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’Fumeur’ poetry and music of the Chantilly codex : a study of its meaning and background Unruh, Patricia 1983

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'FUMEUR' POETRY AND MUSIC OF THE CHANTILLY CODEX: A STUDY OF ITS MEANING AND BACKGROUND by PATRICIA UNRUH B.A.,B.Mus, University Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of Music We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1983 © P a t r i c i a Unruh, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of MuSlG  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Q c T O g g f r 11 1^33 A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s examines the humorous poetry and music of two compositions i n the l a t e f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y C h a n t i l l y Codex, Musee Conde 564. These works, a two-voiced b a l l a d e by H a s p r o i s , Puisque Je S u i Fumeux (no.47), and a t h r e e - v o i c e d rondeau by Solage, Fumeux Fume, owe the humour of t h e i r t e x t s to a p l a y on the word fumeux. Commentaries on these p i e c e s have a s s o c i a t e d them wi t h works of the poet Deschamps (1346-c.1406), which d e s c r i b e the strange h a b i t s of a group of people c a l l e d fumeurs, and over whom he was a s e l f - s t y l e d 'emperor'. L i t t l e i s known about t h i s group beyond what i s r e v e a l e d i n Deschamps' poems, but no d e t a i l e d c r i t i c a l examination has been made even of t h i s , e i t h e r from a l i t e r a r y or a m u s i c o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view. A broader understanding of the C h a n t i l l y poems and music can be gained, by examining the medieval meanings of fumeux, and by t a k i n g account of the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s and s o c i a l background of the fumeur poems. The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to make such an examination, and to r e l a t e the i n s i g h t s gained to the music p o e t r y of the C h a n t i l l y c ompositions. Chapter one i n c l u d e s an examination of the l a t e medieval meanings of the word fumeux and i t s d e r i v a t i v e s , a commentary on fumeur works of Deschamps, t h e i r p l a c e w i t h i n f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , and the s o c i a l background t o which they were r e l e v a n t . The poems a r e : La C h a r t r e des Fumeux, D'une a u l t r e  Commission d' un Chien, Cy P a r l e d' une Sentence Donne'e Contre  Aucuns de V i t r y pour un Debat Meu Soudainement E n t r ' E u l x , C E s t  l a Commission des Loups d'Esparqnay sur l a R i v i e r e de Marne, and i i i B a l l a d e 813: Sur sa Nature M e l a n c o l i q u e . Deschamps' p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n s with f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y patrons and musicians are examined. F i n a l l y , the fumeur poems i n C h a n t i l l y are d i s c u s s e d i n the l i g h t of what i s known of other fumeur works. Chapter two a n a l y s e s the fumeur mus i c a l s e t t i n g s i n C h a n t i l l y and d i s c u s s e s p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them and t h e i r t e x t s . For Fumeux Fume, t h i s a l s o i n v o l v e s examining i t s co n n e c t i o n with s p e c u l a t i v e e x t e n s i o n s of the hexachord d e s c r i b e d i n the t r e a t i s e Berkeley, MS. 744. Chapter three summarizes a l l preceding f i n d i n g s and s p e c u l a t e s on the l i n k s between the author of the Berkeley Manuscript and Solage. The study produces the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . In the l a t e middle ages, a person who was fumeux had a number of q u a l i t i e s . He was moody, e x c i t a b l e , g a r r u l o u s , i r a s c i b l e , vague, a p o n t i f i c a t o r , melancholy, and immoderate i n d r i n k i n g h a b i t s , which aggravated the other q u a l i t i e s . These meanings are metaphoric, d e r i v i n g from fumosus, meaning "smokey", but they a l s o have a p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s , r e l a t e d to the concept of the humours. Deschamps' poems d e s c r i b e people who have fumeux q u a l i t i e s , but most of the poems are a l s o dramatic monologues th a t parody l e g a l documents. They may t h e r e f o r e be l i n k e d with the new but growing c l a s s of lawyers, the Basochiens, who formed mock h i e r a r c h i e s resembling that of the fumeurs, and who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of French comic t h e a t r e . Deschamps' fumeurs were probably based i n the Marne r e g i o n of France, where the poet was a m a g i s t r a t e , between about 1367 and 1388. I t i s not c l e a r how musicians c o u l d have been i n v o l v e d i v with the fumeurs, but another poem by Deschamps proves that he was a l s o known as fumeux to members of the n o b i l i t y , and t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l y t o the musicians whom they p a t r o n i z e d . Some l i k e l y patrons i n c l u d e Giangaleazzo V i s c o n t i , V a l e n t i n e V i s c o n t i , L o u i s d'Orle'ans and P i e r r e de Navarre. B e s i d e s H a s p r o i s and Solage, musicians who can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Deschamps i n c l u d e Andrieu and J a . de Noyon, known through the C h a n t i l l y Codex, and a m i n s t r e l , P l a t i a u . Both fumeur compositions of C h a n t i l l y have musical s e t t i n g s at v a r i a n c e with t h e i r t e x t s : Puisque Je Sui Fumeux, i s a pseudo-learned defense of fumosite, while i t s music has moments of t r i v i a l i t y . P e r verse dissonances and numerous changes of rhythm w i t h i n a small time-frame c o n t r i b u t e to i t s mad e f f e c t . Fumeux Fume has a c r y p t i c , c o n c e t r a t e d t e x t , but a s e t t i n g that i s f u l l of melisma. A mad e f f e c t i s c r e a t e d by i t s remorseless sequences, abnormally low range and unusual chromaticism. "New" notes used to a c h i e v e t h i s e f f e c t conform c l o s e l y enough to i n n o v a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n the Berkeley Manuscript f o r i t to have been a " t e s t - p i e c e " f o r t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s . As such, i t c o u l d a l s o have been c o n s i d e r e d "fumous". As a p o l o g i e s f o r f o l l y , the fumeur poems belong t o a t r a d i t i o n of " f o o l i n g " whose p r a c t i c e s were becoming widespread. T h e i r m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s should be understood w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t . V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . x Chapter I. THE FUMEUR POEMS 1 La C h a r t r e des Fumeux 7 French Comic Verse T r a d i t i o n and the Fumeur Poems .10 Dramatic Entertainment of the Late Middle Ages and the Fumeur Poems 17 D'Une Autre Commission d'un Chien 32 Cy P a r l e d'une Sentence Donne^e Contre Aucuns de V i t r y pour un De'bat Meu Soudainement E n t r ' Eulx . 37 C'Est l a Commission des Loups d'Espargnay sur l a R i v i e r e de Marne 42 Poems by Deschamps R e l a t e d i n Subject t o the Fumeur Works 51 P o s s i b l e Connections Between Fourteenth-Century Patrons and Musi c i a n s and Deschamps the Fumeur 57 Deschamps' B a l l a d e 813: Je Doy E s t r e C h a n c e l l i e r s des Fumeux, and the Two Fumeur Poems o f the C h a n t i l l y Codex 62 The Fumeurs, T h e i r Nature and I d e n t i t y : A Summary 7 0 v i I I . * THE FUMEUR MUSICAL SETTINGS 74 The B a l l a d e Puisque Je S u i Fumeux 75 The Rondeau Fumeux Fume 84 The Regular Hexachords and t h e i r P r o p e r t i e s . . . 90 The Coniuncta 93 Fumeux Fume and the Innovations o f the Berkeley T h e o r i s t 103 The M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e of Fumeux Fume . . . . . . . 108 I I I . A SUMMARY OF INFORMATION CONCERNING FUMEUR MUSIC AND POETRY, AND SOME SPECULATIONS CONCERNING SOLAGE AND THE AUTHOR OF THE BERKELEY TREATISE, AND THEIR IDENTITIES 112 A Summary of I n f o r m a t i o n Concerning Fumeur Music and Poetry . 112 Some S p e c u l a t i o n s Concerning P o s s i b l e Connections Between Solage and the B e r k e l e y T h e o r i s t . . . . 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY J17 APPENDIX A. Map of the Champagne Area, Showing P l a c e s R e f e r r e d to i n Poetry by Deschamps . . . . 121 APPENDIX B. A Comparison Between a Standard L e t t e r f o r a Commission on N o u v e l l e t e from the F o u r t e e n t h -Century Grand Coutumier, and Deschamps 1 Poem C'Est l a Commission des Loups d'Espargnay. 122 APPENDIX C. Cantus o f Fumeux Fume, Showing Hexachord Mutations I n v o l v i n g Recta Notes and Coniunctae 125 v i i LIST OF TABLES 1. The Fumeur L e g a l P a r o d i e s : A Summary o f t h e i r Contents 50 2. Inf o r m a t i o n on Coriiunctae i n Berkeley, Vat. L a t . 5129, and Anon. XI 105 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES 1. M i x i n g o f Duple and T r i p l e Note-Groups Produced by A l t e r n a t i n g Long and Short Note-Values (Puisque Je S u i Fumeux) 79 2. Matching o f M e l o d i c , Rhythmic and T e x t u a l Accents (Puisque Je S u i Fumeux) 79 3. Syncopation: a) Passage as T r a n s c r i b e d by Greene. b) Passage Notated to Show P o i n t s at which Syncopation Begins and Ends (Puisque Je S u i Fumeux) . 81 4. R h e t o r i c a l E f f e c t Produced by a S e r i e s of L i k e - V a l u e d Notes, i n C o n t r a s t With Surrounding Texture (Puisque Je S u i Fumeux) 81 5. R e p e t i t i o n i n Melo d i c L i n e , and Slowly-Moving Lower V o i c e D i s l o c a t e d R h y t h m i c a l l y from the Upper V o i c e , R e s u l t i n g i n S t a t i c M u s i c a l E f f e c t (Puisque Je S u i Fumeux) 82 6. Dissonances Produced through Note-Displacement: a) Greene's T r a n s c r i p t i o n , b) R e c r e a t i o n o f Passage w i t h Syncopation Removed (Puisque Je S u i Fumeux) 82 7. Sequence P a t t e r n s : a) Greene's T r a n s c r i p t i o n . b) Harmonic Reduction (Fumeux Fume) 87 8. The N a t u r a l Hexachord (N) 90 9. The A p p l i c a t i o n o f the Hexachords 95 10. The Seven Deductiones o f the Hexachord System 95 11. Mutations f o r Natura, M o l l i s and Durum Hexachords . . . 96 12. The Gamut and the Deductions o f i t s Hexachords . . . . 97 13. The O p e r a t i o n o f the Coniuncta 97 14. Coniunctae Presented i n the Ber k e l e y T r e a t i s e and t h e i r D e r i v e d Hexachords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 ix 15. Coniunctae D e s c r i b e d i n Berkeley, Vat. L a t . 5129, and Anon. XI, Showing P o i n t s a t which Coniunctae are Taken, the D i r e c t i o n of the A l t e r e d P i t c h e s , New S o l m i z a t i o n , and ( i n B e r k e l e y ) , New Deductions 1 0 4 16. F a c s i m i l e of Fumeux Fume, C h a n t i l l y , Musee Conde 564, F o l . 59, No. 98 107 17. Passages Leading Toward the P i t c h F, and U l t i m a t e l y Toward the F i r s t Cadence i n Fumeux Fume, Showing t h e i r G r a d u a l l y I n c r e a s i n g Length I l l 18. Melo d i c I n t e r v a l s O u t l i n e d i n Contratenor V o i c e between Measures 27 and 32 (Fumeux Fume) I l l X Acknowledgement I am very g r a t e f u l to a number of people f o r t h e i r h e l p i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t of a l l , I wish to thank Dr. J . Evan K r e i d e r , my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , f o r r e a d i l y g i v i n g h i s time and a t t e n t i o n , f o r h i s h e l p f u l and encouraging a d v i c e , and f o r the p l e a s u r e i t has been to d i s c u s s my work with him. Secondly, I owe much g r a t i t u d e to Dr. R i c h a r d Holdaway, of the Department of French, f o r h i s generous a s s i s t a n c e with t r a n s l a t i o n s , and f o r h i s very v a l u a b l e r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t i o n s . I would l i k e to thank Dr. Gregory B u t l e r , of the Music Department, f o r r e a d i n g t h i s t h e s i s and f o r h i s comments. S e v e r a l f r i e n d s , Audrey Winch, John Burgess, Ruyun Tan, and Karen Rustad, gave p r a c t i c a l h e l p , and I very much value t h i s . I am g r a t e f u l to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the Graduate F e l l o w s h i p Award that allowed me to complete p a r t of my M.A. programme. F i n a l l y , my g r e a t e s t thanks go to my husband, B i l l , f o r a l l of h i s hours spent before the computer screen toward the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s work, and above a l l , f o r h i s support and p a t i e n c e . x i F o r my p a r e n t s and f o r Lou Cormor. 1 - I. THE 'FUMEUR' POEMS Two chansons found i n the l a t e f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y C h a n t i l l y Codex owe the humour of t h e i r t e x t s to the word-play on the term fumeux: Puisque j e s u i s fumeux, by H a s p r o i s , and Fumeux fume, by Sol a g e . 1 In commentaries on these two p i e c e s , i t has become usual to i n c l u d e p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s to the fumeurs d e s c r i b e d i n s e v e r a l poems by the f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y poet Eustache Deschamps. Given the l i m i t a t i o n s of space i n the e d i t i o n s and a n t h o l o g i e s where they occur, such r e f e r e n c e s are u s u a l l y b r i e f , and at most, mention the mysterious c i r c l e or s o c i e t y of p e o p l e — p o s s i b l y l i t e r a r y e c c e n t r i c s , d r i n k e r s or even 'smokers' — r e f e r r e d to by Deschamps and over whom he was the le a d e r or s e l f - s t y l e d 'emperor'. For example, W i l l i Apel has w r i t t e n : From r e f e r e n c e s i n the works of Deschamps, i t appears that t h e r e e x i s t e d , at l e a s t from 1366 to 1381, a group of fumeurs, o b v i o u s l y 'bohemians' who made a p o i n t of being ' i n a fume' and of openly d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r whims and humours ... Solage's composition may w e l l have been performed at one of t h e i r meetings, evoking merriment over i t s strange harmonies and low bass r e g i s t e r . H a s p r o i s ' Puisque j e s u i fumeux i s another example of fumeur p o e t r y . 2 1 Puisque j e s u i s fumeux, by Ha s p r o i s , and Fumeux fume, by Solage ( C h a n t i l l y MS, MuiTeConde 564, no. 47 (f.34v) and no. 98 ( f . 5 9 ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of these p i e c e s , see Gordon Greene, French S e c u l a r Music: Manuscript C h a n t i l l y , Musee  Conde 564. Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century, 18 and 19. (Monaco: L'Oiseau-Lyre, 1982). 2 W i l l i A p e l , French S e c u l a r Compositions of the Fourteenth  Century . Corpus M e n s u r a b i l i s Musicae 53 (Rome: American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1970.), p. X L I I . S i m i l a r statements about the two fumeur chansons are made i n : G i l b e r t Reaney, "The Manuscript C h a n t i l l y , Muse"e Conde 1047", Musica D i s c i p l i n a 8 (1954):71, Gordon Greene, op. c i t . , v o l . 19, p. 195, and U r s u l a Giinther, "Solage", The New Grove' s D i c t i o n a r y of Music and  Musici a n s v o l . 17, ed. by St a n l e y S a d i e . CLondon: MacMillan, 1980, p. 448). 2 Since the t e x t s of the two C h a n t i l l y poems, and c e r t a i n l y the music of Solage's work, remain enigmatic even a f t e r such i n f o r m a t i o n has been p r o v i d e d , a more d e t a i l e d examination of the fumeur poetry of Deschamps and of the C h a n t i l l y Codex appears to be i n order, to d i s c o v e r how the f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y audience would have p e r c e i v e d t h i s poetry and music, and to see i f more can p o s s i b l y be l e a r n e d about t h i s group of men. The s u b j e c t can best be approached by a s k i n g the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : what meanings were a s s o c i a t e d with fumer and i t s d e r i v a t i v e s i n the l a t e f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y ? In works by Deschamps where fumeur and fumer are used, what can be e x p l a i n e d about the c o n t e n t , tone and genre of the poems, and of the w r i t e r ' s i n t e n t i o n ? What appears to have been h i s assumed audience? How do the fumeur poems compare wi t h other works by Deschamps, and can they be p l a c e d w i t h i n any l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s of the p e r i o d ? The poems by Deschamps and those i n the C h a n t i l l y Codex are troublesome i n terms of answers to these q u e s t i o n s , s i n c e not a l l of the poems f a l l w i t h i n the same cat e g o r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some i n s i g h t i n t o the nature and i d e n t i t y of the fumeurs i s p o s s i b l e with the answers that are forthcoming. A summary of meanings of the word fumer and i t s d e r i v a t i v e s , with examples of t h e i r medieval usage, w i l l make i t c l e a r that Deschamps was not i n v e n t i n g any new meanings f o r the word (nor, f o r that matter, d i d H a s p r o i s or Solage, assuming that they were the poets as w e l l as the composers of the C h a n t i l l y chansons). I t w i l l be seen from the d i s c u s s i o n of 3 Deschamps' works that w i l l f o l l o w , that the poet e x p l o i t e d the many meanings a t t a c h e d to words with fum... as t h e i r r o o t , d e r i v i n g comic e f f e c t from t h e i r ambiguity. The L a t i n r o o t , fum from which the French words developed, gave fumus, smoke, fumare, to smoke, fumosus, smokey. From these evolved the medieval French terms t h a t i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : fum (masculine noun) and fume (feminine noun), "smoke, vapour, perfume". fumee (feminine noun), "smoke, vapour, dust, odour, bad odour, day-dream, f a n t a s y , annoyance, anger, argument, f o o l i s h n e s s , e x c e s s i v e p r i d e , excitement of the b r a i n through a l c o h o l " . fumer (verb) "to e x c i t e the anger of, to smoke"; ( r e f l e x i v e ) "to become angry". fumeus/fumeux ( a d j e c t i v e ) "angry, c a r r i e d away, f u r i o u s , v i o l e n t , which causes to r i s e to the b r a i n ( a l c o h o l ) " . fumeusement (adverb) "with sadness, with g r i e f , q u a r r e l l i n g , with the heat that wine-vapours produce". fumosite (feminine noun) "vaporousness, smokiness". Below are some examples of usage of these words from a v a r i e t y of l a t e medieval sources: Par fortune q u i souvent s i se fume Vot r e doulx o e i l sa m a l i c e rabat, Ne p l u s , ne moins, que l e vent f a i c t l a fume. Pour une p e t i t e fume'e, ou quelque d e s p l a i s a n c e Sergens, r e s l a r g i s s i e z l ' e n t r e e De ce v a r l e t , c ' e s t un prodom. - Par l a char Dieu, c ' e s t grant fumeel C ' e s t o i t un l a r r o n a l ' e n t r e e , Mais en tant d'eure q u ' i l e s p a r t F a i c t e s d'un l a r r o n un p a p e l a r t . Ces fume'es des F r a n c o i s sont et ont b i e n abatus et d e s c i r e e s en T u r q u i e . 4 Quant je me fume I l n'est homme, tant s o i t s u b t i l Qui s'osast l e v e r l e s o u r c i l La fumeuse l i q u e u r des rouges v i n s ardans. Les fumosites ne se pouvans evaporer sont cause du mal de t e s t e . La f r o i d e fumosite qui e s t es l e v e e par e l l e [the moon] de l a t e r r e . 3 A poet would c e r t a i n l y d e l i g h t i n a word-group such as t h i s , which c o u l d evoke the many q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with smoke - - darkness, h a z i n e s s , i n t a n g i b i l i t y , t e n d ing to r i s e , s h i f t i n g i n shape, e a s i l y wafted about or d i s s i p a t e d . The range of a p p l i c a t i o n of fume i n medieval French goes from the l i t e r a l , f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of the p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s of smoke and vapour, t o the f i g u r a t i v e , f o r d e s c r i b i n g the v o l a t i l i t y of human emotion. The a d j e c t i v e fumeux i s an apt q u a l i f i e r f o r the v i o l e n t or changeable human pa s s i o n s that have the i n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y of smoke, but i t a l s o q u a l i f i e s very w e l l what was p e r c e i v e d to have been a cause of v a r i a b l e human behaviour. During the middle ages, the b o d i l y f l u i d s , or 'humours', were he l d to be of prime importance i n c o n t r o l l i n g the w e l l - b e i n g of 3 Other words with turn... r o o t s have been omitted from the l i s t because they do not appear to have been e x p l o i t e d by Deschamps. D i c t i o n a r i e s c o n s u l t e d f o r meanings and examples i n c l u d e d : Godefroy, D i e t i o n n a i r e de 1'ancienne langue f r a n c h i s e et de tous  ses d i a l e c t e s du IXe. au Xe. s i d c l e ( P a r i s : F.Vieweg, L i b r a i r e -E d i t e u r , 1885), t.4. and Supplement, t.9. ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r e Emile B o u i l l o n , Ed., 1898). Oeuvres Completes de Eustache Deschamps, 11 v o l s * , eds. de Queux de S a i n t - H i l a i r e and Gaston Raynaud ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e de F i r m i n Didot et C i e . , 1876-1904), v o l . 10, G l o s s a i r e . W. von Wartburg, F r a n z b s i s c h e s Etymoloqisches  Worterbuch. E i n e D a r s t e l l u n q des qalloromanischen  Sprachschatzes, Band 3 (Tubingen: J.C.B.Mohr, 1949.) 5 mind and body. Words i n E n g l i s h such as " c h o l e r i c " , "melancholy", "fuming", or "phlegmatic", d e s c r i b e d the presumed q u a l i t i e s of dryness, moistness, heat or c o l d i n a man's body, q u a l i t i e s which were b e l i e v e d to determine the s t a t e s of mind that have come to be a s s o c i a t e d with those d e s c r i p t i v e terms. To have c a l l e d someone fumeux would have been to imply, among other t h i n g s , that h i s b o d i l y vapours, or humours, were out of balance. Having undertaken to t r a n s l a t e the fumeur poems i n t o E n g l i s h , i t became c l e a r t h a t i n many cases a single-word e q u i v a l e n t f o r fumeux would be inadequate. For example, Deschamps d e s c r i b e s , i n one poem, a f i g h t t h a t breaks out among d r i n k e r s i n a t a v e r n , s a y i n g of the combattants " [ i l s ] p r i n d r e n t a compter ensemble/ Fumeusement." 8 T h i s c o u l d be understood, from i t s c o n t e x t , to mean, "they began to f i g h t a n g r i l y " , or "drunkenly", or " l i k e i d i o t s " , or "as fumeurs do". In such a c o n t e x t , the poet wished to evoke f o r h i s l i s t e n e r s or readers a l l of the p o s s i b l e meanings. In my t r a n s l a t i o n s , I have t h e r e f o r e r e t a i n e d the word fumee and used the E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s "fumous" or "fume" i n order not to d i m i n i s h any i n t e n t i o n a l ambiguity i n the p o e t r y . There are f i v e fumeur poems by Deschamps: 5 • Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v o l . 7 , p. 333, 1.25-26 5 See Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes. Volume VII has La c h a r t r e des  Fumeux, pp. 312-321, D'une a u l t r e commission d'un c h i e n , pp. 320- 323, Cy_ p a r l e d' une sentence donne'e c o n t r e aucuns de  V i t r y , pp. 332- 335, C'est l a commission des loups d'Eparnay sur  l a r i v i e r e de Marne, pp. 336-342. V o l . IV has B a l l a d e 813, Sur  sa nature meTancolique, pp. 331-332. 6 La c h a r t r e des Fumeux (The c h a r t e r of the fumeux), December 9, 1368. D'une a u l t r e commission d'un c h i e n (About another commission on a dog). Cy p a r l e d'une sentence donnee c o n t r e aucuns de V i t r y pour un  debat meu soudainement e n t r ' e u l x ^ ( T h i s speaks about a sentence pronounced a g a i n s t some of V i t r y f o r a motion argued i m p u l s i v e l y amongst them ), May 23 (no y e a r ) . C est l a commission des loups d'Espargnay sur l a r i v i e r e de  Marne T T h i s i s the commission on the wolves of Epernay on the r i v e r Marne), November 4, 1370. B a l l a d e 813: Sur sa nature melancolique. (On h i s melancholy n a t u r e ) . The f i r s t four poems on t h i s l i s t must, f o r s e v e r a l reasons, be c o n s i d e r e d as a group: a l l are burlesque p i e c e s , p a r o d i e s of r o y a l e d i c t s i n t h e i r s t y l e and content, being the promulgations of Eustace, emperor of the fumeurs, to h i s o f f i c i a l s . A l l of the poems are i n the form of v e r s e - w r i t i n g known as rimes p l a t e s , with l i n e s of a uniform number of s y l l a b l e s arranged i n rhyming c o u p l e t s , at t h i s time a common form f o r longer poems. In comparison with the s h o r t e r l y r i c p i e c e s i n Deschamps' output, these works are r e l a t i v e l y long, the s h o r t e s t , the Commission d'un c h i e n , having n i n e t y l i n e s , the l o n g e s t having over two hundred. The compiler of the o r i g i n a l manuscript of these works i n c l u d e d a l l four poems under the r u b r i c C h a r t r e s et  Commissions, along with s e v e r a l other comic works to which I s h a l l r e f e r l a t e r on (see page 51). Because of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y of tone, form and fumeur content, i t i s t h e r e f o r e a d v i s a b l e to t r e a t these poems as a group. And y e t each of the four works d i f f e r s s u f f i c i e n t l y from i t s companions to warn a g a i n s t too 7 f a c i l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from i t s c o n t e n t s . A b r i e f s y nopsis of each poem w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c l a r i f y i n g the i d e n t i t y of the fumeurs. La C h a r t r e Des Fumeurs T h i s i s the n a t u r a l poem with which to begin, s i n c e , as the t i t l e suggests, i t c o n t a i n s an ' o f f i c i a l ' v e r s i o n of the h a b i t s and i d e n t i t y of fumeurs. The c h a r t e r i s i n t r o d u c e d with an a p p r o p r i a t e l y i m p e r i a l s a l u t a t i o n , the Emperor of the Fumeurs g r e e t i n g a l l ranks of o f f i c i a l s i n h i s realm (1-14), and immediately s t a t i n g h i s purpose: he w i l l d e s c r i b e the fumeurs so t h a t h i s lawyers might b e t t e r defend some men of h i s who have been accused of a misdemeanour (15-40). The d e s c r i p t i o n begins with a l i s t of fumeur q u a l i t i e s (41-141), and c o n t i n u e s with an enumeration of a l l the ranks of men who are fumeurs (141-162). I t i s then that one r e a l i z e s that membership of t h i s group appears to extend to every segment of French s o c i e t y above the p e a s a n t ! 6 The poem does not end when Eustace's d e s c r i p t i o n i s complete. The emperor r e t u r n s to h i s e a r l i e r theme of an impending t r i a l , announcing the date f o r h i s own p l e n a r y c o u r t s e s s i o n that w i l l prepare f o r i t (163-178), and then, warming to h i s own p i c t u r e of such a g a t h e r i n g , he begins to f u l m i n a t e 6 T h i s would appear to c o n f l i c t with the idea commonly h e l d that the fumeurs were a s m a l l , e l i t e group. There are c e r t a i n l y ways i n which t h i s anomaly can be e x p l a i n e d , however, without abandoning the n o t i o n of a ' s e l e c t s o c i e t y ' . T h i s matter w i l l be taken up a f t e r the summary of t h i s poem. 8 a g a i n s t the f o l l y of fumeurs at h i s own c o u r t (179-193). A n a l y s i n g the cause of t h e i r s t u p i d i t y , the emperor concludes t h a t the damp and c o l d have r i s e n to t h e i r heads and f r o z e n t h e i r b r a i n s (184-193, 240-243)! He passes a decree a g a i n s t uncovered heads (200-239) before s i g n i n g and s e a l i n g the document, u s i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e o f f i c i a l s t y l e (244-254). Fumeurs are d e s c r i b e d at l e n g t h , i n t h i s poem, and i n terms that are not admirable. They are moody and changeable, s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y , quick to anger or melancholy, s i l l y i n conduct, envious, l a z y , quarrelsome, and with no r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n . T h e i r egotism makes them v a i n g l o r i o u s , eager to be r i g h t , and v i n d i c t i v e to those who oppose them, f u l l of empty words and prone to d e l i v e r l e c t u r e s to others r a t h e r than to l i s t e n themselves to wisdom. They are d e s c r i b e d as great d r i n k e r s and chess- and d i c e - p l a y e r s — a t the expense of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n . Grammatical and mathematical jokes may even have been intended i n c o n n e c t i o n with t h e i r sexual a p p e t i t e s : l i s sont du nombre p l u r a t i f Et du grant muef i n f i n i t i f Car en m u l i p l i c a t i o n Mettent l e u r a p p l i c a t i o n (116-119) They are p l u r a l i n number And i n f i n i t i v e i n mood, For i n m u l t i p l i c a t i o n They p l a c e t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . In appearance, as i n a l l of t h e i r other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , they are u n p r e d i c t a b l e , some wearing the short s k i r t s of recent (and c o n t r o v e r s i a l ) f a s h i o n , o t h e r s wearing longer robes. Although impeccably dressed one day, the next they c o u l d appear u t t e r l y 9 d i s h e v e l l e d . Those who may be c o n s i d e r e d as fumeurs seem to belong to most ranks of contemporary s o c i e t y , although the r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s are b e t t e r represented than any other group: For there are many abbots Who are mocked f o r t h e i r great fumees, Abbesses, p r i o r s , simple monks, Cantors, o f f i c e r s , p r i n c e s , canons Ca t h e d r a l and c o l l e g i a t e , R e g i s t r a r s and o f f i c i a l s And many of the H o s p i t a l e r s , C a r m e l i t e s , J a c o b i n s , C o r d e l i e r s , Augustins, c o n v e r t s and convertees And a v a r i e t y of many o t h e r s , Noblemen, bourgeois and k n i g h t s , And people of a l l walks of l i f e Who are s u b j e c t s e r f s and i n person bound i n To our law of Rome. [hommage (149-162) F i n a l l y , the d e s c r i p t i o n of the fumeurs i s completed by the emperor's enumeration of c o u r t i e r s and r e t a i n e r s at h i s own r e s i d e n c e (163-184), l o c a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e l y enough, "by the sea/ Which always o f f e r s us a great d e a l of f o g " (177-178). Nature, too, c o n s p i r e s here to c r e a t e a fumeuse environment! Among those who " w i l l i n g l y f o l l o w Fumee" (181): There w i l l be there a l l the musicians And many master astronomers, Engineers, masons, c a r p e n t e r s Who w i l l i n g l y f o l l o w Fumee, P l a y e r s of organs and cymbals W i l l do t h e i r work ... (179-184) Such are the f a c t s to be l e a r n e d about the fumeurs i n t h i s poem. But one cannot simply take at face value a l l t h a t i s w r i t t e n about these people. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n shows them to be, 10 in t h e i r nature, l e s s than savoury, yet because of i t s humorous medium, i t would s u r e l y have been r e c e i v e d i n a s p i r i t of amused self-mockery by any s e l f - i d e n t i f i e d fumeurs. The broad scope of the poem suggests, however, that Deschamps' audience was not even expected to i d e n t i f y with every aspect of fumeur nature here d e s c r i b e d ; r a t h e r , i t was to enjoy the exaggerations, the f u l m i n a t i o n s , the i m p e r i a l s t y l e . One must understand the fumeurs not as they are d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s poem, but as the type of audience f o r whom such a poem would have an appeal. French Comic Verse T r a d i t i o n And The 'fumeur' Poems An audience of fumeurs would have heard t h i s work as a poem that belonged w i t h i n a comic verse t r a d i t i o n . The C h a r t e r of  the Fumeurs i s a dramatic monologue, a genre that was a p p a r e n t l y extremely popular w i t h f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y audiences, but which most l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s agree must a l s o have been popular i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 7 P e t i t de J u l e v i l l e d e s c r i b e s the dramatic monologue thus: The monologue i s most u s u a l l y a burlesque r e c i t a t i o n The monologue s e t s on the stage an a p p e a l i n g c h a r a c t e r , who arouses l a u g h t e r because of what he i s , by r e v e a l i n g h i m s e l f with h i s v i c e s and h i s f o i b l e s . 8 A c c o r d i n g to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A u b a i l l y , there i s even a 7 See Jean-Claude A u b a i l l y , Le monologue, l e d i a l o g u e et l a s o t t i e ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s Honore' Champion, 1976), pp. 3-7, and Edmond F a r a l , Les j o n g l e u r s en France ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Honore' Champion, ed., 1910), pp. 236-237. 8 P e t i t de J u l e v i l l e , La comedie et l e s moeurs en France au moyen  age ( P a r i s : n.p., 1886; r e p r i n t ed., Geneve: S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1968) pp. 74-75. 11 s p e c i a l type of poem w i t h i n t h i s genre, which par o d i e s o f f i c i a l commands and l e t t e r s , o b v i o u s l y the category f o r a l l of the four fumeur works. A u b a i l l y l i s t s works which date from the middle of the t h i r t e e n t h c entury which f a l l i n t o t h i s category,and a number from the e a r l y 1500's, but c u r i o u s l y , does not r e f e r to any of the works by Deschamps. 9 When one compares e x t r a c t s from genuine o f f i c i a l documents of the Ordonnances des r o i s de France, with the opening verses i n Deschamps' c h a r t e r , the humorous q u a l i t y of the l a t t e r as parody becomes s t a r t l i n g l y c l e a r : C h a r l e s , par l a grace de Dieu, Roy de France, a nos ame's et fe'aulx c o n s e i l l e r s , l e s gens de nos cours de parlement, generaulx c o n s e i l l e r s sur l e f a i t et gouvernement de noz f i n a n c e s , de l a J u s t i c e , de noz aydes et de noz monnoyes, Prevost de P a r i s , b a i l l i f z de Vermandois, V i t r y , Troyes [ enumeration of the towns], et a tous noz a u t r e s j u s t i c i e r s , ... s a l u t et d i l e c t i o n . (Ordonnance du 14 mai , 1487) ( C h a r l e s , by the grace of God, King of France, to our beloved and f a i t h f u l c o u n s e l l o r s , to the men of our c o u r t s of Parlement, to the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l l o r s f o r the management and government of our f i n a n c e s , of j u s t i c e , of our s e c u r i t y and of our revenues, Prevost of P a r i s , b a i l i f f s of Vermandois, V i t r y , Troyes...and to a l l our other j u s t i c e s , . . . g r e e t i n g and l o v e ) 1 0 Jehan Fumee, by the grace of the world Where a l l f a l s e h o o d and t r i c k e r i e s abound, Emperor and l o r d of the Fumeux, 9 A u b a i l l y , ^ L e monologue, pp. 102-107. In an e a r l i e r book, Le  t h e a t r e medieval profane et comique ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1975), pp. 55-56, the same author r e f e r s to the fumeux as one of many s o c i e t e s de buveurs et de joueurs, c a l l i n g them the C o n f r e r i e des Fumeux, but without e n l a r g i n g on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 1 0 A u b a i l l y , Le monologue, p. 103. 12 And p a l a t i n e of the Melancholy, To a l l b a i l i f f s , p r e v o s t s and sen e s c h a l s , Dukes, counts, p r i n c e s , t r e a s u r e r s , marshals, Guarders of towns, gates and entrances, To the admirals who guard the shores, To the Constable and to a l l the sergeants Of our empire and to a l l l i e u t e n a n t s ; S i m i l a r l y , t o a l l our j u s t i c e s , To whom these words w i l l p r i m a r i l y be addressed, And to those of every rank, Love, g r e e t i n g s with j o y ! (La Chartre des Fumeurs 1-14) T h i s address i m i t a t e s the s t y l e df the most h i g h l y p l a c e d personage of the realm, but i n an absurd context and with comic e x a g g e r a t i o n . There i s room here to c i t e only a few more passages t h a t i l l u s t r a t e the comic content of the poem: there i s the comedy of i n v e r t e d v a l u e s i n the p o e t i c world of the fumeurs, f o r the emperor Jehan Fumee r u l e s not by D i v i n e R i g h t , "by the grace of God", as a r e a l monarch would have s t a t e d , but "by the grace of the world" ( 1 ) . The c o n t i n u a t i o n of the parody throughout the poem produces an accumulation of amusing d e t a i l . For example,the a l l e g i a n c e of the fumeurs i s expressed i n language r e m i n i s c e n t of f e u d a l or r e l i g i o u s oaths, these men bei n g : •.. .under our r u l e In word and deed, i n d r e s s , i n r e p u t a t i o n , And whom we h o l d as s u b j e c t to l a Fumee From which they may i n no way exempt themselves (18-21) The w r i t i n g s t y l e i t s e l f i s w i t t y , as when i t uses f o r example, juxtaposed o p p o s i t e s , f u r t h e r set o f f by rhyme: co n c e r n i n g fumeur wisdom, one l e a r n s : Trop sont s a i g e s apres l e v i n , Mais r i e n ne s^event au matin. 13 (57-58) They are too wise a f t e r t h e i r wine, But know nothing i n the morning. and: E s t r e v e u l e n t s a i g e s tenus; De vent sont p l a i n s et de sens nus. (53-54) They wish to be regarded as wise; They are f u l l of wind and bare of sense. There i s the humour d e r i v e d from p l a y i n g with the d i f f e r e n t meanings of fumer, one example being the emperor's t i r a d e a g a i n s t h a t - r a i s i n g , which i s a joke p e r t a i n i n g to f u m o s i t e . 1 1 Complaining of the s t u p i d i t y of h i s own c o u r t i e r s , he says, ... many have become so d u l l - w i t t e d , Who can be set before you as an example, From the f r e e z i n g t hat they have r e c e i v e d at t h e i r Which has r i s e n r i g h t up to t h e i r b r a i n . [temples (240-243) The emperor h i m s e l f i s a comic f i g u r e , having the l o n g -windedness, the tendency to d i g r e s s and the i l l o g i c a l i t y that one would expect of any s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g fumeur (109-116, 54-60). His ardent d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s c o u r t of Fumagor 1 2 i s one d i g r e s s i o n , to be f o l l o w e d immediately a f t e r w a r d by another: h i s hat t i r a d e . T h i s t i r a d e i s concluded i n a b s u r d i t y , f o r having f o r b i d d e n the r a i s i n g of hats, the emperor d e c l a r e s t h a t i f any 1 1 I t was Deschamps' p e r e n n i a l concern to p r o t e c t h i s own b a l d head. He wrote s e v e r a l poems that requested indulgence i n r e t a i n i n g h i s hat, even when i n noble company. See Oeuvres  Completes, v o l . 5 , pp. 74, 94, 183. 1 2 The word "Fumagor" c o u l d be a j o c u l a r L a t i n c o i n i n g ; i t would mean "I s h a l l be made fumous". 14 t r a n s g r e s s o r "has not submitted to death from s i c k n e s s [from a c h i l l e d head]/ Then he must d i e because he has disobeyed" (236-237). I t would have taken a r e l a t i v e l y well-educated and high-r a n k i n g audience to a p p r e c i a t e the v a r i e t y of humour i n the poem, and which had some f a m i l i a r i t y , too, with the w r i t i n g c o n v e n t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l s e r i o u s models, as a l l parody demands. A concern of t h i s poem i s to demonstrate the f o l l y of i t s time, l i k e other medieval l i t e r a t u r e , e n t e r t a i n i n g while i m p a r t i n g wisdom. Against the Church, f o r example, the emperor d i r e c t s t h i s q u i p : Car i l y a p l u s e u r s abbez Pour l e u r s grans fumees gabez. (149-150) For there are many abbots Who are mocked f o r t h e i r great fumees• And much of the church h i e r a r c h y i s i n c l u d e d among the fumeur number (142-157). From the beginning, there i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the intended moral s a t i r e , f o r the world i n which the emperor r e i g n s i s d e s c r i b e d as a p l a c e "where a l l f a l s e h o o d and t r i c k e r i e s abound" (1-2). The poem a l s o has f e a t u r e s i n common with other medieval d i d a c t i c p o e t r y , f o r example, the long l i s t s of fumeur per s o n n e l resemble a s i m i l a r l y a l l - e m b r a c i n g catalogue from the Roman de F a u v e l . In the l a t t e r , one reads: There i s there a very great assembly: You w i l l see k i n g s , dukes and counts 15 Who have come to s t r o k e Fauvel A l l the temporal l o r d s and p r i n c e s Come there from every p r o v i n c e , And knights great and s m a l l Who are very adept at s t r o k i n g . And know that there i s not a king nor a count Who would be ashamed to s t r o k e F a u v e l . V i s c o u n t s , p r e v o s t s , and b a i l i f f s Do not n e g l e c t to s t r o k e F a u v e l ; Burgers i n the towns and c i t i e s Stroke by many cunning means, And v i l l e i n s of the rough f i e l d s Are a l l around Fauvel to pasture him. ( I , 3 4 - 3 8 ) 1 3 In medieval l i t e r a t u r e , a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g v i c e s or s t r o n g s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s were used f o r d r a m a t i z i n g the inner s t r u g g l e s of the psyche. A few such f i g u r e s are mentioned i n the C h a r t r e . A comparison of e x t r a c t s from t h i s poem and from the Roman de Fauvel w i l l show the t r a d i t i o n a l content of Deschamps' work i n connection with a l l e g o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s . In F a u v e l , f o r example, guests at the t a b l e of the r o y a l ass i n c l u d e G l o u t o n n i e , Yvresce, L e c h e r i e , and a host of o t h e r s , some of whom are a l s o mentioned i n Deschamps' poem: Plac e d next to Fauvel on the l e f t I saw P r i d e was there i n grand e s t a t e ; Next to him was Presumption, Vain Elegance and then B o a s t f u l n e s s , Luxuriousness and F o o l i s h Presumption. ( I I , 1569-1574) In a s i m i l a r passage i n the C h a r t r e , the fumeurs c o n s o r t with some of these c h a r a c t e r s : They f e a r n e i t h e r honour nor shame, 1 3 A r t h u r Langfors,ed., Le Roman de Fauvel par G e r v a i s de Bus ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r e de F i r m i n Didot et C i e . , 1914-1919). 16 P r e l a t e , emperor, duke nor count, Because Dame Presumption Leads each one of them in her dance; F o l l y holds them by the hand, P r i d e governs and s u s t a i n s them And dresses them i n r i c h jewels, And Youth, who i s so handsome, Prays, admonishes and importunes them That each conduct h i m s e l f s t u p i d l y ; Pleasant D i v e r s i o n e n t e r t a i n s them i n her orchard, And P l e a s u r e , with a l l her box of sweets Serves them so w e l l with her s p i c e s That there i s not a s i n g l e one of them, such great Who i s not hers when he departs, [ f o o l s are they, So much has he had a l a r g e share of her. (La c h a r t r e des fumeux, 93-108) Reason, the s i n g l e improving f i g u r e to be named i n the C h a r t r e , i s mentioned only to show h i s d i m i n i s h e d i n f l u e n c e . Jehan Fumee says of h i s s u b j e c t s : They do not wish to be s u b j e c t to Reason, Nor to enter i n t o h i s house, For they c a r r y t h e i r laws i n t h e i r own hand, T h i s one at present, the other tomorrow. (La c h a r t r e des fumeux, 71-74) One can compare t h i s with another e x t r a c t from the Roman de  F a u v e l . D e s c r i b i n g h i s good l u c k , Fauvel says: I c e r t a i n l y have the grace of Fortune ... She has given me great l o r d s h i p over many t h i n g s : Over the world, which i s her d w e l l i n g - p l a c e , She has made me l o r d , at the expense of Reason. (Fauvel I I , 1718-1722) In f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s s e r i o u s element i n the C h a r t r e , one can quote Jehan Fumee's summary of fumeur nature: They are p e r f e c t i n nothing that t h e r e i s , Not i n word, nor thought, nor i n deed; Accusatory, envious, a r r o g a n t , < Sad without cause, or e l s e mocking, With v a i n g l o r y and with c h e a t i n g 17 Are they decorated, and they f i g h t with everyone. Now one of them w i l l laugh, the other w i l l c r y , Not f o r an i n s t a n t can they be happy, So f u l l of bad-humoured energy* are they, And amazing f o o l i s h n e s s . (127-136) (*"fumeuse v i e " ) The above q u o t a t i o n s have adequately i l l u s t r a t e d what the C h a r t r e des fumeurs i s : humorous parody with some m o r a l i z i n g c o n t e n t . The mixture of s t y l e s should not be s u r p r i s i n g , f o r i t i s found i n other medieval genres such as the m o r a l i t y p l a y s . Dramatic Entertainment Of The Late Middle Ages And The 'Fumeur'  Poems I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e at t h i s p o i n t to d e s c r i b e the context i n which t h i s and the other fumeur poems might have been heard. Modern w r i t e r s most o f t e n d i s c u s s the dramatic monologue i n terms of i t s a f f i n i t y w i t h medieval s e c u l a r drama: d u r i n g i t s r e c i t a t i o n , the reader of a work such as the C h a r t r e would assume another's p e r s o n a l i t y , hence the connection with a more f u l l y developed dramatic a r t . 1 " The s e c u l a r drama of the l a t e middle ages was w r i t t e n and performed by an assortment of groups and s o c i e t i e s , and i t i s i n t r i g u i n g t o d i s c o v e r that c e r t a i n d e t a i l s o c c u r r i n g i n the fumeur poems conform with the a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s of some of these groups, such as the Enfa^bs-Sans-Soucy and the Basochiens. A knowledge of the a c t i v i t i e s and 1 4 A u b a i l l y , Le monologue, pp.^5-7, and Le t h e a t r e medieval, pp. 37-43; a l s o P e t i t de J u l e v i l l e , La come^die et l e s moeurs en  France, pp.73-77. 18 o r g a n i s a t i o n of these groups a l s o throws l i g h t on q u e s t i o n s about the fumeurs. By the f i f t e e n t h century, dramatic entertainment was no longer the p r e r o g a t i v e s o l e l y of the c l e r g y or j o n g l e u r s . Instead, t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e involvement i n t h e a t r i c a l a r t by bourgeois groups, sometimes formed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s purpose, or sometimes mounting p l a y s as one of the a c t i v i t i e s of a p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . There was much i n t e r e s t i n the pr o d u c t i o n of comic or s a t i r i c works, an i n t e r e s t r e f l e c t e d i n the names th a t the groups chose f o r themselves. At L i l l e , f o r example, a t the end of the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , there was the troupe of the Eveque des Fous, that of the Pape des Guingans, of the Empereur de l a Jeunesse, of the P r i n c e des Coquarts, of the P r i n c e de Peu d'Argent, of the P r i n c e de l a Sottrecque, and that of the P r i n c e de S o t t y e . 1 5 As can be guessed from the above t i t l e s , the c h i e f s of these groups p r e s i d e d over h i e r a r c h i e s that had been o r g a n i z e d i n i m i t a t i o n of the contemporary s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . A c c o r d i n g to Heather Arden, such groups "were 1 5 A u b a i l l y , Le t h e a t r e medieval, p. 55. Such groups were formed a l l over the coun t r y . E l i z a b e t h Arden, i n F o o l s ' P l a y s ; A Study  of S a t i r e i n the S o t t i e s (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980), w r i t e s of the important c e n t r e of p l a y p r o d u c t i o n at Rouen where the Cornards de Rouen had produced p l a y s s i n c e the f o u r t e e n t h century, and a l s o mentions groups at Lyon (Les  Supp6ts de l a C o q u i l i e ) Amiens, A r r a s , Auxerre, Beauvais, Chaumont, Clermont, Compiegne, Laon (the C o n f r e r i e des  Mauvaises-Bries, the "Bad-Britches-Boys"), L i l l e , Nancy and P o i t i e r s , although some of these were known of only from the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . She p o i n t s out t h a t names given t o l e a d e r s of these groups, such as the Eveque des Fous and the Pape des Guiqnans r e c a l l the mock d i g n i t a r i e s e l e c t e d by the c l e r g y d u r i n g t h e i r c e l e b r a t i o n of the Feast of F o o l s . Such s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s burlesque m a n i f e s t a t i o n s go back u l t i m a t e l y to the Roman S a t u r n a l i a (p.24, 15-21). 19 forming as e a r l y as the r e i g n of C h a r l e s VI, although t h e i r e x i s t e n c e was s p o r a d i c u n t i l the time of C h a r l e s V I I I " . 1 6 Given such f a c t s , one need not q u e s t i o n the e x i s t e n c e of a group of men who had c a l l e d themselves Fumeurs, who had had an 'emperor' and whose c h a r t e r gave p l a y f u l i n d i c a t i o n of a mock a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y . Modern d i s c u s s i o n of such groups has even i n c l u d e d o c c a s i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s to the fumeurs, although d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s r a r e l y goes beyond acknowledgement of t h e i r d r i n k i n g p r a c t i c e s . A u b a i l l y w r i t e s : I t i s necessary a l s o to add t o these many troupes [of bourgeois p l a y e r s ] the numerous societe^s de buveurs et de joueurs such as the C o n f r e r i e des Fumeux at the head of which one f i n d s E.Deschamps at the end of the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 1 7 The e d i t o r of the 'fumeur poems', Gustave Raynaud, d e s c r i b e d the fumeurs v a r i o u s l y as "fous ( c o n f r e r i e i m a g i n a i r e ) " , " c o n f r e r i e de buveurs", "gens fantasques", and i n c l u d e d them among the s e v e r a l "joyeuses c o n f r e r i e s " t o which Deschamps'poetry a l l u d e s . 1 8 E r n s t Hoepffner w r i t e s of the fumeurs: We have here a c a p r i c i o u s and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c group which made i t s e l f h i g h l y v i s i b l e through e c c e n t r i c i t i e s i n d r e s s and manners. The frequent mention of these fumeux, and e s p e c i a l l y the f a c t that the r e f e r e n c e s cover a s t r e t c h of years, l e a v e s l i t t l e doubt t h a t we are d e a l i n g with an a c t u a l s o c i e t y , and not with the imaginary, or something that e x i s t s only i n a w r i t e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n . As Grb'ber has a l r e a d y Arden, F o o l s ' P l a y s , p. 23. A u b a i l l y , Le t h e i t r e medievale, pp. 55-56. I t appears that the term c o n f r € r T e a p p l i e d to the fumeurs i s of modern o r i g i n . In Deschamps' works they are r e f e r r e d to as an ordre or an empire. Oeuvres Completes, v.7, p. 312, f n . a ; v.10, g l o s s a r y , p. 63; v.4, p.331, fn . a ; v.11, p. 134. 20 c o r r e c t l y deduced, we are d e a l i n g here with a k i n d of g u i l d oi f o o l s (not, as Raynaud proposes, with a c o n f r e r i e de buveurs), which endeavoured to d i s t i n g u i s h i t s e l f through extremes of o r i g i n a l i t y . 1 9 F i n a l l y , t here i s the o p i n i o n of D a n i e l P o i r i o n c o n c e r n i n g the fumeurs and Deschamps' r o l e i n t h i s group. He argues t h a t the m u s i c a l items about the fumeurs i n the C h a n t i l l y Codex do suggest that such a group had r e a l l y e x i s t e d , e s p e c i a l l y since a known f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y musician, Arnaud l e T a p i c i e r , i s a l s o mentioned i n one of the fumeur poems: I t i s i n an atmosphere of camaraderie joyeuse t h a t he [Deschamps] seems t o have passed the h a p p i e s t time of h i s youth. His f i r s t l i t e r a r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s were f o r the e v o c a t i o n , i n c a p r i c i o u s terms, of a c o n f r e r i e  burlesque, but which c a l l s t o gether r e a l people. The c h a r t e [ s i c ] des Fumeux, promulgated in December 1368 i s f o l l o w e d by a r e c i t a t i o n dated May 24 . . where we see represented, f o r example, Arnaud l e T a p i c i e r , s i n g e r to C h a r l e s V. The chansonnier of C h a n t i l l y number 1047 c o n t a i n s two chansons on the theme of the fumeux ... The c o n f r 6 r i e was~not, indeed, as imaginary as one might have wished to b e l i e v e . H i s i n s p i r a t i o n makes one t h i n k of the s o t t i s e s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l j o n g l e u r s . 2 0 These e x p l a n a t i o n s , c a u t i o u s , h a l f - d o u b t f u l and 1 9 E r n s t Hoepffner, Eustache Deschamps: Leben und Werke ( S t r a s s b u r g : V e r l a g von K a r l J . Trilbner, 1904), p. 51. I t i s t h i s o p i n i o n that both Apel and Greene appear to have f o l l o w e d . 2 0 D a n i e l P o i r i o n , Le poe*te et l e p r i n c e : 1 ' e v o l u t i o n du l y r i s m e  c o u r t o i s de Guillaume de Machaut a C h a r l e s d'Orlgans. ( P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1965), p. 223. I have not been a b l e to d i s c o v e r whom P o i r i o n has i n mind when he r e f e r s to T a p i c i e r . The f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y musician of t h i s name has been i d e n t i f i e d as Jean de N o i e r s , d i t T a p i c i e r , (c.1370-1410), who worked f o r P h i l i p the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, between 1391 and 1404, and, at the l a t t e r ' s death, f o r h i s son, John the F e a r l e s s . T h i s was d u r i n g the r e i g n of C h a r l e s VI, not Charles V. See C r a i g Wright, " T a p i s s i e r and C o r d i e r : New Documents and C o n j e c t u r e s " , The M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 59 (1973):177-189. 21 c o n t r a d i c t o r y as they are, r e f l e c t two problems i n d e a l i n g with the fumeurs: the only i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e has to be d e r i v e d e n t i r e l y from the contents of the poems themselves, and i n attempting to c o n s t r u c t a p i c t u r e u s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , care must be taken not to i n t e r p r e t too l i t e r a l l y what i s s t a t e d i n the Chartre des Fumeux. T h i s i s a poem of comic exaggeration whose tone can be both audacious and m o r a l i s i n g . I t t h e r e f o r e c o n s o r t s uncomfortably with the other fumeur poems which have more i n t i m a t e , l o c a l s e t t i n g s and n a r r a t i v e that appears to d e s c r i b e r e a l people belonging to some s o r t of group, as both P o i r i o n and Hoepffner say, but who d i d p o s s i b l y h o l d t h e i r meetings i n t a v e r n s and were fond of d r i n k i n g , as Raynaud suggested. The commentator Grober, to whom Hoepffner r e f e r r e d does, i n f a c t , r e g a rd them as a d r i n k i n g group, but one t h a t was a l s o some kind of g u i l d of f o o l s , l i k e the E n f a n t s - s a n s - S o u c y . 2 1 But more i n f o r m a t i o n about the t h e a t r i c a l groups can be drawn upon to e x p l a i n the scope of the C h a r t r e , and a l s o t o account f o r the preponderance of j u d i c i a l p a r o d i e s i n the fumeur poems. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n concerns the groups t h a t c a l l e d themselves the Basochiens and the Enfants-sans-Soucy. The Basoche was an a s s o c i a t i o n of law c l e r k s connected with the h i g h c o u r t s of j u s t i c e at P a r i s : the P a l a i s de J u s t i c e , the C h a t e l e t and the Chambre des Competes, and who worked f o r the lawyers, avocats and p r o c u r e u r s , of the Parlement de P a r i s . The 2 1 Gustav Grober "Geschichte der l a t e i n i s c h e s und f r a n z o s i s c h e s L i t t e r a t u r im M i t t e l a l t e r " , G r u n d r i s s der Romanischen P h i l o l o g i e Band 2 ( S t r a s s b u r g : K a r l J . Trubner, 1902), p. 1200. 22 a s s o c i a t i o n f i l l e d a number of f u n c t i o n s : i t r e g u l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l standards, i t c o n f e r r e d c e r t i f i c a t e s of q u a l i f i c a t i o n , and i t d e a l t with d i s c i p l i n a r y problems or d i f f e r e n c e s between i t s members. When such cases were handed over to i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n from higher l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s , Basoche members had the chance to p r a c t i s e courtroom procedure i n the ensuing t r i a l s . 2 2 Members of the Basoche a l s o took p a r t i n l i g h t e r a c t i v i t i e s . Every year, a f t e r t h e i r e l a b o r a t e annual parade, members performed p l a y s i n the P a l a i s de J u s t i c e , and p l a y s were s i m i l a r l y performed at other c e l e b r a t i o n s , such as at a l o c a l f a i r , or i n the p e r i o d between Christmas and Epiphany known as the F^te des fous, or on c e r t a i n s a i n t s ' d a y s . 2 3 During the time of c a r n i v a l , they would conduct mock t r i a l s , c a l l e d causes grasses (or, j o k i n g l y , causes s o l e n e l l e s ) , i n which r i d i c u l o u s s u i t s were t r i e d , which sometimes drew i n s p i r a t i o n from scandalous r e a l - l i f e c a ses, or which c o n s i s t e d f i c t i t i o u s m a t e r i a l . 2 * Burlesque i n v e n t i o n and s o c i a l s a t i r e were a p a r t of Basoche c r e a t i v i t y , both i n the mock t r i a l s , and i n the comic 2 2 See Adolphe Fabre Les c l e r c s du P a l a i s : Recherches h i s t o r i q u e s  sur l e s Bazoches des Parlements et l e s society's dramatiques des  Bazochiens e t des Enfants-Sans-Souci, 2me. ed. (Lyon: N. S c h e r i n g , L i b r a i r e - E d i t e u r , 1875), pp. 10-19, 27, 305. An avocat was e q u i v a l e n t to a modern b a r r i s t e r , a procureur , an a t t o r n e y - a t - l a w or p r o s e c u t o r . 2 3 Fabre, Les c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp. 40-42, 60-61, 101-107, 152-153. 2 8 Fabre, Les c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp.58, 162-164. The c l e r k s a l s o h e l d r e g u l a r meetings i n which they debated s e r i o u s f i c t i t i o u s c a s e s , as modern law students s t i l l do. There i s always an element of t h e a t r e i n such proceedings. See Fabre, p. 25. 23 dramas, the m o r a l i t e s , f a r c e s and s o t t i e s . 2 5 I t i s c l e a r that there was much o p p o r t u n i t y among Basoche members f o r c o n v i v i a l g a t h e r i n g s , and that l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t i e s played a l a r g e p a r t i n t h e i r entertainment. The Enfants-sans-Soucy were members of a P a r i s i a n t h e a t r e group t h a t had c l o s e l i n k s with the Basochiens. I t i s the o p i n i o n of most drama h i s t o r i a n s t h a t the E n f a n t s were a c t u a l l y a sub-group w i t h i n the Basoche o r g a n i z a t i o n , under i t s l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , and whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t was t o mount t h e i r p l a y s . 2 6 The c h i e f of the Enfants-sans-Soucy was c a l l e d the P r i n c e des Sots (the P r i n c e of F o o l s ) , and was f o r the law c l e r k s a l a y e q u i v a l e n t of the Pape des Fous of young c l e r i c s . There were a l s o Basoche o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e s , wherever there was a town or c i t y important enough to have a Parlement, with i t s own magistrate or b a i l l i , and along with these, there were the play-groups e q u i v a l e n t to the Enf a n t s , the societies  joyeuses d e s c r i b e d above (see p.18), whose membership i n c l u d e d many B a s o c h i e n s . 2 7 H i s t o r i a n s have not been ab l e to d i s c o v e r any p r e c i s e date f o r the formation of these s o c i e t i e s , and the e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g documents that mention them are from no e a r l i e r than the end of the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Since I hope t o show t h a t some p r a c t i c e s of the Basoche groups appear to have been a n t i c i p a t e d 2 5 See Howard Graham Harvey, The Theatre of the Basoche: The  C o n t r i b u t i o n of the Law S o c i e t i e s to French Medieval Comedy (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941) and Arden, F o o l s '  P l a y s , e s p e c i a l l y pp. 25, 65, 123-127. 2 6 Fabre, Les c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp. 233-237, Harvey, The Theatre  of the Basoche, pp. 24-27, Arden, F o o l s ' P l a y s , p. 25. 