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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Northwest coast whaling : a new perspective Cavanagh, Deborah Mary 1983

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NORTHWEST COAST WHALING: A NEW PERSPECTIVE by DEBORAH MARY CAVANAGH B.A., University Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of Anthropology And Sociology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1983 © Deborah Mary Cavanagh, 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y And S o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date: May , 1983 i i A b s t r a c t M a r i n e mammal h u n t i n g d e v e l o p e d t o i t s peak on the Northwest C o a s t , among the o n l y w h a l i n g p e o p l e i n t h i s a r e a : the Nootka, Makah and t h e i r i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t n e i g h b o u r s . W h i l e p r e v i o u s a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l work has emphasized w h a l i n g r i t u a l and t e c h n o l o g y , t h i s t h e s i s examines the economic importance of the whale r e s o u r c e f o r the Nootka and Makah. S e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s were w e l l - s u i t e d t o the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the s e a s o n a l l y abundant whale r e s o u r c e . P e o p l e moved t o the o u t e r c o a s t a t the same time as n o r t h e r l y m i g r a t i n g g r a y s and humpbacks a r r i v e d on the Northwest C o a s t . O c c u p a t i o n of summer v i l l a g e s e n sured a s i z e a b l e l a b o u r f o r c e t o a s s i s t i n the hunt and render the c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y of o i l o b t a i n e d from a s i n g l e whale. At a time when w i n t e r food s t o c k s were d e p l e t e d the Nootka and Makah e x p l o i t e d as many r e s o u r c e s as p o s s i b l e . W h i l e most of t h e l a b o u r f o r c e was h a r v e s t i n g s p r i n g f i s h r u n s , c h i e f s and n o b l e s hunted whales. These e l i t e w h a l i n g crews were t r a i n e d s i n c e c h i l d h o o d i n the r i t u a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n t r i c a c i e s of the whale hunt. A c h i e f ' s s u c c e s s on t h e w h a l i n g grounds brought him c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s t i g e . H i s f a v o u r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l powers were proven, as were h i s l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s . P o l i t i c a l advantages were g a i n e d by r e d i s t r i b u t i n g whale p r o d u c t s among h i s own p e o p l e as w e l l as n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e s and t r i b e s . A seemingly s m a l l a n n u a l k i l l of o n l y 2.5 whales per v i l l a g e c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of f a t t o the Nootka and Makah d i e t s . The a n n u a l whale h a r v e s t of a l l Nootka t r i b e s was e s t i m a t e d t o be between 20 and 82.5 a n i m a l s , w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l 52 t o 214 s t r u c k but l o s t each y e a r . U s i n g the average o i l y i e l d of b o t h gray and humpback whales, the a n n u a l o i l h a r v e s t per v i l l a g e ranged between 1,890 and 3,905 g a l l o n s . Each Nootka c o u l d have r e c e i v e d between 6.6 and 56.8 k i l o g r a m s of whale o i l a n n u a l l y . T h i s compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e a n n u a l f a t i n t a k e of B r i t o n s i n 1880. The combined use of e t h n o g r a p h i c , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s s u g g e s t s t h a t the whale r e s o u r c e , a l t h o u g h not the s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e f o r the Nootka and Makah, c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the economy of p e o p l e i n h a b i t i n g the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d and Cape F l a t t e r y . i v T a b le of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s . v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i Chapter I 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Review Of The L i t e r a t u r e D e s c r i b i n g The Nootka And Makah 3 T r i b a l D i s t r i b u t i o n 14 N o r t h e r n Nootka 14 C e n t r a l Nootka 18 Southern Nootka 31 S e a s o n a l R e s i d e n c e S h i f t s 34 P o p u l a t i o n S i z e , 35 S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 37 L o c a l Group L e a d e r s h i p 38 Resource Ownership 41 S e a s o n a l Resource E x p l o i t a t i o n 42 Moachat Resource E x p l o i t a t i o n 46 F i s h i n g E f f o r t . .49 Trade And Exchange 55 Food S c a r c i t y 58 Summary And C o n c l u s i o n s 59 Chapter I I 63 The E x p l o i t a t i o n Of Whales By The Nootka And Makah 63 S p e c i e s Of Whales Common To The Northwest Coast 63 Gray Whale ( E s c h r i c h t i u s r o b u s t u s ) 69 Humpback Whale (MegapteTa n o v a e a n q l i a e ) 78 R i g h t Whale (Balaena. q l a c i a l i s ) 82 Minke Whale ( B a l a e n o p t e r a a c u t o r o s t r a t a ) 84 K i l l e r W h a l e ~ ( O r c i n u s orcaT 84 Whales Not Hunted By A b o r i g i n a l Whalers 85 The I n f l u e n c e Of Weather C o n d i t i o n s On Whaling 86 S p e c i e s Taken By. Nootka And Makah Whalers 87 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l E v i d e n c e Of Whale S p e c i e s Hunted 88 Summary And C o n c l u s i o n s 92 Chapter I I I 95 Whaling Technology And R i t u a l 95 H u n t i n g Technology 95 D e s c r i p t i o n Of The Hunt 103 Number Of P a r t i c i p a n t s In The Hunt 105 The R o l e Of The C h i e f In The Hunt 106 R i t u a l P r e p a r t i o n For The Hunt 107 Summary And C o n c l u s i o n s 112 Chapter IV 115 The Economic Importance Of Nootka Whaling 1-15 The J o u r n a l Kept At Nootka Sound 117 Number Of J o u r n a l E n t r i e s 117 The Importance Of Whale H u n t i n g For The Moachat 124 Moachat Whale H u n t i n g E f f o r t 124 The H u n t i n g Success Of A Moachat C h i e f 125 The Moachat Whaling Success 127 V a r i a b i l i t y In Whaling S k i l l s 128 V F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g The Success Of A Whaler 129 Whales S t r u c k And M o r t a l l y Wounded 131 Consumption Of Whale P r o d u c t s 132 Exchange Of Whale P r o d u c t s 134 Q u a n t i t y Of Whale P r o d u c t s A v a i l a b l e To The Moachat .137 Whale H a r v e s t Of A l l Nootka T r i b e s Combined 139 Number Of Whaling V i l l a g e s 140 Annual Whale H a r v e s t And O i l Y i e l d 144 The N u t r i t i o n a l Importance Of Whale P r o d u c t s 150 Summary 152 CONCLUSION 155 BIBLIOGRAPHY 162 v i L i s t of T a b l e s 1. L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of N o r t h e r n Nootka V i l l a g e S i t e s 9 2. L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of C e n t r a l Nootka V i l l a g e S i t e s 21 3. L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of Southern Nootka V i l l a g e S i t e s 33 4. The Number of O c c a s i o n s S p e c i f i c T r i b e s V i s i t e d the Moachat t o Trade from March 1803 t o J u l y 1805 54 5. Trade Goods Brought t o the Moachat from March 1803 t o J u l y 1805 56 6. Oc c u r r e n c e and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Whales, D o l p h i n s and P o r p o i s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia w a t e r s 64 7. Weight of the Body P a r t s of a Pregnant Gray Whale. From T o m i l i n , 1957 75 8. Mean Weights of O i l , Meal and Meat Produced from Gray Whales Waken i n Southward and Northward M i g r a t i o n s ...77 9. T o t a l Amount of Time J e w i t t Spent w i t h the-Moachat, Compared t o the P e r i o d Used f o r A n a l y s i s 116 10. Number of Days P r o d u c t i o n and Consumption A c t i v i t i e s were Recorded by J e w i t t from June 1803 t o J u l y 1805 .118 11. Frequency W i t h Which C e r t a i n P r o d u c t i o n A c t i v i t i e s Were Recorded by J e w i t t from June 1803 t o J u l y 1805 121 12. H u n t i n g Success of Maquinna V e r s u s Other Moachat Whalers D u r i n g the 1804 and 1805 Whaling Seasons 126 13. T r i b e s Who Brought Whale P r o d u c t s t o the Moachat from November 1803 t o J u l y 1805 135 14. L o c a t i o n and D e s c r i p t i o n of Nootka Marine Mammal H u n t i n g and Deep Sea F i s h i n g S i t e s 142 v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s 1. N o r t h e r n Nootka T r i b a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and V i l l a g e S i t e s 8 2. N o r t h e r n and C e n t r a l Nootka T r i b a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and V i l l a g e S i t e s 20 3. C e n t r a l and Southern Nootka T r i b a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and V i l l a g e S i t e s 32 4. Nootka S u b s i s t e n c e A c t i v i t i e s by Month, Based on D r u c k e r , 1951 43 5. The Average Number of Days per Month, J e w i t t Made J o u r n a l E n t r i e s , from June 1803 t o June 1805 -....47 6. Moachat S u b s i s t e n c e A c t i v i t i e s by Month ..48 7. The Average Number of J o u r n a l E n t r i e s per Month, R e c o r d i n g Moachat F i s h i n g and F i s h Consumption, from June 1803 t o J u l y 1805 50 8. T r i b e s V i s i t i n g the Moachat t o Trade from March 1803 t o J u l y 1805 53 9. Gray and Humpback Whale M i g r a t i o n Routes and Summering Grounds o f f the Coast of B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington 70 10. Gray Whale ( E s c h r i c h t i u s r o b u s t u s ) 72 11. Humpback Whale (MeqapteTa n o v a e a n g l i a e ) 81 12. The T o g g l i n g Harpoon Head 98 13. Consumption of P a r t i c u l a r Foods as a P e r c e n t a g e of the T o t a l Number of O c c a s i o n s Food Consumption was Recorded by J e w i t t from June 1803 t o June 1805 123 14. The Average Number of J o u r n a l E n t r i e s , by Month, i n which J e w i t t Recorded E a t i n g Whale P r o d u c t s 133 15. Nootka and Makah Marine Mammal H u n t i n g and Deep Sea F i s h i n g S i t e s 141 16. The E s t i m a t e d H u n t i n g Success of Nootka W h a l i n g V i l l a g e s 1 45 17. The E s t i m a t e d Whale O i l H a r v e s t of Nootka Whaling V i l l a g e s 147 18. The E s t i m a t e d Amount of Whale O i l A v a i l a b l e Per C a p i t a , f o r the Nootka P o p u l a t i o n 149 Acknowledgement Thanks are extended to many people f o r t h e i r a dvice and encouragement throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n and w r i t i n g of t h i s manuscript. Dr. Mike Kew's continued encouragement, a d v i c e and p a t i e n t reviews of v a r i o u s d r a f t s are g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Dr. D. Pokotylo and Dr. R. R i d i n g t o n are to be thanked f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e as committee members. Ms. M. Byse's i n f o r m a t i v e tour of the Ozette s i t e , as w e l l as her i n s i g h t f u l d i s c u s s i o n of Makah whaling proved both enjoyable and i n v a l u a b l e f o r t h i s paper. The encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e of U l r i k e Radermacher was i n v a l u a b l e and I would l i k e to extend my a p p r e c i a t i o n for her c o n t i n u a l support. My f e l l o w graduate students i n the Department of Anthropology at U.B.C. were always ready with a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e , and t h e i r enthusiasm made the hard work almost e n j o y a b l e . Thanks are a l s o extended to members of West Coast Whale Research Foundation f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s u b j e c t , and to Dr. H.D. F i s h e r f o r h i s encouragement. My f a m i l i e s , the Cavanaghs and the Fords must a l s o be mentioned f o r t h e i r unwavering c o n f i d e n c e that the paper would e v e n t u a l l y be completed. F i n a l l y , but f a r from the l e a s t , ' s i n c e r e thanks are extended to my husband, John Ford, f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n c o m p i l i n g much of the whale i n f o r m a t i o n , and h i s most h e l p f u l e d i t o r i a l comments. His u n f l a g g i n g i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b o l s t e r i n g my enthusiasm on more than one o c c a s i o n . 1 CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n Any v a l i d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s a thorough comprehension of the way i n which h u n t e r -g a t h e r e r s o c i e t i e s have adapted t o v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , a s s e s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the r e s o u r c e base, p o p u l a t i o n dynamics, and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of human p o p u l a t i o n s c a l l s f o r a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of the way i n which h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g s o c i e t i e s have adapted t o the s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s of a wide v a r i e t y of e c o l o g i c a l n i c h e s . ( Y e s n e r , 1980:727) In o r d e r t o compare the e c o l o g i c a l a d a p t a t i o n s of v a r i o u s p e o p l e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o l l e c t as broad and comprehensive a d a t a base as p o s s i b l e d e s c r i b i n g the e x p l o i t a t i o n of numerous s p e c i e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e p e o p l e . A h o l i s t i c view of r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y as the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a r e s o u r c e and the p e o p l e u t i l i z i n g t h a t r e s o u r c e a r e complex. The Northwest Coast i s an i d e a l a r e a i n which t o examine such r e l a t i o n s h i p s because as S u t t l e s (I968a:56) n o t e d , ...the Northwest Coast p e o p l e s seem t o have a t t a i n e d the h i g h e s t known l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y a c h i e v e d on a food g a t h e r i n g b a s i s , and among the h i g h e s t known l e v e l s of p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . . . ( t h i s ) . . . has been made p o s s i b l e , or even i n e v i t a b l y produced, by the r i c h n e s s of the h a b i t a t of the a r e a , and the e f f i c i e n c y of the s u b s i s t e n c e t e c h n i q u e s of i t s p e o p l e s . 2 The l i t e r a t u r e c oncerning the Northwest Coast s u b s i s t e n c e economy emphasizes salmon h a r v e s t i n g , the most important s i n g l e economic a c t i v i t y f o r a l l Northwest Coast groups, while i n f o r m a t i o n concerning e x p l o i t a t i o n of a l t e r n a t e foods i s meagre. T h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the c u r r e n t knowledge of resource e x p l o i t a t i o n on the Northwest Coast by p r o v i d i n g a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of an important n o n - f i s h resource - whales, and examining procurement s t r a t e g i e s of the Nootka on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , and the Makah of Cape F l a t t e r y . The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l i n c l u d e an examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between whale a v a i l a b i l i t y , hunting s t r a t e g y - both t e c h n o l o g i c a l and ceremonial - and settlement p a t t e r n s as they correspond to whale m i g r a t i o n r o u t e s . Whales were chosen as the resource to be d i s c u s s e d f o r a number of reasons. F i r s t l y , they are abundant throughout the Northwest Coast, but the Nootka, Makah and t h e i r immediately adjacent neighbours are the only Northwest Coast people south of A l a s k a , known to have hunted whales e x t e n s i v e l y i n the ethnographic p e r i o d . I t i s e v i d e n t , t h e r e f o r e , that a v a i l a b i l i t y alone was not s u f f i c e n t to encourage people to e x p l o i t such a r e s o u r c e . Secondly, c o n s i d e r a b l e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was necessary f o r the e f f i c i e n t e x p l o i t a t i o n of whales. T e c h n o l o g i c a l and r i t u a l a d a p t a t i o n s , as w e l l as a s i z e a b l e crew, were needed f o r a s u c c e s s f u l hunt. T h i s suggests that c o n s i d e r a b l e energy was expended to capture whales. T h i r d , the whale hunt has o f t e n been d e s c r i b e d as important f o r i t s p r e s t i g e value alone, while i t s p o s s i b l e economic importance has 3 l a r g e l y been i g n o r e d . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s w i l l examine the p o s s i b l e economic s i g n i f i c a n c e of w h a l i n g f o r the Nootka and Makah, i n a d d i t i o n , the hunt w i l l be viewed i n the c o n t e x t of whale e c o l o g y on the Northwest C o a s t . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of whale h u n t i n g by t h e Nootka and Makah, w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o our c u r r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s u b s i s t e n c e economies on the Northwest C o a s t . Review of t h e L i t e r a t u r e D e s c r i b i n g t h e Nootka and Makah The f i r s t Europeans t o e n c o u n t e r the a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s of the Northwest Coast a r r i v e d i n the 1780's. By the e a r l y 1800's the Nootka and Makah were f a m i l i a r w i t h European and American t r a d i n g v e s s e l s , and had become a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the b u r g e o n i n g m a r i t i m e f u r t r a d e . The e a r l i e s t d e s c r i p t i o n s of Nootka w h a l i n g were w r i t t e n by these f i r s t e x p l o r e r s and m a r i t i m e f u r t r a d e r s . Cook (1780), Meares (1788), Mozino (1792), T e l l o ( 1 7 9 2 ) , and Marchand (1790) were among t h o s e who r e c o r d e d t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s of the Northwest Coast I n d i a n s . C o n t a c t between Europeans and i n h a b i t a n t s of the Northwest Coast was of s h o r t d u r a t i o n and b a r r i e r s of language and m i s t r u s t l i m i t e d t h e e x t e n t of u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e two p e o p l e s . There were a few e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p a t t e r n as a h a n d f u l of s a i l o r s l i v e d w i t h the Nootka f o r up t o a y e a r or more. W i l l i a m MacKay, a surgeon from the s h i p Experiment was put a s h o r e by J o s e p h S t r a n g e i n J u l y of 1780 t o l e a r n t h e language and customs of the Moachat l i v i n g a t Nootka Sound; S t r a n g e hoped t h a t t h i s would f a c i l i t a t e t r a d e i n the f u t u r e 4 ( P e t h i c k , 1976:687-688). A l t h o u g h MacKay was p r o f e s s e d t o have gone ashore w i t h pen and paper t o r e c o r d the Nootka customs and l i f e s t y l e , no mention of h i s work i s made i n the l i t e r a t u r e . O t h e r s were l e s s w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the n a t i v e way of l i f e , as i n the case of John J e w i t t and h i s crew mate, Thompson, who were t a k e n c a p t i v e by an a g g r e s s i v e t r i b e . The Moachat massacred the crew of the s h i p B o s t o n , p l u n d e r e d i t s c a r g o and J e w i t t and Thompson became s l a v e s of the Moachat c h i e f Maquinna, and were kept p r i s o n e r s from March 1803 u n t i l J u l y 1805 ( J e w i t t , 1976). One year a f t e r J e w i t t r e t u r n e d from Nootka ( i n 1807), h i s J o u r n a l Kept a t Nootka Sound was p u b l i s h e d f o r the a u t h o r ( J e w i t t , 1976). In 1815, a second, h i g h l y r o m a n t i c i s e d v e r s i o n of h i s work was p u b l i s h e d ( J e w i t t , 1974). I t was t h i s work, e d i t e d by R i c h a r d A l s o p , which a t t r a c t e d p o p u l a r and academic i n t e r e s t , w h i l e J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l remained r e l a t i v e l y o b s c u r e . The j o u r n a l i s , i n some r e s p e c t s , the most d e t a i l e d account of Nootka l i f e from t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d . By the m i d d l e of the 19th C e n t u r y c o l o n i a l a g ents and t r a d e r s began t o v i s i t the Northwest Coast and spend extended p e r i o d s of time w i t h the Nootka and Makah. Spro a t (1868) was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c l a i m i n g l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g B a r k l e y Sound and A l b e r n i C a n a l , and he documented h i s i m p r e s s i o n s of the Nootka t r i b e s i n h a b i t i n g t h a t r e g i o n . G i b b s (1877) and Swan (1857, 1870) were employed by the American government t o a s s e s s the s i t u a t i o n of the a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s of Washington. C h a r l e s Scammon (1968), a whaler and s h i p ' s c a p t a i n e n c o u n t e r e d Nootka 5 and Makah w h a l e r s and s e a l e r s i n h i s t r a v e l s on the Northwest C o a s t . In h i s a c c o u n t , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1874, he d e s c r i b e d Nootka and Makah w h a l i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The l a t t e r p a r t of the 19th c e n t u r y was a p e r i o d of i n t e n s e c u l t u r a l change f o r the Northwest Coast p e o p l e . The p o p u l a t i o n had been decimated by d i s e a s e , and the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e was i n t r a n s i t i o n due t o economic f o r c e s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . Many a c c o u n t s of the Nootka and Makah a t t h i s time d e s c r i b e t h o s e a s p e c t s of t h e i r c u l t u r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be " t r a d i t i o n a l " by the w r i t e r s , w h i l e i n n o v a t i o n s adopted from west e r n c u l t u r e were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . Most of t h e s e a u t h o r s b e l i e v e d they were d e s c r i b i n g c u l t u r e s t h a t were f a s t d i s a p p e a r i n g . The t u r n of the 20th Century saw w h i t e s e t t l e r s l i v i n g on the Northwest Coast and the n a t i v e c u l t u r e , as seen by e a r l y t r a d e r s and e x p l o r e r s , had been a l t e r e d . M i s s i o n a r i e s s e t t l e d amongst the Nootka and Makah. Men such as Moser (1926), and Koppert (1930) wrote about t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h the Nootka, and t h e y d e s c r i b e d the c u l t u r e as t h e y u n d e r s t o o d i t from a C h r i s t i a n p o i n t of v i e w . Formal e t h n o g r a p h i c a c c o u n t s of the Nootka were w r i t t e n d u r i n g the e a r l y 1900's when S a p i r (1924, 1955), C u r t i s (1916) , Drucker (1951) and Swadesh (1955, 1948) worked w i t h n a t i v e i n f o r m a n t s . The main g o a l of t h e s e works was r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ethnography, as i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the c u l t u r e was d y i n g and a t a s k of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t was t o p r e s e r v e any i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n a b l e from l i v i n g p e o p l e . By f a r the most comprehensive account a l o n g t h i s l i n e i s 6 Drucker's Northern and Central Nootkan Tribes, published in 1951. Information for t h i s work was co l l e c t e d in the years 1935 and 1936. Drucker (1951:2) spoke to 20 p r i n c i p a l informants, most of whom came from the northern Nootka t r i b e s . These included Muchalat, Moachat, Ehetisat and Kyuquot people. T r a d i t i o n a l economic pursuits were for the most part memories for the eldest informants. Drucker (1951:2) noted that the temporal horizon for the informants was between 1870 and 1900, with some information reaching as far back as the mid-1800's. After a period of at least ten years Drucker organized and wrote-up the data he had co l l e c t e d in the f i e l d . Drucker's ethnography is lim i t e d by the fact that the descriptions of the early economy and s o c i a l organization of the Nootka came from informants' memories. The contemporary l i f e -s t yles of the people Drucker interviewed was considerably d i f f e r e n t from the accounts of their younger days, or those of thei r parents. Nevertheless, Drucker's work i s the most complete description of Nootka society as i t draws together a great deal of information concerning t r a d i t i o n a l lifeways which would otherwise have been forgotten. The discussion of Nootka s o c i a l organization and economy in thi s paper i s dependent primarily upon Drucker's account, as well as Jewitt's journal describing the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of the Moachat. Data describing settlement patterns on the west coast of Vancouver Island and Cape Flat t e r y were primarily obtained from the Report of the Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s for the  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia (1916). This contains considerable 7 information concerning v i l l a g e s i t e s throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. The Commission t r a v e l l e d throughout B r i t i s h Columbia from 1913 to 1916 with the aim of f i n a l i z i n g the question- of reserve lands in the province (Duff, 1977:68). By interviewing band members and Indian agents, the commission ascertained the extent of then existing reserve lands, and they determined whether changes should be made to those reserves. Maps were drawn of the reserve allotments and comments about the physical state of the reserves, and the economic a c t i v i t i e s of the people l i v i n g on those lands were included in the report. Archaeological information concerning early habitation of the west coast of Vancouver Island was taken from a number of sources. At Hesquiat Harbour, investigations have been conducted by Calvert (1980) and Haggarty (1974). Archaeological findings from Yuquot have been published by Folan and Dewhirst (1969, 1970 and 1978). A. McMillan (1981) and McMillan and D. St. C l a i r e (1975) have conducted archaeological investigations in the Alberni Valley region to examine an e a r l i e r Georgia S t r a i t orientation in t h i s area. Information concerning the Ozette s i t e was published by Daugherty (Kirk and Daugherty, 1974). An unpublished paper by Byse (nee Fisken, 1980) provided important data describing the whale bone c o l l e c t i o n from Ozette. These have revealed additional information concerning occupation of summer and winter s i t e s , as well as subsistence economies at those s i t e s . By examining h i s t o r i c a l , ethnographic, archaeological and b i o l o g i c a l accounts of the Northwest Coast, in the context of the whale ecology of 8 Figure 1. Northern Nootka T r i b a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and V i l l a g e S i t e s . Based on Information from Drucker (1951) and the Report of the Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s f o r the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia (1916). Cu -< (7) > ^ < Cu — J . T T Cu 3 *r —i Cu Cu Cu —ml c+ —J* O 3 CU CO - I . Cu CO ro 3 << ft> 3 O i—i _i. Cu t—1 co r+ 3 • Cu _< << Cu —J* 3 D. ^ 7^ - n « < c CQ -Q C C -5 O ro rt-tn -P» co ro Cu CU 3 x— Cu JD - CU —i. <-e Cu CO re — -•. -a CO CO —• Cu O re — — 3 " CU Cu CO 7 T rt-.—. o - n 3 -_i, —<. 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O O << 3 fD to X to Cu Cu r+ — W • to CU 7C r+ rt rt- 3 Cu -h O O • • cu _i. cu rt- Ci-CU cu O rt- r— Cu 3" 3-3-O rt- 7T ft) c+ 3 r+ CO 3T s- 3 rt- 3 T3 3" 3 CU 3" .O S rt- J> 3" CU 3" Cu zr fD O —t rt- Cu Cu 3" to » — J — O Cu Cu 3" — (-+ » —i _ O — T3 rr 3" «< =r O Cu O Cu — ' OT • • O O rt- Cu c+ fD 7T Cu 3" — J 3" co —^j work ath o o fD 3 r+ to or TABLE 1 - Continued Tribe O-ro o o ro o o Village Site Source Drucker (1951) Royal Commission Report (1916) D e s c r i p t i o n O) o i l o Subsistence Act iv i t ies cm crt crt o i to Q-l CU -8 c si ro s-ol c <_> Comments Kyuquot (cont'd) 21 22 23 24 Union Is. Sea Otter Island jo int use of Kyuquot & Ehatisat 3 locations, not described Ehatisat (Figure 1) honk Oke 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ehetis tctnexnit tatcu Litcya huphot icsa ate in haqumts woxne 'a 1 maxteas o'pnit Ehatis Chenahkint Tatchu Openit modern confederacy s i te ; canoe building; 6 local groups: haqumtstisath, hupholath, ehetisath, icsaath, atcinath, Litcyaath owned by ehetisath owned by Queen's Cove group-moved to Oke late C19th owned by ha'wehtakamlath later a confederacy summer si te owned by Litcyaath no description owned by icsaath owned by atcinath owned by haqumtstisath owned by ha'wehtakamlath Queen's Cove vi l lage Ehatisat and Nuchatlet site TABLE 1 - Continue d De s c r i p t ion Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s Gi- CL) cn cn cn c ro s: V i l l a g e S i t e CL) CD cu CD 4-> -a • r— • i — c • r - c: o •1— c o Source n3 rO LO Q. cz ZJ o ra cu CO _d CO •r— LO 4-^ (O +-> cn • i— ZJ Q S- l/l >+- LO •r— T r i b e c o Drucker Royal > > s_ cn CT) cn cu s_ -t-> ro CU cn cn cn c o Comments •r— +J (1951) Commi ssion S-O) S-QJ ro c o <— LO • r— d a. (O o Report c E E ro o • i — S- ca l/l M— , O. cu S_ s-to CL ro CL o _l (1916) •r— ZJ LO o ZJ s 4 -O ro •8 cu jr S-+-> O Nuchatlet 1 qpaqtu Akpukto X X X s h e l l f i s h and potatoes (Figure 1) 2 3 4 5 t c a t c a t c i n i k dhkac o'astea tcisyo'qwis Occosh Owossit-sa Chiseuquis X X X X X X X X 6 aqi tea'ta X 7 8 yutckhtok X 9 co'oma Shoomart X 10 oLaktci Oclucje X 11 l u p a t c s i s Nuchatl X X X sea hunting; people from dhkac & O l a k t c i summered here 12 nutcal Nuchatl X X X X v i l l a g e s i t e since l a t e 1800's Muchalat 1 a'aminqas Ahaminaquus X X X X X X occupied as packers & (Figure 2) 2 3 matcti t i p t i Matchlee Hleepte X X X X X X ca n o e i s t s ; winter s i t e of l o c a l group 4 t c e c i s Cheesish X X X X X confederacy winter s i t e a f t e r mo'ya 1870; main v i l l a g e 5 Mooyah X X X 6 tsaxana no d e s c r i p t i o n 7 a'os X TABLE 1 - Continued T r i b e C L <o o ro <_> O V i l l a g e S i t e Source Drucker (1951) Royal Commission Report (1916) De s c r i p t i o n cu CD ro -CJ c ZJ O s_ CD Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s col c CO I c to Ol to C L cu CU COl cn I cn| C CL| to cn| CL| o Comments Muchalat (cont'd moktas camp s i t e Moachat (Figure 1) 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 yukwot t s a x s i s e'as misaq mowatca tsaxho' h i s n i t o'wis kupti tsawun t a c i s amitsa hatoq tnawun t a ' a t i s Luis Yuquot Tsarksis Aass Nesuk Moutcha Sucwoa H i s n i t Hoiss Coopte Tsowwin Tahsi s boat & canoe b u i l d i n g ; confederacy summer s i t e , l a t e r permanent v i l l a g e dominant i n developing confederacy; invented whaling dominated confederacy, invented whaling owned by haiyanuwxtakamath wi n t e r t r i b a l v i l l a g e of h i s n i t , tsaxho', t a ' a t i s , misaq, L u i s t r i b a l w i n t e r v i l l a g e owned by tsawunath owned by tukwittakamlath 1 4 the area, f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these s p e c i e s f o r the Nootka and Makah s u b s i s t e n c e economies may be uncovered. T r i b a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Nootka t e r r i t o r y covers the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d from Cape Cook to Port Renfrew, and across Juan de Fuca S t r a i t to Cape F l a t t e r y where the Makah occupied land as f a r south as Cape Johnson. These people spoke three d i f f e r e n t languages: Nootka proper was spoken from Cape Cook to the e a s t e r n shore of Barkley Sound, the Pachena and N i t i n a t . L a k e people spoke N i t i n a t and Makah was the language of Cape F l a t t e r y . These languages formed p a r t of the Wakashan language f a m i l y , which a l s o i n c l u d e s the southern Kwakiutl people l i v i n g north of the Nootka. Drucker (1951:3-6) d i v i d e d Nootka proper i n t o the northern and southern d i a l e c t s ; using these d i a l e c t d i v i s i o n s , he broke the Nootka i n t o the Northern and C e n t r a l t r i b e s , with the N i t i n a t speakers comprising the Southern Nootka. Northern Nootka These t r i b e s c o n s i s t e d of the C h i c k l i s e t , Kyuquot, E h a t i s a t , N u c h a t l e t , Moachat and Muchalat. They occupied t e r r i t o r y from Cape Cook south to Nootka Sound. U n l i k e t h e i r neighbours t o the south, many of the northern t r i b e s were c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o c o n f e d e r a c i e s (see F i g u r e s 1,2, Table 1). 