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Propertius’ use of myth in 1.20 Rae, A. Lyn 1983

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PROPERTIUS' USE OF MYTH IN 1.20 by A. LYN RAE B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Classics) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1983 0 A. Lyn Rae, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of QJL(Xjd^M. t A The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to attempt to demonstrate the function of the Hylas myth i n Propertius 1.20. The f i r s t chapter consists of a text and t r a n s l a t i o n of the poem. Chapter 2 introduces the question of the r o l e of mythological exempla i n Propertius' poetry. It i s found that while scholars recognize the relevance and importance of mythological material i n other elegies they deny that the Hylas t a l e bears more than a s u p e r f i c i a l relevance to i t s context. Chapter 3 considers the poetry of the Monobiblos, to which 1.20 belongs. Three elegies are analysed so as to i l l u s t r a t e Propertius' purpose and methods i n adducing mythological material i n h i s poems. I t i s concluded from these analyses that mythol-o g i c a l exempla not only i l l u s t r a t e the poet's portrayal of contemporary figures and s i t u a t i o n s but also contribute new elements that suggest or develop aspects of h i s theme not otherwise made e x p l i c i t . Four general means by which Propertius adapts t r a d i t i o n a l mythology for his own pur-poses are noted. A study of 1.20, to which Chapter 4 i s devoted, begins with a b r i e f discussion of the Hylas myth as i t was known i n Propertius' day. Texts of Apollonius Rhodius' and Theocritus' versions of the t a l e , the two most important extant l i t e r a r y accounts, and several i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the myth i n a r t are provided. The main component of the chapter, however, i s an analysis of 1.20 that attempts to reveal the s k i l f u l manner i n which Propertius narrates the t a l e of Hylas, adapting t r a d i -t i o n a l material with a purpose and method s i m i l a r to that observed i n h i s other e l e g i e s , and presenting i t as a relevant and i n t e g r a l part of his portr a y a l of the contemporary figures and s i t u a t i o n with which the poem i s concerned. There follow an appendix and a bibliography. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . .: i i LIST OF FIGURES i v ACKNOWLEDGMENT v INTRODUCTORY NOTE v i CHAPTER I PROPERTIUS 1.20 TEXT AND TRANSLATION 1 CHAPTER II INTRODUCTION 6 CHAPTER I I I THE POETRY OF THE MONOBIBLOS AND THE FUNCTION OF THE MYTHOLOGICAL EXEMPLA ... 11 CHAPTER IV PROPERTIUS 1.20 42 The Hylas Myth i n L i t e r a t u r e and i n Art ... 42 Apollonius Rhodius and Theocritus Texts ... 46 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 55 Analysis of 1.20 60 Conclusions 113 NOTES • 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY 125 APPENDIX The Reading of 1.20.29 .".. 127 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. The Rape of Hylas. Wall Painting from Pompeii. 55 FIGURE 2. The Rape of Hylas. Wall Painting from Pompeii. 56 FIGURE 3. The Rape of Hylas. Wall Painting from Herculaneum. ... 56 FIGURE 4. The Rape of Hylas. Sculpted Well-head 57 FIGURE 5. The Rape of Hylas. Mosaic from the B a s i l i c a of Iunius Bassus. 58 FIGURE 6. Eros Pursuing a Youth 59 FIGURE 7. Zephyrus Carrying Away a Youth (Hyacinthus?) 59 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e to thank Professor A.A. Barrett for h i s persevering encouragement and assistance throughout the composition of t h i s t h e s i s . Thanks are due also to Professor G. Sandy f or h i s many h e l p f u l comments and suggestions, and to the other members of the examining committee, Professors H. Edinger and P. B u r n e l l . INTRODUCTORY NOTE The text used i s that of the Oxford C l a s s i c a l Text of E.A. Barber (1960), with one change, 50 fontibus (codd.) The following frequently c i t e d works are referred to by the author's surname: Butler, H.E., and Barber, E.A., edd., The  Elegies of Propertius (Oxford 1933); Camps, W.A., ed., Propertius  Elegies Book I, (Cambridge 1961); Enk, P.J., ed., Sex. P r o p e r t i i  Elegiarum Liber I, (Leiden 1946); Hodge, R.I.V., and Buttimore, R.A., edd., The 'Monobiblios 1 of Propertius, (Cambridge 1977); Hubbard, Margaret, Propertius, (London 1974); Postgate, J.P., ed., Select Elegies of Propertius; (London 1911); Richardson, L.,Jr., ed., Propertius Elegies I-IV, (Norman 1977); and Williams, Gordon, Figures of Thought i n Roman Poetry, (New Haven and London 1980). PROPERTIUS 1.20 TEXT Hoc pro continuo ^ e , G a l l e , monemus amore, (id t i b i ne vacuo defluat ex animo) saepe imprudenti fortuna o c c u r r i t amanti: c r u d e l i s Minyis d i x e r i t Ascanius. est t i b i non i n f r a speciem, non nomine dispar Theiodamanteo proximus ardor Hylae: huic tu, sive leges umbrosae flumina s i l v a e , sive Aniena tuos t i n x e r i t unda pedes, sive Gigantea spatiabere l i t o r i s ora, sive ubicumque vago fluminis h o s p i t i o , Nympharum semper cupidas defende rapinas (non minor Ausoniis est amor Adryasin); ne t i b i s i t duros montes et f r i g i d a saxa, Ga l l e , neque expertos semper adire lacus quae miser i g n o t i s error perpessus i n o r i s Herculis indomito f l e v e r a t Ascanio. 12 Adryasin Struve: a d r i a c i s 0 namque ferunt olim Pagasae navalibus Argon egressam longe Phasidos i s s e viam, et lam p r a e t e r i t i s labentem Athamantidos undis Mysorum scopulis a p p l i c u i s s e ratem. 20 hie manus heroum, p l a c i d i s ut c o n s t i t i t o r i s , m o l l i a composita l i t o r a fronde t e g i t . at comes i n v i c t i iuvenis processerat u l t r a raram s e p o s i t i quaerere f o n t i s aquam. hunc duo s e c t a t i f r a t r e s , Aquilonia proles, 25 hunc super et Zetes, hunc super et C a l a i s , oscula suspensis instabant carpere palmis oscula et altern a f e r r e supina fuga. i l l e sub extrema pendens s e c l u d i t u r a l a et volucres ramo summovet i n s i d i a s . 30 iam Pandioniae c e s s i t genus O r i t h y i a : a dolor! ibat Hylas, ibat Hamadryasin. hie erat Arganthi Pege sub v e r t i c e montis grata domus Nymphis umida Thyniasin, 27 p l a n t i s 29 sed extrema pendentes l u d i t i n a l a Heinsius: sed extremam pendentes l u d i t ad alam Butrica quam supra nullae pendebant debita curae roscida d e s e r t i s poma sub arboribus, et circum i r r i g u o surgebant l i l i a prato Candida purpureis mixta papaveribus. quae modo decerpens tenero p u e r i l i t e r ungui proposito florem p r a e t u l i t o f f i c i o , et modo formosis incumbens nescius undis errorem blandis tardat imaginibus. tandem haurire parat demissis flumina palmis innixus dextro plena trahens umero. cuius ut accensae Dryades candore puellae miratae s o l i t o s destituere choros, prolapsum l e v i t e r f a c i l i traxere l i q u o r e : turn sonitum rapto corpore f e c i t Hylas. c u i procul Alcides i t e r a t responsa, sed i l l i nomen ab extremis fontibus aura r e f e r t . h i s , o Galle, tuos monitus servabis amores, formosum Nymphis credere visus Hylan. PROPERTIUS 1.20 TRANSLATION This warning I give you, Gallus, for the sake of your continuing love a f f a i r , ( l e t my words not flow from your empty mind) for often fortune crosses an imprudent lover, Ascanius, cruel to the Minyans, could t e l l you. You have a beloved very much l i k e Theiodamas' son Hylas, a boy not l e s s f a i r , nor of d i s s i m i l a r name, from him, whether you make your way along the streams of shady woods, or i f Anio's water laps at your feet , or i f you s t r o l l on the shores where the Giants fought, or wherever you are by a wandering, hospitable- stream, always ward o f f the desirous clutches of nymphs, ( I t a l i a n nymphs are no less amorous.), l e s t i t be your l o t , Gallus, ever to v i s i t hard mountains and c h i l l rocks and lakes untried; t h i s was the fate that Hercules endured, wandering i n misery on unknown shores and weeping before the r e l e n t l e s s Ascanius. For they say that once Argo from Pagasa's dockyards set s a i l and made the long journey to the Phasis, and now, s l i p p i n g throught the water, had passed the Hellespont, and put i n to shore on the rocky coast of Mysia. Here the band of heroes set foot on the peaceful shore and covered the ground with a soft layer of leaves, but the companion of the unconquered youth had gone o f f to seek the choice water of a distant spring. Two brothers, the sons of Aquilo, eagerly pursued him, above him Zetes and above him C a l a i s , and swooped down, one a f t e r the other, with hands outstretched, to pluck kisses from h i s upturned face, and to carry them away. Hylas, hanging under the edge of a wing, protects himself, and with a branch wards o f f the winged attack. Now the sons of O r i t h y i a , Pandion's granddaughter, are gone, ah, g r i e f ! Hylas was o f f , was o f f to the Hamadryads. Here beneath the summit of Mount Arganthus was Pege, pleasing watery home of Thynian nymphs, above, owed to no c u l t i v a t i o n , moist apples hung under s o l i t a r y trees, and round about, i n a well watered meadow, white l i l i e s rose mingled with purple poppies. how, with c h i l d l i k e d e l i g h t , plucking these with tender n a i l , he preferred the blossoms to h i s appointed task, and now leaning over the l o v e l y waters, unknowing, enticed by the r e f l e c t i o n s , prolonged h i s straying. at l a s t , with lowered hands, he prepares to draw up the water, leaning on h i s r i g h t shoulder and drawing a f u l l measure. When the Dryad maids, inflamed by h i s beauty, had ceased t h e i r accustomed dance, they l i g h t l y through the y i e l d i n g water drew the boy from where he lay; then, when h i s body had been seized, did Hylas utter a cry. By these events warned, Gallus, you w i l l keep safe your love; you seemed to be entrusting your l o v e l y Hylas to nymphs. INTRODUCTION The basic premise of 1.20 i s simple enough: Propertius, observing that h i s f r i e n d Gallus i s i n danger of l o s i n g his beloved boy Hylas to amorous female admirers, warns him to be constantly v i g i l a n t . He then i l l u s t r a t e s h i s warning through the narration of the mythological t a l e of Hercules' loss of h i s beloved Hylas to desirous nymphs. The struc-ture of the elegy i s also straightforward: i n l i n e s 1-16, the poet ad-dresses Gallus on the subject of h i s love a f f a i r , "Gallus, you have a beloved boy" ( 5 f ) , o f f e r s him advice, "you must protect him from the desirous clutches of nymphs" (11), and explains why t h i s i s necessary, "fortune often crosses careless l o v e r s " (3) and "you are i n danger of l o s i n g forever your beloved boy" ( 1 3 f f ) ; i n l i n e s 17-50, he provides a mythological exemplum, (Hylas, having l e f t the protection of Hercules, i s exposed to the advances of amorous nymphs and i s c a r r i e d off by them); and i n l i n e s 51-52, he concludes by emphasizing the relevance of the mythological exemplum to Gallus' circumstances, "by t h i s t a l e warned, Gallus, you w i l l keep safe your love" (51), and by r e i t e r a t i n g h i s perception of those circumstances, "you seemed to me to be en-t r u s t i n g your b e a u t i f u l Hylas to nymphs" (52). Mythlogical references abound throughout Propertius' poetry; mythological figures and s i t u a t i o n s are perceived and portrayed by the poet as analogous to and i l l u s t r a t i v e of contemporary figures and s i t u a t i o n s . This feature seems e a s i l y accounted f o r . "(Mythological tales provide) supporting arguments ... (they serve as) paradeigmata or examples, standard forms of enlargement that belong to elementary rhetoric"'''. "(Mythological a l l u s i o n ) was favoured by the r h e t o r i c i a n s ' method, taught at school, of enumerating examples to support an argu-2 ment" . Recent consideration of mythological exempla, however, has revealed a sophisticated and complex r e l a t i o n s h i p between a Propertian exemplum and the context of the poem. A mythological reference might be seen as providing more than a mere i l l u s t r a t i o n or supporting argu-ment. "Propertius' employment of myth i s functional (and not simply decorative) and though i t may be d i f f i c u l t to discover completely the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a p a r t i c u l a r exemplum, i t i s usually c l e a r that i t has some s i g n i f i c a n c e and i s not simply detachable from i t s context ... mythological elements i n Propertius ... do not contain simply one point of comparison ... (and) the conscious or unconscious assumption that Propertius i s ' r h e t o r i c a l ' t o t a l l y i n h i b i t s serious c r i t i c i s m " . The r o l e given to mythological exempla by Propertius i s described by Gordon Williams i n terms of "primary" and "secondary" language^. Primary l a n -guage i s defined as "the immediate expression of experience or emotion i n l i t e r a l terms" and secondary language as "the use of material that i s from the writer's point of view objective, external, and i n v o l v i n g characters other than h i s own or that of h i s subject". Propertius' ad-dress to Gallus i n 1.20 therefore might be thought of as expressed both d i r e c t l y i n primary language (1-16, 51-52) and i n d i r e c t l y i n secondary language through the exemplum of the myth (17-50). Williams asserts that often Propertius uses mythological exempla to say more i n second-ary language than i s said i n primary language. Not only does the myth-o l o g i c a l material corroborate the observations made by the poet i n the primary context of the poem , i t may introduce new elements, suggesting or developing aspects of h i s theme not made e x p l i c i t elsewhere i n the poem. The reader i s therefore required to " i n f e r or reconstruct e_ sequentibus praecedentia the things that have not been said""', and the complete expression of the poet's statement and the reader's f u l l under-standing of i t are postponed u n t i l the end of the poem. These observations about the function of a mythological exemplum and i t s relevance and importance to the poem as a whole are v a l i d with reference to 1.20. However, because of the nature of the exemplum i n 1.20, the i n t e g r a l r o l e played by the myth has not been f u l l y recognized, nor has the care and s k i l l with which Propertius applies the myth to the primary context of the poem been f u l l y appreciated. The exemplum i n 1.20 i s unique i n the Monobiblos both i n length and i n s t y l e . Almost two-thirds of the poem i s devoted to i t , and i t takes the form of a narrative elegy complete i n i t s e l f . For t h i s reason i t has been thought that Propertius' sole purpose i n 1.20 was to display through the myth his n a rrative s k i l l s , and that the contemporary s i t u a t i o n that the poet presents as h i s primary concern merely provides a pretext for t h i s d i s -play: "Underthe pretext of warning hi s f r i e n d Gallus to beware l e s t the Nymphs carry o f f the boy he loves, Propertius introduces a b e a u t i f u l account of the rape of Hylas"^; " ... the warning (to Gallus) ... i s used to provide a s e t t i n g for the legend of Hylas ... the s e t t i n g i s com-pa r a t i v e l y unimportant; the legend i s the main thing ... "This i s the only mythological narrative ( i n the Monobiblos) ... (and) Gallus and g hi s beloved are merely a pretext for recounting the myth" . Because the dramatic s i t u a t i o n with which the poem begins has been seen p r i m a r i l y as a pretext for the narration of the myth, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mythological exemplum and this-dramatic s i t u a t i o n has not been con-sidered s u f f i c i e n t l y important to deserve a d e t a i l e d study. Commenta-tors, s a t i s f i e d with pointing the more obvious correspondences, have not searched the secondary language of the exemplum for more information about the primary context of the poem than i s supplied by the poet i n hi s introductory words to Gallus, and Propertius' design has therefore not been f u l l y understood. Hodge and Buttimore and Williams, for ex-ample, admire the relevance and s k i l f u l use of other mythological ex-empla i n the Monobiblos, but contrast the exemplum i n 1.20: "The moral (of the Hylas tale) i s applied to Gallus, but the r e l a t i o n between the mythic na r r a t i v e and the dramatic s i t u a t i o n i s not well worked out ... the centre of the poem i s not t h i s dramatic s i t u a t i o n but the mythic na r r a t i v e " ; "Propertius' (1.20) shows l i t t l e other than a f a i r l y t r a -d i t i o n a l paradigmatic use of myth"'''? (By " t r a d i t i o n a l paradigmatic" i s meant the use of myth as an ornamental i l l u s t r a t i o n ) ) Hubbard i s more s p e c i f i c i n her c r i t i c i s m , "... two rather lengthy developments of p i c t o r i a l subjects, the assault of the winged sons of Boreas on the boy Hylas, and the ecphrasis of the scene at the spring ... are unchar-a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s elf-indulgent ... (and) so lacking i n point" The p r e v a i l i n g c r i t i c a l opinion, then, of 1.20 i s that the dra-matic s i t u a t i o n that i s addressed i n the primary context of ;the poem i s a pretext for the poet's narration of the myth of Hylas, and that the mythological exemplum bears only a s u p e r f i c i a l relevance to that s i t u a t i o n . This opinion i s , I think, i n c o r r e c t . This study w i l l begin with a consideration of the poetry of the Monobiblos that i n -cludes the analyses of three elegies i n which i t i s acknowledged that Propertius has r e l e v a n t l y and s k i l f u l l y applied h i s mythological material so that i f forms an i n t e g r a l part of what he has to say. This w i l l allow some general observations to be made on the nature of the poetry of Propertius' f i r s t book and on the function of mytholog-i c a l exempla i n t h i s poetry, and w i l l serve to e s t a b l i s h a frame of reference for a discussion of the exemplum i n 1.20. The main com-ponent of t h i s paper, however, i s an analysis of 1.20 that attempts to demonstrate the s k i l f u l and clever manner i n which Propertius narrates the t a l e of Hylas not memely as a poetic exercise but i n order both to corroborate the observations he has made on the subject of Gallus' love a f f a i r and to express his f u l l perception and p o r t r a y a l of those aspects of love that Gallus' a f f a i r involves. THE POETRY OF THE MONOBIBLOS AND THE FUNCTION OF THE MYTHOLOGICAL EXEMPLA 1.20 belongs to a group of elegies c o l l e c t e d and published as a sin g l e book, and shares with them a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r u c t u r a l pattern. V i r t u a l l y every poem i s addressed to a s i n g l e named i n d i v i d u a l and presented as Propertius' response to a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n involving 12 that i n d i v i d u a l . Through h i s port r a y a l of these various dramatic si t u a t i o n s and h i s reactions to them, he expresses h i s thoughts and feel i n g s on many aspects of experience i n love. In 1.11, for example, Cynthia i s holidaying i n Baiae, te mediis  cessantem, Cynthia, Bais (1), a resort notorious for the wanton behav-iour of i t s residents, multis i s t a dabunt l i t o r a discidium / l i t o r a  quae fuerant c a s t i s inimica p u e l l i s / a! pereant Baiae crimen amoris  aquae (2 8 f f ) . Propertius expresses to her h i s fear that she w i l l there forget him, ecquid ... n o s t r i cura subit memores, a, ducere noctis /  ecquis i n extremo r e s t a t amore locus? (1 ... 5 f ) , and become enamoured of another, (vereor) vacet a l t e r i u s blandos audire susurros (13). Through h i s response to t h i s s i t u a t i o n Propertius reveals the i n s e c u r i t y and fear he f e e l s when he i s separated from h i s beloved. In 1.6, Tullus has requested that Propertius accompany him to Asia, non ego  nunc Hadriae vereor mare noscere tecum / T u l l e neque Aegaeo ducere  vela salo ( I f ) . Propertius' reply both conveys hi s desire to go, doctas cognoscere Athenas / atque Asiae veteres cernere d i v i t l a s ...  mol l i s qua tendit Ionia ... qua / Lydia P a c t o l i t i n g i t arata l i q u o r (13f ... 31f), and explains why he must refuse; his mistress' dra-matic protests and complaints keep him back, i l i a mihi t o t i s argutat  noctibus ignes ... i l i a minatur / quae solet i r a t o t r i s t i s arnica  v i r o ... mihi deducta f a c l a t c o n v i c i a puppi / Cynthia et insanis ora notet manibus / osculaque opposito d i c a t s i b i debita vento (7 ... 9f ... 15ff) . Propertius' surrender to Cynthia's w i l l , h i s ego non horam  possum durare querelis (11), and the recognition that t h i s i s h i s destiny, ncn ego sum l a u d i non natus idoneus armis / hanc me m i l i t i a m  fa t a subire volunt (29f), i n d i c a t e the compulsive nature of h i s love for his mistress and reveal the absolute power that the love r e l a t i o n -ship wields i n h i s l i f e . In the tenth elegy, Propertius' f r i e n d Gallus has f a l l e n deeply i n love and Propertius has witnessed h i s passion for h i s mistress, primo cum t e s t i s ambri / affueram v e s t r i s  conscius i n l a c r i m i s ... cum te complexa morientem', Ga l l e , puella /  vidimus et longa ducere verba mora (If ... 5 f ) . The poet takes the opportunity, as one well acquainted with such love, that i s , as prae- ceptor amoris, to dispense some "advice, Cynthia me docuit semper  quaecumque petenda / quaecumque cavenda forent, non n i h i l egit Amor (19f). And i n t h i s advice he reveals h i s own perception of love as a sort of bondage, tu cave ne ... neve ... neve ... neu ... neu ...  quo s i s humilis magis et subiectus amori / hoc magis effecto saepe  fruare bono ( 2 1 f f ) . Cynthia, Tullus and Gallus are three of the f i v e persons to whom the elegies of the Monobiblos are addressed. The poets Bassus and Ponticus complete the group of addressees. Cynthia's holiday i n Baiae, T u l l u s ' request that Propertius accompany him to the provinces and Gallus' f a l l i n g i n love i l l u s t r a t e the kinds of circumstances that are portrayed as provoking a response from Propertius. Other occa-sions include a dispute with Ponticus over the r e l a t i v e worth of epic and elegy (1.7, 1.9), Propertius' f l i g h t from Cynthia's abusive treatment of him (1.17, 1.18) and Tul-lus' obvious pleasure i n h i s wealth (1.14). The portrayal of a s p e c i f i c contemporary s i t u a t i o n as compelling the poet's response i s an e f f e c t i v e compositional technique; i t gives 13 the poems a "dramaturgical immediacy" , creating a strong impression of r e a l i t y and thereby convincing the reader of the s i n c e r i t y and truth of the poet's observations. I t i s generally held that the dramatic circumstances from which the elegies proceed are l i t e r a r y inventions contrived to s u i t the poet's purpose and that they do not represent actual h i s t o r i c a l events. "Scholars ... d i s t i n g u i s h f i r m l y between h i s t o r y and poetry and thus by im p l i c a t i o n between biographical facts and l i t e r a r y creation. ' S i n c e r i t y ' ... i s a function of s t y l e : no necessary or s p e c i f i c connections are to be made between personal 14 poetry and personal experience." Situations therefore such as Cynthia's stay i n Baiae or Ponticus' taunts concerning the value of elegiac poetry represent not " h i s t o r i c a l " truth but " p o e t i c a l " truth, that i s , they are given and accepted as true f o r the purposes of the poem. However, the recognition that Propertius' portrayal of a con-temporary s i t u a t i o n constitutes a poetic technique and does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e an actual experience does not negate the r e a l i t y behind h i s reference to contemporary persons, places and circum-stances. To take for example h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Cynthia at Baiae (1.11) and h i s two poems to Ponticus (1.7, 1.9), we know from exter-nal evidence that Propertius did have a mistress whose pseudonym was Cynthia, Propertium qui Cunthiam d i c a t Hostiam dissimulet (Apuleius, Apol. 10) and that Baiae was infamous i n an t i q u i t y f or the wanton behaviour of i t s residents, (Baiae) deversorium vitiorum esse coep- erunt (Seneca, Ep. 51). Ponticus was i n f a c t an epic poet and a mem-ber of Propertius' l i t e r a r y c i r c l e , saepe suos s o l i t u s r e c i t a r e  Propertius ignes / i u r e s o d a l i c i i quo mihi iunctus erat. Ponticus  heroo Bassus quoque clarus iambis / d u l c i a convictus membra fuere mei (Ovid Tr. 4.10.45ff). Whether Cynthia did a c t u a l l y v i s i t Baiae or Ponticus challenge the worth of elegy does not s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the reader's understanding of these poems. The poet may well have i n -vented these dramatic s i t u a t i o n s but by including i n them elements of r e a l i t y he f i x e s them i n the realm of h i s reader's experience and thereby enhances t h e i r immediacy and c r e d i b i l i t y . To these dramatic s i t u a t i o n s Propertius responds, as the synopses of 1.11, 1.6 and 1.10 i l l u s t r a t e , d i r e c t l y and personally. His inten-t i o n i n the Monobiblos, however, was not merely to describe s i n g l e s p e c i f i c occasions and h i s own reactions to them, but rather through these to explore and portray those s i t u a t i o n s and emotions that are the common l o t of lovers. He wishes that when other lovers read h i s poems they may f i n d there expressed t h e i r own experience, me legat assidue post haec neglectus amator / et prosint i l l i cognita nostra  mala ... turn me non humilem mlrabere saepe poetam / tunc ego Romanls  praeferar Ingeniis / nec poterunt Iuvenes nostro r e t i c e r e sepulchro /  ardoris n o s t r i magne poeta iaces (1.7.13f ... 21ff)*~*. Propertius writes as one r e l a t i n g h i s own and his f r i e n d s ' experiences with the purpose of revealing, through t h i s expression of the p a r t i c u l a r and the personal, the " e s s e n t i a l and t y p i c a l aspects of experience . , „ 16 m love. In many of the el e g i e s , Propertius adduces mythological material as relevant to h i s theme. He applies i t i n such a way that i t forms an i n t e g r a l part of h i s perception and portrayal of that aspect of love with which he i s concerned. The following analyses w i l l i l l u s -t r a t e Propertius' purpose and method i n int e g r a t i n g mythological experience with hi s d e s c r i p t i o n of contemporary experience. T. In the thir t e e n t h elegy of the Monobiblos, Propertius observes that Gallus has at l a s t f a l l e n i n love, Galle ... perditus i n quadam  ta r d i s p a l l e s c e r e c u r i s / i n c i p i s ... v i d i ego te toto vinctum  languescere c o l l o / et f l e r e i n i e c t i s G alle diu manibus / et cupere  optatis animam deponere verbis ... t i b i non tepidas subdidit i l i a  faces ... te tuus ardor aget ... tu vero ... es periturus amore (4 ... 