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’Fumeur’ poetry and music of the Chantilly codex : a study of its meaning and background Unruh, Patricia 1983

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'FUMEUR' POETRY AND MUSIC OF THE CHANTILLY CODEX: A STUDY OF ITS MEANING AND BACKGROUND by PATRICIA UNRUH B.A.,B.Mus, U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of Music  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1983  ©  P a t r i c i a Unruh, 1983  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department or by h i s o r her  granted by  the head of  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  allowed without my  permission.  Department of  MuSlG  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date  Q c T O g g f r  11  Columbia  1^33  written  Abstract This two  thesis  compositions  examines t h e humorous p o e t r y and  i n the l a t e  Musee Conde 564.  J e S u i Fumeux  Solage,  Fumeux Fume, owe  t h e word  fourteenth-century Chantilly  T h e s e works, a t w o - v o i c e d  Puisque  fumeux.  (no.47), and  and  whom he  but  this  group  no d e t a i l e d  either  from  a self-styled  b e y o n d what critical  a literary  broader  understanding  gained,  by  examining  t a k i n g account of  the  an  examination,  poetry  fumeur poems. and  one  of the C h a n t i l l y  literary  relevant.  The  Commission  d' un  la  Commission  des  A  can  fumeux, and social  this,  be by  background  i s t o make  gained t o the  such  music  compositions.  Parle  of the l a t e  i t s derivatives,  medieval  a commentary  on  place within fourteenth-century  the s o c i a l  C h i e n , Cy pour  i s known  of view.  thesis  insights  background  poems a r e : La C h a r t r e des  A u c u n s de V i t r y  and  of t h i s  the  fumeux and  and  point  traditions  fumeur works o f Deschamps, t h e i r tradition,  fumeurs,  been made even o f  meanings of  purpose  to relate  Little  poems and m u s i c  i n c l u d e s an e x a m i n a t i o n  m e a n i n g s o f t h e word  literary  has  or a m u s i c o l o g i c a l  of the C h a n t i l l y Chapter  examination  The  which  i s r e v e a l e d i n Deschamps' poems,  the medieval  of the  on  associated  of p e o p l e c a l l e d  'emperor'.  by  to a play  (1346-c.1406),  the s t r a n g e h a b i t s of a group  about  texts  t h e s e p i e c e s have  describe  was  b a l l a d e by H a s p r o i s ,  t h e humour o f t h e i r  Commentaries on  of  Codex,  a t h r e e - v o i c e d rondeau  them w i t h w o r k s o f t h e p o e t Deschamps  over  music  d' une  un D e b a t Meu  t o which they  Fumeux, D'une  Sentence  were  aultre  Donne'e C o n t r e  Soudainement E n t r ' E u l x , C E s t  Loups d'Esparqnay  sur l a R i v i e r e  de Marne,  and  iii  Ballade  813: S u r sa N a t u r e M e l a n c o l i q u e .  connections examined. in  with  their  i s known o f o t h e r  two a n a l y s e s  connection  with  i n the t r e a t i s e  middle  study  that the  parody  deriving  from  legal  mock h i e r a r c h i e s responsible Deschamps'  1388.  them and  hexachord Chapter  three  and S o l a g e .  garrulous, i r a s c i b l e ,  In the l a t e  and immoderate  fumosus, basis,  vague, a  in drinking habits,  These meanings a r e  meaning  related  "smokey", b u t t h e y  t o the concept who have  b u t most o f t h e poems a r e a l s o d r a m a t i c documents.  new b u t g r o w i n g c l a s s  France,  744.  Deschamps' poems d e s c r i b e p e o p l e  qualities,  between  f i n d i n g s a n d s p e c u l a t e s on t h e l i n k s  the other q u a l i t i e s .  have a p h y s i o l o g i c a l  humours.  settings in  who was fumeux h a d a number o f q u a l i t i e s .  melancholy,  which aggravated  also  works.  produces the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s .  He was moody, e x c i t a b l e ,  metaphoric,  of the  B e r k e l e y , MS.  are discussed  i n v o l v e s examining i t s  of the Berkeley Manuscript  ages, a person  pontificator,  also  speculative extensions  the author  The  t h e fumeur m u s i c a l  F o r Fumeux Fume, t h i s  summarizes a l l p r e c e d i n g between  fumeur  and d i s c u s s e s p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  texts.  described  and m u s i c i a n s a r e  t h e fumeur poems i n C h a n t i l l y  o f what  Chapter Chantilly  fourteenth-century patrons  Finally,  the l i g h t  Deschamps' p o s s i b l e  fumeurs were p r o b a b l y  I t i s not c l e a r  monologues  the Basochiens,  who  with formed  t h a t o f t h e f u m e u r s , a n d who were  f o r the development  where t h e p o e t  fumeux  They may t h e r e f o r e be l i n k e d  of lawyers,  resembling  of the  of French based  comic t h e a t r e .  i n t h e Marne r e g i o n o f  was a m a g i s t r a t e , between a b o u t how m u s i c i a n s  1367 and  c o u l d have been i n v o l v e d  iv  with the  f u m e u r s , but  was  known as  also  therefore likely  Visconti,  t o the m u s i c i a n s  Solage,  and  i n c l u d e A n d r i e u and  Chantilly  Codex, and  of C h a n t i l l y  their  Puisque  fumosite, while  small  time-frame  a cryptic, melisma. abnormally  low  to  this  achieve  described  tradition Their  effect  and  effect  but  musical  defense  triviality.  unusual  conform  effect.  a setting  i s c r e a t e d by  that  is full  i t s remorseless  chromaticism.  closely  ideas.  Fumeux Fume  "New"  of  sequences, notes  used  enough t o i n n o v a t i o n s  f o r i t t o have been As  has  such,  a  i t could also  have  "fumous".  apologies for f o l l y , of  fumeur  numerous c h a n g e s o f r h y t h m w i t h i n a  for theoretical  been c o n s i d e r e d  Both  the  s e t t i n g s at v a r i a n c e with  moments o f  c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s mad  range  associated with  Platiau.  i n the B e r k e l e y M a n u s c r i p t  "test-piece"  As  and  concetrated text, A mad  Besides  J e S u i Fumeux, i s a p s e u d o - l e a r n e d has  Some  Valentine  Navarre. be  he  and  Noyon, known t h r o u g h  have m u s i c a l  i t s music  Perverse dissonances  de  can  J a . de  a minstrel,  compositions  of  who  that  whom t h e y p a t r o n i z e d .  Pierre  musicians  Deschamps  texts:  nobility,  include Giangaleazzo V i s c o n t i ,  L o u i s d'Orle'ans  H a s p r o i s and  poem by Deschamps p r o v e s  fumeux t o members of t h e  possibly  patrons  another  "fooling" settings  the  fumeur poems b e l o n g  whose p r a c t i c e s s h o u l d be  were b e c o m i n g  understood  to a widespread.  within this  context.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  v i i  L I S T OF FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  .  x  Chapter I.  THE FUMEUR POEMS  1  L a C h a r t r e des Fumeux  7  F r e n c h Comic V e r s e T r a d i t i o n and t h e Fumeur Poems Dramatic and  .10 Entertainment  o f t h e L a t e M i d d l e Ages  t h e Fumeur Poems  17  D'Une A u t r e C o m m i s s i o n d'un C h i e n Cy P a r l e  d'une S e n t e n c e Donne^e C o n t r e A u c u n s  de V i t r y  p o u r u n De'bat Meu  Entr' Eulx C'Est  32  Soudainement  .  37  l a C o m m i s s i o n des L o u p s d ' E s p a r g n a y s u r  la Riviere  de Marne  42  Poems b y Deschamps R e l a t e d i n S u b j e c t t o t h e Fumeur Works Possible Patrons  51  Connections  Between F o u r t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  a n d M u s i c i a n s a n d Deschamps t h e  Fumeur  57  Deschamps' B a l l a d e des  Fumeux,  Chantilly The  813: J e Doy E s t r e  a n d t h e Two  Chancelliers  Fumeur Poems o f t h e  Codex  Fumeurs, T h e i r N a t u r e and I d e n t i t y :  Summary  62 A 7  0  vi  I I . * THE  FUMEUR MUSICAL SETTINGS  The  B a l l a d e Puisque  The  Rondeau Fumeux Fume  The  R e g u l a r H e x a c h o r d s and  The  Coniuncta  74  J e S u i Fumeux  75 84  their  Properties  . . .  90 93  Fumeux Fume and  the I n n o v a t i o n s o f the  Berkeley  Theorist The III.  103  M u s i c a l S t r u c t u r e o f Fumeux Fume  A SUMMARY OF  INFORMATION CONCERNING FUMEUR MUSIC  POETRY, AND AND  THE  . . . . . . .  108  AND  SOME SPECULATIONS CONCERNING SOLAGE  AUTHOR OF THE  BERKELEY T R E A T I S E , AND  THEIR  IDENTITIES  112  A Summary o f I n f o r m a t i o n C o n c e r n i n g  Fumeur M u s i c  and  Poetry  .  Some S p e c u l a t i o n s C o n c e r n i n g Between S o l a g e  and  Possible  Connections  the B e r k e l e y T h e o r i s t  . . . .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  114  J17  APPENDIX A. Map  o f t h e Champagne A r e a ,  Referred APPENDIX B. A  Showing P l a c e s  t o i n P o e t r y by Deschamps  . . . .  C o m p a r i s o n Between a S t a n d a r d L e t t e r C o m m i s s i o n on N o u v e l l e t e f r o m Century C'Est  APPENDIX C.  112  Cantus  Grand Coutumier,  for a  the F o u r t e e n t h -  and D e s c h a m p s  1  Poem  l a C o m m i s s i o n des L o u p s d ' E s p a r g n a y . o f Fumeux Fume, Showing  Mutations Coniunctae  Involving  121  122  Hexachord  Recta Notes  and 125  vii  L I S T OF TABLES  1.  The Fumeur L e g a l their  2.  A Summary o f  Contents  Information Vat.  Parodies:  50  on C o r i i u n c t a e i n B e r k e l e y ,  L a t . 5129, a n d Anon. X I  105  viii  L I S T OF FIGURES 1.  M i x i n g o f Duple and T r i p l e Alternating  Note-Groups Produced  Long and S h o r t Note-Values  by  (Puisque J e  S u i Fumeux) 2.  Matching  79  o f M e l o d i c , R h y t h m i c and T e x t u a l  Accents  ( P u i s q u e J e S u i Fumeux) 3.  Syncopation: b)  a) P a s s a g e as T r a n s c r i b e d b y G r e e n e .  Passage Notated  Syncopation 4.  Rhetorical Notes,  79  Begins  Effect  t o Show P o i n t s a t w h i c h a n d Ends  Produced  ( P u i s q u e J e S u i Fumeux)  .  by a S e r i e s o f L i k e - V a l u e d  i n Contrast With Surrounding  Texture  ( P u i s q u e J e S u i Fumeux) 5.  81  R e p e t i t i o n i n M e l o d i c L i n e , and Lower V o i c e D i s l o c a t e d  Slowly-Moving  R h y t h m i c a l l y from the  Upper V o i c e , R e s u l t i n g i n S t a t i c M u s i c a l  Effect  ( P u i s q u e J e S u i Fumeux) 6.  Dissonances  Produced  82  through  a) G r e e n e ' s T r a n s c r i p t i o n , Passage w i t h Syncopation  Note-Displacement: b) R e c r e a t i o n o f  Removed  (Puisque J e S u i  Fumeux) 7.  81  82  Sequence P a t t e r n s : a) Greene's b) H a r m o n i c R e d u c t i o n  8.  The N a t u r a l H e x a c h o r d  9.  The A p p l i c a t i o n  Transcription.  (Fumeux Fume)  87  (N)  90  o f the Hexachords  10.  The S e v e n D e d u c t i o n e s  11.  Mutations  12.  The Gamut a n d t h e D e d u c t i o n s  13.  The O p e r a t i o n o f t h e C o n i u n c t a  14.  Coniunctae  o f t h e Hexachord System  f o r Natura, M o l l i s  Presented  95 95  a n d Durum H e x a c h o r d s o f i t s Hexachords  . . .  96  . . . .  97 97  i n t h e B e r k e l e y T r e a t i s e and  t h e i r D e r i v e d Hexachords  . . . . . . .  . . . . . .  . .  99  ix  15.  Coniunctae Described  i n Berkeley,  V a t . L a t . 5129,  and  Anon. X I , Showing P o i n t s  are  Taken, the D i r e c t i o n o f the A l t e r e d P i t c h e s ,  New  Solmization,  and  a t which Coniunctae  ( i n Berkeley),  New 1 0 4  Deductions 16.  F a c s i m i l e o f Fumeux Fume, C h a n t i l l y , 564, F o l . 59, No.  17.  Passages Leading  18.  Melodic  Gradually  Conde  107  98  Toward t h e P i t c h F, a n d U l t i m a t e l y  Toward t h e F i r s t their  Musee  C a d e n c e i n Fumeux Fume, Showing Increasing  Intervals Outlined  Length  I l l  i n Contratenor  b e t w e e n M e a s u r e s 27 and 32  (Fumeux  Fume)  Voice I l l  X  Acknowledgement I am v e r y g r a t e f u l t o a number of people for their h e l p i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t of a l l , I wish to thank D r . J . Evan Kreider, my thesis advisor, for readily giving his time and attention, for his helpful and e n c o u r a g i n g a d v i c e , and f o r t h e p l e a s u r e i t has been t o d i s c u s s my work with him. Secondly, I owe much gratitude to Dr. Richard Holdaway, of the Department of French, for his generous assistance with translations, and f o r h i s very valuable research suggestions. I would like to thank Dr. Gregory B u t l e r , of the Music Department, f o r r e a d i n g t h i s t h e s i s and f o r h i s comments. Several f r i e n d s , Audrey Winch, John B u r g e s s , Ruyun Tan, and Karen Rustad, gave practical h e l p , and I v e r y much value t h i s . I am grateful to the University of British Columbia for the G r a d u a t e F e l l o w s h i p Award that allowed me to complete part of my M.A. programme. Finally, my greatest thanks go t o my h u s b a n d , B i l l , f o r a l l of h i s h o u r s s p e n t before the computer screen t o w a r d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s work, and a b o v e a l l , f o r h i s s u p p o r t and p a t i e n c e .  xi  F o r my p a r e n t s and f o r Lou Cormor.  1  - I. Two c h a n s o n s  found  THE 'FUMEUR' i n the late  Codex owe t h e humour o f t h e i r fumeux: P u i s q u e Solage. usual  1  je suis  texts  POEMS  fourteenth-century Chantilly t o t h e word-play  fumeux, by H a s p r o i s , a n d Fumeux fume, by  I n c o m m e n t a r i e s on t h e s e two p i e c e s ,  i t h a s become  t o i n c l u d e p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e fumeurs d e s c r i b e d i n  s e v e r a l poems by t h e f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t E u s t a c h e Given  on t h e t e r m  the l i m i t a t i o n s  where t h e y o c c u r , s u c h most, m e n t i o n  of space  i n t h e e d i t i o n s and a n t h o l o g i e s  references are usually  the mysterious c i r c l e  or society o r even  and a t  of p e o p l e —  literary  referred  t o by Deschamps a n d o v e r whom he was t h e l e a d e r o r 'emperor'.  drinkers  brief,  possibly  self-styled  eccentrics,  Deschamps.  F o r example, W i l l i  'smokers' —  Apel has w r i t t e n :  From r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e works o f Deschamps, i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d , a t l e a s t f r o m 1366 t o 1381, a g r o u p o f fumeurs, o b v i o u s l y 'bohemians' who made a p o i n t o f b e i n g ' i n a fume' a n d o f o p e n l y d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r whims a n d humours ... S o l a g e ' s c o m p o s i t i o n may w e l l have been p e r f o r m e d a t one o f t h e i r m e e t i n g s , e v o k i n g m e r r i m e n t o v e r i t s s t r a n g e h a r m o n i e s a n d low bass r e g i s t e r . H a s p r o i s ' P u i s q u e j e s u i fumeux i s a n o t h e r example o f fumeur p o e t r y . 2  1  2  P u i s q u e j e s u i s fumeux, by H a s p r o i s , a n d Fumeux fume, by S o l a g e ( C h a n t i l l y MS, M u i T e C o n d e 564, no. 47 ( f . 3 4 v ) a n d n o . 98 (f.59), respectively). F o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of these p i e c e s , see Gordon G r e e n e , F r e n c h S e c u l a r M u s i c : M a n u s c r i p t C h a n t i l l y , Musee Conde 564. P o l y p h o n i c M u s i c o f t h e F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y , 18 a n d 19. (Monaco: L ' O i s e a u - L y r e , 1982). W i l l i A p e l , French S e c u l a r Compositions of the Fourteenth C e n t u r y . C o r p u s M e n s u r a b i l i s M u s i c a e 53 (Rome: A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f M u s i c o l o g y , 1970.), p . XLII. S i m i l a r statements a b o u t t h e two fumeur c h a n s o n s a r e made i n : G i l b e r t Reaney, "The M a n u s c r i p t C h a n t i l l y , Muse"e Conde 1047", M u s i c a D i s c i p l i n a 8 (1954):71, G o r d o n G r e e n e , o p . c i t . , v o l . 19, p . 195, and U r s u l a G i i n t h e r , " S o l a g e " , The New G r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c a n d M u s i c i a n s v o l . 17, e d . by S t a n l e y S a d i e . CLondon: M a c M i l l a n , 1980, p . 4 4 8 ) .  2  Since the music  the  of S o l a g e ' s  information the  has  t o be  audience  two  Chantilly  work, r e m a i n  enigmatic  of Deschamps and  in order,  of  The  possibly  be  s u b j e c t can  poetry  l e a r n e d about  best  be  the  approached  i n the  late  about  the c o n t e n t ,  writer's  intention?  audience?  How  Deschamps, and of  tone  the p e r i o d ?  Chantilly  do  by a s k i n g  Codex a r e  be  category.  Nevertheless,  the f o l l o w i n g  fumer and i t s by  what c a n  be  explained  t h e poems, and  of  the  t o have been h i s assumed  Deschamps and  literary  those  some i n s i g h t  into  i s p o s s i b l e with  by  traditions  i n the  i n terms of answers t o  a l l o f t h e poems f a l l  fumeurs  see  men.  In works  p l a c e d w i t h i n any  troublesome  s i n c e not  of t h e  genre of  poems by  questions,  identity  used,  to  fumeur poems compare w i t h o t h e r works  they  The  and  What a p p e a r s  the  can  fumer a r e  of  Codex  g r o u p of  fourteenth-century?  Deschamps where fumeur and  examination  m u s i c , and  q u e s t i o n s : what meanings were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h derivatives  such  fourteenth-century  and  this  certainly  even a f t e r  the C h a n t i l l y  t o d i s c o v e r how  would have p e r c e i v e d t h i s  more can  poems, and  been p r o v i d e d , a more d e t a i l e d  fumeur p o e t r y  appears  if  t e x t s of t h e  these  w i t h i n the  same  the n a t u r e  and  the answers t h a t  are  forthcoming. A summary o f m e a n i n g s of t h e word derivatives, clear  with  e x a m p l e s of t h e i r  t h a t Deschamps was  not  word  (nor, f o r that matter,  that  they  Chantilly  were t h e p o e t s chansons).  fumer and i t s  medieval  i n v e n t i n g any did Hasprois  as w e l l as  It will  be  usage, w i l l  new  meanings f o r the  or S o l a g e ,  the composers of  seen  from  make i t  assuming the  the d i s c u s s i o n of  3  Deschamps' works t h a t  will  follow,  that  the poet  many m e a n i n g s a t t a c h e d t o words w i t h fum... deriving  comic  The  effect  Latin  developed,  root,  from t h e i r fum  exploited  as t h e i r  the  root,  ambiguity.  from which  gave fumus, smoke, fumare,  t h e F r e n c h words  t o smoke, fumosus,  From t h e s e e v o l v e d t h e m e d i e v a l F r e n c h t e r m s  that  smokey.  included  the  following: fum ( m a s c u l i n e noun) and perfume".  fume  ( f e m i n i n e noun),  "smoke,  vapour,  fumee ( f e m i n i n e n o u n ) , "smoke, v a p o u r , d u s t , o d o u r , bad o d o u r , day-dream, f a n t a s y , a n n o y a n c e , a n g e r , argument, f o o l i s h n e s s , e x c e s s i v e p r i d e , e x c i t e m e n t of t h e b r a i n t h r o u g h a l c o h o l " . fumer ( v e r b ) " t o e x c i t e become a n g r y " .  the anger  o f , t o smoke";  (reflexive)  fumeus/fumeux ( a d j e c t i v e ) " a n g r y , c a r r i e d away, f u r i o u s , v i o l e n t , which causes t o r i s e t o the b r a i n ( a l c o h o l ) " . fumeusement ( a d v e r b ) " w i t h s a d n e s s , w i t h g r i e f , with the heat that wine-vapours produce". fumosite  ( f e m i n i n e noun) " v a p o r o u s n e s s ,  Below a r e some e x a m p l e s o f usage variety  of l a t e  smokiness". o f t h e s e words f r o m a  medieval sources:  P a r f o r t u n e q u i s o u v e n t s i se fume V o t r e d o u l x o e i l sa m a l i c e r a b a t , Ne p l u s , ne m o i n s , que l e v e n t f a i c t Pour  une  quarrelling,  petite  l a fume.  fume'e, ou q u e l q u e d e s p l a i s a n c e  Sergens, r e s l a r g i s s i e z l ' e n t r e e De ce v a r l e t , c ' e s t un prodom. - P a r l a c h a r D i e u , c ' e s t g r a n t fumeel C ' e s t o i t un l a r r o n a l ' e n t r e e , M a i s en t a n t d ' e u r e q u ' i l e s p a r t F a i c t e s d'un l a r r o n un p a p e l a r t . C e s fume'es d e s F r a n c o i s d e s c i r e e s en T u r q u i e .  sont e t ont b i e n abatus e t  "to  4  Quant j e me fume I l n ' e s t homme, t a n t s o i t s u b t i l Qui s'osast l e v e r l e s o u r c i l La  fumeuse l i q u e u r  L e s f u m o s i t e s ne de t e s t e . La de  which c o u l d  shape,  easily  application for  certainly evoke  held  3  of the p h y s i c a l  The  adjective  o f smoke, b u t  t o have  been  of prime  shifting  range of  from the  literal,  o f smoke  and  the v o l a t i l i t y  i s an a p t q u a l i f i e r that  have  fluids,  or  in controlling  of f o r the  the  i t also qualifies  a cause of v a r i a b l e  importance  w i t h smoke  to r i s e , The  qualities  fumeux  such as  associated  tending  for describing  the middle ages, the b o d i l y  t o be  mal  [ t h e moon]  i n a word-group  intangibility,  o r c h a n g e a b l e human p a s s i o n s  perceived  During  delight  t h e many q u a l i t i e s  t o the f i g u r a t i v e ,  insubstantiality was  c a u s e du  par e l l e  o f fume i n m e d i e v a l F r e n c h g o e s  human e m o t i o n . violent  evaporer sont  wafted about or d i s s i p a t e d .  the d e s c r i p t i o n  vapour,  se p o u v a n s  ardans.  3  - - darkness, haziness, in  rouges v i n s  f r o i d e fumosite qui est eslevee la terre.  A p o e t would this,  des  very well  what  human b e h a v i o u r . 'humours', were the w e l l - b e i n g  of  O t h e r words w i t h turn... r o o t s have been o m i t t e d f r o m t h e l i s t b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t a p p e a r t o have been e x p l o i t e d by Deschamps. D i c t i o n a r i e s c o n s u l t e d f o r m e a n i n g s and e x a m p l e s i n c l u d e d : G o d e f r o y , D i e t i o n n a i r e de 1 ' a n c i e n n e l a n g u e f r a n c h i s e e t de t o u s s e s d i a l e c t e s du I X e . au Xe. s i d c l e ( P a r i s : F.Vieweg, L i b r a i r e E d i t e u r , 1885), t . 4 . and S u p p l e m e n t , t . 9 . ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r e E m i l e B o u i l l o n , E d . , 1898). O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s de E u s t a c h e Deschamps, 11 v o l s * , e d s . de Queux de S a i n t - H i l a i r e a n d G a s t o n Raynaud ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e de F i r m i n D i d o t e t C i e . , 1876-1904), v o l . 10, Glossaire. W. von W a r t b u r g , F r a n z b s i s c h e s E t y m o l o q i s c h e s Worterbuch. E i n e D a r s t e l l u n q des q a l l o r o m a n i s c h e n S p r a c h s c h a t z e s , Band 3 ( T u b i n g e n : J.C.B.Mohr, 1949.)  5  mind and  body.  "melancholy",  Words i n E n g l i s h "fuming",  or  "phlegmatic",  qualities  of d r y n e s s , m o i s t n e s s ,  qualities  w h i c h were b e l i e v e d  that  have come t o be  To have c a l l e d other  things,  such as  heat  "choleric", d e s c r i b e d the  or c o l d  to determine  associated  presumed  i n a man's body,  the s t a t e s  with those d e s c r i p t i v e  o f mind terms.  someone fumeux w o u l d have been t o i m p l y , among that  his bodily  vapours,  o r humours, were out  of  balance. Having English,  undertaken  i t became c l e a r  equivalent  to t r a n s l a t e that  f o r fumeux would be  Deschamps d e s c r i b e s , i n one drinkers  i n many c a s e s a inadequate.  poem, a f i g h t  e n s e m b l e / Fumeusement."  For that  context,  example, breaks "[ils]  T h i s c o u l d be  8  or  "like  the poet  idiots",  wished  t o evoke  of the p o s s i b l e meanings.  therefore  retained  t h e word  equivalents  "fumous" o r  intentional  ambiguity  There  are  five  or  "as  f u m e u r s do".  used  "fume" i n o r d e r n o t  the  among  prindrent  angrily",  translations,  fumee and  out  understood,  for his listeners  In my  into  single-word  i t s c o n t e x t , t o mean, " t h e y began t o f i g h t  "drunkenly",  all  fumeur poems  i n a t a v e r n , s a y i n g of the combattants  a compter from  the  or  In s u c h or  a  readers  I have  English  t o d i m i n i s h any  i n the p o e t r y .  fumeur poems by  Deschamps:  5  • Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v o l . 7 , p. 333, 1.25-26 See Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s . Volume V I I has L a c h a r t r e des Fumeux, pp. 312-321, D'une a u l t r e c o m m i s s i o n d'un c h i e n , pp. 320- 323, Cy_ p a r l e d' une s e n t e n c e donne'e c o n t r e a u c u n s de V i t r y , pp. 332- 335, C ' e s t l a c o m m i s s i o n des l o u p s d ' E p a r n a y s u r l a r i v i e r e de Marne, pp. 336-342. V o l . IV has B a l l a d e 813, Sur sa n a t u r e m e T a n c o l i q u e , pp. 331-332. 5  6  La c h a r t r e 1368.  d e s Fumeux  D'une a u l t r e a dog).  (The c h a r t e r  commission  d'un  o f t h e fumeux),  chien  December  9,  (About a n o t h e r c o m m i s s i o n  on  Cy p a r l e d'une s e n t e n c e donnee c o n t r e a u c u n s de V i t r y p o u r un d e b a t meu s o u d a i n e m e n t e n t r ' e u l x ^ ( T h i s speaks about a sentence p r o n o u n c e d a g a i n s t some o f V i t r y f o r a m o t i o n a r g u e d i m p u l s i v e l y amongst them ), May 23 (no y e a r ) . C e s t l a c o m m i s s i o n d e s l o u p s d ' E s p a r g n a y s u r l a r i v i e r e de Marne T T h i s i s t h e c o m m i s s i o n on t h e w o l v e s o f E p e r n a y on t h e r i v e r M a r n e ) , November 4, 1370. B a l l a d e 813: nature).  The  Sur sa n a t u r e m e l a n c o l i q u e .  first  f o u r poems on t h i s  list  (On h i s m e l a n c h o l y  must, f o r s e v e r a l  reasons,  be c o n s i d e r e d a s a g r o u p : a l l a r e b u r l e s q u e p i e c e s ,  parodies  of r o y a l  promulgations officials. known a s  the  longest The  included  poems.  of the fumeurs,  verse-writing  o f a u n i f o r m number o f  couplets,  h a v i n g o v e r two  d'un  at t h i s  t i m e a common lyric  of the o r i g i n a l  t o n e , f o r m and  on  sufficiently  lines,  Chartres et  comic works t o w h i c h I Because  of t h e i r  similarity  content, i t i s therefore advisable  t h e s e poems a s a g r o u p .  differs  other  ( s e e page 5 1 ) .  fumeur  having ninety  m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e s e works  the r u b r i c  along with several later  chien,  long,  hundred.  a l l f o u r poems under  refer  the  to h i s  In c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e s h o r t e r  the Commission  compiler  Commissions,  treat  and c o n t e n t , b e i n g  i n Deschamps' o u t p u t , t h e s e works a r e r e l a t i v e l y  shortest,  of  with l i n e s  a r r a n g e d i n rhyming  the  shall  style  A l l o f t h e poems a r e i n t h e form o f  f o r longer  pieces  in their  of E u s t a c e , emperor  rimes p l a t e s ,  syllables form  edicts  And  y e t each of the four  from i t s companions  t o warn a g a i n s t  to  works too  7  facile each in  generalization  poem w i l l  clarifying  be the  L a C h a r t r e Des This the  title  identity  of  fumeurs.  imperial  stating  enumeration  of a l l the  better  one  appears  to extend  peasant!  6  The  i t s significance  realizes  to every  The  impending  trial,  session  that  his  picture  emperor  will  (1-14),  some men  (15-40).  The  (41-141), who  o f h i s who  society  begins  group above  theme o f  f o r h i s own  f o r i t (163-178),  o f s u c h a g a t h e r i n g , he  and  an  (141-162).  when E u s t a c e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n  the date  so  have  continues with  fumeurs  returns to his e a r l i e r  prepare  Fumeurs  fumeurs  description  and  are  the  and  d e s c r i b e the  t h a t membership of t h i s  end  of  as  i s introduced with  segment o f F r e n c h  announcing  version  t h e Emperor o f t h e  he w i l l  r a n k s o f men  poem d o e s n o t  complete.  charter  i n h i s realm  defend  fumeur q u a l i t i e s  that  'official'  salutation,  o f a misdemeanour of  i s then  of  s y n o p s i s of  fumeurs.  The  h i s purpose:  h i s l a w y e r s might  own  of the  i t c o n t a i n s an  with a l i s t  It  a discussion  a l l ranks of o f f i c i a l s  been a c c u s e d  6  identity  suggests,  immediately that  f o l l o w e d by  A brief  Fumeurs  appropriately  greeting  i t s contents.  i s t h e n a t u r a l poem w i t h w h i c h t o b e g i n , s i n c e ,  h a b i t s and an  from  the is  an  plenary court t h e n , warming  to  begins to fulminate  T h i s would a p p e a r t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i d e a commonly h e l d t h a t t h e fumeurs were a s m a l l , e l i t e g r o u p . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l y ways i n w h i c h t h i s anomaly c a n be e x p l a i n e d , however, w i t h o u t abandoning the n o t i o n of a ' s e l e c t s o c i e t y ' . T h i s matter w i l l be t a k e n up a f t e r t h e summary of t h i s poem.  8  against  the  Analysing that  the  their  folly  the  fumeurs a t h i s own  c a u s e of t h e i r  damp and  brains  of  cold  stupidity,  have r i s e n  uncovered heads  (200-239) b e f o r e  document, u s i n g  the  envious,  tradition. right,  and  words and listen  quick  lazy,  vindictive  chess-  religious  devotion.  have been  intended  style in this  and  with  frozen against the  (244-254). poem, and  They a r e moody and  to those  and  sealing  concludes  no  in  changeable, silly  in  respect  for  makes them v a i n g l o r i o u s , e a g e r  prone to d e l i v e r  and  a decree  t o a n g e r or m e l a n c h o l y ,  who  oppose them, f u l l  l e c t u r e s to others  t h e m s e l v e s t o wisdom.  drinkers  h e a d s and  s i g n i n g and  quarrelsome,  T h e i r egotism  (179-193).  emperor  passes  length,  admirable.  self-contradictory, conduct,  He  appropriate o f f i c i a l  Fumeurs a r e d e s c r i b e d a t not  the  to t h e i r  (184-193, 2 4 0 - 2 4 3 ) !  terms that are  court  They a r e  of  r a t h e r than  d e s c r i b e d as  and  in connection  mathematical  with  their  be  empty to  great  d i c e - p l a y e r s — a t t h e e x p e n s e of  Grammatical  to  their  j o k e s may  even  sexual a p p e t i t e s :  l i s s o n t du nombre p l u r a t i f E t du g r a n t muef infinitif Car en m u l i p l i c a t i o n Mettent l e u r a p p l i c a t i o n (116-119) They And For They  In a p p e a r a n c e , a s are  a r e p l u r a l i n number i n f i n i t i v e i n mood, in multiplication place their a p p l i c a t i o n .  i n a l l of  their  u n p r e d i c t a b l e , some w e a r i n g  controversial) impeccably  other  the  short  f a s h i o n , others wearing  dressed  one  day,  the  next  characteristics, skirts  longer  they  of  they  recent  robes.  