15 C h i c k l i s e t T h i s was a s i n g l e t r i b e , occupying t e r r i t o r y from Cape Cook to Kyuquot Sound (see F i g u r e 1 and Table 1). The winter v i l l a g e was Acous (1:1), and Upsowis (1:6) was the main summer s i t e before becoming a permanent v i l l a g e . Six s i t e s were salmon f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s . Two l o c a t i o n s , " L i t s L i h k t " and " a ' a i l " were recorded as h a l i b u t f i s h i n g s i t e s by Drucker (1951:225), but t h e i r l o c a t i o n s were not g i v e n . Acous and L i t s L i h a k t were d e s c r i b e d as o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g bases i n the Report of the Royal  Commission (1916). I t i s most l i k e l y that northern f u r s e a l s were hunted from most of these l o c a t i o n s . The r e p o r t d i d not s t a t e whether the hunting was conducted i n c o n j u n c t i o n with European s e a l e r s , or whether i t was a t r a d i t i o n a l p u r s u i t . Fur s e a l i n g was an important commercial e n t e r p r i s e i n the e a r l y 1900's, and Nootka s e a l e r s were h i r e d by commercial s h i p s . Fur s e a l i n g was a l s o an important economic p u r s u i t i n a b o r i g i n a l times as i n d i c a t e d by evidence from Hesquiat ( C a l v e r t , 1980). Kyuquot The people i n h a b i t i n g Kyuquot Sound were organized i n t o c o n f e d e r a c i e s made up of fourt e e n l o c a l groups and four t r i b e s (see F i g u r e 1 and Table 1). Each l o c a l group shared a t r i b a l winter v i l l a g e ^ , but a l l four t r i b e s u t i l i z e d the confederacy summer s i t e of " a q t i s " (1:1), or V i l l a g e I s l a n d . Drucker (1951:221-225) s t a t e d that there were twenty-seven houses at A q t i s and r e p l i c a s of each t r i b a l winter house were e r e c t e d at that summer s i t e . A q t i s and "Kukamaycamayis" (1:2) were 16 o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g and h a l i b u t f i s h i n g bases. The Report of the  Royal Commission (1916) i n d i c a t e d t hat people from Machta and A q t i s were employed as whalers i n the e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y . E h a t i s a t T h i s confederacy was comprised of three t r i b e s occupying the r e g i o n from Rugged P o i n t to C a t a l a I s l a n d , and p o r t i o n s of the waterways branching o f f Esperanza I n l e t (see F i g u r e 1 and Table 1). T h e i r confederacy v i l l a g e was "Oke" (1:1) and the most important summer s i t e was "Tatchu" (1:4). According to Drucker (1951:225-227), the E h a t i s a t had no o u t s i d e summer s i t e s u n t i l the l o c a l groups owning Tatchu requested a house s i t e at Oke. In r e t u r n f o r a p r o t e c t e d i n s i d e winter l o c a t i o n , people from the o u t s i d e p e r m i t t e d the E h a t i s a t to use Tachtu as a summer confederacy s i t e . An independent l o c a l group occupying Queen's Cove a l s o j o i n e d the E h a t i s a t confederacy at the turn of t h i s c e n t u r y . The Report of the Royal Commission (1916) mentioned that Oke and Tatchu were bases f o r whaling and deep sea f i s h i n g , and Tatchu was a l s o a h a l i b u t f i s h i n g s t a t i o n . T h i s source a l s o noted t h a t o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g ( f o r northern f u r s e a l s ) was an occupation of people l i v i n g at Oke and the Queen's Cove winter v i l l a g e of "Chenahkint" (1:3). N u c h a t l e t T h i s confederacy was comprised of a number of l o c a l groups which Drucker (1951:227-228) b e l i e v e d were the remnants of Moachat and E h a t i s a t unions (see F i g u r e 1 and Table 1). Two l o c a l groups owned f i s h i n g s i t e s at the head of Espinoza Arm and Port E l i z a , but t h e i r summer s i t e was at Nuchatl (1:11). T h i s 17 was reached by p a s s i n g through E h a t i s a t t e r r i t o r y . "Akpukto" (1:1) was the main winter v i l l a g e s i t e . A second v i l l a g e s i t e , a l s o named "Nuchatl" (1:12), became a permanent v i l l a g e i n the l a t e 1800's. Offshore s e a l i n g was conducted from the two v i l l a g e s of Nuchatle, as w e l l as "Chiseuquis" (1:5). The l a s t named s i t e was a l s o a h a l i b u t f i s h i n g s t a t i o n (Drucker, 1951:227-228). Muchalat F i v e autonomous l o c a l groups occupied Muchalat I n l e t (see F i g u r e 2 and Table 1). A f t e r a s e r i e s of wars decimated t h e i r numbers the Muchalat people formed a confederacy and "Cheesis"(1:4) became the main winter v i l l a g e (Drucker, 1951:232-235). The two v i l l a g e s of "Ahaminaquus" (1:1) and Cheesish were o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g bases a c c o r d i n g to the Report of  the Royal Commission (1916). T r a d i t i o n a l (Drucker, 1951:232-235) s t o r i e s mentioned that the Muchalat once owned whaling r i g h t s at "Homais" ( r e f e r to Hesquiat, 2:6) near Estevan P o i n t . Moachat The Moachat confederacy c o n s i s t e d of a number of independent l o c a l groups who became c o n s o l i d a t e d a f t e r wars reduced t h e i r numbers (see F i g u r e 1 and Table 1). Nootka t r a d i t i o n s (Drucker, 1951:228-231) s t a t e d that whaling o r i g i n a t e d at " T s a r k s i s " (1:2) and "Aass" (1:3). Drucker's informants s t a t e d t h a t people from these o u t s i d e whaling v i l l a g e s overcame the i n s i d e v i l l a g e s , and were the moving f o r c e s i n c o n f e d e r a t i o n (Drucker, 1951:228-231). "Coopte" (1:9) and "Hoiss" (1:8) were important winter v i l l a g e s , and "Yuquot" 18 (1:1) was the confederacy summer s i t e which l a t e r became a permanent v i l l a g e . The Report.of the Royal Commission (1916) d e s c r i b e d these as o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g and deep sea f i s h i n g bases, while T s a r k s i s and Yukuot were d e s c r i b e d as whaling v i l l a g e s . I t i s assumed that separate whaling crews operated from each v i l l a g e , although t h i s problem i s not addressed i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Whalers most l i k e l y found i t expedient to hunt c l o s e to t h e i r own v i l l a g e s i t e s where a c o n s i d e r a b l e labour f o r c e c o u l d be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to h e l p tow the animal to shore, and to h e l p render the whale. In a d d i t i o n , a c h i e f would have gained c o n s i d e r a b l e p o l i t i c a l advantage from d i s p l a y i n g h i s prowess i n f r o n t of h i s people, and r e d i s t r i b u t i n g the whale products on the spot. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e that e n t i r e v i l l a g e s moved between summer s i t e s , t h e r e f o r e , Yuquot and T s a s i s may be c o n s i d e r e d summer s i t e s from which separate whaling crews operated. C e n t r a l Nootka The r e g i o n from Hesquiat P e n i n s u l a to Barkley Sound was occupied by the c e n t r a l Nootka t r i b e s . These groups i n c l u d e the Hesquiat, Ahousat, Clayoquot, U c l u e l e t , Toquat, U c h u c k l i s a t and the Ohiat (see F i g u r e s 2, 3, and Table 2). Drucker (1951:22) s t a t e d that a number of wars were fought among the c e n t r a l Nootka t r i b e s , r e s u l t i n g i n the l o s s of e n t i r e l o c a l groups through e i t h e r e x t e r m i n a t i o n or p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s with stronger neighbours. 19 H e s q u i a t F i v e l o c a l groups o c c u p y i n g the r e g i o n i n s i d e H e s q u i a t Harbour, and the o u t e r c o a s t of H e s q u i a t P e n i n s u l a made up the H e s q u i a t t r i b e s (see F i g u r e 2 and T a b l e 2 ) . 20 Figure 2. Northern and C e n t r a l Nootka T r i b a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and V i l l a g e S i t e s . Based on Information from Drucker (1951) and the Report of the  Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s f o r the Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia (1916). 1—» J> 1—• CO t—» ro rr rt- zr O Cu fD Cu — i O — Cu Cu rt- £ Cu fD _ i . CO CO JO £Z C -5 -•• fD Cu rr ro C T fD I— O to O D ^ J oi ui * oo M M L o c a t i o n on Map •< rt-CU CO X) Cu •o Cu Cu Cu to co Cu CU - J . cu CO CO T J rt- cu O J 3 O O fD C -i. -i. 3 TO) ^ —'JO -••JO - c £ —* • </>-«. 3 £ -<• o CZ Cu =1 Cu rt- zr cu fD CO J2> c Cu rt--1 2 or —1 E Cu o fD CO Cu =3 Cu c zr S zr 3 fD CO rt-w i n t e r v i l l a g e X X X X X X X X X X whali ng X X X X X X X o O T 3 O co T 3 CO o CO o CO o o zr O o O O O CO o o o £ - 5 £ -s O Cu £ Cu £ Cu £ £ Cu ZJ £ £ £ £ T 3 £ £ C L Z5 -•• ZJ o CO Z3 ZJ ZJ ZJ C L o ZJ ZJ ZJ ZJ 1 ZJ ZJ fD Z3 fD cr CO 3 fD 3 fD 3 fD fD fD fD fD fD fD fD fD -h Q- O CfO — o CL O C L o Q. C L £ C L C L C L C L ZJ CL CL —'• — j . cr ZJ ZJ ZJ zr co CO . C T T 3 C 7 _^ ,cr ,cr cr cr cu Cr Cr cr to- CT cr zr"< cu *< *< <<<<-. << << << co<<<< — —i Cu Z3 zr rr _j. 3 3 3 3 ZJ zc re 7 T 7T —iTTTr co fD < Cu ZJ Cu cu Cu Cu CO o O — — 3 _ i . _ i . O -J. -J. O- — — — — 3 3 J 3 JO O J 3 JO _. 3 fD CU Cu Cu Cu -5 —t. — i . — j . ZJ -J. -J. £ cu T 3 TO •a T3 T3 -•• CO CO ZJ ZJ ZJ ZJ -J. cu -J* fD —'« i. —f. —f. CO Cu CU Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu CO - Z3 Cu Cu cu cu zr rt- c+ rt- rt- rt- rt-c+ CD —'• C L rt- rt- rt- rf rt- zr zr zr zr zr zr zr co fD zr zr zr zr co Cu Z3 rt- rt- zr 2 o o o zr O. C L C L fD c o o o O O CO O CO O - 5 CO fD o zr zr zr o o zr o —' O Cu Cu CU mmml Co rt- —' Cu fD 1 rt-TZ —- CT - 5 C O C cn o !—• 7<r fD - 5 t-1 fD O O C O T 3 3 << t-> O 3 Cu CTi -t -"• —• •—- rr co co O ZJ CO — i O Cu C C O - 5 fD O fD CO rt-fD summer v i l l a g e l o c a l group s i t e b u r i a l ground pffshore s e a l i n g h a l i b u t f i s h i n g deep sea f i s h i n g h e r r i n g f i s h i n g f i s h i n g s t a t i o n t r a p p i ng hop p i c k i n g o fD ZJ CT fD CO o - 5 CO c cr co fD ZJ o fD > o o Cu CU ZJ C L C L fD CO O - 5 • T 3 rt-O ZJ o fD Z5 rt-- 5 Cu o o Cu Cu (O fD fD co co fD fD C O C -$ fD co ro cu ZJ C L CO TABLE 2 - Continued T r i b e D -03 o ro o o V i l l a g e S i t e Source Drucker (1951) Royal Commission Report (1916) D e s c r i p t i o n Ol CO ro CD co| ro CD o S-C o o S-cn l Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s CO| c CD CU T 3 c: cm c ro S- o Comments Ahousat (Figure 2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 maktusis ahaus t c i t a p i t s a t i k w i s mano i s autsos h i s n i t Marktosis Ahous Chetarpe Sutaqui s Wahous Wahous Tequa Peneetle Moyehai Seeklukis Watta Openit Tootoowi l t e n a Kishnacous H i s n i t Kut-Cous P t . Blunden I s . B a r t l e t t I s . unnamed 8 whaling canoes & gear; cannery workers, f r u i t , clams o r i g i n a l v i l l a g e s i t e ; whale bones found at s i t e e a r l y v i l l a g e s i t e f i r s t main v i l l a g e salmon v i l l a g e s i t e v i l l a g e s i t e 5 v i l l a g e s i t e s 4 v i l l a g e s i t e s look out s t a t i o n , p o s s i b l y f o r whales CU Cu 3" r t 3" 3" |_0 3 co o ->. O Cu — ' cu T3 —' £ "d "O T T in _ . . -I. _ i . _ . . _ , . r t </> c+ cu rt "< -"• ^ O l/) O Cu CO o -•• \ . TT -5 01 O rt -5 -•• CO —^ o —- 7^ -n —i _i. Cu _ J . — ' co *< CO CO «= o C fD -5 -O -5 3 fD C fD Cu O rt ro r t ro '—' •—' co ro H O lOOIsl cn cn co 7T £ O TT rt —' O TT 3 -- 3 r t co O £ rt TT 3 _•. QJ £ CO C -•• 3" r t - O CO r+T3 cu O 3" 3" Cu rt r t r t cu O O co O O -5 m o i—i =E-—i 3 — i _i. co cu rt 3 C Q_ 3" O —• co - a 3-TT _i. CU fD _ i _i<< -•• rt Cu CO 3" o o 7T. m m o TT O CO o -a ,CU fD O o 3-<< O rt £ Cu rt o Cu O — o CO -O 3 £ co 3" Cu e m-a. rt -J. rt CU 3 co cu CO co ro i — • c — i o o -$ o rt —• CO r t O 3" £ T3 fD O -< Cu CO 33 O 33 I—* fD o ,o CO 13 3 "< »-* o 3 Cu cn i —J. ——J — ' r t CO CO o 3 cr fD L o c a t i o n on Map -5 CO c cn o H-» TT • fD -s CO —< O Cu C CO -5 fD O fD 00 fD W i n t e r v i l l a g e summer v i l l a g e l o c a l g roup s i t e a fD co r> -s > n o 3 rt H-3 e fD b u r i a l g round jwhal i ng o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g h a l i b u t f i s h i n g deep sea f i s h i n g h e r r i n g f i s h i n g CO c cr co fD 3 o fD > X X X X x x x x X X X f i s h i n g s t a t i o n t r a p p i ng hop p i c k i n g o O -h O r t O O r t CO O O 3" £ £ O 3" -5 £ £ Cu fD £ £ O 3 3 -5 -"• CU 3 3 TT < 3 3 "O fD fD 3 fD O- fD fD fD fD fD fD 3" O. O. fD -h - . . Q. Q. 3 -5 Q. o . _i. -5 CO rt Cu rt ,CT cr _j -•• cr cr -+> —1 cr cr o "< << << O << *< -J 3 O << << Cu rt r t Cu 3" O Co 1— —« 3 -5 3-3-3-_Q — £ —i Cu Cu -.. o -•• O CO 3 - - C= CTT3 CO 3" £ r t fD 3" O O O fD -J. Cu O cu O. O TT 7T —J CO r t C 3 rt 3 £ £ e O - fD —'• ,cr CD Cu Cu fD CU -J. CO «< rt r t —• r t co o Cu CO O 3" 3" fD 3- r t -5 rt Cu 7T - t i - ' r t w CU 3" rt £ rt co 3" o O C 3" ->• TT —i CO 3 1— ,Cu fD Cu Cu c< CL —• CO O Cu -O ,o- << r t c << 3" Ot 3 -t, Cu -•• ~i 3 fD £ < o -.. o —1 o_ Cu co CO c fD T3 X5 Cu 3 co o o fD rt CO ZZ TABLE 2 - Continued Description Subsistence Act i v 'ti< 5S OI 4-> cn re CJ> cn CJ) c ro s: c o Village Site Source OI CD rO QJ cn rO •i— to Q-3 3 O • i — ro O) to • r -x: in •r-t| • r -x: to ^ £Z •r-XI in •r— 4_ o +-> ro +-> cn c Tribe c: o •r— +J rO V O Drucker (1951) Royal Commission Report (1916) • r— > s-O) +-> c: •i— > S-<L> E £ 3 in O S-cn ro O O CD ta S-3 -O cn c: • i — ro -C ill S-o x: to 4— 4-O +•> 3 -Q •r— ro x: QJ to Q_ OJ <D •o CO C S-S-O) x: CO c x: to cn c •r— O-O-fO s--l-> o Q-CL o Comments Clayoquot (cont'd) 14 li'nama X Ucluelet (Figure 3) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ittatso Clakamucus Outs Quinaquilth Kleykleyhous Ucluth Wya Oo-ool th Quisit is X X X X X X X X X X X X 2 sealing vi l lages linked to Quis i t is by t ra i l Toquat (Figure 3) 1 2 3 4 5 Macoah Deekyakus Chequis Chenatha Dookqua X X X X X X X X main vi l lage Uchucklisat (Figure 3) 1 2 Cowishil Elhlateese X X X X firewood supply, boat building Hopachisat (Figure 3) 1 2 Ahahswinis Klehkoot X X X X located in Port Alberni formerly principal v i l lage TABLE 2 Continued T r i b e C u ra o ra o o V i l l a g e S i t e Source Drucker (1951) Royal Commission Report (1916) Des c r i p t i o n Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s cu CO CU CD ro Ct-o 5-COl T J sz o $-co l CO c CO I c ra cu to C u cu cu -o CO c CO tz •r— S-cu CO CO c • I— o_ C u ro S-C L o Comments Hopachisat (cont'd) 3 Cous 4 Chuchakacook o l d hunting base Seshart (Figure 3) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Tsahaheh Alberni Iwachi s Tseoowa Ahmitsa Cleho Keith Island Equis Omoah basketry & canoe making grasses & reeds f o r basketry o l d v i l l a g e s i t e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n and o l d s e a l i n g base Ohiat (Figure 3) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Numukamis Nuchaquis Dochsupple Sachsa Sachawil Kirby P t . Hamilton Pt. Haines Is. Keeshan Kichha Clutus boat b u i l d i n g firewood supply Quatsowis A-aht-sowis garden p l o t ro — o o =r O -•• 3 Cu rt- cr co ro 2 > CV 3 to Cu O r+ —• Cu Location on Map — - CT <X> £= cn o —• ft> -5 i—• rt> o p t o - o 3 *< »— O 3 Cu CTi -5 - '• — 1 rr co co CO —• O Cu C CO -5 fD O fD CO O 3 !winter v i l l a g e summer v i l l a g e local group s i t e b u r i a l ground whali ng h a l i b u t f i s h i n g deep sea f i s h i n g X h e r r i n g f i s h i n g X f i s h i n g s t a t i o n X t r a p p i ng offshore s e a l i ng hop p i c k i n g CT fD CO o -5 00 c to-co fD 3 o fD > O O 3 3 fD 3 cr co > W M to I n o 3 rr H-3 C ro 93 27 A c c o r d i n g t o Drucker (1951:238), t h r e e l o c a l groups l i v e d around H e s q u i a t Harbour. Both w a r r i n g and p e a c e f u l n e g o t i a t i o n s between the s e groups l e d t o c o n f e d e r a t i o n and H e s q u i a t became the p r i n c i p a l v i l l a g e s i t e . The Homisath o c c u p i e d the w i n t e r v i l l a g e of "Homais" (2:6) as w e l l as a s m a l l e r s i t e a t " h E q u i " (2:5) on the o u t s i d e of H e s q u i a t P e n i n s u l a . T h i s group had l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h the i n s i d e groups u n t i l c o n f e d e r a t i o n . H a l i b u t f i s h i n g was conducted from the o u t s i d e s i t e of " h i l w i n a " ( 2 : 2 ) , w h i l e the s i t e s of Homais and hEqui a r e the o n l y r e c o r d e d marine mammal h u n t i n g bases ( D r u c k e r , 1951:238; C a l v e r t 1980). I t i s u n c e r t a i n whether i n s i d e groups a l s o hunted marine mammals. Dr u c k e r (1951:238) noted t h a t ...as f a r as r e s o u r c e s go, the s e v e r a l H e s q u i a t groups were s i t u a t e d i n perhaps the p o o r e s t s e c t i o n of Nootkan t e r r i t o r y . . . T h e y hunted h a i r s e a l and p o r p o i s e more than o t h e r groups, and were renowned w h a l e r s , t h e r e b y making up, t o some e x t e n t , f o r the l a c k of dog salmon. C o n t r a r y t o D r u c k e r ' s s t a t e m e n t , l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n w i l l show t h a t the H e s q u i a t t e r r i t o r y was r i c h i n r e s o u r c e s p r e c i s e l y because of t h e marine mammals a v a i l a b l e i n the l o c a l w a t e r s . O t s o s a t B e f o r e these p e o p l e were a l l but e l i m i n a t e d by t r i b a l wars, the O t s o s a t was a c o n f e d e r a c y of s e v e r a l l o c a l t r i b e s . T h e i r main w i n t e r v i l l a g e was " M a r k t o s i s " ( 2 : 1 ) , and they owned s e v e r a l f i s h i n g s i t e s on F l o r e s I s l a n d , and a l o n g H e r b e r t , N o r t h , S h e l t e r and S i d n e y I n l e t s . Nootka t r a d i t i o n r e l a t e s t h a t t h i s group was a t t a c k e d by Ahousat u n t i l t hey were f o r c e d t o 28 disband and j o i n other t r i b e s (Drucker, 1951:238). Ahousat T h i s was o r i g i n a l l y a small l o c a l group occupying a winter v i l l a g e at "Ahous" (2:2) on Vargas I s l a n d , and two summer s i t e s on Meares I s l a n d , j u s t east of Vargas (see F i g u r e 2 and Table 2). They conducted a s e r i e s of wars and r a i d s a g a i n s t the Otsosat, the Muchalat and the ma'apiath - a Hesquiat group. The Ahous were s u c c e s s f u l i n c a p t u r i n g a number of i n s i d e s i t e s , and they e v e n t u a l l y became one of the dominant t r i b e s on the coast (Drucker, 1951:238-240). According to the Report of the Royal Commission (1916), people from the v i l l a g e s of " M a r k t o s i s " (2:1), Ahous and "Sutaquis" were o f f s h o r e s e a l e r s . Sutaquis was a l s o a h a l i b u t f i s h i n g s t a t i o n , and M a r k t o s i s and "Openit" (2:12) were deep sea f i s h i n g bases. Whaling was c a r r i e d out from at l e a s t two Ahousat v i l l a g e s i t e s . In 1914 the agents f o r the Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s observed e i g h t whaling canoes with whaling gear a t M a r k t o s i s . On v i s i t i n g the Ahous s i t e i n 1982, D. Cavanagh, J . Ford, J . D a r l i n g and M. Horn found a number of p a r t i a l l y b u r i e d whale bones. T h i s suggests that Ahous was a l s o an a c t i v e whaling s t a t i o n at one time. A s i t e c l o s e to Ahous was a l s o mentioned i n the Report of the Royal Commission (1916) as a f i s h e r y lookout s t a t i o n (2:20). I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s spot was a lookout s t a t i o n f o r whales as i t i s i d e a l l y s i t u a t e d to spot p a s s i n g grays, and i s c l o s e to the whaling v i l l a g e . One i s l a n d north of Vargas i s l a n d i s known l o c a l l y as "Whalers' I s l a n d " , and i s s a i d to be the spot where whalers brought t h e i r 29 c a t c h ashore ( D a r l i n g , 1982, pers comm). The Ahousat were t h e r e f o r e a c t i v e whalers and operated from a number of s i t e s w i t h i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . Clayoquot These people once l i v e d i n a number of independent l o c a l groups occupying Clayoquot Sound and the r e g i o n around Kennedy Lake (see F i g u r e 2 and Table 2). They shared whaling p r i v i l e g e s at the summer s i t e of "Echachis" (2:2) on W i c k i n n i n i s h I s l a n d . A c c o r d i n g to Drucker's informants, a d i s p u t e over salvage r i g h t s to a k i l l e r whale that washed ashore began a s e r i e s of wars between c o a s t a l and i n l a n d people. The La'okwath of Kennedy Lake were s u c c e s s f u l , and they d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e i r descendants the t r i b a l names and t e r r i t o r i e s of the d e f e a t e d c o a s t a l people. Drucker noted t h a t the conquering c h i e f took the name "Wikenanic" and was a p p a r e n t l y the "...famous ' W i c k i n n i n i s h ' of the e a r l y e x p l o r e r s . " (Drucker, 1951:240). O p i t s a t became the permanent v i l l a g e s i t e of t h i s t r i b e . Kelsemat Duff (1977:23) noted that the Kelsemat band was o r i g i n a l l y p a r t of the Clayoquot t r i b e , but l a t e r j o i n e d the Ahousat (see F i g u r e 2 and Table 2). T h e i r winter v i l l a g e was " C l o o l t h p i c h " (2:2), and " Y a r k s i s " (2:1) was an o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g and f i s h i n g s i t e . T h i s second v i l l a g e became the permanent v i l l a g e s i t e . Information concerning t r i b e s south of Clayoquot i s scanty as Drucker's informants were from the more n o r t h e r l y groups. Accounts of r e s e r v e and v i l l a g e s i t e s p r o v i d e d by the Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s (1916) give a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n 30 of the t e r r i t o r i e s owned by these groups, and the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s taken p r i m a r i l y from t h i s source (see F i g u r e 3 and Table 3). S a p i r and Swadesh worked with southern Nootka people, but t h e i r v a l u a b l e records of songs and myths d i d not p r o v i d e the same d e t a i l e d h i s t o r i e s of v i l l a g e and camp s i t e s a v a i l a b l e f o r the more n o r t h e r l y t r i b e s . U c l u e l e t These people occupied the U c l u t h P e n i n s u l a and owned four s i t e s on the exposed outer c o a s t . T h e i r winter v i l l a g e s i t e was " I t t a t s o " (3:1). Two o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g bases were l o c a t e d at the I t t a t s o s i t e . Toquat The r e g i o n surrounding Toquart Bay was occupied by t h i s group. In a d d i t i o n to four f i s h i n g s i t e s , the Toquat owned the winter v i l l a g e s i t e of "Mocoah" (3:1). There are no deep sea f i s h i n g or s e a l i n g bases recorded f o r t h i s t r i b e . U c h u c k l i s a t A c c o r d i n g to the Report of the Royal Commission (1916), t h i s group owned only two s i t e s at the entrance to A l b e r n i Canal. Both of these were f i s h i n g s i t e s (3:1, 3:2). H o p i c h i s a t T h i s i n s i d e group occupied the region at the head of A l b e r n i C a n a l . T h e i r p r i n c i p l e v i l l a g e was formerly l o c a t e d at "Klekoot" (3:2) but l a t e r the s i t e of "Ahahswinins" (3:1) a t Port A l b e r n i became the permanent v i l l a g e . 31 T s i s h a a t These peop l e owned v i l l a g e s i t e s i n B a r k l e y Sound and a l o n g the south west shore of A l b e r n i C a n a l . " E q u i s " (3:8) was the o n l y r e c o r d e d o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g base. O h i a t Numerous O h i a t s i t e s were s c a t t e r e d a l o n g the I s l a n d s of Southern B a r k l e y Sound, and on the m a i n l a n d around Cape B e a l e and Pachena Bay. " K i c h h a " (3:10) was a w h a l i n g , s e a l i n g and h a l i b u t f i s h i n g base. O f f s h o r e s e a l i n g and h a l i b u t f i s h i n g was a l s o c a r r i e d out from " A - a h t - s o w i s " ( 3 : 7 ) . Southern Nootka The s o u t h e r n t r i b e s were made up of the N i t i n a t , Pachenat and t h e Makah. The N i t i n a t and Pachenat spoke N i t i n a t , w h i l e the Makah of Cape F l a t t e r y spoke a s e p a r a t e language - Makah (see F i g u r e 3, T a b l e 3 ) . C o n t a c t was m a i n t a i n e d between th e s e groups t h r o u g h t r a d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P e o p l e f r e q u e n t l y c r o s s e d the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca i n o r d e r t o exchange whale p r o d u c t s , cedar goods, salmon and o t h e r i t e m s . The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g s o u t h e r n Nootka v i l l a g e s i t e s was taken from the Report of the R o y a l Commission (1916). N i t i n a t These p e o p l e o c c u p i e d the r e g i o n s u r r o u n d i n g N i t i n a t Lake and the a d j o i n i n g c o a s t . E l e v e n s i t e s s urrounded N i t i n a t Lake, and f o u r v i l l a g e s were l o c a t e d on the o u t e r c o a s t . " C l o o s e " (3:4) became the permanent v i l l a g e s i t e , and "Tsuquanah" (3:2) was a h a l i b u t f i s h i n g base. 32 Figure 3. Central and Southern Nootka T r i b a l D i s t r i b u t i o n and V i l l a g e S i t e s . Based on information from Drucker (1951) and the Report of the  Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s f o r the Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia (1916). TABLE 3 Location and d e s c r i p t i o n of southern Nootka v i l l a g e s i t e s (see Figure 3) T r i b e Location on Map V i l l a g e S i t e Source Drucker Royal (1951) Commission Report (1916) De s c r i p t i o n Su b s i stence A c t i v i t i e s Comments Location on Map winter village summer village local group site burial ground whali ng Offshore seali ng [hal ibut fishing deep sea fishi ng ^erring fishing fishing station trappi ng fiop picking N i t i n a t (Figure 3) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Ahuk Tsuquanah Wyahs Cloose Sarque Carmanah Iktuksasuk Homitsan Oyees Doobah Malachan I l c l a Optseeah Wokitsas Chuchummisapo Saouk X X X XXXXXXXXXXXXX X X canoe b u i l d i n g v i l l a g e s i t e main v i l l a g e wiers used p r e v i o u s l y Pachenat 1 Pachena X X v i l l a g e s i t e ; l o g g i n g (Figure 3) 2 F i s h i n g S t a t i o n 3 C u l l i t e X v i l l a g e s i t e OJ 4 F i s h i n g S t a t i o n X Oo 34 Pachenat The main v i l l a g e s i t e s of t h e s e p e o p l e were l o c a t e d a t P o r t Renfrew. The Pachenat o c c u p i e d one f i s h i n g s t a t i o n on the o u t s i d e c o a s t ( 4 : 4 ) . M i g r a t i n g gray whales make l a n d f a l l near Pachena P o i n t and P o r t Renfrew. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s may r e v e a l t h a t the Pachenat whaled from t h i s s i t e on the exposed c o a s t . Makah The Makah speakers o c u p i e d the r e g i o n s u r r o u n d i n g Cape F l a t t e r y . T h e i r modern permanent v i l l a g e i s l o c a t e d a t Neah Bay. Swan noted t h a t f i v e v i l l a g e s i t e s were o c c u p i e d i n 1861 (Swan, 1870:2-3). A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t the v i l l a g e s i t e of O z e t t e have r e v e a l e d t h a t w h a l i n g , o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g and h a l i b u t f i s h i n g were i m p o r t a n t economic o c c u p a t i o n s of the O z e t t e people ( K i r k and Daugherty, 1974; Byse, I982:pers comm). Sea s o n a l R e s i d e n c e S h i f t s The p r e c e d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Nootka and Makah peop l e g e n e r a l l y r e s i d e d on the exposed o u t e r c o a s t d u r i n g the summer, w h i l e t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s were l o c a t e d i n s i d e s h e l t e r e d i n l e t s where p o s s i b l e . D r u c k e r ' s i n f o r m a n t s have d e s c r i b e d t h i s type of r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n as the most d e s i r a b l e . Groups w i t h o u t a c c e s s t o s h e l t e r e d w i n t e r r e s i d e n c e s , or w i t h o u t summer s i t e s on the o u t e r c o a s t , o f t e n waged war a g a i n s t those p e o p l e owning such l o c a t i o n s . In l i e u of f i g h t i n g , p e a c e f u l arrangements were made f o r a group t o j o i n i t s more f o r t u n a t e neighbour ( D r u c k e r , 1951:332-334). 35 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t Yuquot have been i n t e r p r e t e d t o support D r u c k e r ' s account of t h e s e s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n c e s h i f t s . D e w h i r s t (1978) argues t h a t t h i s o u t s i d e summer, and i n s i d e f a l l , w i n t e r and s p r i n g p a t t e r n was the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e of Nookta e c o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . In her d i s c u s s i o n of H e s q u i a t p r e h i s t o r y , C a l v e r t (1980) argued i n c o n t r a s t , t h a t the l o c a l groups i n h a b i t i n g H e s q u i a t Harbour and the o u t e r p e n i n s u l a were not as m o b i l e as Drucker s u g g e s t e d . I n s t e a d , C a l v e r t (1980:262-263) found t h a t " . . . a l l seasons were r e p r e s e n t e d i n a l l assemblages... t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t i n g y e a r - r o u n d a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r h a b i t a t l o c a t i o n s . " . T h i s p a t t e r n was p r e s e n t a t l e a s t 1,200 y e a r s ago. C a l v e r t b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s may be an example of an e a r l i e r a d a p t i v e p a t t e r n over a w i d e s p r e a d a r e a of the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d . . The c o n c o m i t a n t e x i s t e n c e of permanent and s h i f t i n g r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n s i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s of the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d suggests t h a t the s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n c e s h i f t s n o t e d by Drucker d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l y t o a l l Nootka t r i b e s . In a d d i t i o n , D r u c k e r noted t h a t many of the t r i b e s had a c q u i r e d new t e r r i t o r y d u r i n g i n t e r - c o n f e d e r a c y wars fought d u r i n g the 19th c e n t u r y . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t r i b a l t e r r i t o r i e s were not s t a t i c , but changed a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r t r i b e s . Thus Nootka r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n s and t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d a r i e s were not u n i f o r m , and i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o keep i n mind t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n e x i s t e d among Nootka t r i b a l groups. 