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Energy analysis of residential structure space conditioned by heat pump and furnace using computer simulation Choi, Charlie Kee-choon 1983

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ENERGY ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURE SPACE CONDITIONED BY HEAT PUMP AND FURNACE USING COMPUTER SIMULATION by KEE CHOON B.A.Sc,  CHARLIE^CHOI  University  Of T o r o n t o ,  1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR  THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF APPLIED  SCIENCE  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE D e p a r t m e n t Of M e c h a n i c a l  We  accept  this  thesis  to the r e q u i r e d  THE UNIVERSITY  Engineering  as  conforming  standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  August  ©  STUDIES  1983  Kee Choon C h a r l i e  Choi,  1983  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s or her  granted by  the head of  representatives.  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s for  financial  gain  s h a l l not  be  Department of The  1956  Mechanical  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Main  Mall  Vancouver, Canada  V6T  Date  DE-6  (3/81)  1Y3  Sept.  8, I983  Engineering Columbia  my  It is thesis  allowed without my  permission.  thesis  written  ii  Abstract An Home  energy  Energy  structure  simulation  Consumption  space  energy  The  load  h o u r of e v e r y  consists  of  by  named RHECAP Program),  on  the  furnace day  thirty-six  furnace  or h e a t  the  residential  a heat  hourly  or h e a t  pump t o s a t i s f y  a month  is  pump  has  cooling  or  pump and  of a c o n d e n s e d y e a r . days;  (Residential  for  a f u r n a c e and  program c a l c u l a t e s  imposed  input to the  every  Analysis  conditioned  been d e v e l o p e d . heating  program,  The  then  the  load for  condensed  represented  the  by  year three  days. The  hourly  designated developed  as  time-averaging  of p a r a m e t e r s ,  by  load  "Time-Averaging  from  different  cooling  i s determined  sources.  T h i s method has  principle  uses a d i f f e r e n t  of  current  hour.  shifted  to  for heat  preceding  h o u r s and  the b u i l d i n g  the  heat  final  A  polynomial  efficiency  the e n t i r e  can  be  used  shift  with  This equation  for  g a i n s of a g a i n of  which  T h i s method  in converting  set  i s obtained  the c o n v e c t i v e heat  used  which the and  expresses drop  the  of t h e furnace  to represent  is  the then  accounts  instantaneous  the furnace  u n i t s of a l l d i f f e r e n t  furnace load  has  performance  at  furnace  r a n g e of o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  for furnace  amount,  r a d i a n t heat  load p r o f i l e  been  load.  state c o n d i t i o n are  for  the  load p r o f i l e .  equation  degradation  been d e v e l o p e d . steady  of  storage e f f e c t  g a i n to the c o o l i n g  and  E a c h h o u r l y l o a d of a day  T h i s g i v e s the d a i l y yield  and  period  summing t h e a r i t h m e t i c a v e r a g e  number  u s i n g a method  with S h i f t " .  time-averaging  energy  by  The  performance  same  equation  capacities.  iii  Six heat  linear  pump  cooling)  performance, and  equations  only  temperature condition)  used  35°C  of  of outdoor  of  the non-dimensionalized  rating  have the  (heating  been outdoor  and s e n s i b l e  developed.  a t the  ( t o n n a g e o f h e a t pump i s q u o t e d t h e h e a t pump p e r f o r m a n c e  operating  pumps  of  conditions. different  The  enthalpy.  t h e h e a t pump p e r f o r m a n c e  to represent  f o r heat  use,  functions  require  represent  the output  electricity  are  equations  range  equations that  These outdoor  under  this  f o r the e n t i r e  The s i x e q u a t i o n s c a n be  capacities  from  different  a yearly  condensed  manufacturers. A data  simple  h a s been  t h r e e days weather load  method developed.  of a c t u a l  information  contributions  of  The c o n d e n s e d  weather i s used of  selecting  information to determine  weather  weather  data c o n s i s t s of  f o r each  month.  the c o o l i n g  dependent  weather  The  and h e a t i n g  s o u r c e s and heat  pump  performance. The existing  program  a r e compared  with the  results  programs u s i n g  an e x i s t i n g  and a f i c t i t i o u s  i n Vancouver  to validate  t h e program.  structure of  results  the program  acceptable  seems t o  results  indicated  that  and t h e s i m u l a t i o n  the  of  two  residential  The v a l i d a t i o n  program  provides  methods u s e d a r e v a l i d .  Table  of Contents  Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of F i g u r e s Nomenclature Acknowledgements Glossary  i i vi y i i viii x xi  ;  Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1.1 P r e l i m i n a r y Remarks 1.2 O b j e c t i v e And Scope 1.3 L i t e r a t u r e Review Chapter II STRUCTURE AND CONDITIONING SYSTEM 2.1 R e s i d e n t i a l S t r u c t u r e 2.2 S p a c e C o n d i t i o n i n g S y s t e m 2.2.1 Space T e m p e r a t u r e C o n t r o l System 2.2.2 F u r n a c e 2.2.3 Heat Pump 2.2.4 Combined S e t - u p Of F u r n a c e And Heat  1 1 2 4  Pump  8 8 8 8 9 11 11  Chapter I I I SIMULATION METHODS 13 3.1 L o a d S i m u l a t i o n 13 3.1.1 Space T e m p e r a t u r e S e t t i n g 13 3.1.2 S o u r c e s Of C o n d i t i o n i n g L o a d 13 3.1.3 F u n d a m e n t a l s Of C o o l i n g L o a d D e t e r m i n a t i o n 15 3.1.4 S i m p l i f i e d C o o l i n g L o a d D e t e r m i n a t i o n Methods ...19 3.2 System S i m u l a t i o n 24 3.2.1 A i r Loop S i m u l a t i o n 24 3.2.2 F u r n a c e 26 3.2.3 Heat Pump 28 3.3 S i m u l a t i o n Of Weather I n f o r m a t i o n 33 C h a p t e r IV PROGRAM  37  Chapter V VALIDATION OF THE PROGRAM 5.1 Method 5.2 I n p u t And O u t p u t 5.3 Remarks  38 38 40 40  C h a p t e r VI CLOSING REMARKS 6.1 C o n c l u s i o n s 6.2 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The P r o g r a m 6.3 Recommendation F o r F u r t h e r Work  45 45 46 48  BIBLIOGRAPHY  49  APPENDIX A - TRANSFER  FUNCTION  APPENDIX B - TIME-AVERAGING  WITH SHIFT  DETERMINATION  52 PARAMETER 55  APPENDIX C - FURNACE OPERATION  60  APPENDIX D - HOW  63  TO USE RHECAP  APPENDIX E - FLOW CHART  70  APPENDIX F - VALIDATION OF RHECAP  74  vi  List  1. Space Use P r o f i l e  of T a b l e s  of L i g h t s ,  A p p l i a n c e s , and O c c u p a n t s 16  2. R a d i a n t  P o r t i o n o f V a r i o u s Heat G a i n  3. P a r a m e t e r s o f T i m e - A v e r a g i n g w i t h 4. F u r n a c e C o r r e c t i o n F a c t o r 5. C o e f f i c i e n t s  o f Heat  Shift  22 method  for a l l sizes  Pump P e r f o r m a n c e R e p r e s e n t a t i o n  23 27 .33  6. Run R e s u l t s o f RHECAP a n d EASI  41  7. Run R e s u l t s o f RHECAP a n d BLAST  43  vi i  List  1. C r o s s S e c t i o n a l View 2. T y p i c a l  of F i g u r e s  o f Gas F u r n a c e  S e t - u p o f F u r n a c e and Heat  3. Heat G a i n and C o o l i n g  10 Pump  12  Load  17  4. A i r L o o p Network o f A T y p i c a l  Residence  24  5. H e a t i n g  Capacity  of R e s i d e n t i a l  Heat  Pump  31  6. C o o l i n g  Capacity  of R e s i d e n t i a l  Heat  Pump  32  7. N o n - D i m e n s i o n a l i z e d E n e r g y Use o f Heat  Pump(heating)  8. N o n - D i m e n s i o n a l i z e d E n e r g y Use o f Heat  P u m p ( c o o l i n g ) .35  9. F l o o r  Plan  .34  39  10. H e a t i n g  and C o o l i n g  Demands o f RHECAP a n d EASI  11. H e a t i n g  L o a d s o f RHECAP and BLAST  42 44  12. Time - A v e r a g i n g w i t h S h i f t Comparison  and T r a n s f e r  Function  Methods 56  13. Time - A v e r a g i n g w i t h S h i f t Comparison  and T r a n s f e r  Function  Methods 57  14. Time - A v e r a g i n g w i t h Comparison  Shift  and T r a n s f e r  Function  Methods 58  15. Time - A v e r a g i n g w i t h S h i f t Comparison  and T r a n s f e r  Function  Methods 59  16. Heat E x c h a n g e r T e m p e r a t u r e  Profile  62  vi i i  Nomenclature SYMBOL  DESCRIPTION  a b  C o e f f i c i e n t s used f o r h e a t pump performance r e p r e s e n t a i o n dimensionless Area m A i r flow r a t i o , a c t u a l / d e s i g n a i r flow dimensionless Correction factor dimensionless C a p a c i t y o f c o n d i t i o n i n g equipment W Cooling load W Conditioning load W S p e c i f i c heat J/kg«K E l e c t r i c i t y use W E n e r g y use by equipment W Outdoor a i r e n t h a l p y kJ/kg C o n v e c t i v e heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t W/m -K Rate of i n f i l t r a t i o n kg/s Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y W/m-K Duct l e n g t h o r h e i g h t o f heat exchanger m L o a d r a t i o , load/maximum c a p a c i t y dimensionless A i r flow r a t e kg/s Averaging p e r i o d of Time-Averaging w i t h S h i f t method h Number o f d a y s i n e a c h month d Perimeter of duct m P r a n d t l number dimensionless Heat t r a n s f e r r a t e ( p e r m i n u t e ) W Hourly c o n d i t i o n i n g c a p a c i t y . W R e y n o l d s number dimensionless Shading c o e f f i c i e n t dimensionless S o l a r heat g a i n f a c t o r W/m Temperature °C Conduction heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t W/m -K Volume m A i r mixing ratio,outdoor/supply dimensionless Efficiency dimensionless Time i n m i n u t e min  f  A AFR C CAP CL ConL Cp ELE EU h he IR k L LR ma n N P Pr q Q Re SC SHGF t U V X 7? T  UNITS  2  2  2  2  3  ix  SUBSCRIPT DESCRIPTION Air a Bonnet b C o n v e c t i o n p o r t i o n of c Cycle cy D Daily Duct s u r r o u n d i n g ds Electricity e Fenestration F f Furnace fb Furnace burner Fan fan h House Heat e x c h a n g e r he hp Heat pump i I nput Loss i n supply duct Is Monthly m Outdoor 0 r Return R a d i a n t p o r t i o n o f - i t h hour -r i Room R Ri Room i n i t i a l Rf Room f i n a l Room s e t Rs Sol-Air sa System sys Supply s w Wall Stages of f u r n a c e c y c l e 2 3  Acknowledgement  The Dr.  author wishes to express h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n  D.  McAdam  throughout this  for  this  his  advice  and  encouragement  work; t h e y were e s s e n t i a l i n f i n i s h i n g  work. Thanks goes t o D r . Z. E l - R a m l y , Mr.  Mr.  H.  letting  Lau  carry  of  the  the author  facilities  and  B.  use  C.  K.W.  the  B.  Hydro  computing  a v a i l b l e energy s i m u l a t i o n  program t o  out t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f t h i s  C.  work and Mr.  Mr. H. L a u f o r t a k i n g  part  at  early  work w h i c h l a t e r  stage  of t h i s  one of t h e major  themes  in  of t h i s  useful  computing radiation  and  centre  the  Council  for  and weather  Financial by  Mr.  i s greatly  Mak  information,  Science  appreciated.  formed  into  Department  the  B. C.  Vancouver  Hydro solar  respectively.  f o r the d u r a t i o n and  Lau  discussions  of the  of  providing  support  Natural  H.  K.W.  work.  Thanks a l s o goes t o D r . J . Hay Geography  L a u , and  Hydro: Dr. El-Ramly f o r  and  of  to  of t h i s  Engineering  work  Research  xi  Glossary  Air  Air  Flow R a t i o ( A F R ) : the r a t i o of the a c t u a l a i r flow over the i n d o o r c o i l heat pump t o the a i r flow on w h i c h the heat performance i s r a t e d Mixing Ratio: the r a t i o of outdoor a i r v o l u m e t r i c flow r a t e supply a i r v o l u m e t r i c flow rate t o the thermal  of a pump  t o the t o t a l zone  Ant i c i p a t o r : a r e s i s t o r c i r c u i t b u i l t i n t o the thermostat to minimize space temperature f l u c t u a t i o n from a d e s i r e d l e v e l ; i t i s e n e r g i z e d when t h e t h e r m o s t a t sends a signal to start heating; the heat generated i n the thermostat causes the t h e r m o s t a t t o s t o p t h e h e a t i n g a c t i o n s o o n e r t h a n i t would otherwise; the overshoot of the space temperature is m i n i m i z e d ; i n c o o l i n g t h e r m o s t a t mode, t h e r e s i s t o r c i r c u i t i s e n e r g i z e d when t h e c o o l i n g a c t i o n i s s t o p p e d causing a p r e m a t u r e c o o l i n g demand C o e f f i c i e n t of Performance (COP): a dimensionless v a r i a b l e that expresses the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a r e f r i g e r a t i o n system; i t i s the ' r a t i o of useful refrigerating heat t r a n s f e r r a t e t o the e l e c t r i c a l energy consumed by t h e s y s t e m C o o l i n g Load: t h e r a t e a t w h i c h h e a t must be removed from the thermal zone t o m a i n t a i n zone a i r t e m p e r a t u r e a t a d e s i r e d l e v e l C o n d i t i o n i n g Load: cooling l o a d and h e a t i n g l o a d a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y as c o n d i t i o n i n g l o a d i n t h i s work  referred to  H e a t i n g Load: t h e r a t e a t w h i c h h e a t must be added t o t h e t h e r m a l m a i n t a i n zone a i r t e m p e r a t u r e a t a d e s i r e d l e v e l  zone t o  Shading C o e f f i c i e n t (SC): the r a t i o of t h e s o l a r heat g a i n of g l a z i n g m a t e r i a l under a s p e c i f i c s e t of c o n d i t i o n s t o the s o l a r heat g a i n of the ASHRAE r e f e r e n c e g l a z i n g material; t h e ASHRAE reference g l a z i n g m a t e r i a l i s d o u b l e - s t r e n g t h s i n g l e sheet g l a s s with 0.86 t r a n s m i t t a n c e , 0.08 r e f l e c t a n c e , and 0.06 a b s o r p t a n c e a t n o r m a l i n c i d e n c e w i t h t h i c k n e s s o f 3.2 mm •Sol-Air Temperature: an a r b i t r a r y o u t d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e t h a t i s used t o determine the heat gain t h r o u g h e x t e r i o r w a l l s and r o o f s ; i t g i v e s the r a t e of heat e n t r y i n t o the s u r f a c e t h a t accounts f o r  xii  the effects of incident exchange w i t h s u r r o u n d i n g s , w i t h the o u t d o o r a i r  solar radiation, r a d i a n t heat and convective heat exchange  Solar  Heat G a i n : a portion of the total heat admission through g l a z i n g m a t e r i a l t h a t c o n s i s t s of the amounts of the radiation t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h g l a z i n g m a t e r i a l and t h e i n w a r d f l o w of absorbed s o l a r r a d i a t i o n i n the g l a z i n g m a t e r i a l  Solar  Heat G a i n F a c t o r the solar heat glazing material  (SHGF): gain through  T h e r m a l Zone: a zone or a s p a c e whose single control  the  temperature  sunlit  is  ASHRAE  reference  controlled  by  a  T i m e - A v e r a g i n g w i t h S h i f t Method: a method of e s t i m a t i n g t h e c o o l i n g l o a d c o n t r i b u t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t c o o l i n g l o a d sources; the h o u r l y c o o l i n g l o a d of a daily profile is obtained by summing the hourly c o n v e c t i v e h e a t g a i n and the time-averaging of radiative h e a t g a i n s of p r e v i o u s h o u r s and t h e n t h e e n t i r e p r o f i l e i s shifted to give the daily p r o f i l e ; t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e t i m e - a v e r a g i n g and the amount of shift are functions of c o o l i n g l o a d s o u r c e s and mass of t h e s t r u c t u r e i n v o l v e d T r a n s f e r F u n c t i o n Method: a method of e s t i m a t i n g t h e c o o l i n g l o a d c o n t r i b u t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t c o o l i n g l o a d s o u r c e s ; i t uses a set of transfer function c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t r e p r e s e n t s the r e l a t i o n between t h e c o o l i n g l o a d and e n e r g y g a i n ; t h e c o o l i n g l o a d is the product of the transfer function c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e amount of e n e r g y g a i n Two-Position Control: t h e c o n t r o l whose d i r e c t i o n s e n t out i s e i t h e r on or the furnace or heat pump is operating e i t h e r at c a p a c i t y or a t z e r o c a p a c i t y  off; full  1  I. 1.1.Preliminary Many  there  energy  cooling  the  need  and h e a t i n g  Programs residential programs  use e f f i c i e n c y systems  intended  residential  analysis  structures  using  r e d u c e d by u s i n g  the  computer  simplified  three  elements,  s y s t e m s , and programs and  the  much  simpler  outdoor  easier  output.  