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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Forest floors under second growth Douglas-fir stands : their chemical variability and some relationships… Carter, Reid Ewart 1983

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FOREST FLOORS UNDER SECOND GROWTH DOUGLAS-FIR STANDS THEIR CHEMICAL VARIAB IL ITY AND SOME RELATIONSHIPS TO PRODUCTIVITY By REID EWART CARTER B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Depar tment o f S o i l S c i e n c e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 © REID EWART CARTER, 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of So/L. Sc<0tf<?£  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The v a r i a b i l i t y o f 23 c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f LF and H h o r i z o n s was e s t a b l i s h e d unde r s i x , s i x t y t o one hundred and t h i r t y y e a r - o l d D o u g l a s - f i r ( P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i ( M i r b . ) F r a n c o ) s t a n d s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h r e e h y g r o t o p e s and two g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C o a s t a l Wes te rn Hemlock B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone . pH ( C a C l 2 h t o t a l P, S , N, C and Z n ; and C : N , N:P and N:S r a t i o s were f o u n d t o have t h e l o w e s t w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y — a l l r e q u i r i n g l e s s t han 15 samp les p e r p l o t t o p r e d i c t a mean v a l u e a t t h e 5% l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h an a l l o w a b l e e r r o r o f 1 0 % . T o t a l F e , A l , Mn and Ca were f o u n d t o have t h e g r e a t e s t w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y . V a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n p l o t s was shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n v a r i a b i l i t y between p l o t s a t t he 1% l e v e l f o r a l l p r o p e r t i e s t e s t e d . C o m p o s i t e s amp les p r e p a r e d f rom 15 i n d i v i d u a l samp les w i t h i n each p l o t were shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e d e p t h - w e i g h t e d a r i t h m e t i c means o f i n d i v i d u a l samp les a t t h e 1% l e v e l f o r most f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s t e s t e d . In a r e l a t e d s t u d y , t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f s e cond g rowth D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s i n t h e C o a s t a l Wes te rn Hemlock Zone was examined i n r e l a t i o n t o 28 c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . F i f t y - t h r e e p l o t s were samp led f r om a w ide r ange o f s i t e t y p e s o v e r a b r o a d g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n . L F , H, and Ah h o r i z o n s o f each p l o t were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i n g l e d e p t h - w e i g h t e d c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e . Seven teen d i f f e r e n t f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s i t e i n d e x . T o t a l Mn was a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r more t h a n 44% o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n s i t e i n d e x . A j a c k k n i f e d s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e was a b l e t o i i c l a s s i f y s i t e c lasses co r r e c t l y 59.5% of the time using a combination of to ta l l i p i d s , Mn, Ca and KCl-extractable N in the LF horizon of the u n s t r a t i f i e d sample populat ion expressed on a kg/ha bas i s . From the r esu l t s of a l l ana lyses , to ta l Mn, l i p i d s , ash-free l i p i d s , KC1-N, Mg, K, Ca and S and N:S, C:N and Ca:Al r a t i os were thought to have the strongest r e l a t i onsh ip to Douglas-f i r p roduc t i v i t y of a l l f o res t f l o o r proper t ies examined. Studies that examined r e l a t i onsh ips between ind iv idua l s i t e parameters and fo res t p roduc t i v i t y d id not reveal any methods of d i r e c t p roduc t i v i t y assessment. Such studies appear to be most useful fo r c l a r i f y i n g many of the nut r ient i n te rac t ions within fo res t stands. 111 T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v L I ST OF TABLES v i L I ST OF FIGURES i x L I ST OF APPENDICES x L I ST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i 1 INTRODUCTION 1 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3 I. SAMPLING STRATEGIES AND THE VARIABIL ITY OF FOREST FLOORS . . . . 12 I n t r o d u c t i o n 12 V a r i a b i l i t y o f F o r e s t F l o o r P r o p e r t i e s i n D o u g l a s - f i r S t ands o f the C o a s t a l Wes te rn Hemlock Zone 15 V a r i a b i l i t y o f Chemi ca l R a t i o s i n F o r e s t F l o o r s Under D o u g l a s - f i r S t a n d s o f t h e C o a s t a l Wes te rn Hemlock Zone . . . . 31 U s e f u l n e s s o f C o m p o s i t e S a m p l i n g T e c h n i q u e s 37 V a r i a b i l i t y W i t h i n and Among P l o t s and H o r i z o n s 38 I I . DOUGLAS-FIR PRODUCTIVITY IN RELATION TO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE FOREST FLOOR 41 I n t r o d u c t i o n 41 N u m e r i c a l Methods 47 C o r r e l a t i o n o f S i t e Index w i t h F o r e s t F l o o r Chemi ca l P r o p e r t i e s 48 i v Page S e p a r a t i o n o f S i t e C l a s s e s w i t h S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s 52 S e p a r a t i o n o f S i t e C l a s s e s by Ave rage D i s t a n c e C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s 59 E x a m i n a t i o n o f P o s s i b l e F o r e s t F l o o r - S i t e Index R e l a t i o n s h i p s 61 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 65 LITERATURE CITED 70 APPENDICES 76 v LIST OF TABLES 18 19 34 Table Page 1-1 Va r i a t i on of chemical p roper t ies wi th in p lo t s expressed as c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n . 16 1-2 Chemical proper t ies of s ix p l o t s : expressed as a mean of 15 samples. 17 1-3 Sample requirements necessary to p red i c t a mean value fo r LF horizon samples at four given l e ve l s of accuracy. l-3b Sample requirements necessary to p red i c t a mean value fo r H horizon samples at four given l e ve l s of accuracy. 1-4 Nine chemical r a t i o s ; expressed as a mean of 15 samples. 1-5 Sample requirements necessary to p red i c t a mean value fo r chemical r a t i os of the LF and H hor izons . 35 1- 6 Cor re l a t i on between weighted mean data and composite data of the LF and H hor izons . 39 2- 1 S i g n i f i c a n t co r r e l a t i ons between fo res t f l o o r chemical proper t ies and s i t e index. 49 2-2 S i g n i f i c a n t co r r e l a t i ons between fo r e s t f l o o r chemical p rope r t i e s , (Kg/ha) and s i t e index of Doug las- f i r . 51 2-3 The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n matrix fo r stepwise d iscr iminant ana lys i s invo l v ing 18 var iab les fo r the LF horizons of a l l p l o t s . 53 2-4 The jackkn i fed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n matrix fo r stepwise d iscr iminant ana lys i s invo l v ing 28 var iab les fo r the LF horizons of a l l p l o t s . v i 53 T a b l e Page 2-5 The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x f o r s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g 28 v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e H h o r i z o n s o f a l l p l o t s . 54 2-6 The j a c k k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x f o r s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g 28 v a r i a b l e s f o r the H h o r i z o n s o f a l l p l o t s . 54 2-7 The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x f o r s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g 16 v a r i a b l e s e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s f o r the LF h o r i z o n s o f a l l p l o t s h a v i n g humus fo rms i n t h e Mor o r d e r . 55 2-8 The j a c k k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x f o r s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g 16 v a r i a b l e s e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s f o r t h e LF h o r i z o n s o f a l l p l o t s h a v i n g humus f o rms i n t h e Mor o r d e r . 55 2-9 The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x f o r s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g 16 v a r i a b l e s e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s f o r t h e H h o r i z o n s o f a l l p l o t s h a v i n g humus fo rms i n t h e Mor o r d e r . 56 2-10 The j a c k k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x f o r s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g 16 v a r i a b l e s e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s f o r the H h o r i z o n s o f a l l p l o t s h a v i n g humus fo rms i n t h e Mor o r d e r . 56 2-11 The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x f o r s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g 16 v a r i a b l e s e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s vii T a b l e Page f o r t h e LFH h o r i z o n s o f a l l p l o t s h a v i n g humus fo rms i n t h e Mor o r d e r . 2-12 The j a c k k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i x f o r s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g 16 v a r i a b l e s e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s f o r the LFH h o r i z o n s o f a l l p l o t s h a v i n g humus f o rms i n t h e Mor o r d e r . v-111 L IST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 L o c a t i o n o f sample p l o t s i n t h e C o a s t a l Wes te rn Hemlock Zone o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 4 2 Range i n s i t e i n d e x f o r 53 sample p l o t s (m/100 y r . ) . 43 3 Ave rage d i s t a n c e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s u s i n g 28 c h e m i c a l p a r a m e t e r s f o r t h e LF h o r i z o n d a t a o f a l l p l o t s . 60 ix L IST OF APPENDICES Page 1.0 S i t e d e s c r i p t i o n d a t a 76 2 .0 Comp le te f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l d a t a — L F h o r i z o n 77 2.1 C o m p l e t e f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l d a t a — H h o r i z o n 79 3 .0 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r a l l c h e m i c a l da t a--LF h o r i z o n . . . 83 3.1 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r a l l c h e m i c a l da ta--H h o r i z o n . . . 84 4 . 0 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r c h e m i c a l d a t a o f p l o t s i n t h e Mor o r d e r (Kg/ha) --LF h o r i z o n s 85 4.1 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r c h e m i c a l d a t a o f p l o t s i n t h e Mor o r d e r (Kg/ha) —H h o r i z o n s 86 4 . 2 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r c h e m i c a l d a t a o f p l o t s i n t h e Mor o r d e r (Kg/ha) — L F H h o r i z o n s 87 x L IST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT A% T o t a l l i p i d s i n f r a c t i o n A o f s e q u e n t i a l e x t r a c t i o n ( Lowe, 1 9 7 4 ) . A%(na) T o t a l l i p i d s e x p r e s s e d on an a s h - f r e e b a s i s . Ah A m i n e r a l h o r i z o n fo rmed a t o r nea r t h e s u r f a c e c o n t a i n i n g 17% o r l e s s o r g a n i c C by w e i g h t . R e p r e s e n t s a zone o f maximum i n s i t u a c c u m u l a t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r . A l T o t a l a luminum (%). C T o t a l c a r b o n (%). Ca T o t a l c a l c i u m (ppm) . Ca/A l R a t i o o f t o t a l Ca t o t o t a l A l . Ca/Mg R a t i o o f t o t a l Ca t o t o t a l Mg. C/N R a t i o o f t o t a l C t o t o t a l N. CEC C a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y . Cu T o t a l c o p p e r (ppm) . C V . C o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n . F An o r g a n i c h o r i z o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f p a r t l y decomposed o r g a n i c m a t t e r d e r i v e d m a i n l y f rom l e a v e s , t w i g s , and woody m a t e r i a l s (Canada S o i l Su r vey C o m m i t t e e , 1 9 7 8 ) . Fe T o t a l i r o n (%). H An o r g a n i c h o r i z o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f decomposed o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n w h i c h t h e o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e i n d i s c e r n i b l e (Canada S o i l Su r vey C o m m i t t e e , 1 9 7 8 ) . K T o t a l p o t a s s i u m (ppm) . K/Ca R a t i o o f t o t a l K t o t o t a l C a . KC1-N P o t a s s i u m c h l o r i d e - e x t r a c t a b l e - N . x1 L An o r g a n i c h o r i z o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r d e r i v e d m a i n l y f rom l e a v e s , t w i g s , and woody m a t e r i a l s i n w h i c h t h e o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e s a r e e a s i l y d i s c e r n i b l e (Canada S o i l Su r vey c o m m i t t e e , 1 9 7 8 ) . L F A c o m p o s i t e h o r i z o n fo rmed by c o m b i n i n g t h e L and F h o r i z o n s . Mg T o t a l magnesium (ppm) . Mg/K R a t i o o f T o t a l Mg t o t o t a l K. Min-N M i n e r a l i z a b l e - n i t r o g e n (ppm) . Mn T o t a l manganese (ppm) . N T o t a l n i t r o g e n (%). NH 4 -N T o t a l ammonium-n i t rogen (ppm) . N/Mn R a t i o o f t o t a l n i t r o g e n t o t o t a l manganese . N/P R a t i o o f t o t a l n i t r o g e n t o t o t a l p h o s p h o r u s . N/S R a t i o o f t o t a l n i t r o g e n t o t o t a l s u l p h u r . P T o t a l p h o s p h o r u s (%). P/Al R a t i o o f t o t a l p h o s p h o r u s t o t o t a l a l u m i n u m . p H ( C a C l 2 ) pH measured i n a 0 .01 M C a C l 2 s o l u t i o n . S T o t a l s u l p h u r (%). Zn T o t a l z i n c (ppm) . x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s I have r e c e i v e d g u i d a n c e , s u p p o r t and encou ragement f r o m many s o u r c e s . F i r s t l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o a cknow ledge t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d by B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L i m i t e d . The l a b o r a t o r y work was made q u i t e e n j o y a b l e by t h e a d v i c e , c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o m p a n i o n s h i p o f J u l i e L a n s i q u o t , E v e l i n e W o l t e r s o n , E s t h e r Y i p and P a t t i C a r b i s . D r . Hans S c h r e i e r , B a r r y Wong and J ohn Emmanuel a r e g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e d u r i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . I wou ld l i k e t o thank my commi t t e e members f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n a l l s t a g e s o f my g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m . The i n s i g h t and i m a g i n a t i o n o f D r . K a r e l K l i n k a a r e g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d . S p e c i a l t h a n k s a r e due t o D r s . T . M. B a l l a r d and L. E. Lowe f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e , a s s i s t a n c e and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m d u r i n g b o t h c o u r s e and t h e s i s w o r k . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o thank my w i f e , Deb i C a r t e r , f o r he r p a t i e n c e and encouragement t h r o u g h o u t my g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m . x i i i 1 INTRODUCTION The i m p o r t a n c e o f f o r e s t f l o o r s i n n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g has been r e c o g n i z e d i n many s t u d i e s (Gosz e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ; Q u e s n e l , 1 9 8 0 ; Lowe and K l i n k a , 1 9 8 1 ) . F o r e s t f l o o r s have been shown n o t o n l y t o r e p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f many e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t e l e m e n t s b u t a l s o t o s t o r e many o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s i n fo rms t h a t can be r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d by p l a n t s (Gosz e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ) . D o u g l a s - f i r i s o f g r e a t economic i m p o r t a n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h r o u g h o u t t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . S i n c e v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on f o r e s t f l o o r s u n d e r D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s i t was d e c i d e d t o a t t e m p t t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s e f o r e s t f l o o r s i n t e rms o f c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s t h a t were l i k e l y t o b e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o s i t e f e r t i l i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y . In o r d e r t h a t any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s and p r o d u c t i v i t y m i g h t be a p p l i c a b l e o v e r a s p e c i f i c a r e a i t was d e c i d e d t o sample f rom a b r o a d g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n and w i d e r ange o f s i t e t y p e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e r ange o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n t h e C o a s t a l Wes te rn Hemlock B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone ( K r a j i n a , 1 9 6 9 ) . B e f o r e f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s c o u l d be compared between p l o t s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m a g n i t u d e o f w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a t i o n and t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e s . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . In t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e s t u d y f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a r e compared between s t a n d s i n r e l a t i o n t o D o u g l a s - f i r s i t e i n d e x and s i t e c l a s s . A v a r i e t y o f p a r a m e t r i c and n o n - p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s a r e used t o a s s u r e t h a t b o t h dependen t and i n d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s 2 between f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s and p r o d u c t i v i t y a r e r e v e a l e d . F i n a l l y , t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f s t u d i e s o f t h i s k i n d i s d i s c u s s e d . 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS S a m p l i n g was u n d e r t a k e n o v e r a w i d e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , w i t h i n t h e C o a s t a l Wes t e rn Hemlock (CWH) B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone o f s o u t h w e s t e r n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( K r a j i n a , 1969; K l i n k a e t a l . , 1979 ) ( F i g . 1 ) . F i e l d s a m p l i n g was c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e months o f May and J u n e , 1981. A t o t a l o f f i f t y - t h r e e sample p l o t s were e s t a b l i s h e d . F o r t y - s e v e n o f t h e s e were l a b e l l e d as " s t a n d a r d " p l o t s and s i x as " i n t e n s i v e l y s a m p l e d " p l o t s . The f o r e s t s t a n d s s e l e c t e d f o r s a m p l i n g had t o meet a number o f c r i t e r i a b e f o r e b e i n g j u d g e d s u i t a b l e . These were as f o l l o w s : 1) The s t a n d s must be w i t h i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e CWH Zone and s i t e s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a b r o a d g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h i s zone 2) S e l e c t i o n o f sample p l o t s w i t h i n s t a n d s s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a w i d e r ange o f s i t e i n d i c e s , h y g r o t o p e s ^ , t r o p h o t o p e s ^ , a s p e c t s and 3) The D o u g l a s - f i r component o f t h e o v e r s t o r y dominan t and c o d o m i n a n t t r e e s p e c i e s must be g r e a t e r t h a n o r equa l t o 80 p e r c e n t 4 ) The s t a n d must be i n an age c l a s s between 60 and 130 y e a r s 5) The s t a n d must be w e l l s t o c k e d and r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n u n d e r s t o r y and o v e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n . A t each o f t h e s i t e s c h o s e n t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s t a n d a r d p l o t s an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 400m2 was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n an a r e a c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n t o p o g r a p h y , s t o c k i n g and v e g e t a t i o n . Ten s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s were randomly c h o s e n w i t h i n each sample p l o t . T r e e s , s t u m p s , r o c k s , s t a n d i n g w a t e r and o t h e r o b j e c t s n o t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e E c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e (Wa lms ley e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . 2 E c o l o g i c a l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e (Wa lms ley e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . F i g u r e 1. L o c a t i o n o f Sample P l o t s i n t h e C o a s t a l Wes te rn Hemlock Zone o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 5 f o r e s t f l o o r were n o t s a m p l e d . P r e v i o u s s a m p l i n g e x p e r i e n c e and a r e v i e w o f s a m p l i n g l i t e r a t u r e ( Q u e s n e l , 1 9 8 0 ; G r i e r and M c C o l l , 1 9 7 1 ; K l i n k a e t  a l . , 1981) r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e L h o r i z o n ( C a n a d i a n S o i l Su r vey C o m m i t t e e , 1978) o f t e n fo rms a t h i n , d i s c o n t i n u o u s l a y e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g a m i n o r component o f t h e t o t a l f o r e s t f l o o r a c c u m u l a t i o n . Q u e s n e l , 1 9 8 0 , n o t e d t h a t i t wou ld be u s e f u l f o r f u t u r e g e n e s i s s t u d i e s t o be a b l e t o s t r a t i f y t h e f o r e s t f l o o r i n t o s m a l l e r components ba sed on deg ree o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n . A l s o n o t e d was the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h i s m i g h t r e d u c e some o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s a m p l i n g t h e f o r e s t f l o o r as an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e n t i t y . T h e r e f o r e , i t was d e c i d e d t o s t r a t i f y t h e s a m p l i n g o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r i n t o LF and H h o r i z o n s (Canada S o i l S u r v e y C o m m i t t e e , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a l s o a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e 0 X and 0 2 h o r i z o n s o f t h e S o i l S u r v e y S t a f f ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A t each s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n a s h a r p k n i f e o r spade was used t o c u t o u t s u c c e s s i v e s amp le s o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . These samp les had a minimum s u r f a c e a r e a o f 86 s q u a r e i n c h e s (560cm2) a n c j w e r e removed u n d i s t u r b e d and s e p a r a t e d i n t o LF and H h o r i z o n s . Ah h o r i z o n s , c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o m o r p h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , were no t s a m p l e d . However , a f t e r l a b a n a l y s i s , t h r e e samp les were f o u n d t o have l e s s t h a n 17%C. A l t h o u g h t h e s e samp les a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t Ah h o r i z o n s t h e y were i n c l u d e d i n t h e n u m e r i c a l a n a l y s i s . The d e p t h o f t h e LF and H h o r i z o n s was measured as t h e mean o f t h e m i d p o i n t dep ths o f t h e f o u r f a c e s o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n c r e a t e d when t h e f o r e s t f l o o r sample was r emoved . D e c a y i n g wood, undecomposed c o n e s , r o c k y m a t e r i a l and r o o t s g r e a t e r than one c e n t i m e t e r i n d i a m e t e r were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e s a m p l e . Bo th t h e humus f o rm and each sample h o r i z o n were 6 t e n t a t i v e l y c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o K l i n k a e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A l l s amp les were l a b e l l e d , s e a l e d i n p l a s t i c bags and t a k e n t o the l a b o r a t o r y f o r sample p r e p a r a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . A i r d r y i n g o f a l l s amp les was i n i t i a t e d w i t h i n 3 days o f sample c o l l e c t i o n . On each p l o t a S i t e D e s c r i p t i o n Form (Wa lms ley e t a l . , 1980) was c o m p l e t e d . T h i s r e c o r d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : 1. A s p e c t 2 . S l o p e ( d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h the use o f a Suunto c l i n o m e t e r ) 3 . E l e v a t i o n 4 . B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone/Subzone 5. P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n 6 . S i t e P o s i t i o n (Macro and Meso) 7. S i t e s u r f a c e shape 8 . M i c r o t o p o g r a p h y 9 . Meso s l o p e l e n g t h and meso u p - s l o p e l e n g t h 1 0 . E c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e r eg ime ( H y g r o t o p e ) 11 . N u t r i e n t r eg ime ( T r o p h o t o p e ) 1 2 . S o i l d r a i n a g e 1 3 . P e r v i o u s n e s s 1 4 . P e r c e n t c o v e r o f d e c a y i n g wood, b e d r o c k , c o b b l e s , s t o n e s , m i n e r a l s o i l , o r g a n i c m a t t e r and w a t e r . A l l p a r a m e t e r s were d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o Wa lms ley e t a l . , ( 1 9 8 0 ) . S i t e i n d e x f o r D o u g l a s - f i r was d e t e r m i n e d on each p l o t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t a b l e s and methods d e s c r i b e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s C r u i s e r s Manual ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i s method uses t h e mean s i t e i n d e x f o r 7 f o u r c o d o m i n a n t and two d o m i n a n t t r e e s p e r p l o t . In each p l o t , two p r i s m sweeps were t a k e n e q u i d i s t a n t f rom t h e p l o t c e n t r e , i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s a l o n g a r andomly c h o s e n a c c e s s . T h i s a l l o w e d c a l c u l a t i o n o f b a s a l a r e a . The s i x " i n t e n s i v e " sample p l o t s were c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t a b r o a d r ange i n b o t h s i t e i n d e x and h y g r o t o p e . T h r e e sample p l o t s were chosen on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t nea r Haney , B .C . and t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e were on t h e Cow i chan Lake R e s e a r c h F o r e s t on s o u t h e r n Vancouve r I s l a n d . These p l o t s were s e t - u p i n t h e same way as t h e " s t a n d a r d " p l o t s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s : f i f t e e n s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n s were c h o s e n i n s t e a d o f t h e t e n as on t h e s t a n d a r d p l o t s ; a n d , a b u l k d e n s i t y sample o f t h e e n t i r e humus fo rm was t a k e n a t each s a m p l i n g l o c a t i o n . B u l k d e n s i t i e s were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g the g l a s s bead d i s p l a c e m e n t method o u t l i n e d by N u s z d o r f e r i n K l i n k a e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A l l s amp les were a i r - d r i e d a t 25°C and f i n e l y g round i n a Wa r i ng b l e n d e r . Samples f o r t h e " s t a n d a r d " p l o t s were t h e n comb ined t o fo rm a c o m p o s i t e sample f o r each o f t h e samp led h o r i z o n s - - L F and H. T h i s c o m p o s i t e sample was w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e mean f i e l d t h i c k n e s s o f t he c o n t r i b u t i n g h o r i z o n s . In t h i s way an LF h o r i z o n t h a t was 2 cm t h i c k c o n t r i b u t e d t w i c e as much t o t h e c o m p o s i t e LF sample as an LF h o r i z o n t h a t was o n l y 1 cm t h i c k . Samples f r om t h e " i n t e n s i v e " p l o t s were a l s o comb ined t o fo rm w e i g h t e d c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e s ; howeve r , p o r t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i e l d samp les were r e t a i n e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s . A l l s amp les were l a b e l l e d and s t o r e d i n a i r - t i g h t p l a s t i c c o n t a i n e r s . H y g r o s c o p i c m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f t h e a i r - d r i e d samp les was d e t e r m i n e d by o v e n - d r y i n g a 4 . 