c o u l d appear  (and  Although utterly  9  dishevelled. T h o s e who most  ranks of  orders  are  may  be  considered  contemporary  better  as  fumeurs seem t o b e l o n g  s o c i e t y , although  represented  t h a n any  other  the  to  religious  group:  F o r t h e r e a r e many a b b o t s Who a r e mocked f o r t h e i r g r e a t fumees, A b b e s s e s , p r i o r s , s i m p l e monks, Cantors, o f f i c e r s , p r i n c e s , canons C a t h e d r a l and c o l l e g i a t e , R e g i s t r a r s and o f f i c i a l s And many o f t h e H o s p i t a l e r s , Carmelites, Jacobins, Cordeliers, A u g u s t i n s , c o n v e r t s and convertees And a v a r i e t y of many o t h e r s , Noblemen, b o u r g e o i s and k n i g h t s , And p e o p l e o f a l l w a l k s o f l i f e Who a r e s u b j e c t s e r f s and i n p e r s o n bound i n To our law of Rome. [hommage (149-162) Finally, the  the  d e s c r i p t i o n of  emperor's enumeration  residence  (163-184),  Which always o f f e r s too, those  conspires who  the  fumeurs i s c o m p l e t e d  of c o u r t i e r s and  r e t a i n e r s at h i s  l o c a t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e l y enough, us a g r e a t  here to c r e a t e  "willingly  deal a  of  fog"  "by  (177-178).  fumeuse e n v i r o n m e n t !  f o l l o w Fumee"  the  by own sea/  Nature, Among  (181):  T h e r e w i l l be t h e r e a l l t h e musicians And many m a s t e r a s t r o n o m e r s , E n g i n e e r s , masons, c a r p e n t e r s Who w i l l i n g l y f o l l o w Fumee, P l a y e r s o f o r g a n s and c y m b a l s W i l l do t h e i r work ... (179-184) Such a r e poem. written  But  one  about  the  f a c t s t o be  cannot these  simply  people.  learned  take  at  about  the  face value  fumeurs i n a l l that  this  is  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n shows them t o  be,  10  in  their  nature,  less  than  medium, i t would s u r e l y self-mockery  by any  t h e poem s u g g e s t s , even e x p e c t e d here  s e l f - i d e n t i f i e d fumeurs. however, t h a t  to i d e n t i f y  the  f u m e u r s not  as  of  f o r whom s u c h  audience  French  Comic V e r s e  An  audience  belonged  t h e Fumeurs extremely most the  The  One  of  The  with  fourteenth century. monologue  monologue, a g e n r e  fifteenth-century  7  of  not  nature the  the  as  the  type  appeal.  'fumeur' Poems  w i t h i n a comic v e r s e t r a d i t i o n .  popular  amused  scope  was  fumeur  poem, but  f u m e u r s would have h e a r d  i s a dramatic  broad  must u n d e r s t a n d  a poem w o u l d have an  And  of  the e x a g g e r a t i o n s ,  are described i n t h i s  literary historians  dramatic  aspect  to enjoy  style.  Tradition  of  i t s humorous  Deschamps' a u d i e n c e  with every  imperial  they  y e t b e c a u s e of  have been r e c e i v e d i n a s p i r i t  d e s c r i b e d ; r a t h e r , i t was  fulminations,  that  savoury,  this  work a s a poem  The that  Charter was  audiences,  of  apparently  but  which  agree  must a l s o have been p o p u l a r  Petit  de  in  J u l e v i l l e d e s c r i b e s the  thus:  The  monologue i s most u s u a l l y a b u r l e s q u e r e c i t a t i o n The monologue s e t s on t h e s t a g e an a p p e a l i n g c h a r a c t e r , who a r o u s e s l a u g h t e r b e c a u s e of what he i s , by r e v e a l i n g h i m s e l f w i t h h i s v i c e s and h i s f o i b l e s . 8  According  7  8  t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A u b a i l l y ,  there  i s even a  See J e a n - C l a u d e A u b a i l l y , Le monologue, l e d i a l o g u e e t l a s o t t i e ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s Honore' Champion, 1976), pp. 3-7, and Edmond F a r a l , L e s j o n g l e u r s en F r a n c e ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Honore' Champion, e d . , 1910), pp. 236-237. P e t i t de J u l e v i l l e , L a c o m e d i e e t l e s moeurs en F r a n c e au moyen age ( P a r i s : n.p., 1886; r e p r i n t e d . , G e n e v e : S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1968) pp. 74-75.  11  special  t y p e o f poem w i t h i n  commands and  letters,  fumeur w o r k s . of  this  genre,  o b v i o u s l y the c a t e g o r y  Aubailly  lists  number  from  any  t h e works by D e s c h a m p s .  of  1500's, b u t  genuine  official  France,  w i t h the o p e n i n g  humorous q u a l i t y  9  from  the  curiously,  When one  does not  middle  as parody  compares e x t r a c t s  becomes  a  refer  rois  to from  de  v e r s e s i n Deschamps' c h a r t e r , latter  four  into t h i s category,and  documents o f t h e O r d o n n a n c e s des  of the  official  f o r a l l of the  works w h i c h d a t e  the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y which f a l l the e a r l y  which p a r o d i e s  the  startlingly  clear:  C h a r l e s , p a r l a g r a c e de D i e u , Roy de F r a n c e , a nos ame's e t fe'aulx c o n s e i l l e r s , l e s gens de nos c o u r s de parlement, generaulx c o n s e i l l e r s sur l e f a i t et gouvernement de noz f i n a n c e s , de l a J u s t i c e , de noz a y d e s e t de noz monnoyes, P r e v o s t de P a r i s , b a i l l i f z de V e r m a n d o i s , V i t r y , T r o y e s [ e n u m e r a t i o n o f t h e t o w n s ] , e t a t o u s noz a u t r e s j u s t i c i e r s , ... salut et dilection. ( O r d o n n a n c e du 14 mai , 1487) ( C h a r l e s , by t h e g r a c e o f God, K i n g o f F r a n c e , t o our b e l o v e d and f a i t h f u l c o u n s e l l o r s , t o t h e men o f our c o u r t s of P a r l e m e n t , t o t h e g e n e r a l c o u n s e l l o r s f o r t h e management and government o f our f i n a n c e s , o f j u s t i c e , of o u r s e c u r i t y and o f our r e v e n u e s , P r e v o s t of P a r i s , b a i l i f f s o f V e r m a n d o i s , V i t r y , T r o y e s . . . a n d t o a l l our o t h e r j u s t i c e s , . . . g r e e t i n g and l o v e ) 1 0  Jehan Fumee, by t h e g r a c e of t h e w o r l d Where a l l f a l s e h o o d and t r i c k e r i e s abound, Emperor and l o r d o f t h e Fumeux,  9  1 0  A u b a i l l y , ^ L e monologue, pp. 102-107. In an e a r l i e r book, Le t h e a t r e m e d i e v a l p r o f a n e et comique ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e L a r o u s s e , 1975), pp. 55-56, t h e same a u t h o r r e f e r s t o t h e fumeux a s one o f many s o c i e t e s de b u v e u r s e t de j o u e u r s , c a l l i n g them t h e C o n f r e r i e des Fumeux, b u t w i t h o u t e n l a r g i n g on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . A u b a i l l y , Le monologue, p. 103.  12  And p a l a t i n e o f t h e M e l a n c h o l y , To a l l b a i l i f f s , p r e v o s t s a n d s e n e s c h a l s , Dukes, c o u n t s , p r i n c e s , t r e a s u r e r s , m a r s h a l s , G u a r d e r s o f towns, g a t e s a n d e n t r a n c e s , To t h e a d m i r a l s who g u a r d t h e s h o r e s , To t h e C o n s t a b l e a n d t o a l l t h e s e r g e a n t s Of o u r e m p i r e a n d t o a l l l i e u t e n a n t s ; S i m i l a r l y , t o a l l our j u s t i c e s , To whom t h e s e words w i l l p r i m a r i l y be a d d r e s s e d , And t o t h o s e o f e v e r y r a n k , Love, g r e e t i n g s w i t h j o y ! (La C h a r t r e d e s Fumeurs 1-14) This address personage  imitates  of the realm,  exaggeration. passages  the s t y l e  that  There  d f t h e most h i g h l y  b u t i n an a b s u r d c o n t e x t a n d w i t h  i s room h e r e  illustrate  to cite  t h e comic  f o r t h e emperor J e h a n  "by  the grace  c o n t e n t o f t h e poem: t h e r e i s  "by  the grace of t h e world"  throughout  world  of the  n o t by D i v i n e R i g h t ,  monarch w o u l d have s t a t e d , b u t  ( 1 ) . The c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e parody  t h e poem p r o d u c e s  For example,the a l l e g i a n c e language  Fumee r u l e s  o f God", a s a r e a l  comic  o n l y a few more  t h e comedy o f i n v e r t e d v a l u e s i n t h e p o e t i c fumeurs,  placed  an a c c u m u l a t i o n  o f amusing  detail.  o f t h e fumeurs i s e x p r e s s e d i n  r e m i n i s c e n t of feudal  or religious  oaths,  t h e s e men  being: •.. .under o u r r u l e In word and d e e d , i n d r e s s , i n r e p u t a t i o n , And whom we h o l d a s s u b j e c t t o l a Fumee From w h i c h t h e y may i n no way exempt t h e m s e l v e s (18-21) The  writing  juxtaposed  style  itself  i switty,  opposites, further  a s when i t u s e s  s e t o f f by rhyme: c o n c e r n i n g  fumeur wisdom, one l e a r n s :  Trop Mais  f o r example,  sont s a i g e s apres l e v i n , r i e n ne s ^ e v e n t a u m a t i n .  13  (57-58) They a r e t o o w i s e a f t e r t h e i r wine, But know n o t h i n g i n t h e m o r n i n g . and: E s t r e veulent saiges tenus; De v e n t s o n t p l a i n s e t de s e n s (53-54)  nus.  They w i s h t o be r e g a r d e d a s w i s e ; They a r e f u l l o f wind and b a r e o f There  i s t h e humour d e r i v e d from  meanings of against  fumer, one  hat-raising,  Complaining  of the  playing  sense.  with the  different  example b e i n g t h e e m p e r o r ' s  which  i s a joke p e r t a i n i n g  stupidity  o f h i s own  to  courtiers,  tirade fumosite. he  1 1  says,  ... many have become so d u l l - w i t t e d , Who c a n be s e t b e f o r e you a s an example, From t h e f r e e z i n g t h a t t h e y have r e c e i v e d a t t h e i r Which has r i s e n r i g h t up t o t h e i r b r a i n . [temples (240-243) The  emperor h i m s e l f i s a comic  windedness, the tendency one  would expect  His  ardent d e s c r i p t i o n  digression, hat  tirade.  forbidden  1 1  1 2  t o be  the  o f any  figure,  t o d i g r e s s and self-respecting  the  the l o n g -  illogicality  fumeur  of h i s c o u r t of F u m a g o r  f o l l o w e d immediately  This tirade raising  having  i s concluded  (109-116, 1 2  that 54-60).  i s one  a f t e r w a r d by a n o t h e r : h i s in a b s u r d i t y , for having  o f h a t s , t h e emperor d e c l a r e s t h a t  i f any  I t was Deschamps' p e r e n n i a l c o n c e r n t o p r o t e c t h i s own b a l d head. He w r o t e s e v e r a l poems t h a t r e q u e s t e d i n d u l g e n c e i n r e t a i n i n g h i s h a t , e v e n when i n n o b l e company. See O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v o l . 5 , pp. 74, 94, 183. The word "Fumagor" c o u l d be a j o c u l a r L a t i n c o i n i n g ; i t would mean "I s h a l l be made fumous".  14  transgressor chilled  "has  not  submitted  h e a d ] / Then he  to death  from s i c k n e s s  must d i e b e c a u s e he  has  [from  disobeyed"  a  (236-  237). It ranking  w o u l d have t a k e n  a  relatively  audience to appreciate  poem, and  w h i c h had  conventions  of  the  the v a r i e t y  some f a m i l i a r i t y , original  well-educated  too,  and  o f humour with  the  in  highthe  writing  s e r i o u s m o d e l s , as a l l p a r o d y  demands. A concern time,  like  imparting directs  of  other  this  medieval  wisdom.  this  poem i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e literature,  Against  the  folly  entertaining  Church,  of i t s  while  f o r example,  the  emperor  quip: C a r i l y a p l u s e u r s abbez Pour l e u r s g r a n s fumees g a b e z . (149-150)  And  much o f  number  For Who  t h e r e a r e many a b b o t s a r e mocked f o r t h e i r g r e a t  the  church  hierarchy  fumees•  i s i n c l u d e d among t h e  fumeur  (142-157). From t h e  intended  moral  is described abound"  beginning, satire,  The  medieval d i d a c t i c personnel Roman de  f o r the  as a p l a c e  (1-2).  there  poem a l s o  poetry,  In t h e  world  indication  i n which the  "where a l l f a l s e h o o d has  features  f o r example, t h e  resemble a s i m i l a r l y Fauvel.  is a clear  one  emperor  long  the reigns  trickeries  i n common w i t h  all-embracing  latter,  and  of  lists  catalogue  reads:  There i s there a very great assembly: You w i l l see k i n g s , dukes and c o u n t s  of  other fumeur  from  the  15  Who have come t o s t r o k e F a u v e l A l l t h e t e m p o r a l l o r d s and p r i n c e s Come t h e r e from e v e r y p r o v i n c e , And k n i g h t s g r e a t and s m a l l Who a r e v e r y a d e p t a t s t r o k i n g . And know t h a t t h e r e i s n o t a k i n g nor a Who would be ashamed t o s t r o k e F a u v e l . V i s c o u n t s , p r e v o s t s , and b a i l i f f s Do not n e g l e c t t o s t r o k e F a u v e l ; B u r g e r s i n t h e towns and c i t i e s S t r o k e by many c u n n i n g means, And v i l l e i n s of t h e r o u g h f i e l d s Are a l l around F a u v e l t o p a s t u r e him. (I, 34-38) In m e d i e v a l or  strong  inner in  literature,  spiritual  s t r u g g l e s of  the  Chartre.  Fauvel,  qualities the  psyche.  Fauvel  Yvresce,  few  the  traditional  allegorical t a b l e of  L e c h e r i e , and  a l s o mentioned  f i g u r e s are  e x t r a c t s from t h i s  with  at  for dramatizing  such  show t h e  in connection  include Gloutonnie, some o f whom a r e  of  will  f o r example, g u e s t s  A  1 3  figures representing  were u s e d  A comparison  f r o m t h e Roman de Deschamps' work  allegorical  count  the  vices the  mentioned  poem  and  content  of  references. royal  a host  of  In  ass others,  i n Deschamps' poem:  P l a c e d n e x t t o F a u v e l on t h e l e f t I saw P r i d e was t h e r e i n g r a n d e s t a t e ; Next t o him was P r e s u m p t i o n , V a i n E l e g a n c e and t h e n B o a s t f u l n e s s , L u x u r i o u s n e s s and F o o l i s h P r e s u m p t i o n . ( I I , 1569-1574) In a  similar  some o f  passage  these  the  fumeurs c o n s o r t  with  characters:  They  1 3  i n the C h a r t r e ,  f e a r n e i t h e r honour nor  shame,  A r t h u r L a n g f o r s , e d . , Le Roman de F a u v e l p a r G e r v a i s de ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r e de F i r m i n D i d o t e t C i e . , 1914-1919).  Bus  16  P r e l a t e , emperor, duke nor c o u n t , B e c a u s e Dame P r e s u m p t i o n L e a d s e a c h one of them i n h e r d a n c e ; F o l l y h o l d s them by t h e hand, P r i d e g o v e r n s and s u s t a i n s them And d r e s s e s them i n r i c h j e w e l s , And Y o u t h , who i s so handsome, P r a y s , a d m o n i s h e s and i m p o r t u n e s them That each conduct h i m s e l f s t u p i d l y ; P l e a s a n t D i v e r s i o n e n t e r t a i n s them i n h e r o r c h a r d , And P l e a s u r e , w i t h a l l h e r box of s w e e t s S e r v e s them so w e l l w i t h h e r s p i c e s T h a t t h e r e i s not a s i n g l e one of them, s u c h g r e a t Who i s not h e r s when he d e p a r t s , [ f o o l s a r e t h e y , So much has he had a l a r g e s h a r e o f h e r . (La c h a r t r e des fumeux, 93-108) Reason, the  single  i s mentioned says  improving  figure  t o be  o n l y t o show h i s d i m i n i s h e d  named i n t h e influence.  Chartre,  J e h a n Fumee  of h i s s u b j e c t s : They do not w i s h t o be s u b j e c t t o R e a s o n , Nor t o e n t e r i n t o h i s h o u s e , F o r t h e y c a r r y t h e i r laws i n t h e i r own hand, T h i s one a t p r e s e n t , t h e o t h e r tomorrow. (La c h a r t r e des fumeux, 71-74)  One  can  Fauvel.  compare t h i s  with another  e x t r a c t from  D e s c r i b i n g h i s good l u c k , F a u v e l  t h e Roman  de  says:  I c e r t a i n l y have t h e g r a c e o f F o r t u n e ... She has g i v e n me g r e a t l o r d s h i p o v e r many t h i n g s : Over t h e w o r l d , w h i c h i s h e r d w e l l i n g - p l a c e , She has made me l o r d , a t t h e e x p e n s e o f R e a s o n . ( F a u v e l I I , 1718-1722) In one  <  further can  illustration  of  this  s e r i o u s element  q u o t e J e h a n Fumee's summary o f  fumeur  i n the  nature:  They a r e p e r f e c t i n n o t h i n g t h a t t h e r e i s , Not i n word, n o r t h o u g h t , nor i n d e e d ; Accusatory, envious, arrogant, Sad w i t h o u t c a u s e , o r e l s e m o c k i n g , W i t h v a i n g l o r y and w i t h c h e a t i n g  Chartre,  17  A r e t h e y d e c o r a t e d , and t h e y f i g h t w i t h e v e r y o n e . Now one of them w i l l l a u g h , t h e o t h e r w i l l c r y , Not f o r an i n s t a n t c a n t h e y be happy, So f u l l o f bad-humoured e n e r g y * a r e t h e y , And a m a z i n g f o o l i s h n e s s . (127-136) (*"fumeuse v i e " ) The  a b o v e q u o t a t i o n s have a d e q u a t e l y  Chartre  des  content. is  fumeurs  The  found  i s : humorous p a r o d y  mixture  of  styles  in other medieval  Dramatic  illustrated  Entertainment  Of  The  the  w i t h some m o r a l i z i n g  s h o u l d not  genres  what  be  surprising,  for i t  such as the m o r a l i t y p l a y s .  L a t e M i d d l e Ages And  The  'Fumeur'  Poems It  i s appropriate at t h i s point  which t h i s  and  the o t h e r  fumeur poems m i g h t  Modern w r i t e r s most o f t e n terms of  its affinity  recitation,  the  assume a n o t h e r ' s fully  developed  middle and  societies,  details and  a g e s was  written  occurring  art. " 1  and  The  the Basochiens.  as  drama: d u r i n g i t s  the C h a r t r e would  secular  performed  i t i s intriguing i n the  heard.  hence t h e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a more  by  drama o f t h e  an a s s o r t m e n t  to discover that  fumeur poems c o n f o r m  p r a c t i c e s o f some o f t h e s e g r o u p s ,  Soucy and  1 4  personality,  and  secular  of a work s u c h  dramatic  have been  d i s c u s s t h e d r a m a t i c monologue i n  with medieval  reader  to d e s c r i b e the c o n t e x t i n  groups  certain  with the  such as the  of  late  attitudes  Enfa^bs-Sans-  A knowledge o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s  and  A u b a i l l y , Le monologue, pp.^5-7, and Le t h e a t r e m e d i e v a l , pp. 37-43; a l s o P e t i t de J u l e v i l l e , La come^die e t l e s moeurs en F r a n c e , pp.73-77.  18  organisation about  of these groups a l s o  longer  the f i f t e e n t h  the prerogative  Instead,  solely  production  o f comic  names t h a t  specifically  the groups chose  p l a y s a s one o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f  works,  an i n t e r e s t  f o r themselves.  a t the end of t h e f i f t e e n t h des Fous, t h a t  century,  i n the  reflected in At L i l l e , f o r  t h e r e was t h e  o f t h e Pape d e s G u i n g a n s , o f  Empereur de l a J e u n e s s e , o f t h e P r i n c e d e s C o q u a r t s , o f t h e  P r i n c e de Peu d ' A r g e n t , o f t h e P r i n c e de l a S o t t r e c q u e , of  the Prince  titles, that  de S o t t y e .  the c h i e f s  had been  structure.  1 5  a r t by  for this  T h e r e was much i n t e r e s t  or s a t i r i c  t r o u p e o f t h e Eveque  or j o n g l e u r s .  involvement i n t h e a t r i c a l  formed  mounting  professional association.  example,  of the c l e r g y  t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e  p u r p o s e , o r sometimes  the  on q u e s t i o n s  c e n t u r y , d r a m a t i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t was no  b o u r g e o i s g r o u p s , sometimes  the  light  t h e fumeurs. By  a  throws  1 5  As c a n be g u e s s e d  of these groups p r e s i d e d  organized  According  in imitation  and t h a t  f r o m t h e above over  hierarchies  of the contemporary  t o Heather Arden,  such groups  social  "were  A u b a i l l y , Le t h e a t r e m e d i e v a l , p . 55. Such g r o u p s were f o r m e d a l l over t h e c o u n t r y . E l i z a b e t h Arden, i n F o o l s ' P l a y s ; A Study of S a t i r e i n t h e S o t t i e s ( C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980), w r i t e s o f t h e i m p o r t a n t c e n t r e o f p l a y p r o d u c t i o n a t Rouen where t h e C o r n a r d s de Rouen h a d p r o d u c e d p l a y s s i n c e t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and a l s o mentions groups a t Lyon (Les S u p p 6 t s de l a C o q u i l i e ) Amiens, A r r a s , A u x e r r e , B e a u v a i s , Chaumont, C l e r m o n t , Compiegne, Laon ( t h e C o n f r e r i e d e s M a u v a i s e s - B r i e s , t h e " B a d - B r i t c h e s - B o y s " ) , L i l l e , Nancy a n d P o i t i e r s , a l t h o u g h some o f t h e s e were known o f o n l y f r o m t h e f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . She p o i n t s o u t t h a t names g i v e n t o l e a d e r s o f t h e s e g r o u p s , s u c h a s t h e Eveque d e s F o u s and t h e Pape d e s G u i q n a n s r e c a l l t h e mock d i g n i t a r i e s e l e c t e d by the c l e r g y d u r i n g t h e i r c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e F e a s t o f F o o l s . Such s e c u l a r a n d r e l i g i o u s b u r l e s q u e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s go back u l t i m a t e l y t o t h e Roman S a t u r n a l i a (p.24, 15-21).  19  f o r m i n g as existence  e a r l y as was  Given  sporadic  such  g r o u p o f men  who  'emperor' and  included  description  reign until  Charles  VI,  although  the  t i m e of  Charles  had  t h e m s e l v e s Fumeurs, who  called  occasional their  acknowledgement of  the  1 6  existence had  had  of  a  an  gave p l a y f u l i n d i c a t i o n o f a mock Modern d i s c u s s i o n  references  activities  their  question  their  VIII".  need not  hierarchy.  of  of  f a c t s , one  whose c h a r t e r  administrative even  the  to  the  such groups  fumeurs,  r a r e l y goes  drinking  of  practices.  has  although  beyond Aubailly  writes:  I t i s n e c e s s a r y a l s o t o add t o t h e s e many t r o u p e s [ o f b o u r g e o i s p l a y e r s ] t h e numerous s o c i e t e ^ s de b u v e u r s e t de j o u e u r s s u c h as t h e C o n f r e r i e des Fumeux a t t h e h e a d o f w h i c h one f i n d s E.Deschamps a t t h e end o f t h e fourteenth century. 1 7  The  e d i t o r of  the  'fumeur poems', G u s t a v e Raynaud, d e s c r i b e d  fumeurs v a r i o u s l y as de  buveurs",  several alludes.  "fous  (confrerie imaginaire)",  "gens f a n t a s q u e s " , and  included  "joyeuses c o n f r e r i e s " t o which 1 8  Ernst  Hoepffner  writes  of  the  "confrerie  them among  the  Deschamps'poetry  the  fumeurs:  We have h e r e a c a p r i c i o u s and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c g r o u p w h i c h made i t s e l f h i g h l y v i s i b l e t h r o u g h e c c e n t r i c i t i e s i n d r e s s and m a n n e r s . The frequent m e n t i o n of t h e s e fumeux, and e s p e c i a l l y t h e f a c t t h a t the r e f e r e n c e s cover a s t r e t c h of years, l e a v e s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h an a c t u a l s o c i e t y , and not w i t h the i m a g i n a r y , or something t h a t e x i s t s o n l y in a writer's imagination. As Grb'ber has already  A r d e n , F o o l s ' P l a y s , p . 23. A u b a i l l y , Le t h e i t r e m e d i e v a l e , pp. 55-56. I t appears t h a t the t e r m c o n f r € r T e a p p l i e d t o t h e f u m e u r s i s o f modern o r i g i n . In Deschamps' works t h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o as an o r d r e o r an e m p i r e . O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 7 , p . 312, f n . a ; v.10, g l o s s a r y , p. 63; v.4, p.331, f n . a ; v.11, p . 134.  20  c o r r e c t l y d e d u c e d , we a r e d e a l i n g h e r e w i t h a k i n d of g u i l d oi f o o l s ( n o t , as Raynaud p r o p o s e s , w i t h a c o n f r e r i e de b u v e u r s ) , w h i c h e n d e a v o u r e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t s e l f t h r o u g h e x t r e m e s of o r i g i n a l i t y . 1 9  Finally,  there  f u m e u r s and  i s the  o p i n i o n of D a n i e l  Deschamps'  musical  items  suggest  that  about  role  the  s u c h a g r o u p had  i n one  of  the  group.  fumeurs i n the  known f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y mentioned  in this  really  musician, fumeur  Poirion concerning He  argues that  Chantilly  Codex  le Tapicier,  the  do  existed, especially  Arnaud  the  since a  i s also  poems:  I t i s i n an a t m o s p h e r e of c a m a r a d e r i e j o y e u s e t h a t he [Deschamps] seems t o have p a s s e d t h e h a p p i e s t t i m e o f h i s youth. H i s f i r s t l i t e r a r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s were f o r t h e e v o c a t i o n , i n c a p r i c i o u s t e r m s , of a c o n f r e r i e b u r l e s q u e , but w h i c h c a l l s t o g e t h e r r e a l p e o p l e . The c h a r t e [ s i c ] des Fumeux, p r o m u l g a t e d i n December 1368 i s f o l l o w e d by a r e c i t a t i o n d a t e d May 24 . . where we see r e p r e s e n t e d , f o r example, A r n a u d l e T a p i c i e r , s i n g e r t o C h a r l e s V. The c h a n s o n n i e r of C h a n t i l l y number 1047 c o n t a i n s two c h a n s o n s on t h e theme of t h e fumeux ... The c o n f r 6 r i e w a s ~ n o t , i n d e e d , a s i m a g i n a r y as one m i g h t have w i s h e d t o believe. H i s i n s p i r a t i o n makes one t h i n k of t h e s o t t i s e s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l j o n g l e u r s . 2 0  These e x p l a n a t i o n s ,  1 9  2 0  cautious, half-doubtful  and  E r n s t H o e p f f n e r , E u s t a c h e Deschamps: L e b e n und Werke ( S t r a s s b u r g : V e r l a g von K a r l J . T r i l b n e r , 1904), p. 51. It is t h i s o p i n i o n t h a t b o t h A p e l and G r e e n e a p p e a r t o have f o l l o w e d . D a n i e l P o i r i o n , Le poe*te e t l e p r i n c e : 1 ' e v o l u t i o n du l y r i s m e c o u r t o i s de G u i l l a u m e de Machaut a C h a r l e s d ' O r l g a n s . (Paris: P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1965), p. 223. I have not been a b l e t o d i s c o v e r whom P o i r i o n has i n mind when he r e f e r s t o Tapicier. The f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m u s i c i a n of t h i s name has been i d e n t i f i e d a s J e a n de N o i e r s , d i t T a p i c i e r , ( c . 1 3 7 0 - 1 4 1 0 ) , who worked f o r P h i l i p t h e B o l d , Duke o f Burgundy, between 1391 and 1404, and, a t t h e l a t t e r ' s d e a t h , f o r h i s son, J o h n t h e Fearless. T h i s was d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f C h a r l e s V I , n o t C h a r l e s V. See C r a i g W r i g h t , " T a p i s s i e r and C o r d i e r : New Documents and C o n j e c t u r e s " , The M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 59 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 1 7 7 - 1 8 9 .  21  contradictory the  fumeurs:  entirely  the c o n t e n t s of  to construct  taken not  the C h a r t r e des whose t o n e c a n  problems  to interpret  be  This  has  t o be  t h e poems t h e m s e l v e s ,  a picture  Fumeux.  in dealing  using this  derived  and  in  information, care  too l i t e r a l l y  what  i s a poem o f comic  both audacious  with  i s stated  in  exaggeration  and m o r a l i s i n g .  It  therefore  c o n s o r t s u n c o m f o r t a b l y w i t h t h e o t h e r fumeur poems w h i c h  have  more i n t i m a t e ,  to  describe Poirion  real  also But  This  The  in fact, some k i n d  of  t h e scope  the  their  referred  b u t one  that  that  was  Enfants-sans-Soucy. groups  can to  be  called  2 1  drawn  account  p a r o d i e s i n t h e fumeur  the groups  both  Raynaud  o f t h e C h a r t r e , and a l s o  an a s s o c i a t i o n  the h i g h c o u r t s of j u s t i c e and  like  group,  as  poems.  themselves  the  Enfants-sans-Soucy.  B a s o c h e was  the C h a t e l e t  as  t o whom H o e p f f n e r  the t h e a t r i c a l  of j u d i c i a l  information concerns the  fools,  appears  of group,  were f o n d of d r i n k i n g ,  r e g a r d them a s a d r i n k i n g of g u i l d  that  did possibly hold  commentator G r o b e r ,  the preponderance  B a s o c h i e n s and  with  narrative  s a y , b u t who  more i n f o r m a t i o n about  The  and  p e o p l e b e l o n g i n g t o some s o r t  upon t o e x p l a i n for  settings  i n t a v e r n s and  suggested. does,  local  and H o e p f f n e r  meetings  t h e Chambre d e s  l a w y e r s , a v o c a t s and  2 1  two  the only i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e  from  attempting must be  as they a r e , r e f l e c t  o f law  at P a r i s :  clerks  connected  the P a l a i s  Competes, and  who  p r o c u r e u r s , of t h e P a r l e m e n t  de  worked de  Justice, f o r the  Paris.  The  G u s t a v G r o b e r " G e s c h i c h t e d e r l a t e i n i s c h e s und f r a n z o s i s c h e s L i t t e r a t u r im M i t t e l a l t e r " , G r u n d r i s s d e r R o m a n i s c h e n P h i l o l o g i e Band 2 ( S t r a s s b u r g : K a r l J . T r u b n e r , 1902), p. 1200.  22  association  filled  professional  standards, i t conferred  qualification, differences over  a number o f f u n c t i o n s :  and  i t dealt  between  members had  the chance  ensuing  trials.  lighter  activities.  2 2  a  Every year, a f t e r  fair,  or  performed  t h e y would  2  Basoche  2 8  were t r i e d ,  scandalous r e a l - l i f e  material. *  2 3  suits  which  both  and  saints'  sometimes drew  social  annual  satire and  and  s u c h as a t Epiphany  days.  2 3  During  called  i n which inspiration  consisted  i n t h e mock t r i a l s ,  in  de J u s t i c e ,  solenelles),  c a s e s , or which  Burlesque invention  creativity,  elaborate  c o n d u c t mock t r i a l s ,  causes  Basoche i n the  took p a r t  between C h r i s t m a s and  the  from  2 2  i n the P a l a i s  f o u s , o r on c e r t a i n  ridiculous  also  their  known a s t h e F ^ t e d e s  causes grasses (or, j o k i n g l y ,  or  authorities,  at other c e l e b r a t i o n s ,  i n the p e r i o d  time of c a r n i v a l ,  problems  courtroom procedure  Members o f t h e Basoche  were s i m i l a r l y  local  from h i g h e r l e g a l  plays  of  When s u c h c a s e s were handed  to p r a c t i s e  p a r a d e , members p e r f o r m e d plays  certificates  with d i s c i p l i n a r y  i t s members.  to i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n  i t regulated  fictitious  were a p a r t i n the  of  comic  See A d o l p h e F a b r e L e s c l e r c s du P a l a i s : R e c h e r c h e s h i s t o r i q u e s s u r l e s B a z o c h e s d e s P a r l e m e n t s e t l e s s o c i e t y ' s d r a m a t i q u e s des B a z o c h i e n s e t d e s E n f a n t s - S a n s - S o u c i , 2me. e d . ( L y o n : N. S c h e r i n g , L i b r a i r e - E d i t e u r , 1875), pp. 10-19, 27, 305. An a v o c a t was e q u i v a l e n t t o a modern b a r r i s t e r , a p r o c u r e u r , an a t t o r n e y - a t - l a w or p r o s e c u t o r . F a b r e , L e s c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp. 40-42, 60-61, 101-107, 152153. F a b r e , L e s c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp.58, 162-164. The c l e r k s a l s o h e l d r e g u l a r meetings i n which they debated s e r i o u s f i c t i t i o u s c a s e s , a s modern law s t u d e n t s s t i l l do. T h e r e i s a l w a y s an e l e m e n t o f t h e a t r e i n s u c h p r o c e e d i n g s . See F a b r e , p . 