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Cantus firmus chansons by Alexander Agricola Kravinchuk, Daniel Peter 1983

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CANTUS FIRMUS CHANSONS BY ALEXANDER AGRI COLA By DANIEL PETER KRAVI NCHUK--B. Mus., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Music) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1983 © Daniel Peter Kravinchuk, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of MUSIC The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Van couve r, Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e October 17. 1983 ABSTRACT The secular works of Alexander Agricola have received l i t t l e attention from musicologists, p a r t i c u l a r l y those secular works which adopt a voice part from another composer's work. The thesis investigates not only the s t y l e of Agricola's cantus firmus chansons but compares that composer's cantus firmus techniques with those of his contemporaries. In ad d i t i o n , an inquiry is made into possible influence of the model (aside from the borrowed voice i t s e l f ) on the non-cantus firmus parts of such s e t t i n g s . Selection is limited to four cantus firmus f a m i l i e s , representing a l l but one of those fa m i l i e s for which Agricola made more than one setting of the same cantus firmus. Allusions to aspects of a model's structure or melody (apart from the borrowed line) are comparatively minor in the settings examined here. They are apt to be small quotations, often of t h e i i n c i p i t , with conventional references to the musical structure of the model chanson. The s t y l i s t i c features of Agrico l a revealed in these settings are sim i l a r to those found in his works in other genres. And while the cantus firmus techniques that t h i s composer used resemble those of his contempo-r a r i e s , two works by Ag r i c o l a , a four-part Tout a par moy and a three-voice D'ung aultr e amer, present a t r a n s i t i o n a l stage from arrangements of a cantus prius factus (newly-composed voices unrelated to the borrowed part) i i i to parody (incorporation of melodies and structure of the model). These two settings by Agricola progress beyond even the more forward-looking cantus firmus techniques found in chansons by Japart, Ghiselin/Verbonnet and Josquin. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i I LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i Chapter INTRODUCTION 1 I I . COMME FEMME 4 The Model 4 Cantus Firmus Treatment and General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 7 A g r i c o l a , Comme femme a 3 (Lerner, No. 50) 12 A g r i c o l a , Comme femme a 4 (Lerner, No. 49) 15 A g r i c o l a , Comme femme a 2 (Lerner, No. 51) 15 T i n c t o r i s , Comme femme 5 2 '1/7 Anon., Comme femme a 4~ (Munich 328-331) 18 Anon., A moy seu l l e qui tant ayme vous (Vienna 18746) 21 Summary 23 III. TOUT A PAR MOY 26 The Model 26 Cantus Firmus Treatment and General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 30 A g r i c o l a , Tout a par moy a 4 (Lerner, No. 63) . . . . 33 A g r i c o l a , Tout a par moy a 3 (Lerner, No. 64) . . . . 35 T i n c t o r i s , Tout a par moy a 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Summary " 41 IV. D'UNG AULTRE AMER 43 The Model 43 Cantus Firmus Treatment and General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 47 Settings Based on Ockeghem's Tenor . . . 53 A g r i c o l a , D'ung au l t r e amer a 3 (Lerner, No. 60) . 53 A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 4 (Lerner, No. 57) . 56 A g r i c o l a , D'ung au l t r e amer a 4 (Lerner, No. 58) . 58 Anon., D'ung aultr e amer1 a 2 ( S e v i l l e 5-1-43; f. !33r) 59 V Table of Contents (Continued) Chapter IV. D'UNG AULTRE AMER (Continued) T i n c t o r i s , D'ung au l t r e amer 5 2 59 Settings Based on Ockeghem's Superius 60 Agr i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (Lerner, No. 59) . 60 Basiron, D'ung au l t r e amer a k 66 Anon., D'ung au l t r e amer a 2 ( S e v i l l e 5-1-43; f. 132v) . 67 De Orto, D'ung a u l t r e amer a 4 68 Anon., D'ung plus amer a 3 (Paris 15123) 70 Summary 70 V. DE TOUS BI ENS PLAINE . Ik The Model Jh Cantus Firmus Treatment and General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 85 Settings Based on Hayne's Tenor 92 Agr i c o l a , De tous biens plaine a 4 (Lerner, No. ~~ 52) . . . . 92 Agr i c o l a , De tous biens plaine a 3 (Lerner, No. 55) . . . . 99 A g r i c o l a , De tous biens plaine a 3 (Lerner, No. 56) . . . . 101 Agr i c o l a , De tous biens plaine a 3 (Lerner, No. 53) . . . . . . 104 Ag r i c o l a , De tous biens plaine a 3 (Lerner, No. 54) . . . . 104 Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 (Rome XIII, 27; f f . 22v-24r) 106 Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 (Canti C; f. 143). 107 R o e l l r i n , De tous biens plaine a 2 109 Bourdon, De tous biens plaine a 3 109 Japart, Jay p r i s amours/De tous biens 5 4 . . . . 111 Japart, Je cuide/De tous biens a 4 114 Adam, De tous biens playne 3 2 118 T i n c t o r i s , De tous biens playne a 2 118 Japart, De tous biens plaine a 4 119 D'Oude Schuere, De tous biens playne a 4 120 Settings Based on Hayne's Superius 121 Comp&re, Au trava i 1 su i s 121 Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 (Rome XIII, 27; f f . 64v-65r) . . 122 Gniselin/Verbonnet, De tous biens playne S 3 . . . 123 Josquin, De tous biens a 3 . . . . . 124 Isaac, De tous biens playne a 2 127 vi Table of Contents (Continued) Chapter V. DE TOUS BI ENS PLAINE (Continued) Settings Based on Hayne's Superius and Tenor . . . . 128 Josquin, De tous biens playne 128 Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 (Canti C; ff. 143v-14*tr) 130 Summary 131 VI. SUMMARY 140 APPENDIX 144 BIBLIOGRAPHY 147 LIST OF TABLES v i i Table ". 1 S e t t i n g s Based on Comme femme desconfor tee 5 2 S e t t i n g s Based on Tout a par moy 27 3 S e t t i n g s Based on D'ung a u l t r e amer kk k S e t t i n g s Based on De tous b iens p l a i n e 75 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis would not have been or have continued — without the support of Dr. J. Evan Kreider, whose extensive knowledge of th i s f i e l d was indispensable. Over the years of preparation, he has been exceptionally patient and approachable; his quiet, dry humour was a welcome bonus. Also, I would l i k e to express gratitude to Dr. John Sawyer for having read t h i s thesis with such care and thoughtfulness. Recognition, and thanks, should be made to Hans Burndorfer, Music L i b r a r i a n , and his s t a f f . Mr. Burndorfer, p a r t i c u l a r l y , provided materials and information with unusual generosity and good humour. I am e s p e c i a l l y indebted to Stephen Ockwell, whose calm, u n f a i l i n g support and steady encouragement made completion of th i s thesis t r u l y poss i b l e . Acknowledgement should also be made to the s t a f f of International House, U.B.C: Rorri McBlane, Grace A l l e n , Betsy (Beau) Henderson; th e i r a i d , forbearance and understanding is greatly appreciated. Special thanks are also due to Thomas Quigley, Ernest de Beaupre, Gary Marjerrison, Kathryn Boytzun and I r i s Boytzun for th e i r help and o p t i -mism; and to John R. Burgess for his beautiful music copying. I should l i k e , too, to note the contributions of the other members of my casual, but important, 'Thesis Encouragement Committee 1: Jerry Andersen, Judy Rose, Brian Armstrong, Ross Dickson, Horst Loeschmann, Sharie Atley, P a t r i c i a Unruh, Susanne Lloyd and Jean Hodgins. Their considerate inquiries were invaluable. Some of those who helped and encouraged t h i s study are now secure in the knowledge that Agri c o l a is not a beverage. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Though the sacred music of Alexander Agricola has been studied in detail,'' the secular works of th i s Flemish composer have received l i t t l e 2 attention. Moreover, despite the publ i c a t i o n of important studies on the 3 cantus firmus chanson, no systematic examination has been made of those secular works by Agricola which adopt a voice part from another composer's work. There are twenty-four cantus firmus chansons by Agr i c o l a , employing th i r t e e n d i f f e r e n t cantus f i r m i . The purpose of t h i s paper is not only to investigate the sty l e of Agricola's cantus firmus chansons but to determine the influence ( i f any) of the cantus prius factus on the other (added) voices of these composi-tion s . That i s , a comparison is to be made between Agricola's methods for 'Edward R. Lerner, ''The Sacred Music of Alexander A g r i c o l a " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Yale University, 1 9 5 8 ) . 2 They have been edited in Edward R. Lerner, Alexandri Agr i c o l a  Q 4 4 6 - 1 5 0 6 ) . Opera Omnia, Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae 22 (American Insti tute of Musicology, 1 9 6 1 - 1 9 7 0 ) , Volume V. 3 See e s p e c i a l l y Helen Hewitt, "For seulement and the Cantus Firmus Technique of the Fifteenth Century," in Essays in Musicology in Honor of  Dragan Plamenac on His 7 0 t h Birthday, ed. G. Reese and R.J. Snow (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 9 1 - 1 2 6 ; Martin Picker, "Polyphonic Settings c. 1500 of the Flemish Tune In mi nem s i n , " Journal of the American Musico-logical Society 12 ( 1 9 5 9 ) : 9 ^ - 9 5 ; idem, "Newly Discovered Sources for In  Minen S i n , " Journal of the American Musicological Society 17 ( 1 9 6 4 ) : 130 -1 4 3;idem,."The Cantus Firmus in Binchoisjs F i l e s a Marier," Journal of  the American Musicological Society 18 (1 9 6 5 ) : 2 3 5 - 2 3 6 ; Edward E. Lowinsky, "The Goddess Fortuna in Music. With a Special Study of Josquin's Fortuna  dun gran tempo," The Musical Quarterly 29 ( 1 9 ^ 3 ) : 4 5 ~ 7 7 ; the catalogues of cantus firmus settings in Howard Mayer Browh, Music in the French Secular 2 s e t t i n g a cantus f i rmus and the methods o f h i s contemporar ies in order to expand our knowledge o f A g r i c o l a ! s s t y l e and how i t may have d i f f e r e d from that used by o ther composers who set the same cantus f i r m u s . In a d d i t i o n , i t seems p l a u s i b l e that aspects o f the cantus f i rmus o r o f the res t o f the model chanson may have ( consc ious l y or unconsc ious ly ) been in teg ra ted in to the non-cantus f i rmus pa r t s o f a l a t e r s e t t i n g . Th is would e n t a i l , t hen , 4 more than an arrangement o f a popular melody. It would not , o f cou rse , be parody, but perhaps a forerunner o f that technique"* or a type o f i m i t a t i o ^ which might i n d i c a t e that composers o f the l a t e f i f t e e n t h century were be-g inn ing to vary the cantus f i rmus in s e c u l a r works or to adapt i t or o ther aspects o f the model o f t h e i r newly-composed p a r t s . By examining each song in a cantus f i rmus f am i l y o f s e t t i n g s , not on l y s t y l i s t i c fea tu res o f A g r i c o l a and h i s contemporar ies but a l s o the presence of 1 p r e - p a r o d i c 1 elements w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d . 7 Theater 1400-1500 (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) . S tud ies by Levy , H e a r t z , Dobbins and Be rns te i n (see B ib l i og raphy ) deal w i th cantus f i rmus chanson g e n e r a l l y p o s t - d a t i n g those o f A g r i c o l a . 4 See e s p e c i a l l y the thought -provok ing a r t i c l e by Howard Mayer Brown, " E m u l a t i o n , Compet i t i on , and Homage: Im i ta t i on and Theor ies o f Imi-t a t i o n in the R e n a i s s a n c e , " Journa l o f the American Mus?co log i ca i S o c i e t y 35 (1982): 1-48; p a r t i c u l a r l y , pp. 10-11 , where Brown r e f e r s to a cantus f i rmus 'arrangement ' as one in which the added par ts are unre la ted to the cantus p r i u s f a c t u s . ' 'Lewis Lockwood, "On 'Pa rody ' as Term and Concept in 16th Century M u s i c , " in Aspects o f Medieval and Renaissance Mus i c . A B i r thday O f fe r i ng  to Gustave Reese, e d . Jan LaRue (New York : W.W. Nor ton , 1966.) , pp. 560-5 7 5 . See Brown, " E m u l a t i o n , Compe t i t i on , and Homage," p. 3 5 f f . 7 For b i o g r a p h i c a l in fo rmat ion on A g r i c o l a , see Le rne r , "Sacred Music o f A lexander A g r i c o l a , " ; idem, "The 'German' Works o f Alexander A g r i c o l a , " The Mus ica l Q u a r t e r l y 46 ( 1 9 6 0 ) : 5 6 - 6 6 ; Mar t i n P i c k e r , "A L e t t e r o f Char les 3 For this study selection has been limited to four cantus firmus 8 families, representing all but one of those families for which Agricola made more than one setting of the same cantus firmus. Thus, a comparison could be made of the variety of Agricola's cantus firmus techniques within one group of settings, as well as an examination of what relationships exist between the other settings by Agricola's contemporaries. Generally, q only those works available in modern edition were examined. Besides an analysis of the model chansons, a survey of each available setting includes a short description of its stylistic characteristics, the manner in which the cantus firmus is used, and whether any influence of the model can be found in the non-cantus firmus voices.^ VI I I of France Concerning Alexander Agricola," in Aspects of Medieval and  Renaissance Music. A Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. Jan LaRue (New York: W.W. Norton, 1966): 665-672; and Alan Atlas, "Alexander Agricola and Ferrante I of Naples," Journal of the American Musicologica1 Society 30 (1977): 313-319. See also Edward Lerner's article for Agricola i ii The New  Grove. g Agricola made two settings of 0 Venus bant. 9 The Tables of Settings in each Chapter are listed in chronological order determined by MS dates, with the Agricola works listed (also chrono-logically) immediately after the model chanson. (Bibliographical references are in short form for the Tables only.) MS chronology was determined by consulting the appropriate MS studies and by reference to the first two volumes of Charles Hamm and Herbert Kellman, eds., Census-Catalogue of  Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music ImOQ-1550 (Neuhausen-Stuttgart: American Institute of Musicology/Hanssler Verlag, 1979 and 1982). MSS and early printed books are cited by sigla in this study; see the Appendix for a key to the sigla. The issue of MS variants was not addressed, except in the works by Agricola — and there the differences were not significant. CHAPTER TWO COMME FEMME The Model The model for the family of Comme femme settings (see Table l) is Binchois's rondeau for three voices.^ Text appears in the top voice only and follows the customary rondeau scheme, the musical structure of which comprises two sections, the f i r s t being the r e f r a i n . The untexted Tenor and Contratenor are probably instrumental accompaniments to the Superius; they cross ranges frequently and often cadence together. Though one voice always continues while the others cadence (except, of course, at the end of each se c t i o n ) , the basic l y r i c a l character is enhanced by the note-against-note s e t t i n g in which even the Superius is rar e l y elaborately decorated. Although Binchois includes imitative w r iting in the i n i t i a l two measures (Tenor and Superius), he does not use that technique in the rest of the piece. The Tenor does not stand apart from the other voices e i t h e r mel-o d i c a l l y or rhythmically, but is intertwined with the Contratenor. Binchois's Tenor is the only part that is incorporated into the settings examined below and, in those later chansons, the Tenor does indeed stand ^For commentary and f u l l text with t r a n s l a t i o n , see Leeman L. Perkins and Howard Garey, eds., The Mellon Chansonnier (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979), II, pp. 292-297. 5 T A B L E 1 S e t t i n g s Based on IComme femme descon fo r t ee ' 1. B i n c h o i s , a 3 ; ed i t ed i n : a a) Droz , Th ibau l t and Rokseth , T r o i s Chansonn iers , No. 3 5 ; b) Rehm, Die Chansons, No. 5 6 , pp. 5 3 _ 5 4 ; c) Go t twa ld , G h i s e l i n - V e r b o n n e t , I, pp. 5 0 - 5 1 ; d) Pe rk i ns and Garey, Mel lon Chansonnier , No. 2 7 , I, pp. 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 ; commentary, I I , pp. 2 9 2 - 2 9 7 . 2 . A g r i c o l a , a 3 ; .Lerner , No. 5 0 . A l s o ed i t ed in Ambros, Gesch ich te der Mus ik , V ; pp. 180-182. Adopts the Tenor o f B i n c h o i s ' s chanson. Sources : a) F lo rence 2439, f f . 7 4 v - 7 6 r ; b) B e r l i n 40021, f f . 131v-132r , V i r go sub e t h e r e i s ; c) Formschneider , 1538, No. 26 ; d) P a r i s 1597, f f . 2 9 v - 3 0 r ; e) Cant i C, f f . I 4 6 v - l 4 7 r ; f ) Rome 2856, f f . 126v-128r ; g) Rome X I I I , 27 , f f . 102v-104r ; h) S p i n a c i n o , In tabu la tu ra de Lau to , I (1507), No. 4 . 3 . A g r i c o l a , a 4 ; L e r n e r , No. 49. Adopts the Tenor o f B i n c h o i s ' s chanson. Sources : a) F lo rence 2439, f f . 42v -44r ; b) B e r l i n 40021, f f . 134v-135r , Ave que s u b ! i m a r i s [Tenor o m i t t e d ] ; c) Cant i C, f f . 107v-109r. 4 . A g r i c o l a , 3 2 ; L e r n e r , No. 51 . Adopts the Tenor o f B i n c h o i s ' s chanson. Source: a) Segov ia , s . n . , f . 201 v . a B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l re fe rences f o r Tables (only) are in shor t form. The works c i t e d in the Tables are l i s t e d in c h r o n o l o g i c a l o rder determined by MS d a t e s ; see Chapter One, n. 9 . 6 Table 1 (Cont i nued) 5 . Tinctoris, a 2 ; edited in Mel in, Opera Omnia, pp. 144-146. Adopts the Tenor of Binchois's chanson. 6 . Anon., a k;[ (in Munich 3 2 8 - 3 3 1 ) ; edited in Bernoulli, Aus Lieder-buchern, No. 3 , pp. 5 9 - 6 2 . Adopts the Tenor of Binchois's chanson. 7 . Anon., a 5 , A moy seulle qui tant ayme vous; in Vienna 1 8 7 ^ 6 , f. 2 1 v . Uses only the first phrase of Binchois's Tenor, first in note values four times as long as the original, and then twice as long. A. Ghiselin-Verbonnet, Inviolata, Integra et casta et casta, a 4; edited in Gottwald, Opera':Omnia, I , pp. 31-36. Adopts the Tenor of Binchois's chanson. B. Ghiselin-Verbonnet, Regina caeli laetare, a 4; edited in;Gottwald, Opera Omnia, I, pp. 28-31. Adopts the Tenor of Binchois's chanson. C. Isaac, Missa Comme femme desconfortee, a 4. Uses portions of each of Binchois's voice parts. For information and analysis of this Mass, see Staehelin, Die Messen, l-Suppl., pp. 16-17; I, pp. 31-32; and III, pp. 81-86. D. Josquin, Stabat mater, a 5 ; edited in Smijers, Josquin Werken, Af1. 2 1 , Bd. 8 , pp. 5 1 - 5 7 . Adopts the Tenor of Binchois's chanson. E. Senfl, Ave rosa sine spinis, a 5 ; edited in Gerstenberg, Sarotliche Werke, XI, pp. 38-47. Uses the Tenor of Binchois's chanson. 7 apart from the other voices. Cantus Firmus Treatment and General Characteristics All but one of the six secular works based on Binchois's Tenor (see 2 Table 1) incorporate a few minor differences in the cantus firmus. As Example 1 indicates, these differences are usually only small changes in rhythm or the addition of an extra note (e.g., Example 1, m. 11). Even the Comme femme setting in Vienna 18746, which uses only the first phrase of Binchois's Tenor, quotes that phrase without change. Although the melodic changes may be neglible, the mensural adapta-tions of Binchois's voice are more important. All six of the settings ex-pand the model's original time values in the same manner so that many more notes (in the other voices) can be set against each note of the cantus f i r -mus (see Example 2). More significantly, only two of the chansons retain the triple meter of the original Tenor (Agricola a 2, and Tinctoris, also a 2). The other four settings are all in duple meter. Although this seems initially to violate the character of the model and suggests that these composers were unconcerned with duplicating the rhythmic proportion of the original, when set in such large note values this change is not audible. 2 For a discussion of variants in Binchois's rondeau, see Alan Atlas, The Cappella Giulia Chansonnier (New York: Institute of Medieval Music, 1975), I, pp. 183-185. ^Of the seven sources for Agricola's setting a 3 (Lerner, No. 50), five are notated in tempus perfectum (the exceptions being Florence 2439 and Formschneider, 1538). Also discussed in Atlas, Cappella Giulia, I, p. 214. A g r i c o l a , Comme femme S k (Lerner, No. kS) A g r i c o l a , Comme femme 3 3 (Lerner, No. 50) A g r i c o l a , Comme femme S 2 (Lerner, No. 51) o T i n c t o r i s , Comme femme [ e d i t o r i a l addition] Anon., A moy se u l l e a 4 (Munich 328-331) [Transposed down a fourth] Binchois ^ Q ' A g r i c o l a , a A (No. 49) A g r i c o l a , h 3 (No. 50) A g r i c o l a , § 2 (No. 5') Anon, a k (Munich 328-331) 9 Example 2. Comme femme, i n i t i a l segment from seven settings. >=J Binchois, Comme femme Q-J Agricola, Comme femme a 3 (Lerner, No. 50) $~ J Agricola, Comme femme a k (Lerner, No. h3) 11 Pitch levels of the family of settings remain the same except in the Munich 328-331 and Vienna 18746 s e t t i n g s , where the Tenor is transposed down a fourth and up a t h i r d , r e s pectively. These two pieces seem to form a later branch of the Comme femme family, using s t y l i s t i c techniques d i f f e r -ent from the chansons of Agricola and T i n c t o r i s . As Example 1 indicates, two of Agricola's settings (a 4 , Lerner, 4 5 No. 4 9 ; and a 3 , Lerner, No. 50) together with the Munich 328-331 setting use versions of the cantus firmus which c l o s e l y resemble each other. Also, the two-voice Agricola work (Lerner, No. 51) and the T i n c t o r i s setting (a 2 ) , both from the Segovia MS,^ probably shared a s i m i l a r version of the model Tenor. The f o l i o on which the Tenor (and the remainder of the Superius) of the T i n c t o r i s work was written is l o s t , but the e d i t o r , William Mel i n , has taken the version of the Tenor found in the Agricola piece from the same MS to complete the work. 7 In the Vienna 18746 s e t t i n g , only the f i r s t phrase of the model is adopted, and t h i s phrase is f i r s t stated in f o u r - f o l d aug-mentation and then in rhythmic values twice those found in Binchois's set-t i n g . However, the part as written in the MS lacks several measures, and the work can not be performed s u c c e s s f u l l y without e d i t o r i a l emendations. 4 The only change in these two A g r i c o l a works is at m. 20 ( r e f e r r i n g to the measure:;numbers of the model). ^The differences here are at m. 19 and mm. 24 - 2 5 . 6 C Segovia, sine numero. 7 M e l i n does indicate that at m. 32 (m. 16 of the Binchois) the pat-tern of the other settings would be better, to avoid the accented dissonance of c 1 against b'. 12 Agricola, 'Comme femme' a 3 (Lerner, No. 50) Generally, the non-Tenor voices of the six settings have no exten-sive thematic relationship to the Binchois model. Occasionally, however, certain ideas used in the chansons suggest characteristics which were featured in the model. In Agricola's Comme femme a 3 there are a few in-teresting suggestions of the Binchois Tenor in the Superius. At mm. 3~4 of the Superius, the outline of the first three measures of the cantus firmus can be formed (see Example 2). Also, mm. 14-15 of the model are imitated by the Superius of Agricola's setting a 3, at mm. 20-22 (Example 3). As Example 3. Melodic similarities between Binchois, Comme femme, mm. 12-15, and Agricola, Comme femme a~~3 (Lerner, No. 50), mm. 20-23. well, there is a hint of the opening of the Tenor further on in Agricola's 13 piece (Example k). Comme femme * # * * * M i r ff,r f | t r r r C o m m e f e m m e Example h . Use of Binchois, Comme femme, mm. 1 - 3 , in A g r i c o l a , Comme femme a 3 (Lerner, No. 5 0 ), mm. 1-2 and 3 2 - 3 5 . The above correspondences, however, are incidental and are not s t r u c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Although the cantus firmus Tenor provides a framework or sc a f f o l d i n g for t h i s piece, i t is the Bassus which seems to provide much of the work's melodic material. Indeed, many of the ideas upon which the accompanying voices have been b u i l t are derived from the 14 initial three measures of the Bassus (see Example 4, mm. 1-2). This voice is undoubtedly the most interesting and unusual part in Agricola's three Comme femme settings. From it , Agricola has extracted several ideas which then permeate the other voices: a melodic motive, sequential patterns, and disjunct melodic motion. The Bassus consists of a series of short repeated motives, and what is reflected in the Superius is the sequential patterns of the Bassus as well as the prominence of disjunct melodic motion. While sequential patterns are found in all of Agricola's settings at the point where the Tenor holds a long 'pedal' e_ (corresponding to mm. 24-25 in the model), in this particular setting the sequences occur sooner and more fre-quently, e.g., mm. 21-24 (Bassus), and also mm. 28-30, where the Superius and Bassus are heard together in the same pattern, in parallel tenths, a g favorite device of the composer. The Tenor is even made to participate in a similar sequence (one of Agricola's few modifications of the Tenor; q Example 5 ) . It seems fitting that the Bassus cadences last in this work. it. , «. Example 5. Sequential exchange, Agricola, Comme femme a 3 (Lerner, No. 50), mm. 16-19. "Gafori cited Agricola as one of the finest composers to use paral-lel tenths between outer voices; see Franchino Gafori, Practica Musice, III (Milan, 1496), f. 122, translated in Clement A. Miller, ed., Franchinus  Gaffurius. Practica Musicae (American Institute of Musicology" 1968). 