0 0 0 g subsamp le o v e r n i g h t a t 105°C, c o o l i n g i n a 8 d e s i c c a t o r , and w e i g h i n g t o d e t e r m i n e m o i s t u r e l o s s as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e a i r d r y sample w e i g h t . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was used t o c o r r e c t a l l o t h e r p r o p e r t y v a l u e s t o an o v e n - d r y b a s i s . V a l u e s f o r pH u s i n g 5.0 g subsamp le s were measured i n a 1:10 o r g a n i c m a t t e r : 0.01 M CaCl2 s u s p e n s i o n by use o f a R a d i o m e t e r Copenhagen PHM 62 s t a n d a r d pH m e t e r . T o t a l C was e s t i m a t e d by use o f a Leco I n d u c t i o n F u r n a c e and C A n a l y s e r Model No . 521 ( L a b o r a t o r y Equ ipmen t C o r p o r a t i o n S t . J o s e p h s , M i c h i g a n ) , t o combus t a 0 . 0 6 0 g subsamp le (B remner and T a b a t a b a i , 1 9 7 1 ) . Due t o t h e s m a l l sample s i z e , a n a l y s e s were d u p l i c a t e d . The mean o f d u p l i c a t e a n a l y s i s v a l u e s was r e c o r d e d . T o t a l S was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e use o f a F i s h e r S u l f u r A n a l y z e r Model 475 o p e r a t i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e r e s i s t a n c e t y p e f u r n a c e where S i s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y c o n v e r t e d t o SO2, w i t h a l m o s t no f o r m a t i o n o f SO3. The c o m b u s t i o n o c c u r s i n an oxygen a tmosphe re a t r e d u c e d p r e s s u r e . The SO2 i s a b s o r b e d and q u a n t i t a t e d u s i n g an a u t o m a t i c b u r e t t e c o u p l e d w i t h a m i c r o p r o c e s s o r w h i c h c a l c u l a t e s t h e % S (Lowe and G u t h r i e , 1 9 8 1 ) . T o t a l l i p i d s i n t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e method p r o p o s e d by Lowe ( 1 9 7 4 ) . A 5 .000 g subsamp le was used i n s t e a d o f t h e 5 0 . 0 0 g s u b s a m p l e . T o t a l e l e m e n t a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e samp les was p e r f o r m e d by a v a r i a t i o n o f t h e s u l p h u r i c a c i d - h y d r o g e n p e r o x i d e p r o c e d u r e p r o p o s e d by L i n d n e r and H a r l e y (1942) and m o d i f i e d by P a r k i n s o n and A l l e n ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A 1 .000 g subsamp le was w e i g h e d i n t o a d i g e s t i o n t u b e , 5 .0 m i s o f c o n c e n t r a t e d s u l p h u r i c a c i d was a d d e d , and t h e s o l u t i o n was m i x e d on a 9 S y b r o n t h e r m o l y n e v o r t e x m i x e r . Two s u c c e s s i v e 1 ml a d d i t i o n s o f a hyd rogen p e r o x i d e - l i t h i u m s u l p h a t e m i x t u r e were t h e n a d d e d , and t h e s o l u t i o n was m i x e d on t h e v o r t e x m i x e r . The d i g e s t i o n t u b e s were t h e n h e a t e d on a b l o c k d i g e s t o r , u s i n g d i s c o n t i n u o u s h e a t i n g , f o r 2 t o 3 m i n u t e s o r u n t i l s p a t t e r i n g and f o a m i n g c e a s e d . The samp les were removed f rom t h e b l o c k d i g e s t o r and a l l o w e d t o c o o l f o r 5 t o 10 m i n u t e s . Two more 1 ml a d d i t i o n s o f t h e h yd rogen p e r o x i d e - l i t h i u m s u l p h a t e m i x t u r e were t h e n a d d e d . The d i g e s t i o n t u b e s were t h e n p l a c e d i n t h e b l o c k d i g e s t o r f o r 90 m i n u t e s a t 360 °C . F o l l o w i n g d i g e s t i o n t h e t u b e s were removed f r o m t h e b l o c k d i g e s t o r and a l l o w e d t o c o o l f o r 5 t o 10 m i n u t e s . A f i n a l 0 .5 ml a l i q u o t o f t h e h y d r o g e n - p e r o x i d e - l i t h i u m s u l p h a t e m i x t u r e was t h e n added and the samp les were h e a t e d on t h e b l o c k d i g e s t o r f o r a n o t h e r 30 m i n u t e s . A d d i t i o n a l a l i q u o t s o f t h e h y d r o g e n - p e r o x i d e - l i t h i u m s u l p h a t e m i x t u r e were a d d e d , as n e c e s s a r y , t o e n s u r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f a l l s a m p l e s . A f t e r c o o l i n g , t h e d i g e s t s were made up t o vo lume w i t h d i s t i l l e d , d e m i n e r a l i z e d w a t e r . T o t a l N and t o t a l P were d e t e r m i n e d c o l o r i m e t r i c a l l y by use o f t h e T e c h n i c o n A u t o a n a l y z e r I I (Anonymous 1 9 7 4 ) . The method f o r t o t a l N i s b a s e d on t h e B e r t h e l o t ( p h e n o l - h y p o c h l o r i t e ) r e a c t i o n f o r N H 4 - N . The t method f o r P i s ba sed on t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e ammonium m o l y b d o p h o s p h a t e comp lex by a s c o r b i c a c i d (Watanabe and O l s e n , 1 9 6 5 ) . The method has been a d a p t e d f o r use w i t h b l o c k d i g e s t o r a c i d d i g e s t s (Anonymous, 1 9 7 4 ) . T o t a l C a , Mg, K, F e , A l , Mn, Cu and Zn were measured by use o f a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y ( P r i c e , 1 9 7 8 ) . T o t a l Ca and t o t a l A l were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g t h e h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e n i t r o u s o x i d e - a c e t y l e n e f l a m e w h i l e a l l o t h e r e l e m e n t s were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g an a c e t y l e n e - a i r f l a m e . 10 T o t a l m i n e r a l i z a b l e N was e s t i m a t e d by use o f an a n a e r o b i c i n c u b a t i o n p r o c e d u r e m o d i f i e d f r om War ing and Bremner ( 1 9 6 4 ) . A 0 . 5 0 0 g subsamp le was w e i g h e d i n t o a 125 ml p l a s t i c b o t t l e and 12 ml o f d i s t i l l e d w a t e r was added and t h e b o t t l e s were s e a l e d . These were m i x e d and then p l a c e d i n an i n c u b a t o r a t 30°C f o r 14 d a y s , 12 ml o f 2 N KC1 was t hen added and the samp les were shaken f o r 2 h o u r s . F o l l o w i n g s h a k i n g , the samp les were f i l t e r e d (Whatman No. 1 a s h l e s s ) and t h e e x t r a c t a n t was a n a l y z e d f o r ammonium-N by use o f t h e T e c h n i c o n A u t o a n a l y z e r I I (Anonymous, 1 9 7 4 ) . In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e amount o f N a c t u a l l y m i n e r a l i z e d d u r i n g t h e two week i n c u b a t i o n , t h e e x p e r i m e n t was r e p e a t e d , t h i s t i m e w i t h o u t the i n c u b a t i o n . The 0 . 5 0 0 g subsamp le s were added t o 2 5 . 0 m i s o f 1 N K C 1 , shaken f o r two h o u r s , f i l t e r e d and a n a l y z e d f o r ammonium-N on t h e T e c h n i c o n A u t o a n a l y z e r I I (Anonymous, 1 9 7 4 ) . The v a l u e s f o r t h e K C l - e x t r a c t a b l e N were t h e n s u b t r a c t e d f r om t h e v a l u e s f o r t o t a l ammonium-N, g i v i n g a v a l u e f o r m i n e r a l i z a b l e N. T o t a l N H 4 - N , m i n e r a l i z a b l e N and K C l - e x t r a c t a b l e N were n o t e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s amp les f rom t h e i n t e n s i v e samp le p l o t s . The c o m p o s i t e s amp le s used i n t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y s t u d y were a n a l y z e d f o r a t o t a l o f 17 p r o p e r t i e s . N i n e r a t i o s : C : N , N :P , N : S , N :Mn, N:K, K : C a , C a : M g , P:A1 and C a : A l were c a l c u l a t e d and t o t a l l i p i d s (A%) and N H 4 - N were p u t on an a s h - f r e e b a s i s by d i v i d i n g by % o r g a n i c m a t t e r c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g %C by 1 . 7 2 4 . The c h e m i c a l d a t a o f a l l sample p l o t s h a v i n g humus fo rms i n t h e Mor o r d e r were t r a n s f o r m e d t o a w e i g h t p e r u n i t a r e a b a s i s . T h i s was done by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e a v e r a g e d e p t h (m) o f each h o r i z o n on t h e p l o t by 1 0 4 m 2 11 and t h e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l s u r f a c e a r e a o f t h e p l o t c o v e r e d by t h e f o r e s t f l o o r , g i v i n g t h e t o t a l vo lume o f f o r e s t f l o o r m a t e r i a l i n each h o r i z o n i n m 3 / h a . T h i s v a l u e was m u l t i p l i e d by a s t a n d a r d i z e d b u l k d e n s i t y e s t i m a t e o f 110 k g n r 3 f o r LF h o r i z o n m a t e r i a l s and 175 k g m - 3 f o r H h o r i z o n m a t e r i a l s . These s t a n d a r d i z e d b u l k d e n s i t y e s t i m a t e s were c a l c u l a t e d f rom 45 samp les o f b o t h LF and H h o r i z o n s o f Mor humus f o r m s . 12 SAMPLING STRATEGIES AND THE VARIAB IL ITY OF FOREST FLOORS I n t r o d u c t i o n In o r d e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f d i f f e r e n t f o r e s t s t a n d s , a s a m p l i n g s t r a t e g y must f i r s t be d e f i n e d . To d e t e r m i n e t h e number o f samples n e c e s s a r y t o c h a r a c t e r i z e v a r i o u s c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f a f o r e s t f l o o r t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s must be e x a m i n e d . A l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s have d e a l t w i t h t h e s p a t i a l and s e a s o n a l v a r i a b i l i t i e s o f s o i l s w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g f o r e s t f l o o r s ( Q u e s n e l , 1 9 8 0 ) . Fewer s t u d i e s have examined f o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a b i l i t y (Hammond e t a l . , 1 9 5 8 ; Made r , 1 9 6 3 ; McFee and S t o n e , 1 9 6 5 ; Lowe, 1 9 7 2 ; S t u t z b a c h e t a l . , 1 9 7 2 ; G r i e r and M c C o l l , 1971 and Q u e s n e l , 1 9 8 0 ) . B e f o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t r e e g rowth and s o i l n u t r i e n t s t a t u s can be examined t h r o u g h t h e use o f c o m p o s i t e s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s , t h e number o f s amp le s n e c e s s a r y t o meet p r e s c r i b e d s t a n d a r d s o f a c c u r a c y f o r p a r t i c u l a r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s as w e l l as the u s e f u l n e s s o f c o m p o s i t e s a m p l i n g must be d e t e r m i n e d . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have n o t e d t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t r e e g r o w t h and s o i l n u t r i e n t s t a t u s may n o t be d e t e c t a b l e because o f s h o r t r ange s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y (Made r , 1 9 6 3 ; B l y t h e and McLeod , 1978) and t h a t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f a p r o p e r t y i s as i m p o r t a n t as t h e mean v a l u e f o r p e d o l o g i c a l and e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s ( B e l l and W i l l i a m s , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s o i l component o f a f o r e s t s i t e c a n n o t be p r o p e r l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d u n l e s s s u f f i c i e n t s amp les a r e c o l l e c t e d . A number o f s t u d i e s have c h a r a c t e r i z e d f o r e s t f l o o r s unde r 13 D o u g l a s - f i r ( P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i ( M i r b . ) F r a n c o ) i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t ( G e s s e l and B a l c i , 1 9 6 5 ; Y o u n g b e r g , 1 9 6 6 ; G r i e r and M c C o l l , 1 9 7 1 ; Lowe and K l i n k a , 1 9 8 1 ) . G e s s e l and B a l c i (1965) f o u n d a l a r g e number o f samp les were needed to p r o p e r l y d e s c r i b e t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f o l d - g r o w t h c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s i n t h e Cascade and O l y m p i c m o u n t a i n r e g i o n s o f Wash ing ton S t a t e . They a t t r i b u t e d t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f f o r e s t f l o o r w e i g h t and d e p t h t o f a c t o r s such as uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r e e s on a s i t e , v a r i a t i o n i n t r e e a g e s , h e t e r o g e n e o u s s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , t o p o g r a p h i c i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , w i n d t h r o w , o c c u r r e n c e o f woody m a t e r i a l s , and random l o c a t i o n o f s amp les i n a h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n . T a p p e i n e r and Aim (1975) a t t r i b u t e d some o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f f o r e s t f l o o r s t o u n d e r g r o w t h v e g e t a t i o n e f f e c t s . G r i e r and M c C o l l (1971) s t u d i e d t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f s e v e r a l c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r i n a 4 0 - y e a r - o l d D o u g l a s - f i r p l a n t a t i o n i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n . They f ound t h a t t h e mean v a l u e o f p r o p e r t i e s such as t o t a l c a r b o n , t o t a l n i t r o g e n and s o i l pH c o u l d be a d e q u a t e l y e s t i m a t e d w i t h l e s s t h a n 30 samp les f o r a s a m p l i n g e r r o r o f 10% o r l e s s w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e f o r an i n d i v i d u a l sample s i z e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 560 cm^. Many o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s c o u l d be a d e q u a t e l y e s t i m a t e d w i t h 15 samp les o r l e s s . Quesne l (1980) f o u n d t h a t 15 samp les p e r s i t e w o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t i m a t e l o s s on i g n i t i o n , t o t a l c a r b o n , t o t a l n i t r o g e n , CEC a t pH 7 . 0 , pHfh^O) and p H ( C a C l 2 ) w i t h an a l l o w a b l e e r r o r o f 10% a t t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l . When t h e a l l o w a b l e e r r o r was i n c r e a s e d t o 25% and t h e c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l t o 9 0 % , 15 samp les p e r s i t e were f o u n d t o be s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t i m a t e t o t a l P, Mg, K, C u , Z n , CEC a t pH 4 , K d i s p l a c e d by NaCl and Na d i s p l a c e d by N H 4 O A C , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e 14 p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d p r o p e r t i e s . However , he f o u n d i t w o u l d s t i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o c o l l e c t more t h a n 40 samp les p e r s i t e f o r e x t r a c t a b l e Mn, F e , A l and Ca a t pH 4 and 7 , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n even t h i s l o w e r l e v e l o f a c c u r a c y . Mader (1963) n o t e d t h a t c o m p o s i t i n g samp les wou ld be n e c e s s a r y when e x a m i n i n g h i g h l y v a r i a b l e p r o p e r t i e s i n o r d e r t o o p t i m i z e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f f i e l d and l a b w o r k . B l y t h e and M a c l e o d (1978) f o u n d t h a t t h e most u s e f u l p r o p e r t i e s a r e t h o s e whose v a r i a b i l i t y r e m a i n s l ow o v e r f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e a r e a s . They a l s o n o t e d t h a t h i g h l y v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s a r e o f l i t t l e p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e f o r s t u d y i n g t r e e g r o w t h . I t was d e c i d e d t o q u a n t i f y t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s on s i x s i t e s ; t h r e e on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B .C . R e s e a r c h F o r e s t n e a r Haney , B .C . and t h r e e on t h e Cowichan Lake R e s e a r c h F o r e s t nea r Cowichan Lake on s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , w i t h t h e t h r e e s i t e s a t each l o c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g a r ange i n b o t h p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s and humus fo rm t a x o n . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s p a r t o f t h e s t u d y were t h r e e - f o l d . F i r s t , t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e number o f samples n e c e s s a r y t o e s t i m a t e t h e mean v a l u e o f f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s t o be used i n e x a m i n i n g p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t r e e g r o w t h . S e c o n d l y t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n p l o t s was l i k e l y t o be a s e r i o u s d e t e r r e n t t o c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a n d , f i n a l l y , t o e v a l u a t e the a c c u r a c y o f c o m p o s i t e samp le d a t a i n r e l a t i o n t o the mean o f i n d i v i d u a l samp les used t o c r e a t e t h e c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e . In an e f f o r t t o q u a n t i f y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f f o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a b i l i t y , v a r i o u s s t a t i s t i c a l methods were u s e d . The mean ( x ) , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( S D ) , and t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each 15 p r o p e r t y , w i t h i n each h o r i z o n , f rom a t o t a l o f 15 samp les p e r p l o t . These c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e o u t l i n e d by W i l l i a m s ( 1 9 6 8 ) . F o l l o w i n g a t y p e o f a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d by Husch e t a l . (1963) w h i c h has been p r e v i o u s l y a p p l i e d t o s o i l d a t a by G r i e r and M c C o l l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , L e w i s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , S l a v i n s k i (1977) and Quesne l ( 1 9 8 0 ) , t he d a t a were a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e the number o f samp les n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n t h e mean v a l u e o f a p r o p e r t y w i t h two d i f f e r e n t c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l s ( 0 . 0 5 and 0 . 0 1 ) and two a l l o w a b l e e r r o r s (10% and 2 0 % ) . R e p r e s e n t i n g f o u r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s t a t i s t i c a l r i g o r . n = t 2 . ( n - l ) ( C ^ ) 2 . . (A .E.)2 where n i s t h e number o f s a m p l i n g u n i t s needed t o e s t i m a t e t h e mean w i t h a s p e c i f i e d a l l o w a b l e e r r o r and p r o b a b i l i t y ; t ( n _ i ) i s t h e v a l u e o f s t u d e n t s t - d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h n-1 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m ; C . V . i s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n i n p e r c e n t ; and A . E . i s t h e a l l o w a b l e s a m p l i n g e r r o r i n p e r c e n t (Husch e t a l . , 1 9 6 3 ; Q u e s n e l , 1 9 8 0 ) . V a r i a b i l i t y o f F o r e s t F l o o r P r o p e r t i e s i n D o u g l a s - f i r S t a n d s  o f t h e C o a s t a l Wes t e rn Hemlock Zone D a t a d e s c r i b i n g the s i x s i t e s samp led i n t h i s s t u d y have been summar ized i n A p p e n d i c e s 1 and 2 ( p l o t s 4 8 - 5 3 ) . W i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a t i o n o f humus fo rm c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s f o r each h o r i z o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1-1. The mean v a l u e s f o r t h e c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f each h o r i z o n w i t h i n each p l o t a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 1-2 and t h e sample r e q u i r e m e n t s t o a c h i e v e a mean v a l u e f o r f o u r g i v e n l e v e l s o f c o n f i d e n c e a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s l - 3 a and l - 3 b . V a l u e s f o r C a , F e , A l and Mn a l l seemed t o show a h i g h deg ree o f 16 T a b l e 1-1. V a r i a t i o n o f C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s W i t h i n P l o t s E x p r e s s e d as C o e f f i c i e n t o f V a r i a t i o n Range i n C o e f f i c i e n t Mean C o e f f i c i e n t P r o p e r t y H o r i z o n o f V a r i a t i o n % o f V a r i a t i o n p H ( C a C l 2 ) LF 4.1 - 5.9 5.2 H 3 .9 - 14.1 7.5 cm LF 6 .7 - 1 6 . 4 7.3 H 9.1 - 4 0 . 9 1 9 . 7 N U ) LF 4.1 - 1 7 . 3 1 1 . 5 H 7 .0 - 3 8 . 9 2 1 . 0 P(%) LF 6 .9 - 9 .9 8.1 H 9 .7 - 1 9 . 6 1 3 . 4 S(%) LF 6 .2 - 1 5 . 9 11.1 H 1 3 . 8 - 5 8 . 9 2 8 . 5 A(%) LF 1 1 . 9 - 1 8 . 4 1 6 . 0 H 1 3 . 8 - 4 1 . 4 2 7 . 8 Cu(ppm) LF 1 0 . 8 - 2 9 . 4 2 1 . 0 H 15 .2 - 47.1 2 7 . 3 Zn(ppm) LF 9 .7 - 2 0 . 9 1 3 . 3 H 1 2 . 8 - 27.1 2 0 . 9 Ca(ppm) LF 1 6 . 8 - 49 .1 3 8 . 4 H 19 .2 - 1 2 1 . 7 6 9 . 5 Mg(pm) LF 1 6 . 5 - 4 3 . 3 27.1 H 1 5 . 3 - 4 5 . 7 3 0 . 4 K(ppm) LF 1 0 . 9 - 41 .1 2 1 . 3 H 1 3 . 6 - 3 7 . 4 2 5 . 7 Fe (% ) LF 4 8 . 7 - 8 5 . 5 66.1 H 2 3 . 4 - 5 5 . 8 4 0 . 5 A l ( % ) LF 19.1 - 8 0 . 0 5 6 . 2 H 2 2 . 4 - 5 1 . 3 34.1 Mn(%) LF 1 9 . 4 - 8 7 . 7 4 8 . 9 H 2 7 . 4 - 1 1 1 . 9 5 8 . 7 17 Table 1-2. Chemical Properties of Six Plots: Expressed as a Mean of 15 Samples Property Horizon Plot A1 N o t B 2 Mot C3 N o t D* Not E 5 N o t F 6 pH(CaCl2) LF 3.83 2.84 2.61 4.27 4.05 3.96 H 3.82 2.55 2.34 3.91 3.55 3.63 C{%) LF 28.59 36.47 36.57 29.60 34.03 34.21 H 18.59 35.14 35.73 17.39 31.79 32.78 N(%) LF 1.15 1.08 1.13 0.96 1.05 0.97 H 0.71 0.87 1.10 0.65 0.96 0.97 ?(%) LF 0.088 0.101 0.068 0.081 0.106 0.091 H 0.086 0.078 0.058 0.066 0.117 0.092 S(%) LF 0.146 0.141 0.165 0.114 0.107 0.112 H 0.087 0.124 0.152 0.077 0.107 0.112 A(%) LF 3.37 3.70 3.17 2.16 3.45 3.65 H 1.51 3.49 3.23 0.64 3.04 3.38 Cutppm) LF 20.5 27.6 19.7 12.1 7.8 7.5 H 20.0 24.0 13.1 19.2 10.3 9.6 Zn(ppm) LF 69.9 64.4 51.0 39.6 58.8 54.1 H 79.3 56.2 49.5 53.0 53.5 53.4 Ca(ppm) LF 5007.5 1141.3 953.8 6447.7 7843.9 5783.4 H 585.0 455.7 452.6 2231 .8 3682.3 9160.1 Mg(ppm) LF 1105.5 605.4 549.2 2650.5 1107.1 1307.8 H 1729.2 613.3 507.5 4959.9 1503.4 1622.6 K(ppm) LF 804.2 1260.8 542.3 781.1 976.4 886.5 H 904.6 937.8 345.9 797.1 1179.2 890.9 Fe(%) LF' 0.702 0.279 0.281 0.829 0.282 0.294 H 1.574 0.382 0.392 2.634 0.709 0.759 A i m LF 0.684 0.273 0.238 0.936 0.252 0.218 H 1.524 0.466 0.319 1.951 0.611 0.504 LF 0.063 0.064 0.113 0.456 0.514 0.255 H 0.114 0.017 0.065 0.748 0.438 0.258 1 Predominantly Mull and Moder humus forms 2 Predominantly Hemihumimor and Humimor humus forms 3 Predominantly Humimor with some Hemlmor humus forms 4 Predominantly Mull and Moder humus forms 5 Predominantly Hemimor with some Hemihumimor humus forms 6 Predominantly Hemihumimor humus forms 1 8 Table l-3a. Sample Requirements Necessary to Predict a Mean Value for the Chemical Properties of the LF Horizon at Four given Levels of Accuracy Property L.S. A.E. n" High Low Value Value Property L.S. 1 A.E. n* High Value Low Value pH(CaCl2) cm N(») ?{%) S(%) A(%) Cu(ppm) 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 0.70 0.20 0.86 0.22 1.62 0.48 5.02 1.28 11.37 2.75 4.66 1.34 10.38 2.60 2.92 0.53 4.66 1.16 4.21 1.05 9.36 2.34 8.13 2.03 18.06 4.51 15.12 3.78 33.61 8.40 1.08 0.27 2.40 0.60 17.57 4.39 39.06 9.76 9.23 2.32 20.60 5.15 .06 .77 .81 1.70 7.81 1.95 17.37 4.34 11.53 2.88 25.63 6.41 26.89 6.72 59.77 14.94 0.52 0.13 1.15 0.29 0.61 0.15 1.36 0.34 ,52 .13 ,15 .29 0.86 0.21 91 48 1.18 0.29 2.62 0.66 4.36 1.09 9.69 2.42 3.63 0.91 8.07 2.02 Zn(ppm) Ca(ppm) Mg(ppm) K(ppm) Fe(ppm) Al(ppm) Mn(ppm) 0.05 0.10 5.96 13.59 2.93 0.05 0.20 1 .47 3.40 0.73 0.90 0.10 13.11 30.21 6.51 0.01 0.20 3.27 7.55 1.63 0.05 0.10 49.49 74.90 8.71 0.05 0.20 12.37 18.72 2.18 0.01 0.10 109.97 166.46 19.37 0,01 0.20 27.50 41.61 4.84 0.05 0.10 26.68 58.12 7.32 0.05 0.20 6.67 14.53 1 .83 0.01 0.10 59.29 129.17 16.27 0.01 0.20 14.82 32.29 4.07 0.05 0.10 17.84 52.44 3.68 0.05 0.20 4.46 13.11 0.92 0.01 0.10 39.65 116.57 8.18 0.01 0.20 9.91 29.14 2.04 0.05 0.10 141 .61 226.79 73.69 0.05 0.20 35.4 56.70 18.42 0.01 0.10 314.72 504.05 0.01 0.20 78.69 126.01 40.95 0.05 0.10 114.83 198.74 11.34 0.05 0.20 28.71 49.89 2.83 0.01 0.10 255.22 491.71 25.20 0.01 0.20 63.80 110.42 6.30 0.05 0.10 88.27 238.83 11.71 0.03 0.20 22.07 59.71 2.93 0.01 0.10 196.18 530.81 26.02 0.01 0.20 49.05 132.70 6.50 1 Level of Significance 3 The°numberEof"samples necessary to predict mean values for a given level of accuracy. 