the  buildings high  systems  or  c a n be u s e d  costs  residential that  and  of  is  simple  the  environment.  suitable to  use.  program  techniques  simulation  using  structures.  analysis  simulation  building,  t o d e s i g n an to  retrofit.  energy  program;  f o r the  c a n be u s e d  program  must be c h e a p  s t a g e s of the s i m u l a t i o n of  for  analysis  o f an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g and  through  However,  been  However,  and h e a t i n g  f o r commercial  structures.  energy  analysis  u s e have  buildings.  energy  and c o o l i n g  make them u n s u i t a b l e  computer  of  Such  energy  commercial  f o r computer  building  energy  of b u i l d i n g  h a s been  structures.  efficient  improve  simulations  emphasis  i s a growing  residential  cost  Remarks  computer  done and major  INTRODUCTION  at  for the A for The  c a n be various  of the i n t e r a c t i o n s  heating  and  cooling  Simplifications  t o use t h r o u g h s i m p l e r  input  make  requirement  2  1.2 O b j e c t i v e And Scope Heat pumps a r e now u s e d structures, during heat  though  periods  of  It system  the  low o u t d o o r  objective  simulation for  the  f u r n a c e and heat costs  methods  easy-to-use  program.  simplified  simulation  but  rather,  is  programs heat  (  pumps.  energy  For  a  structures  performance  of  pump t o t h e e x i s t i n g The  the  loads  consumption  on  minimizing  use of  The p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e d  here i s  used  same  to  can  through  of energy for  m a t e r i a l s or  i t c a n be u s e d the  improvement  performance,  comparison  be s a i d  of  f o r a l l other furnaces  and  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the of  the  o r due t o t h e a d d i t i o n  i n c l u d e s monthly and y e a r l y the  residential  structure  thermal  of a heat  into consideration Time-Averaging  cooling and  and  energy  pump.  l o a d d e t e r m i n a t i o n method t h a t  called  c o n d i t i o n e d by  furnace.  of  storage e f f e c t is  space  simulation  the  be  by t h e f u r n a c e a n d h e a t  A cooling  t h e l o a d and  energy  i s placed  achieved  building  structure  program output  heating  method  to  example,  the  use  u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m a n d p r o v i d i n g an  methods.  u s e r e d u c t i o n due  l o n g term  computer  is  ), be i t d i f f e r e n t  of a  and  This  probably  through  cost  work t o d e v e l o p  with  intended  Initial  heating  use of energy.  i n t e n d e d t o make a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s  alternatives  heat  benefits  residential  supplementary  temperature.  Heavy e m p h a s i s  associated  and c o o l  of t h i s  residential  pump.  t o heat  require,  due t o i t s e f f i c i e n t  is  program  not  pumps  pump i s h i g h , b u t f i n a n c i a l  are p o s s i b l e  the  heat  widely  takes the b u i l d i n g  h a s been d e v e l o p e d .  with S h i f t  The  method a n d d e r i v e d  3  from t h e t i m e - a v e r a g i n g p r i n c i p l e . In it  representing  the heating  was d e c i d e d t o r e l y A  polynomial  efficiency  factor  equation  furnace  performance  with  performance  for  is  based  on  pump  performance equations  functions  that  of  furnace  furnace  used  to  represent  of o p e r a t i n g  load  furnace  conditions.  The  furnaces.  The  capacity  furnace operational  representaion  represent  by  procedure, the  and t h e  use,  have  maximum  are  performance  f o r the  entire  The  cost  used  to  cutting A  information  simple  measure  of  (tonnage  the  outdoor  of  h e a t pump operating  f o r h e a t pumps o f  manufacturers.  is  method  i s included  cooling)  e q u a t i o n s and t h e heat  c a n be u s e d  from d i f f e r e n t  pump  The e q u a t i o n s a r e  represent  range  s i x equations  capacities  year.  These  linear  heat  sensible  a t t h e o u t d o o r t e m p e r a t u r e o f 35°C  sensible)  Another  and  been d e v e l o p e d .  pump;  different  (heating  b a s e d on  Six  non-dimensionalized  of the outdoor enthalpy.  conditions.  i s entirely  manufacturers.  the  the output r a t i n g  pump p e r f o r m a n c e  weather  function  thermal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  provided  electricity  weather  the  drop of t h e f u r n a c e l o a d has  fordiffernet  performance  data  performance,  heat  by m a n u f a c t u r e r s .  output.  Heat  and  performance,  T h i s e q u a t i o n and the steady  range  the  system  expresses  a  are  the e n t i r e  furnace heat exchanger furnace  the  load/capacity).  same e q u a t i o n c a n be u s e d equation  which  The e q u a t i o n i s  (imposed  state  on t h e d a t a p r o v i d e d  degradation  been d e v e l o p e d .  and c o o l i n g  in a  the  of  use  choosing  yearly  of  a  condensed  the days  condensed  whose  weather  4  data  has  three  days  weather load  been d e v e l o p e d . of  actual  The  weather  i n f o r m a t i o n i s used  contributions  condensed  weather  data c o n s i s t s  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e a c h month.  to determine  of w e a t h e r d e p e n d e n t  the c o o l i n g sources  and  and  of The  heating  heat  pump  performance. Validation results using  of  the program  of RHECAP w i t h t h e an  existing  and  is carried  results  of  a fictitious  out  two  by c o m p a r i n g  existing  residential  the  programs  structures in  Vancouver. 1.3  Literature All  the on  computer  space the  Review energy  h e a t i n g and  system  based  analysis  cooling  on  simulation  l o a d s and  the c a l c u l a t e d  program  the energy  space  calculates load  h e a t i n g and  imposed cooling  loads. The load  fundamental  approach  requires a laborious  involving  the  unsuitable  f o r an e n e r g y  procedures[1] cooling  have  approach. determined. loads  been  First,  consideration.  take  heat  the h o u r l y balance  i t s surroundings. program.  developed  to  determine  (Transfer  the c o o l i n g gains  from  building  heat  It i s in this modification  simplified the  hourly  F u n c t i o n method).  load  using a  various  storage of  equations  time-averaging  gains are m o d i f i e d to y i e l d the  cooling  T h i s makes i t  Three  f a c t o r method,  method  determine the  of energy  simulation  factor  Then h e a t  that  and  storage load  weighting  three procedures  solution  air  load: Carrier  method, and The  room  to determining  the  similar  sources the  cooling  effect heat  are  into gains  5  that  the  three  The given  for different (8 h o u r ,  cooling  appropriate takes  an  hours. gain  to  constructions 12 h o u r , and  load  is  storage  the  load  arithmetic  This  has  the  the  load  of of an  of  was  averaging  method l a c k  theories  behind  has  substantiated  the  transfer  between an  t o the  obtained  for  Using  different  much  hour  heat  cooling  hourly  system  i s a d e q u a t e as  more  analysis  that  load  heat  previous the  heat the  hours to determine  the  in  the  1967  ASHRAE  C a r r i e r method and to  Transfer  Function  the  the  method  This  the  s o u r c e s and  method relation  system  (room) can  be  constructions.  i s d e t e r m i n e d by and  time-  substantiate  transfer functions  gains  the  o u t l i n e of  s o u r c e ) and  gain  and  method  of  of  characterize  The  and  their  summing  the  corresponding  functions.  Conditioning analysis  some  scientifically[3,4,5,6].  unit excitation.  p r o d u c t s of p r e v i o u s  made  The  gains  A brief  material  functions  t h i s method, t h e  transfer  time.  concepts.  gain  time-averaging  preceding  reference  heavy)  are  operation.  heat  s e v e r a l heat  B o t h the  f a c t o r s which  system  the  The  u n i t e x c i t a t i o n (energy  response  of  first  of F u n d a m e n t a l s [ 2 ] .  uses  h o u r ) of  transferring  of  Handbook  been  medium, and  later  gains  their  (light,  factor.  effect  hour  load  24  a v e r a g e of  heat  storage  product  c o o l i n g l o a d of  time-averaging cooling  different.  C a r r i e r method u t i l i z e s  durations The  procedures are  rapid  remains the  the  than  assumes t h a t  simulation dynamic  that  the  same w i t h  of  the  based  r e s p o n s e of  the  building.  The  system o p e r a t i n g different  on  steady  systems steady  conditions  operating  state  state  during  conditions  is  at  an the  6  next  hour.  usually  System  provided  performance  The 75%.  i n catalogs  representation  performance transient  equipment  effects  efficiency  approaches  furnace performance conditions  and  level  used  furnace e f f i c i e n c y  predict  annual energy the  condition  supply  average  that  u s e dynamic  used  to  studies each  performed  simulation  determine predicted  difference. the  period  entire  include the  furnace to  range  is  output  of  operating  but  bi-monthly  yearly  and  output.  energy  and  Energy  Then  programs  routines  were  performance[8,9].  Both  use  In  by  operating  period.  simulation  furnace  obtained  fora typical  was d e t e r m i n e d .  measured  conditions to  was  over the fan o p e r a t i n g  about  e s t a b l i s h the  R e f e r e n c e 7 used  The e n e r g y  increment  this  the  temperature  reference  energy  during  8,  computer  consumptions  consumptions  9, t h e d i f f e r e n c e  measured g a s c o n s u m p t i o n s  varied  showed  of about  5%  over about  to  little between a month  was o b s e r v e d .  The over  to  (65%) f o r a l l o p e r a t i n g  seasonal  In r e f e r e n c e  computed  gas  attempted  a i r temperature  furnace  and measured  considerably,  However,  the supply a i r temperature c a l c u l a t i o n s time  the  of the  furnace performance the  data i s  operation.  were  furnace e f f i c i e n c y  study  form.  modified  programs.  use.  and i n t e g r a t i n g  the  be  over the  in  average  measuring  must  performance  form o r g r a p h a l l o w i n g t h e  equation  o f t h e equipment  steady state  Different  in table in  representation  steady state  h e a t pump m a n u f a c t u r e r s p r o v i d e  the  readily  entire  allowing  the  performance  range of t h e outdoor o p e r a t i n g f o r h e a t pump p e r f o r m a n c e  data  conditions[10]  i n e q u a t i o n form.  An  7  analysis  on  degradation  the due  heat  pump  to transient  were a l s o made t o s i m u l a t e In  reference  similar was  determined  other  that  effects  the approach  used  and  the output.  space  integrated It  conditioning  was  a t 15%.  performance  5%[11].  Efforts  performance[9,12,13].  The s u p p l y over  also  systems  the  f o r h e a t pump s i m u l a t i o n i s  the  a i r temperature  operating  involved  with  and comparing  t h e measured e n e r g y c o n s u m p t i o n s . the error  that  i s about  t h e h e a t pump  to the furnace simulation.  determine  with  9,  indicated  o f h e a t pump s i m u l a t i o n  The  period to simulating  the predicted  comparisons  results  showed  were- t h e l a r g e s t  8  II. 2.1 R e s i d e n t i a l The whose  be  done  using  basement,  Division and  as  many  hourly  and added  when o n l y  to y i e l d  the loads  It  as t h r e e  walls,  t h e r m a l zone  below-grade  both w a l l  and r o o f .  occupants,  roof,  are  and  a  can  determined  of  a  on how d i f f e r e n t conditioning  ceiling,  lights.  load.  floor,  heat  are parts  load. external  and windows on  sources  Each  shape  structure  by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f  I t a l s o may c o n t a i n  appliances,  by  i t has a p e c u l i a r  information  i s enclosed  The  information  the s t r u c t u r e c o n d i t i o n i n g  to the t o t a l  walls,  load.  controlled  loads  of s e l e c t e d areas  the s t r u c t u r e c o n t r i b u t e Each  is  zone  z o n e s , bedroom, k i t c h e n , and  i s u s e f u l when  also provides  thermal  the system  of the s t r u c t u r e  conditioning  of the s t r u c t u r e  required. of  However, i n p u t  whose  separately  load determines  i s a s p a c e whose t e m p e r a t u r e  control.  SYSTEM  i s modelled as a s i n g l e  conditioning  t h e r m a l zone  CONDITIONING  Structure  entire structure  total  single  STRUCTURE AND  zone  such has  as some  infiltration. 