9 Additional commentary on the style of this chanson is found in Atlas, Cappella Giulia, I, p. 214. 15 Agricola, 'Comme femme' a 4 (Lerner, No. 49) In Agricola's four-voice setting the Contratenor's opening motive, imitated by Superius and Bassus, derives its melodic outline from the Tenor and from Binchois's imitative opening (Tenor and Superius; see Example 2). Though this motive is not used anywhere else in Agricola's setting a 4, some ideas were taken from this motive and used throughout, e.g., the rhythmic pattern (most noticeable in the sequential section of mm. 34-39; Example 6 ) . A further derivation of the rhythmic pattern is first seen in the Contratenor, mm. 5-7: 1 .1. J j } . 0 S~J- X X 3 . ^ ® C T B & m.i m. 4-Example 6. Derivation of motives, Agricola, Comme femme a 4 (Lerner, No. kS), mm. 1, k and 7. These are rhythmic motives which tend to unify the freely-composed voices. Instead of motivic imitation, melodic shapes and patterns recur, often where the voices seem to echo or parallel each other, as in mm. 9-12 (Example 7) and in mm. 33 and 41-42 (both Superius and Contratenor), where they are heard together in thirds or tenths. Agricola, 'Comme femme' a 2 (Lerner, No. 51) The opening of this chanson appears to recall the Binchois chanson, This particular pattern is found in mm. 29-30 (Superius and Bassus); also, mm. 22-23 of the Contratenor is quite similar to the Contra-tenor at mm. 25-27. 16 Example 7. Recurring melodic shapes, A g r i c o l a , Comme femme a 4 (Lerner, No. 49), mm. 8-15. as did Agricola's s e t t i n g a 4 (Lerner, No. 49), only in t h i s case i t is the same rhythm and contrary motion of the f i r s t measure of Binchois's Contra-tenor and Tenor that is being r e f l e c t e d (see Example 2). Once again, there is no further correspondence to the model's voices, nor is material from the Tenor used in the Superius. Some rhythmic patterns do recur, e.g., As in the other two A g r i c o l a settings, sequential writing in the parts surrounds the Tenor's pedal e--(mm. 24-25). There is otherwise no use of imitative motives, and the mensural changes in the Superius are not related to any important s t r u c t u r a l point in the Tenor nor do they have a melodic character p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f e r e n t from the rest of the work. Even for a two-voice work the harmony often sounds weak, e.g., the p a r a l l e i ;thirds of m. 7, the r e p e t i t i v e octaves of m. 10 and (particu-l a r l y ) m. 21, as well as the inevitable thinness r e s u l t i n g from passagework 17 sounding against long-held notes in the Tenor. Consequently, t h i s composi-tio n appears to spring from the s t y l e of writing favoured by the improvisors of keyboard music during the late f i f t e e n t h century rather than cfrom the learned two-part counterpoint found in the Duo sections of Masses by Netherlands composers. T i n c t o r i s , 'Comme femme' a 2 As mentioned above, the T i n c t o r i s Comme femme is incomplete, lacking not only the Tenor, but missing about eight to ten measures of the Supe-11 r i u s . This work is dull and rambling, and seems too thinly-textured, l i k e Agricola's two-voice s e t t i n g . The Superius has one quote from the Tenor (Example 8) which is heralded by a rest, occurs over a long-held Tenor note, and anticipates the appearance of the same passage in the Tenor. Rather than continuing to share melodic material with the Tenor, the upper Example 8. A n t i c i p a t i o n of cantus firmus in Superius, T i n c t o r i s , Comme femme, mm. 19-25. voice immediately returns to i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ornamental passagework of The e d i t o r has f i t t e d in the Tenor from Agricola's setting a 2, up to m. 26 of the model. 18 e igh th no tes . Frequent changes in mensurat ion p rov ide some r e l i e f from the s tereotyped melod ic f i g u r e s and d u l l rhythms c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s work, by g i v i n g the Super ius a s lower pace and a l t e r i n g i t s melod ic p a t t e r n s . The upper v o i c e i s not w e l l - d e f i n e d c a d e n t i a l l y ; the i n t e r n a l cadences, such as they a r e , sometimes have a vague c o r r e l a t i o n to the phras ing of the Tenor ( e . g . , m. 8 or m. 19) . None of the work 's melod ic ma te r i a l c l o s e l y resem-b les any of the o ther s e t t i n g s in the f a m i l y . There i s a s u p e r f i c i a l resem-blance to A g r i c o l a ' s Comme femme a 2 from the same MS: both s e t t i n g s i n -c lude passagework o u t l i n i n g t r i a d s and o c t a v e s , a l t e r n a t i o n o f d i v i s i o n s w i th l a rge r note v a l u e s , and dramat ic changes o f mensurat ion (which, how-e v e r , do not occur in the same p laces aga ins t the cantus f i r m u s ) . The on ly n o t i c e a b l e rhythmic pa t t e rn in the T i n c t o r i s work occurs at m. k7ff, i r-rn \ •» •» f which i s deve lop ing s e q u e n t i a l l y at the po in t where the MS breaks o f f . Th is pa t t e rn begins where the Tenor has the pedal e> wh ich , as has been noted above, was the prime l o c a t i o n fo r sequen t i a l t reatment of mo t i ves . Anon, 'Comme femme' 3 k (Munich 328-331) The anonymous Comme femme from Munich 328-331, together w i th the s e t t i n g (a lso anonymous) from Vienna 187^6, marks a d i f f e r e n t and probably l a t e r branch o f the Comme femme f a m i l y . The Tenors in each are no longer at the same p i t c h l eve l as the B incho i s Tenor , and no ideas from the Tenor appear in the o ther v o i c e s . In the Munich s e t t i n g a h, there are no c l e a r c a d e n t i a l breaks in the non-Tenor p a r t s . The work c o n s i s t s , i n s t e a d , o f ove r l app ing shor t phrases cons t ruc ted of a s e r i e s o f mo t i ves , most o f which are der i ved from 19 the f i r s t motive of the Bass at m. 2 . There is r e a l l y only one main idea to the phrases, an often-varied rhythmic pattern (Example.9) combined with a descending fourth which almost always incorporates a syncopated r e p e t i t i o n of the upper note of the i n t e r v a l . Even when the melodic pattern is not the A) 0 0I J J . 0 J 0 , o r , 2) J J o L D o l o , or, 3) 4 . U J . U J o . Example 9 . Rhythmic patterns, Anon., Comme femme a k (Munich 3 2 8 - 3 3 1 ) . same, the rhythmic pattern may s t i l l dominate, e.g., m. 30 of the Contra-tenor. The rhythm of the main idea may be traced to that of the Tenor be-ginning ( nA" in Example 9) and the motivels melodic shape exhibits an inter-v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p ( e s p e c i a l l y the fourth) With the cantus firmus. The motives overlap c l o s e l y , at times no more than a quarter-note separating them (e.g., Superius and Bassus, mm. 3 3 " 3 4 ). Some vari e t y is obtained from sequential treatment of the motive (e.g., m. 2 0 f f in a l l non-Tenor voices). Often, however, the treatment is more ostinato than sequential (e.g., 12 Bassus at mm. 3 0 , 33 and 3 3 - 3 7 ) . In the f i r s t part of the piece the motive goes through several transformations but later usually remains f a i t h -12 There are two places where the imitation/ostinato is p a r t i c u l a r l y intense, where the three non-Tenor voices are heard together, usually two of the three in p a r a l l e l motion: mm. 2 2 - 2 5 and 3 5 ~ 3 8 . There are long-held notes in the Tenor at these points. 20 f u l to the motive as i t f i r s t appeared in the Bassus (Example 10). A motive Bass, m.2. — ^ Contratenor; m.A\-— m , t r r rrf >. ILJ..U J J J 3 r i JII Superius, mm. 5-6 Superius, mm. IO-JI n -= 1 g> . 0' * m r \ —W~M~ 9 K\K E Superius, mm. j-S Example 10. Motivie development, Anon., Comme femme a 4 (Munich 328-331), from mm. 2, k, 5-8, 10-11. of secondary importance, presented sequentially in the Superius (mm. 7-8), is derived from the Superius 1s variant of the main motive (see Example 10, mm. 5-6). It recurs one other time in the Contratenor (mm. 17~18) in a somewhat varied guise. The Munich MS set t i n g has a closer a f f i n i t y with the opening Bassus motive of Agricola's Comme femme 5 3 (Lerner, No. 50), which, while out-l i n i n g a f i f t h as often as a fourth, has the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c descending motion combined with a syncopated beginning. The resemblance is clear i f the Bassus motive of Agricola's piece is rewritten in the pattern as i t appears in the Munich setting (Example 11). While both works may have taken t h e i r opening Bassus motive from Binchois's cantus firmus, the simi-l a r i t y between the two chansons is further evident in a passage from the Agricola piece which emphasizes melodic fourths l i k e the Munich setting (Example 12). The d i s t i n c t i v e motivic treatments of Agricola's setting a 3 have become, in the Munich MS s e t t i n g , one single idea treated r e l e n t l e s s l y 21 fol. 68 Example 11. A g r i c o l a , Comme femme a 3 (Lerner, No. 50), opening of the Bassus, rearranged to compare with Anon., Comme femme 5 4 (Munich 328-331), mm. 1-6. not just in one voice but in a l l the non-Tenor parts. What was an unusual feature of Agricola's Comme femme settings is here the raison d'etre of the anonymous work. But there appears to be no other thematic connection with ei t h e r the Agricola settings or with the Binchois model. As already noted, the version of the Tenor in the Munich MS is closer to those of Agricola than that of the Binchois (see Example 1). Anon., 'A'umoy se u l l e qui tant ayme vous' a 5 (Vienna 18746) Like the Munich work, the setting of Comme femme in Vienna 18746 is r 22 Bass, mm. 6-j If J i U J Example 12. Emphasis of melodic fourths in Agricola, Comme femme a 3 (Lerner, No. 50), Bassus, mm. h-S and 6-7, and Tn Anon., Comme femme a k (Munich 328-331), mm. k~S. an imitative piece, but it avoids sequential treatment and does not apply its motives with any consistency. It adopts only the first phrase of the model Tenor (transposed down a third and stated twice, in foui—fold and two-fold augmentation)/ but employs nothing of that phrase's character in its other voices. There is no noticeable cadence in the parts at the end of a statement of the Tenor phrase. The piece is constructed of short overlap-ping phrases, often with two voices imitating each other or stating an idea 23 in p a r a l l e l motion. The motives are often no more than an interval (e.g., a fourth) outlined and repeated. Because the e f f e c t i v e range of each voice part is very small, e.g., the second Bassus rarely exceeds to d_, the Contratenor a_ to ej_, a voice's handling of motivic material has almost an ostinato e f f e c t . Summary The compositions by Agricola using the Tenor from Binchois's rondeau, Comme femme, provide an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the v a r i e t y supplied by one composer to the newly-composed voices of three quite d i f f e r e n t works. While they a l l share common Agricola s t y l i s t i c features such as long, r e s t l e s s phrases, and rhythmic complexities, each setting has i t s own d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o n o r i t i e s . Except for the suggestions of Binchois's Tenor in Agricola's newly-composed parts, there is no thematic or s t r u c t u r a l t i e to the model other than the adoption of the Tenor i t s e l f . This is due less to the very d i f f e r e n t s t y l e of the younger composer than to Agricola's choosing to avoid the features which characterized Binchois's work, i . e . , short, clear phrasing, l y r i c a l note-against-note s e t t i n g , regular cadences, and close range and interplay between i t s two accompanying voices. In the A g r i c o l a s e t t i n g s , the overlapping of phrases d e l i b e r a t e l y obscures any of the phrase structure of the model that the Tenor might have suggested. For example, the important s t r u c t u r a l cadence in the middle of the Binchois rondeau (at m. 15) is ignored in the A g r i c o l a works. The motion of Agricola's non-Tenor voices is continuous; in f a c t , whenever the Tenor has long-held notes, the 24 o ther vo i ces become even b u s i e r , e . g . , the long pedal e_ o f the Tenor ( B i n c h o i s ' s mm. 24-25) seems to prompt A g r i c o l a to c rea te c l o s e sequen t ia l i n t e r p l a y between the o ther v o i c e s . In A g r i c o l a ' s s e t t i n g s , no two vo i ces 13 cadence at the same t ime . In B i n c h o i s ' s main cadences, a l l the vo i ces cadence t oge the r ; but in the A g r i c o l a s e t t i n g a k, f o r example, the Super ius extends a c a d e n t i a l f i g u r e (mm. k$-kk) s i g n a l i n g a d r i v e to the cadence, wh i le the Contra tenor cadences two measures a f t e r the o ther v o i c e s , sounding f i r s t the t h i r d o f the f i n a l chord and then r e v e r t i n g at l a s t to the open f i f t h . In the t h r e e - v o i c e work, A g r i c o l a composed a Bassus which e x h i b i t s sho r te r phrases and is m o t i v i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d , a par t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from i t s companions wh i ch , at the end , cadence a measure before the Bassus does. The avoidance o f s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n , the ove r l app ing of the lengthy ph rases , and the lack o f c l e a r cadences between par ts po in t to the d i s t i n c t l y ins t rumenta l cha rac te r o f A g r i c o l a ' s s e t t i n g s . In the B incho i s work the Super ius i s tex ted w i th a rondeau r e q u i r i n g s p e c i f i c r e p e t i t i o n s of tex t and mus ic , and wh i l e the two accompanying vo i ces lack t e x t , they at l eas t share the r e g u l a r , shor t -ph rased q u a l i t y of the upper v o i c e . No tex t under lay i s present in any of the A g r i c o l a works , and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to desc r i be many o f the ph rases , such as the one in the Super ius of the s e t t i n g a 4 at mm. 3 2 - 4 6 , as having a voca l c h a r a c t e r . The melody and rhythm found in these three works i s no longer that of a chanson intended fo r voca l per formance. Bes ides t h i s change o f medium, there i s a l s o a d i f f e r e n c e in s o n o r i t y 1 o Except ions are the Super ius and Tenor o f the s e t t i n g a 4 at m. 7; the Tenor and Bassus o f the t h r e e - v o i c e work at mm. 33~3k; and perhaps at m. 10 in the s e t t i n g 5 2 . -25 and vo i c i n g . In the Binchois model the Tenor and Contratenor share the same ambitus. Being part of the Netherlands t r a d i t i o n , Agricola separated his parts more c l e a r l y ; the Bassus is the lowest part and there is l i t t l e of the voice crossing which is so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Burgundian chanson. Where there is a fourth voice, the Contratenor is melodically related as much to the Superius as to the Tenor or Bassus. While both the Binchois and Agricola parts extend over t h e i r f u l l ranges, Agricola w i l l sometimes shape the part around the range of a few notes or keep returning to a set few, such as £ 14 and c_ in the setting a 4 (see Example 7 ) . Agricola's treatment of the Comme femme cantus firmus exhibits the same at t i t u d e found in the other settings of the family, i . e . , the model Tenor is a part to which other newly-composed voices may be set but which provides few ideas — whether melodic, rhythmic or str u c t u r a l — upon which those other voices could amplify. In each of the six s e t t i n g s , the Tenor stands apart as an obvious cantus firmus, though in the late r anonymous works the note values of the cantus firmus become extremely large. None of the works has text underlay and they were undoubtedly intended for i n s t r u -mental performance. Of the si x pieces, only one appears to have any extra-Tenor r e l a t i o n s h i p with another of the family: the anonymous Comme femme from Munich 328-331 seems to share the same variant of the Tenor as Agricola's chansons a 3 and a 4 as well as a motive (and motivic treatment) somewhat l i k e that of the Bassus of Agricola's setting a 3 . ^A.lso in the setting a 4 : mm. 3~4 in the Contratenor; m. 13 in the Bassus, 14 in the Superius, and 23-24 in the Contratenor; m. 30 in a l l voices; mm. 3 2 - 3 3 in the Contratenor; mm. 4 3 - 4 4 in the Superius. The inter-val of a t h i r d , a to c, is heard right at the beginning of the Tenor. 26 CHAPTER THREE TOUT A PAR MOY The Model Once a g a i n , a rondeau serves as the model f o r a group o f s e t t i n g s . In the case of Tout a par moy, however, the number o f r e l a t e d s e t t i n g s i s smal l (see Table 2 ) . The a s c r i p t i o n fo r the rondeau, wh i l e u s u a l l y made to Wal ter F r y e , i s in some doubt.^ Only the upper par t i s t e x t e d ; the Tenor and Contratenor were probably performed i n s t r u m e n t a l l y . Im i ta t i on is not uncommon in F r y e ' s chanson ( e . g . , Tenor and Super ius at mm. 14-17 and 3 3 - 3 5 ) , and one of the i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s he lps to emphasize, as in Ockeghem's D'ung  a u l t r e amer, the b ina ry musica l s t r u c t u r e o f the chanson (Example 13; see the i m i t a t i o n at the beg inn ing o f the s e c t i o n s e c t i o n ) . The w r i t i n g fo r the Contra tenor i s g e n e r a l l y sho r te r -ph rased and more cont inuous than that fo r the o ther two v o i c e s , and a l though the Con t ra -tenor does o c c a s i o n a l l y cadence w i th the o ther p a r t s , i t i s the Super ius and ^See Pe rk ins and Garey, Mel Ion Chansonnier , I I , pp. 337~338, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of a s c r i p t i o n and fo r f u l l t ex t and t r a n s l a t i o n o f the poem. For more on the a t t r i b u t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a d i s c u s s i o n o f MS v a r i a n t s , see A l l a n W. A t l a s , " C o n f l i c t i n g A t t r i b u t i o n s in I t a l i a n Sources o f the Franco-Nether -l and i sh Chanson, c . 1465" c . 1505: A Progress Report on a New H y p o t h e s i s " , in Medieval and E a r l y Modern Europe, e d . l a i n Fenlon (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981), pp. 268-271. We w i l l he rea f te r cons ide r i t s author to be F r y e . 27 T A B L E 2 Se t t i ngs Based on jTout a par moy' 1. Frye [ B i n c h o i s ? ] , a 3 ; ed i t ed i n : a) Plamenac, "A R e c o n s t r u c t i o n " , pp. 5 3 0 - 5 3 1 ; b) W a l l n e r , Buxheimer Orge lbuch , p. 410 ( t a b l a t u r e ) ; c) Rehm, Die Chansons, No. 5 8 , p. 5 5 ; d) Kenney, C o l l e c t e d Works, pp . 1-2; e) Pe rk ins and Garey, Mel lon Chansonnier , No. 35 , I, f f . 45v-46r and pp. 126-127; M , pp. 335-343. 2 . A g r i c o l a , a 4 ; L e r n e r , No. 63 . A l s o ed i t ed i n : S m i j e r s , Josqu in Werken; Missen I I I , pp. 56 -59 ; and S m i j e r s , Van Ockeghem, pp. 107-110. Adopts the Tenor o f F r y e ' s chanson. Sources : a) F lo rence 2439, f f . 5 v - 7 r ; b) Augsburg 142A, f f . 51v -53 r ; c) Cant i C, f f . I 8v -20 r . 3 . A g r i c o l a , a 3 ; Le rne r , No. 64. Adopts the Tenor o f F r y e ' s chanson. Source: a) F lo rence 2439, f f . 68v -70r . 4 . T i n c t o r i s , a 2 ; ed i t ed in Mel i n , Opera Omnia, pp. 138-140. Adopts the Tenor o f F r y e ' s chanson. 5 . A n o n . , a 5 ; in Vienna 18746, No. 25 , f . 24v, w i th Tenor C i rcumdederunt me. No musica l r e l a t i o n to F r y e ' s chanson. A . J o s q u i n , Missa Fa isan t r e g r e t z , a 4 ; ed i t ed in S m i j e r s , Josqu in Werken, Missen I I I , pp. 3 3 - 5 5 . Uses the Tenor and par t o f the Super ius o f the second par t o f F r y e ' s chanson. 28 Example 13. Binary d i v i s i o n and imitative re-entries, Frye, tout a  par moy, mm. 19-24. Tenor which always cadence together and which are more interrelated rhythmically and melodically. In the i n i t i a l portion of the rondeau, a rhythmic pattern ( J J ) recurs frequently, 2 sometimes in imitative or p a r a l l e l motion in two voices. For the f i r s t twenty measures the phrases in the Superius tend to outline the same three or four notes (Ex-ample 14); consequently, the Superius does not possess a wide range. Simi-JL.% J m M yyj. 5 7 rpr>. 9-10 « »J K 1 mm. 11-14--P—M-—^>^  ~ ^—#— # yn.16 \ j n , m j f * * * i M mm. 17-f & +—z t» - r r d J •m.zo 1 m &' T * * 4 —r * j j '8 Example 14. Phrase shaping in Superius, Frye, Tout a par moy, mm. 3, 5, 9-10, 11-14, 16, 17-18 and 20. Superius, at mm. 3, 9, 16, 18 and 2k; Tenor, at mm. 9, 11 and 15; Contratenor at m. 14. 29 3 l a r l y , the Contratenor continually outlines g to d, or a to d, e s p e c i a l l y at phrase endings. This desire for melodic r e p e t i t i o n is likewise seen in the Tenor, in which one melodic gesture seems to echo the ending of the previous phrase (Example 15). The quasi-sequential passage in the Tenor at mm. J-10 , b Example 15. Phrase patterns, Frye, Tout a par moy, Tenor, mm. 4-6, 7-10 and 11-14. mm. 2 9 - 3 3 , which w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t in the lat e r cantus firmus settings, may be related to t h i s type of phrase shaping (Example 1 6 ) . In an analogous s T c r Example 1 6 . Quasi-sequential passage, Frye, Tout a par moy, Tenor, mm. 2 9 - 3 2 . and 3 3 - 3 6 . ^ee mm. 1 , 3 , 4-5, 5-6, 9 , 9 - 1 0 , 1 2 - 1 3 , 13-14, 1 8 - 1 9 , 2 6 - 2 7 , 3 0 , 30 example, the opening of the Superius is re f l e c t e d in the imitative passage between Superius and Tenor that concludes the work (see Examples 17 and 1 8 ) . t / j "'''LT ,h , . . u , r — — x >. — ^ 1^^^ m 0' m 1 —f-X4 ,,. n i = 1 V 1 —1 i— i. u u J - • -P^ = w-* m m kJ » — *-—' • v1—* 7 Example 1 7 . Imitative conclusion, Frye, Tout a par moy, mm. 3 3 _ 3 6 . Such phrase relationships help to o f f s e t the weaknesses of Frye's chanson which, while not without appeal, suffers from du l l rhythm and an adherence to a r e s t r i c t e d melodic range. Cantus Firmus Treatment and General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of the four other chansons with the t i t l e Tout a par moy, the anony-mous settings a 5 in Vienna 18746 has no apparent musical relationships to Frye's piece and w i l l therefore not be given any further consideration. The remaining three settings incorporate the whole of Frye's Tenor as the cantus firmus and adopt i t with even fewer changes than in the other chanson groups under examination. As before, any differences are minor a l t e r a t i o n s in note or rhythmic values, and they usually occur at the same measures of the Tenor (see Example 1 9 ) . The modality is always consistent with that in the model, as is the use of t r i p l e meter — even though the non-Tenor voices of each of 31 Frye, Tout a par moy Example 18. Tout a par moy, i n i t i a l segment from four s e t t i n g s . <> = J A g r i c o l a , Tout a par moy a 3 (Lerner, No. 64) T i n c t o r i s , Tout a par moy a 2 32 A g r i c o l a , a 3 (No. 6*t) T i n c t o r i s 33 the new s e t t i n g s are composed in duple meter. A g r i c o l a , 'Tout a par moy1 a 4 (Le rne r , No. 63) In both o f A g r i c o l a ' s Tout a par moy chansons the composer has set the borrowed v o i c e , as in h i s o ther cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s , in va lues that are in l a rge r p ropo r t i on to the sur round ing vo i ces than those in the model rondeau. In the s e t t i n g a 4 , the borrowed Tenor p rov ides no c a d e n t i a l o r phrasa l i n f l uence on the o ther p a r t s , which c o n s t a n t l y ove r l ap — on ly once (at m. 11) do even three of the four pa r t s cadence toge the r . The Tenor and Contratenor are con t ras ted w i th the Super ius and Bassus, the l a t t e r two having more a c t i v i t y . However, a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the model chanson i s e v i d e n t . For i n s t a n c e , F r y e ' s tendency to revo lve ma te r i a l w i t h i n a r e s t r i c t e d range is r e f l e c t e d o c c a s i o n a l l y in A g r i c o l a ' s chanson a 4 . S i m i l a r l y , an immediate r e p e t i t i o n o f a l i k e phrases in a vo i ce par t can be f o u n d . A g r i c o l a a l s o r e t a i n s the model 's musical d i v i s i o n in to two p a r t s , p r o v i d i n g a f u l l cadence at the end of the f i r s t par t and l a b e l l i n g the second " R e s i d i u m " (Example 2 3 ) ; w i t h i n s e c t i o n s , however, s t r u c t u r a l f ea tu res o f the model are not apparen t . Rhythmic pa t te rns or J ^ * 5~T^ ) are f a i r l y common in a l l non-Tenor v o i c e s . ^ Another pa t te rn ) occurs f r e q u e n t l y 7 in a s e c t i o n where there i s a , s e q u e n t i a l passage in the cantus f i rmus (mm. 44 -49 ; see Example 16 f o r the model ) . For example, the opening o f the Bassus (see Example 18 ) , the Bassus from mm. 36-40 ( e s p e c i a l l y m. 38; see Example 2 3 ) , o r in the Super ius at mm. 22 -25 . ^For example, Supe r i us , mm. 15-17 w i th mm. 18 -19 . ^For example, at mm. 2 - 3 , 4 - 5 , 6 , 7, 11-14, 25-26 , 28, e t c . 