36 P o p u l a t i o n S i z e W i l s o n Duff (1977:40-44) s t a t e d t h a t the e s t i m a t e s of the a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n on the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d a r e d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n as the e f f e c t s of European d i s e a s e were f e l t by the Nootka l o n g b e f o r e the f i r s t census was t a k e n . In a d d i t i o n , numerous wars between c o n f e d e r a c i e s , t r i b e s and l o c a l groups made a s e v e r e impact on the p o p u l a t i o n ; i n some c a s e s e n t i r e l o c a l groups were e x t i n g u i s h e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Duff (1977:38), the e a r l i e s t d a t e f o r which a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s can be made i s 1835. Around t h i s time Hudson's Bay t r a d e r s began t o make a census of the t r i b e s w i t h which they came i n t o c o n t a c t . Duff (1977:38) s t a t e d t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s c o u l d be checked f o r a c c u r a c y by " . . . s t a r t i n g from the f i r s t a c c u r a t e census ( m o s t l y i n the 1880's)., and w o r k i n g back i n l i g h t of what i s known about e p i d e m i c s , wars, and o t h e r such o c c u r r e n c e s i n the i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d . . . " . By u s i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e , Duff (1977:39) e s t i m a t e d the Nootka p o p u l a t i o n of 1835 t o be i n the o r d e r of 7,500 p e o p l e D u r i n g h i s v i s i t t o the Makah i n 1861, Swan (1870:2-3) noted t h a t the combined p o p u l a t i o n of a l l the v i l l a g e s i t e s i n Makah t e r r i t o r y was 650 p e o p l e . Daugherty's work a t the O z e t t e s i t e has r e v e a l e d a l a r g e permanent v i l l a g e whose p o p u l a t i o n may have been as h i g h as 800 or even 1,000 p e o p l e b e f o r e the time of c o n t a c t ( F i s k e n , 1981, p e r s comm). T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the e n t i r e Makah p o p u l a t i o n b e f o r e c o n t a c t was c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r than Swan's 1861 e s t i m a t e , by which time the p o p u l a t i o n had f e l t the e f f e c t s of European d i s e a s e s . S i m i l a r l y , D u f f ' s p o p u l a t i o n 37 estimates f o r the Nootka may be c o n s i d e r a b l y below the a c t u a l number of people i n h a b i t i n g the region before c o n t a c t . S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n Drucker (1951:219-222) s t a t e d that Nootka s o c i e t y was s t r a t i f i e d and centered around the l o c a l group or l i n e a g e . T h i s b a s i c p o l i t i c a l u n i t occupied a s i n g l e house and was commonly named a f t e r i t s f i s h i n g s i t e or an important c h i e f . The l o c a l group was p o l i t i c a l l y and economically autonomous, with e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s to i t s f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s (Drucker, 1951:219~222). The l i n e a g e was the f o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l o c a l group. T h i s was a p a t r i l i n e a l c h i e f l y f a m i l y whose h i g h e s t ranking members r e c e i v e d t h e i r s t a t u s through the r i g h t of primo g e n i t u r e . The middle c l a s s was comprised of the c h i e f ' s younger b r o t h e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Commoners were non-u n i l i n e a l k i n who f r e q u e n t l y married higher ranking i n d i v i d u a l s , but not u s u a l l y members of the c h i e f l y l i n e . A separate c l a s s of s l a v e s was a l s o p a r t of the Nootka household (Drucker, 1951:243-247). L i t t l e i s known about the tr u e s t a t u s of these i n d i v i d u a l s , but J e w i t t ' s (1976) j o u r n a l p r o v i d e s a v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of h i s l i f e as a s l a v e . Larger p o l i t i c a l u n i t s composed of s e v e r a l l o c a l groups were termed t r i b e s by Drucker. T r i b e s shared "...a common winter v i l l a g e , f i x e d ranking of assembled c h i e f s and o f t e n a name." (Drucker, 1951: 220). Through f e a s t s and ceremonies shared at the winter v i l l a g e s , the l o c a l groups r e d i s t r i b u t e d 38 resources c o l l e c t e d over the summer months. In t h i s way they b e n e f i t t e d from the e x p l o i t a t i o n of a much l a r g e r area than was owned by the l o c a l groups alone. A number of t r i b e s s h a r i n g a common summer v i l l a g e s i t e c o n s t i t u t e d a confederacy. Confederacy c h i e f s were org a n i z e d i n an h i e r a r c h i c a l sequence. Drucker (1951:220) s t a t e d that there was very l i t t l e h o s t i l i t y w i t h i n the confederacy. I n t e r -confederacy wars were common, however, and each confederacy was a s i n g l e warring group. A c c o r d i n g to Drucker (1951:220), confederacy boundaries corresponded c l o s e l y to major g e o g r a p h i c a l d i v i s i o n s . These l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l groups were not found south of Nootka Sound (Drucker, 1951:220). Drucker (1951:221) noted that more complex p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as t r i b e s and c o n f e d e r a c i e s were common among the northern t r i b e s , while groups to the south were more o f t e n o r g a n i z e d at the l i n e a g e l e v e l o n ly. He a l s o mentioned that "...the n a t i v e s themselves do not d i s t i n g u i s h t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y between the three kinds of p o l i t i c a l u n i t s . " (Drucker, 1951:221). L o c a l Group L e a d e r s h i p Drucker (1951:273) s t r e s s e d that the c h i e f was the s i n g l e a u t h o r i t y i n almost a l l household a f f a i r s , and he d e s c r i b e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c h i e f and the l i n e a g e as a " n i c e balance" between a p a t e r n a l i s t i c c h i e f and h i s people. I t i s c l e a r from Drucker's work, and from other sources, that Nootka c h i e f l y a u t h o r i t y was based on an i n t r i c a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between 39 the c h i e f s and the members of t h e i r h o u s e h o l d s . V i t a l d e c i s i o n s made by the c h i e f c o n c e r n i n g s e a s o n a l h a r v e s t i n g and r e s i d e n c e s h i f t s were i n f l u e n c e d by members of the l o c a l group t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than Drucker i n d i c a t e d . S p r o a t (1867:113) obser v e d t h a t " ...the o l d men a r e u s u a l l y c a l l e d t o g e t h e r t o make weighty ' d e c i s i o n s . . . " , and t h a t c h i e f l y a u t h o r i t y was "...nominal r a t h e r than p o s i t i v e ( a s ) . . . n o t h i n g can be done w i t h o u t concensus". J e w i t t (1976) o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o meetings of the c h i e f s and commoners h e l d t o d e c i d e b o t h the f a t e of the c a p t i v e s , and t h a t of the European s h i p s e n t e r i n g Nootka t e r r i t o r y . R e s i d e n c e i n any house was based on c h o i c e as w e l l as k i n s h i p . A c h i e f c o u l d i n f l u e n c e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n o n l y i n s o f a r as he o f f e r e d s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s or r e m u n e r a t i o n f o r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e r v i c e s . S p r o a t (1867:39) s t a t e d t h a t "...a w i l l i n g , handy poor man sometimes i s i n v i t e d t o l i v e f o r the w i n t e r w i t h a r i c h e r f a m i l y , f o r whom he works f o r a s m a l l r e m u n e r a t i o n . " . A c c o r d i n g t o D rucker (1951:280), a f a m i l y of good workers "...would be c o u r t e d t o the e x t e n t of g i v i n g them economic and c e r e m o n i a l r i g h t s ; t o e n t i c e them t o a s s o c i a t e t hemselves more permanently t o (a c h i e f ' s ) house.". A c h i e f d i d not always b e n e f i t from t h i s arrangement however, as "...even l a z y no-accounts were not d i s c o u r a g e d from r e s i d e n c e ; t h e i r c l o s e k i n d r e d might f e e l h u r t and move out t o o . " ( D r u c k e r , 1951:280). Wike (1958:223) a p t l y d e s c r i b e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n the l o c a l group as one depending upon "...the a m b i t i o n s of the c h i e f and s u b - c h i e f s , and t h e i r p e o p l e , and f a c t o r s such 40 as the temporary a f f l u e n c e and s t r e n g t h of (the l o c a l group's) neighbours.". Drucker d e s c r i b e d continuous movement between houses. One of h i s informants noted that ...the people who l i v e d i n the houses moved i n and out a l l the time. A f t e r a man had stayed with one c h i e f awhile, f i s h i n g and working f o r him, he would decide he had helped that c h i e f enough, and would move to the house of another c h i e f to whom he was r e l a t e d . (Drucker, 1951:270). Ac c o r d i n g to Drucker (1951:270), people of higher rank s e t t l e d more permanently than d i d the commoners. I n d i v i d u a l s were a t t r a c t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r c h i e f ' s house by h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a competent p r o v i d e r . Drucker's account suggests that c o m p e t i t i o n between c h i e f s f o r household members was f i e r c e and at times b i t t e r . The d o w n f a l l of one Clayoquot c h i e f i s a case i n p o i n t . A young c h i e f had mastered the a r t of whaling and h i s u n u s u a l l y h i g h success r a t e l e d the other c h i e f s to b e l i e v e that the young u p s t a r t had bewitched t h e i r canoes. As a r e s u l t , the young whaler was k i l l e d by h i s peers. Drucker (1951:242) s t a t e d that "...presumably h i s fame as a whaler drew more people to h i s house.". A l a r g e household was an advantage f o r a c h i e f because i t p r o v i d e d him with a s i z e a b l e labour f o r c e to harvest the l o c a l r e s o u r c e s . With competent management, t h i s labour f o r c e c o u l d produce a s u r p l u s to be used f o r f e a s t i n g and exchange. Such r e d i s t r i b u t i o n enhanced the r e p u t a t i o n of the l o c a l group and i t s c h i e f . A c h i e f ' s success was dependent upon h i s a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t and manage a l a r g e labour f o r c e , and keep those people 41 s a t i s f i e d . His own a b i l i t i e s i n c h i e f l y endeavours, such as whaling, c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s a t t r a c t i v n e s s as a l e a d e r . Resource Ownership The concept of resource ownership was an important aspect of Nootka s o c i e t y . Cook (1784) noted that "...nowhere in h i s seasonal voyages d i d he meet with any u n c i v i l i z e d n a t i o n or t r i b e who had such s t r i c t n o t i o n s of t h e i r having a r i g h t to the e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y of e v e r y t h i n g that t h e i r country produces". Resources owned by the Nootka not only i n c l u d e d areas where c e r t a i n products c o u l d be harvested, but a l s o the ceremonial p r i v i l e g e s c o n s i d e r e d mandatory for the s u c c e s s f u l e x p l o i t a t o n of that r e s o u r c e . Drucker (1951:247) s t r e s s e d that the c h i e f l y f a m i l y owned r i g h t s of access to p r a c t i c a l l y a l l l o c a l r e s o u r c e s . These i n c l u d e d s e a l i n g rocks, salvage r i g h t s f o r s t r e t c h e s of s h o r e l i n e , o f f s h o r e and l i t t o r a l f i s h i n g spots, salmon streams, clam beds, f o r e s t s , lakes and r i v e r s . Ceremonies such as c l e a n s i n g f o r whaling, songs, dances and p o t l a t c h seats were c h i e f l y p r o p e r t y . The summer and winter houses were a l s o owned by the c h i e f s (Drucker, 1951:247-260). Accor d i n g to Drucker (1951:252), the c h i e f c o n t r o l l e d these resources by g r a n t i n g permission f o r hunting, f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g at c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s . The c h i e f announced when the season was open to harvest a p p r o p r i a t e r e s o u r c e s . He a l s o d e c i d e d when the group should move to seasonal resource e x p l o i t a t i o n s i t e s . In r e t u r n f o r permission to use l o c a l r e s o u r c e s , members of the household gave the c h i e f a p o r t i o n of 42 t h e i r h a r v e s t . The c h i e f , as head of the household, f e a s t e d the l o c a l group and t h e i r guests with the s u r p l u s given to him. Thus the c h i e f c o o r d i n a t e d seasonal resource e x p l o i t a t i o n , and i t was through him that the s u r p l u s was r e d i s t r i b u t e d (Drucker, 1951:252-254). T h i s e x t e n s i v e c o n t r o l over resources and t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n may have been somewhat exaggerated by Drucker. As mentioned above, other household members had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n important d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the l o c a l group. Drucker (1951:251-252) a l s o mentioned that the i n d i v i d u a l decided how much of h i s harvest would go to the c h i e f . Group consensus was t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e management of resources belonging to the l o c a l group. N e v e r t h e l e s s , J e w i t t ' s account i n d i c a t e s that the c h i e f was u l t i m a t e l y h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the economic w e l l being of h i s household. J e w i t t (1976:20) noted, f o r example, that Maquinna f e a r e d f o r h i s l i f e because h i s people blamed him f o r t h e i r hunger when the s p r i n g salmon run f a i l e d i n 1804. Seasonal Resource E x p l o i t a t i o n When d e s c r i b i n g the Nootka economic c y c l e , Drucker (1951:36) emphasized the s e a s o n a l i t y of l o c a l r e s o u r c e s : ...most of the n a t u r a l resources...(were) ...obtained, l i k e salmon, h e r r i n g , or water fowl d u r i n g the annual m i g r a t i o n s of a s p e c i e s , or e l s e p r o c u r a b l e d u r i n g p e r i o d s when the sea was r e l a t i v e l y calm, as were sea mammals and h a l i b u t . 43 Subsistence Month Activit ies 0 fc- t_ _ > J3 _ » » >< >- c i: .o J Q k- ffl *< C W c C ( Q - | J C « «> -Q C fc C J3 »- w >> 2J >> n> Q. ** > O Marine Mammal Hunting whaling whale salvaging sealing Fishing salmon herring halibut perch cod Gathering sea urchins seaweed shellfish berries/roots Wildfowl Hunting Figure 4. Nootka Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s by Month, Based on Drucker, 1951. 44 A g e n e r a l overview of the y e a r l y c y c l e , based on Drucker's account, i s o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 4, and summarized below. Summer The Nootka occupied t h e i r summer s i t e s longer than any other seasonal l o c a t i o n . Around A p r i l and May l o c a l groups began moving to t h e i r o u t s i d e s i t e s . Deep sea f i s h i n g , salmon f i s h i n g and s h e l l f i s h c o l l e c t i n g were primary economic p u r s u i t s d u r i n g t h i s time. Whaling was c a r r i e d on throughout the summer. Rendering whale products was a time consuming task when an animal was k i l l e d or washed ashore. Smaller marine mammals such as harbour seals,, f u r s e a l s , harbour p o r p o i s e and c e r t a i n s p e c i e s of d o l p h i n s were a l s o hunted d u r i n g the summer. P l a n t s , r o o t s and b e r r i e s were c o l l e c t e d i n season. Autumn By September a l l of the groups were on t h e i r salmon f i s h i n g grounds. Drucker (1951:36) s t a t e d that f a l l was the time of most i n t e n s e p r o d u c t i o n s i n c e , w i t h i n a few weeks, a l a r g e s u r p l u s of salmon had to be harvested and preserved f o r winter consumption. F a l l b e r r i e s and p l a n t s , as w e l l as s o u t h e r l y m i g r a t i n g waterfowl, were a l s o o b tained d u r i n g these few months. Winter People began to congregate at t h e i r winter v i l l a g e s towards the end of October. During the winter the main d i e t c o n s i s t e d of p r e s e r v e d foods such as smoked f i s h and blubber. Economic endeavours were l i m i t e d to f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g f r e s h foods f o r immediate consumption, as w e l l as manufacturing t o o l s , u t e n s i l s , c l o t h i n g e t c . Whales washed ashore by frequent winter storms 45 were salvaged, p r o v i d i n g a p l e n t i f u l supply of o i l , meat and by-products. Drucker (1951:37) noted that the main a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h i s time concerned the winter ceremonies, with l i t t l e time devoted to food c o l l e c t i n g . S p r i n g Towards the end of winter, food stocks were de p l e t e d and people began to move to the h e r r i n g f i s h i n g grounds. H e r r i n g spawned i n March and t h e i r roe was c o l l e c t e d i n an i n t e n s i v e four or f i v e day h a r v e s t . Drucker (1951:46,251) r e p o r t e d that e n t i r e coves were owned by c h i e f s who gave permis s i o n to i n d i v i d u a l s to harvest the h e r r i n g and the roe, i n r e t u r n f o r a share of that h a r v e s t . Spring salmon and a s p e c i e s of seaweed, unnamed by Drucker, were a l s o a v a i l a b l e at that time. N o r t h e r l y m i g r a t i n g w i l d f o w l were hunted d u r i n g the s p r i n g . Whales a r r i v e d on the Northwest Coast i n mid-March and whale hunting e x p e d i t i o n s began at t h i s time. Other s p e c i e s of smaller marine mammals such as harbour s e a l s , d o l p h i n s and harbour p o r p o i s e s were a l s o hunted from the s p r i n g v i l l a g e s i t e s . Most Nootka t r i b e s conformed to t h i s p a t t e r n to a g r e a t e r or l e s s degree. Drucker (1951:43) a l l u d e d to v a r i a t i o n i n resource e x p l o i t a t i o n when he noted t h a t , ...the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n d i d not engage i n these seasonal p u r s u i t s at one time, except f o r the f a l l salmon f i s h i n g and at most p l a c e s the h e r r i n g f i s h i n g . . . t h e r e t a i n e r s of an owner of h a l i b u t and sea mammal hunting grounds, ( f o r example) r e p a i r e d to these p l a c e s as e a r l y as weather p e r m i t t e d . S i m i l a r l y , v a r i o u s t r i b e s c o n c e n t r a t e d on those resources commonly found i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . C a l v e r t noted that sea l i o n s 46 were hunted by the H e s q u i a t i n the s p r i n g , and deer were an im p o r t a n t food i t e m f o r the i n l a n d bands d u r i n g the f a l l and w i n t e r ( C a l v e r t , 1980). The Makah p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphasis on h a l i b u t and cod f i s h i n g a c c o r d i n g t o Si n g h (1966). E x a m i n a t i o n of Moachat r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d by J e w i t t (1976) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s group a l s o v a r i e d somewhat from the p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d by D r u c k e r . Moachat Resource E x p l o i t a t i o n J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l i s the most d e t a i l e d a ccount of s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n f o r any Nootka t r i b e . I t i s a r e c o r d of d a i l y economic a c t i v i t i e s over a t h r e e year p e r i o d . E n t r i e s were made on 631 (81 p e r c e n t ) of the 780 days J e w i t t spent w i t h t h e Moachat. Of t h o s e e n t r i e s , 38 p e r c e n t r e c o r d e d t h e economic a c t i v i t i e s of the day. The number of e n t r i e s d e c r e a s e d from J u l y t o October and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n December and May (see F i g u r e 5 ) . T h i s d e c l i n e i s r e f l e c t e d i n a p a r a l l e l d r o p i n p r o d u c t i o n e n t r i e s d u r i n g t h o s e months. The l i m i t a t i o n s of J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l a r e many and they w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter IV. B r i e f l y , J e w i t t ' s e n t r i e s c o n c e r n i n g economic a c t i v i t i e s r e f e r p r i m a r i l y t o f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g and house c o n s t r u c t i o n . Women's a c t i v i t i e s such as g a t h e r i n g b e r r i e s and s h e l l f i s h a r e i n f r e q u e n t l y n o t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , J e w i t t made c o n t i n u a l r e f e r e n c e t o the t a s k s he and Thompson performed; t h e s e were o f t e n not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o food p r o d u c t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the j o u r n a l i s the o n l y s o u r c e of d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s of d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , and c o n s e r v a t i v e 47 35 30 _ Number of 25 _ Days 20. Entries Were 15 _ Made 10_ 5 _ 0 w <0 3 C CO -3 3 * _ >- o ._ ^ .Q fc. i. >» m (Q Q, <0 LI 2 < 2 CO 3 3 0 E Q. 0 CO 0 O O O 0 E 0 > o z 0 •Q E 0 o 0 Q Month Figure 5. Average Number of Days per Month Jewitt made Journal Entries from June 1803 to July 1805. Tota l number of days entries were made = 684 Source, Jewitt, 19-76. 48 S u b s i s t e n c e M o n t h A c t i v i t i e s w « - E » 5 £ 3 > - U — ^ 4 ) ^ 3 ^ 0 0 ) 4 ) c -Q « J; e >< o> a ** > o fO d, (C Q. TO 3 3 3 0 > 0 0 < 1 > M a r i n e w h a l i n g M a m m a l s e a l i n g Hunt ing s e a o t t e r s p r o c e s s i n g w h a l e s F i s h i n g s a l m o n h e r r i n g c o d ha l ibut h e r r i n g spawn G a t h e r i n g b e r r i e s H u n t i n g L a n d G a m e d e e r bear d u c k s Figure 6. Moachat Subsistence A c t i v i t i e s by Month. Source, Jewitt, 1976. 49 a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e v e a l s much about the Moachat's s e a s o n a l p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t e s (see F i g u r e 6 ) . F i s h i n g E f f o r t Of the 237 e n t r i e s c o n c e r n i n g d a i l y economic a c t i v i t e s , 171 (72 p e r c e n t ) mentioned t h a t the Moachat were f i s h i n g . As would be e x p e c t e d from D r u c k e r ' s a c c o u n t , f i s h i n g was most i n t e n s e d u r i n g November when the f a l l salmon run was h a r v e s t e d . I t i s noteworthy t h a t m i d - w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g were a l s o p e r i o d s of s u b s t a n t i a l f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y a c c o r d i n g t o the j o u r n a l (see F i g u r e 7 ) . These f i n d i n g s a r e i n accordance w i t h arguments p r e s e n t e d by S u t t l e s (1968a, 1960) and Pid d o c k e (1965) c o n c e r n i n g abundance and s c a r c i t y of r e s o u r c e s on t h e Northwest C o a s t . They have argued a g a i n s t D r u c k e r ' s n o t i o n t h a t p e o p l e r e l i e d e n t i r e l y upon s t o r e d foods d u r i n g the w i n t e r w h i l e o t h e r months of t h e year were dev o t e d t o p r o c u r i n g and p r e s e r v i n g l o c a l r e s o u r c e s . They a l s o q u e s t i o n the i d e a t h a t s u r p l u s was s t o r e d m e r e l y t o e n a b l e people t o r e l a x and enj o y the w i n t e r f e s t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o work. I n s t e a d S u t t l e s (I968a:58) noted t h a t "...abundance . . . c o n s i s t e d o n l y of c e r t a i n t h i n g s a t c e r t a i n p l a c e s a t c e r t a i n t i m e s and always w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of f a i l u r e . " . S o c i a l mechanisms such as the p o t l a t c h and k i n networks encouraged the c o l l e c t i o n of s u r p l u s f o r reasons of p r e s t i g e , and they p r o v i d e d avenues of exchange f o r thos e who were unable t o c o l l e c t s u f f i c i e n t food t o m a i n t a i n t hemselves d u r i n g t i m e s of s c a r c i t y ( P i d d o c k e , 1965; S u t t l e s , 1960). o Figure 7. The Average Number of Journal Entries per Month Recording Fishing and Fi s h Consumption from June 1803 to July 1805. Source, Jewitt, 1976. 51 J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l supports the idea of c o n t i n u a l food h a r v e s t i n g , f e a s t i n g and exchange of resources throughout the year. A v a r i e t y of s p e c i e s of f i s h were taken dur i n g the w i n t e r . For example, i n l a t e November of 1803 and 1804 J e w i t t noted that h e r r i n g were f i s h e d at Tahsees. On November 26th, 1803, he wrote, "...I was out f i s h i n g f o r h e r r i n g s ; returned with a canoe f u l l . " ( J e w i t t , 1976:12). The Moachat continued to f i s h i n December of both y e a r s . E n t r i e s f o r December 1804 i n d i c a t e that h e r r i n g was the primary c a t c h . The winter v i l l a g e of Coopte was a l s o a p r o d u c t i v e f i s h i n g s i t e . J e w i t t (1976:15) noted i n January 1803 "...we get p l e n t y to eat at t h i s p l a c e , numbers of h e r r i n g , salmon, small f i s h e t c . were caught.". J e w i t t a l s o noted that f e a s t i n g and winter ceremonies took p l a c e at both Tahsees and Coopte. However, there i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n that economic a c t i v i t i e s were h a l t e d because of the f e s t i v i t i e s . From November 15th to 29th, 1804, f o r example, J e w i t t noted on f i v e d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s that the Moachat were performing a f a r c e or a p l a y . H i s e n t r y of the 29th s t a t e d t h a t " . . . t h i s day the n a t i v e s f i n i s h e d t h e i r p l a y with a l a r g e f e a s t c o n s i s t i n g of salmon spawn." ( J e w i t t , 1976:34). T h i s suggests that the ceremony l a s t e d f o u r t e e n days. Throughout t h i s time the Moachat were f i s h i n g f o r h e r r i n g and they continued to f i s h as d i l i g e n t l y d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g two weeks. P r o c u r i n g food f o r the f e a s t s a s s o c i a t e d with winter ceremonies was l i k e l y an important aspect of winter economic endeavours. J e w i t t ' s (1976) e n t r i e s i n d i c a t e that the whaling season was a l s o v a r i a b l e . Whales were hunted d u r i n g A p r i l and May of 52 1804, and from March t o May of 1805, w h i l e i n 1803 the season l a s t e d u n t i l a t l e a s t J u l y . S t r a n d e d whales were an i m p o r t a n t source of food d u r i n g the w i n t e r . Complex r i t u a l s were performed t o b r i n g them a s h o r e , and s t r i c t r u l e s r e g u l a t e d ownership of the beaches where such whales may be found. E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e j o u r n a l s u g g e s t s t h a t s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n c e s h i f t s may not have been dependent upon r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y a l o n e . For example, J e w i t t noted t h a t the Moachat moved t o Tahsees f o r salmon f i s h i n g on the t h i r d of September, 1803, but h i s e n t r y on the t w e n t i e t h of the same month r e a d s , "the n a t i v e s f i s h i n g w i t h l i t t l e s u c c e s s ; but t o l d us next month they would go home w i t h t h e i r canoes f u l l . " ( J e w i t t , 1976:9). Around the same time the f o l l o w i n g year J e w i t t ' s e n t r i e s c o n t i n u a l l y mention o t h e r t r i b e s b r i n g i n g t r a d e goods t o t h e Moachat on t h e i r a r r i v a l t o Tahsees. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the Moachat moved to Tahsees e a r l y i n o r d e r t o exchange goods w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g groups. I t i s evident,- t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the Moachat had a number of r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them a t any one t i m e , and f a c t o r s o t h e r than r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y a l o n e were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the e x p l o i t a t i o n of c e r t a i n f o o d s . L i k e l y , d e c i s i o n s were made t o e x p l o i t one r e s o u r c e or a n o t h e r , or perhaps the l a b o u r f o r c e was d i v i d e d i n o r d e r t o e x p l o i t a number of r e s o u r c e s a t one t i m e . 53 Figure 8. Tribes which V i s i t e d the Moachat to Trade, and Groups which Traded Whale Products, from March 1803 to July 1805. Source, Jewitt, 1976. TABLE 4 The number of occasions s p e c i f i c t r i b e s v i s i t e d the Moachat to trade from March 1803 to J u l y 1805 (see Figure 8 ) . Source, J e w i t t , 1976. Percent of Number of Trading Trading V i s i t s T r ibe V i s i t s (N=91) A i t i z a r t s ( E h a t i s a t ) 31 34.0 Savahina 16 17.6 Esquates (Hesquiats) 10 11.0 Wickeninish (Clayoquot) 7 7.7 Cla-u-quate (Clayoauot) 4 4.4 Newchadlate (Nuchatlet) 3 3.3 Ahowsarts (Ahousat) 2 2.2 Caruquarts (Kyuquots) 2 2.2 C l a z - a r t s 2 2.2 Newcheemas 2 2.2 Chewmardt/Shoemadeth 2 2.2 Moowachart (Moachat) 1 1.1 Michlate (Muchalat) 1 1.1 C h e a c k - c l i t z - a r t s ( C h i c k ! i s e t ) 1 1.1 Clar-ah 1 1.1 Unspeci f i e d 6 6.6 Total 91 100 55 Trade and Exchange Trade or exchange through f e a s t i n g and p o t l a t c h e s was an i m p o r t a n t means of o b t a i n i n g p r o d u c t s u n a v a i l a b l e i n the home t e r r i t o r y . J e w i t t ' s account of Maquinna's i n t e r - t r i b a l a f f i l i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t the Moachat m a i n t a i n e d t r a d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h most of the Nootka t r i b e s (see F i g u r e 8 and Ta b l e 4 ) . I n d i v i d u a l s from K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y a l s o t r a v e l l e d o v e r l a n d t o t r a d e w i t h the Moachat and o t h e r t r i b e s . A c c o r d i n g t o J e w i t t (1824:69), . . . t r a d e of most of the o t h e r t r i b e s w i t h the Nootka was p r i n c i p a l l y t r a i n - o i l , s e a l or whales's b l u b b e r , f i s h f r e s h or d r i e d , h e r r i n g or salmon spawn, clams and m u s s e l s , and the yama (most p r o b a b l y s a l a l ) . . . c l o t h , sea o t t e r s k i n s , and s l a v e s . I t i s w o r t h w h i l e q u o t i n g the remainder of J e w i t t ' s (1976:69) account of the a r t i c l e s t r a d e d by p a r t i c u l a r t r i b e s s i n c e i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s o b t a i n e d from v a r i o u s r e g i o n s a r e mentioned ( s t a t e m e n t s i n p a r a n t h e s e s a r e mine): ...from the ( E h e t i s a t s ) and the (Kayoquots) , p a r t i c u l a r l y the former the best ( d e n t a l i u m s h e l l s ) and i n the g r e a t e s t q u a n t i t i e s was o b t a i n e d . The ( H e s q u i a t s ) f u r n i s h e d us w i t h w i l d ducks and geese, p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t t e r . the W i c k i n n i n i s h and the K l a - i z - z a r t s (from C l a y o q u o t t e r r i t o r y ) brought t o market many s l a v e s , the b e s t sea o t t e r s k i n s , g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s of o i l , whale sinew, and cakes of the yama, h i g h l y ornamented canoes, some ( d e n t a l i u m s h e l l s ) r e d ochre and ( b l a c k mica) of an i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y t o that, o b t a i n e d from the Newchemass ( p r o b a b l y the Nimpkish) , but p a r t i c l u a r l y the so much v a l u e d ( s k i n of the w a p i t i ) , and an e x c e l l e n t r o o t ( p r o b a b l y camas). J e w i t t a l s o mentioned t h a t the Moacaht were v i s i t e d by more TABLE 5 Trade goods brought to the Moachat from March 1803 to J u l y 1805. Source, J e w i t t , 1976. Number of times Percent of a l l p a r t i c u l a r trade goods occasions goods were were brought to the traded with the Trade items Moachat Moachat (N=93) Dental i a 17 17.7 Herring spawn 13 13.6 Seal s 9 9.4 Skins 8 8.3 Whale blubber 8 8.3 Whale o i l 6 6.3 Salmon spawn 6 6.3 Dried salmon 4 4.2 Geese 4 4.2 Fresh salmon 3 3.1 Spawn 3 3.1 Herring 3 3.1 SIaves 3 3.1 S h e l l f i s h 2 2.1 F r u i t 2 2.1 Canoes 2 2.1 Salmon 1 1.0 Sea o t t e r s 1 1.0 Cl o t h 1 1.0 Total 96 100 57 s o u t h e r l y t r i b e s i n c l u d i n g the N i t i n a t and Seshart people. He i n d i c a t e d that the Moachat's main items f o r exchange were muskets, c l o t h , powder, l o o k i n g g l a s s e s and other l o o t they had taken from the s h i p Boston. Items t r a d e d with the Moachat are l i s t e d i n Table 5. Although J e w i t t d i d not d e s c r i b e the Nootka exchange system i n d e t a i l , i t i s c l e a r that f e a s t i n g and p o t l a t c h e s common among other Northwest Coast groups were a l s o an important means of exchange f o r the Moachat. T h i s same system was d e s c r i b e d by Drucker (1951:376) f o r the Nootka. The f o l l o w i n g i s an example of such an exchange f e a s t taken from J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l (1976:12), and i s one of the e a r l i e s t d e s c r i p t i o n s of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a p o t l a t c h . During November of 1803 J e w i t t noted that a number of groups brought goods to the Moachat on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s . The A i t i z a r t s brought s k i n s once and d e n t a l i a on three o c c a s i o n s , the Savanhia came once with h e r r i n g , and the Chewmardt a r r i v e d with salmon spawn. The Hesquiat s u p p l i e d 6 hundredweight (305 kilograms) of blubber on one o c c a s i o n d u r i n g the same month. Each of these v i s i t s took p l a c e d u r i n g a two week p e r i o d , but J e w i t t d i d not mention any of these people r e c e i v i n g goods i n r e t u r n . On November 23rd, however, J e w i t t ' s (1976:12) e n t r y reads, " a r r i v e d four canoes, one from Savahina, and three from A i t i z a r t s . Our c h i e f had a l a r g e f e a s t and dance; a f t e r the dance was over the c h i e f gave away to the amount muskets two hundred, two hundred yards of c l o t h , one hundred chemises, one hundred l o o k i n g g l a s s e s , and seven b a r r e l s of powder.". A s i m i l a r p e r i o d of heavy supply of goods from other groups 58 o c c u r r e d d u r i n g June, 1805. S e a l s , s k i n s , blubber and o i l were brought i n by v a r i o u s groups and on the 24th of June, J e w i t t noted that the c h i e f ' s n iece was married to a neighbouring c h i e f . T h i s p a t t e r n i s c o n s i s t e n t with Drucker's (1951:376) account of the Nootka p o t l a t c h : when "...a c h i e f accumulated a q u a n t i t y of p r o p e r t y he gave i t away.". I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Drucker (1951:376-377) went on to say that "...the r e a l heyday of the p o t l a t c h was probably... from 1870 on.". J e w i t t ' s account suggests t h a t vigorous p o t l a t c h i n g was a f e a t u r e of e a r l i e r times as w e l l . In h i s e n t r y of May 23rd 1805, J e w i t t (1976:43) wrote "we expect a war every day between our t r i b e and the Wickeninishes, because...no s h i p comes to trade with them.". The r e f o r e , European goods were important items of exchange among the Nootka at the time of J e w i t t ' s stay and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i o u s t r i b e s were i n f l u e n c e d by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of such goods as e a r l y as 1805. Food S c a r c i t y Drucker (1951:37) d e s c r i b e d the problems of food s c a r c i t y on the Northwest Coast when he noted, ...the s p e c t r e of hunger was not c o n s t a n t l y menacing, as i t was to groups i n the i n t e r i o r of the mainland. Most of the time food was a v a i l a b l e and f r e q u e n t l y i t was so abundant that with the most extravagant f e a s t i n g they c o u l d not use i t a l l up. However, he noted that ...ethnographers have s t r e s s e d nature's p r o d i g a l i t y to the peoples of the Northwest Coast to the p o i n t that one i s s u r p r i s e d by the thought they should ever have 59 s u f f e r e d want. (1951:36-37) J e w i t t ' s account suggests that food shortages were not uncommon to the Moachat. In A p r i l of 1804 he complained that food s u p p l i e s were low. H i s entry of A p r i l 7th reads, "our p r o v i s i o n s as w e l l as the n a t i v e s c o n s i s t of c o c k l e s and mussles, the winter stock of p r o v i s i o n s being a l l expended." ( J e w i t t , 1976:20). The s e r i o u s n e s s of the s i t u a t i o n was emphasized by an entry J e w i t t (1976:20) made four days l a t e r ; . . . l a s t n i g h t our c h i e f informed me he was concerned f o r h i s l i f e because there were not f i s h to be caught; he t o l d me that h i s own people were going to k i l l him, and he ordered me to keep watch over him n i g h t and day with a brace of p i s t o l s and a c u t l a s s . T h i s tense s i t u a t i o n l a s t e d u n t i l A p r i l 16th, when Maquinna captured a whale. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , e n t r i e s f o r the same time the f o l l o w i n g year i n d i c a t e that Moachat people were h a r v e s t i n g h e r r i n g and h e r r i n g roe i n great q u a n t i t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , food shortages were not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e d i c t a b l e and they were probably of r e l a t i v e l y short d u r a t i o n . Brabant's account of the Hesquiat a l s o i n d i c a t e s that hunger was not unknown to these people ( L i l l a r d , 1977). Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s The Nootka and Makah i n h a b i t e d the c o a s t a l f r i n g e of the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and the Olympic P e n i n s u l a . They r e s i d e d i n p r o t e c t e d i n l e t s d u r i n g the winter and on the exposed outer coast d u r i n g the more benign summer months. Some t r i b e s 60 f o l l o w e d t h e s e s e a s o n a l r e s i d e n c e s h i f t s , w h i l e o t h e r s r e m a i n e d a t t h e same s i t e y e a r r o u n d . S o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was b a s e d on l i n e a g e g r o u p s own ing a c c e s s t o i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s . The n o r t h e r n t r i b e s were o r g a n i z e d i n t o more c o m p l e x p o l i t i c a l u n i t s w h i c h D r u c k e r named c o n f e d e r a c i e s . T h e s e p o l i t i c a l u n i t s owned summer s i t e s on t h e o u t e r c o a s t where s e a l i n g , w h a l i n g and d e e p s e a f i s h i n g were i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e c o n f e d e r a c y s i t e s were t h e b a s e s f r o m w h i c h a l a r g e l a b o u r f o r c e c o u l d u t i l i z e t h e maximum number o f r e s o u r c e s f o u n d on t h e o u t e r c o a s t d u r i n g t h e summer m o n t h s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , w h a l i n g was c o n d u c t e d f r o m e a c h summer c o n f e d e r a c y s i t e . A l a r g e a n d w e l l t r a i n e d c r e w , n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c h an o c c u p a t i o n , c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d f r o m s u c h a p o l i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t b a s e . W h a l i n g may h a v e been t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e c h i e f l y c l a s s b e c a u s e a s u c c e s s f u l c a p t a i n had t o o r g a n i z e and c o o r d i n a t e a w h a l i n g c rew and e n c o u r a g e c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n c a p t a i n s on t h e w h a l i n g g r o u n d s . S u c h l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s were a l s o i m p o r t a n t c h i e f l y a t t r i b u t e s . S u c c e s s a s a w h a l e r l i k e l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e c h i e f ' s s t a t u s , and t h a t o f h i s h o u s e h o l d , w i t h i n t h e t r i b e a n d t h e c o n f e d e r a c y . S e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s s u c h a s s a l m o n , h e r r i n g and w h a l e s h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e o v e r r e s i d e n c e s h i f t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , many r e s o u r c e s were a v a i l a b l e i n s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s y e a r r o u n d . T h i s , c o m b i n e d w i t h e f f i c i e n t s t o r a g e t e c h n i q u e s , l i k e l y p e r m i t t e d a d e g r e e o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n s e a s o n a l movement s . T h e r e f o r e , r e s i d e n c e s h i f t s were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d e p e n d e n t upon r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y a l o n e . S u c h 61 v a r i a b l e s as p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s and trade r e l a t i o n s h i p s may have had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e over the d e c i s i o n to move from one v i l l a g e s i t e to another. J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l i n d i c a t e s that the Moachat worked s t r e n u o u s l y a l l year. They, and probably other Nootka groups, c o u l d not depend e n t i r e l y upon s t o r e d foods d u r i n g the win t e r . I t i s probable that they had to maintain t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n e f f o r t d u r i n g the winter i n order t o procure s u f f i c i e n t food f o r themselves and t h e i r guests d u r i n g the winter f e s t i v i t i e s . Produce harvested from t r i b a l t e r r i t o r y was traded among Nootka t r i b e s along the coa s t and ove r l a n d to the Kwakiutl on the north and east c o a s t s of Vancouver I s l a n d . Trade was most frequent among groups with t r i b a l and confederacy a f f i l i a t i o n s , but J e w i t t ' s account i n d i c a t e s that resources were a l s o d i s t r i b u t e d o u t s i d e these d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l u n i t s and c e r t a i n a r t i c l e s were traded over e x t e n s i v e distances.- L o c a l groups had v a r y i n g access to seasonal r e s o u r c e s . Through d i r e c t exchange and/or f e a s t i n g , c e r t a i n groups c o u l d exchange t h e i r s u r p l u s f o r the goods they were unable to procure i n t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y . Food s c a r c i t y was a t h r e a t to the Nootka and may have been the r e s u l t of f a i l u r e of c e r t a i n seasonal r e s o u r c e s . However, v a r i a b l e s such as p o l i t i c a l and exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s with neighbouring t r i b e s may have had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e over d e c i s i o n s concerning r e s i d e n c e s h i f t s , and consequently the e x p l o i t a t i o n of c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s . Food shortages may t h e r e f o r e have r e s u l t e d from untimely r e s i d e n c e s h i f t s combined with an unexpected f a i l u r e i n the appearance of seasonal resources, 62 i n c l u d i n g whales. Records of s t a r v a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t competent management of a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s was v i t a l f o r s u r v i v a l , d e s p i t e the seeming abundance of food s p e c i e s on the Northwest C o a s t . Nootka l o c a l groups were t h e r e f o r e h i g h l y adapted t o the c o a s t a l e nvironment, r e l y i n g a lmost e x c l u s i v e l y on marine r e s o u r c e s . W h a l i n g , o f f s h o r e s e a l i n g , and h a l i b u t and deep sea f i s h i n g were common o c c u p a t i o n s of the i n h a b i t a n t s of b o t h w i n t e r and summer v i l l a g e s . Only t h r e e Nootka t r i b e s , the T o q u a r t , U c h i c k l e s e t and H o p a c h i s a t d i d not own a base from which o f f s h o r e r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be e x p l o i t e d . E v e r y o t h e r t r i b e was a b l e t o e x p l o i t such r e s o u r c e s from a t l e a s t one such s i t e . The f r e q u e n c y of t h e s e s i t e s a l o n g the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d and Cape F l a t t e r y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n of marine r e s o u r c e s was a v i t a l a s p e c t of the economy of t h e s e p e o p l e . By examining i n d e t a i l the e x p l o i t a t i o n of one such r e s o u r c e - whales - i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , i t i s hoped t h a t the economic i m p o r tance of t h i s s p e c i e s f o r t h e Nootka and Makah w i l l be more f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . 63 CHAPTER II The Exploitation of Whales by the Nootka and Makah A number of species of whales are found in the Northwest Coast waters and, l i k e anadromous fishes, some are seasonally abundant. Other species of whales are permanent residents of l i t t o r a l waters (see Table 4). Although they are found throughout the Northwest Coast, whales were hunted only by the people inhabiting the west coast of Vancouver Island and Cape F l a t t e r y . Whales contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the Nootka and Makah economies as they supplied substantial amounts of o i l , f a t , meat and by-products such as intestines used for f l o a t s and containers and bone used for tools and household implements. Only some of the available species were hunted by Nootka and Makah people. The following discussion w i l l describe the whale resources found on the Northwest Coast, and variables which may have encouraged whalers to exploit p a r t i c l u a r species. Species of Whales Common to the Northwest Coast The most impressive marine mammals taken by the Nootka and Makah were two species of baleen whales, the gray and the humpback. The gray whale i s the most common species on the coast today. Other baleen whales, including the humpback, were present in greater numbers before populations were decimated by commercial whalers in.the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Occurrence and d i s t r i b u t i o n of whales, TABLE 6 dolphins and porpoises i n B r i t i s h Columbia waters. Species Occurrence i n B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia Family: E s c h r i c h t i i d a e Gray Whale ( E s c h r i c h t i u s robustus) Common Migration route i s close to the Vancouver Island shore Breeding grounds o f f Baja C a l i f o r n i a , migrate north to the Bering and Chukchi seas. Northerly migrants pass the west coast of Vancouver Island from l a t e February with peak numbers i n e a r l y A p r i l . Some i n d i v i d u a l s feed along the shores of the west coast of Vancouver Island and remain i n the area a l l summer. Southerly migrants pass the Vancouver Island west coast from November to mid-January with peak numbers i n l a t e December. Southerly migrants move f a s t e r and t r a v e l f u r t h e r o f f s h o r e than n o r t h e r l y migrants. Pre-commercial whaling population around 24,000. Present population approximately 16,000. Gray whales were the primary target of Nootka whalers. ( D a r l i n g , 1977; Pike and MacAskie, f i g u r e 9) 1969; R e i l l y , 1981; Rice and S c h e v i l l , 1974.) (see Family: Balaenopteridae Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Uncommon Offshore migration route, some feed c l o s e to shore Breeding grounds i n Hawaii and o f f Mexico and C a l i f o r n i a , migrate north to Alaska and the Bering Sea to feed. Northerly migrants reach Vancouver Island i n May and June. Some whales move i n t o large bays and i n l e t s o f f the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and cent r a l and northern B r i t i s h Columbia coast to feed. Southerly migration begins i n October. O r i g i n a l population was over 15,000; current population i s around 1,500. Commercially hunted o f f B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington c o a s t s ; were probably found i n considerable numbers c l o s e to shore on the west coast of Vancouver Island and were hunted by Nootka and Makah whalers ( D a r l i n g , pers. comm.; E v e r i t t e t . a l . , 1979; Pike and MacAskie, Byse, 1981, pers. comm.) (see f i g u r e 9) CA TABLE 6 - Continued Occurrence i n B r i t i s h Species Columbia D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) Common Coastal resident Commonly found year round i n inshore waters, e s p e c i a l l y areas of considerable t i d a l a c t i v i t y . Usually seen i n d i v i d u a l l y , occasional s i g h t i n g s of groups up to f i v e minke whales. This species was only hunted i n c i d e n t a l l y by a b o r i g i n a l whalers. ( E v e r i t t e t . a l . , 1979; Pike and MacAskie, 1969; Drucker, 1951). F i n Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Uncommon Offshore migration route Occurs p r i m a r i l y o f f s h o r e , although some f i n whales have been sighted i n exposed c o a s t a l areas such as Hecate S t r a i t , and Queen Char l o t t e Sound. Some young whales appear to be re s i d e n t s o f f B r i t i s h Columbia throughout the summer. The north P a c i f i c population has been estimated at 17,000 ( E v e r i t t e t . a l . 1979; Pike and MacAskie, 1969). Sei Whale (Balaenoptera boreal i s ) Uncommon Migrates offshore Occurs i n pe l a g i c waters o f f B r i t i s h Columbia from June to August. The north P a c i f i c population was estimated to be between 58,000 to 82,000 but due to commercial whaling t h i s has dropped to between 34,100 to 58,500 i n 1970. This species was not hunted by ab o r i g i n a l populations (Omura and Oshumi, 1974; Pike and MacAskie, 1969). Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Uncommon Migrates offshore Pre-whaling population was around 5,000; c u r r e n t population approximately 1,500. Occurs i n p e l a g i c waters o f f B.C. during the summer (Rice, 1974; Omura and Oshumi, 1974; Pike and MacAskie, 1969). <^  Ln TABLE 6 - Continued Species Occurrence i n B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia Family: Balaenidae Right Whale (Balaena g l a c i a l i s ) A f t e r being hunted to near e x t i n c t i o n by 19th century commercial whalers the n o r t h - P a c i f i c r i g h t whale population has been reduced to between 100 and 200 whales. They may have wintered o f f B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington before t h e i r numbers were depleted. These wintering grounds may have been a source of d r i f t whales as well as targets f o r Nootka and Makah whalers (Pike and MacAskie, 1969). Family: Physeteridae Sperm Whale (Physeter catodon) Uncommon Pelagic Found i n pel a g i c waters o f f B.C. during l a t e s p r i n g , summer and early f a l l . Occasional s i g h t i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l s or small groups of two to three i n Hecate S t r a i t , Dixon Entrance and Queen Char l o t t e Sound from May to September. Strandings of s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s o c c a s i o n a l l y occur along the west coast of Vancouver Island; a pod of 40 animals stranded on the Oregon Coast i n June 1981. Although not hunted a b o r i g i n a l l y , stranded whales would have been u t i l i z e d by the Nootka and Makah. Current population estimates t o t a l around 740,000 sperm whales i n the north P a c i f i c (Pike and MacAskie, 1969; Rice , 1978). Family: Del phinidae K i l l e r Whale (Orcinus orca) Common Inshore resident Twenty-six pods, numbering between 250 and 300 whales are r e s i d e n t i n B.C. waters. This population i s d i v i d e d i n t o two communities, north and south of Campbell R i v e r . Nine pods comprised of 95 i n d i v i d u a l s make up the northern community while the 3 southern pods number around 80 whales. K i l l e r whales feature i n the myths^ and artwork of northwest coast t r i b e s but they were r a r e l y hunted^ (Bigg e t . a l . , 1976; Ford and Ford, 1981). TABLE 6 - Continued Species Occurrence i n B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Common Inshore resident A year round r e s i d e n t of inshore waters, t h i s species occurs i n small groups of up to f i v e animals i n protected harbours, bays and es t u a r i e s . They are frequently sighted i n Tofino I n l e t i n the f a l l , and were t a r g e t s of a b o r i g i n a l hunters (Cowan and Guiguet, 1965; Campbell, pers. comm.; E v e r i t t e t . a l . , 1979). D a l l Porpoise (Phocoenoides d a i 1 i ) Common i n large numbers inshore during spring and f a l l , found i n smaller num-bers during summer months Although most d a l l porpoise move of f s h o r e during the summer, and inshore during the w i n t e r , pods of up to 30 are seen inshore i n the summer months. Occurrence i s most frequent i n la r g e s t r a i t s and major waterways. Schools of up to 100 animals are found i n these areas during spri n g and f a l l . They were hunted by Nootka and Makah while feeding i n tu r b u l e n t t i d a l areas c l o s e to shore ( E v e r i t t e t . a l . , 1979; Pike and MacAskie, 1969). P a c i f i c S t r i p e d Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obi i q u i dens) Common i n -shore i n winter, o f f -shore during the summer Regularly occurs i n small numbers i n Georgia S t r a i t , Juan de Fuca S t r a i t , Hecate S t r a i t and a d j o i n i n g seaways. Large schools of 200 to 250 are seen i n inshore waters from October to January. Smaller groups (up to 100 animals) are sighted o f f s h o r e during the summer (Pike and MacAskie, 1969; Cowan and Guiguet, 1965). S t e n e l l a sp(p). Uncommon Pelagic Two l i v e s i g h t i n g s were made o f f the B.C. coast i n 1958 and 1962. A s k u l l was found at Muchalat Arm on the West coast of Vancouver Island i n 1948 and another was c o l l e c t e d at Campbell R i v e r i n 1961. A dead specimen was netted o f f Kyuquat i n 1963. (Pike and MacAskie, 1969). P a c i f i c Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphinus) Uncommon Pelagic B r i t i s h Columbia i s the northernmost extension of t h i s s pecies' range. One specimen was found at V i c t o r i a i n 1953. (Pike and as MacAskie, 1969). ^ TABLE 6 - Continued S p e c i e s O c cu r r en ce i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia D i s t r i b u t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N o r t h e r n R i g h t - W h a l e D o l p h i n ( L i s s o d e l p h i s b o r e a l i s ) Uncommon. P e l a g i c . No spec imens r e c o r d e d f o r B . C . , bu t t h i s an ima l i s f ound i n p e l a g i c wa t e r s o f f B . C . ' s c o a s t ( P i k e and M a c A s k i e , 1 9 6 9 ) . R i s s o ' s d o l p h i n (Grampus g r i s e u s ) Uncommon. P e l a g i c . B .C . i s the n o r t h e r n m o s t e x t e n s i o n o f i t s r a n g e . F o u r s i g h t i n g s were made o f f t h e B .C . c o a s t between 1958 and 1960 , and one spec imen was k i l l e d i n p r o t e c t e d w a t e r s n ea r P r i n c e R u p e r t i n 1964 ( P i k e and M a c A s k i e , 1 9 6 9 ) . P a c i f i c P i l o t Wha le ( G l o b i c e p h a l a mac ro rhyncha ) Uncommon. P e l a g i c . R a r e l y seen i n B .C . w a t e r s , a l t h o u g h t hey can o c c u r i n J u an de Fuca S t r a i t ( P i k e and M a c A s k i e , 1 9 6 9 ) . F a l s e K i l l e r Wha le ( P s e u d o r c a c r a s s i d e n s ) Uncommon. P e l a g i c One an ima l t a ken i n Puge t Sound i n 1 9 3 7 , no r e c o r d s o f t h i s s p e c i e s i n B .C . w a t e r s ( P i k e and M a c A s k i e , 1 9 6 9 ) . F a m i l y : Z i p h i i d a e - Beaked Wha les B a i r d ' s Beaked Wha le ( B e r a r d i u s b a i r d i ) Uncommon. P e l a g i c -S e a s o n a l . F r e q u e n t l y seen i n p e l a g i c w a t e r s o f f wes t c o a s t Van couve r I s l a n d May t o Sep tembe r . S c h o o l s o f 10 t o 20 a n i m a l s , m o s t l y m a l e s , seen d u r i n g Augus t ( P i k e and M a c A s k i e , 1 9 6 9 ) . Mesop l odon R a r e . P e l a g i c . Fou r spec imens washed a sho r e on the wes t c o a s t o f V an couve r I s l a n d , B .C . ( P i k e and M a c A s k i e , 1 9 6 9 ) . C u v i e r ' s Beaked Whale ( Z i p h i u s c a v i r o s t r i s ) R a r e . P e l a g i c . Seven spec imens washed a sho r e on the wes t c o a s t o f V an couve r I s l a n d and Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s 1 9 5 3 , 1959 , 1969 , 1 9 6 3 . P i kec* and M a c A s k i e , 1 9 6 9 ) . 0 0 69 Gray Whale ( E s c h r i c h t i u s robustus)  D i s t r i b u t i o n In the North P a c i f i c two stocks of gray whales occupy the c o a s t a l waters north of 20 degrees North l a t i t u d e . The western P a c i f i c stock migrates between Korea and the Sea of Okhotsk, while the e a s t e r n P a c i f i c gray -whales breed along the coast of Baja C a l i f o r n i a and migrate to the Ber i n g and Chukchi seas to feed d u r i n g the summer months. Observations of gray whales on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d i n d i c a t e that some i n d i v i d u a l s spend the summer feeding along the B r i t i s h Columbia coast ( D a r l i n g , 1977). The southward m i g r a t i o n begins i n l a t e f a l l . Whales pass by the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d from November to mid-January, w i t h a peak i n l a t e December ( D a r l i n g , 1977:38, Pike and MacAskie, 1969). The f i r s t whales to reach the c a l v i n g lagoons i n December are the females l a t e i n pregnancy, a d u l t males are the l a s t to a r r i v e (Rice and Wolman, 1971:127). The e a r l i e s t whales t r a v e l s i n g l y , while the animals a r r i v i n g l a t e r are i n groups of two or more. Mating occurs dur i n g the southward m i g r a t i o n and when the whales are on t h e i r c a l v i n g grounds (Rice and Wolman, 1971:127-129). The whales do not eat while t r a v e l l i n g south and they are thought to continue f a s t i n g while on the breeding grounds. The s o u t h e r l y m i g r a t i n g gray whales t r a v e l at a c o n s i s t e n t l y f a s t pace of about 7.7 k i l o m e t r e s per hour, c o v e r i n g an average d i s t a n c e of 185 k i l o m e t r e s per day (Rice 70 Figure 9. Gray and Humpback Whale Migration Routes and Summering Grounds off the B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington Coasts. Based on Information from Darling (1972) and J . Ford (pers. comm. 1983). 71 and Wolman, 1971:15). Pike mentioned that l i g h t k e e p e r s on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and the Queen C h a r l o t t e s r a r e l y see gray whales m i g r a t i n g south, probably r e s u l t i n g from a combination of poor weather and a p o s s i b l e o f f s h o r e m i g r a t i o n route (Pike, 1962). Due to t h e i r c o n s i s t e n t l y f a s t pace, the poor weather i n November and December, and the u n r e l i a b i l i t y of gray whale s i g h t i n g s d u r i n g t h e i r s o u t h e r l y m i g r a t i o n , these whales were not i d e a l t a r g e t s f o r shore-based whaling at that time of year. The n o r t h e r l y m i g r a t i o n begins i n February. When t r a v e l l i n g n o r t h the gray whales' behaviour i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The whales are again segregated a c c o r d i n g to sex, age and r e p r o d u c t i v e s t a t u s , but they t r a v e l i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r . The newly pregnant females are the f i r s t to move nor t h , f o l l o w e d by a d u l t males, anestrous females, immature females, immature males and postpartum females. The a d u l t males f o l l o w approximately two weeks behind the mature females (Rice and Wolman, 1971:17, 127). The n o r t h e r l y migrants t r a v e l c l o s e to shore " . . . e s p e c i a l l y when p a s s i n g p o i n t s , headlands and s e c t o r s of c o a s t l i n e where the C o n t i n e n t a l S h e l f i s narrow and there are no o f f - l y i n g i s l a n d s . " (Rice and Wolman, 1971:13). Throughout h i s study on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , D a r l i n g (1977:45) f r e q u e n t l y s i g h t e d grays w i t h i n 30 metres of land; some whales " . . . s t a y o u t s i d e of a l l the rocks and s h o a l s , moving s t r a i g h t northwest, ot h e r s wind t h e i r way i n and out...". 72 Figure 10. The Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) 73 When t r a v e l l i n g north the gray whales' speed i s only h a l f that of the southward m i g r a t i o n . Some animals stop to feed at s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s along the m i g r a t i o n route (Rice and Wolman, 1971:15; D a r l i n g , 1977:51). At p o i n t s such as Cape F l a t t e r y and Cape S c o t t they pause and co n c e n t r a t e before c r o s s i n g the major waterways. The f i r s t north-bound migrants pass the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d i n l a t e February, with the m i g r a t i o n peaking i n the f i r s t two weeks of A p r i l . A f t e r c r o s s i n g Juan de Fuca S t r a i t , most whales make l a n d f a l l along the Vancouver I s l a n d coast between Pachena and Carmanah P o i n t s . A c c o r d i n g to D a r l i n g (1977:38), "...through March and A p r i l a constant stream of whales pass through ( W i c k i n n i n i s h Bay) s i n g l y or i n groups of two or three with the o c c a s i o n a l group as l a r g e as four or s i x . " . Feeding whales may stay i n one l o c a t i o n f o r a number of days and some migrants remain i n the area f o r s e v e r a l weeks ( D a r l i n g , 1977:51). The route north of Cape S c o t t i s as yet u n c e r t a i n , but gray whale s i g h t i n g s at P r i n c e Rupert suggest that some animals continue t h e i r northward m i g r a t i o n s along the i n s i d e of the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s ( J . Ford, pers comm, 1983). Others may t r a v e l up the west coast of the C h a r l o t t e s but s i g h t i n g s are ra r e as few people l i v e along the west c o a s t . The m a j o r i t y of grays a r r i v e on the northernmost feeding grounds i n June and J u l y , while some i n d i v i d u a l s remain s c a t t e r e d along the north west coast of the c o n t i n e n t ( T o m i l i n , 1957:306; Rice and Wolman, 1971:12). H a t l e r and D a r l i n g (1974) observed gray whales fe e d i n g i n W i c k i n n i n i s h Bay d u r i n g the summer, and D a r l i n g 74 (1977) has shown t h a t up t o f o r t y i n d i v i d u a l s may remain on the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d f o r the e n t i r e summer. D e s c r i p t i o n Gray whales a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r m o t t l e d grey c o l o u r and the l a c k of a d o r s a l f i n . As the a n i m a l d i v e s i t r e v e a l s a hump on i t s back (where t h e d o r s a l f i n s h o u l d b e ) , f o l l o w e d by a s e r i e s of v e r t e b r a l bumps t r a i l i n g o f f towards the end of the t a i l . Gray whales seldom p e r f o r m a e r i a l d i s p l a y s ; they a r e most o f t e n seen s u r f a c i n g a t more or l e s s r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s and they u s u a l l y r a i s e t h e i r t a i l f l u k e s out of the water as they make a deep d i v e . Gray whales f e e d on b e n t h i c organisms o c c u p y i n g muddy and sandy ocean f l o o r s . They f e e d i n s h a l l o w w a t e r s r a n g i n g i n depth from t h r e e t o 60 metres, and they spend c o n s i d e r a b l e time i n k e l p beds c l o s e t o shore ( T o m i l i n , 1957:315; D a r l i n g 1 977;133) . The mean body l e n g t h of a male gray whale a t p u b e r t y ( e i g h t y e a r s ) i s 11.1 metre s , w h i l e the average female measures 11.7 metres a t p u b e r t y . Gray whales a r e p h y s i c a l l y mature a t around 40 y e a r s when the average male measures about 13 metres and fem a l e s average 14.1 metres ( R i c e and Wolman, 1971:128). Measurements of a l a r g e , pregnant gray whale i n d i c a t e t h a t b l u b b e r c o m p r i s e d 29 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l body w e i g h t . The complete measurements of t h i s i n d i v i d u a l a r e p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e 7. T o m i l i n (1957:306-326) noted t h a t the gray whale o i l y i e l d can v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y between i n d i v i d u a l s . 75 TABLE 7 Weight of a pregnant gray whale from T o m i l i n , 1957 Weight Body parts i n kg. Percent blubber 9,100 29.0 meat 6,729 21.4 head 1,692 5.4 lower jaw 1,265 4.0 tongue 1,278 4.0 vertebrae 2,441 8.0 r i b s 3,200 10.0 scapulae 526 1.6 f l ippers 612 2.0 v i scera 4,493 14.2 embryo 126 0.4 Total weight 31,466 100 76 According to Rice and Wolman (1971:36), there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the weights of s o u t h e r l y versus n o r t h e r l y m i g r a t i n g whales (see Table 8). Whales moving south weigh an average of 31,662 kilograms, while the n o r t h e r l y migrants average 12,861 kilograms. P e r t i n e n t to t h i s c o n t e x t , n o r t h e r l y m i g r a t i n g grays average 12,861 kilograms i n weight and t h e i r mean o i l y i e l d i s 2,496 kilograms, or 756 g a l l o n s (Rice and Wolman, 1971:36). P o p u l a t i o n S i z e The gray whale c a l v i n g grounds were d i s c o v e r e d i n 1846 and by 1874 over 10,800 animals had been s l a u g h t e r e d (Scammon, 1968:23). The e n t i r e n o r t h e a s t e r n P a c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n was almost e x t i n c t by the e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y . The s p e c i e s was p r o t e c t e d i n 1947 by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Convention f o r the R e g u l a t i o n of Whaling. As a r e s u l t , the p o p u l a t i o n has made a remarkable recovery to more than 12,000 animals (Rice and S c h e v i l l , 1974:187; D a r l i n g , 1977). The pre-1846 gray whale p o p u l a t i o n was estimated by R e i l l y (1981) to be i n the order of 24,000 animals . In summary, gray whales were an i d e a l t a r g e t f o r shore based whalers d u r i n g the northern m i g r a t i o n . They t r a v e l l e d s l o w l y , hugging the s h o r e l i n e and they f r e q u e n t l y stopped to feed i n shallow waters f o r days or weeks at a time. Whalers f a m i l i a r with the behaviour of the grays c o u l d expect the animals to pass c l o s e to c e r t a i n promontories and to appear at favoured f e e d i n g 77 TABLE 8 Mean weights of o i l , meal and meat produced from gray whales taken i n southward and northward migrations. Mean c a l c u l a t e d body weights of 26 southbound whales was 31,662 kilograms and that of the 26 northbound whales was 12,861 kilograms. From Rice and Wolman (1971: 36). Southward M i g r a t i o n Northward M i g r a t i o n Products Kilograms Percent Kilograms Percent o i l 7,559 39.6 2,496 38.1 meal 6,834 35.8 2 ,520 38.5 meat 4,689 24.6 1,533 23.4 Total 19,082 100.0 6,549 100.0 78 grounds as they migrated n o r t h . Thus the n o r t h e r l y movement of the gray whale i s p r e d i c t a b l e and experienced hunters c o u l d pursue t h i s s p e c i e s c l o s e to shore over a p e r i o d of months. The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeanqliae)  D i s t r i b u t i o n L i k e the gray whale, the humpback migrates from the warm t r o p i c a l w i n t e r i n g grounds to t h e i r feeding range i n the waters of A l a s k a and the Bering Sea. The breeding range i n c l u d e s Banderas Bay on the Mexican c o a s t , Magdalena Bay and the Hawaiian I s l a n d s . U n l i k e the gray whale, humpbacks do not migrate c l o s e to shore, but they do move i n t o l a r g e i n l e t s and bays along the Northwest Coast to feed (see F i g u r e 8 ) . The northward m i g r a t i o n begins i n March and A p r i l and by May and June the whales have reached Vancouver I s l a n d . Gunners' r e p o r t s from whaling v e s s e l s o p e r a t i n g southwest of Anthony I s l a n d i n d i c a t e that humpbacks were most common from May to August. In that area, the peak numbers occu r r e d i n J u l y ( C o n s o l i d a t e d Whaling, Gunners' Reports 1928 t o 1942). T o m i l i n (1957:21) s t a t e d that "...only p a r t of the stock remain at the A l e u t i a n Range and c o a s t s of Canada, Washington, and B r i t i s h Columbia; others migrate round Alaska and some of the A l e u t i a n s and reach the Bering S t r a i t and Chuckchee Sea i n July-August.". The southward m i g r a t i o n begins i n October and the m a j o r i t y of whales pass the southern C a l i f o r n i a coast i n December, January and February ( T o m i l i n , 1957:272). Some humpback whales have been s i g h t e d along the B r i t i s h 79 Columbia coast from May to October. Humpbacks were hunted off Washington from A p r i l to October, and they were regularly sighted in small numbers on the fishing banks off Vancouver Island (Tomilin, 1957:271). A number of humpback whales were regularly sighted in the inside waters of northern Vancouver Island u n t i l t h i s small population of ten to twenty animals was exterminated by whalers operating out of Coal Harbour in 1965 (J. Darling, G. E l l i s , J . Ford, B. Mackay, 1982, pers comms.; Ev e r i t t et a l . 