2 7 Fabre, Les c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp. 69-70, Harvey, The Theatre of the Basoche, p.14, fn.9. 24 or r e f l e c t e d i n fumeur a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d by Deschamps, i t w i l l be worthwhile to review the dates and arguments commonly put forward to suggest a f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e x i s t e n c e f o r the Basoche o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s c o - e x i s t i n g joyous s o c i e t i e s . The few e a r l y documents g i v e the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : i n 1385, L o u i s d'Orle'ans gave money to the Gallans-sans-Soucy of Rouen f o r having "joue et chante devant l u i par p l u s i e u r s f o i s " ; i n 1401, account books f o r the town of Cambrai recorded t h a t , on January 9, the P r i n c e des F o l s du P a l a i s was presented with cases of wine at s u p p e r ; 2 8 i n 1424 the c l e r k s of the Chattelet took p a r t i n a p l a y g i v e n f o r the e n t r y i n t o P a r i s of the Duke of Beford. In 1442, a judgement of the Parlement de P a r i s condemned to p r i s o n , on bread and water, c l e r k s who had p l a y e d i n a show i n d e f i a n c e of i t s r e g u l a t i o n s , and ordered them not to perform any s a t i r e or comedy i n the f u t u r e without a u t h o r i z a t i o n or without t a k i n g i n t o account what had been p r o h i b i t e d . T h i s r u l i n g suggests that there was an e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n , procedure and c e n s o r s h i p connected with performing p l a y s , and t h a t abuses had e v e n t u a l l y developed. T h i s c o u l d w e l l be an argument f o r an e a r l i e r e x i s t e n c e f o r the Basoche. In 1443, the Parlement gave another judgement a g a i n s t the Basochiens, who had a p p a r e n t l y exceeded the bounds of t h e i r own j u r i s d i c t i o n when p u n i s h i n g some of t h e i r members. The c o u r t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e r u l e d on three a r e a s : i t forbade the payment by 2 8 Barbara Swain, F o o l s and F o l l y i n the Middle Ages (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932), p. 14. L o u i s d'Orleans, who p a t r o n i z e d the Rouen group, was a l o n g - s t a n d i n g employer and patron of the poet Deschamps. 25 Bejaune i n b e u v e r i e s and m a n g e r i e s , 2 9 i t again ordered that i f the c l e r k s wished to have jeux or ebattements (plays or comedies), they must ask the c o u r t ' s p e r m i s s i o n , and i t forbade the c l e r k s to e l e v a t e the s t a t u s of the Royaume de l a Basoche to perform any j u r i d i c a l f u n c t i o n without the c o u r t ' s l e a v e . 3 0 To such scant, and r a t h e r l a t e evidence from our p o i n t of view, one can add i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the r a p i d growth of the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n , and the employment of c l e r k s i n the high c o u r t s of j u s t i c e . In the f o u r t e e n t h century, the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n was g r e a t l y enlarged i n order to serve the c e n t r a l i z i n g i n t e r e s t s of the king by weakening the power of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and s e i g n e u r i a l c o u r t s . The Basoche p o s s i b l y dates from t h i s p e r i o d . Harvey w r i t e s : I t was t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the f i r s t o r g a n i z a t i o n of the law c l e r k s of P a r i s , and the beginnings of the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Basoche, went back to the time of P h i l i p the F a i r [1285-1314], The supposed e d i c t has not been found, but the Parlement had then become f i x e d a t P a r i s , and as a r e s u l t of the Pragmatic S a n c t i o n , cases were accumulating i n the r o y a l c o u r t s f a s t e r than the procureurs c o u l d handle them. They began to employ l a r g e numbers of c l e r k s , and soon the advocates . . . began to do A bee-jaune was a newly-graduated law student about to become a Basoche c l e r k , named a f t e r f l e d g l i n g , s o f t - b i l l e d b i r d s t h a t have j u s t l e f t the n e s t . Payment of entry r i g h t s was a standard p r a c t i c e i n both the u n i v e r s i t y c o l l e g e s and the Basoche s o c i e t y . See Fabre, Les c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp. 36-37. Harvey, The Theatre of the Basoche, p. 23. Harvey, The Theatre of the Basoche, p. 17, fn.12. W e l l -documented d e s c r i p t i o n s of the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y occur i n : C h a r l e s B a t a i l l a r d Les O r i g i n e s de  I ' H i s t o i r e des Procureurs et des Avoues depuis l e Ve. S i e c l e  jusqu'au XVe. (4227-1483) ,"TParis: C o t i l l o n , E d i t e u r , L i b r a i r e du C o n s e i l d ' E t a t , 1868), and R. Delachenal H i s t o i r e des  avocats au Parlement de P a r i s , 1300-1600 ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Plon, E. P l o n , N o u r r i t et C l e . , imprimeurs-^diteurs, 1885). 26 l i k e w i s e . 3 1 By 1378, there were so many pr o c u r e u r s i n P a r i s t h a t t h e i r number had t o be reduced by cou r t order t o f o r t y . The "newly-formed i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s of judges, lawyers, and law s t u d e n t s " , 3 2 with t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e t o the king and the r o y a l c o u r t s , e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own companies, l i k e other p r o f e s s i o n a l groups of t h e i r time. An a s s o c i a t i o n of pr o c u r e u r s and av o c a t s , c a l l e d the C o n f r e r i e de S t . N i c h o l a s , had developed e a r l y i n the f o u r t e e n t h c entury. In 1342, the members of t h i s community r e c e i v e d a r o y a l l e t t e r of a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the members r e f e r to themselves i n t h i s document as " l e s compaignons c l e r c , et au t r e s p r o c u r e u r s et e s c r i p v a i n s frequentant l e P a l a i s et l a Court du Roy n o s t r e S i r e a P a r i s et a i l l e u r s " (the company of c l e r k s and other a t t o r n e y s and w r i t e r s c u s t o m a r i l y at the P a l a i s and the Court of the King our Lord a t P a r i s and e l s e w h e r e ) . 3 3 T h i s would suggest that the c l e r k s were a l r e a d y o r g a n i z e d i n some kind of a s s o c i a t i o n , and that the community a l r e a d y extended beyond the c i t y of P a r i s . A r u l i n g of 1367 which r e q u i r e d lawyers t o i t e m i z e , f o r t a x a t i o n purposes, t h e i r cases and the revenues therefrom, i n c l u d e d a separate c l a u s e f o r c l e r k s : "Et a u s s i l e s c l e r c s mettront en e s c r i p t ce q u ' i l s prendront de l e u r s e s c r i p t u r e s , se i l s sont a u s s i r e q u i s " (And the c l e r k s w i l l a l s o put i n w r i t i n g what they w i l l have taken with t h e i r w r i t t e n documents, s i n c e they are Harvey, The Theatre of the Basoche, p. 11. B a t a i l l a r d , L ' H i s t o i r e des Pro c u r e u r s, p. 422. 27 also required to do s o ) . 3 * Whether or-not the clerks c a l l e d themselves Basochiens at t h i s time, these ordinances prove that they held an established place within l e g a l society. In order to take up a l e g a l career, i t was necessary to have earned a law degree and then to have served several years as a c l e r k . Many of the clerks of the Parlement were of good family, serving t h e i r apprenticeship before becoming magistrates or advocates (although i t was also possible for the position to be held permanently). The young men within t h i s environment often shared the same q u a l i t i e s as students, and some of the Basoche f e s t i v i t i e s are similar to those of their university contemporaries. When one considers t h i s group, educated, young, exposed to the dramas of the courtroom and to the contentious side of society, i t i s not surprising that i t i s credited with developing secular comedy and s a t i r e . It has been observed frequently that the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , education and experience of the lawyers made them the only possible group through which development of a lay comic theatre could occur. The creative and legal environment described above was the one in which Deschamps and his colleagues would have worked. An attempt to explain some of the puzzles about the Chartre des  Fumeux becomes easier i f one takes into account these forces sympathetic to s a t i r i c a l l i t e r a r y thought. The Enfants-sans-Soucy had t h e i r Prince of Fools, and other societes joyeuses had even more elevated and f a n c i f u l names for their leaders; an 3 f t B a t a i l l a r d , L'Histoire des Procureurs, p. 435. 28 Empereur de toute Fumee would not appear unusual i n such company. P u t t i n g l e g a l knowledge to comic use was c e r t a i n l y one of the Basoche a c t i v i t i e s , and i t would not be hard to imagine young law students e n j o y i n g Deschamps' l e g a l p a r o d i e s . What kind of a t t i t u d e would have prompted the poet, speaking through Jehan Fumee, to produce a c h a r t e r f o r a small group of people, yet t o i n c l u d e w i t h i n i t the e n t i r e power-structure of medieval France? As soon as one l e a r n s t h a t the motto of the E n f a n t s -sans-Soucy was "numerus s t u l t o r u m e s t i n f i n i t u s " (the number of f o o l s i s i n f i n i t e ) , Jehan Fumee's combination of the p a r t i c u l a r and the g e n e r a l seems to be more p l a u s i b l e . Whether or not the fumeurs were Basochiens t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and h a b i t s resembled those of the law c l e r k s . Deschamps h e l d a number of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n h i s l i f e t i m e , but he a l s o had a l e g a l c a r e e r : he was j u r e f o r the Comte de Vertus i n 1367, and f o r much of h i s a d u l t c a r e e r he was a r o y a l b a i l l i , f i r s t of V a l o i s , i n 1375 and then, i n 1389, of S e n l i s i n the B r i e d i s t r i c t . 3 5 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that the C h a r t r e was w r i t t e n only a year a f t e r Deschamps was documented as being j u r e f o r the Count of V e r t u s . In the c l o s i n g formula of t h i s poem, one reads that Jehan Fumee (or Eustace) i s i n the t h i r d year of h i s r e i g n (253). T h i s would mean th a t he had been "Emperor" s i n c e 1366, when he would have been about twenty years o l d . Would t h i s have been a s u i t a b l e age f o r a law c l e r k at Vertus? I t would not be improbable, but 3 5 Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.11, pp. 13, 57. 29 the q u e s t i o n s i n v i t e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on Deschamps'early l i f e . 3 6 There are s e v e r a l passages i n the Chartre t h a t seem to look toward Basoche p r a c t i c e s . In the poem, Jehan Fumee's hoped-for j u r i s d i c t i o n e n a b l i n g him to t r y h i s own men, and h i s p e r c e i v e d g r a v i t y of the case (16-24), c a l l to mind the very r e a l j u r i s d i c t i o n h e l d by the Basoche over i t s own members, and some of the t r o u b l e s i t had i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s . 3 7 The emperor's comment that the fumeurs "are p l u r a l i n number/ And i n f i n i t i v e i n t h e i r great moods" (117-118) r e c a l l s i n i t s sentiment the motto of the Enfants-sans-Soucy, "the number of f o o l s i s i n f i n i t e " . I t was p o i n t e d out by Hoepffner that Jehan Fumee proposed to b r i n g h i s c o u r t together at Fumagor at a time t h a t would have been d u r i n g the C a r n i v a l p e r i o d , the very o c c a s i o n when the joyous s o c i e t i e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d t h e i r p l a y s , and when the Basochiens conducted t h e i r causes g r a s s e s . 3 8 Indeed, i t 3 6 I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e why Deschamps chose t o make Jehan Fumee the head of an 'empire' rather than of any other type of realm. There were other 'empires' i n the l a t e middle ages: to outdo t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s at the P a l a i s , who had a mere kingdom c a l l e d the Royaume de l a Basoche, the c l e r c s at the Chambre des Comptes formed the Empire de G a l i l e e . There was, furthermore, an 'empire' of the Basoche at the U n i v e r s i t y of O r l e a n s , famous f o r i t s law s c h o o l , although t h i s i s f r u s t r a t i n g l y undocumented i n modern s c h o l a r s h i p . Raynaud has c o n j e c t u r e d t h a t Deschamps r e c e i v e d h i s l e g a l t r a i n i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Orleans, and drew a t t e n t i o n to poems p r o v i n g that h i s own son went there a l s o to f o l l o w a l e g a l c a r e e r (see Oeuvres Completes, v.8, pp.96, 187.). A search f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the Orleans 'empire' and Deschamps' u n i v e r s i t y background might throw l i g h t on the i d e n t i t y of some of the fumeurs. 3 7 One should r e c a l l , f o r example, the judgement of Parlement f o r 1443 d e s c r i b e d above (p. 24). 3 8 Hoepffner, Eustache Deschamps, p. 51. W r i t i n g h i s C h a r t r e on December 9, Jehan Fume'e d e c l a r e d , "We i n t e n d , w i t h i n the next three months/ To h o l d our noble c o u n c i l .../ At Fumagor sur l a P e r r i e r e " (172-175). 30 sounds-as i f the emperor were proposing a meeting resembling a cause grasse, with the present poem functioning somewhat l i k e a cry, the entertaining parade-advertisement with which the law clerks would announce t h e i r forthcoming play a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , there i s a curious passage toward the end of the poem in which the emperor proposes penalties for those who have disobeyed orders to retain their hats during the winter. The penalty appears to include a fine of the very cloak and hood of the offender, and i t s immediate assignation to someone else, along with certain p r i v i l e g e s accruing to i t as well as a g i f t of wine (200-205, 216-230). This might be explained as another of the poem's absurdities, and one would do well to remember the poet's obsession with the dangers of baldness. But there may be yet another explanation for t h i s passage, since the penalty resembles a standard fine paid by Basochiens and g u a l i f i e d lawyers a l i k e : the confiscation of their hats, cloaks, or both. Fabre makes many references to t h i s p r a c t i c e , 3 9 and the rationale behind i t i s explained by Delachenal: The chaperons were of very great importance. Without them the advocates could not appear at the bar, and they functioned as a guarantee that the h u i s s i e r took over whenever an i n f r a c t i o n had been committed or a fine incurred.* 0 The Chartre des Fumeurs does therefore seem to express 3 9 Fabre, Les c l e r c s du Palais, pp. 16, 18, 59, 62-63, 74, 100, 151, 301, 330. *° Delachenal, L'Histoire des Avocats, p. 295. An advocate was always directed to 'cover h i m s e l f by the judge before coming to plead at the bar. Without his hat, he could not take part in courtroom procedure. 31 c e r t a i n thoughts and a t t i t u d e s that were de v e l o p i n g among c r e a t i v e groups of the time. Barbara Swain has w r i t t e n that i t was "the l a t e f o u r t e e n t h and e a r l y f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s when the p o p u l a r i t y of the idea of the f o o l seems to have emerged".* 1 She r e f e r s to s e v e r a l l i s t s of f o l l i e s from t h i s p e r i o d that c o n t a i n maxims concerned with human e r r o r . She s t a t e s t h a t the c o n t e n t s of one of these l i s t s almost d u p l i c a t e i n negative form the commands f o r l i v i n g the u p r i g h t l i f e given i n the famous c o l l e c t i o n of manuscripts a t t r i b u t e d to Cato. A comparison of the two shows how completely the f o o l c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as the exact a n t i t h e s i s of the u p r i g h t man.*2 Comparing Swain's l i s t of f o o l s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h those of the fumeurs, i t becomes easy to conclude that the poem was c o n c e i v e d on a standard theme. Swain's l i s t i n c l u d e s : c r e d u l i t y , f a i t h l e s s n e s s to promises, meddling, mischievousness, t a l k a t i v e n e s s , lack of r e t i c e n c e and c a u t i o n , ready anger, impatience, and the w i l l i n g n e s s to o f f e r unwanted a d v i c e . * 3 The other three fumeur Commissions narrow the scope of a c t i v i t y , however, f o r each one i s set i n a s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t y , and appears t o r e f e r t o r e a l people. The ' l e g a l ' tone of these works i s very n o t i c e a b l e , and i n t h e i r s t r u c t u r e they i m i t a t e the formal procedure of a judge's summary of evidence and f i n a l 4 1 Swain, F o o l s and F o l l y , p. 15. 4 2 Swain, F o o l s and F o l l y , p. 15. Swain a l s o p o i n t s to the other obvious source of wisdom to be d e l i b e r a t e l y i n v e r t e d , the Book of Proverbs. 4 3 Swain, F o o l s and F o l l y , p. 21. 32 judgement. ** I t was p o s s i b l y these works that l e d Harvey to suggest that the e a r l y l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s of the Basochiens c o u l d have been dramatic monologues. He s p e c u l a t e d , from the evidence of these poems, t h a t Deschamps "may have been a s s o c i a t e d at one time with a s o c i e t y of law s t u d e n t s " . * 5 He c o n s i d e r e d that while Deschamps' one l e g a l f a r c e , the Farce de M a i s t r e T r u b e r t , r e p r e s e n t s only p a r t i a l l y the Basoche p o i n t of view, i t would have appealed only to an audience composed of members of the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n . * 6 The poem s a t i r i z e s both the cocksure type of v i l l a g e lawyer and the too-greedy l i t i g a n t out to rob h i s f e l l o w under p r e t e x t of the law. Deschamps c e r t a i n l y shows i n t h i s work a f a m i l i a r i t y with the r e g u l a r and sharp p r a c t i c e s of lawyers as w e l l as with d a i l y abuses of j u s t i c e t h a t c o u l d o c c u r . 0 7 D'une Autre Commission D'un Chien T h i s poem i s again a l e g a l l e t t e r d i c t a t e d by Eustace, emperor of the fumeurs. I t d e s c r i b e s the t h e f t of some meat by a dog, the subsequent i n s u l t i n g a c t i o n of the animal, and the c r e a t u r e ' s judging and s e n t e n c i n g . The parody once more uses the language and procedure of a s e r i o u s model i n an absurd context and f o r an i n a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t . As i n the C h a r t r e , ** A u b a i l l y , i n Le monologue, p. 104, g i v e s the procedure as: "adresse, expos! des m o t i f s q u i ont p r e s i d e a 1 ' e l a b o r a t i o n de l ' a c t e , jugement rendu, ordre d'execution et expose des penitences encourues en cas de non r e s p e c t de 1'ordonnance". * 5 Harvey, The Theatre of the Basoche, p. 71, fn.3; p. 72, fn.7. * 6 For the Farce de M a i s t r e T r u b e r t et d'Antrongnart, see Oeuvres  Completes, v.7, p. 155. The r u b r i c before the poem reads: "Comment un homme t r o v a un a u t r e en son j a r d i n c u e i l l a n t une amende et comment i l l e f i s t mettre en p r i s o n et du jugement q u i en f u t f a i t " . * 7 See Harvey, Theatre of the Basoche, pp. 71-83. 33 there i s a descent i n t o a b s u r d i t y at the end of the poem. The short g r e e t i n g which begins the l e t t e r (1-3), i s from Eustace to one Robin l e Queux. The context of the r e s t of the poem conf i r m s t h a t " l e Queux" should be read as a trade t i t l e , "the cook". I t appears that we have an emperor sending a j u d i c i a l order to a cook about a dog that has s t o l e n some meat! Once more, the b a t h e t i c world of the fumeurs i s invoked, i n which normal procedure i s s a t i r i z e d . * 8 The emperor's grievance i s as f o l l o w s : f i r s t , the dog e n t e r e d h i s c e l l a r and s t o l e , t o r e a p a r t and ate ten p i e c e s of mutton. T h i s alone i s s u f f i c i e n t outrage to b r i n g down a l l s o r t s of charges on the animal's head, s i n c e i t was Committing domestic t h e f t And the crime of robbery And of p i l l a g e and l a r c e n y . (17-19) But the second cause f o r grievance i s much worse, f o r i t g r e a t l y o f f e n d s the d i g n i t y of the emperor: What was even worse, the dog, F u l l of m i s c h i e f , on the f l o o r Went and r e l e a s e d h i s f i l t h y gut, So that i n h i s tremendous i n s o l e n c e He p i s s e d i n our face And s o i l e d us and our men Who were a s l e e p because of the wind o u t s i d e , So much t h a t he succeeded i n waking us. Strange as the s t o r y i s , Deschamps was not the f i r s t t o pass judgement on a t h i e v i n g dog. Raynaud drew a t t e n t i o n to the Greek s a t i r e on j u r i s t s i n A r i s t o p h a n e s ' s , The Wasps, i n which a t r i a l - h u n g r y c i t i z e n - j u r i s t s e t s up c o u r t i n h i s own home and, i n d e s p e r a t i o n , t r i e s the house-dog. I t i s not known i f Deschamps would have ever come a c r o s s t h i s c l a s s i c a l p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e . See Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.11, p. 282). 34 And i f we did not know whence t h i s came For the f i r s t whi le , well then we soon knew For cer ta in that the dog had done i t , And what i s more, shat on us , Holding our empire in l i t t l e esteem, And because of which we have no desire to laugh . . . . (22-36) Should the company of men be seen as a group who were sleeping off the e f f e c t s of dr ink , and even as the rea l eaters of the mutton—no less than ten pieces of i t - t h a t the dog was a l leged to have destroyed? One could imagine them waking to a scene of mutual embarrassment u n t i l the dog could be blamed. Whether the af f ront i s rea l or not , Eustace orders. Robin le Queux to take charge of the punishment. Using once more h is best l e g a l s t y l e , he says: And because such wrong-doing Comes under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of your o f f i c e , And since a l l chastisement, The f ine and the punishment For t h i s misdeed i s your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . (39-43) The punishments are l i s t e d in meticulous d e t a i l , with Eustace spec i fy ing how the dog should be beaten, and with what implement, should i t show i t s e l f in c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s (45-66). The l i s t moves into absurdity at the point when Eustace declares that he w i l l banish forever those c le rks who do not beat the animal, should i t enter the i r chamber. He launches into a t i rade against these new of fenders , t rans fe r ing h is outrage now to the po ten t ia l s tup id i ty of h is men. If they hide to escape the i r punishment of being shorn and then banished, they must be beaten, 35 ... so that i n our h o s t e l there i s none so deaf That he c o u l d not e a s i l y hear them y e l l From the i n j u r i e s t h a t we w i l l do to them. (82-84) Eustace s i g n s o f f as the d i g n i t a r y that he i s , but with a f i n a l j oke, s a y i n g to h i s s e c r e t a r y , "Given out under our s e a l a t Fymes./ Put a f u l l stop t h e r e , Rochet, I've j u s t run out of rhymes" (82-84). There are s e v e r a l t h i n g s to note about t h i s poem. I t appears to be taken f o r granted that the audience knows of the fumeurs, s i n c e there i s no d e l i b e r a t e d i n t r o d u c t i o n to them as there was i n the C h a r t r e . The only two s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s to the fumeurs a r e , moreover, q u i t e c a s u a l l y i n c l u d e d : i n the opening address, one hears of "Eustace, empereur des Fumeux/ A nostre ame Robin l e Queux" (1-2), and, f o l l o w i n g the dog's i n s u l t , there i s Eustace's complaint that the c r e a t u r e holds h i s empire as "worth l i t t l e " (35). I t would seem that the idea of the fumeurs was w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d by the time that t h i s poem was w r i t t e n . One can ask who might be the c l e r s mentioned i n l i n e 67 of t h i s work. The emperor says: And i f he [the dog] goes i n t o the c l e r k s ' chamber, I f he does not leave c l o t h e d i n blue [ i . e . b r u i s e d ] From the s t r e n g t h of a sound b e a t i n g , They w i l l be shorn l i k e f o o l s ... (67-70) Since i t was normal at t h i s time f o r church c l e r i c s to be tonsured, i t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s t h r e a t i s d i r e c t e d toward l e g a l c l e r k s , who would s t i l l have had t h e i r h a i r ! 36 A c c o r d i n g to the poet, t h i s commission was d i c t a t e d at Fismes (89; see the map i n Appendix A) . Deschamps was made c h a t e l a i n , hence governor there i n 1382." 9 I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s poem was not, t h e r e f o r e , a y o u t h f u l work l i k e the C h a r t r e , but w r i t t e n when the poet was a l r e a d y a r o y a l b a i 1 1 i , i n charge of h i s own household. In such a case, the poet's w r i t i n g j u d i c i a l sentences i n parody would have been born of h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s as a l e g a l a u t h o r i t y of the r o y a l f a m i l y . The manuscripts of Deschamps' poems appear not to have been o r g a n i z e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , although s e v e r a l s u c c e s s i v e poems f r e q u e n t l y appear to be r e l a t e d . The t i t l e of t h i s poem suggests that there were other s i m i l a r commissions before i t (D'une a u t r e commission . . . ) , and that t h i s work was c o p i e d out of o r d e r . Of the two f o l l o w i n g works, the f i r s t has no year a s s i g n e d to i t , and the second i s dated 1370. T h i s may lend some support to the idea that the present work i s f a i r l y l a t e among the fumeur poems. Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.11, pp.32-35, v.1, p. 214. In one poem, Deschamps requested money f o r renovations to the tour de Fymes, h i s r e s i d e n c e , s i n c e i t s draughts had made h i s head heavy with c o l d s , or "enfumee" as he termed i t (v.2, p. 105). 37 Cy P a r l e D'une Sentence Donnee Contre Aucuns De V i t r y Pour Un  Debat Meu Soudainement E n t r ' e u l x (May 23 [no Year]) The f o l l o w i n g events are r e l a t e d i n t h i s commission: one n i g h t i n the t a v e r n , a s e r i e s of f i g h t s breaks out. Each d i s t u r b a n c e i s catalogued i n the commission's r e p o r t (4-26). When a l l the arguments are under way, the scene appears to be very heated: There you might have seen i n very great d i s o r d e r , D i s s e n s i o n going on i n s i x or seven p l a c e s And f i g h t i n g and arguments s t a r t i n g up ... (36-38) F i n a l l y , the b a i 1 1 i , who i s d r i n k i n g i n the same tavern when the rowdiness o c c u r s before h i s very eyes (21), requests the o f f e n d e r s t o appear before him. The emperor e x p l a i n s that only h i s i m p e r i a l c o u r t has the a u t h o r i t y f o r such a c t i o n , has h i s procureur request h i s men's r e t u r n , and a f t e r reviewing the 'evidence' f o r the case, passes the l i g h t e s t and most agreeable sentence t h a t c o u l d be imagined. The summary of the evidence goes thus: Seeing that t h i s was a f t e r supper And that the a c t i o n of the wine Made them begin the f r a c a s C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the morning a f t e r , Each one had more t h i r s t than hunger, And that as soon as they got up, They went s t r a i g h t to d r i n k i n g i n c o n t i n e n t l y , Because i t was the wine they had drunk that evening Which had caused them most of t h e i r g r i e f , C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t they c o u l d not r e c a l l A h a l f of t h e i r arguments, And that whoever wishes to uphold our order Should not bear a n i m o s i t y .... (76-88) 38 Lack of memory of the events appears to be an advantage among fumeurs who are not meant to h o l d grudges! The emperor sentences a l l concerned to be f r i e n d s , and to d r i n k together i n amity: Thus we order that a serqent be ready Who, i n order to f i n i s h t h i s q u a r r e l , Should f i l l the wine-glass completely f u l l , In c a r r y i n g out t h i s sentence, And should t e l l everyone to begin To d r i n k . (106-111.) Although one does not come a c r o s s the names Jehan Fumee or Eustace i n t h i s work, the empire and the order of the fumeurs i s s t i l l very p r e s e n t , with i t s world of c o n t r a r y v a l u e s . For example, the emperor expresses d i s a p p r o v a l t h a t , at a time when a l l of the brawlers were upholding the order of la. Fumee, h i s own c h i e f m i n i s t e r s sat q u i e t l y , t a k i n g no p a r t : There, from t h e i r manner, one c o u l d p i c k out Those who must be under the banner Of our empire. They were a l l worse than our own men: Le Poursuigant, our e'cuyer, And our fumous c h a n c e l l o r , C l o a r t Cathon; these l a t t e r shut up And d i d not emit one b i t of fum£e, Showing i n themselves wisdom f o r no good reason, And d e f i l i n g our customs In a cowardly manner; and t h i s d i s p l e a s e s us. (49-59) In true c o n t r a r y f a s h i o n , i t i s the rowdies who gain the emperor's a p p r o v a l , "who showed themselves t o be true s u b j e c t s " (61), through t h e i r fumousness, each "conducting h i m s e l f / Ac c o r d i n g t o the i n s t i t u t i o n of l a Fumee/ While fuming s t r o n g l y i n every case" (28-31). 