7 A t mm. 45 , 46 , 48 and 53 ; i t i s a l s o found in the Super ius at m. 22. 34 A more systematic melodic r e l a t i o n s h i p to the model chanson is evident right from the beginning of Agricola's four-voice work. The o u t l i n e of the Tenor's opening is v i s i b l e in the i n i t i a l measures of the Superius (see Example 18), and the Contratenor takes the f i r s t two and a half measures of the Superius and repeats i t (with minor changes) u n t i l m. 14, a f t e r which it adopts the f i r s t four notes of the Tenor and repeats them in ostinato u n t i l the end of the f i r s t section (Example 20). The descending f i f t h of Example 20. Use of os t i n a t o , A g r i c o l a , Tout a par moy a 4 (Lerner, No. 63), mm. 17-20. the Contratenor at m. 11, b r i e f l y echoed by the Bassus (in sequential t r e a t -ment) , follows the rhythmically d i f f e r e n t Tenor of m. 10 (Example 21). Also, * * * * 1* i Y J — - L - r L h J J . J -ti m (+• *»**.) J J J J M I = = ^ i f - =; i r • | i r | Example 21. Corresponding o u t l i n e s , A g r i c o l a , Tout a par moy a 4 (Lerner, No. 63), mm. 9-12. a portion of the Bassus at mm. 18-20 (seen in Example 20) resembles the 35 Superius of the model at mm. 22-24, or even the Contratenor of the rondeau at mm. 9 -10 (Example 22). The opening of the "Residium" of Agricola's work 3 , vim. 1&-ZO m i ? f , r r S, mm. 2.Z-2+ 4 4 d s '-CT, yum. 9-JO $ Example 2 2 . A g r i c o l a , Tout a par moy a 4 (Lerner, No. 6 3 ) , Bassus, mm. 1 8 - 2 0 , compared with Frye's Tout a par moy, Superius, mm. 22-24, and Contratenor, mm. 9 - 1 0 . follows Frye's structure, and though the outl i n e of several measures of the Tenor can be traced in the Superius (Example 2 3 ) , i t is obviously the be-ginning four-note motive which Agric o l a chose to emphasize by making i t an ostinato subject for the Contratenor for the remainder of the chanson. To conclude his chanson, Agricola chose to emulate Frye's imitative f i n i s h while varying i t by having the cantus firmus and the Superius imitate the Bassus (Example 24). Agr i c o l a , 'Tout a par moy' 5 3 (Lerner, No. 64) Agricola has likewise constructed his three-voice Tout a par moy setting in two sections with a f u l l cadence separating each. As in the chanson a 4, the cantus firmus has no cadential influence on the composi-t i o n ; only once is there a common inner cadence (at m. 3 8 ) . But, in contrast to the previous Agr i c o l a s e t t i n g , no melodic influence from the cantus firmus can be found in the other two parts — the suggestion of Frye's second-36 a) Frye Example 2 3 . Use o f ma te r i a l from F r y e , Tout a par moy7 Tenor, mm. 2 3 - 2 6 , in A g r i c o l a , Tout a par moy a 4 (Le rne r , No. 6 3 ) , mm. 3 3 - 4 0 . s e c t i o n fou r -no te motive in A g r i c o l a ' s Bassus (at mm. 38 -39 ) i s probably c o i n c i d e n t a l . However, the c o n c l u s i o n o f A g r i c o l a ' s work once aga in ex -h i b i t s sequen t i a l t reatment at the po in t where the cantus f i rmus is sequen-t i a l (Example 2 5 ) , and the ascending foui—note motive of the Bassus (from m. 49) suggests the method t h i s composer employed to conclude h i s o ther Tout a par moy s e t t i n g . 37 a) Frye rt ' * < — , r — — x r r J^ r r 35 J , f f , f}} Jl : 'J ' U — * — •> / & — • /ft- k | * -<• _P lljUi J— ^ 1 i — _H R h i « — ' — » • — • b) A g r i c o l a r — • — — • — * •c. • r 7 ^ ~s * • r ^ i . i . i , i . 1 il i 1 1 = J ' P I' ' • i ) •• • t-J r ~ = T 1 1 : ^ J J w 1 r • - x i n — * — i Example 24. Im i ta t i ve c o n c l u s i o n s , in F r y e , Tout a par moy, mm. 33-36; and in A g r i c o l a , Tout a par moy a 4 (Lerner , No. 6 3 ) , mm. 50-54 . T i n c t o r i s , 'Tout a par moy' a 2 Whi le the p i t c h l eve l o f T i n c t o r i s ' s Tenor i s the same as that of the o r i g i n a l cantus f i r m u s , the MS (Segov ia , s . n . ) does not i n d i c a t e a B*3 g fo r e i t h e r v o i c e p a r t . The upper par t i s w e l l - v a r i e d d e s p i t e an abundance of s c a l e passages. Stepwise motion is the most p r e v a l e n t , there being no 9 octaves or even jumps of a f i f t h . Accented sevenths are f r equen t , and two 8 b The ed i t o r , Wi11iam Mel i n, adds a B_ occas i o n a l l y as f i e ta a l t e r a -t i ons . Q At mm. 1, 2 , 7 , 1 2 , 2 1 , 2 9 , 35; (the measures are numbered a c c o r d -ing to the Teno r ' s t r i p l e mete r ) . 38 Example 25. Melodic sequences, A g r i c o l a , Tout a par moy a 3 (Lerner, No. 64), mm. 42-53. of the inner cadences occur on the interval of a s i x t h (mm. 11, 28). Although the Superius and Tenor often cadence simultaneously, overlapping is also common. Like the other settings in the Tout a par moy family, T i n c t o r i s ' s piece retains a binary musical form, but the beginning of the second section lacks the imitative opening of the model chanson.^ Once 11 again, the sequential passage in the cantus firmus is p a r a l l e l e d by a sequential phrase in the Superius ( T i n c t o r i s , mm. 30-31). Where there are fragmentary suggestions of the model in the upper part of T i n c t o r i s ' s The Segovia MS is short one measure; the e d i t o r , following the other settings based on t h i s cantus firmus, has added a rest at the s t a r t of T i n c t o r i s ' s section section. 11 Frye, mm. 29 _33; see Example 16. 39 chanson, they r e c a l l only Frye's Superius and not his Tenor (Examples 26 and 12 27). But the most d e f i n i t e (though b r i e f ) emulation of the model chanson a) Frye Tout a par moy b) T i n c t o r i s f o l . 2 0 4 v T o u t a par m o y Example 26. Suggestion of Frye, Tout a par moy, mm.'1^ 4, in T i n c t o r i s , Tout a par moy a 2, mm. 1-5. occurs at the end of T i n c t o r i s ' s work where the Superius antic i p a t e s the ascending a, b, c, d of the cantus firmus (Example 28; see Example 17 for 12 These resemblances do occur, however, at the analogous position of the Tenor. Example 2 7 . Resemblance between Frye, Tout a par moy, mm. 19—21 , and T i n c t o r i s , Tout a par moy,a 2 , mm. 1 9 - 2 1 . Example 2 8 . Imitative conclusion, T i n c t o r i s , Tout a par moy a 2 , mm. 3 2 - 3 5 . 41 Frye's chanson). Summary In the three works which adopt the Tenor of Frye's Tout a par moy, the t r i p l e mensuration of the cantus firmus is retained even though the voices composed around i t are set in duple meter. As in other cantus firmus f a m i l i e s , the note values of the Tenor are larger in comparison to the values of the newly-composed parts. A l l three settings follow the main musical d i v i s i o n s of Frye's rondeau, and while only Agricola's settings a 4 (Lerner, No. 63) copies the imitative opening of the second section, each of these works suggests the imitative conclusion to Frye's piece, as well as including sequential treatment where the cantus firmus does (at mm. 2 9 - 3 3 of the mode 1). C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s evident in Agricola's other cantus firmus chansons recur in his two Tout a par moy s e t t i n g s , e.g., overlapping of long phrases with l i t t l e or no r e l a t i o n to the cadential structure of the cantus firmus; generally minor use of imitation; and r e s t l e s s , complex rhythmic a c t i v i t y — t h i s time, however, with more proportional changes than have been apparent so f a r . Yet despite these s i m i l a r i t i e s , the two works by Agricola are quite d i f f e r e n t . The chanson § 3 (Lerner, No. 64) has a t i g h t l y - k n i t construc-t i o n , with the lines comparatively narrow and confined in range (the Superius even descends below the Bassus, at mm. 15 -16). On the other hand, the voices of the chanson 5 4 (No. 63) are polarized, the Superius and Bassus being set in d i s t i n c t contrast to the Tenor and the Contratenor (which is k2 e s s e n t i a l l y an ostinato Tenor). Aside from the cantus firmus i t s e l f , there is l i t t l e in No. 6k to suggest extra relationships to Frye's chanson; in No. 63, however, Agricola c l e a r l y wished to r e f l e c t melodic material from the cantus firmus in his other parts and also to match melodic and formal techniques of the model at points corresponding to where these procedures 13 occur in the o r i g i n a l work. T i n c t o r i s ' s Tout a par moy, the most successful of his cantus firmus settings examined in t h i s study, may be related as much to Agricola's set-ti n g a"k (or even the three-voice work) as to the o r i g i n a l Frye chanson: the conclusion of T i n c t o r i s ' s work, with i t s ascending a_, b_, c_, d_, is more cl o s e l y aligned with the writing A g r i c o l a uses to complete his two settings, e s p e c i a l l y the four-voice work, than to the end of the model i t s e l f (compare Examples 2k and 25 with Example 28). 13 Agricola's four-voice Tout a par moy appears to f u l f i l l two c r i t e r i a for the emulation defined in Brown, "Emulation, Competition, and Homage", p. 15; i . e . , s t r u c t u r a l dependence, and reworking of borrowed melodic material. Brown refers to Agricola's three-part setting (p. 11) as an example of adding new voices to a precomposed part, but he does not men-tion Agricola's s e t t i n g for four voices. 43 CHAPTER FOUR D'UNG AULTRE AMER The Model The p o p u l a r i t y o f Ockeghem's rondeau fo r three p a r t s , D'ung a u l t r e  amer, i s ev iden t from the f i f t e e n e x i s t i n g secu la r s e t t i n g s f o r which t h i s chanson served as an exemplar . In keeping w i th the o l d e r Bu rgund ianss t y l e , t h i s rondeau c o n s i s t s o f a tex ted top vo i ce accompanied by two ins t rumenta l pa r ts (see Table 3 ) . ^ The cadences of the accompanying pa r t s do not c o r -respond to those o f the S u p e r i u s , except at two p o i n t s , mm. 8 and 19, where phrases of the Tenor reach a momentary c o n c l u s i o n (though there are no r e s t s in the whole o f the Teno r ) . Despi te the inst rumenta l cha rac te r o f the lower v o i c e s , the s e t t i n g i s g e n e r a l l y homophonic, even at the more ornamented c l o s e . The Tenor and Cont ra tenor o c c a s i o n a l l y move in p a r a l l e l t h i r d s and ove r l ap in range. The b ina ry musica l s t r u c t u r e o f the rondeau i s e s p e c i a l l y apparent in t h i s work because o f an i m i t a t i v e passage between Tenor and Supe r i us , beg inn ing in the Tenor at m. 20 (Example 2 9 ) , which opens the second s e c t i o n of the mus ic . Th is i m i t a t i v e exchange does not recur even when the same ^See Table 3 fo r modern e d i t i o n s ; a t r a n s l a t i o n of the tex t appears in Helen Hew i t t , e d . , Ot tav iano P e t r u c c N Cant? B. Numero C inquan ta . V e n i c e ,  1502 (Chicago & London: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1967), pp. 52 -53 . T A B L E 3 S e t t i n g s Based on 'D 'ung a u l t r e amer' Ockeghem, 3 3 ; ed i t ed i n : a) Droz , T h i b a u l t and Rokseth , T r o i s Chansonn iers , No. 36, p. 72 ; b) Jeppesen, Kopenhagener Chansonn ier , No. 28 , pp. 52-53 ( f a s c , P l a t e V I I ) ; c) S m i j e r s , Josqu in Werken, M i s s e n , I I , pp. 140-141; d) S m i j e r s , Van Ockeghem, p. 17. A g r i c o l a , >a 3 ; Le rne r , No. 60. chanson. Source: a) Segov ia , s . n . , f . 1 6 0 V . A g r i c o l a , 3 4 ; Le rne r , No. 57. Basev is2439, I I , pp. 2 0 - 2 1 . chanson. Sources : a) F lo rence 2439, f f . 7 v - 8 r ; b) Augsburg 142A, f f . 53v -54r . A g r i c o l a , 3 4 ; L e r n e r , No. 58 . Basevi 2439, I I, pp. 2 2 - 2 3 . chanson. Sources : a) F lo rence 2439, f f . 8 v - 9 r ; b) Augsburg 142A, f f . 57v & 46 r . A g r i c o l a , 3 3 ; Le rne r , No. 59 . chanson. Source: a) F lo rence 2439, f f . 70v-71r . Adopts the Tenor o f Ockeghem's A l s o e d i t e d in Newton, Manuscr i pt Adopts the Tenor o f Ockeghem's A l s o e d i t e d in Newton, Manuscr ip t Adopts the Tenor of Ockeghem's Adapts the Super ius o f Ockeghem 1s 45 Table 3 (Continued) 6. B a s i r o n , a 4 ; e d i t e d in S m i j e r s , Van Ockeghem, pp. 3 0 - 3 2 . Adopts the Super ius o f Ockghem's chanson, as we l l as L'homme arme as the Tenor . 7. Anon . , a 2 ; in S e v i l l e 5~ I -^3 , No. 160, f . 132v; e d i t e d in Moerk, "The S e v i l l e , " p . 398. Adopts the Super ius o f Ockeghem's chanson. 8. A n o n . , a 2 ; in S e v i l l e 5 - 1 - 4 3 , N O . 161, f . 133r; e d i t e d in Moerk, "The S e v i l l e , " p. 399. Adopts the Tenor o f Ockeghem's chanson. 9. T i n c t o r i s , a 2 ; ed i t ed in Mel i n , Opera Omnia, p. 143. Adopts the Tenor of Ockeghem's chanson. 1 0 . De O r t o , a 4 ; ed i t ed in Hew i t t , Cant i B, No. 24, pp. 159-161 and pp. 52-54 . Adopts the Super ius o f Ockghem's chanson. 11. Anon . , a 3 ; in Bologna QJ7, No. 41 , f f . 46v-47v. Adopts the Super ius o f Ockeghem's chanson. 12. ' P h i l i p o n ' , a 3 ; in Bologna 0 J 7 , No. 50, f f . 55v-56r . Adopts the Super ius o f Ockeghem's chanson. 13. A n o n . , a 3; in Bologna QJ7, No. 51 , f f . 56v-57r . Adopts the Super ius of Ockeghem's chanson. 14. A n o n . , a 3 , D'ung p lus amer; e d i t e d in Pease, P i x e r e c o u r t Manusc r ip t , pp. 337-340. Adopts the f i r s t f i v e measures on l y o f Ockeghem's chanson. 15. Lebrun, a 5 ; in Vienna 18746, f . 19v. Adopts the Super ius of Ockeghem's chanson. 16. Adopts the Tenor of Ockeghem's ke Table 3 (Continued) Josquin, Missa D'ung aultr e amer, a k; edited in Smijers, Josquin  Werken, Missen, II, pp. 1 2 1 - 1 3 5 . Borrows the Superius and Tenor of Ockeghem1s chanson. Josquin, Sanctus D'ung au l t r e amer, 3 k; edited in Smijers, Josqu in  Werken, Missen, II, pp. 1 3 6 - 1 3 8 . Adopts the Superius of Ockeghem1s chanson. Josquin, Victimae paschali laudes, a k; edited in Smijers, Josquin  Werken, Motetten, I, pp. 1 3 6 - 1 3 9 . Uses the Superius of Ockeghem's chanson in the prima pars, and the Superius of Hayne's De tous biens  plaine in the secunda pars. Josquin, Tu solus qui f a c i m i r a b i l i a , 3 k; edited in Smijers, Josquin  Werken, Motetten, II, pp. 5 6 - 5 8 . Quotes the opening phrase of the Superius (and of the opening of the second part) of Ockeghem's chanson in the secunda pars; hi Example 2 9 . I m i t a t i o n , Ockeghem, D'ung a u l t r e amer, mm. 1 7 - 2 5 . rhythm ( o ) appears at the beg inn ing of the S u p e r i u s ' s next ph rase . Of more s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the r e c u r r i n g motive ( t h i r t e e n t imes in f o r t y - f i v e measures) based on a descending f o u r t h , f i r s t heard in the opening measures of the Con t ra teno r . Th i s motive appears in severa l rhythmic forms, and at one po in t (Super ius , mm. 2 6 - 2 8 ) is t r ea ted s e q u e n t i a l l y (Example 30 ) . CX mm. 1-2, A - * •• S, mm. 3-4 •S, mm. t2-t+ i f b p > ; i j =i * X * * < r-t—; f 1—! S, mm.2.6-z% if *J^* / * ** * Example 30. Ockeghem, D'ung a u l t r e amer, mot ives from the Contra-t e n o r , mm. 1-2; S u p e r i u s , mm. 3 "4 , 12-14 and 2 6 - 2 8 . Cantus Firmus Treatment and General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s In the D'ung a u l t r e amer f am i l y of s e t t i n g s , the comparisons become more invo lved than in the Comme femme o r Tout a par moy groups s ince there are two vo i ces from Ockeghem's chanson that are adopted ins tead of one. Of 48 the f i f t e e n s e t t i n g s , eight borrow the Superius of the rondeau and six use the Tenor (see Example 3 1 ) ; the anonymous Paris 15123 setting incorporates a l l three of Ockeghem's parts in parody, but only the f i r s t f i v e measures are u t i l i z e d before proceeding with material unrelated to the model. In general, no substantial changes were made to the cantus firmus by the composers of the later D'ung a u l t r e amer se t t i n g s . The sequences of pit c h and rhythm are usually the same as the model, and any differences are minor a l t e r a t i o n s in note values, or the d e l e t i o n , addition or s i m p l i f y i n g of an ornament. The same mode, meter, and the e n t i r e t y of the model voice is adopted in each of the subsequent s e t t i n g s . A l t e r a t i o n s tend to be made at the same point, e.g., mm. 7 and 35 of Ockeghem's Tenor are often s i m p l i -f i e d (as in the T i n c t o r i s and two of the Agricola works) by deleting the two ornamental minimas heard in passing. However, consistency of change is not apparent in works in which the borrowed voice is the Superius. The only modification that is important is at mm. 20-21 of the Ockeghem Tenor, where, in the two settings by Agricola a k (Lerner, Nos. 57 and 5 8 ) , the rhythm ( o o' ) of the o r i g i n a l is modified to the equivalent of two breves, and avoids any imitative dialogue between voice parts. (The La Rue work i n t e i — polates extra rests at several points in the Tenor, including the beginning, but does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r the melody i t s e l f . ) A l l of the settings incorporating Ockeghem's Tenor ret a i n that part as a Tenor. S i m i l a r l y , Ockeghem's Superius becomes the upper part in those s e t t i n g s ; the one excep-tio n is Agricola's three-voice s e t t i n g (Lerner, No. 59) which employs the model Superius as a Tenor transposed down an octave. This p a r t i c u l a r chan-son is even more exceptional since i t is the only s e t t i n g in the D'ung  aultre amer family which elaborates the model with additional notes and Ockeghem, D'ung aultre amer Agr i c o l a , D'ung aultre amer a 3 (Lerner, No D ung aultre amer (Lerner, No D ung aultre amer Anon., D'ung aultre amer a 2 (Sevi1le 5-1-43; f. 133r) T i n c t o r i s , D'ung aultre amer a 2 Anon., D'ung plus amer (Paris 15123) La Rue, D'ung aultre amer a 5 49 Example 31a. D'ung aultre amer, Tenor, with seven variants. ^ 50 Example 31a (Cont inued) . D'ung a u l t r e amer, Tenor , w i th seven var i a n t s . Ockeghem, D'ung a u l t r e amer A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (No. 60) A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 4 (No. 57) A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 4 (No. 58) Anon . , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 2 ( S e v i l l e 5-1-43) T i n c t o r i s , D'ung a u l t r e amer " La Rue, D'ung a u l t r e amer 51 Example 31b. D'ung a u l t r e amer, S u p e r i u s , w i th n ine v a r i a n t s Ockeghem, D'ung a u l t r e amer A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (Lerner , No. 59) B a s i r o n , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 4 Anon . , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 2 (Sevi 1 le 5 -1 -43 ; f . 132v) De O r t o , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 4 A n o n . , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (Bologna 0.17; f f . 46v-47r) 1 Ph i 1 i pon 1 , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (Bologna QI7; f f . 55v-56r) A n o n . , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (Bologna 0.17; f f . 56v-57r) A n o n . , D'ung p lus amer (Pa r i s 15123) Lebrun , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 5 (Vienna 18746) Hi ^ — 1~M—1 * o # = % \ I I J r r 4 * e> i e 0 o 52 Example 31b (Continued). D'ung aultre amer. Superius, with nine variants. Ockeghem, D'ung aultre amer Agr i c o l a , D'ung aultre amer a 3 (No. 59) 3 S -W .1 U r r l J J - ' l r -Jirn-In H, "I'^UIj ' ' i l l X X X V * X X V * X X x x x >< tfx X Basiron, D'ung aultre amer Anon., D'ung aultre amer ( S e v i l l e 5-1-43) De Orto, D'ung aultre amer Anon . , D'ung a u l t r e amer (Bologna QJ7; f f . 46v-47r) i P h i l i p o n 1 , D'ung a u l t r e amer Anon., D'ung aultre amer (Bologna 0.17; f f . 56v-57r) Lebrun, D'ung aultre amer 53 changes of rhythm and octave. Settings Based on Ockeghem1s Tenor A g r i c o l a , 'D'ung au l t r e amer' 3 3 (Lerner, No. 60) This work is the most ac t i v e of Agricola's four settings of D'ung  aultre amer. Both Superius and Bassus open and close the chanson with extended ascending and descending scale passages. None of the voices cadence together; rests in the parts are rare. After m. k, the Superius continues without pause in a li n e which builds constantly in pervasive syncopation, and i t concludes in another extended scale passage. The Bassus shares the upper part's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — i t s own unbroken l i n e begins from m. 8 to the end (m. 23) — and c a r r i e s on a sequential dialogue with the Superius which is f i r s t suggested in the opening measures (see Example 3 2 ) . Material from the opening measure of the Bassus is repeated sequentially in it s next measures; i t s descending passage has a close r e l a t i o n s h i p to the opening of the Superius, as shown in Example 3 3 . These descending figures Example 33 . A g r i c o l a , D'ung au l t r e amer 5 3 (Lerner, No. 6 0 ) , Bassus, mm. 1 - 2 , compared with Superius, m. 1. Example 3 2 . D'ung aultre amer, initial segment from ten settings. 54 o o 7T a> to : J -fD B c QJ C fD 0) 3 fD - I 56 are later used in sequential interplay (often in tenths) between Superius and Bassus at mm. 10 -12 (Example 34) at the point where, in the Ockeghem I «- 1 | *'— ' 1 ; ( ) r b 1 r — b1 1 , b' , , -b' ; •J » 8 1 6—, , — b r - ' • 1 =P= — i — 1 ' 1 r ' 1 , r ^ 1 U :- J ' " Example 3 4 . Sequential phrases at mid-point, A g r i c o l a , D'ung  aul t r e amer a 3 (Lerner, No. 6 0 ), mm. 8 - 1 5 . chanson, imitation between Tenor and Superius introduced the second half of Ockeghem's musical structure (see Example 2 9 ) . Sequence takes the place of imitation in this Agricola piece. The phrasing of the model Tenor is not followed in the upper parts, and there is no melodic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Tenor and the outer voices. A g r i c o l a , 'D'ung a u l t r e amer' a 4 (Lerner, No. 57) Greater equality of voice parts t y p i f i e s the character of t h i s four-voice work. Instead of being set apart, the Tenor is integrated into the texture, not in terms of s i m i l a r motives but of pacing, i . e . , long notes in the Tenor have correspondingly long notes in the other parts (e.g., mm. 3 , 5 , 8 , 1 0 , 1 5 - 1 7 ) . Bassus and Tenor often share s i m i l a r phrase lengths, and homophonic writing is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s work. Breaks in the l i n e s are frequent, and cadential formulae — not normally obvious in Agricola's 57 2 cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s — are f r equen t . Cadences do no t , however, c o r r e -3 spond to those in Ockeghem's rondeau, and A g r i c o l a ' s pa r ts seldom cadence t oge the r . Im i ta t ion or sequence is not present in t h i s s e t t i n g , nor are there any c o n s i s t e n t melod ic or rhythmic p a t t e r n s . The on l y important change made to the model Tenor appears at mm. 10-11 where the pa t te rn of the Ockeghem passage (o JJ) i s avoided by A g r i c o l a in favour of a steady success ion o f breves (Example 35 ) . Whi le the o r i g i n a l rhythmic pa t te rn i s present in the Super ius at m. 10, the on ly noteworthy f ea tu re o f t h i s s e c t i o n Example 35. M id -po in t o f A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer a k (Le rner , No. 5 7 ) , mm. 8 -15 . is a phrase fo r Super ius and Bassus in p a r a l l e l tenths (see Example 35, m. 11) . No melodic ma te r i a l from Ockeghem's chanson is found in t h i s s e t -t i n g . 2 For example, S u p e r i u s , mm. 9 -10 , and 12; Con t ra tenor , mm. 13"14. 3 Excep t , perhaps, at A g r i c o l a ' s m. 10 in the S u p e r i u s , which com-pares to the Super ius of Ockeghem's song at mm. 19-20. 