2.2 Space 2.2.1  Space The  by  a  Conditioning  on  Temperature  control  that  called  used  The  turns  the temperature  circuit,  Control  system  thermostat.  control[l4]  System System  i s a closed  control  the furnace  used  anticipator,  system  i s a timed  controlled two-position  o r h e a t pump on a n d o f f b a s e d  of the c o n d i t i o n e d an  loop  space.  is  used  A to  small  resistor  minimize  space  9  temperature 2.2.2  Furnace  Furnace  Description  The units for  fluctuation.  furnace c o n s i s t s  f o r gas  and  an e l e c t r i c  size  and  assumed  to  The heat  come  the  on  same  method  a i r i s blown  exchanger.  burner  Burner  in  Electric sequence.  of  burner  same  shape  and  h e a t i n g elements The  f u r n a c e and  are  operation one  is  performance  f o r a l l t h r e e t y p e s of f u r n a c e .  from below and  Figure  number  a number o f h e a t i n g e l e m e n t s  f o r each  i s used  a  u n i t s are the  simultaneously.  and  be  representation  o i l f u r n a c e s and  furnace.  ignite  equal capacity  o f a h o u s i n g and  heated  1 shows a c r o s s  as  it  sectional  passes  the  view  of a  two  hour  at  a l l  length.  The  gas f u r n a c e .  Furnace Operation Furnace loads.[15]  operation Each  cycle  t i m e s p e n t on e a c h off  temperature  has  four  set-up.  Four  1 : fan o f f / burner  on  stage  2  on  stage  3 : f a n on  stage  4 : fan o f f / burner o f f  heat,  the burner  heat  exchangers  (stage  1).  / burner  the l o a d  is ignited. the  from This  the  and  sends  thermostat  raises  stationary  When t h e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e  fan s t a r t s  imposed  and  fan  on-  are:  / burner o f f  a signal  and  per  s t a g e s of each c y c l e  stage  : f a n on  cycles  s t a g e s of v a r y i n g  s t a g e d e p e n d s on  Upon r e c e i v i n g  the  i s set at s i x  calling  the temperature  of  for the  a i r mass s u r r o u n d i n g them  reaches the fan h i g h  heated a i r to the space  limit,  (stage 2).  The  10  Furnace housing  Burner housing  Burner o p e n i ng  Figure thermostat  sends  temperature until 3) are  and  the  a signal  nears  to turn  the burner  the t h e r m o s t a t  set point.  supply a i r temperature  then  off.  1 - C r o s s S e c t i o n a l View of Gas  stops.  During  the  reaches  last  the  Furnace  o f f when t h e The  fan remains  f a n low  stage, both  space on  limit(stage  burner  and  fan  11  2.2.3  Heat  Heat  Pump  Pump D e s c r i p t i o n The  heat  pump  contains  indoor  indoor  section contains a  during  t h e c o o l i n g mode a n d a c o n d e n s e r d u r i n g  The  outdoor  valve,  section  and n e c e s s a r y  condenser  during  coil  and o u t d o o r  contains  which  acts  compressor,  controls.  The  as  an  The  evaporator  t h e h e a t i n g mode.  coil,  outdoor  sections.  flow  coil  reversing  acts  t h e c o o l i n g mode a n d an e v a p o r a t o r  as  a  during the  h e a t i n g mode. Heat Pump  Operation  Heat pump o p e r a t i o n per  hour[l5].  Each  i s set at three  twenty  minute  c y c l e c o n s i s t s o f two s t a g e s .  cycles  The s t a g e s  are:  2.2.4  stage  1 : f a n on  stage  2 : f a n o f f / heat  Combined The  gas for  heat  heat  Pump  the c o i l  downstream o f t h e  exchanger and upstream of t h e h e a t i n g furnace.[16]  A typical  set-up  pump i s i l l u s t r a t e d  i n Figure  2.  logic  to prevent  heat  pump  temperature  outdoor  pump o f f  S e t - u p Of F u r n a c e And Heat  the e l e c t r i c  satisfy  pump on  common p r a c t i c e i s t o p l a c e  furnace  and  / heat  the simultaneous  of the  the  i s used  t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h equipment  demand.  mode.[17]  The b a l a n c e  t e m p e r a t u r e above w h i c h h e a t i n g  gas  furnace  I t i s common c o n t r o l  during  heating  heating  operation  of  elements  point  The  furnace  balance is  point  needed  temperature  demand c a n be  and  met  to  i s the with  Figure the  2 - Typical  h e a t pump a l o n e .  S e t - u p o f F u r n a c e a n d Heat  The f u r n a c e i s r e q u i r e d  below  Pump this  level.  1 3  III. 3.1  Load  3.1.1  Simulation  Space In  to  Temperature  this  without  work,  taking  the  change  the  thermostat setback s e t t i n g i s handled  the t r a n s i e n t  the space  of  introduce  response of the  a large  space  temperature  e r r o r due  The  load  s e n s i b l e and  load  i s considered  justifications The not ii.  The  load  t r a n s f e r and  the  i.  This  to  the  does  not  mass of  the  assumption small  imposed  on  Load can the  used  type  of  the c o o l i n g  latent loads. and  be c l a s s i f i e d  according  load:  equipment  In t h i s  sensible i s t h e sum  work, o n l y  to determined  to the  the  the system  and of  sensible  load.  The  are: humidity  level  o f most  residential  needed  when  structure i s  controlled distinction  cooling  equipment  intended  to  be  is  i s considered used  for  equipment iii.  i s immediate  to the r e l a t i v e l y  Conditioning  conditioning  of heat  latent.  setting.  response  It i s  structure.  S o u r c e s Of The  temperature  thermostat  residential  source  Setting  change of t h e r m o s t a t s e t t i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  assumed t h a t  3.1.2  SIMULATION METHODS  I t reduces c a l c u l a t i o n e f f o r t  the  the  and  selection  the program  s e l e c t i o n of  of  i s not cooling  1 4  The (1)  sources that  heat  roofs,  contribute  conduction through  and  transparent  (2)  solar  surfaces  s u c h a s windows on w a l l  Conduction heat  Heat  gain  gain  appliances,  l o s s due t o t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n  The  exterior walls,  floors;  g e n e r a t e d by l i g h t s ,  (1)  t o the c o n d i t i o n i n g  and  load  below-grade  are: walls,  conduction  through  and r o o f ;  (3) h e a t  and o c c u p a n t s ;  (4) h e a t  gain or  of outdoor a i r .  Gain  by c o n d u c t i o n t h r o u g h  construction  elements  is Q For  heating  load  temperature. determine  = U A (t w  calculation,  However,  the c o o l i n g  load.  instead  of  transfer  through  A  the proper heat  are  w  the  the  construction (2)  Solar The  by  Heat  is  t h e heat  strength ratio to that  0  sol-air  is  the  outdoor  temperature[18]  Temperature of the temperature  in consideration  dry-bulb i s used t o  earth  is  used  when d e t e r m i n i n g t h e h e a t  transfer coefficient  heat admission  heat  gain  t  elements.  U  and  o f and a r e a o f t h e  respectively.  Gain  method d e v e l o p e d heat  (3.1)  R  the below-grade c o n s t r u c t i o n  element  total  solar  outdoor  -t )  0  factor gain  gain  and  by ASHRAE  through a transparent  c o n d u c t i o n heat i s used[l9].  gain.  single glazing  of s o l a r heat  the reference 3.2 mm  gain  thick.  glass.  the  solar  ( S C ) . The SHGF  glazing material,  double-  The SC i s d e f i n e d  as  of a g l a z i n g m a t e r i a l  of the d o u b l e - s t r e n g t h  is  For t h i s , the  It utilizes  (SHGF) and s h a d i n g c o e f f i c i e n t through  surface  the  in consideration  Therefore,  total  heat  15  admission  through Q  where A  F  the t r a n s p a r e n t s u r f a c e i s  =  ( SC  (SHGF) + U  of  r a d i a t i o n [ 2 0 ] are  used.  I n t e r n a l Heat The  heat  appliances, profiles above (4)  0  - t)  SHGF,  out  from  occupants  which  describe  The  (3.2)  F  surface.  measured  direct  and  diffuse  Sources  given  and  items.  the  ) A  H  i s t h e a r e a of t h e t r a n s p a r e n t  In d e t e r m i n a t i o n  (3)  (t  internal  (65  s o u r c e s s u c h as  watts/person)  require  the h o u r l y u t i l i z a t i o n  profiles  are  listed  in Table  lights, daily  or p r e s e n c e  of  1.  Infiltration Infiltration  and  is  based  l o s s or g a i n  amount  on  number o f a i r c h a n g e s p e r h o u r .  including 3.1.3  = Cp  is infiltration t h e water  from  cooling  the t h e r m a l  desired  load  necessarily  of  building  (IR)  (t  The result  heat  - t )  e  (3.3)  R  r a t e and Cp  C o o l i n g Load  i s the s p e c i f i c  heat  of a i r  Determination  i s t h e r a t e a t w h i c h h e a t must be  zone t o m a i n t a i n  level.  not  space  Infiltration  vapour.  F u n d a m e n t a l s Of The  hours  is[18] Q  where IR  i s assumed t o be c o n s t a n t a t a l l  zone  i n s t a n t a n e o u s heat i n an  temperature  g a i n by  instantaneous cooling  storage e f f e c t .  i s by c o n v e c t i o n and  air  results  the  at  space  load  P a r t of the heat i n an  removed  does  because  g a i n by  instantaneous  a  the  cooling  16  SPAC:E USE PROFILE: s HOUR  LIGHTS  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 13 1 4 1 5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 +  Table  Profile  OCCUPANTS  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7 10 1 0 10 1 0 5 0  1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 10 10 5 2 1 1 1  10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 7 4 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 7 8 8 10 1 0 10 1 0  i s 10 d u r i n g  t h e hour o f maximum u s e  1 - Space Use P r o f i l e o f L i g h t s , A p p l i a n c e s , Occupants  The  space.  This portion w i l l  until  some  higher  than the  cooling delayed profile  +  APPLIANCES  load.  from  OF  rest  later  is  a b s o r b e d by t h e s u r f a c e s t h a t e n c l o s e t h e  time  not c o n t r i b u t e when  gains.  the  Then, h e a t  cooling  transfer  t o t h e s p a c e by c o n v e c t i o n .  l o a d c a n be c o n s i d e r e d heat  to  a s t h e sum o f  and  a  delay  occurs  T h e r e f o r e , the  instantaneous  As a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e d a i l y  shows a l o w e r peak t h a n  load  the temperatures of s u r f a c e s are  the space t e m p e r a t u r e . surfaces  and  from  and  cooling load heat  gain  17  >•  Figure  profile load  because,  Two  could  consumptions.  very  Accurate  calculation of  To  principle,  requires a  an  internal  demonstrate a fictitious  heat  energy exchange e q u a t i o n s are:  of c o o l i n g  of system imposed  with  t h e same system  the  source a t each  exact  energy load of  walls,  cooling  load  by a number  to i n f i l t r a t i o n  i s considered. inside  total  solution  space e n c l o s e d  subjected  the  cooling  laborious  the  load,  on  of t h e space a i r , s u r r o u n d i n g  w a l l s , a c e i l i n g , and a f l o o r ,  having  histories  of  balance  sources.  load  determination  energy  energy  determination  total  a m a t h e m a t i c a l model  and  determination  different  through  equations  Load  depends on t h e l o a d  conditioning require  and C o o l i n g  Accurate  f o r the accurate  system e f f i c i e n c y  system. load  3 - Heat G a i n  a s shown i n F i g u r e 3.  i s important  time  The  and  govering  surface at a given  time  18  Q'i  for  Qcoin/.i.  +  °»rad,L  +(  3 roA, sol ,i  +(  3<*d, int,l r  i=1 t o n (where n i s t h e number  of e n c l o s i n g  surfaces)  where q.  = r a t e of heat conducted i n t o s u r f a c e i a t the i n s i d e s u r f a c e a t a g i v e n time q = rate of c o n v e c t i v e h e a t t r a n s f e r between t h e i n s i d e " s u r f a c e i and t h e s p a c e a i r a t a g i v e n t i m e q . = rate of radiant heat transfer between the i n s i d e ' surface i and o t h e r s u r f a c e s t h a t encloses- the space at a given time d soli °f s o l a r e n e r g y c o m i n g t h r o u g h t h e windows a n d ra , s o , t a b s o r b e d by s u r f a c e i a t a g i v e n t i m e ^rodi-ntc °f h e a t r a d i a t e d from i n t e r n a l e n e r g y s o u r c e s a n d ' ' a b s o r b e d by s u r f a c e i a t a g i v e n t i m e W , L  r a d  =  r  a  t  e  =  r  a  t  e  L  The  above  equations  make  w h i c h a r e unknown a n d s p a c e be  a  known  quantity.  of i n s i d e s u r f a c e  a i r temperature  The i n s i d e  determined  by s o l v i n g  equations  of  elements  simultaneously.  temperatures,  use  t h e above  conduction  the cooling  surface  i s assumed  temperatures  s i x e q u a t i o n s and t h e  within  the s i x enclosing  Knowing load  which  temperatures  the  to  c a n be  governing  construction  inside  surface  a t t h e time of i n t e r e s t i s g i v e n  by: CL = c l  C o n i /  +Cl^|  ^-Conv,% \  +c  0  ^c.om/, tut  +C  where CL clcom/  = c o o l i n g l o a d a t t h e time of i n t e r e s t = cooling load contribution from convective heat t r a n s f e r between t h e i n s i d e s u r f a c e s o f t h e s p a c e and the space a i r a t the time of i n t e r e s t c l ^ r = cooling load contribution from i n f i l t r a t i o n at the time of i n t e r e s t clasm/.sol cooling load contribution from solar heat coming through t h e windows a n d c o n v e c t e d i n t o t h e s p a c e a i r a t t h e time o f i n t e r e s t clcoKi/.int = c o o l i n g l o a d c o n t r i b u t i o n f r o m i n t e r n a l e n e r g y s o u r c e s and c o n v e c t e d i n t o t h e s p a c e a t t h e t i m e o f i n t e r e s t =  This  procedure  of  cooling  load  determination  is  time  19  c o n s u m i n g and e x p e n s i v e . p r o g r a m c a n n o t be  3.1.4  simplified  averaging  refined  here.  The  factor this  with  Function  The  is  simulation  work,  transfer The  are  t h e t i m e - a v e r a g i n g method i s  method,  Function used  programs.  The  a shift  and  used  in  with S h i f t  the  method.  a s t h e p a r a m e t e r s of  time-averaging  method  in  with  large  cooling  of t i m e - s e r i e s  period  Function  and  method.  heat  the  scale  superposition  computer  energy  load determination  gain  and t h e i r  requires  corresponding  functions. superposition  and t h e n  response.  principle  In a d d i t i o n ,  linear  between  it  were  that  p r i n c i p l e requires  a  linear the  space  Reference  model air  when  the i n d i v i d u a l  independent  t h e use o f t h e T r a n s f e r  and i n v a r i a b l e .  a d e q u a t e t o use  implies  t h e r e s p o n s e s a r e added t o g i v e  the s u p e r p o s i t i o n  balance  time-  F u n c t i o n ) methods,  i s described  r e s p o n s e c a n be d e t e r m i n e d a s i f others  methods,  Method  widely  multiplication  both  determination  (Transfer  method  Shift  Transfer  principle  simulation  Methods  a r e b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e T r a n s f e r  Transfer  with  energy  i s named T i m e - A v e r a g i n g  Function  Time-Averaging  load  by i n c o r p o r a t i n g  The method  Transfer  shift,  In  and improved  program.  