7f ... 15ff ... 26 ... 28 ... 33). Two conceits, which are commonplace both i n Propertius and i n other e r o t i c poets, are used throughout the elegy to describe the love that Gallus i s experienc-ing; i t i s "burning", non tepidas faces (26) , ardor (28), and " f a t a l " , perditus (7), animam deponere cupere (17), es periturus (33). Mythological exempla, Neptune's love for Tyro and Hercules' for Hebe, are adduced to i l l u s t r a t e the depth of Gallus' love f o r his mistress. Propertius introduces the myths by the demonstrative adverbs non s i c ... nec s i c , e s t a b l i s h i n g at once t h e i r relevance as i l l u s t r a t i v e examples. He then expresses them i n such a way that t h i s relevance i s obvious; the images and themes presented by them d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t the images and themes with which Propertius i s dealing i n the poem's primary context. Neptune, i n love with Tyro, pressed her c l o s e l y i n an embrace, Haemonio Salmonida mixtus  Enipeo / Taenarius f a c i l i p r e s s i t amore deus (21f). In the l i n e s immediately preceding, Gallus and h i s mistress were portrayed by Propertius i n a s i m i l a r embrace, v i d i ego te toto vinctum languescere  c o l l o / et f l e r e i n i e c t i s G alle diu manibus ... non ego complexus  potui diducere vestros (15f ... 19). Hercules f e l t a bla z i n g love for Hebe, flagrans amor Herculls Heben (23) and, i n the l i n e s imme-d i a t e l y following, Gallus i s said to bear a torch of love for h i s mistress, t i b i non tepidas subdidit i l i a faces (26). Not only do these myths i l l u s t r a t e Gallus' love, they provide examples with which that love may be compared, f o r , as Propertius notes, Gallus' passion i s even greater, non s i c ... nec s i c (21 ... 23). Several d e t a i l s i n the poet's descriptions of the love experi-enced by Neptune and Hercules, however, suggest that these exempla are intended as more than single-faceted i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the immediate s i t u a t i o n . For example, Propertius' e s o t e r i c reference to Neptune, Taenarius deus (22), evokes an image of the god's sanctuary at Taenarus (IIbaeu6<Iiv ouitC Tauvapw §eos s Aristophanes, Acharn.510) , a location,as S. Commager points o u t ^ , that bears ominous connotations. Taenarus was fabled to conceal one of the entrances to the underworld, eitoLricav 6e 'EAArfvodv T U V E S U S 'HpowAfis dvayaYOL xaOxri T O O "AL6oy T O V xvSva (Pausanias 3.25.5). This notion was well known, and the name Taenarus could stand i n poetry for the i n f e r n a l region i t s e l f , for example, i n v i s i horrida 18 Taenari sedes (Horace C.1134.10) . Propertius' reference to Neptune as "the Taenarian" within h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the god's passion for Tyro serves to suggest to the reader a close associa-t i o n between great passion and h e l l . Such an as s o c i a t i o n i s ex-p l i c i t l y expressed by Propertius elsewhere i n h i s poetry. In 2.1, for example, he likens the experience of the lover to the torments endured by those i n the underworld, hoc s i quis vitium (vitium = 19 amare ) p o t e r i t mihi demere solus / Tantaleae p o t e r i t tradere poma manu / d o l i a v i r g i n e i s idem i l l e r e p l e v e r i t urnis / ne tenera assidua c o l l a graventur aqua / idem Caucasia solvet de rupe Pro-20 methei / bracchia et a medio pectore p e l l e t avem (2.1.65ff) . The epithet, then, by v i r t u e of the thoughts and images i m p l i c i t i n i t , associates with the subject of passionate love the ideas of i n f e r n a l torment.and death. The Taenarian god, Propertius implies, i s doomed by h i s passion for Tyro to s u f f e r Taenarian torments, and Gallus, whose passion for h i s mistress i s exemplified i n the myth, i s s i m i l a r l y doomed. "Taenarius ... suggests the abyss to which i n 21 Propertius' eyes so infatuate a passion must lead" . Considering i n the l i g h t of t h i s mythological exemplum Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of Gallus' love as " f a t a l " , the reader i s led to i n t e r p r e t t h i s conventional expression le s s metaphorically and more l i t e r a l l y . A second image of death i s evoked by an unusual d e t a i l i n the Hercules myth. Propertius describes Hercules as burning with passion for Hebe on the heights of Oeta, i n Oetaeis ... i u g i s (24). According to the usual mythological accounts, Hercules did indeed love Hebe, but Oeta was not the scene of h i s gaudia prima (24) , i t was, as Propertius and h i s readers knew w e l l , the scene of his 22' death . The hero did not love Hebe u n t i l a f t e r h i s death and 23 ascension to Olympus . It appears that Propertius"has d e l i b e r a t e l y a l t e r e d the t r a d i t i o n a l version of the myth i n order to suggest a close a s s o c i a t i o n between Hercules' love and h i s death. The reader i s also reminded by the name Oeta of the manner of Hercules' death, through burning, both by the f i e r y poison i n the s h i r t given him by h i s wife and by the flames of the pyre to which his agony drove him, implevitque suis nemorosam vocibus Oeten ... ipse  cruor ... / ... s t r i d i t coquiturque ardente veneno / nec modus est, sorbent avidae praecordia flammae / caeruleusque f l u i t toto de  corpore sudor / ambustique sonant n e r v i , caecaque medullis / tabe  l i q u e f a c t i s ... arboribus caesis quas ardua gesserat Pete / inque pyram s t r u c t l s ... dumque a v l d i s comprenditur ignibus agger /  ... recumbis (Ovid Met.9.164ff). The evocation of t h i s image of"Hercules' death within the d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s love for Hebe serves, f o r the second time i n the poem, to associate with the subject of passionate love the ideas of torment and of death. And considering i n the l i g h t of t h i s exemplum Propertius' descrip-t i o n of Gallus' love as "burning", the reader i s led to i n t e r p r e t t h i s expression also l e s s metaphorically and more l i t e r a l l y . "Given t h i s mythical context i t i s hard to take flagrans amor  Herculls and the p a r a l l e l phrases used of Gallus ( t i b i non tepidas  subdidit i l i a faces ... te tuus ardor aget) as simply a conventional conceit. The 'flame of love', Propertius suggests, was as much charnel as carnal, a consuming f i r e that annihilates the lov e r " These exempla i l l u s t r a t e the s k i l f u l manner i n which Propertius applies t r a d i t i o n a l mythological material both to substantiate and to expand and develop observations he has made i n the primary context of the poem. Familiar mythological d e t a i l s are c a r e f u l l y arranged to r e f l e c t and i l l u s t r a t e the dramatic s i t u a t i o n (Galle  ... v i d i ego te toto vinctum languescere c o l l o ... Salmonida mixtus Enipeo / Taenarius f a c i l i p r e s s i t amore deus). Single mythological names are used to stand for the themes and images i m p l i c i t i n them (both Taenarius and Oetaeis evoke images of torment and of death). Certain dieas are expressed so as to suggest other passages i n Pro-pertius that present a s i m i l a r theme (Taenarian god ... Taenarian_ torments). And mythological d e t a i l s that depart from t r a d i t i o n a l versions mark the poet's deliberate a l t e r a t i o n of f a m i l i a r material to s u i t the unique purposes of h i s poem (flagrans amor Herculis  Heben / sensit i n Oetaeis gaudia prima i u g i s ) . The myths adduced by Propertius i n l i n e s 29-32 function i n the same way. I t i s no wonder, Propertius declares, that Gallus f e e l s such love, for h i s mistress i s "worthy of Jove, very l i k e Leda's daughters and more ent i c i n g than Argive heroines". The references to Leda and her o f f s p r i n g serve as ostensible i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the great beauty of Gallus' mistress, for Leda's looks had a t t r a c t e d the love of Jove, Lede quam (propter faciem) ... / c a l l i d u s i n f a l s a  l u s i t adulter ave (Ovid, Am. 1.10.35f), and her daughter Helen's beauty was legendary, auvuis d d a v a x n a L Seris E L S Sua eotxev, I I . 3.158). In another elegy Propertius t e l l s Cynthia that she too possesses t h i s kind of beauty, Romana accumbes prima pue l l a I o v i ...  post Helenam haec t e r r i s forma secunda r e d i t ( i n te) (2.3.30ff). These mythological references, however, also bear most s i n i s t e r connotations. The most famous daughters of Leda were Helen and Clytemnestra. Both names are synonymous with unfaithfulness: 25 Penelope v e n i t ab i t Helene (Martial 1.62.6) ; quidve Clytaemnestrae (libldinem referam) propter quam tota Mycenis / infamis stupro st a t 2 6 Pelopea domus? (3.19.19f). Furthermore, both brought about the deaths of men who loved them. Helen, by her betrayal to the Greeks of Deiophobus, was responsible f or h i s death. Compare V e r g i l Aen.6.511ff, (where the shade of Deiophobus addresses Aeneas) me f a t a mea et  scelus e x i t i a l e Lacaenae / h i s mersere malis. And Clytemnestra's murder of Agamemnon was infamous. Compare Aeschylus Ag. 1380ff, (where Clytemnestra addresses the elders of Argos), ouxto S ' e u p a ^ a HOLL xd6' ovn a p v n o o y a t . . . icauoj 6e vuv 6 u s . x & v 6uotv o u y w y y a x o L V / y e d r i x e v a u x o u xuJAa. xaC H E U X U M O X U / x p L x n v £Tiev6u6a)yL x o u x a x a ^ , 2 7 X^ovos / A L O S vexpwv awxfipos euwxatav x^ P^v . The i d e n t i t y of the Inachiae heroitiae i s disputed. I f , as Commager believes, Propertius has i n mind the Danaids, the f i f t y daughters of Danaus, forty-nine of whom murdered t h e i r husbands on t h e i r wedding night (Danai genus infame, Horace, C. 2.14.18f), the mythological name serves to suggest 28 yet another s i t u a t i o n i n which love brought betrayal and death . Through mythological exempla, then, Propertius i l l u s t r a t e s the observations he has made on a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i n the love l i f e of h i s f r i e n d , the love of Gallus f or h i s mistress. Through the thoughts and images evoked by c a r e f u l l y chosen mythological d e t a i l s , he develops an aspect of that s i t u a t i o n that i n t e r e s t s him, that i s , the nature of t h i s kind of love. The reader i s led to reconsider the burning and f a t a l passion experienced by the lover i n terms les s metaphorical and more l i t e r a l ; love, according to Propertius, com-p l e t e l y consumes the lover. "Exploring the lover's ardor and 'death' through the various mythological exempla, Propertius has recharged the f a m i l i a r amatory vocabulary by h i s own intense, even masochistic, 29 v i s i o n of what love exacts from the lover". Only when h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the contemporary s i t u a t i o n i s considered i n the l i g h t of a l l the thoughts and images that are suggested i n the mythological exempla i s Propertius' perception and portrayal of the nature of such a love as Gallus' f u l l y understood. It has been observed that one of the ways i n which Propertius applies mythological material to contemporary experience i s to allow sin g l e legendary names to stand for the thoughts and images a s s o c i - • ated with them. The poet's adduction of myth i n the fourth elegy of the Monobiblos i l l u s t r a t e s h i s r e l i a n c e on t h i s carrying power of mythological names. The poem i s addressed to Bassus who has been encouraging Pro-pertius to leave Cynthia, quid mihi tarn multas laudando Basse puellas/  mutatum domina cogis abire mea? ( I f ) . Propertius avers that no per-suasion could induce him to abandon Cynthia, and to i l l u s t r a t e his devotion he o f f e r s mythological exempla, tu l i c e t Antiopae formam  Nycteidos, et tu / Spartanae referas laudibus Hermionae / et quas- cumque t u l i t formosi temporis aetas / Cynthia non i l l a s nomen habere  sinat ( 5 f f ) . Beauty i s purportedly the feature at issue i n these comparisons (Antiopae formam ... et Hermionae ... formosi temporis aetas ... haec forma ... 5 ... 7 ... 11), and Antiope and Hermione 30 were no doubt formosae , but t h i s a t t r i b u t e i s not a prominent aspect of the t a l e s i n which they f i g u r e . There seems no ready explanation for the poet's choice of these p a r t i c u l a r mythological exemplars. However, the themes and images that are evoked by t h e i r names are borne i n mind by the reader and t h e i r relevance becomes clear as the poem develops. Propertius proceeds to warn Bassus that Cynthia w i l l not l e t him get away with h i s interference i n her love a f f a i r , non impune  feres, s c i e t haec insana p u e l l a / et t i b i non t a c i t i s vocibus h o s t i s  e r i t / ... e r i t t a n t i c r i m i n i s i l i a memor / et te circum omnes a l i a s  i r a t a puellas / d i f f e r e t ... non u l l o gravius temptatur Cynthia  damno / quam s i b i cum rapto cessat amore deus (17f ... 20ff ... 25f). Cynthia's furious jealousy and possessiveness are described i n s i m i l a r terms throughout the Monobiblos. For example, ut mihi •.. f a c i a t  convicia ... / Cynthia et insanis ora notet manibus, and m o l l i t e r  i r a s c i non s o l e t i l i a (1.6.15f, 1.5.8). In the elegy under considera-t i o n her wrath i s , or w i l l be, directed not at her u n f a i t h f u l lover but at the one she perceives as an i n t e r l o p e r i n her love a f f a i r , (Basse) nostros contendis solvere amores ... s c i e t haec insana  p u e l l a (15 ... 17). This very same s i t u a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the myths of Antiope and Hermione; a lover, made jealous by the i n t e r -ference of a t h i r d party i n the love a f f a i r , punishes the i n t e r l o p e r . Antiope was suspected by Dirce of having l a i n with Lycus, Dirce's husband. Dirce, maddened with jealousy, confined Antiope i n a dungeon and tortured her, Lycus Dircen i n matrimonium duxit, cu i s uspicio i n c i d i t virum suum clam cum Antiopa concubuisse; itaque imperavit famulis ut earn i n tenebris vinctam clauderent (Hyginus, Fab. 7) . Hermione had been promised to Orestes but was given instead to Neoptolemus. Orestes, i n resentment, contrived to have him k i l l e d , (Menelaus) Hermionenque ab Oreste abduxit et Neoptolemo dedit, Orestes i n j u r i a accepta Neoptolemum Delphis sacrificantem o c c i d i t et Hermionen recuperavit (Hyginus Fab. 123). The story played a part i n Euripides' 32 Andromache . A passage i n Ovid confirms that Orestes' r o l e i n the Hermione myth would have been for Roman readers a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of Propertius' observation that non n u l l o gravius temptatur (amans)  damno / quam s i b i cum rapto cessat amore deus (1.4.25ff); aemulus est  n o s t r i (that i s , amantis) maxima causa mali ... acrius Hermionen ideo  d i l e x i t Orestes / esse quod a l t e r i u s coeperat i l i a v i r i (Rem.Am.568ff). The s t o r i e s evoked by these mythological names provide examples of other lovers who punish those whom they perceive as i n t e r f e r i n g i n t h e i r love a f f a i r s , thereby corroborating Propertius' p r e d i c t i o n that Cynthia w i l l be. provoked to furious jealousy by Bassus' interference i n her love a f f a i r and w i l l punish him. The myths of Antiope and Hermione also evoke v i v i d images of the c r u e l t y and violence with which lovers r e t a l i a t e against i n t e r l o p e r s . Propertius i n another elegy describes i n d e t a i l the s u f f e r i n g Dirce caused Antiope, Dirce  tam vero crimine saeva / Nycteos Antiopen accubuisse Lyco / a quotiens  pulchros i u s s i t regina c a p i l l o s / molliaque immites f i x i t i n ora  manus / a quotiens famulam pensis oneravit i n i q u i s / et caput i n  dura ponere i u s s i t humo / saepe i l l a m immundis passa est habitare  tenebris / vilem ieiunae saepe negavit aquam (3.15.11ff). And Euripides describes the murder of Neoptolemus by Orestes. (Orestes' henchmen perpetrate the actual k i l l i n g but Orestes alone i s c l e a r l y 6 y n x A V ° P P C ' C P 0 S , A n d - 1 1 1 6 ) . e v S ' ' A x u X X e w g U L T V E L / TICXCS . o ^ u d n H T c o " i i A e u p a . cpaayavtj) x u u e t s / . . . a)s 6 e f t p o s y ^ C a v TCLTVEL / T L S O U a L 6 n p o v u p o a c p e p e t / T U S o u i c e x p o v / S d X X u v d p a a a w v ; i [ a v 6 ' d v a X w i a u S e y a s / T O x a X X u y o p t p o v x p a u u d x w v u n d y p L c o v (And.1149ff). The violence of the measures taken by the lovers i n these t a l e s i n t h e i r anger and resentment manifests the power of these emotions. Cynthia too i s described as angry and re s e n t f u l (iirata, temptatur) and, although she does not resort to physical violence, the as s i d u i t y and thoroughness with which she i s portrayed as carrying out her defamation of Bassus' character (te circum  omnes a l i a s ... puellas d i f f e r e t , i n nu l l o limine carus e r i s / nullas  ... contemnet ... aras / et quicumque sacer qualis ubique l a p i s , 21ff) manifest the power of these emotions i n her. In the conjunction of the contemporary and the mythological exempla, Propertius expresses h i s perception and por t r a y a l of the i n t e n s i t y of the jealousy and possess-iveness experienced by the lover. In 1.4, the mythological exempla contribute to the development of Propertius' p o r t r a y a l of the nature of the lover's jealousy s o l e l y through the thoughts and images i m p l i c i t i n the mythological names. In the f i f t e e n t h elegy, the exempla are expressed at some length, and th e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to the primary context of the poem i l l u s t r a t e s the poet's c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and adaptation of mythological d e t a i l both to substantiate h i s remarks to Cynthia and to develop an aspect of the s i t u a t i o n that i n t e r e s t s him. The primary context of the poem i s an address to Cynthia i n which he r a i l s at her for the i n d i f f e r e n c e she has shown him. In the f i r s t eight l i n e s are outlined the circumstances that have inspi r e d t h i s outburst; Propertius claims to be i n great danger, aspice me quanto rapiat fortuna p e r i c l o (3), yet Cynthia shows l i t t l e concern for his predicament, tu tamen i n nostro lenta timore venis (4). Indeed, she b l a t a n t l y demonstrates her i n d i f f e r e n c e by devoting her a t t e n t i o n to her own adornment, et potes hesternos manibus componere crines / et longa faciem quaerere d e s i d i a / nec minus Eois pectus v a r i a r e l a p i l l i s ( 5 f f ) , a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n to Propertius that her mind i s on other men, 33 ut formosa novo quae parat i r e v i r o (8) . Lines 25-42 are provoked by something Cynthia has sa i d . The words desine iam revocare t u i s p e r i u r i a verbis suggest that between l i n e s 24 and 25 Cynthia has interrupted Propertius' t i r a d e with protestations of her innocence. She has probably reminded Propertius of her oaths of devotion and l o y a l t y , hos (tuos ocellos) tu iurabas s i quid mentita fuisses / ut t i b i suppositis exciderent manibus (35f), and of other proofs of a f f e c t i o n , multos p a l l e r e colores / et fletum ... ducere luminibus 34 (39f) . Cynthia, then, claims that she i s l o y a l to Propertius (25-42) but her actions (1-8) b e l i e her words and demonstrate her per f i d y . Propertius r e a l i z e s that her oaths sworn i n the past and the proofs of a f f e c t i o n that she displayed were also l i e s , i s t i ... o c e l l i per  quos saepe mihi c r e d i t a p e r f i d i a est (33f) and concludes that Mythological exempla are adduced to point up Cynthia's i n d i f f e r -ence, at- non s i c ... Calypso ... nec s i c ... Hypsipyle ... Alphesi- boea ... Evadne (9ff) . One element common to a l l the myths sheds some l i g h t on an aspect of the primary context of the poem that i s not elsewhere made e x p l i c i t . A l l the heroines demonstrated t h e i r g r i e f at the loss of t h e i r l o v e r s : I t h a c i digressu mota Calypso / desertis'  ... f l e v e r a t aequoribus (9f ) ; Aesoniden rapientibus anxia ventis /  Hypsipyle vacuo ... i n thalamo (17f); Alphesiboea's husband Alcmaeon was k i l l e d by her brothers (Apollodorus 3.7.5); and Evadne's Capaneus was struck and k i l l e d by Jove's thunderbolt (Euripides Supp. 990-1071). We may therefore i n f e r that Propertius' periclum (3) i s h i s imminent departure from Cynthia. Commentators have speculated on the exact nature of h i s leaving, for example, he i s going on a dangerous jour-ney (Butler and Barber), or i s gravely i l l (Hubbard 29). A l l that can be gleaned from the poem, however, and a l l we need to know i s that Propertius believes he i s i n danger of being separated from his be-loved and that she has not demonstrated her g r i e f as he has wished. How d i f f e r e n t , asserts Propertius, were Calypso, Hypsipyle, Alphesi-boea and Evadne. Not only were they distraught at the loss of t h e i r lovers, mota ... maesta ... anxia (9 ... 11 ... 17), t h e i r actions proved t h e i r g r i e f . Calypso, for example, wept and lamented for many days, f l e v e r a t ... / multos i l i a dies ... / ... multa locuta ( l O f f ) . A d e t a i l i n t h i s myth i l l u s t r a t e s one way i n which the poet adapts t r a d i t i o n a l material so that i t r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to the contemporary circumstances with which he i s concerned. Proof for Propertius of Cynthia's i n d i f f e r e n c e to t h e i r separation i s her attention to the arrangement of her h a i r , potes ... componere crines (5); proof of Calypso's g r i e f at her los s of Odysseus i s her lack of concern with the appearance of her h a i r , incomptis maesta c a p i l l i s (11). The contrast between the two s i t u a t i o n s i s sharp and the relevance of the exemplum immediately obvious. The same d e t a i l may also be in-r tended to suggest other l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c works that represent a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n or theme. For example, i n another elegy, Propertius equates a woman's disheveled appearance with her genuine sorrow at being separated from her lover, earn incomptis v i d i s t i f l e r e c a p i l l i s ? (3.6.9). The reader may also be reminded of Homer's d e s c r i p t i o n of Calypso before Odysseus' departure, KaAu<J;u> euuXdnayos (Od. 7.246,255). The images evoked by the d e s c r i p t i o n incomptis maesta c a p i l l i s con-t r i b u t e to Propertius' port r a y a l of Calypso and enhance the reader's understanding of the point made by the a n t i t h e t i c a l portrayals of Cynthia and Calypso. The reactions of Hypsipyle, Alphesiboea and Evadne to separation from t h e i r lovers also provide obvious contrasts to Cynthia's behaviour: Hypsipyle nullos post i l l o s sensit amores (19); Alphesiboea was driven by her g r i e f to avenge the death of Alcmaeon by k i l l i n g her own brothers, Alphesiboea suos u l t a est pro coniuge f r a t r e s (15); and Evadne, overwhelmed by her bereavement, took her own l i f e , coniugis Evadne miseros e l a t a per Ignes / o c c i d i t (21f) . Cynthia swears her love and l o y a l t y but her actions prove her f a l s e ; Calypso, Hypsipyle, Alphesiboea and Evadne through t h e i r actions a t t e s t t h e i r love and l o y a l t y . The exempla provide another contrast to Cynthia's behaviour. Each of the four mythological heroines displays proof of her love a f t e r she has l o s t her lover; Cynthia reveals her i n d i f f e r e n c e even while Propertius i s s t i l l with her. This point i s made by the quamvis ...  tamen construction (13f) i n the Calypso myth. Calypso's love for Odysseus was so genuine that "although she would not see him again", that i s , she would never have to account to him for her reaction to his departure, "nevertheless she grieved", that i s , her actions repre-sented r e a l sorrow and were not a h y p o c r i t i c a l display of a f f e c t i o n , calculated to beguile her lover. The i m p l i c a t i o n f or the primary context of the poem seems to be t h i s , that i f Cynthia can show such i n d i f f e r e n c e to Propertius even before h i s departure, he can have no reason to b e l i e v e she w i l l grieve for him a f t e r he has gone. The myths represent, however, more than a series of examples of women whose behaviour attested t h e i r devotion to t h e i r l o v e r s . Pro-pertius seems to be exploring through the actions of the mythological exemplars the nature of the love and l o y a l t y that i s , i n h i s estima-t i o n , due the lover by h i s beloved. He begins with Calypso and the sort of behaviour that might reasonably be expected of a bereaved wife .or mistress, that i s , a period of weeping and lamentation. In h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Calypso, however, he suggests another example of a bereaved woman, one whose proof of love lasted much longer than "many days" (11). Propertius' reference to Odysseus as "the Ithacan" r e c a l l s that hero's home and the wife whose devotion to h i s memory made her the epitome of loving l o y a l t y . Penelope mansit quamvis  custode carebat / i n t e r tot iuvenis intemerata procos (Ovid Am. 3. 4.23ff). Through the images and ideas i m p l i c i t i n t h i s mythological name, Propertius introduces the theme of l i f e l o n g devotion to one lover. This theme i s given expression i n the next myth. Hypsipyle's g r i e f at Jason's departure was a well known feature of that t a l e , 'Y(Jititi5Xri n p i f a a T O x £Cpas e A o O a a / Ai,aov£6eu) x a 6e oi / . 35 p e e bdnpva x u r e u L C * V T O S (Apollonius Rhodius 1.886f) . Her renuncia-t i o n of a l l other lovers, however, appears to be Propertius' invention. The examples of Penelope and Hypsipyle, the one implied, the other e x p l i c i t l y expressed, suggest that a beloved owes her lover t h i s l o y a l t y even i n the face of long or permanent separation. The notion of l i f e l o n g f i d e l i t y i s a commonplace i n Propertius, for example, quantus ... f u g i t amor ... mi neque amare aliam neque ab hac desciscere  fas est / Cynthia prima f u i t Cynthia f i n i s e r i t (1.12.12 ... 