25.  23  dramas, t h e there  was  moralites,  much o p p o r t u n i t y  gatherings, their  and  that  and  sotties.  opinion  had  literary  close  activities  jurisdiction, plays.  links  with  the  The  2 6  Prince  des  clerks  a  and  the  chief  Sots  of  (the  was  a town or  i t s own  the  2  of  city  the  Pape des  important or  above  bailli,  (see  in  formation  of  mention  the  century.  practices  of  the  is  the  E n f a n t s were a c t u a l l y under  t o mount  was  their  called  the  f o r the  Fous o f  i n the  i t s legal  young  law clerics.  provinces,  enough t o have a and  along  with  the  Enf a n t s ,  wherever  Parlement,  these,  the  there  societies  p . 1 8 ) , whose membership  been a b l e  these  documents t h a t fourteenth  to  theatre  included  7  H i s t o r i a n s have n o t the  the  of F o o l s ) , and  play-groups equivalent  many B a s o c h i e n s .  2 7  that  large part  It  E n f a n t s - s a n s - S o u c y was  Prince  magistrate  joyeuses described  2 6  a  a Parisian  whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t was  lay equivalent  were t h e  2 5  played  Basoche o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  T h e r e were a l s o B a s o c h e o r g a n i s a t i o n s  for  is clear  Basochiens.  o f most drama h i s t o r i a n s t h a t  sub-group w i t h i n  with  It  among B a s o c h e members f o r c o n v i v i a l  E n f a n t s - s a n s - S o u c y were members of  group t h a t  there  2 5  entertainment. The  a  farces  to discover  s o c i e t i e s , and  them a r e Since  f r o m no  the  any  precise  earliest  earlier  than  I hope t o show t h a t  date  surviving  the  end  of  some  B a s o c h e g r o u p s a p p e a r t o have been a n t i c i p a t e d  See Howard Graham Harvey, The T h e a t r e o f t h e B a s o c h e : The C o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e Law S o c i e t i e s t o F r e n c h M e d i e v a l Comedy ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941) and A r d e n , F o o l s ' P l a y s , e s p e c i a l l y pp. 25, 65, 123-127. F a b r e , L e s c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp. 233-237, H a r v e y , The T h e a t r e of t h e B a s o c h e , pp. 24-27, A r d e n , F o o l s ' P l a y s , p. 25. F a b r e , L e s c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp. 69-70, H a r v e y , The T h e a t r e o f t h e B a s o c h e , p.14, fn.9.  24  or  reflected  will put  i n fumeur a c t i v i t i e s  be w o r t h w h i l e forward  to review  to suggest  Basoche o r g a n i z a t i o n few  early  for  having  1401,  January cases took of  and  9,  t h e P r i n c e des  In  1442,  a  any  authorization prohibited.  F o l s du  2 8  information: in  l u i par p l u s i e u r s  Palais  i n 1424  The  1385,  o f Rouen fois";  in  recorded that,  on  was  presented  the c l e r k s  plays,  that  and  be an  and  jurisdiction  had  i n the  of the  clerks  with  Chattelet  suggests  that  gave a n o t h e r  had  what had  t h e r e was  an  with  developed.  played not  been  established performing  This could  e x i s t e n c e f o r the  Basoche.  judgement a g a i n s t t h e  a p p a r e n t l y exceeded  on  who  Paris  without  c e n s o r s h i p connected eventually  de  o r d e r e d them  future  t h e bounds o f t h e i r  when p u n i s h i n g some o f t h e i r  instance ruled  and  i n t o account  f o r an e a r l i e r  the Parlement who  taking  a b u s e s had  argument  water,  i t s regulations,  o r comedy  or w i t h o u t  procedure  this  devant  b r e a d and  This ruling  Basochiens,  2 8  on  satire  tradition,  1443,  societies.  judgement o f t h e P a r l e m e n t  a show i n d e f i a n c e o f  to perform  In  commonly  i n a p l a y g i v e n f o r t h e e n t r y i n t o P a r i s o f t h e Duke  Beford.  well  following  joyous  b o o k s f o r t h e town o f C a m b r a i  of wine a t s u p p e r ; part  arguments  gave money t o t h e G a l l a n s - s a n s - S o u c y  condemned t o p r i s o n , in  i t s co-existing  "joue et chante  account  t h e d a t e s and  a f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e x i s t e n c e f o r the  documents g i v e t h e  L o u i s d'Orle'ans  d e s c r i b e d by Deschamps, i t  members.  three areas: i t forbade  The  own  court in  t h e payment  by  B a r b a r a S w a i n , F o o l s and F o l l y i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s (New York: C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932), p. 14. L o u i s d ' O r l e a n s , who p a t r o n i z e d t h e Rouen g r o u p , was a l o n g - s t a n d i n g e m p l o y e r and p a t r o n o f t h e p o e t Deschamps.  25  Bejaune the  in beuveries  clerks  and  mangeries,  w i s h e d t o have j e u x  comedies),  t h e y must ask  the c l e r k s  t o e l e v a t e the  perform To  any such  v i e w , one legal  juridical scant,  can  add  of  profession  justice. was  centralizing  dates  s t a t u s of  rather late  t h e employment  In t h e  of the  seigneurial  from t h i s p e r i o d .  and  t h e Royaume de the c o u r t ' s  evidence the  rapid  to serve  forbade  leave.  point  The  of the  high  legal the  k i n g by w e a k e n i n g t h e power o f courts.  to  3 0  g r o w t h of  i n the the  it  l a Basoche  f r o m our  of c l e r k s  i n order  that i f  ( p l a y s or  fourteenth century,  g r e a t l y enlarged  and  ordered  the c o u r t ' s p e r m i s s i o n ,  information concerning  interests  ecclesiastical  or e b a t t e m e n t s  f u n c t i o n without  and  p r o f e s s i o n , and  courts  i t again  2 9  the  Basoche p o s s i b l y  Harvey w r i t e s :  I t was t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f i r s t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e law c l e r k s o f P a r i s , a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e B a s o c h e , went back t o t h e t i m e of P h i l i p t h e F a i r [ 1 2 8 5 - 1 3 1 4 ] , The s u p p o s e d e d i c t h a s n o t been f o u n d , but t h e P a r l e m e n t h a d t h e n become f i x e d a t P a r i s , and a s a r e s u l t o f t h e P r a g m a t i c S a n c t i o n , c a s e s were a c c u m u l a t i n g i n t h e r o y a l c o u r t s f a s t e r than the p r o c u r e u r s c o u l d handle them. They began t o employ l a r g e numbers o f c l e r k s , a n d soon t h e a d v o c a t e s . . . began t o do  A b e e - j a u n e was a n e w l y - g r a d u a t e d law s t u d e n t a b o u t t o become a B a s o c h e c l e r k , named a f t e r f l e d g l i n g , s o f t - b i l l e d b i r d s t h a t have j u s t l e f t t h e n e s t . Payment o f e n t r y r i g h t s was a s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e i n b o t h t h e u n i v e r s i t y c o l l e g e s and t h e B a s o c h e society. See F a b r e , L e s c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp. 36-37. H a r v e y , The T h e a t r e o f t h e B a s o c h e , p. 23. H a r v e y , The T h e a t r e o f t h e B a s o c h e , p. 17, f n . 1 2 . Welldocumented d e s c r i p t i o n s of the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y o c c u r i n : C h a r l e s B a t a i l l a r d L e s O r i g i n e s de I ' H i s t o i r e des P r o c u r e u r s e t des Avoues d e p u i s l e Ve. S i e c l e j u s q u ' a u XVe. (4227-1483) ,"TParis: C o t i l l o n , E d i t e u r , L i b r a i r e du C o n s e i l d ' E t a t , 1868), and R. D e l a c h e n a l H i s t o i r e des a v o c a t s au P a r l e m e n t de P a r i s , 1300-1600 ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e P l o n , E. P l o n , N o u r r i t e t C l e . , i m p r i m e u r s - ^ d i t e u r s , 1885).  26  likewise.  By  3 1  1378, t h e r e were so many p r o c u r e u r s  number h a d t o be r e d u c e d by c o u r t formed  intellectual  students", courts,  class  established  the Confrerie  fourteenth received It  of judges,  with t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e  3 2  century.  a royal  to forty.  lawyers,  An a s s o c i a t i o n de S t . N i c h o l a s ,  like  i s i n t e r e s t i n g that  their  The " n e w l y -  and the r o y a l other  professional  of p r o c u r e u r s and a v o c a t s , had d e v e l o p e d e a r l y  I n 1342, t h e members o f t h i s  letter  that  and law  t o the king  t h e i r own c o m p a n i e s ,  groups of t h e i r time. called  order  in Paris  of authorization  community  for their  t h e members r e f e r  i n the  constitution.  to themselves  in this  document a s " l e s c o m p a i g n o n s c l e r c , e t a u t r e s p r o c u r e u r s e t escripvains a Paris  frequentant  et a i l l e u r s "  and  writers  our  Lord a t Paris  clerks that  and e l s e w h e r e ) . organized  escript  du Roy n o s t r e  and t h e C o u r t  This  3 3  beyond  the c i t y  lawyers t o itemize,  ce q u ' i l s prendront  requis"  "Et aussi de l e u r s  (And t h e c l e r k s w i l l  have t a k e n w i t h t h e i r w r i t t e n  attorneys  that the  o f a s s o c i a t i o n , and  t h e i r cases and the revenues therefrom, for clerks:  Sire  of the King  would s u g g e s t  i n some k i n d  extended  o f 1367 w h i c h r e q u i r e d  separate clause  will  at the P a l a i s  t h e community a l r e a d y  purposes,  e t l a Court  ( t h e company o f c l e r k s a n d o t h e r  customarily  were a l r e a d y  ruling  aussi  l e Palais  of P a r i s .  A  for taxation included  a  l e s c l e r c s m e t t r o n t en escriptures,  also  se i l s s o n t  put i n w r i t i n g  documents, s i n c e  H a r v e y , The T h e a t r e o f t h e B a s o c h e , p . 11. B a t a i l l a r d , L ' H i s t o i r e d e s P r o c u r e u r s , p . 422.  what  they a r e  they  27  a l s o r e q u i r e d to do s o ) . * Whether or-not  the c l e r k s c a l l e d  3  themselves Basochiens at t h i s time, these ordinances prove that they h e l d an e s t a b l i s h e d p l a c e w i t h i n In order  to take up a l e g a l c a r e e r ,  have earned a law as a c l e r k .  legal  degree and  society.  i t was  necessary to  then to have served  s e v e r a l years  Many of the c l e r k s of the Parlement were of good  family, serving t h e i r apprenticeship or advocates (although  i t was  be h e l d permanently).  The  o f t e n shared the  before  becoming  magistrates  a l s o p o s s i b l e f o r the p o s i t i o n to  young men  w i t h i n t h i s environment  same q u a l i t i e s as students,  and  some of  the  Basoche f e s t i v i t i e s are s i m i l a r to those of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y contemporaries.  When one  considers  t h i s group, educated, young,  exposed to the dramas of the courtroom and  to the  s i d e of s o c i e t y , i t i s not  i t i s c r e d i t e d with  developing  s u r p r i s i n g that  s e c u l a r comedy and  satire.  I t has  contentious  been observed  f r e q u e n t l y that the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , education  and  experience of  the lawyers made them the only p o s s i b l e group through which development of a l a y comic t h e a t r e c o u l d The one  c r e a t i v e and  l e g a l environment d e s c r i b e d  i n which Deschamps and h i s c o l l e a g u e s  attempt to e x p l a i n some of the p u z z l e s Fumeux becomes e a s i e r i f one sympathetic to s a t i r i c a l Soucy had  above was  would have worked.  about the Chartre  takes i n t o account these  l i t e r a r y thought.  t h e i r P r i n c e of F o o l s , and  even more e l e v a t e d and  3ft  occur.  other  The  Procureurs,  p.  des  Enfants-sans-  s o c i e t e s joyeuses  435.  An  forces  f a n c i f u l names f o r t h e i r l e a d e r s ;  B a t a i l l a r d , L ' H i s t o i r e des  the  an  had  28  Empereur de company. of  the  young kind  t o u t e Fumee would n o t  Putting legal  to  As  sans-Soucy  and  soon a s was  one  of the  law  to  learns that  What  infinitus"  their  through people,  of  the motto of the  medieval  Enfants-  ( t h e number  of the  habits  but  he  clerks.  a l s o had  Comte de V e r t u s  i n 1367,  a royal  first  Senlis  bailli,  i n the B r i e  t h e C h a r t r e was  formula  Eustace)  been a b o u t age  3 5  of  i s i n the  mean t h a t  he  had  a legal and  jure this third  been  clerk  jure  i n 1375  after  f o r the Count poem, one year  then,  reads  that  i n 1389,  In  Would t h i s have been a  Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 1 1 ,  pp.  13,  be  57.  of  that  the (or  T h i s would  when he  I t w o u l d not  was  was  J e h a n Fumee  (253).  s i n c e 1366,  f o r the  t o note  of V e r t u s .  in his  c a r e e r he  Deschamps  of h i s r e i g n  "Emperor"  at Vertus?  and  It i s interesting  3 5  twenty y e a r s o l d .  f o r a law  was  f o r much of h i s a d u l t  of V a l o i s ,  district.  c a r e e r : he  w r i t t e n only a year  d o c u m e n t e d as b e i n g closing  the  resembled  Deschamps h e l d a number o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s lifetime,  of  particular  Whether o r not  a t t i t u d e s and  one  imagine  speaking  power-structure  t h e g e n e r a l seems t o be more p l a u s i b l e .  those  certainly  parodies.  J e h a n Fumee's c o m b i n a t i o n  f u m e u r s were B a s o c h i e n s  such  hard  the poet,  "numerus s t u l t o r u m e s t  is infinite),  was  be  legal  in  a c h a r t e r f o r a s m a l l group of  i n c l u d e w i t h i n i t the e n t i r e  France?  fools  i t w o u l d not  w o u l d have p r o m p t e d  J e h a n Fumee, t o p r o d u c e yet  and  s t u d e n t s e n j o y i n g Deschamps'  of a t t i t u d e  unusual  knowledge t o c o m i c use  Basoche a c t i v i t i e s , law  appear  would  have  suitable  improbable,  but  29  the  questions  invite  There are look  further research  s e v e r a l passages  toward Basoche p r a c t i c e s .  hoped-for  jurisdiction  perceived  g r a v i t y of  real  jurisdiction  some of  the  comment  that  in  their  m o t t o of  great the  infinite". proposed  held  troubles the  the  3 7  3 8  by  the  i t had  fumeurs  moods"  I t was  the  him  Basoche over  plural  to b r i n g h i s court the  societies  by  joyous  when t h e  Basochiens conducted t h e i r  i t s own  members,  this.  The  3 7  traditionally  his  and  emperor's  infinitive the  fools is  t h a t J e h a n Fumee  the  very  held their  6  very  a t Fumagor a t a t i m e  Carnival period,  when t h e  t o mind t h e  number o f  3  to  and  in i t s sentiment  Hoepffner  together  seem  men,  i n number/ And  "the  life.  Fumee's  t o t r y h i s own  (117-118) r e c a l l s  out  that  poem, J e h a n  in maintaining  "are  pointed  Chartre  (16-24), c a l l  Enfants-sans-Soucy,  w o u l d have been d u r i n g  3 6  case  i n the In  enabling  on D e s c h a m p s ' e a r l y  occasion  plays,  causes g r a s s e s .  3 8  that  and  Indeed, i t  I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e why Deschamps c h o s e t o make J e h a n Fumee t h e head of an 'empire' r a t h e r t h a n of any o t h e r t y p e of r e a l m . T h e r e were o t h e r ' e m p i r e s ' i n t h e l a t e m i d d l e a g e s : t o o u t d o t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e P a l a i s , who had a mere kingdom c a l l e d t h e Royaume de l a B a s o c h e , t h e c l e r c s a t t h e Chambre des Comptes f o r m e d t h e E m p i r e de G a l i l e e . There was, f u r t h e r m o r e , an 'empire' o f t h e B a s o c h e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f O r l e a n s , famous f o r i t s law s c h o o l , a l t h o u g h t h i s i s f r u s t r a t i n g l y undocumented i n modern s c h o l a r s h i p . Raynaud has c o n j e c t u r e d t h a t Deschamps r e c e i v e d h i s l e g a l t r a i n i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Orleans, and drew a t t e n t i o n t o poems p r o v i n g t h a t h i s own son went t h e r e a l s o t o f o l l o w a l e g a l c a r e e r ( s e e O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 8 , pp.96, 1 8 7 . ) . A search for information a b o u t t h e O r l e a n s 'empire' and Deschamps' u n i v e r s i t y b a c k g r o u n d m i g h t throw l i g h t on t h e i d e n t i t y o f some o f t h e f u m e u r s . One s h o u l d r e c a l l , f o r example, t h e judgement o f P a r l e m e n t f o r 1443 d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ( p . 24). H o e p f f n e r , E u s t a c h e Deschamps, p . 51. W r i t i n g h i s C h a r t r e on December 9, J e h a n Fume'e d e c l a r e d , "We i n t e n d , w i t h i n the next t h r e e m o n t h s / To h o l d our n o b l e c o u n c i l .../ A t Fumagor s u r l a P e r r i e r e " (172-175).  30  sounds-as i f the emperor were proposing a meeting resembling a cause grasse, with the present poem f u n c t i o n i n g somewhat l i k e a c r y , the e n t e r t a i n i n g parade-advertisement c l e r k s would announce t h e i r  w i t h which the  law  forthcoming p l a y a c t i v i t i e s .  F i n a l l y , there i s a c u r i o u s passage toward the end of the poem i n which the emperor proposes  p e n a l t i e s f o r those who  have  disobeyed orders to r e t a i n t h e i r hats d u r i n g the w i n t e r . p e n a l t y appears  The  to i n c l u d e a f i n e of the very c l o a k and hood of  the o f f e n d e r , and  i t s immediate a s s i g n a t i o n to someone e l s e ,  along with c e r t a i n p r i v i l e g e s a c c r u i n g to i t as w e l l as a g i f t of wine (200-205, 216-230).  T h i s might be e x p l a i n e d as  another  of the poem's a b s u r d i t i e s , and one would do w e l l t o remember the poet's obsession with the dangers of baldness. yet another resembles  But there may  be  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s passage, s i n c e the p e n a l t y  a standard f i n e p a i d by Basochiens  and  gualified  lawyers a l i k e : the c o n f i s c a t i o n of t h e i r hats, c l o a k s , or both. Fabre makes many r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s p r a c t i c e , r a t i o n a l e behind  3 9  and  the  i t i s e x p l a i n e d by D e l a c h e n a l :  The chaperons were of very great importance. Without them the advocates c o u l d not appear at the bar, and they f u n c t i o n e d as a guarantee that the h u i s s i e r took over whenever an i n f r a c t i o n had been committed or a fine incurred.* 0  The C h a r t r e des Fumeurs does t h e r e f o r e seem to express  Fabre, Les c l e r c s du P a l a i s , pp. 16, 18, 59, 62-63, 74, 100, 151, 301, 330. *° D e l a c h e n a l , L ' H i s t o i r e des Avocats, p. 295. An advocate was always d i r e c t e d to 'cover h i m s e l f by the judge before coming t o p l e a d at the bar. Without h i s hat, he c o u l d not take p a r t i n courtroom procedure. 3 9  31  certain  t h o u g h t s and  creative  g r o u p s of  was  late  "the  popularity refers  to  a t t i t u d e s that  the  time.  fourteenth  of  the  several  idea lists  Barbara  and  of  early  the  of  were d e v e l o p i n g  fool  follies  fifteenth  one  of  these  written  centuries  that i t when  seems t o have e m e r g e d " . * from t h i s p e r i o d  maxims c o n c e r n e d w i t h human e r r o r . of  Swain has  among  She  that  states that  the  the She  1  contain contents  lists  a l m o s t d u p l i c a t e i n n e g a t i v e f o r m t h e commands f o r l i v i n g t h e u p r i g h t l i f e g i v e n i n t h e famous c o l l e c t i o n of m a n u s c r i p t s a t t r i b u t e d t o C a t o . A c o m p a r i s o n of t h e two shows how c o m p l e t e l y t h e f o o l c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as t h e e x a c t a n t i t h e s i s of t h e u p r i g h t man.* 2  Comparing the  Swain's l i s t  fumeurs,  conceived  a  standard  impatience,  and  appears to  4 1  4 2  4 3  formal  theme.  that  Swain's l i s t  the three  of  r e t i c e n c e and  willingness  the  refer to  real  noticeable,  procedure of  S w a i n , F o o l s and F o l l y , Swain, F o o l s and F o l l y , o b v i o u s s o u r c e of wisdom of P r o v e r b s . S w a i n , F o o l s and F o l l y ,  a  and  poem  caution,  people.  ready  in their  anger,  advice.*  the  scope  in a s p e c i f i c The  'legal'  structure  j u d g e ' s summary of  was  mischievousness,  t o o f f e r unwanted  i s set  of  includes:  fumeur C o m m i s s i o n s narrow  however, f o r e a c h one  works i s v e r y the  lack  and  other  activity,  to conclude  f a i t h l e s s n e s s to promises, meddling,  talkativeness,  The  f o o l s ' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with those  i t becomes e a s y  on  credulity,  of  of  locality,  tone of they  3  these  imitate  e v i d e n c e and  final  p. 15. p. 15. Swain a l s o p o i n t s t o t h e t o be d e l i b e r a t e l y i n v e r t e d , t h e  other Book  p.  21.  32  j u d g e m e n t . **  I t was  suggest  the e a r l y  that  have been d r a m a t i c of  possibly  with a s o c i e t y  Deschamps' one  literary  legal  law  legal  o n l y t o an  profession.*  village  lawyer  and  The  6  the  under p r e t e x t of the work a f a m i l i a r i t y lawyers occur.  as w e l l  "may  audience  5  He  considered that  one while  both  litigant  r e g u l a r and  as w i t h d a i l y  i t would  composed of members o f  a b u s e s of  the  the cocksure out  type  to rob h i s  Deschamps c e r t a i n l y  w i t h the  evidence  shows i n  sharp p r a c t i c e s justice  that  dictated  by  of  fellow  this of  could  0 7  emperor o f t h e the  creature's  D'un  and  fumeurs.  subsequent j u d g i n g and  language  context  the  could  have been a s s o c i a t e d a t  poem s a t i r i z e s  Chien  T h i s poem i s a g a i n a l e g a l  the  of t h e B a s o c h i e n s  the Basoche p o i n t of view,  law.  to  t h e F a r c e de M a i s t r e T r u b e r t ,  too-greedy  D'une A u t r e C o m m i s s i o n  a dog,  l e d Harvey  s p e c u l a t e d , from  students".*  farce,  represents only p a r t i a l l y have a p p e a l e d  He  Deschamps of  works t h a t  efforts  monologues.  t h e s e poems, t h a t  time  these  and  I t d e s c r i b e s the  insulting  action  sentencing.  procedure  f o r an  letter  The  theft  of  Eustace, some meat  of t h e a n i m a l , parody  o f a s e r i o u s model  inappropriate subject.  As  and  once more i n an  by  the uses  absurd  i n the C h a r t r e ,  ** A u b a i l l y , i n Le monologue, p. 104, g i v e s t h e p r o c e d u r e a s : " a d r e s s e , e x p o s ! d e s m o t i f s q u i o n t p r e s i d e a 1 ' e l a b o r a t i o n de l ' a c t e , jugement r e n d u , o r d r e d ' e x e c u t i o n e t e x p o s e des p e n i t e n c e s e n c o u r u e s en c a s de non r e s p e c t de 1 ' o r d o n n a n c e " . * H a r v e y , The T h e a t r e o f t h e B a s o c h e , p. 71, f n . 3 ; p. 72, f n . 7 . * F o r t h e F a r c e de M a i s t r e T r u b e r t e t d ' A n t r o n g n a r t , see O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 7 , p . 155. The r u b r i c b e f o r e t h e poem r e a d s : "Comment un homme t r o v a un a u t r e en son j a r d i n c u e i l l a n t une amende e t comment i l l e f i s t m e t t r e en p r i s o n e t du jugement q u i en f u t f a i t " . * See H a r v e y , T h e a t r e o f t h e B a s o c h e , pp. 71-83. 5  6  7  33  there  i s a descent The  Eustace  short  t o one  poem c o n f i r m s "the  cook".  judicial  into absurdity  Robin  l e Queux.  t o a cook a b o u t b a t h e t i c world  as  apart  follows: f i r s t , and  outrage since  ate  a dog the  is satirized.* the  ten p i e c e s  dog  the  be  have an  of  entered  of m u t t o n .  end  of  of  read  (1-3),  the  rest  i s from of  the  a trade  title,  emperor  sending  a  fumeurs The  s t o l e n some meat! i s invoked,  emperor's  his cellar This alone  t o b r i n g down a l l s o r t s of c h a r g e s on  it  poem.  as  t h a t has  8  the  letter  context  " l e Queux" s h o u l d  which normal procedure is  The  I t a p p e a r s t h a t we  Once more, t h e  the  g r e e t i n g which b e g i n s  that  order  at  and is  the  in  grievance stole,  tore  sufficient animal's  head,  was  Committing domestic t h e f t And t h e c r i m e of r o b b e r y And of p i l l a g e and l a r c e n y . (17-19) But  the  offends  second cause the  for grievance  d i g n i t y of  the  i s much worse,  for i t greatly  emperor:  What was e v e n w o r s e , t h e dog, F u l l o f m i s c h i e f , on t h e f l o o r Went and r e l e a s e d h i s f i l t h y g u t , So t h a t i n h i s t r e m e n d o u s i n s o l e n c e He p i s s e d i n our f a c e And s o i l e d us and our men Who were a s l e e p b e c a u s e o f t h e wind o u t s i d e , So much t h a t he s u c c e e d e d i n w a k i n g u s .  S t r a n g e a s t h e s t o r y i s , Deschamps was n o t t h e f i r s t t o p a s s judgement on a t h i e v i n g dog. Raynaud drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e G r e e k s a t i r e on j u r i s t s i n A r i s t o p h a n e s ' s , The Wasps, i n w h i c h a t r i a l - h u n g r y c i t i z e n - j u r i s t s e t s up c o u r t i n h i s own home and, i n d e s p e r a t i o n , t r i e s the house-dog. I t i s n o t known i f Deschamps would have e v e r come a c r o s s t h i s c l a s s i c a l p o l i t i c a l satire. See Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v.11, p . 2 8 2 ) .  34  And i f we d i d not know whence t h i s came For the f i r s t w h i l e , well then we soon knew For c e r t a i n that the dog had done i t , And what i s more, shat on u s , H o l d i n g our empire in l i t t l e esteem, And because of which we have no d e s i r e to laugh (22-36)  ....  Should the company of men be seen as a group who were s l e e p i n g off  the e f f e c t s  mutton—no  of d r i n k ,  and even as the r e a l e a t e r s  l e s s than ten p i e c e s of  to have destroyed?  the dog was a l l e g e d  until  the a f f r o n t  the dog c o u l d be blamed. is real  or n o t ,  Eustace orders. Robin  l e Queux to take charge of the punishment. best l e g a l  style,  the  One c o u l d imagine them waking to a scene of  mutual embarrassment Whether  it-that  of  Using once more h i s  he s a y s :  And because such wrong-doing Comes under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of your o f f i c e , And s i n c e a l l c h a s t i s e m e n t , The f i n e and the punishment For t h i s misdeed i s your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . (39-43) The punishments are l i s t e d  i n meticulous d e t a i l ,  s p e c i f y i n g how the dog should be beaten, implement, The l i s t  should i t  show i t s e l f  moves i n t o a b s u r d i t y at  that he w i l l b a n i s h forever animal,  should i t  tirade against  the p o i n t  localities  (45-66).  when Eustace d e c l a r e s  those c l e r k s who do not beat  their  stupidity  and with what  in c e r t a i n  chamber.  these new o f f e n d e r s ,  to the p o t e n t i a l their  enter  with Eustace  He launches i n t o a  transfering  of h i s men.  the  If  h i s outrage now  they hide t o escape  punishment of being shorn and then b a n i s h e d , they must be  beaten,  35  ... so t h a t i n our h o s t e l t h e r e i s none so T h a t he c o u l d not e a s i l y h e a r them y e l l From t h e i n j u r i e s t h a t we w i l l do t o them. (82-84) Eustace joke,  signs  saying  Fymes./ Put rhymes"  o f f as  a  full  "Given out  i s , but  with a  u n d e r our  seal  at  out  of  stop  there,  Rochet,  several  things  t o note about  taken  fumeurs, s i n c e was  there  i n the  for granted i s no  Chartre.  fumeurs a r e ,  nostre  l e Queux"  insult,  Robin  there  e m p i r e as  only  moreover, q u i t e one  ame  that  I've  hears of  j u s t run  fumeurs was  specific  "Eustace, and,  (35).  final  by  to  that  the  the  the  them  as  references  included:  following  It  knows of  in  empereur des  I t would  well-established  poem.  audience  casually  (1-2),  this  introduction  two  i s Eustace's complaint  "worth l i t t l e "  the  deliberated The  opening address,  the  he  (82-84).  a p p e a r s t o be  the  d i g n i t a r y that  to h i s secretary,  There are  there  the  deaf  dog's  creature  time t h a t  the  Fumeux/ A  the  seem t h a t  to  holds  the  idea  this  poem  his of was  written. One this  can  work.  ask  The  who  might  emperor  be  the  clers  mentioned  in line  67  says:  And i f he [ t h e dog] goes i n t o t h e c l e r k s ' chamber, I f he d o e s not l e a v e c l o t h e d i n b l u e [ i . e . b r u i s e d ] From t h e s t r e n g t h o f a sound b e a t i n g , T h e y w i l l be s h o r n l i k e f o o l s ... (67-70) Since  i t was  tonsured, legal  normal at  this  i t i s possible  c l e r k s , who  time  that  would s t i l l  for church c l e r i c s  this  threat  have had  to  is directed  their  hair!  be toward  of  36  According Fismes  (89;  chatelain, this but of  see  written h i s own  not,  sentences  that  order.  In  there  was  in  dictated  Deschamps was  1382."  a youthful already  was  It  9  work l i k e  the  authority  of  the  poet's  royal  chronologically, although  to  appear  there  the  were o t h e r  two  i t , and to the  t o be  related.  that  this  f o l l o w i n g works, the  the idea  second that  Chartre, in charge  writing his  own  title  to  have  successive of  this  s i m i l a r commissions before  . . . ) , and  i s dated the  present  work was first  1370.  that  family.  several The  made  the  a royal bai11i,  such a c a s e ,  at  is possible  i n p a r o d y would have been b o r n o f  commission  Of  some s u p p o r t among t h e  commission  m a n u s c r i p t s o f Deschamps' poems a p p e a r not  (D'une a u t r e  assigned  poet  a legal  poems f r e q u e n t l y  of  this  i n Appendix A ) .  therefore,  household.  been o r g a n i z e d  suggests  map  when t h e  e x p e r i e n c e s as The  the  poet,  hence g o v e r n o r  poem was  judicial  to the  has  poem it  copied no  T h i s may  work i s f a i r l y  out  year lend late  fumeur poems.  Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v.11, pp.32-35, v . 1 , p. 214. In one poem, Deschamps r e q u e s t e d money f o r r e n o v a t i o n s t o t h e t o u r de Fymes, h i s r e s i d e n c e , s i n c e i t s d r a u g h t s had made h i s head h e a v y w i t h c o l d s , or "enfumee" as he t e r m e d i t ( v . 2 , p. 105).  37  Cy  P a r l e D'une S e n t e n c e Donnee C o n t r e  Debat Meu  Soudainement E n t r ' e u l x  The night  f o l l o w i n g events  i n the  disturbance  very  tavern, a series i s catalogued  When a l l t h e  are  Aucuns De  (May  23  related of  [no  u n d e r way,  the  Un  commission:  breaks  i n the commission's  arguments a r e  Pour  Year])  in this  fights  Vitry  out. report  scene  one  Each (4-26).  