any  Load D e t e r m i n a t i o n  cooling  and w e i g h t i n g  discussed  in  justified.  S i m p l i f i e d Cooling Two  Use o f i t  that  of  the t o t a l  system  Function  method  the  system  11 h a s shown t h a t describing  and e n e r g y  the  source.  the  is  i tis energy  Linearity  20  implies  that  linearly  the  magnitude  related.  excitation  at  determining  different  the hourly  load  source  can  contributions  be  heat  inside  the  whose  situations  coefficient  ).  and  in Section  the response of equal.  transfer are  then  the  (eg.  inside  Furthermore,  required.  functions 3.1.3.  take wall  on  involves  Beside  solving  the  of  unknown  load, the number  the modelling  heat  transfer  o f t h e room a n d mass  could  required  t o t a k e t h e assumed v a l u e s and s i m p l i f i e d c a s e s . to  treat  cases.  is  handy  Therefore,  t o use.  Reference  function  determined.  functions  is  11 l o o k e d  i n t o how d i f f e r e n t  Appendix  A discusses  of  cooling  t h e method o f t r a n s f e r  determination.  Time-Averaging The  It  coefficients  assumptions and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y load  i t is  t h e p r o b l e m a s s u c h t o make t h e c a l c u l a t i o n  manageable a n d p r o v i d e a s e t o f t r a n s f e r that  of  a range of v a l u e s i n  convection  a l l possible  load  load.  involved  necessary  not cover  function  t e m p e r a t u r e s and c o o l i n g  could  When  cooling  cooling  b a l a n c e e q u a t i o n s makes u s e  values  are  of i n d i v i d u a l c o o l i n g  the hourly  transfer  that  sources  contribution  surface  of the heat  parameters actual  of  excitation  the  gain  determined  blance equations  quantities, solution  load  and  always  load,  a r e added t o g i v e  Determination the  are  cooling  cooling  implies  times  f o r d i f f e r e n t energy  Then  response  Invariability  hourly  coefficients  of  with S h i f t  time-averaging  incorporating  a  shift  method  principle i s to  be  used  refined  and  improved  i n t h e program.  by  The t i m e -  21  averaging storage energy  and s h i f t effect  gain  shift,  to  using  is  developed  t h e use of  also  used  (1) sources  cooling  criteria The  The  reasoned. summing preceding  portion  (Table  Transfer  i s only  heat  in  Function  Section  arithmetic  h o u r s and  method  1.3,  average  convective  alone  gain  can not f u l l y  from  this  of  1  -n  n  i =0  H  has  gain  sources.  method each  acceptable  can  step  hour  gain  not can  be be  i s d e t e r m i n e d by  of  current  gains of hour.  by  q .  + q  an  effect  (3.4)  c  on  distributing  o f an h o u r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g h o u r s .  account  different  the r a d i a n t heat  heat  r  predicts  heat  However,  i t c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d  time-averaging heat  load.  v a l i d when t h e  gains  The c o o l i n g l o a d o f t h e c u r r e n t the  separately  2 )  CL = —  it  method  method,  principle.  the t o t a l c o o l i n g  of  scientifically.  Mathematically,  radiant  Function  prevail:  stated  substantiated  The  Shift  and  (see Table 3 ) .  the superposition  l o a d c o n t r i b u t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t  As  period  constructions  sources  Transfer  heat  for different  different  gain  the  with  with  radiant  a r e known  . (2)  building  c o o l i n g load c o n t r i b u t i o n s are determined  Time-Averaging  following  the  time-averaging  for  t h i s method a n d a d d e d t o g i v e The  for  the c o o l i n g load p r o f i l e  t o i t s w e i g h t ) and e n e r g y  method  Individual  account  The p a r a m e t e r s ,  been  As i s t h e c a s e w i t h this  give  sources.  have  (according  effectively  f o r the e f f e c t  building  heat  the  However, storage  22  ELEMENTS OF HEAT GAIN  RADIANT PORTION* OF HEAT GAIN(%)  transmission  60  solar  80  gain  occupants  40  lights  70  equipment  50  infiltration  +  From  Table has  on  heat  is  corrected  by  load. still  method  profile  i s used  in place  The for  determination  different  different  actual  an  of  energy  and  of  determines  the the  the  how  the  load it  is  with  parameters are  peak  this  is  profile  obtained  the  actual  Transfer  a  the  period  Function  and  profiles  are  actual p r o f i l e .  that  the  Appendix  shift  two-step procedure.  is  the  actual B  explains  d e t e r m i n e d and  The  shows how  the  amount  i s the in  time-  to  Then t h e peak  The first  closest  time-averaging period.  source.  to the  profile.  load  peak l a g s  load  lags  the  time-averaging  profile  for  gain  using  cooling  time-averaged p r o f i l e  detail  the  Gain  Therefore,  which  actual  sources  the  energy  the  compared  period  for.  amount  of  Heat  peak c o o l i n g  entire daily  attained  time-averaged  determined averaging  the  Fundamental  of V a r i o u s  unaccounted  by  The  Portion  The' l a g of  shifting  with time-averaging profile.  ASHRAE Handbook of  2 - Radiant  cooling  gain  1967  0  shift  further well  the  23  ELEMENTS OF HEAT GAIN  TYPE ( m ( m a s s / u n i t a r e a ) : kg/m ) OF CONSTRUCTION  transmi ssion  very  through  light  c o n s t r u c t ion  solar  AVERAGING PERIOD(h)  SHIFT (h) .  m< 50  7  0  50<m<150  9  1  medium  I50<m<300  1 6  3  heavy  300<m<450  22  5  2  gain  light  for  a l l types  •1 6  1  equipment  for  a l l types  1 6  1  lights  for  a l l types  1 6  . 1  occupants  for  a l l types  16  1  inf i l t r a t ion  for  a l l types  -  -  Table  3 - Parameters of Time-Averaging with S h i f t  method p r e d i c t s t h e c o o l i n g sources  of  averaging  heat  period  construction  gain and  construction raised the  cooling  Averaging  the  shift  would  tabulated depend  and  on  the  f o r heavier  require  The p a r a m e t e r s Table  the  for  different  3.  The t i m e -  heaviness gain  construction,  a longer  t i m e t o have  of the  source. because  The heavier  i t s temperature  and h e n c e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o  load.  calculations involved with S h i f t  method o n l y cooling  in  energy  t o above t h e room t e m p e r a t u r e  The  This  are  involved  parameters a r e l a r g e r  load.  method  load  w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Time-  method a r e v e r y  requires  five  sets  simple of  and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d .  parameter  c o n t r i b u t i o n of a l l energy  gain  to  determine  sources.  24  Supply  Return Furnace & h e a t pump Outdoor 3  air Mixed a i r Fan  Figure 3.2  System  3.2.1  hourly  air  load  Simulation loop  imposed  conditioning supply  load  duct.  is  a  closed  loop  on t h e  system  is  network the  (ConL) and t h e h e a t g a i n The  (Figure 4).  sum  ^ Is  T  + q  ^ se >y/ cs  r =0  of  the  The space  or l o s s o c c u r i n g i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n be w r i t t e n  ConL + q.  where  of A T y p i c a l R e s i d e n c e  Simulation  A i r Loop The  the  4 - A i r Loop Network  as (3.5)  25  ma  q  Cp  (t  -  b  60 CAP q  =  s v s  ' ma  q  Cp  (t  -  s  t ) b  (  3  <  8  )  60  , and  b  t .  ConL  s  i s determined  from t h e  load  Now t a»  = t  f  return  air  temperature.  X + t  0  temperature,  Using equation  r  b  empirical  ~  (3.9)  i s t h e same as t h e s e t room  (3.6) 60  S  =  (1 - X)  r  t ,  q ys fc  using  (3.7)  =  Unknowns a r e t ,  and  0  60  ,s  The  (3.6)  = 7  simulation.  )  f*n  +  ma  (3.10)  fc  Cp  equation[2l] U P L  s  fc  The  hourly  using  =  ( b  on-time  equation  " ds )  fc  fc  E  x  p  (  ma  of t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g  T  system  +  tds  system  (3.11)  can  be  determined  (3.5) -ConL  The  Cp  )  load i s  =  (3.12)  26  CAP Qsysc  r  Furnace  The air  (3.13)  60  7  3.2.2  £  =  h o u r l y furnace burner  l o o p s i m u l a t i o n i s based  operates output  at  on-time,  r , determined  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  steady-state efficiency  that  from t h e  the  at a l l loads.  furnace  The  furnace  per minute i s  (3.14)  However,  this  furnace  operates  Efficiency furnace three  exchanger  under  drops  output is  ratio  i s only true f o r steady  with  somewhat  stage  steady  when state  correction  two  drop  less  furnace  The f u r n a c e  than  for  stage  period  factor  multiplied performance  an  hour.  l o a d , hence t h e output  of  to stage  drops  as  the  The  expression  on t h e  f o r the  C^, i s 1  q  r  2  q  + 2  r  3  3  (3.15)  =  C  A  computer  operating during  q ('-2 T ) +  f  2  program  conditions,  each  the  furnace  f u r n a c e on-time based  i s required.  heat  three period decreases.  which would g i v e the c o r r e c t by  stage  two due t o i t s l o w e r  Therefore, the e f f i c i e n c y  two  factor,  o p e r a t i o n , when t h e  condition of  per minute drops.  Hence, a c o r r e c t i o n on-time  the  temperature.  of  stage  state  stage  is  time  for  3  developed spent,  different  and load  to  determine  rate  of heat  furnace transfer  requirements.  It  27  LOAD RATIO,LR  STAGE 2 (min)  STAGE 3 (min)  0.1 1 .0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0  1 .3 1 .3 1.3 1.3 1 .3 1 .3 1.3 1 .3 1 .3  0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9  C  /T  1 .37 1 .20 1.13 1.10 1 .08 1 .07 1 .06 1 .05 1 .04  q /q =0.72 3  Table  2  4 - Furnace C o r r e c t i o n Factor  incorporates  furnace  operation,  heat  exchanger m a t e r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . problem and  three  ratios, as  formulation (Table  LR, a r e d e t e r m i n e d  the r a t i o  predicted furnace and  that  the  sizes.  furnace  The b u r n e r  that  durations simulation, furnace  on-time. instead  of  there stages  Using  t h e program.  patterns  the stages no  one  time of s t a g e s both  The  of  combined  time  determined the  Zj  than values  stage  and  at d i f f e r e n t  load  The LR i s d e f i n e d capacity. t h e same one  To s i m p l i f y  It  for a l l and  two  between  the a i r loop i s treated  o n - t i m e and  two and t h r e e  the time of stage  is  The p r o g r a m  two a n d t h r e e  stages  of the two  difference  the burner  heat  stages  two and t h r e e .  and t h r e e .  on-time t o r e p r e s e n t  are  of  the stages  significant  o f two and one, b e c a u s e  accurately  of a l l s i z e s  i s on d u r i n g  is  t h e combined  The t i m e s  load to furnace  operation  t h e f a n i s on d u r i n g  predicts  as  of h o u r l y  using  transfer,  Detailed explanation  i s i n A p p e n d i x C.  4) f o r f u r n a c e s  for a l l sizes  three  fan  i s used is  more  one.  of T a b l e  4, a p o l y n o m i a l  e q u a t i o n of  28  the  furnace  ratio  on-time c o r r e c t i o n  i s established.  It  factor  as  a  function  2  above p o l y n o m i a l  sizes. the  The  hourly  on-time,  hourly  burner energy  hourly  ELE  of a l l  7y , i s d e t e r m i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g system  from t h e a i r correction  loop  factor.  use i s  = —  fan e l e c t r i c i t y  (3.16)  3  f o r furnaces  3.2.1) by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  EU  The  c a n be u s e d  o n - t i m e of t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g  simulation(Section The  equation  furnace  load  is  Cj. (LR) = 1 .568-2.51 5 LR+4.195 L R - 2 . 3 0 0 L R  The  of  T  — — 60  energy  7  —  (3.17)  use  is (3.18)  = 60  It  is  assumed  discussed oil, 3.2.3  Heat  furnace  operation  to a l l three  furnace  treatment  types,  gas,  Pump state well  pump  small[ll]  using  same  and e l e c t r i c .  conditions  is  the  above c a n be a p p l i e d  Steady  heat  that  heat  pump  performance  documented by d i f f e r e n t  performance degradation therefore  standard  test  varying  outdoor  manufacturers[10].  The  due t o t h e t r a n s i e n t e f f e c t s  i t i s neglected.  conditions  at  Performance  is  b a s e d on t h e ARI s t a n d a r d s  rated 240-76  29  and  270-75.  Performance  is  rated  under  the  following  conditions: i.  72% o u t d o o r  ii.  T h r e e minimum p e r f o r m a n c e outdoor  iii.  ratings  8.3°C/6.1°C h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e  for  cooling  The  are  t e m p e r a t u r e s ; -8.3°C/-9.4°C  cooling  done  of  The h e a t i n g r a t i n g s  three  low t e m p e r a t u r e  +  f o r h e a t i n g and  35°C  entering  26.7°C/19.4°C a r e done w i t h t h e  the indoor c o i l  air  temperature  o f 21.1°C  The r a t i n g s a r e done w i t h a i r f l o w r a t e +  at  r a t i n g s with the a i r temperature  indoor c o i l  entering v.  humidity  and  the iv.  relative  p e r e v e r y 352 W o f c o o l i n g  capacity  o f 0.212 m / s 3  a t 35°C  +  outdoor  temperature Performance enthalpy  of  r a t i n g d e p e n d s on t h e s i z e o f t h e h e a t pump a n d  the  outdoor  air.  dimensionalized  by  sensible  r a t i n g a t 35°C  the  s i z e o f t h e h e a t pump.  rating The  cooling  dividing  (sensible  and  5 and  between  the  equation  of following  +  + +  each  6).  Heat  latent)  two  dry-bulb/wet-bulb ARI s t a t e s  The  by  can  be  that  b u t 0.212 m /s 3  the  represented  i s used  on  i s the c o o l i n g  temperature  temperature 3  dependence  i s plotted against show  i s non-  i t s respective  the  form  0.183 m /s  rating  pump s i z e q u o t e d a t outdoor  plots  quantities  rating  to eliminate  non-dimensionalized quantity  (Figures  Performance  of 35°C.  the enthalpy relationships by a l i n e a r  30  = a + b h  ChP  hp  For  heating  capacity 20  (Figure  enthalpy  level.  curve  to represent  heat  pump p e r f o r m a n c e performance  performance entire  b, a r e l i s t e d the  air  flow  i n Table ratings  In p r a c t i c e ,  affected  correction  factor  of  ratio Cy  The  is  performance  a i r flow  equation  The  bounded  by  a r e chosen over a the lines  curve,  to  pump.  The c o n c e p t  develop  individual represented  The  cooling  equation  over the  expressions  related.  for  of c o e f f i c i e n t of  h e a t i n g and c o o l i n g .  