and increasingly exhibited p o s i t i v e behaviour. The prob- lems encountered i n administering both the tests and programme were i d e n t i f i e d as being i n a new school with a new teacher, and varying expectations. Responses on the Art and Culture post test showed a 12% improvement. Background information i s provided concerning the history of Indian education i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl culture. The l i t e r a t u r e supports my hypothesis that desire to learn about Indian culture i n school i s regarded as v i t a l by Indian communities, Indian parents, and Indian and non-Indian educators Studies indicate that, although students may not know much about t h e i r culture, they w i l l express an i n t e r e s t i n learning more about i t . Art can serve as a c u l t u r a l resource, and as a means of giving recognition to culture i n the classroom. Art i s an ef- f e c t i v e way to teach b e l i e f s and values i m p l i c i t i n culture and revealed i n a r t . Difference i n culture could mean changes i n teaching styles for non-Indian teachers. They must be conscious of and give continuing consideration to the most e f f e c t i v e ways to teach Native children. T r a d i t i o n a l learning styles are trans ferable to the contempoary classroom. My study supports t h i s view: Indian children learn best, according to the l i t e r a t u r e , when they are taught according to t h e i r own learning s t y l e s : v i s u a l , kinesthetic, and learning through observation. When Native culture i s taught, using learning and teaching styles e f f e c t i v e for Native children, Indian students may increase t h e i achievement across the whole curriculum. This study can a s s i s t classroom teachers i n teaching Indian culture through a r t . i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Chapter I. PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY . . . . . . . . 1 Background 1 The Impact of Europeans on Native Indian Education 1 The Major Elements of Native Indian Culture, P a r t i c u l a r l y i n B.C 13 Indian Art 15 Kwakiutl Culture 18 The Purpose of the Study 2 3 The Sp e c i f i c Reason for the Study: Developing Growth i n Cultural Awareness through an Art Programme for Native Indian Students 27 Preliminary Programme Planning 2 9 Art and Culture i n Education 31 Teaching Native Indian Children and Implications for This Study 33 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 38 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 40 III . THE CULTURAL SURVIVAL SCHOOL 71 IV. TESTS 79 Hypotheses 7 9 Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory 80 V . Chapter Page Testing the Art and Culture Pre-Test at Kumtuks School 82 The selection 83 Touchables 85 Pictures 8 7 Results - Kumtuks 90 The Cultural Survival School Art and Culture Pre-Test Dec. 1982 92 Testing at the Cultural Survival School . . . 93 Oral questions . . . . . 94 Selection of "touchables" 96 Selection of pictures 98 V. THE ART PROGRAMME 9 9 Rationale for the Art Programme 99 Art Lesson Structure 103 Introduction to and Overview of the Individual Lessons 105 Classroom Structure 106 Teams 106 D i s c i p l i n e 107 Adult Resource Person 107 Parents as Resource People 108 Student Needs 109 Stations 110 Team Points I l l Integration with Other Subjects 112 Clean-Up 113 v i . Chapter Page Art Lesson Format 113 Lesson 1: Introduction and Setting 126 Lesson 2: Background on Trad i t i o n a l Kwakiutl Culture . 142 Lesson 3: The Environment i n Winter F i e l d Trip, U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology 158 Lesson 4: Fishing, A Major Occupation . . . . 173 Lesson 5: The Cedar Tree 186 Lesson 6: Wood, A Major Technology: Yellow and Red Cedar 19 7 Lesson 7: Beaver Skinning, Carving and Booklet 205 Lesson 8: Picture Making 210 Lesson 9: Clothing Technology: Weaving-Wool and Soapberry Spoons 218 Lesson 10: Mask Making 227 Lesson 11: Mask Making, Weaving, Carving . . . 234 Lesson 12: Mask Making 243 Lesson 13: The Environment i n Spring F i e l d Trip 253 Lesson 14: Masks and Print making 262 Lesson 15: Prin t Making: Contemporary Art . . 268 Lesson 16: F i n a l Lesson - F i e l d T r i p The Aquarium 274 Summary 280 VI. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY 282 Post-Tests 288 The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory . . . . 288 v i i . Chapter Page The Art and Culture Test 291 Touchables 291 Pictures 292 VII. INDIAN ART AND CULTURE: A ROUTE TO CONTEMPORARY EDUCATION 297 Test Result Implications 297 Implications for Repeating the Programme . . . 302 Pri n c i p l e s Emerging from This Study 310 How to Measure Success 310 Signs of success observed i n this study 310 Parental"Involvement 312 Ef f e c t i v e Techniques Used Here i n Teaching Native Indian Culture Which Can be Used to Teach the Standard Curriculum 312 Teaching Techniques 313 Art Programme 314 If I Were Starting a School for Urban Native Indian Students, I Would: 315 Form a Parent Advisory Committee 316 Implications Concerning Indian Education i n General 317 Implications Concerning Art Education i n P a r t i c u l a r 318 Conclusion 320 BIBLIOGRAPHY 322 v i i i . Page APPENDIX 1. Evaluation of the F i r s t Year of the Vancouver Native Indian Cultural Survival Alternative Programme 3 34 APPENDIX 2. Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory 348 APPENDIX 3. Art and Culture Test 352 APPENDIX 4. Approval for Research Project 360 i x . LIST OF PLATES P l a t e Page 1. Worksheet assignment 114 2. L o c a t i n g an anc e s t o r 125 3. F i l i n g an arrowhead 139 4. Gauging an arrowhead 14 0 5. F i n i s h i n g an arrowhead 141 6. F i e l d t r i p to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology. Haida totem p o l e 156 7. F i e l d t r i p to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology. Tsonokwa 15 7 8. Parent resource person demonstrating the n e t t i n g needle 170 9. Parent resource person demonstrating the n e t t i n g needle 171 10. Making the f i s h k n i f e by f i l i n g 172 11. Making the f i s h k n i f e by f i l i n g 172 12. Using a "D" adze on ye l l o w cedar 185 13. C a r v i n g y e l l o w cedar 196 14. The beaver 20 3 15. S k i n n i n g the beaver 203 16. S c r a p i n g the s k i n from the f u r 204 17. Working a t a s t a t i o n w i t h the classroom teacher on b o o k l e t s 209 18. Using the s p i n d l e whorl to s p i n f l e e c e 215 19. Weaving on the l a r g e loom 216 20. Weaving on the l a r g e loom at the s t a t i o n w i t h a parent resource person 217 21. Mask p u l l e d from the c l a y m uld 25 X . Plate Page 22. Tsonokwa masks 225 23. Some class Tsonokwa masks 226 24. Cutting into the paddle design of the soapberry spoon 2 33 25. Carving the soapberry spoon 233 26. Tsonokwa masks 242 27. F i e l d t r i p to the beach 251 28. A team made an Indian v i l l a g e i n the sand 251 29. F i e l d t r i p to the woods, meeting a rabbit . . . . 252 30. F i e l d t r i p to Stanley Park. A pi c n i c 273 31. F i e l d t r i p to Stanley Park. Feeding a Canada goose 2 73 x i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author acknowledges with deep appreciation the consist- ent and unflagging support and assistance from her advisor, Graeme Chalmers, and her thesis committee members, Verna Kirkness, and Madeline Rowan. She i s further indebted to her husband for his support and encouragement i n the preparation of this thesis. F i n a l l y , the author would l i k e to express her gratitude-to the s t a f f , students, and parents at the Cultural Survival School for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the art programme under study. 1. CHAPTER I PURPOSE AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The writer's p r i n c i p a l hypothesis i s that i f Native Indian children learn about t h e i r culture i t w i l l enhance t h e i r s e l f - esteem and self-concept. One of the best means of achieving this i s through teaching Indian a r t . Learning about Indian c u l - ture through Indian a r t can be done by making use of conventional teaching methods and adapting these to the learning styles of Indian children. Native Indian children are v i s u a l , kinesthetic learners (Pepper, 1976, p. 140;-Ministry of Education, 1982, p. 2). Art classes may lend themselves to e f f e c t i v e teaching for a class of Native Indian children because of the freedom of movement i n art classes, the variety of materials, the children's i n t e r e s t i n manipulation of tools and the opportunity to learn by observation. This study documents the design and implementa- tio n of an art programme i n an urban Native Indian alternate cl a s s . The programme was designed to develop c u l t u r a l awareness and to enhance self-concept. In t h i s f i r s t chapter I discuss the history of Native Indian education i n B.C., the f a i l u r e of Native Indian students to achieve and reasons for such f a i l u r e , some of the steps taken to provide " c u l t u r a l enrichment" for Native students, and the special usefulness of lin k s between the school and the home. I suggest that the teaching of Northwest Coast Indian art may be one of the best ways of restoring to Indian children an awareness 2. of t h e i r own culture and at the same time increasing t h e i r cap- aci t y to assimilate the standard academic programme. Background The Impact of Europeans on Native Indian Education The children i n our schools know that before Europeans reached B r i t i s h Columbia i t was the established homeland of Nat- ive Indian people with unique cultures of t h e i r own. Children are too often, however, led to believe that the Native Indian society was a primitive one, without i n s t i t u t i o n s , laws, r e l i g - ion or any of the other attributes of our own society. I t i s often thought to be a society that has vanished, except for the remnants that may be observed i n rundown sections of Indian re- serves or i n downtown Vancouver's skidrow. Many believe that a l l that remains are c r a f t s , carvings, and paintings. Some children may be aware of the renaissance i n Native Indian art that i s said to be taking place today. But evidences of t h i s are regarded merely as headstones—colourful though they may be — i n the graveyard of Native Indian culture. This attitude towards Native Indian culture has permeated the education not only of majority culture children but also of Indian children. They, too, have been led to believe that t h e i r culture belongs to the past. Indeed, the very object of Native Indian education for many years was to efface Native Indian h i s - tory, language and culture from the minds of Native Indian 3. children. There has, nevertheless, emerged a growing movement for self-determination. This movement r e f l e c t s the desire of Native Indian people to ret a i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y , as d i s t i n c t peoples i n our midst. It i s best known to us as the land claims movement. Where Indian t i t l e to the land had not been extinguished, Indian bands are claiming Indian ownership stretching back to "time immemorial." The newspapers have for a dozen years marked the progress of the movement. At the same time there has been a si m i l a r movement i n Ind- ian education. I t i s an attempt by Native Indians to atta i n control over the education of th e i r children to ensure that they learn about t h e i r own heritage, t h e i r own people, and the i r own past. Its purpose i s to see not only that they acquire a l l the s k i l l s needed to function i n the dominant society, but also that they leave school with a strong sense of th e i r own i d e n t i t y as Native Indians. B.C.'s Native Indian Teacher Education Pro- gramme, established at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and sim i l a r programmes i n each province of Canada are a product of th i s movement. The success of these programmes i s evident through the numbers of graduate Native Indian teachers which to date number over 500 across Canada. Before contact, the Native Indian people i n B.C. l i v e d i n extended fam i l i e s . I t was by an or a l t r a d i t i o n that they trans- mitted t h e i r history, t h e i r language, and th e i r legends from one generation to another. The or a l t r a d i t i o n provided a way of ed- ucating t h e i r children. They were taught by the i r parents and grandparents. 4. . . . for a people whole l i v e s are bounded by a few hundred men and women and children, every b i r t h , every marriage and every quarrel carries a tremendous burden of meaning. Every event i s described again and again. Only i n this way w i l l the children learn what l i f e i s and how i t i s to be l i v e d . (Mead, 1974, p. 71) Children were taught how to hunt and f i s h and such p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s as carving and weaving. They were taught to assume t h e i r s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In addition, they were taught the leg- ends of the people, and of the quest for s p i r i t power--"the sev- ere test of resistance and f o r t i t u d e " (Drucker, 1965, p. 101). Education did not interrupt the child' s everyday l i f e or a l i e n - ate him from i t . When his parents went f i s h i n g , he followed, learning s k i l l s which he would use i n adult l i f e . White men established fur trading posts i n northern B.C. during the early 1800's. These posts were the source of new weapons, new tools, and food and clothing for Native Indian people. Native Indian families l e f t t h e i r v i l l a g e s and relocated close to the trading posts, sometimes far from t h e i r hunting grounds (Patterson, 1972, p. 149). The whites brought disease and liquor to the posts. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the Native popu- l a t i o n declined sharply from the 1830's on. Estimates of population i n 18 35 were Interi o r S a l i s h (13,000); Tsimshian (8,500); Kwakiutl (10 ,70 0) ;. -Coast S a l i s h (12,000). Modern medicine has stopped smallpox epidemics and greatly reduced the incidence of tuber- cul o s i s (but a cure has yet to be found for alcoholism). 5. By 1885 the population for a l l these people had f a l l e n by another f i f t y percent or more. (Patterson, 1972, p. 161) In the middle of the 19th century, Roman Catholic (Oblate), Methodist, Anglican (Church Missionary Society), and Salvation Army missionaries began a r r i v i n g i n B.C. The Oblates of Mary Immaculate arrived i n the 1840's and were forced to learn the Native Indian languages since the Indians didn't know t h e i r s . The 1850's brought the Anglicans and, a few years l a t e r , the Methodists followed. In each case, the f i r s t wave of missionar- ies preached i n the native tongue. Grammars and d i c t i o n a r i e s were prepared for use i n C h r i s t i a n i z i n g the Native Indians. Edu- cation and mission work were interdependent. Once the language b a r r i e r was broken, catechism, s t o r i e s , songs, music, and C h r i s t - ian ceremonies were taught. Educational i n s t r u c t i o n had conse- quences for the whole population, not just the children. As time went on, i n s t r u c t i o n i n English was promoted, Native Indian lang- uages were suppressed and the older people became separated from th e i r children and grandchildren by language. They were no longer required as teachers of the young. Indeed, with the generations speaking d i f f e r e n t languages they could not be. Native Indian children were taught i n a language that the children had not heard at home. They were taught much that t h e i r parents thought untrue or i r r e l e v a n t . Native Indians s i l e n t l y questioned the education of t h e i r children. Some kinship groups became divided into Christians and non-Christians. Some of the people absorbed the new r e l i g i o n s into t h e i r own Native Indian s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s . In the case of well-known Coast S a l i s h elder, Dominic Charlie, four d i f f e r e n t funeral ceremonies marked his death i n the 1970's The fragmentation of past b e l i e f s meant that aspects of Native Indian culture, the product of thousands of years, became l o s t . Songs, dances, and myths, a l l of them connected to t h e i r lang- uage, were no longer passed on. Standard educational h i s t o r i e s make no reference to l i n g - u i s t i c suppression. Because the schools were intended to carry out a programme of acculturation, i t was assumed that language suppression was necessary. This was for the Native Indian's own good. In 1895, the Department of Indian A f f a i r s announced, "So long as he keeps his native tongue, so long w i l l he remain a community apart" (D.I.A., 1895, p. x x i i i ) . Today bili n g u a l i s m as between English and French i s en- trenched i n the Constitution. It i s not considered necessary fo anyone to give up his or her f i r s t language i n order to acquire second. But, as regards Native Indians, the federal government' policy has been not of bilingualism, but of English monolingual- ism. The native language represented a t i e with a culture that the missionaries were determined to overcome, the way of l i f e to be destroyed. The Native Indian r e l i g i o n was viewed as an impediment to C h r i s t i a n i z i n g them. Family t i e s were broken, disease ca r r i e d off Indian leadership, and the people met destruction from alco- hol and the violence associated with i t s use. In the past they had drawn strength from t h e i r shamans, t h e i r language, t h e i r c h i e f s , and t h e i r elders--now they had been led to doubt them a l l and culture was eroded. 7. The missionaries sought to remake Native people. They sep- arated them from the things that had meaning for them—their language, t h e i r names, t h e i r h i story, t h e i r children, t h e i r people, and t h e i r r e l i g i o n . Native Indian place names were re- placed by the names of white explorers. The missionaries saw potlatches as remnants of a t r a d i t i o n that had to be stamped out. In the l a t t e r years of the 19th century, the potlatch became a focus of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . The potlatch, which means "giving" i n Chinook jargon (Drucker, 1965, p. 55), was a t r i b a l i n s t i t u - t ion of Northwest Coast Native Indian culture. The potlatch involved public announcement of a s i g n i f i c a n t event. The host chief, his family, nobles, and commoners welcomed the g u e s t s — chiefs of rank, the chief's family, nobles, and commoners. Each host and guest had a place, had a crest, knew what his r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were, and knew what was expected of his group. If he was of the host groups, he assisted i n seating guests according to t h e i r status. Guests were required to dress and behave i n a way b e n e f i t t i n g the occasion. There was a sense of continuity and permanence, for potlatches were held to honour the memory of a dead chief and to confer his status and p o s i t i o n on his successor (Drucker, 1965, p. 55). Marriage, b i r t h , death, new t i t l e s and names were also occasions for potlatches. The host, family and nobles established the credentials of people conferring honours, and the witnesses, by t h e i r presence, legitimized the occasion. The guests also gave recognition to the people both conferring and receiving honours. People of lesser rank also received names or p r i v i l e g e s from the group (Drucker, 1965, p. 55). The tangible goods, the presents 8. received by the guests, have attracted the attention of observ- ers of potlatches. (This concern has often been not without s e l f interest.) Traders wanted the people to be spending t h e i r time trapping animals, and missionaries wanted them contributing to building a church rather than spending the time i n a ceremony that seemed of no value, and therefore of no r e a l merit. The role that the arts played in the potlatch was consider- able. A profusion of crests, headdresses, cloaks, clothing and jewellery worn by the p r i n c i p a l s made the event memorable. The dancers wore costumes, masks; and the music, accompanied by sing- ing, was more than entertainment; i t referred to the hereditary p r i v i l e g e to be bestowed. The dramatic presentations etched the event into the memory of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . Throughout the pot- latch the native language, spoken and sung, was used to review the legendary history and recent history i n order to validate the present potlatch so that i t could become a part of the complete history of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The basic s o c i a l unit was consolid- ated and the relationship with the extended family was bound more clo s e l y together. The Rev. William Duncan said that the potlatch was an ex- tremely formidable obstacle in the way of influencing the Indians (1887). In 1884, pressure from Indian agents and mis- sionaries resulted i n the passage of a law p r o h i b i t i n g potlatch- ing. The act provided that "every Indian or other person who en- gages i n or a s s i s t s i n celebrating the Indian f e s t i v a l known as the 'potlatch' or i n the Indian dance known as the 'Tamanawas' i s g u i l t y of a misdemeanor and s h a l l be l i a b l e to imprisonment" 9. (Canada Statutes, 1880, p. 47). In 1921 the l a s t public pot- latch was held at A l e r t Bay. The Indians who participated were arrested, and Indian art a r t i f a c t s were seized. The end of the potlatch was the death k n e l l for Indian culture. One United Church minister said that "they c l i n g with passionate resolve to the yaok, or potlatch. That i s our mountain, say they, our only joy, dearer than l i f e . To prison and death we w i l l go rather than y i e l d . Yet t h i s was t h e i r r u i n , wrote Rev. F i e l d " (Patter- son, 1972). In 1906, he wrote, "Most of the potlatch houses have been abandoned, many old totem poles are t o t t e r i n g and the native language has given way to English" (Crosby, 1914, p. 43). This was viewed as a positive sign of the Indians' progress. Indian culture had been mortally wounded. The loss of the pot- l a t c h was the greatest loss of a l l . I t was not u n t i l 1951 that the New Indian Act l i f t e d the ban on the potlatch. The assault on Native society and b e l i e f s spanned the range of t h e i r i n s t i t - utions. Education was therefore not exempt. At f i r s t , schools were financed both by church contributions and by Native Indians themselves who donated land. After Con- federation, the schools received federal government grants as reserves were established. In 186 8 Indian education, and i n fa c t the complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for Native Indians, was placed under the newly created o f f i c e of the Secretary of State. In 1873 i t was transferred to the Department of the I n t e r i o r , i n 1876 Indian Administration was federalized, i n 1880 i t went to the Department of Indian A f f a i r s , and i n 1936 to the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration. Since 1954 10. Indian education has come under the Department of Indian A f f a i r and Northern Development. The schools were run by the Federal government and admin- ist e r e d from Ottawa. The Native Indian way of l i f e was i n d i r - ect c o n f l i c t with that of the dominant white society. Mission- aries and government administrators who succeeded them believed that Native Indian children should be taught the uselessness of t r a v e l l i n g , hunting, and roaming aimlessly. While Northwest Coast people were not nomadic, they did make seasonal moves for f i s h , s h e l l f i s h , and berries. "They should be taught to cultiv- ate the land, to make a r e a l home there and f i n d happiness i n the possession of a good wife and the r a i s i n g of a family" (•Crosby, 1914, p. 43). The seasonal migrations of the Native Indians interrupted Rev. Thomas Crosby's work with the children, so he urged the Methodist Church to e s t a b l i s h boarding schools where the children might be protected from the e v i l influences of t h e i r v i l l a g e s , and where they might become " c i v i l i z e d " more quickly. The Indian concepts of communal use of land, and hunt- ing and f i s h i n g pattern based on seasonal patterns interfered with Western notions of s e t t l e d v i l l a g e s of English-speaking, monogamous, Christian, a g r i c u l t u r a l Native Indians. The purpose of the education of the Native people was to erase t h e i r history, language, r e l i g i o n and philosophy from thei minds, and to place securely i n i t s stead the language, history, r e l i g i o n , and philosophy of the white man. School became the white man's instrument for the assimilation and acculturation of the Native Indian c h i l d . These things p e r s i s t to this day. An e l d e r l y woman at Fort Rae, i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , told l i - the McKenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry i n 1976, "The white man has spoiled everything for the Native people, even our own c h i l d r e n . " By 1900 i n B.C., there were, for Native Indians, 28 day schools and several r e s i d e n t i a l schools, with a t o t a l enrollment of 800 (D.I.A., 1900). Residential schools provided schooling, room and board, intermixed with r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g . The c u r r i c - ulum has been documented i n the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development reports. Removal from t h e i r families was considered necessary to the process of acculturation. The c h i l d - ren were punished for speaking t h e i r own language, and kept from th e i r f a m i l i e s . Yet they were not accepted into the non-Indian society. They were suspended between two worlds. In the late 1930's, D.I.A.N.D. began to take over the op- eration of the r e s i d e n t i a l schools (D.I.A.N.D., 1980, p. 51). The authority of the church over the schools ceased. Schools were operated d i r e c t l y by the federal government; a l l profes- sional s t a f f i n the schools were federal public servants. From about 1950 on, the r e s i d e n t i a l schools were used primarily for secondary education (D.I.A.N.D., 1980, p. 51). P r o v i n c i a l schools by and large met the need for elementary education. Starting i n the late 1960's, D.I.A.N.D. adopted a policy of clo s i n g down r e s i d e n t i a l schools (D.I.A.N.D., 1980, p. 51). As r e s i d e n t i a l schools closed, they were replaced by boarding or group homes. Today the proportion of Native students l i v i n g at home i s higher; the majority of students i n federal, p r o v i n c i a l and band schools l i v e at home (D.I.A.N.D., 1980). This r e f l e c t s the reluctance of students (and t h e i r families) to attend schools far from t h e i r communities. 12. (Provincial schools operated for Indian children operate within the p r o v i n c i a l system.) Funding i s provided under a t u i t i o n and c a p i t a l contribution agreement between l o c a l school boards and the federal government (D.I.A.N.D., 1980). In addi- t i o n to the schools operated by l o c a l school boards, there are band schools operated d i r e c t l y by bands financed by the federal government. In 1966 there were no band operated schools. In- dian control of Indian education began a f t e r 1971, and by 1979 8% of the Indian children i n Canada were attending band oper- ated schools, 53% were attending federal schools, and 39% were attending p r o v i n c i a l schools. The number of band schools i n Canada today i s 100 (D.I.A.N.D., 1980). In 1977 i n the metro- poli t a n Vancouver area, as far east as Langley, Native Indian students attended four types of schools (Alan, 1977, p. 1). P r o v i n c i a l 1,618 students Band 46 9 students Federal 77 students Private and Church (Independent) 2 32 students Although the Native Indian rate of school completion has improved modestly i n the past 15 years ( p a r t i c u l a r l y between 1965 and 1970), i t remains less than one-quarter the national rate (D.I.A.N.D., 1980, p. 49). In fact, the proportion of Native Indian students between the ages of 14-18 enrolled i n schools across Canada has s t e a d i l y declined since 1972-73 (D.I.A.N.D., 1980, p. 49). 13. The Major Elements of Native Indian Culture — P a r t i c u l a r l y i n B.C. Indian cultures i n North America share many s i m i l a r i t i e s . Most Indian people l i v i n g on reserves are l i v i n g on a remnant of th e i r ancestral t e r r i t o r y . Native people have always been close to the land and to nature; many of them s t i l l believed that s p i r i t s inhabit the mountains, the sea, the trees and the animals. Those people sharing common t e r r i t o r y , d i a l e c t , and customs, refer to themselves i n t h e i r language as "The People." Many of the names mean "People" i n d i f f e r e n t Indian languages. For Athapaskan-speaking Indians, "Dene" i s "People." Indian history i n Canada and the United States i s sim i l a r i n the welcome that Indian people extended to the " v i s i t o r s " who subsequently supplanted them. Tr a d i t i o n a l leadership roles needed for the community to function e f f i c i e n t l y centred around the chief, his family, a shaman, craftsmen, hunters, fishermen, and gatherers. The s o c i a l system i n the Northwest Coast had a unique system of rank. Within the kinship system each person held a rank. "Social rank and kinship did not c o n f l i c t with but modified each other" (Drucker, 1965, p. 49). The Native Indian people i n B.C. were divided c u l t u r a l l y between north and south. Northern people included the Haida, Tsimshian, Athapaskan, Northern Kwakiutl, B e l l a Coola and Inland T l i n g i t . The southern people included the Coast S a l i s h , Inter- i o r S a l i s h and Kootenay. The material culture i n the north was notable for the fineness of the dugout canoes and carving of wooden objects. In the south the emphasis was placed on weaving 14. fine baskets and weaving blankets from dog and goat h a i r . Trade goods generally followed a west to east d i r e c t i o n . In some cases customs were borrowed from the trading partner. Tsimshian traded with the Tahltan, and the T l i n g i t traded with the Athapaskan. "The T l i n g i t , e s p e c i a l l y those inhabiting the mainland, were in frequent communication with t h e i r Athapaskan neighbours, p a r t i c u l a r l y for purposes of trade" (Gunther, 19 72, p. 144) . Indian culture had undergone changes before white contact. But with the advent of white explorers and traders c u l t u r a l change accelerated. In explorers' journals, Indians i n B.C. were invariable compared with non-Indians and found wanting. Ethnocentric Europeans regarded Indians as i n f e r i o r because Indian culture was d i f f e r e n t . The elements of European c i v i l - i z a t i o n were missing—books, a written language, and private property. As soon as the value of sea otter skins was discov- ered and a system of trade set up by the English, trade between Indians and traders became intense on the west coast. The In- dians were offered a variety of goods i n exchange for the furs. "The f i r s t fur trading expedition from the Orient came to Nootka Sound i n 178 5, and l e f t John MacKay, the surgeon, to become ac- quainted with the Indians and arrange trading for t h e i r return" (Gunther, 1972, p. 193). Bolts of cloth and glass beads were a few of the desired items. The addition of metal tools brought the a r t i s t i c talent of the Native Indian a r t i s t s into f u l l flower. Through "trade relations and intermarriage, i n t e r i o r tribes such as the Carrier and Tahltan began to adopt the s o c i a l systems 15. and ceremonies of t h e i r more powerful coastal neighbours" (Duff, 1965, p. 58). Ceremonies that were exported i n t h i s way were adapted to the new society. The T l i n g i t , Haida and Tsimshian a l l used the Raven r a t t l e i n t h e i r ceremonies, so i t i s d i f f i - c u l t to determine which group introduced i t to the others. Art- i f a c t s i n museums are remnants of the culture that produced them. The a r t i f a c t s were part of the material culture, and t h e i r carv- ing, painting and decoration gives us a glimpse into how they saw the i r world and how they represented i t . We can understand t h e i r values and t h e i r s o c i a l system through an examination of th e i r a r t . Items that the shaman employed had quite d i f f e r e n t designs and motifs from those used by the rest of the community. The chief used the f i n e s t and wore the f i n e s t . A headdress f i n e l y carved with inset abalone and decorated with ermine and sea l i o n whiskers represented the f i n e s t i n craftsmanship of natural materials. What we see i n museums and i n photographs are outward manifestations of i n t e r n a l i z e d , deeply held b e l i e f s about the nature of t h e i r world, th e i r part i n i t , and the manner i n which they should l i v e i n i t . Indian Art "Art" was representation, i n graphic and sculptural form, of ancestral and supernatural beings central to family history and i d e n t i t y . I t was a material manifestation of values and be- l i e f s held. Art was an important aspect of a l l of the Native Indian cultures on the Northwest Coast. 16. During the past two decades, Native Indians have again been working as a r t i s t s , craftsmen, and c r a f t s teachers. In some B.C. schools, Native Indian a r t i s t s teach Northwest Coast Indian art in the classroom. I believe that i t i s necessary to teach art i n the classroom within the context of i t s culture i n order to transmit the meaning of the art of the past and to understand how the contemporary a r t i s t builds upon his know- ledge of his culture and the strengths of the past. Indian culture i s the root that makes the branches of art possible. The a r t that Native Indian children are taught must connect to the root of t h e i r culture so that what they learn has a r e l a t i o n s h i p to the art of t h e i r ancestors. Carved motifs created i n 3,00 0 B.C. can be of i n t e r e s t to a contemporary stud- ent drawing designs for the f i r s t time. "Why did that a r t i s t decide to carve those shapes out of a l l that he might have chosen?" Talking to contemporary a r t i s t s about how they develop the imagery when creating a p r i n t i s also a way for Native In- dian students to connect with the roots of Indian culture. The past i s drawn upon i n order to create art i n the present. To- day, some Native Indian children attend pole r a i s i n g ceremonies, potlatches, and see art exhibits displaying work of contemporary a r t i s t s . Based on my limited observations i n an urban set t i n g , I believe that they want to learn about Indian art and that they are ready to experience i t i n a d i r e c t way. As w i l l be seen, the art programme which i s the subject of this study, at least from the available evidence, bears out t h i s conviction. Kwakiutl art forms have been rediscovered i n our own time. B i l l Reid, i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y recognized Haida a r t i s t , i n his paper "A New Northwest Coast Art: A Dream of the Past or A New Awak- ening?" has paid tri b u t e to one who, l i k e himself, has led the way: ". . . B i l l (Holm) was discovering the underlying p r i n - c i p l e s of Northwest Coast a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y the northern s t y l e , which eventually became the basis for his important book, North- west Coast Indian Art, which has become the Bible of many Native Indian a r t i s t s " (Reid, unpublished paper, 1979). "On the North- west Coast, a highly developed system for the organization of form and space i n two-dimensional design as an adjunct to the well-known symbolism" (Holm, 1965, p. 92) emerged. According to Holm, "Design ranged from . . . r e a l i s t i c to abstraction . . . Con_ i n t e r l o c k i n g formline pattern of shapes related i n form, colour, and scale" (p. 92). Yet Northwest Coast art was never stagnant, since the "constant flow of movement, broken at rhyth- mic i n t e r v a l s by rather sudden, but not necessarily jerky, chan- ges of motion-direction, characterizes both the dance and art of the Northwest Coast" (Holm, 196 5, p. 9 3). "Some of the most s k i l l f u l a r t i s t s of the southern Kwakiutl are also among the best dancers and song composers" (Holm, 1965, p. 93). "In the south, p a r t i c u l a r l y among the Kwakiutl, the painted forms emphasize, accent and conform to sculptural forms" (Holm, 1965, p. 13). The basic elements of the art consisted of colour, form, and design. Colour used for primary formlines was usually black, whereas secondary formlines were usually painted red. Formlines were "one of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of Northwest Coast a r t " (Holm, 1965, p. 37). The c u r v i l i n e a r l i n e s swell with major 18. changes of d i r e c t i o n and with the position of the design. Form- lin e s usually swell i n the centre of a design and diminish at the ends (Holm, 1965, p. 35). Northwest Coast design included the ovoid which i s used as eyes, j o i n t s , and various space f i l l e r s . Its shape i s always convex on i t s upper side and at i t s ends (Holm, 1965, p. 37). Closely associated with the ovoid i s the e y e l i d shape . . . i t i s " l e n t i c u l a r i n shape, rounded i n the centre, pointed at the ends, and enclosing a round or oval spot suggesting an i r i s of the eye" (Holm, 1965, p. 40). The U form and i t s variants are used i n i n f i n i t e combinations. "Typically, the U form i s thick on the end and thinner on the sides" (Holm, 1965, p. 41). U's may be primary, secondary, and t e r t i a r y with sides as thick or thin as the formlines i n the design, and the U may be s o l i d or cross-hatched. Designs can be configurative; more r e a l i s t i c with animal-like observable outlines; expansive, where animal designs are distorted and rearranged to f i t a par- t i c u l a r space; d i s t r i b u t i v e , where parts of represented animals are so dislocated that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y the abstracted animal. These are simply the basic elements of highly structured art form. Inasmuch as more than seventy percent of the class used i n th i s study are Kwakiutl i t i s pertinent to discuss some of the features of t r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl a r t . Kwakiutl Culture Kwakiutl means Smoke-of-the world; which i s to say that t h e i r greatness was such i n gathering throngs 19. to t h e i r potlatches and ceremonials that the smoke of t h e i r feast f i r e s hung over the whole world. (Boas, 1966, p. xi) The Kwakiutl, or Kwawgewlth, are one of ten l i n g u i s t i c groups i n B.C. They constitute 5.6% of the t o t a l registered Native Indian population i n B.C. today. The West Central Coast peoples, of whom the Kwakiutl are one, together make up 16.8% of the t o t a l registered Native Indian population i n B.C. today: Nuu-chah-nulth (formerly c a l l e d Nootka) 7.4% B e l l a Coola 1.3% Heiltsuk 2.5% Kwawgewlth (Kwakiutl) 5.6% 16. 8% (Tennant, 19 82, p. 10) The Kwakiutl inhabited and continue to inhabit the coast- l i n e of B.C. from the northern t i p of Vancouver Island to K i t i - mat. In the past they l i v e d o f f the sea and forest. Kwakiutl fishermen and loggers of today s t i l l depend on these same re- sources . Before contact with the non-Indian, the Kwakiutl l i v e d i n close harmony with t h e i r environment. Prayers were said to the salmon who, i t was believed, w i l l i n g l y gave of themselves so that Native Indian people could l i v e . Prayers were also said 20. to the cedar tree, which provided raw material for houses, can- oes, and clothing. The land was mountainous, the forest dense, and the coast- l i n e rugged and indented. The Kwakiutl t r a v e l l e d to inland waters i n canoes designed for easy steering and large enough to carry family members and goods. "D i s t i n c t i v e regional designs were modified, . . . i n proportions and l i n e , . . . according to the purpose for which the in d i v i d u a l c r a f t was intended" (Drucker, 1965, p. 27). The dugout canoes of the Kwakiutl combined a l l of these a t t r i b u t e s : maneuverability, conunodiousness, r e l i a b i l i t y . "The Europeans admired the bea u t i f u l seaworthy Indian canoes, some of which were almost as long as t h e i r own ships" (Gunther, 1972, p. 37). The constant r a i n f a l l of autumn and winter of- fered nourishment to the forest, producing trees of large s i z e . These trees were the raw material for fa b r i c a t i n g canoes and for bui l d i n g plank houses to accommodate many related families under one roof. In pre-contact times "the walls of the houses were b u i l t of horizontal, overlapping boards that did not admit paint- ing, except on separate planks" (Boas, 1966, p. 341). The gable roof type of construction, borrowed from northern neighbours, was a va r i a t i o n which provided space for painting elaborate crests. "The most elaborate, te c h n i c a l l y . . . i n clothing, was the "Chilkat" blanket worn on ceremonial occasions by Kwakiutl chiefs and high ranking persons. . . . The blanket was o r i g i n - a l l y worn only by women of the Chilkat d i v i s i o n of the T l i n g i t " (Drucker, 1965, p. 35). It was introduced into the Kwakiutl culture when Mary Ebbets Hunt, a T l i n g i t , married a Hudson's Bay factor, Robert Hunt, and they both came to l i v e i n Fort Rupert. While Mary Hunt wove C h i l k i t blankets, she refused to teach the l o c a l Kwakiutl women the c r a f t . Four women, however, are known to have produced Chilkat blankets" (Hawthorne, 196 7, p. 258). Food production was important for v i l l a g e s of large popu- la t i o n s . About 1835, " i t has been estimated that the aboriginal population on the Northwest Coast was at least 80,000 . . . Native North Americans found l i f e on the coastline more congen- i a l than nomadic hunting existence, . . . " (Duff, 196 4, pp. 38- 39). Fortunately, there were many sources of food along the coast. Spring, summer, and autumn were times for havesting, preparing and storing food. The sea provided salmon, cod, h a l i - but, herring, olachen (Drucker, 1965, p. 15), s h e l l f i s h , seals, sea l i o n and whales. Kelp and seaweed were part of t h e i r d i e t . In fact, the Kwakiutls' main occupation was f i s h i n g . The great variety of f i s h and mammals c a l l e d for ingenuity i n adapting t h e i r harvesting methods to the habits of the f i s h or mammals they sought. Besides using the cedar for canoes, hooks, nets, and clothing, the Kwakiutl used other natural resources. During pre-contact times, stone, s h e l l , bone tooths, and antler were used for spears, clubs and knives. Bits of natural copper were obtained through trade with northern tribes such as the Tsim- shian, who were closer to the Copper River i n the Yukon, the source of native copper. Other metals such as iron were found i n the possession of Kwakiutl people; these metals apparently came from Asia, presumably as the r e s u l t of ship-wrecks or through contact with A r c t i c hunters. The year culminated i n the winter or ceremonial season. Supernatural s p i r i t s , i t was believed, returned to the v i l l a g e s of the Kwakiutl i n winter; secular a c t i v i t i e s gave way to sacred ceremonies. The only secular a c t i v i t i e s s t i l l c a rried on were pot- latches and feasts. Warrior-of-the-world (Winalagelis) was the s p i r i t whose a r r i v a l s i g n i f i e d the beginning of the winter ceremonial. Cannibal-at-the-North-End- of-the-World was also an important supernatural s p i r i t during the winter ceremonials. (Boas, 1966, p. 172) The winter ceremonial began i n December and lasted well into the following year (MacNair, 1973/4, p. 9). I t probably ended with signs of the coming of spring; these would have varied from year to year. Helen Codere wrote that, Franz Boas was one of the few anthropologists who recorded d e t a i l s about the Kwakiutl culture. For over fo r t y years he worked with L"Kwakiutl3 George Hunt to form one of the most productive and enduring relationships to e x i s t between an anthropologist and a member of another culture. (Boas, 1966, p. x x v i i i ) While much has been documented, i n some areas the material c u l t - ure i s a l l that remains of the culture. One gains a sense of the a r t i s t i c and dramatic t r a d i t i o n of the Kwakiutl culture from the number and variety of carved and painted masks i n museum coll e c t i o n s i n B.C. and around the world. The U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology has a large c o l l e c t i o n of Kwakiutl Hamatsa masks owing to the number of masks produced for Winter Ceremonials. Of these, "transformation masks involving multiple i d e n t i t y , ex- emplifying the complexity of the Kwakiutl mythology," (Hawthorne, 196 7, p. 2 38) are the most complex with t h e i r removable parts and hinged portions. Simpler, but s t r i k i n g masks representing birds, animals, f i s h , k i l l e r whales, and representing super- natural beings: Bookwus (Wild Man of the Woods), Tsonokwa (Wild Woman of the Woods), and Komokwa (King of the Undersea World), reveal the variety of Kwakiutl masks. Conventions of carving and painting were followed but, within that framework of con- vention, imaginative use of materials occurred. For example, "a headdress of wood -also c a l l e d dancing forehead masks (Haw- thorne, 1967, p. 165)3, of wood, abalqne s h e l l , mirrors, sea l i o n whiskers,, feathers, down, ermine skins" "was often attached to a head ring of reinforced cedar bark and cl o t h . These mater- i a l s added, i n i n f i n i t e variety, to the t o t a l composition. The Purpose of the Study Recent s t a t i s t i c s compiled by federal, p r o v i n c i a l , and l o c a l school boards have shown l i t t l e amelioration i n the drop- out rate for Native children. The Vancouver School Board Demo- graphic Study of Native Indian students carried out i n 1980 i n - dicated that there were 1,210 Native Indian students i n Vancouver schools, 980 of them i n elementary school, where they constituted 3% of the school population. At the secondary l e v e l they constituted only 1% of the school population. In the same year, i n grades 8-12, among Native students, the drop-out rate was 36%, compared to 5.5% for non-Native students. The greatest number of Native Indian drop-outs occurred at the grade 8 l e v e l where the drop-out rate was 5 9.0%. According to the D i s t r i b u - t i o n Table contained i n the survey, 20.6% of the Native Indian students repeated at least one grade, whereas for non-Natives the figure was 4.7% (Allen, 1977). The most recent s t a t i s t i c s compiled by D.I.A.N.D. are for 1980. These figures indicate that across Canada, Native Indian student enrollment drops d r a s t i c a l l y a f t e r grade 8. In a graph containing the t o t a l Native Indian school enrollment i n pre- school, elementary, secondary, and special education, the pro- portion of Native Indian children enrolled i n elementary school matches national p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l s . A separate graph show- ing secondary school p a r t i c i p a t i o n shows that, although t o t a l secondary education enrollment has more than doubled since 1965, the proportion of Native Indian children enrolled has been stead- i l y d e c lining since reaching a peak i n 1972-73 (Allen, 1977). Native Indian retention rate remains far below those for non- Indians i n B.C. Only 12% who were i n grade one i n 1958-59 en- tered grade 12 i n 1969-70 (the corresponding p r o v i n c i a l figure for a l l non-Indians was 82.6%) (Stanbury, 1975). There i s not complete agreement on the reasons why so many Native Indian students are not successful i n school. It i s clear that not a l l Native children have the same problems i n school. Furthermore; the schools that Native children attend vary widely i n t h e i r recognition of the needs of the Native c h i l d . But Floy Pepper, an American Indian educator, has said that "academic success or f a i l u r e appears to be as deeply rooted i n concepts of the s e l f as i t i s measured i n mental a b i l i t y , i f not deeper" (Jones, 1976, p. 141). She goes on to say that "psy- chologists have found that Indian children have one of the low- est self-images . . . and th e i r anxiety l e v e l i s the highest" (Jones, 1976, p. 134). I t i s one of the hypotheses of this study that Native Indian children don't achieve t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n school because they don't believe that they can be successful. The negative feelings Native Indian children have about school are compounded by t h e i r parents' memories of t h e i r own fr u s t r a t i o n and anxiety i n school. Although the r e s i d e n t i a l school has by and large disappeared, some Native Indian children are s t i l l sent away from t h e i r communities to stay i n boarding homes when there i s no school close to home. The school at Churchouse was closed by D.I.A.N.D. so students now attend school i n Sliammon or Mission. Children, parents, and grandparents are cut o f f from each other, eroding family t i e s . One has only to go to a Native funeral to see how strong these t i e s are. Many Native people t r a v e l great distances to be at the funeral of a member of th e i r family or of th e i r community. The numbers of children of a l l ages at funerals contrasts to majority culture funerals where few children attend. These t i e s are affirmed on such ceremonial occasions. But they are d i f f i c u l t to maintain on a day-to-day basis when attendance at school keeps families apart. It i s , however, the curriculum that l i e s at the heart of the issue. Today, most Native Indian children are educated i n the public school system. I f what i s taught i n public school has no meaning or relevance for the parents, then parents aren't able to reinforce information taught at school; they cannot see school as important i n the l i v e s of t h e i r children. Therefore, Native Indian children are often late or absent from school. More and more Native Indian families are moving to the c i t y so that the percentage of status Indians l i v i n g o f f reserves i n Canada increased from 25.6% i n 1962 to 36.3% i n 1972. The pro- portion of B.C. Indians l i v i n g o f f reserve increased from 14.2% i n 1962 to 34.6% i n 1972 (Stanbury, 1975, p. 1). Native Indian families are leaving the reserves and coming to urban centres to f i n d employment. "Employment and economic necessity was the single most important reason for coming to the c i t y " (Stanbury, 1975, p. 2). Stanbury's 1975 study of Success and F a i l u r e : Indians i n Urban Society found that "Indians who l i v e i n urban centres continue to speak t h e i r native language. Fifty-seven percent of the people attended Indian ceremonies (dancing, pot- latches, and winter ceremonies). Twenty-three percent had at- tended three or more such ceremonies i n the preceding twelve months. Forty-seven percent of the sample made two or more v i s - i t s to the reserve annually (Stanbury, 1975, p. 14). Native Indian culture i s present i n the urban se t t i n g despite the widely held b e l i e f , of the majority culture, that i t i s not. Can the f a i l u r e of Indian children i n the urban schools be relieved? I t i s one of the hypotheses of t h i s study that i t can be by l i n k i n g the strengths of Indian c u l t u r e — a n d i t s per- sistence i n the urban s e t t i n g — t o the curriculum. In this way, school programmes improve the self-concept of Native Indian children. But the school cannot work i n i s o l a t i o n , because of the great influence that the Native student's home and commun- i t y have on his or her education. Native Indian people need schools that understand them, t h e i r culture, and t h e i r children. If schools welcome and involve the Native Indian parents' c u l t - ure and knowledge, they can achieve a f l e x i b l e , developing cur- riculum. Parents, elders and teachers working together w i l l have a common bond—the best interests of the Native Indian c h i l d . The S p e c i f i c Reason for the Study: Developing Growth i n Cultural Awareness Through an Art Programme for Native Indian Students For any c u l t u r a l programme to be e f f e c t i v e , elders and par- ents must be involved. At Coqualeetza, a Native Indian centre i n Sardis, an elders' club began when elders met to share songs, memories, and l o c a l history. Now many of the elders are resource people i n community schools. The members of the Nanaimo Band believe that culture taught by elders at an early age has an ef- fect on the values and behaviour that children adopt. They be- l i e v e that the elders are true teachers. "Those who have kept the accumulated wisdom over the centuries w i l l help i n these 28. troubled times" (More, 1981, p. 91). Developing i n Native students an enhanced c u l t u r a l awareness through an art pro- gramme requires drawing upon Native Indian values, culture, and history. Native resource people must share in the development of the programme, and also share i n s p e c i f i c lesson planning and evaluation. One might ask why Native Indian children are s p e c i a l . Other children come to Canada from countries around the globe. They come not knowing the English language, the culture, or the h i s - tory. They must adjust and learn how to f i t into the dominant culture. Some Chinese children go to Chinese school aft e r the regular school to learn about t h e i r language and culture. Schools have always been used as the means of enculturating the minority into the majority culture. The difference between the children of Chinese immigrants, for example, i s that they came to this country. They l e f t a country, t h e i r homeland, the place of t h e i r culture, history, and language and came expecting to adapt to a "new" country. The Native Indian c h i l d cannot go to any other country to hear his/her language, learn about his/her culture and history. His/her home has always been here. People have come to Canada possessing written languages, knowing about th e i r h istory, and with an i d e n t i t y as a p a r t i c u l a r people. For many Native Indian people, they have become strangers i n t h e i r own country. The sense of group depression i s far greater for the Native Indian than the people coming f u l l of hope to the country of t h e i r choice. While Asian peoples have faced d i s - crimination, p a r t i c u l a r l y during d i f f i c u l t economic times, they have competed more successfully for jobs i n the white c o l l a r f i e l d than Native Indians. Some of the reasons have been out- li n e d i n the f i r s t part of thi s chapter. There are many pro- grammes that have been developed i n recent years. I w i l l out- l i n e present programmes designed to meet the needs of Native Indian children as part of the review of l i t e r a t u r e i n Chapter II. This present study focuses on teaching art with reference to culture to a class of Native Indian students i n an urban setting. Generally, the c u l t u r a l background of Native Indian people in the c i t y varies greatly. Some families come to the c i t y knowing a great deal about t h e i r culture and wanting t h e i r c h i l d - ren to continue learning about Indian culture. Whereas some other families with l i t t l e c u l t u r a l knowledge, l i v i n g i n the c i t y or recent a r r i v a l s often indicate a wish that t h e i r c h i l d - ren attend a school where Indian culture i s taught. Therefore, the backgrounds of the Native Indian students i n the art pro- gramme at the Cultural Survival School varied, and the knowledge of Native Indian culture was a r e f l e c t i o n of c u l t u r a l experience at home. Preliminary Programme Planning The class i n thi s study was the grade 5-7 class at the Native Indian Cultural Survival School i n Vancouver's East side. The students were between the ages of ten and thirteen and were predominantly Kwakiutl. The classroom teacher had, with the 30 . support of the School D i s t r i c t administration, i n v i t e d the re- searcher/teacher, B.B., to plan and teach an a r t programme i n the school. In order to measure self-concept before beginning the pro- gramme the art teacher, B.B., administered the Coopersmith Self Concept t e s t to the class. The test i s one recommended by the Vancouver School Board. The test was re-administered, at the conclusion of the art programme, to measure the change i n s e l f - concept on the part of the in d i v i d u a l students i n the class. An a rt and culture test was administered before and afte r the art programme to measure the increase.in achievement and the knowledge of Native Indian culture, with p a r t i c u l a r reference to Kwakiutl culture. The test contained photographs, drawings and touchable objects. There was a t o t a l of between 40-50 items that the students were asked to name. Students met i n d i v i d u a l l y with B.B. for the test, who asked them about t h e i r expectations regarding the art programme and recorded t h e i r responses. Both the Coopersmith and the material culture test are discussed i n greater d e t a i l i n Chapter IV. Long range and short range goals of teacher, parents, and students were c o l l a t e d and a reference chart was prepared. There was a l i s t of s k i l l s (carving, spin- ning, etc.) and the l i s t was added to during the programme. The f i r s t class was a sharing of ideas. B.B. presented the plan, to which was added ideas and suggestions from students present that day. On subsequent days additional suggestions were added. Ideas for involving parents and elders were shared. We also discussed what kind of contributions others may make. Whom do we know who does beading, leatherwork, carving, k n i t t i n g , makes nets, or can help with f i e l d t r i p s ? Would parents be interested i n seeing the films with us? How can we make our guests welcome? The programme i s f u l l y discussed i n Chapter V. Art and Culture i n Education Art i s a subject where there i s no right or wrong, just better ways to achieve a goal. When I taught art to Native In- dian students (at St. Thomas Aquinas i n North Vancouver) I could hear them breathe a sigh of r e l i e f as they entered the classroom In a r t , for some of these Native Indian students, t h e i r art clas was the only time during the day when they f e l t that they could do something worthwhile. These students were i n a Catholic Re- gional High School that had numbers of students from a l l over the world with l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n between the in t e r n a t i o n a l stud ents, Native Indian students, and white Canadian students. In my view, a m u l t i c u l t u r a