appears  to  be  heated:  T h e r e you m i g h t have seen i n v e r y g r e a t d i s o r d e r , D i s s e n s i o n g o i n g on i n s i x o r seven p l a c e s And f i g h t i n g and a r g u m e n t s s t a r t i n g up ... (36-38) Finally,  the  rowdiness  bai11i,  occurs  who  i s d r i n k i n g i n the  before h i s very  o f f e n d e r s t o a p p e a r b e f o r e him. his  imperial  procureur  request  'evidence' sentence goes  c o u r t has  eyes The  (21), requests  the a u t h o r i t y f o r such a c t i o n ,  f o r the case, passes imagined.  the  after  lightest  The  has  reviewing and  summary o f  most the  the  the  emperor e x p l a i n s t h a t  h i s men's r e t u r n , and  t h a t c o u l d be  same t a v e r n when  only his  the  agreeable evidence  thus:  S e e i n g t h a t t h i s was a f t e r s u p p e r And t h a t t h e a c t i o n of t h e wine Made them b e g i n t h e f r a c a s C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the morning a f t e r , E a c h one had more t h i r s t t h a n h u n g e r , And t h a t as soon a s t h e y g o t up, T h e y went s t r a i g h t t o d r i n k i n g i n c o n t i n e n t l y , B e c a u s e i t was t h e wine t h e y had d r u n k t h a t e v e n i n g W h i c h had c a u s e d them most o f t h e i r g r i e f , C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t they c o u l d not r e c a l l A h a l f of t h e i r a r g u m e n t s , And t h a t whoever w i s h e s t o u p h o l d our o r d e r S h o u l d n o t b e a r a n i m o s i t y .... (76-88)  38  Lack  o f memory o f t h e e v e n t s  fumeurs who sentences  appears  t o be  a r e not meant t o h o l d g r u d g e s !  a l l concerned  t o be  friends,  and  an a d v a n t a g e The  among  emperor  to drink together in  amity:  Thus we o r d e r t h a t a s e r q e n t be r e a d y Who, i n order to f i n i s h t h i s q u a r r e l , Should f i l l the w i n e - g l a s s c o m p l e t e l y In c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s s e n t e n c e , And s h o u l d t e l l e v e r y o n e t o b e g i n To d r i n k . (106-111.) Although Eustace still  one  in this  d o e s not  come a c r o s s t h e names Jehan  work, t h e e m p i r e  very present, with  example, t h e emperor  and  i t s world  the o r d e r of the  expresses disapproval that,  o f t h e b r a w l e r s were u p h o l d i n g t h e o r d e r o f  own  chief  sat q u i e t l y ,  Fumee o r  fumeurs i s  of c o n t r a r y v a l u e s .  all  ministers  full,  taking  no  For  at a time  when  la. Fumee, h i s  part:  T h e r e , f r o m t h e i r manner, one c o u l d p i c k o u t T h o s e who must be under t h e b a n n e r Of o u r e m p i r e . T h e y were a l l worse t h a n o u r own men: Le P o u r s u i g a n t , our e'cuyer, And our fumous c h a n c e l l o r , C l o a r t C a t h o n ; t h e s e l a t t e r s h u t up And d i d n o t e m i t one b i t o f fum£e, Showing i n t h e m s e l v e s wisdom f o r no good r e a s o n , And d e f i l i n g our c u s t o m s In a c o w a r d l y manner; and t h i s d i s p l e a s e s u s .  (49-59) In  true contrary fashion,  e m p e r o r ' s a p p r o v a l , "who (61),  through  According in  their  t o the  every case"  i t i s the  showed t h e m s e l v e s  fumousness, each  institution  (28-31).  rowdies  of  who t o be  gain  the  true  subjects"  "conducting himself/  l a Fumee/ W h i l e  fuming  strongly  39  It that  the  must have been t h i s  poem t h a t c o n v i n c e d  f u m e u r s were a d r i n k i n g s o c i e t y .  "en  l a taverne"  (115),  our  e m p i r e makes i t s r e g u l a t i o n s " ( 4 ) .  work, p e a c e f u l and undergo t h e i r  w h i c h , we  bibulous,  are  i s one  The  told,  of  Raynaud  poem i s d i c t a t e d  i s the p l a c e  The  final  "whence  s c e n e of  fumeur b l i s s ,  as  this  the  men  'sentence',  . . . t h e i r eyes shut, A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a t e o f la Fume'e, I n p e a c e , t h e q u a r r e l i n g done w i t h . (111-113) There  is sufficient  legal  however, t o s u g g e s t  j a r g o n and  that there  w h i c h c o u l d have drawn t h e throughout  the  vocabulary  of  cited  as  against  someone) was  proceedings  being  procedure,  one  nouvellete  .  nouvellete  . . .  same p h r a s e  D' une  sentence  soudainement  5 0  procedure,  mutual c o n d i t i o n s  together.  In  Some of  "meu  in  these  places  the  can  be  contre quelqu'un"  (moved  commonly u s e d when d e s c r i b i n g c o u r t by  a party.  i s put  entre forward  i s found  donnee c o n t r e  entr'eulx.  In Le G r a n d C o u t u m i e r ,  legal  f o r example:  . e s t meu  that  other  legal  t h a t were common  rulings.  compendium o f  reads, .  occur  expression  brought  fourteenth-century  the  court  e x a m p l e s : The  were y e t  fumeur a u d i e n c e  poem, p h r a s e s official  parody of  definitions  and  "Quant aucun d e b a t  . . . "  (When an  between  i n the aucuns  .  rubric  .  Deschamps c l e a r l y  found  de  argument  . ).  5 0  above the  pour un  a  debat a coy  of  This i s poem: meu way  t £ G r a n d C o u t u m i e r , e d . L a b o u l a y e and R. D a r e s t e (Paris: A u g u s t e D u r a n d e t P e d o n e - L a u r i e l , L i b r a i r e s , 1868), p. 264.  of  40  referring noted is  t o the  tavern brawls.  f o r i t s exact  quite  and  The  legal  style  of w r i t i n g  often laboured p r e c i s i o n .  The  is  following  typical:  Par bons a v i s e t d e l i b e r a t i o n a v o n s ordonne^ e t o r d o n n o n s de c e r t a i n e s c i e n c e e t a u c t o r i t e r o y a l p a r c e s p r e ' s e n t e s , que de c y en a v a n t n ' a i t en n o s t r e d i t C h a s t e l l e t que q u a r a n t e p r o c u r e u r s g e n e r a l e ... L e q u e l nombre ... nous v o u l o n s e t o r d o n n o n s e s t r e t e n u s a n s e n f r a i n d r e p a r q u e l q u e p e r s o n n e que c e soit. 5 1  One  can  compare w i t h  this  the  orders given  i n t h i s poem  by  Eustace: Avons a d r o i t d i t e t d i s o n s Que t o u t e s l e s d i c t e s p a r t i e s Qui par c o u r r o u x f u r e n t p a r t i e s S o n t , demeurent e t d e m o u r r o n t Bon ami ... (94-98) There can and  be  no  of h i s i n t e n t i o n  were o f  similar  Hoepffner in  doubt  this  poem.  5 2  when t h e  fights  dictated  and  of t h e w r i t e r ' s f a m i l i a r i t y t o amuse, w i t h t h i s  with  the  knowledge, o t h e r s  law, who  experience. has  p o i n t e d out  The  first  broke out;  s e a l e d the  t h a t two  happened t o be the  letter  second  baillis  mentioned  d r i n k i n g at the  i s the  f o r the  are  one  who  tavern  apparently  commission:  Under t h e s e a l of our b a i l i f f , G i v e n out i n t h e t a v e r n amid g l e e , The t w e n t y - t h i r d day o f May.  (114-116)  5 1  5 2  B a t a i l l a r d , L ' H i s t o i r e des P r o c u r e u r s , f r o m an o r d i n a n c e d a t e d 1378. H o e p f f n e r , E u s t a c h e Deschamps, p . 52.  p.  436.  The  extract is  41  In a d d i t i o n , one r e a d s managed t o o b t a i n  i n t h e poem t h a t  the return  the procureur  o f " o u r men" t o t h e " b a i 1 1 i  (72).  T h i s makes i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o n f u s i n g .  a mock  institution,  a mock b a i 1 1 i  Basoche o r g a n i z a t i o n , fairly  late,  bailli?  5  The in  written  or should  I s one d e a l i n g  this  poem a l s o be r e g a r d e d a s  a f t e r Deschamps' a p p o i n t m e n t  t o have been r e a l .  The town o f V i t r y  as w e l l  as that  (55),  to the king" closely  this  5 3  i n a tavern  into their  le clerc  fumeurs  (33),  des Ogier,  "Le Cloart  i s chevaucheur  i n which  people  ( l e P o u r s u i g a n t and  disturbance  company.  poem a r e t h e d e s i g n a t i o n s  Deschamps' two men?  status or  ( 5 3 ) , " o u r fumous c h a n c e l l o r  c o n n e c t e d w i t h Deschamps'  admitted  gives  J e h a n Deschamps, m e s s i r e  One c a n i m a g i n e a s c e n a r i o  Cathon) a r e i n v o l v e d casually  (6-7),  and one "who spoke l o u d l y / And who (35).  was c l o s e t o  o f h i s own m e n : " G e r a r t , m a i s t r e  l e T a p i c i e r , Robinet, Arnault  P o u r s u i g a n t , our e c u y e r "  described  Deschamps  f i g h t i n g , a n d sometimes t h e i r  r e q u e s t e s of our h o s t e l "  Cathon"  as r o y a l  s e t t i n g o f t h i s poem a n d t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s  names o f t h o s e  Arnault  with  du r o y , i n i m i t a t i o n o f a  Deschamps' home ( s e e t h e map i n A p p e n d i x A ) .  position,  au r o y "  3  i t appear  the  general  among  Of what  friends  importance i n  ecuyer and " c h a n c e l l o r " f o r  Can one assume a g a i n  a mock h i e r a r c h y f o r  One o f t h e j o b s o f a b a i l l i w o u l d have been t o h e a r a p p e a l s from s e i g n e u r i a l and v i l l a g e a s s i z e s . This o v e r r i d i n g of j u r i s d i c t i o n may be what i s s a t i r i z e d h e r e . Hoepffner maintains t h a t V i t r y was u n d e r t h e d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y o f t h e k i n g , a n d t h e r e f o r e n o t s u b j e c t t o t h e l o c a l b a i l l i , who i n t h i s poem c l a i m s a j u r i s d i c t i o n that does not e x i s t . H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e poem i s d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w , however. See H o e p f f n e r , E u s t a c h e Deschamps, p . 52.  42  the  order  these the  o f L a Fumee s i m i l a r  appelations  ephemeral, and produced merely  La Commission  Marne  (November  poem: C o m m i s s i o n d'Espargnay. * 5  a claimant rights rival  Des L o u p s D ' E s p a r q n a y S u r L a R i v i e r e De  the compiler  des loups  Nouvellete  tried  poem.  was an i m p o r t a n t  that  (called  with  follows,  o f t e n word-for-word,  s a i s i n e ) from a  t h e enjoyment  included  i t was i n t e n d e d  familiar  a c t i o n i n which  of such  by w h i c h s u c h an a c t i o n was  are deliberately  It i s clear  court  ceulx  o f and r e c l a i m e s t a b l i s h e d  recently obstructed  The many c i r c u m s t a n c e s  deemed a p p r o p r i a t e  c a l l e d the  en c a s de n o u v e l l e t e c o n t r e  and i t s revenues  a l l e g e d t o have 5 5  of the manuscript  t o prove possession  to property  rights.  5  t o round out  4, 1370)  In h i s i n d e x ,  5 5  o r were  fiction?  C'est  the  t o t h a t of the Basochiens,  the court procedures  i n the d e t a i l s of only  f o r people  for this action.  t h e model l e t t e r s  The poem  included  i n the  * Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 1 , p . 62.) P r o p e r t y l a w s u i t s were a t t h i s t i m e a l w a y s t r i e d by t h e Crown j u r i s t s , making c a u s e s o f n o u v e l l e t e p a r t o f Deschamps' experience as a r o y a l judge. The G r a n d C o u t u m i e r , w h i c h d e a l s w i t h n o u v e l l e t e a t g r e a t l e n g t h , makes i t c l e a r t h a t i t was concerned with recent challenges t o property r i g h t s ; d e f i n i n g actions reelles, i t states: E l l e s s o n t s u r n o u v e l t r o u b l e de s a i s i n e ou s u r v i e u l x empeschemens .... E t p o u r c e , nous p a r l e r o n s p r e m f e r e m e n t de c e l l e s q u i s o n t s u r n o u v e l t r o u b l e . L e s aucuns s ' a p p e l l e n t : c a s de n o u v e l l e t e .... E t l e s a u l t r e s : n o u v e l t r o u b l e e t empeschment de s a i s i n e (p.494). See a l s o pp. 231-257, 494-514, 748-756.  43 Grand Coutumier was  f o r c o m m i s s i o n s on  a b l e to produce  rhyming,  witty  acknowledged The Eustace's  such  legally  poem a t t e s t s  in this  nouvellete.  exact w r i t i n g  t o a comic  gift  That  within  that  Deschamps his  i s not  always  poet.  fumeur c o n n e c t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d first  5 6  immediately  with  words:  The emperor o f a l l Fumee Who has fumed on many t h i n g s , Always august i n s t r e n g t h , C o n t i n u i n g t o fume s t r o n g l y ... (1-4) The  letter  officer  i s addressed  Jehan  t o two  du G a r t and  men,  another,  emperor d e s c r i b e s t h e c o m p l a i n a n t s when l o d g i n g t h e i r has  the  s e r g e n t , or  police  G u i l l e m i n de N o g e n t . in this  complaint: c l e a r l y ,  c a s e and  intimidation  The  their  manner  of the  judge  taken p l a c e : At n i g h t , g r i e v o u s l y have c o m p l a i n e d The o l d and young Of t h e f a m i l y o f b r o t h e r L o u v e l [ = w o l f ] , Otherwise c a l l e d Ysangrin, Dame H e r s a n t , and t h e i r k i n , A r o u n d our house des Champs, W i t h c r i e s and a w f u l c h a n t i n g , Y e l l i n g , as i f out o f t h e i r m i n d s , In a h o r r i b l y - c o m p o s e d r a c k e t Of f o u r o r f i v e h u n d r e d v o i c e s t o g e t h e r , W h i c h made our h e a r t t r e m b l e w i t h f e a r .... (8-18)  If  t h e w o l v e s do  that 5 6  they w i l l  not  get  satisfaction  avenge themselves  of the  on h i s own  judge,  they  livestock.  say The  pack  See A p p e n d i x B. The s t a n d a r d c o m m i s s i o n l e t t e r r e p r o d u c e d t h e r e has t h e r u b r i c : A u t r e f o r m e : S a i s i n e e t n o u v e l l e t e de saisine. E t p r e m i e r e m e n t de l a c o m m i s s i o n s u r c e r e q u i s e . See Le G r a n d C o u t u m i e r , p. 497. P o r t i o n s o f Deschamps' poem a r e i n c l u d e d i n the appendix f o r comparison with t h i s standard letter.  44  complains  of v i o l a t i o n  fortress-town it  is  of Epernay,  upon t h e m s e l v e s  predators.  of i t s r i g h t  t o renovate  The s t o r y  legal  the natural  matter  themselves,  whether  i s certainly  from  efforts real  f o r human a g e n c i e s  rapaciousness  have t a k e n  as t h e i r  of townsfolk  to a l l rights  treating  as a  to protect  w o l v e s o r from m e t a p h o r i c a l e x a c t i o n such  ones  as r o u t i e r s ,  landowners.  of the animals  customary  taken  an a c t i o n o f  satirical,  of u n f a i r  seigneurs or other  The  obstruction to saisine to bring  i n the  had r e c e n t l y  i t a n d make i t i m p r e g n a b l e  why t h e w o l v e s w i s h  nouvellete^.  demanding  the townsfolk  T h i s newly-developed  the reason  standing  after  o f a c c e s s and s a i s i n e  i s c o n s i d e r a b l e , and t h e y  right:  cows, g o a t s , ewes, p i g s , H o r s e s , a n d c a r r i e d them o u t s i d e , K i l l e d , e a t e n and devoured Around V i n a y and around C u i s , And a l l a r o u n d t h e f o r t r e s s , I t s l e n g t h and breadth, Taken g e e s e , d u c k s and h e n s In f u l l d a y l i g h t , and g r e a t head Of c a t t l e a n d o t h e r l i v e s t o c k .  (29-37)  The is  wolves'  cleverly  reinforce  case,  brought,  their  acquired  that  through  succession,  since the facts  strong position  terms o f t h e law. possession  or a t least  Eustace's  reporting  of i t ,  included i n the report  as r i g h t f u l  owners under t h e  The G r a n d C o u t u m i e r d e s c r i b e s t h r e e t y p e s o f  qualify  t h e owner f o r s a i s i n e :  possession  occupation, possession acquired  and p o s s e s s i o n a c q u i r e d through  through  the f a c t of  45  tradition.  5 7  The w o l v e s s a t i s f y  qualifications It is  as f a r as the r e p o r t of t h e i r  i s emphasized  as the present  inheritance  clause  complainants, for saisine.  were n e v e r c h a l l e n g e d a s t h e y qualify  for saisine  rights,  prayer,  had had t h e same  5 8  rights  s a t i s f y i n g the  It i s clear  t h a t the wolves  themselves t o food.  through  force,  but p e a c e f u l l y , p u b l i c l y ,  seems t o have been e n j o y e d show.  goes.  one h a d t o have e n j o y e d  b r i b e r y nor t o p r e s s u r e " .  poem w i l l  thus  helped  o w n e r s h i p , a n d " n o t a t a l l ... through  case  i n t h e poem t h a t t h e l i n e a g e o f Y s a n g r i n  i n v o l v e d , and t h a t the p r e d e c e s s o r s  (21)  to  a l l three of these  This very  To  unchallenged  nor s e c r e t l y , nor  and n o t w i t h  recourse  f r e e d o m and o p e n n e s s  by t h e w o l v e s , a s q u o t a t i o n s  from t h e  They h a d :  e n t r y a n d r i g h t s t o goods W i t h i n t h e boundaries and e n c l o s u r e Of E p a r n a y , t h e o l d f o r t i f i e d town Where t h e y have been many t i m e s In v i e w o f e v e r y o n e , o p e n l y , W i t h o u t h a v i n g any impedence T a k e n cows . and o t h e r l i v e s t o c k Freely, with l i t t l e trouble And a l l o t h e r p r e y f o r f r e e . W h i c h t h o s e i n t h e town have known a b o u t •And a l w a y s have known, w i t h o u t m a k i n g o p p o s i t i o n . (23-28, 37-39, 44-45) T h e r e was a minimum t i m e ownership t o q u a l i f y  5 7  5 8 5 9  of a year  for right  a n d a day o f  of s a i s i n e .  5 9  unchallenged  The l e n g t h o f t i m e  Le G r a n d C o u t u m i e r , p . 231. The e n t i r e s e n t e n c e r e a d s : " l i s s o n t t r o i s e s p e c e s de p o s s e s s i o n s s u f f i s a n t a s a i s i n e ; c ' e s t a s s a v o i r : possession acquise par occupation, possession acquise p a r s u c c e s s i o n , p o s s e s s i o n a c q u i s e p a r t r a d i t i o n de f a i t " . See Le G r a n d C o u t u m i e r , p . 231. See Le G r a n d Coutumier", p . 231.  46  in  w h i c h an  strengthen a case  owner had  held  such r i g h t s a l s o appeared  his privilege.  i n the  Grand  For  e x a m p l e , one  reads  to  in a  report  of  Coutumier:  T h i s p o s s e s s i o n and s a i s i n e he had m a i n t a i n e d and c o n t i n u e d t o do so, as much w i t h h i s own p e r s o n as by h i s own p e o p l e and p r e d e c e s s o r s , f o r w h i c h he had r e a s o n , f o r one, two, t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , s i x , t e n , t w e n t y and t h i r t y y e a r s or more and f o r t h e i n t e r v e n i n g and l a t t e r y e a r s , and f o r s u c h a v e r y l o n g t i m e t h a t i t i s s u f f i c i e n t and must s u f f i c e f o r h a v i n g a c q u i r e d good p o s s e s s i o n and s a i s i n e . . . . 6 0  The  very  length  same w o r d i n g  of  time that  Fortunately, of  the  the  i s used  the  i n the  w o l v e s had  poem f o r d e s c r i b i n g  enjoyed  p a s s a g e above g i v e s  poem, i n w h i c h t h e  word  the  "years"  their  true  had  the  rights.  s e n s e of  line  been o m i t t e d  in  49 the  original:  And a l l t h a t i s w r i t t e n a b o v e , The a f o r e m e n t i o n e d possession And t h e s a i s i n e , t h e y h a v e k e p t , D u r i n g one y e a r , two, t h r e e , f o u r , Ten, t w e n t y , w i t h o u t r e s t o r i n g a n y t h i n g , And f o r so l o n g a t i m e t h a t , t r u l y , T h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f i t b e i n g o t h e r w i s e . (46-52) The within  the  dogs had wolves  6 o  commission last  the  action  all  complaints  Le  y e a r , and  enjoyed  (65-67, of  reports  the  that  meat t h a t  110-113). nouvellete had  that  t o be  G r a n d C o u t u m i e r , p.  This  since  501.  i m p e d i m e n t s had that  ordinarily i s again  outlined of  the  i n the  "recent  time, the  been  built  butchers'  would have gone t o  p r e c i s e l y in accord Grand Coutumier,  trouble",  and  brought  the with  since within  47  a year  of the problem o c c u r r i n g . It  strong the  i s clear  case  that  the beleaguered  of t h e i r  rights.  nouvellete', the judge then  anything for  else,  they  following prescribed  this  this,  restoration:  have t o make r e s t i t u t i o n  t h a t h a d been l o s t ,  t o occur  Anticipating  As i n t h e s t a n d a r d  at the s i t e  and t h e n  wolf-pack  request  a court  of the c h a l l e n g e d  an a b s u r d l y  by t h e j u d g e ,  this  before  t o the  property.  t h e j u d g e o r d e r s an a r b i t r a t i o n  day, g i v i n g  l e t t e r s on  o u t l i n e s what must happen s h o u l d t h e  dogs c h o o s e t o a p p e a l  the p r o f i t s  hearing,  judge has s e t out a v e r y  f o r t h e w o l v e s , and on t h e s t r e n g t h o f i t , he o r d e r s  restoration  butchers'  6 1  f o r the  short p e r i o d of n o t i c e .  challenge  i s certain  As  t o be  violent:  G i v e them t h e i r c o u r t a s s i z e s tomorrow, That i s t o s a y , t o t h e s a i d dogs, To H e r s a n t a n d Y s a n g r i n , Before Baussant the boar,* To d e s t r o y o r k i l l them Between Sommesous a n d T r e c o n ; And l e t t h e r e be no k n i f e n o r s t i c k , Save f o r t h e i r h i d e a n d t h e i r t e e t h , F o r l a s h i n g o u t on e v e r y s i d e . . . . (164-172) * I n t h e Roman de R e n a r t , whence come t h e p r o p e r names " H e r s a n t " , " Y s a n g r i n " and " B a u s s a n t " , t h e b o a r was t r a d i t i o n a l l y an i n t e r m e d i a r y i n c i v i l c a s e s and d i s p u t e s . We have a l r e a d y been t o l d had  never dared  fortification  6 1  i n t h e poem, however, t h a t t h e dogs  to confront  the wolves b e f o r e  o f t h e town had o c c u r r e d  (61-64,  the r e 107-113), a n d i t  See L e G r a n d C o u t u m i e r , p . 238: "Item en c e c a s de n o u v e l l e t e ' on s e d o i t c o m p l a i n d r e d e d a n s l ' a n " .  48  may  be  that  t h e y would not d a r e  either.  I t c o u l d be  medieval  law,  else in  just  t o appear  what t h e  both p a r t i e s  had  t o be  t h e c h a l l e n g e r would l o s e  provide  expert understanding further  insight  into  m a g i s t r a t e ' s power t h a t elementary aspects, this  i t is still  describing context.  the absurd Such e f f o r t  the case  being  French  law  that  decided  louche d i r e c t i o n  of a  poem.  With  the poet  only  p r e j u d i c e d case  c o u l d not  an  legal  d i d not waste l i n e s  c o n t r i b u t e s t o Deschamps' p u r p o s e  and  or  might  o f some o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y  clear  work: e v e r y d e t a i l  hopes f o r , s i n c e i n .  i s described in this  understanding  occasion  6 2  of m e d i e v a l the  this  present at a lawsuit,  h i s cause,  f a v o u r of the p a r t y a p p e a r i n g . An  judge  on  in i t s proper  in  of  legal  have been made f o r t h e  uninitiated. Also setting. close  of The  range  t h e emperor  interest  i n t h e poem i s t h e  place-names t h a t  local  are mentioned  are a l l within  o f Deschamps' home town o f V e r t u s . refers  t o h i s own  o u t s i d e V e r t u s , as w e l l a s Sommesous, T r e c o n , addition,  he  audience,  s i n c e he  h o u s e , des  to Epernay,  n a t u r e of i t s  In t h e poem,  6 3  Champs  (13),  Vinay, Cuis,  just  ChSlons,  S a i n t - L a d r e , M a r d e u i l and M a r u e l l e s .  seems t o assume a knowledge o f l o c a l also  refers  In  matters  by name t o f a r m - t e n a n t s  of  in his the  area:  6 2  6 3  See Le G r a n d C o u t u m i e r , p. 783. " E t s i l e demandeur se l a i s s e m e t t r e en d e f f a u l t a u d i t j o u r , i l p e r t s a c a u s e . " See t h e map i n A p p e n d i x A . T h i s map, o f t h e Champagne a r e a , has marked on i t t h e numerous p l a c e s m e n t i o n e d b o t h i n t h i s poem and i n o t h e r fumeur and r e l a t e d w o r k s .  49  We, t o t h e s a i d w o l v e s , g i v e l e a v e From now on a n d f o r e v e r , T h a t e v e r y w h e r e , f r o m now o n , Where t h e y m i g h t f i n d a n i m a l s O u t s i d e t h e f o r t r e s s , t o d e v o u r them, And t h a t t h e y l i e i n w a i t To t a k e them by s u r p r i s e , i n f a c t , Be i t t o w a r d S a i n t L a d r e o r t o w a r d M a r d e u i l , T a k i n g from c l o s e by J e h a n de M a r e u i l , And t h e cows o f J e h a n d e s R u e l l e s . (184-194) Like  t h e poem on t h e t a v e r n - f i g h t  well-known  setting,  enough t o s u g g e s t jurisdiction. prompted  another  although the area  a particular  area  One c a n o n l y wonder  the poet  The  at Vertus, this referred  of c i v i l  to i s large  and l e g a l  i f some l o c a l  t o w r i t e of the region i n t h i s  work ends w i t h a l a s t  pun on s t u p i d i t y ,  one h a s a  i n j u s t i c e had way.  r e f e r e n c e t o l a Fumee, a n d  head-colds  and b r a i n - f r e e z i n g :  G i v e n a t l e s Champs, o u r d o m i c i l e , Where a l l t h e winds a r e a t t h e i r b e s t , By t h e f i r e i n o u r c o l d chamber, The f o u r t h day o f November I n t h e y e a r one t h o u s a n d t h r e e h u n d r e d a n d s e v e n t y , [We] who were s t i f f e n e d w i t h t h e c o l d From w r i t i n g t h i s fumee Which h a s s t u f f e d up o u r h e a d . (203-210) Information summarized  about  i n table  i n common a r e t h e i r legal  these  four  1 ( s e e p . 5 0 ) . The a s p e c t s t h a t tone  of j u d i c i a l  knowledge b e i n g e s p e c i a l l y  loups d'Espargnay.  parody,  marked  atmosphere of easy  But  disturbingly,  camaraderie  names o c c u r r i n g  have of  i n t h e Commission des  a r e a l s o common i n one poem n e v e r  and the p l a c e of d i c t a t i o n  they  the assumption  I n t h r e e o f t h e poems, t h e l o c a l  and  another,  fumeur poems h a s been  varies.  settings  elements. reappear i n  50  TITLE OF POEM  La c h a r t r e des fumeux.  D'une a u l t r e commission d'un chien.  Cy parle d'une sentence donnee contre aucuns de V i t r y pour un debat raeu soudainement entr'eulx.  C'est l a commission des loups d'iispargnay sur l a r i v i e r e de Hame.  PLACE-NAMES  DATE  PLACE OF DICTATION  "donnee en nostre chambre"  (249)  "Donnee soubz nostre seel a Fymes" (89)  "Donnee en l a taverne, en g l a y " (115)  "Donne" aux Champs, nostre maison/ ... Au f e u de nostre f r o i d e chambre"  SUMMARY OF POEM  PERSONS' NAMES  The emperor of the fumeurs describes the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of h i s subjects, to allow h i s lawyers t o prepare a defense f o r some who are i n l e g a l trouble. The emperor announces a plenary session of h i s court, and then fulminates against the fumosite' of h i s c o u r t i e r s , the cause of t h e i r s t u p i d i t y . He passes a law against hatr a i s i n g i n winter t o prevent the f r e e z i n g of t h e i r brains.  Dec. 9, 1368. " l e t i e r s an de nostre empire"  (253)  [no date]  Fismes  May 23, fno year] .  Nov.  Vitry  4, 1370.  (203-205)  .--The f u m e u r  legal  (89)  (title)  River Marne ( t i t l e ) Epemay (25) Vinay (32) Cuis (32) Chalons-sur Marne (93) " l a porte de Jehan Lucas" (95J Sommesous (169) Trecon (169) Saint-Ladre (191) fcardeuil (191) l e s Champs (203)  Robin l e Queux ( l ) Regnault, nostre hostes Rochet (secretary, 90)  The emperor describes the crime of a dog that s t o l e ten pieces of meat from a c e l l a r and then messed on those men sleeping there. He sentences the dog to a v a r i e t y of beatings, and threatens those who neglect to carry out the sentence with a number of punishments of t h e i r owns being shorn, being beaten, and being banished.  (52)  Maistre Gerart/ Des requestes de nostre hostel (6-7) Jehan Deschamps (8) Messire Ogier (23) Arnault l e T a p i c i e r (24) Robinet (33) l e c l e r c Arnault (33) un a u l t r e qui p a r l o i t h a u l t / et q u i est chevaucheur du Boy (34-35) Le Poursuigant, nostre e s c u i e r (53) Nostre fumeux c h a n c e l l i e r , / C l o a r t Cathon (55)  Jehan du Gart, nostre sergent Guillemin de Nogent (6) Thibault de Premierfalt (69) Jehan de Maruel (192) Jehan des Ruelles (193)  p a r o d i e s : a summary o f t h e i r  contents.  (5)  The emperor describes s e v e r a l f i g h t s that break out among i n e b r i a t e d d r i n k i n g companions, h i s success a t removing them from the power of the presiding b a i l i f f , due t o h i s s u p e r i o r i t y as emperor of the fumeurs, and h i s subsequent judgement and sentencing of the charged men. Being too drunk t o remember t h e i r actions, they have not nursed grudges, which I s i n accordance with fumeur mores. The sentence i s t o drink together i n amity.  A parody of a l e g a l l e t t e r f o r the Commission on n o u v e l l e t e . The emperor "de toute fumee" uses l e g i t i m a t e arguments t o p r o t e c t the p r i v i l e g e s of depradation of l o c a l wolves. Under the threat o f t h e i r violence, the emperor makes sure that h i s r u l i n g s w i l l placate the angered wolves f o r t h e i r s o - c a l l e d v i o l a t e d p r i v i l e g e s .  51  Two poems.  possible  The  first  c o l l e a g u e s who  c o n t e x t s can i s that  had  the  the Basochiens,  administrators  or  fumeurs were a l o c a l  and  who  jurists.  i n an  poems.  alternative  of  l a Fumee by  t h e permanent on  h i s round  virtue  of t h e  been p r i v y  of a s s i z e s .  direct  this  social  we  S u c h a permanent  have s e e n ,  group t o enjoy  further and  poems t h a t  illustrate  other groups.  the p o e t ' s  the C h a r t r e des  accompanied  of  him  local,  f o r the  topical have  i t s judge-  or c a s e s p o s s i b l y an  penchant  Some of t h e s e a p p e a r  The  'Fumeur' Works. with  the  for i n i t i a t i n g to a n t i c i p a t e For  fumeurs 'orders' or  echo  example,  en Campagne i s a t r u e  i n Deschamps' home town  in  time  entertainment.  fumeur poems.  bons e n f a n t s de V e r t u s  satirized  impetus a t t h i s  connected  d r i n k e r ' s c h a r t e r w r i t t e n f o r people  the the head  r e t i n u e would  such p o e t i c  m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d i n the  as  for references, either  t h e r e was  a r e not  that  h i s f u m e u r s were  f o r the  frustrations  Poems By Deschamps R e l a t e d In S u b j e c t To Several  some of  s e r g e n t s who  t h i s might a l s o account  As  and  o f t h e s e poems, and  events  while  either  Deschamps was  T h i s would a c c o u n t  or o b l i q u e , t o r e a l  t h e s e poems. for  subjects.  