39 I t must have been t h i s poem that convinced Raynaud that the fumeurs were a d r i n k i n g s o c i e t y . The poem i s d i c t a t e d "en l a t a v e r n e " (115), which, we are t o l d , i s the p l a c e "whence our empire makes i t s r e g u l a t i o n s " ( 4 ) . The f i n a l scene of t h i s work, p e a c e f u l and b i b u l o u s , i s one of fumeur b l i s s , as the men undergo t h e i r 'sentence', . . . t h e i r eyes shut, According to the s t a t e of la Fume'e, In peace, the q u a r r e l i n g done with. (111-113) There i s s u f f i c i e n t l e g a l jargon and parody of l e g a l procedure, however, to suggest that there were yet other mutual c o n d i t i o n s which c o u l d have drawn the fumeur audience t o g e t h e r . In p l a c e s throughout the poem, phrases occur that were common i n the vocabulary of o f f i c i a l c o u r t r u l i n g s . Some of these can be c i t e d as examples: The e x p r e s s i o n "meu c o n t r e quelqu'un" (moved a g a i n s t someone) was commonly used when d e s c r i b i n g c o u r t proceedings being brought by a p a r t y . In Le Grand Coutumier, a f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y compendium of l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s and procedure, one reads, f o r example: "Quant aucun debat de n o u v e l l e t e . . . est meu e n t r e . . . " (When an argument of n o u v e l l e t e . . . i s put forward between . . . ) . 5 0 T h i s i s the same phrase that i s found i n the r u b r i c above the poem: D' une sentence donnee c o n t r e aucuns pour un debat meu soudainement e n t r ' e u l x . Deschamps c l e a r l y found a coy way of 5 0 t£ Grand Coutumier, ed. Laboulaye and R. Dareste ( P a r i s : Auguste Durand et P e d o n e - L a u r i e l , L i b r a i r e s , 1868), p. 264. 40 r e f e r r i n g to the tavern brawls. The l e g a l s t y l e of w r i t i n g i s noted f o r i t s exact and o f t e n laboured p r e c i s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s q u i t e t y p i c a l : Par bons a v i s et d e l i b e r a t i o n avons ordonne^ et ordonnons de c e r t a i n e s c i e n c e et a u c t o r i t e r o y a l par ces pre'sentes, que de cy en avant n ' a i t en nostre d i t C h a s t e l l e t que quarante p r o c u r e u r s generale ... Lequel nombre ... nous voulons et ordonnons e s t r e tenu sans e n f r a i n d r e par quelque personne que ce s o i t . 5 1 One can compare with t h i s the orders given i n t h i s poem by Eustace: Avons a d r o i t d i t et d i s o n s Que toutes l e s d i c t e s p a r t i e s Qui par courroux f u r e n t p a r t i e s Sont, demeurent et demourront Bon ami ... (94-98) There can be no doubt of the w r i t e r ' s f a m i l i a r i t y with the law, and of h i s i n t e n t i o n t o amuse, with t h i s knowledge, o t h e r s who were of s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e . Hoepffner has p o i n t e d out t h a t two b a i l l i s are mentioned in t h i s poem. 5 2 The f i r s t happened to be d r i n k i n g at the t a v e r n when the f i g h t s broke out; the second i s the one who a p p a r e n t l y d i c t a t e d and s e a l e d the l e t t e r f o r the commission: Under the s e a l of our b a i l i f f , Given out i n the tavern amid g l e e , The t w e n t y - t h i r d day of May. (114-116) 5 1 B a t a i l l a r d , L ' H i s t o i r e des Procureurs, p. 436. The e x t r a c t i s from an ordinance dated 1378. 5 2 Hoepffner, Eustache Deschamps, p. 52. 41 In a d d i t i o n , one reads i n the poem that the procureur general managed t o o b t a i n the r e t u r n of "our men" to the " b a i 1 1 i au roy" (72). T h i s makes i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o n f u s i n g . I s one d e a l i n g with a mock i n s t i t u t i o n , a mock b a i 1 1 i du roy, i n i m i t a t i o n of a Basoche o r g a n i z a t i o n , or should t h i s poem a l s o be regarded as f a i r l y l a t e , w r i t t e n a f t e r Deschamps' appointment as r o y a l b a i l l i ? 5 3 The s e t t i n g of t h i s poem and the p e r s o n a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n i t appear to have been r e a l . The town of V i t r y was c l o s e to Deschamps' home (see the map i n Appendix A ) . Deschamps g i v e s the names of those f i g h t i n g , and sometimes t h e i r s t a t u s or p o s i t i o n , as w e l l as that of h i s own men:"Gerart, m a i s t r e des  requestes of our h o s t e l " (6-7), Jehan Deschamps, messire Ogier, A r n a u l t l e T a p i c i e r , Robinet, A r n a u l t l e c l e r c (33), "Le Poursuigant, our ecuyer" (53), "our fumous c h a n c e l l o r C l o a r t Cathon" (55), and one "who spoke l o u d l y / And who i s chevaucheur to the k i n g " (35). One can imagine a s c e n a r i o i n which people c l o s e l y connected with Deschamps' fumeurs ( l e Poursuigant and Cathon) are i n v o l v e d i n a tavern d i s t u r b a n c e among f r i e n d s c a s u a l l y admitted i n t o t h e i r company. Of what importance i n t h i s poem are the d e s i g n a t i o n s ecuyer and " c h a n c e l l o r " f o r Deschamps' two men? Can one assume again a mock h i e r a r c h y f o r 5 3 One of the jobs of a b a i l l i would have been t o hear appeals from s e i g n e u r i a l and v i l l a g e a s s i z e s . T h i s o v e r r i d i n g of j u r i s d i c t i o n may be what i s s a t i r i z e d here. Hoepffner maintains t h a t V i t r y was under the d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y of the king, and t h e r e f o r e not s u b j e c t to the l o c a l b a i l l i , who i n t h i s poem cl a i m s a j u r i s d i c t i o n that does not e x i s t . H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the poem i s d i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w , however. See Hoepffner, Eustache Deschamps, p. 52. 42 the order of La Fumee s i m i l a r to t h a t of the Basochiens, or were these a p p e l a t i o n s ephemeral, and produced merely to round out the f i c t i o n ? C'est La Commission Des Loups D'Esparqnay Sur La R i v i e r e De  Marne (November 4, 1370) In h i s index, the compiler of the manuscript c a l l e d the poem: Commission des loups en cas de n o u v e l l e t e contre c e u l x  d'Espargnay. 5* N o u v e l l e t e was an important c o u r t a c t i o n i n which a clai m a n t t r i e d t o prove p o s s e s s i o n of and r e c l a i m e s t a b l i s h e d r i g h t s to p r o p e r t y and i t s revenues ( c a l l e d s a i s i n e ) from a r i v a l a l l e g e d to have r e c e n t l y o b s t r u c t e d the enjoyment of such r i g h t s . 5 5 The many circumstances by which such an a c t i o n was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e are d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c l u d e d i n the d e t a i l s of the poem. I t i s c l e a r that i t was intended o n l y f o r people f a m i l i a r with the c o u r t procedures f o r t h i s a c t i o n . The poem f o l l o w s , o f t e n word-for-word, the model l e t t e r s i n c l u d e d i n the 5 * Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.1, p. 62.) 5 5 Property l a w s u i t s were at t h i s time always t r i e d by the Crown j u r i s t s , making causes of n o u v e l l e t e part of Deschamps' experience as a r o y a l judge. The Grand Coutumier, which d e a l s w i t h n o u v e l l e t e a t gre a t l e n g t h , makes i t c l e a r t h a t i t was concerned with recent c h a l l e n g e s t o pro p e r t y r i g h t s ; d e f i n i n g a c t i o n s r e e l l e s , i t s t a t e s : E l l e s sont sur nouvel t r o u b l e de s a i s i n e ou sur v i e u l x empeschemens .... Et pour ce, nous p a r l e r o n s premferement de c e l l e s q u i sont sur nouvel t r o u b l e . Les aucuns s ' a p p e l l e n t : cas de n o u v e l l e t e .... Et l e s a u l t r e s : nouvel  t r o u b l e e t empeschment de s a i s i n e (p.494). See a l s o pp. 231-257, 494-514, 748-756. 43 Grand Coutumier f o r commissions on n o u v e l l e t e . 5 6 That Deschamps was able to produce such l e g a l l y exact w r i t i n g w i t h i n h i s rhyming, w i t t y poem a t t e s t s to a comic g i f t that i s not always acknowledged i n t h i s poet. The fumeur conne c t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d immediately with Eustace's f i r s t words: The emperor of a l l Fumee Who has fumed on many t h i n g s , Always august i n s t r e n g t h , C o n t i n u i n g to fume s t r o n g l y ... (1-4) The l e t t e r i s addressed to two men, the sergent, or p o l i c e o f f i c e r Jehan du Gart and another, G u i l l e m i n de Nogent. The emperor d e s c r i b e s the complainants i n t h i s case and t h e i r manner when l o d g i n g t h e i r complaint: c l e a r l y , i n t i m i d a t i o n of the judge has taken p l a c e : At n i g h t , g r i e v o u s l y have complained The o l d and young Of the f a m i l y of brother Louvel [=wolf], Otherwise c a l l e d Y s a n g r i n , Dame Hersant, and t h e i r k i n , Around our house des Champs, With c r i e s and awful c h a n t i n g , Y e l l i n g , as i f out of t h e i r minds, In a horribly-composed r a c k e t Of four or f i v e hundred v o i c e s together, Which made our heart tremble with f e a r .... (8-18) I f the wolves do not get s a t i s f a c t i o n of the judge, they say t h a t they w i l l avenge themselves on h i s own l i v e s t o c k . The pack 5 6 See Appendix B. The standard commission l e t t e r reproduced there has the r u b r i c : Autre forme: S a i s i n e et n o u v e l l e t e de  s a i s i n e . Et premierement de l a commission sur ce r e q u i s e . See Le Grand Coutumier, p. 497. P o r t i o n s of Deschamps' poem are i n c l u d e d i n the appendix f o r comparison with t h i s standard l e t t e r . 44 complains of v i o l a t i o n of i t s r i g h t of access and s a i s i n e i n the f o r t r e s s - t o w n of Epernay, a f t e r the townsfolk had r e c e n t l y taken i t upon themselves to renovate i t and make i t impregnable to a l l p r e d a t o r s . T h i s newly-developed o b s t r u c t i o n to s a i s i n e r i g h t s i s the reason why the wolves wish t o b r i n g an a c t i o n of nouvellete^. The s t o r y i s c e r t a i n l y s a t i r i c a l , t r e a t i n g as a l e g a l matter the n a t u r a l e f f o r t s of townsfolk to p r o t e c t themselves, whether from r e a l wolves or from metaphorical ones sta n d i n g f o r human agencies of u n f a i r e x a c t i o n such as r o u t i e r s , demanding seigneurs or other landowners. The rapaciousness of the animals i s c o n s i d e r a b l e , and they have taken as t h e i r customary r i g h t : cows, goats, ewes, p i g s , Horses, and c a r r i e d them o u t s i d e , K i l l e d , eaten and devoured Around Vinay and around C u i s , And a l l around the f o r t r e s s , I t s l e n g t h and breadth, Taken geese, ducks and hens In f u l l d a y l i g h t , and great head Of c a t t l e and other l i v e s t o c k . (29-37) The wolves' case, or a t l e a s t Eustace's r e p o r t i n g of i t , i s c l e v e r l y brought, s i n c e the f a c t s i n c l u d e d i n the report r e i n f o r c e t h e i r s t r o n g p o s i t i o n as r i g h t f u l owners under the terms of the law. The Grand Coutumier d e s c r i b e s three types of po s s e s s i o n t h a t q u a l i f y the owner f o r s a i s i n e : p o s s e s s i o n a c q u i r e d through o c c u p a t i o n , p o s s e s s i o n a c q u i r e d through s u c c e s s i o n , and p o s s e s s i o n a c q u i r e d through the f a c t of 45 t r a d i t i o n . 5 7 The wolves s a t i s f y a l l three of these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as f a r as the r e p o r t of t h e i r case goes. I t i s emphasized i n the poem that the l i n e a g e of Ysangrin i s i n v o l v e d , and that the predecessors had had the same r i g h t s (21) as the present complainants, thus s a t i s f y i n g the i n h e r i t a n c e c l a u s e f o r s a i s i n e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t the wolves were never c h a l l e n g e d as they helped themselves t o food. To q u a l i f y f o r s a i s i n e r i g h t s , one had to have enjoyed unchallenged ownership, and "not at a l l ... through f o r c e , nor s e c r e t l y , nor through p r a y e r , but p e a c e f u l l y , p u b l i c l y , and not with recourse to b r i b e r y nor to p r e s s u r e " . 5 8 T h i s very freedom and openness seems to have been enjoyed by the wolves, as q u o t a t i o n s from the poem w i l l show. They had: en t r y and r i g h t s to goods Wi t h i n the boundaries and e n c l o s u r e Of Eparnay, the o l d f o r t i f i e d town Where they have been many times In view of everyone, openly, Without having any impedence Taken cows . and other l i v e s t o c k F r e e l y , with l i t t l e t r o u b l e And a l l other prey f o r f r e e . Which those i n the town have known about •And always have known, without making o p p o s i t i o n . (23-28, 37-39, 44-45) There was a minimum time of a year and a day of unchallenged ownership t o q u a l i f y f o r r i g h t of s a i s i n e . 5 9 The l e n g t h of time 5 7 Le Grand Coutumier, p. 231. The e n t i r e sentence reads: " l i s sont t r o i s especes de p o s s e s s i o n s s u f f i s a n t a s a i s i n e ; c ' e s t a s s a v o i r : p o s s e s s i o n acquise par oc c u p a t i o n , p o s s e s s i o n a c q u i s e par s u c c e s s i o n , p o s s e s s i o n acquise par t r a d i t i o n de f a i t " . 5 8 See Le Grand Coutumier, p. 231. 5 9 See Le Grand Coutumier", p. 231. 46 i n which an owner had h e l d such r i g h t s a l s o appeared to strengthen h i s p r i v i l e g e . For example, one reads i n a r e p o r t of a case i n the Grand Coutumier: T h i s p o s s e s s i o n and s a i s i n e he had maintained and c o n t i n u e d to do so, as much with h i s own person as by h i s own people and p r e d e c e s s o r s , f o r which he had reason, f o r one, two, t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , s i x , t e n , twenty and t h i r t y years or more and f o r the i n t e r v e n i n g and l a t t e r y e a r s , and f o r such a very long time t h a t i t i s s u f f i c i e n t and must s u f f i c e f o r having a c q u i r e d good p o s s e s s i o n and s a i s i n e . . . . 6 0 The very same wording i s used i n the poem f o r d e s c r i b i n g the l e n g t h of time that the wolves had enjoyed t h e i r r i g h t s . F o r t u n a t e l y , the passage above g i v e s the true sense of l i n e 49 of the poem, i n which the word "years" had been omitted i n the o r i g i n a l : And a l l that i s w r i t t e n above, The aforementioned p o s s e s s i o n And the s a i s i n e , they have kept, During one year, two, t h r e e , f o u r , Ten, twenty, without r e s t o r i n g anything, And f o r so long a time t h a t , t r u l y , There i s no r e c o r d of i t being otherwise. (46-52) The commission r e p o r t s that the impediments had been b u i l t w i t h i n the l a s t year, and t h a t s i n c e t h a t time, the butchers' dogs had enjoyed the meat t h a t o r d i n a r i l y would have gone to the wolves (65-67, 110-113). T h i s i s again p r e c i s e l y i n a c c o r d with the a c t i o n of n o u v e l l e t e o u t l i n e d i n the Grand Coutumier, s i n c e a l l complaints had to be of "recent t r o u b l e " , and brought w i t h i n 6 o Le Grand Coutumier, p. 501. 47 a year of the problem o c c u r r i n g . 6 1 I t i s c l e a r t h a t the beleaguered judge has set out a very s t r o n g case f o r the wolves, and on the s t r e n g t h of i t , he orders the r e s t o r a t i o n of t h e i r r i g h t s . As i n the standard l e t t e r s on nouvellete', the judge then o u t l i n e s what must happen should the butc h e r s ' dogs choose to appeal t h i s r e s t o r a t i o n : before a n y t h i n g e l s e , they have to make r e s t i t u t i o n to the wolf-pack f o r the p r o f i t s that had been l o s t , and then request a c o u r t h e a r i n g , to occur at the s i t e of the c h a l l e n g e d p r o p e r t y . A n t i c i p a t i n g t h i s , the judge orders an a r b i t r a t i o n f o r the f o l l o w i n g day, g i v i n g an abs u r d l y short p e r i o d of n o t i c e . As p r e s c r i b e d by the judge, t h i s c h a l l e n g e i s c e r t a i n to be v i o l e n t : Give them t h e i r c o u r t a s s i z e s tomorrow, That i s to say, to the s a i d dogs, To Hersant and Ysangrin, Before Baussant the boar,* To d e s t r o y or k i l l them Between Sommesous and Trecon; And l e t there be no k n i f e nor s t i c k , Save f o r t h e i r hide and t h e i r t e e t h , For l a s h i n g out on every s i d e . . . . (164-172) *In the Roman de Renart, whence come the proper names "Hersant", "Ysangrin" and "Baussant", the boar was t r a d i t i o n a l l y an i n t e r m e d i a r y i n c i v i l cases and d i s p u t e s . We have a l r e a d y been t o l d i n the poem, however, that the dogs had never dared to c o n f r o n t the wolves before the r e -f o r t i f i c a t i o n of the town had oc c u r r e d (61-64, 107-113), and i t 6 1 See Le Grand Coutumier, p. 238: "Item en ce cas de n o u v e l l e t e ' on se d o i t complaindre dedans l ' a n " . 48 may be that they would not dare to appear on t h i s o c c a s i o n e i t h e r . I t c o u l d be j u s t what the judge hopes f o r , s i n c e i n . medieval law, both p a r t i e s had to be present at a l a w s u i t , or e l s e the c h a l l e n g e r would l o s e h i s cause, the case being decided i n favour of the p a r t y a p p e a r i n g . 6 2 An expert understanding of medieval French law might p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the louche d i r e c t i o n of a m a g i s t r a t e ' s power that i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s poem. With only an elementary understanding of some of the contemporary l e g a l a s p e c t s , i t i s s t i l l c l e a r t h at the poet d i d not waste l i n e s i n t h i s work: every d e t a i l c o n t r i b u t e s to Deschamps' purpose of d e s c r i b i n g the absurd and p r e j u d i c e d case i n i t s proper l e g a l c o n t e x t . Such e f f o r t c o u l d not have been made f o r the u n i n i t i a t e d . A l s o of i n t e r e s t i n the poem i s the l o c a l nature of i t s s e t t i n g . The place-names t h a t are mentioned are a l l w i t h i n c l o s e range of Deschamps' home town of V e r t u s . 6 3 In the poem, the emperor r e f e r s to h i s own house, des Champs (13), j u s t o u t s i d e V e r t u s , as w e l l as to Epernay, Vinay, C u i s , ChSlons, Sommesous, Trecon, S a i n t - L a d r e , M a r d e u i l and M a r u e l l e s . In a d d i t i o n , he seems to assume a knowledge of l o c a l matters i n h i s audience, s i n c e he a l s o r e f e r s by name to farm-tenants of the area: 6 2 See Le Grand Coutumier, p. 783. "Et s i l e demandeur se l a i s s e mettre en d e f f a u l t a u d i t j o u r , i l p e r t sa cause." 6 3 See the map i n Appendix A . T h i s map, of the Champagne area, has marked on i t the numerous p l a c e s mentioned both i n t h i s poem and i n other fumeur and r e l a t e d works. 49 We, to the s a i d wolves, g i v e leave From now on and f o r e v e r , That everywhere, from now on, Where they might f i n d animals Outside the f o r t r e s s , t o devour them, And that they l i e i n wait To take them by s u r p r i s e , i n f a c t , Be i t toward S a i n t Ladre or toward M a r d e u i l , Taking from c l o s e by Jehan de M a r e u i l , And the cows of Jehan des R u e l l e s . (184-194) L i k e the poem on the t a v e r n - f i g h t at Ve r t u s , t h i s one has a well-known s e t t i n g , although the area r e f e r r e d to i s l a r g e enough to suggest a p a r t i c u l a r area of c i v i l and l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . One can only wonder i f some l o c a l i n j u s t i c e had prompted the poet t o w r i t e of the r e g i o n i n t h i s way. The work ends with a l a s t r e f e r e n c e to l a Fumee, and another pun on s t u p i d i t y , head-colds and b r a i n - f r e e z i n g : Given at l e s Champs, our d o m i c i l e , Where a l l the winds are at t h e i r best, By the f i r e i n our c o l d chamber, The f o u r t h day of November In the year one thousand t h r e e hundred and seventy, [We] who were s t i f f e n e d with the c o l d From w r i t i n g t h i s fumee Which has s t u f f e d up our head. (203-210) Information about these four fumeur poems has been summarized i n t a b l e 1 (see p. 50). The aspects that they have i n common are t h e i r tone of j u d i c i a l parody, the assumption of l e g a l knowledge being e s p e c i a l l y marked i n the Commission des  loups d'Espargnay. In three of the poems, the l o c a l s e t t i n g s and atmosphere of easy camaraderie are a l s o common elements. But d i s t u r b i n g l y , names o c c u r r i n g i n one poem never reappear i n another, and the p l a c e of d i c t a t i o n v a r i e s . 50 TITLE OF POEM PLACE OF DICTATION DATE PLACE-NAMES PERSONS' NAMES SUMMARY OF POEM La chartre des fumeux. "donnee en nostre chambre" (249) Dec. 9, 1368. "le t i e r s an de nostre empire" (253) The emperor of the fumeurs describes the personalities of his subjects, to allow his lawyers to prepare a defense for some who are in legal trouble. The emperor announces a plenary session of his court, and then fulminates against the fumosite' of his courtiers, the cause of their stupidity. He passes a law against hat-raising in winter to prevent the freezing of their brains. D'une aultre commission d'un chien. "Donnee soubz nostre seel a Fymes" (89) [no date] Fismes (89) Robin le Queux (l) Regnault, nostre hostes (52) Rochet (secretary, 90) The emperor describes the crime of a dog that stole ten pieces of meat from a c e l l a r and then messed on those men sleeping there. He sentences the dog to a variety of beatings, and threatens those who neglect to carry out the sentence with a number of punishments of their owns being shorn, being beaten, and being banished. Cy parle d'une sentence donnee contre aucuns de Vitry pour un debat raeu soudainement entr'eulx. "Donnee en l a taverne, en glay" (115) May 23, fno year] . Vitry ( t i t l e ) Maistre Gerart/ Des requestes de nostre hostel (6-7) Jehan Deschamps (8) Messire Ogier (23) Arnault le Tapicier (24) Robinet (33) le clerc Arnault (33) un aultre qui parloit hault/ et qui est chevaucheur du Boy (34-35) Le Poursuigant, nostre escuier (53) Nostre fumeux chancellier,/ Cloart Cathon (55) The emperor describes several fights that break out among inebriated drinking companions, his success at removing them from the power of the presiding b a i l i f f , due to his superiority as emperor of the fumeurs, and his subsequent judgement and sentencing of the charged men. Being too drunk to remember their actions, they have not nursed grudges, which Is in accordance with fumeur mores. The sentence i s to drink together in amity. C'est l a commission des loups d'iispargnay sur l a r i v i e r e de Hame. "Donne" aux Champs, nostre maison/ ... Au feu de nostre froide chambre" (203-205) Nov. 4, 1370. River Marne ( t i t l e ) Epemay (25) Vinay (32) Cuis (32) Chalons-sur Marne (93) " l a porte de Jehan Lucas" (95J Sommesous (169) Trecon (169) Saint-Ladre (191) fcardeuil (191) les Champs (203) Jehan du Gart, nostre sergent (5) Guillemin de Nogent (6) Thibault de Premierfalt (69) Jehan de Maruel (192) Jehan des Ruelles (193) A parody of a legal l e t t e r f o r the Commission on nouvellete. The emperor "de toute fumee" uses legitimate arguments to protect the privileges of depradation of l o c a l wolves. Under the threat of the i r violence, the emperor makes sure that h i s rulings w i l l placate the angered wolves f o r their so-called violated privileges. .--The fumeur l e g a l p a r o d i e s : a summary o f t h e i r c o n t e n t s . 51 Two p o s s i b l e c ontexts can be hypothesized concerning these poems. The f i r s t i s that the fumeurs were a l o c a l group of c o l l e a g u e s who had come together d u r i n g the poet's youth, while they were students or c l e r k s , i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n resembling that of the Basochiens, and who subsequently h e l d p o s i t i o n s e i t h e r as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s or j u r i s t s . T h i s would account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e of a number of years i n the d a t i n g of some of the poems. An a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t Deschamps was the head of l a Fumee by v i r t u e of h i s being a judge, and h i s fumeurs were the permanent r e t i n u e of c l e r k s and sergents who accompanied him on h i s round of a s s i z e s . T h i s would account f o r the l o c a l , although v a r y i n g s e t t i n g s of these poems, and f o r the t o p i c a l nature of the s u b j e c t s . Such a permanent r e t i n u e would have been p r i v y t o the experience and f r u s t r a t i o n s of i t s judge-employer, and t h i s might a l s o account f o r r e f e r e n c e s , e i t h e r d i r e c t or o b l i q u e , to r e a l events or cases p o s s i b l y s a t i r i z e d i n these poems. As we have seen, there was an impetus at t h i s time f o r t h i s s o c i a l group to enjoy such p o e t i c entertainment. Poems By Deschamps R e l a t e d In Subject To The 'Fumeur' Works. S e v e r a l poems that are not connected with the fumeurs f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e the poet's penchant f o r i n i t i a t i n g 'orders' and other groups. Some of these appear to a n t i c i p a t e or echo m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d i n the fumeur poems. For example, the Chartre des bons enfants de Vertus en Campagne i s a true d r i n k e r ' s c h a r t e r w r i t t e n f o r people i n Deschamps' home town 52 (see the map i n Appendix A ) . 6 * I t c o n c e n t r a t e s on the a s p e c t s of f o l l y t h a t are c u l t i v a t e d through immoderate d r i n k i n g , a d v i s i n g e x c e s s i v e imbibing without any balanced l i v i n g regime, the notching up of c r e d i t at t a v e r n s , abusive behaviour to innkeepers, equal spending among d r i n k e r s , and 'business' conducted i n the form of d i c e - p l a y i n g . One resemblance to a fumeur poem can be seen i n the poet's a d v i s e d d a i l y regime f o r t a v e r n - g o e r s , or Frequentans ( f r e q u e n t e r s ) , as he c a l l s them. 6 5 T h i s advice r e c a l l s the evidence given f o r the f i g h t at V i t r y : F i r s t l y , as soon as one gets out of bed i n the One should go to r e f r e s h one's mouth [morning With the best and dearest wine, From the morning u n t i l going to bed, Without t a k i n g leave very o f t e n And without having, beforehand, made Any arrangement f o r e a t i n g , Except that of p u t t i n g wine i n the stomach, From which the b r a i n i s enfum^, And many are heady, So much so that they cannot say a word, Save f o r r a i l i n g , mocking or l a u g h i n g . (16-28) Again i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the V i t r y poem, those who s t a r t f i g h t s are urged to end them with d r i n k s of f r i e n d s h i p : 6 4 Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.7, pp. 323-331. T h i s poem, as w e l l as most of those now under d i s c u s s i o n are a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the C h a r t r e s et Commissions. Two are found i n the manuscript i n the s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s t h i s , r u b r i c a t e d L e t t r e s . 6 5 The term f r e q u e n t e r i s p o s s i b l y used i r o n i c a l l y here, s i n c e i t i s o f t e n found i n o f f i c i a l documents. For example, the c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r the C o n f r e r i e de S t . N i c h o l a s begins: "C'est l'ordenance de l a c o n f r a r i e c[ue l e s compaignons c l e r c , et a u t r e s procureurs et e s c r i p v a i n s frequentant l e P a l a i s et l a Court du Roy ..."; another example, dated 1364, reads: "Nous voulons et commandons ... que tous l e s advocas et p r o c u r e u r s frequantans e t q u i f r e q u e n t e r o n t l e s i e g e d e s d i t e s Requestes See B a t a i l l a r d , L ' H i s t o i r e des P r o c u r e u r s , pp. 422, 432. 53 If the Frequenters quarrel amongst themselves, Have words, r i o t , or combat each other, The bad f e e l i n g should not l a s t For as long as one can begin to swear, "By God's f l e s h , l e t ' s go and drink!" Then one of them should take the glass And give i t to the other in peace, And they should not speak of i t any more. (205-212) F i n a l l y , one discovers that the persona in t h i s work i s prone to the same exaggeration as i s Jehan Fumee. His name i s one of several that Deschamps adopted: The sovereign of the Frequenters Who has used up a hundred years of his l i f e In following the tavern-round at Vertus, Well-governed and badly dressed, To a l l the enfants of the town Who are able at frequenting, In the present and future . (1-7) Thus the same s p i r i t observed in the fumeur poems also runs through t h i s work. The same can be said of the poem written by Deschamps as the maitre de G i l l e b e r t i n e , 6 6 with i t s f a m i l i a r -sounding opening: A noz G i l b e r t i n s , frequentans A Crespy passe a cent ans. (1-2) and equally familiar complaint of freezing and cold: ...de liqueur nus, Buche vert sanz famble, qui fume, Et froide chambre qui enreume ... (8-10.) 6 6 Raynaud, Oeuvres C o m p l e t e s , v.8, p. 50-66. 54 Addressing d r i n k i n g f r i e n d s at C r e p y - e n - V a l o i s , the poet complained i n t h i s poem about h i s present r e s i d e n c e , with i t s l a c k of c o n v i v i a l company and surroundings. A s i m i l a r group of d r i n k e r s i s mentioned as the Ordre de l a Baboue, 6 7 i n another poem, while there are two works, penned by the P r i n c e de Haulte  Eloquence, t h a t e s t a b l i s h and c a l l members to a Parlement de  bourdeurs - a c o n t e s t f o r s t o r y t e l l e r s and poets i n which the best wins the c r o w n . 6 8 C l e a r l y , t h i s i s a group s i m i l a r to the Cour amoureuse that was set up by C h a r l e s VI i n 1400, and to other puys of the time. D n l i k e the l a t t e r , however, the subject-matter of Deschamps' r h e t o r i c i a n s i s f a r from being e x c l u s i v e l y c h i v a l r i c . The longer of these two bourdeur poems allo w s f o r a wide assortment of t o p i c s f o r the members, and i n c l u d e s two examples, strange t a l e s of l o c a l s a i n t s ' m i r a c l e s concerning blackened f i s h . L i k e the C h a r t r e , i t i n c l u d e s a d e t a i l e d enumeration of o f f i c e r s of the group and a d e s c r i p t i o n of punishments f o r those who do not appear at the meeting. F i n a l l y , t here i s one poem t h a t again f o l l o w s the l e g a l form f o r commissions on n o u v e l l e t e . I t s r u b r i c , i n E n g l i s h , reads: Of some p r i v i l e g e s that the c l e r c s of c e r t a i n b a i 1 1 i s and  p r e v o s t s have to c e r t a i n g i f t s of wine, fowl and f r u i t made to 7 Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v o l . 