of the outdoor  This  a i r ( F i g u r e 7 and 8 ) . The  coefficients,  a  5. are this  done  air  flow  c a n n o t be met when t h e h e a t  pump  furnace  needed.  manufacturers[10],  significantly  a  one l i n e a r  under  standard  f a n i s used  Therefore, a correction  by  lines  taken  are l i n e a r l y  variation  provided  heating  is  since the e x i s t i n g  pump.  than  i s a p p l i e d f o r both  and  conditions.  two r e g i o n s  two s t r a i g h t  requires  u s e by t h e h e a t  two q u a n t i t i e s  heat  6)  approach  The  used  closely  against enthalpy  All  into  a r e used.  range.  performance(COP) plotted  equations  Two s t r a i g h t  i s plotted  more  operating  electricity  is  linear  t h e p e r f o r m a n c e b e c a u s e when  (Figure  A similar  is  two  representation i s divided  kJ/kg  the  5),  (3.19)  factor  According  with  that accounts to  the  only the c o o l i n g  by a i r f l o w v a r i a t i o n .  i s marginal  and  forcooling  performance  the r e t r o f i t  therefore  f o r the  information  performance i s  The e f f e c t neglected.  i s a linear  on t h e The  function  (AFR) a n d c a n be w r i t t e n a s (AFR)  = 0.95 + 0.05 AFR  (3.19) c a n be m o d i f i e d  to give the c o r r e c t  (3.20) capacity  31  2.5  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  I  1  1  CO LLI  -  CO  ^-^^  (!  z u  ^ —  V  \ V  k  Q  ij 1.5 o  < o  —  1.0  CL  <  a  ^ 0.5  1  0.0  1  1  -3 0  -20  1  1  0  1  1  1  1  .20  ID  i  1  30  1  40  1  50  OUTDOOR A!R ENTfiAL.FY('<J/KG)  Figure as  5 - Heating  Capacity  o f R e s i d e n t i a l Heat  Pump  follows: CAP  h p  = (a + b h) C  A c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r must be i n c l u d e d use.  It i s a linear  function  h p  (AFR)  f o r heat  e  hourly  energy  pump  electricity  o f AFR a n d c a n be w r i t t e n a s  C hp (AFR) = 0.98 + 0.002 AFR  The  (3.21)  u s e by t h e h e a t pump i s  (3.22)  32  2.5 CO  UJ  °2.0 CO UJ Ci  UJ 1 . 5 o < o ! .0 CL < ^.0.5  0.0 70  B0'  90  100  110  ]20  .130  ! 43  O U T D O O R ALR E.NTHAL.PY(!<J/KG)  Figure  6 - Cooling  Capacity CAP p h  o f R e s i d e n t i a l Heat Tfcp  C hp e  EU COP The h o u r l y  Pump  (3.23)  60  e n e r g y use by t h e f u r n a c e  fan i s (3.24)  EU 60  33  Outdoor  Coef f i c ieri t s ( a ,  air enthalpy (kJ/kg) heating  0.948 , 0.0268  2.101  , 0.0375  20<h  1.158  2.612  , 0.0128  -  Table  Condensed  1.075 ,-0.00089  2.250 ,-0.0050  weather  Each  or eleven)  data c o n s i s t i n g per  month  day  is  day  period  f o u n d by m u l t i p l y i n g  an a p p r o p r i a t e  Pump  Performance  Of Weather I n f o r m a t i o n  information  conditions.  is  , 0.0166  5 - C o e f f i c i e n t s o f Heat Representation  3.3 S i m u l a t i o n  eight  dimensionless e l e c t r i c i t y use COP=a + b h  20>h  cooling  weather  dimensionless capac i t y CAP=a + b h  b)  ratio.  is  o f t h r e e days used  to  selected  the energy  simulate  from  o f e a c h month.  a  be  weather (or  e n e r g y use  selected  i t can  actual  ten  Monthly  use of t h r e e  Mathematically,  of  d a y s by  written  as  follows:  EU The  N = — 3  p r o c e d u r e s used  condensed  weather  of a year.  furnace in  or  Sections  consumptions  f  to select  + EU  )  h p d  the  house  The h o u r l y  energy  Hourly  consumption  3.2.2 a n d 3.2.3 a n d a d d e d each  included  equipment.  i n the  conditioning  i s d e t e r m i n e d f o r e v e r y hour  h e a t pump i s d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g  of  (3.25)  days  data are the f o l l o w i n g .  load of a f i c t i t i o u s day  3 2.( E U j i= 1  of  of every  either  the  t h e methods d e v e l o p e d  to give  the  daily  energy  Then a day from e a c h t e n day  34  5.0 CO UJ  4.0  O CO UJ  Q t—  h  3.0  CL i—  z> 2 . 0 CL t— O  ^ J .0  0.0  0  -]0  -20  10  20  30  50  4Q  OUTDOOR AIR ENTHALPY (KJ/KG) Figure  period  which  consumption are day  also  is point  m u l t i p l i e d by energy  temperature This  7 - N o n - D i m e n s i o n a l i z e d Energy Pump(heating) the  most  of  view  t e n and  consumption i s considered  not o n l y  representative  v a r i a b l e that  the  conditioning  load.  from  ( i . e . when t h e e n e r g y  Heat  the  energy  consumptions the  total)  dry-bulb  is  to determine involved  chosen. the  i s t h e most  Only  the  conditioning  temperature  ten  load.  f o r s e l e c t i o n of days  i s a good a p p r o x i m a t i o n a s t h e d r y - b u l b weather  of  summed, i t i s t h e c l o s e s t t o  saves the time  one  Use  is  i n d i c a t i v e of the l e v e l  but the of  35  5.0 CO CO UJ  o 4.0 CO UJ  Q t— Z> CL  3.0  =>2.D k o CL  h  1-0  0.0 70  BO  !00  90  110  ] 40  3 30  ]20  OUTDOOR A!R ENTHALPY (KJ/KG)  8 - Non-Dimensionalized Energy Pump(cooling)  Figure  Once t h e d a y s a r e s e l e c t e d , profile outdoor The  a i r enthalpy p r o f i l e s  d r y - b u l b temperature  capacity.  This  dry-bulb  along with i t s corresponding hourly  transfer  +  the hourly  through The  quantity  the  are included  Use o f Heat  h u m i d i t y r a t i o * and  i n the weather  and e n t h a l p y a r e used construction  hourly  i s not used  solar  heat  elements gain  i n t h e program  temperature  file.  t o determine and  factor  heat and  heat pump  sol-air  36  temperature principal separate the used  of  elements  days  are  determined  d i r e c t i o n s and a h o r i z o n t a l file.  solar to  selected  The  gain  through  determine by  s o l a r heat gain  the  monthly  temperature  weather  data.  the  surface  factor  fenestration. heat  transfer  Time-Averaging of e a r t h  with  is also  for  and  i s used  sixteen  included to  in a  determine  S o l - a i r temperature through Shift  included  construction  method. in  is  the  Average condensed  37  IV.  The  program,  Analysis  Program),  on  UBC  manual  RHECAP(Residential i s written  computing  applications  of the  checks  PROGRAM  using  facility simulation  methods  program a r e d i s c u s s e d  i n A p p e n d i x D.  program  i s included  Consumption  470/V6-II). are  verified  of t h e program and i t s s u b r o u t i n e s . requirements,  main  Energy  FORTRAN l a n g u a g e and  (Amdahl  s u b r o u t i n e s and i n p u t  the  Home  i n Appendix E.  Correct through  The p r o g r a m  o u t p u t , a n d how t o The l o g i c  tested  run t h e  flow diagram f o r  38  V.  VALIDATION OF THE PROGRAM  5.1 Method  The  energy a n a l y s i s  results  of  selected  f o r the purpose a r e  structures program.  EASI  an  reference  are  used  analysis.  load  of a l t e r n a t i v e s .  simulation condensed less  based  on  weather  than  5%  program  that  handling  were  weather The  The  BLAST  entire  house  and  reference on b o t h  complexity  of p r o v i d i n g  of reduced accuracy  suitable  the  f o r accurate  is  building  suitable for  of seven days.  a  and i t  comprehensive  systyems.  with  is  It i s a single into  storey three  an  is  I t uses  condition.  EASI  load  errors  existing  house  of  weather  is  energy  It  t h e weather  divided  The  from t h e use o f c o n d e n s e d  throughly tested is  thermal  d a t a ; e a c h month o f t h e  throughly tested[24].  used  is  f o r each  rather,  weather  of the commercial  structure B.C.  but  condensed  data t o simulate  Vancouver,  i s not  performs  claimed  h a s been  many  a t t h e expense  data c o n s i s t s  form.  one  Two  EASI o n l y p e r f o r m s t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g  d a t a . [ 2 2 ] EASI h a s n o t been final  BLAST[23,24].  with the i n t e n t i o n  prediction,  EASI  programs  a r e compared.  T h i s means EASI  simulation.  reference  t o RHECAP i n i t s i n t e n t i o n  performance  comparison  and  comparison;  e a s y - t o - u s e energy program  energy  its  EASl[22]  EASI was w r i t t e n  and c a p a b i l i t y .  The  t o perform the energy a n a l y s i s  and t h e r e s u l t s i s similar  o f RHECAP a r e compared w i t h t h e  programs.  for  RHECAP was u s e d  structures  of  two  results  not  in  analysis  capable full  of  yearly  house  in  w i t h a basement.  zones;  living  room,  39  t r  1 Bath  B e d Rm  B e d Rm  L i v i n g Rm  Kitchen  Ground  Laundry  Wall F e n ^ r . t r a t i on double olazed  & F u r n a c e Rm  Basement  Figure  floor  floor  9 - Floor  Plan  40  bedroom, house.  and  The s t r u c t u r e  (Vancouver the is  basement.  Figure  used w i t h  location).  It  9 shows t h e f l o o r BLAST  i s again  is  The  comparison  w i t h . EASI  only  since  furnace  and  are  compared a s t h e c o n d i t i o n i n g  include  house  house  The e n t i r e  with  structure  heat  the heat  pump s y s t e m .  Furthermore,  load  simulation  RHECAP  are  However,  i t is verified  that  derived  from  simulation  the load  features  not  data,  of  as other  load  living  of  heating  data  the  compared w i t h  the system  load  and f u r n a c e  the loads  does  not  and e a r t h .  Due  system  simulation  the a c t u a l  simulation  results.  room  EASI  t r a n s f e r between t h e s t r u c t u r e  results  BLAST o n l y  features  EASI d o e s n o t have t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f h a n d l i n g  t o t h e l a c k of a c t u a l energy use  results  fictitious  i n t o two z o n e s ; a b o v e - g r o u n d a n d b e l o w - g r o u n d .  results  only  of the  a single storey  d i m e n s i o n s o f 9.1 m X 12.2 m X 4.9 m. divided  a  plan  figure.  results  are  The c o m p a r i s o n  with  energy  consumption  o f t h e BLAST r u n [ 2 5 ] i s n o t a v a i l a b l e .  5.2 I n p u t And O u t p u t The  input  and  output  of  RHECAP  runs  are  included i n  Appendix F. 5.3 Remarks The plotted  r e s u l t s o f RHECAP and EASI a r e t a b u l a t e d in  Figure  conditioning  loads  10.  a r e not s t r i c t l y  w e a t h e r d a t a and s p a c e u s e overall  yearly  One-to-one  profiles  weather p a t t e r n  comparisons possible are  i n Table of  6 and  monthly  because d i f f e r e n t  used.  However,  the  d o e s n o t change d r a s t i c a l l y  from  41  HEATINC5 (kWh) MONTH  RHECAP  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 TOTAL  EASI  one  year  to  interest  1400 1 1 30 945 723 415 153 1 47 1 66 340 532 1021 1303  9991  8276  total  correlated  6 - Run R e s u l t s  the  Based  2478  o f RHECAP and EASI  on  correlation  (1)  10 i n d i c a t e s with  heating  possible  is  1 864  37 16 38 141 186 41 1 702 508 284 1 19 27 1 1  this  assumption,  of the monthly  items  of  loads and y e a r l y  loads. Figure  in  0 8 38 67 202 430 452 463 189 14 1 0  EASI  RHECAP = 11855 EASI = 10754  another.  are  RHECAP  2101 1374 954 828 409 226 1 05 134 256 850 1351 1 400  TOTAL Table  COOL INC5 (kWh)  cooling  The hourly  the s e t of  few d e v i a t i o n s .  results  are  T h e r e a r e a. s i z a b l e  demand f o r J a n u a r y and c o o l i n g  strongly  differences  demand f o r J u l y .  The  explanations are: J a n u a r y and J u l y  b a s e d o n , was c o l d e r (2)  that  The c o o l i n g  than  long  term January and J u l y  demand o f RHECAP i s s e n s i b l e  demand o f EASI  i s f o r sum o f s e n s i b l e  system simulation calculations  o f 1979, t h e y e a r RHECAP w e a t h e r  results  are  only  file  averages when t h e  and l a t e n t  verified  o f f u r n a c e and h e a t pump l o a d s .  by  checking I t i s also  42  2400 i  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  r  MONTH  Figure verified  10 - H e a t i n g a n d C o o l i n g that  reasonable The  heat  monthly  energy consumption  efficiency  pump  furnace  and  heat  pump  loads  f i g u r e s f o r c o r r e s p o n d i n g monthly c o n d i t i o n i n g  furnace  average  the  Demands o f RHECAP and EASI  i s 62%.  operates  with  i n d i c a t e s that  the furnace  are loads.  yearly  The p r o g r a m a l s o p r e d i c t s t h a t t h e  yearly  average  coefficiency  of  p e r f o r m a n c e o f 2.0. The  results  of  RHECAP and BLAST a r e t a b u l a t e d  i n Table 7  43  HEATINC5 (kWh) MONTH  RHECAP  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2  and p l o t t e d  illustrates closely. total. not  and that  The  BLAST  The  are  37185  o f RHECAP and BLAST  i n Figure for  load  the  of the furnace BLAST does  furnace  merely  dividing  the  (80%).  RHECAP p r e d i c t s  heating  The  results  1979.  Figure  r e s u l t s o f two p r o g r a m s total  load  load  by  the y e a r l y  are  is  furnace  derived  the furnace furnace  11  match  results  the t r a n s i e n t  consumptions  of  i s 1% o f t h e  energy consumption  not s i m u l a t e  energy  that  11. year  d i f f e r e n c e of the y e a r l y  since  operation.  7079 5273 3991 2982 1 550 826 480 616 1234 2890 4885 5369  4761 1  only)  the heating  Comparison  valid  30088  load  BLAST  9510 5833 3774 3940 2096 1 1 78 61 1 823 1 849 4874 6043 7081  7 - Run R e s u l t s  (heating  RHECAP  RHECAP  5710 4249 3228 2418 1 267 679 395 507 1012 2347 3941 4331  30361  Table  both  BLAST  6433 3855 2420 2391 1 231 646 345 464 1 029 3052 3836 4661  TOTAL  FURNACE C:ON (kWh)  by  efficiency  efficiency  is  65%. . The  validation  satisfactory particular indicate  when u s e d  shows with  that Vancouver  s t r u c t u r e s employed that  the  simulation  RHECAP  predictions  weather  for validation. methods u s e d  data  and  are the  I t a l s o seems t o i n t h e program a r e  44  Figure  valid.  11 - H e a t i n g L o a d s of RHECAP and BLAST  45  VI. 6.1  computer  costing,  for for  REMARKS  Conclusions  The low  CLOSING  easy  analysis  It  satisfactory  that  has  u s e a combined  been  results  satisfactorily  calculate  sources.  parameter, cooling  method  o f a l l heat  only  furnace  requires  and  performances  units  of d i f f e r e n t The  heat  generates  here  contributions  shift,  five  can  of a l l sets  of  to c a l c u l a t e the  sources.  g e n e r a l i z e d methods o f r e p r e s e n t i n g  pump  and  for validation.  developed  load  period  gain  used  output  i s designed  t h e program  method  cooling  time-averaging  load  The  This  of  that  f o r the s t r u c t u r e s Shift  simple  T h i s program  system  demonstrated  with  i s easy-to-use,  i n p u t , and produces  has been d e v e l o p e d .  Time-Averaging  energy  s i m u l a t i o n program t h a t  r e q u i r e s simple  structures  pump.  energy  have been d e v e l o p e d .  