58 A g r i c o l a , 'D 'ung a u l t r e amer 1 a h (Le rne r , No. 58) Some suggest ion o f the Tenor model appears in the o ther vo i ces of t h i s work, the f i r s t example occu r i ng at the opening o f the chanson where a mot i ve , employed in a l l o f the non-Tenor p a r t s , has a resemblance to the f i r s t measure of the Tenor (see Example 3 2 ) . Th is motive i s not found aga in a f t e r m. 9 . As in A g r i c o l a ' s o ther s e t t i n g a k in the D'ung a u l t r e amer f a m i l y , the l i n e a r and rhythmic des ign has been changed: the ascending l i n e k of the Tenor i s im i ta ted by Super ius and Bassus , p rov i d i ng a s t r u c t u r a l d i v i s i o n (produced by t e x t u r a l change) where Ockeghem has begun the second par t o f h i s musica l form (see Example 3 6 ) . There are o ther po in t s where the m Example 3 6 . Im i ta t i ve e n t r i e s at m i d - p o i n t , A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e  amer a h (Le rne r , No. 5 8 ) , mm. 8 -15 . Tenor has been s u c c e s s f u l l y i n teg ra ted in to the tex tu re o f the o ther pa r ts k A l s o found in mm. 18-20, cor respond ing to Ockeghem's Tenor at mm. 3 6 - 3 9 . 59 ( e . g . , Bassus and Tenor at mm. 18 -19 ) , and the v a r i e d i n t e r e s t i n g l i n e s , a ided by the m o t i v i c i n t e r p l a y at the beg inn ing , are set w i t h i n an i n teg ra l whole. I n teg ra t i on among par ts i s unusual f o r A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s which are more o f t e n m e l o d i c a l l y independent o f one ano ther . How-e v e r , cadences, as expec ted , o v e r l a p ; even in the f i n a l cadence the Bassus and Contra tenor conclude two measures a f t e r the Super ius and Tenor . Anon . , ! D'ung a u l t r e amer' a 2 ( S e v i l l e 5 - 1 - 4 3 ; f . 133r) In t h i s Duo and i t s S e v i l l e companion (d iscussed be low) , the added vo i ce c o n s i s t s o f shor t ph rases , each one repeated :before the next ph rase , much l i k e the Tenor par t o f the anonymous De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g in Rome X I I I , 27 ( f f . 64v-65r) or l i k e the Contra tenor and Bassus o f De O r t o ' s D'ung a u l t r e amer (both d i scussed be low) . The upper vo i ce here i s not very d i s t i n c t i v e and i t g i ves the work a d i d a c t i c c h a r a c t e r . No ex t ra -Tenor r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the model are apparen t . T i n c t o r i s , 'D 'ung a u l t r e amer' a 2 Though T i n c t o r i s ' s chanson is f o r on ly two p a r t s , the v o i c i n g is be t te r handled than in the same composer 's s e t t i n g o f Comme femme. Any th inness of t ex tu re is a l l e v i a t e d by the use of s i x t h s and t h i r d s at major po in t s o f a measure, and con t ra ry motion p rov ides r e l i e f from the i n e v i t a b l e sameness of d i r e c t i o n . Th is work 's c a d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e f o l l o w s that of Ockeghem's chanson: the cadence at m. 10 corresponds to Ockeghem's mm. 1 9 -20 , and that o f m. 17 to Ockeghem's mm. 33~35. At these p o i n t s , T i n c t o r i s ' s upper par t suggests ma te r i a l from the model: at mm. 10-13, both Ockeghem's Tenor and Super ius can be approximated (see Example 37, as we l l as Example 60 2 9 ) ; and, at mm. 17 -20 the Superius of the model is outlined even more than is Ockeghem's Tenor (Example 3 8 ) . In the opening measure of T i n c t o r i s ' s Superius, there is even a s l i g h t resemblance to the beginning of Ockeghem's Superius (see Example 3 2 ) . 10 Example 3 7 . Melodic influence of cantus firmus in Superius, T i n c t o r i s , D'ung aultr e amer a 2 , mm. 8 - 1 5 . Settings Based on Ockeghem's Superius A g r i c o l a , 'D'ung aultr e amer' a 3 (Lerner, No. 59) This chanson is the most exceptional of a l l the settings in the D'ung a u l t r e amer family since i t not only places Ockeghem's Superius in the middle part of Agricola's chanson (the other settings which adopt Ockeghem's Superius re t a i n i t as the top vo i c e ) , but elaborates and a l t e r s i t s shape. A l l of the notes of Ockeghem's upper part can be traced in Agricola's reworking, except at m. 18 of the Ockeghem voice where the Jb is not found in the expected place in Agricola's piece (m. 9 of the Agri c o l a ; see Example 3 1 ) . The values of the notes are often a l t e r e d , and additional notes are included, though there is seldom more than a measure of extraneous a) Ockeghem Example 38. Melod ic resemblance o f Ockeghem, D'ung a u l t r e amer, mm. 33*39, in T i n c t o r i s , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 2 , mm. 16-23. 62 notes added at a t ime ; the o u t l i n e o f the o r i g i n a l i s always c l e a r . Desp i te cons ide rab le d i s t o r t i o n , ^ the reworked cantus f i rmus r e t a i n s the me lod i c , rhythmic and s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s o f the model: the opening is quoted a c c u r a t e l y f o r the f i r s t two measures (see Example 3 2 ) ; the descending f ou r th motive so p reva len t in the Ockeghem rondeau is abundant in A g r i c o l a ' s p a r t ; the cadences are at po in t s s i m i l a r to those in the model. The younger composer has a l s o extended the range of the cantus f i rmus and set i t an octave lower than the o r i g i n a l p a r t , except at mm. 7 - 10 where the p i t c h o f the common notes i s the same.^ There i s no cons i s tency to the notes inse r ted in to the cantus f i r m u s . Of va ry i ng va lues and p a t t e r n s , these a d d i t i o n s are o f t en deco ra t i ve passagework, though not always ( e . g . , mm. k-S) J There are two major d ivergences from the cantus f i r m u s . The f i r s t i s a f a l s e lead at mm. 10-11 o f A g r i c o l a ' s Tenor , where the f i r s t four notes o f i t s new phrase do not t r ace the o u t l i n e o f the cantus f i rmus but correspond ins tead to the i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s o f Ockeghem's Tenor and Super ius ( i . e . , mm. 20 -25 ) ; A g r i c o l a p reserves t h i s Tenor -Super ius i m i t a t i o n in h i s work (see Example 3 9 ) . The second main d e v i a t i o n from the model occurs in the l a s t two measures o f A g r i c o l a ' s chanson which do not con ta in ma te r i a l from Ockeghem's Supe r i us ; t h i s mus ic , p laced in p a r a l l e l t h i r d s w i th the Bassus , has an o u t l i n e s i m i l a r to the c l o s i n g o f Ockeghem's Tenor (Example 40 ) . The s e c t i o n o f the A g r i c o l a chanson, from m. 10, r e f e r r e d to above (Example 3 9 ) , a l s o p rov ides abundant examples o f o ther f ea tu res which are ^For example, mm. 4-6 in A g r i c o l a ' s chanson. ^Corresponding to mm. 14-20 in Ockeghem's work. 7Two of these i n s e r t i o n s occur j u s t before c a d e n t i a l p o i n t s : mm. 9 and 17-18. 63 Example 39. Im i t a t i ve exchanges, A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 9 ) , mm. 8 -16 . a) Ockeghem b) A g r i c o l a Example kO. Suggest ion o f Tenor o f Ockeghem, D'ung a u l t r e amer, mm. kZ~kS, in A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (Lerner , No. 5 9 ) , mm. 21 -25 . 64 characteristic of this outstanding work. Imitation is more frequent than is usual in the Agricola D'ung aultre amer settings: between Superius and Tenor, e.g., mm. 4-6 or 10^13; and occasionally between Bassus and Superius or Tenor, e.g., mm. 7~8, 10-11 and 12. In Example 41, Agricola not only follows Ockeghem's precedent of imitative Tenor and Superius entries, but Example 41. Imitated phrase, Agricola, D'ung aultre amer a 3 (Lerner, No. 59), mm. 8-16. goes further with a whole phrase of the reworked cantus firmus, imitated by g the Superius. The descending fourth motive which permeates this piece in q varied rhythmic guises is also treated imitatively, e.g., at m. 9 for Bassus and Superius. Moreover, Agricola has taken the sequential idea from Ockeghem's Superius at mm. 26-28 (see Example 30) and adapted it for his Tenor (mm. 14-15) as well as for the Bassus (mm. 11-13; both found in Example 41). The outline of another motive, marked f—•64—| in Example 39, 8 The motive occurs in Agricola's Tenor at mm. 2, 4, 12, 14 and 15; in the Superius at mm. 4, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16-17, 20 and 25; and in the Bassus at mm. 4, 9, 11, 1.2, 13, 17, 18-19 and 20. 9 .\. n J or J T T ? .v or m y. 65 is found e l sewhere , e . g . , at mm. 7-8 in the S u p e r i u s . Though i m i t a t i v e or sequen t i a l ma te r i a l is not found a f t e r m. 15, i t i s c l e a r that in t h i s s e t -t i n g by A g r i c o l a the r e l a t i o n s h i p to Ockeghem's chanson i s c l o s e r than has been customary fo r these cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s . An a d d i t i o n a l l i n k to Ockeghem's rondeau may be found in the opening measure o f A g r i c o l a ' s Super ius which c l o s e l y resembles the opening measure o f Ockeghem's Tenor (see Example 32) — a k i n s h i p that was a l s o found in A g r i c o l a ' s s e t t i n g a k (Le rner , No. 58; Example 4 2 ) . ^ a) Ockeghem Dung aul.tre a ft I T 1T Dung aultre amer. % ft f K' Dung aultre amer. mer _ mon eueur s'a A I *• b) A g r i c o l a D'ung aultre amer Example hi. Resemblance o f Ockeghem, D'ung a u l t r e amer, Tenor , mm. 1-5, to A g r i c o l a , D'ung a u l t r e amer 3 3 (Lerner , No. 5 9 ) , mm. 1-3. See e s p e c i a l l y the Cont ra tenor o f Le rne r , No. 58 , at mm. 2 - 3 , in Example 32. 66 F i n a l l y , d e s p i t e a tex tu re more dense than u s u a l , the on ly one of A g r i c o l a ' s D'ung a u l t r e amer s e t t i n g s to borrow Ockeghem's Super ius i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by excep t i ona l i n t e g r a t i o n among i t s three v o i c e s , a l l pa r ts being of equal i n t e r e s t , and no one vo i ce dominant or s tand ing a p a r t . Such coa lescence is due in par t to m o t i v i c i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s or to i m i t a t i v e or sequen t i a l w r i t i n g , and i t produces a melod ic s t y l e l ess rambl ing than that p r e v a i l i n g in A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus chanson s e t t i n g s . For once , the par ts have cadences in common: m. 7 between Super ius and Tenor ; mm. 9~10, a l l three vo i ces w i th the Bassus supp ly ing a so r t o f decep t i ve cadence (see Example 4 1 ) ; and m. 18 f o r a l l th ree p a r t s . B a s i r o n , 'D 'ung a u l t r e amer' a 4 B a s i r o n ' s chanson, though employing the Super ius o f Ockeghem's rondeau as i t s upper p a r t , is l ess a D'ung a u l t r e amer s e t t i n g than a L'homme arme work. Though r h y t h m i c a l l y a l t e r e d , the L'homme arme melody is e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . It s u p p l i e s ma te r i a l that i s used in the o ther (non-Super ius v o i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the descending f i f t h from the f i r s t s e c t i o n o f the tune. Bas i ron makes e f f e c t i v e use of t h i s i n t e r v a l l i e un i t in i m i t a -t i o n ; e . g . , mm. 11-15 (Example 4 3 ) , and, at the end of the p i e c e . Al though B a s i r o n ' s compos i t ion i s in duple meter , the t r i p l e meter o f the L'homme arme melody can s t i l l be found, as in the pa t te rn (c Jo J €> ) at mm. 15-25. The Ockeghem cantus f i rmus holds a t t e n t i o n because o f i t s p o s i -t i o n as the uppermost p a r t . However, the o ther vo i ces of the work have no m o t i v i c or rhythmic r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t ; ^ at the c o n c l u s i o n , the Super ius 11 The three lower vo i ces o v e r l a p in range — the Contra tenor and Tenor having e x a c t l y the same range. 67 J 1 r r •Pi - = / ; ne fault «g 1 — pas m • _ o—'• ^ = _f * on rfouA ter. SO. 1 5 b- 1 1 pen . . . ,p L r—}— = 3 J ^•o d cJ u  , J J J que 1 J - j> I 'en . 1 » ^r-z—r— 1 * r ^J - ^ •—T? * s 1 rl \ c P — — a fait par . tout •t .1 crt . Example 43 . Im i ta t i ve use o f L'homme arme ma te r i a l in B a s i r o n , D'ung a u l t r e amer 3 4 , mm. 10-19. cadences s i x measures before the o the r three v o i c e s . As a who le , t h i s combinat ive chanson, desp i t e ove r l app ing of phrases and cadences, does not have the more h e a v i l y ornamented and dense tex tu re of most o f the o ther D'ung a u l t r e amer works , but ma in ta ins ins tead a sho r te r -ph rased and more homophonic c h a r a c t e r . A n o n . , 'D 'ung a u l t r e amer' 3 2 ( S e v i l l e 5 - 1 - 4 3 ; f . 132v) Short ph rases , u s u a l l y e q u a l l i n g the va lue of a l onga , dominate t h i s two-vo iced work. L i ke the o ther D'ung a u l t r e amer s e t t i n g in S e v i l l e 5 - 1 - 4 3 , i t i s an e x e r c i s e p i ece in which the added par t c o n s i s t s o f shor t phrases (or notes) each immediately repea ted . Th is par t l i k e w i s e lacks any 68 non-cantus f i rmus r e l a t i o n s h i p to Ockeghem's song, though i t does share s i m i l a r i t y o f d i r e c t i o n (mm. 1-2) and pac ing (mm. 5 - 6 ) w i th the Super ius (see Example 32 ) . De O r t o , 'D 'ung a u l t r e amer' a 4 S u p e r f i c i a l l y , De O r t o ' s s e t t i n g resembles B a s i r o n ' s w i th i t s cantus f i rmus in the Super ius and i t s shor t -ph rased c h a r a c t e r . But De O r t o ' s chanson e s t a b l i s h e s some a s s o c i a t i o n s to Ockeghem's work (as ide from cantus f i rmus a d o p t i o n ) , whereas B a s i r o n ' s Super ius i s overwhelmed by L'homme arme. Two o f De O r t o ' s v o i c e s , Cont ra tenor and Bassus are cons t ruc ted from canons 12 w r i t t e n in the MS above each p a r t , caus ing each vo ice to s t a te a shor t phrase and then immediately repeat i t a f i f t h h i ghe r . Im i ta t ion extraneous to the canonic w r i t i n g is a l s o p r e s e n t , e . g . , Tenor and S u p e r i u s , mm. 6 - 7 ; Cont ra tenor and Bassus , mm. 8, 22-24 . The non-cantus f i rmus vo i ces are unre la ted c a d e n t i a l l y and are probably accompaniment f o r the upper p a r t . In t h i s work, Tenor and Contra tenor o c c a s i o n a l l y have ma te r i a l which is s i m i l a r to the cantus f i r m u s , the f i r s t ins tance occu r i ng in the Tenor at m. 1, which approximates the opening phrase of the Super ius (see Example 32 ) . As in A g r i c o l a ' s D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 9 ) , the sequen t i a l phrase of Ockeghem's Super ius at mm. 26-28 (see Example 30 ) , i s r e f l e c t e d in De O r t o ' s Tenor at mm. 5 _ 8 (Example 4 4 ) . F u r t h e r , phrase shapes in the Con t ra teno r , one of the canonic v o i c e s , c a l l to mind o u t l i n e s from both Super ius and Bassus o f the Ockeghem model (Example 4 5 ) . See Hew i t t , Cant i B, pp. 53~54, f o r an exp lana t i on of the canons; a f a c s i m i l e o f the chanson i t s e l f i s reproduced there on pp. 54 -55 . 69 a) Ockeghem ran i <> Ne iue pour rien T = f ^ de ce =f» 1 )ro. pos P ~~i— -J 1 -S £> =F=E= i 1 = # * * * * 30 35 -at chan Car mon hon -b) De Orto J Superius Contra Tenor Bassus -) D'ung | aul - tre Obelus quinis scdibus ip(s)e volat * D'ung aultre Quartus confortatinus amer 1 8 D'ung aultre |amer Obelus quinis sedibus ip(s)e volat cucur s a bes - se roit, j r frr i i ne fault V 'J • & « ' a * * * -— * 1 i—. * 8 1 — —i r * i* 0— Example kk. Sequential phrase in Ockeghem, D'ung au l t r e amer, mm. 1 7 - 3 6 , and De Orto, D'ung aultr e amer 3 k, mm. 1 - 1 0 . 70 CT, & Orto, m.t CX,dt Orto, ton. 5-1 CT, de Orto, " f e i—P e- J1 LL O f < 3 r_i—|— y r r ^ r rr * ° <*— 7 i R Ockeghem.mm.lc i"¥ r rr^^ a— •22 Example 45. Ockeghem, D'ung a u l t r e amer, and De Or to , D'ung a u l t r e amer; Super ius and Bassus phrase shapes compared. A n o n . , 'D 'ung p lus amer' a 3 (Pa r i s 15123) 13 The anonymous chanson from P a r i s 15123 begins w i th each vo i ce of Ockeghem's chanson, but a f t e r f i v e measures, con t i nues w i t h ma te r i a l that has no resemblance to Ockeghem's work, d e s p i t e s i m i l a r i t y of mode and melod ic shapes. The Super ius and Tenor u s u a l l y cadence together and t r e a t 14 the same melod ic ma te r i a l i m i t a t i v e l y , wh i l e the Contra tenor g e n e r a l l y ma in ta ins a l i n e independent o f the o ther two v o i c e s . No connec t ion w i th any of the o ther D'ung a u l t r e amer s e t t i n g s can be found. Summary A g r i c o l a ' s four s e t t i n g s in the D'ung a u l t r e amer group show, l i k e h i s chansons b u i l t on Comme femme, a cons i de rab le amount o f v a r i e t y w i t h i n 13 Ed i ted in Edward Joseph Pease , "An E d i t i o n o f the P i xe recou r t Manusc r i p t : P a r i s , B i b l i o t heque n a t i o n a l e , Fonds, f r . 15123" (Ph.D. d i s s e r -t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Ind iana , 1960) , pp. 337-340. 1Vor example, mm. 13-16, 29~34 and 3 9 " 4 8 . 71 a d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e . Even s o , one general impress ion about the p ieces based on Ockeghem's rondeau is r e a d i l y apparent : the cantus f i rmus — whatever and wherever i t might be — is not as i s o l a t e d from the musica l t ex tu re as a who le . Each vo i ce i s i n teg ra ted in to the l a r g e r u n i t , and i s more l i k e l y than A g r i c o l a ' s o ther cantus f i rmus works to share a cadence or m o t i v i c ma te r i a l w i th another v o i c e . Only in the second s e t t i n g a 3 (Lerner , No. 60) does the cantus f i rmus appear to be set apar t from the o ther l i n e s , though even in t h i s chanson the Tenor shares some of i t s ne ighbours ' d i r e c t i o n and mot ion . The o r i g i n a l sources fo r these works have no tex t unde r l ay , and these chansons cont inue to e x h i b i t an i n s t r u -mental c h a r a c t e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y the s e t t i n g a 3 (Lerner , No. 6 0 ) . In almost every a n a l y t i c a l category the t h r e e - v o i c e d chanson (Le rne r , No. 59) p resents excep t ions to the obse rva t i ons which have been made about the o ther three A g r i c o l a s e t t i n g s . ^ For i n s t a n c e , i m i t a t i o n is present on l y in No. 59 , though No. 60 has b r i e f s e c t i o n s of sequen t ia l m a t e r i a l , and No. 58 s u b s t i t u t e s i n t e r p l a y o f mot ives f o r i m i t a t i v e ex -change. Where No. 60 con ta ins few r e s t s o r phrasa l b reaks , Nos. 57 and 58 have sho r te r ph rases , and No. 59 the g rea tes t v a r i e t y of phrase l eng ths . A g r i c o l a ' s l i n e s o f t en appear to be independent o f one ano ther , but in No. 59 there are ins tead s t rong i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the p a r t s . It i s no.t uncommon in these p a r t i c u l a r works f o r the i n d i v i d u a l non-Super ius l i n e s to ove r l ap each o t h e r ' s range, but d e s p i t e compara t ive ly c l o s e r a n g e s , ; t h e vo i ces o f No. 59 ove r l ap on l y t w i c e . Cadences between two or more pa r t s ^ T h e tex tu re o f the four A g r i c o l a D'ung a u l t r e amer 's does not vary g r e a t l y from p iece to p i e c e , but a g a i n , that of No. 59 i s compara t i ve ly dense, and that o f No. 58 more v a r i e d . 72 rarely occur in Nos. 57 and 58 — and not at a l l in No. 60 — while No. 5 9 , unlike i t s s i b l i n g s , follows the structure of the Ockeghem model cons i s t - : ent l y . Along with Agricola's Tout a par moy 3 k (Lerner, No. 6 3 ) , the D'ung  aul t r e amer chansons by this composer d i f f e r from his usual secular cantus firmus settings in one fundamental a p p l i c a t i o n : the Ockeghem model has had more influence on the rhythmic, melodic and organizational components of the later works, including the important s t r u c t u r a l cadence and imitative re-entry at mm. 19 through 25 of the Ockeghem chanson (see Example 2 9 ) . Though Nos. 60 and 57 bear no clear r e l a t i o n s h i p to the model (other than the cantus firmus), No. 58 contains motives related to the model as well as suggesting Ockeghem's framework; and No. 5 9 , besides reworking the cantus firmus, follows the model's construction and peculiar c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (such as the numerous descending fourth motives), and includes hints of Ockeghem's Tenor. Few useful generalizations can be made about the other settings in th i s cantus firmus family. While they a l l use the same mode as the o r i g i n a l work and are apt to have t h e i r voice parts cadence independently, each of these works possesses a. remarkable i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Of course, the choice df voice for the cantus firmus presents one level of d i s t i n c t i o n , yet i f Ockeghem's Superius is adopted, i t is placed in the new work's upper part, and, i f the model Tenor, in the new Tenor — Agricola's chanson a 3 (Lerner, No. 59) being the exception. However, there is no s t y l i s t i c d ifference 16 It is int e r e s t i n g that, in the Agricola settings that contain any imitative or sequential material, these devices do not recur a f t e r the place corresponding to the midpoint of Ockeghem's musical form. 7 3 between works based on the Superius and those based on the Tenor, though the Superius settings tend to use more imitative material. Only two of the family e x hibit any influence of the cantus firmus on i t s other voices: the work by Basiron, employing L'homme arme material; and De Orto's, which hints at parts of the Ockeghem work other than the cantus firmus. (Agricola's s e t t i n g a 3 (Lerner, No. 5 9 ) is at times almost a thematic and structural gloss of the model.) As a f i n a l test of whether aspects of Ockeghem's musical structure, and not just one of his voice l i n e s , are adapted in the D'ung a u l t r e amer se t t i n g s , i t is worthwhile to examine how each work handles the mid-point of Ockeghem's chanson, at mm. 1 9 - 2 5 (see Example 2 9 ) . In De Orto's chanson, there is no treatment d i f f e r e n t from the rest of the work; Basiron's piece contains an imitative Contratenor entry, but neither Tenor nor Bassus p a r t i c i p a t e , and s i m i l a r imitative e n t r i e s are found throughout that chanson. T i n c t o r i s follows Ockeghem's cadential pattern c l e a r l y even though T i n c t o r i s l s upper voice is not obviously i m i t a t i v e . In Agricola's setting a 3 (Lerner, No. 6 0 ) sequential interplay between Superius and Bassus re-places imitation. The setting a k (Lerner, No. 5 7 ) includes neither imita-tion nor sequence; Superius and Bassus, prefaced by a pattern ( J J ) in the Superius, are heard together in p a r a l l e l tenths. The setting a k (Lerner, No. 5 8 ) approaches the model's construction with slowerrmoving, homophonic en t r i e s for a l l parts, causing an audible textural change which a cadence (in three of the parts) accentuates. In the fourth Agricola setting (a 3 ; Lerner, No. 5 9 ) , Ockeghem's framework is not only copied but the imita-ti o n is extended throughout a whole phrase (not j u s t the four-note motive of the model) while including motivic exchange for a l l three parts. 74 CHAPTER FIVE DE TOUS BIENS PLAINE The Model Hayne's De tous biens plaine survives in twenty-three sources,^ but the chanson's popularity is further attested by the t h i r t y - f i v e secular settings subsequently based on one or more of i t s voices (see Table 4 ) . Only one other fifteenth-century chanson, Fors seulement, enjoyed such a 2 wide-spread dissemination. Hayne's work is a rondeau, texted in the top voice only and divided musically into two parts. An exceptionally long-breathed q u a l i t y characterizes both the vocalized Superius and i t s accompanying Tenor; the Bassus i s , predictably, 3 more independent s t y l i s t i c a l l y and less interesting than i t s companions. The chanson possesses an unusually coherent texture created by overlapping of lines and thus avoids interrupting the flow of the work. Except for the ^See Barton Hudson, ed., Hayne van Ghizeghem. Opera Omnia. Corpus  Mensurabi1is Musicae 74 (American Institute of Musicology, 1 9 7 7 ) , pp. x x x v i i - x x x v i i i , for a l i s t of sources. See also Perkins and Garey, Mel Ion  Chansonnier, II, pp. 3 2 1 - 3 2 5 . 2 See Hewitt, "Fors seulement", pp. 9 1 - 1 2 6 . T h i r t y secular settings of For seulement survive. 3 One source for Hayne's chanson, Odhecaton A, includes a Contratenor which may or may not be composed by Hayne. This part has more syncopation and is more fragmented than the other voices but does not a l t e r the basic character of the piece other than adding a p r e d i c t a b l y - f u l l e r sonority. 