5 , pp. 134-135. 8 Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.7, pp. 347-360: D'un beau d i t de  c e u l s q u i contreuvent n o u v e l l e s bourdes et mensonges (Of a f i n e d i t about those who invent new funny t a l e s and t a l l s t o r i e s ) , October 16 and 17, 1400; pp. 361-362: Convocation d'un parlement  burlesque. T h i s work bears the s i g n a t u r e " J . S o h i e r " . 9 Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.8, pp.3-11. De aucuns  p r e v i l l e g e s que l e s c l e r c s d'aucuns ba i 1 1 i s et p r e s v o s t s ont sur  aucuns dons de v i n s , v o l i l l e s et f r u i z f a i z a l e u r s m a i s t r e s . 55 t h e i r m asters. 6 9 I t d e s c r i b e s the complaints of " o f f i c e people, a s s i s t a n t s , s e r v a n t s , s c r i b e s , c l e r k s and pursuers of the a s s i z e s " (43-45) i n the b a i l l i a g e of V i t r y , at Fismes, Chateau-T h i e r r y , Sainte-Menehould, and Passavant. T h i s i s , t h e r e f o r e , one ' l e g a l ' poem which does seem to have a ' l e g a l ' audience, and a l o c a l one at that (see the map i n Appendix A ) . The complaint i s t h a t the a s s i s t a n t s are not r e c e i v i n g t h e i r accustomed share of g i f t s of food, t h e i r r i g h t s of s a i s i n e . I t was normal, i n the middle ages, and c o n s i d e r e d not at a l l as b r i b e r y , to gi v e judges presents of f o o d s t u f f s or wine, c a l l e d " e p i c e s " . A judge's wage was not f i x e d u n t i l the end of the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and he had to maintain with h i s earnings s e v e r a l r e s i d e n c e s f o r h i s work, a r e t i n u e and i t s means of t r a n s p o r t . I t would seem that c l e r k s a l s o b e n e f i t e d from the g i f t s . Raynaud has suggested that Deschamps was r e a l l y p l e a d i n g h i s own cause, i n p r o t e s t a g a i n s t a m u n i c i p a l order of J u l y 19, 1394, from the town of S e n l i s , which had r e s t r i c t e d p r e s e n t s to the b a i l l i t o one g i f t of wine to be presented only on the f i r s t day of the a s s i z e s . 7 0 N o s t a l g i a f o r a past bounty i s c e r t a i n l y expressed by the w r i t e r , but the date of the present poem, December 24, and the l o c a l i t y , the b a i l l i a g e of V i t r y and not S e n l i s , c o u l d suggest r a t h e r t h a t the p i e c e was a prelude to the p r e s e n t a t i o n , at a f e s t i v e time, of g i f t s from Deschamps to h i s l e g a l r e t i n u e . S i n c e the poet a l s o s t a t e s t h a t " M a i l l e f e r of Fismes" was the f i r s t to s t i n t on h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s (117), i t i s 7 0 Oeuvres Completes, v.11, pp. 85, 74. 56 c l e a r t h a t we have, once more, a s e t t i n g i n the poet's home d i s t r i c t . For the poem to work as a parody of nouvellete", the f a l l i n g - o f f of g i f t s would have had to have been w i t h i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r . Again, t h i s does not agree w i t h the sugg e s t i o n put forward by Raynaud concerning the motive behind the poem. Raynaud's d a t i n g of t h i s poem a t 1398, i s dependent upon h i s pu n c t u a t i o n of the f i n a l l i n e . The poem ends ".XXIIIIe. j o u r s de decembre/ L'an m i l . I I I c . .1111 xx. h u i t / Dix a d j o u s t e z , apres mainnuit" (238-240). Raynaud reads t h i s as "1388, add te n " . Were one to read, i n s t e a d , "1388, add ten [minutes?] a f t e r midnight" the d a t i n g of the poem would conform with the p e r i o d of Deschamps' g o v e r n o r s h i p of Fismes; i t would a l s o have been w r i t t e n a year before he was b a i 1 1 i at S e n l i s , which was i n 1389, a t which time he would have given up h i s o l d b a i l l i a q e i n the V i t r y a r e a . T h i s suggests t h a t the poem was r e a l l y w r i t t e n ten years e a r l i e r than Raynaud estimated, and that i t was the l a s t l e g a l parody w r i t t e n by Deschamps before he moved on to h i s l e s s p l e a s a n t post at S e n l i s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t 1388 was the l a t e s t date f o r t h i s type of parody. Although not any kind of "emperor" i n t h i s poem, he s t i l l assumed i n i t the comic r o l e of c h i e f l e g a l p r o t e c t o r , as Le conservateur g e n e r a l En commun e t e s p e c i a l Des p r e v i l e g e s et usages Des b a i l l i s , l i e u t e n a n s et sages Freguantans s i e g e s et a s s i z e s . ( 1 - 5 ) i s s u i n g o r d e r s that remedy the f a l l i n g - o f f of g i f t s . The language and r e v e a l e d i n t e n t i o n i n a l l of these poems 57 again r e c a l l s the a c t i v i t i e s of the burlesque s o c i e t i e s . The names of the v a r i o u s l e a d e r s suggest t h i s : l e P r i n c e de Haulte  Eloquence, 1'Ordre de l a Baboue, l e Souverain des Frequentans,  Les G i l b e r t i n s , Fumeurs, and the e n f a n t s and bourdeurs and mock d i g n i t a r i e s so f a m i l i a r i n f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t h e a t r e are a l r e a d y being mentioned i n these works. These poems alone seem to bear out Arden's a s s e r t i o n that such groups were forming i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , although s p o r a d i c a l l y , 7 1 f o r a number of members' names are mentioned i n s e v e r a l of these works, but r a r e l y do they r e c u r from one poem to the next. Of those that have so f a r been i d e n t i f i e d , a small number were c e r t a i n l y i n the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n , while others were employed i n s e c r e t a r i a l or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e posts f o r the n o b i l i t y . 7 2 These poems, e s p e c i a l l y the V i r t u s d r i n k i n g c h a r t e r and the second nouvellete^ parody, c o n f i r m the probable e x i s t e n c e of the fumeurs, i f not by over t c o n n e c t i o n , then by a common s p i r i t . P o s s i b l e Connections Between Fourteenth-Century Patrons And  M u s i c i a n s And Deschamps The 'Fumeur' Can i n f o r m a t i o n from the longer fumeur works suggest anything new c o n c e r n i n g the i d e n t i t y of the members? Can these l e g a l p a r o d i e s t i e i n with the musical items i n the C h a n t i l l y Codex? I t i s c l e a r that wherever the fumeurs are mentioned, one should suspect the i n t e r v e n t i o n of Deschamps. I t i s a f a c t that 7 1 See f n . 16. 7 2 See Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.10, pp.157-241, "Index des noms prop r e s " . 58 Deschamps i s repr e s e n t e d i n the C h a n t i l l y Codex by two poems w r i t t e n on the death of Guillaume de Machaut (of whom he was s a i d t o have been a nephew, and who was c e r t a i n l y a mentor of some k i n d ) . These poems were set as a double b a l l a d e by F.Andrieu (no. 84). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , there i s no a s c r i p t i o n to the poet i n the manuscript, which r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of there being other u n a s c r i b e d p i e c e s a l s o by Deschamps, p o s s i b l y even the fumeur chansons. Given the c o i n c i d e n c e of the two fumeur p i e c e s and Deschamps' works i n the same c o l l e c t i o n , i t would be a u s e f u l step to examine the p o l i t i c a l b a l l a d e s of C h a n t i l l y i n the l i g h t of the poet's own p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . T h i s would i n v o l v e a comparison of the patrons of known f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y musicians with those of Deschamps, and i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i r common presence at important events c e l e b r a t e d i n poem and song i n the C h a n t i l l y Codex. Such a study would not be easy, given the s c a r c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n on most composers of t h i s p e r i o d , and the very busy c a r e e r of the poet. Deschamps' c a r e e r took him a l l over Europe, and he appears t o have been present a t many of the important events that o c c u r r e d at the end of the cent u r y . There a r e , t h e r e f o r e , three known composers with whom to a s s o c i a t e Deschamps. To the names H a s p r o i s , Solage and Andrieu, whose music can i n some way be connected with t h i s poet, one should add those of two m i n s t r e l s , P l a t i a u and Ja c o t de Noyon. 7 3 7 3 In the C h a n t i l l y Codex, the composer, Trebor, i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i s own b a l l a d e r e f r a i n the f i r s t l i n e of t e x t and music found i n the Andrieu/Deschamps double b a l l a d e ; see En s e m e u i l l a n t  m'avint une v e s i o n , no.20. Trebor's acquaintance with Deschamps' works need not have been i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r borrowing, however. 59 The connection with P l a t i a u i s found i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n , under Deschamps' pen, by the young p r i n c e , P i e r r e de N a v a r r e . 7 " Brought up at the French c o u r t as hostage f o r h i s f a t h e r ' s good behaviour, t h i s t h i r t e e n - y e a r - o l d was taken i l l d u r i n g a b a t t l e i n Normandy, i n 1379, and sent t o P a r i s , to recover under Deschamps' c a r e . To d i s t r a c t him i n h i s ennui, Deschamps, a c t i n g as s e c r e t a r y , e n t e r t a i n e r and probably maitre d ' h S t e l , helped him to wr i t e the l e t t e r to s i x - y e a r - o l d L o u i s d'Orleans. The l e t t e r d e s c r i b e s the p r i n c e ' s tedium and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y wry s t a t e of h i s s e c r e t a r y : Apres s a c h i e z qu'a ma venue A Eustaces l y enfumez Eu l a toux et s'est enrumez, Qu'a paines puet i l d i r e mot: Je boy au v o i r r e et i l au pot. (80-84) Know that s i n c e my a r r i v a l Eustace, the enfume^ Has had a cough and i s s t u f f e d up with a c o l d So that he can h a r d l y say a word. I d r i n k from the g l a s s , and he from the pot. I t would be j u s t l i k e the c h i e f of fumeurs t o have caught a c o l d , or to use i t as an excuse to d r i n k twice as deeply as h i s young charge! One should ask, i n connec t i o n with t h i s passage, how well-known Deschamps' nickname, 1'enfume, had become, f o r the p r i n c e to understand the joke behind i t i n t h i s poem. Did t h i s name t r a v e l with the poet throughout h i s l i f e ? A l s o r e s i d i n g at t h i s h o t e l was a musician, important i n r e l i e v i n g the p r i n c e ' s boredom: 7 " Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.8, pp. 33-37. 60 Ne je n'y ay p h i s i c i e n Fors P l a t i a u l e musicien, Qui jeue, quant je l ' e n r e q u i e r , De l a harpe et de 1 ' e s c h i q u i e r . (43-46) Nor have I seen any doct o r there Except f o r P l a t i a u , the musician, Who, when I ask, p l a y s The harp and the e s c h i q u i e r . 7 5 We know, t h e r e f o r e , that the musician P l a t i a u , at l e a s t , c o u l d have been aware of Deschamps as "the enfumed one". In the C h a n t i l l y Codex, an a s c r i p t i o n to Ha s p r o i s i s found on the page c o n t a i n i n g the b a l l a d e Puisque je s u i s fumeux. The a s c r i p t i o n i s signed by one J a . de Noyon: "Jo Simon de haspre composuit dictum. J a . de Noyon." There are four records of a m i n s t r e l with t h i s name. The f i r s t comes from accounts of the Duke of Anjou, l i s t i n g him i n 1374 as a m i n s t r e l of the d u k e . 7 6 The second and t h i r d r e f e r to him as a musician i n the employ of King John of Aragon; i n 1378, he r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n to a t t e n d the s c h o o l of m i n s t r e l s y at Bruges, with three o t h e r s , one of them probably Jacomi de Senleches, the very advanced a r s  s u b i t l i o r composer, and i n 1379 he was again given p e r m i s s i o n to go to the e s c o l e s with J a c o m i . 7 7 F i n a l l y , i n an I t a l i a n account book a payment i s l i s t e d f o r the year 1383, to Ja c o t o de Noyono, 7 5 The young p r i n c e a l s o d e c l a r e s t h a t he i s "Not t h a t s i c k i n my f i n g e r n a i l s / Not to have l e a r n e d t o p l a y / On the e s c h i q u i e r and the f l a g e o l e t / And when I come to see him [ h i s u n c l e ] / I w i l l be regarded as a good m i n s t r e l " (102-106). 7 6 See U r s u l a Giinther, "Zur b i o g r a p h i e e i n i g e r Komponisten der Ars s u b t i l i o r " , A r c h i v f u r Musikwissenschaft 21(1964):172-199. 7 7 See W i l k i n s , "The post-Machaut g e n e r a t i o n " , p.59. 61 rote and v i e l l e p l a y e r of the Count of V e r t u s . 7 8 At t h i s time, the Count of V i r t u s was the I t a l i a n , Gian Galeazzo V i s c o n t i , who had r e c e i v e d the t i t l e i n 1360, on h i s marriage to I s a b e l l e of France, daughter of King Jean I I . 7 9 T h i s was the very year i n which Deschamps, a V e r t u s n a t i v e , was made j u r e ' to the Count of V e r t u s . Raynaud drew a t t e n t i o n t o a p o s s i b l e v i s i t t h a t Deschamps made to I t a l y i n t h i s year, on the o c c a s i o n of the marriage, and to the poet's s e r v i c e there under I s a b e l l e . 8 0 There i s , t h e r e f o r e , a very tenuous connection between the j u v e n i l e Deschamps at Galeazzo's c o u r t i n the 1360's, and the m i n s t r e l , who was recorded there t h i r t e e n years l a t e r and who, at some p o i n t i n h i s l i f e , made an a s c r i p t i o n to H a s p r o i s c o n c e r n i n g the fumeur b a l l a d e . Given the movements of t h i s m i n s t r e l , i t i s small wonder t h a t he c o u l d have been f a m i l i a r with the works of poets and composers i n a number of p l a c e s ! When the county of Vertus r e v e r t e d back to French hands, Deschamps was s t i l l i n the s e r v i c e of the new count: Gian Galeazzo's daughter, V a l e n t i n e , brought back the c o u n t s h i p to France when she married L o u i s d'Orle'ans, i n 1387. T h i s was the same L o u i s who, at s i x years o l d , had r e c e i v e d P i e r r e de Navarre's l e t t e r , and whom Deschamps l a t e r served i n a number of 7 8 See F i l i p p o Saraceno, Reqesto d e i P r i n c i p i de Casa d'Acaja, ( 1295-1418). T r a t t o d a i c o n t i de t e s o r e r l a "(Torino: P a r a v i a , 1881), p. 169. "Iacoto de Noyono, menestrerio de r u t a et v i o l a , domini c o m i t i s V i r t u t u m ... cuidam i u u a n t i de t r i p e t i n camera Domini, c a s t r i V i g o n i , presente Domina et Domino Aymone de Sabaudia et p l u r i b u s a l i i s " . 7 9 See E.R.Chamberlain, The Count of V i r t u e : G iangaleazzo  V i s c o n t i , Duke of M i l a n (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1965.), p. 31 . 8 0 Raynaud, Oeuvres C o m p l e t e s , v.11, p. 12, v.2, p. 86. In a s u p p l i c a t i o n to King C h a r l e s VI, Eustace d e c l a r e d that he served "votre t a n t e en Lombardie a u s s i " . 62 o f f i c e s . 8 1 At her marriage to L o u i s , V a l e n t i n e became Deschamps' m i s t r e s s by double r i g h t . The poet wrote a number of works f o r both L o u i s .and V a l e n t i n e , championing the l a t t e r d u r i n g her p o l i t i c a l t r o u b l e s . Included i n L o u i s d'Orleans' l i b r a r y was a c o l l e c t i o n of b a l l a d e s by Deschamps. 8 2 Account books show that L o u i s a l s o took an i n t e r e s t i n h e a r i n g musicians p l a y , d u r i n g h i s gambling p a r t i e s and other r e v e l s h e l d at h i s r e s i d e n c e s , and when t r a v e l l i n g on r o y a l b u s i n e s s . 8 3 Deschamps' c l o s e involvement with L o u i s ' household, and h i s probable connection with I t a l y , p r o v i d e some argument f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g documents concerning the counts of V e r t u s , both i n I t a l y and l a t e r i n France. Deschamps' B a l l a d e 813:'Je Doy E s t r e C h a n c e l l i e r s Des Fumeux'  And The Two 'Fumeur' Poems Of The C h a n t i l l y Codex. Deschamps wrote one fumeur poem that has a resemblance to the fumeur chansons i n C h a n t i l l y . T h i s i s a b a l l a d e , a much more p e r s o n a l p i e c e than h i s other fumeur works, which d e s c r i b e s the poet's musing on h i s own b e w i l d e r i n g nature. L i k e the C h a n t i l l y b a l l a d e , Puisque je s u i s fumeux, Deschamps' work i s 8 1 Working f o r L o u i s d'Orleans, Deschamps was s u c c e s s i v e l y governor of Fismeg (1381), bai11i of S e n l i s ( 1389-1 404), and c o u n s e l l o r and maitre d'hStel (1393). 8 2 See F.M.Graves, Deux i n v e n t a i r e s de l a Mai son d'Orleans (1389 et 1408) ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Ancienne Honore Champion, 19261 p. 130, item 687. 8 3 See Aime Champollion-Figeac, L o u i s et C h a r l e s , Dues d'Orleans:  Leur I n f l u e n c e sur l e s A r t s , l a L i t e r a t u r e et 1'Esprit de l e u r * S i e c l e . 2vols. CParis:[n.p. ] 1844; r e p r i n t ed., Gen?ve: S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1980.), pp. 80-81, 119, and N i g e l W i l k i n s , "The post-Machaut g e n e r a t i o n " , p. 49, fn.54. 63 w r i t t e n i n the f i r s t person: Je doy e s t r e c h a n c e l l i e r s des Fumeux, Et eh l ' o f f i c e a t o u s j o u r s demourer, Car de l ' o r d r e maintenir s u i songneux, S i c'on ne puet ma personne t r o u v e r 5 En un e s t a t , a i n s me v o i t on muer Soudainement mon s g a v o i r en f o l y e , E s t r e d olens, p u i s f a i r e chere l y e . A i n s i me f a i t fumee, par ma foy, Muser souvent et s i ne say pourquoy 10 De nature s u i merencolieux, C o l e r i q u e , v o i r , me puet l ' e n trouver S i s u i e n c l i n s a e s t r e m e r v e i l l e u x Naturelment done doi je r e t o u r n e r A ma nature, sans moy desnaturer 15 Et e s t r e p l a i n s de grant merencolie; Car r e s i s t e r n'est pas de ma p a r t i e A i n s me d e f u i t ; ce me f a i t en requoy Muser souvent et s i ne say pourquoy. 20 Done je c o n c l u s , s'on me v o i t pou joyeux Que je m'en p u i s par nature excuser Car je ne s u i s pas s i ingenieux Que je sache c o n t r e nature a l e r . Fumeux seray, r i e n s n'y v a u l t l e p a r l e r , Fumeusement menray fumeuse v i e , 25 Demourer doy en ma c h a n c e l l e r i e Qu'a t o u s j o u r s maiz me v e r r e z en ce p l o y Muser souvent et s i ne say pourquoy. I have to be c h a n c e l l o r of the fumeux And to remain i n that o f f i c e f o r ever, For I am c a r e f u l of m a i n t a i n i n g the order Since one may not f i n d my p e r s o n a l i t y 5 In one c o n d i t i o n before I am seen to change, Suddenly, my wisdom to f o l l y , To be m i s e r a b l e , then to have a happy f a c e . Thus, by my f a i t h , does fumee cause me To wonder o f t e n , and yet I do not know why. 10 I am melancholy by nature, C h o l e r i c , t r u l y , one may f i n d me. I f I am i n c l i n e d toward being amazed, N a t u r a l l y then, I must r e t u r n To my r e a l nature, without going a g a i n s t nature 15 And to be f u l l of great melancholy, For i t i s not i n my make-up to r e s i s t , Thus r e s i s t a n c e f l i e s from me; t h i s makes me, i n Wonder o f t e n , and yet I do not know why. [ r e t u r n T h e r e f o r e I conclude t h a t i f I am seen to be l i t t l e 64 20 I must be excused because of my nature, [joyous For I am not t h a t ingenious That I would know how to go a g a i n s t n a t u r e . I s h a l l be fumous, i t i s not worth s a y i n g any more Fumously, I ' l l l e a d a fumous l i f e ; [about i t 25 I must dwell i n my c h a n c e l l e r y So t h a t f o r e v e r on you w i l l see me i n t h i s [ o c c u p a t i o n , To wonder o f t e n , and yet I do not know why. The C h a n t i l l y poem a t t r i b u t e d to Haprois i s more e b u l l i e n t -i n tone, but has a s i m i l a r l y i n v o l v e d syntax and specious r e a s o n i n g . Both poems a s s o c i a t e fumee with c h o l e r , and both s t r e s s that fumee i s something that comes n a t u r a l l y to the p e r s o n a l i t y of the w r i t e r , c l a i m i n g , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h a t i t would be u n n a t u r a l to t r y to suppress such seemingly unnatural behaviour. There are a l s o some d i f f e r e n c e s between the two: the poem by Deschamps i s more concerned to d e s c r i b e the changeable s t a t e of a fumeur, while t h a t a s c r i b e d to Hasprois i s an apology f o r the s t a t e of l a fumee, i n c l u d e s an extravagance of word-play on fum . . . words, and, with i t s s t r i n g s of s u b j u n c t i v e s , suggests a mock-learned d i s c o u r s e : Puisque je s u i s fumeux p l a i n de fumee Fumer m'estuet, c a r se je ne fumoye, Ceulx qui d i e n t que j'ay t e s t e enfumee Par fumee, je l e s d e s m e n t i r o i e . 5 Et nonpourquant jamez ne fumeroie De fumee qui f u t contre r a i s o n : Se j e fume, c ' e s t ma complexion C o l e r i q u e qu'ainsy me f a i t fumer; Je fumeray sans personne g r e v e r . 10 C'est bien fume, i l n'y a p o i n t d ' o u l t r a g e Quant on fume sans f e r e a u t r y domage. Fumee n'est a n u l l i r e f u s e e , Fume qui v e u l t , t e n i r ne me'en p o r r o i e . J'ay mainte chose en fumant rechinee"; 15 Encore s$ay que mais ny a v e n r o i e Se par fumer en fumant n'y pensoye. Fume'e rent b i e n c o n s o l a c i o n Aucune foyz t o u l t t r i b u l a c i o n On se peut bien en fumant d e l i t e r . Home fumeux peut en fumant trouver En l u i p l u s e u r s p r o f i t et avantage Quant on fume sans f e r e a u t r y domage. Se j'eusse l a c e r v e l l e impetree De S o c r a t e s , sy con. je l e vouloye, ^ J'eusse bien l a t e s t e p l u s attrempee, Car onques ne fuma par n u l l e voye Chascun n'est pas c,aint de c e l l e c o u r r o y e . Car t e l fume que pou s'en p e r i j o i t on Tant a au cueur p l u s de c o n f u s i o n Quant i l n'ose sa fumee moustrer Ou i l n'ose pour paour d'empirer Je ne t i e n pas qu'on a i t l e cuer volage, Quant on fume sans f e r e a u t r y domage. Since I am fumous, f u l l of fumee, I have to fume, f o r d i d I not fume, Those who say that I have a head enfumed With fumee, I would make out to be l i a r s . And y e t , however, never would I fume With a fume'e that went a g a i n s t reason: If I fume, i t i s my c h o l e r i c nature That makes me fume thus. I s h a l l fume without u p s e t t i n g anyone. T h i s i s w e l l fumed-on, there i s no outrage whatever When one fumes without doing harm to anyone e l s e . Fumee i s r e f u s e d to nobody, Let him fume who w i l l , I c o u l d not r e s t r a i n him While fuming, I have r e s o l v e d many t h i n g s , [ f r o m i t ; And yet I know that never would i t have come about Had I not, when fuming with fume, thought on i t . Fumee o f f e r s great c o n s o l a t i o n ; Every time, one may e a s i l y l i g h t e n A l l t r i b u l a t i o n through fuming. In fuming, the fumous man can f i n d W i t h i n himself much of p r o f i t and advantage When one fumes without doing harm to anyone e l s e . Had I obtained the b r a i n Of S o c r a t e s , as I would have l i k e d , I would c e r t a i n l y have a more r e g u l a t e d head, For he never fumed i n any manner. But not everyone i s r e s t r a i n e d with such c o n t r o l ; For however much fuming there i s and l i t t l e d i v i n e d There w i l l be t hat much c o n f u s i o n i n the heart When he does not dare to show h i s fumee, Or he does not dare t o , f o r fear of g e t t i n g worse. I do not agree that one would have a f l i g h t y heart When one fumes without doing harm to anyone. 66 L i k e the longer fumeur works, a b s u r d i t y i s a f e a t u r e of t h i s poem. A m a n i f e s t l y unreasoning frame of mind i s defended on the grounds that i t i s n a t u r a l , and t h e r e f o r e not a fumee that i s "contre r a i s o n " (6), or "unreasonable"! T h i s poem a l s o appears in another manuscript ( B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e , f . f r . , n.a. 6221) c o n t a i n i n g w r i t t e n works by a number of poets, i n c l u d i n g A l a i n C h a r t i e r , C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n and Machaut, as w e l l as Deschamps. 8* In t h i s manuscript i s w r i t t e n a r u b r i c above the poem, Puisque je s u i s fumeux, which c a l l s i t : B a l l a d e de m a i s t r e fumeux. The t i t l e " maistre" t e l l s us t h at the s u b j e c t was not an uneducated man, however i r o n i c the i n t e n t i o n . But a l s o worth n o t i c i n g i s the form of the name, fumeux which i s a d j e c t i v a l . T h i s , I b e l i e v e , supports a r e a d i n g f o r the second of the fumeur poems i n C h a n t i l l y , the rondeau Fumeux fume, set by Solage. Fumeux fume par fumee, Fumeuse s p e c u l a c i o n Qu'antre fum met sa pensee. Fumeux fume par fume'e. 5 Quar fumer molt l i agree Tant q u ' i l a i t son e n t e n c i o n . Fumeux fume par fumee, Fumeuse s p e c u l a t i o n . (Mr.) Fumous fumes with fumee, Fumous s p e c u l a t i o n Which p l a c e s h i s thought between fum. Fumous fumes with fumee. 5 For i t p l e a s e s him very much to fume 8 * See De Queux de S t . H i l a i r e , Oeuvres Completes, v.2, p. x v i i , and Leo Schrade, Polyphonic Music ofThe Fourteenth Century:  Commentary to v.II and I I I , Supplement. (Monaco: E d i t i o n s de L'Oiseau-Lyre, 1956), p.37. 67 So much be h i s mind set on i t . Fumous fumes with fumee, Fumous s p e c u l a t i o n . I t should be n o t i c e d t h a t , where there i s a feminine noun i n the poem, there i s agreement from i t s a s s o c i a t e d a d j e c t i v e , as i n l i n e 2, fumeuse s p e c u l a t i o n . The f i r s t words of the poem may t h e r e f o r e be i n t e r p r e t e d as a masculine name, "(Mr.) Fumous", fol l o w e d by a verb, "fumes", a welcome a d d i t i o n i n a poem that has so few of them. T h i s reading d i f f e r s from t r a n s l a t i o n s suggested by performing groups t h a t have recorded the work. 8 5 Supplying the s u b j e c t i n l i n e , one of the poem accords very w e l l with the " t h i r d person" i n which t h i s poem i s w r i t t e n . Given the wholehearted defense of fumee i n Puisque je s u i fumeux, the present work, with i t s t h i r d - p e r s o n r e f e r e n c e s , c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as a r i p o s t e to i t , whether t h i s i s intended as mocking or s u p p o r t i v e . L i n e f i v e , with i t s r e f e r e n c e to the p l e a s u r e d e r i v e d from fuming, and l i n e t h r e e , which l i n k s -thought and fumee, c o u l d c e r t a i n l y r e c a l l p a r t of the e a r l i e r poem. T h i s text., with i t s r i d d l i n g , r e p e t i t i o u s l i n e s , i s t y p i c a l of the t i g h t c o n s t r u c t i o n of rondeau form, and i t i s l i k e l y t h a t many poets c o u l d have produced works that were s i m i l a r l y c o n s t r u c t e d . But i t should be p o i n t e d out that a number of Deschamps' rondeaux have r e f r a i n s t h at are as t i g h t l y 8 5 See The A r t of C o u r t l y Love, Seraphim, SIC-6092, and Music of  the Middle Ages, V o l . IX. The Fourteenth Century; The Ars  Nova. (The M u s i c a l H e r i t a g e S o c i e t y , 899). 68 c o n s t r u c t e d as t h i s o n e . 8 6 B i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s about Haspr o i s and Solage do not o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l h e l p i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the i d e n t i t y of the fumeurs. H a s p r o i s ( f 1 . 1378-1428), who came from A r r a s , worked s u c c e s s i v e l y at the r o y a l c o u r t at P o r t u g a l (1378), f o r the French k i n g , C h a r l e s V (1380), at the c a t h e d r a l of Notre-Dame at Cambrai (1384), and was i n the Pope's chapel at Avignon from before 1393 to 1403. He i s recorded as a notary i n the c u r i a u n t i l h i s death, i n 1428. L i t t l e i s known of Solage beyond the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by some of h i s b a l l a d e t e x t s , although even these p r o v i d e no c o n c l u s i v e evidence f o r h i s biography. Two of h i s works are d e d i c a t e d to the Duke of Berry, and two b a l l a d e s have a c r o s t i c s t h a t r e f e r to a " C a t h e l l i n e " , p o s s i b l y C a t h e r i n e de France, King C h a r l e s VI's s i s t e r , who, i n 1386 married the Duke of B e r r y ' s s o n . 8 7 Given the movements of Deschamps, h i s c u l t i v a t i o n of a l l of the r o y a l f a m i l y as patrons, and above a l l , h i s time spent at the c o u r t of C h a r l e s V, there would have been o p p o r t u n i t y f o r him to come a c r o s s both H a s p r o i s and Solage, the former as a musician employed by C h a r l e s V, the l a t t e r p o s s i b l y as a musician i n v o l v e d on some o c c a s i o n with the Duke of Berry. Too l i t t l e i s yet known about the b i o g r a p h i e s of a l l three f o r i t to be p o s s i b l e f o r any f u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r s to be p r o v i d e d . 8 6 See f o r example, Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.4, p. 3, "Dolens douleur, doleureuse et d o l e n t e , / Me f a i t d e s i r chascun jour endurer"; p.33, "Joyeusement, par un t r e s d o u l x j o i r , / En j o y s s a n t menray v i e joyeuse,/ Comme c e l u i q u i se d o i t r e s j o i r " ; p. 149, "En d e s c o n f o r t comme d e s c o n f o r t e e / Desconfortant me d e s c o n f o r t e r a y , / Se r e c o n f o r t de mon doulx ami n'ay". See a l s o , pp. 49, 51, 79, 151. 