furnace  and  heat  They c a n be a p p l i e d t o  c a p a c i t i e s and m a n u f a c t u r e r s .  furnace  performance  conditions  is  represented  performance  and  a  correction  factor  furnace performance  for with  correction  the the  factor  i s a polynomial  entire  steady  opearating  state  developed  furnace  here.  The  e q u a t i o n which expresses t h e  degradation with the  drop  of  the  furnace  load. Six heat  linear  pump  cooling) equations  equations  performance, and  that  the output  electricity  are  the  represent the non-dimensionalized  use,  functions  rating  have of  ( h e a t i n g and s e n s i b l e  been outdoor  developed. enthalpy.  The The  46  performance  over the e n t i r e  represented (sensible) A  with  of the heat  simple  information been  above  s i x equations  c o n d i t i o n s can  and  be  the rated  tonnage  whose  weather  pump.  method  is  outdoor operating  of  included  choosing  the  i n a yearly  d e v e l o p e d and u s e d w i t h good  days  condensed  weather  d a t a has  result.  6.2 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The Program Because simulation  t h e program methods,  developed i t  alternatives,  alternative  conditioning  systems.  used  f o r the purpose  is  i n c o r p o r a t e s many best  By  of p r e d i c t i n g  particular  particular  uses of t h e program a r e :  The  load  e n e r g y u s e by a f u r n a c e  iii.  Annual  e n e r g y u s e by c o m b i n a t i o n o f  energy  space  use o f o r  system.  of a s t r u c t u r e  Annual  program than  space c o n d i t i o n i n g  ii.  annual  the  energy  conditioning  and e x i s t i n g  The  a t both  stages  the  furnace  and  pump  energy  determined a f t e r the  space  the absolute  design  heat  and  comparing  t h e same r e a s o n i n g , i t i s n o t t o be  a  Annual  for  construction materials  designing  i.  suited  simplified  saving  of  a retrofit  making two s e p a r a t e  h e a t pump u s e c a n be  simulation  runs.  First,  u s e by t h e f u r n a c e a l o n e i s d e t e r m i n e d by r u n n i n g t h e  using  the highest  a false  balance point  w i n t e r ambient  temperature  temperature.  use by t h e f u r n a c e and h e a t pump i s d e t e r m i n e d  that  Second, by  i s higher the energy  running  the  47  program  u s i n g the  recommended b a l a n c e p o i n t  annual h e a t i n g energy current  unit  w i t h EASI One  problem i s the  maintains  the  simulation  total  load  associated  temperature program,  requirement  to  t h e uneven  the on  rate  of heat  the depth  of  floor  The  rates  are  determined  (Section proper  heat  appliance  through  input  the  It  t o what  and  the  to  the  sensitive  thermostat  temperature  is  distribution  of  this  the below-grade  work  the f l o o r  state  the  floor  i s assumed rate,  a  w a l l and  the  to provide  overall  use  floor.  can  in simulation.  occupancy,  floor  equation  w a l l and  residence  In  employed.  conduction  of below-grade  is  depends  shape[26].  program u s e r has  i t e m s of  wall  Furthermore,  p r o c e d u r e s a r e not  steady  Therefore,  rarely  assumed i n  It i s only  through below-grade  coefficients  energy  is sensitive  the below-grade  calculation  infiltration  use.  the  an  distribution.  through  load contributing  from a c t u a l  the As  residential  It decreases with depth.  Therefore,  transfer  items such as the and  transfer  transfer  using  3.1.2).  Certain greatly  heat  where  i s uneven  below g r a d e  work, t h e d e t a i l e d  using  I t i s beyond the scope  transfer  this  of  zone  temperature  uniform throughout.  price.  mechanism.  the system  of the  the s t r u c t u r e .  not  knowing  a c c o r d i n g to the c o n t r o l  there  of h e a t  the  of t h e s t r u c t u r e .  throughout  rate  electricity  control  in that  Therefore,  The  unit  with  temperature  located.  include  determined  Then,  F).  requirement  to the l o a d  be  s a v i n g of $200 i s p r e d i c t e d  (Appendix  simulation  the  can  g a s ( o r o i l ) and/or  example, a y e a r l y used  saving  temperature.  vary  They of  results  are  light, of  the  48  computer program is  another  purpose  c a n be q u i t e  valid  rather  change shade can  practice  on s o u t h f a c i n g  Another thermostat setting  program  actual.  This  f o r comparison  u s e would  impact  solariums.  on t o t a l e n e r g y  t o account  can  setback s e t t i n g . routine  response of t h e space  of the  These  use. T h e r e f o r e ,  f o r above  items  on  the  be w o r t h w h i l e .  improvement  handling  results  s u c h a s t h e p r e s e n c e of o v e r h a n g s o r  windows and t h e use o f  significant  energy  the  improvements a r e t h e d i r e c t  improvements o f t h e program total  use  the  F o r F u r t h e r Work  program  in building  have  to  from  than d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the a b s o l u t e energy u s e .  6.3 Recommendation Possible  reason  different  be  made  The  improved  would  temperature  on t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h e -thermostat  incorporate  t o the  change  the of  setback transient  thermostat  setting. More using  weather  desirable. and data  validations  d a t a other than the The weather  a particular used  of t h e program  and i t s s i m u l a t i o n  one  used  data of other c i t i e s ,  in  long  y e a r , i s recommended t o be u s e d .  i n t h i s work i s f o r V a n c o u v e r  this  i n 1979.  methods work  is  term  average  The  weather  49  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  ASHRAE, P r o c e d u r e f o r D e t e r m i n i n g H e a t i n g and C o o l i n g L o a d s f o r C o m p u t e r i z i n g E n e r g y C a l c u l a t i o n s , Task G r o u p on E n e r g y R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r H e a t i n g and C o o l i n g o f B u i l d i n g s , 1976.  2.  ASHRAE, CHAPTER 28 A i r - C o n d i t i o n i n g C o o l i n g L o a d , ASHRAE Handbook o f F u n d a m e n t a l s , ASHRAE, New Y o r k , 1967.  3.  M i t a l a s , G.P., An A s s e s s m e n t o f Common A s s u m p t i o n s i n E s t i m a t i n g C o o l i n g L o a d s a n d Space T e m p e r a t u r e , ASHRAE Paper No. 1949, 1965.  4.  S t e p h e n s o n , D.G. and M i t a l a s , G.P., C o o l i n g L o a d C a l c u l a t i o n s by T h e r m a l Response F a c t o r Method, ASHRAE Paper No. 2018, 1967.  5.  M i t a l a s , G.P. and S t e p h e n s o n , D.G., Room T h e r m a l F a c t o r s , ASHRAE Paper No. 2019, 1967.  6.  M i t a l a s , G.P., An E x p e r i m e n t a l Check on t h e W e i g h t i n g F a c t o r Method o f C a l c u l a t i n g Room C o o l i n g L o a d , ASHRAE Paper No. 2125, 1969.  7.  Peavy, B.A., B u r c h , D.M., P o w e l l , F . J . , and Hunt, C M . , C o m p a r i s o n o f M e a s u r e d a n d Computer P r e d i c t e d T h e r m a l P e r f o r m a n c e o f a F o u r Bedroom Wood-Frame Townhouse, U.S. D e p a r t m e r n t o f Commerce and N a t i o n a l B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 975.  Response  G a b l e , G.K. a n d K o e n i g , K., S e a s o n a l O p e r a t i n g P e r f o r m a n c e o f Gas H e a t i n g Systems w i t h C e r t a i n E n e r g y S a v i n g F e a t u r e s , ASHRAE Paper No. CH-77-14 #2, 1977. B l a n c e t t , R.S., S e p s y , C.F., M c B r i d e , M,F,. and J o n e s , C D . , Energy C a l c u l a t i o n Procedures f o r Residences w i t h F i e l d V a l i d a t i o n , ASHRAE P a p e r No. PH-79-7A #4, 1979. 10,  Information Carrier Lennox  Brochure 38RQ 5-15-79 22-2018-7 22-2057-8, 22-2073-4, 22-2080-4, Westinghouse 22-2080-3 22-2081-4, a n d 22-2082-2 5 1 5 . 2 1 - S G 3 U 7 9 ) and 5 1 5. 30-TG2 (1 080 ) York  11.  G o l d s c h m i d t , V.W., H a r t , G.H., and R e i n e r , R . C , A Note on the T r a n s i e n t P e r f o r m a n c e and D e g r a d a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t o f a F i e l d T e s t e d Heat Pump - C o o l i n g and H e a t i n g Mode, ASHRAE Paper No 2610, 1980.  50  12.  G r o f f , G.C. and Reedy, W.R., I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Heat Pump Performance i n the N o r t h e r n C l i m a t e Through F i e l d M o n i t o r i n g and Computer S i m u l a t i o n , ASHRAE Paper No. A t 78-8 #1, 1978.  13.  Shade, G.R., S a v i n g E n e r g y by N i g h t S e t b a c k o f a R e s i d e n t i a l Heat Pump System, ASHRAE P a p e r No. AT-78-8 #2, 1978.  14.  S c h n e i d e r , K.S., HVAC C o n t r o l Sons, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1981.  15.  Honeywell 1 981 .  16.  ASHRAE, C h a p t e r 25 F u r n a c e s and Space H e a t e r s , ASHRAE Handbook o f E q u i p m e n t , ASHRAE, New Y o r k , 1979.  17.  B l a t t , M.H. and E r i c k s o n , R . C , R e s i d e n t i a l H y b r i d Heat Pump S t a t e - o f - t h e - A r t A s s e s s m e n t , ASHRAE p a p e r No. 2611, 1980.  18.  ASHRAE, C h a p t e r 25 A i r - C o n d i t i o n i n g C o o l i n g L o a d , ASHRAE Handbook o f F u n d a m e n t a l s , ASHRAE, New Y o r k , 1977.  19.  ASHRAE, C h a p t e r 26 F e n e s t r a t i o n ASHRAE Handbook o f F u n d a m e n t a l s , ASHRAE, New Y o r k , 1977.  20.  Hay, J . E . , Department o f G e o g r a p h y UBC, R a d i a t i o n Measurements o f V a n c o u v e r 1979 and 1980(on M a g n e t i c T a p e ) .  21.  ASHRAE, P r o c e d u r e s f o r S i m u l a t i n g t h e P e r f o r m a n c e o f Components and Systems f o r E n e r g y C a l c u l a t i o n s , ASHRAE, New Y o r k , 1975.  22.  EASI: The p r o g r a m and i t s d o c u m e n t a t i o n a r e n o t p u b l i c l y a v a i l a b l e y e t ; The p r o g r a m a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n ( U s e r ' s , E n g i n e e r i n g , and Programmer's manuals i n d r a f t form) a r e l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h t h e B.C. H y d r o ; T h i s p r o g r a m i s the work o f t h e P u b l i c Works Canada, Computer A i d e d D e s i g n ( C A D ) C e n t r e , 1980.  23.  H i t t l e , D . C , BLAST, The B u i l d i n g L o a d s A n a l y s i s and System Thermodynamics Program, R e f e r e n c e M a n u a l , U.S. Army C o n s t r u c t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g L a b o r a t o r y , Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1977.  24.  H i t t l e , D . C , BLAST Program, P r o c e e d i n g o f T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on t h e use o f Computer f o r E n g i n e e r i n g R e l a t e d t o B u i l d i n g s , 271-280, 1978.  25.  BLAST r e s u l t s on a f i c t i t i o u s house i n V a n c o u v e r , P r e p a r e d by Hoy L a u o f B.C. H y d r o , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 1982.  information  Systems, J o h n W i l e y and  b r o c h u r e , Form No.  60-2485-1, pp31,  ASHRAE, C h a p t e r 24 H e a t i n g L o a d , ASHRAE Handbook o f F u n d a m e n t a l s , ASHRAE, New Y o r k , 1977. Chapman, A . J . , Heat T r a n s f e r , T h i r d E d i t i o n , M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , New Y o r k , 1974.  52  APPENDIX A ~ TRANSFER FUNCTION The  g e n e r a l i z e d method of d e t e r m i n i n g  (transfer This  functions)  In an e n c l o s u r e ,  heat  a l l three  balance  surfaces  on u n i t a r e a  13.  modes of h e a t t r a n s f e r ,  r a d i a t i o n , and c u n d u c t i o n ,  between e n c l o s i n g  factor  f o r any room and e x c i t a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d .  i s t h e summary of t h e r e f e r e n c e  convection,  the response  occur  and t h e e n c l o s e d  simultaneously air.  f o r any i n s i d e s u r f a c e  Therefore, i a t time n can  be w r i t t e n a s :  where q  =  c o n v e c t i o n h e a t g a i n (=h; ( T Q - TV ) where h; = c o n v e c t i o n heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s , T = a i r temperature, T<; = t e m p e r a t u r e o f s u r f a c e i ) a  Qrad i  n  Qcond L,H  =  =  r a d i a n t h e a t g a i n (=2-9i.j (Tj -Tj_ ) where J=number of e n c l o s i n g s u r f a c e s , g*'. =fc.j4crTa^ , fc,j = a b s o r p t i o n factors for surface i,V=Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T<xi/g =time a v e r a g e o f a l l a b s o l u t e s u r f a c e temperatures) c o n d u c t i o n h e a t g a i n ( t h i s amount c a n be e x p r e s s e d i n t i m e s e r i e s form u s i n g t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s o f i n n e r and o u t e r w a l l s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e s p o n s e f a c t o r s , i t can be w r i t t e n a s : oo  oo  where x and y^ a r e r e s p o n s e f a c t o r s ( A p p e n d i x A o f R e f e r e n c e 13 g i v e s t h e f o r m u l a s f o r t h e t e m p e r a t u r e s and f a c t o r s ) , T = o u t e r w a l l s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e ) =excitation p  K  e^  n  Substitution rearrangement  of heat  of terms  gain  gives:  expressions  i n equation  (A.1) and  53  J -Ten  -e£.n  The  heat  (h  -  J  +2.91,  L  T  a . n  h  +  :  +  T  y  £ U,.-p>*P  +  balance  x0)  T  +  o  ~  |  p  Zg,.  T  ^ n -  P  )  T,..  v  { P  A  '  2  )  f o r room a i r c a n be w r i t t e n a s : (A.3) dt  B  where t B  = =  time heat storage c a p a c i t y  q  =  rate  $  % Equation  of heat  o f room a i r  (sensible)  removed by c o n d i t i o n i n g  A h (T -TV ) (A.3) c a n be a p p r o x i m a t e d l  L  l  dTo.  Ta_  it  -  T  a  by: _  t  A  _  (A.4)  dt Equating expression  A  equations  for £  (A.3) a n d (A.4) w i t h  i n equation  L Aih T i-i L  +  L ) n  -  --- T "A"  The  equation  [T]  =  [K]  n  =  Inverting  of t h e  ( |- + £ A, h- ) T „ l-l A |  ftlCM  .„ = q  (A.5)  n  ( A . 2 ) c a n be w r i t t e n n  =  substitution  (A.3) g i v e s :  [M] • [T]  where [M]  system  = [K]  i n matrix n  form  such a s : (A.6)  c o n s t a n t m a t r i x ( c o n t a i n s a l l t h e c o n s t a n t terms o f e q u a t i o n (A.2)) t e m p e r a t u r e m a t r i x (column o f t e m p e r a t u r e s o f i n s i d e s u r f a c e s a t t i m e n) e x c i t a t i o n m a t r i x (column o f e x c i t a t i o n components a t t i m e n) the matrix  [ M ] , [ T ] ^ c a n be s o l v e d b y :  54  .[T] The  surface  = [M]  n  temperature  for  any e x c i t a t i o n  and  (A.5) r e s p e c t i v e l y .  