75 T A B L E 4 S e t t i n g s Based on 1De Tous Biens P l a i n e ' Hayne van Ghizeghem, 3 3; e d i t e d i n : a) Ambros, Gesch ich te der Mus ik , I I , append ix , pp. 20 -21 ; b) Gombosi, Obrecht , s u p p l . , No. 14, pp. 24 -25 ; c) Droz , Th ibau l t and Rokse th , T r o i s Chansonn iers , No. 11, p. 20; d) Jeppesen, Kopenhagener Chansonnier j No. 5 , pp. 7~8; e) S m i j e r s , Van Ockeghem, pp. 144-145; f ) Hew i t t , Odhecaton, No. 20 , pp. 263-264; commentary, pp. 83~84; (3 4 , s i p l a c e t a l t u s ) ; g) Hughes and Abraham, NOHM, I I I , pp. 247-248; h) L e n a e r t s , A r t o f the Nether 1anders, pp. 24 -25 ; i) S m i j e r s , Josqu in Werken, S u p p l . , IV, pp. 2 9 _ 3 0 ; j ) Pease, P i x e r e c o u r t , I I I , No. 90, pp. 303-305; k) Hudson, Opera Omnia, pp. xxxv i i -x l . i ; pp. 14-15 and 16-17 (a 4 ) ; 1) Perk ins and Garey, Mel lon Chansonn ie r , ' No. 3 2 , I, pp. 120-121; commentary, I I , pp. 321-325. A g r i c o l a , a 4 ; Le rne r , No. 52 . A l so ed i t ed in Gombosi, Obrecht , No. 18, pp. 3 2 - 3 3 . Adopts the Tenor of Hayne's chanson. Sources : a) Cant i C, f f . 83v-84r [Cont ra tenor unique to t h i s s o u r c e ] ; b) Rome X I I I , 27 , f f . 70v-71r ; c) Verona 757, f f . 4 2 r - 4 3 r . A g r i c o l a , a 3; L e r n e r , No. 55 . Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. Source: a) Segov ia , s . n . , f f . I 8 0 v - l 8 l r . 76 Table 4 (Continued) 4. A g r i c o l a , a 3 ; Le rne r , No. 56. Source : a) S e g o v i a , s . n . , f f . 194v-195r . 5. A g r i c o l a , a 3 ; L e r n e r , No. 53 . Basevi 2439, I I , pp. 197-199. Source: a) Florence.. 2439, f f . 67v -68 r . 6 . A g r i c o l a , a 3; L e r n e r , No. 54. Basevi 2439, I I , pp. 193-196. Sources : a) F lo rence 2439, f f . 66v -67r ; b) Perug ia 1013, f f . 136v-137r . Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. A l s o ed i t ed in Newton, Manuscr ip t Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. A l s o ed i t ed in Newton, Manuscr ip t Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 7. Anon . , a 3; in Rome X I I I , 27 , f f . 22v -24 r . Ed i ted in A t l a s , Cappe l l a G i u l i a , I I , No. 15, pp. 9~14; commentary, I, pp. 136-139. Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 8 . Anon . , a--3; in Cant i C, f . 143. E d i t e d in Gombosi, Obrecht , No. 17, pp. 30 -31 . Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. (For concor -dances, see Rome X I I I , 27 , f f . 24v -25 r , and Formschneider 1538, No. 60.) 9 . Bac t i o [Bartolomeo d e g l i O r g a n i ] , a 3 ; in Bologna 0 J 7 , f f . 2 6 v - 2 7 r . Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 10. Anon . , a 3 ; in Verona 7 5 7 , f f . 4 3 v - 4 4 r . Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 11. R o e l l r i n , a 2 ; e d i t e d in Feldman, "Zwei w e l t l i c h e S t u c k e " , pp. 2 6 3 -2 6 4 . Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 12. Bourdon, a 3; ed i t ed in Hew i t t , Odhecaton, No. 73, pp. 373-374; in Gombosi, Obrecht , No. 16, pp. 2 8 - 2 9 ; and in Le rne r , No. 78, pp. 123-124. Adopts the Tenor of Hayne's chanson. 77 Table 4 (Continued) 1 3 . J a p a r t , J a y p r i s amours/De t o u s b i e n s p l a i n e , a 4; e d i t e d i n H e w i t t , Odhecaton, No. 6, pp. 2 3 0 - 2 3 2 ; and i n D i s e r t o r i , "II M a n o s c r i t t o 1947-4", p. 10. Adapts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson and the S u p e r i u s o f J ay p r i s amours. 14. Anon., a 4; i n Bologna 0_l8, f f . 5 1 v - 5 2 r . Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson, t r a n s p o s e d up a f i f t h , as a S u p e r i u s . 15. J a p a r t , Je cuide/De t o u s b i e n s , a 4; e d i t e d i n H e w i t t , C a n t i B, No. 31, pp. 64 and 176-178; and i n M a n i a t e s , " C o m b i n a t i v e T e c h n i q u e s " , II, pp. 268-270. Adapts t h e Tenor o f Hayne's chanson and the S u p e r i u s o f J a p a r t ' s J e c u i d e . 16. Adam, a 2; edited in Bernstein, "Cantus Firmus1,', No. 13, pp. 588-589. Adopts the Tenor of Hayne's chanson. 17. T i n c t o r i s , a 2; edited in Mel in, Opera Omnia, pp. 141-142. Adopts the Tenor of Hayne's chanson. 18. A g r i c o l a , a 2; in Segovia, s.n., f. 188V. Adopts the Tenor of Hayne's chanson. 19. Japart, a 4; edited in Gombosi, Obrecht, No. 19, pp. 34-35. Hayne's Tenor is inverted in the Contratenor. 20. Anon., a 3; in Basel F..X. 22-24, no. 43. Only two parts survive, the Tenor adopted from Hayne's chanson. "This reference is obtained from c i t a t i o n s by P a t r i c i a Ann Myers, p a r t i c u l a r l y her review of the Hayne Opera Omnia e d i t i o n , in Notes 36 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 1 8 8 . According to Higini Angles, "Un manuscrit inconnu avec polyphonie du XV s i e c l e conserve a la cathedrale de Segovie (Espagne)," Acta Musicologica 8 ( 1 9 3 6 ) : 14, f o l i o 188 contains a work by Obrecht and Agricola's 0 Venus  bant. The De tous biens plaine settings by Agricola found in Segovia have a l l been edited by Edward Lerner. The MS was unavailable for study. The MS was u n a v a i l a b l e for s t u d y . 78 Table 4 (Continued) 21 . A n o n . , Venez, venez , venez t r o t o n s , 3 3; in Copenhagen 1848, pp. 200-201. Quod l ibe t i n co rpo ra t i ng the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 22. A n o n . , Jayme b ien qui sens v a , 3 2 ; in Copenhagen 1848, p. 188. Quod l ibe t us ing the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 23 . D'Oude Schuere , 3 4 ; e d i t e d in Maldeghem, P ro fane , XIX (1883), No. 5 , pp. 9 -10 . Adapts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 24. Anon . , a 3 ; in Munich 3154, f f . 4 9 v - 5 0 r . d Adopts the Super ius o f Hayne's chanson. 25 . CompSre, Au t r ava i1 s u i s , 3 3; ed i t ed in F i n s c h e r , Opera Omnia, V , p. 11; and in Plamenac, Ockeghem, I, p. 43 . Q u o d l i b e t , quot ing the opening of Hayne's S u p e r i u s . 26. A n o n . , 3 3; in Rome X I I I , 27 , f f . 64v -65r . Ed i ted in A t l a s , Cappe l l a G i u l i a , No. 52b, I I , pp. 43-45 and I, pp. 137-139. Adopts the Super ius o f Hayne's chanson. 27. G h i s e l i n / V e r b o n n e t , 3 3; e d i t e d in Go t twa ld , Opera Omnia, IV, No.. 3 , pp. 6 - 8 ; and in Hew i t t , Cant i B, No. 42 , pp. 77 and 212. Adopts the Super ius o f Hayne's chanson. 28. J o s q u i n , 3 3; e d i t e d in O s t h o f f , J o s q u i n , I I , pp. 395 - 396 . Adopts the Super ius o f Hayne's chanson. 29. Isaac , De tous b iens p jayne /E t qui l u i d i r a , 3 2 ; e d i t e d in B e r n s t e i n , "Cantus F i r m u s " , No. 12, pp. 585 _ 587; and in K o v a r i k , "The French Q u o d l i b e t " , No. 5 . Uses the Super ius o f Hayne's chanson, the lower vo i ce a q u o d l i b e t . 30. A n o n . , 3--4; in Cant i C, f f . 88v -89 r . Adopts the Super ius o f Hayne's chanson. The MS was u n a v a i l a b l e f o r s tudy . ^The MS was u n a v a i l a b l e f o r s tudy . 79 Table 4 (Continued) 3 1 . A n o n . , a 4 ; in Cant i C, f f . 1 1 0 v - 1 1 1 r . Adapts the Super ius of Hayne's chanson. 32. A n o n . , a 3 ; in F lo rence 229, f f . I 8 7 v - l 8 8 r . Ed i ted in Brown, F l o r e n t i n e Chansonnier . Adopts both the Super ius and Tenor of Hayne's chanson. 3 3 . De P lanquard , a; 4 ; in F lo rence 2 2 9 , f f . I 8 8 v - l 8 9 r . Ed i ted in Brown, F l o r e n t i n e Chansonnier . Adopts both the Super ius and Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 34. J o s q u i n , a 4 ; ed i t ed in S m i j e r s , Josqu in Werken, IV, pp. 31 — 33 ; in Hew i t t , Odhecaton, No. 9 5 , pp. 418-420; in D i s e r t o r i , "II Mano-s c r i t t o 1 9 4 7 - 4 " , p. 17 ; in Bohn, Dodecachordon, pp. 4 0 8 - 4 0 9 ; and in M i l l e r , Dodecachordon, I I , pp. 529-531 - Adopts both the Super ius and Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 3 5 . Anon . , a 3 ; in P a n c i a t i c c h i 2 7 , f . 2 5 r . Adopts both the Super ius and Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. 3 6 . A n o n . , a 3 ; in Cant i C, f f . I 4 3 v - l 4 4 r . Ed i ted in Gombosi, Obrecht , No. 15, pp. 2 6 - 2 7 . Adopts both the Super ius and Tenor of Hayne's chanson. A. Obrecht , M issa Sine nomine, a 3 ; e d i t e d in Wol f , Opera Omnia, V , pp. 157-18^U Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson, w i th quo ta t ions from the Super ius in the G l o r i a . B. Anon . , Missa Tube p l e n e , a 4; in Munich 3154, f f . 215-224. Uses ma te r i a l from both the Super ius and Tenor of Hayne's chanson. C. G a f u r i u s , Missa De tous b iens p l e i n e a , a 4 ; ed i t ed in F i n s c h e r , Opera Omnia, I I , pp. 59"86 . Uses the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. Th is e d i t i o n was u n a v a i l a b l e f o r s tudy . 80 Table 4 (Continued) D. J . Noten, Missa De tous b i e n s , 3 4 ; in Dresden l /D /506 , pp. 45~59; in Vienna 11883, f f . 190v-193r ; and in M i lan 2267, f f . 73~78. Adopts the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. E. A n o n . , M issa Sine nomine, 3 4 ; in Bologna San Pe t ron io A. XXIX, f f . 1-8. Uses both the Super ius and Tenor of Hayne's chanson. F. Compere, Missa Dub ip len ; in B e r l i n 40634. L o s t . G. Anon . , Missa De tous b iens p l a i n e a , 3 4 ; in Bologna San Pe t ron i o A . XXXVI I . L o s t . H. J o s q u i n , Credo super De tous b i e n s , 3 4 ; ed i t ed in S m i j e r s , Josqu in Werken, A f l . 44 , Fragmenta, No. 2 , pp. 94-102. Adopts the Tenor of Hayne's chanson. I. De P e n a l o s a , Missa del Ave M a r i a , 3 4 ; e d i t e d in A n g l S s , Monumentos de l a Musica Espano la , I, pp. 94-98 . Uses Hayne's Tenor in the Agnus I I . J . F e s t a , Missa Diversorum Tenorum, 3 4 ; ed i t ed in Ma in , Opera Omnia, I, pp. 34-36. Quod l ibe t Mass, us ing Hayne's Tenor in the Agnus I I I . K. Comp&re, Omnium bonorum p l e n a , 3 4 ; e d i t e d in F i n s c h e r , Opera Omnia, IV, pp. 32-38 ; and in Ad le r and K o l l e r , T r i e n t e r C o d i c e s , pp. 111-119. Uses the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. L. De Stappen, Beat i p a c i f i c i , 3 4 ; in Cant i C, f f . 20v -21r . Uses the Tenor o f Hayne's chanson. M. J o s q u i n , V i c t imae p a s c h a l i l audes , 3 4 ; ed i t ed in S m i j e r s , Josqu in  Werken, Mo te t ten , I, pp. 136-139; and in S m i j e r s , Van Ockeghem, A f l . 4 , pp. 140-143. Uses the Super ius o f Hayne's chanson in the secunda pars as we l l as the Super ius of Ockeghem's D'ung a u l t r e amer in the prima p a r s . 81 Table 4 (Continued) N. Josquin [ a t t r i b u t e d ] , Scimus quoniam d i l i g e n t i b u s Deum, a k; in Dresden 1/D/506. F i r s t seven measures only edited in Osthoff, Josquin, II, p. 102. The Superius of Hayne's chanson is combined with a chant melody, Per omnia saecula saeculorum, in the Tenor. 82 main d i v i s i o n at m. 28 , a l l phrases o v e r l a p , one vo i ce s u c c e s s i v e l y complet -ing a phrase wh i l e another is a l ready beginn ing the next (Example 46 ) . Each - se, - se - se Chas - can luy dnibt tri - but d"hon - neun Que c'est pa - ra - dis en mon cueur. Si non d'es - tre son ser - vi . teur. Example 46. Over lapp ing o f v o i c e p a r t s , Hayne, De tous b iens  p l a i n e , mm. 14-20. par t shares the same cadence tone , except at m. 28 ; Super ius and Tenor 4 near l y always cadence t oge the r . In tandem w i th t h i s c o n t i n u i t y , the chanson has a chorda l t ex tu re which p laces emphasis on the s o n o r i t i e s o f the v e r t i c a l t r i a d s . The long-breathed cha rac te r o f the Super ius i s a r e s u l t of that p a r t ' s tendency to hold o r pause in i t s f low wi thout a c t u a l l y break ing the l i n e ; t h i s i s ach ieved by f o l l o w i n g notes o f sho r te r va lue w i th a long-he ld no te , o f ten severa l t imes in success ion to make a pa t te rn (Example 4 7 ) . 5 tr>t*>. 7-IS i X -x' -x 0-Example 47. Phrase d e s i g n , Supe r i us , Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , mm. 7 -15 . One excep t i on to t h i s occurs at m. 35, where the Super ius has a phrasa l break but the Tenor does no t . 83 However, spa r ing use of t h i s technique prevents the l i n e from s tumb l i ng . In the second h a l f o f the chanson a s i m i l a r yet extended p a t t e r n i n g , w i th a q u a s i - s e q u e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r , ach ieves c o n t i n u i t y and d i r e c t i o n over an e longated l i n e (Example 4 8 ) . Rhythmic des ign a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the work ' s 5 mrn.30-41 1 - x 1 , x 1 i x -C> < w w Example 48. Phrase p a t t e r n i n g in the Supe r i us , Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , mm. 30-41 cohes i veness , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the f i r s t Tenor phrase where the symmetr ical pac ing compliments the rhythmic des igns found in the upper par t (Example 49; compare a l s o w i t h Example 48 ) . Throughout the chanson, both Super ius and JJmmJ'fb; aa&& J J J J o \JJc> &£o\ J J o & o a Example 49. Rhythmic des ign of Tenor open ing , Hayne, De tous b iens  p l a i n e , mm. 1-16. Tenor con ta in s e r i e s o f semibreves , o f t en of repeated n o t e s , ^ but always w e l l - v a r i e d in a r t f u l avoidance of monotony. The a t t r a c t i v e , cohes ive q u a l i t y o f the Super ius and Tenor made those pa r t s e s p e c i a l l y appea l ing f o r cantus f i rmus t rea tment . For example, mm. 5 ( S u p e r i u s ) , 51 (Tenor ) , 2 and 5 (Bassus ) . 84 Un l i ke some of the o ther popular cantus f i rmus chanson, Hayne's song con ta ins no convent iona l i m i t a t i o n between v o i c e s . Ins tead, consecu-t i v e e n t r i e s and s i m i l a r i t y o f rhythms serve the purpose (see Example 4 6 ) . Corresponding d i r e c t i o n and i n t e r v a l s can a l s o c rea te the appearance of i m i t a t i v e e n t r i e s . In Example 50 , at mm. 48-50 , the Tenor f o l l ows the shape o f the Super ius (p re f igu red at mm. 4 2 f f ) . Composers o f cantus f i rmus works -i « *=F= Au . tant En mon ' 4 " que . mot | | | fa . por -I J i J -J. • te • mais . ray sans i r r 1 d J => | .1 J | 1 u„ IT ' r 1 Example 50 . Q u a s i - i m i t a t i v e passage, Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , mm. 42-54. o f t en l i k e d : t o adopt the i m i t a t i v e po r t i ons o f t h e i r model (as in Tout a par  moy and D'ung a u l t r e amer) , and the passage i l l u s t r a t e d in Example 50 came to f u l f i l l a s i m i l a r purpose. 85 Cantus Firmus Treatment and General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The chansons which inco rpora te ma te r i a l from Hayne's De tous b iens  p l a i n e can be d i v i d e d in to three groups: the f i r s t , s e t t i n g s adopt ing Hayne's Tenor , comprises the most numerous (twenty-two s e t t i n g s ) ; the o ther groups, s e t t i n g s us ing Hayne's Super ius (e ight s e t t i n g s ) , and those borrow-ing both Tenor and Super ius ( f i v e c o m p o s i t i o n s ) , are fewer in number (see Table h). Comp&re's chanson is a more d i s t a n t f am i l y member as i t uses on ly the f i r s t seven measures of Hayne's S u p e r i u s . In the remainder of the s e t -t i n g s , the chosen cantus f i rmus is adopted in i t s e n t i r e t y , and the mensura-t i o n is always the same. P i t c h l e v e l s f o l l o w the model , except in two chansons: J a p a r t ' s De tous b iens p l a i n e a k (the cantus f i r m u s , beginn ing on d , i s i n v e r t e d ) ; and D'Oude Scheure ' s p iece (set a tone h igher than the model) . In a l l th ree groups of s e t t i n g s any changes made to the chosen cantus f i rmus are u s u a l l y minor ones such a s : d e l e t i o n of ornamental notes ( p a r t i c u l a r l y at cadences ) ; v a r i a t i o n in c a d e n t i a l approaches; very minor a l t e r a t i o n s in a rhythm or pass ing no te ; o r , s u b s t i t u t i o n of two repeated notes f o r one longer note (see Example 5 1 ) . However, three chansons modify cons i de rab l y the melod ic c h a r a c t e r , phras ing and rhythmic shape of the cantus f i r m u s : J a p a r t ' s Jay p r i s amours and Je c u i d e ; and D'Oude Scheure 's De tous biens p l a i n e . These are Tenor s e t t i n g s ; those employing Hayne's One of A g r i c o l a ' s s e t t i n g s a 3 (Le rne r , No. 53) adds two measures of ext raneous ma te r i a l to i t s Tenor — which i t s e l f i s on ly s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d . oo Hayne, De tous biens plaine Ag r i co1 a , De tous biens plaine a k (Lerner, No. 52) Ag r i c o l a , De tous biens plaine a 3 D (Lerner, No. 55) (Lerner, No. 56) j-> A g r i c o l a , De tous biens plaine a 3 >-c 2 A g r i c o l a , De tous biens plaine a 3 (Lerner, No. 53) 4-> a) A g r i c o l a , De tous biens plaine a 3 (Lerner, No. 5*0 0) c 03 QJ in c OJ Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 (Rome XIII, 27; f f . 22v-24r) Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 (Canti C; f7Tk~3) +f Bactio, De tous biens plaine a 3 ro ro (Bologna 0.17; f f . 26v-27r) > Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 (Verona 757; f f . 43v-44r) ^ Roe 11r i n, De tous biens plaine a 2 a) Q. E w Bourdon, De tous biens plaine a 3 Japart, Jay p r i s amours/De tous biens a 4 Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 (Bologna QI8; f f . 51v-52r) Japart, Je cuide/De tous biens a k Example 51a (Cont inued) . De tous b iens p l a i n e , Tenor , w i th twenty - th ree var ian ts " . 87 > OJ •a o Ol -J "5 . rt c_ CD rt O o C C — . in CL CD CR \ * — • O CD CD CD O • in rt o O C Q C — -cn OJ OJ CR — . — * CD CD O J ' CO V/J <_ CO 7 3 > CO > > > > > OJ o o OJ C Q C Q C Q T3 C CD o O o o -< -\ OJ -1 — • rt — • — • CL . — . . N O O rt o o o o o —> —* — ' — ' O O O OJ OJ OJ C_ M CD O CD CD OJ O CD -< CD O rt rt rt O CD o rt O o CD CD CD •a rt C O C c ~\ o rt cn C cn cn rt rt rt C o cn 0 o O cn cn C CR CT CR C C C cn —> cr -h — • — • cn cn cn OJ O" CD — . . CD 7 3 CD 3 CR CD —' o 3 ' CT CT CT o CD cn cn 3 cn — • — • — • C CD cn \jo CD CD CD CD -1 cn rj T3 T3 T3 13 rj ~J cn cn — i T3 — ' X — • cn cn cn \ 13 OJ — - OJ — OJ C3 •o —> OJ — — — • •a •o •a CD OJ i — • — —* — 1 — 1 OJ CD CD CD OJ OJ OJ rt — • CD — • — • — • o CD OJ' OJ' OJ' C CD —1 CD CD CD cn OJ V/J * • OJ' OJ' Ojf CT , — v , — , -h < o -h VjO CD CD OJ . u -1 , — ^ s— ' V cn o rt •z. na O M < 1 o o o • <• • \ n -C- ON ^0 -t — ' ' C Q O o CD cn ro OJ CD OJ' C Q O o c? o c cn CD rj cn •a OJ CD O J ' IS) OJ -< CD O CD O C cn CD cn T3 OJ CD 88 Example 51a (Continued). De tous biens plaine, Tenor, with twenty-three variants. > C— O 3> O <_ -1 > 3 3 0 FD 3 — O) — A . 01 O o Ul 0 O T3 3 01 ~< 3 . A 3 C OI o 3 3 • • C • Q_ -1 r t FD *• an FD r t or o - Q in —• CD FD FD O en FD ch De U) r t CD r t RT FD r t C O r t O o Q- O CD r t O C O o c T3 c r+ •n -I o CD Ul C OL Ul 01 Ul o —• —• Ul FD C Ul 3 3 C O O o Ul r t CR r t CR O CR Ul ~5 FD -1 CR o CR —• —• —• —• FD FD —• O CR CD FO 01 FD CR 3 r t 3 FD FD — Ul 3 CD 3 rt 3 — . O o O 3 ro T/1 3 " • Ul o Ul en FD us RO Ul to ns CR •a Ul •A O •A Ul R-O N> TJ C CD T3 -H —• 3- —• HO CR N) —-> Ul •O 3 OL • 0> —• 01 •A —• 0) —• Ul -< O) —• —• —» - • FD «- —• CR 0) 3 —> —* 3 3 01 3 3 —• —> - A CD 3 FD CD •< -H IN -H FD CD 3 FD 3 -H -H 3 CD 01 0)/ < 1 AI» -n 01/ FD • "D • 0)/ Ul 0)/ yn N ) — 1 • 01/ —* 01 —» VA) T3 CD j r - OO OO —i Jr--T- -T- OO 3 01 01/ VN < FD < < 1 OO "5 0)/ 4=-1 OO OO ~\ 3 FD OI/ .e-N> Example 51a (Cont inued) . De tous b iens p l a i n e , Tenor, w i th twenty - th ree v a r i a n t s . > > c_ o > c_ —i T; 3 3 o CD 3 — OJ —> QJ O o CO o o TJ 3 -< 3 3 -a 3 c OJ o 3 . . c —- *. CL -1 rt CD ** 3 O 1 1 CD rt or >• >. XI CD CO — . CD CD D UCI rt ch De cn CD rt rt CD -1 O c rt O o CL TI c CD rt O o o C C rt <. —• cn -J o CD C OJ CO CO o o CD C cn 3 C O - i CT cn rt rt cr cr CO CD CD — o cr —• —• —• 3 re o Cr C — CD TJ CD cr rt O 3 CD —• cn ro O 3 OJ 3 — 0 CD cn CD 3 •* • CO 3 CO re c rt 3 CT cn n 3 cn hO •o o cn — . -ti "a — -a CO ho —• c CD TJ -h —> —- cr U3 OJ cn TJ 3 • . OJ rt OJ TJ —• -* > —« —i cn OJ — . — — —i CD 3 cr OJ — . —» 3 O 3 QJ 3 -ti CD — . — . TJ 3 -E- CD CV CD •< cn -h CD 3 —• CD 3" 3 . OJ' 3 CD OJ < OJ' OJ' CD TJ > cn yn —* VjO OJ' OJ CO TJ CD —• —1 —i -tr — ' 3 < OJ 1 CD 1 -< !88r) ne <3H * m *m *m *m + •w m 5 I ra . I I ) o c ro i_ ro > CO > cu 2 4-> 3 in 3 CO Q. 3 Hayne, De tous b i e n s p l a i n e Compere, Au t r a v a i 1 s u i s 3 3 Anon., De tous b i e n s p l a i n e a 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 64v-65r) G h i s e 1 i n / V e r b o n n e t , De t o u s b i e n s p l a y n e a 3 J o s q u i n , De tous b i e n s a 3 I s a a c , De tou s b i e n s p l a y n e a 2 ine, (0 Anon., De tous biens plaine a (Cant i Q. U l f f . oov-c39r) c 0) Anon., De tous biens plaine a k (Canti -Q U l f f . l lOv-l l lr) tou 1 Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 CO LTV 0) CL E ro X De Planquard, De tous biens plaine a 4 (Florence 2 2 9 ; f f . 188v-l89r) Josquin, De tous biens playne a k Anon. , De tous biens plaine a 3 (Panciaticchi 27; f. 25r) Anon., De tous biens plaine a 3 (Canti C; f f . !43v-144r) Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e Jt= Anon . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 64v-65r) w G h i s e l i n / V e r b o n n e t , De tous b iens p layne JC 4-» 3 to !_ 0) Q. -3 CO c: co i— CL co 4J CO c c fD CD •— •— 1_ XJ > CO <D o > •u »— CD 0) 2 Q 4-1 TJ CD C C o o I saac , De tous b iens playne Anon . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a k (Canti f f . 88v-89r) Anon . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a k (Cant i f f . 110v-111r) A n o n . , De tous biens p l a i n e a 3 De P lanquard , De tous biens p l a i n e J o s q u i n , De tous biens playne a h Anon . , De tous biens p l a i n e a 3 CL E CD X (Panci at i cch i 27) Anon . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Canti C; f f . 143v-144r) 92 Super ius (or both Super ius and Tenor) l ack major changes.^ As in p rev ious cantus f i rmus f a m i l i e s , a l t e r a t i o n s tend to occur at the same po in t s in Hayne's p a r t s , e . g . , mm. 13"14 or 3 5 _ 3 6 . A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus m o d i f i c a -t i ons are q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i th the o ther De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g s . In a l l o f the s e t t i n g s o f t h i s f a m i l y , the adopted cantus f i rmus i s always recogn izab le even when changes are s u b s t a n t i a l . The borrowed cantus f i rmus always r e t a i n s the vo i ce p o s i t i o n i t he ld in the o r i g i n a l Hayne chanson. S e t t i n g s Based on Hayne's Tenor A g r i c o l a , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' a k (Le rner , No. 52) Th is work i l l u s t r a t e s one o f A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus techn iques : g w h i l e quo t ing Hayne's Tenor a c c u r a t e l y , i t se ts tha t vo i ce a p a r t . The o ther three vo i ces have no s t y l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p to the model Tenor which is here an anchor surrounded by an a c t i v e c o n s t a n t l y ove r l app ing accompani-ment. What d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s chanson is i t s c o n s i s t e n t m o t i v i c t reatment o f that accompaniment. Two r e l a t e d me lod ic / rhy thmic i deas , found at the beg inn ing of the p iece (see Example 52) are v a r i e d or deve loped, sepa ra te l y or t oge the r , throughout the work (Example 5 3 ) . Un l i ke some of A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus chansons, the mot ives can be t raced throughout , not j u s t in the f i r s t ten or f i f t e e n measures. M o t i v i c exchange occurs between Super ius and Bassus , w i th the Contra tenor ( f i l l i n g in as another Bassus) p a r a l l e l i n g ^ l n a l l s e t t i n g s adopt ing the model 's Super ius as cantus f i r m u s , the semibreve res t at m. 36 is de le ted and the preceding c_ i s lengthened to a b reve . Th is o f course a l t e r s the mode l ' s ph ras ing by j o i n i n g two separa te phrases in to one long one. g There are on l y two very minor changes — see Example 5 1 . 