1979). Description Humpback whales are surface feeders preying primarily on euphausiids, crustaceans and small schooling f i s h . Feeding occurs in numerous bays and i n l e t s along the coast from northern B r i t i s h Columbia to Alaska and the Bering Sea. They feed close to shore and occasionally may be seen within metres of promontories. The humpback whale is larger than the gray whale. A mature humpback averages 15.5 metres in length and weighs about 31,815 kilograms. The o i l y i e l d of a mature humpback ranges between 2,727 kilograms (826.5 gallons) and 5,455 kilograms (1,653 gallons), (Wolman, 1978:4-49). The humpback whale i s recognizable by i t s long white f l i p p e r s and i t s d i s t i n c t i v e f i n that varies from a s i c k l e shape to a knob on the whale's back. This species i s active at the surface and animals are frequently seen breeching, t a i l - l o b b i n g and f l i p p e r - l o b b i n g . Scammon (1968:42) noted that, 80 ...the h a b i t s of t h i s whale - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s u n d u l a t i n g movements, frequent 'roundings', t u r n i n g of f l u k e s , and i r r e g u l a r course - are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t i o n s , which the quick and p r a c t i c e d eye of the whalemen d i s t i n g u i s h e s at a long d i s t a n c e . Even when beneath the s u r f a c e of the sea, we have observed them j u s t 'under the rim of the water' (as whalemen used to say ) , a l t e r n a t e l y t u r n i n g from s i d e to s i d e , or d e v i a t i n g i n t h e i r course with as l i t t l e apparent e f f o r t and as g r a c e f u l l y , as a swallow on the wing. P o p u l a t i o n S i z e The humpback was almost hunted to e x t i n c t i o n by commercial whalers i n the e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y . The north P a c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n before that time was estimated to be 15,000 animals, but was reduced to some 850 whales before they were p r o t e c t e d i n 1964 (Wolman, 1978:53). The l o c a t i o n of the commercial whaling grounds i n d i c a t e s t h a t humpback whales were common along the Northwest co a s t at one time ( C o n s o l i d a t e d Whaling Gunners' Reports 1928 to 1942). During the 19th century and up u n t i l 1919, American whalers k i l l e d 788 humpbacks o f f the Washington coast ( T o m i l i n , 1957:271). S c h e f f e r and S l i p p (1948) s t a t e d t h a t 72 percent of the t o t a l c a t c h of Washington whalers was humpback whales and the d e p l e t i o n of these stocks l e d to the d e c l i n e of the whaling i n d u s t r y i n t h a t s t a t e . P r i o r t o 1913, 500 to 1,000 whales were taken i n B r i t i s h Columbia waters a n n u a l l y and almost a l l of these were humpback whales (Pike and MacAskie, 1969:37). Most of the whaling i n B r i t i s h Columbia o c c u r r e d o f f the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and the Queen 81 82 C h a r l o t t e s , but a s m a l l i n d u s t r y was s u p p o r t e d i n G e o r g i a S t r a i t from 1868 t o 1872 (Trower, 1976). D u r i n g t h i s time a minimum of 35 whales were c a p t u r e d by w h a l e r s o p e r a t i n g i n the i n s i d e w a t e r s i n the i n l e t s n o r t h of Bute I n l e t . The s p e c i e s c a p t u r e d were not r e c o r d e d , but Trower (1976:94) noted t h a t seven humpbacks were caught n o r t h of Comox i n 1869. The d e p l e t i o n of the humpback p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e the e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y has reduced the number of a n i m a l s seen o f f the c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d and the Olympic P e n i n s u l a . N e v e r t h l e s s , t h e w h a l i n g s t a t i s t i c s mentioned above i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s was common o f f the west c o a s t d u r i n g the s p r i n g and summer. They a l s o f r e q u e n t e d the bays and i n l e t s i n d e n t i n g the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d , making them a l i k e l y t a r g e t f o r shore based w h a l e r s . R i g h t Whale ( B a l a e n a g l a c i a l i s ) L i t t l e i s known about the m i g r a t o r y p a t t e r n s of t h i s s p e c i e s o f f t h e Northwest Coast as the b r e e d i n g range of the n o r t h P a c i f i c s t o c k has not been i d e n t i f i e d . Maps of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r i g h t whales hunted by commercial w h a l e r s from 1785 t o 1913 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s was hunted from the G u l f of A l a s k a t o the n o r t h end of Vancouver I s l a n d d u r i n g May, June and J u l y (Townsend,1935). T h i s s p e c i e s was a l s o hunted o f f the Northwest Coast from A p r i l u n t i l September (Scammon, 1968:67). P i k e and MacAskie (1969:39) s t a t e t h a t the "waters of B.C., Washington, Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a were p r o b a b l y w i n t e r i n g grounds f o r t h e s p e c i e s d u r i n g former p e r i o d s of abundance 83 before U n i t e d S t a t e s whalers had decimated the p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the l a t t e r h a l f of the 19th c e n t u r y . " . That r i g h t whales may have wintered o f f the Washington and Vancouver I s l a n d c o a s t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s context as the l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of whales may have been an important source of d r i f t whales d u r i n g the winter months. The North P a c i f i c r i g h t whale p o p u l a t i o n was s e v e r e l y reduced before the middle of the 19th century. T o m i l i n (1957:63) wrote that 1,500 r i g h t whales were k i l l e d from 1841 to 1850, but only 138 were taken between 1861 and 1870. The stock was a l l but e x t i n c t by the e a r l y 20th century when a mere 28 animals were taken on the Northwest Coast between 1911 and 1938 ( T o m i l i n , 1957:63). The r i g h t whale was commercially important because of i t s s i z e and because i t f l o a t e d a f t e r i t was k i l l e d (Gilmore, 1978). Right whales range between 12.2 and 18.3 metres i n l e n g t h , but they may weigh as much as 72,734 kilograms (80 t o n s ) . T o m i l i n s t a t e d that an 11.7 metre female y i e l d e d 11.5 tons of o i l , and a 15.5 metre male y i e l d e d 15.8 tons of blubber. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the bones of the female produced more o i l than the blubber, the l a t t e r y i e l d i n g 5.2 tons and the bones y i e l d i n g 6.3 tons of o i l ( T o m i l i n , 1957:63). Data from the Ozette s i t e suggest that o i l may have been rendered from the bones as i t was needed. In t h i s way, the bones served as n a t u r a l storage f a c i l i t i e s ( F i s k e n , 1982 pers comm.). 84 Minke Whale (Balaenoptera a c u t o r o s t r a t a ) Although i t i s not an abundant s p e c i e s , minke whales are common i n shallow c o a s t a l waters where they feed on h e r r i n g and other s m a l l s c h o o l i n g f i s h . They are u s u a l l y s o l i t a r y animals, but are o c c a s i o n a l l y s i g h t e d i n groups of up to f i v e animals. The minke i s the s m a l l e s t of the baleen whales measuring between s i x and nine metres (Pike and MacAskie, 1969:34-36). T h i s small s p e c i e s was only taken i n c i d e n t a l l y by a b o r i g i n a l whalers (Swan, 1870). K i l l e r Whale (Orcinus orca) The k i l l e r whale i s commonly found throughout the inshore waters of B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington. They are o f t e n seen c l o s e t o shore i n the s t r a i t s and a c t i v e waterways where they f o l l o w the major salmon runs. K i l l e r whales vary i n l e n g t h from 7.9 to 9.7 metres and they t r a v e l i n pods averaging e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l s . Congregations of up to 80 k i l l e r whales are o c c a s i o n a l l y s i g h t e d (Bigg, 1976; Ford and Ford, 1981). Most of the Northwest Coast t r i b e s had s p e c i f i c names f o r t h i s animal. Hess (1971) noted that the Puget S a l i s h term was " q a i q a l x i c " , Grubb (1977) wrote that the Kwakwa'ala term was "maz7inuxw", while C u r t i s (1915) noted the Kwakiutl term "mah-e-noh". Drucker (1951), mentioned t h a t the Nootka word f o r k i l l e r whale was "qaqawun" and C u r t i s (1920) s t a t e d that the Clayoquot term i s "ka-ka-wun". The Makah and Nootka were the only groups r e p o r t e d to have hunted k i l l e r whales. Scammon (1968:92) s t a t e d that "the Makah 85 I n d i a n s . . . o c c a s i o n a l l y pursue and take them about Cape F l a t t e r y , i n Washington T e r r i t o r y , as they c o n s i d e r t h e i r f l e s h and f a t more l u x u r i o u s food than the l a r g e r balaenas or r o r q u a l s . " . Drucker (1951:49) wrote that the k i l l e r whale was c o n s i d e r e d "...very d i f f i c u l t to capture; young whalers t a c k l e d them as a t e s t of s k i l l but o r d i n a r i l y they were not hunted. The meat and fa t of those taken was eaten, f o r i t was c o n s i d e r e d good, resembling p o r p o i s e . " . M y t h o l o g i c a l s t o r i e s concerning k i l l e r whales, r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s i n v o l v i n g these animals, as w e l l as t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n numerous a r t forms suggest that the k i l l e r whale was important i n the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of Northwest Coast people. Lane noted a magical r e l a t i o n s h i p between k i l l e r whales and wolves i n which one s p e c i e s c o u l d be transformed i n t o the oth e r . She s t a t e d that t h i s b e l i e f was widespread throughout the Northwest Coast (Lane, 1953:136). Barnett (1955:93) s t a t e d that the Gulf of Georgia S a l i s h observed a r i t u a l whereby an i n d i v i d u a l threw eagle down onto the water upon seeing a k i l l e r whale. I t was a l s o b e l i e v e d that "...sea hunters became k i l l e r whales at death, while land hunters were r e i n c a r n a t e d as wolves." (Barnett, 1955:93). Among the southern Kwakiutl, " s a c r i f i c e s are made to the k i l l e r whale. A hunter who sees a k i l l e r whale may gi v e him food...Nowadays, powder, l e a d , tobacco, and white ceadar bark are used i n the same way." (Boas, 1966:165). The k i l l e r whale, t h e r e f o r e , possessed a symbolic and r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t d i d not apply t o other s p e c i e s of whales. 86 Whales Not Hunted by A b o r i g i n a l Whalers Other s p e c i e s of whales were common o f f the Northwest Coast, but being p e l a g i c animals they r a r e l y came c l o s e to shore (see Table 6 ) . Three s p e c i e s of baleen whale - the f i n , s e i and blue - were hunted by commercial whalers. Toothed whales such as the sperm whale were a l s o an important part of the commercial c a t c h . Smaller toothed whales such as p i l o t whales and rare s p e c i e s l i k e the pygmy sperm whale, pygmy k i l l e r whale, f a l s e k i l l e r whale and beaked whales o c c a s i o n a l l y appear o f f the B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington c o a s t s . The occurrence of these -species i n l i t t o r a l waters i s unusual and i t i s u n l i k e l y that they were hunted by shore-based a b o r i g i n a l whalers on a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s . However, o c c a s i o n a l s t r a n d i n g s of such s p e c i e s would have pr o v i d e d blubber and o i l f o r the c o a s t a l i n h a b i t a n t s . The I n f l u e n c e of Weather C o n d i t i o n s on Whaling The l e n g t h of time whalers c o u l d pursue t h e i r prey was r e s t r i c t e d by the maritime winds and c u r r e n t s . Weather c o n d i t i o n s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d the l i k e l i h o o d of whales d r i f t i n g ashore. The c u r r e n t s f l o w i n g o f f the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and the Olympic P e n i n s u l a move south i n the summer and nort h i n the win t e r . The Davidson c u r r e n t p r e v a i l s from November to March, and i s stronger than the s o u t h e r l y flowing C a l i f o r n i a c u r r e n t , which p r e v a i l s from May u n t i l September (Thompson, 1981:231-232). These c u r r e n t s are i n f l u e n c e d by the p r e v a i l i n g winds which f o l l o w a s i m i l a r seasonal p a t t e r n . 87 During the summer the average peak wind speed i s twelve knots and i n the winter the peak winds average twenty knots. Storms are encountered d u r i n g the winter up to ten percent of the time, while t h e i r occurrence i n the summer i s only one percent of the time. In the s p r i n g the p r e v a i l i n g winds continue to be from the south, but t h e i r i n t e n s i t y i s abated and the number of storms i s reduced (Thompson, 1981:224). S p r i n g , t h e r e f o r e i s an i d e a l time f o r hunting m i g r a t i n g whales as winter storms have abated and the gray, f o l l o w e d by the humpbacks, were p l e n t i f u l o f f the c o a s t . Whalers would have experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n hunting the s o u t h e r l y m i g r a t i n g whales in the f a l l as the storm a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h i s time and the whales t r a v e l q u i c k l y without stopping to feed c l o s e to shore. D r i f t whales would be expected to be pushed northward d u r i n g winter and frequent storms would f o r c e c a r c a s s e s onto the shores of Vancouver I s l a n d and the Olympic P e n i n s u l a . During the summer, flo t s a m would d r i f t southwards but only o c c a s i o n a l storms c o u l d f o r c e o b j e c t s ashore. If Pike and MacAskie were c o r r e c t i n assuming that a l a r g e r i g h t whale p o p u l a t i o n wintered o f f the west c o a s t , then t h i s stock may have been be a source of d r i f t whales f o r c e d ashore d u r i n g winter storms. In a d d i t i o n , tardy gray and humpback migrants might a l s o have p r o v i d e d a source of d r i f t whales. I t i s impossible to estimate the number of animals that d r i f t e d ashore a n n u a l l y , but i n c r e a s e d commercial whaling e f f o r t i n the mid-1800's may have p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l d r i f t whales in the form of animals s t r u c k but l o s t . 88 Species Taken by Nootka and Makah Whalers According to Jewitt (1976), the whaling season began in late March and early A p r i l and continued u n t i l the middle or the end of May. Jewitt noted that the Moachat hunted whales from March u n t i l at least the middle of July, 1803. Such a lengthy hunting season did not occur in the following two years. Drucker (1951:48) also reported that the whaling season lasted throughout the spring and early summer. It is noteworthy that on March 1st, 1804/ Jewitt mentioned in his journal that he saw twelve whales " i n the o f f i n g " , but Maquinna did not begin whaling u n t i l A p r i l of that year (Jewitt, 1976:18-20). The presence of whales was not the sole factor influencing the beginning of the hunt. Archaeological Evidence of Whale Species Hunted Archaeological data from the Ozette s i t e on the Olympic Peninsula provides firm evidence that gray and humpback whales were the most common targets of early aboriginal whalers. Examination of whale bones from the Ozette s i t e has shown that over 50 percent of the i d e n t i f i a b l e whale bones in the c o l l e c t i o n were gray whale and 40 percent of the c o l l e c t i o n were bones from humpback whales, the remaining 10 percent were right, minke and k i l l e r whale bones (Fisken, 1980:4). The large percentage of humpback whales in the Ozette c o l l e c t i o n i s consistent with b i o l o g i c a l data indicating that humpbacks were common off the Northwest Coast before their numbers were reduced by commercial whaling. 89 The humpback whale y i e l d s an average of 50 p e r c e n t more o i l than the gray whale. F i s k e n s t a t e d t h a t the l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of humpbacks i n the O z e t t e s i t e "...may i n d i c a t e a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a s p e c i e s w i t h a g r e a t e r o i l y i e l d but of l e s s p r e d i c t a b l e appearance." ( F i s k e n , 1980:2). Scammon (1968:42) noted t h a t humpbacks c o u l d by e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d from a d i s t a n c e and t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s was hunted i n the same way as the gray whale. I t i s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a b o r i g i n a l w h a l e r s s e l e c t e d humpbacks over g r a y s as the former c o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d from a d i s t a n c e , the same equipment and t e c h n i q u e s c o u l d be used t o hunt the humpback, and t h e r e t u r n s of o i l and b l u b b e r were much g r e a t e r than from the gray whale. The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s suggest t h a t the Makah were not s e l e c t i n g humpback whales over gray w h a l e s . The s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of humpack whales i n t h e O z e t t e c o l l e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s s p e c i e s may have been a l m o s t as abundant as the gray whale on the Northwest Coast b e f o r e commercial w h a l i n g d e c i m a t e d t h e i r numbers. F i s k e n ' s (1980:4) a n a l y s i s of the O z e t t e whale bones does not i n d i c a t e t h a t Makah h u n t e r s n e c e s s a r i l y s e l e c t e d f o r l a r g e w h a l e s . She noted t h a t " O z e t t e w h a l e r s took young, immature g r a y s . . . v e r y o l d g r a y s . . . a n d e v e r y t h i n g i n between. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 75 p e r c e n t of the bones f a l l i n the ' i n between' range.". The g r a y whales m i g r a t i n g a l o n g the Northwest Coast i n A p r i l and May a r e pregnant f e m a l e s , a n e s t r o u s females and immatures of b o t h sexes; the postpartum females and mature males a r e the l a s t t o f o l l o w . D i s t r i b u t i o n d e s c r i b e d by F i s k e n resembles the o v e r a l l age d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the m i g r a t i n g 90 p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the s p r i n g whaling season. T h i s suggests that Makah whalers were pursuing whichever gray whales were a v a i l a b l e , r e g a r d l e s s of s i z e . I t i s most l i k e l y that the whalers were not s e l e c t i n g humpback whales i n p a r t i c u l a r , but were t a k i n g whichever whales were a v a i l a b l e . If the Makah were choosing humpbacks over grays, they may have been adhering to c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e s but the l a r g e r s i z e of the humpback was e v i d e n t l y not a d e c i d i n g f a c t o r . J e w i t t ' s account suggests that while the s i z e of the c a t c h was of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e , a s u c c e s s f u l l k i l l was probably of v i t a l importance to a c h i e f . The j o u r n a l (1976:20) i n d i c a t e s t h at Maquinna s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t r e s s due to h i s f a i l u r e on the whaling grounds. On a number of oc c a s i o n s J e w i t t noted that Maquinna was i n a poor humour because of h i s bad l u c k . A f t e r c a t c h i n g no whales d u r i n g the 1805 season Maquinna was very angry due to h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l whaling season. The capture of a p a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e animal was probably an added advantage f o r a whaler, but success of any degree was undoubtedly the primary g o a l . Many commercial whalers c o n s i d e r e d gray whales p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous animals to hunt and i t i s p o s s i b l e to argue that the a b o r i g i n a l hunters avoided t a k i n g gray whales f o r t h i s reason. The grays were nick-named " d e v i l - f i s h " by commercial whalers and many men l o s t t h e i r l i v e s hunting these animals i n the c a l v i n g lagoons. Gray whales were p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous i n the lagoons because the cows were p r o t e c t i v e of t h e i r young and the murky, t u r b i d waters made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r hunters to see the whales 91 under t h e i r boats. According to Scammon (1968:28) "the c a s u a l t i e s from c o a s t and kelp whaling are nothing to be compared with the a c c i d e n t s that have been experienced by t h o s e . . . i n the lagoons". T h e r e f o r e , whaling f o r the Nootka and Makah was not as dangerous as i t was f o r those hunting i n the c a l v i n g lagoons. During the three years J e w i t t l i v e d with the Moachat he recorded two mishaps on the whaling grounds but no deaths. The only f a t a l i t y he mentioned was a drowning which oc c u r r e d while a man was salmon f i s h i n g i n a f a s t running stream ( J e w i t t , 1976:18). If the d i s t r i b u t i o n of humpback whales was s i m i l a r i n pre-c o n t a c t days to the d i s t r i b u t i o n today, then Ozette whalers may have had to t r a v e l c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s from shore to hunt t h i s s p e c i e s . The only mention that Makah whalers ventured f a r o f f s h o r e i s by Waterman (1929:42). He noted that they "...used to put o f f from shore at sunset, i n a s p e l l of whaling weather, so as to get on the whaling grounds at daybreak". H e i z e r (1941:68) b e l i e v e d that the Makah, Q u i l e u t e and Q u i n a u l t r e g u l a r l y hunted whales as f a r as t h i r t y m i l e s from shore. Contrary to these accounts, most r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t hat whales were hunted w i t h i n s i g h t of l a n d . Swan (1868:19-22) wrote that people were able to watch the hunt from shore. J e w i t t (1974:18-20) s t a t e d i n h i s n a r r a t i v e that s u c c e s s f u l hunters were s p o t t e d by lookouts. Scammon (1968:30) observed that " . . . t h e i r whaling grounds are l i m i t e d , as the Indians r a r e l y venture seaward f a r out of s i g h t of the smoke from t h e i r c a b i n s by day, or beyond the view of t h e i r b o n f i r e s at n i g h t . " . 92 T h e s e a c c o u n t s s u g g e s t t h a t most o f t h e w h a l i n g was done c l o s e t o s h o r e . Waterman may have b e e n d e s c r i b i n g a p r a c t i c e o f h e a d i n g o u t f o r t h e w h a l i n g g r o u n d s a t n i g h t i n o r d e r t o be p r e p a r e d t o hun t a t f i r s t l i g h t . A l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some a b o r i g i n a l w h a l e r s v e n t u r e d g r e a t d i s t a n c e s f r o m s h o r e , t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t n e e d e d t o tow t h e wha le b a c k makes s u c h an a r d u o u s u n d e r t a k i n g u n l i k e l y , and t h e p r e s e n c e o f g r a y w h a l e s i n l a r g e numbers c l o s e t o s h o r e w o u l d make l o n g v o y a g e s p a r t i c l u a r l y u n l i k e l y . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s A number o f s p e c i e s o f b a l e e n a n d t o o t h e d w h a l e s a r e common i n b o t h t h e l i t t o r a l and p e l a g i c w a t e r s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . O n l y two s p e c i e s o f b a l e e n w h a l e s , t h e g r a y a n d t h e humpback , m i g r a t e c l o s e t o s h o r e . The g r a y a r r i v e s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t i n A p r i l a n d May, a n d f e e d s i n t h e s h a l l o w b a y s a n d i n l e t s a l o n g t h e m i g r a t i o n r o u t e . Some i n d i v i d u a l s s p e n d a s l o n g a s t h e e n t i r e summer o f f t h e west c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Humpback w h a l e s a r e n o t common o f f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a t p r e s e n t , b u t d a t a f r o m O z e t t e s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y may have f r e q u e n t e d l i t t o r a l w a t e r s b e f o r e t h e i r numbers were d e p l e t e d by c o m m e r c i a l w h a l e r s . L i k e t h e g r a y s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e humpback p o p u l a t i o n m i g r a t e s t o more n o r t h e r l y w a t e r s i n t h e summer, b u t some i n d i v i d u a l s r e m a i n o f f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and Cape F l a t t e r y t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer. O t h e r s p e c i e s common t o l i t t o r a l w a t e r s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r e t h e m inke and t h e k i l l e r w h a l e . T h e s e a n i m a l s were 93 not hunted e x t e n s i v e l y by a b o r i g i n a l whalers, although Drucker mentioned t h a t Nootka youths o c c a s i o n a l l y hunted k i l l e r whales as a t e s t of s k i l l . Swan mentioned that the Makah sometimes took minke whales. The small s i z e and l i m i t e d numbers of these s p e c i e s l i k e l y disuaded whalers from pursuing these animals e x t e n s i v e l y . P e l a g i c whales were not hunted by shore-based whalers, but such s p e c i e s c o u l d have been a source of d r i f t whales d u r i n g winter storms. The Nootka and Makah whaling season l a s t e d throughout the s p r i n g and i n t o the summer months. Improved weather c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t t e d c a n o e i s t s to venture out onto the water more f r e q u e n t l y than d u r i n g the w i n t e r . In a d d i t i o n , calm seas and c l e a r s k i e s enabled shore-based lookouts to spot whales m i g r a t i n g past the whaling v i l l a g e s . Gray whales a r r i v e d on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d i n March with peak numbers i n May. Humpbacks a r r i v e d i n May with some animals remaining along the coast throughout the summer. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence from Ozette i n d i c a t e s t h a t humpbacks and grays were hunted by Makah whalers. The h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of humpback bone i n the c o l l e c t i o n may be an i n d i c a t i o n t h at t h i s s p e c i e s was common o f f the Northwest Coast before commercial whaling reduced t h e i r numbers. D r i f t whales of v a r i o u s s p e c i e s were an important source of food d u r i n g the winter and s p r i n g . Right whale bones found at the Ozette s i t e lend support to the idea that t h i s s p e c i e s may have wintered o f f the. Northwest Coast at one time. T h i s w i n t e r i n g p o p u l a t i o n may have been a source of d r i f t whales f o r 94 aboriginal populations on the Northwest Coast during the winter months. 95 CHAPTER III Whaling Technology and R i t u a l Hunting Technology The e a r l i e s t accounts of Nootka whaling 'technology were w r i t t e n before 1800 when t r a d i t i o n a l t o o l s and techniques were s t i l l i n use. E x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s such as Cook, Meares, Mozino, Pantoja, T e l l o and Marchand were among the f i r s t to d e s c r i b e Nootka whaling. They were impressed by the courageous whalers and f a s c i n a t e d by the e l a b o r a t e hunting r i t u a l and technique. The harpoons, f l o a t s and canoes were summarily d e s c r i b e d i n these e a r l y accounts. In a d d i t i o n , b r i e f glimpses of r i t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n s and r e g a l i a a s s o c i a t e d with the hunt were recorded. Contact between Europeans and Nookta was b r i e f , however, and d e s c r i p t i o n s of the whale hunt are f a r from complete. L a t e r ethnographic accounts add to the e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i o n s . Drucker (1951), Waterman (1929), Reagan (1925) and Swan (1870) d e s c r i b e d whaling at a time when only a few i n d i v i d u a l s remembered the d e t a i l s of the a r t , and inno v a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d by commercial whalers had i n f l u e n c e d the t r a d i t i o n a l technique. , The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of whaling gear, r i t u a l and the hunt i s drawn p r i m a r i l y from the above sources. Harpoons Meares was among the f i r s t to d e s c r i b e the Nootka whale hunt, which he witnessed before metal blades were used f o r the harpoon head. Meares (1967:259) noted that 96 ...the harpoons...are c o n t r i v e d with no common s k i l l . The s h a f t i s from eighteen to twenty-eight f e e t i n l e n g t h ; at the end whereof i s f i x e d a l a r g e p i e c e of bone, cut i n notches, which being s p l i c e d to the s h a f t , serves as a secure h o l d f o r the harpoon, which i s f a s t e n e d to i t with thongs...(a l i n e fastended to the harpoon head is)...made of the sinews of c e r t a i n beasts, of s e v e r a l fathoms i n l e n g t h ; t h i s i s again a t t a c h e d to the s h a f t ; so that when the f i s h i s p i e r c e d , the s h a f t f l o a t s on the water by means of s e a l - s k i n s f i l l e d with wind, or v e n t e l a t e d bladders of f i s h , which are s e c u r e l y a t t a c h e d to i t . Harpoon Shaft Comparisons of a number of d e s c r i p t i o n s i n d i c a t e that the l e n g t h of the s h a f t v a r i e d from four to s i x metres. Cook (Heizer 1941:65) noted that the s h a f t was four to s i x metres long, while Scammon (1968:30) re p o r t e d a yew wood s h a f t s i x meters long and weighing around twelve pounds. Most accounts i n d i c a t e d that the s h a f t was made e n t i r e l y of yew wood, while Meares' (1967:259) i s the only d e s c r i p t i o n of a bone f o r e s h a f t . Drucker (1951) noted that the s h a f t was made of two or three p i e c e s of wood s p l i c e d together with a "hinge" f o r i n t e r l o c k i n g the s c a r f . Hough (1933) p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the method used to s p l i c e the harpoon s h a f t . Heizer (1941:67) noted that p r e v i o u s ethnographers assumed the s h a f t had to be p i e c e d together because yew wood of s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h was u n a v a i l a b l e . He observed, however, that the s e c t i o n s were cut from s u f f i c i e n t l y long p i e c e s of yew. H e i z e r (1941:67) b e l i e v e d the . . . s c a r f e d s h a f t would g i v e to s t r a i n (such as the whip r e c i e v e d by a f i f t e e n f o o t p o l e by a whale's 97 i n i t i a l plunge), and that by breaking a great number of such s h a f t s and r e p a i r i n g and r e - u s i n g them the n a t i v e s would u l t i m a t e l y recognize the s u p e r i o r i t y of a s p l i c e d s h a f t . The i n t e r l o c k i n g s c a r f would r e s i s t s e p a r a t i o n i f kept t i g h t l y bound. Arming Element Meares (1967:259) r e p o r t e d that the harpoon p o i n t was "...of an o v a l form, and rendered extremely sharp at the s i d e s as w e l l as the p o i n t , i t (was) made out of a l a r g e m u s s l e - s h e l l , and i s f i x e d i n t o another p i e c e of bone, about three inches long, and to which a l i n e i s f a s t e n e d . . . " . Drucker's (1951) d e s c r i p t i o n of the northern Nootka arming element, and Waterman's (1929) account of the Makah harpoon are s i m i l a r to Meares' account. Harpoon Head Accord i n g to Drucker (1951:28) the harpoon head was ...of the composite type, with two f i t t e d e lk-horn barbs and a m u s s e l - s h e l l p o i n t . . . t h e r i g h t barb was s l i g h t l y longer and c a l l e d 'man' (tcakup); the l e f t was c a l l e d 'woman' (Lutsma'). Both were decorated, u s u a l l y with punctate designs of magical v i r t u e . The barbs were bound together with yellow cedar bark and an outer l a y e r of c h e r r y bark. The m u s s e l - s h e l l p o i n t was h e l d i n pl a c e only by the c o v e r i n g of spruce-gum, f o r i t o f t e n s h a t t e r e d a f t e r p e n e t r a t i n g and had to be re p l a c e d before the head c o u l d be used a g a i n . J e w i t t (1976:39-40) s t a t e d that Maquinna was s t i l l u s i ng a m u s s l e - s h e l l blade i n 1804. J e w i t t c o n s t r u c t e d a- number of metal p o i n t s d u r i n g h i s stay with the Moachat (see F i g u r e 12) 98 Figure 12. Toggling Harpoon Head. 99 Lanyard The heavy l a n y a r d was -described by Cook and Meares as s e v e r a l fathoms l o n g . Drucker (1951:29) noted that the l a n y a r d was four fathoms (approximately e i g h t metres) long and was c o n s t r u c t e d from whale or sea l i o n sinew, "...made t h i c k c l o s e to the head so that by i t s s t i f f n e s s i t a s s i s t e d i n h o l d i n g the head very f i r m l y on the s h a f t . An eye about two spans long was made at the end...". Drucker a l s o noted that a long l i n e was connected to t h i s s h o r t e r l a n y a r d . A c c o r d i n g to Drucker (1951:23), the l a n y a r d was c o n s t r u c t e d by t w i s t i n g the sinew strands "...clockwise one at a time with a s t i c k , p u l l e d t a u t and t w i s t e d together counter c l o c k w i s e , pounded to f l a t t e n unevenness, and s t r e t c h e d between two posts with a suspended weight which drew the l i n e t a u t . " . Although Drucker noted that a longer l i n e was at t a c h e d to the f i r s t l a n y a r d , Meares and Cook d i d not mention the longer l i n e . T h i s was p o s s i b l y an o v e r s i g h t , or the longer l i n e may have been an a d d i t i o n s i n c e that time (Heizer, 1941:65-67). According to Drucker, t h i s l i n e was made of two p a r t s , "...a 40 fathom l e n g t h of 3 stranded cedar-withe rope, about one and a h a l f inches t h i c k . To t h i s was t i e d a second s e c t i o n , 60 fathoms of cedar withe l i n e , about h a l f as t h i c k as the f i r s t one" (Drucker, 1951:29). These lanyards were s p l i c e d t o g e t h e r . C o n s t r u c t i n g the harpoon l a n y a r d was a time-consuming task. J e w i t t (1976:23) re p o r t e d that with Thompson's h e l p he took three days to make a whaling l i n e . 