excition  in consideration  load  response  by s o l v i n g  The s u r f a c e  f o r any e x c i t a t i o n  (A.7)  n  and c o o l i n g  c a n be d e t e r m i n e d  factors  •  • [K]  e q u a t i o n s (A.7)  temperature  are determined take a u n i t  response  by o n l y  time  factors  l e t t i n g the  series(i.e.  1,0,0,  • m ) •  The elements  calculation  terms Now  T  in consideration,  response  Using  the element [T]  that  [ K ] , whose 0  c o r r e s p o n d i n g the  i s determined  using equation  Then, t h e p r o c e d u r e s a r e r e p e a t e d u n t i l  the successive  i n each i i M  w i t h n=0.  are a l l zero except  excitation (A.7).  starts  of the temperature  o b t a i n e d c a n be u s e d factors  0  time-series  become c o n s t a n t .  i n (A.5) t o g e t t h e c o o l i n g  f o r the e x c i t a t i o n  in consideration.  load  55  APPENDIX B - TIME-AVERAGING WITH SHIFT PARAMETER The  wall  types  listed  F u n d a m e n t a l s [ 1 8 ] and used  to  walls  illustrate  are  transfer into  divided  only  on  the  method of  i n t o four  Section  2  4.2).  parameters, the  For  to  These d i v i s i o n s are  wall.  each w a l l ,  the  contribution  area  necessary  and  t o the  unit  divided  shift,  cooling  to  show  depend  load  is  using: Hourly  heat  A v e r a g e s of  gain  is calculated  the  = U A  radiant  using  (t _-  heat  of  to give  current  to  cooling  consideration.  load  the  hour.  2)  convective cooling  The  of heat  gain  load  averaging  i s done  hours. contribution  i s determined  by  the  method.  profile  compared w i t h p r o f i l e s the  of c u r r e n t  twenty-four  Function load  hour  (B. 1 )  a  gains(Table  added to the  the  t )  s a  preceding hours are  Then t h e  establish  period  The  t h e i r heat  is further  t h e i r mass p e r  the  up  The  to  Each group  time-averaging  contribution  Transfer  c o e f f i c i e n t s are  groups according  Q ii.  function  of  parameter d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  mass of  determined i.  ASHRAE Handbook  their transfer  subgroups a c c o r d i n g  (kg/m , see the  1977  coefficients(U-values).  four  that  in  DETERMINATION  of  the  Function  method  of d i f f e r e n t t i m e - a v e r a g i n g  time-averaging The  Transfer  i n t e r v a l f o r the  comparisons are  done on  wall  the  is  i n t e r v a l s to under  profile  shape  56  30 .0  -z.  o  'cp5  1 a  AVERAGING (h) : SHIFT (h) : U (W/rr>* K) : MASS/AREA(kg/m) :  £ 24.0  25  SOLID : HMt—AVERAGING WITH SHIFT DASHED: TRANSFER FUNCTION METHOD  18.0  t—  z o o 12.0 Q < Q  6.0  0.0 8  12  HOUR OF  Figure  and  t h e peak  t h e peak shifted method.  wall  v a l u e of t h e p r o f i l e  by t h e amount  determined  (h)  12 - Time - A v e r a g i n g w i t h S h i f t and T r a n s f e r F u n c t i o n Methods C o m p a r i s o n  hourly cooling  The  DAY  24  20  16  load.  Then,  i t lags that  time-averaging  f o r the w a l l .  without  r e g a r d t o t h e t i m e of  the s e l e c t e d  profile is  of the T r a n s f e r F u n c t i o n  interval  and  s h i f t are  These procedures  then  are repeated  for a l l  types. Both the t i m e - a v e r a g i n g  interval  and  s h i f t depend  only  on  57  30 .0  Q  AVERAGING (h) : 5H1FT (h) : U (W/rv\ K) MASS/AREA(V9/rri)  24.0  #  1 0.C3S 8D  l  2  O  '5]8.0  SOLID : T!M£—AVERAGING W!!'H S H F T DASHED: TRANSFER FUNCTION METHOD  on  Z c  ^  Q < O.  12.0  6.0  0.0 !2  3  HOUR OF  Figure  the  mass of  determine gains 3), load  of  the  the walls  wall.  One  set  of p a r a m e t e r s  c o o l i n g l o a d c o n t r i b u t i o n s of belonging  t o e a c h of to t h e i r  contribution profiles wall  (hj  - Time - A v e r a g i n g w i t h S h i f t and F u n c t i o n Methods Comparison  c l a s s i f i e d according  different and  13  DAY  groups, are  Time-Averaging with  of  four  the  Shift  four  mass/unit different  determined  24  20  16  by  methods and  the  Transfer  i s adequate conduction wall  walls,  The  in  (Table  cooling  each  Transfer  compared  heat  groups  area.  to  from  Function Figures  58  30 .0  24.0 2  AVERAGING (h) : IB SHIFT (h) : 3 U (W/rrt* K) 0.G24 MASS/AREA(kg/rn) : !95  5go !8.Q  SOLID : TIME—AVERAGING WITH SHIFT DASHED: R A N S F E R FUN CTLDN METHOD  O  T  O U !2.Q Q < O  6.0  _i  0.0 0  i  4  i  i  i  8  i  i  ]2  i  i  16  i  I  20  24  HOUR OF DAY (h)  Figure  12,  13, 14, and 15. The  1977  14 - Time - A v e r a g i n g w i t h S h i f t a n d T r a n s f e r F u n c t i o n Methods C o m p a r i s o n  parameter v a l u e s  f o r the d i f f e r e n t  roof  types  listed in  ASHRAE Handbook o f F u n d a m e n t a l s [ 2 3 ] a r e t h e same a s t h e  parameters The  f o r the w a l l s .  application  parameters  for solar  transparent  surfaces, appliances,  established  using  a similar  gain  through  l i g h t s and o c c u p a n t s a r e  approach.  The c o n t r o l l i n g  factor  59  30 .0  24.0  AVERAGING (h) : SHIFT (!l) ' : Li (W/rrt* K) ; MASS/A R £A k g/ m*! :  18.0  SOLID : TIME—AVERAGING WITH SHIFT DASHED: TRANSFER FUNCTION METHOD  o '3  cp  <:2 5 0.579 315  o °  !2.0  < O  6.0  h  0.0 8  12  16  24  20  HOUR OF DAY (h)  Figure  that  15 - Time - A v e r a g i n g w i t h S h i f t and F u n c t i o n Methods C o m p a r i s o n  d i c t a t e s the parameters  However, t h e c o o l i n g  Transfer  i s t h e mass o f t h e s t r u c t u r e .  load contributions  of these heat  s o u r c e s a r e i n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e mass o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . the  parameters  are  used  o f medium c o n s t r u c t i o n  (Table 3 ) .  (350 kg/m  2  gain Hence,  of f l o o r  area)  60  APPENDIX C - FURNACE Determination  OPERATION  of furnace o p e r a t i o n a l  c o n d i t i o n s assumes t h e  following i.  Furnace and  o p e r a t e s a t s i x c y c l e s per hour  each  cycle  mentioned  goes t h r o u g h  in section  Return  iii.  The f l o w t h r o u g h t h e h e a t  a i r i s m a i n t a i n e d a t 18°C  the v e r t i c a l  Average  conditions  determine  exchanger  flow over a v e r t i c a l  with uniform surface  v . The r a t e  s t a g e s which a r e  2.2.2  ii.  iv.  four  at a l l loads  the heat  of heat  c a n be t r e a t e d a s  heated  flat  plate  temperature  f o r each  stage a r e used t o  transfer  of each  exchanger  stage  temperature  rise  and d r o p a r e  constant First,  operating conditions  determined.  The r a t e  o f s t a g e s two a n d t h r e e a r e  of heat added t o the s u p p l y a i r d u r i n g t h e  s t a g e s two and t h r e e a r e ma Cp ( t q  2 3  b  - t  r  )  =  (C. 1 ) 60  and Qcy Performing and  the heat  the heat  governing  2  transfer  exchanger  the heat  = q  yields  tranfer  r+ 2  q  3  T  (C.2)  3  calcultion  between t h e a i r s t r e a m  t h e same r e s u l t s .  process, forced  The e q u a t i o n  convection, i s  [27]:  61  he q  A  (t  h e  h e  -t  s  )  (C.3)  =  60  where n r\-> c T-i _ ° T - i he = 0.036 Re°' Pr i  The  e  supply a i r temperatures t  t Terms he and t iteration using  i s used  h  rate  to solve  e q u a t i o n s (C.1) and  of heat  = t  2  o  (C.5)  +t ^  fo n  exchanger  )/2  f  (C.3).  Figure  of a c y c l e  temperature = m  3  hfc  Cp  (C.4)  n  f o r the heat  profile  q  f  )  s t a g e s two and t h r e e a r e  a r e both dependent  e  exchange temperature  h e 'he  f o r both  = (t  3  ( /ku//T L  0,3  drop  (C.6) on e a c h o t h e r ; exchanger  temperature  16 shows t h e h e a t at half  load.  i s determined  Then, t h e using (C.7)  h e  AT  3  therefore, A  t  h  q  e  (C.  3  =  Ar  The  3  (m  Cp  h e  )  t i m e o f s t a g e t h r e e i s g i v e n by ( t y,  -  e2  T 3  t v, ) 3 e  h e  /Ar  l e a d s t o d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t i m e  equation  (C.2).  2  (C.9)  =  At This  he  8 )  3  spent d u r i n g  s t a g e two  using  62  4  10  6  TIME ( m i n )  Figure  16 - Heat  r  2  Exchanger  =  (qCy  "  Q3  L  q The  operating conditions  determined and is  similarly.  The  heat  cycle  necessary to observe  does not exceed  ten  Profile  r ) 3  (C.10)  2  of s t a g e s one  a i r d u r i n g s t a g e s f o u r and also  Temperature  transfer one  that  minutes.  and  are  between h e a t  i s by n a t u r a l total  four  exchanger  convection.  time a l l o c a t e d  for a  It  63  APPENDIX D  D.1  - HOW  TO  USE  RHECAP  Program The  functions  SUBROUTINE  of  the  s u b r o u t i n e s are  :  Reads i n p u t  DATCHK  :  P r i n t s the  data input  data  VOLHOU :  Determines constants  TEMPRO :  Establishes  AZI  A s s i g n s each e x t e r i o r the  ASSIGN  :  heating  sixteen  the  :  Calculates  :  and  f o r v i s u a l check  i n the  cooling  surface  S)  subroutine temperature  heat  profile  o r i e n t a t i o n t o one  and  light  used  i n the  load  contribution  gain  information  profiles  Time-Averaging  using  the  T-A  profile  :  exterior  of a c o n d e n s e d month  gain  surfaces  f a c t o r s and and  sol-air  horizontal  Determines d a i l y c o n d i t i o n i n g profile  due  to heat  elements using QINFIL  :  a  transfer  simple  due  to  load  from  temperatures  surface  from  infiltration  contribution  through  conduction  Determines d a i l y c o n d i t i o n i n g profile  due  S method  file QWR  of  file  Reads s o l a r h e a t of  AIRSIM  method  daily cooling  Reads w e a t h e r weather  SOLHGF  used  parameter v a l u e s  t o a l l s o u r c e s of WEAINF  request  principal directions  with S h i f t ( T - A :  on  A s s i g n s d a i l y occupancy, a p p l i a n c e , and  QTIMAV  follows:  : FUNCTION  INPUT  :  as  load  construction  equation contribution  solar  64  CLCON a n d CLMISC  :  Determine  the hourly  conditioning  load  o f e a c h zone by  adding a l l sources CLSUM  :  Determines hourly  house  conditioning  SUMML  :  P r i n t s t h e summary t a b l e o f t h e l o a d  PERFUR  :  Calculates  PERHP  :  Assigns c o e f f i c i e n t s  furnace performance needed  load simulation  variables  t o d e t e r m i n e t h e h e a t pump  performance RMTEM1  :  Determines  room t e m p e r a t u r e  conditioning AIRSIM  :  i n absence  of t h e space  system  Determines hourly  system on-time  to satisfy  s e t room  temperature HEATPH  :  D e t e r m i n e s h e a t pump c a p a c i t y  during  heating  HEATPC  :  D e t e r m i n e s h e a t pump c a p a c i t y  during  c o o l i n g mode  SUMMS  :  P r i n t s t h e summary t a b l e o f s y s t e m  D.2  mode  simulation  Input  D.2.1  Background The  program  form which  includes  t o make t h e t a s k Futhermore, desired. computed. shown  requires  t h e program  simple and minimize  has t h e c a p a b i l i t y  c a n be s u c h t h a t  only  SI u n i t s a r e u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y .  i n Appendix F.  However, an i n p u t  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f each input  of input  The i n p u t  formatted input.  item  input  i s provided error.  of checking input i f the load A sample  simulation i s input i s  65  D.2.2  Input*  i.  detail  General a.  b.  ii.  Control  information  •  Request  •  Load  title  f o r input  simulation  Run t i t l e ,  •  City  3 lines  designation  (Yes o r No  | A1)  request  (Yes o r No  |Al)  (any i n f o r m t i o n  | 3A80)  (VANcouver, V i c t o r i a  | A3)  Description  B u i l d i n g north clockwise  •  •  respect  to true  north,  p o s i t i v e ( d e g | 14) azimuths  (dimensionless,  o f 6 | 14)  Azimuth angles clockwise  Construction •  with  Number o f e x t e r i o r s u r f a c e maximum  angle  with  respect  to building  south,  ( d e g | 614)  material  Number o f d i f f e r e n t (dimensionless,  +  only  only  Building orientation •  d.  check  information  •  Structure c.  Information  glass materials  maximum  o f 2 | 14)  •  U - v a l u e , SC v a l u e  (W/m  •  Presence of g l a s s  s e c t i o n on r o o f  2  used  K, d i m e n s i o n l e s s  | 4F6.3)  (1 o r 0 | 11)  Each • i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a l i n e of i n p u t ; d e s c r i p t i o n of each i n p u t ( a l l o w e d i n p u t or u n i t , whenever t h e l i t e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed o n l y t h e c a p i t a l l e t t e r s i n o r d e r o f a p p e a r a n c e a r e input | Format)  66  only  include  next p i e c e  •  U-value,  SC v a l u e  •  Number o f e x t e r n a l (dimensionless,  •  U-value, (W/m  2  type  (W/m  2  of input  R, d i m e n s i o n l e s s  above g r o u n d w a l l  maximum  i s1  | 2F6.3)  types  used  o f 2 | 11)  (m(mass/unit a r e a ) )  K, X L M H  i f above  of c o n s t r u c t i o n  | 2(F6.3,A1))  where m<  50 : v e r y  50<m<150 :  light(L)  150<m<300  : medium(M)  300<m<450  : heavy(H)  m i s i n kilogram •  Number o f e x t e r n a l (dimensionless, only  include  •  U-value  (W/m  •  Roof U - v a l u e ,  2  K, X L M H  •  square  underground w a l l  next p i e c e K  of input  types  used  i f above  i s1  | F6.3)  type of c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  see w a l l  (W/m  2  | F 6 . 3 , A1) weight c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and o n l y  i s allowed Number o f d i f f e r e n t (dimensionless, (W/m  U-value  •  Numer o f d i f f e r e n t  2  K  o f 2 | 11)  U-value  (W/m  K  types  used  o f 3 | 11)  | F6.3)  maximum  2  partition  maximum  •  •  p e r meter  0 or 1 | II)  same a s t h e w a l l one  light(X)  floor  | F6.3)  t y p e s used  (dimensionless,  67  •  Number of d i f f e r e n t (dimensionless,  •  U-value  (W/m  Room t e m p e r a t u r e Heating •  •  Time  |  types 2  |  used  11)  F6.3)  setting  season  interval  and  setting  (h,  Setback  setting  cooling Zones and  maximum of  K  2  ceiling  °C  temperature  | 212,  F4.1)  (same a s  season  surfaces  s e t t i n g s f o r normal  (same a s  above) heating  season)  information  •  Number of  zones  (dimensionless,  •  Zone d e s c r i p t i o n ( f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n Zone number  (dimensionless  • Zone d e s c r i p t i o n ( L i v i n g BASement  |  orientations,  •  12)  windows of  r o o f , and  ceiling  (dimensionless,  • Floor area  (X10 m  height  2  (X10 m  |  16)  |  16)  exchange  different  are  a l l counted  maximum o f  from a p p l i a n c e s  • Total hourly  heat  from l i g h t s  • Infiltraiton  (number of a i r c h a n g e s / h X 1 0  |  |  |  heat  (W  (W  11  • Total hourly  12)  16)  16)  description (following information  required)  11)  room, BEDroom,  individually  Surface  |  required)  s u r f a c e s through which heat  p l a c e , w a l l s and  • Wall  |  3  A3)  • Number o f takes  maximum of  |  16)  68  • N a t u r e of  surface  Underground W a l l , PArtition,  (X10  element  exterior wall  g.  h.  i.  j.  