and  t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e and  e m p l o y e r , and  i s that  of h i s b e i n g a j u d g e ,  r e t i n u e of c l e r k s  youth,  f o r the  i n the d a t i n g of  hypothesis  although varying settings nature  group of  held positions  T h i s would account  of a number of y e a r s  these  o r g a n i z a t i o n resembling  subsequently  difference An  hypothesized concerning  come t o g e t h e r d u r i n g t h e p o e t ' s  t h e y were s t u d e n t s o r c l e r k s , of  be  52  ( s e e t h e map folly  that  excessive notching  6  are c u l t i v a t e d imbibing without  up  innkeepers, conducted  i n Appendix A ) . *  of c r e d i t equal  i n the  fumeur poem c a n tavern-goers,  be  through any  immoderate d r i n k i n g ,  balanced  living  among d r i n k e r s ,  of d i c e - p l a y i n g .  seen  regime,  One  and  (frequenters),  the e v i d e n c e  advising the  to  'business'  resemblance  i n the poet's a d v i s e d d a i l y  or Frequentans  This advice r e c a l l s  the a s p e c t s of  at taverns, abusive behaviour  spending form  I t c o n c e n t r a t e s on  regime  a s he c a l l s  g i v e n f o r the  to a  fight  at  for  them.  6 5  Vitry:  F i r s t l y , as soon as one g e t s o u t o f bed i n t h e One s h o u l d go t o r e f r e s h o n e ' s mouth [ m o r n i n g W i t h t h e b e s t and d e a r e s t wine, From t h e m o r n i n g u n t i l g o i n g t o bed, Without t a k i n g leave very o f t e n And w i t h o u t h a v i n g , b e f o r e h a n d , made Any a r r a n g e m e n t f o r e a t i n g , E x c e p t t h a t o f p u t t i n g wine i n t h e s t o m a c h , From w h i c h t h e b r a i n i s enfum^, And many a r e heady, So much so t h a t t h e y c a n n o t say a word, Save f o r r a i l i n g , m o c k i n g o r l a u g h i n g . (16-28) Again are  6 4  6 5  in anticipation  urged  t o end  of the V i t r y  poem, t h o s e who  them w i t h d r i n k s o f  start  fights  friendship:  Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 7 , pp. 323-331. T h i s poem, a s w e l l a s most o f t h o s e now u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the C h a r t r e s et Commissions. Two a r e f o u n d i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t i n the s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s t h i s , r u b r i c a t e d L e t t r e s . The t e r m f r e q u e n t e r i s p o s s i b l y u s e d i r o n i c a l l y h e r e , s i n c e i t i s o f t e n found i n o f f i c i a l documents. F o r example, t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e C o n f r e r i e de S t . N i c h o l a s begins: "C'est l ' o r d e n a n c e de l a c o n f r a r i e c[ue l e s c o m p a i g n o n s c l e r c , e t a u t r e s p r o c u r e u r s e t e s c r i p v a i n s f r e q u e n t a n t l e P a l a i s e t l a C o u r t du Roy ..."; a n o t h e r example, d a t e d 1364, r e a d s : "Nous v o u l o n s e t commandons ... que t o u s l e s a d v o c a s e t p r o c u r e u r s f r e q u a n t a n s et q u i f r e q u e n t e r o n t l e s i e g e d e s d i t e s Requestes See B a t a i l l a r d , L ' H i s t o i r e des P r o c u r e u r s , pp. 422, 432.  53  If the Frequenters q u a r r e l amongst themselves, Have words, r i o t , or combat each other, The bad f e e l i n g should not l a s t For as long as one can begin to swear, "By God's f l e s h , l e t ' s go and d r i n k ! " Then one of them should take the g l a s s And g i v e i t t o the other i n peace, And they should not speak of i t any more. (205-212) F i n a l l y , one d i s c o v e r s that the persona  i n t h i s work i s prone to  the same exaggeration as i s Jehan Fumee. s e v e r a l that Deschamps  H i s name i s one of  adopted:  The s o v e r e i g n of the Frequenters Who has used up a hundred years of h i s l i f e In f o l l o w i n g the tavern-round at V e r t u s , Well-governed and badly dressed, To a l l the e n f a n t s of the town Who are able at f r e q u e n t i n g , In the present and f u t u r e . (1-7)  Thus the same s p i r i t observed through t h i s work.  The  i n the fumeur poems a l s o  same can be s a i d of the poem w r i t t e n by  Deschamps as the maitre de G i l l e b e r t i n e , sounding  66  with i t s f a m i l i a r -  opening: A noz G i l b e r t i n s , frequentans A Crespy passe a cent ans. (1-2)  and e q u a l l y f a m i l i a r complaint of f r e e z i n g and ...de l i q u e u r nus, Buche v e r t sanz famble, qui fume, Et f r o i d e chambre q u i enreume ... (8-10.)  6 6  runs  Raynaud, Oeuvres C o m p l e t e s ,  v.8, p. 50-66.  cold:  54  Addressing  d r i n k i n g f r i e n d s at C r e p y - e n - V a l o i s ,  complained  in this  poem a b o u t h i s p r e s e n t  l a c k o f c o n v i v i a l company and drinkers  i s m e n t i o n e d as  poem, w h i l e Eloquence,  there are  two  bourdeurs - a contest best  wins the  crown.  Clearly,  6 8  p u y s of  the  subject-matter exclusively allows  s e t up  time.  Dnlike  of Deschamps'  chivalric.  The  f o r a wide a s s o r t m e n t  includes  two  concerning detailed  examples,  blackened  Finally,  f o r those there  i s one  f o r m f o r c o m m i s s i o n s on reads:  Of  prevosts  7 8  9  longer of  have t o c e r t a i n  do  i s a group s i m i l a r  of these  tales  of not  of  i n 1400,  gifts  two  Chartre,  de the to  and  however,  local  the  to  the being  bourdeur  saints'  poems and  miracles  i t includes a  t h e g r o u p and  a description  appear at  meeting.  poem t h a t a g a i n  that  Haulte  i n which  t o p i c s f o r t h e members,  nouvellete.  some p r i v i l e g e s  P r i n c e de  poets  latter,  L i k e the  who  and  C h a r l e s VI  the  enumeration of o f f i c e r s  of p u n i s h m e n t s  in another  r h e t o r i c i a n s i s f a r from  strange  fish.  this  by  the  6 7  group of  members t o a P a r l e m e n t  for s t o r y t e l l e r s  Cour amoureuse t h a t was other  call  A similar  l a Baboue,  works, penned by  t h a t e s t a b l i s h and  poet  residence, with i t s  surroundings.  the O r d r e de  the  the  f o l l o w s the  Its rubric,  the c l e r c s o f wine,  in English,  of c e r t a i n  fowl  and  legal  bai11is  fruit  and  made t o  Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v o l . 5 , pp. 134-135. Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 7 , pp. 347-360: D'un beau d i t de c e u l s q u i c o n t r e u v e n t n o u v e l l e s b o u r d e s e t mensonges (Of a f i n e d i t a b o u t t h o s e who i n v e n t new f u n n y t a l e s and t a l l s t o r i e s ) , O c t o b e r 16 and 17, 1400; pp. 361-362: C o n v o c a t i o n d'un p a r l e m e n t burlesque. T h i s work b e a r s t h e s i g n a t u r e " J . S o h i e r " . Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 8 , pp.3-11. De a u c u n s p r e v i l l e g e s que l e s c l e r c s d ' a u c u n s ba i 1 1 i s e t p r e s v o s t s o n t s u r a u c u n s dons de v i n s , v o l i l l e s e t f r u i z f a i z a l e u r s m a i s t r e s .  55  their  masters.  assistants,  I t describes  69  servants,  the complaints  (43-45) i n t h e b a i l l i a g e  Thierry,  S a i n t e - M e n e h o u l d , and P a s s a v a n t .  a  'legal'  local  is  that  of  gifts  the  ( s e e t h e map  of food,  their  century,  would  own c a u s e ,  bailli  day  of the a s s i z e s .  expressed December Senlis,  t o one g i f t  that  from t h e g i f t s .  Deschamps was r e a l l y  against  Nostalgia  a municipal  order  could  retinue.  suggest  f o r a past  bounty  rather  the b a i l l i a g e  that  the piece  a t a f e s t i v e time, of g i f t s Since  only  the poet a l s o to stint  states  presents  on t h e f i r s t  poem,  of V i t r y  and n o t  was a p r e l u d e  f r o m Deschamps that  to  iscertainly  to the to h i s  " M a i l l e f e r of  on h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s  O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 1 1 , p p . 85, 74.  pleading  o f J u l y 19,  but t h e date of the p r e s e n t  24, a n d t h e l o c a l i t y ,  F i s m e s " was t h e f i r s t  7 0  and i t s means o f t r a n s p o r t .  o f wine t o be p r e s e n t e d  by t h e w r i t e r ,  presentation, legal  7 0  A  several  from t h e town o f S e n l i s , w h i c h had r e s t r i c t e d  the  share  to give  "epices".  with h i s earnings  clerks also benefited  in protest  accustomed  t h e end o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h  f o r h i s work, a r e t i n u e  Raynaud h a s s u g g e s t e d  The c o m p l a i n t  I t was n o r m a l , i n  of f o o d s t u f f s o r wine, c a l l e d  seem t h a t  a u d i e n c e , and  not a t a l l as b r i b e r y ,  and he h a d t o m a i n t a i n  residences  Chateau-  i s , therefore,  i n Appendix A ) .  j u d g e ' s wage was n o t f i x e d u n t i l  1394,  This  r i g h t s of s a i s i n e .  middle ages, and c o n s i d e r e d  his  a t Fismes,  the a s s i s t a n t s a r e not r e c e i v i n g t h e i r  judges presents  It  of V i t r y ,  poem w h i c h does seem t o have a ' l e g a l '  one a t t h a t  people,  s c r i b e s , c l e r k s and p u r s u e r s o f t h e  assizes"  one  of " o f f i c e  (117),  i t  is  56  clear  t h a t we h a v e , o n c e more, a s e t t i n g  district.  F o r t h e poem t o work a s a p a r o d y  falling-off  of g i f t s  previous year. put  i n the poet's  forward  of nouvellete", the  w o u l d have h a d t o have been w i t h i n t h e  Again,  t h i s does not agree  by Raynaud c o n c e r n i n g  with the suggestion  the motive behind  Raynaud's d a t i n g of t h i s  poem a t 1398, i s d e p e n d e n t  punctuation  line.  de  of the f i n a l  d e c e m b r e / L'an m i l . I I I c .  apres mainnuit" ten".  (238-240).  Were one t o r e a d ,  after  midnight"  period  home  t h e poem. upon h i s  The poem e n d s " . X X I I I I e .  jours  .1111 x x . h u i t / D i x a d j o u s t e z , Raynaud r e a d s  this  a s "1388, a d d  i n s t e a d , "1388, a d d t e n  [minutes?]  t h e d a t i n g o f t h e poem would c o n f o r m w i t h t h e  o f Deschamps' g o v e r n o r s h i p  of Fismes;  i t would a l s o  been w r i t t e n a y e a r  before  1389,  he w o u l d have g i v e n up h i s o l d b a i l l i a q e i n  a t which time  the V i t r y  area.  ten years  earlier  last  legal  T h i s suggests  date  "emperor" chief  than  w h i c h was i n  t h a t t h e poem was r e a l l y  Raynaud e s t i m a t e d ,  and t h a t  written  i t was t h e  p a r o d y w r i t t e n by Deschamps b e f o r e he moved on t o h i s  l e s s pleasant post latest  he was b a i 1 1 i a t S e n l i s ,  have  at Senlis.  for this  type  I t i s possible that  of parody.  i n t h i s poem, he s t i l l  legal  Although  1388 was t h e  n o t any k i n d o f  assumed i n i t t h e c o m i c  role of  p r o t e c t o r , as  Le c o n s e r v a t e u r g e n e r a l En commun e t e s p e c i a l Des p r e v i l e g e s e t u s a g e s Des b a i l l i s , l i e u t e n a n s e t s a g e s Freguantans s i e g e s et a s s i z e s . (1-5)  issuing  orders  The  t h a t remedy t h e f a l l i n g - o f f  language and r e v e a l e d i n t e n t i o n  of g i f t s . i n a l l of these  poems  57  again  recalls  the a c t i v i t i e s  of the b u r l e s q u e  names o f t h e v a r i o u s l e a d e r s s u g g e s t Eloquence, Les  1 ' O r d r e de  Gilbertins,  dignitaries  so  out  l e P r i n c e de  l a Baboue, l e S o u v e r a i n des  Fumeurs, and familiar  b e i n g mentioned  this:  t h e e n f a n t s and  in fifteenth-century  i n t h e s e works.  Arden's a s s e r t i o n  that  such groups  members' names a r e m e n t i o n e d do  they  h a v e so f a r been the  legal  identified,  profession,  or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e especially parody, overt  M u s i c i a n s And Can anything  Codex? should  7 1  7 2  seem t o i n the  Of  drinking  those  new  c o n c e r n i n g the  charter  and  in  suspect the  that  in  secretarial  the second n o u v e l l e t e ^ i f not  by  spirit.  Patrons  And  'Fumeur' t h e l o n g e r fumeur works identity  wherever the  intervention  See f n . 16. See Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , noms p r o p r e s " .  suggest  o f t h e members?  p a r o d i e s t i e i n with the m u s i c a l It i s clear  that  These poems,  7 2  Between F o u r t e e n t h - C e n t u r y  i n f o r m a t i o n from  but  a s m a l l number were c e r t a i n l y  w h i l e o t h e r s were employed  Deschamps The  bear  f o r a number of  poem t o t h e n e x t .  c o n n e c t i o n , t h e n by a common  Connections  mock  theatre are already  of t h e s e works,  p o s t s f o r the n o b i l i t y .  the V i r t u s  Haulte  and  c o n f i r m the p r o b a b l e e x i s t e n c e o f the fumeurs,  Possible  legal  in several  r e c u r from one  bourdeurs  were f o r m i n g 7 1  The  Frequentans,  T h e s e poems a l o n e  fourteenth century, although s p o r a d i c a l l y ,  rarely  societies.  items  these  Chantilly  fumeurs a r e mentioned,  o f Deschamps.  v.10,  i n the  Can  It i s a  fact  pp.157-241, "Index  one that  des  58  Deschamps written said  i s represented  on t h e d e a t h  F.Andrieu poet  being the  of Guillaume  Codex by two poems  de Machaut  ( o f whom he was  t o have been a nephew, a n d who was c e r t a i n l y  some k i n d ) .  the  i n the C h a n t i l l y  T h e s e poems were s e t a s a d o u b l e  (no. 8 4 ) .  Interestingly,  i n the manuscript,  other  unascribed  fumeur c h a n s o n s .  which  there  raises  a mentor o f  b a l l a d e by  i s no a s c r i p t i o n t o the question  p i e c e s a l s o by Deschamps, p o s s i b l y even Given  t h e c o i n c i d e n c e o f t h e two fumeur  p i e c e s a n d Deschamps' works i n t h e same c o l l e c t i o n , a u s e f u l s t e p t o examine t h e p o l i t i c a l the  light  of the poet's  own p o l i t i c a l  b a l l a d e s of C h a n t i l l y i n career.  would  musicians  o f Deschamps, a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n  those  in  the Chantilly  a t important Codex.  events  o f known  This  of the patrons  common p r e s e n c e  fourteenth-century of t h e i r  c e l e b r a t e d i n poem a n d song  Such a s t u d y  would n o t be e a s y ,  the  scarcity  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on most c o m p o s e r s o f t h i s  and  the very  busy c a r e e r o f t h e p o e t .  him  a l l over  E u r o p e , a n d he a p p e a r s t o have been p r e s e n t  of  t h e important  events  that occurred  There a r e , t h e r e f o r e , three a s s o c i a t e Deschamps.  should  add those  given  period,  Deschamps' c a r e e r  took a t many  a t t h e end of t h e c e n t u r y .  known c o m p o s e r s w i t h  T o t h e names H a s p r o i s ,  whose music c a n i n some way be c o n n e c t e d  7 3  i t would be  i n v o l v e a comparison with  of there  with  o f two m i n s t r e l s , P l a t i a u  Solage this  whom t o  and Andrieu, p o e t , one  a n d J a c o t de N o y o n .  7 3  I n t h e C h a n t i l l y Codex, t h e c o m p o s e r , T r e b o r , i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i s own b a l l a d e r e f r a i n t h e f i r s t l i n e o f t e x t a n d m u s i c f o u n d i n t h e A n d r i e u / D e s c h a m p s d o u b l e b a l l a d e ; s e e En s e m e u i l l a n t m ' a v i n t une v e s i o n , no.20. Trebor's acquaintance with Deschamps' works n e e d n o t have been i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r b o r r o w i n g , however.  59  The  connection with P l a t i a u  i s found  Deschamps' p e n , by t h e young p r i n c e , Brought  up a t t h e F r e n c h  behaviour,  this  i n Normandy,  acting  i n 1379, a n d s e n t To d i s t r a c t  ill  7  good  during a battle under  Deschamps,  and p r o b a b l y m a i t r e d ' h S t e l ,  to six-year-old  d e s c r i b e s the p r i n c e ' s tedium  c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y wry s t a t e  under  Navarre. "  to recover  him i n h i s e n n u i ,  h e l p e d him t o w r i t e t h e l e t t e r letter  de  written,  forh i s father's  was t a k e n  to Paris,  as s e c r e t a r y , e n t e r t a i n e r  The  Pierre  c o u r t as hostage  thirteen-year-old  Deschamps' c a r e .  in a letter  Louis  d'Orleans.  and t h e  of h i s s e c r e t a r y :  A p r e s s a c h i e z q u ' a ma venue A E u s t a c e s l y enfumez Eu l a toux e t s ' e s t enrumez, Qu'a p a i n e s p u e t i l d i r e mot: J e boy a u v o i r r e e t i l a u p o t . (80-84) Know t h a t s i n c e my a r r i v a l E u s t a c e , t h e enfume^ Has had a c o u g h a n d i s s t u f f e d up w i t h a c o l d So t h a t he c a n h a r d l y s a y a word. I d r i n k from t h e g l a s s , a n d he f r o m t h e p o t . It  would be j u s t  cold,  like  the chief  o r t o u s e i t a s an e x c u s e  young c h a r g e !  o f fumeurs t o have c a u g h t t o d r i n k twice as deeply  One s h o u l d a s k , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s  a as h i s  passage,  how w e l l - k n o w n Deschamps' n i c k n a m e , 1'enfume, h a d become, f o r the p r i n c e t o understand this  name t r a v e l Also  relieving  7  "  the joke behind  with t h e poet  residing  at this  throughout  hotel  i t in this  poem. D i d  his life?  was a m u s i c i a n ,  t h e p r i n c e ' s boredom:  Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 8 , p p . 33-37.  important i n  60  Ne j e n'y ay p h i s i c i e n Fors P l a t i a u l e musicien, Qui jeue, quant j e l ' e n r e q u i e r , De l a h a r p e e t de 1 ' e s c h i q u i e r . (43-46) Nor have I s e e n any d o c t o r t h e r e Except f o r P l a t i a u , the musician, Who, when I a s k , p l a y s The h a r p and t h e e s c h i q u i e r . 7 5  We  know, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t  the musician  Platiau,  at least,  could  have been aware o f Deschamps a s " t h e enfumed o n e " . In on  the C h a n t i l l y  t h e page c o n t a i n i n g t h e b a l l a d e P u i s q u e  ascription composuit minstrel  i s signed dictum.  with  Duke o f A n j o u , The  school  subitlior  7 6  7 7  i s found  j e s u i s fumeux.  listing  There are four  The f i r s t  records  comes from a c c o u n t s  The  refer  t o him as a m u s i c i a n  of the  J a c o m i de S e n l e c h e s ,  three  the very  composer, a n d i n 1379 he was a g a i n Jacomi.  is listed  7 7  Finally,  f o r the year  7 6  i n t h e employ o f  i n 1378, he r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n  to the escoles with  of a  h i m i n 1374 a s a m i n s t r e l o f t h e d u k e .  of m i n s t r e l s y a t Bruges, with  book a payment  7 5  name.  John of Aragon;  them p r o b a b l y  go  this  to Hasprois  by one J a . de Noyon: " J o Simon de h a s p r e  J a . de Noyon."  second and t h i r d  King the  Codex, an a s c r i p t i o n  to attend  others,  one o f  advanced a r s given  permission to  i n an I t a l i a n  1383, t o J a c o t o  account  de Noyono,  The young p r i n c e a l s o d e c l a r e s t h a t he i s "Not t h a t s i c k i n my f i n g e r n a i l s / Not t o have l e a r n e d t o p l a y / On t h e e s c h i q u i e r and t h e f l a g e o l e t / And when I come t o s e e him [ h i s u n c l e ] / I w i l l be r e g a r d e d a s a good m i n s t r e l " ( 1 0 2 - 1 0 6 ) . See U r s u l a G i i n t h e r , " Z u r b i o g r a p h i e e i n i g e r K o m p o n i s t e n d e r A r s s u b t i l i o r " , Archiv f u r Musikwissenschaft 21(1964):172-199. See W i l k i n s , "The p o s t - M a c h a u t g e n e r a t i o n " , p . 5 9 .  61  r o t e and  vielle  p l a y e r of the Count  the Count of V i r t u s had  received  France,  was  the t i t l e  daughter  the I t a l i a n , i n 1360,  of K i n g Jean  II.  Raynaud drew a t t e n t i o n  Deschamps made t o I t a l y marriage, There  and  in this  to the poet's  i s , therefore,  at  who  some p o i n t  concerning minstrel, with  the  was  fumeur b a l l a d e .  When t h e c o u n t y Deschamps was  France  8  0  letter,  and  and  the who,  to Hasprois this  familiar  i n a number o f p l a c e s ! back t o F r e n c h  o f t h e new  V a l e n t i n e , brought  a t s i x y e a r s o l d , had  8 0  1360's, and  c o u l d have been  reverted  service  of  the  t h e movements o f  when she m a r r i e d L o u i s d'Orle'ans,  Navarre's  7 9  of V e r t u s  i n the  daughter,  same L o u i s who,  7 8  still  composers  of  the  Isabelle.  years l a t e r  ascription  he  who  that  c o n n e c t i o n between  Given  i t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t  visit  t h e r e under  c o u r t i n the  made an  to Isabelle  t h e o c c a s i o n of  recorded there thirteen  in h i s l i f e ,  time,  made j u r e ' t o t h e Count  y e a r , on  a v e r y tenuous  t h e works o f p o e t s and  Galeazzo's  was  service  this  the very year i n  to a possible  j u v e n i l e Deschamps a t G a l e a z z o ' s minstrel,  T h i s was  7 9  At  7 8  Gian Galeazzo V i s c o n t i ,  on h i s m a r r i a g e  w h i c h Deschamps, a V e r t u s n a t i v e , Vertus.  of V e r t u s .  count:  hands,  Gian  back t h e c o u n t s h i p t o i n 1387.  received  whom Deschamps l a t e r  T h i s was  Pierre  the  de  s e r v e d i n a number o f  See F i l i p p o S a r a c e n o , R e q e s t o d e i P r i n c i p i de C a s a d ' A c a j a , ( 1295-1418). T r a t t o d a i c o n t i de t e s o r e r l a " ( T o r i n o : P a r a v i a , 1881), p. 169. " I a c o t o de Noyono, m e n e s t r e r i o de r u t a e t v i o l a , d o m i n i c o m i t i s V i r t u t u m ... c u i d a m i u u a n t i de t r i p e t i n camera D o m i n i , c a s t r i V i g o n i , p r e s e n t e Domina e t Domino Aymone de Sabaudia et p l u r i b u s a l i i s " . See E . R . C h a m b e r l a i n , The Count o f V i r t u e : G i a n g a l e a z z o V i s c o n t i , Duke o f M i l a n ( L o n d o n : E y r e and S p o t t i s w o o d e , 1965.), p. 31 . Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v . 1 1 , p. 12, v . 2 , p. 86. In a s u p p l i c a t i o n t o K i n g C h a r l e s V I , E u s t a c e d e c l a r e d t h a t he s e r v e d " v o t r e t a n t e en L o m b a r d i e a u s s i " .  62  offices. mistress both  At  8 1  her  by d o u b l e  L o u i s .and  political  right.  The  poet  w r o t e a number of works f o r  V a l e n t i n e , championing  troubles.  collection Louis  m a r r i a g e t o L o u i s , V a l e n t i n e became Deschamps'  Included  his  gambling  and  when t r a v e l l i n g  p a r t i e s and  involvement  with  with  provide  Italy,  concerning  interest  on  latter  during  in Louis d'Orleans'  of b a l l a d e s by D e s c h a m p s .  a l s o t o o k an  the  Account  8 2  in hearing  other  library  musicians  8 3  L o u i s ' h o u s e h o l d , and some argument  t h e c o u n t s of V e r t u s ,  was  a  books show t h a t play,  r e v e l s held at h i s  royal business.  her  during  residences,  Deschamps'  close  h i s probable  connection  f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g documents both  in Italy  and  later  in  France.  Deschamps' B a l l a d e And  The  Two  813:'Je Doy  'Fumeur' Poems Of  Deschamps w r o t e one the  fumeur c h a n s o n s  more p e r s o n a l the poet's Chantilly  8 1  8 2  m u s i n g on  The  Chantilly  a resemblance  in Chantilly.  This  than  fumeur works, w h i c h  h i s other  h i s own  bewildering  Fumeux'  Codex.  fumeur poem t h a t has  b a l l a d e , Puisque  to  i s a b a l l a d e , a much  nature.  Like  describes the  j e s u i s fumeux, Deschamps' work i s  W o r k i n g f o r L o u i s d ' O r l e a n s , Deschamps was s u c c e s s i v e l y g o v e r n o r of F i s m e g ( 1 3 8 1 ) , b a i 1 1 i of S e n l i s ( 1389-1 404), and c o u n s e l l o r and m a i t r e d'hStel ( 1 3 9 3 ) . See F.M.Graves, Deux i n v e n t a i r e s de l a Mai son d ' O r l e a n s (1389 e t 1408) ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e A n c i e n n e Honore Champion, 19261  p. 130, item 8 3  piece  E s t r e C h a n c e l l i e r s Des  687.  See Aime C h a m p o l l i o n - F i g e a c , L o u i s e t C h a r l e s , Dues d ' O r l e a n s : L e u r I n f l u e n c e s u r l e s A r t s , l a L i t e r a t u r e e t 1 ' E s p r i t de l e u r * Siecle. 2vols. C P a r i s : [ n . p . ] 1844; r e p r i n t e d . , G e n ? v e : S l a t k i n e R e p r i n t s , 1980.), pp. 80-81, 119, and N i g e l W i l k i n s , "The p o s t - M a c h a u t g e n e r a t i o n " , p . 49, fn.54.  63  written  i n the  5  10  15  20  25  5  10  15  first  person:  J e doy e s t r e c h a n c e l l i e r s des Fumeux, Et eh l ' o f f i c e a t o u s j o u r s d e m o u r e r , Car de l ' o r d r e m a i n t e n i r s u i songneux, S i c'on ne p u e t ma p e r s o n n e t r o u v e r En un e s t a t , a i n s me v o i t on muer S o u d a i n e m e n t mon s g a v o i r en f o l y e , Estre dolens, puis f a i r e chere l y e . A i n s i me f a i t fumee, p a r ma f o y , Muser s o u v e n t e t s i ne s a y p o u r q u o y De n a t u r e s u i m e r e n c o l i e u x , C o l e r i q u e , v o i r , me p u e t l ' e n t r o u v e r Si s u i e n c l i n s a e s t r e m e r v e i l l e u x N a t u r e l m e n t done d o i j e r e t o u r n e r A ma n a t u r e , s a n s moy desnaturer E t e s t r e p l a i n s de g r a n t m e r e n c o l i e ; Car r e s i s t e r n ' e s t pas de ma p a r t i e A i n s me d e f u i t ; ce me f a i t en r e q u o y Muser s o u v e n t e t s i ne say p o u r q u o y . Done j e c o n c l u s , s'on me v o i t pou j o y e u x Que j e m'en p u i s p a r n a t u r e e x c u s e r Car j e ne s u i s pas s i i n g e n i e u x Que j e s a c h e c o n t r e n a t u r e a l e r . Fumeux s e r a y , r i e n s n'y v a u l t l e p a r l e r , Fumeusement menray fumeuse v i e , Demourer doy en ma c h a n c e l l e r i e Qu'a t o u s j o u r s maiz me v e r r e z en ce p l o y Muser s o u v e n t e t s i ne s a y p o u r q u o y . I have t o be c h a n c e l l o r o f t h e fumeux And t o r e m a i n i n t h a t o f f i c e f o r e v e r , F o r I am c a r e f u l of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e o r d e r S i n c e one may not f i n d my p e r s o n a l i t y In one c o n d i t i o n b e f o r e I am seen t o c h a n g e , S u d d e n l y , my wisdom t o f o l l y , To be m i s e r a b l e , t h e n t o have a happy f a c e . T h u s , by my f a i t h , does fumee c a u s e me To wonder o f t e n , and y e t I do not know why. I am m e l a n c h o l y by n a t u r e , C h o l e r i c , t r u l y , one may f i n d me. I f I am i n c l i n e d t o w a r d b e i n g amazed, N a t u r a l l y t h e n , I must r e t u r n To my r e a l n a t u r e , w i t h o u t g o i n g a g a i n s t n a t u r e And t o be f u l l of g r e a t m e l a n c h o l y , F o r i t i s n o t i n my make-up t o r e s i s t , T h u s r e s i s t a n c e f l i e s f r o m me; t h i s makes me, i n Wonder o f t e n , and y e t I do n o t know why. [return Therefore  I conclude  that  i f I am  seen  t o be  little  64  20  I must be e x c u s e d b e c a u s e o f my n a t u r e , [joyous F o r I am not t h a t ingenious T h a t I would know how t o go a g a i n s t n a t u r e . I s h a l l be fumous, i t i s not w o r t h s a y i n g any more F u m o u s l y , I ' l l l e a d a fumous l i f e ; [about i t I must d w e l l i n my chancellery So t h a t f o r e v e r on you w i l l see me i n t h i s [occupation, To wonder o f t e n , and y e t I do not know why.  25  The in  Chantilly  t o n e , but  has  a  poem a t t r i b u t e d t o H a p r o i s similarly  involved  reasoning.  B o t h poems a s s o c i a t e  stress  fumee  that  personality w o u l d be  state for on  of  a  to t r y to also  .  .  words, and,  suggests a mock-learned  5  10  15  that  and  paradoxically, such  ebullient  specious  comes n a t u r a l l y t o  suppress  both the  that i t  seemingly  unnatural  some d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  i s more c o n c e r n e d  l a fumee,  and  fumee w i t h c h o l e r ,  claiming,  fumeur, w h i l e t h a t  s t a t e of .  writer,  There are  Deschamps  the fum  the  unnatural  behaviour. poem by  of  i s something  syntax  i s more  to describe  ascribed  includes with  an  the  to Hasprois  i s an  apology  word-play  subjunctives,  discourse:  P u i s q u e j e s u i s fumeux p l a i n de fumee Fumer m ' e s t u e t , c a r se j e ne fumoye, C e u l x q u i d i e n t que j ' a y t e s t e enfumee Par fumee, j e l e s desmentiroie. E t n o n p o u r q u a n t jamez ne f u m e r o i e De fumee q u i f u t c o n t r e r a i s o n : Se j e fume, c ' e s t ma c o m p l e x i o n C o l e r i q u e q u ' a i n s y me f a i t f u m e r ; J e fumeray s a n s p e r s o n n e g r e v e r . C ' e s t b i e n fume, i l n'y a p o i n t d'oultrage Quant on fume s a n s f e r e a u t r y domage. Fumee n ' e s t a n u l l i refusee, Fume q u i v e u l t , t e n i r ne me'en p o r r o i e . J ' a y m a i n t e c h o s e en fumant rechinee"; E n c o r e s$ay que m a i s ny avenroie Se p a r fumer en fumant n'y p e n s o y e . Fume'e r e n t b i e n consolacion  the  changeable  extravagance of  i t s s t r i n g s of  two:  -  Aucune f o y z t o u l t t r i b u l a c i o n On se p e u t b i e n en fumant d e l i t e r . Home fumeux p e u t en fumant t r o u v e r En l u i p l u s e u r s p r o f i t e t a v a n t a g e Quant on fume s a n s f e r e a u t r y domage. Se j ' e u s s e l a c e r v e l l e i m p e t r e e De S o c r a t e s , sy con. j e l e v o u l o y e , ^ J'eusse bien l a t e s t e p l u s attrempee, Car onques ne fuma p a r n u l l e voye C h a s c u n n ' e s t pas c,aint de c e l l e c o u r r o y e . Car t e l fume que pou s'en p e r i j o i t on T a n t a au c u e u r p l u s de c o n f u s i o n Quant i l n'ose sa fumee m o u s t r e r Ou i l n'ose p o u r p a o u r d ' e m p i r e r J e ne t i e n pas qu'on a i t l e c u e r v o l a g e , Quant on fume s a n s f e r e a u t r y domage. S i n c e I am fumous, f u l l of fumee, I have t o fume, f o r d i d I n o t fume, T h o s e who say t h a t I have a head enfumed W i t h fumee, I w o u l d make o u t t o be l i a r s . And y e t , however, n e v e r w o u l d I fume W i t h a fume'e t h a t went a g a i n s t r e a s o n : I f I fume, i t i s my c h o l e r i c n a t u r e T h a t makes me fume t h u s . I s h a l l fume w i t h o u t u p s e t t i n g a n y o n e . T h i s i s w e l l fumed-on, t h e r e i s no o u t r a g e w h a t e v e r When one fumes w i t h o u t d o i n g harm t o anyone e l s e . Fumee i s r e f u s e d t o nobody, Let him fume who w i l l , I c o u l d not r e s t r a i n him W h i l e f u m i n g , I have r e s o l v e d many t h i n g s , [ f r o m i t ; And y e t I know t h a t n e v e r would i t have come a b o u t Had I n o t , when f u m i n g w i t h fume, t h o u g h t on i t . Fumee o f f e r s g r e a t c o n s o l a t i o n ; E v e r y t i m e , one may e a s i l y l i g h t e n A l l t r i b u l a t i o n through fuming. I n f u m i n g , t h e fumous man can f i n d W i t h i n h i m s e l f much of p r o f i t and a d v a n t a g e When one fumes w i t h o u t d o i n g harm t o anyone e l s e . Had I o b t a i n e d t h e b r a i n Of S o c r a t e s , a s I w o u l d have l i k e d , I w o u l d c e r t a i n l y have a more r e g u l a t e d h e a d , F o r he n e v e r fumed i n any manner. But n o t e v e r y o n e i s r e s t r a i n e d w i t h s u c h c o n t r o l ; F o r however much f u m i n g t h e r e i s and l i t t l e d i v i n e d T h e r e w i l l be t h a t much c o n f u s i o n i n t h e h e a r t When he d o e s not d a r e t o show h i s fumee, Or he does not d a r e t o , f o r f e a r of g e t t i n g w o r s e . I do n o t a g r e e t h a t one w o u l d have a f l i g h t y h e a r t When one fumes w i t h o u t d o i n g harm t o a n y o n e .  