8 7 See " H a s p r o i s " and "Solage", The New Grove's D i c t i o n a r y of  Music and M u s i c i a n s , ed. S t a n l e y Sadie, 69 I t seems that one should t h i n k of the fumeurs as having been a l o c a l l y based group of the Marne r e g i o n , connected i n some way with the l e g a l p o s i t i o n s h e l d by Deschamps from the 1360's u n t i l about the end of the 1380's. How musicians may be a s s o c i a t e d with such a group i s not c l e a r , although i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t at t h i s p e r i o d , a church c a r e e r , i n which most musicians were i n v o l v e d , would have been enhanced by some background i n law. The b i o g r a p h i e s of the Dormans f a m i l y p r o v i d e s h i n i n g examples of s u c c e s s f u l c l e r i c - l a w y e r s . Patrons of Deschamps and an important l o c a l f a m i l y , the Dormans produced three generations of men i n f l u e n t i a l i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Jean de Dormans was a procureur at the Parlement of P a r i s from 1346. Of h i s sons, the e l d e s t , Jean, was an avocat, becoming bishop of L i s i e u x , then C h a n c e l l o r at the Parlement at P a r i s , bishop of Beauvais, c h a n c e l l o r and Guardian of the Seals of France, and f i n a l l y a c a r d i n a l , i n 1368. In 1370, he founded a c o l l e g e at P a r i s . H i s younger b r o t h e r , Guillaume, a l s o an avocat, took over the c h a n c e l l o r s h i p at Jean's r e s i g n a t i o n . Both had been c o u n s e l l o r s to L o u i s d'Orleans, and Guillaume was a c o u n s e l l o r t o the k i n g . The c a r d i n a l had two nephews: M i l e s de Dormans was bishop of Angers, Bayonne and Beauvais, had been c o u n s e l l o r to the king and the Duke of Anjou, f o r whom he was subsequently c h a n c e l l o r , and p r e s i d e n t of the Chambre des Comptes; h i s b r o t h e r , Guillaume, was bishop of Meaux and archbishop of S e n s . 8 8 A number of the 8 8 See B a t a i l l a r d , L ' H i s t o i r e des Procureurs, pp.309-313, and Raynaud, Oeuvres Completes, v.10, p. 184. 70 l a t e f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y composers h e l d p o s i t i o n s that r e q u i r e d c l e r i c a l s k i l l s . While none would have r i s e n as h i g h as any of the Dormans, i t i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e that as p a r t of t h e i r t r a i n i n g , they would have had some education i n law. One should a l s o remember that Deschamps r e f e r r e d to h i m s e l f , i n 1379, as " l y enfume", and that he may have used the name as a type of i d e n t i f y i n g catchword. In such a case, the scope f o r h i s i n t e r a c t i o n with musicians becomes s i g n i f i c a n t l y wider. The 'Fumeurs', T h e i r Nature And T h e i r I d e n t i t y : A Summary. The fumeurs must not be thought of as a kind of ' f r i n g e element', a group of l i t e r a r y dope-users i n d u l g i n g i n mysterious p h i l o s o p h i c a l debates. T h i s view, f i r s t suggested i n the e a r l y 1970's, depends upon a n a c h r o n i s t i c readings of the word fumer . 8 9 In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s r e c o r d i n g of Fumeux fume, A l e j a n d r o P l a n c h a r t wrote: In a d d i t i o n to being l i t e r a r y people, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the fumeurs were a l s o hemp smokers. Hemp was smoked i n medieval Europe, and t h i s may not only e x p l a i n the medieval a s s o c i a t i o n of smoke with madness . , but a l s o the apparent "madness" of Solage's p i e c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t appears that t h i s view caught the imagination 9 T h i s view was expressed i n the commentary to a r e c o r d i n g of Fumeux fume by the C a p e l l a C o r d i n a , l e d by Alexandro P l a n c h a r t , Music of the Middle Ages: V o l . I X . : The F o u r t e e n t h Century. The  Ars Nova.(The M u s i c a l H e r i t a g e S o c i e t y , 899). 71 of the e d i t o r of a standard h i s t o r y anthology, the Norton  Anthology of Western Music. The rondeau, Fumeux fume, i s p r i n t e d i n t h i s anthology with a t r a n s l a t i o n that was o f f e r e d with P l a n c h a r t ' s r e c o r d i n g . 9 0 The t r a n s l a t i o n of the t e x t begins with the l i n e s : "Smoky fumes through smoke/ smoky s p e c u l a t i o n " . In the companion text-book to t h i s anthology, the same work i s r e f e r r e d to by the s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n c i p i t "Smoky smokes", and the t r a n s l a t i o n f o r fumeurs i s o f f e r e d as "the smokers". 9 1 The meaning, 'to smoke', a s s o c i a t e d with fumer, o r i g i n a t e d with the use of tobacco, not known i n Europe i n the middle ages. The meaning, 'to smoke dope', has become a s s o c i a t e d with 'to smoke' only i n the second h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h century. A b e t t e r understanding of the fumeurs and of the fumeur poems of Deschamps and the C h a n t i l l y Codex i s to be gained by c o n s i d e r i n g the very r i c h a s s o c i a t i o n s evoked by the word fumer i n tne l a t e middle ages. Such a s s o c i a t i o n s had t h e i r b a s i s i n time-honoured metaphor, and i n the popular e x p r e s s i o n of medieval p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l knowledge. Vagueness, c h a n g e a b i l i t y , g a r r u l o u s n e s s , and the tendency to q u a r r e l , would a l l have been regarded as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of 'fumosity', because of t h e i r v o l a t i l i t y or i n t a n g i b i l i t y . Deschamps' poems show that d r i n k i n g t o excess, an intemperance that was i t s e l f an i n d i c a t i o n of fumosity, was p e r c e i v e d as a way of i n d u c i n g or 9 0 See See Norton Anthology of Western Music, v o l . 1, ed. by Claude V. P a l i s c a (New York/London: W. W. Norton and Co. , 1980), pp. 87-88. 9 1 See Donald Jay Grout, A H i s t o r y of Western Music, 3rd. ed. , Claude V. P a l i s c a , ed. (New York7London: W. W. Norton and Co. , 1980), p. 138. 72 a g g r a v a t i n g the u n a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s of the fumous. T h i s p e r c e p t i o n a l s o had i t s p h y s i o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n , s i n c e the vapours caused by a l c o h o l were understood to i n f l u e n c e the c o n d i t i o n of the humours, and i t was the l a t t e r t h a t determined a man's p e r s o n a l i t y and changing moods. The defense of f o l l y i s a theme i n a l l of the fumeur works, the l e g a l p a r o d i e s as w e l l as the short poems. In an age t h a t had seen the d i v i s i o n of the Church, the d e v a s t a t i o n of the Black Death, and the s t a r t of the Hundred Years' War, and i n a co u n t r y whose deranged monarch had i n v o l v e d the r e s t of n o b l i l i t y i n a mutual s t r u g g l e f o r p o l i t i c a l power, i t would be a n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n to view a l l human a c t i v i t y as f o l l y . Deschamps wrote many gloomy poems p r o p h e t i c of doom from t h i s v i e w p o i n t . But one can a l s o c o n s i d e r as another symptom of the times a r e a c t i o n toward f o l l y by i n d u l g i n g i t , witness i n our own century the excesses of the " r o a r i n g t wenties", and those of the present punk e r a . The fumeurs have been d e s c r i b e d as e c c e n t r i c , but t h e i r h a b i t s appear to represent a standard f o o l s ' t r a d i t i o n whose p r a c t i c e s were becoming more widespread, and which had developed through a sympathetic response to s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s response came from an educated c l a s s of people whose background, i n t e r e s t s and education p r o v i d e d both the o p p o r t u n i t y and the l e i s u r e f o r pursuing l i t e r a r y and dramatic a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i s the context i n which one must p l a c e the fumeurs. I t would appear t h a t , i n Deschamps' time, such a c t i v i t i e s were only beginning to gather momentum, and that the groups c o u l d be fragmentary or ephemeral, as Deschamps' own 73 poetry suggests. T h i s might a l s o account f o r the l o o s e r nature of the group of fumeurs which c o u l d i n c l u d e m u s i c i a n s . One must a l s o c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y that Deschamps became known as the most v i s i b l e fumeur, and t h a t , i n h i s many t r a v e l s , he took the appellation with him. Since he served noblemen who were a l s o noted f o r t h e i r m usical patronage, the p o s s i b i l i t y of Deschamps the fumeur being known to composers i s h i g h . 74 I I . THE 'FUMEUR' MUSICAL SETTINGS. Music f o r the two fumeur poems i n the C h a n t i l l y Codex, Puisque je s u i fumeux, and Fumeux fume, (numbers 47 and 98 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , w i l l be analysed i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 9 2 The d e s c r i p t i o n s of fumeurs o f f e r e d i n Deschamps' poetry show them to have the f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t i e s : moodiness and c h a n g e a b i l i t y , i r a s c i b i l i t y , the tendency to p o n t i f i c a t e , a l o v e of t i p p l i n g , and a tendency toward excess, i n d r i n k i n g as w e l l as i n a l l other a c t i v i t i e s . There may be ways i n which some of these q u a l i t i e s are r e f l e c t e d i n the music f o r these two poems. In a d d i t i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h at Deschamps' fumeur poems c o n t a i n much humour, and i t i s a humour that would have been a p p r e c i a t e d by the educated man. Again, one might look f o r musical e x p r e s s i o n of such l e a r n e d humour. F i n a l l y , each poem makes i t s own s p e c i a l l i t e r a r y e f f e c t : Puisque je s u i fumeux i s an expansive, pseudo-learned argument defending the author's fumosite', while Fumeux fume i s a t e r s e , r i d d l i n g rondeau d i r e c t e d at the fumosite^ of a t h i r d person. How t h i s p o e t i c aspect i s r e f l e c t e d i n the music, i f at a l l , i s another i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n to be broached i n the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s . 9 2 See Gordon Greene, French Secular Music: Manuscript C h a n t i l l y , Muse^e Conde 564, Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century, v o l s . 18 and 19, (Monaco: L'Oiseau-Lyre, 1980). 75 The B a l l a d e 'Puisque Je Suis Fumeux' There are s e v e r a l compositions i n the C h a n t i l l y Codex whose music was c e r t a i n l y intended to i l l u s t r a t e the t e x t , f o r example, B o r l e t ' s " r e a l i s t i c " v i r e l a i , He t r e s doulz r o u s s i g n o l (no.89); and there are others whose music, i t has been suggested, was c a r e f u l l y t a i l o r e d to the s y l l a b l e s of u n d e r l a i d words, f o r example, P y k i n i ' s v i r e l a i , Playsance: Or t o s t a euz  vous assembles (no. 9 0 ) . 9 3 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , one cannot c l a i m with the same su r e t y a s i m i l a r c o r r e l a t i o n between music and t e x t f o r the m a j o r i t y of compositions i n C h a n t i l l y . T h e r e f o r e , i n any d i s c u s s i o n of the music of the two fumeur t e x t s , i t would be a l l too easy to i n t e r p r e t c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of a humorous s u b j e c t - matter, even though s i m i l a r passages are found elsewhere i n m a n i f e s t l y non-humorous c o n t e x t s . Because of t h i s , i t i s f a r e a s i e r to d i s c u s s Solage's rondeau, Fumeux fume, than H a s p r o i s ' b a l l a d e , s i n c e the former has s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s which make i t o u t s t a n d i n g , even among the h i g h l y adventurous p i e c e s of the C h a n t i l l y r e p e r t o i r e . H a s p r o i s ' composition i s i n the advanced s t y l e s i m i l a r to a number of C h a n t i l l y p i e c e s . While i t i s p o s s i b l e to c o n s i d e r the t e x t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some of the musical f e a t u r e s i n t h i s b a l l a d e , such guesses cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d u n t i l f a r more i s known of the f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m u s i c a l a e s t h e t i c , e s p e c i a l l y 9 3 See Gordon Greene, The Secular Music of C h a n t i l l y , Manuscript  Muse"e Cond£ 564 ( o l i m 1047). CPh.D. D i s s . , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1971), p.299. 76 with re s p e c t to a r s s u b t i l i o r m u s i c a l i d e a l s . 9 * I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a b a l l a d e such as Puisque je s u i fumeux would have i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l stages of a c t i v i t y . The f i r s t , of course, would have been the reading of the n o t e - v a l u e s , t a k i n g i n t o account p e r f e c t i o n , i m p e r f e c t i o n and c o l o u r a t i o n at a l l l e v e l s of n o t e - d i v i s i o n . But understanding of the n o t a t i o n a l symbols would be only the beginning of an i n t e l l i g e n t reading of the music, which would be a f f e c t e d by many other m u s i c a l elements. For example, a s e c t i o n of duple n o t e - d i v i s i o n s c o u l d sometimes n a t u r a l l y c r e a t e groupings of three, under the i n f l u e n c e of syncopation, s l u r s or melodic l i n e . Another stage would i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of s e v e r a l combined v o i c e - p a r t s , b r i n g i n g to an a l r e a d y complex mus i c a l s i t u a t i o n the added i n t e r e s t of r i c h e r t e x t u r e , rhythmic d i s l o c a t i o n s and harmonic di s s o n a n c e s . F i n a l l y , the t e x t c o u l d b r i n g about important m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the whole. I t i s b e l i e v e d that p o e t i c t e x t s p l a y e d a subordinate r o l e i n a r s s u b t i l i o r music, but i n s p i t e of t h i s , there would s u r e l y have been some f e l t e f f e c t s i n performance: an ongoing d r i v e , f o r example, c r e a t e d by the p o e t r y through a s e r i e s of c l a u s e s , or a q u e s t i o n , or a h i a t u s produced by a t t e n t i o n - c a t c h i n g exclamations. The 9 0 Three of H a s p r o i s ' four known compositions have the rhythmic complexity a s s o c i a t e d with the a r s s u b t i l i o r s t y l e . Two of h i s b a l l a d e s occur i n C h a n t i l l y , nos. 46 and 47. A b a l l a d e and a rondeau r e f r a i n with one incomplete v o i c e - p a r t , are i n the MS. Oxford B o d l e i a n , C a n o n i c i misc. 213 ( 0 ) . Some anonymous works have a l s o been a s c r i b e d to t h i s musician: one i s Medee f u , found i n 0 and C h a n t i l l y , t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r work i n 0, and f i n a l l y , t h e r e are p o s s i b l y two chansons from the Leiden fragments. See G i l b e r t Reaney, E a r l y F i f t e e n t h - C e n t u r y Music, Corpus M e n s u r a b i l i s Musicae 9, v o l s . 2 and 4, and U r s u l a Gunther, "Problems of d a t i n g i n Ars Nova and Ars S u b t i l i o r " , L'Ars nova i t a l i a n a d e l t r e c e n t o . I l l ( C e r t a l d o : Centro d i S t u d i s u l l ' A r s Nova I t a l i a n a d e l T recento, 1975): p. 296. 77 commentary below has been undertaken with these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s in mind. Rhythmic v a r i e t y appears to have been a major concern i n t h i s two-voiced b a l l a d e . From the beg i n n i n g , phrases i n c l u d e mixtures of duple and t r i p l e groupings t h a t are c o n d i t i o n e d by the i r r e g u l a r a l t e r n a t i o n of long and s h o r t note-values (see F i g u r e 1 below, p. 7 9 ) . 9 5 In F i g u r e 1a, the dotted q u a r t e r -notes A, G, and F, gain emphasis through c o n t r a s t with the surrounding e i g h t h - n o t e s . The s l u r r e d eighth-note p a i r s D-A, and G-E, are heard as rhythmic u n i t s because the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the t e x t f a l l s on the i n i t i a l note of each p a i r , s t r e n g t h e n i n g i t as the f i r s t of a group. C e r t a i n i n t e r v a l s i n t h i s opening phrase are repeated (see F i g u r e l a ) , but t h i s r e p e t i t i o n i s s u b t l y v a r i e d by means of the rhythmic groupings. In F i g u r e 1b, the q u a r t e r - n o t e s a t t r a c t the s t r e s s , i n c o n t r a s t with the surrounding e i g h t h - n o t e s . The f i r s t e ighth-note f i g u r e r e c e i v e s emphasis when i t s e f f e c t i s extended by the succeeding e i g h t h -note. At some p o i n t s , musical accents produced by such grouping of n o t e - v a l u e s seem to match the u n d e r l a i d t e x t , as at measures 5 In a l l of the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s , note-groups have been r e -w r i t t e n so t h a t they best i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t s of s t r e s s , and w i l l not e x a c t l y resemble the t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n Gordon Greene's e d i t i o n , from which the examples and measure-numbers have been d e r i v e d . See Gordon Greene, French S e c u l a r Music; Manuscript  C h a n t i l l y , V o l . 18, pp. 131-132. 6 I n d i v i d u a l notes appear to have been very c a r e f u l l y p l a c e d i n the o r i g i n a l , as i f to show the exact s y l l a b l e to which they were to be sung. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t was not p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r f a c s i m i l e of t h i s p i e c e t o be ab l e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s . 78 33-35, 36, 37-38 (see F i g u r e 2, p. 7 9 ) . 9 6 Each verse i s approaching i t s c l o s e at these measures, and the l i n e s here r e c e i v e a p p r o p r i a t e emphasis from the matching of melodic, rhythmic and t e x t u a l s t r e s s . E s p e c i a l l y f e l i c i t o u s i s the s e t t i n g of the word " q u o l e r i q u e " , i n measure 33. T h i s i s an important word i n the f i r s t v e r s e , s i n c e i t i s p a r t of the poet's reason f o r h i s fumosity, but i t i s an odd one f o r a l y r i c poet to have had to set — indeed, the whole s u b j e c t i s strange f o r a b a l l a d e . T h i s strangeness i s exaggerated by the drawing-out of " q u o l e r i q u e " through having melody and rhythm c r e a t e a s t r e s s on the s y l l a b l e ' i ' . The r e s u l t i s c e r t a i n l y amusing. Syncopation, i n t r o d u c e d by the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of one or two small n o t e - v a l u e s , i s a n o t i c e a b l e f e a t u r e of t h i s work. Measures 37-38 pro v i d e one example, with the s i x t e e n t h - n o t e displacement o c c u r r i n g toward the beginning of measure 37, f i n a l l y being r e s o l v e d at the end of the m u s i c a l phrase, l a t e i n measure 38 (see F i g u r e 3, p. 81). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , such syncopated passages o f t e n c o n t a i n a s e r i e s of l i k e n o t e - v a l u e s . But t h i s k i nd of passage a l s o c r e a t e s a r h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t t h a t can be q u i t e s u i t a b l e f o r the t e x t that i s sung; measures 37-38 c e r t a i n l y i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . In a l l three v e r s e s , the poet i s making an a s s e r t i o n at these measures: "T h i s i s w e l l fumed-on, t h e r e i s no outrage whatsoever"(verse 1 ) , " the fumous man can f i n d / W i thin h i m s e l f much of p r o f i t and advantage" (verse 2) , "I do not agree t h a t one would have a f l i g h t y h e a r t " (verse 3) . These a s s e r t i o n s are a l l the more emphatic f o r t h e i r s e t t i n g i n s t e a d i l y i t e r a t e d but syncopated notes. 79 2 or 3 i n d i c a t e s duple or t r i p l e n o t e - g r o u p i n g s . ?ui«- j e s u i j - i / - fnCtfX pjaius *— F i g . 1. M i x i n g of duple and t r i p l e n o t e -groups produced by a l t e r n a t i n g l o n g and s h o r t n o t e - v a l u e s (Puisque j e s u i fumeux). ft f?'*** 3* _ J L ^ ^ 2 - ^ 1 P P p n K , N — cJ |> J J J' J J < I W - t r ay F i g . 2. Matching o f m e l o d i c , r h y t h m i c and t e x t u a l a c c e n t s (Puisque j e s u i fumeux). 80 Even where there i s no syncopation, a s i m i l a r r h e t o r i c a l impression i s made by any s e r i e s of l i k e - v a l u e d notes, because of the s t r o n g c o n t r a s t i t makes with the surrounding, more f l u i d rhythmic t e x t u r e . At measures 7-9, f o r example, a s e r i e s of long notes of equal l e n g t h i s i n t r o d u c e d a f t e r the f i r s t i n t e r n a l cadence-melisma (see F i g u r e 4, p. 81). Consequently, each note i s very c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , and lends c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis to whatever words are sung at t h i s p o i n t . T h i s emphasis i s f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by the longer note-values heard si m u l t a n e o u s l y i n the lower l i n e . There are p o i n t s i n the work where a more s t a t i c lower v o i c e focuses a t t e n t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y upon upper-voice a r t i c u l a t i o n , as i n measures 16 and 36 (see F i g u r e 5, p. 82). At measure 16, the melody of the upper v o i c e moves g r a c e f u l l y down toward the note E, i n the next measure. T h i s passage has the e f f e c t of i n t r o d u c i n g the r e s t of the s e c t i o n because t h i s p u r p o s e f u l descent to a s t r o n g p o i n t i s a l l that i s happening here: a l l a c t i v i t y has been suspended i n the lower v o i c e . L i k e a p e d a l - p o i n t or a drone, the s t a t i c D of the tenor i n c r e a s e s the impact of the upper v o i c e without being i n t r u s i v e . In measure 36, the c o n t r a s t between the very short note-values of the cantus and those of the much slower tenor, i n combination with t h e i r rhythmic d i s l o c a t i o n , produces a s i m i l a r e f f e c t . The s t a t i c q u a l i t y at measure 36 i s a l s o i n c r e a s e d by the r e p e t i t i o n , i n the upper v o i c e , of a s m a l l musical f i g u r e (see F i g u r e 5b). In view of the forward d r i v e c r e a t e d i n the succeeding measures, both by the upper-voice syncopation and the 81 e'estr t i «n $v - me i \ *t i a. po i * t 4'out- rai^ F i g . 3. S y n c o p a t i o n : a) Passage as t r a n s -c r i b e d by Greene, b) Passage n o t a t e d t o show p o i n t s a t w h i c h s y n c o p a t i o n b e g i n s and ends. ( P u i s q u e j e s u i fumeux) mS-6 & - * 3 -S3p v Eft" f f ' f r T ^ F i g . 4. R h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t p r o d u c e d by a s e r i e s o f l i k e -v a l u e d n o t e s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h s u r r o u n d i n g t e x t u r e ( P u i s q u e j e s u i fumeux). 82 &a—-x i n d i c a t e s a c c e n t f a l l i n g on n o t e . F i g . 5. R e p e t i t i o n i n m e l o d i c l i n e ( y ) , and s l o w l y -moving l o w e r v o i c e d i s l o c a t e d r h y t h m i c a l l y f r o m upper v o i c e , r e s u l t i n g i n s t a t i c m u s i c a l e f f e c t ( P u i s q u e j e s u i fumeux). may 0 F i g 6 D i s s o n a n c e s p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h n o t e - d i s p l a c e m e n t a) Greene's t r a n s c r i p t i o n , b) R e c r e a t i o n o f passage w i t h s y n c o p a t i o n removed ( P u i s q u e j e s u i fumeux). 83 i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y of the lower v o i c e , one can view the present passage as a slow opening that g r a d u a l l y e v o l v e s i n t o a d r i v e toward the cadence. When one c o n s i d e r s the p a t t e r - l i k e e n u n c i a t i o n at measure 36, (see F i g u r e 5b), that h e r a l d s t h i s dramatic e f f e c t , and the words that would have been sung here, one can c e r t a i n l y begin to suspect a comic i n t e n t i o n . F i n a l l y , the work has a s e r i e s of perverse dissonances produced by s y n c o p a t i o n . These occur between measures 29 and 32 (see F i g u r e 6, p. 82). The upper and lower v o i c e s are 'out' here by two e i g h t h - n o t e s , c r e a t i n g dissonances of major and minor sevenths and n i n t h s , both at s t r o n g p o i n t s as w e l l as through escape-tones. F i g u r e 6b p r e s e n t s a simpler v e r s i o n of the passage as i t might have been con c e i v e d before syncopation. The dissonances heard i n these measures c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as a m u s i c a l joke that i s intended to match the t e x t , the p e r v e r s i t y of the passage being 'fumous' from a musical p o i n t of view. The t o t a l e f f e c t of t h i s work i s one of rhythmic f l u i d i t y and constant change. There are o c c a s i o n a l p o i n t s of r h e t o r i c a l s t r e n g t h , but these are always b r i e f . Indeed, a most s t r i k i n g aspect of the p i e c e i s i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n of v a r y i n g m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s w i t h i n such a small time-frame: a r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n of new mensurations, v a r i e d note-groupings, and complex m u s i c a l s t y l e s and e f f e c t s makes c e r t a i n t h a t performers and l i s t e n e r s would have to have been very a l e r t d u r i n g i t s performance. Perhaps the constant change and perverse dissonances would have produced an aura of madness that a f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y audience 84 c o u l d have c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a poem that was a (mock?-) defense of fumosite. The Rondeau 'Fumeux Fume*. Nothing i s known of Solage, beyond what can be gathered from h i s music and the i n f o r m a t i o n suggested by i t s t e x t s . Of h i s ten works i n C h a n t i l l y , the l a r g e s t number i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n by one composer, one b a l l a d e p r a i s e s the Duke of Berry (S'aincy e s t o i t , number 50), and two more are b e l i e v e d to have c e l e b r a t e d the wedding t h a t took p l a c e i n 1386, between the duke's son and C a t h e r i n e de France, s i s t e r to C h a r l e s VI (Corps  femenin and Calextone, numbers 24 and 80.) Solage i s regarded as a composer who i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y c l o s e to Machaut, but who a l s o a c q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i l l i n the more complex ar s s u b t i l i o r w r i t i n g , as i s c e r t a i n l y e vident i n the b a l l a d e S'aincy e s t o i t . 9 7 The rondeau Fumeux fume i s remarkable f o r a number of m u s i c a l f e a t u r e s . The extremely low t e s s i t u r a i n which the p i e c e i s w r i t t e n a l l o w s f o r the t r a n c r i p t i o n of a l l t h r e e v o i c e s to be made comfortably w i t h i n the modern bass c l e f . T h i s i s not the o n l y composition i n the f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e p e r t o i r e to use low notes: Matheus de P e r u s i o ' s v i r e l a i , Heylas que f e r a y , has a comparable t e s s i t u r a : the E and D below F occur i n both Contra 9 7 For a d i s c u s s i o n of Solage and h i s background, see U r s u l a Gunther, "Die musiker des Herzogs von Berry", Musica D i s c i p l i n a 17 (1963):79-95. 85 and Tenor v o i c e s , and a l l t h r e e v o i c e s have a low r a n g e . 9 8 In the p resent work, there appears to be con s c i o u s e x p l o i t a t i o n of the lower, f l a t p i t c h e s . The lowest notes used i n the c o n t r a f and tenor l i n e s are oAten F and even E - f l a t , both s i t u a t e d below the bottom p i t c h T-ut of the gamut (see f o r example, measures 7, co n t r a and 8, tenor, and measures 22, c o n t r a , and 23, t e n o r ) . 9 9 A l s o unusual are manuscript a c c i d e n t a l s a p p l i e d to notes t h a t one i s not accustomed to seein g a l t e r e d at t h i s p e r i o d , and, through the presence of these a c c i d e n t a l s , the i m p l i e d a d d i t i o n of yet more " u n l i k e l y " f i c t a notes. For example between measures 16 and 22, the cantus seems to move through a t o n a l sequence that i n c l u d e s the notes A - f l a t (m.16), G - f l a t (m.17), E - f l a t (m.18), D - f l a t (mm.19 and 20), low B - f l a t (m.20 and 21), none of which had a p l a c e i n the Guidonian hand. Unusual f o r the music of t h i s r e p e r t o i r e are the c h a i n s of sequences t h a t occur i n the work (at measures 16-22, and 27-34; see the s e c t i o n s marked i n F i g u r e 16 below, p.107). The use of sequence has been noted as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Solage's s t y l e , 1 0 0 but here i t i s f e a t u r e d prominently, r e c e i v i n g f a r more 9 8 T h i s work, c o n t a i n i n g as f i c t a notes only F-, C- and G-sharps, appears to be e x p l o r i n g or r e q u i r i n g a transposed r e c t a gamut, with the hexachords on E, A and D (see p.13 f o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of gamut e x t e n s i o n s ) . The v i r e l a i , which occurs i n the Modena manuscript, has been t r a n c r i b e d i n : French S e c u l a r  Compositions of the Fourteenth Century, v o l . 1, ed. W i l l i Apel and Samuel N. Rosenberg (Corpus M e n s u r a b i l i s Musicae, Rome: American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1970), pp.113-115, no.58. 9 9 See the t r a n s c i p t i o n by Gordon Greene, i n French S e c u l a r Music:  The Manuscript C h a n t i l l y , pp.165-166. 1 0 0 See Gordon Greene, French S e c u l a r Music: The Manuscript  C h a n t i l l y , no.13, Tres gent iT"cueryand no.17, En 1'amoureux  v e r g i e r , and the commentary t o these p i e c e s , pp. 149-150, 151. 