l a rt programme can become a vehicle for understanding between groups of students. My own experience teaching Native Indian students and my observation of art programmes for them, have led me to believe that art cut a d r i f t from the culture i s art i n a vacuum. For example, when students simply repeat Northwest Coast designs without understanding what they symbolize, they engage the i n - t e l l e c t but not the soul. The process of understanding can not be achieved at once but i s a b u i l d i n g up of experiences, i n - sights, observations, and knowledge gained from resources i n the community. Native Indian culture has so many manifestations that i t would be impossible for anyone, p a r t i c u l a r l y a non- Indian, to f u l f i l l the task of teaching Indian culture. Devel- opment of c u l t u r a l awareness through art e n t a i l s s t a r t i n g with the students' present c u l t u r a l knowledge. The process that a l l a r t i s t s go through to enable them to see what cannot be seen, to hear what i s not e a s i l y heard, to touch what cannot be held, i s a path to understanding the thoughts and ideas of t r a d i t i o n a l Indian a r t i s t s . The Native Indian student can draw i n s p i r a t i o n from his own roots. Much that i s "Indian" i s subterranean and lodged i n half-memories and forgotten words. A Kwakiutl carver t o l d me that he could remember his grandfather t e l l i n g him stor- i e s , but he said that he wasn't sure whether or not they were true. The important point i s that he remembered the s t o r i e s , thus connecting himself to his culture. The t r a d i t i o n a l Native Indian teaching s t y l e was to teach by doing. The children learned by observation, not verbal i n - struc t i o n . Children would watch an adult performing a s k i l l over and over. The c h i l d only performed the task i n public when he or she was ready. No one corrected him/her. As elders say, "You can't learn to dance without dancing." Many Native Indian children have an especial i n t e r e s t i n a r t . It i s also a subject that lends i t s e l f to c u l t u r a l l y oriented a c t i v i t i e s that can be performed by individuals or groups. My art programme was expected to encourage the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Native parents, elders and resource people, so that parents w i l l see that they have a contribution to make to the education of t h e i r own children as well as other Native children. Native Indian parents and elders w i l l become acquainted with the c l a s s - room teacher and other students when they come to the school as guests, observers, participants, helpers, or resource people. The involvement of Native parents i s fundamental to the success of Native children i n school. Teaching Native Indian Children and Implications for This Study Before a non-Native teacher can become sensitive to the culture of the Native c h i l d , she must become aware of Native c u l t u r a l values and differences between her own culture and that of the Native c h i l d . The following are some of these d i f f e r - ences, that i s , broad tendencies observed through "the behav- i o r a l aggregate of many people" (Jones, 1976, p. 135). INDIANS Wisdom of age and experience i s respected. Elders are revered by t h e i r people. Excellence i s related to one's contribution to the group, not to personal glory. Cooperation i s necessary for group s u r v i v a l . DOMINANT SOCIETY Older people don't have a valued role to play. Competition and s t r i v i n g to win and thereby gain status i s emphasized. Competition i s necessary for i n d i v i d u a l status or prestige. INDIANS Children p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult a c t i v i t i e s . Family l i f e includes the extended family. Time i s present oriented — t h e r e i s a resistance to planning for the future. What i s mine i s ours. People express t h e i r ideas and feelings through t h e i r actions. People conform to nature. Early childhood and rearing are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of kin group and grandparents, as well as parents. Native r e l i g i o n never prose- l y t i z e d ; i t was a private matter. Land gives the Indian his i d e n t i t y ; his r e l i g i o n , his l i f e . It i s not to be owned, but used by a l l . Going to school i s necessary to gain knowledge. DOMINANT SOCIETY Adults p a r t i c i p a t e i n many children's a c t i v i t i e s and sports. Nuclear family predominates. Time i s spent planning and saving for the future. What i s mine stays mine. People express themselves through speech. People try to dominate nature. Early childhood and rearing are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the nuclear family. Religions proselytize and try to impose t h e i r b e l i e f s on others. Land i s to be owned, sold, changed. Going to school i s necessary to gain knowledge to compete i n the greater society for jobs. INDIANS DOMINANT SOCIETY Indians have a shorter c h i l d - Childhood i s extended, and hood, greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y children are dependent into e a r l i e r . adulthood. The areas of c o n f l i c t i n g values that Floy Pepper (in Jones, 19 76) referred to above can create a chasm between the non- Indian teacher and the Indian c h i l d . Some of the ways to make p r a c t i c a l use of c u l t u r a l differences are: (a) The teacher can use Native Indian people, p a r t i c u l a r l y elders, as resource people i n the classroom. (b) The teacher can minimize te s t i n g and emphasize cooperative a c t i v i t i e s within the group. (c) The teacher, recognizing that Native culture gives r e s p o n s i b i l i t y early i n l i f e to the c h i l d , can have the Native c h i l d a s s i s t her i n the classroom. Although there are many differences between Native Indians i n Canada and the United States, there are some si m i l a r c u l t u r a l t r a i t s . Many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that Native Indian children experience i n the U.S.A. are si m i l a r to the kinds of problems experienced by Indian children i n Canada. Indian educators i n both Canada and the U.S.A. have referred to the importance of Native Indian culture i n schools that Native children attend (Pepper, 1976, p. 156). Ramona Weeks says that: . . . an acceptance of Indian culture by a teacher w i l l create a climate of tolerance that i s suitable for learning. Indian parents w i l l have more confidence i n a school that indicates respect for native culture . . . a school can bestow dignity upon Indian culture and create an aura of o f f i c i a l approval by adopting Indian materials to the learning programme. (Pepper, 1976, p. 9) Kleinfeld's (1972) study, E f f e c t i v e Teachers of Indian and Eskimo High School Students, concluded that an e f f e c t i v e i n - s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e must f i r s t create a warm personal r e l a t i o n - ship with the Native c h i l d , and only then present clear demands for high academic work. TAn important implication for thi s study was that e f f e c t i v e teachers of Native Indian children are often e f f e c t i v e teachers of a l l children. They give clear d i r e c t i o n s , they break down tasks into manageable parts, they give few tes t s , are creative i n providing the appropriate learning materials and give recog- n i t i o n for work well done (Kleinfeld, 1972, p. 12). In par- t i c u l a r , they give encouragement to children who are having d i f f i c u l t i e s and give them recognition when they have completed i t . The Native c h i l d i s sensitive to being asked to perform a task i n the public s e t t i n g of the classroom, e s p e c i a l l y when he or she hasn't mastered i t . He/she i s at his/her best i n group, cooperative a c t i v i t i e s . The Native c h i l d needs one-to-one i n s t r u c t i o n . He/she needs help i n finding a place for him/her- s e l f i n the classroom and he/she needs to know that he/she i s an equal and valued member of society. He/she also gains i n confidence when he/she learns about his/her own culture and sees Native people as teachers, resource people, and as a r t i s t s (Pepper, 1976). The art programme that I designed to develop c u l t u r a l awareness was developed on several l e v e l s . Students were pre- tested for feelings about self-concept and knowledge about Native Indian culture. The need of Native Indian children to f e e l that the teacher i s a fr i e n d and accepting of them re- sulted i n the class being v i s i t e d several times before the pro- gramme began with the c u l t u r a l pre-test conducted i n a s o c i a l atmosphere, on a one-to-one basis. The expressed i n t e r e s t of the students and t h e i r parents for them to learn about Native Indian culture resulted i n an art programme which drew from a wide range of sources i n order to transmit a f e e l i n g about the culture, as well as knowledge and information about i t . The students saw Native Indian people i n the classroom: parents, a r t i s t s , and resource people who shared t h e i r expertise with the students. The team structure of the programme, with an ad- u l t i n charge of each team, gave each student the opportunity to receive one-to-one i n s t r u c t i o n whenever necessary. The age- grade levels and diverse nature of the students meant that the standards of achievement were f l e x i b l e , yet with agreed upon c r i t e r i a p r i o r to beginning the projects. The i n t e r e s t that Native Indian children have i n art for a p r a c t i c a l purpose, between the ages of 10-13 years of age, influenced the choice of objectives for each lesson. A c t i v i t i e s that could be accomp- lis h e d within one afternoon were preferred over more complex, long term projects. If time had permitted, some of the stud- ents would have l i k e d to have repeated some of the art several times, since they enjoyed the process of making something as 38. much as, or even more than the actual object produced. The s k i l l s , aptitudes, and interests of the students were taken into account p r i o r to the programme and during i t . Ideas they suggested were implemented (more carving) and at the end of the programme the success of the f i e l d t r i p s meant that they chose a f i e l d t r i p as the culminating a c t i v i t y . The students became frustrated when an a c t i v i t y was too d i f f i c u l t and while chal- lenge was important, they were relieved and happy at the success- f u l completion of a project. I t was necessary to use much p o s i t - ive reinforcement to encourage students to begin to work and once begun, to complete i t . A sequence of c u l t u r a l l y related a rt pro- jects gradually b u i l t upon acquired s k i l l s . For example, the properties of sla t e were introduced through making an arrowhead, and on the following lesson making a f i s h k n i f e reintroduced slate and added wood. When discussing the t r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl seasonal a c t i v i t i e s , e x i s t i n g contemporary patterns were exam- ined. Indian fishermen were s t i l l catching the same types of salmon at the same times of year. Despite many changes i n the culture, berries are s t i l l picked i n the summer and cedar bark i s s t i l l c o l l e c t e d by some Indian people i n the f a l l . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The term Native Indian refers to a l l Indian people of abor- i g i n a l descent, status or non-status. A status Indian i s a person who i s "registered as an Indian or i s e n t i t l e d to be registered as an Indian under the Indian Act" (Cumming & Mickenberg, 1972, p. 6). A non-status Indian i s the re s u l t of the union of a Native Indian woman who married a non-Indian. The children of such marriages have no status and rights as Native Indians. Also, p r i o r to 195 8, when Native Indians gained the rig h t to vote i n federal e l e c t i o n s , they could only vote i f they became "enfran- chised. " But enfranchisement for a status Indian e n t i t l e s the loss of Indian status; i t meant giving up both the benefits and burdens of the Indian Act (Cumming & Mickenberg, 1972, p. 6). It was one of many devices to encourage Native Indians to em- brace Canadian mainstream culture. The Indian band i s the unit of Indian government under the Indian Act, and the band i s subject to the supervision of the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s (D.I.A.N.D.), which holds band monies (D.I.A.N.D., 1980, p. 2). Last year, 1982, the federal government delegated to Indian bands i n Canada the power to allow non-status Native Indian women to retain t h e i r band membership i f i t had been l o s t through marriage to a non- Indian . The Indian Act was an act of the parliament of Canada exer- c i s i n g i t s l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n for "Indians and lands re- served for Indians" assigned i n the B r i t i s h North America Act, Section 91 (24) (D.I.A.N.D., 1980, p. 2). Native refers to Canadians of aboriginal descent. It can include status and non-status Indians, Inuit and Metis. Alternate school for Native Indian children refers to schools that are established to meet the educational and c u l t u r a l needs of Native Indian children between the grades of 5-12. Each school has a p a r t i c u l a r focus: preventative, r e h a b i l i t a t i v e , and c u l t u r a l . 40. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE My l i t e r a t u r e search, i n the area of art and c u l t u r a l edu- cation, yielded information i n the form of books, pamphlets, speeches, journal a r t i c l e s , and papers presented during the past ten years. Although there i s a good deal of material that sus- tains the general propositions advanced i n Chapter I, there i s less material on the precise subject of this thesis. The l i t e r a t u r e suggests that "more emphasis should be placed on t r a d i t i o n a l Indian art i n s t r u c t i o n to i n s t i l l i n stud- ents greater pride i n preserving t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and c r a f t s " (Tippeconnic, 1972, p. 0050). But "technique without intent i s merely show. Art programmes without culture, are sur- face s k i l l s " (Chapman, 1978, p. 20). I t has been observed that "Indians are the focus of press- ure to change i n a more pervasive manner than are the rest of us" (Spicer, 1962, p. 30). Thus e f f o r t s of educators to bring about a " l e v e l l i n g of c u l t u r a l differences, ignores t h e i r d i s - t i n c t i v e t r a d i t i o n s , d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r a l patterns" (Spicer, 1962, p. 30) and "their h i s t o r i c a l experience which i s not l i k e that of the rest of us" (Spicer, 1962, p. 31). Instead of t r y i n g to eliminate c u l t u r a l differences, those very differences ought to be encouraged by c u l t u r a l l y aware art teachers because they are "productive of creative growth i n art and i n ideas" (Spicer, 1962, p. 31). In the past, Native Indian a r t i s t s "given the opportunity . . . responded i n creative fashion . . . making cr a f t s which were the r e s u l t of a fusion of Western materials and ideas with Indian ones" (Spicer, 1962, p. 31). Art i s a means of "teaching culture and i t i s an enduring c r i t e r i o n amid changing l i f e s t y l e s " (Chalmers, 1978, p. 130). For Native people t h e i r art forms can be one of the few endur- ing elements of t h e i r l i v e s . For example, most Native Indian people I have met i n the c i t y know t h e i r crest symbol. Each generation of an Indian family experiences a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l separation, but a s i m i l a r sense of loss of i d e n t i t y . Thus, when Native children learn t h e i r c u l t u r a l art forms, this a ssists the process of communication between generations. Parents and elders see objects from t h e i r culture being brought home from school, and there i s an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n evaluation on the basis of experience and knowledge. A c u l t u r a l l y relevant object makes involvement of parents more l i k e l y . Teaching Nat- ive a r t forms i n the classroom can be a bonding agent between Native people who went to r e s i d e n t i a l school and the c h i l d i n the c i t y . Indian a r t i s t , Jamake Highwater, points out that s o p h i s t i c - ated contemporary a r t i s t s return to the art of aboriginal peo- ples for i n s p i r a t i o n . "The basic difference between t r a d i t i o n a l Indian art and western art i s that much of the art of North Am- erican Indians i s not art i n the formal western sense at a l l , but careful iconography given to a person during v i s i o n quest or given i n dreams of l a t e r l i f e " (Highwater, 1981, p. 86). The c r i t e r i a of c r i t i c i s m of the majority culture i s not read- i l y applicable to Native Indian art although i t has been used. C r i t i c i s m of aboriginal art i s not dealt with i n the l i t e r a t u r e of art education. The studies under consideration i n this chapter dealt with: art, culture, self-concept, and cognitive learning s t y l e s . A 196 8 study was done in V i c t o r i a , B.C. (Michelson & Galloway) i n which students between the ages of three and thirteen, from four reserves, were observed i n a four week a r t programme. Their descriptions of t h e i r pictures to art supervisors and Native student aides became more v i v i d and lengthy as the month passed. The vocabulary that they used was not introduced to them, but was a "hidden vocabulary" that emerged, with a r t as the catalyst (Michelson & Galloway, 1968, p. 29). The researchers state that "The l e v e l of sophistication in the pupil's hidden vocabulary would have been unsuspected by the teacher had not the child's thoughts been released through the in t e r a c t i o n of his art and his v e r b a l i z a t i o n " (p. 29). Teachers often accept simple state- ments given by children i n response to a d i r e c t question as an i n d i c a t i o n of the extent of t h e i r verbal repertoire. A teach- er's expectations for a student's performance might well be modi- f i e d through r e a l i z i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of unlocking a hidden vocabulary through concrete manipulation and creative a c t i v i t i e s such as painting. "Such expressions may well be an important key to success i n school l i f e " (Michelson & Galloway, 196 8, p. 31). There i s no evidence that the picture making had any c u l t u r a l content. It may be that the incl u s i o n of s i x Native Indian aides had influence on what was observed because they probably became role models for the students. The results of the art programme might have been less s t r i k i n g without them. However, I believe that the results of the art programme would have shown even greater language development i n the students i f the teachers had used Native c u l t u r a l materials. Two studies that may be considered together are a 1971 study of Navajo and Pueblo art education needs (Kravanga) and a 1980 study directed s p e c i f i c a l l y at Santa Clara Pueblo Art Education (Zastrow). Kravanga found "the art education f i e l d i s not, i n most cases, sensitive to c u l t u r a l differences. Art education research, by concentrating on white, middle class v a l - ues, i s f u t i l e i n solving problems i n Indian schools" (Kravanga, p. 5107). There seems to be a "relationship between poor s e l f - image and low achievement a r i s i n g out of c o n f l i c t s i n learning styles and values associated with arts, and arts and c r a f t pro- duction" (Kravanga, p. 5107). The study examined t r a d i t i o n a l art education and the inherent " s p e c i f i c learning goals, struc- tured imitation, r e l a t i o n s h i p between juvenile imitation and adult pursuits and the t r a d i t i o n a l consensus on curriculum" (Kravanga, p. 5107). A s t r i k i n g difference between the Native Indian a r t i s t and the non-Indian i s that the "Indian craftsman does not f e e l the need to produce new forms . . . the group st y l e and group world view i s paramount" (Kravanga, p. 510 7). The study produced recommendations for improving art education programmes for Indian people. The art teacher should be a q u a l i - f i e d craftsman and a Native Indian. Communities were urged to organize art industries and to play an active role i n the evalua- tion of a l l Indian art education i n t h e i r community. The l a t e r study, by Zastrow, i n 1980, was based on c u l t u r a l values of the Santa Clara Pueblo relevant to art education for the Pueblo. The e x i s t i n g Santa Clara educational system taught few c u l t u r a l values and l i t t l e Pueblo a r t was observed i n the school system. Data for the study were co l l e c t e d through i n t e r - view and observation of t r i b a l o f f i c i a l s , recognized experts, a r t i s t s from the Pueblo, and Santa Clara educational personnel. It was found that the people were unclear about the Pueblo art and art education taught i n the Santa Clara school system. "This suggests that a separation of the school and the community may be a r e a l i t y " (Zastrow, 1980, p. 1354). The recommendations f e l l into two areas: Pueblo art and art education practices. The primary thrust of the recommendations was directed at Pueblo art. Pueblo a r t was viewed as a " c u l t u r a l value" (Zastrow, 1980, p. 1354), as well as an art to be taught. "Pueblo a r t , as a t r a d i t i o n a l value, involved dancing, singing, painting, weaving, pottery-making, and s t o r y - t e l l i n g as they related to the Native r e l i g i o n " (Zastrow, 1980, p. 1354). Pueblo art involved t r a d i - t i o n a l values: "respect for s e l f , respect for elders, respect for the community, respect for nature, sharing and caring, and j u s t i c e and honesty" (Zastrow, 1980, p. 1354). One study, directed at art, sought to meet the sensory needs of Native students, since the Native Indian c h i l d needs to see, f e e l , learn, and become acquainted with a l l the objects most children take for granted (Breiman, 1977, p. 4642). I don't be- l i e v e that the research done i n t h i s study shows conclusively that minority children have the same sensory needs as majority culture children or that programmes can meet the aesthetic needs of Native children through making of substitutions of "Indian" for "European" i l l u s t r a t i o n s to meet the Indian child's need for basic sensory experience" (Breiman, 1977, p. 4642). The suggestion was made that substituting Indian music or p i c - tures of Indian chiefs would "provide personal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " (Breiman, 1977, p. 4642). I believe that greater s e n s i t i v i t y i s required, concerning the Indian culture represented i n the c l a s s - room and the c u l t u r a l values of the Indian community, than i s suggested by this CEMREL package of substitutions. Otherwise, confusing c u l t u r a l mixes could occur. "There i s a necessity to provide information i n l i t e r a t u r e explaining the meaning of these c u l t u r a l aspects" (Breiman, 1977, p. 4642). Substitutions cannot be made before the art teacher becomes aware of the c u l t u r a l as- pects which are s i g n i f i c a n t i n the Indian culture to be repres- ented; therefore, reading l i t e r a t u r e i n the c u l t u r a l area i s im- perative . Studies concerning Indian culture found that, although Nat- ive Indian students weren't knowledgeable about t h e i r history and culture, they wanted to learn more about them. Indians were po s i t i v e about self-concept, attitudes, and f e l t proud of t h e i r own t r i b e . In a 1975 (McCluskey) study of Grand Forks, North Dakota, students i n K-12 used a Native American Self-Concept and Attitude Inventory and a Native American Culture Knowledge In- ventory for Native students and a School Sentiment Index for non- Indians . The results showed that Native students experienced no resentment, they had pride i n t h e i r r a c i a l group and that they scored less than 50% on knowledge of heritage and culture. They agreed overwhelmingly that they wanted to know more about the Indian way of l i f e , c u l - ture and history. (McCluskey, 1975, p. 2702). There were two areas of s i g n i f i c a n t difference between Native and non-Native students. In grades K-3 Native students f e l t less p o s i t i v e than non-Natives towards the teacher and i n grades 4-6 Native students f e l t less p o s i t i v e than non-Natives towards peers. Chicago's Native students i n grades 9-12 and parents were sampled i n a 1977 urban study (Rascher, 1977, p. 5319). While they f e l t the education that they received was s a t i s f a c t o r y , they believed that Indian culture and history should be offered by q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s , and that there should be a Native American on the Chicago School Board and an a l l - I n d i a n school at elementary and secondary l e v e l s . A South Dakota study (Spaulding, 1980, p. 1459) i d e n t i f i e d special needs of Native children through interviews with par- ents, students and members of the Indian community, both on and off reserve. The following special educational needs were i d e n t i - f i e d by Indian parents, students, and other members of the com- munity, l i s t e d according to majority response: employ Indian teachers and counsellors (53%); teach Dakota/Lakota c u l t u r e , ; history, values (46%); involve parents and grandparents (38%); teach Dakota/Lakota language (30%); and employ Indian teacher aides (28%). The special needs i d e n t i f i e d by the school d i s t r i c t i d e n t i f i e d a d i f f e r e n t s e t of p r i o r i t i e s which are a l s o l i s t e d a c c o r d i n g to m a j o r i t y response: p a r e n t a l c o s t s (40%); t u t o r i n g (37%); home-school l i a i s o n (30%); Indian teacher aides (27%); c o u n s e l l i n g (23%); and c u l t u r e awareness a c t i v i t i e s f o r Indian and non-Indian (20%). The study's c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the Indian community i d e n t i f i e d changes c a l l i n g f o r "Major s y s t e m a t i c changes i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system whereas the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t recommended changes t h a t would supplement the r e g u l a r school c u r r i c u l u m w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the system" (Spaulding, 1980, p. 1459). I t seems t h a t Indian communities w i s h i n g to implement s i g n i f i c a n t changes are r e q u i r e d to do i t a p a r t from the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. A Saskatchewan study (Koenig, 1981, p. 2013) i d e n t i f i e d one o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t Native people experience as m i n o r i t i e s w i t h i n a m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . One hundred I n u i t , M e t i s , and non- Nat i v e a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s i n Northern Canada and A l a s k a were s t u d i e d . C u l t u r a l background through v e r b a l i z e d statements was found to be the most s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r i m i n a t o r of c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . I t was found t h a t Indian, M e t i s , and I n u i t s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the " m o r a l - r e l a t i o n a l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e (people- o r i e n t e d , s u b j e c t i v e , h o l i s t i c , concerned with morals and e t h - i c s ) . C u l t u r a l background was found to be the s t r o n g e s t d i s - c r i m i n a t o r i n r e l a t i o n to c o g n i t i v e s t y l e d i f f e r e n c e " (Koenig, 19 81, p. 2013). That i t may be p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e to modify c u r r i c u l a content and t e a c h i n g techniques to achieve a c l o s e r match between t e a c h i n g s t y l e s and c o g n i t i v e and l e a r n i n g s t y l e s o f students of indigenous c u l t u r a l backgrounds i s one of the main themes of the l i t e r a t u r e . There are d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g 48. styles between Native and non-Native children and, u n t i l the teaching styles of majority culture teachers adjust for the c u l t u r a l differences, Native children w i l l continue to suffer i n self-concept and f a i l i n the school system. One study addressing self-concept, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, for Denver, Colorado Native Indian stud- ents i n grades 4-6 (Howell, 1978, p. 4694), revealed a general decline i n self-concept, as children moved from lower to higher grades, for each ethnic group. Yet, i n the general samples, each ethnic group saw i t s e l f i n a better position of self-esteem than t h e i r teachers did. A New York study used a Self-Concept Inventory (S.D.) on black, white and Indian students i n grades 3-12 l i v i n g i n urban and r u r a l settings (Sampson, 1980, p. 5036). No difference was found between ethnic groups, which corroborated the Howell (19 78) study. While self-concepts of Native females were more positi v e than male, r u r a l self-concepts for both were stronger than urban. Native Indian students coming to urban settings for school do experience problems i n adjustment. The more pos- i t i v e self-concept of Native Indian females i n urban settings indicated the need that the Native Indian male has i n urban set- tings for emotional and educational support. The findings i n t h i s study lend support to other research findings that there i s no difference i n the self-concepts among d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups, the self-concepts of fe- males were more po s i t i v e than those of males, location may have a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the self-concept of Indian students and self-concept changes across the grades i n a general decreasing d i r e c t i o n . (Sampson, 1980, p. 5036) I believe that decreasing self-concepts of Native Indian children can be mitigated through art programmes with c u l t u r a l focus. Art as a c a r r i e r of culture has been addressed by few a r t educators; June King McFee (1978) has recognized the importance of culture i n the education of minority children. Art can play a role i n c u l t u r a l maintenance but one needs to know the spec- i f i c q u a l i t i e s that the people regard as e s s e n t i a l to maintain and enhance the i r culture, and how the art f i t s within the c u l - t u r a l value system (McFee, 1978, p. 48). A Native Indian par- ent (Wilson, 19 82), c i t e d the involvement of parents as import- ant; he also made the complementary point that including Indian culture i n the curriculum would become a reason for parents to become involved as curriculum resource people. "Programmes are needed to understand the elders and what they are t e l l i n g us," was a view expressed by Harold Cardinal (Underwood, 1982, p. 4). Native Indian children i n some cases are cut o f f from t h e i r own cultures, separated from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l teachers by an edu- cational system that has always discounted Indian culture by omission. In order to overcome the negative impact of history, intensive parental involvement in the schools i s e s s e n t i a l . The consensus i s that parental involvement i s c r u c i a l to the success of the programmes and therefore to the success of the Native c h i l d . "The present generations of parents have a role of p a r t i c u l a r importance since they are the l a s t l i n k between the t r a d i t i o n s of the past and modern l i f e . They may be now 50. able to transmit the best of both cultures as well as renewal of pride i n t h e i r Indian t r a d i t i o n s " (Kirkness, 1981, p. 53). "Failure to involve the parents i n the shaping of education has been perhaps the gravest mistake of a l l " (Sealey & Kirkness, 1973, p. 171). E f f o r t to impose curriculum on Native children has been unsuccessful because i t i s contrary to both the t r a d i - t i o n a l view that curriculum i s by consensus and contrary to wishes of contemporary Native parents for children to learn the best of both cultures. S e n s i t i v i t y to Indian parents i s import- ant, "the parents must be l i s t e n e d to f i r s t , and then talked to. . . . the white person does not r e a l l y understand who we r e a l l y are and what we r e a l l y want i n education" (Wilson, 1982, p. 96). The Indian community cannot be ignored i n the education of i t s children. It "must p a r t i c i p a t e i n programme changes. No innovations i n curriculum, teaching methods, or pupil-teacher relationships can take place unless parents are convinced of t h e i r value" (Kirkness, 1981, p. 453). The "new role of the art teacher i n art programmes with c u l t u r a l emphasis i s for c u l t u r a l transmission and development. The teacher acts as f a c i l i t a t o r and becomes learner i n the area of culture" (Foerster & L i t t l e Soldier, 1981, p. 3). The importance of Native Indian culture i s seen as a means to improve the education of Indian children by Native Indian educators. Fox (1982) and Kirkness (1981) regard the transmis- sion of the best of both cultures as an i d e a l . Fox (1982) has put i t t h i s way: To learn about Indian culture i s to learn about Indian history, roles of elders, Indian values, food, s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s , respect for a l l l i v i n g things, elders' mes- sages, d i s c i p l i n e , family i n t u i t i v e understanding, and most important of a l l , generosity, one of the strongest feelings of value of Indian people. (p. 9) According to Kirkness, Indian culture can be a "spring-board to the outside world. Culture could be present i n a l l subjects through integrated curriculum" (1981, p. 266) , and " c u l t u r a l l y relevant educational methods and materials" (Pepper, 1976, p. 155). Teaching Indian culture i s a means of recognizing "strengths of Indian children" (Bowd, 1979, p. 69); schools need to be responsive to the needs of Native children. The Institute of American Indian Arts, established i n 1962 (New, 1971), goes further: " c u l t u r a l differences are precious and the Indian's c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s are cherished . . . honoured . . . and ap- preciated." New observed that, at the In s t i t u t e , the c h i l d who i s steered to success i n one area (of art) w i l l seek success i n other areas. He found that the "approach i s workable through the arts even when i t may be quite impossible through academic subjects" (New, 1971, p. 412). The a r t medium can be used as a means of steering a c h i l d who i s successful i n one art medium onto a series of successes i n other mediums which, i n turn, develop the capacity "for s e l f - discovery and s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t " (New, 1972, p. 412). I t i s evident that the In s t i t u t e of American Arts' goal to give the student a basis for genuine pride and self-acceptance results i n personal success for i t s students. The success rate of 75% of the Institute's students compared to the general drop-out rate of 40-50% of Native Indian students outside the Insti t u t e indicates that "Institute students have found additional sources of self-power not always attainable i n other programmes" (New, 1972, p. 418). I t appears that once the student i s at peace with himself, he becomes more open to learning i n general. Oriented to his own c u l t u r a l background, he i s not forced to s a c r i f i c e his Indian nature and heritage on the a l t a r s of either withdrawal or assimilation. He i s enabled to function wholly and happily, making a proud, personal contribution to his time and his world. (New, 1972, p. 418) The c o n f l i c t between the Native child's culture and school has been recognized (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1981). Thus, the l i t e r a t u r e overwhelmingly regards Native Indian culture as v i t a l i n the education of Native children. The question i s , how to achieve the goal? The classroom teacher acting as f a c i l i t a t o r and learner, along with Native Indian parents and students, can design an art programme with emphasis on the predominant Indian culture present i n the classroom. An i n t e r e s t i n t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary Indian art and i t s meaning addresses those intangible aspects of culture which can be impediments to understanding. Art without meaning i s simply decorative design; to teach art without concern about the culture of the children whose ancestors produced i t , further separates the Indian student from his/her heritage and i t i s impossible to learn about Indian culture without reference to Indian art. In the classroom, art becomes a key for the Native or non-Native teacher to unlock aspects of the culture within the classroom. It was observed i n a study of Coast Sal i s h Native Indian, Chinese, and English children, that the Native Indian children were happiest i n arts and cr a f t s that had a function and that they were unhappy when they had to work with materials that l i m i t e d t h e i r imaginations (for example, a rectangle of paper) (Courtenay, 1978). The Native children were "highly spontaneous i n dance and movement, and showed great expressive- ness i n language intonation and song. While t h e i r dramatiza- tions were less structured than the other groups, they had open sensorium i n contrast to the less spontaneous Chinese" (Court- enay, 1978, p. 31) . Indian people, and students i n p a r t i c u l a r , acknowledge the value of studies and t r a i n i n g i n coping with the contemporary world, but they are not w i l l i n g to relinquish personal and c u l - t u r a l i n t e g r i t y i n the process. Teachers need spe c i a l t r a i n i n g to know how to deal with c u l t u r a l differences. "Teachers of Native children need i n - service t r a i n i n g " (Kirkness, 1981, p. 4534). "They need to de- velop a warm, personal relationship with the c h i l d f i r s t , and then to press for clear demands for high academic work" (Klein- f e l d , 1972, p. 11). So "better selection i s imperative since not a l l teachers have the special s k i l l s needed for cross c u l - t u r a l effectiveness" (Kleinfeld, 1972, p. 34). Students need Native Indian teachers who display "pride i n themselves and the i r heritage, who know the Indian community and know the course they are teaching" (Sealey & Kirkness, 1972, p. 167). "The art teacher needs a firm understanding of the tr a d i t i o n s of her own culture" (Smith, 1980, p. 88) so she can read the codes and signals of other cultures. Furthermore, the art teacher must believe i n the value of minority cultures, before s/he w i l l be able to i d e n t i f y the meaning behind those codes and signals. American Indian a r t educator Lloyd New (19 72) sees art i n the education of Native Indians as a process of self-discovery and s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t (p. 19). Laura Chapman (1978) c a l l s i t "personal f u l f i l l m e n t " (p. 19). Since the arts are multifaceted i t i s possible for everyone to achieve a f e e l i n g of success i n at least one area of a r t . In 196 2, Oscar Howe, an American In- dian a r t i s t , said that the "White culture should be stronger by accepting Indian culture" (Institute of Indian Studies, 1982). For Indian culture and the strengths of Indian children to be understood, the art teacher can use the class as a c u l t u r a l re- source for a l l children to benefit. Today, the main thrust i s for a l l Native Indian children to learn about t h e i r cultures i n school. In many schools, non- Indian children are learning about Indian culture (Norgate Elem- entary School, North Vancouver) (More, 1983, p. 80), and Sechelt Elementary School, B.C.) (More, 1983, p. 99). However, A l f r e d Youngman, an American Indian a r t i s t and professor of art at the University i n Lethbridge, Alberta, has questioned the true ex- tent of progress i n education of urban Indians, saying that i t i s based on " p o l i t i c a l expediency rather than serious accommoda- tion and acceptance (19 82). In competition with other program- mes for school board money, Native Indian educators must con- tinue to press for services and resources for Native children i n order for the momentum in Indian education to continue. The published books on Indian art and c u l t u r a l education are few. While June King McFee (1977, p. 291) has suggested that art programmes may be a means of inc u l c a t i n g culture, she examines art only i n the broadest sense. Native Indian author, Emma LaRoque, says that c r a f t programmes often miss out on the meaning of designs (1975, p. 24). It i s esse n t i a l to expose students to tangible a r t , but i t i s equally important to teach what th i s a r t r e f l e c t s . If our goal i s to understand the l i f e and s p i r i t of a people, we must probe th e i r a r t because i t i s one of the ways through which we express "human perceptions and sensations" (LaRoque, 1975). "Traditional a r t i s t s created use- f u l objects that conformed to community conventions, so that Indian a r t i s t s didn't f e e l the urge to be innovative or experi- mental" (Dickason, 19 73, p. 11). Art also can serve as "a means of discussing culture . . . the inner l i f e and s p i r i t of the people whose art i t i s " (Dickason, 1973, p. 11). The role of art i n culture has been discussed by Highwater: " . . . among the languages of American Indians there i s no word for art. For the Indian everything i s art . . . therefore i t needs no name" (1981, p. 13). As art for Indian people t r a d i - t i o n a l l y was inseparable from the culture, so art programmes for Native children should encompass a greater breadth of material than art programmes for non-Native children. In one community studied, a r t , regarded i n th i s way, was perceived as a c u l t u r a l value of greater importance than a rt i s usually perceived i n the non-Indian community. Each Indian community, whether urban or r u r a l , has unique human resources for the art teacher to i n t r o - duce into a programme. The art teacher of Native children faces a greater task i n designating an art programme, but i t i s one the teacher dare not undertake alone. Highwater (19 78) explains why art flourishes i n many minor- i t y cultures. "Art puts us i n touch with each other . . . with- out art we are alone" (p. 13). Highwater (1981) says, "Who speaks to me with my own voice? From himself comes a marvellous stranger c a l l e d Art" (p. 81). Highwater, with his aesthetic, visionary i n s i g h t s , considers art from an Indian philosophical perspective. Art educator McFee (1974) sees i t i n p r a c t i c a l terms for, as she says, " i n valuing those intangible aspects of art, a rt i s c u l t u r a l communication" (p. 96). On a deeper l e v e l , c u l t u r a l values, b e l i e f s , and feelings which are d i f f i c u l t for majority culture teachers to f u l l y comprehend, can be released through the f l e x i b i l i t y of art programmes sensitized to the c u l - ture of Native children. Art i n the classroom can perform many roles for children of minority cultures. McFee sees art as con- t r i b u t i n g to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , enabling communication within the same culture (1974, p. 85). Art can become a means for majority culture teachers to gain understanding of the d i f f e r e n t attitudes and b e l i e f s of t h e i r students through discussion about works of art. Programmes which r e f l e c t Indian culture are going to be more e f f e c t i v e with the children of that culture. Churchman (1975) c i t e s the importance of li n k s between c u l - ture and a r t : "Curriculum should relate to culture, l i f e - s t y l e and symbols of the minority group. It should demonstrate r i c h - ness and be consistent with t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of Indian com- munal i n t e r a c t i o n " (p. 7). But curriculum directed to the needs of minorities hasn't been readily available. The values that Native children have are not clear (Haase, 1980). The Indian communities have only recently been involved i n developing cur- riculum (North Vancouver, Sto :lo S i t e l ) (More, 1983, pp. 80-86; More, 1981, p. 46). It i s d i f f i c u l t to organize such a c u r r i c u - lum i n an urban setting, since parents come from d i f f e r e n t In- dian cultures. Special schools for Native Indian children are only a recent innovation i n the Vancouver school d i s t r i c t (Brenner, 1978, p. 1). The means of achieving e f f e c t i v e programmes for Native children i n the f i e l d of a r t and culture are just beginning to be understood. Despite curriculum changes and teacher aide programmes, what the c h i l d perceives or expects to learn and actu- a l l y does learn, constitutes the components of the more fundamental aspects of education . . . for the Native c h i l d to choose the best of both cultures, he needs a s u f f i c i e n t appreciation of his own culture so that the culture of the other may be comprehended or understood. (Friesen, 1977, pp. 53-54) Thus Wolcott believes that "the non-Indian teacher should seek not to change culture, but seek to implement a mutual exchange of knowledge and c u l t u r a l uniqueness. The products of a culture w i l l not bring about understanding but a study of the essentials of i t s value system (1967, p. 130). Wolcott (1967) sees the teacher d i r e c t i n g his/her energy toward s p e c i f i c elements i n h i s / her i n s t r u c t i o n a l programme rather than making an attempt at culture change (p. 131). "It i s better for the teacher to 58. emphasize i n d i v i d u a l growth rather than c u l t u r a l change" (Wol- cott, 1967, p. 130). Wolcott saw the teachers' role as concen- t r a t i n g on those s k i l l s that can be taught i n school which give a c h i l d access to the dominant society: l i t e r a c y , standard English, and job information (1967, p. 130). Documentation of art programmes which refer to Indian c u l - ture are impossible to locate. Two r u r a l schools for Kwakiutl students were described i n two books (Rohner, 19 70; Wolcott, 1967). Although the two Native Indian communities (and schools) were presented i n d e t a i l , i n neither one was the teaching of art and culture i n the classroom discussed. A book more relevant to the urban scene i s Floy Pepper's chapter on "Teaching the Ameri- can Indian i n Mainstream Settings." It i s an a l l - i n c l u s i v e , thorough review of strengths of Indian children, with suggested approaches for teaching them, using Indian culture i n creative, relevant, curriculum. She maintains that a child's concept of a b i l i t y i s a better predictor of success than self-concept (19 76, p. 142). The route to helping the Native c h i l d believe i n him/ herself i s through his or her culture. Art i s (appears to be) an e f f e c t i v e way to introduce culture since, as Indian a r t i s t s and art educators have said, i t provides many avenues of expres- sion. Indian c u l t u r a l material i n the curriculum alone w i l l not a s s i s t Indian children to retain t h e i r Native culture and v a l - ues (Bayne, 1969). "For the Native Indian c h i l d , education con- s i s t s of complex patterns of i n t e r a c t i o n with his community and th i s community contains the source of the child's i d e n t i t y " (Pepper, 1976, p. 156). The Indian culture must become part of school curriculum to bridge the separation between home and school (More, 1983, pp. 80-86). Some models, such as that of North Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , are well planned, thoughtfully executed and thoroughly researched, with organized p a r t i c i p a t i o n of elders (through an Elders Council), band members, school board representatives, teachers and students. One elementary school i n the d i s t r i c t , Norgate Elementary, i s symbolic of the cooperation between the Indian and non-Indian communities. In 1981, a totem pole r a i s i n g was held at the school, complete with the appropriate Indian ceremony, witnessed by school children and t h e i r parents. One year l a t e r , the children v i v i d l y remem- ber many d e t a i l s of the event. At the school a Native c u l t u r a l unit i s offered at grade 4/5 as a supplement to Social Studies and at 4/5 Art with a design and drawing component containing basic carving and beading s k i l l s (a post-contact c r a f t carried on by contemporary Indians) i s taught to a l l of the students. The grade 6/7 course culminates i n an o r i g i n a l carving incorpor- ating t r a d i t i o n a l form and figures from each c h i l d . The c u r r i c u - lum model i n North Vancouver began with s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s , cus- toms, and values, culminating i n education and ar t . The goal was for the Squamish curriculum to be integrated into a wide range of courses. Help for Native children at the elementary l e v e l was provided by a parent hired to coordinate parent volunteers i n the classroom. The t r a d i t i o n a l "Indian culture emphasized cooperation" (Pepper, 1976, p. 135; Sealey & Kirkness, 1973, p. 115). A con- temporary educational approach developed by Johnson and Johnson (19 75) seems appropriate, for Indian education. The Johnsons 60. advocate small group peer teaching with a common goal and ind i v - idual accountability. Their theory and research demonstrates that " . . . cooperative learning i s more powerful than competi- t i o n " (1981, p. 3). Educational processes which use approaches closely following t r a d i t i o n a l Indian culture, seem to be most e f f e c t i v e with Native Indian children. Curriculum developed with p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Native parents and resource people for schools with numbers of Native Indian students i s emerging i n the area of art and c u l - ture. Often Native communities wishing to pa r t i c i p a t e i n devel- oping curriculum are uncertain about how to begin. Two American Indian curriculum developers outlined steps for community devel- opment of curriculum (LaFrance & Starkman, 1979). "Curriculum can be thought of as the Croutel by which a student gets from one place to another. It i s a route for movement" (LaFrance & Stark- man, 1979, p. 3). Value judgements are inherent i n creating cur- riculum and the values that are seen to be relevant by the Indian parents and elders must be given importance so that c o n f l i c t s of values and b e l i e f s are avoided. When c o n f l i c t s a r i s e , the Native c h i l d ends up " r e s i s t i n g both sets of values" (Berger, 1977, p. 92) . A course developed by Cathey, Wallace, and others, Past and Contemporary Navajo Culture Go Hand i n Hand, Curriculum Guide (1969) dealt with Navajo history, language structure, c u l t u r a l art, customs, b e l i e f s , c u l t u r a l values, presented i n a sequential and systematic educational i n the classroom. The course for Navajo secondary school students dealt i n past, present, and future Navajo culture (Cathey, Wallace, et a l . , 1969). The work that has been done i n the Southwest United States i n Native In- dian education can be useful when studying other Indian cultures. In the Cathey course an "appreciation for c u l t u r a l a rt as a means of communication" crosses language and c u l t u r a l boundar- ies (p. 0013) . A series of a r t programmes were developed i n 19 78 for Dakota children by Arthur Amiotte (1978, p. 0408); they combined Lacota tr a d i t i o n s with contemporary ..art. Aesthetics (verbal and v i s u a l ) , c r e a t i v i t y , beauty, and the senses were emphasized. Painting styles of t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary art and i t s meaning were combined i n the four part programme. Native Indian students learning about t h e i r culture i n Edmonton Catholic schools became more "verbal about l i f e on the reserve, brought a r t i f a c t s into school, spoke Cree, performed dances and songs for classmates, showed more enthusiasm towards school and non-Natives showed a l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n everyday l i f e on the reserve" - (Maracle, 1973,.p. .11). In B.C. today, most school d i s t r i c t s have some programming directed at the culture of Native Indian people. Some of the programmes are noteworthy because of the approaches they have used or the imaginative way in which they have introduced art and culture into the curriculum. Most of the art programmes are for secondary schools, and a l l of the cre d i t courses are for grades 8-12. The approaches f a l l into four categories: (a) those using creative ideas i n the education of Native c h i l d - ren; (b) those using l o c a l l y developed culture curriculum pack- ages; (c) those teaching Indian culture through c r a f t s ; and (d) those which combine art and c r a f t s , with emphasis sometimes on c r a f t s , sometimes on art. The programmes developed i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e f l e c t re- gional concerns and v a r i a b i l i t y of resources within the Indian communities. Large, cohesive Indian communities exhibited creat- i v i t y i n meeting the educational needs of Native students. Art programmes have begun to use Native Indian a r t i s t s to teach North- west Coast design p r i n c i p l e s , and Native Indian elders and parents are moving into the classrooms as resource people, teaching c u l - t u r a l values, b e l i e f s and c r a f t s . Curriculum k i t s r e f l e c t the Indian culture of the community. For instance, k i t s about f i s h have been produced i n f i s h i n g communities such as: Kitimat Small Fish and Campbell River Indian Fishing. Native and non-Native Indian educators, concerned about the education of Native Indian children, have c i t e d the importance of learning about culture i n the classroom. Art at the elementary school l e v e l i s usually i n c i d e n t a l ; i t may, for instance, be con- nected with i l l u s t r a t i n g a Social Studies project. In B.C., un- t i l recently, Native Indians were studied only i n a grade 4 Social Studies unit. Today, many school d i s t r i c t s are including Indian culture i n the curriculum established for Indian children. Some i n t e r e s t i n g models have emerged. Two month long innovative programmes were introduced by com- munities with d i f f e r e n t objectives. The f i r s t , Chehalis (a Fraser Valley community), sought to encourage students i n t h e i r Native Indian school to read books. A month long reading Mara- thon had t h i r t y students p a r t i c i p a t i n g . During the month each student's progress was monitored and at the end of the month two students had read one hundred books. This approach could be used i n art through painting, drawing, carving, beading, weav- ing, or c o l l e c t i n g (materials from nature) marathons. The other, a Cowichan Indian community, sponsored a legend month i n element- ary school, Koksilah. The whole school enjoys Indian culture being integrated into the school programme; weaving and beading are emphasized. During the legend month, elders t o l d legends to students. During the month students read about legends, they wrote, i l l u s t r a t e d them and they dramatized them. At the end of the month, the students shared t h e i r work with the elders. The elders played an important role i n the introduction to the unit on legends and, at the completion, roles as u n o f f i c i a l evaluators. The most complete approach to teaching Northwest Coast de- sign p r i n c i p l e s was developed by a North Vancouver art teacher (Anne Siegal) who taught Northwest Coast art i n two elementary and one secondary school i n the d i s t r i c t . The steps i n creating Northwest Coast designs at the elementary and high school l e v e l are available i n a series of worksheet designs created by the art teacher where there i s a progression from simple to more com- plex designs. The format of the classes involved worksheet i l - l u s t r a t i o n s of the design for the day, a blackboard design i l l u s - t r a t i o n , i l l u s t r a t i o n i n coloured chalk, and step-by-step drawing in unison with the art teacher. Advanced students worked on t h e i r own, while less experienced students followed the steps as they required. The f l e x i b i l i t y of the options within the c l a s s - room encouraged cooperation between students of d i f f e r e n t ages and a b i l i t y . The organization of the sequential building of designs broke otherwise complex designs down into understandable parts. The standard of work was high and Northwest Coast design p r i n c i p l e s were drawn with precision and accuracy by students who had hitherto shown l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n drawing. Some of the stud- ents attended a school where I taught Art and Social Studies sev- e r a l years ago. Another approach has been used by an experienced Northwest Coast a r t i s t , Bradley Hunt, who i s also the Sechelt, B.C. art teacher, counsellor, and curriculum developer. Native Indian children are i n the minority at the Sechelt Elementary School i n the Indian art c l a s s . The format of i n s t r u c t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the North Vancouver design where students follow the blackboard drawing of the art teacher. The Sechelt teacher has designed some three-dimensional models which the students construct out of B r i s t o l board: patterns of a canoe, longhouse, storage boxes, totem pole, r a i n hat, Hamatsa mask, are xeroxed onto the B r i s t o l board (a firm paper), the students paint with f e l t pens, cut out, and construct by gluing sections. The d i s t r i c t has two curriculum packages at i t s disposal: The Sea Resources and Northwest Coast k i t . A Northwest Coast art programme, i n V i c t o r i a School Dist- r i c t , i s taught by a Native a r t i s t , George Hunt, and a non- Indian art teacher, Jim G i l b e r t , who i s knowledgeable about t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest design p r i n c i p l e s , and about the t r a d i - t i o n a l use of materials, p a r t i c u l a r l y wood. Students i n the a r t class produced high qu a l i t y cedar objects. Wooden plaques, trays and bowls car r i e d f i n e l y carved designs. An innovation i n the d i s t r i c t i s the master a r t i s t with apprentices approach. Students are given the opportunity to observe and a s s i s t the resident Native a r t i s t . The crafts that are introduced, are taught with the significance of ceremonial dress, legends