66  Like  the  poem.  longer  fumeur works, a b s u r d i t y  A manifestly  grounds that "contre  i t i s n a t u r a l , and  raison"  This nationale,  ( 6 ) , or  calls us the  the  fumee t h a t  well  6221)  as  de  Deschamps. * 8  But  not  s e c o n d of  the by  In  fumeux.  works by  a  an  je suis title  u n e d u c a t e d man,  This,  Pisan  t h i s manuscript  The  a l s o worth n o t i c i n g  is adjectival.  Fumeux fume, s e t  written  poem, P u i s q u e  maistre was  is  (Bibliotheque  i n c l u d i n g A l a i n C h a r t i e r , C h r i s t i n e de  subject  intention.  the  a  not  the  "unreasonable"!  a r u b r i c above the  fumeux w h i c h for  therefore  containing  i t : Ballade  that  this  i s d e f e n d e d on  f.fr.,  n.a.  of  frame o f mind  in another manuscript  M a c h a u t , as  written  feature  poem a l s o a p p e a r s  number o f p o e t s , and  unreasoning  is a  i s the  I believe,  is  fumeux, w h i c h "maistre"  tells  however  ironic  f o r m of  the  supports a  fumeur poems i n C h a n t i l l y , t h e  name, reading  rondeau  Solage.  Fumeux fume p a r fumee, Fumeuse s p e c u l a c i o n Q u ' a n t r e fum met sa p e n s e e . Fumeux fume p a r fume'e. 5  Quar fumer m o l t l i a g r e e T a n t q u ' i l a i t son entencion. Fumeux fume p a r fumee, Fumeuse s p e c u l a t i o n . (Mr.) Fumous fumes w i t h fumee, Fumous s p e c u l a t i o n Which p l a c e s h i s t h o u g h t between Fumous fumes w i t h fumee.  5  8  *  For  i t pleases  him  very  much t o  fum. fume  See De Queux de S t . H i l a i r e , O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v.2, p. x v i i , and Leo S c h r a d e , P o l y p h o n i c M u s i c ofThe F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y : Commentary t o v . I I and I I I , S u p p l e m e n t . (Monaco: E d i t i o n s de L ' O i s e a u - L y r e , 1956), p.37.  67  So much be h i s mind s e t on i t . Fumous fumes w i t h fumee, Fumous s p e c u l a t i o n . It  should  be  poem, t h e r e line  2,  n o t i c e d t h a t , where t h e r e i s agreement  fumeuse s p e c u l a t i o n .  t h e r e f o r e be followed has  so  by  few  i n t e r p r e t e d as a verb,  of  s u g g e s t e d by Supplying with the  the  subject  "third  mocking or pleasure  as  a  The  reading  defense of  r i p o s t e to  from  likely  tight  Line  five,  f u m i n g , and  poem  may  constructed.  number of Deschamps'  line  But  very  could  three,  which  part  of  repetitious  be  earlier  lines,  that are  the  links-  the  out  the  as  to  f o r m , and  pointed  r o n d e a u x have r e f r a i n s  Given  i s intended  have p r o d u c e d works t h a t i t should  well  be  i t s reference  rondeau  8 5  j e s u i fumeux,  this  recall  that  work.  poem i s w r i t t e n .  with  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  the  poem a c c o r d s  references,  its riddling,  t h a t many p o e t s c o u l d  similarly  the  i t , whether  text., w i t h the  of  i t s third-person  poem.  of  the  in  from t r a n s l a t i o n s  fumee i n P u i s q u e  fumee, c o u l d c e r t a i n l y  typical  words of  differs  i n which t h i s  t h o u g h t and This  first  the  a m a s c u l i n e name, "(Mr.) Fumous",  i n l i n e , one  supportive.  derived  in  i t s a s s o c i a t e d a d j e c t i v e , as  g r o u p s t h a t have r e c o r d e d  person"  work, w i t h  interpreted  This  performing  the  noun  "fumes", a welcome a d d i t i o n i n a poem  them.  wholehearted  present  8 5  from  i s a feminine  is it is  were that as  a  tightly  See The A r t o f C o u r t l y L o v e , S e r a p h i m , SIC-6092, and M u s i c of the Middle Ages, V o l . IX. The F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y ; The A r s Nova. (The M u s i c a l H e r i t a g e S o c i e t y , 8 9 9 ) .  68 constructed  as  this  Biographical offer  additional  fumeurs.  before until  1393  to  his  no  that  King  of  the  worked  for  the  as  at Avignon  a notary  from  i n the  Solage  curia  beyond  for h i s biography.  "Cathelline", who,  and  two  ballades  possibly Catherine  i n 1386  married  patrons,  and  above a l l , h i s t i m e  spent  him  t o come a c r o s s  Hasprois  both  musician  i n v o l v e d on  i s yet  by  C h a r l e s V,  and the  some o c c a s i o n  known a b o u t  p o s s i b l e f o r any  the  of a l l  t h e r e w o u l d have been o p p o r t u n i t y  employed  of  8 7  f a m i l y as  musician  even  Two  t h e movements of Deschamps, h i s c u l t i v a t i o n  royal  the  although  c o u r t o f C h a r l e s V,  be  8 7  son.  the  c a t h e d r a l of Notre-Dame a t  i s known of  sister,  not  the  little  8 6  to a  of  (1378),  t o t h e Duke of B e r r y ,  refer  do  came f r o m A r r a s ,  some o f h i s b a l l a d e t e x t s ,  C h a r l e s VI's  Duke of B e r r y ' s Given  Little  Solage  identity  Pope's c h a p e l  conclusive evidence  works a r e d e d i c a t e d  France,  the  i s recorded  i n 1428. by  at  i n the  He  provided  provide  the  and  court at Portugal  (1380),  was  1403.  have a c r o s t i c s de  in interpreting  royal  and  h i s death,  about H a s p r o i s  ( f 1 . 1378-1428), who  at the  (1384),  information these  help  king, Charles V  Cambrai  8 6  details  Hasprois  successively French  one.  the  Solage, latter  with  former as  p o s s i b l y as  of a l l t h r e e  t o be  for a  a  t h e Duke o f B e r r y .  biographies  further particulars  the  at  Too  f o r i t to  provided.  See f o r e x a m p l e , Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s , v.4, p. 3, " D o l e n s d o u l e u r , d o l e u r e u s e e t d o l e n t e , / Me f a i t d e s i r c h a s c u n j o u r e n d u r e r " ; p.33, " J o y e u s e m e n t , p a r un t r e s d o u l x j o i r , / En j o y s s a n t menray v i e j o y e u s e , / Comme c e l u i q u i se d o i t r e s j o i r " ; p. 149, "En d e s c o n f o r t comme d e s c o n f o r t e e / D e s c o n f o r t a n t me d e s c o n f o r t e r a y , / Se r e c o n f o r t de mon d o u l x ami n'ay". See a l s o , pp. 49, 51, 79, 151. See " H a s p r o i s " and " S o l a g e " , The New G r o v e ' s D i c t i o n a r y of M u s i c and M u s i c i a n s , e d . S t a n l e y S a d i e ,  69  It  seems t h a t  been a l o c a l l y some way  associated certain  musicians background  t h e end  i n law.  shining  The  clear,  from  Guardian 1368.  b i o g r a p h i e s of  an  t h e Dormans  1370,  he  de Dormans was  1346.  Of  brother, Guillaume, Jean's  d'Orleans, cardinal  and  had  Bayonne and  of  a college  Both was  had  had  took  t h e Chambre des  b i s h o p o f Meaux and  the  i n the  chancellor  the Jean,  and  a cardinal,  over  His the  t o the  in  younger  chancellorship  been c o u n s e l l o r s  to Louis king.  The  b i s h o p of  Angers,  t o t h e k i n g and  subsequently chancellor,  Comptes; h i s b r o t h e r ,  archbishop of S e n s .  See B a t a i l l a r d , L ' H i s t o i r e Raynaud, O e u v r e s C o m p l e t e s ,  family,  then C h a n c e l l o r a t  at Paris.  a counsellor  was  family  the e l d e s t ,  finally  been c o u n s e l l o r  f o r whom he  some  a procureur at  nephews: M i l e s de Dormans was  Beauvais,  i t is  influential  h i s sons,  an a v o c a t ,  Guillaume  two  Duke o f A n j o u , president  also  resignation.  local  b i s h o p of B e a u v a i s ,  founded  be  cleric-lawyers.  important  o f t h e S e a l s o f F r a n c e , and  In  the  m u s i c i a n s may  although  an a v o c a t , b e c o m i n g b i s h o p o f L i s i e u x , at P a r i s ,  in  a c h u r c h c a r e e r , i n w h i c h most  t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s o f men  of P a r i s  the Parlement  8 8  How  would have been e n h a n c e d by  Jean  having  by Deschamps from  1380's.  i s not  of Deschamps and  fourteenth century.  was  held  examples of s u c c e s s f u l  Dormans p r o d u c e d  at  of the  at t h i s period,  Patrons  was  positions  involved,  fumeurs as  of t h e Marne r e g i o n , c o n n e c t e d  w i t h such a group  were  Parlement  s h o u l d t h i n k of the  group  legal  about  that  provide  based  w i t h the  1360's u n t i l  one  8 8  the  and  Guillaume,  A number o f  des P r o c u r e u r s , pp.309-313, v.10, p. 184.  the  and  70  late  fourteenth-century  clerical the  skills.  Dormans,  training, One himself, name a s scope  composers h e l d  W h i l e none w o u l d have r i s e n  i t i s not  inconceivable  t h e y would have had should in  also  1379,  a t y p e of  for his  p o s i t i o n s that  as  that  as  some e d u c a t i o n  remember  that  high  part  of  in  as  that  catchword.  he In  any  of  their  law.  Deschamps r e f e r r e d  " l y enfume", and  identifying  as  required  may  to  have u s e d  such a case,  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h m u s i c i a n s becomes  the  the  significantly  wider.  The  'Fumeurs', T h e i r The  N a t u r e And  fumeurs must not  element', a group of philosophical  be  thought  literary  debates.  This  Their  the  introduction  Planchart  to h i s  of a s  a  Summary.  kind  of  'fringe  dope-users  indulging  in mysterious  view, f i r s t  suggested  i n the  1970's, d e p e n d s upon a n a c h r o n i s t i c In  Identity: A  readings  recording  of  the  word  of Fumeux fume,  early  fumer.  8 9  Alejandro  wrote:  In a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g l i t e r a r y p e o p l e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e fumeurs were a l s o hemp s m o k e r s . Hemp was smoked i n m e d i e v a l E u r o p e , and t h i s may n o t o n l y e x p l a i n t h e m e d i e v a l a s s o c i a t i o n of smoke w i t h madness . , but a l s o t h e a p p a r e n t "madness" o f S o l a g e ' s piece. Unfortunately,  9  i t appears that  this  view c a u g h t  the  imagination  T h i s v i e w was e x p r e s s e d i n t h e commentary t o a r e c o r d i n g of Fumeux fume by t h e C a p e l l a C o r d i n a , l e d by A l e x a n d r o P l a n c h a r t , M u s i c o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s : V o l . I X . : The F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y . The Ars Nova.(The M u s i c a l H e r i t a g e S o c i e t y , 899).  71  of  the e d i t o r  Anthology printed  of a s t a n d a r d h i s t o r y  of Western  in this  with  Planchart's recording.  with  the l i n e s :  referred  t o by  the  slightly  The  meaning,  only  The  9 0  that  was  different  f o r fumeurs  of t o b a c c o , not  of the t e x t  i n the second h a l f  incipit  is offered  speculation".  as  "the  smokers".  originated  of the  fumeurs  become a s s o c i a t e d  Deschamps and  the C h a n t i l l y  the very r i c h  associations  middle  Such  and  evoked  with A  i s t o be by  had  g a i n e d by  t h e word fumer their  basis  in  i n the p o p u l a r e x p r e s s i o n of m e d i e v a l  physiological  and  changeability, all of  knowledge.  g a r r u l o u s n e s s , and  that  volatility  drinking  indication  or i n t a n g i b i l i t y .  t o e x c e s s , an  o f f u m o s i t y , was  ' t o smoke' better  i n tne  late  to quarrel,  'fumosity',  would  because  Deschamps' poems show  intemperance perceived  considering  Vagueness,  the tendency  have been r e g a r d e d as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f their  The  time-honoured  m e t a p h o r , and  psychological  with  o f t h e fumeur poems of  Codex  associations  9 1  i n the middle ages.  of t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  understanding  begins  "Smoky smokes",  w i t h fumer,  known i n E u r o p e  ' t o smoke dope', has  offered  a n t h o l o g y , t h e same work i s  ' t o smoke', a s s o c i a t e d  ages.  Fumeux fume, i s  translation  text-book to t h i s  the t r a n s l a t i o n  meaning,  rondeau,  Norton  "Smoky fumes t h r o u g h smoke/ smoky  and  the use  9 1  The  anthology with a t r a n s l a t i o n  In t h e companion  9 0  Music.  anthology, the  that  a s a way  was of  itself  an  inducing  or  See See N o r t o n A n t h o l o g y o f W e s t e r n M u s i c , v o l . 1, e d . by C l a u d e V. P a l i s c a (New Y o r k / L o n d o n : W. W. N o r t o n and Co. , 1980), pp. 87-88. See D o n a l d J a y G r o u t , A H i s t o r y o f W e s t e r n M u s i c , 3 r d . e d . , C l a u d e V. P a l i s c a , e d . (New York7London: W. W. N o r t o n and Co. 1980), p . 138.  ,  72  aggravating perception vapours  the u n a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s a l s o had  i t s physiological  c a u s e d by a l c o h o l  condition  The  had  i t was  the l a t t e r  p a r o d i e s as w e l l as the s h o r t  and  of the Church,  the s t a r t  c o u n t r y whose d e r a n g e d noblility  i n a mutual  a natural  reaction  monarch had struggle  t o view  involved  can a l s o c o n s i d e r  eccentric, fools' and  folly  by  c e n t u r y the e x c e s s e s of t h e  t h e p r e s e n t punk e r a . but  their  tradition  which  had  conditions.  and  activities. fumeurs. activities groups  I t would  interests  be  and  in a  i t would  be  folly. this  symptom o f  i t , witness  the  i n our  t w e n t i e s " , and  t h o s e of as  to represent a standard  were becoming more  widespread,  response to  one  and  dramatic the  such  b e g i n n i n g t o g a t h e r momentum, and  fragmentary or ephemeral,  the  must p l a c e  i n Deschamps' t i m e ,  social  of p e o p l e  education p r o v i d e d both  for pursuing l i t e r a r y  that,  the  of  have been d e s c r i b e d  i s the c o n t e x t i n which appear  age  of  and  r e s p o n s e came f r o m an e d u c a t e d c l a s s  were o n l y  could  "roaring  h a b i t s appear  as  as a n o t h e r  indulging  fumeurs  the l e i s u r e  This  In an  o f doom f r o m  developed through a sympathetic  whose b a c k g r o u n d , opportunity  The  whose p r a c t i c e s  This  poems.  power,  a l l human a c t i v i t y  one  own  fumeur  the r e s t  for p o l i t i c a l  viewpoint.  toward  the  determined  o f t h e H u n d r e d Y e a r s ' War,  many gloomy poems p r o p h e t i c  times a reaction  the  the d e v a s t a t i o n  Deschamps w r o t e But  that  i s a theme i n a l l o f t h e  seen t h e d i v i s i o n  B l a c k Death,  since  c h a n g i n g moods.  d e f e n s e of f o l l y  works, the l e g a l that  and  explanation,  This  were u n d e r s t o o d t o i n f l u e n c e  o f t h e humours, and  a man's p e r s o n a l i t y  o f t h e fumous.  a s Deschamps'  that own  the  73  poetry  suggests.  of  group of  the  also  consider  most v i s i b l e  T h i s might  fumeurs w h i c h c o u l d  the p o s s i b i l i t y fumeur, and  appellation with  him.  noted  musical  the  a l s o account  for their  fumeur b e i n g  f o r the  looser  include musicians.  One  t h a t Deschamps became known as  t h a t , i n h i s many t r a v e l s ,  S i n c e he  nature  served  patronage,  known t o c o m p o s e r s  the  noblemen who possibility  i s high.  he  took  must the the  were a l s o of  Deschamps  74  II. Music Puisque  f o r the  descriptions t o have t h e  will  of  qualities  toward  are  reflected  appreciated  by  defending  the author's  riddling  rondeau  How  poetic  this  interesting  a l o v e of as w e l l  that  Deschamps'  i t i s a humour t h a t  as  man.  Again,  one  tippling, in a l l these  poems.  fumeur poems  w o u l d have been might  look f o r  l e a r n e d humour.  i s an  special  literary  expansive, pseudo-learned  a t t h e f u m o s i t e ^ of a t h i r d  is reflected  q u e s t i o n t o be  i n the music, broached  i n the  effect:  argument  fumosite', w h i l e Fumeux fume i s a  directed aspect  The  changeability,  f o r t h e s e two  poem makes i t s own  j e s u i fumeux  9 2  be ways i n w h i c h some o f  i t i s clear  the educated  each  in drinking  i n the music  e x p r e s s i o n of such  Finally,  m o o d i n e s s and  to p o n t i f i c a t e ,  may  much humour, and  chapter.  98  i n Deschamps' p o e t r y show them  qualities:  excess,  Codex,  (numbers 47 and  analysed in t h i s  There  In a d d i t i o n ,  another  be  Fumeux fume,  fumeurs o f f e r e d  other a c t i v i t i e s .  Puisque  fumeur poems i n t h e C h a n t i l l y  the tendency  a tendency  musical  two  following  irascibility,  contain  'FUMEUR' MUSICAL SETTINGS.  j e s u i fumeux, and  respectively),  and  THE  terse,  person.  i f at a l l ,  is  following  analyses.  9 2  See G o r d o n G r e e n e , F r e n c h S e c u l a r M u s i c : M a n u s c r i p t C h a n t i l l y , Muse^e Conde 564, P o l y p h o n i c M u s i c o f t h e F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y , v o l s . 18 and 19, (Monaco: L ' O i s e a u - L y r e , 1980).  75  The  Ballade  'Puisque Je  There are  Fumeux'  several compositions  whose m u s i c was  c e r t a i n l y intended  example, B o r l e t ' s ( n o . 8 9 ) ; and  Suis  "realistic"  there  s u g g e s t e d , was  are  to  He  t o the  w o r d s , f o r example, P y k i n i ' s v i r e l a i , vous assembles  (no.  the  same s u r e t y  the  majority  discussion too  9 3  roussignol  been  syllables  of  one  underlaid  tost a  cannot c l a i m  a s i m i l a r c o r r e l a t i o n between m u s i c and  the  music  of  in C h a n t i l l y .  the  two  interpret certain features  as  euz with  text  Therefore,  fumeur t e x t s ,  for  in  for  any  i t w o u l d be a l l  illustrations  of  a  humorous s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , even t h o u g h s i m i l a r p a s s a g e s a r e  found  elsewhere  this,  it  in manifestly  i s far easier  Hasprois'  the  non-humorous c o n t e x t s .  to discuss  ballade,  since  make i t o u t s t a n d i n g ,  S o l a g e ' s r o n d e a u , Fumeux fume,  the  f o r m e r has  even among t h e  composition  several  features  than  which  h i g h l y adventurous pieces  i s i n the  a number of C h a n t i l l y p i e c e s . the  Because of  of  Chantilly repertoire. Hasprois'  9 3  text,  i t has  P l a y s a n c e : Or  Unfortunately,  of c o m p o s i t i o n s  of  easy to  90).  the  t r e s doulz  whose m u s i c ,  tailored  C h a n t i l l y Codex  illustrate  virelai,  others  carefully  i n the  text  responsible  While  f o r some o f  the  advanced  i t is possible musical  ballade,  s u c h g u e s s e s c a n n o t be  substantiated  known of  the  musical  fourteenth-century  style  s i m i l a r to to  features until  consider in  this  f a r more i s  aesthetic, especially  See G o r d o n G r e e n e , The S e c u l a r M u s i c o f C h a n t i l l y , M a n u s c r i p t Muse"e C o n d £ 564 ( o l i m 1047). CPh.D. D i s s . , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , 1971), p.299.  76  with  respect  to ars  subtilior  Interpretation w o u l d have  involved  of  a ballade  several  c o u r s e , w o u l d have been t h e i n t o account levels  of  perfection,  the  music,  elements.  only  the  would  of  involve  voice-parts, the  added  syncopation,  bringing  i n t e r e s t of  poetic but  i n s p i t e of  effects by  the  hiatus  9 0  texts played  of  the  an  of  the  the  there  by  first,  three,  taking  notational reading  under  line.  role  the  Another  several  stage  combined  situation  bring  in ars  ongoing d r i v e ,  that  subtilior  music,  some  f o r example,  felt created  or a q u e s t i o n ,  exclamations.  and  about  It i s believed  s u r e l y have been  attention-catching  could  rhythmic d i s l o c a t i o n s could  of  musical  complex m u s i c a l  text  of  at a l l  intelligent  t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of c l a u s e s ,  produced  fumeux  duple n o t e - d i v i s i o n s  whole.  would  the  many o t h e r  richer texture, Finally,  of  e f f e c t s of  already  The  colouration  s l u r s or m e l o d i c  i n p e r f o r m a n c e : an poetry  of  je sui  note-values,  understanding  a subordinate  this,  the  g r o u p i n g s of  t o an  modifications  Puisque  and  a f f e c t e d by  consideration  *  9  activity.  of  example, a s e c t i o n o f  harmonic d i s s o n a n c e s . important  reading  beginning  sometimes n a t u r a l l y c r e a t e influence  s u c h as  s t a g e s of  But  w h i c h would be For  ideals.  imperfection  note-division.  s y m b o l s w o u l d be  musical  or  a  The  T h r e e o f H a s p r o i s ' f o u r known c o m p o s i t i o n s have t h e r h y t h m i c complexity a s s o c i a t e d with the a r s s u b t i l i o r s t y l e . Two of h i s b a l l a d e s o c c u r i n C h a n t i l l y , n o s . 46 and 47. A b a l l a d e and a r o n d e a u r e f r a i n w i t h one i n c o m p l e t e v o i c e - p a r t , a r e i n t h e MS. O x f o r d B o d l e i a n , C a n o n i c i m i s c . 213 ( 0 ) . Some anonymous works have a l s o been a s c r i b e d t o t h i s m u s i c i a n : one i s Medee f u , f o u n d i n 0 and C h a n t i l l y , t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r work i n 0, and f i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e p o s s i b l y two c h a n s o n s f r o m t h e L e i d e n fragments. See G i l b e r t Reaney, E a r l y F i f t e e n t h - C e n t u r y M u s i c , C o r p u s M e n s u r a b i l i s M u s i c a e 9, v o l s . 2 and 4, and U r s u l a G u n t h e r , " P r o b l e m s of d a t i n g i n A r s Nova and A r s S u b t i l i o r " , L ' A r s nova i t a l i a n a d e l t r e c e n t o . I l l ( C e r t a l d o : C e n t r o d i S t u d i s u l l ' A r s Nova I t a l i a n a d e l T r e c e n t o , 1975): p . 296.  77  commentary below h a s been u n d e r t a k e n in  this  two-voiced  mixtures  notes  appears  ballade.  of duple  irregular  Figure  alternation 9 5  t o have been a major c o n c e r n i n  From t h e b e g i n n i n g ,  and t r i p l e  1 below, p. 7 9 ) .  groupings  G-E, a r e h e a r d  the  text  falls  In F i g u r e  1a, t h e d o t t e d q u a r t e r -  as rhythmic  of a group.  phrase  a r e repeated  subtly  varied  note  e m p h a s i s when i t s e f f e c t  eighth-note  of each p a i r ,  Certain intervals l a ) , but t h i s  by means o f t h e r h y t h m i c  eighth-notes.  contrast with the pairs  D-A,  u n i t s because the a r t i c u l a t i o n of  (see F i g u r e  the q u a r t e r - n o t e s a t t r a c t surrounding  The s l u r r e d  on t h e i n i t i a l  as the f i r s t  include  o f l o n g and s h o r t n o t e - v a l u e s ( s e e  eighth-notes.  and  phrases  t h a t a r e c o n d i t i o n e d by  A, G, and F, g a i n e m p h a s i s t h r o u g h  surrounding  it  these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  mind. Rhythmic v a r i e t y  the  with  the s t r e s s , The f i r s t i s extended  strengthening  in this  opening  repetition i s  groupings.  I n F i g u r e 1b,  i n contrast with the eighth-note  figure  by t h e s u c c e e d i n g  receives eighth-  note. At of  5  6  some p o i n t s , m u s i c a l  note-values  accents produced  by s u c h  seem t o match t h e u n d e r l a i d t e x t ,  grouping  as a t measures  I n a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s , n o t e - g r o u p s have been r e w r i t t e n s o t h a t t h e y b e s t i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o i n t s o f s t r e s s , and w i l l n o t e x a c t l y r e s e m b l e t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n Gordon G r e e n e ' s e d i t i o n , f r o m w h i c h t h e e x a m p l e s and measure-numbers h a v e been derived. See G o r d o n G r e e n e , F r e n c h S e c u l a r M u s i c ; M a n u s c r i p t C h a n t i l l y , V o l . 18, p p . 131-132. I n d i v i d u a l n o t e s a p p e a r t o have been v e r y c a r e f u l l y p l a c e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l , a s i f t o show t h e e x a c t s y l l a b l e t o w h i c h t h e y were t o be s u n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r f a c s i m i l e o f t h i s p i e c e t o be a b l e t o illustrate this.  78  33-35, 36,  37-38  approaching receive  setting  and of  important  poet  i t s c l o s e at  appropriate  rhythmic  poet's  (see F i g u r e  the word  a ballade.  out  of  to set — This  "quolerique" on  the  displacement  'i'.  but  resolved at  (see F i g u r e  3,  this  can  be  the p.  beginning  end  of  81).  quite  s u i t a b l e f o r the  illustrate  i s m a k i n g an  a s s e r t i o n at  on,  there  can  f i n d / Within  2) , "I do  i s no  not  this  himself  a g r e e t h a t one  in steadily  iterated  1),  and  w o u l d have a  but  drawing-  one  or  two  37, late  note-values. effect  that  notes.  poet  fumed-  fumous  advantage"  man  (verse  heart"  for  37-38  the  i s well  " the  more e m p h a t i c  in  such  verses,  flighty  syncopated  a  amusing.  i s sung; measures  measures: " T h i s  a l l the  strange  phrase,  a rhetorical  profit  lyric  work.  like  In a l l t h r e e  much of  is  of measure  a s e r i e s of  outrage whatsoever"(verse  These a s s e r t i o n s are  setting  these  the  sixteenth-note  the m u s i c a l  text that  point.  this  Significantly,  k i n d of passage a l s o c r e a t e s  certainly  3) .  f e a t u r e of  the  i s an  rhythm c r e a t e  i n t e r p o l a t i o n of  the  the  for a  the  is certainly  example, w i t h  syncopated passages o f t e n c o n t a i n But  whole s u b j e c t  result the  of  one  i s e x a g g e r a t e d by  The by  is  This  odd  melody and  here  melodic,  i t i s part  i t i s an the  is a noticeable one  matching of  since  indeed,  o c c u r r i n g toward  being  measure 38  verse,  is  lines  i n measure 33.  through having  37-38 p r o v i d e  the  Especially felicitous  introduced  note-values,  finally  from the  strangeness  syllable  Syncopation,  Measures  first  Each verse  9 6  m e a s u r e s , and  for h i s fumosity,  for  79).  "quolerique",  i n the  t o have had  small  emphasis  word  p.  these  textual stress.  reason  stress  2,  their  (verse  79 2 or  3 indicates  ?ui«-  duple  or  triple  s u i j - i / - fnCtfX  je  pjaius  note-groupings.  *—  F i g . 1. M i x i n g o f d u p l e and t r i p l e n o t e g r o u p s p r o d u c e d by a l t e r n a t i n g l o n g and s h o r t n o t e - v a l u e s (Puisque j e s u i fumeux).  ^2-^  f?'*** * _ J L ^ 3  1  ft  |>  J  P P p n  K  J ' J J  ,  N  —  J  cJ < I W - tray  F i g . 2. Matching of melodic, rhythmic t e x t u a l a c c e n t s (Puisque j e s u i fumeux).  and  80  Even where t h e r e impression of  the  long  i s made by  strong  rhythmic  any  contrast  texture.  n o t e s of  internal  i s no  At  equal  s e r i e s of  m e a s u r e s 7-9,  length  i s very  defined,  i s further increased  simultaneously  i n the  There are voice  focuses  measure  as  16,  effect  purposeful here:  i n the  of  melody  n o t e E,  descent  has  or a drone,  the  the  the with  of  the  c a n t u s and their  static  Figure  5b).  succeeding  81).  lends this  contrast those  rhythmic  of  i n the  the  the  36  rest  of  point  measures, both  by  heard  Figure  5,  p.  82).  the  T h i s passage  s e c t i o n because  i n the D of  very  forward  tenor  tenor,  increased  Like  increases  intrusive.  short  In  note-values in  by  small musical drive created  upper-voice  this  lower v o i c e .  the  being  has  i s happening  of  combination  produces a s i m i l a r  is also  the  lower  upper-voice  (see  much s l o w e r  u p p e r v o i c e , of a the  This  note-values  i s a l l that  static  dislocation,  In v i e w o f  considerable  next measure.  between t h e  36  Consequently,  u p p e r v o i c e moves g r a c e f u l l y  suspended  the  the  fluid  first  point.  longer  upper v o i c e without  q u a l i t y a t measure  repetition,  of  been  a pedal-point  measure 36,  the  16 and  to a strong  a l l activity  impact  and  p.  the  work where a more s t a t i c  i n the  introducing  more  line.  i n measures  the  down t o w a r d t h e the  points  4,  after  a t t e n t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y upon  articulation, At  lower  because  f o r example, a s e r i e s of  sung a t by  rhetorical  surrounding,  i s introduced  e m p h a s i s t o w h a t e v e r words a r e emphasis  the  (see F i g u r e  clearly  a similar  l i k e - v a l u e d notes,  i t makes w i t h  cadence-melisma  each note  syncopation,  effect.  The  the figure in  (see  the  syncopation  and  the  81  e'estr  t i « n $v -  me  i\  *t i a.  p o i * t 4'out- rai^  F i g . 3. S y n c o p a t i o n : a ) P a s s a g e a s t r a n s c r i b e d b y G r e e n e , b ) P a s s a g e n o t a t e d t o show p o i n t s a t which s y n c o p a t i o n begins and ends. ( P u i s q u e j e s u i fumeux)  mS-6  &-*3 -  S3p v  Eft" f f ' f  r ^ T  F i g . 4. R h e t o r i c a l e f f e c t p r o d u c e d b y a s e r i e s o f l i k e valued notes i n c o n t r a s t w i t h surrounding t e x t u r e (Puisque j e s u i fumeux).  82  &a—-  x  i n d i c a t e s accent f a l l i n g  on  note.  F i g . 5. R e p e t i t i o n i n m e l o d i c l i n e ( y ) , and s l o w l y moving lower v o i c e d i s l o c a t e d r h y t h m i c a l l y from upper v o i c e , r e s u l t i n g i n s t a t i c m u s i c a l e f f e c t (Puisque j e s u i fumeux).  may  0  Fig 6 Dissonances produced through note-displacement a) G r e e n e ' s t r a n s c r i p t i o n , b) R e c r e a t i o n o f p a s s a g e w i t h s y n c o p a t i o n removed ( P u i s q u e j e s u i fumeux).  83  increased  activity  of  the  lower  p a s s a g e a s a slow o p e n i n g toward  the cadence.  enunciation dramatic one  can  effect, certainly  Finally, produced  by  by  minor  p.  82).  joke  perversity  a series  drive  this  sung  here,  intention. dissonances  between m e a s u r e s 29 lower  voices are  dissonances  and  32  'out'  of m a j o r  and  s t r o n g p o i n t s as w e l l  as  F i g u r e 6b p r e s e n t s a s i m p l e r v e r s i o n of  heard that  into a  that heralds  of p e r v e r s e  upper and  n i n t h s , both at  i t might  dissonances  a comic  These occur The  escape-tones.  a musical  to suspect  present  patter-like  (see F i g u r e 5b),  work has  and  the passage as The  c o n s i d e r s the  eighth-notes, creating  sevenths  view the  t h e words t h a t w o u l d have been  syncopation.  