System  |  2  (dimensionless  |  12)  • Description  of  the  |  surface  12)  number,  i f relevant,  i.e.,  possible  space a d j o i n i n g |  A2)  16)  types are  (GRounD, ATMosphere  iii.  m  |  RooF,  Roof,  FEnestration  (dimensionless  surface  • Construction two  on  number, matches w i t h  a z i m u t h number of  Fenestration  F L o o r , and  • Orientation  • Area  (External Wall,  the  surface  A3)  Description  Control •  Throttling  •  Balance point  Air  range  (°C  |  F7.3)  temperature  (°C  |  F7.3)  supply  •  Fan  a i r supply  •  Fan  electricity  •  Fraction  of  (m /s  |  use  (kW  3  F7.3) |  F7.3)  fresh a i r intake  (dimensionless  |  Furnace •  Type o f  •  Furnace output  •  Efficiency  Heat •  furnace  of  (GAS,  OIL,  capacity furnace  (%  or  (kW |  |  ELEctric  |  A3)  |  F7.3)  F7.3)  F7.3)  pump  Cooling  capacity  ( s e n s i b l e ) at  35°C(kW  F7.3)  69  D.3  Output  D.3.1  Input This  format the  feature  prescribed  capability  output  D.3.2  The system  and p r i n t s them as r e a d .  of c h e c k i n g  output  The  output  t h e house using  Run The  Device 4  load  m o n t h l y and y e a r l y  output  input  does n o t  of the i n p u t .  u s e d i n D.2.1  of t h e r u n c o n s i s t s  simulation.  simulation  D.4  the v a l i d i t y  This  the  A  have sample  i s included  in  Output  entire structure  of  v a r i a b l e s using  F.  Run  total  merely reads the input  f e a t u r i n g t h e sample  Appendix  as  Verification  of two p a r t s ,  simulation  conditioning  output  load  the  of e a c h zone a s The  well  system  the t o t a l monthly energy consumption  f o r each p i e c e the input  and  includes  f o r e v e r y month o f t h e y e a r .  includes  load  of e q u i p m e n t .  o f D.2.1  i s also  The  corresponding  included  i n Appendix  F.  Procedure following  files  a r e needed  t o run t h e p r o g r a m  Description(Name) Space use p r o f i l e ( R H E P R O )  5  Input(RHEINP)  6  Output(RHEOUT)  7  Weather(RHWVAN,  8  Solar(RHSVAN,  Vancouver)  Vancouver)  RHECAPLOAD C o m p i l e d p r o g r a m A typical  run s t a t e m e n t w o u l d  be  $RUN RHECAPLOAD 4=RHEPR0 5=RHEINP 6=RHE0UT 7=RHWVAN  8=RHSVAN  APPENDIX E - FLOW CHART  Start  '  input  yes  a s s i g n {parameter v a l u e s ::or T-A S and det«srmine c o n s t a n t :s u s e d  d e t e r m i ne temperature prof i l e  a s s i g n azimuth numbers t o exterior walls  71  f weatller  >  s o l a r cg a i n a n d s o l - a i i : temp.  conduction through wall, roof, and solar gain  conduction through wall, roof, and solar gain u s i n g T-A S  ± inf i l t r a t ion  B  below g r a d e h e a t t r a n s f e r and conduction through fenestration  ± s o u r c e s of conditioning l o a d s a r e added  ± load simulation summary  >  rewind weather  file  i e s t a b l i s h the p e r f o r m a n c e of f u r n a c e and h e a t pump  ± weather  yes  h e a t pump capac1ty  h e a t pump capac i t y  \  >  h e a t pump on t i m e  h e a t pump on t i m e  ^ h e a t pump consumption  >  h e a t pump consumpt i o n system s i m u l a t i on summar  APPENDIX F - VALIDATION OF RHECAP  Pages  75 t o  76 :: I n p u t  Pages  77 t o  81 :: O u t p u t f o r i n p u t  Pages  82 t o  83 :: Run o u t p u t used  o f an e x i s t i n g V a n c o u v e r house  84 t o  85  Pages  86 t o  87 :: Run o u t p u t  : Input  j  used  verification  o f above  to validate  Pages  (above)  with  of a f i c t i t i o u s  EASI  V a n c o u v e r house  o f above  to validate  with  BLAST  ** RHECAP  INPUT **  RUN CONTROL INPUT VERIFICATION ONLY( Y OR N ) : Y LOAD SIMULATION ONLY( Y OR N ) : N TITLE OWNER : JOHN BROWN ADDRESS : 3817 W. 2ND AVE. VANCOUVER, B.C. C I T Y ( VAN, V I C ) : VAN BUILDING ORIENTATION BUILDING NORTH( DEG ) : 0 NUMBER OF SURFACE AZIMUTH : 4 AZIMUTH ANGLES : 90, 180, 270, 360 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 1. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT GLASSES USED ON EXTERIOR WALLS U-VALUE(SC VALUE) : 2.950( 0.830) 2. GLASS SECTION AVAILABLE ON ROOF( IF YES 1, NO 0; I F ZERO INPUT 0.0 (0.0 ) FOR U AND SC VALUES) U-VALUE(SC VALUE) : 0.0 (0.0 ) 3. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTIONS U-VALUE(WT. CLASS) : 0.244(D 4. PRESENCE OF BELOW GRADE WALL( I F YES 1, NO 0; I F ZERO INPUT 0.000 FOR U-VALUE) U-VALUE . : 4.080 5. ROOF U-VALUE(WT. CLASS) : 1.816(L) 6. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT PARTITION CONSTRUCTIONS USED U-VALUE : 0.100, 7. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT FLOOR CONSTRUCTIONS USED U-VALUE : 1.634, 8. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT CEILING CONSTRUCTIONS USED U-VALUE : 0.200 THERMOSTAT SETTING DURING HEATING SEASON FROM HOUR 7 TO HOUR 22 SET AT 21.5 FROM HOUR 23 TO HOUR 6 SET AT 18.0 DURING COOLING SEASON FROM HOUR 7 TO HOUR 22 SET AT 25.0 FROM HOUR 23 TO HOUR 6 SET AT 22.0 STRUCTURE DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF ZONES : 3 ZONE DESCRIPTION 1, L I V , 8, 495, 31, 1200, 400, 6 SURFACE DESCRIPTION EW, 1, 172, 1,ATM EW 2, 119, 1,ATM EW, 3, 65, 1,ATM EW, 4, 120, 1,ATM F E , 1, 81, 1,ATM F E , 2, .8, 1,ATM F E , 4, 7, 1,ATM RF, 515, 1,ATM ZONE DESCRIPTION 2, BED, 6, 323, 46, 0, 0, 6 SURFACE DESCRIPTION f  76  EW, 3, 358, 1,ATM EW, 4, 100, 1,ATM F E , 3, 79, 1,ATM RF, , 339, 1,ATM FL, , 323, 1,GRD BG, , 240, 1,GRD ZONE DESCRIPTION 3,BAS, 7, 495, 6 21 , 0, 0, SURFACE DESCRIPTION EW, 1, 84, 1,ATM EW, 2, 20, 1,ATM EW, 3, 12,1,ATM EW, 4, 29, 1,ATM F E , 1, 9,1,ATM BG 294, 1,GRD FL 495, 1,GRD NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS : 4 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 1.CONTROLLER THROTTLING RANGE OF THERMOSTAT( DEG C ) : 2.0 BALANCE POINT TEMPERATURE( DEG C ) : 3.0 2. FAN FAN SUPPLY VOLUME( M**3/S ) 0.246 FAN ENERGY USE (KW) 0.2 FRACTION OF OUTDOOR FRESH AIR 0.1 3.FURNACE FURNACE TYPE(GAS,ELE) GAS FURNACE CAPACITY( KW ) 17.5 EFFICIENCY OF FURNACE( % ) 75.0 4.HEAT PUMP COOLING RATING AT 35 C, TOTAL ( KW ) 6.54  77  INPUT DATA FOR RHECAP  ( RESIDENTIAL HOME ENERGY CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS PROGRAM *TITLE  :  OWNER ADDRESS  : JOHN BROWN : 3817 W. 2ND AVE. VANCOUVER, B.C.  *CITY  NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS : VAN  :  4  *STRUCTURE ORIENTATION BUILDING NORTH  : 1  AZIMUTH  90  0 DEG 2 180  3  4  270  360  *ROOM TEMPERATURE SET LEVELS HEATING SEASON : FROM FROM COOLING SEASON : FROM FROM  HOUR 7 TO HOUR 22 SET AT 21.5 HOUR 23 TO HOUR 6 SET AT 18.0 HOUR 7 TO HOUR 22 SET AT 25.0 HOUR 23 TO HOUR 6 SET AT 22.0  BUILDING  *CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL  DESCRIPTION  USED U-VALUE(SC VALUE) (WEIGHT CATEGORY)  FENESTRATION EXTERIOR WALL . UNDERGROUND WALL ROOF PARTITION FLOOR CEILING  2.950( 0.830) 0.244( L ) 4.080 1.816( L ) 0. 100 1 .634 0.200 '  THERMAL  THERMAL  BLOCK #  BLOCK  1  HEADING 1LIV 8  495  31  1200  400  6  0  0  6  0  0  6  SURFACE HEADING EW 1 EW 2 EW 3 EW 4 FE 1 FE 2 FE 4 RF 0 THERMAL  172 1 ATM 119 1 ATM 65 1 ATM 120 1 ATM 81 1 ATM 8 1 ATM 7 1 ATM 515 1 ATM BLOCK #  2  HEADING 2BED 6  323  46  SURFACE HEADING EW 3 EW 4 FE 3 RF 0 FL 0 BG 0 THERMAL  358 1 ATM 100 1 ATM 79 1 ATM 339 1 ATM 323 1GRD 240 1GRD BLOCK #  3  HEADING 3BAS 7  495  21  INFORMATION  SURFACE HEADING EW EW EW EW FE BG FL  1 2 3 4 1 0 0  84 20 1 2 29 9 294 495  1 ATM 1 ATM 1 ATM 1 ATM 1 ATM 1GRD 1GRD  SYSTEM  DESCRIPTION  *CONTROL THROTTLING BALANCE  *AIR  RANGE  2.0 DEG C  PT. TEMPERATURE  3.0 DEG C  SUPPLY  FAN AIR  SUPPLY  0.2 M E03/S  FAN ELECTRICITY ENERGY FRACTION OF FRESH AIR  0.2 INTAKE  KW  0.10  *GAS FURNACE FURNACE TYPE  GAS  FURNACE OUTPUT CAPACITY  17.50  EFFICIENCY OF FURNACE  75.00  KW  *HEAT PUMP COOLING  CAPACITY  (95 F;35 C)  6.54  KW  AIR CONDITIONING LOAD SUMMARY TITLE OWNER ADDRESS  JOHN BROWN 3817 W. 2ND AVE. VANCOUVER, B.C.  LEGEND CL: COOLING LOAD KWH HL: HEATING LOAD KWH LIVING ROOM  MONTH  BASEMENT  BEDROOM  SYSTEM LOAD  O.  0.  O  O.  -2101 .  -2669.  -1466  -6236.  0.  O  0.  CL HL  8. -1374. 38. -954.  -1931 .  -1 167  -4465.  67 . -828.  -1131  CL HL  202. -409.  2. -1487 . 47 . -1271 . 204 . -786.  0  CL HL  0. -3532. 13. -2978. 117. -1742.  CL HL  430. -226.  321 . -455.  0  CL HL  452. -105.  336. -400.  CL HL  463. -134.  272. -443.  CL HL  189. -256 .  13 . -778.  O 0 -669 -772  10  CL HL  14 . -850.  O. -1511.  0  11  CL HL  CL HL  1  CL HL  12  CL HL  1 . •1351. O. •1400.  TOTAL  1864.  TOTAL  -999 1  13 . - 1893. 0. -2067.  0 O -981 -836  -676 O -576  -997 0 -1 154 O -1257  1209. -15691  -11681  326. -932 . 449. -743. 368 . -878 . 20. -1625. 0. -3344. 0. -4385. O. -4724. 1293. -35582.  SYSTEM SIMULATION SUMMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION (%AGE OF LOADING ; PEAK LOAD FACTOR) WHERE MORE THAN =SYSTEM LOAD/ KW.H MAX. CAPACITYMAX. CAPACITY IS REQUIRED HOURLY HEATING  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  TOTAL  H.P.  H.P.  FURNACE  MONTH  COOLING  5) 2; 1 .  0. ( 0.  0;0.0)  9484 . 112.  5) 633 . ( 27; 1 . 54 .  0. ( 0.  0;0.0)  4861 . 103 .  1068.( 90.  15; 1 2) .  0. ( 0.  0;0.0)  2212 103  1167.( 97 .  12; 1..1)  6 .( 1 .  0;0.1)  1 174 98  644. ( 52.  0;0. 8)  57 .( 5.  0;0.5)  701 57  0:0.0)  353. ( 28.  0:0  167 .( 15.  0;0.8)  520 43  o.( 0.  0:0.0)  263. ( 20.  0;0 .4)  225. ( 20.  0;1.0)  488 40  0;0.0)  310. ( 23.  0;0 .5)  185 .( 17 .  0;0.7)  FAN  0.( 0.  495 40  0.( o.  0;0.0)  597 . ( 0;0 .6) 45 .  10. ( 1 .  0;0.2)  FAN  607 46  0.( 0.  0:0.0)  1231 .( 98.  0. ( 0.  0:0.0)  FAN  1231 98  0;0.8)  1139.( 96 .  40; 1.4)  0. ( 0  0;0.0)  FAN  2101.( 24.  3240 120  399.( 5.  OiO.G)  1510.( 127 .  69; 1.5)  0 ( 0  0;0.0)  FAN  1909 132  0:0.9)  FAN  9438.( 108. 4228.( 48 .  0:0.8)  FAN  1145.( 13.  0;0.8)  FAN  0.( 0.  0;0.0)  FAN  0;0.0)  FAN  0.( 0.  FAN  0.( 0.  FAN  17311. FAN  198.  46. ( 4.  8961 . 736 .  6  >  1 ; .1 1)  650 59  26922 992  CD  to  84  ** RHECAP INPUT ** RUN CONTROL INPUT VERIFICATION ONLY( Y OR N ) : N LOAD SIMULATION ONLY( Y OR N ) : N TITLE OWNER : BLAST ADDRESS : 1111 UNKNOWN ST. VANCOUVER, B.C. C I T Y ( VAN, V I C ) : VAN BUILDING ORIENTATION BUILDING NORTH( DEG ) : 0 NUMBER OF SURFACE AZIMUTH : 4 AZIMUTH ANGLES : 90, 180, 270, 360 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 1. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT GLASSES USED ON EXTERIOR WALLS U-VALUE(SC VALUE) : 3.149( 1.150) 2. GLASS SECTION AVAILABLE ON ROOF( I F YES 1, NO 0; IF ZERO INPUT 0.0 (0.0 ) FOR U AND SC VALUES) U-VALUE(SC VALUE) : 0.0 ( 0.0 ) .NUMBER OF DIFFERENT EXTERIOR WALL CONSTRUCTIONS U-VALUE(WT. CLASS) : 0.589(L) 2.064(M) 4. PRESENCE OF BELOW GRADE WALL( I F YES 1, NO 0; IF ZERO INPUT 0.000 FOR U~VALUE) U-VALUE : 2.437 5. ROOF U-VALUE(WT. CLASS) : 0.500(L) 6. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT PARTITION CONSTRUCTIONS USED U-VALUE : 0. 100, 7. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT FLOOR CONSTRUCTIONS USED U-VALUE : 1.943, 8. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT C E I L I N G CONSTRUCTIONS USED U-VALUE : 0.505 THERMOSTAT SETTING DURING HEATING SEASON FROM HOUR 7 TO HOUR 23 SET AT 22.2 FROM HOUR 24 TO HOUR 6 SET AT 16.6 DURING COOLING SEASON FROM HOUR 7 TO HOUR 23 SET AT 25.0 FROM HOUR 24 TO HOUR 6 SET AT 22.0 STRUCTURE DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF ZONES : ZONE DESCRIPTION 1, L I V , 9, 1115, 36, 5860, 586, SURFACE DESCRIPTION EW, 1, 295, 1,ATM EW, 2, 343, 1,ATM EW, 3, 302, 1,ATM EW, 4, 332, 1,ATM F E , 1, 39, 1,ATM F E , 2, 102, 1,ATM F E , 3, 31, 1.ATM F E , 4, 113, 1,ATM RF, 1115,1,ATM ZONE DESCRIPTION 2, BED, 9, 1115, 12,  0 2  85  SURFACE DESCRIPTION EW, 1 , 28, 2, ATM EW, 2, 37, 2, ATM EW, 3, 28, 2, ATM EW, 4, 37, 2, ATM BG, 1 , 84, 1 , GRD 111, 1 , GRD BG, 2, BG, 3, 84, 1 , GRD BG, 4, 111, 1 , GRD FL 1115, 1 , GRD NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS : SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 1.CONTROLLER THROTTLING RANGE OF THERMOSTAT( DEG C ) BALANCE POINT TEMPERATURE( DEG C ) 2 .FAN FAN SUPPLY VOLUME( M**3/S ) FAN ENERGY USE (KW) FRACTION OF OUTDOOR FRESH AIR 3.FURNACE FURNACE TYPE(GAS,ELE) FURNACE CAPACITY( KW ) EFFICIENCY OF FURNACE( % ) 4.HEAT PUMP COOLING RATING AT 35 C, TOTAL ( KW )  8 : :  2.0 99.0 0.369 0.30 0.0 GAS 26.4 80.0 9.81  AIR CONDITIONING LOAD SUMMARY TITLE OWNER : BLAST ADDRESS : 1111 UNKNOWN ST. VANCOUVER, B.C. LEGEND CL: COOLING LOAD KWH HL: HEATING LOAD KWH MONTH  LIVING ROOM  BEDROOM  BASEMENT  SYSTEM LOAD O.  1  CL HL  O. -3700.  0. -2734.  0. O.  -6433.  2  CL HL  550. -2032.  0. -2182.  O. 0.  190. -3855.  3  CL HL  1864. -1288.  0. -2114.  0. O.  882 . -2420.  4  CL HL  1348. -1197.  0. -1845.  0. 0.  696. -2391 .  5  CL HL  2483. -575.  0. -1567.  0. 0.  1572 . -1231 .  6  CL HL  3227. -328.  0. -1278.  0. 0.  2267. -646 .  7  CL HL  2976. -83.  1. -1074.  0. 0.  2165. -345 .  8  CL HL  3099. -120.  0. -1213.  0. 0.  2230. -464 .  9  CL HL  1509. -288.  0. -1394.  0. 0.  856 . -1029.  10  CL HL  224. -1448.  0. -1800.  0. O.  28 . -3052.  11  CL HL  710. -2060.  0. -2153.  O. 0.  334 . -3836.  12  CL HL  69. -2436.  0. -2294.  0. 0.  -4661 .  N  TOTAL  18060.  TOTAL  -15554.  O.  11220. -21648  0.  -30361  SYSTEM SIMULATION SUMMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION (%AGE OF LOADING ; PEAK LOAD FACTOR) WHERE MORE THAN =SYSTEM LOAD/ KW.H MAX. CAPACITYMAX. CAPACITY IS REQUIRED HOURLY  MONTH 1  9510.(  FAN 2  3  4  5  6  7  FAN 8  9  10  FAN 11  FAN 12  7081.( 80.  FAN  47611. 541 .  0 ; 0 . 0 )  407.(  9510. 108.  0 : 0 . 9 )  5920. 75.  2 ; 1 . 2 )  4180. 81 .  4 ; 1 . 2 )  4277 . 76 .  13;1.4)  2807 .  38. 337.( 31 .  0 : 0 . 4 )  o.( o.  0 : 0 . 0 )  711.(  0 : 0 . 3 )  o.( 0.  0 : 0 . 0 )  0 ; 0 . 2 )  0.(  0 : 0 . 0 )  89 .  65. 1039.(  19:1.7)  2218. 108.  2 9 : 1 . 8 )  1503 . 87.  95. 891.( 80.  0. 0 : 0 . 3 )  0.( o.  0 : 0 . 0 )  902.( 81 .  2 7 : 1 . 6 )  1725. 91 .  0 ; 0 . 3 )  o.( o.  0 : 0 . 0 )  413.( 37.  5 ; 1 . 4 )  2262 . 58 .  0 : 0 . 4 )  o.( o.  0 : 0 . 0 )  14.(  0 : 0 . 2 )  4888 . 57 .  0 ; 0 . 6 )  o.(  0 : 0 . 0 )  0 : 0 . 9 )  6206 . 84 .  0 : 0 . 0 )  7081 . 80.  1 .  0 : 0 . 6 )  o.( o.  163.( 15.  0.  69.  FAN  0 : 0 . 0 )  8.  0 : 0 . 0 )  55. 6043.(  87.(  0.( 0.  21. 4874.(  0 ; 0 . o )  0 ; 0 . 5 )  9. 1849.(  FAN  o.(  0.( 0.  0.  7. 823.(  FAN  0 : 0 . 5 )  13. 611.(  0 : 0 . 0 )  O. 0.  24. 1178.(  FAN  0.(  45. 2096.(  FAN  0 , 0 . 6 )  43. 3940.(  FAN  0.(  66. 3774.(  FAN  0 ; 0 . 7 )  108. 5833.(  FAN  H.P.  H.P .  FURNACE  TOTAL  COOLING  HEATING  0 : 0 . 0 )  0.( 0.  00 0. 0.  4964 . 453.  52575. 994 .  

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