100 F l o a t s These were made of s e a l s k i n or f i s h b ladders a c c o r d i n g to Meares, Cook and Mozino. Drucker (1951:29) g i v e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t i o n and use of s e a l s k i n f l o a t s , which are a l s o mentioned by Swan (1873), Waterman (1929) and Koppert (1930). Drucker (1951:29) observed that the s k i n was s t r i p p e d from the s e a l by c u t t i n g around the f l i p p e r s and the head. Apparently the s k i n s t r e t c h e d s u f f i c i e n t l y to enable the hunter to p u l l the e n t i r e s k i n o f f the body, i n s i d e - o u t . The s k i n was scraped and s p r i n k l e d with u r i n e . The openings were skewered then wrapped with kelp and l a t e r n e t t l e f i b r e . One was c l o s e d with a hollow spool to permit i n f l a t i o n of the b l a d d e r . Koppert (1930:62-63) r e p o r t e d that the spool was plugged with a sma l l wooden peg. Waterman (1929:43) s t a t e d that as many as t h i r t e e n f l o a t s were a t t a c h e d to the whaling l i n e , Koppert (1930:63) noted that o n l y s i x f l o a t s were used. Drucker (1951:29) mentioned that four f l o a t s were t i e d to the l i n e before s e t t i n g out, ...a f l o a t rope was t i e d a c r o s s from the 'head' to the ' t a i l ' end (of the f l o a t ) , enough being allowed over from the head to allow f o r the attachment to the l i n e , and four fathoms l e f t t r a i l i n g out behind. The rope was t i e d so that . . . s l a c k was l e f t between i t and the i n f l a t e d buoy. When the f l o a t was drawn under water i t d e f l a t e d so t h a t i t lengthened u n t i l the rope was t a u t . The purpose of the rope was to take some of the s t r a i n o f f the f l o a t i t s e l f . Waterman (1929:36) noted that the Makah f l o a t s were decorated with v a r i o u s designs and they were smoked to t u r n them a s o f t brown c o l o u r . Scammon (1968:30) a l s o noted that "the buoys are 101 f a n c i f u l l y p a i n t e d , but those belonging to each boat have a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mark". Lances Ac c o r d i n g to Drucker (1951:31), two types of lances were used by the Nootka. Both had long, b a r b l e s s e l k horn p o i n t s , "...one tapered to a sharp p o i n t f o r k i l l i n g , the other with a wide f l a t c h i s e l l i k e blade (a "spade" i n modern whaler's terms) that was used f o r hamstringing.". Waterman (1929) d i d not mention the use of l a n c e s , s t a t i n g that harpoons with bladders a t t a c h e d were used to slow-down the wounded whale. J e w i t t (1976:21) mentioned that he made a number of 45 cent i m e t r e long s t e e l l a n c e s f o r Maquinna. The c h i e f had not used lances before but found them' u s e f u l a c c o r d i n g to J e w i t t . J e w i t t a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d spades f o r s e v e r i n g the t a i l f l u k e s ( J e w i t t , 1976). I t i s unc l e a r i f these implements were used before European c o n t a c t . Canoes The whaling canoe was d e s c r i b e d by Meares (1967:259) as "...a s i z e between t h e i r war canoes and those they use on o r d i n a r y o c c a s i o n s ; they are admirably w e l l adapted to the purpose, and are capable of h o l d i n g , c o n v e n i e n t l y , eighteen or twenty men.". J e w i t t (1976:29) measured h i s c h i e f ' s canoe and noted that i t was 7.4 metres by the k e e l , and 14.2 metres from stem to s t e r n . T h i s was the l a r g e s t canoe J e w i t t had seen. Although J e w i t t d i d not mention whether the canoe was used f o r whaling, i t c o i n c i d e s with Meares' (1967:259) account of a l a r g e whaling canoe. A number of Drucker's informants e x p l a i n e d that 102 the w h a l i n g canoe was s i m p l y a f r e i g h t canoe used t o h a u l l a r g e l o a d s a t o t h e r times-, but t r e a t e d c a r e f u l l y d u r i n g the w h a l i n g season ( D r u c k e r , 1951:84). The f r e i g h t canoe, a c c o r d i n g t o Drucker (1951:83), was s i x t o seven fathoms l o n g by t h e k e e l . Scammon (1968:30) and Waterman (1929:36) d e s c r i b e d a s m a l l e r canoe, about 35 f e e t l o n g , used by Makah w h a l e r s . D r u c k e r a l s o n o t e d t h a t a s p e c i a l w h a l i n g canoe ( o ' o t a h s a t s ) was used by the Nootka. T h i s canoe was o n l y t e n t o t w e l v e metres l o n g ( D r u c k e r , 1951:84). The crews f o r t h e s e s m a l l e r canoes ranged between e i g h t and ten men (Drucker 1951, Scammon 1968, Koppert 1930). Mozino (1970:48) s t a t e d t h a t a " . . . s m a l l canoe w i t h a k e e l s c a r c e l y f i f t e e n f e e t and two and one h a l f f o o t beam, manned by t h r e e or f o u r men, goes out t o c a t c h the most enormous a n i m a l t h a t n a t u r e p r o d u c e s . " . Whether or not w h a l e r s o p e r a t e d from such s m a l l canoes i s open t o q u e s t i o n as no o t h e r a c c o u n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t they were used. N e v e r t h e l e s s , Mozino was a s c i e n t i s t and c a r e f u l o b s e r v e r , and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t he w i t n e s s e d the hunt as d e s c r i b e d . Scammon (1968:27, 248) p o i n t e d out t h a t a l a r g e canoe and crew was not n e c e s s a r y t o pursue gray whales from shore based s t a t i o n s . He n o ted t h a t shore based commercial w h a l e r s u s u a l l y used two b o a t s , each w i t h a six-man crew, but some w h a l e r s a l s o used v e r y s m a l l boats w i t h two-man crews. T h e r e f o r e Nootka w h a l e r s c o u l d w e l l have o p e r a t e d from such s m a l l c r a f t . Once a whale was s t r u c k and k i l l e d , as many pe o p l e as p o s s i b l e a s s i s t e d i n h a u l i n g the a n i m a l back t o s h o r e . J e w i t t (1976) noted t h a t 40 canoes put out t o h e l p tow a whale i n t o 103 Yuquot Bay. The Spanish e x p l o r e r Pantoja s t a t e d that "...25 to 30 canoes are h a s t i l y put i n t o the water once a whale was s t r u c k . " (Wagner, 1933:161). Mozino's account of the small whaling canoe may simply have been one of these a u x i l i a r y v e s s e l s p u t t i n g - o u t to sea to a s s i s t the hunters. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Hunt Meares (1967:259) commented that the Nookta's " . . . d e x t e r i t y i n k i l l i n g the whale i s not e a s i l y d e s c r i b e d , and the f a c i l i t y with which they convey so huge a c r e a t u r e to t h e i r h a b i t a t i o n s i s no l e s s remarkable.". The whale hunt was d e s c r i b e d i n most d e t a i l by Drucker (1951:48-56), and the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the hunt i s taken p r i m a r i l y from that account as w e l l as other d e s c r i p t i o n s from e a r l i e r j o u r n a l s . Once the whalers had a r r i v e d on the whaling grounds and spotted t h e i r t a r g e t , they drew c l o s e enough to the whale to p l a c e the harpoon. Drucker (1951:52) noted that the t a r g e t was the whale's s i d e , j u s t below the f l i p p e r . In her examination of whale bones from the Ozette s i t e , Byse observed that the t i p s of mussel s h e l l harpoon p o i n t s were imbedded i n s e v e r a l scapulae (Byse p e r s . comm. 1982). She p o s t u l a t e d t h a t the whaler was aiming f o r the v i t a l organs behind and beneath the sc a p u l a , and the harpoon p o i n t s she found were from n o n - f a t a l s t r i k e s . The power needed to f o r c e the harpoon p o i n t through blubber and f l e s h and i n t o the bone i s remarkable. In order to wound a whale f a t a l l y i n t h i s f a s h i o n , the harpooner's canoe would have to be t r a v e l l i n g so c l o s e to the whale that i t was almost r i d i n g 104 on the animal's back. Once the whale was h i t , the l i n e s and buoys were thrown c l e a r of the canoe, and the crew back-paddled r a p i d l y i n order to a v o i d the s t r u g g l i n g animal. Scammon (1968:30) noted that a f t e r i t was harpooned ...the worried c r e a t u r e may d i v e deeply, but very l i t t l e time e l a p s e s before the i n f l a t e d s e a l - s k i n s are v i s i b l e a g a i n . The i n s t a n t these are seen, a buoy i s e l e v a t e d on a pole from the nearest canoe, by way of a s i g n a l ; then a l l dash...toward the o b j e c t of p u r s u i t . P l a c i n g the harpoon was only the beginning, as the whalers had to wear-out the animal by a t t a c h i n g a d d i t o n a l f l o a t s or simply h o l d i n g onto the harpoon l i n e . J e w i t t (1976:7) mentioned that Maquinna str u c k a whale "...and was near to him one day and one n i g h t , and then h i s l i n e p a r t e d . Returned and was very c r o s s " . On another o c c a s i o n Maquinna was drawn i n t o the water and f o r c e d to cut the l i n e . S k i l l , experience and luck were v i t a l at t h i s stage of the hunt as i n j u r e d whales had c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e r v e s of s t r e n g t h to combat the a g i l i t y of the hunters. Meares (1967:258-260) noted t h a t once the whale was s t r u c k "...boats immediately f o l l o w h i s wake, and as he r i s e s , continue to f i x t h e i r weapons in him t i l l he f i n d s i t impossible f o r him to s i n k , from the number of f l o a t i n g buoys which are now a t t a c h e d to h i s body.". Drucker (1951:33) s t a t e d that a drogue-l i k e basket was used to slow the whale's progress, or sometimes the whalers h e l d onto the l i n e and the weight of the canoe hindered the animal. The drogue may have been i n t r o d u c e d by 105 Europeans as i t i s not mentioned i n the e a r l i e r r e p o r t s . I f the hunters were lucky, the whale moved towards shore d u r i n g i t s death t h r o e s . I f the whale moved out to sea, songs were sung and s u p e r n a t u r a l a i d was requested to h e l p t u r n the whale. Drucker's Hesquiat informants r e p o r t e d that whalers sometimes paddled i n f r o n t of a wounded whale and jabbed a t i t s head to s t e e r i t towards shore (Drucker, 1951:53). Drucker noted t h a t the whalers d i d not k i l l the whale as long as i t swam towards t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . T h e i r aim was to minimize the amount of e f f o r t they needed to expend to tow t h e i r prey back to the v i l l a g e . When the whale d i e d , or was k i l l e d with a l a n c e , the mouth was sewn shut to prevent the animal from t a k i n g i n water and s i n k i n g . A c c o r d i n g to Drucker (1951:54), a crew member drew a l i n e through the upper and lower jaws and t i e d both t o g e t h e r . F l o a t s were a l s o a t t a c h e d to the head and around the body to prevent the whale from s i n k i n g . The whale was towed by a rope at t a c h e d to a loop and connected t o the l i n e s e c u r i n g the jaw. Number of P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Hunt The e a r l y accounts d e s c r i b e d many canoes p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the hunt. Scammon (1968:30) wrote t h a t "...the number of canoes engaged i n one of these e x p e d i t i o n s i s from one to f i v e . . . " . Meares (1967:258) observed that "...the c h i e f was attended by s e v e r a l canoes of the same s i z e as h i s own, f i l l e d with people armed with harpoons.". S i m i l a r l y , Pantoja s t a t e d that a number of canoes surrounded the whale (Wagner, 1933:161). J e w i t t ' s 106 (1976:20) account p r o v i d e s a count of the number of canoes p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the hunt on A p r i l 8 t h r 1804: "there were ten canoes out whaling, they stuck f i v e whales but t h e i r harpoons drawed, and they returned without having caught any.".With approximately e i g h t men i n each canoe, some e i g h t y people c o u l d have been d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the hunt on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n . Once a whale was struck a d d i t i o n a l canoes put out to h e l p tow the whale to shore. The Role of the C h i e f i n the Hunt Most accounts emphasize that the c h i e f was the most important f i g u r e i n the hunt. Meares (1967:258-260) s t a t e d that "...the c h i e f h i m s e l f i s the p r i n c i p a l harpooner, and i s the f i r s t that s t r i k e s the whale.". Pantoja's account a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the l a r g e s t canoe (undoubtedly belonging to the c h i e f ) was the f i r s t to s t r i k e the whale (Wagner, 1933). In h i s j o u r n a l , J e w i t t (1974:92) noted that " . . . s e v e r a l of the c h i e f s , among whom were Maquinna's b r o t h e r s . . . a f t e r the king has caught the f i r s t whale are p r i v i l e g e d to take them a l s o . " . I t i s unclear whether t h i s was the f i r s t whale of the season, or the f i r s t to be struck on that day. N e v e r t h e l e s s , J e w i t t ' s statement i n d i c a t e s t h a t the house c h i e f of the most important l o c a l group c o u l d have c o n t r o l l e d the a c t i v i t i e s of other whalers and that other whalers were members of the noble c l a s s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t people other than c h i e f s were a l s o whalers. However, the e x t e n s i v e r i t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n necessary f o r the hunt makes i t l i k e l y that members of the n o b i l i t y , with access to t h i s 107 knowledge, were the only whalers. I n d i v i d u a l s a s p i r i n g to enter a higher c l a s s c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y have demonstrated t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s on the whaling grounds. The c h i e f ' s p r e s t i g e was c l o s e l y l i n k e d to h i s success as a whaler. J e w i t t r e p e a t e d l y s t a t e d that Maquinna re t u r n e d i n an extremely bad humour when he was u n s u c c e s s f u l on the whaling grounds. A f t e r an e n t i r e season of c a t c h i n g nothing, Maquinna was "...very angry because he has had no success." ( J e w i t t , 1976:42). Maquinna's mood was aggravated by the f a c t that whales had been caught by two other c h i e f s that year. A c h i e f ' s success i n whaling meant a b o u n t i f u l supply of o i l , blubber and meat at a time when food s u p p l i e s were running low. In a d d i t i o n , a hunter's success demonstrated h i s good r e l a t i o n s h i p with s u p e r n a t u r a l powers which a i d e d him i n the hunt. In order to o r c h e s t r a t e a s u c c e s s f u l hunt the c h i e f had to have the c o o p e r a t i o n of h i s own crew and that of the other whalers. Thus, a person who was capable of c a p t u r i n g whales was able to o r g a n i z e and c o o r d i n a t e other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the hunt. For these reasons i t was important f o r a c h i e f to be a s u c c e s s f u l whaler, thereby demonstrating that he possessed those q u a l i t i e s necesary f o r a s u c c e s s f u l l e a d e r . R i t u a l P r e p a r t i o n f o r the Hunt An extremely important aspect of the hunt was r i t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n observed by a c h i e f and h i s crew. .Meares (1967:258-260) mentioned that "...the c h i e f prepares h i m s e l f , with no common ceremony, for t h i s noble d i v e r s i o n . He i s c l o a t h e d on 108 the o c c a s i o n i n s e a - o t t e r ' s s k i n , h i s body i s besmeared with o i l , and daubed with red ochre;". J e w i t t ' s (1974:93) n a r r a t i v e o f f e r s a d e t a i l e d r e f e r e n c e to Nootka whaling r i t u a l : ...these people have some very s i n g l u a r observances p r e p a r a t o r y to whaling...A sho r t time before l e a v i n g Tahsees, the king makes^a p o i n t of p a s s i n g a day alone on the mountain, whither he goes very p r i v a t l e y e a r l y i n the morning, and does not r e t u r n t i l l l a t e i n the evening. T h i s i s done...for the purpose of s i n g i n g and p r a y i n g to h i s God f o r success i n whaling the ensuing season. At Cooptee the same ceremony i s performed, and at Nootka a f t e r the r e t u r n t h i t h e r , with s t i l l g r e a t e r solemnity, as f o r the next two days he appears very t h o u g h t f u l and gloomy, s c a r c e l y speaking to any one, and observes a most r i g i d f a s t . On these o c c a s i o n s he has always a broad red f i l l e t made of bark bound around h i s head, in token of h u m i l i a t i o n , with a l a r g e branch of green spruce on the top, and h i s great r a t t l e i n h i s hand. C u r t i s mentioned that p a r t i c i p a t i o n by whaler's wife was an important aspect of the whaler's bathing ceremony. She h e l d onto a l i n e t i e d to her husband as he d i v e d and spouted water i n i m i t a t i o n of a whale ( C u r t i s , 1916). Boas s t a t e d that the bodies of past famous whalers were important elements of the ceremonial p a r a p h e n a l i a f o r good whale hunters. S k u l l s and corpses of dead whalers f e a t u r e d i n the p r e p a r a t o r y r i t u a l s and were c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the powers a whaler had to c o n t r o l i n order to become s u c c e s s f u l (Boas, 1890). J e w i t t (1974:93) s t a t e d that the e n t i r e crew observed r i t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n s j u s t before the hunt began; . . . f o r a week before commencing t h e i r whaling, both himse l f and the crew of h i s canoe observe a f a s t , e a t i n g but very l i t t l e , and going i n t o the water s e v e r a l times i n the course of each day to bathe, s i n g i n g and rubbing t h e i r bodies, limbs, and faces 109 with s h e l l s and bushes, so that on t h e i r r e t u r n I have seen them look as though they had been s e v e r e l y t o r n with b r i e r s . They are l i k e w i s e o b l i g e d to a b s t a i n from any commerce with t h e i r women f o r the l i k e p e r i o d , the l a t t e r r e s t r i c t i o n being c o n s i d e r e d as i n d i s p e n s i b l e to t h e i r success. In h i s n a r r a t i v e , J e w i t t a l s o made i t c l e a r that food was not consumed as f r e q u e n t l y when the men where whaling. He s t a t e d that he and Thompson were "...reduced to a very low f a r e " , because the women d i d not cook while the men were away ( J e w i t t , 1974:91). In a d d i t i o n , Maquinna's i l l humour, due to h i s poor fortune on the whaling grounds, meant t h a t the c a p t i v e s were given very l i t t l e to e a t . In h i s j o u r n a l e n t r i e s of March and A p r i l , 1804 and 1805, J e w i t t complained of hard times as he and Thompson were not given s u f f i c i e n t food. I t i s u n c l e a r whether t h i s hunger was the r e s u l t of r i t u a l f a s t i n g or food shortage. He noted i n 1804, that the circumstances r e s u l t e d from the f a i l u r e of the salmon runs. I t i s l i k e l y that food was scarce f o r the e n t i r e v i l l a g e d u r i n g the whaling season, but i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that members of the whaler's household ate l e s s than usual when the men were hun t i n g . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , f e a s t i n g was the order of the day a f t e r a whale had been caught, and the Moachat continued to f e a s t while the whalers were hunting. The r e s t r i c t i o n , mentioned by Drucker (1951), Swan (1870) and Gunther (1942, 1927), that r e q u i r e d people to f a s t d u r i n g the whaling season, may have a p p l i e d only to the whaler's immediate f a m i l y while the remainder of the v i l l a g e c o n t i n u e d t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s l i k e l y that everyone f e a s t e d on whale o i l and blubber once a whale was caught. 1 10 A c c o r d i n g to Drucker (1951:176-177), the whaler's wife remained at home when her husband was out whaling. She l a y on her bed and was covered with mats. The woman represented the whale and any untoward behaviour on her behalf caused the whale to turn away from shore and behave w i l d l y around the canoes. Other whaling t r i b e s e n t e r t a i n e d s i m i l a r b e l i e f s , a c c o r d i n g the Olson (1936), C u r t i s (1916), Gunther (1927), Reagan (1925) and Brabant ( L i l l a r d , 1977). The most important event a f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l hunt was the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the whale. The k i l l i n g of a whale c a l l e d f o r immediate c e l e b r a t i o n as a vast amount of food was a v a i l a b l e f o r f e a s t i n g . J e w i t t (1974:92) s t a t e d that "...the whale, on being drawn on shore, was immediately cut up, and a great f e a s t of blubber given at Maquinna's house to which a l l the v i l l a g e were i n v i t e d , who i n d e m n i f i e d themselves f o r t h e i r Lent by e a t i n g as usual to excess.". On another o c c a s i o n Maquina's son performed a dance d u r i n g the f e a s t . Mozino (1970:48) a l s o noted that the c h i e f gave a " . . . s p l e n d i d banquet t o a l l the v i l l a g e s . " . Swan (1870:20-21) pr o v i d e d a lengthy d e s c r i p t i o n of the method of r e n d e r i n g whale o i l and the u t i l i z a t i o n of whale products: When the whale i s dead, i t i s towed ashore to the most convenient spot...and hauled as high on the beach as i t can be f l o a t e d . As soon as the t i d e recedes, a l l hands swarm around the c a r c a s s with t h e i r k n ives, and i n a very short time the blubber i s s t r i p p e d o f f i n b l o c k s about two f e e t s q u a r e . . . A f t e r the blubber i s removed i n t o the lodge the black s k i n i s f i r s t taken o f f , and e i t h e r eaten raw or e l s e b o i l e d ; . . . i t i s by no means u n p a l a t a b l e , and i s u s u a l l y given to the c h i l d r e n , who are very fond of i t , . . . T h e blubber, 111 a f t e r being skinned, i s cut i n t o s t r i p s and b o i l e d , to get out the o i l that can be e x t r a c t e d by that process; t h i s o i l i s c a r e f u l l y skimmed from the pots with clam s h e l l s . The blubber i s then hung i n the smoke to dry. When cooked i t i s common to b o i l the s t r i p s about twenty minutes, but i t i s o f t e n eaten cold...There i s no p o r t i o n of a whale, except the ver t e b r a e and o f f a l , which i s u s e l e s s to the Indians. The blubber and the f l e s h serve f o r food, the sinews are prepared and made i n t o ropes, cords, and bowstrings; and the stomach and i n t e s t i n e s are c a r e f u l l y s o r t e d and i n f l a t e d , and when d r i e d are used to h o l d o i l . Whale o i l serves the same purpose with these Indians that b u t t e r does with c i v i l i z e d people; they d i p t h e i r d r i e d h a l i b u t i n t o i t while e a t i n g , and use i t with bread, potatoes and v a r i o u s kinds of b e r r i e s . A f o r t u n a t e hunter a d v e r t i s e d h i s s k i l l by d i s p l a y i n g a p o r t i o n of the whale i n h i s house. Swan (1870:22) s t a t e s : ...the p o r t i o n of blubber forming a saddle, taken from between the head and the d o r s a l f i n , i s esteemed the most c h o i c e , and i s always the pro p e r t y of the person who f i r s t s t r i k e s the whale...The saddle i s termed u-b u t s k . . . i t i s p l a c e d a c r o s s a pole supported by two stout p o s t s . At each end...are hung the harpoons and l i n e s with which the whale was k i l l e d . Next to the blubber at each end are the whale's eyes; eagle's f e a t h e r s are stuck i n a row along the top, a bunch of f e a t h e r s at each end, and the whole covered over with spots and patches of down. Underneath the blubber i s a trough to c a t c h the o i l which d r i p s out. The u-butsk remains i n a conspicuous part of the lodge u n t i l i t i s c o n s i d e r e d r i p e enough t o eat, when a f e a s t i s h e l d , and the whole devoured or c a r r i e d o f f by the guests.. . The Moachat followed a s i m i l a r custom as i n d i c a t e d by J e w i t t ' s (1976:21) d e s c r i p t i o n of Maquinna's house where the c h i e f "...had an hundredweight of blubber hanging over the p l a c e where he s l e e p s . " . E x c a v a t i o n s at the Makah v i l l a g e of Ozette have uncovered 112 two l a r g e wooden c a r v i n g s i n the shape of whale f i n s and i n l a i d with sea o t t e r t e e t h ( K i r k and Daugherty, 1974:101). These c a r v i n g s were not mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e , but e t c h i n g s from Cook's voyage shows a carved f i n s i m i l a r to those found at Ozette (K i r k and Daugherty, 1974:101). Makah informants c o u l d not remember the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these o b j e c t s , but i t i s l i k e l y t h a t they had s i m i l a r importance to the blubber saddle d e s c r i b e d by Swan. The wooden r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s would serve as a more permanent reminder of a c h i e f ' s prowess. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s The Nootka and Makah whaling technology was complex, and i n c l u d e d e f f i c i e n t t o o l s f o r hunting as w e l l as i n t r i c a t e p r e p a r a t o r y r i t u a l s . The arduous p r e p a r a t i o n s and exact t i m i n g needed d u r i n g the hunt demanded an organized and d i s c i p l i n e d crew. The c h i e f , as harpooner, had to be p h y s i c a l l y s trong, as w e l l as an a d r o i t l e a d e r . I t i s not c o i n c i d e n t a l that the q u a l i t i e s necessary f o r a good whale hunter were the same as those needed f o r an e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r . Success was important f o r a whaler as h i s l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s were proven, and the conf i d e n c e of h i s house group was b o l s t e r e d . The o r i g i n of Nootka whaling has been a t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n i n the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e s i n c e the 1930's. . L a n t i s (1938) compared Alaskan and Nootka whaling r i t u a l and emphasized the p a r a l l e l s between the two ar e a s . Drucker (1955b) noted s i m i l a r i t i e s between Eskimo and Nootka whaling equipment and t h e o r i z e d that the Eskimo and Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s have a 1 13 common a n c e s t r y . These papers suggest s t r o n g t i e s between the Nootka whaling complex and i t s more n o r t h e r l y c o u n t e r p a r t , as emphasized by L a n t i s (1938:462) when she s t a t e d t h a t , ...elements of the whaling r i t u a l so o v e r l a p each other i n d i s t r i b u t i o n that they are l i k e a c h a i n connecting the whaling t r i b e s i n the whole area from... P o i n t Barrow to the coast of Washington. L a t e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n the Northwest Coast has uncovered evidence of a long p e r i o d of h a b i t a t i o n i n the area. I t has been t h e o r i z e d that resource e x t r a c t i o n techniques developed on the Northwest Coast as a d a p t a t i o n s to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r environment. As M i t c h e l l (1971:74) s t a t e d , The development of the Northwest Coast way of l i f e would then be seen as a unique attainment, b u i l t on a base which has broader a f f i l i a t i o n s but i t s e l f e v o l v i n g i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n . Whether the Nootka whaling knowledge o r i g i n a t e d from a t r a d i t i o n shared with Eskimo c u l t u r e s over 4,000 years ago, or whether i t was developed independently over the c e n t u r i e s , i s as yet a p o i n t of s p e c u l a t i o n . I t i s e v i d e n t , however, that the Nootka posessed a whaling technology and r i t u a l w e l l - s u i t e d to the r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e whale re s o u r c e . The i n t r i c a c y of whaling r i t u a l , combined with a h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t technology, i n d i c a t e s t h at whales have been hunted i n the area f o r a long time. Most im p o r t a n t l y , the Nootka and Makah s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , seasonal settlement p a t t e r n s and economy enabled them to hunt and process the s i g n i f i c a n t volume of products a v a i l a b l e from a s i n g l e 1 1 4 whale. The p r e s t i g e which accrued to a s u c c e s s f u l whaler i s only one i n d i c a t i o n that the whaling complex was an i n t e g r a l p a r t of Nootka and Makah c u l t u r e . Ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n s of the hunt have emphasized t h i s p r e s t i g e aspect of the hunt, to the n e g l e c t of i t s economic importance. The importance of whale products f o r the Nootka and Makah economies w i l l be addressed i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. 115 CHAPTER IV The Economic Importance of Nootka Whaling Drucker (1951:59-60) d i s c o u n t e d the economic s i g n i f i c a n c e of whaling when he s t a t e d that ...the p r e s t i g e value of whaling outweighed i t s economic i m p o r t a n c e . . . ( t h i s i s ) . . . s u b s t a n t i a t e d by J e w i t t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g j o u r n a l . . . though they hunted d i l i g e n t l y and had improved equipment, (whalers) got but few i n t h e i r e n t i r e c a r e e r s . . . c l e a r l y the economic reward i n p r o p o r t i o n to the expenditure of time and energy was s l i g h t . Drucker's c o n c l u s i o n s were based on the assumption that the few whales k i l l e d by the Moachat each year were i n s u f f i c i e n t to c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the d i e t . As i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter I I , a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of o i l and blubber was obtained from the gray whale, and humpback whales provided even more. The complex whaling technology and r i t u a l o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I i n d i c a t e s t h at c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was expended to capture whales. By examining J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l i n d e t a i l , i t w i l l be argued that c o n t r a r y to Drucker's a s s e r t i o n , whaling was an important economic p u r s u i t f o r the Moachat; not only d i d the c h i e f s ' whaling endeavours supply e s s e n t i a l food f o r the whaling v i l l a g e s , but they a l s o p r o v i d e d important items f o r trade and exchange with neighbouring groups. TABLE 9 116 Total amount of time J e w i t t spent with the Moachat compared to the period used f o r a n a l y s i s . Source, J e w i t t , 1976. Total time with the Moachat Period of a n a l y s i s Dates March 26, 1803 to June 1, 1803 to J u l y 19, 1805 J u l y 1, 1805 Days e n t r i e s were made 684 631 Total number of days 780 730 1 17 The J o u r n a l Kept at Nootka Sound Number of J o u r n a l E n t r i e s Of the 780 days spent with the Moachat from June, 1803 to J u l y , 1805, 631 (81 percent) were recorded i n the j o u r n a l (see Table 9). Of those e n t r i e s made, 23.6 percent mentioned the food J e w i t t a t e , and 37.6 percent recorded the economic a c t i v i t i e s of the day (see Table 10). The number of e n t r i e s decreased from J u l y to October, and to a l e s s e r extent i n December and May (see F i g u r e 5 Chapter I ) . T h i s d e c l i n e i s r e f l e c t e d i n a p a r a l l e l drop i n p r o d u c t i o n and consumption e n t r i e s at those times. J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l r e l a t e s l i t t l e of the Moachat r e l i g i o u s or ceremonial l i f e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t records seasonal s h i f t s i n r e s i d e n c e , days spent f i s h i n g and whale hunting, and t r a d i n g v i s i t s from neighbouring t r i b e s . Because he was a s l a v e and u n f a m i l i a r with f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g techniques, J e w i t t d i d not l i v e as w e l l as h i s c a p t o r s . Due to h i s unhappiness with h i s circumstances, he p a i n t e d a f a i r l y dark p i c t u r e of Moachat l i f e . E n t r i e s i n the j o u r n a l suggest that J e w i t t d i d not have as easy access to food resources as h i s Moachat c a p t o r s . A f t e r l i v i n g with the Moachat f o r over a year, J e w i t t complained that Maquinna was not g i v i n g them enough to e a t . In June of 1804, the c h i e f t o l d J e w i t t and Thompson to "buy a canoe, f i s h hooks e t c . and go a f i s h i n g , or e l s e he would g i v e us nothing to TABLE 10 118 Number of days production and consumption a c t i v i t i e s were recorded i n J e w i t t ' s Journal from June 1803 to J u l y 1805. Source, J e w i t t , 1976. Type of a c t i v i t y Production Consumption Other Number of days e n t r i e s were made 237 149 245 Percentage of t o t a l e n t r i e s (N=631) 37.6 23.6 38.8 Total 631 100.0 119 e a t . " ( J e w i t t , 1976:24). The f o l l o w i n g day the c a p t i v e s were "...employed f u r n i s h i n g o u r s e l v e s with the necessary u t e n s i l s f o r f i s h i n g . We were o b l i g e d to part with our great c o a t s and other wearing a p p a r e l l , which used to serve us i n s t e a d of a bed." ( J e w i t t , 1976:24). U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e i r e f f o r t s were unrewarded as they " . . . c o u l d not so much as get one b i t e . " J e w i t t (1976:24). E v e n t u a l l y J e w i t t (1976:24) t o l d Maquinna " . . . t h a t we d i d not understand f i s h i n g ; then t o l d us t o go no more.". F i v e days l a t e r J e w i t t (1976:25) again complained of hunger and was t o l d to "...go upon the rocks and gather muscles and lampreys..."; Jewitt' (1976:25) c o n s i d e r e d t h i s "...a t h i n g most i m p r a c t i c a b l e , and I was d r i v e n to the l a s t necessary means of p r o c u r i n g sustenance to g i v e my handkerchief from o f f my neck f o r a d r i e d salmon and a l i t t l e t r a i n o i l . " J e w i t t ' s d i s t r e s s i n g s t a t e of hunger was a l l e v i a t e d t o some extent when Maquinna found the c a p t i v e a wife i n September of the same year. Although he was r e l u c t a n t to marry, J e w i t t (1976:30) noted that " . . . i t w i l l be f o r my advantage while I am amongst them, f o r she has a f a t h e r who always goes f i s h i n g ; so that I s h a l l l i v e much b e t t e r than I have at any time h e r e t o f o r e . " . J e w i t t and Thompson's i n a b i l i t y to pro v i d e f o r themselves was t h e r e f o r e one of the primary reasons f o r t h e i r hunger. J o u r n a l e n t r i e s i n d i c a t e that the c a p t i v e s were ab l e to o b t a i n food i n payment f o r performing c e r t a i n chores. These i n c l u d e d c o l l e c t i n g firewood, sewing c l o t h i n g and s a i l s and making metal f i s h o o k s and j e w e l l e r y . J e w i t t (1976:38) noted 120 that f o r "...one r i n g I c o u l d get three salmon, which enabled me to l i v e w e l l while the copper r i n g s l a s t e d . " . C o l l e c t i n g firewood was a l e s s rewarding t a s k . He complained t h a t they walked up to f i v e m i l e s i n search of wood. They were " . . . o b l i g e d to c a r r y heavy p i e c e s of wood, and the n a t i v e s w i l l not allow us to wear e i t h e r shoes or s t o c k i n g s . The bottoms of our f e e t are cut and we are very lame." ( J e w i t t , 1976:38). J e w i t t ' s s l a v e s t a t u s , combined with h i s u n f a m i l i a r i t y with Moachat food procurement techniques, l i m i t e d h i s access to food r e s o u r c e s . Very l i k e l y , the average Moachat consumed more food than J e w i t t d u r i n g the time he l i v e d with those people. The l i m i t a t i o n s and b i a s e s of t h i s source are many. I t p r i m a r i l y covers a c t i v i t i e s of a s i n g l e house c h i e f and the people r e s i d i n g i n that house. In a d d i t i o n , J e w i t t d i d not always d i s t i n g u i s h between the a c t i v i t i e s of h i s p a r t i c u l a r household and o t h e r s i n the v i l l a g e . Gaps appear i n p r o d u c t i o n and consumption e n t r i e s at c e r t a i n times of the year, and we have no way of knowing why J e w i t t recorded c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s and not o t h e r s . By "reading between the l i n e s " i t seems that J e w i t t o f t e n noted those a c t i v i t i e s he c o n s i d e r e d unusual, and he recorded h i s own tasks due to h i s unhappiness with the drudgery and h a r d s h i p s of h i s l i f e as a s l a v e . J e w i t t ' s account of p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s must be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n . Most of the e n t r i e s concerning d a i l y economic endeavours r e f e r to f i s h i n g , hunting, house c o n s t r u c t i o n and the s p e c i a l tasks he and Thompson performed. Mention i s made of e a t i n g s h e l l f i s h and b e r r i e s , but J e w i t t TABLE 11 Frequency with which c e r t a i n production a c t i v i t i e s were recorded i n J e w i t t ' s Journal from June 1803 to J u l y 1805 . Source, J e w i t t , 1976 . Production A c t i v i t y Occasions s p e c i f i c production a c t i v i t i e s were recorded Percentage of a l l occasions production a c t i v i t i e s were recorded (N=253) F i s h i n g 172 68.0 Marine mammal hunting 70 2 7 . 