and history through involvement of the l o c a l Indian community. The only art programme to focus s o l e l y on the elementary l e v e l , i s adjacent to an Indian art centre, K'san. The richness of the l o c a l a r t resources resulted i n a s k i l l e d Indian a r t i s t teaching woodcarving i n two and three dimensional designs at an elementary school i n Hazelton. The majority of the students are Native Indian. Drawings, legends, and tapes of songs were integrated into the art programme. An excellent k i t was pro- duced for the d i s t r i c t by l o c a l a r t i s t s : Birds of K'san, and another k i t , Harvesting, with tapes, legends, and high quality drawings. A bibliography of the arts and c r a f t s of Northwest Coast Indians (B.C. Studies, 1975) i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to art teachers of Northwest Coast art and culture: B e l l a Coola, Coast S a l i s h , Haida, Kwakiutl, Nootka, Tsimshian, T l i n g i t . The r e f e r - ences are categorized under sub-headings of: bibliographies, a r t i s t s , basketry, blankets, carving, design, masks, totem poles, weaving (general), dance, f a c i a l painting, k n i t t i n g , metal work, pictographs and petroglyphs, sculpture, and music. There are 85 l i t e r a r y references to Kwakiutl arts and c r a f t s , which pro- vide the art teacher with r i c h sources of background material when preparing lessons on the Kwakiutl culture, for example (Bradley, 1975). The teaching of Indian culture i n the classroom i s occurring i n most of the school d i s t r i c t s where there are numbers of Na- t i v e children. The approaches depend upon the involvement of the l o c a l Indian community, the s e n s i t i v i t y of the school d i s - t r i c t , and the money available to pay for resources and mater- i a l s . Many Native people have volunteered to enrich the educa- tion of t h e i r children. Some approaches which have been suc- cessful could be borrowed by other school d i s t r i c t s . For exam- ple, the Nanaimo School D i s t r i c t Indian community had ideas for involving elders so that they participated together making group journals, shared songs and memories. They were given the oppor- tunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l o c a l classrooms through sharing th e i r knowledge of songs, food preparation, c r a f t s , dancing, and the Indian language, which they spoke when demonstrating t h e i r s k i l l s . Band members became apprenticed to elders to share t h e i r knowledge and the elder became "teacher" in the community as well as i n the classroom. Materials developed through the e f f o r t s of the elders became t h e i r legacy to pass on as part of the band's resources as a permanent record. Although other museums i n the province have programmes, the most innovative are: the Prince Rupert school d i s t r i c t which has museum a r t i f a c t s and "touchables" for use i n the classroom; A l e r t Bay, Skidegate, and Cape Mudge communities also have l o c a l museums as an important resource. Vancouver and V i c t o r i a have, u n t i l the past decade, been the major sources for art and c u l - t u r a l a r t i f a c t s of Indian cultures i n B.C. The Vancouver Museum has a school programme series directed at Indian culture: Coast Salish Indians, Northwest Coast 67. Indians, Musical Instruments of Native Peoples of Canada, and Toys and Games of Native People of Canada. The P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a has education programmes directed at ethnobotany for grades 5, 6, and 7. Plants played a major role i n the l i v e s of B.C.'s Native Peoples. Their econ- omic importance arose from th e i r use as food, raw materials and medicine. Students learned the importance of plants i n a l l as- pects of Native culture. The Ministry of Education, V i c t o r i a , has available for loan a West Coast Indian Fine Arts K i t , The Revival, which foc- uses on the r e v i v a l of t r a d i t i o n a l art form and the creation of new forms i n the Northwest Coast a r t . The Museum of Anthropology, at U.B.C, has an excellent school programme, "Garbanzo," which uses a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach (mime, music, and masks) to teach about Northwest Coast art . Three Vancouver Island Indian communities developed culture programmes for Indian children i n the school system; public school and band operated school. Saanich developed a programme, Cultural Revival Project, which covered a broad spectrum: bas- ketry, loom weaving, carving, t r a d i t i o n a l food presentation and preparation. Sooke, an adjacent community, u t i l i z e s the s k i l l s of Native women to teach beading, k n i t t i n g , painting, and t r a d i - t i o n a l designs i n the public school. Further north the Kwakiutl, Nimpkish Band at A l e r t Bay developed a unit on c u l t u r a l l i v i n g where each month a unit was set up on shelter, animals, plants, foods, curriculum or law, taking into account the p r o v i n c i a l curriculum. The unit draws from several areas: a legend i s t o l d 68. using vocabulary from language, integrating the unit i n progress, the Indian dance lesson i s added and masks are provided by the band a r t i s t . This format more clos e l y follows Indian t r a d i t i o n s where a l l of the arts played important roles i n developing the theme of a c u l t u r a l event. The public school i n A l e r t Bay has developed twelve graded work books dealing with Kwakwala danc- ing, songs, and games. Several school d i s t r i c t s have developed c r e d i t courses for students at the high school l e v e l . These courses generally are in the area of a r t , food and n u t r i t i o n , and Indian Studies. Kitimat school d i s t r i c t has c r e d i t courses for a Native Art and Design course, grades 9-12, and Indian Studies for grades 9 and 10. Lytton school d i s t r i c t has Indian Studies at the grade 10 l e v e l which encompasses Native foods, f i s h i n g , gathering, dip net production, carving, dancing, c r a f t material c o l l e c t i o n , c r a f t s , history, and anthropology. Prince Rupert o f f e r s Crafts 11, Northwest Coast Design, Foods and Nutrition (Native foods). The elementary schools i n the province focus on grade 4 Social Studies as a place to bring i n c u l t u r a l materials about Native people. Some communities, such as Port Simpson, with a large Indian population, introduces Indian culture i n a grade 2 Science and Social Studies unit, Time and Change i n Port Simpson (More, 1983, p. 230). They have a r t i f a c t r e p l i c a s for students' use: cedar bark baskets, halibut hooks, bentwood boxes, adzes, and soapberry paddles. At the elementary l e v e l , the use of a r t i f a c t s i s an e f f e c t - ive way to encourage achievement. Native Indian children are more stimulated by seeing an a r t i f a c t than by seeing a picture of one. When they see a f i s h knife before they are instructed about how to make one, t h e i r understanding about the proportions, the weight and shape of the knife a l l become part of what " f i s h k n i f e " means and i s something that his/her ancestor made before him/her and what he/she i s about to make. There i s an added dimension to a r t i f a c t r e p l i c a s — N a t i v e students seem to be more interested i n art which has a s p e c i f i c purpose, something useful and, i n the process, making something that has meaning i n t h e i r culture. A r t i f a c t s for students to handle and duplicate need to be available and can be an important aid i n students under- standing about th e i r own culture. As the results of my study w i l l show, while the impact of my a r t programme i s d i f f i c u l t to measure (self-concept and know- ledge of Indian culture were the only t e s t s ) , i t i s evident, according to the classroom teacher, that during the 1983 f a l l term, the students' attitude to work and th e i r l e v e l of achieve- ment showed considerable improvement. This may be due, i n some respects, to other aspects of the students' experience. How- ever, l i t e r a t u r e supports the view that achieving success i n art and i n learning about one's culture can bring about improvement in levels of achievement. Art, i n i t s e l f , can provide a r i c h and unique bridge between the two cultures. I believe that i n the art programme important connections were made between the inheritance of the present as a r e f l e c t i o n of the legacy of the past. Most of the students i n the art programme knew more about the i r own culture than even they r e a l i z e d , and they found i t more inte r e s t i n g and challenging than they expected. As the programme concluded, more pieces were being f i t t e d into the bridge between 70 . both cultures. A Native Indian woman told a Senate Subcommittee on Indian Education, "If my children are proud, i f my children have ident- i t y , i f my children know who they are and i f they are proud to be who they are, t h e y ' l l be able to encounter anything in l i f e , I think t h i s i s what education means" (Adams, 1974, p. 22). CHAPTER III THE CULTURAL SURVIVAL SCHOOL Many school d i s t r i c t s i n B.C. have endeavoured to meet the needs of Native Indian students within t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . A number of approaches have emerged. Some of them were referred to in the previous chapter. The Vancouver Native Indian Cultural Survival School i s one of f i v e Native Indian programmes undertaken by the Vancouver School Board. While each has a d i f f e r e n t focus and way of oper- ating, a l l share the common goal of easing the adjustment of Native Indian students into the school system by providing an environment that i s " c u l t u r a l l y relevant and attuned to needs of Native Indian students" (Kettle, March 1983, p. i ) . The f i v e programmes are as follows: (a) Four Native Indian Home School workers are responsible for handling problems i n separate areas of the school d i s t r i c t . Their primary role i s to a s s i s t i n the assessment and placement of Indian children i n the school d i s - t r i c t , (b) Native Indian Cultural Enrichment workers serve the needs of students i n f i v e schools by providing t u t o r i a l and c u l - t u r a l enrichment a c t i v i t i e s both within and outside the c l a s s - room, (c) Outreach Alternative School serves students i n grades 8, 9, and 10, who need more support and personal contact than the regular school can o f f e r . Those who lack the academic s k i l l s required to function i n the regular school system are given needed support. (d) Kumtuks, an alternate school for Indian 72. students, was established to r e t a i n students during the c r u c i a l years between grades 6 and 9. It offers a programme which em- phasizes the development of s k i l l s necessary to function i n the regular school setting and enables students to integrate into a f u l l regular secondary school programme. (e) The f i f t h programme i s the one i n which my art project was conducted. The Vancouver Native Indian Cultural Survival School (see Appendix 1) was established i n September, 1982 i n response to a need expressed by a Native Indian parents' group. The school i s located on the s i t e of the Britannia Secondary School and i s for students i n grades 5-9. The f a c i l i t i e s consist of two port- able classrooms. The school has access to many of the f a c i l i t i e s of the Britannia Complex, such as the pool, ice skating rink, resource centre and a workshop and an a c t i v i t y room at the sec- ondary school. Once the public announcement of the opening of the school was made, l e t t e r s were sent by the Board to parents who had ex- pressed inte r e s t i n sending t h e i r children to the school. Two teachers were hired, a Native Indian graduate of the Native In- dian Teacher Education Programme (N.I.T.E.P.) at U.B.C, with one year's experience as a teacher at an alternate school for Native Indian children and four years' experience as a counsel- lo r for N.I.T.E.P. For the other classroom, a non-Indian with f i v e years' experience teaching Native Indian students at Mt. Currie band school was hired. A f u l l - t i m e teaching assistant was shared by the two teachers. The programme was f l e x i b l e and adaptable. The two teachers determined how they were going to d i v i d e up the students, what they were going to teach, and how they were going to teach . Some o f the programme o b j e c t i v e s most r e l e v a n t to my a r t programme were: (a) t h a t there be a focus on Native c u l t u r e , h i s t o r y , v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n s , and s p i r i t u a l i s m , both t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary; (b) t h a t students be encouraged to develop a sense o f confidence and i n c r e a s e d s e l f - e s t e e m i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y as Indian people; (c) t h a t the s c h o o l be a p l a c e where students, parents and the community can p l a n and implement programmes; (d) t h a t there be c u l t u r a l events; and (e) t h a t improvement of academic and s o c i a l s k i l l s be s t r e s s e d to enable Indian c h i l d - ren to a c q u i r e i n c r e a s e d s c h o o l competencies and success. Any Nat i v e Indian student, r e s i d e n t i n Vancouver, i n grades 5-9, who would b e n e f i t from a programme t h a t emphasized Native Indian c u l t u r e , with a shown p o t e n t i a l f o r c o o p e r a t i v e behaviour and committed to a t t e n d i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g , c o u l d apply. Yet f i r m l y d e l i n e a t e d admissions c r i t e r i a had not been developed a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the year ( K e t t l e , June 1983, p. 3) There had been no requirement t h a t parents be c o n t a c t e d as to commitment to the s c h o o l b e f o r e a d m i t t i n g t h e i r students i n t o the programme. However, f u t u r e plans i n c l u d e a formal proced- ure f o r c o n t a c t i n g p a r e n t s . Two parent n i g h t s were h e l d d u r i n g the year which c o i n c i d e d with the two r e p o r t c a r d s . T h i s was an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r parents who had not a l r e a d y done so, to come to d i s c u s s a c h i l d ' s p r o g r e s s . F i v e parents were i n v o l v e d i n the a r t programme as resource people, making s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i - b u t i o n s . I t appears t h a t a g r e a t e r involvement of Indian people i s d e s i r e d i f one of the goals of the programme i s to be 74. achieved, t h a t i s , to "explore Indian community values and needs, and the d e c i s i o n making process i n v o l v e d i n p o l i t i c a l , economic and c u l t u r a l matters" ( K e t t l e , March 1983, p. 12). Parents concerned about the l o s s of Native Indian c u l t u r e and the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n have i n the r e g u l a r classroom e n r o l l e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l . Many of the students a t the s c h o o l read below t h e i r grade l e v e l , and many were behind i n mathematics s k i l l s ( K e t t l e , June 1983, p. 7). The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e of the teachers a t the beginning of the year was to e s t a b l i s h where the students were a c a d e m i c a l l y . Through encouragement and c o o p e r a t i o n from the student, they be- gan to teach the s k i l l s t h a t were m i s s i n g , i n order to b r i n g about a t t i t u d i n a l changes i n the students about s c h o o l and about themselves. The d e c i s i o n to o f f e r grades 5-9 a t the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School was made because of s t a t i s t i c a l evidence t h a t Native Indian students drop behind s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n those grades ( K e t t l e , March 1983, p. i ) . The classroom teacher f o r grades 5, 6, and 7 s a i d t h a t she found the grade mix very d i f f i c u l t to work with , s i n c e ages and l e v e l s of m a t u r i t y v a r i e d c o n s i d e r - a b l y . Timetable f o r grades 5, 6, and 7 ( 8:50-10:10 a.m.) R o l l c a l l , d a i l y newspaper read to the c l a s s , mathematics, j o u r n a l w r i t i n g and s p e l l i n g . Recess (10:30-11:00 a.m.) s i l e n t reading (11:00-12:00 a.m.) Indian dancing or a r t . Those who don't want to dance, go to the l i b r a r y or do thinking s k i l l s with the teacher. Lunch ( 1:00- 2:00 p.m.) reading or s o c i a l studies or health ( 2:00- 3:00 p.m.) creative writing *swimming Mondays 8:45 a.m. *poetry Wednesdays *skating Wednesdays 2:00-3:00 p.m. *one-page essay Friday mornings before recess *once a week art programme Students L i n g u i s t i c Divisions Number Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 5 students Northwest 11 students Coast 7 students 23 students (Kwakiutl Kwakiutl-Tsimshian Yukon T l i n g i t Cree 0j ibway Interior Salish Coast S a l i s h Shuswap 13 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 23 (Note: sixteen students were present for both the pre- and post-tests.) The students obviously l i k e d being i n a Native Indian school with a Native Indian teacher. Several of them t o l d me during the Art and Culture post-test that they l i k e d being at the school and students who misbehaved assured the classroom teacher that they would try harder to behave since they didn't want to be asked to transfer out of the school. The mix of students from d i f f e r e n t parts of the c i t y meant that the f i r s t few weeks of school were spent getting to know each other, mak- ing an adjustment to being i n an all-Native Indian classroom which, for most of them, was a new experience. The adjustment of the student body to the new classroom s i t u a t i o n took longer than anticipated. During the f a l l , new students were added to the class before classroom norms could be established with the consequence that the classroom teacher's health began to suffer. In December, when a teacher aide was hired, the classroom s i t u a t i o n improved. The classroom teacher and teacher aide t r i e d d i f f e r e n t approaches to di v i d i n g up the class into working groups. For my art programme, I t r i e d the team approach, which was moderately successful. Of the four teams established i n the classroom, two of them worked reason- ably well, one worked together sometimes, and one team didn't work together at a l l . The l a t t e r were at times highly independ- ent, and at others, distracted; working sporadically, disturb- ing other students. They were a c o l l e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s — t h i s was evident on f i e l d t r i p s , when teammates worked i n d i v i d u a l l y side by side or s o l i t a r y , a distance away. The classroom teacher and teacher aide were pleased with the lessons I gave; the students seemed genuinely interested i n what we were doing i n the art programme. Thus introductions to the class as a whole, during the programme, had to be short, succinct, i n t e r e s t i n g , and involve the students i n a d i r e c t way. For example, team competitions during review questions were much enjoyed since a l l students pa r t i c i p a t e d . The most successful lessons involved l i t t l e reading or writing, with changes of act- i v i t i e s which required l i t t l e explanation. Lessons also went 77. smoothly when the whole class worked i n teams with each i n d i v i d - ual working on his/her own at the same project. The students stayed with the same adult supervisor for the whole afternoon during two of the mask making lessons. It seemed to help when the adult worked on his own mask so that the students could ob- serve. The culminating f i l m acted as a uniting and calming agent at the end of the period. It was d i f f i c u l t to conduct class discussions with the class as a whole, because of the disruptive actions of a few students. Those who were interested i n sharing ideas were interrupted by others wishing to bring negative attention to themselves. The classroom had several discouraged, demoralized students because when the school opened, students with problems i n th e i r prev- ious schools were encouraged to e n r o l l i n the Survival School with the hope that t h e i r academic and emotional needs would be quickly and e a s i l y s a t i s f i e d (Kettle, June 1983, p. 4). The academic d i f f i c u l t i e s were long standing and the students 1 s e l f - concept had been deflated to the extent that they worked sporad- i c a l l y . The classroom teacher and teacher aide had not been trained to deal with special problems. Some of the students with special needs transferred from the classroom and some passed into the next grade and out of the classroom. During the evaluation of the f i r s t year of the Cultural Sur- v i v a l School, students were interviewed i n d i v i d u a l l y to f i n d out how they f e l t about the school. Without exception, a l l students said they were happy to be enrolled i n the programme. Most indicated that the i r parents and friends were also happy they were 78. attending . . . they also frequently mentioned about learning about Native Indian culture, being i n a class where a l l students are Native Indian and taking d i f - ferent subjects. (Kettle, June 1983, p. 9) It i s obvious from the evaluation report that the f i r s t school year was seen as successful by students and parents, and that the programme was seen as having a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the stud- ents i n terms of both attendance and attitude toward school. CHAPTER IV TESTS Hypotheses It i s the purpose of this study to show, i n an urban Native Indian alternate cl a s s , whether there i s support for the follow- ing hypotheses: 1. Learning about culture through art increases s e l f - esteem. 2. Learning about Indian culture i s regarded as v i t a l by Indian communities, Indian parents, and educators, Indian and non-Indian. 3. Studies indicate that, although students don't know much about t h e i r culture, they badly want to learn more about i t . 4. Art i n the classroom can serve as a c u l t u r a l resource, and a means whereby culture i s given recognition i n the classroom. 5. Art i s an e f f e c t i v e way to teach not only aspects of culture, but also the b e l i e f s i m p l i c i t i n culture and underlying art. 6 . Learning about culture through art can follow Indian styles of learning: v i s u a l learning, k i n e t i c learning, and learning through observation. 7. Teaching Indian culture through a r t can act as a cat- al y s t to increase vocabulary and sharpen i n t e r e s t i n other areas of the curriculum. 80 . 8. Teaching Indian culture through art can be a means by which Indian students can increase t h e i r achievement across the whole curriculum. Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory "Self-esteem i s a personal judgement of worthiness that i s expressed i n the attitudes the i n d i v i d u a l holds toward himself" (Coopersmith, 1967, p. 4). Because one of the hypotheses of my project i s that learn- ing about one's culture through art brings about an increase i n self-esteem, I sought to measure changes in self-esteem as a r e s u l t of the art programme. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem In- ventory was used to test a class of Native Indian students be- fore the commencement of the programme and a f t e r i t s completion. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was chosen because the Vancouver School Board had i d e n t i f i e d the test for use by the Cultural Survival School. A review of recent l i t e r a t u r e showed the Coopersmith S e l f - Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 196 5) to be the most commonly used self-esteem test for elementary school children. It has been used with children of d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups (Kagan & Knight, 1979; LaTorre, 1982; Nelson, Knight, Kagan & Gumbiner, 1980). The Self-Esteem Inventory consists of 58 items. F i f t y of those items are used to assess an individual's self-esteem, and eight items comprise a l i e scale useful i n determining the v a l - i d i t y of an individual's response. Where a student has a l i e 81. score of four or more on the l i e scale his/her responses are ex- cluded from s t a t i s t i c a l analysis (since ha l f of his/her respon- ses on the l i e scale suggest an i n v a l i d response pattern). I intend to record the responses of a l l students because I have a small group of students to begin with and I also wish to see i f there i s a change in responses of students scoring high on the l i e scale during the pre-test compared to the scores on the post- test. The questions on the l i e scale are numbers 6, 13, 27, 34, 41, 48, and 55. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was designed for 10-12 year olds since this i s the e a r l i e s t age when most children can think abstractly and make general assessment of t h e i r own i n t e l - l e c t u a l powers (Coopersmith, 1967, p. 8). "The test was o r i g - i n a l l y designed as part of a focus on pre-adolescents of middle class background who were male, white, and normal. Normal i n t h i s case refers to the subjects being free from symptoms of stress or emotional disorders" (Coopersmith, 1967, p. 8). The Inventory consisted of 50 items concerned with the sub- ject's s e l f - a t t i t u d e s i n four areas: peers, parents, school, and personal i n t e r e s t s . The differences i n s e l f - a t t i t u d e between the mean scores of the boys and g i r l s was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f - ferent i n the test design. Coopersmith found that "the indications are that more def- i n i t e structure . . . i s associated with higher self-esteem and greater c r e a t i v i t y " (1967, p. 263). It appears that neither a regimented classroom nor a completely free one i s conducive to the development of high self-esteem in students. "Children 82. with high self-esteem have come from homes where boundaries are c l e a r l y defined and transgressions are dealt with firmly and consistently" (Coopersmith, 1967, p. 236). The children knew what was expected of them, and the consequences i f they did not meet those expectations. Thus rules for the classroom should be few but enforceable, and there should be r e a l l a t i t u d e for students but within the defined l i m i t s (Coopersmith, 1967, p. 128). An important question remains, however, concerning the ac- curacy of the Coopersmith test with Native Indian students. "If we are to be e f f e c t i v e i n the acculturation process, we must conduct ourselves as learners or information gatherers f i r s t be- fore we can assume e f f e c t i v e l y the role of 'teachers' for c u l - t u r a l l y diverse pu p i l s " (Foerster & L i t t l e Soldier, 1981, p. 3). We must know the culture of minority culture children before we can accurately assess how they verbalize fe e l i n g s . Testing the Art and Culture Pre-test at Kumtuks School Before introducing the Art and Culture Test to the students at the Cultural Survival School, I obtained permission to admin- i s t e r my Art and Culture Test to students at Kumtuks School i n order to evaluate the test i n terms of length and content. Kumtuks was established to re t a i n students during the c r u c i a l years between Grades 6 and 9 when the drop-out rate among Native Indian students i s high. I t offers a programme which emphasizes the development of s k i l l s 83. necessary to function i n the regular school setting and enables students to integrate gradually into a f u l l regular secondary school programme. (Kettle, March 1983, p. i) The students, 7 boys and 2 g i r l s between the ages of 13 and 14, were tested November 30, 1982. The Selection "Touchable" a r t i f a c t s and pictures were chosen as repres- enting items used by Native Indian people i n general, and the Kwakiutl people i n p a r t i c u l a r . Items selected represented a variety of materials and i l l u s t r a t e d the s k i l l and ingenuity of the Native Indian people i n using materials found i n t h e i r en- vironment . The Kwakiutl were a people with deep mythological b e l i e f s . Their philosophy of l i f e and t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s were ex- pressed v i s u a l l y i n designs painted on t h e i r houses, totem poles, t h e i r canoes, and even on t h e i r bodies. Designs expressed t h e i r rank and s o c i a l position "since i t was a sign of p r i v i l e g e to use certain animal figures as paintings or carvings on house fronts, totem poles, on masks, or on everyday u t e n s i l s " (Boas, 1966, p. 138). With the sea to the west and steep mountains to the east, t h e i r l i f e pattern faced out onto the sea and the beach. They t r a v e l l e d by sea i n canoes in and out of sheltered bays and i n l e t s . The forest was a resource and at the same time, a force threatening and impenetrable. There were four d i s t i n c t seasons, each with p a r t i c u l a r jobs related to i t . The culmina- ti o n of the year was winter, for then ceremonials gave d i r e c t i o n 84. and focus to r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . "The theory of the winter ceremonial i s based on the b e l i e f that i n winter certain super- natural beings, who reside i n summer i n distant countries, come to the v i l l a g e " (Boas, .1966, p. 172). Survival was not always easy and i t meant that cooperation and supportive family units were important. The fresh f i s h and seafood d i e t was supplemented with seas- onally available foods and dried foods prepared i n times of abundance. Clothing was made from materials found p l e n t i f u l l y on the coast—cedar bark woven capes, woven wool and cedar bark blankets, arid tanned leather clothing traded from the i n t e r i o r S a l i s h . The Southern Kwakiutl also wore sea otter capes. One student arrived too late to be tested. Testing began at 9:15 a.m. and was completed at noon. I t took about twenty minutes to test each student in the Home-School Coordinator's o f f i c e adjacent to the classroom. When I arrived at the cl a s s - room the students were watching the classroom teacher s i l k screen t h e i r designs. The students asked me why I was there. I t o l d them that I had some a r t i f a c t s from the Museum of Anthro- pology at U.B.C. and some pictures that I wanted them to ident- i f y . I explained that they were helping me because I was going to show the objects and pictures i n another school. I wanted to make sure that the pictures were clear and that the objects were things that most Native Indian students would recognize. They were very glad that they didn't have to write anything. The classroom teacher decided who would come i n to see me f i r s t , and many of them wanted to come immediately. One boy pa r t i c u - l a r l y wanted to come i n ; f i n a l l y he did, before his turn. It 85. seemed to them as i f something in t e r e s t i n g was going to happen. Students entered and sat beside the desk where I had placed the pictures. I sat beside the shelf where I had placed "the touchables." I began with the "touchables," handling each ob- ject, one at a time, to the student and I then asked the ques- tions l i s t e d . Several times I had to ask an additional question to c l a r i f y the student's answer regarding the size of the object or the material that the object was made from. For example, several students c a l l e d the buckskin dress a jacket. I noticed that at f i r s t the students were uncertain about what they should say; they didn't l i k e to make a guess. They l i k e d having some- thing to hold and touch; when they held the objects they ran thei r hands over them and looked with inte r e s t at them. The f i r s t students to complete the test were the two g i r l s i n the cla s s . They began immediately to talk to me about them- selves and th e i r families. A boy came i n who seemed (and was, according to the teacher) very shy. He didn't make eye contact with me or the teacher, but the teacher said that he often com- municated with him by note. Another boy was very knowledgeable about Indian culture. He t o l d me that his mother did weaving, beading, and sewing and that he often went to Indian events with his parents. The student who seemed to be the behaviour problem in the class knew a great deal about f i s h i n g ; he seemed l i k e a b u l l i n a china shop, needing to keep on the move. I saw him bothering other students, yet on a one-to-one basis he seemed mature, knowledgeable and relaxed. Touchables. These "touchables" proved the most d i f f i c u l t . (Touchables are copies of a r t i f a c t s that have been made for 86 . students to examine.) Students = 9 Touchable c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d 0 wedge b i r c h bark basket 1 1 button b l a n k e t Despite the f a c t t h a t none of the students i d e n t i f i e d the wedge, I decided to r e t a i n i t s i n c e I planned to i n t r o d u c e the students to i t and have them use i t i n the a r t programme. The p h r a s i n g i n the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the h a l i b u t hook had to be changed from "What c o u l d you c a t c h w i t h t h i s ? " to "What i s t h i s used f o r ? " Many of the students were completely m y s t i f i e d as to i t s u s e — s e w i n g was one guess. F i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s were d i s c u s s e d because they are i n c l u d e d i n Lesson 3. The b i r c h bark basket was removed from the s e t because i t proved d i f f i c u l t f o r them to i d e n t i f y and i t was not a p a r t of the a r t programme. The button b l a n k e t a l s o proved d i f f i c u l t and, s i n c e i t was c r e a t e d d u r i n g the p o s t - c o n t a c t p e r i o d , I decided to remove i t as w e l l . Touchable Questions Since the stone maul was i d e n t i f i e d by no stude n t s , I changed the p h r a s i n g of the q u e s t i o n from "What i s t h i s ? " to "This maul i s used f o r ?" The students c o u l d determine what i t was made from and they guessed t h a t i t was used f o r ham- mering. Question 7 needed focus s i n c e "What i s t h i s ? " seemed l a c k - i n g i n c h a l l e n g e . "What k i n d of mask i s t h i s — b i r d , animal, or people?" (Hamatsa) 87. Question 8 was changed to "What i s t h i s c a l l e d ? " to make i t more challenging than "Where would you put t h i s ? " (choker) Questions 10 and 11 were changed to "The Cree gauntlets are " (mitts) from "The Cree gauntlets were made out of " (beads, fur, leather). Pictures Pictures eliminated from test design Number 13 Number 30 Number 3 3 The whale - Only one student c o r r e c t l y stated that harpooning was the way that whales were caught. Most said that spears were used. (The confusion between har- poons and spears i s even made by advanced students.) Whales were important to West Coast cultures such as Nuu-chah-nulth c u l - ture, but not generally to the Kwakiutl. Sea egg, sea anemone - Only one student i d e n t i f i e d i t and, while t i d a l pools were v i s i t e d during the f i e l d t r i p to the beach, sea eggs were found further out. Bighorn sheep - The animal was often con- fused with the mountain goat. I thought that i t made too great an emphasis to have both the goat and sheep on the test since students corr e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d neither of them or both. 88. Number 36 Sxwaixwe mask - The Coast Salish mask was ne that none of the students had ever seen or heard about. It wasn't relevant to the mask that was discussed and made in the art programme. Number 38 Cormorant - No one could identify i t and, 89. Number 4 8 Number 4 9 Number 45 Crab - Too easy to i d e n t i f y and minor in the art and myths. Box - Proved s u r p r i s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t since i n the picture i t was d i f f i c u l t to see what i t was made of. The rope around the box prompted "packsack" or puzzlement. Cree Indian dancer - i t was easy for the students to i d e n t i f y . The c l a s s - room teacher was surprised at how well they did on the test. He was also surprised that there wasn't more of a range i n the scores. 90. Results Art and Culture Test Results, Dec. 19 82, Kumtuks School Total =61 12 = "Touchables" 49 = Pictures Students present = 9 Students A = 38 B = 44 C = 41 D = 39 E = 38 F = 4 7 G = 38 H = 42 I = 43 390 = Total A l l students i d e n t i f i e d : mask around the neck (choker) A l l students i d e n t i f i e d the following pictures: moccasin berries octopus beading deer canoe totem pole f i s h crab dancer None i d e n t i f i e d the wedge or cop- per, Sxwaixwe mask or the cormor- ant . The class average was 75% When I asked the students what they thought about the test they said that i t was either easy or hard. They either knew the answers or they didn't. I f they knew the vocabulary for the ob- jects they could i d e n t i f y them. Otherwise, they found i t d i f f i c u l t to make substitutions. For example, the pictures of the cormorant e l i c i t e d few guesses, not even "diving b i r d . " Perhaps language arts lessons on adverbs and adjectives are i n - dicated, to make language more expressive. With these modifications I was now ready to introduce the Art and Culture Test to the students at the Cultural Survival School. Out of the t o t a l of 51 pictures, 14 of those were Kwakiutl. Out of a t o t a l of 51 pictures, 3 of those were Tsimshian. By combining the Kwakiutl and Tsimshian pictures, 17 out of the t o t a l of 51 are Kwakiutl-Tsimshian related pictures (17/51=33%). Pictures chosen that were generally well known to Native Indian culture were, out of a t o t a l of 51 pictures (19/51=37%). By adding the number of Kwakiutl-Tsimshian pictures to the t o t a l of generally well known pictures, the t o t a l percent i s 70% which relates d i r e c t l y and generally to the percentage of Kwakiutl- Tsimshian students i n the classroom. The re s t of the pictures contained i n the test r e l a t e to the following l i n g u i s t i c groups: Cree, Coast and Inte r i o r S a l i s h , and Haida. "Touchables" - 12 objects 1. Halibut hook - Kwakiutl (Museum of Anthropology, Univer s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) 2. Bentwood box - Kwakiutl (Museum of Anthropology, Univer s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) 3. Stone maul - A l l (Museum of Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) 4. Fish knife - A l l (Museum of Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) 5. "D" adze - Kwakiutl (or Salish) (Museum of Anthro- pology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) 6. Yew wedge - A l l (Museum of Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) 7. Mask - Kwakiutl (Museum of Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) 8. Beaded necklace - Contemporary Indian jewellery (B.B.) 9. Woven basket - Coast S a l i s h , I n t e r i o r S a l i s h (B.B.) 10. Birch bark basket - Cree (B.B.) 11. Button blanket - Kwakiutl (Museum of Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia) 12. Cree gauntlets - V.K. K = 5 (42% of the "touchables" are Kwakiutl) C = 2 (16% of the "touchables" are Cree) CS = 2 (16% of the "touchables" are Coast Salish) A l l =4 (33% of the "touchables" are general to the coast) The Cultural Survival School Art and Culture Pre-test December 1982 Before giving the Art and Culture test that I had planned for students i n grades 5, 6, and 7 at the Cultural Survival School, I wanted to f i n d out how much they knew about Native In- dian culture i n general, and Kwakiutl culture i n p a r t i c u l a r . Research indicated that Native Indian students don't do well on written t e s t s . I planned a test that was completely o r a l . I t was designed to be given i n d i v i d u a l l y , i n a relaxed, non-threat- ening se t t i n g . 1. The students were to l d beforehand that, i n answering my questions, they would not have to write anything down. 2. They were questioned i n d i v i d u a l l y and away from the classroom. 3. Each student a r r i v i n g for the test was given juice and cookies while I arranged the touchable objects on the desk. 4. The student was asked to i d e n t i f y the ten "touchable" objects, and then asked to i d e n t i f y forty pictures. 5. Questions were asked for a r e l a t i v e l y short period--no longer than 20-25 minutes—depending on the length of a stud- ent's answers. 6. The tone of the questioning was p o s i t i v e . Each student was encouraged when giving correct answers. Incorrect answers resulted i n either of two approaches: - i f the student simply didn't know the object or p i c - ture, I went to the next question, t e l l i n g him that he would be learning about, for example, the spindle whorl, i n the art pro- gramme ; - i f the student attempted an answer, but had d i f f i - c u lty, for instance with scale, and c a l l e d a Sali s h blanket a mat, I would say, "bigger than a mat." I offered s i m i l a r clues i n response to sim i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s with other questions. Testing at the Cultural Survival School The students were tested on December 10, a.m.; December 13, a.m. and p.m.; and December 14, a.m. The classroom teacher ar- ranged for me to use an o f f i c e i n the main school. Twenty-two out of twenty-three students were tested. The one missing stud- ent came to school l a t e . I spoke to the class before the testing began. I asked i f they had been to the Museum of Anthropology; several of the students had v i s i t e d i t . They said that they had seen masks and totem poles. I introduced the subject by t e l l i n g the class that I had some a r t i f a c t s from the Museum of Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and some pictures for them to look at, and that I would be asking them to t e l l me what the objects were c a l l e d or what they were used f o r . I told them that they would not have to write anything down and, at that news, they bright- ened perceptibly. I quickly had a volunteer to be the f i r s t candidate. I then placed the names of the rest of the class on the blackboard so that they could come, one at a time, l a t e r . Generally, the students came with trepidation, uncertain about what they would be expected to say. One student who had taken the test, speaking to the next student coming to see me, to l d him that "the contest was fun." Oral questions. The following questions were asked stud- ents at the Cutural Survival School during the Art and Culture pre-test to: fi n d out what the students' expectations were con- cerning the art programme; learn about resource people for the art classroom; and discover the extent that the students were involved i n t h e i r own Indian culture. 1. What do you want to learn from an art programme? What do you know about your own Indian culture? 2. Do you know someone t h a t would l i k e to be a resource person f o r the a r t programme? Perhaps i n the f i s h i n g s e c t i o n , f o r example, a fisherman parent would be w i l l i n g to come to the classroom? 3. Do you go to potlatches/pow-wows? How o f t e n do you go to c u l t u r a l events? Most of the students had been to a pow-wow or a p o t l a t c h , or both. Most of them knew s e v e r a l people who worked as c a r v - e r s , j e w e l l e r s , or fishermen. The f a m i l i e s t h a t the students came from seemed to be i n v o l v e d i n Indian a r t s and c r a f t s to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than the non-Indian community. Students want t o : 1. Learn to carve = 11 students 2. Draw a l l s o r t s of t h i n g s = 4 students 3. Bead = 3 students 4. Learn about b i r d s = 1 student 5. Do l e a t h e r work, to make gloves = 1 student 6. Weave = 1 student P r i n t making was not mentioned. The involvement of Indians i n p r i n t making i s a r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n . I t has been found t h a t the s i l k s c r e e n i n g process lends i t s e l f to Northwest Coast de- s i g n s . The number of o b j e c t s i n the t e s t was l i m i t e d to 50. When I f i r s t experimented with the A r t and C u l t u r e t e s t there was a t o t a l of 60 o b j e c t s and p i c t u r e s i n the t e s t . A f t e r students at Kumtuks School p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the t e s t , I observed t h a t 60 ob- j e c t s were too many f o r them to answer without the t e s t becoming a chore towards the end, so I removed some of the objects and used a t o t a l of 50. The test i n i t s f i n a l form consisted of 10 a r t i f a c t s and 40 photographs. Selection of "touchables." Seventy percent of the students in the class are Kwakiutl. The objects for the touchable sec- tion and the pictures for the p i c t o r i a l section of the test were selected because of t h e i r importance i n Kwakiutl culture, and for t h e i r representation i n Native Indian cultures i n general. Some of the items were examples of tools that would be used i n the art programme. & 2. Wedge and stone-maul used by stud- ents i n the lesson focusing on tech- nology related to the use of wood, p a r t i c u l a r l y cedar, on the Northwest Coast (Lesson 5 & 6). 3. "D" adze - also used by students i n Lesson 6. 4. Carved bowl - came under the heading of containers i n Lesson 6 (an example of wood technology). 5. Fish knife - each student made a knife using the slate and cedar. This was part of the lesson on f i s h i n g (Lesson 4) . |£7Jj/-6. Halibut hook - included i n the lesson on f i s h i n g . p . 97. Basket - an example of Coast S a l i s h basket making using the twining method, with cherry bark woven in to decorative patterns on the basket and l i d . Students c o l l e c t e d cherry bark while on the f i e l d t r i p to the forest. Weaving using f i b r e s was part of the lesson on weaving with wool, spinning and dyeing of wool (Lesson 5). Large Hamatas mask - didn't prove d i f f i c u l t for the students to i d e n t i f y as being a b i r d mask. The students made a mask i n Lessons 10, 11, and 12. Bead choker - the necklace was an ex- ample of beading on an object that a l l of the students could i d e n t i f y . Many of the students were headers. Cree gauntlets - an object with exam- ples of three Indian c u l t u r a l c r a f t s on one a r t i c l e of clothing. Leather work, beading and fur work were s k i l l s used singly or i n association in terms of the design. Ten was an appropriate number of objects to display comfortably on a desk top and for transportation i n a case from the Museum. The following scores are for the December 1982 - 22 registered students. 98. Selection of pictures. The choice of pictures was based on consideration of the cultures of the students and the content of the programme; pictures of people engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s common to most Indian cultures i n B.C. The pictures that students found easiest i n the Kumtuks pre- te s t were placed toward the end of the test for the Cultural Survival School students. The concentration of the Kumtuks stud- ents, who were older, had flagged towards the end of the te s t . Students at the Survival School took approximately twenty-five minutes to complete the te s t . I believe that the students enjoyed the test. They were treated i n a special way; they had an opportunity to talk to someone who was interested i n what they had to say about Indian art and culture. When some of them asked me the next day i f they could come again, I knew they would not object to the post- te s t . CHAPTER V THE ART PROGRAMME Rationale for the Art Programme It i s my b e l i e f — a n d one often documented by Indian edu- c a t o r s — t h a t Native Indian parents need to be more involved i n the education of t h e i r children. During my art programme, fi v e parents participated i n important ways as resource people i n the classroom. I had presented my suggested a rt programme to the students before the programme began. But now that I know some of the parents and they know me, I would, i n a f u t - ure art programme, discuss i t with parents before presenting i t to the students. It would therefore become a blend of par- ental expectations, student i n t e r e s t s , and teacher design. The a rt programme focused on Kwakiutl culture because 70% of the students were Kwakiutl. I believe that, i n order for Native Indian students to succeed i n the contemporary world, they need to believe that they can succeed. According to the l i t e r a t u r e , "Indian stud- ents who see themselves and t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n a negative fash- ion usually f a i l to achieve good grades. Academic success or f a i l u r e appears to be as deeply rooted i n concepts of the s e l f as i t i s i n measured mental a b i l i t y , i f not deeper" (Pepper, 1976, p. 141). This i s true for a l l children, but even more so for Native Indian children. 100. I think that Indian t r a d i t i o n s are the means for some students to achieve success i n contemporary society. In my organized, sequential a r t programme, students learned about some t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s by using tools on materials. They ob- served t h e i r environment i n winter and spring, c o l l e c t e d f l o r a and fauna, and imagined what i t was l i k e l i v i n g i n v i l l a g e s on the beach i n winter or spring. They were being sensitized to l i f e before contact. I observed that during the Art and Cul- ture post-test there was greater confidence i n answers; the students were beginning to see relationships between what they saw and did and t h e i r own c u l t u r a l heritage. They know that there are s t i l l c u l t u r a l events: potlatches, pow-wows, s o c i a l gatherings at the Vancouver Indian Centre, and s o c i e t i e s such as the Waglisla which v i l l a g e r s from B e l l a B e l l a have formed and which meet here i n Vancouver. Recently a new l o c a l of the Nisgha T r i b a l Council was formed i n Vancouver. A banquet was held honouring Nisgha post secondary graduates, and planned as part of the programme a speech given i n Nisgha language. Na- t i v e Indian students need encouragement and recognition and some are getting i t from t h e i r people, a community within the c i t y . An art programme that focuses on Indian culture can act as a catalyst to learning i n areas other than a r t . When a stud- ent c a l l e d a tool "that thing," he knew how i t was used and what i t was used for, but that extra dimension was missing—the a b i l - i t y to verbalize that which you know and understand. Once the student learned that "that thing" was a "D" adze, he had added a word to his vocabulary that he wouldn't forget. He was also 1.01. able to make a connection with the "elbow" adze and from there to other hand held tools. The developing capacity to a r t i c u - late what i s important to a student within the boundaries of his/her culture gives the Native Indian student tools and devel- ops s k i l l s to use within the majority culture. Tools and s k i l l s which are transferable from an a r t programme to l i f e within the majority culture should be examined. During an art programme which emphasizes t r a d i t i o n a l culture, students can learn to im- prove t h e i r a b i l i t y to follow written instructions through read- ing the instructions which review steps i n making a r t i f a c t s which interested them. They can learn to work cooperatively and e f f e c t i v e l y within an art programme team where less pressure to perform can improve general s o c i a l s k i l l s . They learn to change an attitude of defeat into a f e e l i n g of building confidence through learning to complete work begun by persevering and ask- ing for help when needed. Within a team students can receive encouragement from adults and peers during the general f l e x i - b i l i t y of an art programme. The exploration of materials can develop c r e a t i v i t y i n imaginative use and discovery of proper- t i e s of synthetic and natural materials. Learning to use tools with control while a s s i s t i n g i n eye-hand coordination also be- comes a means of exerting one's w i l l and mastering the materials of one's culture. Students learn two quite d i f f e r e n t processes. They learn the subtractive process which i s used when creating a totem pole. Redundant pieces of wood are removed by sawing, adzing, carving, digging, s p l i t t i n g , and gauging. Hammerstones, however, are shaped by pecking, and students examined rocks on 102. the beach during the programme to fi n d suitable hammerstones. The additive process was used when students made a clay mould for the TSonokwa mask, and when spinning fleece into wool. Tools and s k i l l s involved i n contemporary p r i n t making can or- iginate i n the t r a d i t i o n a l Coast Salish petroglyphs (I don't know of any Kwakiutl petroglyphs). Petroglyph designs can be used as an introduction to p r i n t making. A drawing of an ex- i s t i n g petroglyph can be copied onto a piece of paper, placed onto an inked glass and traced. The paper i s then peeled o f f and the resultant p r i n t i s c a l l e d a mono p r i n t . The history, languages, and cultures of Native Indian people have been ignored through omission within the majority education system. Art could become a c r i t i c a l factor i n c u l - t u r a l maintenance through pride i n c u l t u r a l achievements, and a source of c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l for Indian people within contemp- orary society. Real understanding and acceptance of minorities i n our midst can only occur through educational programmes where a minority, such as Native Indian people, are given the oppor- tunity to contribute and share t h e i r culture with a l l of us, and art could serve as an important vehicle for t h i s sharing. "Art i s a p r i n c i p a l means of communicating ideas and emotional meanings from one person to another, from one group to another, from one generation to another" (McFee & Degge, 1977, p. 272). During the public opening of the U.B.C. Museum of Anthro- pology exhibit, The Copper That Came From Heaven, July 198 3, Native Indian people of a l l cultures gained pride i n the c u l - t u r a l achievements of the a r t i s t s ' work on display inside the 103. Museum, and i n the performance outside, of Native Indians par- t i c i p a t i n g i n the ceremony, music and dance. In the outdoor setting at the Museum, the art—masks, r a t t l e s , blankets—were seen i n a setting which recreated a portion of an o r i g i n a l cere- mony. Native Indians gain new understanding through the oppor- tunity provided by Museum programmes which i n v i t e t h e i r par- t i c i p a t i o n , and respect through recognition given to one Indian culture. Non-Indians receive a new insight into Indian c u l - tures whose objects had formerly been viewed s o l e l y i n glass cases. Art Lesson Structure The structure of the art lessons was developed bearing i n mind several factors: the level s of achievement and strengths and weaknesses of the students, the physical l i m i t a t i o n s of the classroom, and the resource people av a i l a b l e . There was a t o t a l of sixteen lessons. The objectives of fourteen of them was to teach basic s k i l l s and t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e of Kwakiutl people, and the objective of two of the lessons focussed on contemporary art techniques of Kwakiutl a r t i s t s . The art programme design introduced the past, adding, i n seq- uence, d i r e c t experiences with nature and materials. S k i l l s with tools were included and added. The f i r s t lesson introduced the art programme, made r e f e r - ence to ancestors, and established the relat i o n s h i p between 104 . B.C., Canada, and the world. The second lesson dealt with Native Indian l i f e before contact, and the tools that the stud- ents' ancestors used were examined i n pictures. The t h i r d lesson was a f i e l d t r i p to the beach, where the students ex- perienced the beach and forest i n winter. The theme of the fourth lesson was f i s h i n g , a t r a d i t i o n a l occupation. Wood was the theme of the three lessons that followed. Students discov- ered that red cedar made the f i s h i n g technology of the Kwakiutl fisherman possible. The student i n t e r e s t i n wood carving re- sulted i n a lesson being added to the two o r i g i n a l l y planned. During the ninth lesson the students used the t r a d i t i o n a l spindle whorl to spin sheep's fleece (not t r a d i t i o n a l ) , dyed i t t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n h o r s e t a i l dye bath, and used i t for weaving on small cardboard Salish looms. The students made masks using contemporary papier mache. In Spring, the students returned to the beach and forest to see the changes that had occurred since they had been there i n Winter. The students went to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthro- pology to f i n d those objects that they had learned about during the art programme. The fourteenth lesson introduced the stud- ents to contemporary p r i n t making techniques. The students ex- perienced mono p r i n t s , cardboard p r i n t s , and s i l k screening. The l a s t class gave the students the opportunity to make a group decision about what they wanted to do on the l a s t day of class. The majority of the students wished to have a f i e l d t r i p , and the place they wanted to v i s i t was Stanley Park and the Aquar- ium. 105. Introduction to and Overview of the Individual Lessons The introduction to each lesson increased i n length and scope as the behaviour of the class improved. The introduction consisted of a short review of the previous lesson and material bridging e a r l i e r lessons and the current lesson. Each lesson had a theme, which was introduced through p i c - tures, drawings, readings from books, and a r t i f a c t s borrowed from the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology and the Vancouver Museum. There was a demonstration to the whole class of the s k i l l s to be learned that day. This was followed by demonstrations at three or four stations i n the classroom, whenever teaching the s k i l l i n question could be carr i e d out i n small groups. The small groups, or teams, worked according to a sched- ule which was posted for reference. For example: Team Work: (1:30 - 1:50 p.m.) 1. B.B. Eagles. The time, the station number and the team that begins at that station are included. (1:50 - 2:10 p.m.) 2. Parent Resource. Falcons. After the f i r s t 20 minutes, the Falcons move up to Station 1. Station 1 - Spinning a length of wool. Station 2 - The work for this station i s l i s t e d . Following team work at the stations, I showed a f i l m re- lated to the theme of the