19 Table l-3b. Sample Requirements Necessary to Predict a Mean Value for the Chemical Properties of the H Horizons at Four Given Levels of Accuracy Property L.S. A.E. High C o w ' ~ n 3 Value Value Property L.S. A.E. n J High Value Low Value pH(CaCl2) .05 .05 .01 .01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 2.10 0.52 4.67 1.16 6.19 1.55 13.75 3.44 0.47 0.12 1.05 0.26 Zn(ppm) .05 .05 .01 .01 0.10 14.26 0.20 3.57 0.10 31.73 0.20 7.93 22.77 5.69 50.60 12.65 5.12 1.28 11.38 2.85 cm .05 .05 .01 .01 0.10 17.05 0.20 4.26 0.10 37.89 0.20 9.47 52.01 13.00 115.59 28.90 3.26 0.82 7.25 1.81 Ca(ppm) .05 .05 .01 .01 0.10 196.56 0.20 49.14 0.10 436.81 0.20 109.20 459.72 114.93 1021.75 255.44 11.43 2.86 25.40 6.35 N(%) .05 .05 .01 .01 0.10 17.31 0.20 4.32 0.10 38.45 0.20 9.61 46.90 11.73 104.24 26.06 1.54 0.38 3.42 0.86 Mg(ppm) .05 .05 .01 .01 0.10 33.96 0.20 8.49 0.10 75.48 0.20 18.87 64.91 16.23 144.23 36.07 7.29 1.82 16.20 4.05 P(%) sm Am Cu(ppm) .05 0.10 5.94 11.92 2.92 K(ppm) .05 0.10 22.69 43.48 .05 0.20 1.48 2.98 0.73 .05 0.20 5.67 10.87 .01 0.10 13.20 26.50 6.49 .01 0.10 50.43 96.64 .01 0.20 3.30 6.63 1.62 .01 0.20 12.61 24.16 .05 0.10 14.60 45.45 1.08 Fe(%) .05 0.10 55.02 96.51 .05 0.20 3.65 11.36 0.27 .05 0.20 13.76 24.13 .01 0.10 32.45 101.02 2.39 .01 0.10 122.29 214.49 .01 0.20 8.11 . 25.26 0.60 .01 0.20 30.57 53.62 .05 0.10 27.48 53.17 10.74 Aim .05 0.10 51.89 92.32 .05 0.20 6.87 13.29 2.68 .05 0.20 12.97 23.08 .01 0.10 61.08 118.17 23.87 .01 0.10 115.34 205.18 .01 0.20 15.27 29.54 5.97 .01 0.20 28.83 51.29 .05 0.10 26.38 68.89 7.15 Mn(%) .05 0.10 128.19 388.22 .05 0.20 6.60 17.22 1.79 .05 0.20 32.05 97.06 .01 0.10 58.63 153.11 15.88 .01 0.10 284.90 862.84 .01 0.20 14.66 38.28 3.97 .01 0.20 71.23 215.71 5.76 1.44 12.81 3.20 16.95 4.24 37.68 9.42 15.59 3.90 34.64 8.66 23.21 5.80 51.58 12.90 1 Level of significance 2 Allowable error 3 Number of samples necessary to predict mean values for a given level of accuracy 20 v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n p l o t s . Quesne l (1980) a l s o f o u n d F e , A l and Mn t o have a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h v a r i a t i o n due t o s u b s a m p l i n g and a n a l y t i c a l e r r o r . H i g h w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f Ca i s t h o u g h t t o be a n a t u r a l f e a t u r e o f f o r e s t f l o o r s unde r s e c o n d - g r o w t h D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s ( G r i e r and M c C o l l , 1 9 7 1 ) . The a n a l y t i c a l v a l u e s f o u n d f o r Cu s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d w i t h some c a u t i o n as t hey a r e c l o s e t o d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a c e t y l e n e - a i r f l a m e used i n t h e a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o s c o p y . The p H ( C a C l 2 ) v a l u e s o f t h e LF and H h o r i z o n s examined on t h e s i x s i t e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y showed a b r o a d r ange w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o p e r t i e s i n h e r e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e two g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s . The low v a l u e o f 2 .34 was f o u n d on a m e s i c s i t e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B .C . R e s e a r c h F o r e s t ( U . B . C . R . F . ) and r e f l e c t s t h e g e n e r a l l y l ow pH v a l u e s o f t h i s l o c a t i o n . The h i g h v a l u e o f 4 . 2 7 i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r v a l u e s f o u n d a t t h e Cowichan Lake R e s e a r c h F o r e s t ( C . L . R . F . ) . In a l l c a s e s the pH v a l u e s o f t h e LF h o r i z o n samp les were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e H h o r i z o n s a m p l e s . The number o f s amp le s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t a mean v a l u e a t a g i v e n l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e compares w e l l w i t h v a l u e s f o u n d by Quesne l ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Howeve r , Quesne l (1980) f o u n d t h e g r e a t e s t w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y i n a h y g r i c e c o s y s t e m , w h i l e i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e g r e a t e s t w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y was f o u n d i n a s u b x e r i c e c o s y s t e m w i t h a Humimor humus fo rm ( K l i n k a e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . The pH o f t h e LF h o r i z o n s was f o u n d t o be l e s s v a r i a b l e t han c o r r e s p o n d i n g H h o r i z o n s w i t h o n l y one samp le p e r p l o t b e i n g n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e LF h o r i z o n and 2.1 s a m p l e s p e r p l o t i n t h e H h o r i z o n s . From t h e d a t a o f t h i s s t u d y i t i s n o t 21 p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e whe the r g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r h i g h o r low pH v a l u e s . V a r i a b i l i t y i n C b o t h w i t h i n and among p l o t s was f o u n d t o be c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e g r e e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n and m i n e r a l s o i l i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h r o u g h m i x i n g by s o i l f a u n a . The LF h o r i z o n s were l e s s v a r i a b l e t h a n t h e H, as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d due t o t h e i r l o w e r v a r i a t i o n i n m i n e r a l c o n t e n t . F i v e samp les p e r p l o t were n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e LF h o r i z o n and 1 7 . 0 s a m p l e s / p l o t i n t h e H h o r i z o n . The g r e a t e s t v a r i a b i l i t y i n b o t h LF and H h o r i z o n s was f o u n d on h y g r i c e c o s y s t e m s w i t h M u l l and Moder humus f o r m s . T h i s a g r e e d w e l l w i t h Quesne l (1980) where g r e a t e s t v a r i a b i l i t y was f o u n d i n a h y g r i c e c o s y s t e m . C i n c r e a s e d w i t h d e c r e a s i n g m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t ( h y g r i c - x e r i c ) and f rom m u l l t o mor humus fo rms on b o t h t h e U . B . C . R . F . and C . L . R . F . In b o t h l o c a t i o n s t h e r e were o n l y m i n i m a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n C between t h e x e r i c / s u b x e r i c e c o s y s t e m s and t h e m e s i c e c o s y s t e m s f o r b o t h h o r i z o n s ; t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i n C o c c u r r e d between t h e s e e c o s y s t e m s and t h e h y g r i c e c o s y s t e m s where C v a l u e s were much l o w e r i n b o t h t h e LF and H h o r i z o n s . V a l u e s f o r N r anged f r om 0 . 9 6 % t o 1.15% i n t h e LF h o r i z o n t o 0 . 6 5 % t o 1 .10% i n t h e H h o r i z o n . These compared w e l l w i t h r e s u l t s f o u n d by H e i l m a n (1979) f rom D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s i n t h e D o u g l a s - f i r R e g i o n . Youngbe rg (1966) r e p o r t e d v a l u e s r a n g i n g f rom 0 . 7 1 % t o 1 .52% i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f n i n e p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s unde r d i f f e r e n t D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s i n O r e g o n . Youngbe rg (1979) f o u n d N v a l u e s i n n i n e o l d - g r o w t h D o u g l a s - f i r f o r e s t f l o o r s r a n g i n g f rom 0 . 6 3 % t o 1 . 0 8 % , w h i c h appea red t o be c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s i t e i n d e x . Gosz et_ a l ^ (1976) and C o l e and J o h n s o n (1979) 22 s u g g e s t t h a t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f N a r e l i k e l y t o be f o u n d b e f o r e s t a n d c l o s u r e and t h a t N m i g h t be a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r o f p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , as a f t e r s t a n d c l o s u r e n i t r o g e n i s e f f i c i e n t l y r e t r a n s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e t r e e and s o i l m i c r o o r g a n i s m s w i l l have a h i g h n i t r o g e n demand. V a r i a b i l i t y o f N i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h e e c o s y s t e m s s t u d i e d a p p e a r e d t o be c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e humus fo rms f o u n d i n e a ch p l o t . N was q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n each o f t h e p l o t s h a v i n g a mor- t ype humus f o r m , howeve r , on p l o t s w i t h M u l l and Moder humus fo rms t h e amount o f N v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h i n b o t h LF and H h o r i z o n s . I f t h e number o f samp les n e c e s s a r y t o e s t i m a t e t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e was t a k e n f o r a l l p l o t s , 4 .7 s a m p l e s / p l o t were r e q u i r e d f o r t h e LF h o r i z o n s and 1 7 . 3 s a m p l e s / p l o t were r e q u i r e d f o r the H. However , i f t h e two h y g r i c e c o s y s t e m s w i t h m u l l and moder humus fo rms were e x c l u d e d , l e s s t h a n 4 . 0 s a m p l e s / p l o t were r e q u i r e d f o r the LF h o r i z o n s and l e s s t han 1 0 . 0 s a m p l e s / p l o t f o r the H h o r i z o n s . Quesne l (1980) f o u n d between 2 and 14 samp les were n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e ; a g a i n , w i t h g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e H h o r i z o n s t han LF h o r i z o n s and i n h y g r i c e c o s y s t e m s v e r s u s m e s i c and x e r i c e c o s y s t e m s . G r i e r and M c C o l l (1971) f o u n d 6 s a m p l e s / p l o t were n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t t h e mean + 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e f o r LFH samp les f rom a s m a l l p l o t i n D o u g l a s - f i r i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n . Gosz e t a l . (1976) f o u n d N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s e x h i b i t e d a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e w i t h dep th i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h e Hubbard Brook E x p e r i m e n t a l F o r e s t . In t h i s s t u d y , a l l s i x s i t e s showed a c o n s i s t e n t d e c r e a s e i n N 23 c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h d e p t h i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . N i n t h e H h o r i z o n a p p e a r e d t o be c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h % 0 . M . w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( r ) o f 0 . 9 1 . V a l u e s f o r P r anged f rom 0 . 0 6 8 % t o 0 . 1 0 6 % i n the LF h o r i z o n and f r o m 0 . 0 5 8 % t o 0 . 1 1 7 % i n t h e H h o r i z o n . These v a l u e s compare w e l l w i t h t h o s e o f He i lman (1979) who r e p o r t e d a range o f 0 .024% t o 0 . 2 2 % f o r f o r e s t f l o o r s i n t h e D o u g l a s - f i r R e g i o n . Youngberg ( 1 9 6 6 ; 1979) r e p o r t e d r anges o f 0 . 0 8 9 % t o 0 . 2 1 1 % and 0 . 0 7 % t o 0 . 1 1 % i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r o f d i f f e r e n t p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s u n d e r D o u g l a s - f i r i n Oregon and G e s s e l and B a l c i (1965) l i s t e d t o t a l P v a l u e s o f 0 . 0 9 8 % t o 0 . 1 2 2 % f o r c o m p o s i t e LFH samp le s i n c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s o f W a s h i n g t o n . A l t h o u g h t h e c i t e d v a l u e s f o r t o t a l P compare w e l l w i t h t h o s e f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t i n g f rom e x p e r i m e n t a l method w i l l a f f e c t t he s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s . Many v a l u e s used f o r c o m p a r i s o n a r e t a k e n f rom p r o c e e d i n g s o f v a r i o u s s y m p o s i a , c o n f e r e n c e s , e t c . I t a p p e a r s t o have become a common p r a c t i c e i n t h e s e pape r s t o o m i t s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on f i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y methods mak ing c o m p a r i s o n o f d a t a o f q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e . P c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s no t c o n s i s t e n t l y g r e a t e r i n e i t h e r t h e LF o r H h o r i z o n s . W i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y does n o t appea r t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h humus f o rm t a x o n , p e r c e n t o r g a n i c m a t t e r , o r h i g h o r low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f P. The number o f samp les n e c e s s a r y t o e s t i m a t e t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e was 2 .8 s a m p l e s / p l o t f o r t h e LF h o r i z o n and 5.9 s a m p l e s / p l o t f o r t h e H h o r i z o n . T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t t o Quesne l (1980) who f o u n d an i n c r e a s e i n w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s o i l m o i s t u r e and t h a t 24 f rom 15 t o 55 s a m p l e s / p l o t f o r LF h o r i z o n s and f rom 21 t o 88 s a m p l e s / p l o t f o r H h o r i z o n s were n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e e c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e . S c o n c e n t r a t i o n r anged f rom 0 . 1 0 7 % t o 0 . 1 6 5 % i n LF h o r i z o n s and f r o m 0 . 0 7 7 % t o 0 . 1 5 2 % i n H h o r i z o n s i n t h i s s t u d y . Ve r y few d a t a on S l e v e l s i n D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n s o i l s a r e a v a i l a b l e and methods used i n a n a l y z i n g t o t a l S v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . H e i l m a n (1979) f o u n d t o t a l S r anged f rom 0 . 0 5 % t o 0 . 2 0 % i n f o r e s t f l o o r s under D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s w h i l e Youngberg (1966) f o u n d t o t a l S c o n c e n t r a t i o n r a n g e d f rom 0 . 0 7 5 % t o 1.18% i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f n i n e d i f f e r e n t p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s under D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s i n O r e g o n . Gosz e t a l . (1976) f o u n d S c o n c e n t r a t i o n g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e d w i t h deg ree o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n i n f o r e s t s o i l s o f t h e Hubbard Brook F o r e s t ; t h i s was n o t t h e c a s e i n t h i s s t u d y , where S c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were equa l o r g r e a t e r i n t h e l e s s decomposed LF h o r i z o n s . N:S r a t i o s were g e n e r a l l y q u i t e l o w , r a n g i n g f r om 6 . 8 t o 9 . 8 , most were be low t h e normal N:S r a t i o r ange o f 8 t o 12 p r o p o s e d by He i lman (1979) and R u s s e l l ( 1 9 6 1 ) . N:S r a t i o s a p p e a r e d t o be g r e a t e r on t h e C . L . R . F . p l o t s t han on t h e U . B . C . R . F . p l o t s , a l t h o u g h b o t h t o t a l N and t o t a l S were i n l o w e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e C . L . R . F . p l o t s . No d a t a c o u l d be f o u n d f o r c o m p a r i s o n o f w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f t o t a l S . LF h o r i z o n s were l e s s v a r i a b l e w i t h i n p l o t s t h a n H h o r i z o n s , r e q u i r i n g o n l y 4 .2 samp les v e r s u s 1 4 . 6 s a m p l e s / p l o t i n o r d e r t o p r e d i c t t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e . The g r e a t e s t w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y was f o u n d i n t h e H h o r i z o n s o f M u l l humus f o r m s . The f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h e C . L . R . F . showed s l i g h t l y more w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y t h a n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h e U . B . C . R . F . 25 L e v e l s o f F r a c t i o n A - - L i p i d s (A%) r a n g e d f r om 2 .16% t o 3 .65% i n LF h o r i z o n s and 0 . 6 4 % t o 3 .49% i n H h o r i z o n s . These compare v e r y w e l l w i t h Lowe and K l i n k a (1981) who f o u n d A% i n c o m p o s i t e LFH samp les f r om t h r e e V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d l o c a t i o n s t o d e c r e a s e w i t h deg ree o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y , w i t h a mean v a l u e o f 3 .9% f o r Hemimors , 3 .2% f o r Humimors , 2 .2% f o r Mormoders and 0 . 1 % f o r V e r m i m u l l s . The re was a l s o a c o n s i s t e n t d e c r e a s e i n A% w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d e c o m p o s i t i o n and b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y i n t h i s s t u d y as can be seen i n T a b l e 1-2. A% a p p e a r e d t o be v e r y c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h O.M% i n t h e H h o r i z o n s w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( r ) o f 0 . 9 7 . T h i s m i g h t l e a d one t o c o n c l u d e t h a t A% i s more c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n f o r e s t f l o o r s t h a n t h e s t a t e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f the o r g a n i c m a t t e r ; howeve r , as c an be seen i n T a b l e 1, A% i s much more c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e LF h o r i z o n s , as i s C%, a l t h o u g h t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( r ) between t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s i s no t s i g n i f i c a n t a t 0 . 2 7 . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t bo th t h e n a t u r e and amount o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r l i k e l y d e t e r m i n e A% i n f o r e s t f l o o r s . W i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y was q u i t e i n c o n s i s t e n t between p l o t s , w i t h p l o t s h a v i n g M u l l and Moder humus fo rms b e i n g much more v a r i a b l e t h a n t h o s e w i t h Mor humus f o r m s . LF h o r i z o n s r e q u i r e d 8.1 s a m p l e s / p l o t t o e s t i m a t e t h e mean _+ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e w h i l e H h o r i z o n s r e q u i r e d 2 7 . 5 s a m p l e s / p l o t . T o t a l Ca was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r on t h e C . L . R . F . t h a n on t h e U . B . C . R . F . p l o t s , as can be seen i n T a b l e 1. A c c o r d i n g t o H e i l m a n (1979 ) s o i l s most l i k e l y t o c o n t a i n low l e v e l s o f t o t a l Ca i n c l u d e e x t r e m e l y a c i d 26 s o i l s f rom a r e a s o f h i g h r a i n f a l l and s o i l s h i g h i n Mg d e r i v e d f rom s e r p e n t i n e . The low pH , h i g h r a i n f a l l and a c i d i g n e o u s o r i g i n o f t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s o f t h e U . B . C . R . F . may a c c o u n t f o r t h e l o w e r Ca v a l u e s f o u n d on t h i s f o r e s t . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h e D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n shows t o t a l Ca v a l u e s r ange f r om 420 t o 3 5 , 3 7 0 ppm ( Y o u n g b e r g , 1 9 6 6 ; G r i e r and M c C o l l , 1 9 7 1 ; L a c e l l e , 1 9 7 1 ; C o l e and J o h n s o n , 1979 and H e i l m a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . Many o f t h e p l o t s i n t h i s s t u d y , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e on t h e U . B . C . R . F . were f o u n d t o be w e l l be low t h i s r a n g e . However , methods used f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t o t a l Ca can g i v e q u i t e v a r i a b l e r e s u l t s . T o t a l Ca d e c r e a s e d w i t h dep th and degree o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n on a l l p l o t s b u t o n e . T h i s p l o t had an e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Ca i n the H - h o r i z o n . T h i s t r e n d o f d e c r e a s i n g t o t a l Ca w i t h dep th and deg ree o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n was a l s o f o u n d by Gosz e t a l . (1976) and P r i t c h e t t ( 1 9 7 9 ) ; i n d i c a t i n g t h a t Ca i n f o r e s t f l o o r s o r i g i n a t e d f rom o r g a n i c a d d i t i o n s o f f o r e s t l i t t e r r a t h e r t h a n t h e m i n e r a l s o i l . However , L a c e l l e (1971) f o u n d H h o r i z o n s o f raw moders ( B e r n i e r , 1968) g e n e r a l l y had g r e a t e r Ca c o n c e n t r a t i o n s t h a n t h e o v e r l y i n g L and F h o r i z o n s . Quesne l (1980) f o u n d 14 t o 61 LF s a m p l e s / p l o t and 47 t o 233 H s a m p l e s / p l o t were n e c e s s a r y t o e s t i m a t e t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h r e e o l d g rowth s t a n d s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h r e e e c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s : x e r i c , m e s i c and h y g r i c . G r i e r and M c C o l l (1971) f o u n d 15 s a m p l e s / p l o t were needed t o e s t i m a t e the mean + 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e unde r a 4 0 - y e a r - o l d D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n . In t h i s s t u d y 50 LF h o r i z o n s a m p l e s / p l o t were r e q u i r e d t o e s t i m a t e the mean + 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e and 197 H h o r i z o n s s a m p l e s / p l o t . T h i s compares 27 q u i t e w e l l w i t h Quesne l ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Humus fo rm t a x a d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r h i g h o r l ow v a l u e s f o r t o t a l C a , o r t o w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f t o t a l C a . T o t a l Mg c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d i d no t appea r t o show any s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s between LF and H h o r i z o n s . T h i s was a l s o t h e c a s e i n p a s t s t u d i e s by Gosz e t a l . (1976) and Quesne l ( 1 9 8 0 ) . V a l u e s f o r t o t a l Mg r anged f rom 5 4 9 . 2 t o 2650 ppm i n LF h o r i z o n s and 5 0 7 . 5 t o 4959 ppm i n H h o r i z o n s . P a s t s t u d i e s unde r s e cond g rowth D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n and Oregon have r e p o r t e d a v e r y s i m i l a r r ange o f v a l u e s f o r t o t a l Mg ( Y o u n g b e r g , 1966 ; 1 9 7 9 ; G r i e r and M c C o l l , 1 9 7 1 ) . W i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f t o t a l Mg was r e l a t i v e l y h i g h w i t h 2 6 . 7 s a m p l e s / p l o t b e i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r LF h o r i z o n s and 3 4 . 0 s a m p l e s / p l o t f o r H h o r i z o n s t o e s t i m a t e t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e . T h i s w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f t o t a l Mg was f o u n d t o be much g r e a t e r on t h e C . L . R . F . p l o t s t h a n t h e U . B . C . R . F . p l o t s . K i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f t h e most m o b i l e p l a n t n u t r i e n t s ; s u b j e c t t o b o t h l e a c h i n g and r a p i d c y c l i n g w i t h i n the f o r e s t ( L e a f , 1 9 6 8 ; C o l e and J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 9 ; H e i l m a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . V a l u e s -for t o t a l K i n t h i s s t u d y compare w e l l w i t h r e s u l t s o f p a s t s t u d i e s on f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s under D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s i n t h e D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n . Youngberg ( 1 9 6 6 ; 1979) r e p o r t e d a r ange o f 730 t o 2750 ppm i n t h e comb ined LFH h o r i z o n s o f n i n e d i f f e r e n t p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s unde r D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s w h i l e G r i e r and M c C o l l (1971) f o u n d a r ange o f v a l u e s f rom 860 t o 3820 ppm unde r a 4 0 - y e a r - o l d D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n ; as can be seen i n T a b l e 1-2, t h e r ange o f K c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y i s w i t h i n , b u t n e a r t h e l o w e r 28 end o f t h e r a n g e s c i t e d a b o v e . No t r e n d s were a p p a r e n t between t h e LF and H h o r i z o n s i n t e rms o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n a l t h o u g h Gosz e t a l . (1976) f o u n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e s t i n t h e f r e s h l i t t e r , d e c r e a s i n g w i t h d e p t h . E i g h t e e n s a m p l e s / p l o t i n t h e LF h o r i z o n and 23 s a m p l e s / p l o t i n t h e H h o r i z o n were n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e . T h i s compares w e l l w i t h Quesne l ( 1 9 8 0 ) , who f o u n d 14 t o 30 s a m p l e s / p l o t were r e q u i r e d f o r t h e LF h o r i z o n and 22 t o 32 s a m p l e s / p l o t f o r t h e H h o r i z o n and w i t h G r i e r and M c C o l l (1971) who f o u n d 15 s a m p l e s / p l o t were n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e f o r c o m p o s i t e LFH samp les unde r a 4 0 - y e a r - o l d D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n . Fe and A l had c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f - 0 . 9 2 and - 0 . 9 9 r e s p e c t i v e l y when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h C i n LF h o r i z o n s , and - 0 . 9 4 and - 0 . 9 9 when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h C i n H h o r i z o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , Fe and A l were f o u n d t o be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , w i t h r e q u a l t o 0 . 9 9 f o r t h e LF h o r i z o n and 0 . 9 8 f o r the H h o r i z o n . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f b o t h e l e m e n t s was g r e a t e r i n the H h o r i z o n - - n e a r t h e m i n e r a l s o i l - f o r e s t f l o o r i n t e r f a c e . I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s may be t h e r e s u l t o f m i n e r a l s o i l i n c l u s i o n s and c o n t a m i n a t i o n i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r (Gosz e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ; P r i t c h e t t , 1979) and i t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s s u p p o r t e d f u r t h e r by t h e above s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s between F e , A l and C . As can be seen f r om T a b l e s l - 3 a and 1-3b a l a r g e number o f s a m p l e s a r e n e c e s s a r y w i t h i n ea ch p l o t i n o r d e r t o p r e d i c t t h e mean, even a t a l o w e r l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e and a g r e a t e r a l l o w a b l e e r r o r . Quesne l (1980) f o u n d a s i m i l a r amount o f w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f Fe and A l i n f o r e s t 29 f l o o r s unde r o l d - g r o w t h s t a n d s n e a r P o r t H a r d y , B .C . W i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f Fe and A l was f o u n d t o be much g r e a t e r on t h e C . L . R . F . t h a n on the U . B . C . R . F . T h i s may be due t o d i f f e r e n c e s b o t h i n f a u n a l p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e m i x i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f t h e v e r y d i f f e r e n t p H ' s f o u n d on t h e two l o c a t i o n s . Copper and z i n c l e v e l s showed no c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s between h o r i z o n s o r humus fo rm t a x a . C o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b o t h e l e m e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r on the U . B . C . R . F . t h a n on t h e C . L . R . F . L e v e l s o f c o p p e r i n b o t h t h e LF and H h o r i z o n s compared w e l l w i t h d a t a o f Quesne l (1980) and Gosz e t  a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) , a l t h o u g h b o t h o f t h e s e s t u d i e s examined the f o r e s t f l o o r s o f e c o s y s t e m s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r om t h o s e o f t h i s s t u d y . Z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n a p p e a r e d t o be s i m i l a r t o , o r s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n , most v a l u e s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( H i b b a r d , 1 9 4 0 ; S t o n e , 1 9 6 8 ; Gosz e t a l . , 1976 and Q u e s n e l , 1 9 8 0 ) , a l t h o u g h no d a t a on z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n t h e D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n c o u l d be f o u n d . W i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f b o t h e l e m e n t s was g r e a t e r i n H h o r i z o n s t h a n i n LF h o r i z o n s . B o t h e l e m e n t s showed c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y on the s i t e s examined i n t h i s s t u d y t han was f ound by Quesne l (1980) f o r f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h r e e o l d - g r o w t h e c o s y s t e m s nea r P o r t H a r d y , B .C . Quesne l (1980) f o u n d t h e number o f s a m p l e s / p l o t r e q u i r e d t o p r e d i c t t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e was 47 t o 101 and 15 t o 45 f o r Cu and Z n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n LF h o r i z o n s w i t h 1 t o 96 and 20 t o 76 samples b e i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r Cu and Zn i n H h o r i z o n s . V a r i a b i l i t y d i d n o t appea r t o be r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r humus fo rm t a x o n o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n . 30 Manganese c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r on t h e C . L . R . F . t h a n on t h e U . B . C . R . F . T h i s may be due t o e i t h e r s i t e l i t h o l o g y o r t h e e f f e c t s o f more dynamic m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t i e s b r i n g i n g a b o u t g r e a t e r m i x i n g o f m i n e r a l and o r g a n i c h o r i z o n s on t h e C . L . R . F . s i t e s due t o t h e h i g h e r pH . P r i t c h e t t (1979) s u g g e s t e d t h a t Mn c o n c e n t r a t i o n was u s u a l l y g r e a t e s t nea r the i n t e r f a c e o f t he f o r e s t f l o o r and the m i n e r a l s o i l . T h i s t r e n d was n o t a p p a r e n t on t h e s i t e s examined i n t h i s s t u d y . Manganese c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the f o r e s t f l o o r s examined appea r t o be w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l r ange o f v a l u e s c i t e d by Quesne l (1980) and G r i e r and M c C o l l (1971) a l t h o u g h the Mn c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f b o t h LF and H h o r i z o n s on p l o t s D and E o f t h e C . L . R . F . were somewhat h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A r e v i e w o f Mn v a r i a b i l i t y c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e showed a c o n s i d e r a b l e r ange i n t h e number o f s a m p l e s / p l o t f o u n d t o be n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t t h e mean +_ 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e . G r i e r and M c C o l l (1971) f o u n d 15 s a m p l e s / p l o t were n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e LFH h o r i z o n s o f a s m a l l p l o t unde r s e cond g rowth D o u g l a s - f i r i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n . Quesne l (1980) f o u n d 58 t o 1951 s a m p l e s / p l o t were r e q u i r e d f o r LF h o r i z o n s and 287 t o 2853 s a m p l e s / p l o t were r e q u i r e d f o r H h o r i z o n s i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h r e e e c o s y s t e m s unde r o l d - g r o w t h s t a n d s nea r P o r t H a r d y , B .C . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e sample r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each p l o t , a t t he above l e v e l o f a c c u r a c y , were 88 samp les f o r LF h o r i z o n s and 128 samp les f o r H h o r i z o n s . V a r i a b i l i t y d i d n o t appea r t o be r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r humus fo rm t a x a , Mn c o n c e n t r a t i o n o r l o c a t i o n . 31 V a r i a b i l i t y o f C h e m i c a l R a t i o s i n F o r e s t F l o o r s Under D o u g l a s - f i r S t a n d s o f t h e C o a s t a l Wes t e rn Hemlock Zone R a t i o s o f c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s have been used i n a g r i c u l t u r e and f o r e s t r y f o r many y e a r s . The r a t i o o f t o t a l c a r b o n t o t o t a l n i t r o g e n (C :N ) i s t h e most commonly used r a t i o . When t h e C:N r a t i o i s h i g h , n i t r a t e , and even ammonium a r e l i k e l y t o be i n s h o r t s u p p l y , as most o f t he a v a i l a b l e N i s b e i n g t a k e n up by m i c r o b i a l demand. As t h e C:N r a t i o d e c r e a s e s , more n i t r a t e s and ammonium become a v a i l a b l e (Buckman and B r a d y , 1 9 6 9 ) . N:P r a t i o i s t h o u g h t t o be c l o s e l y t i e d t o m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and i m m o b i l i z a t i o n o f P, w i t h the d e c r e a s e d s u p p l y o f one r e s u l t i n g i n the i n c r e a s e d n e t m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r ( M a c l e a n , 1 9 5 7 ) . N:K r a t i o can be used as an i n d e x f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r a p o s s i b l e K - d e f f i c i e n c y e x i s t s r a t h e r t h a n e x a m i n i n g K c o n c e n t r a t i o n a l o n e . K - d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s do n o t s y n t h e s i z e p r o t e i n s as r a p i d l y , e s p e c i a l l y f rom N H 4 - N s o u r c e s , as non K - d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s , as K a c t s as a c a t a l y s t f o r s e v e r a l enzymes i n v o l v e d i n p r o t e i n s y n t h e s i s ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s o f t e n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e N H 4 - N c o n c e n t r a t i o n when K i s d e f i c i e n t ( M a c l e a n , 1 9 5 7 ) . N i t r o g e n and s u l p h u r a r e b o t h e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t s and t h e N:S r a t i o g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . R u s s e l l (1961) s u g g e s t s t h a t a r a t i o between 8 t o 12:1 i s normal i n m i n e r a l s o i l s w h i l e o t h e r a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t f o l i a r N:S r a t i o s h i g h e r t h a n 1 4 . 6 may i n d i c a t e a s u l p h u r d e f i c i e n c y ( K e l l y and L a m b e r t , 1 9 7 2 ; T u r n e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) . K :Ca and Ca:Mg r a t i o s a r e o f t e n used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e s e e s s e n t i a l c a t i o n s . Ca competes w i t h K f o r u p t a k e a t t h e r o o t s u r f a c e . A h i g h Ca:Mg r a t i o may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i o n c a r r i e r 32 a t t h e r o o t s u r f a c e i s b e i n g ove rwhe lmed by C a , r e s u l t i n g i n an i n a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f Mg. B a l l a r d (1982b) s u g g e s t s t h a t a f o l i a r K :Ca v a l u e o f l e s s t h a n 0 .5 may r e f l e c t a K d e f i c i e n c y . Low Ca:Mg v a l u e s , l e s s t han 0 .5 i n f o l i a g e and 2 t o 3 i n s o i l may r e f l e c t u l t r a m a f i c p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s ( P r o c t o r and W o o d e l l , 1 9 7 5 ) . L e a f (1968) s u g g e s t s t h a t Ca:Mg r a t i o s i n f o r e s t s o i l s n o r m a l l y r ange f r om a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3:1 t o 5 : 1 . Ca:Mg r a t i o s i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s examined i n t h i s s t u d y were o f t e n w e l l be low 3:1 i n b o t h the LF and H h o r i z o n s ( T a b l e 1-4) a l t h o u g h t h i s does n o t i m p l y t h a t Ca i s l i m i t i n g o r t h a t Mg i s i n a b n o r m a l l y h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . Ca:Mg r a t i o s a r e g e n e r a l l y much l o w e r i n t h e H h o r i z o n t h a n i n t h e LF h o r i z o n s . T h i s i s a r e s u l t o f t h e h i g h e s t Ca c o n c e n t r a t i o n s u s u a l l y b e i n g f o u n d i n t h e LF h o r i z o n s and t h e h i g h e s t Mg c o n c e n t r a t i o n s u s u a l l y b e i n g f o u n d i n t h e H h o r i z o n s . The P:A1 r a t i o i s used as an i n d e x o f P and A l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o each o t h e r w i t h a v a l u e l e s s t h a n 3 s u g g e s t i n g a p o s s i b l e P d e f i c i e n c y (Humphreys and T ruman , 1 9 6 4 ) . As t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f A l 3 + i n c r e a s e s i n t h e s o i l t h e amount o f P r e q u i r e d by p l a n t s i s i n c r e a s e d . T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t l u x u r y amounts o f P be t a k e n up by t r e e s i n s o i l s w i t h h i g h A l 3 + c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e same g rowth as t r e e s grown i n t h e absence o f A l 3 + o r A l 3 + a t l ow c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (Humphreys and T ruman , 1 9 6 4 ) . The C a : A l r a t i o i s t h o u g h t t o g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r A l t o x i c i t y . The t o x i c i t y o f a g i v e n c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f A l i s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a c company ing c a t i o n s . An i n c r e a s e i n 33 t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o t h e r c a t i o n s ( C a 2 + , M g 2 + , Na + ) t e n d s t o c a u s e a d e c r e a s e i n Al t o x i c i t y . In t h i s s t u d y i t was d e c i d e d t o examine the v a r i a b i l i t y o f n i n e c h e m i c a l r a t i o s c a l c u l a t e d f rom n i n e d i f f e r e n t f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s . These r a t i o s were c a l c u l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r each o f f i f t e e n subsamp le s o f b o t h t h e . L F and H h o r i z o n s o f t h e s i x p l o t s used i n t h e p r e v i o u s v a r i a b i l i t y s t u d y . The v a r i a b i l i t y o f each r a t i o i n b o t h f o r e s t f l o o r h o r i z o n s o f each p l o t was t h e n d e t e r m i n e d by u s i n g H u s c h ' s e q u a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . C a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d when u s i n g r a t i o s o f c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s as a l t h o u g h they may e l u c i d a t e i m p o r t a n t n u t r i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t hey can a l s o be s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e e r r o r s . A n a l y t i c a l e r r o r s may be e x a g g e r a t e d i f t h e r e a r e o p p o s i t e e r r o r s i n numera to r and d e n o m i n a t o r . The n i n e c h e m i c a l r a t i o s , p r e s e n t e d as a mean f o r 15 samp les f r om each h o r i z o n on each p l o t , a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 1-4. The sample r e q u i r e m e n t s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t a mean v a l u e f o r c h e m i c a l r a t i o s o f t h e LF and H h o r i z o n s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 1-5. Th ree r a t i o s C : N , N:P and N:S were f o u n d t o be l e s s v a r i a b l e t h a n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d . N :K , N :Mn, K : C a , C a : M g , C a : A l and P:A1 a l l showed g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y as r a t i o s t h a n as i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t i e s . The g r e a t e s t v a r i a b i l i t y was f o u n d on p l o t s w i t h humus fo rms p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n t h e M u l l and Moder o r d e r ( i . e . , p l o t s A and D) w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f K : C a . A l l r a t i o s e x c e p t K :Ca were more v a r i a b l e i n the H h o r i z o n s and t h e deg ree o f w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y f o r a l l r a t i o s r anged c o n s i d e r a b l y f rom p l o t t o p l o t . C o e f f i c i e n t s o f v a r i a t i o n f o r the mean 34 T a b l e 1-4. N i n e C h e m i c a l R a t i o s : E x p r e s s e d as a Mean o f 15 Samples U . B . C . R e s e a r c h F o r e s t Cow ichan L ake R e s e a r c h F o r e s t P l o t P l o t P l o t P l o t P l o t P l o t R a t i o H o r i z o n A 1 B 2 C 3 D1* E 5 F 6 C:N LF 2 5 . 2 3 3 . 9 3 2 . 7 3 1 . 0 3 2 . 7 3 5 . 5 H 2 6 . 7 4 1 . 0 3 3 . 3 27.1 3 4 . 0 3 3 . 8 N:P LF 1 3 . 0 1 0 . 6 1 6 . 5 1 1 . 8 9 . 9 1 0 . 7 H 8 .4 1 1 . 2 1 8 . 7 9 .9 8 .3 1 0 . 7 N:S LF 7 .9 7.6 6 . 9 8 .4 1 0 . 0 8 .7 H 8 .3 7.1 7.2 8 .5 9 . 0 8 .7 N:K LF 1 5 . 5 8 .7 2 2 . 8 1 2 . 7 1 0 . 9 1 1 . 2 H 7 .9 9 .6 3 5 . 3 1 0 . 5 8 .4 1 2 . 6 K :Ca LF 0 . 2 8 1.3 0 .65 0 .17 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 7 H 2 .5 3.2 1.6 0 . 6 8 0 . 3 5 0 . 1 0 Ca:Mg LF 5.1 1.9 1.8 3.4 7 .9 4 . 6 H .44 0 .77 0.91 1.1 2 .8 6 .4 P:A1 LF 0 .17 0 . 3 9 0.31 0.21 0 . 5 3 0 . 5 2 H .07 0 . 1 8 0 .19 0 .07 0 . 2 2 0 . 2 3 N:Mn LF 2 1 . 5 2 5 . 8 1 0 . 8 7.2 2.1 4 . 4 H 8 .6 8 9 . 3 2 2 . 6 5.8 2 .3 4 .4 C a : A l LF 1.1 0 . 4 5 0 . 4 5 2 .0 4.1 3 .5 H 0 .07 0.11 0 . 1 6 0 . 5 0 0 . 7 4 2 .3 1 P r e d o m i n a n t l y M u l l and Moder humus f o r m s . 2 P r e d o m i n a n t l y Henrihumimor and Humimor humus f o r m s . 3 P r e d o m i n a n t l y Humimor w i t h some Hemimor humus f o r m s . 4 P r e d o m i n a n t l y M u l l and Moder humus f o r m s . 5 P r e d o m i n a n t l y Hemimor w i t h some Hemihumimor humus f o r m s . 6 P r e d o m i n a n t l y Hemihumimor humus f o r m s . 35 Table 1-5. Sample Requirements Necessary to Predict a Mean Value for Chemical Ratios of the LF and H Horizons LF Horizon Property L.S. A.E. C:N 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 High Value Low Value H Horizon Property L.S. A.E. n* High Value Low Value" 4.7 1.2 10.7 2.7 13.0 3.3 29.0 7.2 1.5 0.4 3.4 0.8 C:N 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 12.9 3.2 28.5 7.1 23.3 5.0 5.8 1.2 51.7 11.0 12.9 2.8 N:P 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 3.7 0.9 8.1 2.0 11.1 2.8 24.6 6.2 0.7 0.2 1.6 0.4 N:P 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 14.4 42.1 3.6 10.5 32.0 93.5 8.0 23.4 3.3 0.8 7.3 1.8 N:S 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 3.7 0.9 8.1 2.0 9.8 2.4 21.7 5.4 0.9 0.1 2.1 0.5 N:S 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 6.3 25.8 1.6 6.4 14.0 57.2 3.5 14.3 0.6 0.2 1.4 0.3 N:K 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 17.3 4.3 38.5 9.6 33.0 8.3 73.4 18.3 6.4 1.6 14.2 3.6 N:K 05 05 01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 61.6 212 15.4 53 137 472 34.2 117 12.9 3.2 28.6 7.1 K:Ca 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 179.0 44.8 398 99.5 695 174 1545 386 21.5 5.4 47.9 12.0 K:Ca 05 05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 150 37. 332 83 442 110 981 245 34.8 8.7 77.4 19.4 Ca:Mg 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 82.0 20.5 182 45.6 204 51.0 453 113 22.8 5.7 50.8 12.7 Ca:Mg 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 421 1065 105 266 935 2367 235 592 53.3 13.3 118 29.6 P:A1 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 88.0 22.0 196 49.0 331 82. 735 184 14.4 3.6 31.9 8.0 P:A1 0.05 0.05 0.01 ,01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 143 544 35.8 136 318 1210 79.5 303 22.5 5.6 50.1 12.5 N:Mn 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 134 572 33.4 143 297 1272 74.3 318 21.1 5.3 46.8 11.7 N:Mn .05 .05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 280 1210 69.7 303 620 2689 155 672 33.8 8.4 75.0 18.8 Ca:Al 0.05 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.20 167 41. 371 92. 494 124 1099 275 50.7 Ca:Al 0.05 0.10 626 1133 94.5 12.7 0.05 0.20 157 283 23.6 112.6 0.01 0.10 1391 2518 210 28.2 0.01 0.20 348 629 52.5 1 . 2 « 3 A s in Tables l-3a and l-3b. 36 variability of six plots were greater than 100% for all ratios except N:K and Ca:Mg in the LF horizons and C:N in both composite horizons. Consistent changes in values for the nine ratios on the U.B.C.R.F. and C.L.R.F. locations could only be seen in those ratios involving Ca or Mn. Calcium and Mn concentrations were much lower on the U.B.C.R.F. Neither location appeared to have consistently lower or higher within-plot variability for any of the ratios examined. As a result of the findings of both variability studies i t is suggested that five properties of the forest floor may be most useful i f only a limited amount of laboratory analysis is possible. Total P, S, N and C as well as pH(CaCl2) will require the least number of samples for lab analysis i f field samples are to be analyzed individually. These chemical properties will also allow the calculation of three commonly used ratios--C:N, N:P and N:S. However, i f composite sampling methods are to be used, accuracy can be improved without increasing the number of samples for lab analysis. The desired level of significance and allowable error must also be decided upon before the examination of any forest floor property is decided against due to the large number of samples required. If an allowable error of 20% is acceptable and meets the objectives of a given study the number of samples required can be reduced by 4 times when compared to an allowable error of 10%. Reducing the level of significance will also greatly reduce the sample requirements. Based on the findings of this study i t appears that composite sampling is likely the most efficient solution for obtaining a 37 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e . S t u d i e s t h a t a t t e m p t t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e f o r e s t f l o o r s o f an e c o s y s t e m t h r o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s o f a s i n g l e sample must be w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t l a r g e e r r o r s f o r a l m o s t a l l c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s ; a n d , i f c o m p a r i s o n s a re t o be made between the f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s o f d i f f e r e n t e c o s y s t e m s , must r e l y h e a v i l y on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y among p l o t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t han v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n p l o t s . The u s e f u l n e s s and t h e a c c u r a c y o f c o m p o s i t e s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s and w i t h i n - v e r s u s b e t w e e n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . U s e f u l n e s s o f C o m p o s i t e S a m p l i n g T e c h n i q u e s Due t o c o n s t r a i n t s on b o t h f i n a n c e s and t i m e i t i s o f t e n n e c e s s a r y t o compromise between t h e number o f s amp les a n a l y z e d p e r p l o t and t h e number o f p l o t s s t u d i e d . However , many f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s r e q u i r e r i g o r o u s w i t h i n - p l o t s a m p l i n g i f t h e y a r e t o meet p r e s c r i b e d s t a n d a r d s o f a c c u r a c y , as was shown i n P a r t I. In o r d e r t o meet t h e s e p r e s c r i b e d s t a n d a r d s o f a c c u r a c y w h i l e o p t i m i z i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s a m p l i n g d e s i g n a c o m p o s i t e sample i s o f t e n used (Made r , 1 9 6 3 ) . The c o m p o s i t e s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y used 15 subsamp le s f o r each h o r i z o n w i t h i n each p l o t . These subsamp les were c o m p o s i t e d on a d e p t h - w e i g h t e d b a s i s f o r b o t h LF and H h o r i z o n s t o c r e a t e two samp les p e r p l o t . These c o m p o s i t e s a m p l e s , as w e l l as t h e 15 i n d i v i d u a l s u b s a m p l e s , were t h e n a n a l y z e d f o r 14 d i f f e r e n t c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t o compare t h e a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s f o u n d f o r t h e c o m p o s i t e s amp les w i t h t h e r e s u l t s f o u n d f o r the 38 w e i g h t e d mean v a l u e o f t h e 15 i n d i v i d u a l s u b s a m p l e s f o r each h o r i z o n w i t h i n each p l o t . The c o m p o s i t e v a l u e s and t h e w e i g h t e d mean v a l u e s o f a l l p r o p e r t i e s were t e s t e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n a c r o s s a l l 6 p l o t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( r ) o f 14 c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s f o r t h e above c o r r e l a t i o n i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 1-6. As can be seen i n T a b l e 1-6, most v a l u e s f o r c o m p o s i t e samp les were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h o s e r e p r e s e n t i n g a w e i g h t e d mean v a l u e . Two p r o p e r t i e s , t o t a l C and t o t a l Mn were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d f o r b o t h h o r i z o n s a t t h e 0 . 0 5 l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y and f r a c t i o n A - l i p i d s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d i n t h e LF h o r i z o n . T h i s i s l i k e l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s m a l l number o f p l o t s , and v a r i a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g f r om l a b a n a l y s i s r a t h e r t h a n i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t i n g f r om e i t h e r t h e p h y s i c a l o r n u m e r i c a l c o m p o s i t i n g m e t h o d s . Based on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i t appea r s t h a t b o t h methods o f o b t a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l d a t a f o r a p l o t a r e q u i t e s u i t a b l e . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e v a l u e c a l c u l a t e d as t h e mean o f 15 s u b s a m p l e s w i t h i n ea ch p l o t i s l i k e l y t o be s l i g h t l y more a c c u r a t e as a n a l y t i c a l e r r o r s w i l l p l a y a l e s s e r r o l e a s s u m i n g t h a t r e p l i c a t i o n o f a n a l y s e s i s l i m i t e d . However , t h e g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y and l o w e r c o s t s o f c o m p o s i t e s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s l i k e l y o u t w e i g h any b e n e f i t s g a i n e d t h r o u g h more i n t e n s i v e m e t h o d s . V a r i a b i l i t y W i t h i n and Among P l o t s and H o r i z o n s Mader (1963) s u g g e s t e d t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n p l o t s must be l e s s t h a n v a r i a b i l i t y be tween p l o t s i f v a r i a b i l i t y i s n o t t o be a s e r i o u s 39 T a b l e 1-6. C o r r e l a t i o n Between We igh t ed Mean Da ta and C o m p o s i t e Da ta o f t he LF and H H o r i z o n s o f S i x P l o t s P r o p e r t y H o r i z o n C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f . ( r ) P r o p e r t y H o r i z o n C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f . p H ( C a C l 2 ) LF .9948 Zn LF .9955 H .9945 H .9946 C LF .7805 Ca LF .8572 H .7210 H .9812 N LF .9062 Mg LF .9848 H .9006 H .9969 P LF .9479 K LF .9657 H .9403 H .9517 S LF .9790 Fe LF .9762 H .9490 H .9897 F r a c t i o n A LF .4515 A l LF .8595 H .9759 H .9945 Cu LF .9788 Mn LF .7131 H .9852 H .4360 * r i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0 . 0 5 0 l e v e l when >_ .8114 and a t t h e 0 . 0 1 0 l e v e l when > 0 . 9 1 7 2 . 40 d e t e r r e n t t o c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . In t h i s s e c t i o n , a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( G r i e g and O s t e r l i n , 1 9 7 8 ; L i , 1968) i s used t o examine t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s f o r each h o r i z o n , b o t h w i t h i n and among p l o t s . Two range t e s t s — D u n c a n ' s New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t and Newman-KeuVs Range T e s t were a l s o used t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r t h e c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f bo th f o r e s t f l o o r h o r i z o n s c o u l d be shown t o r e p r e s e n t two d i s t i n c t , homogeneous s u b s e t s a t t h e 5% l e v e l . R e s u l t s f rom a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed t h a t v a r i a n c e between h o r i z o n s was g r e a t e r t h a n v a r i a n c e w i t h i n h o r i z o n s , w i t h F - v a l u e s b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 1% l e v e l , f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r : p H ( C a C l 2 ) . C , N, P, S, A% , C a , Mg, Fe and A l . F o u r p r o p e r t i e s ; C u , Z n , K and Mn d i d no t have a s i g n i f i c a n t F - p r o b a b i l i t y . D u n c a n ' s M u l t i p l e Range T e s t and Newman-Keul ' s T e s t f ound the LF and H h o r i z o n s r e p r e s e n t e d two d i s t i n c t , homogeneous s u b s e t s f o r a l l 14 p r o p e r t i e s t e s t e d a t t h e 5% l e v e l . These t e s t s do no t t a k e w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y i n t o a c c o u n t , s i m p l y u s i n g t h e mean v a l u e f o r each p r o p e r t y w i t h i n each h o r i z o n . The F - p r o b a b i l i t y f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f v a r i a n c e w i t h i n - p l o t s v e r s u s v a r i a n c e between p l o t s was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 1% l e v e l f o r a l l p r o p e r t i e s t e s t e d . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y s h o u l d n o t be a s e r i o u s d e t e r r e n t t o c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s c o m p a r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p l o t s (Made r , 1 9 6 3 ; L i , 1 9 6 7 ) . 41 DOUGLAS-FIR PRODUCTIVITY IN RELATION TO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE FOREST FLOOR I n t r o d u c t i o n T o d a y ' s e x p a n d i n g demand f o r wood p r o d u c t s , c o u p l e d w i t h a s h r i n k i n g f o r e s t b a s e , c r e a t e s a need f o r a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f o r e s t s o i l f e r t i l i t y and a p r a c t i c a l means f o r a s s e s s i n g f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y p o t e n t i a l ( P o w e r s , 1 9 8 0 ) . The a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f p r o d u c t i v i t y i s one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f f o r e s t l a n d management. P r o d u c t i v i t y , i n t e rms o f y i e l d s o f u s e a b l e f o r e s t p r o d u c t s p e r u n i t a r e a , d e t e r m i n e s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e i n v e s t m e n t t h a t can be made i n t h e l a n d o r i n g r o w i n g the c r o p ( S t e i n b r e n n e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . F o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f a w ide r ange o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s . P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have shown t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t r e e g rowth can be comb ined i n t o e s t i m a t i n g e q u a t i o n s t h a t w i l l p r e d i c t p r o d u c t i v i t y i n t e rms o f s i t e i n d e x ( H i l l e t a l . , 1 9 4 8 ; G e s s e l and L l o y d , 1 9 4 8 ; Ca rmean , 1 9 5 4 ; Lemmon, 1 9 5 5 ; T o t t l , 1 9 6 0 ; P o s t and C u r t i s , 1970 ; Le T a c o n , 1 9 7 2 ; Made r , 1 9 7 6 ; Y o u n g b e r g , 1 9 7 9 ; S t e i n b r e n n e r , 1 9 7 9 ; P o w e r s , 1 9 8 0 ; Lowe and K l i n k a , 1 9 8 1 ) . T i m b e r y i e l d s a r e a f u n c t i o n o f b o t h t h e g rowth r a t e o f t h e t r e e s and t h e number o f t r e e s on an a r e a . As d e n s i t y can v a r y w i d e l y and t h u s i n f l u e n c e y i e l d s , f o r e s t l a n d s a r e n o r m a l l y c l a s s i f i e d f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p o t e n t i a l g rowth r a t e s ( S t e i n b r e n n e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . S i t e i n d e x has been f o u n d t o be t h e most u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r o f p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r many s p e c i e s , as h e i g h t g rowth f o r most t r e e s p e c i e s i s 42 u n i f o r m o v e r a w i d e r ange o f s t a n d d e n s i t i e s ( S t e i n b r e n n e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . However , s i n c e a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e a r e a s s u p p o r t i n g D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s i n t h e C o a s t a l Wes te rn Hemlock Zone a r e no l o n g e r f o r e s t e d , an a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t o f t r e e g rowth u s i n g s i t e i n d e x i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o i d e n t i f y some o f the e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the g rowth o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n the CWH B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone . These v a r i a b l e s , i n t h i s c a s e a number o f c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r , w i l l be r e l a t e d t o s i t e i n d e x i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h r o u g h t h e use o f c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n , and as a g roup t h r o u g h t h e use o f d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s ( D i x o n e t a l . , 1981) and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s ( P a t t e r s o n and W h i t a k e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . A l t h o u g h p r e d i c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n c a u s a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o i l l u m i n a t e some o f t h e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o u n d . In o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t any f o r e s t f l o o r - s i t e i n d e x e s t i m a t i n g e q u a t i o n s were as a c c u r a t e and r e l i a b l e as p o s s i b l e , e v e r y e f f o r t was made t o sample a l l i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r r a n g e . S i t e i n d e x r anged f rom 14- t o 59 m/100 y e a r s ( F i g u r e 2 ) , e c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s (Wa lms ley e t a l . , 1980) r anged f rom x e r i c t o h y g r i c and s u b m e s o t r o p h i c t o e u t r o p h i c r e s p e c t i v e l y , and t h e sample p l o t s c o v e r e d a b r o a d g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e CWH a & b s u b z o n e s . These were no t samp led as v a r i a b l e s t o be t e s t e d f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e g rowth o f D o u g l a s - f i r ; i n s t e a d , t h e y were samp led so t h a t any r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o u n d w o u l d a p p l y o v e r t h e f u l l g e o g r a p h i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l r ange o f s i t e s s u p p o r t i n g D o u g l a s - f i r i n t h e a & b subzones o f t h e CWH Z o n e . 6' 44 A number o f e n v i r o n m e n t - o r s o i l - s i t e s t u d i e s f o r D o u g l a s - f i r have been c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e p a s t . H i l l e t a l . (1948) showed a w e l l - d e f i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o i l p r o f i l e g r o u p s and p r o d u c t i v i t y i n L e w i s C o u n t y , W a s h i n g t o n . G e s s e l and L l o y d (1948) s t u d y i n g s o i l s i n a g l a c i a t e d r e g i o n o f n o r t h w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n f o u n d a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o i l t e x t u r e and t h e s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r . Carmean (1954) d e v e l o p e d i n d i v i d u a l r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s r e l a t i n g s i t e i n d e x t o g roups based on p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s f o r 155 low e l e v a t i o n p l o t s i n s o u t h w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n . S t e i n b r e n n e r (1979) examined s o i l - s i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r 184 p l o t s o f pu re D o u g l a s - f i r on r e s i d u a l and g l a c i a t e d s o i l s i n w e s t e r n Wash ing ton and O r e g o n . S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were f o u n d between s i t e i n d e x and e f f e c t i v e s o i l d e p t h , dep th o f t h e A h o r i z o n , e l e v a t i o n , annua l p r e c i p i t a t i o n , s o i l t e x t u r e and s l o p e . A l l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s e m p h a s i z e d v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e and m e a s u r a b l e i n t h e f i e l d f o r use i n e s t i m a t i n g e q u a t i o n s based on s i m p l e l i n e a r o r c u r v i l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n s . Mader (1976) showed t h a t up t o 60% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n s i t e i n d e x c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r by u s i n g s o i l and s i t e v a r i a b l e s i n s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . Age p l u s s o i l v a r i a b l e s were a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r 80 t o 90% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n h e i g h t . T e x t u r a l c o m p o n e n t s , c o a r s e m a t e r i a l s , d r a i n a g e c l a s s , o r g a n i c m a t t e r , pH o f l o w e r h o r i z o n s , and m o i s t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were common s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s . I t wou ld appea r l o g i c a l t h a t s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g s t a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y t o f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i s t r y can be j u s t i f i e d by t h e a c t i v e r o l e p l a y e d by the f o r e s t f l o o r i n n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g . C o l e e t a l . (1967) showed t h a t t h e f o r e s t f l o o r c o n t a i n s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e n u t r i e n t s a c t i v e l y 45 c y c l i n g i n t h e f o r e s t s t a n d . C a l c u l a t i o n s f rom d a t a o f C o l e e t a l . (1974) show t h a t t h e f o r e s t f l o o r , w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r o n l y 3% o f t h e r o o t zone t h i c k n e s s and 6% o f t h e r o o t zone n i t r o g e n , s u p p l i e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% o f t h e s t a n d ' s t o t a l N u p t a k e . A s m a l l number o f s t u d i e s have r e l a t e d t h e g rowth o f D o u g l a s - f i r and s e v e r a l o t h e r s p e c i e s t o c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r ( Z o t t l , I 9 6 0 ; Fowelles, 1 9 6 2 ; Le T a c o n , 1 9 7 2 , Shumway and A t k i n s o n , 1 9 7 8 ; Y o u n g b e r g , 1 9 7 9 ; P o w e r s , 1 9 8 0 ; K l i n k a and Lowe, 1 9 8 1 ) . F o w e l l s (1962) s t a t e s t h a t D o u g l a s - f i r r e a c h e s i t s b e s t g rowth on s o i l s h a v i n g a pH o f 5.0 t o 5 . 5 . Z o t t l (1960) f o u n d N m i n e r a l i z e d f rom f o r e s t humus c o r r e l a t e d s t r o n g l y w i t h b o t h t r e e g rowth and f o l i a r N c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n B a v a r i a n f o r e s t s o f p i n e and s p r u c e . Le Tacon (1972) f o u n d N q u a n t i t i e s m i n e r a l i z e d d u r i n g i n c u b a t i o n o f Al h o r i z o n s o i l s amp les had a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s i t e i n d e x and f o l i a r N c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n s p r u c e , b u t s o i l n i t r a t e and t o t a l N c o n t e n t s d i d n o t . Shumway and A t k i n s o n ( 1 9 7 8 ) , s t u d y i n g D o u g l a s - f i r g rowth i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , f o u n d g rowth r e s p o n s e t o N f e r t i l i z a t i o n c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d f rom N m i n e r a l i z e d i n t h e 0- t o 15-cm s o i l d ep th zone and r e l a t i v e s t a n d d e n s i t y . Y o u n g b e r g ( 1 9 7 9 ) , i n a s t u d y r e l a t i n g t h e n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f f o r e s t f l o o r s amp le s f rom D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s o f d i f f e r e n t v i g o r on two s o i l s e r i e s , f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between t o t a l N, P, K and Ca and s i t e i n d e x . Powers (1980) examined m i n e r a l i z e d s o i l N as an i n d e x o f N a v a i l a b i l i t y t o f o r e s t t r e e s . M i n e r a l i z a b l e - N i n m i n e r a l s o i l s amp les c o m p o s i t e d f o r the 18 t o 22 cm dep th zone was f ound t o be r e l a t e d t o s i t e i n d e x o f P i n u s p o n d e r o s a (Laws) o n l y when N was a t v e r y l ow l e v e l s o f 0 t o 46 12 ppm. I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t N a v a i l a b i l i t y t o P. p o n d e r o s a , as e s t i m a t e d by the a n a e r o b i c i n c u b a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , s t r o n g l y c o n t r o l s p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y on s o i l s t e s t i n g 12 ppm o f N o r l e s s , h a v i n g l e s s e n i n g i n f l u e n c e between 12 and 20 ppm and c e a s e s t o be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r t h e r e a f t e r . Lowe and K l i n k a ( 1 9 8 1 ) , a f t e r e x a m i n i n g f o r e s t humus i n r e l a t i o n t o f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y and p e d o g e n e s i s , i n t h e CWH Zone o f s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , r e p o r t e d a number o f p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T o t a l l i p i d s a c c o u n t e d f o r 8 1 % o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n g rowth c l a s s o f D o u g l a s - f i r and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r ( T h u j a p l i c a t a Donn . ) and a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n w i t h e i g h t v a r i a b l e s was a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r 96% o f t h i s v a r i a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s were needed f o r w e s t e r n hemlock (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ( R a f . ) S a r g . ) ( and p r o b a b l y a m a b i l i s f i r [ A b i e s a m a b i l i s ( D o u g l . ) F o r b e s ] ) f rom t h o s e needed f o r D o u g l a s - f i r and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r . A f t e r a l a r g e number o f c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r were e x a m i n e d , s e v e r a l h y p o t h e s e s were p r o p o s e d s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f w e s t e r n hemlock and D o u g l a s - f i r i n t h e CWH Zone c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d f rom t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e o r f o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s : t o t a l l i p i d s , s u g a r s i n t h e B f r a c t i o n , C :N r a t i o and C i n t h e f u l v i c p o l y p h e n o l f r a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween g r o w t h c l a s s o r s i t e i n d e x and numerous e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s no examp les o f f u r t h e r t e s t i n g o f t h e s e p r o p o s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d be f o u n d . 47 N u m e r i c a l Methods A c o m p l e t e l i s t i n g o f a l l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , b o t h measu red and c a l c u l a t e d , i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x 2 . In t h e i n i t i a l t e s t i n g f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between D o u g l a s - f i r and f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , c o n c e n t r a t i o n d a t a were r e l a t e d t o s i t e i n d e x o r s i t e c l a s s ( M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , C r u i s e r s M a n u a l , 1 9 8 0 ) . These t e s t s i n v o l v e d the e n t i r e 53 p l o t s w i t h two h o r i z o n s p e r p l o t . In an e f f o r t t o r e d u c e some o f t h e o u t s i d e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s i t e i n d e x , two s e p a r a t e sample s t r a t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s were u s e d . The f i r s t p r o c e d u r e s t r a t i f i e d t h e sample base by t h e humus fo rm t a x a f o u n d on t h e p l o t . On many p l o t s a number o f g r o u p s and s u b g r o u p s o f a humus f o rm o r d e r m i g h t be f o u n d and o c c a s i o n a l l y humus fo rms o f d i f f e r e n t o r d e r s were f o u n d w i t h i n a s i n g l e p l o t . Because o f t h i s w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y t h i s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n c o u l d o n l y be made f o r the dominan t humus fo rm o r d e r f o u n d on each p l o t . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n t h e 53 p l o t s b e i n g d i v i d e d i n t o 37 p l o t s w i t h M o r , 6 w i t h Moder and 10 w i t h M u l l humus f o r m s . The second s t r a t i f i c a t i o n used g r o u p i n g s o f d i f f e r e n t e c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s ( M a l m s l e y e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . The " w e t " c l a s s i n c l u d e d t h e s u b h y g r i c and h y g r i c h y g r o t o p e s , t h e " M e s i c " c l a s s i n c l u d e d t h e submes i c and m e s i c h y g r o t o p e s and t h e d r y c l a s s i n c l u d e d t h e v e r y x e r i c , x e r i c and s u b x e r i c h y g r o t o p e s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n 13 w e t , 29 m e s i c and 11 d ry p l o t s . S t r a t i f i c a t i o n s based on o t h e r s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as s l o p e , a s p e c t o r e l e v a t i o n were n o t u s e d . I t was d e c i d e d t o examine p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s i t e i n d e x and f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s t h r o u g h t h e use o f t h r e e s t a t i s t i c a l 48 t e c h n i q u e s . F i r s t , a s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was used t o examine l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; s c a t t e r g r a m s were o b t a i n e d , and v a r i o u s c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were t e s t e d . R e l a t i o n s h i p s were t h e n examined between s i t e c l a s s e s o f D o u g l a s - f i r and c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s s e l e c t e d though a j a c k k n i f e d s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e ( D i x o n e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . An a ve r age d i s t a n c e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s ( P a t t e r s o n and W h i t a k e r , 1978) was t h e n used t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i t e c l a s s between n a t u r a l g r o u p i n g s c r e a t e d f r om m u l t i - p a r a m e t e r d a t a . T h i s method was used on t h e c o m p l e t e s e t o f d a t a f o r e a c h p l o t was w e l l as s e l e c t e d d a t a c h o s e n on t h e b a s i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c o r r e l a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . C o r r e l a t i o n o f S i t e Index w i t h F o r e s t F l o o r C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s The s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s f rom t e s t i n g o f a l l c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s v e r s u s s i t e i n d e x a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 2 - 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s f o r a l l d a t a o f b o t h c o m p o s i t e h o r i z o n s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x 3.0 and 3 . 1 . I t must be n o t e d t h a t no c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i m p l i e d by t h e s e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n . T o t a l Mn i n t h e LF h o r i z o n o f b o t h t h e u n s t r a t i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n and t h e Mor o r d e r was f o u n d t o have t h e s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h D o u g l a s - f i r s i t e i n d e x y i e l d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s : A l l P l o t s ( LF ) S i t e Index D o u g l a s - f i r = - 4 2 . 5 Mn% + 4 3 . 9 r 2 = 0 . 4 4 Mor ( LF ) S i t e Index D o u g l a s - f i r = - 3 6 . 7 Mn% + 4 1 . 4 r 2 = 0 . 4 1 . T o t a l l i p i d s , e x p r e s s e d on b o t h an oven-d r y (A%) and an a s h - f r e e b a s i s L A % ( n a ) ] , were a l s o f o u n d t o be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s i t e i n d e x 49 T a b l e 2 - 1 . S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Between F o r e s t F l o o r C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s and S i t e Index L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e S t r a t i f i c a t i o n H o r i z o n C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t y A l l P l o t s ( u n s t r a t i f i e d ) LF H Mn k% Mn C:N A%(na) -0.66 -0.44 -0.42 -0 .45 -0.44 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Humus Form Taxa Mors LF H Mn N:P N:K N:P N:K N S Mn P C:N N:Mn -0.64 0 . 3 8 0.41 0 . 4 8 0 . 4 5 0 . 4 3 0 . 4 4 -0.41 -0 .38 -0 .36 0 . 3 3 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 0 .05 0 . 0 5 Moders LF H A%(na) A%(na) -0 .88 -0.88 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 M u l l s LF H ns K ns 0 . 6 5 ns 0 . 0 5 E c o l o g i c a l M o i s t u r e Regime Dry LF H A%(na) A% A%(na) C 0 . 6 3 0 . 7 5 0 . 7 0 0 . 6 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 M e s i c LF H ns N:K ns 0 . 3 8 ns 0 . 0 5 Wet LF H Mg K Ca :K Mg A l P N:K 0 .57 0 . 7 2 0 .65 0 . 6 5 0 . 6 4 0 . 5 9 0 . 5 8 0 . 0 5 0.01 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 0 .05 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 50 when t e s t e d a c r o s s the e n t i r e sample p o p u l a t i o n a l t h o u g h t h e r - v a l u e s a r e somewhat l o w e r . However , k% and A%(na) i n t h e p l o t s h a v i n g a d r y e c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e r eg ime were f o u n d t o be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s i t e i n d e x . O t h e r p r o p e r t i e s t h a t a p p e a r t o b e a r some r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s i t e i n d e x a r e t o t a l N, P, S and K as w e l l as N:P and N:K r a t i o s . T o t a l C , N, S and P were f o u n d t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s i t e i n d e x i n some o f t h e sample s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s u s e d . However , t h e s e c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s were no t i n d e p e n d e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t ; i n s t e a d , they were a l l h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d , l i k e l y b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e amount and deg ree o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r . N e i t h e r o f t h e sample s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s a p p e a r e d t o improve any o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o u n d i n t h e u n s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e . F o u r o f t he s t r a t a had r e l a t i v e l y few member p l o t s - - M o d e r s ( 6 ) , M u l l s ( 1 0 ) , d r y (11) and wet ( 1 3 ) — w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t d e g r e e s o f f r eedom f o r c o n f i d e n c e i n c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n r e s u l t s . The c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f f o r e s t f l o o r s i n t h e Mor o r d e r , e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s were a l s o t e s t e d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s i t e i n d e x . These were t e s t e d b o t h by h o r i z o n and as a t o t a l f o r t h e e n t i r e f o r e s t f l o o r ( b o t h e c t o - and e n d o r g a n i c humus f o r m s ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s f o r 16 c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s (Kg/ha) a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x 4 . 0 , 4 .1 and 4 . 2 . S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s and s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 2 - 2 . These c o r r e l a t i o n s were o n l y t e s t e d f o r f o r e s t f l o o r s o f t h e Mor o r d e r as t h e b u l k d e n s i t i e s o f Moder and M u l l humus fo rms were t o o v a r i a b l e t o a l l o w f o r t h e use o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d b u l k d e n s i t y . 51 T a b l e 2 - 2 . S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t i o n s Between F o r e s t F l o o r C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s Kg/ha and S i t e Index o f D o u g l a s - f i r Number o f Chemi ca l L e v e l o f H o r i z o n P l o t s P r o p e r t y r S i g n i f i c a n c e 37 Mn -0.481 0.01 KC1-N 0 .417 0 . 0 5 N 0 .372 0 .05 37 S 0 . 4 5 0 0.01 N 0 . 4 3 8 0.01 C 0.391 0 .05 37 N 0 . 4 7 9 0.01 S 0 . 4 5 8 0.01 C 0 .436 0.01 Mn - 0 . 3 8 9 0 . 0 5 KC1-N 0 . 3 8 0 0 . 0 5 Zn 0 . 3 3 6 0 . 0 5 52 C o r r e l a t i o n s e x a m i n i n g f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s and s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r were q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e e x a m i n i n g f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . T o t a l Mn , C , N and S a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n s i t e i n d e x a l t h o u g h t t h e maximum r ^ - v a l u e s o f 0 . 2 3 f o r t o t a l Mn i n t h e LF h o r i z o n i s t o o s m a l l t o be o f any p r e d i c t i v e use on i t s own. S e p a r a t i o n o f S i t e C l a s s e s w i t h S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i c e s p r o d u c e d by t h e s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s f o r 28 v a r i a b l e s used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the LF and H h o r i z o n s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e s 2-3 and 2 - 5 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The j a c k k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i c e s f o r the same 28 v a r i a b l e s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 2-4 and 2 - 6 . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i c e s p r o d u c e d f o r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e L F , H and LFH h o r i z o n s f o r humus fo rms o f the Mor O r d e r , e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s , a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e s 2-7 , 2 - 9 , and 2 - 1 1 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i x t e e n v a r i a b l e s were u s e d . The j a c k k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n m a t r i c e s f o r the same s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n T a b l e s 2 - 8 , 2-10 and 2 - 1 2 . In t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e LF h o r i z o n d a t a w i t h 28 v a r i a b l e s o n l y e i g h t v a r i a b l e s were used t o m a x i m i z e t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e f o u r g r o u p s . The v a r i a b l e s and t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h they were u t i l i z e d a r e Mn , N :S , C a : A l , A% , A % ( n a ) , Mg, K and P. Compared t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e j a c k k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n where t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , Mn, N:S and C a : A l , were a b l e t o c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y t h e f o u r g roups 5 6 . 