93 Example 52. De tous biens plaine, initial segment from twenty-two settings. > > > IQ IQ t o -1 -I - i -I n o o o o o o o i —^ OJ OJ OJ OJ - •* *• o o CD CD CD CD r t r t r t r t 0 o o 0 c C c in —. cn tn ,—- in r~ I - I - I -CD CT CD CR CD CT CD CR -1 —• -1 —• ~\ —« -« —• 3 CD CD 3 CD 3 CD CD 3 CD CD 3 CD 3 in in -1 tn —i tn \* *• TJ TJ TJ TJ Z z —> z —* Z —* o OJ 0 OJ O OJ o OJ 3 3 3 CD CD VN CD CD vj-i S3 Oj' Ojf OJ' OJ' VJJ -Cr 94 Example 52 (Continued). De tous biens plaine, initial segment from twenty-two settings. C O 73 > > o o 3 3 I Q c fD o o -I —• 3 3 — . Q. —• • O o >» o 3 —• 3 C7 o Ol v» fD CD CD r t r t fD o o CD rt c c o r t l / l l / l r t c o O in C cr C in -h —• ro —• Ul cr • fD CD i— —• cr 3 >• - 3 CD cr fD —• —* l / l Ul - i —> 3 CD -h 3 CD (/> 3 VA> T J -h •a CD 3 U) —i • — . -1 Ul T3 QJ 01 —-> •o —• ho —• "O Ol — 1 3 ro 3 z —1 —• CD < CD o Ol 3 —• i • _ . fD 3 01/ ho 01/ 3 CD -t- vn CD Ol' VA) - i VA) O J / -— 01/ VA) ^ ,—^ N> o VA) Ol o 3 3 r t CD X O — o 95 96 Example 52 (Continued). De tous biens plaine, initial segment from twenty-two settings. > C3 C_ — OJ —• o O TJ IN C OJ CD O_ -1 —• CD r t —• o CO CD o O < ~R CD CD r t C -1 O CD r t CR c -1 o o IN CD C RJ t. IN RJ CT CD — CJ CR r t re CD —. <. CD — IN r t o o IN CD TJ C N> —* IN TJ ait RT —J OJ —J o - —• CR OJ C —• —> IN -H CD CD -u CD CT . OJ/ IN — OJ/ CD O N U J TJ —• -C-IN < ,—^ OJ 1 73 •< T J O N O RJ —• UN 3 CD OJ CD -< OJ/ RJ CD - E -C P H t# -4 > CA 97 Josquin, De tous biens playne a k 98 B wi.l — > S m m . Z - 3 mm.3-4 mm. 5-6 mm.H-18 Example 53. M o t i v i c development, A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 4 (Le rner , No. 52). 99 9 but r a r e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the exchanges. As Example 53 shows, these i m i t a t i v e exchanges are as much rhythmic as me lod i c . Im i ta t i ve treatment o f m o t i v i c ma te r i a l d isappears a f t e r m. 15 (see Example 5 4 ) , to be rep laced by Example 54. Im i ta t i ve exchange, A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 4 (Lerner , No. 5 2 ) , mm. 4 - 1 1 . p a r a l l e l m o t i v i c development. There are no sequen t ia l passages in the song. A g r i c o l a , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' a 3 (Le rne r , No. 55) Whi le the cantus f i rmus in t h i s chanson is a l s o i s o l a t e d from i t s companion p a r t s , the s t y l e o f the accompaniment is q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Unceas-ing a c t i v i t y c rea ted by numerous s c a l e passages of semiminimas c h a r a c t e r i z e s the Bassus and p a r t i c u l a r l y the Super ius which con ta ins on ly one minima res t in i t s whole l e n g t h . Desp i te the lack of c l e a r b reaks , there are severa l Only one of the three sources f o r t h i s work (Cant i C) con ta ins a Con t ra tenor ; i t would seem t h a t , even i f A g r i c o l a composed t h i s p a r t , the work was probably conceived a 3 . 100 po in ts w i t h i n the work where a l l th ree vo i ces cadence t o g e t h e r . ^ A common p a t t e r n , f i r s t heard in the Super ius at m. 2 (see Example 5 2 ) , p rov ides the chanson some cohes i veness . Th is rhythm ( J O T J T B V .) almost always begins on the same p i t c h , indeed, the tendency to revo lve phrases around the same tone is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus techn ique, Sca le passages are a l s o the sub jec t o f i m i t a t i v e exchanges between Super ius 12 and Bassus, sometimes accompanied by p a r a l l e l ma te r i a l in tenths (see Example 5 5 ) . However, con t ras t from the b u s t l i n g s i x t e e n t h - n o t e s i s p r o -Example 55 . I m i t a t i o n , mensural change and sequence in A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 5 ) , mm. 20-27 . v ided by a passage se t in t r i p l e t s (Super ius) and by jagged ascending fou r ths set in sequence fo r both Bassus and Super ius (Example 55 , mm. 26-2 7 ) . The f l o u r i s h of the Bassus a f t e r the o ther vo i ces have f i n i s h e d seems 10 11 At mm. 14, 20 and (poss ib l y ) 2k. The pa t te rn occurs at mm. 2 , 3 , 6 , 8 - 9 , 10, 17-18, and except f o r m. 6 , always begins on £ . 12 For example, see mm. 3 , 5 - 6 , 17 or 2k. 101 to accentuate the preva lence of rhythmic a c t i v i t y in t h i s work; such a Bassus f l o u r i s h occurs in severa l o ther A g r i c o l a De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t -t i n g s . Another a f f i n i t y between these chansons can be seen in the s i m i l a r r . i t y o f o u t l i n e between the present work and the more ornamental opening Bassus measure o f the chanson a k (Le rne r , No. 52 ; Example 5 6 ) . UP.5S,&, No. S2Y r«. 1 . ' H J J J j 1+1X1 li Example 56 . Opening Bassus measures, A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e , 3 k (Le rne r , No. 52) and 3 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 5 ) . A g r i c o l a , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' 3 3 (Le rne r , No. 56) The apparent k i n s h i p s between A g r i c o l a ' s De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t -t i n g s i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h i s chanson. The Super ius begins in l i k e manner to the upper par t o f No. 55 (see Example 5 2 ) , and the opening measures of the Bassus in Nos. 52 and 56 are o b v i o u s l y s i b l i n g s (Example 5 7 ) . Constant Example 57 . Opening Bassus measures, A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e , 3 k (Le rne r , No. 52) and 3 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 6 ) . a c t i v i t y is once again c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Me lod ic m a t e r i a l , c a d e n t i a l t r e a t -ment, use and placement o f sequences are a l l s i m i l a r to No. 55 . Once a g a i n , Super ius and Bassus are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t y l i s t i c a l l y from the i s o l a t e d 102 13 cantus f i r m u s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s to Hayne's chanson, on the o ther hand, are vague; the opening o f the model 's Super ius can perhaps be t raced in the shape and d i r e c -t i o n of the Super ius o f A g r i c o l a ' s chanson (Lerner , No. 5 6 ) , in the opening measures and in the descend ing /ascend ing fou r ths of the sequence at mm. 24-27 (Example 5 8 ) . Hayne, S, ww. \-2> ^ 5^ mm. 1-2, S hlo.SG, S, 0 \_ i k — f t — i » » • * , & Example 58. Super ius o f Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , mm. 1-3, compared w i th the Super ius o f A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens  p l a i n e a 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 6 ) , mm. 1-2 and 25-26 . Whi le the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f No. 56 is not m o t i v i c , the i n i t i a l measure of the Bassus p rov ides a pa t te rn which appears to e v o l v e , a f f e c t i n g , by m. 14 8, the Super ius as we l l (Example 5 9 ) . No i m i t a t i o n is present in t h i s 15 16 work. However, sequen t i a l passages occur tw ice (mm. 21-23, and 24-27) at a po in t analogous to the sequence in No. 55 (see Examples 55 and 6 0 ) . In each of these s e c t i o n s both Super ius and Bassus present the ma te r i a l in 1 3 The cantus f i rmus has one minor note and rhythm change (at Hayne's m. 4 5 ) , see Example 5 1 , probably to avo id d issonance w i th the o ther v o i c e s . 14 By m. 8 the motive i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the i n i t i a l measure of the Bassus in No. 52 . ^ T h e rhythmic pa t te rn f o r t h i s passage is a l s o found in the Bassus , at mm. 1 3 , 1 5 , 1 9 - 2 0 , 28 and 2 9 . ^ T h e rhythmic pa t te rn of t h i s sequence is a l s o found in the Bassus and Super ius at mm. 9 - 1 0 , 1 6 , 20 and 2 1 . 103 Example 5 9 . Development o f Bassus pa t te rn in A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 6 ) , mm. 1, 6 , and 8 - 1 1 . Example 6 0 . Sequent ia l passages , A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e 3 3 (Lerner , No. 5 6 ) , mm. 2 0 - 3 0 . 104 p a r a l l e l t e n t h s . A g r i c o l a , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' a 3 (Le rne r , No. 53) R e s t l e s s movement o f a d i f f e r e n t k ind d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s chanson. Instead o f s c a l e passages and rhythmic p a t t e r n s , d i s j o i n t e d l i n e s of wide range and ex tens i ve leaps impart much energy , underscor ing i t s ins t rumenta l concept ion (see Example 5 2 ) . No o ther work in t h i s study t r e a t s the cantus f i rmus in t h i s manner. The adopted Tenor , quoted f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y , ^ has two measures of un re la ted ma te r i a l appended to the end, but i t i s the Bassus which concludes the work. Inner cadences are n o n - e x i s t e n t . The breaks in the l i n e s have no c a d e n t i a l purpose. S t r a n g e l y , no i m i t a t i v e o r sequen t i a l ma te r i a l i s employed, nor do the ou te r pa r ts have any r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the model chanson. Even though the sur round ing par ts are in constant mot ion , t h e i r t e x t u r a l cons i s tency and c o n t r a s t i n g s t y l e p a r a d o x i c a l l y a l l o w the cantus f i rmus to be c l e a r l y heard . A g r i c o l a , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' a 3 (Lerner , No. 54) From the i n i t i a l measures o f t h i s work a q u a l i t y s l i g h t l y calmer than that in A g r i c o l a ' s o ther De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g s i s e v i d e n t . Sca le passages are s c a r c e , be ing rep laced by the f requent use o f syncopated 1 g semibreves. And though they are o f t e n w r i t t e n in i m i t a t i o n or move in p a r a l l e l mot ion , the ou te r vo i ces do not share cadences. These p a r t s , fu r thermore , are set in t r i p l e meter , which c o n t r a s t s , . a t l eas t s u p e r f i -17 Changes to the cantus f i rmus d e l e t e Hayne's ornaments or repeated notes to g ive the l i n e a s tead iness to con t ras t w i th the upper p a r t s ' a c t i v i t y . 1 g For example, at mm. 28 and 29 (used in p a r a l l e l motion at mm. 3 5 -3 6 ) , and p o s s i b l y mm. 15-17. 105 19 c i a l l y , to the cantus f i r m u s ' s duple meter . But c e r t a i n t r a i t s observed in o ther A g r i c o l a cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s are s t i l l present he re , i n c l u d i n g common rhythmic pa t te rns and the c o n c l u s i o n s of the song by the Bassus . A motive f i r s t heard in the Bassus evo lves throughout the p iece (Example 61) WW. 16-17 J)wmA$-20 ^ mnt. 4/ff ybW; ~ iiy i Err ? ii *;fJ r J^fpf Example 6 1 . M o t i v i c development, A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 4 ) . and is l a t e r combined w i th a pa t t e rn ( J •'• " T O from mm. 2 - 3 ; Example 52) to form a sequence (mm. 43-46 ; Example 62) in which the Bassus does not p a r a l l e l the Super ius e x a c t l y . The s l i g h t resemblance between the above Example 62 . Sequent ia l s e c t i o n , A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 4 ) , mm. 41-46 . The e d i t o r has numbered the measures accord ing to the ou te r v o i c e s , i . e . , th ree semibreves to a measure. 106 motives and the cor respond ing p o r t i o n s o f the model chanson suggests that A g r i c o l a rece ived h i s i n s p i r a t i o n f o r these ideas from the po lyphon ic model (Example 6 3 ) . i r * — P 6 J P f 0 w - x — , , — y -S, m m . 4 2 - 4 4 i — x i r -x- r y — i Example 63 . M o t i v i c o u t l i n e s , Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , S u p e r i u s , mm. 42-44 and Tenor , mm. 1-7; and A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e 3 3 (Lerner , No. 5 4 ) , Supe r i us , mm. 42-44. : Anon . , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' § 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 22v-24r) A canon in the MS source f o r t h i s chanson requ i res doub l ing of the 20 cantus f i rmus note v a l u e s ; a great deal o f melodic ma te r i a l i s p laced aga ins t l ong -he ld Tenor no tes , much l i k e the anonymous Comme femme s e t t i n g s . The accompanying Super ius and Bassus proceed in p a r a l l e l motion through much of the p iece and g e n e r a l l y cadence w i th the cantus f i r m u s . The chanson 's melod ic ma te r i a l i s r e p e t i t i v e , q u i c k l y becoming pedant ic and i t s rhythms p r e d i c t a b l e . Im i ta t i on is absen t , but sequen t ia l t reatment o f m e l o d i c / rhythmic pa t te rns occurs f r e q u e n t l y , e . g . , a s e r i e s o f sequences from mm. 93 to 106 (Example 6 4 ) . M o t i v i c t reatment o f ma te r ia l from the beginn ing of 20 b In m. 62 (or m. 31 of the Hayne work) the b_ in the cantus f i rmus is rep laced by an a , perhaps to avo id d issonance w i th the Supe r i us . 107 Example 64. Sequent ia l p a t t e r n s , A n o n . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Rome X I I I , 27 ; f f . 2 2 v - 2 4 r ) , mm. 96 -107 . 21 the Super ius can be found throughout (Example 6 5 ) ; t h i s i n i t i a l phrase is o b v i o u s l y de r i ved from Hayne's Super ius (see Example 5 2 ) . A n o n . , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' a 3 (Cant i C; f . 143) Though t h i s anonymous work a l s o inc ludes r e p e t i t i v e use of sequence and i m i t a t i o n , i t s i n t e r e s t i n g s t r u c t u r e is based upon b r i e f i m i t a t i v e exchange and v a r i a t i o n o f pa t te rn or mot i ve . Im i ta t i ve mate r ia l both begins the chanson and, unusua l l y fo r these s e t t i n g s , concludes i t as we l l (the f i n a l note of the cantus f i rmus being extended to a l l o w fo r t h i s f i n a l 21 Fur ther examples o f t h i s m o t i v i c treatment occur in the Super ius at mm. 19, 100, 102 and 108; and in the Bassus , at mm. 12, 19, 100 and 102. 108 J> mm 1-4 i CL - v mm.29-34 i — a rjl J. J j J J JJj etc. J J - j J ,1 . J J J . J J B J * 4*0 * V- "-^ + 0 & S3 ' * 4 & C-a. ~s5 mm.Sl-52. -a. , + d & Ao mm. 66-67 .-a- — J2 fc-i a-'3JJ Ji^iJ * » J -7W» m. 12, i r i— — i -*-0 , mm. I b — m z-0 ' m 4 | -s *, J 1 — — — (fo^  o—c 0 a ,\\<k j Example 65 . M o t i v i c development, A n o n . , De tous b iens p l a i n e 3 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 2 2 v - 2 4 r ) . i n te r change ) . O c c a s i o n a l l y , i m i t a t i v e exchange and sequence are combined in the same s e c t i o n (Example 6 6 ) . Over lapp ing of phrases is common; on ly once do a l l three par ts share an inner cadence. A m o t i v i c q u a l i t y i s ev iden t throughout , the motive based more on a rhythmic (J. \ J A © ) than 3 '* 1 w 1 19— ? * '' * 1 1 Example 66. Im i ta t i on w i th sequence, A n o n . , De tous b iens p l a i n e 3 3 (Cant i C; f . 143) , mm. 20 -31 . 109 22 on a melod ic shape (Example 6 7 ) ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s m e l o d i c a l l y v a r i e d ra ther than deve loped . The Bassus i s more i n t e r e s t i n g than is usual f o r 5, *n.l 'a? —!—i-F f r - i n - — h — • \Mia¥'\\ ^ 4 • A \-J -4 i • J J * f 1 J f \Jj> Example 6 7 . M o t i v e s , A n o n . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Cant i C; f . 143) . these works s i nce i t p a r t i c i p a t e s c o n s i s t e n t l y in these exchanges. Once a g a i n , the cantus f i rmus is set apar t from the ou ter v o i c e s , in which no r e l a t i o n s h i p to Hayne's model can be d i s c e r n e d . R o e l l r i n , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' a 2 Most o f the De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g s were probably intended f o r ensemble per formance. R o e l l r i n ' s s e t t i n g , however, i s a keyboard p iece and appears to have been o r i g i n a l l y conce ived as s u c h . It c o n s i s t s o f long un in te r rup ted s c a l e passages of wide range, some of which are arranged s e q u e n t i a l l y (Example 6 8 ) . There i s no c a d e n t i a l o r melodic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the cantus f i rmus and i t s companion vo ice which cont inues f o r two e x t r a measures a f t e r the Tenor has conc luded . Bourdon, 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' a 3 Of a l l the s e t t i n g s in the De tous b iens p l a i n e f a m i l y , Bourdon's cantus f i rmus i s the c l o s e s t to Hayne's Tenor : o n l y one change — a minor rhythmic m o d i f i c a t i o n — occurs at Hayne's m. 56 (Example 5 1 ) . The cantus f i rmus is a l s o l e s s i s o l a t e d from the t ex tu re as a whole . Two sources e x i s t 22. "Motive ' c ' from Example 67 recurs most f r equen t l y o f the f o u r : at mm. 5 - 6 , 3 1 - 3 2 , 3 4 - 3 5 and 49-50 (Bassus ) ; and at mm. 1 3 , 16, 2 8 , 44-46 and 49 (Super i u s ) . 110 Example 68 . P h r a s i n g , R o e l l r i n , De tous b iens p l a i n e 5 2 , mm. 7 - 2 3 . f o r t h i s compos i t i on , Odhecaton A and Segov ia , s . n . , w i th c o n f l i c t i n g a t t r i b u t i o n s . As Example 69 i n d i c a t e s , Bourdon's rhythmic treatment lacks the s k i l l and v a r i e t y found in A g r i c o l a ' s works on the same cantus f i r m u s . 23 Agricola, mm.51-53 £>our<4on, m*n. 0-3 5 SI S\ JYJ j f Example 6 9 . Rhythmic t reatment o f melod ic f o u r t h s , A g r i c o l a , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Le rne r , No. 5 4 ) , mm. 5 1 - 5 3 ; and Bourdon, De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 , mm. 8 - 9 . ^ C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s compos i t i on j t ha t suggest a t t r i b u t i o n to A g r i c o l a a r e : f a i r l y complex rhythmic t rea tment , use o f p a r a l l e l t e n t h s , ex tens i ve syncopat ion p a t t e r n s , ove r l app ing ph rases , avoidance of c l e a r cadenc ing , shor t f ragmentary Bassus ph rases . However, the rhythmic pa t te rns — and use o f rhythm in general — are weak and u n v a r i e d ; p h r a s i n g , melodic i n t e r v a l s are o f t en awkward ( e . g . , mm. 4 - 5 and 13 in the S u p e r i u s ; m. 16 in the Bassus ) ; g e n e r a l l y , the l i n e s lack i n t e r e s t and f o r ce o f d i r e c t i o n . 111 Bourdon was undoubtedly f o l l o w i n g aspec ts o f the Hayne model in h i s own work. Thus, the cadence tones fo r b o t h Super ius and Bassus are the same as in Hayne at the e q u i v a l e n t p o i n t s , and i m i t a t i v e passages in Bourdon's work occur very c l o s e to the po in t s where comparable i m i t a t i o n occurs in the model (compare Example 50 w i th Example 7 0 ) . As in many De tous b iens p l a i n e n 20 i, i — « - 1 ^ j. j. J. • J JJ . j. » » i — a ' — > o p . » > rr~7~^ n 2 51 * 11 ~R a '*> r—CTfiJ r p ' J a n j - p a r Example 70. I m i t a t i o n , Bourdon, De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 , mm. 18-25. s e t t i n g s based on Hayne's Tenor , the i n i t i a l phrase of the model 's Super ius i s suggested in Bourdon's Super ius (Example 5 2 ) . And severa l ph rases , p a r t i c u l a r l y those in i m i t a t i o n , resemble po r t i ons o f the model chanson (Example 7 1 ) . J a p a r t , ' J a y p r i s amours/De tous b i e n s 1 a k Though the source f o r t h i s chanson (Odhecaton A) l acks an a t t r i b u T 2k t i o n , the work has now been a s c r i b e d to J a p a r t . It i s one of two works 2k See Ralph W. Buxton, "Johannes J a p a r t : A F i f t een th -Cen tu r y Chanson Composer," Current Musico logy 31 (1981): 31 . Buxton does no t , however, note that the De tous b iens p l a i n e Tenor i s adapted f o r t h i s work; see h i s d i s -cuss ion o f the chanson on p. 17 of the a r t i c l e . 112 T [f£b - i j 4-S-SZ, ? s — 1 Hayne, mm- z9~?{ - 1 R-t - ° f ^ < • . — £ — a a e -— p a — T 7 f — Bourdon, mm. 14-15 Bourdon 1 n r . . p . . f t — -T i { d + m — * " — * * * ^ ^ r* p ^ 4*V #• * * * 1 / M X , vsf-l—^7* * — u •3-1 Ls u bd^tu V * * * 3 Example 71 . Phras ing s i m i l a r i t i e s , Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , mm. 29-31 and 48-52 ; and Bourdon, De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 , mm. 14-15 and 24 -25 . (the o ther being Je cu ide) in which Japar t has made major changes to Hayne's Tenor . A l l o f the cantus f i rmus notes have been adopted w i th a few e x t r a -neous notes which f u n c t i o n as a u x i l i a r y t ones . Major a l t e r a t i o n s o c c u r , however, in the rhythm and phras ing of the model: notes which fo rmer ly served as important components o f the melod ic l i n e are now o f t en compressed in length and presented merely as ornamental notes ( e . g . , mm. 13 "14 ; see Example 5 1 ) . Large groups of breve r e s t s are i nse r ted between s e c t i o n s of the cantus f i r m u s , o f ten wi thout regard to Hayne's melodic shap ing , e . g . , J a p a r t ' s mm. 2 0 - 2 3 . Conve rse l y , a melod ic phrase w i l l be fused w i th a smal l p o r t i o n of the next ph rase , the in ten t perhaps being to compliment the s u r -rounding par ts ra ther than to emulate the model (Example 7 2 ) . The a l t e r a -t i o n s in the cantus f i r m u s , however, appear to have no r e l a t i o n to the c a d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the o ther v o i c e s . Desp i te the s t range phrase p l a c e -ment, the general shape of the cantus f i r m u s ' s ma te r ia l s u r v i v e s ; i . e . , the 113 m' i -T M I - • • = = con. . T P - M r l r • •> p " "' / d -• P 1 •r r n i , . i — 1 r . cj * ' r 1 M J L i ijt^ f rr^ r • p > J t » P F s> p = » r p f 1 l a i • L—_ M ' r f 1- i • r-|1 •• ' » — r O - J -r 1 1 J -r . Mdyne, 7J v*«\.2.2.-35 , b * * f [f J | i " g J j o a o ' g o d Example 72 . A l t e r a t i o n o f cantus f i rmus w i t h i n J a p a r t , Jay p r i s  amours/De tous b iens 3 4 , mm. 24 -39 ; compared w i th Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , Tenor , mm. 22-35 . melod ic i n t e r v a l s u s u a l l y remain the same. 25 The rhythmic form in which the i n t e r v a l s (phrases) occur appear to be shaped in correspondence to the form the accompanying pa r t s are t a k i n g ; e . g . , at m. 28 o f J a p a r t ' s chanson, the descending fou r th o f the Tenor i s matched to a f ou r t h in the Cont ra tenor (see a l s o mm. 4 8 - 4 9 ) . 114 In s p i t e o f the cantus f i rmus m a n i p u l a t i o n , the accompanying vo i ces have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to the Tenor . Common inner cadences among pa r t s are r a r e . Though a motive occurs f r e q u e n t l y , and phrases 27 tend to g to d o r d to G o u t l i n e s , i m i t a t i o n is minimal and sequence absent e n t i r e l y . Th i s chanson has l i t t l e connect ion w i th J a p a r t ' s o ther Jay p r i s amours (a l so in Odhecaton A) , o ther than the Super ius borrowed from 28 an anonymous model . A l though the f i r s t few notes o f J a p a r t ' s Super ius are the same as those o f the cantus f i r m u s , the on ly resemblance to Hayne's chanson i s found in the i n i t i a l measures of the Contra tenor (Example 73 ) . L. \V a a + *• P f e-f- — r *v 77 •* — - — + - = - r — a p C'<p "PASAA I — U cf o c> r * 'g - [ l i 1 1 — Example 73 . Opening measures o f Supe r i us , Contratenor and Tenor , J a p a r t , Jay p r i s amours/De tous b iens 3 4 . J a p a r t , ' J e cu ide/De tous b i e n s ' a 4 Japar t has aga in a l t e r e d the shape of the cantus f i rmus in t h i s f o u r - p a r t chanson. The cantus f i rmus is c e r t a i n l y r e c o g n i z a b l e , and the 2 6 S e e mm. 9 -10 , 13-14, 64-67 (Tenor) ; mm. 24, 6 1 , 62 -63 , 6 7 - 6 8 (Con t ra teno r ) ; m. 6 (Bassus ) . 27 28 r For example, see mm. 1-4, 5 - 7 , 13-14, 43 -47 , 52-54 and 64-68 . P r i n t e d in Eugenie Droz , Genevifeve T h i b a u l t , and Yvonne Rokseth , e d s . , T r o i s Chansonniers f r a n g a i s du XVe s i S c l e ( P a r i s , 1927), p. 3 , and in Johannes Wol f , e d . , Werken van Jacob Obrecht , W e r e l d l i j k e Werken (Amsterdam S L e i p z i g : G. A lsbach and B r e i t k o p f , 1918), p. 94. 115 main cadential points of Hayne's Tenor are followed. Some additional notes 29 are included, rhythms and note values are changed, and series of breve rests separate phrases. There are fewer breve rests than in Japart's Jay  p r i s amours/De tous biens s e t t i n g , and the rhythmic choices also d i f f e r from that work. More importantly, the cantus firmus now p a r t i c i p a t e s regularly in cadences. Note values are sometimes reduced (e.g., breve to semibreve) to match the pace of the accompanying parts. Thus, the cantus firmus becomes an active part of :the composition and not merely a separate unrelated layer. A l t e r a t i o n s to the cantus firmus allow the Tenor to enhance the composir: tio n a l design. For example, at one cadential point, m. 14, the Tenor pro-ceeds through the cadence yet p a r t i c i p a t e s in i t ; but had Hayne's o r i g i n a l note values been used, the passage would sound much thinner with Superius and Tenor in breves against a rest in the Altus (Example 74). S i m i l a r l y , note values are changed to provide the Tenor with rhythmic compatibility to the other voices. Had the cantus firmus's o r i g i n a l proportions been re-tained at mm. 41-42, a more homogeneous but plodding q u a l i t y would have resulted; as Japart re-sets i t , the Tenor p a r t i c i p a t e s in the syncopated entries of the new phrase (Example 75). Occasionally, Japart's cadential structure corresponds to the 30 model's. Common internal cadences are frequent, though the Bassus usually has a rest at the cadence point — a procedure which quickly becomes man-29 These notes sometimes serve to match the phrasing of another part (e.g., m. 20, with the A l t u s ) , to enrich the sonority (e.g., m. 12), or to avoid p a r a l l e l notes with another l i n e (e.g., m. 19, with the Superius). 