day. Twice the f i l m was used at the beginning of the lesson as part of the introduction. During one lesson, the class saw "Making A Totem Pole," i n which Mungo Martin used the tools that the students had used minutes e a r l i e r 106. during the lesson on wood. They saw Mungo Martin making use of the "D" adze, "elbow" adze, wedge, and stone maul. In the lesson, "Salish Weaving," a f i l m served as an introduction to the next lesson on weaving. The students responded best to films shown at the end of a lesson when they had completed the work, rather than at the beginning when they were anxious to begin work. Classroom Structure The classroom was small, with l i t t l e tack board, display, or storage room. The students sat at tables but there were no extra tables for preparation and no room for book displays. Teams During the f i r s t lesson I found that i t was d i f f i c u l t to speak to the class as a whole and to hold everyone's attention. I therefore organized the class into teams to encourage cooper- ation and a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e . The teams were adjusted several times since certain students were i n c o n f l i c t with other stud- ents. F i n a l l y , I suggested that team members could change at the end of the three week sequence since that was when the team points were t o t a l l e d . The teams were based on groups of students who had worked together i n Social Studies in the classroom under the classroom teacher. One team had to be completely changed because the students' behaviour had become uncooperative towards each other. After a few changes, the students s e t t l e d into the teams; these remained the same 107. t h e r e a f t e r . Every t h i r d week the winning team was taken to a r e s t a u r a n t f o r p i z z a or hamburgers. D i s c i p l i n e D i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n the classroom was g r e a t l y improved when, i n March, the classroom teacher e s t a b l i s h e d a f i r m p o l - i c y . Students who broke-the classroom r u l e s (drawn up by the students) three times were sent home and were p e r m i t t e d to r e t u r n to the classroom o n l y when accompanied by a parent. H a l f the members of the c l a s s were sent home a t one time or other a f t e r the system was e s t a b l i s h e d . Infrequent attendance i n s c h o o l by three students was a c o n t i n u i n g problem and, when these students d i d atte n d they had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i - p a t i n g . A d u l t Resource Person An a d u l t was u s u a l l y p r e s e n t a t each s t a t i o n d u r i n g the a r t l e s s o n s , to s u p e r v i s e and encourage each team o f stu d e n t s . The c o n s i s t e n t a d u l t resource people were the classroom teacher, the teacher aide, and B.B. A Native Indian student teacher was present f o r two l e s s o n s , and f i v e Native Indian parents acted as a d u l t r e s o u r c e persons (one parent helped f o u r times and one helped t w i c e ) . The a d u l t resource person has the r o l e of m o n i t o r i n g i n - a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour. D i s r u p t i v e students were spoken to p r i v a t e l y and i s o l a t e d b e f o r e other students were drawn away from t h e i r own work. They encouraged students t o h e l p one an- ot h e r . For example, two students having d i f f i c u l t y smoothing 10 8. t h e i r clay mask moulds were encouraged to observe another, more experienced student smooth his clay. They watched him work, spoke to him qu i e t l y , and returned to work on t h e i r own masks. This would not have happened without the adult resource per- son. The role involved helping students move from one stage to the next. In making a f i s h k nife, for example, one student, having successfully f i l e d and sanded the blade, didn't want to make a handle for i t because, she said, " I ' l l probably ruin i t . " Success at one stage can be as d i f f i c u l t to handle as f a i l u r e . The adult at the student's station sat beside her and made a handle for the knife that the adult had been work- ing on. The student watched with i n t e r e s t as the handle was prepared and fi n i s h e d . I t was necessary for her student to understand the whole process i n d e t a i l before she would even r i s k s t a r t i n g . Parents as Resource People The parents helped as resource persons i n lessons r e l a t i n g to t h e i r own experience. For instance, one parent came to dem- onstrate the skinning of a beaver, and twice Kwakiutl carvers came as resource people. The parent fisherman was p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n the use of the blackboard and his f i s h i n g gear he demonstrated for the students. One parent resource person was p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e as a helper. She worked along with the students and made her own mask as they made t h e i r s . Whenever the students i n her station became noisy or stopped working she looked d i r e c t l y at them and spoke firmly to them so they returned to work. For parent resource people to be e f f e c t i v e , 109. they had to be clear about the classroom goals, the lessons' objectives, and prepared to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The Cultural Survival School was i n i t i a l l y set up because a group of Native Indian parents requested the Vancouver School Board to e s t a b l i s h a school where Native Indian culture would be taught to Native Indian children. However, only one parent with a c h i l d i n the school was on the Board of the school. The nature of the school and the educational and emotional needs of the students made i t a p r i o r i t y to i n t e r e s t and i n - volve the parents at the school. The parents want the i r c h i l d - ren to succeed but they don't know how to help them or where to turn for help. However, some progress was made. The school has sponsored several potluck suppers which some parents have attended. The parents' desire to help was p l a i n enough. For instance, one parent who acted as a resource person brought her brother during one lesson and her s i s t e r during another lesson to be parent helpers since they, too, had children i n the c l a s s . The Students' Needs Native Indian students need to see t h e i r parents and a greater number of Native Indians as resource persons i n school. They need po s i t i v e Native Indian role models with whom to i d e n t i f y and they need to learn to l i s t e n and to treat adults with respect. The classroom teacher and I have noticed that often the students don't l i s t e n to what adults say, and i f they do, they don't remember what was said. 110. Stations The stations were established to correspond to the teams of students. The number of stations changed, depending upon the theme of the art lesson and the number of resource persons available. The work at the stations was l i s t e d on the schedule. Under each station was the adult supervisor's name, the theme for the lesson, the time to be spent and the name of the team which would v i s i t . For example, the following lesson had two themes: carving and weaving. Team Work Adult Resource Person (1:30 - 1:50 p.m.) 1. B.B. (1:30 - 1:50 p.m.) 2. Classroom Teacher (1:30 - 1:50 p.m.) 3. Teacher Aide (1:30 - 1:50 p.m.) 4. Parent Resource Team Work: Station 1. Soapberry Spoons Station 2. Spinning Station 3. Warping Looms Station 4. Weaving on large, small looms Team Eagles Thunderbirds Falcons Lions Each station had a poster that l i s t e d the c r i t e r i a for the station, for example: Spinning - Use the spindle whorl to spin two feet of yarn. - Tie i t i n two places, put team name on i t . - Wash i n warm water with soap. - Place i n mordant vat (alum). During the lesson on mask making, each team remained at the same station under the same supervisor for the whole l e s - son. It was not necessary for the students to change during that lesson because i t was easy to duplicate materials at each station, the work that a l l of the students did on t h e i r masks was the same, and the adult supervisor at the station could concentrate on students she was aware needed more help than others. The stations were, at other times, set up for two, three, or four d i f f e r e n t art a c t i v i t i e s . Some art projects took several lessons to complete. Mask making, for instance, took three lessons to complete. The carving of the soapberry spoon required more s k i l l with tools on wood than most of the students possessed. Then, too, some of the students worked more slowly than others and some s k i l l s took longer for the students to acquire than I had anticipated; as a r e s u l t some of the lessons had several projects underway at d i f f e r e n t stages. Team Points Rationale for voting: 1. To a s s i s t i n encouraging discouraged students (judg- ing by academic achievement, work habits, behaviour, and a t t i - tude to work) to become more po s i t i v e about t h e i r capacity to achieve. 2. To develop an atmosphere of cooperation and a sense of working for the success of the team. 3. To give students a sense of power over work and ex- perience deciding on standards instead of external evaluation 112. from the t e a c h e r . E x t e r n a l l y imposed standards were easy to r e j e c t by s t u d e n t s . Team p o i n t s were a l l o c a t e d by c l a s s vote at the end of some of the l e s s o n s ; there was an agreed number o f p o i n t s f o r completion of each a c t i v i t y . In some cases the work was not completed d u r i n g one p e r i o d so the assessment was made a t the next l e s s o n . The v o t i n g u s u a l l y took the form of d i s c u s s i o n about how w e l l a student's work had met the p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a . U s u a l l y a p r o j e c t was scored out of 5 p o i n t s . For example, to r e c e i v e f u l l p o i n t s each member of the team might have had to make a f i s h k n i f e with a curved, f i l e d blade w i t h a glued wooden handle. In Lesson 11, p o i n t s were given f o r s i x d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . Each team chose the b e s t example of each p i e c e o f a r t from the team to r e p r e s e n t them f o r each of s i x c a t e g o r i e s . I n t e g r a t i o n with Other Subjects During the week the students had some vocabulary from the a r t c l a s s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r s p e l l i n g l i s t . During the a r t programme the students l i s t e n e d to a song and read the words on a c h a r t . Language a r t s and S o c i a l Stud- i e s are the e a s i e s t s u b j e c t s to i n t e g r a t e with a r t . Math and Science are more d i f f i c u l t . I t h i n k t h a t the f l o r a and fauna t h a t were observed d u r i n g w i n t e r and s p r i n g c o u l d have been c a t e g o r i z e d and examined i n many d i f f e r e n t ways (microscopes or magnifying g l a s s e s ) or t e s t e d by s e e i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , i f p l a n t s ' leaves r e a l l y breathe, by p u t t i n g grease on them. 113. S c i e n t i f i c experiments could have been set up to test the prop- e r t i e s of the materials. Two workbooks which focus on mathematics and are adaptable to a c u l t u r a l a r t programme are: The I Hate Mathematics Book ( B i l l i n g s , Campbell, & Schwandt, 1975) and Art 'N' Math (Burns, 1975). The f i r s t , The I Hate Mathematics Book, i l l u s t r a t e s many problem solving s i t u a t i o n s . For example, i n the workbook, the Popcorn (Bannock) k i d asks how many pieces of popcorn (ban- nock) would f i t into a r e f r i g e r a t o r (storage box) ( B i l l i n g s , et a l . , 1975, p. 103). In the second, Art 'N' Math, there i s an introduction to graphing, math maps, and folding paper into grids and cones. These can be adapted by comparing a longhouse to a rectangle and a Cree t i p i to a cone. Tr a d i t i o n a l use of the fingers, hand, and arm to estimate length and width could be introduced to the students. Clean Up This was most often done by students having to stay i n afte r school for misbehaviour. Team points occasionally were allocated by class vote at the end of the lesson including an agreed number of points for cleaning up the stations and room. Art Lesson Format Time Frame: January - May 1983 The a r t programme was designed so that i t corresponded to the winter and spring season i n the Kwakiutl t r a d i t i o n . The lessons referred to the e a r l i e s t objects (3000 B.C.) made by Plate 1. Worksheet assignment 115. the Tsimshian, the neighbours of the Kwakiutl. Kwakiutl a r t i - facts have not yet been found dating to 3000 B.C. In the l e s - sons, I sought to bring the history of the Kwakiutl forward to our own time, i n an attempt to connect ancient tr a d i t i o n s with contemporary l i f e . Kwakiutl art s t i l l t hrives. For instance, the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology recently mounted an exhibi- t i o n of work by a famous family of Kwakiutl a r t i s t s , the Hunts. The Hunts are descendants of Mungo Martin. Discussion and ex- amination of Kwakiutl are enabled the class to gain insight into the c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s from which i t emerged. Lesson 1. Introduction and Setting The f i r s t lesson established the plan for the programme: locating Canada i n the world, Canada's neighbours, and the places where the students' ancestors came from. Students, a f t e r a guided imagery exercise, were directed to make draw- ings of what they imagined of th e i r own ancestors and how they thought that they had l i v e d . Each student completed a booklet that contained a cover picture of a Tsonokwa mask. The book- l e t included a map of Canada, on which each student placed a star to locate the place of o r i g i n of his/her ancestors. It also included a map of B.C., which contained the l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n s of the province i n colour code, and on which each student coloured the Kwakiutl l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n . Locally, t h e i r map booklet contained a map of the Vancouver region with the Native Indian v i l l a g e s marked. During the f i e l d t r i p to the beach, the location of each Indian v i l l a g e i n the v i c i n i t y 116. of the beach, was pointed out and named. For instance, Kokopai and Snaq were v i l l a g e s located where Jericho and K i t s i l a n o Beach are today. Lesson 2. Background on Tr a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl Culture The second lesson dealt with the oldest known a r t i f a c t s and the materials from which they were made: stone, bone, antler, teeth, wood, and s h e l l . Tools were made from materials that occurred naturally i n the environment. For example, a stone maul was made by pecking a stone with another stone. A worksheet given to the students during the second lesson con- tained a time-line which began at 3,000 B.C. and, i n 500 year sequences, came up to the present. A r t i f a c t s were placed at i n t e r v a l s . The oldest a r t i f a c t s were beaver teeth, which were made into tools as long ago as 3,000 B.C. (McDonald, 1982). At the time of Christ, wooden objects were s t i l l i n t h e i r i n - fancy. The objective was to give the students an understanding of the very long time t h e i r people had occupied the land here and fished the r i v e r s and the ocean. Emphasis was upon ancest- ors, the re c o l l e c t i o n s of elders, and the tra d i t i o n s of the Kwakiutl to show that old people are loved and respected by t h e i r people because they are the l a s t l i n k with the "old days." In the f i l m , "Augusta," the students met a Ch i l k o t i n elder who was t y p i c a l of many Indian grandmothers throughout B.C.: she was seen v i s i t i n g friends, speaking an Indian language (Shuswap), preparing f i s h , going to church, and singing to children. 117. Lesson 3. The Environment i n Winter - F i e l d Trip Some urban students have forgotten the rugged loneliness of the coastal seashore and the forest. Although the sea i t - s e l f has changed l i t t l e , the creatures that l i v e i n the sea have diminished i n numbers. Some of them, formerly abundant, such as the sea otter, are now endangered species. The beach adjacent to the c i t y has changed a great deal, but some crea- tures and plants known to t r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl survive there. The forests i n the Vancouver area are remnants; Stanley Park i s one of only two areas close to the c i t y where some trees remain approximating i n size and number those which stood here 150 years ago. Stanley Park and the University Endowment Lands s t i l l resemble the forests that the Kwakiutl t r a d i t i o n a l l y knew. The f i e l d t r i p within t h i s section introduced the students to the seashore, beach, and forest i n winter. The aim was that the students should d i r e c t l y experience manifestations of win- ter : cool temperature, plant and animal l i f e a v a i l a b l e , the greyness of the beach and emptiness of the beach and fore s t . Few Kwakiutl people ventured to the seashore during the winter but for the students to understand the t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e i n the v i l l a g e s during the winter and the s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s that Indian people had about supernatural s p i r i t s that entered th e i r v i l l a g e s i n winter i t was necessary that they v i s i t the beach to be aware of the wind, the waves pounding on the rocks, and the forest, dark and s i l e n t . At the beach, the students co l l e c t e d hammerstones which they l a t e r used during the lesson on wood (Lesson 5). The four teams did some work together and some in d i v i d u a l assignments. 118. Teams were organized to encourage cooperative e f f o r t instead of i n d i v i d u a l competition. Students answered questions o r a l l y about a totem pole by Mungo Martin, one of the great Kwakiutl carvers, while others worked together at the beach on v i l l a g e s they made i n the sand. A parent who accompanied us on the f i e l d t r i p was a descendant of Mungo Martin. The students com- pared the Haida beaver and Mungo Martin's Kwakiutl beaver. It was fortunate that the students witnessed a U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology presentation by Garbanzo (a trained anthropologist who combines Northwest Coast Indian a r t with pantomime, music, and v i s u a l aids) which focused on the Kwakiutl a r t i f a c t s i n the Great H a l l . At the beach they v i s u a l i z e d l i f e as i t was before contact. They were introduced to two of the supernatural s p i r - i t s who were part of the Winter Ceremonials: Warrior-of-the- World, and Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World. The students set to work drawing a l l of the things that they knew about t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e : longhouses, fishracks, canoes, smoke houses, storage boxes, lakes, r i v e r s , mountains, trees, and totem poles. The teams co l l e c t e d samples of sea l i f e that Indian people would have used, and from the forest they gathered samples of plant l i f e that Indian people would have used. The students had, for reference, two posters with prepared, mounted samples: one for Winter, one for Spring. The growing patterns of plants was d i s - cussed: the best time to gather kelp was i n late summer. The students r e a l i z e d that winter was not a good time to gather many foods. For example, the leaves of blackberries, salmonberries, huckleberries, red caps, and s a l a l berries are i d e n t i f i e d i n 119. spring, but the berries are picked i n summer. During the spring f i e l d t r i p to the forest, the berries were i d e n t i f i e d according to the shape of th e i r leaves. During the f i e l d t r i p to the forest i n winter, one of the students read the prayer to the cedar. While at the foot of a red cedar they also ex- amined Museum a r t i f a c t s that were made out of cedar (canoe b a i l e r , cedar bark s t r i p , cedar plank) or were used on cedar to smooth i t (the dogfish skin). Later i n the term, i n A p r i l , when the students returned to the seashore and the forest, a sense of contrast was observed between the sea l i f e present on the beach and i n the forest i n winter and spring. When they returned to the Museum they went to the Kwakiutl section i n v i s i b l e storage and i d e n t i f i e d spec- i f i c objects that they had learned about during the lessons on salmon, cedar, weaving, and mask making. Lesson 4. Fishing, A Major Occupation The major subsistence a c t i v i t y on the coast was harvesting from the sea. Eulachon . . . were most valued for the r i c h o i l they contained. . . . The sea provided herring, cod, kelp- f i s h , salmon, red snapper, dogfish, flounder, smelt, d e v i l f i s h (octopus) and the r i v e r s yielded sturgeon, trout, steelhead . . . the Northwest Coast Indian . . . was so completely i n tune with the ways of the sea and r i v e r that he was able to devise many methods for reap- ing i t s harvest: t r o l l i n g , gaffing, netting, spearing, or trapping. (Stewart, 1977, p. 21) 120. The lesson was introduced by a f i l m , "Salmon People," which combined the t r a d i t i o n a l through the Raven and Salmon myth with contemporary scenes of f i s h i n g . During the lesson a par- ent resource person, a fisherman, demonstrated how to use the netting needle and then taught the students to use i t . The students made a t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h knife, using the same material that t h e i r ancestors would have used. The aim was to give the students a renewed respect for the e f f o r t required i n making knives using natural materials. Lesson 5, 6. Wood, A Major Technology: Yellow and red cedar Extensive f i s h i n g was made possible by the use of dugout canoes of red cedar. The size of the trees made i t possible to design and make canoes which could be taken across the roughest sea. From cedar came v i r t u a l l y a l l of the basic material needs of Indian people for shelter, clothing, containers, and tools. Cedar supplied the material i n the form of wood, bark, withes, and roots. Cedar was c l o s e l y a l l i e d with the salmon and used for hooks, nets, rope, and spears. Tools were an in t e g r a l part of preparing wood. The students handled t r a d i t i o n a l tools i n order to discover what the tools were " l i k e " on cedar, and which tools were used for s p e c i f i c purposes. I believed i t was important to try to give the students the kind of experience that an a r t i s t had i n the old days. They used wooden wedges made from yew, a hammerstone found at the beach, an "elbow" adze, "D" adze, and knives. (In the following lesson the stud- ents s p l i t yellow cedar with the hammerstone and wedge to make 121. a soapberry spoon.) They compared the properties of red and yellow cedar. The students examined a soapberry spoon borrowed from the Vancouver Museum before making the i r own spoons. A parent who worked with wood agreed to come to the class to demonstrate the use of carving tools. The reason I arranged to have tools i n the classroom i s that I was struck by Boas' state- ment that: The a r t i s t must have an intimate, personal and kinesthetic knowledge of the c r a f t that i s the foundation of the a r t . He must have hand-eye know- ledge of how to hold and apply the various t o o l s — the adze, knives, and mauls . . . he must be famil- i a r with the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of his materials . . . red cedar, yellow cedar . . . he must be f a m i l i a r with the forms that are to be produced . . . masks. . . . (Hawthorne, 196 7, p. 20) Teams of four students had access to an adult resource person, saw the art project of the lesson demonstrated, had process charts for reference ( i f steps i n lesson were forgot- ten) , had samples of work to examine, pictures of sample work, and produced work by the s k i l l j u s t learned. Films introduced concepts or reviewed information, while design elements were discussed informally with the emphasis on materials, tools, and technique. Lesson 7. Beaver Skinning, Carving and Booklet The students had a unique opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n skinning a beaver. After a parent skinned the beaver and 122. supervised students doing i t , the skin was stretched on a board and students scraped skin and f a t from the hide. The capture and k i l l was dramatized by the students and a beaver stew was prepared and served by the parent to the students at the end of the lesson. Lesson 8. Picture Making The students learned about the Kwakiutl art c o l l e c t i o n s i n New York museums. They were introduced to picture method as a means of d i f f u s i n g fear of a "haunted house." Lesson 9. Clothing Technology: Weaving-Wool and Soapberry Spoons The p r i n c i p a l clothing of the Kwakiutl was a blanket made either of tanned skins or woven from mountain goat h a i r , dog hair, and feathers. The r e l a t i v e l y mild winter climate on the coast made heavy clothing unnecessary, but the r a i n f a l l required clothing of some sort. Legs and feet were bare, but woven r a i n - hats and capes from cedar bark gave protection from the r a i n . (Boas, 1966, p. 10) Lessons 10, 11, 12. Mask Making Mask making focussed on Tsonokwa, "an ever-recurring f i g - ure among the Kwakiutl. Tsonokwa had two forms: a female giant with huge breasts and hands, and as a male giant of f o r - est and high mountains" (Hawthorne, 1967, p. 28). 123. Tsonokwa participated i n the Winter Ceremonial and stud- ents list e n e d to a myth about her, heard descriptions of her appearance, and saw Tsonokwa's actions dramatized, and drawn on a poster. Making the mask was extended over three lessons i n order to complete the three-step process. Lesson 13. The Environment i n Spring: F i e l d Trip A t r i p to the beach i n spring was planned as a contrast to the f i e l d t r i p i n winter. Lessons 14, 15. Masks and Contemporary Print Making Much of t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast art was two- dimensional, with designs either on p l a i n or carved f l a t surfaces or on three-dimensional shapes such as masks. Thus the t r a n s i t i o n s to designing on paper would seem to be natural. I t was not u n t i l 1949 that Mungo Martin created the f i r s t important paper de- signs at U.B.C During the past t h i r t y years other Northwest Coast a r t i s t s have produced designs on various graphics media: block p r i n t s , lithographs, and printed drawings and i l l u s t r a t i o n s . By far the most important graphics technique adopted by Northwest Coast Indian a r t i s t s , i n both commercial and a r t i s t i c terms, has been that of s i l k screening. (Hall, Blackman, & Rickard, 1981, p. 49). It was important to introduce the students to s i l k screening technique since i t has become a contemporary media for Indian 124. a r t i s t s . The students used small i n d i v i d u a l cardboard s i l k screens with a cut paper shape which created the design. They used f i r s t one, then two colours. None of the students had done any p r i n t making before. They were given the opportunity to experiment with mono-prints and cardboard p r i n t i n g at two other stations i n the classroom. Lesson 16. F i n a l Lesson - F i e l d T r i p : The Aquarium The students requested a f i e l d t r i p for the l a s t lesson. It was the t h i r d f i e l d t r i p and the f i r s t one to the Aquarium where sea l i f e , mammals, f i s h , and birds that were important in the l i v e s of Native Indian people t r a d i t i o n a l l y were seen f i r s t hand. The f i n a l p i c n i c on the grass, feeding the anim- als and birds created a close, peaceful mood--to such an ex- tent that some students did not want to go home. 125. Plate 2. Locating an ancestor 126. Lesson 1. Introduction and Setting In t h i s lesson I introduced the o v e r a l l theme of the art programme, by focussing on ancestors as a means of s e n s i t i z i n g the students to th e i r heritage. Learning about one's people and i d e n t i f y i n g with t h e i r s k i l l s would, i t was hoped, enhance self-concept. The f i r s t lesson involved students locating the places i n B.C. or elsewhere i n Canada where t h e i r ancestors l i v e d . Students were encouraged to respond to the planned pro- gramme, making suggested additions or deletions. During the f i r s t lesson I also introduced the "Special Person of the Week," to improve self-concept. Objectives To introduce a proposed four month art programme to the students through a focus on students' ancestors, t h e i r o r i g i n s and t h e i r culture. To encourage the students to contribute to the design and content of the art programme. Resources Globe and Mail "Indians of Canada" poster. Maps: Maps of the world, of Canada, of B.C., of Vancouver and of cover picture of a Tsonokwa mask. A four page booklet for each student with: l i n g u i s t i c map of B.C., a map of Canada, and a map of Indian v i l l a g e s of the lower mainland. Books: Boas, F. Kwakiutl Ethnology, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966; Mathews, J.S. Conversations with 127. Khatsahlano, Vancouver: City Archives, 1955. Materials B.B. prepared an Art Programme poster; the date and ob- jectives of each lesson were l i s t e d on i t . B.B. prepared a "Special Person of the Week" poster. Method/Organization of the Classroom 1:00-1:15 p.m. Introduction. "Special Person of the Week. " 1:15-1:45 p.m. Planned Art Programme and lesson of the day. The "Special Person of the Week" i s an idea that I had used i n the past with a class of grade 8 students (at St. Thomas Aquinas School i n North Vancouver) who needed encourage- ment. I t was successful there, so I thought that i t would help at the Survival School to change the mood of the classroom from negative to po s i t i v e expectations. At St. Thomas Aquinas, each student had his/her name drawn i n turn, and his/her picture was placed on the poster with space below for classmates to write what they l i k e d or admired about that person. If the students didn't follow the instructions to write p o s i t i v e comments, the programme was to be discontinued. Planned Art Programme. The students took turns reading the plans for the following four months' lessons. A section at the bottom of the poster encouraged suggestions of names of resource people and ideas for the art programme. 128. "On the map of the world, find Canada on the map. Which countries are our neighbours? (USA, Russia, Japan, Portugal, Denmark, Ireland, Great B r i t a i n ) . Traders came from which countries? (Russia, Spain, England)." "Find B r i t i s h Columbia on the map of Canada. Whose an- cestors came from a province other than B.C.? (An ancestor i s the oldest person that you have heard about i n your family.) Where did your ancestors come from? Please show us on the map." "Look at the map of B.C. or Canada to t e l l us where your ancestors came from? On the map of Canada or B.C. place your red s t i c k e r where your ancestors came from." "Colour the Kwakiutl area on your map of l i n g u i s t i c d i v i - sions i n B.C. following the colour key. A l i n g u i s t i c map shows the part of B.C. where Kwakiutl people l i v e d at the time of contact with the non-Indian. The other l i n g u i s t i c areas may be coloured during the week in your free time." Map of Indian v i l l a g e s i n Vancouver: Students drew long- houses for each of the v i l l a g e s on the map. (A picture of the Coast Salish shed roofed houses was provided for reference.) Team Work. (1:45-2:30) Students moved into four teams (already established by the classroom teacher for Social Stud- ies) and each group was assigned a corner of the classroom. Each student followed instructions for completing t h e i r four page booklet. Coast S a l i s h shed roofed house 129. Picture Making. (2:30-2:50 p.m.) "My Ancestors." To Native Indian people, t h e i r ancestors were the l i n k be- tween sacred r i t u a l s of the past with animal, f i s h , or b i r d s p i r i t s and succeeding generations of Indian people possessing the same crest symbols. "Go back i n your memory and think about something that you know or learned from an elder. An ancestor i s someone who was related to you who l i v e d a long time ago, that i s , older than an elder." An exercise to use the imagination: "My Ancestors" (Murdock, 19 82, p. 10 3) was read to the students, who closed t h e i r eyes as they l i s t e n e d . With eyes closed, t h e i r hearing was more acute and they were led by suggestion back i n time to t h e i r ancestors' world. When i t was completed, they opened th e i r eyes, and used the feelings, thoughts, and information to draw a picture about how t h e i r ancestor l i v e d , what the environ- ment was l i k e , what they were doing, what they looked l i k e , and the colours, smells, and sounds they were aware of. Indians of Canada Poster. (2:50-3:00) "During the week, look at the various Indian people and the objects from th e i r cultures represented on th i s poster." Review: "What did we learn today? (About where our an- cestors l i v e , where we are now, where Canada i s i n the world).. Where do the people who are Kwakiutl l i v e ? (Northern end of Vancouver Island to Kitimat on the coast). Where were the Indian v i l l a g e s around here located? (Musqueam, Point Grey, Spanish Banks, Jericho, K i t s i l a n o , False Creek, Stanley Park, West and North Vancouver). Next week we w i l l f i n d out the 130. answers to some questions. Perhaps you know the answers to some of them already. What kinds of tools, weapons, and uten- s i l s were used by ancestors long ago? (hammerstones, arrow- heads, spearheads). What materials did they use to make them? (stone, bone, teeth, shell) What kinds of tools did they need? (stone, strong, hard). What did th e i r tools look l i k e ? (poin- ted, carved, rough). You w i l l make an arrowhead next week and you w i l l have an arrowhead from the archaeology section of the Museum of Anthropology at U.B.C. to copy." Evaluation When the students entered the classroom aft e r lunch (the art programme commenced i n the afternoon), they seemed d i s - tracted, some of them were excited. The classroom teacher took the attendance. Then I introduced the proposed outline of the programme. I noticed several of the students acting inapprop- r i a t e l y . I t appeared that, instead of being curious about what was going to happen, they were more interested i n getting the attention of other students. The classroom teacher t o l d me l a t e r that, while the class i s always d i f f i c u l t to handle, when any change i n classroom routine occurs they become even more unsettled. For example, when the teacher aide f i r s t started to work i n the classroom, a month previously, the stud- ents' behaviour became p a r t i c u l a r l y unruly. When the class was over, the classroom teacher and the teacher aide t o l d me that i t i s almost impossible to teach or demonstrate to the class as a whole, as I had t r i e d to do. 131. Their practice was to divide the class into groups. EVen within the small groups there were some students who could not concentrate on a single a c t i v i t y . Therefore a new system was i n s t i t u t e d by the classroom teacher. Students who consistently completed t h e i r work went to the l i b r a r y for a spe c i a l project on Coast Sal i s h culture. (It was not, however, u n t i l four months into the school year that the l i b r a r i a n at Britannia Secondary was prepared for students from the Cultural Survival School to work on l i b r a r - ian-directed work i n the l i b r a r y . ) Students having d i f f i c u l t y with t h e i r work received spec- i a l .attention from the teacher aide (in a small group of f i v e students). Students who were moved from a table to an i n d i v i d u a l desk and s t i l l disrupted the class were sent out of the c l a s s - room. The class was d i f f i c u l t for the classroom teacher to handle. Sometimes almost half the class was late i n the morn- ing so she put the i r names on the blackboard to indicate that they would have to make up the time l o s t . During the introduction to the "Special Person of the Week," the students seemed interested i n having a person cho- sen, although a few implied that they were not. The students put t h e i r names into a box, the classroom teacher drew a name and a student who had come late (as she usually did) had her name drawn. I t seemed that she was being rewarded for being late but, on the other hand, as she came l a t e , I thought i t might make her more enthusiastic about school. Several 132. students wrote on the poster immediately, and at the end of the week the student had encouraging comments, on a l l of the sheets stapled at the bottom of the poster, to take home. The Planned Art Programme. I t had been my intention to have a student read out what I had planned for each week's lesson for the next four months. I had expected to get some reactions to what I had planned. The students who volunteered to read, read slowly and with d i f f i c u l t y . The rest of the students didn't appear interested i n what was going to happen tomorrow, next week, or next month. It seemed to me that they were more interested i n what was going to happen now. (This impression was not altogether sound, as I l a t e r discovered.) They could not seem to imagine what a plan w i l l be l i k e — o r how a plan w i l l work out. For the l a s t lesson of the art pro- gramme, the students suggested food, dancing (Indian), and i n - v i t i n g guests. They did not react to the idea that we might, on the l a s t day, put up a display of the i r work. Apparently those who produced good work often had t h e i r work taken or dam- aged by other students. Others, who usually didn't complete the i r work, did not want a display. The students did, however, suggest names of resource people to come to the class for the lessons on f i s h , wood, and other materials, and to accompany us on the f i e l d t r i p s . Maps. The students were interested i n the maps of the world, Canada, B.C., and Vancouver Island. They l i k e d locating Canada, B.C., and Vancouver. They li s t e n e d with i n t e r e s t when I told them about the early traders on the Northwest Coast: Russians, Spanish, and English. 133. They enjoyed putting stars on the i n d i v i d u a l maps of Can- ada and B.C., and marking the places where the i r ancestors came from. They placed red c i r c l e s on the large wall map showing where the ancestors of each member of the class came from. Two of the students said that they didn't know of an ancestor of th e i r s , so I decided to s t a r t o f f the following week's lesson with the f i l m , "Augusta." I thought that those students who were uncertain about who th e i r ancestors were would r e c o l l e c t , a f t e r seeing the f i l m , a r e l a t i v e of t h e i r own who had died and was remembered fondly. Student Map Booklet. The students happily coloured the Tsonokwa mask cover and showed rea l i n t e r e s t i n putting stars on the map of Canada and B.C. Some of the students coloured the Kwakiutl area on the l i n g u i s t i c map. A few of the students drew longhouses for the v i l l a g e s around Vancouver. When I asked the class to name a v i l l a g e at the end of the clas s , many of the students c a l l e d out "Luck Lucky" (a v i l l a g e that was situated where downtown Vancouver i s today) (Matthews, 1955, p. 8c). Picture Making. The picture making exercise was not suc- c e s s f u l . I t was the wrong plan for the wrong group at the wrong time. The exercise required that the class be instructed as a whole. The students found i t d i f f i c u l t to s i t s t i l l and they did not l i s t e n to i n s t r u c t i o n s — p a r t i c u l a r l y from a r e l - ative stranger. They would not keep the i r eyes closed and l i s t e n to what I was reading to them. Four of the students completed pictures of t h e i r ancestors, but the rest either did 134. not do i t , started one and didn't complete i t , or drew some- thing s i l l y . Review. I drew the lesson to a close by asking the stud- ents to t e l l me something they had learned that day. I f e l t surprised that they remembered as much as they did. I reminded them about the booklet they were to complete during the week. I ended the lesson by t e l l i n g them that the next lesson would deal with the tools, weapons, art, and materials that t h e i r ancestors used long ago. The main objectives of t h i s f i r s t lesson were achieved i n that the students became acquainted with the content of the a r t programme. The special person programme was begun. Further- more, the s p e c i f i c objectives for the f i r s t lesson were achieved i n that most of the students were able to locate an ancestor and most began working on t h e i r booklets. However, the picture making was not successful: the students were not able to ex- perience t h e i r ancestors' l i v e s v i c a r i o u s l y through drawing. My impression was that many of the students had l i t t l e notion of using t h e i r v i s u a l imagination. I t was too great a leap i n consciousness for them; they balked. I think that, a f t e r see- ing a f i l m , making an a r t i f a c t , and seeing further v i s u a l mater- i a l s , the picture making might have come easier to them. They also had d i f f i c u l t y l i s t e n i n g to verbal i n s t r u c t i o n s . The seatwork for the class was lacking i n challenge be- cause I had wanted them to f e e l successful a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t art lesson. The age, grade, and range of a b i l i t y i n the c l a s s - room meant that I had to aim at the median l e v e l , which for some students did not represent a challenge. Tsonokwa mask 136 . NAME INDIANS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: LINGUISTIC SUBDIVISIONS Find the place on the map that the oldest people i n your family come from. Put a star on that place. Colour the Ethnic Divisions with the colour beside them. Language Haida = Haida (yellow) H. Tsimshian . = Tsimshian x (blue) Ts. Kwakiutl = Kwakiutl (red) K. Nuu-chah-nulths = Nuu-chah- nulth (grey) N. Bell a Coola = B e l l a Coola (green) B.C. Coast Salish = Comox, Sechelt, Squamish, Halkomelem, S t r a i t s S a l i s h (purple) C S . Interior Salish = Thompson, L i l l o o e t , Shuswap, Okanagan (white) I.S. Kootenay = Kootenay (orange) Ko. Athapaskan -- C h i l c o t i n , Carrier, Sekani, Tahltan, Kaska, Slave, Beaver (brown) A. Inland T l i n g i t = T l i n g i t (pink) T. NAME 1. If your ancestors came from another province than B.C., put a star where they came from. 2. Find and name B r i t i s h Columbia. 3. Can you find and name Saskatchewan? 4. Find and name the Yukon Territory. Draw a longhouse for each Native Indian v i l l a g e . • Musqueam Plate 3. F i l i n g an arrowhead 140 . Plate 4. Gauging an arrowhead 141. Plate 5. Finishing an arrowhead 142. Lesson 2. Background on Tra d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl Culture Objectives To give a classroom of Native Indian students the exper- ience of making a slate arrowhead, a weapon used by t h e i r an- cestors . To introduce cooperative learning through teamwork. Resources Film: N.F.B., Augusta, #76178. Record: Pretty Brown. Distributed by Noona Music, Providence Island, Matoulin Island, Ontario, Canada, POP 1T0 Slate point borrowed from the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropol- ogy, Archaeology section. Materials B.B. prepared a worksheet on Stone, Bone-Antler, Wood and Sh e l l , Old Combs (Tsimshian), Tsimshian a r t i f a c t s . Schedule for Team Work, chart for sl a t e lesson, charts of ins t r u c t i o n for three worksheets. Slate for each student cut at a l o c a l stonecutter's, f i l e s thick and thin. Cedar for handles, twine, saw, glue, boards for placing slate while f i l i n g . Xeroxed pictures of arrowhead a r t i f a c t s . Feathers, s t r i p of leather, s h e l l s , stone beads, wooden beads, wire. 143. Method/Organization of the Classroom 1:00-1:10 p.m. Last week's "Special Person" received the poster to take home and, on the t h i r d a rt lesson, went to McDonald's with the f i r s t winning team from the team competi- tio n . "Last week when I suggested the 'Special Person of the Week,' some of you said that you'd done i t before and I got the f e e l i n g that you weren't f e e l i n g excited about doing i t . So I am introducing a new idea for team work. I thought that having you i n four teams working for points for every lesson, with the to t a l s for each team added up every t h i r d week, would be fun. At the end of three weeks, the winning team goes to- gether to McDonald's afte r school for hamburgers. What do you think about the idea?" They l i k e d the idea of going together for hamburgers (or pizza) . "Now we have to decide on names for the teams. Here i s a suggested l i s t of team membership. If you want to trade with a team member on another team, you must do i t today, or at the end of the t h i r d week. We also have to decide on names for the four teams." (Eagles, Thunderbirds, Falcons, Lions) 1:10-1:30 p.m. Film, Augusta. Augusta Evans, 88 years of age, l i v e s at One Hundred Mile House. She has outlived every- one i n her family, including Sammy, her niece's son, whom she had raised u n t i l his death by drowning. Augusta i s Athapaskan and speaks Shuswap. As she married a non-registered Indian, she l o s t her status i n 1903. She l i v e s close to, but not on the Soda Creek Reserve. A proud, independent, warm human being despite poverty and tragedy, she i s without bitterness or s e l f - p i t y . 144. "Does anyone know someone l i k e Augusta? If you haven't made your picture of an ancestor, you could make a picture of Augusta." 1:30-1:40 p.m. Record, Pretty Brown, by David Campbell. Class sang along with the tape, words on a poster. 1:40 p.m. "The f i r s t team of students s i t t i n g q u i e t l y w i l l be the f i r s t to work with s l a t e . Team Work: Time at the slate table. (1:40-2:00 p.m.) 1. B.B. (2:00-2:20 p.m.) 2. classroom teacher (2:20-2:40 p.m.) 3. teacher aide (2:40-3:00 p.m.) 4. parent resource person Thunderbirds team Falcons Eagles Lions Station 1. Slate table 2 3.V Worksheets 4 The teams were set up th i s way: 1. The four teams consisted of groups already set up by the classroom teacher for Social Studies. The teams were un- even i n s i z e : the smallest team was made up of students who found i t d i f f i c u l t to s e t t l e down to work. 2. Each lesson required a s p e c i f i c number of pieces of work to be done. For example, i n lesson 2 there were f i v e pieces of work: one drawing to be done, three worksheets to be done, and an arrowhead to be made. Any team completing a l l f i v e pieces, got f i v e points for the day. Some of the work was a team e f f o r t and some of the work was done by in d i v i d u a l 145. members of the team. 3. The students had to complete the number of pieces of work that had been assigned for the day, unless given permis- sion to f i n i s h them during the week, i n which case they had to have i t completed for the following week's lesson. I believe that the team approach i s more consistent than the "Special Person" with my goal of enhancing self-concept. The team approach emphasizes cooperation and learning through group a c t i v i t i e s rather than i n d i v i d u a l competition. I t en- courages teammates to help one another, and places the respon- s i b i l i t y for completing the work on the team, rather than on the teacher and the i n d i v i d u a l student. Classroom learning was assisted through team work during f i e l d t r i p s out of the c l a s s - room. Teams that worked cooperatively during f i e l d t r i p a c t i v - i t i e s were rewarded by receiving points for t h e i r achievement. Worksheets for students not working on s l a t e : 1. Stone, bone-antler, wood, and s h e l l - a r t i f a c t s cut out and pasted under one of four headings determined by material they were made from. 2. Combs - copying the old designs of three Tsimshian combs. 3. Tsimshian a r t i f a c t s - cutting and pasting a time l i n e . Drawing the a r t i f a c t s indicated i n the 11 boxes. Demonstration of shaping sla t e for the arrowhead to the whole c l a s s . Using the tools for shaping, f i l i n g , and sanding. Slate lesson for teams: I demonstrated to the f i r s t team how to shape and f i l e the s l a t e . "We are learning how to make something that the f i r s t 146. people made i n order to l i v e . They made i t from slate they found i n th e i r environment. They had to make tools to work the sl a t e . When working with slate you must remember that the 'properties' of slate are that i t i s b r i t t l e and e a s i l y broken. It i s fine grained, bluish-purple metamorphic rock. How do you think your ancestor made an arrowhead? (by chipping with a bone t o o l ) . What did they make th e i r tools out of? (stone, bone-antler, s h e l l , teeth). Why did they make arrowheads? (to make weapons for k i l l i n g game to eat). Here i s an arrowhead that I brought from the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology (at the Museum i t i s c a l l e d a slate point). Look at the shape. Here are pictures for you to refer to when making your arrowhead. Northwest Coast people didn't wear arrowheads as jewellery and they didn't wear feathers. Shells were used as jewellery (aba- lone, dentallium). You may use your imagination to change the t r a d i t i o n a l arrowhead into a piece of contemporary jewellery by adding stone and wood beads, feathers, and leathers." Each student received a board, a piece of s l a t e , a f i l e , and l i n o - c u t t i n g tools for cutting and shaping. Once the gen- e r a l shape was achieved, a hole was d r i l l e d for the students wishing to make a pendant out of the arrowhead. The teams came to the slate table according to the timetable. Review: (3:00 p.m.) "What was the most d i f f i c u l t thing about working with slate? What was the easiest? How would you teach a c h i l d to make an arrowhead? Name something made out of bone? (pendant). Pre-contact means? (before the non-Indians came). Next week we w i l l go to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropol- ogy, to the forest, and to the beach. We w i l l see Garbanzo 147. (in the Museum) use his magic mirror on the totem poles, and we w i l l see his unusual t e l e v i s i o n set. Garbanzo i s a clown who uses pantomime, music and magic to t e l l Northwest myths through drama and pictures." During the week the students worked on the a r t i f a c t work- sheets; they drew "Pretty Brown"; and they handed i n completed Map Booklets. Evaluation The classroom teacher was absent for the four days pre- ceding the lesson and was absent for the three days following the lesson as well. The students were unsettled when she was absent. The substitute, the teacher aide, and I were i n the classroom. Thirteen students out of twenty-two came back to school a f t e r lunch for the art programme. When I t o l d the classroom teacher that there were only thirteen students and that the lesson had gone very well, she said, "That's an i d e a l number." With fewer students i t was possible to give more en- couragement and supervision. When I explained the new team system to the students, the makeup of the teams, and how the point system would work, I did not think that the class would f u l l y appreciate what the team system meant u n t i l a team had won, and gone for hamburgers. On the f i r s t day of the team system, the team that finished f i r s t consisted of two students; the g i r l on the team encour- aged the boy to keep working and to do the l a s t drawing so that he, too, would f i n i s h . Thus encouraged he worked hard, f i n i s h - ing so that t h e i r team received 5 points. The g i r l said, "I 148. can hardly wait to t e l l D. about t h i s . " D. was a member of her team who was absent that day. Rewarding the team that worked most e f f e c t i v e l y at the end of the three week period enabled the class to see that I was serious about the reward for teams that worked together. When I introduced the f i l m , "Augusta," the students l i k e d the idea of having a f i l m , but didn't at the outset seem par- t i c u l a r l y taken with the story about an Indian elder. However, while the f i l m was i n progress, I could see them becoming ab- sorbed i n Augusta's story. Three students were sporadic i n the i r attention to the f i l m . One was espe c i a l l y noticeable be- cause he sat apart, looking only occasionally at the f i l m . Later he walked across the room and sat at his desk s n i f f i n g "Scratch and S n i f f " stickers on his book. It may have been the f i r s t time he had earned one for his class work. He was i n a small working group where each student received a sti c k e r at the end of the day i f he/she fi n i s h e d his/her work. Another student seemed preoccupied, and she t r i e d to d i s t r a c t the stud- ents around her. The t h i r d student kept holding up his fingers to observe t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n on the screen. "Pretty Brown," a song - Following the f i l m I put on a tape of music by David Campbell, the Indian musician-composer. The students were surprised when the music began and I started sing- ing the words on the poster. They listened to the words to the song but only a few joined i n singing. One student who did very l i t t l e reading came up and showed me where I had made a mistake i n s p e l l i n g one of the words on the poster. I was gratef u l to him and gave him a hug. Immediately he went over to another 149. student and h i t him. I think that he f e l t uncomfortable and embarrassed, so he had to counteract how he f e l t by an action of his own against another student. I l e f t the song for the students to learn. Making the Arrowhead (or slate point). The slate point, borrowed from the museum, gave the students the opportunity to see the rel a t i o n s h i p between what they were making and a r e a l a r t i f a c t . I asked the students why t h e i r ancestors made arrow- heads and th e i r answers surprised me. They said, "Whale, moose, deer." The small size of the slate point would have been i n e f f e c t i v e for k i l l i n g such large animals, unless many were used. The students gained s a t i s f a c t i o n from working with tools on the s l a t e . They were more patient than I had expected, i n shaping a f i l i n g the arrowhead shape. Two brothers i n the class worked with obvious enjoyment on something that they could do with t h e i r hands. One of the students kept asking, "Are we going to carve today?" Then he asked me i f he could have the s h e l l I was wearing around my neck—attached to the arrowhead I had made. I noticed that when the students f e l t happy they wanted to be close to me, and wanted to talk to me. One boy kept asking how to use the tools, but he kept working, which was unusual, as he often disappeared from his desk when he was supposed to be doing seatwork. I found that s i x students was the maximum number that I could supervise and a s s i s t while they were shaping, f i l i n g , making a hole, and f i n i s h i n g o f f the arrowhead pendant. No one cut or gouged a finger. When one team came to the station, one of the students said, "I can't do t h i s . " But when he saw the sla t e point, watched me shaping the 150. arrowhead and saw the other students working, he completed his arrowhead without d i f f i c u l t y . A g i r l f i l e d p a t i e n t l y and ach- ieved a well shaped arrowhead with a f i l e d shape carved into, and repeating, the exterior shape. Three of the g i r l s worked after school to f i n i s h t h e i r arrowhead pendants. A l l of them worked to complete them in order to give them as g i f t s . Worksheets. I think they found the worksheets i n t e r e s t i n g , but challenging. Judging by the students that were working, the amount of work was more than s u f f i c i e n t . One less worksheet would have enabled more of the students to do a drawing of "Pretty Brown," but we ran out of time. The f i r s t team that had worked with slate had trouble set- t l i n g down to the worksheets afte r the excitement of working with the s l a t e . One student had to be asked to leave the table to make room for a student i n the next team. The students needed contact with materials, working with a goal. The problem l i e s i n teaching a s k i l l to a small number of students while the remainder work on seatwork related to the p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l to be learned. I think that the team system offered incentive to use the time wisely, for those waiting to work with tools and materials. Henceforth, when the classroom teacher, the teacher aide, and I were i n the classroom during the lessons, the lesson ran f a i r l y smoothly. The objectives of the lesson were achieved. I considered i t a very successful lesson. 151. WHAT 1NDIAW CAN YOU S F f Otf THS" COMBS? DRAW THP DES1-NS TN THE BOX 0EXOW. THE COKBS AM v £ « V Olt>. TH6V WB«£ M/)PE XN TMB YEAR 2000 LQ&SL 500 S+one maul STOne. adze vkmfc decorwfcd CJub b**vf Wont bra.cc i*T /OOP flCJbo^ ^ t u /.SCO PC beaver 3 ooo i3c wvooete*> paddlft I w o o d e n \otjK. 153. Kwakiutl food tray, whale of whale bone bucket 154. bone awl Tsimshian bone bear comb. 800 A.D. oldest decorated a r t i f a c t . bear's tooth charm Kwakiutl wooden box stone slave k i l l e r bone pendant stone beads l a d l e made of Bighorn sheep horn Haida hawk r a t t l e ancient type of box bone T l i n g i t bracelet 155 U n p u k J f S h e d m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d a t S i men F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , V a n c o u v e r B , C . J>y 0r.. George M c D o n a l d , the . d i r e c t o r o f +h* Mas-eutn o f ^ O H c w a ^ Sowrfre J>r. Ctortfw* j e i d U B . C , D e p t . o f A n r n r o p o l o a y AO 2 0 0 0 1500 PERS0NNAL A00RNMENT 1000 5 0 0 AD. 0 5 0 0 1000 DECORATED STONE - o — a> — & • r DECORATED BONE 1500 2 0 0 0 2 5 0 0 •OK .._._L. Temporal occurrence of se lected object:, from the Tsimshian area art Plate 6. F i e l d t r i p to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology Haida totem pole 157. Plate 7. F i e l d t r i p to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology Tsonokwa 158. Lesson 4. The Environment i n Winter - F i e l d T r i p : The U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology Objectives To introduce the students to the beach, seashore, and f o r - est i n winter and to t r a d i t i o n a l Kwakiutl l i f e and a c t i v i t i e s i n winter. Resources Books: Braun, E. Exploring P a c i f i c Coast Tide Pools, Healdsburn, C a l i f o r n i a : Naturegraph Co., 1966; Rowan, M., & Stott, M. Guide to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology. Vancou- ver: Gordon Soules Book Publishers, 1978; Stark, R. Indian Herbs. Vancouver: Hancock House Publishers, 1981. Museum of Anthropology a r t i f a c t s : stone maul, cedar bark, cedar plank, dogfish skin, and cedar canoe b a i l e r . Parent resource person. Materials Lunches, j u i c e , donuts, can opener, paper plates, s e r v i e t - tes, p l a s t i c bags l a b e l l e d with numbers for the four teams (8 bags). Charts: B.B. made two posters with col l e c t e d examples of sea and forest l i f e i n Winter. Method/Organization of the Classroom 10:30 a.m. Two drivers l e f t the school: one, a parent, took 13 students and the teacher aide i n a van; the other, the 159 . classroom teacher, took f i v e students i n her car. Instructions for the driver were l e f t at the school the day before the f i e l d t r i p . On the way to the museum the driver was to ask the stud- ents: "What i s a museum?" (a place where a r t i f a c t s are kept). 