6 % o f t h e t i m e . The j a c k k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n g i v e s a l e s s b i a s e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n n o r m a l l y r e s u l t i n g i n a l o w e r number o f c a s e s c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d . 53 T a b l e 2 - 3 . The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 28 V a r i a b l e s f o r t h e LF H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s Group P e r c e n t Number o f C a s e s C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t Cow P o o r Medium Good Low 100 3 0 0 0 P o o r 7 7 . 8 0 7 1 1 Medi urn 6 5 . 0 0 3 13 4 Good 8 1 . 0 0 0 4 17 T o t a l 7 5 . 5 10 18 2 T a b l e 2-4 . The J a c k k n i f e d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 28 V a r i a b l e s f o r t h e LF H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s Group P e r c e n t Number o f Cases C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t L~ow P o o r Medium Good Low 100 3 0 0 0 P o o r 5 5 . 6 2 5 1 1 Medi urn 5 5 . 0 0 4 1 5 Good 5 2 . 4 1 1 8 11 T o t a l 5 6 . 6 6 10 20 17 54 T a b l e 2 - 5 . The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 28 V a r i a b l e s f o r t h e H H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s Group P e r c e n t Number o f C a s e s C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t Low P o o r Medium Good Low 1 0 0 . 0 3 0 0 0 P o o r 4 4 . 4 3 4 3 0 Medium 5 0 . 0 2 4 10 4 Good 8 1 . 0 1 1 2 17 T o t a l 6 4 . 2 9 9 14 21 T a b l e 2 - 6 . The J a c k k n i f e d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 28 v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e H H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s Group P e r c e n t Number o f Cases C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t Cow Poo r Medium Good Low 0 . 0 0 3 0 0 P o o r 4 4 . 4 3 4 1 0 Medi urn 3 0 . 0 4 5 6 5 Good 7 6 . 2 1 1 3 16 T o t a l 49 .1 8 13 11 21 55 T a b l e 2 - 7 . The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 16 V a r i a b l e s E x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha B a s i s f o r t h e LF H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s h a v i n g Humus Forms i n t h e Mor O r d e r Group P e r c e n t Number o f Cases C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t Cow P o o r Medi urn Good Low 1 0 0 . 0 3 0 0 0 P o o r 7 7 . 8 1 7 1 0 Medium 6 0 . 0 1 3 9 2 Good 6 0 . 0 1 1 2 6 T o t a l 6 7 . 6 6 11 12 8 T a b l e 2 - 8 . The J a c k k n i f e d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 16 V a r i a b l e s E x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s f o r t h e LF H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s h a v i n g Humus Forms i n t h e Mor O r d e r Group P e r c e n t Number o f C a s e s C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t Cow P o o r Medium Good Low 0 0 2 1 0 P o o r 4 4 . 4 3 4 2 0 Medium 5 3 . 3 1 3 8 3 Good 6 0 . 0 1 1 2 6 T o t a l 4 8 . 6 5 10 13 7 56 T a b l e 2 - 9 . The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 16 V a r i a b l e s E x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha B a s i s f o r the H H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s h a v i n g Humus Forms i n t h e Mor O r d e r Group P e r c e n t Number o f C a s e s C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t Low Poo r Medi urn Good Low 3 3 . 3 1 2 0 0 P o o r 8 8 . 9 1 8 0 0 Medi urn 0 . 0 6 5 0 4 Good 6 0 . 0 1 3 0 6 T o t a l 4 0 . 5 9 18 0 10 T a b l e 2 - 1 0 . The J a c k k n i f e d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 16 V a r i a b l e s E x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s f o r t h e H H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s h a v i n g Humus Forms i n t h e Mor O r d e r G roup P e r c e n t Number o f C a s e s C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t Cow P o o r Medi urn Good Low 0 . 0 0 2 1 0 P o o r 6 6 . 7 2 6 1 0 Medium 0 . 0 6 5 0 4 Good 6 0 . 0 1 3 0 6 T o t a l 3 2 . 4 9 16 2 10 57 T a b l e 2 - 1 1 . The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 16 V a r i a b l e s E x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha B a s i s f o r the LFH H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s h a v i n g Humus Forms i n t h e Mor O r d e r Group P e r c e n t Number o f C a s e s C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t Low P o o r Medium Good Low 6 6 . 7 2 1 0 0 P o o r 7 7 . 8 2 7 0 0 Medium 6 .7 1 12 1 1 Good 7 0 . 0 1 2 0 7 T o t a l 4 5 . 9 6 22 1 8 T a b l e 2 - 1 2 . The J a c k k n i f e d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x f o r S t e p w i s e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s I n v o l v i n g 16 V a r i a b l e s E x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha B a s i s f o r t h e LFH H o r i z o n s o f a l l P l o t s h a v i n g Humus Forms i n t h e Mor O r d e r Group P e r c e n t Number o f C a s e s C l a s s i f i e d i n t o Group C o r r e c t Low P o o r Medium Good Low 0 . 0 0 3 0 0 P o o r 6 6 . 7 2 6 1 0 Medium 0 . 0 2 12 0 2 Good 6 0 . 0 1 3 0 6 T o t a l 3 2 . 4 4 24 1 8 58 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s i t e c l a s s e s f rom H h o r z o n d a t a r e q u i r e d t h e use o f 9 v a r i a b l e s t o c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y the c l a s s e s 4 9 . 1 % o f the t i m e . The v a r i a b l e s , l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f d e c r e a s i n g v a l u e f o r s e p a r a t i n g t h e f o u r g r o u p s were A%, C : N , Mn, K : C a , N : S , C a : A l , Mg, KC1-N and A % ( n a ) . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s i t e c l a s s e s f rom the f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l d a t a o f t h e LF and H h o r i z o n s , e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s , used 5 and 3 v a r i a b l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . These w e r e , i n o r d e r o f d e c r e a s i n g v a l u e f o r g roup s e p a r a t i o n , KC1-N , Mn, A% , C a , and Mg f o r t h e LF h o r i z o n d a t a , and S , A% and Mn f o r t h e H h o r i z o n d a t a . The s e p a r a t i o n o f s i t e c l a s s e s f rom t h e d a t a e x p r e s s e d as a t o t a l f o r b o t h e c t o - and e n d o r g a n i c h o r i z o n s (Kg/ha) u t i l i z e d 4 v a r i a b l e s ; K C 1 - N , A% , Mn and C a , l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f d e c r e a s i n g v a l u e f o r g roup s e p a r a t i o n . Based on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i t wou ld a p p e a r t h a t two v a r i a b l e s , Mn and A% , were t h e most u s e f u l f o r s e p a r a t i n g s i t e c l a s s e s . KC1-N , Mg, N :S , C a : A l , A%(na) and Ca a l s o a p p e a r e d t o be o f some use i n s e p a r a t i n g s i t e c l a s s e s . The maximum s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e f o u r s i t e c l a s s e s was 7 5 . 5 and 5 6 . 6 % c o r r e c t f o r t h e normal and j a c k k n i f e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s s e p a r a t i o n u t i l i z e d t h e LF h o r i z o n d a t a o f a l l p l o t s . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l a r g e number o f s i t e c l a s s e s wou ld be m i s c l a s s i f i e d i f f o r e s t f l o o r d a t a a l o n e , were used f o r s e p a r a t i o n . T o t a l Mn , t h e v a r i a b l e f o u n d t o be most u s e f u l i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g s i t e c l a s s e s , has a l s o been shown t o e x h i b i t a h i g h deg ree o f w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y r e q u i r i n g a minimum o f 88 samples p e r p l o t i n o r d e r t o p r e d i c t a mean a t t h e 5% l e v e l w i t h an a l l o w a b l e e r r o r o f 1 0 % . 59 S e p a r a t i o n o f S i t e C l a s s e s by A v e r a g e D i s t a n c e C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s Ave rage d i s t a n c e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s a s s e s s e s whe the r n a t u r a l g roups o c c u r i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f s a m p l e s , ba sed on v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d . In t h i s s t u d y t h e i n t e r e s t was i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c l u s t e r s p r o d u c e d by t h e a n a l y s i s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s o f D o u g l a s - f i r as measured by s i t e i n d e x . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was c a r r i e d o u t on t h e LF and H h o r i z o n d a t a u t i l i z i n g a l l 28 c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s f o r p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g . E l e v e n p a r a m e t e r s , Mn , A% , A % ( n a ) , C : N , N : P , N : S , K : C a , K, Mg, KC1-N and C a : A l s e l e c t e d f r om t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s were u sed i n a second t e s t i n g . The two d a t a s e t s f o r each c o m p o s i t e h o r i z o n were a l s o u s e d f o r an a t t e m p t e d s e p a r a t i o n o f s i t e c l a s s e s f o r p l o t s i n t h e Mor and M u l l o r d e r s . The same p r o c e d u r e , u s i n g 16 c h e m i c a l p a r a m e t e r s , was a p p l i e d t o t h e L F , H and LFH h o r i z o n d a t a , e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s , f o r a l l p l o t s i n t h e Mor o r d e r . An examp le o f t h e c l u s t e r p r o d u c e d f o r t h e LF h o r i z o n s o f a l l p l o t s , u s i n g 28 c h e m i c a l p a r a m e t e r s f o r s e p a r a t i o n , i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 3 . The c l u s t e r s c o u l d n o t be shown t o r e p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s i t e c l a s s g r o u p i n g s i n any o f t h e d a t a s e t s o r s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s u s e d . I n s t e a d , t h e y a p p e a r e d t o be a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n and humus f o rm t a x a . P l o t s sampled i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o each o t h e r were o f t e n a r r a n g e d w i t h i n t h e same c l u s t e r g r o u p ; t h i s can be seen i n t h e o f t e n s e q u e n t i a l o r nea r s e q u e n t i a l l i s t i n g o f p l o t numbers a t t h e o r i g i n o f t h e c l u s t e r p o i n t s i n F i g u r e 3 . P l o t s w i t h i n many o f t h e c l u s t e r g r o u p i n g s were w i t h i n t h e same humus fo rm o r d e r ; however no s i g n i f i c a n t s e p a r a t i o n based on humus f o rm o r d e r c o u l d be shown. 10 24 21 U 33 22 40 37 36 43 1 4.4 53 42 4G 39 52 47 38 35 32 41 u U F i g u r e 3. A ve r age D i s t a n c e C l u s t e r A n a l y s i s u s i n g 28 Chemica l P a r a m e t e r s f o r t h e LF H o r i z o n Data o f a l l P l o t s . cn o 61 I n i t i a l l y , t h e p a r a m e t e r s t h o u g h t t o have the c l o s e s t i n d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o s i t e i n d e x were t o be a r r a n g e d i n a p r e d i c t i v e model t h r o u g h t h e use o f a s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n p r o c e d u r e . However , due t o the poor c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s f rom the s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s and c o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s i t was d e c i d e d t h a t a u s e f u l p r e d i c t i v e m o d e l , a p p l i c a b l e o v e r a b r o a d r ange o f g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n and e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , was u n l i k e l y , and t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was n o t a t t e m p t e d . E x a m i n a t i o n o f P o s s i b l e F o r e s t F l o o r - S i t e  I ndex C a u s i t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p s T o t a l Mn was f o u n d t o have t h e most c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s i t e i n d e x o r s i t e c l a s s o f D o u g l a s - f i r . In g e n e r a l , as t o t a l Mn i n c r e a s e d , s i t e i n d e x d e c r e a s e d . T h i s may be due t o a v a r i a b l e w e s t e r n hemlock component i n t h e s amp led s t a n d s . K l i n k a and Lowe (1981) s t a t e t h a t t h e humus fo rm p r o p e r t i e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p r o d u c t i v e g rowth o f w e s t e r n hemlock a r e d i f f e r e n t f rom t h o s e f o r D o u g l a s - f i r , and t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f p r o p e r t i e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h g rowth o f b o t h s p e c i e s show t h e o p p o s i t e s i g n o f c o r r e l a t i o n . The a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t humus fo rm c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f a v o u r i n g the g rowth o f w e s t e r n hemlock may r e p r e s e n t a d v e r s e c o n d i t i o n s f o r the g rowth o f D o u g l a s - f i r . Bo th e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n hemlock have been shown t o m a i n t a i n e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f Mn i n t h e i r f o l i a g e , o f t e n h a v i n g f o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s 2 t o 8 t i m e s as h i g h as o t h e r c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s f o u n d on t h e same s i t e (Young and G u i n n , 1 9 6 6 ; S t o n e , 1968 and B a l l a r d , 1 9 8 2 a ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r e s t f l o o r Mn c o n c e n t r a t i o n and D o u g l a s - f i r s i t e i n d e x may be a r e s u l t o f t h e r o l e p l a y e d by w e s t e r n 62 hemlock b o t h i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e g r o w t h o f D o u g l a s - f i r and t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Mn i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . F o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f Mn have a l s o been shown t o have a c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e g rowth o f D o u g l a s - f i r . Radwan and D e b e l l (1978) f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between g rowth and f o l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Mn i n b o t h w e s t e r n hemlock and D o u g l a s - f i r . However Mn t o x i c i t y was r u l e d o u t by a l a t e r s t u d y (Radwan e t a l . , 1979) w h i c h f o u n d D o u g l a s - f i r c o u l d h a n d l e v e r y h i g h l e v e l s o f Mn b e f o r e t o x i c i t y symptoms o r l o s s o f g rowth was o b s e r v e d . T o t a l l i p i d s (A%) and t o t a l l i p i d s e x p r e s s e d on an a s h - f r e e b a s i s (A% (na ) ) were f o u n d t o have a somewhat i n c o n s i s t e n t s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e g rowth o f D o u g l a s - f i r , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e H h o r i z o n s o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . K l i n k a and Lowe (1981) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f h i g h k% w i t h p o o r g rowth s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t i o n o f s l o w d e c o m p o s i t i o n r a t e s , and s l o w r a t e s o f n u t r i e n t r e l e a s e f r om o r g a n i c f o r m s . D o u g l a s - f i r , w i t h i t s h i g h demand f o r n u t r i e n t s , may be q u i t e s e n s i t i v e t o t h i s f a c t o r . T o t a l A%(na) was used t o examine w h e t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between A% and t h e g r o w t h o f D o u g l a s - f i r were a f u n c t i o n o f t h e amount o f m i n e r a l s o i l i n c o r p o r a t i o n o r t h e a c t u a l s t a t e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . A%(na) was shown t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e g rowth o f D o u g l a s - f i r , a l t h o u g h n o t as s i g n i f i c a n t as A%. T h i s i s assumed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t any r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e a f u n c t i o n o f b o t h t h e amount o f m i n e r a l s o i l i n c o r p o r a t i o n and t h e s t a t e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r . 6 3 The p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n be tween k% and A%(na) and s i t e i n d e x i n b o t h t h e LF and H h o r i z o n s o f t h e p l o t s h a v i n g a d r y e c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e r eg ime r e m a i n s u n e x p l a i n e d . T h i s may be an anomalous c o r r e l a t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r om t h e s m a l l e r number (11) o f s amp les u s e d . K C l - e x t r a c t a b l e N was shown t o be one o f t h e more u s e f u l v a r i a b l e s f o r s e p a r a t i o n o f s i t e c l a s s e s by s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , a l t h o u g h i t was n o t f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s i t e i n d e x when examined i n d e p e n d e n t l y . KC1 r e l e a s e s b o t h w a t e r s o l u b l e and e x c h a n g e a b l e - n i t r o g e n and s h o u l d be a measure o f n i t r o g e n r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r o o t u p t a k e . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i s t r y and t h e g rowth o f D o u g l a s - f i r a p p e a r s t o be o f l i m i t e d v a l u e . Many o f t h e c h e m i c a l v a r i a b l e s u s e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e f o r e s t f l o o r s r e q u i r e an e x c e s s i v e number o f samp les f o r adequa te w i t h i n - p l o t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . I t i s f e l t by t h e a u t h o r t h a t p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n s t h a t use a number o f v a r i a b l e s t o e s t i m a t e a s i t e ' s p r o d u c t i v i t y p o t e n t i a l f o r d i f f e r e n t t r e e s p e c i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y t o o s i m p l i s t i c t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e l a r g e number o f v a r i a b l e s d e t e r m i n i n g a s i t e ' s p r o d u c t i v i t y p o t e n t i a l . A r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t i v e e q u a t i o n w o u l d have t o q u a n t i f y and u t i l i z e such v a r i a b l e s as macro- and m i c r o - c l i m a t e , s l o p e , s o i l d e p t h , t e x t u r e , c o a r s e f r a g m e n t c o n t e n t , p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s , d r a i n a g e and p a r v i o u s n e s s as w e l l as b o t h m i n e r a l s o i l and f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . E q u a t i o n s u t i l i z i n g a s m a l l number o f v a r i a b l e s may be s u b j e c t t o e r r o r i n s i t u a t i o n s where some p r o p e r t y t h a t i s n o t p a r t o f t h e e q u a t i o n i s l i m i t i n g g r o w t h . 64 However , s o i l - s i t e s t u d i e s o f t h i s t y p e a r e n o t w i t h o u t v a l u e . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s a r e e l u c i d a t e d , z o n e s o f a c c u m u l a t i o n and d e p l e t i o n o f n u t r i e n t e l e m e n t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e f o r e s t f l o o r and many o f t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g a r e e x p o s e d and c l a r i f i e d . S t u d i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e a r e a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e e f f e c t i v e management o f t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e . 65 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t adequa t e s a m p l i n g was u n d e r t a k e n t o e s t i m a t e t h e mean and t h e w i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s t o be used i n a l a t e r p r o d u c t i v i t y s t u d y , i t was d e c i d e d t o u n d e r t a k e a p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f f o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a b i l i t y . From a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , i t wou ld a p p e a r t h a t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h t h e p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e s i t e . W i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y o f b o t h humus f o rm t a x a and f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i s t r y a p p e a r s t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i t e m i c r o t o p o g r a p h y , woody m a t e r i a l s , u n d e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n , an uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r e e s on t h e s i t e and d i f f e r e n t i a l m i x i n g o f m i n e r a l s o i l w i t h t h e f o r e s t f l o o r t h r o u g h s i l v o t u r b a t i o n and t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s o i l a n i m a l s . V a r i a b i l i t y a l s o a p p e a r s t o be r e l a t i v e l y s i t e - s p e c i f i c f o r many c h e m i c a l c o m p o n e n t s . T h i s i s l i k e l y t h e r e s u l t o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s o u r c e o f many o f t h e s e c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . F o r e s t m a t e r i a l s , s e e p a g e - i n p u t s , a t m o s p h e r i c i n p u t s and r a t e s o f n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g w i t h i n t h e s t a n d b i o m a s s may a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o f o r e s t f l o o r v a r i a b i l i t y ( O v i n g t o n , 1 9 6 5 ) . A s a m p l i n g p rogram i n v o l v i n g t h r e e s i t e s a t each o f two l o c a t i o n s was c o m p l e t e d . Two h o r i z o n u n i t s were samp led on each s i t e and f i f t e e n s amp le s were c o l l e c t e d w i t h i n each u n i t by a random p r o c e d u r e . A s i n g l e c o m p o s i t e sample was a l s o c r e a t e d on a d e p t h - w e i g h t e d b a s i s f o r each h o r i z o n u n i t on each s i t e . F o u r t e e n c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s were measured f o r each s a m p l e . The mean v a l u e s f o u n d f o r most p r o p e r t i e s compared w e l l w i t h t h o s e c i t e d f r om t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A few t r e n d s r e l a t e d t o s i t e , h o r i z o n and 6 6 humus f o r m t a x a were n o t e d . As n o t e d by p a s t f o r e s t s o i l r e s e a r c h e r s , t h e i n c r e a s e i n F e , AT and Mn c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h dep th i s l i k e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o m i n e r a l s o i l i n c l u s i o n s . The number o f s amp les n e c e s s a r y t o p r e d i c t t h e mean ± 10% w i t h 95% c o n f i d e n c e was shown t o r ange f rom 1 t o 141 samp les p e r p l o t f o r the c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t he LF h o r i z o n and f rom 3 t o 197 samples p e r p l o t i n t h e H h o r i z o n . F o r t h e f o u r t e e n c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s t e s t e d , t h e o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e LF h o r i z o n s was as f o l l o w s : p H < P < S < N _ < C < Zn < A% < Cu < K < Mg < Ca < Mn < Al < F e . In t h e H h o r i z o n s t h i s o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g v a r i a b i l i t y was s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , as f o l l o w s : pH < P < S < Zn < C j< N < K < Cu < A% < Mg < Al < Fe < Mn < C a . The l e a s t v a r i a b l e h o r i z o n i n t e rms o f o v e r a l l sample r e q u i r e m e n t s was t h e m e s i c LF h o r i z o n w h i l e t h e most v a r i a b l e was t h e h y g r i c H h o r i z o n ; t h i s was f o u n d t o compare v e r y w e l l w i t h the r e s u l t s o f Quesne l ( 1 9 8 0 ) . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l o w e r i n h e r e n t v a r i a b i l i t y o f f i v e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s - - p H ( C a C l 2 ) , P, S, N and C makes t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s t h e most d e s i r a b l e f o r p r e d i c t i v e p u r p o s e s . C o m p o s i t e s a m p l i n g was s u g g e s t e d as a v i a b l e means f o r o p t i m i z i n g e f f i c i e n c y w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g p r e c i s i o n . The c o m p o s i t e samp les were f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the d e p t h - w e i g h t e d a r i t h m e t i c mean o f t h e 15 s u b s a m p l e s o f each h o r i z o n u n i t on each s i t e a t t h e 1% l e v e l f o r most f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t c o m p o s i t e s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s do o f f e r a sound a l t e r n a t i v e t o a n a l y z i n g a l l s amp les i n d e p e n d e n t l y . However , f o r many o f t h e f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s t u d y a c o m p o s i t e samp le based on 15 s amp le s p e r p l o t w i l l n o t be 67 s u f f i c i e n t t o g i v e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e mean v a l u e w i t h a l e v e l o f a c c u r a c y n o r m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c c e p t a b l e . W i t h i n - p l o t v a r i a b i l i t y was shown t o be much l e s s t h a n v a r i a b i l i t y among p l o t s and s h o u l d no t r e p r e s e n t any p r o b l e m s f o r c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . LF and H h o r i z o n s were shown t o r e p r e s e n t two d i s t i n c t , homogeneous s u b s e t s a t t h e 5% l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e f o r a l l c h e m i c a l p a r a m e t e r s e x a m i n e d . T h i s a l l o w s c o m p a r i s o n s t o be made between b o t h p l o t s and h o r i z o n s w i t h o u t v a r i a b i l i t y r e p r e s e n t i n g a s e r i o u s d e t e r r e n t t o c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f a number o f c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a s e cond s t u d y was i n i t i a t e d t o examine p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i s t r y and t h e g rowth o f D o u g l a s - f i r . F i f t y - t h r e e s t a n d s were c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h e f u l l r ange o f s i t e i n d e x and e c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s f o r D o u g l a s - f i r o v e r a b r o a d g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e a & b subzones o f t h e CWH Z o n e . F o r e s t f l o o r d a t a was a n a l y z e d bo th as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and on a K g / h a b a s i s f o r LF and H h o r i z o n s w i t h t h e c o m p l e t e f o r e s t f l o o r (LFH) b e i n g e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s were examined o v e r t h e c o m p l e t e s e t o f p l o t s and on s e t s s t r a t i f i e d by dominan t humus f o rm o r d e r and e c o l o g i c a l m o i s t u r e r e g i m e . T o t a l Mn was shown t o have t h e s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s i t e i n d e x ( r 2 = .44). T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d f o r the LF h o r i z o n d a t a e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r b o t h t h e u n s t r a t i f i e d sample p o p u l a t i o n and f o r p l o t s i n t h e Mor o r d e r . T o t a l N, P, S and K and t h e i r r a t i o s as w e l l as A% , a l s o showed s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h s i t e i n d e x . R e s u l t s o f 68 c o r r e l a t i o n s between s i t e i n d e x and f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i s t r y e x p r e s s e d on a Kg/ha b a s i s were v e r y s i m i l a r w i t h t o t a l Mn , C , N and S a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e g r e a t e s t amount o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n s i t e i n d e x . The b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f s i t e c l a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e use o f a s t e p w i s e d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e c l a s s i f i e d t h e c l a s s e s c o r r e c t l y 7 5 . 