6 Gathering 7 2.8 Land hunting 4 1.6 T o t a l 253 100.0 1 22 r a r e l y noted f r u i t or s h e l l f i s h c o l l e c t i n g . Perhaps t h i s was because these were women's a c t i v i t i e s (see Table 3). A primary concern throughout J e w i t t ' s p e r i o d of internment was the source of h i s next meal. As a r e s u l t , J e w i t t l i s t e d many of the f e a s t s and meals to which he was i n v i t e d , g i v i n g us a most i n f o r m a t i v e account of the frequency with which p a r t i c u l a r types of foods such as blubber, and o i l were consumed (see F i g u r e 13). I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n j o u r n a l e n t r i e s r e l a t i n g to food consumption are e v i d e n t . For example, J e w i t t recorded f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y on numerous occasions but he d i d not mention e a t i n g f i s h n e a r l y as o f t e n . F i s h were undoubtedly consumed more f r e q u e n t l y than J e w i t t i n d i c a t e s because h i s p r o d u c t i o n e n t r i e s suggest that they were almost always a v a i l a b l e (see F i g u r e 7 ) . It i s evident that J e w i t t most o f t e n recorded e a t i n g those foods which were a change from the r e g u l a r f a r e , as w e l l as foods he co n s i d e r e d unusual, consequently, he o f t e n recorded e a t i n g whale o i l and blubber. J e w i t t ' s account may be c o n s i d e r e d a r e l i a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n of the gen e r a l Moachat p a t t e r n of consuming whale products. When whale products were f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e and consumed o f t e n , J e w i t t seemed not to mention every occasion they formed a p a r t of h i s meal. He might note however, that "...there was such f e a s t i n g of blubber amongst the n a t i v e s they eat twenty times a day." ( J e w i t t , 1976:21). J e w i t t ' s d i s l i k e f o r the l o c a l foods i n f l u e n c e d h i s accounts of whale consumption. H i s j o u r n a l e n t r y of A p r i l 23rd, 1804, f o r example, s t a t e s ; 123 9 0.\° Figure 13. Consumption of P a r t i c u l a r Foods as a Percentage of the Tota l Number of Occasions Food Consumption was Recorded i n Jewitt's Journal from June 1803 to July 1805. The Total Number of Occasions Food Consumption was Recorded = 188. Source, Jewitt, 1976 124 "hard times with us...nothing to eat but whale's blubber, which i s so d i s a g r e e a b l e that we are almost i n c l i n e d to refuse i t , but hunger d r i v e s us, and we are o b l i g e d to eat i t . " ( J e w i t t , 1976:21). J e w i t t sometimes complained of being hungry when the r e s t of the v i l l a g e was f e a s t i n g on whale blubber and o i l . On one o c c a s i o n he exclaimed that there was nothing to eat i n the e n t i r e v i l l a g e " . . . f o r the n a t i v e s are so l a z y they w i l l not go f i s h i n g w h i l s t they have any (whale) remaining." (Jewitt,1976:42). Consequently, the extent of consumption of whale products i s understated i n J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l and h i s account may be c o n s i d e r e d a r e l i a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n of the minimum number of times whale products were consumed throughout the year. D e s p i t e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l i s a more d e t a i l e d account of the d a i l y round of Moachat s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s than any w r i t t e n by e x p l o r e r s or l a t e r ethnographers, h i s t o r i a n s , and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . The b i a s e s must be kept i n mind when i n t e r p r e t i n g the j o u r n a l , but i f used c a u t i o u s l y i t i s p o s s i b l e to glean a great d e a l of i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the d a i l y l i v e s of the Moachat i n the beginning of the 19th c e n t u r y . The Importance of Whale Hunting f o r the Moachat Moachat Whale Hunting E f f o r t Whaling c o n s t i t u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 11, of the 253 p r o d u c t i o n e n t r i e s made, almost 30 percent noted that the Moachat were 125 hunting marine mammals. Because Maquinna suspected J e w i t t would attempt to escape, he was not p e r m i t t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c h i e f ' s whaling ventures. However, he noted each day the c h i e f hunted whales s i n c e the consequences of an u n s u c c e s s f u l hunt a f f e c t e d J e w i t t ' s w e l f a r e . J e w i t t (1974:91) noted that when Maquinna f a i l e d to c a t c h a whale he became ...very morose and out of temper, (he upraided) h i s men with having v i o l a t e d t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n to continence p r e p a r a t o r y to whaling. In t h i s s t a t e of i l l humour he would g i v e ( J e w i t t and Thompson) very l i t t l e to eat, which, added to the women not cooking when the men are away, reduced (them) to a very low f a r e . For t h i s reason, J e w i t t was concerned with Maquinna's whaling endeavours, and i t i s l i k e l y he c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y recorded most of the days when the c h i e f went hunting, as w e l l as the success r a t e of the e n t i r e v i l l a g e . The Hunting Success of a Moachat C h i e f Maquinna's success r a t e was poor d u r i n g the 2 1/2 whaling seasons J e w i t t was with the Moachat. Maquinna hunted whales on ten o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g June and J u l y , 1803, and he only s t r u c k and l o s t one whale. The 1803 season w i l l B not be i n c l u d e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s because only p a r t of that season was recorded and i t i s not known whether Maquinna was s u c c e s s f u l e a r l i e r t h a t year. The 1804 whaling season l a s t e d from A p r i l 5 u n t i l May 31. As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 12, Maquinna went whaling on 24 o c c a s i o n s ; 126 TABLE 12 Hunting success of Maquinna versus other Moachat whalers during the 1804 and 1805 whaling seasons. Source, J e w i t t , 1976. 1804 1805 Maquinna Others Maquinna Others Total Struck and l o s t 3 5 5 — 13 Whales k i l l e d 1 2 0 2 5 Number of Days whaling 24 -- 23 -- 47 Length of the Whaling season 56 -- 63 -- 119 127 he s t r u c k and l o s t three whales and k i l l e d one. During 1805 the Moachat were whaling from March 19 until.May 14, d u r i n g which time Maquinna went out on 23 o c c a s i o n s . He s t r u c k and l o s t f i v e whales d u r i n g that year and k i l l e d none. A n a l y s i s of the j o u r n a l i n d i c a t e s that the complete season i n 1804 and 1805 averaged almost 60 days. In those two years, Maquinna devoted a t o t a l of 47 days on the water f o r one whale k i l l e d . T h i s f i g u r e does not i n c l u d e the number of days spent i n r i t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n , or c o n s t r u c t i n g and p r e p a r i n g whaling equipment. I f we take these two years to be an average, Maquinna st r u c k and l o s t four whales per year,, and only one whale was captured f o r every e i g h t animals s t r u c k . Maquinna would t h e r e f o r e be expected to k i l l one whale every two y e a r s . As Drucker noted, t h i s success r a t e was not impressive. The Moachat Whaling Success The success r a t e of the e n t i r e complement of Moachat whalers was c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than Maquinna's alone (see Table 12). The t o t a l number of animals s t r u c k and l o s t over the two seasons was 13, and f i v e whales were k i l l e d . T h e r e f o r e an average of 2.6 animals were s t r u c k and l o s t f o r every whale k i l l e d , a marked improvement over Maquinna's success r a t e of e i g h t whales st r u c k f o r every animal k i l l e d . The t o t a l number of whales taken per season averaged 2.5, as opposed to one k i l l e d every two years by Maquinna alone. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the Moachat's whaling success Drucker (1951:59-60) s t a t e d that the other c h i e f s presumably i n v e s t e d a 128 s i m i l a r amount of time -and e f f o r t i n t h e i r whaling endeavours as Maquinna. However, the marked i n c r e a s e i n the o v e r a l l success r a t e , and the g r e a t e r number of animals k i l l e d per whale s t r u c k , i n d i c a t e s that Maquinna's whaling s k i l l s were below average. In a d d i t i o n , J e w i t t sometimes noted that Maquinna and h i s crew hunted alone, although he d i d not once mention that other c h i e f s were out whaling while Maquinna remained ashore. Maquinna's hunting e f f o r t may t h e r e f o r e have approximated the maximum amount of time expended by a s i n g l e whaling crew. V a r i a b i l i t y i n Whaling S k i l l s Drucker's account supports the idea that c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n s k i l l e x i s t e d between d i f f e r e n t whalers. For example, the Clayoquot were renowned whalers and the prowess of c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s caused severe feuds between the l o c a l groups hunting out of E c h a c h i s , on W i c k i n n i n i s h I s l a n d . Drucker (1951:242) mentioned, that ...the l i n e a g e heads p l o t t e d and c a r r i e d out the murder of a younger 'brother'...avowedly because he k i l l e d more whales than they, and they suspected him of working s p e l l s on t h e i r canoes to decrease t h e i r success. A f t e r whaling was r e v i v e d i n the 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s there were e i g h t Ahousat whalers, but Drucker (1951:49-50) noted that only two of these were s u c c e s s f u l , a L i y u k i l l e d three whales i n h i s c a r e e r ; he l o s t s e v e r a l that escaped a f t e r he had s t r u c k them...Amos got one, and the others k i l l e d none at a l l . In the preceeding g e n e r a t i o n there had been three 129 whalers...(one) k i l l e d 13 whales over a p e r i o d of 12 years...Amos' f a t h e r . . . k i l l e d three; and another man...also k i l l e d t h r e e . " , i t was only "...the great whalers of a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n a l times who k i l l e d ten whales a season. Recent whalers, though they hunted d i l i g e n t l y and had improved equipment, got but few i n t h e i r e n t i r e c a r e e r s . A number of f a c t o r s might account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n s k i l l between t r a d i t i o n a l and more recent whalers. The f i r s t i s the r e d u c t i o n i n the number of whales a v a i l a b l e as a r e s u l t of commercial h u n t i n g . Second, there may have been an o v e r a l l d e c l i n e i n competence of whalers due to reduced t r a i n i n g . T h i r d , they may not have exerted as much e f f o r t as t r a d i t i o n a l whalers because of changes i n p o p u l a t i o n and g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y of other foods. Of course, s t o r i e s d e s c r i b i n g the success of t r a d i t i o n a l whalers might have been e m b e l l i s h e d as these men's e x p l o i t s were pushed back i n t o the m y t h i c a l p a s t . Each of these f a c t o r s may h e l p account f o r the d i s p a r i t i e s i n hunting success. N e v e r t h e l e s s , J e w i t t ' s account suggests t h a t the seemingly low success r a t e of more re c e n t times was t y p i c a l f o r t r a d i t i o n a l whalers as w e l l . The Moachat's success r a t e of 2.5 whales k i l l e d each year s h a l l be assumed to be the average f o r t r a d i t i o n a l whalers u n t i l f i r m evidence of g r e a t e r hunting a b i l i t i e s i s found. F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g the Success of a Whaler Whale hunting was a p p a r e n t l y not an easy e n t e r p r i s e and a number of f a c t o r s were undoubtedly i n f l u e n t i a l i n e n s u r i n g a c h i e f ' s success. S t r e n g t h and endurance were v i t a l requirements 130 as i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g excerpt from the j o u r n a l ; "our c h i e f out whaling; st r u c k one and was f a s t to him ten hours, when h i s l i n e p a r t e d , and he l o s t him." ( J e w i t t , 1976:41). J e w i t t ' s b r i e f comment merely h i n t s at the endurance of a crew that was a b l e to remain t i e d to a whale f o r such a long time. Cooperation between whalers was a l s o important. J e w i t t d e s c r i b e d the d i f f i c u l t y of a s i n g l e canoe pursuing a whale when he recorded an i n c i d e n t i n which Maquinna s t r u c k a whale but "...there being only one canoe f a s t to him, i t f i l l e d and our c h i e f was drawn i n t o the water so that he was o b l i g e d to cut from him." ( J e w i t t , 1976:41). Thus a c h i e f ' s whaling success may a l s o have been the r e s u l t of h i s a b i l i t y to c o o r d i n a t e the other canoes p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the hunt. By m a i n t a i n i n g the c o o p e r a t i o n of h i s peers and subordinates on the whaling grounds, a c h i e f may have been a b l e to reduce h i s chances of l o s i n g a whale. Despite the p o s s i b l e t a c t i c a l advantages of a number of whalers c o o p e r a t i n g i n the hunt, many canoes, on the whaling grounds d i d not guarantee success. J e w i t t (1976:20) noted that on A p r i l 8th, 1804, "...there were ten canoes out whaling they s t r u c k f i v e whales, but t h e i r harpoons drawed, and they r e t u r n e d without having caught any.". With an average of e i g h t men i n each canoe, there were 80 people p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the hunt on t h a t day. I t i s s u r p r i s i n g that so many people c o u l d not k i l l a t l e a s t one whale, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e there seemed to be many whales a v a i l a b l e that day. Other f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g r i v a l r y between c h i e f s mentioned above, were undoubtedly i n f l u e n t i a l i n 131 the outcome of the hunt that day. Whales Struck and M o r t a l l y Wounded A n a l y s i s of J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l i n d i c a t e s that 2.6 whales were stru c k and l o s t f o r each one k i l l e d . With an average success r a t e of 2.5 whales each season, 6.5 whales c o u l d have been stru c k and l o s t each year by the Moachat (see Table 12). Some of these animals may have been m o r t a l l y wounded and washed ashore f u r t h e r along the c o a s t . For example, J e w i t t recorded one whale s t r a n d i n g s i x miles away from Yuquot d u r i n g the whaling season of 1804. Other wounded whales may have p r o v i d e d easy t a r g e t s f o r neighbouring whalers. T h e r e f o r e , c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t by one group not only i n c r e a s e d t h e i r own chances of success, but a l s o improved the chances of wounded whales s t r a n d i n g or p r o v i d i n g an easy t a r g e t f o r other whalers. Drucker noted t h a t the Nootka had a number of r u l e s to ensure a standed whale was claimed by the people i n whose t e r r i t o r y i t d r i f t e d ashore. These r u l e s d i d not apply to whales which had stranded a f t e r being m o r t a l l y wounded by whalers. Presumably the hunters had primary r i g h t s to such an animal (Drucker, 1951:255-256). Because the f l o a t s and harpoons were marked by t h e i r owners i t was p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y the person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r every harpooned whale. However, i t i s l i k e l y that unless the t r i b e s were f r i e n d l y , i t would have been d i f f i c u l t f o r the whalers to c l a i m animals t h a t washed ashore o u t s i d e t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y . 132 Consumption of Whale Products A n a l y s i s of the j o u r n a l r e v e a l s that the Moachat consumed whale products throughout the year. J e w i t t f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to " t r a i n o i l " , a term f o r whale o i l , and whale blubber. During h i s 23-month stay with the Moachat, J e w i t t noted on 48 days that he ate whale o i l or blubber. On an a d d i t i o n a l 20 occasions J e w i t t mentioned e a t i n g o i l , without s p e c i f y i n g the type. As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 13, almost 30 percent of J e w i t t ' s consumption e n t r i e s noted that he was e a t i n g whale p r o d u c t s . The j o u r n a l i n d i c a t e s that blubber and, l e s s o f t e n , o i l f e a s t s were most common d u r i n g the summer, , but whale products were consumed i n the winter months as w e l l (see F i g u r e 14). However, consumption of whale products was g r e a t e r than i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 14. At times when whale products were a v a i l a b l e i n l a r g e amounts, J e w i t t d i d not r e c o r d e a t i n g whale o i l or blubber. During the 1804 whaling season, f o r example, two whales were k i l l e d and one was stranded. Twice w i t h i n the f o l l o w i n g eleven weeks J e w i t t complained of "...hungry times with us; nothing to eat but smoked blubber and t r a i n o i l . " ( J e w i t t , 1976:24). By the end of J u l y he had r e s i g n e d himself to the n a t i v e foods and J e w i t t (1976:27) wrote ...we now begin to enjoy l i f e much b e t t e r than h e r e t o f o r e , f o r we can eat the same p r o v i s i o n s as the n a t i v e s , such as sea cow's blubber, whale's blubber s e a l ' s blubber, p o r p o i s e blubber, and i n short the o i l of these sea animals i s a sauce f o r every t h i n g we eat, even the s t r a w b e r r i e s and other f r u i t . The sea cow may have been a sea l i o n or an elephant s e a l . 133 Number of o c c a s i o n s c o n s u m p t i o n of w h a l e p r o d u c t s w a s r e c o r d e d 5^ 4 J 3 J 2 J 1 J m 3 C re re 3 X) 0> LL ro o. re 5 < S c _ 3 3 - 3 - 5 (0 3 o> 3 < X) E a> a a> co a> x> o o O CD X) E 0) > o z 0) X3 E a> o a> Q M o n t h Figure 14. The Average Number of Journal Entries per Month i n which Jewitt Recorded Eating Whale Products. Source, Jewitt, 1976. The Total Number of Entries Recording Consumption of Whale Products = 48. 134 I t seems, t h e r e f o r e , that J e w i t t was c o n s i s t e n t l y consuming whale and other marine mammal products d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The number of occ a s i o n s recorded i n F i g u r e 14 only i n d i c a t e those times that J e w i t t noted he had attended a f e a s t , or eaten a meal of whale products. T h e r e f o r e , these f i g u r e s represent the minimum percentage of times J e w i t t consumed whale blubber and o i l . A l l ethnographic accounts of the Nootka and Makah emphasize the importance of marine mammal products i n the d i e t , but J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l p r o v i d e s the only f i r m evidence that marine mammal products, whale i n p a r t i c u l a r , were consumed throughout the year. Exchange of Whale Products Whale products c o u l d a l s o be obtained through exchange, trade and f e a s t i n g . Ethnographic and h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that goods were exchanged over c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s w i t h i n Nootka and Makah t e r r i t o r y , and trade networks extended to the Southern Kwakiutl and Coast S a l i s h t r i b e s . The Makah, f o r example, traded whale products south as f a r as Poi n t G r e n v i l l e "...where they met the Chinook t r a d e r s ; and some...would even continue on to the Columbia." (Swan, 1870:30). In r e t u r n f o r whale o i l , blubber, d r i e d h a l i b u t and s l a v e s , the Makah r e c e i v e d "...dentalium, d r i e d cedar bark f o r making mats, canoes, and d r i e d salmon." (Swan, 1870:31). 135 Table 13 Tribes who brought whale products to the Moachat from March 1803 to J u l y 1805. Source, J e w i t t , 1976. Tribe V i s i t s Whale products brought to the Moachat Wickenninish 4 blubber and 100 g a l l o n s of o i l Esquates 4 o i l and 12 cwt of blubber A i t i z a r t s 2 o i l and 6 cwt of blubber Clauquates 2 o i l C l a z a r t s 1 200 gallo n s of o i l u n s p e c i f i e d 1 blubber Total 14 136 As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I, the Nootka exchanged goods through a system of f e a s t i n g and dances. C o n s i s t e n t with t h i s , J e w i t t recorded a c o n s i d e r a b l e volume of whale products being brought i n t o the v i l l a g e , with no account of the r e t u r n s made by the Moachat. I t i s evident however, that remuneration was made through f e a s t s and winter ceremonies i n which l a r g e amounts of goods were r e d i s t r i b u t e d by the Moachat to t h e i r guests. The terms " t r a d e " and "exchange" used i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs r e f e r to t h i s p o t l a t c h i n g system. The d i f f e r e n t groups which traded whale products with the Moachat are i n d i c a t e d on Table 13 and i n F i g u r e 8. Both the W i c k i n n i n i s h and Hesquiat brought such goods to the Moachat most o f t e n . O i l and blubber were exchanged most f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g the summer months while the Moachat were at Yuquot. T h i s suggests that the groups b r i n g i n g i n whale products had most probably hunted the whales themselves. As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 13, whale products were brought t o the Moachat on 14 d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g 14.5 percent of the o v e r a l l number of times goods were brought to the Moachat d u r i n g J e w i t t ' s s t a y . On three o c c a s i o n s s i x hundredweight (305kg) of blubber was d e l i v e r e d . On November 23rd, 1803, J e w i t t ' s (1976:21) entry reads, " a r r i v e d a canoe from Esquates with s i x hundred weight of blubber, being taken from a whale that had been d r i v e n ashore i n a gale of wind.". On January 10th, the f o l l o w i n g year a s i m i l a r e n t r y was made, but the whale had stranded i n A i t i z a r t t e r r i t o r y . In June of 1805, the Hesquiats brought 300 kilograms of blubber. One hundred g a l l o n s 1 37 of o i l was s u p p l i e d by the W i c k i n n i n i s h i n J u l y , 1804, and i n the same month the f o l l o w i n g year the C l a z a r t s brought 200 g a l l o n s of whale o i l . On an a d d i t i o n a l nine o c c a s i o n s , J e w i t t observed people b r i n g i n g whale products to the Moachat but the q u a n t i t i e s of o i l and blubber were not mentioned. Any s u r p l u s of whale products above and beyond the amount any one group c o u l d consume was t h e r e f o r e traded between t r i b e s . In a d d i t i o n to the p o l i t i c a l advantages d e r i v e d from exchange of whale products, such trade r e l a t i o n s h i p s may have evened-out the v a r i a b l e access to the whale resource r e s u l t i n g from d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l whaler's s k i l l s , and chance s t r a n d i n g s . Q u a n t i t y of Whale Products A v a i l a b l e to the Moachat I t would appear from J e w i t t ' s account t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e energy was expended i n o b t a i n i n g as much f a t as p o s s i b l e from each whale. During May, 1804, f o r example, the Moachat spent three f u l l days r e n d e r i n g o i l from a s i n g l e whale. Most im p o r t a n t l y , J e w i t t e x p l a i n e d that a dead whale "...was good news f o r us, f o r now we s h a l l l i v e w e l l f o r some time..." ( J e w i t t , 1976:42). Without knowing the e f f i c i e n c y of a b o r i g i n a l o i l r e n d e r i n g techniques i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine the exact amounts rendered from a s i n g l e whale. As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , whale o i l was rendered by s k i n n i n g , then b o i l i n g the blubber. A f t e r the o i l was skimmed o f f the surface-, the remaining blubber was smoked and d r i e d . In t h i s way, most of the a v a i l a b l e "fat was u t i l i z e d . Although commercial o i l r e n d e r i n g techniques may have been more e f f i c i e n t than those of the Nootka and Makah, 138 a b o r i g i n a l whalers e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the f a t from a s i n g l e whale. For example, the blubber was eaten a f t e r most of the o i l had been b o i l e d out. T h e r e f o r e , the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s of o i l y i e l d from whales hunted commercially may be a p p l i e d to the a b o r i g i n a l whalers' harvest based on the assumption that s i m i l a r q u a n t i t i e s of o i l were e x t r a c t e d by both. As d e s c r i b e d in Chapter I I , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n from Ozette i n d i c a t e s that both humpback and gray whales were captured by Makah whalers. The range of o i l a v a i l a b l e from an average k i l l can be c a l c u l a t e d u s ing the estimates of the average o i l y i e l d of each s p e c i e s . According to Rice and Wolman (1971:36), the mean o i l y i e l d of a northbound gray whale i s 756 g a l l o n s (2,495 k i l o g r a m s ) . In h i s comprehensive examination of humpback whales taken by A u s t r a l i a n and New Zealand whaling s t a t i o n s , C h i t t l e b o r o u g h (1965:61) i n d i c a t e s t hat an average southern hemisphere humpback was 40.3 f e e t long and y i e l d e d 49.6 b a r r e l s , or 1,562 g a l l o n s , of o i l . S i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c s are not a v a i l a b l e f o r north P a c i f i c humpbacks. However, Pike and MacAskie (1969:34-36) noted that the body measurements of 250 humpback whales k i l l e d i n the n o r t h P a c i f i c corresponded to C h i t t l e b o r o u g h ' s f i g u r e s . Consequently, the measurements of southern hemishphere humpback whales can be c o n f i d e n t l y a p p l i e d to the northern whales. Taking i n t o account the Ozette data i n d i c a t i n g t h at both gray and humpback whales were hunted, the amount of o i l y i e l d from an average k i l l would range between 756 and 1,562 g a l l o n s with a mean of 1,159 g a l l o n s . 139 The average annual Moachat whale o i l harvest can be estimated using J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l and the preceeding f i g u r e s . With 2.5 whales taken each season on average, between 756 g a l l o n s x 2.5 whales = 1,890 and 1,562 " x 2.5 " = 3,905 g a l l o n s of o i l c o u l d have been processed by the Moachat a n n u a l l y . Although t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n i s based on a small sample s i z e of only two whaling seasons, t h i s estimate p r o v i d e s some i n d i c a t i o n of the magnitude of whale products a v a i l a b l e with only a small annual h a r v e s t . Whale Harvest of A l l Nootka T r i b e s Combined The e x p l o i t a t i o n of whales was a phenonemon a f f e c t i n g the e n t i r e west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and Cape F l a t t e r y . Both hunting e f f o r t and chance s t r a n d i n g s c o u l d a f f e c t a number of t r i b e s i n h a b i t i n g v i l l a g e s on the outer c o a s t . For example, co n c e r t e d whaling e f f o r t r e s u l t e d i n a number of str u c k and l o s t whales. Because the whales were mobile, and f o l l o w a p r e d i c t a b l e route, a whale l o s t by one crew c o u l d have been food f o r people f u r t h e r along the c o a s t . A c e r t a i n percentage of the i n j u r e d whales would have been m o r t a l l y wounded and washed ashore, and others may have been easy t a r g e t s f o r other whalers. Consequently, the e f f o r t of a s i n g l e whaling crew c o u l d b e n e f i t groups o u t s i d e t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y . S i m i l a r l y , the blubber and o i l from whales that stranded of n a t u r a l causes was traded over 140 c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s along the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and Cape F l a t t e r y . T h e r e f o r e , the whale hunting e f f o r t of a s i n g l e v i l l a g e had a d i r e c t impact on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of whale products, and the trade r e l a t i o n s h i p s , of many Nootka and Makah t r i b e s i n h a b i t i n g the c o a s t a l region c l o s e to the whale m i g r a t i o n route. For t h i s reason, i t would be i n f o r m a t i v e to estimate the amount of whale products that c o u l d have been a v a i l a b l e to the p o p u l a t i o n occupying the re g i o n c l o s e to the whale m i g r a t i o n route. T h i s would allow one to determine whether or not the Northwest Coast whale resource c o u l d have made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the a b o r i g i n a l s u b s i s t e n c e economy. Such an estimate can be reached u s i n g the t o t a l number of whaling v i l l a g e s on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d , the Moachat whaling success as i n d i c a t e d by J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l , and the average o i l y i e l d of gray and humpback whales. Number of Whaling V i l l a g e s Both the Report of the Royal Commission (1916) and Drucker's (1951) account of v i l l a g e s i t e s d e s c r i b e a number of whaling and deep sea f i s h i n g s i t e s (see Table 14 and F i g u r e 15). Drucker noted f i v e whaling bases i n Nootka t e r r i t o r y , one was the E h e t i s a t v i l l a g e of Tatchu (see F i g u r e 15:2). T s a x i s (15:1) and Yuquot (15:3) were both whaling v i l l a g e s i n Moachat t e r r i t o r y . I t i s assumed that whaling was c a r r i e d by separate crews from both of these v i l l a g e s (see p.17). Homais (see Hesquiat 15:1) was the Muchalat whaling base, and the Clayoquot s i t e was at Echachis (15:1). The Report of the Royal Commission 141 Figure 15. Nootka and Makah Marine Mammal Hunting and Deep Sea Fishing S i t e s . Based on Information from Drucker (1951) and the Report of  the Royal Commission on Indian A f f a i r s f o r the Province of  B r i t i s h Columbia (1916). 