11:20 a.m. Arrived at the Museum, l e f t lunches i n c l a s s - room, had drinks of water, etc. 11:30-12:20 p.m. Garbanzo performance i n Great H a l l . Garbanzo combined information about Kwakiutl culture with music, mime, and remarkable masks that he had made from papier mache. During the performance he made references to the Mungo Martin totem poles, a Kwakiutl house post, and the section i n the Great Hall that contains many Kwakiutl objects used during Kwakiutl feasting and potlatching ceremonies. 12:25-1:00 p.m. Lunch. Museum Seminar, Room #217. A U.B.C. Native Indian Teacher Education student was our guest. She spoke to the students about the Outreach programme she did in the schools for the Museum. I to l d the students about the al l o c a t i o n of points for the day. There were 10 points: 1 point each for Mungo Martin's beaver (outside), a Haida or Kwakiutl bear (inside), o r a l questions to parent resource per- son, v i l l a g e made i n the sand at Spanish Banks, behaviour, par- t i c i p a t i o n , and 4 points for mounting col l e c t e d samples from forest and beach. Museum Questions: 1. Students examined two Mungo Martin totem poles. The parent resource person t o l d the students about Mungo Martin, an ancestor of h i s . Students were led to the Kwakiutl section, to the S i s i u t l and to the Tsonokwa feast dishes. 160. 2. Students looked f o r the carved Haida beaver on the pole behind the canoe. They l a t e r compared i t to Mungo Mar t i n ' s Kwakiutl beaver o u t s i d e the Museum. 3. Close to the entrance to the Museum, the students looked a t the Haida bear, and the Kwakiutl bear o p p o s i t e . "How do they d i f f e r ? " (deeper c a r v i n g was done on the Kwakiutl p o s t s , the Haida bear i s more s t y l i z e d , and the Kwakiutl dramatic and n a t u r a l i s t i c , p r o p o r t i o n s are d i f f e r e n t ) . 4. Students went o u t s i d e to the two Mungo M a r t i n totem p o l e s . "Look a t Mungo Mar t i n ' s beaver, and compare i t to the Haida beaver. How are they d i f f e r e n t ? " (the Haida beaver has l a r g e i n c i s o r s and smooth, almost s c u l p t u r a l q u a l i t y c a r v i n g , whereas the Kwakiutl beaver i s more l i f e l i k e w i t h a more prom- i n e n t snout: p r o p o r t i o n s d i f f e r ) . 1:00-1:15 p.m. Great H a l l . Each team was a s s i g n e d to an a d u l t l e a d e r who had a copy of the programme and q u e s t i o n s . I reminded a l l of the l o c a t i o n of the p o l e s and i d e n t i f i a b l e d i f - f e rences i n the c a r v i n g s t y l e between Haida and Kwakiutl c a r v - i n g as the teams moved down the ramp. Students were d i r e c t e d to the Kwakiutl bear which h e l d a human be i n g under i t s c h i n ; i t was p a r t of a longhouse. The Haida bear had a f r o g i n i t s mouth. The students continued i n t o the Great H a l l and looked at the Haida beaver. The Kwakiutl area i n the Great H a l l h e l d many a r t i f a c t s . The two Mungo M a r t i n totem p o l e s i n the Great H a l l were compared. Outside the students looked a t the Mungo Mar t i n totem p o l e and looked a t the beaver and the s u b t l e c a r v - i n g i n i t s t a i l (with another f a c e carved i n t o i t ) . 1:20-1:25 p.m. Students were d r i v e n to Spanish Banks 161. Beach parking l o t adjacent to the university. Since Kwakiutl v i l l a g e s were too far away to v i s i t , we substituted ancient Coast S a l i s h v i l l a g e s i n the v i c i n i t y . The students were told to gather i n one area to s i t and hear "what was going to happen." "Picture what i t was l i k e here 800 years ago. Along to the ri g h t , around the corner, was a Salish Indian v i l l a g e c a l l e d Kokopi, and beyond i t another v i l l a g e , Snaq" (Matthews, 195 5, p. 8c). Winter was the time when Warrior-of-the-World came to the Kwakiutl v i l l a g e s ; his a r r i v a l meant that winter ceremonies were to begin. He was the t a l l e s t of men, slim with long arms, and small head, a black body and with small eyes l i k e a bat. He t r a v e l l e d constantly but he never l e f t his canoe, which was long and very narrow. His canoe was i n v i s i b l e but you could hear his paddle h i t t i n g the side of the canoe when he was around. "Can- nib a l at the North-end-of-the-World l i v e d with many helpers i n the mountains. He ate men at the mouth of the r i v e r " (Boas, 1966, p. 172). Those myths were part of the Kwakiutl culture. Winter was a special time of the year. "What do you picture i t was l i k e here, on the beach, i n the v i l l a g e s , so long ago?" 1:45-2:10 p.m. Beach. "You w i l l have f i f t e e n minutes for each team to draw or make a t r a d i t i o n a l Indian v i l l a g e i n the sand. Show where the longhouses, canoes, and f i r e s were placed." The parent resource person chose the team with the most detailed, imaginative v i l l a g e ; that team (or teams) received a team point. 2:10-2:30 p.m. Seashore. Teams gathered and were shown a hammerstone borrowed from the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology which served as an example of the shape the students looked for i n a hammerstone. (The hammerstone was used by students during 162. a subsequent lesson.) "Each team w i l l c o l l e c t f i v e samples of sea l i f e that your ancestors used every day (clams, mussels, oysters, kelp, sea- weed) . Use thi s poster to refer to. Put the examples that you can name into the p l a s t i c bag for your team. Each of you w i l l have your own hammerstone, which must be f l a t , and you must be able to hold i t securely. You have 15 minutes to c o l l e c t your sea l i f e and your hammerstones. The hammerstones go into the cardboard box with your name on i t i n o i l p a s t e l . " 2:00-2:30 p.m. The Forest. Drivers took the students to the Dog T r a i l park. Student teams co l l e c t e d f i v e samples of plants that Indian people used, using the poster of la b e l l e d samples for reference (moss, blackberry, fern, cherry bark, O r e g o n grape, salmonberry). Each team had a numbered p l a s t i c bag. Students were told to look for a cedar tree. The teams were c a l l e d together and one student read the "Prayer to the Young Cedar." (This prayer was used by those who pulled cedar bark o f f cedar trees.) 2:45-3:00 p.m. Prayer to the Young Cedar. Look at me, fr i e n d ! I come to ask for your dress for you have come to take p i t y on us; for there i s nothing for which we can not use you, for you are w i l l i n g to give us your dress, I come to beg you for t h i s , long l i f e maker, for I am going to make a basket for l i l y roots out of you. I pray you friend not to f e e l angry on account of what I am going to do to you; Take care, f r i e n d ! Keep sickness away from me, so that I may not 163. be k i l l e d by sickness or i n war. Oh frie n d ! (Boas, 1930, p. 189) The students that had gathered at the base of the cedar tree were shown four "touchable" objects from the Museum; a canoe b a i l e r which Indian people made from cedar bark taken o f f the trees, a dogfish skin which was used for sanding the wood, cedar bark, and a cedar plank which was taken o f f the cedar tree by using a hammerstone with many yew wedges. The students experienced the environment of t h e i r ancest- ors i n winter on the beach, the seashore and i n the forest. There were freighters i n the bay, and Stanley Park was the l a s t remaining fore s t . Sea l i f e had diminished. The t r i p to the Museum was connected i n a general way to the art programme, and the f i e l d t r i p to the beach, sea, and forest was connected, i n s p e c i f i c ways, to future lessons. The f i e l d t r i p to the beach related to the following lesson which had f i s h as the theme. The beach was the point of departure for Native Indian f i s h e r - men. When the students stood on the beach we discussed the changes that had occurred i n the sea, on the beach, and i n the forest. In the forest students saw the cedar tree i n t a c t with bark, branches, and withes. The lesson following, that on f i s h related to cedar, emphasized that cedar and salmon were central to Kwakiutl culture; they provided es s e n t i a l materials for the so c i a l and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s of the people. 3:00 p.m. Departure for home. I sorted out the samples at home. 164. Evaluation The detailed programme and schedule for the f i e l d t r i p l e f t with the classroom teacher, teacher aide and parent three days before the f i e l d t r i p was followed by the teacher aide. The classroom teacher and resource parent did not use the quest- ions that I had l i s t e d . The teacher aide and I followed the questions and themes suggested. In the Great H a l l , at Garban- zo's presentation, the students were capitivated, judging by t h e i r expressions. Several of them had been to the Museum but none of them had seen Garbanzo before. When they followed Gar- banzo into the auditorium some of the students became re s t l e s s and disruptive. The auditorium was less intimate and the rap- port was l o s t . Some of the students had not brought lunch so i t was f o r - tunate that the teacher aide had brought extra sandwiches. I had brought juice and donuts to supplement t h e i r lunch. By the time the guest had arrived they had eaten and were anxious to get going. When she t o l d the students about the programme she worked on, the students only half l i s t e n e d and did not act at a l l interested i n what she had to say. Just before she came into the room, when I said that we would have a guest, one of the students said, "I hate guests!" In the Great Hall the students were able to i d e n t i f y the difference i n carving s t y l e between the bear on the Haida pole and the Kwakiutl totem pole. When we moved down to the Kwa- k i u t l section several of the students went over to the "touch- able" B i l l Reid bear (a sign indicated students could touch i t ) . We gathered by the Mungo Martin totem pole because I expected 165 . the parent to talk to the students about the carving. He said that he preferred to talk to the students i n d i v i d u a l l y . Outside one student ran over to the barbecue p i t s and started to jump up and down on the racks. A guard ordered him of f . The student did not l i k e that. Inside the Museum another student had been t o l d by a guard not to touch the totem poles. She to l d me that she didn't think the f i e l d t r i p was fun. I think that those students who were not used to acting with re- s t r a i n t i n t h e i r private l i v e s found i t d i f f i c u l t to control t h e i r actions i n public. When the group moved over to the Mungo Martin totem poles, two students suddenly started to climb the totem pole. The parent said to them, "Get down and show some respect." They stopped dead i n th e i r tracks and sheepishly got down. They stood s t i l l for a few minutes and didn't know what to do. It was much more e f f e c t i v e for a Na- ti v e Indian person to t e l l them how to behave than for a non- Indian i n a uniform to do so. At the beach the logs and sand were wet, so most of the students were reluctant to s i t down. I had to do my introduc- tion to the beach i n winter with the group of students standing a l l around me. Therefore the reaction and responses were im- mediate. One student responded immediately to "What would be d i f f e r e n t i f we were l i v i n g 800 years ago?" ("The forest would be bigger and most of what we see around us wouldn't be here," he said.) Teams - Sand v i l l a g e s . The teams were new and membership of some of them didn't mesh, so some students made th e i r own v i l - lages instead of cooperating on one v i l l a g e with t h e i r team. 1 6 6 . They took some time to get started but the winning team became so involved that they continued working well aft e r the competi- tion was over. Another team contained a conscientious student who f e l t miserable because her team f a i l e d to work together. Before the students were instructed to look for hammer- stones, they were shown the shape of the hammerstone and i t s purpose was explained. Despite i n s t r u c t i o n s , some students brought back stones that weren't f l a t , and didn't have a part to hold. One student threw his down when I said i t had to be f l a t on one side. He impatiently said, "I don't want to do t h i s ! " I told him to keep looking because I knew that he could find one with a f l a t side. I showed him the hammerstone again. He gave me a hard look. Several students became side-tracked and came back with wood, kelp, and pieces of glass, which they proudly showed o f f . I brought some booklets along on sea l i f e that I referred to i n order to i d e n t i f y what the students brought to show me. The classroom teacher said, "They're having the time of t h e i r l i v e s . " Sea l i f e c o l l e c t i o n . Students put t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s into t h e i r l a b e l l e d bags, which I took home to f l a t t e n and sort out. The poster with samples to re f e r to, had proved invaluable. Forest c o l l e c t i o n . I placed the poster for the forest on the hood of my car and gave out the l a b e l l e d team bags. I should have brought several extra because some team members pre- ferred to work alone. The students were interested i n the samp- les of cedar and dogfish skin which I showed to them at the foot of the cedar tree. I showed them the canoe b a i l e r which was often made by women at the foot of the cedar tree, when the bark 167. was freshly pulled from the tree. Unfortunately, not a l l of the students had.gathered there; some plunged into the forest osten- s i b l y looking for a cedar tree but I believe that they were sav- ouring the sheer joy and freedom of being i n the forest during school time. The team composition needed improvement, since i t was evid- ent from the a c t i v i t i e s which teams worked i n cooperation and which did not. One team member complained to me that his team would never win, although i t was obvious to everyone except him- s e l f that i t was he who prevented i t working e f f e c t i v e l y . I think that the f i e l d t r i p achieved the objectives of the lesson. Some of my observations related to patterns of behavior which were of long standing, and occurred both i n and out of the classroom. The classroom teacher said that she would l i k e to bring the students back to the beach another time so that they could explore to t h e i r hearts' delight i n an unstructured way. However, I think that the students, i f they are to work e f f e c t - i v e l y , require an established framework. A variety of a c t i v i t - ies around a central theme gave the students a f e e l i n g of accom- plishment. Many of the students didn't l i s t e n to directi o n s , and therefore did not obey them. The same students became fru s - trated by adult responses to them. "Why did he say to stop that?" or "What did I do?" they said when a guard spoke to them about touching an a r t i f a c t . Students need to know the conse- quences of misbehaviour for future f i e l d t r i p s . Those students that misbehaved f e l t that they had been u n f a i r l y c r i t i c i z e d . Yet, when a student who had sworn i n class because she didn't want to do her s p e l l i n g , observed another student swearing, she 168. said, "They swear a l o t i n here, don't they?" Judging by the v i l l a g e s that the teams made i n the sand, the students possess certain knowledge about the t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e of Native Indian people. They drew canoes beside shores of Spanish Banks, drew smoke houses and f i s h racks i n th e i r v i l l a g e s . They were less c e r t a i n about the shape of the houses. The plank houses of the Coast Sali s h people have not been re- produced i n l o c a l museums and the Kwakiutl longhouse i n the B.C. Pr o v i n c i a l Museum in V i c t o r i a i s the closest one to Van- couver . Review. On Monday, when I returned to the classroom, I re- viewed what had been learned on the f i e l d t r i p through an o r a l quiz to the teams. F i r s t of a l l , I asked a l l of the teams a question and gave one point for each correct answer. Then I asked a question to two teams; the person answering c o r r e c t l y earned a point for his team. The students found the experience i n t e r e s t i n g . 1. The t o t a l points including January 26 lesson were ad- ded and the winning team was announced. 2. F i e l d Trip t o t a l points = 10 points. C r i t e r i a for booklets established. , F i e l d Trip Questions 1. Inside the Museum we compared the style of the Kwakiutl and the Haida (bear) . 2. Outside the Museum, "What were we looking at on Mungo Martin's totem pole?" (beaver). 3. In the Kwakiutl section of the Museum the Wild Woman of the Woods i s (Tsonokwa) . 169. 4. The double-headed snake i s ( S i s i u t l ) . 5. Name two s p i r i t s that came to the v i l l a g e s i n winter: and (Warrior-of-the-World) (Canni- bal-at-the-North-End-of-the-World). 6. Museum a r t i f a c t s that we saw on the f i e l d t r i p were and i n the woods , , , and (hammerstone, cedar bark, cedar plank, dogfish skin, canoe b a i l e r ) . 7. What Indian culture are we learning about, why? (Kwakiutl, because most of us i n the class are Kwakiutl). 8. Why do we want to learn about how your ancestors l i v e d and what they did i n t h e i r l i v e s ? (to understand how much has changed and what i s the same). 9. What did they make out of stone, bone, shell? (hammer- stone, awl, cutting edge). 10. What was an arrowhead used for? (to k i l l animals such as deer). 11. Did Indian people wear arrowheads? (No) What jewel- ler y did they wear? (shells strung on sinew). 12. What s p i r i t brought winter? (Warrior-of-the-World). 13. What was the f i l m Augusta about? (an ancestor of some Shuswap people). Plate 8. Parent resource person demonstrating the netting needle. 171. Parent resource person demonstrating the netting needle. 172. Plate 11. Making the f i s h knife by f i l i n g . 173. Lesson 4. Fishing, a Major Occupation Objectives To introduce the students to salmon f i s h i n g , the major occupation of the Kwakiutl people on the Northwest Coast. To re l a t e the f i e l d t r i p to the beach and seashore (the previous lesson) to the l i f e of the Kwakiutl f i s h e r m a n — t r a d i - t i o n a l and contemporary. Resources Film; N.F.B., #1438, "The Salmon People." Parent resource person: Fisherman U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology: Fish knife, dogfish skin Materials Cedar half rounds pre-cut, s l a t e , shuttles (netting need- l e s ) , twine, net, hooks. Worksheet - B.C. Teachers' Federation Lesson Aids Service, Fishing Implements of the Northwest Coast. Baked salmon, ban- nock, se r v i e t t e s . Method/Organization of the Classroom 10:00 a.m. Introduction to f i s h i n g . Students were given pieces of baked salmon and bannock to eat as part of the i n t r o - duction to f i s h . Salmon was the basic food for the Kwakiutl people. Indian legends referred to the salmon not as f i s h , but as people l i v i n g i n a great wooden house under the sea. Every summer they (the salmon) sent t h e i r young men and women to meet the Kwakiutl people and give of themselves to enable the Kwa- k i u t l to survive. After the salmon was caught and eaten, i t made i t s way back to the house under the sea. The coming of the salmon was one of the most important events i n the year. The salmon had to be treated r e s p e c t f u l l y ; each Indian band had i t s own ceremony for cleaning and cooking the f i s h , as the s a l - mon people had instructed them to do. One of the students volunteered to read the prayer to the salmon from a poster: 0 Swimmers, thi s i s the dream given by you, to be the way of my late grandfathers when they f i r s t caught you at your play. I do not club you twice, for I do not wish to club to death your souls, so that you may go home to the place where you came from, Supernatural Ones, you, givers of heavy weight. I mean t h i s , Swim- mers, why should I not go to the end of the dream given by you? Now I s h a l l wear you as a neckring going to my house. Supernatural Ones, you, Swimmers. (After catching nine sockeye salmon i n the r i v e r the fisherman strings them on a s t r i n g of cedar withes and says the prayer, then he takes the salmon home and continues to pray.) (Stewart, 1982, p. 164) The f i v e t r i b e s , as they were c a l l e d (they were treated as guests) of salmon were: (Wilhelmsen, 1980, p. 79) Prayer to the Sockeye Salmon Species Kwakiutl name Run time 1. Chinook (spring) Sas June 1 - August 15 2. Sockeye (red) Metek July 1 - September 15 175. 3. Humpback (pink) Hanon August 15-31 4. Dog (chum) Gwaxnis October 1 - November 2 5 5. Coho (silver) Dzawun Late f a l l , early winter 10:00 a.m. "We are learning about Indian t r a d i t i o n s . Why did we go to the beach on our f i e l d t r i p ? What usually happened on the beaches of Indian v i l l a g e s ? When you drew your v i l l a g e s i n the sand at Spanish Banks, several of you drew smoke houses and f i s h drying racks. How many of you have been fishing? Who i s related to a fisherman? Who wants to be a fisherman?" "Salmon was a basic food and f i s h i n g was always a major occupation. What does that mean? There were many tra d i t i o n s and legends connected with the salmon. I t was believed that every summer the salmon sent t h e i r young men and women to meet the Kwakiutl people and gave of themselves so that the people would have something to eat. When the salmon were caught and eaten, and the bones were returned to the water, they regained form again as a f i s h and returned to the home at the bottom of the sea (Drucker, 1965, p. 85). Therefore, the salmon had to be respected, and treated i n a special way. Salmon had required a sp e c i a l ceremony; each band had a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ceremony. The proper means of cleaning and cooking was revealed to Native Indians by the salmon people themselves." 10:10-10:40 a.m. A parent resource person who i s a Kwa- k i u t l fisherman agreed to share with the class his experience gained at sea since he was 11 years old. He discussed t r a d i - tions that he could remember and said that once he saw el d e r l y fishermen saying prayers before going out to sea. He discussed 176 . the various ways of catching salmon, and the required equipment. He spoke of a t y p i c a l day: s t a r t i n g time, weather, jobs on the boats, what had to be done before setting out to sea, and what happened while out at sea. "I'm s t i l l learning about work as a fisherman," he said. He spoke of the v a r i e t i e s of f i s h , and l i f e at sea. Team Work: After the f i r s t 15 minutes, each team moved up to the next station for the next 15 minutes, and so on. (10: 40- 10 : 55 a .m.) 1. Parent fisherman Falcons (10 : 55- 11: 10 a • m.) 2. B.B. Lions (11: 10- 11: 25 a .m.) 3. Teacher aide Thunderbirds (11: 25- 11: 40 a .m.) 4. Classroom teacher Eagles Station 1. Netting. Parent fisherman. Each member of the team used the shuttle (or needle) to mend the net. Lou d i s - cussed each item of f i s h i n g equipment shown on a chart: h a l i - but hooks, cod hook, gaff hook, l e i s t e r , cod lure, herring rake, dip net, weight, shuttle, float,, p i l e driver, f i s h l i n e s , club, knife, and anchor. He demonstrated how to use the shuttle to Station 2. Slate knife. B.B. Students examined a f i s h knife from the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology. The steps i n making a slat e knife were demonstrated. B.B. began with shaping the slate blade and demonstrated how the handle f i t t e d together on one end. Each student began making a slate (fish) k n i f e : the ends of the sla t e were rounded by being chiseled, and sanded, the blade end was sanded by f i l e s to achieve an edge. Wood for make netting. 177 . the handle was cut to f i t the blade with a saw. Each cut end was then sanded. The slate was placed, sandwich fashion, be- tween the two halves of cedar and glued together. When sanding the students compared the difference between sanding with dog- f i s h skin and commercial sandpaper. Station 3. Fishing implements. Teacher aide. The team re- ceived three sheets of paper; one worksheet and two blank sheets of paper which were folded into eight squares each. Each square was to be la b e l l e d according to the poster sample. Team Points: There were 4 team points for accomplishing the following: 1. Made netting with the shuttle (each member of the team). 2. The team completed the f i s h i n g worksheet. 3. Each member of the team made a f i s h knife blade (2 points). Sheet 1 Sheet 2 1. Southern s t y l e bent wood 1. Small weight or sinker to halibut hook hold down net 2. Northern s t y l e halibut hook 2. Net needle or shuttle for 3. Northern s t y l e black cod making or mending nets hook 3. Float used for holding up 4. Gaff hook with detachable either a net or hook and head l i n e 5. L e i s t e r spear head 4. Stone p i l e - d r i v e r to drive 6. Herring rake stakes into r i v e r bed 178. 7. Net used for small f i s h — 5 oolichan 8. Lure for cod 6 7 Cedar rope was used for f i s h l i n e (Dried and twisted kelp used for fishlines) Club used for k i l l i n g f i s h Metal knife used for cut- ting salmon. Ground slate before contact Stone anchor used for a deep set cod l i n e Sheet 1 Sheet 2 Station 4. Fishing implements. Classroom teacher. (Same as above.) 11:50-12:20. Film, "The Salmon People." 24 min. colour. Due to the length of the previous lesson, the f i l m was shown during the extended lesson. "This f i l m i s b e a u t i f u l l y photo- graphed. It t e l l s about the Tsimshian legend of Sauk-Ai and the relatio n s h i p between Raven, the hunter and Salmon woman, who be- came his wife. Salmon woman was the s p i r i t of the salmon. "Treat me with respect,' she said. Salmon gave the Raven strength and he was successful at hunting. You w i l l see Indian fishermen gaffing f i s h and Indian women preparing f i s h for smok- ing, and working i n a cannery. You w i l l see a dance r i t u a l per- formed against the backdrop of carved totem poles, masks, and Indian music. In the old days, the salmon was treated as a 'Holy guest.' One wonders whether, i f we treated the salmon with respect today, the salmon would be disappearing the way i t seems to be." 179. Evaluation The objectives for the lesson were achieved and the lesson proceeded as planned. However, I f e l t exhausted when i t was over. I made the bannock the night before the lesson and early in the morning, the day of the lesson, I baked the salmon. The morning of the lesson, I went to the Museum of Anthropology to pick up the f i s h knife and to get the piece of dogfish skin. I then went to the N.F.B. to pick up the f i l m , and then to pick up the guest and his equipment. I think that i n the e a r l i e r lesson I had t r i e d to introduce too much information i n too short a time. In introducing the f i s h lesson, I served the salmon and bannock. During the i n t r o - duction, as soon as I saw attention wandering, I moved into the section r e l a t i n g to the parent fisherman who had an abundance of vi s u a l a i d s — n e t s , rings, weights, needles, twines of d i f f e r e n t sizes and buoys (floats) and the students were s i l e n t as they watched and liste n e d to him. He was nervous at f i r s t , but soon with ease he described the l i f e he knew as a fisherman. The students sat without moving or speaking for f i f t e e n minutes. When he discussed the f i v e types of salmon, he referred to a poster that I had made. He did not, however, discuss the moun- ted f i s h i n g worksheet sample as thoroughly as I had hoped he would. He knew contemporary f i s h i n g but when he looked at the poster which i l l u s t r a t e d t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g equipment, he did not f e e l competent to discuss t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g which u t i l i z e d natural materials and basic s k i l l s . A l l of the sixteen objects on the worksheet had contemporary equivalents which were used by present day fishermen. He spoke with authority about the net 180. and the needle. The f i l m seen at the end of the lesson feat- ured the k i l l i n g of f i s h by gaffing. I demonstrated using imag- inary objects, how the p i l e driver, l e i s t e r , and herring rake were used. The students remembered seeing the halibut hook dur- ing the pre-test, so they were able to see s i m i l a r i t i e s between the design of hooks: cod hook, and northern and southern h a l i - but hooks. They found the picture of the f i s h club d i f f i c u l t to understand since i t looked as i f the hand had a b a l l i n i t . A l l of the teams did the f i s h i n g worksheet and a l l of them did i t c o r r e c t l y . I had a sample poster for them to refer to. Two students on one team continued to work on t h e i r team's work- sheet during the f i l m . The guest used the blackboard to draw a diagram of a f i s h - ing boat, the net, and the beach so that the students could understand more c l e a r l y how the nets were set out. He mentioned the sea anchor, purse l i n e s , headlines, and jobs that men had on the f i s h boats; s k i f f men, and t i e up men. When some stud- ents i n the back of the classroom began moving about and both- ering other students, I suggested that we break into teams. One team (Falcons), had been l i s t e n i n g i n t e n t l y so they were f i r s t to go to netting s t a t i o n . The Lions had been quiet and coopera- t i v e so they came to the table to work on slat e for the f i s h knives, and the remaining teams worked on t h e i r f i s h i n g work- sheets. One student quickly l e f t the netting group during his team's turn, saying, "If I can't take the net home, I'm not going to do i t . " He was one of the very few who weren't happy and excited by the day's a c t i v i t i e s . Another student who had been pinching those around her during the presentation, 181. immediately se t t l e d down when she began working on her sla t e k n ife. It was s a t i s f y i n g for the two sons of the resource per- son to see t h e i r father i n the classroom, teaching a s k i l l with confidence. They were p a r t i c u l a r l y serious about t h e i r work that day. During the making of the slate knife, i t was important for the students, when f i l i n g the blades for th e i r knives, to have a f i s h knife to examine. The students learned by watching how I handled each t o o l , looking at the finished product, and then working on t h e i r own blades. The students worked with determin- ation and, as several achieved an edge, i t spurred more on, since they r e a l i z e d that i t was possible despite the fa c t that t h e i r slate was thicker than the slate on the sample knife. Those students who had been frustrated and bored i n reading and arithmetic worked hard to complete th e i r s l a t e blades for th e i r knives. Making a f i s h knife that was used t r a d i t i o n a l l y by Indian people gave extra incentive and provided added enjoyment. Several of them said, "Can I take this home?" "Can I keep t h i s ? " "I want to take t h i s home to my mom." The students t o l d me what the knife was used for without my asking. I had t o l d them that i t was for cutting up f i s h ; they l a t e r told me that i t was for removing scales too. The making of a f i s h knife took more than one lesson. Since each team had less than f i f t e e n minutes, I t o l d them that they could complete th e i r knives next week, during the lesson on wood, by adding the wood to the han- dle. On the Fishing Worksheet, a number of objects on i t were inc i d e n t a l to the lesson. The objects which were d i r e c t l y 182. related were: the net, the weight, and the needle. While the net i n the picture had been made out of net t l e , the two contem- porary nets i n the classroom were made out of s i s a l (rope) and nylon. The f i s h knife should have been included on the work- sheet along with some of the items that the parent brought to the classroom. It was d i f f i c u l t to coordinate the time required to com- plete the work i n the three areas. The slat e corner took the longest and the worksheet and the netting areas needed to be clo s e l y watched since some of the students avoided work involv- ing writing on paper and mastering new s k i l l s . I wanted to make sure that everyone had a turn learning how to use the netting needle under supervision. Some of the Thunderbirds were reluctant to move from the slat e to netting. Some students avoided what was not important to them, regardless of th e i r team and thi s became apparent to th e i r team members. Conse- quently, at the end of the three week period several students wished to be on other teams. When working with teams and tools, three stations was the maximum that could be handled given the tools available and the supervision required. I indicated that the following week, those that had not worked on th e i r blades should be the f i r s t to come to the slat e table. The speed that the students worked varied widely i n the classroom and some students needed much longer to complete a project than others who worked quickly and, at times, incompletely. The lesson ended with the f i l m , which the students and the guest enjoyed immensely. The f i l m was altogether suitable for 183. the class as i t combined t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary l i f e , and f i t t e d well into the theme of the lesson. The inclu s i o n of a transformation mask t i e d i n with a lesson to follow on mask mak- ing. To Native Indian people, from the time of the ancestors to the present, the rela t i o n s h i p with the salmon had been a s p i r - i t u a l as well as a material one. The students were to l d that at the end of the lesson the t o t a l s for the teams would be added and the winning team, to be announced on Monday, would go that day for hamburgers. The student teams had 4 possible points to earn so since a l l of the students i n a l l of the teams completed the assigned work, a l l teams received 4 points. The team points were t o t a l l e d at the end of the fourth lesson and the winning team was announced the following week. 184. 185. 186. Lesson 5. The Cedar Tree Objectives To introduce the students to red and yellow cedar; to learn about the differences between them, and to learn about the four parts of the cedar tree: withes, bark, roots, and wood. Resources Vancouver Museum - soapberry spoon U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology - "D" adze, "elbow" adze, three carving knives, cedar bark, cedar plank. Materials Hilary Stewart's Cedar Tree drawing, xeroxed (with per- mission) for each student. Four large sheets of paper, one for each team. Slate tools, saw, bondfast, sandpapers, f i l e s for f i s h knife. Yellow cedar, red cedar blocks of wood. Paint, crayons, pens, f e l t s , glue for booklets. Method/Organization of the Classroom 1:00 p.m. Introduction. The f i e l d t r i p to the beach and forest was reviewed. The relat i o n s h i p between f i s h (introduced in the previous lesson) and wood (with emphasis on red and y e l - low cedar) was discussed. "During our t r i p to the beach, one student t o l d us that 187. one of the changes during the past 800 years was the shrinking of the fores t s . The great cedar trees that were used for totem poles and dugout canoes have become fewer. Why were the cedar trees so large?" (the r a i n f a l l of autumn and winter nourished the forest and the trees were mature trees which had never been cut) . The properties of red cedar; 1. The wood s p l i t s s t raight so i t was i d e a l for house planks. 2. The r e s i n , phenol, acted as a preservative i n the wood even a f t e r the tree was cut down. "Who can remember, from the time-line sheet studied i n Lesson 2, the age of the oldest a r t - i f a c t made out of cedar?" (3,000 B.C.). 3. Red cedar i s considered mature at 100 years old. The properties of yellow cedar: 1. I t has a fresh aromatic smell. 2. I t doesn't s p l i t as e a s i l y as red cedar. I t i s more dense. 3. I t doesn't have the preservative, phenol, i n i t . 4. It takes 200 years to reach maturity. Demonstration of the hammerstone and wedge. The hammer- stone was picked up from the beach during the f i e l d t r i p , and the wedge was borrowed from the Museum. "Now I w i l l show you how to use your hammerstones with the wedge"to s p l i t o f f a piece of yellow cedar long and wide enough for a soapberry spoon." Cedar worksheets. Each student was given a cedar work- sheet. Four large blank pieces of paper were taped to the wall. 188. Each sheet represented one category on the cedar worksheet: withe, wood, root, and bark. On the worksheet there were spaces for each of the four categories, and pictures with labels of each part of the cedar tree. The students were questioned as follows: "Under which category would we put the plank houses?" (wood). "Where would we put the canoe b a i l e r ? " (bark). We read aloud together the prayer at the bottom of the worksheet. Each team was given l i n e d paper and blank paper for the prayer and i l l u s t r a t i o n . Each of the teams chose one part of the cedar tree and was given a large piece of paper to draw and lab e l the items made from that part. Team Work: After the 20 minute introduction, teams went to stations. (1:30-2:15 p.m.) 1. B.B. Lions and Falcons (2:15-2:50 p.m.) 2. Classroom teacher Eagles and and Teacher aide Thunderbirds Station 1. Slate. 1. Blades to be completed f i r s t . 2. Red cedar handles sanded and glued to f i t the slate blade. Station 2. S p l i t t i n g yellow cedar, worksheets 1. Worked on cedar chart pictures and l a b e l s . 2. Prayer to the cedar tree and group i l l u s t r a t i o n . 3. S p l i t yellow cedar for soapberry spoon. 4. Teams worked on Sea, Seashore, and Forest booklets. Team Points: The students had to decide how to divide up the work i n t h e i r teams; which students would write the prayer, which students would work on the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the cedar tree, 189. and which student would work on the one category that they had chosen. (2:50 p.m.) Voting on work. Al l o c a t i o n of team points. Did each team member complete: 1. Fish knife 2. Cedar chart pictures, labels 3. Cedar prayer, i l l u s t r a t i o n 4. Booklet 5. Yellow cedar s p l i t by each team member 6. Clean-up. Extra points Clean-up Schedule 1. Thunderbirdis - clean slate table. 2. Eagles - clean yellow cedar corner. 3. Falcons - clean booklet table. 4. Lions - clean f l o o r , sink, bathroom of paper. Evaluation During the introduction to the lesson, reference was made to the salmon and cedar through review of the f i e l d t r i p . After I demonstrated s p l i t t i n g yellow cedar (which was d i f f i c u l t since the cedar was as hard as stone), I passed the job over to Mr. L.T., the Native Indian student teacher who had been assigned to the classroom for practice teaching three days e a r l i e r . He sawed the pieces into manageable sizes for s p l i t t i n g . He supervised a l l students who s p l i t the cedar for the i r spoons. The sla t e table was crowded with the Falcons and Lions f i n i s h i n g o f f t h e i r f i s h knife blades. When students fi n i s h e d the blades 190. they went over to the wood table to saw o f f pieces of wood for the handles of t h e i r knives. I t meant that there was a l o t happening; the students were kept busy and the four adult super- visors found themselves doing several things at once. I had to watch cl o s e l y the students sawing because some, despite being given complete instr u c t i o n s , were reckless with too l s . One boy, upon being t o l d to watch his hand, said, "I'm tough, I can take i t . " Prayer to a Young Cedar Tree. I read the prayer (from the chart) which the students had f i r s t heard during the f i e l d t r i p to the forest. The cedar worksheet included the prayer. Each team was assigned to write the cedar prayer and on a separate piece of paper draw what they thought were the most important uses of red cedar. Two teams wrote out the prayer, but none of them completed the picture due to lack of time. Sea, Seashore and Forest Booklets. While I had t o l d the teams to complete the booklets, I did not set out the materials for the students soon enough, so the students did not complete t h e i r booklets. Cedar Worksheet categories. I used the cedar worksheet to make a heading on each of four pieces of chart paper. Each team was given one to complete, using the cedar worksheet for r e f e r - ence. Three out of four teams completed one of the categories and i l l u s t r a t e d i t . The fourth team, the Lions, were uncooper- ative and did not f i n i s h . I t r i e d to get some suggestions about c r i t e r i a for points for completed work. The students were good at suggesting reas- onable a l l o c a t i o n of points for each piece of work but, when i t 1.91. came to thinking about what a good finished product should look l i k e , they seemed uninterested. I think t h i s i s because they haven't had the opportunity to establish standards of this kind. Surprisingly, more work was actually completed than seemed apparent during the lesson. A l l of the students present com- pleted t h e i r f i s h knives; most of them cut a piece of yellow cedar to be used to make soapberry spoons for the next lesson. I spoke to one student about the picture her team would make, showing what they thought was the most important use for cedar. She said, "Where i s there something to copy?" I told her to look at the cedar worksheet. Some students found i t d i f f i c u l t to draw using th e i r imagination and they f e l t happier i f they could copy something because they aimed for realism. After the students had been working on t h e i r projects for Ik hours, I noticed a breakdown i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t and concentra- ti o n . They needed to be guided from one a c t i v i t y into the next. Once the Falcons and Lions had completed t h e i r knives and s p l i t yellow cedar, they were not interested i n doing the cedar prayer or the cedar worksheet. The team format, where groups of stud- ents worked together at tables or i n the corner on a s p e c i f i c project, seemed to encourage those not d i r e c t l y involved to wan- der aimlessly about despite the fact that t h e i r team had work to do. The junior high school class next door was stretching deer hide outside our classroom and before long some of our students were going outside to watch. My class could not j o i n the class outside because t h e i r teacher was busy with his own students. 192. Perhaps we should have a l l gone out, had a look, found out what was happening, and returned. Four students worked bu s i l y notwithstanding a l l of the con- fusion of the l a t t e r part of the lesson. Six worked sporadic- . a l l y and two undertook passive resistance by s i t t i n g q uietly and doing l i t t l e . Two of the students were absent and seven refused to do any reading or drawing. Classroom Behaviour: 1. The students did not read instructions posted for team work. 2. They did not l i s t e n to verbal instructions and repeat- edly asked for c l a r i f i c a t i o n . 3. They became disturbed by change i n routine. 4. They became r e s t l e s s a f t e r one hour of a c t i v i t y , no matter how i n t e r e s t i n g . They needed changes i n a c t i v i t y every 25 minutes. 5. They did not move e a s i l y from one a c t i v i t y to another; they often had d i f f i c u l t y s e t t l i n g down. If the teacher was not present to d i r e c t t r a n s i t i o n , they did not make i t on t h e i r own. 6. They needed a c t i v i t i e s that did not require very much reading, or they became discouraged and stopped reading. When working with tools, they needed close supervision. Although they did not injure themselves, they could have damaged the tools. 7. They required a c t i v i t i e s that were i n t e r e s t i n g , but did not involve very much explanation: challenging, but not too d i f f i c u l t . Within a three graded classroom, with a range 193. i n academic a b i l i t y , i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to prepare work based on i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programmes. The d i f f i c u l t i e s that I had i n this lesson were perhaps ow- ing to special circumstances: the team complexion had changed because four students had traded places; the classroom teacher had to leave the classroom for the afternoon with a student; there was a new person i n the classroom (Mr. L.T., the.student teacher). The class next door was doing something that seemed in t e r e s t i n g and, once the students i n my class who don't enjoy reading, writing, or drawing had completed what they thought was fun, they mentally packed up. Most of the students who found i t d i f f i c u l t to work were on the Lions team. I t was ob- vious that working to earn points for the team was not something that interested them. They don't think i n terms of long range objectives, or team work. Group a c t i v i t i e s that involved discussion, planning, and agreement between members was d i f f i c u l t for the cla s s . The teams were far from cohesive. Yet, to my surprise, when I read out the clean-up schedule, the students scurried about i n a frenzy of a c t i v i t y . Each team earned points for the clean-up. Two students even swept the whole classroom f l o o r . I t was per- haps a r e l i e f to do a job that they knew was preliminary to leaving for home. Or, i t may have been that clean-up was a job that they could do with confidence. This i s the second f r u s t r a t i n g lesson that I have had. Whenever th i s has happened, a student has sensed my disappoint- ment and given me something that he has made. At the f i r s t l e s - son, a student gave me a necklace that she had made. On thi s 194. occasion a student gave me a picture that he had worked on i n the corner of the classroom. They are f r u s t r a t i n g , lovable, i n f u r i a t i n g , and saddening. I think that some of them are so t i e d up i n knots inside that they explode at the s l i g h t e s t prov- 0 ocation. THE CEDAR V/06pV\,'0R.KlMC TOOLS L I F E G I V I N G T R £ E F O f S T H E I N D I A N S O F T V I E NJORrWWEST C O A S T p i ? A V E R T O S P I R I T C F c e W g , T R g g - B l ^ F O R E P U L U G~ISA R_K1 " L O O K A T M E r - R i e M o ! I C O M E T O A S K F O R , Y O U R , D R H A S , V ^ R V O U H A V E " . C O M E To T A K E P I T Y ONl U 5 ; T H E R E 15 K I O T I - l l u q F © ( < WWICtA V O U C M J K J O T B E U S & P , B E C A U S E | T IS VOUC» W A V T H A T T H E F i E I S J J O T V U N q F O R . WW O A W E C A M M O T U S E S O U , F O R V X l A R E R . E A L L - V V J I L L I N C T O G I V E OS VOOIZ. D R J S S _ I C O M E T O B E . G V O U F O R . T M I S , L P W C L I F E . M A K E £ J _ , F O G I A M G o i N f f T O M A K E A B A - 5 K 6 V . O F R O O " r S O U T O F V O U _ I P R A V F F U P N P , T O T E L L Y O U R . F G J E . N D 5 A B O U T W H A T I A S K . O F V O L ' _ T A K E C A R . E F P U G M P - K ^ E P •blCKWCSS A ^ l A V F f S O M M E THAT I MA.V MoT B E K I L L G P 8 Y s i C K k l e r ^ s OR. W A R , O F R I E N p l ? 2 | Drawings reprinted with permission from a r t i s t H i l a r y Stewart, (copyright 1978) 196. Plate 13. Carving yellow cedar. 197. Lesson 6. Wood, a Major Technology: Yellow and Red Cedar Objectives To extend the students * knowledge of the use of red and yellow cedar i n Kwakiutl Indian material culture. To learn about the differences between red and yellow cedar and the prop- e r t i e s of the two woods. To begin to make a soapberry spoon from yellow cedar. Resources Parent resource person: A Kwakiutl carver. Film: Making a Totem Pole, U.B.C. Space & A.V. Materials Red and yellow cedar, hammerstones, knives, sandpapers. A painted cedar p l a t t e r , carved cedar plaque, and two carved cedar plaques brought from home. The following items were bor- rowed from the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology: "D" adze, "elbow" adze, stone maul, wedges, and three carving knives. Posters: B.B. prepared soapberry spoon i n f o r m a t i o n — Using Tools, Making Designs, Carving the Soapberry Spoon, Team Schedule, and Time Schedule. Sea, Seashore, and Forest Booklet. Method/Organization of the Classroom During the f i r s t twenty minutes the class remained together for a short review of questions. Students who answered the questions c o r r e c t l y earned a point for the i r team. The teams 198. were organized by placing a representative from each of the four teams side by side, each seated on a chair. Team members stood behind th e i r team representative, prepared to whisper a correct answer i f necessary. Only one of the four team repres- entatives could c a l l out an answer. A student was able to cor- r e c t l y answer each question. Review: "How long ago did Native Indians make tools out of wood?" (3,000 B.C.). "What i s the name of the resin that preserves red cedar?" (phenol). "What was the old Indian wom- an's name i n the f i l m that you saw?" (Augusta). "Name something made out of teeth?" (a pendant). "Name three more kinds of material that a r t i f a c t s were made out of besides wood, s h e l l , and stone" (bone, antler, and teeth). "What kind of f i s h i n g did our guest talk about?" (purse seining). "We saw a f i l m about the and the (salmon, raven) . What was the message of the film?" (If you don't treat the salmon with respect, i t w i l l go away.) "What did we make out of stone?" ( f i s h k n i f e ) . "What did we make out of yellow cedar?" (soap- berry spoon). The introduction to the lesson of the day followed, and the guest's introduction. Team Work: Student worked at one station for 15 minutes, then teams moved up to the next s t a t i o n . (2:00-2:15 p.m.) 1. Student teacher Eagles (2:15-2:30 p.m.) 2. Parent resource Thunderbirds (2:30-2:45 p.m.) 3. Classroom teacher Falcons (2:45-3:00 p.m.) 4. B.B. Lions 199. Station 1. Using tools on red and yellow cedar. To use tools on red and yellow cedar ("D" adze, "elbow" adze, wedges, stone maul, and knives). Station 2. Watching an experienced Kwakiutl carver. Carving out the shape of a soapberry spoon. Station 3. Working with colour on paper. I l l u s t r a t i n g the cover of the Sea, Seashore, and Forest booklet. Mounting, lab- e l l i n g samples from the f i e l d t r i p . I l l u s t r a t i n g what was the most i n t e r e s t i n g on the f i e l d t r i p . Station 4. B.B. Team Points: Teams received points for appropriately us- ing tools and for clean-up. The objective was to make a design for the soapberry spoon. Pictures of soapberry spoons, card- board templates and sample student-made soapberry spoons (from another art class) were available for reference. When an hour had elapsed, the students came together to view the f i l m which reviewed what they had learned about working with wood during the lesson. The spoons and booklets were not s u f f i c i e n t l y com- plete to a l l o c a t e points. Evaluation Station 1. The student teacher reported that a l l of the teams that came to his station had used a l l of the tools and that each student had understood the differences i n smell, touch, and texture between red and yellow cedar. 200. Station 2. The parent resource person had brought two of his own carving knives to add to the tools available for the students' use. A young Native Indian male entered the c l a s s - room, a stranger, who stood beside the chair of one of the stud- ents and said, "I didn't know how to carve when I was your age; in fact, I've never learned how to carve." While he spoke the students sat carving with s a t i s f a c t i o n and didn't say a word. Station 3. The classroom teacher noted that the students had worked hard on the cover of th e i r booklets and on the p i c - ture about a memorable part of the f i e l d t r i p . Owing to lack of time, however, they did not mount the i r samples. Station 4. Fifteen out of seventeen students at least par- t i a l l y completed design for th e i r soapberry spoons. I noticed that, notwithstanding the sample designs available and templates, some of the designs by the students contained asymmetrical shapes. Students who prided themselves on th e i r drawing a b i l - i t y tended to draw soapberry spoon designs which were d i f f i c u l t to carve. I believe that the lesson was successful because there were changes i n a c t i v i t i e s every f i f t e e n minutes, there was less o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n , no writing was required, and reading was inciden- t a l . Information that the students needed to know was included on a chart at each station where an adult was i n charge. The art lesson of the day consisted of working with tools on wood, something that a l l of the students, at the outset of the pro- gramme, said they wished to do. While the students' ancestors used stone and bone knives to shape th e i r spoons, and sanded 201. them with dogfish skin, the students used contemporary knives. In addition to the s p e c i f i c objectives which were achieved, an underlying goal of the art programme for Native Indian students, to enhance t h e i r self-concept, may have been achieved. I heard a normally disruptive student, who never has anything encourag- ing to say to fellow students, c a l l out, "Way to go, S". ! " when a teammate gave a correct answer during the review. I think that i n order to recognize parents' s k i l l s , i t i s important to use parents as resource persons whenever possible. We had, on thi s occasion, one parent as a resource person and one parent as an unexpected guest. Each adult brought a young c h i l d along with them. The f i l m , "Making a Totem Pole," worked well because i t featured Mungo Martin, a Kwakiutl chief from whom several of the students are descended, who represented the t r a d i t i o n a l Indian culture of the majority of the students. The students had seen two of Mungo Martin's totem poles previously during a f i e l d t r i p to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology. In the f i l m , Mungo Martin was at work using the same kind of tools that the stud- ents had been using minutes before i n the c l a s s : "D" adze, "elbow" adze, and curved knives. Despite the length of the f i l m and the d e t a i l i t contained, the students watched i t qu i e t l y with expressions of int e r e s t because of th e i r great i n t e r e s t i n carving, and they r e a l i z e d they were watching a master carver at work. The presence of two parents was an added s t a b i l i z i n g factor i n the classroom. I returned to the school and posted photographs taken 202. during the previous art lessons. I l e f t the f i l e folder with the soapberry spoon designs so that those students who had not finished could do so during the intervening week. P l a t e 15. Skinning the beaver. 2 0 4 . Plate 16. Scraping the skin from the fur. 205. Lesson 7. Beaver Skinning, Carving, and Booklet Objective To p a r t i c i p a t e i n skinning a beaver, to carve a soapberry- spoon, and to work on booklets. Resources Parent resource person, and a Kwakiutl carver. Film; "Tony Hunt, Kwakiutl A r t i s t , " PEMC (#VSO-0344 A2) Materials Carving knives, f i l e s , sandpapers, l i n o knives and wood- carving sets. Art materials for booklets: paint, f e l t pens, crayons, glue, drawing paper, brushes, and drawing pe n c i l s . Teacher made charts: Large soapberry spoon design, soap- berry spoon design worksheets. Method/Organization of the Classroom During the f i r s t f i v e minutes the class remained together for a short review of questions. The team competition system of Lesson 6 was repeated. Students who answered the questions c o r r e c t l y earned a point for th e i r team. Review. "Name a tool for spearing f i s h " ( l e i s t e r ) . "What kind of f i s h i n g did Lou talk about?" (seining). "What did Mungo Martin carve onto the beaver t a i l on his totem pole?" (face). "Why i s a soapberry spoon made from yellow cedar?" (yellow cedar does not have the resi n phenol, which would give an un- pleasant taste i f put into the mouth). 