19f), and i s put d i r e c t l y to Cynthia i n t h i s poem, n u l l a prius vasto labent- ur flumina ponto / annus et inversas duxerit ante v i c e s / quam tua sub  nostro mutetur pectore cura / s i s quodcumque voles non a l i e n a tamen (29 f f ) . Propertius' /version of the Alphesiboea myth also seems to be h i s own invention; he has her avenge her husband's death by murdering her own brothers. According to the version of the myth preserved i n Apollodorus (3.7.5) i t was her stepsons who k i l l e d her brothers. The bond between lovers i s seen by Propertius to be stronger than the f a m i l i a l bond, sanguinis et c a r i v i n c u l a r u p i t amor (16). This i s a sentiment expressed elsewhere i n the Monobiblos, for example,an mihi  nunc maior carae custodia matris? . .. tu mihi sola domus tu Cynthia  sola parentes (1.11.21 ... 23). The s u r p r i s i n g statement that Alphesi-boea. . k i l l e d her brothers seems intended to suggest that the l o y a l t y due a lover surpasses even that due kindred. In h i s depiction of Evadne's reaction to her husband's death, Propertius follows the usual version of the myth. Compare Euripides' d e s c r i p t i o n i n h i s Suppliant Women, aoaw davdvxos Kauavews'.TTIV6 ' / E L S Ttupdv ... xau 6fj TiapeCxab affiya, a o C yev o u c p Q o v / nyCv 6 e nat xfy auyitupouye'va) T io 'aeu . (1065 ... 1070f) . Propertius adds, however, his own assessment of her behaviour, Argivae fama p u d i c i t i a e ( 2 2 ) . P u d i c i t i a i n Propertius s i g n i f i e s complete l o y a l t y to one lover, for example, non i l l i s studium vulgo conquirere amantis / i l l i s ampla s a t i s forma  p u d i c i t i a (1.2.23f), and we may therefore i n f e r that i n Propertius' estimation the unwillingness of Evadne to continue l i f e without her lover i s the ultimate proof of f i d e s i n a beloved. Another Propertian reference to Evadne supports t h i s suggestion, f e l i x Eois lex funeris  una m a r i t i s / ... namque ubt mortifero i a c t a est fax ultima le c t o / uxorum f u s i s s t a t p i a turba comis / et certamen habent l e t i quae v i v a sequaturv; / coniugium: pudor est non l l c u i s s e mori / ardent v i c t r i c e s  et flammae pectora praebent / imponuntque suis ora perusta v i r i s /  hoc genus infidum nuptarum, hie n u l l a p u e l l a / nec f i d a Evadne nec  pia Penelope (3.13.15ff). It i s noteworthy that the l a s t two examplars, Alphesiboea and Evadne, demonstrate t h e i r l o y a l t y even a f t e r t h e i r lovers' deaths. This theme of eternal devotion i s addressed i n the nineteenth elegy of the Monobiblos. Propertius w i l l love Cynthia even i n death, i l l i c quidquid ero semper tua dic a r imago / t r a i c i t  et f a t i l i t o r a magnus amor (1.19.11f), and w i l l demonstrate h i s l o y a l t y by r e j e c t i n g a l l other lovers, i l l i c formosae veniant chorus heroinae  ... quarum n u l l a tua f u e r i t mihi Cynthia forma / g r a t i o r et Tellus hoc  i t a i u s t a sinat / quamvis te longae remorentur f a t a senectae / cara  tamen l a c r i m i s ossa futura meis (1.19.13ff). The fear he expresses that t h i s devotion w i l l not be reciprocated reveals h i s b e l i e f that a beloved owes her lover f i d e l i t y even a f t e r h i s death, quam vereor  ne te contempto Cynthia busto / abstrahat e i nostro pulvere iniquus _ Amor / cogat et invitam lacrimas s i c c a r e cadentes / f l e c t i t u r a ssiduis  certa p u e l l a minis (1.19.21ff). It i s apparent, then, that the actions of Calypso (and Penelope), Hypsipyle, Alphesiboea and Evadne exemplify the absolute and eternal l o y a l t y that i s , i n Propertius' mind, due the lover by h i s beloved. In the primary context of the poem Propertius expresses h i s d i s -appointment i n Cynthia; her actions have proven f a l s e a l l her oaths of a f f e c t i o n . His b i t t e r address to her conveys v i v i d l y h i s anguish and disillusionment. The f u l l extent of h i s disillusionment i s revealed, however, only when the contemporary s i t u a t i o n i s considered i n the l i g h t of the mythological exempla; only when we understand how high, are h i s expectations of h i s beloved's a f f e c t i o n and f i d e l i t y , i deals that are exemplified i n the myths, do we understand the depth of h i s disillusionment. The most obvious function of Propertius' mythological exempla i s thus to provide analogous figures and s i t u a t i o n s that i l l u s t r a t e and corroborate the figures and s i t u a t i o n s described i n the primary context of the poem. But the myths, as we have seen, function as more than mere i l l u s t r a t i v e examples. Through the secondary language of the exempla Propertius adds new elements, introducing or develop-... ing aspects of h i s theme that are not elsewhere i n the poem made ex-p l i c i t , but which form an i n t e g r a l part of what he has to say. The reader i s required to consider what the poet says i n the primary context of the poem i n the l i g h t of a l l the ideas and images ra i s e d i n the exempla, and i n t h i s way to form h i s understanding of Propertius' f u l l perception and p o r t r a y a l of that facet of love with which he i s dealing. The exempla that are adduced to i l l u s t r a t e Gallus' love for h i s mistress introduce v i v i d images of torment and of death, and suggest a close a s s o c i a t i o n between great passion and great s u f f e r i n g . Only when Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of Gallus' love as "burning" and " f a t a l " i s considered i n the l i g h t of these images, i s h i s perception and p o r t r a y a l of such love f u l l y understood; i t i s a consuming force that brings the lover intense torture and even death. The names of Antiope and Hermione, which are adduced to demonstrate to Bassus Propertius 1 devotion to Cynthia, introduce, by v i r t u e of the tales associated with them, images of extremely c r u e l and v i o l e n t measures taken by lovers against i n t e r l o p e r s i n t h e i r a f f a i r s . These ideas and images not only corroborate Propertius' p r e d i c t i o n that Cynthia w i l l be provoked to furious anger and resentment by Bassus' i n t e r -ference and w i l l punish him, they also complete Propertius' p o r t r a y a l of the i n t e n s i t y of these emotions i n the lover. The actions of Calypso, Hypsipyle, Alphesiboea and Evadne i n 1.15 introduce into Propertius' expression of h i s disillusionment with Cynthia examples of l i f e l o n g and even eternal f i d e l i t y to a lover. These actions seem to exemplify Propertius' own ideals and expectations concerning the love and l o y a l t y due the lover by h i s beloved, and only when the d i s -appointment he expresses i n the primary context of the poem i s con-sidered i n the l i g h t of the id e a l s suggested i n the exempla i s the f u l l extent of h i s anguish comprehended. It i s apparent from the analyses of 1.13, 1.4 and 1.15 that the poet f r e e l y e x p l o i t s t r a d i t i o n a l mythological material, s e l e c t i n g and adapting i t to s u i t the unique purposes of each elegy. Four general uses that Propertius makes of t r a d i t i o n a l mythology have been noticed. F i r s t , f a m i l i a r mythological d e t a i l s are c a r e f u l l y arranged to r e f l e c t and i l l u s t r a t e c l e a r l y h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of contemporary circumstances. Proof for Propertius of Cynthia's i n d i f f e r e n c e to h i s departure i s her attention to the arrangement of her h a i r (1.15.5); proof of Calypso's g r i e f at Odysseus' departure i s her lack of attention to the arrange-ment of her h a i r (1.15.11). Second, s i n g l e mythological names are used to stand for the themes and images i m p l i c i t i n them. Both Antiope and Hermione suggest t a l e s of lovers who were made jealous by the interference of a t h i r d party i n t h e i r love a f f a i r s and evoke images of the c r u e l t y and violence with which they punished the i n t e r -loper. Sometimes an epithet i s chosen for the images and thoughts i t evokes. Propertius' reference to Odysseus,a£ the "Ithacan" (1.15.9), by r e c a l l i n g the hero's home and h i s wife whose devotion to h i s memory made her the epitome of loving l o y a l t y introduces into the poem the theme of l i f e l o n g devotion to one lover. Third, c e r t a i n ideas r a i s e d i n the exempla are expressed so as to suggest other l i t e r a r y passages that treat a s i m i l a r theme. The notion that the bond between lovers i s stronger than the f a m i l i a l bond, which i s expressed by Propertius' comment on Alphesiboea's murder of her brothers, sanguinis et c a r i  v i n c u l a r u p i t amor^ (1.15.16), r e c a l l s the poet's assertion that Cynthia has replaced h i s family as f i r s t i n h i s a f f e c t i o n s , tu mihi sola domus  tu Cynthia sola parentes (1.11.23). The reader's understanding of t h i s idea i s enhanced by h i s knowledge of the re l a t e d passage. Fourth, Propertius d e l i b e r a t e l y a l t e r s or invents mythological d e t a i l s and episodes to s u i t h i s immediate purposes. A d e t a i l i n the Hypsipyle exemplum i n 1.15 appears to be such an invention. His s u r p r i s i n g statement that Hypsipyle knew no lovers a f t e r Jason introduces into a poem dealing with the l o y a l t y of a beloved to her lover the theme of l i f e l o n g f i d e l i t y , even i n the lover's absence. Mythological d e t a i l s , which, l i k e t h i s , depart from the t r a d i t i o n a l versions, mark the poet's introduction of an idea or image that represents an important part of his message. The reader, recognizing the novelty of such d e t a i l s i s expected to pay p a r t i c u l a r attention to what the poet has to say through them. Propertius' c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and adaptation of t r a d i t i o n a l myth-o l o g i c a l tales to s u i t the unique needs of each elegy, and h i s s k i l f u l i n t e g r a t i o n of h i s descriptions of mythological experience with h i s descriptions of contemporary experience i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y the important-: and e s s e n t i a l r o l e played by mythological exempla i n the expression of his thoughts. It i s apparent from these analyses that much i s demanded of the reader. He must possess a comprehensive knowledge of mythological l o r e and be f a m i l i a r with various other l i t e r a r y treatments of the myths. He must expect to supply from the store of h i s knowledge the images and ideas that Propertius suggests but does not make e x p l i c i t , and to apply them to h i s apprehension of the poem. Furthermore, he must be prepared to consider c a r e f u l l y the primary context of the poem i n the l i g h t of the mythological exempla and the exempla i n the l i g h t of the primary context, i n f e r r i n g or reconstructing e sequentibus praecedentia 36 and e praecedentibus sequentia the things that have not been said , and postponing h i s f u l l understanding of the poem u n t i l such consideration has been made. Such a knowledge of the myths and a sympathetic understanding of h i s purposes and techniques i n adducing mythological exempla formed part of the doctrina expected by Propertius of h i s audience. In the Monobiblos a small c i r c l e of intimate f r i e n d s , and among them fellow poets, i s portrayed as c o n s t i t u t i n g the audience for whom Propertius r e c i t e d h i s eleg i e s . This impression i s confirmed by the testimony of Ovid, saepe suos s o l i t u s r e c i t a r e Propertius ignes /  jure s o d a l i c i i quo mihi iunctus erat / Ponticus heroo Bassus quoque  clarus iambis / d u l c i a convictus membra fuere mei (Tr. 4.10.45f). The members of t h i s c i r c l e would undoubtedly have possessed the er u d i t i o n required by Propertius. I t i s reasonable to assume that as poets Ponticus and Bassus shared Propertius' education, .his l i t e r a r y back-ground and h i s sources of information and i n s p i r a t i o n , and were there-fore able to i d e n t i f y and expand f or themselves a mythological r e f e r -ence or a l l u s i o n , to recognize the novelty of c e r t a i n mythological d e t a i l s and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the ideas expressed through them by the poet, and to appreciate the function of a Propertian mythological exemplum. The Gallus of the Monobiblos may also have been a poet and 37 possessed of the learning necessary to understand Propertius' exempla. ' Cynthia too, according to Propertius, was docta, able both to compose her own poetry, s c r i p t a (docta et) ... bona ... (quae) r e p e r i t non s t u l t a p u e l l a (3.23.2 ... 11) and to appreciate Propertius' poetry, me 38 laudent doctae solum placuisse puellae (1.7.11) . Both Propertius and h i s Roman readers would bave been f a m i l i a r with representations of myth i n l i t e r a t u r e and i n a r t . Greek and Roman l i t e r a t u r e before Propertius had drawn extensively on myth as subject matter, and the poets of f i r s t century Rome continued to mine t r a d i -39 t i o n a l l o r e f o r t h e i r own poetry. The f a c t that Cicero i n h i s prose writings could adduce as examples figures not only from Roman h i s t o r y but from myth i l l u s t r a t e s w e ll the Roman's knowledge of and f a m i l i a r i t y with mythology. In his Tusculanae Disputationes, for instance, i n discussing whether death withdraws men from e v i l or from good, he compares the destiny of C a e c i l i u s Metellus Macedonicus with that not 40 of another h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e but of Priam. And i n another passage of the same work, four mythological f i g u r e s , Athamas, Alcmaeon, Aias and Orestes, serve as h i s only examples i n a discussion of the meaning • 41 of furor . The learned Roman's knowledge of myth i n l i t e r a t u r e would have been gained both from h i s education - "1'education antique f a i s a i t un grand appel a l a memoire et ... un Romain c u l t i v e devait connaitre par 42 coeur des m i l l i e r s de vers , and from the pri v a t e and public l i b r a r i e s of the day which contained a vast c o l l e c t i o n of past and contemporary 43 l i t e r a t u r e . One i n t e r e s t i n g source of information to be found i n such l i b r a r i e s were handbooks of mythology. These manuals provided prose summaries of myths as they had been t o l d by various poets. One such compendium i s extant, Parthenius' Ilepu' EpwxuHuJv nadnudxcov and the author's purpose i n compiling i t i s c l e a r l y stated i n h i s introductory remarks, udAiaxd O O L 6 O H W V apuoxxeuv, KopvnAue TaXXe, TT\V d 'dpoLOLV xSv epojxLKWv ua£nudxo)v dvaAESdyevos OJS O X L yaAuaxa ev Bpaxuxdxous dneaxaAxa. xa y a p napd x u a u xc&v u o u n x w v xetyeva xouxwv yrj auxoxeASis AeXeyyeva, xaxavonaeLS ex x w v 6 e xa TtAeCaxa. auxcji x e aou itapeaxat eus I n n xat eAe-yeuxs d v a y e u v xa uaALaxa tE, aux&v d p y d 6 u a . The existence of these handbooks of mythology a t t e s t s the i n t e r e s t of the poets i n t r a d i t i o n a l material and i n adapting i t to t h e i r own purposes. Myth was a subject as popular i n art as i n poetry. Representa-tions of myth i n art decorated i n abundance the public and private dwellings of Rome i n the f i r s t century B.C. "Une recension des themes deco r a t i f s dans l ' a r t du premier s i e c l e avant notre ere, q u ' i l s'agisse de ceramique, d'o r f e v r e r i e , de bijoux, de sculpture et plus encore de peinture donnerait de bonnes preuves ... du gout du public pour l e s 44 representations (de l a mythologie)" . Depictions i n wall painting of myth were e s p e c i a l l y popular and would have contributed greatly to the Roman's f a m i l i a r i t y with t r a d i t i o n a l figures and s i t u a t i o n s . "Mytho-l o g i c a l wall-painting f i l l e d the houses and therefore pervaded the l i v e s of well-to-do Romans ... and invaluable examples of such a r t dating from a period at most only a l i t t l e l a t e r than Propertius survive from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae: v i v i d testimony to i t s 45 nature and prevalence" Propertius himself seems very much influenced by works of a r t . "The imagination of Propertius ... was more l i b e r a l l y nourished by acquaintance with and indeed knowledge of painting and sculpture ... than any other Augustan poet ... time and time again when Propertius sees most v i v i d l y he sees not the actual ... i n i t s e l f but the i d e a l and sharply p i c t o r i a l representation of something l i k e . " A c l e a r example of the p i c t o r i a l nature of Propertius' composition i s con-sidered to be h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Cynthia drowning (2.26). V i v i d d e t a i l s such as her wet h a i r weighing her down (4) and her hands stretched up i n appeal for rescue (11) are p r e c i s e l y the d e t a i l s 47 depicted i n extant representations of the mythical Helle drowning. The s i m i l e i n the t h i r d couplet, (te Cynthia) qualem purpureis  agitatam f l u c t i b u s Hellen / aurea quam m o l l i tergore v e x i t o v i s , suggests the source of Propertius' i n s p i r a t i o n . The p i c t o r i a l nature of the poet's imagination and h i s expression may account here and i n other elegies for his apparent lack of coherence or l o g i c a l progression of thought. For instance, a much debated problem i n 2.26.17ff i s that Propertius describes f i r s t a dolphin speeding to Cynthia's rescue and then hi s own attempt to h u r l himself from a c l i f f top into the sea. " I t might ... have been d i f f i c u l t for the poet to a r r i v e at t h i s dreamlike inconsequence except by way of the apprehension of a painting; the poem's order of development ... seems to be dictated by the order of perception .... (This) discon-nectedness ... comes from the concentration on an instant and i s o -lated image ... and i n such a case we s h a l l not r e a l l y comprehend much of what Propertius has to say unless we are w i l l i n g to turn our eyes away from words and look more a t t e n t i v e l y ... at the monu-ments of a r t . In other elegies Propertius' own d i r e c t references to works of art a t t e s t h i s knowledge of and i n t e r e s t i n a r t , g l o r i a Lysippo est  animosa effingere signa / exactis Calamis se mihi i a c t a t equis / i n  Veneris tabula summam s i b i p oscit Apelles / Parrhasius parva v i n d i c a t  arte locum / argumenta magis sunt Mentoris addita formae / at Myos  exiguum f l e c t i t acanthus i t e r / Phidiacus signo se Iuppiter ornat  eburno/ P r a x i t e l e n propria venditat urbe l a p i s (3.9.9ff).49 Propertius assumed i n h i s Roman reader a knowledge of and f a m i l i -a r i t y with representations of myth i n l i t e r a t u r e and i n art as thorough as h i s own, and the modern reader must t r y to approach t h i s degree of knowledge i n order better to understand h i s poetry. Although the extant l i t e r a t u r e and art t r e a t i n g mythological themes can represent l i t t l e more than a f r a c t i o n of what was a v a i l a b l e i n Propertius' day, these are an important source of information for they give us an impression of the sort of works that abounded i n the f i r s t century, f u e l i n g Propertius' imagination and providing the i n s p i r a t i o n f or many of his mythological exempla. PROPERTIUS 1.20 AND THE FUNCTION OF THE HYLAS EXEMPLUM The Hylas Myth i n L i t e r a t u r e and i n Art Propertius' Roman audience would have been f a m i l i a r with the t a l e of Hercules' loss of Hylas from accounts of i t i n l i t e r a t u r e and repre-sentations of i t i n a r t , and many d e t a i l s i n his narration of the myth suppose, and depend for t h e i r e f f e c t upon, such knowledge. That the rape of Hylas was a well worn l i t e r a r y theme i n the f i r s t century B.C. i s suggested by two passages i n V i r g i l . In the s i x t h eclogue, he includes the story i n the r e p e r t o i r e he gives Silenus, h i s  adiungit Hylan nautae quo fonte relictum / clamassent ut l i t u s 'Hyla  Hyla' omne sonaret (43f), and, i n h i s Georgics, he mentions the t a l e i n a l i s t of examples of hackneyed l i t e r a r y subjects, c u i non dictus puer  Hylas? (3.6). There are extant accounts of the myth by: Apollonius Rhodius, t h i r d century B.C., i n Argonautica 1.1207ff; Theocritus, t h i r d century B.C., i n I d y l l s 13; Valerius Flaccus, f i r s t century A.D., i n Argonautica 3.486ff; Apollodorus, f i r s t or second century A.D., i n Bi b l i o t h e c a 1.9.19; I u l i u s Hyginus, second century A.D., i n Fabulae 14; Antoninus L i b e r a l i s , . second century A.D., i n Metamorphoses 26 (which follows the account, now l o s t , of the second century B.C. Greek poet Nicander); and pseudo-Orpheus, t h i r d or fourth century A.D., i n Argonautica 643ff. Apollonius and Theocritus provide the only accounts composed before Propertius and preserved i n the form i n which they were written. The other accounts e i t h e r were composed a f t e r Propertius or are summaries based on Apollonius and other versions of the t a l e . Apollonius and Theocritus follow the same broad story o u t l i n e : the boy Hylas accompanies Hercules on the Argonautic expedition (Ap.l.l31f, Th. 13.20f); they reach Mysia and bivouac (Ap. 1.1172ff, Th. 13.29ff); Hylas leaves Hercules i n order to search for water (Ap. 1.1207ff, Th. 13.36ff); he comes to a spring inhabited by dancing nymphs (Ap. 1.1221ff, Th. 13.39ff); as he dips h i s pitcher into the spring, the nymphs, smitten with passion by h i s beauty, c l i n g to him and p u l l him down into the water (Ap.1.1229ff, Th.13.46ff); Hercules, learning of the boy's disappearance, searches for him,,, c a l l i n g out h i s name (Ap.1.1273ff, Th.13.67ff). The d i f f e r e n c e i n the two accounts l i e s i n t h e i r s t y l e and purpose. Apollonius, r e l a t i n g the myth of Hylas within the epic t a l e of the adventures of the Argonauts, includes many more d e t a i l s and incidents than does Theocritus, and t h i s sometimes r e s u l t s i n an uneven narr a t i v e . Certain passages, for example, the long d e s c r i p t i o n of the Argonauts' quarrel over the abandonment of Hercules (1.1270ff, 73 l i n e s ) , have l i t t l e bearing on Hercules' loss of Hylas. Theocritus i s more select i n h i s expression of the myth."^ He focuses on a s i n g l e element, the love of Hercules for Hylas and h i s great s u f f e r i n g at h i s l o s s . Indeed, h i s port r a y a l of Hercules' love and loss i s the whole point of his n arration of the myth, for he uses i t to i l l u s t r a t e to h i s f r i e n d Nicias that immortals as well as mortals f e e l the power of love and suffer i t s consequences. The rape of Hylas seems to have been as popular a theme i n art as i n l i t e r a t u r e . Extant are representations of the myth i n wall paintings, mosaics, on s i l v e r s i t u l a e , and i n sculpture. A wall painting from Pompeii ( i x . 7.6), f i g u r e 1, i s i l l u s t r a t e d and described i n Dawson, "A h i l l y background enlivened by trees and bushes r i s e s behind, a reedy lake i n which i s a small i s l a n d with a tree and plants at the l e f t . Hylas stands i n the centre, naked, surrounded by three nymphs, who gently take hold of him. Behind, on the lake shore, s i t s another nymph beneath a t a l l tree, calmly looking o n . " ^ Another . painting from Pompeii , from the Casa d e l l e forme d i creta, f i g u r e 2, i s described by Rizzo, "Ed ancora un a l t r o giovinetto, Hylas, rapito e tr a v o l t o nei 52 gorghi profondi d a l l e Naiadi concupiscenti" . A t h i r d , from Herculaneum, figure 3, depicts Hylas standing i n a pool and leaning forward to f i l l h is p i t c h e r . Three nymphs surround him, one reaching out from the shore to seize him, the others r i s i n g from the waters. In the background are trees and, at the r i g h t , a male f i g u r e observes the rape. A sc u l p t -ed marble well head of the Antonine period, which was found at Ostia, and a mosaic from the wall of the b a s i l i c a of Iunius Bassus (consul 317 A.D.) a t t e s t the continued popularity of the myth as an a r t i s t i c theme i n the early centuries A.D.. On the w e l l head, f i g u r e 4, against a background of trees, Hylas i s represented bending s l i g h t l y forward over the water, ve s s e l i n hand. One nymph grasps him f i r m l y about h i s waist and by h i s arm, the other seizes h i s l e g . In the mosaic, fi g u r e 5, de-:\ picted i n marble and glass are two nymphs reaching out and holding Hylas, one on eit h e r side and a t h i r d looking on. In a l l these representations there appear what must have been considered the e s s e n t i a l elements of the myth: a b e a u t i f u l Hylas has found h i s way to a spring or pool and as he lowers h i s pitcher into the water desirous nymphs reach out and seize him. These are the ideas and images that Propertius would have expected h i s audience to bring to h i s poem. A modern reader must therefore acquaint'himself with extant a r t i s t i c representations of the myth of Hylas, f o r i f he can recognize what mythological d e t a i l s Propertius has retained, what rejected and what invented i n adapting the t a l e to the needs of 1.20, he w i l l have a better understanding of the poet's purpose and method i n narrating i t . 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"T^itxe Ttapex y e y d X o u o A L O S y e v e a u v e x e B o u X n v 1 3 1 5 AtT^xeoj TixoXue^pov aye^v § p a a u v ' H p a x X n a , " A p y e i 5 o i y o C p ' e a x t v d x a a S d X t j ) E u p u a d f j u e x u X f j a a b y o y e o v x a 6 u o j 6 e x a n d v x a s d e d X o u g , v a u e u v 6 ' d-davaxouat a u v d a x t o v , e" x ' exL natfpoug e ^ a v d a r i , xw y n T L %O§T\ x e i ^ v o t o u e X e a ^ t o . 1 3 2 0 auxcas 6 ' a u I l o X d c p n y o v ITIL u p o x o r j a u K u o t o n^Ttpcoxab M u a o u a u n e p u x X e e s a a x u x a y o v x a y o t p a v d v a i c X n a e t v X a X t f B w v ev d u e L p o v L Y ^ 1 ? -a u x a p " Y X a v ( p u X d x r i x L %ea i t o t n a a x o vtfycpn ov i t d d u v , o E d u e p o u v e x ' d u o T i : X a Y X ^ ^ V T e S e X e u c p ^ e v . " 1 3 2 5 T H , x a u x u y ' d X & x a x o v e c p e a a a x o v e u d ^ t 6i5c|jas. dycpu 6e* ot l 6 £ v n a L x u x w y e v o v dcppeev u6a)p nopcpupeov, x o L A n v 6e 6LEE, dAos E X A U O E v r j a . yrf^noav 6 ' npaies . 