30 For example, mm. 25 or 37. 116 h I , 1 1 to" * j y ^ V — r — l a 1 1 E fcx r r f r =r= -£ E—1— > 1 J 1 __ri j J j 1 ' S~"rW ft-'* u ' 1 r J r J r i \ f J J JJ ' J J f i 1 J * .gr i I7 p p g p ^ Example 74. A l t e r a t i o n o f cantus f i rmus (Tenor) , J a p a r t , Je c u i d e /  De tous b iens a 4 , mm. 12-17; w i th Hayne, De tous b iens pjyaine, Tenor , mm. 8 -16 . Example 75. A l t e r a t i o n o f cantus f i rmus (Tenor) , J a p a r t , Je c u i d e /  De tous b iens a 4 , mm. 40-44; w i th Hayne, De tbi is b iens  p l a i n e , Tenor , mm. 43-48 . 117 nered . The th inness of the f i n a l cadence b e l i e s the f u l l t r i a d i c s o n o r i t y o f the compos i t i on , wh i ch , however, has l i t t l e i m i t a t i o n or sequence. 31 quo ta t i on found in the i n i t i a l measures of the Bassus i s unusual in that i t 32 i s from the Super ius o f the model chanson (Example 52 ) . The s t a r t o f the A l t u s par t a l s o cop ies the o u t l i n e of the cantus f i rmus (Example 76). 33 n 1 — * ^ '-—* x a - = « — ^ PH H - , 5—^ .1/ — — ~ O n a P r x * 1? 1 A R " 1 1 x : ; f >* o p f o 6 J |»- pr± Example 76. S i m i l a r i t y of o u t l i n e , Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , Tenor , mm. 1-9; and J a p a r t , Je cu ide/De tous b iens a k, A l t u s , mm. 1-6. More cu r i ous yet i s the s i m i l a r i t y between the l i n e o f the Super ius at mm. 17-21 and that o f the Hayne Super ius at mm. 16-22 (Example 77 ) . A l though 34 the Super ius i s a l s o a cantus p r i u s f a c t u s , co inc idence may be d iscounted s ince t h i s p o r t i o n o f J a p a r t ' s Super ius i s p laced under the same Tenor ma te r i a l under which the analogous s e c t i o n o f Hayne's Super ius i s heard , 31 Sequent ia l passages are found at mm. 3 9 - 4 2 (Super ius) and mm. 3 8 -42 (Bassus ) . The one ins tance o f i m i t a t i o n , at mm. 47 -50 , i s i n t e r e s t i n g in that the cantus f i rmus is made to im i ta te the Supe r i us . 32 The beg inn ing of the Super ius in the anonymous De tous b iens  p l a i n e a 3 from Rome X I I I , 27 ( f f . 22v-24r) i s very c l o s e to J a p a r t ' s Bassus beginn ing (see Example 5 2 ) . 33 Note tha t the i n i t i a l o u t l i n e s o f t h i s A l t u s and that o f J a p a r t ' s Jay p r i s amours/De tous b iens are very much a l i k e (Example 5 2 ) . 34 From an anonymous Je cu ide found in Odhecaton A , No. 2. 118 rlaync, S/ mm. \G>-23-— ? : — — >> — • f-^, 1 = * -O a M = JApart, S, mm. 17-2.1 ~ J rJ f f f Example 77. S i m i l a r i t y o f o u t l i n e , Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , Supe r i us , mm. 16-22; and J a p a r t , Je cu ide /De tous b iens 3 kt S u p e r i u s , mm. 17-21 . and no ma te r i a l from J a p a r t ' s Super ius i s im i ta ted in the accompanying v o i c e s . Adam, 'De tous b iens p l a y n e 1 3 2 An e x e r c i s e p i e c e , Adam's s e t t i n g demonstrates p ropo r t i ona l w r i t i n g ( t r i p l e to sesqu ioc tava) . It adopts on l y the f i r s t h a l f o f the cantus f i rmus but quotes i t w i thout change. Some s c a l e passages and sequen t ia l w r i t i n g can be found, but i m i t a t i o n i s not used. The upper par t has no r e l a t i o n . ; t o the cantus f i rmus nor to the res t of the model chanson. T i n c t o r i s , 'De tous b iens p l ayne ' a 2 T i n c t o r i s ' s s e t t i n g i s somewhat b l a n d , but i t s v e r t i c a l i n t e r v a l s are we l l - hand led and the f requent p r o p o r t i o n a l changes g ive the work v a r i e t y , Im i ta t ion is l a c k i n g , but a few sequen t i a l phrases are e v i d e n t . Caden t ia l po in t s in the cantus f i rmus are m i r ro red in the upper par t and they are determined by melod ic d i r e c t i o n and c a d e n t i a l formulae ra ther than phrasa l 119 s t o p s . In comparison to the note va lues of the upper p a r t , those of the cantus f i rmus are compara t i ve ly s m a l l e r , r e s u l t i n g in a more equal p a c i n g . Only at the beginn ing of the upper vo i ce i s there any resemblance to the Hayne model (Example 78). D r tous b i e n s p l a y n e Example 78. I n i t i a l measures of Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , S u p e r i u s , and T i n c t o r i s , De tous b iens p layne h 2, Super i us . J a p a r t , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' 3 k L ike J a p a r t ' s o ther s e t t i n g s i n c o r p o r a t i n g the De tous b iens p l a i n e Tenor , t h i s work p resents the cantus f i rmus in a l t e r e d form. But i t i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n seldom used in secu la r cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s : the Tenor i s p laced a f i f t h h igher and i n v e r t e d . In a d d i t i o n , the cantus f i rmus is employed as a Contra tenor (or A l t u s ) ra ther than as a Tenor . De le t i on o f 35 c a d e n t i a l formulae and repeated notes has f u r t h e r recas t the melody. It has l i t t l e connec t ion w i th the workings of the surrounding v o i c e s . The 35 The f i n a l note o f the l i n e i s extended fo r two e x t r a measures. 120 36 chanson con ta ins f a i r l y long phrases and a t h i c k t e x t u r e . Rhythmic des ign is d u l l . Syncopat ion i s p r e v a l e n t , f o r a l l non-cantus f i rmus vo i ces o f t en begin phrases on the o f f - b e a t . The i n v e r s i o n of the cantus f i rmus has not i n s p i r e d melod ic resemblances in any o f the o ther v o i c e s , a l though the e x c e p t i o n a l l y a c t i v e Tenor begins in a form s i m i l a r to that o f Hayne's Super ius (Example 5 2 ) . D'Oude Schuere, 'De tous b iens p l ayne ' a 4 Another we l1 -e labo ra ted cantus f i rmus is conta ined in t h i s chanson. Al though a d d i t i o n a l notes have been inc luded in Hayne's melody, D'Oude Schuere ' s Tenor remains r h y t h m i c a l l y c l o s e to the model . That i s , the model 's na tu ra l phras ing su rv i ves the e l abo ra te d i s g u i s e . A g r i c o l a ' s t r e a t -ment o f the Super ius from Ockeghem's D'ung a u l t r e amer (Le rne r , No. 59) resembles the present work, but the rhythmic shaping of the cantus f i rmus d iverges f a r inore in A g r i c o l a ' s p i e c e . S i m i l a r l y , J a p a r t ' s De tous b iens  pi a i ne s e t t i n g s are more a v a r i a t i o n o f note va lues and rhythms ra the r than the a d d i t i o n o f new no tes . A l l of the model Tenor here i s adopted, but the p i t c h i s set a tone h i ghe r . A l t e r a t i o n s , in the cantus f i rmus o f ten p a r a l l e l the melod ic ma te r i a l of the o ther v o i c e s , making i t o f equal importance to 37 the work 's t ex tu re (Example 7 9 ) . In f a c t , p a r a l l e l p h r a s i n g , w i th no i m i t a t i v e or sequen t i a l usage, i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s busy but d u l l work. Un l i ke A g r i c o l a ' s D'ung a u l t r e amer (Le rne r , No. 59 ) , there are no r e f e r -ences to the model chanson in the non-cantus f i rmus v o i c e s . 36 No sequen t i a l ma te r i a l i s e v i d e n t ; there i s no i m i t a t i v e exchange except fo r mm. 43-46 (Contratenor by S u p e r i u s ) . 37 S i m i l a r examples can be found at mm. 13-14 (wi th Super ius and Bassus) and m. 15 (wi th A l t u s ) . 121 HAyne, T, mm. 20-29 C^m^sposed. up one -tone) o T* m m - \ ' r r f 1T' [f I r Example 7 9 . E l a b o r a t i o n o f Tenor ( t ransposed up a tone) o f Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , mm. 2 0 - 2 9 , in D'Oude Schuere, De tous b iens p layne a k, mm. 2 1 - 2 8 . > S e t t i n g s Based on Hayne's Super ius Compare, 'Au t r a v a i l s u i s ' a 3 Compare has inc luded in h i s quod l i be t a quo ta t i on from the opening measures o f Hayne's S u p e r i u s . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that dur ing t h i s p o r t i o n the accompanying pa r t s suggest the o u t l i n e o f that c i t a t i o n (Example 8 0 ) . 17 / Y- /. x * * x ><- >< x A* toii<! hipn« plai 1 1 1" * * ne, e Example 8 0 . Quota t ion o f Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , Supe r i us , in Compere, Au t r a v a i 1 s i i i s a 3 , mm. 1 7 - T 9 . 122 Anon . , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e 1 a 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 64v-65r) Even though the cantus f i rmus is now en t rus ted to the upper par t in t h i s s e t t i n g , i t has l i t t l e s t r u c t u r a l i n f l uence on the accompanying p a r t s . The i r v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t i e s support the cadences of the S u p e r i u s , but the vo i ces are not c a d e n t i a l l y re levan t to the cantus f i r m u s . Sequence i s •3 0 minimal and i m i t a t i o n i s not used. The Tenor c o n s i s t s of repeated • 3 Q 40 phrases in a technique s i m i l a r to that in De O r t o ' s D'ung a u l t r e amer. These ideas share s i m i l a r i t i e s of pa t t e rn (Example 81 ) . R e p e t i t i o n , t h i s 17 m.\ V f _ — ^ — | f— • i W- 4 5 = £ E C * * X * 32 Example 8 1 . S i m i l a r i t i e s o f p a t t e r n , Anon . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 6 4 v - 6 5 r ) , Tenor , mm. 1, 3~4 , 3 1 - 3 3 and 49-50 . t ime of a l t e r n a t i n g no tes , c h a r a c t e r i z e s po r t i ons o f the Bassus . The 41 . melodic ma te r i a l o f t h i s par t o f t en p a r a l l e l s that o f the Supe r i us , im-p l y i n g some cantus f i rmus i n f l u e n c e . As w e l l , one phrase in the Tenor 38 39 c In the Bassus at mm. 42 -47 . 'See A t l a s , Cappe l la G i u l i a , I, pp. 1 3 7 - 1 3 9 , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the arrangement o f the Tenor in the MS, and of the mistaken amalgamation of t h i s work w i th the o r i g i n a l Hayne chanson. 40 41 The work by De Orto i s a l s o a s e t t i n g o f a Super ius p r i u s f a c t u s . For example, mm. 7, 2 2 - 2 3 , 2 5 , 30-31 and 42-47 . 123 r e c a l l s the Super ius (Tenor, mm. 1 7 - 1 8 ) . G h i s e l i n / V e r b o n n e t , 'De tous b iens p layne ' a 3 L i ke the prev ious s e t t i n g , the Bassus and Tenor in G h i s e l i n / Verbonnet 's chanson have l i t t l e c a d e n t i a l a f f i 1 i a t i o n w i th the borrowed Supe r i us . Ins tead , they proceed in c l o s e , unceas ing , i m i t a t i v e l y ove r -lapp ing exchanges which are o f t en in exact i m i t a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y at the beg inn ing ; .Example 5 2 ) . Though the Super ius i s m e l o d i c a l l y dominant, not once do the three pa r t s have a common inner cadence. In the accompanying p a r t s , c a d e n t i a l formulae may suggest that a cadence is near , but the vo i ce w i l l not r e s o l v e . The best example o f t h i s occurs in the Tenor from m. 15, where a cadence is a n t i c i p a t e d three t imes yet the par t comes to a res t on ly at m. 24. Severa l m o t i v i c ideas are developed throughout the work, f r e -quent l y in sequence (see Example 8 4 ) . A motive heard near the beginning of the p iece proceeds on ly to m. 10; more p reva len t i s a motive which always k2 ascends , o u t l i n i n g the i n t e r v a l o f a f i f t h (Examples 82 and 84 ) . The m a e T mm. 11-17 B, <vm.n-l8 £ m „ . b r /. a r r ~ I I % * r t i f f r f u r Example 82. M o t i v i c phrases w i th a s s o c i a t e d rhythmic p a t t e r n s , G h i s e l i n / V e r b o n n e t , De tous b iens playne a 3. 42 In the Bassus t h i s motive appears so o f ten on d or £ i t seems l i k e an o s t i n a t o ; e . g . , mm. 30-34, 48 -52 , 5 5 _ 5 6 . 124 i n i t i a l measures o f the Bassus cou ld perhaps suggest one of Hayne's d i s -t i n c t i v e Tenor phrases (Example 8 3 ) . More aud ib le perhaps is a s e r i e s of i m i t a t i v e exchanges which invo lve the cantus f i rmus as we l l as Bassus and Tenor (Example 84 ) . Even the end o f the work may be sugges t i ve of Hayne's phrase pa t te rns (Example 85; see a l s o Example 48 ) . JB, mm. i — a nu | ;- 3 1 r - CL —| \>m\ f 9 1 Hayne, 7, mi l i t i i H n.l7-20 z—i 55 5* 1 \ — J b J J —C — J u. ^ a 1 ^ <± A e. 1 f rtl r I 1— Example 83. Phrase s i m i l a r i t i e s , G h i s e l i n / V e r b o n n e t , De tous b iens  p layne 3 3 , Bassus , mm. 1-3; and Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e i Tenor , mm. 17-20. Example 84. Common i m i t a t i v e exchanges, G h i s e l i n / V e r b o n n e t , De  tous b iens p layne 3 3 , mm. 42 -53 . J o s q u i n , 'De tous b i e n s ' 3 3 For a cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g the e q u a l i t y o f vo i ce pa r t s in J o s q u i n ' s chanson 3 3 i s unusual and a r t f u l l y a c h i e v e d . While the Super ius o f Hayne's 125 2 5 p • r ~ ' ~ 1 — j . a. 1 • n • - J -H | ' 1 1 r j -+—1 1 1 1 1 1 =] 1 : <L 1 • T -—i r a' J .1 iT 1 Example 8 5 . Phrase patterns, Ghiselin/Verbonnet, De tous biens playne a 3 , mm. 60-64; and Hayne, De tous biens plaine, Superius, mm. 2 0 - 2 3 . 43 song is quoted with l i t t l e change, the accompanying Tenor and Contratenor are set canonically, Contratenor following Tenor a fifth above at a distance of a semibreve. In Josquin's hands this rigid technique paradoxically strengthens the composer's intended design. The canon's 'imposed* imitation and sequence is shaped into a quasi-imitative relationship with the Superius. That is, the melodic material of the supporting parts consistently reflects the character of the cantus firmus at a given point, so that a series of roughly imitative exchanges (usually begun by the Tenor) occur among the three voices (Examples 86 and 8 7 ) . In Example 86 even the sequence of descending fourths in the underlying parts finds its analogue in the Superius (mm. 2 0 - 2 3 ) . Example 87 illustrates some phrase exchange that is more complimentary than imitative, i.e., the long descending Superius lines, 43 There is one note change made to the cantus firmus, at m. 51 , where the first a is substituted by a £, perhaps to avoid accented disso--nance with other other voices. 126 Example 87. Im i t a t i ve and complimentary exchanges, J o s q u i n , De  tous b iens 3 3 , mm. 30-47 . 127 broad ly o u t l i n i n g a f i f t h , are echoed in the q u i c k l y ascending melodic f i f t h s o f the o ther l i n e s (mm, 30 -41 ; see a l s o Example 4 8 ) . Tenor and 44 Contratenor o u t l i n e m o t i v i c ascending f i f t h s or descending f o u r t h s . Some of these pa t te rns are developed yet r e t a i n t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n w i th cantus f i rmus phras ing (Example 88 ) . J o s q u i n ' s in ten t to incorpora te aspects of Hayne's chanson i s c l e a r from the beg inn ing : Tenor and Contra tenor f o l l o w the o u t l i n e o f the S u p e r i u s , but the Tenor ' s f i r s t measures a l s o reproduce those of Hayne's Bassus (see Example 5 2 ) . ^S, mm. 10-13 -a • p — B, 3, -a2-R mm. 4&So ' a* Example 88. M o t i v i c development, J o s q u i n , De tous b iens a 3 . Isaac , 'De tous b iens p l ayne ' a 2 45 I saac ' s quod l i be t adopts the whole of Hayne's Super ius and se ts fragments o f o ther popular chansons aga ins t i t . These a p t l y chosen f r a g -ments f r e q u e n t l y compliment in i m i t a t i o n the forms of the cantus f i rmus 46 above them (Example 89 ) . O c c a s i o n a l l y , the l i k e n e s s occurs in p a r a l l e l motion ( e . g . , mm. 9 or 5 4 ) . The model 's c a d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e i s r espec ted , :nor 45, Descending fou r ths mot ives are never found in;:the Tenor or in the Con t ra te r . At m. 41 o f the cantus f i r m u s , the g i s changed to f to f i t the accompanying melody. ^ O t h e r examples are found at mm. 6 - 7 , 10-11 , 41-43 and 48-50 . 128 3 0 "teor. <3eu) 3 5 3 Ha Example 89. S i m i l a r i t y o f p h r a s i n g , Isaac , De tous b iens playne a 2 , mm. 28 -35 . marking another ins tance of I saac ' s care in making the quod l i be t vo i ce compat ib le w i th the cantus f i r m u s . S e t t i n g s Based on Hayne's Super ius and Tenor J o s q u i n , 'De tous b iens p layne ' a h While employing two f a i t h f u l l y quoted pa r t s from Hayne's chanson, Josqu in has aga in s p e c i f i e d a canon as par t of h i s t reatment o f a De tous  b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g . Th is t ime , however, the s e t t i n g possesses a dual na tu re : the long melod ic l i n e o f the cantus f i rmus vo i ces versus the m o t i v i c , c l o s e l y - s p a c e d Bassus l i n e s . Set at the same p i t c h , at the shor t The d i f f e r e n c e s to the cantus f i r m i are unusua l l y m in ima l , even fo r t h i s f am i l y o f s e t t i n g s : seve ra l changes in c a d e n t i a l deco ra t i on and the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one longer note f o r two repeated ones . The f i n a l notes o f each cantus f i rmus are extended one measure to accommodate the complet ion o f the Bassus p a r t s . 129 d i s t a n c e o f a minima, the two lower par ts r e f l e c t l i t t l e o f the cantus f i rm i . ' s c h a r a c t e r . They are m o t i v i c a l l y cons t ruc ted and c o n s t a n t l y o u t l i n e the t r i a d i c forms suggested at the s t a r t o f t h e i r l i n e (Example 9 0 ) . R e l a -Haync, T, mm. 1-7 3?i m m . 1-2- * m m . 15-17 m m . 3 ( - 3 3 m m . 4-1-4-3 mm. 6o-&t Example 90. Mot ives in J o s q u i n , De tous b iens p layne a 4 , compared w i th Hayne, De tous b iens p l a i n e , Tenor , mm. 1-^7. t i o n s h i p s w i th the Super ius are l a c k i n g ; fo r example, the canon ic l i n e never forms the melod ic fou r ths so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f that cantus f i r m u s . However, there may be some connec t ion w i th the chorda l o u t l i n e o f the Tenor beg inn ing (Example 90 ) . Un l i ke h i s o ther De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g , Josqu in here avo ids sequen t ia l t rea tment . As ide from i m i t a t i o n imposed by the canon, i m i t a t i v e ma te r i a l i s absen t , rep laced by v a r i a t i o n or r e p e t i t i o n o f motive (see Example 90, mm. 15-17) . With two cantus f i r m i borrowed, the c a d e n t i a l des ign o f Hayne's work p r e v a i l s . J o s q u i n ' s added pa r t s support these cadences yet emphasize the spaces between them. Th is is p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e at mm. 40 -48 , where the Bassus s i l e n c e separates two such p laces 130 Example 91 . Caden t ia l b r i d g e s , J o s q u i n , De tous b iens p layne 3 4 , mm. 40 -49 . A n o n . , 'De tous b iens p l a i n e ' a 3 (Cant i C; f f . I43v~l44r) As in the p rev ious work, t h i s p ieces has taken the model chanson and s u b s t i t u t e d a mot iv ica11y-permeated Contra tenor fo r Hayne's Bassus , p r o v i d -ing ing s u b s t a n t i a l con t ras t to Hayne's very d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s . The newly-composed par t suppor ts the model 's c a d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e , but con ta ins shor t r e s t s at the cadence tone , somewhat l i k e J a p a r t ' s Je cu ide /De tous b iens 48 The Bassus br idge passages a l s o serve to p r e f i g u r e each Super ius en t ry by o u t l i n i n g the i n i t i a l harmonic compass of the top v o i c e , e . g . , mm. 42 -43 . 49 Once a g a i n , the a l t e r a t i o n s to the model 's vo i ces are unusua l l y m in ima l , even f o r t h i s f am i l y o f s e t t i n g s . 131 (see page 1 1 5 f ) . It forms no i m i t a t i o n w i th the cantus f i r m i , but u s u a l l y t r e a t s i t s own mot ives s e q u e n t i a l l y . The opening motive does not r e c u r , but the subsequent idea appears in va r i ous forms throughout (Example 9 2 ) . " ^ JJJJ J J o mm.9-6 _ ^ mm.15-16 mi 8 ^ ^ I r f r r r f r * I I - J J ! J J R r f i ^ r r r r \ \ - f J r r J " I Example 9 2 . M o t i v i c v a r i a t i o n , A n o n . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Cant i C; f f . I 4 3 v - l 4 4 r ) . A d d i t i o n a l mot ives are not as f requent (Example 9 3 ) . These motives r a r e l y l a s t f o r more than a measure, but t h e i r sequen t i a l t reatment soon becomes ted ious (Example 9 4 ) . Th is work is s i m i l a r in s t y l e to the o ther Cant i C chanson examined in t h i s chap te r , and l i k e that p i e c e , i t s newly-composed vo i ce i s unre la ted to the cantus f i r m i . Summary A g r i c o l a ' s f i v e De tous b iens p l a i n e chansons have common cha rac te r -i s t i c s , such as t h r e e - p a r t s e t t i n g and s i m i l a r i t y o f mode. Each s e t t i n g incorpora tes Hayne's Tenor o n l y , adopt ing i t in i t s e n t i r e t y wi thout s i g n i f -"^Other examples occur at mm. 38-40. "^The resemblance of the Contra tenor phrase (at mm. 1 3 _ l 4 ) to Hayne's Super ius i s probably more a melod ic c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the Con t ra -tenor ' s prev ious phrase (mm. 11-12) than a ' d i r e c t quote 1 (see Example 94) 132 O- mm. Zdf-ZS' i r — a f r r r P P c a i 1 . - q ( I V j — i — f 9 — J-J——\ k — £ ' J ^ J r ^ 1 — — £T mm. 2 6 - 2-5 I ' L ' - r rrrrr p Example 9 3 . A d d i t i o n a l mo t i ves , A n o n . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Cant i C; f f . I 4 3 v - l 4 4 r ) . Example Sk. M o t i v i c t rea tment , A n o n . , De tous b iens p l a i n e a 3 (Cant i C; f f . I 4 3 v - l 4 4 r ) , mm. 1 3 - 2 3 . i can t a l t e r a t i o n . One chanson, Lerner No. 5 3 , appends severa l measures of un re la ted ma te r i a l onto the end o f i t s Tenor , but the cantus f i rmus i t s e l f i s u n a f f e c t e d . Mensurat ion o f the cantus f i rmus reproduces the duple meter o f the model chanson; the non-cantus f i rmus vo i ces df L e r n e r , No. 54 are in t r i p l e meter , however. In each of these s e t t i n g s , the newly-composed vo i ces 133 have l i t t l e s t y l i s t i c in terdependence. The cantus f i rmus here i s always set apar t from i t s companions. A l l f i v e works are w r i t t e n in an ins t rumenta l s t y l e ; t h e i r sources inc lude on l y a t ex tua l i n c i p i t . A De :tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g by A g r i c o l a r e t a i n s that composer 's t y p i c a l s c a l e passages , rhythmic complex i ty and o f t en seamless l i n e , yet each chanson can be sepa ra te l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g e n e r a l i z i n g the works by t h e i r dominant t echn iques . For i n s t a n c e , No. 52 i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by m o t i v i c 52 exchange. No. 55 possesses unceasing a c t i v i t y w i th some sequence, men-su ra l change and pa t t e rn i ng to r e l i e v e i t s r e s t l e s s n e s s . S t y l i s t i c a l l y .:]:.-•' c l o s e to the p rev ious work, No. 56 i s mod i f ied by more sequen t ia l t reatmnet and p a r a l l e l movement between Super ius and Bassus . Somewhat inbetween the o t h e r s , No. 54 progresses more ca lmly w i th semibreves ra ther than minimas, and yet employs some s e q u e n t i a l , m o t i v i c and p a r a l l e l w r i t i n g . No. 53 i s unique to t h i s groups o f s e t t i n g s : in f a c t , no o ther cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g examined in t h i s study surrounds a cantus f i rmus w i th notes so incessant and a r p e g g i o - 1 i k e , and w i th melod ic i n t e r v a l s so w ide l y -spaced and d i s j o i n t e d . S t r u c t u r a l l y , A g r i c o l a ' s De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g s owe l i t t l e to the model chanson. Two of the p i e c e s , Nos. 55 and 56 , con ta in some sor t o f cadence at what would be the mid -po in t in Hayne's work (mm. 28 -29 ) . But more o f t en A g r i c o l a ' s newly-composed vo i ces avo id common inner cadences, p r e f e r r i n g to ma in ta in a cont inuous ove r l app ing t e x t u r e . In f a c t , the Bassus and Super ius o f No. 54 are not c a d e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d at a l l , and the vo i ce arrangement in No. 53 p rec ludes i n t e r n a l cadences e n t i r e l y . 