206 . The parent resource person was i n t r o d u c e d . He had come prepared to g i v e a complete l e s s o n on the beaver. The students l e a r n e d about the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l organs d u r i n g the s k i n - n i n g and d i s s e c t i o n , of a r e a l , p r e v i o u s l y f r o z e n , beaver. Next, he l e d the students i n a c r e a t i v e drama r e c r e a t i o n of the l o c a t i o n and k i l l i n g of the beaver. He r e t u r n e d to the beaver and s t r e t c h e d the s k i n on a board where the students, i n p a i r s , scraped the s k i n and f a t from the f u r . When the s t u d - ents l e f t f o r the team work i n s t a t i o n s , he chopped up the meat, added v e g e t a b l e s , and cooked stew f o r the s t u d e n t s ' l u n c h . For h a l f an hour the students worked a t one of three s t a - t i o n s . I t was not p o s s i b l e f o r them to v i s i t more than one s t a - t i o n i n the time because the beaver s k i n n i n g took up time a l l o t - ted to the a r t l e s s o n . Team Work: (11:00-11:30 a.m.) 1. Kwakiutl c a r v e r L i o n s , Falcons 2. Teacher aide Eagles 3. Student teacher Thunderbirds S t a t i o n 1. Kwakiutl c a r v e r . To carve a soapberry spoon. To begin work on d e s i g n i f time p e r m i t t e d . S t a t i o n 2. Teacher a i d e . To complete team b o o k l e t s . S t a t i o n 3. Student teacher. To carve a soapberry spoon. Team P o i n t s : Team p o i n t s f o r the day were f o r review q u e s t i o n s and clean-up. They were added to the p o i n t s f o r the p r e v i o u s two l e s s o n s . A f t e r the h a l f hour was up, the students came together to view the f i l m , "Tony Hunt - Kwakiutl A r t i s t . " 207. Evaluation Station 1. The carver tended to watch only those students s i t t i n g next to him. Some of the students could not fin d t h e i r spoons or needed another piece of wood, etc. I found that I was kept busy keeping a l l of the stations supplied with equip- ment since the storage space was at a premium and the tools and equipment had to be placed i n several d i f f e r e n t locations. Station 2. The teacher aide said that two students worked hard. Two other members of the team worked primarily on the beaver skin which held a p a r t i c u l a r fascination for them. The two g i r l s completed t h e i r booklet cover, fi n i s h e d t h e i r picture, and began sorting through th e i r plants. Station 3. The student teacher worked with some students who had not begun a spoon, and those who had started began f i n - ishing o f f the carving and sanding. The objectives of my lesson were not achieved for the whole class because of the parent resource person a r r i v i n g 45 minutes l a t e . I began my lesson at 11:00 a.m., instead of 10:00 a.m., so my planning had to be adjusted. The beaver lesson was loosely organized and students wandered around between steps i n the skinning. After the beaver lesson was over, i t took some time for the students to s e t t l e down. They were very excited. The older students from the classroom next door came for the beaver lesson too, so some of the students i n the art programme acted up for t h e i r benefit. I had been t o l d by the parent re- source person that there would be two carvers so I planned a station for each carver, but one of the carvers had to leave after the beaver skinning. The classroom teacher was absent so 208. one of the most d i f f i c u l t students to handle, s a i d , "I o n l y have to do what the teacher says!" There were three guests i n the classroom, so while they were viewed as resource people, the students d i d not view the guests as people who would c u r - t a i l i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour. The guests d i d not take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to monitor the behaviour because two of them d i d not have c h i l d r e n i n the s c h o o l , and the t h i r d was p r e - occupied w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n of the beaver. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l the a r r i v a l of a r e s o u r c e per- son u n l e s s the teacher b r i n g s t h a t person to the c l a s s h e r s e l f . I would never again p l a n an a r t l e s s o n to f o l l o w a l e s s o n by a v o l u n t e e r . A l e s s o n about a t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l such as s k i n n i n g should f o l l o w , not precede an a r t l e s s o n . Changes i n r o u t i n e e x c i t e d the students and d i s t u r b e d t h e i r a b i l i t y to cope. The nature o f an a r t l e s s o n f o l l o w i n g s k i n n i n g a beaver should be r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the experience. F i l m . The f i l m , "Tony Hunt - Kwakiutl A r t i s t , " f e a t u r e d Tony Hunt, a descendant of Mungo M a r t i n . The students watched the f i l m s i n c e they had heard about Tony Hunt, and they l i k e d f i l m s about c a r v e r s and c a r v i n g . S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s , however, had to be spoken to about t h e i r t a l k i n g , moving, t u r n i n g , and t w i t c h i n g . The c l a s s ended with beaver stew being served f o r l u n c h . 209. Plate 17. Working at a station with the classroom teacher on booklets. 210. Lesson 8. P i c t u r e Making The planned a r t programme c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of l e s s o n s connected with and f o l l o w i n g one another i n a l o g i c a l o r d e r . My p l a n was to i n t r o d u c e weaving i n Lesson 8. However, u n f o r e - seen circumstances f o r c e d me to choose to e i t h e r c a n c e l the a r t l e s s o n u n t i l the f o l l o w i n g week, or to adapt the s i t u a t i o n to the c l a s s 1 needs. I chose the l a t t e r course. The c l a s s had been swept by a wave of h y s t e r i a i n s t i g a t e d by one female student, and taken up by four a l l i e s , a l l of them female. I was t o l d about the s i t u a t i o n by the classroom teacher the n i g h t b e f o r e I was to teach the a r t c l a s s . Apparently the students s a i d t h a t there was a haunted house not f a r from the s c h o o l , and t h a t they had seen a s k e l e t o n a t the window, heard moans, f e l t the ground move. The e n t i r e c l a s s went t o the house a t r e c e s s , a t lunch time, and a f t e r s c h o o l , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the h y s t e r i a spread throughout the c l a s s . During t h i s p e r i o d the classroom teacher was away from s c h o o l , s i c k . The p r i n c i p a l o f the s c h o o l was c o n s u l t e d ; the p o l i c e were c a l l e d i n . They went to the house. There mattresses were d i s c o v e r e d i n the basement, along w i t h evidence t h a t someone, or s e v e r a l persons had been l i v i n g i n the house. The house was then boarded up and was d e c l a r e d out of bounds f o r the s t u d e n t s . When t h i s oc- c u r r e d , I had been i n New York v i s i t i n g the Kwakiutl c o l l e c t i o n s i n the Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and the Native American Museum. 211. Objective To share my t r i p to the c o l l e c t i o n s i n the New York museums. To use picture making to dif f u s e the fear the students had of what they saw or thought they saw at the haunted house. Resources Film: "Salish Weaving," from the Prov i n c i a l Education Media Centre (PEMC). Materials Large and small pieces of drawing paper. F e l t pens, cray- ons, paint brushes, paint, drawing pencils. Method/Organization of the Classroom The class was together for the f i r s t h a l f hour, during which team points for work completed during the previous lesson and during the week were t o t a l l e d and the winning team was an- nounced. So that the other teams would not f e e l discouraged, I said that the next time we would look at the team points of the most improved team. I t o l d the students about my t r i p to the Kwakiutl sections of the Museum of Natural History and the Native American Museum. I spoke of the a r t i f a c t s I had seen there, made by the i r ances- tors. I to l d them that the Education Coordinator of the Native American Museum said that some of the a r t i f a c t s would be re- turned to the Kwakiutl museums at Cape Mudge and A l e r t Bay. I then turned to the haunted house, with a view to having the students draw pictures of what they had seen by tal k i n g to 212. the students about what I had heard had happened. I said that sometimes we are frightened by something that we think i s going to harm us. "Once, long ago, I had f a l l e n asleep on the bed. I was alone, and when I awoke I saw that i t was dark and some- thing had awakened me. I heard a door slam with a bang down- s t a i r s , and my cat came running into the room and jumped up onto me. It was summer, and there had been no wind so i t couldn't have been the wind. My heart pounding, I walked downstairs holding the cat for protection, turning the l i g h t s on as I went.- When I reached the basement, however, I r e a l i z e d that the cat must have pushed against the door which made i t slam, and frightened her. There could be no other reason." I drew my picture on a piece of newsprint with f e l t pens, discussing the placement of the central character (me), the si z e , the shapes and colours that I would choose. I then said I wanted them to draw pictures of what they had seen. The students were given the choice of doing t h e i r pictures i n teams on a large piece of drawing paper, or on smal- l e r paper with a partner or, i f they preferred, alone. They were to l d to pretend that they had come home after v i s i t i n g the house with the other students, and that when they opened th e i r mouths to t e l l t h e i r mothers about i t , the words wouldn't come out. So, because "you r e a l l y wanted your mom to know what had happened, you had to draw a picture to t e l l her about i t : what you saw, heard, f e l t . " During the l a s t half' hour of the class the students watched "Salish Weaving," a f i l m about weaving, from shearing the sheep to wall hangings. 213. Evaluation As I had expected, the class was distra c t e d . Most of them were interested i n seeing which team would win, but the stud- ents who had d i f f i c u l t y s e t t l i n g down to work were on the two teams that had not yet won. One student said that his team would "never win." The students were interested i n hearing about the t r i p to the museums and of the a r t i f a c t s made by th e i r ancestors. When I told them that at the end of the period I would give each of them a pen from the United Nations (I had purchased the pens at the U.N. bu i l d i n g ) , they brightened and a few of the students said that they would remind me so that I wouldn't forget. (They reminded me several times.) I had thought that i f the students faced t h e i r fears squar- ely i n a picture making exercise, i t would make the experience seem less unsettling. I had misjudged the l e v e l of hysteria i n the classroom. They seemed uneasy and took a while to begin drawing. One student said, "We've talked about i t , i s n ' t that enough?" Two students said that they would rather write about i t . The team that won worked on a picture together. Of the 17 students, two students did not complete th e i r pictures and one of them threw the picture that she had done into the waste basket. I had limi t e d success i n dealing with the hysteria through picture making. The class had reached a low point i n morale and behaviour. The classroom teacher found i t necessary to c a l l i n the Native Indian consultant to find a solution to the many problems that had beset the class during the year. At the end 214 . of the class one student l e f t crying, and I l a t e r found out that he had been punched by another student and that a f e l t pen had been jammed up his nose by s t i l l another student. He has withdrawn from the class. The students were generally unsettled during the f i l m . I t was, however, probably the only a c t i v i t y they were capable of handling at that time. The f i l m supplied the f i r s t step i n the preparation of wool for weaving by showing a Native Indian couple, the man engaged i n shearing t h e i r sheep, the woman c o l - lected the fleece, combing i t into bats and spinning i t . The fi l m was a good introduction to the lesson to follow, i n which the students would spin raw fleece using a spindle whorl. The students i d e n t i f i e d with children shown helping t h e i r mother c o l l e c t flowers and lichen for dyeing. The f i l m was an e f f e c t - ive teaching vehicle because i t featured a Native Indian weaver who t o l d the story of the preparation of wool i n her own words. At the end, one of the boys said that the f i l m was "boring." Another boy, however, t o l d me with excitement that his grand- mother had taught him to spin on a spindle whorl, and that she had also taught him to weave. Coast Sal i s h women t r a d i t i o n a l l y spun wool using spindle whorls. It was a d i f f i c u l t , exhausting c l a s s . The only alterna- tiv e would have been to cancel i t altogether. I had thought that i t would be tough; i t was. Plate 18. Using the spindle whorl to spin f l e e c e . Plate 19. Weaving on the large loom. 217. Plate 20. Weaving on the large loom at the st a t i o n with a parent resource person. 218. Lesson 9. Clothing Technology: Weaving-Wool and Soapberry Spoons Obj ectives/Aims To complete the carving of and the designs on the soap- berry spoons. To introduce weaving. Resources Film: "Salish Weaving," from Pro v i n c i a l Education Media Centre (PEMC) (#VSO 280, 1978). Parent resource person. Books: Gustafson, P. Salis h Weaving. Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre, 19 80; Hawkins, E. Indian Weaving, Knitting, Basketry. Seattle: Hancock House, 1978; Wells, 0. Salish Weaving. Sardis: Oliver Wells, 1969. Materials For soapberry spoons: carving tools for f i n i s h i n g the spoons, carving designs, sandpaper. For weaving: large loom, two small looms, wool, fleece, cardboard looms for each student, wool for warping, dyed wool, spindle whorl, and my own weavings: large wall hanging, sculp- t u r a l weaving, and a small wall hanging. Charts: B.B. designed. Warping the loom, vocabulary chart, weaving wool, four station charts, S a l i s h weaving in s t r u c - tions, pictures of weavings. 219 . Method/Organization of the Classroom (1:00-1:30 p.m.) Introduction to the lesson of the day with a review of vocabulary introduced through the f i l m "Salish Weaving," seen at the close of the previous lesson: warp, shearing, combing, teasing, carding, weaving, spinning, dyeing, Chilkat blanket, Sali s h loom, spindle whorl. The vocabulary was also included on the weekly s p e l l i n g l i s t of words. The class remained together for t h i r t y minutes to consider the following questions: the same team competition structure was used. 1. "What were the steps i n preparing wool from the sheep to the loom?" (shearing, teasing, combing, spinning, mordant- ing, and dyeing). 2. "Why did Native Indian people weave t h e i r clothing from cedar bark, mountain goat wool, and dog h a i r ? " (cedar bark was p l e n t i f u l throughout the Coast; mountain goat wool was, however, scarce; hair from white dogs was obtainable only from the Coast Salish people). 3. "What useful objects were made out of cedar bark?" (hats, capes, mats, screens, s k i r t s , baskets). 4. "What special blanket was made by Kwakiutl people for chiefs to wear?" (Chilkat). Team Work: A l l of the students were then asked to come to the demonstration table. There they saw three d i f f e r e n t types of weavings: one large wall hanging, one sculptural weaving, and a small wall hanging. These i l l u s t r a t e d for them the var- iatio n s possible i n weaving wool. The students were to l d to 220 continue work on th e i r soapberry spoons and th e i r designs i f they were not yet complete. The students were shown the spindle whorl and how i t was used to spin carded fleece into yarn. They were also shown the large loom and how to s t a r t a row of weaving. They were given a supply of dyed wool. A small cardboard loom was warped up so that they would know the process. The diagram for the students to follow was put on the wall. Team Work: (1:30-1:50 p.m.) 1. Classroom teacher (1:50-2:10 p.m.) 2. B.B. (2:10-2:30 p.m.) 3. Parent resource (2:30-2:50 p.m.) 4. Teacher aide Station 1. Carving soapberry spoons Lions Falcons Eagles Thunderbirds soapberry spoon Begin design for paddle. Station 2. Learning to use the spindle whorl. j- Carded fleece spun, t i e d into c i r c l e s for washing, spindle whorl spun fleece large loom Station 3. Weaving on the large loom. Each team weaves a band of colour. 221. Station 4. Warping up a cardboard loom and then weaving on i t . Each student follows the example on the diagram, then weaves the f i r s t two rows with the same wool as the warp. Weave rows of colour with provided wool. small loom Film: (2:50-3:10 p.m.) During the l a s t f i f t e e n minutes of the c l a s s , the students watched a f i l m c a l l e d "Magic Knives." The f i l m was of a Kwakiutl legend i l l u s t r a t e d with t r a d i t i o n a l , carved masks. The masks dominated the myth; they seem to have a l i f e of t h e i r own. The f i f t e e n minute f i l m was an introduc- tion to the following lesson on mask making. Evaluation The introduction to weaving was one of the most successful lessons thus far. I was able to est a b l i s h a framework for un- interrupted weaving of wool. The focus was mainly on wool, but reference was made to weaving cedar bark through a poster i l - l u s t r a t i n g a woven cedar cape and hat introduced during the lesson. During the introduction a l l of the students sat atten- t i v e l y , and answered questions by r a i s i n g t h e i r hands. I f e l t quite exhilarated by the response, and i t gave me an opportunity to provide the students with a good background about weaving. I demonstrated to the class the four s k i l l s that they would be using at each station, and the students were attentive. I showed the students the f i n i s h e d weavings that I had made on a handmade loom using handspun, nature dyed wool. They showed great i n t e r e s t i n them, and examined the weavings c l o s e l y . The change i n the classroom was notable from previous i . lessons. The following rules had been established by the c l a s s - room teacher with suggestions from the class since the previous art lesson. The behaviour of the students had reached a point where something had to be done. 1. No t a l k i n g unless about work f Students who break a rule three times despite warnings from the classroom teacher, are sent home with a note of 2. No f i g h t i n g 3. No swearing 4. No foo l i n g around 5. No interrupting ^ explanation to the parent. The student may only re-enter the classroom when accompan- ied by his or her parent for Va consultation. Two students who had broken the class rules had been sent home and were absent the day of the lesson. The carving station that the classroom teacher supervised took much longer than I had intended. Carving i s a s k i l l that takes time to acquire. The boys l i k e d to carve and preferred i t to any other a c t i v i t y . Several of them wanted to begin on another spoon when something went wrong with the spoon they had been working on; for instance, i f they cut the handle too short or s p l i t the paddle accidentally they wanted to begin again. Several of the spoons had disappeared and some of the owners decided to begin again. For these reasons, the objectives were only p a r t i a l l y met. The spinning station that B.B. supervised was successful for the two teams that persevered. They spun lengths of wool into yarn and worked e f f e c t i v e l y i n p a i r s . The student who had mastered the technique showed one who had not. One student was knowledgeable about the process since his grand- mother spun, dyed, and weaved. Several of the boys didn't match his enthusiasm and said, "This i s for g i r l s ! " At the weaving station, the parent resource person did a good job supervising students on the big loom. She had the students each weave a section on the loom at the same time. When the next team ar- rived they either continued i n that area or began another sec- ti o n . While at the warping station, the teacher aide super- vised the most d i f f i c u l t process. The students were required to follow a diagram for warping th e i r looms on t h e i r own, u n t i l the teacher aide could give them in d i v i d u a l help. They tended to p u l l the warp threads too t i g h t so that the heavy cardboard buckled. Each student i n the teams that v i s i t e d began a card- board loom. I was asked by the classroom teacher and the teacher aide to leave the weaving materials and carving tools behind so that the students who had not completed th e i r weaving or spoons could do so during the week. This was the f i r s t time that they had suggested that I leave materials for the students to work on between classes. They said that, before the changes they had made i n the classroom, they did not think that they could tr u s t the students to use the materials i n the manner i n which they were intended. The teacher and teacher aide previously had f e l t under seige from the students. With improved behav- iour i n the classroom they f e l t a sense of r e l i e f and excite- ment about the future. I t has not been an easy t r a n s i t i o n and a few students may have to leave the classroom permanently be- fore i t i s possible for the r e s t of the students to learn without fear of harassment. Most of the boys were more i n t e r - ested i n weaving than carving, although several of the g i r l s had the capacity to transfer t h e i r good eye and hand coordina- tion from weaving to carving small objects. The voting was l e f t to the following lesson since not a l l of the students had time to complete work at a l l of the sta- tions. The students would work on t h e i r projects during the week. The f i l m during the l a s t f i f t e e n minutes of the class brought the students together and served as an introduction to masks, the theme of the following lesson. The students were attentive during the short f i l m , which was an ideal end-to a f u l l lesson. 225. Plate 22. Tsonokwa masks.  227. Lesson 10. Mask Making Obj ectives/Aims To introduce mask making and to show how i t was an essen- t i a l aspect of the Winter Ceremonials of Kwakiutl culture. Resources A Tsonokwa and Raven mask made by Parent Resource person. Books: Baylor, B. They Put On Masks. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1974; Hawthorn, A. Kwakiutl Art. Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre, 196 7; Machon, M. Masks of the Northwest Coast. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1966; Malin, E. A World of Faces. Portland: Timber Press, 1978; Mason, P. Indian Tales of the Northwest. V i c t o r i a : CommCept, 19 76. Materials For each st a t i o n : clay, vaseline, a bowl, a k e t t l e , a fork, and 20 boards. Brown paper bags to provide four layers, for each mask, of thick, coloured, medium and thin paper. Spindle whorl. Method/Organization of the Classroom I introduced the lesson during the f i r s t h a l f hour of the clas s , by reading aloud to the class from They Put On Masks. The story i s about mask making i n North American Indian cultures and features the Kwakiutl Hamatsa on the cover, and contains information on Kwakiutl masks. 228. I showed a Tsonokwa mask I had made while I gave back- ground information to the students. "Tsonokwa had a two-sided nature. At times she was f e a r f u l and awesome, and at other times r i d i c u l o u s and stupid" (Malin, 1978, p. 66). "She was a much loved and respected, a supernatural being represented i n the crests of many t r i b e s , depicted on cedar columns, i n pot- latch houses, and i n graveyards" (Malin, 1978, p. 66). "Tson- okwa 's incredible powers, her appetite, her feeding, her feast- ing, the feasting of the people was representative of a society such as the Kwakiutl whose orientation was to food, the giving of g i f t s , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth" (Malin, 1978, p. 67). Tsonokwa, Giantess of the Woods, was covered from head to toe with a heavy coat of hair so Tsonokwa dancers wore bear s u i t s . She had large breasts and carried a burden basket on her back to put young victims i n to eat when she was hungry. On her head she wore a mask which had sleepy, h a l f shut eyes, sunken cheeks, and protruding l i p s . Hair or fur i s on the head and eyebrows. " A l l Tsonokwas are sleepy dancers and do not keep time to the music, being alternately sleepy and wakeful" (Boas, 1966, p. 182). The two-sided nature of Tsonokwa was described on a news- pr i n t chart i n the form of review of the information that the students had just learned. From descriptions given by the stud- ents, we drew Tsonokwa on newsprint. The modeling of the Tsonokwa mask was demonstrated and a sample mould displayed for the students to refer to. Team Work: Each station leader gave clay and a board to 229. each student i n the team at her station. (1:10-3:00 p.m.) 1. B.B. Lions 2. Parent resource Falcons 3. Classroom teacher Thunderbirds 4. Teacher aide Eagles Stations 1, 2, 3, and 4. Each station worked on the same project during the whole cla s s , making a clay base for a Tson- okwa mask. Evaluation The students l i s t e n e d with i n t e r e s t to the presentation about masks i n general, and the Kwakiutl Tsonokwa mask i n par- t i c u l a r . They responded well to questions I asked them about vocabulary i n the book, They Put On Masks. The story i s about Indian masks i n North America and contains a section on North- west Coast Kwakiutl masks. The students' i n t e r e s t began to wane after f i f t e e n minutes into the book, when I noticed some of the students not looking at the i l l u s t r a t i o n s . One student pointed out that the a l l o t t e d time for the introduction had gone by and I r e a l i z e d that they were eager to begin making t h e i r masks. I finished the book by showing them the i l l u s t r a t i o n s and simply t e l l i n g them the names of the southwest Indian people who made some of the i l l u s t r a t e d masks. The same student showed me a picture of southwest Indian Kachina d o l l s which were i l l u s t r a t e d i n another book, a week l a t e r . I thought he had not been l i s t e n - ing and had simply been waiting for a pause i n the story so the class could begin t h e i r own masks. He not only had lis t e n e d , but he remembered the name of the d o l l . 230. During the mask making, when a l l of the students were doing the same work, i t was not necessary to change stations every twenty minutes. I t was less disruptive to leave each team with an adult supervisor for the whole period. When each station i s doing a d i f f e r e n t project or the expertise of a station leader i s important to share, then i t i s necessary to change. Other- wise, i t i s a good idea to keep teams i n one place. The students 1 i n t e r e s t i n making the i r own masks was stim- ulated by seeing a completed Tsonokwa mask, a p a r t i a l l y com- pleted raven mask, and the clay mould used to produce the Tson- okwa mask. The raven mask was painted and completed for the following lesson. The students found the mould, the Tsonokwa mask, and the chart useful for reference during the lesson, while they were making t h e i r own masks. During the lesson, I had l i s t e d q u a l i t i e s of Tsonokwa, drawn her, and dramatized her actions; a l l of thi s stimulated the in t e r e s t of the students. The class was a success because before i t was over a l l of the students made a mould for t h e i r Tsonokwa masks during the class and most of them completed at least one layer of papier- mache on th e i r masks, completing the other three layers on the following day. The students worked cooperatively and with d i l i - gence and energy. The structure of the class added to the l i k e l i h o o d of suc- cess. There was an adult available for each team of students to give help and encouragement to those who often f e l t f r u s t r a - ted. The teacher aide worked with one student from another team who had given up. She had a helper at her station, a Native Indian high school student, who worked on her own mask at the 2.31. station. One student temporarily joined another team to help a friend cover her mask with papier-mache. The parent-helper was the only adult who worked on her own mask while supervising her team. This proved p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e ; I noticed the students examining her e f f o r t s with i n t e r e s t . The parent re- source person was also e f f e c t i v e i n quieting her team which contained several r e s t l e s s , noisy students. She said, "Cut i t out!" when some of them began playing and giggling. They quickly subsided. She i s related to several students i n the class. The structure worked well because students who became d i s - couraged could be helped immediately, before they l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the task at hand, and those with short attention spans could be assisted and encouraged to remain at the task. Students who disrupted other students by th e i r actions could be spoken to p r i v a t e l y , or i s o l a t e d before other students became involved with them. They can work more cooperatively i n small groups i f they are supervised by an adult while they help one another. I suggested that two students watch another student, who i s exper- ienced with working with clay, work on his mask. This format enabled us to help students to make the t r a n s i t i o n from one stage to another. I have noticed that they often stop work af- ter success at one stage because they are a f r a i d that they w i l l make a mistake or "ruin i t " during the next stage. One student was reluctant to papier-mache her mask afte r doing a good job on the clay base. The t r a n s i t i o n stage looms as a b a r r i e r for many students. The teacher aide t o l d me that on the next day a l l of the students finished the next three layers of papier-mache on th e i r masks. Spelling words taken from the vocabulary of weaving, carving, and mask making were l e f t with the classroom teacher. Plate 24. Cutting into the paddle design of the soapberry spoon. Plate 25. Carving the soapberry spoon. 234. Lesson 11. Mask Making, Weaving, and Carving Objectives To complete stage 2 i n mask making. To complete the process of weaving-spinning, dyeing, and weaving. To complete the carving section. Resources Books: Kwakiutl Art (Hawthorn); Masks of the Northwest Coast (Machon); A World of Faces (Malin); Indian Tales of the Northwest (Mason); previously l i s t e d for Lesson 10. Dye Plants and Dyeing - A Handbook (Vol. 20, No. 3). Baltimore: Brooklyn Botanic Gardens, 1964. Carved ta l k i n g s t i c k , Tsonokwa, Raven masks, woven hat, medium Salis h loom. Parent resource people: two parents participated. Materials Bondfast, brushes, spinning whorl, spun wool, dyed wool, carded wool, large loom, medium loom, i n d i v i d u a l cardboard looms, onion skins, h o r s e t a i l s , enamel basins, wooden spoon, k e t t l e , carving tools, alum, yellow cedar soapberry spoons. Method/Organization of Classroom During the f i r s t half hour the same format for review was used as i n the previous lessons. Each team chose a represent- ative (different for each review). I asked o r a l questions on 2 35. previous lessons, and drew pictures on the blackboard which they i d e n t i f i e d aloud. Review: 1. "What i s the resi n c a l l e d that i s i n red cedar?" (phenol). 2. "Where did the spoon that we made get i t s name?" (soap- berries) . 3. "Name a Kwakiutl c h i e f " (Mungo Martin). 4. "What did you learn that beaver's teeth were used for?" (carving). 5. "What i s the word Chilkat associated with?" (blanket). 6. "Name the supernatural s p i r i t that i s the symbol for feasting" (Tsonokwa). 7. "Name something made from cedar withe" (sinker, hafted maul). 8. "We said a prayer to two important s p i r i t s i n the l i v e s of Kwakiutl people. What were they?" (Salmon, Cedar). 9. "The oldest known a r t i f a c t , 3,000 B.C., i s " (beaver teeth). 10. "Name f i v e plants found i n the forest i n winter" (fern, blackberry, oregon grape, moss, l i c h e n ) . 11. "Name sea l i f e found at the beach i n winter" (kelp, seaweed, oyster, clam, mussel, crab). 12. "What are these?". (Drawn on blackboard by B.B.) herring rake gaff l i n e southern halibut hook 13. "The oldest a r t i f a c t s were made out of six natural materials. They are?" (wood, bone, horn, stone, antler, teeth, s h e l l ) . 14. "Name the four parts of the cedar tree that was used" (wood, roots, bark, withes). I read the Tsonokwa myth and drew the supernatural s p i r i t on the blackboard with suggestions from the students. Team Work: Students worked i n s i x areas: carving, spin- ning, weaving on small and large looms, dyeing, and gluing masks (1:40-2:00 p.m.) 1. B.B. Thunderbirds (2:00-2:40 p.m.) 2. Classroom teacher Eagles (2:20-2:40 p.m.) 3. Parent resource Falcons (2:40-3:00 p.m.) 4. Parent resource Lions Station 1. Completing soapberry spoons. Carving or painting designs. Spinning. Station 2. Weaving on small loom. Weaving on large loom. Station 3. Gluing papier-mache mask inside and out. Station 4. Spinning, washing, dyeing wool. Washed, spun wool placed i n alum mordant (makes wool receptive to dye), then wool placed in dye bath of h o r s e t a i l s . 237. Team P o i n t s : For v o t i n g , each team was asked to choose t h e i r best samples f o r each of the s i x c a t e g o r i e s ( c a r v i n g , s p i n n i n g , weaving on the l a r g e loom and on the s m a l l S a l i s h loom, dyeing glued mask. F i v e p o i n t s were allowed f o r each sam- p l e , w i t h a t o t a l of t h i r t y p o i n t s . Team t o t a l s were added up a t the end of the l e s s o n and the most improved team was to go to McDonald's. The most improved approach was used because one team was s t r o n g and there was a r i s k t h a t they would keep winning. The second most cohesive team won once and I thought t h a t the two teams t h a t hadn't won c o u l d be encouraged by the most improved i d e a . They d i d not seem to t h i n k t h a t i t would make any d i f f e r e n c e . E v a l u a t i o n The review method was s u c c e s s f u l a g a i n : each team chose a new r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The students found the format fun and l i s - tened to the q u e s t i o n s and watched the drawings t h a t they were to i d e n t i f y w i t h i n t e r e s t . No one c o u l d i d e n t i f y the g a f f l i n e or h a l i b u t hook. The teams were ab l e to answer t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the remainder of the t h i r t e e n q u e s t i o n s . The students l i s t e n e d c a r e f u l l y as I read them the Tsonokwa myth. Based on the myth, I drew Tsonokwa on the b l a c k b o a r d . I t was an e f f e c t i v e review because the students were r e q u i r e d to use d i f f e r e n t types o f c l u e s to give the c o r r e c t answer. They had to l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to q u e s t i o n s and to the myth. They had to look f o r v i s u a l c l u e s i n the p i c t u r e s , and they were encour- aged to t h i n k of Tsonokwa i n terms of the d r a m a t i z a t i o n which 238. they saw the previous lesson. Associations between information and how i t was learned were given during the questioning. For example, when remembering what plants grew i n the forest i n winter, I t o l d them to imagine that they were back i n the fo r - est, and the students remembered a few more plants. The objective of the spinning and carving station was suc- cess f u l for three out of four teams. The objective of the carving was more d i f f i c u l t to monitor as some of the students had finished t h e i r spoons during previous lessons and had taken them home, some spoons had been " l o s t , " some had been broken, and some were s t i l l being carved. At the end of the lesson each team had to choose the spoon that best met the c r i t e r i a decided on for soapberry spoons. It was an i n t e r e s t i n g process since some of the team members found i t d i f f i c u l t to make a decision between spoons. A Native Indian high school student present i n the classroom was appointed to alloc a t e the points for the spoons, which seemed to s a t i s f y a l l of the students. The weav- ing station had some success because some of the students l i k e d to weave and continued on t h e i r weaving. Some of the boys did the minimum weaving on t h e i r small looms. Each team chose a sample of weaving from the small looms but few of the students worked on the large loom i n the time a v a i l a b l e . The students worked hard gluing masks at the gluing station and dyed a l l available wool at the dyeing station. By the end of the period, a l l of the students had applied glue both inside and outside the i r masks. The h o r s e t a i l dyebath was used by two of the teams. One team spun th e i r wool but could not dye i t u n t i l i t had been washed. Another team did not spin t h e i r wool e a r l i e r , so they 239. could not dye i t u n t i l i t had been washed. The fourth team did not spin t h e i r wool at a l l . The h o r s e t a i l dyebath, a t r a d i t i o n a l dye used by Native Indian weavers, gave the wool a l i g h t grey- i s h green colour. The students enjoyed change, but within a framework. They could r e l a t e to work they did as part of a team evaluation only afte r several experiences with the process. The team that won the team competition was a team i n which four out of f i v e stud- ents had behaviour problems i n the classroom. When the i r team won they could not believe i t . Their team did well during the o r a l review questions and, when i t appeared as i f they had a good chance of winning, I saw team members paying more attention to i n s t r u c t i o n s . They asked me about the next steps and seemed more concerned with the outcome than ever before. For some of them t h e i r pattern of behaviour was to pay no attention to what did not seem important. When t h e i r team earned some points i t began to look as i f some e f f o r t would pay o f f . What was re- quired was getting them involved i n doing something that they could do, and they didn't mind doing. What was not said to them had a new importance since i t related to t h e i r decision that they each p r i v a t e l y (I suspect) made with themselves. There was not a great r i s k of no pay-off for the e f f o r t , since they had already achieved a higher score than teams that might have got- ten even higher scores, and i t was worth i t since they l i k e d going out together to McDonald's. They knew that the work could be done and they did not have negative feelings about doing i t . During the t r i p to McDonald's, i t was i n t e r e s t i n g to see the students out of the classroom. The two g i r l s i n the team 240. were noisy and seemed to be lacking s e l f c o n t r o l . They brought attention to themselves i n the restaurant by speaking and laughing loudly. They egged each other on and seemed to be competing with each other for being the most outrageous. After eating, I drove each student home and I had the opportunity to meet the mother of two of the boys, who seemed happy about t h i s . I met the younger brother of another student that we picked up from daycare. The next day was the l a s t day of school before Easter, so o. I brought chocolate Easter eggs to school for an Easter egg hunt. The older students from grades 8, 9, and 10 had to be restrained from hunting for eggs. I took three students for lunch aft e r c l a s s . One of the students from the team t r i p the day before (she decided not to come that day), and two stud- ents from the fourth team that hadn't won at a l l . They were the only students from the team present that day, and they were the two that had worked hard despite two uncooperative team- mates. We a l l enjoyed the lunch and when I dropped them o f f at home, I f e l t glad that I had had a chance to see these three undemanding members of the class who never complained or brought attention to themselves. When I thought back on the lunches with the teams of stud- ents, I re a l i z e d that they had just begun to see me as a person who was not simply the "art teacher." In the car, one student started each sentence with my name to keep my attention. The students t o l d me the places that they had l i v e d i n the c i t y by pointing them out as we drove past. I re a l i z e d what an adven- ture l i f e i n the c i t y was for them. They wanted me to l i s t e n to what they thought about th e i r world and about the important people i n i t . The teams were working more e f f e c t i v e l y . There was less horse-play and more concentrated work. Some of the students have p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s i n areas which I plan to encourage them to pursue i n the future. For example, two of the boys were very interested i n ar t , so I w i l l take them down to Emily Carr School of Art to see what an art school i s l i k e , and the kind of things that you learn there. Another student i s interested i n becoming a veterinarian. I know a veterinarian that she can v i s i t and perhaps spend some time watching. 242. Plate 26. Tsonokwa masks. 243. Lesson 12. Mask Making (3) Objectives To complete stage 3: painting the base coat on the mask. Gluing the hair or wool to the mask, gluing the cardboard and e l a s t i c , and painting the decorative motif. Resources Xeroxed pictures of Tsonokwa masks. Materials A c r y l i c paint, brushes, glue, e l a s t i c , cardboard, sand- paper, sc i s s o r s , hair, wool. Method/Organization of the Classroom During the f i r s t h a l f hour review with the cl a s s , I used the format of the two previous lessons. Each team chose a representative, and I asked o r a l questions related to concepts and vocabulary studied during the two previous lessons. As be- fore, I drew objects which the students were asked to i d e n t i f y . This time, I added pantomime; the students were asked to iden- t i f y what task was being performed. Review; 1. "Tsonokwa i s the supernatural s p i r i t symbol of ?" (eating/feasting). 2. "What does th i s mean—carding into bats?" (straighten- ing out f i b r e s before spinning). 244. 3. "What time of the year did Kwakiutl people wear Tson- okwa masks?" 4. "What gives red cedar i t s certain smell?" (resin phenol). 5. "Name a Kwakiutl carver related to Mungo Martin" (Tony Hunt). 6. "What did Indian people use to make planks of wood?" (wedge, maul). 7. "What was dog hair used for?" (weaving). 8. "What are these?" using a herring rake spearing a f i s h with a l e i s t e r warping a loom using a b a i l e r 10. Quiz: "What are these words associated with?" ( f i s h - ing, weaving, carving, tools, transportation). 245. gaff l i n e dogfish skin l e i s t e r mountain goat wool warping purse seine withe b a i l e r shuttle/needle beaver teeth hafted maul dog hair The Falcons achieved the most points; each member received a Razzle Dazzle s t i c k e r . Demonstration: Students looked at two masks. One, the Tsonokwa, was finished and painted. The other, the Raven, was unpainted. The f i r s t was shown where the eye hole was decided upon and cut out. The mouth may or may not be cut out. Next, the mask was sanded and rough edges cut o f f . The prepared de- sign was traced onto the mask so that the colour scheme was apparent. Team Work: Students worked on masks at the same station for the whole period. (1:40-3:00 p.m.) 1. B.B. Eagles 2. Classroom teacher Falcons 3. Teacher aide Thunderbirds 4. Parent resource Lions Stations 1, 2, 3, 4. A l l masks were prepared for painting. Eyes and mouth indicated i f desired. Rough edges cut, mask sanded. Design prepared from worksheet of Tsonokwa masks, p i c - tures of Tsonokwa masks. Design copied onto mask i n p e n c i l . Light colour painted on i n a c r y l i c paint (the only paint that sticks to Bondfast covering on mask). 2 4 6 . Team P o i n t s : During the l a s t ten minutes the masks were d i s p l a y e d and d i s c u s s e d . "Which mask would you l i k e to have? Which mask i s f i n i s h e d ? What do you t h i n k about the masks? When a l l of the masks have been completed we w i l l look a t the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the d e s i g n , and c o l o u r . We w i l l d i s c u s s how s u c c e s s f u l the masks were i n c a p t u r i n g the f e e l i n g of Tsonokwa, a s u p e r n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e . " E v a l u a t i o n The f o u r s t a t i o n s 1 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s a t s i d e by s i d e f o r the review as u s u a l . I t was the f i r s t c l a s s a f t e r the two week Ea s t e r v a c a t i o n . The students seemed to have f o r g o t t e n much t h a t we had s t u d i e d i n the programme i n g e n e r a l , masks i n par- t i c u l a r . They co u l d not answer the f i r s t f our q u e s t i o n s and, while they found i d e n t i f y i n g drawings the most i n t e r e s t i n g and e a s i e s t task, they found the pantomime very d i f f i c u l t . The Falco n s achieved the most p o i n t s , and each member r e c e i v e d a Razzle Dazzle s t i c k e r . They were d e l i g h t e d s i n c e the r e s t of the c l a s s l i k e d them too. A f t e r a demonstration of p a i n t i n g masks, the students moved s l u g g i s h l y to the s t a t i o n s . One student worked a t completing a c a r e f u l l y executed drawing of the de s i g n t h a t he planned to use f o r h i s mask. An- other student, who i s a l s o t a l e n t e d i n a r t , s a t next to him but had to be guided from one stage ( p a i n t i n g l a r g e areas) to doing s m a l l , d e t a i l e d s e c t i o n s . Another student i n the team had mis- sed the two p r e v i o u s l e s s o n s , and was u n w i l l i n g to s e t t l e down to do a drawing of a mask. The f o u r t h member of the group had 247. her five-year-old foster s i s t e r with her and, although she watched the other two team members working, she worked only sporadically and without concentration. The Thunderbirds, which had worked together i n the past, have gradually come apart. One member i n s i s t e d on s i t t i n g apart, at another table, to do his work. Another member de- cided that he didn't l i k e his mask, and rejected i t . After the classroom teacher took him out for a discussion, he returned and began a drawing for his mask. A g i r l on the team hadn't completed her papier-mache and kept wandering aimlessly around the room. She drew several fine drawings on the blackboard and on paper. The other member of the team who i n the past has usu- a l l y quit i n f r u s t r a t i o n , worked, with help. The Falcon team representative for the review worked the hardest i n the class and completed his mask during the period. Since he had been instrumental i n his team winning the most points during the re- view, he believed that he would be successful again. Of the f i v e members of the team, only one was not serious about the art project. At the end of the period, a l l of the students brought th e i r masks to the table. The res u l t s of the afternoon were as f o l - lows: One mask was completed and seven masks were p a r t i a l l y completed. Two students did detailed, painted drawings of the i r mask design. The two students who had been absent during the two previous lessons did not want to make designs for th e i r non- existent masks. One student began a drawing for her mask, but seemed more interested i n watching the two a r t i s t s i n the team 248. draw t h e i r masks. Two students i n the class did not s e t t l e down to work on t h e i r masks. One said that he didn't l i k e his mask ( i t had a long chin), and the other student had not com- pleted her mask with papier-mache. These two students have as much need of encouragement as the other, more demanding stud- ents. There i s a tendency not to notice them because, when they are i n d i f f i c u l t y , they withdraw q u i e t l y . One of them i s a boy who has a brother i n the class who i s a talented a r t i s t . I think he feels frustrated with his own e f f o r t s . The other, a g i r l , f e e l s at home with two-dimensional work: weaving, beading, etc., but she needs a l o t of encouragement and a s s i s t - ance to venture into anything new i n a r t . While she was wander- ing around the room she drew a f i n e , d etailed drawing that she had copied from a picture I had placed at her table. She drew i t again on a drawing board. Ten out of f i f t e e n students co- operated by working on the art project. Five out of the f i f - teen t o t a l class did not work on the art project. Two of the f i v e had frequent absences. Two need one-to-one counselling about work, what i s bothering them (one of them recently moved). One watched and talked to other members of the team, to the detriment of her own work. The lesson was successful for two-thirds of the c l a s s . I had thought that the students would be excited about painting t h e i r masks. Painting was an unfamiliar media since th e i r two dimensional art work has to date involved the use of f e l t pens. Also: 1. It has been two weeks since the l a s t c l a s s , and thus two weeks since they had worked on th e i r masks. 249. 2. It had been two weeks since they had seen me, and they had to adjust to me a l l over again. 3. They had never done t h i s project before. Each new step f i l l s them with f r u s t r a t i o n and uncertainty. 4. Sustaining i n t e r e s t i s more d i f f i c u l t when projects carry on for several lessons. The objectives of the lesson were generally, but not com- pl e t e l y met. The following words have been included i n the weekly s p e l l - ing l i s t : 1. l e i s t e r 2. purse seine 3. Tony Hunt 4. gauntlet 5. land otter 6 . headdress 7. button blanket 8. alum 9. supernatural s p i r i t 10. alternately 11. sluggishly 12. Razzle Dazzle 13. gluing The classroom teacher said that the students had no trouble learning the s p e l l i n g words. Students who had trouble with s p e l l i n g i n the past, showed improvement with words they learned about i n a r t .  251. Plate 28. A team made an Indian v i l l a g e i n the sand. 252. Plate 29. F i e l d t r i p to the woods, meeting a rabbit. 253. Lesson 13. The Environment i n Spring - F i e l d Trip Objectives To return to the beach and forest i n Spring. To i d e n t i f y and locate four categories of a r t i f a c t s seen in the classroom during the art programme. Resources Parent resource person. Book: Machon, M. Masks of the Northwest Coast. Milwau- kee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1966. Materials P l a s t i c bag for each team member, to c o l l e c t plants and sea l i f e . Clam chowder soup, pot, la d l e , stove, cups, spoons, soup bowls, finger f o o d s — s l i c e d meat, bannock, f r u i t , j u i c e . Prizes: 16 prizes for the forest plants, 16 prizes for the sea l i f e from the beach, and 16 prizes for the museum questions. The prizes were peanuts, oranges, candy whistles, wagon wheels, and balloons. Charts: B.B. prepared two posters with c o l l e c t e d examples of sea and forest l i f e i n Spring. Method/Organization Timetable: (9:00-9:30 a.m.) Drive to Spanish Banks Doggy Park. (9:30-10:45 a.m.) The Forest 254. (10:45-11:30 a.m.) The Beach (11:30-12:30 p.m.) Lunch (12:30-1:30 p.m.) The Museum The teams were a l l o t t e d the following adult supervisors: Thunderbirds - Classroom teacher Falcons - Teacher aide Lions - Parent resource person Eagles - B.B. Before we l e f t the school, I gave the students an overview of the f i e l d t r i p . The four adult supervisors t r a v e l l e d from the school to the Doggy Park i n three cars. Upon a r r i v a l at the Park, the students were shown the "Forest i n Spring" chart which contained samples of the plants which they would gather i n the forest. The teacher aide gave out a p l a s t i c bag to each student and I led a l l of the students to the cherry tree. There each student took a small sample of the bark and continued on with t h e i r leader to gather four more samples of plants that Indian people used t r a d i t i o n a l l y . After 30 minutes the team leaders checked the plants, and the teams where a l l members had comple- ted t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n , received a p r i z e . The team leaders had a l i s t of the following plants: 1. Fiddleheads (eaten as a vegetable) 2. Clover (roots eaten as a vegetable) 3. Huckleberry ( f r u i t ) 4. Redcap blossom (f r u i t ) 5. Sal a l ( f r u i t ) 6. Cherry bark (used i n basket making for contrast i n the pattern) 255. The Beach i n Spring. The students were shown a picture of a Kwakiutl v i l l a g e i n spring. Each team was told to draw a v i l - lage i n the sand i l l u s t r a t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of the people i n the spring. The judge was the parent resource person and the winning team earned a p r i z e . Students were told to use the p l a s t i c bags used for the forest c o l l e c t i o n to c o l l e c t sea l i f e . The "Beach i n Spring" chart was shown to them for reference. The teams were to c o l l e c t samples of 5 types of sea l i f e i l l u s - trated on the chart. A prize was to be given for the team where each member completed the c o l l e c t i o n . I t had not changed from winter: kelp, seaweed, clam, oyster, mussel. Lunch. Students had clam chowder soup, bannock, meat, juice, and f r u i t before departure to the Museum. U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology. Students were driven to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology and a l l teams gathered i n the lobby. Each team received instructions from the team leader p r i o r to entry into the Museum. Each team leader had a l i s t of questions for her team to answer. After admission, students gathered i n the exhibition, S e n s i b i l i t i e s : Unsuspected M u l t i c u l - t u r a l Harmonies, where objects spanning twenty-five centuries were brought together to examine the aesthetic t i e s l i n k i n g arts and c r a f t s throughout the ages. One team remained i n the ex- h i b i t to answer questions and the other three teams proceeded to the Kwakiutl mask, wood, and f i s h i n g a r t i f a c t s i n V i s i b l e Storage. Museum Assignment: " S e n s i b i l i t i e s Questions" (Lions) 1. Find the Northwest Coast object #A 6059 (bowl) 2. Find the Bel l a B e l l a object #A 6273 (frontlet) 256 . 3. Find the Northwest Coast object # 80416 (box) 4. Find the object by a r t i s t Robert Davidson (Haida), 1979 (spoon) 5. Find the art by Joe David, 1977 (Nuu- chah-nulth) (silkscreen) 6. Find the art by Pat McGuire, 1969 (Haida) (dish) Organization of a r t i f a c t s : The Museum of Anthropology at U.B.C. has a v i s i b l e storage system organized i n two ways. There are two in t e r s e c t i n g grids. One i s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the a r t i f a c t s by functional categories (#1-14). Masks are #2. The alphabetical l e t t e r b i s for Northwest Coast. Therefore, a Northwest Coast mask would be 2 b. There i s also a catalogue number. For example, A 618 5 i s a Tsonokwa mask from Kingcome Inl e t . Information for Kwakiutl objects are contained i n Data Books. Data Book 48 b has records for case(s) 7-9, 15, 6bc, and for drawer units 48 49 Data Book 50 a has records for case(s) 10-14 24 35 Data Book 50 b has records for case(s) 10-14 34 35 and for drawer units 50. Information for Kwakiutl material culture i s contained i n cases with the following categories: 6 b = instruments, representations, containers, masks, furnish- ings 6 c = dress and adornment, representations, instruments and ut e n s i l s , masks, containers, music, furnishings 7 = music 8* = representations 257. 9 10 11 12 13 14 34* 35* instruments and uten s i l s dress and ornaments masks, dress and ornaments masks, representations masks masks masks, models masks, media of exchange * = cases examined i n the course of answering questions. It i s in t e r e s t i n g to note the great number of masks as compared to the other objects i n the c o l l e c t i o n which are not as well represented. "Wood Questions" (Falcons) 1. #A 6077. What i s this tool? 2. #A 2248. What i s t h i s tool? Unit 49 ("elbow" adze) Unit 49 ("D" adze) 3. #A 1567. What i s this? 4. #A 8710. What i s thi s tool? 5. #A 6480. What i s t h i s tool? "Fishing Questions" (Eagles) 1. #A 401. It i s a miniature Unit 4 9 (soapberry spoon) Case 8 ("elbow" adze) Case 8 (wedge) Case 34 (dugout canoe) 2. #A 1661. It i s used to make Unit 48 (needle) a net. 3. #A 4348. It i s used to catch Unit 48 (spear) f i s h . 4. #A 1099. It i s used for f i s h - Unit 48 (sinker) ing nets. 258. 5. #A 1481. It i s used to k i l l Unit 48 f i s h . "Tsonokwa Masks Questions" (Thunderbirds) 1. How many Tsonokwa masks are i n case 35? 2. #A 6185. Where did t h i s mask come from? (See data book) 3. #A 40 34. What 3 colours are used on th i s mask? 4. #A 6271. What colour are the eyes on the mask? 5. #A 6271. Who made thi s mask? 6. #A 6271. Who did the mask belong to? (club) (17) (Kingcome Inlet) (black, red, green) (yellow) (Will i e Seaweed) (Chief Humchitt) Evaluation The return to the forest was successful: each of the students c o l l e c t e d f i v e plants and i d e n t i f i e d them to his team leader. I had to help one student who was reluctant to par- t i c i p a t e and seemed preoccupied throughout the f i e l d t r i p . The culmination of the v i s i t to the forest was the discovery of a rabbit by a student who had problems working i n the classroom. While the rest of the class watched, he stroked the rabbit on the back, as another student fed the rabbit a piece of carrot. The students had th e i r plant c o l l e c t i o n checked by t h e i r team supervisors and each student received a p r i z e . There was more cooperation from the students than during the previous f i e l d t r i p . The students returned to the cars and were driven to the beach at Spanish Banks. 