two  through  36,  begin  the  ( s e e F i g u r e 6, here  and  can  that gradually evolves  When one  a t measure  v o i c e , one  have been c o n c e i v e d  before  i n t h e s e m e a s u r e s c o u l d be  i s intended  of the passage being  t o match the 'fumous' from  syncopation.  interpreted  text,  as  the  a musical  p o i n t of  view. The and  total  constant  effect  change.  strength,  but  aspect  the p i e c e  of  these  mensurations,  styles  and  note-groupings,  aura  c h a n g e and  a rapid and  during  perverse  striking  musical  s u c c e s s i o n of  complex  that performers  fluidity rhetorical  I n d e e d , a most  a small time-frame:  makes c e r t a i n  Perhaps the c o n s t a n t an  rhythmic  i s i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n of v a r y i n g  w o u l d have t o have been v e r y a l e r t  produced  of  There are o c c a s i o n a l p o i n t s of  varied  effects  i s one  are always b r i e f .  f e a t u r e s w i t h i n such new  of t h i s work  and  musical listeners  i t s performance. dissonances  of madness t h a t a f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  w o u l d have audience  84  could  have c o n s i d e r e d  d e f e n s e of  The  Rondeau  i s known of S o l a g e ,  by  one  (S'aincy  have c e l e b r a t e d d u k e ' s son  and  f e m e n i n and  estoit, the  gathered  number  Catherine  de  (mock?-)  50),  as  is certainly  and  two  i t s texts. in  sister  and  80.)  between  to Charles  evident  more complex a r s  i n the  ballade  VI  to the  (Corps  i s regarded  c l o s e t o M a c h a u t , but  i n the  of  believed  i n 1386,  Solage  Of  this  more a r e  took p l a c e  France,  is stylistically  writing,  by  be  b a l l a d e p r a i s e s t h e Duke  numbers 24  skill  suggested  l a r g e s t number  wedding t h a t  considerable  who  as  also  subtilior  S'aincy  9 7  The musical  r o n d e a u Fumeux fume i s r e m a r k a b l e  features.  The  extremely  piece  i s written allows  to  made c o m f o r t a b l y  be  the  composer, one  acquired  estoit.  beyond what can  information  Calextone,  a c o m p o s e r who  the  only  composition  low  notes:  comparable  9 7  the  works i n C h a n t i l l y ,  collection Berry  a  'Fumeux Fume*.  f r o m h i s music and ten  f o r a poem t h a t was  fumosite.  Nothing  his  appropriate  f o r the within  i n the  low  f o r a number  tessitura  trancription  the  Perusio's  modern b a s s c l e f .  tessitura  : the E and  virelai,  This  voices i s not  r e p e r t o i r e to  H e y l a s que  D below F  the  of a l l t h r e e  fourteenth-century  Matheus de  i n which  of  occur  use  f e r a y , has  in both  Contra  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f S o l a g e and h i s b a c k g r o u n d , see U r s u l a G u n t h e r , " D i e m u s i k e r des H e r z o g s von B e r r y " , M u s i c a D i s c i p l i n a 17 ( 1 9 6 3 ) : 7 9 - 9 5 .  a  85  and  Tenor  voices,  the  p r e s e n t work, t h e r e a p p e a r s  the  lower,  flat  a n d a l l t h r e e v o i c e s have a low r a n g e .  pitches.  9 8  In  t o be c o n s c i o u s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f  The l o w e s t n o t e s u s e d  i n the contra  f and  tenor l i n e s  the  bottom  contra  a r e o ten F a n d even A  p i t c h T - u t o f t h e gamut  that  one i s n o t a c c u s t o m e d  and,  through  addition  the presence  sequence  (m.17), E - f l a t  Unusual sequences see  9 8  9 9  1  0  t o notes  to seeing altered  at this  period,  of these a c c i d e n t a l s ,  (m.18), D - f l a t  ficta  occur  F o r example  seems t o move t h r o u g h a  the notes A - f l a t  (m.16),  G-flat  (mm.19 a n d 2 0 ) , low B - f l a t  of t h i s  i n t h e work  t h e s e c t i o n s marked  notes.  9 9  the implied  had a p l a c e i n t h e G u i d o n i a n  f o r t h e music  that  a n d 23, t e n o r ) . applied  includes  2 1 ) , none o f w h i c h  below  ( s e e f o r example, m e a s u r e s 7,  16 a n d 22, t h e c a n t u s  that  situated  accidentals  o f y e t more " u n l i k e l y "  between m e a s u r e s  and  both  a n d 8, t e n o r , and m e a s u r e s 22, c o n t r a ,  A l s o unusual are manuscript  tonal  E-flat,  repertoire  hand.  a r e the c h a i n s of  (at measures  16-22, a n d 27-34;  i n F i g u r e 16 below, p . 1 0 7 ) .  sequence  h a s been n o t e d a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  but h e r e  i t i s featured  (m.20  of Solage's  prominently, receiving  The u s e o f style,  1 0 0  f a r more  T h i s work, c o n t a i n i n g a s f i c t a n o t e s o n l y F-, C- and G - s h a r p s , a p p e a r s t o be e x p l o r i n g o r r e q u i r i n g a t r a n s p o s e d r e c t a gamut, w i t h t h e h e x a c h o r d s on E , A a n d D ( s e e p.13 for further e x p l a n a t i o n o f gamut e x t e n s i o n s ) . The v i r e l a i , w h i c h o c c u r s i n the Modena m a n u s c r i p t , h a s been t r a n c r i b e d i n : F r e n c h S e c u l a r C o m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y , v o l . 1, e d . W i l l i A p e l and Samuel N. R o s e n b e r g ( C o r p u s M e n s u r a b i l i s M u s i c a e , Rome: A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f M u s i c o l o g y , 1970), pp.113-115, no.58. See t h e t r a n s c i p t i o n by G o r d o n G r e e n e , i n F r e n c h S e c u l a r M u s i c : The M a n u s c r i p t C h a n t i l l y , pp.165-166. See G o r d o n G r e e n e , F r e n c h S e c u l a r M u s i c : The M a n u s c r i p t C h a n t i l l y , no.13, T r e s g e n t iT"cueryand no.17, En 1'amoureux v e r g i e r , a n d t h e commentary t o t h e s e p i e c e s , p p . 149-150, 151.  0  86  attention  than  sequences are which take one  that  i s c u s t o m a r y -in works of matched by  the  music  on  an  this  period.  i n t r i g u i n g s e r i e s of  unusual harmonic  o c c u r s at measures  16-22  (see  these measures,  B-flat at  minor chord,  measures  17  'modern' way),  20  and  the  But  b o t h of  period  this  represented  chord,  Figure  the  7 b e l o w , p.  and  the  as  sequential  shown t h a t  were r e f e r r e d t o certain  the  implications  been  that  of  second of  the  (see  these the  following  Figure  six-three  final  text  f o r the  on  repeatable  h a r m o n i c and  in a F  at music  is also  16-17), that  and  uses a  a way  One  can  guess  to explore  theory,  composer, a  and  that  unusual  that  this  fumeuse  may  have c a r r i e d  fumosit£ f o r a m e d i e v a l m u s i c i a n .  1700's.  i m i t a t i o n are  chords  with  decades,  a  declares.  s i m i l a r musical  sequential  ear  would t e r m  chord  passages, c a l l e d  i n some m u s i c p u b l i c a t i o n s , as  1500's and  the  resolves  cadence  imitation in a l l voices of  87).  seventh  measure  the  r e s o l v i n g to a f i v e - e i g h t  s e q u e n c e s as  was,  7,  leading-tones.  t r e a t i s e s concerned with  early  diminished  h i t h e r t o known t o m u s i c  experimentation  The further  a  used these  a r e a s not  to catch  t o w a r d what we  'dominant' s o u n d o f  i t s doubly-raised  speculation,  the  19,  sequences  s u c h as  ' s i x - t h r e e ' harmonies a s s o c i a t e d  progression,  with  musical  has  the  (only  i n t h i s passage  composer  tonal  drive  i s a l s o , a t m e a s u r e s 21-22, a  standard  the  the  i n measure  and  measure 20.  there  s u c h as  tonal  excursions,  S t r a n g e p r e f i g u r a t i o n s of modern harmony a p p e a r at  Rhythmic  In  used to  fantasia,  well  as  improvisation,  written  their  the  sources,  illustrate  contrapuntal  how  structures  It  in between  examples  of  short, could  be  used  as  87  A mJ6rXX  f  f f M J >I l^r i 1'' t r f M  b)  F i g . 7. S e q u e n c e p a t t e r n s : a) G r e e n e ' s H a r m o n i c r e d u c t i o n (Fumeux f u m e ) .  J  l^r  f  fr  transcription,  88  memory-cues f o r i m p r o v i s i n g p a r t - m u s i c . mechanical  formulae  rhetoric,  was a p p a r e n t l y  linked  t h e a r s mnemonica, .taught  education,  and i t i s c l e a r  images p l a c e d  in loci  that  The u s e o f s u c h  such  t o a branch of  a s an e l e m e n t a r y formulae,  like  p a r t of a l l the conjured  i n t h e mind t o a i d m e m o r i s a t i o n ,  regarded  as u n r e a l and a r t i f i c i a l .  fantasia  by t h e o r i s t s  The c o n c e p t i o n  were  of the  h a s been summarized a s :  something which i s i m a g i n a r y , something u n r e a l and intangible. Because of i t s m e c h a n i s i t i c r e g u l a r i t y , i t i s l o o k e d on a s a p u r e l y a r t i f i c i a l c o n t r i v a n c e , an inherently unnatural progression springing d i r e c t l y from t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . . 1 0 1  Given  this  fantasia,  conception  so a p p r o p r i a t e a d e s c r i p t i o n  justifiable metaphors  o f t h e s e q u e n t i a l element  to consider  f o r fumosite^.  instruction  Since medieval  i n t h e a r s mnemonica,  a musical  this  work a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n  as  application  motivations  i r o n y , mocking  s p e c u l a t i v e matters,  i t c o u l d be  included  i t m i g h t have been p o s s i b l e  of/its t e x t .  was b e i n g made i n  T h e r e a r e a number o f  work: i t c o u l d have been  who i n d u l g e  i t s comic  an e x c u s e  education  of i t s processes  for this  those  of f u m o s i t y ,  t h e s e q u e n c e s o f Fumeux Fume a s m u s i c a l  that  possible  i m p l i e d by  i n such  intended  musically  t e x t c o u l d have p r o v i d e d t h e  composer  with  f o r indulging h i s musical  c u r i o s i t y , or  finally,  i t c o u l d have been t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r a  composer  t o make who was p r e s e n t  a t a g a t h e r i n g o f fumeurs , a  See G r e g o r y B u t l e r , "The f a n t a s i a a s m u s i c a l image", The M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 60 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 6 0 2 - 6 1 5 . I am g r a t e f u l t o D r . B u t l e r f o r d r a w i n g my a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . 1  89  teasing  piece with  extended  sequences,  But  and i t s " r o a r i n g  such music?  discussed that  fruits  bass  line".  ( B e r k e l e y , MS.  was c u r r e n t a t t h e t i m e speculation.  1 0 3  i t s over1 0 2  theory completely  the author  unable  just coincidence  of the s o - c a l l e d  7 4 4 ) , who  e x t e n s i o n s o f the system  o f h i s own  shifts,  I t may be more t h a n  t h e r e was one t h e o r i s t ,  Berkeley Manuscript  all  chromatic  was f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y music  to explain that  i t s lurching  i n 1375 had  of hexachords,  of w r i t i n g ,  setting  down  but a l s o adding the  The "new" n o t e s  used  i n Fumeux  fume a r e t h e v e r y same new n o t e s d e s c r i b e d by t h e B e r k e l e y theorist own  when d i s c u s s i n g  ideas as w e l l  Fumeux that  e x t e n s i o n s t o the hexachord  as those of o t h e r s .  fume a s a t e s t  p i e c e f o r new  the Berkeley t h e o r i s t  system, h i s  One c o u l d p o s s i b l y  ideas connected  was p r o p o u n d i n g ,  a truly  with  view those  avant-garde  work. In o r d e r author,  to i l l u s t r a t e  i t will  the s p e c u l a t i o n s of the Berkeley  be n e c e s s a r y  hexachord  system,  the l i g h t  o f o t h e r commonly a c c e p t e d  the  system  that  and t h e n  to describe b r i e f l y  the regular  to d i s c u s s h i s innovative ideas i n l a t e medieval  were r e c o r d e d by h i s c l o s e s t  extensions to  known  contemporaries.  102  S  e  e  w i l l i A p e l , French S e c u l a r Music of the F o u r t e e n t h Century  ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : M e d i e v a l Academy o f A m e r i c a ' 1950) ~ P « 30, no.40. See O l i v e r E l l s w o r t h , "The B e r k e l e y M a n u s c r i p t ( o l i m P h i l l i p p s 4 4 5 0 ) : A Compendium o f F o u r t e e n t h - C e n t u r y M u s i c T h e o r y " (Ph.D. d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1969) 2 v o l s .  1 0 3  90  The  R e g u l a r H e x a c h o r d s And Medieval  t h e o r i s t s had  naming t h e  pitches  monophonic  repertoire.  used  pedagogical purposes, chant,  in order  categorize  the  in medieval  to  e v o l v e d a method f o r  They a p p e a r in order new  to  t r e a t i s e s made use of  chant, a  teach  to  'scale'  In  described unit,  i d e n t i f i e d i t s degree w i t h i n  hexachord,  t h i s being  p r o c e s s of  below  p.^O),  (see  hexachord  illustrates  (henceforth  the  'solmization'.  uninflected,  t o be  referred  t  t  t o as  N),  or in  each p i t c h  s y l l a b l e which the  sing  arranged  addition,  for  to  s t a n d a r d method  six ascending pitches,  t t s t t.  system  t o h e l p them  a working  and  diatonic,  s t u d e n t s how  and  The of  reading  t o have u s e d t h e  pieces,  d i f f e r e n t modes.  tone-semitone p a t t e r n : a  Properties  in Gregorian  learn  hexachord, c o n s i s t i n g  assigned  Their  the was  the  Figure  8,  natura, and  i t s solmized  pitches.  intervals:  s  t  pitches:  C  D  E  F  G  A  solmization syllables:  ut  re  mi  fa  sol  la  Fig.  8.  The  natural  Two  further  h e x a c h o r d s were u s e d  the  pitches  B - f l a t and  after as  t  M),  the and  B-natural:  p i t c h B - f l a t used the  hexachord  to allow the  (N)  f o r the  solmization  " s o f t " hexachord,  in i t , B-mollis  " h a r d " h e x a c h o r d , named a f t e r  ( t o be the  so-named  referred  pitch  of  B-  to  91  natural, about  B-durum  ( t o be r e f e r r e d  t h e s y s t e m was t h a t  semitone  could  always  whatever  The c a r d i n a l  hexachord  be r e c o g n i z e d  between t h e s o l m i z a t i o n  mi and f a .  The f e a t u r e s  the t h r e e  hexachords,  such as t h e m i - f a placement  p. 9 5 ) , i l l u s t r a t e s each hexachord hexachords a total  number  "mutation",  i n which  i n order to allow  from G up t o e ' ' , g i v i n g  starting-points,  solmization  to i t .  point,  t o t h e common p i t c h . i s derived  This point  show t h a t  was t e r m e d  A.XI.).  i s r e p r e s e n t e d below  9 7 ) , showing  the overlapping  Figure  t r e a t i s e by  ( t o be r e f e r r e d  p.  being applied  coniunctio.  Anonymous XI o f Coussemaker gamut  mutation  with the appropriate  from t h e f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  The e n t i r e  hexachord,  A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t known  theory t r e a t i s e s  possible  was u s e d  to continue,  from b o t h t h e o l d a n d t h e new h e x a c h o r d  *  or deductiones  the range of i t s i n i t i a l  foreign  a t the l a s t  1 0  9 (see  range o f a v a i l a b l e  a p i t c h common t o two h e x a c h o r d s  how i t was done i n p r a c t i c e ,  11 below  Figure  11 ( s e e p . 9 6 ) , shows t h e p r o c e s s known a s  introduce pitches  syllables  and p i t c h -  p. 95).  t h e melody go o u t s i d e  occurred  each of  of the s y l l a b l e s of  The e n t i r e  to extend  of seven p o s s i b l e  as a p i v o t - n o t e  or  differentiated  'properties'.  t o a chant melody.  10 b e l o w ,  Figure  that  the proper a p p l i c a t i o n  a l l o w e d t h e system  (see F i g u r e  should  t o as t h e i r  point  one was u s i n g , t h e  syllables  r a n g e , were r e f e r r e d  1 0  t o as D).  t o h e n c e f o r t h as ( s e e F i g u r e 12,  of t h e hexachord p i t c h e s and  * See Edmond de C o u s s e m a k e r , S c r i p t o r u m de m u s i c a m e d i i a e v i novam s e r i e m a G e r b e r t i n a a l t e r a m . ( P a r i s : A . D u r a n d , 18641876), Anonymous X I , v o l . 3 , p . 421b.  92  their  solmization  indicate for  the  syllables.  exact  p i t c h of  and  would  superacuta While  majority  the  the  reoccur  were u s e d t o  s u c h as  to the  examples  increased  with  counterpoint, pitches  theory  medieval concern also ficta  since  the  of  to l o c a t e the  n o t e was  ficta  The  of  often  ficta had  acuta  range. the  exceptions,  were  'outside' not  be  number of  required  adjustment  Such a d j u s t e d or m u s i c a  t o be  'feigned'. the  p r o d u c e d by  the  there  regular  c r e a t i o n of  had  existed  since The  singer's had  hexachords.  a semitone out  none.  notes  falsa,  semitone c o r r e c t l y , a concern which the  such  polyphonic  notes r e f l e c t s  nomenclature of  t o n e , where p r e v i o u s l y  the  which c o u l d  consonances.  t h e y were i m a g i n a r y , and  i n f l u e n c e d the  and  theory.  t h e o r i s t s musica  explanation  of  that  same  terms  suitable for  g r o w i n g use  vertical  the  part  e-flat,  such c o m p o s i t i o n s  to create  were t e r m e d by  1 0 5  or  current  the  Where t h e  octave,  to  theorists did;  were a l w a y s some  r e p e r t o i r e of a v a i l a b l e p i t c h e s according  fa ut'.  above was  there  i t is possible  medieval  i n d i c a t e that  f-sharp  solmized  system,  n o t e , as  i s 'F  system d e s c r i b e d  notes  this  at a higher  of c h a n t m e l o d i e s ,  including  in  any  example, F below m i d d l e c  designation  of  In  of  A a  1 0 5  See O l i v e r E l l s w o r t h , "The o r i g i n of t h e c o n i u n c t a : r e a p p r a i s a l " , J o u r n a l o f M u s i c T h e o r y 17 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 91. c i t e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n of J o h a n n e s de G a r l a n d i a .  a Ellsworth  93  The  Coniuncta It  these  would  seem t h a t by t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  f e i g n e d notes  name, c o n i u n c t a e ; of  was so f a m i l i a r  as they  1375, i t i s c l e a r  are described  that  these  would have been c o n s i d e r e d jusification, foreign.  1 0 6  p i t c h e s a s an a s p e c t  their  normal mutation  of  the coniuncta  related  process.  h a d a c q u i r e d a new  i n the Berkeley  treatise  in earlier  now have some  considered  theorist  these  they  p i t c h e s , which  unusual,  a n d a r e no l o n g e r  The B e r k e l e y  that  t h e use o f  times  theoretical  as a b s o l u t e l y  d i s c u s s e s t h e f o r m a t i o n of t o r e g u l a r h e x a c h o r d s and  He l i n k s  the l a t t e r  t o the topic  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner:  If you c o n s i d e r these matters c a r e f u l l y , together with the e x a m p l e s below, y o u w i l l be a b l e t o i n s p e c t e v e r y s y l l a b l e of a n y song and d e t e r m i n e i t s p r o p e r p l a c e i n t h e s y s t e m , u n l e s s by c h a n c e some u n u s u a l p r o g r e s s i o n s h o u l d t u r n up, w h i c h some i n c o r r e c t l y c a l l m u s i c a f a l s a , o t h e r s m u s i c a ficta. S t i l l o t h e r s p r o p e r l y c a l l them c o n i u n c t a e , b e c a u s e , l i k e c o n j u n c t i o n s , t h e y t a k e p l a c e by t h e r e g u l a r p r o p e r t i e s mentioned above. And so t h e s e c o n i u n c t a e were i n v e n t e d so t h a t a song f o r m e r l y c a l l e d i r r e g u l a r c o u l d be b r o u g h t i n t o r e g u l a r i t y by them i n some manner. For the c o n i u n c t a i s t h e a t t r i b u t e , r e a l i z e d i n a c t u a l s i n g i n g , of m a k i n g a s e m i t o n e o u t o f a t o n e a t any p o i n t , a n d v i c e versa. Or, r a t h e r , a c o n i u n c t a i s the mental t r a n s p o s i t i o n of any p r o p e r t y o r h e x a c h o r d f r o m i t s own l o c a t i o n t o a n o t h e r above o r b e l o w . 1 0 7  There a r e three p o i n t s that a r e e s p e c i a l l y  1 0 6  noteworthy i n  E l l s w o r t h , i n "The B e r k e l e y M a n u s c r i p t " , pp. 28-30, draws a t t e n t i o n t o an o p e r a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e c o n i u n c t a t h a t was d i s c u s s e d by Jerome o f M o r a v i a , w r i t i n g between 1272 and 1304. Transposing the i n t e r v a l l i c p a t t e r n s of the t e t r a c h o r d rather t h a n t h e h e x a c h o r d , t h i s t h e o r i s t d e s c r i b e d how t o p r o d u c e f l a t s on t h e p i t c h e s A, B, D, E , and G. According to Ellsworth, this may s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e x a c h o r d t r a n s p o s i t i o n occurred e a r l y i n the fourteenth century. See O l i v e r E l l s w o r t h , "The B e r k e l e y M a n u s c r i p t " , v o l . 1 , pp. 90-91.  1 0 7  94  this  passsage.  appropriate spoken  synonym  existed  f o r some t i m e  a song  formerly  normal  that  account  new  creating  location.  this  be b r o u g h t  This  theorist  i s h i s own  this  of the p r o p e r t i e s last  a new  But t h e B e r k e l e y  i t ,occasionally  semitone.  to refer  shows  into  theorist  p o i n t i n g out of the  of the matter.  At the p o i n t  to i t ) ,  The t h e o r i s t  lower  states  ( \> a n d \ ) a r e u s e d ,  semitone could  the upper  intervals,  would  that  a new  pitch,  i t mi  t h i s must  occur  the Berkeley  calling  (see F i g u r e  the signs  respectively,  On t h e b a s i s  be p r o d u c e d .  the hexachord  a t which  between t h e p i t c h e s C and D, f o r  t h e l o w e r one, c a l l i n g  these o p e r a t i o n s . these  view  t h e c o n i u n c t a i s t o be " t a k e n " , a s  likes  or r a i s e  durum  point  c o n i u n c t a i s best understood as the p r o c e s s used f o r  example, one c a n e i t h e r  97).  into  expansion of the theory i n i t s  he a l s o e x t e n d s  a n d what  i n v e n t e d so  t h e o r y h a d expanded t o t a k e  performing p r a c t i c e s .  (or a t which  A-ut  could  i s the a c c e p t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the o p e r a t i o n  The  p.  the formerly  t o a s i f they had a l r e a d y  irregular  the t r a d i t i o n a l  state;  coniuncta  fa,  somewhat  so t h e s e c o n i u n c t a e were  to another  describe  a s a more  secondly, coniunctae are  i s done t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n  not m e r e l y  current  ("And called  hexachords  clearly  what  ficta,  by them i n some m a n n e r " ) , a n d f i n a l l y ,  legitimizing  does  f o r musica  n o t e s , and a r e r e f e r r e d  regularity  of  the coniuncta i s treated  o f a s a means o f l e g i t i m i z i n g  irregular  that  Firstly,  this  note  13a a n d b,  f o r B m o l l i s and B  to indicate  each of  of t h e s y l l a b l e s mi a n d f a o f hexachord  starting  on t h e p i t c h  I f t h e c o n i u n c t a had r e q u i r e d  b e g i n on A - f l a t ,  and  presumably  a  flat,  95  O H  *»t  *  #  * ^  *  ri mt  »*  D  P n  -ae-  1*A  ih—;  -0—  #  —•  '  /k  fa\ *  *  fa  » m  *  *  - «  -  *i  rt  *.  «* («•  *M *«*  b m 9  re  *-  bo*  m  la.  «M%  *  a;  hC m m  -  * *  9  MM1 *  C9 .  9  Fig.  Fig.  10.  9.  The  The a p p l i c a t i o n of the hexachords.  seven d e d u c t i o n e s o f the hexachord  system.  96  aol  X  N  •  r*  — ^  fa.  >  ok to Sol  ^ ~ ^ Sol^re sol fa. sol/  « i *o\\  ft  mt  K  wt  > uti  t»e)  5o rni  rt  ut  vt l  *  0—j N  to tot  to it.  mt r e f * * • ! ,  fa.  sol  fa.  m% t*.  vk  »el ufc)  r«.i fo- at r« •fa  mi  ttfc t o me.  3  # M p  r e ( f a. i d r e re  ot  re  wl  F i g . 11. hexachords.  M u t a t i o n s f o r n a t u r a , m o l l i s and durum  D I 14  n  TIL  P  ]g  ut — ml fa ut  sol U rt mi (t f I to  * * ut  fr  501  •fa,  *  sol la  ut rt mi  .1 U ut >-*. At ^a „t rg wu, £o. »»t la.  o is. f  F i g . 12. hexachords.  ©  ***  Create  —^  AC<J  (b)«Jififccrv*l  3  The gamut and the d e d u c t i o n s  semitone b«b*je*rt C a*<A  &  —A  ^«ves •  tru-^ja.  oF'  mi  of i t s  0.  ja,  -e-  Fig.  13.  The o p e r a t i o n  of the coniuncta.  98  i n c l u d e whatever other hexachord p a t t e r n .  flats  I f the  were n e c e s s a r y  coniuncta  h e x a c h o r d w o u l d have t o s t a r t necessary is  f o r the  Berkeley  t h a t must be  used, the  the  its  According  property.  hexachord thus accidental another  t h a t has  s i n c e the  transposition. B-mollis  (M,  b e c a u s e of the  a  on  w o u l d a l s o be the  natura.  coniunctae,  direction  of  their  Figure  their  taken  t h a t had  theorist  that are a v a i l a b l e ,  apparent.  I t i s shown i n two i t ; and  secondly,  the  being  a t D-E  but  and  the p r o p e r t y  on D - f l a t  when h i s own  give  natura,  same  way,  (created F-mi-G-fa),  99),  illustrates the  this  number  his originality  with  point  a s d e s c r i b e d by  d i s c u s s e s the  yet  of  In t h e  ( s e e p.  a  signed  s e m i t o n e , and  ways: f i r s t l y ,  to  d e f i n i n g semitone  a p p l i e d at the below  of  i t s proximity  C hexachord.  14  of  h e x a c h o r d s , p r o p e r t i e s and  coniunctae  indicate  on  latter's  E-flat  transposition,  When t h e B e r k e l e y  the  the nature  the  Thus, a c o n i u n c t a  sign B-mollis being  the  property  w o u l d p r o d u c e a D-  the  to  theorist,  i s c o n s i d e r e d as  to the  assigned  the  and  been a p p l i e d , but  i t s closeness  of  gives r i s e ,  u n l i k e l y - l o o k i n g hexachord beginning  through  all  to t h i s  B-flat  operation  t o which t h i s  h e x a c h o r d and  t o a h e x a c h o r d on  This  i t i s taken,  solmization syllable  coniuncta  sharps  in his description  p o i n t at which  deduction  just  the  13).  formed depends not  traditional  pitches,  rise  new  i n c l u d e the  i s thorough  mentions the  changed p i t c h ,  and  normal  employed a s h a r p ,  i t s hexachord.  (see F i g u r e  theorist  e a c h c o n i u n c t a : he sign  A,  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  i l l u s t r a t e d Steve The  on  had  to produce a  theorist.  of  becomes q u i t e  h i s own  examples of  words the  99  4*AA property. flit * g i « V i K r * " * " « W i r t ^  4\ « * n ? bit% 1  5  toaffrj)  t> ftftfrtfinj li  Pof** f »"* f  -  E.  Pr-""  1  r.  35  2E  3E  7  «  4f  Fig. treatise,  14. and  Coniunctae p r e s e n t e d i n the B e r k e l e y t h e i r derived hexachords.  100  coniuncta  are  compared w i t h  choronologically greater  by  of  the c l o s e s t  surviving treatises,  v a r i e t y and  introduced  those  the  theorist  t h a n by  t o be  r e f e r r e d t o as V I . ) , w h i c h A l b e r t Seay d a t e d and  (A.XI.),  dated  We He  can  declares  coniunctae at  ten.  in  saying  refuses  deal  with  as  that his  :  i n t o the  pitch than  Anonymous XI  1450. the  seven, eight  5129  (henceforth  around  i n Coussemaker  Berkeley current  author's opinions  o r more, he  own  words  give  himself  the  treatise  really  as a new  coniuncta  graves area  104).  described  of the  the  puts the  semitone  i t s deduction lowest  on  justified  B-flat, (see  this  F below T u t ,  pitch  of  he  which  pitch  around  of  number  since  number one  A hexachord b u i l t  traditionally  eleven,  gamut t h e  coniuncta  first.  number  h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w o u l d have been  would begin the  slightly  1 0 9  theorists called  15 b e l o w , p .  lower  by  t h a t , although  to c o n s i d e r  inflected note  around  which other  Figure  treatise  In e f f e c t ,  introduced and  the  lat.  a  are  two  sources:  1 0 8  L i b e l l u s musicus, Vat.  the  later  1 400,  that  a l a r g e r number of a c c i d e n t a l s  Berkeley  the  i t i s obvious  the  one  gamut.  A l b e r t Seay, e d . , L i b e l l u s m u s i c a e , C o r p u s s c r i p t o r u m de m u s i c a , 9 (Rome: A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f M u s i c o l o g y , I 9 6 4 ) p . 15. The c o n i u n c t a i s m e n t i o n e d on p a g e s 27, 32, and 46-47. See CS. v o l . 3 , pp. 426-430. U g o l i n o of O r v i e t o , w r i t i n g a r o u n d 1430, c o n s t r u c t e d h e x a c h o r d s on t h e p i t c h e s F, B - f l a t and E - f l a t , e s s e n t i a l l y c r e a t i n g a t r a n s p o s e d gamut b e g i n n i n g on F below r . He a l s o t a b u l a t e d h e x a c h o r d s on B - n a t u r a l , E - n a t u r a l , D, and C below r , and m e n t i o n e d a h e x a c h o r d on A, t o a c c o u n t f o r the p i t c h C-sharp. He d i d n o t use t h e t e r m c o n i " n c t a , d i s c u s s i n g the above i n the c o n t e x t of musica f i c t a . See E l l s w o r t h , "The B e r k e l e y M a n u s c r i p t " , v o l . 2 , p.23, and Andrew Hughes, M a n u s c r i p t A c c i d e n t a l s : F i c t a i n F o c u s , 1350-1450. (Musicological Studies and Documents 27, Rome: A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f M u s i c o l o g y " 1972), pp. 21-39.  1 0 8  1 0 9  101  Earlier this  in h i streatise,  new p i t c h  reckoned  the Berkeley  had a l r e a d y  "by a r t " (secundum a r t e m ) t o t h o s e  on t h e G u i d o n i a n  hand,  1 1 0  secundum a r t e m , a h e x a c h o r d b u i l t logically  theorist  t h a t c o u l d be  a n d s o he c l a i m e d on t h i s  note  added  that,  was q u i t e  acceptable:  A c c o r d i n g t o common p r a c t i c e t h e f i r s t c o n i u n c t a i s t a k e n between A a n d B g r a v e s ; i t i s s i g n e d on A [ r e a d : B] w i t h the a c c i d e n t a l t , and i t s hexachord b e g i n s (they say) f u r t h e r below under r , s o t h a t f a i s sung on B g r a v i s .... But I , b e g i n n i n g t h e hand o r p a l m a c c o r d i n g t o a r t (below on F g r a v i s ) , s a y t h a t t h e r e i s no c o n i u n c t a on B g r a v i s ; f o r where t r a d i t i o n s a y s B-mi, I s a y B - f a - B - m i , a s I s t a t e d above. 1 1 1  The  Berkeley  theorist  the  common p r a c t i c e  claims  f o r himself  of h i s time:  between F a n d A g r a v i s , g i v i n g h e x a c h o r d on t h e v e r y a of  hisfirst  an A - f l a t E-flat  departure  coniuncta  fa that  this  example,  " But common p r a c t i c e  other  letters The  light  initiates a  below T - u t .  Calling  source  says  does n o t u s e t h i s the l e t t e r  F with the  i n n o v a t i o n s of the Berkeley  theorist  come t o  c o m p a r i s o n w i t h V I . a n d A . X I . , t h e two  chronologically treatment  he  this  o f t h e hand."  other  through  i t does n o t r e c k o n  from  i s taken  t r a n s p o s i t i o n downward o f t h e h e x a c h o r d on F below T ,  c o n i u n c t a , because  successive sources  of coniunctae.  that provide  comprehensive  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o have been a common  of information f o r a l l three  treatises,  since the musical  See E l l s w o r t h , "The B e r k e l e y M a n u s c r i p t " , p . 