52 A more c o n s i s t e n t l y t r ea ted m o t i v i c exchange is found in the Gh i se l i n /Ve rbonne t and the two Josqu in s e t t i n g s . 134 53 Whi le three of the f i v e s e t t i n g s con ta in i m i t a t i o n , on l y No. 52 54 employs i t in a c l e a r , aud ib le manner. Only No. 55 has any i m i t a t i v e treatment a f t e r the f i r s t h a l f of the work. Sequent ia l ma te r i a l does not always c o i n c i d e w i th i m i t a t i o n in these works. For example, No. 52 con ta ins no sequence, but No. 56 does . When sequen t i a l passages do o c c u r , they are found in the l a t t e r p o r t i o n of A g r i c o l a ' s s e t t i n g s , in two cases (Nos. 55 and 56) cor respond ing to the q u a s i - i m i t a t i v e passage of the model (compare Example 50 w i th Examples 55 or- 6 0 ) . These passages, o f c o u r s e , p rov ide va l uab le con t ras t and r e l i e f f o r A g r i c o l a ' s o f t en dense s o n o r i t i e s . To avo id sameness o f t e x t u r e , A g r i c o l a may develop a pa t te rn or motive even when such treatment i s not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s e t t i n g as a whole . The i n i t i a l Bassus ma te r i a l in No. 56 is developed somewhat (see Example 5 9 ) . A more ex tens i ve e l a b o r a t i o n occurs in the Bassus o f No. 54 (Example 6 1 ) . P a r a l l e l mot ion , o f t e n in t e n t h s , between Bassus and Super ius c o n t r a s t s w i th the ove r l app ing of v o i c e pa r t s so p reva len t in A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus s t y l e . That and the composer 's tendency to revo lve around r e s t r i c t e d ranges"'"' saves the chansons from t u r b i d i t y . Apart from the use of a cantus f i r m u s , A g r i c o l a ' s De tous b iens  pi a i ne s e t t i n g s e x h i b i t no obv ious re fe rences to melod ic ma te r i a l from any of Hayne's p a r t s . In on l y two of these works can even a s i m i l a r o u t l i n e be found: the phrase shapes of the opening Bassus and Super ius o f No. 56 53 Nos. 53 and 56 have: no i m i t a t i o n . 54 The i m i t a t i o n used in No. 55 occurs in l ess aud ib l e s c a l e passages whose same ma te r i a l i s o f t en immediately t r ea ted in p a r a l l e l f ash ion as we l l ~*^For example, see the s c a l e passages in No. 55 which c o n s t a n t l y re tu rn to £ and then reascend . 135 (Example 5 8 ) , and a p o r t i o n o f the Super ius in No. 54 (Example 6 3 ) . Several o f the o ther s e t t i n g s in t h i s cantus f i rmus f am i l y may c o n t a i n , at the l e a s t , a re fe rence to the opening o u t l i n e o f Hayne's song, but Agr i c o l a ' s ; .set t ings remain independent from the s p i r i t o f t h e i r model . In a cantus f i rmus fam i l y as numerous as t h i s one, s i m i l a r i t i e s in treatment are bound to o c c u r . Some s e t t i n g s a r e , of c o u r s e , r e l a t e d by composer, number o f new vo i ces added, source and cho ice o f cantus f i r m u s . The i n i t i a l measures o f these s e t t i n g s o f t en reveal i n t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . Of A g r i c o l a ' s f i v e s e t t i n g s , three (Nos. 5 4 , 55 and 56) share s i m i -l a r o u t l i n e , d i r e c t i o n or phrase shapes in t h e i r top vo i ces (see Example 5 2 ) . " ^ Bourdon's Super ius opening can be added to t h e s e . Each o f these p ieces c i t e d , e s p e c i a l l y Bourdon's l i n e , b r i e f l y suggests the o u t l i n e o f Hayne's S u p e r i u s . Common Bassus beginn ings occur in e i gh t s e t t i n g s , four of them by A g r i c o l a (Example 9 5 ) . A comparable r e l a t i o n s h i p i s found between the Bassus in J a p a r t ' s Je cu ide/De tous b iens which not on ly corresponds to the i n i t i a l p o r t i o n o f Hayne's S u p e r i u s , but which i s almost e x a c t l y l i k e the Super ius o f the anonymous De tous b iens p l a i n e from Rome X I I I , 27 ( f f . 2 2 v - 2 4 r ) ; see Example 5 2 . A l s o , seve ra l s e t t i n g s have t h e i r lowest vo i ce cadence a f t e r the o ther pa r ts s t o p , four o f the f i v e examples descending b ^ 58 from e to G. " ^No . 53 does use the same range of i n i t i a l tones as the o thers ment ioned, but the compos i t iona l technique is very d i f f e r e n t . "^See A t l a s , Cappe l l a G i u l i a , I, p. 77 , fo r musica l examples com-par ing No. 52 w i t h the anonymous De tous b iens p l a i n e 5 3 from Rome X I I I , 27 ( f f . 2 4 v - 2 5 r ) . r Q See L e r n e r , Nos. 5 3 , 54, 55 , the s e t t i n g by Gh i se l i n /Ve rbonne t (Example 8 5 ) , and Anon . , a 3 (Cant i C; f f . I 4 3 v - l 4 4 r ) . 136 hlo. 52, B, mm.\-2- hie. S+, B, N c S 5 ' B < B , / | — r » — J i l?p u . J J J J 3 J | I Anon. (CuMi c)/E II i 1 J | B O M * —1—f>»--don, 3 , mm. 1-3 i j j i ,n , i f= — © — ' Example 95. Bassus openings from De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g s by A g r i c o l a a 4 and a 3 (Le rner , Nos. 52 , 54, 55 , 56 ) ; Anon . , a 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 2 2 v - 2 4 r ) ; Anon . , a 3 (Cant i C; f . 143) ; Bourdon a 3; and , Josqu in a 4 . In n o n - A g r i c o l a De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g s which adopt Hayne's Tenor , the cantus f i rmus is e i t h e r set apar t m e l o d i c a l l y and t e x t u r a l l y ( e . g . , anonymous chanson from Rome X I I I , 27; Bourdon), o r i s made an a c t i v e vo i ce in the compos i t ion ( e . g . , J a p a r t ' s De tous b iens p l a i n e a 4 ) . Of these works , on ly a smal l p o r t i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w the model 's form or i t s c a d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e . Im i t a t i ve ma te r i a l appears in on l y three chan-59 sons . But sequen t i a l m a t e r i a l , o f t e n c o n s i d e r a b l e , is found in s i x w o r k s . ^ As noted e a r l i e r in t h i s c h a p t e r , these cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s o f t e n use sequence at the q u a s i - i m i t a t i v e s e c t i o n of Hayne's chanson (see Example 5 0 ) . Only one o f the Tenor s e t t i n g s that con ta in sequences does not Anon . , a 3 (Cant i C; f . 143), Bourdon, and J a p a r t ' s Je cu ide/De  tous b i e n s . 6 ° A n o n . , a 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 22v -24r ) , Anon . , a 3 (Cant i C; f . 143) , R o e l l r i n , Bourdon, J a p a r t ' s Je cu ide/De tous b i e n s , and T i n c t o r i s . 137 61 p lace a sequence at t h i s p o i n t . Two o f the p ieces which adopt the model 's Tenor employ m o t i v i c t reatment : A n o n . , § 3 (Rome X I I I , 2 7 ; f f . 2 2 v - 2 4 r ) , and A n o n . , 3 3 (Cant i C; f . 143) . The Tenor s e t t i n g s in t h i s cantus f i rmus fam i l y do not o f ten borrow much of Hayne's song o ther than the cantus f i r m u s . Un l i ke the s e t t i n g s by A g r i c o l a , however, they w i l l o f t en c l e a r l y suggest not the Tenor but the 62 beg inn ing of Hayne's Super ius in t h e i r newly-composed p a r t s . Bourdon's p iece is one such example, and i t adapts some of the model 's ma te r i a l fo r i m i t a t i o n and s i m i l a r phrase shap ing , p laced at analogous p o i n t s , as we l l as u t i l i z i n g the same cadence tones at po in t s equ i va len t to those in the model . A l though J a p a r t ' s Jay p r i s amours/De tous b iens a l t e r s Hayne's Tenor con-s i d e r a b l y , on l y the i n i t i a l measures of the Cont ra tenor resemble the cantus f i r m u s . On the o ther hand, J a p a r t ' s Je cu ide/De tous b iens inc ludes severa l remin iscences o f Hayne's melodies and p h r a s i n g . G e n e r a l l y , the techn iques used in those s e t t i n g s which borrow Hayne's Super ius correspond to those found in the Tenor s e t t i n g s . There i s , perhaps, more f requent regu la r use of i m i t a t i o n , and sequence is very 63 common throughout the whole o f a work. Some rhythmic pa t te rns recur more o f t en than co inc idence might a l l o w ; e . g . , found f r equen t l y ^ T i n c t o r i s ' s chanson. 6? See f o r example T i n c t o r i s ' s s e t t i n g , or J a p a r t ' s De tous b iens p l a i n e a 4 . a quod l i be t — lacks sequen t i a l m a t e r i a l . ^ O f the four Super ius s e t t i n g s examined, on ly the Isaac p iece 138 in p a r a l l e l motion f o r Super ius and Bassus^** in f i v e s e t t i n g s ^ in a d d i t i o n to severa l by A g r i c o l a . Vo ice ranges tend to c ross each o ther more in the Super ius s e t t i n g s . Vo ice pa r t s are a l s o c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d , t h e i r import tance more or l e s s e q u a l . The Bassus p a r t i c u l a r l y has gained i n t e r e s t , and, u n l i k e the Hayne Bassus , the low pa r t s here serve more than a harmonic f u n c t i o n . Those works adopt ing Hayne's Super ius never a l t e r the cantus f i rmus as the Japar t w o r k s ^ d i d , but t h e i r accompanying par ts do have more melodic and formal awareness o f the model chanson. References to the opening of the cantus f i rmus can be heard in the anonymous De tous b iens p l a i n e 3 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 6 4 v - 6 5 r ) , but more impo r tan t l y , the Bassus there f r equen t l y p a r a l l e l s the upper v o i c e . G h i s e l i n / V e r b o n n e t ' s chanson prov ides severa l ins tances o f re fe rences to the borrowed par t in a d d i t i o n to i m i t a t i v e ex -changes which were planned w i th the cantus f i rmus in mind. J o s q u i n ' s s e t -t i n g 3 3 con ta ins phrasa l re fe rences to the cantus f i rmus throughout , and inc ludes the on l y example o f a quo ta t i on from Hayne's Bassus . Of the two s e t t i n g s examined here which take both Super ius and Tenor o f the model , l i t t l e needs to be added to the obse rva t i ons made above, ex -cept that each accompanying par t i s h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d , m o t i v i c a l l y or by a canon. J o s q u i n ' s s e t t i n g , l i k e h i s o ther De tous b iens p l a i n e chanson, overcomes the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f the t e c h n i c a l dev ice and s k i l l f u l l y a t t a i n s d i s t i n c t i o n fo r an accompanying vo i ce wi thout d e t r a c t i n g from the q u a l i t i e s 6k U s u a l l y t h i s rhythmic p a t t e r n , as in o ther common p a t t e r n s , i s a l s o t i e d to r e c u r r i n g melod ic shapes. 6 5 A n o n . , 3 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 2 2 v - 2 4 r ) , A n o n . , 3 3 (Cant i C; f . 1*»3), A n o n . , 3 3 (Rome X I I I , 27; f f . 64v-65r) , Josqu in 3 3 , and Gh ise l i n / Verbonnet 3 3. 139 of the borrowed l i n e s . I n e v i t a b l y , the la rge group of De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t i n g s has produced a v a r i e t y o f cantus f i rmus p rocedures . The i r q u a l i t y i s a l s o d i s p a r a t e , but the d u l l n e s s o f , f o r i n s t a n c e , the s e t t i n g by T i n c t o r i s or the anonymous chanson from Rome X I I I , 27 ( f f . 22v-24r) i s o f f s e t by the t i g h t l y - k n i t work o f G h i s e l i n / V e r b o n n e t , the exper t s k i l l in J o s q u i n ' s two p i e c e s , and the i n t r i c a t e c o n t i n u i t y o f A g r i c o l a ' s f i v e s e t t i n g s . 140 CHAPTER SIX <• SUMMARY A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s e x h i b i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i th which he has come to be i d e n t i f i e d in o ther genres : complex i ty o f rhythm, and l ong , r e s t l e s s phrases o f t en presented in p a r a l l e l motion ( e s p e c i a l l y in t e n t h s ) . Desp i te t h e i r s t y l i s t i c v a r i e t y , A g r i c o l a ' s secu la r works employ-ing pre-composed ma te r i a l revea l q u a l i t i e s that recur c o n s i s t e n t l y and which the few excep t ions on ly r e i n f o r c e . The f i r s t impress ion ob ta ined from A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus chansons is the q u a l i t y o f cont inous mot ion : independence of v o i c i n g , seamless l i n e s , d e l i b e r a t e l y obscure p h r a s i n g . Rare ly do a l l pa r t s o f a compos i t ion cadence t o g e t h e r . Ins tead , phrase endings o v e r l a p , and the f requent absence of obvious c a d e n t i a l formulae enhances the b rea th less q u a l i t y . These a r e , o f c o u r s e , ins t rumenta l works , but the lack o f c a d e n t i a l agreement w i th the model chansons is remarkable — an impress ion r e i n f o r c e d by the few o c c a -s ions when the model 's phrase s t r u c t u r e i s i m i t a t e d , as in D'ung a u l t r e amer or Tout a par moy. As in most o f the o ther s e t t i n g s in these f a m i l i e s , i m i t a t i v e ma te r i a l is r a r e l y employed in A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus techn ique . In i t s p l a c e , sequen t i a l t reatment o f shor t mot ives occurs f r e q u e n t l y , o f t en at the same po in ts in the cantus f i r m u s . M o t i v i c v a r i a t i o n and r e c u r r i n g rhy thmic-melodic pa t te rns are sometimes ev iden t as w e l l , though cont inuous use of one 141 or more motives throughout a work i s found more o f t en in the cantus f i rmus works o f A g r i c o l a ' s con temporar ies . However, in each of the se ts s t u d i e d , there is one work by A g r i c o l a which u t i l i z e s some m o t i v i c t rea tment , a l though on l y No. 52 (De tous b iens p l a i ne ) develops motives throughout the p i e c e . L i ke sequen t ia l t rea tment , t h i s procedure appears to have been a common cantus f i rmus technique fo r a l l l a t e f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y composers. Whatever the s t y l e o f a p a r t i c u l a r work, A g r i c o l a does not vary i t s t e x t u r e . He tends to p o l a r i z e h i s outer pa r ts even more r e g u l a r l y than h i s contempor r a r i e s . P a r a l l e l Bassus and Super ius phrases f r equen t l y overwhelm the inner p a r t s , i n c l u d i n g the cantus f i r m u s . Though s t y l e s in these groups d i f f e r g r e a t l y , a consensus is ev iden t in the adap ta t ion o f the chosen cantus f i r m u s . A l l o f the borrowed vo i ce is adopted. Any changes made to the model par t are minor a l t e r a t i o n s in note v a l u e s , or d e l e t i o n , a d d i t i o n or s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f an ornament. These v a r i a n t s tend to be at the same po in t s o f the cantus f i rmus — A g r i c o l a ' s works are no d i f f e r e n t than the o the rs in t h i s r ega rd . A l s o , A g r i c o l a con-s i s t e n t l y r e t a i n s the modal cast o f the models; excep t ions to t h i s are found in some of the contemporary s e t t i n g s . The meter o f the cantus f i rmus is g e n e r a l l y r e t a i n e d , but the sur round ing vo i ces can be set in a d i f f e r e n t meter. Only once ( in D'ung a u l t r e amer, No. 59) does A g r i c o l a borrow any vo ice o ther than a model 's Tenor . Th is i s remarkable in view of the v a r i e t y of c h o i c e , e s p e c i a l l y apparent in the d i f f e r i n g De tous b iens p l a i n e s e t t t i n g s . One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c common to most o f these works i s t h e i r tendency to i s o l a t e the cantus f i rmus from the s t y l e s and techniques o f the sur round-ing p a r t s . Though the cantus f i rmus in h i s D'ung a u l t r e amer s e t t i n g s i s 142 more in teg ra ted i n to the works ' t e x t u r e s , A g r i c o l a u s u a l l y adheres to t h i s custom even when, as in h i s Tout a par moy 3 k (No. 63), the vo i ces are m e l o d i c a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . A l l u s i o n s to aspects o f a model 's s t r u c t u r e or melody (apart from the borrowed vo i ce ) are compara t i ve ly minor in these cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s . They are apt to be smal l q u o t a t i o n s , o f ten of the i n c i p i t o f the model 's upper par t (even when the borrowed vo i ce i s the Teno r ) . Me lod ic re fe rences u s u a l l y occur at the opening of a s e t t i n g , or at a major d i v i s i o n of the work. S t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s to the model are o f ten at the same po in t s of each work. Only in the De tous b iens p l a i n e f am i l y do rhy thmic -melod ic v a r i a t i o n o f the cantus f i r m u s , or s t r u c t u r a l a l l u s i o n s to the model chanson, occur f r e q u e n t l y enough to be noteworthy. Se t t i ngs by Japar t and D'Oude Scheure vary the borrowed vo ice c o n s i d e r a b l y , a l though on ly one of J a p a r t ' s chansons on De tous b iens p l a i n e has any re fe rences from the cantus f i rmus in i t s o ther p a r t s . However, two t h r e e - v o i c e works , by Josqu in and G h i s e l i n / V e r b o n n e t , i l l u s t r a t e what may be a t r a n s i t i o n a l po in t towards parody: t h e i r accompanying pa r t s c o n s i s t e n t l y i nvo lve or r e f l e c t the s t r u c t u r a l y and melod ic cha rac te r o f the cantus f i r m u s . In view of the few examples o f ' p re -pa rody ' j u s t c i t e d in the De  tous b iens p l a i n e group, i t is s u r p r i s i n g that none of A g r i c o l a ' s chansons employing Hayne's Tenor show s i m i l a r i l l u s t r a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the cantus f i rmus s e t t i n g s o f A g r i c o l a in general are both l i k e the o thers in these groups and yet d i f f e r e n t from them. The same k inds o f quo ta t ions and s t r u c t u r a l re fe rences can be found in many of A g r i c o l a ' s works examined in t h i s paper . Yet two o f A g r i c o l a ' s cantus f i rmus works progress beyond even 143 the more fo rward - l ook ing cantus f i rmus techniques of J a p a r t , G h i s e l i n / Verbonnet or J o s q u i n . The non-cantus f i rmus vo i ces of A g r i c o l a ' s f o u r - p a r t Tout a par moy (No. 63) c o n s i s t e n t l y adapt whole phrases of F r y e ' s chanson (not merely the borrowed Teno r ) , and ma te r i a l from the Tenor i t s e l f i s v a r i e d , e labora ted or employed in o s t i n a t o . A g r i c o l a ' s D'ung a u l t r e amer a 3 (No. 59) possesses the most reshaped cantus f i rmus found in t h i s s tudy , though the borrowed vo i ce i s s t i l l r e c o g n i z a b l e . The use o f Ockeghem's Super ius as a Tenor is perhaps unprecedented; nor does the c o n s i s t e n t r e -working (wi th a l l th ree vo i ces p a r t i c i p a t i n g ) o f the main fea tu res o f Ockeghem's chanson occur to such a degree in any o ther of the s e t t i n g s examined here . These two s e t t i n g s are not examples o f genuine parody, but ne i t he r are they mere arrangements f o r an unre la ted cantus f i r m u s , and they suggest that A g r i c o l a ' s p o s i t i o n as a composer o f secu la r cantus f i rmus chansons may be a t r a n s i t i o n a l one . 144 APPENDIX LIST OF MANUSCRIPTS AND EARLY PRINTS CITED BY SIGLA A. Manuscr ip ts Augsburg 142A Basel F .X . 22-24 B e r l i n 40021 Bologna A.XXIX Bologna 0J6 Bologna 0J7 Bologna Q_18 Bologna 0J9 B res lau 2016 Brusse ls 228 B russe l s 9126 B russe l s 11239 Cambrai 1 2 5 - 1 2 8 Cape Town 3 . b . 1 2 Copenhagen 1848 Cortona 95~96 D i jon 517 Dresden 1 /D /506 E s c o r i a l IV .a .24 E s c o r i a l V. I I 1.24 F lorence 27 F lorence 121 Augsburg, S t a a t s - und S t a d t b i b l i o thek , MS 1:42A. B a s e l , O f f e n t l i c h e B i b l i o t h e k der U n i v e r s i t a t , MSS F .X . 22-24. B e r l i n , S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k der S t i f t u n g P r e u s s i c h e r K u l t u r b e s i t z , MS 40021. Bo logna, A r c h i v i o Mus ica le del l a F a b b r i c e r i a d i San P e t r o n i o , MS A .XXIX . Bologna, C i v i c o Museo B i b l i o g r a f i c o M u s i c a l e , MS QJ6. Bo logna, C i v i c o Museo B i b l i o g r a f i c o M u s i c a l e , MS 017. Bo logna, C i v i c o Museo B i b l i o g r a f i c o M u s i c a l e , MS Q18. Bo logna, C i v i c o Museo B i b l i o g r a f i c o M u s i c a l e , MS QJ9. B r e s l a u , Mus ika1 isches I n s t i t u t bei der U n i v e r s i -ta t B r e s l a u , MS Mf. 2016. B r u s s e l s , B i b l i o t heque Roya le , MS 228. B r u s s e l s , B i b l i o t h e q u e R o y a l e ; MS 9126. B r u s s e l s , B ib l io th&que Roya le , MS 11239. Cambrai , B i b l i o t heque M u n i c i p a l e , MSS 125-128. Cape Town, South A f r i c a n P u b l i c L i b r a r y , Grey C o l l e c t ion 3 . b . 1 2 . Copenhagen, Konge l ige B i b l i o t e k , MS N Y K g l . , Samling 1848-2° . Cor tona , B i b l i o t e c a Comunale, MSS 95 , . 96. D i j o n , B i b l i o t h e q u e M u n i c i p a l e , MS 517. Dresden, Sachs ische L a n d e s b i b l i o t h e k , MS Mus. 1/D/506. El E s c o r i a l , B i b l i o t e c a del Monas te r io , MS IV. a . 2 4 . El E s c o r i a l , B i b l i o t e c a del Monas te r io , MS V. I I 1.24. F l o r e n c e , B i b l i o t e c a Naz iona le C e n t r a l e , MS P a n c i a t i c c h i 27. F l o r e n c e , B i b l i o t e c a Naz iona le C e n t r a l e , MS Magi . X I X , 1 2 1 . 145 Appendix (Continued) F lo rence 178 F lo rence 229 F lo rence 2356 F lo rence 2439 F lo rence 2442 F lo rence 2794 London 20.A.XVI London 35087 M i l an 2267 Munich 328-331 Munich 3154 NH 91 P a r i s 1596 P a r i s 1597 P a r i s 1817 P a r i s 2245 P a r i s 2973 P a r i s 4379 P a r i s 15123 Perug ia 431 Perug ia 1013 Regensburg C.120 Rome X I I I , 27 Rome 2856 S t . G a l l 461 S t . G a l l 462 Segovia S e v i l l e 5-1-43 F l o r e n c e , B i b l i o t e c a Naz iona le C e n t r a l e , MS Mag i . X IX ,178 . F l o r e n c e , B i b l i o t e c a Naz iona le C e n t r a l e , MS Banco Rar i 229 (o l im Magi . X I X , 5 9 ) . F l o r e n c e , B i b l i o t e c a R i c c a r d i a n a , Codex 2356. F l o r e n c e , B i b l i o t e c a del Conserva to r io d i Musica " L . C h e r u b i m " , MS Basevi 2439. F l o r e n c e , B i b l i o t e c a del Conserva to r io d i Musica " L . C h e r u b i n i " , MS Basevi 2442. F l o r e n c e , B i b l i o t e c a R i c c a r d i a n a , MS 2794. London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Royal MS 2 0 . A . X V I . Lond, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Add. MS 35087. M i l a n , A r c h i v i o del l a Veneranda Fabbr ica del Duomo, Sezione M u s i c a l e , L ib rone 3. Munich, U n i v e r s i t a t s b i b l i o t h e k der Ludwig-M a x i m i 1 i a n s - U n i v e r s i t a t , MSS 8° 328-331. Munich, Bayer ische S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , Musiksamm-lung , Musica MS 3154 (= MaiM42). New Haven, Ya le U n i v e r s i t y , Beinecke L i b r a r y , MS 91 ( "Mel lon Chansonn ie r " ) . P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , P a r i s , B i b l i o t h S q u e N a t i o n a l e , P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , 1817. P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , c h i I d , MS 2973. P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , nouv. acq 4379. P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , Manuscr i t P i x e r e c o u r t " ) . P e r u g i a , B i b l i o t e c a Comunale Augus ta , (G.20) . P e r u g i a , B i b l i o t e c a Comunale Augus ta , MS (M 36) . Regensburg, P r o s k e - B i b l i o t h e k , MS C.120 ("Pernner Codex" ) . Rome, B i b l i o t e c a A p o s t o l i c a V a t i c a n a , Cappe l la G i u l i a , XI I 1,27. Rome, B i b l i o t e c a Casanatense, Cod. 2856. S t . G a l l , S t i f t s b i b l i o t h e k , Cod. 461 ( " F r i d o l i n S i che r L i e d e r b u c h " ) . S t . G a l l , S t i f t s b i b l i o t h e k , Cod. 462 ("Johannes Heers L i e d e r b u c h " ) . Segov ia , C a t h e d r a l , s ine numero. S e v i l l e , B i b l i o t e c a Colombina, MS 5 - 1 - 4 3 . f . f r . MS f . f r . MS nouv. acq 1596. 1597. , f r . MS f . f r . MS 2245. C o l l e c t ion Roths-f . f r . MS MS f r . MS 15123("Le 431 1013 146 Verona 757 Vienna 18746 Verona, B i b l i o t e c a C a p i t o l a r e , Cod. DCCLVII. V i e n n a , N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k , MS 18746. B. E a r l y P r i n t s Cant i B Cant i C Formschne i d e r , 1538 Odhecaton A Cant i B. numero c i nquan ta . V e n i c e : 0 . P e t r u c c i , Feb. 5 , 1501 [= 1502 n. s t . ] . Cant i C. N° cento c i nquan ta . V e n i c e : 0 . P e t r u c c i , Feb. 10, 1503 [* 1504 n. s t . ] . 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