259. The v i s i t to the beach resulted i n the student who had discovered the rabbit, finding a garter snake i n the sea and a few minutes l a t e r finding a face carved into a rock. I t was a day of achievement for him and, judging by his expression and behaviour, he seemed at peace with himself. The students were shown a picture of a Kwakiutl v i l l a g e in spring and then each team worked on th e i r v i l l a g e . The v i l - lages were more elaborate and creative than the v i l l a g e s made in the winter. The teacher aide and parent resource person worked alongside t h e i r respective teams; the classroom teacher and I worked i n d i r e c t l y with our teams by asking questions and making suggestions. More of the students worked cooperatively with th e i r teams than during the previous v i s i t . Last time six students worked alone, while this time only two students worked on i n d i v i d u a l v i l l a g e s . Several of the students b u i l t houses from sand, adding cedar chips, branches of trees, sea- weed, s h e l l s , netting, and driftwood. They borrowed ideas from each other. Since most of the students had co l l e c t e d sea l i f e from the beach for th e i r v i l l a g e s , and i t was time for lunch, I decided to omit the c o l l e c t i n g of sea l i f e on the beach. The types of plants on the beach had not changed since the winter. During lunch clean-up, some of the students went of f to explore caves and to watch two neighbouring smelt fishermen with th e i r catch. Several of the students brought home stones, glass, and i n t e r e s t i n g or unusual objects that they had found. One stud- ent showed me a small piece of shale that had been worn by the sea into a sculpture-like object. Lunch together on the beach 260. was something that they had not done before; they enjoyed the experience. During the t r i p to the Museum, i t was d i f f i c u l t to sustain the i n t e r e s t of the students. The four teams had to be c o l - lapsed into three teams since the classroom teacher unexpectedly had to leave with a student. The three teams had d i f f e r e n t assignments i n the Kwakiutl section of the Museum. Using the museum a r t i f a c t index proved d i f f i c u l t for the students since only one or two at a time could use the books. The teams (Thunderbirds and Eagles) joined i n the " S e n s i b i l i t i e s " display;" there they answered questions without d i f f i c u l t y . The questions were easier for them to answer than the questions regarding the cases i n the Kwakiutl area of the Museum, because limited num- bers of objects were on display i n large cases, with clear i d e n t i f i c a t i o n below each one. Each object was d i s t i n c t i v e and, information was easy to read. The students had freedom of move- ment but were confined within a s p e c i f i c area, which made i t easier for the adult i n charge to keep an eye on them. The Falcons were able to match the numbers of f i v e tools used on wood, with the actual objects i n the cases and drawers. While the Thunderbirds found the case which held the Tsonokwa masks, they found obtaining s p e c i f i c information too f r u s t r a t i n g so they went onto the " S e n s i b i l i t i e s " display; there they answered questions without d i f f i c u l t y . The teacher aide said that the students found i n t e r e s t i n g the experience of looking at pieces of a r t , and matching the object with i t s number. She also asked me i f we would be returning to the Museum i n the future so that the students could answer questions on th e i r own about what they 261. saw i n the Museum. Two students asked me i f I would be teach- ing the programme next year; they said that the afternoon was "fun." The parent resource person said that my art programme had been "good for the school." I f e l t s a t i s f i e d that some of my goals had been achieved: the students were enjoying the ap- proaches to learning that I had introduced, and the parent rec- ognized what I had achieved with the programme. The teacher aide responded i n a way that indicated that some of the things I had begun could be continued i n the future with the cla s s . At the end, on the grass outside the Museum, a l l of the students received a prize for completing the Museum assignment. They l e f t , looking forward to the following week when the i r masks would be completed. Two of the students t o l d me with pride that a r t work made by th e i r r e l a t i v e s was for sale at the Museum. The objective of the lesson regarding the Museum had to be adjusted to allow for the one team leader being absent, and for the d i f f i c u l t y that one team had with using the index system. 262, Lesson 14. Masks and Pri n t Making Objectives To complete the Tsonokwa masks. To introduce p r i n t making: making a s i l k screen. Resources U.B.C. Art Education Professor Graeme Chalmers Book: Kirk, R. David, Young Chief of the Quileutes. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1967. Charts: Vocabulary from David, Young Chief of the Quileutes. Making a s i l k screen. Gluing e l a s t i c to mask. Mask c r i t e r i a . Making a paper s t e n c i l . S i l k screen samples, mounted s i l k screen samples of one design repeated. Materials Cardboard, e l a s t i c , paint brushes, s i l k , p l a s t i c tape, s i l k screen prepared paint, wool, Bondfast, p l a s t i c trays, newsprint. Method/Organization of Classroom 9:00-9:10 a.m. Opening classroom exercises. (Classroom teacher) 9:10-9:30 a.m. Introduction, demonstration. Gluing e l a s t i c to masks. "I received the l e t t e r s you sent me when I was i l l l a s t week. I f e l t happy that you'd l i k e d many of the things that we did i n the art programme. I found i t i n t e r e s t i n g to read about some of the things you'd mentioned. Thank you for thinking 263. about me." "Today we have a guest who i s a friend of mine from U.B.C., and.he w i l l look aft e r the s i l k screening st a t i o n . . "Last week we went back to the forest, the beach, and the Museum of Anthropology at U.B.C. What did we see i n the forest i n spring that we didn't see i n winter? (salmonberry, redcap blossoms, a r a b b i t ) . What did we see on the beach i n spring that we didn't see i n winter? (smelt fishermen, garter snake). Why do you suppose I chose clam chowder, meat, and bannock for the lunch menu? (clams and meat were t r a d i t i o n a l l y eaten, bannock i s contemporary Indian bread). What did you see at the Museum that we had talked about? (Tsonokwa mask, soapberry spoon, woven mats, wedge, stone maul, "elbow" adze, "D" adze, bentwood box, jewellery, club). "We are nearing the end of our programme. There are two more lessons a f t e r today! We'll f i n i s h o f f our masks today, make a s i l k screen, and do some silkscreening and p r i n t making next lesson. I would l i k e suggestions for the f i n a l class from you. During the week, write your ideas on th i s sheet for Lesson 16, May 12. "Today we are going to complete our masks." Team Work: Students worked i n 3 areas - f i n i s h i n g masks, painting them, and making a si l k s c r e e n . ( 9:30-10:00 a.m.) 1. B.B. Lions (10:00-10:30 a.m.) 2. Teacher aide Falcons (10:30-11:00 a.m.) 3. Classroom teacher Eagles (11:00-11:30 a.m.) 4. U.B.C. Art professor Thunderbirds Station 1. Gluing masks. Measure the distance from one side of 264. the mask to the other. Then cut two squares of cardboard. Glue the cardboard and e l a s t i c to each side of the mask and hold for a few minutes u n t i l i t does not come unstuck. Station 2 & 3. Painting masks; Masks are complete when: eye hole i s cut, e l a s t i c i s glued, mask i s painted smoothly a l l over, hair or wool glued on l a s t . Painting masks: 1. Using a p e n c i l , copy design from paper onto the mask. 2. Squeeze a small amount of the major colour onto p l a s t i c tray. Brush onto mask with even, smooth strokes. Use water to even out the paint. 3. When the paint i s dry on large areas, paint small decorative areas of mask. Station 4. Making s i l k screen and paper design. 1. One piece of pre-cut cardboard for each student (10" by 8"; opening 5" by 7") 2. One piece of s i l k for each screen (8" by 6") 3. Tape on to s i l k , then to cardboard. Tape two opposite sides, p u l l i n g the s i l k taut, then the two opposite sides. 4. Tape along a l l four sides of the edge of the s i l k screen on both sides. Add an extra s t r i p along the top where the paint i s placed. Paper s t e n c i l . The paper s t e n c i l can be cut from a shape that has been copied, traced, or drawn. The shape i s cut out, but nothing i s discarded; the negative shape as well as the posit i v e shape i s retained. Either or both 265. may be used as a design shape. When a l l members of a team have completed th e i r mask each member of the team earns the r i g h t to use the Indian design stamp on a piece of card (11:30-11:45) Read David, Young Chief of the Quileutes. A vocabulary prepared from the story was placed on the wall and, as the words came up i n the story, they were drawn through with yellow marking pencil by a student. Vocabulary: Hoh-ee-sha-ta Quileute (Kwil-ee-oot) "Elderberry Trees Turn White" - March " F i r s t Rains Turn the River Muddy" - f a l l smelts, clams, s t a r f i s h , sea anemones, hermit crabs Douglas f i r , spruce elk, deer, bear cormorant, sea gu l l s seals, whales kelp beds dug-out canoe elk- a n t l e r , adze cedar bark, bear grass, c a t t a i l berry juice=red alder bark=yellow sea urchin=blue F i r s t Salmon Ceremony "sand bread" 266. (11:45-12:00) Examination of the masks. "Which team's masks met the c r i t e r i a ? Which masks look the most l i k e Tson- okwa? " Evaluation The introduction and demonstration proceeded as planned. There were thirteen students present and three absent, so that the teams were smaller than previously. The wide difference between work begun and completed by in d i v i d u a l students was great. Therefore i t was d i f f i c u l t for those who had not begun painting t h e i r masks to match the e f f o r t of students who had already begun to do so during the previous lesson. A member of the Visual and Performing Arts Department of the Faculty of Education came as a guest, and thus the four stations were staffed. Station 1. Gluing e l a s t i c to the masks. The goals were not altogether achieved. At the end of the period, when the masks were mounted for display on the wall, four masks had not been e l a s t i c i z e d . Station 2.') Combining the two stations resulted i n some Station 3.) students having a double block of time to paint t h e i r masks. Most of the masks had been painted by the end of the classJ with the exception of one new student to the class and another student who painted the mask of a student no longer i n the cl a s s . Station 4. S i l k screen making. Work at t h i s ' s t a t i o n pro- ceeded more quickly than anticipated and the students made screens and went on to making paper designs to use on them. 267. They used the paper designs by screening prepared ink across the screens. Most of the students i n the class made screens and each student who did, screened one design with i t . The story of David, Young Chief of the Quileutes, was about a boy the same age as some of the boys i n the cl a s s , but i t was too long for a few students; indeed, they f i n d i t d i f f i - c u l t to s i t s t i l l at a l l for s t o r i e s . Most of the students li s t e n e d with i n t e r e s t , and a few seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y attentive. At the end of the lesson, the masks that were made were examined with regard to smoothness of design, colour scheme, and o v e r a l l appearance. The wall display i n the classroom a l - lowed them to see the importance of keeping the surface on papier-mache smooth (the students obviously l i k e d the masks which were smooth). Most of the students worked at achieving the goals of the stations. They worked with a minimum of d i s - t r a c t i n g behaviour. They developed some c r i t e r i a for judging the merits of the masks they produced. Those students who had completed a mask, or a drawing of a mask, and made a silkscreen were given permission to make a p r i n t on a piece of card, of a Northwest Coast design using a stamp that I brought from home. 26 8. Lesson 15. Print Making: Contemporary Art Objectives/Aims To introduce the use of two colours i n silkscreening. To produce a mono p r i n t . To produce a cardboard p r i n t . Resources Books: H a l l , E., Blackman, M., & Rickard, V. Northwest Coast Indian Graphics. Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre, 1981. Personal c o l l e c t i o n of books on plants, birds, insects, Indian art, Indian designs, Kwakiutl designs, colouring nature books. Samples: Samples of mono p r i n t s , silkscreen p r i n t s , and cardboard p r i n t s . Framed cardboard and silkscreen p r i n t s . Materials Rollers, inks (block p r i n t i n g , s i l k screen), papers ( r i c e , tissue, newsprint), silkscreens, large wooden spoons, cardboard, b a l l p o i n t pens, sc i s s o r s . Method/Organization of the Classroom 10:00-10:15 a.m. Introduction, demonstration of two c o l - oured silkscreens, mono p r i n t s , cardboard p r i n t s . Team Work: Students worked at three d i f f e r e n t p r i n t making techniques at three stations. (10:15-10:45 a.m.) 1. Classroom teacher Thunderbirds 269. (10:45-11:15 a.m.) 2. Teacher aide Falcons (11:15-11:45 a.m.) 3. B.B. Eagles & Lions Station 1. Mono print s 1. R o l l ink out on the board. 2. Lay paper over the inked board. 3. Draw, using b a l l p o i n t pen. 4. P u l l the p r i n t . If there i s too much ink, take another p r i n t immediately. Each student does at lea s t one p r i n t and keeps the best one for the display at the end of the cla s s . The students l i k e d the immediate results of making mono pr i n t s . They discovered that a p r i n t i s a mirror image and that, therefore, p r i n t i n g must be done backwards to come out cor r e c t l y on a p r i n t . Station 2. Cardboard prints 1. Draw outline of shape, include d e t a i l s and cut out. 2. Ro l l ink across cardboard shape. 3. Place tissue, r i c e paper, or newsprint on top of inked cardboard shape. 4. Rub with the back of a wooden spoon. Ideas of shapes to draw: birds, animals, plants, s h e l l s , people, houses, trees, foods, cars, insects, family members, favourite possessions. Stations 3 and 4. S i l k screening: using two colours. 1. Cut out a double of the chosen design. 2. Put the background piece behind the screen. Screen yellow ink across the screen. Make two p r i n t s . 270 . 3. Remove the paper negative shape, wash screen. 4. Place pos i t i v e shape of design behind the screen. Screen across silkscreen using red ink. 5. Screen two p r i n t s . 6. Take one of the yellow silkscreened p r i n t and screen across with red, using one fresh p o s i t i v e shape and one negative shape. You w i l l have: 1. 1 yellow background 2. 1 yellow f i s h 3. 1 red background 4. 1 red f i s h 5. 1 red and yellow f i s h 6. 1 red and yellow background 11:45-12:00. Display of p r i n t s . S i s i u t l (Kwakiutl double- headed snake) stamp for teams with three samples of print s from each team member. Evaluation The mood of the class was unsettled from the outset. One student, who had been asked to leave the school during the f a l l , had been allowed to return to the class that very week. During the a r t class he distracted other students; he was also unco- operative towards the adults i n the classroom. The class took time to s e t t l e into t h e i r stations but when they did, they pro- duced a great many p r i n t s . 2.71. The students drew onto cardboard, r o l l e d ink onto the cardboard, and rubbed the back of the paper which had been placed on top of the inked shape. Some students used cardboard shapes that I had made i n the past. The process was simple en- ough that a l l of the students could achieve a p r i n t , once the inks and papers had been set up. In two teams a l l of the stud- ents printed at le a s t one cardboard p r i n t and several students made six or more. The silkscreen station proved the most d i f f i c u l t . I t took a while to get a l l of the students under way on th e i r screens and paper designs. The design p o s s i b i l i t i e s of screening with two d i f f e r e n t colours appealed to some of the students. One student said that i t was "boring," he f e l t that silkscreening involved too much preparation before the p r i n t was actually taken. At the end of the cl a s s , when a l l of the print s were placed together on the f l o o r , the students chose t h e i r favour- i t e s to be fastened to the wall with masking tape. Some stud- ents, who had never received recognition for the i r e f f o r t s i n other art a c t i v i t i e s , were pleasantly surprised at the positi v e comments other students made about t h e i r art work. Two stud- ents who had made in t e r e s t i n g p r i n t s chose th e i r own to be placed on the wall. These f i r s t e f f o r t s showed a wide range of achievement. Now that the students have seen what i s possible i n p r i n t mak- ing, I am sure that future p r i n t making classes w i l l show a change i n the attitude of many of the students. Most of them had never done p r i n t making before. They are uncomfortable with new techniques, since they have l i t t l e confidence i n the l i k e l i h o o d of th e i r being successful. The number of print s made during the class was, however, testimony to the success they experienced at thi s new art technique. Once the students had s e t t l e d into one of the stations, they preferred to stay rather than having to learn another technique of a d i f f e r e n t p r i n t making technique. Students who had made pr i n t s at the three stations: mono pr i n t s , cardboard p r i n t s , and two-coloured silkscreen p r i n t s , used the S i s i u t l stamp (double-headed Kwakiutl snake) I brought from home for them to use on pieces of card. 273. Plate 31. F i e l d t r i p to Stanley Park. Feeding a Canada goose. 274. Lesson 16. F i n a l Lesson - F i e l d T r i p: The Aquarium Objectives/Aims To i d e n t i f y and recognize some major mammals, birds, and f i s h l i v i n g on the Northwest Coast: land and sea otters, K i l l e r and Beluga whales, Canada geese, ducks (Canvasbacks, Mallards, Golendeneye), herring, and salmon. Resources Booklet: Guide to the Vancouver Aquarium Parent Resource person; Materials Prepared worksheets for each student. Teacher prepared charts. I prepared a time schedule with the programme for the day. Lunch: Fish and chips bought at Stanley Park for each student. Four ti n s of ju i c e , can opener, cups, r a i s i n s and peanuts, lettuc e , wild b i r d seed, small chocolate cookies. Method/Organization 9:00-9:30 a.m. Introduction (in the classroom). "We are going to the Aquarium and Stanley Park. We w i l l see mammals, birds and f i s h that your ancestors hunted. What w i l l we see? We are going to see the land otters i n the i r pool, we w i l l do one box of the worksheet, then we are going into the Aquarium to see the Beluga whale show. I know you are going to be on 275. your best behaviour, but i n case students do things that they know they shouldn't do, what should happen to them i f they mis- behave at the Park?" (they get a mark against t h e i r name). (This i s the same system i n operation i n the classroom where three marks means that a student has to go home and can only be re-admitted with a parent.) The schedule was as follows: 9:30-10:00 a.m. Drive to Aquarium. Meet at land otter pond. Do the f i r s t box i n worksheet dealing with birds, beaks and eggs. 10:00-10:30 a.m. Worksheets. 10:00 a.m. Meet at entrance to Aquarium. Go to Beluga whale show. After Beluga whale show go to the harbour seal pool, then on to the Exploration pool, then p u f f i n and sea otter pools. 11:00 a.m. K i l l e r whale show. After the K i l l e r whale show go to the B.C. Hall of Fishes inside the Aquarium. Do worksheet box on sea l i f e . 11:30 a.m. Harbour seal feeding. After feeding, v i s i t Graham Amazon wing. Do worksheet box on t h i s section. 12:15 p.m. Leave Aquarium. 12:30 p.m. Lunch on the grass. Students feed s q u i r r e l s , ducks, geese, b i r d s . 1:15 p.m. Depart for school. Evaluation Several students had suggested a f i e l d t r i p to Stanley Park for the concluding class of the art programme. I arranged a 276 . v i s i t to the Aquarium to give the students the opportunity to see animals, birds and sea l i f e that we had discussed during the a r t programme. In Kwakiutl l i f e the whale, geese, ducks, and sea l i f e were sources of food and the land otter was an important mythological animal (Boas, 1966, p. 164). Before we l e f t the classroom, I outlined the plans to the c l a s s . During the introduction, one student said, "I've been to the Aquarium every year of school!" I heard another mumble, "This sounds boring." The worksheets e l i c i t e d dark looks, and one student said, "This was supposed to be a p i c n i c ! " "Where's the food?" (We bought f i s h and chips at the Park for the class.) (Whenever lunches are requested, several students don't bring them so additional food i s usually needed.) The worksheet was i n four sections: i t consisted of ques- tions and drawings. We arrived i n due course at the Park. After the students were directed to the cases on birds, eggs, and beaks, to do the f i r s t box on the worksheet, they found that the worksheet was not as d i f f i c u l t to complete as they had feared. The students who completed the four boxes on the worksheet received a choco- late cookie at lunch. (The team leaders were to t e l l me how t h e i r teams performed.) Two students said that they had f i n - ished, received a chocolate cookie, but upon checking i t was found they had l e f t h a l f of the worksheet unfinished. Some students seldom complete assignments. I t i s important that they be helped and encouraged during each assignment, i n order to change t h e i r patterns of work. One of the students who had not 277. finished kept asking me how big the chocolate cookie was, as i f tryi n g to decide i f completing the assignment were worth the e f f o r t . The whale shows captivated the students. They saw a n i - mals they had never seen before—"Clam-chops," the new baby sea otter, and the other sea otter pup, as yet unnamed. Seals and puffins shared the outdoor Aquarium with the whales and o t t e r s . The exploratory pools interested the students but some took s t a r f i s h out of the pool, and had to be t o l d to replace them. In the B.C. Hall of Fishes, the students were directed to the cases containing the sea l i f e they were to i d e n t i f y on the worksheet, i n the second box. One student threw his worksheet down on the f l o o r , and said, "I can't do t h i s ! " I went back with him to the case holding the sea anemone and aft e r calming him down and d i r e c t i n g him to the next question, he completed the sheet. Most of the students completed the worksheets with help, encouragement, and prodding. Without a worksheet to slow t h e i r progress through the Aquarium, they tended to just glance into the display cases. I had noticed during the pre-test that they were unfamiliar with names of plants, animals, and sea l i f e . I suspect that t h e i r science experience i s weak. One student said, "Why do we have to do work?" They v i s i t e d the new Graham Amazon wing, commented about how hot i t was, and completed the t h i r d box on the worksheet related to i t . They understood, for the f i r s t time, what "t r o p i c a l climate" meant. Some said, "We can 11 breathe!" 278. We l e f t the Aquarium to have lunch. While we waited for the f i s h and chips to a r r i v e , the students fed peanuts to them- selves and to the s q u i r r e l s . Lettuce and birdseed were fed to the ducks and geese. A l l of the students enjoyed feeding the birds and animals. One student had to be restrained since he threw peanuts at the Canada goose and t r i e d to frighten i t . An- other student, who i s usually impatient, lay q u i e t l y on the ground with a peanut on his forehead waiting for a s q u i r r e l to take i t . During the lunch time we noticed one student missing and he returned a f t e r being c a l l e d , with the answer, "I was feeding the s q u i r r e l s . " When lunch began and the students gath- ered around on the bedspread on the ground, to eat and drink juice, I sensed that a calming atmosphere had descended. They seemed relieved that food had actually materialized. A few of the students wanted to s i t on the blanket with the adults while others, more energetic, threw a frisbee back and f o r t h . One student said, "Can't we stay longer?" Another student said, "This i s the best f i e l d t r i p yet!" The students, i n the end, learned much about the sea and animal l i f e , judging i n part by t h e i r worksheets and i n part by t h e i r i n t e r e s t expressed by questions. On the whole, the stud- ents enjoyed the f i e l d t r i p immensely. (1) BIRDS, EGGS AND BEAKS 1. How many eggs are in the swallow nest? 2. How many stages i n the development of a chicken are shown? 3. What i s an owl beak used for? 4. What i s the g u l l beak used for? 5. What i s the mallard beak used for? 6. Name 5 birds found in Stanley Park (ducks) 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. Draw a bird you l i k e (3) Graham Amazon Wing: 19. What i s a piranha? Total=12 20. How big i s a sea horse? 21. Why does a remora ride on the back or under the saw fish? 22. How many swimming t u r t l e s were there? 23. Where are Moray eels found? 24. How does a l i o n f i s h protect i t s e l f ? (2) B.C. HALL OF FISHES 13. What i s an anemone? 14. What i s a sea urchin? 15. What do herring eat? 16. Find the octopus. How many legs does he have? What i s under h i s arms? 17. What does a sea cucumber look l i k e ? Draw a f i s h you l i k e (4) K i l l e r Whale Show: Beluga Whale Show Sea Otter Harbour Seals Draw the t r i c k you l i k e d the best from one of the shows. Total=25 280. Summary At the outset of the art programme, the students used maps to i d e n t i f y t h e i r ancestors' homeland. Cultural tool s k i l l s such as s p l i t t i n g yellow cedar with hammerstones, using a yew wedge, were learned. They experienced the difference between natural sandpaper (dogfish skin), and commercial sandpapers. A Coast Sal i s h s t y l e spindle whorl was used to spin fleece (non- tr a d i t i o n a l ) into wool. Contemporary tools were used: c h i s e l s , f i l e s , and gauges, on s l a t e . A parent fisherman demonstrated the contemporary netting needle, and students learned to mend a net. Contemporary and t r a d i t i o n a l carving tools were used on yellow and red cedar for rough shaping; then a f i n e r carving for a soapberry spoon was done. Drawing was incid e n t a l but a design for the soapberry spoon paddle and the mask were drawn and painted. S k i l l s with materials were learned: dyeing wool with h o r s e t a i l s , and weaving the wool on a small Salish loom. During mask making, s k i l l s i n preparing and shaping clay were learned. A smooth, four-layered mask of brown paper was made with the papier-mache method. Properties of red and yellow cedar were compared: fleece and wool were examined, and slate and stone were used i n d i f f e r - ent ways. Horsetails, a l o c a l plant, and clay, found l o c a l l y , were natural materials used for d i f f e r e n t purposes. During the f i e l d t r i p s , c o l l e c t i n g , i d e n t i f y i n g , and sort- ing were introduced. Students col l e c t e d l o c a l plants from the 2.81. forest, sea l i f e from the beach, and used worksheets to l i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of birds and sea mammals at the Aquarium. Local land mammals were observed at the Park during the f i e l d t r i p . At the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology the students i d e n t i - f i e d a r t i f a c t s which were introduced to the programme and they compared the carving styles and crest animals of the Haida and Kwakiutl carvers. The art programme drew from the past, with reference to ancestors and ancient a r t i f a c t s , and culminated i n students learning contemporary p r i n t making techniques. 282. CHAPTER VI THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY I found the development of an art programme for the Native Indian children i n Grades 5, 6, and 7 at the Cultural Survival School t h i s spring one of the most challenging teaching exper- iences that I have ever had. On the whole, I think that i t was a success despite factors such as the students 1 low academic expectations and achievement due to discouragement and past d i f f i c u l t i e s i n school, frequent absences of the classroom teacher (due to i l l n e s s ) , and the f l u i d classroom schedule. My opinion i s based on not only the test results but on my own observations, on what the students said to me, to the classroom teacher, the teacher aide, and to each other during the art lessons and afterward. Often students came up close to me; they smiled and talked about what they had done i n class or at home. As the art programme progressed the students noticeably relaxed and, according to the classroom teacher, looked forward to each session. They r e a l i z e d that the art programme consis- ted of a c t i v i t i e s that they could do. They knew i f they had d i f f i c u l t y that help was available because of a r a t i o of one adult to four students. An expressed comment that a worksheet was "boring" often changed to int e r e s t when students actually began work on i t . In addition, during the course of the pro- gramme students volunteered additional information. For exam- ple, one grade 7 student knew a great deal about Tsonokwa and 283. the students list e n e d to her with i n t e r e s t . The art programme therefore drew upon Kwakiutl culture and stimulated peer teach- ing, giving recognition to c u l t u r a l l y knowledgeable students. Other students saw that th e i r culture had value and was of i n t - erest to teacher, classmates and parent resource person. When students t o l d t h e i r parents about the objects they brought home, sometimes additional information was gained. For example, a f t e r a student took his f i s h knife home, he came back and said, "It's not only used for cutting f i s h , but also for scraping the scales o f f the f i s h . " A parent resource person i n the c l a s s - room corrected the pronunciation of Tsonokwa. Students f e l t a pride i n t h e i r Indian culture seeing a Native Indian parent working alongside them i n the classroom. They gained confid- ence i n t h e i r achievements during the process of learning about th e i r culture: this was noticeable i n the tool and material s k i l l s they learned, increased vocabulary, expanded knowledge about aspects of t h e i r culture and the opportunity to compare Kwakiutl culture with aspects of Coast Salish and Haida c u l - ture . At the end of the second lesson the substitute teacher said that she couldn't get over the difference i n the stud- ents ' attitude and work between the morning and afternoon ses- sions . They had been i n disarray i n the morning at th e i r reg- ular classes; i n the afternoon they worked with enjoyment and purpose. I learned and appreciated more f u l l y than before that where Native students are concerned, the importance of continu- ous r e l a t i o n s h i p with an energetic, organized, and sensitive 284. classroom teacher cannot be overestimated. The teacher i s a learner, f a c i l i t a t o r and planner, as well as a counsellor, re- source person, and fri e n d , o f f e r i n g support to the students and, i n some cases, to the family. I f e l t that I had to break through barr i e r s that some of the students had created. When I did, t h e i r resistance crumbled, but often i t was only for that lesson. If I was away for more than one week due to school breaks or changes i n scheduling, they seemed to adopt the attitude, "Where have you been?" Gradually the students discovered that, despite what they might say or do, I s t i l l l i k e d them, but there was no way to speed up the process of ac- ceptance. The K l e i n f e l d study (referred to i n Chapter II) found that "the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e that e l i c i t e d a high l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l performance from v i l l a g e Indian and Eskimo students was one that created an extremely warm personal r e l a - tionship" (Kleinfeld, 1972, p. 34). The re s u l t s of my study suggest that urban Native Indian students benefit from a simi- l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e . The range i n grades and a b i l i t y within the class created serious problems. The students seemed to l i v e on the run. Work was done only p a r t i a l l y unless the students were watched c l o s - e l y . They seemed only to half l i s t e n to important instructions; they had trouble remembering more than one step i n many-stepped projects. Thus the mood of the class often seemed to fluctuate regardless of what had been planned or arranged. If the stud- ents came f l y i n g into the classroom they remained on the wing for the duration. On the other hand, i f they came i n qu i e t l y 285. and thoughtfully, they were attentive for the whole afternoon. Wolcott, i n A Kwakiutl V i l l a g e and School (1967), and Rohner, i n The Kwakiutl Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia (19 70), documented the d i f f i c u l t i e s that conscientious students experience i n the classroom from the non-achievers. The few conscientious stud- ents lar g e l y ceased working for the l a t t e r half of the year because they were harassed by the non-working members of the clas s . The d i s c i p l i n a r y system i n s t i t u t e d by the classroom teacher half-way through the art programme lessened the c l a s s - room tension considerably. For example, the consequence of misdemeanors were reviewed to the student by the classroom teacher and a warning given. A second warning resulted i n con- su l t a t i o n with the Home School Coordinator, teacher and student i n order to f i n d out the cause of the problem. A t h i r d warning resulted i n the student being sent home with instructions i n a l e t t e r to the parent to return to the school within three days with the c h i l d for a conference with parent, teacher, c h i l d , and Home School Coordinator. With the fourth warning, a meet- ing with parent, student, teacher, Home School Coordinator, and Interview Committee resulted i n the student being placed on pro- bation, or transf e r r i n g from the school. The f i f t h and f i n a l warning meant temporary withdrawal from school, with additional resource people requested for alternative suggested options. However, the Native Indian students at the Cultural Sur- v i v a l School could become excited about art projects involving the use of tools or materials, and they plunged i n energetic- a l l y . For instance, during the lesson on f i s h i n g , once they 286 . knew how to f i l e the slate rectangles into f i s h knife handles, they set to work with determination and s k i l l . This energy has to be tapped i n the learning of academic s k i l l s . I found i t d i f f i c u l t to arrange work for them to do that was challeng- ing and yet not too d i f f i c u l t , that was i n t e r e s t i n g but not complicated, that reviewed information i n a manner that would not be boring. Their reading was weak; they do not view books as friends. Given the b u i l t - i n problems of i n s t r u c t i n g a class of students with the learning patterns and types of behaviour a l - ready mentioned, the art programme did not run as smoothly as I had hoped. However, the students did enjoy the f i e l d t r i p s , the lessons on making arrowheads, f i s h knives, soapberry spoons and p r i n t making, mask making, and weaving, as well as the films. They enjoyed the guests, too. The students p a r t i c u - l a r l y enjoyed the f i e l d t r i p s because i t meant that they were outdoors with t h e i r classmates, during school hours, doing or- ganized, challenging things which gave them a f e e l i n g of s a t i s - f a c t i o n . The f i r s t f i e l d t r i p (to the U.B.C. Museum of Anthro- pology) was the most d i f f i c u l t , as far as th e i r behaviour was concerned, and, of the f i e l d t r i p s , i t was the least popular. They found the Museum of Anthropology constraints d i f f i c u l t ; they were not supposed to run through the Museum or touch the a r t i f a c t s . Perhaps th i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t because the Museum exhibits Native Indian a r t i f a c t s and they were somewhat bewildered by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r setting. The Vancouver Aquarium appeared more suited to th e i r temp- erament, since the sea l i f e shows i n the indoor and outdoor 287. pools and the cases of moving c o l o u r f u l sea c r e a t u r e s gave those who became r e s t l e s s many sea c r e a t u r e s to observe i n s i d e the Aquarium and o u t s i d e i n open p o o l s . The use of worksheets f o c - used t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on s p e c i f i c elements of the sea l i f e , b i r d l i f e , and animal l i f e t h a t were p a r t of the Northwest Indian c u l t u r e . I t h i n k t h a t i t would have been u s e f u l to have v i s i t e d the Aquarium e a r l i e r i n the programme so t h a t r e f e r e n c e c o u l d have been made to the animal l i f e r e c e n t l y observed a t the Aquarium. For example, we saw two s p e c i e s of sea o t t e r s a t the Aquarium. One of them, the l a n d o t t e r , was used s y m b o l i c a l l y by Native Indian craftsmen i n a number of ways, one being the making of h a l i b u t hooks f o r fishermen i n order to b r i n g them lu c k when they went out i n t o the ocean to c a t c h h a l i b u t . They enjoyed a l l of the f i l m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the ones about Kwakiutl a r t i s t s : Making a Totem Pole (about Mungo Martin) and Tony Hunt - Kwakiutl A r t i s t , were t h e i r f a v o u r i t e s ; the g i r l s e s p e c i a l l y l i k e d S a l i s h Weaving. So f a r i n t h i s chapter I have d e a l t w i t h impressions gath- ered as a p a r t i c i p a n t / o b s e r v e r i n the a r t programme. I t remains to d i s c u s s the r e s u l t s o f the p o s t - t e s t i n g . The A r t and C u l t u r e Test and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory were readminis- t e r e d i n May 1983. Although n e i t h e r p o s t - t e s t suggested t h a t the a r t programme was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a marked i n c r e a s e i n e i t h e r s e l f - e s t e e m ( a c t u a l l y a drop of 2%) or c u l t u r a l knowledge (where a 12% i n c r e a s e was noted), we cannot say t h a t the programme was u n s u c c e s s f u l . For example, students met Native resource people who work a t something they value and these people c o u l d become f u t u r e mentors f o r the s t u d e n t s . They l e a r n e d a s k i l l t h a t they 288. could teach a younger student. One student t o l d me that she had done everything that we learned i n the class at home with the extra materials she had taken home. Students did gain an increased respect for learning through the d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s required to use the d i f f e r e n t t o o l s : "D" adze, "elbow" adze, carving knives, saw, c h i s e l , sandpapers. They examined museum tools and examples with greater i n t e r e s t since they were making the same object. They learned about t r a d i t i o n s by experiencing them. They developed the vocabulary necessary to talk about th e i r culture and i t s a r t i f a c t s . Post-Tests The Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory The maximum score on the Coopersmith Inventory i s 50 points. The average group score i n the May 198 3 post-test was 31, or 62%. The average score i n December 1982 was 32, or 64%, which i s a drop of 2%. However, two students who dropped i n self-esteem scores between the pre- and post-tests seemed to gain s a t i s f a c t i o n from th e i r class work and made important con- tr i b u t i o n s to the cl a s s . One of them did outstanding art work and received recognition from the class for i t . The other stud- ent was bright and capable. As a r e s u l t of thi s study I tend to agree with the l i t e r a t u r e that suggests that self-esteem inven- to r i e s designed for majority culture children may not be accur- ate or applicable for minority culture children. Students' 289. self-esteem i s a combination of many variables, the sum of which researchers are only now being able to consider for minority culture children. In December 1982, ten students scored four or more on the l i e scale and i n May 198 3, six students scored.four or more on the scale. This was a drop of four students' scores i n May. Three of the students scoring on the l i e scale i n December trans- ferred from the school and were not present for the May post- te s t . Two students scored f i v e on the scale before and aft e r the art programme. Both of the students had academic problems i n school so i t was not surprising that they did not f e e l con- fident to express how they r e a l l y f e l t . There are several possible reasons for missing answers. The students did not understand what the question meant; they found the vocabulary d i f f i c u l t to understand. "What does i t mean to be c a l l e d on i n c l a s s ? " a student asked. Two students said that they wished that there was a choice somewhere between the two alternatives "Like Me or Unlike Me." Students were torn between s o c i a l l y acceptable answers and how they r e a l l y f e l t . The number of students with high scores on the l i e scale indicated pressure for the s o c i a l l y acceptable answer. I sensed a concern that the answers might i n some way be used against them. One student said, "Will you t e l l my mother what I've put down." I believe that i n the past they have written many tes t s , of a l l kinds, and that they f e e l ambivalent about the entire process. Thus, for some students, the drop i n score was a r e f l e c t i o n of personal problems i n their l i v e s . 290. The i n d i v i d u a l scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem In- ventory were as follows. The pre-test (December 1982 score) i s i n brackets to the ri g h t of the May 1983 score. Student May 198 3 December 1982 A 45 (43) B 14 (30) C 35 (37) D 33 (28) E 41 (25) F 30 (31) G 24 (24) H 35 (40) I 22 (28) J 30 (27) K 25 (40) L 37 (31) M 40 (41) N 27 (33) 0 34 (31) P 37 (38) Total = 509 In the future I would consider using the Native American Self-Concept and Attitude Inventory (McCluskey, 1975, p. 2702). I think that measurement of a minority chil d ' s f e e l i n g about him/herself would be more accurately tabulated on an annual 291. basis rather than after a four month period. A four month time frame i s long enough to teach an a r t and culture programme, but i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to reach the inner feelings of the c h i l d - ren. While the self-esteem scores for the class did not show consistent improvement, there was improvement i n s i x out of sixteen scores; considerable improvement i n one score and some improvement i n f i v e others. The Art and Culture Test F i f t y was the maximum possible score on the Art and Culture Test. In May 1983 the average score was 39, or 78%. The aver- age mark i n December 1982 was 33, or 66%. There was an o v e r a l l improvement of 12%. The number of students c o r r e c t l y answering each question was as follows. (The t o t a l number of students was 16.) May Dec. (i) Touchables 1983 1982 1. wedge - Made from yew. 11 ( 0 ) 2. "D" adze - Could say what i t was used for cutting. 12 (12) 3. carved bowl - Could say what i t was used f o r . 5 ( 7 ) 4. hammerstone - Could say what i t was used f o r . 11 (11) 5. f i s h knife - Could say that i t was used for cutting. 12 (10) 6. basket - Could say how i t was made (weaving or twining). 13 (10) 7. mask - Could say whether i t was b i r d , animal, or people mask. 14 (13) 292. May Dec. 1983 1982 8. halibut hook - Knew what i t was used to catch (fish) 14 (16) 9. bead choker - Knew the necklace was c a l l e d a choker 11 ( 8 ) 10. Cree gauntlets - Id e n t i f i e d them as mitts 4 (11) ( i i ) Pictures 1. Fish 16 (16) 2. Deer 16 (16) 3. Box 16 (16) 4. Berries 16 (16) 5. Octopus 16 (16) 6. Hat (woven, Kwakiutl) 15 (16) 7. Hide - Scraping fur 15 (14) 8. Totem pole - Picture 13 (14) 9. Food - Carved bowl for o i l , food 14 (14) 10. Eagle 16 (15) 11. Mask - What i t i s . 13 (14) 12. Paddle - Making a paddle. 16 (15) 13. Fishnet - Dipnet. 16 (14) 14. Salmon 16 (15) 15. Dry - Fish preserved by drying. 16 (14) 16. Mountain goat 16 (13) 17. Fishing - What the hook was used f o r . 13 (15) 18. Clams - Three 15 (13) 19. Painting design - A r t i s t painting. 14 (13) 20. Cedar - Kind of wood used for totem poles. 14 (12) 293. May Dec. 1983 1982 21. Dress - Made out of buckskin. 12 (13) 22. Blanket - Woven, Sal i s h . 14 (12) 23. Beaver - Painted design. 16 (12) 24. Nets - Needle used for making nets. 12 (11) 25. Canoe - Picture 15 (11) 26. Mocassins - What i s being made? 13 (11) 27. Spear - What i s being made? 10 (11) 28. Beading - Using a loom. 14 (10) 29. Longhouse - Picture 14 (10) 30. Combs - Carved, bone. 14 ( 9 ) 31. Land otter - Important mythological animal to fishermen 14 ( 8 ) 32. Raven - Important mythological b i r d . 12 ( 8 ) 33. Chiefs - New Aiyansh ch i e f s . 10 ( 1) 34. Headdress - Chief's hat 12 ( 2 ) 35. Club - Carved, bone 8 ( 1 ) 36. Spindle whorl - Carved, wooden 3 ( 0 ) 37. Copper 3 ( 3 ) 38. Arrowhead 9 ( 4 ) 39. Fishing 13 (15) 40. Wolf 10 ( 9) There were two touchables the children had trouble with. Most of the students did not name the use for the carved wooden bowl; eleven out of sixteen could not answer. The Cree gaunt- l e t s were the most d i f f i c u l t touchable for them. Students c a l l e d 294. them gloves. Students also had d i f f i c u l t y naming the spindle whorl, despite having used i t i n the classroom. Thirteen out of sixteen could not name i t . The copper was d i f f i c u l t for them to i d e n t i f y . Thirteen out of sixteen could not name i t . The students had more d i f f i c u l t y with the touchables than with the pictures. The reason could be that the touchables were objects from t h e i r culture that they would not necessarily have seen. During the post-test they improved t h e i r scores, but they s t i l l had d i f f i c u l t y remembering the names for the objects. The o v e r a l l scores on the Art and Culture Test improved appreciably for each student. There was an average of 5.6% improvement i n scores on the Art and Culture Test. The largest improvement was made by one student whose score improved by 20%. This was s i g n i f i c a n t because he was the most academically weak student i n the classroom. He was one of the students who, by using materials and tools to make objects from his Indian culture, seemed to gain great s a t i s f a c t i o n and knowledge from the pro- gramme. During the post-test, the students showed a decided improvement i n the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y accurately objects on the test. They f e l t a sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n being able to answer quickly and c o r r e c t l y . In fact, one student, when asked what he had enjoyed about the Art and Culture programme, ans- wered "the t e s t . " Many of the students learn about t h e i r culture at home. During the Art and Culture pre-test some of the students t o l d me about the arts and c r a f t s that t h e i r parents and r e l a t i v e s a c t i v e l y engage i n . About one-third of the class had already 295. v i s i t e d the Museum of Anthropology, University of B r i t i s h Col- umbia, and two students mentioned programmes at the i r previous schools (for example, Florence Nightingale School i n Vancouver had a programme i n beading). Several students had roots i n Native Indian communities i n other parts of B.C. and mentioned going to potlatches i n A l e r t Bay, Prince Rupert, and L i l l o o e t . A few of the students were extremely knowledgeable about th e i r own culture; a few knew l i t t l e , and most f e l l somewhere between; they knew something about t h e i r own culture, but not a great deal. For many, what they did know was not perceived within a framework, so that the significance of what they did know was not apparent to them, or (at f i r s t ) to the adults teaching them. For example, a student who had quickly i d e n t i f i e d the beaded choker sat holding i t for a few minutes, and then q u i e t l y said that the necklace could, through a sacred cere- mony, be changed into something that could only be worn at times having to do with the s p i r i t . That i s what her mother had t o l d her and what she, too, believed. After each student completed the Art and Culture post-test I asked what they had l i k e d best about the programme i t s e l f . Some students named several lessons and some mentioned a few. I gave one point to each project that they named and t o t a l l e d what was mentioned by the t o t a l c l a s s . The most popular c l a s - ses were the f i e l d t r i p s to the beach, to the forest, to the Aquarium, to the Museum of Anthropology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and to Stanley Park. 296 . The t o t a l number of students was 16. The points were a l - lo t t e d as follows: F i e l d Trips = 15 Film: "Mungo Martin Making a Totem Pole" = 5 Making a loom, spinning, dyeing = 5 Making an arrowhead = 4 Making a soapberry spoon = 4 Prin t making: s i l k screening, mono p r i n t s , cardboard prin t s = 4 Learning about ancestors = 3 Making a Tsonokwa mask = 3 Drawing = 3 Guest: fisherman father = 3 Painting = 2 Making a f i s h knife, f i l m s : "Tony Hunt Kwakiutl A r t i s t , " "Augusta," and "Salish Weavers," learning about wood, art work, carving, dancing, c o l l e c t i n g cherry bark, doing the test = 1 These observations and the r e s u l t s of the post-tests carry within them a number of implications, both for further study, and for the r e v i s i o n of an art programme for urban Native Indian students. Chapter VII addresses these implications. 297. CHAPTER VII INDIAN ART AND CULTURE: A ROUTE TO CONTEMPORARY EDUCATION If exposing an Indian c h i l d to his or her own culture de- velops a p o s i t i v e self-concept, then i t follows that p a r t i c i p a - t i o n i n a school where the curriculum i s relevant to that c u l - ture should improve self-concept. Although most students at the Cultural Survival School did not show a dramatic increase i n scores on the Coopersmith S e l f - Esteem Inventory, or the Art and Culture test, those students who had the most d i f f i c u l t y academically made dramatic improve- ment i n t h e i r scores on the Art and Culture t e s t . Those who started o f f with more knowledge of t h e i r culture made less im- provement. Test Result Implications While I had not expected a great increase i n self-concept scores within the four months of the art programme, I had ex- pected some across-the-class improvement i n self-concept scores. This was not the case. In one case a student's score improved greatly and i n another, a student's score dropped decidedly. The reasons for this are not s e l f evident. In the Art and Cul- ture test, I expected that a l l of the students would have im- proved t h e i r scores, which they did. I had not expected that 298. one student who had the lowest score on the pre-test would have shown the greatest improvement on the post-test. This student generally had a great deal of d i f f i c u l t y with academics i n school and I believe that i t was with a sense of r e l i e f that he found he could succeed i n the art programme. I was surprised that only three out of sixteen students i n the class could i d e n t i f y the spindle whorl at the end of the programme when they had used i t during one of the lessons. Students showed an obvious increase i n confidence and knowledge about the names of plants and animals. During the pre-test they were unable to even attempt the name of the land otter since they did not know the vocabulary of aquatic animals. During the second f i e l d t r i p to the woods, most of the students remembered the leaf of a plant previously gathered but, i n some cases they had forgot- ten the name. In other cases they had developed an i n t e r e s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g plants and those students added names to the ones they had already learned by asking me to name others that they saw i n the woods. I t i s obvious from the Art and Culture results that those objects that were (apart from the spindle whorl) peripheral to the art programme, and were mentioned only during the pre- and post-tests, were not remembered. For ex- ample, only four out of sixteen students remembered the name for the Cree gauntlets (mitts), and only f i v e out of sixteen students remembered the carved bowl's purpose (food). The bone club was not referred to again i n the programme and only eight out of sixteen (half of the class) could i d e n t i f y i t . I believe that the 12% average improvement on the Art and Culture pre- and post-tests could become a ca t a l y s t for student improvement i n achievement i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n the f u t u r e . I p r e d i c t t h a t , i f an a r t programme based on Indian c u l t u r e was o f f e r e d f o r a second year, w i t h a s e t t l e d classroom scene, with an e s t a b l i s h e d classroom r o u t i n e and e s t a b l i s h e d t e a c h e r s , t h a t s t udents' s e l f - c o n c e p t measured by the Native American Sel f - C o n c e p t and A t t i t u d e Inventory (or i t s e q u i v a l e n t ) would show s u b s t a n t i a l improvements i n the s t u d e n t s 1 s e l f - e s t e e m . S e l f - c o n c e p t i s d i f f i c u l t to measure i n the case of c h i l d - ren of m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s because most of the t e s t s , administered are t e s t s prepared f o r c h i l d r e n of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . There i s , however, another element to be c o n s i d e r e d . Changes i n s e l f - c o n c e p t are the combined r e s u l t of what happens to a c h i l d a t s c h o o l , a t home, and w i t h i n the community. I f the home and s c h o o l e s t a b l i s h two-way communication, t h i s w i l l h e lp to i n - t e g r a t e the student's l i f e and enable the student to f i n d sup- p o r t w i t h i n h i s community (both Indian and non-Indian). "A l o t o f d i s c u s s i o n has gone on about b u i l d i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t among Native s t u d e n t s . Very l i t t l e has been said--and s t i l l l e s s has been d o n e — t o develop r e s p e c t f o r and understanding about Native people among non-Natives" (La Roque, 1975, p. 2). The impact of the community upon Native Indian students i s obvious. "Stephen Bayne d e c l a r e d i n the J o u r n a l of American Ed u c a t i o n , t h a t f o r the Indian c h i l d e ducation c o n s i s t s of com- p l e x p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h h i s community and t h a t t h i s community c o n t a i n s the source of the c h i l d ' s Indian i d e n t i t y " (Weeks, 1979, p. 9). E x p e c t a t i o n s of r e s p e c t and understanding must proceed from p a r e n t s ' a c t i o n groups, l o c a l Indian community 300. and church groups i n consultation with p o l i t i c i a n s (Indian and non-Indian) who have the power to bring about change. But the greatest influence of a l l i s the home. The c l a s s - room teacher, through encouraging the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the par- ent i n the classroom, becomes an agent for s o c i a l change. Sometimes "the school and teacher are perceived as a l i e n , d i f - ferent, perhaps threatening to the t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e " (Wolcott, 1967, p. 126). To avoid t h i s the teacher, instead of being the location of a l l knowledge, s o l i c i t s involvement and information from the home to supplement the curriculum. While contemporary Indian l i f e i s a mixture, for the most part of t r a d i t i o n a l and non-traditional elements, there i s concern that those t r a d i t i o n a l customs and b e l i e f s remaining w i l l some- day be l o s t . The investment that the teacher and parent have in the Native Indian c h i l d ' s education i s i l l u s t r a t e d f o r c i b l y to Native Indian parents by t h e i r heightened awareness about what the i r children are learning i n school. The Native Indian c h i l d who learns at home and at school about his/her culture and who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n events such as potlatches and pole r a i s i n g s , i s more l i k e l y to appreciate the a r t i s t i c heritage of other Indian cultures present, for instance, the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology sponsored Indian c u l t u r a l events where on one occasion a Haida totem pole was raised and, on another occasion, a family of Kwakiutl a r t i s t s were honoured. As far as Native education i n general i s concerned, the message i s c l e a r : Native people want the i r children to learn about t h e i r culture, history, and b e l i e f s i n school, and they 3.01. also want them to acquire the academic s k i l l s that they need to survive i n the modern world. But even though this message has been sent many times, the question i s s t i l l asked by non-Indian educators, "Why i s n ' t Johnny doing better i n school? What can be done to help him? His parents don't seem interested." They are now, however, beginning to understand that a better question i s , "What should be taught?" An art programme of f e r s an oppor- tunity for Native parents to share with t h e i r children some of those elements of the i r culture that they believe should be passed on. Now we should consider ways i n which Native parents can discuss t h e i r ideas with non-Indian parents. Thus many parents could become a resource person i n the classroom, with s k i l l s to share. It i s possible, I think, for the one culture to reach out to the other. For example, a language teacher at a Campbell River elementary school (More, 1981, p. 134) under- took to teach Kwakwala, the l o c a l Indian language, to Native Indian children. At the request of the p r i n c i p a l , she agreed to teach the language to a l l of the students of the school, Native as well as non-Native. . Increasing numbers of Native Indian families l i v i n g i n the c i t y of Vancouver means that there are increasing numbers of Native Indian childr e n entering c i t y schools. This emphasizes the urgency of adjusting the urban curriculum to meet Indian students' c u l t u r a l needs. The Cultural Survival School has the youngest a l l - I n d i a n class of students i n the c i t y . This o f f e r s an opportunity to undertake c u l t u r a l programmes with students who s t i l l e x hibit spontaneity and who are not yet uninterested in school. Within urban Indian c u l t u r e t r a d i t i o n a l values are s t i l l observed. The love of c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y t i e s are obvious. During one a r t l e s s o n , three parent resource people came, each b r i n g i n g a p r e - s c h o o l e r . Then, too, there i s a f e e l i n g t h a t a r t has value not o n l y because there i s a market f o r Indian a r t s and c r a f t s , but a l s o because i t i s v i t a l to the l i f e of the Native Indian community, f o r example, i n p o t l a t c h e s and p o l e r a i s i n g s . Most of the students i n the classroom c o u l d name someone t h a t they knew working i n a r t s and c r a f t s . There was, t h e r e f o r e , a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n a r t amongst the s t u d e n t s . Sev- e r a l of the boys saw themselves becoming c a r v e r s . The p o s t - t e s t showed n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t s ' vocabulary and an expanded knowledge about Indian c u l t u r e . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Repeating the Programme I f I had the a r t programme to do over, I would make c e r - t a i n changes. In the f i r s t l e s s o n , attempting to teach the whole c l a s s a t once was a mistake because, f o r some students, the d i s t a n c e from the teacher i s i n d i r e c t r a t i o to the concen- t r a t i o n e x e r t e d . Nor should I have i n t r o d u c e d p i c t u r e making on the f i r s t day. The students have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h p i c t u r e making a t the b e s t of times; f o r such an e x e r c i s e they needed a l o t of s t i m u l a t i o n , demonstrations, and gradual development. Given how e x c i t a b l e , i n an unproductive way, the students were on the f i r s t day, I should have shown the f i l m "Augusta" a t the end of the l e s s o n simply to calm the students as w e l l as to e s t a b l i s h the theme r e l a t i n g to t h e i r a n c e s t o r s ' l i v e s . 