86 a t t e n t i o n than i s customary -in works of t h i s p e r i o d . Rhythmic sequences are matched by an i n t r i g u i n g s e r i e s of t o n a l sequences which take the music on unusual harmonic e x c u r s i o n s , such as the one that occurs at measures 16-22 (see F i g u r e 7 below, p. 87). Strange p r e f i g u r a t i o n s of modern harmony appear to c a t c h the ear at these measures, such as the d r i v e toward what we would term a B - f l a t minor chord, i n measure 19, the d i m i n i s h e d seventh chords at measures 17 and 20 (only the second of these r e s o l v e s i n a 'modern' way), and the 'dominant' sound of the chord on F at measure 20. But the ' s i x - t h r e e ' harmonies a s s o c i a t e d with music both of t h i s p e r i o d and that of the f o l l o w i n g decades, i s a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s passage (see F i g u r e 7, measure 16-17), and there i s a l s o , at measures 21-22, a f i n a l cadence that uses a standard p r o g r e s s i o n , a s i x - t h r e e r e s o l v i n g to a f i v e - e i g h t chord, with i t s d o u b l y - r a i s e d l e a d i n g - t o n e s . One can guess t h a t the composer used these sequences as a way to e x p l o r e unusual t o n a l areas not h i t h e r t o known to music theory, and that t h i s m u s i c a l experimentation was, f o r the composer, a fumeuse  s p e c u l a t i o n , as the t e x t d e c l a r e s . The s e q u e n t i a l i m i t a t i o n i n a l l v o i c e s may have c a r r i e d f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s of fumosit£ f o r a medieval musician. I t has been shown that s i m i l a r musical passages, c a l l e d f a n t a s i a , were r e f e r r e d to i n some music p u b l i c a t i o n s , as w e l l as i n c e r t a i n t r e a t i s e s concerned with i m p r o v i s a t i o n , w r i t t e n between the e a r l y 1500's and 1700's. In t h e i r sources, the examples of s e q u e n t i a l i m i t a t i o n are used to i l l u s t r a t e how s h o r t , r e p e a t a b l e harmonic and c o n t r a p u n t a l s t r u c t u r e s c o u l d be used as 87 A mJ6rXXf f f M J >I l^r i 1'' t r f M J l ^ r f fr F i g . 7. S e q u e n c e p a t t e r n s : a) G r e e n e ' s t r a n s c r i p t i o n , b) H a r m o n i c r e d u c t i o n (Fumeux f u m e ) . 88 memory-cues f o r i m p r o v i s i n g part-music. The use of such mechanical formulae was a p p a r e n t l y l i n k e d to a branch of r h e t o r i c , the a r s mnemonica, .taught as an elementary p a r t of a l l e d u c a t i o n , and i t i s c l e a r that such formulae, l i k e the c o n j u r e d images p l a c e d i n l o c i i n the mind to a i d memorisation, were regarded as un r e a l and a r t i f i c i a l . The conception of the f a n t a s i a by t h e o r i s t s has been summarized as: something which i s imaginary, something u n r e a l and i n t a n g i b l e . Because of i t s m e c h a n i s i t i c r e g u l a r i t y , i t i s looked on as a p u r e l y a r t i f i c i a l c o n t r i v a n c e , an i n h e r e n t l y u n n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n s p r i n g i n g d i r e c t l y from the i m a g i n a t i o n . 1 0 1 . Given t h i s c o n c e p t i o n of the s e q u e n t i a l element i m p l i e d by f a n t a s i a , so a p p r o p r i a t e a d e s c r i p t i o n of fumosity, i t c o u l d be j u s t i f i a b l e to c o n s i d e r the sequences of Fumeux Fume as mu s i c a l metaphors f o r fumosite^. Since medieval education i n c l u d e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n the a r s mnemonica, i t might have been p o s s i b l e that a musical a p p l i c a t i o n of i t s processes was being made i n t h i s work at the suggestion of/its t e x t . There are a number of p o s s i b l e m o t i v a t i o n s f o r t h i s work: i t c o u l d have been intended as i r o n y , mocking those who indulge i n such m u s i c a l l y s p e c u l a t i v e matters, i t s comic t e x t c o u l d have p r o v i d e d the composer with an excuse f o r i n d u l g i n g h i s musical c u r i o s i t y , or f i n a l l y , i t c o u l d have been the a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r a composer to make who was present a t a g a t h e r i n g of fumeurs, a 1 See Gregory B u t l e r , "The f a n t a s i a as musical image", The  M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 60 (1974):602-615. I am g r a t e f u l to Dr. B u t l e r f o r drawing my a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . 89 t e a s i n g p i e c e with i t s l u r c h i n g chromatic s h i f t s , i t s over-extended sequences, and i t s " r o a r i n g bass l i n e " . 1 0 2 But was f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y music theory completely unable to e x p l a i n such music? I t may be more than j u s t c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t there was one t h e o r i s t , the author of the s o - c a l l e d B e rkeley Manuscript (Berkeley, MS. 744), who i n 1375 had d i s c u s s e d e x t e n s i o n s of the system of hexachords, s e t t i n g down a l l t h a t was c u r r e n t at the time of w r i t i n g , but a l s o adding the f r u i t s of h i s own s p e c u l a t i o n . 1 0 3 The "new" notes used i n Fumeux  fume are the very same new notes d e s c r i b e d by the Berkeley t h e o r i s t when d i s c u s s i n g e x t e n s i o n s t o the hexachord system, h i s own ideas as w e l l as those of o t h e r s . One c o u l d p o s s i b l y view Fumeux fume as a t e s t p i e c e f o r new ideas connected with those that the Berkeley t h e o r i s t was propounding, a t r u l y avant-garde work. In order to i l l u s t r a t e the s p e c u l a t i o n s of the Berkeley author, i t w i l l be necessary to d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y the r e g u l a r hexachord system, and then to d i s c u s s h i s i n n o v a t i v e ideas i n the l i g h t of other commonly accepted l a t e medieval e x t e n s i o n s to the system that were recorded by h i s c l o s e s t known contemporaries. 102 S e e w i l l i A p e l , French S e c u l a r Music of the Fourteenth Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Medieval Academy of America' 1950) ~ P « 30, no.40. 1 0 3 See O l i v e r E l l s w o r t h , "The Berkeley Manuscript ( o l i m P h i l l i p p s 4450): A Compendium of Fourteenth-Century Music Theory" (Ph.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B erkeley, 1969) 2 v o l s . 90 The Regular Hexachords And T h e i r P r o p e r t i e s Medieval t h e o r i s t s had e v o l v e d a method f o r r e a d i n g and naming the p i t c h e s used i n G r e g o r i a n chant, a d i a t o n i c , monophonic r e p e r t o i r e . They appear to have used the system f o r p e d a g o g i c a l purposes, i n order to teach students how to s i n g chant, i n order to l e a r n new p i e c e s , and to h e l p them to c a t e g o r i z e the d i f f e r e n t modes. The standard method d e s c r i b e d i n medieval t r e a t i s e s made use of a working ' s c a l e ' u n i t , or hexachord, c o n s i s t i n g of s i x ascending p i t c h e s , arranged i n the tone-semitone p a t t e r n : t t s t t . In a d d i t i o n , each p i t c h was a s s i g n e d a s y l l a b l e which i d e n t i f i e d i t s degree w i t h i n the hexachord, t h i s being the process of ' s o l m i z a t i o n ' . F i g u r e 8, below (see p . ^ O ) , i l l u s t r a t e s the u n i n f l e c t e d , natura, hexachord ( h e n c e f o r t h to be r e f e r r e d to as N), and i t s solmized p i t c h e s . i n t e r v a l s : t t s t t p i t c h e s : C D E F G A s o l m i z a t i o n s y l l a b l e s : ut re mi f a s o l l a F i g . 8. The n a t u r a l hexachord (N) Two f u r t h e r hexachords were used to allow f o r the s o l m i z a t i o n of the p i t c h e s B - f l a t and B - n a t u r a l : the " s o f t " hexachord, so-named a f t e r the p i t c h B - f l a t used i n i t , B - m o l l i s (to be r e f e r r e d to as M), and the "hard" hexachord, named a f t e r the p i t c h B-91 n a t u r a l , B-durum (to be r e f e r r e d to as D). The c a r d i n a l p o i n t about the system was that whatever hexachord one was us i n g , the semitone c o u l d always be recog n i z e d between the s o l m i z a t i o n s y l l a b l e s mi and f a . The f e a t u r e s that d i f f e r e n t i a t e d each of the three hexachords, such as the mi-fa placement and p i t c h -range, were r e f e r r e d to as t h e i r ' p r o p e r t i e s ' . F i g u r e 9 (see p. 95), i l l u s t r a t e s the proper a p p l i c a t i o n of the s y l l a b l e s of each hexachord to a chant melody. The e n t i r e range of a v a i l a b l e hexachords allowed the system to extend from G up to e'', g i v i n g a t o t a l number of seven p o s s i b l e s t a r t i n g - p o i n t s , or deductiones (see F i g u r e 10 below, p. 95). F i g u r e 11 (see p. 96), shows the process known as "mutation", i n which a p i t c h common to two hexachords was used as a p i v o t - n o t e i n order to allow s o l m i z a t i o n to c o n t i n u e , should the melody go o u t s i d e the range of i t s i n i t i a l hexachord, or i n t r o d u c e p i t c h e s f o r e i g n to i t . Although i t i s not known how i t was done i n p r a c t i c e , theory t r e a t i s e s show t h a t mutation o c c u r r e d at the l a s t p o s s i b l e p o i n t , with the a p p r o p r i a t e s y l l a b l e s from both the o l d and the new hexachord being a p p l i e d to the common p i t c h . T h i s p o i n t was termed c o n i u n c t i o . F i g u r e 11 below i s d e r i v e d from the f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y t r e a t i s e by Anonymous XI of Coussemaker (to be r e f e r r e d to h e n c e f o r t h as A . X I . ) . 1 0 * The e n t i r e gamut i s re p r e s e n t e d below (see F i g u r e 12, p. 97), showing the o v e r l a p p i n g of the hexachord p i t c h e s and 1 0 * See Edmond de Coussemaker, Scriptorum de musica medii a e v i  novam seriem a G e r b e r t i n a a l t e r a m . ( P a r i s : A.Durand, 1864-1876), Anonymous XI, v o l . 3 , p. 421b. 92 t h e i r s o l m i z a t i o n s y l l a b l e s . In t h i s system, i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n d i c a t e the exact p i t c h of any note, as medieval t h e o r i s t s d i d ; f o r example, F below middle c i s 'F fa u t ' . Where the same d e s i g n a t i o n would reoccur at a higher octave, the terms acuta and superacuta were used to i n d i c a t e that p a r t of the range. While the system d e s c r i b e d above was s u i t a b l e f o r the m a j o r i t y of chant melodies, there were always some e x c e p t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g notes such as f-sharp or e - f l a t , t h a t were 'ou t s i d e ' the r e p e r t o i r e of a v a i l a b l e p i t c h e s and which c o u l d not be solmized a c c o r d i n g to the c u r r e n t theory. The number of such examples i n c r e a s e d with the growing use of polyphonic c o u n t e r p o i n t , s i n c e such compositions o f t e n r e q u i r e d adjustment of p i t c h e s to c r e a t e v e r t i c a l consonances. Such a d j u s t e d notes were termed by the t h e o r i s t s musica f i c t a or musica f a l s a , s i n c e i n theory they were imaginary, and had to be ' f e i g n e d ' . The medieval e x p l a n a t i o n of f i c t a notes r e f l e c t s the s i n g e r ' s concern to l o c a t e the semitone c o r r e c t l y , a concern which had a l s o i n f l u e n c e d the nomenclature of the r e g u l a r hexachords. A f i c t a note was produced by the c r e a t i o n of a semitone out of a tone, where p r e v i o u s l y there had e x i s t e d n o n e . 1 0 5 1 0 5 See O l i v e r E l l s w o r t h , "The o r i g i n of the c o n i u n c t a : a r e a p p r a i s a l " , J o u r n a l of Music Theory 17 (1973): 91. E l l s w o r t h c i t e s the d e f i n i t i o n of Johannes de G a r l a n d i a . 93 The Coniuncta I t would seem that by the f o u r t e e n t h century, the use of these f e i g n e d notes was so f a m i l i a r t h a t they had a c q u i r e d a new name, co n i u n c t a e ; as they are d e s c r i b e d i n the Berkeley t r e a t i s e of 1375, i t i s c l e a r t h a t these p i t c h e s , which i n e a r l i e r times would have been c o n s i d e r e d unusual, now have some t h e o r e t i c a l j u s i f i c a t i o n , and are no longer c o n s i d e r e d as a b s o l u t e l y f o r e i g n . 1 0 6 The Berkeley t h e o r i s t d i s c u s s e s the formation of these p i t c h e s as an aspect r e l a t e d to r e g u l a r hexachords and t h e i r normal mutation p r o c e s s . He l i n k s the l a t t e r t o the t o p i c of the c o n i u n c t a i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: If you c o n s i d e r these matters c a r e f u l l y , t o g e t h e r with the examples below, you w i l l be able to i n s p e c t every s y l l a b l e of any song and determine i t s proper p l a c e i n the system, u n l e s s by chance some unusual p r o g r e s s i o n should turn up, which some i n c o r r e c t l y c a l l musica f a l s a , o t h e r s musica f i c t a . S t i l l o t h e r s p r o p e r l y c a l l them c o n i u n c t a e , because, l i k e c o n j u n c t i o n s , they take p l a c e by the r e g u l a r p r o p e r t i e s mentioned above. And so these coniunctae were invented so that a song formerly c a l l e d i r r e g u l a r c o u l d be brought i n t o r e g u l a r i t y by them i n some manner. For the c o n i u n c t a i s the a t t r i b u t e , r e a l i z e d i n a c t u a l s i n g i n g , of making a semitone out of a tone at any p o i n t , and v i c e v e r s a . Or, r a t h e r , a co n i u n c t a i s the mental t r a n s p o s i t i o n of any pr o p e r t y or hexachord from i t s own l o c a t i o n to another above or b e l o w . 1 0 7 There are three p o i n t s that are e s p e c i a l l y noteworthy i n 1 0 6 E l l s w o r t h , i n "The Berkeley Manuscript", pp. 28-30, draws a t t e n t i o n t o an o p e r a t i o n s i m i l a r to the co n i u n c t a t h a t was d i s c u s s e d by Jerome of Moravia, w r i t i n g between 1272 and 1304. Transposing the i n t e r v a l l i c p a t t e r n s of the t e t r a c h o r d rather than the hexachord, t h i s t h e o r i s t d e s c r i b e d how to produce f l a t s on the p i t c h e s A, B, D, E, and G. Ac c o r d i n g t o E l l s w o r t h , t h i s may suggest t h a t the development of hexachord t r a n s p o s i t i o n o c c u r r e d e a r l y i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 1 0 7 See O l i v e r E l l s w o r t h , "The Berkeley Manuscript", v o l . 1 , pp. 90-91. 94 t h i s passsage. F i r s t l y , the con i u n c t a i s t r e a t e d as a more a p p r o p r i a t e synonym f o r musica f i c t a , secondly, coniunctae are spoken of as a means of l e g i t i m i z i n g somewhat the formerly i r r e g u l a r notes, and are r e f e r r e d to as i f they had a l r e a d y e x i s t e d f o r some time ("And so these coniunctae were invented so th a t a song fo r m e r l y c a l l e d i r r e g u l a r c o u l d be brought i n t o r e g u l a r i t y by them i n some manner"), and f i n a l l y , t h i s l e g i t i m i z i n g i s done through the t r a n s p o s i t i o n of the p r o p e r t i e s of normal hexachords to another l o c a t i o n . T h i s l a s t p o i n t shows c l e a r l y t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l theory had expanded to take i n t o account new performing p r a c t i c e s . But the Berkeley t h e o r i s t does not merely d e s c r i b e t h i s expansion of the theory i n i t s c u r r e n t s t a t e ; he a l s o extends i t , o c c a s i o n a l l y p o i n t i n g out what i s the accepted understanding of the o p e r a t i o n of the c o n i u n c t a and what i s h i s own view of the matter. The c o n i u n c t a i s best understood as the process used f o r c r e a t i n g a new semitone. At the p o i n t at which t h i s must occur (or at which the c o n i u n c t a i s to be "taken",as the Berkeley t h e o r i s t l i k e s to r e f e r t o i t ) , between the p i t c h e s C and D, f o r example, one can e i t h e r lower the upper p i t c h , c a l l i n g t h i s note f a , or r a i s e the lower one, c a l l i n g i t mi (see F i g u r e 13a and b, p. 97). The t h e o r i s t s t a t e s that the s i g n s f o r B m o l l i s and B durum ( \> and \ ) are used, r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o i n d i c a t e each of these o p e r a t i o n s . On the b a s i s of the s y l l a b l e s mi and fa of these semitone i n t e r v a l s , a new hexachord s t a r t i n g on the p i t c h A-ut c o u l d be produced. I f the c o n i u n c t a had r e q u i r e d a f l a t , the hexachord would begin on A - f l a t , and presumably 95 O H * * » t la. * # ^ * 1*A - a e -P n D »* mt ri -re « - * i r t ih—; # -0— —• * * . m * fa bo* * «* («• *M *«* -«M% hC m MM 9 1 /k ' » b m fa\ * m 9 * * m * * * 9 a ; - C9 . F i g . 9. The a p p l i c a t i o n of the hexachords. F i g . 10. The seven deductiones of the hexachord system. 96 aol to it. to tot • — ^ > ^ ~ ^ ok to Sol X N r* fa. « i *o\\ ft mt K wt t»e) > Sol^re sol fa. sol/ 5o u t i rni rt ut v t l 0—j * N mt r e f * *•!, fa. sol fa. m% t*. vk » e l ufc) r«.i fo- at r« •fa m i ttfc t o me. 3 # M re ( f a. i d r e p r e wl o t re F i g . 11. Mutations for natura, m o l l i s and durum hexachords. D I ut — ml fa sol U 14 ut rt mi (t f I to n TIL * * fr 5 0 1 P ] g o is. ut * •fa, sol la ut rt mi *** ut >-*. At ^a .1 U f 3 „t rg wu, £o. »»t la. F i g . 12. The gamut and the deductions of i t s hexachords. © Create AC<J semitone b«b*je*rt C a*<A 0 . —^ —A & (b)«Jififccrv*l ^«ves • tru-^ja. oF' mi ja, -e-F i g . 13. The o p e r a t i o n o f the c o n i u n c t a . 98 i n c l u d e whatever other f l a t s were necessary to produce a normal hexachord p a t t e r n . I f the c o n i u n c t a had employed a sharp, the hexachord would have to s t a r t on A, and i n c l u d e the sharps necessary f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of i t s hexachord. T h i s o p e r a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d S t e v e (see F i g u r e 13). The Berkeley t h e o r i s t i s thorough i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of each c o n i u n c t a : he mentions the p o i n t at which i t i s taken, the s i g n t h at must be used, the s o l m i z a t i o n s y l l a b l e a s s i g n e d to the changed p i t c h , the new deduction to which t h i s g i v e s r i s e , and i t s p r o p e r t y . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s t h e o r i s t , the p r o p e r t y of a hexachord thus formed depends not on the nature of the a c c i d e n t a l that has j u s t been a p p l i e d , but on i t s p r o x i m i t y to another t r a d i t i o n a l hexachord and the l a t t e r ' s d e f i n i n g semitone p i t c h e s , s i n c e the c o n i u n c t a i s c o n s i d e r e d as being but a t r a n s p o s i t i o n . Thus, a c o n i u n c t a taken at D-E and signed with B - m o l l i s (M, would produce a D- E - f l a t semitone, and yet g i v e r i s e to a hexachord on B - f l a t t h a t had the p r o p e r t y of n a t u r a , because of i t s c l o s e n e s s to the C hexachord. In the same way, the u n l i k e l y - l o o k i n g hexachord beginning on D - f l a t ( c r e a t e d through the s i g n B - m o l l i s being a p p l i e d at the p o i n t F-mi-G-fa), would a l s o be n a t u r a . F i g u r e 14 below (see p. 99), i l l u s t r a t e s a l l the c o n i u n c t a e , t h e i r hexachords, p r o p e r t i e s and the d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r t r a n s p o s i t i o n , as d e s c r i b e d by t h i s t h e o r i s t . When the Berkeley t h e o r i s t d i s c u s s e s the number of coniunctae t h a t are a v a i l a b l e , h i s o r i g i n a l i t y becomes q u i t e apparent. I t i s shown i n two ways: f i r s t l y , h i s own words i n d i c a t e i t ; and secondly, when h i s own examples of the 99 4*AA property. flit * g i « V i K r * " * " « W i r t ^ toaffrj) Pof** - f f »"* E . 4\ « * n 1? 5 % bit t> ftftfrtfinj li Pr-""1 r . 35 2E 3E 7 « 4f F i g . 14. Coniunctae p r e s e n t e d i n the B e r k e l e y t r e a t i s e , and t h e i r d e r i v e d hexachords. 100 c o n i u n c t a are compared with those of the c l o s e s t c h o r o n o l o g i c a l l y s u r v i v i n g t r e a t i s e s , i t i s obvious that a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y and a l a r g e r number of a c c i d e n t a l s are i n t r o d u c e d by the Berkeley t h e o r i s t than by the two s l i g h t l y l a t e r s o u r c e s : the L i b e l l u s musicus, Vat. l a t . 5129 (henceforth to be r e f e r r e d to as V I . ) , which A l b e r t Seay dated around 1 400, 1 0 8 and the t r e a t i s e by Anonymous XI i n Coussemaker (A.XI.), dated around 1 4 5 0 . 1 0 9 We can d e a l with the Berkeley author's own words f i r s t . He d e c l a r e s t h a t , although c u r r e n t o p i n i o n s g i v e the number of coniunctae as seven, ei g h t or more, he h i m s e l f puts the number at t e n . In e f f e c t , h i s contemporaries would have been j u s t i f i e d i n s a y i n g t h a t h i s : t r e a t i s e r e a l l y d e s c r i b e d e l e v e n , s i n c e he r e f u s e s to c o n s i d e r as a new c o n i u n c t a the semitone which i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the graves area of the gamut the p i t c h B - f l a t , and which other t h e o r i s t s c a l l e d c o n i u n c t a number one (see F i g u r e 15 below, p. 104). A hexachord b u i l t around t h i s i n f l e c t e d p i t c h would begin i t s deduction on F below T u t , one note lower than the t r a d i t i o n a l l y lowest p i t c h of the gamut. 1 0 8 A l b e r t Seay, ed., L i b e l l u s musicae, Corpus s c r i p t o r u m de musica, 9 (Rome: American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, I964)p. 15. The c o n i u n c t a i s mentioned on pages 27, 32, and 46-47. 1 0 9 See CS. v o l . 3 , pp. 426-430. Ugolino of O r v i e t o , w r i t i n g around 1430, c o n s t r u c t e d hexachords on the p i t c h e s F, B - f l a t and E - f l a t , e s s e n t i a l l y c r e a t i n g a transposed gamut beginning on F below r . He a l s o t a b u l a t e d hexachords on B - n a t u r a l , E - n a t u r a l , D, and C below r , and mentioned a hexachord on A, to account f o r the p i t c h C-sharp. He d i d not use the term coni"ncta, d i s c u s s i n g the above i n the context of musica f i c t a . See E l l s w o r t h , "The Berkeley Manuscript", v o l . 2 , p.23, and Andrew Hughes, Manuscript  A c c i d e n t a l s : F i c t a i n Focus, 1350-1450. ( M u s i c o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s  and Documents 27, Rome: American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology" 1972), pp. 21-39. 101 E a r l i e r i n h i s t r e a t i s e , the Berkeley t h e o r i s t had a l r e a d y added t h i s new p i t c h "by a r t " (secundum artem) to those t h a t c o u l d be reckoned on the Guidonian h a n d , 1 1 0 and so he c l a i m e d t h a t , secundum artem, a hexachord b u i l t on t h i s note was q u i t e l o g i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e : A c c o r d i n g to common p r a c t i c e the f i r s t c o n i u n c t a i s taken between A and B graves; i t i s signed on A [rea d : B] with the a c c i d e n t a l t , and i t s hexachord begins (they say) f u r t h e r below under r , so th a t f a i s sung on B g r a v i s .... But I, beginning the hand or palm a c c o r d i n g to a r t (below on F g r a v i s ) , say that there i s no co n i u n c t a on B g r a v i s ; f o r where t r a d i t i o n says B-mi, I say B-fa-B-mi, as I s t a t e d a b o v e . 1 1 1 The Berkeley t h e o r i s t c l a i m s f o r hi m s e l f another departure from the common p r a c t i c e of h i s time: h i s f i r s t c o n i u n c t a i s taken between F and A g r a v i s , g i v i n g an A - f l a t f a that i n i t i a t e s a hexachord on the very low p i t c h E - f l a t below T - u t . C a l l i n g t h i s a t r a n s p o s i t i o n downward of the hexachord on F below T , he says of t h i s example, " But common p r a c t i c e does not use t h i s c o n i u n c t a , because i t does not reckon the l e t t e r F with the other l e t t e r s of the hand." The other i n n o v a t i o n s of the Berkeley t h e o r i s t come to l i g h t through comparison with VI. and A.XI., the two c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y s u c c e s s i v e sources t h a t p r o v i d e comprehensive treatment of c o n i u n c t a e . There appears to have been a common source of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a l l three t r e a t i s e s , s i n c e the musical 1 1 0 See E l l s w o r t h , "The Berkeley Manuscript", p. 84: "Now one of the l e t t e r s o u t s i d e the hand, F, i s not i n common use, but a c c o r d i n g t o a r t i t may be p l a c e d at the f i r s t j o i n t of the middle f i n g e r o u t s i d e the hand." 1 1 1 E l l s w o r t h , "The Berkeley Manuscript", p. 92. 102 examples c i t e d i n i l l u s t r a t i o n of coniunctae are o f t e n the same fo r a l l t h r e e , and there are even c l o s e resemblances between the wording of d e f i n i t i o n s of the c o n i u n c t a i n Berkeley and i n A . X I . 1 1 2 F i g u r e 15 and Table 2 (see p. 105), allow comparison of the m a t e r i a l on coniunctae presented i n each of the three t r e a t i s e s . F i g u r e 15 pr e s e n t s the i n f o r m a t i o n on the formation of c oniunctae and t h e i r s o l m i z a t i o n that i s pr o v i d e d i n each t r e a t i s e . Table 2 compares i n d e t a i l a l l of the p r a c t i c a l examples c i t e d i n the three t r e a t i s e s f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g the use of c o niunctae i n chant. The common p r a c t i c e of the p e r i o d i s c l e a r l y best r e f l e c t e d i n the l a t e r two sources, with t h e i r more c o n s e r v a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c o n i u n c t a . The number of coniunctae mentioned i n both of these t r e a t i s e s i s e i g h t , a number which seems to bear out the Berkeley t h e o r i s t ' s a s s e r t i o n that w r i t e r s u s u a l l y gave the number as "seven, e i g h t or more". F i g u r e 15 below, shows that the Berkeley t h e o r i s t developed the co n i u n c t a i n th r e e areas: f i r s t l y , he extended i t s use downward i n t o the very low range of the gamut, i n t h i s process p r o v i d i n g a hexachordal b a s i s f o r the "new" note E - f l a t (see F i g u r e 15, B.1.); secondly, he r e a l i z e d the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y of lowering f a at the co n i u n c t a p o i n t s where common p r a c t i c e had only a p p l i e d r a i s e d mi (between C-D and F-G), thereby c r e a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of hexachords which i n c l u d e d E - f l a t , A - f l a t , D-f l a t and G - f l a t (see F i g u r e 15, B.2, B.4, B.6, B.8, and B.10.); and, f i n a l l y , he made p r o v i s i o n f o r the co n i u n c t a producing C-1 1 2 See E l l s w o r t h , "The Berkeley Manuscript", v o l . 2 , p. 24 103 s h a r p / D - f l a t to occur throughout the gamut, whereas i n the other t r e a t i s e s t h i s had been p l a c e d only i n the acutae (see F i g u r e 15, B.2, B.10.). I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the Berkeley t h e o r i s t p r o v i d e s no examples that i l l u s t r a t e t h i s new m a t e r i a l , even though he does i n c l u d e musical examples f o r the coniunctae t h a t would represent common p r a c t i c e , and which match those of VI. and A.XI (see t a b l e 2 ) . T h i s lends f u r t h e r support to the b e l i e f t h at he was us i n g m a t e r i a l known from other sources, and adding the f r u i t of h i s own s p e c u l a t i o n . 'Fumeux Fume' And Innovations Of The Berkely T h e o r i s t . C o n s i d e r i n g the rondeau Fumeux fume i n the l i g h t of these i n n o v a t i o n s , one i s s t r u c k by the correspondence between the t r u l y new suggestions of the Berkeley t h e o r i s t and the unusual p i t c h e s of t h i s work. The low F, B - f l a t and E - f l a t , and the A-, D- and G - f l a t s asked f o r i n t h i s p i e c e , are accounted f o r by the hexachords c r e a t e d through the Berkeley t h e o r i s t ' s examples. A hexachordal a n a l y s i s of t h i s rondeau does not work out e a s i l y i n a l l v o i c e s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y d i s j u n c t i o n s , the v i o l e n t c r o s s i n g over from one hexachord t o another, are the o n l y way to co n t i n u e the s o l m i z a t i o n of the v o i c e - p a r t . T h i s occurs more f r e q u e n t l y i n the lower v o i c e s , but only once does i t appear t o be necessary i n the t r i p l u m (see appendixC ). Of the two causes f o r mutation, exceeding the ambitus of one's hexachord and r e q u i r i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s y l l a b l e s f o r a semitone, the l a t t e r reason i s , of course, the dominant one f o r much of the mutation 104 F i g . 15. Coniunctae d e s c r i b e d i n B e r k e l e y , Vat. l a t . 5129, and Anon. XI., showing p o i n t s at which c o n i u n c t a e are taken, the d i r e c t i o n o f the a l t e r e d p i t c h e s , new s o l m i z a t i o n , and ( i n B e r k e l e y ) , new d e d u c t i o n s . 105 CONIUNCTA SIGN PROPERTY CONIUNCTA NUMBER EXAMPLES CITED BY THEORISTS CONIUNCTA OCCURS AT: TREATISES B. VI. A.XI. NOTATED INCIPITS B. VI. A.XI. MUTATED CONIUNCTAE B. VI. A.XI. TRANSPOSED ALTERNATIVES l~-A gravis b A 11 I B.(secundum artem) y y y A-B gravis. \>B 11 I B.(secundum usum) VI., A.XI. Resp. Sancta et immaculata " " Emendemus in meiius " ". ...ifuerunt sine querela Ant. A timore" non poterant et miserere calicem domini eripe Domine animam meam /._ ' V 7 y . y . v - — - •• C-D gravis #C D bD D II B. All. Vidimus stellam eius in oriente in oriente y y D-E gravis bE N Ill B., II VI., A.XI. Resp. Gaude Maria virgo Ant. Gloriosa sanctissimi " 0 crux gioriosa interemlsti et pirecibus et mifablle" signum y • — V. y F-G gravis #F N V G N IV B., III VI., A.XI. (B. only) Comm. Beatus servus Gloria in exceisis deo invenerit vigllantem Missus est anpelus _/:_. y v. y . • y A.XI. Ggr.-a acuta l>a H V B., IV VI.,A.XI. Comm. Fidelis servus in tempore lapidem contra me 71" — y. y — . y ... A.XI. Resp. Conclusit vias meas , Resp. Jesum tradidit impius "in several places" y c-d acuta $c D bd D VI B., V VI., A.XI. (B. only) All. Assumpta es Maria ln caelum jubilus of Alleluia __y... __.y ... y. y A.XI. Resp. Ave (Comm. Beatus servus) triclina (invenerit vigllantem) ----- (at 5th.) d-e acuta be H VII B., VI VI., A.XI. Ant. Immutemur jejunemus [same as incipit) i ; • ...v. . V V y y Int. Adorate deum • „y All. Hultlpharle nobis f-g acuta $f N tg' N VIII B., VII VI.,A.XI. (B. only) Ant. Hodle Maria virgo Comm. Si consurrexistis Maria (in incipit) aue sursum est • / : r ; | i ! I l _...., -i y _v. A.XI. Ant. Liberavit Caro mea (not discussed in B.) (same as incipit) v.... i • i ! t 1 ! g acuta- ta M a superacuta IX B., VIII VI., A.XI. : i i j j 1 c-d super- $ c D acuta b d D X B. j i j T a ble 2.--Information on coniunctae i n Berkeley, Vat. l a t . 