5 and 5 6 . 6 % o f the t i m e f o r the s i m p l e and j a c k k n i f e d a n a l y s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . T o t a l Mn , N:S and C a : A l i n t h e LF h o r i z o n o f t h e u n s t r a t i f i e d sample p o p u l a t i o n were used t o make t h e s e p a r a t i o n . T o t a l Mn and A% were t h e v a r i a b l e s mos t c o n s i s t a n t l y used f o r s e p a r a t i o n . F o r e s t f l o o r d a t a e x p r e s s e d as c o n c e n t r a t i o n s was shown t o o b t a i n t h e b e s t s e p a r a t i o n o f s i t e c l a s s e s . T e s t i n g o f t h e s t r a t i f i e d sample p o p u l a t i o n and the use o f d a t a e x p r e s s e d i n Kg/ha was f o u n d t o r e d u c e s i t e c l a s s s e p a r a t i o n . N a t u r a l g r o u p i n g s c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a v e r a g e d i s t a n c e c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s c o u l d n o t be shown t o r e p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t s i t e c l a s s e s . C l u s t e r g r o u p s a p p e a r e d t o r e p r e s e n t g e n e r a l g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n a n d / o r humus f o rm o r d e r , a l t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p i n g o f humus fo rms c o u l d be shown. The c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between Mn c o n c e n t r a t i o n and s i t e i n d e x o f D o u g l a s - f i r was h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be a f u n c t i o n o f a v a r i a b l e component o f w e s t e r n hemlock i n the sampled s t a n d s . L i p i d s (A%, A%(na ) ) were s u g g e s t e d t o p r o v i d e an i n d e x o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n r a t e s and r a t e s o f n u t r i e n t r e l e a s e f rom o r g a n i c f o r m s . D o u g l a s - f i r , a r e l a t i v e l y demanding s p e c i e s n u t r i t i o n -a l l y , w o u l d l o g i c a l l y be r e l a t e d t o such an i n d e x t h r o u g h i t s s i t e i n d e x . Based on t h e r e s u l t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s e l e v e n f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s were s e l e c t e d as t h e most u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r s 6 9 o f D o u g l a s - f i r g r o w t h — M n , k%, A % ( n a ) , KC1-N, K, Mg, Ca and S and C : N , N:S and C a : A l . Th ree o f t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s , KC1-N, C a : A l and N : S , were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r s on t h e i r own b u t a p p e a r e d t o be u s e f u l when a p p l i e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s . In summary, i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h many o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f o r e s t f l o o r c h e m i s t r y and t h e g rowth p e r f o r m a n c e o f D o u g l a s - f i r i n t h e CWH Zone were shown t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t hey w i l l have o n l y l i m i t e d p r a c t i c a l v a l u e i n d i r e c t p r o d u c t i v i t y a s s e s s m e n t . I n s t e a d , s t u d i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e were p r o p o s e d t o be most u s e f u l f o r e l u c i d a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l f o r e s t f l o o r p r o p e r t i e s , i d e n t i f y i n g zones o f a c c u m u l a t i o n and d e p l e t i o n o f n u t r i e n t e l e m e n t s and c l a r i f y i n g some o f t h e many c o m p l e x i t i e s o f n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g i n D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s o f t h e CWH Zone . 70 LITERATURE CITED Anonymous. 1 9 7 9 . T e c h n i c o n A u t o a n a l y z e r I I . M e t h o d o l o g y : i n d i v i d u a l / s i m u l t a n e o u s d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f n i t r o g e n and p h o s p h o r o u s BD a c i d d i g e s t s . I n d u s t r i a l Method No . 3 3 4 - 7 4 A . B a l l , D . F . and W.M. W i l l i a m s . 1 9 6 8 . V a r i a b i l i t y o f s o i l c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s i n two u n c u l t i v a t e d brown e a r t h s . J . S o i l S c i . 1 9 ( 2 ) : 3 7 9 - 3 9 1 . B a l l a r d , T . M . 1 9 8 2 a . F o l i a r a n a l y s i s r e s e a r c h . E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o j e c t 8 8 9 . C o n t r a c t R e s e a r c h R p t . t o R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , BCMOF. . 1982b . Manual f o r S o i l S c i e n c e 3 0 3 / F o r e s t r y 312 ( F o r e s t S o i l s ) . D e p a r t , o f S o i l S c i . , F a c . o f A g r i c u l t u r e . U n i v . o f B . C . B a r t h o l o m e w , W.V. and F . E . C l a r k . 1 9 6 5 . S o i l n i t r o g e n . 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Use o f au tomated c o m b u s t i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r t o t a l c a r b o n , t o t a l n i t r o g e n and t o t a l s u l p h u r a n a l y s i s o f s o i l s . Buckman, H.O. and N . C B r a d y . 1 9 6 9 . The n a t u r e and p r o p e r t i e s o f s o i l s . 7 t h e d . C o l l i e r - M a c M i l l a n L t d . L o n d o n . 653 p p . C a n a d i a n S o i l S u r v e y C o m m i t t e e . 1 9 7 8 . The C a n a d i a n sys tem o f s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . C a n . Dep. A g r i c . P u b l . 1 6 4 6 . S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s C a n a d a . O t t a w a , O n t . 164 p p . Ca rmean , W.H. 1 9 5 4 . S i t e q u a l i t y f o r D o u g l a s - f i r i n s o u t h w e s t e r n Wash ing ton and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p r e c i p i t a t i o n , e l e v a t i o n and p h y s i c a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . S o i l S c i . S o c . Amer . P r o c . 1 8 : 3 3 0 - 3 3 5 . C o l e , D.W. , S . P . G e s s e l , and S . F . D i c e . 1 9 6 7 . D i s t r i b u t i o n and c y c l i n g o f n i t r o g e n , p h o s p h o r o u s , p o t a s s i u m and c a l c i u m i n a s e c o n d - g r o w t h D o u g l a s - f i r e c o s y s t e m . Symp. on P r i m a r y P r o d u c t i v i t y and M i n e r a l C y c l i n g i n N a t u r a l E c o s y s t e m s . U n i v . o f Ma ine P r e s s , p p . 1 9 7 - 2 3 2 . 71 C o l e , D.W., J . T u r n e r , and C. B l e d s o e . 1974 . R e q u i r e m e n t and u p t a k e o f m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s i n c o n i f e r o u s e c o s y s t e m s . In^ Symp. Be low Ground E c o s y s t e m . F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o . 1 9 7 3 . Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n & Ross P u b l . and D. J o h n s o n . 1 9 8 1 . The c y c l i n g o f e l e m e n t s w i t h i n f o r e s t s . C h a p . XI i n H e i l m a n , P . E . e t a l . 1 9 8 1 . F o r e s t s o i l s o f t h e D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n . Coop . E x t e n s i o n , Wash. S t a t e U n i v . 298 p p . D i x o n , W . J . . , M.B. B rown , L. Enge lman , J .W . F r a n e , M.A. H i l l , R . I . J e n r i c h and J . D . T o p o r e k . 1 9 8 1 . BMDP S t a t i s t i c a l s o f t w a r e . U n i v . o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y , p p . 5 1 9 - 5 3 7 . F o w e l l s , H .A . 1 9 6 5 . S i l v i c s o f f o r e s t t r e e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . U . S . D . A . F o r . S e r v . A g r i c . Handbook No . 2 7 1 . 762 p p . G e n t l e , S.W. and F .R . Humphreys . 1 9 6 7 . E x p e r i e n c e w i t h p h o s p h a t i c f e r t i l i z e r s i n man-made f o r e s t s o f P i n u s r a d i a t a i n New S o u t h W a l e s . F o r e s t r y Commiss i on o f N.S.W" 3T p p . G e s s e l , S . P . And W. J . L l o y d . 1 9 5 0 . E f f e c t o f some p h y s i c a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s on D o u g l a s - f i r q u a l i t y . J o u r . F o r . 3 8 : 4 0 5 - 4 1 0 . and A . N . B a l c i . 1 9 6 5 . Amount and c o m p o s i t i o n o f f o r e s t f l o o r unde r W a s h i n g t o n c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s , p p . 1 1 - 2 3 . ITK C . T . Youngberg ( e d . ) F o r e s t - s o i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . Second N o r t h Amer . F o r e s t S o i l s C o n f . P r o c . 1 9 6 3 . C o r v a l l i s : O r e g . S t a t e U n i v . P r e s s . G o s z , J . R . , G . E . L i k e n s and F . H . Bormann. 1 9 7 6 . O r g a n i c m a t t e r and n u t r i e n t d ynam i c s o f t h e f o r e s t and f o r e s t f l o o r i n t h e Hubbard Brook F o r e s t . O e c o l o g i a ( B e r l . ) 2 2 : 3 0 5 - 3 2 0 . G r i e g , M. and D. O s t e r l i n . 1 9 7 8 . UBC ANOVAR - A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e . Compu t i ng C e n t r e , U n i v . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.- 69 p p . G r i e r , C . C . and J . G . M c C o l l . 1 9 7 1 . F o r e s t f l o o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n a s m a l l p l o t i n D o u g l a s - f i r i n w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n . S o i l S c i . S o c . Amer. P r o c . 3 5 : 9 8 8 - 9 9 1 . Hammond, L . C . , W.L. P r i t c h e t t and V. Chew. 1 9 5 8 . S o i l s a m p l i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o s o i l h e t e r o g e n e i t y . S o i l S c i . S o c . Amer . P r o c . 2 2 : 5 4 8 - 5 5 2 . H e i l m a n , P. 1 9 7 9 . M i n e r a l s , c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s and f e r t i l i t y o f f o r e s t s o i l s . C h a p . VI i n H e i l m a n , P . E . e t a l . 1 9 8 1 . F o r e s t S o i l s o f t h e D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n . C o - o p . E x t e n s i o n . Wash. S t a t e U n i v . 298 p p . , H.W. Ande r son and D.M. B a u m g a r t n e r . 1 9 8 1 . F o r e s t s o i l s o f t h e D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n . Co-op E x t e n s i o n , Wash. S t a t e U n i v . 298 p p . 72 H i b b a r d , P . L . 1 9 4 0 . A c c u m u l a t i o n o f z i n c on s o i l u n d e r l o n g - p e r s i s t a n t v e g e t a t i o n . S o i l S c i . 5 0 : 5 3 - 5 5 . H i l l , W.W., A . A r n s t and R .M. B o n d . 1 9 4 8 . Methods o f c o r r e l a t i n g s o i l s w i t h D o u g l a s - f i r s i t e q u a l i t y . J o u r . F o r . 4 6 : 8 3 5 - 8 4 1 . Humphrey , J . F . and R. T ruman . 1 9 6 4 . A luminum and t h e p h o s p h o r u s r e q u i r e m e n t s o f P i n u s r a d i a t a . P l a n t and S o i l 2 0 : 1 3 1 - 1 3 4 . H u s c h , B. 1 9 6 3 . F o r e s t M e n s u r a t i o n and S t a t i s t i c s . R o n a l d P r e s s , New Y o r k . 474 p p . K e l l y , J . and M . J . L a m b e r t . 1 9 7 2 . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u l p h u r and n i t r o g e n i n t h e f o l i a g e o f P i n u s r a d i a t a . P l a n t and S o i l 3 7 : 3 9 5 - 4 0 7 . K l i n k a , K . , F . C . N u s z d o r f e r and L. S k o d a . 1 9 7 9 . B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t s o f c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . P r o v . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M i n . o f F o r e s t s . 120 p p . (1 map ) . , R .M. G r e e n , R . L . T r o w b r i d g e and L . E . Lowe. 1 9 8 1 . Taxonomic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f humus fo rms i n e c o s y s t e m s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 s t . A p p r o x . P r o v . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M i n . o f F o r e s t s . 54 p p . K r a j i n a , V . J . 1 9 6 9 . E c o l o g y o f Wes te rn N o r t h A m e r i c a . D e p t . o f B o t a n y , U n i v . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ,2 (1 ) : 147 p p . L a c e l l e , L . E . H . 1 9 7 1 . Ca rbon and n i t r o g e n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n some f o r e s t f l o o r s . M . S c . t h e s i s . D e p a r t m e n t o f S o i l S c i e n c e , U n i v . o f B . C . , V a n c o u v e r , B .C . 58 p p . L e a f , A . L . 1 9 6 8 . K, Mg and S d e f i c i e n c i e s i n f o r e s t t r e e s ; i n : F o r e s t f e r t i l i z a t i o n — t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , 306 p p . M u s c l e S rToa ls , A l a b a m a : T . V . A . N a t l . F e r t . Deve lopment C e n t r e . Lemmon, P . E . 1 9 5 5 . F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y o f some l a n d s i n t h e W i l l a m e t t e b a s i n o f Oregon f o r D o u g l a s - f i r t i m b e r . J o u r . F o r . 5 3 : 3 2 3 - 3 3 0 . L e T a c o n , F. 1 9 7 2 . A v a i l a b i l i t y o f n i t r a t e and ammonica l N i n c e r t a i n s o i l s o f e a s t e r n F r a n c e . E f f e c t on t h e n u t r i t i o n o f P i c e a a b i e s K a r s t . A n n . S c i . F o r . 3 0 : 1 8 2 - 2 0 3 . L e w i s , T . 1 9 7 6 . The t i l l - d e r i v e d p o d z o l s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . P h . D . t h e s i s . U n i v . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B .C . 158 p p . L i , J . C . R . 1 9 6 7 . 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T e s t o f an a s c o r b i c a c i d method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p h o s p h o r u s i n w a t e r and NaHC0 3 e x t r a c t s f r o m s o i l . S o i l S c i . S o c . Amer . P r o c . 4 9 : 6 7 7 - 6 7 8 . W i l l i a m s , F. 1 9 6 8 . R e a s o n i n g w i t h s t a t i s t i c s . H o l t , R i n e h a r d & W i n s t o n , I n c . 188 p p . Y o u n g b e r g , C . T . 1 9 6 6 . F o r e s t f l o o r s i n D o u g l a s - f i r f o r e s t s : d r y w e i g h t and c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . S o i l S c i . S o c . Amer . P r o c . 3 0 : 4 0 6 - 4 0 9 . . 1 9 7 9 . O r g a n i c m a t t e r o f f o r e s t f l o o r s . Chap . V I I . I n : H e i l m a n , P . E . e t a l . 1 9 8 1 . F o r e s t s o i l s o f t h e D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n . C o - o p . E x t e n s i o n , Wash. S t a t e U n i v . 298 p p . Y o u n g , H .E . and V . P . G u i n n . 1 9 6 6 . C h e m i c a l e l e m e n t s i n c o m p l e t e m a t u r e t r e e s o f s even s p e c i e s i n M a i n . T a p p i . 4 9 ( 5 ) : 1 9 0 - 1 9 7 . Z o t t l , H. 1 9 6 0 . D i e M i n e r a l s t i c k s t o f f a n l i e f e r i n g i n F i c h t e n - u n d K i e f e r n b e s t a n d e n B a y e r n s . F o r s t w i s s . C b l . 7 9 : 2 2 1 - 2 3 6 . APPENDIX 1. SITE DESCRIPTION OATA 1 Mot E Helqht I iasal 1 Vrea >lte ndex I )BH A dumber 1 66 36.0 70 40 46 2 71 24.8 44 27 28 3 117 32.3 60 34 46 4 118 34.6 85 34 53 S 117 47.8 B5 47 81 6 78 41.3 105 45 70 7 80 24.9 60 26 33 8 86 42.6 75 45 66 g 84 41.3 80 43 61 10 125 33.2 85 32 49 11 69 36.9 40 42 47 12 66 21.0 50 23 25 13 143 26. 1 75 25 38 14 78 41.5 55 45 58 15 77 43.6 60 47 59 16 75 12.7 27 14 26 17 73 24.5 50 27 47 18 64 38.4 55 45 55 19 65 30.7 45 35 35 20 60 36.0 60 43 43 21 68 36.3 60 42 43 22 67 37.3 65 44 55 23 125 45.3 110 43 52 • 24 125 31.6 70 31 36 25 122 46.8 115 45 60 26 86 41.1 90 43 54 27 96 30. 1 95 31 32 28 98 17. 1 60 17 25 29 93 42.5 95 43 68 30 91 35.0 75 36 58 31 93 33.5 85 34 52 32 76 53.0 65 59 68 33 73 38.0 105 42 44 34 64 40.4 90 47 41 35 97 16.4 38 19 27 36 53 39.5 95 51 S3 37 80 26.7 105 28 31 38 82 34.7 100 37 36 39 BO 38.6 100 41 40 40 62 38.6 65 47 39 41 69 37 .6 65 44 45 42 61 29.8 44 35 33 43 73 32 .9 95 36 36 44 62 17.7 48 21 21 45 63 40.0 100 47 41 46 69 15.9 95 18 17 47 72 35.6 115 38 39 48 82 45.2 At 48 74 4S 94 32. C 62 33 41 5C ) BE 40. £ 7C ) 45 56 51 6£ 40.e 7C ) 4« > 51 5 : s: 7C ) 5 ) 33 .1 19.! 5! > 5C ! 3« ) 2< I 31 > 19 400 230 215 200 280 195 175 180 270 240 290 175 120 400 400 250 225 145 400 170 400 400 180 180 215 240 400 220 400 400 190 400 180 190 285 400 230 280 275 250 400 250 280 ISO 135 320 320 255 230 140 280 400 400 1ope O 20 47 42 50 27 24 22 20 40 60 3 61 0 O 27 18 40 5 35 22 30 50 32 67 28 46 10 40 20 20 35 42 48 70 27 leva t l o n 65 210 500 490 150 740 325 470 460 570 240 120 370 140 143 175 160 315 310 270 90 70 650 630 640 230 140 150 35 35 110 180 290 80 • 110 40 350 31 280 265 95 50 200 340 210 200 160 21 360 485 210 205 240 Hvorotope 5 Trophotope 3 Organic] Matter APPENDIX 2. COMPLETE FOREST FLOOR CHEMICAL DATA--LF HORIZON Plot Number %c %N %P »S %Fracn. A 1 37.294 1.111 0.069 0. 180 4.876 2 37.375 1 .213 0.095 0. 156 5.637 3 35.488 0.935 0.064 0. 138 4 .677 4 34.967 1.113 0.073 0. 140 6.976 5 35.930 1 .084 0.058 0. 155 4.516 6 32.722 1 .261 0.066 0. 164 4.816 7 32.740 1 . 193 0.099 0. 170 6.566 8 38.588 1 .304 0.082 0. 160 5.762 9 34.520 1 .249 0.089 0. 161 4.353 10 35.694 1.131* 0.075 0. 143 4 .929 1 1 35.689 1 . 157 0.092 0. 139 4 .076 12 37.254 1 .215 0. 100 0. 153 5.393 13 34.720 1 .028 0.092 0.131 5.327 14 30.051 0.956 0.073 0. 105 4.374 15 34.222 0.997 0.086 0. 102 5. 133 16 33.857 0.990 0.080 0.117 4 .473 17 30.005 1 .081 0.076 0. 128 4.054 18 29.684 1 .407 0.073 0. 160 2. 883 19 38.893 1 .264 0.087 0. 156 4.717 20 33.099 1 .425 0.091 0. 157 4.531 21 37.062 1 . 166 0.084 0. 155 4 .942 22 32.973 1 .406 0.095 0. 151 4 . 102 23 35.910 1 . 107 0.081 0. 125 3.672 24 33.960 1 . 182 0. 107 0.111 7.308 25 33.214 1 .313 0.088 0. 130 7.559 26 36 . 149 1 . 166 0. 107 0. 109 7.086 27 31.098 1 .058 0. 113 0.111 8 . 787 28 35.746 1.171 0. 121 0. 127 5.020 29 24.190 0.927 0. 106 0.098 2. 165 30 29. 302 1 .046 0. 117 0.099 4 .823 31 23.670 1 .278 O. 1 18 0. 152 4 .032 32 25.226 0.850 0. 137 0. 120 3.948 33 36.288 1 . 183 0. 126 0. 126 4.695 34 32.705 0.783 0.088 0. 102 3.899 35 33.998 1 . 148 0. 1 14 0.114 4.236 36 30.183 0.938 0. 104 0. 113 3.751 37 33.306 0.814 0. 106 0. 102 6.112 38 32.952 0.920 0. 1 14 0.096 4.715 39 27.586 0.931 0. 106 0. 121 5.003 40 28.614 0.834 0.096 0.098 4.575 41 30.060 0.873 0. 109 0.098 5.544 42 29.070 0.810 0.094 0. 102 5.202 43 33.895 1 .000 0.088 0.117 5.292 44 26.610 0.887 0. 100 0. 100 5.659 45 26.B43 0.945 0.072 0.099 6.464 46 35.923 0.798 0.090 0.098 6. 120 47 24.147 0.631 0.077 0.085 4.829 48 27.419 1 . 322 0.091 0. 136 4 .657 49 34.380 1 . 152 0.096 0. 137 6.519 50 31.666 1.215 0.057 0. 145 5.428 51 30.763 1 .060 0.071 0. 1 15 4.762 52 33.327 1 .025 0.097 0. 1 13 7.779 53 30.432 0.886 0.083 0. 108 5.297 Mnrzbl N (ppm) KC1 -184.212 404.611 72.626 46.622 135.475 7 1 .971 495.144 139.550 517.360 732.470 422.928 311.869 425.084 322.704 270.950 314.881 45.007 32.755 264.864 218.772 267.264 360.672 615.600 648.614 236.813 515.596 508.771 504.526 456.576 537.264 725.760 214.973 407.322 30.610 369.528 83.585 0.0 58.313 178.819 19.555 154.440 1 .620 229.392 85.152 214.039 47 .01 1 64.421 448.78 87.871 640.769 298.24 339.456 8.419 43.344 77.069 70.426 69.934 60.211 152.4 10 64.584 93.034 85.632 82.087 49.128 59.606 48.521 69.984 55.037 67.007 66.439 126.926 102.528 174.168 87.696 95.472 84.240 81.077 128.978 155.0O2 130.176 149.016 216.480 100.464 69.120 28.517 59.315 19.678 46.992 42.864 27.267 22.236 17.030 18.119 21.600 19.890 33.984 25.546 42.384 34.948 26 .399 47.467 49.294 51 .09 45.883 42.432 33.677 Cu (nom) Zn (ppm) Mg (ppm) K (ppm) Mn (ppm) %Fe XA1 Ca (ppm) 32 . 508 S4. 180 519. 23 677. 25 246. 52 0.406 0. 326 912 . 0 17 . 840 76. 712 646. 70 1248. 80 758. 20 0.250 0. 346 1935. 6 63 . 273 50. 4 35 458. 50 687. 75 199. 91 0.348 0. 321 871 . 1 76 . 821 59. 161 507. 73 772. 63 286. 09 0.353 0. 331 1192. 1 82 . 432 62 . 720 761 . 60 761 . 60 1 19. 17 0.538 0. 554 815. 4 108 . 486 68. 796 992. 25 926. 10 427. 77 0.556 0. 373 970. 2 182 . 091 108. 537 1143. 68 1345. 50 2377. 05 0.565 0. 367 1820. 9 22 . 025 59. 027 506. 57 792. 90 398. 21 0.247 0. 216 1982 . 3 23 . 192 62. 440 579. 80 914. 30 590. 50 0.312 0. 295 1213. 1 22 . 802 50. 866 504. 27 767. 38 313. 97 0.263 0. 326 1306. 7 21 . 360 58. 740 1090. 25 912. 25 504. 63 0.356 0. 295 7787 . 5 51 . 446 93. 135 1064. 40 1308. 32 2882. 75 0.337 0. 248 7761 . 3 17 . 580 65. 046 1164. 68 1296. 52 2658. 98 0.378 0. 282 8350. 5 13 . 770 45. 360 567. 00 972. 00 789. 75 0.227 0. 168 31 10. 4 14 . 1 12 50 274 771 . 75 1367. 10 926. 10 0.309 0. 221 2654 . 8 37 128 83 980 1259. 70 1215. 50 3624. 40 0.513 0. 387 2492. 9 44 650 92 872 1272 52 1428. 80 1562. 75 0.536 0. 428 1839 6 125 391 24 737 831 68 853 00 224 34 0.469 0. 410 1202. 7 418 300 51 620 534 00 1068 00 289 25 0.356 0. 291 1023 5 212 400 59 295 685 88 2168 25 663 75 0.469 0. 311 1309 8 33 930 63 510 478 50 1065 75 870 00 0.374 0. 226 1887 9 34 476 75 140 751 40 928 20 1237 60 0.380 0 259 3041.O 10 800 69 300 1327 50 1687 50 1620.00 0.477 0 373 6525 0 8 890 63 1 19 1111 25 1755 77 2533 65 0.356 0 276 7778 8 13 215 87 219 1211 38 1651 88 947 07 0.440 0 321 7929 0 1 1 661 71 760 1704 30 2915 25 2332 20 0.493 0 460 7400 3 22 600 75 936 2666 80 1559 40 3683 80 0.723 0 659 3091 7 9 757 84 265 1907 05 1774 00 4878 50 0.443 0 388 6652 5 9 020 125 460 1209 50 779 OO 337 84 0.492 0 453 2345 2 12 740 40 040 1956 50 1296 75 1001 00 0.864 0 783 2302 3 27 000 45 900 1687 50 1080 00 810 00 0.5B5 0 497 7875 0 17 366 42 044 3998 75 1805 15 982 55 1 .280 1 252 1297 9 10 752 43 008 1120 00 1232 OO 940 80 0.296 0 211 7392 0 15 487 41 906 1138 75 1252 63 1161 52 0.501 0 374 2541 .7 10 680 72 .090 823 25 1379 .50 6363 .50 0. 178 0 132 8010 .0 15 . 181 55 .366 2098 .55 1026 .95 535 .80 1.116 0 674 1223 .4 21 .045 87 .840 983 .63 915 .OO 3499 .88 0.320 0 214 10293 .8 40 . 185 142 .880 1339 .50 1116 .25 3415 .73 0.536 0 .349 8706 .8 124 . 180 365 .444 1907 .05 975 .70 1862 .70 0.710 0 .439 10644 .0 42 . 159 138 . 138 1928 .55 784 .88 1533 .87 0.807 0 .465 7176 .0 27 .900 53 . 100 3015 .00 1125 .00 990 .00 1.737 1 .395 720 .0 18 .000 63 .000 2362 .50 1237 .50 1620 .00 1 .215 0 .936 1863 .0 17 . 700 52 .215 1659 .38 663 .75 1526 .63 0.619 0 .338 7522 .5 15 .966 67 .412 1884 .88 1663 . 13 6209.00 0.692 0 .543 5543 .8 19 .426 56 .512 3642 .38 1434 .88 761 . 15 1 .351 1 . 121 2419 .4 10 .644 65 .638 2062 .27 1352 .68 2971 .45 0.843 0 .700 2492 .5 22 .525 46 .852 3626 .52 1238 .88 910 .01 1 .469 1 . 144 1486 .6 17 .980 71 .920 1033 .85 730 .89 593 .34 0.611 0 .528 2270 .0 23 .218 63 .403 602 .77 1596 .68 428 .64 0.250 0 .257 1035 . 9 16 .853 50 .559 510 .02 598 .73 1 13 .54 0.248 0 .212 971 .3 7 .821 35 .629 1868 .35 847 .27 534 .44 0.521 0 .417 6952 .0 7 .072 60 . 112 960 .91 1 149 .20 4641 .00 0.212 0 . 190 8287 .5 7 .893 48 .235 1 195 .35 986 .63 1896 .95 0.210 0 . 158 9427 .8 APPENDIX 2.2 COMPLETE FOREST FLOOR CHEMICAL DATA--LF HORIZON Plot er ( :/N ^ J/S N 1 33.577 6. 181 2 30.809 7.771 3 37.941 6.755 4 31.429 7 .925 5 33.140 6.994 6 25.944 7.688 7 27.444 7 .037 8 29.595 8. 132 9 27.643 •7 .735 10 31.550 7.914 11 30.846 8.333 12 30.657 7.919 13 33.761 7.852 14 31.441 9.077 15 34.336 9.741 16 34.196 8.485 17 27.769 8.462 18 21.091 8.777 19 30.775 8.114 20 23.230 9.096 21 31.791 7.528 22 23.459 9.298 23 32.439 8.849 24 28.722 10.640 25 25 .302 10. 136 26 31.OOO 10.744 27 29.402 9.512 28 30.530 9.231 29 26. 106 9.417 30 28.000 10.550 31 18.521 8.402 32 29.677 7.099 33 30.682 9.362 34 41.744 7.679 35 29.612 10.078 36 32.190 8.333 37 40.899 8.018 38 35.825 9.626 39 29.619 7.721 40 34 .301 8.532 41 34.433 8.899 42 35.889 7.965 43 33.894 8.561 4-4 30.000 8.850 45 28.411 9.554 46 45.000 8. 182 41 38.286 7.447 4E 20.748 9.735 4£ 29.845 8.431 5 C ) 26 .05f 8.354 5 29.01C 9.242 5 : ! 32. SOC ) 9.063 5 : 1 34.35( > 8.211 16.184 12.830 14.571 15.181 18.615 19.067 12.091 15.914 14.000 15.000 12.621 12.124 11.143 13.111 I 1 .531 12.444 14.235 19.412 14.490 15.631 13.958 14.722 13.667 II .083 14.900 10.924 9.360 9.706 8.760 8.915 10.840 6.200 9.362 8.866 10.078 9.052 7.672 8.047 8.750 8.692 8.017 8.571 1 1 .300 8.850 13.210 8.91 8.235 14.554 12.056 21. 406 14.878 10.545 10.632 N/Mn 45.055 16.000 46.789 38.889 90.977 29.485 5.019 32.743 21.148 36.034 22.928 4.215 3.868 12.103 10.762 2.732 6.914 62.738 43.692 21.467 13.400 11.357 6.833 4.667 13.860 5.OOO 2.871 2.40O 27.427 10.455 15.778 8.651 12.571 6.745 1 .804 17.500 2.327 2.693 5.000 5.439 8.818 5.000 6.551 1 .429 12.413 2.687 6.931 22 . 273 26.875 107.031 19.837 2.210 4 .669 N/K 16.400 9.714 13.600 14.400 14.235 13.619 8.867 16.444 13.659 14.743 12.683 9.288 7.932 9.833 7 . 290 8. 145 7.562 16.500 11.833 6.571 10.939 15.143 560 734 947 000 783 600 11.895 8.070 11.833 4.709 9.600 6.255 8.323 9. 130 8.900 8.240 9.545 10.629 7.760 6.545 15.067 5.333 6.585 5.902 5.091 18.08 7.215 20. 296 12.513 8.923 8.978 Ca/Al O. 280 0.559 0.271 0.360 O. 147 O. 260 0.496 0.918 0.411 0.401 2.644 3 . 125 2.960 1 .846 1 . 199 0.644 0.430 0.293 0.352 0.422 0.835 1 . 174 1 .747 2.814 2.473 1 .608 0.469 1 .716 0.518 0.294 1 .585 O. 104 3.51 0.680 6.081 O. 181 4.808 2 .494 2.424 1 .544 O.OS2 0. 199 2.225 1 .021 0.216 0.356 0. 