142 TABLE 14 L o c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f Noo tka ma r i n e mammal h u n t i n g and deep sea f i s h i n g s i t e s . S o u r c e , D r u c k e r ( 1 9 5 1 ) , and the R e p o r t o f t h e Roya l Commiss i on on I n d i a n A f f a i r s ( 1 9 1 6 ) . | Season T r i b e L o c a t i o n on Map ( F i g u r e 16) V i l l a g e S i t e O c c u p i e d S u b s i s t e n c e A c t i v i t y summer s_ OJ +-> c • r— 2 whali ng whali ng for wages offshore seali ng halibut fi shi ng deep sea fi shi ng C h i c k l i s e t 1 Acous X X L i t s l i h a k t X X a ' a i L X Kyuquo t 1 A q t i s X X X X X 2 Kukamaycamays X X 3 Machta X E h a t i s a t 1 Oke X X X X 2 Ta t chu X X X X 3 Chenar ik i t i t X A N u c h a t l e t 1 C h i s e u q u i s X X 2 N u c h a t l e X X 3 Nucha t l X X M u c h a l a t 1 Ahaminaquus X X X 2 C h e e s i s h X X X Moachat 1 T s a r k s i s X 2 Aass X 3 Yuquot X X X X X 4 H o i s s X X X 5 Coopte X X X H e s q u i a t 1 Homais X X X X X 2 h i l w i n a X X Ahou sa t 1 M a r k t o s i s X X X 2 Ahous X X X 3 S u t a q u i s X X X 4 O p e n i t X K e l s e m a t 1 Y a r k s i s 1 1 1 1 x 1 1 1 C l a u q u o t 1 E c h a c h i s | 1 1 X 1 1 x 1 1 x 1 U c l u e l e t 1 I t t a t s o X X X 2 C lakamucus X S e s h a r t 1 E q u i s | 1 1 1 1 x 1 1 1 O h i a t 1 K i c h h a X X X 2 A - a h t - s o w i s X X N i t i n a t 1 Tsuquanah X 143 (1916) mentioned two a d d i t i o n a l l o c a t i o n s from which whales were hunted i n 1916. The f i r s t was the E h e t i s a t v i l l a g e of Oke (15:1), and the second was the Ohiat base at Kichha (15:1). The r e p o r t a l s o noted that the Kuyquot whaled commercially out of Kukamaycamy (15:2) and Machta (15:3). K i r k and Daugherty (1974) noted that the Makah of Ozette were a l s o whalers. T h i s i n d i c a t e s that whalers operated from ten s i t e s at l e a s t . Two of these were bases f o r commercial o p e r a t i o n and f o r that reason they w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s of the a b o r i g i n a l whale h a r v e s t . In a d d i t i o n to these l o c a t i o n s , the Report of the Royal  Commission d e s c r i b e d twelve s i t e s as deep sea f i s h i n g bases and Drucker noted one more C h i c k l i s e t deep sea f i s h i n g and s e a l i n g base (see Table 14). The groups occupying these s i t e s have been d e s c r i b e d as whaling people. As mentioned e a r l i e r , one s i t e (Ahous) l i s t e d as a deep sea f i s h i n g s t a t i o n by the Report of  the Royal Commission was found to be a whaling s i t e (see p.13). Consequently, many of the s i t e s noted as deep sea f i s h i n g bases may w e l l have been whaling v i l l a g e s a l s o . By i n c l u d i n g those v i l l a g e s d e s c r i b e d as whaling bases, and deep sea s e a l i n g and f i s h i n g s i t e s , the t o t a l number of p o s s i b l e whaling v i l l a g e s on the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d and Cape F l a t t e r y probably ranged between 8 and 35. Since two of the whaling s i t e s were commercial whaling s t a t i o n s , they w i l l be d e l e t e d from the t o t a l . The minimum number of whaling v i l l a g e s used f o r the f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s w i l l be e i g h t . The two Makah s i t e s mentioned above w i l l a l s o be d e l e t e d and the maximum 1 44 number of v i l l a g e s used to estimate the Nootka whale harvest w i l l be 33. D e s p i t e the f a c t t h at the s i z e of the whaling crews and the o v e r a l l success r a t e of each of these v i l l a g e s undoubtedly v a r i e d , i t has been assumed for the purposes of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , that each of these v i l l a g e s k i l l e d a minimum of 2.5 whales a n n u a l l y . Annual Whale Harvest and O i l Y i e l d In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the a b o r i g i n a l c a t c h of the e a s t e r n P a c i f i c stock of gray whales, Oshumi (1976) estimated that 174 to 223 animals were k i l l e d per year by a l l the whaling people from C a l i f o r n i a to the B e r i n g Sea. M i t c h e l l (1979) s t a t e d that the a b o r i g i n a l c a t c h was l i k e l y much higher than Ohsumi's esti m a t e . According to M i t c h e l l ( 1979:312)., the pre-1864 gray whale p o p u l a t i o n was " . . . l i k e l y not at v i r g i n a l l e v e l s , but may have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced by a b o r i g i n a l whaling long before the advent of commercial whaling.". U n f o r t u n a t e l y , M i t c h e l l was r e l u c t a n t to g i v e a f i g u r e e s t i m a t i n g the number of whales he b e l i e v e d were harvested by the Northwest Coast and Alaskan whalers. An estimate of the number of whales taken by Nootka whalers can be made us i n g J e w i t t ' s account of the Moachat success r a t e and the estimated number of whaling v i l l a g e s . With an average annual k i l l of 2.5 whales and e i g h t whaling v i l l a g e s , the average number of whales k i l l e d was 2.5 whales x 8 v i l l a g e s = 20 whales k i l l e d a n n u a l l y . 145 5 -3 -2 -— 1 1 1 30 33 35 5 n r-8 10 I 15 —r— 20 25 Number of Whaling Villages Figure J.6. The. Estimated Success Rate of Nootka Whaling V i l l a g e s Based on the Moachat Average Annual K i l l of 2.5 Whales per V i l l a g e and t h e i r Average Annual Struck and Lost Rate of 6.5 Whales per V i l l a g e . 146 Because a mean of 6.5 whales were s t r u c k and l o s t each year, the t o t a l number stru c k by 8 v i l l a g e s would be: 6.5 whales x 8 v i l l a g e s = 52 whales str u c k and l o s t a n n u a l l y . T h e r e f o r e an average of 20 + 52 = 72 whales were s t r u c k by 8 Nootka v i l l a g e s a n n u a l l y . Assuming a success r a t e of 2.6 whales l o s t f o r every one k i l l e d , 27.8 percent (20 animals) were s u c c e s s f u l l y brought ashore each season. I f a l l 33 v i l l a g e s d e s c r i b e d above were assumed to be whaling v i l l a g e s , the maximum whale harvest can be s i m i l a r l y estimated (see F i g u r e 16). T h i r t y - t h r e e v i l l a g e s c o u l d have taken 33 v i l l a g e s x 2.5 whales = 82.5 whales on average, a n n u a l l y . The annual s t r u c k and l o s t r a t e would have been 33 v i l l a g e s x 6.5 whales = 214.5 whales. Therefore a t o t a l of 82.5 whales k i l l e d + 214.5 s t r u c k and l o s t = 297 whales were s t r u c k a n n u a l l y . The Nootka o i l harvest can be estimated using the p r e v i o u s c a l c u l a t i o n s of the range of o i l y i e l d e d by an average gray and humpback whale, i . e . between 756 and 1,562 g a l l o n s (see F i g u r e 17). With e i g h t whaling v i l l a g e s t a k i n g an average of 20 whales a n n u a l l y , they c o u l d have rendered a minimum of between 20 whales x 756 g a l l o n s = 15,120 and 20 " x 1,562 " = 31,240 g a l l o n s of o i l a n n u a l l y . f) 147 130,000 120,000 _ 100,000 -80,000 _ Gallons of Whale 6 0 ' 0 0 0 H Oil 40,000 _ 20,000 . T" 5 ~I r-8 10 15 —I— 20 I 25 I 1 1 30 33 35 Number of Whaling Villages Figure 17. The Estimated Range of Whale O i l Harvested by Nootka Whaling V i l l a g e s based on an Average Annual K i l l of 2.5 Whales per V i l l a g e , and an O i l Y i e l d Ranging Between 756 and 1,562 Gallons. Based on Information from Jewitt, 1976. 148 The average amount of o i l rendered from the 82.5 whales k i l l e d by 33 whaling v i l l a g e s c o u l d have produced a maximum of between 82.5 whales x 756 g a l l o n s = 62,370 and 82.5 " x 1,562 " = 128,865 g a l l o n s of o i l a n n u a l l y . An estimate of the range of o i l a v a i l a b l e ' p e r head a n n u a l l y can be reached using D u f f ' s (1971) p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r the Nootka of 7,500 people at the time of c o n t a c t (see F i g u r e 18). The range based on a minimum number of 8 v i l l a g e s i s between: 15,120 g a l l o n s / 7,500 people = 2 and 31,240 " / 7,500 ." = 4.1 g a l l o n s , of whale o i l per head, per year. The range of o i l per c a p i t a i f there were 33 a c t i v e whaling v i l l a g e s would be between; 62,370 g a l l o n s / 7,500 people = 8.3 and 128,865 " / 7,500 " = 17.2 g a l l o n s . To summarize, the average number of whales st r u c k by the Nootka a n n u a l l y ranged between 72 and 297 animals. Of those animals s t r u c k , an average ranging between 20 and 82.5 whales (or 27.8 percent of those s t r u c k and l o s t ) , were s u c c e s s f u l l y brought ashore. T h i s estimate of the Nootka average annual whale k i l l i s l e s s than Ohsumi's f i g u r e s f o r the minimum number of 174 whales taken by the e n t i r e whaling p o p u l a t i o n of the Northwest Coast and A l a s k a . T h e r e f o r e , Oshumi's f i g u r e may be low, but not o v e r l y c o n s e r v a t i v e . 149 18 „ 16 J 14 12 10 H Gallons of Whale Oil 8 Per Capita 6H 4H 2 1 —I 1 I 30 33 35 -I r-8 10 —r-15 I 20 - 1 — 25 Number of Whaling Villages Figure 18. The Estimated Range of Whale O i l per Capita f o r the Nootka Population Based on Duff's (1977) Population Figure of 7,500 People, and an O i l Harvest Ranging Between 1,890 and 3,905 Gallons Annually, per Whaling V i l l a g e . 150 The o i l y i e l d from the annual k i l l f o r a l l of the whaling v i l l a g e s ranged between 15,120 g a l l o n s and 128,865 g a l l o n s a n n u a l l y . Between two and 17.2 g a l l o n s of o i l per c a p i t a would have been a v a i l a b l e t o the Nootka. I t i s most l i k e l y t h a t whaling v i l l a g e s consumed f a r more whale products than non-whaling s i t e s . T h e r e f o r e , the average consumption f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n those v i l l a g e s would be higher than f o r people without access to the r e s o u r c e . The preceeding c a l c u l a t i o n s d i d not take i n t o account stranded whales, t h e r e f o r e , the q u a n t i t y of whale o i l and blubber a v a i l a b l e to the Nootka and Makah was probably g r e a t e r than the f i g u r e s used i n the preceeding c a l c u l a t i o n s . Due to the c o n s e r v a t i v e estimates of both the number of whales a v a i l a b l e , and the number of a c t i v e whaling v i l l a g e s , the f i n a l c a l c u l a t i o n s may be c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e e s timates of the range of whale products that c o u l d have been a v a i l a b l e to the Nootka a n n u a l l y . The N u t r i t i o n a l Importance of Whale Products In t h e i r book, P r i n c i p l e s of N u t r i t i o n , Wilson et a l (1979:71) noted that f a t s and o i l are a v i t a l p a r t of the human d i e t , ...(they) are sources of energy... They are the most co n c e n t r a t e d form of energy i n foods, 9 k c a l (38KJ) per gram, y i e l d i n g more than twice as much energy per gram as e i t h e r carbohydrates or p r o t e i n s . In the body, f a t s are d e p o s i t e d under the s k i n where they f u n c t i o n as non-conductors of heat, h e l p i n g to i n s u l a t e the body and prevent r a p i d l o s s of heat. A l s o , cushions of f a t support the v i s c e r a and c e r t a i n body organs. Moreover, the g r e a t e s t supply of reserve energy i n animals and man i s found i n the f a t s t o r e s of the body. These s t o r e s r e s u l t from the consumption 151 of an e x c e s s i v e q u a n t i t y of energy y i e l d i n g n u t r i e n t s - carbohydrate, f a t and p r o t e i n . Of the estimated f u e l r e s e r v e s of a d u l t man, 1000 k c a l (4184KJ) are i n the form of carbohydrates, 141,000 k c a l (589,944KJ) are i n the form of f a t , and 24,000 k c a l (100,416KJ) are i n the form of p r o t e i n . A recommended d a i l y allowance of f a t has not been e s t a b l i s h e d , however i t has been suggested that the p r o p o r t i o n of energy gained from f a t s should not exceed 35 percent of the d i e t (Committee on D i e t a r y Allowances, 1974:35-36). The importance of whale o i l f o r the Nootka d i e t may be i n f e r r e d by comparing the amounts of whale o i l a v a i l a b l e to the Nootka, and estimates of the average annual f a t consumption of the B r i t i s h p o p u l a t i o n . Preceeding c a l c u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d that between two and 17.2 g a l l o n s of whale o i l per c a p i t a c o u l d have been a v a i l a b l e to the Nootka a n n u a l l y . With 3.3 kilograms per g a l l o n , t h i s can be r e s t a t e d as between 6.6 kilograms and 56.8 kilograms of whale o i l a v a i l a b l e per c a p i t a a n n u a l l y , on average. In h i s a n a l y s i s of B r i t i s h d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s , Mount (1975:7) found that the t o t a l f a t intake of that p o p u l a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d from 26.5 kilograms per head, per year in 1880, to 121.3 kilograms of f a t per head a n n u a l l y i n 1960. T h e r e f o r e , the above estimate of between 6.6 and 56.8 kilograms of whale o i l per c a p i t a a n n u a l l y , compare fav o u r a b l y to Mount's f i g u r e s f o r 1880. T h i s suggests that whale products c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the Nootka annual f a t i n t a k e . A n a l y s i s of the number of o c c a s i o n s J e w i t t recorded e a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r foods suggests that whale products comprised the major p r o p o r t i o n of f a t s consumed by the Moachat (see F i g u r e 1 52 13). C o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was a l s o expended i n the p u r s u i t of other f a t t y marine mammals such as s e a l s , sea l i o n s , f u r s e a l s and d o l p h i n s . T h e r e f o r e , the Nootka and Makah f a t intake was much higher than the above f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e . T h i s may have been p a r t l y the reason e a r l y Europeans v i s i t i n g the Northwest Coast c o n s i s t e n t l y commented on the l a r g e amounts of f a t s and o i l s consumed by the l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s . Consumption of whale meat i s r a r e l y mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Sproat (1870:20-21) observed t h a t a l l p o r t i o n s of the whale were consumed and the f l e s h was eaten as w e l l as the blubber. He d i d not d e s c r i b e the method of p r e p a r i n g the meat, or whether i t was preserved. I t i s l i k e l y that meat was consumed when f r e s h , and i t was probably smoked and d r i e d . The lack of r e f e r e n c e to whale meat i n the l i t e r a t u r e may have been due to the p o s s i b i l i t y that anything other than f r e s h whale meat was not c o n s i d e r e d a food product by e i t h e r the Indians or the Europeans. Whale meat decays more r a p i d l y than blubber, and a f t e r a few days i t becomes remarkably o f f e n s i v e . Consequently, blubber was the most important whale product as i t c o u l d be u t i l i z e d no matter what the s t a t e of the whale. Being l e s s v e r s a t i l e , the meat may have been c o n s i d e r e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Summary J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the Moachat whaling e f f o r t and success r a t e d u r i n g the years 1804 and 1805. A n a l y s i s of the j o u r n a l must be viewed c o n s e r v a t i v e l y as the r e s u l t s of only two seasons are recorded. In a d d i t i o n , 1 53 the e f f o r t of only one c h i e f , Maquinna, i s recorded i n d e t a i l . N e v e r t h l e s s , the success r a t e of a l l the Moachat whalers i s provided, g i v i n g an account of the Moachat's annual whale harvest f o r those two seasons. The j o u r n a l i n d i c a t e s t hat Maquinna was not a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l whaler when h i s average i s compared to the o v e r a l l average of the Moachat whalers. Maquinna averaged 23.5 a c t i v e days per season, and 47 days on the water f o r every whale k i l l e d . He k i l l e d one whale fo r every e i g h t s t r u c k and l o s t , while the o v e r a l l average was one whale k i l l e d f o r every 2.6 s t r u c k and l o s t . T h i s i n d i c a t e s that there was c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n between the s k i l l s of i n d i v i d u a l whalers. Experience, s k i l l and the a b i l i t y to encourage c o o p e r a t i o n between whalers were undoubtedly important f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a c h i e f ' s whaling success. The m o r t a l i t y of struck and l o s t whales has not been estimated, but undoubtedly some of those animals d i e d , or were easy t a r g e t s f o r neighbouring whalers. T h e r e f o r e Maquinna's co n c e r t e d hunting e f f o r t may have i n f l u e n c e d the annual h a r v e s t of neighbouring groups, or i t may have pr o v i d e d stranded whales i n Moachat t e r r i t o r i e s w e l l . T h e r e f o r e , the whale hunting e f f o r t of the crews from a s i n g l e v i l l a g e c o u l d have had c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on the q u a n t i t y of whale products o b t a i n e d by other t r i b e s on Vancouver I s l a n d and Cape F l a t t e r y . An estimate of the range of q u a n t i t i e s of whale o i l a v i a l a b l e to the Nootka was reached, based on the f i g u r e s from J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l . The Moachat harvested an average of 2.5 whales per season d u r i n g the two years of J e w i t t ' s s t a y . By 1 54 e x t r a p o l a t i n g from t h i s f i g u r e the number of whales taken by Nootka whalers was estimated based on a range of between e i g h t and 33 whaling v i l l a g e s . Between 20 and 82.5 whales would have been k i l l e d a n n u a l l y , and an a d d i t i o n a l 52 to 214.5 were s t r u c k and l o s t . An unknown percentage of these c o u l d have been m o r t a l l y wounded and washed ashore. The t o t a l amount of whale products a v a i l a b l e to the Nootka was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d . An average ranging between 15,120 to 128,865 g a l l o n s of o i l c o u l d have been harvested by the Nootka a n n u a l l y . Using D u f f ' s p o p u l a t i o n estimates of 7,500 Nootka, the average amount of o i l a v a i l a b l e per c a p i t a ranged between two and 17.2 g a l l o n s of whale o i l . I t i s evident that whale o i l c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the Nootka d i e t , when compared to the annual f a t i n t a k e , per c a p i t a , of the B r i t i s h p o p u l a t i o n i n 1880. J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l suggests that whale products were an important p a r t of the Nootka d i e t . Whale o i l and blubber was consumed throughout the year and made up a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of the f a t s J e w i t t mentioned e a t i n g . Whale o i l and blubber a l s o comprised 14 percent of the goods J e w i t t noted were brought to the Moachat f o r t r a d e . T h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s that with an annual k i l l of only 2.5 whales per v i l l a g e , whale resources formed a s i g n i f i c a n t percentage of the d a i l y d i e t , and were important items of trade and exchange. 155 Conclusion E a r l y h i s t o r i c a l accounts and a n t h r o p l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of Nootka and Makah whaling have i n t e r p r e t e d the hunt as a p r e s t i g o u s , i f somewhat romantic pastime, and the economic s i g n i f i c a n c e of whale hunting i n the context of Northwest Coast s u b s i s t e n c e s t r a t e g i e s has been underestimated. By r e f e r r i n g to h i s t o r i c a l , ethnographic, a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l sources, the economic s i g n i f i c a n c e of whale hunting f o r Nootka and Makah s o c i e t y has been assessed, and a b o r i g i n a l whaling has been examined i n the context of whale ecology on the Northwest Coast. Three sources proved most v a l u a b l e i n the preceeding a n a l y s i s . Drucker's (1951) account i s the most comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l Nootka way of l i f e . I n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning settlement p a t t e r n s was obtained from the Report of the Royal Commission (1916). F i n a l l y , John J e w i t t ' s J o u r n a l Kept at Nootka Sound, was the source of i n f o r m a t i o n used to a r r i v e at a more q u a n t i t a t i v e measure of the whaling e f f o r t of a p a r t i c u l a r Moachat c h i e f , the whaling success of Yuquot v i l l a g e and the r e l a t i v e importance of whale products i n the Moachat d i e t . Although the j o u r n a l spans only the p e r i o d from March 1803 to J u l y 1805, t h i s source i s p a r t i c u l a r y important as no other account p r o v i d e s such a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of Nootka d a i l y l i f e . A n a l y s i s of J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l i n d i c a t e d the number of whales k i l l e d and whales st r u c k and l o s t by the Moachat over two hunting seasons. Estimates of the t o t a l number of Nootka and Makah whaling v i l l a g e s combined with the whale k i l l i n d i c a t e d by 1 56 J e w i t t ' s j o u r n a l , l e d to the e x t r a p o l a t i o n of the p o s s i b l e range of whales s t r u c k , and whales k i l l e d , from a l l Nootka and Makah whaling v i l l a g e s . The r e s u l t i n g f i g u r e s of 20 to 82.5 whales k i l l e d , and 52 to 214.5 s t r u c k and l o s t a n n u a l l y , suggest that p r e v i o u s estimates of the impact of a b o r i g i n a l whaling on whale stocks were low, but not o v e r l y c o n s e r v a t i v e . An estimate was made of the p o s s i b l e range of the q u a n t i t y of whale o i l a v a i l a b l e to the Nootka a n n u a l l y . These f i g u r e s were reached u s i n g the estimates of whales k i l l e d from Nootka whaling v i l l a g e s , b i o l o g i c a l data concerning the o i l y i e l d of p a r t i c u l a r whale s p e c i e s , and Nootka p o p u l a t i o n estimates from Duff (1971). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t between 6.6 and 56.8 kilograms of o i l per head a n n u a l l y c o u l d have been a v a i l a b l e with a k i l l of only 2.5 whales per v i l l a g e . By comparing these amounts with the l e v e l of f a t consumption by B r i t o n s i n 1880, i t was concluded that the Nootka whale hunting e f f o r t alone c o u l d have pr o v i d e d as much f a t f o r an average Nootka, on an annual b a s i s , as was being consumed by an average B r i t o n j u s t 80 years l a t e r . T h e r e f o r e , the c o n t r i b u t i o n of whale products to Nootka and Makah s u b s i s t e n c e economy may have been more s i g n i f i c a n t than has p r e v i o u s l y been recog n i z e d . Drucker's n o t i o n that p r e s t i g e was a v i t a l aspect of the whale hunt i s c e r t a i n l y supported, but i n t h i s t h e s i s the idea was taken a few steps f u r t h e r . A number of f a c t o r s were recogn i z e d as i n s t r u m e n t a l i n bestowing such importance on the c h i e f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r harpooning a whale. A s u c c e s s f u l whaler won the admiration of h i s peers and f o l l o w e r s because of h i s 157 courage i n overcoming a formidable adversary. H i s mental and p h y s i c a l stamina was p u b l i c l y t e s t e d through both the r i t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r , and e x e r t i o n d u r i n g , the hunt. The whale hunt demanded a w e l l - d i s c i p l i n e d and organized crew, and c o o p e r a t i o n between whalers on the grounds c o u l d ensure success. T h e r e f o r e , a c h i e f ' s l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i t e s and p o l i t i c a l acumen were proven i f he were s u c c e s s f u l . E q u a l l y important, a s u c c e s s f u l hunt e x h i b i t e d a c h i e f ' s f a v o u r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the s u p e r n a t u r a l . S i m i l i a r l y , h i s c l o s e k i n , who r i t u a l l y a s s i s t e d him d u r i n g the hunt, were seen to have powerful and b e n e f i c i a l s p i r i t u a l a l l i e s . On another l e v e l , a s i n g l e whale pr o v i d e d a s u b s t a n t i a l source of food at a time when winter food stocks were running low, and the appearance of s p r i n g resources was not e n t i r e l y p r e d i c t a b l e . M i g r a t i n g gray whales a r r i v e d on the west coast i n great numbers as the Nootka were moving to t h e i r v i l l a g e s i t e s on the outer c o a s t . At t h i s time, the Nootka were w a i t i n g f o r other important resources such as h e r r i n g and s p r i n g salmon to appear. Poor weather, or the f a i l u r e of a f i s h run c o u l d r e s u l t i n food shortages, but a s i n g l e whale s u p p l i e d enough food to maintain an e n t i r e v i l l a g e f o r a few weeks. In a d d i t i o n , p o l i t i c a l p r e s t i g e and power accrued to a s u c c e s s f u l whaler because a s u r p l u s of blubber i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t e d from the k i l l . This- was r e d i s t r i b u t e d among k i n f o l k and t h e i r neighbours, g i v i n g the whalers a p o l i t i c a l advantage over l e s s f o r t u n a t e groups. Even i f they were only e x p l o i t e d i n s m a l l numbers, whales were an e s s e n t i a l aspect of the Nootka and Makah 158 s u b s i s t e n c e economies. A s u c c e s s f u l hunt proved that a c h i e f was capable of c a r i n g f o r the w e l l being of the community. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that a c h i e f ' s success generated c o n f i d e n c e from h i s peers and f o l l o w e r s , and a f f o r d e d him c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s t i g e . In h i s a n a l y s i s of s u b s i s t e n c e s t r a t e g i e s on the Northwest Coast, Jorgensen noted that sea mammal hunting was most i n t e n s i v e on the c e n t r a l and northern s e c t i o n s of the Northwest Coast. While r e c o g n i z i n g sea mammal hunting as a d i s t i n c t v a r i a b l e i n h i s a n a l y s i s , Jorgensen does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between whale hunting groups, and those that only hunted small marine mammals, or hunted marine mammals only on o c c a s i o n . At t h i s l e v e l of d e s c r i p t i o n the Northwest Coast i s seen as a r e l a t i v e l y uniform r e g i o n , and the v a r i a t i o n s which made c u l t u r e s w i t h i n t h i s area unique are not apparent. In h i s a n a l y s i s of c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s , Jorgensen (1980:11) s t a t e d h i s aim was to ...make a systematic comparison of the data that have been recorded about western North American Indians i n t r a d i t i o n a l ethnographies and i n the C u l t u r e Element Survey so as to provide e m p i r i c a l l y warranted g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about a broad group of t o p i c s that have animated students of c u l t u r e f o r y e a r s . Because the data base i s uneven, as Jorgensen admits, the c o n c l u s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from such an amalgamation of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l data are not as " e m p i r i c a l l y warranted" i n some areas as i n o t h e r s . In the case of resource u t i l i z a t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l data are sadly d e f i c i e n t i n d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n and, i n some areas, we l e a r n 159 more about the gaps i n our knowledge than we do about the c u l t u r e s under d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n i t s e l f v a l u a b l e f o r ethnographers and students wishing to i d e n t i f y areas to be addressed i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . As i n a l l s c i e n c e s , continued work i s needed to f u r t h e r our c u r r e n t understanding of c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s e s . Jorgensen (1980:3) s t a t e d t h a t , Important threads to f o l l o w as we set out to e x p l i c a t e and account f o r such complex and inter-dependent phenomena as economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and ceremonial o r g a n i z a t i o n are the abundance, p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and s t o r a b i l i t y of e x t r a c t i v e resources ( w i l d p l a n t s and animals) i n Western North America; (and) property ownership customs a s s o c i a t e d with s t r a t e g i c s u b s i s t e n c e r e s o u r c e s . . . E a r l i e r , S u t t l e s (1968:62) suggested three areas i n which our knowledge of s u b s i s t e n c e s t r a t e g i e s on the Northwest Coast c o u l d be expanded. F i r s t l y , i t i s . . . s t i l l p o s s i b l e to do ethnography and to get much new data on subsistence...Second, data from r e l a t e d f i e l d s of l i n g u i s t i c s , archaeology, and e t h n o h i s t o r y and from the ethnography of other areas can be i n c r e a s i n g l y used i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the ethnogrpahy of one's a r e a . . . T h i r d , the growing body of b i o l o g i c a l and c l i m a t o l o g i c a l knowledge can be used to i n t e r p r e t the ethnographic data. S u t t l e s (1968:62) o p t i m i s t i c a l l y noted that In s p i t e of the f a c t that year by year the p u r e l y a b o r i g i n a l way of l i f e recedes i n t o the p a s t , I f u l l y expect that we s h a l l know much more about Northwest Coast s u b s i s t e n c e than we know today. By re-examining a s i n g l e resource e x t r a c t i o n s t r a t e g y 160 w i t h i n the context of the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e and what we know of whale ecology on the Northwest Coast, i t i s c l e a r t h at the Nootka and Makah adapted to the Northwest Coast environment i n a way that i s unique to the c u l t u r e area. D e s p i t e the ready a v a i l a b i l i t y of whale resources to other Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s , and the s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s of marine mammal hunting technology and r i t u a l throughout the l a r g e r r e g i o n , the Nootka, Makah and t h e i r immediately adjacent neighbours were the only Northwest Coast people to have hunted whales. I t was among these groups that Northwest Coast marine mammal hunting c l e a r l y reached a peak. E x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s unique development w i l l not be easy. Other Northwest Coast t r i b e s obtained e s s e n t i a l f a t s from v a r i o u s sources: oulachen, harbour s e a l s , d o l p h i n s , f u r s e a l s , sea l i o n s , oulachen and other f a t t y f i s h . Oulachen was the primary o i l source of the Tsimshian, Kwakiutl and S a l i s h ; sea mammals and f a t t y f i s h p r o v i d e d o i l f o r the Haida and whales were u t i l i z e d e x t e n s i v e l y by the Nootka. A l t e r n a t i v e sources of o i l , such as smaller marine mammals, were a v a i l a b l e to the Nootka, t h e r e f o r e , the development, or adoption of the whaling complex cannot be s o l e l y a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r need f o r , or the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f , f a t r e s o u r c e s . Instead of seeking a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e to account f o r Nootka and Makah whaling, we must take i n t o account a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s as S u t t l e s (1969:58) has argued. C o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the nature and s e a s o n a l i t y of resources on the Northwest Coast p r o v i d e a b r o a d l y s i m i l a r substratum f o r (tor, the c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n s to the a r e a . D e t a i l e d examination of 1 60' Q the s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s and r e l a t e d e x t r a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , combined w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the s u b s i s t e n c e economies, may h e l p e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s between s o c i a l systems i n the a r e a . T h i s s t u d y of Nootka and Makah w h a l i n g complex c o n t r i b u t e s t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Northwest Coast s u b s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t whale p r o d u c t s were i m p o r t a n t f o o d s . E x a m i n a t i o n of b i o l o g i c a l as w e l l as h i s t o r i c a l d a t a e n a b l e s us t o go beyond standard' e t h n o g r a p h i c s o u r c e s t o s t a t e t h i s . S e e k i n g and combining d a t a from b i o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s w i t h a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e s u b s i s t e n c e s t r a t e g i e s i n o t h e r Northwest Coast s o c i e t i e s may r e v e a l e q u a l l y d i s t i n c t a d a p t a t i o n s . 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