5129, and Anon. XI. 106 t h a t must occur i n t h i s p i e c e . I t i s not easy to t e l l , i n the o r i g i n a l manuscript, p r e c i s e l y which p i t c h an a c c i d e n t a l i s governing. For example, i n F i g u r e 16 below (see, p. 107) the f i r s t f l a t i n the cantus i s on the l i n e f o r the p i t c h c, although there i s no such p i t c h notated anywhere on the cantus l i n e . Should such a c c i d e n t a l s be i n t e r p r e t e d as rough i n d i c a t i o n s , a p p l y i n g t o the note that i s most near or that i s most l o g i c a l l y s u i t a b l e ? T h i s appears to be the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a p p l i e d by both Greene and A p e l . 1 1 3 The task of a p p l y i n g hexachord s y l l a b l e s i n such a case i s made doubly d i f f i c u l t . One can never be q u i t e sure, f o r example, i f a l l the a c c i d e n t a l s were added by the same hand; i f they were not, they might f a i l to agree with each other. C e r t a i n l y , i n the tenor p a r t , the one f l a t and the ' t r u e ' sharp s i g n appear to be i n a hand d i f f e r e n t from that of the other a c c i d e n t a l s (see F i g u r e 16), and both tj and $ s i g n s are used i n t h i s work to i n d i c a t e mi. T h i s may suggest that we are d e a l i n g with more than one l a y e r of a c c i d e n t a l a p p l i c a t i o n s , a p o s s i b i l i t y that i s not u n l i k e l y . 1 1 8 In a d d i t i o n , some of the a c c i d e n t a l s may be c a n c e l l i n g e a r l i e r ones, r a t h e r than a f f e c t i n g notes that w i l l f o l l o w . For the sake of the e x e r c i s e , then, the top l i n e of Fumeux fume as t r a n s c r i b e d by Greene, has been an a l y s e d a c c o r d i n g to p o s s i b l e hexachordal mutations i n v o l v i n g c o n i u n c t a e . What emerges i s a means of s i n g i n g t h i s v o c a l l i n e 1 1 3 See W i l l i Apel and Samuel Rosenberg, eds. , French Secular  Compositions of the Fourteenth Century, no.103, and Greene, The  S e c u l a r Music of C h a n t i l l y , no.98. 1 1 8 See Andrew Hughes, F i c t a i n Focus, p. 40, item 14. 107 -P policy :-time 11 mc t .iimcufc |ycntljcu>H v .Ii I p," Aimmer l.ivrnfcf -. — i TIT ftimfiu'.» cV 1 t dZ3.iMt-nimj.r Ttrunoir-r r t i '* f i i "i '» t r " " i * i n d i c a t e s s e q u e n t i a l passages. '-, i n d i c a t e s r e d n o t a t i o n i n o r i g i n a l . F i g . 16. F a c s i m i l e o f Fumeux fume, C h a n t i l l y , Musee Conde, MS. 564, f o l . 59, no.~9~87 108 a c c o r d i n g t o what may have been a contemporary p r a c t i c e of s o l m i z a t i o n . That passages i n t h i s song have f l a t s going as f a r as G - f l a t would seem to i n d i c a t e t hat e xperimentation i n musica  f i c t a and the use of the hexachord was being undertaken. The M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e Of 'Fumeux Fume' The m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e of t h i s work c o n t r a d i c t s the p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e , i n a way, f o r where the l a t t e r i s c o n c i s e , the former i s o f t e n extended by melismas t h a t take sequences to absurd l e n g t h s . The f i r s t m u sical phrase of the rondeau i s very b r i e f , c o n s i s t i n g of four notes, G-E-G-A (measures 1-3), but then begins a long melisma, c e n t r e d around the note F (see F i g u r e 17a, b, and c, p. 111). Three s h o r t passages i n t u r n l e a d toward t h i s note, each i n c r e a s i n g i n l e n g t h when compared with i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . These move to the f i r s t i n t e r n a l cadence, at measures 14-15. T h i s f i r s t melisma terminated, another i s immediately i n i t i a t e d , t h i s time b u i l t on one of the i n e x o r a b l e sequence passages of t h i s work (measures 16-22), r e p e a t i n g the same melodic c e l l to the f i n a l B - f l a t that ends s e c t i o n one (measure 22). T h i s f i r s t p a r t of the rondeau has a cantus p a r t that t h e r e f o r e c o n s i s t s almost e n t i r e l y of melisma, with c o n s t a n t l y - c h a n g i n g t o n a l areas and too-long sequences. The r e s u l t sounds l i k e a musical c a r i c a t u r e t hat one might imagine to be a mu s i c a l type of fumosite^. The same o b s e r v a t i o n holds f o r the second s e c t i o n of t h i s p i e c e : the f i r s t phrase (measures 23 to the beginning of measure 109 26), f o l l o w e d by yet another melisma composed of descending chromatic sequences. There might be some c o m i c a l l y absurd s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the cantus l i n e ' s going so low below the other two p a r t s at t h i s p o i n t i n order t o complete i t s sequence-p a t t e r n (see measure 34), and a l s o i n the musi c a l 'tag' that rounds o f f t h i s passage once and f o r a l l (measure 35). A f i n a l p o r t i o n of the melisma, t h i s time a r i s i n g chromatic sequence, lead s to the f i n a l cadence, on F. A t t e n t i o n should be drawn toward the small groups of syncopations that occur i n the cantus, between measures 29 and 34, i n a s e r i e s of four-note u n i t s : Each group r e c e i v e s s i m i l a r chromatic treatment, c l e a r l y to be seen i n the o r i g i n a l manuscript (see F i g u r e 16, system two). The f i n a l long note of each group i s r a i s e d by a \\ or $ s i g n p l a c e d before i t . T h i s p i t c h a l t e r a t i o n i s then c a n c e l l e d i n the succeeding melodic u n i t with a b s i g n . Such s w i f t chromatic change c o u l d be deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the s e t t i n g of a poem concerned with fumosity: no sooner does the note change to one p i t c h than i t i s changed back a g a i n . T h i s i s e x a c t l y how Deschamps d e s c r i b e d h i s fumous moods i n b a l l a d e 813. Would composers have wished to be as l i t e r a l as t h i s ? More examples of strange or wayward composition occur d u r i n g these measures. At each h a l f - n o t e pause, the v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t i e s are unexpected and s t a r t l i n g : one hears the e f f e c t of t r i a d s , C-sharp minor (measure 28), E minor, (measure 30), F-sharp minor (measure 32), and A minor (measure 34), h a r d l y standard i n f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y works. Clashes from f a l s e 110 r e l a t i o n s are produced between the notes of these chords and those of the preceding measures. F i n a l l y , the c o n t r a v o i c e must be mentioned, f o r i t s strange melodic c o n f i g u r a t i o n s between measures 27 and 32 (see F i g u r e 18 below, p. 111). Twice, the melody o u t l i n e s an ascending t r i t o n e , and then t h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an ascending major s i x t h by way of an augmented f i f t h ! A joke must s u r e l y have been intended by such p e r v e r s i t y . T h i s examination of Solage's rondeau and H a s p r o i s ' b a l l a d e was undertaken to d i s c o v e r p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the t e x t c o n c e r n i n g fumeurs and the m u s i c a l s e t t i n g . I t has been p o s s i b l e t o p o i n t to s e v e r a l passages that s t r o n g l y suggest that t h i s was indeed the case i n both compositions. I l l b point of- f»rxt intromal eaoience F i g . 17. Pas s a g e s l e a d i n g t o w a r d t h e p i t c h F, and u l t i m a t e l y t o w a r d t h e f i r s t cadence i n Fumeux fume, showing t h e i r g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s -i n g l e n g t h . F i g . 18. M e l o d i c i n t e r v a l s o u t l i n e d i n c o n t r a -t e n o r v o i c e between measures 27 and 32 (Fumeux fume). 112 I I I . A SUMMARY OF INFORMATION CONCERNING 'FUMEUR' MUSIC AND  POETRY, AND SOME SPECULATIONS CONCERNING SOLAGE AND THE AUTHOR  OF THE BERKELEY TREATISE, AND THEIR IDENTITIES. A Summary Of Information Concerning F u m e u r Music And  Poetry Puisque je s u i fumeux i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by frequent musical changes and a t e x t u a l underlay that produces a r e c i t a t i v e - l i k e p a t t e r . In c o n t r a s t with t h i s , Fumeux fume i s f u l l of melismas and c o n t a i n s sequences t h a t s t r a i n c r e d i b l i t y through t h e i r chromaticism and t h e i r degree of r e p e t i t i o n . H a s p r o i s ' b a l l a d e , with i t s l e a r n e d tone, has a m u s i c a l s e t t i n g t h a t at times c o u l d be s a i d to approach the t r i v i a l and the b a t h e t i c . The rondeau by Solage i s economical i n i t s t e x t , but has a s e t t i n g that makes i t s p o i n t through too much r e p e t i t i o n , an excess of chromatic m a t e r i a l , and through the use of p i t c h e s that c o u l d be c a l l e d s p e c u l a t i v e . I t may t h e r e f o r e be p o s s i b l e to regard t e x t and s e t t i n g as being at v a r i a n c e i n each case, and a cause of humour i n these works; there are c e r t a i n l y p u r e l y musical a s p e c t s of these works that are a cause f o r humour, independently of the t e x t , but the l a t t e r g i v e s them t h e i r r a i s o n d ' e t r e . Fumeux fume, with i t s "new" notes and even a r e f e r e n c e to "fumeuse s p e c u l a t i o n " , may be connected with the i n n o v a t i v e ideas of the B e r k e l y t h e o r i s t , and c e r t a i n l y c o u l d be regarded as i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e that such t h e o r e t i c a l i n v e n t i o n i t s e l f would have a l s o deserved the 113 d e s c r i p t i o n of "fumous". Both compositions may t h e r e f o r e be viewed as musical i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the concept of fumosite', with a l l of i t s meanings. A l i n k has yet to be e s t a b l i s h e d between the composers of the two fumeur s e t t i n g s and the fumeurs d e s c r i b e d by Deschamps. I t has now been shown that Deschamps regarded a l l s t u p i d i t y i n a l l s e c t i o n s of s o c i e t y as "fumous", although the poems d e s c r i b i n g h i s o b s e r v a t i o n and judgement of such fumosite tend to have a l o c a l nature and date from the p e r i o d i n which he was engaged as a judge a t V e r t u s and i t s e n v i r o n s , from 1366 to around 1388. The m a j o r i t y of Deschamps' fumeur poems are p a r o d i e s of l e g a l judgements and o r d i n a n c e s , suggesting t h a t t h e i r audience would have been sympathetic to the poet's humorous c r i t i c i s m and conversant with the forms being p a r o d i e d . Such men c o n s t i t u t e d a new but growing i n t e l l e c t u a l group i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t s by d e v e l o p i n g e x i s t i n g p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d i n any f u t u r e attempt to e x p l a i n the poet's connection with the musicians H a s p r o i s and Solage. M u s i c i a n s were u s u a l l y t r a i n e d by the Church, and would have had some e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s known that they sometimes f u l f i l l e d other s e c r e t a r i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , both w i t h i n the church o r g a n i s a t i o n and under more s e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s , f o r p r i v a t e p a t r o n s . A good education and some grounding i n law would have been an a s s e t , and c e r t a i n prominent churchmen of the time were h i g h l y regarded f o r such background. I t c o u l d have been p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t 1 14 musicians would have been i n c l u d e d among a fumeur group, and t h i s would account f o r t h e i r compositions. At the same time, i t must be r e c o g n i z e d that Deschamps may have been known i n many c o u r t s as the most v i s i b l e of fumeurs; t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y proof t h a t a t P a r i s , he r e f e r r e d t o h i m s e l f as "the fumous one", i n 1379, i n a l e t t e r read by two young p r i n c e s . There are a number of people who were patrons of Deschamps and who were a l s o noted patrons of m u s i c i a n s . One can mention as the most important, Gian Galeazzo V i s c o n t i , h i s daughter V a l e n t i n e V i s c o n t i , and her husband, Louis d'Orleans, b r o t h e r to king C h a r l e s VI. Only f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i l l show i f any more connections may be made between these people or other patrons, and Deschamps, H a s p r o i s , Solage, and the fumeurs. Some S p e c u l a t i o n s Concerning P o s s i b l e Connections Between Solage  And The Berkeley T h e o r i s t . I t may be worthwhile, f i n a l l y , to c a l l a t t e n t i o n to some suggestions c o n c e r n i n g the i d e n t i t i e s of Solage and the author of the Berkeley manuscript. G i l b e r t Reaney o f f e r e d the thought t h a t "Solage" was the o r i g i n a l name from which was d e r i v e d the German-sounding anagram Goscalch; the l a t t e r name appears as the a s c r i p t i o n f o r the complicated b a l l a d e , En n u l e s t a t , number 58 i n the C h a n t i l l y C o d e x . 1 1 5 T h i s was c h a l l e n g e d by Suzanne C l e r c x and R i c h a r d Hoppin, who p o i n t e d out that s i n c e there were 1 1 5 See Reaney, "The Manuscript C h a n t i l l y " , p. 71. 115 records of two c l e r i c s with t h i s German name, one of whom was a "c a n t o r " , i t was not necessary t o r e s o r t t o a n a g r a m s . 1 1 6 That a r e a l G o s calch may have been mentioned in h i s t o r i c a l documents does not, however, preclude h i s u s i n g a second name, and what b e t t e r name f o r a musician to adopt than one which would a l s o suggest s o l a c e ! I f the " r e a l " man was a Goscalch, the anagram might then be "Solage". The adoption or a s s i g n i n g of e x t r a names was c e r t a i n l y a c o n c e i t among c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s o c i e t y : examples i n c l u d e the musician, Jean de N o i e r s , d i t T a p i s s i e r , our poet, Eustace Morel, d i t Deschamps, and the name Phoebus, adopted i n 1360 by Count Gaston of F o i x and Beam. One must admit, however, that the proposed anagram does r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e adjustment, the omission of some l e t t e r s and the a d d i t i o n of o t h e r s , when one uses the s p e l l i n g of the name as i t o c c u r s i n C h a n t i l l y . The anagram becomes more l i k e l y i f one c o n s i d e r s the s p e l l i n g s f o r the names of the two known Goscalchs r e c o r d e d i n the documents c i t e d by C l e r c x and Hoppin: G o t s c h a l c u s Wolenspeet and Wulgero G o e t s c h a l c . The l a t t e r G o s c a l c h , the "Goetschalc", was judged by N i g e l W i l k i n s as more l i k e l y t o be the composer of En nul  e s t a t , although he does not s t a t e h i s r e a s o n s . 1 1 7 T h i s form of the s p e l l i n g c e r t a i n l y s u p p l i e s a l l the l e t t e r s r e q u i r e d to form an anagram "Solage". 1 1 6 See Suzanne C l e r c x and Richard'Hoppin, "Notes biographiques sur quelques musiciens f r a n q a i s du XlVe. s i e c l e " , i n Les  C o l l o g u e s de Wegimont I I : L'Ars Nova ( P a r i s : Societe - d ' E d i t i o n "Les B e l l e s L e t t r e s " , 1959), p. 78. 1 1 7 See N i g e l W i l k i n s , "The Post-Machaut g e n e r a t i o n of poet-musicians", p. 56. 116 The p o s s i b i l i t y behind the anagram i s a t t r a c t i v e because of the connection that may ex is t between the Berkeley manuscript and Goscalch . E l lsworth drew a t tent ion to a theory t rea t i se dat ing from the f i f t e e n t h century, Catania , B i b l . C i v i c e D.39, whose chapter i n c i p i t s and e x p l i c i t s appear to conform so c l o s e l y with the f i r s t three books of the Berkeley t r e a t i s e that they could be a d i r e c t copy. The only apparent d i f fe rence was that Catania included an a s c r i p t i o n to a "Gosta l tus" , which E l lsworth reads as a vers ion of the German name G o t t s c h a l k . 1 1 8 We have now to deal with a chain of supposi t ions: that the "Gostal tus" of Catania i s indeed a Got tschalk , that he is a lso the author or compiler of the Berkeley t r e a t i s e , that t h i s Gottschalk i s a lso the composer represented in C h a n t i l l y , that Gosta l tus /Goscalch /Goetschalc may in some anagrammatical way be connected with the name of Solage, and that the l a t t e r i s c l o s e l y connected with the writer of the Berkeley t r e a t i s e or i t s ideas through h is music! The Catania manuscript was not ava i l ab le for E l lsworth to be able to pursue further the ident i ty of the Berkeley author, and there is c e r t a i n l y far more that needs to be found out in connection with a l l of these hypotheses. Cer ta in ly one could hope to f ind no more appropriate way to c lose an enquiry on the fumeur works than with such "fumous specu la t ion" . l i s S e e E l l s w o r t h , "The Berkeley Theory Manuscript", v o l . 2 , p. 214. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ape l , W i l l i . "The development of French s e c u l a r music d u r i n g the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . " Musica D i s c i p l i n a 27 (1973): 41-59. , and Samuel N. Rosenberg, eds. French S e c u l a r Compo-s i t i o n s of the Fourteenth Century. 3 v o l s . Corpus M e n s u r a b i l i s Musicae, 53. Rome: American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1970. . French S e c u l a r Music of the Late Fourteenth Century. Cambridge, Mass.: Medieval Academy of America, 1950. Arden, Heather. F o o l s ' P l a y s : A Study of S a t i r e i n the " S o t t i e . " Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980. A u b a i l l y , Jean-Claude. Le Monologue, l e Di a l o g u e et l a S o t t i e : E s s a i sur Que^ques Genres Dramatiques de l a F i n du Moy en  Age et du debut du XVIe. S i d c l e . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s Honore Champion, 1976. Le Theatre Medieval Profane et Comique. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1975. Bartha, Denes von. "Studien zum m u s i k a l i s c h e n S c h r i f t u m des 15. Jahrhunderts." A r c h i v f u r Musikwissenschaft 1 (1936): 59-82, 176-199. B a t a i l l a r d , C h a r l e s . Les O r i g i n e s de 1.'Histoire des Procureurs  et des Avoue^s depuis l e Ve. Sle"cle jusqu'au XVe. (422?-1483). P a r i s : C o t i l l o n , E d i t e u r , L i b r a i r e du C o n s e i l d ' E t a t , 1868. Brown, Howard Meyer. Music i n the French S e c u l a r Theatre, 1400-1550. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. Chamberlain, E. R. The Count of V i r t u e : Giangaleazzo V i s c o n t i , Duke of M i l a n . London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1965. Champollion-Figeac, Aime. L o u i s et C h a r l e s , Dues d'Orleans: Leur I n f l u e n c e s u r l e s A r t s , l a L i t e r a t u r e et 1 1 E s p r i t  de l e u r S i e c l e . 2 v o l s . P a r i s : 1844; r e p r i n t ed., GeneFveT S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1980. C l e r c x , Suzanne, and R i c h a r d Hoppin. "Notes biographiques sur quelques musiciens f r a n ^ a i s du XlVe. s i e c l e . " Les  Co l l o g u e s de Wegimont' II (1955). L'Ars Nova: R e c e u i l d'Etudes sur l a Musique du XIVe. S i e c l e . P a r i s : S o c i e t e d ' E d i t i o n "Les B e l l e s L e t t r e s , " 1959. 117 118 Coussemaker, E. de. Scriptorum de Musica M e d i i A e v i . Novum Seriem a G e r b e r t i n a Alteram. 4 v o l s . P a r i s : A. Durand et P e d o n e - L a u r i e l , 1869. V o l . 3: T r a c t a t u s de Musica  P l a n a et M e n s u r a b i l i , by Anon. XI. Crocker, R i c h a r d L. "A new source f o r medieval music t h e o r y . " A c t a M u s i c o l o g i c a 39 (1967): 161-171. De l a c h e n a l , R. H i s t o i r e des Avocats au Parlement de P a r i s , 1300-1600. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e P l o n , E. P l o n , N o u r r i t et C i e . , i m p r i m e u r s - e d i t e u r s , 1885. E l l s w o r t h , O l i v e r Bryant. "The Berkeley Manuscript ( o l i m P h i l l i p p s 4450): A Compendium of Fourteenth-Century Music Theory." 2 v o l s . Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1969. . "The o r i g i n of the c o n i u n c t a : a r e a p p r a i s a l . " J o u r n a l of Music Theory 17 (1973): 86-109. Fabre, Adolphe. Les C l e r c s du P a l a i s : Recherches H i s t o r i q u e s  sur l e s Bazoches des Parlements et l e s Soc life's"  Dramatiques des Bazochiens et des E n f a n t s - s a n s - s o u c i . 2me. ed. Lyon: N. Scheuring, L i b r a i r e - E d i t e u r , 1875. F a r a l , Edmond. Les J o n g l e u r s en France. P a r i s : L i b r a i r e Honore Champion, ed., 1910. Graves, F. M. Deux I n v e n t a i r e s de l a Maison d'Orleans (1389 et  1408). P a r i s : L i b r a i r e ancienne Honore" Champion, 1926. Greene, Gordon, ed. French S e c u l a r Music: Manuscript C h a n t i l l y , Musee Conde" 564. 2 v o l s . Polyphonic Music of the Fourteenth Century, 18 & 19. Monaco: L'Oiseau-Lyre, 1982. Grober, Gustav. "Geschichte der l a t e i n i s c h e s und f r a n z o s i s c h e s L i t t e r a t u r im M i t t e l a l t e r , I I I : Biihne und Drama s e i t der M i t t e des XIV Jahrhunderts." G r u n d r i s s der Romanischen  P h i l o l o g i e , Band 2. S t r a s s b u r g : K a r l J . Triibner, 1902. Giinther, U r s u l a . "Die Musiker des Herzogs von B e r r y . " Musica  D i s c i p l i n a 17 (1963): 79-95. . "Zur b i o g r a p h i e e i n i g e r Komponisten der Ars s u b t i l i o r . " A r c h i v f u r Musikwissenschaft 21 (1964): 172-199. Harvey, Howard Graham. The Theatre o f the Basoche: The C o n t r i b u t i o n of the Law S o c i e t i e s t o French Medieval  Comedy• Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941. 119 Hershberg, Jehoash. "The Music of the Late F o u r t e e n t h Century: A Study i n M u s i c a l S t y l e . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , P e n n s y l v a n i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1971. Hoepffner, E r n s t . Eustache Deschamps: Leben und Werke. S t r a s s b u r g : K a r l J . Trubner, 1904. Hughes, Andrew. Manuscript A c c i d e n t a l s : F i c t a i n Focus, 1350-1450. M u s i c o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s and Documents, 27. Rome: American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1972. J u l e ' v i l l e , P e t i t de. La Corned i e et l e s Moeurs en France au Moyen Age. P a r i s : 1886; r e p r i n t ed., Geneve: S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1968. Laboulaye et R. Dareste, eds. Le Grand Coutumier de France. P a r i s : Auguste Durand et P e d o n e - L a u r i e l , 1868. Lan g f o r s , A r t h u r , ed. Le Roman de Fauvel par G e r v a i s du Bus. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e de F i r m i n Didot et C i e . , 1914-1919. Marix, Jeanne. H i s t o i r e de l a Musique et des Musiciens de l a Cour de Bourgogne sous l e Regne de P h i l i p p e l e Bon~Tl420-1467). Strasbourg: H e i t z et C i e . , Imprimeurs-Editeurs, 1939. P i r r o , Andre. H i s t o i r e de l a Musique de l a F i n du XlVe. S i e c l e a l a F i n du XVIe. P a r i s : H. Laurens, 1940. . La Musique a P a r i s sous l e Rigne de C h a r l e s VI (1380-1422). Strasbourg: H e i t z et C i e . , 1930. P o i r i o n , D a n i e l . Le P o i t e et l_e P r i n c e : L ' E v o l u t i o n du Lyrisme  C o u r t o i s de Gui11aume de Machaut a C h a r l e s d'Orleans. P a r i s : P r e sses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1965. Raynaud, Gaston, and de Queux de S a i n t - H i l a i r e , eds. Oeuvres  Completes de Eustache Deschamps. 11 v o l s . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e de F i r m i n Didot et C i e . , 1876-1904. Reaney, G i l b e r t . "The Manuscript C h a n t i l l y , Musee Conde 1047." Musica D i s c i p l i n a 8 (1954): 59-113. Saraceno, F i l i p p o . Regesto d e i P r i n c i p i d i Casa d i Ac a j a (1295-1418). T r a t t o d a i C o n t i d i T e s o r e r i a . T o r i n o : P a r a v i a , 1881. Seay, A l b e r t . An Anonymous T r e a t i s e from Rome, V a t i c a n L a t . 5129. Corpus Scriptorum Musicae, 9. Rome: American I n s t i t u t e of Musicology, 1964. 120 Seay, A l b e r t . "The 15th-century Coniuncta: A P r e l i m i n a r y Study." Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A B i r t h d a y O f f e r i n g t o Gustave Reese. Ed. Jan l a Rue. 2nd ed. New York: Pendragon P r e s s , 1978. Swain, Barbara. F o o l s and F o l l y During the Middle Ages. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932. W i l k i n s , N i g e l . "The Post-Machaut Generation of Poet-M u s i c i a n s . " Nottingham Medieval S t u d i e s 12 (1968): 40-84. Wright, C r a i g . " T a p i s s i e r and' C o r d i e r : New Documents and C o n j e c t u r e s . " The M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 59 (1973): 177-189. 121 APPENDIX A - MAP OF THE CHAMPAGNE AREA, SHOWING PLACES REFERRED TO IN POETRY BY DESCHAMPS. 1 1 9 Appendix A. Map of the Champagne area, showing places refer r e d to i n Deschamps' poetry. 1 9 Map d e r i v e d from R. Hardy and Jacques M e r c i e r , Grand A t l a s de l a F r a n c e , (n.p.: Le Departement d ' E d i t i o n de S e l e c t i o n du Reader's D i g e s t , 1969), p.39. 122 APPENDIX B - A COMPARISON BETWEEN A STANDARD LETTER FOR A  'COMMISSION' ON 'NOUVELLETE' FROM THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY 'GRAND  COUTUMIER', AND DESCHAMPS' POEM 'C'EST LA COMMISSION DES LOUPS D'ESPARGNAY'. Autre Forme; S a i s i n e Et N o u v e l l e t e De S a i s i n e . Et Premierement  De La Commission Sur Ce Requise. C h a r l e s , e t c . , a t e l h u y s s i e r ou sergent s a l u t . Complaint s'est a nous P i e r r e d'Anjou que comme i l s o i t en p o s s e s s i o n et s a i s i n e p a i s i b l e , et a i t este par l u y ou par ses prede"cesseurs, par t e l et s i long temps q u ' i l n'est memoire du c o n t r a i r e , ou a tout l e moins q u ' i l d o i t s o u f f i r e a bonne p o s s e s s i o n et s a i s i n e a v o i r r e q u i s e et r e t e n i r de t e l l e chose, e t c . , ne'antmoins Robert du M o l i n a f a i c t t e l l e chose par l u y ou par a u l t r e pour l u y , et dont i l a eu l e f a i c t pour agre'able, en t r o u b l a n t i c e l l u y exposant en sa d i c t e p o s s e s s i o n et s a i s i n e , a t o r t et sans cause, indeuement et de nouvel, s i comme i l d i e t , pourquoy nous te mandons et commettons que se, appeles l e s p a r t i e s sur l e l i e u , i l te appert e s t r e a i n s i , t u t i e g n e s et gardes l e d i c t P i e r r e en s a d i c t e p o s s e s s i o n et s a i s i n e en ost a n t l e d i c t empeschement q u i par l e d i c t Robert l u y a este mis. Et se l e d i e t Robert ou a u l t r e s se veule n t opposer au c o n t r a i r e , l e s d i c t s empeschemens ou n o u v e l l e t e s premierement oste's, et l a chose remise. Et s i , par maniere de r e s t i t u t i o n et de r e s t a b l i s s e m e n t a son premier e s t a t , reallement et de f a i c t , l e debat et l a chose contencieuse p r i n s e et mise en nostre main comme souveraine, donnez et as s i g n e z jour a u s d i c t e s p a r t i e s par devant, e t c . , au jour de l e u r b a i l l i a g e de nos t r e p r o c h a i n parlement pour a l l e r avant, e t c . , en c e r t i f i a n t nous ou n o s t r e c o u r t de tout e x p l o i c t souffisamment donne, e t c . C'est La Commission Des Loups D'Espargnay Sur La R i v i e r e De  Marne L'empereur de toute Fumee Qui a mainte chose fumee Tousjours augustes en e f f o r t Continuans de fumer f o r t , A Jehan du Gart, nostre sergent, Et a G u i l l e m i n de Nogent, Et a chascun par soy, s a l u t ! A nous griefment se sont d o l u t Par n u i t , de v i e z et de nouvel La l i g n i e f r e r e L o u vel 19 Disans entour n o s t r e maison Que i l s sont en po s s e s s i o n Par eulx et l e u r predecesseurs Comme bons et v r a i z possesseurs, D'avoir entree et d ' a v o i r p r i n s e Dedens l ' e n c l o s et l a pou r p r i n s e D'Espargnay . . . , 1 23 39 Et tout autre proy a d e l i v r e , P a i s i b l e m e n t , pour l e u r s corps v i v r e 46 Et tout ce que dessus e s t d i t Le p o s s e s s i o n prenommee Et l a s a i s i n e ont i l z garde'e Par .1., par deux, par . I I I . , par quatre, Par d i x , par v i n t sanz r i e n r a b a t r e Et par un s i long temps que v o i r e N'est i l du c o n t r a i r e memoire, Tant q u ' i l s u f f i s t et d o i t s u f f i r e A tout d r o i t de chose p a r s c i p r e A p o s s e s s i o n m a i n t e n i r , Continuer et r e t e n i r ; 65 Neantmois, p u i s en an en enqa Que l a f o r t r e s s e encommen^a A e s t r e r e e d i f i e e . . . , 97 Et encor y vont b r e t e s c h a n t , En t r o u b l a n t et en empeschant Ysangrin et sa nascion En l e u r d i c t e p o s s e s s i o n Et dame Hersant l a deschausse A t o r t , sanz r a i s o n et sanz cause, Indeuement et de nouvel. 121 S i vous commandons, commettons Et e s t r o i c t e m e n t enjoignons Et a chascun sur ce r e q u i s Qui premiers de d i t f a i t enquis, P a r t i e s estans ou presentes Sur l e s l i e u x ou l ' e n prant l e s rentes Pardevant nous pour ce appelez, Tenez, gardez et maintenez Ysangrin et sa nascion En s a i s i n e et p o s s e s s i o n De l a f r a n c h i s e dessur d i c t e . 134 En f a i s a n t demolir l a voye De par nous, se i l est m e s t i e r s A i n s i comme e l l e e s t o i t premiers; F a i c t e s c e s s e r 1'empeschement Mis a y c e u l s nouvellement 151 Et que realment et de f a i t Le r e s t a b l i s s e m e n t s o i t f a i t Ou cas q u ' i l z ne s'opposeront: Ou q u e l cas, et q u ' i l z se v o u l r o n t Opposer, l e l i e u r e s t a b l i De ce q u ' i l z l ' a v r o n t d e s s a i s i T a n t o s t , realment et de f a i t , Le cas nouvel par eulx d e f f a i t , 124 Tous premiers et avant tout euvre Le debat et l a n o u v e l l e euvre Et l a chose contempcieuse P r i n s e comme l a r r e c i n e u s e En n o s t r e souveraine main, Donnex l e u r jour d'uy a demain 163 Par devant Baussant l e s a n g l e r 173 A l e r avant et proceder Sans nos mandemens exceder 178 En r e s c r i p v a n t , s ' i l l e c o u v i e n t , Par devers nous de v o s t r e e x p l o i t . 125 APPENDIX C ~ CANTUS OF 'FUMEUX FUME', SHOWING HEXACHORD MUTATIONS INVOLVING 'RECTA' NOTES AND 'CONIUNCTAE' 4L P H I * fr «fl N «J * * fr HcxmeLmd tkffi** **** titxartitel shifts1 1>W Ml flH*M Ht»P tnl'MhBH • fr * f t ^ ^ -L )!,rr>rL.,J shift** H H P Pfrri v AH 7 ie L * fr * requires o. coaiurtcta n o t mentioned, in. fcW B«"keleij t reat ise. 

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