6 6 ' E a a u y E v w s s g E g n x E L A u a x L S n s TsAayaJv E S ' I n a o v a , XELjSa 6 E x e u p t 1 3 3 0 a x p n v dycpuBaAaiv TtpoaitT\5CaTO, cpcovnodv T E . " A L a o v L o n , yn y o t T L x ° ^ ^ a E a ^ 3 dcppa6C*riCTov E L T L ' itep d a a d y n v . TT. E p L y a p y ' a x o s E E A E V E V L O T C E L V y 0 § o v OnepcpuaAo'v T E xaL a a x e T o v . d A A ' d v £ * y o L O L V 6o3oysv d y n A a K ^ n v , cog x a L ndpos eOyeve'ovTES•" 1 3 3 5 T o v 6 ' a ^ T ' A t a o v o s U L O S EiiL(ppa6£*ws u p o a E E L n e v . " T f i H E ' T I O V , ?i y d A a 6n y s xaxai E x u 6 d a a a o yu*§u), cpas E V L T o C a t v ditaaLV E V T I E O S d v 6 p o s a A s L T n v s y y E v a t . d A A ' o u §n*v T O L d 6 e u x £ * a y r i v t v a E ^ c o , u p L V . H E p d v u n ^ s C s . E T I E L o u Ttepu H W E O L y n A w v , 134-0 o u 6 e T t E p L K T s a T E O o u x c ^ e ^ y E V O s y s v s n v a s j d A A ' ETctpou Ttepu (pu)To*s. eoAua 6E* T O L ae" xau aAA(^ d y t p ' e y s u , E L T O L O V 6 E T I E A O L T I O T E * , 6 n p L * a a a § a L . " R H p a , x a L d p d y n ^ ^ V T E S , oitri Ttdpos, E S P L O O O V T O . TCJ 6 E A L O S 3 O U A ^ O L V , 6 y e v M u a o t a L 3 a A e a § a L 1 3 4 5 y d A A s v eicwvuyov a a T U TtoALaadyEVos uoTayoCo ELAaTu'6ns noAu*(pnyos. o 6 ' E u p u a ^ n o s de*-9Aous auTLS L C J V T t o v E E a ^ a u . ETtnuE^AncTE 6 e y a C a v MuaL*6' d v a a T n o E L V a U T o a x £ 6 d v , oTtiroTe yn O L r T ? w o u eupoLEV " Y A a y d p o v , n? 9 a v d " v T o s . 1 3 5 0 T O L O 6 E P U * O L ' o u a a a a v d u o x p L v a v T E S d p u a T o u s UL£*as E X 6 n y o L O , M a t o p x L a n o L i l a a v T O , yn*uoT£ yaaTE\5ovTEs d u o A A n ^ e L V x a y a T O L O . TOU*V£X£V £ L C T E T L v u v uep " Y A a v E P ^ O U O L K u a v o L , xoupov 0 £ L o 6 d y a v T O S , e u x T L y s v n s T E y£*AovTaL 1 3 5 5 T p n x ^ ^ o s . 6n yap p a x a r ' auToSL v d a a a T O i t a C S a s , o u s O L pu*OLa x£L§£\> £ u L u p o£T\x a v d y s a ^ a L . N n u v 6 e n a v n y E p C n v d v E y o s q>Ep£ V U X T L T E irdan AdgpOS ETtLTtVELCdV . aTCtp 0 U 6 ' ETIL T U T ^ O V CtTlTO nous T E A A o y E v n s , ou 6 E x § ° v o s E L a a v £ * x o u a a v 1 3 6 0 d t t T n v e x X O A T C O U O y d A ' e u p e t a v eoi&eo%aL cppaaacxpevoL, xooTiriauv a y ' neAu'co e r c e x e A a a v . 9E0KPI1DY YAAE O u x d y t v T O V "Epcoxa y d v o u s E T E X ' , W S e S o x e u y e s , N u x u a , cpTovo T O U T O §ecov i t o x a x e x v o v e y e v T O . o u x d y u v x a x a A a n p a T O L S x a A a ( p a t v e x a u ? i y e v , o u O v a x o u T t e A d y e a O a , T O 6 ' a u p u o v o u x e a o p c o y e s . a A A d x a u 'Ay(puTpu*oovos 6 x a ^ K £ 0 > t ^ P 0 L 0 S u u d s , 5 o s T O V XZv U T t e y e u v e T O V a y p t o v , f i p a x o nai , 6 d s , T O O x a P ^ e V T ° S " Y A a , T O U T S V TCAoxayuSa c p o p e u v T O S , x a u v u v n d v T ' e o u 6 a a x e , TtaTnp coaeu cp^Aov u u d v , Sacra y a ^ a i v dya-ftos x a u d o L / 6 u y o s a u T o s e y e v T O . X w p t s 6 ' ou6e*Ttox' ? i s , O U T ' eo y d a o v d y a p 6 ' p o t T o , 1 0 o u § ' 6nd*x' d A e t f x L i n t o s dvaTpe*xoL e s A u o s ' A c o g , o u d ' o n d x ' o p T a X u x o t y t v u p o u TCOTL X O L T O V o p c B e v , a e u a a y e v d s U T e p a y a T p o s e u ' a t ^ a A d e v T i . TteTeu*pio, cos auTcp x a T a § u y o v 6 u a u s n e i t o v a y e v o s e u n , auTffi 6 ' e3 eAxtov e s d A a - O u v o v a v 6 p ' d i t o g a C ' n . 1 5 a A A ' one T O x P ^ a e ^ 0 V BKXEL y e T a x i o a s ' Idacov A u a o v t S a s , OL, 6 ' auTto dpuaTfjes a u v e ' n o v T O n a a a v e x TIOALCOV ttpoAeAyye*voi, 5 v ocpe\ds T L - , L X E T O x ^ T a A a e p y o " s d v r i p e s d c p v e u o v ' i t o A x d v , ' A A x y n v a s U L , O S M u 6 e a T u 6 o s n p w u v a s , 2 0 a u v 6 ' auTcji x a T e g a u v e v " Y A a s e u e S p o v e s ' A p y c o , a T u s x u a v e a v o u x a 4 , a x ' ° o~uv6poyd6a)v v a u s , a A A a 6 i , e £ d u £ e 3 a 9 u v 6 ' e u a e d p a y e $ a a u v , a u e T O s 2 ) s 5 y e y a A a t T y a , dtp' o u x d x e x ° L P d ' 6 e s e a T a v . T A y o s 6 ' d v T e A A o v T L I T e A e u d d e s , e a x a t u a u 6e* 2 5 a p v a ve*ov 3 d a x o v T L , T E T p a y y e v o u e u a p o s n6n, T a y o s v a u T t A i ^ a s y u y v d a x e T O § e t o s acoTos npcocov, x o i ^ A a v 6 e x a d u 6 p u § £ V T e s e s 'Apyoo ' E A A d a u o v T O V L X O V T O VOTCO T P U T O V 5 y a p d e v T t , euacj 6 ' S p u o v e § e v x o n p o i t o v x u S o s , 'iv%a K u a v w v 30 a u X a x a s s u p d v o v x u 3 d e g x p t g o v x e s a p o x p a . e x g d v x e s 6 ' E T I L \>€va x a i a £ u y a 6 a C x a u e v o v x o 6 e o e A . b w o u , noXXoiT 6e"" y t a v a x o p d a a v x o x a v e ^ a v . X e u y i o v y a p acpuv E X E L X O ye*ya a x t p d o e a a u v o v e t a p , e v § e v g o t f x o y o v oE,\) 3a-ddv x ' e x d y o v x o x t f u e u p o v . 3 5 Ho5xe-&' " Y X a g 6 E,a\>%0£ u6cop eTCL6dpituov oCawv a u x a i ' H p a x X f n , x a u d o x e y c p e C T e X a y w v L , o i ^ y u a v aycpco s x a t p o u d e l , S a t v u v x o x p d n e ? a v , X a X x e o v a y y o s e 'xwv. x d x a 6e x p d v a v e v d r i o e v ny£*V(p e v x^p({). nepu 6 e §p\5a n:oXXd i t e c p t f x e i , , M-0 M u d v e d v X E X £ ^ L S 6 * V L O V x ^ W P ° * v x ' d 6 C * a v x o v x a t § d * X X o v x a a e ' X u v a x a u e d X t x e v r i s a y p c o a x u s . u&axu 6 ' E V y£*aa(j) N\5ycpau x ° P ° V d p x C c o v x o , N\5ytpat a x o u y n x o u , 6 e u v a c -deal , d y p o c a j x a u s , E u v i x a x a t M a X t s e a p o p d w a a N u x e t a . M-5 flXOL 6 KOOpOS ETIELXE TCOX(}J TIoXuXCtVSEa XpOOGaOV 3d()jau E i c e t y d y e v o s . x a t 6 ' e v x £ P ^ T t a a a t e t p u a a v . u a a d c j v y a p e p ^ s d u a X a s cpp£*vas ££s(po*$riaev 'ApyeC'a) eitu n a L 6 L • x a x n p u T t e 6 ' e s y e X a v u6a)p d d p d o s , o x e i t u p a o s d i t ' o u p a v o u n P ^ i t E V d a x n p 50 d d p d o s e v i tdvxcj) , v a u x a s 6 E X L S E C T I E V E x a t p o u s " x o u c p d x s p ' , 5 TiaZdes, n o u s C c d ' S u X a , TCAEUOXLXOS o S p o s . " Ntfycpau y s v a c p E x s p o u s e i tu y o t f v a a u x o u p o v e x o u a a u 6 a x p u d e v x ' d y a v o u a u u a p e ^ ^ x o v x ' knieoobv. ' A y t p t x p u a ) V b d 6 a s 6 e x a p a a a d y e v o s itepC n a b 6 i ' 55 S X E T O , M a u u x t a x L . X a g w v e u x a y i t d a x d £ a x a u p d n a X o v , x d o i l aiiv e x d * v 6 a v e 6 e 5 t x e p a x E L * P -x p u s y e v " Y X a v a u a e v , o a o v 3 a d u s n p u y e X a L y d s . x p u a 6 ' a p ' 6 n a u s u i t d x o u a e v , d p a t a 6 ' L X E X O cpcovd E £ u 6 a x o s , Ttapewv 6 e y d X a a x e 6 o v e t S e x o itdppoo. 6 0 OJS 6 ' o i c d x ' n u y d v e t o g dttOTipo$L A u g e o a x o d o a g v e p g o u q > § e y 5 a y e v a g x t g e v o u p e a t v w y o c p d y o g A t g e £ e u v a g e a u e u a e v e x o t y o x d x a v e u u 6 a t x a . ' H p a x A d r i g x o t o u x o g e v d x p t i t x o t a t v d x a v ^ a t g u a t S a ito§S3v 6 e 6 d v n x o , n o A u v 6 ' e u e A d y g a v e x & p o v . a x d x A t o t o t c p t A e o v x e g , d A i o y e v o g oao* e y d y n c r e v o u p e a M a t S p u y o d g , xcT 6 ' ' i d a o v o g u a x e p a i t a v x ' fi v a u g y e y e v a p y e v ' e x o t a a y e x d p a t a x w v u a p e d v x w v , t a x £ a 6 ' n y t d e o t y e a o v u M x t o v a u x e x a d a u p o u v , ' H p a x A n a y e v o v x e g . o 6 ' ^ rcdSeg d y o v e x w p e t y a t v d y e v o g . x a A e i i o g y a p eaai -Qeog ?)Ttap a y u a a e v . O U X C J y e v x d A A u a x o g ' Y A a g y a x d p o o v d p t d y e t x a t . ' H p a x A d r i v 6 ' r i p w e g e n e p x d y e o v A t i t o v a d x a v , o u v e x e v r ipwriae x p u a x o v x a ^ u y o v ' A p y c i j , •rte^a 6 ' e g K d A x o u g x e M a t d ^ e v o v t x e x o $ 3 a t v . ure 1 . The Rape of Hylas. Wall Painting from Pompeii Figure 2. The Rape of Hylas. Wall Painting from Pompeii. Figure 3. The Rape of Hylas. Wall Painting from Herculaneum. Figure 4. The Rape of Hylas. Sculpted Well-head. Figure 5. The Rape of Hylas. Mosaic from the Basilica of Iunius Bassus. Figure 6. Eros Pursuing a Youth. Figure 7. Zephyrus Carrying Away a Youth (Hyacinthus?). Analysis of 1.20 1.20 conforms i n theme and structure to the general pattern of the elegies of the Monobiblos. I t i s addressed to a s i n g l e named i n d i v i d -ual - Gallus - and i s presented as Propertius' response to s p e c i f i c circumstances faced by Gallus - he i s i n danger of l o s i n g h i s beloved boy. Through his p o r t r a y a l of t h i s s i t u a t i o n and h i s reaction to i t , the poet expresses h i s thoughts and f e e l i n g s on a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of experience i n love. Myth i s adduced and applied with a purpose and method s i m i l a r to that revealed i n the analyses of other Monobiblos exempla. Propertius' narration of the t a l e of Hercules and Hylas provides an analogous s i t u a t i o n to that of Gallus and h i s beloved, serving to corroborate observations the poet makes i n the primary context of the poem; and i t introduces new ideas and images, developing aspects of the s i t u a t i o n that are not made e x p l i c i t elsewhere i n the poem, but which form an i n t e g r a l part of what Propertius has to say. The exemplum adduced i n 1.20 d i f f e r s i n length and s t y l e from the exempla of the other Monobiblos e l e g i e s ; Propertius o f f e r s here a s i n g l e , extended mytho-l o g i c a l t a l e , a n a r r a t i v e elegy complete i n i t s e l f , rather than a seri e s of b r i e f l y recounted, thematically r e l a t e d myths. In narrating t h i s myth, however, he observes the same methods of s e l e c t i o n and adaptation of t r a d i t i o n a l material as he does i n his other exempla. Familiar mythological d e t a i l s are c a r e f u l l y arranged to r e f l e c t and i l l u s t r a t e the dramatic s i t u a t i o n portrayed i n the primary context of the poem. Single mythological names are used to stand for the themes and images i m p l i c i t i n them. Certain ideas and images raised i n the myth are expressed so as to suggest other l i t e r a r y passages that treat a s i m i l a r theme. And mythological d e t a i l s that depart from t r a d i t i o n a l versions mark the poet's deliberate a l t e r a t i o n of f a m i l i a r material tot s u i t the unique purposes of 1.20. The analysis of the poem that follows attempts to demonstrate the s k i l f u l and clever manner i n which Propertius narrates the Hylas t a l e not merely as a poetic exercise, as c r i t i c s have claimed, but i n order both to i l l u s t r a t e observations he makes on the subject of Gallus' love a f f a i r and to express his f u l l perception and p o r t r a y a l of those aspects of love that Gallus' a f f a i r involves. 1-16 Propertius' Portrayal of Gallus' S i t u a t i o n The f i r s t sixteen l i n e s of 1.20 constitute v i r t u a l l y the e n t i r e 5 3 primary context of the elegy . In these l i n e s Propertius informs Gallus that c e r t a i n circumstances i n h i s l i f e have inspi r e d him to compose-this ;ppi2m. He outlines those circumstances, e s t a b l i s h i n g sev-e r a l ideas and images that are important to h i s theme, and asserting the relevance of the experience of the mythological Hercules to the s i t u a t i o n described. 1-4 Propertius' Prologue The poet's theme, as he states at the outset, i s Gallus' love a f f a i r . "For the sake of your continuing love a f f a i r , Gallus, I give you t h i s warning" (1). Continuo amore i s considered by some to r e f e r 54 to the friendship between the poet and h i s addressee . This would not be s u r p r i s i n g since i t appears from the other Gallus poems of the Monobiblos (5,10 and 13) that the two men are close friends who share private and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and confidences. There are, however, two arguments against t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . F i r s t , amor elsewhere i n Propertius s i g n i f i e s , without exception, passionate love and not mere friendship. The word refe r s both to a love a f f a i r , f o r example, tantum  i n amore preces et benefacta valent (1.1.16), and to a lover, for examp1e, non u l l o gravius temptatur Cynthia damno / quam s i b i cum  rapto cessat amore deus (1.4.25f). Friendship i s referred to by Pro-pertius as a m i c i t i a , T u l l e ... / quaeris pro nostra ... a m i c i t i a (1.22.If), and f r i e n d s , including Gallus, as amici, (Galle) est quiddam  i n nobis maius amice f i d e (1.10.14)~*"l The second i n d i c a t i o n that amore refer s not to the friendship between Gallus and Propertius but to the love a f f a i r i n which Gallus i s engaged i s that Propertius uses the same word i n h i s summary couplet, tuos ... servabis amores (51), and there i t c l e a r l y means Gallus' love a f f a i r or h i s lover. The poet's theme i n 1.20, then, w i l l be Gallus' love a f f a i r , and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , as we s h a l l see, Gallus' beloved. Gallus' amor i s described as continuus. The adjective, which means "uninterrupted", "joined together" both i n time and i n space, can apply both to h i s love a f f a i r , "your continuing love a f f a i r " , and to h i s beloved, "the one who i s constantly at your side". I t may also be intended p r o l e p t i c a l l y as expressing the purpose of the poet's p o r t r a y a l , that i s , that Gallus' beloved may remain at his side and that the love a f f a i r may continue. The notion of "together-ness" that i s introduced by the word continuo forms an important aspect of Propertius' theme. Before he goes on to describe Gallus' love a f f a i r and h i s beloved, Propertius warns him against taking l i g h t l y h i s remarks. This caution i s expressed i n words whose various connotations suggest other ideas and images that are important to the poem's theme. "Let my words not flow away from your empty mind. Often fortune crosses a heedless lover." The phrases vacuo animo and imprudenti amanti introduce the notion of the carelessness of the lover. Propertius' vocabulary sug-gests that a careless lover i s one whose a t t i t u d e toward h i s love a f f a i r i s complacent. His mind i s " i d l e " (vacuus), that i s , "unthink-ing" (Postgate), "unsuspecting" (Camps), with respect to the possible loss of h i s beloved, and he takei£ no measures (imprudens) i n preserving his r e l a t i o n s h i p . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s c l e a r that Gallus i s , i n Pro-p e r t i u s ' estimation, j u s t such a lover. The verb defluat serves, i n i t s f i g u r a t i v e sense "vanish", to introduce the idea of separation or l o s s , the a n t i t h e s i s of "togetherness". The f a c t that the images of the careless lover and of separation or loss are evoked i n the same passage suggests strongly a cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. Defluat stands also i n i t s l i t e r a l sense,"flow down", "flow away", and evokes the f i r s t of several images i n the poem of water. Water played an important part i n the Hylas myth and Propertius retains t h i s d e t a i l but, as we s h a l l see, adapts i t to h i s own unique purposes. I t i s noteworthy that Propertius' f i r s t water image i s evoked by a word the p r e f i x of which denotes movement away from and implies separation. An a s s o c i a t i o n between water and loss i s therefore established at the poem's outset. Having stated h i s theme - Gallus' love a f f a i r , and established several ideas and images that form important aspects of i t - together-ness, the carelessness of the lover, separation and l o s s , Propertius adumbrates h i s narration of the Hylas myth as a relevant exemplum. "Ascanius, c r u e l to the Minyans, could t e l l you". Propertius' f i r s t reference to the Hylas myth i s a l l u s i v e . The term Minyae would have been f a m i l i a r to Propertius' audience from other authors as synonymous with Argonautae""*^ Ascanius would have s i g n i f i e d an area i n Mysia-Bithynia on the south shore of Propontis, the s i t e of one of the Argonauts' bivouacs. Here the Ascanius River flowed from Lake Ascanius west into a bay of Propontis, and here the rape of Hylas was said to have taken p l a c e . A s c a n i u s proved c r u d e l i s to the Argonauts. In the Monobiblos a person or thing described as c r u e l brings upon another separation from h i s beloved. Cynthia's door, for example, i s c r u d e l i s i n keeping Propertius from h i s mistress, ianua v e l domina penitus 5 8 c r u d e l i o r ipsa / quid mihi iam duris clausa taces foribus (1.16.17f) . The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s adjective here,then, sustains the image suggested e a r l i e r In the poem of separation and l o s s , and e s p e c i a l l y loss by water. The statement that "Ascanius, c r u e l to the Minyans, could have something to say" to Gallus establishes early i n the poem the importance of the myth and i t s relevance to Gallus' circumstances. Propertius, then, i n h i s opening remarks states c l e a r l y h i s subject - Gallus' love a f f a i r (pro continuo ... Galle ... amore), establishes c e r t a i n pertinent thoughts and images - the togetherness of the lover and h i s beloved (continuo amore), the careless and heed-less lover (vacuo animo, imprudenti amanti), separation or loss and s p e c i f i c a l l y loss by water (defluat, c r u d e l i s Ascanius), and suggests the relevance of the events of the myth to the circumstances of Gallus' l i f e . 5-6 Propertius describes Gallus' beloved. "You have a beloved very l i k e Theiodamas' son Hylas, a boy not less f a i r , nor of d i s s i m i l a r name." Although Propertius does not elsewhere use ardor for causa a r d o r i s , t h i s i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the word here. There are, as Enk notes, p a r a l l e l examples of the poet's s u b s t i t u t i o n of a noun of passionate f e e l i n g f o r the person who caused that f e e l i n g . Discordia, f or instance, i s put for causa discordiae, Idae et cupido quondam d i s c o r d i a Phoebo / Eveni ... f i l i a 59 , (1.2.17) . A closer p a r a l l e l example, however, i s Propertius use of amor above (1) i n which, as we have seen, the name of the emotion i s put for the person or s i t u a t i o n that caused the emotion. Proximus, "very near", i s used here f i g u r a t i v e l y of resemblance; Gallus' beloved i s , i n Propertius'opinion, very l i k e the mythological Hylas. Two points of resemblance are made, non i n f r a speciem and non  nomine dispar. Species most often i n c l a s s i c a l L a t i n describes the outward appearance of something, and, as Propertius' audience would have recognized from t h e i r knowledge of l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c represent-ations of Hylas, the poet ref e r s here to h i s legendary beauty. ( "YXav ) xaXXeu H a l yXuKeprjauv epeudd*yevov x aP^ Teaauv (Ap .Rh. 1.1230). ("YAas) Xapueus ... KaXXtaxos (Th.13.7 ... 7 3 ) ^ Ovid i n h i s Ars Am. sets Hylas as an example of great beauty i n a m a n a n d Hyginus includes him i n h i s l i s t of Qui Ephebi Formosissimi Fuerunt (Fab. 271). Gallus' beloved i s not i n f e r i o r , as Propertius asserts both here and i n h i s c l o s i n g couplet, formosum ... Hylan (52). The ambiguity i n nomine i s probably intended and exploited by the poet to suggest by the one phrase a two-f o l d d e s c r i p t i o n of Gallus' boy. Nornen can mean l i t e r a l l y "name" or f i g u r a t i v e l y "reputation" or "fame", and both senses of the word are . 62 attested i n the Monobiblos. Gallus beloved possesses the name - he i s c a l l e d Hylas - and the fame - he i s well known for h i s beauty - of his mythological counterpart. The analogy between Gallus' beloved and the mythological Hylas i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the beauty and the name the two share. Their proximitas extends to a resemblance i n t h e i r natures. Those features of character, however, that represent Propertius' perception and por-t r a y a l of Gallus' beloved are depicted not i n the primary context of , the poem but through the narration of the mythological exemplum. The reader, as Propertius suggests i n h i s statement that Gallus' Hylas i s "very l i k e " Hercules' Hylas, must apply h i s portrayal of the mytho-l o g i c a l f i g u r e to the contemporary f i g u r e , and i n the l i g h t of the exemplum apprehend Propertius,' perception of Gallus' continuus amor. Propertius' f i r s t mention i n the elegy of the mythological Hylas evokes two important images. F i r s t , the adjective Theiodamanteo, i n c a l l i n g to mind the story of Hercules' a c q u i s i t i o n of Hylas, suggests an image of rape. Theiodamas was Hylas' father. Hercules k i l l e d him and c a r r i e d o f f the boy for himself. ("HpaxXriS "'YXav ) 6dytov e% Tiarpds duoupas / 6dou 8euo6dyavTos' ov ev Apudueaatv euetpvev / vnXeuais (ApJ Rh. 1.1212ff). The evocation of an image of rape within Propertius' s t a t e -ment that Gallus' beloved i s very l i k e the mythological Hylas creates 6 3 an ominous tone. Secondly, the poet, as L. Curran has noted , draws on the punning etymological connection between the name Hylas and the Greek uXri to suggest an image of woods. Hylae, as the t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of uXotL i s the f i r s t of several references i n the poem to things sylvan. Woods, as we s h a l l see, are one of the a t t r a c t i v e and a l l u r i n g features of those areas i n which Gallus i s l i a b l e to lose h i s Hylas. 7-12 Propertius observes that Gallus must ward o f f from h i s Hylas the amorous advances of nymphs. "Your beloved, Gallus, whether you make your way along the streams of shady woods, or i f Anio's water laps at your feet , or i f you s t r o l l on the seashore where the Giants fought, or wherever aou wandering r i v e r welcomes you, always protect from the desirous clutches of nymphs. I t a l i a n nymphs are no les s amorous." The ju x t a p o s i t i o n of the two pronouns r e f e r r i n g to Gallus and h i s beloved, with which Pro-pertius begins h i s inju n c t i o n , i s e f f e c t i v e , the closeness of Hylas and Gallus i n the verse r e f l e c t i n g the subject of the elegy, that i s , t h e i r togetherness i n l i f e . Propertius now portrays i n four p a r a l l e l sive clauses the sort of environment i n which Gallus' continuus amor i s e s p e c i a l l y at r i s k . Two images suggested e a r l i e r i n the poem prove to be the chief features of t h i s environment. S i l v a e , occupying the same metrical p o s i t i o n as Hylae and providing the L a t i n equivalent of the Greek uAn , sustains and emphasizes the sylvan image suggested by the name Hylae, and flumina, unda, l i t o r i s ora and fluminis sustain the image of water that was evoked by defluat and Ascanius. Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of these features indicates the sensuous pleasures they o f f e r ; the woods are shady, umbrosae flumina s i l v a e (7), the streams that flow through them i n v i t i n g , vago fluminis hospiti o (10). Enclosed by two general descrip-tions of a t t r a c t i v e wooded and waterside areas (7,10) are two s p e c i f i c references to locations i n I t a l y . The geographical d e t a i l s Aniena unda and Gigantea l i t o r i s ora suggest that Propertius has i n mind two ex-amples of t h i s sort of environment. The poet makes three other references to the Anio i n h i s elegies and each r e f e r s to that r i v e r ' s waters at Tibur: Tibure ... qua cadit  i n patulos nympha Aniena lacus (3.16.2ff); Anio Tiburne (3.22.23); hie T i b u r t i n a i a c e t aurea Cynthia t e r r a / a c c e s s i t rlpae laus Aniens tuae (4.7.85f). Gigantea ora are the Campi Phlegraei i n Campania i n which l i e s B a i a e ^ . Propertius had much to say i n another poem of the Monobiblos about corruptas Baiae (1.11.27) and h i s contemporary audience could be expected to see a reference to i t i n Gigantea ora. Tibur and Baiae were fashionable waterside resorts i n Propertius' day and had several features i n common that made them unsafe places for Gallus to leave h i s beloved unprotected. Both were pleasurable and a t t r a c t i v e by reason of t h e i r waters and woods: Tibure ... qua ...  cadit i n patulos nympha Aniena lacus (3.16.2ff); ramosis Anio qua  pomifer incubat a r v i s (4.7.81); te mediis cessantem Cynthia Bais ...  l i t o r i b u s ... mirantem ... aequora (1.11. I f f ) . That wooded areas were a noted feature of Baiae i s attested by a depiction of the town on a fourth century B.C. glass b o t t l e which bears, with the place name, a stagnum and a s i l v a ^ . Water, as Propertius suggested i n h i s prologue, can cause bereavement (defluat 3, c r u d e l i s Ascanius 4), and sylvan areas, as stated i n the f i r s t sive clause (sive leges umbrosae flumina  s i l v a e 7), are l i a b l e to be the s i t e of bereavement (nympharum cupidas  rapinas 11). Tibur and Baiae, then, noted for t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e and pleasurable woods and waters, are examples of places i n which Gallus must be assiduously v i g i l a n t over h i s Hylas (semper defende 11.) . Both Tibur and Baiae are places where Cynthia spent i d l e hours away from Propertius, (at Tibur) vacabis (2.32.7), (at Baiae) vacet ( t i b i ) (1.11.13), and where a beloved might e a s i l y be tempted by the charms of another, (at Tibur) qui videt (te) i s peccat (2.32.1), (at Baiae) (Cynthia vacat) a l t e r i u s blandos audire susurros (1.11.13), suc-cumb, i n s i d i a s i n me componis (2.32.29), p e r f i d a communes nec meminisse  deos (1.11.16), and perhaps be l o s t , t u i furtum ... amoris (2.32.17), multis i s t a dabunt l i t o r a discidium (1.11.28). Baiae e s p e c i a l l y had a scandalous reputation. For Cicero, the very name stood f o r a l l that was hedonistic and immoral, l i b i d i n e s , amores, a d u l t e r i a , Baias, act&s, 67 convivia, comissationes, cantus ... (pro Cael. 35) i Propertius' per-ception of the a t t r a c t i o n s and temptations of Tibur and Baiae, which i s expressed e x p l i c i t l y elsewhere i n h i s poetry and which would be re a d i l y c a l l e d to mind by h i s contemporaries by h i s a l l u s i o n s to such places i n l i n e s 8 and 9, i s most important to the design of h i s poem. The thoughts and images evoked by these a l l u s i o n s w i l l be r e c a l l e d and expanded i n the poet's narration of the myth, where the a t t r a c t i o n s and temptations posed the mythological Hylas at Pege are portrayed i n such a way as to suggest strongly the a t t r a c t i o n s and temptations posed the contemporary Hylas at such places as Tibur and Baiae. The verbs used to describe the a c t i v i t i e s of Gallus and h i s beloved i n these areas stresses the need for constant v i g i l a n c e on Gallus' part. The three verbs may describe d i f f e r e n t types of aquatic a c t i v i t y : lego 68 i s used often of s a i l i n g and, as Propertius elsewhere suggests, t h i s pastime was popular at the waterside resorts of I t a l y , utinam mage te  ... 