130 0.430 0.403 O. 458 1 .667 4.360 5.972 K/Ca 0.743 0.645 O. 789 0.648 0.934 0.955 0.739 0.400 0.754 0.587 0.117 0. 169 O. 155 0.312 0.515 0.488 0.777 0.709 1 .043 655 565 305 259 226 208 394 0.504 0.267 O. 332 0.563 O. 137 1 .391 O. 167 0.493 O. 172 0.839 0.089 O. 128 0.092 O. 109 1 .563 0.664 088 300 593 543 833 322 54 616 122 139 105 Ca/Mq O. 0. o. o. o. o. 1. 0. o. o. 0. 1 .757 2.993 1 .900 2.348 1 .071 0.978 1 .592 3.913 2 .092 2 .591 7 . 143 7 . 292 7. 170 5.486 3.440 1 .979 1 .446 1 .446 1.917 1 .910 3.945 4 .047 4.915 7 .000 6.545 4.342 159 488 939 177 667 325 600 232 730 583 10.465 6.50O 5.581 3.721 0.239 0.789 4 .533 2.941 0.664 1 .209 0.4 2. 196 1 . 7.19 1 .904 3.721 8.625 7 .887 P/Al 0.211 273 200 221 105 177 269 0.380 0.302 0.231 0.311 0.4O4 0.327 0.433 O. 390 0.205 O. 177 O. 177 0.300 0.293 0.369 0.369 0.217 0.386 0.275 O. 232 O. 171 0.311 0.234 0. 150 O. 237 O. 109 0.600 0.237 0.865 0. 154 0.496 0.327 0.242 0.207 0.078 O. 101 0.262 0. 185 0.064 O. 128 0.067 O. 172 0.372 O. 268 0.17 1 0.512 O. 528 C O APPENDIX 2.1 COMPLETE FOREST FLOOR CHEMICAL DATA--H =>lot •Jumber nc m KP % Y.S A t 37.219 0.919 0.055 0. 155 2 34.810 1 .048 0.085 0.141 3 32.544 0.786 0.054 0. 120 4 28.392 0.855 0.055 0. 1 18 5 30.939 0.869 0.051 0. 1 16 6 32.508 0.979 0.057 0. 1 19 7 34.276 0.947 0.077 0. 144 8 33.857 1 . 132 0.071 0. 155 9 34.138 1 . 138 0.073 0. 152 10 32.917 0.983 0.064 0. 127 1 1 32.736 1 . 177 0.085 0. 1 19 12 35.818 0.989 0.092 0. 146 13 34.253 0.776 0.073 0.099 14 32.079 1 . 1 10 0.077 0. 1 14 15 35.452 0.938 0.071 0. 121 16 24.932 0.718 0.069 0. 104 17 22.128 0.710 0.063 0.099 18 24.388 1 .046 0.071 0. 141 19 33.473 0.958 0.065 0. 132 20 31.966 1.111 0.084 0. 157 21 33.046 0.952 0.081 0. 150 22 33.062 1 . 147 0.075 0. 171 23 33.570 1 . 197 0.082 0. 124 24 30.273 1 .027 0. 107 0. 113 25 32.361 1.272 0.075 0. 147 26 32.040 0.954 0.112 0. 116 27 30.352 1 .042 0. 108 0. 121 28 31.240 1 .062 0. 150 0. 107 29 18.630 0.489 0. 1 13 0.065 30 29.789 0.724 0.111 0. 108 31 33.451 0.973 0. 109 0. 135 32 11.268 0.479 0. 164 0.060 33 31.500 1 .035 0.089 0. 132 34 26.294 0.776 0.084 0. 109 35 30.317 0.986 0. 126 0. 124 36 23.580 0.837 0. 105 0. 106 37 33.327 0.796 0. 106 0.089 38 26.939 0.850 0. 1 16 0. 105 39 23.323 0.678 0.099 0.099 40 27.240 0.728 0.095 0. 101 41 22.816 0.653 0. 109 0.075 42 18.065 0.614 0.083 0.081 43 26.048 1 .015 0.086 0. 109 44 32.023 0.673 0. 124 0.081 45 20.204 0.797 0.065 0.086 46 28.103 0.689 0.095 0.081 47 14.008 0. 109 0.076 0.023 48 16.614 0.821 0.096 0.098 49 33.078 0.957 0.072 0. 129 5C 20.996 1 .276 0.048 0. 144 51 19.41 0.79C 0.05G 0.085 52 31 .27« 0.951 0. 106 0.111 5C 33.93E 0.95* 0.086 0. 104 Fracn. Unrzbl. >J (ppm) <C1-Extr. N :u (ppm) Zn « (ppm) ( 5.405 104.832 26. 208 23.660 50.960 8.87 1 78.854 49.018 15.984 55.056 4 . 249 158.381 36.883 40.680 54.240 4.623 218.400 43.680 51.870 59.150 2 . 147 384.154 37.478 48.800 56.608 4 .400 146.554 77.587 44.900 66.452 6.242 294.864 40.680 70.356 82.082 4.261 92.643 59.405 17.680 54.808 4 . 489 398.003 54.656 20.608 62.720 4.566 139.108 80.455 17.955 50.445 3. 140 140.401 56.553 2 1 .408 64.224 5.203 445.678 46.154 35.640 69.498 4 . 567 111.322 38.534 16 .056 47.276 2.480 0.0 91.555 10.404 39.015 3.215 171.456 47.150 8.930 32.148 3. 128 477.848 38.824 34.040 63.480 3. 172 453.624 33.192 36.880 65.462 2 . 184 463.008 39.312 70.980 65.520 5.495 408.120 49.404 53.700 68.02O 3.413 647.993 95.357 112.875 79.464 5 . 334 254.314 45.259 36.818 75.432 3.889 199.987 55.910 31.360 84.224 7 . 272 241.920 38.880 13 .500 62.100 7.305 116.804 72.869 13.395 64.296 5.016 368.340 75.773 21.925 58.759 5.634 92.880 73.440 15.300 62.100 7.274 293. 107 86.208 11.674 77.228 4.655 335.592 89.208 11.505 106.200 2.236 53.654 186.797 8 . 280 36.432 3.267 290.650 48.998 13.920 60.320 3.236 475.589 47.995 27.270 52.722 2 . 329 101.412 9.014 37.560 62.913 4.212 299.160 30.240 18.900 47.700 1 .881 241.945 25.381 8.217 32.868 4.308 167.696 24.344 22.625 57.015 3.258 284.040 34.560 22.500 69.300 5.375 0.0 31.824 23.868 83.980 3.866 196.810 22.285 51.910 176.315 3.453 117.339 9.582 133.792 316.40O 3.740 167.663 23.284 75.516 201.376 3 . 367 216.384 17.664 44.160 69.920 3.283 191.011 22.466 33.012 89.866 4 .062 383.575 25.430 26.490 60.044 5.777 0.897 14.173 16. 146 94.185 4 . 149 251.324 22.650 23.556 83.352 5.674 0.0 22.375 12.530 65.335 2 . 388 0.0 44.088 35.070 51.770 2.972 194.938 17.722 • 19.383 85.839 5.695 102.989 34 . 33C 23.244 58.1 10 4.767 253.042 34.022 14.176 51.388 2.461 261.677 65.419 17.346 48.734 4 . 731 191.376 42.526 9.746 54.046 4 . 878 170.822 37.496 8.68C 47.740 750.75 510.60 519.80 568.75 902.80 785.75 834.35 530.40 582.40 598.50 1516.40 1002.38 1360.30 563.55 669.75 1587.00 1820.95 1569.75 648.88 970.73 875.55 873.60 1372.50 1786.00 1622.45 2587.50 2289.90 1836.38 2256.30 2598.40 2363.40 9249.15 1642.50 1118.43 950.25 3105.00 1 193.40 2282.25 4248.80 3258.88 4370.00 4080.65 2781.45 4036.50 4847 . 10 2148.00 5093.50 1730.63 581 . 1 509.45 4387.71 1329.OO 1236.90 (PPm) 455.OO 1021 .20 723.20 910.00 170.80 898.00 969.65 640.90 694.40 641.25 869.70 1514.70 1338.00 997 .05 1071.60 1725.00 1844.00 1274.00 1543.88 1219.05 1302.10 851.20 1980.00 2232.50 1732.07 1575.00 1526.60 1438.13 952.20 1276.OO 1272.60 2629.20 1237.50 1004.30 1018. 13 900.00 994.50 1051.63 700.60 764. 15 1081.00 917.00 927.15 1883.70 1630.80 1767.63 1043.75 957.15 87 1.65 531.60 846.65 1251.92 1041.60 Mn ppm) 98.28 113.66 123.85 139.23 112.24 378.96 721.60 87.52 172.93 92.34 599.42 002.38 2140.80 159.53 146.45 1035.00 507.10 282. 10 97.55 279.03 257.73 241.92 1620.00 3795.25 767.38 5445.00 5432.90 8628.75 544.82 742.40 863.55 1878.00 1620.00 399.89 3167.50 652.50 4375.80 5079. 13 2350.40 1573.25 1251.20 2452.98 2958.05 6009.90 1753. 1 3468. 1 1035.40 1306.05 104.60 57.59 871 .4 4031.30 2148.30 »A1 0.591 0.400 0.660 0.710 0.976 0.943 0.613 0.424 0.493 0.368 1 .008 0.606 0.624 0.347 0.384 1 .058 1 .365 1 .438 0.698 1 .020 0.898 0.699 0.882 1 .009 1 .009 0.495 0.718 0.735 1 .615 1 .698 1 . 1 18 3.474 0.675 0.73O 0.751 2.277 0.601 1 .325 1 .926 1 .645 3.570 3.026 1.413 1 .794 2.038 1 .253 3.323 1 .717 0.358 0.354 2.065 0.602 0.503 0.493 0.709 0.333 0.691 0.898 0.562 0.471 0.386 0.429 0.515 0.847 0.463 0.551 0.266 0.282 0.957 1 .475 1 .410 0.618 0.869 0.763 0.552 0.651 0.884 0.741 0.760 0.871 0.599 1 .656 1.717 Ca ..(PP") 1 . 109 3.756 0.571 0.603 0.639 1 .485 0.390 0.868 1 .356 1 .016 2.300 2.292 0.808 1 .435 1.812 1 .074 2.505 1 .777 0.386 0.318 2.065 0.495 0.371 236 168 298 400 273 305 577 742 636.2 478.8 1248.8 997.9 2167 1352.5 1169.8 368.0 239.7 218 295 261 .9 314 689.9 2970 1652 1640.0 1656.0 2891.6 5973.8 331 612.5 1436.2 385 6075.0 730.4 841 .6 423.0 6851 .0 7383.8 2802 6517.8 7130.0 9170.0 1854 708.6 1494 .9 1020.3 2O0.4 383 .0 433.6 358.8 1652.0 3765.5 6293.0 C D APPENDIX 2.1 COMPLETE FOREST FLOOR CHEMICAL DATA--H HORIZON Plot dumber C/N N/S N/P N/Mn N/K Ca/AI K/Ca Ca/Mq P/A1 1 40. 495 5. 94 1 16. 833 93. 519 20. 200 0.048 1 . 923 0. 315 0. 111 2 33 . 220 7. 421 12. 292 92 . 187 10. 261 0.024 6. 053 0. 330 0. 120 3 41 . 379 6. 541 14. 500 63. 504 10. 875 0.090 2. 424 0. 574 0. 163 4 33. 191 7. 231 15. 667 61 . 438 9. 40O 0.058 2 . 273 0. 704 0. 079 5 35. 618 7. 479 17 . 1 15 77 . 391 50. 857 0.030 0. 625 0. 303 0. 057 6 33 . 211 8. 195 17. 302 25. 829 10. 900 0.054 2. 941 0. 389 0. 101 7 36. 190 6. 562 12. 353 13. 125 9. 767 0. 123 1 . 680 0. 692 . 0. 163 8 29. 922 7. 314 16. 000 129. 293 17. 655 0. 192 0. 863 1 . 400 0. 183 9 30. 000 7 . 471 15. 488 65. 803 16. 387. 0. 148 1 . 092 1 . 092 0. 171 10 33 . 478 7. 770 15. 333 106. 481 15. 333 0.093 1 . 339 0. 800 0. 125 1 1 27. 803 9. 925 13. 895 19. 643 13. 538 0. 147 0. 696 o. 824 0. 100 12 36. 2 16 6. 768 10. 777 9. 867 6. 529 0.215 1 . 518 0 996 0. 198 13 44. 138 7 . 838 10 610 3 625 5 80O 0.393 0. 617 1 593 0. 133 14 28. 906 9. 697 14 382 69 565 1 1 130 0.508 0. 737 2 400 0. 290 15 37 . 810 7. 721 13 125 64 024 8 750 0.415 0 916 1 747 0. 253 16 34. 744 6 903 10 400 6 933 4 160 0.038 4 688 0 232 0. 072 17 31 169 7 196 1 1 324 14 000 3 850 0.016 7 692 0 132 0. 042 18 23 304 7 419 14 744 37 097 8 214 0.015 5 833 0 139 0. 050 19 34 953 7 230 14 658 98 165 6 203 0.048 5 227 0 455 0 106 20 28 780 7 069 13 226 39 806 9 1 1 1 0.030 4 655 0 270 0 097 21 34 717 6 347 11 778 36 934 7 310 0.041 4 143 0 359 0 106 22 28 828 6 702 15 238 47 407 13 474 0. 125 1 234 0 790 0 136 23 28 045 9 638 14 615 7 389 6 045 0.456 0 667 2 164 0 126 24 29 478 9 127 9 583 2 706 4 600 0. 187 1 351 0 925 0 121 25 25 448 8 631 17 059 16 57 1 7 342 0.221 1 056 1 01 1 0 101 26 33 585 8 217 8 548 1 752 6 057 0.218 0 951 0 640 0 147 27 29 138 8 593 9 667 1 917 6 824 0.332 0 528 1 263 0 124 28 29 417 9 917 7 101 1 231 7 385 0.997 0 24 1 3 253 0 250 29 38 136 7 564 4 338 8 967 5 130 0.020 2 875 0 147 0 068 30 41 154 6 724 6 500 9 750 5 673 0.036 2 083 OT236 0 065 31 34 393 7 181 8 917 1 1 263 7 643 0. 130 0 886 0 608 0 098 32 23 529 7 969 2 914 2 550 1 821 0.010 6 829 0 042 0 044 33 30 435 7 823 11 616 6 389 8 364 1 .063 0 204 3 699 0 156 34 33 882 7 143 9 239 19 406 7 727 0. 121 1 375 0 653 0 139 35 30 734 7 956 7 842 3 1 14 9 689 0. 132 1 210 0 886 0 197 36 28 172 7 881 7 949 12 828 9 300 0.028 2 128 0 136 0 071 37 41 889 8 911 7 500 1 818 8 000 1 . 757 0 145 5 741 0 272 38 31 684 8 120 7 .308 1 .674 8 085 0.851 0 142 3 235 0 134 39 34 400 6 .818 6 .818 2 .885 9 .677 O.207 0 250 0 660 0 073 40 37 .407 7 .232 7 .642 4 .629 9 .529 0.642 0 . 1 17 2 .000 0 094 41 34 .930 8 .659 5 .966 5 . 22 1 6 .043 0.310 0 . 152 1 .632 0 048 42 29 .403 7 .614 7 .444 2 .505 6 .700 0. 400 0 . 100 2 .247 0 036 43 25 .652 9 .350 11 .856 3 .433 10 .952 0.230 0 .500 0 .667 0 106 44 47 .600 8 .333 5 .435 1 . 1 19 3 .571 0.049 2 .658 0 . 176 0 086 45 25 .341 9 .263 12 .222 4 .548 4 .889 0.082 1 .091 0 .308 0 036 46 40 .779 8 .556 7 .264 1 .987 3 .899 0.095 1 . 732 0 .475 0 .088 47 36 .923 4 .643 1 .429 1 .048 1 .040 0.008 5 .208 0 .039 0 .030 48 20 . 225 8 .396 8 .558 6 . 290 8 .582 0.022 2 .499 0 .221 0 .054 49 34 .579 7 .431 13 .375 91 .453 10 .974 0. 1 12 2 .010 0 .746 0 . 185 50 16 .458 8 .889 26 .667 221 .538 24 .000 0. 113 1 .481 0 .704 0 . 150 51 24 .479 9 .320 14 . 1 18 9 . 100 9 .366 0.080 0 .512 0 . 377 0 .027 52 32 .685 8 .640 9 .000 2 .374 7 .643 0.760 0 .332 2 .833 0 .215 53 35 .545 9 . 167 10 .891 4 .444 9 . 167 1 .698 0 . 166 5 .088 0 .237 CO o 81 KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS USED IN APPENDICES 3.0, 3.1, 4.0, 4.1 AND 4.2 SITEINDX site index (m/lOOyrs) PH pH (CaCl 2) HC% total carbon (%) HN total nitrogen (%) HP total phosphorus (%) HS total sulphur (%) HFRACAX fraction A-l ipids (%) HNMNRLPP mineralizable nitrogen (ppm) HNEXTRPP K-Cl extractable nitrogen (ppm) HCUPPM total copper (ppm) HZNPPM total zinc (ppm) HFE% total iron (%) HAL% total aluminum (%) HMG% total magnesium (%) HK% total potassium (%) HMN% total manganese (%) HCA% total calcium (%) HCNRAT carbon:nitrogen ratio HNPRAT nitrogen:phosphorus ratio HNSPRAT nitrogen:sulphur ratio HNKRAT nitrogen-.potassium ratio HKCARAT potassium:calcium ratio HCAMGRAT calcium-.magnesium ratio HPALRAT phosphorus:aluminum ratio HNMNRAT nitrogen:manganese ratio NCAALRAT calcium:aluminum ratio NH4NPPM total ammonium nitrogen (ppm) FRAXNA fraction A-lipids (ash free basis) NH4NPPNA total ammonium nitrogen (ash free basis) KGHAHC carbon (kg/ha) KGHAHN nitrogen (kg/ha) KGHAHP phosphorus (kg/ha) KGHAHS sulphur (kg/ha) KGHAHFRA fraction A-lipds (kg/ha) KGHAHFE iron (kg/ha) KGHAHAL aluminum (kg/ha) KGHAHMG magnesium (kg/ha) KGHAHK potassium (kg/ha) KGHAHMN manganese (kg/ha) KGHAHCA calcium (kg/ha) KGHAHMNR mineralizable nitrogen (kg/ha) KGHAHNEX KC1 extractable nitrogen (kg/ha) KGHAHCU copper (kg/ha) KGHAHZN zinc (kg/ha) KGHAHNH4 ammonium nitrogen (kg/ha) APPENDIX 3.0 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR ALL CHEMICAL DATA--LF HORIZON N=53 DF=51 R@ . ,05= . 2706 R@. 01=.3509 VARIABLE 5.SITEINDX 1 .0000 19.PH -.0796 1.0000 32.HCX -.2413 -.4657 1.0000 33.HNX .0705 - . 4 8 5 1 .3875 1.0000 34.HPX -.1188 .5640 -.2077 -.0932 1.0000 35.HSX .0491 -.7150 .4631 "7742 -.3207 1.0000 36.HFRACAX -.2572 .0747 .2397 .0079 .0676 -.1007 1.0000 37.HNMNRLPP -.0829 .0493 .0883 .4452 .2270 .2068 .0580 1.0000 38.HNEXTRPP .0496 -.2359 . 1337 .6609 .0058 .3123 -.0597 ..3954 1.0000 39.HCUPPM .0050 -.3877 . 1876 .3201 -.1443 .4304 -.0856 -.1243 .2354 1.0000 40.HZNPPM -.0729 .2729 -.1588 -.1334 .2136 -.0921 .0148 -.0801 -.0825 . 1426 1.0000 44.HFEX .2522 .4276 -.5818 -.5220 . 1978 -.4545 -.0321 -.2746 -.2801 -.0739 .0235 1.0000 45.HALX .2424 .3766 -.5610 -.4769 .2041 -.4081 -.0080 -.1849 -.2148 -.1070 -.0694 .8621 1.0000 47.HMGX . 1336 .6878 3" -.6177 -.5616 .3829 -.5873 .0907 -.1366 -.2593 -.2236 .0583 .8827 .8780 1 .0000 48.HKX -.1450 .3222 .0335 .0538 .4368 -. 2304 .3337 . 1679 .2844 -.0203 -.0286 . 1291 . 1721 .3100 49.HMNX -.6587 .4787 .0140 -.2187 .4465 -.3782 .3093 .0325 -.1489 -.1955 . 1931 -.0726 -.1034 . 1561 50.HCAX -.2495 .6628 .0003 -.0976 .4095 -.3173 . 1858 . 1270 -.1961 . -.2440 .3783 -.2506 -.3294 .0414 51.HCNRAT -.2405 . 1582 .2747 -.7598 -.0713 -.4765 . 1369 -.4548 -.4994 -.1833 -.0084 . 1553 . 1145 . 1472 52.HNPRAT . 1933 -.7256 .3506 .6696 -.7670 .7230 -.0769 .1100 .3353 .2912 -.2412 -.4306 -.3886 -.5850 53.HNSRAT .0177 .4128 -. 1403 . 1963 .3677 -.4573 .2016 .3380 .3166 -.2325 -.0415 -.0387 -.0416 . 1062 S4.HNKRAT .2530 -.5753 . 1684 .4701 -.4984 .5980 -.2546 . 1212 .0819 . 1286 -.0880 -.3685 -.3599 -.5395 55. HKCARAT .2364 -.4997 -.0127 .0623 -.1342 .2530 -.0622 -.2386 . 1355 .3864 -.2573 .3688 .4345 . 1217 56.HCAMGRAT -.2613 .3298 .2545 .0743 .2629 -.1151 . 1685 . 1461 -.1479 -.2094 . 1861 -.5413 -. 5904 -.3151 57.HPALRAT -.2808 -.0278 .3754 .2387 .2509 .0630 .0727 . 1504 -.0110 -.0693 .0102 -.6707 -.6961 -.5051 58.HNMNRAT . 3030 - 6712 . 1642 .3434 -.5946 .5173 -.1935 .0352 . 1648 .2652 -.2139 -.2214 -.1427 -.4062 S9.HCAALRAT -.3119 4112 . 1435 -.0452 .2998 -.2251 . 1532 .0536 -.2051 -.2237 . 1476 -.4247 -.4773 -.1703 64.NH4NPPM -.0613 -.0026 ,0982 .5094 . 1995 .2424 .0264 .9794 .5324 -.0706 -.0850 -.3129 -.3188 -.1840 65.FRAXNA -.3027 -.1324 .5895 . 1788 -.0251 . 1043 .9175 .0962 .0549 -.0062 -.0484 -.2913 -.2586 -.1990 66.NH4NPPNA -.1064 -.0647 .2910 .5445 . 1518 .2979 .0857 .9568 .5133 -.0359 -. 1054 -.3839 -.2932 -.2581 5. 19. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 44. 45. 47. SITEINDX PH HCX KMX HPX HSX HFRACAX HNMNRLPP HNEXTRPP HCUPPM HZNPPM HFEX HALX HMGX o o CO APPENDIX 3.0 c o n t i n u e d . 48.HK% 1 .0000 49.HMN% .3803 1.0000 50.HCAX . 1673 .5266 1 .0000 51.HCNRAT -.0430 .2198 .0827 1.0000 52.HNPRAT -.3152 -.4808 -.3934 -.4377 1.0000 53.HNSRAT .4387 .2915 .3458 -.3164 -.1803 1 .0000 S4.HNKRAT -.7816 -.4911 -.2461 -.3584 .6997 -.2670 1 .0000 55.HKCARAT . 1683 -.4042 -.7720 -.0576 . 1869 -.3130 -.0821 56.HCAMGRAT .0324 .4613 .8611 .0864 -.1913 .2755 -.0717 57.HPALRAT .0165 .3960 .4967 -.0066 -.0722 .2371 .0091 58.HNMNRAT -.4552 -.5577 -.4813 -.2385 .7592 -.3120 .7100 59.HCAALRAT .0520 .5329 .8480 . 1303 -.2779 .2773 -.1532 64.NH4NPPM . 1965 -.0055 .0746 -.5134 . 1676 .3726 . 1329 65.FRAXNA .2874 .2450 . 1555 . 1968 .0840 . 1313 -.1292 66.NH4NPPNA .2381 .0231 .0816 -.4208 .2143 .3368 . 1181 48. HKX 49. HMNX 50. HCAX 51 . HCNRAT 52. HNPRAT 53. HNSRAT 54. HNKRA 1.0000 -.7065 1.0000 -.4007 .7960 1 .0000 .3165 -.3358 .1932 ' .0000 -.6461 .9405 .8077 " .3740 1 .0000 -.1969 . 1072 . 1402 .0680 .0096 1.0000 -.0711 .2541 .2268 " .0887 . 1885 .0866 1.0000 -.1863 . 1513 . 1982 .0678 .0427 .9726 .2049 1.0000 55. HKCARAT 56. HCAMSRAT 57. HPALRA" 58. HNMNRAT 59. HCAALRAT 64. NH4NPPM 65. FRA%NA 66. NH4NPPNA APPENDIX 3.1 CORRELATION MATRIX 5 N = 53 DF = R@ . 05 = . 2706 5 . S I T E I N D X 1 . 0 0 0 0 1 9 . P H - . 0 1 0 1 1 .0000 3 2 . H C % - . 2 9 5 7 . 4 6 5 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 3 3 . H N X . 0 3 1 7 . 4 6 5 2 . 6 8 3 6 1 . 0 0 0 0 v 3 4 . H P X - . 1 1 9 7 . 5 7 7 8 - . 1 5 6 9 - . 2 2 8 4 1 . 0 0 0 0 3 5 . H S % . 0 2 1 8 . 6 9 2 2 . 7 3 0 5 . 8 4 7 0 - . 3 5 5 9 3 6 . H F R A C A X - . 4 4 4 2 •. 1 0 9 4 . 5 3 0 5 . 3 9 9 3 . 0 3 0 2 3 7 . H N M N R L P P - . 0 0 4 4 - . 2 1 1 2 . 0 9 9 3 . 3 3 0 1 - . 1 7 5 1 3 8 . H N E X T R P P . 0 4 0 9 - . 1 8 3 4 . 1 2 8 2 . 1 8 6 3 . 0 0 4 6 3 9 . H C U P P M . 1 3 4 8 . 0 1 7 6 - . 1 0 7 0 - . 1 2 7 7 - . 0 9 5 4 4 0 . H Z N P P M . 0 1 8 1 . 4 3 0 3 - . 1 2 2 9 - . 1 6 0 9 . 2 3 8 9 4 4 . H F E X . 2 9 6 7 . 5 9 0 7 - . 8 0 1 6 - . 7 1 0 6 . 3 3 3 8 4 5 . , H A L X . 3 0 6 5 . 5 4 1 9 - . 8 2 2 1 - . 6 9 5 6 . 3 7 6 4 4 7 . . H M G X . 2 7 5 8 . 7 3 8 8 - . 7 1 8 3 - . 6 4 0 3 . 5 0 3 8 4 8 . H K X - . 1 9 8 0 . 3 5 3 1 - . 1 2 3 1 - . 1 1 7 1 . 4 7 7 8 4 9 . H M N X - . 4 2 0 1 . 6 3 7 3 . 0 0 3 3 - . 0 8 0 2 . 6 7 5 9 5 0 . H C A X - . 0 9 9 5 . 5 4 8 0 - . 0 2 2 9 - . 0 8 1 0 . 3 4 0 1 5 1 . H C N R A T - . 4 4 9 1 . 0 0 4 0 . 3 5 5 0 - . 4 1 5 1 . 0 4 9 5 5 2 . H N P R A T . 1 7 6 0 - . 6 9 7 5 . 4 2 3 5 . 7 2 2 1 - . 7 6 0 1 5 3 • H N S R A T . 0 0 8 0 . 3 2 0 3 . 0 9 1 2 . 3 9 8 9 . 2 4 3 0 5 4 . H N K R A T . 2 2 7 9 - . 4 0 4 7 . 2 4 8 1 . 3 3 3 0 - . 4 3 4 6 5 5 . H K C A R A T - . 0 1 2 1 - . 3 0 2 4 - . 3 1 1 5 - . 2 7 8 9 - . 0 7 1 1 5 6 . H C A M G R A T - . 1 8 4 0 . 2 6 5 0 . 2 7 6 4 . 1 7 3 3 . 2 2 1 0 5 7 . H P A L R A T - . 2 6 7 3 - . 2 5 7 3 . 6 1 1 1 . 4 7 4 8 . 0 9 9 0 5 8 . H N M N R A T . 1 5 9 9 - . 7 2 5 6 . 2 2 6 8 . 4 1 8 5 - . 5 5 8 1 5 9 . H C A A L R A T - . 2 0 0 5 . 3 3 1 8 . 2 3 5 0 . 1 1 3 0 . 2 6 5 1 6 4 . N H 4 N P P M . 0 0 3 6 - . 2 3 6 8 . 1 2 1 3 . 3 6 6 5 - . 1 6 8 3 ea i . F R A X N A - . 4 3 6 8 - . 2 5 1 7 . 7 4 3 4 . 5 1 4 0 - . 0 2 2 5 6 6 i. N H 4 N P P N A - . 0 6 5 3 - . 3 1 8 3 . 3 7 4 3 . 4 9 3 0 - . 1 5 7 3 5 . S I T E I N D : 1 9 . < P H 3 2 . H C X 3 3 . H N X 3 4 . H P X FOR ALL CHEMICAL DATA--H HORIZON R@ .01 =.3509 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 3 4 7 6 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 4 2 4 6 - . 1 7 2 9 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 1 1 0 9 - . 0 0 2 0 . 0 3 3 6 < 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 1 0 1 6 - . 1 9 2 4 . 3 2 6 6 - . 1 8 1 6 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 - . 1 0 5 1 - . 0 1 5 0 - . 0 5 2 3 - . 2 8 3 9 . 6 7 8 6 1 . 0 0 0 0 - . 7 1 5 8 - . 4 4 7 8 - . 0 7 6 6 - . 2 6 1 8 . 2 2 1 1 . 2 2 9 3 1 . 0 0 0 0 - . 6 9 2 3 - . 4 3 4 8 . - . 0 6 4 5 - . 1 7 6 8 . 1 3 3 3 . 1 1 9 9 . 9 3 7 3 1 . 0 0 0 0 - . 7 0 9 5 - . 3 2 0 5 - . 1 6 5 8 - . 2 6 6 0 . 1 2 9 0 . 2 7 8 2 . 8 7 2 0 . 8 9 7 8 - . 2 4 4 5 . 2 5 0 6 . 0 8 0 7 - . 0 3 4 9 r . 1 5 4 2 - . 0 8 9 7 . 2 1 9 6 . 3 3 8 8 - . 3 2 4 7 . 2 9 3 5 - . 1 9 8 1 - . 0 4 2 7 - . 1 7 1 3 . 2 9 0 8 . 0 6 3 2 . 0 4 4 4 - . 2 6 2 4 . 0 3 6 4 - . 1 0 9 8 - . 1 9 3 9 . 0 1 6 9 . 3 5 7 4 . 2 1 0 5 . 0 5 5 6 - . 1 8 3 9 . 1 6 4 1 - . 3 3 0 3 - . 0 3 4 5 . 0 0 6 3 . 0 4 3 7 - . 1 1 1 4 - . 1 8 3 0 . 7 0 4 2 . 1 6 7 0 . 2 7 3 2 . 0 9 1 0 - . 0 1 9 1 - . 2 6 8 2 - . 5 8 9 8 - . 5 7 5 7 - . 1 1 8 6 . 1 5 2 3 - . 1 0 9 3 . 1 1 0 8 - . 3 9 7 2 - . 0 8 5 6 - . 0 8 4 2 - . 0 7 9 6 . 3 7 3 7 - . 1 1 5 8 . 1 1 6 0 - . 0 1 6 5 . 0 6 7 2 - . 0 6 2 5 - . 3 1 3 1 - . 3 2 3 0 - . 0 6 7 3 - . 0 7 2 2 . 1 9 4 9 . 0 1 8 0 . 2 1 0 9 - . 1 8 2 8 . 1 9 8 0 . 3 5 0 1 - . 0 4 1 5 . 1 5 4 9 - . 1 8 3 6 - . 0 6 4 5 - . 1 8 7 8 . 0 9 8 1 - . 2 3 5 5 - . 3 3 2 2 . 3 5 9 1 . 2 9 6 6 - . 1 8 9 9 . 1 4 3 2 - . 3 0 4 5 - . 1 4 5 2 - . 6 9 3 8 - . 7 2 6 1 . 5 0 6 0 . 1 1 9 3 - . 0 0 7 8 . 0 7 5 9 - . 0 5 3 5 - . 2 3 6 4 - . 4 4 4 9 - . 4 0 3 9 - . 0 9 8 3 . 1 3 9 5 - . 1 6 9 4 - . 0 7 3 0 - . 1 6 2 1 . 1 3 2 5 - . 2 0 6 9 - . 2 9 1 3 . 4 3 5 3 - . 1 6 2 2 . 9 7 3 7 . 2 5 5 5 . 2 7 0 1 - . 1 1 1 4 - . 1 3 1 0 - . 1 0 2 6 . 5 0 4 1 . 9 5 2 4 - . 1 2 6 0 . 0 7 2 6 - . 1 9 8 1 - . 0 8 2 0 - . 6 1 2 3 - . 5 9 8 3 . 5 8 9 5 . 0 0 5 9 . 9 1 5 2 . 2 7 3 6 . 2 5 1 6 - . 1 2 6 0 - . 3 1 2 6 - . 2 9 8 3 3 5 . H S X 3 6 . H F R A C A X 3 7 . H N M N R L P I 3 8 . > H N E X T R P P 3 9 . > H C U P P M 4 0 . H Z N P P M 4 4 . H F E X 4 5 . H A L X APPENDIX 3.1 c o n t i n u e d . 48. HKX 49. HMNX 50. HCAX 51. HCNRAT 52. HNPRAT 53. HNSRAT 54. HNKRAT 55. HKCARAT 56. HCAMGRAT 57. HPALRAT 58. HNMNRAT 59. HCAALRAT 64. NH4NPPH 65. FRAXNA 66. NH4NPPNA I . OOOO .4105 .2719 .2057 -.1249 -.6214 .0584 -.3751 . 1320 -.1550 -.5416 -.4863 -.0926 -.2136 -.4826 -.3606 47. HMGX 1 .0000 .3849 -.0175 -.0418 . -.3840 .2263 -.6573 .3539 -.0591 -.1347 -.4708 -.0231' .0715 . 1532 .0516 48. HKX 1 .0000 .5081 . 1123 -.5006 .4411 -.3009 -.3288 .4165 .2241 -.5092 .4626 -.1973 .2027 -. 1818 49. HMNX 1.0000 .0517 -.3266 .3455 -.1592 - . 5507 .7994 .2052 -.3802 .7758 -.1417 .0005 -.1450 50. HCAX 1 .0000 - . 3486 -.3970 -.0985 -.0514 .1112 . 1562 -.1857 . 1379 -.3381 .2688 -.1869 51 . HCNRAT 1.0000 . 1061 .5826 -.0636 -. 1016 . 1777 .7554 -.1621 .2869 .2482 .3314 52. HNPRAT 1 . OOOO -.0275 -.4390 .4067 .2548 -.1425 .3962 -.0698 . 1144 -.1083 53. HNSRAT 1.0000 -.2437 -.0553 .0718 .5668 -.0852 .0901 -.0249 . 1343 54. HNKRAT 1.0000 -.5391 -.4019 . 1166 -.4893 . 1837 - . 1204 .0903 55. 1 .0000 .6472 -.1797 .9802 -. 1845 .2130 -.0965 56. 1.0000 . 1953 .6078 -. 1468 .4444 .0471 57. 1.0000 -.2470 .0070 . 1630 .0521 58. 1.0000 -.1719 . 1897 -.0979 59. 1.0000 -.1013 .9461 64. 1 .OOOO . 1214 65. HKCARAT HCAMGRAT HPALRAT HNMNRAT HCAALRAT NH4NPPM FRAXNA 1 .0000 66. NH4NPPNA APPENDIX 4.0 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR CHEMICAL DATA OF PLOTS IN THE MOR ORDER (Kg/ha) --LF HORIZONS V A R I A B L E 5 . S I T E I N 0 X 7 8 . KGHAHC 7 9 . KGHAHN BO.KGHAHP 8 1 . KGHAHS 8 2 . KGHAHFRA 8 3 . KGHAHFE 8 4 . KGHAHAL 8 5 . KGHAHMG 8 6 . KGHAHK 8 7 . KGHAHMN 8 8 . KGHAHCA 8 9 . KGHAHMNR 9 0 . KGHAHNEX 9 1 . KGHAHCU 9 2 . KGHAHZN 9 3 . KGHAHNH4 8 9 . KGHAHMNR 9 0 . KGHAHNEX 9 1 . KGHAHCU 9 2 . KGHAHZN 9 3 . KGHAHNH4 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 3 1 2 4 . 3 7 2 4 . 2 3 7 3 . 3 1 0 8 . 2 3 6 2 . 0 9 1 5 . 0 3 6 0 - . 0 8 1 7 . 1368 -4811 . 0 6 4 6 . 2 3 6 0 4 1 6 6 . 0 5 3 3 . 2 5 4 6 . 2 8 1 0 5 . S I T E I N O X KGHAHC 1 .OOOO 3246 R» . 0 1 0 0 " 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 9 6 3 5 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 8 9 1 6 . 8901 . 9 7 4 9 . 9 6 9 8 . 8 9 5 3 . 8 9 8 9 . 7 1 3 9 . 6784 . 7 4 4 4 . 6 9 7 7 . 3 4 5 4 . 3441 . 6 0 4 7 . 6 1 2 5 - . 0 6 4 8 - . 0 9 1 7 - . 0 5 8 6 - . 0 4 1 1 . 5 788 . 6 6 8 9 . 6 7 4 4 . 7531 . 2 8 2 5 . 2988 . 6 3 2 3 . 651 1 . 6 3 5 2 . 7 3 0 0 7 8 . 7 9 . KGHAHN 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 8 6 4 3 . 8991 . 7 9 9 9 . 8 1 6 0 . 581 1 . 7 7 1 4 . 2 5 2 5 . 1726 . 5 4 8 6 . 6 4 7 9 . 2 5 6 3 . 6 9 3 3 . 6 0 3 4 8 0 . KGHAHP . 4 7 6 6 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 8 9 7 3079 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 3 4 2 3 . 4447 . 3 1 3 3 . 9 9 0 7 . 5921 . 1300 8 9 . 9 0 . 91 . 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 8 6 0 5 1 .OOOO 6889 . 7 4 5 3 1 . 0 0 0 0 7039 . 7747 . 9 6 0 7 1 .OOOO . 2 8 1 4 . 5 3 8 4 . 8 2 3 4 . 8141 1 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 5166 . 7137 . 6 9 1 8 . 7 2 1 0 . 7 1 3 0 1 .OOOO . 1244 . 1312 . 3 9 7 3 . 3 7 1 4 . 6 6 0 6 . 4 1 5 3 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 1433 . 1052 . 1212 . 0 5 6 9 . 4 1 1 9 . 3 9 7 1 . 4 4 3 7 I . 0 0 0 0 . 5 8 3 2 . 5 7 1 1 . 2 8 0 9 . 3 5 9 6 . 2 0 2 3 . 4 2 1 3 - . 1 1 1 3 - . 0 0 7 9 . 6 6 1 3 . 6 6 9 7 . 5 2 0 0 . 5 3 7 1 . 3 6 1 5 . 6 4 9 5 - . 1 3 2 4 . 0 2 5 0 . 3 4 3 0 . 2282 . 2874 . 2 1 9 5 . 0 2 9 3 . 1287 - . 0 9 0 2 - . 2 9 3 0 . 651 1 . 6 6 2 3 . 6 968 . 6 2 4 3 . 4861 . 5 1 6 4 . 1501 . 1888 . 6 3 7 2 . 6 2 7 5 . 3 3 8 2 . 4 1 3 0 . 2 4 1 5 . 4 8 6 9 - . 1 2 2 6 - . O 0 3 4 81 . KGHAHS 8 2 . KGHAHFRA 8 3 . KGHAHFE 8 4 . KGHAHAL 8 5 . KGHAHMG 8 6 . KGHAHK 8 7 . KGHAHMN 8 8 . KGHAHCA 1 . 0 0 0 0 . 3 8 2 8 92 . 1 . 0 0 0 0 KGHAHMNR KGHAHNEX KGHAHCU KGHAHZN KGHAHNH4 APPENDIX 4.1 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR CHEMICAL DATA OF PLOTS IN THE MOR ORDER (Kg/ha) --H HORIZONS 37 OF- 35 R» .0500' . 3246 R« .0100- .4182 VARIABLE 5.SITEINDX 1 .OOOO 78.KGHAHC .3905 1 .0000 79.KGHAHN .4383 .9161 1 .0000 80. KGHAHP .2322 .8200 .8061 1 .OOOO 81.KGHAHS .4497 .9371 .9657 .740O 1 .0000 82.KGHAHFRA .2057 .7800 .7939 .6888 .8015 1 .0000 83.KGHAHFE .2424 .2022 .2776 .3122 .2578 .1885 1 .0000 84.KGHAHAL .0670 .3648 .3888 .4640 .4042 .4370 .8415 85.KGHAHMG . 1435 .0514 . 1272 .3771 .0576 .0988 .8129 86.KGHAHK . 1331 .5602 .5970 .6718 .5103 .5570 .5574 87.KGHAHMN -.2898 -.2463 . 1960 .2551 .3217 .0513 .0492 88.KGHAHCA . 1 105 .0336 .0552 .3713 . 07 17 .0081 .0792 89.KGHAHMNR . 1028 . 3231 .4515 .3381 .4652 .3422 .5569 90.KGHAHNEX .2716 .8674 .8493 .8441 .7961 .6435 .2176 91 .KtiHAHCU .2713 . 1041 .0872 -.0028 . 1829 .0433 .5098 92.KGHAHZN .3200 .2674 .3150 .3882 .3269 .2698 .5549 93.KGHAHNH4 . 1594 .5043 .6157 .5121 .6151 .4667 .5558 5. SITEINDX 78. KGHAHC 79. KGHAHN 80. KGHAHP 81 . KGHAHS 82. KGHAHFRA 83. KGHAHFE 89.KGHAHMNR 1.OOOO 90.KGHAHNE X .2840 1 . OOOO 91.KGHAHCU .2045 .0337 1 .0000 92.KGHAHZN . 1629 .2674 . 7801 1.0000 93 KGHAHNH4 .9719 .5015 . 1928 .2125 1 .OOOO 89 . KGHAHMNR 90. KGHAHNEX 91 . KGHAHCU 92 . KGHAHZN 93. KGHAHNH4 .6951 1 .0000 .6384 .4363 1.OOOO .0282 .4488 . 1326 1.0000 .0551 .3611 . 1773 .6033 1 .0000 .5862 .3870 .5526 -.0382 -.0092 .3904 . 1501 .6170 -.0196 .0808 .3942 .3221 -.0451 -.3302 -. 1801 .4786 .5566 . 1268 .0740 . 1855 .6247 .3860 .650O - .0392 .01 15 84. KGHAHAL 85. KGHAHMG 86. KGHAHK 87. KGHAHMN 88. KGHAHCA APPENDIX 4.2 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR CHEMICAL DATA OF PLOTS IN THE MOR ORDER (Kg/ha) --LFH HORIZONS N* 37 OF" 35 R» .0500* .3246 R» .0100- .4182 VARIABLE 52.S1TEINOX 1 .0000 3S.KHHCS .4360 1 .0000 36. KHHNS .4790 .9273 1 .0000 37.KHHPS .3135 .8059 .8007 1.0000 r 38.KHHSS .4581 .9515 .9608 .7343 1.0000 39.KHHFRAS .2471 .8286 .8394 .7618 .8313 1.0000 40.KHHFES .2458 .2109 .2799 .2932 .2613 .2473 1 .0000 41.KHHALS .0711 .3530 .3808 .4591 .3760 .4490 .8340 1 .0000 42.KHHMGS .0969 -.0622 .0297 .3911 -.0585 . 1 1 16 .7751 .6713 1 OOOO 43.KHHKS . 1604 .4799 .5211 .6320 .4001 .5647 .4973 .5938 .4290 1.0000 44.KHHMNS -.3891 -.3770 -.3395 .1167 -.4433 -.1172 .0375 .0084 .4845 . 1321 1.0000 4S.KHHCAS . 1070 - . 1444 -. 1006 .2212 -.2377 -.0719 . 1080 -.0673 .4299 .3143 .5576 1.0000 46.KKHMNRS . 1959 .4890 .6661 .4996 .6220 .5598 .3706 .4750 .2323 .4933 -.1411 -.0724 47.KHHNEXS .3802 .7801 .7991 .7712 .7195 .6557 .3363 .3818 .0898 . 5999 -.1340 -.0598 4B.KHHCUS . 1499 .0803 .0606 -.1297 . 1654 .0521 . 1870 .0901 -.0902 -.0970 -.3487 -.3583 49.KHHZNS .3355 .2556 .3095 .3345 .3298 .3989 .5533 .4514 .4581 .0898 -.0334 .0989 50.KHHNH4S .2510 .5926 .7541 .6003 .6988 .6305 .3755 .4998 .2349 .5593 -.1326 -.0763 52. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41 . 42. 43. 44. 43. SITEINDX KHHCS KHHNS KHHPS KKHSS KHHFRAS KHHFES KHHALS KHHMGS KHHKS KHHMNS KHHCAS 46.KHHNNRS 1.0000 47.KHHNEXS .4658 i .oooo 48.KHHCUS . 1225 .0535 1.0000 49.KHHZNS .2144 .2007 .3962 1.0000 SO.KHHNH4S .9839 .6163 . 1 198 .2313 1.0000 46. 47. 48. 49. SO. KHKMNRS KHHNEXS KHHCUS KHHZNS KHHNH4S 

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