303. I would organize the class into partners who could, i f they wished, j o i n with other p a i r s . In that way the t r a n s i t i o n from individuals to partners, and then into teams, would have been gradually achieved with the opportunity for greater stud- ent p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n team formation. Undertaking a special project i n a new school i s d i f f i - c u l t , and even more d i f f i c u l t i n a class comprising three grades. A follow-up art programme would have the benefit of experience with the students, the setting, and the students' patterns of behaviour. I learned that, i n teaching Native In- dian students i n an urban setting, there are no simple solu- tions . Students uninterested i n school can become interested i n learning about t h e i r culture, but many poor learning and work habits prevent them from working e f f e c t i v e l y either on t h e i r own or i n the majority culture. They need organized art pro- grammes which b u i l d upon mastered s k i l l s yet are sensitive and f l e x i b l e to Indian c u l t u r a l needs, enabling Indian children to become personally f u l f i l l e d through developing aesthetic per- ceptions, gaining knowledge and control over media, developing perceptual awareness, and discovering th e i r own expressive power. They discover they have something to express and they have the means to express i t . The art programme design had students learn technique, working f i r s t with the p r a c t i c a l and fa m i l i a r , with a long term view to developing personal imagery when confidence with the necessary s k i l l s had been gained. Ex- perimentation and creative adaption should only occur, I believe, once the basics have been established. For example, students 304. should have mastered carving a soapberry spoon with t r a d i t i o n a l proportions before moving on to deliberately changing the shape or type of spoon. The benefits accruing from such an art programme are many. The Native Indian c h i l d learns to understand his/her culture more deeply through experiencing the tools and materials of i t . During a Mungo Martin f i l m , the students' attention was held i n a compelling way because they watched Mungo handle tools that they had handled minutes before and they knew the smell and the grain of the wood that he worked with. They recognized that Mungo was a carver of t h e i r own culture with an esteemed repu- t a t i o n , and they had seen his totem poles during a recent f i e l d t r i p so they understood the significance of what he did, how he did i t , and why he was doing i t . The students b u i l t upon t h e i r own a r t i s t i c s k i l l s but, most important, they experienced t h e i r increasing vocabulary and knowledge i n memorable ways. Learning about t r a d i t i o n s by experiencing them i s experiential learning which modern educators see as a powerful teaching t o o l . Native Indian children can become more receptive to learn- ing i n general when the i r culture i s given respect and i n c l u s i o n i n the curriculum for Native Indian children, and when Native Indian history and language i s included i n curriculum for a l l children i n school. How were t r a d i t i o n a l people taught? How, for example, did t r a d i t i o n a l people remember t h e i r o r a l history? They trained t h e i r minds through repetitions and making associations, tech- niques very useful i n the contemporary world. Acquiring the vocabulary and knowledge to a r t i c u l a t e knowledge of one 1s 305. culture and t r a d i t i o n s gives a new significance to a chil d ' s sense of i d e n t i t y and make him/her more amenable to knowledge i n general. Learning an Indian language, meeting Native re- source people, and seeing one's own as well as other parents i n the classroom as resource people brings the school into the world of the Native c h i l d and enriches his/her education i n the process. The best teacher i n the world cannot teach any c h i l d . She can't force anyone to learn anything, but she can present materials so that the c h i l d i s able to do his learning. No c h i l d learns to read u n t i l he accepts the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for learning, but he makes i t known that i t i s his investment. (Pepper, 1972, p. 154) The means of changing the experience of a Native Indian c h i l d from one of defeat to one of hope, can be through an art and culture programme. The Cultural Survival School programmes should be expanded and future programmes b u i l t upon s k i l l s already mastered from t h i s year. Students could make a spear point, for example, f o l - lowing instructions for making an arrowhead ( i t i s l a r g e r ) , they could make a f i s h knife taking more care with the handle than i n the year previously, and adding cedar withes or roots (trad- i t i o n a l lashing materials). Students could spin dog hair (mixed with fleece for handling), dyeing i t i n s a l a l leaves or blue- berries. They could weave the dyed wool on a larger Salish loom and weave cedar bark into simple mats. They could make a bone awl to pierce wood so that two pieces could be sewn together 306 . (root and withe are used for sewing). C a t t a i l rope can be made from c a t t a i l leaves gathered i n the f a l l , and a simple comb can be made by carving wood. Contemporary p r i n t making could be expanded to include making a design for the class logo to screen onto students' t e e - s h i r t s . When dealing with other classes of Native Indian students, or other Native Indian cultures, the age, grade, .and:Indian c u l - ture most represented i n the classroom should be addressed by the classroom teacher. If there i s no dominant culture, a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l programme could be developed with focus on sim- i l a r i t i e s between Indian cultures present i n the c l a s s . The teacher should present a tentative plan to parents, giving them the opportunity to decide upon the most representative c r a f t of t h e i r own culture and how i t would f i t into an art programme of other Indian cultures and c r a f t s . After the students are i n t r o - duced to the a r t programme the teacher looks at the enrichment resources available to her: the school, l i b r a r i e s , museum programmes, films, f i l m s t r i p s , pictures, hand-made c r a f t s , In- dian arts and c r a f t resource people, and sources for a r t mater- i a l s . Museums can plan important roles i n an art programme. Additional a r t i f a c t s than those borrowed from the U.B.C. Museum of Anthropology and the Vancouver Centennial Museum could have added enrichment to the art programme. A S a l i s h blanket, woven cedar bark blanket, basketry r a i n hat, wooden comb, bone club, copper, and dipnet could have given the students a greater understanding of t h e i r ancestors' technology. The art programme i s looked at from the perspective of a l l of the classroom sub- jec t s . Science, Social Studies, Language Arts, Music, and P.E. 307. can a l l be taught i n terms of culture. This approach, for ex- ample, i s used by the A l e r t Bay band school. Teaching Indian culture through art can act as a catalyst to increase vocabulary and to sharpen in t e r e s t i n other areas of the curriculum. For example, a week afte r reading to the students from a book on masks of North American Indians, one student brought me a story about Kachina d o l l s which were masked. He had discovered the book during language arts and remembered the reference to Kachina d o l l s from the art c l a s s . As the art programme made reference to music, science, language a r t s , s p e l l i n g , and s o c i a l studies, the f e e l i n g about school and i n - volvement i n what was happening i n school created a t t i t u d i n a l s h i f t s and some modification of behaviour. The teacher aide t o l d me that she had noticed a gradual change i n the students' work and behaviour toward the end of the school year. Achieve- ment for Native Indian children can improve across the whole curriculum but improvement i s not generally dramatic. These are, I believe, important changes which precede measurable achievement i n the academic subjects. They are observed by subtle s h i f t s on the part of the students by becoming more co- operative, s e t t l e d and calm i n the classroom. I believe that c u l t u r a l objectives should be established that are tangible and measurable. Perhaps the Advisory Commit- tee of the school could p a r t i c i p a t e i n setting them up. There are two options: focussing on the majority Indian culture within the classroom, or there could be a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l app- roach. When achievable, clear objectives have been established, 308. with students' p a r t i c i p a t i o n , there w i l l be a greater sense of accomplishment when they have been achieved. There are other issues: What academic s k i l l s w i l l be i n - troduced? What kind of tutoring programmes w i l l operate? When? Should there be "prescriptive programmes (or) i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programmes?" (Pepper, 1976, p. 152). If parents do not wish students to stay after school, when should t h e i r work be com- pleted? The school could become a focal point for experimental c u l t u r a l enrichment experiences. For example, several of the parents indicated an i n t e r e s t i n seeing a f i l m I showed at school, "Making a Totem Pole," i n which Mungo Martin i s feat- ured. Film nights and mini-art workshops could provide occas- ions for students to demonstrate what they have learned to their f amilies. Native Education i s at a new threshold. Over f i f t y teach- ers have graduated from the Native Indian Teacher Education Pro- gramme at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia since 1978, and are teaching Native Indian children i n the schools. Native studies and art and culture programmes are being established i n the schools. Native Indian children are energetic, l i v e l y , and have a strong sense of j u s t i c e for peers, what i s " f a i r " or "not f a i r . " They remember promises made and promises not kept by the teacher. Native Indian children develop independence at an early age. They are genuinely interested i n learning about what "being Indian" means to them. Native Indian people f e e l proud when non-Indians share t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n Indian culture and they f e e l 309. more confident about t h e i r childrens' education when the i r In- dian culture i s included i n the curriculum and they have been consulted. Native Indian people are generous and share t h e i r resources with t h e i r large networks of family and extended fam- i l y . This network i s also a classroom resource of:experienced fishermen, hunters, loggers, carvers, and a r t i s t s who have s k i l l s and are w i l l i n g to share t h e i r knowledge with th e i r c h i l d ' s peers. In order to get messages across i n non-threaten- ing ways Native Indians use humour and teasing. This could be from one Native Indian parent to his c h i l d : "If you keep run- ning around so much you might miss out when the salmon i s ready to eat." (Message = calm down, you may miss out on dinner.) Native Indian children are r e s i l i e n t and undaunted i n t h e i r zest for l i f e when they are young. Many of them are impulsive and risk-takers. Native Indian students who continue to learn and work i n the i r cultures and also improve t h e i r performance i n basic sub- jects of the majority culture become young people who span both cultures, who can often speak two languages, who draw strengths from both cultures; they become the bridge across which other Native Indian people can pass so that they too can f e e l adequate and successful i n both cultures. An i n d i c a t i o n of a change i n attitude i s for some students to begin work instead of only watching others working. For others, i t i s to complete work be- gun. Some students stop work midway through and need much en- couragement to keep going. In some cases, they lack the concen- t r a t i o n span required, and i n others they are anxious about not being able to meet the standard. S t i l l others fear making a 310. mistake and wish to begin projects anew because, they believe, the previous e f f o r t was not perfect enough. For many students s a t i s f a c t i o n was achieved through control over the process, a control they had not experienced i n reading, for example. In art, reading was incidental but necessary i n order for students to check on instru c t i o n s , schedules for teams, descriptive charts, and charts for special purposes such as prayers to the cedar and salmon, and words to a song. Pr i n c i p l e s Emerging from t h i s Study How to Measure Success I t i s important for the teacher to know the students i n a personal way and to become aware of p a r t i c u l a r signals that some of them give when they are i n need of extra support. Some of them are vocal about t h e i r needs, t h e i r l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . Others express feelings by silence or moving away. Signs of success observed i n t h i s study: (i) Observational - distance from teacher, peers—closeness, reaching out to teacher and peers physically - happy, contented expressions, calm, relaxed body language - continuous performance, f i n i s h i n g work - showing pride i n work by working to show improvement, wanting to take work home to parents - student l i s t e n s to instructions and watches demon- strations by adults or peers. 3.11. Students working e f f e c t i v e l y i n teams. The concept of non- competitive classroom with students cooperating i n teams re- quires planning. I t was my experience that students who have problems working on th e i r own often have problems working within a team. So I believe that a gradual t r a n s i t i o n into a team framework can begin by each student finding a partner to work with for two lessons and then finding another pair to make up a team. Another posi t i v e feature of teams was apparent dur- ing one team competition when members on one team paid more at- tention to instructions about what was to be done when i t ap- peared as i f they had a good chance of winning. One member of the team asked me to review the steps because he was a f r a i d that he might have overlooked something. He was referred to the prepared poster for the information. The voting aspect of the team development was an important aspect of the students f e e l i n g more i n control and capable of making decisions based upon c r i t e r i a that they had talked about at the outset. ( i i ) Verbal - the messages that are given to teacher, aide, i n the classroom by the tone of voice, vocabulary, and the in t e r a c t i o n with peers - the teacher has to learn to read between the l i n e s because sometimes a Native Indian student w i l l use humour to send the teacher an important message: "This i s easy!" (means I can do t h i s ! ) . "This i s boring!" (means I can't do i t , w i l l you help?). 312. Parental Involvement Family networks of parents are an important group to begin i n v i t i n g into the classroom since they are a cohesive group a l - ready, know one another, and are related to several of the stud- ents. During pot-luck dinners, f i l m nights (showing requested c u l t u r a l films from a l i s t sent home by the teacher), and art work workshops organized by the art teacher gives parents the opportunity to learn new s k i l l s or improve previously learned ones. The art teacher during these periods can work on his own work, giving parents the opportunity to observe and work unob- served (unless requesting help). E f f e c t i v e Techniques Used Here i n Teaching Native Indian Culture Which can be Used to Teach the Standard Curriculum Using teams i n the classroom and during f i e l d t r i p s , to encourage cooperative rather than i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t . Individual worksheets, however, were better on f i e l d t r i p s and team work- sheets were e f f e c t i v e i n the classroom. Achievement charts tend to discourage rather than encourage Native Indian students and tests should be used sparingly for s p e c i f i c purposes. Native parents can be assisted to pa r t i c i p a t e i n the classroom by being encouraged to bring younger children with them and by receiving rides to school i f they are i n need of transportation. Students in the classroom suggested parents with s p e c i f i c s k i l l s to con- tribute and parents who were interested i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . The curriculum was organized within a framework but f l e x i b l e enough 313. to include the ongoing contributions of both students and par- ents. The f i e l d t r i p s were enjoyed by the students because they gained "on-site learning" i n a relaxed, non-threatening atmosphere. In the classroom the students learned by watching someone (teacher and adult supervisor) demonstrate the s k i l l for the day then they re-did the s k i l l by producing a t r a d i - t i o n a l , p r a c t i c a l a r t i f a c t . The films used i n the programme were usually used as a culminating, review a c t i v i t y , or i n some cases, as an introduction to the following lesson. They served as an additional review of p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s . Teaching Techniques Techniques used i n teaching about Indian culture can be used i n teaching basic subjects i n the classroom. Reading about Indian legends i n Social Studies or Language Arts, and adding to the spoken and written vocabulary learned during an art class enriches the c h i l d as a whole and increases his/her capacity to learn about his/her own culture and to judge what he/she needs from the majority culture. The vocabulary of h i s / her own culture becomes his/hers to use i n new and productive ways. Learning about t r a d i t i o n s by experiencing them i n the manipulation of materials can increase i n t e r e s t i n reading and writing. They read and write about what they experienced i n the a r t programme. I think that Native Indian students need to be challenged and supported when they meet the challenge. They need much en- couragement i n working towards a p a r t i c u l a r goal, and a l l t h i s must come from teacher as well as parent. Native Indian students, 314. l i k e a l l minority children, need to know that they are accepted and loved by the teacher. They need to f e e l that he or she be- liev e s i n them and that, despite setbacks and f a i l u r e s , they can count on him/her to be th e i r mentor. E f f e c t i v e teachers of Native students set r e a l i s t i c goals and a s s i s t success by en- couragement and emotional support. J.S. K l e i n f e l d (19.72)., i n her paper on "Effective Teachers of Indian and Eskimo High School Students," found that e f f e c t i v e teachers of Indian stud- ents respected t h e i r students, were f a i r , were s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n - arians, and placed heavy emphasis on scholastic work. Native students need to be made aware of their strengths, helped to choose l i f e goals; and they need role models. They must also be supportive of one another, and encouraged i n the classroom to work together. Working i n p a i r s , peer tutoring, and parent tutoring are means of developing achievement. Art Programme What does an art programme o f f e r that makes i t special? Art o f f e r s something of l a s t i n g value to the students. The art media that they were introduced to may be used throughout th e i r adult l i v e s . The projects they learned were within s p e c i f i c rules with few variables. The students f e l t secure within boundaries. They f e l t happier with rules that were imposed after consultation with them. There i s no r i g h t or wrong i n art, there i s the opportunity for everyone to achieve a r e s u l t and the variety of materials makes i t possible for students who believe themselves incapable, to achieve s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s . If a c h i l d has made an e f f o r t and followed directions for his 315. and others' safety, he can f e e l a sense of accomplishment, re- ceiving encouragement for making a most basic spoon shape. In academic subjects, however, there i s a r i g h t or wrong: a c h i l d either knows the sum of 4 plus 6 or he doesn't. He either knows the names of sea mammals, or he does not. If I Were Starting a School for Urban Native Indian Students, I Would: F i r s t of a l l , hire an experienced Native Indian teacher and then i n v i t e interested parents to apply to send th e i r stud- ents to the school. An interview screening committee could then be formed consisting of the classroom teacher, a parent repres- entative, and a Native Indian elder. Once the student body had been formed, parents of those students would be i n v i t e d to a coffee party, i n order to get to know the teacher and each other. Part of the c r i t e r i a for coming into the school would be i n t e r - est i n Indian culture and a commitment to contribute to or be involved in the school i n some way. With a general common goal, suggestions for a successful school could be e l i c i t e d from the parents, and added to the l i s t from the classroom teacher, stud- ents, and elders on the screening committee. Suggested c r i t e r i a could be sent home, or another s o c i a l gathering c a l l e d at the home of a parent or teacher so that any p o s i t i v e or negative comments could be shared before the c r i t e r i a were i n place. The l i s t should be short and manageable. It could cover the area of regular attendance, punctuality, completion of school 316 work., politeness, and respect for the property of others. In the future, schools for Native Indian students should be estab l i s h e d with consensus by teachers, parents, school administra- tio n , on c r i t e r i a for the classroom achievement and behaviour. Measurable, tangible goals and objectives, both group and i n - d i v i d u a l , are important for the e f f e c t i v e functioning of the classroom. For example, an e f f e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d reading and mathematics programme enables students to set a comfortabl pace, but with help available i n the form of peers, parent tutors, and Home School Coordinators. Parents can also play an advisory r o l e . Parent Advisory Committee The role can evolve as the year passes. The Committee should nominate a representative for the interview committee. Curriculum enrichment, sharing ideas, and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the classroom are pos i t i v e experiences for parents. The Parent Ad visory Committee can become a support group, not only for stud ents, but for other parents. Identifying c i t y resources for new parents to the c i t y i n the areas of shelter, daycare, em- ergency resources, and food bank locations a s s i s t families to adjust to the seeming anonymity of c i t y l i f e . Native Indian resource people are available to consult about family needs and, i n the process, b u i l d a network of support. The common question that a l l parents i n the Parent Committee address i s "What kind of school do we want?" Involvement and personal contact with the school brings the educational needs of Native 317. students forward. For example, do frequent absences from school i n t e r f e r e with a chil d ' s progress i n school? Communication with the home i n a pos i t i v e way i s needed to be developed between teachers, school counsellors, home school coordinators, and school administrators. It has been my observation that school administrators and parent brought together, i n a s o c i a l setting, often do not know how to communicate with one another. More frequent opportunities are needed for the school administrators to communicate with the urban Native Indian community when plan- ning for the needs of Native children. The urban Native Indian community has an Indian Centre which o f f e r s evening classes i n such c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s as drumming and Indian dancing. Native parents can upgrade th e i r high school through the Urban Indian Education Centre. At U.B.C, the Native Indian Teacher Education Programme i s a re- source for school-related job opportunities. Jobs such as teacher aides, home school coordinators, tutors, and teaching jobs are placed on a b u l l e t i n board at the campus centre. Par- ents interested i n becoming teachers can v i s i t the on-campus counsellors to determine the requirements for studying at the University of B.C. Implications Concerning Indian Education i n General There i s s t i l l much more to be done. 1. There i s a need for research into the development of tests that are free of c u l t u r a l bias. 318. 2. Although more Native Indian teachers are needed, par- t i c u l a r l y at the high school l e v e l , non-Indian teachers need to become sensitized to the c u l t u r a l t r a i t s of Native children through in-service t r a i n i n g about Native learning s t y l e s , body language, strengths, and about how to e f f e c t i v e l y help the Native c h i l d . 3. More resources are needed for Native children on a one- to-one basis; for instance, i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programmes, screening for hearing loss, eyesight problems. 4. P a r t i c i p a t i o n by Native parents of a l l Native children i n the system i s needed. Educators who meet with parents should l i s t e n f i r s t , then each should be frank about the other's ex- pectations . Implications Concerning Art Education i n P a r t i c u l a r There i s a need for Northwest Coast Art and Culture Centres where Native people could go to teach and share art s k i l l s . Classes such as Anne Siegal's i n North Vancouver, i n which stud- ents and t h e i r older brothers or s i s t e r s drop into the cl a s s , should be encouraged. Art education i n r e l a t i o n to Indian culture i s i n i t s i n - fancy. Jamake Highwater i s a Native Indian art philosopher who addresses himself to the cultures of the world i n examining s p e c i f i c aspects of Indian culture. The majority culture has t y p i c a l l y been that of the western world. We have proceeded on the assumption that " . . . a l l peoples outside the west are 319. l i v i n g f o s s i l s " (Highwater, 1981, p. 25). Most peoples of the world are not represented by the sign posts that we regard as providing the d e f i n i t i o n of art, that i s , art which can be hung, framed and matted, i n a g a l l e r y or placed within a sculpture garden. Now, however, minorities are -beginning to assert t h e i r own perspectives on art and on themselves, and p e r s i s t i n g i n doing so even i f they are not what the majority culture wants to hear and see. Native peoples are speaking out on t h e i r own behalf as never before. As they assert t h e i r claim to self-determination, they i n s i s t upon t h e i r r i g h t to have t h e i r children learn i n school about t h e i r own cultures and their own people. I t has, r i g h t l y , been said that, . . . any r e a l hope for Indian peoples must take th e i r c u l t u r a l history and values into consideration. Educa- t i o n a l programmes set up to help Indian people must f i t into t h e i r c u l t u r a l framework. Indians should be able to l i y e e f f e c t i v e l y without being forced to abandon th e i r own c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . (Pepper, 1976, p. 150) The role of the art educator i s to help the student to comprehend the significance of culture i n a r t . For example, a student must learn about the role of masks i n the Kwakiutl c u l - ture, t h e i r i d e n t i t y , and the time of the year when masks were worn before he or she can f u l l y appreciate the surface q u a l i t - ies of l i n e , texture, or shape. I believe that the art teacher needs to be a c u l t u r a l educator who a s s i s t s minorities to main- tai n t h e i r culture and educates the majority to a recognition 320. of the value of indigenous peoples 1 culture so that those very differences between the cultures can be celebrated. " . . . for Indian images are a way of celebrating mystery and not a way of explaining i t . . ." (Highwater, 1981, p. 114). Conclusion During t h i s study, some answers to questions were found. As yet, we can not be certain that we are asking a l l of the r i g h t questions, and we can not be altogether certain of the significance of the answers. We can be certai n , however, of the importance of the task undertaken. The most powerful edu- cat i o n a l system would combine l o c a l l y developed curriculum mat- e r i a l s , experienced Native Indian teachers (or sensitized non- Indian teachers), with Native Indian parents as resource per- sons, tangible support from the school and community; with cur- riculum which has evolved through consultation with a l l of the part i c i p a n t s . Greater cooperation and recognition i s needed from the non-Indian community for the implementation of program- mes for Native and non-Native children. Indian parents are present i n schools i n B.C. as teacher aides, language teachers and tutors to a much greater extent than ever before. They are there to ensure that t h e i r children are learning about th e i r culture. In some cases, they teach non-Indian childr e n as well as Indian children. The achievement i n Native Indian education w i l l be considered successful when a l l children i n B.C. schools learn more about the contributions on both a r t and culture, of Indian people, . . . because Canada's Native peoples have played an important role i n t h i s country's past, and they remain an important part of i t s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a b r i c . A l l students, Native and non-Native, need an opportun- i t y to become aware of . . . the issues that concern Native people . . . so that as the mature c i t i z e n s of the future, they can make i n t e l l i g e n t decisions. (Ministry of Education Ont., 1981, p. 4) But one must not omit the s p i r i t u a l , mystical, and creative needs of Native Indian and non-Indian people. . . . you must learn to look at the world twice . . . f i r s t you must bring your eyes together i n front so you can see each droplet of ra i n on the grass, so you can see the smoke r i s i n g from an a n t h i l l i n the sun- shine. Nothing should escape your notice. But you must learn to look again, with your eyes at the edge of what i s v i s i b l e . Now you must see dimly i f you wish to see things that are d i m — v i s i o n s , mist, cloud- people. You must learn to look at the world twice i f you wish to see a l l there i s to see. (Highwater, 1981, p. 65) 322 . BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Books Baylor, B. They put on masks. New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1974. B i l l i n g s , K., Campbell, C , & Schwandt, A. Art 'n' math. Eugene: Action Math Assoc. Inc., 19 75. Boas, F. Primitive a r t . New York: Dover Pub., 1955. 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United Tribes of A l l Tribes Foundation. Seattle: Daybreak Star Indian Cultural Education Centre, 1979. Weatherfors, E. (Ed.). Native Americans on f i l m and video. New York: Heye Foundation, 1981. Wells, 0. Salis h weaving. Sardis: Oliver Wells, 1969. Wilhelmsen, F. Salmon s p i r i t s and world renewal concepts of the Kwakiutl. Vancouver: Department of Indian A f f a i r s , 1980. Wolcott, H. A Kwakiutl v i l l a g e and school. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1967. Wright, J. Six chapters of Canada's prehistory. Ottawa: National Museums, 1976. B. Periodicals Adams, D. Self-determination and Indian education. Journal of the American Indian, 1974, 13, 21-27. Amiotte, A. Ethno-Pedagogy: A Manual i n Cultural S e n s i t i v i t y with Techniques for Improving Cross Cultural Teaching by 328. F i t t i n g Ethnic Pattern. Albuquerque, New Mexico: South- western Coop. Ed. Lab., 1968. Bowd, A. Eight prevalent myths about Indian education. Education Canada, 1979, 4_7, 4-7. Bradley, I. A bibliography of the arts and c a r f t s of North- west Coast Indians. B.C. Studies, 1975, 2_5, 78-124. Cathey, Wallace, & others. Past and contemporary culture go hand i n hand. Curriculum Guide 1969, Shiprock Independent School D i s t r i c t . (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 034638) Churchman, D. To know both worlds. Journal of American Indian Education, 1975, 14, 7-12. Dickason, O. Indian arts i n Canada. TAWOW, 1973, 4_, 10-12. Foerster, L., & L i t t l e Soldier, D. Applying anthropology to educational problems. Journal of American Indian Education, 1982, 20, 1-6. Haase, S. Thoughts on an integrated approach to curriculum. Journal of American Indian Education, 1980, 2_0, 32-33. Heaps, R., & M o r r i l l , S. Comparing the self-concepts of Navajo and white high school students. Journal of American Indian Education, 1979, 18,, 12-14. Kirk, F., Brisson, P., & Tafoya, T. Northwest Inst i t u t e for Native education. Pamphlet of the Northwest Institute for Native Education (N..I.N.E.) , 1981. Kirkness, V. National Indian Brotherhood's p o l i c y . Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern.Development, 1978. Kirkness, V. The education of Canadian Indian children. Child Welfare, 1981, LX(7). 329 . La France, J . , & Starkman, N. Development of Native Indian c u r r i c u l u m . S e a t t l e : Daybreak Star Indian C u l t u r a l Educa- t i o n Centre, 1979. MacNair, P. Kwakiutl w i n t e r dances. A r t s Canada, 1973/74. Maracle, C. Native c u l t u r e brought i n t o the classroom. Indian News, Ottawa, 1973, Nov./Dec, 3_4(11), 11. Michelson, N., & Galloway, C. A r t and the hidden vocabulary o f Indian c h i l d r e n , S t u d i e s i n A r t Education, 1972, 27-29. New, L. The r o l e o f a r t i n the education o f the American Indi a n . A r t s i n S o c i e t y , 1972, 9_, 411-418. Reyner, J . Indian teachers as c u l t u r a l t r a n s l a t o r s . J o u r n a l of American Indian Education, 1981, 2_1, 19-23. Rowan, M., & S t o t t , M. Guide to the Museum of Anthropology. Pub. Museum A s s i s t a n c e Programs and Museum of Man. (n.d.) S p i c e r , E. The sources of American Indian a r t . J o u r n a l o f American Indian Education, 1962, 1, 26-31. Tennant, P. Native Indian p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . B.C. S t u d i e s , 1982, 55_. Weeks, R. Developing books f o r Indian s t u d e n t s . A r i z o n a Teacher, 1970, 55, 9. C. Government Documents and Reports A l l a n , M. Report on the f i r s t year o f the Kumtuks A l t e r n a t i v e Program. Templeton Secondary School, Board of School T r u s t e e s , Vancouver, 1977. Brenner, L. Report on the second year o f the Kumtuks A l t e r n a - t i v e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Program. Board of School T r u s t e e s , Vancouver, 19 78. 330. B.C. Ministry of Education. New strategies in Indian education. Optimising the environmental classroom for the Native Indian students. 1981. B.C. Ministry of Education. Language arts for Native Indian students. 1982. Canada Statutes. An Act further to amend the Indian Act. V i c t o r i a : 1880. Department of Indian A f f a i r s , Ottawa, 1895. Department of Indian A f f a i r s , Ottawa, 1900. Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Ottawa, 1980. Kettle, H. Native Indian programs i n Vancouver schools: A report to the Native Indian Advisory Committee. Evaluation and Research Services Program Resources, Board of School Trustees. Vancouver: March 1983. Kettle, H. Evaluation of the f i r s t year of the Vancouver Native Indian Cultural Survival Alternative Program. Evaluation and Research Services Program Resource, Board of School Trustees. Vancouver: June 198 3. La Torre, R. An evaluation of the personal safety project: A preventative approach to c h i l d sexual abuse research report. Vancouver: Vancouver School Board, 19 82. Ontario Ministry of Education. People of Native ancestry. Curriculum Guide to the Senior Divi s i o n , 1981. 331. D. Theses Breiman, E. The CEMREL Aesthetic Education Program: Its potential adaptability and use for the incl u s i o n of Native Indian cultures i n the education of Native Indian children. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Northern Colorado, 1977. Howell, F. A comparative self-concept study between Denver's Indian children and others i n grades 4-6 through using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Northern Colorado, 1978. Koenig, D. Cognitive styles of Indians, Metis, Inuit, and non-Natives of Northern Canada and Alaska and implications for education. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Saskatchewan, 1981. Kravanga, P. An ethnological approach to art education program- ming for Navajo and Pueblo students. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of New Mexico, 19 71. McCluskey, M. An analysis of selected attitudes toward school and knowledge of Indian culture held by Indian students enrolled i n the Grand Forks, North Dakota public schools. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of North Dakota, 1975. Rascher, L. Urban Indian attitudes toward Indian education. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Northwestern University, 1977. Sampson, N. A study of the self-concept of Black, White, and Indian students i n grades three to twelve l i v i n g i n an urban 332. and a r u r a l s e t t i n g . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, 19 80. Spaulding, S. The s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs of South Dakota Indian c h i l d r e n . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, 1980. Zastrow, L. Santa C l a r a Pueblo a r t education c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Texas Tech. U n i v e r s i t y , 1980. E. Unpublished Fox, M. O r a l t r a d i t i o n s and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s i n Indian e d u c a t i o n . Canadian Indian Teacher Education Programmes (C.I.T.E.P.) Conference, Winnipeg, 1982. Johnson, E., & Johnson, R. Co-operative, c o m p e t i t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d goal s t r u c t u r i n g . Workshop, Department o f Co-operation, Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 1981. McDonald, G. Simon F r a s e r paper (Martina Reid, s o u r c e ) , 1982. Reid, B. A new Northwest Coast a r t : A dream of the p a s t or a new awakening. Presented a t the North American Indian A r t H i s t o r y Conference, Phoenix, A r i z o n a , 1979. Wilson, F. An Indian parent i n v o l v e d i n the education process - A p e r s o n a l view. Presented to C.I.T.E.P., Winnipeg, 1982. Youngman, A. L e t t e r Nov. 19 82. Department o f Native American S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , L e t h b r i d g e . Zaharia, F. Understanding Native students. Workshop, C.I.T. E.P., Winnipeg, 1982. F. A r t i c l e s Amiotte, A. Art and Indian children of the Dakota: An i n t r o - duction to art, 1978. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 202652) Howe, 0. The Institute of Indian Studies, 1982. The University of South Dakota B u l l e t i n . Kendon, J. The copper that came from heaven. The Vancouver Sun, July 21, 198 3. Museum of Anthropology exhibit, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Underwood, M. Learning never stops: An Indian perspective on the education of Indian children. B.C.T.F. Lesson Aids. 334 . APPENDIX 1 EVALUATION OF THI-L.jjTJig.'ll-YJJL !̂i OF THE VANCOUm<_NAI' f Vli_ "INDIAN CULTURAL S U R V1VALAI.,'.!' E K N A T i V K PROGRAM 83-06 Helen Ke t t l e 1983 June 20 Evaluation and Research Services Progran Resources Board of School Trustees 1595 West 10th Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V6.. 3Z8 "Unless a c h i l d learns about the forces which shaped him, the Iii story, of- h i s people, t h e i r values and customs, t h e i r language, he w i l l r e a l l y never know himself or his p o t e n t i a l as a human being. Indian culture and values have a unique place i n the hist o r y of mankind. The Indian c h i l d who learns about his heritage w i l l be proud of i t . The lessons he learns i n school, his whole school experience, should reinf o r c e and contribute to the image he has of himself as an Indian," from the National Indian Brotherhood's "Indian Control of Indian Education", quoted from the proposal e n t i t l e d "B.C. Indian C u l t u r a l Survival School" sub- m i t t e d t o the Vancouver School Board by the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School Society. INTRODUCTION 337 . Background to the Establishment of the Cultural Survival Program The Vancouver Native Indian C u l t u r a l Survival A l t e r n a t i v e Program (V.N.I.C.S.A.P.) was established i n 1982 September by the Vancouver School Board i n recognition of the spe c i a l needs of Indian c h i l d r e n i n the school system and i n response to the expressed desire of many Native Indian parents to have an accredited school i n which Native Indian hi s t o r y , c u l t u r e , t r a d i t i o n s , l i f e s t y l e and philosophy would be the rationale and basis of the program. : in 1981 March, the Native Indian C u l t u r a l Survival Society pre- sented a b r i e f to the Vancouver School Board e n t i t l e d "B.C. Indian C u l t u r a l Survival School". This b r i e f outlined a proposal for the establishment of the school d e t a i l i n g the philosophy, objectives and desired curriculum of the school. In subsequent discussions, the Board approved the recommendations contained i n the b r i e f and agreed to es t a b l i s h the school. Objectives of the Program The objectives of the school ar, outlined i n the b r i e f c a l l for a program which r e f l e c t s the experiences and cultures of Indian people both h i s t o r i c a l l y and contemporarily, and in which Indian students can learn s k i l l s that are of value to t h e i r people as well as s k i l l s that are relevant to modern urban l i f e i n Canada. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the objectives are: 1. To focus on the c u l t u r e , h i s t o r y , values, t r a d i t i o n s , l i f e s t y l e s and s p i r i t u a l i s m , both h i s t o r i c a l , and contemporary, of Indian people. 2. To encourage and develop i n students a sense of worth- whileness, increased self-esteem and confidence i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y as Indian people. 3. To explore Indian community values and needs and the decision-making process involved i n p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l matters. 4. To develop and encourage personal decision making, l i f e s k i l l s and e f f i c a c y which w i l l enable Indian students to gain greater c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s i n the community. 5. To a s s i s t the personal development of students through i n d i v i d u a l and/or group counselling conducted by Indian Elders and other knowledgeable Indian people. 6. To examine the values, t r a d i t i o n s , h i s t o r y and contem- porary events of non-Indian, people i n Canada and the world. 338. 7. To explore the l o c a l non-Indian community as i t r e l a t e s p o l i t i c a l l y , economically, c u l t u r a l l y , and s o c i a l l y to' Indian people. 8. To improve the academic and s o c i a l s k i l l s of students "enabling them to acquire increased school competency and success. 9. To provide a school i n which students w i l l develop educational s k i l l s and c r e d e n t i a l s , e n a b l i n g them to continue i n a post-secondary school or leading them to b e t t e r post-secondary career o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 10. To provide a school i n which students, parents, and community people w i l l p l a n , develop and implement programs, c u l t u r a l events and forums of I n t e r e s t of importance to Indian people and t h e i r development. PURPOSE OF THE EVALUATION The purpose of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n was to c o l l e c t i nformation r e l a t i n g to the implementation of the V . N. 1,C.S. A.P. during i t s f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n . The main o b j e c t i v e was to c o l l e c t and share w i t h a d v i s o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t a f f i n f o r m a t i o n that w i l l be u s e f u l i n the develop- ment of the program. The e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i s t s of twq p a r t s : I . a d e s c r i p t i o n of the operation of the V.N.I.C.S.A.P. during i t s f i r s t year and I I . a d e s c r i p t i o n of students and an assessment of student attendance, student achievement and student, parent, teacher and a d m i n i s t r a t o r opinions of the program. The data were gathered by the researcher d u r i n g frequent v i s i t s to the s c h o o l , through conversations w i t h the teachers, by checking records, by i n t e r v i e w i n g students, and through q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d to parents, s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . RESULTS I. Operation of the V.N.I.C.S.A.P. during I t s F i r s t Year Facilities and Staffing The program operates i n two p o r t a b l e classrooms at the B r i t a n n i a school complex. One classroom houses students i n Grades 5 to 9 while the other houses Grades 8 and 9 students. One teacher i s assigned to each classroom and there i s a f u l l - t i m e teaching a s s i s t a n t shared by the two teachers. 340 Role of Parents There has been no requirement: that parents be contacted before admitting students i n t o the program, however, Tut Lire plans include a formal procedure for contacting parents. Two parent nights were held during the year to give parents an opportunity to discuss t h e i r c h i l d ' s progress with the teachers. Several s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s held during the year gave parents and teachers an opportunity to meet on a l e s s formal basis. Parents have been Involved in t h e program as resource people. Demonstrations have been given i n techniques involved i n f i s h i n g with nets, beaver skinning and carving. 1 Administrative/Advisory Structures • There i s a formal advisory committee, the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l School Society, comprised of parents and i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n Indian education. The.society i s i n the process of determining i t s r o l e i n the operation of the school. The teachers frequently consult with the P r i n c i p a l and V i c e - P r i n c i p a l of B r i t a n n i a Secondary School, whom they keep informed regarding a l l a c t i v i t i e s -of the school. This close working r e l a t i o n s h i p has enabled the teachers to work but a program whereby t h e i r students can take e l e c t i y e s at Britannia and to make arrangements regarding the use of f a c i l i t i e s such as a woodworking shop for carving and a space for dancing. The s t a f f also have access to consultative, Audio V i s u a l and other services offered by the Vancouver School Board. Sources of Funding The program i s funded by the Vancouver School. Board. Some a d d i t i o n a l funds for c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , art and the use of resource people have been provided by the Vancouver Foundation. i. . . • • • . I I . Description of Students and Assessment of- Student Attendance, Student Progress and Opinions of Students, Parents, Teachers and Administrators Description of Students Sixty students attended the program during the f i r s t nine months (1982 September to 1983 May). Many of the students entered the program eit h e r because they themselves wanted to be involved i n a Native Indian program or because t h e i r parents wanted i t . Some of the students, however, were r e f e r r e d to the program by school counsellors, p r i n c i p a l s or s o c i a l workers as an a l t e r n a t i v e to a s i t u a t i o n that was not working out well for the student. The teachers noted that ten of the students who entered the program had behavioural problems and 13 were academically retarded (four of the 13 had been i n a Special Class'or Learning Assistance Centre). The grade levels completed by students at the time of entry into the program are noted i n Table 1. TABLE I GRADE COMPLETED AT TIME OF ENTRY INTO PROGRAM No. o f S t udents % of T o t a l (n=60) Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 12 9 17 11 8 20 15 28 18 Senior Learning A s s i s t a n c e Class Unknown 1 5 2 8 Students entered and l e f t the program throughout the year so that the t o t a l enrollment at any one time was about 40 students. During the year a t o t a l of 24 students l e f t the program. The length of stay i n ;• the program v a r i e d from one day to s i x and a h a l f months with the median stay being about f i v e months. Ten of the students who l e f t had d i s - :, played poor attendance and/or performance or behavioural problems; f i v e moved, two were r e f e r r e d to s p e c i a l programs where they could rec e i v e s p e c i a l help w i t h academic' problems, two students l e f t due to ' personal home-related problems ( i n s t a b i l i t y , h e a l t h problem) and f i v e decided to leave e i t h e r to go back i n t o a r e g u l a r school program or to be w i t h f r i e n d s at the previous s c h o o l . Student Attendance Student attendance r a t e s f o r each month u n t i l the end of May were c a l c u l a t e d and are shown i n Table I I . The average attendance r a t e f o r the period was 80%. This r a t e may be somewhat lower than the a c t u a l attendance as some students were c a r r i e d i n the records f o r some time a f t e r they stopped a t t e n d i n g , u n t i l teachers could determine whether they had a c t u a l l y q u i t the program. A comparison was made of the attendance patterns of students p r i o r to and a f t e r e n t e r i n g the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l Program. An examination of the records of 16 students f o r whom data were a v a i l a b l e f o r two years p r i o r to entrance i n t o the program showed that s i x students (38%) improved t h e i r attendance a f t e r e n t e r i n g the program, s i x (38%) showed about the same p a t t e r n before and a f t e r e n t e r i n g the program, and the attendance of four students (25%) worsened. 4- T A B U ; I i 3 4 2 . L̂9KLULL A T T E N D A N C E Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. j.m. Fab. Mar. Apr. May Average No. of Students 42 47 46 39 41 47 40 39 37 No. of School I Days 18 20 19 12 20 20 19 15 20 t Actual Days ' Attended* 93 79 79 ' 83 H2 78 80 68 74 80 *Actual days attended expressed as a percentage of the t o t a l days of attendance possible. Student Progress Students were tested in November ami again in .June using the Canadian Tests ol Basic S k i l l s (Form 3M) . The results lor a l l students who received both pre and posttests are shown in Tables 111 and IV. An analysis of the test r e s u l t s for the elementary students (Table III) indicates that while only four students showed an increase i n Vocabulary scores, a l l students showed gains i n Reading Comprehension and a l l but three TABLE III PRE AND POSTTEST GRADE EQUIVALENT'S ON THE CANADIAN TESTS UP BASIC SKILLS - ELEMENTARY STUDENTSil Vocabulary Heading Comprehension Grade Pre Post Change Pre Post Change 5 2.5 2.9 +0.4 1.3 4.4 + 3.1 5 4.1 3.6 -0.5 - 4.4 5 - 6.3 - 4.8 5.9 + 1 . 1 6 - 5.2 - 5.4 6.6 + 1.2 6 5.1 3.4 -1.7 5.3 5.8 +0. 5 6 5.2 5.2 - 5.3 5.3 6 5. 1 4.2 -0.9 3.9 4.5 +0.6 6 5.2 4.2 -1.0 4.9 5.3 +0.4 6 4.1 4.2 +0.1 5.2 5.3 +0. I 6 5.9 6.2 +0.3 5.6 6.2 +0.6 7 4.9 6.0 + 1.1 2.7 6.4 + 3.7 7 5.2 6.7 + 1.5 4.7 5.2 +0. 5 7 - 5.7 - . 5.8 6.7 +0.9 7 6.4 5.4 -1 .0 5.1 7.0 + 1.9 Mathematics S k i l l s Pre Post Change 2.8 3.8 + 1.0 3. 1 3.8 +0.7 - 4.4 _ - 6.0 - 4.2 6.2 +2.0 4.2 5.0 +0.8 4.2 5.3 + 1.1 5.5 5.4 -0.1 5.2 5.0 -0.2 5.2 6.2 + 1 .0 4.6 6.4 + 1.8 5.0 5.4 +0.4 - 6.2 5.3 6.2 +0.9 sks) , students were . — „ win. 6 i u c i u w L i i e i r enrolled grade and posttested at the enrolled grade l e v e l . The students indicated by * were tested each time at t h e i r e nrolled grade l e v e l . TABLE IV PRE AND POSTTEST GRADE EQUIVALENTS ON THE CANADIAN TESTS OF BASIC SKILLS - SECONDARY STUDENTS// Reading Language Work-Study Mathematics Vocabulary Comprehension Skills Skills Skills :udent Grade Pre Post Change Pre Post Change Pre Post Change Pre Post Change Pre Post Change 1 8 7.7 8.3 +0.6 ' 8.5 8.8 +0.3 8.4 9.2 +0.8 8.8 9.2 +0.4 8.4 8.8 +0.4 2 8 5.5 5.1 -0.4 6.4 7.0 +0.6 5.0 5.7 +0.7 6.4 6.4 - . 5.2 5.5 +0.3 3 8 7.9 7.7 -0.2 6.9 8.5 +1.6 6.9 7.5 +0.6 6.2 8.0 + 1.8 7.4 7.4 - ~ 4 8 7.3 8.2 +0.9 7.3 8.0 +0.7 8.3 8.1 -0.2 8.3 8.7 +0.4 8.2 8.3 +0.1 5 8 8.6 8.5 -0.1 6.2 7.3 +1.1- 7.5 7.4 -0.1 7. 1 7.9 +0.8 7.0 7.5 +0.5 6 •8 6.9 8.6 +1.7 5.9 8.9 +3.0 6.5 7.8 +1.3 7.5 8.9 + 1.4 5.2 5.4 +0.2 7 8 8.6 8.5 -0.1 8.2 9.0 +0.8 7.3 7.2 -0.1 8.0 8.6 +0.6 6.3 8.6 +2.3 8 8 7.9 6.9 -1.0 5.8 6.0 +0.2 4 - 7 5.4 +0.7 5.3 6.4 + 1.1 7.5 7.2 -0.3 9 8 10.1 10. 7 +0.6 10.7 10.1 -0.6 9.6 9.6 - 10.4 10.7 +0.3 11.0 11.4 +0.4 10 8 5.1 7.1 +2.0 6.0 6.6 +0.6 5.2 4.8 -0.4 5.6 6.1 +0.5 4.6 6.4 +1.8 11 8 7.1 5.9 -1.2 4.7 6.9 +2.2 5.0 4.7 -.0.3 6.3 6.1 -0.2 5.2 6.2 + 1.0 12 9 8.8 8.8 .. - 9.4 9.9 +0.5 8.9 8.6 -0.3 10.3 10.4 +0.1 10.2 10.2 - 13 9 7.3 6.9 -0.4 7.0 6.7 -0.3 6.4 7.0 . +0.6 7.2 7.6 +0.4 8.4 8.8 +0.4 //All students were pre and posttested at their enrolled grade level. co 344 showed gains in Mathematics S k i l l s . Two students on the Vocabulary t e s t , six students on the Reading Comprehension test and eight students on the Mathematics S k i l l s test showed a gain equal to or greater than the ex- pected gain (+7) over the period of time tested. Considering that most of the elementary students were tested at a lower grade l e v e l at the beginning than at the end of the year, these results i n d i c a t e that the students are progressing w e l l . An analysis of the test r e s u l t s for the secondary students (Table IV) indicates that just under half of tne students showed gains in Vocabulary and Language S k i l l s while almost a l l of the students showed gains in Reading Comprehension, Work-Study S k i l l s and Mathematics S k i l l s . The gains of three students i n Vocabulary and four students i n Language S k i l l s were equal to or greater than would be expected while the gains of s i x students in Reading Comprehension, four students i n Work-Study S k i l l s and three students in Mathematics S k i l l s were equal to or greater than expected. These r e s u l t s indicate that at both the elementary and secondary l e v e l s , students showed more improvement i n reading comprehension and mathematics than i n language s k i l l s . Overall the r e s u l t s show a good improvement in academic s k i l l s at both grade l e v e l s . The teachers rated the progress of students i n three areas: academic, s o c i a l a n dgeneral behaviour and a t t i t u d e . The ratings are shown i n Table V. As indicated, the teachers f e l t that close to 60% of the students made "good" or "very good" academic progress and 40% showed "good" or "very good" progress i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n and general behaviour and a t t i t u d e . TABLE V TEACHER RATINGS OF STUDENT PROGRESS Academic S o c i a l General Behaviour and Attitude Very Good Good Fair Poor 7 (12%) 27 (47%) 10 (17%) 7 (12%) •3 (5%) 21 (36%) 15 (26%) 10 (17%) 5 (9%) 2'otaJ Very Poor N 7 (12%) 58 9 (16%) 58 18 (31%) 14 (24%) 10 (17%) 11 (19%) 58 Opinions of Students The students were interviewed i n d i v i d u a l l y to f i n d out how they f e l t about the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l Program. Without exception, a l l students s a i d they were happy to be enrolled i n the program. Most indic a t e d that t h e i r parents and friends were also happy they were attending the program. When asked what they found d i f f e r e n t i n the program from previous schools they had attended, students most f r e - quently mentioned that they found the teachers "easier to get along with' "more understanding", "kinder", and " f r i e n d l i e r " , that teachers took more time to explain things and that they found the schoolwork easier to understand. They also frequently mentioned learning about Native Indian culture, being i n a class where a l l students are Native Indian and taking d i f f e r e n t subjects. A few students mentioned that they found i t easier to get along with other students. Students were asked about the subjects they were studying. Most students indicated that they were happy with a l l the subjects they were taking. A few of the secondary l e v e l students mentioned that they did not l i k e s o c i a l studies and when probed f o r a reason said they couldn't understand I t , were not interested or did not l i k e so much reading and w r i t i n g . Students were also asked about the ef f e c t the C u l t u r a l S u r v i v a l Program had on t h e i r attendance, fee l i n g s about school, amount they were learning and fe e l i n g s about themselves. A majority of the students i n d i - cated that the program had had a p o s i t i v e influence.on a l l four aspects. In order to learn something about students' motivation, students were asked how f a r they hoped to go i n school and what job they hoped to get when f i n i s h e d . Half the elementary l e v e l students said they wanted to complete Grade 12 and about one t h i r d did not know. A l l but one of the secondary l e v e l students said they wanted to complete Grade 12 Three quarters of the elementary l e v e l students and over ha l f at the secondary l e v e l mentioned a s p e c i f i c job that they would l i k e to get when fin i s h e d school. When asked how they would change the program to make i t better, the students came up with a number of i n d i v i d u a l suggestions. Five of the 30 s a i d they would l i k e the program expanded to Grade 12 or to include more students at higher and lower grades. Four students s a i d they were happy with the program the way i t was and ten had no suggestions to make. An attempt was made during the year to integrate secondary l e v e l students into optional classes at Britannia. The students were enthu- s i a s t i c at the beginning, but, without exception, a l l dropped out within few months. In order to gain some i n s i g h t s i n t o why this program f a i l e d , the students