7 parvula Lucrina cumba moretur aqua (1.11.9f); t i n x e r i t unda pedes perhaps portrays Gallus and h i s beloved dipping t h e i r feet i n water; and spatior suggests a l e i s u r e l y s t r o l l , an a c t i v i t y Propertius i n another poem wishes Cynthia were enjoying with him rather than with another man i n Tibur, hoc utinam spatiere loco quodcumque vacabis (2.32.7). The v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s suggests to Gallus that whatever he i s doing i n such places he must protect h i s Hylas. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t may be that the three verbs a l l suggest the one a c t i v i t y , that i s , Gallus walking along the water's edge (with h i s beloved), and that the v a r i e t y l i e s i n the type of water, "whether by streams ... or by the seashore". In other words, wherever Gallus i s i n a waterside environment he must be v i g i l a n t . The danger to be found i n pleasant waterside resorts (huic tu  semper defende 7 ... 11) i s nympharum cupidas rapinas (11). The word nympha appears three times i n the poem, once i n the exemplum where i t refe r s to the mythological semi-divine denizens of the spring, and twice i n the poem's primary context (11, 52) where i t represents some-thing quite d i f f e r e n t . Here, given Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of places that pose a danger to Gallus' continuus amor, that i s , h i s a l l u s i o n s to contemporary I t a l i a n locations (Tibur 8, Baiae 9) and his r e f e r -ence, ;in the following l i n e to I t a l y ' s inhabitants (Ausoniis 12), nympha very l i k e l y suggests i t s primary Greek meaning, "a young b r i d e " 69 or "a marriageable maiden" , and s i g n i f i e s the young women who inhabit the wooded waterside resorts of I t a l y . These young women are charac-t e r i z e d by Propertius as b l a t a n t l y amorous and predatory. Rapinas, i n emphatic p o s i t i o n at l i n e end, suggests w i l f u l seizure or plunder, and cupidas marks as l u s t f u l and passionate both the actions and the nature of these "nymphs". The e l l i p t i c a l comparison with which the poet completes h i s des c r i p t i o n of nymphae, non minor Ausoniis est amor Adryasin (12), i s e a s i l y understood. Propertius' a l l u s i o n to the myth of the rape of Hylas (Hylae 6) would have put h i s audience i n mind of the ta l e ' s e s s e n t i a l features, that i s , nymphae and cupida rapina, enabling them to complete h i s comparison from t h e i r own knowledge, f o r example, quam  B i t h y n i c i s nymphis a quibus f i l i u s Theiodamantis raptus est (Enk). Propertius' young women are Ausoniae Adryades. The adjective c l e a r l y means Roman or I t a l i a n . The Ausonii were an ancient people who i n -habited southern I t a l y ; t h e i r name came to be applied p o e t i c a l l y to I t a l i a n s i n general and the adjective Ausonius to mean"Italian" or "Roman"7^ Adryades, "nymphs of the wood", however, i s a s u r p r i s i n g d e s c r i p t i o n . The word i t s e l f i s rare, occurring i n Greek only three times^and i n L a t i n only here. That wood nymphs are made the perpe-tr a t o r s of the rape i s also unusual; i n other versions of the myth the nymphs are water nymphs, n 6e ve*ov xpn^ris dve6\5eiro xaAAuvdoLO / vuucpn ecpu6aTun (Ap.Rh. 1.1228f); u6axu 6 1 ev ue'aacp Nuycpau x°P°"v (Th. 72 13.43). Adryasin i s an emendation (Struve) of the manuscripts' a d r i a c i s and i s accepted by a l l modern e d i t o r s . This emendation i s considered j u s t i f i e d by Propertius' two other references to wood nymphs i n 1.20, Hamadryasin (32) and Dryades (45). Commentators defend Propertius' s u b s t i t u t i o n of wood nymphs for water nymphs by c i t i n g other passages i n which the names are i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y used, for 73 fatum naiados arbor erat (Ovid F a s t i 4.231f) . There i s evidence, however, wit h i n 1.20 that suggests Propertius d e l i b e r a t e l y substitutes wood nymphs for water nymphs. In previous l i n e s he has c l e a r l y meant to portray both woods and water as features of those areas dangerous to Gallus'continuus amor: Hylae (6), umbrosae s i l v a e (7), and Aniena  unda (8), which i n a l l u d i n g to Tibur would perhaps suggest that area's well loved woods and trees. The two features, woods and water, are 74 mentioned together throughout the poem . It i s not one topographical feature that holds the danger for Hylas but a general scene character-ized by shady trees and flowing streams and inhabited by amorous nymphs. Propertius emphasizes t h i s aspect of h i s message by making wood nymphs the perpetrators of the rape, both i n mythological Pege and i n contem-porary I t a l y . I t has been suggested by G. Krokowski that the nymphs from whom Gallus' beloved must be protected are not female admirers but male r i v a l s of G a l l u s . ^ However, since Propertius includes i n h i s exemplum an episode i n which Hylas r e j e c t s the advances of male admirers, i t i s far more l i k e l y that nymphae are female admirers and that to t h e i r advances, as the myth w i l l reveal, Hylas i s most susceptible. 13-16 Propertius expresses h i s fear that unless Gallus protects h i s beloved Hylas he w i l l lose him forever and experience the misery suffered by the bereft Hercules. "I am a f r a i d , Gallus, that i t w i l l be your l o t ever to v i s i t hard mountains and i c y rocks and untried lakes; t h i s was the fate Hercules endured, wandering i n misery on unknown shores and weeping before the r e l e n t l e s s Ascanius." Propertius here portrays v i v i d l y the hard l o t of the imprudens amans, the lover who through h i s carelessness has l o s t h i s beloved. The poet's d e s c r i p t i o n of duros montes, f r i g i d a saxa, neque expertos lacus (13f) i s f a m i l i a r , for i n another elegy he imagines j u s t such a landscape as the f i t t i n g background f o r h i s p l a i n t i v e c r i e s over hi s own separation from h i s beloved, +divini+ fontes et f r i g i d a rupes / et datur i n c u l t o tramite dura quies / ... deserta ... saxa (1.18.27ff). The harsh landscape represents more than a s u i t a b l e background for the lament of a bereft lover, however, for the features of t h i s landscape are endowed with q u a l i t i e s that are unmistakably human. Durus i s an adjective several times applied by Propertius to a hard hearted and unyielding g i r l , for example, a l l q u i d duram quaerimus i n dominam 7 6 (1.7.6) . Frigidus can i n i t s f i g u r a t i v e sense mean " i n d i f f e r e n t " or " f r i g i d " , for example, me legat ... non f r i g i d a virgo (Ovid Am.2.1.5). And, since the force of the p a r t i c i p l e expertos may be not only passive but also a c t i v e , that i s , both "lakes that have not been t r i e d (searched)" and "lakes that have no knowledge (of Hylas) the sug-gestion i s strong that the landscape has an animate hardness corre-sponding to i t s inanimate hardness. The hard and unyielding nature of the landscape i s perhaps intended to r e f l e c t the hard hearted and unyielding nature of i t s amorous and greedy denizens (cupidas rapinas ... est amor l l f ) , both the nymphs of the myth and the maidens of the contemporary world. This p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i s supported by the two epithets Propertius gives the Ascanius, c r u d e l i s and indomito (4, 16). The words with which Propertius begins h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the bereft lover, ne t i b i s i t (13) r e c a l l the words with which be began his t h i r d couplet, est t i b i (5). The s t r u c t u r a l l y p a r a l l e l phrases emphasize the contrasting s i t u a t i o n s they introduce, the one, Gallus' possession of a b e a u t i f u l beloved, the :other, the hard, cold misery he w i l l endure deprived of h i s beloved. The consequence of imprudentia i n the lover i s made p e r f e c t l y c l e a r . "Such were the s u f f e r i n g s " (quae 15) Hercules endured. Propertius' depiction of the bereft Hercules (15f) r e c a l l s i n every d e t a i l h i s p r e d i c t i o n of Gallus' s u f f e r i n g (13f), providing the important l i n k between Gallus and Hercules: quae perpessus summarizes the wretched circumstances of the bereaved lover as they were described i n 13f, circumstances that Hercules suffered and that Propertius hopes Gallus can avoid; miser, a stock epithet of the unhappy lover, r e c a l l s the:' r hard existence of the bereaved lover, duros, f r i g i d a ; i g n o t i s o r i s repeats neque expertos lacus, emphasizing the loneliness of the new and unfamiliar s i t u a t i o n ; error, describing the behaviour to which intense g r i e f reduces Hercules, corresponds to semper adire; indomito  Ascanio r e c a l l s the hard and unyielding phy s i c a l features duros montes, f r i g i d a saxa, neque expertos lacus; and Herculis stands i n the mythol-o g i c a l context for Galle, both names occupying the same p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r pentameters. This verbal correspondence between the couplets that describe Gallus' (potential) p l i g h t and Hercules' p l i g h t r e f l e c t s the correspondence perceived by Propertius between the contemporary and the mythicalcsituations, and serves to assert, immediately preceding the n a r r a t i o n of the myth, the relevance of events i n the myth to events i n Gallus' world. Error i s a theme important to Propertius' warning. In i t s general sense "a roving about", the word contributes pathos to the poet's p i c t u r e of the bereft lover ever searching f o r h i s beloved, but i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r sense "a going wrong", e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t of Pro-p e r t i u s ' statement that fortune crosses the imprudent lover (3), the 78 word suggests that blame i s owing to Hercules. The s i t u a t i o n portrayed i n the primary context of the poem, then, i s t h i s . Propertius has observed that Gallus i s engaged i n a love a f f a i r with a handsome boy, and he warns him that he must protect him from the amorous advances of female admirers l e s t he lose him forever. A careless.lover i s l i a b l e to lose his beloved. The relevance of the myth of the rape of Hylas to Gallus' circumstances i s asserted: Gallus' beloved i s very much l i k e Hylas (5f) ; the young women of I t a l y are j u s t as amorous as the Hamadryad nymphs (12); and Gallus i s i n danger of s u f f e r i n g the loss of his beloved as Hercules suffered the loss of Hylas ( 1 3 f f ) . As the poet narrates the myth, then, we may expect to f i n d i n his portrayal of Hercules, the nymphs and Hylas h i s f u l l e r perception and portrayal of t h e i r contemporary counterparts Gallus, the young women of I t a l y and Gallus' beloved. 17-50 Propertius' Narration of the Rape of Hylas Propertius adduces as an exemplum of the s i t u a t i o n portrayed i n the primary context of the poem a narration of the myth of the rape of Hylas. 17-20 The heroes voyage to Mysia. In these l i n e s Propertius compresses into few words a d e s c r i p t i o n of the Argonauts' voyage to Propontis. "For they say that once Argo, having l e f t the dockyards of Pagasa, made the long journey to the Phasis, and now s l i p p i n g through the water passed the Hellespont and put i n to shore on the rocky coast of Mysia." The f i v e proper names Propertius provides allude to elements of the t a l e that would have been f a m i l i a r to h i s audience from t r a d i t i o n a l accounts. Argo was the name of the ship that c a r r i e d the heroes (Ap.Rh. 1.110); Pagasa the port town i n Thessaly where Argo was b u i l t and from which the expedition departed (Ap.Rh. 1.238f); the Phasis, which flowed through Colchis and emptied into the Euxine, was the Argonauts' destina-t i o n i n t h e i r quest for the golden f l e e c e (Ap.Rh. 2.401ff); the "waters of Athamas' daughter" the Hellespont through which the heroes entered Propontis (Ap.Rh. 1.935); and "the land of the Mysians" where they made th e i r l a n d f a l l (Ap.Rh. 1.1170ff). Three of these d e t a i l s are expressed so as to sustain ideas and images that were raised i n the primary context of the poem as representing important aspects of Propertius' theme. F i r s t , the Hellespont through which Argo s a i l s i s r e f e r r e d to as Athamantidos undae (19). Propertius uses the patronymic to put h i s audience i n mind of the myth of the drowning of Helle and thereby to evoke two pertinent images. Athamas was the father of Helle and Phrixus. His concubine in t r i g u e d to have the c h i l d r e n k i l l e d but they were ca r r i e d away on a ram of golden f l e e c e . Between Sigeum and the Thracian Chersonese H e l l e f e l l into the water and drowned. Propertius, r e l y i n g on h i s contemporaries' f a m i l i a r i t y with the story and e s p e c i a l l y with p i c t o r i a l representations of i t , evokes a v i v i d image of separation and loss through water and perhaps also suggests the f i g u r e of a man bereaved of a loved one. Secondly, Argo i s described as " s l i p p i n g through" (labentem 19) the water. Propertius' choice of "verb - labor suggests a smooth uninterrupted g l i d i n g motion - and i t s m e t r i c a l p o s i t i o n - the f i n a l s y l l a b l e of the p a r t i c i p l e i s elided before two consecutive dactyls - are calculated to r e f l e c t the ease and speed of Argo's voyage. This impression of swift and easy motion through water i s r e c a l l e d at the poem's climax by a cognaterof labor, which there suggests the ease and speed with which Hylas " s l i p s through" the waters of Pege (prolapsum ... liquore 47). T h i r d l y , Propertius describes the Mysian coast as rocky, Mysorum scopulis (20), a d e t a i l that seems intend-ed to set the scene for Hercules' bereavement. Scopulis evokes an image of rugged t e r r a i n , r e c a l l i n g the landscape i n which the poet depicted the bereft hero, d u r i montes et ... saxa (13). A sense of foreboding and an impression of the imminence of the loss of Hylas i s created. 21-24 The heroes bivouac i n Mysia and Hylas goes to search for water. "Here the band of heroes set foot on the peaceful shore and covered the ground with a soft layer of leaves. But the companion of the unconquered youth had gone o f f to seek the choice water of a distant fountain." In the f i r s t couplet, Propertius appears to follow the t r a d i t i o n a l accounts of the Argonauts' l a n d f a l l . Compare Apollonius and Theocritus: '£v%a S ' l u e u © ' O L y e v ^\5Xa x d y x a v a , x o u 6E A e x o t u n v / cpuAXd*6a A e u y i o v i o v cpepov ' d c n i E x o v a y t f a a v x E S / axo*pvuydaL. T O L 6' dycpu Tiupi^La 6uve\5eaxov / OL, 6' o f v o v x p n x n p a u xe*pwv Ttoveovxo* t e 6aCxa (Ap.Rh. 1.1182ff) ; e x g d v x E g 6' tut S u v a xaxct Zvya 6atxa Tte:vovxo / S e u s A L v d v , u o A A o t 6e y i a y / a x o p e a a v x o x ^ P E ^ v a v / A e u y u i v y ^ P ocpuv e x e t x o . . . / . . . g o u x o y o v / o £ u B a d u v x ' £ * r d y o v x o x u n e u p o v (Th. 13.32ff). Propertius' account d i f f e r s i n that he does not specify the reasons for these a c t i v i t i e s . One commentator, remarking on Propertius' " e l l i p t i c a l " d e s c r i p t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s preparatory to dining and sleeping, suggests that "(these) may have been so natural ... for ancient s a i l o r s that (they) required 79 no explanation." The poet's omission of explanatory d e t a i l s , however, as well as the p a r t i c u l a r adjectives he chooses to describe the Argonauts' bivouac, suggest strongly :that".he:.iscconeer.nedlless _"with r e l a t i n g the heroes' a c t i v i t i e s ashore than with conveying an impression of t h e i r state mind there. The three adjectives placidus, m o l l i a and composita suggest a scene of t r a n q u i l l i t y , comfort and s e t t l e d ease; the area i s peaceful and the shore made soft by gathered leaves. Although the adjectives describe the p h y s i c a l features of the bivouac s i t e , two of them, m o l l i a and composita, as Propertius' c i r c l e would have recognized, can describe complacency and self-indulgence i n human beings, and therefore may be considered here to suggest the a t t i t u d e of the Argonauts, and s p e c i f i c a l l y of Hercules. M o l l i s can imply com-placency, as i t does at 1.4.1, tu ... abiectus Tiberina m o l l i t e r unda, and compositus suggests i n a human being a quiet, undisturbed a t t i t u d e , for example, s i bene compositus somno vinoque i a c e b i t (Ovid Am.1.4.53). Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n here, then, of the peaceful shore may be ex-tended to the heroes s e t t l e d there and suggest a complacent, unwary at t i t u d e i n them. That m o l l i a and composita are intended to describe not only the phy s i c a l features of the bivouac s i t e but also the a t t i t u d e of the Argonauts there i s supported by the f a c t that the l i n e i n which these adjectives occur i s s t r i k i n g l y reminiscent of a l i n e i n Pro-per t i u s ' Baiae poem i n which he describes j u s t such an a t t i t u d e i n Cynthia, m o l l i t e r i n t a c i t o l i t o r e compositam (1.11.14). Propertius imagines her unmindful of her absent lover, l u x u r i a t i n g i n surroundings that she perceives as pleasant but that Propertius perceives as a threat to t h e i r love a f f a i r . The suggestion that Hercules (as one of the Argonauts) has such a s e l f - s a t i s f i e d , unwary a t t i t u d e i s , i n view of the poet's observation to Gallus i n the primary context of the poem, ominous, for complacency and carelessness i n the lover was threatened to bring misfortune (saepe imprudenti fortuna o c c u r r i t amanti 3). The next couplet informs us that Hylas has l e f t Hercules to search for water. In t h i s d e t a i l , too, Propertius follows t r a d i t i o n a l accounts, but expresses i t so as to r e c a l l and i l l u s t r a t e the ideas and images suggested i n the primary context. Almost every word or phrase empha-sizes the fact that Hercules and Hylas have become separated. Hylas i s referred to as Hercules' comes, a word the deri v a t i o n of which, cum and eo, reminds us that the two are always together. It i s used Mith irony i n the l i n e that t e l l s us Hylas has already l e f t . Hercules i s referred to as "the unconquered youth", another i r o n i c d e s c r i p t i o n i n view of the audience's knowledge that he i s soon to be "overcome" by g r i e f i n h i s bereavement. The pluperfect tense of processerat i s i n -tended not as a substitute f o r the p r e t e r i t e (as often i n Propertius) but, as Enk observes, to s i g n i f y celeritatem a c t i o n i s . No sooner had the heroes disembarked than the boy had gone. U l t r a , r a r e l y used as as adverb of space without quam, s i g n i f i e s vaguely "further a f i e l d " (Camps). Propertius implies that even a small distance between beloved and lover i s too great. S e p o s i t i , "remote", emphasizes the distance Hylas must go to f i n d water. The adjec t i v e also provides an e f f e c t i v e contrast with composita (22): p a r t i c i p l e s of opposite meaning, derived from the same root verb and occupying the same me t r i c a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r pentameters, composita and s e p o s i t i i n themselves represent the "po s i t i o n s " of Hercules and Hylas, the one s e t t l e d complacently and therefore imprudens, the other at a distance and therefore undefended. The reader i s reminded of the poet's observation that the lover must be constantly v i g i l a n t over h i s beloved (sive ... sive ... sive ...  sive ubicumque ... semper defende 7 f f ) . Two d e t a i l s that are provided by other accounts of the myth but omitted by Propertius are the pitcher c a r r i e d by Hylas and the purpose on of the water. For Propertius these d e t a i l s are extraneous. What i s important i n h i s narration i s that Hylas has l e f t Hercules' protection and that he i s seeking water. 25-32 An e r o t i c attack i s made upon Hylas by Hercules' fellow Argonauts, the winged Boreads Zetes and C a l a i s . "Two brothers, the sons of Aquilo, having eagerly pursued Hylas -above him Zetes and above him Calais - swooped down, one a f t e r the other, with hands outstretched, to pluck kisses from h i s upturned face and to bear away t h e i r p r i z e . Hylas, hanging under the edge of a wing, protects himself and with a branch wards o f f the winged attack. Now the sons of O r i t h y i a , Pandion's o f f s p r i n g , have gone, ah woe, Hylas was o f f , was o f f to the Hamadryads." Zetes and C a l a i s , Hylas' attackers, are mythological figures who would have been f a m i l i a r to Propertius' audience both from l i t e r a t u r e and from representations i n a r t . They were the sons of O r i t h y i a , born to Aquilo or Boreas, the north wind, a f t e r he had snatched her away from A t t i c a to h i s home i n T h r a c e . ^ Through h i s mention of t h e i r parents' names (25, 31) Propertius r e c a l l s the story of t h e i r b i r t h and evokes images pertinent to h i s theme. Aquilo suggests an image i n which the attention i s focused on the raptor, a f i g u r e who, l i k e the Boreads, swooped down aggressively upon the object of h i s desire. O r i t h y i a suggests an image of a rapta, a f i g u r e who, l i k e Hylas, was snatched away and l o s t to those who loved her. Furthermore, the name of Orithyia's grandfather ;Pandion (31), by suggesting the well known myth with which he i s associated, serves to r e c a l l a f i g u r e who was bereaved of a loved one, and thereby to suggest the g r i e f of Hercules and h i s contemporary counterpart Gallus. Pandion, having l o s t h i s two daughters who under wretched circumstances were metamorphosed into b i r d s , suffered incon-solable g r i e f , hie dolor ante diem longaeque extrema senectae / tempora Tartareas Pandiona m l s l t ad umbras (Ovid Met. 6.675f) . The image of such g r i e f r e c a l l s the depiction of the bereaved Hercules i n the primary context of the poem (13ff) and foreshadows Hercules' loss i n the myth ( 4 7 f f ) . Zetes and Calais f i g u r e as members of the Argonautic expedition g i n Pindar, Apollonius, Ovid, Apollodorus, Hyginus and Valerius Flaccus, but the only author other than Propertius to associate them with any aspect of the Hercules-Hylas myth i s Apollonius. He r e l a t e s that they persuaded the Argonauts to s a i l without Hercules while the hero was preoccupied i n a g r i e f s t r i c k e n search for h i s l o s t Hylas. For t h i s 83 Zetes and Calais were l a t e r s l a i n by him. The e r o t i c attack made upon Hylas by the brothers, which i s described by Propertius, i s unique i n extant Greek and L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e . It i s f i t t i n g therefore to consider the possible sources of h i s i n s p i r a t i o n and the purpose served h i s poem by the episode. The e r o t i c adventures and r i v a l r i e s of mythological figures were many and there i s some evidence that such tales ;were. a t t r i b u t e d to the heroes of theiArgonautici-expedition. C a l a i s , f o r example, appears i n a fragment of Phanocles as a beloved of another Argonaut, Orpheus. "H cos Oudcppouo Ttctts Qpn^xLos Opcpeus / E X §uuoO Kd*Aai,v ax£pE,e gopnLd*6riv / TCoAActMU 6e axiiepoCau'V'-' iv aAaeauv E ^ E T ' deiTScov /'ov u6*3ov, ou6.r ?|v oil / §uuds ev riouxCn / dAA'aceui 'uLV aypUTivoc uito ^ux^i ueA£6covai, / expuxov, 84 daAspov 6£pxouevou KaAauv . Phanocles was a Greek H e l l e n i s t i c poet who co l l e c t e d a number of homosexual legends involving gods and heroes under the t i t l e "Epajxes 'r j KaAoC*. That antipathy existed between Hercules and the Boreads i s suggested by the painting on a red-figured hydria of a "youthful Heracles chasing three winged figures ,,85 (Boreads?) • The Boreads may have urged the abandonment of Hercules, as they do i n Apollonius' version of the Hercules-Hylas myth, because of personal animosity rather than zeal to continue the voyage, and t h i s animosity may have sprung from sexual jealousy. Propertius may also have been i n s p i r e d by a r t i s t i c representations of e r o t i c entanglements involving other mythological f i g u r e s . Such representations are i l l u s t r a t e d by two vase paintings, although these are much e a r l i e r than Propertius, that depict a winged being and a b e a u t i f u l youth, the one portraying the boy pursued, the other portraying him suspended i n the a i r and held i n an embrace by 86 the winged f i g u r e (see figures 6 and 7) . Both are uncertainly 87 i d e n t i f i e d as representing the love of Zephyrus for Hyacinthus The s i m i l a r i t i e s between the characters of that myth and those of Propertius' Boread episode are s t r i k i n g : Hyacinthus, a b e a u t i f u l 88 89 youth and beloved companion of Apollo , and Zephyrus, the winged west wind, who desired Hyacinthus too and j e a l o u s l y pursued him. It i s possible that Propertius' Boread episode, which appears to be h i s own invention, was i n s p i r e d by l i t e r a r y passages and a r t i s -t i c representations such as these. An unusual mythological d e t a i l marks, as has been noted, the poet's deliberate a l t e r a t i o n of f a m i l i a r mythology to s u i t the unique needs of h i s poem, and the reader, recognizing the novelty of such a passage, w i l l pay p a r t i c u l a r attention to the ideas and images that Propertius introduces through i t . Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of the Boreads' attack upon Hylas has presented several d i f f i c u l t i e s and e f f o r t s to explain i t have resulted i n forced i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the poet's vocabulary and i n much emendation. Many commentators see l i t t l e or no s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the passage. Hubbard, for example, as we have seen, finds the 90 episode " s e l f - i n d u l g e n t " and "lacking i n point" . I f , however, the transmitted text i s retained and the words and phrases allowed t h e i r ordinary meaning, the d e s c r i p t i o n i s p e r f e c t l y i n t e l l i g i b l e , a n d Pro-p e r t i u s ' purpose i n introducing i t into h i s account of the Hylas myth i s c l e a r . Propertius i s providing a d e s c r i p t i o n of a "rape" of Hylas that foreshadows his d e s c r i p t i o n of the boy's rape by the nymphs. In the Boread scene the winged brothers are c l e a r l y the aggressors, Hylas c l e a r l y t h e i r innocent and unwilling v i c t i m . This i s an important point: the w e l l defined r o l e s of raptor and raptus i n the Boread passage provide a contrast for the ambiguous roles which, as we s h a l l see, characterize the nymphs' "rape" of Hylas. That Propertius intends to portray Zetes and Calais as o v e r t l y and determinedly aggressive and Hylas as t h e i r blameless v i c t i m i s evident from many d e t a i l s i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . Both verbs that describe the attack, s e c t a t i (25) and instabant (27), have strong predatory connotations and t h e i r use implies that Hylas i s unwilling to be seized. Compare other contexts i n which these verbs are used, for example, nunc leporem pronum catulo sectare sagaci (Ovid Rem.Am.201) and fors etiam a d i u v i t (Romanos) quod non i n s t i t e r u n t Samnites (Livy 10.36). The frequentative form sector suggests the persistence and eagerness with which the brothers pursue Hylas. Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of the brothers' intentions, oscula ... carpere ... oscula ... f e r r e supina (27f), also portrays Zetes and Calais as the aggressors and Hylas as the unwilling object of t h e i r desire. The poet's phrases oscula carpere and oscula f e r r e have 91 caused confusion. I t has been argued that oscula carpere implies a lack of resistance, even a willingness on Hylas' part to accept the brothers' advances. This argument i s based on the assumption that kisses can be "plucked" only from a place capable of giving them, that i s , Hylas' l i p s . " oscula carpere suggests the removal of kisses from a place that can supply them and o f f e r s no resistance ... perhaps Hylas teases h i s pursuers by r e l e n t i n g from time to time. However, to i n f e r that the kisses are w i l l i n g l y given because they are gathered from Hylas' l i p s seems to read too much into the poet's words. Carpere i n f a c t suggests quite the opposite, that some e f f o r t i s needed because the object to be gained does not w i l l i n g l y give i t s e l f up. Compare other s i t u a t i o n s i n which Propertius uses t h i s verb, for example, Corydon qui temptat Al e x i n / agricolae domini carpere d e l i c i a s (2.34. 93 73f) . The phrase oscula f e r r e can mean "to give k i s s e s " , as at 2.6.8, oscula nec desunt qui t i b i jure ferant, but t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , which 94 i s argued by Shackleton Bailey , i n the present context r e s u l t s i n laboured explanations of the image portrayed, f o r example, "the pi c t u r e i s of the winged Boreads swooping at Hylas and f i r s t snatching kisses by reaching down and turning up h i s face, then by diving under h i s ducked head ... and turning on t h e i r back to present 'supine' k i s s e s " (Richardson), and "oscula ... f e r r e : 'give kis s e s ' .... The d i s t i n c t i o n i s no doubt c h i e f l y verbal. But kisses can be stolen only from the mouth of the other person whereas they can be given i n other places as w e l l " (Camps). Ferre, however, can also mean auferre, "carry o f f " . This sense, which i t bears i n the common phrase f e r r e et agere, "take booty", "plunder", i s appropriate here: Hylas i s t h e i r unwilling v i c t i m , and h i s kisses must be "plucked" (carpere) and "borne away" 95 (ferre) i n f l i g h t (fuga 28) . The Boreads are depicted as attacking Hylas suspensis ... palmis (27). An object suspended may be eit h e r raised up from below or hung 96 down from above . However, since the brothers are imagined as swooping down upon Hylas (hunc super et Zetes hunc super et Calais / ... i n s t a -bant 26f) the phrase suggests they are "stretching t h e i r arms down from 97 overhead" (Richardson). This d e t a i l serves two purposes i n Propertius' narration of the myth. F i r s t , "hands hung down" also f i g u r e i n the scene at Pege (demissis palmis 43). This image, as we s h a l l see, i s one of several common to both scenes and the verbal echo palmis ...  palmis (also one of several) i s the poet's means of i n v i t i n g a compari-son of the scenes. Secondly, the d e t a i l contributes information about more than merely the Boreads 1 appearance. The poet Is not Interested as much i n the a t t i t u d e of t h e i r hands as i n what t h i s a t t i t u d e sug-98 gests, that i s , t h e i r eagerness and readiness "to pounce" (Camps). The t h i r d couplet of the episode (29f) describes Hylas' reaction 99 to the assault; not only does he protect himself (secluditur) , he 100 makes an armed counter-attack ( ramo summovet) . Although i t i s c l e a r that Hylas r e s i s t s and fends o f f the Boreads' attack, h i s p o s i t i o n 101 while doing t h i s has been much debated. The natural i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n i l l e sub extrema.pendens:•.. a l a i s "Hylas hanging under a wing's edge". Commentators and t r a n s l a t o r s , however, are unanimous i n construing the p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase sub extrema a l a 102 not with the p a r t i c i p l e pendens but with the verb secluditur.- That Propertius intended t h i s phrase to be construed with pendens i s indicated by the f a c t that the same construction pendere sub, a most unusual' one, i s found but s i x l i n e s l a t e r i n the poem, pendebant ... / ... poma sub  arboribus (35f), where i t expresses an image s i m i l a r i n many respects to the image i n 29. The means by which an object i s suspended i n the a i r i s usually expressed by the a b l a t i v e alone or by a p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase introduced by i n , ex or per, for example, hie color (est) ...  pendentibus arbore pomis (Ovid Met. 4.331) . The bold s u b s t i t u t i o n of the preposition sub occurs i n Propertius' poetry only i n these two passag s i n 1.20, and seems unparalleled i n xtant L a t l i t e r a t u r e 103 before the f i r s t century A.D^ . The novelty of the construction and i t s r e p e t i t i o n within the space of s i x l i n e s draws att e n t i o n to the two images, suggesting an analogy between them and i n v i t i n g a compari-son. The image portrayed i n 35f i s , as we s h a l l see, c l e a r l y e r o t i c ; the apples represent love objects hanging a t t r a c t i v e l y and temptingly above Hylas, r i p e and ready to be plucked from the trees. The p a r a l l e l image portrayed i n 29 may therefore be e r o t i c i n a s i m i l a r way, that i s , Hylas may be represented as a love object hanging a t t r a c t i v e l y and temptingly above the nymphs, r i p e and ready to be plucked, as i t were, from h i s male admirer. Compare the use of the p a r t i c i p l e pendens i n economic vocabulary to describe f r u i t s not yet gathered, oleam pendentem hac lege venire oportet. olea pendens i n  fundo Venafro v e n i b i t ... hac lege vinum pendens venire oportet ... (Cato R.R.146.1,147). The image evoked i n 29 of Hylas seized up by his winged admirer and exposed to the view of the amorous nymphs, therefore, suggests the temptation he poses for others, both male and female. The f i n a l couplet of the passage (31f) provides a t r a n s i t i o n from the Boread scene to the scene at the spring of Pege, the hexameter confirming Hylas' success i n fending o f f the brothers' assault and the pentameter foreshadowing h i s rape by the nymphs. The foreboding im-port of the words themselves (a, dolor, and the r e p e t i t i o n of the verb Ibat), the a r t f u l composition of the l i n e (Hylas framed by c h i a s t i c a l l y arranged expressions of h i s progression toward g r i e f , dolor ibat ... ibat Hamadryasin) and the aural e f f e c t of the succession of "a"s combine to produce a sense of the imminence and i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the rape. 33-38 Hylas reaches Pege, the scene of h i s rape by the nymphs. "Here beneath the summit of Mount Arganthus was Pege, the pleasing watery home of Thynian nymphs. Above, owed to no c u l t i v a t i o n , moist apples hung under s o l i t a r y trees, and round about i n a well watered meadow rose white l i l i e s mingled with purple poppies." Propertius sets the scene for Hylas' rape and follows t r a d i t i o n a l accounts i n c a l l i n g the place Pege and i n l o c a t i n g i t near Mount 104 Arganthus i n Bithynia. Two d e t a i l s suggest the imminence of the rape: umida i s the f i r s t of eight references to the wateriness of the place (Pege, the L a t i n t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of the Greek uriY^ 33, roscida 36, i r r i g u o 37, undis 41, flumina 43, liquore 47 and fontibus 50), and the reader i s reminded of Propertius' warning that i n the v i c i n i t y of water Gallus' Hylas was e s p e c i a l l y vulnerable to nympharum cupidas rapinas ( 7 f f ) ; and montis r e c a l l s montes (13) and the t e r r a i n i n which the bereft Hercules was described as wandering i n search of Hylas. The scene seems set for the rape. Propertius, however, slows h i s narrative with a further d e s c r i p t i o n of Pege, grata domus ... quam supra ... et circum ( 3 4 f f ) . The tableau r e c a l l s the freshness and beauty of nature i n the golden age when succu-lent f r u i t s and bright flowers offered themselves sua sponte to men 105 (nu l l a debita curae 35), but the poet s choice of vocabulary suggests strongly that h i s Pege represents more than a pleasant b u c o l i c scene. The f r u i t s and flowers that are found here and.the q u a l i t i e s a t t r i b u t e d to them bear d e f i n i t e e r o t i c connotations; the impression conveyed i s of an environment f i l l e d not with the simple and natural beauties of the country but rather with features c u l t i v a t e d and planned to a t t r a c t and seduce a beloved. The f i r s t suggestion that Pege i s more that a pleasant countryside spot i s the phrase grata domus, for gratus often i n e r o t i c poetry describes a feature or a q u a l i t y that a t t r a c t s a lover, f o r example, 106 quarum n u l l a tua f u e r i t mihi Cynthia forma / g r a t i o r (1.19.15f) . The spring, then, i s a home not only "pleasing to the nymphs" but also possessed of features that a t t r a c t others to i t . Propertius goes on to l i s t these features, poma ... l i l i a ... papaveribus ( 3 6 f f ) . Apples, l i l i e s and poppies are not a r b i t r a r y examples of f r u i t s and flowers; they are, as Propertius' audience would have recognized, love tokens, that i s , g i f t s offered by lovers i n courtship. In V i r g i l ' s Eclogues 3, for instance, ten apples are sent as a love g i f t from Menalcas to Amyntas. This passage implanted i t s e l f i n Propertius' memory, for he ref e r s to i t i n another elegy, tu ( V i r g i l i ) canis ... utque possint corrumpere mala puellas / ... f e l i x qui ... pomis mercaris amores (2.34. 69 f f ) . In Theocritus' I d y l l s also there are several examples of apples as love t o k e n s L i l i e s and poppies, too, represent love g i f t s . 108 Theocritus' Polyphemus, f or example, o f f e r s them to Galatea , and V i r g i l ' s Corydon i n urging Alexis to come and l i v e with him i n the country o f f e r s him both these flowers and apples, o formose puer, t i b i  l i l i a p l e n i s / ecce ferunt nymphae c a l a t h i s , t i b i Candida Nais / ...  papaver carpens / ... ipse ego ... legam ... mala (Eel. 2.45ff). The apples, l i l i e s and poppies of Pege, then, may be considered to r e -present love g i f t s offered Hylas by the amorous inhabitants (est amor  Adryasin 12) of t h i s a t t r a c t i v e home. The q u a l i t i e s a t t r i b u t e d to them contribute to our impression that these flowers and f r u i t s are intended to a t t r a c t a beloved. Sens-uous adjectives suggest t h e i r lushness and freshness, and the i r r e s i s t -i b l e temptation they w i l l pose for Hylas. Roscida, "dripping with moisture", suggests the succulence of the apples, and Candida and purpureis describe not only the flowers' pure bright colours, v i v i d i n themselves and i n contrast with one another (mixta 38), but also t h e i r gleaming beauty without reference to s p e c i f i c colour. Candida, moreover, has p a r t i c u l a r l y e r o t i c overtones, for i t i s used often of that f a i r beauty that kindles a lover's heart, for example, candidus 109 et pulcher puer (Horace Epist.2.2.2) . And i t i s , i n the present poem, Hylas' candor that inflames the nymphs, cuius ut accensae Dryades  candore puellae (45). The apples "hang down" from t h e i r trees and the flowers "spring up" from t h e i r meadow. The two verbs pendebant and surgebant (35,37), which f i l l the same metr i c a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r pentameters, enhance the'.erotic element of the poet's d e s c r i p t i o n for they portray the tempting objects as surrounding Hylas, thrusting themselves at the boy both from above and from below. ^ Theocritus, too, provides a short d e s c r i p t i o n of the spring. His p o r t r a y a l , however, d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from Propertius' i n that i t represents nothing more than a t y p i c a l country marsh. A b r i e f consideration of the features of Theocritus' spring shows t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . Td*xa 6e xpctvav e v d n a e v / rjyevij) iv x^PV* ^epC 6e $pu"a TtoXXa TteouHei,/ttuavedv xe X £ ^ 6 6 * V L O V X ^ W P 0 V T ' d6uxvrov / KaC d d X X o v x a a d X L v a Mat e i lXuTevris atppwaTus (13.39ff). Neither couch-grass, a hardy weed which spreads profusely to form a thick under-growth, nor rushes, which are characterized by tough woody s t a l k s , are a t t r a c t i v e plants. Furthermore, the q u a l i t i e s that Theocritus a t t r i b u t e s to these plants evoke an image not of sensuous and tempting lushness but of a dense, tangled mass of growth, for the rushes, fern and wild celery t h r i v e i n abundance ( i t o X X d , x ^ P O V , ^ d X X o v x a ) ^ "^and the couchgrass creeps "spreading through the marsh", (euXtTevrls}H Theocritus' spring seems much les s a t t r a c t i v e than Propertius' because i t represents nothing more than an area i n which Hylas would be l i k e l y to f i n d water. Propertius' Pege i s a grata domus, an environment c u l t i v a t e d to please inhabitants and v i s i t o r s a l i k e . This mythological home, moreover, i s portrayed by Propertius so as to remind h i s audience of a contemporary grata domus. The beauties of nature that Hylas finds at Pege, f r u i t trees, flowers and water i n abundance, are j u s t those that were imitated and c u l t i v a t e d i n the private gardens of luxurious v i l l a s , such as those found i n the fashion-able resort areas Tibur and Baiae to which Propertius alludes i n the primary context: of the poem. The c u l t i v a t i o n of f r u i t trees, l i l i e s and poppies, and the pleasure derived from them i s attested i n many l i t e r a r y passages and _ 112 xn a r t . Pege's trees and flowers grow i n a well watered meadow ( i r r i g u o  prato 37), and contemporary gardens, too, were supported by and dec-orated with streams, pools and f o u n t a i n s } ^ The i r r i g a t i o n of p r i v a t e gardens was a mark of prosperity and luxury, and fashionable v i l l a s 114 boasted grounds well supplied with water. Decorative fountains which spouted streams of water adorned the gardens of wealthy homes, a f f o r d -ing t h e i r owners great pleasure. P l i n y describes t h i s feature of h i s v i l l a i n Tuscany, f o n t i c u l i s e d i l i b u s adiacient ... i n d u c t i f i s t u l i s  strepunt r i v i et qua manus duxit sequuntur. His nunc i l i a v i r i d i a  nunc haec interdum simul omnia lavantur. (Ep. 5.6) The features of Pege, then, f r u i t trees, flowers and abundant waters, were features c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the a t t r a c t i v e and fashionable v i l l a s of Propertius' day, and h i s audience could be expected to see i n h i s p o r t r a y a l of the mythological grata domus the suggestion of a contemporary grata domus. It i s possible also that Propertius i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of Pege has i n mind a s p e c i f i c feature popular i n many v i l l a , gardens, the nymphaeum. This was an a r t i f i c i a l grotto, construct-ed of textured masonry and adorned with trees, flowers and fountains. Referred to as a spelunca or an antrum, i t was b u i l t i n i m i t a t i o n of the natural grottoes that were t r a d i t i o n a l l y considered the habitations of nymphs. Garden nymphaea served as sanctuaries, r e s e r v o i r s and areas of outdoor dining and entertainment. A d e s c r i p t i o n of two nymphaea which were b u i l t on the grounds of a v i l l a i n Baiae i s provided by Seneca, spelunca sunt duae magni operis c u i v i s a t r i o pares manu factae (Ep.55.6). Propertius includes nymphaea i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of a t y p i c a l luxurious estate, Phaeacas aequant pomaria s i l v a s / ...  operosa r i g a t Marcius antra l i q u o r (3.2.13f). The natural beauties of the mythological Pege, then,may be con-sidered to represent the c u l t i v a t e d beauties of the pleasure garden f a m i l i a r to Propertius and h i s contemporary audience. These features, were pleasing (grata) to t h e i r inhabitants (Hamadryasin,nymphis  Thyniasin 32,34'and Ausoniis Adryasin 12) and i n v i t i n g (ibat Hylas ibat 32 and h o s p i t i o 10) to v i s i t o r s . In the same passage i n which he portrays an environment a t t r a c t i v e and tempting to Hylas, Propertius reminds us that the boy has l e f t the protection of Hercules. Pege's apples hang "from s o l i t a r y trees", owing nothing to the hand of man". Propertius uses the phrases nullae curae and d e s e r t i s arboribus (35,36) to suggest the i s o l a t i o n of the spring. These are important d e t a i l s because they confirm Hylas' separation from Hercules (processerat u l t r a 32) and r e c a l l an important aspect of the poet's warning to Gallus, that i s , the necessity of the lover's con-stant v i g i l a n c e over h i s beloved (saepe imprudenti fortuna o c c u r r i t  amanti 3 ... semper defende 11). Cura and desertus, moreover, carry d e f i n i t e e r o t i c connotations and evoke images that underscore Propertius' message to Gallus. Cura r e f e r s to the lover's care and concern for h i s beloved, for example, (te) n o s t r i cura subit? (1.11.5), and nullae  curae therefore not only describes the conditions under which the apples grow but may also suggest the conditions under which Hylas i s present, that i s , "with no concern on the part of h i s lover". Desertus i n e r o t i c poetry often describes a place forsaken by one of a p a i r of lovers and s t i l l occupied by the other, for example, Thesea i a c u i t  cedente carina / languida desertis Gnosia l i t o r i b u s (1.3.If), and desertis arboribus may therefore describe a Pege deserted not only by people i n general but, i n a s p e c i f i c sense, by Hylas' lover Hercules. Hylas, then, i s portrayed by Propertius as alone and unprotected i n a sensuously pleasing environment. The reader w i l l r e c a l l the observa-t i o n the poet made to Gallus i n the primary context of the poem that i n a t t r a c t i v e wooded waterside areas he must assiduously protect h i s beloved from the amorous advances of female admirers l e s t he lose him forever. The next three couplets describe the response of the myth-o l o g i c a l Hylas and, by exemplum, the contemporary Hylas to the pleasures offered him i n t h i s grata domus. 39-42 Hylas, neglecting h i s task, picks the flowers and d a l l i e s i n wonder over the waters' r e f l e c t i o n s . "Now, i n c h i l d l i k e d e l i g h t , plucking these with h i s tender n a i l , he has preferred the blossoms to h i s appointed task, and now, leaning over the l o v e l y waters, unknowing, and enticed by the r e f l e c t i o n s , he prolongs h i s s t r a y i n g . " These two s t r u c t u r a l l y p a r a l l e l couplets (modo ... et modo 39,41) appear to describe Hylas' c h i l d l i k e delight i n the beauties he finds at Pege: the hexameters portray h i s boyish and innocent ( p u e r i l i t e r 39, nescius 41) indulgence of h i s enchantment with the flowers and waters (quae decerpens 39, formosis incumbens undis 41); the pentameters remind us of h i s proper task (proposito p r a e t u l i t o f f i c i o 40, errorem tardat 42). Propertius' language, however, indicates that Hylas' actions represent not only the responses of a young boy to nature's beauties but also the responses of a lover to what we have seen i s an e r o t i c a l l y stimulating environment. Hylas' action i n plucking a blossom, decerpens (39), reveals h i s c h i l d l i k e delight with the flowers. Compare the s i m i l a r pleasure flowers hold for the young Proserpina i n Ovid, Proserpina ... Candida  l i l i a c a r p i t ... p u e l l a r i studio ... raptaque D i t i ... clamat et ut  summa vestem l a n i a r e t ab ora / c o l l e c t i f l o r e s t u n i c i s cecidere  remissis / tantaque s i m p l i c i t a s p u e r i l i b u s a d f u i t annis / haec quoque  virgineum movit i a c t u r a dolorem (Met.5.391ff). The p a r t i c i p l e decerpens, however, r e c a l l s carpere (26) and an image of the overtly e r o t i c behaviour of desirous lovers, et Zetes ... et Calais / oscula  instabant carpere. The verbal echo suggests that Hylas' behaviour, too, i s e r o t i c , that i s , that h i s action i n plucking a flower repre-sents h i s acceptance of and desire for objects which, as we have seen, are c l e a r l y love g i f t s . Propertius' phrase tenero ungui (39) also suggests that Hylas' response i s that both of a c h i l d and of a lover. The metonymy, t e n e r i unguis tenerae a e t a t i s indicium (Enk), was common both i n Greek and i n L a t i n , for example, sed praesta te eum  qui mihi a teneris ut Graeci dicunt unguiculis es cognitus (Cicero ad Fam. 1.6.2) and the juxtapostion of tenero and p u e r i l i t e r emph-asizes Hylas' youth and innocence. But tener i s also a stock epithet of a lover. Hylas' response to the images r e f l e c t e d i n Pege's waters i s marked by a s i m i l a r combination of innocent delight and e r o t i c i n f a t u a t i o n and desire. The adjective nescius portrays h i s innocent v u l n e r a b i l i t y . He i s "unacquainted" with such beauty and d a l l i e s i n wonder. "(Hylas  est) p u e r i l i s i m p l i c i t a t e : pueri omnia quae i i s nova sunt mirantur." (Enk). And he i s "unaware" of the consequences of h i s d a l l i a n c e . Errorem tardat, however, i s ambiguous. The expression may simply r e f e r to Hylas' "going astray" from h i s task, that i s , he in t e r r u p t s h i s errand to enjoy the waters' beauty, but errorem c a r r i e s e r o t i c conno-tations that suggest h i s delight with t h i s feature of Pege stems also from e r o t i c desire. In i t s f i g u r a t i v e sense the word s i g n i f i e s a " d i s t r a c t i o n of the mind", a mental perturbation that i n e r o t i c poetry i s caused by love, for example, me malus a b s t u l i t e r r o r ' / ... nunc scio 11-7 quid s i t Amor ( V i r g i l Ecl.8.41f) ', and i n t h i s sense errorem suggests that Hylas' d a l l i a n c e at the spring i s intended to represent e r o t i c i n f a t u a t i o n . The adjectives with which Propertius describes the object of Hylas' d e l i g h t , formosis (41) and blandis (42), also bear e r o t i c overtones and contribute to our impression that the boy i s responding not only with c h i l d l i k e pleasure to the beauties of nature but also with e r o t i c i n t e r e s t i n and desire f o r a t t r a c t i o n s c u l t i v a t e d to please and to seduce him. Formosis perhaps r e f e r s to the waters' r e f l e c t i o n of Hylas' f a i r appearance (formosum Hylan 52), but i t also suggests they possess the beauty that a t t r a c t s a lover. I t i s , for example, Cynthia's attention to her forma that indicates to Propertius her i n t e n t i o n to a t t r a c t another lover f or h e r s e l f , potes ... faciem quaerere . . • ut 118 formosa novo quae parat i r e v i r o (1.15.5ff) . Blandis, too, implies a q u a l i t y e f f e c t u a l i n winning over a beloved, for instance, hanc ego non auro non Indis f l e c t e r e conchis / sed potui b l a n d i carminis ob-119 sequio (1.8.39f) , and here suggests the seductive power of the waters' beauty. That Hylas nescius finds these waters " a t t r a c t i v e " and "en-t i c i n g " suggests both h i s innocence and h i s e r o t i c i n t e r e s t . Propertius' por t r a y a l of Hylas' enchantment with, and d a l l i a n c e at, the spring marks a s i g n i f i c a n t departure from Apollonius' and Theocritus' accounts of the myth. In those versions Hylas i s not d i s t r a c t e d from h i s task, indeed, he hastens with s i n g l e purpose to fetch h i s water: "YXaz • • • / S L ' C T U O x p n * v n s ... pd*ov,.u>s oil u6cop / cp$aC*n d(puaadyevos ... (history of Hercules' nurturing of Hylas) afya 6' oye xpiivnv yeTexu'aSev ... (de s c r i p t i o n of nymphs) ... O Y ' . . . pdcp E V U ndAubv epeuaev (Ap.Rh. 1.1207ff) ; T a x a 0 £ xpdvav evdiiaev / ... (de s c r i p t i o n of spring and nymphs) ... ° xoOpos eiteCxe TOTi? TtoXuxav6e'a xpcoaaov /' gtityau eTteuydyevos (Th. 13.39ff). In these accounts Hylas' only a c t i v i t i e s are those involved i n performing h i s duty. Propertius' por t r a y a l of Hylas at the spring, then, appears to be h i s own invention. An unusual mythological d e t a i l or passage i n Propertius marks, as has been noted, the poet's del i b e r a t e a l t e r a t i o n of t r a d i -t i o n a l material i n order to s u i t the unique purposes of h i s poem. Pro-pertius has described Pege's a t t r a c t i o n s i n such a way that they may be considered love g i f t s , beauties c u l t i v a t e d and designed to please and seduce a beloved, and he has depicted Hylas' response to these as . representing e r o t i c i n t e r e s t and desire. Since Propertius' mythol-o g i c a l Hylas i s intended to serve as an exemplum of Gallus' Hylas (Galle ... est t i b i ... proximus ardor Hylae 1-6) we may i n f e r that, i n Propertius' estimation, i f Gallus' beloved were exposed to such a t t r a c t i o n s , he would respond with s i m i l a r e r o t i c i n t e r e s t and desire. Many d e t a i l s i n Propertius' p o r t r a y a l of Hylas at the spring suggest that the poet was i n s p i r e d by the myth of Narcissus. Nar-ci s s u s , l i k e Hylas, a handsome youth, formosi ... o r i s (Ovid Met.3. 120 461) , found himself at a remote and l o v e l y spring, fons erat i n l i m i s n i t i d i s argenteus undis/ quem neque pastores ... / contigerant ... / ... / ... gramen erat c i r c a quod proximus umor alebat/ silvaque (Met.3. 407ff). He was entranced by h i s r e f l e c t i o n , visae correptus imagine formae / ... vultuque immotus eodem / haeret ... et quid videat n e s c i t (Met. 3.416ff), lingered over the waters, ( n i h i l Narcissum) abstrahere inde potest (Met.3.436), and there disappeared, nec corporis remanet 121 (Met.3.493) . I t i s t h i s compelling and f a t a l a t t r a c t i o n to the spring's waters that Propertius wishes to convey" i n h i s p o r t r a y a l of Hylas. 