84: "Now one o f t h e l e t t e r s o u t s i d e t h e hand, F, i s n o t i n common u s e , b u t a c c o r d i n g t o a r t i t may be p l a c e d a t t h e f i r s t j o i n t o f t h e middle f i n g e r o u t s i d e t h e hand." E l l s w o r t h , "The B e r k e l e y M a n u s c r i p t " , p . 92.  1 1 0  1 1 1  low p i t c h  another  102  examples c i t e d for  in illustration  A.XI.  Figure  1 1 2  of the coniuncta  15 and T a b l e  t h e m a t e r i a l on c o n i u n c t a e treatises.  Figure  coniunctae  treatise.  Table  coniunctae  clearly  best  conservative coniunctae  in detail  for illustrating  The common p r a c t i c e i n the l a t e r  i n both  two s o u r c e s ,  of these  i n three areas:  the very  a hexachordal B.1.);  their  more  i s eight, a  theorist's assertion e i g h t o r more".  theorist  he e x t e n d e d  developed the  i t s u s e downward  low r a n g e o f t h e gamut, i n t h i s  process  b a s i s f o r t h e "new" n o t e  ( s e e F i g u r e 15,  secondly,  lowering  firstly,  with  The number o f  treatises  out the Berkeley  t h e use  of the p e r i o d i s  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c o n i u n c t a .  mentioned  i n each  a l l of the p r a c t i c a l  15 b e l o w , shows t h a t t h e B e r k e l e y  coniuncta  he r e a l i z e d  f a at the coniuncta  only a p p l i e d raised  E-flat  the t h e o r e t i c a l  providing  p o s s i b i l i t y of  p o i n t s where common p r a c t i c e h a d  mi (between C-D a n d F - G ) , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of hexachords which  flat  and G - f l a t  (seeFigure  and,  finally,  1 1 2  i s provided  w r i t e r s u s u a l l y gave t h e number a s " s e v e n ,  Figure  into  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e f o r m a t i o n  i n the three t r e a t i s e s i n chant.  and i n  i n each of the three  solmization that  number w h i c h seems t o b e a r that  presented  2 compares  reflected  i n Berkeley  2 (see p. 105), a l l o w comparison of  15 p r e s e n t s  and t h e i r  examples c i t e d of  a r e o f t e n t h e same  a l l t h r e e , a n d t h e r e a r e even c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e s between t h e  wording of d e f i n i t i o n s  of  of coniunctae  included E - f l a t ,  A-flat,  D-  15, B.2, B.4, B.6, B.8, a n d B . 1 0 . ) ;  he made p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e c o n i u n c t a  See E l l s w o r t h , "The B e r k e l e y  Manuscript",  producing  v o l . 2 , p . 24  C-  103  sharp/D-flat treatises 15,  t o occur  t h i s had been p l a c e d  B.2, B . 1 0 . ) .  provides  and  include  represent  A.XI  that  adding  the f r u i t  'Fumeux  2).  This  new  one i s s t r u c k  in  for  f o r the coniunctae  known  support  from o t h e r  for in this  of t h e s e  t h e o r i s t and the u n u s u a l  piece,  and E - f l a t ,  and t h e A-,  are accounted  f o r by t h e  t h e o r i s t ' s examples.  but only  appropriate  i s , of c o u r s e ,  A  r o n d e a u d o e s n o t work o u t e a s i l y i n  of the v o i c e - p a r t .  i n the t r i p l u m  and  by t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e  The low F, B - f l a t  mutation, exceeding  reason  sources,  fume i n t h e l i g h t  through the Berkeley  t h e lower v o i c e s ,  requiring  to the  and o c c a s i o n a l l y d i s j u n c t i o n s , t h e v i o l e n t  solmization  that  Theorist.  f r o m one h e x a c h o r d t o a n o t h e r , a r e t h e o n l y  necessary  even  speculation.  hexachordal a n a l y s i s of t h i s  the  theorist  new m a t e r i a l ,  further  of the Berkeley  o f t h i s work.  hexachords created  over  lends  t h e r o n d e a u Fumeux  suggestions  voices,  (see F i g u r e  the Berkeley  this  examples  material  o f h i s own  D- and G - f l a t s a s k e d  all  that  Fume' And I n n o v a t i o n s Of The B e r k e l y  innovations,  pitches  i n the acutae  illustrate  musical  he was u s i n g  Considering  truly  only  common p r a c t i c e , and w h i c h m a t c h t h o s e o f V I .  (see t a b l e  belief  t h e gamut, w h e r e a s i n t h e o t h e r  It i s significant  no e x a m p l e s t h a t  t h o u g h he does would  throughout  This  once d o e s  way  o c c u r s more  crossing  to continue frequently  i t a p p e a r t o be  (see a p p e n d i x C ).  Of t h e two c a u s e s  t h e a m b i t u s o f o n e ' s h e x a c h o r d and  s y l l a b l e s f o r a semitone,  the l a t t e r  t h e d o m i n a n t one f o r much  of the mutation  104  F i g . 15. Coniunctae described i n Berkeley, Vat. l a t . 5129, a n d A n o n . X I . , s h o w i n g p o i n t s a t w h i c h coniunctae are taken, the d i r e c t i o n o f the a l t e r e d p i t c h e s , new s o l m i z a t i o n , and ( i n B e r k e l e y ) , new deductions.  105 CONIUNCTA  SIGN PROPERTY  CONIUNCTA NUMBER  l~-A gravis  bA  11  I B.(secundum artem)  A-B gravis.  \>B  11  I B.(secundum usum) VI., A.XI.  EXAMPLES CITED BY THEORISTS  CONIUNCTA OCCURS AT:  Resp. Sancta et immaculata " " Emendemus in meiius " ". ...ifuerunt sine querela Ant. A timore"  non poterant et miserere calicem domini eripe Domine animam meam  All.  in oriente  C-D gravis #C bD  D D  II B.  D-E gravis  N  Ill B., II VI., A.XI. Resp. Gaude Maria virgo Ant. Gloriosa sanctissimi " 0 crux gioriosa  interemlsti et pirecibus et mifablle" signum  N  IV B., III VI., A.XI. Comm. Beatus servus Gloria in exceisis deo (B. only)  invenerit vigllantem Missus est anpelus  H  V B., IV VI.,A.XI.  Comm. Fidelis servus Resp. Conclusit vias meas Resp. Jesum tradidit impius  in tempore lapidem contra me "in several places"  All. Assumpta es Maria ln caelum Resp. Ave (Comm. Beatus servus)  jubilus of Alleluia triclina (invenerit vigllantem)  bE  F-G gravis #F VG  Ggr.-a acuta l>a  c-d acuta  d-e acuta  $c  N  D  VI B., V VI., A.XI.  bd  D  (B. only)  be  H  VII B., VI VI., A.XI. Ant. Int. All.  Vidimus stellam eius in oriente  tg'  N  VIII B., VII VI.,A.XI. Ant. Hodle Maria virgo Comm. Si consurrexistis Ant. Liberavit Caro mea (not discussed in B.) (B. only)  g acutata a superacuta  M  IX B., VIII VI., A.XI.  c-d super- $ c acuta bd  D D  X B.  f-g acuta  $f  N  /._  Maria (in incipit) aue sursum est (same as incipit)  y  'V  y  _/:_.  —  . • y  A.XI.  y  v. y  y.  y  . y ...  A.XI.  __.y ...  •  ;  l _....,  •/:r; | ! i j  v....  y  -i  i j  j  2.--Information  on c o n i u n c t a e  i n Berkeley,  V a t . l a t . 5129,  y  y.  ...v. . V  -----  a n d Anon. X I .  A.XI. (at 5th.)  y „y  y  A.XI. _v. • ti 1  ! ! 1  j  i Table  - ••  —  ,  y  V  i I : i  —  y  __y...  •  -  V.  —  •  i  y  y y  71"  y y  . v  .  7  y  jejunemus [same as incipit) nobis  Immutemur Adorate deum Hultlpharle  TREATISES NOTATED INCIPITS MUTATED CONIUNCTAE TRANSPOSED B. VI. A.XI.B. VI. A.XI.B. VI. A.XI. ALTERNATIVES  106  that  must o c c u r It  in this  i s not easy  precisely  which  F i g u r e 16 below  on  the l i n e  f o r the p i t c h  interpreted  be  of a p p l y i n g  all  they might  the  tenor part,  be  fail  t h a n one  unlikely.  cancelling follow.  1  1  other.  'true'  we  1 1 8  In a d d i t i o n , ones,  F o r t h e sake  to possible  i s made  i f t h e y were Certainly,  sharp sign  in this  are dealing  of the e x e r c i s e , by G r e e n e ,  (see  w i t h more that  notes  that  then, the top l i n e has  to  work t o  a possibility  than a f f e c t i n g  in  appear  some o f t h e a c c i d e n t a l s may  rather  to  The  1 1 3  of the other a c c i d e n t a l s  that  be  that i s  T h i s appears  t h e same hand;  the  pitch  s u r e , f o r example, i f  of a c c i d e n t a l a p p l i c a t i o n s ,  earlier  coniunctae.  be q u i t e  s i g n s a r e used  suggest  Fumeux fume as t r a n s c r i b e d according  and  t o the note  i n such a case  with each  from t h a t  b o t h tj and $  T h i s may  layer  never  flat  such  such a c c i d e n t a l s  suitable?  syllables  to agree  t h e one  16), and  i n d i c a t e mi.  can  Should  example,  i n the cantus i s  b o t h G r e e n e and A p e l .  were added by  i n a hand d i f f e r e n t  Figure  not  a p p l i e d by  One  flat  applying  logically  hexachord  the a c c i d e n t a l s  not,  first  For  c , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no  i s most  doubly d i f f i c u l t .  the  indications,  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  task  107)  manuscript,  i s governing.  the cantus l i n e .  as rough  or t h a t  i n the o r i g i n a l  an a c c i d e n t a l  ( s e e , p.  n o t a t e d anywhere on  most n e a r  to t e l l ,  pitch  in  piece.  is  be will of  been a n a l y s e d  hexachordal mutations  involving  What emerges i s a means o f s i n g i n g  this  vocal  line  See W i l l i A p e l and Samuel R o s e n b e r g , e d s . , F r e n c h S e c u l a r C o m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y , no.103, and G r e e n e , The S e c u l a r M u s i c o f C h a n t i l l y , no.98. See Andrew Hughes, F i c t a i n F o c u s , p . 40, i t e m 14.  3  1 1 8  107  -P policy :-  time  11  .iimcufc  mc  t  |ycntljcu>H v  Ii ftimfiu'.» I p," cV Aim er l.ivrnfcf -. — i .TIT tmdZ3.iMt-nimj.r 1  Ttrunoir-  rr  ti'* i "i'» i  t  f  * indicates '-, i n d i c a t e s  r  ""i  sequential passages. red notation i n original.  F i g . 16. F a c s i m i l e o f Fumeux fume, Musee Conde, MS. 564, f o l . 59, no.~9~87  Chantilly,  108  according  t o what may  solmization.  have been  a contemporary  That passages i n t h i s  as G - f l a t  would  ficta  t h e use o f t h e h e x a c h o r d was  and  The M u s i c a l  seem t o i n d i c a t e  song have  S t r u c t u r e Of  The m u s i c a l structure, is  often  The  consisting  first  of four  17a, b, and c , p .  its  this  measures  14-15.  immediately sequence  (measure that  111).  sounds  The piece:  first  first  consists  former  to absurd i s very  brief,  (see F i g u r e  in turn  lead  internal  cadence, at  terminated, another i s on one  (measures B-flat  of the  16-22),  that  ends  inexorable  repeating section  the  one  o f t h e r o n d e a u has a c a n t u s p a r t  a r e a s and  l i k e a musical  of melisma,  too-long  caricature  that  with  sequences. one m i g h t  The imagine  t y p e o f fumosite^.  same o b s e r v a t i o n  the f i r s t  passages  almost e n t i r e l y  tonal  the  1-3), b u t t h e n  the note F  time b u i l t  part  poetic  i n l e n g t h when compared w i t h  melisma  t o the f i n a l  This  be a m u s i c a l  (measures  T h e s e move t o t h e f i r s t  constantly-changing  to  increasing  the  i s concise,  take sequences  Three short  p a s s a g e s o f t h i s work  22).  undertaken.  work c o n t r a d i c t s  centred around  initiated, this  therefore  result  that  n o t e s , G-E-G-A  This  same m e l o d i c c e l l  being  m u s i c a l phrase of the rondeau  note, each  predecessor.  f l a t s g o i n g as f a r  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n musica  f o r where t h e l a t t e r  begins a long melisma,  toward  of t h i s  e x t e n d e d by m e l i s m a s  lengths.  of  'Fumeux Fume'  structure  i n a way,  that  practice  phrase  h o l d s f o r the second s e c t i o n  (measures  23  of  this  t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f measure  109  26),  followed  chromatic  sequences.  significance two  by y e t a n o t h e r m e l i s m a  point  portion  passage  to the f i n a l  in a series  similar  (see F i g u r e  each group  i s raised  b  be drawn t o w a r d  by a  sign.  back a g a i n .  standard  t o be s e e n  sign  receives  long  before  note of  it.  This  i n the succeeding melodic  c h r o m a t i c change  c o u l d be  o f a poem c o n c e r n e d w i t h  i s exactly  813.  29 and  i n the o r i g i n a l  The f i n a l placed  t o one p i t c h  than i t i s  how Deschamps d e s c r i b e d h i s  Would composers  have  At each h a l f - n o t e pause,  a r e unexpected and s t a r t l i n g :  C-sharp minor  s h a r p minor  groups of  w i s h e d t o be  o f s t r a n g e o r wayward c o m p o s i t i o n o c c u r  these measures.  triads,  final  sequence,  Each group  t h e n o t e change  This  A  as t h i s ?  More examples  sonorities  swift  f o r the s e t t i n g  fumous moods i n b a l l a d e  during  \\ o r $  Such  f u m o s i t y : no s o o n e r does  as l i t e r a l  the small  16, s y s t e m t w o ) .  i s then c a n c e l l e d  deemed a p p r o p r i a t e  changed  35).  on F .  chromatic treatment, c l e a r l y  with a  'tag' that  chromatic  of four-note u n i t s :  alteration  i t s sequence-  i n the musical  time a r i s i n g  the other  o c c u r i n t h e c a n t u s , between m e a s u r e s  manuscript  unit  this  cadence,  should  syncopations that  pitch  t o complete  once and f o r a l l (measure  of the melisma,  Attention  34,  i n order  absurd  g o i n g so low below  ( s e e measure 3 4 ) , and a l s o  rounds o f f t h i s  leads  be some c o m i c a l l y  i n the cantus l i n e ' s  parts at this  pattern  There might  composed o f d e s c e n d i n g  (measure  (measure  i n fourteenth-century  one h e a r s t h e e f f e c t o f  2 8 ) , E minor,  3 2 ) , and A m i n o r works.  the v e r t i c a l  (measure  (measure  3 0 ) , F-  34), hardly  C l a s h e s from  false  110  relations those  of  a r e produced  m e a s u r e s 27  and  32  surely  This  text  an a s c e n d i n g  have been  examination  undertaken concerning  sixth  by way  configurations  to discover possible fumeurs and  to point  to s e v e r a l  this  indeed the case  and  o f an  i n t e n d e d by  of Solage's  possible was  tritone,  111).  then  such  this  and  i n both  i s followed fifth!  A  Hasprois' ballade  the m u s i c a l s e t t i n g . that  the  perversity.  relationships  passages  between  Twice,  augmented  rondeau  and  t h e c o n t r a v o i c e must  (see F i g u r e 18 below, p.  a s c e n d i n g major  j o k e must  of t h e s e c h o r d s  Finally,  for i t s strange melodic  melody o u t l i n e s  was  the notes  the p r e c e d i n g measures.  be m e n t i o n e d ,  by an  between  between I t has  strongly  compositions.  the been  suggest  that  Ill  b  point of- f»rxt intromal eaoience  F i g . 17. P a s s a g e s l e a d i n g t o w a r d t h e p i t c h F, a n d u l t i m a t e l y t o w a r d t h e f i r s t c a d e n c e i n Fumeux fume, s h o w i n g t h e i r g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s ing length.  tenor  F i g . 18. M e l o d i c i n t e r v a l s o u t l i n e d i n c o n t r a v o i c e b e t w e e n m e a s u r e s 27 a n d 32 (Fumeux f u m e ) .  112  III.  A SUMMARY OF  POETRY, AND OF  INFORMATION CONCERNING  'FUMEUR' MUSIC  SOME SPECULATIONS CONCERNING SOLAGE AND  THE  BERKELEY T R E A T I S E , AND  A Summary Of  Information  THEIR  Concerning  THE  AND  AUTHOR  IDENTITIES.  F u m e u r  Music  And  Poetry Puisque c h a n g e s and patter. and  je sui  fumeux  is characterized  a textual underlay  In c o n t r a s t  contains  with  this,  sequences t h a t  c h r o m a t i c i s m and  their  with  t o n e , has  i t s learned  that  produces a  strain  crediblity  repetition.  a musical  be  s a i d t o approach the  trivial  by  Solage  in i t s text,  makes i t s p o i n t chromatic called and  material,  speculative.  s e t t i n g as  humour  being  and  through the  I t may at  of  d'etre.  reference  to  innovative r e g a r d e d as  the  text,  are  the  illustrating  are but  Berkely their  such t h e o r e t i c a l i n v e n t i o n  has  use  at  that to  a cause the  gives  i t s "new"  of could  regard  be  text  a cause  of  musical  be  application.  them  n o t e s and  their even a  connected with  t h e o r i s t , and  itself  that  f o r humour,  latter  may  could  rondeau  excess  possible  ballade,  times  The  of p i t c h e s  be  their  a setting  c e r t a i n l y purely  Fumeux fume, w i t h  of  bathetic.  but  melismas  Hasprois'  i n e a c h c a s e , and  "fumeuse s p e c u l a t i o n " ,  ideas  the  of  through  setting that  therefore  variance  t h e s e works t h a t  independently  and  musical  recitative-like  much r e p e t i t i o n , an  i n t h e s e works; t h e r e  a s p e c t s of  raison  through too  frequent  Fumeux fume i s f u l l  degree of  i s economical  by  the  c e r t a i n l y could It  i s possible  w o u l d have a l s o d e s e r v e d  be  that the  113  description  of  "fumous".  v i e w e d as m u s i c a l all  of  It all  illustrations  two has  has  fumeur now  been  describing  yet  the concept  t h e r e f o r e be of  fumosite',  with  the  1388.  p a r o d i e s of  society  t h e poems  as  "fumous", a l t h o u g h  nature  legal  and  date  but  fourteenth century,  satisfying  developing  poetic  existing  to e x p l a i n the poet's Musicians  have had  some e d u c a t i o n .  sometimes f u l f i l l e d  secular  were u s u a l l y  other  prominent  i n law  suggesting  t o the  to  forms b e i n g  literary  that  poet's  intellectual  considered with  parodied.  group  interests  secretarial  by  future  i n the  by  attempt  Hasprois  t h e C h u r c h , and  i t i s known t h a t  and  would  they  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  o r g a n i s a t i o n and  patrons.  w o u l d have been an time  i n any  the musicians  trained  w i t h i n the church  churchmen o f t h e  background.  their  In a d d i t i o n ,  conditions, for private  some g r o u n d i n g  the  growing  connection  Solage.  with  1366  was  traditions.  i n f o r m a t i o n must be  both  ordinances,  conversant  tend  fumeur poems a r e  would have been s y m p a t h e t i c  a new  fumosite  i t s e n v i r o n s , from  j u d g e m e n t s and  and  such  in  t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h he  m a j o r i t y of Deschamps'  constituted  functions,  from  a t V e r t u s and  humorous c r i t i c i s m  This  judgement o f  of  Deschamps.  a l l stupidity  The  audience  f u m e u r s d e s c r i b e d by  shown t h a t Deschamps r e g a r d e d  engaged as a judge  S u c h men  e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e c o m p o s e r s  h i s o b s e r v a t i o n and  t o have a l o c a l  around  t o be  s e t t i n g s and  s e c t i o n s of  their  of  may  i t s meanings. A link  the  Both c o m p o s i t i o n s  u n d e r more  A good e d u c a t i o n a s s e t , and  were h i g h l y r e g a r d e d  I t c o u l d have been p o s s i b l e ,  and  certain for  therefore, that  such  1 14  musicians  would h a v e been  i n c l u d e d among a  this  would a c c o u n t  for their  must  be  t h a t Deschamps may  courts that  as t h e most v i s i b l e  at Paris,  1379, of  recognized  he  in a letter  people  patrons Gian  who  r e a d by  Galeazzo  research w i l l  between t h e s e Solage,  and  people  the  of Deschamps and can  show i f any or o t h e r  The  may  suggestions the  that  be  worthwhile,  concerning  ascription  and  1 1 5  the  was  the  who  a  number  were a l s o  t h e most  in  noted  important, and  her  to king Charles VI.  Only  more c o n n e c t i o n s  be made  finally,  and  may  Deschamps,  f o r the  Chantilly  Gilbert  complicated  Codex.  Reaney, "The  1 1 5  to c a l l  identities  original  R i c h a r d H o p p i n , who  See  There are  P o s s i b l e Connections  Berkeley manuscript.  "Solage"  the  fumous one",  Valentine Visconti,  patrons,  Hasprois,  Between  the  Solage  p o i n t e d out  Manuscript  t o some  and  the  author  Reaney o f f e r e d  the  thought  w h i c h was  latter  b a l l a d e , En  T h i s was  attention  of Solage  name from  G e r m a n - s o u n d i n g anagram G o s c a l c h ;  in  proof  Berkeley T h e o r i s t .  It  of  same t i m e , i t  fumeurs.  Some S p e c u l a t i o n s C o n c e r n i n g And  m e n t i o n as  brother  the  is certainly  "the  young p r i n c e s .  h i s daughter  husband, L o u i s d ' O r l e a n s , further  fumeurs; t h e r e  two  One  Visconti,  At  and  have been known i n many  t o h i m s e l f as  were p a t r o n s  of m u s i c i a n s .  compositions.  of  referred  fumeur g r o u p ,  derived  name a p p e a r s  nul estat,  c h a l l e n g e d by  p.  71.  as  number  the 58  Suzanne C l e r c x  that since there  Chantilly",  the  were  115  r e c o r d s o f two "cantor", real  clerics  i t was  not  G o s c a l c h may  with t h i s  necessary  German name, one  to resort  have been m e n t i o n e d  to anagrams.  in h i s t o r i c a l  does n o t , however, p r e c l u d e h i s u s i n g a s e c o n d better  name f o r a m u s i c i a n  suggest might  solace!  then  names was  be  I f the  fourteenth-century de  "real"  "Solage".  certainly  The  society:  o f F o i x and  than  man  was  adoption  a conceit  Noiers, d i t Tapissier,  Deschamps, and  t o adopt  our  poet,  One  must a d m i t ,  spelling  and  of  the a d d i t i o n  t h e name as  becomes more l i k e l y of  t h e two  Clercx  and  known G o s c a l c h s  The  a l t h o u g h he  Goscalch,  the s p e l l i n g anagram  does n o t  certainly  also  the  anagram  of  i n c l u d e the m u s i c i a n ,  Jean  Eustace Morel, d i t i n 1360  by  however, t h a t  c o n s i d e r s the  N i g e l W i l k i n s a s more l i k e l y  estat,  an  latter  which would  Count  the  Gaston  proposed  the o m i s s i o n  in Chantilly.  recorded  documents  classes  uses The  spellings  the  t o be  of  the  anagram  f o r the  i n t h e documents c i t e d  H o p p i n : G o t s c h a l c u s W o l e n s p e e t and  Goetschalc. by  i f one  a  what  o f o t h e r s , when one  i t occurs  That  1 1 6  or a s s i g n i n g of e x t r a  anagram d o e s r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e a d j u s t m e n t , some l e t t e r s  a  name, and  a Goscalch,  t h e name P h o e b u s , a d o p t e d  Beam.  one  among c e r t a i n  examples  of whom was  names by  Wulgero  " G o e t s c h a l c " , was t h e composer o f En  state his reasons.  s u p p l i e s a l l the l e t t e r s  1 1 7  judged nul  T h i s form  required to  of form  "Solage".  See Suzanne C l e r c x and R i c h a r d ' H o p p i n , "Notes b i o g r a p h i q u e s s u r q u e l q u e s m u s i c i e n s f r a n q a i s du X l V e . s i e c l e " , i n Les C o l l o g u e s de Wegimont I I : L ' A r s Nova ( P a r i s : S o c i e t e d ' E d i t i o n "Les B e l l e s L e t t r e s " , 1959), p . 78. See N i g e l W i l k i n s , "The P o s t - M a c h a u t g e n e r a t i o n o f p o e t m u s i c i a n s " , p . 56.  1 1 6  -  1 1 7  116  The p o s s i b i l i t y behind the anagram i s a t t r a c t i v e because of the c o n n e c t i o n that may e x i s t and G o s c a l c h . dating  f i f t e e n t h century,  Catania, B i b l .  manuscript treatise  Civice  D.39,  i n c i p i t s and e x p l i c i t s appear to conform so  c l o s e l y with the  first  they c o u l d be a d i r e c t that C a t a n i a  the Berkeley  E l l s w o r t h drew a t t e n t i o n to a theory  from the  whose chapter  between  three books of the Berkeley t r e a t i s e copy.  The only apparent  that  difference  i n c l u d e d an a s c r i p t i o n to a " G o s t a l t u s " ,  was  which  E l l s w o r t h reads as a v e r s i o n of the German name G o t t s c h a l k . We have now to deal with a c h a i n of " G o s t a l t u s " of Catania  s u p p o s i t i o n s : that  i s indeed a G o t t s c h a l k ,  the  that he i s a l s o  the author  or compiler of the Berkeley t r e a t i s e ,  Gottschalk  i s a l s o the composer represented  that  this  in C h a n t i l l y ,  that  G o s t a l t u s / G o s c a l c h / G o e t s c h a l c may i n some anagrammatical connected with the name of S o l a g e , and that the l a t t e r  way be  is  c l o s e l y connected with the w r i t e r of the Berkeley t r e a t i s e its  ideas through h i s music!  available identity  of the Berkeley a u t h o r ,  hypotheses. appropriate  Certainly  the  and there i s c e r t a i n l y  in c o n n e c t i o n with a l l  of  far  these  one c o u l d hope to f i n d no more  way to c l o s e an enquiry on the fumeur works  than  with such "fumous s p e c u l a t i o n " .  lis p.  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N o t t i n g h a m M e d i e v a l S t u d i e s 12 ( 1 9 6 8 ) : 84.  New  40-  Wright, C r a i g . " T a p i s s i e r and' C o r d i e r : New Documents and Conjectures." The M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 59 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 177-189.  121  APPENDIX A - MAP  OF THE CHAMPAGNE AREA, SHOWING PLACES REFERRED TO IN POETRY BY D E S C H A M P S . 119  Appendix A.  Map  o f the Champagne a r e a ,  showing p l a c e s  Map d e r i v e d f r o m R. Hardy and J a c q u e s M e r c i e r , G r a n d A t l a s de l a F r a n c e , ( n . p . : Le Departement d ' E d i t i o n de S e l e c t i o n du R e a d e r ' s D i g e s t , 1969), p . 3 9 .  1 9  referred  to i n Deschamps'  poetry.  122  APPENDIX B - A COMPARISON BETWEEN A STANDARD LETTER FOR A 'COMMISSION' ON 'NOUVELLETE' FROM THE FOURTEENTH-CENTURY 'GRAND COUTUMIER', AND DESCHAMPS' POEM 'C'EST LA COMMISSION DES LOUPS D'ESPARGNAY'.  A u t r e Forme; S a i s i n e E t N o u v e l l e t e De S a i s i n e . E t P r e m i e r e m e n t De L a C o m m i s s i o n S u r Ce R e q u i s e . C h a r l e s , e t c . , a t e l h u y s s i e r ou s e r g e n t s a l u t . Complaint s ' e s t a nous P i e r r e d ' A n j o u que comme i l s o i t en p o s s e s s i o n e t s a i s i n e p a i s i b l e , e t a i t e s t e p a r l u y ou p a r s e s p r e d e " c e s s e u r s , p a r t e l e t s i l o n g temps q u ' i l n ' e s t memoire du c o n t r a i r e , ou a t o u t l e moins q u ' i l d o i t s o u f f i r e a bonne p o s s e s s i o n e t s a i s i n e a v o i r r e q u i s e e t r e t e n i r de t e l l e c h o s e , e t c . , ne'antmoins R o b e r t du M o l i n a f a i c t t e l l e c h o s e p a r l u y ou p a r a u l t r e p o u r l u y , e t d o n t i l a e u l e f a i c t p o u r agre'able, en t r o u b l a n t i c e l l u y e x p o s a n t en s a d i c t e p o s s e s s i o n e t s a i s i n e , a t o r t e t s a n s c a u s e , indeuement e t de n o u v e l , s i comme i l d i e t , p o u r q u o y nous t e mandons e t commettons que s e , a p p e l e s l e s p a r t i e s s u r l e l i e u , i l t e appert e s t r e a i n s i , t u tiegnes e t gardes l e d i c t P i e r r e en s a d i c t e p o s s e s s i o n e t s a i s i n e en o s t a n t l e d i c t empeschement q u i p a r l e d i c t R o b e r t l u y a e s t e m i s . E t s e l e d i e t R o b e r t ou a u l t r e s s e v e u l e n t o p p o s e r a u c o n t r a i r e , l e s d i c t s empeschemens ou n o u v e l l e t e s p r e m i e r e m e n t oste's, e t l a c h o s e remise. E t s i , p a r m a n i e r e de r e s t i t u t i o n e t de r e s t a b l i s s e m e n t a s o n p r e m i e r e s t a t , r e a l l e m e n t e t de f a i c t , l e d e b a t e t l a c h o s e c o n t e n c i e u s e p r i n s e e t m i s e en n o s t r e main comme s o u v e r a i n e , donnez e t a s s i g n e z j o u r a u s d i c t e s p a r t i e s p a r d e v a n t , e t c . , a u j o u r de l e u r b a i l l i a g e de n o s t r e p r o c h a i n p a r l e m e n t p o u r a l l e r a v a n t , e t c . , en c e r t i f i a n t nous ou n o s t r e c o u r t de t o u t e x p l o i c t s o u f f i s a m m e n t donne, e t c .  C ' e s t L a C o m m i s s i o n Des Loups D ' E s p a r g n a y S u r L a R i v i e r e De Marne L'empereur de t o u t e Fumee Q u i a m a i n t e c h o s e fumee T o u s j o u r s a u g u s t e s en e f f o r t C o n t i n u a n s de fumer f o r t , A J e h a n du G a r t , n o s t r e s e r g e n t , E t a G u i l l e m i n de N o g e n t , Et a chascun par soy, s a l u t ! A nous g r i e f m e n t se s o n t d o l u t Par n u i t , de v i e z e t de n o u v e l La l i g n i e f r e r e L o u v e l 19  D i s a n s entour n o s t r e maison Que i l s s o n t en p o s s e s s i o n Par e u l x e t l e u r p r e d e c e s s e u r s Comme bons e t v r a i z p o s s e s s e u r s , D'avoir entree et d'avoir prinse Dedens l ' e n c l o s e t l a p o u r p r i n s e D'Espargnay . . . ,  1 23  39  Et tout autre Paisiblement,  proy a d e l i v r e , pour l e u r s c o r p s  vivre  46  E t t o u t ce que d e s s u s e s t d i t Le p o s s e s s i o n prenommee E t l a s a i s i n e o n t i l z garde'e P a r .1., p a r deux, p a r . I I I . , p a r q u a t r e , P a r d i x , p a r v i n t sanz r i e n r a b a t r e E t p a r un s i l o n g temps que v o i r e N ' e s t i l du c o n t r a i r e memoire, Tant q u ' i l s u f f i s t et d o i t s u f f i r e A t o u t d r o i t de c h o s e p a r s c i p r e A possession maintenir, Continuer et r e t e n i r ;  65  N e a n t m o i s , p u i s en an en enqa Que l a f o r t r e s s e encommen^a A estre reedifiee . . . ,  97  Et encor y vont breteschant, En t r o u b l a n t e t en empeschant Y s a n g r i n e t sa n a s c i o n En l e u r d i c t e p o s s e s s i o n E t dame H e r s a n t l a d e s c h a u s s e A t o r t , sanz r a i s o n et sanz c a u s e , Indeuement e t de n o u v e l .  121  S i v o u s commandons, commettons Et e s t r o i c t e m e n t enjoignons E t a c h a s c u n s u r ce r e q u i s Q u i p r e m i e r s de d i t f a i t e n q u i s , P a r t i e s e s t a n s ou p r e s e n t e s Sur l e s l i e u x ou l ' e n p r a n t l e s r e n t e s P a r d e v a n t nous p o u r ce a p p e l e z , Tenez, gardez et maintenez Y s a n g r i n e t sa n a s c i o n En s a i s i n e e t p o s s e s s i o n De l a f r a n c h i s e d e s s u r d i c t e .  134  En f a i s a n t d e m o l i r l a v o y e De p a r n o u s , se i l e s t m e s t i e r s A i n s i comme e l l e e s t o i t p r e m i e r s ; F a i c t e s c e s s e r 1'empeschement Mis a y c e u l s nouvellement  151  E t que r e a l m e n t e t de f a i t Le r e s t a b l i s s e m e n t s o i t f a i t Ou c a s q u ' i l z ne s ' o p p o s e r o n t : Ou q u e l c a s , e t q u ' i l z se v o u l r o n t Opposer, l e l i e u r e s t a b l i De c e q u ' i l z l ' a v r o n t d e s s a i s i T a n t o s t , r e a l m e n t e t de f a i t , Le c a s n o u v e l p a r e u l x d e f f a i t ,  124  Tous p r e m i e r s e t a v a n t t o u t e u v r e Le d e b a t e t l a n o u v e l l e e u v r e Et l a chose contempcieuse P r i n s e comme l a r r e c i n e u s e En n o s t r e s o u v e r a i n e main, Donnex l e u r j o u r d'uy a demain 163  Par devant  Baussant  l e sangler  173  A l e r avant et proceder Sans nos mandemens e x c e d e r  178  En r e s c r i p v a n t , s ' i l l e c o u v i e n t , Par d e v e r s nous de v o s t r e e x p l o i t .  125  APPENDIX C ~ CANTUS OF 'FUMEUX FUME', SHOWING HEXACHORD MUTATIONS INVOLVING 'RECTA' NOTES AND 'CONIUNCTAE'  4L PHI*  fr «fl  N  «J HcxmeLmd  tkffi**  * *  fr  1>W  ****  Ml  titxartitel shifts  •  tnl'MhBH  Ht»P  flH*M  1  fr  *  ft  ^  ^ )!,rr>rL.,J  shift**  7  HHP  Pfrri  ie  L  v  AH  *fr* requires  o. coaiurtcta  n o t mentioned, in. fcW B«"keleij t r e a t i s e .  -L  

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