43-44 Hylas draws water from the spring. "At l a s t he lowers his hands and prepares to draw up the water, leaning on h i s r i g h t shoulder and drawing a f u l l measure." The most obvious meaning of these l i n e s i s that Hylas returns to his task of fetching water. Several words, however, are ambiguous and the couplet may i n f a c t portray Hylas shirking h i s duty completely, and drawing the water not into a pitcher but into h i s own hands, not for Hercules and the Argonauts but for h i s own enjoyment. The adverb tandem, for example, implies the end of a long delay, but i t may also mark the f i n a l clause of a ser i e s (modo ... modo ... tandem 39, 41, 43) and here introduce the ultimate reaction of Hylas to the beauties of the spring, that i s , h i s f u l l acceptance of the pleasures offered him' here. The two verbs Propertius uses of Hylas' taking the water, haurire and trahens, mean not only "to draw up" water, for example, haustam  aquam de i u g i puteo (Cicero de Div. 1.50.112) and ex puteis iugibus  aquam calidam t r a h i vidimus (Cicero de Nat.Deo. 2.9.25), but also "to drink" water, for example, a r e n t i s i t i e n t e s hausimus ore (Ovid Met.14". 277) and (amnis) quern quicumque ... gutture t r a x i t (Ovid Met. 15.330). The p a r t i c i p l e trahens, moreover, c a r r i e s e r o t i c connotations that support the suggestion that Hylas' a c t i o n represents more than merely "drawing up" water. Trahens may mean " e n t i c i n g " , f or example, nec  Phrygium f a l s o t r a x i t condore maritum / ... Hippodamia (1.2.19f), or i t may r e f e r to the more overt action of "carrying o f f " or "taking f o r oneself" the object of one's desire. Horace, f o r instance, uses the verb of P a r i s ' seizure of Helen, pastor cum traheret per f r e t a navibus  Ideis Helenen (C. 1.15. I f ) . In e i t h e r case the word suggests Hylas' desire to take to himself t h i s p a r t i c u l a r pleasure that i s offered himnhere. The phrases flumina plena and demissis palmis.both contribute to our impression that Hylas a c t u a l l y drinks the water and that he does so::with desire. Plena describes not only the f u l l n e s s of the spring's waters but also the f u l l n e s s of the measure drawn by Hylas. Demissis 122 palmis i s considered by some merely to imply Hylas' use of a v e s s e l . Propertius, however, has Hylas prepare to draw water not "with a 123 lowered jug" but "with lowered palms". Since the palma i s that part of the hand that would, i f the hand were cupped, form a v e s s e l , and since haurire often means "to drink", the implication of t h i s d e t a i l i s that Hylas w i l l drink the water from h i s hands. Compare nectar  erat palmis hausta duabus aqua (Ovid F_.2.294). Moreover, the image of "hands reaching down" was pictured e a r l i e r i n the myth, suspensis  palmis (27) , where i t suggested the eagerness with which the Boreads attempted to k i s s Hylas, and may therefore represent here the eager-ness with which Hylas accepts and desires to experience for himself t h i s a t t r a c t i o n of the spring. Hylas' actions at Pege, then, represent not merely the delighted responses of a c h i l d to the beauties of nature, but also the desirous acceptance by a lover of the pleasures offered him i n t h i s grata domus. The message to Gallus i s c l e a r ; he must be v i g i l a n t , for Hylas unpro-tected i s vulnerable and susceptible to the pleasures offered him by the amorous members of the opposite sex. 45-48 . The nymphs draw Hylas down into the water. "When the Dryad maids, inflamed by h i s beauty, had ceased t h e i r accustomed dance, they l i g h t l y drew him from where he lay through the y i e l d i n g water, and then, when h i s body had been seized, did Hylas utter a cry." These l i n e s describe the rape i t s e l f . Propertius follows the accounts of Apollonius and Theocritus i n that nymphs, kindled by Hylas' beauty, cease t h e i r dance and draw him down into t h e i r waters, but h i s language reminds us that h i s narration, of the rape i s intended to serve as an exemplum of contemporary persons and behaviour. The Dryades puellae represent seductive I t a l i a n g i r l s , the waters repre-sent the a t t r a c t i o n s they o f f e r a beloved and Hylas' reactions-repre-sent those of a vulnerable boy unaware of the e r o t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of his pleasure. Dryades puellae draw Hylas down. Puellae, which, as Postgate notes, c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to the dryads' sex and youth, i s also applied 124 to wood nymphs by V i r g i l , dryadesque puellae (Geo.1.11) . However, since i n e r o t i c poetry a p u e l l a i s a mistress or sweetheart, the word here i s perhaps intended to put Propertius' audience i n mind of" the 9 amorous g i r l s of t h e i r contemporary world. That dryades commit the rape r e c a l l s the poet's warning to Gallus, nympharum semper cupidas  defende rapinas / non minor Ausoniis est amor Adryasin ( l l f ) , and emphasizes the analogy the poet perceives and portrays between the nymphs who haunt the treed spring of Pege and the "nymphs" who haunt the wooded, waterside areas of I t a l y . The verb traxere, which may mean "enticed" or " c a r r i e d o f f " , contributes to Propertius' portrayal of the rapacious and amorous nymphs about whom he warns Gallus. Hylas' r o l e i n the rape i s more ambiguous. The p a r t i c i p l e pro- lap sum, " f a l l e n forward", describes Hylas' posture as he draws the waters to himself (incumbens ... trahens 41,44) and i s himself drawn into them (traxere 47). In an a c t i v e sense, " s l i p p i n g forward", the verb, which e a r l i e r i n the poem expressed swiftness and ease of motion (Argon labentem 18f), suggests that l i t t l e e f f o r t i s needed by the nymphs to accomplish t h e i r deed, for Hylas i s already s l i p p i n g 125 toward them . The p a r t i c i p l e seems also* intended to suggest the f i g -u r a t ive sense of l a b i , that i s , "to f a l l into e r r o r " or "to s i n " . Compare Propertius' use of t h i s verb i n h i s Baiae poem, so l e t amota  l a b i custode pu e l l a (1.11.15). In t h i s sense the p a r t i c i p l e r e c a l l s the f i g u r a t i v e sense of errorem (42) and supports the suggestion that Hylas' responses to the a t t r a c t i o n s offered him at Pege stem not only from c h i l d l i k e d e l i g h t but from e r o t i c desire. The adverb l e v i t e r i s construed both with prolapsum and with traxere. The former construc-t i o n , " f a l l e n (or f a l l i n g ) gently, l i g h t l y " , suggests the unsuspecting innocence of h i s d a l l i a n c e over the waters; the l a t t e r construction, "drew him l i g h t l y , e a s i l y " , suggests Hylas' lack of resistance. Pro-p e r t i u s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of the water as f a c i l i s also contributes to our impression that the "rape" i s e a s i l y and s w i f t l y accomplished. Some-thing f a c i l i s y i e l d s or gives way to the w i l l or purpose of the one 126 acting upon i t . "Easy" water, therefore, o f f e r s no resistance to the hands that seek i t (demissis palmis 43). The ambiguity of terms i n which Propertius describes Hylas' seizure by the nymphs, then, renders uncertain the extent to which the boy i s a w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t . A comparison with other accounts i l l u s t r a t e s the ambiguity of Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n . In Apollonius and Theocritus, the nymphs are unequivocally the aggressors. auxLxa 6 ' fiye / Xctuov uev Ha$u*uep§ev ETC' auxevos av^ E x o nnxuv / xuaaau eituSuouaa xe*pev a x d y a . 6 e £ L x e p ? j 6 E / otYXtov' eaicaae x eL-P^» u e o r i 6 ' £VL«dB3ctAE 6 u v r i (Ap.Rh. 1.1236ff); x a l " 6 ' ev x ePC itaaai, ecpuaav / uaacJwv yap Spws aitaAas cppevag E ^ s c p o g n o E V /'Apcpeoui ETC I" itai^C*. x a x n p L T C E 6 ' E S yeAav u6cop / ddpdos (ThI3.47ff) . Apollonius' nymph expends considerable e f f o r t ; she makes a three-staged attack (dvdsxo ... eanaae ... evuttdBftaAe) i n which she requires the use of both hands and the help of a grasping eddy. Theocritus' nymphs "plant themselves on" Hylas l i k e 127 leeches . The rapaciousness of t h e i r action i s emphasized by the sudden-ness of Hylas' f a l l . Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of the rape, on the other hand, suggests not cupida rapina but the smooth and e f f o r t l e s s consumma-ti o n of a union already i n i t i a t e d by Hylas himself. The ambiguity of terms i n which Propertius describes Hylas' seizure by the nymphs i s also i l l u s t r a t e d by a comparison with h i s de s c r i p t i o n of the boy's seizure by the Boreads. In the Boread episode, the ro l e s of raptor and raptus are c l e a r l y distinguished. Zetes and Calais are the aggressors, o v e r t l y and determinedly pursuing Hylas, swooping down upon him, s e i z i n g him and l i f t i n g him into the a i r . Hylas defends himself, r e j e c t i n g t h e i r advances and fending them off with a s t i c k . In the Pege scene, the ro l e s of raptor and raptus are d e l i b e r a t e l y obscured. The nymphs are less o v e r t l y rapacious y enticing Hylas into t h e i r home with a t t r a c t i o n s c u l t i v a t e d and designed to please him. Hylas, delighted and entranced by these pleasures, reaches out to accept them, and as he draws the nymphs' waters to him-s e l f he i s himself drawn i n by them. The contrast i s an important one for the primary context of the poem. Gallus has a beloved "very l i k e " the mythological Hylas ( 5 f ) . We are to i n f e r , therefore, from the exemplum that Gallus i s i n danger of l o s i n g h i s beloved not to male r i v a l s but rather to female admirers, to whose a t t r a c t i o n s he i s most susceptible,. Propertius' Hylas i s not, however, a " w i l l i n g " v i c t i m . Although he does i n f a c t eagerly reach out for the temptations posed him at the nymphs' home (decerpens ... incumbens ... trahens) he i s nevertheless c l e a r l y portrayed as c h i l d l i k e and unsuspecting ( p u e r i l i t e r , nescius) i n h i s acceptance. I t i s t h i s innocence and lack of awareness of the e r o t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s actions, rather than any willingness on h i s part, that makes him vulnerable to the nymphs' advances and f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i r rapina. The l a s t l i n e of Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of the rape confirms both the i n t e n s i t y of Hylas' i n f a t u a t i o n and also h i s naivete, f o r not u n t i l the rape i s a f a i t accompli does he r e a l i z e the e r o t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s responses to Pege's a t t r a c t i o n s and cry out i n protest. Turn i s construed c l o s e l y with rapto corpore, denoting r e s t r i c t i o n to the terms of the a b l a t i v e absolute phrase, and s i g n i f y i n g turn demum, "then and only then, a f t e r h i s body had been c a r r i e d o f f " did he make a souncf . Propertius, then, portrays Hylas as ingenuous and unsuspecting to the end. Without the protection of h i s lover he i s vulnerable to the designs of amorous female admirers and, once i n the sphere of t h e i r influence, he i s s w i f t l y , e a s i l y and, as the next couplet reveals, irrevocably seized by them for t h e i r own. 49-50 Hercules answers Hylas' cry, but the echo of h i s voice i s a l l that comes back to him. "Hercules answers him repeatedly, but the breeze returns h i s name from the edge of the fountain." Propertius leaves i t unclear whose name i s returned to Hercules. If the name Hercules i s brought to him on the breeze then t h i s nomen w i l l be c a l l e d out by Hylas (sonitum f e c i t 48) and the adversative sed w i l l belong i n sense with i n extremist fontibus, "but from the depths of the fountain the breeze bears back Hylas' cry". In other words, i t i s too l a t e f o r Hercules to r e t r i e v e Hylas. On the other hand, the nomen may be Hylas, c a l l e d out by Hercules, and sed w i l l then belong i n sense with nomen, "but the echo of h i s own voice was the only sound borne back on the breeze".' Since, however, there i s evidence that an echo played a part i n some versions of the myth, and since i t better s u i t s the context of Propertius' poem that the name l e f t i n the a i r i n h i s f i n a l scene be Hylas, i t i s more l i k e l y that the breeze brings back the echo of Hercules' own voice c a l l i n g Hylas. It i s known from Valerius Flaccus, V i r g i l and Antoninus L i b e r a l i s that an echo figured i n the myth: rursus Hylan et rursus Hylan ... reclamat / ... responsant s i l v a e et vaga certat imago (Val.F1.3.)596f) ; (Silenus) adiungit Hylan nautae quo fonte relictum / clamassent ut 129 l i t u s Hyla Hyla omne sonaret ( V i r g i l E e l . 6.43f) ; and Nicander, according to Antoninus L i b e r a l i s , has Hylas answer Hercules, but af t e r the nymphs, fearing that Hercules would f i n d him i n t h e i r fountain, have changed him into an echo, pexegaXov T O V "YAav naZ STtounaav rixw HOLL upos Trjv 3onv itoAAdxts d v T e c p w v n a e v 'HpaxAeC (Ant. Lib . 26.4). Propertius' reference i n the l a s t l i n e s of h i s poem to a nomen c a r r i e d on the breeze would, therefore, have been understood by h i s audience as the echo of Hercules' voice c a l l i n g Hylas' name. An echo provides a f i t t i n g and dramatically e f f e c t i v e conclu-sion both to Propertius' narration of the myth and to h i s poem as a whole. Within the context of the myth, the echo of Hercules' voice crying Hylas symbolizes and emphasizes the f i n a l i t y of the separation of the mythological lovers. Hylas i s gone, to be neither seen nor heard by Hercules again. The conjunction sed supports the suggestion that i t i s an.echo of Hercules' voice that the breeze returns. The reader expects from the adversative sed that an expres-sion of the f u t i l i t y of Hercules' repeated c r i e s w i l l follow. Word order, too, supports t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , nomen i n emphatic i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n i n the l i n e and following c l o s e l y upon sed, "but an echo". Within the context of the poem as a whole, the suggestion of the name Hylas wafting on the breeze i s a f i t t i n g conclusion i n view of Pro-p e r t i u s ' statement that Hercules' lover and Gallus' lover bear the same nomen (est t i b i ... non nomine dispar / ... proximus ardor  Hylae 5f) for i t symbolizes and emphasizes also the f i n a l i t y of the separation of the contemporary lovers. The f i n a l image of the myth i s that of the bereaved Hercules. The adverb procul, "from a f a r " or " i n the distance", plays an im-portant part i n t h i s p i c t u r e . A s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the observa-tions Propertius makes to Gallus i n the primary context of the poem concerning h i s continuus amor i s the necessity of the constant v i g i l a n c e of the lover over h i s beloved (semper defende 11). Im-prudence i n t h i s regard was said to r e s u l t i n misfortune (saepe  imprudenti fortuna o c c u r r i t amanti 3) and i n g r i e f (miser ...per- pessus ... f l e v e r a t 15f). In the narration of the myth the poet i s c a r e f u l to keep t h i s theme before h i s audience (processerat u l t r a 23 , ibat Hylas ibat 32 and d e s e r t i s arboribus 36), both empha-s i z i n g the separation of the lovers and foreshadowing the predicted misfortune. Procul i n the f i n a l couplet, then, as an emphatic reminder of the lovers' separation, serves as summary proof of the truth of Propertius' observation - fortune has indeed crossed t h i s imprudens amans because he allowed h i s beloved to become separated from him. Propertius makes clever and e f f e c t i v e use of word order to r e f l e c t t h i s separation: the adverb that expresses the separation of Hylas and Hercules (procul) i t s e l f separates the words that r e f e r to them (cui ... A l c i d e s ) , and the two pronouns that r e f e r to Hylas and Hercules (cui ... i l l i ) are placed as f a r apart as possible i n the l i n e . The image with which the poet concludes portrays the fate of the mythological imprudens amans, and that t h i s image i s intended also as a dramatic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l fate of the con-temporary imprudens amans i s made cl e a r by the poet's close associa-t i o n of the names of Hercules and Gallus both immediately preceding and immediately following h i s narration of the myth (ne t i b i s i t ...  Galle ... quae Herculis 13ff, and Alcides i t e r a t responsa sed ... h i s  o Galle ... monitus 4 9 f f ) . 51-52 Propertius returns to the subject of Gallus' continuus amor. "By these events warned, Gallus, you w i l l keep safe your love; you seemed to be entrusting your Hylas to nymphs." In h i s concluding couplet Propertius reasserts the relevance of the myth to the set of circumstances that he has portrayed i n the primary context of the poem. The hexameter r e c a l l s i n i t s every d e t a i l the opening l i n e of the poem, providing a neat frame for the poet's port r a y a l of Gallus' continuus amor and the mythological exemplum of that p o r t r a y a l , and r e f l e c t i n g the unity of Propertius' design. 0 G a l l e tuos servabis amores rjecalls pro .continuo te Galle amore (1), both statements se t t i n g f o r t h c l e a r l y the subject of the poem. It was noted that the adjective continuo expresses both the purpose of Propertius' observa-tions on Gallus' s i t u a t i o n , that i s , that h i s love might continue, and the substance of h i s advice, that i s , that Gallus keep his love close to him. The verb servabis functions i n the same way. In i t s l i t e r a l sense i t expresses Propertius' purpose, that Gallus " w i l l keep safe" or " w i l l preserve" h i s love, and i n i t s f i g u r a t i v e sense suggests the means by which he w i l l achieve t h i s , that i s y that Gallus " w i l l pay close attention;tb"or " w i l l watch c l o s e l y " h i s 130 Hylas . His monitus r e c a l l s hoc monemus. Both demonstrative pro-nouns, which occupy the same emphatic me t r i c a l p o s i t i o n , point to the warning contained i n the poem, both as i t i s stated i n the primary context (nympharum semper cupidas defende rapinas / ... ne  t i b i s i t ... l l f f ) and as i t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the events of the myth. The one looks forward, the other sums up what has preceded. The relevance of the myth to Propertius' p o r t r a y a l of Gallus' s i t u a t i o n and i t s importance to the design of the poem as a whole i s c l e a r . The pentameter r e i t e r a t e s the important themes and figures that have been portrayed i n the poem, both i n the primary context and i n the mythological exemplum. The b e a u t i f u l Hylas (est t i b i  non i n f r a speciem non nomine dispar / ... proximus ardor Hylae 5f ... Hylas ... candore ... Hylas 32,45,48 ... formosum ... Hylan 52) i s exposed to nymphs (nympharum 11 ... nymphis 34 ... nymphis 52) by h i s careless lover (imprudenti amanti 3 ... manus heroum ... /  m o l l i a composita l i t o r a fronde t e g i t / at comes i n v i c t i iuvenis  processerat u l t r a 21ff ... credere visus 52). The slight, ambiguity i n the p a r t i c i p l e visus i s c l e v e r l y exploited i n t h i s l a s t l i n e of the poem, for the pentameter expresses not only a concise statement of Propertius' perception and port r a y a l of Gallus' e r o t i c s i t u a t i o n , that i s , "you seemed (to me) to be entrusting your b e a u t i f u l Hylas to nymphs", but also a summary of the purpose and substance of the poet's adaptation of the myth of Hylas to corroborate and to develop that p o r t r a y a l , that i s , "you were seen (through your mythological analogue Hercules) to entrust your Hylas to nymphs". Conclusions The mythological exemplum of 1.20, then, serves the same purpose as the exempla i n other Monobiblos eleg i e s , that i s , i t not only i l l u s t r a t e s Propertius' p o r t r a y a l of a contemporary e r o t i c s i t u a t i o n and corroborates observations Propertius makes on that s i t u a t i o n , but also introduces new elements, developing aspects of h i s theme that are not elsewhere i n the poem made e x p l i c i t but that form an i n t e g r a l part of what he has to say. Propertius i n the primary context of the poem portrays Gallus as having a b e a u t i f u l beloved boy and as being i n danger of l o s i n g him to amorous female admirers. He observes that Gallus must be assiduously v i g i l a n t over h i s beloved, e s p e c i a l l y i n pleasant wooded waterside areas such as those of Tibur and Baiae, and that a careless lover i s often crossed by fortune and finds himself bereft of h i s beloved. The t a l e of the rape of Hylas i s then adduced as an exemplum. Hercules i s portrayed as a careless lover who f a i l s to be constantly v i g i l a n t over h i s beloved Hylas. He remains complacently encamped while Hylas goes off by himself to fetch water. Hylas comes to Pege, which i s depicted by Propertius as a pleasant wooded waterside area inhabited by amorous nymphs. The nymphs take him for t h e i r own and Hercules finds himself bereft of h i s beloved. These mythol-o g i c a l figures and events i l l u s t r a t e Propertius' port r a y a l of Gallus' s i t u a t i o n and corroborate h i s observations on that s i t u a -t i o n . Other mythological d e t a i l s and episodes, however, introduce new elements, developing aspects of Propertius' portrayal that are not made e x p l i c i t i n the primary context of the poem. In the Boread episode and i n the scene at the spring, Propertius provides a f u l l e r p o r t r a y a l of Gallus' beloved. In these passages Hylas i s exposed to the amorous advances of admirers both male and female; the overt and aggressive attempts of h i s male admirers he repels, but to the more subtle means by which h i s female admirers a t t r a c t him to themselves he responds with an i n t e r e s t and desire that i s marked by a combination of c h i l d l i k e delight and e r o t i c i n f a t u a t i o n . This depiction of Hylas impervious to the blatant attempts of males but susceptible to the seductive a t t r a c t i o n s of females forms an i n t e g r a l part of the poet's port r a y a l of the e r o t i c s i t u a t i o n with which he i s concerned i n the primary context of the poem. The reader i s required to reconsider that e r o t i c s i t u a t i o n i n the l i g h t of the new ideas and images presented i n the exemplum, that i s , "to i n f e r or reconstruct e sequentibus praecedentia", and i n t h i s way to form a f u l l understanding of Propertius' portrayal of Gallus' continuus amor. Gallus, then, i s engaged i n a love a f f a i r with a b e a u t i f u l boy. His beloved i s a t t r a c t i v e and desired by male and female admirers a l i k e . Although he has no i n t e r e s t i n other male lovers, he i s without experience of the members of the opposite sex and, l e f t unprotected i n the sphere of t h e i r influence, w i l l be vulnerable to t h e i r seductive powers and l o s t to Gallus forever. NOTES 1 Hubbard, 23 2 Camps, 9 3 Hodge and Buttimore, 14 ^ Williams, x i i i and 34 ^ Williams, 23f and 64 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Butler and Barber, 183 Butler and Barber, 300 Richardson, 201 Hodge and Buttimore, 202 Williams, 64 Although he does not mention s p e c i f i c a l l y 1.20, t h i s elegy i s included i n h i s general observation that, i n the Monobiblos, with the exception of elegies 1,2,3,13 and 15, Propertius' use of myth i s much les s sophisticated than i t i s i n h i s other three books. Hubbard, 39 'Four of the twenty-two elegies are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . The f i r s t i s addressed to T u l l u s . I t serves as Propertius' programmatic i n t r o -duction to the Monobiblos and does not proceed from a s p e c i f i c occasion. 1.16, a s o l i l o q u y spoken by a house door, reports the address of a lover shut out by h i s mistress. The f i n a l two short elegies constitute a sphragis or seal i n which the poet supplies the biographical information he wishes h i s reader to have. R.O.A.M. Lyne, The L a t i n Love Poets (Oxford 1980) 183 J.P. S u l l i v a n , Propertius (Cambridge 1976) 108 Ovid declares a s i m i l a r purpose i n h i s Amores, me legat i n sponsi  f a c i e non f r i g i d a virgo / et rudis ignoto tactus amore puer / atque a l i q u i s iuvenum quo nunc ego saucius arcu / agnoscat flammae conscia  signa suae / miratusque diu 'quo' dicat ' ab i n d i c e doctus / composuit  casus i s t e poeta meas? ' (Am. 2.1.5ff) 1 6 A.W. A l l e n , " S i n c e r i t y and the Roman E l e g i s t s " , CP 45-46 (1950-1951) 151 ^ S. Commager, A Prolegomenon to Propertius ( C i n c i n n a t i 1974) 12ff ] 8 See also V i r g i l Geo. 4.467 and Ovid Met. 10.13 19 Compare 2.22.17f uni cuique dedit vitium natura creato / mi fortuna  a l i q u i d semper amare dedit 2 0 See also 2.17.5ff 21 Commager, o p . c i t . 14 22 See, for example, Sophocles' Trachiniae 1191ff 23 See Hesiod Theogoixy 953 ^ Commager, o p . c i t . 14 25 See also 2.1.49f solet i l i a leves culpare puellas / et totam ex  Helena non probat I l i a d a 26 The t h i r d daughter of Leda (Ledae partu g r a t i o r una t r i b u s 30) was probably Phoebe, e y e v o v i o An*6a . . . x p e u s Ttapftevou / $ o u g n K A u x a u u v n a x p a . . . ' E X e v n x e (Euripides Iph.Aul. 49). Very l i t t l e i s known of her. 27 Clytemnestra and Helen are the f i r s t two entries i n Hyginus' l i s t of Quae Coniuges Suos Occiderunt (Fab.- 240) 28 Argives were c a l l e d "Inachians" a f t e r Inachus, f i r s t king of Argos. The Danaids were h i s descendants. Ovid c a l l s the Danaids Inachiae (H. 14.23) 29 • • Commager, o p . c i t . 16 30 Antiopa; eius formae bonitate Juppiter adductus ... (Hyginus Fab.8). Hermione, one can assume, in h e r i t e d some of her mother's Helen's beauty. 31 There are two known versions of the t a l e . The one outlined above i n which Dirce i s motivated by jealousy i s followed by Propertius i n ah elegy of h i s t h i r d book, Dirce tarn vero crimine saeva / Nycteos  Antiopen accubuisse Lyco. (3.15.11f) (Orestes to Hermione) eyri yap ouoa itpuv / auv x(jS6e vatets dv6pC / ... 6eo£eu y^y^t^ a e yn6ev''riv expnv eye ... xaxuJs oXeCxau. yvwaexau 6' ex§pav eyrfv (966f ... lOOlff) Although Orestes' anger with Neoptolemus i s a t t r i b u t e d by the dramtist more to other causes (6 6' ?iv ugpuaxrjs E " s x'eyfis ynxpos (pdvov 977), s t i l l h i s indignation at having h i s r i g h t f u l wife taken away from him was a factor i n h i s deed, as Euripides makes c l e a r . 33 The notion that luxurious adornment i n d i c a t e s , i n Propertius' estimation, wanton behaviour forms the basis of the second elegy of the Monobiblos. 3 A For changing colour as a sign of love, compare 1.1.22/ 1.6.6, 1.18.17 3 5See also Ovid Her. 6.70, V a l e r i u s Flaccus 2.400ff 36 See Williams 23f and 64, 'and 7f,above 37 When Propertius claims i n 1.10 and 1.13 that he witnessed Gallus making love to h i s mistress, he i s considered by some to be r e f e r r i n g to passages i n Gallus' poetry. See A.S. Benjamin "A Note on Propertius 1.10 0 Iucunda Quies", CP 60 (1965) 178 3 8See also 2.13.11f and 2.11.6 39 J.P. Boucher , Etudes Sur Properce (Paris 1965) 228ff, discusses at some length the popularity of mythology i n Greek and Roman l i t e r a t u r e , and o f f e r s examples of l i t e r a r y works from the f i r s t century B.C. the subject matter of which was mythological. C i c e r o , Tusc. Disp. 1.35.85 Metellum enim multi f i l i i f i l i a e nepotes  neptes i n rogum imposuerunt, Priamum tanta progenie orbatum cum i n  aram confugisset, h o s t i l i s manus interemit ^ t i c e r o , Tusc.Disp. 3.5.11 mens non saepe v e l iracundia graviore v e l  timore v e l dolore (movetur) quo genere Athamantem, Alcmaeonem, Aiacem, Orestem furere dicimus. "Cette enumeration rapide, sans commentaire, qui prelude a. une relance du raisonnement, suppose que l e lecteur connaxt exactement l e s legendes et que l e seul enonce d.'.'un nom s u f f i t a suggerer un caractere precis .... I I faut admettre que l a mythologie grecque ... a ete assimilee par l a s e n s i b i l i t e romaine ... (et) qu'elle peut f o u r n i r ... des exemples riches et consistants".(Boucher 231) Houcher, 260 ^"That the Roman poets who wrote for an educated audience had a v a i l a b l e to them such c o l l e c t i o n s i s demonstrated by A.J. Marshall, "Library Resources and Creative Writing at Rome" Phoenix 30 (1976) 252ff Boucher, 233 45 Lyne, 84 Extant examples of mythological wall painting are i l -l u s t r a t e d i n such works as CM. Dawson, Romano-Campanian Mytho-.  l o g i c a l Landscape Painting (New Haven 1944), K. Schefold, Vergessenes Pompeji (Bern and Munich 1962) and G.E. Rizzo, La  P i t t u r a Ellenistico-Romana (Milan 1929) 4 6Hubbard,1164 4 7See, for example, Schefold Taf. 175.6, Rizzo Tav. 131 4 8Hubbard, 168 49 ySee also 1.2.21f, 1.14.2, 3.21.29f and, for h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the temple of Apollo Palatinus ,2.31. ^^That Apollonius' i s the e a r l i e r work and that Theocritus adopted or rejected d e t a i l s of the t a l e as they suited h i s own purposes seems l i k e l y . For the argument, see A.S.F. Gow, Theocritus II 231f and T.B.L. Webster, H e l l e n i s t i c Poetry and Art 65f. 5lD, 5 2R: awson, 85 and 15If izzo 63 \he f i n a l couplet belongs to the primary context but serves only to r e i t e r a t e Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of Gallus' e r o t i c s i t u a t i o n and to emphasize the relevance of the myth to that s i t u a t i o n . 5 4Postgate, Enk, Hubbard (37), Hodge and Buttimore 5 5See also 1.1.25, 1.13.18 ""^Pindar, f or example, (Pyth.4.69) and Callimachus (Aet.7.19) r e f e r to the Argonauts as Minyans. As Apollonius explains, the heroes who assembled i n Thessaly to aid Jason were c a l l e d Minyans since they boasted that they were descended from the daughters of Minyas (1.229ff). ^ 6 6 e u a u s " Y X a s . . . ?JAde u p o s x o v ' A a x d v L O V n o x a u o v u6top . . . Hal" a u x o v t S o u a a u vuucpau ( a t , ) x o u u o x a y o O xo\5xou d u y a x e p e s . . . x a x a -B a X A o u a u v (Ant L i b . 26.3) 5 % e e also 1.8.14ff 5 9See also 1.B.15 , where furor i s put for causa f u r o r i s See also Ant.Lib. 24.1, Valerius Flaccus 1.218f, 3.184, and the representations of Hylas i n a r t . 61 Ars Am. 2.109ff s i s l i c e t ... Naidumque tener crimine raptus Hylas 62 For the former, see 1.20.49; for the l a t t e r , 1.7.10 63 Leo C. Curran, "Greek Words and Myth i n Propertius 1.20", GRBS 5 (1964) 288 64 Although the p l u r a l form of uAn does not occur, Propertius' c i r c l e would have appreciated at once the etymological pun. 65 aTiav T O xuP^ov"P^XPL,-Botuuv::>(aii;x:fls'Kuyuas ... Seuou uXfipes eaxu. xau Tiupos x a t § e p y w v uSdxuv. T L V E S 6e xaC $Xeypav 6ua T O U T O T T J V Kuyat'ov voyuCouai, xAnSnvat xat T S V T t e u T w x d r w v Y ^ Y ^ V T W V t " xepau'vua xpauyaxa ava(pe*peLV T S S TotaOtas upoxoas T O U nupos M a t T O O uSaxos. (Strabo Geog 5.4.6). 66 Princeton Encyclopedia of C l a s s i c a l S i t e s s.v."Baiae" 137 67 See also Seneca Ep_. 51 (Baiae) deversorium vitiorum esse coeperunt. 68 For example, legimus f r e t a ( V i r g i l Aen.3.127) and aequora Afra l e g i t (Ovid F. 4.289) 69 Ovid, for instance, r e f e r s to Helen as Oebali nympha (Her.6.128) 70 See, for example, Horace C^  .4.4.56 ^^Once i n the Anth.Pal. (9.664) and twice i n Nonnos Dion. 24.26, 97 72 See also Ant. Lib 1. 26.3 73 For other passages i n which wood nymphs and water nymphs are c l o s e l y associated see Ovid Met. 1.690f, V i r g i l Cul. 94f and Anth.Pal 6.189 74 Compare Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of Pege, arboribus ... i r r i g u o  prato (36 ... 38) 7 5 G. Krokowski "D'e Propertio Ludibundo " Eos 29 (1926) 86 . Non a nymphis puer i l l e erat defendendus, sed potius, a G a l l i sodalibus, qui  i n s i d i a s e i struebant et quomodo amasium e i auferrent mente agitabant. . Et profecto f a c i l e nobis i n animo repraesantare possumus elegiam a  Propertio i n amicorum c i r c u l o r e c i t i t a t a m cachinnos excitasse  audientium qui optime ( i n t e l l i g e r u n t ) quid poeta s i g n i f i c a r e v o l u i s s e t See also 1.1.10, 1.16.30 and 1.17.16 ^ F o r an example of the passive sense of the deponent p a r t i c i p l e , see 1.3.18; for the a c t i v e , see 2.22.23 78 Error appears also i n the myth (42) where i t describes, again at both l e v e l s of meaning, Hylas' wandering. 79 Richardson 204 80 < i ti "YAas x^Anfri auv xdAuuSL, ... / St^ r n o x p n v n s £epov p d o v , ws xe oi u6ajp / (p§aun dcpuaaduevos T t 0 T c 6 d p i c L 0 V (Ap.Rh. 1.1207f f ) ; "YAas . . . u6up euuSdpuuov oCawv / . . . x^Axeov a y y o s ex^v (Th. 13.36ff). And a r t i s t i c representations of Hylas include h i s p i t c h e r . See figures 1-5. 81 See Apollonius 1.211ff, Ovid Met.6.683ff, Hyginus Fab. 14.18 and 273.10, Apollodorus 3.15.2. Cicero ref e r s to the t a l e i n de Legibus 1.1.3, and Pausanias informs us that a depiction of i t was sculpted on Cypselus' chest (5.19.1) 82 Pindar Pyth.4.322, Ap.Rh. 1.211, Ovid Met.6.720ff, Apollodorus 1.19.16, Hyginus Fab.14.18, Valerius Flaccus 1.469 8 3Ap.Rh. 1.1298ff 84 Phanocles f r . 1 Collectanea Alexandrina ed. J.U.Powell (Oxford 1925) 106f 85 A.D.Trendall, The Red-Figured Vases of Lucania, Campania and  S i c i l y (Oxford 1967) plate 67.4 (Painter of Naples 1959). Trendall i d e n t i f i e s the figures as Heracles and the Boreads (?) on page 145 86 For the former, see Trend a l l , plate 1.6 ( P i s t i c c i Painter, 5th century B.C.); for the l a t t e r , see J.C.Hoppin, A t t i c Red-Figured  Vases (Oxford 1919) 225 (Doris Painter, 5th century B.C., insc r i b e d AOPIE ErPA$(E)EN XAIPEET(PATOE) KA(A0)E ). 87 Although Trendall in t e r p r e t s the figures as "Eros pursuing a youth" (p. 15), he acknowledges the p o s s i b i l i t y that they may represent Zephyrus and Hyacinthus. Hoppin i d e n t i f i e s the figures as "Zephyrus carrying away a youth (Hyacinthus?)" on page 224. For further discussion of t h i s painting, see page84 below. Both Hylas and Hyacinthus are l i s t e d by Hyginus under the t i t l e Qui Ephebi Formosissimi Fuerunt (Fab.272) Compare Ph i l o s t r a t u s Imagines 14.2 Epcov 6 xfis AriTous'rToO. uetpaxiTou ( ' YaHLvSou) TtdvTa 6cooeuv auxcp cpnauv o a a e'xeu . . . T O C E L C X V E L y a p x a t uouauxrjv 6t6a5etv and Theocritus 13.5ff aXXa xau Aiiipuxpucovos ••• vLoi I ••• npaxo TcaL6ds / T O U x a p ^ e v T ° S "YAa . . . / xau yuv Tcdvx1 e6L6a^ e ••• / o a a a padcov 90 Hubbard 39 and above, p.9 91 His d e s c r i p t i o n of the kisses as supina presents no problem. The Boreads are imagined as swooping down from above Hylas and k i s s i n g his-upturned, face;-"caelum aspiciens Hylas supino erat v u l t u et i p s i f r a t r e s e caelo venientes supino erant ore" (Enk, a f t e r Passerat) 92 J.L. Butrica, "Hylas and the Boreads: Propertius 1.20.25-30", Phoenix 34 (1980) 72 93 94 95 See also 3.17.15f and 4.3.19 See "Interpretations of Propertius" CQ 41 (1947) 89 For kisses "borne away", compare Ovid Her. 15.101 96 For an example of the former, see Q u i n t i l i a n 11.3.125, for the l a t t e r , Prop. 4.7.45 97 98 99 The b e l i e f that " t h e i r hands suspended" would be an otiose d e s c r i p t i o n of beings f l y i n g i n the a i r has led some (Butrica, a r t . c i t . 70f, following Housman, "The Manuscripts of Propertius" JPh 22 (1894) 110) to argue f o r the reading suspensis ... p l a n t i s ( V Q ) , "with airborne f e e t " . The corruption of p l a n t i s to palmis, i t i s pointed out, would be an easy one and the phrase suspensis ... p l a n t i s would serve to emphasize the i d e n t i t y of the attackers (ala, volucres 29, 30). However, suspensis ... palmis i s the reading of a l l the major manu-s c r i p t s , and, as i s discussed above p.87f , t h i s d e t a i l serves two important purposes i n Propertius' narration of the myth. Compare the use of suspensis at 3.6.7(£, nunc mihi s j qua tenes ab  o r i g i n e dicere prima / i n c i p e : suspensis auribus i s t a bibam, where the p a r t i c i p l e must mean "pricked up" and the phrase suggest that the l i s t e n e r i s poised and eager to hear. The verb s e c l u d i t u r (29) bears a middle sense, "he shuts himself o f f " that i s , Hylas protects his face from t h e i r attempts to snatch k i s s e s . Secludo occurs only here i n Propertius, but the root verb claudo i s * found i n several passages i n which i t s passive p a r t i c i p l e describes a beloved barred and therefore protected from a lover's advances. See, for example, 1.11.11. The verb summeo often expresses the repulsion of an enemy attack, for instance, hostes ex agro Romano trans Anienem submovere (Livy 4.17.11) 101 For an account of the problems seen i n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and the various attempts made to overcome them, see Appendix. 102 In s p i t e of widely d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the meanings of pendens, se c l u d i t u r and a l a , sub extrema a l a i s construed with s e c l u d i t u r : "leaning forward he shelters himself ... under h i s arm' (Camps, Richardson); "he, hanging ... r e t i r e s behind the wing" (Postgate); "Hylas qui ab a l t e r o f r a t r e humo t o l l i t u r sub extrema  eius alae parte se abdit" (Enk); "he, l i f t e d from h i s feet, ay, sheltered where one's shoulder j o i n s the wing" (Meyerstein). Butri c a translates thus before emending, "he, hanging, i s confined under the t i p of the wing" (72). 103 Pendeo sub i s not c i t e d i n Lewis and Short, nor does i t occur i n V i r g i l , C atullus, Lucretius, T i b u l l u s or Ovid. The OLD c i t e s only two examples: Seneca Nat.Quaest. 6.19.2, speluncarum sub t e r r a  pendentium v a s t i t a s , and P l i n y N.H. 28.39, fascinus ... qui ... currus triumphantium sub h i s pendens defendit. 104 Pege, which i s a t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of the Greek u n y n, "spring" or "fountain", i s a name that would have been f a m i l i a r to h i s audience from Apollonius' n a r r a t i v e , oye Hpnvnv u e x e H U x d e v ' rjv x a X e o u a u v / Tlnyas (Ap.Rh. 1.1221f) . Arganthus, which was situated on the Gulf of Cius into which flowed the Ascanius River, also figured i n other versions of the myth. See Ap.Rh.1.1177f, Ant.Lib.26.2 and Orph.Arg. 638. ^^Compare V i r g i l Eel.4.18ff, n u l l o munuscula c u l t u / ... t e l l u s / ...  fundet 106 See also 1.2.31, 1.12.7, 1.13.30 and Horace C.3.9.1 ^ F o r example, & xa^^£aa1 'AuotpuAAC* ... / . . . T O L ... uaAa cpepto (Id.3.6ff). See also 2.120, 5.88, 6.7, 10.34, 11.10, and 11.39. In the l a s t passage y A u H u y a A o v , "sweet-apple", i s a lover's term of endearment. 108 » > e i p e p o v 6e T O L ' ? ) x p t v a Aeuxcx / n u d x w v ' o n t a A a v e p u d p a T i A a r a y c S v L ' e ' x o u a a v (Id. 11.56f ) 109 See also 3.11.16 and Catullus 35.8f ^ ^ ^ x A w p o v . The adjective suggests not only i t s colour but i t s abundant and vigorous growth. Compare Th. Id.14.70 , u o L e C v T L 6eC 3s y d v u x A u p o v , and the comparable f i g u r a t i v e use of the L a t i n v i r i d i s . I l l 112 a hapax legomenon Horace, f o r example, expresses h i s d e l i g h t i n the orchards along the Anio and at Tibur, me ... percussit ... praeceps Anio ac T i b u r h i  lucus et uda / mobilibus pomaria r i v i s (C. 1.7.10ff). See also Prop. 4.7.81. V i r g i l describes the pleasure brought the owner of a small garden i n which were planted l i l i e s and poppies, ... pinguis  hortos quae cura colendi / ornaret ... canerem, ... memini me ... /  Corycium v i d i s s e senem-... hie ... albaque circum / l i l i a ... premens  (et) papaver ... regum aequabat opes animis (Geo. 4.118ff). Evidence of the c u l t i v a t i o n of f r u i t trees i n pr i v a t e gardens i s provided by the well known "Garden Scene" fresco from the House of L i v i a i n Primaporta, which portrays several trees laden with large v i v i d l y coloured f r u i t ; and flowers including l i l i a C a n d i d a are represented i n a painting of the House of Adonis i n Pompeii, (see W.F. Jashemski, Gardens of Pompeii, 67 113 ~ "L'un des principaux charmes du j a r d i n (romain) est d'etre abondamment arrose l ' e p i t h e j e de nature l e plus souvent appliquee au ... j a r d i n est riguus; nous l a trouvons chez tous l e s auteurs depuis les techniciens ... jusqu' aux poetes". (Pierre Grimal, Les Jardins Romains (Paris 1943) 294). 114 115 116 Cicero, for example, praises as follows_the.site-on which h i s brother planned to b u i l d a v i l l a , ego locum aestate umbrosiorem v i d i numquam;  permultis l o c i s aquam profluentem et earn uberem ... iugera L p r a t i  Caesius irrigaturum f a c i l e te arbitrabatur. Equidem hoc ... affirmo  m i r i f i c a suavitate te v i l l a m habiturum, p i s c i n a et s a l i e n t i b u s  a d d i t i s (ad Q.Fr. 3.1.3). See also Seneca on the v i l l a of Vatius at Baiae (Ep_. 55.6) See also M. Grant, The Art and L i f e of Pompeii and Herculaneum (Milan 1979) 130ff, and Jashemski, o p . c i t . 45f,67f, 92, 163 and 331. Compare Horace C^. 3.6.22ff, virgo ... / ... amores / de tenero  meditatur ungui, and the comment ad l o c . by Porphyrio, "de. tenero  ... ungui: hoc proverbium de Graeco est, quod dicunt e £ duaAcov 6VUX<JOV quod s i g n i f i c a t 'a prima i n f a n t i a ' " . 1 1 7 S e e also Prop. 1.13.35 and Ovid Am. 1.10.9f •*"^See also 2.3.53 1 1 9 S e e also 1.11.13 and 1.13.31f 120 Hyginus includes both Narcissus and Hylas i n h i s l i s t of Qui Ephebi  Formosissimi Fuerunt (Fab.271) 121 A painting from Pompeii (ix.9.17) portraying Narcissus' enchantment with the waters' r e f l e c t i o n s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Schefold o p . c i t . Tav. 178.3. The s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Narcissus and Hylas myths was noticed also by the sculptor of a marble well head of the Antonine period ( f i g u r e 4), described above, page 44. "Narciso ed Hylas sono a w i c i n a t i , e come f u s i i n un unico f r e g i o che s i svolge intorno ad un puteale trovato ad Ost i a . " (Rizzo o p . c i t . 63) 122 Postgate, Butler and Barber, Enk, and Richardson 123 As, f o r example, Cadmus' attendants do i n Ovid Met.3.36f, demissaque  i n undas / urna 124 See also Eel.5.59, dryadasque puellas 125 Compare the d e s c r i p t i o n of Valerius Flaccus, (nympha Hylan) detrahit  adiutae prono nam pondere v i r e s (3.564) 126 Lutum f a c i l e , f o r example, i s clay easy to work (Tibullus 1.1.40) and iugum f a c i l e i s a h i l l easy to climb (Prop. 4.10.4) 127 Compare the only other instance of the verb i n the I d y l l s , "Epws . . . y e u ... / eyepus (Ls AuyvctTLS . . . &6£\\a (2.55f) 128 For a s i m i l a r use of turn with the a b l a t i v e absolute, see Livy 22.11.1, and S a l l u s t £ . 6 1 . 1 129 It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that through me t r i c a l l i c e n c e , namely a double hiatus and a long vowel shortened before a following vowel, (~Hyl~I Hyla "omne) , V i r g i l imitates i n Hylas' name the fading sound of an echo. 130 For servo i n i t s l i t e r a l sense, see 2.14.29f; f o r i t s f i g u r a t i v e sense, V i r g i l E e l . 5.12 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e n , A.W. " S i n c e r i t y and the Roman E l e g i s t s " , CP 45 (1950) 145-160 Benjamin, A.S. "A Note on Propertius 1.10: 0 Iucunda Quies",CP 60 (1965) 178 Boucher, J.-P. Etudes Sur Properce. (Paris 1965) Butler, H.E., and Barber, E.A., edd. The Elegies of  Propertius. (Oxford 1933) Butr i c a , James L. "Hylas and the Boreads: Propertius 1.20.25-30", Phoenix 34 (1980) 69-75 Camps, W.A., ed. Propertius Elegies Book I. (Cambridge 1961) Commager, Steele. A Prolegomenon to Propertius. (Cincinnati 1974) Curran, Leo C. "Greek Words and Myth i n Propertius 1.20", GRBS 5 (1964) 281-293 Dawson, CM. Romano-Campanian Mythological Landscape  Painting. (New Haven 1944) Enk, P.J., ed. Sex. P r o p e r t i i Elegiarum Liber I. (Leiden 1946) Gow, A.S.F., ed. Theocritus. (Cambridge 1950) Grant, Michael. The Art and L i f e of Pompeii and  Herculaneum. (Milan 1979) Grimal, P i e r r e . Les Jardins Romains. (Paris 1943) Hodge, R.I.V., and Buttimore, R.A., edd. The 'Monobiblios'of Propertius. (Cambridge 1977) Hoppin, J.C. A t t i c Red-Figured Vases. (Oxford 1919) Hubbard, Margaret. Propertius. (London 1974) Jashemski, Wilhelmina F. The Gardens of Pompeii. (New York 1979) Luck, Georg. The L a t i n Love-Elegy. (London 1959) Lyne, R.O.A.M. The L a t i n Love Poets. (Oxford 1980) Marshall, A.J. "Library Resources and Creative Writing at Rome", Phoenix 30 (1976) 252-264 Postgate, J.P., ed. Select Elegies of Propertius. (London 1911) Powell, J.U., ed. Collectanea Alexandrina. (Oxford 1925) Richardson, L., J r . , ed. Propertius Elegies I-IV.(Norman 1977) Rizzo, G.E. La P i t t u r a Ellenistico-Romana. (Milan 1929) Schefold, K a r l . Vergessenes Pompeji. (Bern and Munich 1962) Shackleton Bailey, D.R. "Interpretations of Propertius", CQ 41 (1947) 89 Propertiana. (Cambridge 1956) Smyth, W.R. Thesaurus C r i t i c u s ad S e x t i i P r o p e r t i i  Texturn. (Leiden 1970) Su l l i v a n , J.P. Propertius. A C r i t i c a l Introduction. (Cambridge 1976) Trendall, A.D. The Red-Figured Vases of Lucania, Campania and S i c i l y . (Oxford 1967) Webster, T.B.L. H e l l e n i s t i c Poetry and Art. (New York 1974) Williams, Gordon. Figures of Thought i n Roman Poetry. (New Haven and London 1980) APPENDIX The Reading of 1.20.29 The p o s i t i o n of Hylas while he fends off the Boreads' e r o t i c assault (29) has been much debated. The natural i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n i l l e sub extrema pendens ... a l a , "Hylas, hanging under a wing's edge" i s thought to r a i s e several problems. One d i f f i c u l t y i s that t h i s image does not conform with the pattern of the Boreads' attack as i t i s described i n the previous couplet, for there they are portrayed as a l t e r n a t e l y swooping down upon Hylas and f l e e i n g away (instabant ... a l t e r n a ... fuga 27f), and "what Hylas does with one he must be able to do with the other."^ To accept the view that the boy hangs i n the a i r we are forced to assume that between l i n e s 28 and 29 t h i s a c t i o n ceases and Hylas i s l i f t e d into 2 the a i r , and that between l i n e s 30 and 31, since Hylas i s successful i n fending them off (iam ... c e s s i t genus Orithyiae / ... Hylas ibat Hamadryasin 31f), the Boread drops him back onto the ground. The t r a n s i t i o n of thought both to and from the couplet i s then very abrupt. Another problem i s that Hylas' a e r i a l p o s i t i o n would make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r him to defend himself s u c c e s s f u l l y . "Probably Propertius did not trouble to c a l c u l a t e Boread wing-spans or f l e x i b i l i t y or strength, and so did not consider whether hanging at wing's end would 3 protect Hylas from the osculatory range of h i s attacker." Attempts to overcome these d i f f i c u l t i e s have led to the view that Hylas must remain on the ground throughout the attack. This view i s defended either by recourse to forced i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of some of Propertius' vocabulary (Camps) or by emendation (Butrica). According to Camps, the a l a belongs to Hylas and i s to be understood as the under part of h i s arm between his elbow and shoulder. Pendens i s understood as "leaning over". "The boy bends forward and shelters h i s face as well as he can under h i s arm." Pendens, however, s i g n i f i e s "leaning" only when the object so described i s leaning out over and edge, that i s , "overhanging". The examples adduced by Camps i n support of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - (Cynthia) primo temone pependit (4.8.21), non ego vos  (capellas) posthac ... dumosa pendere procul de rupe videbo ( V i r g i l E e l . 1.75f), and (auriga) pronus pendens i n verbera ( V i r g i l Aen.10. 586) - are therefore, as B u t r i c a notes, inappropriate. An emendation proposed by H e l n s i u s , i l l e sed extrema pendentes l u d i t i n a l a , "but he at wing's length, mocks them as they hover", i s accepted, with s l i g h t modification, by B u t r i c a . Pendere, he notes with approval, appropriately describes birds f l o a t i n g or f l y i n g i n the a i r , and ludere describes the b a f f l i n g of an opponent's purpose. Since he considers extrema ... i n a l a an overprecise d e f i n i t i o n of Hylas' p o s i t i o n , B u t r i c a proposes extremam ... ad alam, "at about the ex-tension of the wing." The emended l i n e , which Butrica admits i s not " e n t i r e l y s a t i s f y i n g " , now reads, i l l e sed extremam pendentes l u d i t ad  alam, "but he at wing's length b a f f l e s them as they hover." This emendation solves the problems posed by the transmitted text: since Hylas remains on the ground there i s no abrupt t r a n s i t i o n from the image of 27-28 to the image of 29-30; the Boreads continue t h e i r a l t e r n a t i n g attack and Hylas i s able to o f f e r a cr e d i b l e defence. However, evidence from two sources, the representation of a s i m i l a r image i n art and the representation of a s i m i l a r image within 1.20 i t s e l f , strongly supports the retention of the text as trans-mitted and acceptance of the words pendens and a l a i n t h e i r ordinary and natural senses, "hanging" and "wing". An image l i k e that evoked by Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n i n l i n e 29 i s found depicted i n a vase painting of the early f i f t h century B.C. (figure 7 ) \ The poet's d e s c r i p t i o n and the painter's p o r t r a y a l are remarkably a l i k e : a winged being hovers i n the a i r above a b e a u t i f u l youth; the boy hangs suspended from that part of i t s body where wing meets side. The existence of a p i c t o r i a l image so s i m i l a r to Propertius' d e s c r i p t i o n of "Hylas hanging under a wing's end", and the knowledge that Pro-p e r t i u s ' imagination and poetic expression was very much influenced by representations of myth i n a r t , support the retention of the text and the suggestion that Propertius intended the phrase sub extrema  ... a l a to be construed with pendens. Further support i s provided by the fac t that the same construction, pendere sub, a most unusual one, i s found but s i x l i n e s l a t e r i n the poem, pendebant ... / ...  poma sub arboribus (35f), where i t expresses an image s i m i l a r i n many respects to the image i n 29. The novelty of the construction and i t s r e p e t i t i o n within the space of s i x l i n e s draws att e n t i o n to the two images and serves as the poet's means of suggesting an analogy between them and i n v i t i n g a comparison. The evidence supporting the view that Hylas i s portrayed as hanging i n the a i r under a Boread wing i s strong. There remain, however, the objections to t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that led commentators to attempt to keep Hylas on the ground. The objection that Hylas would not be able to defend himself s u c c e s s f u l l y from an a e r i a l p o s i t i o n i s one that seems to demand a r a t i o n a l and l o g i c a l account from a poet whose f i r s t i n t e r e s t i s to portray a s t r i k i n g and general image, often one he has seen i n a r t . Propertius' concern i n t h i s couplet i s f i r s t to portray Hylas suspended i n the a i r and secondly to make i t clear that Hylas wants no part of t h e i r advances. The second objection to the view that Hylas i s represented hanging under one Boread's: wing i s that t h i s image does not conform with the image of t h e i r " a l t e r n a t i n g attack" (instabant ... altern a ... fuga 27f). Butrica, who r a i s e s the objection, does not consider the p o s s i b i l i t y that 29f represents an image subsequent to the image of 27f: "29-30 are not l a t e r i n time than 25-28, they simply depict the other side 5 of the same scene." But i n order to accept the view that 29f portray Hylas hanging i n the a i r , we must accept that these l i n e s depict a part of the Boread episode that occurs l a t e r i n time than 27f. Although the t r a n s i t i o n from the image of 27f to the l a t e r image of 29f seems harsh, abrupt t r a n s i t i o n of thought i s a w e l l known char-a c t e r i s t i c of Propertius' poetry and perhaps here a device for high-l i g h t i n g t h i s important image. "The modern reader finds Propertius d i f f i c u l t because the progression of thought i n h i s poems i s often abrupt. He skims over d e t a i l s , h i s t r a n s i t i o n s are often harsh and forced ... h i s images extravagant." The grounds for r e j e c t i n g the view that i n 29 Hylas i s depicted hanging under a winged Boread are therefore l e s s compelling than the support that i s provided for t h i s view by the vase painting and the s i m i l a r l y worded image i n 35f. Butrica 72 'A couplet was assumed to have dropped out by Scheidweiler whose conjecture suggests that he was disturbed by the abrupt change of image, iam subito fratrum puerum a l t e r i n aera raptat / sed  prensantem a l i s heu r e t i n e r e nequit. ^Butrica 72 hSee f i g u r e 7. This"painting, which was adduced above (page as an example of the sort of artwork that may have inspi r e d Propertius' Boread episode, i s considered to represent Zephyrus carrying o f f Hyacinthus. 'Butrica 72 'G. Luck, The L a t i n Love Elegy (London 1959) 113 

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